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Land utilization in the lowland area of Delta Municipality Taylor, Gordon deRupe 1950

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a. ft $f T r L l •'hap,. I LAND UTILIZATION IN THE LOWLAND AREA OF DELTA MUNICIPALITY GORDON deRUPE TAYLOR A THESIS SUBMITTED IN. PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF.:' THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY AND.GEOGRAPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1 9 5 0 Sept.ember...14th 19/ 5.0 To the Dean, Faculty of Arts and Science Gordon ;.:de;Rjipe...Taylpr (Name of Candidate in full) who holds the Degree of..../!..A.» from University of British C University, having satisfied the examiners in Geography. and as major and minor subjects respectively, and having presented a thesis in the Department of Geology & Geography. on the subject Land Utilizat.ion....of the Lowland Area ..of ...Delta Municipality. that fulfils the requirements, is hereby recommended for the Degree of Master of A r t s . Head of Department. 500—10-47 Head of Department. LAUD UTILIZATION L¥ THE LOWLAM). AREA OF DELTA MJHICIPALITY A b s t r a c t of a t h e s i s Toy Gordon deRupe Taylor LAHD UTILIZATION IH THE 10WLAM) AREA OF DELTA MUHICIPALITY - An Abstract -The lowland area of Delta Municipality in Southwestern Br i t i s h Columbia comprising some 50 square miles with a population of 4,000 is one of the main suppliers of food to the Vancouver market. Although 10,000 acres classified as peat are unsuited for agricultural purposes., the remaining area has a f e r t i l e s o i l . In addition the area has a mild climate suited to the development of a dairying economy. . Settlement of Delta started in 1868 and proceeded rapidly for several years. It was the wealth of the Fraser River fisheries rather than the agricultural productivity of the land that 'brought early prosperity to Delta and to Ladner, the municipal centre, in particular. After the decline of the fishing industry following the Hell's Oate disaster in 1913, agriculture became the economic mainstay of the d i s t r i c t . As a result of poor internal transportation and a lack of fresh water in -the western half of the municipality early agricultural practises differed in East Delta and in West Delta, Dairying developed in the east whereas cattle ranching became prominent i n the west. In both sections similar f i e l d crops were grown. The opening of a road network after 1875 and the installation of a municipal water system in 1910 resulted i n dairying gradually becoming the p r i n c i p a l industry of Delta. In recent years a d i v e r s i f i e d agriculture has become the outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the land use pattern i n Delta. The major uses of land are f o r pasture, hay and oats, with lesser amounts devoted to potatoes, peas, and a v a r i e t y of other crops. Most of the farm revenue comes from the sale of f l u i d milk to the Greater Vancouver market. There i s some i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y i n the area. P r i o r to 1913 salmon canning was important but declined consequent upon the diminishing of the Eraser River salmon runs. Between 1942 and 1944 two peat processing plants commenced operations upon the peat bog. They have become the largest i n d u s t r i a l c concerns i n Delta. A vegetable canning factory, a grass dehydration plant, and a g r i s t m i l l are the l o c a l industries based upon agriculture. Ladner i s the municipal centre and owes i t s prosperity to the surrounding farming community, o r i g i n a l l y Ladner grew i n response to the f i s h i n g industry. Summer resorts have grown up at Beach Grove and Boundary Bay. Sunbury i s a small f i s h i n g community along the r i v e r and Tswassen i s an Indian reservation. Since 1941 an area of 1,100 acres has been used f o r m i l i t a r y purposes. 3. The conclusions arrived at i n the thesis were that the area should remain as a g r i c u l t u r a l land. Danger from flooding and the limited amount of good a g r i c u l t u r a l land near tiie c i t y of Vancouver are two factors which should operate against urbanization of the f e r t i l e lowlands of the Fraser V a l l e y . In the event that urban development should come a plan to provide the necessary services and to prevent f r i c t i o n with the farming community has been recommended. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The p r e p a r a t i o n of a t h e s i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e without the h e l p and c o - o p e r a t i o n of many people. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , only r i g h t and customary t h a t I should a t t h i s time attempt to thank those without whose c o - o p e r a t i o n I c o u l d not have succeeded i n completing t h i s t h e s i s . I should l i k e to acknowledge the suggestions and h e l p r e c e i v e d from Dr. J . L. Robinson, Dr. J . R. Mackay and Mr. J . Chapman of the Department of Geology and Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; the kindness of Mr. Leon J . Ladner, K.C. i n a l l o w i n g me to examine f a m i l y paper p e r t a i n -i n g t o e a r l y days on the D e l t a ; to Mr. Edgar C. Dunning and Mr. L i n t o n E c c l e s of The Ladner O p t i m i s t f o r a l l o w i n g me access to the complete f i l e of t h e i r newspaper; to o f f i c i a l s of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , D e l t a Board of Trade, D e l t a Farmers 1 I n s t i t u t e , and the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y C r o s s i n g Improvement A s s o c i a t i o n f o r a l l o w i n g me access to t h e i r r e c o r d s ; and to the many r e s i d e n t s of D e l t a who answered qu e r i e s t h a t I d i r e c t e d to them. I should a l s o l i k e to acknowledge the kindness of my f a t h e r i n p e r m i t t i n g me the use of h i s car when I d i d my f i e l d work i n 194-9, and the forebearance and a i d of my w i f e who a t a l l times stood ready to encourage me past the rough p a r t s of the work. Gordon D. T a y l o r TABLE OF CONTENTS I n t r o d u c t i o n I Chapter One The P h y s i c a l Background of the Area 1 Chapter Two P e r i o d of E a r l y Settlement 19 Chapter Three A g r i c u l t u r a l U t i l i z a t i o n 29 Chapter Four I n d u s t r i a l U t i l i z a t i o n 63 Chapter F i v e R e s i d e n t i a l U t i l i z a t i o n 71 Chapter S i x M i l i t a r y U t i l i z a t i o n 90 Chapter Seven Summary of Land Use 92 Chapter E i g h t C o n c l u s i o n s 93 B i b l i o g r a p h y 100 LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS F o l l o w i n g Page F i g u r e No. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia I F i g u r e No. 2 Lower Ma i n l a n d IV F i g u r e No. 3 D e l t a V F i g u r e No. 4 D e l t a - Roads V F i g u r e No. 5 D e l t a -- Geology 2 F i g u r e No. 6 Photograph - general view 3 F i g u r e No. 7 Photograph - C l i f f f a c e of Surrey Upland 4 F i g u r e No. 8 Photograph - Dykes 5 F i g u r e No. 9 D e l t a - Dykes and Drainage 5 F i g u r e No. 10 C l i m a t i c Graph 6 F i g u r e No. 11 Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n , V a r i a t i o n from Average 7 F i g u r e No. 12 Summer P r e c i p i t a t i o n , V a r i a t i o n from Average 7 F i g u r e No. 13 Climograph 8 F i g u r e No. 14 Econograph 8 F i g u r e No. 15 D e l t a - S o i l s 9 F i g u r e No. 16 S o i l Content 10 F i g u r e No. 17 Photograph - pumping s t a t i o n 15 F i g u r e No. 18 Photograph - F l o o d Box E x i t 15 F i g u r e No. 19 Map - F i r s t Land Grants F i r s t Dyked Area 23 F i g u r e No. 20 Map - Farm Settlement 19.49 45 F i g u r e No. 21 Photograph - O l d e r farm House 46 F i g u r e No. 22 Land Use E x c e r p t Map 1 60 F i g u r e No. 23 Land Use E x c e r p t Map 2 60 F i g u r e No. 24 Land Use E x c e r p t Map 3 60 F i g u r e No.. 25 D e l t a - I n d u s t r i e s 63 F i g u r e No. 26 Ladner - Roads 71 F i g u r e No. 27 Photograph - D e l t a S t r e e t 75 F i g u r e No. 28 Photograph - D e l t a S t r e e t 75 F i g u r e No. 29 - Photograph - R e s i d e n t i a l S t r e e t 76 F i g u r e No. 30 Photograph - O l d e r s t y l e Residences 76 F i g u r e No. 31 Photograph - Bungalow s t y l e " Residences 76 F i g u r e No. 32 Map - Ladfler, D e l t a Manor 77 F i g u r e No. 33 Photograph - Family home of" T. E. Ladner 80 F i g u r e No. 34 Photograph - Westminster Ave. 80 F i g u r e No. 35 Photograph - Waterfront Beach Grove 82 F i g u r e No. 36 Photograph - Main Road, Beach Grove . 82 F i g u r e No. 37 Map - Beach Grove and Boundary Bay 84 F i g u r e No. 38 D e l t a - Land Use 92 F i g u r e No. 39 Proposed Townsite 97 INTRODUCTION A geographer i n making,a l a n d use study i s p r i n c i p a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s that, e x i s t between* the p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n and the p h y s i c a l geography of the a r e a . He i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out what f a c t o r s of the environment, p h y s i c a l and human, c o n t r o l the l a n d use p a t t e r n . Beyond the f a c t of d e s c r i b i n g the l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n and p o i n t i n g out the r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t between i t and the p h y s i c a l geography, he i s concerned w i t h the problem of s u i t a b i l i t y of l a n d use. He must be aware of s i t u a t i o n s which may g r e a t l y change the presen t environment and make necessary a change of l a n d use.: I n t h i s r e g a r d the geographer should be able to recommend how such changes can be made while s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g maximum u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d . These problems would a l s o be met by an a g r i c u l t u r i s t i n making a l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n study. There i s , however, a d i f f e r e n c e between the problems as they apply to the geographer and t o the a g r i c u l t u r i s t . The geographer i s i n t e r e s t e d i n a l l phases of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n while the a g r i c u l t u r i s t would be. i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n . I t Is because of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n emphasis t h a t the geographer can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the knowledge of an area by under-t a k i n g a l a n d use study. . -The purpose of t h i s study is. to ev a l u a t e the l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n of the lowland a r e a of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. The p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l landscapes of the area w i l l be an a l y s e d In so f a r FIGURE NO. 1 I I as they liave a b e a r i n g on. the l a n d use of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A f t e r t h i s a n a l y s i s h a s b e e n made i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to decide i f the l a n d i s b e i n g used i n an e f f e c t i v e and de-s i r a b l e manner. Should the f i n d i n g s of t h i s t h e s i s be th a t there i s not e f f e c t i v e and d e s i r a b l e l a n d use, then recomm-endations w i l l be made so t h a t improvements may be brought about. On the other hand, should the f i n d i n g s be t h a t the l a n d use i s e f f e c t i v e ' and d e s i r a b l e , t h a t f a c t w i l l be s t r e s s e d i n the c o n c l u s i o n s . The conception, h e l d by the w r i t e r , i s t h a t the primary-f u n c t i o n of a l a n d use study' should* be to determine how the l a n d i s b e i n g used now. Thorough r e s e a r c h should be made i n t o a l l f a c t o r s , p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l and 'hls-fc&rical, which may h e l p to e x p l a i n the present use. Observations should be made of the l a n d use In ne i g h b o u r i n g areas w i t h a s i m i l a r n a t u r a l environment. ..The advantages o r l i m i t a t i o n s g i v e n the area by i t s p h y s i c a l geography should a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . I f a s i m i l a r use e x i s t s throughout the a d j a c e n t area's and i f the. p h y s i c a l environment can be .shown to have been the primary c a u s a l f a c t o r ' i n d e t e r m i n i n g l a n d use, then most a t t e n t i o n should be d i r e c t e d towards e x p l a i n i n g the e f f e c t of the n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . The w r i t e r a l s o f e e l s t h a t w hile l a n d survey, f i e l d shape and road p a t t e r n are of i n t e r e s t , they are of secondary importance i n a study of t h i s n a t u r e . I n d e a l i n g w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use the major concern should be w i t h what i s i n the f i e l d r a t h e r t h a n . i n the shape of the f i e l d . The problem of l a n d use other than • I I I a g r i c u l t u r a l i n a r u r a l area should be approached from the p o i n t of view: ( 1 ) has i t grown out of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use ( 2 ) has i t evolved out of a separate cause. I t would seem to the w r i t e r t h a t each l a n d use study must be judged on'the b a s i s of the area f o r which i t i s done. The c o n d i t i o n s i n t h a t a r e a .must be co n s i d e r e d , and the end r e s u l t of the r e s e a r c h should be r a t e d i n accordance^ w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than a g a i n s t any pr e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n .of what a study should i n c l u d e . DEFINITION OF THE AREA The area s e l e c t e d f o r study i n t h i s t h e s i s c o n s i s t s of t h a t p o r t i o n of D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, l y i n g below the 25 f o o t contour l e v e l . D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y i s a p a r t of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y Region of southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. The d i s t r i c t extends west-ward from the western face of the Surrey Ter r a c e to the G u l f ' of Georgia, and southward from the South Arm of the F r a s e r R i v e r to Boundary Bay and E n g l i s h B l u f f , or the P o i n t Roberts Upland. The m u n i c i p a l i t y has a t o t a l a r e a of 58 square m i l e s of which 50 square m i l e s a re w i t h i n the a r e a covered b y v t h l s r e s e a r c h . I t has an es t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n of 6,000 of which #,000 l i v e w i t h i n the s e l e c t e d a r e a . v The- d e c i s i o n to use a topographic r a t h e r t h a t a p o l i t i c a l boundary f o r the area was ba$ed on s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : ( 1 ) w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t s e l e c t e d t h e r e i s a u n i t y of g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y and of topography, ( 2 ) the s o i l s a re of the same i v o r i g i n - a l l u v i a l , (3) the encroachment of urban set t l e m e n t upon the l e v e l l a n d of the F r a s e r D e l t a may mean t h a t i n a few years the present p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l have been s e v e r l y d i s r u p t e d . I t i s hoped t h a t th i s : t h e s i s w i l l serve three purposes: (1) to provide a d e s c r i p t i o n and an understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between man and h i s environment i n the area, (2) t o provide an a p p r a i s a l of the area which may be of use i n f u t u r e r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , (3) t o be a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the knowledge of the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia. OTHER PAPERS ON THE AREA ' ' .. There have been no p u b l i c a t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the D e l t a I t s e l f . The geology of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y of .which t h e . D e l t a . i s a p a r t has been worked out by W. A. Johnston of the Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey and i s p r e s e n t l y b e i n g redone by Dr. Armstrong of the same s e r v i c e . The s o i l survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y was c a r r i e d out under the d i r e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . There have been no e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s of the economic c o n d i t i o n s of the are a and the onl y general h i s t o r y of the are a was a paper r e a d by E l l i s Ladner to a r e c e n t meeting of the B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of which only a press r e p o r t was a v a i l a b l e a t the time o f w r i t i n g . FIELD WORK • The survey was made during August and September of 1949. FIGURE NO. 2 Surveys of l o c a l areas such as Ladner and D e l t a Manor were made e a r l i e r i n the s p r i n g and summer of the same y e a r . I n making t h i s study no base map of a s i z e s u i t a b l e f o r the purpose was a v a i l a b l e from known sources. I t was necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to c o n s t r u c t a map. One drawn a t a s c a l e of 6 inches to the m i l e proved s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to show a l l the d e t a i l n e c e s s a r y . E x t e n s i v e use was made of a e r i a l photo-ographs. The a r e a has been completely photographed by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Lands and F o r e s t s , and c o p i e s are e a s i l y o b t ained from t h a t department. In making the survey the w r i t e r covered most of the d i s t r i c t by c a r . Around the more populated areas observ-a t i o n s were made more a c c u r a t e l y when t r a v e l l i n g by f o o t or on a b i c y c l e . A s e r i e s of s k e t c h maps were drawn to the same s c a l e as the base map and 1used on the survey. D e t a i l from these s k e t c h maps was t r a n s f e r r e d to the l a r g e map a t the end of each day. FIGURE NO. 3 D E L T A . FIGURE NO. 4 ROAD MAP - KEY 1. Ladner Trunk Road 2. Scott Road 3 . River Road 4. Crescent Island Road 5. Boundary Bay Road 6. Westham Road 7. Westham Island Road 8. Mason Road 9. G. B. Main Road' 10. Goudy Road . 11. Benson Road 12. Tasker Road 13. Matthews Road 14. Smith Road 15. Embree Road 16. O l i v e r Road 17. Kittson Road 18. Peck Road 19. F a r r e l l Road 20. . Imperial Road - LAND UTILIZATION OF THE LOWLAND AREA OF D E L T A MJN1CTPALITY . CHAPTER ONE THE PIiYSICAL_BACKGROUKD OE_TH^_AKSA 1. Geology: From a s t r u c t u r a l standpoint the area "... i s part of the great s t r u c t u r a l v a l l e y i n which l i e Puget Sound and the Gulf of Georgia." ( l ) The geology of the Lower Eraser Valley of which the D e l t a forms a part has been traced back at l e a s t to the Mesozoic Era. One of tiie f i r s t events that can be placed i n the geologic timetable i s the i n t r u s i o n of the Coast Range B a t h o l i t h during Upper Jurassic time. Although the area now comprising the low l y i n g D e l t a remained depressed no Jurassic deposits have been found. At the s t a r t of the Cenozoic further u p l i f t of the Coast Range Mountain Region occurred. During Kiddle Eocene the lowland area was depsessed r e l a t i v e to the mountains. Eocene deposits of the K i t s i l a i n o and Burrard Formations were l a i d down at t h i s time. These deposits which consist of shale, conglomerate, sandstone and coal are the f i r s t known ones i n the area. Depression of the area continued during t h i s period of deposition, however, u p l i f t occurred at the end of the Eocene. This u p l i f t i n i t i a t e d a period of erosion. During Miocene the Boundary Bay Formation was l a i d down. This formation, which i s known as a r e s u l t of d r i l l i n g s ( l ) Burwash, E.M.J., The geology of Vancouver and  -vicinity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1918, p.9. 1. carri e d on "by tiie Boundary Bay O i l Company, consists of sediments and volcanic ash that are only s l i g h t l y consolidated and, i n places, e n t i r e l y unconsolidated. The deposits are on top of the K i t s i l a i n o Formation and extend from 2,300 fe e t "below sea • l e v e l to beyond 3,660 fe e t below sea l e v e l . The circumstances surrounding the deposition of the Boundary Bay Formation and the age of these sediments i s not very c l e a r l y known. Evidences of weathering and the presence of l i g n i t e has led to the b e l i e f t h a t the deposits were l a i d down i n shallow fresh water and p a r t l y on land. A lack of f o s s i l s has made the determination of the age of tiie sediments very d i f f i c u l t . Theories have been advanced that they are of Miocene or of Pliocene age, but as u p l i f t of the coastal region occurred i n Pliocene time i t i s , therefore, more reasonable to assume t h a t the sediments are of Miocene age. The area was downwarped following the deposition of the Boundary Bay Formation. The Cenozoic closed with the area being u p l i f t e d higher above sea l e v e l than i s now the case. As a r e s u l t of this u p l i f t a period of erosion set i n . Glaciers covered the area twice during the period of Pleistocene g l a c i a t i o n . Mr. E. M. J . Burwash i n h i s "Geology of Vancouver and V i c i n i t y " has estimated the extent of g l a c i a t i o n as follows: " The C o r d i l l e r a n ice sheet or ice tongues from i t which 2. crossed the Coast Range formed large piedmont g l a c i e r s and f i l l e d the Gulf o<f Georgia with an ice stream which found i t s outlets through the Queen Charlotte Sound, the S t r a i t s of Juan de Fuca, and the Puget Sound Valley." (2) Pleistocene deposits of t i l l extend downwards at the Boundary Bay d r i l l i n g s from 400 f e e t below sea l e v e l to beyond 2,300 fe e t below sea l e v e l . These deposits are composed, f o r the most part of'clay, sand, gravel, boulders, and i n t e r g l a c i a l deposits. " During the f i n a l r etreat of the ice-sheet, the Praser D e l t a was f o r the most part below sea-level and has since been raised above sea-level." (3) I t has been estimated that from 15,000 to 20,000 years have elapsed since the l a s t g l a c i e r of the Ice Age disappeared from the area. (4) At that time the sea stood 650 f e e t higher than at present. Since that time there has been emergence. (5) W. A. Johnston f e e l s that the recent d e l t a formed while the sea and land held their present r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The recent d e l t a i c d.eposits which are composed of f i n e sand, clay, s i l t , and organic material occur to a depth of 400 feet below the present surface of the land. The material which comprises these deposits has largely been c a r r i e d down (2) Burwash, E.M.J., The geology of Vancouver and  v i c i n i t y , University of.Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1918, p.4. (3) Johnston, W.A., Geology of tlae Praser River Delta  Map Area, Memoir 135, Canadian GeolagicaJ. Survey, Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1923, p. 47. (4) Ibid, p . 10. (5) Johnston, ¥.. A., "The character of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the sediment i n the recent d e l t a of the Praser River, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada,'1 Journal of Geology. V o l . XXX, Pebruary-March 1922, p. 119; ^ 3 FIGURE NO. 5 D E L T A - G E O L O G Y EE3 GLACIAL TILL n~l ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS E3 PEAT ( A f t e r W. A. Johnston ) by the F r a s e r R i v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g i t s f r e s h e t stages, a l t h o u g h a s m a l l p a r t of the m a t e r i a l i s thought to have been d e r i v e d from wave e r o s i o n of the s h o r e l i n e of the n e i g h b o u r i n g h i g h l a n d a r e a s . The r i v e r - b o r n e m a t e r i a l comes from three main sources: (a) from g l a c i a l d r i f t a l o n g the banks of the F r a s e r R i v e r above the E r a s e r Canyon, (b) from bedrock ( g r a n i t e ) w i t h i n the canyon i t s e l f , and (c) from d r i f t d e p o s i t s i n the upper p a r t of the d e l t a . I n a d d i t i o n to the i n o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l there i s a l a r g e amount of v e g e t a l m a t e r i a l i n the d e p o s i t s . I t was d e r i v e d from v e g e t a t i o n t h a t o c c u r r e d l o c a l l y and was subsequently covered by; f u r t h e r d e p o s i t s of s i l t , and from d r i f t w o o d which c o l l e c t e d on the shore face of the d e l t a and was b u r i e d by the seaward advance of the d e p o s i t s . D e p o s i t i o n i s c o n t i n u i n g i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and the forward advance of the d e l t a has been estimated to take p l a c e a t an average r a t e of 10 f e e t per y e a r . (6) The peat bog which i s a dominant f e a t u r e of the d i s t r i c t i s thought to occupy a d e p r e s s i o n t h a t was f o r m e r l y a r i v e r channel. The channel, a f t e r b e i n g abandoned by the r i v e r , was not completely f i l l e d by d e p o s i t i o n from f l o o d waters. These depressions were g r a d u a l l y f i l l e d by decaying organic m a t e r i a l and i n p l a c e s have been b u i l t up above the h i g h t i d e l e v e l . The g e n e r a l o u t l i n e of the d e l t a had been e s t a b l i s h e d p r i o r to the formation of the peat bog. Most of the d e l t a l i e s below the l e v e l of extreme h i g h (6) Johnston, W. A., Geology of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a  Map Area, Memoir 135, Canadian G e o l i c l a l Survey, The King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, 1923, p. 6. FIGURE NO. 6 View l o o k i n g southwest ac r o s s D e l t a from the Surrey Upland. Note the l e v e l nature of the ground s u r f a c e and P o i n t Roberts Upland i n the background. tides. It has been estimated that these high tides of 15 feet would just cover elevations of 6.3 feet above sea level. The high tides may be increased by one foot as a result of a strong south or southeast wind during the rise of the tide or by the spring freshet. The highest elevations occur in the peat bog with lower elevations being found radially outward. 