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A study of children's behaviour in family groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium Elderton, Victor James 1986

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A" STUDY OF CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR IN FAMILY GROUPS IN THE GRAHAM AMAZON GALLERY, VANCOUVER PUBLIC AQUARIUM By VICTOR JAMES ELDERTON B.Sc, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Mathematics and Science Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1986 (c) Victor James Elderton 1986 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department Of Mathematics and Science Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October, 1986. )E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was undertaken in order to document children's behaviour in family groups as they toured d i f f e r e n t exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. Methods: This was a n a t u r a l i s t i c study, based upon non-intrusive observation of c h i l d behaviours in family groups. Two methods of data c o l l e c t i o n were used. These were: 1) Time interval observations of designated study c h i l d r e n as they toured the Gallery with t h e i r attending adults; 2) Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l administered to adults to assess the perceived "information load" of d i f f e r e n t exhibit sections of the G a l l e r y . Findings: 1) That adults perceived that d i f f e r e n t e x h i bit sections had d i f f e r e n t "Information loads." E x h i b i t s that were s i m i l a r to t e r r l a were perceived to be d i f f e r e n t from e x h i b i t s s i m i l a r to a walk through conservatory. 2) That ch i l d r e n showed more behaviours in exhibit sections with low "information loads." 3) That ch i l d r e n showed greater variety of behaviours in exhibit sections with low "Information loads." 4) That female ch i l d r e n interacted with adults more often than male children In exhibit sections with low "Information load." 5) That male children interacted with adults more often than female children in exhibit sections with high "information load." Approved: - i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1.00: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1 1.10 Background of the Problem 1 1.20 The Problem 2 1.30 The D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 3 1.31 General D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 1.32 D e f i n i t i o n of S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms 6 1.40 Ra t i o n a l e of the Hypotheses 7 1.50 Hypotheses and Questions to be Answered 9 1.51 Hypotheses 9 1.52 Questions 10 1.60 Assumptions 13 1.70 D e l i m i t a t i o n of the Study 13 1.80 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study 14 CHAPTER 2.00: THE SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 15 2.10 O u t l i n e of L i t e r a t u r e i n Sequenclal Order 16 2.20 N a t u r a l i s t i c Research In Museums 16 2.21 Factual A c q u i s i t i o n and Museum Environments 18 2.22 Museum Environments, S t i m u l i and V i s i t o r Behaviour 21 2.30 The Present Study with Respect to the L i t e r a t u r e 24 CHAPTER 3.00: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26 3.10 Measuring Instruments 26 3.11 Observed Behaviour Record Sheet 26 3.12 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Questionaire 29 3.20 Study Design 32 3.30 Study Po p u l a t i o n 34 3.31 C h i l d Subject Study Group 34 3.32 Adult "Information Load" Assessment Group 35 3.40 Data C o l l e c t i o n 36 3.41 Time S e r i e s Observations 36 - i i i -3.42 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 3.43 S t a t i s i c a l A n a l y s i s . 37 38 CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 44 4.10 In t r o d u c t i o n 44 4.11 Behaviours of C h i l d r e n i n Family Groups 45 4.20 Perceptions of E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s Using the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 56 4.30 C h i l d Behaviours In D i f f e r e n t E x h i b i t S ections 60 4.40 Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours i n the G a l l e r y and E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s 60 4.41 The Frequency of Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours 61 4.42 The R a t i o of Male and Female S i n g u l a r to M u l t i p l e Behaviours 63 4.43 The Complexity of Behaviour Index f o r Males and Females 64 4.44 The R a t i o of Male and Female S i n g u l a r to I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours 66 4.50 Male C h i l d Behaviours In the G a l l e r y and In the E x h i b i t S ections 69 4.51 The Frequency of Male C h i l d Behaviours 69 4.52 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r to M u l t i p l e Behaviours 71 4.53 The Complexity of Behaviour Index f o r Males 72 4.54 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r to I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours 74 4.60 Female C h i l d Behaviours In the G a l l e r y and In the E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s 76 4.61 The Frequency of Female C h i l d Behaviours 76 4.62 The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r to M u l t i p l e Behaviours 78 4.63 The Complexity of Behaviour Index f o r Females 80 4.64 The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r to I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours .. 81 4.70 The Comparison of Male and Female Behaviours 83 4.71 The Comparison of Male and Female S i n g u l a r Behaviour Frequencies 83 4.72 The Comparison of Male and Female M u l t i p l e Behaviour Frequencies 84 4.73 The Comparison of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviour Indices 86 4.74 The Comparison of Male and Female I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours . 87 CHAPTER 5.00: CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH 89 5.10 Conclusions of the Present Study Based on the Data 89 - i v -5.20 Further Research as Suggested by the Data 93 CHAPTER 6.00: BIBLIOGRAPHY 9 6 6.10 References 9 6 APPENDIX 1: The Map of the Gallery 99 APPENDIX 2: The Coded Observational Data 10° c-- V -LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: The Number of Children and Adults in Each Family Group . 47 TABLE 2: The Frequency of Behaviours 50 TABLE 3: ANOVA for Semantic Differential 58 TABLE 4: The Frequency of Male and Female Singular Behaviours . . . 61 TABLE 5: The Frequency of Male and Female Multiple Behaviours . . . 61 TABLE 6: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours 63 TABLE 7: The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Males and Females 65 TABLE 8: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours 66 TABLE 9: The Frequency of Male Singular Behaviours 69 TABLE 10: The Frequency of Male Multiple Behaviours 70 TABLE 11: The Ratio of Male Singular to Multiple Behaviours 71 TABLE 12: The Complexity of Behaviour Index <%) for Males 72 TABLE 13: The Ratio of Male Singular to Interactive Behaviours . . 74 TABLE 14: The Frequency of Female Singular Behaviours 76 TABLE 15: The Frequency of Female Multiple Behaviours 77 TABLE 16: The Ratio of Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours . . . 78 TABLE 17: The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Females 80 TABLE 18: The Ratio of Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours 81 TABLE 19: The Ratio of Male to Female Singular Behaviours 83 TABLE 20: The Ratio of Male to Female Multiple Behaviours 84 TABLE 21: The Ratio of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviours Indices 8 6 TABLE 22: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours 8 7 - vi -TABLE 23: Males; Closed Exhibits 101 TABLE 24: Females; Closed Exhibits 105 TABLE 25: Males; Semi-Open Exhibits 109 TABLE 26: Females; Semi-Open Exhibits H I TABLE 27: Males; Open Exhibits 113 TABLE 28: Females; Open Exhibits 115 - vii -LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1: Observed Behaviour Record Sheet 28 FIGURE 2: Semantic Differential Questlonalre 31 FIGURE 3: Frequency of Male Behaviours 51 FIGURE 4: Frequency of Female Behaviour 52 FIGURE 5: Frequency of Male Behaviour Sequences 54 FIGURE 6: Frequency of Female Beahvlour Sequences 55 FIGURE 7: Map of the Amazon Gallery 99 - v l i l -ACKNOWLEGDEMENT As with a l l work of t h i s type i t could never be completed without the support and guidance of a cast of colleagues and personal f r i e n d s that believe In you. The work presented here would never have been completed without the assistance of Dr. Bob C a r l i s l e , Department of Mathematics and Science Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. His constant quadrant 2 enquiries (McCarthy, 1980) were essential to the completion of the present study. The researcher would also l i k e to the thank the Vancouver Public Aquarium for b u i l d i n g the Graham Amazon Gallery, a r i c h centre for observational a n a l y s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r Mr. G i l Hewlitt, General Curator of the Vancouver Aquarium, made It possible for the researcher to c o l l e c t data unhindered at the Aquarium. The researcher would also l i k e to thank personal friends for t h e i r support, among these the researcher would l i k e to thank, Ed and Irene Buchanan, Sid Elderton, Len and Isabella Brown and Don and Shirl e y Elderton. - Ix -T i t l e : A Study of Children's Behaviour in Family Groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium. CHAPTER 1.00: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.10 Background of the Problem Since the establishment of modern museums and other informal learning environments in the mid nineteenth century the popularity of these i n s t i t u t i o n s has grown s i g n i f i c a n t l y (Alexander, 1979). P r i o r to the nineteenth century these I n s t i t u t i o n s which include zoos and aquariums were based upon private c o l l e c t i o n s . These c o l l e c t i o n s were the domain of t h e i r owners and a small c i r c l e of fri e n d s who they permitted to view the c o l l e c t i o n . The s i t u a t i o n today, however, i s much d i f f e r e n t . Throughout North America the interest in museums i s very high. This interest i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the opening of a new museum every 3.3 days In the United States (Alexander, 1979). In B r i t i s h Columbia there are over 300 museums regi s t e r e d as members of the B.C. Museums Association (B.C. Museums Association, 1983). In the United States i t i s estimated that some 300 m i l l i o n v i s i t s to museums are made each year (Alexander, 1979) with a s i m i l a r number of v i s i t s being made to zoological i n s t i t u t i o n s (AAZPA, 1984). These attendance f i g u r e s indicate that the general public finds these i n s t i t u t i o n s of Interest otherwise they would not choose to v i s i t them so frequently. Each of these i n s t i t u t i o n s i s a c o l l e c t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d -1-a r t i f a c t s or specimens ei t h e r l i v i n g or preserved and these c o l l e c t i o n s represent potenial learning environments for the v i s i t o r s who use them. Most of the current research on museum v i s i t o r s has been concerned with the learning outcomes of i n d i v i d u a l s while in organized groups, such as school f i e l d t r i p groups ( B a l l i n g and Falk, 1980). However, the demographic data indicates that the highest number of museum v i s i t o r s are i n d i v i d u a l s , small groups of friends and f a m i l i e s . What Is learnt by these i n d i v i d u a l s s i n g l y or in groups has not been thoroughly investigated. In p a r t i c u l a r , the inter a c t i o n between people and museum environments has not been examined. In centres such as the Vancouver Public Aquarium the analysis of v i s i t o r response to ex h i b i t s i s important to exhibit designers and museum program planners. The ap p l i c a t i o n of t h i s type of analysis would improve the education and communication value of ex h i b i t s by focussing on v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n with e x h i b i t s . Further development plans based upon research of v i s i t o r interaction with e x h i b i t s would contribute information that would enrich v i s i t o r experiences. 1.20 The Problem This thesis w i l l examine the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t environments on the behaviours shown by chil d r e n and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults within one exhibit at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. Mehrabian (1974) used a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to analyse how people understood or perceived an environment that they were either Introduced to or imagined. This research demonstrated that In complex open environments -2-people perceived that higher amounts or "loads" of information existed than in environments where only s p e c i f i c stimuli existed or where the environment was d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d . Preliminary observation indicates that the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium has varying amounts of "information load" depending on which section of the exhibit one i s observing. S p e c i f i c a l l y t h i s t hesis w i l l address the problem as to whether the public perceives that the exhibit area has d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of "information load". Secondly observations w i l l be taken that record what behaviours elementary aged children engage In with respect to where they are in the exhibit g a l l e r y . Observations w i l l be gathered in such a manner that a comparison of male and female subjects w i l l be poss i b l e . As a n a t u r a l i s t i c observation study t h i s research record w i l l a lso combine reports of infrequent environmental events which may cause some response on the part of the observed c h i l d . In the past reserchers in these environments have observed s p e c i f i c behaviours, in an attempt to id e n t i f y the most s i g n i f i c a n t (Mehrabian, 1976); ( G o t t f r i e d , 1980); (Koran and Longlno, 1983). The problem with t h i s a n alysis Is that often the behaviours exhibited by the aquarium or museum audience are combined with other behaviours e i t h e r In tandem with other members of h i s or her group or i n d i v i d u a l l y . This study w i l l attempt to address these behaviours to discern whether c e r t a i n groups of a c t i v i t i e s r e g u l a r l y occur together or within a sequence. 1.30 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms -3-In conducting t h i s research there w i l l be various terms which w i l l have to be described and defined. These terms w i l l be a set of general terms and a set of s p e c i f i c terms which r e l a t e to the description of pa r t i c i p a n t behaviour. 1.31 General D e f i n i t i o n of Terms: a. ) Museum: a generic term for those i n s t i t u t i o n s such as museums that are places of voluntary learning such as a museum, zoo or aquarium. b. ) Gallery: a group of museum ex h i b i t s Intended to be viewed by the v i s i t i n g p ublic with a s p e c i f i c theme. c. ) Exhibit s e c t i o n : one of three types of ex h i b i t s In the Graham Amazon Gallery. These sections are closed, semi-open and open display cases. In the closed display cases the specimens are "caged" behind glass. In the semi-open exhibit sections the a e r i a l portion of the exhibit i s open, the v i s i t o r i s afforded an open a i r view , but, not surrounded by the e x h i b i t . In the open exhibit sections the v i s i t o r i s surrounded by the e x h i b i t . d. ) V i s i t i n g p u b l i c : those members of the Aquarium audience that come to view the aquarium e x h i b i t s . e. ) Family group: at least one c h i l d accompanied by an adult in the Amazon Gallery. f. ) Alpha c h i l d : the c h i l d to be observed. g. ) Behaviour: an a c t i v i t y observed for an alpha c h i l d and defined by the study in the following section 1.32. -4-h.) Observation: a record of alpha c h i l d behaviour taken at a s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l . 1.) Time s e r i e s observation: point In time observations of the alpha c h i l d . These observations w i l l be taken in 60 second Intervals and w i l l be recorded at each interval for the alpha c h i l d ' s compplete v i s i t to J . ) Singular behaviour: one behaviour recorded at one observation, k.) Multiple behaviour: more than one singular behaviour recorded at one observation. 1.) Behaviour sequence: a multiple behaviour that Includes three or more behaviours recorded at one observation. m.) Complexity of behaviour index: a c a l c u l a t i o n of alpha c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n within the Graham Amazon Gallery and the exhibit sections of that g a l l e r y . Complexity of behaviour indexes w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d by making a sum of singular behaviour for the Gallery and exhibit sections and d i v i d i n g that by the components of multiple behaviours observed for the Gallery and the exhibit sections. sum of singular behaviours behaviour components of multiple behaviours n.) Interactive behaviour: an a c t i v i t y observed for an attending adult that includes the alpha c h i l d . For the purposes of t h i s study c e r t a i n behaviours exhibited by the alpha c h i l d w i l l be coded on an observation instrument. These behaviours -5-are seen as being discreet acts that can be ob j e c t i v e l y defined. The behaviours w i l l be coded from 0 to 9. A d e f i n i t i o n of these behaviours follows; described as a c t i v i t i e s undertaken by the alpha c h i l d and the accompanying adult or adults of that c h i l d . 