UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Nibelungensaga in nineteenth century drama Hay, Letitia Anne 1932

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UlB.C | THE  NIBELUNGENSAGA  IN  NINETEENTH  Library  NO. yftfy*' CENTURY  DRAMA  by  Letitia  A Thesis  Anne  submitted  MASTER in  OP  Hay  f o r t h e Degree o f  ARTS  t h e Department  of MODERN  LANGUAGES  \  The  University  of British  A p r i l , 1932.  Columbia  T A B L E OP  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION  I  CHAPTER I I FRIEDRICH HEBBEL  18  R I C H A R D WAGNER  54  CHAPTER I I I  CHAPTER I V HENRIK IBSEN  BIBLIOGRAPHY  80  §4  THE  NIBELUNGENSAGA IN NINETEENTH CENTURY DRAMA CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In a l l T e u t o n i c l i t e r a t u r e the g r e a t e s t monuments of  the middle  ages are those p o e t i c and prose works which d e a l  w i t h the l i v e s o f the Niblungs  and Volsungs.  The  sagas them-  s e l v e s , however , which form the b a s i s of these mediaeval  works,  extend hack i n t o the m i s t y p a s t o f the Germanic peoples  and,  consequently,the  m y t h o l o g i c a l element i n them i s  important.  Gods and demi-gods,dwarfs and g i a n t s , p l a y t h e i r p a r t s as w e l l as human b e i n g s . The  earliest  of the Morse v e r s i o n s of these  monuments,the p o e t i c Edda,dates from about 900 A.D.,and i t i s r i c h i n the p o r t r a y a l o f p r i m i t i v e Germanic l i f e , w h e n , a c c o r d i n g to e a r l y b e l i e f s , t h e gods themselves came i n t o  direct  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h the d w e l l e r s on the e a r t h . A great number of the l a y s i n the Edda are German i n o r i g i n , a n d the legends  seem to have t r a v e l l e d back and f o r t h from Germany  to S c a n d i n a v i a . With the coming o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t o Germany, however, the a t t i t u d e t h e r e towards the o l d b e l i e f s changed, and e v e n t u a l l y the m y t h o l o g i c a l elements p r a c t i c a l l y appeared from the more modern v e r s i o n s o f the o l d  dis-  sagas.  But t h i s change d i d not a f f e c t the n o r t h e r n v e r s i o n s as f o r the vBlsungasaga, which, was  early,  composed about the t w e l f t h  c e n t u r y , i s untouched by the s o f t e n i n g elements of C h r i s t i a n ity. The-se mediaeval  monuments are made up o f three  dist-  i n c t elements - a c t u a l h i s t o r y , l e g e n d a r y h e r o i c deeds,and  2  pure myth. Thie h i s t o r i c a l element i s the r e s u l t o f the migr a t i o n period,when the Germanic t r i b e s were moving westward and southward. Wars were the n a t u r a l consequence o f t h i s movement,and the ensuing v i c t o r i e s and d e f e a t s were soon mingled w i t h m y t h o l o g i c a l t a l e s . A second n a t u r a l outcome of the wars o f the m i g r a t i o n s was  the emergence o f g r e a t  heroes,  whose v a l i a n t deeds were c e l e b r a t e d i n s t o r y and song by a worshipping p e o p l e . With the passage o f years h i s t o r y , m y t h , and l e g e n d were i n t e r m i n g l e d i n the minds of t h i s  primitive  people,who had no knowledge of time or h i s t o r y . H i s t o r i c a l heroes were endowed with d i v i n e p o w e r s ; h i s t o r i e a l events were e m b e l l i s h e d w i t h m y t h o l o g i c a l  elements;heroes,separated  by c e n t u r i e s , i n the minds o f the people became  contemporaries.  In the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , f o r example,the a n n i h i l a t i o n of the Burgundians under King Gunther by the Huns i s a c t u a l h i s t o r y , and the name G i s e i n e r has been found i n the Burgundian law code. D i e t r i c h von B e r n , t o o , i s an h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , b u t while the saga makes him  a contemporary of E t z e l , i n r e a l i t y he  lived  a c e n t u r y l a t e r . In the g a y , a t t r a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of Siegfried*-;, w i t h h i s s t r i k i n g beauty,and h i s g r e a t powers,is  found  the  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the o l d sun-god B a l d r , o f Horse mythology, who  embodies a l l t h a t i s pure and b e a u t i f u l , s t r o n g and happy. The g r e a t e s t p u r e l y German work o f a r t , w h i c h has been  i n h e r i t e d from mediaeval  l i t e r a t u r e , i s , w i t h o u t doubt, the  N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , a n e p i c masterpiece by an unknown author. As f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d i t was  w r i t t e n about the end  the t w e l f t h century,but whether i t was authors or whether one man  was  of  compiled by v a r i o u s  e n t i r e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  whole e p i c , i s a m a t t e r of c o n j e c t u r e . of events of the  f i f t h century,  i n many r e s p e c t s , b u t  The  s t o r y , which  approximately,  w i t h an u n d e r c u r r e n t  is historical  left  o f t h a t myth-  o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t , w h i c h i s so much more d o m i n a n t i n t h e ern sagas. by  the  C h r i s t i a n i t y was  time of the  many o f t h o s e  thoroughly  Nibelungenlied,  and  tells  north-  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Germany probably  f o r that  elements c o n t r a r y to C h r i s t i a n teachings  reason,  "-ere  suppressed. Not the  o n l y d i d the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s  s t o r y , but  the  s o c i a l customs a l s o e x e r t e d  i n f l u e n c e , the c u l t u r e of the to  of the  author's  age  Time h a s  a  great  a c t i o n of  a c t e d upon the  the m e d i a e v a l c h i v a l r y , t o g e t h e r  fused  and  t r a p p i n g s , w i t h the b a r b a r i c background o f the the  storyteller,  without  any  n a i v e l y unaware o f h i s a n a c h r o n i s m s . plays a very large part  i n the  with  the  o l d legends  and  s t o r y , and  affect  being a t t r i b u t e d  t h e much more b a r b a r o u s p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e  Nibelungenlied belongs.  period  i t s customs  historic  original  sense, i s  Feudalistio loyalty  poem, t h e w h o l e outcome i n  t h e s e c o n d p a r t d e p e n d i n g u p o n Hagen's l o y a l t y t o G u n t h e r and h i s b r o t h e r s , in-arms.  and u p o n t h e i r l o y a l t y t o t h e i r  Gunther c o u l d have saved the  o f h i s f a m i l y i f he ered him  up  his  own  his  liege  had  been d i s l o y a l  to Kriemhild's  l i f e by  remaining  revenge.  as a v a s s a l , he  o f h i s men  a t home i n Worms, b u t  pay  delivsaved  loyalty  on a p e r i l o u s  upon B r u n h i l d ' s  s h o u l d come and  and  t o Hagen and. h a d Hagen c o u l d have  l o r d bade hirn accompany h i m  S i e g f r i e d ' s murder hinges  lives  comrades-  to  journey.  insistence that,  homage t o h i s  lord..  4  Rlldeger, A t t i l a ' s v a s s a l , i s an e x a c t chivalry, are  and  prototype  t h e demands t h a t s u c h a c u l t u r e made u p o n a  found i n the  very dramatic  and  powerful  h i s l o a y a l t y to h i s guests.  o t h e r and he  One  Rlldeger i s i n a t e r r i b l e  b r e a k s he  to h i s  t i e i s as  sacred  disgraced.  and  c h i v a l r y were a t t h e i r z e n i t h i n the M i d d l e  the  Nibelungenlied  serves  they have, n a t u r a l l y , The  as a m i r r o r f o r t h e  prominent places  d i v i d e d i n t o two  distinct parts.  s t o r y of S i e g f r i e d ' s e x p l o i t s , G u n t h e r and  The  first  the  The  s t o r y of K r i e m h i l d s 1  brings  Siegfried, i n h i s greatness, b e a u t y , and legendary  t h e h e r o of the  first  in his extraordinary  m e d i a e v a l h e r o as w e l l ,  he h a s  gentleness.  as  of the  time,  poem.  cantos,  and  is  part contains  the  poem  f o r revenge  the  part,  against  dreadful  i s almost d i v i n e  s t r e n g t h and  But  he  manly  i s more t h a n  q u a l i t i e s of the  Although  he  is killed  loyalty  i n t o an. a v e n g i n g f u r y .  the  ideal  s t r e n g t h , and  s i x t e e n t h canto,  f o r g o t t e n ; i t i s from her passionate  that Kriemhild turns  life  shows t h e  f e a r l e s s n e s s and  e a r l y p a r t o f t h e poem, i n t h e er  A g e s , and  finishes with his  plotting  in his invulnerability.  and  oath  about.  dragon-slayer,  faithfulness  the  Feudalism  second p a r t o f the  H a g e n for- t h e m u r d e r o f h e r h u s b a n d , and s l a u g h t e r she  as  of h i s wooing of B r u n h i l d f o r  o f K r i e m h . i l d f o r h i m s e l f , and  d e a t h a t the hands o f Hagen. contains  i n the  Nibelungenlied i s i n thirty-nine  knight,  King  dilemma, - w h i c h e v e r  feels himself completely  of  s c e n e , w h e r e Rtid-  eger i s f o r c e d t o choose between h i s l o y a l t y and  of a product  also  i n the  y e t he  i s nev-  t o h i s memory,  In the  first  part of the e p i c , the p i c t u r e g i v e n of K r i e m h i l d , King  Gunther's  fair  very  sister,  i s a c h a r m i n g one.  m a i d e n l y , a n d one  She  i s lovely,  sweet,  i s i m p r e s s e d above a l l w i t h h e r g e n t l e n e s s ,  w h i c h makes t h e c h a n g e i n h e r c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t a l l t h e more e f f e c t i v e .  T h e s e two c h a r a c t e r s h a v e come u n d e r  softening  influences of mediaeval c u l t u r e ;  civilized  than the p r i m i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s of Gunther  Hagen, Gunther's contrast to S i e g f r i e d ,  t h e y a r e more  Nibelungenlied.  Hagen.  darkness contrasted with l i g h t . i s gay,  He i s  light-  Hagen p l a y s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e  B e f o r e S i e g f r i e d comes he  a d v i s o r , and h i s p r i m e  and  foremost liegeman, stands out i n s t r o n g  gloomy, g r i m and s i n i s t e r , whereas S i e g f r i e d h e a r t e d and l o v a b l e .  i n the  i s Gunther s  chief  1  source of i n f o r m a t i o n .  I t i s l i e who  knows a l l a b o u t S i e g f r i e d and h i s p r o w e s s .  I t i s he who  es S i e g f r i e d ' s d e a t h , p a r t l y o u t o f l o y a l t y  t o h i s Queen,  B r u n h i l d , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e he h e r o , who,  the  i s envious of the  in his invulnerability,  i s always  Hagen i s f a r - s e e i n g a n d i n t e l l i g e n t . tention behind Krlemhild's  He  advis-  all-conquering  victorious.  c a n see t h e r e a l i n -  i n v i t a t i o n t o E t z e l b u r g , and  knows what i s i n s t o r e f o r t h e B u r g u n d i a n s  i f t h e y go.  once G u n t h e r h a s d e c i d e d u p o n t h e j o u r n e y , he  t o Gunther  But  i s too proud to  s t a y a t home, t o o p r o u d t o a v o i d t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s misdeeds, but a l s o too l o y a l  he  of h i s  own  t o l e t h i m go w i t h o u t  h i m , when t h e r e i s d a n g e r . H a g e n ' s l o y a l t y t o h i s K i n g i s g r e a t l y s t r e s s e d , e s p e c i a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c o n d p a r t , a n d he dainfully  s c o r n f u l of K r l e m h i l d ' s underhand  d a r i n g l y c o u r a g e o u s , t h a t one  i s so  means o f r e v e n g e ,  cannot h e l p admiring the  disso  impregnable  bravery  and l o y a l t y Brunhild,  is uncivilized,  o f t h e now m i d d l e - a g e d man.  i n character, arrogant,  Hagen b e a r s g r i e v a n c e s nerable  and i n v i n c i b l e ,  K r i e m h i l d during twelve  i s very  c l o s e t o Hagen.  u n t a m e d , a p r i m i t i v e woman.  against  s o d o e s she n u r s e r e s e n t m e n t  redeem H a g e n ' s c h a r a c t e r .  She  which serves  of her invincibility,  she becomes a p e t -  p l a y s h e r p a r t o f a n i n j u r e d Q u e e n , t h u s g i v i n g Hagen a n and then,  no l o n g e r  t o t h e s t o r y , she a u t o m a t i c a l l y drops o u t o f i t ,  Gunther i s not outstanding  f o r any e s p e c i a l  qualities,  i s , i n f a c t , t h e weak c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s t o r y ; n e c e s s a r i l y s o  because Hagen i s t h e i m p o r t a n t  adversary  e r o f K r i e m h i l d , and any s t r e n g t h e n i n g  o f S i e g f r i e d and l a t -  o f Gunther's  would d e t r a c t from t h a t o f h i s c h i e f v a s s a l . primitive  t h a n Hagen, i n c l i n e d  judge o f c h a r a c t e r . and  He r e f u s e s  ter,  The c h a r a c t e r s  character  He i s r a t h e r l e s s  t o be c r e d u l o u s ,  and i s a poor  t o see t h e change i n K r i e m h i l d ,  c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d how s h e c o u l d b e t r e a c h e r o u s  him.  to  so w e l l t o  s p o i l e d woman, e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g i n d e p t h o f c h a r a c t e r .  necessary  not  a vassal.  Once s h e i s v a n q u i s h e d , e n d d e s c e n d s  excuse t o p l o t f o r S i e g f r i e d ' s death,  he  against  l o n g y e a r s , b e c a u s e she f e e l s t h a t h e r  B r u n h i l d , however, l a c k s t h e g r e a t n e s s  ulant,  As  S i e g f r i e d , b e c a u s e he I s i n v u l -  husband's s i s t e r h a s degraded h e r s e l f b y m a r r y i n g  from t h e proud h e i g h t s  She,too,  towards  o f Gerenot and G i s e l h e r , e s p e c i a l l y t h e l a t -  h a v e b e e n somewhat more i n f l u e n c e d b y c h i v a l r y ;  they a r e  as pagan and as c r u e l as Hagen and G u n t h e r , b o t h r e f u s i n g have a n y t h i n g  t o do w i t h S i e g f r i e d ' s m u r d e r .  But t h e i r  a l r o u s r e s e n t m e n t i s n o t s t r o n g enough t o o u t w e i g h t h e i r  chiv-  sense  7  of duty to t h e i r King, and both remain l o y a l t o Gunther to  the  d e a t h . Rudeger I s a f i n e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the mediaeval c h i v a l r y , an example o f a p e r f e c t k n i g h t - h o s p i t a b l e , k i n d l y , l o y a l , jet  w i t h a l l a courageous and f e a r l e s s w a r r i o r . C h i v a l r y i s  seen at i t ' s h i g h e s t p o i n t i n the f i g u r e o f Rudeger. E t z e l and D i e t r i c h von Bern, the o n l y two are l e f t  knights  a f t e r the d r e a d f u l s l a u g h t e r , are both h i s t o r i c a l  characters.  They l i v e d i n d i f f e r e n t c e n t u r i e s , but with  passage of time and the l a c k o f w r i t t e n r e c o r d s , these great f i g u r e s were brought t o g e t h e r  i n h e r o i c songs.  c h a r a c t e r g i v e n to the K i n g o f the Huns i s not very He  i s k i n d and generous t o K r i e m h i l d ,  to her  who  f o r h i s son. He has  the  two The  admirable.  and i s deeply g r a t e f u l  no thought o f the Queen's revenge-  f u l p l a n s , and endeavours to prevent  any disagreement w i t h h i s  guests, u n t i l he h i m s e l f i s drawn i r r e v o c a b l y i n t o the f r a y by the murder of h i s son by Hagen.  The  brave and mighty f i g u r e  of the h i s t o r i c a l E t z e l i s s c a r c e l y to be r e c o g n i z e d E t z e l of the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d .  He  i n the  can be imagined sueing f o r  favours from K r i e m h i l d , almost a w e a k l i n g .  When the  s l a u g h t e r breaks out i n the d i n i n g - h a l l , E t z e l i s o n l y  too  anxious to l e a v e the scene o f b a t t l e under the p r o t e c t i o n of D i e t r i c h , and w h i l e he becomes e v e n t u a l l y as anxious t o o f f the Burgundians as h i s Queen, he h i m s e l f makes no to take any p a r t i n the c o n f l i c t .  One  kill  attempt  would expect a d i f f e r e n t  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the g r e a t conqueror, y e t i t i s easy to r e a l i z e that, he  i s made a weakling f o r the same reason  Gunther I s , because the p l o t demands i t .  that  8  D i e t r i c h of Bern i s the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n knight. it  H i s r e l i g i o u s q u a l i t i e s are not  i s o n l y known t h a t he  heathen E t z e l . But how of the Burgundians!  true  stressed,  i s a C h r i s t i a n at the c o u r t of the  different  i s h i s C h r i s t i a n i t y from t h a t  D i e t r i c h i s moderate and  thoughtful  p r e f e r r i n g t o a v o i d bloodshed: a good f r i e n d and a d v i s o r to E t z e l , but  a l s o sympathetic w i t h the Burgundians, and  t o prevent  the l a t t e r from e n t e r i n g i n t o K r l e m h i l d ' s  anxious net.  Yet when h i s wrath i s aroused by the s l a u g h t e r of h i s he  i s j u s t l y u n h e s i t a t i n g i n h i s attack, a dauntless  H i s nature  men, hero.  i s more deeply under the i n f l u e n c e of C h r i s t -  i a n i t y ; the r e l i g i o n o f the Burgundians i s o n l y a t h i n veneer, c o v e r i n g p r i m i t i v e paganism. D i e t r i c h i s more tempered and humble, i n c a p a b l e  of the extremes of v i o l e n t hate  vengeance, r e v e a l e d i n most o f the other  and  characters.  A study o f the o l d e p i c impresses one w i t h the e x c e l l e n t powers of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n possessed  by i t $ s unknown  His f a v o r i t e method of d e l i n e a t i o n i s c o n t r a s t ; he  author.  sets  the l i g h t over a g a i n s t the dark, S i e g f r i e d a g a i n s t Hagen; the K r i e m h i l d of the f i r s t p a r t , sweet and womanly, a g a i n s t p a s s i o n a t e . and w a r r i o r - l i k e Brunhild;" the t o l e r a n t and c o n t r o l l e d D i e t r i c h a g a i n s t the p a s s i o n - c r a z e d Huns.  The  c h a r a c t e r s are r e a l , v i t a l people,  c e r t a i n aspects  a l l the k n i g h t s are o f one  the self-  Queen of the and while  in  conventionalized  p a t t e r n , l o y a l and u n f l i n c h l i n g l y courageous, yet each one an i n d i v i d u a l , with i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; Gunther, Hagen, Rudeger, D i e t r i e h - each one personality.  Siegfried  is a distinct  is  The in  the  psychology,  c l o s e l y one  in  one  character  the  i s s i i r p r i s i n g l y good, e s p e c i a l l y  c h a r a c t e r of K r i e m h i l d .  wife gives her  too,  the  impression  A cursory glance t h a t the  i s somewhat u n c o n v i n c i n g  sees t h a t i t i s not  other hand e x c e e d i n g l y  ed  over her  but  loss,  as  she  on l o o k i n g more  She  was  on  passionately  justice.  She  was  enraged a g a i n s t Hagen.  d i d , h e r h a t r e d was  lust  is  been f o u l l y murdered f o r a  n a t u r a l l y c o u l d see no  i n t o an a l m o s t m a n i a c a l  felt  t r e m e n d o u s c h a n g e in.  well-drawn.  t h e r e f o r e , as a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , brooding  Siegfried'  at a l l exaggerated, but  l o v e w i t h S i e g f r i e d , and he h a s  c a u s e i n w h i c h she  at  Then  easily  turn  f o r r e v e n g e s.l a l l c o s t s .  She  t h a t l o y a l t y t o S i e g f r i e d demanded t h i s  from her,  so  she  s a c r i f i c e d h e r s e l f t o E t z e l , b e c a u s e she h o p e d t h a t  through  him  from  she m i g h t h a v e h e r  time'of  chance.  A l l the l o n g years,  S i e g f r i e d ' s death t o the  visit  of the Burgundians  E t z e l b u r g , t h a t d e s i r e f o r r e v e n g e was until  i t was  drove her  the  to the  r e v e n g e on one Although  the g e n e r a l  kinsmen f o r the  tone of the  i t i s not without  a s t e r , f o r i n the very  first  dream, a r e l i n e s  death of S i e g f r i e d the from the  stanzas, of e v i l  first  thirty-second i t turns The  s a k e of.  part of  a presentiment i n the  foreboding.  t o n e o f t h e poem c h a n g e s  first  into a terrible p a r t of the  e r mood, i s v e r y d e l i g h t f u l  the cf  After  p o r t r a y a l of  The  author  the  definitely; from  the  wholesale  e p i c , i n i t s g a y e r and  reading.  dis-  d i s c u s s i o n of  t w e n t y - t h i r d c a n t o i t i s v e r y g l o o m y , and  slaughter.  and  man.  poem i s a h a p p y one,  Kriemhild's  to  c o n t i n u a l l y growing,  sole thought of her h a l f - c r a z e d mind, slaughter of a l l her  the  i s not  lightwithout  10 a c e r t a i n quaint sense o f humor, the f o l l o w i n g stanza d e s c r i b i n g the scene i n the church; "Da g i e n g s i e zu dem Munster Da war i n s o l c h e r Z i e r d e  und m i t i h r v i e l der Fraun. d i e K B n i g i n zu schaun,  Dass da hoher Wunsche  mancher ward v e r l o r e n ;  S i e war zur Augenweide  v i e l der Recken a u s e r k o r e n . " *  Then i n the b e g i n n i n g o f the seventh Canto, where Gunther i v e s at I s e n l a n d , the author charmingly mentions  arr-  some o f the  e t e r n a l l y feminine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; "Da h i e s s d i e K B n i g s t o c h t e r Die m i n n i g l i c h e n Maide:  von den F e n s t e r n gehn  s i e s o l l t e n da n i c h t stehn  Zum A r i b l i c k f u r d i e Fremden; Was  da d i e F r a u e n t h a t e n ,  es immer t h a t e n  unverwandt.  das i s t uns wohl bekannt.  S i e z i e r t e n s i c h entgegen Wie  sie folgten  den unkunden Herrn,  schBne Frauen gern.  Dann an d i e engen F e n s t e r n  t r a t e n s i e heran, 2  Wo  s i e d i e Helden sahen:  das ward aus Neugier gethanJ"  Some o f the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f maidenly beauty, e s p e c i a l l y  Kriem-  h i l d ' s, are extremely p o e t i c a l ; "Da kam d i e M i n n i g l i c h e , Tritt  aus triiben Wolken."  "Wie der l i c h t e Vollmond  wie das 3  vor den Sternen schwebt,  Des S c h e i n so h e l l und l a u t e r So g l E n z t e s i e i n Wahrheit 1. 2. 3. 4.  Morgenroth  s i c h aus den Wolken hebt, vor den andern Frauen g u t :  Das mochte wohl erhftben den z i e r e n Helden den Muth." Simrock, Das N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , 97. I b i d , 129.' I b i d , 91. I b i d , 93.  4  II That which i s nature the  most n o t a b l y l a c k i n g  description,  second great  a q u a l i t y w h i c h i s much more  epic  The s t a n z a i c lied  is  an unusual  advantageous, and t h e the  of  of  one f o r  because of  a great  in  the  quent p a d d i n g .  period,  epic  the  deal  the  poetry,  action  is is  is  stressed  in  Gudrunlied.  