2. Topography: The area under study is to a l l intents and purposes f l a t . The slope of the land is so slight that to the eye i t appears nonexistant. The highest part of the Delta is an elevation of 16 feet recorded near the northeast corner of the peat bog. From that point tne heights gradually grade down to between 4 and 7 feet in the areas of all u v i a l s o i l . There is no definite trend in the direction of the slope away from the peat bog. A cross-section taken at random through any part of tne d i s t r i c t would show an undulating effect with a slope that i s rarely greater than eighteen inches to the mile. The outstanding topographic feature of the munici-pality is not a natural one but i s man made. On the north, west and southeast margins dykes form an almost continuous ridge. Two breaks occur in the dykes, at Beach Grove and at Boundary Bay where the sea has built up beaches of sufficient height to provide protection for tne low lying land. The dykes have an elevation of six feet throughout their length. In the dis t r i c t s around Beach Grove and Boundary Bay FIGURE NO. 7 Looking down c l i f f f a c e of Surrey-Upland. Note the steepness of the i n c l i n e . the l e v e l nature of the c o u n t r y s i d e i s i n t e r r u p t e d by s e v e r a l low sand r i d g e s which r i s e about three f e e t above the general l e v e l of the surrounding l a n d . In most p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia r i d g e s of t h i s h e i g h t would be s c a r c e l y n o t i c e a b l e , but on the l e v e l D e l t a they comprise s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s of the topography. These sand r i d g e s mark former beach l e v e l s which would be present when P o i n t Roberts was an i s l a n d d u r i n g the g e o l o g i c p a s t . The development of the d e l t a has caused the sea to r e t r e a t a s h o r t d i s t a n c e and l e a v e the sand r i d g e s as evidence of i t s former encroach-ment upon the l a n d . 3 . Climate The c l i m a t i c readings f o r the area were made a t Ladner, B.C. between the years 1 9 1 0 and 1 9 3 4 . The r e p o r t i n g s t a t i o n a t Ladner had an e l e v a t i o n of 2 f e e t above sea l e v e l . I t was s i t u a t e d a t 4 9 degrees 5 minutes N o r t h L a t i t u d e and 1 2 3 degrees 4 minutes West L o n g i t u d e . C e r t a i n g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i m a t e can be a s c e r t a i n e d from the g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n of the d i s t r i c t . The l o c a t i o n on tne west co a s t of a major c o n t i n e n t i n the middle l a t i t u d e s of the Northern Hemisphere w i l l impose a c l i m a t i c ; p a t t e r n on tne a r e a . V a r i a t i o n s from the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l be dependent upon l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s t h a t we would expect to f i n d are a m i l d c l i m a t e w i t h abundant p r e c i p i t a t i o n . Such i s indeed the case, The e f f e c t of l o c a l p o s i t i o n upon these general c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w i l l be seen when we examine the d e t a i l e d c l i m a t i c FIGURE NO. 8 Dykes a l o n g the F r a s e r R i v e r . <3o FIGURE NO. 9 D E L T A EE3 UPLANDS ES3 BEACHS FLOOD BOX -— DYKES ~- SLOUGHS .5 / 6., data available for the area. Mean monthly temperature and mean monthly precip-itation for Ladner are shown in Pig. No. 10. A comparison of this data with Koppen's Gsb (7) climate w i l l show that the climate of the Delta f i t s within tnis category. January has tne lowest mean monthly temperature (37 degrees). This average f i t s between the c r i t i c a l temperatures of 26.6 degrees and 64.9 degrees set out by Koppen as the limits; for winter -temperature. The months from May to September inclusive have monthly average temper-atures exceeding 50 degrees. These averages place the mean monthly temperatures well above Koppen's minimum summer mean for a C climate. December, the wettest month,with an average of 5.33 inches of precipitation has more than three times the precipitation of July, tne driest month with 1.12 Inches. The July precipitation average i s also less than the maximum amount allowed for the driest month of the year. This data places tne climate within the limits set out for the dry summer phases "s" of Koppen's C climate. July and August with mean monthly temperatures of 62 degrees are the warmest months. Average summer temperatures such as these place the area with-in Koppen's description of the 11 b" or cool summer phases of his warm temperate climate. (7) Osb climate may be defined as follows: C. Warm temperate rainy climate, coldest month below 64.4 degrees., above 29.6 degrees; warmest month over 50 degrees; s. summer dry with at least three times as much rain in the wettest month of winter and in tne driest month of summer, and the driest month of summer receives less than 1.2 Inches; b. cool summer, average temperature of warmest month under 71.6 degrees. Inches 70 J A J 0 LADNER B.C. ANNUAL PRECIPITATION, ANNUAL TEMPERATURE FIGURE NO. 1 0 Although the precipitation of the d i s t r i c t is considered adequate for agricultural purposes there is a considerable variation in the annual total. Annual precipitation has varied from 23.31 inches to 55.86 inches. This gives a variation of from I3inches below average to 19 inches above average. In a seventeen year period (1916 to 1934 less 1921 and 1922) precipitation was below average 8 times, above average 8 times, and average once, see Fig. No. 11. Precipitation for the six summer months averages 9.51 Inches with a minimum of 3.24 inches and a maximum of 21.87 inches. This gives a variation of from 6.27inches below average to 12.36 Inches above average. In the same seventeen year period used in the previous comparison the summer precip-itation was below average eight times and abfive average nine times. - The years in which the summer precipitation was below average were not always the same years in which the annual precipitation was below average. See Fig. No. 12. Precipitation that varies as much as this during the growing season w i l l have an effect on agriculture. In some years there w i l l be poor crops as a result of insufficient r a i n f a l l , while in otners too much r a i n f a l l w i l l damage the crops. The d i s t r i c t has an average of from one hundred to one hundred and ten days with measurable rain each year; 63$ of these rainy days occurring during the winter six months. According to Thornthwalte's latest classification of climates (8) the potential evapotranspiration exceeds (8) Thornthwalte, G. W. "A rational approach to climatic classifications", The Geographical Review. VoL 38 No.l January 1948. 1916 , 1 l 1 1 t 1 L 1917 li 1918 T 1919 1 , 1 9 2 0 1 1923 1924 1925 r 1926 i ; 1927 1928 _r~j 1929 L_, : 1930 L • 1931 1932 : r 1 9 3 3 • 1 1934 ANNUAL PRECIPITATION Varia t i o n from Average FIGURE NO. 11 1 4 1 8 22 i i i i i i _ SUMMER PRECIPITATION Va r i a t i o n from Avergge FIGURE NO. 12 8". p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r f i v e months of the year - from m i d - A p r i l to mid-September. However, there i s s u f f i c i e n t water storage i n the s o i l .to make up the d e f i c i e n c y u n t i l the end of June. For the next two and a h a l f months there i s a water d e f i c i e n c y i n the a r e a . As a r e s u l t the area i s not s u i t e d f o r crops t h a t have a h i g h water requirement d u r i n g the summer months. The d i s t r i c t has a growing season of 243 days. The c r i t i c a l temperature f o r the computation of t h i s season i s a d a l l y mean of 43 degrees. The average dates f o r the occurrence of t h i s temperature are March 16th i n the s p r i n g and November 14th i n the f a l l . (9) I f the f r o s t f r e e season i s c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s of a t l e a s t one degree of f r o s t , there i s an average f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d , o f 238 days. The f i r s t f r o s t of the f a l l occurs between October 14th and November 14th while tne l a s t f r o s t of s p r i n g occurs between March 7th and March 17th. I f the f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d i s taken from a minimum temperature of 32 degrees the-: l e n g t h of the season i s 183 days. On t h i s b a s i s the f i r s t f a l l f r o s t may occur from September 3rd to December 24th w i t h the average b e i n g October 18th, and the l a s t s p r i n g f r o s t w i l l occur from March l ? t h to June 18th w i t h the average being A p r i l 18th. (10) While c l i m a t e has a c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t by i t s e l f , i t Is of primary i n t e r e s t to the geographer i n the e f f e c t t h at i t has upon the occupation of an area by man and by v e g e t a t i o n . The (9) Dominion of Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l  Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , P u b l i c a t i o n 650, T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 20, Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1939, P. 66. (10) Connor, A. J . The FroBt Free Season i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. Department of Transport, M e t e o r i o g l c a i D i v i s i o n , Toronto. 1941. FIGURE NO. .13 'CLIMOGRAPH 70 60 50 40 30 J u l . » Jan. Jan I 3 4 5 6 Ladner, B. C. Vancouver, B. C. 8 Inches T h i s type of graph was d e v i s e d by P r o f e s s o r G r i f f i t h T a y l o r to p o r t r a y the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area f o r human h a b i t a t i o n from a s t a n d p o i n t of comfort. The top s i d e of the graph i s too hot, the bottom i s too c o o l , the l e f t i s too dry, the r i g h t i s too wet. The nearer to the c e n t r e of the graph t h a t the c l i m a t i c data f o r a s t a t i o n can be p l o t t e d , the more comfortable the area i s f o r human h a b i t a t i o n . •A comparison of Ladner and Vancouver on a graph of t h i s nature shows t h a t Ladner has a much d r i e r , hence p l e a s a n t e r , w i n t e r season than does Vancouver. During the summer c o n d i t i o n s are comparable. FIGURE NO. 14 EOONOGRAPH Th i s type of graph was d e v i s e d by P r o f e s s o r G r i f f i t h T a y l o r i n an endeavour to show g r a p h i c a l l y the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area f o r human h a b i t a t i o n . He s e l e c t e d mean annual temperature, mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , e l e v a t i o n , and-coal r e s e r v e s as the f o u r requirements t h a t are most c r i t i c a l from a standpoint of human h a b i t a t i o n . The l i n e graph above shows the graph of optimum h a b l t a b i l i t y whereas the d o t t e d graph shows the data f o r Ladner. Because Ladner has no c o a l r e s e r v e s the graph i s one s i d e d . I f the other three c r i t e r i a were c o n s i d e r e d alone, however, Ladner i s not f a r from meeting the requirements. 9 . c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s on the D e l t a a l l o w s a g r e a t e r human comfort than does the c l i m a t e of n e i g h b o u r i n g Vancouver, see F i g . No. 1 3 . For the e f f e c t of the c l i m a t e upon the c h o i c e of crops w i t h i n the a r e a see Table No. 1.. 4 . S o i l s : S o i l s of the area have'been c l a s s i f i e d i n the " S o i l Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y " as Ladner Clay and Peat. I n a d d i t i o n there i s a mixed a r e a , not shown on the s o i l survey, i n tne. d i s t r i c t s around Beach Grove, Boundary Bay and Tswassen. T h i s mixed a r e a i s r e f e r r e d to as "Bay Sands" on the accompany-i n g s o i l s map, Fig..No. 1 5 . The s o i l survey d e s c r i b e s .Ladner Clay as f o l l o w s : "The s o i l Is r e c e n t l y d e p o s i t e d sediment. P r o f i l e development i s absent. Where the l a n d has.oeen i n permanent pasture a dark c o l o u r e d s u r f a c e l a y e r of organic matter, accumulation from 4 to 6 inches t h i c k has developed. T h i s i s grey-brown to b l a c k c l a y , g r a n u l a r and heavy. The next 50 inches i s grey c l a y w e l l m o t t l e d w i t h i r o n s t a i n s . The s t r u c t u r e i s massive and tough when wet. When the l a n d i s ploughed the grey, mottle parent m a t e r i a l Is t u r n e d to the s u r f a c e . At-about 50 inches a stratum of b l u i s h . a n d micaceous sandy c l a y i n t e x t u r e Is encountered. ." "Since the Ladner Clay i s comparatively u n i f o r m i n . t e x t u r e , w i t h smooth topography, the p r o f i l e v a r i e s but l i t t l e from p l a c e to p l a c e . " (11?) An a n a l y s i s of the s u r f a c e of Ladner C l a y g i v e s tne f o l l o w i n g content of tne s o i l : (-12$ see F i g . No. 16. Organic M a t t e r • 9% Very f i n e sand 10$ S i l t 56% Clay 25% (IT) Dominion of Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l  Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . P u b l i c a t i o n 650, T e c h n i c a l ' B u l l e t i n 2 0 , Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1939. P. 4 9 - 5 0 . (-12.) Johnston, W. A. Geology of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a  Map Area, Memoir . 135, Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Ottawa, The King's P r i n t e r , 1923, p. 3 2 . FIGURE NO. 15 10. $ i t h t h i s content the s o i l would be c l a s s i f i e d as loam to s i l t loam on the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . S o i l s i n t h i s category u s u a l l y have a h i g h percentage of c o l l o i d s which serve as a source of p l a n t food and as an adhesive agent i n the s o i l i t s e l f . Ladner Clay becomes v e r y heavy and s t i c k y when wet. As a r e s u l t of heavy winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n i t i s u s u a l l y i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n from October to March of each year. The tendency of the s o i l to become s a t u r a t e d w i t h water d u r i n g the w i n t e r i s a i d e d by the h i g h water t a b l e of the a r e a . Consequently i t i s not p o s s i b l e to work the s o i l u n t i l l a t e March or A p r i l when the p r e c i p i t a t i o n decreases i n amount and the drainage system has an o p p o r t u n i t y to remove excess m o i s t u r e . On the other hand, i n summer, i f a prolonged d r y s p e l l develops, the exposed s u r f a c e of Ladner C l a y hardens and c r a c k s . However, the s o i l never drys out f o r more than a few inches below the s u r f a c e . The gumbo-like q u a l i t y of Ladner Clay d u r i n g w i n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g i s a problem to the farmers. I t i s impossible f o r him to commence s p r i n g p l o u g h i n g u n t i l the s o i l has d r i e d out s u f f i c i e n t l y to a l l o w machinery to operate on the l a n d . An e x c e s s i v e l y wet s p r i n g combined w i t h the nature of the s o i l can-be a r e a l handicap to a g r i c u l t u r e i n some y e a r s . However, the use of t r a c t o r s f o r p l o u g h i n g has m i t i g a t e d t h i s handicap to a c e r t a i n extent, by a l l o w i n g the task to be completed i n l e s s time than when horses were used. Ladder Clay shows a tendency to a low phosphorous and lime content. A p p l i c a t i o n of f e r t i l i z e r s w i l l overcome t h i s FIGURE NO. 16 11. d e f i c i e n c y and m a t e r i a l l y i n c r e a s e the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l . Ladner Clay would he c l a s s i f i e d as C l a s s II l a n d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n appearing i n a U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r p u b l i c a t i o n . (13) Although the s o i l has a h i g h f e r t i l i t y , the f a c t t h a t s p e c i a l p r a c t i s e s such as d r a i n i n g and dyking are necessary before c u l t i v a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e ex-c l u d e s the s o i l from C l a s s I . (14) W i t h i n the area covered by t h i s t h e s i s there are 2,000 Acres of Ladner Clay on Westham I s l a n d and approximately 23,500 a c r e s i n the r e s t of the d i s t r i c t . The s o i l on Westham I s l a n d i s e n t i r e l y devoted to a g r i c u l t u r e , whereas i n the r e s t of the area acreage i s u t i l i z e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r a l . The peat of the area i s mostly of sphagnum moss o r i g i n . There are 10,500 a c r e s of peat w i t h i n the D e l t a . Of t h i s t o t a l 4,700 ac r e s i n the c e n t r a l p a r t of the bog have a peat c o v e r i n g of from 2 to 10 f e e t i n t h i c k n e s s . Included i n the bog i s a h a l f - b o g s e r i e s which has n o t been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n the s o i l survey. The h a l f - b o g s e r i e s e x i s t s mainly towards the outer edges of the Peat Bog. With drainage and c u l t i v a t i o n i t w i l l l e a v e Ladner Clay exposed. To become as p r o d u c t i v e as Ladner C l a y t h i s s o i l needs s p e c i a l treatment f o r some time a f t e r r e -c l a m a t i o n . "(15) South and east of Peck Road about 1,000 a c r e s (13) Dale, Tom and Ross, W. A. "Conserving Farm Lands. U.S. Department of I n t e r i o r ? Washington, D.C. 1937. (14) See Appendix 1. (15) Dominion of Canada, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l  Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , P u b l i c a t i o n 650, T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 20, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r 1939, p. 44. 12. of t h i s h a l f - b o g have been brought under c u l t i v a t i o n i n the l a s t twenty y e a r s . Seven hundred a c r e s of f o r m e r l y c u l t i v a t e d peat s o i l l y i n g south of Ladner Trunk Road were taken out of c u l t i v a t i o n d u r i n g the war and devoted to m i l i t a r y use. S o i l s around Boundary Bay, Beach Grove and Tswassen d i f f e r i n general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from Ladner C l a y . The p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n the l a r g e amount of sand found i n t h i s s o i l type. In many p l a c e s there i s no evidence of any c l a y b e i n g p r e s e n t . A s e r i e s of v e r y low sand r i d g e s which j o i n the n o r t h e a s t c o rner of the P o i n t Roberts Upland to Beach Grove p r o v i d e the boundary between Ladner Clay and Bay Sands. Bay sands c o n s i s t of a s e r i e s of sand r i d g e s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h c l a y d e p r e s s i o n s . Sandy s o i l predominates around Beach Grove and Boundary Bay and a l o n g the s h o r e l i n e between them. I n the t r i a n g u l a r area between the beaches and the e a s t e r n f l a n k of P o i n t Roberts. Upland c l a y predominates although cut i n p l a c e s by sand r i d g e s . Around Tswassen aand i s d e f i n i t e l y predominant.- A l o n g the n o r t h f a c e of the P o i n t Roberts Upland there i s a narrow s t r i p of sandy s o i l between the base of the c l i f f and Ladner C l a y . The nature of the sand r i d g e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p one to another suggests t h a t they r e p r e s e n t former beach l e v e l s of the G u l f of Georgia and Boundary Bay. There i s no comparable sand s o i l a l o n g the western f l a n k of the Surrey Upland. The peat f o r m a t i o n abuts s h a r p l y upon the base of t h i s h i g h l a n d . I n a l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n study the a d a p t a b i l i t y of the s o i l to a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i s e s i s of prime importance. There are c e r t a i n general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s o i l t h a t w i l l - e i t h e r 13 encourage or r e t a r d the growth of crop p l a n t s upon i t . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 11 (a) s u i t a b i l i t y f o r the c u l t u r a l implements r e q u i r e d f o r most e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n . (b) E f f e c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e to d e s t r u c t i v e s o i l e r o s i o n and s o i l d e p l e t i o n under the cropping system i n v o l v e d i n p r o f i t a b l e management. (c) adequate moisture storage to meet the water r e -quirements of the crop under normal r a i n f a l l or i r r i g a t i o n . (d) a v a i l a b l e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s . (e) freedom from adverse chemical c o n d i t i o n s , or s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t h a t favour growth of p a r a s i t i c organisms." (16) A comparison of the s o i l types of D e l t a w i t h these c o n d i t i o n s w i l l a i d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . There i s ;nothing i n the topography of the area which p r o h i b i t s the use of farm machinery or makes the s o i l s u s c e p t i b l e to s o i l e r o s i o n . As has a l r e a d y been noted when the s o i l becomes wet i t i s heavy and s t i c k y and d i f f i c u l t to work. Adequate drainage a l l e v i a t e s t h i s c o n d i t i o n . Thus, before the s o i l of D e l t a can f u l f i l l requirement "a" i t must be thoroughly d r a i n e d . The l e v e l nature of the topography i s the best p r o t e c t i o n that the s o i l s have a g a i n s t e r o s i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r i t i s p r o t e c t e d from sheet or g u l l y e r o s i o n . With an e f f i c i e n t c rop r o t a t i o n system the s o i l w i l l r e t a i n I t s f e r t i l i t y f o r a l o n g p e r i o d of time. As a r e s u l t the s o i l of D e l t a f u l f i l l s requirement "b". S o i l s t h a t f a i l to meet c o n d i t i o n " c " are found i n the areas of sand or where there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t n a t u r a l m oisture. The sandy s o i l s around Beach Grove and Boundary Bay do not (16) U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s and Men, Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e 1938, Washington 1939, P. 753. 14. Table No. 1 S u i t a b i l i t y of Climate and S o i l of D e l t a i n r e g a r d to c u l t i v a t i o n of c e r t a i n c r o p s . CROP Corn Small Grains CLIMATE SUITABLE No-summers too c o o l Yes Hardy Vegetables Yes, alth o u g h summer (as cabbage, beets, p r e c i p i t a t i o n a b i t spinach, p a r s n i p l i g h t . I n t o l e r a n t of mean temperatures over 7 0 to 7 5 degrees F. C a u l i f l o w e r , l e t t u c e , peas, c a r r o t s , c e l e r y Potatoes Timothy and A l f a l f a Red C l o v e r Hardy f r u i t s as Apples,pears, c h e r r i e s , most b e r r i e s Yes, a l t h o u g h summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n l i g h t , P r e f e r summer means of 60 to 6 5 degrees F. Yes Yes Yes Yes, a l t h o u g h h i g h percent of c l o u d coger keeps from, b e i n g i d e a l , SOIL SUITABLE (1) Ba r l e y - no, too a c i d i c Buckwheat - t o l e r a n t of s o i l Oats - yes, t o l e r a n t of low phosph-orous and a c i d i c s o i l Wheat - no, r e q u i r e s h i g h phosph-orous content and a l k a l i n e s o i l s . Have a wide t o l e r a n c e to s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Have a wide t o l e r a n c e to s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Have a wide t o l e r a n c e to s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . S o i l s i n n a t u r a l s t a t e too a c i d i c . S o i l s i n n a t u r a l s t a t e too wet, too low phosphorous co n t e n t . (1) Note: S o i l s have been c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r n a t u r a l s t a t e . The a p p l i c a t i o n of lime and phosphorous, and drainage has overcome many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s . 1 5 . r e t a i n moisture d u r i n g the d r i e r summer months. Except f o r s o i l s i n these two d i s t r i c t s , s o i l s of D e l t a f u l f i l l r e q u i r e -ment "c" . Since the s o i l Is l a c k i n g i n lime and phosphorous t h i s i s added i n the form of f e r t i l i z e r . The n e c e s s i t y of f e r t i l -i z a t i o n c r e a t e s an e x t r a charge upon the l a n d which would not he necessary i f the nature of the s o i l measured up to r e q u i r e -ment "d". The s o i l has a tendency to be a c i d i c i f not w e l l d r a i n e d but w i t h adequate drainage and the a p p l i c a t i o n of lime t h i s a c i d i t y can be l a r g e l y overcome. Thus before the s o i l can meet c o n d i t i o n "e" i t r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount of s p e c i a l treatment. The above survey of the s u i t a b i l i t y of the s o i l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s o i l i s not p e r f e c t but t h a t i t has few s e r i o u s f a u l t s and i s g e n e r a l l y s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use. Besides these general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , each p l a n t has i t s own adapt-a b i l i t y to s o i l s . V arious p l a n t requirements have been compared w i t h c o n d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to Ladner C l a y . The r e s u l t of t h i s comparison i s gi v e n i n Table 1 . 5 . Drainage: N a t u r a l drainage of the d i s t r i c t was pro v i d e d by a number of sloughs many of which have s i n c e been f i l l e d I n . A few main sloughs have been r e t a i n e d as the b a s i s of the presBnt drainage system. The o r i g i n a l drainage p a t t e r n can be r e -c o n s t r u c t e d by l o o k i n g a t the map ( F i g . 9) showing the present sloughs. Each of these sloughs had s e v e r a l s h o r t t r i b u t a r i e s which d r a i n e d the surrounding a r e a . N a t u r a l drainage of the are a proved i n e f f e c t u a l . When the r i v e r l e v e l rose, the water FIGURE NO. 17 Pumping s t a t i o n used to pump water from d i t c h e s i n t o f l o o d boxes. FIGURE NO. 18 F l o o d box e x i t . 16. i n the sloughs backed up onto the l a n d and f l o o d e d r a t h e r than d r a i n e d i t . Present drainage c o n s i s t s mainly of u n d e r d r a i n i n g In the f i e l d s l e a d i n g i n t o a primary d i t c h system. These d i t c h e s u s u a l l y p a r a l l e l the s i d e roads. The primary d i t c h e s l e a d i n t u r n to a few trunk d i t c h e s or the sloughs. Trunk d i t c h e s d r a i n i n t o the r i v e r or sea by means of c o n t r o l l e d o u t l e t s through the dykes known as f l o o d boxes. When the water l e v e l i s h i g h the f l o o d box i s c l o s e d to prevent water from the r i v e r backing up the d i t c h e s . Water w i l l l i e on the f i e l d s i n wi n t e r and e a r l y s p r i n g , when, a f t e r heavy r a i n , the d i t c h e s cannot be emptied because of h i g h t i d e s . As a r e s u l t of great improvements t h a t have been made i n the drainage system the problem of water l y i n g on the f i e l d s i s not as great now as i t was ten or f i f t e e n years ago. T h i s Improvement has been a f f e c t e d by d i g g i n g more d i t c h e s and by keeping e x i s t i n g ones f r e e from any o b s t r u c t i o n . D r a g - l i n e s working on the d i t c h e s are a f a m i l i a r s i g h t to r e s i d e n t s of D e l t a . Drainage Is g r e a t l y helped by the f a c t t h a t the l e v e l of the F r a s e r R i v e r i s a f f e c t e d by t i d e s i n the G u l f of Georgia. As a r e s u l t t here a re two p e r i o d s of lower water every twenty-four hours except d u r i n g the f r e s h e t season when the r i v e r l e v e l over- .