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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effects of using computer graphics on preschool children English, Merle Russell 1987

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THE EFFECTS OF USING COMPUTER GRAPHICS ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN By MERLE RUSSELL ENGLISH B.A., S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1987 4 6 © M e r l e E n g l i s h , 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e a b i l i t y o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n t o u s e a p a r t i c u l a r c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t and i t s e f f e c t s on t h e i r a r t w o r k . I t was c o n d u c t e d i n two p a r t s : t h e p i l o t s t u d y i n w h i c h f i v e c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d and t h e m a i n s t u d y w h i c h i n v o l v e d two c h i l d r e n . F o u r p r e d i c t i o n s were made. P r e d i c t i o n one s t a t e d t h a t o f t h e t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , more w o u l d be i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t u s e t h a n i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d u s e . The s e c o n d p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t c h i l d r e n w o u l d use g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r i n a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g when u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m . P r e d i c t i o n t h r e e s t a t e d a r t w o r k , done w i t h c o m p u t e r m e d i a w o u l d be r a t e d h i g h e r i n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f " V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s " , " V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s " , " C o m p l e x i t y " , and " T e x t u r e " t h a n w o u l d i m a g e s made w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . The f o u r t h p r e d i c t i o n was t h a t c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d a r t w o r k , w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f "Image Autonomy" t h a n t h e a r t w o r k done i n o t h e r m e d i a . F o r b o t h p a r t s o f t h e s t u d y , a n e c d o t a l d a t a i n t h e f o r m o f f i e l d n o t e s , t r a n s c r i b e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s , and v i d e o t a p e s were k e p t and a n a l y s e d t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r when u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r . D u r i n g t h e m a i n s t u d y t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m were r e c o r d e d on a c h e c k l i s t i n d i c a t i n g w h e t h e r t h e y were a b l e t o use t h e p r o g r a m i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r i f t h e y n e e d e d h e l p . A r t w o r k made by t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e m a i n s t u d y u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r and o t h e r m e d i a were s a v e d f o r a n a l y s i s and were r a t e d by t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t j u d g e s . The j u d g e s u s e d f i v e c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t t o r a t e e a c h image on a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p r e d i c t i o n o n e , w h i c h s t a t e d t h a t more i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r w o u l d be i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t u s e , was s u p p o r t e d a s t h e r e were more i n d e p e n d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a n t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r f o r e a c h s u b j e c t . P r e d i c t i o n t w o , w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w o u l d use g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r i n a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g when u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r , was s u p p o r t e d by t h e d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . P r e d i c t i o n t h r e e , t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i m a g e s w o u l d be r a t e d h i g h e r i n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , C o m p l e x i t y , and T e x t u r e , was s u p p o r t e d i n t h e two c a t e g o r i e s V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s and V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s . The f o u r t h outcome p r e d i c t e d was t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r a r t w o r k w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e c a t e g o r y Image Autonomy t h a n a r t w o r k done i n o t h e r m e d i a . T h i s outcome was s u p p o r t e d by t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e a r t w o r k . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 R a t i o n a l e f o r Exposing Young C h i l d r e n to C o l o r p a i n t 2 R a t i o n a l e f o r Choosing C o l o r p a i n t 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 7 Statement of Expected Outcomes 8 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RELATED RESEARCH 10 Development of Young C h i l d r e n ' s A r t .... 10 T h e o r e t i c a l Bases f o r Microcomputer Use with Young C h i l d r e n 18 Computer Graphics and Young C h i l d r e n ... 21 Research on P r e s c h o o l e r ' s Use of Microcomputers 22 Summary 29 I I I . METHOD 31 Subjects 31 S e t t i n g 32 Sessions 32 Role of the Teacher 33 Data C o l l e c t i o n - Competence C h e c k l i s t 34 F i e l d Notes 36 V CHAPTER PAGE V i d e o t a p e d S e s s i o n s 36 A n a l y s i s o f C h i l d r e n ' s A r t w o r k 37 P r o c e d u r e s f o r J u d g i n g 38 P r o c e d u r e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f D a t a 38 I V . RESULTS 40 Competence B a s e d on C h e c k l i s t 40 Competence B a s e d on O b s e r v a t i o n s 42 E v i d e n c e o f A e s t h e t i c D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .. 48 P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g 52 A n a l y s i s o f A r t 55 C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' R a t i n g s 55 F i n d i n g s C o n c e r n i n g D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n T y p e s o f M e d i a 58 V. DISCUSSION 60 M a j o r F i n d i n g s 60 L i m i t a t i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s a n d R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 64 REFERENCES 67 v i APPENDIX PAGE APPENDIX A P h o t o g r a p h s o f Computer A r t w o r k o f M a i n S t u d y 73 APPENDIX B C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' s c o r e s f o r .... Computer and O t h e r M e d i a G r o u p s .. 83 APPENDIX C P r o f i l e o f I n d e p e n d e n t a nd T e a c h e r .. A s s i s t e d S k i l l s a n d Copy o f t h e .. Competence C h e c k l i s t 93 APPENDIX D E x p l a n a t i o n o f F e a t u r e s o f P r o g r a m .. C o l o r p a i n t and Terms Used on t h e Competence C h e c k l i s t 99 APPENDIX E C r i t e r i a U sed f o r R a t i n g P i c t u r e s ... 105 v i i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Summary of ab s o l u t e value of d e v i a t i o n .... judges' scores 56 2. Comparison o f Judges' Scores on Computer-.. generated Images f o r Category One: V a r i e t y w i t h i n Shapes 83 3. Comparison o f Judges' Scores on Computer- .. generated Images f o r Category Two: V a r i e t y between Shapes 84 4. Comparison of Judges' Scores on Computer- .. generated Images f o r Category Three: .... Complexity 85 5. Comparison of Judges' Scores on Computer- .. generated Images f o r Category Four: Image Autonomy 86 6. Comparison of Judges' Scores on Computer- .. generated Images f o r Category F i v e : Texture 87 7. Comparison of Judges' Scores on Images i n .. Other Media for Category One: V a r i e t y ... w i t h i n Shapes 88 8. Comparison o f Judges' Scores on Images i n .. Other Media f o r Category Two: V a r i e t y ... between Shapes 89 v i i i TABLE PAGE 9. C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' S c o r e s o n Images i n .. O t h e r M e d i a f o r C a t e g o r y T h r e e : C o m p l e x i t y 90 10. C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' S c o r e s on Images i n .. O t h e r M e d i a f o r C a t e g o r y F o u r : Image .... Autonomy 91 11. C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' S c o r e s on Images i n O t h e r M e d i a f o r C a t e g o r y F i v e : T e x t u r e .. 92 i x L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Competence C h e c k l i s t G r a p h f o r S t u d e n t One 41 2. Competence C h e c k l i s t G r a p h f o r S t u d e n t Two 41 X / A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o a c k n o w l e d g e Dr. D a v i d R o b i t a i l l e and Dr. R o n a l d M a c G r e g o r f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t a s I p r e p a r e d t h i s document. I am a l s o e n d e b t e d t o R u t h , R a i s s a and R i t a whose h e l p j u d g i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k was much a p p r e c i a t e d . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my w i f e K a t h y f o r h e r p a t i e n c e and s u p p o r t d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k Dr. G l e n D i x o n f o r a l l h i s h e l p and t h e s t a f f a t t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t e r f o r a l l o w i n g me t o s h a r e t h e i r w o n d e r f u l l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . 1 CHAPTER I D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e P r o b l e m I n t r o d u c t i o n The g e n e r a l f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s o n t h e a b i l i t y o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n t o b e n e f i t f r o m e x p o s u r e t o t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r as p a r t o f p r e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s . R e c e n t a d v a n c e s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y p r e s e n t t h e t e a c h e r s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e c h o i c e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t t o use m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s a p p e a r t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r e n h a n c i n g t h e l e a r n i n g o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n . However, c o m p u t e r use w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n r a i s e s t h e i s s u e o f d e c i d i n g t h e optimum t i m e t o f i r s t e x p o s e c h i l d r e n t o c o m p u t e r s . The q u e s t i o n o f how c o m p u t e r s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i s a s c r i t i c a l a s t h e i s s u e o f when t o i n t r o d u c e them. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f t e a c h i n g a s m a l l number o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n how t o u s e a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o r g r a p h i c s m i c r o c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m . The p r o g r a m , c r e a t e d f o r a n I.B.M. PC J u n i o r C o m p u t e r , i s c a l l e d C o l o r p a i n t and i s d i s t r i b u t e d by I.B.M. One o f t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s t h i s s t u d y s o u g h t t o a n s w e r , was w h e t h e r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n p o s s e s s t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o u s e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s e f f e c t i v e l y . S p e c i f i c a l l y t h e q u e s t i o n was: A r e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a b l e t o d e v e l o p c o m p e t e n c e i n t h e use o f t h e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h C o l o r p a i n t ? E x a m i n i n g y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e c o m p u t e r s d o e s n o t a d d r e s s t h e p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t s o f s u c h a n a c t i v i t y . 2 Nor does developing the necessary physical and vocabulary s k i l l s prerequis i t e to operating a computer const i tute a s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i o n to advocate i t s use. Other aspects of the developing c h i l d ' s behavior need to be examined for poss ible pos i t ive e f fects of using software such as Co lorpa int . I f young c h i l d r e n can develop competence i n operating the computer with Co lorpa in t , does i t follow that they w i l l be able to use the computer to enhance the ir creat ive development i n ways that are s imi lar to those encouraged with the use of other a r t i s t i c media in the t y p i c a l preschool? The other main issue addressed in th i s study re la te s to the poss ible benefits of computer graphics i n the promotion of c r e a t i v i t y . This question may be stated i n the fol lowing way: Are young c h i l d r e n able to use the computer graphics program described e f f e c t i v e l y , in the sense of acquir ing opportunit ies to grow c r e a t i v e l y i n ways s imi lar to those provided by other a r t i s t i c media? Rationale for Exposing Preschoolers to Colorpaint The ra t iona le for using an in terac t ive graphics program such as Colorpaint with preschool c h i l d r e n draws at tent ion to some of the possible benefi ts of such an undertaking. The idea of providing c h i l d r e n with the means to achieve s tructured sensory experience through act ive response i s not a new one in preschool educational philosophy. Montessori advocated th i s method for teaching young c h i l d r e n . She emphasized the use of d i d a c t i c materials that encouraged c h i l d r e n to p e r s i s t and make correct ions in the ir e f for t s to master s k i l l s (Frost & Kis s inger , 3 1 9 7 6 ) . She a l s o b e l i e v e d i n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a s t i m u l a t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o m b i n e d w i t h a t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g y t h a t a l l o w e d f o r autonomy o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c h i l d b u t d i d n o t r u l e o u t n o n e v a l u a t i v e t e a c h e r i n t e r v e n t i o n when n e c e s s a r y . ( G a r d n e r , 1966) T h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s t h e c h i l d was s h a r e d by Dewey. He b e l i e v e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e d i s c o v e r e d f o r o n e s e l f was k n o w l e d g e t h a t l a s t e d . Dewey s t r e s s e d c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s u s e d when t e a c h i n g , " I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e new o b j e c t s a n d e v e n t s be r e l a t e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y t o t h o s e o f e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e "(Dewey,1963, P . 7 5 ) . I n l e a r n i n g t o u s e C o l o r p a i n t c h i l d r e n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y n o t o n l y t o a c t o n t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t a l s o t o l e a r n s k i l l s i n a l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e t h a t g i v e s them more power t o c o n t r o l e v e n t s . T h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t a l o c k - s t e p method n e e d be u s e d when e x p o s i n g c h i l d r e n t o t h e p r o g r a m , a s t h e u n e x p e c t e d c a n be a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I t d o e s mean a n o v e r a l l s e q u e n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be f o l l o w e d . The n e e d t o a l l o w f o r t h e u n a n t i c i p a t e d w h i l e f o l l o w i n g a o r d e r e d s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s c a n be s e e n i n Dewey's comment: The b a s i c m a t e r i a l o f s t u d y c a n n o t be p i c k e d up i n a c u r s o r y manner. O c c a s i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t and c a n n o t be f o r e s e e n a r e bound t o a r i s e w henever t h e r e i s i n t e l l e c t u a l f r e e d o m . They s h o u l d be u t i l i z e d . B u t t h e r e i s a d e c i d e d d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n u s i n g them i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e o f a c t i v i t y and t r u s t i n g them t o p r o v i d e t h e c h i e f m a t e r i a l o f l e a r n i n g . (Dewey,1963,P.79) P i a g e t e c h o e d t h e i d e a t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d i n t e l l i g e n t a c t i v i t y d e v e l o p o u t o f m o t o r a c t i v i t y and n o t j u s t f r o m p a s s i v e 4 o b s e r v a t i o n . He o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e w i d e r t h e r a n g e o f a c t i v i t y , t h e more d i v e r s i f i e d w i l l be t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d ( R o w l a n d & M c g u i r e , 1 9 6 8 ) . W o r k i n g w i t h C o l o r p a i n t p r o v i d e s t h e c h i l d w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s i n many a r e a s t h a t have p o t e n t i a l f o r a e s t h e t i c o r c o g n i t i v e g r o w t h . Among t h e s e a r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e x p l o r e t h e c o n c e p t s o f l i n e , p a t t e r n , t h i c k n e s s , s i z e , g e o m e t r i c f o r m s , c o l o r v a r i a t i o n a n d c o l o r p a t t e r n s , a s w e l l a s t h e a r t i s t i c c o n c e p t s o f r e p e t i t i o n , s y m m e t r y , movement, o v e r l a p p i n g a n d b a l a n c e . The c h i l d ' s c u r i o s i t y , a r o u s e d w h i l e u s i n g s u c h a p r o g r a m , i s a n i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e i n e a r l y c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t n o v e l t y i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o p r o m o t e c o g n i t i v e g r o w t h ( F a n t z , 1965) and u s i n g t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a n o v e l e x p e r i e n c e f o r most p r e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s c u r i o s i t y i s n o t a t i t s peak when t h e y h a v e l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f what t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g , b u t g r o w s a s k n o w l e d g e i n c r e a s e s ( S c h e r m a n n , 1 9 6 6 , P . 2 6 9 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e n o v e l and h i g h l y v i s u a l n a t u r e o f t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m c o u l d l e a d t o a n i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g more a b o u t how t o e x p l o i t t h i s g r a p h i c e n v i r o n m e n t . The i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c h i l d ' s a c t i o n s and t h e images p r o d u c e d on t h e s c r e e n h a s t h e p o t e n t i a l t o c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where t h e c h i l d i s s t i m u l a t e d i n new d i r e c t i o n s by v i s u a l f e e d b a c k . The v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n n e e d e d t o u s e t h e i c o n s a n d menus o f t h e p r o g r a m a c c u r a t e l y c a n a l s o p r o m o t e c o g n i t i v e 5 g r o w t h . The i c o n s a r e p i c t o r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o g r a m and t h e c h i l d must be a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n them v i s u a l l y a s w e l l a s c l a s s i f y t h e f u n c t i o n o f e a c h i n o r d e r t o use t h e p r o g r a m w i t h any d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e . The p h y s i c a l d e x t e r i t y t h a t must be d e v e l o p e d t o u s e C o l o r p a i n t e f f e c t i v e l y seems t o p r o v i d e a n o t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t s u s e . The p r o g r a m r e q u i r e s u s e o f a n i n p u t d e v i c e , a mouse, t h a t a l l o w s i n p u t t o t h e c o m p u t e r by m o v i n g i t o v e r t h e s u r f a c e o f a g r i d and p r e s s i n g t h e b u t t o n s t o i n d i c a t e s e l e c t i o n s o n t h e s c r e e n . C h i l d r e n l e a r n n o t o n l y how t o move t h e mouse t o draw and p a i n t b u t a l s o how t o p e r f o r m c o m p l e x o p e r a t i o n s by u s i n g t h e b u t t o n s o n t h e mouse. The c o g n i t i v e s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d f o r c h i l d r e n by t h e u n i t s o f t h e p r o g r a m a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o e x p l o r e c o n c e p t s t h e y may n o t be a b l e t o a c c e s s w i t h o u t t h i s a s s i s t a n c e . Thus t h e c o m p u t e r a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o b y p a s s p h y s i c a l and c o g n i t i v e o b s t a c l e s when m a k i n g t h e i r p i c t u r e s ( S h e i n g o l d , 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , a c h i l d may u s e t h e c i r c l e o p t i o n o f t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s o r h e r a b i l i t y t o draw o r v e r b a l i z e what a c i r c l e i s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t o f u s i n g C o l o r p a i n t w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i s t h e a w a r e n e s s o f and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y i t w i l l p r o v i d e . I n a s o c i e t y t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e c h n o l o g y , t h e e x p o s u r e o f c h i l d r e n t o c o m p u t e r s a t a n age when t h e y a r e o p e n and have l i t t l e f e a r seems s e n s i b l e a nd p r o d u c t i v e . G i v i n g c h i l d r e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e c o m p u t e r s a s t o o l s f o r c r e a t i v e , o p e n - e n d e d a c t i v i t y a p p e a r s 6 t o be a n a p p r o p r i a t e way t o i n t r o d u c e them t o t e c h n o l o g y ( S h e i n g o l d , 1 9 8 3 ) . R a t i o n a l e f o r C h o o s i n g C o l o r p a i n t The c h o i c e o f t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m was made b e c a u s e o f i t s s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . The p r o g r a m u s e s a mouse r a t h e r t h a n a k e y b o a r d a s a n i n p u t d e v i c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a d v a n t a g e o u s when d e a l i n g w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a s t h e y do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y n e e d t o p o s s e s s any k e y b o a r d i n g s k i l l s . Young c h i l d r e n c a n more e a s i l y l e a r n t o use a mouse t h a n r e a d e v e n a l i m i t e d a l p h a b e t o r l e a r n how t o t y p e on a k e y b o a r d . When u s i n g C o l o r p a i n t t h e c h i l d moves a mouse on t h e t a b l e t o p t o p o i n t t o i c o n s o n t h e s c r e e n t h a t r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s o p t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . The b a r r i e r r e p r e s e n t e d by k e y b o a r d i n p u t t o p r e s c h o o l e r s ' u se o f m i c r o c o m p u t e r s i s n e a t l y b y p a s s e d i n t h e a d v a n c e d c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h i s p r o g r a m . I n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a n e x t r e m e l y " u s e r f r i e n d l y " p i e c e o f s o f t w a r e s u c h a s C o l o r p a i n t p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i v e f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h a c o m p u t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o n t e x t i s a c r e a t i v e , o p e n - e n d e d i n v o l v e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n a p r o g r a m t h a t h a s r i g h t o r wrong a n s w e r s was s e e n a s a p o s i t i v e f e a t u r e o f C o l o r p a i n t . A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e c h o i c e o f t h i s p r o g r a m was t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s i n c o l o u r . F o r p r e s c h o o l e r s t h e c o l o u r c a p a b i l i t y a l l o w e d f o r g r o w t h i n c o l o u r m a n i p u l a t i o n . The n a t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a v o i d s some o f t h e p r o b l e m a r e a s f o r c o m p u t e r use w i t h p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n s u c h a s t h e o b s t a c l e s o f k e y b o a r d i n g a n d r e a d i n g s k i l l s . C o l o r p a i n t r e q u i r e s m i n i m a l s k i l l s on t h e k e y b o a r d t o o p e r a t e t h e p r o g r a m . 7 I t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e i t i s n o t a w o r k b o o k , p r e s c r i p t i v e p r o g r a m as a r e many c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . I t i s r a t h e r a n a p p l i c a t i o n p r o g r a m t o be u s e d a s a t o o l i n t h e c o u r s e o f a c h i e v i n g a g o a l , n a m e l y , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a p i e c e o f a r t w o r k . The o b j e c t i o n t h a t p r e s c h o o l e r s a r e t o o u n s k i l l e d and i m m a t u r e t o e f f e c t i v e l y u s e and b e n e f i t f r o m m i c r o c o m p u t e r s made by d e t r a c t o r s o f c o m p u t e r u s e i n t h e p r e s c h o o l was c e n t r a l t o t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y ( C u f f a r o , 1984; Davy, 1984; B a r n e s & H i l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . The i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o q u e s t i o n t h a t c l a i m . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  Computer Use D e f i n i t i o n s O p t i o n o r F e a t u r e . B o t h t e r m s a r e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o i n p u t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e p i c t u r e s p a c e when u s i n g t h e C o l o r p a i n t g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m . I n d e p e n d e n t Use. The use o f a n o p t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t on t h e p a r t o f a c h i l d , u n a i d e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n any a s p e c t o f t h e u s e o f t h e f e a t u r e o r o p t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e d e c i s i o n t o u s e t h e o p t i o n , t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s t o a c t i v a t e t h e o p t i o n , a n d t h e a c t u a l u s e o f t h e o p t i o n a f t e r s e l e c t i o n . T e a c h e r - A s s i s t e d Use. I n t h i s c a t e g o r y o f c o m p u t e r u s e t h e c h i l d r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o u s e a n o p t i o n o f t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m . T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o r e c a l l t h e f e a t u r e and i t s l o c a t i o n o n t h e m o n i t o r s c r e e n , o r h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o s e l e c t t h e d e s i r e d o p t i o n , o r h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o u s e t h e o p t i o n o n c e s e l e c t e d . 8 D e f i n i t i o n s R e l a t i n g t o A r t w o r k C o n t o u r . The o u t l i n e e f f e c t t h a t c a n be a c h i e v e d u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f m a r k e r s on p a p e r a s w e l l a s t h e v a r i e t y o f l i n e q u a l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t . Shape. T w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a r e a s d e f i n e d by c o n t o u r s . O t h e r M e d i a . The use o f m a r k i n g d e v i c e s o t h e r t h a n a c o m p u t e r t o c r e a t e an a r t w o r k . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e o t h e r m e d i a e m p l o y e d i n c l u d e d f e l t s , wax c r a y o n s , w a t e r c o l o u r p a i n t s , t e m p e r a p a i n t s , f i n g e r p a i n t s , and p a p e r c o l l a g e . B r o k e n c o l o u r . A c o l o u r w h i c h i s a c o m p o s i t e o f two o r more c o l o u r s f o r m e d by c o m b i n i n g d i s c r e t e , u n m i x e d u n i t s o f e a c h o f t h e c o m p o s i t e c o l o u r s . D e s i g n . A p i c t u r e i n w h i c h no a t t e m p t has b e e n made t o s y m b o l i z e r e a l f i g u r e s o r o b j e c t s . R e p r e s e n t a t i o n . A p i c t u r e w h i c h h a s s h a p e s o r c o n t o u r s s y m b o l i z i n g r e a l f i g u r e s o r o b j e c t s i n t h e w o r l d . Work S p a c e . The a r e a on t h e c o m p u t e r m o n i t o r r e p r e s e n t e d by a b l a n k s p a c e s u r r o u n d e d by i c o n s and menus, where one d r a w s o r i n p u t s t h e p i c t u r e when u s i n g t h e C o l o r p a i n t g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m . S t a t e m e n t o f E x p e c t e d Outcomes G i v e n t h e e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s a d d r e s s e d were e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f e x p e c t e d o u t c o m e s . The i s s u e o f c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p e t e n c e i n u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r was s t u d i e d by c o d i n g a l l t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d and i n d e p e n d e n t u s e . The e x p e c t e d 9 o u t c o m e , i f c o m p e t e n c e were a c h i e v e d , w o u l d be t h a t more o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r w o u l d be i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t u s e . I t was a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d u s e g o a l o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r i n a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n s and p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g when u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r . T h i s q u e s t i o n w o u l d be s t u d i e d by t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e c o r d e d i n e a c h s e s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . I f t h e r e were i n c i d e n t s o f b e h a v i o r i n d i c a t i n g c r e a t i v e g r o w t h i n t h e s e a r e a s , t h e s e m i g h t be i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d . To a s s e s s t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c o m p u t e r a s a medium c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r more t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c m e d i a , t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k made w i t h b o t h t y p e s o f m e d i a was a n a l y s e d . F i v e c a t e g o r i e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t were u s e d by t h r e e j u d g e s t o r a t e t h e c o m p u t e r -g e n e r a t e d and t r a d i t i o n a l a r t w o r k s . The c o m p u t e r a r t was e x p e c t e d t o be r a t e d h i g h e r t h a n t h e a r t done w i t h o t h e r m e d i a i n e a c h o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , C o m p l e x i t y , and T e x t u r e . T h i s outcome w o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r was a s e f f e c t i v e a s o t h e r m e d i a i n p r o v i d i n g a means o f e x p r e s s i o n among yo u n g c h i l d r e n . However, i t was a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r a r t w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f Image Autonomy. T h i s outcome w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r a s a medium f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n p e r m i t t e d t h e c a l l i n g - u p o f o v e r l a p a s an o p t i o n , s o m e t h i n g n o t n o r m a l l y e m p l o y e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s i n c o n v e n t i o n a l m e d i a . 10 CHAPTER I I A R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e and R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h The L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w t h a t f o l l o w s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y i n young c h i l d r e n and g i v e s a n o v e r v i e w o f some o f t h e r e l e v a n t t r e n d s and t h e o r i e s i n t h i s a r e a . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l u se o f c o m p u t e r s f o r yo u n g c h i l d r e n a r e e x a m i n e d . The l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h e r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s o n r e s e a r c h done on p r e s c h o o l e r s ' u se o f m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . D e v e l o p m e n t o f Young C h i l d r e n ' s A r t U n d e r l y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s v a l u e t o be g a i n e d by h a v i n g c h i l d r e n engage i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . A r t i s t i c p u r s u i t s a r e v i e w e d a s t h e f i r s t means o f g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n f o r yo u n g c h i l d r e n , p r e c e d i n g t h e i r a b i l i t y t o w r i t e o r r e c o r d numbers. A r t g i v e s c h i l d r e n a n e a r l y means t o p r e s e n t t h e i r i d e a s and f e e l i n g s i n a c o n c r e t e f o r m . The p r o c e s s o f r e c o r d i n g t h r o u g h g r a p h i c means i s l e s s e x a c t i n g i n t e r m s o f p l a c e m e n t o f e l e m e n t s t h a n w r i t i n g and t h e r e f o r e i s more e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t i s t i c s k i l l p r o m o t e s t h e g r o w t h o f p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m . S m i t h ( 1 982) e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s g r o w t h i n c h i l d r e n ' s p a i n t i n g when she s t a t e s : "One o f t h e p r o f o u n d e s t r e w a r d s o f young c h i l d r e n ' s work w i t h p a i n t i s t h e i r d e v e l o p i n g s e n s e o f t h e m s e l v e s a s a c t i v e and c o m p e t e n t a g e n t s , a b l e t o i n t e r a c t a n d be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e w o r l d " ( P . 3 1 ) . 11 C h i l d r e n ' s q u e s t f o r autonomy i s a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e g r o w t h o f s e l f - i m a g e t h r o u g h a r t . T h e i r e f f i c a c y i n u s i n g a t o o l t o c r e a t e a n a r t i s t i c image i s i m p o r t a n t , f o r d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s c h i l d r e n a r e g r a d u a l l y a t t e m p t i n g t o g a i n more autonomy f r o m t h e a d u l t s i n t h e i r l i v e s and f u n c t i o n more i n d e p e n d e n t l y ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s a r t a p p e a r s t o be a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n t h i s a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w t h . A c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t h e m a s t e r y o f t h e m o t o r s k i l l s n e e d e d i n a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n . I n i t i a l t o o l u s e i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e p e t i t i v e f r e e f l o w i n g movements o f t h e w h o l e arm and b a n g i n g movements w i t h t h e m a r k e r ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . The p r i n c i p l e t h a t a p p l i e s t o t h e c h i l d ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o tor s k i l l i s t h a t new l e a r n i n g e m e r g e s f r o m p r i o r l e a r n i n g . S m i t h ( 1 983) c o m p a r e s l e a r n i n g t o p a i n t t o a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a i n t i t s e l f and t h e g r o w i n g mind o f t h e c h i l d . C h i l d r e n need a v a r i e t y o f m a r k i n g t o o l s l i k e b r o a d - and m e d i u m - t i p p e d m a r k e r s and p e n s w i t h v a r y i n g s i z e s o f p a p e r t o p r a c t i s e t h e i r d r a w i n g s k i l l s ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r p a i n t i n g . S m i t h ( 1 9 8 3 ) recommends p o s t e r p a i n t a s t h e most v e r s a t i l e m a t e r i a l f o r c h i l d r e n t o m a n i p u l a t e so a s t o d i s c o v e r i t s p r o p e r t i e s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f l i n e and c o l o u r m i x i n g . P r o v i d i n g m a t e r i a l s i s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n p r o m o t i n g t h e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . The t e a c h e r must t h e n p r o v i d e i n t e l l i g e n t f e e d b a c k and e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o s u p p o r t t h e c h i l d ' s a t t e m p t s t o g a i n m a s t e r y . W i l s o n and W i l s o n ( 1 9 82) b e l i e v e t h a t e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e t e a c h e r h e l p s t h e c h i l d . The use o f 12 m o d e l l i n g and e x a m p l e s i s s e e n a s a f a v o u r e d s t r a t e g y f o r e n c o u r a g i n g s k i l l g r o w t h . I n t h e same way we t h i n k t h a t one o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e ways t o f a c i l i t a t e d r a w i n g i s t o i n t e r a c t and p r e s e n t t h e c h i l d w i t h d r a w i n g a t s l i g h t l y h i g h e r l e v e l s t h a n h e r own, a s w e l l a s v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e n e x t h i g h e r l e v e l . ( p . 4 8 ) S m i t h (1983) a d v o c a t e s t h e a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r i n h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n p a i n t by r e s p o n d i n g t o c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i n ways t h a t w i l l p r o m o t e f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i r own work. On t h e c o g n i t i v e l e v e l , a s c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p k n o w l e d g e o f how t o use v a r i o u s m e d i a e f f e c t i v e l y , t h e y d e v e l o p a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o them. They a l s o b e g i n t o r e c o g n i z e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e o p t i o n s i n t e r m s o f b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . T h i s g r o w i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f b a l a n c e b e t w e e n b e n e f i t s and c o s t s l e a d s t o a more c o n s c i o u s use o f s k i l l s i n s h a p i n g a f i n a l p r o d u c t ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . The a q u i s i t i o n o f m otor s k i l l s and t h e u n f o l d i n g o f a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t e n d e n c i e s d i s c o v e r e d t h r o u g h d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k . One o f t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d t e n d e n c i e s o p e r a t i n g i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t h e u s e o f s i m p l i c i t y . C h i l d r e n t e n d t o d e p i c t o b j e c t s i n t h e most e c o n o m i c a l way a v a i l a b l e t o them ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . The i d e a o f t h r i f t i n t h e u s e o f e l e m e n t s t o g i v e u n i t y t h r o u g h r e p e t i t i o n o f f o r m s i s r e l a t e d t o t h i s t e n d e n c y (Goodnow, 1977) . W i l s o n and W i l s o n ( 1 9 82) t e r m t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n " t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n and m u l t i p l e - a p p l i c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e " ( p . 45) i n w h i c h a f o r m i s u s e d t o s u i t many p u r p o s e s when r e p e a t e d w i t h 13 s l i g h t c h a n g e s . A n o t h e r t e n d e n c y i s t h e use o f v a r i a t i o n and c o n t r a s t . S m i t h ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t r e s s e s t h e s e two i d e a s a r e t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f c h i l d r e n ' s d e s i g n s : " R e p e t i t i o n and v a r i a t i o n a r e t h e f o u n d a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s o f a l l d e s i g n i n g , and i t i s t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t h e c h i l d u s e s . . . t o c r e a t e u n i f i e d d e s i g n s . " ( P . 2 8 ) I n t h e i r u se o f s p a c e c h i l d r e n f o l l o w t h e r u l e o f a l l o w i n g a s e p a r a t e s p a c e f o r e a c h p a r t o f t h e i r work (Goodnow, 1 9 7 7 ) . W i l s o n and W i l s o n ( 1 9 8 2) c a l l t h i s t h e " t e r r i t o r i a l i m p e r a t i v e " ( p . 43) and s t r e s s t h a t t h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e l a c k o f o v e r l a p i n c h i l d r e n ' s r e n d e r i n g s . A n o t h e r t e n d e n c y i n v o l v e s t h e e f f e c t o f e a r l i e r s t e p s on t h e e v e n t u a l d i r e c t i o n and end p r o d u c t i n c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t e a c h s t e p i n t h e s e q u e n c e o f d r a w i n g l i m i t s a nd c h a n n e l s t h e s t e p s t h a t f o l l o w (Goodnow, 1 9 7 7 ) . Not a l l c h i l d r e n h ave t h e t e n d e n c i e s o u t l i n e d on a l l o c c a s i o n s , and c h i l d r e n ' s work c a n d e m o n s t r a t e d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , b u t s u c h o c c u r r e n c e s a r e t h e e x c e p t i o n and n o t t h e r u l e ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . G i v e n t h a t c h i l d r e n f o l l o w c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s i n d e v e l o p i n g o r d e r i n t h e i r g r a p h i c i m a g e s , t h e r e a r e p h a s e s t h a t t h e i r e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t t y p i c a l l y f o l l o w s . One m a j o r d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d i s t h e a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t a p e r s o n o r o b j e c t i n t h e i r a r t . When c h i l d r e n r e a c h a l e v e l o f a b i l i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o g e n e r a t e s y m b o l i c i m a g es f r o m t h e w o r l d o f o b j e c t s , t h e y have r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t . Up u n t i l t h i s s t a g e t h e c h i l d ' s e f f o r t s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s 14 p r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . The e a r l i e s t a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s o f c h i l d r e n s p a n t h e a g e s o f one and a h a l f t o t h r e e . A c t i v i t y i s random b u t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t r o l l e d a s m o t o r c o o r d i n a t i o n i n c r e a s e s ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n t e r m s o f p a i n t i n g , c h i l d r e n e x p e r i m e n t w i t h r e p e t i t i v e b r u s h i n g s and l a y e r i n g p a i n t u n t i l a s o l i d mass o f g r e y - b r o w n i s f o r m e d . P a i n t i n g w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t i s d i f f e r e n t t h a n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p a i n t s a s t h e c o m p u t e r d o e s n o t mi x l a y e r s o f p a i n t . W i t h C o l o r p a i n t , l a y e r s o f p a i n t c o l o u r a r e a p p l i e d o v e r p r e v i o u s c o l o u r s w i t h no m i x i n g o f h u e s . W i t h t r a d i t i o n a l p a i n t i n g , m i x i n g c o l o u r s and c l e a n i n g b r u s h e s b e t w e e n a p p l i c a t i o n s i s b e i n g l e a r n e d b u t i s n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d . C h i l d r e n n o r m a l l y e x p l o r e w i t h p a i n t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f l i n e p o s s i b l e ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 3 ) . K e l l o g g ( 1 9 7 0 ) h a s i d e n t i f i e d t w e n t y b a s i c s c r i b b l e s a f t e r c l a s s i f y i n g t h o u s a n d s o f c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y a t t e m p t s a t d r a w i n g . She a l s o h a s o u t l i n e d s e v e n t e e n p l a c e m e n t p a t t e r n s w h i c h show how s c r i b b l e s c a n be p l a c e d on t h e page. These p a t t e r n s o f p o s i t i o n i n g a r e , she c l a i m s , t h e e a r l i e s t e v i d e n c e o f c o n t r o l e x h i b i t e d by c h i l d r e n o v e r t h e a r t i s t i c medium ( K e l l o g g , 1 9 7 0 ) . I n t h e n e x t p h a s e , b a s i c s h a p e s and c o n f i g u r a t i o n s s t a r t t o emerge f r o m t h e s c r i b b l e s . C h i l d r e n p r o d u c e c i r c l e s , o v a l s , v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s , c r o s s e s , l a d d e r s , s q u a r e s , and r e c t a n g l e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a c c u r a c y . The t e n d e n c y t o r e p e a t f o r m s and p r a c t i s e t h e i r f o r m a t i o n i s n o t e d a t t h i s s t a g e ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . I n p a i n t i n g , c h i l d r e n use l i n e s o f v a r i o u s l e n g t h s and o r i e n t a t i o n s . They a l s o use s e p a r a t e d p a t c h e s o f 15 c o l o u r on t h e p a p e r and t r y o u t v a r i o u s g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n s . They b e g i n t o mix c o l o u r s and a l s o o f t e n t r y t o k e e p c o l o u r s s e p a r a t e and d i s c r e t e when w o r k i n g ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 3 ) . K e l l o g g n o t e s a t t h i s s t a g e y o u n g a r t i s t s p r o d u c e what a r e t e r m e d " e m e r g e n t d i a g r a m s " o f s e v e n t e e n t y p e s . These f o r m s s u g g e s t s h a p e s b u t a r e n o t y e t c l e a r enough t o l a b e l a s d e f i n i t e e x a m p l e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r g e o m e t r i c s h a p e . From t h e s e e m e r g e n t f o r m s s i x b a s i c s h a p e s e v o l v e , a c c o r d i n g t o K e l l o g g ( 1 9 7 0 ) : r e c t a n g l e , t r i a n g l e , d i a g o n a l c r o s s , o v a l , G r e e k c r o s s , and c a t c h a l l odd s h a p e . C h i l d r e n t h e n p r o g r e s s t o c o m b i n i n g t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s t h e y h ave d r a w n p r e v i o u s l y t o c r e a t e new f o r m s . The r e s u l t when two d i a g r a m s a r e p u t t o g e t h e r t o make one sh a p e i s r e f e r r e d t o by K e l l o g g ( 1 9 7 0) a s a " c o m b i n e " . A f u r t h e r c a t e g o r y i s t h e " a g g r e g a t e " , w h i c h i s a t e r m r e s e r v e d f o r more c o m p l e x s h a p e s t h a t i n c l u d e t h r e e o r more d i a g r a m s i n one c o n f i g u r a t i o n . C h i l d r e n s t a r t t o c a v e r t h e w h o l e page w i t h d e s i g n s t h a t have o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a w h o l e . They have a n i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p a p e r a s a c o n t i n u o u s s u r f a c e , and t h e p o t e n t i a l t o use s p a c e e f f e c t i v e l y i n p o s i t i o n i n g e l e m e n t s . I n p a i n t i n g , c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p s k i l l w i t h "wet" b o u n d a r i e s , i n p l a c i n g one f o r m n e x t t o a n o t h e r so t h a t t h e y s h a r e a common b o u n d a r y . C h i l d r e n u se v a r i a t i o n o f c o l o r , l o c a t i o n , a n d p r o p o r t i o n t o compose w i t h t h e b a s i c v o c a b u l a r y o f s h a p e s ( S m i t h , 1 9 8 3 ) . , I n d e v e l o p i n g and c o m b i n i n g v a r i o u s s h a p e s i t i s n o t e d by K e l l o g g ( 1 9 7 0 ) t h a t c h i l d r e n have a p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n v i s u a l i m a g e s . She p r o p o s e s t h a t c h i l d r e n h ave a t e n d e n c y t o p r o d u c e a f o r m c a l l e d a " m a n d a l a " , ( p . 64) a t e r m u s e d t o l a b e l a l l s y m b o l s 16 u s i n g a c i r c u l a r m o t i f c o m b i n e d w i t h l i n e a r f o r m s . K e l l o g g s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m a n d a l a i s i n e v i t a b l e b e c a u s e o f t h e d e s i r e among c h i l d r e n t o s e a r c h f o r o v e r a l l b a l a n c e i n f o r m s . G a r d n e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) v i e w s t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e m a n d a l a as e v i d e n c e o f t h e y o u n g c h i l d ' s t e n d e n c y t o f o c u s o n c o n t r a s t i n g e l e m e n t s and r e p e a t e a s i l y r e p r o d u c e d , p l e a s i n g i m a g e s . He s e e s t h e m a j o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e m a n d a l a a s t h e b r i d g e b e t w e e n p r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l a r t f o r c h i l d r e n . The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e m a n d a l a i n t o l i k e n e s s e s o f p e o p l e , s u n s and o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i m a g e s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s h i f t f r o m d e s i g n and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by t h e c h i l d t o a more n a r r a t i v e f o r m o f d e p i c t i o n ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . I n e a r l y e f f o r t s a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h e c h i l d o f t e n d e p i c t s g e n e r a l r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c e n t i t i e s . D r a w i n g s a nd p a i n t i n g s a r e w i t h o u t d e t a i l and o b j e c t s and p e o p l e seem t o s t a n d f o r t h e l a r g e s t c a t e g o r y o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C h i l d r e n o r g a n i z e t h e i r w o r l d by c l a s s i f y i n g o b j e c t s a s c e n t r a l i n s t a n c e s o r p r o t o t y p e s . The way c h i l d r e n r e p r e s e n t t h i n g s i n t h e i r a r t r e f l e c t s t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o s t a n d f o r a l l o f one c a t e g o r y r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e s ( G a r d n e r , 1980; S m i t h , 1 9 8 3 ) . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f a t t e m p t s a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t t e n d s t o become l e s s c o m p l e x i n a p p e a r a n c e and a w h o l e page may be u s e d t o show one i t e m o r o b j e c t . As c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p more s u b c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e i t e m s d e p i c t e d , t h e ne e d a r i s e s f o r more v i s u a l - g r a p h i c schemas t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n s t a n c e s w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y . The use o f h a i r , c l o t h i n g , and e a r r i n g s t o s c h e m a t i z e 17 t h e d r a w i n g o f a woman a r e e x a m p l e s o f how t h e p r o t o p t y p i c f o r m o f p e o p l e becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y e l a b o r a t e d and a c q u i r e s more c h a r a c t e r . C h i l d r e n s t a r t t o p r o d u c e a body s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e h e a d a t t h i s s t a g e . Arms a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e s h o u l d e r r a t h e r t h a n s e t a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e body w h i l e o b j e c t s a r e f l a t t e n e d o u t and r e p r e s e n t e d f r o m a l l v i e w p o i n t s . C h i l d r e n e v e n t u a l l y p r o d u c e f i g u r e s t h a t have b o d i e s w i t h arms and l e g s f o r m e d by one c o n t o u r . They c a n s t a r t t o show a c t i o n and movement s u c h as r u n n i n g and c l i m b i n g . I t i s a t t h i s s t a g e t h a t t h e c h i l d i s b e y o n d t h e " n a t u r a l u n f o l d i n g " p r o c e s s ; f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t i s no l o n g e r p r i m a r i l y i n n a t e ( W i l s o n & W i l s o n , 1 9 8 2 ) . S c h a e f e r - S i m m e r n ( 1 9 4 8 ) a g r e e s w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f t h e " u n f o l d i n g " o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s b u t he f e e l s t h i s n a t u r a l p r o c e s s n e e d n o t t e r m i n a t e i n c h i l d h o o d . I t i s s u b v e r t e d , i n h i s v i e w , by f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . The c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d i s n o t a n e n t i r e l y p r e d i c t a b l e j o u r n e y . The p r e c e d i n g d e s c r i p t i o n must be b a l a n c e d w i t h t h e k n o w l e d g e t h a t a b s o l u t e p r e c i s i o n i n d e s c r i b i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i s a n i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . B e h a v i o r a l d e v e l o p m e n t and m e n t a l d e v e l o p m e n t do n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o s u c h an a n t e c e d e n t - c o n s e q u e n c e frame o f r e f e r e n c e ( do x and y w i l l f o l l o w ). What we c a n a n t i c i p a t e - and what we may f o r e v e r have t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h - i s an i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f what h a p p e n s , a s l o w - m o t i o n c i n e m a t i c p o r t r a i t o f one c h i l d , two c h i l d r e n , many c h i l d r e n , a s t h e y f o l l o w t h e p l e a s u r e -t i n g e d p a t h f r o m s h e e r m o t o r a c t i v i t y t o p a t e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f o r m . ( G a r d n e r , 1980, p.36) I n r e v i e w i n g some o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , b a s i c p a t t e r n s o f d e v e l o p m e n t have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d . The p r o g r e s s i o n o f m o t o r and c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s , t h e 18 t e n d e n c i e s t o u s e f a v o u r e d modes o f d e p i c t i o n , a n d t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f f o r m s t o e v e n t u a l l y a l l o w r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e a l l t r e n d s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e s o u r c e s c i t e d . T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' ^ a r t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s how c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s t y p i c a l l y d e v e l o p u s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i a o f p e n c i l s , m a r k e r s and p a i n t s . The r e s u l t s o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s c a n now be a n a l y z e d w i t h a n a w a r e n e s s o f t h e t r e n d s i d e n t i f i e d i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . T h e o r e t i c a l B a s e s f o r M i c r o c o m p u t e r Use w i t h Young C h i l d r e n Many schemes h a v e b e e n s u g g e s t e d t o c l a s s i f y t h e ways m i c r o c o m p u t e r s c a n be u t i l i s e d . One w i d e l y a c c e p t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i s t o d i v i d e t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d a s t o o l , t u t o r o r t u t e e ( T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . One d i f f e r e n t i a t e s among u s e s o f t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g by e x a m i n i n g t h e l o c u s o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e c o m p u t e r . When t h e c o m p u t e r i s u s e d a s a t u t o r , t h e c o n t r o l r e s i d e s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , and t h e l e a r n e r i s t a u g h t t h r o u g h p r e p r o g r a m m e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n t h e t o o l c a t e g o r y t h e c o m p u t e r i s u s e d t o p e r f o r m a f u n c t i o n s u c h a s t o s o r t o r f i l e i n f o r m a t i o n . The g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y w o u l d f i t i n t h i s s e c o n d c a t e g o r y , a l t h o u g h i t d o e s a l s o s h a r e some o f t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e t u t e e c a t e g o r y a s w e l l . I n t h e t u t e e c a t e g o r y t h e c o m p u t e r i s programmed o r , i n e f f e c t , t a u g h t by t h e c h i l d o r s t u d e n t t o p e r f o r m a t a s k . The s y n t a x may v a r y b u t t h e s t u d e n t c o n t r o l s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e c o m p u t e r . When u s e d a s a t o o l some t h e o r i s t s f e e l t h a t t h e 19 m i c r o c o m p u t e r h a s e n d l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . " The c o m p u t e r c a n be t h o u g h t o f a s a blank, s l a t e upon w h i c h t h e c h i l d may c r e a t e h i s / h e r own w o r l d . " ( N e i r b o e r , 1 983, p.5) I t i s a l s o f e l t , by some, t h a t t h i s t o o l c a p a b i l i t y i s n o t l i m i t e d i n i t s a p p e a l o r u s e f u l n e s s b u t c a n be t a i l o r e d t o s u i t many s i t u a t i o n s and n e e d s . " The c o m p u t e r i s a P r o t e u s o f m a c h i n e s . I t s e s s e n c e i s i t s u n i v e r s a l i t y , i t s power t o s t i m u l a t e , b e c a u s e i t c a n t a k e on a t h o u s a n d f o r m s and c a n c r e a t e a t h o u s a n d f u n c t i o n s , i t c a n a p p e a l t o a t h o u s a n d t a s t e s " ( P a p e r t , 1 9 8 0 , p . v i i i ) . The c o m p u t e r i s a n i d e a l t o o l b e c a u s e i t c a n be u s e d t o s o r t , m a n i p u l a t e , p r o c e s s and s t o r e i n f o r m a t i o n q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y . The c o m p u t e r a s an e d u c a t i o n a l t o o l o f f e r s c h i l d r e n , " t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a d o m a i n i n w h i c h k i d s d o n ' t have t o t a k e someone's word a s t o what h a p p e n s " ( M o s h e l l , 1 9 8 2 , p . 