UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Technique of Katherine Mansfield Greenwood, Lillian Bethel 1965

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1965_A8 G7.pdf [ 12.74MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302277.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302277-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302277-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302277-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302277-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302277-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302277-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302277-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302277.ris

Full Text

THE  TECHNIQUE  OF  KATHERINE MANSFIELD  by LILLIAN B.A.,  BETHEL GREENWOOD  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 1  A THESIS. SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1965  In  presenting  the r e q u i r e m e n t s British  Columbia,  available mission  for  for  purposes his  for I  agree  extensive  without  this  thesis  my w r i t t e n  Department  of  the L i b r a r y  of  I  this  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y shall  make i t  f u r t h e r agree thesis  for  that  It  is  for  understood  that.copying  f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l  F.ngl i fifr Columbia,  of  of freely per-  scholarly  by the Head o f my Department  permission..  May 6, 1965*  in partial  degree at  study,  copying  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  that  r e f e r e n c e and  may be g r a n t e d  of  thesis  an a d v a n c e d  representatives.  cation  this  not  or or  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i s o l a t e and examine the major t e c h n i c a l devices of the short s t o r i e s of Katherine Mansfield.  Since the emphasis w i l l be on Mansfield's  t e c h n i c a l s k i l l , not on the development of that s k i l l ,  my  d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d to the s t o r i e s of Mansfield's major w r i t i n g p e r i o d , to the completed s t o r i e s of B l i s s . The Garden P a r t y , and The Dove's Nest. The i n t r o d u c t o r y f i r s t chapter gives a summary of the c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n Mansfield's work has r e c e i v e d , a t t e n t i o n l a r g e l y commendatory but g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n s p e c i f i c examination of the s t o r i e s themselves, and of the few statements Mansfield h e r s e l f made on her principles.  artistic  From t h i s s t a r t i n g point the s t o r i e s themselves  are examined as evidence of Mansfield's technique.  For  the purpose of t h i s paper, I l i m i t my d i s c u s s i o n to what I b e l i e v e are the major aspects of Mansfield's a r t of story w r i t i n g : her use of time, of point of view, of names, and of symbolism.  In Chapters I I - V these techniques  examined separately i n r e l a t i o n t o the s t o r i e s . VI summarizes the conclusions reached  ii  are  Chapter  i n previous chapters:  iii that Mansfield's s k i l l i s a unique blend of s e v e r a l l a r g e l y t r a d i t i o n a l techniques.  A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n i s given of  the problem of Mansfield's unwritten work, work she hoped to do but was prevented from attempting by her e a r l y death. The report of a conversation w i t h Mansfield a few weeks before her death i s c i t e d as evidence that Mansfield had come to recognize the emotional flaw i n much of her e a r l i e r work.  The conclusion reached  i s t h a t , i f indeed  Mansfield had succeeded i n widening her view of l i f e , she would have been able t o produce work of a very high l i t e r a r y standard since she had c e r t a i n l y attained a very high degree of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l .  iv  TABLE  CHAPTER  I  II  III  IV  V  VI  OF  CONTENTS  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  1  POINT OF VIEW  33  TIME  74  USE OF NAMES  128  SYMBOLISM  169  CONCLUSION  237  BIBLIOGRAPHY  243  INTRODUCTION  Katharine Mansfield had n e i t h e r a long nor a p r o l i f i c l i f e as a w r i t e r . From the time of her second a r r i v a l London i n 1908  to her death e a r l y i n 1923,  in  besides the  personal w r i t i n g of l e t t e r s and j o u r n a l s , she produced f o r eventual p u b l i c a t i o n only some immature verse, one volume of book reviews, and f i v e s m a l l c o l l e c t i o n s of short s t o r i e s . I t i s on these short s t o r i e s that the l i t e r a r y  reputation  of Katharine Mansfield r e s t s . C r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n was from the f i r s t g e n e r a l l y commendatory of Mansfield*s work.  Even I n a German Pension.  her g e n e r a l l y Immature f i r s t volume of c o l l e c t e d s t o r i e s , received favorable i f not unusually e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance on i t s p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1911.  S y l v i a Berkman says i n her  Katharine Mansfield? A C r i t i c a l Biography that reviews I n a German Pension "spoke of the author*s  * acute i n s i g h t ,  her unquenchable humor,* her * r e a l i s t i c s k i l l . ' ,  l a t e r noted that her Pension "was  of  1 , 1  Mansfield  a bad book, but the press  2  was kind t o i t . "  I n 1918  John Middleton Murry and h i s  ^"Sylvia Berkman, Katherine M a n s f i e l d s A C r i t i c a l Biography (New Haven, 195D, p. 38. K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , The Scrapbook of Katherine M a n s f i e l d (London,1939)» p«186. Murry t h i n k s the e n t r y , headed "Autobiography," was w r i t t e n " i n answer t o a request from a l i t e r a r y magazine, but probably n e i t h e r sent nor published." 