UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of children's behaviour in family groups in the Graham Amazon Gallery, Vancouver Public Aquarium Elderton, Victor James 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 E42.pdf [ 7.32MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302331.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302331-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302331-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302331-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302331-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302331-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302331-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302331-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302331.ris

Full Text

A" STUDY OF CHILDREN'S BEHAVIOUR IN FAMILY GROUPS IN THE GRAHAM AMAZON GALLERY, VANCOUVER PUBLIC AQUARIUM By VICTOR JAMES ELDERTON B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Mathematics and Science Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1986 (c) V i c t o r James Elderton 1986  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an of  British  it  freely available  agree that for  that  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  shall  not  the  be  of  this  Of  Mathematics and  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  )E-6  (3/81)  October,  1986.  this  Science Education  Columbia  thesis my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department  further  head o f  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  understood  the  the  I agree that  permission by  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  department or for  in partial  written  ABSTRACT  Purpose:  This  behaviour  study  in family  was  undertaken  groups as  in  order  they t o u r e d  to  document  different  children's  exhibit sections  of  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y at the Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  Methods:  This  observation collection  assess  a  of c h i l d were  designated attending  was  naturalistic  behaviours  used.  study  These  children 2)  adults;  the p e r c e i v e d  study,  based  upon  i n f a m i l y groups. 1)  were:  as  they  Time  "information  interval  toured  Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  Two  the  non-intrusive  methods of observations  Gallery  administered  load" of d i f f e r e n t  data  with  of  their  to a d u l t s  to  e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s of  the G a l l e r y .  Findings: different  1)  That a d u l t s p e r c e i v e d  "Information  were p e r c e i v e d  to be 2)  conservatory. s e c t i o n s with  low  That  children children  female  different That  Exhibits  showed 3)  loads."  i n t e r a c t e d with  In e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h  exhibit s e c t i o n s with  were  more  with high  similar  to  adults  low  behaviours  low  adults  "Information  more  often  "information  than  load."  Approved:  - ii -  in  had  terrla through exhibit  That c h i l d r e n showed g r e a t e r  i n e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s with  children  interacted  that  from e x h i b i t s s i m i l a r t o a walk  children  "information  v a r i e t y of b e h a v i o u r s 4)  loads."  that d i f f e r e n t e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  "Information more  often  load." female  5)  loads."  than  male  That male  children  in  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1.00: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY  1  1.10 Background o f t h e Problem  1  1.20 The Problem  2  1.30 The D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 1.31 General D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  3 4  1.32 D e f i n i t i o n o f S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms  6  1.40 R a t i o n a l e o f t h e Hypotheses  7  1.50 Hypotheses and Q u e s t i o n s t o be Answered 1.51 Hypotheses  9 9  1.52 Q u e s t i o n s  10  1.60 Assumptions  13  1.70 D e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e Study  13  1.80 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e Study  14  CHAPTER 2.00: THE SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE  15  2.10 O u t l i n e o f L i t e r a t u r e i n S e q u e n c l a l Order  16  2.20 N a t u r a l i s t i c Research In Museums 2.21 F a c t u a l A c q u i s i t i o n and Museum Environments 2.22 Museum E n v i r o n m e n t s , S t i m u l i and V i s i t o r Behaviour 2.30 The P r e s e n t Study w i t h Respect t o t h e L i t e r a t u r e  16 18 21 24  CHAPTER 3.00: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  26  3.10 M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t s 3.11 Observed B e h a v i o u r R e c o r d Sheet 3.12 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n a i r e  26 26 29  3.20 Study Design  32  3.30 Study P o p u l a t i o n 3.31 C h i l d S u b j e c t Study Group 3.32 A d u l t " I n f o r m a t i o n Load" Assessment Group  34 34 35  3.40 Data C o l l e c t i o n 3.41 Time S e r i e s O b s e r v a t i o n s  36 36  - iii  -  37 38  3.42 Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 3.43 S t a t i s i c a l A n a l y s i s . CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS  44  4.10 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4.11 B e h a v i o u r s o f C h i l d r e n  44 45  i n F a m i l y Groups  4.20 P e r c e p t i o n s o f E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s U s i n g t h e Semantic Differential  56  4.30 C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s In D i f f e r e n t Sections  60  Exhibit  4.40 Male and Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s i n t h e G a l l e r y and E x h i b i t Sections 4.41 The Frequency o f Male and Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s 4.42 The R a t i o of Male and Female S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e B e h a v i o u r s 4.43 The C o m p l e x i t y o f Behaviour Index f o r Males and Females 4.44 The R a t i o o f Male and Female S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours  60 61 63 64 66  4.50 Male C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s In t h e G a l l e r y and In t h e E x h i b i t Sections 4.51 The Frequency o f Male C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s 4.52 The R a t i o o f Male S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e B e h a v i o u r s 4.53 The C o m p l e x i t y o f Behaviour Index f o r M a l e s 4.54 The R a t i o o f Male S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e B e h a v i o u r s  69 69 71 72 74  4.60 Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s In t h e G a l l e r y and In t h e E x h i b i t Sections 4.61 The Frequency of Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s 4.62 The R a t i o o f Female S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e B e h a v i o u r s 4.63 The C o m p l e x i t y o f Behaviour Index f o r Females 4.64 The R a t i o o f Female S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e B e h a v i o u r s ..  76 76 78 80 81  4.70 The Comparison o f Male and 4.71 The Comparison of Male Frequencies 4.72 The Comparison o f Male Frequencies 4.73 The Comparison of Male Indices 4.74 The Comparison of Male  Female B e h a v i o u r s and Female S i n g u l a r  Behaviour  83  and Female M u l t i p l e  Behaviour  83 84 and Female C o m p l e x i t y of Behaviour 86 and Female I n t e r a c t i v e B e h a v i o u r s . 87  CHAPTER 5.00: CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH  89  5.10 C o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e P r e s e n t Study Based on t h e Data  89  - iv -  93  5.20 F u r t h e r Research a s Suggested by the Data  CHAPTER 6.00: BIBLIOGRAPHY  9  6  6.10 R e f e r e n c e s  9  6  APPENDIX 1: The Map of the Gallery APPENDIX 2:  99  The Coded Observational  Data  c-  -  V  -  10°  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1: The Number of Children and Adults in Each Family Group . 47 TABLE 2: The Frequency of Behaviours  50  TABLE 3: ANOVA for Semantic Differential  58  TABLE 4: The Frequency of Male and Female Singular Behaviours . . . 61 TABLE 5: The Frequency of Male and Female Multiple Behaviours . . . 61 TABLE 6: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours  63  TABLE 7: The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Males and Females  65  TABLE 8: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours  66  TABLE 9: The Frequency of Male Singular Behaviours  69  TABLE 10: The Frequency of Male Multiple Behaviours  70  TABLE 11: The Ratio of Male Singular to Multiple Behaviours  71  TABLE 12: The Complexity of Behaviour Index <%) for Males  72  TABLE 13: The Ratio of Male Singular to Interactive Behaviours . . 74 TABLE 14: The Frequency of Female Singular Behaviours  76  TABLE 15: The Frequency of Female M u l t i p l e Behaviours  77  TABLE 16: The Ratio of Female Singular to Multiple Behaviours . . . 78 TABLE 17: The Complexity of Behaviour Index (%) for Females  80  TABLE 18: The Ratio of Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours  81  TABLE 19: The Ratio of Male to Female Singular Behaviours  83  TABLE 20: The Ratio of Male to Female Multiple Behaviours  84  TABLE 21: The Ratio of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviours Indices TABLE 22: The Ratio of Male and Female Singular to Interactive Behaviours - vi -  8 6  8 7  TABLE 23: Males; Closed Exhibits  101  TABLE 24: Females; Closed Exhibits  105  TABLE 25: Males; Semi-Open Exhibits  109  TABLE 26: Females; Semi-Open Exhibits  HI  TABLE 27: Males; Open Exhibits  113  TABLE 28: Females; Open Exhibits  115  - vii -  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1: Observed Behaviour Record Sheet  28  FIGURE 2: Semantic Differential Questlonalre  31  FIGURE 3: Frequency of Male Behaviours  51  FIGURE 4: Frequency of Female Behaviour  52  FIGURE 5: Frequency of Male Behaviour Sequences  54  FIGURE 6: Frequency of Female Beahvlour Sequences  55  FIGURE 7: Map of the Amazon Gallery  99  - vlil -  ACKNOWLEGDEMENT  As with a l l work of t h i s type i t c o u l d never be completed without the support and guidance of a c a s t of c o l l e a g u e s and p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s that b e l i e v e In you. The work p r e s e n t e d here would never have been completed without the a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. Bob C a r l i s l e , Department of Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. H i s constant quadrant 2 e n q u i r i e s (McCarthy, 1980) were e s s e n t i a l t o the completion of the p r e s e n t study. The r e s e a r c h e r would a l s o l i k e t o the thank the Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium f o r b u i l d i n g the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y , a r i c h c e n t r e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r Mr. G i l H e w l i t t , General C u r a t o r of the Vancouver Aquarium, made I t p o s s i b l e f o r the researcher to c o l l e c t data unhindered a t the Aquarium. The r e s e a r c h e r would a l s o l i k e t o thank personal f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r support, among these the r e s e a r c h e r would l i k e t o thank, Ed and Irene Buchanan, S i d E l d e r t o n , Len and I s a b e l l a Brown and Don and S h i r l e y E l d e r t o n .  - Ix -  Title:  A Study  of C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour  i n Family  Groups  i n the Graham  Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  CHAPTER 1.00: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY  1.10 Background of the Problem Since learning  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  environments  of modern  i n the mid n i n e t e e n t h  these  i n s t i t u t i o n s has grown s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the  nineteenth  century  these  aquariums were based  upon  the  owners  domain  of  museums  their  century  which  private collections.  1979). P r i o r t o  include  These  circle  informal  the p o p u l a r i t y of  (Alexander,  Institutions  and a small  and o t h e r  zoos  and  collections  of f r i e n d s  were  who  they  p e r m i t t e d t o view the c o l l e c t i o n . The America  situation the  today,  interest  registered  i s very  high.  of a new museum every  Throughout  This  North  interest  is  3.3 days In the U n i t e d  1979). In B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e a r e over 300 museums  as members  Association,  i s much d i f f e r e n t .  i n museums  i l l u s t r a t e d by the opening S t a t e s (Alexander,  however,  of the B.C. Museums  Association  (B.C. Museums  1983).  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t some 300 m i l l i o n v i s i t s t o museums a r e made each visits  being  attendance  made  figures  to  year  (Alexander,  zoological  indicate  so f r e q u e n t l y . Each of these  institutions  that  i n s t i t u t i o n s of I n t e r e s t otherwise  1979) w i t h  the they  institutions  -1-  general  a similar  (AAZPA, public  number of  1984).  These  finds  these  would not choose t o v i s i t  them  i s a c o l l e c t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d  artifacts  o r specimens e i t h e r  represent potenial  learning  Most of the c u r r e n t with  the l e a r n i n g  such as school  demographic d a t a are  indicates  individuals  investigated.  r e s e a r c h on museum v i s i t o r s of i n d i v i d u a l s  while  collections  that  the h i g h e s t  has been  concerned  in organized  t r i p groups ( B a l l i n g and F a l k ,  i n d i v i d u a l s , small  these  or p r e s e r v e d and these  environments f o r the v i s i t o r s who use them.  outcomes  field  living  groups,  1980). However, the  number of museum  visitors  groups of f r i e n d s and f a m i l i e s . What Is l e a r n t by  singly  or  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  in  groups  has  the i n t e r a c t i o n  not  been  thoroughly  between people  and museum  environments has not been examined. In visitor  c e n t r e s such response  as the Vancouver P u b l i c  to e x h i b i t s  i s important  museum program p l a n n e r s . The a p p l i c a t i o n improve the e d u c a t i o n on  visitor  upon  and communication  interaction  research  with  of v i s i t o r  exhibits.  1.20  behaviours  within used  of  to exhibit  designers  and  of t h i s type of a n a l y s i s value  of e x h i b i t s  with  by  development  exhibits  would  would  focussing  plans  based  contribute  experiences.  The Problem  This thesis the  visitor  the a n a l y s i s  Further  interaction  i n f o r m a t i o n that would e n r i c h  Aquarium  will  shown  one e x h i b i t a  semantic  perceived  an  examine the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t environments on by  children  and  a t the Vancouver differential  environment  imagined. T h i s r e s e a r c h  that  to  their  Public  demonstrated  -2-  how  were that  with  Aquarium. Mehrabian  analyse  they  interaction  people  either  In complex  adults (1974)  understood  Introduced open  or  to or  environments  people p e r c e i v e d than  that  higher  amounts or " l o a d s "  i n environments where only  environment was d i r e c t l y that  the Graham  Amazon  specific  of i n f o r m a t i o n  stimuli  e x i s t e d or where the  controlled. Preliminary Gallery  v a r y i n g amounts of " i n f o r m a t i o n  existed  observation  at the Vancouver  Public  indicates  Aquarium has  load" depending on which s e c t i o n of the  e x h i b i t one i s o b s e r v i n g . Specifically public  perceives  "information behaviours are  this  thesis will  that  the  a d d r e s s the problem as t o whether the  exhibit  area  has  l o a d " . Secondly o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l  different  gallery.  Observations  will  be  a naturalistic  observation  combine r e p o r t s of i n f r e q u e n t response these  on the p a r t  t h i s research  environmental  of the observed c h i l d .  the most  (Koran and Longlno, the b e h a v i o u r s  significant  1983). The problem w i t h  behaviours  group  individually.  behaviours  to discern  together  i n such  a  be p o s s i b l e .  record w i l l  also  In the past  1976);  reserchers in  i n an attempt t o (Gottfried,  t h i s a n a l y s i s Is that  1980); often  e x h i b i t e d by the aquarium or museum audience a r e combined  w i t h other or  (Mehrabian,  they  events which may cause some  environments have observed s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s ,  identify  occur  study  t o where  gathered  manner that a comparison of male and female s u b j e c t s w i l l As  of  be taken t h a t r e c o r d what  elementary aged c h i l d r e n engage In w i t h r e s p e c t  i n the e x h i b i t  levels  e i t h e r In tandem with o t h e r members of h i s o r her This  whether  study  will  attempt  c e r t a i n groups  or w i t h i n a sequence.  1.30 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  -3-  to  address  of a c t i v i t i e s  these  regularly  In c o n d u c t i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h have t o be d e s c r i b e d  and d e f i n e d .  terms and a s e t of s p e c i f i c participant  1.31  there w i l l  be v a r i o u s  These terms w i l l  terms which  relate  terms which  will  be a s e t of general  t o the d e s c r i p t i o n of  behaviour.  General D e f i n i t i o n of Terms:  a. ) Museum: a g e n e r i c are p l a c e s b. ) G a l l e r y :  term  f o r those  of v o l u n t a r y  a group  institutions  such as museums  that  l e a r n i n g such as a museum, zoo o r aquarium.  of museum  exhibits  v i s i t i n g p u b l i c with a s p e c i f i c  Intended  t o be viewed  by the  theme.  c. ) E x h i b i t s e c t i o n : one of three types of e x h i b i t s In the Graham Amazon Gallery.  These  sections  c a s e s . In the c l o s e d glass. exhibit not  display  i s open, by  semi-open  and open  c a s e s the specimens a r e "caged"  In the semi-open e x h i b i t  surrounded  visitor  are closed,  the v i s i t o r  sections i s afforded  the e x h i b i t .  the a e r i a l  portion  an open a i r view  In the open  exhibit  display behind of the ,  sections  but, the  i s surrounded by the e x h i b i t .  d. ) V i s i t i n g p u b l i c : those members of the Aquarium audience that come t o view the aquarium e x h i b i t s . e. ) Family Amazon  group:  at l e a s t  accompanied  by an a d u l t  i n the  Gallery.  f . ) Alpha c h i l d :  the c h i l d t o be observed.  g. ) Behaviour: an a c t i v i t y the  one c h i l d  study  observed  f o r an a l p h a  i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n  -4-  1.32.  child  and d e f i n e d  by  h.) O b s e r v a t i o n : a r e c o r d of a l p h a c h i l d behaviour  taken at a  specified  interval. 1.) Time  series  observation: point  c h i l d . These o b s e r v a t i o n s w i l l will visit J.)  be  r e c o r d e d at each  In be  time taken  interval  o b s e r v a t i o n s of i n 60 second  f o r the  the  alpha  Intervals  alpha c h i l d ' s  and  compplete  to  S i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r : one behaviour r e c o r d e d at one o b s e r v a t i o n ,  k.) M u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r : more than one s i n g u l a r behaviour r e c o r d e d at  one  observation. 1.) Behaviour sequence: a m u l t i p l e behaviour that  I n c l u d e s t h r e e or more  b e h a v i o u r s r e c o r d e d at one o b s e r v a t i o n . m.)  Complexity  of  behaviour  interaction  within  s e c t i o n s of  that  calculated  the  index: Graham  gallery.  by making a sum  a  Amazon  Complexity of  calculation  of  singular  Gallery  of and  behaviour behaviour  alpha the  child exhibit  indexes w i l l f o r the  be  Gallery  and e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s and d i v i d i n g that by the components of m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r the G a l l e r y and the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  sum  of s i n g u l a r  behaviours  b e h a v i o u r components of m u l t i p l e  n.)  Interactive that  b e h a v i o u r : an  activity  behaviours  observed  f o r an  attending adult  i n c l u d e s the a l p h a c h i l d .  For the purposes alpha c h i l d w i l l  of t h i s study c e r t a i n b e h a v i o u r s e x h i b i t e d by  the  be coded on an o b s e r v a t i o n instrument. These b e h a v i o u r s  -5-  are  seen  as b e i n g  behaviours  will  discreet  acts  that  can be o b j e c t i v e l y  be coded from 0 t o 9. A d e f i n i t i o n  f o l l o w s ; d e s c r i b e d as a c t i v i t i e s  d e f i n e d . The  of these  behaviours  undertaken by the a l p h a c h i l d  accompanying a d u l t or a d u l t s of that  and the  child.  1.32 D e f i n i t i o n of S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms  0) n o n - d e f i n e d :  any behaviour  shown by  the a l p h a  child  which  i s not  d e f i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g s e t of o b s e r v a t i o n c r i t e r i a . 0) non-defined  adult behaviour:  Is any behaviour  shown by the a d u l t or  a d u l t s i n a f a m i l y group and not d i r e c t e d toward the a l p h a  1) l o o k s : the a l p h a c h i l d  looks a t a d i s p l a y .  1) l o o k s : the a d u l t and a l p h a c h i l d  look a t the same d i s p l a y  2) p o i n t s : the a l p h a c h i l d p o i n t s a t a s p e c i f i c 2) p o i n t s : the a d u l t  child,  points  out a s p e c i f i c  aspect of the d i s p l a y .  subject  or o b j e c t  i n the  display.  3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a l p h a  child  makes a v e r b a l  exclamation  which i s  not p a r t of a c o n v e r s a t i o n <le. ooh!, look!, wow! ) . 3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a d u l t makes an exclamation  while  with  the a l p h a  child.  4) t a l k s : the a l p h a c h i l d engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n about a d i s p l a y . 4) t a l k s : the a d u l t engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a l p h a  child.  5)  l i s t e n : the a l p h a c h i l d s t o p s t o n o t i c e some sound i n the G a l l e r y  5)  l i s t e n : the a d u l t l i s t e n s  t o the a l p h a  -6-  child.  6) touches: t h e a l p h a c h i l d touches an o b j e c t o r aspect o f t h e e x h i b i t . 6) touches:  the a d u l t  touches  an o b j e c t o r aspect  of the e x h i b i t or  g u i d e s t h e a l p h a c h i l d ' s hand t o an aspect of t h e e x h i b i t . 