1.32 D e f i n i t i o n of S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms 0) non-defined: any behaviour shown by the alpha c h i l d which i s not defined by the following set of observation c r i t e r i a . 0) non-defined adult behaviour: Is any behaviour shown by the adult or adults in a family group and not direc t e d toward the alpha c h i l d , 1) looks: the alpha c h i l d looks at a display. 1) looks: the adult and alpha c h i l d look at the same display 2) points: the alpha c h i l d points at a s p e c i f i c aspect of the display. 2) points: the adult points out a s p e c i f i c subject or object in the displa y . 3) talks-exclaims: the alpha c h i l d makes a verbal exclamation which i s not part of a conversation <le. ooh!, look!, wow! ). 3) talks-exclaims: the adult makes an exclamation while with the alpha c h i l d . 4) t a l k s : the alpha c h i l d engages in conversation about a display. 4) t a l k s : the adult engages in conversation with the alpha c h i l d . 5) l i s t e n : the alpha c h i l d stops to notice some sound in the Gallery 5) l i s t e n : the adult l i s t e n s to the alpha c h i l d . -6-6) touches: the alpha c h i l d touches an object or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 6) touches: the adult touches an object or aspect of the e x h i b i t or guides the alpha c h i l d ' s hand to an aspect of the e x h i b i t . 7) questions: the alpha c h i l d asks a question about the d i s p l a y . 7) questions: the adult asks the alpha c h i l d a d i r e c t question about the d i s p l a y . 8) reads: the alpha c h i l d reads the e x h i b i t graphics. 8) reads: the adult reads e x h i b i t copy out loud to the alpha c h i l d . 9) i n v o l v e s another: the alpha c h i l d draws another member of the family group to an object or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 9) i n v o l v e s another: the adult i n v o l v e s the alpha c h i l d r e n and others wit h an object or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 1.40 R a t i o n a l e of the Hypotheses The e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s of the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y represent three e x h i b i t areas. The e x h i b i t s which make up the areas can be descibed as an open a v i a r y / c o n s e r v a t o r y , a semi-open aviary/conservatory and g l a s s d i s p l a y cases. In each of these e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s the v i s i t o r ' s veiwlng p o s i t i o n changes. In the open aviary/conservatory the v i s i t o r Is surrounded by the e x h i b i t w h i le walking through a r e - c r e a t i o n of an Amazon f o r e s t environment. In the semi-open aviary/conservatory areas the a e r i a l p o r t i o n of the e x h i b i t i s open, where the v i s i t o r i s a f f o r d e d an open a i r view , but, not surrounded by the e x h i b i t . Some specimens w i t h i n these e x h i b i t s such as b i r d s are free to move between e x h i b i t s , -7-but, the v i s i t o r i s not. In the glass cases the specimens are caged. In the closed glass display case areas the l i v i n g specimens are "caged" behind glass. V i s i t o r s can look, but not touch. The v i s i t o r s are spectators in these sections. Within each of these exhibit sections the amount of formal information provided as copy and graphics v a r i e s . As c i t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e v i s i t o r behaviours In d i f f e r e n t museum environments has been observed to vary (Mehrabian, 1976); ( G o t t f r i e d , 1980); Koran and Longino (1982) and Koran and Longino (1983). Mehrabian (1976) i d e n t i f i e d two groups of museum v i s i t o r s ; a group of v i s i t o r s known as "screeners," who concentrated on high stimulus e x h i b i t s and a second set of v i s i t o r s i d e n t i f i e d as "non-screeners," who concentrated on subtle or contemplative e x h i b i t s . G o t t f r i e d (1980) i d e n t i f i e d two learning groups within students v i s i t i n g the Nature Room at the Lawrence Hall of Science at Berkley. G o t t f r i e d (1980) decrlbed these groups as "adventurous" and "hesitant" learners. "Adventurous" learners were described as those students which a c t i v e l y interacted with e x h i b i t s . They explored and manipulated the objects and specimens on displ a y . "Hesitant learners" were described as standing back from an exhibit and waiting to attempt d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These "hesitant learners" focussed on one p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the e x h i b i t . In a comparison of Mehrabian (1976) and G o t t f r i e d (1980) the d e f i n i t i o n s of "screeners" and "adventurous learners" are synonomous as are the terms "non-screeners" and "hesitant learners". The discussions describing these museum v i s i t o r s Indicate various s i m i l a r i t i e s between each of the i d e n t i f i e d groups. -8-In Koran and Long!no (1983) v i s i t o r behaviour was observed to vary throughout d i f f e r e n t exhibit areas. Their work described v a r i a t i o n s of v i s i t o r behaviour in exhibit areas throughout an e n t i r e museum. This d e s c r i p t i o n catalogued the influences of diverse exhibit types on v i s i t o r behaviour (Koran and Longino 1982). How these v a r i a t i o n s of behaviour may change with s p e c i f i c types of museum exhibit environments was not examined. Whether there were v a r i a t i o n s of behaviour within the same age group with respect to age or sex was not addressed. The intent of t h i s study i s to address these new problems. 1.50 Hypotheses and Questions to be Answered 1.51 Hypotheses a. ) The behaviours of elementary aged children and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults w i l l not vary in the exhibit sections of Graham Amazon Gallery. b. ) The behaviours of elementary aged male children and t h e i r Interaction withadults w i l l not vary in the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Galle r y . c. ) The behaviours of elementary aged female ch i l d r e n and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults w i l l not vary In the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery. -9-d. ) The behaviours of elementary aged male and female ch i l d r e n and th e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults w i l l not vary in the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery. e. ) The behaviours of elementary aged children and t h e i r Interaction with adults within the Graham Amazon Gallery w i l l not vary with d i f f e r i n g "information loads". 1.52 Questions Within each of these hypotheses there i s a s e r i e s of questions to be examined in t h i s study. These questions Include those which deal with the e n t i r e set of observations and those which deal with the possible differences between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s In the study. a.01) What behaviour sequences are i d e n t i f i a b l e for each exhibit section? a.02) What i s the frequency of singular behaviours for each exhibit section? a.03) What i s the frequency of multiple behaviours for each exhibit section? a.04) What i s the r a t i o of singular behaviours to multiple behaviours seen for each of the exhibit sections? a.05) What i s the complexity of behaviour index for the ent i r e Graham Amazon Gallery? a.06) What i s the complexity of behaviour index for each exhibit section? -10-a. 07) What i s the r a t i o of singular behaviours to in t e r a c t i v e behaviours? b. 01) What male behaviour sequences are i d e n t i f i a b l e for each exhibit section? b.02) What i s the frequency of male singular behaviours for each exhibit section? b.03) What i s the frequency of multiple male behaviours for each exhibit section? b.04) What i s the r a t i o of singular male behaviours to multiple male behaviours for each exhibit section? b.05) What Is the male complexity of behaviour index for the enti r e Graham Amazon Gallery? b.06) What i s the male complexity of behaviour index for each exhibit section? b. 07) What i s the r a t i o singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours? c. 01) What female behaviour sequences are I d e n t i f i a b l e for each exhibit section? c.02) What i s the frequency of female singular behaviours for each exhibit section? c.03) What i s the frequency of multiple female behaviours for each exhibit section? c.04) What i s the r a t i o of singular female behaviours to multiple female behaviours for each exhibit section? -11-c.05) What i s the female complexity of behaviour index for the ent i r e Graham Amazon Gallery? c.06) What i s the female complexity of behaviour Index for each exhibit section? c. 07) What Is the r a t i o singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours? d. 01) What i s the comparison of male behaviour sequences to female behaviour sequences In the exhibit sections? d.02) What Is the r a t i o of male singular behaviours to female singular behaviours in the Graham Amazon Gallery? d 03) What Is the r a t i o of male singular behaviours to female singular behaviours In exhibit section? d.04) What i s the r a t i o of male multiple behaviours to female multiple behaviours In the Graham Amazon Gallery? d.05) What i s the r a t i o of male multiple behaviours to female multiple behaviours for each exhibit section? d.06) What i s the comparison of the male complexity of behaviour index to female complexity of behaviour Index of the Graham Amazon Gallery? d.07) What i s the comparison of the male complexity of behaviour index to the female complexity of behaviour index for each exhibit section. d.08) What Is the r a t i o of i n t e r a c t i v e male behaviours to female i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours for the Graham Amazon Gallery? -12-d.09) What Is the r a t i o of Interactive male behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e female behaviours for each exhibit section? 1.60 Assumptions In designing t h i s study a l i m i t e d number of assumptions have been made. The assumptions that have been made are general,and r e l a t e to the research methods more than to the s p e c i f i c content of the the study. It i s assumed that: 1.61 The behaviours descibed In section 1.32 of t h i s chapter are observable. 1.62 The p a r t i c i p a n t group of children are observable using the nine behaviour d e s c r i p t i o n s l i s t e d in section 1.32. 1.63 The n a t u r a l i s t i c observation to be c a r r i e d out w i l l not a f f e c t with the normal way in which the public i n t e r a c t s with the e x h i b i t s in the Graham Amazon Gallery. 1.64 The time s e r i e s observations w i l l have s p e c i f i c relevance to how v i s i t o r s in the elementary age group use the Graham Amazon Galle r y . 1.65 The behaviours defined are representative of Interactive learning behaviours that are observable in museum environments, based upon p i l o t observation and l i t e r a t u r e research. -13-1.70 Delimitation of the Study This study i s to be conducted on a random sample of children in family groups v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. Thirty-two children in the elementary age c l a s s w i l l be observed in the study. There w i l l be 16 males observed and 16 females. 1.80 J u s t i f i c a t i o n of the Study This study represents fundamental research in an analysis of behaviours within museum exhibit environments and the research findings w i l l be useful to design of museum e x h i b i t s , to f a c i l i t a t e more e f f e c t i v e use by v i s i t o r s . The research w i l l also be applicable to museum educators making decisions how best to use the exhibit areas of the Graham Amazon Ga l l e r y . -14-T i t l e : A Study of Children's Behaviour in Family Groups in the Graham Amazon Galler y , Vancouver Public Aquarium. CHAPTER 2.00: THE SURVEY OF LITERATURE As outlined in Chapter 1 t h i s study w i l l examine how children in family groups interact with the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. The methodology chosen to study these ch i l d r e n was n a t u r a l i s t i c . The reason why t h i s methodolgy was chosen i s twofold; f i r s t l y the methodology was applicable to voluntary learning s i t u a t i o n s such as museums and secondly the non-intrusive aspect of the methodology has allowed researchers to study arousal and c u r i o s i t y of learners in other environments. From these past investigations research conclusions were drawn about v i s i t o r behaviour in general, the a c q u i s i t i o n of factual information from museum environments and the environmental stimuli that e f f e c t museum v i s i t o r s . This survey of the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l discuss the ratio n a l for the methodology and i t s format in the present study. The review w i l l also discuss the current concepts of v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n s based on factual a c q u i s i t i o n evaluation and behavioural observation with respect to the present study. - 15 -2.10 Outline of L i t e r a t u r e in Sequencial Order 2.20 N a t u r a l i s t i c Research In Museums Kilbourn (1980); Wolfe and Tymitz (1978a); Wolfe and Tymitz (1978b); Wolfe and Tymitz (1979); Wolf and Tymitz (1981); McCarthy (1980); Peterson and Lowery (1972); Anderson and Walberg (1974); Jonathan (1981) 2.21 Factual A c q u i s i t i o n in Museum Environments Falk, Martin and B a l l i n g (1978); B a l l i n g and Falk (1980); Kaplan (1978); Screven (1975); Screven (1976); Falk (1983); Serrel1(1977); Brown (1978); Falk (1983); Linn (1976) 2.22 Museum Environments, Stimuli and V i s i t o r behaviour Kaplan (1978); Lynch (1978); Mehrabian (1974); Mehrabian (1976); G o t t f r i e d (1980); Cone (1978); Koran and Longino (1982); Brown (1978); Koran and Longino (1983); Hansel (1982) 2.20 N a t u r a l i s t i c Research in Museums Surveys, demographic studies and observations of v i s i t o r s gave museum profe s s i o n a l s general information about the v i s i t i n g p u b l i c . To answer more s p e c i f i c questions such as; why some aspects of an exhibit work and others do not, and what motivates v i s i t o r s to interact with an ex h i b i t , required a research methodology as complex as how the public "does" museums or zoos. N a t u r a l i s t i c studies in museum set t i n g s have become an accepted methodology for t h i s a n a l y s i s . This approach for gathering observational data allows the researcher to record behaviour without d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the v i s i t o r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n with an environment (Kilbourn, 1980). Wolf and Tymitz (1978a) discuss the steps in planning and implementing a n a t u r a l i s t i c study within a museum. These researchers - 16 -used Interviews, as well as, observational data to conduct a s e r i e s of studies of v i s i t o r perceptions at the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n (Wolfe and Tymitz, 1978b); (Wolfe and Tymitz, 1979); (Wolfe and Tymitz, 1981). Anderson and Walberg (1974) developed composite Inventories of the classroom environment using n a t u r a l i s t i c methods. Their conclusions were based upon n a t u r a l i s t i c observation of these environments without the use of interviews. This meant the analysis of observations was based upon what was observed In s i t u rather than what was i n t e r p r e t e d through an interview. These researchers concluded that to implement an e f f e c t i v e study the observer would have to have a thorough understanding of the environment to be observed and a c l e a r l y defined set of c r i t e r i a to focus observations, since i t was possible to record everything. At s p e c i f i c times s p e c i f i c observations r e l a t i n g to one aspect of classroom learning would be c o l l e c t e d and then analysed. After successive observations the mosaic of the classroom could be defined. McCarthy (1980) used t h i s approach in the development of inventories for the "4 -MAT" concept of the classroom environment. Other researchers applied t h i s methodolgy to s p e c i f i c components of learning. To describe the changes of c u r i o s i t y or f a s c i n a t i o n in learning Peterson and Lowery (1972) used observations of c h i l d behaviour. These researchers used behaviours as observable Indicators of c u r i o s i t y in free choice learning environments. A c u r i o s i t y index based on behaviour was developed. Three lev e l s o f . c u r i o s i t y or i n t r i n s i c motivation were i d e n t i f i e d : a c h i l d approached an object; a c h i l d approached and manipulated an object; and a c h i l d apoproached, manipulated and re-organized an object with respect to other objects. This research c o r r e l a t e d definable behaviours with - 17 -aspects of s e l f motivation. Both Peterson and Lowery (1972) and McCarthy (1980) applied observations of c h i l d learning behaviour to describe complex learning s i t u t a t i o n s . So, e f f e c t i v e n a t u r a l i s t i c research needs an observational objective to be e f f e c t i v e (Anderson and Walberg, 1974). Though n a t u r a l i s t i c study In s i t u a t i o n s where behaviour Is changing i s u s e f u l , the methodology i s lim i t e d by i t s r e l i a n c e on point data observations. These point data are records of s p e c i f i c behaviours occurring at s p e c i f i c Instances of time, therefore, they are s p o t l i g h t s of behaviour which ex i s t in a continuum of learner a c t i v i t y . The r e s u l t s from studies of one environment can not be applied across a broad spectrum of educational p r a c t i c e s . This l i m i t a t i o n to the point data observations e x i s t s because the research methodology depends on frozen instants of learner behaviour and the environment where the observations were recorded (Jonathan, 1981). Any conclusions drawn from such data about c u r i o s i t y and fas c i n a t i o n Interactions are s p e c i f i c to the behavioural mi leu that they are observed in (Kilbourn, 1980). 