which i s used i n the  each thought  a c t i o n or a d e s c r i p t i o n fourth line  this  structure  steady flow  cause  i n the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d  and i t  limited  is to  hindered.  Nibelungennot  always  four  lines,  It  is  also  o f u n n e c e s s a r y p a d d i n g when a n  is  completed with the  following  stanza i s  I t h a s no d i r e c t  third  a n example  line.  The  the  fre-  of  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the  preceding  three. "Die  J a g d war  zu Ende,  Zu d e r P e u e r s t e l l e  doch n i c h t brachte  H a u t e mancher T h i e r e Hei.  was des  But t h i s , the  greatness  a minor m a t t e r ,  the  poem.  Considering  its  mixed o r i g i n ,  story centres, another ion of  beauty  and e v e n t  step towards  the  the B u r g u n d i a n s .  forward, other  Kriemhild is follows  the  Schar  Ingesinde  the e p i c figure  it  of h i s  pauses w h i l e characters  of cantos  the  e a c h one  moves a t  author,  and t h e i r  on d e s c r i p t i o n s  of  an ex-  a r o u n d whom t h e  catastrophe,  The n a r r a t i v e  spoil  possesses  e a c h c a n t o b r i n g i n g new d e v e l o p m e n t s  times  trugl"*  which does not  event,  inevitable  gar.  genug.  des K B n i g s  of  traordinary unity.  parts  is  Jager  u n d des W i l d s  z u r Kuche  however,  der  so g a n z u n d  to  contributing the  destruct-  times  steadily  the p l o t ,  fascinated with  garments,  spends  and f i g h t i n g  the  long  the l o v e l y m a t e r i a l s ,  p r e c i o u s j e w e l s , and t h e r i c h h u n t i n g I . S i m r o c k , Das N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , 3 0 5 .  at  the  apparel  12 which adorn the b e a u t i f u l l a d i e s and the k n i g h t l y w a r r i o r s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f these scenes are u s u a l l y v i v i d and sque, though o c c a s i o n a l l y  picture-  overdone.  The mediaeval poet had no r i c h or v a r i e d v o c a b u l a r y upon which t o draw, and so r e p e t i t i o n i s f r e q u e n t but f a r from being  t e d i o u s , i t g i v e s r a t h e r the i m p r e s s i o n o f a c h i l d - l i k e  n a i v e t e . C e r t a i n words always rhyme - i f "wfp" follows i t u n f a i l i n g l y .  appears, " l i p "  C e r t a i n e p i t h e t s are always  applied  to  the c h a r a c t e r s - K r i e m h i l d i s always " d i e schBne K o n i g i n "  or  "das e d l e Weib", Hagen i s always "der grimme ^agen",  k i n g and h i s v a s s a l s are always " r i t t e r l i e h . '  the  Whatever they  become, the author c o n t i n u e s t o d e s c r i b e them i n such terms, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which tends at times t o degenerate  into  almost an empty c o n v e n t i o n but which at the same time the  characters with a l a s t i n g  invests  dignity.  But, w h i l e many p o i n t s i n the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d are open to  c r i t i c i s m , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s unsurpassed i n mediaeval  l i t e r a t u r e because o f i t s v i v i d n e s s , i t s c o l o u r , i t s ruggedness - p a r t l y h i d d e n by the t r a p p i n g s o f c h i v a l r y - and above all  i t s national interest.  C a r l y l e , i n h i s essay on the N i b e l -  u n g e n l i e d , concludes w i t h the f o l l o w i n g paragraph: " A c r e a t i o n from the o l d ages  , still  b r i g h t and balmy, i f we v i s i t i t ;  and opening i n t o the f i r s t H i s t o r y o f Europe, o f Mankind. Thus a l l i s n o t . o b l i v i o n ; but on the edge o f the abyss that separates the Old World from the New, Rainbow-land;  there hangs a f a i r  which a l s o , i n c u r i o u s r e p e t i t i o n s of i t s e l f  (twice over, say the c r i t i c s ) , as i t were i n a secondary or  even i n a t e r n a r y r e f l e x , sheds some f e e b l e t w i l i g h t f a r  13 Into  the  deeps  As  of  has  ungenlied,  the  primeval  Time."  been s t a t e d , the  the  essence  1  northern  of which  v e r s i o n of  i s t o be  found  the  Nibel-  i n the  vBlsunga-  saga,  i s much more p r i m i t i v e i n t o n e .  In  a l l probability  story  and  of  Siegfried  other  heroes  songs of  the  N i b e l u n g e n and  travelled  north  went c e r t a i n changes, but ological was  form, with  the  w r i t t e n down a b o u t  contains  much more o f  characteristics similarities also  Sigurd,  is  Grimhild,  close  Etzel  of  Secondly,  there  starts  descendants hero.  upbringing,  as  the  Gunnar's  with  the  are  , of  stories,  but  the  at  and  Sigurd  the  story of  which d e t a i l s  are  omitted  Brunhild before a drink of  entrance  going  of  i s the  the  w h i l e a s l e e p i n bed by Guttorm, I . C a r l y l e , C r i t i c a l E s s a y s and  not  are  as  VBlsunga-  and  birth  greatest and  Nibelungenlied.  the  court  of  Gudrun.  Kriemhild  cathedral.  Hogni,  Volsungs,  Sigurd's  to  TJte  different.  The  last  i n the  are  Siegfried  Hagen i s  the  f o r g e t f u l n e s s by  bathing, to  names  i s Gunnar, F r a u  race  in detail  the  the  Scandinavian  the  many  differences  h i s r d l e i s somewhat  of  which  course,  also differences i n events. origin  myth-  original  show r e l a t i o n s h i p .  o f Wotan, o f w h i c h  i s given  the  There  The  under-  Nibelungenlied,  Interesting. Firstly,  is Atli.  Queens q u a r r e l w h i l e do,  two  they  vBlsungasaga,  s u p p o s e d t o be  enough t o  are  discovers  w h e r e he  hild  King  I t gives  Sigurd  the  same t i m e  there  the  more p r i m i t i v e and  K r i e m h i l d i s Gudrun, Gunther  a brother  saga  that  legend.  between the  yet  is  result  what are  the  Scandinavia;  r e t a i n e d the  the  b o t h numerous and  different  two  of  into  and  the  Sigurd  Gunnar, The  and  Brun-  is  killed  one o f t h e K i n g ' s brothers, M i s c e l l a n i e s , I I , 273.  14  whereas hild  Siegfried  dies with  for  this  the  previous  Sigurd  i n the  revenge  against  only  i n the  acquaintance  a l s o end  it  the  of  cost  murder  of her  the  Kriemhild,  Atli.  The  s t o r y t h e n goes on  befell  her  after  wiping  out  of  her  those  were  by  i s no  her  of  death,  a k i n to  she  the  and the  In the  as  VBlsunga-  castle a  in  punishment kills  adventures  finishes race  The  accomplishes  to h i s and  of  her  husband, Gudrun  tell  need  plotting  invites  kin.  Nibelungs  to  husband's who  a l l her  f r o m them,  brothers  there  Brun-  superhuman b e i n g s .  ways.  of murdering  Rhinegold  o b t a i n the  a hunt.  m e n t i o n i s made  f o r that purpose, but  order  the  two  no  Hagen f o r S i e g f r i e d ' s death,  invites  for  because  the  saga, however, A t l i to  H a g e n while o n  Volsungasaga, but  i n different  to Etzelburg at  by  Nibelungenlied,  stories  brothers  is killed  with  that  which the  slew  Sigurd. Some m y t h i c a l saga have  elements  which are  a l s o been r e t a i n e d i n the  have been d i s c a r d e d .  Gone i s t h e  Brunhild  sleep,  i n her  magic  and  she  her  of b a t t l e  qualities  divine  origin.  legends, the  her  but  warlike  Siegfried  the  Helm  Nibelungenlied,  part,  because  Gunther to win  i t is  i n the  indispensable  i s on  the  The  fire  to  longer  show t r a c e s  but  many  surrounds  known as i n the  of  her  invulnerability  i t plays a much Siegfried  hand,  of  a  field semi-  i n both  VBlsungasaga b e c o m e s ,  golden treasure  other  vBlsunga-  which  superhuman prowess  a magic h o o d , and  Brunhild.  ompanying c u r s e ,  i s no  retains his  o f Awe  i n the  Nibelungenlied,  w a l l of  f a l l e n V a l k y r i e , although and  found  in  larger  in  assisting  with  i t s acc-  relatively  slight  15  importance mains or  i n t h e N i b e l u n g e n l i e d . The  i n both  versions,  Wotan, appears  forgotten urd's  which  was  was  short  a u t h o r has  Volsungasaga, sparing  prolific.  the  heroic Atli  o f words as  This prose  adventures  of  reOdin,  but  he  also  same r a c e  as  is  Sigthe  f o r the  life,  and  (Etzel)  the and  i s concerned  the  with  (Wotan) t o the d e a t h  suppressed the ished  i s divided  The  first  from  not  compare w i t h  but  i t has  The  of the  intimate pithy  into  very  twelve  of Gudrun's  the b i r t h children  The  deal that  Sigurd's marriage  Nibelungen-  o f Gudrun.  the naive p o e t i c  treats son  than  etiquette  of  Though  yet there i s  i n tone  mediaeval  no  the has a  pol-  of the S c a n d i n a v i a n saga  can-  details  prose  a c h a r m o f i t s own  of the f i r s t  i s very concise,  f o r i n the l a t t e r ,  surface.  small  German  eighteen deal with  I t i s much more p r i m i t i v e  small  a  g e n e r a t i o n , the VBlsungasaga  of the Volsungasaga  Nibelungenlied,  of the  d o w n f a l l of the r a c e .  the race of the Volsungs  of d e t a i l .  to explain  author  chapters t e l l  one  vocabulary  generations of Volsungs  the next  final  i n  I s i n p r o s e , and i t ' s  the  in a l l .  i s written  h i s small  needed  version  the f i v e  Sigurd's birth,  prose  used  however,  chapters, forty-three  preceded  lack  goes  been said,  Many v e r s e s a r e o f t e n  as  the  him  Odin h i m s e l f chose  the mediaeval  author  Odin  with  i s of the  and  The  of  which  N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , as h a s  incident.  lied  and  i n name.  i n the VSlsungasaga,  The  abundantly.  to  Grani,  sword  hero.  verse,  with  times  a change  i n the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , and  of the gods,  young  epic  several  famous h o r s e  horses  with merely  invincible  of l i f e ,  beauty  and  left  of the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d ,  i n i t s ruggedness.  16 With the  fabric  even the  the  d e c a y of  of mediaeval  best  nineteenth  of  i t was  century  recognition.  the  epics  were p u b l i s h e d  fourteenth  chivalric  poetry  rapidly disintegrated,  the  With the  came a l s o  i n the  f o r g o t t e n , and  that  ature  chivalry  Nibelungenlied  birth  full  of  widely  read,  from  ever,  single character,  or  Siegfried  or  play  as  the  around  The  poem made i t d i f f i c u l t  limits  of  the  century  to of  with  p u b l i c a t i o n of  i n 1862,  and  Nibelungen"  i n 1855,  (produced  climax  i n the  Hebbel's order the  are  closely,  i t s gods  and  with  and  Romanticist, taken  gigantic to  i t before  only  easily understood.  with  is  dramatize  o l d e p i c , f o r whose  very  the  to b r i n g  to  mainly  canvas  the  Hebbel's  old  a few  the  from the  they  are  in  trilogy,  "Die des  i n 1876), c a m e  the  a profound  admiration,  reasons f o r  that h i s great  a great  Both  deal  of  own  in  followed  more p r i m i t i v e s t o r y ,  their  the  Late  which  however, f o r Wagner  music-drama  these  works  interest  intensely subjective, both  introduced  med-  Nibelungensaga.  VBlsungasaga. and  poem  Ring  changes, the  result  Brunhild,  old Nibelungenlied,  had  old  versions  i t within  G e r m a n p u b l i c . He he  The  i n the  length.  a whole  the  author  liter-  Kriemhild,  m y t h s , h e l d much more a t t r a c t i o n with  Wagner h a v i n g  the  The  i n conception,  them because  the  due  t h e m , how-  of Wagner's t e t r a l o g y , " D e r as  the  c o n s t r u c t i n g the  ordinary  reconstruction of  t a s k was  most o f  encompass  an  Nibelungen"  and  of  drama or the  epic  i n German  many v a r i e d  s u c h as  breadth  iaeval  a  and  Nibelungenlied,  central figure,  them.  until  of mediaeval poetry.  were c o n s t r u c t e d t a k i n g one  the  not  began to r e c e i v e  Romanticism  rebirth  and  i t was  century,  philosophy  is  are added  Hebbel  and  theories  17 Into t h e i r that  dramas.  And the  fact  e a c h o f the modern a u t h o r s  from h i s  own s t a n d p o i n t ,  and a r t i s t i c  values  is  inherent  that  they are  could interpret  further i n the  proof  of  legend.  so  different,  the  old  the great  tale human  CHAPTER I I PRIEDRICH Friedrich elungenlied not  until  treatment his  idea  dieses  Hebbel  during  first  h i s stay  twenty years  was  simple  came i n t o  i n Hamburg  later  of the o l d epic  HEBBEL  that  poem.  enormous t a s k . treatment  acters  the  tell  theory.  which  readers.  causes  There  was  and reasons  so t h a t  readers  dramatic  task  their  But  1  without  had set h i m s e l f a  g i v i n g the  i s t h e most  that  on  dramachar-  important  part  w r i t e r attempted  only  he h a d t o u n d e r s t a n d a l l  o r t o make t h e m c l e a r t o t h e  to motivate  the characters  t o draw t h e a c t i o n i n t o  that  psychby  reasonable  limits.  outlines  t o Hermann  the purpose  Marggraf, A p r i l  of h i s work on the  " M e i n Zweck w a r , d e n d r a m a t i s c h e n  I.  zu machen."  a c t i o n s m i g h t be u n d e r s t o o d  and i n order  In a l e t t e r  fur  S c h a t z des N i b e l -  so much a c t i o n i n t h e N i b e l u n g e n l i e d ,  Hebbel had a d i f f i c u l t ologically,  Zweck  f o r him t o write  The m e d i a e v a l  a s t o r y , he d i d n o t f e e l  underlying  modern  impossible  the deep m o t i v a t i o n  Nib-  appearances  words, " der  flussig  of the Nibelungenlied  of h i s dramatic to  a l l outward  of the o l d e p i c , Hebbel  I t was  the  s t a r t e d w o r k o n h i s own  T r a u e r s p i e l s war, den dramatischen  a c l o s e r examination  tic  To  with  i n 1 8 3 5 , b u t i t was  e n o u g h ; i n h i s own  u n g e n l i e d ' s f u r d i e r e a l e Buhne  an  he  contact  d i e Buhne  Gehalt  zu heben, n i c h t aber den  B a r t e l s , ' 113.  5,  1862,  Hebbel  Nibelungenlied; des  Nibelungenliedes  poetisch-mythlschen  19  des  alt-nordischen  Epos  Sagenkreises, f l u s s i g  a n g e h t i r t , u n d d a s 1st m i r , w i e d i e i n W e i m a r  Probe  beweist und mein  ehemaliger Gegner S c h o l l  grossen Recension bestatigt,  dass  i c h s o g a r d e n LBwen d e s Odenwaldes  anderes  Mysticismus dass  m i t Vergnugen  Verzicht  des Hintergrunde s o i l  Mucken u n d Ameisen Hebbel  und w i l l  was t h e g r e a t e s t  philosophizing  theories  t o expound  The two m a i n  poet  theories  drama.  which  f o r h i s tragedies  philosophies conflict,  always  i nworld history, clashed.  because  the Divine  only  Idea.  The dramwere  affect  t o choose  o f a tragedy, and h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t r a g i c  f o r the  guilt.  an age o f t r a n s i t i o n ,  where two c i v i l i z a t i o n s  Human p r o g r e s s was e v o l v e d f r o m that  could  The m a i n  p e o p l e who w e r e t r a p i c a l l y 1. B r i e f e , V I I , 1 6 3 . 2. T g b . I V , 5 9 3 3 .  endure  figures  affected  schlagt.  of h i s cent-  i nh i s plays  Nibelungen" concern the proper period  turning-point  with  which he sought  and epochmaking.  He c h o s e  erinnern  a b m i s s t , sondern n u r d i e Stunden-Uhr  atic  placing  says:"Der  d i e das Dasein d e r  t h e f o u n d e r o f t h e modern p s y c h o l o g i c a l  "Die  durchaus  h8chstens d a r a n  ury,  new  a u f jede  auch,  leistend,  d i e Secunden-Uhr,  gedenkt,  I c h b i n demnach  seyn"^" A n d i n a n o t h e r p l a c e h e  i n dem G e d i c h t n i c h t  Grad  deren Gervinus schon  das Sprachrohr des a l t e n D i e h t e r s ,  nichts  I c h machte  stehen l i e s s , und  i n Edda und VBlsunga h i n u b e r .  Selbst&ndigkeit  i n seiner  v o n dem G e d i c h t , b i s a u f dem  n u r b e i den "Verzahnungen"  nothgedrungen  angestellte  gelungen.  daher ganz  griff  ahhEngig  vollkommen  mich  nur  z u m a c h e n , dem u n s e r  a or this  w h i c h was i n h a r m o n y i n a t r a g e d y s h o u l d be  by such a c o n f l i c t  20  or  advancement  l y marked the of  as  world, an  too  being  who,  age  far  In c i v i l i z a t i o n , incapable  past;  i n advance  Nibelungenlied  of  not  or  of  their  greatest  conflict  between Heathenism  i t s passionate  loyalty  only  Christian  and  before  new.  the  Hebbel's  the  Any  man  world, of  this  ignoble result.  lead  the  of  <%&  the  he  places  can  outstanding motives,  but  Siegfried,  i s out  himself  therefore  Hebbel  who  saw  no  of  beyond longer  in  the  c l e a r to also  theories. and  the  The  the  an  Here  he  new,  a  whose e x a g g e r a t e d  sense  the  crime  and  of  o l d must g i v e  theory,  an  that  and  the  path  tragic  an  the u n i v e r s a l . above  un-  the  of  harmony  The  from noble  way  the  f o r h i s own  in it.  arise  treat-  import-  understanding  exist  and  way  of h i s  individual,  tune w i t h the  of  in n&tw^  the  a f f e c t s i n no  however  were  world  sees  as  p e r s o n a l i t y may that  those  understanding  universal, i s preparing o n c e a man  representatives  of making  individual  set himself,  of  old  dramatic  Hebbel  to  rest  temperance, h u m i l i t y ,  a natural result,  second great  tries  definite-  more advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n  i t s qualities  relation  the  i t s inhabitants to  Nibelungenlied.  because  and  to  as  o l d order  hates,  f o r the  the  world,  and  with  Christianity.  important  i n the who  of  doing, the  as  i s equally  fact  level  with  era, with  gentleness,  ant  loves  serves  conflicts  ment o f  So  were  monuments, b u t  between the and  who  hand,  v e h i c l e f o r some o f h i s d r a m a t i c  conflict  guilt,  other  opportunity  ideal  murder,  the  fellowmen.  an  found an  of  of progressing  on  their  only  G e r m a n n a t i o n one  with  people  therefore, naturally, f e l l ,  t h a t was  excellent  those  of  that  actions or  the i n e v i t a b l e  innocently, places  himself  above  21  his  fellowmen hy h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers,  conflict and  with  a place  sacrifice  the world.  Brunhild, destined  above a l l human b e i n g s  to the c i v i l i z a t i o n  Hebbel  saw  excellent representative  an  out-and-out Heathen, the t h i n  nature,  as I s t h e case w i t h  in  veneer  the play  Hagen's n a t u r e ,  of h i s character. to  speak,  Christ his  of Christianity  with  Kriemhild.  Nibelungenlied,  age,  hiding h i s true Hebbel  takes  h i s actions  When t h e c u r t a i n r i s e s , struck  He i s  great  as a  result  Hagen i s t h e  i s h i s l a c k of reverence  with  pains  the l a c k of C h r i s t i a n feelings  and he m o t i v a t e s  and h i s impatience  pleasure  of the  of the r e a of heathenism.  t o emphasize  and t h e note  a  mortals.  a member o f a n o l d b a r b a r o u s  without  through  falls  ordinary  Hagen"  into  f o r immortality  by the gods,  o f more  i n " d e r grimme  an  all  a n d s o comes  the r e s t r i c t i o n s  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e new  first  for  placed  upon  religion.  Hagen "Nun,  keine  Jagd? Gunther Es  1st j a Heiliger  TagJ  Hagen Dass den K a p l a n der S a t a n V o n dem And  er  as Gunther "Was  tries  t o calm him,  g i b t ' s denn h e u t ? 1  Pest  hole,  schwatzt."  Das war - l a s s t Sein  selber  verdarb  seheni uns  Geboren 1st e r l a n g s t j - Ja, j a , zur Zeit der eine  H e b b e l makes Hagen's p r i m i t i v e , I . H e b b e l , Werke, IV, I I .  Barenhatz." forceful  Flocken]  1  characteristics  very  22  prominent, the  i n order  representatives  second part of  t h a t he  and  only  as  as  little  "Ja,  also  Feindes  seiner  knew t h a t  jealousy  in  third.  with  the  This  aspect  o l d e p i c , but  Hebbel  Hagen i s shown  a barbarian,  d i s c l o s e i t and  of  the  extreme He  the  of h i s  At  the  We  as  not  i s shown i n h i s  utterly  admirable  amount o f  were  to his i t not  treachery  advantage  of  the  sie  thereby see  Brunhild,  probably  and  ingenuous  as  give  him,  primitive, and  dead body l a i d  he  Hagen, a  beginning  Siegfried,  the  lacks  of  from the His  secrecy  was,  good  his  hatred  vengeful he  goes to  outside  the  Kriem-  consideration for others,  with  King.  bottom of  loyalty  na?ve  death o f  so w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  absolute  Geige  strichest  winning  young hero.  of having  h i l d ' s door. exception  Darm und  Siegfried,  r e j o i c e s i n the  barbarous  the  i n the  pagan.  as  i n the  r e a s o n f o r k i l l i n g him.  be  Chaplain  i n s i s t e n c e upon S i e g f r i e d ' s  to his part  might l i k e l y  Hagen,  the  sharply  Knochen."^  s t r e s s e s Hagen's  regard  nature  Bern  a thorough-going  des  einem  b e c a u s e he  and  von  era,  bezBgst a u c h d a n n n o c h D i r d i e  Gern mit  Hebbel  new  contrasted  Volker; du  Mit  be  s t r e s s e d i n the  a heathen, but  words to  with  the  Dietrich  Hagen i s v e r y  d e p i c t s him  of  may  and  a l l these by  pagan c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  Hebbel,  liegelord. that crime  King.  lies  the  This  quality  i t i s so can  be  Although  Blutsverwandter. he c o l d b l o o d e d l y I . H e b b e l , Werke, IV, 12.  feeling  of  of  i n him  could  all-absorbing that  c o m m i t t e d when i t i s Hagen has  betrays  him.  any to  become S i e g f r i e d ' s This  exagger-  23  ated l o y a l t y for  t o one man,to  a l lothers,  definitely and  which  Hebbel  makes  which  has o u t l i v e d  adjective"grimme", which  one w o r d a l l Hagen's p r o u d ,  his  passionate hates  characterization  Hagen it's  relentless",  and j e a l o u s i e s .  i s more  stone, after  subtle.  Siegfried  Giselher  We  conveyed  unbridled  Hebbel's  So f r o l i e h  e r auch  Siegfried  always  b y one  schwartts im  thutJ"  i n  nature,  method of  get a glimpse of h i s  has s u c c e s s f u l l y  and G e m o t , "Dem  after  day,  entirely  t h r o u g h t h e words o f P r a u U t e as Hagen goes t o  Gunther,  And  marks  c h a r a c t e r i z e d Hagen almost  the  the  feelings  t h e r e f o r e m u s t be d e s t r o y e d .  t h e one c o n v e n t i o n a l  nature  o f human  so v i v i d ,  a s a member o f a n a g e t h a t  The N i b e l u n g e n l i e d by  the exclusion  throw  outdistanced foot;  Herzen,  1  h a s o u t d i s t a n c e d h i m , she s a y s  of  Sieg-  fried; "Dafur Wischt Gott Hebbel  Lob!  in ily  Hagen's p e r s o n a l i t y by g i v i n g I t i s H a g e n who  i t i s h e who  the second  einmal d i e S t i r n ,  k l m ' d e r T r o n j e r urn v o r W u t h l "  of character.  