• comes the t i d a l i n f l u e n c e . During low water the f l o o d boxes can be opened and water from the d i t c h e s r e l e a s e d . 6. N a t u r a l V e g e t a t i o n and W i l d l i f e : As the l a n d i s n e a r l y a l l under c u l t i v a t i o n l i t t l e remains of any n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n . Only i n the peat bog and i n p a r t s of the d i s t r i c t near the e a s t e r n boundary and around Beach 17. Grove, Boundary Bay and Tswassen i s . t h e r e a n y . n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n : l e f t s t a n d i n g . Before settlement t o o k - p l a c e t r e e s were found a l o n g the banks of the. sloughs, the r i v e r and the seacoast where ..there was b e t t e r d r a i n a g e . Grass.grew away from the sloughs i n the p o o r l y d r a i n e d a r e a s . A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n p r e v a i l s t o -day i n the r i v e r marshes.. A t r a v e l l e r who passed the area p r i o r to i860 d e s c r i b e d i t as: " ... g r e a t swampy t r a c t s overgrown w i t h coarse grass and rushes, the happy haunt of w i l d f o w l of every d e s c r i p t i o n . " (17) A sea c a p t a i n who v i s i t e d the a r e a about the same-time de-s c r i b e d the western edge of the F r a s e r d e l t a as f o l l o w s : "From P o i n t Roberts to B u r r a r d I n l e t , a d i s t a n c e . o f 28 m i l e s the coast i s low and swampy, the t r e e s appearing to form an unbroken l i n e , when l o o k e d a t from the G u l f of Georgia ..." (18) I t was t h i s appearance of the western edge t h a t caused C a p t a i n George Vancouver to miss the mouth of the F r a s e r R i v e r when he e x p l o r e d the G u l f of Geoggia in:; the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y . In the h a l f - b o g there i s a heavy c o v e r i n g of cedar ( t h u j a f l l c a t a ) , pine (pinus c o n t o r t a ) and bushes. ' Around Beach Grove and Boundary Bay there are small,stands, of f i r (pseudosugo t a x i f o l i a ) , spruce ( p i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) , maple (a c e r Macrophyllum), and cedar. P a r t s of these two d i s t r i c t s have a grass cover which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y brown i n summer. (17) Boam, H. J . compilor, Brown, A. G. ed. B r i t i s h Columbia. S e l l s L t d . , London, 1917, p. 276. (18) Mayne, R. C. Gmdr. RN., Four Years In B r i t i s h Columbia  and Vancouver I s l a n d , John Murray, London, 1863, p. 11. 18. Trees p r e s e n t l y growing i n the area are of no commercial v a l u e . T h e i r c h i e f use i s to provide a haven f o r w i l d l i f e , p a r t i c u l a r l y b i r d s . The dominant forms of w i l d l i f e a re b i r d s and small animals. Three c l a s s e s of b i r d s are found (a) water fowl, (b) upland game b i r d s , and (c) smal l b i r d s . The most common forms of animal l i f e are r a t s , mice and moles w i t h a few muskrats along the r i v e r ' s edge. Water fowl such as s e a g u l l s , ducks and loons make t h e i r home on r i v e r i s l a n d s and a l o n g the c o a s t . During the f a l l when geese and ducks are m i g r a t i n g southward the water fowl p o p u l a t i o n expands r a p i d l y . The s h e l t e r e d waters of the r i v e r and of Boundary Bay provide a r e s t i n g p l a c e on t h e i r south-ward journey. Small q u a n t i t i e s of g r a i n which remain i n the f i e l d s a f t e r h a r v e s t are a source of food f o r the m i g r a t i n g b i r d s . The presence of ducks and geese i n the area make i t one of the bes t h u n t i n g d i s t r i c t s i n the Lower Mainland-. Pheasants and q u a i l a re the p r i n c i p a l , upland game b i r d s i n D e l t a . Although they add to the r e p u t a t i o n of hunting i n the area, they are o f t e n a nuisance to the farmers. They feed i n the f i e l d s and can do c o n s i d e r a b l e damage to young p l a n t s . Among the smal l b i r d s found i n the area are r o b i n s , sparrows, swallows, crows and b l a c k b i r d s . In summer the b i r d p o p u l a t i o n i s f a r g r e a t e r than i n winter, although many of them never migrate w i t h the seasons. CHAPTER TWO PERIOD OF EARLY SETTLEMENT With the e x c e p t i o n of the Hudson Bay Company's Post a t F o r t Langley there was l i t t l e s ettlement i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y u n t i l a f t e r i860 when unsurveyed country lands were made a v a i l a b l e f o r pre-emption. In the decade f o l l o w i n g , settlement began a t Maple Ridge, Langley P r a i r i e and South Westminster i n 1860, C h i l l i w a c k i n 1862, L u l u I s l a n d In 1864, Crescent I s l a n d i n 1865, and Ladner i n 1867. The e a r l y s e t t l e r s had a c h o i c e of two s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t i n g environments i n which to make t h e i r homes - the l e v e l , grass-covered, f r e q u e n t l y f l o o d e d lowlands, or the r o l l i n g , t r e e covered, t i l l uplands. Almost i n v a r i a b l y they chose s i t e s i n the former. Reasons f o r t h i s c h o i c e w i l l be brought out i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . 1. O r i g i n a l C o n d i t i o n s : Great problems f a c e d the e a r l y s e t t l e r s who pre-empted l a n d i n D e l t a . I n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs the geographic environment i n which settlement took place w i l l be recon-s t r u c t e d . T.E. and W.H. Ladner are c r e d i t e d w i t h b e i n g the f i r s t white men to c r o s s the a r e a . In 1859 they were a c c i d e n t a l l y l a n ded by canoe a t West P o i n t Roberts. From there they walked to F o r t Langley. The l a n d they saw was covered by w i l d grass t h a t stood as h i g h as a grown person. The grass grew t h i c k e r i n p l a c e s where i t r e c e i v e d a g r e a t e r supply of moisutre as a r e s u l t of f l o o d i n g . A few Douglas F i r . a n d Cedar e x i s t e d throughout the area w i t h the l a r g e s t clump j u s t to the e a s t 20. of C h i l u k t h a n Slough near what i s now Ladner Trunk Road. I n other p l a c e s small groves of cottonwood (populus t h r i c h o c a r p a ) were to be found. The presence of t r e e s i n d i c a t e d l a n d h i g h e r or b e t t e r d r a i n e d than the surround-i n g c o u n t r y s i d e . Many v a r i e t i e s of t r e e s covered the peat bog then as now. The low l y i n g swampy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the area p r o v i d e d an almost i d e a l b r e e d i n g ground f o r many types; of i n s e c t s . "In the months of J u l y and August these i n s e c t s can only be d e s c r i b e d as forming a dense, humming c l o u d , which covers the country to a h e i g h t of 20 f e e t above the ground." (19) An e x t e n s i o n of the p e s t bog acr o s s the area i n the v i c i n i t y of Tasker Road c u t the present m u n i c i p a l i t y i n two. As a r e s u l t continuous l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c r o s s the area from e a s t to west was not p o s s i b l e . T h i s d i v i s i o n of the l a n d area p l a y e d an Important r o l e i n the subsequent development of D e l t a . The only n a t u r a l water supply i n the d i s t r i c t was at the s i t e of the present waterworks a t the head of O l i v e r Road. Sprin g s a t t h i s p l a c e p r o v i d e d a steady supply of water f o r the e a s t e r n h a l f of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . Water i n the western h a l f came from the r i v e r or from p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of f r e s h water a l s o a f f e c t e d the development of the a r e a . N a t u r a l sloughs p r o v i d e d the only drainage system. They were a l s o the only routes f o r l o c a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . For s e v e r a l (19) Palmer, H. S. L i e u t RE, "Remarksv.upon the geography and n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the c o n t r i b u t i o n of i t s p r i n c i p a l g o l d - f i e l d s " , J o u r n a l of the Royal G-eographlcal S o c i e t y . 1864, p. 181. 21. years af(ter settlement commenced t r a v e l was by boat a l o n g these sloughs. The f i r s t s e t t l e r s found much of the s o i l covered w i t h a peat l a y e r . Two methods were used to remove i t . The f i r s t method was to s e t f i r e to the l a n d i n the f a l l . I t became a common s i g h t to see ac r e s of l a n d on f i r e i n the autumn. I n some cases the farmer would burn o f f too much of the peat and would have only c l a y l e f t to c u l t i v a t e . The ex c e s s i v e burning of the l a n d would o f t e n do a great d e a l of harm. An area n o r t h of Trunk Road between Benson and Tasker Roads remains unproductive to t h i s day as a r e s u l t of ex c e s s i v e b u r n i n g . The u s u a l p r a c t i s e , however, was to mix the ash that remained from the burnt peat with the remaining s u b - s o i l . The farmers, found t h a t the mixture of ash and s o i l produced a good c r o p . . The other method of b r i n g i n g the peat covered l a n d i n t o c u l t i v a t i o n was much slower but was, a t the same time, l e s s dangerous. Cows were pastured on the peat covered s e c t i o n s and over a p e r i o d of a few years the peat and the c l a y became mixed. 2. O r i g i n a l Settlement; The system of pre-empting country l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia was r e g u l a t e d by an O r d e r - l n - C o u n c l l i s s u e d by Governor Douglas i n i860. T h i s ordinance p r o v i d e d two methods of o b t a i n i n g l a n d . To a c q u i r e t rac t s of l a n d of l e s s than 160 v a c r e s , the s e t t l e r had to decide on the s i z e of the farm and then g i v e a d e s c r i p t i o n of the l o c a t i o n and boundaries to the 22 n e a r e s t m a g i s t r a t e . He a l s o had to pay a r e g i s t r a t i o n fee of 8 s h i l l i n g s . To pre-empt l a r g e r areas the s e t t l e r had to pay an i n s t a l l m e n t of 2 s h i l l i n g s 1 penny per acre u n t i l such time as the l a n d was surveyed by the government. A f t e r the survey the v a l u e a t which the l a n d might be assessed - not over 4 s h i l l i n g s 2 pence an acre - became payable. There were r e -s t r i c t i o n s a l s o on the s a l e or mortgage of pre-empted l a n d to prevent s p e c u l a t i o n . The ordinance a l s o r e q u i r e d t h a t the 'pre-emption' be r e c t a n g u l a r i n form w i t h the s h o r t e s t s i d e of the r e c t a n g l e to be a t l e a s t t wo-thirds of the l o n g e s t . The s e t t l e r c o u l d have h i s l a n d surveyed or he c o u l d wait f o r the government survey. I n e i t h e r case, as f a r as pre-empted l a n d was concerned, the purpose of survey was to c o n f i r m the o r i g i n a l boundaries. In areas where the survey preceded settlement the f o l l o w i n g survey system was used: 11 The system of survey used i n the p r a i r i e provinces of Canada and i n the western U n i t e d S t a t e s - t h a t of ranges and townships - to. d e f i n e farm and timber lands was c o n s i d e r e d u n s u i t a b l e f o r the physiography of B r i t i s h Columbia. The farm l a n d and timber areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia occur i n the wide v a l l e y s , bench l a n d s , and p l a t e a u s , these b e i n g separated by mountains and ranges. "With few exceptions the farm lands have been l a i d out i n areas of a m i l e square, a h a l f , or a q u a r t e r and are c a l l e d l a n d l o t s , b e i n g surveyed by t r a n s i t and c h a i n (66 f e e t t o a chain) g i v i n g s i d e s of 80, 40, or 20 c h a i n s . Each l a n d l o t has been o r i e n t e d to true n o r t h . These surveys were not l a i d out i n any r e g u l a r p a t t e r n but simply f o l l o w e d the. c h o i c e p i e c e s of l a n d as they were s e l e c t e d or pre-empted." (20,) That p a r t of D e l t a , west of Goudy Road and along the r i v e r , was surveyed f o l l o w i n g s e t t l e m e n t . As a r e s u l t the l o t l i n e s (20) A i t k e n , G. C. "The progress of survey and settlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia", The Geographical Review, • V o l . 15, J u l y 1925, p."406. 2 3 . are i n f l u e n c e d by the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the r i v e r bank as each s e t t l e r t r i e d t o o b t a i n l a n d a l o n g the r i v e r . E a s t D e l t a was surveyed p r i o r to settlement and by the m i l e square system. As a r e s u l t the l o t l i n e s are l a i d out i n r e g u l a r f a s h i o n . Where road allowances were not made i n the survey, a u t h o r i t y was v e s t e d i n the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l t o a p p r o p r i a t e s u f f i c i e n t l a n d f o r an adequate road system. The f i r s t c l a i m f o r l a n d i n D e l t a was made by a Robert W i l s o n f o r a s i t e 6 chains e a s t of C h i l u k t h a n Slough on J u l y 7, 1860. (21») T h i s c l a i m was l a t e r abandoned. I t was taken over by T. H a r r i s on March 2 , 1865. F. Norman pre-empted l a n d one m i l e e a s t of Wi l s o n on A p r i l 30, 1862, but t h i s c l a i m was a l s o abandoned, b e i n g taken over on A p r i l 9, 1870 by J . Cooper. Three c l a i m s were made i n the Ladner area d u r i n g 1862 but these were l i k e w i s e abandoned. I n 1868, T. E. and W. H. Ladner f i l e d c l a i ms f o r l a n d a t the mouth of C h i l u k t h a n Slough. The sub-sequent settlement of these claims marked the f i r s t e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of l a n d near the present s i t e of Ladner. The a p p l i c a t i o n of T.E. Ladner was f i l e d i n the R e g i s t r y O f f i c e i n New Westminster i n May 1868 and l a n d was granted i n June of the same year - No. 642 a t the Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e . . (22) The grant was f o r 500 acr e s on the east s i d e of C h i l u k t h a n Slough. I n the same year W. H. Ladner obtained a s i m i l a r acreage on the west s i d e of the Slough. (21) I n f o r m a t i o n used i n t h i s s e c t i o n on l a n d grants from, L a i n g , F. W. C o l o n i a l farm s e t t l e r s on the mainland of  B r i t i s h Columbia 1858-1871, V i c t o r i a , B. C , 1939, t y p s e c r i p t . (22) Copy of o r i g i n a l l a n d grant now In p o s s e s s i o n of L. J . Ladner. 24. In 1869 three more grants (Nos. 6 8 0 , 696, and 707 New Westminster Land R e g i s t r y O f f i c e ) t o t a l l i n g 480 acres were made. Seventeen grants f o r a t o t a l of 2,200 ac r e s were made i n 1870, and over 2,000 acres were pre-empted i n 1871. M i l i t a r y grants c o v e r i n g 1,200 ac r e s were made on Westham I s l a n d i n 1870. Thus, f o u r years a f t e r s e t t l e m e n t commenced on D e l t a n e a r l y 7,000 acres had been pre-empted. The accompanying map ( F i g . No. 19) shows the l o c a t i o n of the lands granted to the Ladner B r o t h e r s . 3 . O r i g i n a l Problems:. The o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s found three d i f f i c u l t problems which had to be s o l v e d before the u t i l i z a t i o n o f . t h e l a n d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l purposes c o u l d become e f f e c t i v e . The f i r s t of these problems was f l o o d i n g , the second was drainage, the t h i r d was I n s e c t .nuisance. In i t s n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . t h e area under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s s u b j e c t to f l o o d i n g when the F r a s e r R i v e r reaches i t s f r e s h e t stage. F l o o d i n g from w i n t e r h i g h t i d e s was common "but d i d not present as s e r i o u s a problem as d i d the s p r i n g f l o o d i n g . In the b i o g r a p h i e s ( 2 3 ) of the e a r l y s e t t l e r s i t -is common to f i n d r e p o r t s of the l a n d b e i n g under water f o r as much as s i x months each year. To meet the-problem of f l o o d i n g , the.farmers began to e r e c t i n d i v i d u a l dyking systems. The f i r s t dykes were b u i l t by W. H. Ladner around a few ac r e s t h a t are now In c l u d e d w i t h i n the v i l l a g e of Ladner. The approximate position.:of these dykes i s shown on the map ( F i g . No. 1 9 ) . Dyking of a ( 2 3 ) Howie, F. W. and S c h o l ' f i e l d , E.O.S. B r i t i s h Columbia  from the e a r l i e s t times to the present, S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Co., Vancouver, 1914, V o l . IV. 25. few a c r e s a t a time became the p a t t e r n f o r f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n of the a r e a . Each farmer would dyke a s m a l l area and then proceed to c u l t i v a t e the p r o t e c t e d l a n d . T h i s sytem of dyking proved to be inadequate. An extremely h i g h f r e s h e t i n May and June of 1894 broke the dykes and completely f l o o d -ed the a r e a . I t became obvious t h a t a more permanent method of dyking was e s s e n t i a l i f f u t u r e f l o o d i n g was to be a v o i d e d . During the f l o o d of 1894 the l a n d was covered by from two to three f e e t of s a l t y water. Many of the houses had e i g h t inches of water i n them, while ten inches or a f o o t i n barns was q u i t e common. I t was necessary to s t o r e g r a i n i n the upper f l o o r s of houses to keep i t dry. Many of the farmers l o s t every cow due to t u b e r c u l o s i s r e s u l t i n g from the animals having to stand i n water or on wet s o i l . The l a n d was not s p e c i a l l y t r e a t e d a f t e r the f l o o d waters receded but was cropped i n the u s u a l way and l e f t to work i t s e l f back to normal. Poor crops r e s u l t e d b u t i n a year or two the s a l t t h a t had been d e p o s i t e d was washed away by r a i n f a l l . To meet the need of a b e t t e r dyking system D e l t a M u n i c i -p a l i t y undertook the c o n s t r u c t i o n of dykes around the exposed borders of the a r e a . These dykes have remained u n t i l the p r e s e n t . With the e x c e p t i o n of a few minor breaks, p a r t i c -u l a r l y on Westham I s l a n d d u r i n g the 1930's, they have g i v e n almost p e r f e c t p r o t e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the F r a s e r V a l l e y F l o o d of 1948 the dykes were strengthened and heightened under the d i r e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l government. Although the o r i g i n a l dykes h e l d under the s t r a i n of the extremely heavy f r e s h e t of t h a t year many weak spots were d i s c o v e r e d and they have 26. r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n . The second problem of the a r e a was d r a i n a g e . The very-nature of the l a n d m a k e s f a r m i n g v e r y d i f f i c u l t when the s o i l i s wet. A f t e r heavy r a i n , or as i n the e a r l y days of the community, a f t e r i n u n d a t i o n from f l o o d s , the a r e a was covered by a gumbo-like.substance i I n order not to d e l a y . s p r i n g p l a n t i n g a n . e f f e c t i v e drainage.system was e s s e n t i a l . T h e . f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by the e a r l y s e t t l e r s i n p r e p a r i n g l a n d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n b e fore an-adequate drainage system was introduced.. In,a. biography a l r e a d y mentioned., the author, i n w r i t i n g of the l a t e John Honeyman, p o i n t s . o u t . t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s he f a c e d i n p r e p a r i n g h i s l a n d i n E a s t D e l t a i n 1888: "In order to c u l t i v a t e t h i s t r a c t i t ,waa necessary to wear rubber boots while the horses were shod w i t h wooden shoes'!. (24) S i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s were f a c e d by other e a r l y s e t t l e r s . I n - w r i t i n g of the problems f a c e d by A . J . P a r m i t e r the b i o -grapher says: " I t was i m p o s s i b l e to proceed very r a p i d l y w i t h t h i s p a r t . of the work ( b r e a k i n g the l a n d and p r e p a r i n g i t f o r c u l t i v a t i o n ) , as even w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of three or f o u r teams of oxen but l i t t l e c o u l d be accomplished i n a day owing,to the c o n d i t i o n of the s o i l . The c a t t l e would oftentimes s i n k to t h e i r knees i n the mire and i t would be necessary to get a team of horses to p u l l them out. He plowed and p l a n t e d an a c r e a t a time." (25) I t i s to the l a t e Hon. John O l i v e r t h a t c r e d i t i s due f o r i n t r o d u c i n g an e f f e c t i v e drainage system.. He was the f i r s t (24) Howie a n d S c h o l f i e l d , B r i t i s h Columbia from the  e a r l i e s t times to the present, S.J. C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g Co., Vancouver, 1914, Vol.. IV, p. 5 7 9 . (25) I b i d . p. 564. 27. farmer to make extensive use of u n d e r d r a i n i n g . T h i s he d i d on h i s E a s t D e l t a farm. The method he used became standard throughout the r e s t of the a r e a . Cedar p l a n k i n g s i x inches wide was j o i n e d to form a t r i a n g u l a r shaped p i p e . The pipe was b u r i e d three f e e t beneath the s u r f a c e of the ground w i t h the apex p l a c e d upwards. These drainage pipes were b u r i e d i n s e r i e s every two:to f o u r cods ac r o s s the width of the farm. The d r a i n s ran outwards towards the dykes. T h i s system proved to be very e f f e c t i v e i n i t s primary purpose of r e d u c i n g the water of the s o i l . As a secondary e f f e c t the u n d e r d r a i n i n g of the s o i l g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d crop y i e l d s as the s o i l moisture content was reduced to a l e v e l which p r o v i d e d more optimum growth c o n d i t i o n s f o r p l a n t s . John O l i v e r ' s own account of why. he underdrained the. l a n d i s i n t e r e s t i n g . "There are the men-.-who s c o f f a t the s u p e r n a t u r a l , but I am not one of these. I b e l i e v e t h a t men can s t i l l see v i s i o n s and dream dreams. I know t h a t i n those days I used to have dreams n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t i n which I saw the g r a i n sprout up i n my l a n d only to wither and d i e , and I saw a l s o t h a t the land, was white w i t h s a l t . Then another n i g h t i n a k i n d of trance I had another v i s i o n . I saw a g r e a t r a i n descend and d i s s o l v e the s a l t and wash i t away. The problem of r a i s i n g crops on my l a n d was s o l v e d there and then. "<I had no money, so I cut d i t c h e s w i t h a spade and put In wooden d r a i n s a t s t a t e d i n t e r v a l s . The w i n t e r r a i n s came and washed away the s a l t through these d r a i n s , and the f o l l o w i n g year I had the f i n e s t crop of oats I had ever seen. That was the s t a r t of u n d e r d r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia." (26) The t h i r d problem,that of i n s e c t s , g r a d u a l l y disappeared as improved drainage decreased the number of breeding grounds. (26) C i t e d i n Merton, James, Honest John O l i v e r , J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , Vancouver, 1933, P. 37-38. 6 / 28. 4. Reasons f o r Settlement; Before human occupation-the area was an unfavourable environment. As has been p o i n t e d out the l a n d i s so low i n e l e v a t i o n t h a t i t i s s u b j e c t to fre q u e n t f l o o d i n g , the s o i l becomes heavy and s t i c k y when s a t u r a t e d w i t h water, and i n s e c t 8 abounded. However, man occupied the ar e a . He b u i l t dykes to keep out the f l o o d waters; he i n s t a l l e d a drainage system so t h a t the s o i l c o u l d become dry enough to be farmed. By p r e v e n t i n g f l o o d s and by d r a i n i n g the l a n d , man a l s o went a .long way towards s o l v i n g the I n s e c t problem by removing the swampy areas which they p r i z e d as b r e e d i n g grounds. Thus, bef o r e the n a t u r a l environment of the area c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i t was e s s e n t i a l t h a t i t be m o d i f i e d by man. I f man had to so modify the environment why d i d he come to t h i s area; why d i d he not s e t t l e somewhere e l s e where f l o o d i n g and drainage were not such great problems? Two f a c t o r s would seem to provide the answer to these q u e s t i o n s . In the f i r s t p l a c e the n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n of the area was grass and there was, hence, no problem i n c l e a r i n g the l a n d ; i n the second p l a c e , the hi g h e r l a n d i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y was covered by a t h i c k f o r e s t growth which was d e s c r i b e d by many t r a v e l l e r s as c o n s t i t u t i n g a v e r i t a b l e j u n g l e . While there are no comparable f i g u r e s , i t would 1 seem t h a t the co s t of dyking and d r a i n i n g the c l a y s o i l s of D e l t a must have been l e s s than t h a t of c l e a r i n g the upland s o i l s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t there i s a l s o a p s y c h o l o g i c a l reason. The environment of D e l t a presented a c h a l l e n g e to man's i n g e n u i t y and s t r e n g t h . To men l i k e John O l i v e r t h i s c h a l l e n g e may have been the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r . CHAPTER THREE AGRICULTURAL_UTILIZATION 1. H i s t o r i c U t i l i z a t i o n : I n order to o b t a i n a f u l l e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the present a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d i t i s Necessary to study the h i s t o r i c development of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the d i s t r i c t . I n t r a c i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l development from 1868 to the present there has been a l a c k of s t a t i s t i c s and a l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y i n such s t a t i s t i c s as.were a v a i l a b l e . There are, however, s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c s i n one form or another to give a rep-r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e of the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n . The e a r l y s e t t l e r s r e a l i z e d t h a t the moist c l i m a t e and the f e r t i l e s o i l s p r o v i d e d the n a t u r a l b a s i s f o r a hay and pasture economy. The d i v i s i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t o two p a r t s by the southward e x t e n s i o n of the peat bog and the l a c k of an adequate water supply i n the western h a l f caused the two p a r t s t o develop a l o n g d i f f e r e n t l i n e s d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s . I n the e a s t e r n h a l f , water was a v a i l a b l e from s p r i n g s a l o n g the base of the Surrey Upland. D a i r y i n g became the mainstay of the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. Oats, hay and mangles were grown as field-vcrops f o r t h i s I n d u s t r y . B u t t e r marketed i n New Westminster or i n V i c t o r i a p r o v i d e d the cash income of the farmer. The l a c k of f r e s h water i n the western h a l f caused the s e t t l e r s to make a ' d i f f e r e n t adjustment t o the environment. Instead of becoming d a i r y farmers they became c a t t l e ranchers because d a i r y i n g r e q u i r e s a l a r g e supply of f r e s h water. The 30. beef cattle were imported into the area from the Great Plains Region of the United States. They were driven overland from the ranching regions to the Pacific Coast. Field crops similar to those in the eastern part were grown for the cattle industry. It has not been possible to obtain any adequate data for the period from 1868 to 1892. It is known, however, that this was the period of settlement and of bringing the land under cultivation. By 1892 most of the readily-worked land had been brought into use. Djjjking was s t i l l inadequate and drainage l e f t much to be desired. In spite of the handicaps, a f a i r l y prosperous agricultural community had grown up by 1892. By this time 111 settlers had taken up land in Delta. Settlement was either along the river, the sloughs, or the shore of Boundary Bay as water s t i l l provided the main trans-portation route. A few settlers had begun to locate farms inland as road communications to New Westminster were opened -the Scott, Peck and River Roads. The central road system of Delta, i.e., the Trunk and i t s north-south feeder roads, began to take shape in this period. Trunk Road which provided the necessary link across the bog between the west and east of Delta was known locally as "John Oliver's Dyke." To provide a road base across the bog, gravel and tree branches were used. This f i l l i n g material was piled well above the level of the land, giving i t a dyke-like appearance. The road surface was corduroy. Farm houses in Delta in 1892 looked much as they do to-day. Many of the present farm dwellings were built at this time. Around Ladner each house had a large tank in which to store 31. r a i n w a t e r . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n between D e l t a and other p o i n t s i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y and on Vancouver I s l a n d was p r o v i d e d by steamers which r a n from V i c t o r i a to New Westminster and c a l l e d a t Ladner on each t r i p . V i c t o r i a p r o v i d e d the market f o r sur-p l u s produce from D e l t a w i t h New Westminster a poor second. From 1892 on i t i s p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a more accurate p i c t u r e of a g r i c u l t u r a l growth on D e l t a . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e made to D e l t a i n the Annual Reports, B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was i n 1892. In t h a t the year the l o c a l c o r r e -spondent wrote of the area: "Most crops and f r u i t s do w e l l , and i t i s needless to say t h a t the y i e l d i s enormous, and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of wheat, b a r l e y , oats, r o o t crops and f r u i t s are grown. I t i s a d i s t r i c t eminently s u i t e d f o r d a i r y i n g but the I n d u s t r y i s not prosecuted, except i n a d e s u l t o r y manner." (27-) Table No. 2 shows the breakdown of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n i n the area under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the years 1892 and 1894. Table No. .2 - Land U t i l i z a t i o n i n D e l t a 1892 and 1894 (28) Year Use A r ea ( i n Acres) Percentage 1892 C u l t i v a t e d 53 Pasture 34 Woodland 10.5 Marsh 2.5 1894 C u l t i v a t e d 10,541 Acres 53.1 G r a i n 3,833 Hay 5,146 Potatoes 241 Other r o o t s 228 Pasture 6,415 32.3 Woodland 2,545 13 Marsh * 324 1.6 (27) B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Annual Report, 1892, p. 789. (28) Compiled from f i g u r e s appearing i n Annual Reports of B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . 32. In the 1894 figures there is a discrepancy of 1,093 acres between the amount of land l i s t e d as cultivated and the land shown in variojis crops. A l l the land In cultivation (with the exception of approximately k% i f we disregard the missing 1,093 acres, and approximately 15$ i f we assume i t being used for other purposed) was used for hay and grain. Production figures for the years 1892 and 1894 appear in Table No. 3. Table No. 3 - Agricultural Production 1892 and 1894. Crop 1892 (in tons) 1894 6,000 2,922 10,000 9,177 12,000 3,293 100 58 These figures Indicate the reliance of the farmer on two crops - hay and grain. They also indicate very clearly the effect upon agriculture of the area when heavier than average rains occur in September as happened in 1894. The hay crop which is harvested f i r s t was scarcely affected, but the later maturing grains and root crops were: hard h i t . For this reason the 1892 figures are more representative of the productivity of Delta than are the 1894. In 1898 direct ferry service between New Westminster and Ladner was inaugurated. With this improvement in transportation with the up-river city, the outlet for Delta produce gradually •changed from Victoria to New Westminster. A direct link with Vancouver was not to come until several years later. Grain Hay Root Crops Fruit 3 3 . The next year f o r which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e i s 1911. Table No. 4 .- A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n i n D e l t a , 1911 Crops P r o d u c t i o n Value Percent of ( i n tons) t o t a l v alue Hay 2 0 , 0 0 0 |400 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 36 G r a i n 12,500 3 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 28 . 3 Roots 7 , 0 0 0 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 3 . 5 M i l k 6 0 , 0 0 0 cans 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 10 L i v e s t o c k 150 o a r s 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 9 M i s c e l l a n e ous 2 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 3.2 TOTAL 1 ,100,000.00 100.00 While no estimate can be g i v e n of acreage of l a n d i n use i n 1911, s e v e r a l f a c t s r e g a r d i n g the type of a g r i c u l t u r e p r a c t i s e d i n D e l t a can be a s c e r t a i n e d from these f i g u r e s . Hay and g r a i n s t i l l p r o v i d e d the b a s i s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy. Potatoes and r o o t crops were s t i l l a poor t h i r d In the l i s t of important c r o p s . However, s a l e of f l u i d m i l k p r o v i d e d a new f a c t o r i n the farm economy. D a i r y i n g had s t a r t e d to become an i n t e g r a l f e a t u r e of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n . Two f a c t o r s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the appearance of d a i r y -i n g as an important p a r t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n . I n 1903 the Great Northern Railway opened a branch l i n e from Colebrook i n Surrey to P o r t Guichon on the F r a s e r R i v e r two mi l e s west of Ladner. T h i s r a i l w a y l i n e p r o v i d e d a f a s t and r e l i a b l e means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between D e l t a and the consuming markets of Vancouver and New Westminster. In 1910 D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y i n s t a l l e d a p i p e d water system u s i n g the s p r i n g s a t the base of the Surrey Upland as the source of water. A pump l i f t e d the water from the c l i f f base to a r e s e r v o i r e r e c t e d halfway 34. up the h i l l s i d e . A l l p a r t s of D e l t a were then p r o v i d e d w i t h a sure and adequate supply of f r e s h water. As a r e s u l t of the I n c r e a s i n g Importance of d a i r y i n g i n D e l t a , s e v e r a l n o t i c e a b l e changes o c c u r r e d i n the c u l t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . Large barns were e s s e n t i a l to the d a i r y Industry and these began to appear on most farms. Large b a r r e l - l i k e s i l o s were e r e c t e d beside each barn f o r the storage of e n s i l a g e . By t h i s time the road system of D e l t a had taken on i t s present form. The r a i l w a y and r i v e r steamers p r o v i d e d the major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n n e c t i o n s . W i t h i n the D e l t a , horse and buggy had r e p l a c e d boats, and there was a small but growing amount of road t r a f f i c to New Wesminster. T h i s road t r a f f i c was h e a v i e s t on F r i d a y mornings when the farmer and h i s f a m i l y s e t o f f i n t h e i r buggy to market t h e i r produce a t the Farmer's Market i n New Westminster. On Saturday n i g h t the farm f a m i l i e s would gather i n Ladner to purchase their..needs, to meet t h e i r f r i e n d s , and to t a l k . T h i s Saturday n i g h t i n Ladner became such a t r a d i t i o n t h a t even to-day the s t o r e s i n Ladner remain open u n t i l n i n e o'clock on a Saturday n i g h t . The next year f o r which comparable f i g u r e s are a v a i l a b l e i s 1927. r 35. Table No. 5 - A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n i n D e l t a , 1 9 2 7 ( 2 9 ) Crops P r o d u c t i o n ( i n tons) Value Percentage of t o t a l v alue G r a i n Hay Potatoes 13,000 15,000 8,000 |455,000.00 240,000.00 160,000.00 24.1 1 3 8.7 M i l k Eggs L i v e s t o c k F r u i t s & Vegetables Straw M i s c e l l a n e o u s T O T A L 325,000.00 250,000.00 210,000.00 75,000.00 72,000.00 1 , 7 8 7 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 17.6 13.5 11.4 4. 3.8 3.9 1 0 0 . 0 0 The t r e n d towards d a i r y i n g which appeared i n 1911 was more apparent. M i l k had become the second most important item of the farm income. G r a i n had r e p l a c e d hay as the most v a l u a b l e farm product,,. I f we i n c l u d e straw w i t h the g r a i n , however, the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of g r a i n to the r e s t of the farm income had h a r d l y changed s i n c e 1911. Value of hay i n the farm economy had dropped s h a r p l y . As the d a i r y i n g i n d u s t r y became b e t t e r developed l a n d f o r m e r l y devoted to hay had been turned t o pa s t u r e . Eggs had appeared as an important item- i n the economy of the a r e a . In 1926 the 500 acre farm of T. E. Ladner's E s t a t e was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o small h o l d i n g s of one and two a c r e s . The agency which c o n t r o l l e d the s u b d i v i s i o n made a concentrated e f f o r t to i n t r o d u c e p o u l t r y r a i s i n g as the mainstay; of the new s e t t l e r s . To a i d the c h i c k e n farmer a demonstration farm was b u i l t and p l a c e d i n o p e r a t i o n . W i t h i n one year the number (29) D e l t a Board of Trade, The P r o l i f i c D e l t a , Ladner, B. C , 1928, (pamphlet") 5 6 -of. l a y i n g hens i n the d i s t r i c t I n c r e a s e d from 22,000 to 5 0 , 0 0 0 . In a d d i t i o n there were another 5 0 , 0 0 0 p u l l e t s i n D e l t a i n 1927. (30) The p a t t e r n of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the area was s l o w l y changing. The o r i g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l economy based on hay and g r a i n was g i v i n g way to a more d i v e r s i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s new economy was based on g r a i n , d a i r y i n g , p o u l t r y and hay. The s a l e of l i v e s t o c k , potatoes, f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s was a minor item i n the economy. With the advent of p o u l t r y r a i s i n g . l a r g e c h i c k e n houses became a common f e a t u r e i n D e l t a . They were u s u a l l y l o n g low b u i l d i n g s , although there.were some two s t o r y s t r u c t u r e s . Around.each was .a l a r g e fenced y a r d which.served as a c h i c k e n run.. O f t e n one end of the c h i c k e n house served as l i v i n g q u a r t e r s . f o r the owner u n t i l he b u i l t a house f o r h i m s e l f . Thus, by 1927, the c u l t u r a l - landscape.of the farming area• of D e l t a had taken on i t s p r e s e n t appearance. On the farms l a r g e d a i r y barns dominated the' farm y a r d . About t h i s time the. t r a d i t i o n a l low "V" r o o f e d barn began to give way to a h i g h e r , rounded roof, barn. Farm l i f e had not been too g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the advent of the ' g a s o l i n e age' a l t h o u g h automobiles, t r u c k s , and t r a c t o r s were b e g i n n i n g to appear p r i o r to 1927. The two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of farming of the day, however, were s p r i n g ploughing and f a l l harvest-. The horse s t i l l r e i g n e d supreme i n p r e p a r i n g the l a n d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . I t was indeed a f a m i l i a r s i g h t i n (30) D e l t a Board of Trade, The P r o l i f i c D e l t a , Ladner, • B. C , 1928, (pamphlet} /o 37. s p r i n g to see the farmer w i t h two or f o u r horses a t t a c h e d to the farm implements ploughing, d i s k i n g , or harrowing the l a n d . I n the f a l l h a r v e s t presented a scene never to be f o r -g o t t e n . Crews of men stooked the golden g r a i n a f t e r i t had been cut by the b i n d e r . Then the hay r i c k drawn by a team of horses would be d r i v e n up and the men tyould stack the wagon h i g h w i t h the g r a i n . From the f i e l d the g r a i n moved to the t h r e s h i n g machine. O f t e n as the hay r i c k s neared the machine they would form a v e r i t a b l e parade - a parade i n b r i l l i a n t y e l l o w . A f t e r a hard days work i n the f i e l d s there was din n e r f o r the whole crew i n the l a r g e k i t c h e n of the farm house. Scenes such as these have become uncommon now as the t r a c t o r and the combine have brought machine age speed to the c o u n t r y s i d e . The l a t e s t f i g u r e s of a comparable nature which are a v a i l a b l e are f o r 1945. Table No. 6. - A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n i n D e l t a , 1945 (3'l) Crop P r o d u c t i o n Value Percentage o f t o t a l v a l u e M i l k 328,500 cwt. 1,067,750.00 35.4 Potatoes 16,700 tons 678,000.00 22.3 L i v e s t o c k 4,000 head 210,000.00 7. Peas 3,000 tons 190,000.00 6.3 Hay 10,500 tons 150,000.00 4.9 G r a i n 2,800 tons 98,400.00 3.2 F i e l d Vegetable s 115,000.00 3.8 Eggs 11,000 cases 80,000.00 2.6 Small f r u i t 80,000.00 2.6 C l o v e r i e e d 56,000.00 1.5 Sugar beet.seed 44,145.00 1.4 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 8. TOTAL 2,769,295.00 100.00 (31) F i g u r e s c o u r t e s y D e l t a Board of Trade. 38. These figures show the continuation of the trend that had been apparent since 1911. Sale of f l u i d milk had become the most Important source of farm revenue. The position of the dairying industry as the main agricultural occupation can be accounted for by the growth of markets in the metro-politan area of Vancouver and New Westminster. The position occupied by potatoes in the farm economy can be accounted for by one Important factor. The formation of the British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Board in 1936 with government control of potato sales brought stability to the potato grower. Prior to the board's formation potato marketing was a gamble for the farmers. Many of them would be unable to market their crop after harvest, a few would be able to s e l l a l l they could produce. The Marketing Board assured each farmer a share in the market. With stability in the Industry, the cultivation of potatoes could become a reliable occupation. The drop in the importance of eggs i s an example of a local industry affected by national conditions. The poultry industry which had been started in 1926 and had given promise of becoming very important locally was virtually ruined by the depression. The residents of Delta Manor either sold out their holdings or turned to some other source of income, par-ticularly to small f r u i t production. By 1945 the small f r u i t industry was equal in importance to the poultry industry. In 1941 an American investor opened a vegetable canning plant within the d i s t r i c t . His plant was located at the corner of Westham and Fairview Roads. The principal canning crop was peas. As a result the importance of peas in the 3 9 . local farm economy grew, until by 1945 they were the fourth most important crop in the area. The agricultural pattern of 1945 was one of a well diversified economy. While dairying was by far the most important single industry, the remainder of the agricultural products offered a wide variety of choice. The 1945 figures represent the culmination of a trend which had been apparent since at least 1911. By 1945 Delta farmers no longer relied on one or two crops for their income. So far we had considered land u t i l i z a t i o n from the stand-point of financial value of the products. Such a discussion w i l l give the relative importance of each crop within the total agricultural economy. It does not, however, show the actual distribution of land use within the area. Table No. 7 - Land Utilization in Delta, 1931 and 1941 1931 1941 Field Crops 16,899 Acres 71$ 15,630 Acres 62.6$ Oats 45.4$ 51.1$ Hay 42.6 ' 28.2 Potatoes 9.1 8.7 Other Fodder 2.2 Other 2.9 9.8 Pasture 5,023 21$ 7,110 28.5$ Other 1.871 8$ 1.923 8 . 9 $ TOTAL Cultivated Land 23,793 Acres 24,963 Acres Source; Compiled from figures appearing in the 7 t h and 8 t h Censuses of Canada. (32) (32) The census figures are for the entire municipality and not just for the portion of i t selected for this study. As much of the remainder of the municipality is in woodland, and is not well developed agriculturally, the figures w i l l be reasonably representative for the lowland area. 40. Table No. 8 - Land Utilization in Delta, 1939,1942,1943. 1939- 1942 1943 Oats Hay Pasture Peas Potatoes Other 6,500 Acres 5,500 5,100 550 990 1,450 6,000 Acres 5,100 5,100 1,200 825 1,225 5,500 Acres 4,600 5,300 1,500 525 •675 TOTAL 20,000 19,500 18.400 Source: Delta Farmer1 s Institute Figures in Table No. 8 give a more accurate picture of cropland in Delta for the purposes of this thesis as they were compiled for the lowland area only. The sudden drop in total cultivated land i n 1943 is a result of the Department of National Defense taking over 1,100 acres for military purposes. A comparison of percentage of total agricultural income and percentage of crop acreage w i l l give a clear picture of the agricultural economy as i t has developed i n Delta. Table No. 9 - Crops by percentage of value and by percentage of acreage: Percentage of Value Percentage of Acreage Milk 35.4 Potatoes 2 2 . 3 4 . 4 Peas 6 . 3 8.1 Hay 4 . 9 27.1 Grain 3 .2 3 0 . 4 Pasture 28.8 One striking conclusion can be arrived at from a study of these figures. The principal product of the land devoted to 4 1 • g r a i n , hay and pasture i s m i l k . A w e l l balanced d a i r y farm, as farmers of D e l t a have t r i e d to d e v i s e i t , c o n s i s t s of one t h a t grows s u f f i c i e n t g r a i n and hay to -Seed the b a t t l e . Any s u r p l u s can be s o l d as a cash c r o p . The m i l k i s s o l d to the l a r g e d a i r i e s i n Vancouver and the farmer r e c e i v e s a monthly income from h i s m i l k r a t h e r than an annual income from h i s g r a i n and hay. Potatoes are grown because they give a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h r e t u r n from a small acreage of l a n d . Peas were grown because the c a n n e r i e s o f f e r e d purchase c o n t r a c t s before the crop was p l a n t e d . As peas are ready f o r h a r v e s t i n g i n the months of • J u l y and August they do not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the h a r v e s t i n g of e a r l y potatoes i n June or of the g r a i n i n l a t e August and September. Thus we f i n d t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l economy i n D e l t a has developed s t e a d i l y from one based on g r a i n to one based on d a i r y i n g . There has not been a r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e i n the amount of l a n d p l a n t e d to g r a i n . G r a i n acreage, p a r t i c u l a r l y o ats, has r e t a i n e d a p r o p o r t i o n of approximately 30% of the t o t a l . G r a i n , while i t has remained Important as f a r as acreage i s concerned has become r e l a t i v e l y unimportant i n v a l u e . The g r a i n i s , however, not marketed as such now but i s used as c a t t l e f e e d and i s marketed as m i l k . The h i s t o r i c development of c r o p l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n has been towards a more d i v e r s i f i e d c rop system. Although there has been t h i s tendency towards d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , t hree crops have remained most Important as f a r as acreage i s concerned. These 42.. crops are grain, hay and pasture. Possibly the most sig-nificant change in the agriculture of Delta has not been so c much a change in the crops grown but in the method of market-ing these crops. By 1939 nearly a l l the land that was available for cul-tivation was being used for agricultural purposes. In that year total crop acreage reached 20,000 acres. As there are just over 21,100 acres available as farm land, very l i t t l e suitable land was not being cropped. The land not In crops was used for residential purposes with a very small acreage lying idle. At this time the extension of agricultural land had gone as far as was possible. 2. Present Utilization; The following table gives the number of acres devoted to each crop and the percentage of total cultivated land that each occupies: Table No. 10 - Cropland Utilization in Delta, 1949 Acreage Percent of Total Peas Potatoes Other grain Sugar beet Market garden Grass Cabbage Other Oats Pasture Hay 18,400 5,500 5,300 4,300 1,000 800 252 225 220 180 77 546 29.8 28.8 23.3 5.4 4.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 .9 .4 3.2 Total Source: Based on f i e l d work, August - September 1949' The general picture of agricultural land u t i l i z a t i o n has 43. changed but l i t t l e i n the l a s t few y e a r s . The b a s i s of a g r i c u l t u r e i s ^ s t i l l d a i r y i n g . The three p r i n c i p a l crops and uses of farmland are hay, g r a i n and p a s t u r e . The p h y s i c a l geography of D e l t a p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e en-vironment f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of c e r t a i n crops; f o r others minor adjustments of the environment, 1 by way of f e r t i l i z a t i o n , i r r i g a t i o n or drainage, a re necessary before c u l t i v a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . From the data presented i n Table No. A . i t should be expected t h a t some of the f o l l o w i n g crops w i l l p l a y a p a r t i n the l o c a l crop system: (a) oats, r ye, buckwheat,flax (b) potatoes, (c) c o o l r e g i o n v e g e t a b l e s , (d) hardy f r u i t s , (e) timothy, r e d c l o v e r , a l f a l f a . If. some of these crops are g r o w n i t would be safe to assume t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d rep-r e s e n t s an adequate adjustment to the p h y s i c a l environment as i t has been m o d i f i e d by man. The a c t u a l s e l e c t i o n of crops from those s u i t a b l e to the area w i l l depend upon economic and human f a c t o r s . The c o n t r o l l i n g economic f a c t o r i n the area i s the market. Gr e a t e r Vancouver w i t h an estimated p o p u l a t i o n of 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 i s the consuming a r e a where the D e l t a farmer s e l l s h i s produce. An a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t c l o s e to a l a r g e consumption area w i l l normally supply those commodities t h a t are bulky and expensive t o s h i p , or those which d e t e r i o r a t e rap-idly i n shipment. With these f a c t s i n mind and w i t h a knowledge of 4 4 . the crops that can be grown,it Lis easy to see that the actual crop selection i s limited. Potatoes are a bulky product to ship hence the closer they are produced to the market the better. Delta Municipality supplies one-third of the potatoes consumed in Greater Vancouver. Vegetables and milk cannot be shipped long dis4 tances unless there is special equipment, so "they are lik e l y to be produced as near to the market as possible. The production of milk w i l l necessitate the growth of pasture and of feed grain for the cattle. The human factor in the choice of crops is not as easily described as the natural and economic factors. Such elements as habits, history, conservatism and the like w i l l a l l play a part. However, i f the choice of crops throughout an area is similar on each farm,^ and i f we find peoples of varying racial and national backgrounds a l l growing the same crops, i t should be safe to assume that the human factor i s at least neutral as far as selection Is concerned, (a) Size of farms; Table No. 11 - Farm Size, Delta Municipality. (33) Size of farms Delta Municipality Lowland Area ^_ (1941) (1949) 1 - 1 0 Acres 208 11 - 50 " 68 62 51 - 100 69 63 101 - 200 _74 .73 201 - 299 18 18 300 - 479 ' 6 . 