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Academic achievement and self-concept of military adolescents attending Canadian Department of National… Malarczyk, Barbara Beth 1989

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ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND SELF-CONCEPT OF MILITARY ADOLESCENTS ATTENDING CANADIAN DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE SCHOOLS  by  Barbara  Beth  M.Ed., University  A  THESIS  SUBMITTED  Malarczyk  of  IN  Western  Ontario  PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR  OF EDUCATION  in  THE F A C U L T Y  OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  DEPARTMENT OF E D U C A T I O N A L P S Y C H O L O G Y &  We  accept to  this  the  thesis  required  THE UNIVERSITY  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September ©BARBARA  as  SPECIAL EDUCATION  1989  BETH M A L A R C Z Y K , 1989.  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /f  /7^<?  ABSTRACT  This  study  self-concept military  of  grade  ten  the  relationship  military  between  dependants, and three selected variables  sample  consisted  bases:  six  in  of  119  Canada  tenth-grade  and  one  students  Defence  variables were reading comprehension mathematics and s e l f - c o n c e p t . Predictor to  scholastic performance  and  in  the  environment.  The military  investigated  from  base  in  seven  Canadian  Germany.  Criterion  achievement, written expression  variables were geographic mobility, father  assignment, and military  status. The  sample was  stratified  by  absence due  gender  for  data  variables  was  analysis.  The  performance  compared  with  Relationships  the  variables  was  variables  and  support  the  environmental  Bonferroni multiple  adjustment  for  found  the  criterion the  control  regression analyses was  variables  the  of  to  confidence  were  intervals.  examined  cognitive  through  ability.  between  the  group. Bonferroni  similar for  to  None  of  the  variables  was  Type  statistically  the  mathematics  relationships  ii  of  Multiple predictor  adjustment  error.  be  of  criterion  relationship  each gender  significant variables.  the  influence  collection, except for  for  examine  variable  was  criterion and  the  on  construction  predictor  experiment-wise  sample  used for data no  and  used to  sample  through  controlling for  guard against  research  instruments  the  after  and each criterion  The  research  criterion  analyses were  was used to  There  the  published norms  between  partial correlations regression  of  1  norming  and cognitive  between  bivariate  the  significant  As at  the  ability.  between  significant  well, .0125  of  environmental  correlations  statistically error.  samples  none  of  alpha  after the level.  However, appear  the to  self-concept. in the  military be It  environmental  detrimental is  relationship  to  speculated that of  military  factors the  investigated  adolescents'  cognitive  environmental  subjects.  iii  ability  school  may  variables  in  be  this  study  did  achievement a mediating  and performance  in  not and  variable school  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT List of  ii  Tables  vii  Dedication  viii  Acknowledgements Overview 1.  2.  of  the  .  Study  ix xi  INTRODUCTION  1  1.1  The Problem  4  1.2  Purpose of  1.3  Research Questions  6  1.4  Rationale  7  1.5  Definitions  1.6  Need for  1.7  Summary  the  Study  4  11 the  Study  13 14  REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE 2.1  2.2  2.3  15  Geographic Mobility  15  2.1.1  Geographic Mobility  and Achievement  18  2.1.2  Geographic Mobility  and S e l f - C o n c e p t  20  Father Absence Due to Assignment 2.2.1  Father  2.2.2  Father Absence and S e l f - C o n c e p t  Military  Absence and Achievement  Status of  Father  21 23 24 26  2.3.1  Military  Status and Achievement  26  2.3.2  Military  Status  27  2.4  The Military  2.5  Summary  and S e l f - C o n c e p t  Subculture  28 37  iv  3.  METHODOLOGY 3.1  Research Sample  38  3.2  Instruments  38  3.3  Description of  3.4  4.  38  Assessment Instruments  3.3.1  Canadian Cognitive Abilities  3.3.2  Canadian Tests of  3.3.3  The Way  Predictor  Test  Basic Skills  I Feel About  Myself  Variables  39 39 40 41 42  3.4.1  Geographic Mobility  42  3.4.2  Father  Absence  43  3.4.3  Military  Status  44  3.5  Criterion  Variables  44  3.6  Procedure  44  3.7  Testing Sessions  47  3.7.1  Session 1  47  3.7.2  Session 2  47  3.7.3  Session 3  48  3.8  Data  3.9  Trial/Revised  3.10  Scoring Procedure  49  3.11  Design and Analysis  50  3.12  Summary  5  ANALYSES  48 Information Surveys  AND RESULTS  4.1  Sample  4.2  Measurement 4.2.1  1  52  Characteristics and Reliability  Reliability  49  52 of  Analysis  the Data  54 54  v  5.  4.3  Descriptive  4.4  Correlational  4.5  Regression Analysis  61  4.6  Summary  62  DISCUSSION 5.1  Statistics  55  Analysis  57  AND RECOMMENDATIONS  63  Findings and Conclusions  63  5.1.1  Findings  63  5.1.2  Conclusions  66  5.2  Limitations  of  the  5.3  Recommendations  5.4  Summary  Study  67 68 —  REFERENCES APPENDIX  72  A -  Directors  70  Letter of  to  Director  General, Base Commanders, School Boards,  Education, and Principals  APPENDIX  B -  Additional  Letter  APPENDIX  C -  Letters  to  Testers  APPENDIX  D -  Parent  Information/Consent  APPENDIX  E -  Student  Information Survey  APPENDIX  F -  Student  Records  APPENDIX  G -  Informal  to  82  Principals  83 85  Survey  88 96 •  Interviews  99 102  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1  Summary  2  Distribution  3  Reliability  4  Descriptive Statistics for the  5  of  Findings in Research Literature Sample by Department  Coefficient  (KR 20) of  of  National  Measures of  37 Defence  Schools  Criterion Variables  Criterion Variables and Cognitive Ability  Means and 95% Confidence Intervals (C.l.) for the and Cognitive Ability  Dependent  53 55 56  Variables 57  6  Variables  Intercorrrelation  Matrix for  7  Variables  Intercorrelation  8  Partial  Intercorrelations  for  Males  60  9  Partial  Intercorrelations  for  Females  61  Matrix for  Males  58  Females  59  vii  DEDICATION  I Manfred  wish  to  express  and darling  my  love  daughter  selflessness. They were  and  most  Natalyee,  the major  for  source of  sincere their  thanks  to  my  dear  husband  love, support, understanding and  inspiration and encouragement to  me  during my studies.  A Easton,  special word my  of  supportive  sisters  papers and make helpful  I as well  To  would  like  thanks  also  and and  appreciation brother-in-law  to  thank  my  special  people,  accomplishments, this work  I sincerely thank  who  my who  suggestions regarding this  are  all  a  took  time  Sophia and  families  vital  is dedicated.  and love you all.  B.B.M.  viii  parents, Judy  and  Wray  to  proofread  Toni  Malarczyk,  work.  parents-in-law,  as my husband's sister, brother, and their  these  to  part  for  of  their  my  support.  life  and  my  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  wish  to  and  complete  his  guidance  constructive for  express my  my  appreciation  doctoral  and  studies: Dr.  encouragement;  criticism and  to  who  H. Ratzlaff, my  Drs.  invaluable  everyone  advice  F.  Echols  helped  me  dissertation and  on structure  P.  to  develop  chairman, for  Leslie,  and focus;  for  their  Dr. B. Clarke  his nurturing during my doctoral course work and comprehensive examinations.  Sincere  thanks  to  Dr. G. McMurray, University  of  Western  Ontario, who  seriously  encouraged me to seek this advanced degree.  My many  thanks  hours  statistical  to  of  Dr.  N.  Kishor and  consultation  and  analyses; and also to  Mr.  B.  McGillivray  assistance with  the  Miss D. McLaren for  for  their  computer  guidance  and  requirements  and  being so generous with her  time.  Special National  appreciation  Defence,  cooperation  of  is due to  Canada,  numerous  for  Mr.  Bussiere, Director  sanctioning  military  the  personnel,  study. this  General, Department  Without  study  the  could  support  not  have  of and  been  completed.  For the the  data needed, I thank  schools  who  participated  in  the the  the students who contributed their  principals, teachers and clerical staff study.  A s well,  I  appreciate  time and work to the  the  in all  efforts  study, which after  all  of is  about them. Thank you.  I  thank  sabbaticals  I  the  C.F.B.  Borden  received. Without  Board  them,  I  of  Education,  could never  such as this.  ix  have  Ontario,  for  pursued an  the  two  undertaking  For Council. which  scholarship Thanks  helped  To  all  to  of  to  funds, the  am  Nelson  decrease  the  these  and  encouraged, facilitated,  I  indebted  Publishing  expense  of  countless  and supported  to  the  Company  Educational  for  loan  the  others,  dissertation, I give  of  many  tests  who  in  some  way  my  sincere  B.B.M.  x  Research  such a study.  unnamed  my  Ontario  thanks.  OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY  This of  the  study  is presented  specific  problem  in five under  chapters. Chapter  study  introduction, research  questions, the  in the  significance of why  study  and the  Chapter previous  Two  includes  explorations  experiences  (geographic  of  and  father),  The detail  research  in  statistical  the  Three.  This  variables,  Four  research  and testing  and  a study of  between  overview  includes  important  terms  which  specific  A  used  identifies  military  assignment, military  self-concept.  an  is needed.  literature  absence due to and  of  an  It  this nature  relevant  relationship  achievement  methods  importance.  definitions  of  mobility, father  this  its  provides  description  life status  of  the  Chapter.  procedures includes  procedure,  used the  data  in  this  study  research  are  sample,  collection,  described  in  instrumentation,  research  design  and  analyses.  Chapter to  of  rationale,  review  the  completes  Chapter  classification  into  academic  military subculture  a  and  One  of  presents  the  analyses  questions, including  and results  sample  of  the  study  characteristics, reliability  as  they of  relate  the  data,  the questions.  Finally, Chapter study,  and  offers  school  performance  Five presents the recommendations utilizing  a unique  findings and conclusions, limitations for  further  research  subculture, dependants  personnel.  xi  on of  the  of  the  prediction  of  Canadian  military  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  Educators complex  continually  factors  educational estimate  future of  influence is  a  into  including  (Bloom,  1976;  three  In  Bloom,  &  Mood,  skills,  educational  1966).  It holistic  has  manner.  numerous coupled  become  or  in  development  the  enhance  to  experiences become  the  and  Hastings,  of  clear  deficiencies  The  home  and  a  child's  1967).  is developed from  self-defeating,  If  students  insecure,  presence community  as  a  have  skills,  and  a  in of  pessimistic  positive about  related  Hobson, such  as  creativity.  variety  and  criterion  of  school  the  achieve  student certain  also  basic  education comparing  and indirect  self-concept, ability  either  interested  in  others, by  to  are  abilities  can  become  variable  by  in a  learning  environment  critical  evaluation  a  or  influences  goals  others, and by direct  lack  1  school  Campbell,  develop  superiorities  self-concept  and  is basic.  individuals  and  of  performance  many  vocational  encompasses  the  many  analyze  community  Coleman,  learning. Knowing this, educators of  to  and publicly used principal  or  occur with  attempts  includes  attitudes,  that  the  Prediction  anticipated  home  performance  it  school.  characteristics,  1981;  is the widely  understand  significant predictors, which can  student  attitudes and perceptions of  (Argyle,  which  framework,  areas:  &  increasingly  (Byrne, 1984). S e l f - c o n c e p t oneself  a  Although  experiences.  disrupt  strategy  in reading, writing and arithmetic  Causes  life  in  competencies,  and varied, and may with  learning  School  performance.  subjects, achievement  student  characteristics,  Measured academic achievement of  and  is a function of  Madaus  social  identify  such  general  teacher  to  research  performance.  factors  McPartland  seeking  goals in education  classified  academic  which  performance  realization be  are  life  they  may  cope  with  everyday problems and relationships with others (Smith, 1975).  Prediction primarily  aptitude,  predictors of  performance with  ability  the  and  the  variable  variation  has  evolved  prediction  intelligence  academic achievement  35-60% of  single  school  concerned itself  averages,  for  of  in  academic  tests  and have  academic  has been found to  of  over  have  time.  Early  potential.  proven  to  research  Grade be  point  the  best  been found, collectively, to account  performance  account for  (Donicht,  1975).  this much variance  No  other  in achievement.  Khan (1969) summarized numerous studies on academic prediction, stating that one half a  to  three-quarters  large  them  portion  to  of  of  to  identify,  contributors to variability  predictors in  Coleman such  academic  interest  in  that  a  teacher  (Centra  &  culturally  as  than of  Potter,  1980;  et  al,  variables  most  effective  then  improve  manipulation  for the  to  &  may  of  the  to  specific  subgroups  learning  of  1966)  showed  class  size  and  measures  Whalen  in order  accuracy  other  and  factors  identify  of  school  prompted  as possible  and  environment  1969).  2  school-related  explained  less  variation  experiences.  types school  to  of of  from  external  environment  Shade  individual  learning  in  different isolate  environments  individuals.  ideal  and  (1982) suggested  performance  performance  provide  Thus,  shifted  educational psychologists is to  which type  predicting  the  Fried, 1973).  affect  that  cultural  performance  strengths and directions. The challenge for subculture  unexplained. Such  performance.  school  lifestyle  remains  researchers  investigate  environmental  intelligence  induced  intrigued  characteristics and  prediction  such  has  isolate, and  (Coleman  achievement  characteristics lifestyle  as  in achievement  variance  in school  Report  the  variability  unexplained  continue  The  the  Research  and  aid  conditions  in  are may the  (Walberg,  Dependent population  in  1983).  The  facets  in the  collected  children of  Canada  impact  to  personnel are  and deserve  of  life  military  the  of  a  military  military  determine  more  the  Military  life  includes  distinctly  since  it  various  rarely  experiences. Military  distance  attending culture  a  moving,  variety  making  subculture,  from  possible  physical  mobility,  father  conditions  and and  and school  and/or and  frequent  civilian  the  to  field  of  many  has not the  been  military  or disabilities, the  life  that  a  (O'Connell, civilian  1981),  population  school  periods  for  military  of  father  pertaining  absence,  isolation  to  the  conditions  military  inquiry, namely, to performance  continuity,  and  1987; Cope, 1984).  environmental  stressors  of  community  literature  assignment, and of  activities, lack of  schools,  the  three  psychological  provided a new on  review  education,  absence due  lifestyle  touch  which  abilities  nonmilitary  experiences  routines  military  an extensive  families  impact  Stanley,  its children.  shock (Canadian Forces Personnel Newsletter,  After  military  family  prolonged  of  the  school  children have much to contend with, such as numerous  relocations, disruption of long  or  the  1978;  far, evidence  So  and maturation, the  environmental  Nice,  child.  pattern  different  &  challenges which  and the self-concept of  is  (Hunter  presents  dependent  subculture has on the development academic achievement  attention  milieu  extent, the  a unique portion of  emerged  children:  status  explore  Canadian  of the  military  geographic  father. impact  military  as  These of  the  dependent  children.  Researchers have recommended that studies be conducted which investigate a variety or  of  different  outcomes  performance  in and  an to  subcultures, examine attempt set  new  to  various predictors, introduce  measure  directions  for  3  and  predict  future  more  studies  new  criteria  accurately  school  (Bloom,  1976). These  recommendations support the rationale for the questions in this study.  1.1 The Problem  Conditions of the military environment, geographic mobility, father absence and military status of father may  be related to the school performance of a  military dependant. The present investigation attempted to identify the relatedness (possible influence) of the three factors in the military environment to reading comprehension, mathematics, written expression  and  self-concept  of  military  adolescents.  1.2 Purpose of the Study  Military adolescents experiences which may  are faced with a number of unique family and life  be related to the development and maintenance of their  academic achievement and self-concept. Building upon existing research, this study attempted to explore the relatedness of three selected military  environmental  variables (geographic mobility, father absence due to assignment, military status of father) to the school performance (reading comprehension, mathematics, written expression, self-concept) of adolescents of military personnel. Grouping  with  respect  to gender  (male, female) was  used  to explore  possible differential effects. This could provide insight into the nature of the relationship  between  the  predictors  and  the  criterion  measures.  Without  considering mediating variables, the actual impact of the selected predictors might not be as clear, or the nature of the predictor variables may  differ within each  subgroup. Past research has shown that cognitive ability is the most important  4  predictor of success predictors variables  and of  in school, so  the  criterion. Therefore,  interest  provide further  it may affect  by  controlling  studying  the  influence  the the  relationship relationship  of  cognitive  between  the  between  the  ability would  insight into the nature of the relationships between the predictor  and criterion variables. The study  also  sought  to determine  whether  a military adolescent  sample  was similar to the normative group employed in the standardization and norming of the research  instruments.  An attempt, was made to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the  relationship  performance previous index;  the  home  and  and  community  environment,  by employing the following: a similar yet different  American military studies;  achievement better  between  a  newly  normed  measures. These  generalized  inconsistencies  a more  Canadian  in  military  instrument  alterations  conceptualization  clearly defined for  could assist  of  school  research,  and  community from  cognitive  in a more  new  school  geographic mobility  performance, set  and  help  ability  and  accurate  and  resolve  some  for  further  directions  investigation. The educational significance of this study included the following: 1.  providing parents,  quantified school  data  to  document  administrators  and  and  teachers  address to  particular  look  at  needs  their  for  children's  education: 2.  influencing modification  and  assisting  of  educational  in  the  development,  objectives,  guidance,  improvement placement,  and/or  instruction,  remediation and evaluation of programs for students; and 3.  providing knowledge and research  to guide specific recommendations  5  which  might  At This,  directly  the  in  influence military  time  turn,  of  this  prompted  study,  educational policy.  