2.21 Factual A c q u i s i t i o n and Museum Environments The present study i s concerned with i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours within museum environments. Factual information gained from e x h i b i t s i s one way of evaluating v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n with e x h i b i t s and i s a s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l i s t i c observation. These studies were conducted to ascertain what s p e c i f i c factual information was acquired by museum v i s i t o r s i n t e r a c t i n g with museum e x h i b i t s . The research p e r t a i n i n g to the experimental examination of factual a c q u i s i t i o n has shed some li g h t - 18 -on how v i s i t o r s interact with museum environments, for t h i s reason a discuss of these r e s u l t s i s pertinent to the present study. The f i e l d t r i p s e t t i n g i s analogous to the museum environment since i t represents another free choice learning s i t u a t i o n . Factual knowledge was found to be poor for subjects studied In an open f i e l d t r i p s e t t i n g (Falk, Martin and B a l l i n g , 1978). B a l l i n g and Falk (1980) concluded that poor knowledge retention in novel or open environments was observed because the f i e l d t r i p p a r t i c i p a n t s had d i f f i c u l t y focussing on a s p e c i f i c object in a new environment. People search for "cognitive c l a r i t y " in our environment (Kaplan, 1978). Learners In a new learning s i t u a t i o n become over stimulated and f i r s t react to orientate themselves in that space ( B a l l i n g and Falk, 1980). This i s described as a survival t a c t i c used to create a sense of place in a novel environment, within a v i s i t o r ' s mind, before becoming involved with another a c t i v i t y ( B a l l i n g and Falk, 1980); (Kaplan, 1978). More d e t a i l e d museum studies of how v i s i t o r s acquired Information from graphic formats and d i r e c t i o n a l devices were undertaken by Screven (1975); (1976). The conclusions of t h i s research indicated factual a c q u i s i t i o n depended on the c l a r i t y of graphic material, a method of focussing v i s i t o r attention (Screven, 1975). When museum v i s i t o r s used guide books and other d i r e c t i o n a l devices to focus t h e i r museum v i s i t , c u r i o s i t y was stimulated, exploration in search of exhibit information increased and v i s i t o r s perceived a gain in what they had discovered about an e x h i b i t . Through these studies Screven (1976) developed an index of exhibit holding power based upon how long i t would take a v i s i t o r to read the graphics of an e x h i b i t . The index was a r a t i o of - 19 -required viewing time and observed viewing time at an e x h i b i t . Successful e x h i b i t s had r a t i o s greater than 1, unsuccessful e x h i b i t s were those e x h i b i t s with holding power r a t i o s less than 1. Observed Viewing Time Holding Power Ratio = Required Viewing Time Falk (1983) demonstrated that when p r e - v i s l t knowledge of an exhibit was high, v i s i t o r s to a museum retained more information about that e x h i b i t . This discovery was not p a r t i c u l a r l y amazing, however, t h i s study d i d provide experimental evidence of factual gains for these v i s i t o r s , a notion that was suggested by e a r l i e r demographic survey research conducted by S e r r e l l (1977) and Brown (1978). Using a video tape record of v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n with an exhibit at the London Museum, Falk (1983) concluded that in 83% of the cases, where v i s i t o r viewing time for a s p e c i f i c exhibit was above the average, v i s i t o r s had a higher score in a factual retention t e s t s about exhibit content. This research indicated that by increasing a v i s i t o r ' s time of involvement with an exhibit there were factual knowledge gains. Linn (1976) used an analysis of factual retention and time of intera c t i o n to suggest those aspects of an exhibit that led to i t s effec t i v e n e s s . The observations made indicated that for s t a t i c e x h i b i t s v i s i t o r viewing times averaged 40 seconds for each Interaction. Exhibits that permitted greater control by the museum v i s i t o r , such as pa r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s , were found to maintain v i s i t o r interest for 5 to 16 minutes. Linn's (1976) conclusions suggested that further n a t u r a l i s t i c research of t h i s type would help in understanding the - 20 -apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i s i t o r involvement and s p e c i f i c knowledge gains made during that i n t e r a c t i o n . These studies pointed out that time at an e x h i b i t , p r e - v i s i t e x h i b i t knowledge and control over an exhibit e f f e c t e d v i s i t o r i n t e r a c t i o n with e x h i b i t s . This research created some insight into a t i g h t l y defined area of v i s i t o r behaviour, factual a c q u i s i t i o n . This work however, d i d not provide a framework for understanding what motivated v i s i t o r behaviours within a museum environment. Screven's (1976) r a t i o for example could not be applied to p a r t i c i p a t o r y or free choice learning exhibit areas such as the Graham Amazon Gallery, where there Is no required viewing time. Much of the Amazon Gallery Is experiential and in such an exhibit how could the ana l y s i s of v i s i t o r factual a c q u i s i t i o n describe what v i s i t o r s perceived about the environment they were in? Studies of factual a c q u i s i t i o n could not provide information about the contri b u t i n g factors for an e x h i b i t ' s success or f a i l u r e . 2.22 Museum Environments, Stimuli and V i s i t o r behaviour Are museum environments, f a c t o r s which contribute to the success or f a i l u r e of museum exhibits? What are the influences of museum environments on v i s i t o r behaviours, t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with exhibits? To understand these questions It i s f i r s t important to understand how people behave in open environments l i k e the Graham Amazon Gallery. This i s an environment where the v i s i t o r chooses what to do, l i k e eating at a smorgosbord, not an environment where they are instructed, l i k e eating - 21 -out with your mother and father. In open or complex learning environments people use behaviours that sort and organize in-coming stimuli (Kaplan, 1978); (Lynch, 1978). Lynch (1978) observed that sensory cues in the environment work as advanced organizers to focus an investigation of new environments and f a c i l i t a t e knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n . This knowledge i s b u i l t upon a set of personal analogies that each individual has and continually compares to the new messages that are received from the environment (Kaplan, 1978); (Lynch, 1978). The c r i t e r i a used by people to Identify environments were described by Mehrabian (1974) as the components of "information loading". By using a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l Mehrabian (1974) had people evaluate how they perceived environments. The i n t r i n s i c arousal of an environment based upon i t s novelty, complexity, ambiguity and incongruity determined the "information load" for that environment. Environments i d e n t i f i e d by the test subjects as being highly stimulating and complex were designated as having high "information load", since, they stimulated the highest l e v e l s of arousal. E x h i b i t s with d i f f e r i n g "information loads" were shown to e l i c i t e d i f f e r e n t v i s i t o r behaviours in museums (Mehrabian, 1976); ( G o t t f r i e d , 1980). Mehrabian (1976) discussed the Influence of "information load" on two types of adult learners. These types were described as being "screeners", those people that focussed d i r e c t l y on s p e c i f i c aspects of an exhibit and "non-screeners", those people who d i d not focus on one s p e c i f i c aspect of an e x h i b i t , but focussed on multiple aspects of an exhibit at the same time. In response to open environments "screeners" perfer hard bold s t i m u l i , ignoring subtle s t i m u l i ; "non-screeners" perfer subtle s t i m u l i , avoiding blatant stimuli - 22 -(Mehrabian, 1976). G o t t f r i e d (1980) described these learning types as "adventurous" and "hesitant". "Adventurous" learners quickly focussed t h e i r attention and became involved with an e x h i b i t , "hesitant" learners watched and a c t i v e l y became involved with an exhibit a f t e r watching how others used the e x h i b i t . Cone (1978) observed changes in v i s i t o r behaviours within d i f f e r e n t museum environments but d i d not compare s p e c i f i c behaviours to s p e c i f i c exhibit areas. Koran and Longino (1982) developed a c u r i o s i t y index based upon observed v i s i t o r behaviour and the s t y l e of Individual e x h i b i t s but, d i d not make conclusions which matched s p e c i f i c behaviours with s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t s . A study of the Anthropology Hall at the Science Museum of Minnesota found that the average v i s i t a t i o n at e x h i b i t s followed the general trend of 30 seconds per exhibit as described by Brown (1978), but, e x h i b i t s that were unique or about people, such as an Eygptian mummy, had greater i n t r i n s i c appeal than other e x h i b i t s (Cone, 1978). Koran and Longino (1982) found that exploratory behaviour in the museum was focussed i f the v i s i t o r could i d e n t i f y a s p e c i f i c goal In observing an e x h i b i t . V i s i t o r behaviour was modelled on the behaviours of other museum v i s i t o r s . This observation was also made in Go t t f r i e d ' s (1980) study at the Lawrence Hall of Science. Differences also occurred within family group s i t u t a t i o n s . It was found that within family groups v i s i t o r behaviour va r i e d within exhibit areas. In two parent family groups, mothers were found to take on a teaching r o l e (Cone, 1978). Among v i s i t o r s in a museum males are often "adventurous" and females are "hesitant" ( G o t t f r i e d , 1980); (Koran and Longino, 1982). For either males or females, however, comfort with the exhibit and the environment - 23 -Increases the occurance of v i s i t o r c u r i o s i t y . In c o n c l u s i o n , these s t u d i e s of behaviour l i n k e d high l e v e l s of v i s i t o r c u r i o s i t y with e x h i b i t s which had components of n o v e l t y , complexity, ambiguity and inc o n g r u i t y (Koran and Longino, 1982). Using v i s i t o r behaviour and survey responses, methods of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g e x h i b i t s w i t h i n a museum (Koran and Longino, 1983) and aquarium (Hansel, 1982) were developed. Koran and Longino (1983) designated three types or forms of e x h i b i t s based upon v i s i t o r behaviour. Each l e v e l of e x h i b i t corresponded w i t h greater p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y on the part of the museum v i s i t o r . An index of involvement based on increased a c t i v i t y , compared low v i s i t o r a c t i v i t y w i t h s t a t i c e x h i b i t s and high a c t i v i t y w i t h open, complex diarama e x h i b i t s . Koran and Longino (1983) a p p l i e d these conclusions to the teaching methodologies used by teachers i n classrooms. This framework f o r more a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n to s t i m u l a t e c h i l d l e a r n i n g behaviour was seen as a means f o r improving teaching s t r a t e g i e s , thereby, enchancing l e a r n i n g . 2.30 The Present Study w i t h Respect to the L i t e r a t u r e The study of c h i l d r e n i n family groups at the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y used a n a t u r a l i s t i c research methodology. The v i s i t o r s i n the study group were observed u s i n g nine d e f i n a b l e behaviours of e x h i b i t c u r i o s i t y as a focus f o r the observed data. These behaviours were recorded as they occurred i n three s e c t i o n s of the Amazon G a l l e r y . Each e x h i b i t s e c t i o n was evaluated by a d u l t s u s i n g the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l designed by Mehrabian (1974) to describe "information load." Using t h i s appraoch the - 24 -study described the complexity of c h i l d behaviour and i t s changes with respect to exhibit types, family make-up and the sex of the c h i l d r e n . - 25 -T i t l e : A Study of C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour in Family Groups i n the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium. CHAPTER 3.00: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY As discussed i n preceeding chapters the present research w i l l use a n a t u r a l i s t i c methodology. The r a t i o n a l e f o r the study and use of t h i s methodology was discussed i n CHAPTER 1.00: THE PROBLEM; the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s methodology and i t s use i n research p e r t a i n i n g to l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s / i n museums was discussed i n CHAPTER 2.00: THE SURVEY OF LITERATURE/-This chapter discusses the implementation of a n a t u r a l i s t i c methodology t o : "A Study of C h i l d r e n ' s behaviours i n Family Groups i n the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium." 3.10 Measuring Instruments The present research w i l l use 2 re c o r d i n g instruments to c o l l e c t the observations to be analysed. These two instruments are an observed behaviour record sheet based on time s e r i e s observations of v i s i t o r behaviours and a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e to assess "information load" of e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s as perceived by v i s i t o r s . 3.11 Observed Behaviour Record Sheet (Figure 1) The f o l l o w i n g instrument was developed f o r the present research. I t c o n s i s t s of a map f o r r e c o r d i n g the l o c a t i o n of the observed c h i l d - 26 -and a section to l i s t the behaviours of that c h i l d and attending adults while v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon Gallery . The map i s an enlargement of the Vancouver Aquarium map of the Gallery and the recording area of the instrument was designed to record observed c h i l d or alpha c h i l d behaviours, adult behaviours, as well as, incidental observations of a c t i v i t i e s that occurred within the Gallery during a v i s i t . - 27 -Date: Time Interval:. Start: Children: 1 1 3 4 5 Finish: r / 1 2 3 4 5 1 £ 1 2 3 4 5 A d u l t : o i 2 3 4 5 Graham Amazon Gallery: V.PA. Observations: c d a c vitv I adult/chi d Ir i t e r a c t l o n 0 1 2 3 4 se >7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 57 39 I S : atatic M: mobile M : mala F : female non-de f ined 0 non • Involvement with alpha 1 ) looks 2) points 3) ta lks/exclaims 4) talks 5) listens 6) touches 7) questions 8) reads g) involves another The number of children and adults In each alpha c h i l d family group are noted at the top of the recording form. This information w i l l allow observational Information to be kept In sequential order, as well as, providing demographic information about individual alpha c h i l d r e n . The instrument allows n a t u r a l i s t i c observations to be made while recording the place within the Gallery where the behaviour occurred and at which 60 second time interval during the v i s i t the alpha c h i l d and adult were involved In that behaviour. The range of behaviours recorded were defined in CHAPTER 1.00. Incidental observations about the Gallery can also be recorded for an assessment of random occurances which may influence v i s i t o r behaviours and therefore can become part of the an a l y s i s . These comments w i l l be made with reference to each Interval observation. 