6 480 - 639 3 3 Over- 640 2 1 Total over 10 Acres 240 226 (33) Figures for 1941 obtained from 8th Census of Canada, Census of Agriculture, p. 64-65. Figures for 1949 obtained from field-work in area. 4 5 . • The 1941 f i g u r e s were f o r the e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y and c e r t a i n c o r r e c t i o n s were necessary to b r i n g them up to date. Many of the farms from 1 to 10 a c r e s i n s i z e belong to the p o r t i o n of D e l t a on the Surrey Upland where there has been a l a r g e development of small h o l d i n g s . Between 10 and 15 farms t h a t are i n c l u d e d i n the 1941 t o t a l are found on the P o i n t Roberts Upland i n the southwest s e c t i o n of D e l t a . When the f e d e r a l government o b t a i n e d l a n d i n 1942 f o r the Boundary Bay A i r p o r t one of the farms were taken over completely. With these o b s e r v a t i o n s i n mind, the p r o p o r t i o n of farms over 11 a c r e s i n s i z e w i l l be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the lowland a r e a . (b) Farm p o p u l a t i o n : D i s t r i b u t i o n of farm p o p u l a t i o n r e f l e c t s the road system and the o r i g i n a l settlement of the a r e a . There i s one main east to west road - Ladner Trunk Road. I t i s i n t e r s e c t e d every m i l e by n o r t h - s o u t h roads. Another road s k i r t s a l o n g the n o r t h s i d e of the m u n i c i p a l i t y from Crescent I s l a n d Road to S c o t t Road. T h i s road and the l o c a t i o n of the peat bog c o n t r o l the settlement p a t t e r n i n the n o r t h e a s t s e c t i o n of D e l t a . Westham I s l a n d i s served by. one main road and three minor ones. Road l o c a t i o n i s shown on Map.No 4 . O r i g i n a l settlement was a l o n g the waterways of the a r e a . The e f f e c t of t h i s can s t i l l be seen by the number of farm houses l o c a t e d near the water. Few farm houses are l o c a t e d f a r from one of the roads. The l o c a t i o n of farm houses i n r e l a t i o n to the r o a d system i s i n d i c a t e d on the accompanying map ( F i g . No. 2 0 ) . Ladner, D e l t a Manor, Sunbury and the summer FIGURE NO. 20 F A R M S E T T L E M E N T EACH DOT ONE TARM DWELLING 1949 46. r e s o r t s are not shown on t h i s map. Farm p o p u l a t i o n was l i s t e d as 2,174 i n 1931 and 1,755 i n 1941. (34) The 1951 census should show the same general decrease i n farm p o p u l a t i o n . The r e d u c t i o n i n farm p o p u l a t i o n i s due e n t i r e l y to the use of more machines on the farms. The use of t r a c t o r s , combines, m i l k i n g machines, potato d i g g e r s and t r u c k s has g r e a t l y reduced the need f o r farm l a b o u r . The s m a l l e r farms can now be handled by the farmer and h i s f a m i l y f o r most of the year w i t h e x t r a h e l p r e q u i r e d only d u r i n g the h a r v e s t season. Even the demand f o r e x t r a h a r v e s t l a b o u r has been g r e a t l y reduced through the use of machines. D e l t a farmers have most of those conveniences which are c o n s i d e r e d necessary f o r comfortable modern l i v i n g . While i t i s t r u e t h a t many of the farm houses were b u i l t b efore the t u r n of t h i s century they have been s u c c e s s i v e l y a l t e r e d to accommodate each new a d d i t i o n to our present day l i v i n g . The only remnant from e a r l i e r days i s ?the l a r g e k i t c h e n so char-a c t e r i s t i c of o l d e r farm houses. These k i t c h e n s were b u i l t i n the days when a l a r g e t h r e s h i n g crew was e s s e n t i a l a t h a r v e s t time. Modern machinery has made i t p o s s i b l e t o complete the h a r v e s t without much of t h i s e x t r a h i r e d h e l p . The accompanying photograph ( F i g . No. 21) shows one of the o l d e r farm houses. The e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y i s covered by a r u r a l e l e c t r i -f i c a t i o n system. No farm need be without e l e c t r i c i t y to-day, and indeed, none a r e . E l e c t r i c i t y b r i n g s w i t h i t the comfort and convenience of the e l c t r i c l i g h t , the r a d i o , the washing (34) Census of Canada, 8th Census, V o l . 2, p. 54 FIGURE NO. 21 View of o l d e r s t y l e farmhouse i n D e l t a . 47. machine, the electric stove, the refrigerator, the milking machine. No farm to-day is without some of these conveniences some have them a l l . Since the inception of a municipal waterworks in 1910.and the system's revitalization during the 1 9 3 0 1 s a l l farms in the d i s t r i c t with the exception of three have a constant supply of fresh water. These three farms that are without piped water are in the Boundary Bay d i s t r i c t and are at present beyond the extent of the municipal water system. They must rely on wells for their water supply. A water system brought with i t an efficient system of sewage disposal. A l l farms to-day have indoor plumbing with septic tanks which i s a great change from the original system which used outdoor f a c i l i t i e s . Telephone service extends throughout the entire farm area. In November, 1949, 216 farm homes had telephone con-nections. As the total number of farms within the area i s .226 this means that practically every farm has a telephone. The telephone service Is operated by the British.Columbia Telephone Company through i t s Ladner exchange. Telephone service in the area is the result of a farmer's organization, which established the f i r s t telephone exchange. Control of the telephone system remained -on the Delta u n t i l 1924 when the present operators purchased the holdings of the local company. The rural sections of the municipality receive mail by the rural mail service. Rural mall routes from New West-minster serve the northern and eastern d i s t r i c t s , while a rural route from Ladner serves the western and southern TABLE NO. 12 COMPARATIVE YIELDS AREA Number of HERDS• Pounds of MILK Pounds of FAT • % FAT DELTA 29 9220 402 4.36 EDMONTON 16 8^50 275 3.4 ALBERTA 20 8RQR 332.5 3.86 ALBERTA 84 8213 316.1 3.82 SASKATCHEWAN 191 8887.8 316.5 3.52 WASHINGTON 4030 158.3 4.05 WISCONSIN 5100 189 3.7 AREA Bushels of OATS Tons of HAY Tons of POTATOES DELTA 90 2.5 8 B. C. 45 - 55 1.5 5.5 ALBERTA 32 1.3 4.1 SASKATCHEWAN 27.8 1.47 3.2 MANITOBA 40.2 1.82 4.1 ONTARIO 33.8 1.59 — CANADA 28.2 1.5 4.09 U. S. A. 29.6 1.32 — ( Source - Various Department of A g r i c u l t u r e Annual Reports ) 1T.B. As the comparison i n the above t a b l e s i s between a small area and s e v e r a l l a r g e r ones, the r e s u l t i s more favourable'to D e l t a than i f the areas had been of s i m i l a r s i z e . 4 8 . d i s t r i c t s . Thus a. l e t t e r from the eastern part of Delta has to t r a v e l v i a Hew Westminster and Vancouver to be-delivered a few miles away i n the western part of the area. The only reason f o r the s p l i t mail service i s that i t has now become a habit a few of-the people serviced by r u r a l routes from Hew Westminster desire a change of address. The automobile, the truck, the tractor and the combine are standard equipment on most farms to-day. The extent of farm mechanization can best be shown by the f a c t that p r i o r to World War I each farm had as many as twenty head of horses, whereas to-day.there i s only one team of-horses working i n East D e l t a . Throughout the area i t i s almost an oddity to see a team of horses and a wagon on the roads. Trucks or wagons drawn by tractors are a much more usual sight. The farmer of t h i s area has a comfortable standard of l i v i n g . The productivity of the s o i l which he farms has made i t possible f o r him to provide h i s heme with the necessities of modern l i v i n g . Y i e l d s as compared with other parts of Canada are shown i n Table Ho. 12. I t w i l l be noted that y i e l d s i n D e l t a are considerably higher than the p r o v i n c i a l or national average f o r the selected crops. I t would also appear that D e l t a cows give more and r i c h e r milk than do cows i n various other places, (c) Crop Rotation: A l l farmers pr a c t i s e a system of crop r o t a t i o n . Each farmer has h i s own system of r o t a t i o n depending on the crops he grows. There i s , however, a c e r t a i n basic system of r o t a t i o n which can be shown diagrammatically as follows: 49. Hay Oats Pasture Potato T h i s system Is f o r a farm of 80 a c r e s w i t h f o u r 20 a c r e s f i e l d s . For l a r g e r farms where there may be more f i e l d s the farmer u s u a l l y arranges f o r a f i e l d to l i e i n pasture f o r an e x t r a year. F i e l d s i z e s on most farms average from 18 to 25 a c r e s so t h a t the b a s i c system or v a r i a t i o n s of i t w i l l h o l d t r u e r e g a r d l e s s of the s i z e of farm. I n cases where a farmer does not grow potatoes, some other crop such as peas would take i t s p l a c e i n the r o t a t i o n sequence, (d) D a i r y i n g ; D a i r y i n g p r o v i d e s over o n e S t h i r d of the t o t a l farm income i n D e l t a . I t i s by f a r the most Important p a r t of the a g r i -c u l t u r a l economy. There are two reasons why d a i r y i n g has developed to such a prominent p o s i t i o n , (1) a c l i m a t e t h a t i s i d e a l l y s u i t e d f o r the growth of hay and pasture grasses, (2) there i s a l a r g e urban market f o r f l u i d m i l k i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. There i s marked s i m i l a r i t y among the d a i r y farms. Four c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s account f o r t h i s . I t i s necessary to keep the cows under s h e l t e r a t l e a s t s i x months of the year. Large barns are p r o v i d e d not o n l y to house the c a t t l e f o r t h i s 50. p e r i o d but a l s o to s t o r e the l a r g e amounts of fodder t h a t are r e q u i r e d d u r i n g the w i n t e r season. Beside each barn there i s a c y l i n d r i c a l tower known as a s i l o . These s i l o are used to s t o r e e n s i l a g e - u s u a l l y of pea v i n e - as f e e d f o r the c a t t l e . A short d i s t a n c e from each barn i s a small m i l k house. B r i t i s h Columbia law makes i t o b l i g a t o r y to separate the p l a c e where the mil k i s s t r a i n e d , c o o l e d and s t o r e d from the barn. Beside the road there i s always a wooden stand. Each farmer ship s h i s m i l k by a t r u c k i n g f i r m to the l a r g e d a i r i e s i n Vancouver. These ro a d s i d e stands are the p l a c e where the t r u c k e r can e a s i l y p i c k up the farmer's, milk and r e t u r n the empty cans. The c a t t l e are u s u a l l y turned out to the f i e l d s sometime i n A p r i l or May. Except f o r the twice d a i l y m i l k i n g i n the barn they remain there u n t i l l a t e September or e a r l y October. The cows are u s u a l l y kept i n the barn i n the s p r i n g a week or two l o n g e r than might seem n e c e s s a r y . However, farmers have found t h a t by g i v i n g the pasture a few days of e x t r a growth i n the e a r l y s p r i n g , i t t h r i v e s much b e t t e r d u r i n g the remainder of.the s p r i n g and summer. There i s s t r i c t government t e s t i n g of c a t t l e . The area has been c l a s s e d as f r e e of t u b e r c u l o s i s s i n c e about 1925. C o n t i n u a l t e s t s are c a r r i e d out by government I n s p e c t o r s to keep i t t h a t way. T e s t i n g i s a l s o c a r r i e d out f o r the b u t t e r -f a t content of m i l k . As a r e s u l t low producers can be removed from a herd. By t h i s t e s t i n g and subsequent e l i m i n a t i o n of poor m i l k producers the farmer can be sure of o b t a i n i n g maximum 51. m i l k p r o d u c t i o n from the l a n d used f o r d a i r y i n g . There are approximately 5 , 0 0 0 head of milk c a t t l e w i t h -i n the a r e a . Three breeds of c a t t l e make up most of t h i s t o t a l . H o l s t e i n - F r i e s i a n are the most popular v a r i e t y , f o l l o w e d by J e r s e y s and Guernseys. Some of the farmers s p e c i a l i z e i n pure bred stock and have gained r e c o g n i t i o n f o r themselves and t h e i r d i s t r i c t a t the P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l Ex-h i b i t i o n and the Royal Winter F a i r , (e) Oats; Oats are the p r i n c i p a l g r a i n c r o p . They we're p l a n t e d on 5,500 acres i n 1943. Between 1943 and 1949 oat acreage decreased as pea acreage i n c r e a s e d . In 1949 when pea acreage was c u r t a i l e d due to the c l o s u r e of the cannery most of the acre s f r e e d from pea p r o d u c t i o n were p l a n t e d i n o a t s . T h i s would mean t h a t i n 1949 approximately 2 9 . 8 $ of the c u l t i v a t e d area was used f o r oat c u l t i v a t i o n . There i s h a r d l y a farm t h a t has not a t l e a s t one f i e l d of o a t s . . Oats are p l a n t e d i n s p r i n g , u s u a l l y i n May, and are har v e s t e d i n l a t e August or September. H a r v e s t i n g i s done mostly by combine methods, a l t h o u g h a few farmers s t i l l use the o l d e r method of c u t t i n g and t h r e s h i n g s e p a r a t e l y . The y i e l d of oats average from 90 to 100 bushels an a c r e . I n i s o l a t e d cases y i e l d s as h i g h as 150 bushes have been r e -po r t e d . Oats are used f o r f e e d and.for seed. Most of the oats f o r l o c a l use are processed by a farmer's c o - o p e r a t i v e g r i s t m i l l i n Ladner. S a l e of c e r t i f i e d oat seed on the export market has been a new market t h a t has opened t o the farmers ft 52. . i n the l a s t few y e a r s . The c h i e f hazards to the oat crop i n D e l t a are heavy r a i n s and s t r o n g winds. H a r v e s t i n g of the g r a i n becomes d i f f i c u l t i f ( h e a v y r a i n s occur i n August and September. Rains may beat down an.-unharvested crop, or i f the crops has been c u t may cause i t to r o t i n the f i e l d s . Lodging i s the p r i n c i p a l danger from s t r o n g winds. I t makes c u t t i n g ex-tremely d i f f i c u l t as b i n d e r s and combines work bes t when the g r a i n i s s t a n d i n g u p r i g h t . E x c e s s i v e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n August and September is. not common so t h a t l o s s e s due to r a i n f a l l are not g r e a t . Hardly a year goes by, however, t h a t a t l e a s t p a r t of the oat c r o p i s not a f f e c t e d by l o d g i n g . ( f ) Pasture and Hayt Pasture i s the second most important a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d by a r e a . There are two c l e a r l y r e c -ognized types of pasture i n D e l t a . N a t u r a l pasture i s found i n areas southeast of the peat bog and i n the area west of Boundary Bay. I t i s g e n e r a l l y on l a n d t h a t because of poor drainage or e x c e s s i v e b u r n i n g of top s o i l i s not s u i t e d f o r the other crops of the d i s t r i c t . N a t u r a l pasture comprises only a s m a l l percentage of the t o t a l acreage i n p a s t u r e . C u l t i v a t e d pasture Is an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the c r o p r o t a t i o n system on most farms. On the s m a l l e r farms a f i f e l d w i l l be i n pasture every f o u r t h year whereas on the l a r g e farms a f i e l d may remain i n pasture f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Hay i s the t h i r d most important u t i l i z a t i o n of c u l t i v a t e d l a n d on D e l t a . The popular mixture of fodder crops f o r hay i s r e d c l o v e r and timothy. I t i s u s u a l to get two c u t t i n g s of 53. hay a year, one i n June and one i n the f a l l . I f the farmer wishes to s e l l r e d c l o v e r seed, the seed i s threshed from the second c u t t i n g . Experience has shown t h a t a second c u t t i n g of hay k i l l s the c l o v e r f o r pasture the next year. Hay y i e l d s from 2-g- to 3 tons an a c r e . The c h i e f hazard to the hay crops i s r o t t i n g from r a i n a f t e r the crop has been cut but b e f o r e i t has been removed from the f i e l d . A p p a r e n t l y hay a l s o l o s e s some of i t s f e e d value i f i t becomes sodden w i t h water. Farmers f a c e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of l o s i n g one crop of hay i n 1949 when heavy and p e r s i s t e n t r a i n s caught tons of c u t hay s t i l l i n the f i e l d s . However, as the summer months are u s u a l l y q u i t e dry i n D e l t a the prospect of l o s i n g a hay c r o p i s not one t h a t must be met f r e q u e n t l y . (g) Peas: Peas became important i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use of the area a f t e r the opening of a v e g e t a b l e canning f a c t o r y i n Ladner i n 1941. Pea acreage i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y u n t i l by 1948 i t was the f i f t h most important c r o p by acreage. I n 1948 there were 2,500 acr e s p l a n t e d to peas. In 1949 the acreage was reduced from 2,500 acres to between 1,000 and 1,100 acres when the Ladner Canning Company f a i l e d to operate. The remaining acreage was gr.own f o r c a n n e r i e s i n New Westminster and Vancouver ? Most of the acreage f o r m e r l y p l a n t e d to peas was seeded to oats In 1 9 4 9 . Peas are p l a n t e d i n e a r l y A p r i l and are h a r v e s t e d d u r i n g J u l y and August. The e n t i r e v i n e i s cut i n the f i e l d and i s t r a n s p o r t e d by t r u c k to c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d pea t h r e s h e r s . The •54. t h r e s h e r s , or v i n e r s , are l o c a t e d In b a t t e r i e s of three or f o u r throughout the d i s t r i c t . A t the v i n e r the peas are separated from the pods and v i n e . The l a t t e r are r e t u r n e d to the farmer f o r e n s i l a g e while the peas are taken to the cannery. Once the peas have been cut i n the f i e l d s ' a g r e a t d e a l of speed i s necessary to d e l i v e r them to the cannery i n good c o n d i t i o n . E x c e s s i v e heat sours the peas r a p i d l y . I t Is estimated by growers and canners t h a t only from 6 to 8 hours should elapse from the time the peas are cut u n t i l they are i n the canning p r o c e s s . The p r i n c i p a l damage to the pea crop comes from an aphid which a t t a c k s the crop i n e a r l y June. To prevent s e r i o u s l o s s e s i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the crop be sprayed. The most e f f i c i e n t method of s p r a y i n g i s by aeroplane, f l y i n g low over the f i e l d s and d u s t i n g the crop w i t h a p r e p a r a t i o n designed to k i l l the aphlds. A l l pea acreage i n D e l t a i s found west of Benson.Road. There seems to be no reason why t h i s should be so, except t h a t E a s t D e l t a farmers p r e f e r to grow other c r o p s , (h) Potatoes: Potatoes r e p r e s e n t the f o u r t h most important a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d use w i t h i n the a r e a . As mentioned e a r l i e r the potato Industry was g i v e n s t a b i l i t y a f t e r the formation of the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast Vegetable M a r k e t i n g Board i n 1936. The. potatoes grown i n the lowland area of the m u n i c i p a l i t y are of the l a t e v a r i e t i e s , c h i e f l y N etted Gem and Green Mountain. Some e a r l y potatoes are grown by Chinese but these cannot , complete economically w i t h e a r l y potatoes grown i n h i g h e r 5 5 . areas where they can u s u a l l y be ha r v e s t e d by the end of May. The p r i n c i p a l hazard to the potato i n d u s t r y i s L a t e B l i g h t which u s u a l l y occurs i n the f i r s t p a r t of September. T h i s b l i g h t f i r s t a t t a c k s the tops of the potato p l a n t and then descends the stem towards the tuber. I n order to save the tuber i t i s necessary to c u t the tops o f f a f f e c t e d p l a n t s . However, i f the tubers are not f u l l y matured, t h e i r q u a l i t y and s i z e are reduced by e a r l y c u t t i n g of the t o p s . The b l i g h t g e n e r a l l y occurs c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the f i r s t e a r l y morning fogs of September. Although the cause of La t e B l i g h t i s not d e f i n i t e l y known i t i s thought to be r e l a t e d t o the amount;of moisture i n the a i r . B l i g h t i n c r e a s e s the c o s t of potato p r o d u c t i o n by the c o s t of sprays and of c u t t i n g the t o p s . B l i g h t has been v e r y widespread f o r the past few y e a r s . A g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h i n t o b l i g h t r e s i s t a n t potatoes would seem to be necessary and i s b e i n g done. Some farmers have found t h a t by p l a n t i n g e a r l y and thus having the crop mature e a r l y they can reduce the r i s k of b l i g h t c o n s i d e r a b l y . Most farmers, however, r e l y on heavy s p r a y i n g to p r o t e c t the cr o p . The l a r g e urban market of Gr e a t e r Vancouver absorbs most of D e l t a ' s potato p r o d u c t i o n . A small percentage of the cro p i s s o l d as c e r t i f i e d seed. P l a n t i n g and h a r v e s t i n g of potatoes i s done e n t i r e l y by mechanical means on the l a r g e r farms. ( i ) Sugar Beet Seed: The development of a sugar beet seed i n d u s t r y on the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y i s r e l a t i v e l y new. The program s t a r t e d i n a s m a l l way i n 1941 under the auspices of the B r i t i s h 56. Columbia Sugar R e f i n e r i e s L i m i t e d . By 1949 the acreage had grown to from 300 to 400 ac r e s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y w i t h 225 itJf these i n D e l t a . The c h i e f n a t u r a l advantage of the area i n the p r o d u c t i o n of sugar beet seed i s the f a c t t h a t w i n t e r temperatures a l l o w the cr o p to w i n t e r i n the f i e l d without s e r i o u s danger of b e i n g f r o z e n . A dry summer season i s a l s o an advantage i n h a r v e s t i n g of the c r o p . In D e l t a the i n d u s t r y s t a r t e d on two farms, one on Westham I s l a n d and one on Cre s c e n t I s l a n d . I t has now grown to 10 farms. There i s a y i e l d of from 6 to 10 tons an a c r e w i t h a s a l e p r i c e of $300.00 per ton. The crop i s sown i n summer, u s u a l l y i n J u l y or August. I t w i n t e r s i n the f i e l d and the next s p r i n g i s h e a v i l y f e r t i l i z e d . Harvest takes p l a c e about the middle of August. The l a n d then l i e s f a l l o w u n t i l the next s p r i n g or i s p l a n t e d to a f a l l c r o p. On farms where sugar beet seed i s grown the seeding Is so arranged t h a t a c r o p i s h a r v e s t e d each y e a r . To ensure proper c u l t i v a t i o n the crop must be g i v e n a great d e a l of c a r e . The p r e p a r a t i o n of the seed bed and the c o n t r o l of weeds are e s p e c i a l l y important. A wet h a r v e s t i s the c h i e f danger. As J u l y and August are u s u a l l y f a i r l y dry months there i s l i t t l e hazard from excess p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n a normal year. I f there should be a heavy August r a i n , as i n 1947, l a r g e d r y e r s . a r e used to dry the seed a f t e r i t has been h a r v e s t e d . The seed would r o t i f allowed to remain wet. Farmers who have undertaken to grow sugar beets f o r seed f i n d t h a t they can u s u a l l y look a f t e r the crops themselves. As the crop has a h i g h y i e l d v a l u e per a c r e , the farmer can 57.. make a p r o f i t on a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f i e l d . As farm l a b o u r has become i n c r e a s i n g l y expensive, a farmer can reduce h i s expenses by d e v o t i n g p a r t of h i s acreage to sugar b e e t s . (,}) Market gardening: Market gardening on a commercial b a s i s has been another r e c e n t development w i t h i n D e l t a . T h i s type of f a r m i n g i s l a r g e -l y i n the hands of Chinese. U n t i l the l a s t two years market gardening was devoted p r i m a r i l y to e a r l y potatoes and cabbage. The Chinese, and two or three whites, r e n t e d small p l o t s of l a n d wherever p o s s i b l e . They f i r s t p l a n t e d e a r l y p o t a t o e s . Then when the potatoes were n e a r l y ready f o r d i g g i n g , seed-l i n g cabbage was p l a n t e d between the rows of p o t a t o e s . As a r e s u l t i t was necessary to h a r v e s t the potatoes by hand. The cabbage was l e f t i n the f i e l d s to mature a f t e r the potatoes had been h a r v e s t e d . As cabbage can withstand f r e e z i n g temperatures while i t i s In the f i e l d , i t can be p l a n t e d q u i t e l a t e i n the y e a r . Gardening o f . t h i s nature was c o n f i n e d to Ladner and D e l t a Manor. In 1948 Chinese i n t e r e s t s purchased 60 a c r e s of l a n d a l o n g Westham Road. I n the same year other Chinese a c q u i r e d 160 acres a t the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Trunk and Tasker Roads. Those on Westham Road found t h a t by I n t e n s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n and by the use of a s p r i n k l e r system of i r r i g a t i o n they c o u l d r a i s e most temperate v e g e t a b l e s , such as tomatoes, v e g e t a b l e marrow, sweet corn, l e t t u c e and c a r r o t s . Another Chinese, w i t h prop-e r t y n e a r e r Ladner, has used the same method of c u l t i v a t i o n f o r a number of y e a r s . I r r i g a t i o n water i s l i f t e d from a drainage d i t c h by means 58. of a small g a s o l i n e - d r i v e n pump, then c a r r i e d to where i t i s needed i n the f i e l d by means of 1-1^- i n c h l e a d pipe b u r i e d i n the ground. I t i s f e d to the p l a n t s by s p r i n k l e r s t h a t resemble the u s u a l lawn s p r i n k l e r . The acreage on Tasker Road has n ot been used s i n c e 1947. I t i s a t present the l a r g e s t s i n g l e area of l a n d capable of c u l t i v a t i o n i n D e l t a t h a t i& not b e i n g used, as the new owners are f i x i n g farm b u i l d i n g s before s t a r t i n g t h e i r market garden o p e r a t i o n s , (k) Grass; In 1946 a p l a n t f o r d e h y d r a t i n g grass was e s t a b l i s h e d i n D e l t a . U n s u c c e s s f u l attempts were made to operate the p l a n t In 1946 and 1947. F i r e d estroyed the p l a n t i n 1947. John Nott-ingham purchased the remains of the p l a n t and r e b u i l t i t on h i s farm: on Crescent I s l a n d . In 1949 he had 180 acr e s p l a n t e d t o grass f o r d e h y d r a t i o n . A t presen t only rye grass and c l o v e r are grown alth o u g h l e d i n o c l o v e r and orchard grass c o u l d be grown as w e l l . The grass i s cut f i r s t i n A p r i l and every t h r e e weeks t h e r e a f t e r . During 1948 and 1949 e i g h t c u t t i n g s were p o s s i b l e each year. The 180 acr e s of grass are e n c l o s e d i n one l a r g e f i e l d . . To f a c i l i t a t e the c u t t i n g of grass a l l fences on the area p l a n t e d to grass have been removed. The 180 acres accounted f o r approximately 1% of the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d i n use. (1) Other Crops: G r a i n s , other than oats, are of l i t t l e importance i n the ar e a . Small q u a n t i t i e s of s p r i n g wheat, b a r l e y , f a l l rye and corn are c u l t i v a t e d . The s o i l s of the area are not par-t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d f o r the c u l t i v a t i o n of a wheat crop s i n c e they 59. l a c k phosphorous and are s l i g h t l y a c i d i c . Wheat has a h i g h l e v e l requirement f o r phosphorous and f a v o r s n e u t r a l to s l i g h t l y a l k a l i n e s o i l s . There were, however, 95 acres p l a n t e d to wheat on 5 farms. B a r l e y , which i s not a popular-crop i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , was p l a n t e d on 38 acres on 4 farms. Corn to be used f o r fodder was grown on 11 farms and t o t a l l e d 98 a c r e s . There was a l s o one 10 acre f i e l d or r y e . I n a l l , 25? a c r e s of other g r a i n s were grown i n D e l t a , c o n s t i t u t i n g j u s t over 1% of the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d i n use. C e r t a i n other crops such as f i e l d cabbage, r a s p b e r r i e s , s t r a w b e r r i e s , b l a c k and r e d c u r r a n t s , c a r r o t s , mangles, and t u r n i p s are grown on small acreages throughout D e l t a . r?s.'