2  1  brother Richard p r i v a t e l y p r i n t e d "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s . " Though the s l i m volume r e c e i v e d , as Berkman says, "scant 3  notice i n the press,"  J.W.N.Sullivan  l a t e r devoted a  lengthy and approving review t o i t i n The Athenaeum.  Sullivan  praised the s t o r y f o r i t s " e l u s i v e " q u a l i t y , f o r i t s essence which "seems to be quite unanalysable," and ended by admitting that he was s h i r k i n g h i s r e a l task of c r i t i c by not  attempting  to d e f i n e t h i s q u a l i t y : We do i t by saying that 'Je ne parle pas . Francais' i s a s t o r y which possesses genius. In the same year as S u l l i v a n ' s review, 1920, Mansfield' second volume of c o l l e c t e d s t o r i e s was published as B l i s s and Other S t o r i e s .  This c o l l e c t i o n contained the f i r s t  mature M a n s f i e l d s t o r i e s , showing the t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y was t o develop s t e a d i l y .  she  With i t Mansfield's l i t e r a r y  r e p u t a t i o n as one of the leading short story w r i t e r s of her day was d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Conrad Aiken wrote of •5 Mansfield's " i n f i n i t e l y i n q u i s i t i v e s e n s i b i l i t y . "  An  unsigned review i n the Times L i t e r a r y Supplement s t a t e s : •^Berkman, p. 120. J.W.N.Sullivan, Athenaeum. (1920), 447. 4  Ill,  (May  "The S t o r y - W r i t i n g Genius,"  ^Conrad Aiken, "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " 11,  1921),  210.  The  The Freeman.  3 Miss M a n s f i e l d , w i t h the a i r of d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y r e p o r t i n g , i s m a k i n g d.1 t h e w h i l e h e r own w o r l d . I n , o t h e r words, she i s an a r t i s t i n f i c t i o n . G.S.  Street, writing  Bliss  i n the London Mercury, s a i d o f the  collection* The a r t i s t i c i n t e n t i o n was a c h i e v e d i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e : t h e r e was no room f o r a n y t h i n g more./  M a l c o l m Cowley spoke o f M a n s f i e l d ' s " o b s e r v a t i o n o f a s " e x t e n s i v e and a c c u r a t e , " o f h e r s t y l e as "accurately t o her matter," "a p o s i t i v e  people"  fitting  o f h e r p u n c t u a t i o n as s h o w i n g  genius": The r e s u l t o f a l l t h i s i s t h a t h e r b e s t d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e f i n a l and p e r f e c t ; one must f i g h t back t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o quote whole pages o f t h e m . 8  Cowley l a t e r wrote t h a t t o read B l i s s of adventure,  "was  t o make a v o y a g e  o r maybe e v e n t o o p e n Chapman's H o m e r . " 9  Ian  A. G o r d o n i n h i s W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work p a m p h l e t o n M a n s f i e l d says t h a t B l i s s  "was  acclaimed  on a l l s i d e s . " ^  o p i n i o n A n t o n y A l p e r s , M a n s f i e l d ' s most r e c e n t agrees:  i n h i s K a t h a r i n e M a n s f i e l d he s t a g e s  0  With this biographer,  that"Bliss  c o n t a i n e d t h e b e s t w o r k K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d h a d done u p t o °Unsigned r e v i e w , " M i s s M a n s f i e l d ' s S t o r i e s " , L i t e r a r y Supplement, XIX, ( D e c , l 6 , 1920,) 855.  Times  <&. S t r e e t , "Nos e t Mutamur," L o n d o n M e r c u r y . V 54.  (1921),  M a l c o l m C o w l e y , "Page D r . B l u m ! " D i a l . L X X I 9  1 0  C o w l e y , "The A u t h o r of B l i s s , " D i a l . L x x I T T I a n A. G o r d o n , K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d  (1921)365. (1922),231.  (London,1955)P.13.  4 t h e summer o f 1 9 2 0  ,|AJ  " and t h a t t h e book " d i s p l a y e d h e r I P  mastery o f h e r chosen form". The G a r d e n P a r t y and O t h e r S t o r i e s was p u b l i s h e d two y e a r s l a t e r ,  i n 1922; t h e l i t e r a r y p o s i t i o n M a n s f i e l d  h a d e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h h e r e a r l i e r w o r k was c o n s i d e r a b l y enhanced. A n u n s i g n e d a r t i c l e i n The E n g l i s h R e v i e w n o t e d s K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d won a h i g h r e p u t a t i o n o v e r B l i s s , and s u s t a i n s i t b r i l l i a n t l y i n [The G a r d e n P a r t y ) , w h i c h q u i t e e s t a b l i s h e s h e r as o n e ' o r o u r most n o t a b l e w r i t e r s . ^ 1  R e b e c c a West w r o t e t h a t M a n s f i e l d ' s  "inventions" "are  e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s o l i d , " that h e r technique s h a r p e n e d " and t h a t completely  "Her c h o i c e  and e c o n o m i c a l l y  o f the incident that  prove h e r p o i n t  The T i m e s L i t e r a r y S u p p l e m e n t r e v i e w e d an unsigned  had "been will  i s astonishing."  The G a r d e n P a r t y i n  articles H a r d l y any o f t h e s e s t o r i e s r e f u s e s t o have a n i d e a , and t h e i d e a , w h i c h o t h e r s y m b o l s m i g h t h a v e f u m b l e d , i s c a u g h t by M i s s M a n s f i e l d i n a n image w h i c h makes i t d e l i g h t f u l l y new a n d s t r a n g e . T h e image was t h e s t a r t i n g - p o i n t , no./ d o u b t , b u t how many w o u l d h a v e s e e n o r d e v i s e d it?-*-?  ^Antony 1 2  Ibid..  Alpers, Katherine  Mansfield  (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 2 9 7 .  p . 298.  ^ U n s i g n e d a r t i c l e , " R e v i e w o f The G a r d e n P a r t y . " The E n g l i s h R e v i e w . X X I V (1922), 602. R e b e c c a West, "Review o f The G a r d e n P a r t y . S t a t e s m a n . X V I I I ( M a r c h 18, 1922)"; UBZ 1 4  •Unsigned Supplement.  "New  a r t i c l e , "The G a r d e n P a r t y " T i m e s L i t e r a r y  ( M a r c h 2, 1922),  137.  5 J.W.  Krutch wrote i n The Nation that Mansfield was  "important"  because she has achieved a method of expression so perfect that i t can reproduce upon paper some outwardly undistinguished incident with a l l the richness which gives i t i s poignancy i n actual l i f e . " 1  Berkman sums up the reviews of The Garden Party: Notice a f t e r notice commended the penetration of Miss Mansfield's i n s i g h t , the poetic quality of her prose, the concentrated b r i l l i a n c e of her technique.....17 and states that during the b r i e f period between the p u b l i c a t i o n of B l i s s and the end of Mansfield's l i f e i n January,  1923,  she had come into a recognition which focused widespread notice upon her d e a t h . 18  Two more volumes of Mansfield's short stories were published posthumously by John Middleton Murry.  The Dove's  Nest and Other Stories appeared i n 1923; i t contained the s i x s t o r i e s Mansfield had completed f o r a new book and over a dozen story fragments of varying length.  In reviewing this  volume, J.B. P r i e s t l y wrote: Katherine Mansfield was one of the few writers of our time who made l i f e seem as r i c h , exciting and s i g n i f i c a n t at every turn as i t does i n one's best moments.19 and he noted of the story fragments that "even the r e s t , the merest beginnings, are c a p i t a l r e a d i n g . " ^  CXV  i n the  1&J.W. Krutch, "The Unfortunate Mendoza," The Nation. (July 2 6 , 1 9 2 2 ) , 1 0 0 . 17Berkman, ISLOC.  p.136.  cit.  1 9 j .B. P r i e s t l y , "Review of The Dove's Nest." London Mercury. VIII ( 1 9 2 3 ) , 439. 2 0  I b M . , P.  438.  6 f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1924,  Murry p u b l i s h e d Something C h i l d i s h  and Other S t o r i e s , a c o l l e c t i o n o f mostly  e a r l y work w r i t t e n  between the p u b l i c a t i o n of I n A German Pension and  Bliss.  With t h i s volume the canon of Katherine M a n s f i e l d ' s short s t o r i e s was The  complete.  generally favourable c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n that  M a n s f i e l d ' s work r e c e i v e d d u r i n g her l i f e continued death,  published  i n the years s i n c e her death.  Joseph C o l l i n s wrote i n the New  has  largely  S h o r t l y a f t e r her York Times?  Tho f ^ i c l the message which Katherine M a n s f i e l d sent t o readers o f E n g l i s h f i c t i o n was not shouted i n tones loud enough t o c a t c h the ear o f the mob, i t was r e g i s t e r e d i n forms that w i l l stand the t e s t of time and a r t . Her meteoric c a r e e r i n s p i r e s a c h a l l e n g e . Let who can accept i t . 2 1 An a r t i c l e  i n The  Canadian Forum f o r 1927  the " m a s t e r - a r t i s t , I n 1928  , < 2 2  Edward O'Brien,  worthy t o be  c a l l s Mansfield  " h a i l e d as a  genius". ^ 2  the e d i t o r o f an annual s e l e c t i o n o f  Best S h o r t S t o r i e s , i n c l u d e d "The F l y " i n h i s l i s t  of  "The  24 F i f t e e n F i n e s t Short S t o r i e s " of a l l t i m e .  The  same year  Edward Shanks wrote i n the London Mercurys J o s e p h C o l l i n s , quoted i n "Greatest Short S t o r y W r i t e r , " L i t e r a r y D i g e s t . LVI (March 17, 1923), 33. 2 1  K a t h l e e n Freeman, "The A r t o f Katherine The Canadian Forum (1927), 303. 2 2  2 3  24  Forum.  I b i d . . p.  Mansfield,"  304.  E d w a r d J . O'Brien, "The LXXIX (1928), 908.  F i f t e e n F i n e s t Short  Stories,"  No w r i t e r o f o u r t i m e has e x c e l l e d h e r . . . . i n the a b i l i t y without over-emphasis or belaboured d e s c r i p t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i n the r e a d e r ' s mind t h e m a t e r i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s o f w a l l s , h a n g i n g s , f u r n i t u r e , even the cakes and s a n d w i c h e s o n a l i t t i e - t a b l e d r a w n up i n f r o n t of the fire..... ? 2  A l s o i n 1928,  i n an a r t i c l e  f o r the E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . Edward  Wagenknecht p r a i s e d M a n s f i e l d ' s  artistry:  K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , judged o n l y by the b o o k s she l e f t u s , r e m a i n s a g r e a t a r t i s t , one o f t h e f i n e s t s t y l i s t s i n t h e l o n g r e c o r d of E n g l i s h prose. To many o f u s i t seems t h a t she c a r r i e d the a r t o f the s h o r t s t o r y t o t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t o f p e r f e c t i o n i t has y e t a t t a i n e d . In the f o l l o w i n g year  J.W.  K r u t c h I n the N a t i o n  p  assessed  Mansfield's position In English f i c t i o n : I f , as i t seems t o me, we a s k o f f i c t i o n c h i e f l y t h a t , w h e n e x i s t e n c e h a s become t o o d u l l y h a b i t u a l , i t s h a l l awake i n us a r e n e w e d s e n s e o f l i f e as a v i v i d and p a s s i o n a t e t h i n g , then Miss Mansfield's s t o r i e s reach a very high level,27 In  1930  C.W.  S t a n l e y , w i t i n g i n the Dalhousie  t h a t i n t h e s e n s e o f d e l i g h t i n g us the  Review, s t a t e d  "with the l o v e l i n e s s  of  world," I find Katherine Mansfield a greater a r t i s t t h a n a l m o s t any o f t h e w r i t e r s o f E n g l i s h f i c t i o n i n r e c e n t times.2o 'Edward S h a n k s , " K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , " L o n d o n M e r c u r y .  