7) q u e s t i o n s : t h e a l p h a c h i l d a s k s a q u e s t i o n about t h e d i s p l a y . 7) q u e s t i o n s : t h e a d u l t asks t h e a l p h a c h i l d a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n about t h e display. 8) r e a d s : t h e a l p h a c h i l d r e a d s t h e e x h i b i t g r a p h i c s . 8) r e a d s : t h e a d u l t r e a d s e x h i b i t copy out l o u d t o t h e a l p h a 9)  i n v o l v e s another:  child.  t h e a l p h a c h i l d draws another member of t h e f a m i l y  group t o an o b j e c t o r aspect o f t h e e x h i b i t . 9)  i n v o l v e s another:  the adult  i n v o l v e s the alpha c h i l d r e n  and o t h e r s  w i t h an o b j e c t o r aspect of t h e e x h i b i t .  1.40  R a t i o n a l e o f t h e Hypotheses The  exhibit  exhibit  s e c t i o n s o f t h e Graham Amazon G a l l e r y r e p r e s e n t  three  a r e a s . The e x h i b i t s which make up t h e a r e a s can be d e s c i b e d a s  an open a v i a r y / c o n s e r v a t o r y , a semi-open a v i a r y / c o n s e r v a t o r y and g l a s s d i s p l a y cases. position surrounded Amazon  changes.  In  t h e open  by t h e e x h i b i t  forest  the a e r i a l  In each o f these e x h i b i t  environment.  while  s e c t i o n s the v i s i t o r ' s  aviary/conservatory walking  through  veiwlng  the v i s i t o r  Is  a r e - c r e a t i o n of an  In t h e semi-open a v i a r y / c o n s e r v a t o r y  areas  p o r t i o n o f t h e e x h i b i t i s open, where t h e v i s i t o r i s a f f o r d e d  an open a i r view  , b u t , not surrounded  by t h e e x h i b i t .  Some specimens  w i t h i n these e x h i b i t s such a s b i r d s a r e f r e e t o move between -7-  exhibits,  but, the v i s i t o r the  closed  behind  i s not. In the g l a s s c a s e s the specimens a r e caged. In  glass  glass.  display  Visitors  case  areas  can look,  the l i v i n g  specimens a r e  but not touch.  The v i s i t o r s a r e  s p e c t a t o r s i n these s e c t i o n s . W i t h i n each of these e x h i b i t amount of formal As  cited  i n the l i t e r a t u r e has been  1980);  and Longino  (1976)  s e c t i o n s the  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d as copy and g r a p h i c s v a r i e s .  environments Koran  "caged"  identified  observed  visitor  behaviours  t o vary  (Mehrabian,  (1982) and Koran  two groups  o f museum  In d i f f e r e n t 1976);  and Longino visitors;  (Gottfried,  (1983).  a group  museum  Mehrabian  of  visitors  known as " s c r e e n e r s , " who c o n c e n t r a t e d on h i g h s t i m u l u s e x h i b i t s second on  s e t of v i s i t o r s  subtle  identified  or c o n t e m p l a t i v e  as "non-screeners,"  exhibits.  Gottfried  and a  who c o n c e n t r a t e d  (1980)  identified  two  l e a r n i n g groups w i t h i n s t u d e n t s v i s i t i n g the Nature Room a t the Lawrence Hall  of S c i e n c e  "adventurous" described They  and  as those  explored  "Hesitant waiting  at Berkley. G o t t f r i e d "hesitant" students  (1980) d e c r l b e d these  learners. which  and m a n i p u l a t e d  "Adventurous"  actively  interacted  groups  learners with  the o b j e c t s and specimens  as  were  exhibits.  on  display.  l e a r n e r s " were d e s c r i b e d as s t a n d i n g back from an e x h i b i t and to  attempt  direct  participation.  These  "hesitant  learners"  f o c u s s e d on one p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the e x h i b i t . In  a  comparison  of Mehrabian  (1976)  d e f i n i t i o n s of " s c r e e n e r s " and "adventurous are  the terms "non-screeners"  describing  and " h e s i t a n t  these museum v i s i t o r s  each of the i d e n t i f i e d  and G o t t f r i e d learners"  (1980) the  a r e synonomous as  learners".  The d i s c u s s i o n s  Indicate various s i m i l a r i t i e s  groups.  -8-  between  In  Koran  throughout visitor  behaviour  exhibit  behaviour  the  (Koran  behaviour was  areas. Their  in exhibit  catalogued  behaviour may was  Long!no (1983) v i s i t o r  different  description visitor  and  and  areas  work d e s c r i b e d  throughout  an  of  diverse  Longino  1982).  How  to age  or sex was  i s t o address these new  Hypotheses and Q u e s t i o n s t o be Answered  1.51  Hypotheses  b e h a v i o u r s of elementary  with adults w i l l  This on  variations  of  environments  of behaviour w i t h i n  not addressed. The  the  intent  problems.  1.50  a. ) The  of  types  change w i t h s p e c i f i c types of museum e x h i b i t  group w i t h r e s p e c t  of t h i s study  museum.  exhibit these  t o vary  variations  entire  influences  not examined. Whether t h e r e were v a r i a t i o n s  same age  observed  aged c h i l d r e n  not vary i n the e x h i b i t  and  sections  their  interaction  of Graham Amazon  Gallery.  b. ) The  behaviours  Interaction  of  withadults will  the Graham Amazon  c. ) The  elementary  behaviours  the Graham Amazon  vary  male  children  i n the e x h i b i t  and  their  sections  of  Gallery.  of  interaction with  not  aged  elementary  adults  will  not  Gallery.  -9-  aged vary  female  children  In the e x h i b i t  and  their  sections  of  d. ) The b e h a v i o u r s their  of elementary  interaction  with  aged male  adults  will  and female  not  vary  children  in  the  and  exhibit  s e c t i o n s of the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  e. ) The b e h a v i o u r s with  of elementary  adults within  aged c h i l d r e n  and t h e i r  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  will  Interaction  not vary  with  d i f f e r i n g "information loads".  1.52 Q u e s t i o n s  W i t h i n each  of these hypotheses  t h e r e i s a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s t o  be examined i n t h i s s t u d y . These q u e s t i o n s Include those which deal w i t h the e n t i r e  s e t of o b s e r v a t i o n s and those which  deal w i t h  the p o s s i b l e  d i f f e r e n c e s between male and female p a r t i c i p a n t s In the study.  a.01)  What  behaviour  sequences  are  identifiable  f o r each  exhibit  section? a.02)  What i s the frequency  of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s  f o r each  exhibit  of m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s  f o r each  exhibit  section? a.03)  What i s the frequency section?  a.04)  What  is  the  ratio  of  singular  behaviours  to  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s seen f o r each of the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s ? a.05)  What  i s the complexity  of behaviour  index  f o r the  entire  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ? a.06)  What  i s the c o m p l e x i t y  of behaviour  section?  -10-  index  f o r each  exhibit  a. 07) What  i s the  ratio  of  singular  behaviours  to  interactive  behaviours?  b. 01) What  male  exhibit b.02) What  are  identifiable  for  each  of male  singular  behaviours  f o r each  behaviours  f o r each  section?  i s the frequency  exhibit  sequences  section?  i s the frequency  exhibit b.03) What  behaviour  of m u l t i p l e  male  section?  b.04) What i s the r a t i o of s i n g u l a r male b e h a v i o u r s t o m u l t i p l e male b e h a v i o u r s f o r each e x h i b i t b.05) What Is the male complexity  section? of behaviour  index  f o r the e n t i r e  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ? b.06) What  i s the male  exhibit b. 07) What  complexity  of  behaviour  index  for  each  section? is  the  ratio  singular  behaviours  to  interactive  behaviours?  c. 01) What  female  exhibit c.02) What  c.04) What  are  Identifiable  f o r each  of female  s i n g u l a r behaviours  f o r each  section?  i s the frequency  exhibit  sequences  section?  i s the frequency  exhibit c.03) What  behaviour  of m u l t i p l e  female  behaviours  f o r each  section?  i s the r a t i o of s i n g u l a r  female  female b e h a v i o u r s f o r each e x h i b i t  -11-  behaviours  section?  to multiple  c.05) What  i s the  female  complexity  of  behaviour  index  f o r the  e n t i r e Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ? c.06) What  i s the female  exhibit c. 07) What  complexity  of behaviour  Index  f o r each  section? Is  the  ratio  singular  behaviours  to  interactive  behaviours?  d. 01) What  i s the comparison  b e h a v i o u r sequences d.02)  What  Is  of male behaviour  In the e x h i b i t  the r a t i o  of  male  sequences  t o female  sections?  singular  behaviours  to  female  behaviours  to  female  behaviours  to  female  to  female  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s i n the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ? d 03) What  Is  the r a t i o  of  male  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s In e x h i b i t d.04)  What  i s the r a t i o  of  male  singular section? multiple  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s In the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ? d.05)  What  i s the r a t i o  of  male  multiple  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s f o r each e x h i b i t d.06)  What index  i s the comparison t o female  of the male  complexity  behaviours  section? complexity  of behaviour  of  behaviour  Index of the Graham  Amazon G a l l e r y ? d.07)  What index  i s the comparison t o the female  exhibit d.08)  What  of the male  complexity  complexity  of behaviour  of  behaviour  index  f o r each  section.  Is the r a t i o  of i n t e r a c t i v e male  behaviours  to  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s f o r the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ?  -12-  female  d.09)  What  Is  the  ratio  of  Interactive  male  behaviours  to  i n t e r a c t i v e female b e h a v i o u r s f o r each e x h i b i t s e c t i o n ?  1.60  Assumptions  In  d e s i g n i n g t h i s study a  made. The  assumptions  l i m i t e d number of assumptions  have been  that have been made are g e n e r a l , a n d r e l a t e  t o the  r e s e a r c h methods more than t o the s p e c i f i c content of the the study.  It  i s assumed t h a t :  1.61  The  behaviours  descibed  In  section  group  children  1.32  of  this  chapter  are  observable.  1.62  The  participant  of  behaviour d e s c r i p t i o n s l i s t e d  1.63  The  in section  are  observable  way  i n which  the p u b l i c  the  nine  not a f f e c t  with  1.32.  n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n t o be c a r r i e d out w i l l  the normal  using  i n t e r a c t s with  the e x h i b i t s  i n the  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  1.64  The  time  series  observations w i l l  visitors  i n the elementary  1.65  behaviours  The  have s p e c i f i c  relevance to  how  age group use the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  d e f i n e d are  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  b e h a v i o u r s that  are o b s e r v a b l e  o b s e r v a t i o n and  literature research.  Interactive  i n museum environments,  -13-  based  learning  upon  pilot  1.70 D e l i m i t a t i o n  This  o f the Study  study  i s t o be conducted  f a m i l y groups v i s i t i n g Aquarium. observed  on a random sample of c h i l d r e n i n  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y a t the Vancouver  Thirty-two i n the s t u d y .  children  i n the elementary  There w i l l  age c l a s s  Public  will  be  be 16 males observed and 16 females.  1.80 J u s t i f i c a t i o n o f the Study  This  study  represents  fundamental  research  behaviours within  museum e x h i b i t  environments  will  to  museum  be  effective  useful  design  use by v i s i t o r s .  of  museum e d u c a t o r s making d e c i s i o n s the Graham Amazon  and the r e s e a r c h  exhibits,  The r e s e a r c h  i n an a n a l y s i s  will  to  also  Gallery.  -14-  findings  facilitate  more  be a p p l i c a b l e  how best t o use the e x h i b i t  of  to  a r e a s of  Title:  A Study  of C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour  in Family  Groups  i n the  Graham  Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  CHAPTER 2.00:  As  THE  outlined  f a m i l y groups Public  SURVEY OF  i n Chapter  i n t e r a c t with  Aquarium.  naturalistic. firstly  LITERATURE  The  The  1 t h i s study w i l l the  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  methodology  reason  why  the methodology was  examine how  chosen  this  to  study  methodolgy  applicable  at  the  these  was  children  Vancouver  children  chosen  is  to voluntary l e a r n i n g  in  was  twofold;  situations  such as museums and s e c o n d l y the n o n - i n t r u s i v e aspect of the methodology has  a l l o w e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o study  o t h e r environments. were  drawn  factual stimuli  about  From these past visitor  information  museum  curiosity  of  l e a r n e r s in  investigations research conclusions  behaviour  from  and  in  general,  environments  the  and  acquisition  the  of  environmental  that e f f e c t museum v i s i t o r s .  This  survey  of  the  literature  methodology  and  discuss  c u r r e n t concepts  the  acquisition present  arousal  i t s format  e v a l u a t i o n and  i n the of  will  d i s c u s s the  present  visitor  behavioural  study.  - 15 -  study.  The  rational review  i n t e r a c t i o n s based  observation with  for  will on  the also  factual  respect to  the  2.10  Outline of L i t e r a t u r e  i n S e q u e n c i a l Order  2.20  N a t u r a l i s t i c Research  In Museums  Kilbourn (1980); Wolfe and Tymitz (1978a); Wolfe and Tymitz (1978b); Wolfe and Tymitz (1979); Wolf and Tymitz (1981); McCarthy (1980); P e t e r s o n and Lowery (1972); Anderson and Walberg (1974); Jonathan (1981)  2.21  Factual A c q u i s i t i o n  i n Museum  Environments  F a l k , M a r t i n and B a l l i n g (1978); B a l l i n g and F a l k (1980); Kaplan (1978); Screven (1975); Screven (1976); F a l k (1983); S e r r e l 1 ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; Brown (1978); F a l k (1983); L i n n (1976)  2.22  Museum Environments,  Stimuli  and V i s i t o r b e h a v i o u r  Kaplan (1978); Lynch (1978); Mehrabian (1974); Mehrabian (1976); G o t t f r i e d (1980); Cone (1978); Koran and Longino (1982); Brown (1978); Koran and Longino (1983); Hansel (1982)  2.20  N a t u r a l i s t i c Research  Surveys,  i n Museums  demographic  museum p r o f e s s i o n a l s g e n e r a l answer more s p e c i f i c  studies  and o b s e r v a t i o n s of v i s i t o r s  i n f o r m a t i o n about  q u e s t i o n s such  the v i s i t i n g  required  a r e s e a r c h methodology  "does"  museums  become  an a c c e p t e d  gathering  or z o o s .  observational  without d i r e c t l y  Naturalistic  methodology  and  a s complex  studies  for this  t o i n t e r a c t w i t h an a s how the p u b l i c  i n museum  analysis.  This  settings  a f f e c t i n g the v i s i t o r ' s  have  approach f o r  data a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o r e c o r d  ( K i l b o u r n , 1980). Wolf and Tymitz  p u b l i c . To  a s ; why some a s p e c t s of an e x h i b i t  work and o t h e r s do not, and what m o t i v a t e s v i s i t o r s exhibit,  gave  behaviour  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h an environment  (1978a) d i s c u s s the s t e p s i n p l a n n i n g  implementing a n a t u r a l i s t i c study w i t h i n a museum. These r e s e a r c h e r s  - 16 -  used  Interviews,  as w e l l  as,  o b s e r v a t i o n a l data  to conduct  s t u d i e s of v i s i t o r p e r c e p t i o n s at the Smithsonian Tymitz,  1978b); (Wolfe  Anderson and classroom based use  Walberg (1974) developed  naturalistic  observation  i n t e r v i e w s . T h i s meant  upon what was an  1979); (Wolfe  observed  the  of  the  observer  environment focus  (Wolfe  and  Institution and Tymitz,  composite  these  1981).  I n v e n t o r i e s of  the  to  observed  observations,  observations  In s i t u r a t h e r than what was  would have  be  environments without  a n a l y s i s of  i n t e r v i e w . These r e s e a r c h e r s concluded  study  of  environment u s i n g n a t u r a l i s t i c methods. T h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s were  upon  of  and Tymitz,  a series  since  a  defined  possible  to  set  would  observations  the  be  collected  mosaic  of  and  the  then  could  the to  everything.  At  of  After  be  of  criteria  aspect  analysed.  classroom  of  record  s p e c i f i c times s p e c i f i c o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to one learning  effective  thorough u n d e r s t a n d i n g  clearly  i t was  based  i n t e r p r e t e d through  that to implement an  to have a  and  was  the  classroom successive  defined.  McCarthy  (1980) used t h i s approach i n the development of i n v e n t o r i e s f o r the "4 MAT"  concept  this  methodolgy  changes  of  (1972)  used  behaviours  of  the to  classroom specific  curiosity  or  observations  as o b s e r v a b l e  environments. A c u r i o s i t y levels  of. curiosity  approached an  or  environment. components  fascination of  child  index  other  object; a c h i l d  objects.  This  behaviour.  These  motivation  research  and  Lowery used  in free choice learning  were  was  developed.  identified: an  correlated definable  Three  a  child  object;  r e - o r g a n i z e d an o b j e c t w i t h  - 17 -  the  researchers  approached and manipulated and  applied  describe  l e a r n i n g Peterson  based on behaviour  intrinsic  researchers  l e a r n i n g . To  I n d i c a t o r s of c u r i o s i t y  a c h i l d apoproached, manipulated to  in  of  Other  and  respect  behaviours  with  a s p e c t s o f s e l f m o t i v a t i o n . Both P e t e r s o n (1980)  applied  complex  observations  of c h i l d  learning situtations.  and Lowery (1972) and McCarthy  l e a r n i n g behaviour  So, e f f e c t i v e  an o b s e r v a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e t o be e f f e c t i v e Though n a t u r a l i s t i c study is  useful,  the methodology  observations.  These  o c c u r r i n g at s p e c i f i c of behaviour from  studies  spectrum  of one  exists  about  recorded  because  behavioural  2.21  and  of  specific  data  behaviours  are s p o t l i g h t s  can not be  applied  limitation  the r e s e a r c h  across  a  broad  t o the p o i n t  methodology  data  depends on f r o z e n  and the environment where the o b s e r v a t i o n s  1981).  Any c o n c l u s i o n s  fascination  Interactions  mi leu that they a r e observed  drawn are  from  such  specific  data  t o the  i n ( K i l b o u r n , 1980).  F a c t u a l A c q u i s i t i o n and Museum Environments  The  present  study  i s concerned w i t h  museum environments. F a c t u a l of  i t s r e l i a n c e on p o i n t  t h e r e f o r e , they  practices. This  (Jonathan,  curiosity  Is changing  i n a continuum o f l e a r n e r a c t i v i t y . The r e s u l t s  i n s t a n t s of l e a r n e r behaviour were  by  of time,  needs  (Anderson and Walberg, 1974).  are r e c o r d s  environment  of e d u c a t i o n a l  observations  data  Instances  which e x i s t  research  In s i t u a t i o n s where behaviour  i s limited  point  naturalistic  to describe  evaluating  visitor  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours  within  i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from e x h i b i t s i s one way  interaction  with  exhibits  and  is a  specific  a p p l i c a t i o n of n a t u r a l i s t i c o b s e r v a t i o n . These s t u d i e s were conducted t o ascertain visitors  what  specific  interacting  the experimental  with  factual  information  museum  examination  exhibits.  of f a c t u a l  -  18 -  was  acquired  The r e s e a r c h  acquisition  by  museum  pertaining to  has shed some  light  on  how v i s i t o r s  interact  with  museum  environments,  for this  d i s c u s s of these r e s u l t s i s p e r t i n e n t t o the present The  field  trip setting  study.  learning situation.  Factual  found t o be poor f o r s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d In an open f i e l d  (Falk,  Martin  and B a l l i n g ,  1978).  Balling  that poor knowledge r e t e n t i o n i n novel because  the f i e l d  trip  in a  object  new  clarity"  i n our environment  and F a l k  trip  (1980)  had d i f f i c u l t y  environment. (Kaplan,  People  in that space ( B a l l i n g and F a l k , 1980). t a c t i c used t o c r e a t e a sense of p l a c e  (1975);  acquisition focussing  visitor  In a new l e a r n i n g  T h i s i s d e s c r i b e d as a s u r v i v a l i n a novel  environment, w i t h i n a  another a c t i v i t y  directional  was s t i m u l a t e d ,  increased  and v i s i t o r s  an e x h i b i t . Through  exploration  index  of e x h i b i t  holding  these power  the g r a p h i c s  research  of g r a p h i c  indicated  material,  to focus  i n search  their  of e x h i b i t  i n what  they  studies  Screven  (1976)  upon  how  long  of an e x h i b i t . The index  19 -  factual  a method of  museum  a gain  based  -  Information  1975). When museum v i s i t o r s  devices  perceived  about  to read  of t h i s  a t t e n t i o n (Screven,  curiosity  visitor  (Balling  d e v i c e s were undertaken by Screven  on the c l a r i t y  guide books and o t h e r  a  1978).  The c o n c l u s i o n s  depended  on  r e a c t t o o r i e n t a t e themselves  becoming i n v o l v e d w i t h  formats and d i r e c t i o n a l  (1976).  concluded  for "cognitive  More d e t a i l e d museum s t u d i e s of how v i s i t o r s a c q u i r e d from g r a p h i c  setting  focussing  search  1978). L e a r n e r s  s i t u a t i o n become over s t i m u l a t e d and f i r s t  and F a l k , 1980); (Kaplan,  knowledge  or open environments was observed  participants  specific  v i s i t o r ' s mind, b e f o r e  a  i s analogous t o the museum environment s i n c e  i t r e p r e s e n t s another f r e e c h o i c e was  reason  had  used  visit,  information discovered  developed  i t would  take  an a  was a r a t i o of  required  viewing  Successful  time  exhibits  and  observed  had r a t i o s  viewing  greater  than  time  at  an  exhibit.  1, u n s u c c e s s f u l  exhibits  were those e x h i b i t s w i t h h o l d i n g power r a t i o s l e s s than 1.  