3.12 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Questionnaire (Figure 2) For the purposes of the present research the following semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l questionnaire was designed. This questionnaire was based upon Mehrabian's (1974) analysis of how people perceived environments. This scale was developed so that environmental psychologists could use a set of adjective p a i r s to assess how people catagorize environments. O r i g i n a l l y in developing the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l three groups of terms were tested by Mehrabian (1974). F i r s t a s e l e c t i o n of words was made from those i d e n t i f i e d in the l i t e r a t u r e that described the multi-facetted stimuli of environments. These words were sorted into three groups, dominance, pleasure and arousal, which describe aspects of environmental c u r i o s i t y (Berlyne, 1960). S p e c i f i c words from t h i s analysis were chosen by Mehrabian (1974) for the three groups. P a i r s of adjectives were used to describe increasing complexity within an environment. The s e l e c t i o n of adjective p a i r s was based upon the assumption in information theory that the amount or rate of information received from an environment increased from homogeneous to chaotic environments. The word p a i r s were analysed to assess how consistently they could be used to describe the perceived complexity or information rate of an environment, how much information an environment was perceived to contain. Mehrablan's (1974) analysis of t h i s data indicated that only the terms associated with arousal were s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o r r e l a t e d with the complexity of environments. For t h i s reason the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l was established as a random l i s t i n g of these arousal terms. - 30 -FIGURE 2:Semantlc D i f f e r e n t i a l Questionnaire Uraham Amazon Gallery: V.PA. INSTRUCTIONS: Please view subsections , , of the Graham Amazon Gallery (see attached map). For each subsection viewed, please complete a separate verbal measure of Amazon Gallery subsections. Please use the following adjective pairs to describe subsection of the Graham Amazon Gallery. Each of the following adjective pairs helps define your view of that subsection. Please put a check mark along the l i n e (example : / : ) to indicate what you think i s an appropriate description. varied simple novel small scale si m i l a r dense intermittent usual heterogeneous uncrowded asymmetrical immediate common patterned redundant complex f a m i l i a r large scale contrasting sparse continuous s u r p r i s i n g homogeneous crowded symmetrical distant rare random - 31 -From Mehrabian's (1974) research a d e f i n i t i o n of "information load" was created. In terms of "information load" those environments which were perceived by people as being complex, dynamic and random were seen as being of high "Information load". Environments which were perceived as being simple, s t a t i c and predictable were seen as having lower "information load". The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l was used to analyse how people described d i f f e r e n t environments. The words were chosen so that people could indicate how they scale environments between low and high "information loads". For the present research the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l w i l l be used to determine how adults perceive the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. As described In CHAPTER 1.00 the three areas to be examined consist of closed, semi-open and open e x h i b i t s . Each of these exhibit types w i l l be assessed by 11 adults. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l w i l l be used to determine whether v i s i t o r s to the Gallery perceive a difference between each of the exhibit sections with regard to "information load". 3.20 Study Design The present research was designed to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between behaviours of c h i l d r e n in family groups and e x h i b i t s of varying "information loads" within a museum environment. As a n a t u r a l i s t i c study there w i l l not be an experimental manipulation of the environment or observed subjects. After conducting several p i l o t observations of - 32 -v i s i t o r s in the Gallery and a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e concerning n a t u r a l i s t i c museum studies, a research design was established. It was during pre-study observations of the Gallery that the 3 exhibit sections were defined and mapped. The p i l o t studies led to the se l e c t i o n of places from which n a t u r a l i s t i c observation could be conducted In each exhibit section. On three d i f f e r e n t occasions 5 child r e n in the test group were observed. During these observation periods the children were timed and behaviours informally noted. It was found that observations could be made on chi l d r e n and th e i r f a m i l i e s while almost standing beside them. This close proximity to the study population would allow for a complete record of the range of behaviours that the chi l d r e n became Involved i n . In the p i l o t studies the v i s i t a t i o n time of chi l d r e n in family groups averaged 15 minutes. During these v i s i t s behaviours of children d i d vary through the Gallery, however, because the Gallery i s small and e x h i b i t s clustered in condensed theme sections the s p e c i f i c changes in c h i l d behaviour did not occur r a p i d l y . During a 15 minute stay in the Amazon Gallery the p i l o t observations indicated that c h i l d r e n became involved in approximately 15 a c t i v i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t s i t e s throughout the Galle r y . Based upon these observations and discussions in the l i t e r a t u r e of research within museum environments i t was decided that the observations of c h i l d behaviour would be taken in 60 second time i n t e r v a l s . This analysis also determined the set of observable behaviours that would be recorded during the study. This set of behaviours was observable within museum environments. Their s e l e c t i o n was based upon what had been observed in the p i l o t - 33 -studies, what other researchers had reported in the l i t e r a t u r e and the fact they r e f l e c t e d the d i v e r s i t y of observable behaviours of chidren v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon Gallery. These behaviours were described in CHAPTER 1.00. To accomplish t h i s work two forms of n a t u r a l i s t i c i nvestigation would have to be undertaken. The f i r s t part of the study would be an analysis of adult perceptions of the three exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery using the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a le. The second aspect of the study w i l l be a time s e r i e s observation of c h i l d behaviours in family groups v i s i t i n g the Gallery using the observed behaviour record sheet. Observations w i l l be based upon t h i s set of 9 c r i t e r i a discussed in the preceeding chapters. 3.30 Study Population For the present research two populations of subjects would have to be established. These subject groups would be those elementary children which would be observed as they v i s i t e d the Gallery and those adults chosen to assess the "Information load" of the Gallery exhibit sections using the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l The behaviours of the f i r s t group would be recorded on the observed behaviour record sheet. 3.31 C h i l d Subject Study Group The study group of 32 elementary c h i l d r e n , was chosen because they would e a s i l y be found in family groups and since they were of school age i t could also be assumed that they had at least begun learning how to read. This group of v i s i t o r s i s also a prevelant user group at the - 34 -Vancouver Aquarium; a group which the Aquarium would l i k e to provide e f f e c t i v e experiences f o r . The children would be chosen randomly by lot in the following manner. The sequence of boys and g i r l s was determined by the drawing of 16 black (boy) poker chips and 16 red ( g i r l ) poker chips from a hat. At the Amazon Gallery t h i s sequence determined how the study children were selected as they entered the Gallery. Each c h i l d s elected was within a family group. When more than one c h i l d entered with a family group the f i r s t c h i l d of the r i g h t age and sex that the random sequence was designated as the alpha c h i l d . Behavioural observations were made on t h i s c h i l d as they v i s i t e d the Gallery e x h i b i t s . Alpha c h i l d behaviours were tabulated on the report form shown in section 3.11 of CHAPTER: 3.00. Generally c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which li m i t e d the s e l e c t i o n of the test population were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as: the test children had to be v i s i t i n g the Vancouver Aqaurlum during Christmas school break in 1985 and c h i l d would have to be attended by an adult when they entered the Gallery. S p e c i f i c a l l y four c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i m i t e d the whether the c h i l d was chosen as the alpha c h i l d to be observed. The elementary c h i l d had to be , in a family group, v i s i t i n g the Amazon Gallery while at the Vancouver Aquarium and f i t within the sequence of randomly chosen boys and g i r l s entering the Gallery. 3.32 Adult "Information Load" Assessment Group Eleven adults were selected to complete the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l questionnaire shown in section 3.12 of CHAPTER: 3.00. The s e l e c t i o n of - 35 -t h i s group consisted of a cross section of randomly selected Vancouver Aquarium adult v i s i t o r s . This group was made up of 6 non-parent adults and 5 parents that were v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon Galle r y . 3.40 Data Col l e c t i o n The observations of alpha c h i l d behaviours and the adult responses on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l w i l l be made In a s p e c i f i c manner. The methods of data c o l l e c t i o n w i l l be discussed in t h i s section of the chapter. 3.41 Time Series Observations As the alpha c h i l d entered the Gallery a s e r i e s of observations would be made. Timing for t h i s s e r i e s of observations would begin as the c h i l d entered the Galle r y . Using n a t u r a l i s t i c methodologies as d i s c r i b e d by Wolf and Timitz (1978) the chi l d r e n would then be followed through the exhibit G a l l e r y . As the children proceeded through the e x h i b i t s recordings of t h e i r behaviour would be made. This point-dot observation would be taken at 60 second i n t e r v a l s as the c h i l d toured the Galle r y . The observations would be made without the knowledge of the observed c h i l d r e n , therefore t h e i r behaviours could be assumed to be natural for the environment; uneffected by the researcher's presence. The sequence of behaviours, t h e i r place of occurance in the Gallery and type would then be entered in the appropriate section of the behaviour record sheet. As determined by the p i l o t study t h i s data would be recorded at 60 second i n t e r v a l s . Each of these individual c i t i n g s of observational - 36 -data would then marked to indicate whether the c h i l d was mobile, s t a t i c and/or i n t e r a c t i n g with an accompanying adult when the observation was made. For c h i l d observed the data would include the following In formation about t h e i r v i s i t in the Galle r y : 1) Sex of the c h i l d 2) Composition of the c h i l d ' s family (adults and other children) 3) Elapsed time of v i s i t to the Gallery 4) Places and sequence of behaviours where the c h i l d was at each 60 second Interval of t h e i r v i s i t to the Gallery 5) Adult in t e r a c t i o n s with alpha c h i l d 6) Alpha c h i l d behaviours during t h e i r v i s i t 7) Whether the c h i l d was s t a t i c or mobile at each time s e r i e s Interval 3.42 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l The terms developed for the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l r e l a t e d to terms described by Mehrabian (1974) in studies of population assessments of environments. These terms were chosen because they were s t a t i s i c a l l y c o r r e l a t e d to arousal (Mehrabian, 1974). This semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l would be completed by 11 randomly selected adults that were v i s i t o r s to the G a l l e r y . Each adult would observe each of the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery. The adults would each look at closed, semi-open and open exhibit sections as described in CHAPTER 1.00. - 37 -3.43 S t a t i s t i c a l Analysis Results of both observational research and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l w i l l be analysed to determine r a t i o s . These r a t i o s w i l l be based upon thesis questions to be analyzed. Where appropriate the r a t i o s w i l l be s t a t i s t i c a l l y checked against an analysis of means or variance to determine whether the v a r i a t i o n in the r a t i o i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This gross analysis w i l l be used to determine what patterns i f any the behaviours of children in family groups created as they toured the Graham Amazon Gallery. For the purposes of t h i s research the mathematical manipulations w i l l be c a r r i e d out and described in the following chapter. 1) The Frequency of Singular Behaviours The frequency of singular behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d from the time s e r i e s observations made in t h i s research. The frequency of singular behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d to determine how often the alpha children were observed in one behaviour at one observation, r e l a t i o n to a l l singular behaviours observed. singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section a l l singular behaviours observed The frequency of singular behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections and open exhibit sections, for males and females, males only and females only. - 38 -2) The Frequency of Multiple Behaviours The frequency of multiple behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the time s e r i e s observations made in t h i s research. The frequency of multiple behaviours w i l l be cal c u l a t e d to determine how often the alpha children were observed in more than one behaviour at one observation, in r e l a t i o n to a l l multiple behaviours observed. multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section a l l multiple behaviours observed The frequency of multiple behaviours w i l l be cal c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections and open exhibit sections, for males and females, males only and females only. 3) The Ratio of Singular to Multiple Behaviours The r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the time s e r i e s observations made In t h i s research. The r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d to determine the r a t i o of alpha c h i l d singular behaviours compared to multiple behaviours. singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section - 39 -The r a t i o of singular behaviours to multiple behaviours w i l l be calc u l a t e d for the Gallery , closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections and open exhibit sections, for males and females, males only and females only. 4) The Complexity of Behaviour Index The complexity of behaviour index <%) w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the time s e r i e s observations made in t h i s research. The complexity of behaviour index <%) w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d to determine the r a t i o of alpha ch i l d r e n singular behaviours to a l l behaviours which were the components of multiple behaviours. singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section a l l components of multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section The complexity of behaviour index (%) w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections and open exhibit sections, for males and females, males only and females only. 5) The Ratio of C h i l d Singular to Adult Interactive Behaviours The r a t i o of c h i l d singular to adult i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d from the time s e r i e s observations made in t h i s research. The r a t i o of c h i l d singular to adult i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d to determine the r a t i o alpha children singular behaviours to adult Interactive behaviours. - 40 -c h i l d singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section a l l adult i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours observed within an exhibit section The r a t i o of c h i l d singular behaviours to adult Interactive behaviours w i l l be calculated for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections and open exhibit sections, for males and females, males only and females only. 6) The Ratio of Male Singular to Female Singular Behaviours The r a t i o of male singular to female singular behaviours w i l l be cal c u l a t e d from the observations of singular behaviours in t h i s research. The r a t i o of male singular to female singular behaviour w i l l be made to compare observations of male alpha children singular behaviours to female alpha ch i l d r e n singular behaviours. male singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section female singular behaviours observed within an exhibit section The r a t i o of male singular behaviours to female singular behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections. 7) The Ratio of Male Multiple to Female Multiple Behaviours The r a t i o of male multiple to female multiple behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the observations of multiple behaviours in t h i s research. The r a t i o of male multiple to female multiple - 41 -behaviours w i l l be made to compare observations of male alpha children multiple behaviours to female alpha children multiple behaviours. male multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section female multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section The r a t i o of male multiple behaviours to female multiple behaviours w i l l be cal c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections. 8) The Ratio of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviour Indices The r a t i o of male complexity to female complexity of behaviour indices w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the complexity of behaviour Indices c a l c u l a t e d in t h i s research. The r a t i o of male to female complexity of behaviour indices w i l l be made to compare observations of male alpha ch i l d r e n complexity to female alpha children complexity of behaviour indices. male complexity of behaviour index for an exhibit section female complexity of behaviour index for an exhibit section The r a t i o of male complexity of behaviour index to female complexity of behaviour indices w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections. 