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Planning for the housing impacts of a hallmark event : a case study of EXPO 86 Olds, Kristopher Nelson 1988

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PLANNING FOR THE HOUSING IMPACTS OF A HALLMARK EVENT: A CASE STUDY OF EXPO 86 By KRISTOPHER N. OLDS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y of A p r i l © K r i s t o p h e r B r i t i s h Columbia 1988 N. Olds,.1988 In present ing this thesis in partial fulf i lment of the requ i rements for an advanced d e g r e e at the University of British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for re ference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extensive c o p y i n g of this thesis for scholarly pu rposes may b e granted by the head of m y depa r tmen t or by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g or publ icat ion of this thesis for financial gain shall not be a l lowed wi thout my written permiss ion . Depa r tmen t o f Canrnurrity and Regional Planning T h e University of British C o l u m b i a Vancouve r , C a n a d a n a . A p r i l 2 6 , 1988 DE-6 (2/88) i i A B S T R A C T T h i s study proposes a s t r a t e g y which w i l l a s s i s t governments, the sponsors of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups t o i d e n t i f y and p l a n f o r the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts of such e v e n t s . H a l l m a r k e v e n t s a r e major one-time or r e c u r r i n g : e v e n t s of l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n , d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y t o enhance the awareness, a p p e a l and p r o f i t a b i l i t y of a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n i n the s h o r t and/or l o n g term. World's F a i r s and Olympic Games a r e two examples of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . The 1986 World's F a i r (Expo 86) i n Vancouver p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o document the impacts of t h i s h a l l m a r k event on the r e s i d e n t s of a community which b o r d e r s the f a i r s i t e and on the p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s of the l o c a l government. F i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e a d d r e s s e d : 1) How has the n a t u r e of World's F a i r s changed s i n c e t h e i r emergence i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y ? 2) To what e x t e n t have World's F a i r s been used as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l ; what have t h e i r h o u s i n g impacts been; and, how have t h e s e impacts been planned f o r ? 3) What was the n a t u r e of the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 on the r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e community i n i Vancouver? I 4) What was the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p o t e n t i a l and then a c t u a l h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 on the r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e ? 5) What were the reasons f o r the s u c c e s s and/or f a i l u r e of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? These r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e e x p l o r e d by: u n d e r t a k i n g a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w ; c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h academics, p l a n n e r s and World's F a i r s t a f f i n c i t i e s where f a i r s have or w i l l be h e l d ; i n t e r v i e w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Expo 86, the C i t y of Vancouver and the impacted community; a n a l y z i n g C i t y f i l e s on the i s s u e ; and, p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the n a t u r e of World's F a i r s has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h e i r emergence. In the l a s t two decades, t h e i r use as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the p r e s s u r e s c r e a t e d by m i l l i o n s of f a i r v i s i t o r s , has c r e a t e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of h o u s i n g i m p a c t s : o n - s i t e impact; post-announcement s p e c u l a t i v e impact; pre-Expo t o u r i s t demand impact; and, post-Expo impact. In Vancouver, f o r example, between 1,600 and 2,600 l o d g i n g house u n i t s were d e m o l i s h e d or c o n v e r t e d between 1978 and 1986 i n a community b o r d e r i n g the f a i r s i t e (Expo 86 was announced i n 1980). In a d d i t i o n , between J a n u a r y and June, 1986, 500 t o 850 r e s i d e n t s were e v i c t e d from l o d g i n g houses (Expo 86 opened on May 2, 1986). The e v a l u a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the Expo 86 h o u s i n g impacts s u g g e s t s t h a t the C i t y was a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d . However, i t was the p o l i t i c s of p l a n n i n g --the i s s u e s of p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , i d e o l o g y and i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s -- which r e s u l t e d i n the C i t y ' s f a i l u r e t o s t o p the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . T h i s s t u d y c o n c l u d e s by recommending t h a t a s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s be implemented f o r a d d r e s s i n g the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . P l a n n e r s s h o u l d adapt t h e i r r o l e i n the p r o c e s s t o f i t the p l a n n i n g environment. L a s t l y , governments, s p o n s o r s of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups s h o u l d implement a wide range of o p t i o n s t o p r e v e n t n e g a t i v e h o u s i i m p a c t s from o c c u r r i n g . Examples of such o p t i o n s and some " p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r " a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e of t h i s s t u d y . T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Page ABSTRACT . i i CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i CLARIFICATION OF TERMS i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . x CHAPTER ONE: I n t r o d u c t i o n and Background A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. Context and Scope of the Study 3 C. S i g n i f i c a n c e and L i m i t a t i o n s 8 D. Methodology and O r g a n i z a t i o n 11 CHAPTER TWO: H i s t o r i c a l Overview of the Roles of World's F a i r s A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 14 B. P e r i o d I : O r i g i n s of World's F a i r s -15 C. P e r i o d I I : The E a r l y World's F a i r s 18 D. P e r i o d I I I : The C i t y B e a u t i f u l 23 E'. P e r i o d IV: The C i t y E f f i c i e n t 27 F. P e r i o d V: The C i t y of Renewal 31 1. Expo 62 - S e a t t l e , Washington 32 2. Expo 64/65 - New York, New York 34 3. Expo 67 - Montreal, Quebec 35 4. Expo 68 - San Antonio, Texas 38 5. Expo 74 - Spokane, Washington 40 6. Expo 82 - K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee 43 7. Expo 84 - New Orl e a n s , L o u i s i a n a 50 8. Expo 88 - Brisbane, A u s t r a l i a 53 9. Expo 92 - Chicago, I l l i n o i s 56 G. Conclusions" 58 CHAPTER THREE: Expo 86 i n Vancouver: A Case Study A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 64 B. Expo 86 1 . O r i g i n s 65 2. L o c a t i o n 69 3. General O p e r a t i o n a l F a c t s 71 4. The Le g a c i e s of Expo 86 71 5. The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Expo 86 to the B.C. E n t e r p r i s e C o r p o r a t i o n 75 v i C. The Impacted Community: A P r o f i l e of the Downtown E a s t s i d e 1. L o c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n 78 2. A B r i e f H i s t o r y 80 3. A S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e 83 4. R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy R i g h t s 89 5. Sense of Community 90 D. The C i t y of Vancouver's P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 93 E. The Housing Impacts of Expo 86 1. O n - s i t e Impact 103 2. Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impact 103 3. Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact 107 4. Post-Expo Impact 110 5. The H e a l t h C o s t s of the Expo 86 Housing Impacts .. 112 6. The Impact on Housing i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver .. 115 CHAPTER FOUR: An E v a l u a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver's P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s A. E v a l u a t i o n of the P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s 117 B. The P o l i t i c s of P l a n n i n g 131 C. C o n c l u s i o n s 137 CHAPTER FIVE: An A c t i o n P l a n , Recommendations and Summary A. How t o P l a n f o r the Housing Impacts of a H a l l m a r k Event 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 140 2. The P r o c e s s I s s u e s t o be C o n s i d e r e d a. The P r o c e s s 140 b. The R o l e of the P l a n n e r 141 3. A C a t a l o g u e of P o s s i b l e O p t i o n s and P o i n t s t o C o n s i d e r 145 C. The F u t u r e of the Downtown E a s t s i d e : Recommendations t o the C i t y of Vancouver 166 D. Summary 1. The Research Q u e s t i o n s A d d r e s s e d 169 2. F u t u r e R e s e a r c h P o s s i b i l i t i e s 176 BIBLIOGRAPHY : 179 APPENDIX I 207 APPENDIX I I . . . 222 APPENDIX I I I 263 APPENDIX IV 264 APPENDIX V. 266 APPENDIX VI 268 v i i L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e 1 P o p u l a t i o n C h a n g e s i n t h e Downtown N o r t h and S o u t h , t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e and S t r a t h c o n a C e n s u s T r a c t s , 1961-1 981 84 T a b l e 2 L o d g i n g House T e n a n t s and T h e i r P r o p o r t i o n o f t h e T o t a l R e s i d e n t i a l P o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Downtown N o r t h and S o u t h , t he Downtown E a s t s i d e a n d S t r a t h c o n a , 1961-1981 85 T a b l e 3 C h a n g e s i n T o t a l A s s e s s e d V a l u e f o r Downtown R e s i d e n t i a l H o t e l s , 1979-1982 104 T a b l e 4 I n d i c a t o r s o f I n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e R e s i d e n t i a l H o t e l M a r k e t , 1979-1982 105 T a b l e 5 Index t o C a t a l o g u e o f P o s s i b l e O p t i o n s and P o i n t s t o C o n s i d e r 146 v i i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e 1 Map of Vancouver 66 F i g u r e 2 Map of Expo 86 S i t e 70 F i g u r e 3 Map of Downtown E a s t s i d e - Oppenheimer D i s t r i c t (narrow d e f i n i t i o n ) 78 F i g u r e 4 Map of the Downtown E a s t s i d e (broad d e f i n i t i o n ) 79 F i g u r e 5 P r o t o t y p e of P l a n n i n g Problems 143 F i g u r e 6 P l a n n i n g R o l e s C a t e g o r i z e d by P l a n n i n g C o n d i t i o n s 144 C L A R I F I C A T I O N OF T E R M S World's F a i r , f a i r , Expo, E x h i b i t i o n , and E x p o s i t i o n a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y throughout the s t u d y . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f e r t o the same s p e c t a c l e . The terms d i s p l a c e m e n t , e v i c t i o n and d i s l o c a t i o n a r e used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y throughout the s t u d y . They a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f e r t o the same p r o c e s s . X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y c o u l d not have been completed w i t h o u t the h e l p of many p e o p l e . D a v i d H u l c h a n s k i and D a v i d Ley have p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t h e l p and su p p o r t as my p r i m a r y a d v i s o r s . Thanks a l s o go to P e t e r B o o t h r o y d , Henry Hightower and Brahm Wiesman f o r a d v i c e a l o n g the way. Doug Konrad s u p p l i e d v e r y h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and comment on the t o p i c . The C i t y of Vancouver's S o c i a l P l a n n i n g ( p a r t i c u l a r l y Doug Purdy) and H e a l t h Departments were v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of the r e s e a r c h . J i m Green and John S h a y l o r of DERA p e r m i t t e d " yet a n o t h e r " s t u d e n t t o hound them f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , my w i f e J a n i c e l o v i n g l y beared w i t h , and a s s i s t e d me over the t h r e e y e a r s i t took t o c a r r y out the s t u d y . The Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) p r o v i d e d me w i t h two y e a r s of v i t a l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h the CMHC Graduate F e l l o w s h i p . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND A. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s s t u d y proposes a s t r a t e g y which w i l l a s s i s t governments, the sponsors of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups t o i d e n t i f y and p l a n f o r the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts of such e v e n t s . H a l l m a r k events are. d e f i n e d a s : Major- one-time or r e c u r r i n g e v e n t s of l i m i t e d d u r a t i o n , developed p r i m a r i l y t o enhance the . awareness, appeal and p r o f i t a b i l i t y of a t o u r i s t d e s t i n a t i o n i n the s h o r t and/or l o n g term. Such events r e l y f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s on u n i q u e n e s s , s t a t u s , or t i m e l y s i g n i f i c a n c e t o c r e a t e i n t e r e s t and a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . ( R i t c h i e , 1984, p. 2) The proposed s t r a t e g y a d d r e s s e s both p r o c e s s and s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e s . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has demonstrated t h a t ad hoc p l a n n i n g ( " f i r e f i g h t i n g " ) i s a p r o b l e m a t i c and c o s t l y a c t i v i t y f o r a l l p a r t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the poor and e l d e r l y i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s who most o f t e n s u f f e r because of the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . The major premise of t h i s s tudy i s t h a t p l a n n i n g t o p r o t e c t the t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t s of a community from i n v o l u n t a r y d i s p l a c e m e n t i s a d e s i r a b l e and n e c e s s a r y a c t i v i t y . World's F a i r s and o t h e r h a l l m a r k events c r e a t e h o u s i n g impacts which d i s r u p t t he l i v e s and h e a l t h of the most p o w e r l e s s p e o p l e i n our s o c i e t y . G i v e n t h a t h a l l m a r k e v e n t s r e c e i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e government s u p p o r t , the government, the sponsors of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups have a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o p r e s e r v e 2 the peace of mind and body of the p e o p l e who may be impacted. World's F a i r s a r e c u l t u r a l a r t i f a c t s . S i n c e the l a t e 19th Ce n t u r y they have been s t a g e d i n c i t i e s such as London, P a r i s , San F r a n c i s c o , M o n t r e a l , and more r e c e n t l y K n o x v i l l e , New O r l e a n s and Vancouver. There a r e a m u l t i t u d e of r o l e s , both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , w hich World's F a i r s have p l a y e d s i n c e they began b e i n g h e l d on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . R e c e n t l y , one of t h e i r more i m p o r t a n t r o l e s has been t h a t of an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . T h i s r o l e has combined w i t h the p r e s s u r e c r e a t e d by the i n f l u x of l a r g e numbers of v i s i t o r s t o c r e a t e d i s r u p t i v e h o u s i n g impacts on r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o the h a l l m a r k event s i t e . The o p e r a t i o n of the 1986 World's F a i r (Expo 86) i n Vancouver p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o document the impacts on the r e s i d e n t s of the i n n e r c i t y and on t h e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s of the l o c a l government. T h i s s t u d y answers f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s : 1) How has the n a t u r e of World's F a i r s changed s i n c e t h e i r emergence i n the l a t e 19th c e n t u r y ? 2) To what e x t e n t have World's F a i r s been used as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l ; what have t h e i r h o u s i n g impacts been; and, how have these i m p a c t s been planned f o r ? 3) What was the n a t u r e of the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 on the r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e community i n Vancouver? 4) What was the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p o t e n t i a l and then a c t u a l h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 on the r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e ? 5) What were t h e reas o n s f o r the s u c c e s s and/or f a i l u r e of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? 3 B . C o n t e x t a n d S c o p e o f t h e S t u d y T h i s study c o n t r i b u t e s t o a d i v e r s e body of l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of p l a n n i n g , h o u s i n g , geography, t o u r i s m , and s o c i a l work. One of the c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s s tudy i s t o i n t e g r a t e r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . Too o f t e n r e s e a r c h has been c a r r i e d out i n a vacuum f o r v a l i d r e a s o n s ( e . g . , "I'm l i m i t i n g the scope") or f o r i n v a l i d r e a s o n s ( e . g . , " m u n i c i p a l s t a f f a r e n ' t h e a l t h c a r e w o r k e r s " ) . T h i s p o i n t i s e x p r e s s e d by C M . H a l l (1987) i n a paper on the " p o t e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h on h a l l m a r k t o u r i s t e v e n t s " . He s t a t e s t h a t i t i s important t o n o t e : the c o n t e x t w i t h i n which h a l l m a r k e v e n t s t a k e p l a c e . H a l l m a r k t o u r i s t e v e n t s cannot be s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n from the complex economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l m i l i e u x i n which they occur (Runyan and Wu, 1979). I f r e s e a r c h e r s are t o make a v a l i d c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the study of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s and t h e i r impacts i t i s v i t a l t h a t we become aware of the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s of such e v e n t s f o r h o s t c o m m u n i t i e s , (p. 3) (emphasis added) I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e scope of the s t u d y remain wide and t h a t a broad range of knowledge i s drawn upon. The f i r s t body of l i t e r a t u r e t h i s study draws on i s h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . S i n c e the l a t e 1970's a s m a l l number of academics, p r i m a r i l y from Canada, A u s t r a l i a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , have been c a r r y i n g out r e s e a r c h on the i m p a c t s of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . There a r e a wide v a r i e t y of " t y p e s " of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . R i t c h i e (1984, p. 2) d e l i n e a t e s seven c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : 4 1) World f a i r s / e x p o s i t i o n s such as Expo 86; 2) Unique c a r n i v a l s and f e s t i v a l s such as the Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l ; 3) Major s p o r t e v e n t s such as the 1984 Summer O l y m p i c s ; 4) S i g n i f i c a n t c u l t u r a l and r e l i g i o u s e v e n ts such as the R o y a l Wedding; 5) H i s t o r i c a l m i l e s t o n e s such as the 500th A n n i v e r s a r y of t h e D i s c o v e r y of A m e r i c a ; 6) C l a s s i c a l c o m m e r c i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l e v e n ts such as Wine P u r c h a s i n g i n F r a n c e ; and, 7) Major p o l i t i c a l personage e v e n t s such as the f u n e r a l of Brezhnev ( R u s s i a ) or P a p a l v i s i t s . I mportant r e s e a r c h on h a l l m a r k events has been c a r r i e d out by: Cowie (1987); H a l l (1987); H i l l e r (1987); R i t c h i e (1984); R i t c h i e and A i t k e n (1984); and, R i t c h i e and B e l i v e a u ( 1 9 74). These a u t h o r s examine the economic, t o u r i s m / c o m m e r c i a l , p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l / s o c i o - c u l t u r a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l impacts of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s t o g e t h e r w i t h the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s . T h i s s t u d y can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a l l m a r k event r e s e a r c h s i n c e b oth the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l impacts of World's F a i r s a r e examined. The f o c u s i s on N o r t h American f a i r s ( w i t h the s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n of Expo 88 i n A u s t r a l i a ) and t h e i r impacts on i n n e r c i t y r edevelopment, h o u s i n g and the l o c a l government p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s d e v i s e d t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i m p a c t s . The second i m p o r t a n t body of l i t e r a t u r e drawn upon i s t o u r i s m r e s e a r c h . H a l l m a r k event l i t e r a t u r e i s i n f a c t one p a r t i c u l a r b r a n c h of t o u r i s m r e s e a r c h . Tourism r e s e a r c h i s becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t f i e l d . As H a l l (1987) p u t s 5 i t , " t o u r i s m i s the i n d u s t r y of the l a t e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and beyond." With the r i s e i n the economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l importance of t o u r i s m , we have seen c o n s i d e r a b l e growth i n t o u r i s m r e s e a r c h . Research tends t o f a l l i n t o f o u r main a r e a s : 1) The t o u r i s t -- h i s / h e r m o t i v a t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , r e a c t i o n s , and r o l e s ; 2) The r e l a t i o n s and p e r c e p t i o n s of t o u r i s t s and l o c a l s ; 3) The s t r u c t u r e of the t o u r i s t system; and, 4) the socioeconomic and s o c i o c u l t u r a l consequences of t o u r i s m . (Cohen, 1984, p. 373) A u t h o r s such as M a t h i e s o n and W a l l ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Young (1973), Wu (1982), W a l l (1983), Pizam (1978), Long and Hecock (1984) or G a r t n e r and Holecek (1983) a r e j u s t a few i n a b l o s s o m i n g f i e l d who a r e concerned w i t h a l l f o u r p r i n c i p a l i s s u e a r e a s (see Cohen, 1984, f o r an overview of the a p p r o a c h e s , i s s u e s and f i n d i n g s of t o u r i s m r e s e a r c h ) . T h i s study f o c u s e s on the l a s t i s s u e a r e a -- the s ocioeconomic and s o c i o c u l t u r a l i m p a c t s . G e n e r a l l y , r e s e a r c h i n the socioeconomic a r e a examines i s s u e s such as f o r e i g n exchange, income, employment, p r i c e s , d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s , o w n e r ship and c o n t r o l , development and government revenue (Cohen, 1984, p. 384). In c o n t r a s t , the s o c i o c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s f o c u s on i s s u e s such as community i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e n a t u r e of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , the bases of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the rhythm of s o c i a l l i f e , m i g r a t i o n , the d i v i s i o n of l a b o u r , s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power, d e v i a n c e , and customs and the a r t s 6 (Cohen, 1984, p. 385). H a l l (1987) a l s o i n c l u d e s i s s u e s such as "problems of c u l t u r a l change and a n x i e t y , s o c i a l s t r e s s i n t h e h o s t community, and s o c i a l e v i c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from changes t o the p a t t e r n of economic p r o d u c t i o n , " (p. 6 ) . R e s i d e n t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t r e s u l t i n g from the o p e r a t i o n of a h a l l m a r k t o u r i s t event i s both a s o c i o c u l t u r a l and a socioeconomic impact. The t h i r d body of l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h World's F a i r s . P a r t of t h i s study p r o v i d e s an h i s t o r i c a l o v e r view of the v a r i o u s r o l e s of World's F a i r s , l e a d i n g t o an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e i r use as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . H i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s such as A b b o t t (1981), A l l i x (1922), B u e l ( 1 8 9 4 ) , C a w e l t i (1968), C h a n d l e r (1986), Gardner (1880), L u c k h u r s t (1951) and M a n d e l l (1967) are drawn upon. P l a n n i n g h i s t o r y l i t e r a t u r e (Boyer (1983), Foglesong (1986), Hines (1974), K r u e c k e b e r g (1983), M u l l i n (1972), P e t e r s o n (1983) and W i l s o n (1984)) a r e p e r u s e d as a r e a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s ( B e n e d i c t , 1983; D o b k i n , 1983; The Queens Museum, 1980). Most i m p o r t a n t l y , a s m a l l group of s t u d i e s have p a r t i a l l y documented how World's F a i r s have been, and w i l l be used, as i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l s (Chicago C e n t r a l Area Committee and The C i t y of C h i c a g o , 1983; E l l i o t , 1968; G u t s t e i n , 1986; Knack, 1982; McDonald and Wheeler, 1983; M u l l i n , 1972; Park and F e r o s , 1985; P e t e r s , 1982). R e s i d e n t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t r e s e a r c h i s the f o u r t h body of l i t e r a t u r e t h i s s t u d y draws upon. Authors such as Hartman (1974; 1979), Hartman, K e a t i n g and LeGates (1981), Hodge (1981), LeGates 7 and Hartman (1986), Ley (1986b), Rosen (1984) and, S m i t h and W i l l i a m s (1986) a n a l y z e the causes and consequences of d i s p l a c e m e n t . They i d e n t i f y s t r a t e g i e s d e s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s from the n e g a t i v e impacts of urban redevelopment and d i s p l a c e m e n t . The m a j o r i t y of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p r o c e s s of g e n t r i f i c a t i o n . One a l t e r n a t i v e and y e t complementary p e r s p e c t i v e on d i s p l a c e m e n t has emerged from the f i e l d s of s o c i a l work and p u b l i c h e a l t h . P r i m a r i l y c o n cerned w i t h the aged, r e s e a r c h e r s such as Bahr (1976), Borup, G a l l e g o and H e f f e r n a n ( 1 9 8 0 ) , Bourestrom and P a s t a l a n (1981), Cohen and S o k o l v s k y ( 1 9 8 0 ) , E i s i n g e r (1986), E c k e r t (1980), F e r r a r o ( 1 9 8 2 ) , F r y ( 1 9 8 6 ) , Hanvey (1981), McLachlan (1981), Rowels and Ohta (1983), and S c h u l z and Brenner (1977) a r e a few of the a u t h o r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s o c i a l l i f e of i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s and the e l d e r l y . They have sought t o d e t e r m i n e the h e a l t h i m p a c t s of the i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n of e l d e r l y p e o p l e . T h i s l i t e r a t u r e i s r e l e v a n t because c o n s i d e r a b l e n e g a t i v e h e a l t h impacts were i n c u r r e d d u r i n g the Expo 86 e v i c t i o n s . The scope of t h i s s t u d y i s v e r y b r o a d . The work i s kept s u f f i c i e n t l y f o c u s s e d i n t h r e e ways. World's F a i r s a l o n e a r e used as the example of a h a l l m a r k e v e n t . The f o c u s i s on i n n e r c i t y redevelopment and h o u s i n g impacts of N o r t h American World's F a i r s ( w i t h one e x c e p t i o n ) . L a s t l y , t h e h o u s i n g impacts on l o d g i n g houses i n Vancouver's Downtown E a s t s i d e community a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d on. T r a f f i c and economic impacts a r e beyond the scope of t h i s s tudy as a r e the ho u s i n g impacts o f Expo on m o b i l e home owners i n the subu r b s . The i s s u e under e x a m i n a t i o n was the most s e r i o u s and c o n t r o v e r s i a l impact c r e a t e d by Expo 86. As such , i t d e s e r v e s d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n . C . S i g n i f i c a n c e a n d L i m i t a t i o n s " I don't u n d e r s t a n d why the government c a n ' t put on r e n t c o n t r o l ... D u r i n g the war we had r e n t c o n t r o l . W e l l , t h e r e ' s a new war on now - i t ' s a war a g a i n s t poor people ... I'm not the r u l e r of my d e s t i n y any more. The d o l l a r b i l l i s the r u l e r of my d e s t i n y . " ( E v i c t e e Joseph S m i t h , 87, c i t e d i n S a r t i , March 4, 1986) There i s a need t o go beyond the glamour of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and the supposed e c o n o m i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of such e v e n t s , and s u b j e c t them t o r i g o r o u s i n t e g r a t e d economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . ( H a l l , 1987, pp. 8-9) The impacts of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s have not been a n a l y z e d t o any g r e a t e x t e n t nor have a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h methods been d e v e l o p e d ( R i t c h i e and A i t k e n , 1984; H a l l , 1987). As i n t o u r i s m r e s e a r c h , the impact s t u d i e s which have been c a r r i e d out a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h "the more obvi o u s economic i m p a c t s " ( M a t h i e s o n and W a l l , 1982; B l a c k o r b y , P i c a r d and S l a d e , 1986; D e l i a B e t t a , Loudon, Booth and Weeks, 1977; R i t c h i e and B e l i v e a u , 1974). Moreover, the m a j o r i t y of the s m a l l number of s t u d i e s c o n cerned w i t h the s o c i a l i m p a c t s of t o u r i s m have tended t o f o c u s on the T h i r d World (Cohen, 1984; H a l l , 1987? UNESCO, 1976). The work by 9 r e s e a r c h e r s on t h e impacts of e i t h e r t o u r i s m , h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , or World's F a i r s i s l i m i t e d i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . T h i s study i s s i g n i f i c a n t because: 1) Work i s b e i n g c a r r i e d out on the impacts of a h a l l m a r k e v e n t ; 2) T h i s work i s co n c e r n e d w i t h impacts o t h e r than economic ones; 3) The s e t t i n g t o stu d y the s o c i a l ( the e v i c t i o n s ) , p h y s i c a l (World's F a i r s as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l / l e g a c i e s ) and p o l i t i c a l ( t h e C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ) i s i n N o r t h America as opposed t o the T h i r d W o r l d ; 4) F i e l d r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out d u r i n g the b u i l d - u p t o the im p a c t s , d u r i n g the i m p a c t s , and a f t e r the impacts o c c u r r e d . F u r t h e r , the "Expo e v i c t i o n c r i s i s " as i t has come t o be known i s an i m p o r t a n t event i n the h i s t o r y of World's F a i r s , Vancouver and the Downtown E a s t s i d e . I t was a l s o a h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e which " r u f f l e d the f e a t h e r s " of l o c a l , p r o v i n c i a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s . Seven e v i c t e e s d i e d d u r i n g the c r i s i s a l t h o u g h o n l y one death was o f f i c i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the s t r e s s of r e l o c a t i o n . Two of the seven committed s u i c i d e and the o t h e r f o u r had v a r i o u s u n r e l a t e d h e a l t h p roblems. The h e a l t h problems of o t h e r e v i c t e e s were a g g r a v a t e d by the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s of the e v i c t i o n s . When eve n t s such as t h e s e o c c u r , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t they be p r o p e r l y documented, e x p l a i n e d and h o p e f u l l y a v o i d e d i n the f u t u r e . The e v i c t i o n c r i s i s was the b i g media event r e l a t i n g t o Expo 86 w h i l e i t was happening. I t has l o n g s i n c e been f o r g o t t e n by the media o r , as R.S. L a u r i e , H i g h Commissioner f o r A u s t r a l i a e a g e r l y put i t i n a Globe and M a i l l e t t e r t o the e d i t o r : Ask former B.C. premier B i l l B ennett and Expo 86 chairman Jimmy P a t t i s o n about n e g a t i v e images p r o j e c t e d as a r e s u l t of union problems, l a c k of money, p r o t e s t s over the s i t e c l e a r i n g and h o u s i n g of former t e n a n t s , c o n s t r u c t i o n b e h i n d s c h e d u l e , a l l now f o r g o t t e n i n the a f t e r g l o w of a s u c c e s s f u l . v e n t u r e . (August 12, 1987) (emphasis added) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t such events not be f o r g o t t e n , or r e w r i t t e n a f t e r the f a c t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l t o document what happened, who s a i d what, and who d i d what. S u c c e s s f u l p l a n n i n g f o r the p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event r e q u i r e s f a c t s about what happened i n the p a s t . T h i s s t u d y aims t o s u p p l y them. T h i s s t u d y has a number of l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s i s an e x t r e m e l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . One consequence i s t h a t many of the i n t e r v i e w s c a r r i e d out r e f l e c t t h i s c o n t r o v e r s y . O f t e n , i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s d i d not w i s h t o comment on c e r t a i n t o p i c s and i n o t h e r c a s e s , the a u t h o r f e e l s i n f o r m a t i o n was w i t h h e l d . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department g e n e r o u s l y p e r m i t t e d the a u t h o r t o use t h e i r complete f i l e s on the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s . From t h e s e f i l e s , augmented by i n t e r v i e w s and media r e p o r t s , a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s u b s t a n t i v e and p r o c e d u r a l elements of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s f o r m u l a t e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t e r r o r s have been made i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n p r o c e s s as the f i l e s c o u l d be m i s s i n g i m p o r t a n t documents. A l s o , the memories of i n t e r v i e w s u b j e c t s l a p s e over the s e v e r a l y e a r s d u r i n g which t h i s p l a n n i n g o c c u r r e d . Housing impact d a t a i s s u p p l i e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g 11 Department. The d a t a has v a l i d i t y problems and c r i t i c i s m s are r a i s e d i n Chapter Three of t h i s s t u d y . W r i t t e n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i s used t o i n q u i r e about the h o u s i n g impacts of some World's F a i r s . The a u t h o r had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y r e c e i v i n g r e p l i e s , l e t a l o n e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . The consequence i s t h a t t h e r e a r e l i g h t d e s c r i p t i o n s of h o u s i n g impacts and h o u s i n g impact p l a n n i n g when Expo 62, Expo 67 and Expo 68 a r e examined. D. M e t h o d o l o g y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n A case study approach i s employed because i t "enables b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s t o be p o s t u l a t e d by b u i l d i n g on human e x p e r i e n c e " and because " i t a l l o w s p a s t m i s t a k e s t o be r e c o g n i z e d and a v o i d e d " ( K e s s e l , 1984; K i r a l f y , 1973). In a d d i t i o n , case s t u d i e s g e n e r a t e " p o s s i b i l i s t i c knowledge" as opposed t o " d e t e r m i n i s t i c knowledge". The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of what can happen i f " t h i s o c c u r s " ( e . g . , s p o n s o r i n g a h a l l m a r k e v e n t ) a r e demonstrated. D e t e r m i n i s t i c knowledge, i n c o m p a r i s o n , s i m p l y demonstrates " i f t h i s o c c u r s , t h a t w i l l happen" ( e . g . , i f you heat i c e , i t m e l t s ) . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p t e n t a t i v e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from the p a r t i c u l a r case under e x a m i n a t i o n ( K e s s e l , 1984). The c a s e study approach i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a methodology known as " e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h " or " e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s " . Babbie (1979) d e s c r i b e s e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h as a method a p p r o p r i a t e : whenever some s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n o c c u r s or i s p l a n n e d . I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e whenever a new s o c i a l program or p r o c e s s i s i n t r o d u c e d f o r the purpose of a c h i e v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t . In i t s 1 2 s i m p l e s t sense, e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s a p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g whether the i n t e n d e d r e s u l t was produced, (p. 292) T h i s i s an a p p r o p r i a t e method g i v e n t h a t a p r i n c i p a l aim of t h i s study i s t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86. T h i s i s a n a l y s i s o_f p o l i c y . T h i s s t u d y a l s o seeks t o propose a s t r a t e g y which w i l l a s s i s t governments, the sponsors of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups t o i d e n t i f y and p l a n f o r the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . T h i s i s c a r r i e d out by d r a w i n g " l e s s o n s " from the case s t u d y , as w e l l as from the h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w of the v a r i o u s r o l e s of World's F a i r s . T h i s i s a n a l y s i s f o r p o l i c y . The i n t e g r a t i o n of a n a l y s i s of p o l i c y and a n a l y s i s f o r p o l i c y i s r e c o g n i z e d by Ham and H i l l (1984) i n t h e i r s t u d i e s of p o l i c y and p o l i c y a n a l y s i s as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s . They a l s o note t h a t e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s may be e i t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e or p r e s c r i p t i v e or b o t h (p. 10). In t h i s s t u d y t h e r e are d e s c r i p t i v e , a n a l y t i c a l and p r e s c r i p t i v e components. Ch a p t e r Two i s an h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w of World's F a i r s and the many r o l e s which they have p l a y e d . A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n i s c o n d u c t e d on the r e c e n t use of the World's F a i r as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l , the consequent h o u s i n g impacts and the p l a n n i n g which took p l a c e t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i m p a c t s . Data f o r Chapter Two i s c o l l e c t e d from l i t e r a t u r e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h academics and p l a n n e r s i n c i t i e s where World's F a i r s have or w i l l 1 3 be h e l d , and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Expo 86 p e r s o n n e l . C h apter Three i s a case s t u d y of Expo 86 and the h o u s i n g impacts i t c r e a t e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l community which b o r d e r s the f a i r s i t e . The C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r these h o u s i n g impacts i s d e s c r i b e d . Data f o r Chapter Three was p r i m a r i l y s u p p l i e d by the C i t y of Vancouver's S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. Media r e p o r t s , i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v a t i o n a r e a l s o used as d a t a s o u r c e s . The C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the Expo 86 h o u s i n g impacts i s e v a l u a t e d i n Chapter Four. The auth o r uses an " i d e a l " p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h i n t e r v i e w s and in f o r m e d judgement t o c a r r y out t h i s e v a l u a t i o n . Chapter F i v e c o n t a i n s an a c t i o n p l a n which w i l l a s s i s t governments, the s p o n s o r s of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s , and community groups t o i d e n t i f y and p l a n f o r the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts of such h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s a c t i o n p l a n i s c o l l e c t e d from i n t e r v i e w s , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , and a l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h . . Chapter F i v e a l s o c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c recommendations t o the C i t y of Vancouver on the f u t u r e of the Downtown E a s t s i d e community, and a summary w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed a t the o u t s e t of t h i s c h a p t e r . 1 4 CHAPTER TWO HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE ROLES OF WORLD'S FAIRS A) I n t r o d u c t i o n We're the r i s i n g t i d e come from f a r and wide M a r c h i n g s i d e by s i d e on our way, For a brave new w o r l d , That we s h a l l b u i l d today Theme song of 1939/40 World's F a i r (O'Connor, 1980, p. 62) World's F a i r s are not merely overgrown amusement p a r k s or s i m p l e t r a d e f a i r s . They p l a y a m u l t i t u d e of r o l e s , b o th e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o ensure t h a t p e o p l e do not s u f f e r because of the d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of any of the s e r o l e s . One of the f i r s t s t e p s towards meeting t h i s g o a l i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about the many r o l e s w hich World's F a i r s have p l a y e d i n the p a s t . T h i s o v erview i s d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e p e r i o d s , a d i v i s i o n based on t h e approach taken by M u l l i n (1972), Reps (1965) and a host of o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s . P e r i o d I c o v e r s the o r i g i n s of the World's F a i r . In P e r i o d I I , the e a r l y European and N o r t h American World's F a i r s a r e examined. P e r i o d I I I , "The C i t y B e a u t i f u l " , c o v e r s 1890 t o 1930. The " C i t y E f f i c i e n t " World's F a i r s ( P e r i o d IV) took p l a c e between 1931 and 1961. P e r i o d V, "The C i t y of Renewal", c o v e r s 1962 t o the p r e s e n t . T h i s p e r i o d r e c e i v e s p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n due t o i t s r e l e v a n c e t o the i s s u e 1 5 of h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . There a r e two main c a t e g o r i e s of " o f f i c i a l " e x p o s i t i o n s . U n i v e r s a l e x p o s i t i o n s have v e r y b road themes. Each p a r t i c i p a t i n g government or c o r p o r a t i o n b u i l d s i t s own p a v i l i o n on the s i t e . Expo 67 i n M o n t r e a l i s an example of a u n i v e r s a l e x p o s i t i o n . S p e c i a l i z e d e x p o s i t i o n s t e n d t o be s m a l l e r s p e c t a c l e s . The h o s t c o u n t r y b u i l d s the p a v i l i o n s and l e a s e s space t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g c o u n t r i e s and c o r p o r a t i o n s . The s i t e i s g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r and a s i n g l e a s p e c t of human endeavour i s s e l e c t e d as a theme. Expo 86 i n Vancouver i s an example of a s p e c i a l i z e d e x p o s i t i o n . A l l o f f i c i a l e x p o s i t i o n s must be s a n c t i o n e d by the Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n s (BIE) based i n P a r i s . B. P e r i o d I. O r i g i n s of World's F a i r s The o r i g i n s of World's F a i r s goes back t o the 12th C e n t u r y B.C. ( A l l i x , 1922). D u r i n g t h i s e r a r e l i g i o u s f e s t i v a l s were h e l d combining r i t u a l and p u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . Such f a i r s were h e l d i n a n c i e n t I n d i a , B a b y l o n , Nineveh, Egypt, N u b i a , A r a b i a , and l a t e r , Greece. These f e s t i v a l s a l s o p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the exchange of news and goods ( C a w e l t i , 1968, p. 317). A l l i x (1922) notes t h a t as time p r o g r e s s e d , the "goods" a s p e c t of these f a i r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t . Commodity f a i r s emerged a s : the s o l e mechanism of l a r g e - s c a l e commerce, and e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l commerce i n a s t a t e of c i v i l i z a t i o n , when t h e r e was no s e c u r i t y f o r r e g u l a r exchange nor were means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o r g a n i z e d , (p. 532) 16 I f exchange of commodities was t o o c c u r , t h e r e had t o be a mechanism or l o c a l e where n e u t r a l i t y was a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e . Indeed, t h i s i s one of s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s e e a r l y f a i r s . B e s i d e s " s e c u r i t y of t h e f a i r " , A l l i x (1922) i d e n t i f i e s the o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as " p e r i o d i c i t y " , " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r " , t h e " t r a v e l l i n g merchant of the f a i r " and " l o c a t i o n " . By " l o c a t i o n " he means t h a t commodity f a i r s tended t o be h e l d on major t r a d e r o u t e s , p o r t s of c a l l and a t bord e r s i t e s (p. 542). The need f o r commodity f a i r s g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r e d a f t e r the m i d d l e ages. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n t e c h n o l o g y improved and communications between n a t i o n s between merchants i n c r e a s e d . Permanent l a r g e - s c a l e c e n t r e s of commerce were d e v e l o p i n g and s a l e s began t o be made on sample o n l y , w i t h the s h i p p i n g of merchandise o c c u r r i n g by " o r d e r " ( A l l i x , 1922, p. 545). A t r a n s i t i o n began t o o c c u r i n the e a r l y 18th c e n t u r y . S a l e s o r i e n t e d f a i r s (where s a l e s were d i r e c t l y made) d i s a p p e a r e d and d i s p l a y o r i e n t e d f a i r s (where goods were d i s p l a y e d as i n sample) emerged w i t h i n c r e a s i n g r e g u l a r i t y ( L u c k h u r s t , 1951). There were two major c l a s s e s of d i s p l a y o r i e n t e d " e x h i b i t i o n s " as they began to be known. The f i r s t c l a s s was the p u b l i c i n d u s t r i a l d i s p l a y which was h e l d p r i m a r i l y i n E n g l a n d . F or example, M a n d e l l (1967) w r i t e s t h a t : In 1760 the R o y a l S o c i e t y of A r t s i n London purchased the p r i z e - w i n n i n g models of a g r i c u l t u r a l t o o l s , c r a n e s , w i n d m i l l s , and s a w m i l l s from a r e c e n t c o m p e t i t i o n . The S o c i e t y then h i r e d a warehouse f o r a p u b l i c d i s p l a y t o l a s t two weeks. However, i t s p o p u l a r i t y c o n v i n c e d them t o e x t e n d 1 7 the show f o r t h r e e more weeks. T h i s e x h i b i t i o n o c c u r r e d when t h e r e was i n England a f r e s h and i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n m e c h a n i c a l c o n t r i v a n c e s and t h e i r p o s s i b l e use f o r p r o f i t , (p. 4) The second c l a s s of d i s p l a y o r i e n t e d e x h i b i t i o n s , a r t e x h i b i t i o n s , a r o s e w i t h r e g u l a r i t y a t the same time though they were h e l d p r i m a r i l y i n F r a n c e ( P a r i s ) . P u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s of a r t were f r e q u e n t l y s t a g e d by the Academie des Beaux-Arts marking the f i r s t p e r i o d i c d i s p l a y of a r t f o r the p u b l i c , a l t h o u g h i t was p r i m a r i l y the b o u r g e o i s i e who a t t e n d e d the showings ( L u c k h u r s t , 1951). G r a d u a l l y , p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s of a r t o c c u r r e d e l s e w h e r e on the c o n t i n e n t and i n E n g l a n d . There was always a " r i g i d c a s t e d i v i s i o n between the a r t s l i b e r a u x and the a r t s u t i l e s " ( M a n d e l l , 1967, p. 4 ) . Both c l a s s e s of e x h i b i t o r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the a r t i s t s ) r e f u s e d t o d i s p l a y t h e i r works under the same r o o f . By 1801 the p o p u l a r i t y of the e x h i b i t i o n s had i n c r e a s e d so much t h a t t h e y had t o be h e l d f o r s e v e r a l weeks a t a t i m e . In a d d i t i o n , the F r e n c h government e v e n t u a l l y persuaded the " a r t i s t s t o e x h i b i t w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l i s t s " ( M a n d e l l , 1967, p. 5 ) . The Fr e n c h l i k e t h e E n g l i s h began t o sponsor more of the i n d u s t r i a l e x h i b i t i o n s d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of the 19th c e n t u r y . The e x h i b i t i o n s c o n t i n u e d i n c r e a s i n g i n s i z e and f i n a l l y i n c l u d e d some f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s . They a l s o became p a r t of Napoleon's economic and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c y . The l a s t F r e n c h n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n was the l a r g e s t . H e l d i n 1848, the " E x h i b i t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r a l and I n d u s t r i a l P r o d u c t s " r e q u i r e d heavy s t a t e s u b s i d y (60,000 f r a n c s ) because of i t s s i z e and l e n g t h of o p e r a t i o n . One f e a t u r e of the s e F r e n c h 18 e x h i b i t i o n s i s t h a t the F r e n c h government "thought them too impo r t a n t t o be e n t r u s t e d t o o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s " ( M a n d e l l , 1967, p. 7) . T h i s f i r s t p e r i o d i n the h i s t o r y of World's F a i r s can be c o n s i d e r e d t o end w i t h the 1848 F r e n c h e x h i b i t i o n . I t which was s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t l y n a t i o n a l i n terms of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Change was i n the wind a c r o s s the E n g l i s h Channel where a t r u l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n was b e i n g p l a n n e d . C. P e r i o d I I . The E a r l y World's F a i r s But y e s t e r d a y a naked sod, The d a n d i e s sneered from R o t t e n Row, And c a n t e r e d o'er i t t o and f r o : And see ' t i s done! As though 'twere by a w i z a r d s ' r o d A b l a z i n g a r c h of l u c i d g l a s s Leaps l i k e , a f o u n t a i n from the g r a s s To meet the sun! W i l l i a m Makepiece Thackeray ( L u c k h u r s t , 1951 , p. 83) The "Great E x h i b i t i o n of the Works of I n d u s t r y of A l l N a t i o n s " , known more commonly as the " C r y s t a l P a l a c e E x h i b i t i o n " , was h e l d i n 1851 i n London, E n g l a n d . I t s o r i g i n s l a y i n the e f f o r t s of Queen V i c t o r i a ' s c o n s o r t , P r i n c e A l b e r t . P r e s i d e n t of the S o c i e t y of A r t s , s c i e n c e - f a v o u r i n g A l b e r t c o n v i n c e d members of t h i s s o c i e t y as w e l l as some m a n u f a c t u r e r s and p o l i t i c i a n s t h a t a l a r g e e x h i b i t p l a n n e d f o r 1850 i n Hyde Park " s h o u l d be made y e t l a r g e r , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l " ( L y s t e r , 1986). A l t h o u g h he f a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n from t h e 19 "beau monde" who h e l d him i n contempt, P r i n c e A l b e r t managed t o s t a g e a f i r s t -- an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x h i b i t i o n which i s now c o n s i d e r e d the f i r s t World's F a i r . The h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l event was s t a g e d i n a p l a t e - g l a s s s t r u c t u r e known as the C r y s t a l P a l a c e . Only i n d u s t r i a l e x h i b i t s were d i s p l a y e d c r e a t i n g a h i g h l y s y m b o l i c event marking the r a p i d e x p a n s i o n of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n not o n l y throughout E n g l a n d , but a l s o the r e s t of the c o l o n i e s and i n France and Germany. Mass p r o d u c e r s sought i n t e r n a t i o n a l markets f o r t h e i r consumer goods and i n d u s t r i a l machines. T h i s World's F a i r and the ones t o f o l l o w were phenomena of i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s m . World's F a i r s were h e l d i n New York (1853), Munich (1854), P a r i s (1855), London (1862), P a r i s ( 1 867), V i e n n a (1873), P h i l a d e l p h i a (1876) and P a r i s ( 1878). A l l , t o one degree or a n o t h e r , c e l e b r a t e d the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and were h e a v i l y o r i e n t e d toward the d i s p l a y of p r o d u c t i o n o r i e n t e d mechanisms. There a r e two p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t F r e n c h f a i r s and one U.S. f a i r which d e s e r v e s p e c i a l mention. The 1855 and 1867 World's F a i r s were h e l d i n P a r i s . F o l l o w i n g the s u c c e s s of the 1851 World's F a i r i n E n g l a n d , Emperor Napoleon I I I d e c r e e d t h a t the next of the F r e n c h q u i n q u e n n i a l e x h i b i t i o n s s c h e d u l e d f o r 1854 s h o u l d be postponed f o r one year i n o r d e r t o s t a g e an e x p o s i t i o n u n i v e r s e l l e . When s t a g e d , i t was apparent t h a t the a r t s were p l a c e d a t an e q u a l l e v e l t o i n d u s t r y . The 1851 London World's F a i r shocked the F r e n c h w i t h i t s t o t a l l a c k of c o n c e r n f o r the " i m p o r t a n t " a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e . The F r e n c h a l s o 20 i n t r o d u c e d a number of unique f e a t u r e s which p o i n t t o the m u l t i t u d e of r o l e s which the 1855 f a i r p l a y e d . Consumption was encouraged w i t h the d i s p l a y of h o u s e h o l d consumer d u r a b l e s . A l s o : 1) The F r e n c h wished t o demonstrate c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r own t e c h n o l o g y , and the i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s of the event as w e l l ( M a n d e l l , 1967, p. 10). 2) Napoleon wished t o demonstrate t o the F r e n c h p e o p l e and t o the a l l i e s and enemies of France t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o the b l o o d of the B o n a p a r t e s , he had t h e s p i r i t of a t r u e Napoleon ( C h a n d l e r , 1986, p. 12). 3) France wished t o er a s e the memories of W a t e r l o o and i n t r o d u c e the s p i r i t of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between th e s e two a n t a g o n i s t i c c o u n t r i e s ( E n g l a n d and F r a n c e ) ( I b i d . , p . 12). 4) Napoleon wished t o promote peace ... a t home, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g a w a r l i k e image abroad ( I b i d . , p. 13). 5) F r e n c h p r i d e and n a t i o n a l s e l f - r e s p e c t and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the "esteem of her enemies and a l l i e s " were "unspoken but c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d g o a l s " ( I b i d . , p. 13). The 1855 f a i r d emonstrated t h a t t h e r e a r e a m u l t i t u d e of r o l e s which a World's F a i r can p l a y . T h i s i s even more e v i d e n t upon e x a m i n a t i o n of the 1867 P a r i s f a i r . Set i n a b u i l d i n g of n o v e l d e s i g n , e x h i b i t s of i n d u s t r y , a r t , commodities and "the h i s t o r y of l a b o u r " were open t o p u b l i c view. A l s o , a s e c t i o n of the f a i r was d e v o t e d t o " s o c i a l and moral problems" ( L u c k h u r s t , 1951, p. 133). T h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r can be t r a c e d t o S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s such as F r e d e r i c Le P l a y and J u l e s Simon who were i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g of the f a i r . W h i l e on the s u r f a c e , w r i t e r s such as M a n d e l l (1967) and L u c k h u r s t (1951) commend Napoleon's s u p p o r t of the workers w i t h such d i s p l a y s , o t h e r w r i t e r s have l o o k e d more c l o s e l y a t the _ s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t of the p e r i o d and have a r r i v e d a t a d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n ( Z e l d i n , 1958; Harvey, 1985). Z e l d i n (1958) f e e l s t h a t Napoleon's s t r a t e g y f o r m a i n t a i n i n g power was s i m p l e : " s a t i s f y the i n t e r e s t s of the most numerous c l a s s e s and a t t a c h o n e s e l f t o the upper c l a s s e s " (p. 10). The s p e c t a c l e of a World's F a i r can a l s o be used t o c o n s o l i d a t e power and put f o r w a r d a view of how s o c i e t y s h o u l d d e v e l o p . W a l t e r Benjamin ( c i t e d i n Harvey, 1985, p. 200) noted t h a t t h i s World's F a i r was a l s o used as a p l a c e "of p i l g r i m a g e t o the f e t i s h commodity". The World's F a i r was a "phantasmagoria of c a p i t a l i s t c u l t u r e " where i t " a t t a i n e d i t s most r a d i a n t u n f u r l i n g . " One o t h e r v e r y important r o l e of t h i s World's F a i r was i t s use as a s a l u t a r y o c c a s i o n " f o r Napoleon I I I and Baron Georges Eugene Haussman t o b e a u t i f y P a r i s and m a i n t a i n i t s preeminence as a w o r l d c a p i t a l and w o r l d r e s o r t " ( M a n d e l l , 1968, p. 14). D a v i d Harvey (1985) touches upon the same r o l e i n h i s c h a p t e r on P a r i s between the y e a r s of 1850-1870. The 1867 P a r i s f a i r was used as a t o o l a l o n g w i t h the a c t i o n s of Haussman t o c r e a t e a P a r i s i n which "the g l o r y of the Empire" r e i g n e d supreme and where symbols of a u t h o r i t y , b e n e v o l e n c e , power and p r o g r e s s were c o n s t r u c t e d . Harvey t h e o r i z e s about the a c t i o n s of Napoleon I I I and Haussman when he s t a t e s : He used the p u b l i c works ( t h e i r monumentalism i n p a r t i c u l a r ) ; the u n i v e r s a l e x p o s i t i o n s ; the grand g a l a s , f e t e s , and f i r e w o r k s ; the pomp and c i r c u m s t a n c e of r o y a l v i s i t s and c o u r t l i f e ; and a l l the t r a p p i n g s of what became known as f e t e  i m p e r i a l e t o c o n s t r u c t a sense of community c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a u t h o r i t a r i a n r u l e , f r e e market c a p i t a l i s m , and the new i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r d e r . (p. 163) R e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r i n t e n d e d impact, World's F a i r s have many d e s i g n e d r o l e s and a l l of them are d e r i v e d and imposed from "above". They a r e the e x a c t o p p o s i t e of any " g r a s s r o o t s " s p e c t a c l e . The 1876 P h i l a d e l p h i a f a i r marked the f i r s t appearance of s y s t e m a t i c World's F a i r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . There a re t h r e e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of t h i s f a i r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r . F i r s t l y , u n l i k e the European World's F a i r s which were s t a t e s p o n s o red and s t a t e o r g a n i z e d , American World's F a i r s were o r g a n i z e d by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h minor s t a t e s u p p o r t . B e g i n n i n g w i t h t h i s one, a l l American World's F a i r have been o r g a n i z e d and formed i n t o a p r i v a t e "Expo C o r p o r a t i o n " . I t i s the b u s i n e s s e l i t e and those " a r c h i t e c t s e n g i n e e r s , d e s i g n e r s and a c a d e m i c i a n s t o whom f i n a n c i e r s and i n d u s t r i a l i s t s t u r n f o r a d v i c e " ( C a w e l t i , 1968, p. 319) who d r i v e and s t e e r the World's F a i r . The second i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e of the 1876 f a i r i s t h a t i t s t a r t e d the g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d t r a d i t i o n of s p o n s o r i n g a World's F a i r t o combat the e f f e c t s of a d e p r e s s i o n or l o c a l d i s a s t e r . L a s t l y , t h i s World's F a i r was b u i l t on l a n d t h a t was f o r m e r l y a swamp (Gardener, 1880). From t h i s p o i n t on u n t i l the l a t e 1950's, American World's F a i r s have been used as l a n d development t o o l s . U s u a l l y , a swamp or marsh was chosen as the s i t e , l a n d f i l l and d r e d g i n g o c c u r r e d , and the l e g a c y was a park. 23 The s i t e was u s u a l l y on the p e r i p h e r y of the urban a r e a s or the edge of downtown which e x p l a i n s i t s undeveloped s t a t u s . D. P e r i o d I I I . The C i t y B e a u t i f u l D u r i n g P e r i o d I I I , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of World's F a i r s were h e l d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : Chicago (1893), Omaha (1898), B u f f a l o (1901), S t . L o u i s (1904), P o r t l a n d (1905), N o r f o l k (1907), S e a t t l e (1909) and San F r a n c i s c o (1915). A number of new r o l e s emerged d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The 1893 e x p o s i t i o n i s w e l l known l a r g e l y because of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e and urban d e s i g n f e a t u r e s of the s i t e i t s e l f . In s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o the d i n g y , " c u l t u r e l e s s " i n d u s t r i a l c i t y t h a t C h i c a g o was, the d e s i g n e r s c r e a t e d a v i s i o n -- a "White C i t y " w hich r e v e a l e d t o the p e o p l e , i n the words of the j o u r n a l i s t H.D. L l o y d : "the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s o c i a l b e a u t y , u t i l i t y and harmony which they had not been even a b l e t o dream" ( c i t e d i n H i n e s , 1974, p. 120). The d e s i g n e r s of the e x p o s i t i o n , l e d by D a n i e l Burnham, had a common i n t e l l e c t u a l , a r t i s t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l background i n the Academie des Beaux A r t s i n P a r i s . They p r e s e n t e d a u n i f i e d p l a n of l a n d s c a p i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r e w hich a d a p t e d the c l a s s i c s t y l e w i t h i l l u s i o n s of monumental permanence ( C a w e l t i , 1968, p. 343). The e x p o s i t i o n ' s d e s i g n e r s , and t h o s e of the subsequent World's F a i r s h e l d i n t h i s p e r i o d r e ached t o the p a s t t o cover up the g r i m p r e s e n t . The v i l e and u g l y i n d u s t r i a l c i t y was tamed ( a t l e a s t s y m b o l i c a l l y ) on the f a i r s i t e . The freedom which the d e s i g n e r s were a l l o w e d r e f l e c t s a somewhat new r o l e f o r the World's F a i r -- t h a t of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . C a w e l t i (1968) notes t h a t the b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s of A merica f e l t t h e i r minds e x p a n d i n g . They were no l o n g e r s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h " p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . " They now [1893] had "a f e e l i n g of involvement w i t h and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w o r l d " (p. 335). Through the p h y s i c a l l a y o u t of the e x p o s i t i o n , the p u b l i c was t o be educated how i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y s h o u l d i d e a l l y d e v e l o p . P o v e r t y , i m m o r a l i t y and the slums c o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d i f the p r i n c i p l e s a n n u n c i a t e d by t h i s d e s i g n team were f o l l o w e d ; t h i s was the message (Reps, 1965; C a w e l t i , 1968). The concept t h a t the C h i c a g o F a i r was a f a i r of i d e a s i s s u p p o r t e d by D a n i e l Burnham h i m s e l f as w e l l as one o b s e r v e r , P a u l B o u r g e t , who noted t h a t v i s i t o r s t o the 1893 F a i r were more i n t e r e s t e d i n " i n s t r u c t i o n " than " e n t e r t a i n m e n t " ( H a r r i s , 1978). An e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e had become e x p l i c i t l y o b v i o u s and has remained so u n t i l the p r e s e n t . I n s e p a r a b l y r e l a t e d t o the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of the 1893 World's F a i r ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p h y s i c a l d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s ) i s the use of a World's F a i r as an i n f l u e n c e upon a r c h i t e c t u r a l and urban p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s throughout the n a t i o n . Reps (1965) i s o n l y one of many urban h i s t o r i a n s and p l a n n e r s who d e s c r i b e the e x t r e m e l y i n f l u e n t i a l r o l e of the 1893 World's F a i r (see a l s o : Boyer, 1983; F o g l e s o n g , 1986; P e t e r s o n , 1983). The C i t y B e a u t i f u l movement as i t i s known g a i n e d wide 25 a c c e p t a n c e and support throughout N o r t h America d u r i n g the 1890's and e a r l y 1900's. C i t i e s such as Washington D.C. were p l a n n e d u s i n g the p r i n c i p l e s of " o r d e r , system and p a t t e r n " . The "chaos" of urban growth d u r i n g the i n d u s t r i a l boom was tamed ( W i l s o n , 1980). I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t d e s i g n e r s such as D a n i e l Burnham were w o r s h i p p e r s of Baron Haussman (Reps, 1965, p. 519). The World's F a i r s which f o l l o w e d the Columbian E x p o s i t i o n a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r w i t h r e s p e c t t o r o l e s but t h e r e a r e a few new ones worthy of a t t e n t i o n . The World's F a i r s of P e r i o d I I I were used as v e h i c l e s f o r c i v i c , r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l b o o s t e r i s m . The i n v e s t o r s of t h e s e f a i r s hoped t h a t i n the l o n g - t e r m , c a p i t a l c o u l d be e n t i c e d t o t h e i r c i t i e s a f t e r v i s i t o r s w i t n e s s e d the p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s and i n v e s t m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the a r e a . M a r j o r i e Dobkin's a r t i c l e i n The A n t h r o p o l o g y of World's F a i r s (1983) notes time and a g a i n how the b u s i n e s s e l i t e of San F r a n c i s c o a t t e m p t e d t o use the 1915 P a n a m a - P a c i f i c I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n t o a t t r a c t c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . The main t h r u s t of t h e i r campaign was: a d d r e s s e d t o v i s i t i n g businessmen. I t was hoped t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e c i t y , and an e x p o s i t i o n managed w i t h o u t l a b o u r d i s r u p t i o n would a l l a y the f e a r s of p o t e n t i a l i n v e s t o r s and d r i v e home t o the a t l a n t i c s t a t e s , where they c o n j u r e f i n a n c e , and t o New England, where they manufacture goods f o r e x p o r t , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of San F r a n c i s c o ' s g e o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n . • (p. 88) W r i t e r s such as R y d e l l (1983) , Jones (1972) and A b b o t t (1981) note v e r y s i m i l a r r o l e s f o r the World's F a i r s h e l d i n B u f f a l o ( 1 9 01), S t . L o u i s (1904), P o r t l a n d (1905) and S e a t t l e (1909). Another r o l e f o r the World's F a i r s of t h i s p e r i o d was t o 26 p r o p a g a t e " a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d r a c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s " , p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h the d i s p l a y s of "savages" and " b a r b a r i a n s " i n the midway a r e a of the f a i r s i t e ( R y d e l l , 1983). Upon e x a m i n a t i o n of an i n t e r e s t i n g p h o t o g r a p h i c essay of the 1893 Columbian E x p o s i t i o n ( B u e l , 1894), one f i n d s f u l l s u p p o r t f o r t h e s e a s s e r t i o n s by R y d e l l . The w h i t e , anglo-saxon e l i t e s who s ponsored and d e s i g n e d the World's F a i r s c o n s i d e r e d themselves as the u l t i m a t e p r o g r e s s i o n ; the r a c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l Utopia which a l l must s t r i v e t o a t t a i n . Why? R y d e l l (1983) s p e c u l a t e s by o f f e r i n g us m o t i v e s f o r these r a c i s t and e l i t i s t p r e j u d i c e s : T h e i r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d r a c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s s e r v e s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . They l e g i t i m i z e d r a c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n a t home and the c r e a t i o n of an empire a b r o a d . C a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d e x h i b i t s of non-whites l e f t l i t t l e doubt t h a t the same s e t of i d e a s t h a t had been used t o j u s t i f y the p o l i t i c a l and economic r e p r e s s i o n of N a t i v e A m e r i c a n s , A f r o - A m e r i c a n s and A s i a n Americans were b e i n g used t o v a l i d a t e American i m p e r i a l p o l i c y o v e r s e a s . The emphasis on w h i t e supremacy as a U t o p i a n agency, moreover, muted c l a s s d i v i s i o n s among w h i t e s , p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a sense of s h a r e d n a t i o n a l p urpose. (p. 236) L a s t l y , World's F a i r s were used as t o o l s t o a f f e c t l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s . In the 1893 Columbian E x p o s i t i o n f o r example, b u i l d i n g t r a d e o r g a n i z e r s a t t e m p t e d t o make the b u i l d i n g of the e x p o s i t i o n a c o mplete "union j o b " ( H i n e s , 1974, p. 103). H i n e s goes on t o note t h a t the d i r e c t o r s of the Expo c o r p o r a t i o n r e f u s e d , a g r e e i n g i n s t e a d t o "a k i n d of company union i n which a l l d i s p u t e s s h o u l d be s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n and where u n i o n men were h i r e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s w i t h a minimum wage". In San 27 F r a n c i s c o (1915) as w e l l , l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s were a f f e c t e d w i t h a s t r o n g union c l a s h i n g w i t h an a n t i - u n i o n b u s i n e s s e l i t e who c o n t r o l l e d the Expo c o r p o r a t i o n (Dobkin, 1983, p. 7 5 ) . The l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s s t r i f e which o c c u r r e d i n San F r a n c i s c o d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the e x p o s i t i o n was s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t which o c c u r r e d i n Vancouver d u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Expo 86 (see M i c k l e b u r g h (1986) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the Expo 86 l a b o u r i s s u e ) . E. P e r i o d IV. The C i t y E f f i c i e n t The " C i t y E f f i c i e n t " d e s i g n a t i o n i s a p p l i e d t o the f o u r t h p e r i o d , 1930 t o 1960, because a major s h i f t i n emphasis o c c u r r e d . G i v e n t h a t one of the r o l e s of World's F a i r s has been, whether e x p l i c i t l y or by a c c i d e n t , t o i n f l u e n c e the n a t u r e of a r c h i t e c t u r e and urban p l a n n i n g , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a change i n the r o l e of World's F a i r s was a l r e a d y o c c u r r i n g . Throughout the 1920's the p r i n c i p l e s of the C i t y B e a u t i f u l f e l l i n t o d i s r e p u t e . Monumental p a r k s , c i v i c c e n t r e s and grand b o u l e v a r d s d i d not mesh w e l l w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r a u t o m o b i l e . What emerged due to t h i s f a c t o r and many more, was a new s t y l e of urban p l a n n i n g ; one which espoused the c o n c e p t s of the " e f f i c i e n t c i t y " . The f i r s t World's F a i r of t h i s p e r i o d was the 1933-34 Ce n t u r y of P r o g r e s s E x h i b i t i o n h e l d i n C h i c a g o . U n l i k e t h e l a s t World's F a i r h e l d i n Chicago (1.893), t h i s one reached t o the f u t u r e f o r i n s p i r a t i o n ( C a w e l t i , 1968). A new c o n c e p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and t e c h n o l o g y d e v e l o p e d . Technology 28 was viewed as a sour c e of a r t i s t i c beauty, r a t h e r than something to be masked. Impermanence was a c c e n t u a t e d , and the p r i n c i p l e s of change and motion were common themes throughout the f a i r . P a r t of the i n f l u e n c e b e h i n d these new themes was the ch a n g i n g n a t u r e of who was i n v o l v e d i n not o n l y the d e s i g n , but a l s o the o p e r a t i o n of t h e f a i r . The n a t i o n a l and m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n was coming t o p l a y an ever i n c r e a s i n g r o l e . B e n e d i c t (1983) and C a w e l t i (1968) f o c u s on the r o l e of l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s i n i n f l u e n c i n g the n a t u r e of the World's F a i r . When one c o n s i d e r s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the c o r p o r a t i o n s which took p a r t i n the World's F a i r s a r e e i t h e r a u t o m o b i l e m a n u f a c t u r e r s or a u t o m o b i l e a c c e s s o r y m a n u f a c t u r e r s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o see t h i s new emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l and e f f i c i e n t . I t was the 1939/40 New York World's F a i r which t r u l y s y m b o l i z e d the growing c o r p o r a t e i n f l u e n c e upon the c o n t e n t of the World's F a i r . A l t h o u g h academics such as Harvey Zorbaugh and Lewis Mumford had i m p o r t a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l r o l e s i n p l a n n i n g t h i s f a i r , the r e a l i t y was f a r d i f f e r e n t than the i d e a l . They had wanted t o p r e s e n t a v i s i o n of the f u t u r e i n which the envi r o n m e n t , i n d u s t r y and c i v i l i z a t i o n were p l a n n e d . They wanted a f u t u r e v i s i o n which was " p r o g r e s s i v e and growing i n e v e r y department of l i f e and thro u g h o u t c i v i l i z a t i o n , not merely i n New York C i t y , not merely i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s " but i n the w o r l d . Mumford thought they c o u l d " l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a p a t t e r n of l i f e w h ich would have an enormous impact i n times t o come" (Lewis Mumford c i t e d i n Cu s k e r , 1980, p. 4 ) . Such l o f t y a s p i r a t i o n s 29 were e n v i s i o n e d by the c o r p o r a t i o n s and t h e i r d e s i g n e r s such as" Normon B e l Geddes. The r e s u l t was a World's F a i r w h i c h , f o r the most p a r t , s t r e s s e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s o c i e t y which l i v e d i n r e g i o n a l suburban s p r a w l and r e q u i r e d a u t o m o b i l e s t o t r a v e l . The World's F a i r began p l a y i n g a r o l e i n t h e e x p a n s i o n i s t dreams of the m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n . Past World's F a i r s were a l s o used t o s t i m u l a t e c o n s u m p t i o n , but never so e x p l i c i t l y than a t the 1939/40 New York World's F a i r . I t was d e d i c a t e d t o "the f u t u r e of America and i t s u n r e a l i z e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l m e n t and human p r o g r e s s " ( C usker, 1980, p. 4 ) . One r o u t e t o t h i s f u l f i l l m e n t , as d e f i n e d by the d e s i g n e r s , was consumption. In the New York f a i r the American house was seen as p l a y i n g an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n d e f i n i n g American c u l t u r e . The f a m i l y was viewed as a consuming u n i t and the "American way of l i f e " was seen i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y t o consume l a r g e r and l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s "not s i m p l y because of the p o s i t i v e impact on economic c o n d i t i o n s , but because t h i s b e h a v i o u r was an e x p r e s s i o n of c o n f i d e n c e i n the v e r y n a t u r e of machine c i v i l i z a t i o n , and because the p r o d u c t s t h e m s e l v e s r e p r e s e n t a b i g element of American c h a r a c t e r " ( C u s k e r , 1980, p. 13). I t i s u n c l e a r , however, how much of an e f f e c t t h e s e " d e s i g n s " had on v i s i t o r s t o the 1939/40 F a i r . The World's F a i r s i n the f o u r t h p e r i o d were a l s o b e i n g used, as u s u a l , t o d e v e l o p l a n d which was p r e v i o u s l y undeveloped ( t h e s i t e of the 1939/40 World's F a i r was t h e former ash heap/swamp 30 d e s c r i b e d i n F. S c o t t F i t z g e r a l d ' s The Great G a t s b y ) . They were a l s o used t o s t r i n g a l o n g a number of c i v i c improvements. The infamous Robert Moses used the 1939/40 F a i r t o spend a p p r o x i m a t e l y $59 m i l l i o n on p u b l i c works (Moses, 1970). A c c o r d i n g t o Moses, the Bronx-Whitestone B r i d g e , Queens Midtown Tunnel and the s i t e f o r L a G u a r d i a A i r p o r t were a l l c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the World's F a i r as a p l a n n i n g t o o l or " c a t a l y s t " . W i t h the development of i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and p a r t i c u l a r l y t he media, World's F a i r s were needed l e s s by p e o p l e f o r t h i n g s such as e d u c a t i o n , amusement or i n f o r m a t i o n . F or example, t h e r e were thousands of t r a d e j o u r n a l s p u b l i s h e d on e v e r y p r o d u c t i o n or consumption o r i e n t e d " t h i n g " i m a g i n a b l e . The t e l e v i s i o n began t o be used by the v a s t m a j o r i t y of people as a s o u r c e of a c c e s s i b l e e n t e r t a i n m e n t . A r t c o u l d be viewed i n a r t g a l l e r i e s or museums. B e n e d i c t (1983) n o t e s t h a t e a r l y World's F a i r s were major e d u c a t i o n a l e v e n t s but e v e n t u a l l y e d u c a t i o n was a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a number of more a c c e s s i b l e s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n , the s t a g i n g of Olympic games " s i p h o n e d o f f " n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n which was p r e v i o u s l y s t a g e d a t World's F a i r s . G r a d u a l l y World's F a i r s a l s o "ceased t o be the venue of i m p o r t a n t meetings and c o n g r e s s e s " (see B e n e d i c t , 1983, pp. 159-160 and W a c h t e l , 1986, pp. 39-41 f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i r d e c l i n i n g i m p o r t a n c e ) . A r c h i t e c t u r a l c r i t i c Ada L o u i s e H u x t a b l e has observed t h a t : 31 The w o r l d ' s f a i r i s a t i r e d i n s t i t u t i o n ... I t i s a l o n g time s i n c e i t s t a r t l e d the w o r l d w i t h i t s p r o d u c t s or o f f e r e d s t i m u l a t i n g or c o n t r o v e r s i a l i d e a s . No l o n g e r an i n s t r u m e n t of genuine i n t e l l e c t u a l exchange, i t has been reduced t o an e x p e d i t i o u s shot i n the arm and an i n s t r u m e n t of n a t i o n a l propaganda. ( c i t e d i n W a c h t e l , 1986, p. 40) I t i s H u x t a b l e ' s l a t t e r p o i n t which i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r an a n a l y s i s of the most r e c e n t World's F a i r s . The " e x p e d i t i o u s shot i n the arm" has taken on a v e r y s p e c i f i c form i n r e c e n t decades -- the use of the World's F a i r as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . F. P e r i o d V. The C i t y of Renewal The use of the World's F a i r as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l has become one of the most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r the government and l o c a l b u s i n e s s e l i t e t o become i n v o l v e d i n such a c o s t l y and time-consuming endeavour. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s r o l e has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n from e i t h e r the media or r e s e a r c h e r s . W h i l e "atmosphere", " f u n " , l a n d s c a p i n g , and e n t e r t a i n m e n t has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , the l i n k s have r a r e l y been made between the s p e c t a c l e and i t s r o l e i n the p h y s i c a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the i n n e r c i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a l l the p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l impacts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h major urban redevelopment p r o j e c t s . T h i s o v e r s i g h t i s s u r p r i s i n g i n t h a t t h e o r i g i n s of almost e v e r y World's F a i r ( i n P e r i o d V) a r e r o o t e d i n the redevelopment p o t e n t i a l of a F a i r . Why e l s e would f a i r s r e c e i v e such government s u p p o r t g i v e n t h a t they r a r e l y , i f e v e r , t u r n a p r o f i t and r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e s u b s i d i e s ? B e g i n n i n g w i t h the S e a t t l e ' s Expo 62, a c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r i s f o l l o w i n g w h i l e examining: 1) How s p e c i f i c World's F a i r s have been used as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l ; 2) What the h o u s i n g impacts have been; and, 3) What p l a n n i n g took p l a c e , i f any, t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i m p a c t s . Expo 86, the c a s e s t u d y , i s examined i n Chapter Three of t h i s s t u d y . 1. Expo 62 - S e a t t l e , Washington The C e n t u r y 21 E x p o s i t i o n was h e l d d u r i n g the summer of 1962 i n S e a t t l e , Washington. I t began l i k e a l l o t h e r World's F a i r s --i n the minds of a s m a l l number of the b u s i n e s s e l i t e who were w o r r i e d about t h e s a g g i n g b u s i n e s s c l i m a t e i n S e a t t l e f o l l o w i n g decades of s t e a d y p r o s p e r i t y (Jones, 1972). They r e c a l l e d the 1909 S e a t t l e World's F a i r which c r e a t e d l e g a c i e s as w e l l as b o o s t i n g c i v i c p r i d e . With t h i s i n mind, they began l o b b y i n g t o t u r n the c o n c e p t i n t o r e a l i t y . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a number of c i v i c groups and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s were s e e k i n g s u p p o r t f o r "new s p o r t s and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r S e a t t l e " (Morgan, 1963). The two groups e v e n t u a l l y l i n k e d and a s i t e was chosen which would s a t i s f y b o t h ; 50 a c r e s of p u b l i c l y owned ( c i t y and s t a t e ) i n n e r c i t y l a n d on wh i c h v a r i o u s o l d s t r u c t u r e s such as an i n d o o r hockey r i n k and b a s k e t b a l l c o u r t e x i s t e d . The s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a was c o n s i d e r e d t o be a " b l i g h t e d a r e a " of "slum d w e l l i n g s , s m a l l s t o r e s , warehouses, garages and vacant s t r u c t u r e s " ( L y n e s , 1962, p. 21 ) . C l e a r a n c e took p l a c e , and the World's F a i r was h e l d . What was l e f t i n i t s p l a c e as " l e g a c i e s " i n c l u d e d : -- an opera house -- S e a t t l e C e n t r e C o l i s e u m -- a f o u n t a i n -- a r e f u r b i s h e d arena -- p o o l s and p l a y h o u s e s -- the Space Needle and R e s t a u r a n t -- a f e d e r a l s c i e n c e museum (Jones,1972; Lynes, 1962; Murray, 1963) The " S e a t t l e C e n t r e " , as i t i s now known, i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s u c c e s s f u l c u l t u r a l and s p o r t i n g complex f o r the r e s i d e n t s of S e a t t l e . B e s i d e s t h i s d i r e c t p o s i t i v e l e g a c y on the Expo s i t e i t s e l f , the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a was upgraded. S t o r e s were r e m o d e l l e d , t r e e s p l a n t e d and a "downtown p l a n and a 10-acre p r i v a t e r enewal p r o j e c t " were " i n the wind" ( A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, June, 1962, p. 101). The s t i m u l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the 1962 World's F a i r a r e c o n s i d e r e d , even t o d a y , t o have " c r e a t e d one of the most l i v e a b l e c i t i e s i n N o r t h America ... one h e l l of a c i t y and i t would not have been t h a t way w i t h o u t the World F a i r " , a c c o r d i n g t o a S e a t t l e Times r e p o r t e r a t a 1985 Vancouver c o n f e r e n c e on "The Expo Gamble" (Vancouver Sun, January 25, 1985). W h i l e one c o u l d q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of such a s t a t e m e n t , the f a c t remains t h a t S e a t t l e ' s i n n e r c i t y was changed c o n s i d e r a b l y because of the 1962 World's F a i r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e . e v i d e n c e of the h o u s i n g impacts of t h e S e a t t l e F a i r . A l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h and co r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h C i t y of S e a t t l e p l a n n e r s have not produced d a t a on the e x t e n t of the removal of "slum d w e l l i n g s " . A l s o , the 34 h o u s i n g impact c r e a t e d by the i n f l u x of t o u r i s t s was not c o n s i d e r e d a problem a c c o r d i n g t o Stan P e t t y of the S e a t t l e Times because " t h e r e was p l e n t y of accommodation i n p r i v a t e homes" (Farrow, March 5, 1986). By c o i n c i d e n c e t h e n , the convergence of two groups ( t h e b u s i n e s s and c u l t u r a l e l i t e s ) w i t h d i f f e r e n t y e t complementary g o a l s ( i n n e r c i t y r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and the a c q u i s i t i o n of new c i v i c f a c i l i t i e s ) l e d t o the use of the World's F a i r , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . 2. Expo 64/65 - New York, New York The next N o r t h American World's F a i r was h e l d a t the same s i t e as the 1939/40 New York World's F a i r . T h i s one, o p e r a t e d d u r i n g the summers of 1964 and 1965, was used by Commissioner Robert Moses t o f i n i s h o f f h i s v i s i o n of "Beauty f o r Ashes" s t a r t e d over 25 y e a r s e a r l i e r . I t was an " u n o f f i c i a l " World's F a i r because the Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n s (BIE) r e f u s e d t o s a n c t i o n i t . V a r i o u s BIE g u i d e l i n e s were not f o l l o w e d by Moses. C l o s e t o $1 b i l l i o n was i n v e s t e d i n the f a i r and i t s immediate s u r r o u n d i n g s (Caro, 1974; Moses, 1970). No i n n e r c i t y redevelopment o c c u r r e d . The l o n g term p l a n s and development v i s i o n s were not a c h i e v e d , as James P e t e r s (1982) d i s c o v e r e d : A v i s i t o r t o the s i t e today [1982] w i l l see an e r i e w a s t e l a n d , w i t h a few a g i n g r e l i c s , i n c l u d i n g the U n i s p h e r e , the f a i r ' s symbol, s c a t t e r e d a c r o s s hundreds of a c r e s of l a r g e l y unused p a r k l a n d . ' I t ' s worse than the ash heap i t was c o n v e r t e d f r o m , ' one c r i t i c s a i d r e c e n t l y . (p. 17) 35 3. Expo 67 - M o n t r e a l , Quebec An i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n was h e l d i n M o n t r e a l d u r i n g the summer of 1967. I t met w i t h amazing s u c c e s s drawing some 50 m i l l i o n v i s i t o r s w h i l e a l s o r e c e i v i n g c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m . The s i t e was i n f a c t f o u r d i f f e r e n t s i t e s s e p a r a t e d by an arm of t h e S t . Lawrence R i v e r (Marsan, 1981, p. 365). U n l i k e S e a t t l e ' s 1962 World's F a i r , the s i t e was not s i t u a t e d i n the i n n e r c i t y . R a t h e r , t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the s i t e was c r e a t e d by l a n d f i l l a l o n g the S t . Lawrence R i v e r which f l o w s t h r o u g h the c e n t r a l c i t y ( P e t e r s , 1982, p. 17; Marsan, 1981, p. 367). Because the s i t e was v i r g i n a l , t h e r e was no d e m o l i t i o n of h o u s i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o J e a n - P i e r r e B l a i s 1 " t h e r e was no h o u s i n g impact [ t e n a n t s d i s p l a c e d ] as such s i n c e Expo 67 was b u i l t on man-made i s l a n d s i n the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . " He a l s o notes t h a t new h o u s i n g was i n f a c t c r e a t e d . T h i s " l u x u r y h o u s i n g " i s known as H a b i t a t 67. Expo 67 was used by the C i t y of M o n t r e a l a s : an excuse t o p yramid dozens of p u b l i c p r o j e c t s i n c l u d i n g a new subway system (the M e t r o ) , highway e x p a n s i o n ( f i n i s h e d 10 y e a r s ahead of s c h e d u l e ) , a n d 745 a c r e s of new p a r k l a n d i n the m i d d l e of the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . ( P e t e r s , 1982, p. 17) W h i l e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l impacts may not have o c c u r r e d o n - s i t e , 2 they appear t o have o c c u r r e d o f f - s i t e . Jeanne M. Wolfe b e l i e v e s 1 J e a n - P i e r r e B l a i s , Deputy S e c r e t a r y , Communaute U r b a i n e de M o n t r e a l , M o n t r e a l , Quebec. L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , September 5, 1986. 2 Jean M. W o l f e , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , S c h o o l of Urban P l a n n i n g , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , Quebec. L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , March 5, 1987. 36 t h a t c e r t a i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n s of the c i t y were " r a z e d f o r Expo p u r p o s e s , a l t h o u g h some of t h e s e a r e a s had been d e s i g n a t e d as 'urban renewal' or 'urban development' a r e a s p r e v i o u s l y . " These a r e a s i n c l u d e : 1) Goose V i l l a g e ( c l e a r e d t o make way f o r the Expo Stadium, now de m o l i s h e d and a vac a n t a r e a ) . 2) The twenty b l o c k s i t e where "Radio Canada/CBC" now s i t s . 3) V a r i o u s c i t y b l o c k s a t the n o r t h - e n d of the Jacques C a r t i e r b r i d g e , d e m o l i s h e d i n o r d e r t o improve t r a f f i c c i r c u l a t i o n . 4) V a r i o u s c i t y b l o c k s and p a r t of Verdun d e m o l i s h e d t o make a c c e s s r o u t e s onto the Champlain B r i d g e (about 1961). 5) V a r i o u s r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k s t r u n c a t e d i n the Snowden a r e a to make way f o r the D e c a r i e a u t o r o u t e . 6) Removal of r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k s i n S t . H e n r i and La P e t i t i e Burgogne ( f o r example the whole of S e l b y S t r e e t ) t o make way f o r e a s t west a u t o r o u t e ( 2 - 2 0 ) . The 1960's were known as the "Golden Decade" i n t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e E x p o - r e l a t e d and n o n - r e l a t e d urban r e s t r u c t u r i n g took p l a c e --a l l aimed "at e n c o u r a g i n g p r i v a t e i n v e s t m e n t and t o u r i s m " c u l m i n a t i n g w i t h "the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n of 1967" (Melamed, S c h a e c t e r and Emo, 1984, p. 2 9 ) . The C i t y of M o n t r e a l P l a n n i n g Department has not done any impact s t u d i e s on Expo 67 (Jeanne W o l f e , l e t t e r , March 5, 1987). Melamed, S c h a e c t e r and Emo (1984) have t r a c k e d down some r e l o c a t i o n "survey d a t a c a r r i e d out f o l l o w i n g the 1966 d e m o l i t i o n of a t l e a s t "15,000 d w e l l i n g s " by C i t y a g e n c i e s i n o l d e r s e c t i o n s of M o n t r e a l . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e , however, t o d e t e r m i n e what p r o p o r t i o n of these r e l o c a t i o n s were E x p o - r e l a t e d v e r s u s those of 37 a " g e n e r i c " urban renewal p r o c e s s . There i s e v i d e n c e of Expo h o u s i n g impacts r e l a t i n g t o t o u r i s t accommodation (Menyasz, 1982). Two p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s were put f o r w a r d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. The f i r s t i n v o l v e d the p a s s i n g of a law by the Quebec L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, the Expo 67 L o d g i n g P r i c e C o n t r o l B i l l . The f u n c t i o n of t h i s b i l l was t o " f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e the c r e a t i o n of an agency known as the P r o v i n c i a l L o d g i n g S e r v i c e f o r Expo 67." The s e r v i c e had t h r e e f u n c t i o n s : t o make a s u r v e y of a l l accommodation a v a i l a b l e i n the M o n t r e a l a r e a f o r Expo v i s i t o r s ; t o s e t up maximum r a t e s f o r l o d g i n g s ; and, t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h the d i r e c t o r s of the e x h i b i t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t the g r e a t e s t number of l o d g i n g s be made a v a i l a b l e t o t r a v e l l e r s a t s u i t a b l e c o s t (Expo 67, S138, p. 2 ) . In t h e o r y , r e a s o n a b l e c o s t s were s e t by h a v i n g the l o d g i n g s e r v i c e i s s u e c e r t i f i c a t e s " f i x i n g the maximum r e n t a l f o r each l o d g i n g . " H o t e l - k e e p e r s and l a n d l o r d s who f a i l e d t o "keep th e s e c e r t i f i c a t e s p o s t e d a t a l l t i m e s i n a c o n s p i c u o u s spot i n rooms and o t h e r l o d g i n g s " were l i a b l e , on c o n v i c t i o n , of f i n e s and p e n a l t i e s such as imprisonment (p. 2 ) . The second s o l u t i o n , a market s o l u t i o n , was the " c o n s t r u c t i o n of p r e - f a b r i c a t e d m otel u n i t s . " T h i s was " b a d l y h a n d l e d " g i v i n g M o n t r e a l and Expo 67 a " b l a c k eye" a c c o r d i n g t o P a u l Leduc, Mayor Drapeau's s e c r e t a r y (Monyasz, 1982). These p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d , low q u a l i t y temporary h o t e l s " l e t p e o p l e down." There appears t o be no r e c o r d of how s u c c e s s f u l t h e Expo 67 Lo d g i n g P r i c e C o n t r o l B i l l was. 38 4. Expo 68 - San A n t o n i o , Texas One year a f t e r M o n t r e a l , a World's F a i r was h e l d i n San A n t o n i o , Texas. What i s unique about Expo 68 i s t h a t i t i s the f i r s t e x p l i c i t , p r o a c t i v e a t t empt t o use a World's F a i r as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . The f a i r was f i r s t p roposed i n 1961 and i m m e d i a t e l y r e c e i v e d support from the p o l i t i c a l and b u s i n e s s e l i t e s when i t was agr e e d to h o l d the f a i r on l a n d near the C e n t r a l B u s i n e s s D i s t r i c t (CBD) ( B u s i n e s s Week, March 30, 1968, p. 68). A World's F a i r c o r p o r a t i o n was c r e a t e d and t h e C i t y ' s urban renewal agency a c q u i r e d the needed 147 a c r e s u s i n g both f e d e r a l and l o c a l government urban renewal f u n d s . C l e a r a n c e of a rundown r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a of " s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g " and " d i l a p i d a t e d houses" took p l a c e ( P e t e r s , 1982). 