initiative,  secret  auch  Sonst  intensifies  strength  out  er sich  conquest  of Siegfried's  p l a n s and f o r c e s of Brunhild;  invulnerability  responsibility  Siegfried  to  carry  obtains the  from Kriemhild, i t i s h e who  for Siegfried's  he t e l l s Gunther a f t e r i t i s a l l o v e r : 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 2 8 . 2. I b i d . 2 9 .  more  takes the  i t i s h e who  t h e most c o l d - b l o o d e d , c a s u a l manner; takes the entire  always  him  lying voluntar-  d e a t h , as  24 "Du  mein  Hast n i c h t s befohlen,  dess  Ich hafte  ganz  This  innovation  ing.  I n the  in high to  the  reads the  <'  King,  who  with  he  he  i s a powerful  Gunther,  i s the  understands  "Sie Hat  can  i n H e b b e l he  source  of  a l l the  liegt  nicht Liebe,  der  Wie  ohne W a h l ,  those  two  ordained that  only  because  trusts but  wie  Es I.  letzten  hand of  should  can so  solve  When  be  erhalten  Ries&n of  problem  the  she  loyalty  will,  Lust, treibt."^ the  u n i t e d by  the  Welb  ist's,  f o r each other,  reads  w e l l what  i n her  wean s i e uns darzuthun,  who  Hass  s i e Mann und  fate  c l o s e l y bound  i s H a g e n who  blindly  one  i t i s Hagen  o l d gods has that  i t was  so h a s s t ,  t h a t has  155.  fore-  now  and  arisen  together. plans  intends to her  i n Kriemhild s 1  to  do,  kindred.  so muss s i e  denn s e l b s t d i e Liebe  H e b b e l , werke,IV> I b i d , 134-135.  mark-  unbreakable bonds,  while He  1st  mind.  Gunther  warns  i n vain: "Und  a  zum  the  they  knows a l l t o o  the  drama.  Siegfried,  R i e s i n ohne  super-beings  are  i n the  dieser  i h r Geschlecht  letzte  that  death  they It  He  die  that  stands  is advisor-in-chief  E i n Zauber  sich  Und  see  v a s s a l , who  Grund i n L i e b e i  Zusammenknupft. D u r c h den  outstand-  attitude;  i n seinem Bann, und  seinen  more  a l l information,  characters  understand her  Doch i s t ' s  Hagen can  Dich,  1  c l a s h comes b e t w e e n B r u n h i l d and  alone  ed  erinn're  o f H e b b e l ' s makes Hagen a l l t h e  Nibelungenlied  favour  and  allein."  Konig,  brennen,  Gunther  25 So g i e r i g  n i c h t nach Kuss und  Wie  grimm'ger  Und  wenn d e r L i e b e  So w i r d  Hass  d e r Hass  nach Mord langes  nur  i s Hagen's p i e r c i n g eye  at  a  that  the character  of  Etzel  glance.  Der  Eisenketten,  Und  Weiberaaare  Geschehen,  w i e man  dachte an den  sagt,  schonte.  d a s s man  Denn e r 1 s t s t o l z Er  freut sich, futtert  Als  e r ' s so v i e l e  additions  •  one  had  side  necessary  s e i n G e w i s s e n urn s o Jahre  hungern  t o be  impression  reading  the The  liess."^ i n Hagen's  between  and  character  theories.  the eras,  so t r e a t e d , t h a t he  effective,  kann,  besser,  by Hebbel's dramatic  of the c o n f l i c t .  and  bricht,  and deeper m o t i v a t i o n s  general  then  Hagen's  p e r s o n i f i e d the  Hebbel's changes  are few,  i n p e r f e c t harmony w i t h  o f Hagen's c h a r a c t e r  I f he  that  type but  the  i s obtained  from  Nibelungenlled. other  o l d world  leading  d i e Treue  to picture the c o n f l i c t  character  mit Etzel's Willen  auf seine R e d l i c h k e i t ,  perfectly justified  wished  uns  Leuen,  zerreist  dass er e n d l i c h schworen  Und  These  the  schadet,  reads  Nimmer w i r d ' s  of  Tod,  hungriger.  "ich  are  Umarmung,  und B l u t und  Fasten  immer  It  nach  important  of paganism  a strange,  character,  who  with  i s Brunhild, depicted  unearthly  sort of existence  northern castle. The o l d e p i c 1 . H e b b e l , werke, I V , 1 8 4 . 2. I b i d , 2 6 3 .  l a y s no  Hagen  represents  by Hebbel i n her  particular  as  lonely  stress  on  26  the  superhuman o r i g i n  strength exactly  and  conscious by  of  the  fight  dom.  origin a great  Pates.  for  Her the  by  a trick.  the  destined  Brunhild  to  that  will  knows o f  hero but  she  she to  must  the  be  the  infinite  hers,  can  she  bride.  reinforces  by  the  invention  h e a t h e n , who  has  but  The  destiny.  since  Prigga  Brunhild's  schwinger,  she  reason they conquest  are of  conquere.d,  lost  and  ordinary  hopes woman.  the  Frigga only The  only  sees  i s not  more  that  through  free-  freedom,  one  Brunhild  may  the  maid,  cause live  Queen's p r o u d n a t u r e ,  fight  man  who  himself,  possibilities of  this  trance  BalmungFor  Gunther's  to Frigga  of  Hebbel  outcome.  f e a r , but  her  kingdom  S i e g f r i e d , the  at  not  an-out-and-  the  meaning  surprised  the  i s to  mortal  a natural  to  she  from Wotan  According  that  for  means  i n Brunhild  her  knows t h e  Brunhild.  B a l m u n g s c h w i n g e r was  any  child  v i c t o r y as  a l l the  half-  but  that  power of  than Brunhild  adversary  foresees  and  Prigga, the  alone  rather  shows  pagan element  received  he  l o s s more b i t t e r ,  overcome  of  punish-  wins  beauty  hence u n d e r s t a n d s more c l e a r l y  is  surrender  a  planned  enjoy  not  a  only  struggle  only  as  w e a k s u b s t i t u t e who  t o make t h i s  his  apparent  can  as  destiny,  a future  as  contrary  royal  strange  as  this  the  does  her  a mortal  and  her  and  which represents  showing her  i s that  unusual  Hebbel  i n a t r a n c e - l i k e v i s i o n just before  Gunther,  of her  virgin.  Wotan, on  power w h i c h  Hebbel,  with  out  a  than her  i n mystery,  She  tragedy  to  claims  still  Edda v e r s i o n ,  disobedience  enshrouds her  to  other  V a l k y r i e , erondemned t o m a t e w i t h  ment f o r h e r  her  Brunhild  prowess - while  f o l l o w the  fallen  of  once  the  the Brunhild  o l d gods  happily however,  as  is  an  naturally  27  rebels do  at the  conquest,  with Gunther,  picked  h i m up  water. first for  and  by  Hebbel  about  own  the  sometimes  Nur replies  right  there  are  Brunhild. evasive  place  on  Siegfried  and  shipboard,  Euch  These  scenes  questions  the l a t t e r  wie  i s turned  Hebbel  Into  that  night.  but  i s h e r annoyance  questions has  There,  here  no  about  at  Siegfried's  changed  things  humiliating  scene through  virginity  and because  of the  story  Gunther  up  scene w i t h  to treat her  as  on t h e  of wall.  the v i o l e t s ,  an undeveloped  child  her: nehmt m i c h  n i c h t mehr."  f u r e i n Kind, e i n and'res, ,  a r e a d d i t i o n s made b y  B r u n h i l d as as  her  I  motivation  to her  human t r a i t s  Prigga  tells  arrival  night;  alle,  show u s  on h e r  Helmathsgruss." ,  s c h n e l l e r wachsen wie  these very  Gunther,  the wedding  with  Doch b i n i c h j e t z t  the  on  to the Burgundians  bitte  over  she  by her l o n e l i n e s s  Kriemhild  to her l o n e l i n e s s , the  I c h werde  She  third  old epic.  t o have p a t i e n c e  to  das  answers  her  more  the voyage  and h e l d him  Kriemhild, Brunhild ties  reference  "ich  and  M i r war's The  during  secondly  questions  Kriemhild.  t o preserve  desire  Kame  anything  her f e e l i n g s towards  s t o r m s , when day  nochi  t o marry  takes  She  s k y , i t i s so l i g h t  somewhat f r o m t h e  all  of the neck  c l e v e r l y motivates  country.  heute  Gunther's  and  t o have  Hagen r e l a t e s t h a t  the nape  :!  plea  refuses  by her n a t u r a l independence,  her  The  she  she  would  t o the meaning  she f o u g h t w i t h G u n t h e r a n d 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 7 1 . 2. I b i d , 74.  really  of her  the nurse l i e s  Hebbel. t r y to  trance,  f o r the  sake  be.  before of  her  28 Brunhild's land  and  own  was  h a p p i n e s s , and  tells  Gewesen b i n , a l s i c h d i e s So m u s s i c h ' s w i e d e r  sal,  a c t , however,  arouses her  subdued  and honours only for  now  Gunther  natural.  Not  of her heart.  the  her husband^s  herself  isfaction them b o t h .  only  like  above  situation,  i s she but  now  this  union with "Ich  Deine  edle  This  of  she  reveres  way  course,  zealous  had  deemed  can f i n d  sat-  must w i n g l o r y f o r  and p r i d e  night.  Gun-  com-  i s , of  s h e , who  - he  faith  i n Gunther  Discussing  S i e g f r i e d , she  kann's  Schwester  affairs  ordinary  that  prowess,  a f t e r the wedding  of Kriemhild's  Dass  i n the  vas-  i n the o l d epic.  and B r u n h i l d ,  men.  conquered,  emphasizes  to a  of her v i r g i n i t y ,  a l lother  has been  sister  same r e s u l t a s  the l o s s  i n Gunther's  Hebbel  on the morning  with  honour,  invincible,  Gunther's  i n the m a r i t a l  save the  only  erblickt,  i n giving his royal  i r e , with  and h i s b r i d e ,  pletely  very  werden,"^  But S i e g f r i e d ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n s ther  seen t h i s  entzuckt  Land  says from the fulness  suspicious  she had  happy. "Wenn i c h  Brunhild  her  nicht  her  dis-  says,  seh'n,  sich erniedrigt.  Gunther. Sie  thut,  wie  Du. Brunhild. Nein,  He  also  stresses  the marked  nein, change  second conquest. Gunther c a l l s 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 7 4 . 2. I b i d , 9 6 .  Du b i s t  e i n Mann!"  i n Brunhild  after  her h i s noble wife  2  the  and  she  29  answers, "ich  h 8 r ' m i c h g e r n so nennen,  Mir  jetzt  so s e l t s a m v o r , d a s s  Getummelt und  sah' i c h Dich  Ich  mag  a  Schild  mir  Die  M a g d urn B e i s t a n d  Und  wie  Als  dich  tender,  begleiteni"  wife,  terrible  So  sollst  Ich  will  Nacht Du  - - Was  and  i s H a g e n who  seizes  opens  bau'n,  t h e Amazon has  1  life  become  a helpless manifests  r a c h e n werd'  hast uber  i n seinen mich,  weinen,  i c h ! I c h b i n schwach Frigga  t h e way  Armen  an d i e  wie s i e .  Brust  f o r h e r r e v e n g e , Hagen,  t o h i s s o v e r e i g n and h i s Queen.  This  the  third  B r u n h i l d up  act closes.  H e b b e l , Werke, I V , I b i d . 109.  96.  itself  i c h mich!  under  revenge works  one.  f o r revenge.  to get r i d of Siegfried,  for  1. 2.  v/eben,  a consequence,  Jahre dafur  sturzt  the opportunity  mask o f l o y a l t y  as  calls  red  i c h wollte  rnusste  die Spinnen  Nester  gelacht  viele  1st  J a , i c h mogte  W e i b , W e i b , w e n n Du  ( It  ich  a s p e c t o f h e r new  she  auch  1  "Und VerschmEhlt!  dreh'nl  schwer,  submission to Gunther,  loving  eine  wie  ihre  zu  Ross  habe,  seh'n,  und  rufen!  lauschen,  h e r , when f i r s t  Auch  jetzt  stellen,  die Vogel  complete  mehr  koraint  i c h das  geworfen  nicht  auf die Seite  lieber  es  den Bratenwender  Ihn  This to  Speer  d i e Waffen  eigner  Jetzt  With  den  Als  Mein  und  into  a mad  frenzy,  who the chance  on w h i c h  note  30 Brunhild. "Prigga,  m e i n L e h e n Oder auch das  seineJ  Prigga Das  seine,  Kind] Brunhild I c h ward n i c h t "bloss  I c h ward v e r s c h e n k t ,  verschm&hlt,  i c h ward wohl gar  verhandeltJ  Prigga Verhandelt,  KindJ Brunhild Ihm  War  i c h der  selbst  Pfenning  zura W e i b z u  , der  Ihm  schlecht,  eins verschafftej  Prigga Der  Pfenning,  Kind. Brunhild Das  Und  dafftr w i l l This  last  dramatically fact  the  sense o f fried,  the  apart  she  actions, but  I.  depths  has has  to Hebbel's Hebbel,  i n v e n t i o n and  is  of  is  excellent,  the  terrible  the  q u a r r e l scene s o u l and  experiences.  risen  so  according  although,  the  the  o l d gods.  causes  of  Siegto  unlike  above the m u l t i t u d e by  theory, however, 113.  figure,  there by  In  Brunhild,is, like  common l o t , a n d  been placed  Werke, IV,  1 1 1  old epic.  i s a tragic  not  Rachel  Hebbel's  of Brunhild's  she  Mord,  improvement upon the  from the she  Rachel  i s entirely  a marvelous  theory  Siegfried  ing  scene  degradation  set  Hebbel's  i c h Rachel  whole treatment  ft© s h o w s u s  i s t noch mehr,als  her  own Accord-  superiority  31 are  immaterial,  aster.  Had  i t i s the  B r u n h i l d b e e n an  seen l e s s tragedy so  high,  tricked able.  who  Du  eigen  this  spending her body with  s c h e l t e n , das  own  dis-  might  she,  who  have  stood  destiny,  was  unforgiv-  ordinary  feminine  her  answer w i t h  ihm  to Hebbel's her  refuses  time  This  I n the  p i c t u r e , but does not  the  fall  of heathenism.  and  Swemmel, o f B r u n h i l d ' s  any  M o r e o v e r , as  presence  of  view,  intercourse with  conception  of  sees,  Brunhild herself  she  the  Gunther,  living  of B r u n h i l d i s drops  before  appear p e r s o n a l l y , to  through  point  Hagen c l e a r l y  keeps her  report  drama-  Siegfried's destruct-  Nibelungenlied  The  Ol"  S i e g f r i e d ' s tomb, a  later  Hebbel  she  to heighten,  s o u l . As  to have  11  her.  i n Liebe."  cowering near soul.  to  ideas, with  own  i h r e n Grund  and  a paralyzed  r e a c t i o n to Krlemhild's  incomprehensible  Hebbel's.  Kriemhild.  Dich  1  a dead  the  Bruder,  machte?"- -  although  of  she  absolutely  from her  Mittel  Hass hat  realizes  serves  her  das  Brunhild destroys  of  that  m a n n e r was  j a meinen  According  out  but  liebst  which i s u t t e r l y  entirely  ordinary mortal,  "Du  expressing  "Dieser  foreshadows  such a wonderful  questions  which Brunhild gives  tically  ion,  had  that  view;  Kannst  to  ftave  itself  deception,  i n such a despicable  of  Zu  i n the  might  Kriemhild  point  fact  us  entirely to  the  emphasize  further  messengers,  Werbel  i n S i e g f r i e d ' s tomb  jealousy,  the  revengeful  Hebbel r e a l i z e d ,  mention of B r u n h i l d i n the second part I. H e b b e l , Werke, IV, I I I .  of  the  the  end,,  also  desires  l a c k of  any  Nibelungenlied  32  was to  a lapse be  of the is  the  part  of  the  mediaeval  to  r e q u i r e d no  His  extremity first  and  maiden of of  strange  of  first  the  portrayed  decision  quick  less subtle motivation  enable modern audiences  Kriemhild.  as  move i n t h a t  needed  Nibelungenlied.  temper. knight  She  Hebbel  does not  i n the  court  hide  whose  An  Wenn f r e m d e diese  dass w i r ' s  Gaste  Schaferhutte  Bei  Nacht und  gives  Kriemhild  Und  lange  Ja  auch an  Hebbel  nimmer,  Tag  shy  as  being  a n g e r when she  arrival  had  not  sees  a  been  Leid  Worms am i n der  verkriechen As  D i r und  erfahren,  Rhein  sich  kann,  i n the and  i n her  dass Liebe  zu b r i n g e n  Brauch  sind?  d i s t a s t e f o r men  stets,  kurze  pflegt,  Jeder der  will?"- 1  mediaeval  epic  marriage,  but  Hebbel the  new  sentiments. Lust ich  seh's  werde nimmer l i e b e n ,  nimmeri"  cleverly has  Kriemhild  sweet, modest,  shows h e r  her  lessen  of  n i c h t mehr  i s much more d e c i d e d  "Ich hBrte  0  a  zu  gleich,  h i t z i g ? " a s k s Ute.  Kriemhild  His  to  a c e r t a i n amount  warm i s t ' s  eingezogen  s t o l z e Burg  Der  "Warum s o  psychology  her.  unser'm Hof,  Wird  Hebbel's  the  character.  than the  "Seit  an 1. 2.  which  d i r e c t i o n was  a y o u n g woman o f rather  on  to understand  change i n her  character,  the  announced t o  fried  author  rectified. It  part  on  shows t h e  upon t h i s  instant effect  proud beauty.  oath regarding the H e b b e l , Werke, I V , I b i d , 21-22.  state of her 23.  As  she  heart,  the  s i g h t of  i s about she  to  breaks  Siegswear off  33 when she  sees him, hut on being  reaction  i s very  "Was  natural  called  t o task by Ute, her  and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c :  k u m m e r n m i c h d i e G-Este m e i n e s  Bruders,  Wenn i c h n u r w e i s s w i e i c h s i e m e i d e n It  i s through  that  such l i t t l e  But  with  love. TJte  characteristically  H e b b e l makes K r i e m h i l d more  proud, haughty princess, equal  skill  kann.  quick  Hebbel  vivid,  1 , 1  human d e t a i l s  showing h e r as a  t o anger and scorning  shows t h e s o f t e n i n g  She becomes c a l m e r , more g e n t l e ,  love.  influence  a little  sad.  c o u n c i l s h e r not t o r e j e c t S i e g f r i e d ' s wooing,  of  When  she an-  swers: "Er While and  wlrbt  wohl n i c h t , so b r a u c h i c h ' s n i c h t  S i e g f r i e d i s away a t I s e n l a n d  shy, and i s very  threatens  worried  to disclose  some  tun."- 1  she becomes q u i t e  when G i s e l h e r ,  secret  zu  gentle  teasing her,  to Siegfried.  !j  Hebbel's e x c e l l e n t c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Kriemhild i n her  quarrel  feminine but  with Brunhild,  nature.  she cannot  betrayal,  old e p i c  of  Brunhild's  knight  fails  t r y i n g t o be  subjugation,  i n the world that  of  into  friendly,  Brunhild's  t o a c t p a t r o n i z i n g l y towards her.  t o e x p l a i n how  Kriemhild  but Hebbel  to tell  Brunhild believes  can claim  of h i s i n s i g h t  g e t away f r o m t h e knowledge  Siegfried i s forced  girdle.  who  shows K r i e m h i l d ,  and i s i n c l i n e d  The  how  He  i s an example  knows t h e  explains  the secret  very  distinction.  haughty natures they are brought I. Hebbel, Werke,IV, 25.  vividly  of t h e r a v i s h e d  h e r husband t o be t h e  but Kriemhild  secret  greatest  knows i t i s S i e g f r i e d a l o n e By r e a s o n o f t h e i r to a quarrel.  own  proud  Kriemhild  34  remains sees  slightly  f i t to  pitying  scorn  her  and  boasting '  " Du  then loses  treatment  from the  n  Das  Then, having shows t h e ed  gone  girdle,  queen.  Brunhild's  sake, but  she  to  she  o n l y makes the felt  does not  placate  the  for  such  a thing  Siegfried her  to  However, quite  could  she  "ich  and'to  rues her  realize  the  weiss,wie  Mir's  nie  Dass  ich's  Although  she  was  her  she  the  sorry  for justified.  Kriemhild,  never  possessed,  foreboding The  anyone, makes  of  knowledge anyway,  the  because  i t impossible point  even although  of  she  vergeben, erlitten Kriemhild  j a , i c h mogte als  und  view.  does  not  werde  eher,  gethan."'^  i s c l e v e r e r than her  s t i l l s h e i s no m a t c h f o r t h e 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 1 0 6 . 2. I b i d . 106. 3. I b i d . 124.  for  ,;  sie gekrankt,  hatte,  \  that  consequences. schwer I c h  j  such a r e v e l a t i o n  to her  comprehend B r u n h i l d ' s  deceiv-  sympathy  formerly  no  r e s u l t from i t .  hastiness,  secret-  and  perfectly  deeper.  has  fury  proffered  e x a c t l y what  conquered  such  fatal  t r u t h to  i n her  never have happened  have  at  the  immediately  shame t h e  therefore  which w i l l  could  imagine  and  fury  contain awful  course,  a moment r e a l i z e  calamity  the  B r u n h i l d but  1  verachten*"^  feels that  other's  Dich!"  i n her  s u p e r i o r i t y which Brunhild  w o u l d mean t o h e r , awful  and  cannot  reveals  i s , of  tries  i c h verachte  Brunhild, reveals  f a r , she  which  Brunhild  Siegfried's abilities.  Gatten mich  Kriemhild  She  having  und  arrogant  so  about  a l l restraint  Kebsweib meines  superior u n t i l  Brunhild  prahlst, Kriemhild,  Kriemhild  calmly  naive  scheming c l e v e r mind of  husband fiagen  35 and of  q u i t e s i m p l y she b e l i e v e s Siegfried's  I n him and c o n f e s s e s the  invulnerable point,  NIbelungenlied.  Hebbel  j u s t as she does li  secret the  shows t h a t h e r l o v e f o r S i e g f r i e d  and  h e r w o r r y a b o u t h i s s a f e t y make h e r b l i n d t o t h e f a r w o r s e d a n g e r s b y w h i c h he  i s surrounded.  So S i e g f r i e d ' s d e a t h I s u l t i m a t e l y t h a t K r i e m h i l d h a s no  comprehension  and a l t h o u g h Hebbel has K r i e m h i l d at  once a n d r e g r e t  i t bitterly,  recognize her  In  K r l e m h i l d ' s c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h , as h a s  is  n o t so e x t r e m e  T h a t , a n d t h e know-  H e b b e l u s e s t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e change a l r e a d y been  stated,  a c h a n g e as i n t h e N I b e l u n g e n l i e d .  t h i n g a f t e r another increases her rage.  b a r o u s , r e v e n g e f u l way  i n w h i c h Hagen has  h e r d o o r , and w h i c h c a l l s  proud  only  o b t a i n e d from, h e r t h e means  murdering h e r husband,  at  indiscretion  she c a n see I n h i s d e a t h  of  One  fact  of the nature of B r u n h i l d ,  a t r e a c h e r o u s m u r d e r w i t h o u t any r e a s o n . l e d g e t h a t b y c u n n i n g Hagen h a d  c a u s e d by t h e  The  bar-  t h e dead body  laid  f o r t h an a n g u i s h e d c r y f r o m her-  heart: "Du h o r t e s t j a ,  Die  Kamra'rer  Sonst wiclien a l l e could not f a i l this, to  Kon'ge a u s , " ^ ,  t o arouse her t h i r s t  Hagen's t h e f t o f S i e g f r i e d ' s  grant Kriemhild retribution,  h e a r t e d Queen a l m o s t mad "Halt einJ  Die Kamm'rerl  s t o l p e r n uber i h n .  f o r vengeance.  Added t o  s w o r d and G u n t h e r ' s  refusal  combine t o d r i v e the b r o k e n -  w i t h rage and  grief.  Du w i r s t D e i n g a n z e s Haus v e r d e r b e n "  Ute i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g h e r t o h e r s e n s e s . 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 159. 2. I b i d . 172.  P  "Es mag  cries  gescheh'nl ing  an  hild  The  third  opening  has  has,  she  is s t i l l  her  by  her  advised  Her  not  then explains the  "Er  the  from  upbraids  the  made h e r  tells she  1. 2. 3. 4.  asks  and  an  outward  abated  to  show h e r  and  "Er  idea begins  to have  she  says  w e i s s was  great  formulate  f o r her  against  i s t mir  decision.  t o no  Hebbel's scene H e b b e l , Werke, IV, Ibid, 196. Ibid, 202. Ibid, 204.  avail,  willkommen," Her  hand has  "Herr E t z e l wird the  On  knight  by  mir an  is infinitely 172.  3  years, suit on  refused  to  interest in  this  Gere-  would she  2  b r a i n that  revenge  calls  then  on  being  no  Hagen.  once more  for  refused,  announces:"Der we  know t h a t  a p r i c e , however, keinen oath  had  about Hagen.  i n her  to  his  Hagen  Kriemhild  and  and  emphasize  verdient,"  she  Hagen.  towards  to  any  rightful  f u r t h e r , however,  King  binds  er  Kriem-  reconciliation  that  Gunther had  begins  a  attempt  when G i s e l h e r ,  that  to  t o us  of Jitzel's an  giv-  doing.  i n a l l the  happiness, mentions  Kriemhild  Gunther, but  Rudeger.  to  presentation  i t i s only  match,  too  of  introduces  what Hagen f e a r s , - t h a t  g o e s any  Markgraf Rudeger has  The  answers,  more r e v e n g e f u l  furchtet sich,"  w o u l d be  she  not  she  1  capable  part and  serves  Burgundians.  and  sacrifice  she  and  that  proposal.  