XVII (1928),  290.  ^Edward Wagenknecht, " K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . (1928), 273. 2  2  ? J « i ; K r u t c h , " I m p o n d e r a b l e V a l u e s , " The 211.  CXVIII, ( F e b . 20, 1929),  C.W. S t a n l e y , "The A r t o f K a t h e r i n e D a l h o u s i e R e v i e w , X, (1930), 35. 28  Nation.  Mansfield,"  8 S i d n e y C o x , w r i t i n g i n t h e Sewanee R e v i e w i n 1 9 3 1 ,  said that  Mansfield's e x c e l l e n c e i s t h a t s h e i n d u c e s some r e a d e r s t o l o o k h a r d enough a t c e r t a i n d e t a i l s t o n o t i c e t h a t they a r e not so t r i v i a l as t h e p r e v a i l i n g a s s u m p t i o n s about them, t h a t she d r a w s o u r a t t e n t i o n t o c o n n e c t i o n s among t h e s e d e t a i l s w h i c h we h a v e i g n o r e d b e c a u s e o f o u r a s s u m p t i o n s , and t h a t s h e e n l i v e n s o u r d e s i r e t o d i s c o v e r r e l a t i o n s f o r o u r s e l v e s and so c o n t i n u o u s l y t o f a s h i o n a w o r l d o f meaning f r o m t h e r e s u l t a n t s o f o u r own c i r c u m s t a n c e s and o u r d e s i r e s . ° 2  Dr.i. E r n e s t  B a k e r i n t h e 1936 volume o f h i s H i s t o r y o f t h e  English Novel said of Mansfield's that they  were " o f t h e h i g h e s t  the f o l l o w i n g year Katherine  five  collections of stories  r a n k i n any l i t e r a t u r e • " 3 °  Anne P o r t e r  In  wrote:  Katherine Mansfield has a r e p u t a t i o n f o r an a l m o s t f i n i c k i n g d e l i c a c y . S h e was d e l i c a t e as a s u r g e o n ' s s c a l p e l i s d e l i c a t e . H e r c h o i c e o f w o r d s was s u r e , a m a t t e r o f good j u d g m e n t and a good e a r . 3 1 I n h i s 1938 e d i t i o n o f The N o v e l a n d t h e M o d e r n W o r l d . D a v i d Daiches devoted a chapter  t o "Katherine  Mansfield  and t h e  S e a r c h f o r T r u t h " and s p o k e o f h e r " s e n s i t i v i t y , " o f h e r response t o experience e x t r a c t , and p r e s e n t ,  w h i c h "was s u c h t h a t s h e was a b l e t o the greatest  s i g n i f i c a n c e from a very  ^ S i d n e y C o x , "The F a s t i d i o u s n e s s Sewanee R e v i e w . X X X I X , ( 1 9 3 1 ) , 158. (New The  o f Katherine  3°Ernest A. B a k e r , The H i s t o r y o f t h e E n g l i s h Y o r k , 1 9 3 6 ) , X, p. 2 2 7 . • C a t h e r i n e A n n e P o r t e r , "The A r t o f K a t h e r i n e N a t i o n . CXLV ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 4 3 6 .  Mansfield Novel. Mansfield  9 l i m i t e d phase o f i t . " of Katherine  3  i n 1945  2  M a n s f i e l d was  t h i s v o l u m e V.S.  Pritchett  the C o l l e c t e d Short  first  published;  Stories  i n reviewing  wrote*  K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d l i q u e f i e d the short s t o r y . She d e s t r o y e d many o f i t s f o r m a l c o n v e n t i o n s . She c u t o u t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t h e ways and means w h i c h a r e s i m p l y b a r r i e r s . She c u t a c r o s s c o u n t r y , f o l l o w i n g a l i n e w h i c h must h a v e seemed e r r a t i c t o h e r e a r l y r e a d e r s , but w h i c h i s r e a l l y the d i r e e t l i n e . 3 3 And  i n more r e c e n t y e a r s E l i z a b e t h Bowen h a s  "A L i v i n g W r i t e r , " s a y i n g t h a t she dramatic  purpose of the  characters  s h o r t s t o r y and  despite t h i s  steady  stories repeatedly  S t o r i e s appearing  i n f i v e new  p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1945,  t h a t she had  effect.  t h e r e has  been amazingly l i t t l e of Mansfield's cited  e n v i r o n m e n t as t h e  D a v i d Daiches, 1 9 3 8 ) , p. 75.  The  N o v e l and  Mansfield's  cause o f her  genius;  t h e Modern W o r l d . ( C h i c a g o .  V . S . P r i t c h e t t , "Books i n G e n e r a l , " Nation. XXXI (1946), 87.  New  Statesman  E l i z a b e t h Bowen, "A L i v i n g W r i t e r , " C o r n h i l l . ( W i n t e r , 1956-1957), 132. 3 4  ^New e d i t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d 1962.  precise  story writing.  s i n g l e d out  3 3  and  J  editions since i t s o r i g i n a l  s u b j e c t i v e view of her  3  made h e r  c r i t i c a l a p p r o v a l , w i t h many  C a n a d i a n Forum a r t i c l e a l r e a d y  3 2  basic,  a n t h o l o g i z e d , w i t h the C o l l e c t e d  a t t e n t i o n paid t o the technique The  grasped the  "expose t h e m s e l v e s " w i t h " d e v a s t a t i n g "  Yet Mansfield  had  named M a n s f i e l d  i n 1948,  1953,  and  CLX,  1956,  1959,  10  whereas most a u t h o r s w h e n d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s among t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s do so w i t h o u t t r a n s m u t i n g them..... t h o s e o f Katherine M a n s f i e l d undergo a chemical change, as i t were. They a r e s e l e c t e d and d i s t r i b u t e d , n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e author's conscious view of t h e i r appropr i a t e n e s s , but a c c o r d i n g t o the i n n e r needs o f the character,36 yet the d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s a r t i c l e does l i t t l e  more t h a n p o i n t o u t  of Mansfield's  of the s t o r i e s  the o b v i o u s .  