1,600 m o s t l y Mexican-Americans were r e l o c a t e d by the C i t y ' s urban renewal agency. B u s i n e s s Week r e p o r t e d a t t h e time t h a t the f a m i l i e s were " s u c c e s s f u l l y " r e l o c a t e d because the d i r e c t o r of the urban renewal agency: b u i l t a s t r o n g r e l o c a t i o n agency and devo t e d g r e a t c a r e - and $1.3 m i l l i o n - t o a v o i d c h a r g e s t h a t people were b e i n g thrown out of t h e i r homes t o make way f o r a b u s i n e s s - b a c k e d e x p o s i t i o n . (March 30, 1968, p. 71 ) There does not appear t o be any f u r t h e r l i t e r a t u r e about the Expo 3 68 h o u s i n g impact. A f t e r the f a i r , San A n t o n i o was l e f t w i t h a $13 m i l l i o n 3 Attempts t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h C i t y of San A n t o n i o o f f i c i a l s have not r e s u l t e d i n a r e s p o n s e . c i v i c c e n t r e which i n c l u d e s a 10,500 seat a r e n a , a 2,500 s e a t t h e a t r e , an e x h i b i t i o n h a l l and the " r e n o v a t i o n and r e m o d e l l i n g of some 20 o l d homes on the s i t e i n t o s p e c i a l t y r e s t a u r a n t s " ( P r o g r e s s i v e A r c h i t e c t u r e O b s e r v e r , F e b r u a r y 1965, p. 203). Freeway c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e improvements were a l s o c a r r i e d out as p a r t of Expo 68. The San A n t o n i o f a i r i s a prime example of the s y n t h e s i s of a h a l l m a r k event w i t h the p r o c e s s of urban redevelopment. As Roger Montgomery (1968) p u t s i t : The two t h i n g s f i t b e a u t i f u l l y : the urban renewal p r o c e s s p r o v i d e d the v e h i c l e t h a t made p o s s i b l e the l a n d assembly and c l e a r a n c e n e c e s s a r y t o get the f a i r up on t i m e ; a t the same time the f a i r p r o v i d e d impetus t h a t p i c k e d up the pace of p u b l i c development a c t i o n . Now, w i t h the f a i r g o i n g and a s l u g of new p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s up and o p e r a t i n g , p r i v a t e i nvestment on a massive s c a l e has s t a r t e d i n downtown San A n t o n i o . (p. 85) Montgomery goes on t o s t a t e t h a t w h i l e "as a World's F a i r i t s t a n d s no chance of j o i n i n g the l i s t of g r e a t ones ... t h a t was not r e a l l y what i t s e t out t o do. As a c a t a l y s t f o r redevelopment i n downtown San A n t o n i o i t worked, and i s w o r k i n g s p l e n d i d l y " (p. 8 8 ) . However, Montgomery's c l a i m s a r e p r o b a b l y e x a g g e r a t e d . In h i s i n t e r v i e w w i t h a San A n t o n i o p l a n n e r about what Expo 68 d i d f o r the c i t y , P e t e r s (1982) was t o l d : "As urban renewal i t ' s been a bomb" (p. 16). E f f o r t s t o a t t r a c t c a p i t a l i n the form of m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s and new b u s i n e s s e s f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y , l e a v i n g c i t y c o u n c i l t o p e r i o d i c a l l y ponder what t o do w i t h t h e s i t e . 40 5. Expo 74 - Spokane, Washington Expo 74 was used as a v e h i c l e t o "squeeze a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n program t h a t o r d i n a r i l y would have taken 20 y e a r s i n t o an i n t e n s i v e f i v e - y e a r e f f o r t . " (Yake, 1974, p. 55) L i k e the o t h e r World's F a i r s examined i n P e r i o d V, the o r i g i n s of Expo 74 l i e w i t h the d e s i r e of the c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e t o f i n d some mechanism whereby t h e i r g o a l s f o r the n a t u r e of the i n n e r c i t y c o u l d be r e a l i z e d . Hoping t o draw "people back t o the c i t y ' s c e n t r e and t h e r e b y [ r e j u v e n a t e ] the a d j a c e n t b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n " , an " e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y o r i e n t e d " World's F a i r was born ( I n d u s t r i a l D e s i g n , September 1974, p. 4 0 ) . Spokane, l i k e the m a j o r i t y of American c i t i e s i n t h i s p e r i o d , was s u f f e r i n g because of the e x p a n s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l , c ommercial and i n d u s t r i a l growth i n the s u b u r b s . Why was the World's F a i r chosen as the p l a n n i n g mechanism f o r redevelopment? K i n g C o l e , p r e s i d e n t of Expo 74 (and e x e c u t i v e c o n s u l t a n t w i t h Expo 82) s t a t e d i t v e r y c l e a r l y : I f i t seems a c o m p l i c a t e d r o u t e t o urban r e n e w a l , i t was n e c e s s a r y . T h i s c i t y had a s o r t of resentment of i t s downtown a r e a ... Three t i m e s i n the p a s t , the c i t y v o t e r s have t u r f e d out c i t y c o u n c i l s t h a t ran f o r o f f i c e on a p l a t f o r m of downtown renewal ... But when we s t a r t e d p u s h i n g the i d e a of a w o r l d f a i r , w h ich would b r i n g about downtown renewal i n c i d e n t a l l y , c i t i z e n s bought the i d e a . (Vancouver Sun, May 3, 1974, p. 5) The s i t e f o r the World's F a i r was " j u s t a s t o n e ' s throw from the major downtown r e t a i l d i s t r i c t " (Yake, 1974, p. 5 5 ) . D i l a p i d a t e d warehouses, rundown s t r u c t u r e s , f a c t o r i e s and l i t t l e used r a i l w a y t r a c k s l i t t e r e d the s i t e . D i r e c t l y a d j a c e n t t o the s i t e , however, was an a r e a d e s c r i b e d as the scene of many m a r g i n a l b u s i n e s s e s and l o n g - t i m e " ' t r a n s i e n t s ' havens" (Yake, 1974, p. 5 6 ) . In t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement produced by the Expo 74 c o r p o r a t i o n , i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s a r e a "has a f a i r l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of f i x e d low income and e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e i n s u b s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g u n i t s " (pp. 63-64). The World's F a i r was h e l d d u r i n g the summer of 1974. Among the " l e g a c i e s " l e f t t o the c i t y are two l a r g e permanent s t r u c t u r e s (one s e r v i n g as a c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e ) , f o r t y - e i g h t a c r e s of w a t e r f r o n t p a r k l a n d w i t h an e x t e n s i v e underground i r r i g a t i o n system, downtown s t r e e t s s u r f a c e d w i t h a s p h a l t , new bank b u i l d i n g s and department s t o r e s , and " h i g h morale and p o t e n t i a l f o r new b u s i n e s s and r e t a i l o u t l e t s -- a growing c o n f i d e n c e i n downtown" (Yake, 1974, p. 5 5 ) . Yake f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t Expo 74 s p u r r e d on a b u i l d i n g boom "unprecedented s i n c e the c i t y ' s c e n t r a l a r e a was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e i n 1889" (p. 5 6 ) . T h i s statement i s s u p p o r t e d by K i n g C o l e ' s boast i n 1982 t h a t : B e f o r e the Spokane f a i r , Spokane's c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t was c o n t r i b u t i n g about 17 p e r c e n t of the c i t y ' s p r o p e r t y t a x e s . A f t e r the f a i r , because of downtown b u i l d i n g p r o j e c t s , t h a t f i g u r e r o s e t o 25 p e r c e n t . ( S i l e r , 1982, p. C6) B e s i d e s a c o n s t r u c t i o n boom, the 1974 World's F a i r had o t h e r i m p a c t s . W h i l e an o n - s i t e h o u s i n g impact d i d not o c c u r , M a r i o n 4 B. Hess no t e s t h a t t h e a r e a s a d j a c e n t t o the s i t e were impacted. 4 . . Ma r i o n B. Hess, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of P l a n n i n g and Zoni n g , C i t y of Spokane, Washington. L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , March 13, 1987. 42 " S e v e r a l o l d e r h o t e l / a p a r t m e n t b u i l d i n g s were d e m o l i s h e d and c o n v e r t e d t o o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g . " T h i s was p r e d i c t e d i n the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement w r i t t e n f o r the Spokane World E x p o s i t i o n i n March 1972: The more i m p o r t a n t h o u s i n g problem c o n c e r n s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r a b l e redevelopment of l a n d s and s t r u c t u r e s a d j a c e n t to or near the proposed Expo s i t e . (p. 63) The p r o b a b i l i t y of d i s p l a c e m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g f u r t h e r s o u t h from T r e n t Avenue w i l l most l i k e l y d e c r e a s e as a f u n c t i o n of the d i s t a n c e from Expo. (p. 64) I f we a s s i g n a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t 100 p e r c e n t of r e s i d e n t s on T r e n t Avenue i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t to the proposed s i t e and 50 p e r c e n t of t h e s e l a t t e r i n d i v i d u a l s (from an a r e a s l i g h t l y f u r t h e r to s i t e ) w i l l be d i s p l a c e d by some type of new a c t i v i t y , we have a minimum d i s p l a c e m e n t of 258 r e s i d e n t s . T h i s minimum number c o u l d i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y i f the a d d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t s were d i s p l a c e d from the a r e a t o the s o u t h of Main e x t e n d i n g t o 3rd or 4 t h Avenues. (pp. 64-65) The impact statement f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s t h a t g e n e r a l urban redevelopment p r e s s u r e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the C i t y ' s R i v e r f r o n t Development P l a n would " p r o b a b l y cause" the d i s p l a c e m e n t i n any case b u t : even though the p o i n t can be argued t h a t Expo 74 i s not d i r e c t l y c a u s i n g the d i s p l a c e m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l s ... i t can be s t a t e d t h a t Expo 74 w i l l d e f i n i t e l y a c c e l e r a t e t h e change. (p. 65) In t h i s case the h o u s i n g impacts were p r e d i c t e d and they o c c u r r e d . O n - s i t e , the World's F a i r was b e i n g used as a t o o l f o r i n n e r c i t y redevelopment. In s u r r o u n d i n g c o m m u n i t i e s , the World's F a i r was a c c e l e r a t i n g change and c r e a t i n g new redevelopment p r e s s u r e s . The c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e impacts d i s r u p t e d t h e l i v e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t -- the poor and e l d e r l y . "Very hard to come by" a f f o r d a b l e i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g was d e s t r o y e d (Spokane World E x p o s i t i o n , 1972). There i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t any major p l a n n i n g took p l a c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e h o u s i n g impact of Expo 74. A p a r t from a h o u s i n g o f f i c e e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Chamber of Commerce B u i l d i n g which d i r e c t e d t o u r i s t s t o a v a i l a b l e accommodation, a few community groups d e v e l o p e d "new h o u s i n g f o r low income p e o p l e i n the a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g the Expo s i t e . Two new l a r g e apartment b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d " (Marion B. Hess, l e t t e r , March 13, 1987). In the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement (EIS) s e v e r a l o p t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the p o t e n t i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t of r e s i d e n t s (p. 66) but a l l were found t o be inadequate f o r one reason or a n o t h e r and the i s s u e was n e g l e c t e d . R e f e r e n c e was made i n the EIS t o two "downtown p r o j e c t s " o f f e r i n g up t o 140 u n i t s maximum. They were i n the " p l a n n i n g s t a g e " a t the time (1972). 6. Expo 82 - K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee was the s i t e of the 1982 " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Energy E x p o s i t i o n " . T h i s c i t y i n the A p p a l a c h i a n mountains p r o v i d e s an i d e a l case study of an i n d u s t r i a l c i t y i n d e c l i n e . K n o x v i l l e had been a commercial c i t y i n the l a t e 1'800's but by the e a r l y 1900's i t was t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a t y p i c a l i n d u s t r i a l c i t y a l t h o u g h the c i t y had a h i g h e r than average number of 44 government employees. Between the 1950's and 1970's the p r o c e s s e s of s u b u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e c r e a t e d severe economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems (see McDonald and Wheeler (1983) f o r an h i s t o r i c a l s tudy of K n o x v i l l e between 1865 and 1982). Al o n g w i t h i n d u s t r i a l d e c l i n e came i n n e r c i t y d e c l i n e . By 1974, the c i t y was a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v e l o p methods which would enable downtown redevelopment t o o c c u r . A p l a n was c r e a t e d but "a c a t a l y s t t o enable i t [downtown redevelopment] t o make a quantum l e a p f o r w a r d " was needed (Knack, 1982, p. 8 ) . A f t e r h e a r i n g of Spokane's s u c c e s s a t the a n n u a l g e n e r a l meeting of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Downtown E x e c u t i v e s A s s o c i a t i o n , the b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e worked a g g r e s s i v e l y t o ensure t h a t a World's F a i r was h e l d i n K n o x v i l l e . A World's F a i r A d v i s o r y Committee was a p p o i n t e d c o n s i s t i n g of many "are a b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s " ( K n o x v i l l e - K n o x County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission et a l . , 1982). A s i t e was chosen -- " S t i n k y Creek" -- 72 a c r e s of i n n e r c i t y K n o x v i l l e d e s c r i b e d a s : the l o n g , narrow c r e e k v a l l e y , wedged between the downtown on the e a s t and both the h i l l y U n i v e r s i t y of Tennessee campus and the F o r t Sanders neighborhood on t h e west. Years ago, the v a l l e y was an i m p o r t a n t s t o r a g e y a r d f o r the N a s h v i l l e and S o u t h e r n r a i l r o a d s , but by the 1960's, w i t h r a i l r o a d f r e i g h t t r a f f i c down t o a few t r a i n s a day, i t had become an e y e s o r e , f i l l e d w i t h abandoned b u i l d i n g s and m a r g i n a l b u s i n e s s e s . (Knack, 1982, p. 8) Dodd (1982) p a r t l y c o n t r a d i c t s the i n d u s t r i a l w a s t e l a n d images evoked by Knack when he adds t h a t t h e r e were a l s o "two modern 45 m e d i c a l c l i n i c s " employing 14 m e d i c a l d o c t o r s , "two v i a b l e t i r e r e t a i l e r s " and a "new v e t e r i n a r y h o s p i t a l " on the s i t e (p. 4 4 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a "good p o r t i o n " of the Lower Second Creek V a l l e y ( S t i n k y Creek) was "ragged and rundown" ( I b i d . ) . Some s p e c i f i c g o a l s of the proponents of the World's F a i r were t o s u p p l y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and s e r v i c e improvements t o the a r e a w h i l e a l s o speeding up freeway improvements ( K n o x v i l l e - K n o x County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission e t a l . , 1982). These s p e c i f i c g o a l s however were s y m b o l i c of much l a r g e r g o a l s f o r the i n n e r c i t y . Both Dodd (1982) and McDonald and Wheeler (1983) note t h a t the World's F a i r was used t o attempt t o a l t e r e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of uneven development. The s t r a t e g y was t o r e v i t a l i z e t he downtown r e t a i l t r a d e a r e a by e n a b l i n g major r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n t o be undertaken on the Expo s i t e , l u r i n g " a f f l u e n t newcomers t o the c e n t r a l c i t y " (McDonald and Wheeler, p. 163; Dodd, p. 19). The l a n d was assembled i n a complex government-supported p r o c e s s (see Knack, 1982 and Dodd, 1982 f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of the p r o c e s s ) and the World's F a i r was s t a g e d d u r i n g the summer of 1982. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of development was s p u r r e d on by the F a i r . As t h e Mayor of K n o x v i l l e , Randy T y r e e , s t a t e d a f t e r the f a i r : P r e v i o u s l y K n o x v i l l e was the gateway t o the Smokies, but we weren't a d e s t i n a t i o n . We had one h o t e l , we had no c o n v e n t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . We had an a r e a i n the c e n t r e of the c i t y t h a t was an i n d u s t r i a l slum. There were b e a u t i f u l o l d b u i l d i n g s r o t t i n g away. There was no way t o make 46 the f i g u r e s work t o do a n y t h i n g about i t . Now ... the c i t y has 4 new h o t e l s and a c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e a l o n g w i t h i t s new roadway and new s p i r i t . ( C a l o n i u s , 1983, p. 37) The new roadway was $224 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s i n i n t e r s t a t e highway improvements as w e l l as numerous l o c a l roadway and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e improvements (Knack, 1982; The K n o x v i l l e - Knox County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission e t a l . , 1982). There were a range of s o c i a l i m p a c t s caused by Expo 82. W h i l e no o n - s i t e h o u s i n g was d e m o l i s h e d , c o n s i d e r a b l e temporary p r e s s u r e was put on the r e n t a l h o u s i n g market. S i n c e the F a i r was s i t u a t e d i n the i n n e r c i t y , s t r o n g p r e s s u r e was f e l t i n b o r d e r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c o mmunities. T h i s was p r e d i c t e d . In August 1981, the K n o x v i l l e County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission (1981) p r e d i c t e d t h a t K n o x v i l l e ' s h o u s i n g market would be " s i g n i f i c a n t l y impacted by the p o p u l a t i o n i n f l u x r e s u l t i n g from the 1982 World's F a i r . " More p r e c i s e l y : The r e n t a l h o u s i n g market l o c a t e d i n i n n e r c i t y n e ighborhoods w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d . The massive c o n v e r s i o n of r e n t a l h o u s i n g w i t h i n t h e s e neighborhoods i n t o temporary accommodation f o r F a i r v i s i t o r s and employees w i l l r e s u l t i n the d i s p l a c e m e n t of many ar e a r e s i d e n t s . (p. 1) The p r e d i c t i o n d e s c r i b e d above u n f o r t u n a t e l y came t r u e . E s t i m a t e s of the number of t e n a n t s e v i c t e d range between: "150 m o s t l y s t u d e n t s " (Expo 86) ; the C i t y of K n o x v i l l e ' s guess (as of May 1, 1982) of 350 t o 400 ( c i t e d i n H a r r i s , May 2, 1982); an T h i s f i g u r e was p r e s e n t e d by George Madden, V i c e P r e s i d e n t , Communications and M a r k e t i n g , Expo 86. He was i n t e r v i e w e d on October 10, 1985 a t a p u b l i c debate on the p o t e n t i a l f o r Expo 86 h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . e s t i m a t e of 1000-1500 by the K n o x v i l l e based Tenants f o r F a i r H o using ( H a r r i s , May 2, 1982), and; 1500 (Vancouver P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 5, 1982; Hauka, March 5, 1986). The " h a r d e s t h i t " t e n a n t s were " K n o x v i l l e ' s handicapped, i t s s e n i o r c i t i z e n s and s t u d e n t s " ( H u l s e , A p r i l 24, 1982). As L a r r y A l d r i d g e , c i t y e d i t o r of the K n o x v i l l e J o u r n a l put i t : "A l o t of slum l a n d l o r d s and e n t r e p r e n e u r s e v i c t e d p e o p l e from l o w - r e n t accommodation and t r i e d t o make a q u i c k buck out of the f a i r " ( c i t e d i n Farrow, 1986). Expo 82 c r e a t e d s t r a i n s on t h e c i t y ' s c r i s i s c e n t r e s . The t i g h t h o u s i n g market f o r c e d c l i e n t s t o remain i n the c e n t r e i n s t e a d of f i n d i n g p r i v a t e r e n t e d accommodations when the worst p a r t of the c r i s i s was over ( G a r c i a , 1982). The impacts were f i r s t f e l t i n Ja n u a r y 1982 and c a r r i e d on u n t i l the e a r l y months of the f a i r . Impacts stopped when l a n d l o r d s r e a l i z e d t h a t an o v e r s u p p l y of accommodation e x i s t e d g i v e n the s m a l l e r than a n t i c i p a t e d crowds. In f a c t , many of the "gouging l a n d l o r d s went broke" and "by the second month of the f a i r they were s c r a m b l i n g t o get t h e i r t e n a n t s back ( K n o x v i l l e  News S e n t i n e l r e p o r t e r Roger H a r r i s , c i t e d i n Hauka, March 5, 1986). P l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 82 d i d t a k e p l a c e but i t succeeded i n merely p o i n t i n g out how i l l - p r e p a r e d and p o w e r l e s s the C i t y of K n o x v i l l e was. P l a n n i n g e f f o r t s can f i r s t be t r a c e d back t o pre-Expo p r e d i c t i o n s of a t t e n d a n c e l e v e l s . Both Expo o f f i c i a l s and the C i t y c a r r i e d out h o u s i n g market s t u d i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o b oth a v a i l a b l e t o u r i s t accommodation and t h e number of p e o p l e e x p e c t e d t o v i s i t the f a i r . E v e n t u a l l y a h o u s i n g r e s e r v a t i o n s system (KNOXVISIT) was e s t a b l i s h e d (DuBose, 1985). The Expo o f f i c i a l s and the C i t y c r e a t e d a t t e n d a n c e e s t i m a t e s which were not " i n l i n e w i t h r e a l i t y " a c c o r d i n g t o G r e t c h e n F. B e a l . ^ The o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n s m o t i v a t e d i n n e r c i t y l a n d l o r d s t o e v i c t t e n a n t s i n an e f f o r t t o c a t e r t o Expo t o u r i s t s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , the f i r s t e f f o r t s of p l a n n i n g c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c r e a t i o n of n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . A f t e r l a r g e numbers of t e n a n t s were b e i n g e v i c t e d , p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s became r e a c t i v e i n n a t u r e . In January 1982 C i t y s t a f f began " t o y i n g w i t h the i d e a of p l a c i n g a 10-percent cap on r e n t i n c r e a s e s t o p r e v e n t l a n d l o r d s from r a i s i n g r e n t s e x o r b i t a n t l y t o f o r c e r e n t e r s o u t " ( H a r r i s , May.2, 1985). T h i s t a c t i c was d i s c a r d e d when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e d an " i l l e g a l " r e n t c o n t r o l ( I b i d . ) . The C i t y d i d not have l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o enact r e n t c o n t r o l s . Two temporary o r d i n a n c e s (see Appendix I) were passed by C i t y C o u n c i l which " a u t h o r i z e d o v e r n i g h t r e n t a l s i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones" and s e t up a c e r t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s through which apartment owners c o u l d q u a l i f y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program ( H a r r i s , May 4, 1982). The s t r a t e g y was t o m onitor and r e s t r i c t the l a n d l o r d s ' a t t e m p t s t o r e n t s u i t e s t o t o u r i s t s . When c h a l l e n g e d i n c o u r t , the o r d i n a n c e s were r u l e d i n v a l i d as they had not been G r e t c h e n F. B e a l , I n f o r m a t i o n Resources C o o r d i n a t o r , K n o x v i l l e / K n o x County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission. L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , September 18, 1986. approved by the M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission. The Mayor of K n o x v i l l e a l s o " f l a i l e d away a t the gougers" w i t h a c a r e f u l l y o r c h e s t r a t e d c a s t i g a t i o n of the e v i c t o r s f o r g i v i n g the c i t y a " b l a c k eye" w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t t e m p t i n g not t o t a r n i s h the c i t y ' s image (Dodd, 1982, p. 7 5 ) . In the end, the o r d i n a n c e s "came too l a t e t o be e f f e c t i v e and most c o u l d not be e n f o r c e d . T h e i r passage was a n e c e s s a r y p o l i t i c a l move but d i d not s o l v e any of the problems" (Gretchen F. B e a l , l e t t e r , September 18, 1986). In summary, i n i t i a l e f f o r t s a t p l a n n i n g ( a t t e n d a n c e e s t i m a t i o n s ) h e l p e d t o c r e a t e t h e h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 82. The a t t e n d a n c e was o v e r - e s t i m a t e d and l a n d l o r d s e x p e c t e d l a r g e f i n a n c i a l g a i n s i f they e v i c t e d t e n a n t s . Once the h o u s i n g impacts began, p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s came to o l a t e and they were i n e f f e c t i v e . The r e a c t i v e p l a n n i n g which d i d o c c u r merely succeeded i n d e f l e c t i n g blame from the Mayor, C i t y C o u n c i l and the b u r e a u c r a t s ( i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s ) where some of the blame s h o u l d r e s t . The C i t y was h o p i n g t o r e d e v e l o p i t s i n n e r c i t y . The h o u s i n g impact p l a n n i n g was merely a f a c a d e of c o n c e r n t o mask the impacts c r e a t e d by t h e redevelopment g o a l . 7. Expo 84 - New O r l e a n s , L o u i s i a n a New O r l e a n s , L o u i s i a n a was f a c i n g economic problems much t same as K n o x v i l l e . From the 1950's t h r o u g h the 1970's the suburbs s u r r o u n d i n g New O r l e a n s expanded d r a m a t i c a l l y . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , the i n n e r c i t y l o s t p o p u l a t i o n , r a c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n changed from w h i t e t o b l a c k , and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s d e c l i n e d (Glassman, 1978; Smith and K e l l e r , 1983). W h i l e New O r l e a n s ' t o u r i s t and p o r t economy remained r e l a t i v e l y buoyant: I t [had] a c o n c e n t r a t e d and expanding u n d e r c l a s s , extreme dependence on a s h r i n k i n g p o o l of f e d e r a l a i d , a d e c l i n i n g w h i t e m i d d l e c l a s s , an a g i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , and i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s t h a t r e i n f o r c e a secondary l a b o r market and e x e r t a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on f u t u r e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t . Furthermore, n e i t h e r p o r t revenues nor t o u r i s t d o l l a r s [ c o u l d ] s u s t a i n New O r l e a n s ' economy i n the face of nearby a g g r e s s i v e c o m p e t i t o r s w i t h more d i v e r s i f i e d economies l i k e Houston or D a l l a s . (Smith and K e l l e r , 1983, pp. 131-132) In the f a c e of t h e s e p r o b l e m s , a group of b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s d e c i d e d upon the mechanism which c o u l d r e v i t a l i z e New O r l e a n s ' s a g g i n g f o r t u n e -- the World's F a i r (Hager, 1981, p. 3; Smith and K e l l e r , 1983, p. 143; Douglas, 1984). An i n n e r c i t y s i t e ( t h e Warehouse D i s t r i c t ) was chosen f o r redevelopment. I t encompassed 82 a c r e s on a bend of the M i s s i . s s i p i R i v e r " i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t and w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e of the V i e u x C a r r e " (Douglas, 1984, p. 4 8 ) . The s i t e c o n t a i n e d r a i l r o a d l i n e s , c o mmercial b u i l d i n g s and 19th c e n t u r y wharves. The World's F a i r was h e l d d u r i n g the summer of 1984 and, by a l l a c c o u n t s , f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o a t t e n d a n c e and f i n a n c i n g (LeMann, 1984; Farrow, 1986). However, Expo 84 a c c o m p l i s h e d the aim of i n n e r c i t y redevelopment. Many o n - s i t e commercial b u i l d i n g s were r e n o v a t e d f o r p o s t - f a i r use as r e s t a u r a n t and e x h i b i t space. A l s o , " a l l the a c t i v i t y has 51 sparked a major c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t i n the d i s t r i c t , w i t h o b v i o u s r e s i d u a l e f f e c t s " -- major h o t e l c o n s t r u c t i o n , r i v e r f r o n t development p r o j e c t s and "the r e p a v i n g and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of many s t r e e t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e l e a d i n g t o the s i t e " ( Douglas, 1984, p. 4 8 ) . T h i s r o s y p i c t u r e i s s u p p o r t e d 7 by K a t h i e 0. C l a r k who wrote t h a t "The L o u i s i a n a Expo has h e l p e d the commercial r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of t h i s b l i g h t e d a r e a w i t h the c o m p l e t i o n of such p r o j e c t s as the New O r l e a n s C o n v e n t i o n C e n t r e and the R i v e r w a l k , a r e t a i l s p e c i a l t y m a l l . " T h i s c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e was b u i l t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a t e and l o c a l government f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t ( S m i t h and K e l l e r , 1983, p. 144). The World's F a i r was used as a t o o l t o r e d e v e l o p t h e i n n e r c i t y . The p l a n n e r s ' u l t i m a t e g o a l -- t o e s t a b l i s h "a new neighborhood ... w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of an o l d e r one" (Douglas, 1984, p. 55) i s a p p r o a c h i n g a t t a i n m e n t . D i r e c t h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 84 a r e r e p o r t e d t o be • p v i r t u a l l y n i l . Both K a t h i e 0. C l a r k and R a l p h Thayer note t h a t : 1) No h o u s i n g was d e m o l i s h e d because the World's F a i r was set i n the Warehouse D i s t r i c t which does not have r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g . 2) "Some u p g r a d i n g " of r e n t a l p r o p e r t y o c c u r r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3-4 months p r i o r t o the opening but t h i s 7 K a t h i e 0. C l a r k , Deputy D i r e c t o r , O f f i c e of Hous i n g and Community Development, C i t y of New O r l e a n s . L e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r , March 23, 1987. Q R a l p h Thayer, P r o f e s s o r , Program of Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of New O r l e a n s . He i s an e x p e r t on World's F a i r s and urban redevelopment. L e t t e r t o a u t h o r , September 12, 1986. 52 was not r e p o r t e d t o be "widespread." P e o p l e e i t h e r s p e c u l a t e d and b u i l t r e n t a l u n i t s "but when the i n f l u x f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e , r e n t s came back down and t h e r e was never any r e a l o u t c r y about h o u s i n g impact" ( T h a y e r ) . The consequence of the l i m i t e d s p e c u l a t i o n , d i s a s t r o u s a t t e n d a n c e l e v e l s and few h o u s i n g impacts was t h a t l i t t l e p l a n n i n g took p l a c e . I f one assumes though t h a t p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t b e f o r e h a n d , why was a p l a n n i n g e f f o r t never i n i t i a t e d ? A p p a r e n t l y " a g e n c i e s d i d not get e x t r a d o l l a r s f o r World's F a i r a c t i v i t i e s " t h e r e b y l i m i t i n g t h e i r i n c e n t i v e ( R a l p h Thayer, l e t t e r , September 12, 1986). The p l a n n i n g which d i d o c c u r was "ad hoc" i n n a t u r e . I t i n v o l v e d the " R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Commission c i r c u l a t i n g a l e t t e r i n v i t i n g a g e n c i e s t o meet and d i s c u s s t h e i r p l a n s i n an attempt f o r b e t t e r c o o r d i n a t i o n . " T h i s merely i n i t i a t e d a few " l o o s e l y s t r u c t u r e d meetings and no r e p o r t s " ( I b i d . ) . The o n l y o t h e r p l a n n i n g e f f o r t was u ndertaken by a non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v i n g s h e l t e r f o r runaway y o u t h "but the s c a l e of the p r o blem never r e a l l y m a t e r i a l i z e d on a grand s c a l e as e x p e c t e d " ( I b i d . ) . W h i l e the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 84 were r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c o n t i n u e d r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the i n n e r c i t y ( i n i t i a t e d by the World's F a i r ) w i l l e n t a i l the permanent l o s s of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . 8. Expo 88 - B r i s b a n e , A u s t r a l i a A World's F a i r , A u s t r a l i a ' s f i r s t , w i l l be h e l d i n B r i s b a n e , Queensland d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r (summer i n the N o r t h e r n Hemisphere) of 1988. I t s o r i g i n s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e of Expo 86. In 1978 some s e n i o r government o f f i c i a l s were s e e k i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e "event" t o mark A u s t r a l i a ' s 1988 B i c e n t e n a r y c e l e b r a t i o n s . The Queensland Government c o n s i d e r e d s p o n s o r i n g the event but a s i t e had t o be chosen f i r s t (Park and F e r o s , 1985). Three p o t e n t i a l s i t e s were examined. The one f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d i s on the south bank of the B r i s b a n e R i v e r i n the C i t y of B r i s b a n e . The s i t e was chosen f o r a number of r e a s o n s i n c l u d i n g : 1) i t s p r o x i m i t y t o the CBD; 2) i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r development from an u n a t t r a c t i v e i n n e r c i t y a r e a i n t o an a t t r a c t i v e and v a l u a b l e p r e c i n c t of the c i t y . (Park and F e r o s , 1985, p. 12) The Queensland Government e s t a b l i s h e d the Expo A u t h o r i t y ( B r i s b a n e E x p o s i t i o n and South Bank Redevelopment A u t h o r i t y ) and the l a n d was a c q u i r e d i n 1985. The Expo s i t e was o c c u p i e d by "rundown" co m m e r c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l b u s i n e s s e s i n c l u d i n g some r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y (Johnson, 1987). One hundred and e l e v e n s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s were d i s p l a c e d t h r o u g h l a n d r e s u m p t i o n and payment of compensation, 9 10 a c c o r d i n g t o E.K. Campbell . Both Campbell and Derek B a i n e s f e e l t h a t the c l e a r a n c e of the E x p o s i t i o n s i t e d i d not i n v o l v e the d e m o l i t i o n of any " s u b s t a n t i a l a r e a s of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t y " ( B a i n e s ) a l t h o u g h " s u b s t a n t i a l " was not d e f i n e d . g E.K. C a m p b e l l , Town C l e r k , B r i s b a n e C i t y . L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , J u l y 30, 1987. Derek B a i n e s , Manager, I n t e r n a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n , World Expo 88. L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , A p r i l 9, 1987. W h i l e the World's F a i r i s y e t t o be h e l d a t the time of w r i t i n g , i t i s c l e a r t h a t Expo 88 i s b e i n g used as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . D a v i d Park and V i c F e r o s (1985), two p l a n n e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the World Expo 88 o r g a n i z a t i o n , have d e t a i l e d the o b j e c t i v e s and p l a n n i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r the World's F a i r . W h i l e t h e r e a r e numerous " o p e r a t i o n a l " i s s u e s d e a l t w i t h i n the a r t i c l e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Expo 88 i s a means t o an end; the development and improvement of "these l a n d s w i t h a view t o t h e i r d i s p o s a l t o a c h i e v e a net f i n a n c i a l r e s u l t t h a t w i l l not impose a burden of c o s t on the Government of Queensland" (p. 15).,. As they e x p l i c i t l y put i t , one o b j e c t i v e i s t o "ensure t h a t , wherever p o s s i b l e , work undertaken f o r Expo 88 w i l l be c o m p a t i b l e w i t h l o n g e r - t e r m p l a n ( s ) f o r the a r e a " (p. 15). As of A p r i l 1987, t h i r t e e n p r o p o s a l s had been p r e s e n t e d f o r redevelopment of the s i t e a f t e r Expo 88 c l o s e s (D. B a i n e s , l e t t e r , A p r i l 9, 1987). A committee of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from World Expo 88, B r i s b a n e C i t y C o u n c i l and t h e Queensland Government were r e v i e w i n g t h e s e p r o p o s a l s , a l t h o u g h B r i s b a n e Mayor S a l l y a n n e was d i s t u r b e d w i t h the whole p r o c e s s because the l a n d was e x c i s e d from l o c a l a u t h o r i t y and t h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t " l a c k of f o r w a r d p l a n n i n g " , ( c i t e d i n J o h n s o n , 1987). The h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 88 t o date i n c l u d e s the i n i t i a l d e m o l i t i o n of "a v e r y s m a l l number of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s " (E.K. C a m p b e l l , l e t t e r , J u l y 30, 1987). T h i s h o u s i n g s e r v e d as " l o w - c o s t i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g f o r s u c c e s s i v e waves of i m m i g r a n t s " (Johnson, 1987). I t was p a r t of the West End, a " s t i l l l o w - c o s t , r e l a t i v e l y c o s m o p o l i t a n a r e a . " In p a r t s of the West End which border the Expo s i t e , r e s i d e n t s worry " t h a t Expo" w i l l "make t h e i r n e i g h b o r h o o d too e x p e n s i v e t o l i v e i n " (I b i d . ) . T h e i r w o r r i e s a r e v a l i d . Derek B a i n e s of World Expo 88 p r e d i c t s t h a t "the E x p o s i t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a m a r g i n a l i n c r e a s e i n r e n t s i n some of the p r o p e r t i e s i n t h i s a r e a " ( l e t t e r , A p r i l 9, 1987). T h i s view i s s u p p o r t e d by F.B. R u d d 1 1 , the S e c r e t a r y of the Expo Accommodation Sub-Committee: I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t n e a r e r t o the s t a r t i n g time of Expo t h e r e w i l l be a f i r m demand f o r accommodation and t h e r e w i l l be an i n c r e a s e i n r e n t s and a v e r y t i g h t vacancy r a t e . J u s t how marked t h i s w i l l be we have no way of knowing a t t h i s s t a g e . ( l e t t e r , June 5, 1987) W i t h f u r t h e r impacts v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine what p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s a re b e i n g u n d e r t a k e n by both B r i s b a n e C i t y and the Expo A u t h o r i t y . B r i s b a n e C i t y i s assuming t h a t the "ready a v a i l a b i l i t y " of s h o r t term accommodation i n the B r i s b a n e Region w i l l ensure few, i f any h o u s i n g impacts from o c c u r r i n g . Because Expo 88 i s b e i n g h e l d i n the o f f season, and r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k s a re b e i n g c r e a t e d t o r e s o r t a r e a s t o the n o r t h and s o u t h of the c i t y ( w i t h i n the B r i s b a n e R e g i o n ) , Expo h o u s i n g impacts a r e not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p l a n n i n g i s s u e (E.K. C a m p b e l l , l e t t e r , J u l y 30, 1987). The S t a t e Government and the Expo A u t h o r i t y . h a v e no " s p e c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s f o r Expo 88." I t i s t h e a t t i t u d e of the S t a t e Government t h a t "the f r e e 1 1 F.B. Rudd, S e c r e t a r y , Expo Accommodation Sub-Committee. He i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e R e a l E s t a t e I n s t i t u t e of Queensland L t d . L e t t e r t o the a u t h o r , June 5, 1987. 56 e n t e r p r i s e market p l a c e w i l l cope w i t h the i n f l u x of p e o p l e " (F.B. Rudd, l e t t e r , June 5, 1987). Whether or not Expo 88 c r e a t e s f u r t h e r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s remains t o be seen. There a r e the p o t e n t i a l s h o r t term im p a c t s because of the t o u r i s t i n f l u x . There a r e a l s o t h e p o t e n t i a l l o n g term impacts c r e a t e d by the p l a n n e d redevelopment of the i n n e r c i t y . The f u t u r e of the West End w i t h i t s " l o w - c o s t i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g " i s u n c e r t a i n . One t h i n g remains c e r t a i n though -- t h e r e i s l i t t l e e f f o r t b e i n g e x e r t e d by the S t a t e Government, Expo 88 a u t h o r i t i e s or B r i s b a n e C i t y t o ensure t h a t t h i s community remains a f f o r d a b l e f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t s . 9. Expo 92 - C h i c a go, I l l i n o i s C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s was t o be the h o s t of i t s t h i r d World's F a i r i n 1992. I t was c a n c e l l e d i n June, 1985 because the p u b l i c a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r the f a i r were d i s c o n t i n u e d by the S t a t e of I l l i n o i s L e g i s l a t u r e . There were s e v e r a l reasons f o r the f u n d i n g c u t o f f i n c l u d i n g a d i v i d e d c i v i c government, a c c e l e r a t i n g c o s t p r o j e c t i o n s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and community o p p o s i t i o n , the p e r c e i v e d f a i l u r e s of Expo 82 and Expo 84, and the f a c t t h a t "the f a i r had no p u b l i c c o n s t i t u e n c y beyond a h a n d f u l of downtown businessmen and r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s " (Dorfman, 1985, p. 7; M c C l o r y , 1985; Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y 18, 1985, p. A 2 ) . T h i s c a n c e l l e d World's F a i r i s b r i e f l y examined because i t adds f u r t h e r support to the t h e s i s t h a t one of the p r i m a r y r o l e s of the modern World's F a i r i s i n n e r c i t y redevelopment. A World's F a i r was f i r s t p roposed i n the l a t e 1970's by the downtown Chic a g o b u s i n e s s community. A p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s community was c r e a t e d t o h o l d the World's F a i r l i c e n c e awarded by t h e Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n s ( B I E ) . A 600 a c r e - t r a c t of l a n d t o the s o u t h of the CBD a l o n g Lake M i c h i g a n was s e l e c t e d as the s i t e . The reasons f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s i t e a r e a l l u d e d t o i n a d r a f t document t i t l e d C hicago  C e n t r a l Area P l a n : A P l a n f o r the H e a r t of the C i t y (1983). D u r i n g the e a r l y 1980's the r e t a i l c o r e "was i n danger of l o s i n g s e v e r a l of i t s major r e t a i l a n c h o r s " (p. 9 ) . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t C h i c a g o had been f e e l i n g the impacts of the change from i n d u s t r i a l t o p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l c i t y ( i . e . , o f f i c e space c o n s t r u c t i o n ) but t h a t , u n l i k e o t h e r American C i t i e s such as Boston or San F r a n c i s c o , the r e l a t e d g e n t r i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s was o n l y o c c u r r i n g i n a minor way. C i v i c p o l i t i c i a n s , b u r e a u c r a t s and t h e development i n d u s t r y were d i s c o n c e r t e d t h a t Chicago was not w i t n e s s i n g the " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " of i n n e r c i t y neighborhoods near the CBD. The subsequent and " d e s i r e d " impacts of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n -- a v i g o r o u s downtown r e t a i l market, " e n l i v e n e d p e d e s t r i a n a c t i v i t y " beyond the p r e s e n t 9 t o 5 time s c h e d u l e , and "perhaps most i m p o r t a n t " , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of "a neighborhood t h a t would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p r i d e of o w n e r ship" (p. 25) -- were not o c c u r r i n g . Downtown h o u s i n g was i d e n t i f i e d as the "key element i n m a i n t a i n i n g the C e n t r a l Area's d i v e r s i t y , v i t a l i t y and v i a b i l i t y " (p. 5 6 ) . The World's F a i r was t o be the c a t a l y s t f o r the 58 c r e a t i o n of " v i a b l e " i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g f o r the w h i t e c o l l a r , p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l w o r k f o r c e . A c c o r d i n g t o the C h i c a g o C e n t r a l Area  P l a n : the development of the World's F a i r w i l l c r e a t e new l a k e f r o n t a m e n i t i e s to encourage r e s i d e n t i a l growth. In a d d i t i o n , the F a i r r e p r e s e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y and the impetus f o r d e v e l o p i n g h i g h q u a l i t y r e s i d e n t i a l p r o j e c t s . (p. 26) I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t " q u a l i t y " h o u s i n g developments ( b o t h on and s u r r o u n d i n g the s i t e ) would be a c t i v a t e d by the s t i m u l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of Expo 92. Land v a l u e impacts had s t a r t e d as e a r l y as 1983. In the Vancouver Sun i t i s n o t e d t h a t "the p r i c e of l a n d a round the chosen e x p o s i t i o n s i t e on the near South S i d e has more than t r i p l e d i n two y e a r s " ( F e b r u a r y 18, 1985, p. A 2 ) . W i t h the 1985 c a n c e l l a t i o n of the 1992 World's F a i r , C h i c a g o ' s C e n t r a l Area P l a n w i l l have t o be a l t e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y as i t was h e a v i l y r e l i a n t upon the impacts Expo was t o have caused. G. C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the h i s t o r y of World's F a i r s and t h e i r many a s s o c i a t e d r o l e s . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o the impact of World's F a i r s on the urban environment w i t h a f o c u s on: the use of the World's F a i r as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l ; t h e h o u s i n g impacts c r e a t e d ; and, the e x t e n t t o which p l a n n i n g f o r the impacts has o c c u r r e d . There a r e a m u l t i t u d e of r o l e s , both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t , w h i c h World's F a i r s have p l a y e d s i n c e they began b e i n g h e l d on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . These r o l e s a r e c r e a t e d by 59 the b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s who, i n N o r t h America at l e a s t , have always l a u n c h e d t h e s e s p e c t a c l e s . What f o l l o w s i s a s u m m a r i z a t i o n of the r o l e s which f a l l w i t h i n s i x major c a t e g o r i e s . World's F a i r s have been used as""marks of p r o g r e s s " . A l l f a i r s have marked a n n i v e r s a r i e s or h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d a t e s . E a r l y f a i r s were s y m b o l i c " d i s p l a y c a s e s " or " c a t a l o g u e s " f o r the t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n , p r o d u c t s and a g r i c u l t u r a l goods. New i d e a s and i n v e n t i o n s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y u n v e i l e d or c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a t the World's F a i r . In the economic s p h e r e , f a i r s u p p o r t e r s have attempted t o use i t t o s t i m u l a t e t r a d e between c i t i e s , r e g i o n s and n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g an economic d e p r e s s i o n . World's F a i r s have a l s o been used as v e h i c l e s of c o m p e t i t i o n f o r p r e s t i g e between l e a d e r s , c i t i e s , r e g i o n s and n a t i o n s . C u r r e n t l y , c i t i e s a r e u s i n g the World's F a i r t o a t t a i n t h a t sought a f t e r t i t l e -- "The World C l a s s C i t y . " Other economic r o l e s i n c l u d e the employment of the World's F a i r by b u s i n e s s e l i t e t o a f f e c t union/management r e l a t i o n s and the power of the u n i o n s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y . F a i r s have been e x p l o i t e d f o r p r i v a t e g a i n . In some c a s e s , the b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s who sponsored the event d i v u l g e d " i n s i d e t i p s " t o p e o p l e i n p o s i t i o n s t o c a p i t a l i z e on p r o f i t - m a k i n g v e n t u r e s . I n the c u l t u r a l s p h e r e , World's F a i r s have been u t i l i z e d as i n s t r u m e n t s of hegemony. E l i t i s t a s p i r a t i o n s , the c u l t u r e of 60 consumption, r a c i s m and s e x i s m have been u n d e r l y i n g themes i n the " c o n t e n t " of p a s t f a i r s . On a d i f f e r e n t n o t e , f a i r s have been o p e r a t e d as c e l e b r a t i o n s t o l i f t the s p i r i t s of p e o p l e , t o b u i l d a sense of c o m r a d e r i e , and t o e d u c a t e . World's F a i r s have been used i n the p o l i t i c a l sphere as a d i v e r s i o n a r y t a c t i c t o a t t a i n p o l i t i c a l l e g i t i m a c y . By u s i n g t h e i r c e l e b r a t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , problems or c o n f l i c t s such as government f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t a r e " g l o s s e d o v e r " . F a i r s were used to e n t r e n c h the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y or l e a d e r i n power and t o n u l l i f y o p p o s i t i o n . With r e s p e c t t o l a n d use p l a n n i n g , World's F a i r s have been used as l a n d development t o o l s . G e n e r a l l y , swamp or m a r s h l a n d i s dev e l o p e d f o r the s i t e and then a park c r e a t e d when the f a i r ends. In more r e c e n t decades, the World's F a i r has been o p e r a t e d as an i n n e r c i t y redevelopment t o o l . " B l i g h t e d " i n n e r c i t y a r e a s ar e c l e a r e d or the World's F a i r i s s i t u a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o such an a r e a i n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e redevelopment. F o l l o w i n g the F a i r ' s o c c u p a t i o n of the s i t e , a s s o r t e d permanent " l e g a c i e s " remain. A l s o , urban redevelopment p l a n s have been a c c e l e r a t e d because of the s t i m u l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the World's F a i r . The development and redevelopment r o l e s have i n v o l v e d the a c q u i s i t i o n of s t a t e funds which would never have been r e c e i v e d by a c i t y or r e g i o n i n normal c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The i n n e r c i t y redevelopment r o l e i s one of the most im p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i o n s f o r the b u s i n e s s and p o l i t i c a l e l i t e s of < ho s t c i t i e s t o s u p p o r t r e c e n t World's F a i r as v i g o r o u s l y as they 61 do. However, when the World's F a i r i s used f o r such a r o l e , f o u r h o u s i n g i m p a c t s are p o s s i b l e and, as has been d e m o n s t r a t e d , a r e h i g h l y p r o b a b l e . The f i r s t type of h o u s i n g impact i s c r e a t e d when the i n n e r c i t y s i t e i s chosen and c l e a r a n c e t a k e s p l a c e . I f t h e r e i s h o u s i n g on the s i t e i t i s d e m o l i s h e d . T h i s type of h o u s i n g i s u s u a l l y r e n t e d by low income p e o p l e . A f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g i s l o s t from the i n n e r c i t y . The h o u s i n g of 1,600 San A n t o n i a n ' s c l e a r e d f o r Expo 68 i s an example. The second type of h o u s i n g impact i s c r e a t e d a f t e r the announcement t h a t a c i t y w i l l be h o s t i n g a World's F a i r . H ousing i n c ommunities s u r r o u n d i n g the f a i r s i t e i s d e m o l i s h e d or becomes more e x p e n s i v e . For example, i n Spokane (Expo 74) d e t e r i o r a t i n g l o d g i n g houses were d e m o l i s h e d t o c r e a t e p a r k i n g l o t s f o r Expo t o u r i s t s . S p e c u l a t o r s hoped t o g a i n f i n a n c i a l l y from the p o t e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n v a l u e of p r o p e r t y s u r r o u n d i n g the s i t e . The t h i r d type of h o u s i n g impact i s c r e a t e d by t h e m i l l i o n s of t o u r i s t s drawn t o the World's F a i r . As the World's F a i r i s s i t u a t e d i n the i n n e r c i t y , communities b o r d e r i n g t h e s i t e a r e i m p a c t e d . Tenants l i v i n g i n houses, apartments and l o d g i n g houses a r e e v i c t e d because of the n a t u r a l market dynamic. L a n d l o r d s , unimpeded by r e s t r i c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s , c a t e r t o the e x p e c t e d t o u r i s t i n f l u x . In the v a s t m a j o r i t y of c a s e s (Expo 82, Expo 84 and Expo 86 as w i l l be seen i n Chapter T h r e e ) , e x p e c t a t i o n s do not meet r e a l i t y (from the l a n d l o r d ' s p e r s p e c t i v e ) . Few t o u r i s t s a r e a t t r a c t e d and those who do 62 r e s i d e i n c o n v e r t e d accommodation a r e u s u a l l y d i s a p p o i n t e d w i t h the c o n d i t i o n s . L a n d l o r d s a re soon s e e k i n g t h e i r former t e n a n t s back w h i l e s u f f e r i n g from f i n a n c i a l l o s s . S p e c u l a t i o n peaks a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e t o f o u r months b e f o r e the World's F a i r opens. E v i c t i o n s t a k e p l a c e and they have v i r t u a l l y s t o pped by t h e end of the f i r s t month of t h e f a i r ' s o p e r a t i o n . The f o u r t h type of h o u s i n g impact i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the second. Housing i n communities s u r r o u n d i n g the E x p o s i t i o n s i t e i s d e m o l i s h e d , changes i n tenancy s t a t u s t a k e p l a c e ( f o r example, a r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l becomes a t o u r i s t , d a i l y r e n t a l h o t e l ) , and new h i g h e r income h o u s i n g i s b u i l t . These impacts can be permanent i n but they v a r y from c i t y t o c i t y , community t o community. For example, i n p a s t h o s t c i t i e s they have f a i l e d t o occur ( K n o x v i l l e ) , have o c c u r r e d (Spokane), w i l l l i k e l y o c c u r (New O r l e a n s ) or c o u l d p o s s i b l y o c c u r ( B r i s b a n e ) . They a r e a l s o the type of impacts w h i c h a r e d e s i r e d by the pro p o n e n t s of the World's F a i r . P l a n n i n g e f f o r t s which a d d r e s s p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l h ousing impacts of World's F a i r s have the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . O f t e n , h o u s i n g impact p l a n n i n g has c o n s i s t e d of c r e a t i n g the i m p a c t s . P l a n n e r s have sought t o r e d e v e l o p the i n n e r c i t y and t h i s has i n v o l v e d the d e s t r u c t i o n of a f f o r d a b l e , sometimes "rundown" h o u s i n g . In some c a s e s , r e s i d e n t s a r e r e l o c a t e d (San A n t o n i o ' s Expo 6 8 ) . In o t h e r c a s e s , p l a n n e r s have e r e c t e d a p r e v e n t a t i v e " f a c a d e " when i n r e a l i t y t h ey a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o r e d e v e l o p t h e i n n e r c i t y . I n K n o x v i l l e f o r example, p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s were l a t e , i n e f f e c t i v e and of an ad hoc n a t u r e . There have been no cases ( e x c l u d i n g , i n p a r t , the Expo 86 case s t u d y ) of comprehensive, e f f e c t i v e , p r e v e n t a t i v e h o u s i n g impact planning.. The i s s u e of h o u s i n g impacts has v i r t u a l l y been i g n o r e d or not t a k e n s e r i o u s l y by p o l i t i c i a n s , p l a n n e r s and academics a l i k e . 64 CHAPTER 3 EXPO 8 6 IN VANCOUVER: A CASE STUDY A) I n t r o d u c t i o n P l a n n i n g f o r t h e h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event i s f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s . A p a r t from the complex and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s which must be d e a l t w i t h , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and i n f o r m a t i o n has never been c o l l e c t e d and a s s e s s e d . Moreover, h a l l m a r k e v e n t s a r e by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e "once i n a l i f e t i m e " e v e n t s . When an event such as a World's F a i r or Olympics i s proposed, p l a n n e r s a r e f o r c e d t o w r i t e l e t t e r s of i n q u i r y or use the t e l e p h o n e and t r y t o d i g up as much i n f o r m a t i o n as they can. O f t e n the i n f o r m a t i o n i s i r r e l e v a n t and the t i g h t d e a d l i n e s make r e s e a r c h d i f f i c u l t . T h i s c h a p t e r documents what happened i n Vancouver when Expo 86 was s t a g e d . T h i s c h a p t e r has f o u r o b j e c t i v e s : 1) t o examine Expo 86 i t s e l f -- i t s o r i g i n s , l o c a t i o n , g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n a l f a c t s , l e g a c i e s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e (a p r o v i n c i a l Crown c o r p o r a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r redevelopment of the s i t e ) ; 2) t o p r o v i d e a m u l t i f a c e t e d p r o f i l e of the community which b o r d e r s t h e Expo s i t e ; 3) t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e summary of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which a d d r e s s e d the p o t e n t i a l and then a c t u a l h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 86 i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e ; and, 4) t o examine the n a t u r e of the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 as w e l l as some a n c i l l a r y i m p a c t s . The more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n about the Expo 86 h o u s i n g i m p a c t s can be found i n the c h r o n o l o g y i n Appendix I I . B . E x p o 86 1. O r i g i n s The f i r s t documented p r o p o s a l f o r h o l d i n g a World's F a i r i n Vancouver's i n n e r c i t y was i n 1974 by c o n s u l t a n t R i c h a r d Mann. He had been h i r e d by the C i t y of Vancouver and the M i n i s t r y of 1 2 S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s t o draw up a C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t P l a n . Mann recommended t h a t one p o s s i b l e redevelopment s c e n a r i o c o u l d i n v o l v e t r e a t i n g the w a t e r f r o n t l a n d l i k e a "World's F a i r " i n o r d e r t o c a p i t a l i z e on the s t i m u l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n (Mann, 1974, p. 8 ) . Expo 67 was used as an example. D u r i n g 1975, Jack V o l r i c h , Mayor of Vancouver and Sam Bawlf d i s c u s s e d the i d e a of h o l d i n g a World's F a i r i n Vancouver. In 1975 or 1976, P r e m i e r B i l l Bennett suggested a s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l a f t e r the P r o v i n c i a l Government became e m b r o i l e d i n a p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y . He was s e e k i n g a s p e c t a c l e t o d i v e r t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n from the c o n t r o v e r s y (Dr. W a l t e r Hardwick, i n t e r v i e w , A p r i l 16, 1988). I t was not u n t i l F e b r u a r y 1978 t h a t the i d e a of s p o n s o r i n g World's F a i r i n Vancouver was r a i s e d once a g a i n . A r c h i t e c t Randle I r e d a l e p r e p a r e d a "concept s t u d y " f o r the redevelopment of the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek. T h i s l a n d i s on the o p p o s i t e 12 The C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t i s an a r e a l o c a t e d t o the immediate n o r t h of the CBD, s t r e t c h i n g from C a r d e r o S t r e e t t o Gore Avenue. The m a j o r i t y of l a n d i s owned by Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l . 66 s i d e of F a l s e Creek from the c e l e b r a t e d F a l s e Creek Neighbourhood b e i n g developed at t h a t time ( H u l c h a n s k i , 1984) (See F i g u r e 1). F i g u r e 1 Map of Vancouver k * m « r M 2 1 0 T 1 Scale: 2 4 6 t W W M The n o r t h s i d e of F a l s e Creek had been under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r redevelopment s i n c e 1967 when Marathon R e a l t y ( t h e r e a l e s t a t e arm of Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y ) f i r s t r a i s e d the i s s u e of b u i l d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l towers on the d e c l i n i n g i n d u s t r i a l s i t e . A f t e r r e a d i n g the I r e d a l e "concept s t u d y " , the sponsor of the s t u d y , P r o v i n c i a l R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n M i n i s t e r Sam B a w l f , proposed an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p o s i t i o n t o complement Vancouver's 1986 c e n t e n a r y " (Appendix I I , F e b r u a r y 1978). One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t s i n c e the s u b j e c t of the I r e d a l e s t u d y was i n n e r c i t y redevelopment, Vancouver's c e n t e n a r y was s i m p l y a s u i t a b l e excuse t o h o l d a World's F a i r g i v e n t h a t a l l f a i r s a r e l i n k e d t o " i m p o r t a n t " d a t es such as the c e n t e n n i a l of the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n (Expo 1889), the 400th a n n i v e r s a r y of the a r r i v a l of Columbus i n America (Expo 1893) or the " t e n t h a n n i v e r s a r y of the g o l d r u s h " (Expo 1909) (W a c h t e l , 1986, p. 2 2 ) . T h i s l i n k a g e i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t s u pport from the community, a l l l e v e l s of government and the Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x p o s i t i o n s ( B I E ) . In June 1978, a m i n i s t e r of the P r o v i n c i a l Government, Grace McCarthy, met w i t h the P r e s i d e n t of the BIE i n London and d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h o l d i n g a World's F a i r i n Vancouver. The i d e a r e c e i v e d f u l l s u p p o r t from t h e Pr e m i e r of the P r o v i n c e , B i l l B e n n e t t . P r o p o s a l s were drawn up"and the i m p o r t a n t i s s u e of s i t e s e l e c t i o n r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . W h i l e v a r i o u s s i t e s were examined d u r i n g the s p r i n g and summer of 1979, Premier Bennett h i r e d d e f e a t e d f e d e r a l L i b e r a l C a n d i d a t e P a u l Manning t o 68 recommend l o c a t i o n s f o r a l a r g e domed s p o r t s stadium. Manning worked w i t h L a r r y B e l l , the Deputy M i n i s t e r of Lands, Parks and H o u s i n g i n the f a l l of 1979 t o produce a 22 page document which changed the f a c e of Vancouver f o r e v e r . They recommended t h a t the World's F a i r under c o n s i d e r a t i o n be l i n k e d t o the stadium and c o n s t r u c t e d on the F a l s e Creek l a n d s h e l d by Marathon R e a l t y . W h i l e a s i t e had y e t t o be c o n f i r m e d f o r the World's F a i r (known at t h i s d a t e as Transpo '86) P r e m i e r Bennett and the S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t ( t h e c a b i n e t of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y l e d by P r e m i e r B e n nett) c l e a r l y f a v o u r e d the n o r t h s i d e of F a l s e Creek. T h i s became apparent when, i n J a n u a r y 1980, Bennett announced h i s " v i s i o n f o r the f u t u r e , a v i s i o n t o b u i l d a g r e a t meeting p l a c e f o r a l l our p e o p l e t h a t we would c a l l B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e " ( B e n n e t t , 1980, p. 4 ) . H i s v i s i o n c o n s i s t e d of a s p o r t s s t a d i u m , a World's F a i r , and a brand new r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e l i n k i n g the CBD t o the s i t e and the s u b u r b s . He mentioned the e n o r m i t y of the s i t e and the consequent b e n e f i t s f o r a l l people of Vancouver i f i t was d e v e l o p e d p r o p e r l y . Most i m p o r t a n t of a l l , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s s t u d y , was the use of a f a i r t o k i c k - o f f the p r o j e c t : the t r i g g e r f o r t h i s development w i l l be Transpo '86 ... We see i n t h i s E x p o s i t i o n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o h o s t b o t h a major World F a i r and t o proceed w i t h developments t h a t s u i t our p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs ... we see i n Transpo '86 the chance f o r a c e l e b r a t i o n t h a t w i l l l e a v e a l a s t i n g l e g a c y . " ( I b i d . , pp. 6-7) I t becomes v e r y c l e a r t h a t t h i s World's F a i r , l i k e most f a i r s examined i n P e r i o d V of C hapter Two, was r e c o g n i z e d as an 69 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g a major i n n e r c i t y redevelopment p r o j e c t . T h i s was one of s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s which Expo 86 was d e s i g n e d to p e r f o r m (see Anderson and W a c h t e l , 1986; Ley, 1987; Ley and O l d s , 1988, f o r t h c o m i n g ) . By May of 1980, B.C. P l a c e L t d . , a p r o v i n c i a l Crown c o r p o r a t i o n , was formed w i t h a mandate as f o l l o w s : 1) t o d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t a 60,000-seat a m p h i t h e a t r e ; 2) t o p r o v i d e a f u l l y s e r v i c e d s i t e f o r Expo 86, a w o r l d c l a s s i n t e r n a t i o n a l f a i r ; 3) t o manage the d e s i g n and urban redevelopment of the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek. ( P l a n n i n g Department, November 1984, p. 1) The l a n d on the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek (175 a c r e s ) was a c q u i r e d by B.C. P l a c e i n November 1980 f o r $30 m i l l i o n i n c a s h , $30 m i l l i o n i n v a l u a b l e downtown p r o p e r t i e s and o t h e r u n d i s c l o s e d b e n e f i t s . F o l l o w i n g t h i s p u r c h a s e of the l a n d , the BIE gave f i n a l a p p r o v a l (on November 26, 1980) of the a p p l i c a t i o n t o h o l d a World's F a i r . Expo 86 was o f f i c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. L o c a t i o n Expo 86 was b u i l t on s e v e n t y h e c t a r e s (173 a c r e s ) of i n n e r c i t y w a t e r f r o n t l a n d . The major s i t e was s i x t y - s e v e n h e c t a r e s of l a n d on the n o r t h and e a s t e r l y s h o r e s of F a l s e Creek. There was a l s o a t h r e e h e c t a r e s i t e on the C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t d i r e c t l y n o r t h of the CBD. I t was i n f a c t a p i e r p r o j e c t i n g i n t o B u r r a r d I n l e t . T h i s was the s i t e of the Canada P a v i l i o n , and s u b s e q u e n t l y Vancouver's c o n v e n t i o n and e x h i b i t i o n c e n t r e (see F i g u r e 2 ) . T h i s t h r e e h e c t a r e s i t e ended up b e i n g s m a l l e r than the s i t e proposed i n 1983 by B.C.Place (1983). A brochure showed the s i t e e x t e n d i n g eastward a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t t o Main S t r e e t . 71 The two s i t e s were c o n n e c t e d by the S k y t r a i n , a $1 b i l l i o n advanced l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t system b u i l t , i n p a r t , because of Expo 86. 3. G e n e r a l O p e r a t i o n a l F a c t s THEME: T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Communications. THEME STATEMENT: World i n M o t i o n — World i n Touch. TYPE OF WORLD'S FAIR: S p e c i a l C a t e g o r y World E x p o s i t i o n . AGENCY RESPONSIBLE: The Expo 86 C o r p o r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d by the Expo 86 C o r p o r a t i o n Act i n F e b r u a r y of 1981. As a n o n - p r o f i t agency of the Crown, i t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p l a n n i n g , o p e r a t i o n and f i n a n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Expo 86. J i m P a t t i s o n was Chairman and P r e s i d e n t of the Expo 86 C o r p o r a t i o n as w e l l as Chairman, Board of D i r e c t o r s , B.C. P l a c e L t d . The o t h e r members of the Expo 86 Board of D i r e c t o r s were p r i m a r i l y s e n i o r B.C. b u s i n e s s e x e c u t i v e s . The Board r e p o r t e d t o the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Expo 86, Claude Richmond. PAVILIONS: There were a t o t a l of 65 p a v i l i o n s on s i t e r e p r e s e n t i n g c o u n t r i e s around the w o r l d , Canadian p r o v i n c e s and t e r r i t o r i e s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and themes. PERIOD OF OPERATION: May 2 t o October 13, 1986. TOTAL ATTENDANCE: 22,111,578 v i s i t s . TOTAL CORPORATE AND GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT: $1.5 b i l l i o n . TOTAL EXPO REVENUE: $406.6 m i l l i o n . TOTAL EXPO EXPENDITURES: $ 685.8 m i l l i o n . TOTAL EXPO DEBT: $ 3 3 6 . 7 - m i l l i o n . 4. The L e g a c i e s of Expo 86 B i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s of improvements and development was e i t h e r a c c e l e r a t e d or c r e a t e d because of Expo 86. " L e g a c i e s " remain as t e s t i m o n y t o the s t i m u l a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the World's F a i r . World's F a i r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the 1962 S e a t t l e World's F a i r , have been used as mechanisms t o l e a v e the host c i t y w i t h a l i s t of " l e g a c i e s " ( P e t e r s , 1982). Expo 86 was no e x c e p t i o n . The Expo l e g a c i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d below a c c o r d i n g t o an " o n - s i t e / o f f - s i t e " c a t e g o r i z a t i o n . Many of these l e g a c i e s have been c r e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y because of the government sponsored n a t u r e of t h i s World's F a i r . Other l e g a c i e s would l i k e l y have been b u i l t i f Expo 86 was never s t a g e d , but t h e i r t i m i n g and s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been a l t e r e d because of Expo. T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the " f a s t t r a c k i n g " of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbian highway system c a l l e d the C o q u i h a l l a Highway. Premier Bennett i n c r e a s e d the pace Of c o n s t r u c t i o n a t g r e a t expense so i t would be f i n i s h e d i n time f o r the opening of Expo 86 (and a coming p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n ) . The r e s u l t was a 112 k i l o m e t r e highway which c o s t $414.7 m i l l i o n i n s t e a d of an e s t i m a t e d $250 m i l l i o n (MacKay, 1987; Palmer, 1987). O n - s i t e L e g a c i e s B r i t i s h Columbia P a v i l i o n -- a m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r s t r u c t u r e used as t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P a v i l i o n f o r Expo 86. I t i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used by t h e B.C. E n t e r p r i s e C o r p o r a t i o n as an " E n t e r p r i s e C e n t r e " t o "promote b u s i n e s s and h i g h t e c h n o l o g y i n v e s t m e n t " ( W h i t i n g and F a r e v a a g , 1987). O c c a s i o n a l m u s i c a l c o n c e r t s a r e h e l d i n the b u i l d i n g as w e l l . 73 Expo Centre -- a m u l t i - m i l l i o n d o l l a r e l e v e n s t o r y g l o b e . I t s pr i m a r y f e a t u r e i s a 500-seat IMAX T h e a t r e . There a r e a l s o o t h e r rooms and a r e s t a u r a n t . I t w i l l c o n t i n u e as a t h e a t r e and house a new s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y c e n t r e museum. Plaza of Nations -- a c e n t r a l c o v e r e d meeting p l a c e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g used as a s e t t i n g f o r f e s t i v a l s and p u b l i c media e v e n t s . Expo Theatre -- a c o v e r e d but open a i r t h e a t r e i n which v a r i o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t a c t s a r e s t a g e d . B.C. Place Stadium -- a 60,000 s e a t , $126 m i l l i o n d o l l a r domed stadium used f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , rock c o n c e r t s , t r a c t o r p u l l s , t r a d e shows, p u b l i c e v e n t s and c o n f e r e n c e s . Canada Place -- a $144.8 m i l l i o n m u l t i - u s e f a c i l i t y used as Canada's n a t i o n a l p a v i l i o n d u r i n g Expo 86. A h i g h r i s e p o r t i o n houses 231,000 square f e e t of o f f i c e space and a 500 room h o t e l (the Pan P a c i f i c ) . Other f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e a c r u i s e s h i p t e r m i n a l , a t h e a t r e , and a t r a d e and c o n v e n t i o n c e n t r e . I t was b u i l t on the s i t e of an o l d Canadian P a c i f i c p i e r (see G u t s t e i n , 1986, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the p o l i t i c s and h i s t o r y of t h i s l e g a c y ) . O f f - s i t e L e g a c i e s S k y t r a i n - - a $1.2 b i l l i o n automated l i g h t t r a n s i t system l i n k i n g Canada P l a c e and the C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t t o the CBD, the Expo s i t e (and B.C. P l a c e Stadium) and v a r i o u s suburban a r e a s . T h i s u n t e s t e d , c o m p a r a t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e system was chosen u n i l a t e r a l l y by the P r o v i n c i a l Government over the o b j e c t i o n of the l o c a l governments. I t was c o n s i d e r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government and Expo 86 t o be a "major f e a t u r e " of the E x p o s i t i o n i t s e l f (Government of Canada, 1986, p. 129). I t i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g extended t o o u t l y i n g suburban a r e a s (see Hasson, 1984, and G u t s t e i n , 1986, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of some of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s s ystem). C a m b i e S t r e e t B r i d g e - - A new Cambie S t r e e t B r i d g e was b u i l t t o r e p l a c e an o l d e r , " i n e f f i c i e n t " b r i d g e . The b r i d g e c r o s s e s over F a l s e Creek l i n k i n g t h e downtown a r e a t o a main t r a f f i c c o r r i d o r which passes by C i t y H a l l , through the r e s t of Vancouver and out t o t h e su b u r b s . In March 1984 the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver v o t e d i n a p l e b i s c i t e t o "approve the bo r r o w i n g of $35 m i l l i o n t o make up the e s t i m a t e d $59.7 m i l l i o n c o s t " ( G u t s t e i n , 1986, p. 8 0 ) . The v o t e was y e s , t h e money borrowed and the b r i d g e was b u i l t q u i c k l y i n o r d e r t o meet Expo's opening day. C o n s i d e r a b l e development i s b e g i n n i n g around the s o u t h e r n end of t h i s b r i d g e which, i n p a r t , i s due t o i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n (Kemble,.1986; G u t s t e i n , 1986). Some c o n s t r u c t i o n had a l s o s t a r t e d b e f o r e the new b r i d g e was opened as a r e s u l t of t h e s u c c e s s of the F a l s e Creek Neighbourhood. 75 There were o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y minor l e g a c i e s which were c r e a t e d because of the e x i s t e n c e of Expo 86. They i n c l u d e $70 m i l l i o n worth of road improvements i n the c i t y , the opening up of the downtown w a t e r f r o n t ( C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t ) f o r .development, and improved t r a n s i t and c o m p u t e r i z e d t r a f f i c systems, a c c o r d i n g t o Mayor Mike H a r c o u r t ( D a n i e l s , October 4, 1986). The C e n t r a l W a t e r f r o n t changes i n c l u d e d an o v e r p a s s ( t h e Main S t r e e t o v e r p a s s ) and t h e improvement of s e c t i o n s of a roadway a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t . 5. The R e l a t i o n s h i p of Expo 86 t o the B.C. E n t e r p r i s e  C o r p o r a t i o n An assessment of Expo 86 must i n c l u d e B.C. P l a c e L t d . (known as the B.C. E n t e r p r i s e C o r p o r a t i o n as of September, 1987). The two Crown c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and dependant upon each o t h e r . Both the Expo 86 C o r p o r a t i o n and B.C. P l a c e L t d . were c r e a t e d i n May of 1980. The l a n d was assembled by B.C. P l a c e L t d . , and then l e a s e d , e x c e p t f o r a s m a l l p o r t i o n , t o the Expo 86 C o r p o r a t i o n f o r $1 ( C r u i c k s h a n k , F e b r u a r y 1, 1986). Expo 86 was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the " t r i g g e r f o r the development" of the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek ( B e n n e t t , 1980). The s i t e was a former i n d u s t r i a l a r e a c h a r a c t e r i z e d by smoke spewing lumber m i l l s , r a i l y a r d s and a s s o r t e d m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t s . I t had s e r i o u s l y d e c l i n e d by the e a r l y 1960's (Burkinshaw, 1984; Hardwick, 1974) and by t h e time Expo 86 l e a s e d the s i t e , l i t t l e remained of i t s i n d u s t r i a l p a s t . Expo 86 was used as a v e h i c l e t o p r e p a r e the s i t e not m e r e l y f o r the World's F a i r , but a l s o f o r post-Expo development. Comments by two prominent Expo 86 p e r s o n n e l s u p p o r t t h i s a s s e r t i o n . In the Vancouver Sun, former Expo 86 f i n a n c e chairman P e t e r Brown s t a t e d : Expo p r o b a b l y saved B.C. P l a c e about $100 m i l l i o n because i t c l e a r e d the s i t e , p r e p a r e d i t f o r development, c o n s t r u c t e d the sea w a l l on the s i t e and d i d o t h e r work t h a t b e n e f i t t e d B.C. P l a c e . (•Baldrey, March 17, 1987, p. A8) Brown c a r r i e d on t o s t a t e t h a t the two c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t e d on a " l a n d l o r d t e n a n t b a s i s w i t h B.C. P l a c e merely r e a p i n g the b e n e f i t s of work done on the s i t e by Expo" ( I b i d . ) . Bruno F r e s c h i , C h i e f A r c h i t e c t and D e s i g n e r f o r Expo 86 t o l d the members of the B.C. P l a c e C i t i z e n s ' A d v i s o r y Committee t h a t they had worked " i n t e n s i v e l y t o i n t e g r a t e the Expo p l a n w i t h B.C. P l a c e ' s w a t e r f r o n t p l a n " (Appendix I I , A p r i l 11, 1983). In c o n s i d e r i n g the complex and f o r e v e r c h a n g i n g p l a n s f o r 1 3 the Expo s i t e , a few p o i n t s s h o u l d be made. From the time of a c q u i s i t i o n of the l a n d on the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek u n t i l the f a l l of 1986, B.C. P l a c e L t d . had p r e p a r e d a s e r i e s of p r o p o s a l p l a n s . The f i r s t two were v e r y c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t h a t For i n f o r m a t i o n on the p l a n s and the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f u t u r e development of the Expo s i t e , see: Vancouver P r o v i n c e , May 3, 1987, p. C40; B a l d r e y , 1987; B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e , 1983; Buchanan, 1987; C a r l i n e , 1986; C e r n e t i g , 1987; C r u i c k s h a n k , F e b r u a r y 1, 1986; Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987; Farrow, January 20, 1986; F o r d , 1987; G u t s t e i n , 1986; Hauka, December 28, 1986; H o s s i e , 1983; Konrad, 1987; Ley, 1987; M c M a r t i n , 1987; P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y of Vancouver, 1984; R a n k i n , 1981; S e w e l l , 1984; T e v l i n , 1987; V o l k a r t , 1987; V o l k a r t and H a m i l t o n , 1987; W h i t i n g and F a r e v a a g , 1987. the proposed d e n s i t y was f a r above t h a t d e s i r e d by the C i t y of Vancouver. The C i t y had no l e g a l say i n the development of the s i t e as i t was owned by a p r o v i n c i a l government c o r p o r a t i o n . The P r o v i n c e exempts i t s e l f from a l l m u n i c i p a l l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n s . The C i t y e x p r e s s e d i t s o p p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h both p u b l i c (the media) and p r i v a t e ( d e l e g a t i o n s ) c h a n n e l s . Members of the community were a l s o v o c a l opponents of the p l a n s . A t h i r d p l a n was d e v e l o p e d between 1985 and 1986 f o r a s m a l l sub-area of the s i t e -- the "North P a r k . " I t was proposed j o i n t l y by B.C. P l a c e and C i t y of Vancouver p l a n n e r s . T h i s p l a n was s c r a p p e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n A p r i l 1987 because i t f a i l e d t o meet the " t e s t of economic v i a b i l i t y . " At about the same t i m e , B.C. P l a c e L t d . was merged w i t h the B.C. Development C o r p o r a t i o n c r e a t i n g a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n known as B.C. E n t e r p r i s e C o r p o r a t i o n . T h i s c o r p o r a t i o n has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the s i t e and, as of March 1988, i t appears t h a t the s i t e w i l l be s o l d t o one d e v e l o p e r . P r o p o s a l s s u b m i t t e d by p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s are b e i n g a s s e s s e d i n g r e a t s e c r e c y ( T e v l i n , 1987). I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the f u t u r e development p l a n s of the n o r t h shore of F a l s e Creek w i l l be a t a much h i g h e r d e n s i t y and w i t h a more homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y m i d d l e and upper income) than t h a t on the s o u t h shore (see C y b r i w s k y et a l . , (1986), H u l c h a n s k i (1984), and Ley (1987) f o r d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s e s of the s o u t h shore d e v e l o p m e n t ) . F u t u r e c o n f l i c t i s v i r t u a l l y a s s u r e d as the m a x i m i z a t i o n of p r o f i t seems a h i g h p r o v i n c i a l and p r i v a t e s e c t o r p r i o r i t y whereas s o c i a l g o a l s seem t o be g i v e n 78 g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y i n C i t y p o l i c y . C . T h e I m p a c t e d C o m m u n i t y . A P r o f i l e o f t h e D o w n t o w n E a s t s i d e 1. L o c a t i o n and D e f i n i t i o n There a r e two d e f i n i t i o n s of what c o n s t i t u t e s the Downtown E a s t s i d e . The f i r s t i s a narrow one used by the C i t y of Vancouver i n i t s l o c a l a rea p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The C i t y , t h r o u g h the Zoning and Development By Law d e f i n e s the area as bounded by Main S t r e e t t o the west, H e a t l e y S t r e e t t o the e a s t , the l a n e s o u t h of H a s t i n g s S t r e e t t o the South and Al e x a n d e r S t r e e t t o t h e n o r t h . T h i s a r e a i s a l s o c a l l e d the Downtown E a s t s i d e -Oppenheimer d i s t r i c t by the C i t y . F i g u r e 3 Map of Downtown E a s t s i d e Oppenheimer D i s t r i c t DOWNTOWN-EASTSIDE/OPPENHEIMER City Context 7 For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , however, a broader d e f i n i t i o n i s more u s e f u l . In t h i s second d e f i n i t i o n , the Downtown E a s t s i d e community i s bounded by B u r r a r d S t r e e t t o the west, C l a r k S t r e e t t o the e a s t , F a l s e Creek t o the south and the p o r t t o the n o r t h , c o v e r i n g four census t r a c t s . F i g u r e 4 Map of the Downtown E a s t s i d e 80 T h i s second d e f i n i t i o n i s the one used by community groups and the C i t y of Vancouver i n i t s p l a n s f o r a d d r e s s i n g the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 86. The C i t y c a l l s t h i s a r e a "the Downtown" but the "Downtown E a s t s i d e " i s the term used i n t h i s s t u d y . 2. A B r i e f H i s t o r y The Downtown E a s t s i d e i s the o l d e s t a r e a of Vancouver. In 1876, t h i s community c o v e r e d two b l o c k s a l o n g B u r r a r d I n l e t . 1881 census t a b u l a t e d : 2 shoemakers, 44 l o g g e r s , 1 p o l i c e m a n , 31 m i l l w o r k e r s , 4 b u t c h e r s , 1 s c h o o l t e a c h e r , 2 m i n i s t e r s and 1 wine merchant ( D a v i s , 1976, p. 6 9 ) . The area was the h e a r t of Vancouver and i t r a p i d l y expanded a f t e r the g r e a t f i r e of 1886. The Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y p l a y e d the most imp o r t a n t r o l e i n t h i s p e r i o d ( I b i d , p.69) i n terms of Downtown E a s t s i d e development. The a r e a expanded i n boom and bust c y c l e s u n t i l a v e r y i m p o r t a n t twenty year boom from 1893-1913. In t h i s p e r i o d d e v e l o p e r s " r e a l i z e d u n i m a g i n a b l e p r o f i t s " ( D a v i s , 1976). I t was a l s o d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t the g r e a t s t e e l magnate Andrew C a r n e g i e donated $50,000 t o d e v e l o p the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y on the c o r n e r of Main and H a s t i n g s . I t was i n t h i s twenty year boom p e r i o d t h a t many of the rooming houses and r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s were b u i l t . They p r o v i d e d t h e immigrant f a m i l i e s and low-income, b l u e c o l l a r workers w i t h a cheap p l a c e t o l i v e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the c a n n e r i e s and m i l l s on the w a t e r f r o n t . 81 As time p r o g r e s s e d , the c e n t r a l b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t (CBD) s h i f t e d t o the west. D u r i n g the 1940's the a r e a was zoned f o r heavy i n d u s t r i a l use and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d v a l u e s f e l l . The community headed down the r o a d of n e g l e c t and d e t e r i o r a t i o n (Save the Downtown E a s t s i d e Committee, 1982). The post-WWII p e r i o d i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a d e c r e a s i n g q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r r e s i d e n t s . The c e n t r a l a r e a of the community a c q u i r e d the " S k i d Row" l a b e l and t h i s l e d t o f u r t h e r n e g l e c t from w i t h i n as w e l l as o u t s i d e . P o l i t i c i a n s c o u l d a f f o r d t o dump u n d e s i r a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the a r e a as l i t t l e p r o t e s t would be f a c e d . The community was the p o o r e s t i n the c i t y w i t h l i t t l e v o i c e a t C i t y H a l l , i n p a r t , because of t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o n s e r v a t i v e - b u s i n e s s l i n k a g e s of the dominant c i v i c p a r t y , the NPA (Non P a r t i s a n A s s o c i a t i o n ) . Demographic s h i f t s d u r i n g the post-WWII p e r i o d i n c l u d e d r a p i d C hinese i m m i g r a t i o n t o the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a . In 1947 S t r a t h c o n a was 28% C h i n e s e , i n 1957 50% and by the mid 1970's about 75% C h i n e s e ( D a v i s , 1976, p.106). The p e r c e n t a g e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same i n 1987. The f a c t t h a t the Downtown E a s t s i d e was s t i l l a r e s i d e n t i a l community had major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the urban renewal i n i t i a t i v e s of the t h r e e l e v e l s of government d u r i n g the l a t e 1950's and e a r l y 1960's. Ley (1984) notes t h a t the f i r s t two phases of urban renewal r e s u l t e d i n the d i s p l a c e m e n t of over 3300 r e s i d e n t s . The t h i r d phase, which would have i n v o l v e d the d i s p l a c e m e n t of a n other 3000 r e s i d e n t s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an 82 urban freeway through the h e a r t of Chinatown, was approved and e v e n t u a l l y c a n c e l l e d . I t was d u r i n g t h i s l a t t e r phase t h a t the c i t i z e n s of S t r a t h c o n a m o b i l i z e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I t was d u r i n g the l a t e 1960's and e a r l y 1970's t h a t v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups emerged and began t o a f f e c t the m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . Community groups, such as the Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n (DERA) and community-based, non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the F i r s t U n i t e d Church and the C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , began t o speak out on b e h a l f of community r e s i d e n t s . T h i s was p r i m a r i l y a g r a s s r o o t s a c t i v i t y , i n c o n t r a s t t o the top-down p a t e r n a l i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the a r e a ' s p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y . Community-based a t t e m p t s t o improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s were p e r i o d i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d by C i t y C o u n c i l . The C i t y of Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department has p r o v i d e d s t r o n g support f o r a t t e m p t s t o improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r r e s i d e n t s (Swan, 1987; Purdy,.1988). T h i s has i n c l u d e d v i g o r o u s advocacy f o r the c o n v e r s i o n of the v a c a n t and d e t e r i o r a t i n g C a r n e g i e P u b l i c L i b r a r y b u i l d i n g i n t o a community c e n t r e , and f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s o c i a l h o u s i n g . S e v e r a l s o c i a l l y mixed, s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were b u i l t i n the community d u r i n g the l a t e 1970's and e a r l y 1980's. S o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e now l o o k e d upon f o n d l y by the downtown b u s i n e s s community f o r t h e i r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s and f o r t h e i r s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e upon the l a n d market ( S a r t i , June 26, 83 1984). W h i l e funded by the government ( f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l ) , the s o c i a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s are sp o n s o r e d , d e v e l o p e d and managed by community-based o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as DERA, the F i r s t U n i t e d Church S o c i a l Housing S o c i e t y and the C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n . The announcement of mega-projects such as B.C. P l a c e and Expo 86 were q u i c k l y r e c o g n i z e d by community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t s . C o n s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t has been spent p r e p a r i n g f o r impacts, l o b b y i n g p o l i t i c i a n s , w o r k i n g w i t h p l a n n e r s , and r a i s i n g p u b l i c awareness. DERA was the most i n v o l v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n such a c t i v i t i e s . 3. A S t a t i s t i c a l P r o f i l e The f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l p r o f i l e of the Downtown E a s t s i d e community i s p r i m a r i l y based on 1981 census d a t a and two s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department (1983, 1985). The census t r a c t s which a r e i n the "broad" d e f i n i t i o n of the Downtown E a s t s i d e a r e S t r a t h c o n a ( 5 7 ) , Downtown E a s t s i d e ( 5 8 ) , Downtown N o r t h (59.01) and Downtown South (59.02). As Ta b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s , t h e r e have been s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n . 84 T a b l e 1 P o p u l a t i o n Changes i n t h e Downtown N o r t h and South, the Downtown E a s t s i d e and S t r a t h c o n a Census T r a c t s , 1961-1981 Year 1 961 1966 1971 1976 1 981 Downtown N o r t h and South Downtown E a s t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a TOTAL 8,218 (40%) 8,065 (42%) 6,095 (34%) 5,441 (36%) 6,031 (36%) 3,963 (19%) 3,530 (18%) 2,785 (16%) 2,182 (14%) 2,507 (15%) 8,493 (41%) 20,674 (100%) 7,551 (40%) 19,146 (100%) 8,850 (50%) 17,730 (100%) 7,634 (50%) 15,257 (100%) 8,070 (49%) 16,608 (100%) ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Dept 1983, p. 25) Between 1961 and 1971 the p o p u l a t i o n i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e d e c l i n e d a t 8% per y e a r . Between 1971 and 1976 the r a t e of d e c l i n e a c c e l e r a t e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i c e t h a t of the p r e v i o u s decade. One can, however, d e t e c t growth between 1976 and 1981 --• the f i r s t s h i f t towards growth i n 15 y e a r s . P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a s u p p l i e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department (1987) s u g g e s t s a c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h i s growth t r e n d . The 1981 Census found 16,608 p e o p l e l i v i n g i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e between B u r r a r d S t r e e t and C l a r k D r i v e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 36 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e s i n the Downtown N o r t h and South (Census T r a c t 5 9 ) , 15 p e r c e n t i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e ( s m a l l d e f i n i t i o n ; Census T r a c t 5 8 ) , and the rem a i n i n g 49 p e r c e n t i n S t r a t h c o n a (Census T r a c t 57) ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g , 1983). 