5 8 ) . The c h a l l e n g e f o r e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t o r s i s t o f i n d ways t h e c o m p u t e r c a n be u s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h what a c h i l d t y p i c a l l y w a n t s t o l e a r n and m a s t e r ( T i p p s & S a n d e r s , 1982) . When t h e c o m p u t e r i s u s e d a s a t u t e e t h e c h i l d must l e a r n t o p r o g r a m o r t h i n k l i k e a c o m p u t e r t o c o n t r o l i t . The t e r m " p r o g r a m " i s u s e d i n t h e b r o a d e s t s e n s e h e r e m e a n i n g t h e s t e p s one t a k e s t o c o n t r o l t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c o m p u t e r i n a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e programmer h a s c o n t r o l o v e r i t s d i r e c t i o n and outc o m e . P r o g r a m m i n g i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e a c o m p u t e r l a n g u a g e s u c h a s LOGO o r B a s i c t o p r e s c r i b e a s e r i e s o f s t e p s t o t h e c o m p u t e r . The h y p o t h e s i z e d a d v a n t a g e o f t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o p r o g r a m t h e c o m p u t e r i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e b e n e f i t s 20 g a i n e d i n t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t o f l o g i c a l t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . T h i s p r o c e s s o f c o g n i t i v e g r o w t h t h r o u g h p r o g r a m m i n g l e a d s c h i l d r e n t o be more r e f l e c t i v e a b o u t t h e i r own t h i n k i n g a nd a l s o t o be c o n c e r n e d w i t h more c o m p l e x a s p e c t s o f t h e i r own t h i n k i n g . ( P a p e r t , 1 9 8 0 ) S t u d i e s w h i c h r e p o r t e v i d e n c e t h a t p r o g r a m m i n g c a n i n c r e a s e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g f o r c h i l d r e n have b e e n c o n d u c t e d , b u t a r e n o t c o n c l u s i v e ( B i l l i n g , 1983; M i l n e r , 1973; S o l o w a y , L o c h h e a d & C l e m e n t , 1982; S t a t z , 1 9 7 4 ) . O t h e r s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r a m m i n g i n d i c a t e v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e s k i l l l e v e l s r e a c h e d by c h i l d r e n and n a r r o w n e s s and s p e c i f i c i t y i n t h e a b i l i t y a c h i e v e d ( P e a , 1 9 8 3 ; P e a , H a w k i n s & S h e i n g o l d , 1 9 8 3 ) . From t h e r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i t a p p e a r s t h a t s t u d i e s on t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n how t o p r o g r a m c o m p u t e r s have n o t e s t a b l i s h e d a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h m i c r o c o m p u t e r s i s r e p o r t e d t o l e a d t o a more c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s a l r e a d y known i n t u i t i v e l y ( B a m b e r g e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . By p l a y i n g w i t h f a m i l i a r i d e a s i n t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r e n v i r o n m e n t , new i n s i g h t s and ways o f v i e w i n g them a r e g a i n e d , a s B a m b e r g e r (1983) s t a t e s : The c o m p u t e r r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a s u p e r b r a i n , t e a c h i n g us w i t h i t s c o n s i s t e n t and l o g i c a l ' t h i n k i n g ' i s i n s t e a d a f a n t a s y w o r l d w h i c h , l i k e a h a l l o f m i r r o r s , r e f l e c t s b a c k t o us i m a ges of- o u r commonsense ways o f m a k i n g t h i n g s a n d m a k i n g s e n s e . ( p . 1 ) The c o m p u t e r i n t h i s way i s l i k e n e d t o a s a n d c a s t l e and t h e r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i n g s c r e a t e d by u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r r e v e a l s a n i n t e r e s t i n g and s o m e t i m e s s u r p r i s i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n i t i a l p u r p o s e . ( B a m b e r g e r , 1983) 21 C omputer G r a p h i c s and Young C h i l d r e n The u se o f c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s i s v i e w e d as a p o s i t i v e way t o i n t r o d u c e c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y t o y o u n g c h i l d r e n ( S h e i n g o l d , 1 9 8 4 ) . The u se o f s y m b o l i c l a n g u a g e r e q u i r e d when u s i n g a c o m p u t e r i s n o t s e e n a s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c h i l d d e v e l o p m e n t . The s y m b o l i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d i s e x t e n d e d i n a new d i r e c t i o n by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a c o m p u t e r . The c o m p u t e r o f f e r s some u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r yo u n g c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g . One o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s g i v e n by S h e i n g o l d ( 1 9 8 4 ) i s t o use t h e c o m p u t e r a s a s u p p o r t t o l e a r n i n g so c h i l d r e n c a n e x p l o r e a s p e c t s o f e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t w o u l d n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s k i l l s t h e y do n o t h a v e . She a l s o f e e l s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s o f f e r c h i l d r e n a way t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d what t h e y do i n o t h e r m e d i a . W i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s and o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m s f o r g r a p h i c s t h e r e i s an "emergence o f p r o g r a m s c o m p e l l i n g i n c a p a c i t y t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y c o o r d i n a t e t h e a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n a s d o e s w a t e r , b l o c k s e t c . " ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . The f a c t t h a t a t t r i b u t e s s u c h a s l e n g t h , c o l o u r , s h a p e , t h i c k n e s s e t c . c a n be s e e n on t h e c o m p u t e r s c r e e n , t a l k e d a b o u t and u n d e r s t o o d , i n v i t e s i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l s o f o p e r a t i o n w i t h good g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s , a c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n d e r . The q u a l i t i e s t h a t P i e s t r u p ( 1 9 8 2 ) f e e l s a r e i m p o r t a n t i n c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s f o r c h i l d r e n a r e t h a t t h e p r o g r a m s o f f e r t h e c h i l d r e n o p p p o r t u n i t i e s t o : 1. u s e t h e p r o g r a m p l a y f u l l y . 2. have t i m e t o t h i n k a b o u t what i s h a p p e n i n g . 22 3. e x p e r i e n c e s u r p r i s e s and l e a r n e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . 4. g e n e r a t e c o n s e q u e n c e s . ( p . 4 ) Computer g r a p h i c s have much p o t e n t i a l i n t h e a r e a o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e as A l e x a n d e r (1983) s t a t e s : " G r a p h i c s i n t e r a c t i v e computer a c t i v i t y v a l i d a t e s t h e i n s t i n c t s o f young c h i l d r e n w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e i t r e c o g n i z e s and r e f l e c t s t h e shape and n a t u r e o f o u r t e c h n o l o g i c a l c u l t u r e " ( p . 8 ) . Use o f g r a p h i c s a p p l i c a t i o n s a l s o a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o employ b o t h a r e l a t i o n a l and a n a l y t i c a l s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g . These two s t y l e s d e s c r i b e t h e manner i n wh i c h p e o p l e c h o o s e and c l a s s i f y i n f o r m a t i o n . W i t h an a n a l y t i c a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e , a t t r i b u t e s have s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e whole. With a r e l a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g s t y l e , a t t r i b u t e s have a s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s . The r e l a t i o n a l s t y l e i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c r e a t i v i t y i n the a r t s ( L e e , 1983). The two s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g a r e u s e d by c h i l d r e n i n t h e t y p i c a l s e q u e n c e o f c r e a t i n g w i t h computer g r a p h i c s , "Computers p r o v i d e h i g h l y v i s u a l and a u d i o s t i m u l i w h i l e a l l o w i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o c r e a t i v e l y e x p r e s s him o r h e r s e l f . Thus, i t u t i l i z e s r e l a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g t o e n a b l e t h e p e r s o n t o engage i n a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g " ( L e e , 1983,P.5). Computer g r a p h i c s a r e s e e n by Lee as h o l d i n g much p r o m i s e f o r e n h a n c i n g b o t h t h e t h i n k i n g s k i l l s and c r e a t i v i t y o f young c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h on P r e s c h o o l e r s ' Use o f M i c r o c o m p u t e r s Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h done i n t h e a r e a o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n and c o m p u t e r s has f o c u s e d on t h e use o f CAI, Computer A s s i s t e d I n s t r u c t i o n . I n t h i s t y p e o f computer use t h e c h i l d 23 t y p i c a l l y i s t a u g h t a m a t h e m a t i c a l , r e a d i n g o r l a n g u a g e c o n c e p t o r s k i l l by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a p r o g r a m . The r e s e a r c h t h a t h a s e x a m i n e d p r e s c h o o l e r s ' use o f CAI h a s r e a c h e d a v a r i e t y o f c o n c l u s i o n s . I n a s t u d y w i t h f o u r - y e a r o l d s i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e c a p a b l e o f w o r k i n g w i t h m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . The s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o u s e a s t a n d a r d k e y b o a r d w i t h m i n i m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a s w e l l a s c h a n g e and l o a d s o f t w a r e i n d e p e n d e n t l y ( S h a d e , D a n i e l , N i d a , L i p i n s k i , & W a t s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n t e r m s o f t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t o f a c o m p u t e r i n a p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g t h e s e a u t h o r s ( 1 9 8 4 ) f o u n d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r i n i t i a l l y d i s r u p t e d f r e e p l a y p a t t e r n s , t h i s e f f e c t d i s s i p a t e d a f t e r s e v e r a l weeks and p a t t e r n s r e t u r n e d t o n o r m a l . They a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n g e n d e r and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f c o m p u t e r u s e . I n a s s e s s i n g t h e i m p a c t o f a c o m p u t e r on t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f a p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e was f o u n d t o be c r u c i a l ( N i d a e t a l . , 1 9 8 4 ) . The t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a s t r u c t u r e i n t h e way t h e c o m p u t e r was u s e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and c o n t r o l i t s u s e was t h e c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n m a k i n g t h e c o m p u t e r an e f f e c t i v e p a r t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m . The c o m p u t e r d i d n o t have a n e g a t i v e a f f e c t o n c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; i t p r o v e d t o f o s t e r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , v e r b a l s h a r i n g , h e l p i n g , t u r n - t a k i n g and c o l l a b o r a t i o n ( B o r g h Se D i c k s o n , 1983; C h u r c h Se W r i g h t , 1983; H a w k i n s , 1983; K l i n z i n g , 1985; S t r a n d , G i l s t a d , G e n i s h i , M c C o l l u m Se C a s t a n e d a , 1985; S w i g g e r Se S w i g g e r , 1984; W i l l i a m s , 1 9 8 4 ) . T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 3 ) f o u n d t h a t c o m p u t e r u s e d i d n o t l e a d t o s o c i a l 24 i s o l a t i o n b u t a c t u a l l y i n c r e a s e d s t u d e n t e x c h a n g e s . The c h i l d r e n i n h e r s t u d y were a b l e t o m a s t e r t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e e q u i p m e n t q u i c k l y . The n a t u r e o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e c o m p u t e r w i t h i n a s t r u c t u r e o f l o g i c was s e e n a s a means o f h e l p i n g i m p u l s i v e c h i l d r e n become more r e f l e c t i v e i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r . T a y l o r e n v i s i o n s t h e c o m p u t e r i n a s u p p l e m e n t a l r o l e i n t h e p r e s c h o o l t o r e i n f o r c e c o n c e p t l e a r n i n g . She s t r e s s e s t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i s n o t a t e a c h e r s u b s t i t u t e , m e r e l y a p l a y o b j e c t u s e d t o a d d t o t h e p r e s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e . P a i s l e y and Chen ( 1 9 8 2 ) e m p h a s i z e t h e s e n s e o f power p r e s c h o o l e r s g a i n when u s i n g m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . They r e p o r t t h a t y o u n g c h i l d r e n t e n d t o t h i n k i n c o n c r e t e t e r m s and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c o m p u t e r s a p p e a r t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s p a t t e r n . Mander ( 1 9 8 2 ) s t r e s s e s t h e s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c o m p u t e r and t h e c h i l d . She f e l t t h e p r a i s e g i v e n by c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m s was s u p e r i o r t o t h a t g i v e n by t e a c h e r s . K r a u s ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t p l a y i n g c o m p u t e r games t h a t i n v o l v e d m a t h e m a t i c a l c o n c e p t s l e d t o g r o w t h i n t h i s a r e a w i t h p r i m a r y c h i l d r e n . P i e s t r u p ( 1 9 8 1) f o u n d c o m p u t e r s t o be e f f e c t i v e i n i m p r o v i n g r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s w i t h t h r e e t o f o u r y e a r o l d s . The c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o o p e r a t e t h e c o m p u t e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y and were r e p o r t e d t o have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e a b o u t l e a r n i n g on t h e c o m p u t e r . P i e s t r u p ( 1 9 8 2 ) e x a m i n e d t h e u s e o f g r a p h i c s w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n and f o u n d t h e c h i l d r e n m a s t e r e d t h e u s e o f t h e j o y s t i c k a nd p a d d l e s e a s i l y . She f e l t t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n u s e d c o m p u t e r s i n ways t h a t c a n n o t be d u p l i c a t e d w i t h p a p e r and p e n c i l s . C h i l d r e n 25 were a l l o w e d f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e s i n g e n e r a t i n g c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s w h i l e l e a r n i n g c o n c e p t s i n t h e p r o c e s s . H u n g a t e ( 1 9 8 2 ) f o c u s s e d h e r s t u d y o n d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n . R e s u l t s showed some i m p r o v e m e n t i n b a s i c s k i l l s a f t e r w e e k l y e x p o s u r e t o c o m p u t e r s f o r a n e i g h t month p e r i o d . S m i t h y - W i l l i s and a s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 8 2 ) a l s o u s e d d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n i n a s t u d y t h a t f o u n d f o u r y e a r o l d s were a b l e t o l e a r n s i m p l e v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t a s k s u s i n g c o m p u t e r s . S w i g g e r and C a m p b e l l ( 1 981) s t u d i e d t h e use o f c o m p u t e r s w i t h t h r e e and f o u r y e a r o l d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s . The c h i l d r e n u s e d a p r o g r a m w h i c h r e q u i r e d them t o s e l e c t and d i s c r i m i n a t e among v a r i o u s s h a p e s . I t was f o u n d t h e y were a b l e t o use t h e p r o g r a m s u c c e s s f u l l y and none was a f r a i d t o use t h e c o m p u t e r . They a l s o f o u n d t h e e d u c a t o r s ' e s t i m a t e s o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n were n o t c o n f i r m e d . The c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o l e a r n more c o m p l e x t a s k s t h a n was t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e . They a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were l e s s a n x i o u s when a d u l t s were n o t p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h o s e t i m e s when t h e y w o r k e d w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r . F e i n and h e r a s s o c i a t e s ( 1 9 8 3 ) e x a m i n e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s i n c l a s s r o o m s , when c o m p u t e r s were u s e d and when t h e y were n o t . The c o m p u t e r was i n t r o d u c e d a s an a c t i v i t y and t h e c h i l d r e n were p e r m i t t e d t o o b s e r v e one a n o t h e r w h i l e w o r k i n g a t t h e c o m p u t e r . The c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o draw, c o l o u r and move o b j e c t s on t h e s c r e e n w i t h j o y s t i c k s and b u t t o n s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r had no g e n e r a l b e h a v i o r a l e f f e c t s on e i t h e r g r o u p b u t c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n e a c h g r o u p were a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e c h i l d r e n . I n t h i s 26 c l a s s t h e c o m p u t e r was s e e n a s n o n d i s r u p t i v e : i t s e f f e c t on e a c h g r o u p was c o n t r o l l e d by ' f a c t o r s n o t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i t s e l f . T h i s r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t y l e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e a r n e r may d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r . J o h n s o n (1983) a l s o f o u n d t h a t p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r e s c h o o l e r s had a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r u se o f c o m p u t e r s . He c o m p a r e d t h e i n t e r e s t shown i n c o m p u t e r s by a g r o u p o f p r e s c h o o l e r s g i v e n a c c e s s t o c o m p u t e r s w i t h t h e i r c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . The c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g was a n a l y z e d by a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s o f s y m b o l i c use and d i v e r g e n t t h i n k i n g . B e h a v i o r a l f u n c t i o n i n g was a s s e s s e d u s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g and s e l e c t e d h y p o t h e t i c a l s i t u a t i o n t a s k s a s w e l l a s a n a l y s i n g f r e e - p l a y b e h a v i o r s . J o h n s o n f o u n d t h a t more f r e q u e n t u s e r s o f m i c r o c o m p u t e r s showed h i g h e r l e v e l s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e a s m e a s u r e d by s y m b o l i c use t a s k s . They a l s o d i s p l a y e d more f o c u s s e d , l e s s c o n c r e t e f o r m s o f p l a y a s m e a s u r e d by a n a l y s i s o f f r e e - p l a y p a t t e r n s . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t c o g n i t i v e u n d e r p i n n i n g s f o r c o m p u t e r i n v o l v e m e n t by p r e s c h o o l e r s and t h a t t h e r e m i g h t be an a f f i n i n t y b e t w e e n h i g h i n t e r e s t i n m i c r o c o m p u t e r use and c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e a n d b e h a v i o r a l s t y l e s . The e f f e c t o f u s i n g c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s and t e a c h e r r e c o r d e d s t o r y w r i t i n g was s t u d i e d by Warash ( 1 9 8 4 ) . She c o n c l u d e d t h a t c h i l d r e n v e r b a l i z e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a b o u t t h e i r c o m p u t e r -g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s t h a n t h e i r hand d r a w n p i c t u r e s and t h a t t h e y d e v e l o p e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d c o m p u t e r s . The s i m i l a r i t i e s 27 and d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a book r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y a nd a c o m p u t e r a c t i v i t y were e x a m i n e d by Worden and h e r c o l l e a g u e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e s n o t e d i n b e h a v i o r i n c l u d e d more comments and q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c o m p u t e r a c t i v i t y by t h e c h i l d r e n a s w e l l a s t h e use o f a more d i r e c t i v e s t y l e on t h e p a r t o f p a r e n t s . T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t m e d i a i n v o k e v a r y i n g s t y l e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n and t e a c h i n g . A s t u d y by P r i n z and N e l s o n (1984 ) shows how t h e c o m p u t e r m e d i a c a n be u s e d t o p a r t i c u l a r a d v a n t a g e w i t h h e a r i n g i m p a i r e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . W i t h t h e use o f v o c a b u l a r y s e l e c t e d f o r e a c h c h i l d , a n i m a t i o n , c o l o r g r a p h i c s and a s p e c i a l i n t e r f a c e word k e y b o a r d , s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t how t o r e a d a s w e l l a s a s p e c i a l f o r m o f w r i t i n g o n - s c r e e n m e s s a g e s . R e s u l t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s i n w ord r e c o g n i t i o n and r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . S t u d i e s w h i c h e x a m i n e d p r e s c h o o l e r s ' use o f CAI p r o g r a m s have shown some d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s . W h i l e some r e s e a r c h e r s r e p o r t t h a t c o m p u t e r s e n c o u r a g e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , o t h e r s a r e more i n c l i n e d t o a g r e e w i t h B a r n e s and H i l l ( 1 9 8 3 ) who f e e l t h a t c o m p u t e r use l e a d s t o s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y s k i l l l e v e l s i n t h e v a r i o u s a r e a s have b e e n f a v o u r a b l y a f f e c t e d by c o m p u t e r use b u t i t h a s n o t b e e n p r o v e n t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i s a n a p p r o p r i a t e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r e s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . Many s t u d i e s c o n c l u d e t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o i n t e r a c t w e l l w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r and have no d i f f i c u l t y u s i n g t h e k e y b o a r d , y e t o t h e r s t u d i e s s i m p l i f y k e y b o a r d s f o r s i n g l e k e y s t r o k e i n p u t . The o b s t a c l e t h a t k e y b o a r d s k i l l s c a n c r e a t e f o r t h e l e a r n i n g 28 p r o c e s s c a n be s e e n i n t h e r e s u l t s o f a s t u d y by Shaw, S w i g g e r and H e r n d o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s a s k e d by c h i l d r e n when l e a r n i n g t o use a c o m p u t e r . E v e n t h o u g h t h e s t u d y u s e d e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n t h e r e s u l t s a r e r e l e v a n t t o p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a s t h e phenomena r e p o r t e d w o u l d l i k e l y be more p r o n o u n c e d a t a y o u n g e r age. I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e most q u e s t i o n s a s k e d were a b o u t t h e k e y b o a r d , how t o e n t e r d a t a a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f p r o g r a m i n s t r u c t i o n s . A n o t h e r a r e a t h a t l e d t o many q u e s t i o n s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t u d e n t s ' p r o b l e m s w i t h r e m e m b e r i n g commands o f t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m . More e m p h a s i s on k e y b o a r d i n g s k i l l s a s w e l l a s u s i n g s i m p l e r m e n u - d r i v e n o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m s were recommended as a r e s u l t o f t h i s s u r v e y (Shaw e t a l . , 1 9 8 5 ) . The most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , o f t e n g i v e n l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , i s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t w a r e u s e d i n e a c h s t u d y and w h e t h e r o r n o t i t a d d r e s s e s t h e g o a l s o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . Too o f t e n t h e p r o g r a m s a r e n o t d e s c r i b e d i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t o a p p r e c i a t e q u a l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , g e n d e r o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . I f r e s e a r c h i s t o d e t e r m i n e what i s r e a l l y g o i n g o n when young c h i l d r e n use c o m p u t e r s , t h e n more a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s o f t w a r e e m p l o y e d . V a r t u l i ( 1 9 8 4 ) d e v e l o p e d a 1 6 - i t e m e v a l u a t i o n f o r m t o a i d i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e c o m p u t e r i z e d game m a t e r i a l s f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . The f o r m was d e r i v e d f r o m a 32-week s t u d y . I n t h i s s t u d y c h i l d r e n t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e y e a r s o f age and t h e i r t e a c h e r s had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o u s e and c h o o s e v a r i o u s s o f t w a r e . 29 B a s e d on t h e c h o i c e s i t was f o u n d t h a t games t h a t i n v o l v e s i n g l e k e y p r e s s e s were f a v o u r e d by t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n a n d o l d e r c h i l d r e n u s e d t h e w h o l e k e y b o a r d more f r e q u e n t l y . S o f t w a r e s e l e c t i o n i s most o f t e n b a s e d on u s e r p r e f e r e n c e a n d p e r c e p t i o n w i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s o f t w a r e a s i t r e l a t e s t o t h e m a j o r g o a l s o f e a r l y c h i l d h o o d e d u c a t i o n . Summary The p r e c e d i n g r e v i e w h a s e x a m i n e d t r e n d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t , t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s f o r m i c r o c o m p u t e r u s e and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g p r e s c h o o l e r s ' u se o f c o m p u t e r s . A r t as a means o f e x p r e s s i o n i s a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f d e v e l o p m e n t f o r y oung c h i l d r e n ( G a r d n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s u s i n g m e d i a s u c h a s p e n c i l s and p a i n t s i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d . C h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c a b i l i t i e s show d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n s i n t h e way images a r e g e n e r a t e d and i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f b a s i c v i s u a l - g r a p h i c e l e m e n t s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r a s a new medium and how t h i s medium e f f e c t s t h e a r t i s t i c e v o l u t i o n o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n . The p a t t e r n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i a become u s e f u l r e f e r e n t s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d a r t w o r k . Many t h e o r i s t s a g r e e t h a t c o m p u t e r s have a p o t e n t i a l a s an e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n . Some f e e l t h a t t h e p r e s c h o o l i s t h e i d e a l p l a c e t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c o m p u t e r a s p a r t o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m . H owever, o t h e r s b a l a n c e t h i s e n t h u s i a s m by p o i n t i n g o u t t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n a n d t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f c o m p u t e r s . C e r t a i n l y much o f t h e r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d e m p h a s i z e s c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o use c o m p u t e r s e f f e c t i v e l y . B u t o f more 30 f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e r n i s t h e k i n d o f p r o g r a m s a v a i l a b l e f o r young c h i l d r e n . One must q u e s t i o n t h e p r o g r a m s i n t e n d e d f o r u s e w i t h p r e s c h o o l e r s . I s t h e t y p i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r o g r a m and c h i l d a p p r o p r i a t e and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e way yo u n g c h i l d r e n l e a r n ? Many p r o g r a m s a r e c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n t e r m s o f l a n g u a g e u s e d , t h e i r c o n t e n t , and t h e d i f f i c u l t y c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e when u s i n g them. I t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s e i n a d e q u a c i e s a r e n o t p r e s e n t when u s i n g c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s t o p r o m o t e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c g r o w t h . W h i l e a few t h e o r i s t s h a v e s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d t h e u s e o f c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n f o r yo u n g c h i l d r e n , few r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have b e e n done o n t h i s s u b j e c t . 