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The efficacy of the Test of cognitive skills in screening for special education services Higgins, Edith 1989

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THE EFFICACY OF THE TEST OF COGNITIVE S K I L L S IN SCREENING FOR S P E C I A L EDUCATION SERVICES By EDITH HIGGINS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y & S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J u n e 1989 0 E d i t h H i g g i n s , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s ( T C S ) , and t h e v a l i d i t y o f T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i 1 1 s / C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t (CAT) d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (WISC-R) F u l l S c a l e 10 and t h e TCS C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x was d e t e r m i n e d , a s w e l l a s t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n WISC-R and TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s . S u b t e s t s c a t t e r on t h e TCS was a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f i t r e v e a l e d any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s among s t u d e n t s . TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s were e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g " s i g n i f i c a n t " d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s were i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s ( e . g . r e f e r r a l t o L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e ) a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e TCS and TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a r e n o t v a l i d s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . A m o d e r a t e l y low c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .63) was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R and TCS, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e two t e s t s s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a s u r i n g t h e same a s p e c t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s d i d n o t i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d f o r L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e . TCS s u b t e s t p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d were n o t d i a g n o s t i c a 1 1 y u s e f u l . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y w h i c h may have a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r , a l o n g w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES i v L I S T OF FIGURES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 1 P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y . . . . . 6 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW 8 S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t i n g 9 A b i l i t y T e s t i n g 12 A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t i n g 19 D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e s 23 CHAPTER I I I RESEARCH PROBLEM 28 L o c a l T e s t i n g P r o g r a m s and t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d S t u d e n t s : The Case o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 28 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 35 CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY 36 D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y 36 I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 36 Samp l i n g 36 D e s i g n and A n a l y s i s 37 CHAPTER V RESULTS 38 CHAPTER VI INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS AND SUMMARY 65 Summary 72 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 72 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e 73 R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 74 C o n c l u s i o n 74 REFERENCES 75 i i i L I S T OF TABLES Page 1. Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r WISC-R S c a l e s and TCS C S I : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 39 2. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among WISC-R and TCS I n d i c e s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 40 3. F r e q u e n c i e s o f WISC-R FSIQ and TCS CSI S c o r e D i f f e r e n c e s 45 4. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among WISC-R S u b t e s t s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3. 47 5. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Among TCS S u b t e s t s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 47 6. C o r r e l a t i o n s Between WISC-R and TCS S u b t e s t s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 49 7. Summary o f C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n t h e WISC-R and TCS 50 8. P e r c e n t o f S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3 and 5 D i s c r e p a n t and N o n - D i s c r e p a n t on CAT S u b t e s t s and T o t a l T e s t S c o r e s and R e f e r r e d and N o n - R e f e r r e d 53 9. P e r c e n t o f S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3 and 5 D i s c r e p a n t and N o n - D i s c r e p a n t on CAT T o t a l T e s t S c o r e and R e f e r r e d and R e f e r r e d and N o n - R e f e r r e d 53 10. T e s t s o f D i f f e r e n c e s Among C l u s t e r s : ANOVA's o f WISC-R and TCS S c a l e s 55 11. P e r c e n t o f L e v e l 1 S t u d e n t s i n C l u s t e r s 56 12. Mean TCS S c a l e S c o r e s , by C l u s t e r 56 13. Mean WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r . . . . . . . 60 14. Mean WISC-R P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r . . . . 60 15. Mean WISC-R F u l l S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r 61 16. C l u s t e r M e m b e r s h i p C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 61 i v L I S T OF FIGURES Page 1. S c a t t e r g r a m f o r A s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n TCS: C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x ( L e v e l 2/3) and WISC-R F u l l S c a l e IQ 42 2. C a s e P r o f i l e s where t h e TCS CSI u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e WISC-R 43 3. C a s e P r o f i l e s where t h e TCS CSI o v e r e s t i m a t e s t h e WISC-R 44 4. C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean TCS S c o r e s 57 5. C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean WISC-R V e r b a l S c o r e s 58 6. C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean WISC-R P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s . . . 59 7. C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean TCS/CSI and WISC-R IQ S c o r e s 62 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d s i n c e r e l y l i k e t o t h a n k : My t h e s i s a d v i s e r , Dr. R o b e r t C o n r y , f o r h i s v a l u a b l e a d v i c e a n d g u i d a n c e . Dr. J u l i a n n e C o n r y and Dr. P e r r y L e s l i e f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and s u g g e s t i o n s . C o u r t e n a y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t f o r a l l o w i n g me a c c e s s t o s c h o o l r e c o r d s . v i 1 CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n and B a c k g r o u n d " I s he l a z y ? " " I s she a s l o w l e a r n e r ? " "Why c a n ' t he l e a r n l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h e c l a s s ? " a r e q u e s t i o n s t e a c h e r s f r e q u e n t l y a s k when r e f e r r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r a s s e s s m e n t . The u n i q u e q u a l i t i e s and a b i l i t i e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e e a c h o f us a s an i n d i v i d u a l a l s o d e t e r m i n e o u r s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l . Not e v e r y o n e s u c c e e d s t o t h e same d e g r e e i n t e r m s o f e d u c a t i o n a l m o d e l s w h i c h t y p i c a l l y p r e s c r i b e m a s t e r y o f s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g ( p h o n i c s and c o m p r e h e n s i o n ) , s p e l l i n g , w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e , and c o m p u t a t i o n a s p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r p r o g r e s s . I n 1905 A l f r e d B i n e t and T h e o d o r e S i m o n d e v e l o p e d a t e s t i n t e n d e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h s t u d e n t s w i t h p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f r o m o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e P a r i s s c h o o l s y s t e m . S i n c e t h e n , t h e u s e o f t e s t s t o i d e n t i f y , s e l e c t , e v a l u a t e , and d i a g n o s e has become i n t e g r a l , t o d e c i s i o n m a k i n g i n b o t h r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . The u s e o f t e s t r e s u l t s t o make p l a c e m e n t and p r o g r a m m i n g d e c i s i o n s makes i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t e s t s u s e d a r e a p p r o p r i a t e and v a l i d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s i n t e n d e d . E d u c a t o r s u s e t e s t s t o m e a s u r e a v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t b e h a v i o u r s . A c h i e v e m e n t - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o u r s s a m p l e d by t e s t s c a n r a n g e f r o m i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s o u n d - s y m b o l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s f o r t h e l e t t e r s o f t h e a l p h a b e t t o t h e u s e o f a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s r e q u i r e d by c e r t a i n i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s u b t e s t s . T e s t s a r e u s e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o m e a s u r e a s t u d e n t ' s s k i l l d e v e l o p m e n t i n c o n t e n t a r e a s and t o p r e d i c t how w e l l a s t u d e n t c a n be e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m i n t h o s e c o n t e n t a r e a s . I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t e s t s i s u s e d a l o n g w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n 2 and f r o m c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e m e a s u r e s t o a s s e s s e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I n 1983 B e n n e t t s u m m a r i z e d c u r r e n t k n o w l e d g e a s i t r e l a t e d t o what he f e l t were t h e "... t h r e e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a s s e s s m e n t : q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l , a d e q u a t e t o o l s , and f a i r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n " ( p . 1 1 0 ) . In t h i s a r t i c l e he d i s c u s s e d t h e t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s u s e d w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t most t e s t p u b l i s h e r s p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y b a s e d on t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n and n o t on t h e e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s b e i n g t e s t e d . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f u s i n g most s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s w i t h s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s w o u l d r e m a i n q u e s t i o n a b l e u n t i l more t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r s p e c i f i c u s e w i t h t h e s e g r o u p s c o u l d be p r o v i d e d . I n a s t u d y o f 27 a p t i t u d e and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s F u c h s e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7) f o u n d t h a t o n l y 5 o f t h e t e s t s gave s p e c i f i c p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s who had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e t e s t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t many f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t e s t s s u p p l i e d no t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r u s e w i t h h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s and u r g e d t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n be d e v e l o p e d . A n o t h e r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e u s e o f n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s has been t h a t many l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g i n t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s ; and so t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on s u c h t e s t s i s n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r a c t u a l k n o w l e d g e o r a b i l i t y ( S c r u g g s and L i f s o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . D e s p i t e c r i t i c i s m s , t e s t s and t e s t i n g c o n t i n u e t o be i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t s o f s t u d e n t a s s e s s m e n t ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . 3 S o m e t i m e s , g r o u p t e s t s a r e u s e d a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s f o r f u r t h e r a s s e s s m e n t . Group a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s t a k e l e s s t i m e t o a d m i n i s t e r and a r e l e s s c o s t l y t h a n i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s . G r oup t e s t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n , s c r e e n i n g , and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g ( S a l v i a and Y s s e l d y k e , 1 9 8 5 ) . S c o r i n g o f g r o u p t e s t s i s more o b j e c t i v e t h a n s c o r i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s ( A n a s t a s i , 1 9 8 2 ) . Group t e s t i n g , h o w e v e r , has some l i m i t a t i o n s . Use o f an i n d i v i d u a l t e s t a l l o w s t h e e x a m i n e r t o make q u a l i t a t i v e j u d g e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g a s t u d e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n , t e s t a n x i e t y , and h e a l t h w h i c h c a n n o t be made when i n t e r p r e t i n g a g r o u p t e s t s c o r e ( S a l v i a and Y s s e l d y k e , 1 9 8 5 ) . G roup i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w h i c h r e q u i r e r e a d i n g may g i v e i n a c c u r a t e l y low s c o r e s when c h i l d r e n w i t h low r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t a k e t h e t e s t ( B o r g and G a l l , 1983; Cone and W i l s o n , 1 9 8 1 ) . S t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t e n l a c k t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h r e s u l t i n l o w e r e d t e s t s c o r e s on g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s ( S c r u g g s and L i f s o n , 1 9 8 6 ) . One p u r p o s e f o r a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s i s t o d e t e r m i n e how t h e y a r e a c h i e v i n g i n s p e c i f i c a c a d e m i c a r e a s . A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s m e a s u r e s k i l l s i n a c a d e m i c a r e a s s u c h a s r e a d i n g , m a t h e m a t i c s , and s p e l l i n g . T h e i r s c o r e s h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l g o a l s have been met, what l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s t u d e n t , and a r e a s n e e d i n g r e m e d i a t i o n ( A n a s t a s i , 1 9 8 2 ) . A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c a n be g r o u p o r i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . An e x a m p l e o f a g r o u p a d m i n i s t e r e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t i s t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , o r CAT, ( C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t r e / M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . The CAT 4 m e a s u r e s a c h i e v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g , l a n g u a g e , s p e l l i n g , and m a t h e m a t i c s . R e s u l t s f r o m CAT t e s t i n g c a n be a n a l y z e d t o a s s e s s a s t u d e n t ' s a c a d e m i c p r o g r e s s compared t o o t h e r s t u d e n t s l o c a l l y and a c r o s s Canada ( C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t r e / M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n , 1982, p. 1 ) . T e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e o r c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y a r e i n t e n d e d t o s a m p l e a b r o a d e r r a n g e o f b e h a v i o u r s t h a n a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s and a r e u s e d t o a s s e s s a s t u d e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . A b i l i t y t e s t i n g i s r e g a r d e d a s v a l i d and u s e f u l f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( C a r r o l l and H o r n , 1981; Snyderman a nd Rothman, 1 9 8 7 ) . A b i l i t y t e s t s a r e u s e d a s c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s e l i g i b l e f o r s u c h s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s a s t h o s e f o r t h e g i f t e d o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d . They a r e u s e d d i a g n o s t i c a 1 1 y t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f a s t u d e n t ' s l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s . P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s a r e e x p e c t e d t o have a d e q u a t e t r a i n i n g i n t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h o o s i n g t e s t s t h a t a r e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s i n t e n d e d ( B e n n e t t , 1 9 8 3 ) . S t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d f o r a s s e s s m e n t b e c a u s e o f s u s p e c t e d e x c e p t i o n a l i t i e s s u c h a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s o r g i f t e d n e s s a r e u s u a l l y t e s t e d w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s u c h a s t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (WISC-R; W e c h s l e r , 1 9 7 4 ) . The WISC-R i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be t e c h n i c a l l y e x c e l l e n t ( B o r t n e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . I t i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t e s t f o r c h i l d r e n aged s i x t o t w e l v e ( D e t t e r m a n , 1 9 8 5 ) . The WISC-R has been shown t o be a good p r e d i c t o r o f a c h i e v e m e n t ( H a l e , 1 9 7 8 ) . The t w e l v e s u b t e s t s w h i c h 5 make up t h e V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e s o f t h e WISC-R p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n t o h e l p i n t e r p r e t i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h o s e q u a l i f i e d t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e t e s t a r e u s u a l l y a t t h e t o p of t h e i r s a l a r y s c a l e , so t h e u s e of an i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s u c h as t h e WISC-R i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g and c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y i n c a s e s where s t u d e n t s do n o t d i s p l a y t h e e x c e p t i o n a l i t y s u s p e c t e d . G r oup a d m i n i s t e r e d a b i l i t y t e s t s , s u c h a s t h e T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s , o r TCS, (CTB/McGraw-Hi 11, 1 9 8 2 ) , a r e i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e a s t u d e n t ' s a c a d e m i c p o t e n t i a l . S u c h t e s t s s a v e t i m e (one h o u r t o a d m i n i s t e r t o a w h o l e c l a s s r o o m f u l l o f s t u d e n t s ) and money com p a r e d t o i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g . The TCS c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d by a t e a c h e r i n a c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . F i v e o v e r l a p p i n g l e v e l s o f t h e t e s t c o v e r G r a d e s 2 t o 12. R e a d i n g a b i l i t y i s n e c e s s a r y t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s on L e v e l s 2 - 5 . The TCS T e s t C o o r d i n a t o r ' s Handbook and G u i d e t o I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t s c o r e s on t h e f o u r TCS s u b t e s t s c a n be u s e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s o f s t r e n g t h and w e a k n e s s ( S a l v i a and Y s s e l d y k e , 1 9 8 5 ) . A b i l i t y t e s t s , e i t h e r g r o u p o r i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d , a r e u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e s t o d e r i v e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . T h e r e has been s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c i s m o f t h e way d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a r e u s e d i n d i a g n o s i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . C r i t i c i s m s o f t h e u s e o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n c l u d e : d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h d i s c r e p a n c y model i s u s e d ( S i n c l a i r and A l e x s o n , 1 9 8 6 ) ; some d i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a e a r e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y i n c o r r e c t ( M a s t r o p i e r i , 1 9 8 7 ) ; d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e s 6 o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t g e n e r a t e d i f f e r e n t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( W i l s o n , 1 9 8 7 ) ; and d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t o c c u r i n n o r m a l a s w e l l a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d p o p u l a t i o n s ( P a r r i l l , 1 9 8 7 ) . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s ( T C S ) , and t h e v a l i d i t y o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s d e r i v e d f r o m T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s and C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t (CAT) s c o r e s , a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f g r o u p v e r s u s i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g and t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e may a f f e c t t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e TCS and TCS/CAT s c o r e s a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s . A d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g g r o u p t e s t s i n c l u d e s a v i n g s i n t i m e and money. Group t e s t s a r e u s e f u l f o r s c r e e n i n g f o r e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s - - f o r e x a m p l e , g i f t e d s t u d e n t s - - w h o m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be u n d e t e c t e d i n t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a r e g e n e r a t e d f r o m T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s and C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h u s e o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i s f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d , when u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t h e y h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s who need f u r t h e r a s s e s s m e n t . G roup t e s t s o f a b i l i t y o r a c h i e v e m e n t may n o t , h o w e v e r , be v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . S uch s t u d e n t s may have p o o r t e s t t a k i n g s k i l l s and p o o r r e a d i n g s k i l l s w h i c h a f f e c t t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . A s s u m p t i o n s 7 regarding the u s e f u l n e s s of group a b i l i t y t e s t s f o r s p e c i a l e ducation assessment should be made with c a u t i o n u n t i l e m p i r i c a l evidence demonstrates that t h e i r use i s v a l i d . 8 CHAPTER II L i t e r a t u r e Review T e s t i n g and assessment are not synonymous. Te s t s are used in s p e c i a l education as part of an assessment process. T y p i c a l l y , t e s t scores, i n f o r m a t i o n on classroom performance provided by teachers, i n f o r m a t i o n from d i r e c t classroom o b s e r v a t i o n and i n f o r m a t i o n from student and parent i n t e r v i e w s are combined and analyzed to assess a student. S a t t l e r (1988), in d i s c u s s i n g what he d e s c r i b e s as "four p i l l a r s of assessment: norm-referenced t e s t s , i n t e r v i e w s , o b s e r v a t i o n s and informal assessment" s t a t e s that h i s textbook on assessment "... i s based on the premise that norm-referenced t e s t s are i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r c l i n i c a l and psychoeducationa1 assessment" (p. 3). The f o l l o w i n g chapter focuses on the use of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s in s p e c i a l education. The s e c t i o n on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on group versus i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g , and reviews c r i t i c i s m s of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g . The s e c t i o n on a b i l i t y t e s t i n g presents a d e f i n i t i o n of a b i l i t y t e s t i n g , reviews c r i t i c i s m s and r a t i o n a l e s , and reviews the l i t e r a t u r e on the d i a g n o s t i c use of the V e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n -Revised (WISC-R). In the s e c t i o n on achievement t e s t i n g s t u d i e s d i s c u s s i n g t e s t b i a s , t e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s , and the e f f e c t of s t r a t e g y t r a i n i n g are d i s c u s s e d . Discrepancy scores and the c o n t r o v e r s y surrounding t h e i r use in determining l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s are d i s c u s s e d in the l a s t s e c t i o n . 9 Standardized T e s t i n g T e s t s may be i n d i v i d u a l l y or group administered. Advantages of i n d i v i d u a l t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c l u d e g r e a t e r t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , and op p o r t u n i t y f o r q u a l i t a t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n . Group t e s t s are considered a p p r o p r i a t e f o r scre e n i n g purposes and are e f f i c i e n t in saving time and money. Stone, Cundick, and Swanson (1988) found that r e s u l t s on a sta n d a r d i z e d group achievement t e s t , the St a n f o r d Achievement Test, were able to i d e n t i f y r e g u l a r and s p e c i a l education students in two school d i s t r i c t s . The authors recommended that group achievement t e s t r e s u l t s be used as part of an i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g process to i d e n t i f y students f o r s p e c i a l education programs. Wikoff and P a r o l i n i (1982) found that a group a b i l i t y t e s t , the Short Form Test of Academic A p t i t u d e (SFTAA), had a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n of .73 with an i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y measure, the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (WISC-R). They concluded that the r e s u l t s gave support to use of the SFTAA as a "... gross i n d i c a t o r of i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . " (p. 388). S a l v i a and Ysseldyke (1985) note that group t e s t s are u s e f u l f o r scre e n i n g purposes. However, they l i s t some l i m i t a t i o n s which apply p a r t i c u l a r l y to group a b i l i t y t e s t s . Among the l i m i t a t i o n s noted are p o s s i b l e t e s t b i a s , l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r program planning, and p o t e n t i a l f o r in a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t e s t scores. S a t t l e r (1988), in d i s c u s s i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of g i f t e d students, notes that scores on group i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s are u s u a l l y lower than scores on i n d i v i d u a l l y administered t e s t s ; group administered t e s t s i d e n t i f y g i f t e d students only 45% of the time. Sax (1974) l i s t s 10 three possible causes for low scores on group a b i l i t y tests: f i r s t , the student may be a low a b i l i t y student; second, the student may not be able to read the test items; and t h i r d , the student may be unmotivated (p. 321). These factors demonstrate that i t is d i f f i c u l t to determine the cause of low performance on a group administered test. C r i t i c i s m of use of standardized tests, whether group or  in d i v i d u a l l y administered, has grown in recent years. Common cr i t i c i s m s of testing practises include lack of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of tests administrators, using tests which lack adequate r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , and bias in testing practices (Bennet, 1983; Burton, 1983). Messick (1980) stresses the importance of choosing tests that are va l i d for the purposes intended. His feedback model for test v a l i d i t y assumes that both measurement factors and social implications have been considered in choosing a p a r t i c u l a r test. However, Bennet suggests that tests are often selected in a routine, u n c r i t i c a l manner. Ysseldyke et a l . (1983) state that members of placement teams used tests to v e r i f y problems i d e n t i f i e d by referring teachers. These studies imply that expediency sometimes takes precedence over concerns regarding v a l i d i t y in test selection. Several studies have indicated that standardized tests can discriminate against exceptional students. In a meta-analysis of examiner f a m i l i a r i t y e ffects, Fuchs and Fuchs (1986) question p o s i t i v i s t i c attitudes toward testing. In their study, f a i l u r e to consider the context of the test situation, such as whether the student and examiner know each other, is shown to be a 11 p o s s i b l e source of b i a s . In another study Fuchs et a l . (1987) reviewed twenty-seven a p t i t u d e and achievement t e s t s and found that few t e s t s included handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s in t h e i r norming samples. As a r e s u l t of these f i n d i n g s they concluded that the t e s t s reviewed were not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use with handicapped s t u d e n t s . They recommended that t e s t p u b l i s h e r s make sure t h e i r t e s t s are v a l i d a t e d f o r use with handicapped p o p u l a t i o n s . Standardized t e s t s may a l s o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students who are weak in t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . In a study comparing l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and normal students Scruggs and L i f s o n (1986) found that l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students were l e s s able to "outguess" the t e s t than t h e i r peers (p. 1079). Some authors recommend d i s c o n t i n u i n g what they c o n s i d e r to be imperfect t e s t i n g p r a c t i s e s and r e p l a c i n g them with curriculum-based assessment ( A l g o z z i n e , Sacca and Maheady, 1986; Galagan, 1985). Curriculum-based assessment uses a student's progress in h i s or her school c u r r i c u l u m , compared to progress of class m a t e s , to measure academic gains and make programming d e c i s i o n s . I t s proponents argue use of st a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s i s unnecessary with t h i s model. Other advocates of curriculum-based assessment models are not as extreme in t h e i r p o s i t i o n a g a i n s t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g . In the process assessment model, f o r example, s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t r e s u l t s are considered along with i n f o r m a t i o n from curriculum-based assessment in completing a student assessment (Meyers, P f e f f e r , and Erlbaum, 1985). Des p i t e the issu e s of examiner competence, t e s t b i a s , and inadequate t e s t s , t e s t s are used e x t e n s i v e l y in r e g u l a r and 12 s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . T e s t i n g a s p a r t o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s i s o f t e n m a n d a t e d , a s i n t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n G u i d e l i n e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The c r i t i c i s m s o f t e s t s and t e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s r e v i e w e d a b o v e r e i n f o r c e t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t t e s t s and d a t a f r o m t e s t s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c r i t i c a l l y and i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s much o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a s p o s s i b l e when m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s t u d e n t s . C r i t i c i s m s o f t e s t s and t e s t i n g c a n a l s o s e r v e t o c r e a t e a w a r e n e s s o f what e t h i c a l and a p p r o p r i a t e t e s t p r a c t i c e s s h o u l d be. Ab i 1 i t y T e s t i ng Many d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s a r e b a s e d on t h e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . However, Wagner and S t e r n b e r g (1984) comment: P a r a d o x i c a l l y , a l t h o u g h i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s h ave been w i d e l y u s e d i n e d u c a t i o n , t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e h a s n o t been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f o r m a t i v e t o e d u c a t o r s , b e y o n d i t s u s e i n p r o v i d i n g a r o u g h g u i d e t o d e t e r m i n i n g r e a s o n a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o r p a t t e r n s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s ( p . 1 7 9 ) . T h e r e a r e d i f f e r i n g t h e o r i e s on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n c l u d i n g S p earman's g e n e r a l f a c t o r o r "g" t h e o r y , T h u r s t o n e ' s m u l t i p l e f a c t o r t h e o r y , V e r n o n ' s t h e o r y o f h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e , C a t t e l l ' s f l u i d and c r y s t a l l i z e d c o m p o n e n t s , G u i l f o r d ' s S t r u c t u r e o f t h e I n t e l l e c t , P a i g e t ' s m a j o r s t a g e s , and J e n s e n ' s t w o - l e v e l t h e o r y . Some t e s t s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r y o f i n t e l l i g e n c e s t r u c t u r e : ( e . g . t h e K-ABC (Kaufman and Kaufman, 1983 w h i c h h a s a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e i n C a t t e l l ' s t h e o r y o f f l u i d and c r y s t a l l i z e d 13 a b i l i t i e s ) . O t h e r t e s t s a r e more g e n e r a l and draw f r o m v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s . Not a l l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s m e a s u r e , o r i n t e n d t o m e a s u r e , e x a c t l y t h e same t h i n g ( C a r r o l l and H o r n , 1 9 8 1 ) . C a r r o l l and H o r n p r o p o s e t h a t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e g a i n e d f r o m r e s e a r c h be made more o f a b a s i s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . They s t a t e "... t h e s c i e n c e o f human a b i l i t i e s i s u n d e r e x p 1 o i t e d i n d i a g n o s i s , c o u n s e l l i n g , and e v a l u a t i o n " ( p . 1 0 1 9 ) . One c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s an o p e r a t i o n a l one, where i n t e l l i g e n c e i s s e e n as "... a b e h a v i o r a l t r a i t t h a t i s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , d e p e n d e n t on p a s t l e a r n i n g " ( M e h r e n s & Lehman, 1987, p. 1 6 0 ) . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e i s w h a t e v e r i s m e a s u r e d by t h e t e s t . Many t e s t p u b l i s h e r s a v o i d l a b e l l i n g t h e i r t e s t s a s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s b e c a u s e of c o n c e r n s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i s e a s i l y r e i f i e d . Hence s u c h t e s t s a r e more o f t e n c a l l e d a p t i t u d e o r a b i l i t y t e s t s . A b i l i t y t e s t s a r e s a i d t o m e a s u r e a s t u d e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g and a r e good p r e d i c t o r s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . A b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s h a v e f e a t u r e s i n common. A n a s t a s i (1982) v i e w s a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a s p o i n t s on a c o n t i n u u m , d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n t h e d e g r e e o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e t r a i t s m e a s u r e d . C r i t i c i s m s o f t e s t s and t e s t i n g a r e o f t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y  a p p l i e d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g . B u r t o n (1983) c i t e s e x a m i n e r c o m p e t e n c e , t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , and b i a s a s i s s u e s n e e d i n g r e m e d i a t i o n i f u s e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i s t o c o n t i n u e . W i g d o r and G a r n e r (1982) s u m m a r i z e d t h e r e s u l t s o f an e x t e n s i v e 14 s t u d y o f a b i l i t y t e s t i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t e s t i n g d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , one of t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n was t h a t a b i l i t y t e s t s a s w e l l a s o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c o n t i n u e t o be u s e d a s p a r t o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s "... i n p a r t t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e s t e r e o t y p e s and m i s p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t c o n t a m i n a t e j u d g e m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n " ( V o l . I , p. 1 7 9 ) . A r e c e n t s u r v e y of p s y c h o l o g i s t s and e d u c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s s o l i c i t e d o p i n i o n s on a p t i t u d e and i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g ( S n y derman and Rothman, 1 9 8 7 ) . The s u r v e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t f o r c o n t i n u e d u s e of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s i n s c h o o l s . I n t e l l i g e n c e and a p t i t u d e t e s t i n g i s s e e n t o be a v a l i d and u s e f u l a c t i v i t y . R e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d two p r o b l e m a r e a s . They b e l i e v e d i n t e l l i g e n c e and a p t i t u d e t e s t s a r e b i a s e d when u s e d w i t h low s o c i o e c o n o m i c g r o u p s and r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s and t h a t t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o u s e t e s t s c o r e s w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g o t h e r a s s e s s m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . In summary, a b i l i t y t e s t s a r e u s e d i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m  t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e a s t u d e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g . T h e r e i s a p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f c o n t i g u i t y b e t w e e n t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . C r i t i c i s m s a p p l i c a b l e t o s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g , s u c h a s i n s t a n c e s o f u n q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l , q u e s t i o n a b l e t e s t v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , and b i a s , a r e a p p l i e d t o a b i l i t y t e s t i n g . However, t h e r e i s a c o n s e n s u s t h a t d e s p i t e t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s , a b i l i t y t e s t i n g i s o f v a l u e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m . 15 The W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d  (WISC-R) i s t h e most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d  m e a s u r e o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n aged s i x t o t w e l v e  ( D e t t e r m a n , 1 9 8 5 ) . The WISC-R has been shown t o be a good p r e d i c t o r o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . I n a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , S t e v e n s o n , P a r k e r , W i l k i n s o n , H e g i o n and F i s h ( 1 9 7 6) f o u n d t h a t WISC s u b t e s t s t h a t b e s t p r e d i c t e d f u t u r e a c h i e v e m e n t w ere t h o s e b a s e d on p a s t f a c t u a l l e a r n i n g . I n c o m p a r i n g Wide Range A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t (WRAT; J a s t a k and J a s t a k , 1965) and WISC-R s c o r e s , B r o o k s ( 1 9 7 7 ) , H a r t l a g e and Boone (1977) and H a l e ( 1 978) f o u n d t h a t t h e WISC-R was a b l e t o p r e d i c t WRAT t e s t s c o r e s . The WISC-R i s r e c o g n i z e d a s a v a l u a b l e i n s t r u m e n t i n s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g and e x p e n s i v e . Some s t u d i e s have compared s h o r t e r , l e s s t i m e c o n s u m i n g a b i l i t y m e a s u r e s t o t h e WISC-R. However, t h e y h a v e been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n f i n d i n g a l e s s t i m e c o n s u m i n g , v a l i d s u b s t i t u t e . C r o f o o t and B e n n e t (1980) compared t h r e e m e a s u r e s , t h e S l o s s e n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t ( S I T ; S l o s s e n , 1 9 6 3 ) , t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t (PPVT; Dunn, 1965) and t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f V i s u a l M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n (VMI; B e e r y and B u k t e n i c a , 1967) t o t h e WISC-R. The S I T was f o u n d t o be t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f WISC-R s c o r e s ; h o w e v e r , t h e a u t h o r s c a u t i o n e d t h a t s c o r e s on t h e S I T g ave l i t t l e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . A l t e p e t e r and H a n d a l (1986) compared t h e P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d (PPVT-R; Dunn and Dunn, 1981) and t h e WISC-R. A l t h o u g h t h e PPVT-R c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e WISC-R, t h e a u t h o r s a d v i s e d a g a i n s t u s i n g 16 t h e PPVT-R, w h i c h u n d e r e s t i m a t e d WISC-R s c o r e s , a s a g e n e r a l s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e . S u t t e r and B i s h o p (1986) f o u n d r e l a t i v e l y l ow c o r r e l a t i o n s , compared t o an e a r l i e r s t u d y , b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R, P e a b o d y I n d i v i d u a l A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t ( P I A T ; Dunn and M a r k w a r d t , 1 9 7 0 ) , and t h e G o o d e n o u g h - H a r r i s D r a w i n g T e s t (Draw-A-Man (DAM); H a r r i s , 1 9 6 3 ) . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e t h r e e t e s t s were n o t m e a s u r i n g t h e same c o n s t r u c t s and s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n a t e s t b a t t e r y . Many s t u d i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e  WISC-R a s a d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t . I n t h e a r e a o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h h a s been c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r i f WISC-R p a t t e r n s c a n d i f f e r e n t i a t e l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d f r o m n o n - l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . V a n c e , W a l l b r o w n , and B l a h a ( 1 9 7 8) i d e n t i f i e d f i v e WISC-R p a t t e r n s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . However, t h e i r f i n d i n g s were c r i t i c i z e d by M i l l e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) on t h e b a s i s t h a t s u b j e c t s who d i d n ' t f i t t h e p a t t e r n s were e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s t u d y . H a l e (1979) f o u n d t h a t WISC-R p a t t e r n s c o u l d i d e n t i f y u n d e r a c h i e v i n g g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s b u t t h a t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d n o t be a p p l i e d t o i n d i v i d u a l d i a g n o s i s . Kaufman (1981) s u p p o r t e d t h e u s e o f a t h r e e f a c t o r ( V e r b a l , P e r f o r m a n c e , and Freedom f r o m D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y ) a p p r o a c h when i n t e r p r e t i n g WISC-R p r o f i l e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . The t h r e e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Kaufman a r e : V e r b a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n , s a i d t o m e a s u r e a v e r b a l component common t o V e r b a l s c a l e s u b t e s t s ; P e r c e p t u a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , s a i d t o m e a s u r e a p e r c e p t u a l component common t o P e r f o r m a n c e s c a l e s u b t e s t s ; and F r e e d o m f r o m 17 D i s t r a c t i b i l i t y , o r t h e T h i r d F a c t o r , s a i d t o m e a s u r e c o m p l e x p r o c e s s e s i n c l u d i n g a t t e n t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n . He p o i n t e d o u t t h a t V e r b a l / P e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c i e s and s u b t e s t s c a t t e r a r e n o t u n i q u e t o l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s b u t o c c u r i n a l l p o p u l a t i o n s . O t h e r s t u d i e s , by S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , S i l v e r s t e i n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and S c h m i d t and S a k l o f s k e ( 1 9 8 3 ) , s u p p o r t t h e T h i r d F a c t o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o p o s e d by Kaufman. However, W a l s h , Marx, and Sudmant ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f a c t o r s c o r e p a t t e r n s and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a g e d 6 t o 16, t h a t t h e y s t u d i e d . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Kaufman have l i m i t e d u s e f u l n e s s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l d i a g n o s i s . M u e l l e r , M a n c i n i , and S h o r t (1984) s u p p o r t e d K aufman's p o s i t i o n . They f o u n d t h a t t h e u s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t c o m p a r i s o n s were n o t j u s t i f i e d d i a g n o s t i c a 1 1 y and t h a t t h e d i a g n o s t i c e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e WISC-R was i n c r e a s e d when Kaufman's t h r e e f a c t o r a p p r o a c h was u s e d . K a v a l e and F o r n e s s (1984) c o n d u c t e d a m e t a - a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a l i d i t y o f WISC, WISC-R, and WPPSI p a t t e r n s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y d i a g n o s i s . They c o n c l u d e d t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t u s e of s u b t e s t s c a t t e r , V e r b a l v s P e r f o r m a n c e , o r f a c t o r a n a l y t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and recommended u s e o f t h e WISC-R a s a g l o b a l m e a s u r e o n l y . I n g l i s and Lawson (1987) r e a n a l y z e d t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d by K a v a l e and F o r n e s s u s i n g a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y i n d e x ( L D I ) . U s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e a u t h o r s c o n t e n d e d t h a t a d i s t i n c t i v e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y p a t t e r n emerged. They i d e n t i f i e d two f a c t o r s ( N o n - V e r b a l and V e r b a l ) on 18 t h e WISC-R, and s t a t e d t h a t s c o r e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n a r e t y p i f i e d by c o n s i s t e n t d e f i c i t s on t h e S e c o n d ( V e r b a l ) F a c t o r . The WISC-R has a l s o been u s e d i n r e s e a r c h w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o  i d e n t i f y homogeneous s u b g r o u p s o f i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d  s t u d e n t s . I n a s t u d y o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s c o n d u c t e d by J o s c h k o and R o u r k e (1985) t h e p r o f i l e s o f s t u d e n t s d i s p l a y i n g l ow s c o r e s on A r i t h m e t i c , C o d i n g , I n f o r m a t i o n , and D i g i t Span s u b t e s t s ( t h e ACID p a t t e r n ) were a n a l y z e d u s i n g c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . Two s u b t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n a t y o u n g e r and o l d e r age l e v e l s were i d e n t i f i e d . A s t u d y by L e t o n , M i y a m o t o , and Ryckman (1987) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e c l u s t e r s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s b a s e d on t h e i r WISC-R s c o r e s . T h e s e c l u s t e r s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d by r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e s c a l e s c o r e s ( c l u s t e r 1 had no s i g n i f i c a n t V e r b a l / P e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c i e s , i n c l u s t e r 2 P e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s were h i g h e r t h a n V e r b a l , and i n c l u s t e r 3 V e r b a l s c o r e s were h i g h e r ) . Holcomb e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) u s e d c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f WISC-R p r o f i l e s t o i d e n t i f y s i x s u b g r o u p s o f p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s . A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e s s u p p o r t e d t h e g r o u p i n g s . Of t h e s i x g r o u p i n g s i d e n t i f i e d , o n l y two d i s p l a y e d V e r b a 1 / P e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I n summary, t h e c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f  t h e WISC-R a s a d i a g n o s t i c i n s t r u m e n t c o n t i n u e s . T h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t Kaufman's f a c t o r a n a l y t i c a p p r o a c h f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y d i a g n o s i s . Use o f s u b t e s t and V e r b a l / P e r f o r m a n c e c o m p a r i s o n s t o d i a g n o s e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s 19 a r e f e l t t o be l i m i t e d by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s and r e v i e w e r s . A n a l y s i s o f WISC-R p r o f i l e s o f i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d a s p a r t o f an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y homogeneous l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y s u b t y p e s . T h e r e i s c o n s i s t e n t a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e WISC-R i s a good m e a s u r e of g l o b a l a b i l i t y and a good p r e d i c t o r o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t i n g A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a r e s i m i l a r t o a b i l i t y t e s t s b u t a r e i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e more s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s . They a r e u s u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t o r s u b j e c t s and a r e i n t e n d e d t o a s s e s s t h e s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t r e s u l t s a r e u s e d t o g r o u p s t u d e n t s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , t o d i a g n o s e a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t y , and f o r p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n . Some a u t h o r s q u e s t i o n t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s f o r d i a g n o s i s . B i r e n b a u m (1986) s u g g e s t s u s i n g a r u l e a s s e s s m e n t a p p r o a c h when i n t e r p r e t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t r e s u l t s b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e l i m i t a t i o n s o f a t o t a l t e s t s c o r e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t e s t s s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g s t u d e n t a n s w e r s c a n be d i s c o v e r e d . A c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s have been c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e o f c u r r i c u l a r  b i a s . J e n k i n s and Pany (1978) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s d i d n o t m a t c h c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t i n t h e s c h o o l s t h e y s t u d i e d . M a r s t o n , F u c h s , and Deno (1986) a l s o f o u n d t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s had p o o r c u r r i c u l u m v a l i d i t y and recommend u s i n g c u r r i c u l u m - b a s e d a s s e s s m e n t , w h i c h i s c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d and b a s e d d i r e c t l y on t h e c u r r i c u l u m . I n two o t h e r s t u d i e s , 20 h o w e v e r , P h i l i p s and M e h r e n s ( 1 9 8 7 a , 1987b) f o u n d t h a t c u r r i c u l a r d i f f e r e n c e s d i d n o t a f f e c t a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t r e s u l t s . I n t h e i r s t u d y o f how d i f f e r e n c e s i n math t e x t b o o k s and c u r r i c u l a w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a f f e c t e d s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s c o r e s t h e y f o u n d t h a t "... n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u r r i c u l a w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e n o t g r e a t enough t o r e s u l t i n o b s e r v a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s on s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s " ( 1 9 8 7 b , p. 4 6 8 ) . T h e i r s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f c u r r i c u l a r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t on t e s t i t e m p e r f o r m a n c e f o u n d t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n i t e m p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l a r g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t c u r r i c u l a r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e n o t s o u r c e s o f b i a s , t h e y l e a v e u n r e s o l v e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n l o c a l c u r r i c u l a and n a t i o n a l l y normed t e s t s c a n g i v e a t r u e p i c t u r e o f l o c a l a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r e a r e some n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e u s e o f  s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I n t h e i r s t u d y o f t h e i n c l u s i o n of h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t norms, F u c h s , F u c h s , B e n o w i t z and B a r r i n g e r (1987) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t most commonly u s e d a c h i e v e m e n t and a b i l i t y t e s t s do n o t p r o v i d e enough t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e y a r e s u i t a b l e f o r u s e w i t h h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s . I n a t t e m p t s t o o v e r c o m e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s i m p o s e d on h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , some a u t h o r s recommend t h a t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s be m o d i f i e d . M c C a r t h y ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i n d i s c u s s i n g minimum c o m p e t e n c y t e s t i n g , p r o p o s e s t h a t s u c h t e s t s s h o u l d be a l t e r e d f o r h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s , d e s p i t e 21 concerns that these m o d i f i c a t i o n s may a f f e c t t e s t v a l i d i t y . Scruggs and L i f s o n (1986) suggest that reading comprehension passages be changed so that they measure only comprehension. G r i s e , B e a t t i e and A l g o z z i n e (1982) c i t e d f a c t o r s such as reading, a t t e n t i o n a l , p e r c e p t u a l , and language d i f f i c u l t i e s as having a p o t e n t i a l a f f e c t on t e s t performance, e s p e c i a l l y in a group t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n . They proposed s i x t e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s which can make minimum competency t e s t i n g more e q u i t a b l e f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d students. " O u t - o f - l e v e l " t e s t i n g i s a l s o suggested f o r s p e c i a l education students whose s k i l l s are not at grade l e v e l . In " o u t - o f - l e v e l " t e s t i n g students are t e s t e d with t e s t l e v e l s intended f o r students in lower grades. Yoshida (1976) found that teachers could a c c u r a t e l y s e l e c t "out-of-1eve1" t e s t s which matched t h e i r student's achievement l e v e l . The authors reviewed considered s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s to be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use with handicapped students u n l e s s they are modi f i e d . As an a l t e r n a t i v e , the c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g advocated by curriculum-based assessment models makes t h i s type of t e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n unnecessary. Scruggs and L i f s o n (1986) reported that r e g u l a r c l a s s  students o f t e n have good t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s and can sometimes  answer reading comprehension questions without reading the  comprehension passage. Learning d i s a b l e d students, however, were found to be r e l a t i v e l y l a c k i n g in t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Attempts have been made to teach, not only l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , but a l l students, t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s to make s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g more e q u i t a b l e . Costar (1980) d e s c r i b e s a program to teach t e s t -22 t a k i n g b e h a v i o r s t o f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t was f o u n d i n s c o r e s o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e s t u d y , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e y seemed more r e l a x e d i n t h e t e s t s i t u a t i o n . A n a s t a s i ( 1 9 81) d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r e e t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s i n t e n d e d t o i m p r o v e t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e , and d i s c u s s e d how t h e y a f f e c t t e s t v a l i d i t y . S h o r t t e s t - t a k i n g p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s r e d u c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i v i d u a l s ' t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s and a s a r e s u l t i m p r o v e t e s t v a l i d i t y . C o a c h i n g p r o g r a m s w h i c h t e a c h t o t h e t e s t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e and r e d u c e t e s t v a l i d i t y . The t h i r d t y p e o f t r a i n i n g , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o i n c r e a s e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g and m e t a c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , d o e s n o t a f f e c t t e s t v a l i d i t y . I n a m e t a - a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f c o a c h i n g p r o g r a m s on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e , i t was f o u n d t h a t c o a c h i n g d i d r a i s e t e s t s c o r e s ( B a n g e r t - D r o w n s , K u l i k , and K u l i k , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h r e e t y p e s o f p r e - t e s t i n t e r v e n t i o n , s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by A n a s t a s i , were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n , s h o r t t e r m , c o a c h e d d r i l l , and m e t a c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g , r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s . S m a l l e s t g a i n s w e r e f o u n d f o r s h o r t t e r m p r a c t i c e , l a r g e s t f o r l e n g t h y t r a i n i n g i n g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . A s t u d y w h i c h t a u g h t c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r t e s t - t a k i n g t o u n d e r g r a d u a t e s i n a one h o u r s e s s i o n f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o a p p l y t h e s t r a t e g i e s i n a t e s t s i t u a t i o n ( D o l l y and W i l l i a m s , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n summary, a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s d i f f e r f r o m a b i l i t y t e s t s i n  t h a t t h e y m e a s u r e more s p e c i f i c a r e a s o f a c h i e v e m e n t and a r e  r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . They a r e u s e d t o s c r e e n , d i a g n o s e 23 and g r o u p s t u d e n t s and t o e v a l u a t e p r o g r a m s . Some a u t h o r s h a v e c l a i m e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t e s t s and c u r r i c u l u m r e s u l t e d i n c u r r i c u l a r b i a s ; h o w e v e r , s t u d i e s by P h i l i p s and M e h r e n s ( 1 9 8 7 a , 1987b) i n d i c a t e t h a t c u r r i c u l a r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a r e n o t a s o u r c e o f b i a s . O t h e r c r i t i c i s m s o f a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s have been t h a t h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n many n o r m i n g s a m p l e s and t h a t h a n d i c a p p i n g c o n d i t i o n s s u c h a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n t e r f e r e w i t h t r u e m e asurement o f a s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s t o make s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s more s u i t a b l e f o r e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I t has a l s o b een s u g g e s t e d t h a t t e s t s d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l r e s p o n s e p a t t e r n s , o r c u r r i c u l u m -b a s e d n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s , w o u l d be more u s e f u l i n m e a s u r i n g p r o g r e s s and p l a n n i n g t e a c h i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e c l a s s r o o m l e v e l . T e a c h i n g t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s , e s p e c i a l l y l o n g t e r m c o g n i t i v e and m e t a c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g , has been f o u n d t o i m p r o v e s t u d e n t ' s a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s c o r e s . D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e s A d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e i s c a l c u l a t e d a s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a s t u d e n t ' s p r e d i c t e d s c o r e on an a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t and t h e a c t u a l s c o r e a t t a i n e d by t h a t s t u d e n t . The p r e d i c t e d s c o r e i s b a s e d on t h e s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e on an a b i l i t y t e s t . I t i s d e r i v e d f r o m a s t a t i s t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . E i t h e r g r o u p o r i n d i v i d u a l a c h i e v e m e n t and a b i l i t y t e s t s c a n be u s e d t o g e n e r a t e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t f o r m u l a e and 24 c r i t e r i a h a v e been a p p l i e d t o d e r i v e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s and t o a s s e s s t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s c o r e w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s t u d e n t o v e r - o r u n d e r a c h i e v i n g d e p e n d s on t h e c r i t e r i o n u s e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a s t u d e n t ' s p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t i s i n t e g r a l t o most d e f i n i t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , as i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s u n d e r P u b l i c Law 9 4 -142. I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e P r o v i n c i a l G u i d e l i n e s d e f i n e a ' s e v e r e ' l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y a s c a u s i n g "... a s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n e s t i m a t e d l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e . G e n e r a l l y , a d i s c r e p a n c y o f two o r more y e a r s on g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s o r a s i m i l a r d i s c r e p a n c y on s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e c o m p a r i s o n s i s r e c o g n i z e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t " ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n (1985). M a n u a l o f  P o l i c i e s , P r o c e d u r e s , and G u i d e l i n e s R e v i s e d ( p . 