9) The Ratio of Male to Female Interactive Behaviours - 42 -The r a t i o of male to female Interactive behaviours w i l l be ca l c u l a t e d from the observations of adult i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours in t h i s research. The r a t i o of male to female i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours w i l l be made to compare observations of adult i n t e r a c t i o n with male alpha children to adult i n t e r a c t i o n with female alpha c h i l d r e n . adult i n t e r a c t i o n with male alpha c h i l d r e n observed within an exhibit sect ion adult i n t e r a c t i o n with female alpha children observed within an exhibit sect ion The r a t i o of male i n t e r a c t i v e to female Interactive behaviours w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d for the Gallery, closed exhibit sections, semi-open exhibit sections. - 43 -T i t l e : A Study of Children's Behaviour in Family Groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium. CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS 4.10 Introduction Upon entering the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium the v i s i t o r becomes immersed in a d i f f e r e n t physical atmosphere. In t h i s Gallery the heat, humidity and smells are the f i r s t aspects of the exhibit which adult and c h i l d v i s i t o r s comment on. Since the observations for the present research were compiled during the winter of 1985 - 1986 the physical differences between environments inside and outside of the Gallery were even more s t r i k i n g . Children entering the Gallery while peeling off t h e i r heavy winter jackets often exclaimed: " I t ' s too hot," or "It s t i n k s in here." As these v i s i t o r s continued t h e i r exploration they were confronted by several examples of f l o r a l and faunal l i f e present from the Amazon River Basin. The Vancouver Aquarium has chosen to display these specimens in some unique ways and has gone to great lengths to create microcoms of the Amazonian world within the confines of the Gallery. These displays could be described as closed, semi-open and open depending on how accessible the animals are to the v i s i t o r . The v i s i t o r might describe the closed e x h i b i t s as exotic t e r r a r i a ; the semi-open - 44 -e x h i b i t s as l i v i n g diaramas, where d i r e c t v i s i t o r contact i s co n t r o l l e d ; and the open e x h i b i t s as being l i k e a walk through a t r o p i c a l garden. People explore the Gallery and interact with the space and l i v i n g things there. How v i s i t o r s interact with the space was a question which t h i s research was designed to examine. In p a r t i c u l a r do v i s i t o r s behave d i f f e r e n t l y depending on where they are in the Gallery? Does being in d i f f e r e n t sections of the Gallery e f f e c t how children in family groups behave? To discover how v i s i t o r s behave throughout the Gallery n a t u r a l i s t i c observations were used with the intent that these observations would not e f f e c t the v i s i t . During the study t h i s proved to be an e f f e c t i v e methodology. While making these observations, v i s i t o r s to the Gallery asked me how my b i r d or other animal observations were going. It was assumed that I was part of the Amazon Gallery tapestry, one of the many keepers who care for Its f l o r a and fauna. This anonymity allowed me to record observations of children and th e i r attending adults while in the Gallery. Their reactions to what they saw, smelt, touched and heard was unhindered by any apprehension that they were being watched and was not interupted by f i l l i n g out a v i s i t o r questionnaire based on what they were expected to do, or by answering an interviewer's questions while wondering what the interviewer wanted to hear. 4.11 Behaviours of Children In Family Groups For the benefit of the reader the data discussed in the following sections has been organized in the following way: - 45 -4.20 Perceptions of Exhibit Sections Using the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 4.30 C h i l d Behaviours In Different Exhibit Sections 4.40 Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours in the Gallery and Exhibit Sections 4.41 The Frequency of Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours 4.42 The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours 4.43 The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Males and Females 4.44 The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours 4.50 Male C h i l d Behaviours In the Gallery and in the Exhibit Sections 4.51 The Frequency of Male C h i l d Behaviours 4.52 The Ratio of Male Singular to Multiple Behaviours 4.53 The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Males 4.54 The Ratio of Male Singular to Interactive Behaviours 4.60 Female C h i l d Behaviours In the Gallery and in the Exhibit Sections 4.61 The Frequency of Female C h i l d Behaviours 4.62 The Ratio of Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours 4.63 The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Females 4.64 The Ratio of Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours 4.70 The Comparison of Male and Female Behaviours 4.71 The Comparison of Male and Female Singular Behaviour Frequencies 4.72 The Comparison of Male and Female Multiple Behaviour Frequencies 4.73 The Comparison of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviour Indices 4.74 The Comparison of Male and Female Interactive Behaviours As discussed in previous chapters of the present study, the children observed were a l l in family groups. This meant that randomly chosen male and female children entering the Gallery with an attending - 46 -adult were observed as they toured the ent i r e e x h i b i t . Of the 32 children who were observed, alpha c h i l d r e n , several d i f f e r e n t family groupings were represented. TABLE 1: The Number of Children and Adults in Each Family Group # of CHILDREN 1 2 3 4 A 1 2 (6%) 5 (16%) 2 (6%) 0 D 2 7 (22%) 5 (16%) 3 (9%) 0 U 3 0 1 (3%) 0 2 (6%) L 4 1 (3%) 1 (3%) 0 1 (3%) T 5 0 0 1 (3%) 0 S 6 0 0 0 0 7 0 1 (3%) 0 0 As previously discussed 16 of the alpha children were males and 16 of the alpha children were females. These children were accompanied on thei r v i s i t to the Gallery by 72 adults, 34 of these adults were males and 38 of these adults were females. The 16 male alpha children were in family groups which had a total of 17 other c h i l d r e n . Seven of these other children were male and 10 were female. The 16 female alpha children were accompanied by a total of 17 other c h i l d r e n . Eleven of these other children were male and 6 were female. Within t h i s sample of 32 alpha c h i l d r e n , 10 of the alpha children who v i s i t e d the Gallery came as the only c h i l d in t h e i r family group, therefore, 10:32 or 31% of the f a m i l i e s observed had only one c h i l d . Within t h i s grouping 2:32 or 6% were accompanied by 1 adult, 7:32 or 22% were accompanied by 2 adults and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 4 adults. Thirteen of the alpha children were in f a m i l i e s that had two ch i l d r e n , - 47 -one of those was the alpha c h i l d . Within t h i s grouping 5:32 or 16% were accompanied by 1 adult, 5:32 or 16% were accompanied by 2 adults, 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 3 adults, 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 4 adults and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 7 adults. Six of the f a m i l i e s had 3 c h i l d r e n . Within t h i s grouping 2:32 or 6% were accompanied by 1 adult, 3:32 or 9% were accompanied by 2 adults and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 5 adults. Three of the alpha children were in f a m i l i e s of 4 c h i l d r e n . Within t h i s grouping 2:32 or 6% were accompanied by 3 adults and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 4 adults. The children were observed in such varied groups for two reasons. F i r s t l y , the researcher whated to collect, observational data about children v i s i t i n g the Amazon Gallery in family groups, since many d i f f e r e n t family groups v i s i t the Graham Amazon Gallery, many d i f f e r e n t family groups should be represented by the sample. Secondly, by pre s e l e c t i n g the family group s i z e or configuration the randomness of chosen alpha ch i l d r e n would also be affected. However, even though the 32 alpha children observed in the present research were in several d i f f e r e n t family groups as discussed above, Table 1 shows that 75% of the alpha children were in family groups of 1 to 3 children and 1 or 2 attending adults and 60% of the alpha children observed were in family groups of 1 or 2 children and 1 or 2 attending adults. These 32 chi l d r e n and t h e i r attending f a m i l i e s were observed throughout the Graham Amazon Galle r y . At 60 second i n t e r v a l s , as previously discussed, the researcher recorded t h e i r behaviours as they interacted with the Gallery. These behaviours as previously described were: - 48 -1.32 D e f i n i t i o n of S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms: 0) non-defined: any behaviour shown by the a l p h a c h i l d which i s not d e f i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g s e t of o b s e r v a t i o n c r i t e r i a . 0) non-defined a d u l t behaviour i s any behaviour shown by the a d u l t or a d u l t s i n a f a m i l y group and not d i r e c t e d toward the alpha c h i l d . 1 1) l o o k s : the a l p h a c h i l d looks at a d i s p l a y . 1) l o o k s : the a d u l t and a l p h a c h i l d look at the same d i s p l a y 2) p o i n t s : the a l p h a c h i l d p o i n t s at a s p e c i f i c aspect of the d i s p l a y . 2) p o i n t s : the a d u l t p o i n t s out a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t or o b j e c t i n the d i s p l a y . 3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a l p h a c h i l d makes a ve r b a l exclamation which i s not p a r t of a c o n v e r s a t i o n ( i e . ooh!, look!, wow! ). 3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a d u l t makes an exclama t i o n w h i l e w i t h the a l p h a c h i l d . 4) t a l k s : the a l p h a c h i l d engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n about a d i s p l a y . 4) t a l k s : the a d u l t engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a l p h a c h i l d . 5) l i s t e n : the a l p h a c h i l d s t o p s to n o t i c e some sound i n the G a l l e r y 5) l i s t e n : the a d u l t l i s t e n s t o the a l p h a c h i l d . 6) touches: the a l p h a c h i l d touches an o b j e c t or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 6) touches: the a d u l t touches an o b j e c t or aspect of the e x h i b i t or guides the a l p h a c h i l d ' s hand to an aspect of the e x h i b i t . 7) q u e s t i o n s : the alpha c h i l d asks a q u e s t i o n about the d i s p l a y . 7) q u e s t i o n s : the a d u l t asks the a l p h a c h i l d a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n about t h e . d i s p l a y . 8) re a d s : the a l p h a c h i l d r e a d s t h e . e x h i b i t - g r a p h i c s . 8) re a d s : the a d u l t reads e x h i b i t copy out loud to the alpha c h i l d ; 9) i n v o l v e s another: the a l p h a c h i l d draws another member of the f a m i l y group to an o b j e c t or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 9) i n v o l v e s another: the a d u l t i n v o l v e s the a l p h a c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s w i t h an o b j e c t or aspect of the e x h i b i t . - 49 -TABLE 2: The Frequency of Behaviours BEHAVIOURS ( t a b u l a t e d as rounded o f f percentages) EXHIBIT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 M&F:Gallery 2 45 8 8 12 13 4 3 1 6 M:Gallery 1 46 8 10 7 13 1 5 1 8 F:Gallery 0 47 8 9 7 13 2 4 1 9 M&F:Closed 1 43 9 9 6 10 4 5 2 10 M:Closed 1 41 9 10 8 15 1 3 2 10 F:Closed 1 42 9 10 7 13 3 4 4 10 M&F:Semi-Open 0 45 6 8 8 13 3 3 0 6 M:Semi-Open 1 50 3 7 7 15 1 7 0 9 F:Semi-Open 1 48 5 8 8 14 2 5 0 8 M&F:Open 2 48 8 8 10 16 4 2 0 2 M:Qpen F:0pen Q 48 12 12 7 8 2 5 0 6 2 48 10 10 9 12 3 4 0 4 - 50 -FIGURE 3: Frequency of Male Behaviours - 51 -FIGURE 4: Frequency of Female Behaviour* - 52 -Table 2 and Figures 3 and 4 show the percentages of a l l behaviours observed for both males and females, males and females in each of the exhibit sections. The data show that "looks" was the behaviour which occurred most frequently throughout the Gallery and each of the exhibit sections. "Reads" was the behaviour recorded the least throughout the Gallery and exhibit sections. - 53 -FIGURE 5: Frequency Of Male Behaviour Sequence* Males A Females: Amazon Gallery 7'9 1-2-3-9 2-7-8-9 Males: Closed Exhibits „ 80 o I •I -1111 • • i l l • Males: Semi-Open Exhibits Males: Open Exhibits 11-9 1-6-9 1-7-9 2-3-7 2-3-9 1-2-3-! 1-2-3 1-2-4 1-2-9 1-4-9 1-5-6 1 ! 3 9 Behaviour Sequences 1-3-9 1-5-6 - 54 -FIGURE 6: Frequency of Female Behaviour SeaueprfP - 55 -Figures 5 and 6 show the frequency and composition of multiple behaviours of three or more behaviours (behaviour sequence) observed for males and females. Several of the 18 behaviour sequences observed during the present study were observed only once throughout the exhibit sections of the Amazon Gallery. Three behaviour sequences occurred more often than the other behaviour sequences observed. "Looks": " t a l k s " : "involves another" , "looks" :"questions" :"involves another" and "points" :"exclaims" :"involves another" are the three behaviour sequences that were observed most often for male and female children in the Graham Amazon Gallery. 4.20 Perceptions of Exhibit Sections Using the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l As a museum prof e s s i o n a l , the researcher has become more attuned to the s u b t l i t i e s of the environments in which he works or a s s i s t s in creating. This i s a t r a i t common to intensive study when the more engrossed one i s , the more complex the f i e l d of endeavour becomes. As discussed in Kaplan and Kaplan (1974), humans look for guide posts in new environments, the landmarks to orient themselves. After they have achieved a f a m i l i a r i t y with the environment they are much more ready to explore I t . The Graham Amazon Gallery i s a place where differences in environment are evident. By touring the Gallery, during p i l o t v i s i t s , three exhibit sections were i d e n t i f i e d based on t h e i r physical configurations. In the Gallery, Insects, small r e p t i l e s and most f i s h e s are housed in t e r r a r i a sections; the closed e x h i b i t s . The large r e p t i l e s are housed in p a r t i a l l y enclosed sections with open tops, the - 56 -semi-open e x h i b i t s . The b i r d s and large plants are displayed in forest s e t t i n g s l i k e those of a conservatory, the open e x h i b i t s . These were the d i v i s i o n s of the Gallery used in the study. They were d i v i s i o n s b u i l t upon the physical way in which the specimens were displayed and the researcher's experience with museum environments. The researcher, however, was interested in v i s i t o r perceptions of these environments not h i s own perceptions. Did the public view the Gallery in a homogeneous way or d i d they perceive differences in how the specimens were displayed? Mehrabian (1974) developed the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l to investigate how people scale or assess environments. Using arousal e l i c i t e d by the environment, Mehrabian (1974) co r r e l a t e d higher l e v e l s of arousal with more complex and dynamic environments. He described these environments as having a higher "information load." Did v i s i t o r s to the Amazon Gallery perceive that d i f f e r e n t exhibit sections had d i f f e r i n g " i n f orma t i on 1oads?" To examine t h i s question a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l was administered to eleven adults. The r e s u l t s of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l for the Graham Amazon Gallery i l l u s t r a t e d that, among the eleven randomly chosen respondants from the Aquarium's p u b l i c , a difference in "information load" existed between exhibit sections. This conclusion was based upon the following data c a l c u l a t e d for a one way analysis of variance for 3 samples of equal s i z e . - 57 -TABLE 3: ANOVA f o r Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 1) ANOVA f o r A l l E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s MEANS 26 25.7 30.9 VARIANCE 53.2 36.43 22.9 s 2<sample)" 3 7 • 5 s 2 ( m e a n s ) = 1 8 7 - 5 df (2,30) F : - 0 5 ( c a l c ) = 5 - 0 0 F : - 0 5<tab) = 3 - 3 1 5 8 F . 0 5 ( c a j c ) > f - O S ^ t ^ ) therefore the means f o r the samples are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to 95% f o r the c l o s e d , semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . 2) ANOVA f o r Closed x Semi-Open E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s MEANS 26 25.7 VARIANCE 53.2 36.43 s 2 < s a m P l e ) = 4 4 - 8 s' 1'(means) = * 4 9 5 df <1,20) F : -OSccalO = - 0 1 1  F : - 0 5 ( t a b ) = 4 - 3 5 - 58 -F . 0 5 ( c a ] C ) < F.05 ctab) therefore, the means for the samples are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to 95% for the closed and semi-open exhibit sections. 3) ANOVA for Semi-Open x Open Exhibit Sections Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s MEANS 26 30.9 VARIANCE 36.43 22.9 S 2<sampled 2 9 - 6 6 s 2(means)= 1 4 8 - 7 2 df (1,20) F : - ^ ( c a l c ) = 5-014 F : -° 5(tab) = 4-35 F . 