31 CHAPTER I I I M e t h o d S u b j e c t s The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C h i l d S t u d y C e n t r e w i t h s e v e n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n (two f o u r - y e a r o l d s and f i v e f i v e - y e a r o l d s ) who were e n r o l l e d i n t h e Summer 1985 p r o g r a m a t t h e C e n t r e . F i v e o f t h e s e v e n s t u d e n t s , t h r e e male and two f e m a l e , were i n v o l v e d i n a p i l o t s t u d y w h i c h l a s t e d f o r t h r e e weeks. The p i l o t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and t e a c h i n g methods f o r t h e m a i n s t u d y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , much o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d on c o m p u t e r d i s k e t t e was l o s t b e c a u s e o f damage t o t h e d i s k e t t e s . The s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m and t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o use i t w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s , was a s c e r t a i n e d a t t h i s t i m e . The m a i n s t u d y was t h e n c o n d u c t e d w i t h two c h i l d r e n , a male and a f e m a l e , b o t h f i v e y e a r s o l d . Two s t u d e n t s were u s e d i n t h e m a i n s t u d y a s o n l y t h i s number o f s t u d e n t s was a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t i m e t h e m a i n s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p h a s e o f t h e m a i n s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d f r o m J u l y 22, 1985 t o S e p t e m b e r 1, 1985 w i t h e a c h s t u d e n t h a v i n g f i f t e e n s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d f r o m J u l y 22 t o J u l y 30, t h e c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g m o r n i n g c l a s s e s a t t h e p r e s c h o o l a n d t h e i r s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e m i c r o c o m p u t e r were h e l d d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . A f t e r J u l y 30 t h e two c h i l d r e n came t o t h e C h i l d S t u d y C e n t r e f o r t h e c o m p u t e r s e s s i o n s o n l y and were n o t 32 a t t e n d i n g c l a s s e s a t t h i s t i m e . S e t t i n g The c h i l d r e n i n b o t h p h a s e s o f t h i s s t u d y w o r k e d i n a room a d j a c e n t t o t h e p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m . The c o m p u t e r was l o c a t e d i n a n a r e a s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e room by a d i v i d e r . The c o m p u t e r e q u i p m e n t u s e d was a n IBM PC J u n i o r m i c r o c o m p u t e r w i t h a c o l o u r m o n i t o r , a p r i n t e r , a nd a d e s k t o p mouse p l a c e d on a l a r g e t a b l e . A g r e e n d o t was g l u e d o n t o t h e l e f t ' h a n d b u t t o n o f t h e mouse and a n o r a n g e b u t t o n was g l u e d o n t o t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n o f t h e mouse. T h i s c o l o u r c o d i n g o f t h e mouse b u t t o n s was done b e c a u s e i t a v o i d e d t h e p r o b l e m s c h i l d r e n had i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l e f t f r o m r i g h t . The c h i l d r e n s a t i n f r o n t o f t h e c o m p u t e r on a c h a i r w h i c h p u t them a t a l e v e l where t h e y c o u l d h a n d l e t h e e q u i p m e n t e a s i l y and see t h e s c r e e n a t t h e same t i m e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a t on a l o w e r c h a i r c l o s e by t h e c h i l d i n a g ood p o s i t i o n t o s e e t h e s c r e e n , h e l p t h e c h i l d , a nd d e m o n s t r a t e how t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e mouse. S e s s i o n s D u r i n g t h e p i l o t and m a i n s t u d y , no t i m e l i m i t was s e t on t h e l e n g t h o f e a c h s e s s i o n . As l o n g a s t h e c h i l d was, i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e o b s e r v e r , p u r p o s e f u l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e s e s s i o n c o n t i n u e d . S e s s i o n s l a s t e d f r o m 30 t o 45 m i n u t e s a l t h o u g h s e s s i o n s o f o v e r a n h o u r d i d o c c u r . E a c h s e s s i o n b e g a n w i t h t h e c h i l d l o a d i n g t h e s o f t w a r e . Once t h e p r o g r a m was l o a d e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l o r f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m w h i l e t h e c h i l d w a t c h e d . Then t h e c h i l d was g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t r y t h e 33 s k i l l j u s t o b s e r v e d . The c h i l d was a f f o r d e d a s much f r e e d o m as p o s s i b l e t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t h e new f e a t u r e a t t h i s p o i n t . I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n o f t h e s e s s i o n t h e c h i l d p r o d u c e d a p i c t u r e w i t h t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t a k i n g on t h e r o l e o f h e l p e r - o b s e r v e r . I n some s e s s i o n s t h e c h i l d w o u l d c o m p l e t e a p i c t u r e a n d e x p r e s s a d e s i r e t o make a n o t h e r . I n t h e f i n a l m i n u t e s o f t h e s e s s i o n t h e c h i l d s a v e d t h e p i c t u r e t o a d i s k e t t e and p r i n t e d a c o p y . T h i s p r i n t e d c o p y was t h e n g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d a t t h e end o f t h e s e s s i o n . D u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w o u l d h e l p t h e c h i l d o n l y when r e q u e s t e d . R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r The i n v e s t i g a t o r f i l l e d v a r i o u s r o l e s d u r i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . D u r i n g t h e l e s s o n s e c t i o n he d e m o n s t r a t e d s k i l l s , e x p l a i n e d c o n c e p t s and v o c a b u l a r y , p r o v i d e d t i m e f o r p r a c t i c e and h e l p e d t h e c h i l d c o p e w i t h any p r o b l e m a r e a s r e l a t e d t o e i t h e r p h y s i c a l s k i l l s o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r a m . W h i l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was d i r e c t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and f r e e e x p r e s s i o n u s i n g t h e s k i l l s l e a r n e d was e n c o u r a g e d as much a s p o s s i b l e . A f t e r t h e c h i l d d e m o n s t r a t e d a b a s i c a b i l i t y t o u s e t h e s k i l l o r f e a t u r e d e a l t w i t h i n t h e l e s s o n , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s r o l e became l e s s d i r e c t i v e f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s e s s i o n . The c h i l d made a l l d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e a e s t h e t i c c h o i c e s i n c r e a t i n g t h e p i c t u r e . They c o u l d u t i l i z e any f e a t u r e t h e y h a d l e a r n e d i n t h e i r p i c t u r e p r o d u c t i o n and were n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o u s i n g t h e most r e c e n t l y l e a r n e d f e a t u r e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r t a l k e d t o t h e c h i l d r e n a s t h e y c r e a t e d p i c t u r e s and e n c o u r a g e d them t o c l a r i f y t h e i r t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e p r o c e s s o f 34 c r e a t i n g a p i c t u r e a s t h e y w o r k e d . R e s p o n s e s were l i s t e n e d t o and q u e s t i o n s were a s k e d t o e x p l o r e t h e c h i l d ' s t h o u g h t s . T h i s q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e was u s e d t o v a l i d a t e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e i r a r t and t o p r o m o t e s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n c r e a t i n g a n a r t w o r k . The r o l e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a t t h i s p o i n t was t o e n r i c h and s u p p o r t t h e c h i l d ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i c medium p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o m p u t e r . T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a n d t h e s t u d e n t t y p i f i e d s e s s i o n s i n b o t h t h e p i l o t and m a i n s t u d y . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s was i n t h e l a s t s e s s i o n f o r e a c h c h i l d , w h i c h was v i d e o t a p e d . I n t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n no l e s s o n s e c t i o n was i n c l u d e d and t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n c e n t e r e d on t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p i c t u r e u s i n g t h e s k i l l s t h e c h i l d h a d l e a r n e d . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n C ompetence C h e c k l i s t From i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p i l o t s t u d y a c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t was d e s i g n e d t o be u s e d i n e a c h s e s s i o n o f t h e m a i n s t u d y . A c o p y o f t h a t c h e c k l i s t i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x C. The p u r p o s e o f t h e c h e c k l i s t was t o have a means o f r e c o r d i n g t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i n a n o n - j u d g m e n t a l way. The c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t was made up o f c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t h e s e q u e n c e o f s k i l l s n e e d e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o u s e t h e p r o g r a m , a s t a u g h t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The c h e c k l i s t was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t d e a l t w i t h t h e s k i l l s n e e d e d t o l o a d t h e s o f t w a r e and s t a r t up t h e p r o g r a m . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e c h e c k l i s t i n v o l v e d r e c o r d i n g t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use t h e i c o n i c o p t i o n s o f t h e 35 p r o g r a m and some o f t h e s k i l l s t h a t were n e c e s s a r y t o u t i l i z e t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n f u l l y : F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e " L I N E " i c o n c o u l d be u s e d t o draw s t r a i g h t l i n e s a t any p o i n t d e s i r e d on t h e w o r k s p a c e . U t i l i z i n g t h i s o p t i o n came u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g L I N E i n t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t . The c a t e g o r y LINE-CLOSED SHAPE r e f e r r e d t o t h e s k i l l o f u s i n g t h e mouse w i t h t h e l i n e o p t i o n i n m a k i n g a c l o s e d , s t r a i g h t - e d g e d s h a p e by a s e r i e s o f m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e b u t t o n s o f t h e mouse, and d r a g g i n g t h e l i n e s f r o m a common end p o i n t . U t i l i z i n g t h e l i n e o p t i o n i n t h i s way t o c r e a t e a c l o s e d s h a p e was a more i n v o l v e d manoeuvre and r e q u i r e d more d e x t e r i t y w i t h t h e mouse t h a n d r a w i n g s t r a i g h t l i n e s . C a t e g o r i e s on t h e c h e c k l i s t r e f l e c t e d t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use t h e r e g u l a r f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o g r a m and s k i l l s t h a t e x t e n d e d t h e u s e o f t h e f e a t u r e a s i n t h e LINE-CLOSED SHAPE e x a m p l e . A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h e c k l i s t c a t e g o r i e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x D. The t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h e c h e c k l i s t c o n c e r n e d s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o use p u l l d o w n menus. The p u l l d o w n menus a r e i n t h e f o r m o f a l i s t o f w o rds t h a t a r e s e l e c t e d t o a l l o w v a r i o u s o p t i o n s and t a s k s t o be p e r f o r m e d . The f a c t t h a t t h e p u l l d o w n menus were n o t r e p r e s e n t e d p i c t o r i a l l y b u t were p r e s e n t e d i n w o r d s , w o u l d seem t o make w o r d - r e c o g n t i o n s k i l l p r e r e q u i s i t e . The c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t was u s e d t o r e c o r d t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o use a p a r t i c u l a r f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m t h r o u g h o u t e a c h s e s s i o n . The e n t r i e s o n t h e c h e c k l i s t were d i v i d e d i n t o two t y p e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e way t h e c h i l d p e r f o r m e d t h e s k i l l . I f t h e c h i l d n e e d e d a s s i s t a n c e and a s k e d t h e t e a c h e r f o r h e l p o r 36 r e q u i r e d some v e r b a l o r p h y s i c a l d i r e c t i o n t o a c c o m p l i s h any p o r t i o n o f a s k i l l , t h e n t h e s k i l l was c h e c k e d o f f u n d e r t h e " T . A . " , t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d h e a d i n g . I f t h e c h i l d p e r f o r m e d t h e s k i l l and r e q u i r e d no i n v o l v e m e n t f r o m t h e t e a c h e r and was a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s k i l l w i t h no d i f f i c u l t y t h e n t h e l i s t was c h e c k e d o f f u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g " I n d . " , i n d e p e n d e n t f u n c t i o n i n g . The c h e c k l i s t was f i l l e d i n f o r a l l s e s s i o n s i n t h e m a i n s t u d y . F i e l d N o t e s N o t e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s were k e p t f o r e a c h s e s s i o n w i t h t h e two c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n s t u d y . The p u r p o s e o f t h e n o t e s was t o r e c o r d any s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n . T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s o r comments made by t h e c h i l d r e n o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r a s e a c h w o r k e d w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r . I m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e s were a l s o r e c o r d e d . I n c i d e n t s o r e p i s o d e s t h a t h a p p e n e d w i t h i n a s e s s i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g b e h a v i o r , were r e c o r d e d a s were r e a c t i o n s o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e v a r i o u s c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . V i d e o t a p e d S e s s i o n s The l a s t s e s s i o n f o r e a c h c h i l d i n b o t h t h e p i l o t and t h e m a i n s t u d y was r e c o r d e d on v i d e o t a p e . The r e c o r d i n g was done i n s u c h a way a s t o show as much as p o s s i b l e o f t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e t e a c h e r and t h e c o m p u t e r . P o r t i o n s o f e a c h v i d e o t a p e t h a t r e f l e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i s c o v e r i e s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g o r a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b e h a v i o r were t r a n s c r i b e d and a r e d e s c r i b e d f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r F o u r . M o s t o f t h e c h i l d ' s work on t h e c o m p u t e r s c r e e n , was p r e s e n t i n t h e 37 v i d e o t a p e r e c o r d i n g . D u r i n g t h e v i d e o t a p e d s e s s i o n s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o o k on more o f a s p e c t a t o r r o l e t o l e t t h e c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r a b i l i t y . D i a l o g u e i n i t i a t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e n t and t h i n k i n g . A n a l y s i s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t work A l l p i c t u r e s made by t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n s t u d y were s a v e d on d i s k and d u p l i c a t e d . The s t u d e n t ' s a r t w o r k done i n t h e i r p r e s c h o o l c l a s s u s i n g o t h e r m e d i a d u r i n g t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d was a l s o s a v e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The s t u d e n t s were g i v e n m a t e r i a l s and t i m e t o make t h e i r own p i c t u r e s and were a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e t h e medium and t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f t h e i r a r t w o r k f o r t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e s t u d y when t h e p r e s c h o o l was n o t i n s e s s i o n . These p i c t u r e s were s a v e d a s w e l l . F o r e a c h s t u d e n t t e n o f t h e f i f t e e n s a m p l e s o f t h e i r c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d a r t w o r k and t e n o f t h e f i f t e e n s a m p l e s o f t h e i r a r t w o r k done i n o t h e r m e d i a were s e l e c t e d t o be a n a l y s e d by t h r e e j u d g e s u s i n g f i v e c a t e g o r i e s . The t h r e e j u d g e s were c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f i e l d o f A r t E d u c a t i o n . Two o f t h e j u d g e s were g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s i n A r t E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e o t h e r j u d g e was a n - a r t i n s t r u c t o r a t a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y a r t i n s t i t u t e . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e l i t e r a t u r e by c h o o s i n g v a r i a b l e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s a r t t h a t were s e e n a s b e i n g o f c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s a p p e a r e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t h e t e x t s and were e v i d e n t i n i l l u s t r a t e d e x a m p l e s i n t h e s o u r c e s c i t e d . 38 P r o c e d u r e s o f a n a l y s i s E a c h image was numbered and c l a s s i f i e d a s t o t h e s t u d e n t who p r o d u c e d i t and t h e medium u s e d : c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d o r o t h e r m e d i a . I n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e j u d g e s w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s and t h e r a t i n g s c a l e , s e v e r a l s a m p l e s were shown b e f o r e t h e j u d g i n g commenced and e x a m p l e s n o t u s e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s were d i s c u s s e d a t t h a t t i m e t o c l a r i f y a m b i g u i t i e s t h a t m i g h t a f f e c t a s s i g n m e n t t o c a t e g o r i e s . The t h r e e j u d g e s t h e n v i e w e d e a c h image i n d i v i d u a l l y and r e c o r d e d a r a t i n g f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o n a s c o r e s h e e t p r o v i d e d . W i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y t h e j u d g e s were i n s t r u c t e d t o g i v e t h e image a r a t i n g f r o m one t o f i v e on a L i k e r t S c a l e . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d i n e a c h o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x E. The j u d g e s d i d n o t c o n f e r o n t h e i r s c o r i n g , t h e y r a t e d e a c h image w i t h no c o n s u l t a t i o n . The o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e i m a g e s were p r e s e n t e d t o t h e j u d g e s was random and was n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y were p r o d u c e d . The c o m p u t e r g e n e r a t e d images were shown on t h e c o m p u t e r s c r e e n and j u d g e s were a l l o w e d a s much t i m e a s n e c e s s a r y t o v i e w e a c h image. The j u d g e s ' s c o r e s were a n a l y s e d t o c h e c k t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y i n a s s i g n i n g s c o r e s t o t h e i m a g e s . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . P r o c e d u r e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f D a t a The mean s c o r e s f o r c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s and images made w i t h o t h e r m e d i a were c o m p a r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t i n g c o m p a r i s o n was u s e d a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e two p r e d i c t e d o u t c o m e s r e g a r d i n g t h e m e d i a u s e d i n image g e n e r a t i o n were s u p p o r t e d by 39 t h e d a t a . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e means i s assumed t o show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t y p e o f m e d i a u s e d i n c r e a t i n g a n a r t w o r k , and t h e r a t i n g g i v e n t o t h e r e s u l t i n g p r o d u c t . I n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t t h e outcome w h i c h p r e d i c t e d t h a t a r t w o r k done w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r w i l l be r a t e d h i g h e r i n e a c h o f t h e c a t g o r i e s o f V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , C o m p l e x i t y , and T e x t u r e t h a n w i l l t h e i m a g e s made w i t h o t h e r m e d i a , t h e c o m p u t e r -g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s w o u l d have t o be r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h i g h l y i n t h e f o u r c r i t e r i a : V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , C o m p l e x i t y , and T e x t u r e . The outcome w h i c h p r e d i c t e d t h a t c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d a r t w o r k w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f Image Autonomy t h a n a r t w o r k done i n o t h e r m e d i a , w o u l d be s u p p o r t e d i f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e means showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r r a t i n g f o r t h e c o m p u t e r g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s on t h e c r i t e r i o n Image Autonomy. The a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a was done t o show any r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t m i g h t e x i s t i n a p a r s i m o n i o u s way, b u t was n o t d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s b e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l n e s s o f t h e s a m p l e . 40 CHAPTER IV R e s u l t s I n t h i s C h a p t e r t h e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n t h e f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t u s e d t o r e c o r d t h e c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r a r e r e p o r t e d . A n o t h e r p e r s p e c t i v e on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p e t e n c e b a s e d on r e l e v a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s g i v e n i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h i s a r e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r t h a t r e l a t e t o a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . The r e s u l t s o f t h e j u d g i n g o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t done on t h e c o m p u t e r and i n o t h e r m e d i a a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n . The j u d g e s ' s c o r e s a r e c o m p a r e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e e f f e c t o f m e d i a on t h e r a t i n g s o f t h e a r t w o r k i s e x a m i n e d . Competence b a s e d on c h e c k l i s t The i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t s r e v e a l e d t h a t b o t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n s t u d y g a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e s k i l l i n u s i n g t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m . As c o u l d be e x p e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t few s e s s i o n s most o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s were i n t h e t e a c h e r -a s s i s t e d c a t e g o r y . The g r o w t h o f s k i l l s o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t u d y was d e m o n s t r a t e d by a n i n c r e a s e o f i n d e p e n d e n t l y - u s e d s k i l l s . The g r o w t h o f s k i l l s i n t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d and i n d e p e n d e n t s k i l l s i s shown f o r e a c h s t u d e n t i n F i g u r e 1 and F i g u r e 2. I t had b e e n e x p e c t e d t h a t , o f t h e t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o g r a m , more w o u l d be i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t u s e t h a n i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d u s e . The 41 Figure 1. Competence c h e c k l i s t graph for student one. o ~i 2 3 3 5—5—?—g—g—in—n—rm—ra—rr SESSION NUMBER Figure 2. Competence check l i s t graph for student two 42 d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s p r e d i c t i o n has b e e n s u p p o r t e d , a s t h e number o f i n s t a n c e s o f i n d e p e n d e n t u s a g e o u t n u m b e r e d t h e t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d c a t e g o r y f o r b o t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y . The g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t d a t a r e v e a l e d t h e g r o w t h o f i n d e p e n d e n t s k i l l s o v e r t h e f i f t e e n s e s s i o n s . I t a l s o showed c l e a r l y t h e t a p e r i n g o f f o f t e a c h e r -a s s i s t e d s k i l l s i n l a t e r s e s s i o n s . C ompetence b a s e d on o b s e r v a t i o n s D e s c r i p t i v e e v i d e n c e i s b a s e d on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n b o t h t h e m a i n and p i l o t s t u d y . I n c l u d e d w i t h t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e c o m p a r i s o n s o f ways t h e c h i l d r e n t y p i c a l l y u s e d t h e c o m p u t e r medium t o p r a c t i c e s w i t h o t h e r a r t i s t i c m e d i a . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p e t e n c e was shown by t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s l e a r n e d i n o t h e r m e d i a t o t h e c o m p u t e r . B o t h c h i l d r e n had b e e n t a u g h t p r e v i o u s l y how t o i n c o r p o r a t e s p i r a l s h a p e s i n t o t h e i r d e s i g n s and had p r a c t i s e d t h i s i d e a i n t h e i r c l a s s w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s e a c h c h i l d u s e d t h e i d e a o f s p i r a l s h a p e s i n c o m p u t e r c o m p o s i t i o n s w i t h o u t any s u g g e s t i o n o r p r o m p t i n g f r o m t h e t e a c h e r . The boy drew a s p i r a l - l i k e s h a p e on t h e s c r e e n i n an e a r l y s e s s i o n and p o i n t e d a t t h e s h a p e w i t h h i s f i n g e r and r e m a r k e d , " A s p i r a l . " The g i r l a l s o u s e d t h e s p i r a l i n s e v e r a l o f h e r c o m p u t e r p i c t u r e s . She e x p l a i n e d when a s k e d t h a t she had u s e d s p i r a l s i n p i c t u r e s i n h e r c l a s s . She a l s o r e m a r k e d t h a t i t was h a r d e r w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r b e c a u s e she c o u l d n o t do i t t h e way she w a n t e d . As t h i s was h e r t h i r d s e s s i o n u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r , h e r s k i l l w i t h t h e mouse was s t i l l d e v e l o p i n g and h e r o b s e r v a t i o n a b o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r was n o t 43 s u r p r i s i n g . The p o i n t o f t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a d a p t e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r a s a n a r t i s t i c medium t o w h i c h t e c h n i q u e s f r o m o t h e r m e d i a c o u l d be a p p l i e d and r e f i n e d . C ompetence a p p e a r e d t o d e v e l o p a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o m p u t e r a s a n o t h e r medium j u s t l i k e p e n c i l s , c r a y o n s and p a i n t s . A l o n g w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o a d a p t t e c h n i q u e s f r o m o t h e r m e d i a t o t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p e d new s k i l l s u n i q u e t o t h e g r a p h i c s a p p l i c a t i o n . The use o f a mouse t o i n p u t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e t o a v e r t i c a l s c r e e n was t h e f i r s t a d j u s t m e n t f r o m o t h e r m e d i a . I n o t h e r m e d i a t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s k i l l u s i n g v a r i o u s t o o l s s u c h a s p a i n t b r u s h e s a n d m a r k e r s r e v o l v e d a r o u n d t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e t i p o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t h e c o n t a c t p o i n t on t h e p a p e r . W i t h t h e c o m p u t e r t h i s c o n t a c t p o i n t was r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a r r o w o r c u r s o r , w h i c h was n o t d i r e c t l y m a n i p u l a t e d b u t was l i n k e d t o t h e movement o f t h e mouse on a g r i d p ad. A f t e r t h e f i r s t few s e s s i o n s on t h e c o m p u t e r a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e p i l o t and m a i n s t u d y were a b l e t o a d a p t t o t h e i d e a o f c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e movements o f t h e mouse f r o m t h e g r i d on t h e t a b l e t o t h e s c r e e n . The u se o f b u t t o n s o n t h e t o p o f t h e mouse t o d e s i g n a t e l i n e s and make c h o i c e s was a n o t h e r s k i l l n e e d e d . M o s t m a n o e u v r e s o f t h e mouse r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f t h e l e f t h a n d b u t t o n , and t h i s t y p e o f manoeuvre was l e a r n e d e a s i l y by a l l c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h p r e s s i n g t h e b u t t o n s o m e t i m e s p r o d u c e d u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s . O f t e n , i n c i d e n t s where t h e b u t t o n was d e p r e s s e d a c c i d e n t a l l y o r i n a c a r e l e s s way l e d t o s u r p r i s i n g o u t c o m e s . T h i s s h o r t c o n v e r s a t i o n 44 w i t h a boy i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y shows how t h i s t y p e o f i n c i d e n t l e d t o more c a r e f u l , r e f l e c t i v e u s e o f t h e mouse. A t t h i s p o i n t t h e c h i l d was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f m a k i n g a p i c t u r e : C h i l d : " N o , t h a t i s my i d e a e x c e p t I am n o t f i n i s h e d . I have t o f i l l i n a l l t h i s w h i t e ... I have a l l t h i s w h i t e t o go . Hey what h a p p e n e d ! " E x p e r i m e n t e r : " R e m e m b e r what h a p p e n e d ? " C h i l d :"0h d a r n i t ! " E x p e r i m e n t e r :"You were i n c o l o u r f i l l so i f y o u h i t t h e b u t t o n - what h a p p e n e d ? Now h o l d on b e f o r e y o u do a n y t h i n g . " C h i l d :"How c a n I r e l e a s e t h a t ? " E x p e r i m e n t e r :"OK, now we go up h e r e i f y o u want t o undo t h a t . " ( i n d i c a t e s UNDO f u n c t i o n i n EDIT menu) C h i l d : " T h i s o n e ? " E x p e r i m e n t e r : " P u l l down t h e f i r s t one. T h e r e y o u go ( c h i l d p u l l s down UNDO o p t i o n and e l i m i n a t e s l a s t move f r o m t h e s c r e e n ) Now we c a n s t a r t a g a i n i f y o u want t o c h a n g e i t . " C h i l d :"There-now I remember what I am s u p p o s e d t o d o . " T h i s b r i e f i n c i d e n t shows how u s e o f t h e mouse e n c o u r a g e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o be p r e c i s e i n t h e i r movements. The mouse c o u l d be u s e d w i t h t w o - b u t t o n m a n o e u v r e s s u c h a s s t r a i g h t - l i n e d r a w i n g and m a k i n g s t r a i g h t - e d g e d and c i r c u l a r s h a p e s . T h i s r e q u i r e d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f f i n g e r movements a nd e x a c t t i m i n g i n t h e r e l e a s e o f b u t t o n s . T h i s t y p e o f s k i l l , w h i l e i t t o o k t i m e t o m a s t e r , was l e a r n e d by a l l o f t h e c h i l d r e n a n d was u s e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n s . The p r e v a l e n c e o f many s t r a i g h t l i n e s and g e o m e t r i c f o r m s i n t h e i r l a t e r e f f o r t s , a s w e l l a s e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t w o - b u t t o n manoeuvre o f t h e mouse was m a s t e r e d by e a c h c h i l d . A f u r t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m n o t a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r m e d i a was t h e g e o m e t r i c o p t i o n s . These o p t i o n s made p o s s i b l e t h e d r a w i n g o f s t r a i g h t l i n e s o f v a r i o u s w i d t h s u s i n g t h e l i n e o p t i o n , s q u a r e s o r r e c t a n g l e s u s i n g t h e s q u a r e o p t i o n . 