7 . 3 4 ) . Use o f a b i l i t y - a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s h a s n o t b een  c o n s i s t e n t o r f r e e f r o m e r r o r . Hanna, Dyck and H o l e n ( 1 9 7 9 ) p r e s e n t one model i n t e n d e d t o remedy some o f t h e "... g r a v e i n a d e q u a c i e s " o f methods b e i n g u s e d ( p . 3 2 ) . Cone and W i l s o n ( 1 9 8 1 ) e x a m i n e d f o u r methods ( g r a d e l e v e l d e v i a t i o n , e x p e c t a n c y f o r m u l a , s t a n d a r d s c o r e c o m p a r i s o n s , and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ) f o r d e r i v i n g a d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e . They c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e r e g r e s s i o n model i s p r e f e r a b l e and c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f g r o u p t e s t s i n g e n e r a t i n g d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . F o r n e s s , S i n c l a i r , and G u t h r i e ( 1 9 8 3 ) c o m p a r e d e i g h t d i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a e and f o u n d t h a t e a c h f o r m u l a y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t d e c i s i o n s t o s e l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m u l a a r e o f t e n b a s e d i n p a r t on "... s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , o r e c o n o m i c a l g r o u n d s " ( p . 1 1 2 ) . 25 S i n c l a i r and A l e x s o n (1986) compared f i v e d i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a m o d e l s . S i x t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f a p r e v i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d p o p u l a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s were n o t i d e n t i f i e d by any f o r m u l a and o n l y two p e r c e n t were i d e n t i f i e d by a l l f i v e f o r m u l a e . The l a c k o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n d i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a e l e d t h e a u t h o r s t o s u g g e s t t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s be b a s e d on a b r o a d r a n g e o f a s s e s s m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . The W i n t e r , 1987 i s s u e o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s R e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d t h e u s e of d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y d i a g n o s i s . I n t h i s i s s u e W i l s o n r e v i e w e d s t a t i s t i c a l and p s y c h o m e t r i c c o n c e r n s and c o n c l u d e s "... t h e o b s e r v e d d i s c r e p a n c y m odel i s b a s i c a l l y an a t h e o r e t i c a 1 , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y u n i n f o r m e d s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " ( p . 2 8 ) . He s t a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s w i l l c r e a t e d i f f e r e n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s , t h a t m u l t i p l e a c h i e v e m e n t and a b i l i t y s c o r e s f o r one s t u d e n t make i t much more l i k e l y t h a t a d i s c r e p a n c y w i l l be f o u n d , and t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t m u l t i v a r i a t e d i f f e r e n c e s c a n be m i s l e a d i n g . He recommended t h a t a r e g r e s s i o n - p r e d i c t i o n model i s t h e most p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e i f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a r e t o be u s e d . However, he a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s f i e l d d i s c o n t i n u e i t s u s e of s t a t i s t i c a l m o d e l s i n d e f i n i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . M a s t r o p i e r i (1987) s u m m a r i z e d t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e Work Group on Measurement I s s u e s i n t h e A s s e s s m e n t o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s ( R e y n o l d s , 1984-85; W i l s o n and R e y n o l d s , 1 9 8 4 - 8 5 ) . Some Work Group f i n d i n g s w e r e : t h a t many d i s c r e p a n c y m o d e l s a r e u s e d , t h a t t h e y a r e s o m e t i m e s 2 6 i m p r o p e r l y u s e d , and t h a t many o f t h e m o d e l s a r e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e . I n s e p a r a t e a r t i c l e s H e s s l e r ( 1 9 8 7) and P a r r i l l ( 1 9 8 7 ) r e i t e r a t e d t h a t a l l p o p u l a t i o n s of s t u d e n t s c a n show a b i l i t y a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s . In t h e same i s s u e Swanson w a r n e d t h a t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s may n o t be an a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s k i l l s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e s u c h s c o r e s c a n be a f f e c t e d by t h e l e v e l o f m e t a c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g and t e s t w i s e n e s s o f s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e t e s t . I n summary, common c r i t i c i s m s o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e m o d e l s a r e : t h a t d i f f e r e n t f o r m u l a e i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s , t h a t some f o r m u l a e a r e m a t h e m a t i c a l l y i n a c c u r a t e , t h a t r e s u l t s d i f f e r d e p e n d i n g on w h i c h a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s a r e u s e d , t h a t t h e y a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y d i a g n o s i s b e c a u s e d i s c r e p a n c i e s c a n o c c u r i n a l l p o p u l a t i o n s , t h a t d e f i n i t i o n o f a s e v e r e d i s c r e p a n c y i s o f t e n a r b i t r a r y , and t h a t s c o r e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s may n o t be a c c u r a t e b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Common r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e t h a t i f d i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a e must be u s e d i n l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y d i a g n o s i s , t h e y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s a s m a l l p a r t o f a b r o a d a s s e s s m e n t p r o f i l e . D i s c r e p a n c y f o r m u l a e t h a t a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be more m a t h e m a t i c a l l y a c c u r a t e , s u c h a s t h e r e g r e s s i o n -p r e d i c t i o n m o d e l , a r e b e i n g p r o p o s e d . O t h e r Work Group r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e u s e o f t e s t s w i t h a d e q u a t e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y , and u s e o f i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s i n d e r i v i n g d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . The c r i t i c i s m s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e i n d i c a t e t h a t d i s c r e p a n c y  s c o r e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d c a u t i o u s l y and c r i t i c a l l y . However, 27 a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , s u c h a s t h e a g e - g r a d e r e t a r d a t i o n c r i t e r i a d e s c r i b e d i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l G u i d e l i n e s , a r e f o u n d t o be e v e n more f l a w e d . Cone and W i l s o n (1981) s t a t e d t h a t d e v i a t i o n f r o m g r a d e l e v e l f o r m u l a e "... f a i l t o c o n s i d e r a l m o s t a l l c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s " ( p . 3 5 9 ) . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d by some a u t h o r s t o be t h e b e s t i n d i c a t o r s of a p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . Keogh (1987) s t a t e d t h a t t h e common a t t r i b u t e t h a t l i n k s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i s an a c h i e v e m e n t / a b i l i t y d i s c r e p a n c y . S c r u g g s (1987) a r g u e d t h a t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e f o r m u l a e a r e t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e means o f c o r r o b o r a t i n g p r o b a b l e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . M ost a u t h o r s r e v i e w e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c u r w i t h S a t t l e r  ( 1 9 8 8 ) t h a t t e s t s a r e an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e a s s e s s m e n t  p r o c e s s . T e s t s and t e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s have i n c u r r e d some c r i t i c i s m s . Common c r i t i c i s m s o f t e s t s and t e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e t e s t b i a s , and l a c k o f a d e q u a t e r e l i a b i l i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y i n some t e s t s u s e d ( B e n n e t , 1983; B u r t o n , 1983; and Y s s e l d y k e e t a l . , 1 9 8 3 ) . V a r i a b l e s s u c h a s m o t i v a t i o n and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y c a n a f f e c t s c o r e s on g r o u p t e s t s ( S a x , 1 9 7 4 ) . A s o u r c e o f b i a s f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s on b o t h g r o u p and i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s has been shown t o be l a c k o f t e s t - t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( F u c h s and F u c h s , 1 9 8 6 ) . The u s e o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e i s f r e q u e n t l y c r i t i c i z e d ( W i l s o n , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e c r i t i c i s m s s u g g e s t t h a t t e s t s must be u s e d and i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a r e . 28 CHAPTER I I I R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m The u s e o f g r o u p t e s t s a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s c a n be a s s e s s e d by e x a m i n i n g one s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ' s t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . L o c a l T e s t i n g P r o g r a m s and t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g D i s a b l e d S t u d e n t s : The C a s e o f B.C. S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 T e s t s and t e s t i n g p r a c t i c e s r e m a i n t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n t r o v e r s y and c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w p o i n t s . However, t h e y p r o v i d e a m e a s u r e o f d i r e c t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , however f l a w e d , w h i c h h a s p a r t i c u l a r a p p e a l t o e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l G u i d e l i n e s . The P r o v i n c i a l G u i d e l i n e s s p e c i f y t h a t t e s t s s h o u l d be u s e d d i a g n o s t i c a 1 l y a s p a r t o f t h e m e a s u r e s t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s a s b e l o n g i n g t o v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f e x c e p t i o n a l i t y . As i n many o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , The W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d (WISC-R) i s t h e a b i l i t y t e s t u s e d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t a s s e s s m e n t s i n S.D. #71. The WISC-R i s an i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t d e s i g n e d f o r s t u d e n t s aged s i x t o s i x t e e n . I t i s d i v i d e d i n t o two S c a l e s , V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e . E a c h S c a l e c o n s i s t s o f s i x s u b t e s t s . S u b t e s t s w h i c h make up t h e V e r b a l S c a l e a r e I n f o r m a t i o n , S i m i l a r i t i e s , A r i t h m e t i c , V o c a b u l a r y , C o m p r e h e n s i o n and D i g i t Span. P e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s a r e P i c t u r e A r r a n g e m e n t , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n , B l o c k D e s i g n , O b j e c t A s s e m b l y , C o d i n g , and Mazes. V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e S c o r e s a r e c o m b i n e d t o p r o d u c e a 29 F u l l S c a l e S c o r e . S u b t e s t s c o r e s have a mean o f 10 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 3. F u l l S c a l e s c o r e s h a v e a mean o f 100 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n of 16. B o r t n e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) , r e v i e w i n g t h e WISC-R i n The N i n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k s t a t e s , " C l e a r l y , i t r e m a i n s t h e b e s t s t a n d a r d i z e d , most o b j e c t i v e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d and s c o r e d t e s t o f i t s k i n d " ( p . 1 3 5 1 ) . A g r o u p t e s t o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , t h e T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s (TCS) was p u b l i s h e d i n 1982 and f i r s t u s e d i n t h e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n 1986. The T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s i s "... an a b i l i t y t e s t d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s a s t u d e n t ' s a c a d e m i c a p t i t u d e and t h e r e b y p r e d i c t t h e s t u d e n t ' s l e v e l o f s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l " ( T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s T e s t C o o r d i n a t o r ' s Handbook, CTB/McGraw H i l l , 1982, p. 1 ) . The TCS i s a r e v i s i o n o f t h e S h o r t Form T e s t o f A c a d e m i c A p t i t u d e . I t was s t a n d a r d i z e d i n 1980 on a p p r o x i m a t e l y 82,400 s t u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e r e a r e f i v e o v e r l a p p i n g l e v e l s o f t h e TCS, c o v e r i n g G r a d e s 2 t o 12. E a c h t e s t l e v e l i n c l u d e s f o u r s u b t e s t s : S e q u e n c e s , A n a l o g i e s , Memory, and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g . The Memory and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t s r e q u i r e t h a t s t u d e n t s r e a d on L e v e l s 2-5, b u t n o t on L e v e l 1. The S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e c o g n i z e a p a t t e r n o f f i g u r e s , l e t t e r s , o r numbers and a p p l y an a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y t o c o n t i n u e t h e p a t t e r n . The A n a l o g i e s s u b t e s t r e q u i r e s t h e s t u d e n t t o u s e r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s t o r e c o g n i z e l i t e r a l o r s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p i c t u r e s . The Memory s u b t e s t a s s e s s e s t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o remember p r e v i o u s l y p r e s e n t e d p i c t u r e s ( L e v e l 1) o r w ord d e f i n i t i o n s ( L e v e l s 2 - 5 ) . The V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t t e s t s t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n 30 p i c t u r e s ( L e v e l 1) o r words ( L e v e l s 2 - 5 ) . The TCS r e p o r t s a C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x ( C S I ) , a s t a n d a r d s c o r e w i t h a mean o f 100 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 16, b a s e d on a c o m p o s i t e o f s u b t e s t s . I t a l s o r e p o r t s s c a l e s c o r e s , age and g r a d e p e r c e n t i l e r a n k s , and age and g r a d e s t a n i n e s f o r e a c h s u b t e s t . The t e s t m anual e m p h a s i z e s t h a t TCS r e s u l t s w i l l be most u s e f u l when c o m b i n e d w i t h o t h e r a s s e s s m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n b u t d o e s s t a t e t h a t TCS r e s u l t s c a n be u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m t o "... i d e n t i f y r e m e d i a l n e e d s and s e l e c t l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s " ( p . 4 3 ) . The TCS c a n be hand o r m a c h i n e s c o r e d ; when m a c h i n e s c o r e d i t e m r e s p o n s e t h e o r y i s u s e d , w h i c h i s c l a i m e d t o g i v e more a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s ( p . 9 ) . In The N i n t h M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k (1985) t h e TCS r e c e i v e s two f a v o r a b l e r e v i e w s . I n t h e f i r s t r e v i e w K e i t h s t a t e s t h a t t h e TCS "... a p p e a r s a p r o m i s i n g a d d i t i o n t o t h e g r o u p i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t m a r k e t " ( p . 1 5 5 1 ) . He p o i n t s o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n L e v e l 1 and 2 may c a u s e l a c k o f c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e t e s t . S t e r n b e r g , r e v i e w i n g t h e t e s t i n t h e same v o l u m e , s t a t e s , "... t h e TCS was d e v e l o p e d w i t h much g r e a t e r s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a n t h e l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f t e s t s " ( p . 1 5 5 7 ) . T r o y ( 1 9 85) c o n s i d e r s t h e TCS t o be w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d t e c h n i c a l l y . However, he c r i t i c i z e s t h e t e s t f o r l a c k o f s u b t e s t s p e c i f i c i t y . He a d v i s e s TCS u s e r s t o i n t e r p r e t o n l y t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x and n o t i n d i v i d u a l s u b t e s t s c o r e s . As p a r t o f a p i l o t t e s t i n g p r o g r a m begun i n 1986, f o u r s c h o o l s i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t (CAT) t o s t u d e n t s who have been t e s t e d w i t h t h e TCS. The CAT was p u b l i s h e d i n 1982 by t h e C a n a d i a n T e s t 31 C e n t e r / M c G r a w - H i 1 1 R y e r s o n . I t i s an a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t w i t h e i g h t o v e r l a p p i n g l e v e l s d i v i d e d i n t o r e a d i n g , l a n g u a g e , s p e l l i n g , and m a t h e m a t i c s s u b t e s t s . I t g i v e s l o c a l and n a t i o n a l s t a n i n e s , l o c a l and n a t i o n a l p e r c e n t i l e s , raw s c o r e s , and s c a l e s c o r e s f o r e a c h s u b t e s t . I t i s i n t e n d e d t o be u s e d t o m e a s u r e a s t u d e n t ' s a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . I t e m s were d e v e l o p e d b a s e d on c u r r i c u l u m o b j e c t i v e s f r o m a c r o s s Canada. L o c a t o r t e s t s c a n be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h l e v e l o f t h e t e s t t o a d m i n i s t e r f o r " o u t -o f - l e v e l " t e s t i n g . A l t h o u g h o n e - h a l f t o t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , Whyte, r e v i e w i n g t h e t e s t i n The N i n t h M e n t a l  M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k ( 1 9 8 5 ) , c a u t i o n s t h a t t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n g r o u p a r e s m a l l ( o f 76,485 s t u d e n t s , 1,000 were i d e n t i f i e d a s l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d ) . She p o i n t s o u t t h a t , a s t h e p u b l i s h e r s c a u t i o n a g a i n s t u s i n g t h e t e s t f o r s t u d e n t s w o r k i n g more t h a n one y e a r b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l , i t s u s e w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . I n 1986 S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 f o r m e d a d i s t r i c t t e s t i n g c o m m i t t e e t o m o n i t o r r e s u l t s o f a p i l o t t e s t i n g p r o g r a m u s i n g t h e TCS and t h e CAT. A Handbook f o r CAT/TCS T e s t i n g ( 1 9 8 8) was w r i t t e n by two c o m m i t t e e members and d i s t r i b u t e d t o a l l s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . The Handbook r e f e r s t o S c h o o l D i s t r i c t p o l i c y on t e s t i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e TCS/CAT t e s t i n g p r o g r a m . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 P o l i c y 7030R i s q u o t e d a s s t a t i n g t h a t t h e p u r p o s e s o f t e s t i n g a r e , i n p a r t : 1. t o i m p r o v e l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h : (a) a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t (b) r e v i e w i n g d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s 32 ( c ) e s t a b l i s h i n g l e v e l s o f a t t a i n m e n t s ( s t a n d a r d s ) a g a i n s t w h i c h s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t can be m e a s u r e d 2. t o i m p r o v e i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t f o r : (a) a d v i s i n g a s t u d e n t and h i s / h e r p a r e n t s a b o u t t h e p r o g r e s s made, r e l a t i v e t o m e e t i n g s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s 3. ( n o t a p p l i c a b l e ) 4. t o p r o v i d e s c r e e n i n g f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s , i . e . g i f t e d 5. t o p r o v i d e d i a g n o s i s f o r " a t r i s k " s t u d e n t s 6. t h e d i s t r i c t w i l l make p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d / o r d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s a t t e r m i n a l p o i n t s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g p u r p o s e s : ( a ) t o m e a s u r e t h e p r o g r e s s i n t h e D i s t r i c t up t o a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t i m e (b) t o a s s i s t t h e s c h o o l i n d e t e r m i n i n g how w e l l s t u d e n t s have m a s t e r e d p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g ( c ) t o a s s i s t p r i n c i p a l s , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , and t e a c h e r s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e p r o g r a m f o r s t u d e n t s (d) t o a s s i s t t h e D i s t r i c t i n i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s s u c h a s e n r i c h m e n t o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ( p . 3 ) . The Handbook f o r CAT/TCS T e s t i n g , s u g g e s t s " c o n t i n u a t i o n s " , o r e x t e n s i o n s , o f D i s t r i c t T e s t i n g P o l i c y . P r o p o s e d a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c 1 u d e : CAT/TCS p r e d i c t e d a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s w i l l be u s e d t o h e l p s c r e e n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t u d e n t s : (a) c h i l d r e n whose s c o r e s show l a r g e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n a b i l i t y and a c h i e v e m e n t o r whose o v e r a l l low s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a need f o r h e l p f r o m any o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s (b) c h i l d r e n whose h i g h s c o r e s on t h e CAT/TCS i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f o r an e n r i c h m e n t o r g i f t e d c l a s s ( c ) c h i l d r e n whose h i g h s c o r e s on t h e TCS and low s c o r e s on t h e CAT i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y may be g i f t e d u n d e r a c h i e v e r s ( p . 5) A n n u a l CAT/TCS t e s t i n g o b j e c t i v e s , as s t a t e d i n t h e Handbook, i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : 33 1. CAT/TCS c o m b i n e d s c o r e s w i l l p r e d i c t , w i t h r e a s o n a b l e a c c u r a c y , c h i l d r e n who need l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , e n r i c h m e n t o r g i f t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , o r o t h e r s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s . T h e s e t e s t s w i l l p r o v i d e a n o t h e r method o f c h e c k i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e h e l p a r e t h o s e most i n n e e d , i . e . : (a) t h o s e w i t h h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s and h i g h c o g n i t i v e s c o r e s who need e n r i c h m e n t o r g i f t e d p r o g r a m m i n g (b) t h o s e w i t h m i d - r a n g e c o g n i t i v e s c o r e s and low a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s s u g g e s t i v e o f p o s s i b l e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s w h i c h may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l p r o g r a m m i n g ( e . g . r e s o u r c e room p l a c e m e n t o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ) ( c ) t h o s e w i t h h i g h c o g n i t i v e s c o r e s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s who may be ' g i f t e d u n d e r a c h i e v e r s ' o r i n need o f c o u n s e 1 1 i ng (d) t h o s e who r e q u i r e a b i l i t y t e s t i n g f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p l a c e m e n t i n a s p e c i a l p r o g r a m : e.g. R e s o u r c e Room, P r i m a r y S p e c i a l Needs, [ o r o t h e r ] s p e c i a l n e e d s p l a c e m e n t 2. CAT/TCS w i l l p r o v i d e s c a l e s s c o r e s w i t h w h i c h t o c h a r t t h e y e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l g r o w t h o f i n d i v i d u a l s , w h o l e g r a d e s w i t h i n a s c h o o l , and w h o l e g r a d e s a c r o s s t h e d i s t r i c t . By c h e c k i n g CAT s c o r e s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , a t e a c h e r c a n c o r r o b o r a t e h i s / h e r a s s e s s m e n t o f a s t u d e n t ' s p r o g r e s s ( K e e p i n g i n m i n d t h e l i m i t e d s c o p e o f t h e t e s t ) . 3. CAT/TCS w i l l g i v e c o u n s e l l o r s d a t a t o a s s i s t them i n c r e a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r u n d e r a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s ( e . g . good c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y b u t p o o r a c h i e v e m e n t due t o d i s c o u r a g e m e n t ) . 4. CAT/TCS w i l l p r o v i d e d a t a t o h e l p a d m i n i s t r a t o r s j u s t i f y p l a c e m e n t o r e x c l u s i o n o f s t u d e n t s f r o m s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s . I f f u n d i n g o r s t a f f i n g becomes b a s e d on d e m o n s t r a t e d n e e d , t h e s e d a t a w i l l p r o v i d e a f r a m e w o r k f o r r e q u e s t s ( p . 1 0 - 1 1 ) . The Handbook a l s o s t a t e s t h a t , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e WISC-R, TCS s u b t e s t s "Memory and V e r b a l S e q u e n c i n g a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e . S e q u e n c e s and A n a l o g i e s a r e a n a l o g o u s t o t h e P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e " ( p . 2 8 ) . The Handbook q u a l i f i e s t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s by a d d i n g , i n b r a c k e t s , " ( S h o u l d t h e s e c l a i m s p r o v e t r u e t o any d e g r e e t h e b e n e f i t t o t h e d i s t r i c t i n t i m e s a v e d on 34 a b i l i t y t e s t i n g c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l ) " ( p . 2 8 ) . The Handbook does n o t s p e c i f y t h e b a s i s f o r t h e s e c l a i m s , and t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n added i n b r a c k e t s a d d s t o t h e a m b i g u i t y . The D i s t r i c t Handbook f o r TCS/CAT t e s t i n g makes c l e a r t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d f r o m TCS/CAT s c o r e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e t e s t s . T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e TCS c a n be u s e d , n o t o n l y a s a s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e , b u t a s a c r i t e r i o n m e a s u r e t o i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l p r o g r a m s and t o d i a g n o s e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . C u r r e n t a s s e s s m e n t p r a c t i c e s i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 i n c l u d e t h e u s e o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , u s u a l l y t h e WISC-R, when a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t e s t i n g , s t u d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y t e s t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t s o f a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . The e x a m i n e r o f t e n o b s e r v e s t h e s t u d e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n many c a s e s , a s p e e c h and l a n g u a g e a s s e s s m e n t i s done as w e l l . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m TCS/CAT s c o r e s c a n r e p l a c e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n t o c l a s s i f y and d i a g n o s e s t u d e n t s r e m a i n s u n p r o v e n . 35 The R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e TCS, and t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The p r o p o s e d q u e s t i o n s w i l l a p p l y t o s t u d e n t s who h a v e been e i t h e r a) r e f e r r e d t o S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s f o r WISC-R a s s e s s m e n t and h a v e a l s o been t e s t e d w i t h t h e TCS, o r TCS and CAT o r b) s t u d e n t s w i t h " s i g n i f i c a n t " d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s on t h e TCS/CAT. The s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o a n s w e r t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e o f t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x o f t h e TCS, L e v e l s 1, 2, and 3 c o m b i n e d , and L e v e l 1 and L e v e l s 2/3, s e p a r a t e l y ? 2. What i s t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n WISC-R and TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s ? 3. A r e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g " s i g n i f i c a n t " TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s ( e . g . r e f e r r a l t o S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s ) a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ? 4. Does s u b t e s t s c a t t e r on t h e TCS r e v e a l any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s among s t u d e n t s ? 36 CHAPTER IV Met h o d o 1 o g y T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e d e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d , and t h e t y p e o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o l l o w e d . D e t a i l s o f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n have a p p e a r e d i n C h a p t e r I I I and so t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s a r e n o t d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l h e r e . D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71's p i l o t t e s t i n g p r o g r a m i n 1987 and 1988. The p o p u l a t i o n o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71 i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,000 s t u d e n t s . I n 1986-1987 t h e D i s t r i c t T e s t i n g C o m m i t t e e i m p l e m e n t e d t h e p i l o t t e s t i n g p r o g r a m i n f o u r s c h o o l s ; a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e TCS and CAT t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 300 G r a d e 3 and G r a d e 5 s t u d e n t s . I n 1987-1988 a l l G r a d e 3 and 5 s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e d i s t r i c t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 0 0 ) , and some G r a d e 2 s t u d e n t s , t o o k t h e TCS. The f o u r s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n 1986-1987 a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e CAT a l o n g w i t h t h e TCS i n 1987-1988. I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n T e s t i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d were t h e C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t , t h e T e s t o f C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s , and t h e W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d . R e f e r r a l s t a t u s was o b t a i n e d f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s . S a m p l i n g Two s a m p l e s were drawn f o r t h i s s t u d y . A s a m p l e o f 60 s u b j e c t s was drawn f r o m G r a d e s 2, 3, and 5 s t u d e n t s who t o o k p a r t i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t #71's t e s t i n g p r o g r a m i n 1986-1987 and 1987-1988. The s u b j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g 37 d i f f i c u l t i e s b e c a u s e o f p r e v i o u s r e f e r r a l and a s s e s s m e n t u s i n g t h e WISC-R. The s u b j e c t s t e s t e d w i t h t h e WISC-R were a l s o t e s t e d w i t h t h e TCS. O n l y a few s t u d e n t s who were t e s t e d w i t h t h e WISC-R and TCS had a l s o been a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e CAT. T h e r e f o r e , t o a s s e s s t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , a s e c o n d s a m p l e o f 116 G r a d e 3 and 5 s u b j e c t s were drawn f r o m one s c h o o l . T h i s s c h o o l was t h e o n l y s c h o o l w h i c h k e p t r e c o r d s o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s t u d e n t s and was n o t a l r e a d y u s i n g TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a s a b a s i s f o r L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e r e f e r r a l . D e s i g n and A n a l y s i s A c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n was u s e d t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e TCS and t h e WISC-R. P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e computed t o a s s e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e TCS CSI and t h e WISC-R F u l l S c a l e IQ, V e r b a l IQ, and P e r f o r m a n c e IQ. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e two t e s t s and c r o s s c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e TCS and WISC-R were a l s o c o m p u t e d . S c a t t e r p l o t s were u s e d t o i d e n t i f y o u t l i e r s w h i c h were f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h c a s e s t u d y . The C a n o n i c a l R was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e two s e t s o f s u b t e s t s . S t u d e n t s who were a d m i n i s t e r e d L e v e l 1 o f t h e TCS were a n a l y z e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h o s e who t o o k L e v e l 2 o r 3 b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t s u b t e s t d e s i g n i n L e v e l 1. The a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n r e f e r r a l s t a t u s and d i s c r e p a n t TCS/CAT s c o r e s was t e s t e d u s i n g c h i - s q u a r e . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s was u s e d t o e x a m i n e TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s t o d e t e r m i n e i f c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s o f s c o r e s w e re e v i d e n t i n c h i l d r e n w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . B i o d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , s u c h as age and g r a d e p l a c e m e n t , was drawn f r o m s c h o o l r e c o r d s . 38 CHAPTER V R e s u l t s T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e TCS, and t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . F i n d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s t h e y a p p l y t o e a c h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . Q u e s t i o n 1: What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e o f t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x o f t h e TCS L e v e l 1, 2 and 3 c o m b i n e d , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R F u l l S c a l e S c o r e and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x o f t h e TCS L e v e l 1 and L e v e l s 2/3 s e p a r a t e l y ? D a t a A n a l y s i s U s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s (SPSS-X; SPSS I n c . , 1983) P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s w e r e c o m p u t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e TCS and WISC-R. The K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v G o o d n e s s o f F i t T e s t was u s e d t o t e s t n o r m a l i t y o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s f o r e a c h t e s t . E q u i v a l e n c e o f c o v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l 1 and TCS L e v e l s 2/3 c o r r e l a t i o n s was a n a l y z e d u s i n g MULTICORR ( S t e i g e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t e i t h e r t h e V e r b a l IQ o r t h e P e r f o r m a n c e IQ c o u l d p r e d i c t t h e TCS/CSI e q u a l l y w e l l was t e s t e d . R e s u l t s l . a ) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e TCS? A s i g n i f i c a n t , p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .56 was f o u n d . However, a n a l y s i s o f e q u i v a l e n c e o f c o v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n t h e 2 g r o u p s (TCS L e v e l 1 and L e v e l s 2/3) i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l 1 and TCS L e v e l s 2/3 c o r r e l a t i o n s 39 {Kz = 9 2 4 . 4 5 5 1 ; d f = 6; p<.0001). T h e r e f o r e , s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s e s were c o n d u c t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e s e two g r o u p s . , l . b ) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e T C S / L e v e l 1? The K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v G o o d n e s s o f F i t T e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s on e a c h t e s t was n o r m a l . The WISC-R FS mean was 96.68 w i t h a s.d. o f 10.59. The TCS CSI mean was 84.05 w i t h a s.d. o f 13.05. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e TCS and WISC-R a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. A low b u t s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n o f .39 was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R FSIQ and TCS C S I . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. No s c a t t e r g r a m was p r e p a r e d f o r WISC-R FSIQ and TCS CSI L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l number i n t h e s a m p l e and t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e p a t t e r n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s . Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r WISC-R S c a l e s and TCS C S I : T a b l e 1 L e v e l 1 (n = 19) and L e v e l s 2/3 (n = 41) V a r i a b l e Mean SD L e v e l 1 WISC-R VIO WISC-R PIQ WISC-R FSIQ TCS CSI 95.58 99. 0 96.68 84.05 9.85 12.21 10.59 13.05 L e v e l s 2/3 WISC-R VIQ WISC-R PIQ WISC-R FSIQ TCS CSI 100.02 97.34 98.51 94.27 9.85 14.25 12.49 13.99 40 T a b l e 2 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s 3 Among WISC-R and TCS I n d i c e s : L e v e l s 1 and 2 / 3 b V a r i a b l e CSI VIO PIQ F SIQ CSI VIO PIQ F SIQ 26 43 39 70 56 87 89 11 49 63 85 87 I n t h i s and f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s o f s i m i l a r c o n t e n t , P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n a t 2 s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s and d e c i m a l s a r e o m i t t e d . U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05. L e v e l 1 r e s u l t s (n = 19) a p p e a r b e l o w t h e d i a g o n a l ; L e v e l s 2/3 r e s u l t s (n = 41) a p p e a r a b o v e t h e d i a g o n a l . l . c ) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e TCS, L e v e l s 2/3? The K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o v G o o d n e s s o f F i t T e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s on e a c h t e s t was n o r m a l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e WISC-R V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t . The WISC-R FS mean was 98.51 w i t h a s.d. o f 12.49. The TCS CSI mean was 94.27 w i t h a s . d . o f 13.99. A p o s i t i v e , s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o f .63 was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R FSIQ and t h e TCS C S I . P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 2. The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R VIQ/CSI c o r r e l a t i o n o f .70 and t h e WISC-R PIQ/CSI c o r r e l a t i o n o f .41 was t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g F i s h e r ' s z t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . The d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .01 ( G l a s s and S t a n l e y , 1970, p. 3 1 3 ) . 41 The WISC-R FSIQ TSC CSI L e v e l s 2/3 s c a t t e r g r a m i s p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1, where t h e WISC-R FSIQ i s e s t i m a t e d f r o m t h e TCS C S I . F o u r o u t l i e r s were i d e n t i f i e d whose s c o r e s f e l l more t h a n 1.65 s t a n d a r d e r r o r s o f e s t i m a t e f r o m t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e . U s i n g t h i s c r i t e r i o n o u t l i e r s were d e f i n e d a s t h e l o w e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 1/2% o f most e x t r e m e u n d e r e s t i m a t e s and t h e h i g h e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 1/2% o f most e x t r e m e o v e r e s t i m a t e s ( o r a b o u t one i n e i g h t s t u d e n t s i n t o t a l , a s e s t i m a t e d by n o r m a l e r r o r m e t h o d s ) . Two o u t l i e r s were i d e n t i f i e d i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . O u t l i e r p r o f i l e s f o r TCS u n d e r e s t i m a t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 2 and o u t l i e r p r o f i l e s f o r WISC-R u n d e r e s t i m a t e s i n F i g u r e 3. I n t h e c a s e o f o u t l i e r s 1 and 2 r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s on t h e P e r f o r m a n c e s c a l e w e i g h t t h e FSIQ, i n c r e a s i n g t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e FSIQ and t h e C S I . I n t h e c a s e o f O u t l i e r 3 t h e s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d , w i t h VIQ>PIQ. The r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r PIQ l o w e r s t h e F S I Q , w h i l e t h e VIQ s c o r e i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e CSI ( C S I 111, VIQ 1 0 7 ) . T h e s e t h r e e p r o f i l e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e V e r b a l IQ and t h e CSI i s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t b e t w e e n t h e P e r f o r m a n c e IQ and C S I . O u t l i e r 4 does n o t f i t t h e p a t t e r n o f VIQ/PIQ d i f f e r e n c e s . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n O u t l i e r 4's TCS and WISC-R s c o r e s , w h i c h a r e n o t e x t r e m e , may be due t o measurement e r r o r . T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e TCS CSI and WISC-R FSIQ f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . As T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s , t h e m a g n i t u d e o f WISC-R FSIQ s c o r e s i s f r e q u e n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n TCS CSI s c o r e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c o n s i s t e n t s c a l a r b i a s o f t h e TCS. F i g u r e 1. S c a t t e r g r a m f o r A s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n TCS: C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x ( L e v e l 2/3) a n d WISC-R: F u l l - S c a l e 10 (n=40) 43 S t u d e n t 1 Date o f B i r t h : 79 08 15 Sex: M I n t e r v e n t i o n : R esource Room WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S u b t e s t s WISC-R Performance S c a l e S u b t e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n S i m i I a r i t i e s A r i t h m e t i c V o c a b u l a r y Comprehension D i g i t Span V e r b a l 10 12 13 10 12 14 09 113 F u l l S c a l e 10 121 P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n P i c t u r e Arrangement B l o c k D e s i g n O b j e c t Assembly C o d i n g Mazes Performance 10 14 17 12 12 13 10 126 TCS L e v e l 2 Sequences 371 A n a l o g i e s 379 Memory 393 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g 345 CSI 80 T h i s s t u d e n t has a h i s t o r y o f extreme r e a d i n g ( d e c o d i n g ) d i f f i c u l t i e s and read s a t a Grade 1 l e v e l . S t u d e n t 2 Date of B i r t h : 76 11 24 Sex: F I n t e r v e n t i o n : L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S u b t e s t s WISC-R Performance S c a l e S u b t e s t s I n f ormat i o n S i m i l a r i t i e s A r i t h m e t i c Vocabu1ary Comprehension D i g i t Span V e r b a l 10 11 13 09 14 12 06 111 F u l 1 S c a l e 10 P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n P i c t u r e Arrangement B l o c k D e s i g n O b j e c t Assembly C o d i n g Mazes Performance 10 125 16 17 14 16 12 135 TCS L e v e l 3 Sequences 623 A n a l o g i e s 651 Memory 633 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g 664 CSI 115 Stu d e n t 2 has a h i s t o r y o f r e a d i n g ( d e c o d i n g ) d i f f i c u l t i e s but she has been a b l e t o work a t Grade l e v e l w i t h r e m e d i a l s u p p o r t . F i g u r e 2: Case P r o f i l e s where the TCS CSI u n d e r e s t i m a t e s the WISC-R 44 S t u d e n t 3 Date o f B i r t h : 77 03 31 Sex: M I n t e r v e n t i o n : R esource Room WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S u b t e s t s WISC-R Performance S c a l e S u b t e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n S i m i l a r i t i e s A r i t h m e t i c V o c a b u l a r y Comprehension D i g i t Span V e r b a l 10 12 16 08 10 10 06 107 F u l 1 S c a l e 10 P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n P i c t u r e Arrangement B l o c k D e s i g n O b j e c t Assembly C o d i n g Mazes Performance 10 93 11 06 04 09 06 81 TCS L e v e l 2 Sequences 617 A n a l o g i e s 703 Memory 550 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g 586 CSI 111 T h i s s t u d e n t has a h i s t o r y o f l i m i t e d academic s u c c e s s i n language a r t s and math e m a t i c s ; a c h i e v i n g more than two y e a r s below Grade l e v e l . S t u d e n t 4 Date o f B i r t h : 75 07 02 Sex: F I n t e r v e n t i o n : L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S u b t e s t s WISC-R Performance S c a l e S u b t e s t s I n f ormat i o n S i m i 1 a r i t i e s A r i t h m e t i c V o c a b u l a r y Comprehens i o n D i g i t Span V e r b a l 10 07 12 07 09 10 08 94 F u l l S c a l e 10 P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n P i c t u r e Arrangement B l o c k D e s i g n O b j e c t Assembly C o d i n g Mazes Performance 10 90 11 11 07 07 06 07 88 TCS L e v e l 2 Sequences 577 A n a l o g i e s 703 Memory 601 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g 667 CSI 106 T h i s s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s . has a h i s t o r y o f weakness i n w r i t t e n language and f i n e motor F i g u r e 3: Case P r o f i l e s where the TCS CSI o v e r e s t i m a t e s the WISC-R 45 T a b l e 3 F r e q u e n c i e s o f WISC-R FSIQ and TCS CSI S c o r e D i f f e r e n c e s M a g n i t u d e o f D i r e c t i o n o f D i f f e r e n c e S c o r e D i f f e r e n c e F r e q u e n c y o f F r e q u e n c y o f WISC-R>TCS TCS>WISC-R L e v e l s 1, 2/3 0 - 9 15 15 10 - 19 17 4 2 0 - 2 9 4 3 0 - 3 9 3 -4 0 - 4 9 1 T o t a l 40 19 L e v e l 1 0 - 9 3 4 1 0 - 1 9 7 2 0 - 2 9 2 3 0 - 3 9 3 4 0 - 4 9 T o t a l 15 4 L e v e l s 2/3 0 - 9 12 11 10 - 19 10 4 2 0 - 2 9 2 3 0 - 3 9 4 0 - 4 9 1 T o t a l 25 15 46 Q u e s t i o n 2 What i s t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n WISC-R and TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s ? D a t a A n a l y s i s P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t t e r n o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among WISC-R s u b t e s t s c o r e s , among TCS L e v e l 1 and TCS L e v e l 2 s u b t e s t s c o r e s , and b e t w e e n TCS ( L e v e l 1 and L e v e l 2) and WISC-R s u b t e s t s c o r e s . A c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g BMDP6M - C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s (BMDP S t a t i s t i c a l S o f t w a r e , 1 9 8 5 ) , t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e two t e s t s . R e s u l t s WISC-R i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h e TCS L e v e l 1 g r o u p (n = 19) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. WISC-R s u b t e s t i n t e r c o r r e 1 a t i o n s f o r t h e TCS L e v e l s 2/3 g r o u p (n = 41) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4. S u b t e s t i n t e r -c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d s a m p l e ( W e c h s l e r , 1974, p. 4 7 ) . However, i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n some P e r f o r m a n c e s c a l e s u b t e s t s and t h e V o c a b u l a r y , A r i t h m e t i c , and S i m i l a r i t i e s s u b t e s t s a r e l o w e r t h a n t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n V o c a b u l a r y and I n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e l o w e s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o e f f i c i e n t , and i s a l s o l o w e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e r e p o r t e d f o r t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e . S a t t l e r (1988) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e V o c a b u l a r y and I n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y t h e h i g h e s t s u b t e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n . 47 T a b l e 4 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a Among WISC-R S u b t e s t s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 f e V a r i a b l e I S A V C DS PC PA BD OA Cdg M VIO PIO FSIO I 52 56 38 55 41 34 52 29 42 30 47 78 48 72 S 34 29 47 63 28 40 21 15 21 06 26 75 29 60 A 10 -23 44 44 40 18 21 35 10 23 30 71 27 56 V 60 43 20 74 14 16 25 29 27 43 -16 76 38 66 C 48 50 -40 39 29 40 51 22 31 34 28 86 49 77 DS 33 29 -13 47 22 11 22 12 08 16 40 39 21 35 PC 12 17 -38 35 27 43 59 40 51 25 15 39 75 67 PA 49 17 27 76 24 34 32 43 58 47 31 44 82 73 BD 42 34 -09 42 38 36 37 47 54 25 12 33 67 59 OA 37 42 -23 38 39 65 32 20 65 53 00 34 82 67 Cdg 25 -26 13 -02 05 10 29 20 42 -01 03 35 61 56 M 41 47 -22 35 37 53 58 27 31 43 18 29 18 25 VIO 75 68 05 86 56 55 28 54 42 56 -06 49 49 85 PIO 51 32 -12 60 47 49 65 65 89 66 47 50 56 87 FSIQ 70 55 -OH 81 58 58 54 67 74 69 25 54 87 89 L e v e l 1 r e s u l t s (n = 19) appear below the d i a g o n a l ; L e v e l s 2/3 r e s u l t s (n = 41) appear above the d i a g o n a l . U n d e r l i n e d f i g u r e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05. L e v e l 1 Mazes (n = 11), L e v e l s 2/3 Mazes (n = 11). I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l 1 s u b t e s t s (n = 19) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. O n l y two i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t , l i k e l y b e c a u s e o f s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . T a b l e 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s 3 Among TCS S u b t e s t s : L e v e l s 1 and 2/3 V a r i a b l e S e q u e n c e s A n a l o g i e s Memory V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g L e v e l 1 r e s u l t s (n = 19) appear below the d i a g o n a l ; L e v e l s 2/3 r e s u l t s (n = 41) appear above the d i a g o n a l . U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05. s A M VR 79 42 6 6 * 57 - - 28 64 -13 29 45 03 21 40 — 48 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l s 2/3 s u b t e s t s (n = 41) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 5. The p a t t e r n o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a t t e r n o f i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n t h e TCS T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t (CTB/McGraw H i l l , 1982, p. 1 1 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n S e q u e n c e s and A n a l o g i e s i s h i g h e s t a t .79; and t h e l o w e s t i s .28 f o r A n a l o g i e s and Memory. The Memory s u b t e s t has t h e l o w e s t i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s u b t e s t s and w i t h t h e C S I . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l 1 s u b t e s t s and WISC-R s u b t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. None were s i g n i f i c a n t . C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l s 2/3 s u b t e s t s and WISC-R s u b t e s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 6. The TCS S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h 6 WISC-R s u b t e s t s and w i t h t h e V e r b a l ( . 5 9 ) , P e r f o r m a n c e (.46), and F u l l S c a l e (.60) S c o r e s . I t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e i s c l o s e t o t h e C S I / F u l l S c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n (.63). The A n a l o g i e s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h 5 WISC-R s u b t e s t s and w i t h t h e V e r b a l and F u l l S c a l e I Q ' s . The V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h 2 WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e s u b t e s t s , and w i t h t h e V e r b a l and F u l l S c a l e I Q ' s . The Memory s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h 1 V e r b a l S c a l e s u b t e s t , I n f o r m a t i o n (.49). The CSI c o r r e l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h 6 V e r b a l s u b t e s t s and 2 P e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s . The C a n o n i c a l R was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : [R] = 0.63 = 24.48, d f = 8 p = .0019. T a b l e 7 d i s p l a y s r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e TCS s u b t e s t s and WISC-R V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e IQ's t o t h e maximum c o r r e l a t i o n s 49 T a b l e 6 C o r r e l a t i o n s ' 3 Between WISC-R and TCS S u b t e s t s L e v e l s 1 and 2 / 3 b V e r b a 1 V a r i a b l e Sequences A n a l o g i e s Memory R e a s o n i n g CSI 1 2/3 1 2/3 1 2/3 1 2/3 1 2/3 I n f o r m a t i o n 28 53 34 38 35 49 12 36 44 65 S i m i l a r i t i e s -04 62 06 55 13 29 07 50 12 62 A r i t h m e t i c -05 32 -15 21 28 24 -14 21 -03 41 V o c a b u l a r y -17 35 06 41 40 04 35 41 20 47 Comprehension OH 46 29 47 15 20 28 35 29 55 D i g i t Span 06 40 13 20 38 30 18 36 36 37 P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n 01 49 29 45 14 04 29 20 21 37 P i c t u r e Arrangement 19 31 20 20 16 25 40 14 37 38 B l o c k D e s i g n 23 42 40 22 11 -05 23 18 40 35 O b j e c t Assembly 09 36 42 19 20 -05 14 20 44 34 C o d i n g 25 19 21 18 12 -18 16 04 09 27 Mazes 15 -02 66 -54 45 18 32 -25 64 19 V e r b a l 10 -07 59 14 52 43 34 22 47 26 70 P e r f o r m a n c e 10 20 46 47 32 12 -02 29 20 43 41 F u l l S c a l e 10 07 60 36 48 29 18 29 38 39 63 U n d e r l i n e d v a l u e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05. 1 s t a n d s f o r L e v e l 1 (n = 19), Mazes (n = 11), 2/3 s t a n d s f o r L e v e l s 2/3 (n = 4 1 ) , Mazes (n = 11). b e t w e e n t h e two t e s t s . A c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s c a n be c o n d u c t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n two t e s t s ( E s t a b r o o k , 1 9 8 4 ) . The r e d u n d a n c y i n d e x r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s shows t h a t , on a v e r a g e , 2 3 % o f t h e TCS s u b t e s t v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e w e i g h t e d c o m p o s i t e o f WISC-R V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e IQ v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e w e i g h t e d c o m p o s i t e o f TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s . 50 T a b l e 7 Summary o f C a n o n i c a l A n a l y s i s 3 o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p B etween t h e WISC-R and TCS r R F WISC-R V e r b a l IQ .96 P e r f o r m a n c e IQ .71 TCS S e q u e n c e s .99 A n a l o g i e s .84 Memory .42 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g .71 .37 5.39 .009 .27 3.43 .043 .39 12.06 .0001 .28 7.36 .0020 .16 3.63 .0362 .23 5.56 .0076 C a n o n i c a l [R] = 0.63; p = .0019 Q u e s t i o n 3 A r e s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g " s i g n i f i c a n t " TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a l s o i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s ( e . g . r e f e r r a l t o S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s ) a s h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s ? I n t h e s a m p l e (n = 60) s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , t e n s t u d e n t s o f t h e t o t a l had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n CAT/TCS t e s t i n g . Of t h e t e n , f o u r s t u d e n t s had d i s c r e p a n t CAT/TCS s c o r e s , a s m a l l e r number t h a n had been a n t i c i p a t e d . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e a n a l y s i s o r i g i n a l l y p l a n n e d i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l number o f s u b j e c t s who had been t e s t e d w i t h b o t h t h e CAT and TCS. T h e r e f o r e , t h e f o u r s c h o o l s i n t h e z o n e u s i n g CAT/TCS d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s were a p p r o a c h e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n e a c h s c h o o l . T h e s e 51 s t u d e n t s c o u l d t h e n be c ompared t o s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d by TCS/CAT t e s t i n g a s d i s c r e p a n t . I n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h r e e o f t h e f o u r s c h o o l s was d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m u s e ; a s two o f t h e s c h o o l s w e re a l r e a d y u s i n g CAT/TCS d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a s a b a s i s f o r r e f e r r a l t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , and one s c h o o l d i d n o t keep r e c o r d s o f i t s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s t u d e n t s . In t h e s c h o o l s u s i n g d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , d i s c r e p a n t s c o r e s a r e d i s c u s s e d by t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r r e f e r s t u d e n t s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c o n s u l t a t i o n . In t h e r e m a i n i n g s c h o o l G r a d e 3 and 5 s t u d e n t s had b e en t e s t e d f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s w i t h t h e TCS/CAT, b u t t h e s e s c o r e s were n o t u s e d a s a b a s i s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e r e f e r r a l . The l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r a t t h i s s c h o o l k e p t d e t a i l e d r e c o r d s on s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . S t u d e n t s were a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m a f t e r t e a c h e r c o n s u l t a t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d and norm-r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g . S u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s i s b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h i s s c h o o l . D a t a A n a l y s i s CTB/McGraw H i l l c a l c u l a t e s c o r e s a s d i s c r e p a n t b a s e d on a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s u s e d t o d e r i v e an e s t i m a t e d norm. S c o r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d d i s c r e p a n t u s i n g an 8 0 % c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l so t h a t any s t u d e n t whose a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e i n t h e t o p o r b o t t o m 10% a r e i d e n t i f i e d f o r f u r t h e r a t t e n t i o n (TCS T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t , 1983, p. 5 5 - 5 6 ) . S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3 and 5 whose s c o r e s on t h e T o t a l L a n g u a g e , T o t a l R e a d i n g , T o t a l M a t h e m a t i c s , a n d / o r 52 T o t a l T e s t were d i s c r e p a n t were i n c l u d e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s a m p l e f o r a n a l y s i s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e f e r r a l s t a t u s and d i s c r e p a n t TCS/CAT s c o r e s was t e s t e d u s i n g c h i - s q u a r e . R e s u l t s T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s t h e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e f o r G r a d e 3 and 5 s t u d e n t s who were d i s c r e p a n t on any of t h e T o t a l R e a d i n g , T o t a l L a n g u a g e , T o t a l M a t h e m a t i c s o r T o t a l T e s t c o m p o s i t e s . C h i - s q u a r e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r G r a d e 3 and 5 c o m b i n e d and f o r G r a d e 5 s e p a r a t e l y . G r a d e 5 ? C 2 = 1.25 ( d f = 2) G r a d e 3 + 5 P C 2 = 1.69 ( d f = 2 ) . T a b l e 9 i s a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e f o r G r a d e 3 and 5 s t u d e n t s who were d i s c r e p a n t on t h e T o t a l T e s t o n l y . G r a d e 3 + 5 T o t a l ? C 2 = 3.27 ( d f = 1 ) . No c h i - s q u a r e t e s t r e s u l t was s i g n i f i c a n t a t a = .05, i n d i c a t i n g no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n r e f e r r a l s t a t u s and d i s c r e p a n t TCS/CAT s c o r e s . Q u e s t i o n 4 Does s u b t e s t s c a t t e r on t h e TCS r e v e a l any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s among s t u d e n t s ? D a t a A n a l y s i s C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f c a s e s was c o n d u c t e d , u s i n g t h e f o u r TCS s u b t e s t s a s c l u s t e r i n g i n d i c e s , t o i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t and homogeneous TCS s u b t y p e s . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c a r r y o u t t h i s a n a l y s i s s e p a r a t e l y f o r L e v e l 1 and L e v e l s 2/3 b e c a u s e o f s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e s . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f c o m b i n e d TCS L e v e l s 1, 2 and 3 s c o r e s was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e UBC C Group c l u s t e r i n g p r o g r a m ( L a i , 1 9 8 2 ) . The o p t i m a l number o f c l u s t e r s was d e t e r m i n e d by p l o t t i n g c u m u l a t i v e l y t h e s t e p w i s e e r r o r i n d e x and t h e c u m u l a t i v e e r r o r i n d e x . D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n c l u s t e r s were t e s t e d u s i n g o ne-way A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e . 53 T a b l e 8 P e r c e n t o f S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3 and G r a d e 5 D i s c r e p a n t and N o n - D i s c r e p a n t on CAT S u b t e s t s and T o t a l T e s t S c o r e s and R e f e r r e d and N o n - R e f e r r e d a D i s c r e p a n t No D i s c r e p a n c y D i s c r e p a n t T o t a l "Underach i e v i ng" "Overach i e v i ng" R e f e r r e d 7% 6% 4% 17% N o n - R e f e r r e d 22% 39% 22% 8 3 % T o t a l 29% 45% 26% 100% n = 116; X 2 = 1.685, not s i g n i f i c a n t @ a = .05 ( c r i t i c a l v a l u e : ^ a = 5.99). T a b l e 9 P e r c e n t o f S t u d e n t s i n G r a d e 3 and 5 D i s c r e p a n t and N o n - D i s c r e p a n t on t h e CAT T o t a l T e s t S c o r e and R e f e r r e d and Non-Ref e r r e d * * D i s c r e p a n t Over- or Under-A c h i e v i n g No D i s c r e p a n c y T o t a l R e f e r r e d 5% 12% 17% N o n - R e f e r r e d 11% 72% 8 3 % T o t a l 16% 84% 100% n = 116; X- 2 = 3.27, not s i g n i f i c a n t @ a = .05 ( c r i t i c a l v a l u e : X 2 = 3.84). 54 R e s u l t s S i x c l u s t e r s were i d e n t i f i e d . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e TCS s c o r e s o f t h e c l u s t e r g r o u p i n g s w e re a l l s i g n i f i c a n t a t p<.05. D i f f e r e n c e s i n VISC-R s u b t e s t s c o r e s g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o c l u s t e r m e m b e r s h i p were s i g n i f i c a n t a t p<.05 e x c e p t f o r t h e A r i t h m e t i c , B l o c k D e s i g n , C o d i n g and Mazes s u b t e s t s . A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 10. T a b l e 11 shows p e r c e n t a g e o f L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s i n e a c h c l u s t e r . F i g u r e s 4, 5 and 6 r e p r e s e n t TCS s u b t e s t , WISC-R V e r b a l s u b t e s t s , and WISC-R P e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t mean s c o r e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e s c o r e s a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 12 ( T C S ) , 13 (WISC-R V ) , 14 (WISC-R P) and 15 (WISC-R F S I Q ) . F i g u r e 7 r e p r e s e n t s WISC-R VIQ, WISC-R PIQ, WISC-R F S I Q , and TCS CSI mean s c o r e s . T a b l e 16 d e s c r i b e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f e a c h c l u s t e r . C l u s t e r s u b t e s t p a t t e r n s C l u s t e r 1. The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a v e r a g e mean s c o r e s on WISC-R and TCS s u b t e s t s , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y m i l d l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s e v i d e n t . C l u s t e r 2. Mean s c o r e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r a r e l o w e s t f o r b o t h t h e TCS and WISC-R, a l t h o u g h s c o r e s on t h e WISC-R a r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r t h a n on t h e TCS. (X FSIQ 8 6 . 1 , X CSI 6 8 . 3 ) . C l u s t e r 2 i s composed o f s e v e r e l y l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d / m i l d l y m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d s t u d e n t s . One s t u d e n t i n t h i s c l u s t e r had been d i a g n o s e d a s h a v i n g M o s a i c Downs Syndrome and one a s h a v i n g a s e i z u r e d i s o r d e r . C o n s i s t e n t TCS s u b t e s t and WISC-R s c a l e s c o r e and f a c t o r p a t t e r n s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h i s c l u s t e r . S t u d e n t s i n 55 T a b l e 10 T e s t s o f D i f f e r e n c e s Among C l u s t e r s : ANOVA's o f WISC-R and TCS S c a l e s . T e s t / S c a l e SS df MS F p TCS Sequences 727608 .7371 5 145521 .7474 50 . 1430 .0000 156715 .2629 54 2902 . 1345 A n a l o g i e s 1012933 .1841 5 202586 .6369 47 . 1704 .0000 231918 .2153 54 4294 .7818 Memory 198272 .2385 5 39654 .4477 8 .8972 .0000 240674 .4949 54 4456 .9351 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g 539854 .8902 5 107970 .9780 23 .9726 .0000 243212 .0932 54 4503 .9277 CSI 9672 . 1170 5 1934 .4234 40 .4594 .0000 2581 .8163 54 47 .8114 WISC-R V e r b a l S u b t e s t s I n f o r m a t i o n 127. .2427 5 25 .4495 5 .3959 .0004 254. .6860 54 4 .7164 S i m i l a r i t i e s 100. .6100 5 20 . 1220 3 .5251 .0079 308, .2400 54 5 .7081 A r i t h m e t i c 33. .8372 5 6 .7674 1 .3379 .2624 273, , 1462 54 5 .0583 Vocabu1ary 66. .8395 5 13 .3679 2 .8582 .0232 252. .5605 54 4 .6770 Comprehension 65 . 6313 5 13 . 1263 2 .4717 .0435 286. .7687 54 5 .3105 D i g i t Span 89. .8221 5 17 .9644 3 .6420 .0065 266. 3612 54 5 .3105 WISC-R Perfor m a n c e S u b t e s t s P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n 71 . 5518 5 14 .3104 2 .3985 .0490 322 . 1815 54 5 .9663 P i c t u r e Arrangement 98. 3236 5 19. .6647 2 .8902 .0220 367. 4097 54 6 .8039 B l o c k D e s i g n 69. 8139 5 13. .9628 1 , .9596 .0996 384. 7694 54 7. . 1254 O b j e c t Assembly 86. 8468 5 17. .3694 2 ,5900 .0359 362 . 1365 54 6. .7062 Co d i n g 48. 8636 5 9 .7727 1 , ,6145 . 1719 326. 8697 54 6, ,0531 Mazes 81 . 1098 5 16. ,2220 2. , 1592 .1105 120. 2083 16 7, ,5130 WISC-R S c a l e s VIO 2205. 7808 5 441 . , 1562 4. 3247 .0022 5508. 4026 54 102 . 0075 PIO 2354. 8904 5 470. 9781 2. 9970 .0185 8486. 0430 54 151 . 1489 FSIO 2314. 6455 5 462. 9291 4. 1781 .0028 5983 . 0878 54 110. 7979 56 T a b l e 11 P e r c e n t o f L e v e l 1 S t u d e n t s i n C l u s t e r s T o t a l number Number of % o f L e v e l 1 C l u s t e r i n c l u s t e r L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s s t u d e n t s 1 8 0 0 2 9 5 55 3 17 3 18 4 7 5 71 5 6 0 0 6 13 6 46 Combined 60 19 32 T a b l e 12 Mean TCS S c a l e S c o r e s , by C l u s t e r V e r b a l C l u s t e r n S e q u e n c e s A n a l o g i e s Memory R e a s o n i n g CSI 1 8 521 . .0 512. .6 537. .6 556. . 1 99. , 6 2 9 236. .6 161 . .4 476. .6 379. .7 68. ,3 3 17 474. .6 371 . .5 499. 2 492. .2 95. .2 4 7 386. , 0 340. . 1 422. .3 292. .7 81 . .4 5 6 632. .0 639. . 3 642. . 8 637. ,5 115. 2 6 13 380. . 1 436. .8 463. 3 438. , 5 90. 1 lb i ned 60 430. . 0 396. , 1 498. , 6 463. , 5 91 . , 0 57 S c a l e S c o r e s 650 -625 — 600 — 575 -550 — 525 500 — 475 — 450 -425 —] 400 -375 -350 —| 325 • 300 -275 -250 • 225 • 200 -175 • 1 A _ 2 • _ 3 O _ . 4 A. 5 B _ 6 © -A- - _ P- 0 150 C l u s t e r C l u s t e r C l u s t e r C l u s t e r C l u s t e r C l u s t e r 1 2 3 4 5 6 V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g Sequences A n a l o g i e s Memory TCS S u b t e s t s F i g u r e 4: C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean TCS S c o r e s S c a l e S c o r e s 15 • 14 — 13 — 12 — 1 1 10 -9 -| 8 -6 -A 5 -4 1 A. 2d_ 3 O. 4 A . 5 B . 6 0 . C l u s t e r 1 C l u s t e r 2 C l u s t e r 3 C l u s t e r 4 C l u s t e r 5 C l u s t e r 6 I n f o r m a t i o n S i m i l a r i t i e s A r i t h m e t i c V o c a b u l a r y Comprehension D i g i t Span WISC-R V e r b a l S u b t e s t s F i g u r e 5: C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean WISC-R V e r b a l S c o r e s CD Scale Scores 1 A Clus ter 1 2 D - Clus ter 2 3 O Cluster 3 4 k - C lus ter 4 5 m - C lus ter 5 6 • Clus ter 6 ui P i c t u r e Comp1et i o n P i c t u r e Arrangement B l o c k Des i gn O b j e c t Assemb1y C o d i n g Mazes F i g u r e 6 VISC-R Performance Subtes t s C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean VISC-R Performance S c o r e s 60 T a b l e 13 Mean WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r C l u s t e r n I S A V C DS VIQ 1 8 9.3 11.9 10.0 11.3 11.4 9.8 104.3 2 9 6.3 9.2 7.9 8.7 8.7 6.1 90.1 3 17 9.1 10.8 8.5 9.7 10.2 7.9 97.5 4 7 9.1 10.7 8.4 9.3 11.0 7.7 97.6 5 6 11.7 14.2 10.0 12.3 12.5 8.8 112.8 6 13 7.5 10.4 8.2 10.3 10.9 6.3 96.5 Combined 60 8.6 11.0 8.7 10.1 10.6 7.6 98.6 T a b l e 14 Mean WISC-R P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r C l u s t e r n PC PA BD OA Cdg M~ PIQ 1 8 10.8 10.9 . 9 . 3 8.9 8.3 11.0 98.0 2 9 7.9 8.7 7.1 8.2 6.6 6.3 84.6 3 17 10.4 11.8 10.4 11.5 8.1 10.5 101.8 4 7 10.0 12.0 9.9 10.5 9.7 12.3 103.3 5 6 11.8 11.8 10.3 11.2 8.2 7.0 104.3 6 13 9.4 9.5 9.2 9.9 8.8 11.4 96.0 Combined 60 9.9 10.7 9.4 10.2 8.3 10.4 97.9 s Mazes t o t a l (n = 2 2 ) , C l u s t e r 1 (n = 3 ) , C l u s t e r 2 (n = 3 ) , C l u s t e r 3 (n = 4 ) , C l u s t e r 4 (n = 3 ) , C l u s t e r 5 (n = 1 ) , C l u s t e r 6 (n = 8 ) . 61 T a b l e 15 Mean VISC-R F u l l S c a l e S c o r e s by C l u s t e r C l u s t e r n FSIQ 1 8 101 .4 2 9 86. 1 3 17 99. 1 4 7 100. 1 5 6 109. 8 6 13 95.8 Comb i ned 60 97.9 T a b l e 16 C l u s t e r M e m b e r s h i p C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r c e n t i n P e r c e n t o f C h a r a c t e r i s i t i c Each C l u s t e r Combined Groups 1 2 3 4 5 6 M a l e 63 56 88 57 50 69 68 F e m a l e 38 44 12 43 50 31 32 L e v e l 1 0 55 18 71 0 46 32 L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e 50 33 64 0 17 46 43 R e s o u r c e Room 50 66 35 100 17 53 52 L a n g u a g e D i f f i c u l t y 0 0 23 71 0 46 25 B e h a v i o r P r o b l e m 0 0 0 0 33 0 3 WISC-R V I Q > P I Q a 25 44 0 0 50 8 17 WISC-R PIQ>VIQ 13 22 35 29 17 8 22 T h i r d F a c t o r b 37 66 53 43 67 62 55 No I n t e r v e n t i o n 0 0 0 0 33 0 3 WISC-R V e r b a l P e r f o r m a n c e d i s c r e p a n c i e s and T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t (p=<.05) a c c o r d i n g t o t a b l e s p r o v i d e d by S a t t l e r ( 1 9 8 8 , p. 814, 8 1 6 ) . T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s on WISC-R were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m V e r b a l a n d / o r P e r f o r m a n c e F a c t o r s c o r e s . 62 S c a l e S c o r e 120 — I 1A -2 D 3 0 4 A -5 « 6 6 -C l u s t e r 1 C l u s t e r 2 C l u s t e r 3 C l u s t e r 4 C l u s t e r 5 C l u s t e r 6 1 10 1 CO 90 — 80 70 60 CSI VIQ PIQ F S I Q F i g u r e 7: C l u s t e r G r o u p i n g s : Mean TCS/CSI and V I S C - R I.Q. S c o r e s 63 t h i s c l u s t e r h ave l o w e r mean s c o r e s on TCS S e q u e n c e s and A n a l o g i e s s u b t e s t s c ompared t o t h e i r mean s c o r e s on Memory and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g . The Memory s u b t e s t had t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e i n t h i s g r o u p . A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s c l u s t e r had WISC-R T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h were s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e V e r b a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d / o r P e r c e p t u a l O r g a n i z a t i o n F a c t o r s and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t V e r b a l / P e r f o r m a n c e S c a l e d i f f e r e n c e s . L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s make up 5 5 % o f t h i s c l u s t e r . C l u s t e r 3. The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s c l u s t e r h ave a v e r a g e mean s c o r e s on t h e WISC-R, and a v e r a g e mean s c o r e s on TCS s u b t e s t s . C l u s t e r 3 i s t h e l a r g e s t c l u s t e r , composed o f s t u d e n t s w i t h m i l d t o m o d e r a t e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The o n l y s u b t e s t p a t t e r n o b s e r v a b l e on t h e TCS i s a r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r mean s c o r e on t h e A n a l o g i e s s u b t e s t . C l u s t e r 4. TCS mean s u b t e s t s c o r e s were l o w e s t on t h e V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t . Mean WISC-R FSIQ s c o r e s a r e h i g h e r t h a n mean TCS CSI s c o r e s . C l u s t e r 4 i s composed p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s and p r e d o m i n a n t l y o f s t u d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d a s h a v i n g l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Of t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s , 4 o f t h e 5 a r e L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s . C l u s t e r 5. Mean s c o r e s a r e h i g h e s t f o r t h i s g r o u p . TCS CSI i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e WISC-R FSIQ (S CSI 115, x FSIQ 1 1 0 ) . WISC-R mean VIQ s c o r e s and TCS mean CSI s c o r e s a r e s i m i l a r . T h r e e o f t h e f o u r o u t l i e r s i d e n t i f i e d by s c a t t e r p l o t a n a l y s i s a r e members o f t h i s c l u s t e r . A l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h i s c l u s t e r h a v e s i g n i f i c a n t WISC-R T h i r d F a c t o r a n d / o r V e r b a l / P e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s . The members o f t h i s c l u s t e r h ave had t h e l e a s t 64 r e m e d i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n , o n l y 2 o f t h e 6 have had R e s o u r c e Room o r L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e s u p p o r t . C l u s t e r 6. Mean s c o r e s on t h e TCS S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t were r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r t h a n o t h e r mean TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s i n t h i s c l u s t e r . Mean s c o r e s on t h e WISC-R D i g i t Span s u b t e s t a p p e a r e d t o be s l i g h t l y low: a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 5 o f t h e 13 s t u d e n t s ( 3 8 % ) had s i g n i f i c a n t l y low D i g i t Span s c o r e s . L a n g u a g e d i s o r d e r s c o m p r i s e d 4 6 % o f t h e c l u s t e r , 3 o f t h e s t u d e n t s were TCS L e v e l 1 s t u d e n t s and 3 were TCS L e v e l s 2/3. A r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c l u s t e r had s i g n i f i c a n t WISC-R T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s . S t u d e n t s i n t h i s c l u s t e r d i s p l a y m o d e r a t e t o s e v e r e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . 65 CHAPTER VI I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f F i n d i n g s and Summary The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e y a p p l y t o e a c h r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . Q u e s t i o n 1.a) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e TCS? A u t h o r s who have r e v i e w e d t h e TCS ( K e i t h , 1985; T r o y , 1985) q u e s t i o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b t e s t s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n L e v e l 1 and t h e o t h e r l e v e l s o f t h e t e s t . They s u g g e s t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may a f f e c t c o n t i n u i t y b e t w e e n l e v e l s (On L e v e l 1 t h e Memory and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t t a s k s a r e p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y ; on a l l o t h e r l e v e l s t h e t a s k s a r e n o t p i c t o r i a l , t h e s t u d e n t s must r e a d and u s e more d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e l a n g u a g e s k i l l s t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s ) . D i f f e r e n c e s i n s u b t e s t s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n TCS l e v e l s may be a n o t h e r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n c o r r e l a t i o n r e s u l t s on L e v e l s 1 and L e v e l s 2/3. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n r e s u l t s o f L e v e l 1 and L e v e l s 2/3 TCS t e s t i n g may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s m a l l (n = 19) s a m p l e s i z e t e s t e d w i t h L e v e l 1. Q u e s t i o n 1.b) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e T C S / L e v e l 1? The low c o r r e l a t i o n may i n d i c a t e t h a t TCS L e v e l 1 i s m e a s u r i n g s o m e t h i n g v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e WISC-R, o r i t may r e s u l t f r o m t h e r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e o f t h e s a m p l e . S u b s e q u e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l be b a s e d on t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R and L e v e l s 2/3 o f t h e TCS. 66 Q u e s t i o n 1.c) What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e F u l l S c a l e S c o r e on t h e WISC-R and t h e C o g n i t i v e S k i l l s I n d e x on t h e TCS, L e v e l s 2/3? The p o s i t i v e , s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n o f .63 b e t w e e n t h e WISC-R FSIQ and t h e TCS CSI c o r r e s p o n d s t o a common v a r i a n c e o f 40 % , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t s c o r e s on e i t h e r o f t h e t e s t s a r e m o d e r a t e l y p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e o t h e r . T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e two t e s t s s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a s u r i n g i d e n t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . The TCS may m e a s u r e more v e r b a l t h a n n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s , i t was f o u n d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f WISC-R VIQ (.70) t h a n WISC-R PIQ (.41). TCS CSI s c o r e s were shown t o f r e q u e n t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e WISC-R FSIQ s c o r e s . T h i s f i n d i n g , and t h e m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e t e s t s ; c r e a t e s a p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s d i a g n o s i s i f WISC-R s c o r e s a r e assumed t o be a d i a g n o s t i c c r i t e r i o n , and i f TCS and WISC-R s c o r e s a r e t r e a t e d a s e q u i v a l e n t . The f o u r o u t l i e r s i d e n t i f i e d h ave l a r g e WISC-R FSIQ and TCS CSI d i f f e r e n c e s . I n two c a s e s t h e TCS u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e WISC-R and i n two c a s e s t h e WISC-R u n d e r e s t i m a t e s t h e TCS. I n t h r e e o f t h e s e c a s e s s c o r e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e s t r o n g e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e CSI t o t h e WISC-R V e r b a l IQ. As o u t l i e r s 1 and 2 were r e a d i n g d i s a b l e d s t u d e n t s , t h e i r l o w e r CSI s c o r e s may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o t h e r e a d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h e TCS. A l l f o u r o u t l i e r s p r o f i l e s h ave T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r t h a n t h e V e r b a l C o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d / o r P e r c e p t u a l O r g a n i z a t i o n F a c t o r s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y l ow T h i r d F a c t o r s c o r e s o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n V e r b a l and P e r f o r m a n c e 67 S c a l e s on t h e WISC-R c a n be c o n s i d e r e d when m a k i n g d i a g n o s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f a s t u d e n t ' s r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . TCS p r o f i l e s do n o t a p p e a r t o g i v e t h e same t y p e o f d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n 2) What i s t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n WISC-R and TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s ? The p a t t e r n o f WISC-R s u b t e s t i n t e r c o r r e 1 a t i o n s shows h i g h e r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f V e r b a l s u b t e s t s w i t h o t h e r V e r b a l s u b t e s t s and t h e V e r b a l IQ and h i g h e r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f P e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s w i t h o t h e r P e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s and t h e P e r f o r m a n c e IQ. The r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s r e p o r t e d f o r t h e V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t c o m p a r e d t o t h e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n s a m p l e may r e s u l t f r o m t h e a b n o r m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f V o c a b u l a r y s u b t e s t s c o r e s i n t h i s g r o u p . The p a t t e r n o f TCS i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s shows t h e S e q u e n c e s , A n a l o g i e s , and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t s t o be more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e Memory s u b t e s t . The Memory s u b t e s t may be m e a s u r i n g a t r a i t d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e o t h e r TCS s u b t e s t s . Among TCS s u b s c a l e s , t h e S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f WISC-R s u b t e s t s and most h i g h l y w i t h t h e WISC-R FSIQ. The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t w i t h t h e FSIQ i s s i m i l a r i n m a g n i t u d e t o t h e CSI FSIQ c o r r e l a t i o n . The S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t a p p e a r s t o s h a r e t h e g r e a t e s t v a r i a n c e i n common w i t h t h e WISC-R, and c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e TCS t e s t c o m p o s i t e . The S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h t h e S i m i l a r i t i e s s u b t e s t . A n a l o g i e s and V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g a l s o 68 c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and most h i g h l y w i t h S i m i l a r i t i e s . The S i m i l a r i t i e s s u b t e s t r e q u i r e s t h e s t u d e n t t o u s e l o g i c a l and a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g t o e x p l a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n p a i r s o f w o r d s . The v e r b a l s k i l l s m e a s u r e d by t h e S i m i l a r i t i e s s u b t e s t a p p e a r t o s h a r e v a r i a n c e i n common w i t h an a b i l i t y m e a s u r e d by t h e s e t h r e e TCS s u b t e s t s . The WISC-R I n f o r m a t i o n s u b t e s t c o r r e l a t e d most h i g h l y w i t h t h e C S I , and had low b u t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S e q u e n c e s , A n a l o g i e s , and Memory s u b t e s t s . The I n f o r m a t i o n s u b t e s t r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s t o a n s w e r f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s and i s s a i d t o m e a s u r e c o m p r e h e n s i o n , r a n g e o f k n o w l e d g e , and l o n g t e r m memory. The s k i l l s m e a s u r e d by t h e I n f o r m a t i o n s u b t e s t a l s o a p p e a r t o be m e a s u r e d t o some d e g r e e by t h e s e t h r e e s u b t e s t s , and by t h e C S I . The TCS A n a l o g i e s s u b t e s t i s p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y and r e q u i r e s no v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s , t h e s t u d e n t c h o o s e s a p i c t u r e r e l a t e d t o 3 o t h e r s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t e d . A l t h o u g h A n a l o g i e s a p p e a r s t o r e q u i r e some n o n - v e r b a l s k i l l s , c r o s s - c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t s h a r e s most v a r i a n c e w i t h WISC-R V e r b a l s u b t e s t s . The TCS V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t , w h i c h p u r p o r t s t o m e a s u r e v e r b a l s k i l l s , c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h o n l y two WISC-R V e r b a l s u b t e s t s . The S e q u e n c e s s u b t e s t , w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h e s t u d e n t t o c o m p l e t e p a t t e r n s o f f i g u r e s , l e t t e r s o r numbers a p p e a r s t o be more h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h V e r b a l e l e m e n t s o f t h e WISC-R t h a n t h e V e r b a l R e a s o n i n g s u b t e s t . 