Observed Viewing Time H o l d i n g Power R a t i o  = R e q u i r e d Viewing Time  F a l k (1983) demonstrated  that when p r e - v i s l t  knowledge o f an e x h i b i t was  h i g h , v i s i t o r s t o a museum r e t a i n e d more i n f o r m a t i o n about This  discovery  was not p a r t i c u l a r l y  provide  experimental  notion  that  was  suggested  conducted by S e r r e l l of v i s i t o r concluded  evidence  amazing, however,  of f a c t u a l by  earlier  gains  that  this  f o r these  demographic  exhibit.  study d i d  visitors,  survey  a  research  (1977) and Brown (1978). U s i n g a v i d e o tape  record  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h an e x h i b i t a t the London Museum, F a l k  (1983)  that  i n 83% of the c a s e s , where  visitor  v i e w i n g time  for a  s p e c i f i c e x h i b i t was above the average, v i s i t o r s had a h i g h e r s c o r e i n a factual  retention  tests  about  exhibit  content. T h i s research  indicated  that by i n c r e a s i n g a v i s i t o r ' s time of involvement w i t h an e x h i b i t were f a c t u a l Linn interaction  knowledge g a i n s . (1976) used  an a n a l y s i s  t o suggest  those  effectiveness. visitor  of f a c t u a l  retention  a s p e c t s of an e x h i b i t  The o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n d i c a t e d that  viewing  E x h i b i t s that  times  averaged  40  seconds  permitted greater control  minutes.  naturalistic  Linn's research  (1976) of  this  would  - 20 -  that  led to  f o r each  interest  suggested help  its  exhibits  Interaction.  by the museum v i s i t o r ,  conclusions type  and time of  for static  p a r t i c i p a t o r y e x h i b i t s , were found t o m a i n t a i n v i s i t o r 16  there  that  such as f o r 5 to further  i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  apparent r e l a t i o n s h i p  between v i s i t o r  g a i n s made d u r i n g that These exhibit  interaction tightly work  with  however,  motivated  choice there  area  Is  provide  of  failure  an  research  at an exhibit  created  behaviour, a  a  museum  required  a r e a s such viewing  and i n such  they  were  time.  Much how  what  in? Studies  about  visitor  insight  into  This  f o r understanding  what  environment.  Screven's  to p a r t i c i p a t o r y  of  could  visitors of  factual  the c o n t r i b u t i n g  a  or free  the  Amazon  Gallery  the a n a l y s i s  of  perceived  Is  visitor  about  acquisition  factors  where  the  could  f o r an  not  exhibit's  failure.  museum  exhibits?  environments on v i s i t o r understand  effected  acquisition.  and V i s i t o r  behaviour  museum environments, f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e of  pre-visit  as the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ,  an e x h i b i t  describe  exhibit,  some  factual  framework  within  2.22 Museum Environments, S t i m u l i  Are  time  over  visitor provide  exhibit  information  s u c c e s s or  This  behaviours  acquisition  environment  that  f o r example c o u l d not be a p p l i e d  no  experiential  out  control  d i d not  learning  factual  and  visitor  (1976) r a t i o  pointed  exhibits.  defined  knowledge  interaction.  studies  knowledge  involvement and s p e c i f i c  these  What  are  behaviours, t h e i r  questions  It  is first  the  t o the s u c c e s s or  influences  of  museum  i n t e r a c t i o n with e x h i b i t s ? important  to understand  To how  people behave i n open environments  l i k e the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  This  i s an environment where the v i s i t o r  chooses what t o do, l i k e e a t i n g  at a  smorgosbord, not an environment where they  - 21 -  are instructed,  like  eating  out  with  your  environments stimuli  mother  people  (Kaplan,  and  use  father.  behaviours  1978);  (Lynch,  In  open  that  or  sort  1978).  complex  and  Lynch  organize  (1978)  This  of new  knowledge  individual  has  is  environments and built  and  upon  a  continually  facilitate  set  of  to  the  new  semantic  perceived upon  differential  Mehrabian  environments.  i t s novelty,  "information  messages  The  load"  (1974) had  intrinsic  complexity, f o r that  "information  arousal  ambiguity  and  having  high  levels  of to  "information arousal.  elicite  of  an  since,  with  they  differing  visitor  "information  behaviours  in  museums  on  types  adult  described  being  "screeners",  of  environments stimuli;  s p e c i f i c aspect exhibit  "screeners"  at  the  perfer  learners.  those people  s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of an e x h i b i t and  an  they  environment  stimulated  load"  of  how  based  complex were d e s i g n a t e d  "information  aspects  evaluate  using  the  (1976) d i s c u s s e d  f o c u s on one  described  environment. Environments i d e n t i f i e d by  Mehrabian  not  1978).  incongruity  1976); ( G o t t f r i e d , 1980).  as  are  the  Exhibits  two  that  determined  load",  different  an  each  l o a d i n g " . By  people  t e s t s u b j e c t s as b e i n g h i g h l y s t i m u l a t i n g and  shown  that  c r i t e r i a used by people to I d e n t i f y environments were  by Mehrabian (1974) as the components of a  to f o c u s  analogies  r e c e i v e d from the environment (Kaplan, 1978); (Lynch, The  that  knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n .  personal  compares  in-coming  observed  sensory cues i n the environment work as advanced o r g a n i z e r s investigation  learning  that  the These  focussed  the  highest  loads"  were  (Mehrabian, Influence types  same hard  time. bold  focussed  In stimuli,  on  response ignoring  of  were  directly  "non-screeners", those people who  of an e x h i b i t , but  as  on did  multiple to  open subtle  "non-screeners" p e r f e r s u b t l e s t i m u l i , a v o i d i n g b l a t a n t s t i m u l i  - 22  -  (Mehrabian,  1976).  "adventurous"  Gottfried  (1980) d e s c r i b e d  and " h e s i t a n t " .  "Adventurous"  these  learning  t y p e s as  quickly  focussed  "hesitant"  learners  learners  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and became i n v o l v e d w i t h an e x h i b i t , watched and a c t i v e l y became i n v o l v e d w i t h an e x h i b i t  a f t e r watching how  o t h e r s used the e x h i b i t . Cone (1978) observed changes i n v i s i t o r b e h a v i o u r s w i t h i n museum environments exhibit based  areas. upon  but d i d not compare s p e c i f i c  Koran  and Longino  observed  visitor  behaviours to s p e c i f i c  (1982) developed  behaviour  and  different  a curiosity  the s t y l e  of  index  Individual  e x h i b i t s but, d i d not make c o n c l u s i o n s which matched s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s with s p e c i f i c Museum followed  e x h i b i t s . A study of the Anthropology H a l l  of Minnesota  found  the g e n e r a l  trend  that  the average  of 30 seconds  a t the S c i e n c e  visitation  per e x h i b i t  at  exhibits  as d e s c r i b e d by  Brown (1978), b u t , e x h i b i t s that were unique or about p e o p l e , such as an E y g p t i a n mummy, had g r e a t e r i n t r i n s i c 1978). Koran  and Longino  museum was f o c u s s e d  than o t h e r e x h i b i t s  (1982) found that e x p l o r a t o r y behaviour  i f the v i s i t o r  o b s e r v i n g an e x h i b i t .  appeal  Visitor  could  identify  a specific  behaviour was m o d e l l e d  (Cone, i n the goal In  on the b e h a v i o u r s  of o t h e r museum v i s i t o r s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was a l s o made i n G o t t f r i e d ' s (1980) study at the Lawrence H a l l w i t h i n f a m i l y group visitor  behaviour  groups,  mothers  Among v i s i t o r s "hesitant"  situtations. varied  were  within  found  of S c i e n c e . D i f f e r e n c e s a l s o o c c u r r e d I t was found that w i t h i n exhibit  t o take  on a  i n a museum males a r e o f t e n  (Gottfried,  1980);  (Koran  areas.  family  groups  In two parent  family  teaching role "adventurous"  and Longino,  males or females, however, comfort w i t h the e x h i b i t  - 23 -  (Cone,  1978).  and females a r e  1982).  For e i t h e r  and the environment  Increases studies  t h e occurance  of behaviour  exhibits  which  of v i s i t o r  linked  high  had components  i n c o n g r u i t y (Koran and Longino, Using  visitor  curiosity. levels  In c o n c l u s i o n ,  of v i s i t o r  curiosity  of n o v e l t y , c o m p l e x i t y ,  (Hansel,  designated  three  behaviour.  Each  activity  types level  or  and  survey  developed.  forms  of e x h i b i t  responses,  of  Koran  and  exhibits  corresponded  on t h e p a r t of t h e museum v i s i t o r .  based on i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y ,  methods  with  Longino  methodologies active  (1983) used  instruction  applied  these  visitor  greater  physical  exhibits. to  Koran  teaching  by t e a c h e r s i n c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s framework  f o r more  to stimulate child  conclusions  static  the  l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o u r was seen  as a  learning.  The P r e s e n t Study w i t h Respect t o t h e L i t e r a t u r e The s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n  used  involvement  a c t i v i t y with  means f o r i m p r o v i n g t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s , t h e r e b y , e n c h a n c i n g  2.30  (1983)  upon  An index o f  compared low v i s i t o r  of  1983) and  Longino  based  e x h i b i t s and h i g h a c t i v i t y w i t h open, complex diarama and  and  1982).  behaviour  1982) were  with  ambiguity  c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g e x h i b i t s w i t h i n a museum (Koran and L o n g i n o , aquarium  these  a naturalistic  i n f a m i l y groups a t t h e Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  r e s e a r c h methodology.  The v i s i t o r s  i n t h e study  group were o b s e r v e d u s i n g n i n e d e f i n a b l e b e h a v i o u r s o f e x h i b i t  curiosity  as a f o c u s f o r t h e o b s e r v e d d a t a . These b e h a v i o u r s were r e c o r d e d a s they o c c u r r e d i n t h r e e s e c t i o n s o f t h e Amazon G a l l e r y . Each e x h i b i t was  e v a l u a t e d by a d u l t s u s i n g  Mehrabian  t h e semantic  differential  section  designed  by  (1974) t o d e s c r i b e " i n f o r m a t i o n l o a d . " U s i n g t h i s appraoch t h e  - 24 -  study d e s c r i b e d the c o m p l e x i t y respect  to e x h i b i t  of c h i l d behaviour  and  i t s changes w i t h  t y p e s , f a m i l y make-up and the sex of the c h i l d r e n .  - 25 -  Title:  A Study  of C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour  i n F a m i l y Groups i n t h e Graham  Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  CHAPTER 3.00:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  As d i s c u s s e d i n p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h w i l l naturalistic  methodology. The r a t i o n a l e  f o r t h e study  use a  and use of t h i s  methodology was d i s c u s s e d i n CHAPTER 1.00: THE PROBLEM; t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of  this  methodology  and i t s use i n r e s e a r c h  s i t u a t i o n s / i n museums  was d i s c u s s e d  pertaining  i n CHAPTER  2.00: THE SURVEY OF  LITERATURE/-This c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e implementation methodology t o : "A Study  of C h i l d r e n ' s behaviours  to learning  of a  naturalistic  i n F a m i l y Groups i n  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium."  3.10 M e a s u r i n g The  Instruments  present  research w i l l  use 2 r e c o r d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o l l e c t  the o b s e r v a t i o n s t o be a n a l y s e d . behaviour behaviours  r e c o r d sheet  based  and a semantic  These two i n s t r u m e n t s a r e an o b s e r v e d  on time  differential  series  o b s e r v a t i o n s of v i s i t o r  scale  t o assess  "information  load" o f e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s a s p e r c e i v e d by v i s i t o r s .  3.11  Observed Behaviour Record Sheet ( F i g u r e 1) The  It  f o l l o w i n g instrument was developed  f o r the present  research.  c o n s i s t s o f a map f o r r e c o r d i n g t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e observed - 26 -  child  and a s e c t i o n  to l i s t  the b e h a v i o u r s of t h a t c h i l d and a t t e n d i n g a d u l t s  w h i l e v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon  Gallery  . The map  i s an enlargement of  the Vancouver Aquarium map of the G a l l e r y and the r e c o r d i n g a r e a of the instrument behaviours,  was  designed  adult  to  behaviours,  record  observed  as w e l l  child  as, i n c i d e n t a l  or  child  o b s e r v a t i o n s of  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the G a l l e r y d u r i n g a v i s i t .  - 27 -  alpha  Date: Children:  Time Interval:.  r/ 12345 £ 12345  A  d  u  l  t  :  11 1 3 4 5 oi2345  Finish:  Start:  Graham Amazon Gallery: V.PA.  c d ac vitv 0 1 2 3 4 >7 8 9  se  Observations: I  adult/chi  d Iri t e r a c t l o n 0 1 2 3 4 5 57 39  non-defined 0  I S : atatic  M : mala  M: mobile  F : female  non • Involvement with alpha  1 ) looks 2) points 3) talks/exclaims 4 ) talks 5 ) listens 6) touches 7) questions 8) reads g) involves another  The  number  family  group  are noted at the top of the r e c o r d i n g form. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l  allow  observational providing  of c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s  Information  demographic  instrument  allows  the p l a c e w i t h i n 60 second time involved  information  naturalistic  be  recorded  child  In s e q u e n t i a l  about  order,  individual  observations  alpha  as w e l l a s , c h i l d r e n . The  t o be made w h i l e  the G a l l e r y where the behaviour o c c u r r e d  interval  that  t o be kept  during  behaviour.  i n CHAPTER 1.00.  defined also  In  In each a l p h a  the v i s i t The  the a l p h a  range  f o r an  assessment  influence  visitor  behaviours  analysis.  These comments w i l l  and  of  about  random  therefore  be made with  and a t which  c h i l d and a d u l t were  of b e h a v i o u r s  Incidental observations  recording  recorded  the G a l l e r y can  occurances  can become reference  were  which  part  may  of the  t o each  Interval  the f o l l o w i n g  semantic  observation.  3.12  Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l  For  Questionnaire  the purposes of the present  differential  questionnaire  upon Mehrabian's  ( F i g u r e 2)  research  was designed.  This  questionnaire  (1974) a n a l y s i s of how people p e r c e i v e d  was  based  environments.  T h i s s c a l e was developed so that environmental p s y c h o l o g i s t s c o u l d use a set  of a d j e c t i v e p a i r s  Originally were from  t o assess  in developing  multi-facetted  identified stimuli  catagorize  the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  t e s t e d by Mehrabian those  how people  (1974). in  First  the  three groups of terms  a s e l e c t i o n of words was made  literature  of environments.  environments.  These  that  described  words were  sorted  the into  three groups, dominance, p l e a s u r e and a r o u s a l , which d e s c r i b e a s p e c t s of environmental  curiosity  (Berlyne,  1960).  Specific  words  from  this  a n a l y s i s were chosen by Mehrabian adjectives  were  environment. assumption  used  The  to  received  from  describe  selection  in information an  (1974) f o r the t h r e e  of  theory  environment  adjective that  rate  c o u l d be used of  an  to describe  environment,  how  from  analysed  was  within  based  upon  or r a t e of homogeneous  to assess  the p e r c e i v e d much  complexity  pairs  the amount  increased  environments. The word p a i r s were they  increasing  groups. P a i r s of  an  the  information to  chaotic  how c o n s i s t e n t l y  complexity  information  an  or  information  environment  was  p e r c e i v e d t o c o n t a i n . Mehrablan's (1974) a n a l y s i s of t h i s data i n d i c a t e d that  only  correlated semantic arousal  the with  terms the  differential  associated  complexity was  of  with  arousal  environments.  established  terms.  - 30 -  as  a  were For  random  statistically  this  reason  listing  of  the these  FIGURE 2:Semantlc D i f f e r e n t i a l Uraham  Questionnaire A m a z o n Gallery: V.PA.  INSTRUCTIONS: Please view subsections , , o f the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y (see attached map). For each s u b s e c t i o n viewed, p l e a s e complete a separate v e r b a l measure of Amazon G a l l e r y s u b s e c t i o n s . Please use the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e p a i r s to d e s c r i b e s u b s e c t i o n o f the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y . Each o f the f o l l o w i n g a d j e c t i v e p a i r s helps d e f i n e your view of that s u b s e c t i o n . P l e a s e put a check mark along the l i n e (example : / : ) to i n d i c a t e what you t h i n k i s an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n .  varied  redundant  simple  complex  novel  familiar  small s c a l e  large scale  similar  contrasting  dense  sparse  intermittent  continuous  usual  surprising  heterogeneous  homogeneous  uncrowded  crowded  asymmetrical  symmetrical  immediate  distant  common  rare  patterned  random  - 31 -  From Mehrabian's (1974) r e s e a r c h a d e f i n i t i o n of " i n f o r m a t i o n was  created.  In  terms  were p e r c e i v e d by as b e i n g as  of high  being  "Information static  load".  people d e s c r i b e d  The  i n d i c a t e how  "information  loads".  determine how Gallery the  at  three  were  to  be  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l Gallery perceive  as  used  the  the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s of  consist  of  perceived  having to  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  analyse  low  that  and  high  used  In CHAPTER  semi-open  to  by  1.00  and  open  11 a d u l t s .  used to determine whether v i s i t o r s  a d i f f e r e n c e between each of  how  so  w i l l be  described closed,  lower  the Graham Amazon  e x h i b i t types w i l l be a s s e s s e d be  were  s c a l e environments between  examined  will  r e g a r d to " i n f o r m a t i o n  seen  was  which  random were seen  words were chosen  the Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium. As  e x h i b i t s . Each of these  3.20  predictable  they  research  environments  complex, dynamic and  environments. The  adults perceive  areas  those  l o a d " . Environments which  and  different  the present  load"  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  people c o u l d  For  "information  p e o p l e as b e i n g  simple,  "information  of  load"  to  The the  the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h  load".  Study Design  The  present  behaviours  of  "information there  will  observed  research  was  children  in  designed family  to examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s between groups  and  exhibits  of  varying  loads" w i t h i n a museum environment. As a n a t u r a l i s t i c not  be  subjects.  an  experimental  After  manipulation  conducting  - 32 -  several  of  the  pilot  study  environment observations  or of  visitors  i n the G a l l e r y  and a  survey  of the  literature  concerning  n a t u r a l i s t i c museum s t u d i e s , a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n was e s t a b l i s h e d . It  was d u r i n g  exhibit  pre-study  observations  s e c t i o n s were d e f i n e d and mapped. The p i l o t  selection  of  conducted  In each  children  places  from  which  exhibit  i n the t e s t  found  that  group  observations  while  almost  standing  were  the  children  visitation these  On  studies  different  During  and b e h a v i o u r s  could  these  i n f o r m a l l y noted.  close proximity  Involved  i n . In  behaviours  because  the  of  children  families  behaviours  studies  Gallery  i s small  and  rapidly.  observations  During  a 15 minute s t a y  the  During  through  the G a l l e r y ,  exhibits  clustered in  condensed theme s e c t i o n s the s p e c i f i c changes i n c h i l d behaviour occur  I t was  t o the study  the p i l o t  d i d vary  d i d not  i n the Amazon G a l l e r y the p i l o t  i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n became i n v o l v e d i n approximately  a c t i v i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t  sites  5  observation  f o r a complete r e c o r d of the range of  became  be  occasions  be made on c h i l d r e n and t h e i r them. T h i s  the 3  l e d t o the  observation  three  observed.  that  time of c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y groups averaged 15 minutes.  visits  however,  could  beside  p o p u l a t i o n would a l l o w  naturalistic  section.  p e r i o d s the c h i l d r e n were timed  that  of the G a l l e r y  throughout  the G a l l e r y . Based upon  15  these  o b s e r v a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e of r e s e a r c h w i t h i n museum environments would  be  i t was d e c i d e d  taken  determined  i n 60  that  the o b s e r v a t i o n s  second  time  the s e t of o b s e r v a b l e  of c h i l d  intervals.  behaviours  This  that  behaviour  analysis  would  be  also  recorded  d u r i n g the study. This Their  s e t of b e h a v i o u r s  selection  was  based  was o b s e r v a b l e upon  what  - 33 -  within  had been  museum  observed  environments. i n the p i l o t  s t u d i e s , what o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s had fact  they  reflected  visiting  the  CHAPTER  1.00.  the d i v e r s i t y  of  of  observable behaviours  To  accomplish  this  t o be  work  two  undertaken.  forms  The  first  aspect  behaviours behaviour  and  of  the  chidren  of  naturalistic  p a r t of the  study  an a n a l y s i s of a d u l t p e r c e p t i o n s of the t h r e e e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y u s i n g the semantic  second  literature  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y . These b e h a v i o u r s were d e s c r i b e d i n  i n v e s t i g a t i o n would have would be  r e p o r t e d i n the  in  of  the  family  study w i l l groups  be  a time  visiting  differential  series  the  o b s e r v a t i o n of  Gallery  record sheet. Observations w i l l  be  scale.  