45 and c i r c l e s o r e l l i p t i c a l s h a p e s u s i n g t h e c i r c l e o p t i o n . With t h e s e o p t i o n s t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o draw p e r f e c t l y formed g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s and l i n e s t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s s p e c i f i e d e a s i l y . O t h e r media do n o t a l l o w t h e s e forms t o be c r e a t e d as e a s i l y o r w i t h t h e v e r s a t i l i t y o f p l a c e m e n t p o s s i b l e i n t h e computer o p t i o n s . One c a n t r a c e s h a p e s u s i n g t e m p l a t e s i n o t h e r media b u t n o t w i t h t h e a c c u r a c y o r e a s e o f t h e computer. The c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o use t h e g e o m e t r i c o p t i o n s i n t h e p r o g ram i n d e p e n d e n t l y as shown i n t h e competence c h e c k l i s t s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e c h i l d r e n were t a u g h t t o draw l i n e s , r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e s , and c i r c u l a r s h a p e s . These manouevres a r e f a i r l y complex and i n v o l v e t h e use o f t h e two b u t t o n s on t o p o f t h e mouse a t t h e r i g h t t i m e . The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f t h e s t e p s r e q u i r e d : 1. S e l e c t t h e l i n e , c i r c l e , o r s q u a r e i c o n and a c t i v a t e i t by p r e s s i n g t h e l e f t b u t t o n on t h e mouse. 2. Move t h e mouse t o t h e l o c a t i o n where t h e shape i s t o be drawn i n the w o r k s p a c e . 3. P r e s s down t h e l e f t b u t t o n and h o l d i t , w h i l e d r a g g i n g the shape o r l i n e t o the d i m e n s i o n s d e s i r e d by moving t h e mouse. 4. When t h e shape o r l i n e i s i n t h e form d e s i r e d , t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d w h i l e s t i l l h o l d i n g t h e l e f t one. 5. B o t h b u t t o n s a r e t h e n r e l e a s e d a t once and t h e shape or l i n e now a p p e a r s drawn i n t h e workspace a t t h e d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n and w i t h t h e d e s i r e d d i m e n s i o n s . 46 T h i s s e r i e s o f s t e p s d e s c r i b e s how a s i n g l e c i r c l e o r r e c t a n g l e i s d r a w n on t h e s c r e e n . B o t h c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n study-were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s manoeuvre w i t h l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y . The c h i l d r e n u s e d g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s i n t h e d r a w i n g s a s images i n a b s t r a c t d e s i g n s . ( A p p e n d i x A - i m a g e s F8,M2,M9.) They a l s o u s e d t h e g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n a s i s shown i n d r a w i n g s F 2 , F4. They w o u l d a l s o c h o o s e , on o c c a s i o n , t o u s e g e o m e t r i c f o r m s d r a w n f r e e h a n d w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f t h e g e o m e t r i c o p t i o n . (See d r a w i n g s F l , F 2 , F 4 , F 7 , F 1 0 , M l , M4.) Not o n l y were t h e c h i l d r e n a b l e t o use t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o make g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s , t h e y d i s c o v e r e d a n a d v a n c e d way t o u s e i t t h r o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n h e l d t h e l e f t b u t t o n down w h i l e f o r m i n g t h e c i r c u l a r o r s q u a r e s h a p e a n d p r e s s e d down t h e r i g h t h and b u t t o n f o r v a r y i n g d u r a t i o n s w h i l e d r a g g i n g t h e mouse. An e f f e c t o f m u l t i p l e s h a p e s r a d i a t i n g f r o m t h e same s t a r t i n g p o i n t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h i s m anoeuvre. A d i s c o v e r y s u c h a s t h i s made by t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d a p p e a r t o go b e y o n d any t e c h n i q u e t h e y were t a u g h t , and shows how t h e y e x p l o r e d t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . (See p i c t u r e s F 5 , M9, M2.) The r e s u l t i n g c o m p l e x v i s u a l image t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o c r e a t e u s i n g a c o m p u t e r seems t o s h a r e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e " m a n d a l a " image c h i l d r e n t e n d t o g e n e r a t e w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . The p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e s e s h a p e s may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r b a s i c a p p e a l t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a e s t h e t i c s e n s e i n a manner s i m i l a r t o t h e a p p e a l o f t h e m a n d a l a i n c h i l d r e n ' s work i n o t h e r m e d i a . I n t e r m s o f g e o m e t r i c o p t i o n s , t h e p r o g r a m a p p e a r e d t o f u r n i s h c h i l d r e n w i t h a k i n d o f " c o g n i t i v e s c a f f o l d i n g " ( S h e i n g o l d , 1984) t h a t l e t them use f o r m s 47 n o r m a l l y i n a c c e s s i b l e t o them w i t h a p r e c i s i o n one d o e s n o t a s s o c i a t e w i t h y o u n g a r t i s t s . Use o f t h e c o m p u t e r a l s o p e r m i t t e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o u s e t h e i d e a o f p a t t e r n i n g and c o p y i n g f o r m s i n a manner n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . The u s e o f t h e SELECT o p t i o n a l l o w e d c h i l d r e n t o c o p y o r move a r e c t a n g u l a r a r e a o f t h e p i c t u r e t o o t h e r l o c a t i o n s i n t h e w o r k s p a c e . T h i s c a p a b i l i t y was c o m p l i c a t e d t o use and i n v o l v e d two s e p a r a t e s e q u e n c e s o f t w o - b u t t o n m a n o e u v r e s w i t h t h e mouse. I n t h e f i r s t s e q u e n c e t h e a r e a t o be moved o r c o p i e d a t a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d . I n t h e s e c o n d s e q u e n c e t h e a r e a was a c t u a l l y c o p i e d a t t h e new l o c a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s d i f f i c u l t manoeuvre i n d e p e n d e n t l y a f t e r p r a c t i c e , and t h e y a l s o u s e d t h i s o p t i o n t o c r e a t e p a t t e r n e d e f f e c t s i n t h e i r p i c t u r e s . (See p i c t u r e s M l , M4.) The e q u i v a l e n t o f t h i s o p t i o n i n o t h e r m e d i a i s p r i n t m a k i n g a c t i v i t y u s i n g s u c h m a t e r i a l s a s p o t a t o e s o r s p o n g e s t o d u p l i c a t e s h a p e s i n a p i c t u r e . The m a i n d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s and t h e s e l e c t o p t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e c o m p u t e r i s t h e d e t a i l a nd p r e c i s i o n t h a t c a n be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e e f f o r t w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r and t h e e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n s p o s s i b l e . The TEXT f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o g r a m was a n o t h e r f e a t u r e n o t a v a i l a b l e i n o t h e r m e d i a . The c h i l d r e n c o u l d t y p e t h e i r names on t h e i r p i c t u r e s a t any p o i n t o f t h e s c r e e n . They c o u l d a l s o c h o o s e t h e c o l o u r , s i z e , and s t y l e o f t h e l e t t e r s and w h e t h e r t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e l e t t e r s was t r a n s p a r e n t o r o p a q u e . The c h i l d r e n i n b o t h p i l o t and m a i n s t u d y u s e d t h i s o p t i o n r e g u l a r l y t o r e c o r d t h e i r names on t h e i r d r a w i n g s . These names have b e e n removed f r o m 48 t h e s a m p l e s shown i n A p p e n d i x A. O t h e r m e d i a o f f e r c h i l d r e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w r i t e t h e i r names i n f r e e h a n d p r i n t i n g o r w r i t i n g o n t h e i r work. Use o f t h e c o m p u t e r o f f e r e d them a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o r d t h e i r names i n v a r i o u s ways u s i n g a k e y b o a r d t o p r o d u c e p e r f e c t l y f o r m e d l e t t e r s . E v i d e n c e o f a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Some o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m p r o v i d e d t o m a n i p u l a t e c o l o u r a p p e a r t o r e l a t e t o a e s t h e t i c d e c i s . i o n - m a k i n g . W i t h t h e C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m one c a n l a y e r c o l o u r upon c o l o u r , w h i l e k e e p i n g e a c h l a y e r d i s c r e t e and u n c h a n g e d . When u s i n g p a i n t s c h i l d r e n t e n d t o l a y e r p a i n t i n t h e c o u r s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , so t h a t i n t h e end t h e y p r o d u c e a m i x o f t h e c o l o u r s i n a n e u t r a l a g g r e g a t e o f p i g m e n t . The l a y e r i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e c o m p u t e r medium was d i s c o v e r e d and e x p l o i t e d by t h e c h i l d r e n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e boy i n t h e m a i n s t u d y was e s p e c i a l l y f o n d o f c r e a t i n g m u l t i c o l o u r e d c o m b i n a t i o n s by a p p l y i n g l a y e r u pon l a y e r w i t h t h e p a i n t b r u s h o p t i o n . T h i s l a y e r e d e f f e c t c a n be s e e n i n p i c t u r e s M2, M5, M6, M8, M9, and M10. A n o t h e r p r o p e r t y o f t h e c o m p u t e r medium t h a t r e l a t e s t o a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n s was t h e c o n t r o l i t g ave t h e c h i l d r e n o v e r t h e c o l o u r s u s e d i n t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n s . The p r o g r a m a l l o w e d f o u r b a s i c c o l o u r c h o i c e s t o be a v a i l a b l e a t any one t i m e . One c o l o u r , w h i t e , was c o n s t a n t and c o u l d n o t be a l t e r e d . The o t h e r t h r e e c o l o u r c h o i c e s c o u l d be s e l e c t e d v e r y s i m p l y by p r e s s i n g a b u t t o n and t h e c o l o u r s c o u l d be c h a n g e d t h r o u g h a r a n g e o f f i f t e e n c h o i c e s . As c o l o u r c h o i c e s were c h a n g e d , t h e c o l o u r s i n t h e a r t w o r k i n t h e w o r k s p a c e were a l t e r e d a l s o . I n t h i s way c h i l d r e n 49 c o u l d c h a n g e t h e c o l o u r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n t h e work and t r y o u t numerous c o m b i n a t i o n s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i d i n g w h i c h c o m b i n a t i o n b e s t s u i t e d t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n . T h i s i s u n l i k e w o r k i n g w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . C h a n g i n g c o l o u r c h o i c e s o n c e a work i s s t a r t e d i s much more d i f f i c u l t , and m a j o r c o l o u r c h a n g e s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s t a r t i n g o v e r a g a i n . W i t h t h e c o m p u t e r , new p a i n t b r u s h c o l o u r s c a n be made by u s i n g t h e EDIT PATTERN o p t i o n i n t h e p u l l d o w n EDIT menu. T h i s o p t i o n a l l o w e d t h e c h i l d t o f o r m a new c o l o u r by a d d i n g i n d i v i d u a l b l o c k s o f c o l o u r t o a m a g n i f i e d p o r t i o n o f t h e c o l o u r . D e n s e , b r o k e n c o l o u r s composed o f up t o f o u r s e p a r a t e c o l o u r s c o u l d be c r e a t e d and s a v e d e a s i l y w i t h t h i s o p t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e s o f t h e b r o k e n c o l o u r s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o c r e a t e s e e p i c t u r e s M3, M4, M6, F 2 , F 3 , and F6. C h i l d r e n u s e d b o t h o f t h e c o l o u r o p t i o n s o u t l i n e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e c o l o u r s i n t h e i r a r t w o r k . One e p i s o d e i n a s e s s i o n w i t h a g i r l i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y g i v e s an e x a m p l e o f how t h e s u b j e c t s u s e d t h e c o l o u r c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . The c h i l d was i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i n g a n e l a b o r a t e d e s i g n o n t h e s c r e e n and had a l r e a d y made a c o m p l e x p i c t u r e o f i n t e r l o c k i n g s h a p e s . The EDIT PATTERN o p t i o n was c h o s e n and t h e c o l o u r t o e d i t was i n d i c a t e d . The c h i l d p r o c e e d e d t o add t o t h e c o l o u r t o be e d i t e d . A f t e r t h i s t h e c o l o u r s e l e c t o p t i o n was u s e d t o v a r y t h e t h r e e v a r i a b l e c o l o u r c h o i c e s , a l t e r i n g t h e c o l o u r c o m b i n a t i o n s i n t h e p r e s e n t d e s i g n and i n t h e p a t t e r n b e i n g e d i t e d . C o l o u r c h o i c e s were c h a n g e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 t i m e s b e f o r e she s e t t l e d on a f i n a l c o m b i n a t i o n . D u r i n g t h i s 50 t i m e she w o u l d o c c a s i o n a l l y h e s i t a t e w h i l e c h a n g i n g c o l o u r s t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f a c o l o u r s e l e c t i o n and a t o t h e r t i m e s she w o u l d c l i c k , t h e b u t t o n , a l t e r i n g t h e c o l o u r on t h e s c r e e n r a p i d l y . The c h i l d w o r k e d a t c r e a t i n g h e r own c o l o u r u s i n g t h e EDIT PATTERN o p t i o n and c h a n g i n g t h e c o l o u r c h o i c e s i n h e r p i c t u r e f o r s e v e r a l more m i n u t e s . She t h e n f i n i s h e d e d i t i n g h e r p a t t e r n by s a v i n g h e r f i n a l e d i t e d c o l o u r t o u s e a s one o f h e r p a i n t p a l e t t e c o l o u r s . T h i s e n t i r e c o l o u r s e l e c t i o n e p i s o d e l a s t e d f o r a b o u t e i g h t m i n u t e s . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h e c h i l d was v e r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i d i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l o u r c o m b i n a t i o n s f o r h e r c o m p o s i t i o n a s e v i d e n c e d by h e r p o s t u r e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e e v e n t s h a p p e n i n g on t h e s c r e e n . The b e h a v i o r shown by t h i s c h i l d was t y p i c a l o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c o l o u r , and seemed t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g made p o s s i b l e by t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . O t h e r m e d i a do n o t o f f e r t h e k i n d o f e d i t i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s p o s s i b l e w i t h a c o m p u t e r b e c a u s e t h e c o m p u t e r c a n be u s e d t o e d i t work i n p r o g r e s s . T h i s w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a r on a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o m p u t e r d r a w i n g . T y p i c a l l y when a m i s t a k e i s made i t i s e i t h e r e r a s e d o r i s h i d d e n by c o v e r i n g i t o v e r w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . When u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m i t i s p o s s i b l e t o UNDO t h e a c t i o n o f t h e most r e c e n t o p t i o n u s e d . The UNDO c o m p u t e r f e a t u r e was e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l when t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e p r e v i o u s a c t i o n was d e s i r e d b u t p r o v e d t o o d i f f i c u l t t o a c c o m p l i s h u s i n g t h e e r a s e r f u n c t i o n . U s i n g t h e UNDO f u n c t i o n a v o i d e d c o m p l i c a t i o n s when s l i p s o f t h e f i n g e r c a u s e d p r o b l e m s . I n i t i a l l y , t h e c h i l d r e n n e e d e d h e l p i n u s i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n 51 o f t h e EDIT menu. A f t e r u s i n g i t r e p e a t e d l y t h e y were a b l e t o u s e i t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o use t h e p u l l d o w n menu by m e m o r i z i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h i s o p t i o n i n t h e l i s t i n g o f menus. The t e n d e n c y f o r e a r l i e r s t e p s i n a c o m p o s i t i o n t o a f f e c t l a t e r s t e p s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s a t r e n d i n young c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o u l d seem t o be s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t when a c o m p u t e r i s u s e d . C h i l d r e n were n o t a s c o m m i t t e d t o e a r l i e r s t e p s , k n o w i n g t h e c o n t r o l e d i t i n g f e a t u r e s g ave them o v e r p r e v i o u s e v e n t s . T h i s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r m e d i a , a s t h e a b i l i t y t o b a c k t r a c k and c h a n g e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a p r e v i o u s s t e p i n a c o m p o s i t i o n i s n o t a s e a s y a s i t i s w i t h a c o m p u t e r . T h a t t h e c h i l d r e n d i d e m p l o y t h i s o p t i o n i s d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t s ; t h e y were a b l e t o do so o n t h e i r own e v e n t u a l l y . A n o t h e r e d i t i n g o p t i o n t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n u s e d r e g u l a r l y was CLEAR. T h i s f e a t u r e a l l o w e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o c l e a r t h e w o r k s p a c e t o t a l l y and s t a r t o v e r a g a i n , much t h e same as g e t t i n g a f r e s h p i e c e o f p a p e r when u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l a r t m e d i a . O t h e r p u l l d o w n menus were an a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m t h a t t h e C h i l d r e n were a b l e t o use i n m a k i n g a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n s a b o u t t h e i r a r t w o r k . These menus do n o t c o n t a i n p i c t u r e s o r i c o n s , b u t a l i s t o f words d e n o t i n g e d i t i n g o p t i o n s . The c h i l d r e n e v e n t u a l l y were a b l e t o u s e t h e s e menus i n d e p e n d e n t l y e v e n t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d n o t r e a d t h e w o r d s . An i n c i d e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h a boy i n t h e p i l o t s t u d y e x e m p l i f i e s t h e k i n d o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e u s e o f 52 p u l l d o w n menus. The c h i l d s t a t e d t h a t he wanted t o make p e r f e c t c i r c l e s i n h i s p i c t u r e . To do t h i s he had d e c i d e d t h a t c i r c l e s were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p i c t u r e t h a t he had i n mind and t h a t t h i s o p t i o n was a v a i l a b l e t o him. The c h i l d m a n i p u l a t e d th e mouse to use t h e TOOLS menu o f t h e p r o g r a m and he was a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e " c o n s t r a i n t on" o p t i o n w i t h i n t h i s l i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . The c o n s t r a i n t o p t i o n a l l o w s one to make o n l y c i r c u l a r s h a p e s and s q u a r e s when u s i n g t h e g e o m e t r i c o p t i o n s . A f t e r t h e c o n s t r a i n t - o n o p t i o n was a c t i v a t e d he c h o s e t h e c i r c l e o p t i o n from th e i c o n i c o p t i o n s and drew a s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s . T h i s f i n a l a c t o f d r a w i n g the c i r c l e s a f f i r m e d t h e f o r e t h o u g h t t h a t was needed t o e n a c t t h e s e r i e s o f g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r s d e s c r i b e d . T h i s i n c i d e n t , w hich l a s t e d p e r h a p s t e n s e c o n d s , e x e m p l i f i e d t h e way t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m i n t e r a c t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r a b i l i t y t o t h i n k t h r o u g h a s e t o f p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s t o an a e s t h e t i c g o a l . P r o b l e m - s o l v i n g Many o f t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n c i d e n t s o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e o f t h e l i t e r a l way t h a t a computer i s programmed t o r e s p o n d t o any command g i v e n t o i t . A t y p i c a l a r e a f o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g was w i t h t h e COLOURFILL f u n c t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m w h i c h a l l o w s one t o f i l l any c l o s e d a r e a o f t h e p i c t u r e w i t h t h e c o l o u r o f one's c h o i c e . C h i l d r e n l e a r n e d v e r y q u i c k l y what c o n s t i t u t e d a c l o s e d shape. They l e a r n e d t h i s b e c a u s e t h e y f o u n d t h a t any shape t h a t was n o t c l o s e d c o m p l e t e l y would a l l o w t h e c o l o u r t o l e a k o u t o f t h e shape and f i l l t h e r e s t o f t h e p i c t u r e s p a c e u n l e s s b l o c k e d by a c l o s e d s h ape. F r e q u e n t l y , t h e c h i l d r e n t r i e d t o f i l l a shape t h a t was 53 n o t t o t a l l y c l o s e d a l l o w i n g t h e c o l o u r t o l e a k o u t o f t h e shape and c o m p l e t e l y f i l l i n t h e w h o l e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e p i c t u r e w i t h t h e f i l l c o l o u r . The f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n shows an e x a m p l e o f how t h e c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p e d s t r a t e g i e s t o a n t i c i p a t e and remedy t h e p r o b l e m s d e s c r i b e d when u s i n g t h e c o l o u r f i l l o p t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t o r : "Why d i d you p u t t h a t l i n e t h e r e ? " ( I n v e s t i g a t o r p o i n t e d t o a l i n e b l o c k i n g c o l o u r f i l l f r o m s p r e a d i n g t h a t t h e c h i l d h ad j u s t a d d e d t o t h e p i c t u r e ) . C h i l d : " B e c a u s e , i t w o u l d urn, t o b l o c k t h i s , t o b l o c k t h i s f r o m t r y i n g t o g e t h e r e and i t w o u l d n ' t g e t p a s t h e r e " . (The c h i l d p o i n t e d t o t h e s c r e e n w i t h h i s f i n g e r t o i n d i c a t e t h e l i n e b l o c k i n g t h e c o l o u r f i l l f r o m s p r e a d i n g ) . E x p e r i m e n t e r :" Oh, I s e e . " C h i l d : "And I p u t t h i s t h e r e b e c a u s e I d i d n ' t want a w h i t e s p a c e t h e r e . " (The c h i l d a g a i n p o i n t e d t o t h e s c r e e n and i n d i c a t e d a n a r e a t h a t t h e l i n e a l l o w e d t h e c o l o u r f i l l t o c o v e r w i t h c o l o u r ) . I n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n t h e c h i l d d e s c r i b e d t h e s t r a t e g y t a k e n t o k e e p t h e c o l o u r f i l l t o t h e a r e a d e s i r e d and a c t e d on t h i s s t r a t e g y i n d r a w i n g l i n e s t o c o n t a i n t h e c o l o u r b e f o r e t h e c o l o u r f i l l o p t i o n was c h o s e n . T h i s a p p e a r e d t o i n d i c a t e a s t r a t e g y was d e v e l o p e d i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m e v e n t and t o p r e v e n t t h i s o u t c o m e . The c h i l d a n t i c i p a t e d t h e p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m outcome o f more s p a c e b e i n g f i l l e d w i t h c o l o u r t h a n was a n t i c i p a t e d . The c h i l d t h e n t o o k t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s t o a v o i d t h i s o utcome by d r a w i n g l i n e s t o b l o c k and c o n t a i n t h e f l o w o f c o l o u r . A n o t h e r e p i s o d e t h a t e x e m p l i f i e s t h e way t h e c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p e d p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o a v o i d b e i n g m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e c o m p u t e r i s a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o l o u r f i l l o p t i o n . The c h i l d had d r a w n many s h a p e s on t h e s c r e e n and was a b o u t t o u s e t h e c o l o u r f i l l o p t i o n t o f i l l them w i t h 54 c o l o u r . He chose c o l o u r f i l l and was a t t e m p t i n g to f i l l one shape when the c o l o u r l e a k e d through the o u t l i n e o f the a p p a r e n t l y c l o s e d shape and f i l l e d the whole background. T h i s o c c u r r e d because the o u t l i n e c o l o u r was porous and had w h i t e spaces i n the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the c o l o u r which a l l o w e d the f i l l c o l o u r to l e a k t h r ough and i n t o the r e s t o f the p i c t u r e . The r e a s o n the c o l o u r l e a k e d was g i v e n by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and the c h i l d then c l e a r e d the unwanted c o l o u r from the p i c t u r e u s i n g the UNDO o p t i o n i n the E d i t Menu. He then proceeded to f i l l o n l y the shapes w i t h o u t l i n e s composed o f s o l i d c o l o u r s w i t h o u t any w h i t e i n them, a v o i d i n g the shapes w i t h the porous l i n e s d e s c r i b e d above. T h i s would seem to i n d i c a t e not o n l y the use o f a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g y t h a t the c h i l d d e v e l o p e d from the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d but a l s o showed h i s a b i l i t y to make s u b t l e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s i n c o l o u r q u a l i t i e s . These d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s h o r t i n c i d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h i l d r e n were a b l e to d e v e l o p s t r a t e g i e s and use p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s k i l l s t o a v o i d d i f f i c u l t i e s when working w i t h the computer. A l t h o u g h these r e p r e s e n t s h o r t spans o f t i m e , they t y p i f y the k i n d o f problem s i t u a t i o n s e n c o u n t e r e d and problem-s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s d e v e l o p e d by each c h i l d . I n o r d e r to s o l v e problems one must have a problem s i t u a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the computer p r e s e n t e d many p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s t h a t appeared to a c t as c a t a l y s t s i n the development o f a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s . I n summary, the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t the c h i l d r e n would use g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r i n , a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g when u s i n g the program was 55 s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d on p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A n a l y s i s o f A r t C o m p a r i s o n o f J u d g e s ' R a t i n g s The t h r e e j u d g e s were a b l e t o r a t e a l l o f t h e f o r t y p i e c e s o f a r t work i n o n e , f o u r h o u r s e s s i o n . The j u d g e s r a t e d t e n images made u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r and t e n p i c t u r e s made u s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l a r t i s t i c m e d i a f o r e a c h o f t h e two c h i l d r e n i n t h e m a i n s t u d y . E a c h p i c t u r e was g i v e n a s c o r e o f one t o f i v e f o r t h e f i v e c r i t e r i a by e a c h o f t h e j u d g e s . S c o r e s r a n g e d f r o m t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g o f one t o t h e l o w e s t r a t i n g o f f i v e . A f t e r t h e j u d g i n g t h e s c o r e s h e e t s were c o l l e c t e d a n d t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s were c o m p a r e d f o r e a c h c r i t e r i o n . A summary o f t h e s e c o m p a r i s o n s i s shown i n T a b l e 1 w i t h a more d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e j u d g e s ' s c o r e s c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x B i n T a b l e s 2 - 1 1 . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e s c o r e s showed w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e j u d g e s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r s c o r i n g . B a s e d on t h e l e v e l o f c o n s i s t e n c y , c a t e g o r i e s were e i t h e r a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e j u d g e s a p p e a r e d t o be l e s s i n a g r e e m e n t i n t h e i r r a t i n g s o f t h e images o f s t u d e n t two t h a n o f s t u d e n t one. As t h e j u d g i n g was done i n a s i n g l e f o u r h o u r s e s s i o n , and t h e p i c t u r e s o f s t u d e n t two were r a t e d i n t h e l a t t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e s e s s i o n , f a t i g u e c o u l d be a f a c t o r i n t h i s l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t . A n o t h e r f a c t o r t h a t may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e j u d g i n g was t h e f a c t t h a t , a l t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e j u d g e s h a d e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t , none had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h a s c o r i n g s y s t e m o f t h i s t y p e . The a d j u s t m e n t t o t h i s way o f j u d g i n g a n image i n a 56 T a b l e 1 Summary o f a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n i n j u d g e s ' s c o r e s C r i t e r i a V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s S t u d . 1 comp. o t h e r S t u d . 2 comp. o t h e r A b s o l u t e V a l u e o f D e v i a t i o n J u d g e 1-2 J u d g e 1-3 J u d g e 2-3 0 . 40 0 . 80 0. 90 1. 10 0 . 20 0 . 60 0 . 50 1. 10 0 . 20 0 . 20 0. 80 1. 20 Mean S c o r e 1. 1, 1. 2 20 26 93 50 V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s S t u d . 1 comp. o t h e r S t u d . 2 comp. o t h e r 0 . 30 0 . 50 0 . 60 0 . 90 0 . 30 0 . 60 0 . 80 1. 80 0 . 20 0 . 30 0 . 20 1 . 50 1. 16 1. 36 1. 33 1. 90 C o m p l e x i t y S t u d . 1 comp. o t h e r S t u d . 2 comp. o t h e r 0 . 50 0 . 70 1. 60 1 . 30 0 . 50 0 . 30 1. 20 0 . 80 0 . 80 0 . 60 1. 20 1. 50 1. 63 1. 40 2. 30 2. 20 S t u d . 1 Image comp. 0.70 0.90 0.40 4.33 Autonomy o t h e r 0.80 1.20 1.00 2.83 S t u d . 2 comp. 0.60 0.80 0.60 2.69 o t h e r 0.50 0.70 1.00 1.56 S t u d . 1 T e x t u r e comp. 0.20 0.40 0.40 1.20 o t h e r 1.40 1.20 1.60 2.73 S t u d . 2 comp. 1.30 0.70 1.80 2.93 o t h e r 1.30 0.80 0.70 3.56 5 7 d e t a c h e d manner, r a t h e r t h a n e x a m i n i n g t h e work a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i m p a c t o f t h e i m a g e , may have p r o v e n a s o u r c e o f d i f f i c u l t y . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a u s e d , t h o u g h drawn f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , had n o t p r e v i o u s l y b e e n u s e d i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n u t i l i z e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . I t was n e i t h e r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y n o r f e a s i b l e t o do more t h a n e s t a b l i s h some t e n t a t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r them. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , and Image Autonomy showed t h a t t h e r e was a n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . I n t h e c a t e g o r y V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s d i s a g r e e m e n t f o r s t u d e n t two i n o t h e r m e d i a was b a l a n c e d by a n a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t i n a l l o t h e r a r e a s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . I n V a r i e t y w i t h i n S hapes and Image Autonomy t h e j u d g e s were c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r s c o r i n g f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s and i n b o t h m e d i a . The c a t e g o r i e s o f C o m p l e x i t y a nd T e x t u r e were r e j e c t e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e d e g r e e o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e j u d g i n g . F o r T e x t u r e t h e j u d g e s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a g r e e m e n t a c r o s s a l l e x a m p l e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o m p u t e r images o f s t u d e n t one. The j u d g e s were i n c o n s i s t e n t i n s c o r i n g t h e c a t e g o r y C o m p l e x i t y f o r s t u d e n t two. The f a t i g u e f a c t o r may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n j u d g i n g t h e work o f s t u d e n t two. However, o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h a s t h e way t h e c r i t e r i a were d e s c r i b e d , c o u l d have l e d t o d i s c r e p a n c i e s . The c r i t e r i a were d e s i g n e d so t h e j u d g e s c o u l d c o u n t i n s t a n c e s o f a q u a l i t y and a s s i g n a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r a t i n g , e l i m i n a t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s much a s p o s s i b l e . C o m p l e x i t y and 58 T e x t u r e a p p e a r t o have b e e n e x p l a i n e d i n s u c h a way t h a t a l l o w e d d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e q u a l i t i e s t h e s e c r i t e r i a e n t a i l e d . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e p r o b l e m a r e a s and make s u i t a b l e r e v i s i o n s b e f o r e c r i t e r i a a r e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r , s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s . I n summary, i t was d e t e r m i n e d f r o m t h e p r e c e d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o a c c e p t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e j u d g e s on t h r e e o f t h e c r i t e r i a : V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s , V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s , and Image Autonomy. F i n d i n g s f o r t h e c r i t e r i a C o m p l e x i t y and T e x t u r e have n o t b e e n u s e d a s a b a s e s f o r c o n c l u s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e . F i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t y p e s o f m e d i a The s e c t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e p o r t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e a r t work f o r t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a c c e p t e d , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o u t c o m e s p r e d i c t e d i n C h a p t e r I . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s w o u l d be g i v e n a h i g h e r r a t i n g t h a n t h e i m a g e s done w i t h o t h e r m e d i a f o r e a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e s : (1) V a r i e t y w i t h i n S hapes (2) V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s (3) C o m p l e x i t y (4) T e x t u r e The C o m p l e x i t y a n d T e x t u r e c r i t e r i a a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f r e l i a b i l i t y r e p o r t e d e a r l i e r . I n V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s t h e c o m p u t e r mean s c o r e was 1.24 a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e mean o f 1.63 f o r o t h e r m e d i a p i c t u r e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . As one was t h e h i g h e s t r a t i n g and f i v e t h e l o w e s t p o s s i b l e r a t i n g f o r a l l 59 c r i t e r i a , t h e c o m p u t e r images were g i v e n s l i g h t l y h i g h e r r a t i n g s i n V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s . T h i s was a l s o t r u e f o r t h e c a t e g o r y V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s a s t h e c o m p u t e r mean s c o r e o f 1.57 shows a h i g h e r r a t i n g t h a n t h e o t h e r m e d i a mean s c o r e o f 1.88. I n b o t h c a s e s t h e p r e d i c t e d outcome was s u p p o r t e d f o r t h e s e c r i t e r i a . I t was a l s o p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r i m a g e s w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e c a t e g o r y Image Autonomy t h a n t h e o t h e r m e d i a i m a g e s . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n i m p l i e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a g r e a t e r amount o f o v e r l a p i n t h e c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d a r t . The c o m p u t e r mean f o r Image Autonomy was 3.51 w h i l e t h e mean s c o r e f o r o t h e r m e d i a was 2.20. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t more o v e r l a p p i n g was u s e d w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r d r a w i n g s . T h i s r e s u l t s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r images w o u l d be r a t e d l o w e r i n t h e c r i t e r i o n Image Autonomy. 60 CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n M a j o r F i n d i n g s The o b s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r r e v e a l t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e , w i t h p r a c t i c e , t o a d a p t t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e c o m p u t e r medium. They became aware o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e c o m p u t e r medium a f f o r d e d them a n d were a b l e t o e x p l o i t t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n ways t h a t s u i t e d t h e i r a r t i s t i c s e n s e . T h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t t h e r e n e v e r was any random e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r ; b u t r a t h e r , o u t o f t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n , t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o draw on t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t a p p e a l e d t o them and s u i t e d t h e i r d e s i g n n e e d s . C e r t a i n l y t h e y became aware o f t h e way a c o m p u t e r f o l l o w s e a c h a n d e v e r y command g i v e n t o i t and how t h i s r e l a t e s t o p r e c i s i o n i n a p r o c e d u r a l s e n s e . I n o b s e r v i n g t h e c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f t h e p r o g r a m , i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e y were a b l e t o d e v i s e s t r a t e g i e s t o d e a l w i t h some o f t h e p r o b l e m s u n i q u e t o t h e c o m p u t e r medium. S e v e r a l e p i s o d e s have b e e n d e s c r i b e d w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s u n p a r a l l e l e d i n u s i n g o t h e r t y p e s o f m e d i a . Not o n l y were t h e y a b l e t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e s e p r o b l e m s i t u a t i o n s , b u t t h e y were a b l e t o d e v e l o p l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e o f s t e p s t h a t w o u l d p r e c l u d e t h e p r o b l e m e v e n t f r o m r e - o c c u r r i n g . The u s e o f t h i s medium a p p e a r s t o l e n d i t s e l f t o t h e u s e o f a s t r a t e g i c , a n a l y t i c s t y l e o f t h i n k i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e q u e n t i a l way a c o m p u t e r f u n c t i o n s . A n a l y t i c t h i n k i n g may be c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e a e s t h e t i c c h o i c e s 61 t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r p e r m i t s w h i c h go f a r b e y o n d what i s a f f o r d e d by o t h e r m e d i a . The l a t i t u d e o f c h o i c e o f f e r e d and t h e e d i t i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m were u t i l i z e d r e g u l a r l y by t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i d i n g t h e v i s u a l e f f e c t d e s i r e d i n a d e s i g n o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C h i l d r e n r e a d i l y a d a p t e d t o t h e a r r a y o f o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n t e r m s o f s h a p e s , c o l o u r s , a n d e d i t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s . They w o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e o p t i o n s a s n e e d e d i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a t i n g a n image. P i c t u r e m a k i n g w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r became a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s c r e e n a t any one t i m e was n o t s t a t i c b u t r e a d i l y c h a n g e d , t r a n s f o r m e d , e r a s e d , s a v e d , e d i t e d , and m a n i p u l a t e d u n t i l t h e c h i l d ' s a e s t h e t i c s e n s e was s a t i s f i e d . T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h o t h e r m e d i a a s t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power l i e s w i t h t h e c h i l d . H owever, t h e c o m p u t e r seemed t o be more f l e x i b l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e o p t i o n s were more p l e n t i f u l and r e q u i r e d f a r l e s s t i m e t o m a s t e r . I n summary, i t a p p e a r s L e e ' s ( 1 9 8 3 ) c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o m p u t e r us e a l l o w s c h i l d r e n t o u s e r e l a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g t o engage i n a n a l y t i c a l t h i n k i n g i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . B o t h s t y l e s o f t h i n k i n g were p r e s e n t i n t h e e p i s o d e s d e s c r i b e d w h i c h were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e k i n d o f i n t e r a c t i o n s t h e c h i l d r e n had w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r . These two s t y l e s o f l e a r n i n g a p p e a r e d t o be n e c e s s a r y t o s u c c e s s f u l l y g e n e r a t e i m a g e s u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m . The b e h a v i o r s d e s c r i b e d a l s o s u p p o r t t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d u t i l i z e g o a l - o r i e n t e d b e h a v i o r i n a e s t h e t i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . 6 2 A n o t h e r g o a l o f t h i s s t u d y was t o show w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e c h i l d r e n were c a p a b l e o f u s i n g t h e g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m i n a c o m p e t e n t manner. The c o m p e t e n c e c h e c k l i s t c o m p l e t e d i n e a c h s e s s i o n was t h e means u s e d t o s u p p o r t o r r e f u t e t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r w o u l d be i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t u s e c a t e g o r y on t h e c h e c k l i s t . I n d e p e n d e n t u s e i m p l i e s a d e g r e e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and manual d e x t e r i t y s u f f i c i e n t t o c o m p l e t e l y a c c e s s and u t i l i z e one o f t h e p r o g r a m ' s f e a t u r e s . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d c o n f i r m e d t h i s p r e d i c t i o n . The upward t r e n d o f i n d e p e n d e n t use and t h e downward t r e n d o f t e a c h e r - a s s i s t e d use f o r b o t h s u b j e c t s v a l i d a t e d t h e i d e a t h a t a d e g r e e o f c o m p e t e n c e was a c h i e v e d by e a c h c h i l d . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s r e s u l t i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t c o m p e t e n c e i s a n i m p o r t a n t component o f s e l f - e s t e e m . I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e y o u n g c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y , o v e r t i m e , became q u i t e p r o f i c i e n t a t u s i n g t h e p r o g r a m C o l o r p a i n t . The e f f e c t o f t h i s s k i l l on t h e i r c o n c e p t o f s e l f h a s n o t b e e n e x a m i n e d b u t m e r i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a . I t may be t h a t f o u r - and f i v e - y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n w o u l d d e r i v e some s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t e e m f r o m b e i n g a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e and c o n t r o l a c o m p l i c a t e d p i e c e o f e q u i p m e n t s u c c e s s f u l l y . The e f f e c t o f u s i n g a c o m p u t e r on t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a r t w o r k was t h e t h i r d m a j o r f o c u s o f t h e s t u d y . A r t p r o d u c e d on t h e c o m p u t e r and w i t h a r t c r e a t e d u s i n g more c o n v e n t i o n a l m e d i a d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y were a n a l y s e d and c o m p a r e d . The a n a l y s i s was b a s e d on f i v e c r i t e r i a w h i c h c o n f o r m e d t o t h e t y p e o f f e a t u r e s one w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d i n y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a . The d r a w i n g s were s c o r e d on a one t o 63 f i v e p o i n t s c a l e by t h r e e e x p e r t j u d g e s u s i n g s c o r e s h e e t s l i s t i n g t h e f i v e c r i t e r i a p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . The j u d g e s ' s c o r e s were t h e n g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o m e d i a ( c o m p u t e r o r o t h e r ) and c a t e g o r y t h e n c o m p a r e d f o r c o n s i s t e n c y . The two c a t e g o r i e s o f C o m p l e x i t y and T e x t u r e were r e j e c t e d a s b e i n g u n s u i t a b l e b e c a u s e o f i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s . The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s showed an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e j u d g e s . The mean s c o r e s f o r b o t h m e d i a were t h e n c o m p a r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e a c c e p t a b l e c a t e g o r i e s . I t was f o u n d t h a t i n t h e c a t e g o r i e s V a r i e t y b e t w e e n Shapes and V a r i e t y w i t h i n S hapes t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r mean s c o r e s were h i g h e r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e c o m p u t e r medium had a n a d v a n t a g e i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i n t h a t i t was e a s i e r t o p r o d u c e v a r i e t y u s i n g C o l o r p a i n t . C r e a t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n c o l o u r and l i n e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r r e q u i r e d a s i m p l e c h a n g e i n s e l e c t i o n . T h i s c a n be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f v a r i e t y w i t h o t h e r m e d i a , w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a more r e f i n e d p h y s i c a l movement o r t e c h n i q u e i n t e r m s o f l i n e p r o d u c t i o n o r c o l o u r m i x i n g . The c o m p u t e r medium a p p e a r e d more c o n d u c i v e t o t h e u s e o f v a r i e t y b e c a u s e i t a l l o w e d more and e a s i e r a c c e s s t o c h o i c e s t h a t b e a r on v a r i e t y . The f i n d i n g t h a t t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e c o m p u t e r images were l o w e r f o r t h e c r i t e r i o n Image Autonomy s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t more o v e r l a p w o u l d o c c u r i n t h e c o m p u t e r a r t . The n a t u r e o f t h e c o m p u t e r a s a medium seemed t o l e a d t o d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way c h i l d r e n d e p i c t e d i m a g e s o r s h a p e s . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f image autonomy i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d f o r c h i l d r e n ' s 64 a r t i n t r a d i t i o n a l m e d i a . However, when u s i n g t h e c o m p u t e r , t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f image autonomy a p p e a r s t o be a l t e r e d . O v e r l a p p i n g l i n e s and s h a p e s a p p e a r e d c o n s t a n t l y i n t h e c o m p u t e r g e n e r a t e d a r t o f t h e c h i l d r e n . I t i s s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h i s was t h e c a s e b e c a u s e o f t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e c o m p u t e r a l l o w e d s u c h o v e r l a p p i n g t o o c c u r . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t i n i t i a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o v e r l a p p i n g o n t h e c o m p u t e r were more a c c i d e n t a l t h a n by d e s i g n . I n t h e c o u r s e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n s h a p e s w o u l d be l a y e r e d and w o u l d c o v e r p r e v i o u s work. The e a s e w i t h w h i c h o v e r l a p p i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d and t h e way t h e c o m p u t e r k e p t l i n e s d i s c r e t e w i t h no b l u r r i n g o r d i s t o r t i o n o f s h a p e s and l i n e s may h a v e b e e n t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e i n c r e a s e d u s e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . The c o m p u t e r medium seemed t o i n v i t e t h e y oung a r t i s t t o use o v e r l a p b e c a u s e i t was so e a s y t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h p r e c i s i o n . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e l e a s t amount o f o v e r l a p o c c u r r e d i n c o m p u t e r p i c t u r e s t h a t c l e a r l y were a t t e m p t s a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h e r e a p p e a r e d t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a c h i l d ' s a t t e m p t s t o r e p r e s e n t o b j e c t s i n t h e w o r l d , and t h e i r d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e t h e s p a t i a l autonomy o f a d e p i c t i o n . L i m i t a t i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t o f t h e u s e o f g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s s u c h a s C o l o r p a i n t on c h i l d r e n ' s u s e o f t h e t e c h n i q u e o f o v e r l a p p i n g b o t h i n c o m p u t e r a r t and i n a r t w i t h o t h e r m e d i a . F u r t h e r s t u d y i s a l s o n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e what e f f e c t s p r o v i d i n g v i s u a l - g r a p h i c e l e m e n t s s u c h a s t h e v a r i o u s l i n e q u a l i t i e s a nd g e o m e t r i c s h a p e s i n s t a n t l y a v a i l a b l e w i t h c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s h a s on t h e a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f c h i l d r e n . 65 W i l l p r o v i s i o n o f s u c h s u p p o r t c a u s e an a c c e l e r a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t i s t i c d e v e l o p m e n t i f p r o v i d e d a t a n e a r l y a g e ? The c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y showed r e m a r k a b l e g r o w t h i n s k i l l w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t s p a n o f t i m e o f t h e s t u d y . The e f f e c t s o f e x t e n d e d use o f g r a p h i c s w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n a r e a r i c h a r e a t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . More work r e m a i n s t o be done w i t h t h e a n a l y t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t g r a p h i c s p r o g r a m s seem t o p r o m o t e w i t h y o u n g c h i l d r e n . I f y o u n g c h i l d r e n c a n p l a n a s e r i e s o f s t r a t e g i c s t e p s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a c o m p u t e r d r a w i n g a s h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d , d o e s t h i s a f f e c t t h e i r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s w i t h o t h e r a r t i s t i c m e d i a and i n a more g e n e r a l s e n s e ? The k i n d s o f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g i n c i d e n t s e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c r e a t i n g a t a c o m p u t e r a p p e a r t o be a p r o m i s i n g way i n w h i c h t o e x p l o r e y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t h i s a r e a . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d by t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e and l a c k o f s t r i c t c o n t r o l s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n . T h e r e f o r e , any r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s must be g i v e n w i t h t h o s e f a c t o r s i n m i n d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a t y p i c a l p r e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . The amount o f t i m e and e n e r g y s p e n t by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w i t h e a c h c h i l d t o e n a b l e them t o r e a c h a l e v e l o f p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h t h e c o m p u t e r i s n o t g e n e r a l l y p o s s i b l e i n p r e s c h o o l s . Where t h e f i n d i n g s may be most r e l e v a n t i s t o p a r e n t s o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o c o m p u t e r s b u t a r e n o t s u r e o f how t o p r o c e e d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y show a way t o use c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s w i t h t h e y o u n g c h i l d t o i n t r o d u c e them t o c o m p u t e r s i n g e n e r a l . P r o v i d i n g t h i s t y p e o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r 66 young c h i l d r e n a l l o w s them t o e x p e r i e n c e t e c h n o l o g y i n a way t h a t i s f u n , t h a t i s p l a y , t h a t i s e x p l o r i n g an a r r a y o f c r e a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 67 R e f e r e n c e s A l e x a n d e r , D. ( 1 9 8 3 , O c t . ) . C h i l d r e n ' s c o m p u t e r d r a w i n g s . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 238 562) B a m b e r g e r , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The c o m p u t e r a s s a n d c a s t l e . I n C h a m e l e o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m : D e v e l o p i n g r o l e s f o r c o m p u t e r s . ( T e c h . Rep. No. 22) ( p p . 3 4 - 3 9 ) . New Y o r k : Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , C e n t e r f o r C h i l d r e n a nd T e c h n o l o g y . B a r n e s , B. J . & H i l l , S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S h o u l d y o u n g c h i l d r e n work w i t h m i c r o c o m p u t e r s - Logo b e f o r e L e g o ? The C o m p u t i n g  T e a c h e r , 1 0 ( 9 ) , 11-13. B i l l i n g , K. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . R e s e a r c h o n s c h o o l c o m p u t i n g . I n M.T. G r a d y Se J . D. G a w r o n s k i ( E d s . ) . C o m p u t e r s i n c u r r i c u l u m a nd  i n s t r u c t i o n ( p p . 