these  research  data  involving  and the  knowledge education  were  of  non-existent.  Canadian  military  military  children  dependants.  1.3 Research Questions  After and  a  their  close  examination  education, and  and retired  military  literature  conducting personal  identified  for  pertaining  informal  spouses  (see  to  interviews Appendix  with  G), the  50  active  following  this study:  Question 1:  How personnel  2.  the  personnel and their  research questions were 1.  of  do the  mean scores  compare with  reading  comprehension,  and (ej  cognitive  the  (bj  of  grade ten dependants of  published norms  mathematics,  (cj  of  the  written  Canadian  following  expression,  military  measures: (a)  (d)  self-concept,  ability?  Question 2:  Are and  military  military (aj  the  variables status  personnel)  reading  geographic  of  the  father  significantly  comprehension,  mobility,  (bj  (of  related  grade to  mathematics,  self-concept?  6  father  the (cj  absence  ten  due  dependants  following written  to of  criterion expression,  assignment, Canadian measures: and  (dl  1.4  Rationale  While of  the  areas  prediction  and  people  knowledge,  been  dependants  and  mobility,  father  indicators  of  of  with  extended the  school various  to  an  school  due  between  to  has  backgrounds,  investigation  relationship  absence  performance  it  of  three  been has  (reading  not,  Canadian  subculture  assignment, military  performance  applied  to  to  a  the  military  of  writer's  adolescent  variables  status  variety  (geographic  father) and  comprehension, mathematics,  four  written  expression, self-concept).  Until  recently,  educational wife  research  and  Today,  the  family  many  military  efforts.  played  of  the  a  military  community  Of  the  has  military  subordinate married  not  been  personnel  role  to  members  the are  the  who  subject were  demands very  of  family  of  major  married, the  the  military.  oriented  (Long,  1986). The education of the dependent children of members of the Armed Forces has and always will be a major factor contributing to the good and bad morale of the Forces and without any doubt plays a major part in [the recruitment and] the retention of the members of the Forces (Morin, 1986, p.13).  Geographic of  father  in  kind, degree, number  and  are  mobility,  absence  experiences uniquely  stresses  environment  father  brought  might  and about  play  different  intensity. by  in relation  due  to  from  The  military  to  assignment, and  military  the  the  capacity life,  various  lifestyle to  and  areas  of  cope the  of  with  different  school  status  nonmilitary  the  demands roles  performance  the need  to be studied.  Studies learning  suggest  that  becomes efficient  students (Gallagher,  must  undergo  periods  of  adjustment  1965); that a continuous, sequential  7  before program  is  necessary  to  facilitate  moves, 1986, so  for the  school  development  separations,  p.31), this  lost  and  may  that  of  new  interruption  and upset  counsellors  success;  and the  that self  environmental (Erickson, 1959).  beginnings,  "the  could accumulate  they  seek  encounter  some  problems  continuity  to  norm  for  the  extent  means of with  is  Based on military that  important number  brats"  students  of  (Long, become  escape. Parents, educators and  these  students  in  such  areas  as  academic achievement, behavior and s e l f - c o n c e p t .  Special  activities  experiences, abilities  and  programs  have  been  and backgrounds. Lack of  initiated  evidence of  military population creates a need for research. School sensitive student,  and and  school, new  The  be  ready  to  the  to  help  home, and new  development  successfully their  patient  of  function  complex  individual those  differences  who  find  students  factors  of  that affect  personnel need to and  needs  difficulty  in  varying  of  the  adjusting  to  the  become military a  new  environment.  skills and methods  with  for  the  numerous  subculture. Shade  is necessary to  and  unique  help  experiences  (1982) suggested that  culturally  these  students  encompassed in different  students  may need alternate instructional approaches.  It the  is recognized that most  service  member  manoeuvres. The to  military  due  effects  assignment  to of  may  military  temporary family be  mobility  emotionally  and physically with the  much  detrimental  recourse to  (Staresnick,  to  logic.  the well-being  duty,  separation  as powerful  geographic  as  families  1985).  of  the  additional as  Although  to  all  of  separation  and/or  father  separation, the absence  is  members  training  absence due  more, than the  family  of  effects  of  must  deal  child does not  have  least  potentially  child. Studies concerned with the  relationship  8  the  not  periodic  courses,  a result  as, if  strains of  Reaction  experience  at  between not  father  absence of  appear very  often  Socioeconomic significant face  motivation  and  system  very  as  be a powerful  studies  did  found  (Khan,  1973;  marks  from  teachers  early  career, girls have greater found  to  excel  in  and  their  different  military  permeates This  of  and  social class  values,  subculture  environment.  families.  different  attitudes,  represents the  formal  social  and  a and  informal  housing, social clubs and  their  families  Staresnick  (1985)  between  predictor  from  the  suggested  that  variables  and  variable.  the  higher  verbal  The  officers  present  high  develop  work  relationship  data separately between  Lavin, 1965). Girls  adolescence to  Persons of  location and quality  correlations  and  do  and has consistently exhibited a  class system. Rank  the  predictor  did not  males  From  as  investigating  higher  1971).  separating  members  school performance that  situations,  social  much  variable  performance.  (Cohn,  distinct  facilities  noncommissioned  Many  life  is expressed in the  recreational  may  of  children and school performance  literature.  is a powerful  behavior  environment  rank  status  kinds  restricted, yet  rank  in the  dependent  association with student  different  living  military  at  males  and females. Those  school performance  all  scores  for  on  grade  levels  for  tend  achievement  to  tests  school and possibly throughout ability  visual, spatial,  and  females receive  higher  (Mitchell,  1980).  their  educational  and receive better grades, while mathematical  ability  than  (MacCoby  males &  are  Jacklin,  1974).  Differences slowly overt  in  societal  changing. However, expression  obediency,  of  dependency  expectations, cultural  physical on  or  norms, and  standards verbal  interpersonal  for  females  aggression  relations,  9  roles  as  for  each  generally and  well  as  gender  inhibit  demand more  are  direct,  passivity,  concern  for  acceptance  by  others.  encouragement  students to  have  differently  significant  When  to  between  child  and  who  females  correlates  females  may well differ  there  a  earlier  years  of  years  of  it  gender  not  ten  be  would the  military and/or  be  levels. Potential  school  leaving  laws.  years  However, within  of  sixteenth  Manitoba,  In  the  not  other  Ontario  system  excluding  and  Quebec,  a  five  paramount influences.  magnitude for  of  the  males  and  the  this  study until  at  leave  months  age  the  end of  (Ministries  communication,  from  in provincial at  the  school of  age  October  regulation the  ten  cognitive  communication,  enforce the  school  of  countries.  various  by differences  with  fifteen  a minimum  withdrawal  subjects  personal  personal  to  and  compared  approximately  legal  may  First, if  achievement  provinces and/or  influenced  summer  10  be  when  of  addition  obtaining  continue  the  grade  considerations.  ten  effect  reached  in  of  may  academic  grade  in  Education,  provinces  educational birthday,  of  females  (1966) found  performance  with  Columbia, students  Ministry  and  environmental  three  in several  chance for  British  by  at  subculture,  have  while  direction.  cumulative  civilian schools  Grady  analysis, the  associated apparent  males  identity  that predict  scorned,  potential  unique  in  are  1960).  that  academic  various  school dropouts are  (B.C. the  students  for  notion  prompted  the  military  students  ability  their  and  and/or  was  most  s c h o o l , thus providing a greater  1986).  the  separated  syndrome  well  to  most  are  in magnitude  life  may  exposure  fifteen  dependency  (O'Connell, 1981).  experiences  grade  grades. This  Secondly,  of  stress  obscured. Variables  of  military  self-concept, the  are  selection  is  supported  environmental  separate  The  and  both civilian and military homes. Sexual  military males  passivity  expressed aggression (Hoffman,  generally  relationship  from  the  males,  is given to  Researchers react  For  that year  Education  October  1986).  European-based the  Ontario  Canadian  Ministry  military  of  Education.  grade nine dropouts under the total  population  dropouts  to  anticipated student  (Ontario  be  that  grade  ten  adolescents strong  of  policies  1984-1985  sixteen were  sixteen  ten  level  would  and  year,  a  near  of  the  (1965) specified  twenty-one.  represent  of  Ontario  one percent  Gallagher  and  curriculum  school  less than  Education, 1985). of  grade  level  are  identity  Thus,  normal  it  is  range  of  involving  in the with  a relatively military  process of  peers.  small  It  is  adolescents.  defining "an  amount  age  their of  of  Also,  personal  transition  environment" (Shaw,  research conducted at as  Shaw  identities  when  suggests,  and  children  have  are  a  more  1979, p.36).  Definitions  definitions are provided to clarify  Military Dependants : Military born, of  2.  of  the  the  ages  has been  The following 1.  During  the  vulnerable to crisis in their  1.5  follow  abilities.  Thirdly, there the  age  Ministry  between the  schools  had  fathers  National  Geographic mobility  who  Mobility  since the  a.  number of  b.  number  :  dependants were students, who, since they  were  active  point  of  the  employees  mobility  participating  system. It  times the student  of  of  Geographic  birth  schools  student's formal nature  use in this study.  of  the  Canadian  were  Department  Defence (DND).  combined additive  c.  their  in  referred  moved before registered  education; and  each move.  11  a  categorization  subject, derived by  comprised of  which  to  three  related  school since  means of  of a  issues:  entry;  the  beginning  of  the  intrad istrict  1)  or  intrabase:  a  student  who  has  changed  schools  within the same school district or base. intraprovince: a  2)  student  who  has  moved  across  school district  boundaries, but within the same province.  3.  3)  interprovince: a student who has moved across provincial borders.  4)  intercountry: a student who has moved outside of Canada.  Father Absence Due to Assignment : Father absence  was  the  accummulated  number of months of the military father's absence due to assignment added to  the  frequency  of  these  absences  during  the  participating  subject's  lifetime. 4.  Military Status : Military status referred to the classification into officer and noncommissioned member of each participating student's father  as declared  at the time of the testing. 5.  Gender  : The  acknowledged  maleness  or  femaleness  of  each  subject  as  declared during the first testing session. 6.  Cognitive Ability each  student's  : Cognitive ability  to  ability learn  as  was  a standardized  measured  by  the  measure  reflecting  Canadian  Cognitive  Abilities Test. 7.  Academic Achievement : Academic achievement has  been  academic  attained areas  and of  skills reading  that  have  been  comprehension,  referred  to  developed  knowledge that in the  specific  and  written  mathematics  expression as measured by the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills 8.  subtests.  Self-Concept : Self-concept referred to the way people view themselves. It was the mental image of personal beliefs, abilities and attitudes self  about  the  as reflected by ratings on The Way I Feel About Myself (Piers-Harris  Children's Self-Concept Scale).  12  1.6  Need for  There military  the  is  Study  no  clear  environmental  dependants  of  or  widely  factors  Canadian  accepted  and the  military  evidence  academic  of  the  achievement  personnel. This  study  was  relationship  between  and self-concept designed  to  of  provide  some  insight and help resolve some inconsistencies in previous research regarding  these  variables.  Many  studies investigating  size  and/or  a  yet  different  small and  sample  broader  adolescents attending  Although to  account  school  one  The these  self-concept gender  into  variable  investigating predictive  with the  the  This  study  attempted  total  grade  ten  multiple  measure.  basics  of  in  National  that  may  more  leave of  study  education  or  have  gender  different  exist  marks  differences  on  much  of  to the  is needed to  similar  of  often  military  attempted  a wider  referred  to  as  range the  3  of R's,  provide  the  education  gender  and  that  achievement  and  Studies  not  taking  factors, when, in fact, this  difference.  problems, benefits, costs, program  more  Additional clearly  research  defined  school  1977).  military  study  academic  other  to  this  particular  exploration.  Due  of  a  the  children warrants  attribute differences  explained  for  (Vincent,  of  a  Schools.  investigated  trends  results  Defence  better  use  population  outcomes, researchers  This  problems  military  account may  the  to  sample  measure, self-concept.  patterns  may  sample,  criterion  possibility  problems  schools.  produces  performance, the  and one affective  of  Canadian Department  education  for  school prediction were based on a limited  may  dependants  across  challenge, assist  13  changes and needs associated Canada  in  and  in  other  confirming, or  alter  countries, existing  military regulations issues  as well  and policies  as educational  are based  on  a number of  may not be appropriate or necessary influence  the  decision-making  policies  for  and practices. Many of these assumptions,  not  research, and  today. This study may help document and  special  attention,  counselling,  and/or  use  of  special instructional material for students with a military background. A continuing effort  to  improve the  education  of  the  military dependent  student  is  not  only  essential, but society's responsibility.  1.7 Summary  Chapter investigated definitions  I  has  was and  provided  stated need  for  an  introduction  along  with  the  the  study.  to  purpose,  The  major  the  study.  research focus  The  problem  questions,  of  this  rationale,  study  was  to  determine if the predictor variables, selected on the bases of their importance as revealed  by an extensive search of  military,  accounted  comprehension, students  with  establishes which  is  a  for  significant  mathematics, a  military  basic  written  amounts  and  of  clarified  of  expression  background. The  understanding  substantiated  the literature and personal experience  the by  presented in the next chapter.  14  variance  and  information conceptual the  review  in  the  self-concept presented framework of  the  in the reading  scores in  of  related  of  Chapter I this  study  literature  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE  The  purpose of  this  explored  the  relationship  absence  due  to  (academic  chapter between  assignment,  achievement,  is to  present  certain  military  research  predictors  status  self-concept),  the  of  (geographic  father),  emphasizing  literature  and  which  mobility,  selected  research  has  father  outcomes  pertaining  to  the  military population.  2.1  Geographic Mobility The problem of moving in relation to schooling has become of considerable concern. (Snyder, 1969, p. 26)  The  influence  self-concept  rendering  research  communities, their variations military  in  may  be  research  designs.  conflicting  is beneficial  third  is that  (Brantley,  school  difficult.  to  the  The  even  theories to  have  a student's  characteristics  school  found.  performance  mobility  (Cope, 1984;  neither  helps nor  1981; Ford, 1979).  15  of  studies  is sufficient  The  findings  in  different  geographic mobility, and  research  though there  been  of  utilized  a  evidence that  (O'Connell, 1981).  first  is  that  (Crowder,  commonly held opinion is that mobility  with progress in school geographic  many  and  research has been  diversity  unique  Additionally,  sample  achievement  Beyond a doubt, past  separate and distinct environments  1977). The second and more and interferes  related  on  populations, geographic diverseness of  and civilian student  Three  mobility  generalizations  both groups come from  mobility  geographic  has been a recurring focus.  inconclusive, mobility  of  a matter  Segal, 1986; hinders  geographic  1970;  Vincent,  is disruptive  Shaw, 1979). The  educational  attainment  Geographically relationships new  to  a  alienated be  within  and  necessary  schools  the  may  future  The  abrupt  change  to be faced with major the  to  shape their  again  significant  find  Because to  the  be  social  with  whom  geographically  moving  and need  the  to  mobile  may  suffer.  In  midst  of  moving,  between move  could  parents  and  fear  LaGrone for  This  they  are  relate,  and  child  puts  at  psychiatric disorders had mobility  dependant  a  important  can cause  new  a child  leave  behind  have  helped  destination, they  must  roots, relationships  few 1976; of  Khleif,  close,  experience and  military  a  takes  1970).  intimate  create  1970). Many to  the  experience.  most  families, who  loss or  families  their  children  children  seen  contributing to their  16  military  down  harm  the  with  relationships  may  may  equipped  developing  (Gonzalez,  (1978) concluded that 79% of  the  1971,  feel  difficulties  traumatic be  students  performance.  their  problems  irreparable  can  in  development,  children move, they  formation  family  The  environment  of  arrive  children  children  doing  learning  Most  These  possibly  period  they  the  social  adequately  this  adjustments  school.  prerequisites.  (Darnauer,  accentuate their  not  exception  impede  quality  attention.  and  the  transition.  difficulties. When  although the  the  is  multiple  and  a child's school  living  tenuous not  and  the  transitional  self-concept. When  superficial  repeated  a  people, with  people  to  compound  of  make  achievement  student  this  stability  to  family,  adjusting  therefore  of  the  self-concept  manage  on the  have  past  new  and/or  influence  all  of  difficulties  academic  the  community,  when  and  students  regardless  have  repeats  How  the  school,  compounded  often  mobile  time. tend  However,  friendships,  of  parental  widen  a  who  have  (Morin,  gap to  1986).  in a child clinic  problems.  Some  families  separated so Canadian senior  avoid economically  moves  or the  family becomes  that the children can remain in a particular school. For example, a  military  policy  matriculation to  allows  the  student  families  present  a  student  location. The family then joins the military parent high  while  school  the  junior or  new  completed  base  completing  on  has  the  with  stay  reports for duty at the when  desirable  (F.A.  military  Bussieres,  personal  communication, October 1986). Also when the military parent is assigned away  from the  family, it can result in yet  and Raab (1973) found 40% of husband was  member  to duty  another move. Rosenfeld, Rosenstein  the wives moved to  live with parents while the  absent.  