justice  only  the  the  Before  has  concern for her  against  replies  grief  brother  be  consented  i n mourning.  to him,  attack  the  however  t o mock h e r ,  Gunther's  of  may  grown more b i t t e r  Gunther.  listen  uberzahlti"  she  H a g e n , who  part  ist's  i n t i m a t i o n of what  who  with  Denn h i e r  Dienst  to  as  she  versagen?"^  f o r E t z e l and  superior  she  that  of  himself. the  37  Nibelungenlied, with be  i t i s much more  Kriemhild's  persuaded to consider  his  own a c c o r d  tates  because  her  of h i s paganism, u n t i l How  o f h e r hand t o Rudeger.  Kriemhild  everything Hagen.  o f vengeance  see these  beginning  Kriemhild's  race,  reason  she p r o c e e d s  manage h i m v e r y t o grant  act, deal  ungenlied  much  i s very  t o arrange  f o r revenge.  h e r every  of the  makes  Kriemhild  i s at  as she i s a t t h e end, and  little  h e r revenge  upon  on h i s r o y a l  civilization  left i n  p e r f e c t l y formed plans  i n  f o r the destruction of her Having borne  important  she a p p e a r s b e f o r e  Etzel  interpolation Rache"  a s o n she he h a s  character.  him  K r i e m h i l d makes h e r o l d p l e a .  i n the  , w h i c h does  a r e keep-  i n t e r c o u r s e , Gunther appears,  Klage u b e r Hagen  Tronje  a  As i n the N i b e l -  Hagen as he and V o l k e r  watch.  rufe  to  wish.  to explain Kriemhild's  their  appeal  f o r i n return forh i s heir,  ing  "ich  Hebbel's  Scene I I I , o f " K r i e m h i l d ' s  During  mind, her  statement  - t o take  now a n d w i t h  H e b b e l makes a v e r y fourth  scene!  of Kriemhild's  she makes G u n t h e r p r o m i s e  easily,  he h a s  The o l d R u d e g e r h a d t o s u g g e s t  herself.  part  There  character  i fnecessary,  promised  she h e s i -  i s Hebbel's  her calm  she does has a p u r p o s e ,  For that  head,  Rudeger o f f e r s o f  t o K r i e m h i l d , but Hebbel  clearly  of the last  word t o v i s i t h e r .  great  fails,  cannot  Rudeger d e c l a r e s  much more p o w e r f u l  and when t h a t  possibilities  can  until  Kriemhild  aroused by Hagen's o b j e c t i o n s , h e r f i n a l  brother,  price  her  the proposal  shows u s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l w o r k i n g s  suspicions  the  In the o l d epic  i n keeping  t o r e q u i t e h e r wrongs and even t h e n  been converted. He  character.  s u b t l e , much more  and t o  38 Und  ford're  When t h i s not,and ever, her  request  asks  they  l e t z t e n Mai  i s refused,  them t o  remain loyal  brothers  that  zum  give  to  c l e a r themselves  their  fault  Siegfried's the  and  secret  she  had  Hagen w i t h  the  spur  She,  too,  should  Kriemhild "Und  diese  d i e s e r Erde  is  an  how  i n her  sent  her  and  still out  share  anger  and  demands rests  that  i n the  i t is  for  she  thus  husband  and  we  Was  konnte D l r  betrayed  provided  to his  death.  crime.  And  frage  Dich!  z w i s c h e n Tod  und  kein's  Leben  f u r c h t e r l i c h s t e n Nacht, das  ich nicht lieben  Kriemhild's  Hebbel  realize  clearly  These p o i n t s  now  c l e a r up  there  here  there  i n j u r e d wife  i t i s the  Hebbel,  i s no  how  us  2  to  sacred  see her  improve her  who  she  takes  her  shows t h a t regards  deep  into  vengeance  character.  such e x p l a n a t i o n  however,  revenge i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary; 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 278. 2. I b i d , 2 8 1 - 8 2 .  kann!"  allows  and  Nibelungenlied,  course.  wie  noch g e f e i e r t ward,  I n the  of  gescheh'n,  reichte?  e i n Vermahlungsfest,  ein Kind,  to her.  a matter  which  Siegfried,  f o r her  an und  i n der  speech of  heart,  -  honour,  howupbraids  g r e a t l y to blame  an m e i n e Q u a l e n  Schauderkusse,  Gewechselt  her  Krone  Auf  In this  her  t h a t had  halb  mahnt an  Und  stigma  Gere-  They,  f u r i o u s now,  their  a l s o was  wrung f r o m  Sie  An  she  ich nicht?  auch nur  Sieh  the  and  answers:  buss  Das  of  GIselher  hands.  Kriemhild,  of  tells  atone  to  Whereupon Hagen p o i n t s  alone,-  death  turns  Hagen i n t o her  disregard  from S i e g f r i e d ' s death. not  1  she  Hagen.  for their  Gericht."- -  as  Is  revenge to  I t as  found as  Kriemhild the  hlgh-  39 est  duty  traitors Nothing  In life; hack else  of marrying long  without  In like could  epic  Krlemhild's  time  itself  treacherous before  more a m a t t e r  I s an exponent these  she  does n o t f o r g i v e  t o h e r own c o d e  to depict  he f o l l o w s  by a few s u b t l e By s i g n i f i c a n t  of social  etiquette.  only  S i e g f r i e d uppermost,  i c h g e l i t t e n habe, w i l l  Ich  schenke  Und  musst'  Nlchts,  I t i s a l s o made  clear  although  of hatred,  this  note  kommen  she r e m a i n s  jetzt,  i c h schwelgen, sind  Br&der nieder  bezahlt. hauen,  So  thun,  damit  d i e welt  erfahre,  a  revengefulness  of eternal  z u D e i n e m Haupfc z u b a h n e n ,  ich's  outwardly  to the o l d order.  Urn m i r d e n Weg wurd'  he  as a reward f o r h e r avengers.  d i e Kosten  i c hhundert  more  visit  Burgundians:  Wie  the o l d  Nibelungenlied.  she d e l i v e r s h e r u l t i m a t u m  "Doch meine H o c h z e i t s f r e u d e n  s u c h as  and t h e  as a C h r i s t i a n , a t l e a s t With  results  her motives  differences  i s much s h o r t e r  mark h e r as b e l o n g i n g  of loyalty.  one  touches making  t h a n s h e seems i n t h e  primitive qualities  relentlessness  self-sacrifice  E t z e l has been  tries  the  or peace.  To t h e C h r i s t i a n , a m i n d  of the o l d religion,  and  rest  by thoughts of the ultimate  the v i s i t  she wants t h e t r e a s u r e  with  In general,  attitude.  elapsing  Christian;  to  light.  closely,- only  makes h e r l e s s  She  only  she has p a i d  t h e supreme  Her l i f e  sacrifice.  possible  fairly  clear  that  justified  I s incomprehensible, but Hebbel  the best  The  have  that  she cannot have  a second time.  from h e r voluntary  in  kind,  torture, lightened  hers  the knowledge  I f true  loyalty  to the  40  Dass  I c h d i e Tre'Ue  Hebbel which  she  she  sacred ties to  lose  deed  then depicts  demands t h a t  Once more  n u r um  he  must be  i s thwarted, f o r Etzel  In  the monologue f o l l o w i n g  Anstatt Im  From how to  Doch, das  Strafe.  Fur d i e off'ne  Dich nicht  to Kriemhild's  strike  was  Der  - Ja wohl,  on t h e p a r t fury;  are refused,  hatt  jealous  a marked of even  uses  of her  i c h langst  Drache  sitzt  regen  wlllst,  so  mich,  soil  er's  death, Hebbel  thun."  2  i s careful  to  show  serves  e v e r y t i m e h e r demands f o r  she becomes more  characteristic. the blows  S i e g f r i e d , and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 2 8 2 . 2. I b i d , 2 9 7 .  son.  s c o r n upon  o f h e r b r o t h e r s or Hagen how  this  Lohn,  t h r o u g h h e r b r o t h e r s t o Hagen.  shows as  Hebbel  some  i n battle:  Den  b i s e r D i c h gestochen h a t , wie  action  decides that  Heldenkampf?  w e n n Du  er's thunJ  begins  Schlachterei  Loch, und  soil  the  She  heaps  in  wrongs.  to break  sacrifice she  ware  Mordl  each add  scene  der K r i e g l  t h e moment o f S i e g f r i e d ' s  Hebbel she  konnen!  der  this  M o r d um  retribution to  mir  and  Kriemhild's  Etzel,  Als So  soil  with Etzel,  f o r her  h i s wrath.  the Burgundians  d u n k l e n Wald der  Nein, Im  justify  to fight  Was  Entzunden  to  scene  for Kriemhild.  to arouse  a motivation  "KriegJ  even  1  refuses  i n h e r power o v e r E t z e l , committed  offer  in a  make r e t r i b u t i o n  as  Etzel's  brach."  Kriemhild  of h o s p i t a l i t y ,  faith  Treue  Brunhild  that  and more  determined  Jealousy, too, She had  Gunther's  confesses  that  received  from  queen had  shut  41  h e r s e l f up  near  anger.  has  As  character it.  Her  been s a i d ,  of Kriemhild, bloodthirsty  clearly, the  Siegfried's  perhaps,  end  of the  lust  Und  wenn i c h B l u t  own  i c h b i n , das  Strafe  und  vergiesse,  einen Berg  den  und  von  man  Und  b i n i c h f u r des  Sie  waren's,  Helden  In  deh  innocence  alry.  Leichen  thurme,  and  which He  thus  understand most towards  kann,  Sie lehrten  Mitleid's  a l s sogar der  Stimme  taub?  zerschmolz.  i h r Wiederschein,  er befleckt  mit  i h n s e l b s t und  jagt  for his theories  s p u c k t den seiner  sets  him  above  i h n aus  of tragic  h i m s e l f beyond the  so d o i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Hebbel's I . H e b b e l , «.erke, I V , 5 1 6 - 7 .  die  Hebbel  the l e v e l  Spiegel  Larve,  n a i v e t e S i e g f r i e d makes u s e raise  mich,  lockt.  Stein  Teufel h a s s t , der  den  nicht.  Bin ich  the c h a r a c t e r of S i e g f r i e d ,  representative  unities  Erde  i n die Palle  Ich b i n i n A l l e m nur  schlfigt  the  i c h durch d i e ,  b i s die  Mond b e g r a b e n  falsch?  Wie  Er  to  her  mogtet,  i c h I h r e S c h u l d , d i e meine  an,  of  t o change  explains  wurde  gern entziehen  s i e a u f dem  Verratherisch  Nicht  t o h e l p us  flame  words t o D i e t r i c h  -  wer  tried  f o r v e n g e a n c e he  -  Und  not  to the  tragedy:  Ihr der  So h a u f  has  rather  through her  Die  B i s man  Hebbel  but  "Was  Ertrinkt,  tomb a d d s f u e l  Welt."  found  guilt.  a  perfect  In his  of unsought  opport-  of the k n i g h t s of pale of t h e i r  t h e o r i e s , he  chiv-  l a w s , and  transgresses the  in  42 laws o f u n i v e r s a l i t y , By  his  voluntary  human c o n t a c t vious be  end  cunning  actions  he  such a l i f e .  and  places  In  dishonourable deceit  Hebbel and  i s therefore  doomed t o d e s t r u c t i o n .  himself  with h i s fellowmen.  of  d e a t h by  and  A  tragic  shows v e r y  can  of  be  natural  death  S i e g f r i e d ' s case  means, b e c a u s e  t h a t he  out  i s the  i t has  i t i s only  ob-  also  to  through  killed.  carefully,  through the  Dankwart, what p o s i t i o n S i e g f r i e d  holds  eyes  i n the  of  Hagen  eyes  of  his  fellowmen. "Nun,  was  Herr  Siegfried  ich nicht  die  Klinge:  Das  war  gegen Erz  und  Stein.  j a auch, oder  wie  zweifelt,  derm n o c h f e c h t e n ,  last  two  of  because here  fried's admit  t h a t he  Hebbel  i s great  because  supernatural  H a g e n , who sheer  has  courage  wer  and  his  hard who  a l l the  t h i n g by f i g h t i n g w i t h I . H e b b e l , Werke, IV,  gefallt: gebadet,  nicht fallen  quotation  has  are  kann?""*"  particularly  noble,  but  i s always  they  the  can  never  feeling  r e p u t a t i o n as  i s .  A  a great  used unnatural  means t o  H gen's b r o t h e r , a  Burgundians,  Siegfried 14.  and  that  accuses him  Sieg-  They  can  really  t h a t he knight  had  through  with  obtain  scorn his  frankly  would g a i n of being  to  like  warrior  quite  they  interest-  much  affected his reputation.  w o r k , ¥/ill n a t u r a l l y r e g a r d  supremacy. Dankwart,  opinion of  Euch  auch.  s h o w s , t h r o u g h H a g e n , how  there  gained and  es  means t o become w h a t he  p o s i t i o n of him  proud  this  invulnerability  esteem him,  the  lines  wie  i n Schlangenblut  Darf  ing,  the  ich  gegen i h n erheb'  Ich hatt mich nicht  use  d a s s wag'  Nur  Glaubt's  The  wagt,  voices no-  so  brave  43 only  because  "Du  o f his i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  b i s t gewiss  Seit  Kampfen so v e r s e s s e n ,  Du d e s L i n d w u r m s  Nicht Er  auf  Jedernamm b e t r o g  findet  eine  off'ne  Added t o these powers, ingly a r r o g a n t . ary  humility,  child-like  Thur b e i  uns."  1  o f them, S i e g f r i e d i s t r y -  Christian  these g i f t s  should  and audacity  and t r i e s  of a youthful  weak, t a k e s  instead  t o placate  i sinsulted by Siegfried's  pride,  and i nPart  I I I he e x p l a i n s  liebte Siegfried nicht, hEtt' m i c h  auch wohl n i c h t  him.  Hagen,  overweening  his r e a c t i o n s  das 1st  demi-  no e x c e p t i o n t o  other hand,  Er  ordin-  do, S i e g f r i e d is  the  "ich  with  a n d p a r a d e s h i s p r o w e s s before t h e  G u n t h e r , who i s e x c e e d i n g l y manners,  trEgst?  w i e Du,  of a c c e p t i n g  a l l the arrogance  Siegfried's on  as a true joy  d e n Tod,  andbecause  Instead  in his  world, with god.  Schuppen-Panzer  t o Kriemhild:  gewiss,  g e l i e b t , wenn  ich  E r s c h i e n e n wEre i n d e n N i e d e r l a n d e n , fie  e r i n Worms b e i  Die  alle  Und  einem B l i c k , d e r  uns're  Ehren  Hebbel has t r i e d Siegfried's fight has  just  ingenuous from  a theory  prove h i s  sheer  - a very  right  to  uns,  m i teiner  spielend  sprach: t o give  a subtler I n the  nicht!"  2  presentation epic  sort  o f philosophy  and possess.  spontaneous and u n r e f l e c t i n g 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 1 9 . 2. I b i d , 2 8 1 .  t o act  of  he wants t o  o f f i g h t i n g , b u t Hebbel's  nafve  rule  pfluckte,  I c h mag s i e  arrogance. love  Hand,  - that  Siegfried he must  B u t he i s r e a l l y ' too  consistently  from  such  44  principles, combats. tragic  and i s soon  I n o r d e r t o emphasize  guilt  lies  ly  which would  of the world.  clear,  pledge  of love,  floor  i n h i s own r o o m .  it  he i s s u r p r i s e d ,  anxious for  over  the starting  which  Siegfried  However, under second the  the ordinarily  that  it.  finds When  rather  a  takes from B r u n h i l d  would  His  arouses h e r c u r i o s i t y , a r e no match.  resulting  entirely  i n the heat  awaiting  Gurtel",  o f t h e moment. of Brunhild the  revolting  duty, and  him, i ti s quite  pay no a t t e n t i o n  from  discussion  the "zerknulltes  the circumstances, h i s conquest  night  i ta  i t came.  h a s b e e n , h o w e v e r , much  of the story,  of h i sbridal  thinks  she t h a n k s h i m f o r  simplicity  very natural,  There  it,  remembers whence  and n a t u r a l  point  Siegfried  Gunther's  accepted  a girdle,  time being i n the nature of a rather  thought  ible  and wears  t h e scene  two c h a r a c t e r s .  i nt h e  of Brunhild,  he t o o k f r o m  to her to hide i tnaturally  h a s made  has  S i e g f r i e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y drops upon the  and f i n a l l y  which h i s naivete  Hebbel the  plea  which  Here K r i e m h i l d  Siegfried  Hebbel  confessed to Kriemhild. entire-  the ring,  which  sole  a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t made  and i n i t s p l a c e he u s e s  of victory,  from  Siegfried's  i n the subduing  the ring  discards  token  present  h i spart  tft h i s w i f e  Hebbel  that  friendly  o t h e r w i s e make h i m g u i l t y  Siegfried  o f h i s own v o l i t i o n ,  Queen.  the fact  I n the o l d epic,  one assumes t h a t  and he g i v e s  the ordinary  i n h i s outstanding individuality,  changed I n c i d e n t s eyes  content with  poss-  to i ti n h i s  distraction. Hebbel guilt  also  removes from  i n connection with  Siegfried  the second  a great deal  conquest.  of the  I n the Nibelungen-  45 lied  i t i s S i e g f r i e d who  Gunther's  objections  makes Hagen t h e  suggests  and  the  makes the  o r i g i n a t o r of  the  ruse  plans. idea  Siegfried's scruples.  He  into  plot  loyalty  who  had  web  of  duplicity;  character  a is  i n the  i n the  with  these  tragic  guilt,  universal  very  sole  true  were  b i r d s had  ennobles  serve  to  a  in  a  no  most p o s i t i v e  originally  love  them  incur guilt  i t  very  meant  for  together,  i n him.  bent  There  is  here, but  i t  of h i s  own  nature.  S i e g f r i e d from  fact that  s u p e r m a n t h a t he  dis-  Siegfried's  H e b b e l makes  absolve  s t r e s s the  the  sung of  to  Siegfried  i r r e v o c a b l e , however  But  does  has  forces Siegfried  Gunther.  show H a g e n as  he  who  seemed c a u g h t  change  arouses  that  and  Bern.  importance  T h o u g h he  nonetheless  i t i s only  comes  into  of  i n the  character  Christianity,  the  and  ordbecause  conflict  i n order  the  role.  religion  of  last  In  Hebbel's  Christian spirit,  to  Hebbel  s h o w him  Jesus  the has  as  pagan Huns and  W i b e l u n g s , b e c a u s e he  real  "Nibelungen"  i n the  Kriemhild.  c l a s h between the  C h r i s t i a n s , the  only  Important  of  Hagen, B r u n h i l d  i n Hebbel's  appears  a very  representative  deepened h i s  survivor  and-half  to  she  f i g u r e of  i s the  opposite  greatly  was  this  to  step,  however,  law.  next  plays  scheme he  one  Brunhild  changes  made o f h i m s e l f  he  first  Burgundian court.  perhaps,  D i e t r i c h von  part,  serves  of  overrules  i t i s he  practically  i n s i s t e n c e upon f o l l o w i n g the  The is  while  Even a f t e r the  suggestion,  has  second  sees B r u n h i l d ,  All  he  the  the  S i e g f r i e d and  other.  inary  taken  i t also  that  when he  grounds  to himself,  character,  each  the  heedlessly  tasteful  clear  on  who  Hebbel,  and  overcome the  and  the the  a l o n e has Christ.  In  halfthe the  46  Nibelungenlied  Dietrich's part  who  c o n q u e r e v e n Hagen.  i s able  to  part  i n the  struggle.  ment  of  new  ears  i n the  ter he  the  is his  and  act  and  in  the  of  going  o l d epic, too, t o meet tries  not  have  any  the  Huns and  w i t h h i s men  characteristic  evil  of  act  plans  Kriemhild.  of  take  the  he  passions  no  Burgundians,  plans  also  the  against  ja, Kriemhild, hBher an,  Und  wenn s i e nur  Wie  sollten  King  wie  feels her  Etzel,  too  He  last  Gun-  warns  them  step  part  e v e n he  can-  Kriemhild,  r e t u r n home  regards attempt  the as to  a frus-  the  cleverness  and  he  also tries  to  g r a t e f u l to  meine  Briider  noch MBrder  one,-  Kriemhild  plans.  i c h schlage Deine  His  against  revenge-crazed mind.  h i s h e i r t o go  Nicht  fail,  charac-  influence against  which Hebbel  app-  to warn  of  begs Gunther to  has  first  significant  A l l through the  barbarous  embodi-  of h i s  i n f l u e n c e f o r good, but  He  the  i n order  so.  Nibelungs.  i n vain,  i n him  hero, little  is a Christian  Kriemhild's her  plays  keynote  heathen natures.  of  a great  Bechlarn  does not  upon the  the  of  time D i e t r i c h  their  but  "Ja,  his  saw  I I I , the first  that  religion  of  passion  for  the  i n peace, but  haughty pride  help,  Part  t h e m t o do  effect  from the  His  but  to use  the  so  c a s t l e t©  Hagen a g a i n s t  Dietrich  trate  of  Christianity.  comes f r o m j s t z e l ' s  ther  His  Hebbel, however,  idea,  second  i s merely  Schwaher  Du,  sind fur  Dich,  Bess'res  seinl"  I Hebbel ence to I.  s i e f u r m i c h was never  In d i c t a t o r i a l  see t h e Hebbel,  allows manner.  Dietrich He  other p o i n t of view. Werke, IV, 286.  t o make u s e  i s humble, He  of h i s  frank,  influ-  always  warns Gunther but  able  tells  him  47 frankly  that  "Seid Und  that  a u f d e r Hut, I h rs t o l z e n wahnt n i c h t , d a s s  Jetzt  she  Nibelungen,  e i n 3"eder, d e r d i e Z u n g e  f u r Euch braucht,  When h e p o i n t s ation  i s a l l he c a n do.  d e n Arm auch b r a u c h e n  out t o E t z e l t h e reasons  to her brother,  and the King  answers w i t h  perfect "So  Doch 1 s t n i c h t A few l i n e s  later  jeder  o f t h e Huns a n s w e r s  Es  dazu."  the h a u g h t y ,  actions  of  they d i d not k n o w  a t home. s i e hatten  e n d l i c h iBsen, d e n n wen g a r N i c h t s d a s n u r urn s o s e h r ,  Ihr  Sinn  zu stolz,  Und  Rath  zu achten.  um d i e G e f a h r Du b i s t  nichtI  bindet,  auch war zu meiden  a u c h gewBhnt,  Dem T o d z u t r o t z e n , doch D u b r a u c h s t  So  defiant  i h rWort gegeben, u n d sie mussten  Den b i n d e t  Die  as  es s e i n ,  1  s t a r k genug  "Herr, Kriemhild  that  t o f o r g i v e h e r enemies,  G u n t h e r a n d h i s m e n , when E t z e l a s k s why enough t o s t a y  invit-  understanding.  sollt  he defends  1  f o rKrlemhild's  i s a C h r i s t i a n , i s i t not h e r creed  Dietrich  darf."  noch  Grand,  -  1 s td e r Teufel,  d e r das B l u t  regiert,  A u c h noch i n I h n e n m a c h t i g , u n d s i e f o l g e n Ihm  f r e u d i g , wenn e s e i n m a l  A l t h o u g h h e does n o t a p p r o v e  kocht und darapft."^  of their  tactics,  stands and sympathizes. When H i l d e b r a n d 1. H e b b e l , flerke, IV,236. 2. I b i d , 2 8 4 . 3. I b i d , 2 8 5 - 6 .  still  he  under-  b e g s him t o e n t e r  the  48 fray  a n d p r e v e n t more b l o o d s h e d , he  "Wenn i c h a u c h Hier Als  hat sich  Und  sich  So  stopft  to  sagen  vom l e t z t e n  von selbst  Brocken  through D i e t r i c h The V o g t  11  von Bern  knows t h a t  T h e o t h e r k i n g s who a r e f o r c e d  I h r s i e kennen i sa feeling  experience, serving  Dietrich  Is going  t o serve E t z e l ,  can-  s h o u l d humble h i m s e l f t o  will.  note Hebbel  actions  even  Chaplain of the Nibelungs. 1. H e b b e l , W e r k e , I V , 3 1 5 . 2. I b i d , 2 2 1 .  i s accentuated by h i s i n Part  I I I ,A c tIV,  are incomprehensible, to  i nDietrich's  character  i s a l -  i s outstanding i f only  i t i s so c o n t r a r y  Nibelungs.  characteristic,  himself  o f a n o b l e man.  von Bern  because  and haughty  motives  stresses  The V o g t  attitude,  proud this  of the Pilgrim's  a severe  C h r i s t i a n he i s t e s t i n g  This feeling  To H a g e n s u c h  ways h u m i l i t y .  D i e t r i c h has undergone  as a true  they are the signs  The  this  that  another King.  Scene X X I .  of  something  will  lernt.  here  and that  understanding  the  Schlund."*  I c h habe Grunde, u n d d e r Tag i s t nah',  There  of  wendet,  t h e d a y when C h r i s t i a n i t y  a n o t h e r K i n g o f h i s own f r e e  Wo  by  erbricht  schaudernd  n o t u n d e r s t a n d why t h e g r e a t D i e t r i c h serve  verbissen,  im Recht.  i h r K e i n e r mehr d e n g r a u s e n  supreme.  wohl?  konnte:  S i e stehen g l e i c h  d i e Rache n i c h t  portrays  happen.  ich's  Schuld i n Schuld zu fest  Du z u r u c k l  Wenn s i c h  reign  w i e vermBgt'  d a s s man z u E i n e m  Tritt  Hebbel  wollte,  answers:  because  to the attitudes of  His Christianity  i s the source  as i ti s f o rt h e h u m i l i t y He, t o o , h a s l e a r n e d  ofthe  the true  spirit  49 of  the  religion  f r e e men he  of  i n the  world,  progressed  into way  the to  beyond the  Kingdom of  the  accepts  Namen d e s s e n ,  end  am  Hebbel had al  motivation  necessarily He  has,  I n the  Nibelungenlied Here he the  motivates  the  barbarian  to  battle the  i n the  with  been  character  assures  them when t h e y  tempering  Etzel,  the  i s as  as  of  the  King  very  markedly.  