69 The TCS Memory subtest c o r r e l a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y with one WISC-R subt e s t , Information. There seems l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a b i l i t i e s measured by the Memory subtest and a b i l i t i e s measured by WISC-R su b t e s t s . A c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s was conducted to examine the degree of ove r l a p between two t e s t s . One Canonical R was s i g n i f i c a n t in t h i s a n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t i n g one area of shared v a r i a n c e , or common f a c t o r measured, between the TCS and WISC-R. However, examination of the Redundancy Index i n d i c a t e s r e l a t i v e l y small amounts of shared v a r i a n c e . Based on these r e s u l t s , the TCS and WISC-R should be considered to be measuring mostly d i f f e r e n t a spects of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . Examination of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of TCS s u b t e s t s and WISC-R VIQ and PIQ to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e composites r e v e a l s that the TCS Memory subtest makes the l e a s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the TCS weighted composite and to the WISC-R composite. The TCS Sequences subtest makes the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to both. This p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r to the p a t t e r n of i n t e r - and c r o s s - c o r r e l a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. The r e l a t i v e l y small sample s i z e used in the c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s l i m i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . Question 3 ) Are students i d e n t i f i e d as having " s i g n i f i c a n t " TCS/CAT disc r e p a n c y scores a l s o i d e n t i f i e d through other approaches (e.g. r e f e r r a l to S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s ) as having l e a r n i n g di f f i c u l t i e s ? R e s u l t s of chi-square a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e that r e f e r r a l and disc r e p a n c y s t a t u s are independent in the sample. T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s in the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed on 70 d i s c r e p a n c y scores. Some authors have s t a t e d that d i s c r e p a n c y scores occur in normal, as well as l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d p o p u l a t i o n s , making t h e i r use as c r i t e r i o n measures suspect ( A l g o z z i n e and Ysseldyke, 1987; H e s l l e r , 1987; P a r r i l l , 1987). In d i s c u s s i o n with Learning A s s i s t a n c e teachers who are using d i s c r e p a n c y scores as a b a s i s f o r Learning A s s i s t a n c e r e f e r r a l , i t appears that teacher o b s e r v a t i o n and judgement i s used to help determine the v a l i d i t y of the discrepancy score. That i s , o b s e r v a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of classroom performance and, o f t e n , r e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t e s t i n g are considered along with d i s c r e p a n c y scores when r e f e r r i n g f o r Learning A s s i s t a n c e . Question 4) Does subtest s c a t t e r on the TCS re v e a l any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n s among students? C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of TCS scores i d e n t i f i e d s i x r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous groups of students. Examination of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each c l u s t e r lends weight to the e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the groupings. The c l u s t e r s composed of students with the g r e a t e s t l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n c l u d i n g language problems, were those c l u s t e r s with the g r e a t e s t percentage of Level 1 students ( C l u s t e r s 2, 4, & 6). T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Level 1 students in the sample. Level 1 i s a dministered in Grade 1 and 2. Because of the d i f f e r i n g developmental r a t e s of Primary students, students r e f e r r e d f o r assessment at those grade l e v e l s o f t e n must d i s p l a y severe l e a r n i n g problems before assessment i s considered necessary. Of the remaining c l u s t e r s , 1 and 3 i n c l u d e students with m i l d to moderate l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . 7 1 Cluster 5 is composed of students with r e l a t i v e l y high mean scores. Their WISC-R p r o f i l e s show s i g n i f i c a n t Third Factor and Verbal Performance differences, whereas their TCS p r o f i l e s are " f l a t " and consistently above average. In t h i s cluster the TCS does not y i e l d diagnostic information which could explain why an apparently "bright" student had r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y in some areas. In Cluster 2 examination of student p r o f i l e s reveals that TCS CSI scores underestimate WISC-R FSIQ scores. The students in th i s cluster a l l demonstrate academic learning problems. There is a consistent TCS subtest pattern of TCS Sequences and Analogies lower than Memory and Verbal Reasoning, suggesting that the Sequences and Analogies subtests are the subtests most closely related to school success. These subtests were also found to have the highest correlations with WISC-R subtests. Over half the students in this cluster have s i g n i f i c a n t Third Factor or Verbal/Performance differences. Although there is a consistent, general TCS subtest pattern for these students, examination of their individual WISC-R p r o f i l e s y i e l d s more useful and comprehensive diagnostic information. In the review of the l i t e r a t u r e i t was noted that even though the WISC-R is considered to be useful for individual diagnosis; the extent to which i t can be used diagnostically is controversial. The finding that a group test such as the TCS gives limited diagnostic information is to be expected. Students in Cluster 4 had r e l a t i v e l y lower Verbal Reasoning subtest scores, lending some construct v a l i d i t y to the Verbal Reasoning subtest as a measure of language s k i l l s . 72 Summary The m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e TCS and t h e VISC-R, w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e VISC-R and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two t e s t s s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be m e a s u r i n g e x a c t l y t h e same a s p e c t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . C a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m s t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p b e t w e e n t h e t e s t s . The TCS was f o u n d t o be a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r of VISC-R V e r b a l t h a n P e r f o r m a n c e I Q ' s . The f i n d i n g t h a t t h e TCS CSI c o n s i s t e n t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e VISC-R FSI Q , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t h a t g r o u p a b i l i t y t e s t s u n d e r e s t i m a t e s c o r e s on i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s ( S a t t l e r , 1 9 8 8 ) . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and s t u d e n t s whose CAT/TCS s c o r e s were d i s c r e p a n t . C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d 6 homogeneous g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s b a s e d on t h e i r TCS s c o r e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e TCS c a n d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n s u b t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s w i t h d i f f e r i n g a b i l i t y p r o f i l e s . However, t h e TCS s u b t e s t p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d a p p e a r t o have l i t t l e d i a g n o s t i c u s e f u l n e s s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e TCS and TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s have l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y a s s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y S ample b i a s and s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e a f f e c t t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . I n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s t h e s a m p l e was n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d ; r a t h e r t h e s a m p l e i n c l u d e d t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s i n S c h o o l 73 D i s t r i c t #71 r e f e r r e d f o r a s s e s s m e n t w i t h t h e WISC-R f r o m S e p t e m b e r 1986 t o J u n e 1988, who had a l s o been t e s t e d w i t h t h e TCS d u r i n g t h a t t i m e . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o d i v i d e t h i s g r o u p i n t o two s m a l l e r s u b g r o u p s , d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r t h e y had been t e s t e d w i t h TCS L e v e l 1 o r 2/3. The p a r t i c u l a r l y s m a l l L e v e l 1 g r o u p s i z e (n = 19) a p p e a r s t o have a f f e c t e d c o r r e l a t i o n r e s u l t s . R e s u l t s o f t h e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s may a l s o h a v e been a f f e c t e d by s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . O n l y one s c h o o l o f a p o s s i b l e f o u r q u a l i f i e d f o r c h i - s q u a r e a n a l y s i s o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s and r e f e r r a l s t a t u s . R e s u l t s may be s p e c i f i c t o t h a t s c h o o l and n o t g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o o t h e r s c h o o l s o r d i s t r i c t s . The TCS and CAT t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , a l t h o u g h s t a n d a r d i z e d , w e r e c a r r i e d o u t by d i f f e r e n t t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . WISC-R a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was a l s o p e r f o r m e d by d i f f e r e n t e x a m i n e r s . T h e r e f o r e , r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y may be a f f e c t e d by i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The u s e o f TCS s c o r e s a s p a r t o f an i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s f o r r e f e r r a l t o S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e l i t t l e d i a g n o s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n . The p o s s i b l e c a u s e s f o r low s c o r e s on g r o u p t e s t s ( o t h e r t h a n l a c k o f a b i l i t y ) ; l a c k o f t e s t - t a k i n g s k i l l s , p o o r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , and p o o r m o t i v a t i o n ; a r e a l l p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . I t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r TCS s c o r e s c o u l d p r o v i d e any more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h a t a v a i l a b l e f r o m t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n and s c o r e s on a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s . The TCS s h o u l d n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h 74 i n d i v i d u a l t e s t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y s u c h a s t h e WISC-R; and s h o u l d n o t be u s e d by i t s e l f t o make p l a c e m e n t and p r o g r a m m i n g d e c i s i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l TCS s u b t e s t s c o r e s s h o u l d n o t be u s e d f o r d i a g n o s i s o f l e a r n i n g s t r e n g t h s and w e a k n e s s e s . F u r t h e r s t u d y o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i s s u g g e s t e d b e f o r e t h e y become t h e o n l y c r i t e r i a f o r r e f e r r a l t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h A c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t u d y u s i n g l a r g e r s a m p l e s i z e s and random s a m p l i n g w o u l d h e l p t o c o n f i r m o r d i s p r o v e t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n TCS L e v e l 1 and t h e o t h e r TCS L e v e l s c o u l d c l a r i f y w h e t h e r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n L e v e l 1 s u b t e s t s t r u c t u r e a r e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o r w h e t h e r t h e y e x i s t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y due t o s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e . The u s e f u l n e s s o f CAT/TCS d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s c o u l d be f u r t h e r e x p l o r e d . The TCS i s d e s c r i b e d by i t s a u t h o r s a s m e a s u r i n g "... a b i l i t i e s o f a r e l a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t n a t u r e t h a t a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s i n an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m " (TCS T e s t C o o r d i n a t o r ' s Handbook, 1982, p. 8 ) . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s c o r e s on t h e TCS and a c a d e m i c s u c c e s s c o u l d be a s s e s s e d . C o n e l u s i on In t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e TCS, and TCS/CAT d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , were n o t f o u n d t o be v a l i d s c r e e n i n g m e a s u r e s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n . S p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s a r i s i n g f o r m t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l s ; g r o u p t e s t s do n o t a p p e a r a b l e t o u s e f u l l y i d e n t i f y i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s . 75 REFERENCES A l g o z z i n e , B., S a c c a , K.M., & Maheady, L. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A s s e s s m e n t i n r e m e d i a l and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n " T u r n up t h e l i g h t s - The p a r t y ' s n o t o v e r ! " The P o i n t e r , 3 0 ( 2 ) , 5-8. A l g o z z i n e , B. & Y s s e l d y k e , J . E . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Q u e s t i o n i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s : R e t a k i n g t h e f i r s t s t e p 20 y e a r s l a t e r . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t y Q u a r t e r l y , 10, 301-312. A n a s t a s i , A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C o a c h i n g , t e s t s o p h i s t i c a t i o n and d e v e l o p e d a b i l i t i e s . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 36_(10), 1086-1093. A n a s t a s i , A. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g , ( 5 t h e d . ) . New Y o r k : M a c m i 1 l a n . A l t e p e t e r , T. & H a n d a l , P . J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Use o f t h e PPVT-R f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s c r e e n i n g w i t h s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n : A c a u t i o n . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o e d u c a t i ona 1 A s s e s s m e n t , 4_, 145-154. B a n g e r t - D r o w n s , R . I . , K u l i k , J.A., & K u l i k , C.L.C. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E f f e c t s o f c o a c h i n g p r o g r a m s on a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 50.(4), 5 7 1 - 5 8 5 . B e e r y , K.E. & B u k t i n c a , N.A. ( 1 9 6 7 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l T e s t o f  V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . C h i c a g o : F o l l e t t P u b l i s h i n g Company. B e n n e t t , R.E. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . R e s e a r c h and e v a l u a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s f o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a s s e s s m e n t . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 5 0 ( 2 ) , 110-117. B i r e n b a u m , M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . "How" bey o n d t h e "What", t o w a r d s t h e "Why": A r u l e a s s e s s m e n t a p p r o a c h t o a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t i n g . S t u d i e s  i n E d u c a t i o n a l E v a l u a t i o n , 12, 159-168. BMPD S t a t i s t i c a l S o f t w a r e , I n c . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M a n u a l : B M D P 6 M - C a n o n i c a l  c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . W.J. D i x o n , ( E d . ) . C a l i f o r n i a : R e g e n t s o f U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M a n u a l o f  P o l i c i e s , P r o c e d u r e s , and G u i d e l i n e s R e v i s e d . B o r g , W. & G a l l , M.D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , ( 4 t h ed.) New Y o r k : Longman. B o r t n e r , M. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R e v i e w o f W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d . In James V. M i t c h e l l , J r . ( E d . ) , The N i n t h  M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k (pp. 1 7 1 3 - 1 7 1 5 ) . L i n c o l n , N e b r a s k a : The B u r o s I n s t i t u t e o f M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a . 76 B r o o k s , C.R. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . V I S C , WISC-R, S-B L&M, WRAT: R e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s among c h i l d r e n aged s i x t o t e n r e f e r r e d f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 1 4 ( 1 ) , 3 0-33. B u r t o n , T.A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . I n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g : The m y s t i q u e , t h e myth, t h e m a e l s t r o m . D i a g n o s t i que, 8 ( 2 ) , 101-106. C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n Form A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t e r / M c G r a w H i l l R y e r s o n . C a n a d i a n A c h i e v e m e n t T e s t s T e s t C o o r d i n a t o r ' s Handbook. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : C a n a d i a n T e s t C e n t e r / M c G r a w H i l l R y e r s o n . C a r r o l l , J . B . , & H o r n , J . L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . On t h e s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s o f a b i l i t y t e s t i n g . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 36_(10), 1012-1026. Cone, T.E. & W i l s o n , L.R. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Q u a n t i f y i n g a s e v e r e d i s c r e p a n c y : A c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . L e a r n i n g D i s a b i l i t i e s  Q u a r t e r l y , 4, 3 5 9 - 3 7 1 . C o s t a r , E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . S c o r i n g h i g h i n r e a d i n g : t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t t a k i n g b e h a v i o r s . E l e m e n t a r y  S c h o o l G u i d a n c e and C o u n s e l l i n g , 15, 157-159. C r o f o o t , M.J. & B e n n e t , T.S. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A C o m p a r i s o n o f T h r e e S c r e e n i n g T e s t s and t h e WISC-R i n S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n E v a l u a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 17, 474-478. Deno, S.L. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C u r r i c u l u m - B a s e d M e a surement: t h e e m e r g i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n , 52_(3) , 2 1 9 - 2 3 2 . D e t t e r m a n , D.K. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . R e v i e w o f W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n - R e v i s e d . I n James V. M i t c h e l l , J r . ( E d . ) , The N i n t h  M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s Y e a r b o o k (pp. 1 7 1 5 - 1 7 1 6 ) . L i n c o l n , N e b r a s k a : The B u r o s I n s t i t u t e o f M e n t a l M e a s u r e m e n t s , U n i v e r s i t y o f N e b r a s k a . D o l l y , J . P . & W i l l i a m s , K.S. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . U s i n g t e s t t a k i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o m a x i m i z e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s c o r e s . E d u c a t i o n a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e m e n t , 46, 619-625. Dunn, L.M. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . E x p a n d e d M a n u a l f o r P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y  T e s t . C i r c l e P i n e s , MN: A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e . Dunn, L.M. & Dunn, L.M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P e a b o d y P i c t u r e V o c a b u l a r y T e s t - R e v i s e d , M a n u a l f o r f o r m s L and M. C i r c l e P i n e s , MN: A m e r i c a n G u i d a n c e S e r v i c e . 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