There are differences  in the educational standards and curricula provided by  provincial and local governments. Due to provincial practices, a new school may not recognize credits granted by the previous school. Continuity of education for students  who  impossible,  seldom  with  a  spend  student  a  likely  subject. Often the child may feel months  later.  This  year  newness  is  to  or  two  be  asked  in  the to  same  catch  school  up  in at  is  almost  least  one  on trial, and this can result in insecurity many felt  to  contribute  to  the  geographically  mobile  student's feelings of isolation, apprehension and insecurity.  On students and  the  other  may grow  adaptable,  people  and  have  hand, there  are  advantages.  in their ability to a  broader  cope  range  of  making friends, and become  Living  with  mobile  stress, become  interests, more  a  develop  understanding  more  skills and  other people, cultures and customs. A military child usually accepts empathizing with the feeling military  family  may  gain  of in  life, military  in  flexible meeting  accepting  a newcomer,  being a new kid on the block. The child  experience  education (Coates & Pellegrim, 1965).  17  from  travel  but  may  of  lose  in  in a formal  A  mobile  administrators. their  There  needs. The  difficult  to  parents  and  new  population  midyear.  Knowing  frustration students  and  classroom  that  the  perhaps  even  studies have  performance  (Moyers,  military  1985).  students  sixth  grade  (Anderson, 1975;  also  found  to  be  a  (1970)  than  students who  for  preschool  mobility  2.1.1 Geographic  The subjects several  claim is  to  when  military  achievement,  and high  and  school,  the  integrate  the  during  the  may  feel  arrives staff  working  hard  with  academic  affected  compared  by  extremely  moved  high mobility  moves four  or  short  children's  districts  and  on school  of  four  more  or  times  distance  more, by  moves  development found  on school  were  (Long,  greater  the  1975).  disruption males,  achievement.  with  high  achievement  military  1965;  nonmilitary and  the  Achievement  (Burget,  IQ  from  1981). Frequent  impact  and  geographic  Grady,  1961). Grade six nonmilitary  achievement  have  between  help  moving,  combined  on  the  more  Strickland, 1971).  of  studies  influence  mobility  overall  adversely  influenced  to  s/he  be  and  students and  move within districts. Goebel (1974) found that, for  Mobility  that  again  effect  Brantley,  had significant  researchers  Swanson,  found  studied  the  found  disruptive  Pretzlaff  subtly  Many  were  will  if  teachers  residents, the  between  required  especially  on  to know  community  is  Corbett, 1966;  looked at  get  cooperation  routine,  be  the  effort  children  demands  teachers to  and  Additional  (Levine, Wesolowski &  Few  though  the  more  mobile  communication  community.  into  time for  geographically  maintain  child  produces  is a lack of  more  the  also  1966;  subjects  students  with  SES.  Stanley  18  low  mobility  Partin,  and nonmobile  military  achievement  1967;  students (Cope,  (1983)  found  specific  supported Samson,  excelled  1984).  mobility  is  in  1969;  in reading  Landman  associated with mobility  by  (1980) high  adversely  affected  below average  There  is  research  geographically 1981;  students.  stable  evidence  children  that  on  military  academic  mobile  students  achievement  are  (Baker,  similar  1970;  to  Brantley,  Misner, 1973; Mittenzwei, 1985; Smith, 1975; Strickland, 1971). Hand (1969)  investigated  a  nonmilitary  sample  families  of  and  grade  four  examined  several  studies  six  students  mathematics  variable. No significant mean differences  Conversely,  and  from  achievement  as  military  and  the  criterion  mobile  students  were found.  have  shown  that  military  outperformed civilian nonmobile students (Crowder, 1970; Holcombe, 1969). Cramer and  Dorsey  force  (1970) looked  personnel  who  at  a military population  frequently  changed  of  children of  residence  and  military children, aged Using  the  Iowa  Test,  Kenny  who  had  of the grade  Kenny (1967) studied 2,766 American  10-17, living in a military community  Achievement  air  students  maintained consistent residence. They found the reading achievement six mobile sample to be positively affected.  enlisted  found  the  in West Germany.  average  overall  academic  achievement  to be above the 75th percentile compared to the 50th percentile of  the  In addition, the  norms.  military students  had a higher  median  I.Q. Snipes  (1964) found that students who moved long distances had significantly higher IQs than non-movers.  Gender 1965;  Grady,  was  found  1966;  military transient community. Partin  to  Swanson,  elementary  differ  significantly  1961).  Sackett  in  (1935) was  girls had an advantage  (1967) assessed  children in a limited number of  the  studies  academic  on  the  elementary, junior and senior  analyses of the data indicated that for boys  19  first  over boys  achievement  mobility to  (Burget,  note  that  within the same  and adjustment  of  high schools. His  in grade nine, the military students'  grade point average was significantly better than that of the nonmilitary students.  2.1.2 Geographic  There  appears  self-concept, and  Mobility  and  to  although  be  Self-Concept  no  one-to-one  a child's  perception  relationship of  the  self  mobility  and subsequent  and  behavior  performance have been related to family moves. Baker (1970) discovered that  military students were less involved in school activities of  between  friends was  devastating.  Mobile  and argued that the loss  military and civilian students obtained  lower  self-esteem scores than non-mobile civilians. Studying high school boys, Wooster and  Harris  (1972) concluded  hinder the development classmates, friends  of  that  constant  a positive  and neighbours  relocation  concept.  could  of  military  A continuous  deprive  children  may  change  of  teachers,  military students  of  a stable  reference group.  Stafford social  (1968) studied  the  effects  of  geographic  integration and interpersonal relationships  school  seniors.  found  the  After  more  grouping the  mobile  student  of  mobility  feelings  the  values,  220 civilian and military high  students according to had  on  of  levels of  greater  social  mobility, he distance  and  alienation.  These significant Swanson, the  findings impact  conflict on  a  with  child's  research  that  self-concept  showed  (Mittenzwei,  mobility 1985;  to  have  Stanley,  no  1983;  1961; Vincent, 1977). Frequent moves were not found to be related to  development  of  an  impaired  self-concept  in  the  military  dependent  child  (Smith, 1975).  Furthermore, a few adjustment  studies  (Falik, 1969; Jones,  found  mobility  to  facilitate  adolescents' social  1973). Military children were better able to adjust  20  to new social situations, although this advantage appeared to decline for children who had moved three or four times before entering grade six (Bledsoe, 1976).  On the other hand, geographic mobility may interfere with the formation and quality of friendships. Toffler  (1970) stated  that any relocation interferes  complex interrelationship of old relationships and the establishment This disruption, especially in  forming relationships.  if repeated There is  have serious consequences  of new ones.  often, could breed a loss of  little  doubt  that  for personality development  a portable  with a  commitment  education  could  (Bevis & Faunce, 1964).  2.2 Father Absence Due to Assignment It is the episodic experience of transient father absence which has the most pathogenic effect on the child's evolving personality. (Privitera, 1977, p. 5)  The  disruption  of  family  routines,  the  parenting  process  and  child  development as a result of frequent and/or prolonged periods of military absence from  the  home  has  been  community, developmental related  to  intermittent  the  subject  of  limited  and personality crises father  absence  research.  In  the  military  experienced by children may be  (Rosenfeld,  Rosenstein  &  Raab,  1973;  Staresnick, 1985).  The impact of a father's absence since  it relates  on a child's adjustment is highly complex  to numerous variables such as the nature of the separation, age  and gender of the child, attitude of the spouse toward the separation, quality of family relationships, availability of  male surrogates during separation, as well  frequency and length of the absence could  produce  resilience  considerable  stress  as  (Hillenbrand, 1976). Forced family separations for  the  military  child.  Resourcefulness  and  in adjusting to the strains of separation and reunions are necessary for  21  each  of  the  family  members.  Longitudinal effects  appear  to  be  harmful  for  children (Margiotta, 1978).  In  a  different and  military  setting,  from other  temporary,  temporary, military  it  father  types of  though may  personnel  father  recurring  be  absence  more  absence.  (Carlsmith,  difficult  include  to  peacekeeping,  exchanges. The nature, frequency  due  to  It is  assignment expected,  1973;  Nice,  tolerate.  extremely  socially  1978).  accepted  Because  Assignments  training,  and length of  is  for  assistance,  each assignment  it  is  Canadian  courses varies  and  for each  member (Segal, 1986).  The literature describes First  is the  with  the  pre-absence, or anticipation of  family  members  parent's  image  mother,  assimilate  children  and  parenting  this absence by means  in the  is  home.  new often  resulting  adjusting  and  Second is the  coping,  maintaining  this  roles.  The  mother  has  caught  up  in  own  from  the  time  separation.  roles  appears  a  to  previously  be  absent  including those  concentration father  to  on  family  less  time  the  to  cycle.  absence,  the  absent  especially  spend  turmoil  post-absence  with  the the  and  single  or  family  of the returning father and the  on finances  fulfillment  members,  members,  emotional  Finally,  focusing the  yet  family  reunion occurs, with readjustment to the presence restructuring of  a role adjustment  the absence.  During  her  of  of  possibly  role to  and discipline. There obligations  of  the  for  his  feelings  of  compensate  separation from the family (Privitera, 1977).  Reaction resentment  of  a  child  to  and guilt, exaggerated  a  father's  absence  may  include  fears of separation/abandonment, and regression.  It carries an overlay of anxiety in the home. Stress that evolves from separation might threaten family relations (Shaw, 1979). Shaw, Duffy and Privitera (1978) felt  22  father absence to be a developmental  interference  with the needs and rights of  children, including the normal bonding between father and child.  And yet, the authoritarian style of household in many military families, with clear lines of obedience father  absence.  If  toward the father, may tend to compensate  the  family  is  able  to  framework, separation may have potentially the individual growth and development  a study  by  Darnauer (1971), father  military  students  as  a  military  families  (1965) constant leaving stages  discovered moving the  that to  beneficial  be  readjustment military  problems,  Yeatman  was  submarine  separation/reunions  families  emotional  It may allow for  mentioned  by  37% of  258  (1981) found  considered  few  experiencing  and other navy families  rarely  a problem. Dickerson and Arthur  parents  although  was  father  absence  parents . seriously  military. Knitter (1986) found no significant  of  supporting  effects.  absence  problem. However,  many  a  of each family member.  In  mentioned  provide  for frequent  differences  shortened,  experiencing  and  considered in emotional  more  frequent  longer but less frequent  deployments.  Baker, Fischer, Janda, Cove and Fagen (1967) asserted that outside support is crucial  to the well-being  of  the  military family experiencing  to military orders. Peers, male teachers  and surrogates  father absence due  play an important role in  sex role identification.  2.2.1  Father  Absence  Literature  that  and  exists  Achievement  pertaining  to  father  absence  and school  tends to deal mainly with the nonmilitary child and family instability.  23  performance  Increased  problems  at  home  and school,  aches  and pains, aggressiveness,  disobedience, and poor self-esteem can be experienced by children whose homes are  not  continually  intact  (Yeatman, 1981). However, Mitchell  grade nine military students from one school father absence and achievement. and  six  military  and  father  students,  investigated  and found no relationship between  In 1970, Oldaker, investigating  non-military  students in grade two  (1980)  noted  arithmetic and grade six  positive  language  grades  results  two, four relating  to  with a high degree of  absence.  Additional  research  is  required to  establish  a relationship  between  father  absence in the military and school attainment at the secondary level.  2.2.2 Father Absence and  Father absence self-concept  is  Self-Concept  negatively  (Coopersmith,  1967).  associated  with the  Rosenfeld,  Rosenstein  development and  Navy children in Israel had behavior problems, difficulties of  sadness  and depression  Children were found to found  father  friends  and  absence lower  as  a result  worry about linked  than  with  average  the  of  father  absent  increased grades.  behavior  Yeatman  (1973) found  in school  and feelings  due  safety.  to  assignment.  Gabower (1960)  problems, trouble (1981)  interviewed  children with various problems which appeared to start abruptly with the departure. Two thirds of  a child's  Raab  absence  father's  of  making military father's  military wives reported initial upset and unhappiness in  their children, with boys being more difficult to manage (Yeatman, 1981).  Mothers of overprotective unit.  of  father-absent  children are often  isolated  from social  their children and concerned with obedience  Throughout the  military years,  dual role. Families may become  mothers  must  adopt  matriarchial in nature.  24  contacts,  within the family  and then  relinquish a  Lynn  and  concluded  that  because girls males  with  Sawrey father  (1959),  absences  had their  whom  self-confident,  with  to  were  mothers identify,  immature;  Norwegian  as  more role  boys  damaging  models.  were  moreover,  sailor for  boys  Due to  found  they  families  to  be  the  subjects,  than  lack  for  of  girls  adequate  more  dependent,  less  less  adequate  peer  developed  relationships, were more verbal and more overtly  as  feminine. Boys were found to  perceive father absence as more important than girls (Cortner, 1966).  Smith suggested  that  adolescent's positive Baker,  (1975),  using  the  a  amount  self-concept,  dichotomously of  father  although  absence  military  in their expression of self-concept Fischer, Janda,  absence of  Cove  and  Fagen  twelve or more months  scored  variable  for  father  generally  did  not  dependants  were  found  absence, impair  to  be  an less  than the normative group as a whole. (1967)  elicited  determined  that  military  problems within the  father  family. It was  noted that boys increased in masculine striving and had more difficulty with peer adjustment.  The effects  of  father absence which occurred early in a child's  appeared to be more pervasive on the male child's development  life  and  self-concept  noted.  Personality  (Hillenbrand, 1976).  In  contrast  development during  the  of  to  this,  positive  children, especially  period of  father-absence  effects  the  eldest  (Nice,  have  been  son, has  been  1978). The first  found to born  male  likely to occupy the position of the 'responsible one' (Hillenbrand, 1976).  25  increase is  most  2.3 Military Status of Father In general, when statistically significant differences exist within the military group, the children of officer personnel are favoured. (Hand, 1969, p. 207)  The  socioeconomic  level  environment. An environment  of  a  child's  conducive  to  family  creates  intellectual  and  mediates  development  is  the  associated  with an opportunity for continuous enrichment and learning. Well-educated parents, in general, are highly motivated, more able than others, with greater  educational  and  aptitude,  motivation,  higher  educational  occupational  achievement  Military attainment  aspirations  for  and self-concept  officers than  their  Thus,  the  of students will be influenced.  tend  to  have  noncommissioned  community revolves  children.  around the  higher  members.  hierarchy of  income The  and  subculture  rank which is  of  deeply  the  military  set  into  the  child's environment.  However, all children of military personnel living on the military base attend the same school. Thus, the school and noncommissioned  of  students from  for  achievement intellectual  officers  status as many civilian schools tend to be.  Status and Achievement  Rossi and Gilmartin (1979) related that socioeconomic account  both  members. It is not segregated according to neighbourhoods  of differing socioeconomic  2.3.1 Military  is composed  a  substantial  amount  of  the  remaining  status is presumed to variance  in  academic  after ability. Children who grow up surrounded by people with higher levels  have  a  better  chance  to  achieve  higher  intellectual  levels  themselves. The social position of the student, favouring pupils from high social class families, was  the most  significant  26  factor of  scholastic  achievement  in the  investigation  by  Oldaker  (1970), which  examined  the  reading, mathematics,  and  language outcomes of military and nonmilitary children. As well, Landman (1980), studying  military and nonmilitary grade  status to be significantly  five  subjects,  related to achievement.  Measures of  consistently  superior for the higher socioeconomic  occupational  index rating of  a child's  parents  discovered  socioeconomic  achievement  were  group. Burget (1965) used the  with  achievement  tests and discovered that the higher index was consistently  on standardized  and postively  related  to reading achievement.  2.3.2 Military  Status and  In discussing studies  can  self-concept the  be has  students'  Self-Concept  the relationship between military status and self-concept,  few  cited.  and  been  A  positive  observed  participation  in  relationship  between  social  (Marsh, 1971). The higher the school  activities  in  a  shorter  class  SES, the period  greater  of  time.  Children of the higher social class were better adjusted to moving, made friends more  easily,  reported  being  happy  and  outgoing,  and  did  not  find  changing  schools difficult (O'Connell, 1981).  However, Smith (1975) looked at officers grade seven to twelve students in one difference  military school  on the total score of the Tennessee  children  of  enlisted  personnel. The sons of  aggressive  officers  and  had  possessed  nine  more  and noncommissioned  higher  mean  and found no  Self-Concept Scale. subscale  commissioned  officers  self-assurance  than  members of  scores  than  significant  Nevertheless, children  of  were found to be more sons  of  noncommissioned  members (Cortner, 1966).  Conversely, professional  Hatmaker  educators  (1977)  obtained  found  higher  27  grade  five  self-esteem  and scores  six  children  of  than  children  of  military personnel.  2.4 The Military Subculture The child within the military system has past. (Hunter & Nice, 1978, p. vii)  The Canadian military subculture is set a  unified  satisfy  and  highly  almost  all physical  There is often with  its  organized  group  interdependence  and  and  secure  strong  for  its  own  in the  and  lifestyle,  identification,  people.  