o f making Hagen an be  accomplished without  the  He,  epic. cowardly  too,  from  an  that He  Is  of has  to murder will  the  has  outright  promised a guest  pursue  to  in  them  and  safety of h i s c a s t l e  Hebbel  shows as  only  drawn i r r e v o c a b l y  the  character  reason for this  outstanding  old  which  slightly  weakened the The  the  Into  Kriemhild.  strengthened  Huns, he  "im  have  Christianity  have l e f t  himself  King  gives  psychologic-  others  deepened.  t h a t he  b e c a u s e w h e n he  While Hebbel  t h a n was  refuses her  i n f l u e n c e on  barbarous  Etzel  Dietrich  and  the  monarch.  superficial, f r a y , he  of  will  s p i n e l e s s , almost  slightly  d e s i r e s but he  latter  exhausted E t z e l ,  that  to Etzel  somewhat c i v i l i z e d  although  and  but  complete c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  i s a weak,  in his  f o r the  humility  deepening  main characters  he  Bern,  individual  from the  three  himself,  Siegfried  greatest  s o f t e n i n g i n f l u e n c e of  Krlemhild's  house,  But  a task  has  change a  where  and  the  erblich."  however, been kinder  come u n d e r  his  Kreuz  these  Dietrich, Vogt von  s u f f e r e d from l a c k of  character.  f u l f i l l  of  the  kingdom  such  speaks of  development of  With  the  der  the  Christianity,  universal.  i n the  Etzel  Siegfried,  errs i n h i s estimation of  has  do  Jesus C h r i s t .  character  of  suffering in  the  Burgundian  l a y i n the  p e r s o n a l i t y , and  others  the  of  that  necessity could  comparison.  not  50  So  Gunther  ness  and  i s w e a k and' s p i n e l e s s ,  quite  w i t h o u t any  Gerenot, a trifle  more  favorite, scene  distinct,  of Giselher's  natural.  We  Gudrun by  the  still  counterfoil warrior. that  does not  to the f i e r c e  puts This  stress  knight, This  served  to  benefited while  while  Hebbel  with  the  any  special  Hagen, a m i n s t r e l  show how  the  from Hebbel's  comprehensible  Nibelungen Hebbel  is a  very  the  convent-  closely.  i n Hebbel's  sense  noble  poetic'trance  of Rudeger,  o f the Nibelungs has  in a  a  which  Gerenot,  The  as  the  old story  work upon i t .  ever remain  of  den  excellent  as w e l l  the o l d epic  characters  story  but  young  Biassen mit  o f a c u r s e on  of the  followed  been  changes  the m u s i c i a n , i s an  mention  The  i m p r e s s i o n made u p o n  i n the p o r t r a y a l  of the  Kriemhild's  w h i c h make t h e e p i s o d e more  F r a u TJte, l i k e  has  as  Gisoilier  daughter has  o f H a g e n - "Den  feature  analysis  they w i l l  into  sole  at a l l .  they belong to a  deep  the  i s one  shadowy f i g u r e ; ional  shows h i m  Rudeger's  touches  Volker,  character.  a shadow,  I t i s i n t o h i s mouth, when i n a s o r t  Hebbel  treasure.  not  figure  h o h l e n Todten-Augen."^  judging  farsighted-  some h u m a n f e e l i n g s .  with  f o r example,  sinister  Hebbel  has  Hebbel,  of l i t t l e  see,  of  brother, Is merely  betrothal  t r e a t e d by  the a d d i t i o n  qualities  because  f o r whom s h e  charmingly with  Gunther's  i n c a p a b l e o f any  trilogy  has  materially  people portrayed,  remote  from us,  because  shadowy p e r i o d , h a v e become much more r e a l  t o the modern r e a d e r .  Hebbel  the hearts of h i s characters and  inevitable  result  had  probed  t o show t h e i r  as  the n a t u r a l  of t h e i r  I.  When H e b b e l f i r s t c a m e t o t h e N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , H e b b e l , Werke, IV, 224.  and  down  actions  natures. he  found  51  that  practically  from  it,  the  result  were c u r i o u s former  to  avoid  get  this  o l d myths.  her  and  with  to her  Hebbel's purpose  ern  castle,  the  of  and  v e r s i o n the  of Wotan.  ological  motivation,  i n which Brunhild  i s an  s t r e n g t h , but  accentuating world,  story of  daughter  reintroduces  the  For he  sees  the  so he  Brunhild's the  was  the  in a vision  each  echoes  the  from he  not  queen,  sees  and  that  between  to  the  the  north-  made h e r  the  i s , better  scene  destiny  endow-  suitable  took over from  trance  other.  hero.  conflict  origin  he  meet, but  amazon-like  same r e a s o n ,  Inserted  not  noble  this  there  yet  recognize  do  banished  of S i e g f r i e d ' s  disappeared,  they  about  Brunhild  Christian  episode  Siegfried  Frigga  o l d epic  extraordinary  p a g a n and  The  been  i n many p l a c e s  B r u n h i l d has  B r u n h i l d and by  elements had  that  story.  with  is told  In the ed  w h i c h was  i n c o n s i s t e n c y , Hebbel  the  she  of  mythological  gaps i n the  acquaintance  k n o w s how To  a l l the  psych-  i n the  play,  which might  be  hers. Volker, ing  too,  watch before  i n w h i c h he  sees  scene, w h i c h has been put part story as  of  has  the  curse  no  the  of  bearing by  final  the  on  the  he  and  the  and  Hagen are  o f G u n t h e r and  Nibelung r e s t of  Hebbel because  legend  of h i s meeting with of  while  sleeping-quarters  Nibelung  a warning  trance,  the  i n apparently the  a  his  treasure. the  has  essential  seems t o n e e d m e n t i o n .  w a t e r nymphs, H e b b e l has  c l a s h between paganism  and.  Dietrich's put  letter  t o Hermann M a r g g r a f ,  already  in  Christian-  ity. In the  men,  This  trilogy,  i t i s an  keep-  quoted,  52 Hebbel  explained  elungenlied, lion  that  even  he h a d depended e n t i r e l y upon t h e N i b -  t o the extent of leaving  i n t h e Odenwald, and o n l y  VBlsungasaga friend,  where  Adolph  hoffentlich  went o v e r  i t was a b s o l u t e l y  Stern,  finden,  he w r i t e s :  dass  n  i n the story  t o the Edda  necessary.  Aside discussed, of  TragBdie  this has  hands  Hebbel  made a f e w m i n o r  changes  rewards  Siegfried  and Kriemhild's  for bringing  over t o h e r l a d i e s - i n - w a i t i n g .  himself  tells  The m a r k e d  suitable That  Briefe,  o f note.  To  i n the Nibel-  shortening  o f view  I n Hebbel, however, she herself,  was H e b b e l ' s V I I , 69.  idea  and which  I n Hebbel,  exploits,  them t o Gunther  Sieg-  whereas  and h i s  o f time was, o f c o u r s e , n e c e s s a r y  o f Hebbel's  f o rt h e modern  about  which he immediately  o f h i sheroic  Hagen r e l a t e s  son from O r t -  t h e g o o d news  she h a d embroidered  the story  He  In the o l d epic,  r e g a r d s as a t r e a s u r e d p o s s e s s i o n .  from the point epic  some  i n the northern sagas.  him twelve bracelets,  the Nibelungenlied  men.  a r e worthy  without any apparent reason.  gives him a scarf which  fried  already  i n the story,  i s not mentioned  t h e name o f E t z e l ' s  by giving  Siegfried  1  i n characterization  to Ortnit,  Gunther  Motiven  h e h a s g i v e n t h e s o m e w h a t a m b i g u o u s name o f G u d r u n ,  changed  Kriemhild  I.  suchte."  ihren  those variations  b e i n g t h e name o f K r i e m h i l d  lieb  jedoch  from  d a u g h t e r , w h o s e name  ungenlied,  in  aufzubauen  them s e e m i n g l y w i t h o u t c a u s e , w h i c h  Rudeger's  wird  des von diesem u n z e r t r e n n -  lichen mythischen Hintergrundes eine i n a l i e n r e i n menschliehe  or the  And t o another  D e r TJnbefangene  i c h trotz  of the  purpose,  - t o make t h e o l d  stage. throughout  t h e whole  play, to  53  make i t s u i t a b l e ible  f o r t h e m o d e r n s t a g e a n d t o make i t c o m p r e h e n s -  f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f modern p s y c h o l o g y .  as h e f i n i s h e d , w i t h t h i s p u r p o s e clusion to this  I n mind,  He s t a r t e d o u t  and t h e b e s t con-  commentary f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f h i s s u c c -  e s s , i s t o quote c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c i s m on t h e r e s u l t work.  The G r o s s h e r z o g o f Weimar s a i d  of h i s  t o H e b b e l on t h e o c c a s i o n  o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f " D i e N i b e l u n g e n " a t t h e Weimar T h e a t r e , "Ich halts  D i r e K i b e l u n g e n f u r d a s H o c h s t c was s a l t  und G o e t h e  i n D e u t s c h l a n d gemacht 1 s t , I c h b i n a l s D e u t s c h e r  Furst  Schiller  s t o l z d a r a u f , d a s s s o l d i e i n Werk z u m e i n e r Z e i t e n t -  s t e h e n k o n n t e u n d f r e u e m i c h vom g a n z e n H e r z e n , d a s s i c h es -r  zuerst horen  durftel"  Hebbel's l e t t e r s ences  to the high  esteem  at t h i s p e r i o d are f i l l e d with i n w h i c h h i s w o r k was h e l d .  refer-  "Die  N i b e l u n g e n s t e l l t man u b e r a l l e s , was i c h j e D r a m a t i s c h e s u lieferte  2 , he s a y s a t one t i m e . ' W h i l e t h i s  e d now, a n d some o f h i s e a r l i e r w o r k s to h i s l a s t completed dramatic e f f o r t ,  o p i n i o n has chang-  are considered still  superior  i n "Die Nibelungen"  H e b b e l as " D o l m e t s c h e i n e s IlBheren", h a s u n d o u b t e d l y g i v e n t o t h e o l d H l b e l u n g e n l l e d a new p s y c h o l o g i c a l  interpretation  which  h a s done a g r e a t d e a l t o b r i n g t h e m e d i a e v a l s t o r y w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f modern t h e a t r e - g o e r s .  1. B r i e f e , - V I I I , 18 2. I b i d , V I , 2 1 8 .  CHAPTER RICHARD In of  d e s Nibelungen','  i s R i c h a r d Wagner's  t h e drama  o f w h i c h he  with  Hebbel  finished  c o n s t r u c t e d h i s p l a y from  the express  purpose  the  literature  and  a musician,  old  legends  and  so he  the  VBlsungasaga.  was  from  the p o i n t  turned  that  common f o l k , Sachs,  possible ation  striking One  have  - as he  regards  o f h i s most  a very lets  vital  one  the pioneer His great  all  drama,  great  dramatic  a rebirth i r  as a r o m a n t i c i s t aspect  music, with  f o r opera, version,  roots  contact  with the l i f e  gleich  of  of  strongly-held ideas  treatment,  was of the  characters,  Hans  b l u t ' s u n d wachs' ,' 1  as the v e r y  finest  - for reinterpret-  view. of the nineteenth theory  was  architecture,  the stage-  expression.  of the  the possession  the very  of h i s finest  point of  modern music-drama.  connected  into  t h e o l d n a t i o n a l myths  from t h e modern W a g n e r was  things  particularly  down deep  subjects f o r a r t i s t i c  the a r t s ,  the o l d legend  i n the m y t h i c a l  say, -"Dass V o l k und Kunst  so he  of Hebbel's  of view of s u i t a b i l i t y  t h e m y t h was  thinking.  a r t should  i n 1852,  h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e more p r i m i t i v e  whole people,  national  interested  "Der  the Nibelungenlied  o f t h e German n a t i o n ; Wagner,  To W a g n e r , the  of giving  conceptic  tetralogy,  t h e same d e c a d e t h a t m a r k e d t h e c o m p l e t i o n  trilogy.  and  WAGNER  c o n t r a s t w i t h Hebbel's h i s t o r i c a l  the o l d Nibelungensaga  Ring in  striking  I I I  the u n i f i c a t i o n painting,  technique,  Up u n t i l  century i n  and  t o form a  of  all-  single  Wagner t h e o p e r a t i c  stage  had  been r u l e d by  all-predominant importance.  the I t a l i a n opera,  and  t h e s c o r e and  i n which  long arias  t h e o r c h e s t r a were o f m i n o r  Wagner, h o w e v e r , f i r s t  wrote  h i s own  drama,  composed h i s m u s i c i n i n t i m a t e u n i o n w i t h each thought score.  The  only  E.T.A. H o f f m a n n , i n h i s e s s a y  d e r Compomist", p o i n t s out  gifted  i n t h e p o e t r y , and  t h a t , because of  and  really  and  i s the  romantic  of the b e s t  noticed  poet."- 1  person  the p a s t , p r e s -  i s associated with a certain  and m o s t e f f e c t i v e u s e s o f t h i s  i n the m o t i f of A l b e r i c h ' s  ever the d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s  effect.  i n o r d e r t o be are h o r r i f i e d  curse are  When-  shown u p o n t h e  slain  Fasolt  the s o l e p o s s e s s o r of the g o l d , a l l the i n t o a "langes f e i e r l l c h e s  i n the o r c h e s t r a .  is  i n the o r c h e s t r a w i t h great  F o r e x a m p l e , when F a f n e r h a s  awful s t i l l n e s s ,  vital  system  melody.  curse upon the g o l d .  of t h i s  stage, the curse m o t i f occurs dramatic  these  f u t u r e o f t h e drama by u s i n g " L e i t m o t I v e n " , whereby  e a c h m a i n i d e a and  ing,  Dicht-  as t h e w o r k o f a  Wagner e m p l o y s t h e m u s i c t o make c l e a r  this  "Der  " t h a t Romantic opera  c o n d i t i o n s , m u s i c a l d r a m a must o r i g i n a t e  One  i n the  t r u e o p e r a , b e c a u s e t h e m u s i c must n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e i t s  origin directly  ent  then  u n i o n o f p o e t r y and m u s i c i s a l s o f o u n d among t h e  early Romanticists, e r und  were  gods  S c h w i e g e n " , and  in  t h e music' o f A l b e r i c h ' s c u r s e s w e l l s  T h r o u g h t h e m u s i c t h e c u r s e becomes a  f o r c e i n the tragedy.  Or  and  i n " S i e g f r i e d " Wotan's i m p o t e n c y  and  o r d e r i s s t r e s s e d by  m o t i f i n the o r c h e s t r a . I . W i t k o w s k i , 123.  a g a i n , i n "Die  up  liv-  walkure"  against established  law  the r e c u r r e n c e of the " V e r ' r a g s t r e u e " Once he h a s made a p a c t he  cannot  56  break I t .  Newman, i n h i s b o o k on Wagner comments as f o l l o w s  upon the use  of the m o t i f  of the leading-motive t h i n g , t h a t can products  t h a t Wagner h a s made h i s drama a  ages."  I t he  was  expressed  i n w o r d s and  u a t i o n t o a more e x a l t e d p l a n e . and  to r a i s e  "Der  R i n g des  and  Nibelungen"  to r e v e a l  the whole  sit-  Without the music h i s heroes h i s d r a g o n and  s i n g i n g b i r d w o u l d h a v e b e e n l u d i c r o u s , and i t s symbolic  artistic  able to restore  thoughts,  g o d s w o u l d h a v e b e e n as o r d i n a r y men,  have l o s t  living  o r d i n a r y d r a m a t i s t c o u l d have done.  a b l e t o e x p r e s s moods and  what c a n n o t be  this  1  t h e a i d o f h i s m u s i c Wagner was  t h e m y t h i c a l w o r l d as no In  s u c h u s e s as  s t a n d unashamed among t h e f i n e s t  of a l l the  With  system: " i t i s by  his  t h e drama w o u l d  a l l e g o r i c meaning. r i s e s t o the l o f t i e s t  With the  music  heights  of  tragedy. During Wagner was  t h e p e r i o d i n w h i c h he  going through  i n h i s philosophy. t i o n o f 1849 a part.  hoped by  The  t r u e i d e a l he  and  j u s t a f t e r the d i s a s t r o u s r e v o l u -  i n Dresden, i n which the poet had  He h a d  Ring,  a n i n t e n s e change i n h i s l i f e  I t was  o f a r t i n Germany, f o r he ed.  worked a t the  ardently  t h i s r e v o l u t i o n t o Improve t h e regarded  found  Greece, which was"the p r o d u c t  i t as d e p l o r a b l y  taken status  degenerat-  i n the ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e  of  energy of a  o w h o l e age." e x i s t e n c e and  Individualized i n their daily  struggles with  development, the G r e c i a n peoples  were y e t u n i t e d  i n t h e most i n t i m a t e h a r m o n y when t h e y e n t e r e d t h e r e a l m s t h e Newman, arts. C2o4n8 t. r a s t e d w i t h t h i s 1. 2. F r a n c k e , 553.  o n e n e s s o f s o u l , Wagner  of saw  57  t h e m o d e r n w o r l d as a mass o f a t o m s , s e p a r a t e d b y m o d e r n I n d u s t r i a l i s m , where e a c h i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e , a world i n which a e s t h e t i c beauty, money-making.  and was  toiled  l i t e r a t u r e had  for material lost  Its true  u s e d s e n s a t i o n a l l y as a v e h i c l e f o r  So Wagner t u r n e d h i s h o p e s t o w a r d s t h e  future,  when some o t h e r r e v o l u t i o n w o u l d r e o r g a n i z e t h e w o r l d  and  bring i t to organic unity.  social  "He  sees i n the c l i m a x of  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new  social  state w i l l  have f r e e d  from be  result,  the l a s t  " i n w h i c h men  s u p e r s t i t i o n , the  a t o o l f o r an aim l y i n g  will  o r d e r . A  new  themselves  s u p e r s t i t i o n t h a t a man  outside of h i m s e l f .  Having  can at  r e c o g n i z e d h i m s e l f the o n l y aim  of h i s e x i s t e n c e , having  discovered that this  reached  ive  a i m c a n be  w o r k , man's s o c i a l  creed w i l l  consist i n a  a f f i r m a t i o n of the d o c t r i n e of Jesus; thought, or,  s a y i n g , What s h a l l we  Wherewithal  s h a l l we  be  only through  practical  'Therefore take  of  father will  humanity which  b e n e f i t of It  all."  be  no drink?  For your heavenly  knoweth t h a t ye have need o f a l l t h e s e t h i n g s . ' heavenly  collect-  e a t ? o r , What s h a l l we  clothed?  And  Father  this  none o t h e r t h a n t h e c o l l e c t i v e  a p p r o p r i a t e s n a t u r e and  last  wisdom  I t s f u l n e s s f o r the  2  i s t o t h i s p e r i o d o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n Wagner's  o p h y t h a t t h e f i g u r e o f Wotan a b o v e a l l i s due. t h e g o d s t u r n s t o m a t e r i a l i s m and  l u s t f o r p o w e r , and  d o i n g b r i n g s r u i n upon the w o r l d of the gods. h i s c r i m e , h o w e v e r , he 1. F r a n c k e , 5 5 1 . 2. I b i d , 5 5 2 .  acquiesces  The  philos-  k i n g of i n so  Convinced  of  i n the d o w n f a l l of h i s order,  58  t h a t a new The was he  one,  u n t a i n t e d by  first  s i n , may  a r i s e out  p a r t o f Wagner's t e t r a l o g y t o be  o d d l y e n o u g h , " G B t t e r d a m m e r u n g " , w h i c h he was  still  i n D r e s d e n i n 1848.  t h e R e v o l u t i o n were f e r m e n t i n g desperate  T h i s was  i n him,  o f a new  t h e t r a g e d y was  S i e g f r i e d episode  order.  merely  ruins.  finished  completed while  before  b e f o r e he  the saw  ideas  precedent  T h e n known as " S i e g f r i e d ' s -  another  r e n d e r i n g of the  i n the Hibelungensaga.  But  Brunnhilde-  when t h e  spark  of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y ideas b u r s t i n t o  s h o r t - l i v e d flame,  Wagner was  t o S w i t z e r l a n d , he  f o r c e d as a r e s u l t t o f l e e  ed a g a i n t o h i s N i b e l u n g e n al  Ideas  c l a m o r i n g t o be  drama w i t h new  expressed.  'Wagner's c o n v e n t i o n a l l y r o m a n t i c The  and  entirely  and turn-  origin-  " S i e g f r i e d ' s Tod"  was  v e r s i o n of a well-known s t o r y .  o t h e r dramas, however, are o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n s of h i s  genius.  So, w o r k i n g  b a c k f r o m " S i e g f r i e d ' s Tod",  up  his tetralogy.  as  an a l l e g o r i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l m u s i c - d r a m a .  irregularity  I t s t a r t e d as a r o m a n t i c  i n composition which accounts  i n c o n g r u i t y b e t w e e n t h e l a s t p a r t and it.  of  the  n e c e s s i t y f o r s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n as t h e  to the founding Tod",  of the  own  Wagner b u i l t  opera, but  ended  It is this  f o r the  apparent  the t h r e e t h a t precede  T h u s , Wagner's drama I s an a l l e g o r y , t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f  h i s p h i l o s o p h i c i d e a s w i t h r e g a r d t o the b e t t e r m e n t  of  social  In m a t e r i a l -  Ism,  order.  obsessed  He  saw  bt greed  t h e w o r l d o f h i s d_ay a b s o r b e d f o r wealth  the Rhine maidens guard, prizing  innocent  and p o w e r .  g o l d which  o f I t s p o s s i b l e power  i t . s o l e l y f o r i t s b e a u t y and  o f t h e b a l e f u l power o f r i c h e s .  The  the  But  s p l e n d o r , i s the o n l y one  who  and  symbol  foreswears  59  l o v e c a n w i e l d t h i s p o w e r , and lust  f o r wealth  i s d r i v i n g b e a u t y and  t h e y c a n n o t e x i s t where g r e e d As  Wagner i s p o i n t i n g o u t  g o l d , the  He  e y e s , and  scene changes t o the h e i g h t s  B u t he  who  nature  is  heads the  To  a new  l a w s he h a s  drawn i n t o t e l l s him still  the  H e r e he  sees the  of g o l d  can b r i n g about.  are  u n d e r w o r l d , Wotan's d e s i r e s  any  from the  t o save the  seem t o h i m  intellectual,  i n payment, of h i s  he  predthe  Thus Wotan i s c u n n i n g Loge Wotan,  Into slaves, light,  gold.  giants  promis-  while  c o n d i t i o n s which the  move t h i s menace f r o m t h e p o o r c r e a t u r e s and  while  out  With i n f i n i t e  been b a n i s h e d from Nibelheirn w i t h the forged  the  i s f o r c e d to t u r n to  turned  the must  w i t h Loge t o the l a n d o f  terrible Men  of  so Wotan's  ordered  beauty, F r e i a ,  Nowhere i s t h e r e  r i n g w h i c h A l b e r i c h has  and  r a p e o f t h e g o l d , and  u n d e c i d e d , c o n s e n t s t o go  l o v e has  has  s h r i n k from e v i l .  of m a t e r i a l i s m .  s t o r y of the  another's gain.  He  c u n n i n g o f Loge t o g e t him  dwarfs.  for  force.  g r a t i f y h i s d e s i r e s he  the net  s e t up,  gods,  of h i s  f r e e , he  home f o r t h e g o d s , and,  cunning b r a i n t h a t does not  -  which  lawgiver  s t a t e c a n n o t be  g o d d e s s o f y o u t h and  r e l y i n g upon the  icament.  the  i s c u r b e d by  to b u i l d Walhalla, * i n g them t h e  irksome chains  the power o f becoming the  i n accordance with  passionate  o f the  p u r c h a s e d h i s w i f e , F r i c k a , w i t h one  with her,  universe. act  had  of the w o r l d  Rhine i n t o darkness w i t h h i s  where W o t a n i s f o u n d c h a f i n g u n d e r t h e b i n d him.  out  the  reigns.  