based  using upon  the this  The  child  observed s e t of  9  c r i t e r i a d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e e d i n g c h a p t e r s .  3.30  Study P o p u l a t i o n  For  the p r e s e n t  r e s e a r c h two  p o p u l a t i o n s of s u b j e c t s would have  be e s t a b l i s h e d . These s u b j e c t groups would be  those elementary  which would  Gallery  chosen  be  observed  t o a s s e s s the  u s i n g the semantic  as  they  visited  "Information  differential  the  and  load" of the G a l l e r y  to  children  those  adults  exhibit sections  The b e h a v i o u r s of the f i r s t  group would  be r e c o r d e d on the observed behaviour r e c o r d s h e e t .  3.31  C h i l d S u b j e c t Study  The  Group  study group of 32 elementary  c h i l d r e n , was  chosen  because  would e a s i l y be found i n f a m i l y groups and s i n c e they were of school it  c o u l d a l s o be  read.  This  group  assumed of  that  they had  at  visitors  i s also  a  - 34 -  least  begun  prevelant  l e a r n i n g how  user  group  at  they age to the  Vancouver  Aquarium;  a group which  the Aquarium  would  like  to  provide  e f f e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s f o r . The c h i l d r e n would be chosen randomly by l o t in the f o l l o w i n g manner. The by  the drawing of  16 b l a c k  sequence of boys and g i r l s was determined (boy) poker c h i p s  and  16  red ( g i r l )  poker  c h i p s from a h a t . At the Amazon G a l l e r y t h i s sequence determined how the study  children  s e l e c t e d was  were s e l e c t e d  within  with a family random  family  was  were  child  designated  made  on  entered  the G a l l e r y .  group. When more  group the f i r s t  sequence  observations  a  as they  this  than one  of the r i g h t as  the  child  as  Each  child  Generally population visiting  alpha  child.  they  characteristics  were  to  which  characteristics  would have  Gallery. Specifically was  , in a  family  Vancouver Aquarium  limited  such a s :  Aqaurlum  Behavioural  visited  the  during  the s e l e c t i o n  the t e s t  Gallery  form shown  of  children  C h r i s t m a s school  t o be a t t e n d e d by an a d u l t  the  had  break  when they  test to  in  be  1985  entered  the  f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i m i t e d the whether the c h i l d  chosen as the a l p h a c h i l d be  the  of CHAPTER: 3.00.  the Vancouver  and c h i l d  entered  age and sex that  e x h i b i t s . A l p h a c h i l d b e h a v i o u r s were t a b u l a t e d on the r e p o r t i n s e c t i o n 3.11  child  group,  and f i t  t o be o b s e r v e d . The elementary c h i l d visiting  within  the Amazon  Gallery  while  the sequence of randomly  had  at  chosen  the boys  and g i r l s e n t e r i n g the G a l l e r y .  3.32 A d u l t  " I n f o r m a t i o n Load" Assessment Group  E l e v e n a d u l t s were s e l e c t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e shown  in s e c t i o n  t o complete the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  3.12  of CHAPTER: 3.00.  - 35 -  The  selection  of  t h i s group c o n s i s t e d of a c r o s s s e c t i o n of randomly Aquarium a d u l t v i s i t o r s . and 5 p a r e n t s  s e l e c t e d Vancouver  T h i s group was made up of 6 non-parent  adults  that were v i s i t i n g the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  3.40 Data Col l e c t i o n  The on  observations  the semantic  of a l p h a  differential  methods of data  collection  c h i l d behaviours will  will  be made  and the a d u l t  In a s p e c i f i c  be d i s c u s s e d  in this  responses  manner. The  section  of the  chapter.  3.41  Time S e r i e s  As  Observations  the a l p h a  child  would be made. T i m i n g  entered  the G a l l e r y a s e r i e s  of  observations  f o r t h i s s e r i e s of o b s e r v a t i o n s would begin as the  c h i l d e n t e r e d the G a l l e r y . U s i n g n a t u r a l i s t i c methodologies as d i s c r i b e d by  Wolf  the  and T i m i t z  exhibit  (1978) the c h i l d r e n would then  Gallery.  r e c o r d i n g s of t h e i r would be taken The  the of  would  i n t e r v a l s as the c h i l d  be made  without  therefore t h e i r behaviours  behaviours, be  sheet.  their  entered  place  i n the a p p r o p r i a t e  intervals.  Each  of these  toured  the knowledge  through  the e x h i b i t s observation the G a l l e r y .  of the  observed  c o u l d be assumed t o be n a t u r a l f o r  of occurance  As determined by the p i l o t  second  through  would be made. T h i s p o i n t - d o t  environment; u n e f f e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r ' s  then  60  behaviour  a t 60 second  observations  children,  As the c h i l d r e n proceeded  be f o l l o w e d  of the behaviour  t h i s data  individual  - 36 -  The sequence  i n the G a l l e r y and type  section  study  presence.  would record  would be r e c o r d e d at  citings  of o b s e r v a t i o n a l  data would and/or made.  then marked t o i n d i c a t e whether  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h an accompanying For c h i l d  observed  f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r  visit  the  data  the c h i l d was m o b i l e , s t a t i c  adult  would  when  the o b s e r v a t i o n  include  the  was  following  In  i n the G a l l e r y :  1) Sex of the c h i l d 2) Composition of the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y ( a d u l t s and other 3) E l a p s e d time of v i s i t  children)  t o the G a l l e r y  4) P l a c e s and sequence of b e h a v i o u r s where the c h i l d was at each 60 second I n t e r v a l 5) A d u l t  of t h e i r  visit  i n t e r a c t i o n s with alpha  t o the G a l l e r y child  6) A l p h a c h i l d b e h a v i o u r s d u r i n g t h e i r 7) Whether  the c h i l d  was  static  visit  or mobile  at  each  time  series  Interval  3.42  Semantic  Differential  The terms developed f o r the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l d e s c r i b e d by Mehrabian environments. correlated  These  (1974) i n s t u d i e s  terms  to arousal  were  chosen  (Mehrabian,  would be completed by 11 randomly the  Gallery.  Each  the  Graham  Amazon  semi-open  adult  would  Gallery.  r e l a t e d t o terms  of p o p u l a t i o n  because  1974).  This  they  assessments of  were  statisically  semantic  differential  s e l e c t e d a d u l t s that were v i s i t o r s t o  observe each The  adults  of the e x h i b i t  would  each  look  s e c t i o n s of at  and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d i n CHAPTER 1.00.  - 37 -  closed,  3.43  Statistical  Results will  be  thesis  Analysis  of both  o b s e r v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and  a n a l y s e d t o determine q u e s t i o n s t o be  statistically determine  checked  whether  ratios.  any  the  against  the  behaviours  These r a t i o s w i l l  a n a l y z e d . Where a p p r o p r i a t e the an  analysis  variation  in  s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s gross a n a l y s i s w i l l if  semantic  of  children  of  the  means  ratio  differential be  based  upon  ratios will or  is  variance  be to  statistically  be used t o determine what p a t t e r n s in  family  groups  c r e a t e d as  they  t o u r e d the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y . For will  the purposes  of  this  r e s e a r c h the mathematical  manipulations  be c a r r i e d out and d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  1) The Frequency  The  of S i n g u l a r Behaviours  frequency of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d from the  time s e r i e s o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The singular the  behaviours w i l l  alpha  children  observation, r e l a t i o n  be  were  calculated  observed  t o determine  in  one  The  how  behaviour  to a l l s i n g u l a r behaviours  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n an e x h i b i t all  frequency of often at  one  observed.  section  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed  frequency of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d f o r the  G a l l e r y , c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s and open  exhibit  sections,  f o r males  females o n l y .  - 38 -  and  females,  males  only  and  2 ) The Frequency of M u l t i p l e  The  Behaviours  frequency of m u l t i p l e  behaviours w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d from the  time s e r i e s o b s e r v a t i o n s made i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . multiple  behaviours w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d  The frequency of  t o determine  how  often  the a l p h a c h i l d r e n were observed  i n more than one b e h a v i o u r a t  one  to  observation,  in  relation  a l l multiple  behaviours  observed.  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n all  The  multiple  frequency of m u l t i p l e  exhibit  females  behaviours w i l l  be c a l c u l a t e d  f o r the  semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s and  f o r males  and females,  males  only  and  only.  3) The R a t i o  The r a t i o from  sections,  section  b e h a v i o u r s observed  Gallery, closed exhibit sections, open  an e x h i b i t  of S i n g u l a r  of s i n g u l a r  the time  series  r a t i o of s i n g u l a r  to Multiple  to multiple  Behaviours  behaviours w i l l  o b s e r v a t i o n s made  to multiple  In t h i s  behaviours w i l l  determine the r a t i o of a l p h a c h i l d s i n g u l a r to m u l t i p l e  be c a l c u l a t e d research.  be c a l c u l a t e d t o  b e h a v i o u r s compared  behaviours.  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  an e x h i b i t  section  multiple  an e x h i b i t  section  b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  -  39 -  The  The  r a t i o of s i n g u l a r  calculated exhibit  f o r the G a l l e r y ,  sections  and  females, males only  4) The Complexity  The  time  complexity determine  of  and females  behaviours w i l l sections,  sections,  and  only.  index  <%) w i l l  made  index  <%)  in  be c a l c u l a t e d this  will  from  research.  be  The  calculated  to  the r a t i o of a l p h a c h i l d r e n s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o a l l  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n components of m u l t i p l e  The  semi-open  f o r males  b e h a v i o u r s which were the components of m u l t i p l e  all  be  Index  observations  behaviour  exhibit  exhibit  of behaviour  series  to multiple  closed  open  of Behaviour  complexity  the  behaviours  an e x h i b i t  b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  index (%) w i l l  behaviours.  section  an e x h i b i t  section  be c a l c u l a t e d f o r the  G a l l e r y , c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s and open  exhibit  females  5) The R a t i o  The be  sections,  f o r males  and females,  males  only  and  only.  of C h i l d S i n g u l a r  r a t i o of c h i l d s i n g u l a r calculated  research. behaviours  from  The will  ratio be  to Adult  Interactive  to adult  the time  series  of c h i l d calculated  - 40 -  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours o b s e r v a t i o n s made  singular  to adult  t o determine  c h i l d r e n s i n g u l a r behaviours to adult  Behaviours  in t h i s  interactive  the r a t i o  Interactive  will  alpha  behaviours.  c h i l d s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n all  adult  The  an e x h i b i t  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  ratio  of  behaviours sections,  child  will  be  singular  behaviours  calculated  f o r males and females, males o n l y  6) The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r  an e x h i b i t  to  adult  f o r the G a l l e r y ,  semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  section section  Interactive  closed  and open e x h i b i t  and females  t o Female S i n g u l a r  exhibit sections,  only.  Behaviours  The r a t i o of male s i n g u l a r t o female s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s w i l l calculated  from  the o b s e r v a t i o n s of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s  research.  The  ratio  behaviour  will  children  of  be made  singular  male  singular  t o compare  behaviours  to  female  in t h i s singular  o b s e r v a t i o n s of male  t o female  alpha c h i l d r e n  be  alpha  singular  behaviours.  male s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n female s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  The  ratio  behaviours  of  male  will  be  singular calculated  s e c t i o n s , semi-open e x h i b i t  7)  an e x h i b i t an e x h i b i t  behaviours  to  f o r the G a l l e r y ,  female closed  singular exhibit  Behaviours  t o female m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s w i l l  calculated  from  the o b s e r v a t i o n s of m u l t i p l e  research.  The  ratio  of  section  sections.  The R a t i o of Male M u l t i p l e t o Female M u l t i p l e  The r a t i o of male m u l t i p l e  section  male  - 41 -  multiple  behaviours  to  female  be  in t h i s multiple  behaviours w i l l children  be made t o compare  multiple  behaviours  o b s e r v a t i o n s of male  t o female  alpha c h i l d r e n  alpha  multiple  behaviours.  male m u l t i p l e  b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  female m u l t i p l e  The  ratio  behaviours sections,  b e h a v i o u r s observed w i t h i n  of  male  will  multiple  indices  will  be  complexity  of  calculated  from  behaviour  female c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  complexity  closed  complexity  the c o m p l e x i t y  indices  male c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  of male  multiple exhibit  of behaviour of  behaviour  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The r a t i o of male t o female  c h i l d r e n complexity of behaviour  ratio  female  of Behaviour I n d i c e s  t o female  will  o b s e r v a t i o n s of male a l p h a c h i l d r e n  The  section  sections.  complexity  Indices c a l c u l a t e d  to  f o r the G a l l e r y ,  8) The R a t i o of Male and Female Complexity  o f male  section  an e x h i b i t  behaviours  be c a l c u l a t e d  semi-open e x h i b i t  The r a t i o  an e x h i b i t  made  complexity  compare alpha  indices.  index f o r an e x h i b i t  of behaviour  indices  will  be  9) The R a t i o of Male t o Female I n t e r a c t i v e  section section  index  to  calculated  G a l l e r y , c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , semi-open e x h i b i t  - 42 -  to  t o female  index f o r an e x h i b i t  complexity  of behaviour  be  Behaviours  female  f o r the  sections.  The  ratio  of  male  to  female  Interactive  c a l c u l a t e d from the o b s e r v a t i o n s of a d u l t in  this  behaviours  will  interaction  with  female  adult  adult  research.  The  be  ratio  made  male a l p h a  to  of  male  compare  children  behaviours  be  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours to  female  interactive  observations  to a d u l t  of  adult  i n t e r a c t i o n with  alpha c h i l d r e n .  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h male a l p h a c h i l d r e n observed w i t h i n s e c t ion i n t e r a c t i o n with female  The r a t i o will  will  be  of male  semi-open e x h i b i t  a l p h a c h i l d r e n observed w i t h i n s e c t ion  i n t e r a c t i v e t o female  calculated  an e x h i b i t  f o r the G a l l e r y ,  sections.  - 43 -  Interactive  closed  exhibit  an e x h i b i t  behaviours sections,  Title:  A  Study  of  Children's  Behaviour  in Family  Groups  in the  Graham  Vancouver  Public  Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  CHAPTER 4.00:  4.10  DISCUSSION OF THE  RESULTS  Introduction  Upon e n t e r i n g Aquarium  the  the  visitor  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y becomes  atmosphere. In t h i s G a l l e r y the  immersed  observations  winter  of  inside  and  for  1985  -  1986  outside  e n t e r i n g the  of  the  the  by  River  physical  examples of  Basin.  The  floral  Vancouver  of  displays  depending on might  even  how  describe  could  be  world  closed  has  smells  physical  are  compiled between  more  the  first Since  during  the  environments  striking.  Children  heavy w i n t e r j a c k e t s  life  has  within  the  as  exhibits  - 44  as  -  present  often  confines  to the  exotic  confronted  from  to  great  closed,  animals are  they were  chosen  gone to  described  a c c e s s i b l e the the  faunal  Aquarium  microcoms These  were  differences  were  and  in some unique ways and Amazonian  different  their exploration  specimens  the  a  or " I t s t i n k s i n here."  these v i s i t o r s c o n t i n u e d  several  research  Gallery  the  c h i l d v i s i t o r s comment on.  Gallery while peeling off their  e x c l a i m e d : " I t ' s too hot," As  present  the  in  heat, humidity and  a s p e c t s of the e x h i b i t which a d u l t and the  at  the  Amazon  display  lengths of  visitor.  terraria;  to  the  semi-open  these create  Gallery. and  The  the  open  visitor  semi-open  e x h i b i t s as l i v i n g diaramas,  where d i r e c t  v i s i t o r contact i s c o n t r o l l e d ;  and the open e x h i b i t s as b e i n g l i k e a walk through People  e x p l o r e the G a l l e r y  and  interact with  visitors  interact  t h i s r e s e a r c h was  designed  t o examine. In p a r t i c u l a r  different  depending  on  where they are  s e c t i o n s of the  Gallery  the space was  how  and  living  a q u e s t i o n which  do v i s i t o r s  in the G a l l e r y ?  effect  garden.  the space  t h i n g s t h e r e . How  differently  with  a tropical  children  behave  Does b e i n g in  in f a m i l y groups  behave? To d i s c o v e r how  v i s i t o r s behave throughout  o b s e r v a t i o n s were used with the i n t e n t effect  the  visit.  methodology. asked me  While  how  my  assumed that keepers who  During  or  study  other animal  r e c o r d o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n  interupted  by  were expected  any  apprehension  filling to  proved  to  be  do,  out or  by  a  effective  to the  Gallery It  was  t a p e s t r y , one of the many  T h i s anonymity a l l o w e d me  t h e i r attending a d u l t s while  they saw,  that  an  o b s e r v a t i o n s were g o i n g .  fauna.  and  G a l l e r y . T h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o what unhindered by  this  p a r t of the Amazon G a l l e r y  c a r e f o r I t s f l o r a and  naturalistic  that these o b s e r v a t i o n s would not  making these o b s e r v a t i o n s , v i s i t o r s  bird  I was  the  the G a l l e r y  in the  and heard  was  they were b e i n g watched and was  not  visitor  smelt, touched  to  q u e s t i o n n a i r e based  answering  an  on  what  interviewer's questions  they while  wondering what the i n t e r v i e w e r wanted to hear.  4.11  Behaviours of C h i l d r e n In Family Groups  For  the b e n e f i t  of  the reader  the data d i s c u s s e d in the  s e c t i o n s has been o r g a n i z e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  - 45 -  way:  following  4.20 P e r c e p t i o n s of E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s U s i n g the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 4.30  C h i l d Behaviours In D i f f e r e n t E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s  4.40  Male and Female C h i l d Behaviours i n the G a l l e r y and E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s 4.41  The Frequency  of Male and Female C h i l d  Behaviours  4.42 The R a t i o of Male and Female S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e  Behaviours  4.43 The Complexity of Behaviour Index f o r Males and Females 4.44 The R a t i o of Male and Female S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e  Behaviours  4.50 Male C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s In the G a l l e r y and i n the E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s 4.51  The Frequency  of Male C h i l d  Behaviours  4.52 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e  Behaviours  4.53 The Complexity of Behaviour Index f o r Males 4.54 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e  Behaviours  4.60 Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s In the G a l l e r y and i n the E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s 4.61  The Frequency  of Female C h i l d  Behaviours  4.62 The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r t o M u l t i p l e 4.63 The Complexity of Behaviour  Behaviours  Index f o r Females  4.64 The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r to I n t e r a c t i v e  Behaviours  4.70 The Comparison of Male and Female B e h a v i o u r s 4.71  The Comparison of Male and Female S i n g u l a r Behaviour F r e q u e n c i e s  4.72 The Comparison of Male and Female M u l t i p l e Behaviour F r e q u e n c i e s 4.73 The Comparison of Male and Female Complexity of Behaviour I n d i c e s 4.74 The Comparison of Male and Female I n t e r a c t i v e  As children  d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s of  observed were  chosen male  and female  a l l in family children  groups.  Behaviours  the p r e s e n t  This  meant  e n t e r i n g the G a l l e r y w i t h  - 46 -  study,  that  the  randomly  an a t t e n d i n g  adult  were  children  observed  who  were  groupings were  as  they  observed,  toured alpha  the  entire  children,  exhibit.  several  Of  the  different  32  family  represented.  TABLE 1: The Number of C h i l d r e n  and A d u l t s i n Each Family  Group  # of CHILDREN 1 A D U L T S  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  2 (6%) 7 (22%) 0 1 (3%) 0 0 0  As p r e v i o u s l y the  alpha  their  adults  groups which children  children  were  were  (16%) (16%) (3%) (3%)  (3%)  females.  to the G a l l e r y  and 38 of these  other  5 5 1 1 0 0 1  3  4  2 (6%) 3 (9%) 0 0 1 (3%) 0 0  0 0 2 (6%) 1 (3%) 0 0 0  d i s c u s s e d 16 of the a l p h a c h i l d r e n  children  visit  family  2  were  These  by 72 a d u l t s ,  were females.  had a t o t a l male  accompanied  and by  who  visited  therefore,  t h i s sample the G a l l e r y 10:32  were  a total  of  of 32 a l p h a  came as the o n l y  adults  were  The  17 other  Seven 16  children.  on  males  were i n of  female  these alpha  Eleven  of  female. 