i n s i g h t as m a t c h e d by h e r  themselves  Dr. Baker speaks  arts  The symmetry i s a l l i n t e r n a l , p e r f e c t c o i n c i d e n c e o f m a t t e r and m e a n i n g . Often the form i s l e s s p a t t e r n than rhythm, l i k e t h a t of m u s i c , but f e l t r a t h e r than d e f i n a b l e . For t h i s c l e a r , u n e r r i n g , comprehensive v i s i o n i s m a t c h e d by t h e a r t w i t h w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s a r e p r e s e n t e d , i n a way t h a t seems s i m p l e and spontaneous, a s w i f t r e p r o d u c t i o n of a l l that h a s b e e n s e e n and felt37 but D r . B a k e r does not a t t e m p t t o a n a l y z e A r t h u r S e w e l l i n 1936  t h e a r t he  praises.  published Katherine Mansfield: A  Critical  E s s a y , y e t a g a i n i t i s more p r a i s e t h a n c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n that Sewell o f f e r s .  He  speaks o f the  " p u r i t y " of  Mansfield's  work, o f i t s coming "from h e r l o v e o f d e t a i l , o f  her  "economy" —  compresses  them"39  "She  does not  sentences;  she  u n h e s i t a t i n g l y gives her a place w i t h the  ^ F r e e m a n , p. 3  s t r i p her  verbal  ' B a k e r , p.  best  304. 240.  •^Arthur Sewell, Katherine Mansfields A C r i t i c a l ( A u c k l a n d , 1 9 3 6 ) , p. 15.  39ibid.. p . 7.  Essay.  11 writers: Katherine Mansfield was a great shortstory writer, because she had the supreme g i f t of perceiving and communicating the t o t a l i t y of.....a fragment of emotional experience.40 Sewell's praise may well be j u s t i f i e d but he does not demonstrate the truth of h i s p o s i t i o n or the excellence of Mansfield's a r t . David Daiches seems to sum up Mansfield's own approach to her work accurately and p r e c i s e l y : She preferred to approach human a c t i v i t y from the very limited single s i t u a t i o n and work 'out,' setting going overtones and implications by means of her manipulation of symbols, rather than to s t a r t from some general view and work ' i n * by means of illustrative fable ! 4  but i t i s neither within Daiches' purpose or scope i n his chapter on Mansfield to show how t h i s "approach" applies to individual stories.  Edward Wagenknecht comments on Mansfield's AO  a b i l i t y to use d e t a i l "suggestively," ^ notes as "An interesting technical device" her "tendency to s h i f t , frequently and without warning, from the conscious to the subeonsclous" of her c h a r a c t e r s ^ and praises her descriptive passages as 4  having a "decidedly Dickensian f l a v o r " " 44  but Wagenknecht then  turns from a most cursory examination of the stories themselves Sewell, p.22. D a i e h e s , p. 75  41  42  Wagenknecht, p. 277.  4 3  4 4  I b i d . . p. 279. I b i d . . P. 280.  12  w i t h the words, "So much f o r the techniques  what now of the  s p i r i t of Katherine Mansfield's work?" "-* 4  ..It indeed appears t o be the " s p i r i t " of Katherine Mansfield's work which has received most a t t e n t i o n .  As  Gordon says, There has been considerable w r i t i n g on Katherine Mansfield (since the p u b l i c a t i o n of her Journal) on her mysticism, her ' s e c r e t , her i s o l a t e d ' p u r i t y ' which would make her a vaguely symbolic and s a i n t l y figure. © 1  4  One recent c r i t i c , Don W. K l e i n e , i n h i s I960 a r t i c l e sums up the general Mansfield c r i t i c i s m even more s c a t h i n g l y s Though dimly revered as a household goddess of the modern short s t o r y , Katherine Mansfield has been accorded a mysteriously scanty share of extended c r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y . The dozens o f p e r i o d i c a l ' t r i b u t e s ' and the s e v e r a l biographies which have f i l l e d the years since her death i n 1923 f r u s t r a t e the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s t . Are we t o honor a noble heart or a s u b t l e t a l e n t ? Drowned i n the wash of personal eulogy, the s p e c i f i c q u a l i t i e s of that t a l e n t have been f o r the most part n e g l e c t e d . ' 4  Another modern c r i t i c , Jack G a r l i n g t o n , b e l i e v e s that c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n has been centered on the q u a l i t i e s of Mansfield's 4  % a g e n k n e c h t , p. 281  46  G o r d o n , p. 2 9 .  ^Don.W. K l e i n e , "Katherine Mansfield and the P r i s o n e r of Love," C r i t i q u e , I I I , ( W i n t e r , i 9 6 0 ) , p.20. In h i s a r t i c l e K l e i n e proceeds to give "extended c r i t i c a l s c r u t i n y " t o "The Man Without a Temperament"; the a r t i c l e w i l l be c i t e d again when t h i s s t o r y i s d i s c u s s e d . In a footnote at the end of h i s a r t i c l e , K l e i n e s t a t e s t h a t "Of l a t e there seems t o have been & f a i n t quickening of the e x p l i c a t o r y p u l s e " and names recent a r t i c l e s of s p e c i f i c e x p l i c a t i o n on "The Garden P a r t y " and "The Fly." These a r t i c l e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to when these s t o r i e s are discussed*  13  work which have most pleased each successive ages For c r i t i c s , l i k e writers, are susceptible to fads; and as with most fads, t h e i r faddishness i s not necessarily observable at the time * 4  5  and that too much of the early c r i t i c i s m was  concerned  with the "facts or the legend of Katherine Mansfield's l i f e . " The configuration of her l i f e — the b e a u t i f u l daughter of a wealthy c o l o n i a l , racing with death for the p e r f e c t i o n of her stories and then dying of the c l a s s i c a l disease tuberculosis — was too archetypal to escape g l o s s . 9 4  Certainly there has been more biographical interest than c r i t i c a l analysis shown i n the published books on Katherine Mansfield.  