A l b e r i c h plunges the  t h e f t of the  love  that  the power  toiling  a l l beauty  advent of On  viewing  and  the this  h i g h l y moral, to r e o f the  law-giving world  netherworld, o f t h e gods f r o m  60  the Impending d e s t r u c t i o n which A l t e r i c h it.  so w i t h l o f t y purposes  he c o n s e n t s  i n t e n d s t o b r i n g upon t o Loge's t r i c k s as a  means t o t h e e n d . He i s , h o w e v e r , n o t e n t i r e l y  unselfish,  s i n c e he i n t e n d s t o keep t h e r i n g f o r h i m s e l f , and thus s a f e guard h i s kingdom from  ruin.  the g i a n t s a r e prepared t o g i v e i t up b y E r d a , rises al  from  A n d he c l i n g s  to i t ,  even although  t o t a k e away F r e i a , u n t i l he i s t o l d the "Ur-Mutter"  of a l l l i v i n g  things,who  the bowels o f the e a r t h t o advise him i n h i s  emergency.  When p r e p a r i n g t o c r o s s t h e r a i n b o w  home o f t h e g o d s , W o t a n r e a l i z e s  that a l l this  critic-  t o t h e new  s p l e n d o r must  p e r i s h , t h a t t h e r a c e o f t h e g o d s i s doomed t o d e s t r u c t i o n . T h e y , t h e l a w g i v e r s , h a v e become t a i n t e d w i t h g u i l t , t o evade t h e l a w s  f o r t h e i r own g a i n , a n d Wotan d e t e r m i n e s t o  s e e k f u r t h e r c o u n s e l f r o m .turd a. logue with the w a i l i n g  The c u r t a i n f a l l s u p o n t h e p r o -  o f t h e Rhine maidens f o r t h e i r l o s t  In t h i s prologue existing  by trying  gold.  Wagner h a s e x p r e s s e d h i s i d e a o f t h e  s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s - "The d w a r f s , g i a n t s a n d gods a r e  d r a m a t i z a t i o n s o f t h e t h r e e m a i n o r d e r s o f men: t h e i n s t r u c t ive, predatory, l u s t f u l , stupid,  greedy  people;  the patient,  toiling,  r e s p e c t f u l , money-worshipping p e o p l e ; and t h e i n t e l l -  ectual, moral,  t a l e n t e d p e o p l e , who d e v i s e a n d a d m i n i s t e r  s t a t e s and churches."-  1  The g r e e d  f o r power o v e r t a k e s t h e  d w a r f s , who a r e d e s i r o u s o f r u l i n g who do n o t r e a l i z e  that other things are necessary  progress of the world besides gold. capitalists,  t h e world, f o r  themselves, f o r the  These a r e t h e modern  t h e men who a r e d r i v i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l  from the s o c i a l I . Shaw, 3 2 .  element  o r d e r , a n d who a r e p u t t i n g empty w e a l t h i n  61  its  stead. With  ly  they  can  should  be  do  wish  not  what  their  see  no  have got,  The  beyond  personal the  the  of moral  faith  So  people without  since  of  that  these  a  three  of  a r t and  literature  the  misers,  those  they  can  worlds  are  the  will  h e s i t a t e to b r i n g about  having  at  race.  must  He  himself  remain true  Brunnhilde heroes,  shall  and  secondly,  m u n d , who  had  when t h e y  were  of Hunding, flares  up  who  i n battle,  save the  world  of  very  a  son,  the  still  b e t w e e n them, and  Siegmund has  snatched  Wotan had p l a c e d I . Shaw, I I .  there  from  end  by  s a v a g e r y . ""^ in  the  A l b e r i c h , then  had  begets,  first,  eight  sisters,  he  Walhalla. saving given, a  he  daughter bring  the  to p r o t e c t i t from a man  and  a  from d e s t r u c t i o n .  But  Sieg-  finds her  again,  unknown t o each  f o r him.  extend  common b o n d s  a means f o r  from h i s twin  they  use  and  i f power  S i e g m u n d , who,  gods  the  on  d e s t r u c t i o n of  to Walhalla,  young,  while  with  to  i t i s only  b a c k what he  so he  shall  been separated  and  take  to h i s word,  with Erda,  fallen  Alberich;  cannot  that  by  to  whose aims  f r o m mere  war,  i s once more o b t a i n e d the  lives  been able  founded  rise  who  hoard  bodily appetites  Hence Wotan t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n towards his  a l l their  perceive  order  world  merely to  thought,  their  shape of not  ring  of  toil  ever  of  social  the  are  who  those"capable  affections,  cult  giants  satisfaction  establishment  the  t h e i r money, but  the  to die  gods are  appreciation f o r beauty, n a t u r a l -  why  The  to gain from  s a v e money, o n l y  far  reason  maintained.  they  i t .  l a c k of  run  hero,  sister Sieglinde, the  unwilling  other,  away t o g e t h e r ,  t r e e - t r u n k the Wotan orders  sword  wife  passion after which  Brunnhilde  to  O <C  p r o t e c t Siegmund i n t h i s b a t t l e , h u t F r i c k a , the g u a r d i a n the h e a r t h , i s outraged c e s t , and  s t o r m i l y she  powers cannot for  others.  at the double p o i n t s out  B u t Wotan h a s  no  lovers.  Wotan's p r e s e n t the  ruling  they themselves  have  set  d e s i r e t o l e t h i ? own  will  be  t h w a r t e d b y F r i c k a ' s p l e a s , and t h e two  c r i m e , a d u l t e r y and i n -  t o Wotan t h a t t h e  oppose t h e laws w h i c h  of  refuses to i n t e r f e r e  against  T h e n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n comes t o F r i c k a t h a t course  o f a c t i o n -is b r i n g i n g d e s t r u c t i o n upon  gods. "So  1 s t es derm  m i t den  aus  ewigen G o t t e r n ,  s e i t du d.ie w i l d e n Walsungen  zeugtest?  Heraus s a g t ' i c h ' s traf  i c h den  Nichts g i l t Heilige  -  Sinn? d i r der  Hehren  Sippe;  hln  wirfst  du  was  e i n s t du  alles, geachtet;  z e r r e i s s e s t d i e Bande, dio  s e l b s t du  l5sest  gebunden;  lachend  des H i m m e l s H a f t dass nach L u s t und  -  Laurie nur  walte  dies frevelnde Zwillingspaar, .deiner bntreue A n g r i l y she shows h i m I . D i e W a l k u r e , 32.  zuchtlose FruchtJ  that rulers w i l l  c a u s e t h e i r own  ruin  63  if  they  themselves  the  rest  his  own  of  do  not honour  the world.  point of  Calmly  noch n i e  Wotan attempts  Eines Not der,  ledig  sich  l 8 s e vom  sich  Fricka,  Schutzes,  GBttergesetz: taugt  er  gressions  and  wotan, and  wirken  has  Die  r e v e a l s t o W o t a n what he  free  such  begins  34.  her  now  man,  of  not and  wishes.  the  story to  of h i s save  becomes f u l l y  this  denn h i n , Pracht,  guilt-laden and  soul  trans-  his race. apparent  t o take h o l d upon h i s mind  again, fresh  herrlsche  a free  had  unburdens h i s innermost  telling  destruction  to begin  Walkiire,  not  to her  he  of h i s case  thought  the  1  necessity for restitution  "Fahre I.  verwehrt."  to accede  daughter,  the  the  through  w o r l d be  Gottern,  immediately  the hopelessness  only  zu  Tat,  Brunnhilde's return,  his favorite  But  s i e den  doch  m o s t u n w i l l i n g l y he  to  -  b e f o r e , t h a t S i e g m u n d was  On  her  tut e i n Held,  gBttlichen  not  however,  realized  to  traf,  zu w i r k e n d i e  Gott  to reveal  to  h6re.  so n u r  dem  given  versteh'n:  danach t r a c h t e t mein SinnJ  wie  they have  Gewohntes  n u r magst du  die,  laws  views  "Stets  d o c h was  the  that  o r d e r can  u n t a i n t e d by s i n .  to  the  64 gBttlichen  Prunkes  prahlende  Schmachi  Zusammen b r e c h e was  To  i c h gebaut!  Auf  geb'  i c h mein  nur  eines  will  das  Ende -  das  Ende!  i c h noch, -  his destructors, Alberich  worthless  glitter "So  of  Werk,  and  his  son,  he  g i v e s up  the  God-head;  nimm m e i n e n  Segen,  Nibelungen-Sohn! Was  tief mich  dir  geb'  der  And  so he  that  "deinen self  Erbe,  nichtigen  Glanz:  sie gierig  dein  orders  Brunnhilde  t o protect B u n d i n g .  of her  i s naught e l s e  to  Willen  Wotan as  Neidi"  but  "deines  his  2  own  will.  Brunnhilde  t o him? Wotan's W i l i e n  W o t a n .answers  Die Walkfire, I b i d , 47.  du  mir,  was  sprichst du  du,  willst:  wer  -  bin ich,  war'  ich dein Wille  nicht?".  -  "Was 46.  keinem  But  Wunsches B r a u t " ,  vollbringt sie allein."  sagst  1. 2.  zum  zernage  "Zu  And  ich's  Gottheit  Brunnhilde  speaks  ekelt,  i n Worten i c h kunde ~  f  he  forgets  Pricka and says  says her-  'unausgesprochen bleib'  es ev/ig:  rait m i r nur ' r a t ' i c h , red'  i c h zu d i r . - - -  Thus B r u n n h i l d e w i l l than h i s u n w i l l i n g  n i  c a r r y o u t h i s most i n m o s t w i s h e s  commands.  rather  U n t i l t h e p r e s e n t moment t h e r e  h a d h e e n no c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n h i s d e s i r e s and h i s o r d e r s , b u t now he m u s t a c t c o n t r a r y t o h i s d e s i r e s , and e x p e c t s  Brunn-  h i l d e t o do t h e same, B u t h i s " W u n s c h - T o c h t e r " i n n o t h e d g e d I n b y t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i t i e s o f God-head. will  i n h e r a c t upon h e r sympathies  The f o r c e s o f Wotan's  f o r Slegmund and  Sieglinde,  and e a s i l y o u t b a l a n c e t h e d e s i r e t o o b e y t h e commands w h i c h Wotan p l a c e d u p o n h e r a t F r i c k a ' 3 b i d d i n g . is  Wotan,  therefore,  f o r c e d t o p u n i s h B r u n n h i l d e b y p u t t i n g h e r t o s l e e p , so  t h a t he m a y " p r o t e c t against her".  the f i c t i o n s and c o n v e n t i o n s o f W a l h a l l a  For Fricka's  sake Wotan must u p h o l d t h e l a w as  l o n g a s p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g d i s g r a c e u p o n them, would happen i f h i s a r b i t r a r y w i l l  were a l l o w e d f u l l  he must t a k e s t e p s t o p r e v e n t a s i m i l a r e v e n t f r o m • W i t h t h e r i n g i n g down o f t h e f i n a l Walkure",  Wagner  out.  d e r a n d found, t h e new. ate  b y t h o s e who  sway.  founded  So  recurring.  c u r t a i n i n "Die  i s p a v i n g t h e way f o r t h e new r a c e t h a t  come, a r a c e o f h e r o e s . played themselves  which  i s to  The d w a r f s , g i a n t s a n d gods h a v e The new r a c e w i l l  b r e a k up t h e old. o r -  The o l d o r d e r h a s b e e n p r o v e n it.  inadequ-  Wotan r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e l a w s  w h i c h h i s r a c e h a d s e t up were no l o n g e r c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g t h e w o r l d , b u t he knew a l s o t h a t t h o s e l a w s c o u l d o n l y be 1. D i e W a l k u r e , 4 0 - 4 1 . 2, Shaw, 9 0 .  proven  i n e f f e c t u a l , and better  t h a t the w o r l d  s y s t e m , when h i s o r d e r was  i n t e g r a t i o n of the order had  t h i n g s are  surrounded by  i n their place  to the  empty, w o r t h l e s s  e x i s t i n g order  and  S i e g l i n d e , who  by  age  for  the f o u n d a t i o n  order  of the  the  of a  ancient  the  i s t o d e l i v e r the and  i m p o s e new  enslaved  new  Greeks.  him  t o A l b e r i c h , and  i n the  goes o f f i n t o the w o r l d  existing  the  duces the p i e c e s  world  ones u p o n i t .  Sieg-  forest,  i n search  the  grown up  absolutely fearless, a sword b e f o r e  of adventure. hu.s  f o r g e d has  o f S i e g m u n d ' s s w o r d , N o t h u n g , does When Mime a d m i t s he  s c o r n f u l l y does i t h i m s e l f .  i s ready t o f a r e f o r t h i n t o the  world.  This  like and  he  So f a r Mime b e e n snapp-  s t r o n g y o u n g h e r o , and n o t u n t i l Mime  which s a t i s f i e s him.  gold  w i t h w h i c h he h o p e s t o  S i e g f r i e d has  b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l ; e a c h s w o r d he  ed i n t w a i n by  of  s m i t h Mime, A l b e r i c h ' s u g l y , t i m i d  i s o n l y w a i t i n g f o r Mime t o f o r g e h i m  Siegfried  son  h o p e s t o g a i n , t h r o u g h t h i s y o u n g man,  a w i l d , young a n i m a l  it,  These  God-head,  i n the young hero, the  make h i m s e l f m a s t e r o f t h e w o r l d .  f i n d one  with  point  simplicity  i s nourished  b r o t h e r , who  has  glitter.  old  I n t h i s manner i s Wagner t r y i n g t o  from i t s o l d worn-out laws,  he  The  fear-  p r e f e r a b l y upon the  and  S i e g m u n d and  which had  arise.  i n " S i e g f r i e d " Wagner p a i n t s t h e p i c t u r e o f p e r f e c t  naturalness  fried  dis-  German n a t i o n t h e n e e d i n t h e i r own  patterned So  one  Only i n the  s h a l l come s i m p l i c i t y , n a t u r a l n e s s ,  love.  d e s t r u c t i o n of the one,  c o u l d a new  and  to v a n i s h w i t h the d e s t r u c t i o n of the  l e s s n e s s and out  o l d order  destroyed.  g i v e n a new  become Imbued w i t h m a t e r i a l i s m , h e d g e d a b o u t  conventions,  and  c o u l d o n l y be  pro-  Siegfried cannot  forge  accomplished  he  67 P a r a l l e l with S i e g f r i e d ' s entrance heroic  d e e d s , i s Wotan's w i t h d r a w a l  he becomes a p a s s i v e h e r o . i n f o r m Mime t h a t o n l y one anew t h e pears  who  appears f i r s t d i d not  world  and  to t e l l  in "Siegfried"  know f e a r c o u l d  t h e d w a r f t h a t he  "Wen lass'  forge  A s e c o n d t i m e he  will  not use  to  ap-  and  his  hero.  ich liebe ich fur sich  gewahren;  e r s t eh ' o d e r  fall',  s e i n Herr  er:  Helden nur Wotan has  of  of a c t i o n :  t o w a r n A l b e r i c h and F a f n e r o f t h e c o m i n g o f Mime  power t o h e l p the young  realized  1st  konnen m i r  t h a t the  i s permitted  f rominen."  1  f e a r l e s s n e s s o f t h i s young h e r o  p o s s i b l y b r i n g about the  i f he  from the w o r l d  sword o f the Walsung, Siegmund.  Siegfried,  may  He  i n t o the  r e d e m p t i o n o f the w o r l d , but  to act according  t o the law  of h i s  only  own  nature. Wotan r e t u r n s t h e n t o summon up he  i s w i l l i n g the "Um  end  of the  der GBtter  gods. Ende  gram't mich d i e Angst s o i t m e i n Wunsch es Was  i n des  f r o l l und  I.  nicht,  will]  Z w i e s p a l t s w i l d e m Schmerze  verzweifelnd einst  .fuhre f r e i  E r d a and  ich beschloss,  freudig  i c h nun  aus:  w e i h t ' i c h i n wuthendem. E k e l S i e g f r i e d , 48.  t e l l s her  that  68 des  lilt) l u n g e n H e l d s c h o n d i e  Welt,  dem w o n n i g s t e n W & l s u n g weis' In  i c h mein Erhe nun a n . "  1  t h e u n i o n o f S i e g f r i e d a n d B r u n n h i l d e , he s e e s a  chance f o r t h e redemption  o f t h e s i n - l a d e n gods:  "Die du m i r g e b a r ' s t , Brunrihild' weckt s l c h hoch d e r H e l d : wachend w i r k t d e i n wissendes  Kind  erlosende Weltenthat.  - "  2  Then he sends E r d a t o e t e r n a l s l e e p , and w a i t s f o r S i e g f r i e d to  come.  He t e s t s t h e d a r i n g y o u n g h e r o , h o l d i n g u p h i s  to  b a r t h e way, b u t S i e g f r i e d b r e a k s  symbolizes ity ure.  " the l a s t  stand o f c o n s t i t u t e d author-  R e s i g n e d l y , Wotan p i c k s up t h e p i e c e s , s a y i n g :  Siegfried  i sleft  i c h kann d i c h n i c h t h a l t e n i " , 4  t o make h i s way t o B r u n n h i l d e .  B r u n n h i l d e who i s awakened b y S i e g f r i e d ' s k i s s  filial  Butthe  I s now o n l y a  m o r t a l woman, a n d h e r p a s s i o n f o r t h e g r e a t h e r o her  This  a g a i n s t t h e young, untrammelled i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f t h e f u t -  "Zieh' hinj and  ineffectual  i t w i t h h i s sword.  spear  outweighs  a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e o l d o r d e r , a n d she l i v e s now  s o l e l y f o r the love of S i e g f r i e d . The  c l o s e o f " S i e g f r i e d " marks t h e f i n i s h  p h i l o s o p h i c a l dramas o f t h e t e t r a l o g y . 1. S i e g f r i e d , 7 9 . 2. I b i d , 7 9 . 3. Newman, 2 3 2 . 4. S i e g f r i e d , 8 6 .  of the  The f o u r t h p a r t  69  'btitterdtmmerung",  i s grand  opera  i n the o l d s t y l e .  Taken i n  connection w i t h the other three parts of the "Ring", an o p e r a t i c a n a c h r o n i s m .  i t is  T h i s l a s t p a r t , as has been  was w r i t t e n i n 1848 u n d e r t h e t i t l e  said,  o f " S i e g f r i e d ' s Tod", and  was i n t e n d e d b y Wagner a s n o t h i n g d e e p e r t h a n a n o p e r a t i c t r e a t ment o f t h e o l d N i b e l u n g e n s a g a .  B u t when,,after  he  o r d e r i n t h e w o r l d o f h i s own  saw t h e n e e d f o r a new s o c i a l  the R e v o l u t i o n ,  t i m e , he b e g a n t o s e e t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e o l d g o d s and t h e b i r t h o f t h e w o r l d o f h e r o e s as t h e symbol o f t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f a n o l d o r d e r b y a new o n e .  So he c h a n g e d t h e t i t l e  " S i e g f r i e d ' s T o d " t o " G-811erdMmmerung", upon h i s t e t r a l o g y . al  depth  hilde not  found  of  and worked backwards  But the f o u r t h p a r t l a c k s the p h i l o s o p h i c -  i n t h e o t h e r t h r e e , and t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Brunn-  a n d S i e g f r i e d a r e somewhat i n c o n g r u o u s ,  incomprehensible.  Walkure, the w i l l  though they are  In the f o u r t h p a r t the Brunnhilde  a n d " W u n s c h - T o c h t e r " o f Wotan, h a s  of the  vanished,  and h a s g i v e n p l a c e t o " a m a j e s t i c a l l y s a v a g e woman, i n whom j e a l o u s y and revenge a r e i n t e n s i f i e d t o h e r o i c p r o p o r t i o n s " , who i n t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h e r p a s s i o n p l o t s S i e g f r i e d ' s d e a t h with a v i l l a i n , since l i f e  b u t who a l w a y s i n t e n d s t o f o l l o w h i m t o d e a t h ,  w i t h o u t h i m w o u l d be i n t o l e r a b l e .  character of Brunnhilde ion  T h i s change i n t h e  i s motivated by the a l l - p o w e r f u l pass-  o f l o v e j w h i c h , f i r s t l y , makes h e r d i s r e g a r d t h e s e r v i c e s  which f i l i a l  a f f e c t i o n f o r W o t a n demands o f l a e r , a n d s e c o n d l y ,  makes h e r t u r n i n t o a t i t a n i c  virago.  The S i e g f r i e d o f t h e  t h i r d p a r t i s n a i v e a n d s i m p l e , a n i g n o r a n t b o y , who and s h y l y a s k s B r u n n h i l d e I . Shaw, 8 7 .  softly  i f she i s h i s m o t h e r s i n c e she l o v e d .  70  him  before  he was b o r n .  But w i t h the f o u r t h evening  c h a n g e d i n t o a man o f t h e w o r l d , the Rhine maidens.  Brurmbild.e s t e a c h i n g s  c a n be t a k e n  but  I t i s much more c o n v i n c i n g  the  first  to  as a m o t i v a t i o n o f t h i s  as a r e m a i n d e r o f  this  l a s t part  negative  s i s t e r , both of these  s i n i s t e r h a l f - b r o t h e r Hagen.  f i g u r e s do n o t f i t I n c o m p l e t e l y symbolic  the c o n n e c t i o n  i s very  T h e r e i s a c h o r u s o f men a n d women, a  dominance o f t h e i r  ally  with  change i n c h a r a c t e r ,  when r e g a r d e d  has been said, b e f o r e ,  king, a r a t h e r simple  these  with  v e r s i o n o f " S i e g f r i e d ' s Tod".  grand opera.  the  cleverly  w h i l e he was  1  her  As  who b a n t e r s  he h a s  close futile  being  under  Though  with the p h i l o s o p h i c -  f i g u r e s of the e a r l i e r p a r t s of the t e t r a l o g y , with the f i r s t  t h r e e dramas i s c l e a r l y  maintain-  ed. A p p r o a c h i n g the s u b j e c t from such a d i f f e r e n t o f v i e w , Wagner's t r e a t m e n t ent  from t h a t o f Hebbel.  brother  ed b y p e r s o n a l  so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  w h i c h makes Hagen's r o l e  Accepting the beginning  o f him i n the other  i s , of course,  no " K r i e m h i l d s  t h e more d e s p i c a b l e .  to get possession  o n l y t o be f i n a l l y  in  half-  He i s shown as a much more  e i t h e r i n the epic or i n Hebbel,  I n Wagner, t h e r e  effort  differ-  inspir-  g r e e d and j e a l o u s y and a b s o l u t e l y l a c k i n g t h e  redeeming l o y a l t y  his  i s very  I n 'Wagner H a g e n I s G u n t h e r ' s  and the agent o f A l t e r i c h .  demoniacal f i g u r e than  sions.  of the characters  point  of the r i n g ,  verBsche"  He e v e n , i n  s l a y s Gunther h i m s e l f ,  l u r e d t o h i s d e a t h by t h e R h i n e m a i d e n s .  Brunnhilde  a s a V a l k y r i e , Wagner r e g a r d s h e r  more as a n i n s t r u m e n t  than  as a p o s i t i v e p e r -  s o n a l i t y , u n t i l h e r awakening by S i e g f r i e d passions w i t h i n her.  Her ending  arouses  t h e human  i s much f i e r i e r - t h a n t h a t o f  H e b b e l ' s B r u n h i l d , w o r t h y o f h e r p r o u d o r i g i n as a V a l k y r i e , when she d a s h e s u p o n h e r s t e e d i n t o t h e f u n e r a l p y r e i n death  t h e h e r o who h a d b e e n s e p a r a t e d  and  joins  from h e r by t r e a c h e r y .  Owing t o t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e r e v e n g e  s e q u e l , Wagner  felt  no n e e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p a r t i c u l a r l y G u t r u n e - h i s K r i e m h i l d , B e c a u s e she h a s no I m p o r t a n t tool  part to play - i s In fact  only a  i n t h e h a n d s o f H a g e n , she i s v e r y tame a n d c o l o u r l e s s  compared w i t h t h e K r i e m h i l d o f t h e e p i c o r o f  Hebbel.  S i e g f r i e d , who, a c c o r d i n g t o Wagner, i s Wotan's c h o s e n instrument curse  f o r the great  t a s k of redeeming humanity from the  of t h e i r gold, i s , of course, presented  attractive light  - t h e v e r y p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f f e a r l e s s and  ad.venturesome y o u t h .  Wagner r e l e a s e s h i m f r o m  ity  forhis failure  him  d r i n k t h e magic p o t i o n o f f o r g e t f u l n e s s ,  pared  so c u n n i n g l y  I n t h i s Wagner i s , o f c o u r s e ,  owing the o l d saga, b u t t h i s modern t o a c c e p t .  a l l responsibil-  i n c a r r y i n g o u t Wotan's p l a n s b y h a v i n g  f o r h i m by Hagen.  i s just a l i t t l e  pre-  foll-  difficult  f o r the  I t seems t h e v e r y f a c t o f m a k i n g h i m m o r a l l y  r e s p o n s i b l e makes i t more d i f f i c u l t figure.  I n t h e most  One f e e l s  t o r e g a r d h i m as a t r a g i c  t h a t Wotan " i s t h e h e r o i n t h i s p l a y - n o t  Siegfried. Those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h mark Wagner as a poet are c l e a r l y He f o u n d sagas,  shown f i r s t  interest,  romantic  i n h i s choice of subject  not i n the mediaevalized  v e r s i o n o f the o l d  the Nibelungen!led, but i n the VBlsungasaga, a  v e r s i o n o f t h e p r i m i t i v e Ed.das.  matter.  