tightly  world. This closed  identity  group  cares  needs within the  little need for the outside  shared  much neglected  apart from the general public and is  that  and social  been  produces  can  knit community.  social  its  It  environment,  unusual  sense  of  special  pride  and  a  bond among many military families.  Moreover, combination Canadian  military  of  stressors  volunteer  families  are  associated  armed forces,  particularly with  such  as  the  susceptible  structure  air raid  and  practices,  to  a  function bomb  unique of  the  scares,  and  personnel with weapons (Broadhurst, Estey, Hughes, Jenkins & Martin, 1980). They are expected such  as  24-hour  to willingly accept  numerous on-call  development  relocations,  service.  family  These  and personality  military life characterized by various separations,  experiences  of  may  alienations, have  children and adults  culture  various within  effects  the  experiences shock  and  upon  the  military system  (Privitera, 1977).  One repeated  of  the  more  relocation.  The  pronounced military  are  characteristics presumably  of the  society (Landman, 1980; Staresnick, 1985). Personnel have the will  location of transfer,  each posting.  without  the most  military  family  is  mobile  group  in  little choice concerning  If a vacancy arises, a Career Management Officer  consultation,  a  member  28  who  can  fill  the  position.  This  transfer  may occur at any time  residence three  of  the  year. Research  results state that major  changes for the United States military personnel  years  average  (Margiotta, 1978;  military  dependent  Mittenzwei, child  will  1985).  It has  attend  nine  happen every  two  been estimated  schools  prior  that  to  to the  college  graduation (Strickland, 1971).  Because  relocation  could be  countries, close contact  to  with family  anywhere  in Canada  and friends  Military families do not have relatives  is  and possibly  more difficult  to  other  (Segal,  1986).  or long-term friends close by to assist in  their dealing with struggles and emergencies. This creates an interdependence other  military  families,  which  results  in  a  supportive  network  of  friends  with and  associates within the place in which one is residing (Rivlin, 1982). These military families  have  similar  relations, though Due  to  this  continual  uprooted  family, an intense support  can  uncertainty  values  change  and  status  transplanted upon the  (Dickerson  & Arthur,  when  and  and where  become  and dissolving  dependency  result of  and  the  way  of  of  the  alternative  friendship ties  life  for  all  Military  next transfer  will  children  come  is  family  expected.  members  family unit for emotional 1965).  to  of  the  and physical live  with  the  for themselves or  their friends.  With including become  relocation many  at  any  isolated  or  familiar with  time  remote  contrasting  customs of many people  to  different areas,  cultures,  provinces  families  and foreign  personally  languages, and the  countries,  experience social  and  and living  (Rainey, 1977; Shaw, 1979). Many become internationally  mobile, broadening their minds by obtaining a global view of life (Cottrell, 1977).  Life extensive  overseas,  with  travel,  different  is  its  enriched in  many  life  experiences  respects  29  from  and  living  opportunity in  Canada  for  (Segal,  1986).  Increased  develop life  tolerance  (Rogers,  experiences,  considered  a  of  different  people,  cultures  1982). Hunter (1982) found that values  positive  and  acceptance  experience  of  with  military life  others.  a  and  languages  helped  Geographic  multitude  of  to  expand  mobility  advantages  may  such  was as  increasing knowledge, stimulating curiosity, encouraging imagination and developing flexibility (Smith, 1943).  However, many people the physical and emotional society (Kron,  experience stress one  or subculture with a resulting 1973).  Those  who  "culture shock" which can be defined  fail  to  experiences feeling  adjust  to  when  of  the  interacting with another  disorientation demands  as  of  and helplessness a new  culture or  situation may withdraw to avoid the stress (Bower, 1967). The impact of culture shock, feeling  of alienation, impatience to return to Canada, disturbed perceptions  relating to the distance  from Canada, and temporary suspension  of Canadian life  style could have substantial effects on military children. It may assist them with skills  to  cope  often  than  with the  not,  affect  military teens do feel of  numerous them  experiences  negatively.  with  Cottrell  military life (1977)  their interests and activities  civilian teens, the world view and racial  but may, more  argued  that  are no different  attitudes  of  although  from those  military teens appeared  to lack prejudice. It may be that the altered predictors generated by residence in a foreign country are significant  factors  in relation to academic achievement  and  self-concept.  For "little  some  people, however,  Canada" in the  midst  of  a posting  to  Europe may  a foreign people.  be  Most things  like of  living in a  necessity are  available at the military base, with no need to patronize the economy. This could serve to mitigate or eliminate many of the difficulties associated to a new culture.  30  with adjustment  Service  personnel  can  be  frequently  absent  for  such  reasons  as  courses,  isolation assignments, training, assistance and extended tours abroad (Shaw, 1979). Without  prior  notice,  they  are  unaccompanied duty. Assignments  subject  to  immediate  orders  to  depart  for  may involve dangers on manoeuvres or combat  operations. Yeatman (1981) reported that 47% of 258 military families  experienced  unaccompanied tour of duty. These separations override any family responsibility. In some  families, children may  be  reared in what  is  virtually a  single-parent  family.  The lifestyle military  bases,  families  living  of  the  military community is remarkably homogeneous  including the on  a  schools,  base,  life  housing, chapels  normally  revolves  and so  around  among  on. For military  base  activities  and  facilities for safety, convenience, comfort and economy.  Military personnel are considered the middle range of  socioeconomic  status  (Staresnick, 1985), with neither the extremely poor nor rich. The wage structure is compressed,  though  homes  is  which  differentiates  secure.  On a  found. Nevertheless, the  base,  little  difference  in  the  value  of  the  there is a distinct hierarchy in the rank structure  work, social  and  living  structure.  Life  is  predictably  stable, orderly and rigid.  In  addition,  structured military  and  rules  the  strict  parent  in  household,  and procedures  the  military  normally  stressing  normally  paternalistic,  obedience  believes with  an  and discipline  in  a  highly  extension (Hackett,  of 1969;  Lyon & Oldaker, 1967). Compliance regarding a certain code of personal behavior in the military community is mandatory for every member of the family. If the wife  or children cause problems, this  may interfere with the  career (Keller, 1973; Long, 1986).  31  military member's  The  goals  secondary demands  to  and the  aspirations  career  commitment,  of  of the  the  spouse,  military  self-sacrifice  and  generally  parent  the  (Segal,  dedication  wife,  1986).  from  all  must  The  be  military  members  of  the  family.  Military  personnel  occupational  groups  retire  in the  at  an earlier  Canadian  age  than  is  culture. Thus, the  the  pattern  community  for  other  is normally  void of the older generation.  Comprehensive legal  and other  medical  services  are  charge or at reduced rates recreational  activities  entertainment  are  and pharmaceutical care, social provided by  the  armed forces  and  are  (Long, 1986). As well, numerous on-base  are available. Military operated  within  work, dental, some  the  confines  of  the  facilities  military  free  social and  for shopping and  base.  Gas,  food  commodities sell for reasonable prices at the base Canex. There is often newspaper  and a community council assisting  in the  of  running of  base  and  a base  activities.  Military police, firemen, and commissionaires surround and support the system.  Housing, although limited and not up to today's appearances, is available at reasonable  cost  (Segal,  1986).  Often  (permanent married quarters), and this family  to  a  motel  divided  ranks  are  military  personnel  or  rental  available  there  a  may result  facility  (Marsh,  and provide  are numerous  is  waiting  list  for  the PMQ  in an additional move 1971).  social  Military  facilities.  and are enjoyed  at  messes  families  predominantly  join  civilian  churches.  Caucasian. Knowledge  of  The  moderate  the  value.  32  Canadian  French  for  the  Functions planned by costs.  churches are found on a military base: Roman Catholic and Protestant. cases,  for the  military  language  is  Only  In some  population of  two  is  considerable  Occasionally Reasons  military  families  live  off  the  base  in the  surrounding area.  may be simply an aversion to the negative side of  contains  restrictions,  lack  of  choice  in  constricted milieu. As well, living off  housing,  the  invasion  of  military which privacy,  the base may be for investment  or  a  purposes  (Blochberger, 1971).  Differences families for  may  be  found  living on and off  a  long  penetrate.  time  The  with  in  the  the  pattern  are  aware  social that  either  McKain  the  civilian  or  (1973) discovered  military  that  circles  the  Problems can occur as these military families into  lifestyles  between  base. The civilian community has  well-established  neighbours  of  families  military  do not  community that  which  lived  are  &  off-base  together  difficult  family  identify  (Mclntire  been  military  is  transient.  with or  integrate  Drummond, had a  to  1977).  significantly  high correlation between alienation and family problems. Conversely, Blochberger's (1971)  investigation  showed  no  significant  differences  between  adolescent  dependants who lived on or off base.  Over annually  45,000  of  (Holtzhauer, Barrieau,  Department military  children  of  National  dependants  children of  Canadian Meller  Defence  throughout  military personnel  the  has  military  & Barr, assumed  personnel  1985).  responsibility  world. Provision of  makes the service  Since  require  education  1947,  the  Canadian  for  all  Canadian  military schools  career more attractive  for  the  and aids  in recruitment and retention (Morin, 1986). At present, 66 military schools on 38 bases schools  are are  provided small  for and  the rural  purpose in  the  of sense  Restriction of courses offered is unavoidable.  33  dependent of  being  education. away  Many  from  large  military cities.  Due to  the fact  that not all military bases have military schools, students  attend a number of military and civilian schools in many districts, provinces, and countries.  Approximately  25%  of  the  military  civilian neighbouring schools yearly, mostly of National Defence  Complications  school  age  dependants  at the high school  level  (Department  [DND], 1985).  may  result  when  military children are  faced  with  civilian schools.  A civilian community has a set  of  values  different  of  communty  is  often  difficult  the  military  children  to  attend  integrate  been together since  into  (O'Connell,  1981).  civilian school  the early school  It  groups  because  attending  from those for  military  civilian children have  years. Cliques become  extremely  important  by junior high school, increasing the difficulty of making friends for adolescents. Rejection often results until the military newcomers of  acceptance.  Military  students  may  military  students,  upon  become  can prove themselves worthy  confused,  anxious, withdrawn and  repressed.  However, values few  and experiences  entering  military  schools  as do the students who have attended  years. Hence, newcomers  often  find  students to  have  familiar  the school  for a  be more sensitive to and  considerate of their particular needs. Military dependants normally remain together rather than make  friends  with  civilian students.  bond between military students. students,  as  well  as  society  There appears  to  be a special  They must deal with any negative images other  in general, have  of  the  military. "The values  and  beliefs of the military are far from universally endorsed" (Long, 1986, p.32).  The  constant  administrators  turnover  and teachers  programs and schedules,  of face  teacher  children more  in  the  military  responsibility  loads, office  34  staff  in  schools  demands  adjusting  and finances  and  that  adapting  in an effort  to  better  serve  the  needs of  the  student.  If  a transfer  occurs  during the  school  year, the education of the newcomer as well as of the students presently within the  classroom  is  temporarily  interrupted.  Mid-year  arrivals  and  departures  frequently occur. Medders (1973) discovered that 50% of the military subjects had moved little  during the  middle of  opportunity for  teachers  the  school  students to  year. With constant  experience  (Gallagher, 1965), and inadequate  educational  time  for  relocation, there  continuity  counsellors  is  with familiar  and teachers  to  get to know such children and their problems. There is little chance for effective counselling  or  time  for  adequate  rehabilitation.  transfers, military students may attend school in extra-curricular activities  Military families  policies  to  provide  a  compassionate  to their child's school.  opportunity  to  the  numerous  (Swanson, 1961).  posting  to  larger  who have a handicapped child. Provisions for special  to be closer the  due  less frequently and participate less  provided on many military bases, and therefore  get  Also  become  Students  acquainted  cities  education  these families may live attending  military schools  with  the  student  turnover  in  military  who  needs  for  are not off-base do not special  education.  In teachers  addition  to  constant  student  in Europe are appointed for a two-year  extension. educational  This  adds  system.  to  the  Glasman  continual and  student achievement  Religious  must  education  be  Canadian  period, with a possibility of an  change  within  Biniaminov  negatively affected  schools,  (1981)  the  European  military  found  teacher  turnover  school  system.  in Europe.  taught  in  the  elementary  Religious education is divided into Protestant and Roman Catholic.  35  With  each  teachers, new —  is the  others. Since  home,  trauma  It  is  the  residing  coupled  new  of  distance  sixth  --  outside  the  adjustment  neighbourhood, new  to  for  maintain  visiting  mail. Khleif  grade  with  to  environment,  a  new  and  school,  new  peer  new group  missing old friends, beloved teachers, relatives, coaches, and  difficult  in touch is by that  move  is often  children  local  too  ties  outside  great, the  (1970), in an extensive  military the  continuous  listed  more  community, compared  the  immediate  primary  study than  of  means  family.  of  keeping  60 classrooms, found  25%  of  their  friends  to  the  10% listed by  and  the  fear  the  as  civilian  nonmobile sixth grade children.  As  a  military  protective  child  may  Mobile  children  change  while  important  rapid  the next  many  new  of  the  reluctance  to  and  very  tenuous  their  (Shaw,  and  develop  more  are  constant  organizations  and  a  the  relationships.  constantly  as  hurt,  subject  to  permanent  and  constant  and  1979).  are  in  the  a regular  then  getting  superficial  and  friends  of  process  turnover  of  having concerns  tendancy  to  leave  and to  of  membership  (e.g., scouting, sports). Tracking down  involved, and  community  as  and  community  adjustment  organizations  roots  viewed  environment  continual  leaving  fewer  children  individual  join  against  friendships  their  base, getting  military  down  viewed  transition,  part of  put  nonmobile  parts  Because  measure  organizations  and start  lead  many  withdraw  is a  from  again to  a  at  on the  gradual  organizations  entirely.  Special available  to  problems of  services, aid  such  families  military  as in  counselling coming  to  officers terms  and  with  life such as relocation and parental  36  military  the  chaplains  potentially  separation.  are  stressful  2.5 Summary  Studies illustrate  discussed  the  in this review have yielded disparity in the findings and  complexity  of  the  between the environmental factors and  self-concept.  generally status  strong  have  to  Nevertheless, relatedness school  process used  in determining  relationships  in this study and academic  these  studies  geographic  performance.  involved  have  mobility,  The literature  offered  achievement  evidence  of  father  absence,  and military  is  summarized  in Table 1  below. Table 1 Summary of Findings in Research Literature Positive Effect Geographic Mobility Snipes (1964) Kenny (1967) Partin (1967) Falik (1969) Holcombe (1969) Cramer & Dorsey (1970) Crowder (1970) Jones (1973) Vincent (1973) Father Absence Oldaker (1970) Hillenbrand (1976) Nice (1978)  Military Status Burget (1965) , Cortner (1966) Oldaker (1970) Marsh (1971) Landman (1980) O'Connell (1981)  No Effect  Negative Effect  Swanson (1961) Hand (1969) Baker (1970) Strickland (1971) Misner (1973) Smith (1975) Ford (1979) Brantley (1981) Stanley (1983) Mittenzwei (1985)  Partin (1967) Stafford (1968) Baker (1970) Bledsoe (1976) Shaw (1979) Landman (1980) Glasman et al (1981) Stanley (1983) Cope (1984) Segal (1986)  Darnauer (1971) Smith (1975) Mitchell (1980) Knitter (1986)  Lynn & Sawrey (1959) Gabower (1960) Baker et al (1967) Rosenfeld et al (1973) Margiotta (1978) Yeatman (1981)  Smith (1975)  37  the  CHAPTER  3  METHODOLOGY  This in  gathering  brief  3.1  Research  data,  Canadian  participate.  Valcartier,  Quebec;  Brunssum,  have  sample,  of  the  analysis  serves  in  been  instruments  study.  of  the  Borden  and  C.F.B.  the of  registered  Canada  and  members  students  military  The  and  chapter  procedures  used  concludes  with  a  data.  bases: C.F.B.  Each  dependants the sample  of  of  C.F.S.  of  grade  were  fathers  were  presently  British  Columbia;  schools  is  C.F.S. Lahr,  in  located  the next  were  on  to  stationed C.F.B.  C.F.B.  as  military  stationed  at  Shilo,  and  Germany, the  born,  requested  Senneterre  West  personnel  Department  they  military,  a n d C.F.B.  are described  w h o , since  Ontario;  military  ten Canadian  the  Holberg,  Petawawa,  these  in  Europe,  whose  Baden-Soellingen  Netherlands.  characteristics  3.2  Schools  following  C.F.B.  and  design  dependants  encompassed  Manitoba;  as  the  research  statistical  military  w h o  This  the  the  Defence  fathers  of  of  and  the  Sample  National  have  one  the  describes  explanation  All of  chapter  there.  well base The  chapter.  Instruments  Students  were  1.  Canadian  Cognitive  2.  Canadian grade  10;  expression.  Tests  assessed  of  subtests:  on  Abilities Basic (a)  the  following  Test, Skills,  reading  psychoeducational  (multilevel High  ed.). Level  School  comprehension,  .  38  G ;  Multilevel (b)  instruments: grades Edition;  mathematics,  10 & Level (c)  11. 16,  written  3.  The Way I Feel About  Myself  (Piers-Harris Children's  Self-Concept  Scale);  grades 3 to 12.  