±-2k These crops, along w i t h the area u t i l i z e d f o r farm b u i l d i n g s and farm gardens, account f o r 623 a c r e s of l a n d , (m) Experimental U t i l i z a t i o n of the Land The Dominion Experimental S t a t i o n a t A g a s s i z obtained a p l o t of 20 acres on the army camp property In 1948. As the l a n d had not been i n use s i n c e 1940 a heavy t u r f cover had developed. In view of t h i s only 2 acres c o u l d be r e a d i e d f o r use i n 1949. Under d i r e c t i o n of the Experimental S t a t i o n two types of t e s t s i n v o l v i n g potatoes and c e r e a l s were c a r r i e d out i n the D e l t a a r e a . The potato t e s t s were c a r r i e d out a l o n g two l i n e s . One t e s t experimented w i t h new potato v a r i e t i e s . These v a r i e t i e s were checked f o r t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e to b l i g h t and scab and f o r t h e i r y i e l d of dry matter and t h e i r cooking q u a l i t y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s hope to: o b t a i n a b l i g h t r e s i s t a n t potato w i t h a h i g h cooking q u a l i t y which would be of great 60. h e l p t o l o c a l farmers. The second t e s t was concerned w i t h the f e r t i l i z a t i o n of potato c r o p s . R e s u l t s of pre v i o u s t e s t s c a r r i e d out i n the area from 1938 to 1940 were as f o l l o w s : "1. Nljbrogen was of l i t t l e b e n e f i t other than t o aid,, i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n of phosphorous and potash. 2. Phosphorous was needed a t the r a t e of 120 to 180 pounds per acre (12$ a t 1,000 to 1,500 l b s . ) 3. Potash a p p l i e d up to 120 pounds per acr e s on a l l but Ladner Clay s o i l s ' Increased y i e l d s . On Ladner C l a y potash reduced y i e l d s below p l o t s having no potash. 4. Manure was needed i n a l l cases." (35) The c e r e a l t e s t s s t a r t e d a t the s t a t i o n i n 1949 were not s a t i s f a c t o r y due to severe pheasant damage, to areas of couch grass and to burnt-over a r e a s . The t h i c k network of r o o t s developed by couch grass, and the l o s s of f e r t i l i t y due to ex c e s s i v e b u r n i n g i n the p e r i o d of e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t make s u c c e s s f u l c u l t i v a t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . S i m i l a r t e s t s to those attempted a t the s u b s t a t i o n were c a r r i e d out on v a r i o u s farms i n D e l t a . Experiments w i t h oats, b a r l e y and as o a t s - b a r l e y mixture were undertaken. A f u r t h e r t e s t was made to determine the most e f f e c t i v e seeding r a t e f o r oats i n the d i s t r i c t . I t i s hoped to ac h i e v e a seeding r a t e which w i l l combine maximum s o i l p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h minimum seeding. T e s t s were a l s o made w i t h v a r i e t i e s of e n s i l a g e corn, sunflowers, and soy beans. The e n s i l a g e c o r n t e s t s were to determine the most s u i t a b l e v a r i e t i e s f o r the a r e a . The t e s t w i t h sunflowers was to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of c u l t i v a t i n g them on a commercial b a s i s f o r p r o d u c t i o n of o i l from the (35) Dominion Experimental Farms. F i r s t Annual Report, Potato S u b s t a t i o n , Ladner, B. C. December 1949, p. 4. LAND USE EXCERPT MAPS The f o l l o w i n g three maps are excerpts from the l a r g e l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n map prepared by the w r i t e r i n c o m p i l i n g the data f o r t h i s t h e s i s . The l o c a t i o n of the areas covered by the excerpt maps i s as f o l l o w s : E x c e r p t No. 1 - between Boundary Bay and I m p e r i a l Roads south of F a r r e l l Road. Exce r p t No. 2 - C r e s c e n t I s l a n d . E x c e r p t No. 3 - E a s t D e l t a between Smith and Embree Roads. KEY C C l o v e r Ca C a r r o t s Co Corn : F F a l l o w 0 Oats P Pasture Po Potatoes Ps . Peas R Roots S Sunflower V Mixed Vegetables W Wheat m Farm House and Farm B u i l d i n g s j j Church | 0 j Community H a l l S c a l e : 1:10,560 FIGURE NO. 22 LAND USE EXCERPT MAP NO. 1 /or 61.. seeds. The t e s t s d i d not give encouraging r e s u l t s however, as pheasants p l a y e d havoc w i t h the crop. The c o n c l u s i o n reached by the t e s t i n g s c i e n t i s t was as f o l l o w s : "From the r e s u l t s o f the t e s t i t would seem t h a t sun-f l o w e r s are not a promising crop f o r the a r e a . " ( 3 6 ) The soy bean t e s t turned out t o be a complete f a i l u r e as pheasants ate the bean shoots as f a s t as they appeared above the ground. These t e s t s which w i l l be c a r r i e d on In coming years w i l l ' most l i k e l y i n d i c a t e b e t t e r v a r i e t i e s of pre s e n t ' c r o p s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h i n the a r e a . While the development of b e t t e r crop v a r i e t i e s w i l l not l i k e l y m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r the present a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n , i t w i l l probably r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y from the l a n d , (n) Summary of Present A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Use: Three crops dominate the l a n d use p a t t e r n on the a g r i -c u l t u r a l area of D e l t a . Over 80$ of a l l c u l t i v a t e d l a n d i s devoted to oats, pasture and hay. These crops form the b a s i s of the present a g r i c u l t u r e of the d i s t r i c t . In the s p r i n g and e a r l y summer before the g r a i n begins to mature, D e l t a i s one v a s t f i e l d of green. T h i s broad expanse of v a r y i n g greens i s broken only by farm buildings-, roads and f e n c e s . In l a t e summer as oats become a golden c o l o r and r e d c l o v e r matures t h e r e i s a b e a u t i f u l b l e n d i n g of greens, golds and r e d s . Even d u r i n g the other seasons of the year green i s the dominant c o l o u r , a l t h o u g h i n e a r l y s p r i n g the ^$6)-Dominion Experimental Farms, F i r s t Annual Report, Potato S u b s t a t i o n , Ladner, B.C. December 1 9 4 9 , p. 1 1 . 62. panorama of green Is broken by expanses of b l a c k as the farmer ploughs h i s f i e l d s i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s p r i n g p l a n t i n g . A g r i c u l t u r e i s not on l y the c h i e f source of income to the d i s t r i c t but i s a l s o the reason f o r the area's beauty. CHAPTER FOUR INDUSTRIAL_UTILIZATION I n d u s t r i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d i s f a i r l y unimportant. P r i o r to World War I there was some i n d u s t r i a l development i n D e l t a but i t dwindled away i n the i n t e r - w a r y e a r s . S i n c e 1940 there has been a s l i g h t r e v i v a l of i n d u s t r y . The l o c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s i s shown i n ( F i g . No. 2 5 ) . Salmon canning p r o v i d e d the h i s t o r i c b a s i s of i n d u s t r y . For the f i r s t 30 years of settlement i n D e l t a ( I 8 6 8 - I 8 9 8 ) salmon ca n n e r i e s were the only i n d u s t r i e s . For the next 24 years (1898-1922) they were the l e a d i n g i n d u s t r y , r e a c h i n g t h e i r peak a f t e r 1910. The salmon canning i n d u s t r y of the F r a s e r R i v e r reached a h i g h p o i n t i n 1913 w i t h a pack of 1,1357,700 cases of sockeye. As a r e s u l t of a rock s l i d e a t H e l l ' s Gate d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Grand Trunk p a c i f i c Railway i n that year the escape of salmon to. the spawning grounds was p r a c t i c a l l y o b l i t e r a t e d . By 1929 the salmon pack had been reduced to 172,300 cases. (>3Z) The d e c l i n e of the importance of salmon canning i n D e l t a f o l l o w e d as a n a t u r a l consequence of the d e c l i n e of the whole i n d u s t r y . Re-establishment of salmon canning d u r i n g the 1930's was con-c e n t r a t e d a t S t e v e s t o n on L u l u I s l a n d . B e t t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s gave t h i s s i t e an advantage over D e l t a . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows the number of c a n n e r i e s o p e r a t i n g i n D e l t a from 1880 to 1949, and i l l u s t r a t e s the d e c l i n e of the (&?) F i g u r e s quoted from Freeman, O.W. "Salmon Canning In d u s t r y on the P a c i f i c Coast", Economic Geography '•Vol. 11, No. 2, A p r i l 1935. P. 113. FIGURE NO. 25 INDUSTRY MAP - KEY A. Nelson Brothers Cannery B". Industrial Peat Company Limited C. Delta Water Works D. B r i t i s h Columbia Packers ( Oyster Plant ) E. Atkins and Durbrow Limited F. Dehydrated Grass Limited G. F. V. Delta Co-operative Association H. Ladner Canning Company D E L T A - I N D U S T R Y i n d u s t r y a f t e r the H e l l ' s Gate S l i d e . 64. Table No. 13- Salmon Canneries i n D e l t a 1880 to 1949 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 1905 1 4 8 8 8 14 1 9 2 0 1 9 2 5 1 9 3 0 1 9 3 5 1 9 4 0 1949 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 9 1 0 - 14 Source: Compiled from v a r i o u s d i r e c t o r i e s and guides. The one o p e r a t i n g f i s h cannery i n the area now i s l o c a t e d on the e a s t e r n edge of Sunbury where the Great Northern Railway c r o s s e s R i v e r Road. A l l that remains of a once important i n d u s t r y are a few b u i l d i n g s , f o r the most p a r t d e r e l i c t , a l o n g the r i v e r f r o n t . A few of these ex-cannery b u i l d i n g s are used as net houses by l o c a l fishermen. For the most p a r t , however, they merely serve as reminders of a more i n d u s t r i e s p a s t . A sawmill operated i n the a r e a from 1910 to 1 9 2 9 about t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a m i l e west of Ladner on Westham Road. The l o g s f o r the m i l l were brought up the r i v e r i n booms. No l o c a l timber was used. The d e p r e s s i o n of the 1 9 3 0 ' s f o r c e d the m i l l to c l o s e down. The b u i l d i n g s f o r m e r l y used by the sawmill have been removed and a l l t h a t remains of the i n d u s t r y are a few concrete s l a b s . For s e v e r a l years b e f o r e the war the unoccupied sawmill was'a f a m i l i a r landmark i n D e l t a . I n 1 9 1 9 the Boundary Bay O i l Company was formed. I t commenced d r i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n E a s t D e l t a near the southern end of Matthews Road i n 1 9 1 9 . By 1 9 2 2 f o u r w e l l s had been 65. d r i l l e d but the operators had found no commereial q u a n t i t i e s of gas or o i l . Spasmodic d r i l l i n g e f f o r t s s i n c e then have met w i t h no s u c c e s s . The d e r r i c k which was a f a m i l i a r s i g h t to people t r a v e l l i n g a l o n g Trunk Road- was dismantled d u r i n g World War I I . The development of peat p r o c e s s i n g brought two new i n d u s t r i e s to the area d u r i n g World War I I . The i n d u s t r i a l Peat Company e s t a b l i s h e d i t s p l a n t i n 1942, and the B. C. Peat Company, now known as A t k i n s and Durbrow L i m i t e d , opened a p l a n t i n 1944. These two p l a n t s , one l o c a t e d on the west s i d e of the peat bog and the other on the east s i d e , are the most important n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s i n the d i s t r i c t A survey of the peat bog made i n 1927 by the Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey d i s c l o s e d t h a t there was s u f f i c i e n t peat a v a i l a b l e f o r 3,412,000 tons of processed peat c o n t a i n i n g 20$ moisture. . (33) The standar d procedure f o r the prep-a r a t i o n of. peat was d e s c r i b e d a t t h a t time as f o l l o w s : "..... to d i g the peat e i t h e r by hand or machine, to al l o w the r e s u l t i n g b r i c k s of peat to dry i n the open u n t i l the moisture content f a l l s to about 20$, pass the a i r - d r i e d peat through d i s i n t e g r a t i n g machines and over screens to separate the peat l i t t e r from the f i n e r products of peat m u l l , and f i n a l l y to compress the r e s u l t i n g m a t e r i a l i n t o b a l e s of about 180 pounds weight of peat l i t t e r or peat m u l l . " (39) Teat i s u s u a l l y dug i n the f a l l and winter, allowed to dry and processed d u r i n g the summer. ("38) Anrep, A. Peat bogs f o r the manufacture of peat Titter and peat mull i n Southwest B r i t i s h Columbia, Summary Report, P a r t A.,_ 1927, p. 60A. ( 3 9 ).Anrep, A., Peat bogs f o r the manufacture of peat l i t t e r and peat mull i n Southwest B r i t i s h Columbia, Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary Report, P a r t A, 1927 p. 61A. 66. Atkins and Durbrow have developed a hydraulic method of processing peat. Their? plant i s the only one of i t s kind i n Canada, and except for a state-subsidized operation near Duluth Minnesota, the only one i n North America. (40); Because of the uniqueness of t h i s plant i t s operations w i l l be described i n some d e t a i l . The plant equipment Is housed i n a l i n e of f i r e proof buildings located i n the bog. The i n i t i a l stage i n processing the peat starts half a mile away i n the bog. Powerful hoses fed by water piped from the Fraser River washes, the peat loose and f l o a t s I t to one of a number of ditches. I t f l o a t s along these ditches to a sump where any foreign matter such as roots are removed. I t i s then pumped into the plant where i t i s refined, r o l l e d , dried and baled.- The machines used i n processing peat are similar to those used i n converging pulp to.paper. This type of equipment enables the plant to operate on a year-round basis. Hydraulic processing of peat allows peat to a depth of eight feet to be u t i l i z e d , whereas by hand digging only three feet are used. Most of the peat i s sold i n the United States and i n Western Canada where i t i s used as poultry l i t t e r , as a physical medium for plant growth, for binding sandy s o i l , and for aerating heavy clay s o i l s . Atkins and Durbrow have a research department which has already developed a new product 'Peatblene'. This product which i s a mixture of chemical f e r t i l i z e r and peat moss has been well received on the B r i t i s h Columbia market. Experiments into the p o s s i b i l i t y (40) As of March 1950. 67. of u t i l i z i n g peat moss as i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l , l i n o l e u m f i l l e r , deodorant pads, s u r g i c a l d r e s s i n g s and as packing m a t e r i a l are b e i n g c a r r i e d ' o u t . Both companies o p e r a t i n g i n the peat bog estimate t h a t they have s u f f i c i e n t r e s e r v e s f o r another 35 years a t p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n r a t e s . Table No. 14 - Annual Peat P r o d u c t i o n and Number of Employees Company Annual P r o d u c t i o n . Employees A t k i n s and Durbrow 300,000 b a l e s 60 to 70 I n d u s t r i a l Peat 250,000 b a l e s 175 The presence of these two i n d u s t r i e s In D e l t a has a s t a b i l i z i n g e f f e c t on l o c a l economy. They provide permanent employment i n an area where seasonal l a b o u r i s g e n e r a l . A t k i n s and Durbrow have a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on the economy of the area as. most of t h e i r employees l i v e i n Ladner, whereas the employees f o r I n d u s t r i a l Peat Company are drawn from the up-l a n d e a s t e r n s e c t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The l a t e s t i n d u s t r y to be developed In the area i s a grass d e h y d r a t i n g p l a n t . I t has been In o p e r a t i o n a t i t s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n on Crescent I s l a n d s i n c e June, 1948. A p r e v i o u s attempt to e s t a b l i s h t h i s i n d u s t r y ended i n f a i l u r e t when the p l a n t burned down i n 1947. Dehyrdrated grass i s used f o r c h i c k e n and other p o u l t r y f e e d . The market i s a t present l o c a l but the owner hopes to be a b l e to e s t a b l i s h an export market i n the near f u t u r e . He-intends attempting experiments 6 8 . w i t h 'Canure 1 - dehydrated manure, and w i t h p o u l t r y manure mixed w i t h straw, sawdust or peat. . I n 1920 the F r a s e r V a l l e y D e l t a Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n was formed w i t h the purpose of o p e r a t i n g a g r i s t m i l l where l o c a l farmers c o u l d have t h e i r g r a i n processed f o r f e e d . As w e l l as p r o c e s s i n g g r a i n the 'Co-op' s e l l s seeds, commercial feed, f e r t i l i z e r and o t h e r farm needs. The p l a n t was e n l a r g e d i n 1948 when the f a c i l i t i e s were modernized.and more storage space was p r o v i d e d . The aluminium coated tower - s i m i l a r to a p r a i r i e g r a i n e l e v a t o r - of the 'Co-dp' Is by f a r the t a l l e s t s t r u c t u r e i n D e l t a . B r i t i s h Columbia Packers L i m i t e d m a i n t a i n a s m a l l b u i l d i n g on Boundary Bay a t the f o o t of O l i v e r Road. T h i s ..building serves as a storage shed where s u p p l i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h an o y s t e r farm near Crescent Beach are kept. The b u i l d i n g i s l o c a t e d o u t s i d e the dyked area of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . A creamery operated i n D e l t a d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1897 to 1918. The development of the Great Northern Railway branch i i n e and the subsequent o p p o r t u n i t y f o r farmers to s h i p t h e i r milk as f l u i d milk brought about the end of the creamery. The P a c i f i c M i l k Company operated a m i l k condensing p l a n t at the corner of F a l r v i e w and Westham Roads from 1918 to 1925. In the l a t t e r year i t was purchased by the F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers A s s o c i a t i o n who operated i t u n t i l 1928. The Industry was thenmoved to Sumas where i t s t i l l i s . Two f a c t o r s accounted f o r the removal of the i n d u s t r y from the D e l t a . The growth of the f l u i d m i l k market i n Vancouver meant t h a t i s became more p r o f i t a b l e to s h i p m i l k from D e l t a to Vancouver and to process 6 9 . m i l k from farming d i s t r i c t s f u r t h e r - from Vancouver. The m i l k from D e l t a has a low c a l c i u m content which makes i t s e n s i t i v e to heat. (41) As other areas of the F r a s e r V a l l e y a re not so a f f e c t e d , i t was more economical to move the f a c t o r y to an area where s u i t a b l e milk c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . The b u i l d i n g f o r m e r l y occupied by the condensing p l a n t was unoccupied u n t i l 1941. I n t h a t year the Ladner Canning Company was o r g a n i z e d and the b u i l d i n g was renovated as a ve g e t a b l e cannery. The b a s i s of the veget a b l e canning i n -du s t r y was to be the l o c a l pea c r o p . The cannery c l o s e d down a f t e r the 1948 canning season when i t became Impossible to s e l l the canned product. World trade and the dollar- s i t u a t i o n have been blamed f o r the f a i l u r e of the cannery. The e f f e c t t h a t the c l o s i n g had on a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a n d has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . P r i o r to the c l o s u r e of the cannery plans had been made to I n s t a l l quick f r e e z i n g equipment so t h a t p a r t of the pea crop c o u l d be marketed f r o z e n . In 1949 the cannery was pur-chased by the H a l l Packing Company and plans were made to r e -open the p l a n t i n 1950. The new owners planned to process more v a r i e t i e s than was f o r m e r l y the case. The e f f e c t of t h i s on the a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e . As crops are grown f o r the cannery on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s , the type of crop, p l a n t e d and the number of ac r e s of each crop i s c o n t r o l l e d by the canning company. I f the cannery re-opens, (41) Bowen, J . F . A study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of min e r a l s i n m i l k produced i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , c i t e d i n K e l l e y , C. C. and S p i l s b u r y , R. H., S o i l Survey of the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa, p. 5 2 . 70. the requirements need not be the same as e x i s t e d p r e v i o u s l y . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t some of the acreage p r e s e n t l y p l a n t e d to oats would be t r a n s f e r r e d to v e g e t a b l e s f o r the cannery. The cannery d i d not employ a l a r g e permanent staff., From 5 to 10 people were engaged i n c l e r i c a l work, l a b e l l i n g , and maintenance. I t d i d , however, pr o v i d e summer employment to n e a r l y 100 people. I n t h i s way i t p r o v i d e d employment f o r most of the D e l t a h i g h s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y students who. wanted work of t h i s n a t u r e . When i t d i d not operate i n 1 9 4 9 the students who had r e l i e d upon i t f o r summer employment had d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g other p o s i t i o n s . CHAPTER FIVE RESIDENTIAL UTILIZATION There are f i v e d i s t i n c t areas i n D e l t a where the p r i n c i p a l u t i l i z a t i o n of l a n d i s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l purposes. Each of these areas has a d i f f e r e n t o r i g i n and a d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n of u t i l i z a t i o n . I n view of t h i s f a c t each a r e a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d as a separate u n i t . The f i v e r e s i d e n t i a l areas are Ladner, D e l t a Manor, Beach Grove and Grauer's Beach, Boundary Bay and Sunbury. There I s , i n a d d i t i o n , an I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n a t Tswassen. 1. Ladner Ladner i s not i n c o r p o r a t e d and has no d e f i n i t e bound-a r i e s . Throughout the t e x t however, i t w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as a v i l l a g e or a town i n a d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than a po-l i t i c a l sense. There are, however, c e r t a i n l o c a l l y accepted l i m i t s of Ladner which may be d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s : - from the i n t e r s e c t i o n of C h i l u k t h a n Slough and the F r a s e r R i v e r , southward a l o n g C h i l u k t h a n Slough to the i n t e r -s e c t i o n of the abandoned r a i l w a y l i n e , thence i n a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n a l o n g the abandoned r a i l w a y l i n e to the F r a s e r R i v e r , then n o r t h e a s t e r l y a l o n g the r i v e r to the s t a r t i n g p o i n t . While t h i s boundary may i n c l u d e a l i t t l e more than i s Ladner i t w i l l serve as a convenient boundary i n t h a t n o t h i n g t h a t i s p r o p e r l y Ladner i s o u t s i d e the d e f i n e d l i m i t s . As . d e f i n e d , Ladner comprises an area of 322 a c r e s . 6 FIGURE NO. 26 ROAD MAP - KEY 1. Trunk Road 2 . F e r r y Road 3 . Westminster Avenue 4. Boundary Bay Road 5 . Westham Road 6. F a i r v i e w Road 7. E l l i o t t S t r e e t 8. D e l t a S t r e e t 9. Georgia S t r e e t 10. Bridge S t r e e t 11. Westham S t r e e t 12 . S t a n l e y S t r e e t 13. V i c t o r i a S t r e e t 14. Hotham S t r e e t 15. K i n g Edward S t r e e t 16. O n t a r i o S t r e e t 17. C e n t r a l Avenue 18. Maple Avenue 19. L i n d e n Dr i v e 20. Green Road 7 2 . Table No. 15 - Land U t i l i z a t i o n , Ladner, B. C. Use Area i n A c r e s Percent of T o t a l C u l t i v a t e d 153.4 46 R e s i d e n t i a l 125.5 38 • Commercial 31.5 9 . 8 School & Park 10.6 3 . Waste 11 3 . 