The m y t h i c a l a s p e c t s  prose of this  72  work, the  the  gods, dwarfs  curse  romantic ment  of  the  saga,  the  the  d i d not  h i s ensuing  curse  u p o n i t Wagner t a k e s  the of  poet's  Wagner f o l l o w s t h e  union  the  Nor  i s not  the  and  son  of  to choose  s t e e d he magic  sleep  vengeance kyrie, his  and  daughter  episode  with  made S i e g m u n d t h e  was  separate  the ount  of  son  for  He  is a later  In  "Die  very  the  the episode  Walkure",  closely;  i n the  o f Sigmund and  one  which Odin  story of  the  saga,  but  of  but Hjordis.  helped the  fearless  Brunnhilde's i n the  saga  of the  Val-  which f o r c e s Wotan t o  Wagner has  very  Siegmund, g i v i n g i n the  join-  a close unity  i n the  This  put  cleverly  Volsungasaga.  o f Wotan, whereas  He  has  saga f o u r  compression,  a?lso  gener-  however,  unity. Wagner has has  departed  f o l l o w e d the  Siegfried's upbringing  Thidreksaga  Walhalla  difference that  Siegmund.  from  from  Odin's punishment  sleep.  i s lacking  "Siegfried"  Volsungasaga. of  that  O d i n and  also necessary In  to  tale  The  the  treat-  gods from  w i t h the h e l p  i n Wagner i t i s f a t e  t o h i s drama w h i c h  ations  but  flames.  same, w i t h  the  genius.  that union  passion motivate  whereas  favorite this  i s the  the  the  is related  f o r h i m s e l f , and  penetrates  and  northern  horse  Wagner's  drew h i s m a t e r i a l  g o l d by  own  brother  i s Grane B r u n n h i l d e ' s  Sigurd  ed  sister  the  Rhine maidens  the  to  c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o one  of  but  Valkyries,  dragon appealed  theft  however,  Sigurd  the  The  products  of  fierce  heroes,  d i d , but  sources.  and  He  g i a n t s , the  as H e b b e l  Volsungasaga, are  g o l d and  tendencies. the  various dwarf  on  and  i n the  v e r s i o n than  still  farther  Thidreksaga wood by  either  the  the  from  i n the smith.  accThis  Nibelungenlied.  or t h e V B l s u n g a s a g a , the  and h a s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which  show t h a t  a u t h o r h a s known b o t h l e g e n d s and h a s d r a w n f r o m them.  A l t h o u g h the saga t r e a t s m a i n l y the l i f e D i e t r i c h von B e r n , S i e g f r i e d ' s l i f e The  and a d v e n t u r e s  of  Is also f u l l y described.  i n t e r v i e w a n d g u e s s i n g c o n t e s t b e t w e e n Mime and Wotan i n -  dicates mal"  i n f l u e n c e from a l a y i n the E l d e r Edda,  i n which Odin, always  "Vafthrutbnis-  i n quest o f wisdom, seeks i n d i s -  g u i s e t h e g i a n t V a f t h r u t h n i r , and t h e y h a v e a c o n t e s t t o vrhich i s t h e w i s e r . is the  In the VBlsungasaga,  see  as i n Wagner, t h e r e  no m e n t i o n made o f b a t h i n g I n t h e b l o o d o f t h e d r a g o n ;  in  o l d l e g e n d i t i s S i g u r d ' s g a z e t h a t makes h i s h e r o e s h e l p -  less,  and G u t t o r m  cannot k i l l  him u n t i l h i s eyes  sleep.  Wagner makes S i e g f r i e d  spells,  as b a t h i n g i n t h e d r a g o n ' s  are c l o s e d i n  invulnerable through Brunnhilde' b l o o d w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e  on t h e s t a g e , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r m e t h o d d o u b t l e s s l y a p p e a l e d , more to t h e r o m a n t i c p o e t .  Wagner a g a i n r e v e r t s t o t h e T h i d -  reksaga i n the m a t t e r of S i e g f r i e d ' s h o r s e . saga Odin h i m s e l f h e l p s him  In t h e  t o choose a h o r s e , which  same b r e e d as t h e h o r s e s o f t h e g o d s .  In t h e T h i d r e k s a g a B r u n n h i l d e g i v e s h e r h o r s e t o leaves her.  known G o d - h e a d , and life,  latter  c a n Wotan a s s i s t t h e y o u n g h e r o .  S i e g f r i e d must h a v e a h o r s e t h a t i s f i t t i n g o n l y s t e e d p o s s i b l e was  place.  Siegfried  Wagner i s f o r c e d t o f o l l o w t h e  s t o r y b e c a u s e i n no way  i s of the  W i t h t h i s h o r s e he i s  able to penetrate the flames to Brunnhilde's r e s t i n g  when he  VBlsunga-  one  f o r him,  and  t h a t , t h r o u g h i t s owner, had  as Wotan c o u l d , t a k e no p a r t  B r u n n h i l d e alone c o u l d g i v e him In "G811erd&mmerung" 'Wagner h a s  But the once  i n Siegfried's  the r e q u i r e d s t e e d . a g a i n drawn from v a r i o u s  sources.  S i e g f r i e d i s served  with a drink of forgetfulness a  i n t h e V B l s u n g a s a g a , b u t b y Gut r u n e , n o t b y h e r m o t h e r , as i n the  o l dlegend.  I n order  t o l i n k up t h i s l a s t p a r t w i t h t h e  first  parts  o f t h e t e t r a l o g y , H a g e n i s made t h e s o n o f A l b e r -  ich.  I n Wagner's dramas B r u n n h i l d e  because he d e s e r t e d Brunnhilde other  I n the northern  l e g e n d , however,  h a d f o r e t o l d t o S i e g f r i e d t h a t he w o u l d m a r r y a n -  and. demands h i s d e a t h b e c a u s e h e b e t r a y e d h e r t o t h e  mocking Gudrun. secret  her.  demands S i e g f r i e d ' s d e a t h  Of h e r own f r e e w i l l B r u n n h i l d e  of his vulnerable  p o i n t , not as i n the N i b e l u n g e n l i e d ,  where Hagen c l e v e r l y draws t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  from  As  while  but  betrays the  I n t h e German e p i c , S i e g f r i e d I s k i l l e d  Kriemhild. on a h u n t ,  Wagner i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e V o l s u n g a s a g a i n m a k i n g B r u n n -  hilde  f o l l o w S i e g f r i e d i n t o death. Wagner makes a g r e a t e r u s e o f t h e c u r s e u p o n t h e g o d s  t h a n does t h e o l d l e g e n d . v o r i curses  the gold,  I n t h e V o l s u n g a s a g a t h e dwarf An-  declaring that  o f e v e r y man who s h o u l d  i tshould  b e t h e bane  own I t t h e r e a f t e r . S t r i f e  follows  i m m e d i a t e l y i n t h e f a m i l y o f t h e owners, F a f n i r k i l l i n g h i s f a t h e r and d r i v i n g out h i s b r o t h e r . t i o n i s made o f t h e c u r s e , wrought uoon S i g u r d .  A l t h o u g h no f u r t h e r men-  through the r i n g d e s t r u c t i o n i s  Wagner I n v e s t s  t h e r i n g w i t h a deeper  meaning by making d e s i r e f o r i t s y m b o l i c a l ions o f the world  for material gain.  of the e v i l  pass-  I n the o l d legend the  c u r s e u p o n t h e r i n g b r o u g h t r u i n a n d d e a t h , w i t h Wagner i t means d i s i n t e g r a t i o n f r o m a m o r a l a n d s o c i a l well.  standpoint  as  75  Wagner's master hand i s shown i n the c l e v e r way  i n which  he has moulded t o g e t h e r episodes and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the v a r i o u s sagas and made o f them a u n i f i e d opera, while at the same time i n v e s t i n g the c h a r a c t e r s with h i s own  ideas.  More  t h a n any o t h e r R o m a n t i c i s t , he has accomplished a g r e a t d e a l towards making the o l d legends known throughout Germany. probed deeper  than the e a r l y R o m a n t i c i s t s .  they gave of mediaeval l i f e was  He  The p i c t u r e which  a s u p e r f i c i a l one.  They  r e s t o r e d the legends and songs, the romances and f a i r y  tales,  but they d i d not i n v e s t i g a t e under the p i c t u r e s q u e garments to  see i f t h e r e were h e a r t s and s o u l s beneath  presented a b r i l l i a n t l y depth.  them.  They  c o l o u r e d t a p e s t r y but without  any  Wagner, however, p r e s e n t e d these m y t h i c a l and mediaev-  a l c h a r a c t e r s as human b e i n g s .  In t h i s way  he was  g a i n the i n t e r e s t of the people f o r t h e i r own That was  able to  literature.  the g o a l o f the e a r l y Romantic p o e t s , to make the  German n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e known to the people, but none of them ever came as c l o s e as Wagner to the attainment of t h i s goal.  Yet never d i d the great master make any compromise  w i t h the low t a s t e s of the p e o p l e . t h e i r t a s t e s t o h i s own As one may are  Rather he sought  to r a i s e  level.  expect from a t r u l y Romantic poet, there  some b e a u t i f u l l y r i c passages  i n The Ring.  i s most worthy of n o t i c e i s the l o v e l y which Siegmund sings i n the f i r s t  That which  "Liebe-und-Lenz-Lied"  a c t of "Die Walkure".  the door of the hut opens and the moonlight  streams  room, Siegmund sings o f the coming of s p r i n g :  As  i n t o the  76 "Wintersturme  wichen  dem Wonnemond, i n mildem  Lichte  l e u c h t e t der Lenz; auf  linden Luften  leicht  und  lieblich,  Wunder webend er  s i c h wiegt;  durch Wald und Auen went s e i n Atem, welt g e o f f n e t l a c h t s e i n Aug'."  1  Then he s i n g s o f the responding of flowers and t r e e s to h i s touch, and o f h i s u n i o n w i t h h i s s i s t e r : "Zu s e i n e r  Schwester  schwang er s i c h her; die  Liebe l o c k t e den Lenz; i n uns'rem Busen barg s i e s i c h t i e f :  nun l a c h t s i e s e l i g dem Die  brautliche  Licht.  Schwester  b e f r e i t e der Bruder; zertrummert was  liegt  je s i e g e t r e n n t ;  jauchzend g r u s s t  sich  das junge Paar: v e r e i n t s i n d Llebe und T.enzl" 1. Die Walkure, 22. 2. I b i d , 22-23.  2  IJtJ  Of u n s u r p a s s e d b e a u t y i s t h e w h o l e o f t h i s S i e g m u n d and S i e g f r i e d and the  prologue But  S i e g l i n d e and Brunnhilde of  e q u a l l y so a r e  i n the  last  i t i s not  only sex-love  of Christian) i d e a l i s m .  panacea f o r the ung," the  the  scene between  scenes between  act of " S i e g f r i e d "  and  "GBtterd&mmerung".  a l s o of t h a t other l o v e - c a r i t a s finest  love  ills  Brunnhilde  "den  - l o v e as  T h i s he  of humanity.  leaves  o f w h i c h Wagner s i n g s , i t i s taught  s e e s as t h e  At the  end  of  but i n the  greatest  "GBtterdammer-  H o r t i h r e s h e i l i g s t e n Wis s e n s "  to  world: " N i c h t Gut,  nicht  noch g o t t l i c h e  Gold,  Pracht;  n i c h t IIaus, n i c h t  Hof,  noch h e r r i s c h e r Prunk: nicht truber  Vertrage  t r i i g e n d e r Bund, noch h e u c h e l n d e r hartes  one  i n L u s t und  lasst  - die L i e b e  optimistic.  willingly  nur  sein* -  The  pessimi s t i c ,  "  ideas the  The  latter  the gay,  1  i n The  Ring,  other which i s  f o r m e r i d e a i s p e r s o n i f i e d i n Wotan,  s a c r i f i c e s h i m s e l f and h i s r a c e  world, f r o m s i n . of S i e g f r i e d ,  Leid  opposing r e l i g i o u s  w h i c h I s C h r i s t i a n and  p a g a n and who  Gesetz:  selig  T h e r e a r e two  Sitte  t o redeem  the  i d e a i s p e r s o n i f i e d i n the f i g u r e  l i g h t - h e a r t e d y o u n g h e r o , who  thinks  o n l y o f t h e .joy o f t h e moment, whose a c t i o n s a r e g u i d e d I . Gotterdamineriing, 86.  by  his  78  own  d e s i r e s , and who  timistic But  i s c r u e l l y overcome by f a t e .  and  t o the  and  r e i g n supreme I n t h e w o r l d .  the g r e a t e s t of a l l the u n i t i n g powers, w i l l a t i o n o f t h e new  With  form the  found-  w o r l d o f o r g a n i c u n i t y which a r i s e s out  t h e r i n g i n g down o f t h e f i n a l  Nibelungen"  and  c u r t a i n of  of hate.  "Der  Wagner's g r e a t drama, d e p i c t i n g t h e  i n t e g r a t i o n of a s o c i a l  o r d e r , comes t o a c l o s e .  e d t h e members o f t h i s o r d e r f r o m t h e i r f i r s t  He  i n annihilation.  And  dis-  has  depict-  s i n through  i n which t h e i r r u l e r f i n a l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t the  atonement l i e s  will  Thus l o v e ,  t h e o l d w o r l d o f m a t e r i a l i s m , swayed b y e n v y , g r e e d  years  pagan  the drama f i n i s h e s w i t h t h e b e l i e f t h a t l o v e  conquer a l l e v i l s  R i n g des  op-  f i g u r e r e s e m b l e s v e r y c l o s e l y the o l d sungod, B a l d r .  t h e C h r i s t i a n i d e a I s s u p e r i o r i n t h e end  one,  This  he h a s m i n g l e d  the  only with  this  d r a m a o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h u m a n i t y , t h e g r e a t human t r a g e d y of S i e g f r i e d . as  Kapp sums up  Wagner's a c h i e v e m e n t s i n The  Ring  follows: " D i e N i b e l u n g e n l i c h t u n g z e i g t Wagners d r a m a t i s c h e  i n i h r e r hochsten  Vollendung.  enen n o r d i s c h e n Mythen und zuge v e r w e b t s i n d ,  z u dem  bur_t-schillernd.es Eussere  D i e V e r s chine I z u n g  e i n e n ungeheur-en Gr art i t b l o c h , d o s s en einen gewaltigen  g r e i f e n d e Menschendrama S i e g f r i e d s , s e i n Werk w e i t u t e r a l l e  hinaus.  der v e r s c h i e d -  Sagen, i n d i e noch mehrfach Marchen-  innem  s c h l i o s s t , d i e e r s c h u t t e r h d W o t a n t r a g B d i e und  hebt  Kraft  aus  umHerz  s t e h t u n e r r e i c h t da  und  anderen M b e l u n g e n d i c h t u n g e n  E r s t d u r c h Wagner i s t dem  S a g e n s c h a t z e r s c h l o s s e n und  das  Kern  deutschen  nahegetracht,  aus  Volk dieser einer toten  79  storie  Kapp,  z u neuem L e b e n erv.eckt v; o r d e n .  ?29  CHAPTER I V HENRIK No t r e a t m e n t NIbelungensaga  IBSEN  o f t h e g r e a t dramas w r i t t e n a r o u n d t h e  i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y c o u l d be made w i t h o u t  a d i s c u s s i o n , however b r i e f ,  o f H e n r i k I b s e n ' s p l a y , "The  V i k i n g s a t H e l g e l a n d , " w h i c h he p u b l i s h e d i n 1858, i n t h e same d e c a d e w h i c h m a r k e d t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f H e b b e l ' s works.  a n d Wagner's  B u t , w h e r e a s b o t h t h e German dramas a r e p r o d u c t s o f  t h e more m a t u r e s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h o s e p o e t s , "The Vikings at Helgeland" i s s t i l l  a y o u t h f u l work, b e l o n g i n g t o  a transition  life  p e r i o d i n Ibsen's  dramas and h i s l a t e r  social  between h i s e a r l y  romantic  ones.  A t t h i s moment i n h i s l i f e ,  I b s e n was w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y  t a k i n g p a r t i n a movement a g a i n s t t h e d o m i n a n c e o f D a n i s h i n f l u e n c e I n Norwegian l i t e r a t u r e , Danish slavish trying  culture,  t o arouse  collected old  and i n s t e a d o f o r i g i n a l i t y i n t h e a r t s ,  imitation  especially  resulted. a feeling  i n the f i e l d folk-lore  folk-lore  tales,  possible, their enthusiastic  him,  But i n t e l l e c t u a l p a t r i o t s of nationalism i n their  of literature.  material,  original  a were  country,  Several writers  such as peasant  and rewrote  t r a d i t i o n s and  them, r e t a i n i n g ,  characteristics,  a s f a r as  I b s e n was e x t r e m e l y  over t h i s n a t i o n a l t r e n d i n Norwegian l i t e r a t u r e ,  and h i s s t u d y o f f o l k - l o r e family-sagas.  Norway was s t e e p e d i n  l e d him i n turn t o the Scandinavian  Of t h e s e , t h e V o l s u n g a s a g a  especially  attracted,  a n d he r e c o g n i z e d r i c h d r a m a t i c m a t e r i a l i n t h e t r a g i c  s i t u a t i o n b e t w e e n S i g u r d a n d t h e two women v/ho l o v e d h i m .  82  and  Gunther  gives  the  I n the  the  German e p i c .  name o f H i B r d i s , b y  VBlsungasaga,  Kriemhild, entirely, of  of  as  life,  Dagny  he  calls  even to  Gunnar, g i v e n  up  ined  f o r him  Dagny. tells ful  Had  the  friend the  we  -  and  secret  held  together,  the  and  two  modern c o n f l i c t , The Strong, with  play  sons  5 r n u l f has daughter,  was. the  The  love  i n the  and  a  his  Gunnar,  days-rest,  the  Hagen conception  conventional. has  already  who  married  are  mistake, faith-  do  that  wrecked.  t h o u become more  I t i s the  old  i n terms  a  he  - -  -  famous  story of  dest-  weaker  to h i s  f o r i f he  lives  was  the  the  give  for  of  Sieg-  realistic  friendship. chance meeting between Sigurd  wife  the  of  vengeance.  play,  t h a n he  loves;  two  own  HiBrdis  a man  then hadst  versus  avenge  exposition of  web,  Dagny, and  neighbourhood  H i B r d i s , by  entrance  woman h e  her  known  friendship  himself  may  pagan  of  more c l e a r l y  opens w i t h  a few  out  Queens, r e i n t e r p r e t e d  come t o  for  has  I happier."-'-  accompanied' by  his  harbour  the  Norn's  two  has,  the  the  he  Is  of  t i m i d and  strong-souled  f a t e s , and  a l l save  out  opening of  " A l l good g i f t s  than a l l others, fried  the  realizing  later:  carrying  the  figure  represents  e r r o r , - he  to him  HiBrdis, him  rends  by  of  mother  equivalent  the  early Kriemhild,  some y e a r s b e f o r e fatal  Norse  Ibsen omits  point  the  committed h i s  which Sigurd's  adequately  the  B r y r i h i l d , however,  Gudrun, the  Dagny.  HiBrdis  I s much l i k e  Sigurd,  and  To  of  not  father  urnulf,  G u n n a r Headman's home.  carrying and  her  o f f of h i s  Sigurd  has  foster-  sailed  into  knowing n e a r whose house  quickly follows  the  In  natural  peasant Kare upon the  scene,  dialogue. seeking  the he With just-  §1  All  through h i s c r e a t i v e l i f e ,  appeal  t o Ibsen,  this  s o r t o f s i t u a t i o n was t o  I t i s found i n h i s e a r l y p l a y s , but i t  a p p e a r s w i t h g r e a t e r f o r c e a n d v i v i d n e s s i n "The V i k i n g s " , and  f o r e s h a d o w s t h e u s e h e was l a t e r t o make o f i t .  did  Ibsen  delve  into the VBlsungasaga but also into a l l the o l d  Icelandic literature, and up  Not o n l y  into "Egils'  Saga", t h e " L a x d a e l a  t h e " N j a l a Saga", and from these  various  sources  Saga",  he b u i l t  h i s drama. T h i s p l a y he w r o t e w i t h a d e f i n i t e p u r p o s e i n v i e w .  By h o l d i n g up t o t h e N o r w e g i a n p e o p l e t h e p a s s i o n a t e feeling  i ntheir  ancestors  depth o f  and t h e rugged grandeur o f t h e i r  own  n a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s , h e h o p e d t o w i n them b a c k f r o m D a n i s h i n f l u e n c e t o a c l o s e r a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e i r own c u l t u r e . studying  After  a l l t h e o l d f a m i l y - s a g a s , he e x t r a c t e d f r o m them a  picture of the austere  life  o f the h e r o i c but p r i m i t i v e an-  c e s t o r s o f the Norwegian people,  basing  t h e main p a r t o f t h e  p l o t upon I n c i d e n t s o f t h e "VBlsungasaga", and e n r i c h i n g I t w i t h i n c i d e n t s from the other ant  s a g a s . Some o f t h e most  import-  f e a t u r e s o f t h e V B l s u n g a s a g a ' , he d i d n o t u s e a t a l l , h o w -  ever, because they  d i d n o t f i t i n w i t h h i s scheme, - as f o r  example, t h e g o l d e n t r e a s u r e w i t h i t s f e a r f u l their l i f e  i n p r i m i t i v e times  curse.  A s i t was  w h i c h I b s e n w i s h e d t o p o r t r a y , he  s e t h i s s t o r y i n a d e f i n i t e h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e gods and  d e m i - g o d s h a d become e x t i n c t .  beginning  The t i m e he c h o o s e s i s t h e  of the C h r i s t i a n e r a i n the north.  names o f t h e p r i n c i p a l m a l e c h a r a c t e r s S i g u r d and Gunnar, - c o r r e s p o n d i n g ,  Ibsen r e t a i n s the  i n the VBlsungasaga,  of course,  t o the S i e g f r i e d  83  ice,  the dominant p e r s o n a l i t y of HiBrdis,who soon f o l l o w s  begins t o occupy the  stage.  Neither  S i g u r d nor  urnulf  him  can  b e l i e v e Gunnar to be g u i l t y o f i n j u s t i c e to anyone, but when Rare blames H i B r d i s , u r n u l f murmurs i n an "Ay,  ay,  'tis like h e r j "  Prom t h i s moment H i B r d i s f i l l s ing  aside;  1  the canvass, a dark and menac-  f i g u r e , a p u r e l y p r i m i t i v e woman.  With the e x c e p t i o n  of  u r n u l f , whose f e e l i n g s f o r h i s f o s t e r - c h i l d are mixed with contempt, the other  characters  presence of t h i s passionate  are i l l at ease when i n the  virago.  Gunnar, when he  sees her  coming, i s " d i s t u r b e d " , knowing f u l l w e l l that h i s plans be u p s e t .  He  does not understand h i s w i f e , he r e a l i z e s , how-  ever, t h a t she has u l o u s , but he e a r l i e r vow plans  and  the power to make him  m i s e r a b l e and  i s a b s o l u t e l y h e l p l e s s , and  to her  refuse  ridic-  a reminder of h i s  i s s u f f i c i e n t to f o r c e him  atonement to u r n u l f .  to see through her  Nor  to change h i s  i s he  c l e v e r enough  subsequent change of f r o n t , and  obediently  comes back to S i g u r d and u r n u l f , b r i n g i n g overtures and  will  of peace  an i n v i t a t i o n to a banquet at h i s house. Ibsen d i s r e g a r d e d  B r y n h i l d ) , but  still  the d i v i n e o r i g i n of H i B r d i s  endowed her with the passionate  which seem more r i g h t f u l l y to belong to the race  (or feelings  of the gods,  yet almost Impossible to conceive of as n a t u r a l i n a human being.  B r y n h i l d , reduced to human s t a t u r e , i s a  character  to understand.  Never does she  difficult  e x h i b i t a temperate  emotion; her resentment a g a i n s t u r n u l f , the p r i d e before S i g u r d , her contempt f o r Dagny, a l l are I. Ibsen, C o l l e c t e d Works, I I , I I .  she  exhibits  passionately  84  experienced. him  She  l o v e d S i g u r d , but  she  seems t o h a v e  l e s s f o r h i m s e l f , t h a n f o r h i s powers of achievement  f o r the  s a t i s f a c t i o n i t might have b r o u g h t t o h e r  ambition. uses him  Her as  a tool  was  degradation  boundless  ambitions.  e n j o y e d a s u p e r h u m a n d e s t i n y , whose one  who  of place  own  who  b a n i s h m e n t was  out  to f u r t h e r her  i s not  had  r o b b e d o f t h a t s o l a c e by  has  Gunnar's w i f e  understood.  she h a s  But  a trick.  not had  in  could win Her  her,  feeling  of  H i o r d i s Is supposed t o  be  nature.  enough t o o c c u p y h e r ,  so  she  brooded upon her husband's proven prowess, c o n s o l i n g  Ibsen has won  g i v e n no  her had  f i e r c e b e a r who  not  B r y n h i l d of the i n the  guarded her.  I t seems r a t h e r l i k e  of course,  b e t w e e n h e r h u s b a n d and h e r  humble him.  Her  insults  hero  really  secondly,  the  a combinatlike  proportions.  Sigurd.  a t w o - f o l d d e s i r e I n b r i n g i n g ©rnulf  S i g u r d t o h e r home; - f i r s t l y ,  and,  marriage.  