55% of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d e s i n p r i v a t e  d w e l l i n g s ( s i n g l e - d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g s , d u p l e x e s , row h o u s i n g and a p a r t m e n t s ) , and the r e m a i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n (45%) l i v e s i n l o d g i n g  houses ( r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s , rooming houses, n o n - p r o f i t h o s t e l s 85 and m u l t i p l e c o n v e r s i o n d w e l l i n g s ) . I t i s the l o d g i n g house p o p u l a t i o n ( the r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l r e s i d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r ) which 1 4 i s under e x a m i n a t i o n i n t h i s case s t u d y . T a b l e 2 p r o v i d e s d a t a on where l o d g i n g house t e n a n t s l i v e i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . Table 2 L o d g i n g Houses Tenants and T h e i r P r o p o r t i o n of the T o t a l R e s i d e n t i a l P o p u l a t i o n i n the Downtown N o r t h and South, the Downtown E a s t s i d e and S t r a t h c o n a , 961-1981 Downtown N o r t h Downtown Year and South E a s t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a TOTAL 1 961 5,760 (70%) 1,985 (50%) 1,764 (21%) 9,509 (46%) 1 966 5,831 (72%) 1,763 (50%) 1,631 (40%) 9,225 (48%) 1971 4,137 (68%) 1,620 (58%) 1,270 (14%) 7 ,027 (40%) 1 976 4,593 (84%) 1,456 (67%) 1,193 (16%) 7,242 (48%) 1981 4,847 (36%) 1,412 (56%) 1,202 (15%) 7,461 (45%) (Source : S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Dept., 1983, p. 26) The p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g i n l o d g i n g houses d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y among the f o u r Census T r a c t s . 80% of the r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the Downtown N o r t h and South ( t r a c t 59) r e s i d e i n l o d g i n g houses, 56% i n t r a c t 58 r e s i d e i n l o d g i n g houses, and 15% of the r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n i n L o d g i n g house i s a g e n e r a l term which encompasses both r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and rooming houses. R e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from rooming houses as f o l l o w s . A r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l has a l o b b y / l o u n g e a r e a and amenity space. There a r e o f t e n b a r s on the main f l o o r of these h o t e l s . The rooming house on the o t h e r hand does not have a lobby w i t h h o t e l s t a f f / c h e c k i n a r e a . I t i s the r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s which e v i c t e d the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of t e n a n t s l i v i n g i n t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e . S t r a t h c o n a ( t r a c t 57) r e s i d e i n l o d g i n g houses. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department has, s i n c e 1980, p r e p a r e d r e p o r t s on the s t a t u s of Downtown (Downtown E a s t s i d e ) l o d g i n g house accommodation. These r e p o r t s p r o v i d e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n on the occupancy, r e n t s and c o n d i t i o n of Downtown l o d g i n g houses and a s o c i a l p r o f i l e of the t e n a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g i s an e d i t e d s e r i e s of h i g h l i g h t s from the most r e c e n t s u r v e y (1985). A s m a l l p o r t i o n of some u n r e l e a s e d d a t a from th e 1986 s u r vey i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o . B u i l d i n g S t o c k and Rents 1) As of December, 1984, t h e r e were 12,501 u n i t s of accommodation i n the downtown. 2) 25% of a l l u n i t s (3,125) a r e apartment u n i t s , w h i l e 75% (9,500) a r e s l e e p i n g - h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms. 3) Almost o n e - h a l f (4750) of a l l s l e e p i n g - h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms a r e i n Downtown N o r t h (59.01), c o n c e n t r a t e d n o r t h of Dunsmuir between R i c h a r d s and Main. 4) The t r u e vacancy r a t e f o r a l l h o u s i n g u n i t s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e i s 16%, i n the y e ar of 1984 ( i t a p p r o x i m a t e s the same i n 1988). 5) The average Downtown u n i t r e n t e d f o r $204 a month, i n 1984. T h i s r a t e i n c r e a s e d from 1982 t o 1984. In f a c t , from 1982 t o 1984, incomes f o r t e n a n t s under 65 s c a r c e l y r o s e w h i l e r e n t s i n c r e a s e d by 17%. Rents have not i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from 1984 t o 1987 because s o c i a l income a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s have b a s i c a l l y remained a t a s t a b l e l e v e l . Tenants cannot a f f o r d any i n c r e a s e s i n r e n t l e v e l s . Tenant P r o f i l e 1) About 13,000 households r e s i d e i n l o d g i n g houses, apartment b l o c k s or rowhouses c o n t a i n i n g 5 or more u n i t s , i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . 87 2) Among t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s , 90% a r e s i n g l e p e r s o n s , 8% a r e s h a r e d or c o u p l e s and 2% are f a m i l i e s ( i n c l u d i n g s i n g l e p a r e n t s ) . 3) 51% of Downtown E a s t s i d e t e n a n t s a re 55 or o l d e r . 19% a r e over 69 and 5% a r e under 20. 4) J u s t 15% of a d u l t t e n a n t s (over 19) a r e female. 5) J u s t over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t e n a n t s a r e C a u c a s i a n , a l m o s t o n e - f i f t h O r i e n t a l , and the r e m a i n i n g 6-7%, m o s t l y N a t i v e I n d i a n s . 6) 30% of a l l t e n a n t s have l i v e d i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g 6 y e a r s or l o n g e r ; 60% have l i v e d i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e 6 y e a r s or l o n g e r . 7) 31% of a l l t e n a n t s have been i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g l e s s than a y e a r , w h i l e o n l y 12% have been i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e l e s s than a y e a r . 8) 60% of a l l t e n a n t s r e p o r t a monthly income a t or below $500. Among a l l t e n a n t s , 80% r e c e i v e t h e i r p r i m a r y source of income from income maintenance programs: Almost o n e - h a l f (49%) depend on GAIN (Guaranteed A v a i l a b l e Income f o r Need) or HPIA (Handicapped P e n s i o n Income A s s i s t a n c e ) . 9) 91% of a l l Downtown E a s t s i d e t e n a n t s f a l l below the p o v e r t y l i n e of $9,403 annu a l income s e t by the F e d e r a l Government f o r s i n g l e urban d w e l l e r s i n March, 1984. Housing Trends 1) In November, 1978 t h e r e were 278 b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g 11,321 u n i t s of accommodation i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . As of December 1984, t h e r e were 228 l o d g i n g houses" w i t h 10,153 u n i t s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . The l o s s of l o d g i n g house u n i t s --l a r g e l y s l e e p i n g - h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms - between 1978 andf-1984, but p a r t i c u l a r y between 1984 and 1986 i s s u b s t a n t i a l . There appears t o be some d i s c r e p a n c y between the two s u r v e y s (1983 and 1985) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t o t a l l o s s of l o d g i n g house u n i t s . The 1983 survey r e p o r t s t h a t between November of 1978 and December of 1982, a " s u b s t a n t i a l l o s s " i n l o d g i n g house accommodation o c c u r r e d . "There appears t o have been a t o t a l l o s s of 76 l o d g i n g houses c o n t a i n i n g 1,987 u n i t s or r o u g h l y 20 b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g 500 u n i t s a year (p. 7 ) . In the 1985 s u r v e y , i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t "over the l a s t 6 y e a r s " a l o s s of 858 l o d g i n g house u n i t s has o c c u r r e d (p. 8 ) . 88 2) S i n c e 1978, over o n e - h a l f the b u i l d i n g l o s s has o c c u r r e d i n o l d m u l t i p l e c o n v e r s i o n s . These b u i l d i n g s and 23 o l d h o t e l s and rooming houses were d e m o l i s h e d and t h e i r s i t e s r e d e v e l o p e d f o r n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l use. 3) Between the 1982 and 1984 s u r v e y s c a r r i e d out by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, 4 l o d g i n g houses, r e p r e s e n t i n g 244 u n i t s , have been c o n v e r t e d i n t o 4 apartment b u i l d i n g s w i t h 74 u n i t s , r e s u l t i n g i n a net l o s s of 170 u n i t s of accommodation. 4) Between 1982 and 1984, the s t o c k of l o d g i n g house accommodation has d e c r e a s e d a t 2.3% a n n u a l l y . Most of t h i s d e c r e a s e has o c c u r r e d i n Downtown N o r t h ( 5 9 . 0 1 ) , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Gastown a r e a , where a t o t a l of 269 u n i t s were d e m o l i s h e d or c o n v e r t e d t o t o u r i s t use. The net l o s s of l o d g i n g house u n i t s between 1982 and 1984 amounts t o 489 u n i t s . 5) A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,100 apartment u n i t s were added t o the Downtown E a s t s i d e h o u s i n g s t o c k between 1978 and 1984. Between 1984 and 1986 232 s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s were b u i l t . S e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s now (1986) c o n s t i t u t e 25% of the a r e a ' s monthly r e n t a l h o u s i n g s t o c k . ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Dept., 1985;1987) The Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n (1987) summarizes t h i s d a t a w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e of a t y p i c a l r e s i d e n t : I f t h e r e i s a t y p i c a l Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t , he i s an unemployed man, about 55 y e a r s o l d , r e c e i v i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and l i v i n g a l o n e i n a s m a l l h ousekeeping room f o r which he pays $225 a month. He p r o b a b l y has l i v e d i n the community i n a v a r i e t y of l o d g i n g houses, on and o f f , f o r the p a s t 15 y e a r s . He has p r e v i o u s l y worked i n p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s ( e . g . , l o g g i n g , m i n i n g ) and may have become d i s a b l e d w h i l e w o r k i n g . (pp. 7-8) T h i s summary i s s i m i l a r t o ones p r o v i d e d by both E i s i n g e r (1986) L a t e r i n the s u r v e y , i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t "The l o s s of l o d g i n g house u n i t s - l a r g e l y s l e e p i n g / h o u s e k e e p i n g rooms - amounts t o 1,045 u n i t s or 9% over the 6 year p e r i o d . In annual terms t h i s l o s s has av e r a g e d 174 u n i t s or 1.5% per y e a r " (p. 34). In any c a s e , s u b s t a n t i a l h o u s i n g l o s s has o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1978. r 89 and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department (1985). 4. R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy R i g h t s The l a c k of r e s i d e n t i a l tenancy r i g h t s has a d e f i n i t e impact upon the d a i l y l i f e of a l l r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l d w e l l e r s . Tenants have a b s o l u t e l y no s e c u r i t y of t e n u r e . L e g a l l y , t hey a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be " l i c e n s e e s " ( t h o s e who have not got t h e r i g h t to " e x c l u s i v e p o s s e s s i o n " ) . As a l i c e n s e e , they a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be h o t e l g u e s t s even though they may have l i v e d i n the h o t e l room or rooming house f o r one, ten or even f o r t y y e a r s . As s u c h , they may be e v i c t e d a t any time w i t h no n o t i c e r e q u i r e d . They may f a c e r e n t i n c r e a s e s a t any time and i n any amount. T h e i r goods may be s e i z e d and t h e i r use of the room may be r e g u l a t e d by the l a n d l o r d ( e . g . , no g u e s t s a l l o w e d a f t e r 11:00 p.m.) (Tenants' R i g h t s C o a l i t i o n , 1986). A l l e f f o r t s t o persuade the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o amend the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy Act ( i t i s p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n which governs th e r e l a t i o n s between t e n a n t and l a n d l o r d ) have f a i l e d . V e r y p r e c a r i o u s tenancy s t a t u s , combined w i t h m a r g i n a l f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s l e a v e the t y p i c a l Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t v u l n e r a b l e t o any p o t e n t i a l s p e c u l a t i o n by h o t e l owners i n t e r e s t e d i n c a t e r i n g t o the Expo t o u r i s t m a r k e t . 1 6 G i v e n t h a t a l a r g e number of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and rooming houses a r e 1 ^ For a d i s c u s s i o n of' the unique problems f a c e d by l o d g i n g house (or s i n g l e room occupancy (SRO) h o t e l s as t hey a r e more commonly known) r e s i d e n t s see Hartman, K e a t i n g and LeGates ( 1 9 8 1 ) , and B r a t t , Hartman and Meyerson (1986). 90 w i t h i n f i v e minutes walk t o the Expo s i t e , and t h a t many of the h o t e l s a r e i n weak f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n s ( C l a r k , 1978), many h o t e l owners c o u l d not r e s i s t the c o n c e i v e d p o t e n t i a l f i n a n c i a l g a i n s brought by the money-laden Expo t o u r i s t . 1 7 5. Sense of Community The Downtown E a s t s i d e has been d i s c u s s e d from a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e as w e l l as a s t a t i s t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . Both o f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the n a t u r e of the community. Communities c o n s i s t of much more than mere h i s t o r y and income l e v e l s however. Communities e x i s t because humans l i v e and i n t e r a c t i n them. We a r e s o c i a l a n i m a l s who r e l a t e i n v a r y i n g ways t o o u r s e l v e s , each o t h e r and t o the environment around us. Roger A h l b r a n d t J r . (1984) has d e f i n e d community not i n s t a t i c terms but i n p r o c e s s i v e terms. The "community of a c t i o n " i s the l o c a t i o n of t h e p r i m a r y and secondary r e l a t i o n s h i p s of r e s i d e n t s , a l o n g w i t h a l l of the o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n which pe o p l e a r e engaged (p. 1 ) . P r i m a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t of t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between " f a m i l y members, f r i e n d s and p r o v i d e r s of s o c i a l s u p p o r t . " Secondary r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s i s t of those r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s of " n e i g h b o u r i n g " ( t h e p r o v i s i o n of h e l p , i n f o r m a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ) ( K e l l e r , 1968). The c o n c e p t of community c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s . 1 7 The a u t h o r thanks M a r v i n Kamenz (1987) f o r p o i n t i n g out some of the "community" l i t e r a t u r e used i n t h i s s e c t i o n . There i s the " l o c a l i t y of p l a c e t h a t s e r v e s c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s and t h e r e i s the e x t r a - l o c a l community i n t o which p e o p l e ' s [ s o c i a l ] networks a l s o extend" ( A h l b r a n d t , 1984, p. 16). T h i s concept of community can be a p p l i e d t o the Downtown E a s t s i d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such communities a r e o f t e n d e n i g r a t e d w i t h the " S k i d Row" l a b e l . Images of d e s o l a t e garbage f i l l e d w a s t e l a n d s appear. Worst of a l l , p e o p l e imagine t h a t i s o l a t e d , a t o m i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s roam around w i t h o u t i n t e r a c t i o n of any t y p e . These s t e r e o t y p e s have been promoted i n the media f o r decades and the m a j o r i t y of s o c i e t y has l i t t l e c o n t a c t w i t h such a r e a s and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s . The " l o c a l i t y of p l a c e " d i m e n s i o n was r a i s e d by Dr. John B l a t h e r w i c k , C h i e f M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r f o r the C i t y of 1 g Vancouver. He s t a t e s t h a t r e s i d e n t s r e l y upon the v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s which a r e de v e l o p e d f o r t h e i r unique needs. Food s t o r e s , a food bank, h e a l t h c e n t r e , community c e n t r e and o t h e r v a r i o u s " s e r v i c e s " a r e h e a v i l y used. R e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e a re r e l a t i v e l y immobile compared t o t h e average c i t y r e s i d e n t . Another dim e n s i o n c o n s i s t s of the r e s i d e n t s ' s o c i a l n e t w o r k s . R e s i d e n t s of i n n e r c i t y communities such as the Downtown E a s t s i d e cannot and s h o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d as e i t h e r i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s or as a v e r a g e , e l d e r l y m i d d l e c l a s s f o l k s . Dr. B l a t h e r w i c k has a d m i t t e d t h a t one of h i s department's major 1 g Dr. John B l a t h e r w i c k , C h i e f M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r , C i t y of Vancouver. I n t e r v i e w w i t h a u t h o r , June 29, 1987. 92 m i s t a k e s was making assumptions on "normal, h e a l t h y e l d e r l y p e o p l e . " R e s i d e n t s a r e " f i e r c e l y independent i n d i v i d u a l s " who are l i n k e d t o " i n f o r m a l " s o c i a l s u p p o r t systems. T h e i r independence e x i s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o mainstream s o c i e t y and the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the government. Independence, combined w i t h a h i s t o r y of s t r u g g l e ( i n terms of work, p e r s o n a l l i f e and community p r o b l e m s ) , l i n k s t o community-based s e r v i c e s and, s o c i a l networks, has c r e a t e d f o r many a s t r o n g sense of community i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d i n a book, H a s t i n g s and Main: S t o r i e s from  an Inner C i t y Neighbourhood (1987), which c o n s i s t s of p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h twenty "Downtown E a s t s i d e r s " . Moreover, i t i s not i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a r e t i r e d p oliceman who worked the " s k i d s " r e m i n i s c e d : There have been many o t h e r changes i n the s k i d row a r e a i t s e l f , most of them p o s i t i v e . The name i t s e l f has almost d i s a p p e a r e d , t o be r e p l a c e d by the much more e n l i g h t e n e d 'Downtown E a s t s i d e . ' Thanks t o the e f f o r t s of DERA members and numerous o t h e r community groups i n the a r e a , a sense of p r i d e and community has deve l o p e d where once t h e r e was none. (Swan, 1987, p. 6) In summary t h e n , the Downtown E a s t s i d e i s a r e s i d e n t i a l  community; a "community of a c t i o n " w i t h a s o c i a l f a b r i c ( t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s and t h o s e of t h e neighbourhood) t h a t cannot be e i t h e r n e g l e c t e d or assumed t o equate m i d d l e c l a s s norms. The p o p u l u s , l i k e " S k i d Row" d w e l l e r s i n o t h e r N o r t h American c i t i e s , i s e l d e r l y and poor and t h i s l e a v e s them v e r y v u l n e r a b l e t o p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g 93 i m p a c t s . D. The C i t y of Vancouver's P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s The f i r s t q u e s t i o n s about the p o s s i b l e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 86 (then c a l l e d Transpo 86) and B.C. P l a c e were r a i s e d d u r i n g the summer of 1981, o n e - h a l f year a f t e r the Bureau of I n t e r n a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n s (BIE) o f f i c i a l r a t i f i c a t i o n of the Expo a p p l i c a t i o n . In the Downtown E a s t s i d e , F i r s t U n i t e d Church r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p r e d i c t e d t h a t a t l e a s t 800 low and f i x e d income r e s i d e n t s would be e v i c t e d from r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and rooming houses b e i n g upgraded f o r t h e Expo 86 " l u c r a t i v e t o u r i s t t r a d e " ( R a n k i n , 1981). I t was not u n t i l the summer of 1982 t h a t the C i t y of Vancouver began t o examine the impact of Expo 86 on the c i t y . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s e v e r a l departments went t o K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee t o a t t e n d Expo 82 and meet w i t h K n o x v i l l e c i v i c s t a f f t o d i s c u s s the impacts of t h e f a i r on the m u n i c i p a l i t y . "No i n f o r m a t i o n " was sought or o b t a i n e d about the. h o u s i n g impacts of ?n Expo 82 (Doug Purdy , l e t t e r , March 1, 1988; Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , 19 There i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g and d i v e r s e range of l i t e r a t u r e which can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e "community of a c t i o n " of poor, i n n e r c i t y a r e a s ("Skid Row") t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and Europe t o a l e s s e r degree. See C a n t o r (1975) , C l a r k (1971), Cohen and S o k o l u s k y (1980), Duncan (1978), E c k e r t (1980), E r i c k s o n and E c k e r t ( 1 977), P a s t a l a n ( 1 9 8 3 ) , Rowles and Ohta (1983), S i e g a l (1978), S p r a d l e y (1970), Stephens (1976) and Ward (1979). Two s e m i - a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l c l a s s i c s by Knut Hamsun (1967) and George O r w e l l (1933) a r e h i g h l y recommended. 20 . . Doug Purdy, Deputy D i r e c t o r , S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, C i t y of Vancouver. He was i n t e r v i e w e d s e v e r a l t imes f o r t h i s s t u d y and wrote the a u t h o r one l e t t e r . i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987). D u r i n g the f a l l of 1982, a c o n s u l t a n t h i r e d by Expo 86 began c o n s i d e r i n g the p o t e n t i a l Expo h o u s i n g impact i n the b o r d e r i n g Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t i a l community. The c o n s u l t a n t ( P a t r i c i a French) met w i t h the B.C. P l a c e C i t i z e n s ' A d v i s o r y Committee (CAC) t h a t C i t y C o u n c i l had set up i n September of 1981. T h i s committee was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a range of B.C. P l a c e p l a n n i n g i s s u e s such as h o u s i n g . I t appears t h a t Expo 86 i n t e n d e d t o c a r r y but impact s t u d i e s . A d r a f t of "Phase 1" of the impact s t u d i e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e d h o u s i n g , was produced (see P a t r i c i a F r e n c h L t d . , 1983). With the changes i n Expo 86 management d u r i n g s p r i n g 1983, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c a r r y i n g out impact s t u d i e s was p a s s e d over t o the " a p p r o p r i a t e " departments at C i t y H a l l ( P a t r i c i a F r e n c h , i n t e r v i e w , March 12, 1987). From March 1983 the C i t y became i n v o l v e d i n a l l a s p e c t s of the m u n i c i p a l impacts of Expo 86. In e a r l y s p r i n g 1983, s e v e r a l C i t y departments produced Expo 86: A C i t y P e r s p e c t i v e of Impacts and I s s u e s : Study Terms of R e f e r e n c e . In the r e p o r t t hey note: Be p r e p a r e d i s t h e Boy Scout marching song. The purpose of t h i s document i s t o i d e n t i f y i s s u e s which a r e or w i l l be of concern t o Vancouver r e s i d e n t s and b u s i n e s s people and t o be p r e p a r e d f o r a n t i c i p a t e d and u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems t o ensure Expo s u c c e s s . ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1983, p. 2) Areas of c o n c e r n i n c l u d e d " a c c e s s , p a r k i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " , " s a f e t y and s e c u r i t y " and "accommodation". The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r accommodation because of 95 t h e i r l o n g h i s t o r y of i n v o l v e m e n t i n Downtown E a s t s i d e i s s u e s . In the accommodation s e c t i o n of the r e p o r t , r e f e r e n c e was made to the f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s " p o t e n t i a l " f o r the "permanent.or temporary d i s p l a c e m e n t of l o n g term and moderate income r e s i d e n t s " (p. 8 ) . The terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r s t u d y p r o p o s a l s were i d e n t i f i e d . These i n c l u d e d : r e v i e w i n g accommodation e x p e r i e n c e s of p r e v i o u s f a i r s ; c a r r y i n g out s t u d i e s on the number of o u t - o f - t o w n t o u r i s t s v i s i t i n g Vancouver; r e s e a r c h i n g the p r i c e range of accommodation r e q u i r e d ; d e t e r m i n i n g what k i n d of h o u s i n g s t o c k s e r v i n g l o n g e r term t e n a n t s c o u l d be c o n v e r t e d t o t o u r i s t accommodation; i d e n t i f y i n g the number of l o n g term t e n a n t s who may be d i s p l a c e d from such p r e m i s e s ; and, e xamining methods and mechanisms t h a t 2 1 w i l l ensure minimum d i s p l a c e m e n t of l o n g e r term t e n a n t s . The t a s k i s summarized i n the f o l l o w i n g statement c o n t a i n e d i n the r e p o r t : " t o measure the l i k e l y impact of Expo a g a i n s t C i t y p o l i c y and t o o u t l i n e p o l i c y response o p t i o n s " . The accommodation s t u d i e s were s c h e d u l e d t o be c o mpleted by November 1983 w i t h a f i n a l r e p o r t ready f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o C i t y C o u n c i l and the Expo Board of D i r e c t o r s by J a n u a r y 1984. The t i m e t a b l e f o r t h e s e accommodation s t u d i e s was not f o l l o w e d . In October 1983 the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department asked the 21 The term " l o n g e r term t e n a n t " i s used by the C i t y of Vancouver i n r e f e r e n c e t o r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e who l i v e i n r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and rooming houses. I f the person has been i n c o n t i n u o u s o c c u p a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l p r e m i s e s f o r a p e r i o d e x c e e d i n g 1 year they are c o n s i d e r e d a l o n g term t e n a n t . In Spokane, Washington, the p e r i o d was 3 months when c o n s i d e r i n g whether t e n a n t s were l o n g or s h o r t term. 96 P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s Department t o i d e n t i f y ("red f l a g " ) any downtown h o t e l or rooming house s e e k i n g a p e r m i t t o c a r r y out r e n o v a t i o n s . At a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same time the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n i t i a t e d work on a major o p t i o n c a l l e d the "Expo Hou s i n g Program". The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the program was t h a t Expo 86's i n n e r c i t y s e t t i n g , i t s " s u c c e s s i n a t t r a c t i n g e x h i b i t o r s and i t s l i k e l y s u c c e s s i n a t t r a c t i n g a m u l t i t u d e of v i s i t o r s " would e x e r t " c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e on an a l r e a d y l i m i t e d amount of r e n t a l h o u s i n g s t o c k " ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, 1984). A d d i t i o n a l h o u s i n g a s s i s t a n c e from the Canada and Mortgage Housing C o r p o r a t i o n (CMHC) was sought because o f : The n e c e s s i t y t o a v o i d f u r t h e r p r e s s u r e on r e n t a l accommodation, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n n e r c i t y , and the n e c e s s i t y t o p r o t e c t the most v u l n e r a b l e p o p u l a t i o n - the l o n g term, low income i n n e r c i t y d w e l l e r l i v i n g i n h o t e l s and rooming houses. ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) The C i t y a t t e m p t e d t o use Expo 86's need f o r temporary h o u s i n g near the f a i r s i t e . Community-based h o u s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s were a s s i s t e d by t h e C i t y i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o sponsor the Expo h o u s i n g . A f t e r Expo, the h o u s i n g u n i t s were t o become n o n - p r o f i t and c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g , some of which would be a l l o c a t e d t o t h o s e who were e v i c t e d . The C i t y was g o i n g t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of w r i t i n g down the l a n d c o s t s , w h i l e CMHC would p r o v i d e l o n g term s u b s i d i e s . A r e q u e s t was made f o r a s p e c i a l a l l o c a t i o n of 765 u n i t s t o be b u i l t i f p o s s i b l e i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . The Expo H o u s i n g Program was a l s o t o i n c l u d e i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g of the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program (RRAP) which was b e i n g used t o upgrade l o d g i n g houses i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e , i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g f o r s p e c i a l needs h o u s i n g f o r Downtown P e n i n s u l a m o b i l i t y i m p a i r e d and/or handicapped i n d i v i d u a l s , and i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g of the Canadian R e n t a l Supply Program (CRSP) where the i n n e r c i t y was the s i t e of new r e n t a l u n i t c o n s t r u c t i o n . The Expo Ho u s i n g Program b a s i c a l l y i n v o l v e d c a p i t a l i z i n g on the p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impact of Expo 86 by c o n v i n c i n g t h e F e d e r a l Government t o p r o v i d e " s p e c i a l " i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g of e x i s t e n t programs. The C i t y d e v e l o p e d o t h e r o p t i o n s i n 1984. The most imp o r t a n t and c o n t r o v e r s i a l of t h e s e was a r e n t f r e e z e and no e v i c t i o n program. T h i s o p t i o n was proposed by the Downtown E a s t s i d e R e s i d e n t s A s s o c i a t i o n (DERA) and was r e f i n e d w i t h S o c i a l P l a n n i n g s t a f f i n p u t . In the p r o p o s a l , the l o n g term r e s i d e n t s (over 1 y e a r ) of l o d g i n g houses would r e c e i v e p r o t e c t i o n from e i t h e r r e n t i n c r e a s e s or e v i c t i o n s d u r i n g the p e r i o d of o p e r a t i o n of Expo 86. T h i s o p t i o n r e q u i r e d P r o v i n c i a l Government a p p r o v a l because the C i t y d o e s n o t have l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o enact e i t h e r r e n t c o n t r o l s or e v i c t i o n p r o t e c t i o n . Some o t h e r o p t i o n s were c r e a t e d and a c t e d upon i n 1984. These i n c l u d e d l o b b y i n g f o r changes t o the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy Act i n o r d e r t o a l l o w r e s i d e n t s of l o d g i n g houses the same tenancy r i g h t s as o t h e r t e n a n t s i n the p r o v i n c e and, c h e c k i n g w i t h the C i t y ' s Law Department t o see i f they can p r e v e n t the owners of l o d g i n g houses and apartments from c o n v e r t i n g t h e i r p r emises t o t o u r i s t accommodation. 98 D u r i n g November 1984 the C i t y was h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n a s s e s s i n g the s i t u a t i o n i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . S i n c e 1980 the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department has c a r r i e d out b i - a n n u a l l o d g i n g house s u r v e y s i n which h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t r e n d s and t e n a n t p r o f i l e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d . In the survey t o be c a r r i e d out i n f a l l 1984, e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n was f o c u s e d upon any a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l Expo h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . The survey was c o n d u c t e d and then examined i n s p r i n g 1985. C o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t was a l s o spent e x a m i n i n g a t t e n d a n c e p r e d i c t i o n s of out-of-town t o u r i s t s i n r e l a t i o n t o the number of h o t e l v a c a n c i e s . By June of 1985 the r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y e n t i t l e d Expo Housing Survey were i n . A f t e r examining the r e s u l t s , the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g r e p o r t e d t o the C i t y Manager f o r Community S e r v i c e s t h a t : a t p r e s e n t i t would appear t h a t a l a r g e m a j o r i t y of h o t e l o p e r a t o r s w i l l not be u n d e r g o i n g major u p g r a d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r Expo 86 ... I f they a r e g o i n g t o t a k e such a c t i o n they w i l l l i k e l y w a i t u n t i l the l a s t p o s s i b l e moment - J a n u a r y or F e b r u a r y 1986, t o do so. (June 6, 1985, pp. 3-4) (emphasis added) T h i s p r e d i c t i o n , i n a d d i t i o n t o Expo 86 r e f u s i n g t o s u p p o r t the Expo Hou s i n g Program, caused p l a n n e r s t o f o c u s on t h e i r "ounce of p r e v e n t i o n " o p t i o n -- t i m e - l i m i t e d , n o - r e n t i n c r e a s e , n o - e v i c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n a p p l i e d t o l o n g - t e r m r e s i d e n t s of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s a l o n e . By August 13, 1985 t h i s o p t i o n had come b e f o r e C i t y C o u n c i l f o r a p p r o v a l . I t f a i l e d to pass as C o u n c i l s p l i t 5-5 on the motion t o r e q u e s t the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o amend e i t h e r the 99 C i t y C h a r t e r or the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy Act u n t i l October 13, 1986 ( t h e day Expo was s c h e d u l e d t o c l o s e ) . There was f i r m o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s o p t i o n from v a r i o u s members of C i t y C o u n c i l i n c l u d i n g Alderman Gordon C a m p b e l l , who a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h the B.C. H o t e l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . T h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e was t h a t no h o t e l owners i n t e n d e d on e v i c t i n g t e n a n t s . R a t h e r , i n the words of C a m p b e l l , r e n t f r e e z e a d v o c a t e s were " t r y i n g t o s e t up a bunch of s t r a w men and burn them down ... The h o t e l s i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e a r e not g o i n g t o be prime l o c a t i o n s f o r Expo" ( M i n o v i t z , 1985). The s i t u a t i o n was m o n i t o r e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department d u r i n g f a l l of 1985. In a d d i t i o n , on October 13, 1985, C i t y C o u n c i l passed a motion t o d i r e c t the Law Department t o draw up the proposed l e g a l changes f o r t h e r e n t f r e e z e and no e v i c t i o n program. W h i l e C o u n c i l hadn't ye t v o t e d i n favour of t h i s l e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n , they wanted t o be p r e p a r e d s h o u l d an e v i c t i o n c r i s i s b e g i n . On November 19, 1985, C i t y C o u n c i l v o t e d once a g a i n on a motion t o r e q u e s t the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o approve the p r e p a r e d l e g a l changes which would a l l o w the C i t y t o implement th e r e n t f r e e z e and no e v i c t i o n program. A 5-5 t i e v o t e o c c u r r e d and the m otion was not p a s s e d . Alderman Gordon Campbell c o n t i n u e d t o l e a d the a t t a c k on any l e g a l a c t i o n p r e v e n t i n g e v i c t i o n s . By F e b r u a r y 1986 a t t h e e x a c t time p r e d i c t e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, e v i c t i o n s began t o o c c u r . From t h i s p o i n t on p l a n n i n g was u n d e r t a k e n i n a r e a c t i v e , h i g h p r e s s u r e 100 atmosphere. Doug Purdy s t a t e d t h a t "we were l e f t d o i n g a problem management s t r a t e g y r a t h e r than t a k i n g p r e v e n t a t i v e a c t i o n " ( i n t e r v i e w , May 27, 1986). S e v e r a l U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia p l a n n i n g s t u d e n t s were h i r e d t o conduct a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e l o d g i n g houses i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n the n a t u r e and e x t e n t of the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e had t o be drawn up q u i c k l y and a s u r v e y p l a n worked o u t . The survey was conducted from F e b r u a r y 26-28. The immediate r e s u l t s of the. s u r v e y were used by the p l a n n e r s t o e v a l u a t e the vacancy r a t e i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . On F e b r u a r y 25, 1986 C i t y C o u n c i l f i n a l l y p assed a motion r e q u e s t i n g the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o l e g i s l a t e an end t o the e v i c t i o n s . The exact motion i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix I I I . C e r t a i n members of C i t y C o u n c i l (Don B e l l a m y , Gordon Campbell and George P u i l ) c o n t i n u e d t o oppose t h i s o p t i o n . A p u b l i c debate was h e l d on F e b r u a r y 25 i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e community. Mayor Mike H a r c o u r t r e p r e s e n t e d t h e C i t y , Jimmy P a t t i s o n r e p r e s e n t e d Expo 86 and J i m Green r e p r e s e n t e d DERA. The C i t y was hoping t h a t P a t t i s o n c o u l d l o b b y the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r the proposed l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n i f c o n v i n c e d t h a t the s i t u a t i o n was s e v e r e . C o u n t l e s s e v i c t e e s paraded b e f o r e P a t t i s o n t o t e l l t h e i r s t o r y . As t h e pace of e v i c t i o n s i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g the l a t t e r days of F e b r u a r y , a P r o v i n c i a l - C i t y Task F o r c e was c r e a t e d (March 7) and the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was p r e s s u r e d i n t o c r e a t i n g a " c l e a r i n g house". A f o r m a l h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y was s e t up, a 101 r e l o c a t e r was h i r e d and i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t he (Stephen L e a r y ) a s s i s t e v i c t e e s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o f i n d a vacant u n i t and then move i n t o i t . The h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y was f o r m a l i z e d i n C a r n e g i e C e n t r e on A p r i l 2, 1986 w i t h a c o m p u t e r i z e d " h o t - l i n e " . On March 10, the C i t y ' s H e a l t h Department became i n v o l v e d i n th e c r i s i s . Many of t h e e v i c t e e s were e l d e r l y , poor, and u n h e a l t h y i n d i v i d u a l s . Moreover, a h i g h t u b e r c u l o s i s (TB) r a t e i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e caused a d d i t i o n a l problems because of the i n f e c t i o u s n a t u r e of the d i s e a s e . The H e a l t h Department had been h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d y e a r s b e f o r e the c r i s i s w i t h Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s because of t h e TB d i s e a s e . The C h i e f M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r o r d e r e d h i s s t a f f t o t r a c k down and m o n i t o r the h e a l t h of the d i s p l a c e d r e s i d e n t s . Concern was e x p r e s s e d because r o f : t u b e r c u l o s i s and i t s i n f e c t i o u s n a t u r e ; the advanced age of the e v i c t e e s ; and, t h e poor h e a l t h s t a t u s of many of the e v i c t e e s . D u r i n g March and A p r i l , t h e C i t y c o n t i n u e d t o lob b y the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n ; asked t e n a n t s t o d e f y t h e i r e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s or a t l e a s t " s i t t i g h t " ; examined the t a x b r e a k s which some of the e v i c t i n g h o t e l s were r e c e i v i n g ; sent l e t t e r s t o h o t e l owners and managers, as w e l l as l a n d l o r d s a s k i n g them not t o e v i c t t e n a n t s ; m o n i t o r e d h o t e l s f o r " i l l e g a l " r e n o v a t i o n s ; began t o examine o t h e r l e g a l methods of b r i n g i n g the e v i c t i o n s t o a h a l t ; e n s u r e d t h a t h o t e l r e s e r v a t i o n s agents were p r o p e r l y l i c e n s e d ( h o t e l r e s e r v a t i o n s a g e n c i e s were d i r e c t i n g t o u r i s t s t o some of the e v i c t i n g h o t e l s ) ; and, began t o c o n s i d e r 1 02. a C i t y sponsored b o y c o t t of s e v e r a l e v i c t i n g h o t e l s . A week and a h a l f a f t e r Expo 86 opened (May 2 ) , C i t y C o u n c i l r e j e c t e d the b o y c o t t o p t i o n (May 13) and a g a i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government was r e q u e s t e d t o l e g i s l a t e an end t o the e v i c t i o n s . By l a t e May the e v i c t i o n s had slowed t o a t r i c k l e and t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department c o n s i d e r e d c l o s i n g the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y . A l s o , a "Concert For The E v i c t e d " was i n d i r e c t l y s p onsored by the C i t y t h r o u g h t h e Vancouver F o l k Music F e s t i v a l . I t f e a t u r e d such l u m i n a r i e s of s o c i a l p r o t e s t as Pet e Seeger, A r l o G u t h r i e and DOA. D u r i n g J u l y 1986, the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y s e t up i n C a r n e g i e C e n t r e was c l o s e d . Most of the " p l a n n i n g " i n t h i s p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d of e f f o r t s by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department t o f i n d 22 ways t o a l t e r the tax assessment s t a t u s of the e v i c t i n g h o t e l s as w e l l as e f f o r t s t o lobby the P r o v i n c i a l Government t o change the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy Act t o i n c l u d e the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5000 l o n g term r e s i d e n t s of l o d g i n g houses i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . There was no s p e c i f i c p ost-Expo p l a n n i n g . The vacancy r a t e of Downtown E a s t s i d e l o d g i n g houses r e t u r n e d t o normal ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10-20%) by s p r i n g 1987. Many r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s were b e i n g t a x e d a t a " r e s i d e n t i a l " r a t e i n s t e a d of t h e "commercial" r a t e t o u r i s t h o t e l s a r e t a x e d . As the s e r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s began c a t e r i n g t o t o u r i s t s , C i t y s t a f f thought t h a t c h a n g i n g the t a x r a t e might i n h i b i t some h o t e l s from e v i c t i n g r e s i d e n t s . They a l s o wanted t h e s e h o t e l s t o r e c e i v e " p r o p e r " t a x assessment r a t e s . 103 E . T h e H o u s i n g I m p a c t s o f E x p o 8 6 As noted i n Chapter Two, World's F a i r s can r e s u l t i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of h o u s i n g i mpact: 1) O n - S i t e Housing Impact; 2) Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impact; 3) Pre-Expo . T o u r i s t Demand Impact; and, 4) Post-Expo Impact. 1 . O n - s i t e Housing Impact No h o u s i n g was d e m o l i s h e d on the Expo 86 s i t e because i t was former i n d u s t r i a l l a n d c o m p r i s e d of r a i l w a y t r a c k s , lumber s t o r a g e and s e v e r a l o l d i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e s . 2. Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impact F o l l o w i n g the announcement of Expo 86 and the B.C. P l a c e development i n 1980 l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n began o c c u r r i n g i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . Ley (1982) c h a r t e d changes i n the v a l u e of downtown r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and the d a t a p o i n t s t o a d e s t a b i l i z e d market which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n l a n d v a l u e s . T a b l e 3 Changes i n T o t a l A s s e s s e d V a l u e f o r Downtown R e s i d e n t i a l  H o t e l s , 1979-1982 ($ ,000sl I . G r a n v i l i e - W e s t Downtown (n=l9) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ( f ) (g) 1979 240 1893 637 -2.6 41.8 1 182 1980 241 1893 627 -1.7 42.5 0 1 79 1981 304 2060 704 12.3 42.3 9 201 1982 448 2750 1073 52.5 29.3 N.A. 306 I I . Yaletown (n=!0) (a) (b) (c) 1979 159 1119 411 1980 157 1124 443 1 981 1 55 1118 447 1982 164 1387 519 I I I . Chinatown - S t r a t h c o n a (n (a) (b) (c) 1979 61 595 241 1980 63 595 245 1981 90 971 344 1 982 100 1925 553 20) (d) (e) ( f ) (g) N.A. 49.3 0 1 1 7 8.0 47.6 3 1 26 0.9 47.4 1 1 27 16.0 49.9 N.A. 1 48 (d) (e) (f ) (g) N.A. 54.9 1 69 1 .7 55 1 70 40.2 46.9 3 98 60.6 49.4 N.A. 1 58 IV. Downtown E a s t s i d e --Gastown (n=21) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) ( f ) (g) 1979 32 415 1 75 N.A. 48.3 1 50 1 980 59 412 186 6.5 48.6 3 53 1981 71 517 234 25.7 46.6 N.A. 67 1 982 89 750 281 20. 