1 2 - 1 8 ) . A l e x a n d r i a , VA: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n a nd C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t . B o r g h , K., Sc D i c k s o n , W.P. ( 1 9 8 3 , A p r i l ) . Two p r e s c h o o l e r s  s h a r i n g one m i c r o c o m p u t e r : How t h e y h a n d l e i t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , M o n t r e a l , C a n a d a . C h u r c h , M., Se W r i g h t , J . ( 1 9 8 3 , N o v . ) . The p a r e n t - p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r t n e r s h i p : A r e s p o n s e t o m i c r o c o m p u t e r  i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n o f Young C h i l d r e n A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e , A t l a n t a , GA. C l e m e n t s , D. H. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C o m p u t e r s i n e a r l y and p r i m a r y  e d u c a t i o n . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . C u f f a r o , H. K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s i n e d u c a t i o n : Why i s e a r l i e r b e t t e r ? T e a c h e r C o l l e g e R e c o r d , 85.(4), 5 59-568. Davy, J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . M i n d s t o r m s i n t h e l a m o l i g h t . T e a c h e r C o l l e g e  R e c o r d , 85. ( 4 ) , PP. 549-558. Dewey, J . ( O r i g , 1938; r e p r i n t e d 1 9 6 3 ) . E x p e r i e n c e a n d  e d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n . E l k i n d , D. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The h u r r i e d c h i l d : G r o w i n g up t o o f a s t . R e a d i n g , MA: A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . F a n t z , R. L. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The o r i g i n o f f o r m p e r c e p t i o n . I n P. H. M u s s e n , J . J . C o n g e r Se J . K a g a n ( E d s . ) , R e a d i n g s i n c h i l d  d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p e r s o n a l i t y ( p p . 7 5 - 9 5 ) . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row. F e i n , G.G., C a m p b e l l , P . , S e S c h w a r t z , S. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . 68 M i c r o c o m p u t e r s i n t h e p r e s c h o o l : e f f e c t s o n c o g n i t i v e and  s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d . F r e e m a n , N. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . How y o u n g c h i l d r e n t r y t o p l a n d r a w i n g s . I n G. B u t t e r w o r t h ( E d . ) The c h i l d ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t h e  w o r l d . New Y o r k : P l e n u m . F r o s t , J . L., & K i s s i n g e r J . B. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The y o u n g c h i l d a nd  t h e e d u c a t i v e p r o c e s s ( p p . 3 5 - 4 7 ) . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . G a r d n e r , H. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A r t f u l s c r i b b l e s : The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f  c h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g s . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . G a r d n e r , R. W. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . A p s y c h o l o g i s t l o o k s a t M o n t e s s o r i . I n J . L. F r o s t ( E d . ) , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n r e d i s c o v e r e d ( p p . 7 8 - 9 2 ) . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . Goodnow, J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s d r a w i n g . G l a s g o w : F o n t a n a / O p e n B o o k s . G o l u b , L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . W i t h t h e m i c r o , b e h a v i o r i s m r e t u r n s t o  E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , New O r l e a n s , LA, ( A p r i l 2 3 - 2 7, 1 9 8 4 ) . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 246 990) H a w k i n s , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L e a r n i n g LOGO t o g e t h e r : The s o c i a l c o n t e x t . I n C h a m e l e o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m : D e v e l o p i n g r o l e s f o r  c o m p u t e r s . ( T e c h . Rep. No. 22) ( p p . 4 0 - 4 9 ) . New Y o r k : Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , C e n t e r f o r C h i l d r e n a n d T e c h n o l o g y . H u n g a t e , H. ( 1 9 8 2 , J a n . ) . C o m p u t e r s i n t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n . The C o m p u t i n g T e a c h e r , 9.(5), 15-18. J o h n s o n , J . E . , ( 1 9 8 5 , M a y / J u n e ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r e s c h o o l e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n m i c r o c o m p u t e r s . J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 78 ( 5 ) , 301-304. K e l l o g g , R. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A n a l y z i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a r t . P a l o A l t o , CA: N a t i o n a l P r e s s . K l i n z i n g , D. G. ( 1 9 8 5 , A p r i l ) . A s t u d y o f t h e b e h a v i o r o f  c h i l d r e n i n a p r e s c h o o l e q u i p p e d w i t h c o m p u t e r s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , I L . K r a u s , W. ( 1 9 8 2 , M a r c h / A p r i l ) . C o m p uter games f o r p r i m a r y l e v e l math. C l a s s r o o m C o m p uter News,2 ( 4 ) , 63-64. L e e , M. W. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n and m i c r o c o m p u t e r s W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : Howard U n i v e r s i t y , S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n . 69 ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 231 503) L i p i n s k i , J . M., N i d a , R.E., S h a d e , D. D., & W a t s o n , J.A. C o m p e t e n c e , g e n d e r and p r e s c h o o l e r ' s f r e e p l a y c h o i c e when a  m i c r o c o m p u t e r i s p r e s e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . G r e e n s b o r o , NC: N o r t h C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y , F a m i l y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 243 609) M a nder, C. ( 1 9 8 2 , F e b . ) . An O a k v i l l e e n t e r p r i s e : C o m p u t e r s t e a c h p r e s c h o o l e r s t o r e a d and w r i t e . C a n a d i a n L i b r a r y J o u r n a l , 3 9 ( 1 ) , 17-18. M a r g o t , C. & A r m s t r o n g N. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o m p u t e r s f o r t h e p r e s c h o o l  :Beyond t h e b a s i c s . L o s A n g e l e s , CA: S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y , B i n g N u r s e r y S c h o o l . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 250 057 ) M i l n e r , S. ( 1 9 7 3 , F e b r u a r y ) . The e f f e c t s o f c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g o n p e r f o r m a n c e i n m a t h e m a t i c s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , New O r l e a n s , LA. ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 076 391) M o s h e l l , M. ( 1 9 8 2 , S e p t . ) . The i n t e l l i g e n c e a m p l i f i e r : An e s s a y o n t h e d e s i g n o f c o m p u t e r b a s e d c u r r i c u l u m . The  C o m p u t i n g T e a c h e r , 10 ( 1 ) , 5 7 - 6 1 . N i d a , R. E., L i p i n s k i , J.M., S h a d e , D.D., & W a t s o n J.A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n t r o d u c i n g a m i c r o c o m p u t e r t o a p r e s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m  : The e f f e c t s o n c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . G r e e n s b o r o , NC: N o r t h C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y , F a m i l y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 243 607) N i e b o e r , R. A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t o f c o m p u t e r s o n  t h e p r e s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . O a k l a n d , CA: O a k l a n d U n i v e r s i t y . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 234 898) P a i s l e y , W.,& C hen, M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . C h i l d r e n and e l e c t r o n i c t e x t : C h a l l e n g e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e 'new l i t e r a c y ' . S t a n f o r d , CA: S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y I n s t i t u t e f o r C o m m u n i c a t i o n R e s e a r c h . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. 225 530) P a p e r t , S. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . M i n d s t o r m s : C h i l d r e n , c o m p u t e r s a n d  p o w e r f u l i d e a s . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s . P e a , R. D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Logo p r o g r a m m i n g and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . I n C h a m e l e o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m : D e v e l o p i n g r o l e s f o r c o m p u t e r s . ( T e c h . Rep. No. 22) ( p p . 2 5 - 3 3 ) . New Y o r k : Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n , C e n t e r f o r C h i l d r e n a nd T e c h n o l o g y . P e a , R., H a w k i n s , J . , & S h e i n g o l d , K. ( 1 9 8 3 , A p r i l ) . D e v e l o p m e n t a l s t u d i e s o n l e a r n i n g LOGO c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g . A b s t r a c t s f r o m t h e B i e n n i a l M e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r  R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 4 , 207. (Summary) 70 P i e s t r u p , A.M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n u s e A p p l e I I t o t e s t  r e a d i n g s k i l l s p r o g r a m . P o r t o l a V a l l e y , CA: A d v a n c e d L e a r n i n g T e c h n o l o g y . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 202 467) P i e s t r u p , A. M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Young c h i l d r e n u s e c o m p u t e r g r a p h i c s . C a m b r i d g e , MA: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , G r a d u a t e S c h o o l o f D e s i g n . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 224 564) P e r l m a n , R. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . U s i n g c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g y t o p r o v i d e a c r e a t i v e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t f o r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . A l Memo 3 6 0 , ( R e p o r t No.-LOGO-24). C a m b r i d g e , MA: M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 207 576) R o w l a n d , T., & M c G u i r e , C. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . D e v e l o p m e n t o f i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r I : J e a n P i a g e t . I n J . L. F r o s t ( E d . ) , E a r l y  C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n R e d i s c o v e r e d ( p p . 1 45-151. New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n . S c h a e f e r - S i m m e r n , H. ( 1 9 4 8 ) . The u n f o l d i n g o f a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y , i t s b a s i s , p r o c e s s e s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s . B e r k e l e y , CA: U n i v e r s i t y C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . S c h e r m a n n , A. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . C o g n i t i v e g o a l s i n t h e n u r s e r y s c h o o l . I n J . L. F r o s t ( E d . ) , E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n  r e d i s c o v e r e d ( p p . 2 6 5 - 2 7 6 ) . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n . S c h w a r t z , S. ( 1 9 8 5 , J u n e 9 ) . W o r k b o o k s f i r s t , k e y b o a r d s l a t e r . The New Y o r k T i m e s , pp. 8E. S h a d e , D. D., D a n i e l , G.E., N i d a , R.E., L i p i n s k i , J.M., & W a t s o n , J.A. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s : A c l o s e l o o k a t what  h a p p e n s when p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t w i t h a g e - a p p r o p r i a t e s o f t w a r e . G r e e n s b o r o , NC: N o r t h C a r o l i n a U n i v e r s i t y , F a m i l y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 243 608) Shaw, D.G., S w i g g e r , K.M., & H e r n d o n , J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s q u e s t i o n s : A s t u d y o f t h e q u e s t i o n c h i l d r e n a s k w h i l e l e a r n i n g t o u s e a c o m p u t e r . C o m p u t e r E d u c a t i o n , 9 ( 1 ) , 15-19. S h e i n g o l d , K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The m i c r o c o m p u t e r a s a medium f o r y o u n g c h i l d r e n : S h o u l d c h i l d r e n u n d e r e i g h t u s e m i c r o s ? ( T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t #26. New Y o r k , NY: Bank S t r e e t C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( ERIC Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 249 923 ) S m i t h , N. R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E x p e r i e n c e and A r t : T e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o  p a i n t . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s . S m i t h y - W i l l i s , D., R i l e y , M., & S m i t h , D. ( 1 9 8 2 , N o v e m b e r -71 D e c e m b e r ) . V i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p r e s c h o o l e r s . E d u c a t i o n a l C o m p uter M a g a z i n e , pp. 19-20. S o l o w a y , E., L o c h h e a d , J . , & C l e m e n t , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Does c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g e n h a n c e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a b i l i t y ? Some p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e on a l g e b r a word p r o b l e m s . I n R. S e i d e l , R. A n d e r s o n , & B. H u n t e r ( E d s • ) , C o m p u t e r L i t e r a c y . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . S p e n c e r , M. & B a s k i n , L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s i n E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e o n E l e m e n t a r y and E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 227 967) S t a t z , J . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g c o n c e p t s and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s among t e n - y e a r - o l d s l e a r n i n g LOGO. D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 3 4 , 5418B-5419B. ( U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s No. 7 4 - 1 0 , 1 8 0 ) . S t r a n d , E., G i l s t a d , B., G e n i s h i , C., M c C o l l u m , P., & C a s t a n e d a , A. ( 1 9 8 5 , A p r i l ) . Young c h i l d r e n ' s  i n t e r a c t i o n s a s t h e v u s e d LOGO. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e ACEI A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e . S w i g g e r , K. M., & C a m p b e l l , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . C o m p u t e r s a nd t h e n u r s e r y s c h o o l . P r o c e e d i n g s o f NECC, D e n t o n , TX: N o r t h T e x a s S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 207 526) S w i g g e r , K. M., & S w i g g e r B. K. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S o c i a l p a t t e r n s a n d c o m p u t e r u s e among p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . AEDS J o u r n a l , 17 ( 3 ) , 3 5-41. T a y l o r , H. L. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s i n t h e E a r l y C h i l d h o o d  c l a s s r o o m . Lynnwood, WA: Edmonds Community C o l l e g e . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e ED 234 845) T a y l o r , R. P. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The c o m p u t e r i n t h e s c h o o l : T u t o r , t o o l , o r t u t e e . New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e P r e s s . T i p p s , S. & S a n d e r s , T. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . M i c r o c o m p u t e r s a n d yo u n g c h i l d r e n . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No.ED 238 549) V a r t u l i , S., H i l l , S., L o n c a r , K., & Caccamo, N. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . R e s e a r c h o n u s i n g c o m p u t e r s w i t h p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n . K a n s a s C i t y , MO.: S t . P e t e r ' s E a r l y C h i l d h o o d E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r . ( E R I C Document R e p r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e No. ED 256 516) Wa r a s h , B.G., ( 1 9 8 3 ) . U s e o f m i c r o c o m p u t e r s and LOGO l a n g u a g e  w i t h t h r e e a n d f o u r y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n i n r e l a t i o n t o  l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e a p p r o a c h t o r e a d i n g and s e q u e n t i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o m p u t e r a c t i v i t i e s . U n p u b l i s h e d p a p e r . C o l l e g e o f Human R e s o u r c e s and E d u c a t i o n , M o r g a n t o w n , WV. W i l l i a m s , R. A. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P r e s c h o o l e r s and t h e c o m p u t e r . A r i t h m e t i c T e a c h e r , 3_1_( 8 ) , 39-42. W i l s o n , B., & W i l s o n , M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n t o draw: A  g u i d e f o r t e a c h e r s and p a r e n t s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N J : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Worden, P.E., ( 1 9 8 5 , A p r i l ) . P r e s c h o o l e r s ' l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s : P i c t u r e - b o o k s v s . p e r s o n a l  c o m p u t e r s o f t w a r e . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e b i e n n i a l m e e t i n g o f t h e S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , T o r o n t o , O n t . , C a n a d a . COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHS SHOULD NOT BE USED. THEY WILL APPEAR AS GREY OR BLACK. WE RECOMMEND THAT THE COPY OF THE THESIS SUBMITTED FOR MICROFILMING INCLUDE BLACK AND WHITE PHOTOGRAPHS REPRINTED FROM THE COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHS BY A PHOTOGRAPHER IF NECESSARY. L O R S Q U E MI CR0 F I L M E E S , L E S PHOTOGRAPHIES EN COULEUR PARAIS SENT GRISES OU NOIRES. NOUS RECOMMANDONS QUE L'EXEMPLAIRE DE LA THESE A MICROFILMER SOIT ACCOMPAGNE PLUTOT DE PHOTOGRAPHIES EN NOIR ET BLANC PRODUITES A PARTIR DES PHOTOGRAPHIES EN COULEURS PAR UN PHOTOGRAPHE , SI NECESSAIRE. APPENDIX A 73 o g r a p h s o f t h e Computer A r t w o r k o f M a i n S t u d y V P i c t u r e Ml P i c t u r e M 2 APPENDIX A 74 P i c t u r e M4 Picture M6 APPENDIX A 76 P i c t u r e M 8 Picture M10 Picture F 2 Picture F 4 Picture F6 APPENDIX A Picture F10 APPENDIX B 83 T a b l e 2 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s f o r c a t e g o r y o n e : V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s S t u d e n t one Imaqe# J u d q e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 3 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 6 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 10 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 Mean 0.40 0 . 20 0 . 20 1. 20 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 66 0. 40 0. 60 0 . 39 S t u d e n t two Imaqe# #1 #2 #3 1-2 1-3 2-3 Mean 1 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 3 2 1 2 1 0 1 1.67 4 4 1 1 3 3 0 2.00 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 7 4 4 4 0 0 0 4.00 8 2 3 1 1 1 2 2.00 9 1 2 1 1 0 1 1. 33 10 3 4 2 1 1 2 3. 00 Mean 0 . 90 0. 50 0 . 80 1.93 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 94 0 . 92 0 . 87 0 . 92 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0.65 0.52 0.50 1.57 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.85 0.72 0.80 0.80 APPENDIX B 84 T a b l e 3 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s • s c o r e s o n c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s f o r c a t e g o r y two: V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s S t u d e n t one Imaqe# J u d q e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 3 2 1 3 1 1 2 2.00 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 10 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 Mean 0 . 30 0 . 30 0 . 20 1. 16 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 45 0. 45 0. 60 0. 30 S t u d e n t two Imaqe# #1 #2 #3 1-2 1-3 2-3 Mean 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 1. 67 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2. 00 4 4 1 1 3 3 0 2. 00 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 7 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 10 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 Mean 0 . 60 0. 80 0 . 20 1. 33 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 .91 0 . 97 0 . 40 0 . 39 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0.45 0.55 0.20 1.24 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.73 0.80 0.50 0.36 APPENDIX B 85 T a b l e 4 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s f o r c a t e g o r y t h r e e : C o m p l e x i t y S t u d e n t one Imaqe# J u d g e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 4 0 3 3 2.00 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 3 4 3 4 1 0 1 3.67 4 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 2 1 2 1 0 1 1.67 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 10 3 1 4 2 1 3 2.67 Mean 0 . 50 0 . 50 0 . 80 1. 63 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0. 67 0.92 1. 16 0. 86 S t u d e n t two Image* #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 3 2 2 1 1 0 2. 33 2 2 3 1 1 1 2 2.00 3 3 3 4 0 1 1 3. 33 4 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 6 1 2 2 1 1 0 1. 67 7 4 1 2 3 2 1 2. 33 8 3 1 4 2 1 3 2.67 9 5 2 1 3 4 1 2. 67 10 4 1 3 3 1 2 2. 67 Mean 1. 60 1. 20 1. 20 2. 30 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1. 11 1. 07 0 . 97 0 . 60 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 1.05 0 . 85 1.00 1.96 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1.07 1.06 1. 09 0 . 81 APPENDIX B 86 T a b l e 5 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s f o r c a t e g o r y f o u r : Image Autonomy S t u d e n t < one Imaqe# J u d q e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 5 5 5 0 0 0 5.00 2 4 5 5 1 1 0 4.67 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 2.33 4 5 5 5 0 0 0 5. 00 5 4 5 5 1 1 0 4.67 6 4 5 5 1 1 0 4.67 7 4 5 5 1 1 0 4 . 67 8 4 3 5 1 1 2 4. 00 9 5 5 5 0 0 0 5.00 10 2 3 5 1 3 2 3.33 Mean 0 . 70 0 . 90 0 . 40 4.33 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 45 0 . 83 0 . 80 0.83 S t u d e n t two Imaqe# #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 1. 67 3 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 4 2 4 5 2 3 1 3.67 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 5.00 6 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 7 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 8 5 5 5 0 0 0 5. 00 9 5 5 5 0 0 0 5. 00 10 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 Mean 0 . 60 0. 80 0 . 60 2. 69 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 66 0 . 87 0 . 48 1.65 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0 . 55 0.85 0.50 3.51 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 58 0.85 0. 67 1. 54 APPENDIX B 87 T a b l e 6 C o m p a r i s o n o f j udges • s c o r e s o n c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d i m a g e s f o r c a t e g o r y f i v e : T e x t u r e S t u d e n t one Imaqe# J u d q e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 4 1 1 2 0 1 1 1.33 5 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 1 1 3 0 2 2 1. 67 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 10 2 1 2 1 0 1 1.67 Mean 0 . 20 0 . 40 0 . 40 1. 20 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 40 0.66 0 . 66 0 . 26 S t u d e n t two Imaqe# #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 4 1 3 3 1 2 2. 67 2 2 1 3 1 1 2 2.00 3 1 1 3 0 2 2 1.67 4 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 5 2 2 1 0 1 1 1.67 6 4 1 4 3 0 3 3. 00 7 5 5 4 0 1 1 4.67 8 4 4 4 0 0 0 4.00 9 2 5 1 3 1 4 2. 67 10 4 5 4 1 0 1 4. 67 Mean 1. 30 0. 70 1.80 2.93 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1. 26 0 . 64 1.07 1. 08 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.75 0.55 1.08 0.66 1. 10 1.13 2.06 1. 17 APPENDIX B 88 T a b l e 7 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n i m a g e s i n o t h e r m e d i a f o r c a t e g o r y o n e: V a r i e t y w i t h i n S h a p e s S t u d e n t one Image# J u d g e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 2 2 1 2 1 0 1 1. 33 3 1 2 1 1 0 1 1. 33 4 4 1 1 3 3 0 2.00 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 9 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 10 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 Mean S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n S t u d e n t two Image# #1 #2 #3 0 . 80 0 . 87 ( 1 - 2 ) 0 . 60 0. 91 ( 1 - 3 ) 0 . 20 0.40 ( 2 - 3 ) 1. 26 0. 29 Mean 1 3 3 2 0 1 1 2.67 2 4 1 4 3 0 3 3. 00 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2. 00 4 3 1 3 2 0 2 2.33 5 1 1 3 0 2 2 1.67 6 3 3 4 0 1 1 3.33 7 3 1 1 2 2 0 1. 67 8 4 3 4 1 0 1 3. 67 9 3 2 1 1 2 1 2. 00 10 2 3 3 1 1 0 2.67 Mean 1. 10 1. 10 1. 20 2. 50 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 94 0. 83 0 . 87 0.65 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0.95 0.85 0.70 1.88 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.92 0.90 0.84 0.79 APPENDIX B 89 T a b l e 8 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n images i n o t h e r m e d i a f o r c a t e g o r y two : V a r i e t y b e t w e e n S h a p e s S t u d e n t < one Imaqe# J u d o e s 1 s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1.33 2 2 1 1 1 1 0 1. 33 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 2.00 4 4 2 1 2 3 1 2. 33 5 2 1 1 1 1 0 1.33 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 7 1 2 1 1 0 1 1. 33 8 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 10 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 Mean 0 . 50 0 . 60 0 . 30 1. 36 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0. 67 0. 91 0. 45 0.43 S t u d e n t two Imaae# #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 3 0 2 2 1.67 2 1 1 3 0 2 2 1. 67 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2.00 4 1 1 3 0 2 2 1.67 5 1 5 4 4 3 1 3. 33 6 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 7 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 8 1 2 2 1 1 0 1.67 9 1 4 2 3 1 2 2.33 10 1 1 4 0 3 3 2.00 Mean 0 . 90 1. 80 1. 50 1. 90 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1. 37 0.74 0 . 80 0.55 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0.70 1.20 0.90 1.63 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1.10 1.02 0.88 0.56 APPENDIX B 90 T a b l e 9 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n i m a g e s i n o t h e r m e d i a f o r c a t e g o r y t h r e e : C o m p l e x i t y S t u d e n t one Image# J u d g e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 33 3 1 3 1 2 0 2 1.67 4 4 1 2 3 2 1 2. 33 5 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 8 2 1 2 1 0 1 1.67 9 2 1 2 1 0 1 1.67 10 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 Mean S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n S t u d e n t two Image* #1 #2 #3 0 . 70 1.00 ( 1 - 2 ) 0 . 30 0.64 ( 1 - 3 ) 0 . 60 0.66 ( 2 - 3 ) 1.40 0.41 Mean 1 4 4 3 0 1 1 3. 67 2 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 3 2 2 4 0 2 2 2. 67 4 3 1 1 2 2 0 1.67 5 1 3 1 2 0 2 1. 67 6 4 1 4 3 0 3 3.00 7 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 8 3 1 2 2 1 1 2.00 9 2 1 2 1 0 1 1. 67 10 2 1 4 1 2 3 2.33 Mean 1. 30 0. 80 1. 50 2. 20 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1. 00 0.87 1. 02 0 . 73 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 1. 00 0.55 1. 05 1. 80 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 1. 04 0. 80 0 . 97 0 . 71 APPENDIX B 91 T a b l e 10 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s ' s c o r e s o n images i n o t h e r m e d i a f o r c a t e g o r y f o u r : Image Autonomy S t u d e n t one Imaqe# J u d q e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 2 2 3 0 1 1 2. 33 2 2 2 3 0 1 1 2.33 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 2.00 4 4 5 5 1 1 0 4. 67 5 2 5 4 3 2 1 3.67 6 1 2 3 1 2 1 2. 00 7 3 2 4 1 1 2 3.00 8 3 2 3 1 0 1 2.67 9 2 2 4 0 2 2 2. 67 10 2 3 4 1 2 1 3. 00 Mean 0 . 80 1. 20 1.00 2.83 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.87 0.74 0.63 0.77 S t u d e n t two Imaae# #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 1 2 3 1 2 1 2. 00 2 1 1 3 0 2 2 1.67 3 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 5 2 4 2 2 0 2 2. 67 6 1 1 1 0 0 0 1. 00 7 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 8 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 9 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 10 1 1 1 0 0 0 1.00 Mean 0 . 50 0.70 1.00 1. 56 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 80 0.78 0 . 77 0.55 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 0 . 65 0 . 95 1.00 2. 20 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0 . 85 0.80 0. 70 0.92 APPENDIX B 92 T a b l e 11 C o m p a r i s o n o f j u d g e s * s c o r e s o n images i n o t h e r m e d i a f o r c a t e g o r y f i v e : T e x t u r e S t u d e n t one Image# J u d g e s ' s c o r e s A b s o l u t e v a l u e o f d e v i a t i o n #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 4 4 4 0 0 0 4.00 2 2 1 4 1 2 3 2. 33 3 3 5 2 2 1 3 3. 33 4 1 1 2 0 1 1 1. 33 5 2 3 4 1 2 1 3.00 6 3 1 3 2 0 2 3. 33 7 4 1 1 3 3 0 2.00 8 2 3 3 1 1 0 2.67 9 3 1 4 2 1 3 2. 67 10 3 1 4 2 1 3 2.67 Mean 1. 40 1. 20 1. 60 2.73 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0. 91 0.87 1. 