Some biographies include b r i e f  critical  comments on the short stories themselves, none attempts  a  technical analysis of a l l the major s t o r i e s . The f i r s t biography, Ruth E l v i s h Mantz and J . Middleton Murry«s The L i f e of Katherine Mansfield, was published i n 1933 but covers Mansfield's l i f e only to the time of her union with Murry i n 1 9 1 1 .  The L i f e i s thus  r e s t r i c t e d to the works of Mansfield's apprenticeship period and, as i t s aim i s primarily biographical, makes but b r i e f comment on even this early work. In 1944 published.  Isabel C.Clarke's Katherine Mansfield was  The Mansfield..story i s here expanded to cover  J a c k Garlington, "Katherine Mansfield: the C r i t i c a l Trend," Twentieth Century L i t e r a t u r e . I I , ( 1 9 5 6 ) , 6 0 . 4 8  4 9  I b l d . . p. 53  14 her l i f e from b i r t h to death, but the method i s l i t t l e more than a r e c i t a t i o n of c h r o n o l o g i c a l f a c t s and f i g u r e s w i t h v i r t u a l l y no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or d i s c u s s i o n .  L i t e r a r y works  are mentioned but not examined. Anne F r i i s  1  KatherineMansfieldt L i f e and S t o r i e s  was published i n 1 9 4 6 .  In the preface F r i i s s t a t e s that  one of the aims of her book i s "to e l u c i d a t e the p e c u l i a r 50  character of Mansfield's a r t "  :  and, apparently to f u l f i l l  t h i s aim, includes a b r i e f chapter on "Technique and S t y l e . " However, i n t h i s chapter F r i i s confines h e r s e l f to a few general statements such as the f o l l o w i n g : In point of technique Katherine Mansfield belongs w i t h the i m p r e s s i o n i s t movement. As the i m p r e s s i o n i s t painter p a i n t s things as they appear at any given moment, so she renders only the momentary impression; but the d e s c r i p t i o n of the immediate happening becomes to her the means of implying a deeper r e a l i t y behind the outward appearance^l and t o p o i n t i n g out, r a t h e r than d i s c u s s i n g , a few obvious Mansfield techniques.  F r i i s l i s t s Mansfield's use of  r e p e t i t i o n f o r the sake of emphasis, her use of dots  and  52  dashes as part of "her technique of omission,"  her use of  symbolism by object and gesture, and her " s t y l e " which expresses much "meiely by i m p l i c a t i o n , " ^ has  "simplicity  5°Anne F r i i s , Katherine M a n s f i e l d . L i f e and (Copenhagen, 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 5« ^ I b i d . , p.  132.  525 2 I b i d . . p.  136.  53-  'Ibid., p.  142,  Stories<  15 and c o l l o q u i a l n e s s " as " i t s most s t r i k i n g features " i s pre-eminently of a v i s u a l n a t u r e . " ^  Friis  concludes  her d i s c u s s i o n of Mansfield's technique by saying: The sum t o t a l of these f a c t s suggests that the unique p o s i t i o n Katherine Mansfield occupies among s h o r t - s t o r y w r i t e r s i s , i n p a r t , at l e a s t , t o be sought i n the f a c t that her s t o r i e s , i n point of f o m , stand midway between drama and poetry.5° True as t h i s may be, i t i s of l i t t l e p e r t i n e n t help i n understanding the short s t o r i e s themselves.  F r i i s ' Katherine  Mansfield i s c e r t a i n l y a u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the scant c r i t i c a l work a v a i l a b l e , but again i t i s a work which does not attempt t o analyze the major features of Mansfield's technique. S y l v i a Berkman's Katherine M a n s f i e l d : A C r i t i c a l Study, published i n 1951,  contains the most d e t a i l e d examination  of Mansfield's technique of any of the biographies. As Joseph Warren Beach noted i n a review of the book, Berkman's a n a l y s i s of Mansfield's technique " i s c l e a r l y the work o f a devoted student of the s h o r t - s t o r y form."5?  Don. W.Kleine  c a l l s Berkman's book "to date the most d e f i n i t i v e general 58 critique. Berkman speaks i n general terms o f Mansfield's , w  5 4  F r i i s , p. 1 4 5 .  ^ I b i d . . p. 1 4 5 . 56  Ibid.« p.153.  57Joseph Warren Beach, "Katherine Mansfield and her Russian Master," V i r g i n i a Quarterly Review, XXVII (1951), 605. ^ K l e i n e , p. 20.  16 " e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of f e e l i n g by a s s o c i a t i n g i t w i t h some  59  fitting  concrete c o r r e l a t i v e " ,  o f M a n s f i e l d ' s being  "the  i m p r e s s i o n i s t p a i n t e r , communicating her i n d i v i d u a l v i s i o n of a s u 60 b j e c t by a stroke here c a r e f u l l y r e l a t e d t o a s t r o k e there", o f the world she has created "of v i v i d motion and  61  bright color".  But Berkman a l s o gives s p e c i f i c i f b r i e f  d i s c u s s i o n s o f some i n d i v i d u a l s t o r i e s and of i n d i v i d u a l techniques:  of symbolism, o f the h a n d l i n g o f time, o f  s h i f t i n g p o i n t of view.  I w i l l have o c c a s i o n t o r e f e r t o  Berkman f r e q u e n t l y i n t h i s paper f o r , though her book i s more concerned  with biography than w i t h c r i t i c i s m and  though  I do not always b e l i e v e her d i s c u s s i o n s t o be c l e a r or e n t i r e l y a c c u r a t e , I have found her book the most p e r t i n e n t guide a v a i l a b l e i n my  attempt  t o analyze the major techniques  of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . As Gordon n o t e s , Miss S y l v i a Berkan's study had the bad l u c k t o be w r i t t e n and p u b l i s h e d before the f u l l t e x t of the l e t t e r s was a v a i l a b l e . The most r e c e n t study (1954)> by Mr.Antony A l p e r s , has made use o f these l e t t e r s and overcomes...the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t biographers have encountered 62 The dustcover of A l p e r s * K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d :  59 Berkman p. 174. 