1 44.7 N.A. 80 Notes: Column headings (a) Minimum t o t a l assessment (b) Maximum t o t a l assessment (c) Mean t o t a l assessment (d) Annual p e r c e n t a g e change i n mean t o t a l assessment (e) B u i l d i n g assessment as p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l assessment ( f ) Number of ownership changes from assessment r e c o r d s (g) V a l u e e x p r e s s e d a g a i n s t a base of 100, the mean t o t a l assessment of a l l 70 h o t e l s i n 1979 assessment 105 T a b l e 4 I n d i c a t o r s o f I n s t a b i l i t y i n the R e s i d e n t i a l H o t e l M a r k e t , 1979-1982. G r a n v i l i e -West Down-Town I n c r e a s e i n mean  t o t a l a ssessments — m — Moderate (68%) D e c l i n e i n b u i l d i n g  assessments as %  of t o t a l  assessments (2) High (-12.5%) Rate of  owner- s h i p change (3) H i g h (53%) Yaletown Low (26%) None (+0.6%) High (40%) Chinatown-S t r a t h c o n a High (125%) Moderate (-5.5%) Moderate (25%) Downtown E a s t s i d e -Gastown Moderate (61%) Low (-3.6%) High (48%) Notes: (1) See columns (d) and (g) i n Table 3. The p e r c e n t a g e i n p a r e n t h e s e s r e p r e s e n t s the 1979-82 mean i n c r e a s e i n column (c) of T a b l e 3. (2) The p e r c e n t a g e i n p a r e n t h e s e s i s d e r i v e d from the 1979-82 a b s o l u t e change i n column (e) of Table 3. (3) Data a r e from 1979-81 o n l y and are d e r i v e d from column ( f ) of T a b l e 3. M u l t i p l e s a l e s are i n c l u d e d i n the p e r c e n t a g e v a l u e . S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn by an e x a m i n a t i o n of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department l o d g i n g house s u r v e y s (1983; 1985; 1986). S u b s t a n t i a l h o u s i n g l o s s has o c c u r r e d i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e s i n c e 1978. V a r i o u s e s t i m a t e s of the l o s s put i t 1 06 between 1,000 and 2,000 u n i t s f o r the p e r i o d of 1978 t o 1984 (see f o o t n o t e 15 i n t h i s c h a p t e r ) . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a from the 1986 su r v e y which shows a permanent l o s s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 l o d g i n g house u n i t s ( p r i m a r i l y s l e e p i n g / h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t s ) between 1984 and 1986. As the Mayor of Vancouver a l s o put i t : In the p a s t f o u r y e a r s , about 80 p r i v a t e rooming houses -- which p r o v i d e d more than 2,000 rooms f o r low-income f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s -- have c l o s e d down. Some have been c o n v e r t e d t o n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l use, o t h e r s have been d e m o l i s h e d . ( H a r c o u r t , 1984) T h i s l o s s i s documented by F r i e s e n (1987) i n a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n of the l o s s of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and rooming houses i n the " p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l " c i t y of Vancouver. Some s p e c i f i c examples of the d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t of Expo 86 and B.C. P l a c e i n c l u d e l a n d , near t h e Expo s i t e and a soon t o be announced ALRT s t a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g i n v a l u e from $3 m i l l i o n t o $4.9 m i l l i o n i n n i n e days ( K e l l y , 1984; S h a y l o r , 1986) or the d e m o l i t i o n of a rooming house which was home f o r 60 t e n a n t s . In i t s p l a c e were p l a n s f o r "an e i g h t - s t o r y o f f i c e and commercial tower development ... which [was] e x p e c t e d t o be completed i n the s p r i n g of 1986 when Expo [opened] i t s g a t e s " and was t o " i n c l u d e 14 l u x u r y r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s and 186 p a r k i n g s t a l l s " ( G l a v i n , 1985). In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case the p l a n s were not completed ( i n l i e u of a p a r k i n g l o t ) but the h o u s i n g u n i t s were l o s t f o r e v e r . Such impacts were p r e d i c t e d i n 1983 by DPA C o n s u l t i n g L t d . , when they c a r r i e d out a s o c i a l l a n d / u s e impact s t u d y f o r B.C. P l a c e L t d . (O'Brien,. 1983). In the Downtown E a s t s i d e , the study 107 warned: B.C. P l a c e c o u l d have some s t i m u l a t i v e e f f e c t on redevelopment and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , h o t e l r e n o v a t i o n s i n the s e t h r e e a r e a s . However, the main f a c t o r s t h a t w i l l cause these changes w i l l be Expo and g e n e r a l urban redevelopment p r e s s u r e s . B.C. P l a c e , on i t s own, would p r o b a b l y not have any e f f e c t s f o r a t l e a s t ten y e a r s . ( B r i t i s h Columbia P l a c e , 1983, S e c t i o n 2.1.7) Thus, Expo 86 had a d e s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t upon l a n d v a l u e s (and t h e r e f o r e h o u s i n g s u p p l y ) i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e p r i o r t o the opening of the f a i r . Other c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s l i k e l y i n c l u d e "core c o m m e r c i a l e x p a n s i o n " (Ley, 1985, p. 151), the e x p a n s i o n of Chinatown, the low p r o f i t margins of t h i s type of r e n t a l h o u s i n g , the enforcement of C i t y s t a n d a r d of maintenance b y l a w s , and g e n e r a l urban redevelopment p r e s s u r e s . 4. Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact The number of Downtown E a s t s i d e l o d g i n g house r e s i d e n t s who were d i s p l a c e d because of Expo 86-induced p r e s s u r e was and c o n t i n u e s t o be a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . E s t i m a t e s between a low of "a few" and a h i g h of 2,000 e v i c t e e s have been su g g e s t e d by p o l i t i c i a n s , p l a n n e r s and community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . S t a t i s t i c s s u p p l i e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department o f f e r a v e r y good "rough" e s t i m a t e of the number of e v i c t e e s . T h i s sum i s d e r i v e d as f o l l o w s . 23 In a 1985 d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a DPA C o n s u l t a n t , the a u t h o r was t o l d t h a t B.C. P l a c e put c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e upon t h e c o n s u l t a n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the impact s t u d y . B.C. P l a c e was a t t e m p t i n g t o have the c o n c l u s i o n s of the study a l t e r e d t o r e f l e c t a l e s s e r B.C. P l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h o u s i n g impacts i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . 108 1) JANUARY - FEBRUARY 2 5 , 1 9 8 6 - 2J_5 r e s i d e n t s e v i c t e d . T h i s sum i s from the i n i t i a l t e l e p h o n e s u r v e y c a r r i e d out by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department as soon as they h e a r d about a c r i s i s s t a r t i n g . 2) FEBRUARY 2 5 - APRIL 1, 1 9 8 6 - 57 r e s i d e n t s e v i c t e d . T h i s i s the number of p e o p l e which the r e l o c a t e r h i r e d by S o c i a l P l a n n i n g had t o d e a l w i t h . 3) APRIL 2 - JUNE 2 0 , 1 9 8 6 - 2 0 9 r e s i d e n t s used the ho u s i n g r e g i s t r y s et up i n t h e basement of C a r n e g i e C e n t r e . Of th e s e 2 0 9 , 66 were not "Expo r e l a t e d " a c c o r d i n g t o the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department so t h e r e f o r e the sum i s ( 2 0 9 - 6 6 ) = 1 4 3 . The t o t a l i s 2 1 5 + 57 + ( 2 0 9 - 6 6 ) = 4 1 5 T h i s t o t a l can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d q u i t e s a f e l y as c o n s e r v a t i v e because of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s which came i n t o p l a y when the numbers were b e i n g t a b u l a t e d . F i r s t l y , t he 2 1 5 f i g u r e was a r r i v e d a t from a te l e p h o n e survey of Downtown E a s t s i d e h o t e l owners and managers d u r i n g the midst of the c r i s i s . The e v i c t i o n s of "poor", " e l d e r l y " , "handicapped", " f r a i l " , " s i c k " p e o p l e , f o r b e t t e r or f o r worse, was pounced upon by the media. T e l e v i s i o n cameras were a common s i g h t i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e i n F e b r u a r y . The h o t e l owners and managers sought t o m i n i m i z e n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s of the a c t i o n s they were c a r r y i n g o u t . Some of them d i d not answer the te l e p h o n e c a l l s from the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. I f a b i a s i n t he d a t a e x i s t s , t h e r e i s h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t i t i s an u n d e r e s t i m a t e . The second f a c t o r r e l a t e s t o the 57 and 143 f i g u r e s . Both were composed of r e s i d e n t s who s p e c i f i c a l l y sought a s s i s t a n c e 1 09 from e i t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s or the government. . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the t y p i c a l Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t i s " f i e r c e l y independent." They l i k e t o l i v e t h e i r own l i f e w i t h as l i t t l e r e l i a n c e upon o t h e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the government, as p o s s i b l e . Members of v a r i o u s community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as w e l l as H e a l t h and S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department s t a f f emphasized t h i s p o i n t . The consequence of such c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a s p e c i f i c number of e v i c t e e s i s t h a t u n d e r e s t i m a t i o n o c c u r s . Some r e s i d e n t s of l o d g i n g houses r e c e i v e d e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s and l e f t q u i e t l y s e e k i n g no a s s i s t a n c e . A l s o , r e s i d e n t s l e f t b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n " c o n t r o l " over t h e i r own l i v e s r a t h e r than r e m a i n i n g " i n l i m b o " . O v e r - e s t i m a t i o n i s a l s o p o s s i b l e . In s e v e r a l c a s e s , r e s i d e n t s of a h o t e l r e c e i v e d t h e i r e v i c t i o n n o t i c e . They moved w i t h a s s i s t a n c e t o a new r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l . A s h o r t w h i l e l a t e r they r e c e i v e d e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s from the owner of the new h o t e l they moved i n t o . They were counted t w i c e even though o n l y one i n d i v i d u a l was i n v o l v e d . T a k i n g a l l of the above i n t o a c c o u n t , assuming t h a t S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department s t a t i s t i c s a r e c o r r e c t , s p e a k i n g t o community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and C i t y s t a f f , and s e a r c h i n g over a l l r e l e v a n t newspaper c l i p p i n g s , i t i s e s t i m a t e d by the a u t h o r t h a t between  500 and 850 e v i c t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e l o d g i n g  houses because of Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact. In a d d i t i o n , between 1,000 and 1,500 l o d g i n g house rooms were s w i t c h e d from monthly r e n t a l t o t o u r i s t r e n t a l s t a t u s d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1986 1 1 0 ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, 1986, p. 3; Purdy, 1988, p. 8 ) . To put some p e r s p e c t i v e on b o t h of t h e s e f i g u r e s , the 1981 census t a b u l a t e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,461 l o d g i n g house t e n a n t s l i v i n g i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e ( S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, 1983, p. 26) and as of A p r i l of 1986, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9,600 l o d g i n g house u n i t s i n 24 the Downtown E a s t s i d e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t e v i c t i o n s were both d i r e c t ( e . g . , r e c e i p t of an e v i c t i o n n o t i c e ) and i n d i r e c t ( e . g . , r e n t i n c r e a s e s or i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n s about c o o k i n g i n the rooms). 4. Post-Expo Impact W h i l e Expo 86 was open, a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the owners and o p e r a t o r s of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s where r e s i d e n t s were e v i c t e d f a i l e d t o see t h e i r dreams of f i n a n c i a l g a i n m a t e r i a l i z e . N e g a t i v e p u b l i c i t y o c c u r r e d because of the e v i c t i o n s and the poor q u a l i t y of the r e n o v a t i o n work. A l s o , Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s s t o p p e d f r e q u e n t i n g the b a r s of h o t e l s where r e s i d e n t s were e v i c t e d . T h i s a c t i o n c u t o f f an i m p o r t a n t source of revenue ( B o l a n , October 9, 1986; C a s s e l t o n , J u l y 18, 1986; E i s i n g e r , 1986; DERA, 1987; Doug Purdy, i n t e r v i e w , May 27, 1986). 24 The 9,600 u n i t f i g u r e was a r r i v e d a t as f o l l o w s . The 1986 s u r v e y c onducted by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department t a b u l a t e d 8,617 l o d g i n g house u n i t s i n the Downtown (Downtown E a s t s i d e ) . I t i s n o t e d however t h a t " s l i g h t l y more than 1,000 rooms i n 15 h o t e l s " had s w i t c h e d from monthly r e n t a l t o t o u r i s t r e n t a l i n the s p r i n g of 1986 (when t h i s s u r v ey was c a r r i e d out) (p. 3 ) . They assume t h a t t h e s e u n i t s w i l l p r o b a b l y appear as monthly r e n t a l u n i t s a f t e r Expo 86, hence my i n c l u s i o n of" the 1,000 u n i t s t o the 8,617 f i g u r e . 111 F o l l o w i n g the c l o s u r e of Expo 86, many r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s a t t e m p t e d t o a t t r a c t back p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n t s . Some of the h o t e l s i n i t i a l l y a t t e m p t e d t o c o n t i n u e c a t e r i n g t o t o u r i s t s but they met w i t h mixed r e s u l t s ( B o l a n , October 9, 1986). By s p r i n g 1988 o n l y one h o t e l which was f o r m e r l y r e n t i n g t o l o n g - t e r m Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s has remained a t o u r i s t h o t e l . Many h o t e l s borrowed money t o renovate and f a i l e d t o make up t h i s c o s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , s e v e r a l of the h o t e l s where r e s i d e n t s were e v i c t e d went i n t o r e c e i v e r s h i p and some have been s o l d . The r e n t l e v e l s i n l o d g i n g houses r e t u r n e d t o pre-Expo r a t e s a f t e r Expo 86 c l o s e d and t h e vacancy r a t e (as of October 1987) was a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o t h e r a t e r e c o r d e d over one year b e f o r e Expo opened. W h i l e t h e r e appears t o be l i t t l e i f any Post-Expo Impact, the Downtown E a s t s i d e h o u s i n g market remains u n s t a b l e . Walks t h r o u g h the community d u r i n g 1987 and 1988 r e v e a l c o n s i d e r a b l e numbers of "For S a l e " s i g n s . T h i s i s a s i g n a l t h a t a p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r f u t u r e Post-Expo Impacts. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , the f u t u r e development of the B.C. P l a c e l a n d s , c u r r e n t l y f o r s a l e , w i l l have a p o w e r f u l impact upon Downtown E a s t s i d e h o u s i n g s t o c k . At the time of w r i t i n g (March 1988), the B.C. E n t e r p r i s e C o r p o r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r i n g s e c r e t b i d s from d e v e l o p e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t he s i t e . I t appears t h a t one d e v e l o p e r w i l l a c q u i r e the whole s i t e , a f t e r which a 10-20 year development framework w i l l come i n t o p l a c e . The n a t u r e of t h i s development and the c i v i c p o l i c i e s i n p l a c e (on and o f f - s i t e ) w i l l c r e a t e permanent impacts i n t he Downtown E a s t s i d e . 1 12 5. The H e a l t h C o s t s of the Expo 86 Housing Impacts I'm not g o i n g t o move u n l e s s they f o r c e me o u t . I'm not a p i e c e of garbage. I've been here t h r e e y e a r s and don't mind i f they r a i s e the r e n t , but I won't move ... Once you get used t o a p l a c e , i t ' s l i k e a p a i r of shoes, t h e y ' r e c o m f o r t a b l e . Even i f they get worn out you s t i l l put your o l d shoes on. T h i s h o t e l t o me i s home. You go t o the beer p a r l o r , you know everybody ... I l i k e t h i s p l a c e but what they've done -- i t ' s inhuman. ( E v i c t e e Jon M u l l e r , 59, c i t e d i n Hume, March 8, 1986) Housing impacts a r e synonymous w i t h human impacts. The e v i c t i o n s r e q u i r e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e l o c a t e , e i t h e r p r i v a t e l y or w i t h a s s i s t a n c e , t o another h o u s i n g u n i t . In cases where s u i t a b l e v a c a n t u n i t s c o u l d not be found i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e some e v i c t e e s were o f f e r e d v a c a n t p u b l i c h o u s i n g u n i t s i n o u t l y i n g suburban d i s t r i c t s . E v i c t i o n and r e l o c a t i o n t r a n s l a t e s i t s e l f i n t o an impact upon human h e a l t h . The impact i n the case of Expo 86 i s even worse because t h e average type of Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t i s unemployed, e l d e r l y , poor and e i t h e r h a n d i c a p p e d or i n a weak s t a t e of h e a l t h . These r e s i d e n t s c o u l d not a d e q u a t e l y d e a l w i t h the p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s brought on by the e v i c t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l work p r o f e s s o r Mary H i l l sounded a warning to p o l i t i c i a n s who i n s i s t e d on implementing the r e l o c a t i o n o p t i o n : What they a r e i g n o r i n g i s t h a t the l i k e l i h o o d of d e a t h or i l l n e s s i s i n c r e a s e d by i n v o l u n t a r y r e l o c a t i o n , the d e p r e s s i o n and h o p e l e s s n e s s t h a t comes w i t h t h a t k i n d of change. Study a f t e r study shows t h a t . . . . A l l change i n v o l v e s s t r e s s , but these [Expo e v i c t i o n s ] p r e c i s e l y combine the t h r e e f a c t o r s t h a t a r e dangerous t o the e l d e r l y : the r e l o c a t i o n s a r e i n v o l u n t a r y ; they a r e sudden, w i t h o u t any p r e p a r a t i o n ; and, they b r i n g about a major change i n the e n v i r o n m e n t . ( S a r t i , March 8, 1986) S i m i l a r l y , Vancouver's C h i e f M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r s t a t e d : The problem of c o u r s e i s t h a t where a p e r s o n l i v e s i s t h e i r own c h o o s i n g ... From a humane p e r s p e c t i v e , i t was t h e i r l i v e s ... we d i s l o d g e d them from t h e i r s o c i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . So you're t a k i n g people who a r e i n t h e i r 60's, 70's and 80's and you a r e t a k i n g away t h i n g s l i k e f o o d s t o r e s and the food bank which they had s t a r t e d t o b u i l d [ t h e i r l i v e s ] around and the Downtown Community H e a l t h C e n t r e f o r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and Woodward's St o r e and l i t t l e s t o r e s i n the E a s t s i d e who c a t e r to these p e o p l e and who know how t o t a k e c a r e of them ... P l u s a l l of the s u p p o r t systems t h a t were b u i l t i n . (Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987) Some of the e v i c t e e s who f a c e d h e a l t h problems a f t e r t h e i r e v i c t i o n are d e s c r i b e d below. O l a f S o l h e i m , 80 y e a r s o l d . O l a f "made a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n s t o p l i v i n g w i t h the e v i c t i o n o b v i o u s l y a p a r t of i t ... D i d i t p r e c i p i t a t e h i s d e a t h . No. Was i t a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r sure i t was. Was i t the main c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r -- no way. He was an o l d man a t the end of h i s l i f e . " ( I b i d . ) S a u l Kahan, 80 y e a r s , "from a l o n g - s t a n d i n g r e s p i r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r b e i n g e v i c t e d from a h o t e l he'd l i v e d i n f o r 30 y e a r s . " (Hume, October 9, 1986) A l e x a n d e r M a i r s , "a 15-year r e s i d e n t , d i e d two weeks a f t e r b e i n g e v i c t e d . The o f f i c i a l cause of d e a t h was c h r o n i c o b s t r u c t i v e l u n g d i s e a s e . " ( I b i d . ) L o m e I n k s t e r , age 57 y e a r s , "a 14-year r e s i d e n t of the O lympia, d i e d from c a n c e r a f t e r b e i n g e v i c t e d . " ( I b i d . ) Thomas Tapping, age 78 y e a r s , "a 26-year r e s i d e n t of the P a t r i c i a , d i e d s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s e v i c t i o n , cause unknown." ( I b i d . ) 1 1 4 H a r o l d Scarrow, age 61 y e a r s , "threw h i m s e l f under the wheels of a,moving dump t r u c k a week b e f o r e he was t o have v a c a t e d h i s room a t the L o t u s H o t e l . " ( I b i d . ) D a n i e l Stephen Ponak, age 50 y e a r s , jumped t o h i s d e a t h from the t h i r d f l o o r of the P a t r i c i a H o t e l . He was l i v i n g i n t h e h o t e l w h i l e a w a i t i n g a n o t h e r room t o be found f o r him (Horwood, F e b r u a r y 27, 1986). Dr. B l a t h e r w i c k f e l t t h a t t h i s s u i c i d e was " c l e a r l y l i n k e d " t o the e v i c t i o n . (Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987) One woman was a s t a b l e s c h i z o p h r e n i c f o r 2-3 y e a r s p r i o r t o her e v i c t i o n . "In her mid 40's, she r e l a p s e d w i t h i n two weeks a f t e r her e v i c t i o n . " ( I b i d . ) " C o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s was caused t o one e l d e r l y man who, w h i l e i n the h o s p i t a l , was e v i c t e d . There was no p l a c e t o send him and i t was p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o go back t o f a m i l i a r s u r r o u n d i n g s t o r e c o v e r . C l e a r l y i t was not i n h i s b e s t i n t e r e s t t o not have a home not t o go back t o . " ( I b i d . ) DERA o r g a n i z e r J i m Green s t a t e d t h a t e l e v e n e v i c t e e s had d i e d as of March 1988 ( i n t e r v i e w , March 11, 1988). These h e a l t h problems cannot be c o n s i d e r e d u n i - c a u s a l l y . C l e a r l y , the c a n c e r d e a t h of someone such as L o m e I n k s t e r i s not l i k e l y r e l a t e d t o the e f f e c t of the e v i c t i o n . In the o t h e r c a s e s , e x c l u d i n g A l e x a n d e r M a i r s , S a u l Kahan and Thomas T a p p i n g , Expo 86 e v i c t i o n s were c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s t o t h e i r h e a l t h problems. Many e v i c t e e s ( T h i r t y - f o u r of 300 as of March 25, 1986) had s e r i o u s h e a l t h or h a n d i c a p problems and were "at r i s k from the i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s brought on by the r e l o c a t i o n " a c c o r d i n g to Vancouver's H e a l t h Department ( S a r t i , March 25, 1986). Some of the e v i c t e e s ' g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g d i d not d e t e r i o r a t e a f t e r moving and i n d e e d , some were h a p p i e r ( E i s i n g e r , 1986). A l a r g e r group however f e l t n e g a t i v e h e a l t h c o s t s because of the Expo 86 e v i c t i o n s . 6. The Impact on Housing i n M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver While beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the impact of Expo 86 on h o u s i n g i n m e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s i m p o r t a n t . As CMHC (1986) n o t e s : A d e c l i n i n g vacancy r a t e was a n t i c i p a t e d i n l i g h t of l i m i t e d new r e n t a l s u p p l y ... The d e c l i n e no doubt r e f l e c t s t o some e x t e n t on the impact of Expo 86. N o t a b l y , v a c a n c i e s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y and V i c t o r i a d i d not d e c l i n e t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t Expo 86 ha.s^ i n f l u e n c e d vacancy l e v e l s . (p. 1) The apartment vacancy r a t e d e c l i n e d from 2.9% i n A p r i l 1985 t o 2.3% i n October 1985 t o 0.9% in' A p r i l 1986 (CMHC, 1986, p . 8 ) . In October 1986 i t remained a t 0.9% and by A p r i l 1987, had r i s e n t o 2.3% (CMHC, 1987). The d e c l i n i n g vacancy r a t e was r e f l e c t e d i n the number of u n f u r n i s h e d apartments a d v e r t i s e d i n the Vancouver Sun. Between m i d - A p r i l of 1985 and A p r i l 1986, a 75% dro p o c c u r r e d ( B o l a n , A p r i l 30, 1986). T h i s d e c l i n e was c r e a t e d by l a n d l o r d s e v i c t i n g t e n a n t s or h o l d i n g r e g u l a r l y v a c a t e d u n i t s empty f o r s e v e r a l months u n t i l the opening of Expo 86 even though Vancouver's z o n i n g bylaws p r o h i b i t e d apartment owners d o i n g so ( C l a r k , A p r i l 23, 1986). One s u r v e y by the Tenants' R i g h t s A c t i o n C e n t r e For an e x a m i n a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of r e l o c a t i o n on d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s , see: Bartolome (1984); Borup, G a l l e g o and Hefferman (1980); Bourestrom and P a s t a l a n (1981); E i s i n g e r (1986); F e r r a r o (1982); Hanvey (1981); McLaughlan (1981); Melamed, S c h a e c t e r and Emo (1984); and, P a s t a l a n ( 1 9 83). 116 uncovered 34 l a n d l o r d s r e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 s u i t e s t o Expo t o u r i s t s and "these a r e j u s t the cases we've documented" ( B o l a n , A p r i l 30, 1986) . Expo 86 was, however, o n l y one c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o the d e c l i n e and l a t e r i n c r e a s e i n the r e n t a l vacancy r a t e . Other c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s l i k e l y i n c l u d e d : the c y c l i c a l n a t u r e of the vacancy r a t e ; the t r a d i t i o n a l t i g h t e n i n g of the vacancy r a t e because of summer i n - m i g r a t i o n ; and ( w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p o s t -Expo vacancy r a t e i n c r e a s e ) leakage i n t o homeownership. CHAPTER FOUR AN EVALUATION OF THE CITY OF VANCOUVER'S PLANNING PROCESS T h i s c h a p t e r e v a l u a t e s the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s used by the C i t y of Vancouver t o p l a n f o r the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86. The purpose i s t o i d e n t i f y the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses' of the pr o c e s s so t h a t f u t u r e h a l l m a r k event p l a n n e r s can l e a r n from Vancouver's e x p e r i e n c e . A. E v a l u a t i o n of the Planning Process A p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of i t s components: t h e i r n a t u r e , sequence, and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c o n t e x t of the p r o c e s s and i t s o u t p u t ( A l e x a n d e r , 1979, p. 107). S i n c e p l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e f u t u r e a c t i o n s t h r o u g h a sequence of c h o i c e s , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be broken i n t o "manageable, u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s t e p s " which can be examined one by one ( B o o t h r o y d , 1986, p. 4 ) . There a r e numerous ways of d e s c r i b i n g the g e n e r i c s t e p s which an i n d i v i d u a l , group, or o r g a n i z a t i o n goes t h r o u g h i n or d e r t o p l a n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e problems w i t h g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s used t o s t r u c t u r e the e v a l u a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver's p r o c e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o Boothroyd (1986, p. 3 2 ) , t h e s e s t e p s a r e common t o a l l p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s : 1 18 STEP 1. p l a n n i n g TASK d e f i n i t i o n (what m a t t e r does the group agree t o p l a n [ o r problem t o s o l v e ] , how, by whom, when and where?) STEP 2 . p e r s o n a l GOALS i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (what would p a r t i c i p a n t s l i k e t o a c h i e v e i n terms of the ma t t e r the group has agreed t o p l a n ? ) STEP 3 . SITUATION a p p r a i s a l (what a r e the s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the systems which have t o be managed or ta k e n i n t o account i n o r d e r f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o move towards t h e i r g o a l s ? what o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o n s t r a i n t s do t h e s e systems p r e s e n t ? ) STEP 4 . g e n e r a t i o n of a c t i o n POSSIBILITIES (what p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a c t i o n w i l l b r i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s toward a t l e a s t some p e r s o n a l g o a l s ? ) 1 STEP 5 . packaging of p o s s i b i l i t i e s as OPTIONS (what c a t e g o r i e s do the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f a l l i n t o , which p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e c o n t i n g e n t upon which, and t h e r e f o r e , what a r e the m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e packages of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , or " o p t i o n s " ? ) STEP 6. ASSESSMENT of options (what a r e the pros and cons of each o p t i o n g i v e n a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' g o a l s and v a l u e s -- not j u s t the g o a l s they s t a r t e d p l a n n i n g from -- and g i v e n p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r e s o u r c e s and c o n s t r a i n t s p r e s e n t e d by the systems t o be managed?) STEP 7 . DECISION making (which i s the best o p t i o n g i v e n s u b s t a n t i v e c r i t e r i a and p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r d e c i s i o n ? ) W h i l e t h e r e a r e many o t h e r examples of s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s ( s e e , f o r example: A l e x a n d e r , 1979; S h a l i n s k y , 1977; S o c i e t y of P a r t i c i p a t i o n Research i n A s i a , 1982), t h i s i s b o t h a t y p i c a l and d e f e n s i b l e p r o p o s a l . Step 1. Task I d e n t i f i c a t i o n The t a s k was not f o r m a l l y i d e n t i f i e d u n t i l t he s p r i n g of 1983, a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r the announcement of Expo 86 119 and B.C. P l a c e . The impetus was Expo 86's r e f u s a l t o c a r r y out any impact s t u d i e s ( P a t r i c i a F r e n c h , i n t e r v i e w , March 12, 1987). The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r hous i n g impact p l a n n i n g g i v e n t h e i r l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o n c e r n w i t h a l l i s s u e s e f f e c t i n g Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s . Concern was f o c u s s e d on the Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact. Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impact was not e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e d as a problem. E x i s t i n g C i t y h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s f o r the are a i n the Downtown-Eastside / Oppenheimer P o l i c y P l a n (1982) d i d d e a l w i t h the i s s u e of the l o s s of e x i s t i n g a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g , but o n l y i n terms of a g o a l statement (p. 12). The p o l i c y p l a n does not mention e i t h e r the Expo 86 or the B.C. P l a c e development. When the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r housi n g impact p l a n n i n g , they had no i n f o r m a t i o n about the hou s i n g impacts of p a s t World's F a i r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , h o u s i n g impact 2 (Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impact) and ho u s i n g impact 3 (Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact) were not i d e n t i f i e d as s e p a r a t e problems which needed s e p a r a t e s o l u t i o n s . T h i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e o v e r s i g h t a l s o l e d the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department through a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s which was based upon the erroneous assumption t h a t the p l a n n e r ' s t a s k was t o p l a n f o r impacts which may or may not happen and which may happen a t any time between 1984 and 1986. Such e r r o r s a r e p o s s i b l e when d e a l i n g w i t h h a l l m a r k e v e n t s which, by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , a r e " o n c e - i n - a -l i f e t i m e " e v e n t s . 120 W i t h r e s p e c t t o the s t e p of t a s k i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , a number of problems seem a p p a r e n t . F i r s t l y , i t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t such a l o n g time passed b e f o r e any m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n o c c u r r e d . G i v e n the p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t a Crown c o r p o r a t i o n would have c a r r y i n g out impact s t u d i e s about i t s e l f , the C i t y s h o u l d have a c t e d s o o n e r . Even so, t h r e e f u l l y e a r s of p l a n n i n g was p o s s i b l e b e f o r e the s t a r t of Expo 86. S e c o n d l y , i t appears as i f the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department a l o n e d e f i n e d the p l a n n i n g t a s k . I d e a l l y , s e v e r a l r e l e v a n t departments t o g e t h e r w i t h community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a c a d e m i c s , and Expo 86 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h o u l d have been brought t o g e t h e r t o r e a c h a t e n t a t i v e agreement on what i s to be p l a n n e d (scope) and how i t i s t o be p l a n n e d ( p r o c e s s ) . Chances d i d e x i s t t o b r i n g i n r e l e v a n t c i v i c departments. For example, Dr. M a l c o l m S. W e i n t e i n , D i r e c t o r of H e a l t h P l a n n i n g sent a l e t t e r t o Max Beck, D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n March, 1984, s t a t i n g : In the s h o r t e r term, the p o s s i b l e c o n v e r s i o n of downtown e a s t s i d e h o t e l s and rooming houses f o r Expo 86 t o u r i s t accommodation c o u l d d i s p l a c e needy h e a l t h s e r v i c e c l i e n t s . The department a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e s d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a c k i n g down a c t i v e TB ( t u b e r c u l o s i s ) p a t i e n t s i n the i n n e r - c i t y who must be s c r e e n e d a n n u a l l y . D i s p l a c e m e n t c o u l d compound the problem. We a p p r e c i a t e your s t a f f s ' c o o p e r a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h us and l o o k f o r w a r d t o c o n t i n u i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and d i a l o g u e , (mimeograph) U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e two departments f a i l e d t o d e v e l o p a r e l a t i o n s h i p u n t i l the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s began (Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987). I f the t a s k had been j o i n t l y d e f i n e d , 121 t h e s e two i m p o r t a n t departments may have been more pr e p a r e d t o a s s i s t the e v i c t e e s . By d e f i n i n g the scope of the p l a n n i n g t a s k t h e m s e l v e s , the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department began f o l l o w i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s they use f o r e x i s t i n g and f a m i l i a r i s s u e s . A problem a r o s e , however, because the p o t e n t i a l f o r Expo h o u s i n g impacts was a unique and u n f a m i l i a r i s s u e . S tep 2. G o a l s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n The g o a l s of the C i t y ' s p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s were i d e n t i f i e d by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department i n a r e p o r t e n t i t l e d Expo 86; A  C i t y P e r s p e c t i v e of Impacts and I s s u e s (1983). The main g o a l was t o e n s u r e t h a t p o t e n t i a l permanent or temporary d i s p l a c e m e n t of l o n g t e r m low and moderate income r e s i d e n t s be stopped or h e l d t o a "minimum" (p. 8 ) . Another g o a l of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was t o "ensure the. i n t e g r i t y of h o t e l i e r s , Expo 86, the P r o v i n c e and the C i t y a g a i n s t the p e r c e i v e d or r e a l r e p u t a t i o n as p r i c e - g o u g i n g o p p o r t u n i s t s " (p. 8 ) . C i t y C o u n c i l s u p p o r t e d t h i s r e p o r t and the g o a l s c o n t a i n e d i n i t i n 1983. These g o a l s , however, a r e g e n e r a l "motherhood s t a t e m e n t s " . When d i s c u s s i o n s f o c u s s e d on s p e c i f i c Expo h o u s i n g i m p a c t s , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t not a l l p a r t i e s a c t u a l l y s u p p o r t e d the g o a l s . S e v e r a l C i t y aldermen b e l i e v e d t h a t the i s s u e of ho u s i n g impacts was a myth b e i n g r a i s e d by o t h e r aldermen and by DERA i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s view was a l s o h e l d by the B.C. H o t e l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . U n d e r c u r r e n t s of c o n f l i c t over g o a l s e x i s t e d and 122 would c o n t i n u e even a f t e r mass e v i c t i o n s s t a r t e d . Only the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, the Downtown E a s t s i d e community and some aldermen s u p p o r t e d these g o a l s . S t e p 3. S i t u a t i o n A p p r a i s a l Expo 86: A C i t y P e r s p e c t i v e of Impacts and I s s u e s (1983) p r o v i d e d a t i m e t a b l e f o r the s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p . T h i s s t e p was supposed t o be c a r r i e d out from J u l y t o November or December of 1983 but the t i m e t a b l e was not f o l l o w e d because, i n the words of Doug Purdy, i t "changed of c o u r s e as our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e s changed." M u n i c i p a l s t a f f began r e p o r t i n g on t h e i r a r e a s of c o n c e r n but a f i n a l c o n s o l i d a t e d r e p o r t was never produced. Each department took c a r e of t h e i r own a f f a i r s and produced i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s ( i n t e r v i e w , May 27, 1986). By e x a m i n i n g the i s s u e of Expo h o u s i n g impacts s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e Expo 86 opened, the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was a b l e t o adapt t h e s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p as r e q u i r e d . C o n v e r s e l y , a s t r i c t e r t i m e t a b l e s h o u l d have been i n p l a c e t o b e t t e r p r e p a r e the C i t y f o r the p r e d i c t e d h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . The f i r s t major e f f o r t a t pre-Expo s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l d i d not o c c u r u n t i l the f a l l of 1984 w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of the Expo  Housing Survey by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, r e l e a s e d i n 1985. W h i l e no e v i d e n c e was uncovered t h a t r e s i d e n t s were b e i n g e v i c t e d because of the c o n v e r s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s i n t o t o u r i s t u n i t s , the survey does note t h a t if_ e v i c t i o n s were t o o c c u r , they would happen i n January or F e b r u a r y 1986. The survey 1 23 c o n c l u d e d t h a t the " p o t e n t i a l " f o r Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impact e x i s t e d . In r e t r o s p e c t , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n proved c o r r e c t . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department a l s o a p p r a i s e d the s i t u a t i o n by r e q u i r i n g the P e r m i t s and L i c e n s e s Department t o " r e d - f l a g " any l o d g i n g house owner or o p e r a t o r s e e k i n g an p e r m i t t o upgrade h i s / h e r p r e m i s e s . A l s o , DERA c a r r i e d out s u r v e i l l a n c e work and n o t i f i e d the p l a n n e r s of any movement i n the h o u s i n g market. T h i s s t e p , u n t i l J a n u a r y 1986, was c a r r i e d out v e r y w e l l . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was taken by s u r p r i s e , however, i n m i d - F e b r u a r y when the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s began. From t h i s p o i n t on t h e s i t u a t i o n was d e a l t w i t h i n a r e a c t i v e , problem management p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . When s e v e r a l U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia s t u d e n t s were h i r e d t o c a r r y out a survey t o d e t e r m i n e the vacancy r a t e , problems a r o s e . H o t e l owners and o p e r a t o r s r e f u s e d t o answer q u e s t i o n s and the media f o l l o w e d s t u d e n t s a r o u nd, t h e r e b y i n f l u e n c i n g the s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w . G i v e n t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department had p r e d i c t e d when the e v i c t i o n s would l i k e l y o c c u r , e f f o r t s s h o u l d have been made t o c a r r y out the s u r v e y i n the l a t t e r months of 1985 i n a more calm atmosphere. Other C i t y d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e H e a l t h Department i n p a r t i c u l a r , s h o u l d have had an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r e d i c t i o n s of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Stephen Gray of the H e a l t h Department: Once the e v i c t i o n s s t a r t e d t a k i n g p l a c e we weren't set up t o c a t c h i t and f o l l o w i t . There s h o u l d have been advance wa r n i n g -- and I don't mean j u s t a day, but a year or more. (Hume, October 9, 1986) S i m i l a r l y , Dr. John B l a t h e r w i c k , C h i e f M e d i c a l H e a l t h O f f i c e r of 124 the H e a l t h Department s t a t e d : In terms of when i t was g o i n g t o o c c u r , we s i m p l y d i d n ' t know because t h e r e was no r e q u i r e m e n t t o r e p o r t any of t h e s e changes and we o n l y became a w a r e o f these p e o p l e t h r o u g h the news media, ( i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987) Moreover, m u n i c i p a l p o l i t i c i a n s and Expo 86 e x e c u t i v e s r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d t h a t they had no i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would l e a d them t o b e l i e v e e v i c t i o n s might o c c u r . For example, on a community t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n Vancouver alderman Gordon Campbell s t a t e d : There's no e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t r e s i d e n t s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e a r e g o i n g t o be a f f e c t e d by e v i c t i o n s because of p e o p l e coming t o Expo ... We have had innumerable p r e s e n t a t i o n s by the B.C. H o t e l s A s s o c i a t i o n . There a r e no p l a n s i n the books. There i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t our S o c i a l • P l a n n i n g Department has d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s i s goin g t o ta k e p l a c e . (Rogers Cable TV, Vancouver, September 1985) T h i s statement was c o n t r a d i c t e d by Doug Purdy of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department on the same TV program; a c o n t r a d i c t i o n which may be more s y m b o l i c of the " p o l i t i c s of p l a n n i n g " than of a p o o r l y p r e p a r e d b u r e a u c r a c y . As Purdy p u t s i t , " a t no time were we a b l e t o c o n v i n c e the p o l i t i c i a n s of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the s i t u a t i o n " ( l e t t e r , March 1, 1988). There are t h r e e f i n a l p o i n t s about the s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p . F i r s t l y , i t appears t h a t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n was not a c q u i r e d from o t h e r c i t i e s where World's F a i r s were h e l d . A l t h o u g h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department " r e v i e w e d a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n from s e v e r a l World's F a i r s , l i t t l e was r e p o r t e d on the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . I t was e i t h e r not r e p o r t e d or u n a v a i l a b l e " (Doug Purdy, l e t t e r , March 1, 1988). A l s o , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s e v e r a l departments went t o K n o x v i l l e , Tennessee t o a t t e n d Expo 82 and meet w i t h K n o x v i l l e c i v i c s t a f f t o d i s c u s s t h e impacts of the f a i r on the m u n i c i p a l i t y . "No i n f o r m a t i o n " was sought or o b t a i n e d about the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 82 (I b i d . ) . R e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s s h o u l d have been asked i n K n o x v i l l e , and i n - d e p t h r e s e a r c h about the h o u s i n g impacts of p r e v i o u s World's F a i r s s h o u l d have been c a r r i e d o u t . I f t h i s had been done, C i t y s t a f f might have been a b l e t o i d e n t i f y more t i m e l y and r e l e v a n t o p t i o n s , b e t t e r adapt the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s t o the p o t e n t i a l i m pacts, and most i m p o r t a n t l y , t hey would have had some evi d e n c e w i t h which t o c o n v i n c e p o l i t i c i a n s , Expo p e r s o n n e l and o t h e r i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s of impending problems. For example, Alderman Gordon Campbell s t a t e d t h a t " t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t I have been made aware of from K n o x v i l l e , from S e a t t l e , where v i s i t o r s f o r a World's F a i r a r e g o i n g i n t o n e ighborhoods l i k e the Downtown E a s t s i d e and d i s p l a c i n g l o n g term r e s i d e n t s " (Rogers Cable TV, Vancouver, September, 1985). S i m i l a r l y , i n 1985 George Madden, V i c e P r e s i d e n t , Communications and M a r k e t i n g f o r Expo 86, c l a i m e d t h a t o n l y "150 s t u d e n t s " were e v i c t e d from r e n t a l h o u s i n g because of Expo 82 ( i n t e r v i e w , October 10, 1985). T h i s i s a low e s t i m a t e a c c o r d i n g t o G r e t c h e n F. B e a l of the K n o x v i l l e / K n o x County M e t r o p o l i t a n P l a n n i n g Commission ( l e t t e r , J u l y 9, 1987). The second p o i n t r e l a t e s t o the l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the l i c e n s e e - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . D u r i n g the midst of the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s , p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n became f o c u s s e d on a V i c t o r i a , B.C. case i n which an a r b i t r a t o r f o r the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy Branch r u l e d t h a t an occupant of a rooming house has the same s e c u r i t y of te n u r e r i g h t s as the occupant of an apartment. T h i s l i c e n s e e -t enant r e l a t i o n s h i p was not i n v e s t i g a t e d by m u n i c i p a l s t a f f u n t i l a f t e r the t e s t c a s e . The s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p s h o u l d have i n c l u d e d more d e t a i l e d and t i m e l y assessment of the l e g a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g e v i c t i o n s . A chance e x i s t e d t o h a l t e v i c t i o n s by e x p l o r i n g l e g a l o p t i o n s . T h i s view was h e l d by Vancouver L e g a l A i d lawyer C a r o l y n McCool. She s t a t e d t h a t i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e o f f i c e of t h e : L e g a l S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y we have seen few, i f any r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e . I t i s a s i t u a t i o n w hich d i s t r e s s e s me because the a s s i s t a n c e i s a v a i l a b l e and t h i s argument can be made on b e h a l f of the s e people i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . (CBC R a d i o , A p r i l 29, 1986) Mayor Mike H a r c o u r t r e c o g n i z e d t h i s m i s s e d o p p o r t u n i t y i n l a t e A p r i l , 1986 when he n o t e d t h a t the C i t y c o u l d have s t a r t e d " a r b i t r a t i o n s f o u r months ago, c l o g g i n g up h e a r i n g d a t e s and p r e v e n t i n g h o t e l owners from e v i c t i n g the r e s i d e n t s u n t i l t h e i r c a s es had been h e a r d " (Mason, A p r i l 26, 1986). L a s t l y , once the C i t y s e t up a h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y t o r e l o c a t e e v i c t e e s , i t became the p r i m a r y t o o l f o r a p p r a i s i n g the s i t u a t i o n . The r e g i s t r y worked v e r y w e l l i n i t s r o l e of e n a b l i n g r e l o c a t i o n s t o o c c u r w i t h a minimum of h a s s l e ( f o r b o t h the e v i c t e e s and the r e l o c a t i n g a u t h o r i t y ) . The r e g i s t r y a l s o e n a b l e d m u n i c i p a l s t a f f t o keep a r e c o r d of the number of e v i c t e e s a s s i s t e d each day. In a l l p r e v i o u s World's F a i r s , r e l i a b l e impact r e c o r d s were not kept. 1 27 The s i t u a t i o n assessment s t e p was a d e q u a t e l y c a r r i e d o u t . The community a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by DERA was an i m p o r t a n t reason f o r the s u c c e s s f u l a s p e c t s of t h i s s t e p . More time and e f f o r t may have a m e l i o r a t e d some of the problems w i t h the s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p as o u t l i n e d above. However, such an e v a l u a t i o n must r e c o g n i z e t h a t the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was both overworked and u n d e r s t a f f e d . S t e p 4. G e n e r a t i o n of A c t i o n P o s s i b i l i t i e s A c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s were ge n e r a t e d throughout the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. P e r i o d i c a s s i s t a n c e was p r o v i d e d by community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d e p a r t m e n t s . As t h e c h r o n o l o g y i n Appendix I I i n d i c a t e s , a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s were g e n e r a t e d i n an ad hoc b a s i s . The most o b v i o u s a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s which c o u l d s t o p the p o t e n t i a l e v i c t i o n s were g e n e r a t e d i n 1984. These i n c l u d e the r e n t f r e e z e / n o e v i c t i o n o p t i o n and changes t o the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy A c t . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of n o n - p r o f i t and c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g o p t i o n was a l s o g e n e r a t e d a t t h i s t i m e . Once the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s began, a d i v e r s e range of a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s were q u i c k l y g e n e r a t e d . On Fe b r u a r y 26, 1986 the mayor of Vancouver s p o n t a n e o u s l y d e c i d e d t o t e l l e v i c t e e s t o d e f y t h e i r e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s . Between e a r l y March and May 1986, the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and DERA c o n c o c t e d a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s such as the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y (under p r e s s u r e from the P r o v i n c i a l Government); a C i t y sponsored b o y c o t t of e v i c t i n g 1 28 h o t e l s ; the e l i m i n a t i o n of tax b r e a k s f o r h o t e l s h o u s i n g l o n g term r e s i d e n t s , and a b e n e f i t c o n c e r t f o r the e v i c t e d . A l l of the a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s s h o u l d have been g e n e r a t e d w e l l b e f o r e J a n u a r y or F e b r u a r y of 1986 when the e v i c t i o n s were p r e d i c t e d t o b e g i n . Sandra James, H e a l t h P l a n n e r and P o l i c y A n a l y s t f o r the Vancouver H e a l t h Department, f e l t t h a t by not h a v i n g a l l a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s g e n e r a t e d b e f o r e the h o u s i n g impacts began, a c o n f u s e d "bungle i n the j u n g l e " atmosphere e x i s t e d ( i n t e r v i e w , J u l y 8, 1987). T h i s may have been p r e v e n t e d i f the a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s s t e p i t s e l f had been p l a n n e d . Community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , c i v i c d e p a rtments, p r o v i n c i a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a c a d e m i c s , e t c . , s h o u l d have been brought t o g e t h e r . The synergy of the v a r i e d p e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d have been tapped s i n c e such a s t e p does not r e q u i r e c h o i c e but merely mass g e n e r a t i o n of a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s . B r a i n s t o r m i n g i s one of many t e c h n i q u e s which c o u l d have been used. Step 5. P a c k a g i n g of P o s s i b i l i t i e s as O p t i o n s T h i s s t e p i s o f t e n e x c l u d e d i n s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g depending on the i s s u e b e i n g p l a n n e d ( B o o t h r o y d , 1986). In the Vancouver case s t u d y , the p a c k a g i n g p r o c e s s d i d not o c c u r . The g e n e r a t i o n of a c t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s ( S t e p 4) i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the g e n e r a t i o n of o p t i o n s . Step 6. Assessment of O p t i o n s The assessment of the pro ' s and con's of each of the o p t i o n s 1 29 g e n e r a t e d was c a r r i e d out i n an ad hoc manner. Each o p t i o n was g e n e r a t e d and a s s e s s e d p r i m a r i l y by S o c i a l P l a n n i n g s t a f f w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e of r e l e v a n t C i t y departments and community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Rather than g e n e r a t i n g a wide v a r i e t y of o p t i o n s and c o m p a r a t i v e l y a s s e s s i n g each, i n d i v i d u a l o p t i o n s were a s s e s s e d a l o n e . W h i l e p e r f o r m i n g w e l l w i t h r e s p e c t t o i n d i v i d u a l o p t i o n assessment, some problems d i d a r i s e because of when the assessment p r o c e s s took p l a c e . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the l i c e n s e e - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p were not i n v e s t i g a t e d and t h e r e f o r e a s s e s s e d u n t i l the midst of the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s . S i m i l a r l y , one o p t i o n which i n v o l v e d e x e r t i n g i n f l u e n c e on Expo's r e s e r v a t i o n s agency (ResWest) t o h a l t the " l i s t i n g " of e v i c t i n g h o t e l s was not a s s e s s e d u n t i l the m i d s t of the c r i s i s . Such an ad hoc assessment a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o p l a n n i n g i n e f f i c i e n c i e s and problems. In the case of the Expo Housing Program, f o r example, i f the C i t y had succeeded i n c o n v i n c i n g Expo t o t a k e up t h i s o p t i o n , none of the e v i c t e d r e s i d e n t s would have been a b l e t o t a k e advantage of the h o u s i n g u n t i l a f t e r the. F a i r . W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t i n the l o n g run the community might be b e t t e r o f f , c o n s i d e r a b l e time and e f f o r t was spent on p r e p a r i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l , time which c o u l d p o s s i b l y have been b e t t e r used, f o r example, by c a r r y i n g out r e s e a r c h on p a s t World's F a i r s or a s s e s s i n g the v i a b i l i t y of o t h e r o p t i o n s . The s t a t e d g o a l of e n s u r i n g no or minimum d i s p l a c e m e n t was not met by t h i s o p t i o n ( C i t y of Vancouver, 1983, p. 8 ) . 130 The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department was a b l e t o a s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l l o n g term b e n e f i t s of some o p t i o n s v e r y w e l l . As mentioned, Expo 86 d i d not implement the Expo Housing Program. The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s o p t i o n s t i l l had the p o t e n t i a l t o b e n e f i t Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s . E f f o r t s were made, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of DERA, t o c o n v i n c e the F e d e r a l Government ( t h r o u g h CMHC) t h a t " e x t r a " s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s were needed because of the Expo 86 h o u s i n g impact. The C i t y was a b l e t o e x t r a c t 112 a d d i t i o n a l s u b s i d i z e d u n i t s a c c o r d i n g t o John J e s s o p , C i t y of Vancouver S o c i a l P l a n n e r ( i n t e r v i e w , March 14, 1988). These u n i t s were a p p l i e d t o the 153 u n i t Four S i s t e r s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t which opened i n s p r i n g , 1987 i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . In summary, l i k e the p r e v i o u s s t e p s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the assessment of the o p t i o n s was c a r r i e d out r e l a t i v e l y w e l l by the C i t y . Comparative o p t i o n assessment may have suggested which o p t i o n s t o f o c u s upon more c l o s e l y i n the e f f o r t t o meet the C i t y ' s g o a l s . The assessment p r o c e d u r e i t s e l f s h o u l d have been p l a n n e d so t h a t the c o m p a r a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n of each o p t i o n was p o s s i b l e b e f o r e the h o u s i n g impacts began. Step 7. D e c i s i o n Making The d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , l i k e t he assessment of o p t i o n s s t e p , was ad hoc i n n a t u r e . A f t e r p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n s were de v e l o p e d and a s s e s s e d , they were d e c i d e d upon. I f r e q u i r e d , s i g n i f i c a n t o p t i o n s were d e l i v e r e d t o the C i t y C o u n c i l i n the 131 form of a recommendation from the D i r e c t o r of the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department. There were many o p t i o n s put f o r w a r d and the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of them r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t from b o t h the D i r e c t o r of S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and C i t y C o u n c i l . The o n l y o p t i o n which d i d not r e c e i v e e v e n t u a l support was a b o y c o t t of s e v e r a l of the e v i c t i n g h o t e l s . T h i s o p t i o n was deemed too " c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l " and m u n i c i p a l s t a f f w o r r i e d about the p o s s i b i l i t y of e m b r o i l i n g the C i t y i n a " p o l i t i c a l brouhaha" and l e g a l mess. When p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n s were put b e f o r e C i t y C o u n c i l f o r d e l i b e r a t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e debate o c c u r r e d over each o p t i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Debate was f u e l e d by the n a t u r e of some of the o p t i o n s . The o p t i o n r e q u i r i n g C i t y C o u n c i l t o o f f i c i a l l y r e q u e s t p r e v e n t a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n from the P r o v i n c i a l Government was the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l o p t i o n . The d e l i b e r a t i o n s over the l e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n i l l u m i n a t e d i d e o l o g y , i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and how i d e o l o g y can e f f e c t a l l s t e p s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C. The P o l i t i c s of P l a n n i n g C o u l d the d i s l o c a t i o n of between 500 and 850 Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s have been p r e v e n t e d i f b o t h C i t y C o u n c i l and the P r o v i n c i a l Government had a c t e d upon the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department recommendation f o r a p r e v e n t a t i v e r e n t f r e e z e / n o e v i c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n o p t i o n ? The answer i s y e s . However, the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s an i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s which i s s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y of each p l a n n i n g agency i n v o l v e d . I d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s and p o l i t i c a l 1 32 j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s o e f f e c t the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The main g o a l of the C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ( t o ensure t h a t the p o t e n t i a l permanent or temporary d i s p l a c e m e n t of l o n g term low and moderate income r e s i d e n t s be st o p p e d or h e l d t o a minimum) was not a t t a i n e d . Why? I n i t i a l e f f o r t s a t b r i n g i n g a l l r e l e v a n t p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r t o p l a n f o r the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 f a i l e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Doug Purdy: The p o l i t i c a l w i l l was not t h e r e t o s u s t a i n an on-going p r o c e s s ... The C i t y had d i s t a n c e d i t s e l f from Expo because of c o n c e r n s about b e i n g f o r c e d i n t o f i n a n c i a l commitments ... I d e o l o g i c a l l y , the C i t y and the P r o v i n c e were l i k e o i l and water and the p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was n o n - e x i s t e n t , ( l e t t e r , March 1, 1988) Purdy a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s t r a i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between C i t y and Expo 86 s t a f f . The S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department's recommendation f o r p r e v e n t a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n met s t i f f o p p o s i t i o n as soon as i t was p u b l i c l y c o n s i d e r e d i n l a t e 1984. At the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , the mere s u g g e s t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y of e v i c t i o n s , l e t a l o n e the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l e g i s l a t i v e s o l u t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be " p o l i t i c a l " by s e v e r a l alderman. For example, i n September, 1985 Alderman Gordon Campbell s t a t e d : I t h i n k i t ' s an a r b i t r a r y and p o l i t i c a l type of a c t i o n which doesn't s e r v e anybody's needs i n the l o n g run ... I t h i n k t h a t t h i s has been a s c a r e campaign t h a t f r a n k l y , i s s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d and not one based on any k i n d of f a c t ... I t s h o u l d be a n o n - i s s u e but I t h i n k some p e o p l e a r e t r y i n g t o make i t an i s s u e . (Rogers C a b l e TV, Vancouver, September, 1985) R i c k H i g g s , E x e c u t i v e P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. H o t e l s ' 133 A s s o c i a t i o n , d i s c u s s e d h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o the l e g i s l a t i o n on t h i s TV program and a t s e v e r a l C i t y C o u n c i l m e e t i n g s : I t s a matter of p r i n c i p l e . We don't b e l i e v e t h a t e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n t r o l s f o r h o t e l h o u s i n g or any o t h e r k i n d of h o u s i n g i s a good i d e a . ( I b i d . ) F o l l o w i n g the mass e v i c t i o n of hundreds of Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s , Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l p a s s e d a F e b r u a r y 25, 1986 m o tion r e q u e s t i n g P r o v i n c i a l Government l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n by an e i g h t t o t h r e e v o t e . Only the P r o v i n c i a l Government has the l e g a l a u t h o r i t y t o enact temporary or permanent l e g i s l a t i o n e f f e c t i n g l a n d l o r d - t e n a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . When p r e s s e d by the C i t y of Vancouver f o r a l e g i s l a t i v e s o l u t i o n t o the Expo 86 h o u s i n g i m p a c t s , i t became apparent t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government was i d e o l o g i c a l l y opposed t o such an o p t i o n . A f t e r b e i n g q u e s t i o n e d by BCTV News Hour s t a f f on Feb. 26, 1986 about the r i s i n g number of e v i c t i o n s , an u n i d e n t i f i e d government spokesperson s t a t e d : " t h e r e i s a problem t h a t has t o be s o l v e d f o r these people and i t w i l l be s o l v e d . We c a n ' t i g n o r e i t . " He threw out r e n t c o n t r o l or government r e g u l a t i o n as t h i s would cause " u n f a i r n e s s i n t h e m a r k e t - p l a c e . " They would more l i k e l y g i v e " a s s i s t a n c e " f o r t h e s e p e o p l e t o move. The c l e a r e s t b a r i n g of the i d e o l o g y of the m a j o r i t y of 27 P r o v i n c i a l Government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s came when M i c h a e l Walker 27 M i c h a e l Walker i s an economist f o r the F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e , an economic " t h i n k - t a n k " which o f t e n a d v i s e s the S o c i a l C r e d i t government about p o l i c y i s s u e s . The Kootenays are an i n t e r i o r r e g i o n of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 m i l e s from Vancouver. 1 34 s t a t e d t h a t " d i s p l a c e d rooming house t e n a n t s " would save everyone a l o t of t r o u b l e i f they a l l were put on buses t o the Kootenays ... the w o r l d runs by greed ... everyone i s greedy i n one way or a n o t h e r . What we're t a l k i n g about i s r e l a t i v e greed. I t ' s not a q u e s t i o n of d i r e n e c e s s i t y . I t ' s a q u e s t i o n of c h o i c e of l o c a t i o n . P e o p l e a r e s a y i n g 'I don't want t o l i v e i n the Kootenays ... I want t o l i v e where the a c t i o n i s . ' ( G l a v i n , A p r i l 23, 1986) When Vancouver mayor Mike H a r c o u r t asked Walker about the proposed l e g i s l a t i v e s o l u t i o n , Walker r e p l i e d : " I s n ' t i t m o r a l l y wrong t o do t h a t " ( I b i d . ) . A nother F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e spokesperson a l s o p r e s e n t e d such views i n a Vancouver newspaper column ( B l o c k , March 25, 1986) . The P r o v i n c i a l Government r e f u s e d t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r a l e g i s l a t i v e s o l u t i o n f o r the Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86. I n s t e a d , they put t h e i r f u l l weight b e h i n d r e l o c a t i n g t e n a n t s t h r o u g h the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y . T h e i r i d e o l o g y f u r t h e r bared i t s e l f w h i l e t h i s o p t i o n was implemented and s e v e r a l e v i c t e e s d i s p l a y e d r e l u c t a n c e t o move i n t o suburban s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s . J a c k Kempf, M i n i s t e r of Lands, P a r k s and Housing s t a t e d : The o l d adage t h a t you can l e a d a horse to water but you c a n ' t make him d r i n k s u r e h o l d s t r u e i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n . You can p r o v i d e a l l the accommodation you want t o t h o s e s o - c a l l e d e v i c t e e s but you c a n ' t make them move i n t o i t . (Vancouver  Sun, May 14, 1986, p. A12) The P r o v i n c i a l Government and some Vancouver aldermen deemed the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y a s u i t a b l e o p t i o n f o r d e a l i n g w i t h the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of Expo 86 because i t was a " p o s i t i v e " s o l u t i o n t o p l a c e " t h e s e p e o p l e i n a p p r o p r i a t e accommodation" (Alderman Gordon 1 C ampbell, CBC R a d i o , June 2, 1985). More i m p o r t a n t l y , such an o p t i o n p e r m i t t e d the i n n e r c i t y t o be r e d e v e l o p e d . When as k e d i f i t i s f a i r t h a t r e s i d e n t s be f o r c e d t o move a f t e r r e c e i v i n g e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s , Claude Richmond, M i n i s t e r R e s p o n s i b l e f o r Expo 86 and Tourism s t a t e d : W e l l , I guess t h a t ' s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n t o answer. For many of t h e s e h o t e l s , t h i s i s the o n l y o p p o r t u n i t y t h e y ' r e g o i n g t o have t o upgrade and renovate t h e i r p r e m i s e s . (CBC R a d i o , March, 1986) In a Feb r u a r y 26, 1986 BCTV News Hour program B i l l R i t c h i e , M i n i s t e r of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , was. i n t e r v i e w e d . He s t a t e d " d e s p i t e h a r d s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l s , development must take p l a c e . " A l s o , a Vancouver P r o v i n c e a r t i c l e quoted P r e m i e r B i l l B e n n e t t as s a y i n g t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n aimed a t p r e v e n t i n g e v i c t i o n s would a l s o s t o p redevelopment: 'Handling problems of p e o p l e , and a l s o e n c o u r a g i n g the removal of a r e a s t h a t i n many communities c o u l d a l s o be c a l l e d slum a r e a s ' a r e the government p r i o r i t i e s he s a i d . ( A p r i l 25, 1986, p. 27) The n e o - c o n s e r v a t i v e i d e o l o g y of the r u l i n g S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s a c a p i t a l i s t " f r e e - m a r k e t " approach t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . T h i s , a l o n g w i t h a number of o t h e r f a c t o r s , l e d t o the r e j e c t i o n of the o n l y o p t i o n which c o u l d have reduced Expo 86 h o u s i n g impacts ( the Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand I m p a c t s ) . These o t h e r f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the f a c t t h a t the C i t y of Vancouver and the P r o v i n c i a l Government had s e v e r a l y e a r s of c o n f l i c t p r i o r t o the opening of Expo 86. A f t e r mass e v i c t i o n s s t a r t e d , the two l e v e l s of government began p u b l i c l y and v i c i o u s l y a t t a c k i n g each o t h e r . A l s o : 1 36 The P r o v i n c e was i n d e n i a l mode a t t e m p t i n g t o smooth over any i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t they had f a i l e d t o t a k e i n t o account d i s p l a c e m e n t of poor p e o p l e ... The C i t y p o l i t i c i a n s were somewhat c o n t e n t t o have a h o u s i n g c r i s i s o c c u r so they c o u l d say 'There, I t o l d you so! Look what you've done t o poor p e o p l e . ' (Doug Purdy, l e t t e r , March 1, 1988) The Mayor, who was a prominent member of the New Dem o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP), d e c i d e d t o run f o r l e a d e r s h i p of the p r o v i n c i a l NDP d u r i n g the h e i g h t of t h e e v i c t i o n c r i s i s . He had a l s o opposed Expo 86 i n i t s f o r m a t i v e y e a r s (Government of Canada, 1986). The P r o v i n c i a l Government was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h DERA, which f o r y e a r s had been c r i t i c i z i n g p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c y . F i n a l l y , P r e m i e r B e n n e t t o f t e n pursued p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e s of a c t i o n r e g a r d l e s s of t h e c o s t t o the impacted s e c t o r s of the p u b l i c (Palmer, 1987). He i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t o be a s t u b b o r n man w i t h r e s p e c t t o c h a n g i n g any of h i s p o l i c i e s , e s p e c i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o l i c i e s . In summary, the a n a l y s i s of P r o v i n c i a l Government comments w i t h r e s p e c t t o the e v i c t i o n c r i s i s (and the l e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r ) r e f l e c t s a p h i l o s o p h y which v a l u e s the exchange-v a l u e of h o u s i n g and not the u s e - v a l u e ; a b e l i e f i n the primacy of economic r e l a t i o n s ; a b e l i e f t h a t the i n n e r c i t y must be r e d e v e l o p e d ; and, a b e l i e f t h a t Downtown E a s t s i d e r e s i d e n t s do not l i v e i n a " r e s i d e n t i a l community". People a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o l i v e i n a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a w i t h o u t bonds t o the p h y s i c a l or s o c i a l e n v ironment. W h i l e C i t y of Vancouver p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s , f o r the most p a r t , r e f l e c t e d the o p p o s i t e , the l a c k of p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n meant t h a t the most p o w e r f u l o p t i o n c o u l d not be 137 implemented. I n s t e a d , the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y was f a v o u r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Government because o p p o s i t i o n t o the Expo 86 h o u s i n g impacts c o u l d be d i f f u s e d w h i l e i n n e r c i t y redevelopment was fac i l i t a t e d . C. C o n c l u s i o n s The C i t y of Vancouver's p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r the p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86 has the f o l l o w i n g s t r e n g t h s . P l a n n i n g e f f o r t s began s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e the op e n i n g of the f a i r . T h i s i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o many o t h e r World's F a i r host c i t i e s where p l a n n i n g , i f i t o c c u r r e d , s t a r t e d too l a t e t o be e f f e c t i v e . The C i t y , t h r o u g h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department, m a i n t a i n e d a c l o s e w o r k i ng r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Downtown E a s t s i d e community. A l s o , community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s p l a y e d a v i t a l r o l e i n d e v e l o p i n g o p t i o n s , m o n i t o r i n g the s i t u a t i o n , and l o b b y i n g c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s and Expo 86 e x e c u t i v e s . Permanent improvements i n the community were g a i n e d . T e n a c i o u s work by the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department and community groups c o n v i n c e d the F e d e r a l Government t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of 112 " e x t r a " s u b s i d i z e d s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s . Once the Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impacts began, the C i t y p r o v i d e d e x c e l l e n t a s s i s t a n c e t o the p e o p l e a f f e c t e d . Vacant u n i t s were l o c a t e d and t e n a n t s were r e l o c a t e d . S o c i a l s e r v i c e s were p r o v i d e d i f r e q u i r e d . 1 38 Weaknesses of t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s a r e as f o l l o w s . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was not p l a n n e d . Many of the problems w i t h the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s may not have o c c u r r e d i f time had been spent p l a n n i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . The r e l e v a n t p a r t i e s s h o u l d have been brought t o g e t h e r as soon as the C i t y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g impacts of Expo 86. The groups s h o u l d have gone through s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g s t e p s t o d e c i d e , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s : -- who i s t o be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g ? -- which g o a l s w i l l be taken i n t o account and w i l l they be weighted? -- how w i l l the s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p be c a r r i e d out? -- how w i l l d i f f e r e n t o p t i o n s be generated? -- how w i l l the o p t i o n s be a s s e s s e d ? -- what i s the time s c a l e f o r the p l a n n i n g ? More e f f o r t s h o u l d have been spent o r g a n i z i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g the C i t y ' s approach t o the i s s u e . There were not enough s t a f f or f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o p r o p e r l y d e a l w i t h t h e i s s u e . S t a f f were overworked and c o n s e q u e n t l y the p r o c e s s s u f f e r e d . For example, not enough r e s e a r c h was c a r r i e d out on the h o u s i n g impact e x p e r i e n c e of o t h e r World's F a i r h o s t c i t i e s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r weakness r e l a t e s t o the f a c t t h a t C i t y of Vancouver departments have "work programs which a r e approved by C o u n c i l and cannot a r b i t r a r i l y a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s from one p r i o r i t y t a s k t o a n o t h e r w i t h o u t management or C o u n c i l a p p r o v a l " (Doug Purdy, l e t t e r , March 1, 1988). 1 39 A l l p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s were not g e n e r a t e d and s e t - u p b e f o r e the Pre-Expo Tourist-Demand h o u s i n g impacts began. For example, the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y s h o u l d have been ready t o o p e r a t e i n l a t e 1985 and not a f t e r the impacts began i n F e b r u a r y 1986. I n t e r - d e p a r t m e n t a l c o o r d i n a t i o n was l a c k i n g . The l e g a l department and t h e h e a l t h department s h o u l d have been more i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . E f f o r t s were e n t i r e l y f o c u s s e d on Pre-Expo T o u r i s t Demand Impacts. L i t t l e i s known about what p a r t Expo 86 p l a y e d i n the c r e a t i o n of Post-Announcement S p e c u l a t i v e Impacts. A f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g has been l o s t . C i t y p l a n n e r s d i d not make enough e f f o r t t o i n f o r m Expo 86 e x e c u t i v e s and some members of C i t y C o u n c i l t h a t impacts were ex p e c t e d t o b e g i n i n e a r l y 1986. I n s t e a d , s e v e r a l aldermen, B.C. H o t e l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e s and Expo 86 e x e c u t i v e s p u b l i c l y s pread i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t no e v i c t i o n s would o c c u r . U l t i m a t e l y though, i t was the " p o l i t i c s of p l a n n i n g " : p o l i t i c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , i d e o l o g y and i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s which p r e v e n t e d the C i t y of Vancouver from a t t a i n i n g the g o a l s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As Doug Purdy, the p l a n n e r most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g f o r Expo 86's h o u s i n g i m p a c t s lamented: P o l i t i c a l v i s i o n and p o l i t i c a l w i l l were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s and impediments t o c o n s t r u c t i v e p r e v e n t a t i v e and r e m e d i a l a c t i o n s ... We saw and e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h i s p r o c e s s how the e x e r c i s e of p e r s o n a l p o l i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s can supercede the p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e x e r c i s i n g a c t i o n f o r the 'common good.' ... Without p o l i t i c a l w i l l and v i s i o n , the b e s t l a i d p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s can be undermined, ( l e t t e r , March 1, 1988) 1 40 CHAPTER FIVE AN ACTION PLAN, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY A. How to Plan f o r the Housing Impacts of a Hallmark Event 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Each c i t y which s t a g e s a h a l l m a r k event has a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o l l o w e d , the o p t i o n s implemented and the i n t e n s i t y of the impacts w i l l v a r y g r e a t l y . W h i l e the c o n t e x t i s an impo r t a n t and v a r i a b l e f a c t o r , t he ty p e s of h o u s i n g impacts a re q u i t e s i m i l a r . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e t o propose a s t r a t e g y which w i l l a s s i s t governments, the spo n s o r s of h a l l m a r k events and community groups t o i d e n t i f y and p l a n f o r the n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts o~f such h a l l m a r k e v e n t s . Some s u g g e s t i o n s i n terms of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , the r o l e of the p l a n n e r , t h e o p t i o n s t o be implemented, and " p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r " a r e p r e s e n t e d . 2. The P r o c e s s I s s u e s t o be C o n s i d e r e d a. The P r o c e s s An e x p l i c i t s y s t e m a t i c p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be f o l l o w e d . The s t e p s f o l l o w e d s h o u l d be planned as w e l l as the p l a n n i n g of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s an o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d a c t i v i t y . Ad hoc p l a n n i n g i s not recommended, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the h o u s i n g i m p a c t s of h a l l m a r k e v e n t s can permanently e f f e c t hundreds of 141 p e o p l e and cause s e r i o u s h e a l t h problems. The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d be c o n s i s t e n t , p a r t i c i p a t i v e , t h o r o u g h , n o n - l i n e a r , f a i r , s e l f - a w a r e , s e l f - e v a l u a t i v e , s e l f -r e f l e c t i v e , f l e x i b l e , e f f i c a c i o u s , a n t i c i p a t o r y , i n f o r m e d , a c t i v e , c r e a t i v e , dynamic and e f f i c i e n t . The p l a n n i n g agency s h o u l d a l l o c a t e a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has demo n s t r a t e d t h a t to be e f f e c t i v e , p l a n n i n g f o r t h e h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event must be c o n s i d e r e d a major p r o j e c t w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s . The r e s u l t of b e i n g unprepared i s t h a t permanent impacts occur ( e . g . , l o s s of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g ) when they c o u l d have been p r e v e n t e d . A l s o , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o c a p i t a l i z e on t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts ( e . g . , the C i t y of Vancouver used the p o t e n t i a l f o r Expo h o u s i n g impacts t o a c q u i r e " e x t r a " s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s from the F e d e r a l Government) may be missed. b. The R o l e of the P l a n n e r A l l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d e x p l i c i t l y c o n s i d e r what r o l e they w i l l p l a y i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Such i n t r o s p e c t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e q u i r e d when d e a l i n g w i t h h a l l m a r k event h o u s i n g impacts because they a r e of an o f t e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e . Based upon both f i e l d and l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out f o r t h i s s t u d y , the f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the r o l e of the p l a n n e r . P l a n n i n g t h e o r y l i t e r a t u r e i s the medium f o r c o n t i n u o u s debate over the " p r o p e r " r o l e of the p l a n n e r . S h o u l d the p l a n n e r be a t e c h n o c r a t , an a d v o c a t e , a s o c i a l l e a r n e r , a m e d i a t o r , an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a r e g u l a t o r , a s o c i a l r e f o r m e r , e t c . ? T h i s i s a debate t h a t w i l l l i k e l y never be r e s o l v e d . One s y n e r g i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s u g g e s t s t h a t : Any attempt t o d e v i s e a new and comprehensive r o l e f o r p l a n n e r s , or t o argue t h a t one of the e x i s t i n g r o l e s i s s u p e r i o r , i s , t h e r e f o r e , b o t h c o u n t e r -p r o d u c t i v e and f r u i t l e s s . I n s t e a d , p l a n n e r s s h o u l d l e a r n how t o adopt t h e i r v a r i o u s r o l e s t o v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g environments i n the same way they employ a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s of a n a l y s i s depending on the  n a t u r e of the problem and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of d a t a . (Gunton, 1984, p. 417) (emphasis added) A s i m i l a r and complementary p e r s p e c t i v e i s o f f e r e d by Karen S. C h r i s t e n s e n (1985) i n her a r t i c l e "Coping w i t h U n c e r t a i n t y i n P l a n n i n g " . She suggests t h a t p l a n n e r s s h o u l d " t a i l o r t h e i r s t y l e s [ r o l e s ] t o problem c o n d i t i o n s " (p. 6 3 ) . Problem c o n d i t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d i n terms of u n c e r t a i n t y and u n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o both means ( t e c h n o l o g y ) and ends ( g o a l s ) . Technology i s d e f i n e d as "the knowledge of how t o do something" and g o a l s a r e "the purpose, d e s i r e d outcome, or end" ( I b i d . ) . The f o l l o w i n g m a t r i x e x p l a i n s the dichotomy. 143 o I o UJ c o c o c c 3 G O A L agreed not agreed A C B D F i g u r e 5. Prototype C o n d i t i o n s of Pla n n i n g Problems (C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985, p. 64) The housing impacts of a hallmark event can be curbed i n the m a j o r i t y of cases. The means e x i s t but, as the " P o l i t i c s of Plann i n g " s e c t i o n of Chapter Four and the " C i t y of Renewal" case s t u d i e s demonstrated, the community, mu n i c i p a l s t a f f , p o l i t i c i a n s and hallmark event r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t e n d i s a g r e e over goals and consequently, which o p t i o n s to implement. T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a p l a n n i n g problem c h a r a c t e r i z e d by C h r i s t e n s e n as "known technology/not agreed goal (Box C, the upper r i g h t box). C h r i s t e n s e n suggests that such a planning environment w i l l r e q u i r e planners to p l a y the r o l e s o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 6. 1 44 G O A L agreed not agreed A C • programmer • advocate c • standardizer • participation • rule-setter promoter o c • regulator • facilitator • scheduler • mediator • optimizer • constitution-• analyst writer • administrator • bargainer B D • pragmatist • (charismatic c • adjuster leader) > o • researcher • problem-finder c • experimenter c • innovator F i g u r e 6. P l a n n i n g R o l e s C a t e g o r i z e d by P l a n n i n g C o n d i t i o n s ( C h r i s t e n s e n , 1985, p. 69) The r o l e s i n Box C were the most i m p o r t a n t r o l e s which p l a n n e r s s h o u l d have p l a y e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y a d d r e s s the i s s u e of Expo 86 hous i n g i m p a c t s . F u t u r e h a l l m a r k event p l a n n e r s s h o u l d 28 adopt t h e i r p l a n n i n g s t y l e s towards such r o l e s . U n c e r t a i n t y and c o n f l i c t i n the p l a n n i n g environment must be a d d r e s s e d when Some i n i t i a l r e f e r e n c e s f o r examining such r o l e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g . A d v o c a t e : D a v i d o f f (1965); H e s k i n (1980); Hudson (1979). Consensus b u i l d i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g : S u s s k i n d (1981); A r c h i b a l d (1970). M e d i a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n : S u s s k i n d and Ozawa (1984); F i s h e r and Ury (1983). P a r t i c i p a t i o n promoter: Friedmann (1973); Webber (1978). 1 45 p l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k e v e n t . 3. A C a t a l o g u e of P o s s i b l e O p t i o n s and P o i n t s t o C o n s i d e r D u r i n g the c o u r s e of r e s e a r c h f o r t h i s s t u d y , a wide v a r i e t y of o p t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o both p r e v e n t i n g and l e s s e n i n g the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event have been c o l l e c t e d . Some complementary " p o i n t s t o c o n s i d e r " have a l s o been amassed. F o l l o w i n g an index ( T a b l e 5 ) , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d below i n f i v e s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o who w i l l be most i n t e r e s t e d and a b l e t o implement the s u g g e s t i o n s . F u r t h e r , the o p t i o n s and p o i n t s a r e c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o when they s h o u l d be examined. The i n i t i a l o p t i o n s and p o i n t s of each s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r y s h o u l d be examined f i r s t . 1 46 . T a b l e 5 Index to C a t a l o g u e of P o s s i b l e O p t i o n s and P o i n t s t o C o n s i d e r GOVERNMENTS Referendum Impact S t u d i e s D e m o l i t i o n and C o n v e r s i o n C o n t r o l s L e g i s l a t i v e A c t i o n I n c r e a s e the Supply of R e n t a l Housing R e s t r i c t P a r k i n g i n R e s i d e n t i a l Communities E v i c t e e Housing R e g i s t r y S q u a t t i n g GOVERNMENTS AND COMMUNITY GROUPS S i t u a t i o n A p p r a i s a l I n c r e a s e L a n d l o r d s ' and Tenants' Knowledge of R e s p e c t i v e R i g h t s U s i n g the Media GOVERNMENTS AND SPONSORS OF HALLMARK EVENTS S i t e S e l e c t i o n I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l and I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l C o o r d i n a t i o n Attendance E s t i m a t i o n I n c r e a s e Supply and C o o r d i n a t i o n of T o u r i s t Accommodation Community Group Support P o l i t i c a l and E x e c u t i v e L e a d e r s h i p R e s e r v a t i o n Agency D i s c r i m i n a t i o n P u b l i c B o y c o t t GOVERNMENTS, SPONSORS OF HALLMARK EVENTS AND COMMUNITY GROUPS U s i n g the U n i v e r s i t y ' s P o t e n t i a l Assumptions P u b l i c D i s c o u r s e COMMUNITY GROUPS Community Lo b b y i n g M o b i l i z a t i o n GOVERNMENTS Referendum: When s e r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s begin t o ta k e p l a c e about the s t a g i n g of a h a l l m a r k e v e n t , c o n s i d e r h o l d i n g a c i v i c referendum t o gage p u b l i c s u p p o r t . Dodd (1982) d i s c u s s e s the c o n f l i c t s u r r o u n d i n g a referendum p r o p o s a l f o r Expo 82 i n K n o x v i l l e . Impact S t u d i e s : Housing impact s t u d i e s s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . The d i r e c t o r of Vancouver's S o c i a l P l a n n i n g Department suggested some reasons why impact s t u d i e s f o r an event such as the World's F a i r a r e needed: I t i s p e r t i n e n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t even though Expo 86 i s a t r a n s i e n t event whose l i f e s p a n c o v e r s a mere seven months p e r i o d , some of i t s impacts can be f a i r l y l o n g term ... and the C i t y s h o u l d ensure t h a t Expo w i l l not l e a v e b e h i n d a l e g a c y of l i n g e r i n g n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s , s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y or e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y . Impact assessment of Expo 86 must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t as w e l l as b e i n g a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the s h o r t and lo n g t e r m i m p a c t s , and t o e v a l u a t e b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e impacts w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of Expo's and the C i t y ' s o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s . Indeed, i t would be a r a t h e r f u t i l e e x e r c i s e i f the bandage approach i s a p p l i e d t o a s s e s s i n g p o s s i b l e impacts of Expo 86. (Appendix I I , December 2, 1982) When c a r r y i n g impact s t u d i e s o u t , these s u g g e s t i o n s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d : 1) The l o c a l community s h o u l d have a c o n s t r u c t i v e r o l e i n p l a n n i n g how the s t u d y i s t o c a r r i e d o u t , as w e l l as c a r r y i n g out the s t u d y and o f f e r i n g c r i t i c a l comment. 2) Take i n t o account the p e r s p e c t i v e s of a d i v e r s e group of s o u r c e s . For example, i n t e r v i e w p u b l i c h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s as w e l l as the development community and academics. 3) C a r r y out the impact s t u d i e s as soon as p o s s i b l e . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has shown t h a t impacts can b e g i n as soon as the h a l l m a r k event i s announced. 