10 of the a l p h a  child  in t h e i r  observed  children  family  had o n l y  2:32 or 6% were accompanied by 1 a d u l t ,  were accompanied by 2 a d u l t s Thirteen  accompanied  children.  female.  children,  or 31% of the f a m i l i e s  W i t h i n t h i s grouping  34 of these  of 17 other 10  were  The 16 male alpha c h i l d r e n  these o t h e r c h i l d r e n were male and 6 were Within  children  were males and 16 of  one  group, child.  7:32 or 22%  and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 4 a d u l t s .  of the a l p h a c h i l d r e n  were  i n f a m i l i e s that  - 47 -  had two  children,  one of those was the a l p h a c h i l d . W i t h i n t h i s g r o u p i n g 5:32 or 16% were accompanied by 1 a d u l t , or  3%  adults  was  accompanied  5:32 o r 16% were accompanied by  3  adults,  1:32  or 3% was  and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 7 a d u l t s .  had 3 c h i l d r e n . W i t h i n adult,  3:32  or 9%  t h i s grouping  were  2:32  accompanied  by  by 2 a d u l t s ,  1:32  accompanied  by  S i x of the f a m i l i e s  or 6% were accompanied  2  adults  4  and  1:32  by 1  o r 3%  was  accompanied by 5 a d u l t s . Three of the a l p h a c h i l d r e n were i n f a m i l i e s of 4 c h i l d r e n . W i t h i n t h i s g r o u p i n g 2:32 or 6% were accompanied by 3 a d u l t s and 1:32 or 3% was accompanied by 4 a d u l t s . The  children  were observed  Firstly,  the  children  visiting  different  family  family  researcher  groups  preselecting  the  whated Amazon  groups v i s i t should  be  the f a m i l y  alpha  different the  children family  adults  collect,  Gallery  in  observational  family  also  observed  by  the  throughout  32  be a f f e c t e d .  i n the present  groups as d i s c u s s e d in family  above,  the  Graham  previously  discussed,  interacted  with  reasons.  data  about  since  many  and  Amazon  their  Secondly,  research Table  though the  were  1 shows  in  several  that  75% of  These  families  60  behaviours  - 48 -  in family  adults.  recorded  were:  and 1 o r 2  observed were  attending At  by  the randomness of  However, even  children  Gallery.  the r e s e a r c h e r  the G a l l e r y .  sample.  groups of 1 t o 3 c h i l d r e n  and 60% of the a l p h a  children  groups,  or c o n f i g u r a t i o n  groups of 1 or 2 c h i l d r e n and 1 or 2 a t t e n d i n g These  groups f o r two  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y , many d i f f e r e n t  group s i z e  a l p h a c h i l d r e n were  attending  to  represented  chosen a l p h a c h i l d r e n would 32  i n such v a r i e d  second  were  observed  intervals,  as  t h e i r b e h a v i o u r s as they as p r e v i o u s l y  described  1.32 D e f i n i t i o n o f S p e c i f i c Behaviour Terms: 0) non-defined: any behaviour shown by the a l p h a c h i l d which i s not d e f i n e d by the f o l l o w i n g s e t of o b s e r v a t i o n c r i t e r i a . 0) non-defined a d u l t behaviour i s any behaviour shown by the a d u l t o r a d u l t s i n a f a m i l y group and not d i r e c t e d toward the alpha c h i l d . 1 1) l o o k s : the a l p h a c h i l d looks a t a d i s p l a y . 1) l o o k s : the a d u l t and a l p h a c h i l d look a t the same d i s p l a y 2) p o i n t s : the a l p h a c h i l d p o i n t s a t a s p e c i f i c aspect o f the d i s p l a y . 2) p o i n t s : the a d u l t p o i n t s out a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t o r o b j e c t i n the d i s p l a y . 3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a l p h a c h i l d makes a verbal exclamation which i s not p a r t of a c o n v e r s a t i o n ( i e . ooh!, look!, wow! ). 3) t a l k s - e x c l a i m s : the a d u l t makes an exclamation w h i l e w i t h the a l p h a c h i l d . 4) t a l k s : the a l p h a c h i l d engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n about a d i s p l a y . 4) t a l k s : the a d u l t engages i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h the a l p h a c h i l d . 5) l i s t e n : the a l p h a c h i l d s t o p s t o n o t i c e some sound i n the G a l l e r y 5) l i s t e n : the a d u l t l i s t e n s t o the a l p h a c h i l d . 6) touches: the a l p h a c h i l d touches an o b j e c t o r aspect o f the e x h i b i t . 6) touches: the a d u l t touches an o b j e c t o r aspect of the e x h i b i t o r guides the a l p h a c h i l d ' s hand t o an aspect o f the e x h i b i t . 7) q u e s t i o n s : the alpha c h i l d asks a q u e s t i o n about the d i s p l a y . 7) q u e s t i o n s : the a d u l t asks the a l p h a c h i l d a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n about t h e . d i s p l a y . 8) reads: the a l p h a c h i l d reads t h e . e x h i b i t - g r a p h i c s . 8) reads: the a d u l t reads e x h i b i t copy out loud t o the alpha c h i l d ; 9) i n v o l v e s another: the a l p h a c h i l d draws another member o f the f a m i l y group t o an o b j e c t or aspect of the e x h i b i t . 9) i n v o l v e s another: the a d u l t i n v o l v e s the a l p h a c h i l d r e n and o t h e r s w i t h an o b j e c t o r aspect o f the e x h i b i t .  - 49  -  TABLE 2: The Frequency o f B e h a v i o u r s  BEHAVIOURS ( t a b u l a t e d as rounded o f f p e r c e n t a g e s )  EXHIBIT  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  M&F:Gallery M:Gallery F:Gallery  2 1 0  45 46 47  8 8 8  8 10 9  12 7 7  13 13 13  4 1 2  3 5 4  1 1 1  6 8 9  M&F:Closed M:Closed F:Closed  1 1 1  43 41 42  9 9 9  9 10 10  6 8 7  10 15 13  4 1 3  5 3 4  2 2 4  10 10 10  M&F:Semi-Open M:Semi-Open F:Semi-Open  0 1 1  45 50 48  6 3 5  8 7 8  8 7 8  13 15 14  3 1 2  3 7 5  0 0 0  6 9 8  M&F:Open M:Qpen F:0pen  2 Q 2  48 48 48  8 12 10  8 12 10  10 7 9  16 8 12  4 2 3  2 5 4  0 0 0  2 6 4  - 50 -  FIGURE 3: Frequency of Male Behaviours  - 51 -  FIGURE 4: Frequency of Female Behaviour*  - 52 -  2 and F i g u r e s 3 and 4 show the p e r c e n t a g e s of a l l b e h a v i o u r s  Table observed exhibit  f o r both  males and females, males and females  sections.  The data  o c c u r r e d most f r e q u e n t l y sections.  "Reads"  was  G a l l e r y and e x h i b i t  show  that  throughout  the behaviour  " l o o k s " was  the behaviour  the G a l l e r y and each recorded  sections.  - 53 -  i n each  the l e a s t  of the which  of the e x h i b i t throughout  the  FIGURE 5: Frequency Of Male Behaviour  Males A  Females:  Sequence*  Amazon Gallery  7'9  Males: Closed Exhibits  2-7-8-9  Males: Open Exhibits  Males: Semi-Open Exhibits „  1-2-3-9  80  I•I -111 • • i l l • o  1  11-9  1-6-9  1-7-9  2-3-7  2-3-9  1-2-3-!  1-2-3  Behaviour  - 54 -  1-2-4  Sequences  1-2-9  1-4-9  1-5-6  1!  39  1-3-9  1-5-6  FIGURE 6: Frequency of Female Behaviour SeaueprfP  - 55 -  Figures  5  and 6  show  the frequency  and composition  of  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s of t h r e e or more b e h a v i o u r s (behaviour sequence) observed f o r males and females. S e v e r a l of the 18 behaviour sequences the  present  study  were  observed  only  s e c t i o n s of the Amazon G a l l e r y . Three often  than  the o t h e r  "involves  another"  ,  behaviour  sequences  "looks"  :"exclaims"  sequences  that were observed most o f t e n  4.20  observed.  :"questions"  :"involves  throughout  the  behaviour sequences  "points"  the Graham Amazon  once  observed d u r i n g  another"  o c c u r r e d more  "Looks":  :"involves are  the  exhibit  "talks":  another"  three  f o r male and female  and  behaviour children in  Gallery.  P e r c e p t i o n s o f E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s U s i n g the Semantic  Differential  As a museum p r o f e s s i o n a l , the r e s e a r c h e r has become more a t t u n e d to  the s u b t l i t i e s  of the environments  creating.  This  is a  engrossed  one i s , the more complex  discussed  i n Kaplan  new environments,  trait  common  and Kaplan  i n which he works or a s s i s t s i n  to  intensive  the f i e l d  (1974),  a c h i e v e d a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the environment explore  I t . The Graham Amazon  environment three  Gallery  a r e e v i d e n t . By t o u r i n g  exhibit  sections  were  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . In the G a l l e r y , are  housed  in  terraria  r e p t i l e s a r e housed  the more  look  f o r guide p o s t s i n  themselves.  After  they  they a r e much more ready t o  the G a l l e r y , based  during p i l o t on  their  visits, physical  I n s e c t s , small r e p t i l e s and most the c l o s e d  exhibits.  e n c l o s e d s e c t i o n s w i t h open  - 56 -  have  i s a p l a c e where d i f f e r e n c e s i n  identified  sections;  in p a r t i a l l y  when  of endeavour becomes. As  humans  the landmarks t o o r i e n t  study  The  fishes large  t o p s , the  semi-open e x h i b i t s . settings  of  upon  physical  the  the  researcher's  way  or  Gallery way  interested  perceptions. did  l a r g e p l a n t s are  in  which with  displayed  in forest  the the  s t u d y . They were d i v i s i o n s specimens  museum  were  displayed  environments.  The  the  perceive  public  view the  differences  Gallery  in  how  and  the  researcher,  in a  the  the  built  in v i s i t o r p e r c e p t i o n s of these environments  Did  they  used  in  experience  however, was own  b i r d s and  l i k e those of a c o n s e r v a t o r y , the open e x h i b i t s . These were  divisions  his  The  not  homogeneous  specimens  were  displayed? Mehrabian (1974) developed the how  people  scale  or  a s s e s s environments. U s i n g  environment, Mehrabian more complex as  having  Gallery  and  a  higher  " i n f orma t i on To to  (1974) c o r r e l a t e d  dynamic  perceive  "information that  load."  different  arousal  higher  environments. He  exhibit  the with  environments the  had  adults.  The  a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  results  of  the  semantic  i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t , among the  respondants  Aquarium's  the  to  sections  by  arousal  these  visitors  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  load"  investigate  elicited  l e v e l s of  described Did  to  Amazon  differing  1oads?"  examine t h i s q u e s t i o n  eleven  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  from  existed  following  the  between data  samples of equal  public,  a  exhibit  sections.  This  calculated  f o r a one  way  size.  - 57  -  was  administered  differential  for  the  e l e v e n randomly chosen  difference conclusion analysis  of  in was  "information based upon  variance  for  3  TABLE 3: ANOVA f o r Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l 1) ANOVA f o r A l l E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s Closed E x h i b i t s MEANS VARIANCE  s 2  <sample)"  s 2  (means)  =  3 7  •  5  1 8 7  -  5  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  26  25.7  30.9  53.2  36.43  22.9  df (2,30) F :  - (calc) = -  F :  - <tab) =  0 5  5  0 5  3  -  0 0  3 1 5 8  F . 0 5 j ) > f-OS^t^) significantly different exhibit sections. ( c a  c  t h e r e f o r e t h e means f o r t h e samples a r e t o 95% f o r t h e c l o s e d , semi-open and open  2) ANOVA f o r C l o s e d x Semi-Open E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s Closed E x h i b i t s  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s  26  25.7  MEANS VARIANCE  s 2  53.2  <sam le)  =  4 4  P  s  ' '(means) 1  =  *  -  36.43  8  4 9 5  df <1,20) F :  -OSccalO = -  F :  - (tab) = 0 5  4  0 1 1  3 5  - 58 -  F.05( ] ) < significantly sections. c a  F . 0 5 t a b ) t h e r e f o r e , the means f o r the samples are not d i f f e r e n t to 95% f o r the c l o s e d and semi-open e x h i b i t  C  c  3) ANOVA f o r Semi-Open x Open E x h i b i t Semi-Open E x h i b i t s  Open E x h i b i t s  MEANS  26  30.9  VARIANCE  36.43  22.9  S 2  <sampled  s2  (means)=  1  2  9  -  6  6  4  8  -  7  2  df  (1,20)  F :  -^(calc) =  F  -° (tab) =  :  5  5-014 4-35  F.05 | ) > significantly sections.  F.05(£ab) different  The  of  ( c a  C  results  "information exhibits  the  load"  and 30.9  of  therefore, the means f o r the samples are to 95% f o r the semi-open and open e x h i b i t  semantic 26.0  f o r open  exhibits;  environment's " i n f o r m a t i o n  and  fish  exhibit  exhibit  sections  differential  for closed  the  were s c o r e d  Sections  load."  show  exhibits,  was  seen  The  small  closed  large  reptile  these s c o r e s shows that was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  being  than the other  - 59 -  load"  the  exhibit  The open  greater Insect  sections  conservatory  of v a r i a n c e  f o r the open e x h i b i t  exhibit sections.  in  semi-open  reptile,  different. Analysis  the " i n f o r m a t i o n  scores  for  the s c o r e  and semi-open  as  25.7  the h i g h e r  e q u a l l y on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l .  section  mean  of area  4.30  C h i l d Behaviours in D i f f e r e n t E x h i b i t  The the  semantic  Amazon G a l l e r y  exhibit effect  sections. how  observing,  differential  perceived Did  visitors  the  become e v i d e n t .  and  different family  sections Did  was  they  analyzing  designed  a r e a s of  to  in p e r c e i v e d were  in  4.40  Male and  that  they  behaviours  patterns  analysis  illuminate  of  of  load"  one  group  behaviour  of  what  child  By of  would  loads"  have  behaviour  in  differences  in  visitor  i n each of  the  exhibit  Female C h i l d Behaviours i n the G a l l e r y and  could  visited  describe the  Graham  the  b e h a v i o u r s observed  Amazon  Gallery  Sections  60  at  the  for  that  a l l children  Vancouver  Public  b e h a v i o u r s were observed f o r both  female c h i l d r e n .  -  Exhibit  female b e h a v i o u r s were made so  Aquarium. D u r i n g the p r e s e n t study 648 male and  between  environments?  d i f f e r e n t "information  The  c a l c u l a t i o n s of male and  researcher  while  load"  to  of the Amazon G a l l e r y .  The the  visitors  "information  those  b e h a v i o u r , a form of museum i n t e r a c t i o n , e x i s t e d sections  adult  groups, as they passed through each  hoped  regimes?  that  in "information  the  in family  i t was  exhibit  behavioural  groups  differences  behaved when  recording  exhibit  indicate  these d i f f e r e n c e s  Gallery v i s i t o r s , children of  data  Sections  -  4.41 The Frequency of Male and Female C h i l d  The t o t a l was  number of o b s e r v a t i o n s made f o r both male female  396. These  behaviour than  o b s e r v a t i o n s were  observed  number  composed  of s i n g u l a r  a t one o b s e r v a t i o n , and m u l t i p l e  one behaviour  total  Behaviours  observed  i n the c l o s e d  TABLE 4: The Frequency of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  Closed E x h i b i t s  (53%)  For observed exhibit  Semi-Open  (28%)  the G a l l e r y f o r male sections  For  total  the s i n g u l a r  behaviours  open e x h i b i t  the study the sections  Behaviours  (12%)  children to total  observed  sections  was  sections.  (12%)  the s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s compared t o t o t a l and female  more  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  behaviours  was 209:396 or 53%. For c l o s e d b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r males and  females was 111:396 or 28%. For semi-open e x h i b i t to  behaviours,  exhibit  228, compared t o 97 i n semi-open and 73 i n open e x h i b i t  Gallery  b e h a v i o u r s , one  a t one o b s e r v a t i o n . D u r i n g  of o b s e r v a t i o n s made  children  sections  the s i n g u l a r  f o r males and females was 52:396 or 13%.  the s i n g u l a r  to total  b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r  males and females was 46:396 o r 12%.  TABLE 5: The Frequency of Male and Female M u l t i p l e  Gallery (47%)  Closed Exhibits  Semi-Open  (29%)  Behaviours  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (11%)  - 61 -  (7%)  For total  the G a l l e r y  behaviours  the m u l t i p l e  behaviour  f o r male and female  observations  compared t o  c h i l d r e n was 187:396 or 47%. For  the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  the m u l t i p l e  for  117:396 or 29%. F o r the semi-open  males  and females  sections multiple  was  behaviours  to total  behaviours  behaviours  to total  I)  exhibit  f o r males and females  was 43:396 or 11%. For the open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s m u l t i p l e total  behaviours  behaviours to  b e h a v i o u r s f o r males and females was 27:396 or 7%.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were lowest  on  the semantic  behaviours  were  differential,  observed  compared  more  than  scored  twice  as many  t o the o b s e r v a t i o n s  made i n  both the semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  II)  In the c l o s e d which  were  singular observed  Ill)  and semi-open  scored  exhibit  similarly  and m u l t i p l e  on  the  behaviours  exhibit  highest  the semantic  on  sections,  semantic  observed  t o occur w i t h i n 2% of each  In the open  sections,  those  sections  differential,  for children  were  other.  those  s e c t i o n s which were  differential,  singular  and  scored  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s f o r c h i l d r e n were observed t o occur w i t h i n 5% of each other.  The  closed  exhibits, particularly  the small  behaviour  were made. T h i s  where most attributable  observations  to closed  exhibits  covering  reptiles  more  floor  and i n s e c t s were  difference space,  was not  therefore,  c h i l d r e n had t o spend more time t h e r e . A map of the G a l l e r y (Appendix  - 62 -  1)  shows  that  each  exhibit  section  covers  approximately  the  same  floor  area.  4.42 The R a t i o  of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  to M u l t i p l e  Behaviours  TABLE 6:  of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  to M u l t i p l e  Behaviours  Ratio  Gallery  Closed Exhibits  (112%)  For  Semi-Open  (95%)  (121%)  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y ,  the r a t i o  of s i n g u l a r  behaviours  females was 209:187 or 112%.  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s (170%)  across a l l three e x h i b i t  to multiple  behaviours  For the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o m u l t i p l e  sections,  f o r males  sections  the  and  ratio  b e h a v i o u r s f o r males and females  was  111:117 or 95%. For semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  the r a t i o  multiple  52:43 or 121%. For open  behaviours  f o r males and  females  was  exhibit sections  the r a t i o  and  46:27 or 170%. For the G a l l e r y  females was  multiple  behaviours  were  multiple  behaviours  However,  the s t a t i s t i c s  show h i g h e r open  were  observed  multiple  was  incidences  semi  exhibit and  of s i n g u l a r t o m u l t i p l e  almost  The  equal  semi-open  of s i n g u l a r  compared  open  12% more s i n g u l a r of  closed and  open  sections  than 70%  exhibit  more  than and  sections. sections  b e h a v i o u r s . In  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s were observed f o r males and females.  - 63 -  singular  exhibit  to multiple  21% more s i n g u l a r exhibit  b e h a v i o u r s f o r males  occurance  within  f o r both  sections in  observed.  of s i n g u l a r t o  behaviours  singular  than  I)  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , the  lowest  on the semantic  those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d  differential,  t o m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was almost  II)  In the semi-open  exhibit  scored  to  similarly  singular  than  multiple  of s i n g u l a r  equal f o r males and females.  sections,  the  the r a t i o  closed  those  exhibit  sections  which  were  21%  more  sections,  b e h a v i o u r s were observed  f o r males and  females.  Ill)  In the open e x h i b i t highest  on  multiple  sections,  the semantic  those  sections  differentia],  70% more  these  results  behaviours  from  the c h i l d r e n  G a l l e r y , 75% more  than c l o s e d  semi-open e x h i b i t  sections.  4.43 The Complexity  behaviours  multiple  divided  not  be  as  singular rather  than  than the  and 50% more o f t e n  than  Index f o r Males and Females  behaviour  by a l l behaviour  index  is a  components  could  sum  of  a l l singular  of m u l t i p l e  behaviours  be made up of two or more s i n g u l a r  the c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour w i t h i n  demonstrated  Therefore,  of  open  an e x h i b i t s e c t i o n . T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n was made because  behaviour  and as such  than  that  observed 58% more o f t e n  exhibit sections  of Behaviour  complexity  observed w i t h i n  singular  i t becomes apparent  e x h i b i t s e c t i o n of the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y e l i c i t  The  scored  b e h a v i o u r s were observed f o r males and females.  T h e r e f o r e , when comparing  multiple  which were  the  by  the r a t i o  number  of  of s i n g u l a r  Individual  - 64 -  behaviours  an e x h i b i t s e c t i o n to multiple  behaviours  a  might  behaviours.  within  multiple  observed  for children  semi-open  exhbit  were  sections  singular had  behaviours. Therefore,  the second h i g h e s t  the  c o m p l e x i t y of  behaviour f o r males and females.  Ill)  In the open highest  on  behaviour three  the  index  quarters  singular the  exhibit  of  that  observed  complexity  sections  was  those  sections  differential,  72%.  Within  open  a l l behaviours Therefore,  of  singular  the  exhibit  observed  the open  was  within  observed  exhibit  within  of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  Closed Exhibits  (82%)  almost were  sections  had  i n an e x h i b i t  52:63  section)  semi-open  or  exhibit  83%.  Behaviours  Behaviours  to i n t e r a c t i v e  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h the  f o r males and females was  exhibit  For  (90%)  the r a t i o of s i n g u l a r  behaviours to i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours and  closed  The  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  b e h a v i o u r s (those b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r an a d u l t  and  sections.  (83%)  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  For c l o s e d  l e a s t 40% of  to Interactive  Semi-Open  (70%)  alpha c h i l d  the  to I n t e r a c t i v e  Gallery  70%,  of  Gallery.  of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  or  section  for children  the e x h i b i t  TABLE 8: The R a t i o  82%.  scored  complexity  b e h a v i o u r s make up at  for children  behaviour  of the Amazon  4.44 The R a t i o  For  which were  lowest c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour f o r males and females.  behaviours  most  semantic  behaviours.  These r a t i o s i n d i c a t e all  sections,  sections  the r a t i o  209:254 or of  singular  f o r males and females was  open  - 66 -  exhibit  sections  the  111:159  ratio  of  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s f o r males and 45:51 for  or 90%. children  closed  the  the number of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed  was  observed  82%  of  sections  70%  semi-open  observed For  was  of  the  the  exhibit  observed  f o r c h i l d r e n was  observed  sections  for children  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours.  the number of s i n g u l a r  was  83%  the open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  I)  the  of  lowest singular  the  male  was  recorded.  In  the  semi-open  scored s i m i l a r l y differential,  the  Ill)  For  singular  behaviours  interactive  behaviours.  those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d  differential,  the  female  behaviours  interactive  exhibit  sections,  to the c l o s e d ratio  to  those  exhibit  of male and  lowest  sections  sections  female  on  of  behaviours  which the  singular  13% g r e a t e r than that  ratio  were  semantic  behaviours  recorded f o r  sections.  In the open e x h i b i t h i g h e s t on  observed f o r  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours.  to i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was closed exhibit  of  the  the number of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s observed  semantic  and  For  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours.  the observed  90% of the observed  on  behaviours  number  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s ,  II)  was  For the G a l l e r y  exhibit  children  females  sections,  the semantic  those  sections  differential,  which were  the h i g h e s t  scored  r a t i o of male  and female s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was f o r the e x h i b i t  These  data  observed  to  Indicate show  sections.  that  i n open  singular  exhibit  behaviours  - 67 -  sections  they  were  when  children  accompanied  by  were an  interaction  with  an  adult.  often  than  This  i n t e r a c t i o n with  occured  20% more  i n open  exhibit  s e c t i o n s and 7% more o f t e n  exhibit  than  - 68 -  singular  sections  than  behaviours in closed  i n semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  4.50 Male C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s i n the G a l l e r y and the E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s  By examining possible  to discern  the data  in family  groups i t was  whether males show the same k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r s f o r  each o f the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s section  f o r male c h i l d r e n  as d i s c u s s e d f o r both males and females i n  4.40. D i d the males show the same b e h a v i o u r s  f o r both males and females i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n  already discussed  4.40 Male and Female  C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s i n the G a l l e r y and E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s ?  4.51 The Frequency of Male C h i l d  The t o t a l exhibit  sections  Behaviours  number of o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r male was  194.  During  the study  b e h a v i o u r s were r e c o r d e d i n the c l o s e d 47 i n semi-open and 35 i n open  Closed Exhibits  (52%) For  exhibit  o b s e r v a t i o n s of male  sections  as compared t o  Behaviours  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (28%) the G a l l e r y  112  f o r a l l three  sections.  TABLE 9:The Frequency of Male S i n g u l a r  Gallery  children  (12%)  the s i n g u l a r  behaviours  (12%)  compared  t o the  b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r males was 101:194 o r 52%. For the c l o s e d sections  the s i n g u l a r  to total  or 28%. For semi-open e x h i b i t observed  f o r males was  b e h a v i o u r s observed sections  23:194  singular behaviours to total  singular  exhibit  f o r males was 55:194  t o the t o t a l  or 12%. For open  total  exhibit  behaviours  sections  the  b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r males was 23:194 or  12%.  - 69 -  TABLE 10:The Frequency  Gallery  of Male M u l t i p l e  Closed  (47%)  For  the  Gallery  For  behaviours  the  <13%)  multiple  f o r males was  s e c t i o n s the m u l t i p l e 29%.  to t o t a l  semi-open  observed  12:194 or  I)  compared  males  sections was  the  24:194  to t o t a l  the  total  f o r males was  multiple  or  to  For the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  b e h a v i o u r s observed  exhibit  for  behaviours  (6%)  93:194 or 47%.  s e c t i o n s the m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (29%)  b e h a v i o u r s observed  or  Exhibits  Behaviours  13%.  to  For  57:194  the  open  b e h a v i o u r s observed  total exhibit  f o r males  6%.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were lowest  on  behaviour  the  semantic  observations  differential,  of  males  were  over made  twice  scored  as  compared  many  to  the  semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  II)  In  the  which  closed were  singular  and  scored  and  semi-open similarly  multiple  f a m i l y groups o c c u r r e d  Ill)  In the open e x h i b i t highest  on  the  exhibit on  behaviours almost  sections,  semantic  sections,  the  those  semantic  observed  male  and  equally.  those  s e c t i o n s which were  differential,  r e s u l t s show the same p a t t e r n female  child  behaviours.  differential,  f o r male c h i l d r e n i n  singular  b e h a v i o u r s were observed t o occur w i t h i n 6% of each  These three  sections  As  - 70 -  discussed with  both  and  multiple  other.  previously male  scored  and  f o r both female  behaviours recorded  the g r e a t e s t  i n the c l o s e d  number  of o b s e r v a t i o n s  exhibit sections,  made i n the open e x h i b i t  was  the number of o b s e r v a t i o n s  was  to M u l t i p l e  TABLE l l : T h e R a t i o  of Male S i n g u l a r  Gallery  Closed  (109%)  multiple  behaviour  sections.  4.52 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r  For  of male  Behaviours  to M u l t i p l e  Exhibits  Semi-Open  (96%)  Behaviours  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (95%)  (191%)  the Amazon G a l l e r y the r a t i o of male s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s to male b e h a v i o u r s was  101:93  or  109%.  For the c l o s e d  e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s the r a t i o s of male s i n g u l a r  and  to male m u l t i p l e  were 55:57 or 96% and 23:24 or 95%. For the open e x h i b i t ratio For  of male s i n g u l a r  t o male  multiple  semi-open  b e h a v i o u r s was  behaviours  sections  23:12  or  the  191%.  the G a l l e r y 9% more s i n g u l a r than m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s were observed.  The occurance equal  within  exhibit  of s i n g u l a r both  sections  and m u l t i p l e  the c l o s e d males  were  b e h a v i o u r s of males was  and semi-open e x h i b i t observed  91%  more  sections. often  in  almost In  open  singular  b e h a v i o u r s compared t o m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s .  I)  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s ,  those s e c t i o n s which were  lowest on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l , to m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was almost  II)  In  the semi-open  scored  similarly  exhibit to  exhibit  - 71 -  singular  equal.  sections,  closed  the r a t i o of male  scored  those  sections  sections  on  which  the  were  semantic  differential,  Ill)  was  almost  In  the  highest to  to m u l t i p l e  behaviours  equal.  open  exhibit  sections,  those  on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  multiple  almost  the r a t i o of male s i n g u l a r  behaviours  twice  as  was  many  91%.  singular  sections  which  scored  the r a t i o of male s i n g u l a r  Within  this  compared  exhibit  to  section  multiple  male  b e h a v i o u r s were observed.  These r e s u l t s show that behaviours  than  open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  multiple  behaviours  in  the  elicit  82%  more  singular  Gallery,  95%  more  than  c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , and 96% more than In semi-open e x h i b i t f o r male c h i l d r e n similar  t o that  observed  discussed  in family  groups.  f o r males and  in the  4.53  The Complexity  i n semi-open and  of Behaviour  TABLE 12:The Complexity  Gallery (46%)  Exhibits  in  the G a l l e r y  Index (%)  was  In  discussed  sections.  f o r Males  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (40%)  The c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  and  Index f o r Males  of Behaviour  Closed  i n open e x h i b i t  pattern  Gallery  the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . These data d i d not show a p a t t e r n f o r males and females  sections  These d a t a show a  females  in  (41%)  index (%)  101:221 or 46%.  The  f o r male b e h a v i o u r s were 55:138 or 40%  - 72 -  (85%)  c a l c u l a t e d f o r male b e h a v i o u r s  complexity for closed  of behaviour  indices  exhibit sections,  and  23:56 or 41% exhibit  I)  f o r semi-open  exhibit  s e c t i o n s and  23:50 or  85%  f o r open  sections.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d lowest index  on  the  semantic  f o r males  singular  differential,  was  40%.  behaviours  make  Within up  complexity  the  the  closed  smallest  of  behaviour  exhibit  sections  component  of a l l  b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r males f o r an e x h i b i t s e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the  closed  behaviour  II)  In  the  scored  exhibit  semi-open  exhibit  similarly  to  Ill)  the  in  almost  closed  sections,  closed  the male  index was  males  had  exhibit  complexity equal  exhibit had  those  of  t o the  lowest  sections.  i n the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n  on  the  sections,  semantic  behaviour  index was  85%.  for  behaviour  in  highest  component  exhibit  section.  of  same  of  those  singular  Therefore,  male  the  lowest c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  - 73 -  semantic was  41%.  calculated the  of  for  semi-open  behaviour  as  s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d the  T h i s index was exhibit  were  f o r males.  differential,  an  index  complexity  the index  Therefore,  observed  In the open e x h i b i t  the  s e c t i o n s which  behaviour  sections  male  complexity  s e c t i o n s on  exhibit  highest  highest  f o r males.  differential, This  sections  male  the h i g h e s t  section  and  behaviours  open  exhbit  f o r males.  complexity  of  calculated  Indicated  observed  for  s e c t i o n s had  the an the  These  results  behaviours exhibit  show  at  least  a  i n the open e x h i b i t  sections  the same p a t t e r n behaviours  40%  greater  sections  and semi-open e x h i b i t  predominance  closed  s e c t i o n s . These d a t a do not show f o r male and  female  4.43.  4.54 The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r t o I n t e r a c t i v e  Behaviours  i3:The R a t i o of Male S i n g u l a r to I n t e r a c t i v e Behaviours  TABLE  Gallery  Closed Exhibits  (76%)  For  sections  Semi-Open  (72%)  the G a l l e r y  behaviours,  (69%)  the r a t i o  f o r males, was  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  of s i n g u l a r  101:133  or  (96%)  behaviours  76%.  For  the  to  interactive  closed  exhibit  the r a t i o of male s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s  was 55:76 or 72%, and f o r semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s or 69%. For open e x h i b i t to  singular  compared to the G a l l e r y ,  f o r male b e h a v i o u r s as c a l c u l a t e d  in section  of  sections  the r a t i o was  the r a t i o of s i n g u l a r male  23:33  behaviours  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was 23:24 or 96%. For the Amazon G a l l e r y  number  of  singular  behaviours  was  76%  of  the  observed  the  interactive  b e h a v i o u r s . For the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s were 72% of  the observed  sections  singular  behaviours. interactive  For  interactive  behaviours  and  i n the semi-open  male b e h a v i o u r s were 69% of the observed open  behaviours  b e h a v i o u r s were almost  exhibit was  sections  the  96% and t h e r e f o r e ,  equal.  - 74 -  ratio singular  of and  exhibit  interactive singular  to  interactive  I)  In the the c l o s e d and semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , which  were  ratios  scored  f o r male  were almost  II)  similarly singular  the semantic  behaviours  sections,  those  on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l ,  differential,  to Interactive  equal  the  behaviours  sections  which were  the r a t i o of male  b e h a v i o u r s t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was almost e q u a l . indicate  sections  equal  In the open e x h i b i t highest  on  those  that  f o r male  number  of  children  singular  i n open  and  exhibit  interactive  scored  singular Thesedata  sections  behaviours  an were  observed. Overall,  t h i s was  observations. female  However,  observations  singular exhibit  not a p a t t e r n  behaviours sections  as w i t h in  observed  the p a t t e r n  section  4.44,  accompanied by  more  often  f o r male and female  than  an  males  - 75 -  were  with  male  observed  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours  i n both  sections.  established  behaviour  closed  and semi-open  to  and show  i n open exhibit  4.60  Female C h i l d B e h a v i o u r s i n the G a l l e r y and the E x h i b i t S e c t i o n s  The b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r female c h i l d r e n examined t o d i s c o v e r for  the G a l l e r y  whether  females  groups were  show the same k i n d s of b e h a v i o u r s  as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.40  and f o r the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  in family  f o r both males and females  as d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 4.50  f o r males. D i d  the females show the same behaviour a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d f o r both males and females, as w e l l  a s , j u s t males?  4.61 The Frequency  The Gallery  of Female C h i l d  total  number  was 202. D u r i n g  Behaviours  of o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r female the study  116  children  f o r the  o b s e r v a t i o n s of female  singular  b e h a v i o u r s were r e c o r d e d i n the c l o s e d  exhibit  48 i n semi-open and 38 i n open e x h i b i t  sections.  TABLE 14:The Frequency  Gallery  Closed Exhibits  (53%)  For  the G a l l e r y  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  sections  (14%)  the s i n g u l a r  f o r female  the s i n g u l a r  behaviours  total  exhibit  behaviours sections  observed  the s i n g u l a r  (11%)  compared  t o the  total  children  was 108:202 or 53%. For c l o s e d  to total  behaviours  c h i l d r e n was 56:202 or 27%. For semi-open e x h i b i t to  as compared t o  Behaviours  (27%)  b e h a v i o u r s observed exhibit  of Female S i n g u l a r  sections  f o r females to total  was 23:202 or 11%.  - 76 -  was  observed  sections  f o r female the s i n g u l a r  29:202 or 14%. For open  b e h a v i o u r s observed  f o r females  TABLE 15:The Frequency  Gallery  of Female M u l t i p l e  Closed Exhibits  (47%) For  Behaviours  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (29%)  (9%)  (7%)  the G a l l e r y the r a t i o of m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s t o t o t a l  behaviours  observed f o r females was 96:202 or 47%. For the c l o s e d e x h i b i t the  ratio  of m u l t i p l e  behaviours  to total  behaviours  observed f o r  females was 60:202 or 29%. For the semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s of  multiple  19:202  behaviours  or 9%.  For the open  behaviours to t o t a l  I)  to total  behaviours  exhibit  observed  sections  sections  the r a t i o  f o r females  the r a t i o  of  was  multiple  b e h a v i o u r s observed f o r females was 15:202 or 7%.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d lowest  on  the  semantic  differential,  over  twice  as  many  o b s e r v a t i o n s of females were made compared t o semi-open and open exhibit  II)  sections.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , the  semantic  observed  differential,  f o r female  children  those s e c t i o n s s c o r e d lowest on  singular  and m u l t i p l e  in family  groups  behaviours  occurred  almost  equally.  Ill)  In the semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d s i m i l a r l y the  semantic  t o c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s and h i g h e s t on  differential,  singular  and m u l t i p l e  behaviours  observed f o r female c h i l d r e n i n f a m i l y groups were not e q u a l . In semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s o c c u r r e d 5% more often  than  multiple  behaviours.  - 77 -  In  open  exhibit  sections  singular  behaviours  occurred  4%  more  often  than  multiple  behaviours.  As  with  both  observations  of  male  female  s e c t i o n s . T h i s was female, as w e l l that  behaviours  behaviour  was  the same p a t t e r n  the  recorded  greatest  number  i n the c l o s e d  of b e h a v i o u r s observed  of  exhibit  f o r male and  f o r the G a l l e r y and c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , s i n g u l a r and m u l t i p l e  occur  almost  occurance  male c h i l d only  f o r female  equally.  of s i n g u l a r  not the p a t t e r n  4.51  female  as, male b e h a v i o u r s . C o n v e r s e l y , these r e s u l t s a l s o show  b e h a v i o u r s observed to  and  In  children semi-open  and m u l t i p l e  discussed  in family and  open  exhibit  b e h a v i o u r s was  f o r both male and female  the open e x h i b i t  observed  sections  not e q u a l .  the  This  was  c h i l d b e h a v i o u r s and  b e h a v i o u r s . In the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s  to m u l t i p l e  in section  s e c t i o n s show h i g h e r occurances  4.41  and  of s i n g u l a r  behaviours.  4.62 The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r  to Multiple  Behaviours  TABLE 16:The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r  to M u l t i p l e  Gallery  Semi-Open  Closed  (113%)  For  groups were  Exhibits (93%)  the Amazon G a l l e r y  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was  Behaviours  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (153%)  the r a t i o  of female  (153%)  singular  behaviours to  108:96 or 113%. For the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  sections  the r a t i o of female s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s to m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was 56:60 or 93%. For the semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s the r a t i o s of female singular behaviours  to multiple  b e h a v i o u r s was - 78 -  29:19  or 153% and  23:15  or  153%.  For the G a l l e r y  observed.  For  the  13% more s i n g u l a r than m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s were  closed  b e h a v i o u r s f o r females was exhibit  sections  exhibit  almost e q u a l .  females  were  on  the  53%  more  often  In  the  semantic  scored  semi-open  exhibit  similarly  to  differential,  the  differential,  Ill)  ratio  In the open  exhibit  highest  the  on  sections,  closed  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was  exhibit  of  not  the  those  in  ratio  sections on  singular  semi-open  exhibit  results  show  multiple  behaviours  Gallery,  and  60%  40%  more  more  female  which  those  sections  differential,  sections,  and  singular  the  ratio  to  behaviors  sections than  4.52.  79  -  scored  of  female  not  equal.  sections  behaviours  open e x h i b i t  singular  -  semantic  which were  open e x h i b i t  of behaviour shown f o r male and female c h i l d r e n in section  were  behaviours  b e h a v i o u r s than i n the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . T h i s was  children  equal.  equal.  female  in semi-open  female  the  53% more female s i n g u l a r compared to female m u l t i p l e  These  scored  of  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s t o female m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was As w i t h  singular  almost  sections  female  sections,  semantic  multiple  those s e c t i o n s which were  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s to m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s was  II)  and  behaviours.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , lowest  singular  For both the semi-open and open  engaged  b e h a v i o u r s as compared to m u l t i p l e  I)  sections  show  behaviours.  than  female  than  i n the  female not the  i n s e c t i o n 4.42  multiple pattern and male  4.63 The Complexity  of Behaviour  TABLE 17:The Complexity  Gallery  of Behaviour  Index f o r Females  Closed Exhibits  (50%)  complexity  of  behaviours  in Gallery  was  indices  f o r female  sections,  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (41%)  The  (67%)  behaviour 108:217  behaviours  index  (%)  were  56:137  calculated  or 41%  for of  behaviour  for closed  sections  female  exhibit  and 23:37 o r 62%  sections.