3.3 Description of Assessment  3.3.1 Canadian Cognitive  The  Canadian  batteries  for  a  Instruments  Abilities  Cognitive  better  Test  Abilities  assessment  Test  of  (Wright,  learning  1982)  potential,  encompasses measuring  three  scholastic  aptitude and abstract reasoning ability. It attempts to provide, in a group setting, the  full  assessment  who are weak  quantitative  a student's abilities, without  unfairly penalizing students  in reading or language. The three batteries  which examines analogies,  of  are: a verbal battery  vocabulary, sentence completion, verbal classification, and verbal  taking  34  minutes  to  administer; a  quantitative  battery  which  tests  relations, number series, and equation building in 32 minutes; and a  nonverbal battery which assesses figure classification, figure analogies, and figure synthesis in 32 minutes.  For each separate subtest, raw scores and the following norm-related scores are available: standard scores, percentile ranks and stanines, given separately  for  age and grade.  When  testing  comparable  set  with  of  test  a single items  Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula each  subtest  Multilevel  to  provide  G, grade  10  such are:  battery, one given  #20,  is  without  a  or coefficient  an verbal  estimate. subtest  nonverbal subtest .90.  39  limited time  generalizing  interval.  However,  to  a the  alpha, was used separately for  KR #20 .93,  to  reliability  quantitative  estimates  subtest  .90  for and  The test may be administered by the classroom teacher. Canadian norms are based  on results from more than 2200 students from  180  schools  in over  110  school districts from the ten provinces and the Territories.  3.3.2 Canadian Tests of Basic  The  Canadian  measures  the  performance provides  Tests  content  of  Skills  of of  Basic  Skills  today's  (King,  instructional  students to their contemporaries  both criterion-referenced  1982)  is  a  group  programs  in terms  and norm-referenced  test  and  of  relates  national  evaluation  which the  norms. It  permitting test  results to be meaningful and useful.  Based on objectives stated in textbooks, curriculum guides, and instructional materials used by school overlapping  systems in all parts of Canada, the test provides four  levels per subject.  mathematics,  written  available  a  as  The subject  expression,  separate  test,  and  areas include  using  measuring  sources  reading  of  understanding  comprehension,  information. and  Each  knowledge  in  is that  particular area.  Standardization  involved  time, and under the The  scoring  system  standard score The  same  the  conditions  provides  and stanine  three subtests chosen  same  raw  population,  as  the  scores  equivalents.  at  approximately  Canadian and  The test  Cognitive  norm-related many be  the  Abilities percentile  teacher  same Test. rank,  administered.  in this study for measurement, evaluation and analysis  were reading comprehension, with administration taking 40  minutes;  mathematics,  40 minutes; and written expression, 40 minutes.  The Formula  reliability 20  sample. Level  (KR  data  #20)  come  from  procedures  the  based  application on  the  entire  16 reliability for reading comprehension  40  of  the  Kuder-Richardson  national  was  standardization  .90; for  mathematics  .88;  and written  based  upon  expression  reliability  .87.  figures  The validity (Peter  of  Cameron,  the  CTBS  Nelson  battery  Publishing  is,  in part,  Co., Toronto,  personal communication, July 1988).  3.3.3 The Way I Feel About  Myself  The purpose of the revised Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale &  Harris,  three  1984)  was  through grade  designed  to  measure  twelve. This  general  self-concept  American  self-report  in students instrument  (Piers  from  was  grade  primarily  for research. It can be administered individually, in a group setting, or  self-administered.  The test is written at the third grade level items  requires  self-concept.  a yes-no  response.  Administration time  Items is  are  of reading. Each of the  scored  approximately  in the  fifteen  direction  to  twenty  eighty  of  high  minutes,  although there is no set time limit.  The  test  stanine scores. of  forty  produces  raw  scores  and  norm-related  percentile  rankings  and  Average scores are usually considered to be between raw scores  and sixty  out  of  a possible  eighty,  or between  the  thirty-first  and  seventieth percentiles.  Cluster scores can be obtained from the responses to six major factors on the  scale:  appearance  statements and  of  attributes,  behavior,  intellectual  anxiety,  popularity,  and as  school well  as  status,  physical  happiness  and  satisfaction.  This test falls under the level B administrators, as defined by the American Psychological Association (1966). Therefore, qualified testers are necessary administration and interpretation of this test.  41  for the  Standardization of  this  instrument was  done with grades three, six and ten.  Norms are based on 1183 public school children from grades four through twelve. The split-half reliability is 0.87 and the test-retest reliability ranges from 0.71  to  0.77.  The  construct  self-concept the  coefficient  measure was 0.68.  assessed  available  totally  reliable  instruments  in  relation  to  another  Shavelson, Hubner and Stanton (1976) stated that  Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept  measures is  validity  for assessing  Scale  appears  to  children's self-concept.  or valid, Shreve  considered, the most  (1973) concluded  satisfactory  be  one  of  Although no  that  of  four  the  best  instrument self-concept  test for measuring self-concept  of  students was the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale.  An American self-concept Canadian  test  significant  was  differences  available.  test was  employed  However,  between  mean  for use  Dyson  scores  and  from  in this  Edgar  samples  study  (1986) taken  in  as no  found  no  the  two  different regions (Canada and United States).  3.4 Predictor Variables  The predictor variables in this study were: (1) geographic absence due to assignment, and (3) military  3.4.1 Geographic  There  is  a lack of  consensus  Some  establish  a mobility factor that  (2) father  status of father.  Mobility  mobility.  discovered  mobility,  previous  studies  in research  used  "one  (Cope, 1984;  the United States  or  on what more  moves"  as  geographic criterion  Hand, 1969). However, Staresnick  military families  42  constitutes  can move  every  to  (1985)  18 months,  on  the  average, and sometimes more often.  Thus, one  or more moves  seemed  inadequate.  Mobility is a complex variable. The greater the distance moved, the greater would  seem  school  the  adjustment  curriculum  demands  on  the  (Levine, Wesoloski  &  Corbett,  friends, and environment  changes.  mover, especially 1966),  Adjustment factors  in the  area of  with  previous  contact  would appear to  be  more  complex with a move between provinces or to Europe (Kroger, 1977). Strains of the  number  and  distance  of  relocations  appear  to  be  varied  and  possibly  cumulative in effect (Moyers, 1985).  Relocation  before  entrance  account, as the roots of of  life.  At this  time,  into  elementary  later development  the  initial  concepts  school  needs to  be  taken  into  are firmly planted in the first years of  friendship  and  socialization  are  formed (Rubin, 1980).  As  researchers  investigation  of  have  recognized  the  mobility (Lehman, 1964;  need  Lowell,  for  birth  until  school  entry. A score  of  dimensions  1975), this  additive weighting scheme. Following this a score of from  new  1 was  study  in  considered an  1 was given for each move given  for  each  intrabase or  intradistrict move; a score of 2 for each intraprovincial move; a score of each  interprovincial move  and a score  the  3 for  of 4 for each intercountry move (Greene  & Daughtry, 1961).  3.4.2 Father  Absence  Frequent father absence well  as  attempt absence  extended to  absenteeism  measure  was  on short temporary assignments  carried  the  can  cumulative  out.  Father  create effect absence  43  problems of  for  and manoeuvres  the  family.  duration and frequency during  the  subject's  as  Thus, an of  lifetime  father was  tabulated  in number of  months  absent  added to  the  total  number of  absences  (Staresnick, 1985).  3.4.3  Military  Status  There The  is  a traditional gap between officers  educational  social  levels  of  officers  and  and enlisted  noncommissioned  status, determining with whom the  members  of  service  members  the  members.  differentiate  family associate and  their neighbourhood.  In  this  officers.  study,  This  two  concurs  categories with  the  were  military  used:  noncommissioned  subculture  where  the  members  and  working, living,  housing and social life of the family is dictated by membership in either of the two  mutually  exclusive  corporal, master  categories.  Noncommissioned  members  corporal, sergeant, warrant officer, master  warrant officer. Officers encompassed lieutenant-colonel,  second  included  private,  warrant officer, chief  lieutenant, lieutenant, captain, major,  colonel, brigadier-general, major-general, lieutenant-general  and  general.  3.5 Criterion Variables  The following criterion variables were examined within the study: (Ij comprehension,  (2) mathematics,  (3) written  express/on,  and (4)  reading  self-concept.  3.6 Procedure  This Education approval  study  began  Programs, from  the  with  approval  Department Base  of  from  National  Commanders at  44  the  the  Director  Defence. following  General,  Following C.F.B./C.F.S.  Dependants endorsement, Bases  was  obtained: Ontario;  Holberg,  British  Senneterre  and  Germany;  and  Brunssum,  Columbia; Valcartier,  Shilo,  Manitoba;  Quebec;  Netherlands.  Borden  Baden-Soellingen  These  included  all  and and  schools  Petawawa, Lahr,  on  West  Canadian  military bases which provide education for grade ten students.  After  consent  from  the  Base  Commanders was  obtained,  the  researcher  contacted the Board of Education Chairperson and Director of Education for each base  and received  approval  for  principals of the military schools for  conducting  the  study.  At  this  time, the  nine  offering grade ten were approached individually  their support and approval. Principals were also asked for the selection of a  qualified teacher/counsellor to administer the tests.  A code number for each student means of subjects  selected was  employed and was the only  identification used by the researcher. Anonymity was guaranteed to all and  their  families.  For example,  in  "A01" A  indicates  school  code  (school code from A to I), 01 indicates subject number (subject number from 01 to 99 for each school)  Detailed directions, testing via  each principal. Assessors  procedure. school's  The testing  in  were requested to review and follow  period was  to  be  scheduled  at  the  each manual  assessor's  convenience, during the month of April. The testers were  three consecutive a.m.  protocols, and materials were sent to the testers  and the  asked to  days for testing: Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from  use 9:00  to 10:30 a.m. if possible. Since the majority of military postings take place summer,  the  battery  of  scales  measuring  the  criterion  variables  were  administered during the spring to allow new students ample adjustment time.  A parent information survey/consent the  study,  giving  form explaining the general purpose of  background information about  45  the  researcher, and  requesting  permission students  to  include their child  registered  in the  grade  in the ten  study was  sent  to  homeroom. Students  the  were  parents  of  responsible  transporting the questionnaire to their parents and returning it to the school completion. Background information requested  the number of  moves  all for  after  (since birth)  of the participating child until entry into school, including destination and age at each move, the present rank of the military parent and the amount of time and frequency the father was lifetime  (see  absent  due to military assignment  Appendix D). A permission slip and return envelope  Teachers and administrators assisted information survey/consent  The  student  mobility  since  first  survey  entered  requested  formal  the  (see  Session  mobility  records were  variable including names  used to gather of  all schools  and grade at entry and exit. This information was  record  of  school  Appendix E). This  was  I following the reading  of the Request for Subject Participation by the tester (see  school  the parent  envelopes.  student's  schooling  subject's  were included.  researcher by disseminating  form and collecting the response  information  s/he  the  given to each student at the beginning of testing  Student  during the  Appendix D).  information on the  geographic  previously registered with  date  recorded by the clerical staff  selected by the principal within each school after permission was granted by the parents on the consent Behavioral  Sciences  forms. The study was Screening  Committee  evaluated for  for acceptability by the  Research  and  Other  Studies  Involving Human Subjects at the University of British Columbia.  In addition to the formal data collected, the researcher had earlier conducted semi-structured, military  open-ended  personnel  and  interviews  spouses  who  with were  seventeen available  active  and  and willing  to  two  retired  participate.  Information was gathered regarding their views of military life and how they military  life  related  to  their  children's  academic  46  achievement  and  felt  self-concept  (see  Appendix G). The information obtained was used by the researcher to assist  in the formulation of the questions  of this research as well as to assist  in the  interpretation of the data.  3.7 Testing Sessions  All  assessment  measures  were administered to the participating students in  a predetermined order during the month of April, principal  was  experienced testing  requested  in the  sessions.  three  select  of  psychoeducational  Necessary  administration of and  area  to  care  one  tester  was  A  written  provided for each tester (see  who  across  guideline  had qualifications  assessment  taken  the tests and surveys  countries.  1987 by a qualified tester. Each  to  ensure  the  titled  to  conduct uniformity  nine schools,  and all in  was three the  four provinces  Examiner's Responsibilities  was  Appendix C).  3.7.1 Session 1  Session Following Abilities testing  I began with the  this,  the  student  Test,  verbal  and  session  was  administration of  information quantitative  held  session  reading of  between I was  the Request  for Subject Participation.  survey  the  battery,  9:00  and  and were  10:30  Canadian  group a.m.  approximately seventy-five  Cognitive  administered.  The  total  time  The for  minutes, including a  five minute recess between the two tests.  3.7.2 Session 2  The  Canadian  Cognitive  Abilities Test, Nonverbal Battery, followed  by  the  Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Written Expression, and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept  Scale  were  administered  in  47  a  group  setting  the  day  following  session  I. The total  eighty-five  minutes  time  for  including  administration  two  five  of  minute  session breaks.  II was  This  approximately  session  was  held  between 9:00 and 10:30 a.m. Each group was tested by the same qualified tester.  3.7.3 Session 3 The Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, Reading Comprehension and Mathematics were  group  administered  the  day  following  session  time of session III was approximately eighty-five recess between the administration of  the two  II. The total  administration  minutes including a five minute  tests. This session was  also held  between 9:00 and 10:30 a.m., and was administered by the same tester.  Thus  one  school.  The  advised  to  qualified  three use  assessor  testing  three  in  each  sessions  consecutive  were days  school to  for  tested  alleviate testing:  all  students  fatigue.  at  that  Schools  were  Tuesday, Wednesday  and  Thursday if possible. The total time for administration of the three sessions was approximately four hours.  3.8 Data  A cognitive ability score was obtained from the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test.  Achievement  scores  Expression  were  Skills.  self-concept  A  in  obtained  Reading  from score  Comprehension, Mathematics  the  subtests  of  the  was  obtained  from  Canadian the  and Written  Tests  of  Basic  Piers-Harris Children's  Self-Concept Scale.  It was  requested  that  a parent  information  survey  be  completed  by  the  subject's mother, if available, in consultation with her husband. This provided data on geographic mobility -  number of times subject has moved between birth and  48  first entry into formal move;  absence  of  school, with destination, date and age of subject at each  military  father,  including  approximate  dates,  location  and  assignment; and military status - rank of military parent(s).  A Student Information Survey scale provided data on geographic mobility address of schools previously attended, with date and grade at entry and exit.  It was  requested  that  the  Student  School  Records  be  completed  by  school secretary. This provided data on geographic mobility - address of previously  attended,  with  date  and  grade  at  entry  and  exit.  This  the  schools was  an  additional source of data collected for cross checking geographic mobility.  3.9 Trial/Revised Information Surveys  The author devised records  which were  trial  administered  students and secretaries British  Columbia.  possible  information surveys  The  to  a sample  for parent, student of  and school  military parents, ninth-grade  at C.F.B. Borden, Ontario and the Vancouver Detachment, purpose  revision of questions.  was  to  check  for  Minor changes were  consequence  of  the  pilot  tests.  administered  to  the  respective  The parents,  ease  of  understanding  with  made in the instrument as a  revised  information  students  and  surveys  school  were  secretaries  participating in the study.  3.10 Scoring Procedure  All  completed  test protocols  and information surveys were  returned to the  researcher. The researcher did all hand and computer scoring which was verified to be  100% accurate by a hired assistant.  49  Students  were  categorized  by gender  (male, female) based on the student  Appendix E).  information survey, (see  3.11 Design and Analysis  This study  is descriptive  questionnaires.  Analysis  in design.  was  Data were collected  predominantly  through  the  through tests and  use  of  descriptive  statistics, although inferential statistics were carried out where required.  Correlations  and partial  correlations  were  used  to  study  among the variables. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was  used  accounted  to  determine  the  for by selected  regression  program  was  amount  of  military environmental used  to  in the  variance  analyze  the  the  relationships  (Pedhauzer,  dependent  variables  variables. The SPSS:X contributions  1982)  multiple  predictor  variables  made to the variation of any given criterion variable.  The  predictor variables  were  in order of  introduced  the  strength  correlation with each of the four criterion variables. In this statistical the  variable which enters first  explains  the  greatest  amount  of  of  their  procedure,  variance  in the  criterion variable. This variable has the largest squared partial correlation with the criterion  variable.  greatest  amount  The  next  variable  which  of  variance  after  the  Likewise, subsequent  variables  that  enter  variance.  At  coefficient  each  of  step  multiple  of  this  correlation  enters  variance the  show  due  equation  procedure, to  the  there the  is  equation to  the  first  accounted a  importance  explains  predictor.  for additional  computation of  the  the  of  the  addition of  each successive variable.  