2 The s i t e f o r the v i l l a g e was s e l e c t e d by W i l l i a m Ladner Two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s governed h i s s e l e c t i o n ; f i r s t , the p o s s i b i l i t y of escape v i a the r i v e r should the l o c a l I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n prove w a r l i k e , and second, the j u n c t i o n of C h i l u k t h a n Slough and the r i v e r p r o v i d e d a l a n d i n g p l a c e f o r f o r r i v e r boats b r i n g i n g s u p p l i e s and passengers to the area The s e t t l e m e n t grew up i n response to the p r o f i t a b l e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y on the F r a s e r R i v e r . The f i r s t cannery i n the a r e a was l o c a t e d a t t h e j u n c t i o n of C h i l u k t h a n Slough and the r i v e r , on the e a s t s i d e of the slough. T h i s cannery was f o l l o w e d by other c a n n e r i e s and a lumber m i l l . The m i l l was e r e c t e d about a q u a r t e r of a m i l e up the slough from i t s mouth. A f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the c a n n e r i e s , the f i r s t s t o r e opened i n the settlement and then a post o f f i c e . A t t h i s time.the v i l l a g e was known as Ladner's Landing. A l l t h a t remains of the f i r s t cannery to-day are a few r o t t i n g p i l e s . They are used by fishermen as a mooring p l a c e f o r b o a t s . As no b u i l d i n g s u p p l i e s e x i s t e d l o c a l l y a l l m a t e r i a l f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n had to be imported by boat or by ox team... 73.. from New Westminster. As a r e s u l t of the c o s t and i n -convenience of i m p o r t i n g b u i l d i n g - s u p p l i e s the s i z e of b u i l d i n g s was kept to a minimum. No f r e s h water e x i s t e d l o c a l l y so the e a r l y s e t t l e r s had to p l a c e b a r r e l s under .the eaves i n order t h a t r a i n water might be s t o r e d . . One of the f i r s t homes b u i l t i n the area has been d e s c r i b e d as c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r rooms c o n s t r u c t e d of s p l i t l o g s and green timbers. When the green timbers d r i e d they shrank and l e f t many cra c k s i n the w a l l s . The c r a c k s were f i l l e d w i t h c h e e s e c l o t h and c a u l k i n g . These houses p r o v i d e d l i t t l e of the comfort of a modern d w e l l i n g . A f t e r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1879 Ladner became the seat of l o c a l government. Thus there are three f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e the a r e a l development of the town, (a) a s u i t a b l e s i t e f o r the f i r s t s e t t l e r s , (b) as a c e n t r e f o r f i s h canning, (c) as the m u n i c i p a l c e n t r e . As the a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a around Ladner became s e t t l e d the v i l l a g e a l s o served as the supply c e n t r e f o r the farming population.. U n t i l 1 9 1 0 however, Ladner grew and prospered as a f i s h canning town. When the f i s h c a n n e r i e s c l o s e d down a f t e r 1 9 1 3 the town went i n t o a d e c l i n e . The f u t u r e of Ladner then became c l o s e l y t i e d to the p r o s p e r i t y of the farming i n d u s t r y . A f t e r the c l o s u r e of the canning i n d u s t r y the p r i n c i p a l b u s i n e s s of the v i l l a g e was as a supply c e n t r e . N e a r l y a l l the r e s i d e n t s of Ladner were connected i n one way or another w i t h t h i s f u n c t i o n . . Ladner remained almost s t a t i c between the two World Wars, During the 1 9 3 0's only f o u r new b u s i n e s s e s opened i n the town 74.. while three c l o s e d down. World War I I brought a p e r i o d of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . An R.G.A.F. s t a t i o n opened three m i l e s e a s t of Ladner i n 1942 and brought w i t h i t a sudden i n f l u x of p o p u l a t i o n which s t r a i n e d the c a p a c i t y of Ladner to accommo-date them. There was l i t t l e c o n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the war years but once the war ended there was a p e r i o d expansion of the commercial f a c i l i t i e s of the town. Since 1945 el e v e n new b u i l d i n g s have been e r e c t e d w i t h accommodation f o r f i v e o f f i c e s , ten s t o r e s , one t h e a t r e , two s e r v i c e s t a t i o n s and a bowling a l l e y . I n a d d i t i o n to the new c o n s t r u c t i o n s i x other b u i l d i n g s were renovated o r e n l a r g e d . Since the war two s t o r e s have c l o s e d down. Both belonged to l a r g e r chains and a c t i v i t i e s w i t h the company as a whole r a t h e r than l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c l o s u r e . Both of the premises have s i n c e been occupied by new b u s i n e s s e s . A g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n can be d e f i n e d w i t h i n Ladner. The commercial s e c t i o n i s i n the northeast,, the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t extends i n a s e m i - c i r c l e around I t , and beyond the r e s i d e n t i a l area are c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s . A l t h o u g h t h i s p a t t e r n holds t r u e i n a general way there are s e v e r a l exceptions to i t . Land u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n Ladner i s shown on ( F i g . No. 3 2 ) . A d e t a i l e d examination of the are a w i l l show the a c t u a l p a t t e r n of l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n . The main business s t r e e t s are Westham S t r e e t from C h i l u k t h a n Slough to the i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h B r i d g e S t r e e t ; D e l t a S t r e e t from Westham S t r e e t t o the r i v e r , and E l l i o t t S t r e e t from Westham S t r e e t to the r i v e r . R e s i d e n t i a l and c u l t i v a t e d l o t s a re found w i t h i n the main-75. commercial d i s t r i c t . D e l t a S t r e e t c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as the main s t r e e t but r e c e n t b u s i n e s s c o n s t r u c t i o n has been t a k i n g p l a c e a l o n g Westham S t r e e t . I f the present tendency continues i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the commercial c e n t r e may s h i f t from D e l t a S t r e e t to Westham S t r e e t . Such a s h i f t would pro v i d e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h a t r a f f i c problem. D e l t a S t r e e t i s the wider s t r e e t and has ample room f o r angle park-i n g whereas Westham S t r e e t i s not, although angle p a r k i n g i s a l l o w e d . As a r e s u l t t r a f f i c c o n g e s t i o n o c c u r s . I t would seem t h a t p l a n n i n g i s necessary e i t h e r to c o n t r o l the s e l e c t -i o n of s i t e s f o r new b u s i n e s s development or to widen narrow s t r e e t s before development takes p l a c e . The business s e c t i o n of Ladner Is a study i n c o n t r a s t s . The two p e r i o d s of growth of the town - a t the t u r n of the century and s i n c e World War I I - are r e f l e c t e d i n the types of b u i l d i n g . The o l d e r b u i l d i n g s are r a t h e r u n a t t r a c t i v e , wooden frame s t r u c t u r e s t h a t present a square f r o n t to the s t r e e t . Some of these o l d e r b u i l d i n g s have been modernized and b l e n d i n harmoniously w i t h the newer s t o r e s . Those t h a t s t i l l r e t a i n a l l t h e i r , o r i g i n a l f e a t u r e s , however, c l e a r l y t e s t i f y to the time of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The newer b u i l d -i n g s are of wood or cement bl o c k c o n s t r u c t i o n u s u a l l y f i n i s h e d i n stucco or t i l e , . They are much lower than the o l d e r b u i l d -ings and present a more p l e a s i n g p i c t u r e to the eye. The accompanying photographs ( F i g s . 27 & 28) taken of b u i l d i n g s on D e l t a S t r e e t i l l u s t r a t e the c o n t r a s t between the o l d and the new. The r e s i d e n t i a l areas spread out around the c e n t r a l FIGURE NO. 28 Commercial d i s t r i c t , D e l t a S t r e e t , Ladner, B. C. 76. commercial d i s t r i c t . G e n e r a l l y speaking the o l d e r r e s i d e n c e s are n e a r e r to the c e n t r e w i t h the newer ones towards the p e r i p h e r y . The most r e c e n t r e s i d e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n has taken pla c e a l o n g O n t a r i o , Hotham and King Edward S t r e e t s . These s t r e e t s now are the l a s t ones w i t h i n Ladner t h a t have a v a i l -a b l e b u i l d i n g l o t s , and water, l i g h t and telephone s e r v i c e s . There i s , i n the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , the same c o n t r a s t between o l d and new that was found i n the commercial a r e a . The o l d e r houses are l a r g e two s t o r e y b u i l d i n g s while the more modern houses are of the bungalow type. The o l d e r b u i l d i n g s * have an e x t e r i o r f i n i s h of p a i n t whereas the new houses are f i n i s h e d w i t h stucco or patent s h i n g l e s . Both types w i l l be found i n t e r s p e r s e d a l o n g the same s t r e e t as the accompanying photograph ( F i g . No. 3 0 ) w i l l i l l u s t r a t e . I t has not been p o s s i b l e to grade the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s i n t o f i r s t , second or t h i r d c l a s s . Any c r i t e r i a which might be used f o r such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - type of house, v a l u e of house, age of house, oc c u p a t i o n of owner or tenant - would f a i l to p r o v i d e any c l e a r cut d i v i s i o n between one b l o c k and another. The r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of Ladner r e f l e c t a c e r t a i n small town charm t h a t i s r a r e l y found i n c i t i e s . The b u i l d -i n g l o t s are l a r g e , r a n g i n g from one-half to one acre i n s i z e . Most.houses have t h e i r lawn, shade t r e e s and f l o w e r beds. I n summer the f l o w e r s p r o v i d e a d e l i g h t f u l panormama of c o l o u r a g a i n s t a background of v a r y i n g greens. Orchards are common throughout the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s and add to the charm of the a r e a . I n s p r i n g the blossoms w i t h t h e i r d e l i g h t f u l appearance and odours; i n the f a l l the f r u i t w i t h FIGURE NO. 30 O l d e r s t y l e r e s i d e n c e s Ladner, B. G. 77.. a l l i t s v a r y i n g c o l o u r s h e l p to c l o t h e the area i n n a t u r a l beauty. A g a i n s t t h i s background there are, of course, the houses and the l o t s t h a t a re not kept up and, as i n oth e r s e t t l e m e n t s , d e t r a c t from the gene r a l appearance of the whole. The r e s i d e n t i a l area a l o n g Westham Road t o the western l i m i t of Ladner i s a f i s h i n g v i l l a g e . T h i s settlement s t r e t c h e s i n l i n e a l o n g the r i v e r , as a ' s t r a s s e n d o r f 1 type of s e t t l e m e n t . Houses on the south s i d e of the s t r e e t are b u i l t on m u n i c i p a l l a n d , and c o n t r a s t w i t h those ©n the n o r t h s i d e on the dyke. The d w e l l i n g s on the dyke are o f t e n l i t t l e more than shacks w i t h equipment sheds and net houses i n t e r -spersed amongst them. Those on the south s i d e of the s t r e e t are s u b s t a n t i a ^ one and two s t o r y s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s s e c t i o n of Ladner i s e n t i r e l y dependent on the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y . A l l of the people t h a t l i v e In the sett l e m e n t are e i t h e r f i s h e r -men or r e t i r e d fishermen. T h i s area, which has no commercial d i s t r i c t , i s dependent on Ladner f o r i t s b u s i n e s s needs. Area of c u l t i v a t e d l a n d are found beyond the r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n . Some of the l a n d i s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n Ladner merely f o r the sake of a convenient boundary.. There i s , however, some c u l t i v a t e d l a n d e n c l o s e d by the r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n . Some of t h i s l a n d i s s u i t a b l e f o r housing c o n s t r u c t i o n now, but the development of most of i t w i l l have to await road c o n s t r u c t i o n . With l a n d a v a i l a b l e a l o n g e x i s t i n g roads however, i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t any f u r t h e r road c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Ladner would be necessary f o r the p r e s e n t . The p a t t e r n of urban u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n Ladner i s t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y \ 78. to change i n the near f u t u r e . One other separate s e c t i o n c a l l e d "Chinatown", i s worthy of n o t e . Now. much reduced from what i t o r i g i n a l l y was, Chinatown c o n s i s t s of a few unkempt b u i l d i n g s a l o n g the dyke from the end of Westham S t r e e t and a few more r e -s p e c t a b l e b u i l d i n g s a t the end of the s t r e e t . The Chinese s e t t l e m e n t which began to d e c l i n e w i t h the end of the f i s h canning i n D e l t a , was v i r t u a l l y wiped out by a f i r e i n 1928. The f i s h c a n n e r i e s had p r o v i d e d employment to a l a r g e number of the Chinese. A t r i a n g u l a r p i e c e of l a n d between the dyke and Westham Road i s p o s s i b l y the most i n t e n s e l y c u l t i v a t e d s e c t i o n i n the d e l t a a r e a . Under c u l t i v a t i o n by a Chinese . t r u c k gardener, the l a n d produces two o r t h r e e crops a y e a r . 2. D e l t a Manor; D e l t a Manor.extends one m i l e e a s t of Ladner and between the r i v e r on the n o r t h and a l i n e l i n k i n g Green Road w i t h C h i l u k t h a n Slough on the south. I t was o r i g i n a l l y the l a n d granted to T. E. Ladner i n 1868. T h i s farm of 500 a c r e s remained w i t h the f a m i l y u n t i l 1926. A t t h a t time the farm was s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l h o l d i n g s of one and two a c r e s . The area was p r o v i d e d w i t h roads, e l e c t r i c l i g h t , water and telephone. S e t t l e r s f o r the new s u b d i v i s i o n came mostly from the P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s a l t h o u g h some came from as f a r away as England. P o u l t r y r a i s i n g was to provide economic s t a b i l i t y to the s e t t l e m e n t . Wi|th the d e c l i n e of the p o u l t r y Industry, the s e t t l e r s turned to the c u l t i v a t i o n of small f r u i t s . They became the mainstay of the s e t t l e r s by acreage and by 79. v a l u e of p r o d u c t i o n . The r e s i d e n t s c o n c e n t r a t e d on the p r o d u c t i o n of r a s p b e r r i e s a l t h o u g h l e s s e r areas were g i v e n over to b l a c k c u r r a n t s , r e d c u r r a n t s , s t r a w b e r r i e s and logan-b e r r i e s . F i v e types of l a n d use have been r e c o g n i z e d i n D e l t a Manor. Table No, 16. - Land U t i l i z a t i o n , D e l t a Manor Use Area i n Acres Percent of T o t a l Small h o l d i n g s 345 69 R e s i d e n t i a l 84 16.9 C u l t i v a t e d 55.6 10.9 Commercial 2.7... 1.6 Not used 12.8 2.6 The a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s l a n d use i s shown on Map No I n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between s m a l l h o l d i n g s and r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d a t e s t of s i z e and of use was a p p l i e d . Small h o l d i n g s were r e c o g n i z e d as b e i n g over an acre i n s i z e and l a n d from which the owner d e r i v e s some revenue other than i n the form of r e n t from b u i l d i n g s . R e s i d e n t i a l l a n d was reeo:gnized as b e i n g l e s s t h a t an acre i n area and from which the owner does not r e c e i v e revenue from produce. While t h i s t e s t cannot.be a p p l i e d too r i g i d l y i t w i l l h o l d f o r most of the cases concerned. I n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between small h o l d i n g s and c u l t i v a t e d l a n d the f o l l o w i n g t e s t was used. C u l t i v a t e d l a n d was taken to be l a n d t h a t i s e n t i r e l y used f o r c o m m e r i c a l . c u l t i v a t i o n while a s m a l l h o l d i n g u s u a l l y combines the f u n c t i o n of r e s i d e n c e , garden and commercial c u l t i v a t i o n . 80.. The p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l and s m a l l . h o l d i n g s i s f a i r l y c l e a r . With a few e x c e p t i o n s , the r e s i d e n t i a l l a n d i s found a l o n g the two main roads through the s u b d i v i s i o n - Westminster Avenue and Trunk Road, whereas small h o l d i n g s cover most of the r e s t of D e l t a Manor. The remaining areas are spread w i t h l i t t l e p a t t e r n . I t would be d i f f i c u l t to d e s c r i b e a t y p i c a l s m a l l h o l d i n g because there i s so much v a r i e t y . Small f r u i t s are common on n e a r l y a l l h o l d i n g s . C u l t i v a t i o n of asparagus, f l o w e r s , potatoes, and the r a i s i n g of chickens are a l l p a r t of the l a n d use p a t t e r n on a small h o l d i n g . I n most cases the s e l e c t i o n of crop seems to r e f l e c t the whim of the owner more than an area s p e c i a l t y . Of the hundred small h o l d i n g s i n D e l t a Manor i t would be d i f f i c u l t to f i n d two t h a t were e x a c t l y a l i k e as to c r o p s . The use of the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d presents an example of fragmentary a g r i c u l t u r e . One man may work s e v e r a l d i s -continuous p l o t s of l a n d . He does not, as a r u l e , own the l a n d but r e n t s I t on a y e a r l y b a s i s from the owner who f o r reasons of h e a l t h , age, or p e r s o n a l preference may not care to work the l a n d h i m s e l f . The l i m i t e d l a n d a v a i l a b l e and the d i s -continuous nature of the p l o t s i s not conducive to a p r o f i t a b l e type of a g r i c u l t u r e . The c u l t i v a t i o n of l a n d fragments i s of d e c l i n i n g Importance as i t i s upon t h i s l a n d t h a t the demand f o r r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g l o t s Is f a l l i n g . Commercial development w i t h i n D e l t a Manor i s very l i m i t e d . The three business e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t are i n o p e r a t i o n - a bakery, a c o l d storage l o c k e r and a g a s o l i n e s t a t i o n f> are FIGURE NO. 33 Family home of T. E. Ladner, FIGURE NO. 34 Westminster Avenue. 81. supplementary to the "businesses i n Ladner and serve the combined d i s t r i c t s . For most of i t s commercial needs D e l t a Manor r e l i e d upon Ladner. The w e l l - k e p t bungalows b u i l t a l o n g Westminster Avenue s i n c e 194-5 have made i t one of the most modern r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t s i n D e l t a . Each $ouse i s surrounded by a lawn and garden and has s e v e r a l f r u i t and ornamental t r e e s that add to the p i c t u r e of a p l e a s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l street.-. 3. Beach Grove and Grauer's Beach Beach Grove c o n s i s t s of t h a t p a r t of D e l t a l y i n g west of Boundary Bay, e a s t of P o i n t Roberts Road, south of Herd Road and n o r t h of Boundary Bay Road. I t l i e s p a r t l y on the P o i n t Roberts Upland and p a r t l y on the lowland a r e a . I t has a t o t a l area of 171 a c r e s of which 146 are on the lowland. Of the 146 a c r e s on the lowland $0 acres have been u t i l i z e d as a g o l f course whereas the remainder have been s u b d i v i d e d i n t o 50 by 125 f e e t l o t s . Grauer's Beach c o n s i s t s of 30 a c r e s l y i n g immediately n o r t h of Beach Grove. T h i s p a r t of the r e s o r t i s c r o s s e d by 5 n o r t h south roads w i t h f o r t y two 50' by 125 f e e t l o t s l y i n g between each road. The two r e s o r t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d t o g e t h e r as there i s no n a t u r a l boundary between them. The only d i s t i n c t i o n between the two i s t h a t they were su b d i v i d e d by d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s . 82 Table No. 17 - Land U t i l i z a t i o n Beach Grove and Grauer's Beach Beach Grove: Use Area i n A c r e s Percent of T o t a l G o l f Course 60 41 R e s i d e n t i a l 60 41 R e c r e a t i o n a l 6 4.2 Not Occupied 20 13.8 Grauer's Beach: . R e s i d e n t i a l 18.3 61 Not Occupied 11.7 39 The p a t t e r n of settlement i n each has been s i m i l a r . The l o t s a l o n g the w a t e r f r o n t were occupied f i r s t w i t h l a t e r s ettlement t a k i n g p l a c e i n steps away from the water. The only v a r i a n t to t h i s has been a l o n g Herd Road where settlement a l o n g a main road preceded settlement away from the beach. Settlement f u r t h e r west i n each a r e a i s a t present handicapped by a l a c k of water f a c i l i t i e s i n Beach Grove beyond present settlement and by the poor c o n d i t i o n of the n o r t h - s o u t h roads i n Grauer's Beach. These roads are b e i n g opened up so t h a t the l a t t e r handicap i s only a temporary one. The water problem i n Beach Grove presents the g r e a t e s t b a r r i e r to f u r t h e r s e t t l e m e n t . Water mains have not been l a i d beyond the w e s t e r l y l i m i t of p r e s e n t occupancy. The water supply i s adequate f o r the present i n h a b i t a n t s but i t would not serve a f u r t h e r Increase In p o p u l a t i o n . A complete revamping of the present water system would be needed be f o r e there c o u l d be a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n s e t t l e m e n t . A t present water f o r Beach Grove i s purchased from the D e l t a Water Works / a FIGURE NO. ?6 Main Road, Beach Grove. 83. by the Beach Grove Water Works and then s o l d to the r e s i d e n t s . A l l water must come through a master meter and then be d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the a r e a . The supply of water i s l i m i t e d by the amount of water t h a t can pass through the master meter. To supply more water would r e q u i r e a new meter and new p i p i n g throughout Beach Grove. There i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t such a c t i o n w i l l . b e taken by the present Beach Grove Water Works as they have i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o cease f u n c t i o n i n g . There e x i s t s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t should the Beach Grove Water Works become defunct the r e s o r t w i l l be added to the present m u n i c i p a l system. These two d i s t r i c t s have been u t i l i z e d as r e s o r t s f o r many y e a r s . Many of D e l t a ' s e a r l y s e t t l e r s had summer homes a t Beach Grove before the t u r n of the ce n t u r y . E x t e n s i v e development of the r e s o r t s d i d not come u n t i l 1927 when sub-d i v i s i o n took p l a c e . S u b d i v i s i o n was f o l l o w e d by an a c t i v e campaign to s e l l the l a n d . S i n c e 1927 there has been a steady i n c r e a s e i n the number of summer homes i n the a r e a . A t present a l l l o t s t h a t can be s e r v i c e d by water i n Beach Grove and by roads i n Grauer's Beach have been s o l d . When these s e r v i c e s have been extended there w i l l be 177 l o t s a v a i l a b l e i n Beach Grove and 82 i n Grauer's Beach. Experience has shown t h a t these l o t s w i l l be s o l d as soon as they can be made a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . Although these two areas were o r i g i n a l l y Intended to be r e s o r t s a t r e n d towards permanent settlement has been n o t i c e -a b l e s i n c e 1939. Tn t h a t year there were no permanent r e s i d e n t s i n e i t h e r a r e a . By 1949 there were 60 permanent 84. residents in Beach Grove and 25 in Grauer's Beach. The permanent residents f i t into four categories: (a) retired people, (b) people who work in Vancouver and who commute daily between the city and their homes in Delta, (c) people who work in Ladner, (d)' people who work in the area. The great increase in permanent settlement has come since 1945. The resorts have certain advantages over Ladner as a residential area and suffer several disadvantages. The great impetus to settlement came during the war when families of servicemen required housing in Delta. The resorts were the only places that had housing available. They have a somewhat more attractive setting than Ladner in that the houses are located in an area of coniferous trees, and the houses along the waterfront look out onto an lovely embayment of the Gulf of Georgia. The resorts are linked to Ladner with a good road and are only about 1 5 minutes by car from that village. People who l i v e at the resorts claim that there is less rain and fog there than in Ladner. There is no weather station to prove or disprove the contention, however, and personal observations are unreliable in support of an argument of this nature. Bmong the disadvantages is the fact that there i s only one store to serve the two resorts so that permanent residents must either do their shopping there or in Ladner in person or by telephone. In either case i t is somewhat inconvenient.. Parts of the resorts are poorly drained as they do not come under the municipal drainage scheme. While the lack of B E A C H G R O V E B O U N D A R Y B A Y *1 M S w 52i O -4 U. S. A. RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL RECREATIONAL WOODED GRASSLAND A REA LIMIT MILES iv 8 5 . drainage does not a f f e c t them as r e s o r t s , i t does o f f e r a drawback to permanent s e t t l e m e n t . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t they w i l l remain p r i m a r i l y as r e s o r t s . 4 . Boundary Bay Boundary Bay i s a summer r e s o r t i n the southeast c o r n e r of the m u n i c i p a l i t y . The southern boundary of D e l t a i s the 4 9 t h p a r a l l e l a l t h o u g h the r e s o r t continues i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America. W i t h i n Canada the r e s o r t has an area of 161 a c r e s . Table No. 18 - Land U t i l i z a t i o n , Boundary Bay Use Area i n A c r e s Percent of T o t a l R e s i d e n t i a l 8 3 . 7 51.9 Wooded 54.6 3 3 . 9 Commercial 4 . 6 3 . Not Used 23.1 11.2 The a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of uses i s shown on ( F i g . No. 3 7 ) . • The r e s o r t developed o r i g i n a l l y under Impetus from D e l t a r e s i d e n t s . P o p u l a r i z a t i o n of the automobile made i t p o s s i b l e f o r summer v i s i t o r s from Vancouver and New West-minster to come to Boundary Bay. The Canadian s e c t i o n of the r e s o r t was f o r many years completely dependent on the American s e c t i o n f o r s t o r e s and amusement.. The i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundary meant l i t t l e to the summer r e s i d e n t s a t Boundary Bay. W i t h i n the l a s t t en years, however, and l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of enforcement of wartime r e g u l a t i o n s governing the export of Canadian currency, there has been some commercial development on the Canadian s i d e . To-day the commercial e n t e r p r i s e s on 86. the north side of the boundary consist of three general stores, two restaurants, a dance ha l l and a novelty store. The growth of settlement has been westward from the shore-line and northwards from the boundary. The western side of the resort i s a f i r and cedar forest covering nearly 55 acres. This wooded area is gradually being diminished as land is cleared for new settlement. The unused portion is in the centre of the resort and i t consists of marsh or sand covered with a scrub growth. The principal drawback to settlement at Boundary Bay at present is a lack of fresh water. The area i s not part of the municipal water system, and must rely on springs and wells for i t s water supply. Springs cjcjcur on the eastern slope of the Point Roberts Upland at elevations of 25 to 30 feet. The few wells that exist cannot be used too extensively for fear that salt water may f i l t e r into them. During the summer of 1949 Delta Municipality employed a firm of geologists to survey the area and to estimate the local water supply. They reported to the municipal author-i t i e s as follows: "The writer is of the opinion that a supply of ground water suitable for a waterworks system covering this entire area i s not available. The catchment area of 1,400 acres i s too small to provide sufficient recharge from r a i n f a l l , which is the direct source of water from the springs and wells. "In periods of l i t t l e or no r a i n f a l l , i t is reported that the flow of springs is reduced. The formation supplying water to the Whalen well at 275 feet i s very fine sand and s l l t y and would not allow the movement of a large quantity of water through.it. . "It is therefore our recommendation that some source of supply other than ground water be considered i f the entire area is to be serviced. (42") (42) Report of International Water Supply Ltd., in Ladner 'Optimist, Aug. 18, 1949. p. 8. 