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s ,  those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d  lowest on the semantic  differential,  index  41%. W i t h i n  f o r females  singular behaviours closed  (62%)  or 50%. The c o m p l e x i t y  29:43 or 67% f o r semi-open e x h i b i t  f o r open e x h i b i t  I)  Index (%) f o r Females  was  behaviours  made  f o r females  exhibit  up  the complexity of behaviour the c l o s e d  the  smallest  f o r an e x h i b i t  exhibit  sections  component  of a l l  section.  T h e r e f o r e , the  s e c t i o n s had the h i g h e s t c o m p l e x i t y  of behaviour  observed f o r females.  II)  In  the semi-open  scored s i m i l a r l y differential, 67%. T h i s  exhibit  t o the c l o s e d  the complexity  the  observed  those  sections  exhibit sections  of behaviour  index  which  were  on the semantic f o r females  was  index was the h i g h e s t index c a l c u l a t e d f o r females i n  the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , show  sections,  highest  therefore,  component  f o r females  of  f o r an  - 80 -  the semi-open e x h i b i t singular  exhibit  singualr  section.  sections  behaviours  Therefore,  the  semi-open  exhibit  sections  had  the  lowest  complexity  of  behaviour f o r feamles.  Ill)  In the open e x h i b i t highest  on  behaviour the  the  index  sections,  semantic  sections.  sections  differential,  f o r females was  index c a l c u l a t e d  exhibit  those  62%.  the  This  f o r female behaviour  T h e r e f o r e open e x h i b i t  results  singular  show  behaviours  the G a l l e r y  and  same p a t t e r n  at  least  a  21%  i n semi-open  the c l o s e d  greater  observed sections  sections.  f o r complexity of behaviour  4.53.  For both males and  of behaviour  i n d i c e s was  females  4.64  The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r  to  had  a similar  sections.  sections  of  female  compared  to the  i n d i c e s as shown f o r both male and male b e h a v i o u r s i n  and j u s t males the  similar for closed  semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  of  i n semi-open  These r e s u l t s were not  and female behaviour o b s e r v a t i o n s in s e c t i o n 4.43 section  similar  predominance  and open e x h i b i t  exhibit  complexity  index was  complexity of behaviour as semi-open e x h i b i t  These  which were s c o r e d  complexity  and semi-open e x h i b i t s , not  as shown f o r females.  to I n t e r a c t i v e  Behaviours  TABLE 18:The R a t i o of Female S i n g u l a r  to I n t e r a c t i v e  Gallery  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  Closed Exhibits  (77%)  For  (67%)  the  behaviours,  Gallery  for  the  females,  (95%)  ratio was  Behaviours  of  singular  121:140  - 81 -  or  (85%)  behaviours  77%.  For  the  to  interactive  closed  exhibit  sections  the  behaviours  ratio  was  56:83  r a t i o of female or  95%.  For  behaviours Gallery  to  of  female  or  67%.  singular open  singular  For  the  behaviours  exhibit  behaviours  semi-open  exhibit  sections  the  ratio  23:27 or  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s . For the c l o s e d  exhibit  behaviours  were  interactive  semi-open  exhibit  interact  behaviours.  the  female  observed  singular  For  behaviours  open  exhibit  b e h a v i o u r s were 85% of the observed  I)  singular  In  the  on  the  semantic  scored s i m i l a r l y differential, Interactive  was  female c h i l d r e n s i n g u l a r and  Ill)  on  of  almost  equal.  sections,  semantic  singular  behaviours  indicate  that  to  Amazon  observed  female  singular For  95%  observed  sections  of  the  feamle  the the  the  singular  ratios  sections  exhibit  sections  female  singular  These  those  data  interactive  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours  - 82 -  female  on  which the  were  semantic  behaviours  indicate  that  to for  an equal number of  observed.  sections  differential,  of  lowest.  those  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s were  the  the  behaviours.  i n semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  In the open e x h i b i t highest  ratio  29:30  those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d  sections,  t o the c l o s e d  the  For  the  singular  77% of the  sections  differential,  exhibit  female  85%.  were  t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was  semi-open  sections  i n t e r a c t i v e behaviours.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , lowest  II)  of  the number of female s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s was  of  interactive  t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was  67%  to  which were  the  behaviours observed  scored  ratio  of  female  was  85%.  These  i n open  sections  were  15%  less  than  female  singular  behaviours  observed  i n the  section.  For of  females, the G a l l e r y singular  and c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  b e h a v i o u r s t o i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s . For females  and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s behaviours.  This  was  show s i m i l a r r a t i o s of s i n g u l a r  not  a  pattern  behaviour o b s e r v a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d pattern  established  observations singular  with  both  in s e c t i o n s  4.31  than  shown  male  and  4.32,  behaviours  as a l s o d i s c u s s e d not  always  closed,  4.33  to i n t e r a c t i v e  male  and  t o male  female  However, as w i t h child  females were an  and  male  observed  interactive  the  child  t o show behaviour  sections.  Behaviours  above  t o male  i n many ways the p a t t e r n behaviours  the p a t t e r n  behaviours  semi-open and open e x h i b i t  observed  of  i n the However,  of female b e h a v i o u r s were  i n the  Gallery  and  i n the  sections.  4.71 The Comparison of Male and Female S i n g u l a r  TABLE 19:The R a t i o  of Male t o Female S i n g u l a r  Gallery  Closed E x h i b i t s  (95%>  semi-open  semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  in section  comparable  4.33  comparable  G a l l e r y and i n the c l o s e d ,  female  in closed e x h i b i t  in s e c t i o n was  4.31.  accompanied by  4.70 The Comparison of Male and Female  As d i s c u s s e d  f o r both  in section  and  b e h a v i o u r s more o f t e n  in open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  female  show s i m i l a r r a t i o s  Behaviours  Behaviours Frequencies  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (98%)  (79%)  - 83 -  (100%)  For 95%.  For  the G a l l e r y the  behaviours  closed  were  the r a t i o and  55:56  open  or  98%  of  singular  exhibit and  b e h a v i o u r s was  sections  23:23  or  the  ratios  100%.  For  e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s the r a t i o of s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s was  I)  In  the  closed  and  open  exhibit  were s c o r e d lowest and h i g h e s t male and female  II)  In  the  scored s i m i l a r l y  exhibit  t o the c l o s e d  females  had  those  more  singular semi-open 79%.  sections  which  differential,  the  equal.  sections  exhibit sections  21%  the  those  on the semantic  sections,  of  23:29 or  s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s were almost  semi-open  differential,  sections,  194:202 or  on  singular  which the  were  semantic  behaviours  than  males.  Male  compared  behaviours sections.  to  female  observed For  behaviours  i n the G a l l e r y  the semi-open  were  and  almost  i n the c l o s e d  exhibit sections  behaviours  show that  less often  in s i n g u l a r b e h a v i o u r s than female  4.72  male c h i l d r e n  equal  in family  the  and  frequency  of Male t o Female M u l t i p l e  Gallery  Closed Exhibits  (96%)  singular  open  exhibit  of  singular  groups were observed  21%  children.  The Comparison of Male and Female M u l t i p l e Behaviour  TABLE 20:The R a t i o  for  Frequencies  Behaviours  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (95%)  (126%)  - 84 -  (80%)  For female  the  Gallery  multiple  the comparison  behaviours  was  93:96  s e c t i o n s male m u l t i p l e  t o female  For  open  the  semi-open  and  I)  or  For  the  closed  b e h a v i o u r s was  sections  or 126% and  male  12:15  or  behaviours  exhibit  57:60 or  multiple  to  to  95%.  female  80%.  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d lowest  on  the  semantic  differential,  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s were almost  II)  96%.  multiple  exhibit  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s were 24:19  of male m u l t i p l e  In  the  semi-open  scored s i m i l a r l y differential,  exhibit  the  male  sections,  had  female  equal.  those  sections  t o the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s on  males  and  26%  more  multiple  which the  were  semantic  behaviours  than  females.  Ill)  In the open e x h i b i t highest  on  the  s e c t i o n s , those  semantic  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s than  Male  compared  to  female  b e h a v i o u r s observed Male  compared  to  s e c t i o n s which were  differential,  females  had  scored  20%  more  males.  behaviours  i n the G a l l e r y  were  and  female, b e h a v i o u r s  almost  equal  i n the c l o s e d  were  for  exhibit  significantly  multiple sections.  different  for  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s observed  in semi-open and open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  In  semi-open  males  in  exhibit  sections  were  m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o u r s compared t o females. were observed 20%  less often  observed  26%  more  often  In open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s males  i n m u l t i p l e b e h a v i o r s compared t o females.  - 85 -  4.73  The  Comparison of Male and  TABLE 21:The R a t i o  of Male and  Gallery  Closed  (92%)  The  Female Complexity of Behaviours  Indices  Exhibits  Semi-Open E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (98%)  and  complexity  exhibit  Indices  (61%)  r a t i o of c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour  the G a l l e r y of  Female Complexity of Behaviour  40:41 of  or  98%  behaviour  sections  and  the  i n d i c e s were 46:50 or 92%  i n the c l o s e d index  ratio  was  was  (137%)  exhibit sections.  41:67  or  85:62 or  61%  137%  for  The  the  in the  for  ratio  semi-open  open  exhibit  sect ions.  I)  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , those s e c t i o n s which were lowest  on  the  semantic  complexity  of  Therefore,  within  female  behaviour the  complexity  of  differential, indices  closed  the  comparison  f o r males and  exhibit  behaviour  scored of  the  females was  98%.  sections  where  male  and  highest  there  was  no  was  difference.  II)  In  the  scored  semi-open similarly  differential, Indices  for  semi-open  exhibit to the  the males  exhibit  b e h a v i o u r than  sections,  closed  of  females was  sections  males  females.  - 86  sections  exhibit sections  comparison and  those  -  the  the  complexity  61%. had  on  of  Therefore, a  higher  which  were  semantic behaviour  within  complexity  the of  Ill)  In the open  exhibit  highest  the  on  sections,  semantic  c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour Therefore within  those  sections  differential,  the  which were comparison  scored of  i n d i c e s f o r males and females was  the open e x h i b i t  sections  the  137%.  females had a h i g h e r  c o m p l e x i t y of behaviour than males.  Male compared  to female  behaviour  indices  sections.  Male  r a t i o s were almost  calculated  compared  f o r the  to  female  equal  Gallery  f o r the complexity of  and  complexity  the c l o s e d  exhibit  behaviour  indices  of  c a l c u l a t e d f o r the semi-open and open e x h i b i t  s e c t i o n s were  significantly  behaviour  different.  semi-open e x h i b i t in open e x h i b i t  Males  sections,  had  higher  Gallery  complexity  and females had h i g h e r b e h a v i o u r  in  complexity  sections.  4.74 The Comparison of Male and Female I n t e r a c t i v e  TABLE 22:The Behaviours  found t o be  Ratio  of  Male  and  Closed E x h i b i t s (95%)  Female  Singular  Semi-Open  (91%)  Behaviours  to  Interactive  E x h i b i t s Open E x h i b i t s  (110%)  (88%) 1  For  the G a l l e r y  the r a t i o of I n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was  95%. For c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s 76:83 or 91%. b e h a v i o u r s was  For semi-open 33:30  or  the r a t i o of i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was  exhibit  110%.  133:140 or  sections  For open  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s was 24:27 or 88%.  - 87 -  the r a t i o  exhibit  sections  of  interactive  the r a t i o  of  I)  In the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , lowest  on  the  interactive  semantic  those s e c t i o n s which were s c o r e d  differential,  b e h a v i o u r s were w i t h i n  the male  10% of each  and  female  other.  Feamles  had 9% more I n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s then males f o r c l o s e d  exhibit  sectoins.  II)  In  the semi-open  scored s i m i l a r l y differential,  exhibit  sections,  t o the c l o s e d  males  those  sections  exhibit sections  had 10% more  Interactive  which  were  on the semantic behaviours  than  females. Ill)  In the open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s , highest  on  t h e semantic  those s e c t i o n s  differential,  which were s c o r e d  females  had  12% more  i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s than males.  Male  compared  interactive closed  t o female  b e h a v i o u r s observed  exhibit  sections  b e h a v i o u r s were w i t h i n were found  b e h a v i o u r s were almost  for individual  For t h e G a l l e r y  the c a l c u l a t i o n s of the comparison 10% of 1.0. Male compared t o female  t o be g r e a t e r  exhibit sections.  i n the G a l l e r y .  equal  than  o r equal  and  interactive behaviours  t o 10% i n semi-open and open  In semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  male c h i l d r e n  i n family  groups had 10% more i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s w i t h a d u l t s than observed f o r female c h i l d r e n .  In open e x h i b i t  sections  females  i n family  groups had  12% more i n t e r a c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s than observed f o r male c h i l d r e n . The  r e s u l t s show p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d w i t h i n  exhibit sections.  different  These p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o u r d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r  are the b a s i s f o r c o n c l u s i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r .  - 88 -  Title:  A Study  of C h i l d r e n ' s  Behaviour  Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c  i n Family  Groups  i n the Graham  Aquarium.  CHAPTER 5.00: CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER  RESEARCH  5.10 C o n c l u s i o n s of the P r e s e n t Study Based on the Data  Based on the p a t t e r n in  CHAPTER  ten year  Gallery, upon  These  conclusions  o l d children  of  indicates  I)  of  CHAPTER  the  data  groups  in  THE  SCOPE  CHAPTER  4.00:  i s able  to  the Graham  conclusions  discussed OF  THE  a r e based  in section,  STUDY.  DISCUSSION  Amazon  The  OF  1.51  previous  THE  RESULTS  that:  The b e h a v i o u r s of elementary aged c h i l d r e n and t h e i r with a d u l t s were found t o vary Amazon  II)  visiting  were o r i g i n a l l y  ONE:  discussed  t o the b e h a v i o u r s of seven  Aquarium. The f o l l o w i n g  the hypotheses which  Hypotheses,  pertain  in family  Vancouver P u b l i c  analysis  and  4.00: DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS, the r e s e a r c h e r  draw c o n c l u s i o n s . to  of c h i l d b e h a v i o u r s i d e n t i f i e d  The  interaction  i n the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  of Graham  Gallery.  behaviours  interaction sections  with  of  elementary  adults  were  of the Graham Amazon  -  aged  male  found  to  Gallery.  89 -  children vary  and  i n the  their  exhibit  Ill)  The  behaviours  of  elementary  aged  female  i n t e r a c t i o n a d u l t s were found t o vary  children  and  their  i n the e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s of  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  IV)  The b e h a v i o u r s of elementary their  Interaction  adults  aged male and female c h i l d r e n and  were  found  to  vary  i n the  exhibit  s e c t i o n s of the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y .  V)  The b e h a v i o u r s of elementary aged c h i l d r e n and t h e i r w i t h within  the  Graham  Amazon  d i f f e r i n g "Information  The Gallery  variablity were  In c h i l d  the b a s i s  CHAPTER 4.00: DISCUSSION regard  I)  of  low  closed  exhibits  to  vary  with  loads".  behaviour  the c h i l d  most  throughout  behaviour  behaviours  low " i n f o r m a t i o n  "information  found  the Graham  pattern  Amazon  discussed  conclusions  in with  i n f a m i l y groups were:  displayed  G a l l e r y with  were  OF THE RESULTS. The s p e c i f i c  t o c h i l d behaviour  Children  Gallery  adults  load," were  were those  load."  i n those  of the  The e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h  the c l o s e d which  sections  exhibit  displayed  sections. small  The  reptiles,  i n s e c t s and f i s h .  II)  Children  displayed  exhibit  sections  the g r e a t e s t with  low  variety  "information  s e c t i o n s w i t h the low " i n f o r m a t i o n sect ions.  - 90 -  of behaviour load."  The  i n those exhibit  load" were the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  Ill)  Children sections with  high  interacted with  high  with  adults  "information  "information  The open e x h i b i t s were  load"  more  often  load."  were  in  The  exhibit  the open  those which d i s p l a y e d  those  exhibit  exhibit sections sections.  l a r g e r e p t i l e s and  birds.  IV)  Male c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d most b e h a v i o u r s i n those s e c t i o n s of the G a l l e r y with the  V)  Male  low " I n f o r m a t i o n  low " i n f o r m a t i o n  children  load."  The e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s  with  load," were the c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  displayed  the  those e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h  greatest  variety  low " I n f o r m a t i o n  s e c t i o n s w i t h the low " i n f o r m a t i o n  of  load."  behaviour  in  The e x h i b i t  load" were the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  sections.  VI)  Male c h i l d r e n i n t e r a c t e d with a d u l t s more o f t e n s e c t i o n s with h i g h high  VII)  "information  "information  with  G a l l e r y with the  low  load." The e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s with  load" were the open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  Female c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d the  In those e x h i b i t  most  behaviours  low " i n f o r m a t i o n "information  load."  load,"  i n those  s e c t i o n s of  The e x h i b i t  were  the  closed  sections exhibit  s e c t ions,  VIII)  Female c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d  the g r e a t e s t  those e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h  low " i n f o r m a t i o n  s e c t i o n s with the low " i n f o r m a t i o n sections.  -  v a r i e t y of behaviour i n  91  -  load."  The e x h i b i t  load" were the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  IX)  Female  children  exhibit  interacted  sections  sections  with  with  with  lowest  lowest  adults  more  "information  "information  load"  often  load." were  in  The the  those  exhibit  semi-open  e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s . The semi-open e x h i b i t s were the e x h i b i t s which displayed  X)  the l a r g e  reptiles.  Male c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r children load."  in  The  those  exhibit  exhibit  v a r i e t y of behaviour than female  sections  s e c t i o n s with  with  the lowest  lowest  "information  "information  load"  were the semi-open e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s .  XI)  Female c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r children  i n those e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h h i g h  The e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s w i t h high exhibit  XII)  Male  children  Interacted  with  i n t e r a c t e d with  "information "information  Female  "information  "information  load."  load" were the open  sections.  children  XIII)  v a r i e t y of behaviour than male  load."  adults  adults  The  open  more  in e x h i b i t exhibit  often  than  sections  sections  had  female  with  high  the  high  load."  children  i n t e r a c t e d with  i n t e r a c t e d with a d u l t s  a d u l t s more than male  in e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s with  low  children  "information  load." The semi-open and c l o s e d e x h i b i t s e c t i o n s had the lowest "information  load."  The p r e c e e d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s research  i n the  suggest some recommendations  the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y . Future  -  92  -  research  f o r future will  allow  the  researcher  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the v i s i t s  made by c h i l d r e n ,  f a m i l i e s t o the G a l l e r y , a r i c h e x h i b i t environment, more  a d u l t s and  thoroughly.  5.20 F u r t h e r Research a s Suggested by the Data  The are  suggestions  f o r further research  based upon the o b s e r v a t i o n s  d u r i n g the p r e s e n t  I)  Within  This  Amazon  semi-open  as  having  however, t h i s darkens over display, as and  Gallery  transformation.  is a  visitors  i n the G a l l e r y by the r e s e a r c h e r  study.  the  physical  made  i n the Graham Amazon G a l l e r y  This  exhibit  exhibit  exhibit,  low  exhibit  one  an  takes  "information  load".  regular display.  perceived Once  different  by  every  place,  the hour,  the sky  the l a r g e c r o c o d i 1 i a n s , b i r d s f l y i n and out of the  the atmosphere around the e x h i b i t  becomes a n t i c i p a t o r y  l i g h t e n i n g f l a s h e s and thunder rumbles. Then the s i m u l a t e d  exhibit  changes  analysis  of  before,  a  i s the caimen  exhibit  becomes a much  on  storm during  child  during  subsides. the  behaviour  and  after  Child  behaviour  transformation, at  the  the semi-open  tropical  the r a i n  rain  pours  around the  therefore, caimen  storm,  an  exhibit  should  be  conducted.  