Standardized influence  of  beta  weights  were  interval and dichotomous  the net regression coefficients  used  to  enable  the  interpretation  of  the  variables. Standardized beta weights placed  on a comparable basis, allowing the possibility of  50  determining  the  relative  influence  of  each  predictor  variable  on  each  criterion  variable (Marascuilo & Levin, 1983; Pedhauzur, 1982).  In  addition,  this  study  employed  descriptive  statistics  including  means,  standard deviations and sample sizes calculated for all criterion variables.  Test  analysis  for determining the  reliability of  each  criterion measure  was  also employed. The reliability indices were calculated by the SPSS:X subprogram Reliabilities.  The research sample was also compared with norming samples used in this study through construction of confidence  for the tests  intervals.  3.12 Summary  This  chapter  has  explained  instrumentation, procedures, data explanation of the statistical  Data parental  were  statistical  selection  collection  of  the  research  and scoring, research  design  sample, and an  analysis.  from  information/consent  student's school for  collected  the  five  survey,  psychoeducational the  student  instruments  information  survey  plus  the  and  the  records. They . were then coded and transferred to the computer analyses.  The  following  analysis.  51  chapter  provides  the  results  of  data  CHAPTER  4  ANALYSES AND RESULTS  The  first section  presents  this chapter describes the sample. The second  the reliability analysis  descriptive results  of  statistics  of  of  the  instruments. In the third section  for the criterion variables. Finally, in section  correlational  and  regression  analysis  which  address  section are the  four are the the  research  questions.  4.1 Sample Characteristics  All subjects 14.9 years to and  the  mean  fifty-five  The  17.5 years, a spread of 2.6 years. The modal age was 16.0  years.  Forty-five percent  of  the  subjects  were  from  15.9 years male  and  percent were female.  geographic mobility index ranged from 4 to 36, with a mean of  Forty-eight  of  father absence 96  in this study were grade ten students who ranged in age  the  students  had not  lived  outside  Canada.  index was 55.1 with a range from 5 to  (80.67%) were  children of  noncommissioned  The mean  for  11.9. the  165. Of the 119 subjects,  officers  and  23  (19.33%) were  children of officers.  The  119 subjects  in the study represented approximately 64% of  the grade  ten students presently attending Canadian Department of National Defence and  whose  father  had  been  in  the  military  since  their  birth  (see  Schools  Table  2).  Although initially consenting to the study, two schools out of the nine chose not to  test, thus  eliminating  dropped out following the  some first  50  potential  testing  students.  In addition, one  session and 13 students  52  subject  did not obtain  parental  consent.  This  group  of  119  subjects  was  assumed  to  represent  the  population of  grade ten students in DND schools in 1987, because military families frequently personnel  and  potentially  to  any  of  the  Canadian  military  are posted  bases;  military  do not choose their posting; all grade ten students attending military  schools were potential  subjects;  and all three military divisions  (army, navy, air  force) were included.  Table 2 Distribution of Sample by Department of National Defence  Schools  School Name  Location of School  n  San Josef  Holberg, British Columbia  3  Princess Elizabeth  Shilo, Manitoba  16  Borden Collegiate Inst.  Borden, Ontario  32  General Panet High  Petawawa, Ontario  35  St. Michaels Algonquin  Senneterre, Quebec  1  Dollard des Ormeaux  Valcartier, Quebec  12  Baden Senior  Baden-Soellingen, Germany  20  Lahr Senior  Lahr, Germany  0  AFCENT International  Brunssum, Netherlands  0  Total: 119  53  4.2 Measurement and Reliability of the Data  Various was  measurement  scales  were  involved  in collecting  identified as representing nominal data while  father  female=2. absence,  expression  The  remaining  cognitive  and  ability,  self-concept  were  coding and computer entry of  measures, reading  namely  is a result of age,  comprehension,  identified  as  data. Gender  military status was  to be ordinal. In the results, the direction on gender male=1,  the  interval  data were subject  considered the coding;  geographic  mobility,  mathematics,  or  ratio  written  measures. All  to a 100% verification  process.  Some data were missing and are noted where appropriate.  4.2.1 Reliability  Analysis  The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 (KR 20) reliability coefficients by the publishers of Tests  of  Basic  the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test  Skills  (CTBS).  The  test-retest  method  are reported  (CCAT) and Canadian  was  employed  as  the  reliability measure for the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (Wing, 1966). To  determine  the  internal-consistency  of  each  study, the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 was  criterion  Cronbach's  computer  Alpha  dichotomous,  the  for  subprogram Reliability was each  Cronbach  reliability coefficient  (SPSS.X  is  equal  user's guide,  in  this  the  Table 3).  program used  criterion variable. Provided the Alpha  used  employed. This provided comparable  measures to those published for the CCAT and CTBS (see  SPSS:X  measure  to  the  data  to  obtain  for  analysis  is  Kuder-Richardson  Formula  20  1986). For this reliability measure, the  data were scored right or wrong. The reliability of the tests assessed was found to be acceptably high.  54  Table  3  Reliability Coefficients  (KR #20)  of Criterion Measures  Published  Study  .90  .92  .88  .90  .87  .88  .77'  .93  Verbal  .93  .91  Quantitative  .90  .83  Nonverbal  .90  .91  2  .93  Measure  Canadian Tests of Basic Skills Reading  Comprehension  Mathematics Written  Expression  Piers-Harris Self-Concept  Scale  Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test  Full  scale  1  PHCSCS test-retest reliability is on grade five students.  1  not available.  4.3 Descriptive Statistics  Descriptive statistics for the criterion measures are presented inspection  of  the  norming  sample  standard  deviations  shows  in Table 4. An  that  the  distributions were within the expected range. The distributions for each were  near  normal. There  was  a  significant  difference  males and females in mathematics, t(114)=2.99, p <.05.  55  in  the  study's subgroup  performance  of  On self-concept and other  Table 4 Descriptive Statistics for the Criterion Variables and Cognitive Ability  Group  Rdg. Comp.  Math  Mean  Mean  (sd)  Self-Con.  Cog. Ability  Mean  Mean  Mean  (sd)  (sd)  (sd)  (sd)  39.96  28.13  34.96  56.66  163.19  (10.46)  ( 8.17)  ( 8.95)  (10.50)  (31.74)  n=116  n=116  n=117  n=1l8  n=119  41.37  30.50  35.24  57.59  169.33  ( 9.37)  ( 8.35)  ( 8.89)  (10.60)  (32.71)  n=54  n=54  n=54  n=54  n=54  38.73  26.07  34.71  55.88  158.08  (11.26)  ( 7.49)  ( 9.06)  (10.44)  (30.30)  n=62  n=62  n=63  n=64  n=65  Sample  Male  Female  1  Writt. Exp.  1  n's vary due to missing data.  achievement  measures  the difference  in the performance of  males  and females  was not statistically significant at this level.  The  research  sample  means  were  compared  with  the  statistics  for the  norming sample for each of the achievement measures and cognitive ability. The means seen  and the in Table  confidence 5 that  the  interval  limits  sample  in this  norming sample in self-concept  are presented study  in Table  5.  It can be  compared favourably with the  and written expression. In reading comprehension  56  and  mathematics  norming  only the males do not fall within the confidence  sample.  In  cognitive  ability,  the  research  sample  norming sample - the research sample had higher cognitive  limits of  differed  from  the the  ability as reflected in  higher means. Table 5 Means  and  95%  Cognitive Ability  Test  Confidence  Intervals  (C.l.)  for  the  Dependent  Variables  and  1  Norming  Study  Mean  Mean  Male  Female  Sample  .95 C.l.  .95 C.l  Sample  Mean  Lower  Upper  Mean  CCAT  154.37  150.88  157.86  163.19  169.33  158.08  CTBS:RC  39.50  37.80  41.20  39.96*  41.37  38.73*  CTBS:M  26.80  25.60  28.00  28.13  30.50  26.07*  CTBS:WE  34.00  32.56  35.44  34.96*  35.24*  34.71*  PHSCS  49.67  41.14  58.20  56.66*  57.59*  55.88*  * means in the interval 1  C.l. computed using statistics and standard errors reported in the test manuals.  4.4 Correlational Analysis  Correlational  and  mediating  effect  of  predictor  variables.  variables  is  partial  cognitive The  presented  correlational ability  on the  intercorrelation in  Tables  6  analysis  and  57  relationships  matrix 7  were  for  of  all  male  used  to  examine  the  between criterion and criterion  and  and  female  predictor  subsamples,  respectively. Table 6 Variables Intercorrrelation Matrix for Males  Vars.  RC  MA  WE  SC  GM  FA  MS  RC  1.00  M  .54*  1.00  WE  .50*  .62*  1.00  SC  .04  .06  .02  1.00  GM  .11  .05  .07  -.05  1.00  FA  .29  .04  -.02  .13  .23  1.00  MS  -.07  .10  .14  -.01  .23  .09  1.00  CA  .50*  .69*  .58*  -.01  .23  .02  .10  CA  Note. RC = reading comprehension; MA = mathematics; WE = written expression; SC = self-concept; GM = geographic mobility; FA = father absence; MS = military status; CA = cognitive ability. * p<.001 (two-tail, Bonferroni adjustment: .05/28; critical r=.45)  For  the  significant. cognitive  males,  The  only  significant  ability. None of  6  of  the  28  correlations  bivariate are  correlations  between  were  achievement  statistically  variables  and  the environmental predictor variables had a significant  relationship with an achievement  variable. Correlations of self-concept,  a criterion  variable, with other variables were not significant as well.  For females, Again,  these  cognitive  6 of the 28 bivariate correlations were statistically  significant  ability.  correlations  The predictor  are  variables  with any other variable.  58  between do  not  achievement  have  significant.  measures  a significant  and  correlation  Table 7 Variables Intercorrelation Matrix for Females  Vars.  RC  MA  WE  SC  GM  RC  1.00  M  .66*  1.00  WE  .68*  .71*  1.00  SC  .05  .04  .00  1.00  GM  -.09  -.06  .12  .00  1.00-  FA  .29  .23  .20  .12  .18  MS  .07  .08  -.10  .26  .07  CA  .74*  .77*  .80*  .10  -.07  FA  MS  CA  1.00 ,  .11  1.00  .19  .04  Note. RC = reading comprehension; MA = mathematics; WE = written expression; SC = self-concept; GM = geographic mobility; FA = father absence; MS = military status; CA = cognitive ability. * p<.001 (two-tail, Bonferroni adjustment: .05/28; critical r=.41)  Cognitive  ability  was  considered  a  possible  mediating  variable  in  the  relationships between the other variables. Therefore, the correlations between the variables were further examined with the influence of cognitive This was  done  through computing  ability held constant. The results  first  order partial  ability controlled.  correlations with  are reported in tables  cognitive  8 and 9 for males and  females, respectively.  For males, a number of ability  was  partialled out.  correlations changed when the  The partial  effect  intercorrelations between  \  59  the  of  cognitive  achievement  measures  dropped and none  were  significant  at alpha equal to  .002 (Bonferroni  adjustment: .05/21; critical r=.43)  Table 8  Partial Intercorrelations for Males  Vars.  RC  MA  WE  SC  GM  FA  RC  1.00  MA  •31  1.00  WE  .30  .38  1.00  SC  .05  .08  .15  1.00  GM  -.19  -.10  -.09  -.05  1.00  FA  .32  .04  .04  -.12  .22  1.00  MS  .14  .05  -.10  -.01  .08  .08  MS  1.00  Note. RC = reading comprehension; MA = mathematics; WE = written expression; SC = self-concept; GM = geographic mobility; FA = father absence; MS = military status.  For  the  females,  upon  partial I ing  correlations between the achievement at  which  they  were  adjustment:  .05/21;  self-concept  did  no critical  not  longer  The  but  the  effect  of  cognitive  ability  the  measures dropped considerably, to the point  statistically  r=.4).  change,  out  significant,  correlation  it  was  not  p  between  >  .002  military  statistically  (Bonferroni status  significant.  and The  correlation between geographic mobility and written expression of girls increased, but it too was not statistically  significant.  60  Table 9 Partial Intercorrelations for Females  Vars.  RC  MA  WE  SC  GM  RC  1.00  MA  .20  1.00  WE  .20  .24  1.00  SC  .03  .06  -.14  1.00  GM  -.05  -.02  .27  .11  1.00  FA  .22  -.12  .09  .01  .19  MS  .07  -.07  -.21  .26  .10  FA  MS  Note. RC = reading comprehension; MA = mathematics; WE = written expression; SC = self-concept; GM = geographic mobility; FA = father absence; MS = military status.  4.5 Regression Analysis  The power  multiple  of  military  the  regression  environmental  status,  in  relation  procedure  to  the criterion variables, separately regressions  regression .05/4) to  models guard  for  each  were against  used  variables: geographic scores  written expression, and self-concept.  four  was  for  to  the  mobility, father  reading  Regression  examine  explanatory absence,  comprehension,  models  were  fitted  and  mathematics, for each of  for the two gender subsamples. As there were  gender  evaluated  group, at  alpha  experiment-wise  61  the  statistical  level  error.  .0125  The  significance (Bonferroni  variables  were  of  the  adjustment: entered  in  forward  stepwise  manner.  None  of  the  regression  models  was  statistically  significant.  4.6 Summary  Chapter four presented research  questions.  Self-concept sample's the  the analyses and results of the study relating to the  males  and written  confidence did not  intervals.  expression  were  found to  For reading comprehension  fall within the confidence  be within the norming and mathematics,  only  limits of the norming sample. The  research sample had higher means on cognitive ability than the norming sample.  the  Correlations  between criterion variables were  correlations  between  the  environmental  significant.  variables  However, none  (father  absence,  of  military  status, and geograhic  mobility) and the criterion variables (reading comprehension,  mathematics,  expression,  written  self-concept)  was  statistically  well, none of the multiple regression models was statistically  62  significant.  significant.  As  CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  This  chapter discusses  and offers  the  findings  of  the  study, describes  its  limitations,  recommendations.  5.1 Findings and Conclusions  5.1.1  Findings  The  conceptual  framework based  on school  performance suggested that the  environmental background of students could be a major predictor of their school performance. Previous literature concerning school performance of military children is  either  military three  inconsistent milieu  is  or nonexistent.  related  environmental  assignment  to  In order to  educational  factors  determine  attainment, the  (geographic  mobility,  whether  present  father  or not  study  the  identified  absence  due  to  and military status) which may be related to reading comprehension,  mathematics, written expression and self-concept  It has been  stated that  of military adolescents.  military children, whose fathers  are absent due  to  assignment, often have problems in school  (Margiotta, 1978; Rosenfeld, Rosenstein  & Raab,  (1985) suggested  1973;  Yeatman, 1981). Staresnick  family separation due to military assignment related, than that  of  absence was  found to  performance  not  geographic  variables  nor  be to  children's  the  effects  of  may be as related as, if not more  mobility. However, in the significantly  that  related  to  self-concept.  any  present  study, father  of  three  the  Father absence  school  has  been  found to have a stronger relationship with school performance for boys than for. girls  (Cortner, 1966;  Lynn  findings in the present  & Sawrey,  1959). This  investigation.  63  too  is  not  supported  by  the  The  results  tend to  dramatic consequence 1981;  Ford,  1979;  support the  for the  Smith, 1975;  broader and more flexible to  be  creative  present  study  school  and  notion that  performance of  Stanley,  perception of  proficient  in  life  of  the  mobility is  of  no  military students (Brantley,  1983). Possibly,  mobility  allows  for a  life. This may increase students' ability  school.  cast doubt on research that  major problem in the  geographic  The  non  significant  states that  military student  findings  geographic  (Cope, 1984;  in  the  mobility is a Landman,  1980;  Morin, 1986; Shaw, 1979).  Clearly, a mobile population puts work  load upon teachers  greater  demands  in terms  of  effort  and administrators. It seems, on the whole,  working with military students seem to have been  and  educators  able to assist them  in their  adjustments to the many schools they have attended.  Current academic study  knowledge  achievement  pertaining  performance  do  study is consistent self-concept  that  socioeconomic  (Landman, 1980;  to not  suggests  the  Oldaker,  relationship  coincide  with  is  linked  1970). However, findings  between  that  status  military  conclusion.  status  The finding  with  in this  and  school  in the  present  with that of Smith (1975) who found no relationship between  and father's military status in Europe.  Researchers  have  concluded  that  female  school  performance  is  more  predictable than male school performance (Grady, 1966; O'Connell, 1981). Although intercorrelations between the  were  not  achievement  for  males  the  correlations  significant variables  than for females. between  previous  findings  the  present  and cognitive  study,  ability were  Upon partial ling out the effect  the  achievement  considerably. As long as cognitive support  in  of  measures  for  of  both  the  relationships  somewhat  weaker  cognitive  ability,  genders  dropped  ability remains, the current study appears to  Grady  (1966)  64  and  O'Connell  (1981),  but  when  cognitive  ability is partial led out, it appears to be the males whose performance  is more predictable.  In addition, the adolescent  study  sought  to  determine  difference  between the self-concept and  the  norming  Canadian military  of  research  that  that  showed  show that there is no significant  and written expression  samples  similar to the findings  for  each  of  military  and  mathematics  means  This  difference  not  tends to  in  school  military grade ten  published  nonmilitary  (Smith, 1975). However, for males do  the  of  tests.  This  is  Hand (1969) and Strickland (1971), and disagrees with  self-concept  sample.  the  sample was similar to the samples employed in the standardization of  the instruments used in this study. The results  students  whether  fall  agree  within  with  the  between  are  similar  in  only, reading comprehension and  confidence  researchers  performance  students  who  limits  of  the  there  is  a  state  American  military  and  norming significant  nonmilitary  students (Gibson, 1968). It may be that living within the military milieu may have certain advantages  The research  for an adolescent  sample  (both males  of  the  beyond  the  upper limit, indicating that  be  sample academic  expected.  mediates  It  for  and females) was  interval  would  norms  male.  could  between  performance.  cognitive  be the  Perhaps  that  their  improve  school when  performance  cognitive  ability  the  The research research  higher  relationship better  whatever negative effects geographic on  ability.  and was  outside  sample  cognitive of  ability  sample  ability  the  confidence  means  scored  environmental  made  the  of  were  higher than the  research  variables  subjects  cope  and with  mobility and father absence might have had self-concept. partialled  rendering this interpretation only a speculation.  