0 5 ( c a | C ) > F.05(£ab) therefore, the means for the samples are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to 95% for the semi-open and open exhibit sections. The r e s u l t s of the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l show mean scores in "information load" of 26.0 for closed e x h i b i t s , 25.7 for semi-open ex h i b i t s and 30.9 for open e x h i b i t s ; the higher the score the greater the environment's "information load." The closed small r e p t i l e , Insect and f i s h exhibit sections and semi-open large r e p t i l e exhibit sections were scored equally on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l . The open conservatory exhibit section was seen as being d i f f e r e n t . Analysis of variance of these scores shows that the "information load" for the open exhibit area was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the other exhibit sections. - 59 -4.30 C h i l d Behaviours in Different Exhibit Sections The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l data indicate that adult v i s i t o r s to the Amazon Gallery perceived differences in "information load" between exhibit sections. Did these differences in perceived "information load" e f f e c t how v i s i t o r s behaved when they were in those environments? By observing, recording and analyzing the behaviours of one group of Gallery v i s i t o r s , children in family groups, as they passed through each of the exhibit sections i t was hoped that patterns of behaviour would become evident. Did exhibit areas of d i f f e r e n t "information loads" have d i f f e r e n t behavioural regimes? The a n a l y s i s of c h i l d behaviour in family groups was designed to illuminate what diff e r e n c e s in v i s i t o r behaviour, a form of museum in t e r a c t i o n , existed in each of the exhibit sections of the Amazon Gallery. 4.40 Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours in the Gallery and Exhibit Sections The c a l c u l a t i o n s of male and female behaviours were made so that the researcher could describe the behaviours observed for a l l c h i l d r e n while they v i s i t e d the Graham Amazon Gallery at the Vancouver Public Aquarium. During the present study 648 behaviours were observed for both male and female c h i l d r e n . - 60 -4.41 The Frequency of Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours The total number of observations made for both male female children was 396. These observations were composed of singular behaviours, one behaviour observed at one observation, and multiple behaviours, more than one behaviour observed at one observation. During the study the total number of observations made in the closed exhibit sections was 228, compared to 97 in semi-open and 73 in open exhibit sections. TABLE 4: The Frequency of Male and Female Singular Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (53%) (28%) (12%) (12%) For the Gallery the singular behaviours compared to total behaviours observed for male and female ch i l d r e n was 209:396 or 53%. For closed exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for males and females was 111:396 or 28%. For semi-open exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for males and females was 52:396 or 13%. For open exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for males and females was 46:396 or 12%. TABLE 5: The Frequency of Male and Female Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Exhibits (47%) (29%) (11%) (7%) - 61 -For the Gallery the multiple behaviour observations compared to total behaviours for male and female children was 187:396 or 47%. For the closed exhibit sections the multiple behaviours to total behaviours for males and females was 117:396 or 29%. For the semi-open exhibit sections multiple behaviours to total behaviours for males and females was 43:396 or 11%. For the open exhibit sections multiple behaviours to total behaviours for males and females was 27:396 or 7%. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , more than twice as many behaviours were observed compared to the observations made in both the semi-open and open exhibit sections. II) In the closed and semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours observed for children were observed to occur within 2% of each other. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours for children were observed to occur within 5% of each other. The closed e x h i b i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the small r e p t i l e s and insects were where most behaviour observations were made. This difference was not at t r i b u t a b l e to closed e x h i b i t s covering more f l o o r space, therefore, children had to spend more time there. A map of the Gallery (Appendix 1) - 62 -shows that each exhibit section covers approximately the same f l o o r area. 4.42 The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours TABLE 6: Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (112%) (95%) (121%) (170%) For the Graham Amazon Gallery, across a l l three exhibit sections, the r a t i o of singular behaviours to multiple behaviours for males and females was 209:187 or 112%. For the closed exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular behaviours to multiple behaviours for males and females was 111:117 or 95%. For semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours for males and females was 52:43 or 121%. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours for males and females was 46:27 or 170%. For the Gallery 12% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed. The occurance of singular and multiple behaviours was almost equal within closed exhibit sections. However, the s t a t i s t i c s for both semi-open and open exhibit sections show higher incidences of singular compared to multiple behaviours. In semi open exhibit sections 21% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed and in open exhibit sections 70% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed for males and females. - 63 -I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored the lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours was almost equal for males and females. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections, 21% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed for males and females. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a ] , 70% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed for males and females. Therefore, when comparing these r e s u l t s i t becomes apparent that open exhibit section of the Graham Amazon Gallery e l i c i t singular rather than multiple behaviours from the children observed 58% more often than the Gallery, 75% more than closed exhibit sections and 50% more often than semi-open exhibit sections. 4.43 The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Males and Females The complexity of behaviour index i s a sum of a l l singular behaviours divided by a l l behaviour components of multiple behaviours observed within an exhibit section. This c a l c u l a t i o n was made because a multiple behaviour could be made up of two or more singular behaviours and as such the complexity of behaviour within an exhibit section might not be demonstrated by the r a t i o of singular to multiple behaviours. Therefore, as the number of Individual behaviours within multiple - 64 -observed for children were singular behaviours. Therefore, the semi-open exhbit sections had the second highest complexity of behaviour for males and females. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the complexity of behaviour index was 72%. Within open exhibit section almost three quarters of a l l behaviours observed for children were singular behaviours. Therefore, the open exhibit sections had the lowest complexity of behaviour for males and females. These r a t i o s indicate that singular behaviours make up at least 40% of a l l behaviours observed for children within the exhibit sections. The most complexity of behaviour was observed within the closed exhibit sections of the Amazon Galle r y . 4.44 The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours TABLE 8: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s (82%) (70%) (83%) (90%) For the Graham Amazon Gallery the r a t i o of singular to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours (those behaviours observed for an adult i n t e r a c t i n g with the alpha c h i l d in an exhibit section) for males and females was 209:254 or 82%. For closed and semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours for males and females was 111:159 or 70%, and 52:63 or 83%. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of - 66 -singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours for males and females was 45:51 or 90%. For the Gallery the number of singular behaviours observed for children was 82% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the closed exhibit sections the number of singular behaviours observed for children was 70% of the observed observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the semi-open exhibit sections the number of singular behaviours observed for ch i l d r e n was 83% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the open exhibit sections the number of singular behaviours observed for children was 90% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the lowest r a t i o of singular male and female behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was recorded. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of male and female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 13% greater than that recorded for closed exhibit sections. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the highest r a t i o of male and female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was for the exhibit sections. These data Indicate that in open exhibit sections when children were observed to show singular behaviours they were accompanied by an - 67 -i n t e r a c t i o n with an adult. This i n t e r a c t i o n with singular behaviours occured 20% more often than in open exhibit sections than in closed exhibit sections and 7% more often than in semi-open exhibit sections. - 68 -4.50 Male C h i l d Behaviours in the Gallery and the Exhibit Sections By examining the data for male children in family groups i t was possible to discern whether males show the same kinds of behaviours for each of the exhibit sections as discussed for both males and females in section 4.40. Did the males show the same behaviours already discussed for both males and females in the previous section 4.40 Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours in the Gallery and Exhibit Sections? 4.51 The Frequency of Male C h i l d Behaviours The total number of observations for male chi l d r e n for a l l three exhibit sections was 194. During the study 112 observations of male behaviours were recorded in the closed exhibit sections as compared to 47 in semi-open and 35 in open sections. TABLE 9:The Frequency of Male Singular Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (52%) (28%) (12%) (12%) For the Gallery the singular behaviours compared to the total behaviours observed for males was 101:194 or 52%. For the closed exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for males was 55:194 or 28%. For semi-open exhibit sections singular to the total behaviours observed for males was 23:194 or 12%. For open exhibit sections the singular behaviours to total behaviours observed for males was 23:194 or 12%. - 69 -TABLE 10:The Frequency of Male Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Exhibits (47%) (29%) <13%) (6%) For the Gallery the multiple behaviours compared to the total behaviours observed for males was 93:194 or 47%. For the closed exhibit sections the multiple to tota l behaviours observed for males was 57:194 or 29%. For semi-open exhibit sections the multiple to the tota l behaviours observed for males was 24:194 or 13%. For open exhibit sections the multiple behaviours to total behaviours observed for males was 12:194 or 6%. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , over twice as many behaviour observations of males were made compared to the semi-open and open exhibit sections. II) In the closed and semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours observed for male children in family groups occurred almost equally. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours were observed to occur within 6% of each other. These three r e s u l t s show the same pattern discussed previously for both male and female c h i l d behaviours. As with both male and female - 70 -behaviours the greatest number of observations of male behaviour was recorded in the closed exhibit sections, the number of observations was made in the open exhibit sections. 4.52 The Ratio of Male Singular to Multiple Behaviours TABLE ll:The Ratio of Male Singular to Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed Exhibits Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (109%) (96%) (95%) (191%) For the Amazon Gallery the r a t i o of male singular behaviours to male multiple behaviours was 101:93 or 109%. For the closed and semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o s of male singular to male multiple behaviours were 55:57 or 96% and 23:24 or 95%. For the open exhibit sections the r a t i o of male singular to male multiple behaviours was 23:12 or 191%. For the Gallery 9% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed. The occurance of singular and multiple behaviours of males was almost equal within both the closed and semi-open exhibit sections. In open exhibit sections males were observed 91% more often in singular behaviours compared to multiple behaviours . I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of male singular to multiple behaviours was almost equal. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to closed exhibit sections on the semantic - 71 -d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of male singular to multiple behaviours was almost equal. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of male singular to multiple behaviours was 91%. Within t h i s e x h i bit section almost twice as many singular compared to multiple male behaviours were observed. These r e s u l t s show that open exhibit sections e l i c i t 82% more singular behaviours than multiple behaviours in the Gallery, 95% more than in closed exhibit sections, and 96% more than In semi-open exhibit sections for male children observed in family groups. These data show a pattern s i m i l a r to that discussed for males and females in the Gallery and In the closed exhibit sections. These data d i d not show a pattern discussed for males and females in semi-open and in open exhibit sections. 4.53 The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Males TABLE 12:The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Males Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (46%) (40%) (41%) (85%) The complexity of behaviour index (%) c a l c u l a t e d for male behaviours in the Gallery was 101:221 or 46%. The complexity of behaviour indices for male behaviours were 55:138 or 40% for closed exhibit sections, and - 72 -23:56 or 41% for semi-open exhibit sections and 23:50 or 85% for open exhibit sections. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , complexity of behaviour index for males was 40%. Within the closed exhibit sections singular behaviours make up the smallest component of a l l behaviours observed for males for an exhibit s e c t i o n . Therefore, the closed exhibit sections had the highest complexity of behaviour for males. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the male complexity of behaviour index was 41%. This index was almost equal to the lowest index c a l c u l a t e d for males in closed exhibit sections. Therefore, the semi-open exhibit sections had the same complexity of behaviour as observed in the closed exhibit section for males. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the male complexity of behaviour index was 85%. This index was the highest c a l c u l a t e d for male behaviour in an exhibit section and Indicated the highest component of singular male behaviours observed for an exhibit section. Therefore, the open exhbit sections had the lowest complexity of behaviour for males. - 73 -These r e s u l t s show at least a 40% greater predominance of singular behaviours in the open exhibit sections compared to the Gallery, closed exhibit sections and semi-open exhibit sections. These data do not show the same pattern for male behaviours as ca l c u l a t e d for male and female behaviours in section 4.43. 4.54 The Ratio of Male Singular to Interactive Behaviours TABLE i3:The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e B e h a v i o u r s Gallery Closed Exhibits Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (76%) (72%) (69%) (96%) For the Gallery the r a t i o of singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours, for males, was 101:133 or 76%. For the closed exhibit sections the r a t i o of male singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 55:76 or 72%, and for semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o was 23:33 or 69%. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular male behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 23:24 or 96%. For the Amazon Gallery the number of singular behaviours was 76% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the closed exhibit sections singular behaviours were 72% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours and in the semi-open exhibit sections singular male behaviours were 69% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular to in t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 96% and therefore, singular and i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours were almost equal. - 74 -I) In the the closed and semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o s for male singular behaviours to Interactive behaviours were almost equal II) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of male singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was almost equal. Thesedata indicate that for male children in open exhibit sections an equal number of singular and i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours were observed. Ov e r a l l , t h i s was not a pattern observed for male and female behaviour observations. However, as with the pattern established with male and female observations in section 4.44, males were observed to show singular behaviours accompanied by an i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours in open exhibit sections more often than in both closed and semi-open exhibit sections. - 75 -4.60 Female C h i l d Behaviours in the Gallery and the Exhibit Sections The behaviours observed for female children in family groups were examined to discover whether females show the same kinds of behaviours for the Gallery as discussed in section 4.40 for both males and females and for the exhibit sections as discussed in section 4.50 for males. Did the females show the same behaviour already discussed for both males and females, as well as, just males? 