The  o v e r c o m i n g t h e Amazon,  s a g a b r o u g h t down t o r e a l i s t i c  H i B r d i s has  her-  t o overcome h e r h e r s e l f i n combat, but  s a g a , i t was,  sulted her;  shown s i n c e  superhuman s t r e n g t h t o H i S r d i s .  i o n o f s l a y i n g t h e d r a g o n and  As  intense  solace  of mortals  s e l f w i t h t h a t f o r t h e d e f i c i e n c e s he h a s  who  merely  i n B r y n h i l d , the f a l l e n V a l k y r i e ,  t h a t only the bravest  c a n be  Such  a n o r d i n a r y woman, endowed w i t h a s o r t o f V a l k y r i e As  -  f e e l i n g f o r G u n n a r -is i n d i f f e r e n c e , - she  passion  and  loved  and  t o p r o v o k e an o p e n q u a r r e l  foster-father,who  has  openly  in-  t o see more o f S i g u r d t h a t she  may  l u s t f o r vengeance a g a i n s t O r n u l f f o r h i s  c a n o n l y be  a p p e a s e d b y b l o o d s h e d , w h i c h she  about i n a demoniacally  c l e v e r manner.  Gudrun of her husband's prowess, but  brings  B r y n h i l d boasted  H i c - r d i s has  a l l the  to  85 "banquet g u e s t s d i r e c t s her  f o r an  who  l a c k s the  h i d e s h i s anger. t h a t u r n u l f has he  kills  Failing  t o arouse S i g u r d ,  She  self-control  o f S i g u r d , and  s u c c e e d s i n g o a d i n g G u n n a r , who  k i l l e d h i s young son,  Thorolf, although  to overhasty  S i g u r d begs him  l a c k o f human f e e l i n g  is clearly  shows no  sorrow over the d i r e consequences of her  u r n u l f brings back t h e i r c h i l d , iiigil,  a l l h i s other  child's l i f e . says  As he  i n d i c a t e d when  she  passion, of  atone-  T h o r o l f , and. t h a t  f i g h t t o save  their  l e a v e s , b r o b e n - h e a r t e d b u t n o t bowed,  she  scornfully:  "Ay, men  l e t him  go  t o f a c e him  Dagny - I wot  as he  she  lives  i s extremely  example, i n the  we  shall  scarce  come w i t h s t r i f e  i t i s the l a s t  Though she Ibsen,  will;  s h o u l d he  f r o m I c e l a n d on s u c h a  for  sons I n the  believes  wait.  t o them by way  ment, o n l y t o f i n d t h a t they have k i l l e d  cannot  vengeance,  to  HiBrdis'  after losing  she  c l e v e r I n s i n u a t i o n s towards T h o r o l f , u r n u l f s  youngest son,  and  audience.  n e e d many  again!  Now,  time thy f a t h e r s h a l l  sail  quest!"" ' 1  i n the  tenth century,  b a r b a r o u s and  according  primitive.  t h o u g h t o f s o r c e r i e s and  to  She d e l i g h t s ,  wild,  unnatural  experiences: "Ha,  w h a t j o y t o be  back - to speed before l u r e men She  t h e b a r k , and  and  r i d e on a w h a l e ' s  wake t h e  t o t h e d e p t h s w i t h l o v e l y songs o f  makes a b o w - s t r i n g  o v e r the  a witch-wife  arrows.  Her  h e r o e s and h e r o i n e s 1, I b s e n , I I , 66. 2. I b i d , I I , 4 5 .  of her  own  h a i r , and  greatest ambition  who  live  in Valhal:  storm,  and  sorcery!" she  i s t o be  sings sorceries one  of  the  86  "They a r e t h e "brave men strong  that f e l l  i n the f i g h t , the  women t h a t d i d n o t d r a g o u t t h e i r l i v e s  like  t h e e a n d me;  rack  and storm, on t h e i r b l a c k h o r s e s ,  t h e y sweep t h r o u g h t h e a i r i n c l o u d with  ( E m b r a c e s Dagny, end p r e s s e s h e r w i l d l y Hal  tamely  Dagnyi t h i n k o f r i d i n g  o n so r a r e  a  jangling bells!  i n h e r arms.) steed!"  x  The p r o u d a n d a m b i t i o u s s o u l t h a t d a r e s t o a i m a t V a l h a l receives  a t e r r i b l e b l o w when Dagny, r o u s e d t o u n g o v e r n a b l e  anger by H i o r d i s that  1  cruel taunts, blurts  she had. b e e n won b y S i g u r d  she h a s b e e n so p r o u d l y most b i t t e r  at being  out the f a t a l  secret  and n o t t h e h u s b a n d o f whom  boasting.  B u t , whereas B r y n h i l d  was  duped, H i c - r d i s i s roused t o f u r y a t t h e  thought t h a t S i g u r d had f l o u t e d h e r .  To s u c h a n i n s u l t  there  c a n be b u t one a n s w e r : "How  h a v e I b u t one t h i n g l e f t  t h i n k upon: S i g u r d  o r I must  t o do - b u t one d e e d t o  die!"^  In the VBlsungasaga, the Brynhild. episode occupies but little the  more t h a n a q u a r t e r  chief character,  causes h i s death. each c h a r a c t e r  o f t h e s a g a , and S i g u r d  i s always  B r y n h i l d . i m p o r t a n t o n l y b e c a u s e s'he  B u t I b s e n p i v o t s t h e s t o r y around. H i B r d i s ;  i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by h e r ; S i g u r d  and. G u n n a r  l o v e h e r , K a r e h a t e s h e r , Dagny f e a r s h e r , 5 r n u l f s c o r n s h e r . Their  f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s h e r e n a b l e h e r t o sway them  She p e r s u a d e s G u n n a r t o f i g h t  Sigurd,  t h a t h e r weak and c o n v e n t i o n a l one l o n g m i s e r y , a n d she f o r c e s  _Gunnar  t o s i n g l e combat.  2. I b i d ,  ______  I I , 68.  easily.  she c o n v i n c e s  Dagny  s o u l h a s made S i g u r d ' s Sigurd  to  challenge  In the VBlsungasaga, Sigurd  life  87 o f f e r s t o p u t Gudrun a s i d e  a n d go away w i t h B r y n h i l d , b u t i n  I b s e n ' s d r a m a i t i s H i B r d i s who a t t e m p t s t o p e r s u a d e S i g u r d t o l e a v e h i s w i f e and f l e e w i t h h e r . ever,  H e r h o l d o v e r S i g u r d , how-  i s n o t a s s t r o n g a s she t h o u g h t i t , f o r he r e f u s e s t o  sacrifice  the gentle  thwarted,  s h e w i l l command h e r f a t e , a n d w h e t h e r S i g u r d d i e o r  not,  she w i l l  Dagny.  be w i t h h i m .  H i B r d i s , however, w i l l  In this respect,  more c o n s i s t e n t t h a n B r y n h i l d . death,  f o l l o w him; H i B r d i s w i l l s h i s death while  to  f o l l o w , him,  and  intending to  she t h i n k s he  scorns  w h e t h e r i t be t o l i f e  to k i l l  or t o death.  be more s u r e  h i m b y h e r own h a n d .  o f h i m i n d e a t h , she But h e r f e r o c i t y ,  h e r p a s s i o n p u t f e a r e v e n i n t o S i g u r d , when she t e l l s h i m  where t h e y  two a r e g o i n g  - t o V a l h a l - and c r i e s o u t :  "(Shrinking back)." H i B r d i s , H i B r d i s - I fear  thee!"' " 3  V a i n l y he a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g h e r b a c k t o t h e p r e s e n t Gunnar a n d E g 1 1 , b u t h e r g r e a t e s t a m b i t i o n  for to  Sigurd's  l e a r n i n g o f h i s l o v e f o r h e r , she d e t e r m i n e s  R e a l i z i n g t h a t she w i l l then decides  I b s e n makes h e r  The V a l k y r i e demands  k n o w i n g t h a t he l o v e s h e r , a n d f u l l y  her, but l a t e r ,  n o t be  her grasp f o r her not t o reach  fly  an arrow, from t h e b o w - s t r i n g  kills  i s now ,too  close  i t . She l e t s  made o f h e r own h a i r , and.  S i g u r d , b u t f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e she i s f l o u t e d b y t h e  great hero, for,before h i s death, become a C h r i s t i a n , f a t a l blow, there one.  c u t and take  dangers  and i s hers  he t e l l s  h e r t h a t he h a s  now l e s s t h a n e v e r .  For this  i s f o r H i B r d i s no s o l a c e , a s f o r t h e f i r s t  S i g u r d h a d h u m i l i a t e d h e r , b u t he h a d r e a l l y l o v e d h e r .  Now s h e h a s no c o m f o r t : I. Ibsen, I I , 112.  88  "DeadJ She  cannot  ed  the  no  escape.  ing  she  not  life  ful  he  He  potion  of  Ibsen's  thoughtful.  this to  He  and  tell  Ibsen's  that  Is  the  now  there  the  sea,  but  Her  hope f o r  one  the  the  1  summonis hop-  fate  she  happi-  C h r i s t i a n Heaven  the  Gunnar, not i n a noble  i s wiser,  he  the  his  naive,  god-like conscious  Gunnar Ibsen I b s e n , I I , 112.  has  young, more  plans;  i n every  is willing  way  to put  when H i B r d i s  he  bear, tries  against Gudrun  proposes  firmly.  HiBrdis  threatens  their  l o v e , but  Sigurd,  rather  a product  the  self-  i s naive,  evil  a  refuses  c h a r m , and of  of  s l a y i n g of H i B r d i s '  a i d s him  t o Dagny, p r e v e n t s as  of  in  thought-  because  act  did  but  a more  somewhat o l d e r ,  Gunnar's w i f e has  Gunnar of  Sigurd,  counselor,  Volsungasaga  Sigurd  Dagny, I b s e n  same n o b l e h e r o ,  a wiser  f e a s t ; he  Sigurd,  combat.  I.  of  had  Sigurd,  Gunnar and  Dagny about  the  to  fully  bottom  to  B r y n h i l d to wife, but  Dagny and  than bring pain  ior,  of  vBlsungasaga  take  but  HiBrdis to  Sigurd  tells  realizes  In the  to  Sigurd  Sigurd  calm Gunnar at  aside  the  f o r g e t f u l n e s s , but  headstrong;  b e c a u s e he  s o r c e r i e s , and  Sigurd,  gave up  The  Kare.  of  much.  sacrifice.  to  Sigurd,  wreck!"  t h a n t h a t , she  r i d e without  is a better friend,  husband.  magic  her  soul to  him.  characters  change v e r y  Ibsen  worse  h e r s e l f to  with  follow  The  but  command i s r e l e n t l e s s .  lay in a cannot  flings  t o have to  to  I b r o u g h t my  from V a l h a l by  She  not  attempted  have  accompany him,  riders  thus  ness  Then t r u l y  of  this the  by  challenging  tenth  century,  becomes a b r a v e  duties  ennobled  r e s t i n g upon  somewhat«  and  wis©  Gunnar loses warr-  him.  In the  VBlsungasaga  89 he  treacherously  wife, him, to  but he  as  he  only  death,  "it  He  him  thinks  I say  dastard  am  I."  Ibsen's  drama,  Gudrun had hild,  so  she  has  persuaded by  through  amazed t h a t  unworthy  of him.  is  a gentle  companion and  o l d man,  1. 2. 3.  Sigurd,  dost  I am  -  speech;  name i t . "  strangeness  answers w i t h  Sig-  her:  -  lofty  1  other-  When H i B r d i s w i l d l y  that  asks  calm:  a c o w a r d ; no  That hast  sorcery, to  coward  thou never  had  her, love  whereas her,  so,  proud  of his  a  is  and  BrynDagny,  easily  that  because  she she  wife. very  convincing  sons, worshipping  little  But  loved  however, p r i z e s her,  portrays  in  proud Gudrun.  n e v e r done  a loving  has  could  been!"^  role  k n o w i n g he  support  Sigurd  Ibsen  H i B r d i s he  I b s e n , I I , 76. I b i d , I I , 68. I b i d , I I , 68.  to  instant  tells  p l a y i n g a much more i m p o r t a n t  H i B r d i s t h a t he  Thorolf. . For  fears her  Gunnar!  to have p r i d e  In Ornulf,  brother  consents f o r an  with  replies:  is  i s an  as he  when t h o u  only  his  ,  Sigurd  o v e r w h e l m e d and  He  t o me  save  only  i s a w e a k e r woman t h a n t h e  won  quiet  i s w i t c h c r a f t i n a l l thy  t r u e , he  art not,  Dagny, w h i l e  him  warrior.  much moved,  "That t h o u  Gunnar never  spell,  c o w a r d b e c a u s e he  s t o r y be  to  of blood-brotherhood  of k i l l i n g  - there  is a l l true,  Sigurd,  Ibsen,  true, brave  Sigurd,  deeds, persuade h i s younger  seemeth f a i r  i f Dagny's  or and  a  i s a  "it  In  r i d of  oath  i s under Hic-rdis'  deed but  w i s e he  wizard's  and  i s as  i s only  to get  sworn the  crime.  when he  no  has  w i l l , by  commit the  urd's  decides  l o v e , but  he  character.  the  youngest,  would  see  her  90  na  P P : » and w o u l d a t o n e f o r t h e s l a y i n g o f h e r f a t h e r . r  of  h i s s i x s o n s he c a n b e a r , b u t t h e l o s s o f T h o r o l f  his  h e a r t , though not h i s p r i d e .  L o f t y and  h e l p h i m c a r r y t h e b o d y , he b r e a k s "Stay!  a whimpering  Thorolf alone.  saw me His  to  of  follow  forth:  woman?  of  Stay, I sayl - I can bear  S o n l e s s I g o ; b u t none s h a l l s a y t h a t  he  bowed."  spirit  gift  breaks  T h i n k y e u r n u l f w i l l be f o l l o w e d b y a t r a i n  mourners l i k e my  loss  c a l m he h e a r s  T h o r o l f ' s d e a t h , b u t when S i g u r d and Dagny a t t e m p t to  The  b r e a k s a f t e r he h a s b u r i e d h i s s o n s , b u t t h e g r e a t  of the P a t e s , the s k i l l  b a c k h i s c o u r a g e , and he a w o n d e r f u l o l d man,  t o s i n g of h i s sorrows, g i v e s him  i s ready t o take h i s revenge.  h a s t y o f temper,  y e t k i n d and  a b r a v e w a r r i o r , a t e n d e r f a t h e r and a g i f t e d  He i s  thoughtful,  skald.  I b s e n hoped, by d e p i c t i n g these brave rugged c h a r a c t e r s i n h i s drama, t o r o u s e h i s p e o p l e from l e t h a r g i c emotions tragic the  to genuine n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g .  conflict  from the l i f e  So he  imitative  showed- them t h i s  of t h e i r ancestors.  At  first  Scandinavian p u b l i c d i d not take k i n d l y to h i s p l a y .  Many o f t h e p e o p l e w e r e t o o f a m i l i a r w i t h and h a d l o v e d t h e sagas  too l o n g , t o e n j o y s e e i n g p i e c e s o f v a r i o u s ones  i n t o a new  shape b y a y o u n g p o e t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n .  welded  They m i s s e d  the  m y t h i c a l e l e m e n t s , t o o , t h e g o d s and t h e f i e r y d r a g o n  for  g r e a t e r r e a l i s m h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d by a f i e r c e w h i t e b e a r .  A t f i r s t t h e y c o u l d see l i t t l e of  t h e s e men,  t h a t was  which  h e r o i c about t h e deeds  and H i B r d i s , w i t h h e r p r i m i t i v e , p a s s i o n a t e  n a t u r e , was d i f f i c u l t I . I b s e n , I I , 66.  t o comprehend.  B u t l a t e r , when I b s e n ' s  s o c i a l dramas were a t t h e i r h e i g h t , c r i t i c s b e g a n t o s e e t h e value  i n this  later  i d e a s a r e t o be f o u n d i n "The V i k i n g s a t h e 1 g e l a n d . "  The  e a r l y p l a y o f his .  The k e r n e l s o f many o f h i s  drama i s , s i m p l y , t h e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f a l i e .  Ibsen  stresses  i n h i s l a t e r p u r e l y s o c i a l dramas t h e v i t a l  of truth  a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l b a s i s o f a l l human r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  I n "The V i k i n g s " h e i s a l r e a d y p o i n t i n g t h i s o u t ; h i s b r i d e through t r i c k e r y , foundation  cannot l a s t .  and a marriage b u i l t  adopted the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h ,  is  Gunnar won on such a  Ibsen p o i n t s out, moreover, the  t r a g e d i e s t h a t r e s u l t as c i v i l i z a t i o n p r o g r e s s e s .  him  necessity  Sigurd has  w h i l e H i B r d i s , who w o u l d f o l l o w  a n y w h e r e , c a n n o t go w i t h h i m i n t o t h i s w o r l d , b e c a u s e she an out-and-out pagan.  And, as h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t b e f o r e ,  I b s e n ' s i d e a , t h a t a s t r o n g man i s f r e q u e n t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y two  kinds  o f women, i s f o u n d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n b e t w e e n S i g u r d ,  H i B r d i s a n d Dagny.  The f i g u r e o f H i B r d i s r e p r e s e n t s  h i s theory  t h a t n e i t h e r uncompromising p a s s i o n n o r uncompromising can  co-exist with organized  society.  These s o c i a l problems, which I b s e n  d e v e l o p e d more  i n h i s l a t e r d r a m a s , a r e s e t , I n "The V i k i n g s " , i n a atmosphere.  fully  romantic  The t i m e o f t h e drama i s a s t o r m y s n o w - g r e y  t e r d a y ; two o f t h e a c t s a r e o n t h e r o c k y Gunnar's d a r k feast-room.  f o r such a p l a y .  sea-cliffs,  The s c e n e i s n o r t h e r n  "each n i g h t i s a whole w i n t e r l o n g " . setting  will  Storms occur  two i n  Norway, where  I t i s a perfect at f i t t i n g  win-  romantic  parts i n the  a c t i o n , most n o t a b l y  i n the l a s t  HiBrdis  The V a l k y r i e s , r i d i n g t o V a l h a l , a r e ,  and S i g u r d .  according  to tradition,  a c t , i n t h e scene between  always announced by t h e storm.  Ibsen  a l l o w s h i m s e l f t h i s one end,  touch  when t h e c h i l d E g i l h a s  of s u p e r n a t u r a l  imagery at  the  a v i s i o n of h i s mother l e a d i n g  the w i l d r i d e t o V a l h a l . As has product  been s a i d before,  t h i s p l a y of Ibsen's i s a  of a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d between h i s p u r e l y  and h i s s o c i a l d r a m a s , and under the  i t Is very  i n f l u e n c e of both these  romantic  naturally, strongly  p o i n t s of view.  Hebbel's  p l a y , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s p u r e l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l . was  t o make r e l i v e  valuable r e l i c lied, it  i n the h e a r t s  o f t h e German p e o p l e ,  of t h e i r mediaeval l i t e r a t u r e ,  c h a n g i n g i t as l i t t l e  as p o s s i b l e and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y acceptable  His  the  the  t h e n o n l y t o make Wagner,  i n the o l d myths the e t e r n a l -  l y human, and  the most f i t t i n g  symbols f o r the p h i l o s o p h y  life  so s t r o n g l y h e l d  at the  w h i c h he  most  Nibelungen-  t o the modern r e a d e r .  h o w e v e r , t h e p u r e R o m a n t i c i s t , saw  purpose  t i m e he  wrote h i s  of great  tetralogy. E a c h p o e t u s e d a v e h i c l e s u i t e d t o h i s own the  traditional  iambic,  r e - w r i t i n g of a great ic  verse  he  was  o f h i s own  the o n l y p o s s i b l e form, t o him,  epic i n dramatic  Hebbel, for  the  f o r m ; Wagner, a f a n t a s ' t -  m a k i n g , t h a t c o u l d be  sung t o m u s i c ,  although  m i s l e d by h i s d e s i r e t o r e p r o d u c e the p r i m i t i v e a t -  mosphere i n t o u s i n g t o extreme l e n g t h s the f o r m and  a r c h a i c w o r d s and  more d i f f i c u l t the  ideas;  artistic  admirably o l d sagas.  expressions,  d e s i r e d ; Ibsen,  s u i t e d to h i s r e a l i s t i c  really  simple  laconic  e a c h i n h i s own  way,  task. a new  text  achieving  and. e t h i c a l t r e a t m e n t  Each poet accomplished a great  g i v e n to t h e i r people,  alliterative  w h i c h make t h e  f o r modern r e a d e r s , w i t h o u t  e f f e c t s he  old  prose, of  the  They have appreciation  93  and  an I n c r e a s e d  teutonic  culture.  interest  i n t h e g r e a t monuments o f a n c i e n t  BIBLIOGRAPHY Simroek, K a r l Joseph:  Das N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , S t u t t g a r t u n d  Tubingen, 1843, Morris, William:  VBlsunga  Saga,  New Y o r k , L o n d o n a n d  Bombay, Longmans, G r e e n , Hebbel, P r i e d r i c h :  S a m t l i c h e Werke,  a n d Co., 1 9 0 I .  Berlin,  B,  Behr's  Verlag, Wagner, R i c h a r d :  Der R i n g des N i b e l u n g e n ,  Mainz, Ibsen, Henrik:  B, S c h o t t ' s s B h n e .  C o l l e c t e d Works, mann,  Bartels, Adolf:  EInzel-Ausgabe,  London,  William  Heine-  1906,  C h r i s t i a n F r i e d r i c h Hebbel,  Leipzig,  P h i l i p p s Reclam j u n . Brandes,  George:  Henrik Ibsen, C r i t i c a l  S t u d i e s , New Y o r k ,  The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1899. C a r l y l e , Thomas:  Critlcal New Y o r k ,  Coar, John Firman:  and M i s c e l l a n e o u s E s s a y s , D, A p p l e t o n a n d Company, 1 8 8 I .  S t u d i e s i n German L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e  Nineteenth Century,  New Y o r k ,  The Mac-  Boston,  R i c h a r d G.  m i l l a n Company, 1 9 0 3 , Eller,  Wm.  Henri:  I b s e n i n Germany,  Badger, 1918.  95 11. E l l i s ,  Havelock:  The  New  Spirit,  New  York,  The  Modern  Library. 12. F r a n c k e , Kuno:  Social York,  13. G o l t h . e r , W o l f g a n g :  F o r c e s i n German L i t e r a t u r e ,  H e n r y H o l t a n d Company,  1897.  D i e d e u t s c h e D i c h t u n g im M i t t e l a l t e r , Stuttgart,  14. v o n G o t t s c h a l l ,  New  Rudolf:  J.B. M e t z l e r ,  Die deutsche  Nationallitteratur  des n e u n z e h n t e n Breslau, 15. H e b b e l , F r i e d r i c h :  Briefe,  1912.  Jahrhunderts,  Eduard Trewendt,  Berlin,  1881.  B.Behr's V e r l a g ,  1905. 16. H e b b e l , F r i e d r i c h :  Tagebucher,  Berlin,  B. B e h r ' s  Verlag,  1904. 17. K a p p , J u l i u s :  Wagner, D e u t s c h e  Ver1ags-Anstalt,  Stuttgart,  1912. 18. Kuh,  Em11:  Blographie Friedrich Wilhelm Braumuller,  19. Kummer, F r i e d r i c h :  Deutsche und  L i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t e des Dresden,  19.  Carl  1924.  Friedrich. Hebbel,  Verlag,  Leipzig,  1912.  20. J a h r h u n d e r t s ,  Reiasner, 20. E u t s c h e r , A r t h u r :  H e b b e l s , W i e n und  1907.  Berlin,  B.Behr's  96  21. L a s s e r r e ; P i e r r e :  The S p i r i t o f F r e n c h M u s i c ,  London,  K e g a n P a u l , T r e n c h , T r u b n e r a n d Co., L t d . , 1921. 22. L e r o y , L . A r c l i i e r :  Wagner' s M u s i c Drama o f t h e R i n g ,  London, 23. L i c h t e n b e r g e r , H e n r i :  N o e l Douglas, 1925.  R i c h a r d Wagner, P o e t e e t P e n s e u r , Paris,  24. M e y e r , R i c h a r d M. :  LIbrairle F e l i x Alean, I9II.  Die deutsche L l t e r a t u r Jahrhunderts, B e r l i n ,  25. Moses, Montrose  J.:  des  neunzehnten  G e o r g B o n d i , 1910,  f i e n r i k I b s e n : The Man and H i s P l a y s , Boston,  L i t t l e B r o w n a n d Co., 1 9 2 0 .  26. V o n M a t h , R i c h a r d : E i n l e i t u n g Paderborn,  i n das N i b e l u n g e n l i e d , F e r d i n a n d S c h o n i n g h , 1907.  2 7 . Newman, E r n e s t : A S t u d y o f Wagner,  London,  Bertram  Dobell,  1899. 28. R e h o r n ,  Karl:  D i e d e u t s c h e Saga v o n den N i b e l u n g e n i n d e r d e u t s c h e n P o e s i e , F r a n k f u r t am M a i n ,  Moritz  D i e s t e r w e g , 1877. 2 9 . S c h e r e r , W.:  A H i s t o r y o f German L i t e r a t u r e ,  New Y o r k ,  C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1903. 30. v o n S c h r e n c k , E r i c h :  R i c h a r d W&gner a l s D i c h t e r , C.H. B e c k , 1 9 1 3 .  Miinchen,  97  31. Shaw, G.B.:  The P e r f e c t W a g n e r I t e ,  London,  Constable  a n d Co., L t d . , 1 9 2 6 . 32. W e i t h r e c h t , C a r l :  Die Nibelungen Zurich,  33. Weston, J e s s i e L.:  F. S c h u l t h e s s , 1 8 9 2 .  The L e g e n d s o f t h e Wagner Drama, London,  34. W i t k o w s k i :  im M o d e m e n Drama,  D a v i d N u t t , 1903.  The German Drama o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h New Y o r k ,  1909.  Century,  

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