65  In out,  fact, but  the none  correlations were  did  significant,  Conclusions  5.1.2  Since the sample was  drawn from a military population, conclusions  not be generalized to the civilian tenth grade population of that  the  military  population  is  unique, the  following  should  Canada. Recognizing  interpretations  are drawn  from the findings.  Findings  on  geographic  mobility  significant  differences  found  geographic  mobility, as  defined  performance. the  of  their  may  be  the  a great  They may also come to experience normal  family  life, learning to  geographic  Military  mobility, experience  analyses  investigation,  that  exaggerated.  somewhat  data  in this  Consequently, claims  adolescent  virtue  in  were  surprising.  seem  to  does not  Lack  indicate  relate  to  mobility negatively  students, variety  of  having  of  been  that school  influences exposed  environmental  by  situations.  geographic mobility as simply a part of their  overcome  and cope  with any negative  influences  resulting from many moves by the time they reach the tenth grade (Grishaver & Raskin,  1974;  Segal,  1986).  In general,  military  students  should  individuals whose background happens  to  include geographic  any  to  facilitate  initial trauma, short-term  efforts  be  treated  as  mobility. To relieve  orientation  and adjustment  to  new educational programs and friendships would seem appropriate.  The  mean scores for the total military group were not significantly  from the published norms on written expression by  gender, it was  discovered  limits of the norming sample grade  ten  military  that the  males  potential  children seem  of  the  When stratified  did not fall within the  confidence  in reading comprehension and mathematics. to  be  higher  non-military peers. Based on these findings academic  and self-concept.  different  military  planning programs and courses  student  for these  66  in  cognitive  educators and  students.  take  ability  than  need to be aware this  into  Further,  account  their  of  the  when  5.2 Limitations of the Study  The present study has the following perceived limitations:  1) factors was  The  examination  and the  limited  to  of  academic four  relationship  achievement  major  areas:  expression, and self-concept. were not investigated  the  and self-concept  reading  provinces  study  of  comprehension,  environmental  military  dependants written  Other predictors, such as teacher and school  factors,  in this study.  involved the testing  and two  military  mathematics,  2) Although all tests were requested hours, this  between  countries. no  to be conducted on similar days and  at seven  The testing  irregularities  may  uniformity.  However,  were  information  obtained from parents, students,  military bases  in four Canadian  have  from  suffered  reported  or  and student  found.  school  a lack of Furthermore,  records may be  less than accurate, but no irregularities were noticed.  3) Although all Canadian Department of National Defence had  given  their  consent  to  the  study, two  schools  secondary schools  in Europe were  conduct the testing. This eliminated approximately 50 potential students. as  the  different  military is  regularly transfering  families, without  bases in Canada and Europe, the study sample  family  unable  However,  consultation,  could only be  to  to  assumed  to be a good reflection of adolescents in military families.  4)  The  measurement  absence  due  to  assignment'  of  predictor military  variables  status) may  further study and refinement.  67  (geographic be  limited  mobility, and  in  father  need  of  5.3 Recommendations  Based upon the  findings  of  research, policy, and education military  dependants  speculations  study, the  relating to  suggested.  The  and provided some insights  for further  the  following school  data  did  recommendations  performance lead  to  of  some  into subculture differences  for  Canadian interesting  and direction  investigations.  Attempts syndrome" members  are  the  have  does and  in  their  been  made  to  fact  exist.  It  families  are  determine is a  clear group  whether from  or not  the  isolated  the  literature  from  the  "military life that  military  mainstream  of  Canadian civilian society. How the possible effects of such a life, if any, can be effectively  measured is an important topic for further investigation.  What this study did reveal through the review of the literature and its own data  analysis  knowledge  is  and  a need  understanding  school  performance.  within  the  relationships  of  which  Researchers exist  further  between  may  such  expression help  the  large  categories  and self-concept researcher  to  be  on  account  for  wish  to  also  the  and  relationship  should  would  research of  (Schofer, as  the  to  contribute  military  identifying additional  predictor  in  comprehension,  to  school  school or  mathematics,  not  subjects  1973). As well, it seems desireable  reading  the  variables  whether  and other  to  subculture  variation  determine  military environment  such as history and geography break  study  the  The emphasis  environment  performance.  for  to  written  down into a number of skills and subskills so as to  make  comparisons  unique population. Moreover, skill  level  and generalizations  pertaining to  this  data would have clearer implications for  modifying instructional practices.  68  As needed  this  utilized only adolescents, replication of  to evaluate  environment children study  study  at  lower  are more  of  the relationship between school developmental  vulnerable  to  the  military adolescents, witH  author regards the geographic  stages  or  upsets of  this  investigation  is  performance and the military  ages.  It  may  military life.  a larger sample  be  that  younger  In addition, further  size, might  be  useful. The  mobility and father absence variables as important  elements in future research in this area.  The present parents  of  study points to the need to inform administrators, teachers and  military students that there  between geographic  appears to  mobility and school  be no significant  achievement  relationship  in mathematics, reading and  written comprehension. Geographic mobility should not be made a scapegoat for student failures (Misner, 1973). However, this does not alter the fact that entering a  new  school  is  a difficult  experience  for  many  students,  should continue to make the transition period as pleasant as  Both teachers  and parents  should be  informed of  the  and  every  effort  possible.  research  findings  on  the relationship between geographical mobility and school achievement.  If parents  and  to  teachers  are  aware  that  geographic  mobility  appears  achievement, time could be spent on the advantages  unrelated  school  of a move rather than being  concerned with a problem which very well may not exist.  Also, the number of siblings in the family may be statistically controlled to determine  if the availability of  ready-made  peers mitigates  possible negative effects of geographic mobility on the  A  study  is  needed  of  how  students  adjust  to  some or all of  student.  the  absence  of  father at different ages and at different stages of their development. of  adjusting  to  the  strains  of  numerous  69  separations  the  and  reunions  a military The effects should  be  studied.  Father absence  is  a  highly  complex  variable  whose  impact  must  be  carefully examined.  Knowledge about the education of military students is essential  to challenge,  confirm, or alter existing military regulations, policies, practices, and programming on  behalf  parents,  of  military  students  understand  and  and  disadvantages.  help  school-age school  dependants.  personnel  military  is  children  communication to  with  enable their  between  educators  to  advantages  and  It would be useful to study the effectiveness of school programs  Knowledge men  needed  cope  designed to help military children, especially  young  Close  of  this  and women  study  in the counselling area.  may make the  service  (recruitment) and assist  career  in the  more attractive  area  of  to  retention. The  relationship between family concerns and retention of military personnel has been an issue (Lamerson & Catano, 1987).  A  longtitudinal study  Department  of  of  the  National Defence  achievement Schools  of  after  former students  graduation  from  of  high  Canadian school  is  needed. Such a study would assist those with the responsibility for the education of  dependent  children  in  determining  if  they  have  been  successful  in  their  endeavours.  5.4 Summary  in sum, the three Canadian military environmental factors investigated study  were  not  comprehension, adolescents. any  negative  found  to  mathematics,  Educationally, the consequences  be  related  written present of  to  the  expression, system  geographic  70  school  performance  self-concept)  appears mobility,  to  of  sufficiently  father  absence  in this (reading military  overcome due  to  assignment ability  helps  and them  father's to  cope  military with  status. the  Perhaps  upsets  71  of  the  military  students' life.  better  cognitive  REFERENCES  American  Psychological  psychological  Anderson,  L. 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(Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University, 1966). Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, 1015A. (University Microfilm No. 69-15,146). Ford, J.P. (1979). The perceived effect of mobility on the emotional adjustment of junior high school students in a selected Doddseur community. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International, 39, 6425A.  Gabower,  G. (1960).  Social  Behavior  problems  of  children  in Navy  officers'  families.  Casework, 41(4), 177-184.  Gallagher, H.B. (1965). A study of mobility of pupils in relation to achievement, grade 6, Anderson, Indiana Public Schools, 1963-1964. (Doctoral dissertation, Ball State Teachers' College, Muncie, Indiana, 1965). Dissertation Abstracts, 26, 3107A. (University Microfilms No. 65-09,532) Gibson, O.R. (1968). The effect of geographic mobility on student achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts, 29, 59A. 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(University Microfilms No. 66-02,935)  Greene, J.E., & Daughtry, S.L (1961). Factors Journal of Educational Sociology, 36-40. Grishaver, M., & Raskin, B. (1974). Helping new 30-32. Hackett, J. (1969). The armed forces. society. London: Constable.  associated  kids feel  In C. Rhodes  with  school  mobility.  at home. Learning, 3,  (Ed.) Authority in a changing  Hand, C.R. (1969) A comparison of permanent pupils and transient military pupils in grades 4, 5, and 6 in relation to mathematical mastery. (Doctoral dissertation, Boston University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, 207A. (University Microfilms No. 69-07,810) Hatmaker, R.L. (1977). A comparative study of the self-esteem and behavioral adjustment of geographically mobile and non-mobile fifth- and sixth-grade school children. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 6012A. Hillenbrand, E.D. (1976). Father Coordinator, 25, 451-458.  absence  in  military  families.  The  Family  Hoffman, M.L. (1960). Power assertion by the parent and its impact on the child. Child Development, 31, 129-143. Holcombe, B.M. (1969). A study of the relationship between student mobility and achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, 2253A. (University Microfilms No. 69-20,108). Holtzhauer, J.W., Barrieau, A.S., Meller, G.A., & Barr, J. (1985). Department of National Defence program evaluation division. Ottawa: National Defence Headquarters. Hunter, E. (1982). Marriage in limbo. Naval Institute Proceedings, 108(71, 27-32. Hunter, E.J., & Nice, D.S. (1978). Children of military families: A part and yet apart. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Jones, S. (1973). Geographic mobility as seen by the wife Marriage and the Family, 35(21, 210-218.  75  and mother. Journal of  R.C. (1973). Issues in the residential personnel. Child Welfare, 52, 26-32.  Keller,  Kenny,  J. (1967). Academy  Khan,  S.B. (1969). Educational  Khan,  S.B. (1973).  Khleif,  in the  The child  of Child  Psychiatry,  Affective Psychology,  treatment  military  of  community.  children of military  Journal  of  American  6, 51-63.  correlates  of  academic  Journal  achievement.  in predictability  Sex differences  Measurement  and Evaluation  in Guidance,  B.B. (1970).  The schooling  careers  of  of  academic  achievement.  6, 88-92. military  dependents:  A  sociocultural  study. Unpublished paper, University of New Hampshire, Durham. Document Reproduction Service No. ED 044 756) King, E.M. (1982). Canadian  of  60, 216-221.  Tests  of Basic  Skills  - revised.  (ERIC  Don Mills, Ontario: T.  Nelson & Sons. Knitter, C.L. (1986). The difficulty of separation and reunion on trident submarine families. (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 669A. (University Microfilms No. DA86-07190) Kroger, J.E. (1977). Residential mobility and self-concept in adolescence. dissertation, The Florida State University, 1977). Dissertation International, 38, 2666A. (University Microfilms No. 77-24,775). Kron, K.N. (1973). Culture University  of  shock  Kentucky,  and the transfer Dissertation  1972).  teacher.  (Doctoral  Abstracts  (Doctoral Abstracts  dissertation,  I nter national,  34,  1031A. (University Microfilms No. 73-20,600). LaGrone, D.M. (1978). The military Psychiatry, 135, 1040-1043. Lamerson,  CD., &  dual-income,  Catano, single-income,  family  V.M. (1987, and single  syndrome.  June).  American  Organizational  Canadian  Forces  Journal  attitudes personnel.  presented at the 48th Annual ' Convention of the Canadian Association, Vancouver, B.C.  of  of Paper  Psychological  Landman, J.B. (1980). The effect of mobility on reading achievement among 5th grade pupils in Clark County, Nevada. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1979). Dissertation Abstracts International, 40, 5200A. (University Microfilms No. DEM 80-05,903) Lavin,  D.E. (1965).  and Lehman,  review  The prediction  of research.  of academic  performance:  A theoretical  analysis  New York: Russell Sage Foundation.  J.L. (1964). Pupil mobility and its relationship to age, intelligence quotients and achievement. (Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, 1963). Dissertation Abstract, 24, 3608A. (University Microfilms No. 64-2,548).  76  Levine, M., Wesolowski, J . C , & Corbett, F.J. (1966). Pupil turnover and academic performance in an inner city elementary school. Psychology in the Schools, 3, 153-158. Long,  L.H. (1975). Does migration interfere with Sociology of Education, 48(3), 369-381.  children's  progress  in  school?  Long, P. (1986, December). Growing up military. Psychology Today, pp. 30-37. Lowell, R.F. (1975). The usefulness of pupil transfer migration. Growth and Change, 6(3), 38-44.  data  to  measure  intracity  Lynn, D.B., & Sawrey, W.L. (1959)., The effects of father-absence on Norwegian boys and girls. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 59, 258-262. Lyon, W.B. & Oldaker, L.L. (1967). The child, the school, & the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 37, 269-270.  military family.  MacCoby, E.E., & Jacklin, C.N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. California: Stanford University Press. Marascuilo, L.A., & Levin, J.R. (1983). Multivariate statistics in the Social Sciences: A researcher's guide. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. Margiotta, F.D. (1978). The changing world Colorado: Westview Press. Marsh,  of  the  American  military.  Boulder,  R. (1971). Family disruption during the moving process. (Doctoral dissertation, Brandus University, 1970). Dissertation Abstracts International, 31, 4275A. (University Microfilms No. 71-3240)  Mclntire, W.G., & Drummond, R.J. (1977). Familial and social role perceptions of children raised in military families, pp. 15-24. In E.J. Hunter & D.S. Nice (Eds.), Children of military families: A part and yet apart (pp.15-24). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. McKain, J.L. (1973). Relocation in the military: Alienation and family Journal of Marriage and the family. 35, 205-209.  problems.  Medders, J.L. (1973). Problems related to student mobility in elementary and secondary schools United States Dependent Schools, European area. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International, 33, 4017A. (University Microfilms No. 73-4922) Misner, M.S. (1973). The effect of frequent geographic mobility on the reading achievement of students in a military community. (Doctoral dissertation. University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, 1972). Dissertation Abstracts International, 32, 862B. (University Microfilms No. 73-17,330).  77  Mitchell, J.E. (1980). A study of factors related to achievement in ninth grade students of military and non-military background in the Groton Public School System. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1979). Dissertation  Abstracts  I nter national,  40, 5274A.  (University  Microfilms  No.  80-08,681) Mittenzwei, J.F. (1985). The effects of mobility on academic self-esteem and locus of control. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of South Carolina, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 1834A. (University Microfilms No. DA85-18.041) Morin,  R. (1986). DND Dependants' Headquarters.  Schools,  Moyers,  P.N. (1985). The administrative implications concerning the effect of mobility upon the academic achievement and attitudes of students in an elementary school. (D.d., Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts I nter national, 46, 2153A. (University Microfilms No. DA85-21,340)  Nice, D.S. (1978). The androgynous wife D.S.  Nice  (Eds.),  Children  of  1921-1983.  Ottawa: National  Defence  and the military child. In E.J. Hunter & military  families:  A  part  and yet  apart  (pp.25-37). Washington, D . C : US Government Printing Office. O'Connell, P.V. (1981). The effect of mobility on selected personality characteristics of ninth and twelfth grade military dependents. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts I nter national, 42, 2578A. (University Microfilms No. 81-24,231) Oldaker, L.L. (1970). The relationship of frequent father absence and hazardous duty assignment of father to school achievement of military dependent children in elementary grades 2, 4, and 6. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts I nter national, 30, 5206A. (University Microfilms No. AAD70-10,224. Ontario Ministry of Education. (1985). Drop-out statistics. Unpublished raw data. Partin, G.R. (1967). A survey of the effect of mobility on dependant military children. (Doctoral dissertation, The American University, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts, 28, 971A. (University Microfilms No. 67-10727). Pedhazur,  E.J. (1982).  prediction,  Multiple  2nd Edition.  regression  Piers, E., & Harris, D. (1984). Manual  Scale  (revised).  in  behavioral  research:  Explanation  and  New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. for the Piers-Harris  Children's  Self-Concept  Nashville, Tennessee: Counselor Recordings and Tests.  Pretzlaff, R.E. (1970). The relationship of the social studies understandings, (Doctoral dissertion, Wayne State International, 36, 3648A. (University  78  transiency and geographic mobility to attitudes and skills of sixth graders. University, 1969). Dissertation Abstracts Microfilms No. 70-3,440).  Privitera, C.R. (1977). The preschool  child and the military family, pp.5-7.  (Eds.), Children  Hunter & D.S. Nice  of military  families:  A part  In E.J. and  yet  apart. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Rainey, M.C. (1977). Language learnings of internationally mobile military youth: Some third culture comparisons. In E. Hunter & Nice (Eds.), Children of military  families:  A part and yet apart (pp. 83-100). Washington, D.C.: U.S.  