60  ' i b i d . , p.176.  6 1'Ibid., p.187.  62,"Gordon,  p. 1 8 .  A  Biography  17 goes further and promises "the f u l l story, including much hitherto veiled i n secrecy"; i f this statement i s not e n t i r e l y vindicated i n the book i t s e l f , at least Alpers does present a more rounded picture of Mansfield's  life.  The work i s p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable f o r the family history i t contains and f o r b r i e f glimpses i t gives of Mansfield's f i r s t husband, George Bowden, and of Ida Baker, people important  i n Mansfield's l i f e and yet quickly passed  i n e a r l i e r biographies.  over  S t i l l , Alpers' book remains a  biography, and, while I w i l l cite i t frequently as the best available source f o r biographical data, there i s l i t t l e help i n this work for an examination of Mansfield's technique. Ian A. Gordon's "Katherine Mansfield", f i r s t published In 1954 i n the Writers and Their Work pamphlet series, i s too b r i e f to be able to do more than indicate some Mansfield techniques.  Gordon notes Mansfield's i n t r i c a t e use of time:  Straightforward chronological narration is seldom favoured, rather an alternation of time present and time past (and sometimes time future), with scenes juxtaposed to heighten the emotional effect°3 but gives a short summary of the use i n only "The Daughters of the Late Colonel."  In a similar way Gordon points out  Mansfield's use of points of view: She sinks herself inside each of her characters, thinking or speaking i n t h e i r tone of voice.64 ^Gordon, p.20. 64 Ibid., p. 23.  18 but then l i s t s , r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e s , the use o f the technique  i n some h a l f dozen s t o r i e s .  both i n t e r e s t i n g thirty  Gordon's work i s  and u s e f u l as a summary; o b v i o u s l y the  pages o f the pamphlet a r e t o o few f o r Gordon t o  give s t o r y or t e c h n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f any depth. One o f the most c o n s i s t e n t comments on M a n s f i e l d ' s work has been i t s resemblance t o t h a t o f Chekhov, a resemblance t h a t was q u i c k l y and r e p e a t e d l y noted. M a n s f i e l d g r e a t l y admired Chekhov's a r t ,  *hat  f e e l a "deep p e r s o n a l a f f e c t i o n f o r the man" from her own p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g .  That  she d i d  i s obvious  He i s the guide who  makes me f e e l t h a t t h i s l o n g i n g t o w r i t e s t o r i e s o f . s u c h uneven l e n g t h i s q u i t e justified. 6 6  H i s s t o r y , "The Steppe," i s simply one o f the great s t o r i e s o f the world — a kind o f I l i a d o r Odyssey and M a n s f i e l d t h i n k s she w i l l l e a r n t h i s journey She  by h e a r t h  68  and Murry share a " v i s i o n o f the w o r l d "  w i t h Chekhov.  69 He and Sorapure, M a n s f i e l d ' s d o c t o r , are "the two good men" she has known. y  I n 1917  she wrote on the f l y - l e a f o f a  M u r r y , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " J o u r n a l . p. x i v .  66 M a n s f i e l d , J o u r n a l , p.67. ^ M a n s f i e l d , L e t t e r s . I , p. 242. o JMM. p. 352. 69MMaannssffiieelldd ,, LJ eo tu tr en ra sl tp. 168. D O  T  19 volume o f Chekhov's s t o r i e s t h i s joking doggerels By a l l the laws o f the M. and P. This book i s bound t o belong t o me. Besides I am sure that you agree I am the E n g l i s h Anton. T. Then., I n 1920, she added t h i s notes 70 God f o r g i v e me, Tchekhov, f o r my impertinence. Yet even t h i s reference shows only that she was aware o f the resemblance between her work and Chekhov's — and indeed she could not have read the reviews o f her work and been unaware o f t h i s — stature.  and that she recognized h i s  I know o f not a s i n g l e l i n e i n which Mansfield  acknowledges any debt t o Chekhov's technique. C e r t a i n l y the f i r s t story Mansfield had published i n England i n d i c a t e s her c a r e f u l study of Chekhov. I t has long been recognized that Mansfield's "The-Child-WhoWas-Tired" i s a free adaptation of Chekhov's "Sleepyhead." E l i s a b e t h Schneider, while admitting a s i m i l a r i t y between the s t o r i e s "which amounts almost t o a reproduction o f the 71 same s t o r y , " suggests that the cause i s a case of unconscious memory, a phenomenon common enough i n matters o f d e t a i l , though not common i n such complete instances.72 7°MansfieiHd, The Scranbook of Katherine Mansfield (London, 1939), p. 162. ^ E l i s a b e t h Schneider, "Katherine Mansfield and Chekhov," Modern Language Notes. (1935), p.396. 72 Loc.cit.  20  Alpers i s s u r e l y more accurate when he c a l l s the Mansfield s t o r y " V i r t u a l l y a f r e e adaptation of Anton Chekhov's 73  miniature tragedy of a maltreated  child,"  which,  " A r t i s t i c a l l y . . . . . w a s p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d " by "having been 74 imagined a f r e s h . " Mansfield l a t e i n her l i f e seems again to have r e l i e d on Chekhov t o provide a guide f o r one o f her own s t o r i e s ; as Don W. K l e i n e notes, "The famous anti-bohemian s a t i r e 'Marriage a l a Mode'" has "many points of resemblance 75  t o Chekhov's 'The Grasshopper'".  The l i k e n e s s K l e i n e points  out i s l a r g e l y one of p l o t o u t l i n e , not of the use t o which the p l o t i s put:  "Marriage a l a Mode * i s " f a r d i f f e r e n t i n 1  76  its overall a r t i s t i c effect"  from the Chekhov s t o r y .  