28 0.71 S t u d e n t two Imaoe# #1 #2 #3 ( 1 - 2 ) ( 1 - 3 ) ( 2 - 3 ) Mean 1 3 4 3 1 0 1 3. 33 2 4 5 4 1 0 1 4. 67 3 3 4 4 1 1 0 3. 67 4 3 4 4 1 1 0 3.67 5 3 5 5 2 2 0 4. 33 6 3 4 4 1 1 0 3. 67 7 3 1 4 2 1 3 2.67 8 3 4 4 1 1 0 3. 67 9 3 1 3 2 0 2 2. 33 10 3 4 4 1 1 0 3. 67 Mean 1. 30 0 . 80 0.70 3. 56 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.45 0.60 1.00 0.65 Mean f o r b o t h s t u d e n t s 1. 35 1.00 1. 15 3. 15 S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n 0.72 0.77 1. 23 0.79 APPENDIX C 93 Sample Competence Checkl i s t Form FiTARTlIP Cnr iPFTFNCE (".HFPKI 1ST FOR C O L O R P A I N T NAflE. insert rllsk-Pttss turn nn nnwpr access prnnram ICONS Ind. T.A. Dencil oencil color erase unerase brush oaint color select. naint removal SDrau Till color choice fill shaoe line line-closed shape line thickness line-two button rectangle circle multiDle shaDes zoom select text PULLDOWN MENUS Ind. T.A. file:get file:save edit:undo edit-.invert edit:fliD vert. eidt:Tlio hor. edit:clear modes:move modes:coDU modes:fill shape modes:hollow tools:brush shaDe tools:edit Dettern tools:constraint ON tools:constraint OFF text:size text:stule Drint APPENDIX C 94 Competence Checklist P r o f i l e for Student One Independent S k i l l s X = the session number in which an independent s k i l l was used by the subject. S k i l l Session number independent s k i l l used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OPTIONS USING ICONS pencil X X X X X X X X X X X pencil colour X X X erase X X unerase K s brush X X X X X X X X X paint colour X X X X X X X X X X paint removal spray X X X X f i l l colour choice X X X X X X X X X X X X f i l l shape X X X X X X X X X X X 1 ine X X X X X X X X X l i n e - c l o s e d shape X X X X X X X X 1ine-thickness X X X X line:two button X X rectangle X c i r c l e X X multiple shapes X X X zoom select text X X X X X X X X X OPTIONS USING PULLDOWN MENUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 f i l e : g e t f i l e : s a v e x x ed i t : undo x x x x x x x edi t : i n v e r t e d i t : f 1 i p vert e d i t : f l i p hor. edi t : c l e a r x modes:move modes:copy x modes:fill shape modes:hollow tools:brush shape t o o l s : e d i t pattern x x x x tools:constr.ON tools:constr.OFF text:size x x x x x x text:style p r i n t APPENDIX C 95 Competence Checklist P r o f i l e for Student Two Independent S k i l l s x = the session number i n which an independent s k i l l was used by the subject. S k i l l Session number independent s k i l l used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OPTIONS USING ICONS pencil x x x x x x x x x x x x x Pencil colour x x x x x x x x x x x erase x unerase brush x x x x x x x x x x x paint colour x x x x x x x x x x paint removal spray x f i l l colour choice x x x x f i l l shape x x x l i n e x line-c l o s e d shape x line-thickness line:two button rectangle x c i r c l e x x multiple shapes x x zoom x x x select text x x x x x OPTIONS USING PULLDOWN MENUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 f i l e : g e t x fil e : s a v e x x ed i t : undo ed i t : i n v e r t e d i t : f l i p vert e d i t r f l i p hor. edi t : c l e a r modes:move modes:copy x modes:fill shape modes:hollow tools:brush shape x x x tool s : e d i t pattern x x tools:constr.ON x x tools:constr.OFF text:size x x x x text:st y l e p r i n t APPENDIX C 96 Competence Checklist P r o f i l e for Student One Teacher Assisted S k i l l s x = the session number i n which a teacher assisted s k i l l was used by the subject. Skii1 Session number teacher assisted s k i l l used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 OPTIONS USING ICONS pencil pencil colour erase unerase brush paint colour paint removal spray f i l l colour choice f i l l shape 1 ine line-closed shape 1ine-thickness line:two button rectangle c i r c l e multiple shapes zoom select text x X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X OPTIONS USING PULLDOWN MENUS 1 2 3 f i l e : g e t f i l e : s a v e x ed i t : undo e d i t : i n v e r t e d i t : f l i p vert e d i t : f l i p hor. ed i t : c l e a r modes:move modes:copy modes:fill shape modes:hollow tools:brush shape too l s : e d i t pattern tools:constr.ON tools:constr.OFF text:size text:style p r i n t 10 11 12 13 14 15 x X X X APPENDIX C Competence Checklist P r o f i l e for Student Two Teacher Assisted S k i l l s x = the session number in which a teacher assisted s k i l was used by the subject. S k i l l Session number teacher assisted s k i l l used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 OPTIONS USING ICONS pencil x pencil colour x x erase x unerase x x brush paint colour paint removal x spray x f i l l colour choice x f i l l shape x x x 1 ine x line-closed shape x line-thickness x line:two button x rectangle x x x c i r c l e x x multiple shapes x x zoom x select x text x x OPTIONS USING PULLDOWN MENUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 f i l e : g e t x x fil e : s a v e x x x x ed i t : undo x ed i t : i n v e r t x e d i t : f l i p vert x e d i t r f l i p hor. x ed i t r c l e a r x x x x x x x modes:move modes:copy modes:fill shape modes:hoilow tools:brush shape x tool s : e d i t pattern x tools:constr.ON x tools:constr.OFF text:size x x x x x x x text:style x pr i n t APPENDIX D 98 Summary o f Use o f O p t i o n s w i t h C o l o r p a i n t G r a p h i c s P r o g r a m The C o l o r p a i n t p r o g r a m i s p r e s e n t e d on t h e m o n i t o r s c r e e n i n t h e f o r m o f a r e c t a n g u l a r work s p a c e c o v e r i n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s c r e e n . B o r d e r i n g t h e work s p a c e o n t h e l e f t h a nd s i d e a r e c h o i c e s i n t h e f o r m o f i c o n s ( p i c t o r i a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d f e a t u r e s ) t h a t c a n be u s e d t o make a p i c t u r e . Some o f t h e f e a t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d a r e a p e n c i l , e r a s e r , p a i n t b r u s h , s p r a y p a i n t b r u s h , c i r c l e and s q u a r e . I n o r d e r t o u s e t h e s e f e a t u r e s t h e c h i l d must move a s m a l l a r r o w , w h i c h i s i n e f f e c t a c u r s o r , u s i n g a d e s k t o p mouse on a g r i d p a d t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e s i t s u s e . The mouse i s moved so t h a t t h e a r r o w c o v e r s t h e i c o n d e s i r e d a n d t h e n t h e l e f t h a nd b u t t o n o n t h e t o p o f t h e mouse i s p r e s s e d t o a c t i v a t e t h e f e a t u r e . When t h e b a c k g r o u n d c o l o u r o f t h e i c o n d a r k e n s t h e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n i s r e a d y t o be u s e d . The c h i l d may t h e n move t h e a r r o w b a c k t o t h e work s p a c e o n t h e s c r e e n . The p u l l d o w n menus o f o p t i o n s a p p e a r a b o v e t h e work s p a c e o n t h e s c r e e n . These menus c a n a l s o be a c c e s s e d by m o v i n g t h e a r r o w o v e r them and p u l l i n g down a l i s t o f c h o i c e s g i v e n i n w o r d s . An a r r a y o f c o l o u r s a n d p a t t e r n s a p p e a r s o n t h e r i g h t hand s i d e o f t h e work s p a c e w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o s e l e c t c o l o u r s t o be u s e d w i t h t h e p a i n t i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e p r o g r a m . C h o i c e s a r e made by p o s i t i o n i n g t h e c u r s o r i n s i d e t h e d e s i r e d c o l o u r and p r e s s i n g t h e l e f t hand b u t t o n o n t h e mouse. The c o l o u r c h o i c e c u r r e n t l y c h o s e n when u s i n g t h e p a i n t b r u s h , s p r a y o r f i l l o p t i o n s i s shown i n a box o n t h e l o w e r l e f t hand r e g i o n o f t h e s c r e e n . I n summary, c h o i c e s i n t h e p r o g r a m a r e made by p o s i t i o n i n g t h e c u r s o r w i t h t h e u se o f t h e mouse. APPENDIX D 99 E x p l a n a t i o n o f Terms Used i n t h e Competence C h e c k l i s t The f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n i s g i v e n t o c l a r i f y t h e t e r m s u s e d t o r a t e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p e t e n c e on t h e c h e c k l i s t u s e d i n e a c h s e s s i o n i n t h e m a i n s t u d y . M o st t e r m s a r e o b v i o u s a nd e n t a i l t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e a s p e c i f i c o p t i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m . However, some t e r m s were d e v e l o p e d t o d e s c r i b e s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s g r a p h i c s a p p l i c a t i o n and r e q u i r e some e x p l a n a t i o n t o be f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d . ICONS p e n c i l - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e p e n c i l i c o n t o draw. p e n c i l c o l o u r - s e l e c t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e ( o t h e r t h a n d e f a u l t ) p e n c i l c o l o u r s by p o s i t i o n i n g t h e c u r s o r i n one o f t h e c o l o u r b a r s b e n e a t h t h e i c o n l i s t i n g s a n d c h a n g i n g c o l o u r s u s i n g t h e mouse. e r a s e - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e e r a s e i c o n . u n e r a s e - s e l e c t i o n a n d use o f t h e e r a s e i c o n w i t h t h e r i g h t h a nd b u t t o n o f t h e mouse i n s t e a d o f t h e l e f t h a nd b u t t o n . T h i s h a s t h e e f f e c t o f r e c o v e r i n g l i n e s p r e v i o u s l y e r a s e d . b r u s h - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e p a i n t b r u s h i c o n . p a i n t c o l o u r - s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f c o l o u r c h o i c e s f r o m t h e c o l o u r menu o n t h e r i g h t h and s i d e o f t h e s c r e e n . p a i n t r e m o v a l - s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f t h e p a i n t b r u s h i c o n w i t h t h e r i g h t h and b u t t o n i n s t e a d o f t h e l e f t hand b u t t o n . T h i s h a s t h e e f f e c t o f r e m o v i n g t h e l a s t l a y e r o f p a i n t a p p l i e d . s p r a y - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e s p r a y p a i n t i c o n . f i l l c o l o u r c h o i c e - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f c o l o u r o p t i o n s o n t h e r i g h t h and o f t h e s c r e e n when u s i n g t h e c o l o u r f i l l i c o n . APPENDIX D 100 f i l l s h a p e - s e l e c t i o n and use o f t h e c o l o u r f i l l o p t i o n . When t h e i c o n i s a c t i v a t e d t h e c u r s o r i s p l a c e d i n s i d e t h e sh a p e t o be f i l l e d w i t h t h e c u r r e n t c o l o u r c h o i c e and t h e l e f t hand b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d . * The sh a p e must be c l o s e d i n o r d e r t o c o n t a i n t h e c o l o u r f i l l . 1 i n e - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e l i n e o p t i o n t o draw s t r a i g h t l i n e s . T h i s o p t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e use o f b o t h b u t t o n s o n t h e mouse s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The l e f t hand b u t t o n i s h e l d down c o n s t a n t l y w h i l e t h e l i n e i s d r a g g e d by t h e mouse t o t h e p o s i t i o n and l e n g t h d e s i r e d , t h e n t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d t o c o m p l e t e d r a w i n g t h e l i n e . l i n e - c l o s e d s h a p e - s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f t h e l i n e i c o n t o draw a s e r i e s o f s t r a i g h t l i n e s f o r m i n g a c l o s e d s h a p e . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by h o l d i n g down t h e l e f t h a nd b u t t o n a f t e r a l i n e i s d r a w n and d r a g g i n g a new l i n e f r o m t h e e n d p o i n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s l i n e . As l o n g a s t h e l e f t h a nd b u t t o n i s h e l d down one c a n s t a r t a new l i n e f r o m t h e e n d p o i n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s l i n e . I n t h i s manner, one c a n c o m p l e t e a c l o s e d s h a p e by d r a g g i n g o u t new l i n e s a n d c o m p l e t i n g them w i t h t h e r i g h t h and b u t t o n o f t h e mouse w i t h o u t r e l e a s i n g t h e l e f t h a nd b u t t o n o f t h e mouse. l i n e - t h i c k n e s s - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e l i n e by u t i l i s i n g t h e t h i c k n e s s c h o i c e s shown b e l o w t h e p i c t o r i a l i c o n s . A s m a l l a r r o w i n d i c a t e s t h e c u r r e n t c h o i c e o f l i n e t h i c k n e s s . B r o k e n o r d a s h e d l i n e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e w i t h t h i s o p t i o n . l i n e - two b u t t o n - s e l e c t i o n a n d u s e o f t h e l i n e i c o n w i t h t h e APPENDIX D 101 f o l l o w i n g t e c h i q u e . When b o t h b u t t o n s o n t h e mouse a r e h e l d down s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e l i n e o p t i o n a l l o w s one t o draw a f r e e h a n d ( n o t s t r a i g h t ) l i n e w i t h t h e movement o f t h e mouse a s w i t h t h e p e n c i l i c o n . T h i s t e c h n i q u e a l l o w s t h e f r e e h a n d u s e o f v a r i o u s l i n e t h i c k n e s s e s n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e p e n c i l i c o n . r e c t a n g l e - s e l e c t i o n and u s e o f t h e r e c t a n g l e i c o n . T h i s f e a t u r e i s s i m i l a r t o t h e l i n e i c o n i n t h a t i t r e q u i r e s t h e u s e o f two b u t t o n s t o draw a r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e . The l e f t hand b u t t o n i s h e l d down c o n s t a n t l y w h i l e t h e mouse i s d r a g g e d u n t i l t h e d e s i r e d r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e i s f o r m e d a n d t h e n t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h i s c h o i c e . c i r c l e - s e l e c t i o n and use o f t h e c i r c l e i c o n . The u s e o f t h i s f e a t u r e i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e r e c t a n g l e i n t h e way one u s e s t h e two b u t t o n s o f t h e mouse. I n i t s d e f a u l t mode ( c o n s t r a i n t OFF) t h i s f e a t u r e a l l o w s t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f c i r c u l a r and o v a l s h a p e s . m u l t i p l e s h a p e s - u s e o f t h e r e c t a n g l e o r c i r c l e o p t i o n s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. When t h e c i r c l e o r r e c t a n g l e o p t i o n i s a c t i v a t e d i n t h e work s p a c e , t h e l e f t hand b u t t o n i s h e l d down c o n s t a n t l y w h i l e d r a g g i n g t h e mouse t o c r e a t e v a r i o u s s h a p e s . E a c h t i m e t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n i s p r e s s e d w h i l e t h e mouse i s b e i n g d r a g g e d a new c i r c u l a r o r r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e i s drawn. H o l d i n g down t h e r i g h t hand b u t t o n c o n s t a n t l y o r r a p i d l y p r e s s i n g i t g i v e s v a r i o u s e f f e c t s o f m u l t i p l e s h a p e s r a d i a t i n g f r o m t h e same p o i n t o f o r i g i n . * T h i s was a n e f f e c t d i s c o v e r e d and d e v e l o p e d by t h e c h i l d r e n , n o t t h e r e s e a r c h e r . zoom- t h e s e l e c t i o n and use o f t h e zoom i c o n . T h i s f e a t u r e a l l o w s one t o e n l a r g e a s m a l l a r e a o f a d r a w i n g . Once t h e a r e a APPENDIX D 102 i s e n l arged, b l o c k s of c o l o u r can be added or changed using the cu r s o r . To e x i t from t h i s o p t i o n back to the normal p i c t u r e s i z e , one presses the mouse i n a small area i n the upper l e f t hand corner o f the work space. s e l e c t - the s e l e c t i o n and use of the s e l e c t i c o n . T h i s f e a t u r e allows one to move or copy shapes a l r e a d y i n the work space. The d e s i g n a t i o n of shapes to be moved i s p r e s c r i b e d by drawing a r e c t a n g u l a r box around the area to be moved. Once the box i s drawn around the area to be moved the curso r i s p l a c e d i n s i d e the area and the l e f t hand button depressed a l l o w i n g one to move the area around the screen. Once the new l o c a t i o n i s reached the r i g h t hand button i s pressed ( s t i l l h o l d i n g the l e f t hand button) and the area i s moved to or copied i n the new l o c a t i o n , (see modes-copy and modes-move ) t e x t - the s e l e c t i o n and use of the t e x t i c o n . This f e a t u r e allows t e x t to be p r i n t e d i n the workspace using the keyboard. PULLDOWN MENUS f i l e : q e t - allows one to r e t r i e v e p i c t u r e s saved on a data d i s k . To accomplish t h i s i n v o l v e s choosing the get o p t i o n and then choosing the f i l e name of the p i c t u r e from a menu t h a t appears on the screen. Once the f i l e i s chosen a menu g i v e s one the o p t i o n to get the f i l e or not. f i l e : s a v e - allows one to save f i l e s or p i c t u r e s to a data d i s k . When the save o p t i o n i s a c t i v a t e d i n the pulldown menu, a l i s t of the f i l e s on the d i s k appears and an empty box i s shown i n which the name of the c u r r e n t p i c t u r e i s typed using the keyboard. Once the f i l e name i s g i v e n one i s g i v e n the choice to save the APPENDIX D 103 f i l e o r n o t . e d i t ; u n d o - when c h o s e n , t h i s o p t i o n c a n c e l s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e l a s t o p t i o n u s e d . I t w i l l n o t c a n c e l any a c t i o n s p r e v i o u s t o t h a t , so i t must be s e l e c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r a n a c t i o n i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o remove t h e r e s u l t s o f t h a t a c t i o n f r o m t h e s c r e e n . e d i t : i n v e r t - a l l o w s one t o i n s t a n t l y i n v e r t a l l t h e c o l o u r s i n t h e work s p a c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h t h i s o p t i o n a l l b l u e becomes w h i t e and a l l r e d becomes g r e e n and v i c e v e r s a . e d i t : f l i p v e r t i c a l - a l l o w s one t o f l i p t h e image i n t h e work s p a c e v e r t i c a l l y . e d i t : f l i p h o r i z o n t a l - a l l o w s one t o f l i p t h e image i n t h e work s p a c e h o r i z o n t a l l y . e d i t : c l e a r - a l l o w s one t o c l e a r t h e image i n t h e work s p a c e and s t a r t w i t h a b l a n k s p a c e . modes:move- t o be u s e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t i c o n . T h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s one t o move t h e s e l e c t e d a r e a a r o u n d t h e work s p a c e w i t h o u t c o p y i n g i t . m o d e s : c o p y - t o be u s e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t i c o n . T h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s one t o c o p y t h e s e l e c t e d a r e a a t o t h e r l o c a t i o n s on t h e s c r e e n . The d e f a u l t p a r a m e t e r f o r t h e p r o g r a m i s i n t h e c o p y mode. m o d e s : f i l l s h a p e - t o be u s e d w i t h t h e c i r c l e and r e c t a n g l e o p t i o n s . T h i s o p t i o n s a l l o w s one t o draw a s h a p e and have i t f i l l e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y w i t h t h e c u r r e n t f i l l c o l o u r c h o i c e . m o d e s : h o l l o w - t o be u s e d w i t h t h e c i r c l e and r e c t a n g l e i c o n s . T h i s a l l o w s one t o p r o d u c e h o l l o w s h a p e s w i t h no c o l o u r f i l l and i s t h e d e f a u l t p a r a m e t e r f o r t h e p r o g r a m . APPENDIX D 104 t o o l s : b r u s h s h a p e - t h i s o p t i o n g i v e s a menu o f v a r i o u s s h a p e s , s i z e s and t e x t u r e s o f p a i n b r u s h e s t o be u s e d w i t h t h e b r u s h i c o n . t o o l s : e d i t p a t t e r n - t h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s one t o c r e a t e a new c o l o u r by i n p u t t i n g c o l o u r b l o c k s t o a m a g n i f i e d p o r t i o n o f a c o l o u r . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l b l o c k o f c o l o u r c a n be a l t e r e d a l l o w i n g one t o compose b r o k e n c o l o u r c o m b i n a t i o n s w i t h f o u r c o m p o s i t e c o l o u r s . t o o l s : c o n s t r a i n t ON- t o be u s e d w i t h t h e c i r c l e o r r e c t a n g l e i c o n s . When t h i s o p t i o n i s u s e d o n l y c i r c l e o r s q u a r e s c a n be g e n e r a t e d . t o o l s : c o n s t r a i n t OFF- t o be u s e d w i t h t h e c i r c l e o r r e c t a n g l e i c o n s . When t h i s o p t i o n i s u s e d e l l i p t i c a l o r r e c t a n g u l a r s h a p e s may be drawn. T h i s o p t i o n i s t h e d e f a u l t p a r a m e t e r f o r t h e p r o g r a m . t e x t : s i z e - t h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s one t o p r e s c r i b e t h e s i z e o f t h e l e t t e r s u s e d w i t h t h e t e x t i c o n . t e x t : s t y l e - t h i s o p t i o n a l l o w s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i o u s s t y l e o f l e t t e r i n g t o be u s e d w i t h t h e t e x t i c o n . p r i n t - t h i s menu a l l o w s one t o p r i n t t h e image c u r r e n t l y i n t h e work s p a c e . APPENDIX E 105 C r i t e r i a for rating scale The scoring of each image was conducted using the c r i t e r i a explained below. The judges used these c r i t e r i a as a guideline in assigning a score for each category of analysis. Category one Variety within shapes- relevant as the extent to which a c h i l d includes one or more of the following to produce variety within shapes (two dimensional areas defined by contours). l i n e - use of various thicknesses and q u a l i t i e s of a medium to produce d i f f e r e n t i a t e d contours, colour- use of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d colour combinations in both outline and f i l l i n colour for subshapes within shapes, use of a variety of enclosed minor shapes or parts within shapes e.g. square, t r i a n g l e , c i r c l e , i rregular shape, number of subshapes- assumes that the more subshapes placed i n major shapes the more variety within shapes. Four or more subshapes are equated with very much variety within shapes. Much variety i s equated with three subshapes within a larger shape. Some variety consists of two subshapes within a larger shape. L i t t l e variety e n t a i l s use of only one subshape while no variety indicates a t o t a l absence of subshapes within larger shapes. For rating, use the following descriptors to determine the le v e l of variety within shapes. Count each occurrence of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s given as an instance. Scores on a fi v e point scale are to be given as follows: APPENDIX E 106 1. very much - i n c l u d e s four or more in s t a n c e s o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n shape. 2. much - i n c l u d e s three i n s t a n c e s o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n shape. 3. some - i n c l u d e s two in s t a n c e s o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n shape. 4. l i t t l e - i n c l u d e s one i n s t a n c e o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n shape. 5. none - i n c l u d e s no i n s t a n c e s o f v a r i e t y w i t h i n shape. Category two V a r i e t y between shapes- r e f e r s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r i n c i p a l shapes i n the composition as a whole. Consider attempts to c r e a t e d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e major shapes or areas of the composition as v a r i e t y between shapes. These d i s t i n g u i s h n g q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : l i n e - the use of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h i c k n e s s and q u a l i t y o f contours to produce o u t l i n i n g f e a t u r e s o f shapes. c o l o u r - the use of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o l o u r e i t h e r i n contour l i n e s or i n the areas c i r c u m s c r i b e d by shapes. shape- v a r i a t i o n i n the type o f shapes used e.g. squares, c i r c l e s e t c . s i z e - v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e o f shapes. p o s i t i o n - v a r i a t i o n s i n the placement of major shapes or areas w i t h i n the t o t a l composition. A r a t i n g of very much i s g i v e n i f shapes are p l a c e d a t v a r y i n g d i s t a n c e s apart. Much v a r i e t y e n t a i l s the placement of shapes a t s l i g h t l y l e s s v a r i e d d i s t a n c e s apart. The r a t i n g s some and l i t t l e v a r i e t y of p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y i n the d i s t a n c e s between shapes and t h e i r placement on a s i m i l a r v e r t i c a l or h o r i z o n t a l plane. No v a r i e t y i m p l i e s t h a t shapes are APPENDIX E 107 a l l placed an equal distance apart on the same plane. For rating variety between shapes, define instance as one occurrence of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n a composition. 1. Very Much: includes five or more of above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 2. Much: includes four of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3. Some: includes two or three of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 4. L i t t l e : includes one of the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 5. None: includes no occurrences of any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c given. Category three Complexity- relevant to the small or minute parts used i n composition. Consider the use of many small shapes within larger shapes or joined to larger shapes, to constitute complexity. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of complexity are: d e t a i l s i n human figure or object, e.g. shoes, eyelashes, patterns, pockets, tree branches etc. use of small subordinate shapes or elements within the context of a larger shape. 1. Very Complex- use of four of more d e t a i l s i n a representational figure or object.Also could be indicated by the use of four or more subshapes i n a larger shape. 2. Complex- use of three d e t a i l s in a representational figure or object. Also indicated by the use of three subshapes i n a larger shape. 3. Some Complexity- indicated by the use of two d e t a i l s in a representational figure or object. Also indicated by the use of two subshapes i n a larger shape. 4. L i t t l e Complexity- indicated by the use of one d e t a i l in a APPENDIX E 108 representational figure or object. Also shown by the use of one subshape i n a larger shape. 5. No Complexity- indicated by no use of d e t a i l i n depicting representational figure or objects. Also may be indicated by the inclusion of no subshapes within larger shapes. Category Four Image autonomy- indicated by the allowance of a separate space for each object or shape. This c r i t e r i o n i s based on the observation that young a r t i s t s tend to preserve image autonomy i n their artwork. Therefore the scale r e f l e c t s t h i s pattern i n that the more image autonomy the higher the rating. This i s not necessarily considered the more desirable qu a l i t y from an a r t i s t i c point of view but i s consistent with how young children depict their images. Typ i c a l l y , a preschool c h i l d progresses from scr i b b l e s , where autonomous shapes are not v i s i b l e , to depictions of i d e n t i f i e d autonomous images. 1. Very Autonomous- each shape or object i n the whole composition occupies i t s own space. 2. Much Autonomy - each shape or object i n 3/4 of composition occupies i t s own space, some overlap in remaining 1/4 of the composition. 3. Some Autonomy - i n half of composition each shape or object occupies i t s own space, overlapping i n remaining half of composition. 4. L i t t l e Autonomy - over half the composition i s f i l l e d with overlapping shapes and configurations, l i t t l e attempt to preserve autonomy of shapes. APPENDIX E 109 5. No Autonomy- overlapping throughout whole composition, no attempt to preserve autonomy o£ images. Category Five Texture- the real or apparent surface quality of a shape or object. Characteristics of texture include: the use of l i n e or broken colour to create a surface quality on a shape or object. the use of textural features i n representations such as hair, bark, fur etc. 1. Very Textured - indicated by four instances of the addition of textural features to representations or by heavy use of broken colour within a shape. 2. Textured - indicated by three instances of adding textural features to representations or moderate use of broken colour within a shape. 3. Some Texture - indicated by the use of two instances of adding textural features to representations or scattered use of broken colour. 4. L i t t l e Texture- indicated by the use of one instance of adding a textural feature to a representation or by one instance of the use of broken colour. 5. No texture - no occurences of textural features i n representations and the exclusive use of uniform surface colours. 

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