4.61 The Frequency of Female C h i l d Behaviours The tota l number of observations for female children for the Gallery was 202. During the study 116 observations of female singular behaviours were recorded in the closed exhibit sections as compared to 48 in semi-open and 38 in open exhibit sections. TABLE 14:The Frequency of Female Singular Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Exhibits (53%) (27%) (14%) (11%) For the Gallery the singular behaviours compared to the total behaviours observed for female children was 108:202 or 53%. For closed exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for female children was 56:202 or 27%. For semi-open exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for females was 29:202 or 14%. For open exhibit sections the singular to total behaviours observed for females was 23:202 or 11%. - 76 -TABLE 15:The Frequency of Female Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (47%) (29%) (9%) (7%) For the Gallery the r a t i o of multiple behaviours to total behaviours observed for females was 96:202 or 47%. For the closed exhibit sections the r a t i o of multiple behaviours to total behaviours observed for females was 60:202 or 29%. For the semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of multiple behaviours to total behaviours observed for females was 19:202 or 9%. For the open exhibit sections the r a t i o of multiple behaviours to total behaviours observed for females was 15:202 or 7%. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , over twice as many observations of females were made compared to semi-open and open exhibit sections. II) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours observed for female children in family groups occurred almost equally. I l l ) In the semi-open and open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to closed exhibit sections and highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , singular and multiple behaviours observed for female children in family groups were not equal. In semi-open exhibit sections singular behaviours occurred 5% more often than multiple behaviours. In open exhibit sections - 77 -singular behaviours occurred 4% more often than multiple behaviours. As with both male and female behaviours the greatest number of observations of female behaviour was recorded in the closed exhibit sections. This was the same pattern of behaviours observed for male and female, as well as, male behaviours. Conversely, these r e s u l t s also show that for the Gallery and closed exhibit sections, singular and multiple behaviours observed for female children in family groups were observed to occur almost equally. In semi-open and open exhibit sections the occurance of singular and multiple behaviours was not equal. This was not the pattern discussed for both male and female c h i l d behaviours and male c h i l d behaviours. In the previous discussions in section 4.41 and 4.51 only the open exhibit sections show higher occurances of singular to multiple behaviours. 4.62 The Ratio of Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours TABLE 16:The Ratio of Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (113%) (93%) (153%) (153%) For the Amazon Gallery the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to multiple behaviours was 108:96 or 113%. For the closed exhibit sections the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to multiple behaviours was 56:60 or 93%. For the semi-open and open exhibit sections the r a t i o s of female singular behaviours to multiple behaviours was 29:19 or 153% and 23:15 - 78 -or 153%. For the Gallery 13% more singular than multiple behaviours were observed. For the closed exhibit sections singular and multiple behaviours for females was almost equal. For both the semi-open and open exhibit sections females were engaged 53% more often in singular behaviours as compared to multiple behaviours. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to multiple behaviours was almost equal. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to multiple behaviours was not equal. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to female multiple behaviours was not equal. As with semi-open exhibit sections, open exhibit sections show 53% more female singular compared to female multiple behaviours. These r e s u l t s show 40% more female singular behaviours than female multiple behaviours in semi-open and open exhibit sections than in the Gallery, and 60% more female singular behaviors than female multiple behaviours than in the closed exhibit sections. This was not the pattern of behaviour shown for male and female children in section 4.42 and male chil d r e n in section 4.52. - 7 9 -4.63 The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Females TABLE 17:The Complexity of Behaviour Index for Females Gallery Closed Exhibits Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (50%) (41%) (67%) (62%) The complexity of behaviour index (%) ca l c u l a t e d for female behaviours in Gallery was 108:217 or 50%. The complexity of behaviour indices for female behaviours were 56:137 or 41% for closed exhibit sections, 29:43 or 67% for semi-open exhibit sections and 23:37 or 62% for open exhibit sections. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the complexity of behaviour index for females was 41%. Within the closed exhibit sections singular behaviours made up the smallest component of a l l behaviours for females for an exhibit section. Therefore, the closed exhibit sections had the highest complexity of behaviour observed for females. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the complexity of behaviour index for females was 67%. This index was the highest index c a l c u l a t e d for females in the exhibit sections, therefore, the semi-open exhibit sections show the highest component of singular singualr behaviours observed for females for an exhibit section. Therefore, the - 80 -semi-open exhibit sections had the lowest complexity of behaviour for feamles. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the complexity of behaviour index for females was 62%. This index was s i m i l a r to the index c a l c u l a t e d for female behaviour observed in semi-open exhibit sections. Therefore open exhibit sections had a s i m i l a r complexity of behaviour as semi-open exhibit sections. These r e s u l t s show at least a 21% greater predominance of female singular behaviours in semi-open and open exhibit sections compared to the Gallery and the closed exhibit sections. These r e s u l t s were not the same pattern for complexity of behaviour indices as shown for both male and female behaviour observations in section 4.43 and male behaviours in section 4.53. For both males and females and just males the complexity of behaviour indices was s i m i l a r for closed and semi-open e x h i b i t s , not semi-open and open exhibit sections as shown for females. 4.64 The Ratio of Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours TABLE 18:The Ratio of Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (77%) (67%) (95%) (85%) For the Gallery the r a t i o of singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours, for females, was 121:140 or 77%. For the closed exhibit - 81 -sections the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 56:83 or 67%. For the semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 29:30 or 95%. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 23:27 or 85%. For the Amazon Gallery the number of female singular behaviours was 77% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the closed exhibit sections female singular behaviours were 67% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For the semi-open exhibit female singular behaviours were 95% of the observed interact behaviours. For open exhibit sections feamle singular behaviours were 85% of the observed i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o s of female singular to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was the lowest. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to Interactive was almost equal. These data indicate that for female ch i l d r e n in semi-open exhibit sections an equal number of singular and i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours were observed. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the r a t i o of female singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 85%. These indicate that i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours observed in open sections - 82 -were 15% less than female singular behaviours observed in the section. For females, the Gallery and closed exhibit sections show s i m i l a r r a t i o s of singular behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. For females semi-open and open exhibit sections show s i m i l a r r a t i o s of singular to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours. This was not a pattern shown for both male and female behaviour observations discussed in section 4.31. However, as with the pattern established with both male and female c h i l d and male c h i l d observations in sections 4.31 and 4.32, females were observed to show singular behaviours more often accompanied by an i n t e r a c t i v e behaviour in open exhibit sections than in closed exhibit sections. 4.70 The Comparison of Male and Female Behaviours As discussed in section 4.33 above in many ways the pattern of female behaviours was comparable to male behaviours observed in the Gallery and in the closed, semi-open and open exhibit sections. However, as also discussed in section 4.33 the pattern of female behaviours were not always comparable to male behaviours in the Gallery and in the closed, semi-open and open exhibit sections. 4.71 The Comparison of Male and Female Singular Behaviours TABLE 19:The Ratio of Male to Female Singular Behaviours Frequencies Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s (95%> (98%) (79%) (100%) - 83 -For the Gallery the r a t i o of singular behaviours was 194:202 or 95%. For the closed and open exhibit sections the r a t i o s of singular behaviours were 55:56 or 98% and 23:23 or 100%. For the semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of singular behaviours was 23:29 or 79%. I) In the closed and open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest and highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the male and female singular behaviours were almost equal. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , females had 21% more singular behaviours than males. Male compared to female behaviours were almost equal for singular behaviours observed in the Gallery and in the closed and open exhibit sections. For the semi-open exhibit sections the frequency of singular behaviours show that male children in family groups were observed 21% less often in singular behaviours than female c h i l d r e n . 4.72 The Comparison of Male and Female Multiple Behaviour Frequencies TABLE 20:The Ratio of Male to Female Multiple Behaviours Gallery Closed Exhibits Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Ex h i b i t s (96%) (95%) (126%) (80%) - 84 -For the Gallery the comparison of male multiple behaviours to female multiple behaviours was 93:96 or 96%. For the closed exhibit sections male multiple to female multiple behaviours was 57:60 or 95%. For the semi-open and open exhibit sections male multiple to female multiple behaviours were 24:19 or 126% and 12:15 or 80%. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the male and female multiple behaviours were almost equal. II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , males had 26% more multiple behaviours than females. I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , females had 20% more multiple behaviours than males. Male compared to female behaviours were almost equal for multiple behaviours observed in the Gallery and in the closed exhibit sections. Male compared to female, behaviours were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t for multiple behaviours observed in semi-open and open exhibit sections. In semi-open exhibit sections males were observed 26% more often in multiple behaviours compared to females. In open exhibit sections males were observed 20% less often in multiple behaviors compared to females. - 85 -4.73 The Comparison of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviour Indices TABLE 21:The Ratio of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviours Indices Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Exhibits (92%) (98%) (61%) (137%) The r a t i o of complexity of behaviour indices were 46:50 or 92% for the Gallery and 40:41 or 98% in the closed exhibit sections. The r a t i o of complexity of behaviour index was 41:67 or 61% for the semi-open exhibit sections and the r a t i o was 85:62 or 137% in the open exhibit sect ions. I) In the closed exhibit sections, those sections which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the comparison of the complexity of behaviour indices for males and females was 98%. Therefore, within the closed exhibit sections where male and female complexity of behaviour was highest there was no d i f f e r e n c e . II) In the semi-open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the closed exhibit sections on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the comparison of the complexity of behaviour Indices for males and females was 61%. Therefore, within the semi-open exhibit sections males had a higher complexity of behaviour than females. - 86 -I l l ) In the open exhibit sections, those sections which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the comparison of the complexity of behaviour indices for males and females was 137%. Therefore within the open exhibit sections females had a higher complexity of behaviour than males. Male compared to female r a t i o s were almost equal for the complexity of behaviour indices c a l c u l a t e d for the Gallery and the closed exhibit sections. Male compared to female complexity of behaviour indices c a l c u l a t e d for the semi-open and open exhibit sections were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . Males had higher behaviour complexity in semi-open exhibit sections, and females had higher behaviour complexity in open exhibit sections. 4.74 The Comparison of Male and Female Interactive Behaviours TABLE 22:The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours Gallery Closed E x h i b i t s Semi-Open Ex h i b i t s Open Exhibits (95%) (91%) (110%) (88%) 1 For the Gallery the r a t i o of Interactive behaviours was 133:140 or 95%. For closed exhibit sections the r a t i o of i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 76:83 or 91%. For semi-open exhibit sections the r a t i o of i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 33:30 or 110%. For open exhibit sections the r a t i o of in t e r a c t i v e behaviours was 24:27 or 88%. - 87 -I) In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were scored lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , the male and female i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours were w i t h i n 10% of each other. Feamles had 9% more I n t e r a c t i v e behaviours then males f o r c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t o i n s . II) In the semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were scored s i m i l a r l y to the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , males had 10% more I n t e r a c t i v e behaviours than females. I l l ) In the open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were scored highest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , females had 12% more i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours than males. Male compared to female behaviours were almost equal f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours observed i n the G a l l e r y . For the G a l l e r y and cl o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s the c a l c u l a t i o n s of the comparison i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours were w i t h i n 10% of 1.0. Male compared to female behaviours were found to be greater than or equal to 10% i n semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . In semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s male c h i l d r e n i n family groups had 10% more i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours with a d u l t s than observed f o r female c h i l d r e n . In open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s females i n family groups had 12% more i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours than observed f o r male c h i l d r e n . The r e s u l t s show pa t t e r n s of behaviour occurred w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . These p a t t e r n s of behaviour described i n t h i s chapter are the b a s i s f o r co n c l u s i o n s discussed in the f o l l o w i n g chapter. - 88 -T i t l e : A Study of Children's Behaviour in Family Groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium. CHAPTER 5.00: CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH 5.10 Conclusions of the Present Study Based on the Data Based on the pattern of c h i l d behaviours i d e n t i f i e d and discussed in CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, the researcher i s able to draw conclusions. These conclusions pertain to the behaviours of seven to ten year o l d chi l d r e n in family groups v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium. The following conclusions are based upon the hypotheses which were o r i g i n a l l y discussed in section, 1.51 Hypotheses, of CHAPTER ONE: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY. The previous analysis of the data in CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS indicates that: I) The behaviours of elementary aged children and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults were found to vary in the exhibit sections of Graham Amazon Galle r y . II) The behaviours of elementary aged male children and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n with adults were found to vary in the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Galle r y . - 89 -I l l ) The behaviours of elementary aged female children and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n adults were found to vary in the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery. IV) The behaviours of elementary aged male and female children and thei r Interaction adults were found to vary in the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery. V) The behaviours of elementary aged children and t h e i r with adults within the Graham Amazon Gallery were found to vary with d i f f e r i n g "Information loads". The v a r i a b l i t y In c h i l d behaviour throughout the Graham Amazon Gallery were the basis of the c h i l d behaviour pattern discussed in CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS. The s p e c i f i c conclusions with regard to c h i l d behaviour in family groups were: I) Children displayed most behaviours in those sections of the Gallery with low "information load." The exhibit sections with low "information load," were the closed exhibit sections. The closed e x h i b i t s were those which displayed small r e p t i l e s , insects and f i s h . II) Children displayed the greatest variety of behaviour in those exhibit sections with low "information load." The exhibit sections with the low "information load" were the closed exhibit sect ions. - 90 -I l l ) Children interacted with adults more often in those exhibit sections with high "information load." The exhibit sections with high "information load" were the open exhibit sections. The open e x h i b i t s were those which displayed large r e p t i l e s and b i r d s . IV) Male children displayed most behaviours in those sections of the Gallery with low "Information load." The exhibit sections with the low "information load," were the closed exhibit sections. V) Male chi l d r e n displayed the greatest v a r i e t y of behaviour in those exhibit sections with low "Information load." The exhibit sections with the low "information load" were the closed exhibit sections. VI) Male chi l d r e n interacted with adults more often In those exhibit sections with high "information load." The exhibit sections with high "information load" were the open exhibit sections. VII) Female children displayed most behaviours in those sections of the Gallery with low "information load." The exhibit sections with the low "information load," were the closed exhibit sect ions, VIII) Female chi l d r e n displayed the greatest v a r i e t y of behaviour in those exhibit sections with low "information load." The exhibit sections with the low "information load" were the closed exhibit sections. - 91 -IX) Female ch i l d r e n interacted with adults more often in those exhibit sections with lowest "information load." The exhibit sections with lowest "information load" were the semi-open exhibit sections. The semi-open ex h i b i t s were the e x h i b i t s which displayed the large r e p t i l e s . Male children displayed greater variety of behaviour than female children in those exhibit sections with lowest "information load." The exhibit sections with the lowest "information load" were the semi-open exhibit sections. Female ch i l d r e n displayed greater variety of behaviour than male chil d r e n in those exhibit sections with high "information load." The exhibit sections with high "information load" were the open exhibit sections. XII) Male children Interacted with adults more often than female children interacted with adults in exhibit sections with high "information load." The open exhibit sections had the high "information load." XIII) Female ch i l d r e n interacted with adults more than male children interacted with adults in exhibit sections with low "information load." The semi-open and closed exhibit sections had the lowest "information load." The preceeding conclusions suggest some recommendations for future research in the the Graham Amazon Gallery. Future research w i l l allow - 9 2 -X) XI) the researcher to investigate the v i s i t s made by c h i l d r e n , adults and f a m i l i e s to the Gallery, a r i c h exhibit environment, more thoroughly. 5.20 Further Research as Suggested by the Data The suggestions for further research in the Graham Amazon Gallery are based upon the observations made in the Gallery by the researcher during the present study. I) Within the Amazon Gallery one exhibit takes on a regular physical transformation. This exhibit i s the caimen dis p l a y . This i s a semi-open e x h i b i t , an exhibit perceived by the v i s i t o r s as having low "information load". Once every hour, however, t h i s exhibit becomes a much d i f f e r e n t place, the sky darkens over the large crocodi1ians, b i r d s f l y in and out of the display, the atmosphere around the exhibit becomes anticipatory as lightening flashes and thunder rumbles. Then the r a i n pours and the simulated storm subsides. C h i l d behaviour around the exhibit changes during the transformation, therefore, an ana l y s i s of c h i l d behaviour at the semi-open caimen exhibit before, during and a f t e r the t r o p i c a l r a i n storm, should be conducted. II) Within the Amazon Gallery the closed exhibit sections show the greatest v a r i e t y of c h i l d behaviour. This exhibit section can be divided into three subject areas. The subjects for these three areas are insects, small r e p t i l e s and f i s h e s . During the present - 93 -study the insects and small r e p t i l e s were the two areas where most behaviours were observed within the closed exhibit sections. C h i l d behaviour observed in these subsections of the closed exhibit section of the Gallery indicated that there was some di f f e r e n c e s of behaviour within closed exhibit sections, therefore, an analysis of c h i l d behaviour and percieved "information load" within the closed exhibit sections should be conducted. I l l ) Within the Amazon Gallery during the present study c h i l d behaviour was observed. The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l used to evaluate the exhibit environment was completed by adults. Adult behaviour was not recorded during the present study, only adult interaction with the alpha children was recorded. Adult behaviour observed in response to alpha c h i l d r e n varied within d i f f e r e n t exhibit sections of the Gallery, therefore, an analysis adult behaviour within the exhibit sections of the Graham Amazon Gallery should be conducted. With the support of the Vancouver Public Aquarium, as so graciously extended to the present study, i t i s hoped that these future research studies w i l l be undertaken. One may also ask why further research into the r e a l t i o n s h l p between 11 Information load," complexity of behaviour and learning was not suggested by the researcher. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between "Information load," complexity of behaviour and learning i s a future research area suggested by the r e s u l t s of the present study. However, t h i s i s an impractical endeavour since a concept of what constitutes - 94 -learning in free choice environments has not been developed, c e r t a i n l y i t i s not simply factual a c q u i s i t i o n , as i s often investigated in museum environments. A methodology for analysing the d i r e c t i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p between "information load," complexity of behaviour and learning has not been conceptualized as yet, A c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of learning in free choice environments and a methodology for studying i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p between "information load" and complexity of behaviour must preceed further research In t h i s area. - 95 -T i t l e : A Study of Children's Behaviour in Family Groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium. CHAPTER 6.00: BIBLIOGRAPHY 6.10 References 1) AAZPA . (1984). American Association of Zoological Parks and  Aquariums Directory. 2) Alexander Edward P.. (1979). Museums in Motion. N a s h v i l l e : American Association for State and Local History. 3) Anderson G.J. and H.J. Walberg. (1974). Learning Environments. In Walberg (Ed.). Evaluating Educational Performance. Berkely: McCuthcheon. 81-98. 4) B a l l i n g John D. and John H. Falk. (1980). A Perspective on F i e l d T r i p s : Environmental E f f e c t s on Learning. Curator. 23:4. 229-239. 5) B.C. Museums Association. (1983). Directory of Museums. Archives 8.  Art G a l l e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. In Duckies (Ed.). B.C. Museums Association. 6) Berlyne D.E.. (1960). C o n f l i c t . Arousal and C u r i o s i t y . Toronto: McGraw-Hill Inc.. 7) Brown W.S.. (1978). The Museum V i s i t o r : Demography and behaviour, (a manuscript in p r i n t ) . 8) Carr Stephen. (1978). Some C r i t e r i a for Environmental Form. Humanscaoe: Environments for People. North Scituate: Duxbury Press. 156-160. 9) Cone Cynthia A.. (1978). Space, Time and Family Interaction: V i s i t o r Behaviour at the Science Museum of Minnesota. Curator. 21:3. 245-258. 10) Falk John H.. W. Wade Martin and John D. B a l l i n g . (1978). The Novel F i e l d - T r i p Phenonmena: Adjustment to Novel Settings Interferes with Task Learning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 15:2. 127-134. 11) . (1983). Time and Behaviour as Predictors of Learning. Science Education. 62:2. 267-276. - 96 -12) G o t t f r i e d J e f f r y . (1980). Do Children Learn on School Curator. 23:3. 165-174. F i e l d T r i p s ? . •13) H i l l C.A.. (1971). An Analysis of the Zoo V i s i t o r . International Zoo  Yearbook. 11. 158-165. 14) Hensel Karen. (1982). A New Look at our Largest Audience: Ethnographic Analysis of the Family Unit. Annual Proceedings of the  AAZPA Conference. 1982. 15) Jonathan Ruth. (1981). Empirical Research and Education Theory. In Brian Simon and John Willacks (Eds.). Research and Practice in the  Primary Classroom. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 161-175. 16) Kaplan Stephen. (1978). Perception of an Uncertain Environment. Humanscape: Environments for People. North Scituate: Duxbury Press. 30-35. 17) . (1978). Attention and Fascination: The Search for Cognitive C l a r i t y . Humanscape: Environments for People. North Scituate: Duxbury Press. 84-90. 18) Kilbourn Brent. (1980). Ethnographic Research and the Improvement of Teaching. In Hugh Mundy, Graham Orpwood and Thomas Russel (Eds.). Seeing Curriculum in a New Light: Essays from Science Education. Toronto: Oise Press. 19) Koran John J . J r . and Sarah J. Longino. (1982). C u r i o s i t y behaviour in Formal and Informal Settings: What Research Says. B u l l e t i n for  F l o r i d a Education Research and Development Council. Sanibel, F l o r i d a . 1-31. 20) . (1983). A Framework for Conceptualizing Research in Natural Histoy Museums and Science Centers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 20:4. 325-339. 21) Lambert. D.G.. (1972). Zoos and Education. Trends in Education. 27. 13-16. 22) Linn Marcia C . (1976). Exhibit Evaluation - Informed Decision Making. Curator. 19:4. 291-302. 23) Lynch Kevin. (1978). The Image of the Environment. Humanscape:  Environments for People. North Scituate: Duxbury Press. 150-155. 24) McCarthy Bernlce. (1980). The 4-MAT System: Teaching to Learning  Style s With Right/Left Mode Techniques. Barrington, I l l i n o i s : Excel,Inc.. 25) Mehrabian Albert and J.A. R u s s e l l . (1974). An Approach to  Environmental Psychology. Cambridge: MIT Press. - 97 -26) Mehrabian Alb e r t . (1976). Chapter 21: Museums and G a l l e r i e s . Public  Places and Private Spaces. New York: Basic Books Inc.. 229-242. 27) Peterson R.W. and Lawrence F. Lowery. (1972). The Use of Motor A c t i v i t y as an Index of Cu r i o s i t y in Children. Journal of Research  in Science Teaching. 9:3. 193-200. 28) Schlegel Donna M.. (1982). Educating the General Zoo V i s i t o r . Annual  Proceedings of the AAZPA Conference. 1982. 251-260. 29) Screven C.G.. (1975). The Effectiveness of Guidance Devices on V i s i t o r Learning. Curator. 18:3. 219-243. 30) . (1976). Exhibit Evaluation - A Goal Referenced Approach. Curator. 19:4. 271-289. 31) S e r r e l l Beverly. (1977). Survey of V i s i t o r Attitude and Awareness at an Aquarium. Curator. 20:1. 48-52. 32) Shettel Harris H.. (1973). E x h i b i t s : Art Form or Educational Medium?. Museum News. September . 32-41. 33) Turkowski F.J.. (1971). Learning at the Zoo. Parks and Recreation. 6:11. 25-26. 34) Wolf Robert L. and Barbara L. Tymitz. (1978a). A Preliminary Guide  for Conducting N a t u r a l i s t i c Evaluation in Studying Museum  Environments. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington. 35) . (1978b). Whatever Happened to the Giant Wombat: An Investigation of the Impact of the Ice Age  Mammals and Emergence of Man Exhibit National Museum of Natural  History. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington. 36) . (1979). "East Side. West Side. Straight Down the Middle": A Study of V i s i t o r Perceptions of "our  Changing Land." The Bicentennial E x h i b i t . National Museum of Natural  H i s t o r y S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n . S m i thsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington. 37) . (1981). "Hev Mom. That Exhibi t ' s A l i v e " : A Study of V i s i t o r Perceptions of the Coral Reef E x h i b i t .  National Museam of Natural History Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington. - 98 -APPENDIX 1: The Map nf r h » a*)]»n FIGURE 7: Map of the Amazon Ga l ley Graham Amazon Gallery: V.PA. -99-APPENDIX 2: OBSERVATIONAL DATA The observational data that follows has been organized in the following manner. Each of the blocks of zeros and ones represents the observations made on one alpha c h i l d and the corresponding behaviours of t h e i r attending adult. Each "1" represents the observation of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour as described by behaviours "0 to 9" defined in section 1.32 D e f i n i t i o n of S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms, for alpha children and adults. Each "0" represents that t h i s s p e c i f i c behaviour was not observed at t h i s time i n t e r v a l . Observations and t o t a l s of observations are l i s t e d by exhibit sections and by sex. -100-APPENDIX 2: TABLE 23 Males: Closed Exhibits < Rows = Child 60s observation Intervals / Blocks = BEHAVIOURS 1 alpha child ) Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ( ) 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 -101-C h i l d BEHAVIOURS A d u l t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 t 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ! 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -102-C h i l d BEHAVIOURS Adu l t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ! 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -103-C h i l d BEHAVIOURS A d u l t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 g 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 C h i l d TOTALS A d u l t 1 84 17 18 11 20 8 10 3 20 192 54 0 11 6 16 23 12 1 6 1 130 -104-APPENDIX 2s TABLE 24 Females: C l o s e d E x h i b i t s ( Rows = C h i l d 60s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l s / B l o c k s = i n d i v i d u a l s ) BEHAVIOURS A d u l t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 -105-Child BEHAVIOURS Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Q 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -106-Child BEHAVIOURS Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 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0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 C h i l d TOTALS A d u l t 1 80 18 20 16 29 2 5 4 20 195 51 1 14 8 24 24 4 3 6 3 138 -108-APPENDIX 2; TABLE 25 Males: Semi-Open E x h i b i t s ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l s / B l o c k s = i n d i v i d u a l s ) C h i l d BEHAVIOURS A d u l t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -109-C h i l d BEHAVIOURS Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C h i l d TOTALS Adult 0 36 5 7 7 10 2 2 0 10 79 21 0 5 3 14 9 2 0 0 0 54 -110-APPENDIX 2: TABLE 26 Females: Semi-Open E x h i b i t s ( Rows = 60s observat ion i n t e r v a l s / B locks = i n d i v i d u a l s ) C h i l d BEHAVIOURS Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 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6 7 8 9 T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 J 0 0 0 0 i 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 j 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 j 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -115-C h i l d BEHAVIOURS Adult 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 C h i l d TOTAL Adul t 0 29 7 7 4 1 3 0 4 60 18 0 8 2 6 4 6 1 0 0 43 -116-

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