II)  Within  the Amazon  G a l l e r y the c l o s e d e x h i b i t  g r e a t e s t v a r i e t y of c h i l d behaviour. divided  into  three  subject  s e c t i o n s show the  T h i s e x h i b i t s e c t i o n can be  a r e a s . The s u b j e c t s  f o r these  a r e a s a r e i n s e c t s , small r e p t i l e s and f i s h e s . D u r i n g  - 93 -  three  the present  study  the  insects  most  behaviours  sections. closed  and  small  were  observed  C h i l d behaviour  exhibit  section  some d i f f e r e n c e s therefore,  an  "information  of  r e p t i l e s were the within  observed  of  the  behaviour  analysis  load" w i t h i n  the  i n these  Gallery  child  the  closed  a r e a s where  closed  exhibit  subsections  indicated  within  of  two  closed  that  exhibit  behaviour  of  the  there  was  sections,  and  percieved  exhibit sections  should  be  conducted.  Ill)  Within  the  behaviour evaluate  Amazon was  the  behaviour was interaction  observed.  during  The  not with  the  different  exhibit adult  alpha  behaviour  extended  to  the  studies w i l l  be  of the  present  the  within  the  l e a r n i n g was  not  "Information  load,"  research this  area  i s an  study,  11  complexity  impractical  may  by  the  the of  i s hoped also  study, only  adult  recorded.  Adult  was  children  exhibit  that why  varied  behaviour  - 94 -  within  therefore, sections  of  a  these  so  an the  graciously  future  research  further research  into  complexity of behaviour  researcher.  since  to  Adult  Gallery,  ask  r e s u l t s of  endeavour  used  conducted.  Information load,"  suggested by  suggested  it  child  adults.  Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium, as  undertaken. One  the r e a l t i o n s h l p between  present  alpha  of  Graham Amazon G a l l e r y s h o u l d be  support  completed by  the  to  study  differential  children  i n response sections  present  semantic  recorded during  observed  With the  the  e x h i b i t environment was  behaviour  analysis  Gallery  The and  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between learning  present  concept  and  of  is a  study. what  future  However,  constitutes  learning it  in free  i s not  simply  choice  environments has  f a c t u a l a c q u i s i t i o n , as  not  been  i s often  certainly  investigated  i n museum  environments. A methodology  for analysing  between " i n f o r m a t i o n  load,"  complexity of behaviour and  been  as  conceptualized  choice between  environments "information  further research  and  yet, a  load"  A  clear  for  complexity  In t h i s a r e a .  - 95  direct  definition  methodology and  the  developed,  -  of  studying of  inter-relationship l e a r n i n g has learning its  behaviour  in  not free  relationship must  preceed  T i t l e : A Study of C h i l d r e n ' s Behaviour i n Family Groups Amazon G a l l e r y , Vancouver P u b l i c Aquarium.  CHAPTER 6.00:  6.10  i n the  Graham  BIBLIOGRAPHY  References  1)  AAZPA . (1984). American Aquariums D i r e c t o r y .  Association  2)  Alexander Edward P.. (1979). Museums i n Motion. N a s h v i l l e : A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S t a t e and Local H i s t o r y .  3)  Anderson G.J. and H.J. Walberg. (1974). L e a r n i n g Environments. In Walberg (Ed.). Evaluating Educational Performance. Berkely: McCuthcheon. 81-98.  4)  B a l l i n g John D. and John H. F a l k . (1980). A P e r s p e c t i v e on F i e l d Trips: Environmental E f f e c t s on L e a r n i n g . C u r a t o r . 23:4. 229-239.  5)  B.C. Museums A s s o c i a t i o n . (1983). D i r e c t o r y of Museums. A r c h i v e s 8. A r t G a l l e r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. In Duckies ( E d . ) . B.C. Museums Association.  6)  B e r l y n e D.E.. (1960). McGraw-Hill Inc..  7)  Brown W.S.. manuscript  8)  Carr Stephen. (1978). Some Criteria f o r Environmental Form. Humanscaoe: Environments f o r P e o p l e . North S c i t u a t e : Duxbury P r e s s . 156-160.  9)  Cone C y n t h i a A.. (1978). Space, Time and Family I n t e r a c t i o n : V i s i t o r Behaviour at the S c i e n c e Museum of Minnesota. Curator. 21:3. 245-258.  Conflict.  Arousal  of  Zoological  and  Parks  Curiosity.  and  American  Toronto:  (1978). The Museum V i s i t o r : Demography and b e h a v i o u r , ( a in p r i n t ) .  10) F a l k John H.. W. Wade M a r t i n and John D. B a l l i n g . (1978). The Novel F i e l d - T r i p Phenonmena: Adjustment to Novel S e t t i n g s I n t e r f e r e s w i t h Task L e a r n i n g . J o u r n a l of Research in Science Teaching. 15:2. 127-134. 11) Behaviour 267-276.  as  Predictors  of  Learning.  - 96 -  Science  . (1983). Time and Education. 62:2.  12) G o t t f r i e d J e f f r y . (1980). Do C u r a t o r . 23:3. 165-174.  Children  Learn on School  •13) H i l l C.A.. (1971). An A n a l y s i s of the Zoo V i s i t o r . Yearbook. 11. 158-165. 14) Hensel Karen. (1982). A New Look at our E t h n o g r a p h i c A n a l y s i s of the Family U n i t . Annual AAZPA Conference. 1982.  Field  Trips?.  International  Zoo  Largest Audience: P r o c e e d i n g s of the  15) Jonathan Ruth. (1981). E m p i r i c a l Research and E d u c a t i o n Theory. In B r i a n Simon and John W i l l a c k s ( E d s . ) . Research and P r a c t i c e i n the Primary Classroom. London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l . 161-175. 16) Kaplan Stephen. (1978). P e r c e p t i o n of an U n c e r t a i n Environment. Humanscape: Environments f o r P e o p l e . North S c i t u a t e : Duxbury P r e s s . 30-35. 17)  . (1978). A t t e n t i o n and F a s c i n a t i o n : The Search f o r Cognitive Clarity. Humanscape: Environments f o r People. North S c i t u a t e : Duxbury P r e s s . 84-90.  18) K i l b o u r n B r e n t . (1980). Ethnographic Research and the Improvement of T e a c h i n g . In Hugh Mundy, Graham Orpwood and Thomas Russel ( E d s . ) . S e e i n g C u r r i c u l u m i n a New L i g h t : E s s a y s from S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n . T o r o n t o : Oise P r e s s . 19) Koran John J . J r . and Sarah J . Longino. (1982). C u r i o s i t y behaviour in Formal and Informal S e t t i n g s : What Research Says. B u l l e t i n f o r Florida Education Research and Development Council. Sanibel, F l o r i d a . 1-31. 20)  . (1983). A Framework f o r C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g Research i n N a t u r a l H i s t o y Museums and S c i e n c e C e n t e r s . J o u r n a l of Research i n S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . 20:4. 325-339.  21) Lambert. D.G.. 13-16.  (1972). Zoos and E d u c a t i o n . Trends  22) L i n n M a r c i a C . (1976). E x h i b i t Making. C u r a t o r . 19:4. 291-302.  Evaluation  -  i n E d u c a t i o n . 27.  Informed  Decision  23) Lynch K e v i n . (1978). The Image of the Environment. Humanscape: Environments f o r P e o p l e . North S c i t u a t e : Duxbury P r e s s . 150-155. 24) McCarthy B e r n l c e . (1980). The Styles With Right/Left Mode Excel,Inc..  4-MAT System: T e a c h i n g t o L e a r n i n g Techniques. Barrington, Illinois:  25) Mehrabian Albert and J.A. Russell. (1974). Environmental P s y c h o l o g y . Cambridge: MIT P r e s s .  - 97 -  An  Approach  to  26) Mehrabian A l b e r t . (1976). Chapter 21: Museums and G a l l e r i e s . P u b l i c P l a c e s and P r i v a t e Spaces. New York: B a s i c Books Inc.. 229-242. 27) P e t e r s o n R.W. and Lawrence F. Lowery. (1972). The Use of Motor A c t i v i t y as an Index of C u r i o s i t y i n C h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l of Research in S c i e n c e T e a c h i n g . 9:3. 193-200. 28) S c h l e g e l Donna M.. (1982). E d u c a t i n g the General Zoo V i s i t o r . P r o c e e d i n g s of the AAZPA Conference. 1982. 251-260. 29) Screven C.G.. (1975). The E f f e c t i v e n e s s V i s i t o r L e a r n i n g . C u r a t o r . 18:3. 219-243. 30) Approach.  . (1976). E x h i b i t C u r a t o r . 19:4. 271-289.  of  Evaluation  Guidance  - A  Goal  Annual  Devices  on  Referenced  31) S e r r e l l B e v e r l y . (1977). Survey of V i s i t o r A t t i t u d e and Awareness a t an Aquarium. C u r a t o r . 20:1. 48-52. 32) S h e t t e l H a r r i s H.. (1973). E x h i b i t s : Medium?. Museum News. September . 32-41. 33) Turkowski F . J . . (1971). 6:11. 25-26.  A r t Form  or Educational  L e a r n i n g a t the Zoo. Parks  and R e c r e a t i o n .  34) Wolf Robert L. and Barbara L. T y m i t z . (1978a). A P r e l i m i n a r y Guide for Conducting Naturalistic Evaluation in Studying Museum Environments. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington. 35)  . (1978b). Whatever Happened t o the Giant Wombat: An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the Impact of the Ice Age Mammals and Emergence of Man E x h i b i t N a t i o n a l Museum of N a t u r a l History. Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Washington.  36)  . (1979). "East S i d e . West S i d e . S t r a i g h t Down the M i d d l e " : A Study of V i s i t o r P e r c e p t i o n s of "our Changing Land." The B i c e n t e n n i a l E x h i b i t . N a t i o n a l Museum of N a t u r a l History Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution. Washington.  37)  . (1981). "Hev Mom. That E x h i b i t ' s A l i v e " : A Study of V i s i t o r P e r c e p t i o n s of the C o r a l Reef E x h i b i t . National Museam of Natural History Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . Washington.  - 98 -  APPENDIX 1: The Map nf  rh»  a*)]»  n  FIGURE 7: Map of the Amazon G a l l e y  Graham Amazon Gallery: V.PA.  -99-  APPENDIX 2: OBSERVATIONAL DATA  The the the  o b s e r v a t i o n a l data  f o l l o w i n g manner. Each of observations  behaviours  made  on  and  are  1.32  Definition  a d u l t s . Each  observed  one  blocks alpha  of  zeros  child  been o r g a n i z e d  and  and  ones  the  in  represents  corresponding  of t h e i r a t t e n d i n g a d u l t . Each "1" r e p r e s e n t s the o b s e r v a t i o n  of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour section  the  that f o l l o w s has  at t h i s  "0" time  l i s t e d by e x h i b i t  as d e s c r i b e d by b e h a v i o u r s  of S p e c i f i c  represents interval.  Behaviour  that  this  Observations  s e c t i o n s and by  -100-  sex.  "0 to 9"  defined in  Terms, f o r a l p h a specific and  behaviour  t o t a l s of  children was  not  observations  APPENDIX 2: TABLE 23 Males: Closed Exhibits < Rows = 60s observation Intervals / Blocks = 1 alpha child ) Child  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  BEHAVIOURS  7  8  9  T  Adult  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0 I 0 I 0 L 0 I 0 () 0 t 0 I 0 I  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1  0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  i 1 1 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1  1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 1 1  0 0 1 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 0 0  2 i 3 1 1 2  0 1 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0  1 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  -101-  T  Child 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1  t  1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1  1  1 1 1 0 0 1  BEHAVIOURS  Adult  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0 0 0 0 1 0  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1  2 2 2 2 2 3  ! 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0  1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2  1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 1 0  0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0  1 1 4 2  1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  0 0 1 0 1 0  0 0 1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0  2 1 4 1 3 1  0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 1 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  2 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1  1 1 1  -102-  Child 1  2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1  2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 4  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 i  0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0  1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  3 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 3  0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 2 1  1 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  Adult  0  1  3  BEHAVIOURS 0  -103-  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 i 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1  1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  ! 1 1  1 1 1 1  1  1  Child 3  4  5  BEHAVIOURS  6  7  8  9  T  Adult  0  1  2  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 1 1  0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 0 0 0  2 2 3 2 2 3 2  1 0 1 0 1 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  0 1 1 1  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 1 0 1  1 0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  2 1 1 1 1 3 2  0 1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 0 1  1 0 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0  Child  1 84  17 18 11 20  8 10  1  2  TOTALS  3 20 192  54  -104-  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 1 1 1 1 1  0 g 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  2 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0  1 1 3 2 1 1 2  6 16 23 12  1  6  1 130  Adult  0 11  APPENDIX 2s TABLE 24  Females: C l o s e d E x h i b i t s ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l s / B l o c k s = i n d i v i d u a l s ) Child 3  4  5  BEHAVIOURS  6  7  8  9  T  Adult  0  1  2  0  0 0 0 0  0 1 1 0  0 0 0 1  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 2  1 1 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0  0 1  1 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  1 1  0 1  0 0  1 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 2  1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0  -105-  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  T  Child  BEHAVIOURS  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 i 1 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0  0 0 0 Q  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0  1 0 1  0 1 0  0 1 0  0 0 0  1 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Adult  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T  1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1  0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1  1 0 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0  0 1 0  2 3 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 0 i 0 0 0 1 1 0  0 1 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0  2 1 3 3 4 2 2 1 2 3 1 1  1 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  -106-  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  Child 0  1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1  0 0 0 0 0  3  4  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  6  8  9  1  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 0 0  0 0 1  0 0  1  0  0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1  1  1  1  1 0  0 1  7  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1  0 0 0 0  5  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2  BEHAVIOURS  1 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 1  1  T  0 0 0 0  Adult  0  1  1 0 0  2  1  1  2  1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  1  3  0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  4  0 1 0 0 0 0 0  5  6  1  0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  7  8  9  T  1 2 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 2 1 2  1  1  1 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 2 1 3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0  2  0 0  2 1 1  0 1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  1  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0  2 2 3 3 1  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0  0  1  0 0  0 0 0  0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1  1  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  1 0 0  1  1 0  0 1  1 0 0 0 0 0  1  1  1  1  -107-  1  1  1  1 1 1  1 1 2  1 i 1 1  1  Child 0  i  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 1  0 0 0 0  1 1  1 0 1 0 1  1 1 0 1  1 1 0 1 1  1 0 0 1  0 1  BEHAVIOURS  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  1  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  2  0  1  1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1  1 0 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  4  3  6  3 138  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  1 1  1  0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1  0 1  1  0 0 0 1  1 1  0 1  0 0 0 1 1  0 1  0  1  18  20  16  29  2  1  co  0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0  1 1  1 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 1  2 1 1 1 3  1 1  3 2 2 2  Child  1 80  Adult  1  TOTALS  5  4 20 195  51  -108-  1  0 0 0 1  1 1  0 1 0 0 0  9  Adult  1 14  8 24  24  APPENDIX 2; TABLE 25  Males: Semi-Open E x h i b i t s ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n i n t e r v a l s / B l o c k s = i n d i v i d u a l s ) Child  BEHAVIOURS  Adult  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 2  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  0 0 0  1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0  1 3 1 4 3 3 1 1 1 1  0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0  1 1 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 1  1 1 2 2  1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0  0 1 0 0  0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  1 2 1 1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 1 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 1 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 2 1 1 1  1 0 0 0 1 1  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 1 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 0  0 1 0 1 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1 2 1 1 1 1  0 0 0 0 0  1 1 0 0 1  0 1 0 0 0  0 1 1 1 0  0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 1 1 1 0  2 4 2 2 1  0 0 0 0 1  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  1 0 0 0 0  0 1 1 i 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0  ! 1 1 1 1  -109-  1  Child  0  1  2  3  4  5  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1 1 1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0 0  1 1 1  0  0  BEHAVIOURS  Adult  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  1  1  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  i  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1 1 1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  54  Child  0  36  5  7  7  10  2  TOTALS  2  0  10  79  -110-  21  Adult  0  5  3  14  9  APPENDIX 2: TABLE 26  F e m a l e s : Semi-Open E x h i b i t s  ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n  Child  2  3  4  5  intervals / Blocks = individuals  BEHAVIOURS  6  7  8  9  T  )  Adult  0  1  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0 0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0 0 0 0  1  1 1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0 0  1  0 0  1  -111-  T  Child  0  1  2  3  4  BEHAVIOURS  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  1  35  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  2  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  1  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  1  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  1  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  3  5  6  7  8  9  T  4  0  1  1  55  Child  0  Adult  2  2  3  5  4  5  5  11  6  TOTALS  7  1  8  5  9  0  6  T  Adult  0  71  24  -112-  1  2  5  2  3  3  8  4  7  APPENDIX 2: TABLE 27  Males;  Open  Exhibits  ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n Child  intervals / Blocks = individuals  BEHAVIOURS  )  Adult  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  T  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  J 1  0  0  0  0  0  0  i 1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  j 1  0 0  1  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  !  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  j  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  3  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  i  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  !  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0 0  1 1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  !  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  !  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  2 2  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  3  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  -113-  Child 0  1  2  3  4  BEHAVIOURS  5  6  7  8  9  T  Adult  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  3  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  41  Child  1  24  4  5  8  0  0  TOTAL  2  1  1  50  17  -114-  Adult  0  3  9  2  0  APPENDIX 2: TABLE 28  F e m a l e s : Open E x h i b i t s  ( Rows = 60s o b s e r v a t i o n Child  i n t e r v a l s / Blocks = i n d i v i d u a l s  BEHAVIOURS  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  1  0  )  Adult  T  0  1  2  3  4  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  2  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  i  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  2  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  2  0  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0 0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  1  4  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  -115-  Child  0  0  1  2  1 0  3  4  5  6  0  Adult  BEHAVIOURS  7  8  0  0  9  T  0  0  1  0  1  2  3  4  5  0  0  0  0  6  7  8  1  9  T  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  1 0  1 3  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  1 0  0  1  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0 0  0  0  1 0  0 1  0  1  3  1  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  0  0  0 0  0  0  1  1  0  0  43  0 0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  1  Child  0  29  7  0  7  4  1  0  0  0  0  TOTAL  1  3  0  4  60  18  -116-  0  Adult  0  8  2  6  4  6  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302331/manifest

Comment

Related Items