87. U n t i l such times as adequate f r e s h water i s a v a i l a b l e to the r e s i d e n t s , Boundary Bay w i l l have l i t t l e f u t u r e development. The development of permanent settlement a t Boundary Bay has p a r a l l e l e d t h a t a t Beach Grove. Stimulus t o permanent settlement came d u r i n g the war when there was a sharp r i s e i n D e l t a j s p o p u l a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the esta b l i s h m e n t of the a i r p o r t . Summer cott a g e s a t the r e s o r t s were the onl y a v a i l a b l e p l a c e s f o r the new r e s i d e n t s to l i v e . A l t h o u g h the number of permanent r e s i d e n t s has decreased s i n c e the war, there are about 30 f a m i l i e s i n year-round r e s i d e n c e . 5. Sunbury Sunbury i s a f i s h i n g s ettlement i n the n o r t h e a s t s e c t i o n of D e l t a . Settlement i s i n a narrow s t r i p between the r i v e r and the bog w i t h a l l houses b e i n g a l o n g R i v e r Road. Each h o l d i n g s t r e t c h e s back from the road and i s bounded on the south by the bog. The p a t t e r n of l a n d h o l d i n g would be s i m i l a r to t h a t a l o n g the S t . Lawrence R i v e r i n Quebec. There i s no d e f i n i t e western boundary f o r Sunbury. There i s a gradual g r a d a t i o n from sma l l h o l d i n g s to farms and as a r e s u l t the boundary s e l e c t e d on the u t i l i z a t i o n map i s an a r b i t r a r y one. The e a s t e r n boundary has been taken as the Great Northern r i g h t of way. Between the dyke and the r i v e r a small ledge of l a n d has been b u i l t up. During most of the year t h i s ledge i s l a n d but when there i s h i g h water i n the r i v e r i t may be covered by as much as two f e e t of water. S e v e r a l houses 88. and the f o u r s t o r e s which make up Sunbury*s commercial c e n t r e are b u i l t on t h i s ledge o u t s i d e the dyke. To p r o t e c t the b u i l d i n g s from h i g h water, they are e i t h e r upon f l o a t s o r upon p i l e s . The settlement e x i s t s e n t i r e l y as a home f o r fishermen. I t s l o c a t i o n i s governed by the f a c t t h a t the only cannery p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g i n D e l t a i s l o c a t e d a t the e a s t e r n edge of the s e t t l e m e n t . There i s a smal l commercial c e n t r e , but f o r most of the needs of the r e s i d e n t s , New Westminster i s the supply c e n t r e as i t i s c l o s e r to Sunbury than i s Ladner, N e a r l y a l l .of the 34-5 acr e s which have been i n c l u d e d w i t h i n Sunbury are i n use f o r b u i l d i n g l o t s and gardens. 6. Tswassent There i s an I n d i a n R e s e r v a t i o n c a l l e d Tswassen i n the southwest corner of the lowland area, b o r d e r i n g the Gu l f of Georgia. I t l i e s athwart the d i v i s i o n between Ladner C l a y and Bay Sands and continues southward on the P o i n t Roberts Upland. Tswassen i s connected to the road system of D e l t a by a sand road a l o n g the shore. Settlement i s l a i d out on the e a s t s i d e of t h i s road w i t h a l a r g e expanse of marsh on the seaward s i d e . Houses f o r the most p a r t are unpaint e d and l a c k the surrounding lawns and gardens of the r e s t of D e l t a . The two s o i l s types found are used q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . Settlement i s on the Bay Sands w h i l e farming i s c a r r i e d out on the, c l a y s o i l s . The only v e g e t a t i o n on the sand i s a sparse grass and a few bushes. The Indians of the r e s e r v a t i o n are of the S a l i s h T r i b e . 89. Their numbers have remained almost constant since the beginning of this century with a population of 56 being l i s t e d by the Indian Affairs Branch in 1944. The present population w i l l be somewhat less as two of the younger families have moved away since that time. Of the eight families on the reservation half are engaged in farming and the other half in fishing. In both occupations the Indians use the methods of the neighbouring white men. CHAPTER SIX MILITARY_UTILIZATION In 1942 the Department of N a t i o n a l Defense purchased 1,100 a c r e s of l a n d e a s t of Tasker Road and south of Trunk Road. T h i s l a n d which came to be known as the Boundary Bay A i r p o r t was u t i l i z e d by the Royal Canadian A i r Force f i r s t as an Elementary F l y i n g T r a i n i n g School and l a t e r as an t O p e r a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g U n i t . F o l l o w i n g the c o n c l u s i o n of the war the a i r p o r t was used as a d i s c h a r g e c e n t r e and then as a base f o r the War A s s e t s C o r p o r a t i o n . I n 1948 the s i t e was taken over by the Canadian Army and has been developed as a permanent army camp-'. A r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n of f i f t y houses has been completed f o r married personnel and a f u r t h e r expansion i s planned f o r 1950. . Other s m a l l e r t r a c t s of l a n d a t the J u n c t i o n of Crescent I s l a n d Road and Trunk Road, Crescent I s l a n d Road and MacDonald Road, and on Westham I s l a n d were ob t a i n e d by the Department of N a t i o n a l Defense d u r i n g the war. Since the war, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a s m a l l acreage on.Westham I s l a n d , t h i s l a n d has r e v e r t e d to farm use. With the establishment of a permanent army camp a t the Boundary Bay A i r p o r t i t seems t h a t m i l i t a r y u t i l i z a t i o n has become a l a s t i n g f e a t u r e of l a n d use of D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y . As Ladner i s the n e a r e s t shopping centr e to the army camp the merchants of t h a t town w i l l b e n e f i t as they w i l l be c a l l e d upon to c a t e r to the needs of the army pe r s o n n e l . Thus the army camp w i l l undoubtedly b r i n g g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y t o the 9-1. economic l i f e of D e l t a , CHAPTER SEVEN SUMMARY OF LAND USE Land use has been d i s c u s s e d under the headings of a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l and m i l i t a r y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n i s shown on the u t i l i z a t i o n map ( F i g . No. 38) as c u l t i v a t e d l a n d and permanent p a s t u r e . No mention has been made of the i n d u s t r i a l l a n d use on the map as i n d u s t r i e s are few and i n s i g n i f i c a n t s p a t i a l l y . They have been l o c a t e d on an " I n d u s t r i a l Map". R e s i d e n t i a l l a n d appears on the map without s u b d i v i s i o n . S p e c i a l sample d i s t r i c t maps have been prepared to show the u t i l i z a t i o n w i t h i n the r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The smal l areas of waste l a n d and t r e e s have been omitted from the summary alth o u g h they have been shown on the d i s t r i c t maps. As they occupy very l i t t l e l a n d they would appear of no consequence i n the t o t a l p i c t u r e . The peat bog has been c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y . Rather than c l a s s i f y i t as an area of waste l a n d , i t has been c l a s s -i f i e d as peat. Table No. 19 - Land U t i l i z a t i o n , Lowland Area of D e l t a M u n i c i p a l i t y Use Area i n A c r e s Percent of T o t a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Peat R e s i d e n t i a l M i l i t a r y 18,400 10,500 1,675 58.1 33.2 5.2 3.5 1,100 31,675 CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSIONS There i s one inescapable f a c t i n the physical environment of D e l t a . The area has hut two natural resources - i t s s o i l and i t s peat. Of these nearly a l l the areal extent of the s o i l i s being u t i l i z e d whereas u n t i l . a few years ago the peat contributed nothing to the l o c a l economy. With the s t a r t of peat processing, however, the bog has been u t i l i z e d i n the most sa t i s f a c t o r y manner known at present. The pattern of a g r i c u l t u r a l u t i l i z a t i o n that has been evolved i s the most e f f i c i e n t f o r the area at the present time. Climate, s o i l and market conditions have a l l contributed to encourage the development of a dairying economy. In reviewing the geography of Delta, i t seems that man has made a sa t i s f a c t o r y adjustment to h i s natural environment. Ihe problem that must now be faced i s whether or not the present s i t u a t i o n w i l l be allowed to remain. While the natural environment changes slowly, the cultural•environment i s much less stable. It i s the product of man; and what man makes, He can change. Changes may occur i n the c u l t u r a l environment that could r a d i c a l l y a l t e r the present land use pattern of D e l t a . Por the past few years there has been increasing l o c a l a g i t a t i o n for a tunnel or a bridge between Ladner and Wood-ward' s Landing to replace the present f e r r y . Should a tunnel or bridge be constructed t r a v e l time between Ladner and Vancouver would be reduced by about one-third and become 94. more reliable than i t is at present. The f i r s t effect of a more permanent means of crossing the Fraser River would be a rapid expansion-of the population- of the Delta. Greater Vancouver's population is now spreading over Sea Island, Lulu Island and the'northern part of Surrey Municipality.. There seems to be no reason why this spread of population would not continue onto Delta after the construction of a bridge or tunnel.. There are certain grave considerations which must be kept in mind i f urban settlement on the lowland area of Delta is to be considered. Two facts would seem to indicate that It Is not in the best interests of either any future residents or the Province of British Columbia to encourage extensive residential development in this area. In the f i r s t place, the land of Delta is beneath the high water level of the Fraser River and i s , as a result, subject to flooding. While i t is true that there have been no floods for over 50 years, i t Is l i k e l y that the area escaped damage in 1948 only because dykes further up the valley f e l l 1 before the river's onslaught. While i t is also true that the dyke held again in 1950, there is no assurance that they w i l l always hold. There can be no certainty that a flood in some coming year w i l l not be greater that a flood that has already occurred. Until such times as man can prevent floods entirely, i t should become a cardinal principle of a l l regional planners and the competent governmental authorities that extensive residential settlement w i l l not be encouraged on areas lia b l e to flood. The disaster at Vanport, Oregon in 1948, and at 95.-Winnipeg, Manitoba, i n 1950, should serve to i l l u s t r a t e the danger. In the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y there i s no need f o r r e s i d e n t i a l settlement on lowlands. There i s much unused l a n d on the Surrey Upland a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s purpose. Another f a c t t h a t should be kept i n mind i s t h a t the amount of good a r a b l e l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s v e r y l i m i t e d . Nothing should be done t h a t w i l l i n any way de-crease the amount of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . In c o u n t r i e s such as Great B r i t a i n w i t h a f a r l o n g e r h i s t o r y of settlement than has Canada, the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d f o r other purposes i s now having s e r i o u s e f f e c t s . While the day when there w i l l be a shortage of farm l a n d i n N o r t h America may be a l o n g way o f f , we should p r o f i t by the exp e r i e n c e s of European c o u n t r i e s and p l a n now to keep our a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . Although a s t r o n g case can be made a g a i n s t urban s e t t l e -ment, a geographer must r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s a d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y . I n such circumstances he should p o i n t out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s which may be encountered and suggest remedies f o r them. The f i r s t problem t h a t would have to be s o l v e d i n t h i s r e g a r d i s what l a n d to sub d i v i d e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t l e m e n t . Should the process of s u b d i v i s i o n be allowed to run f r e e or should i t be c o n t r o l l e d . I f the Increase i n p o p u l a t i o n comes, the m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s of the day w i l l have to answer t h a t q u e s t i o n . I f the s i t u a t i o n i s handled i n c o r r e c t l y there i s l i a b l e to be wastage of n a t u r a l re-sources. The f i r s t s tep t h a t c o u l d be taken t o handle an i n c r e a s e 96. In the r e s i d e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n of the D e l t a i s to ensure that the present s e t t l e d areas have adequate roads, drainage, sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s , and water supply f o r a h e a v i e r d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n than a t p r e s e n t . Ladner, D e l t a Manor, Beach Grove and Boundary Bay c o u l d a l l . b e developed to provide l a n d f o r more r e s i d e n t s . The development of s m a l l h o l d i n g s on the peat bog of L u l u I s l a n d provides an I n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l f o r the p l a n n i n g of f u t u r e settlement on the D e l t a . As the D e l t a bog and the L u l u I s l a n d bog are s i m i l a r , i f roads, drainage, and water, were p r o v i d e d i n the D e l t a bog a l a r g e s c a l e settlement c o u l d take p l a c e . I n t h i s way the bog c o u l d be brought i n t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y u t i l i z a t i o n and the farm l a n d c o u l d remain i n the p r o d u c t i o n of f o o d . I n order to prevent f r i c t i o n between the farming community and the r e s i d e n t i a l community i t would be a d v i s a b l e to i n c o r p o r a t e the l a t t e r i n t o a town or v i l l a g e . A r e s i -d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t would r e q u i r e a l e v e l of p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s t h a t i s not e s s e n t i a l In a farming community. The . l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of these u t i l i t i e s . As the l a r g e s t p a r t of l o c a l revenue i s d e r i v e d from l a n d taxes, a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p a r t of the tax burden would, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , f a l l on the farmers. Farmers, as a body, r e s i s t h i g h e r t a x e s . Thus they would be opposed to i n c r e a s e d l e v i e s to p r o v i d e p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s f o r a r e s i -d e n t i a l community. To prevent p o l i t i c a l f r i c t i o n between the two communities, i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t would be n e c e s s a r y . 9 7 . I n c o r p o r a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t i a l community would not only prevent f r i c t i o n between the two communities but would a l s o provide a system whereby the r e s i d e n t i a l settlement c o u l d take p l a c e without unnecessary encroachment Upon farm l a n d . I f the boundaries of the proposed town were marked out i n advance of any l a r g e s c a l e settlement, the growth might be c o n f i n e d with-i n d e s i r e d bounds. A knowledge of the geographic f a c t o r s of the D e l t a would be a g r e a t h e l p i n determing the proposed boundaries. Ladner and D e l t a Manor are now r e s i d e n t i a l areas and would be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the new town. Between Green Road and Goundy Road and from the Crescent I s l a n d Slough to the abandoned r a i l w a y l i n e there i s a p a r t i a l s m a l l h o l d i n g development. T h i s area c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the new town without any g r e a t i n f r i n g e m e n t on farm l a n d . The area south of the present boundaries of Ladner between C h i l u k t h a n Slough and F a i r v i e w Road and south to Nelson Road c o n s i s t s mostly of s m a l l farms and a few r e s i d e n c e s . T h i s area c o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n - t h e new town w i t h l i t t l e encroachment upon farm l a n d . In order to i n c l u d e p a r t of the Peat Bog w i t h i n the town i t would be necessary to take over a t r a c t of farm l a n d . The l e a s t farm l a n d p o s s i b l e would be i n c l u d e d i f Trunk Road be chosen as the southern boundary east of Gou-dy.f Road. The e a s t e r n boundary c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by a northward e x t e n s i o n of the Tasker Road. Crescent I s l a n d Slough u n t i l i t c r o s s e s MacDonald Road would make a convenient n o r t h e r n boundary. From the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Crescent I s l a n d Slough and MacDonald Road, the n o r t h e r n boundary c o u l d be a new road c o n s t r u c t e d to meet Tasker Road FIGURE NO. 39 98. i n the bog.; A town of t h i s a r e a would i n c l u d e about 2,600 acres a v a i l a b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t . One h a l f of these a c r e s would be i n the Peat Bog. Such:a town would be l a r g e .enough to 'give l i v i n g room f o r around 5,000 f a m i l i e s . T h i s should •provide s u f f i c i e n t room f o r any p o p u l a t i o n growth i n the near f u t u r e . The c h i e f m e r i t of t h i s p l a n i s t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a l a r g e amount of l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l l o t s w i t h a s a c r i f i c e of l e s s Ishan 1,300 a c r e s of present c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , and i t i s i n the a r e a n e a r e s t to the proposed b r i d g e or t u n n e l . The i n -c o r p o r a t i o n of a r e s i d e n t i a l community as a separate p o l i t i c a l u n i t would prevent the tax l o a d from becoming too heavy on the remaining farm l a n d . By p l a n n i n g f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l de-velopment i n advance i t would be p o s s i b l e to prevent the spread of s c a t t e r e d s u b d i v i s i o n s . Two c h o i c e s f a c e the a u t h o r i t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f u t u r e of D e l t a . There i s a c h o i c e between r e t a i n i n g the present a g r i c u l t u r a l economy or attempting to meld r u r a l and urban development w i t h i n one a r e a . The l a t t e r course i s f r a u g h t w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s and dangers. Any a u t h o r i t y t h a t encourages urban settlement on the f l o o d p l a i n of the F r a s e r R I v e r i i s c o u r t i n g d i s a s t e r . I t i s the view of the w r i t e r t h a t the f i r s t c h o i c e i s the one t h a t w i l l prove most s a t i s -f a c t o r y i s the l o n g run. As l o n g as l a n d u n s u i t e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r e and f r e e from f l o o d i n g remains a v a i l a b l e , the present a g r i c u l t u r a l community of D e l t a should be d i s t u r b e d as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e . 99. APPENDIX 1. CLASSIFICATION OP LAND ON A USABILITY BASIS C l a s s I Land: (a) Land s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n (b) Land t h a t can be c u l t i v a t e d s a f e l y and permanently without s p e c i a l p r a c t i s e s f o r c o n t r o l of e r o s i o n (c) Land t h a t r e t a i n s and s u p p l i e s enough moisture and c o n t a i n s s u f f i c i e n t p l a n t n u t r i e n t s f o r the maintenance of those p h y s i c a l , chemical and b i o -l o g i c a l conditionsffd'f the s o i l t h a t f a v o r c o n t i n u a l p r o d u c t i o n of moderate to h i g h y i e l d s of farm crops, C l a s s I I Land: Land f o r which s p e c i a l p r a c t i s e s such as t i l e d r a i n i n g are r e q u i r e d . C l a s s I I I Land: Land t h a t requires! complex or i n t e n s i v e measures i n order t h a t i t may be s a f e l y c u l t i v a t e d . C l a s s IV Land: Land s u i t a b l e f o r other uses which may i n v o l v e s h o r t p e r i o d s of c u l t i v a t i o n - . C l a s s V Land: Land t h a t i s u n s u i t e d f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . ( C l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on Dale, Tom and Ross, W. A. Conserving  Farm Lands, p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of the I n t e r i o r i n 1939.) BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Anrep, A., Peat bogs f o r the manufacture of peat l i t t e r and peat m u l l i n Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Summary Report, P a r t A, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1929. Boan, H. J . Compiler; Brown, A. G. ed., B r i t i s h Columbia, London, S e l l s L t d . , 1917. Burwash, E.M.J. The geology of Vancouver and v i c i n i t y , Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1918. Connor, A. J . The temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n of B r i t i s h  Columbia, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1915. Connor, A. J . 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Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, Memoir 125, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1921.. Johnson, W. A. Geology of the F r a s e r R i v e r D e l t a map area, Canadian G e o l o g i c a l Survey, King's P r i n t e r , 1923. L a l n g , F.- W. C o l o n i a l farm s e t t l e r s on the mainland of B r i t i s h  Columbia. 1858-1871. V i c t o r i a , 1939. (unpublished manuscript i n Howle-Reid C o l l e c t i o n , L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia). Massey, N. G. Why the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r C r o s s i n g Improvement was formed, Ladner, B. C , 1948. 101.. Mayne, R. C. Cmdr R.N., Four years In B r i t i s h Columbia and  Vancouver I s l a n d . London. John Murray, 1862. Mead, H. W. Hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Co.-, Inc., New York. 1950. Merton, James, Honest John O l i v e r . J . M. Dent and Sons L t d . , Vancouver, 1933. P e r i o d i c a l A r t i c l e s ; Ackerman, E. A. "The Koppen c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c l i m a t e i n N o r t h America," The G e o g r a p h i c a l Review. V o l . 31, January 1941, p. 105-111. A i t k e n , G. C. "The progress of survey and settlement i n B r i t i s h Columbia, The Geographical Review. V o l . 15, J u l y 1925, P. 399- 7rTd~: Baker, 0 . E. " A g r i c u l t u r a l Regions of N o r t h America, P a r t IX, The N o r t h P a c i f i c Hay and Pasture Region," Economic Geography. V o l . 7, No. 2, A p r i l 1931, p. 1 0 9 - 1 5 3 . Biggs, R. C. H. " H y d r a u l i c M i n i n g a B. C. Peat Bog," r e p r i n t from Western Business and I n d u s t r y , (not dated) • Dachnowski-Stokes, A. P. " P e a t - l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n " , The Geographical Review. V o l . 24, A p r i l 1934, p. 2 3 8 - 2 5 0 . Freeman, 0 . W. "Salmon I n d u s t r y of the P a c i f i c Coast" Economic Geography. V o l . 11, No. 2, A p r i l 1935. Johnston, W. A. "The c h a r a c t e r of the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the sediments i n the r e c e n t d e l t a of the F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada," j o u r n a l of Geology. V o l . 30, February-March 1922, p. 115-130. Johnston, W. A. "The age of the r e c e n t d e l t a of the F r a s e r R i v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia," The American J o u r n a l of S c i e n c e , No. 5 , 1921, p.. 4 5 0 - 4 5 3 . ~~ Palmer, H. S. "Remarks upon the geography and n a t u r a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of i t s p r i n c i p a l g o l d f i e l d s , " Jiournal of Royal  Geographical S o c i e t y . 1864, p. 171-190. Swinerton, A. A., "Peat i n Canada" Canadian Geographical J o u r n a l , V o l . XXXI, No. 1, J u l y 1945, P. 18 - 2 9 . Thornthwaite, C. W. "The c l i m a t e of North America a c c o r d i n g t o a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , The Geographical Review. V o l . 21, October 1931, P. 6 3 3 - 6 5 5 . 102 Thornthwalte, C. W. "An approach towards a r a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c l i m a t e , " The Geographical  Review. V o l . 38, January 1948, p. 5 5 - 9 4 . Government P u b l i c a t i o n s (a) Dominion of Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l Survey of the Lower F r a s e r  V a l l e y . P u b l i c a t i o n 650, T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n 20, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1939. Dominion Experimental Farms, F i r s t Annual Report, Potato S u b s t a t i o n , Ladner, B. C. December, 1949. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Seventh Census of Canada, Ottawa, K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1936. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , E i g h t h Census of Canada, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r , 1945. Department of Customs, Annual Reports 1917 to 1929, Ottawa, King's P r i n t e r . 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(c) U n i t e d S t a t e s df America Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s and Men, Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1938, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1938. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate and Men, Yearbook of A g r i c u l t u r e 1941, Washington, U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1941. Newspapers The Ladner O p t i m i s t , F i l e 1 9 2 3 - 1 9 5 0 . The B r i t i s h Columbia Weekly, I 9 4 9 - I 9 5 O . Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , 1 9 4 9 . M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n s : D e l t a Board of Trade, The P r o l i f i c D e l t a , Ladner, B.C. 1 9 2 7 , V a r i o u s B r i t i s h Columbia D i r e c t o r i e s 1 8 9 0 to 1 9 4 8 . Vancouver Telephone D i r e c t o r y , November 1 9 4 9 . I n t e r v i e w s : Armstrong, Dr. J . S. K i t t s o n , R.E. Cooper, C. E . Ladner, L. J . Cory, S. C - Massey, N. G.. Davie, M., Nottingham, J . Dunning, E. 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