4) S p e c u l a t i v e and i r r a t i o n a l c o mmercial b e h a v i o u r i s common when a h a l l m a r k event i s h e l d i n a c i t y . Do not assume t h a t r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l always be made. D e m o l i t i o n and C o n v e r s i o n C o n t r o l s : S i n c e some h a l l m a r k e v e n t s c r e a t e s p e c u l a t i v e i m p a c t s i n v o l v i n g the d e m o l i t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g , implement l e g a l c o n t r o l s on such p r o c e s s e s . Examine e f f e c t i v e m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n i n the c i t i e s of S e a t t l e , San F r a n c i s c o and Santa Monica. Use the h a l l m a r k event impacts as the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r such c o n t r o l s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o d e m o l i t i o n , c o n s i d e r the f a c t t h a t : E x p e r i e n c e i n the U.S. i n d i c a t e s t h a t i f the o n l y b a r r i e r t o d e m o l i t i o n i s d o l l a r p e n a l t i e s and r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e payments, d e v e l o p e r s w i l l p r o b a b l y a b s o r b t h e s e as a c o s t of b u s i n e s s and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o d e m o l i s h l o w e r - r e n t h o u s i n g because a l t e r n a t i v e uses are v e r y p r o f i t a b l e ... Only when the development p r o c e s s i s d i r e c t l y r e s t r i c t e d , or when c o n s t r u c t i o n of lower-income replacement i s r e q u i r e d as a c o n d i t i o n f o r removal of u n i t s - i s s p e c u l a t i v e d e m o l i t i o n a c t u a l l y h a l t e d . * Housing owners o f t e n r e q u i r e p e r m i t s t o upgrade or d e m o l i s h r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s which might be used f o r h a l l m a r k event t o u r i s t s . Ensure t h a t t h e p e r m i t i s s u i n g department " r e d f l a g s " the p e r m i t r e q u e s t and n o t i f i e s a l l r e l e v a n t d e p a r t m e n t s . I f T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was t a k e n from background p a p e r s produced f o r the C o n f e r e n c e on A f f o r d a b l e Housing i n B.C., h e l d on November 23 and 24, 1985. r e q u i r e d , d e l a y and l i n g e r over the a p p l i c a t i o n s as time i s i n the e ssence from the owner's p e r s p e c t i v e . S t r i c t l y e n f o r c e a l l r e l e v a n t s t a n d a r d s of r e n o v a t e d premises and make s u r e t h a t the owner knows t h i s w i l l o c c u r . L e g i s l a t i v e A c t i o n : The p a s s i n g of temporary p r e v e n t a t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n b e f o r e the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event s t a r t i s the s u r e s t way t o p r e v e n t them. L e g i s l a t i o n s h o u l d a d d r e s s a l l a s p e c t s of the impacts and be e n f o r c e a b l e . V a r i o u s l e v e l s of government and community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the assessment of the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s o p t i o n . When d r a f t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , t a k e i n t o account 1) e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e l a t e d t o tenancy i s s u e s ; 2) which rooms ( v a c a n t / o c c u p i e d ) a r e t o be c o v e r e d ; 3) t h e time p e r i o d r e q u i r e d ; 4) the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a ; 5) t h e h o u s i n g t y p e . For example, i n Vancouver o n l y r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and not t o u r i s t h o t e l s were t o be c o v e r e d . Apartments f e l l under the g u i s e of t h e R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy A c t ; 6) the c r i t e r i a t o be met when d e f i n i n g a " t e n a n t " For example, the C i t y of Vancouver was g o i n g t o r e q u i r e r e s i d e n t s t o have l i v e d i n the r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l f o r one year b e f o r e b e i n g e l i g i b l e f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Spokane c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e n t s t o be " l o n g term" t e n a n t s i f they l i v e d i n the b u i l d i n g f o r t h r e e months; and, 7) t h e p e r m i t t e d r e n t a l i n c r e a s e and v a l i d r e a s o n s f o r e v i c t i o n . L e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n s a r e v e r y c o s t l y and time-consuming. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a c t as soon as p o s s i b l e on t h i s o p t i o n . See A p p e n d i c e s I , I I I and IV f o r c o p i e s of Vancouver, K n o x v i l l e and 1 50 Los A n g e l e s l e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n s . Ensure t h a t enough i n s p e c t o r s a r e h i r e d t o h a n d l e the e x t r a work c r e a t e d by h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . I n c r e a s e t h e S u p p l y o f R e n t a l H o u s i n g : Because of the p o t e n t i a l f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s , i n c r e a s e the s u p p l y of both p r i v a t e and p u b l i c r e n t a l h o u s i n g . For example, the C i t y of Vancouver a p p l i e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l " e x t r a " s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s from the Canada Housing and Mortgage C o r p o r a t i o n because of the p o t e n t i a l f o r Expo 86 h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . In P e r t h , A u s t r a l i a , the 1987 America's Cup Defense was h e l d . P o t e n t i a l e x i s t e d f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . One P e r t h recommendation t o i n c r e a s e the s u p p l y of p r i v a t e r e n t a l housing i n v o l v e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a community managed r e n t a l h o u s i n g scheme f o r s i n g l e p e o p l e t o c o v e r t h e d u r a t i o n of the Defense. The scheme would: i n v o l v e Government f u n d i n g f o r community groups t o l e a s e l a r g e p r o p e r t i e s . These would then be sub-l e t on a room b a s i s t o s i n g l e p e o p l e f a c i n g a s h o r t a g e of s u i t a b l e accommodation ... The community management group would take on a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r k e e p i n g t h e p r o p e r t y t e n a n t e d , f o r maintenance and f o r r e n t c o l l e c t i o n s w i t h the l e s s o r g u a r a n t e e d income t h r o u g h the Government p a i d l e a s e . The r e n t a l payments made would h e l p t o c o v e r t h e Government o u t l a y w h i l e the scheme would a l s o e n a b l e the government t o support more p e o p l e a t a much lower c o s t than i f i t was s o l e l y i n v o l v e d i n p u r c h a s e or c o n s t r u c t i o n . (Cowie, 1987, p. 9) R e s t r i c t P a r k i n g i n R e s i d e n t i a l - C o n u n u n i t i e s : H ousing impacts and p a r k i n g a r e r e l a t e d . I f p a r k i n g i s r e s t r i c t e d from r e s i d e n t i a l zones, where the p o t e n t i a l f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s e x i s t , t o u r i s t s w i l l be l e s s i n c l i n e d t o seek accommodation i n t h e s e a r e a s . E v i c t e e H o u s i n g R e g i s t r y : A h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y i s an e x c e l l e n t way t o l e s s o n the h a r m f u l e f f e c t s of e v i c t i o n . I t s h o u l d be s e t up "at l e a s t a y e a r " b e f o r e the h o u s i n g impacts c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y b e g i n (Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987). However, be wary of the i n f l u e n c e i t might have on p o l i t i c i a n s c o n s i d e r i n g p r e v e n t a t i v e o p t i o n s . A l l r e l e v a n t government departments and the community s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g of the r e g i s t r y . When o p e r a t i n g a r e g i s t r y , b a s i c s t e p s i n a p r o c e s s are f o l l o w e d . In Vancouver, f o r example: Step 1: Tenant c o n t a c t s community o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o m p l e t e s tenant form. Step 2: Tenant i n f o r m a t i o n i s e n t e r e d i n t o computer (t h e r e g i s t r y ) a t the community c e n t r e . Step 3: Tenant i n f o r m a t i o n i s matched w i t h l a n d l o r d l i s t i n g s . S tep 4: A s e p a r a t e l i s t i n g f o r each t e n a n t s t a t i n g v a c a n c i e s t o s u i t t h e i r needs i s r e t u r n e d t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n . Step 5: F o l l o w - u p s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d and as v a c a n c i e s a r e f i l l e d l i s t i n g s are d e l e t e d from computer. A s i m i l a r p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix I I , March 7, 1986. Examples of the t e n a n t and l a n d l o r d forms used by the C i t y of Vancouver a r e d i s p l a y e d i n Appendix V. In the p l a n n i n g of the h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y , r e v i e w the p o i n t s 1 52 r a i s e d i n the "Sense of Community" and h e a l t h impact s e c t i o n s of Chapter Three. I f the e l d e r l y a r e b e i n g r e l o c a t e d , i t i s im p o r t a n t t h a t they have: enough time t o become accustomed t o each stage and , new development i n the p r o c e s s of moving ... S e n i o r s a r e o f t e n f o r g e t f u l and may l o s e s i g h t of the g o a l ; they need c o n s t a n t r e m i n d e r s , r e i n f o r c e m e n t and r e a s s u r a n c e . ( E i s i n g e r , 1986, p. 18). Women have had a more d i f f i c u l t time b e i n g r e l o c a t e d because of p h y s i c a l s a f e t y c o n c e r n s . I f problems e x i s t l o c a t i n g s u i t a b l e v a cant u n i t s , n o t i f y the media of t h i s problem and your need f o r a s s i s t a n c e . Do not s t a r t moving the c l i e n t e l e u n t i l the b u i l d i n g i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g d e m o l i s h e d or c o n v e r t e d i n t o t o u r i s t use because, " o t h e r p e o p l e would move i n v e r y q u i c k l y and f i l l up the s p o t s b e h i n d them. You would s i m p l y s t a r t a r e v o l v i n g . d o o r i n which you would not s o l v e your problem" (Dr. J . B l a t h e r w i c k , i n t e r v i e w , June 29, 1987). When r e l o c a t i n g r e s i d e n t s d u r i n g a p e r i o d of impacts ensure t h a t the newly l o c a t e d b u i l d i n g w i l l not e v i c t r e s i d e n t s a t a l a t e r d a t e . S e v e r a l Expo 86 e v i c t e e s moved i n t o a n o t h e r h o t e l o n l y t o f i n d t h emselves f a c e d w i t h e v i c t i o n n o t i c e s two weeks l a t e r . I f s i g n i f i c a n t h o u s i n g impacts seem i n e v i t a b l e , get h o t e l i e r s or l a n d l o r d s t o s e t a s i d e a b l o c k of vacant u n i t s f o r e v i c t e e s . N e g o t i a t i o n s h o u l d o c c u r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the s i z e of t h i s b l o c k . S q u a t t i n g : I f an a c u t e h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e e x i s t s and major h o u s i n g impacts a r e o c c u r r i n g , s q u a t t i n g i n vacant h o u s i n g c o u l d be 1 53 r e c o g n i z e d as a l e g i t i m a t e s h o r t - t e r m a l t e r n a t i v e f o r p e o p l e ( N a w r o c k i , 1987). G O V E R N M E N T S A N D C O M M U N I T Y G R O U P S S i t u a t i o n A p p r a i s a l : The s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out as soon as p o s s i b l e . I f h o u s i n g impacts s t a r t , the c o n t r o v e r s y u s u a l l y c r e a t e s a v o l a t i l e atmosphere i n which r e l i a b l e d a t a i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e t r i e v e . A h o u s i n g r e g i s t r y i s a u s e f u l method t o a p p r a i s e the s i t u a t i o n w h i l e impacts a r e o c c u r r i n g . Community groups s h o u l d p l a y a major r o l e i n both the p l a n n i n g of and c a r r y i n g out of the s i t u a t i o n a p p r a i s a l s t e p . S t u d i e s and workshops s h o u l d be sponsored by community groups on the p o t e n t i a l f o r hous i n g i m p a c t s . L a s t l y , Hartman, K e a t i n g and LeGates (1982) r a i s e the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t which community groups s h o u l d bear i n mind when a d d r e s s i n g n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s : Make s u r e you have a n a l y z e d f u l l y and c o r r e c t l y t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t problem you a r e f a c i n g . The reas o n s d i s p l a c e m e n t p r e s s u r e s a r e b u i l d i n g up u s u a l l y have t o do w i t h broader economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g your a r e a , which o f t e n a r e r e g i o n -wide i n scope. U n l e s s you b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h o s e f o r c e s and r o o t your a n t i - d i s p l a c e m e n t work i n t h a t a n a l y s i s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t you w i l l be a b l e t o d e v e l o p e f f e c t i v e and d u r a b l e s t r a t e g i e s t o c o u n t e r the d i s p l a c e m e n t push. (p. 203) I n c r e a s e L a n d l o r d s ' a n d T e n a n t s ' K n o w l e d g e o f R e s p e c t i v e R i g h t s : Ensure t h a t l a n d l o r d s know e x a c t l y what i s and what i s not 1 54 a l l o w e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the use of r e n t a l h o u s i n g f o r t o u r i s t accommodations. Educate t e n a n t s who r e s i d e i n r e n t a l h o u s i n g of t h e i r r i g h t s . A l s o , C i n d i Gagne, Manager of Housing A l l o c a t i o n and Rent C a l c u l a t i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia Housing and Management Commission, s t a t e d t h a t p u b l i c h o u s i n g t e n a n t s s h o u l d be n o t i f i e d b e f o r e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s b e g i n t h a t they w i l l not be e f f e c t e d ( i n t e r v i e w , June 1987). A p p a r e n t l y some c o n f u s i o n and t e n s i o n e x i s t e d when p u b l i c h o u s i n g t e n a n t s thought they would be e v i c t e d . U s i n g the Media: A s t u t e use of media coverage can be an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of the e f f o r t t o h a l t n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . As Hartman, K e a t i n g and L e g a t e s (1982) b l u n t l y put i t : I t ' s sad but t r u e t h a t d i s p l a c e m e n t [ c r e a t e s ] the k i n d of human i n t e r e s t s t o r i e s t h a t the p r e s s and TV f e e d on, and thos e s t o r i e s can h i g h l i g h t d i s p l a c e m e n t i s s u e s , make i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l p o i n t s , and g a r n e r c i t y w i d e s u p p o r t f o r e f f e c t i v e r e g u l a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n . (p. 58) Use the media t o advantage whenever p o s s i b l e . In San F r a n c i s c a n b a t t l e s t o p r e v e n t d i s p l a c e m e n t , e f f e c t i v e media coverage "was c r i t i c a l i n making enforcement of t h i s moratorium, p l u s b a s i c r e g u l a t i o n of SRO ( S i n g l e Room Occupancy) h o t e l c o n v e r s i o n s i n t o major i s s u e s " (p. 5 7 ) . A l l p l a n n e r s s h o u l d b u i l d up a s t r o n g t r u s t w o r t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h one or a few s y m p a t h e t i c r e p o r t e r s . I f r e q u i r e d , p r a i s e t h e h a l l m a r k event w h i l e a d d r e s s i n g the n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s . G O V E R N M E N T S AND S P O N S O R S OF H A L L M A R K E V E N T S S i t e S e l e c t i o n : R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of bo t h the host c i t y and the communities which may border the p o t e n t i a l s i t e s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the s i t e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . As G o t t d e i n e r (1987) n o t e s : D e s p i t e the many c o s t s of growth the i d e o l o g y of development p o s s e s s e s g r e a t a p p e a l as the u n i v e r s a l panacea f o r the a i l m e n t s of s o c i e t y and i s most o f t e n pursued w i t h o n l y minor c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h o s e asked t o pay f o r i t s s o c i a l burdens. A narrow f i x on p u r s u i n g growth c h a i n s l o c a l governments t o t h e un q u e s t i o n e d a c q u i s i t i o n of development p r o j e c t s , o f t e n of a s p e c t a c u l a r n a t u r e such as f o o t b a l l stadiums or w o r l d f a i r s , w i t h l i m i t e d r e a l p a y o f f s t o l o c a l a r e a s . (p. 18) A l s o , i f the h a l l m a r k event i s l i n k e d t o i n n e r c i t y r edevelopment, ensure t h a t t h i s i s a p u b l i c l y approved p r o c e s s . O f t e n h a l l m a r k events have been used as excuses f o r a u t o c r a c y i n p l a n n i n g i n an e f f o r t t o c i r c u m v e n t the d e m o c r a t i c p r o c e s s (Dodd, 1982; G o t t d e i n e r , 1987). For p o s i t i v e h o u s i n g impacts t o o c c u r , the h a l l m a r k event must be " f i t t e d i n t o the c i t y ' s master p l a n of development and not v i c e v e r s a " (MacDonald, September 4, 1986). I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l a n d I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l C o o r d i n a t i o n : Governments and government departments p l a n n i n g f o r the impacts of a h a l l m a r k event ( e . g . , c i v i c and p r o v i n c i a l ; h e a l t h , p l a n n i n g , e n g i n e e r i n g , law) s h o u l d keep i n c l o s e c o n t a c t . R e l e v a n t departments s h o u l d be brought t o g e t h e r when p l a n n i n g the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . As Lawson (1984) r e c a l l s , "one of the keys t o the s u c c e s s of the 1984 Olympic Games was i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l 1 56 c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a r e a s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " (p. 139). Attendance E s t i m a t i o n s : The e s t i m a t i o n of p o s s i b l e a t t e n d a n c e f i g u r e s i s one a c t i v i t y which has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c r e a t i o n of n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . For example, i n K n o x v i l l e : t h e most c r u c i a l i s s u e of the h o u s i n g problem was t h a t b o t h l o c a l government and F a i r o f f i c i a l s o v e r e s t i m a t e d what the demand f o r h o u s i n g would be so t h a t an o v e r s u p p l y was c r e a t e d . I f the e s t i m a t e s had been lower and more i n l i n e w i t h r e a l i t y , t h e problems would have been fewer. (Gretchen F. B e a l , l e t t e r , September 18, 1986) A t t e n d a n c e e s t i m a t i o n s have c o n f u s e d p e o p l e when s e v e r a l groups c a r r y out t h e i r own, o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g e s t i m a t i o n s . T h i s problem c o u l d be a m e l i o r a t e d by h a v i n g one a t t e n d a n c e e s t i m a t i o n which i s c a r r i e d out w i t h the i n p u t of a l l i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . T h i s may ensure e s t i m a t i o n s which are " i n l i n e w i t h r e a l i t y " . When c a r r y i n g out a t t e n d a n c e e s t i m a t i o n s , r e l a t e them t o t r a d i t i o n a l r e n t a l vacancy r a t e f l u c t u a t i o n s . Increase the Supply and C o o r d i n a t i o n of T o u r i s t Accommodation:^ Develop a comprehensive accommodation r e g i s t e r f o r a l l t y p e s of h o u s i n g : 30 Much of t h i s o p t i o n i s t a k e n from Ian Cowie's paper " P o s s i b l e Measure t o P r o t e c t P r i v a t e Tenants from any Impact A s s o c i a t e d w i t h H a l l m a r k E v e n t s w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the A m erica's Cup Defence i n P e r t h " . The paper was p r e s e n t e d a t a 1987 c o n f e r e n c e on The E f f e c t s of H a l l m a r k Events on C i t i e s , h e l d i n P e r t h , A u s t r a l i a . By a c c u r a t e l y m o n i t o r i n g the l e v e l of demand f o r t o u r i s t accommodation, the r e g i s t e r would p r o v i d e an e a r l y i n d i c a t i o n of the l i k e l i h o o d of demand exc e e d i n g s u p p l y which c o u l d r e s u l t i n p r e s s u r e on the p r i v a t e r e n t a l market. I t would a l s o h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n which p o t e n t i a l v i s i t o r s a r e d i s s u a d e d from coming due t o unfounded f e a r s of a l a c k of accommodation or i t s e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e . The success of the r e g i s t e r would depend upon the a b i l i t y of the managing o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c o l l e c t and d i s s e m i n a t e the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . (Cowie, 1987, p. 6 ) . M a r k e t i n g of the h a l l m a r k e v e n t : s h o u l d be t i e d t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of t o u r i s t accommodation as q u a n t i f i e d i n the accommodation r e g i s t e r . A comprehensive accommodation r e g i s t e r would a l l o w m a r k e t i n g t o be d o v e t a i l e d t o the s t a n d a r d s of accommodation a v a i l a b l e . ( I b i d . ) P e r m i t c i t y r e s i d e n t s t o use t h e i r house as a "guest house" T h i s o p t i o n i s v a l u a b l e "because i t u t i l i z e s u n d e r o c c u p i e d space i n h o u s i n g s t o c k as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l v i s i t o r s w i t an e x p e r i e n c e " (Cowie, 1987, p. 7 ) . C i t y z o n i n g and development bylaws s h o u l d be t e m p o r a r i l y i g n o r e d or a l t e r e d t o p e r m i t r e s i d e n t s i n p a r t s or t h r o u g h o u t the c i t y t o p r o v i d e s l e e p i n g q u a r t e r s i n t h e i r homes f o r p a y i n g g u e s t s . I f p o s s i b l e , the a p p r o p r i a t e body s h o u l d r e g u l a t e t h i s p r o c e s s t o ensure q u a l i t y , p r i c e , e t c . ( H a m i l t o n , F e b r u a r y 1 9 , 1986). Appendix VI c o n t a i n s an Expo 86 "Guest House Program" b r o c h u r e e x p l a i n i n g v a r i o u s i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s o p t i o n . Such an o p t i o n can c r e a t e problems, however, as Lawson (1984) d i s c o v e r e d . In Los A n g e l e s : as many as 200 new f i r m s had e n t e r e d the Olympic home r e n t a l b u s i n e s s ... Some of the f i r m s a c c e p t i n g r e n t a l l i s t i n g s f e e s were not p r o p e r l y l i c e n s e d or bonded and were not making any e f f o r t t o match r e n t e r s w i t h homeowners. (p. 135) 158 Problems were d e a l t w i t h by " b r i n g i n g these f a c t s t o the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n and h o l d i n g a seminar f o r Olympic r e n t a l h o u s i n g b u s i n e s s e s on the l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e d " and by c h a r g i n g "a s m a l l number of r e n t a l l i s t i n g f i r m s w i t h f a l s e and m i s l e a d i n g a d v e r t i s i n g " ( I b i d . ) . To e nsure s u f f i c i e n t s u p p l y of t o u r i s t accommodation, the s ponsors of the h a l l m a r k event c o u l d a s s i s t d e v e l o p e r s i n g e t t i n g s t a r t e d by c o n t r i b u t i n g seed money so t h a t b u i l d i n g s would be brought on s t r e a m i n time f o r the e v ent. The h a l l m a r k event o r g a n i z a t i o n would g u a r a n t e e occupancy f o r a d e t e r m i n e d p e r i o d of t i m e . Mr. Ed Keate of the B.C. P l a c e C i t i z e n s ' A d v i s o r y Committee r e c a l l e d an A u s t r i a n b i d f o r the W i n t e r O l y m p i c s i n which they c r e a t e d a v i l l a g e which was p r e s o l d t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . A f t e r the e v e n t , the p r i v a t e s e c t o r r e t a i n e d t h i s v i l l a g e as t o u r i s t accommodations (Appendix I I , August 2, 1983). O f f e r i n c e n t i v e s t o encourage the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new r e n t a l h o u s i n g which w i l l come "on stream" i n time t o be r e n t e d t o h a l l m a r k event t o u r i s t s . For example, P e r t h , A u s t r a l i a was the s i t e f o r the 1987 A m e r i c a ' s Cup Defense. P o t e n t i a l e x i s t e d f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . " P r i o r i t y Development Zones" (PDZs) were c r e a t e d t o reduce the" l a n d c o s t f o r medium d e n s i t y d w e l l i n g s (Cowie, 1987, p. 8 ) . In o p e r a t i o n , s m a l l p a r c e l s of l a n d s u i t a b l e f o r r e n t a l accommodation (near t o a m e n i t i e s and t r a n s p o r t t o e nsure t h e s e developments a r e not i s o l a t e d and s t i g m a t i s e d ) would be d e s i g n a t e d as PDZs. T h i s l a n d would then be o f f e r e d t o p r i v a t e d e v e l o p e r s at low c o s t based upon p r e v i o u s use v a l u e i n r e t u r n f o r a commitment to b u i l d an a pproved q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of d w e l l i n g s w i t h r e n t s p r e d e t e r m i n e d f o r the Defense p e r i o d . The p r o p o s a l t h e r e f o r e e n v i s i o n e d the r a p i d c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e n t a l h o u s i n g accommodation t o take the p r e s s u r e from the demand s i d e of the e q u a t i o n . The g r e a t advantage of t h i s recommendation l a y i n i t s c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s which r e s u l t e d from p r i v a t e c a p i t a l b e i n g i n v e s t e d w h i l e the Government m a i n t a i n e d a c o n t r o l on r e n t s charged t o reduce the number of p e o p l e who may f a c e h a r d s h i p i f market r e n t s r i s e g e n e r a l l y . ( I b i d . ) Attempt t o o b t a i n as many a l t e r n a t i v e s t o h o t e l u n i t s as p o s s i b l e . S c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y d o r m i t o r i e s , moveable modular hou s i n g ( H i l l e r , 1987, p. 11) campgrounds and c a r a v a n p a r k s (Cowie, 1987, p. 7 ) , e t c . , a r e a l l p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s . When r e q u i r e d , r e l a x e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s t o expand c a p a c i t i e s r a t h e r t h a t making i t n e c e s s a r y t o b u i l d new campgrounds and c a r a v a n p a r k s ( I b i d . ) . A l s o , i f the vacancy r a t e i s h i g h and i f the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s , a l l o w the use of vacant apartment u n i t s as d a i l y r e n t a l t o u r i s t rooms. The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a c o u l d be a p p l i e d : 1) u n i t s or b u i l d i n g s which have never been o c c u p i e d b e f o r e ; 2) b u i l d i n g s i n "busy" a r e a s o n l y ; 3) be r e s t r i c t e d t o c o m m e r c i a l , h e r i t a g e or o t h e r zones where h o t e l s are p e r m i t t e d ; 4) be of use between the o p e r a t i n g d a t e s of the h a l l m a r k event a l o n e . C o m m u n i t y G r o u p S u p p o r t : I f r e q u i r e d , governments and h a l l m a r k event o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d p r o v i d e adequate f i n a n c i a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o community groups. I t i s the community groups which are " i n the f i e l d " and can a s s e s s the s i t u a t i o n r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . Community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s know about i d i o s y n c r a c i e s and q u i r k s i n t h e i r community. They a l s o have a 1 60 s u p p l y of o f t e n untapped knowledge which can a s s i s t i n p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . P o l i t i c a l and E x e c u t i v e L e a d e r s h i p : P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has demonstrated t h a t p o l i t i c i a n s and s e n i o r h a l l m a r k event e x e c u t i v e s can have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n l e s s e n i n g the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event. The p o l i t i c i a n s h o u l d t a k e a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the i s s u e and d i s p l a y p u b l i c c o n v i c t i o n as the mayors of both Los A n g e l e s (Lawson, 1984, p. 140), and Vancouver d i d . S/he s h o u l d use the media t o v o i c e c o n c e r n , w r i t e l e t t e r s t o the owners and o p e r a t o r s of h o u s i n g which may be c o n v e r t e d t o t o u r i s t use, and lobby h a l l m a r k event e x e c u t i v e s and p o l i t i c i a n s of o t h e r l e v e l s of government f o r support.' C l o s e c o n t a c t s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d between those p l a n n i n g f o r the impacts and the p o l i t i c i a n d e m o n s t r a t i n g l e a d e r s h i p . The p o l i t i c i a n s h o u l d d e s i g n a t e key s t a f f members as h a l l m a r k event l i a i s o n s (Lawson, 1984). H a l l m a r k event e x e c u t i v e s s h o u l d o p e n l y a d d r e s s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of b o t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s . In C a l g a r y , f o r example, Ron S a n d r i n - L i t t , Accommodation S e r v i c e Manager f o r the 1988 O l y m p i c s , p u b l i c l y condemned r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l e v i c t i o n s as "unnecessary" i n an attempt to s t o p them (Lamb, November 16, 1987) . R e s e r v a t i o n Agency D i s c r i m i n a t i o n : In the p a s t , the r e s e r v a t i o n s agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g t o u r i s t s t o s u i t a b l e 161 accommodations has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c r e a t i o n of n e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts and g i v e n a " b l a c k eye" t o the h o s t c i t y (DuBose, J u l y 30, 1985; Banks, A p r i l 26, 1986; McDonald and C e r n e t i g , May 14, 1986; B o l a n , June 4, 1986; F l e t c h e r and Margoshes, June 5, 1986). P r e v e n t t h i s from o c c u r r i n g by a l l o w i n g , s u g g e s t i n g or f o r c i n g the r e s e r v a t i o n s a g e n c y ( s ) t o not handle c o n t r a c t s where r e s i d e n t s a re e v i c t e d . C r e a t e and p u b l i c i s e the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c r i t e r i o n of the r e s e r v a t i o n s agency s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e the h a l l m a r k event opens. Lawson (1984) s u g g e s t s t h a t such an o p t i o n s h o u l d have been used f o r the 1984 O l y m p i c s : In r e t r o s p e c t , the LAOOC (Los Angeles Olympic O r g a n i z i n g Committee) c o u l d have c r e a t e d , or d e s i g n a t e d , a c e n t r a l h o u s i n g and v i s i t o r s e r v i c e s o f f i c e , w i t h r e f e r r a l s b e i n g made o n l y t o h o t e l s , home r e n t a l a g e n c i e s , and r e s t a u r a n t s which had agreed t o m a i n t a i n r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e s and e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d s . T h i s c e n t r a l i z e d o f f i c e c o u l d have a r r a n g e d f o r h o u s i n g as p a r t of the Olympic t i c k e t o r d e r p r o c e s s , i n s t e a d of l e a v i n g the v i s i t o r t o f i n d h o u s i n g a l o n e . As i t was, l o c a l v i s i t o r and c o n v e n t i o n bureaus were i n u n d a t e d w i t h t e l e p h o n e c a l l s and l e t t e r s , and were unable t o s c r e e n l o c a l h o t e l s e f f e c t i v e l y as a way of m o n i t o r i n g problems of p r i c e gouging or s e r v i c e q u a l i t y . (p. 136) A l s o , l o b b y t r a v e l a gents i n v o l v e d i n the b o o k i n g of accommodation t o s e t up s i m i l a r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y c r i t e r i a . P u b l i c B o y c o t t : C o n s i d e r a government and h a l l m a r k event sponsored b o y c o t t of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s or o t h e r p r e m i s e s where t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t s have been impacted. T h i s o p t i o n i n v o l v e s p u b l i c condemnation and o f f i c i a l a c t i o n . A s s e s s the c o n s t r u c t i v e n e s s and l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s v o l a t i l e means. 1 62 G O V E R N M E N T S , S P O N S O R S O F H A L L M A R K E V E N T S A N D C O M M U N I T Y G R O U P S U s e t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s P o t e n t i a l : E a r l y l i n k s s h o u l d be made between the groups p l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g impacts and the u n i v e r s i t y community. C o n t a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p l a n n i n g , geography, s o c i a l work, p u b l i c h e a l t h , a n t h r o p o l o g y , law and s o c i o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t s . S t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s i n t h e s e departments a r e i n g r e a t need of some s o c i a l l y r e l e v a n t and c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s e a r c h t o p i c s . They can a l s o a s s i s t w i t h a l l s t e p s of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . A s s u m p t i o n s : Do not o p e r a t e under the assumption t h a t both temporary and permanent h o u s i n g impacts w i l l not o c c u r . P a s t e x p e r i e n c e has demonstrated t h a t t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s a r e a major reason why p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s a re n o n - e x i s t e n t and why p l a n n i n g a g e n c i e s have been unprepared when impacts b e g i n . A l s o , such a s s u m p t i o n s have been based upon a b e l i e f t h a t the owners and o p e r a t o r s of a l l r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s and apartments a r e "good managers" and " r a t i o n a l " businessmen. T h i s has not been the case i n the p a s t . H a l l m a r k event hype has c o n t r i b u t e d t o i l l u s i o n s of massive p r o f i t f o r a l l b u s i n e s s e s i n v o l v e d . R a r e l y do p r o f i t e x p e c t a t i o n s meet r e a l i t y (Doug Purdy, i n t e r v i e w , J a n uary 20, 1987; L a v e n t h o l and Horwath, 1984; C a s s e l t o n , J u l y 18, 1986; B o l a n , October 9, 1986). C r i t i c s of some o p t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l e g i s l a t i v e o p t i o n s 1 63 d e s i g n e d t o s t o p the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k event, o f t e n argue about " r o o t c a u s e s " . They r a t i o n a l i z e , and r i g h t l y so, t h a t the p o t e n t i a l h o u s i n g impacts a r e symptoms of deeper s t r u c t u r a l problems i n the h o u s i n g market. For example, the B.C. H o t e l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n argued t h a t temporary r e n t f r e e z e / n o e v i c t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not a d d r e s s the r o o t cause of the problem ( i n a d e q u a t e t e n a n t income l e v e l s ) , but i n s t e a d the symptom. They ar e r i g h t but a s i t u a t i o n a l problem a l s o e x i s t s ; a problem c r e a t e d by the temporary e x i s t e n c e of t h e h a l l m a r k event. I t i s t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l problem which needs t o be q u i c k l y a d d r e s s e d by p l a n n e r s . The r o o t cause of the problem remains and cannot be s o l v e d i n the l i m i t e d time span a v a i l a b l e . P u b l i c D i s c o u r s e : Once a h a l l m a r k e v e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a World's F a i r , i s a p p r o a c h i n g i t s o p e r a t i o n p e r i o d , p u b l i c attachment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y becomes o b s e s s i v e (Dodd, 1982; Ley and O l d s , 1988, f o r t h c o m i n g ) . T h i s atmosphere makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o c a r r y out any c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n as two s e n i o r K n o x v i l l i a n bank e x e c u t i v e s d i s c o v e r e d : " I f we s a i d a n y t h i n g c r i t i c a l about the f a i r , p e o p l e would say 'Oh, you're a g a i n s t the f a i r , ' " s a i d George Morgan, chairman of V a l l e y F i d e l i t y Bank. " I t was almost l i k e you were a g a i n s t motherhood and a p p l e p i e , " added V a l l e y F i d e l i t y P r e s i d e n t Dale K e a s l i n g . "You know, l o o k i n g back, I t h i n k t h a t ' s where we made our b i g g e s t m i s t a k e . We d i d n ' t speak o u t , " Morgan s a i d . (DuBose, August 1, 1985) Attempt t o ensure a r e l a t i v e l y calm atmosphere of p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e by e m p h a s i s i n g the a c c e p t a n c e of b o t h p o s i t i v e and 1 64 n e g a t i v e i m p a c t s . P u b l i c debates about the p o t e n t i a l f o r h o u s i n g impacts can c r e a t e awareness about the i s s u e w h i l e i n f o r m i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s . COMMUNITY GROUPS Community M o b i l i z a t i o n : C h e s t e r Hartman (1974; 1984) and Hartman, K e a t i n g and LeGates (1981) have come t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s "no s u b s t i t u t e f o r an ar o u s e d and o r g a n i z e d community when i t comes t o campaigning f o r a n t i - d i s p l a c e m e n t p r o t e c t i o n . " The Vancouver case study s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r p e r s p e c t i v e . DERA began a n a l y z i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r Expo 86 ho u s i n g impacts as soon as Expo was announced. They c a r r i e d out d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h and a c t e d p o l i t i c a l l y t o r a i s e awareness of t h e i r c o n c e r n s . Once the mass e v i c t i o n s s t a r t e d , DERA at t e m p t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e community u n r e s t . A l t h o u g h t h e impacts were not stop p e d , DERA p l a y e d an im p o r t a n t r o l e i n c o n v i n c i n g the F e d e r a l Government t o c o n t r i b u t e " e x t r a " s o c i a l h o u s i n g u n i t s t o the Downtown E a s t s i d e . DERA was a l s o p r e p a r e d t o h e l p r e l o c a t e r e s i d e n t s a t a l l t i m e s . The community groups s h o u l d , a c c o r d i n g t o J i m Green, DERA O r g a n i z e r , be w e l l o r g a n i z e d , know what they a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t , o f f e r s o l u t i o n s and never t a k e a r i d i c u l o u s s t a n d ( i n t e r v i e w , March 11, 1988). A c o a l i t i o n of groups and i n d i v i d u a l s can have a much s t r o n g e r impact than they c o u l d i n d i v i d u a l l y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s i n c e h a l l m a r k e v e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y have 1 65 c o n s i d e r a b l e p u b l i c s u p p o r t . I n d i v i d u a l s or s i n g l e groups t e n d t o be c o n s i d e r e d t o " n e g a t i v e t y p e s " w i t h an "axe to g r i n d " . C o a l i t i o n s a l s o have the p o t e n t i a l t o d e r i v e more i n n o v a t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o problems. L o b b y i n g : C o n s i d e r a b l e l o b b y i n g e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d when p l a n n i n g f o r the h o u s i n g impacts of a h a l l m a r k e v e n t . When l o b b y i n g , do the utmost t o c o n v i n c e the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n t h a t , f o r the sake of t h e i r own r e p u t a t i o n , the c i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n and the h a l l m a r k e v e n t ' s r e p u t a t i o n , a c t i o n i s needed. N e g a t i v e h o u s i n g impacts i n an atmosphere of media a t t e n t i o n can c r e a t e severe image problems. A l l c o u n t e r - l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o how f a c t u a l t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n i s . In the e f f o r t t o l o b b y p o l i t i c i a n s , h a l l m a r k event e x e c u t i v e s and o t h e r i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e t o ad d r e s s the p o t e n t i a l f o r h o u s i n g i m p a c t s , o r g a n i z e a " p o l i t i c i a n s ' t o u r " through the community. Set a d a t e , i n v i t e a l l r e l e v a n t people and n o t i f y the media. C a r r y out the t o u r t h r o u g h the community so t h a t any e a r l y s i g n s of impact a r e w i t n e s s e d . Demonstrate t h a t the community i s home f o r many peopl e and t h a t they a re a t t a c h e d t o i t . Ensure t h a t some h i g h p r o f i l e p o l i t i c i a n s a t t e n d i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t media a t t e n t i o n . I f r e q u i r e d , p r a i s e the h a l l m a r k event w h i l e a d d r e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r i m p a c t s . 1 66 B. T h e F u t u r e o f t h e D o w n t o w n E a s t s i d e : R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e  C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 1. The r a t e of l o s s of l o d g i n g house s t o c k i s s u f f i c i e n t t o r e q u i r e the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e l o d g i n g house s u r v e y s . Moreover, a c o n t i n u o u s r e c o r d of the s t a t u s of Downtown E a s t s i d e l o d g i n g houses and t h e i r r e s i d e n t s w i l l be needed t o check f u t u r e B.C. P l a c e h o u s i n g i m p a c t s . 2. A l l e x i s t i n g l o d g i n g house s t o c k s h o u l d be r e g i s t e r e d . A c o m p u t e r i z e d data base s h o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o l o d g i n g house st o c k i n Vancouver. T h i s would p e r m i t the c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g of any changes. The d a t a base s h o u l d i n c l u d e p r o p e r t y v a l u e and o w n e r s h i p . The d a t a base s h o u l d be a c c e s s i b l e t o h o u s i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i f they meet c r i t e r i a t o be d e t e r m i n e d by the C i t y . 3. B e g i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the p l a n n i n g f o r the s o c i a l impacts of the B.C. P l a c e development. 4. C o n t i n u e f u n d i n g of community o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as DERA. C o n s i d e r s u p p l y i n g them w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h funds f o r s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t s . 5. C o n s i d e r the purchase of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s . Renovate them but m a i n t a i n them w i t h r e s p e c t t o maid s e r v i c e and the presence of 167 a f r o n t desk. Examine the s u c c e s s e s of a Los Angeles SRO non-p r o f i t h o u s i n g s o c i e t y b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d by S a r t i , (May 9, 1 986). 6. C o n t i n u e l o b b y i n g the p r o v i n c i a l government t o i n c l u d e l o n g t e r m t e n a n t s of r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s under the R e s i d e n t i a l Tenancy A c t . 7. F u t u r e developments of h i g h d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l h o u s i n g i n t h e Downtown s h o u l d be a s s e s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o the impact on l o d g i n g house s t o c k . G r a n v i l l e M a l l redevelopment p l a n s s h o u l d e x p l i c i t l y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t the p o t e n t i a l l o s s of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s . 9. The Downtown-Eastside / Oppenheimer P o l i c y P l a n (1982) s h o u l d be r e v i s e d t o t a k e i n t o a ccount the f u t u r e redevelopment of t h e B.C. P l a c e s i t e and the i m p a c t s i t may c r e a t e . 10. Given t h a t the C i t y i s c o n s i d e r i n g the i n c e p t i o n of a l o c a l a r e a p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i n S t r a t h c o n a , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o e xpanding the scope of t h i s p r o c e s s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r the l i n k s t o broader i s s u e s t o such as the B.C. P l a c e development and the l o s s of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . 1 68 11. Community o r g a n i z a t i o n s and non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s based i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e f a c e some problems w i t h r e s p e c t t o communication and c o o r d i n a t i o n . The C i t y i s w e l l p l a c e d s t r a t e g i c a l l y t o p l a y a f a c i l i t a t i v e r o l e i n b r i n g i n g these o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o g e t h e r f o r the b e n e f i t of a l l Downtown E a s t s i d e r s . 12. D e v e l o p e r s w i s h i n g t o c o n v e r t or d e m o l i s h over 5 u n i t s of a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o a s o c i a l h o u s i n g replacement f u n d . (B.C. Housing C o a l i t i o n , 1986) 13. E f f o r t s s h o u l d be made t o g a i n g r e a t e r powers t o enact by-laws r e g u l a t i n g r e n t a l d e m o l i t i o n s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o the s i n g l e - r o o m occupancy r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l s (SRO), c o n s i d e r : * r e c o g n i t i o n of SRO r e s i d e n t i a l h o t e l u n i t s as an endangered h o u s i n g r e s o u r c e ; * replacement of c o n v e r t e d SROs on a on e - f o r - o n e b a s i s ; and * r e l o c a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e t o d i s p l a c e d t e n a n t s by h o t e l owners . who are p e r m i t t e d t o c o n v e r t . Examine the s t r a t e g i e s used t o p r e v e n t d e m o l i t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n of a f f o r d a b l e i n n e r c i t y h o u s i n g s t o c k i n P o r t l a n d , San F r a n c i s c o and S e a t t l e . 14. The C i t y s h o u l d c o n t i n u e s u p p o r t i n g the development of non-p r o f i t and c o - o p e r a t i v e h o u s i n g i n the Downtown E a s t s i d e . A p a r t from the b e n e f i t s t o r e s i d e n t s , t h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t s t r a t e g y t o temper f u t u r e p r i v a t e redevelopment of the 169 community. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s h o u s i n g s h o u l d s t r a t e g i c a l l y be p l a c e d i n the most a t t r a c t i v e s i t e s t h e r e b y " c l a i m i n g " the s i t e b e f o r e p r i v a t e development, companies do the same. The Four S i s t e r s p r o j e c t i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s s t r a t e g y . 15. The C i t y t h r o u g h the S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and H e a l t h Departments s h o u l d c o n t i n u e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to ensure t h a t the f u t u r e d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s does not o c c u r w i t h o u t s u i t a b l e community-based c a r e and h o u s i n g a v a i l a b l e . 16. The C i t y s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the use of community l a n d t r u s t s i n the e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . C. S u m m a r y 1. The Research Q u e s t i o n s Addressed F i v e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were posed i n Chapter One. A summary of the f i n d i n g s i s p r e s e n t e d below. 1 ) H o w h a s t h e n a t u r e o f W o r l d ' s F a i r s c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e i r e m e r g e n c e i n t h e l a t e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y ? W h i l e h i s t o r i c a l l y r o o t e d i n a n c i e n t t r a d e f a i r s , World's F a i r s as they a r e known today emerged out of the a r t i s t i c and i n d u s t r i a l e x h i b i t i o n s of 19th c e n t u r y Europe. E a r l y World's F a i r s were used as d i s p l a y c a s e s f o r the t o o l s of p r o d u c t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and a r t . They were a l s o used f o r a number of o t h e r p urposes i n c l u d i n g the marking of h i s t o r i c a l l y 170 s i g n i f i c a n t d a t e s , the c r e a t i o n of p r e s t i g e f o r h o s t c i t