Government Printing Office. Rivlin,  L.G. (1982).  Group  neighbourhood. Journal  Rogers,  membership of Social  and  E. (1982). Racial/culture attitudes schools. (Doctoral dissertation, Dissertation  Abstracts  place  meanings  in  an  urban  Issues, 38(3), 75-93.  in adolescent children in overseas Michigan State University, 1981).  International,  42, 3541 A.  (University  Microfilms  No.  82-02501). Rosenfeld, J.M., Rosenstein, E., & Raab, M. (1973). Sailor families: The nature and effects of one kind of father absence. Child Welfare, 52(I), 33-44. Rossi,  R.J., & Gilmartin, K.J. (1979). Non-test performance. The Clearing House, 53, 90-96.  Rubin, Z. (1980). Children's  friendships.  Sackett, E.B. (1935). The effect Elementary  Samson,  indicators  of  Bath, England: The Pittman Press.  of moving on the educational status of children.  School Journal,  35, 517-526.  G.J. (1969). A study of the relationship of student mobility to achievement, study methods and attitudes of tenth grade students in the Chicopee, Massachusetts school system. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts, 29, 2497A. (University Microfilms No. 69-02180)  Schofer, J.P. (1973). Mobility citizenship: An emergency programes. Intellect, 101, 508-509,512. Segal, M.W. (1986). The military and the family Forces and Society,  Review  concept for social studies  as greedy  institutions.  Armed  13, 9-38.  Shade, B.J. (1982). Afro-American of Educational  cognitive  style:  A variable in school  success.  Research, 52, 219-244.  Shavelson, R.J., Hubner, J.J., & Stanton, G.C. (1976). Self-concept: construct interpretations. Review  Shaw,  educational  J.A. (1979). Adolescents Psychiatry, 7, 191-198.  of Educational  in the  79  mobile  Validation of  Research, 46(3), 407-441.  military  community.  Adolescent  Shaw,  J.A. Duffy, J.C., & Privitera, CR. (1978). The military child: A developmental perspective. In E.J. Hunter & D. Nice (Eds.), Children of military  families:  A part and yet apart  (pp.  1-14)  Washington, D . C : U.S.  Government Printing Office. Shreve, E.E. (1973). A critical analysis and evaluation of evidence regarding the reliability and validity of four selected measures of self-concept. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 1973). Dissertation Abstracts International, 34, 625A. (University Microfilms No. 73-18,841). Smith, D.L. (1975). An analysis of .the relationship of selected variables of the self-concept of military dependent children. (Doctoral dissertation, The George Washington University, 1975). Dissertation Abstracts International, 36, 2647A. (University Microfilms No. DCJ75-23.415. Smith, M. (1943). Some relationships between intelligence American  Snipes,  Sociological  and geographic mobility.  Review, 8, 657-666.  W.T. (1964). An analysis of the relationship of mobility to pupil achievement in reading, arithmetic and language in selected Georgia Elementary Schools. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, 1964). Dissertion Abstracts, 25, 2819A. (University Microfilms No. 64-11,721).  Snyder, J.M. (1969). Mobile students. Today's Education, 58(4), 26. SPSSX user's guide  (2nd ed.). (1986). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.  Stafford, R.L. (1968). Mobility and its effect upon student values, social integration, and interpersonal orientation. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1968). Dissertation Abstracts, 29, 2079A. (University Microfilms No. 68-17,601). Stanley,  P.M. (1983). problems of Denver, 1983). Microfilms No.  Mobility and social attitudes: Personal, social and peer military dependents. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dissertation Abstracts I nter national, 44, 1340A. (University DA83-21.078)  Staresnick, P.L. (1985). Repetitious geographic relocation and locus of control perception of children of army personnel. (Doctoral Dissertation, The Catholic University of America, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 3490A. (University Microfilms No. 85-26,958) Strickland, R.C (1971). Mobility and achievement of selected dependent junior high school pupils in Germany. (Doctoral dissertation, Miami University, 1970). Dissertation  Abstracts  International,  32,  144A.  (University  Microfilms  No.  71-16,924) Swanson, L. (1961). An investigation of the relationship between selected characteristics of junior high school children and the number of schools attended. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1961). Dissertation Abstracts, 22, 2255A. (University Microfilms No. 61-05,765)  80  Vincent,  J.D. (1977). The reported differences in self-concept of junior high school pupils with regard to permanence and mobility families. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, 1977). Dissertation Abstracts International, 38, 1869A. (University Microfilms No. 77-22,394)  Walberg,  H.J. (1969).  Journal  Social  of Educational  environment Psychology,  as a mediator  of classroom  learning.  60, 443-448.  Whalen, T.E., & Fried, M.A. (1973). Geographic mobility and its effect on student achievement. Journal  of Educational  Research, 67(4), 163-165.  Wooster, A.D., & Harris, G. (1972). Concepts of self and others service boys. Educational Research, 14(3), 195-199. Wright, E.N. (1982). Canadian Cognitive Yeatman,  G.W. (1981).  Military  Medicine,  Paternal  Abilities  separation  146, 320-322.  81  in highly mobile  Test. Toronto: Nelson Canada. and the  military  dependant  child.  APPENDIX C -  LETTERS TO TESTERS  Examiner Responsibilities Military Research Study  1.  It is important that each examiner follows the same procedures. Please read each Manual carefully before administering the tests.  2.  A participating student is one who is presently registered in the tenth grade and who's father has been in the military since the student's birth.  3.  Testing may be performed, after all parental consent forms are returned to the school office, at your and the school's convenience. Please complete all testing during the month of April, 1987, within three consecutive days, preferrably Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. Please test between 9:00 and 10:30 a.m.  4.  It is important that the students be informed by the examiner prior to testing that participation is voluntary and will not affect his/her report card or standing in class. Please read the Request for Subject Participation previous to the first testing session. If a student becomes upset during testing, you may terminate that student's test.  5.  Testing during Session I included the student information survey, the Verbal and Quantitative subtests of the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test. Session 2 begins with the Nonverbal Battery of the Canadian Cognitive Abilities Test, followed by the Written Expression subtest of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills, and The Way I Feel About Myself (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale). Session 3 concludes the testing with the Reading Comprehension and Mathematics subtests of the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills. A five minute recess between the administration of tests within each session should take place.  6.  Inquire of the principal what s/he wishes the nonparticipating students to pursue during the three testing sessions.  7.  Please have participating students complete all information on the front of each protocol.  8.  There are extra protocols in each envelope. These are available in the event of a mistake.  9.  If any student appears to have problems which you feel might alter the score(s), please state the student's name and situation.  10.  All test materials should be returned to the researcher by the end of April, 1987.  11.  After testing, please thank the students, on my behalf.  85  Testing Materials  Military  Research Study  Each Student 1. 2.  sharpened pencil with eraser scratch paper  Student  1.  I nformation  To be answered prior to Session I tests  Canadian Cognitive  1. 2.  Tests of Basic  Test  Skills  Test booklet, High School Multilevel Answer sheet for Level 16  The Way I Feel  1.  Abilities  Test booklet, Multilevel Edition, Levels A - H , Form 3. Answer sheet for Level G.  Canadian  1. 2.  Survey  About Myself  (Piers-Harris  Test booklet (to be written upon).  87  Edition, Levels 15-18, Form 5.  Children's  Self-Concept  Scale)  APPENDIX D -  PARENT INFORMATION/CONSENT SURVEY  Box 972 W.H. Gage 5959 Student Union Mall Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1K2 2 March 30, 1987  Dear Parents/Guardians,  As a member of a military family, your child is repeatly exposed to new experiences to which s/he must adapt. The relationship of this unique lifestyle to academic achievement and self-concept has been little researched. Like all educational systems, the Canadian military is interested and concerned in the quality of its educational programs, and attempts to continuously improve them. This research project is being undertaken as a doctoral dissertation in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at the University of British Columbia. Permission to conduct this study has been granted by Mr. Bussiere, Director General, Dependants Education Programs, Department of National Defence; the Base Commander, Board of Education, as well as the principal of your child's secondary school, . The project requests the cooperation of all grade ten students attending DND schools in Canada and Europe. Your child in grade ten is a possible participant of this research. For the study to be meaningful, it is very important that each of the students be allowed to participate. If you and your child agree to participate, s/he will be asked to take part in three group testing sessions of approximately one hour and ten minutes on three consecutive days. The testing will be done during school hours by a qualified educator and at the convenience of the teacher(s) and school during the month of April. This type of testing is common practice in schools and is usually experienced as interesting and enjoyable by the students involved. All tests are school tests used in Canadian schools. The results of the tests will be strictly confidential. All identifying marks will be removed and future identification of individuals will not be possible. Tests will be returned to the University of British Columbia for coding and analysis. The purpose is not to check any one child's performance, but to obtain data on a large group of grade ten military students. No individual scores will be identified in the research paper. As well, your child's school records are needed for information on the number and location of schools previously attended. If I may use this information, please indicate immediately following the parent consent form. Research results will provide useful information to all professionals and the military involved in the education of military dependants. I am asking for your cooperation in expanding our understanding of the relationship of military life on the academic achievement and self-concept of military students. Attached is a permission slip for you to sign which allows the administration of these school tests to your child. An information survey is also attached for you, the parents, to complete and return to your child's school.  88  Parental Permission Form Military  Research Study  Code Number:  1. Name of student: 2. Date:  3. Name of school:  I agree to allow my child to participate in the military research study. I am aware that this will involve three group testing sessions of approximately one hour each, conducted on separate days. I understand that confidentiality of test results will be maintained and that no individual scores will be released. Only group results will be reported. School records will be used only for information regarding the schools my child has attended. I also understand that participation in this project is voluntary and may be terminated at any time.  Signature of Parent/Guardian My child's records may /may not be used by obtain information regarding the schools attended by my child.  the  secretary  to  If you have given your consent, your assistance in providing information to the questions on the following pages, would be very helpful in making this a meaningful study.  I do not wish my child to participate in the military research study.  Signature of Parent/Guardian Please return the completed Parent Consent Form, denied consent, with your child to the school office. Thank you very much.  90  whether you have given or  Parental Information Survey Military  Research Study  Code Number:  .  PLEASE PRINT Name of tenth grade child: (first)  (surname)  __.  Your assistance in providing the following information would be greatfully appreciated. If possible, we request that the mother of the participating subject answer the questions, in consultation with the father. Answer to the best of your ability. Return the completed Parental Information Survey, in the envelope provided, to the school office. Please seal the envelope to ensure confidentiality.  1.  Military personnel's  rank:  (If both parents in the service, state both ranks please) Father:  .  Mother: 2.  \  .  Years of active service: (where applicable) Father:  .  Mother: 3.  .  Were you a military child? (please check) Father: Yes Mother: Yes  4.  . No  .  . No  .  Geographic mobility: Please  state  each  time  you moved residence  was born until first registered  since  participating  child  in school, including the age of the child at  each move. Place of birth: Location  the  . Province  91  .  a.  Date (month/year): Location:  Age at move: b.  Date (month/year): Location:  c.  •  . .  Country  .  Province  .  Country  .  Province  .  Country  Province  .  Country  Province  .  Country  Province  .  Country  .  Date (month/year): Location:  Province  .  City/base  Age at move:  .  .  Date (month/year): Location:  d.  .  City/base  Age at move:  Country  Province  City/base  .  City/base  Age at move: e.  Date (month/year): Location:  City/base  Age at move: f.  Date (month/year): Location:  City/base  Age at move: g.  Date (month/year): Location:  City/base  '  92  Age at move: h.  .  Date (month/year): Location:  .  City/base  .  Province  .  Country  Age at move: Comments (if any)  5.  Father abscence due to military assignment: During the years since the birth of the above names child, please state the times the military member was absent from the home in line of duty (to the best of your ability). a.  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  Assignment: b.  . Province  .  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  Assignment: c.  . Country  . Province  . Country  .  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  . Province  93  . Country  Assignment: Date left (month/year): Date returned (month/year):. Destination: city/base  . Province  Country  Province  Country  Province  Country  Assignment: Date left  (month/year):  Date returned (month/year):_ Destination: city/base  Assignment: f.  Date left  (month/year):  Date returned (month/year):_ Destination: city/base  Assignment: g.  •  Date left (month/year):  •  Date returned (month/year):  _.  Destination: city/base  Assignment: h.  . Province  . Country  ..  Date left (month/year):  _•  Date returned (month/year):__  .  Destination: city/base  • Province  Assignment:'  94  . Country  i.  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  Assignment: j.  _ _ . Province  .  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  Assignment: k.  . Country  . Province  . Country  .  Date left (month/year):  .  Date returned (month/year):  .  Destination: city/base  _ _ . Province ;  Assignment: Comments (if any)  Thank you very much.  95  . Country  APPENDIX  STUDENT  INFORMATION  Number:  E -  STUDENT  SURVEY  INFORMATION  Military  SURVEY  Research  Study  Code  .  1.  Name: (first)  . (last)  .  2.  Age:  3.  Gender (please check)  4.  Name of School:  5.  Geographic Mobility: Please state, to the best of your ability, the following  .(years) Male  Female. .  :  information about each school you have been registered in, beginning with your primary education (i.e. kindergarten). a.  Name of School  _.  Location: city/base  Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  b.  . exit_ . exit  c.  Province . exit  .  Country  .  .  . exit_  .  Name of School Location: city/base  Country  .  _.  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  .  .  Name of School Location: city/base  Country  _• Province  96  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit_ . exit  Name of School Province.  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  Country  . exit.  Name of School province,  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  f.  Country  . exit.  Name of School province,  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  _Country  . exit  Name of School _Province_  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  Country  . exit.  Name of School Province,  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit.  97  Country  Name of School Location: city/base  Province.  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit . exit  Name of School Location: city/base  Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry_  . exit . exit  Name of School Location: city/base  Province.  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit . exit  Name of School Location: city/base  Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit . exit_  Name of School Location: city/base  Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit . exit  98  APPENDIX F -  STUDENT INFORMATION  SURVEY  Military Research Study 1.  Name: (first)_  2.  School:  3.  Location: city/base  STUDENT RECORDS  Code Number: . (last)  ;  .  .  • Province  Country  .  4. . Please state the dates .school, location and grade at entry and exit of above named child from his/her school records, beginning with a.  Name of School Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  b.  . exit . exit  Country  .  Country  .  .  Province  Date:(month/year) entry  . exit  .  . exit  .  Name of School  .  Location: city/base  Province  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  .  __.  Location: city/base  c.  Country .  ;  Name of School  Grade: entry  kindergarten.  .  Location: city/base  . exit . exit  . .  99  the  Name of School Province,  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  Country  _• exit.  Name of School Province,  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  _Country  . exit.  Name of School Province.  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  Country  • exit.  Name of School Province.  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  Country  • exit.  Name of School Province.  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  .Country  _• exit.  Name of School Location: city/base  Province  100  .Country  Date-(month/year) entry Grade: entry  j.  . exit . exit  Name of School .Province.  Location: city/base Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  k.  .Country  . exit . exit.  Name of School .Province.  Location: city/base Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  .Country  . exit . exit.  Name of School Province.  Location: city/base Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  m.  .Country  . exit . exit.  Name of School .Province.  Location: city/base  . exit  Date:(month/year) entry Grade: entry  . exit.  101  .Country  APPENDIX G -  Military Research  INFORMAL  INTERVIEWS  Study  Name:  .  Position:  .  1.  In your opinion, what effect has military life had upon your child?  2.  In  your  opinion,  what  effect  has  military  life  had  upon  your  child's  academic achievement? 3.  In your  opinion, what  effect  has  military  life  had  upon  your  child's  self  concept? 4.  In your opinion, what have been the greatest stresses of  military life upon  your child? 5.  In your opinion, how do military children cope with these stresses?  102  

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