I h i l e there can thus be l i t t l e doubt of Mansfield's knowledge, l i k i n g , and c a r e f u l reading of Chekhov's work, there i s l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of how much Mansfield A l p e r s , p. 129.  learned  7 3  7 4  Ibid.  T  p.132.  75 ' K l e i n e , "The Chekhovian Source of 'Marriage a l a Mode.'" P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . X L I I , (1963), P.285. 76  I b i d . , p.286. K l e i n e adds at the end of h i s a r t i c l e a reference t o RonaJd Sutherland * s "Katherine M a n s f i e l d : P l a g i a r i s t , D i s c i p l e , or Ardent Admirer?" C r i t i q u e . V(1962); Sutherland suggests Chekhov's "Not Wanted"as the source f o r Mansfield's "Marriage a l a Mode." Neither K l e i n e nor Sutherland seem t o be aware that F r i i s i n her 1946 book a l s o suggested "Not Wanted" as a p o s s i b l e " p a r a l l e l " f o r the Mansfield s t o r y (p.158). K l e i n e b e l i e v e s that the " s l i g h t comic sketch" "'Not Wanted' seems r a t h e r an e a r l y souce for 'The Grasshopper' than f o r Miss Mansfield's s t o r y " (p.288) and w i t h t h i s judgment that Mansfield was using "The Grasshopper" rather than "Not Wanted" I agree.  21 from the great Russian w r i t e r , and t h i s question c r i t i c s have been unable to answer. Some have pointed out a resemblance i n mood:  Joseph Warren Beach c a l l s i t a  ^sensitive feeling-tone" c r e a t i o n of atmosphere."  77 78  and F r i i s the "aptitude f o r S e v e r a l have noted the apparent  p l o t l e s s n e s s of many Mansfield and Chekhov s t o r i e s .  J.W.  Krutch wrote that Mansfield could be as s c o r n f u l of Chekhov o f unusual i n c i d e n t and a l l the a r t i f i c i a l heightenings which c o n s t i t u t e the ordinary technique o f fiction 79 A few years l a t e r Brewster and B u r r e l l i n t h e i r Modern F i c t i o n wrote t h a t : Chekhov and Katherine M a n s f i e l d offered a new l i t e r a r y form. They outraged the s a n c t i t i e s of the short s t o r y by r a r e l y having e i t h e r p l o t or climax.°0 More r e c e n t l y , Berkman notes that Mansfield observed i n Chekhov the method o f n a r r a t i o n she came to adopt e x c l u s i v e l y — the apparently casual i n t e r l i n k i n g of a number of i n c i d e n t s t o form a texture through which the r e a l i n t e n t i o n of the w r i t e r s h i n e s . ! 8  " J o s e p h Warren Beach, "Katherine Mansfield and her Russian Master," V i r g i n i a Quarterly Review. XXVII, (195D,604. ^ K r u t c h , "The Unfortunate Mendoza," p.100. F r i i s , p.157 80 Dorothy Brewster and Angus B u r r e l l , Modern F i c t i o n (New York, 1934), p. 377. 8l Berkman, p. 153. 7 9  22 That i n t h i s  seemingly p l o t l e s s w r i t i n g the i n t e r e s t o f  both Chekhov and M a n s f i e l d l a y i n the i n t e r i o r  rather  than e x t e r i o r l i v e s o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s has a l s o been observed,  Friis says t h a t both chose  " f o r t h e i r theme  82 the study o f the l i f e  o f the s o u l " ;  Brewster and B u r r e l l  c a l l i t the r e v e l a t i o n o f "the unique s u b t l e q u a l i t y o f  83  a p a r t i c u l a r human b e i n g " ;  Berkman says t h a t  Though Chekhov o f t e n d e a l s w i t h v i o l e n t subj e c t matter h i s concern i s never w i t h a c t i o n i n i t s e l f but w i t h t h e emotional r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f a c t i o n on the c h a r a c t e r s involved and t h a t M a n s f i e l d , not o f t e n w r i t i n g o f v i o l e n c e , presents h e r m a t e r i a l not f o r the o v e r t meaning o f the happenings but t o make a t a n g e n t i a l p o i n t , s l a n t i n g the elements o f the c e n t r a l s i t u a t i o n t o e x t r a c t an o b l i q u e theme.84 It  i s Berkman and A l p e r s who, I b e l i e v e , have come  c l o s e s t t o a n a l y z i n g the resemblance Mansfield.  between Chekhov and  Berkman, h a v i n g pointed out such  as have been noted above, then proceeds difference:  resemblances  to l i s t  a major  t h e i r treatment o f t i m e . Miss M a n s f i e l d ' s c h i e f m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f Chekhov's method i s s u e from h e r employment of d e v i c e s developed i n a l a t e r day, most i m p o r t a n t l y the f o r m a l f l a s h b a c k and the i n t e r i o r monologue, both o f which r a d i c a l l y  8 2  Friis,  p. 157  8 3  Brewster  and B u r r e l l , p . 378.  tt4  Berkman,  p. 1 5 4 .  23 a f f e c t the handling of time. By means of these devices Miss Mansfield can so order her elements that her immediate s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n t a c t ; past time and f u t u r e are s t r a i n e d through the meshes of the present....Chekhov must hold t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l progression, s l i p p i n g l i g h t l y over the yeaxs, when need be, by a simple phrase.°5 Alpers notes that while Chekhov could use reference t o character types, Mansfield could not, f o r i n her world there were no g e n e r a l l y recognized types — 86  each had t o be  her own separate and t o t a l c r e a t i o n . Alpers a l s o points out t h a t , while Mansfield's borrowings from Chekhov's s t o r y f o r her "The-Chlld-Who-Was-Tired" are i n d i s p u t a b l e , the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t f o r any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of her indebtedness t o Chekhov g e n e r a l l y i s not 'The-Child-Iho-Was-Tired' at a l l , but the e a r l i e r and completely o r i g i n a l s t o r y 'The Tiredness of R o s a b e l . ' 7 8  Alpers then l i s t s the features o f "Rosabelj' showing that this story exhibits i n however immature a form, every e s s e n t i a l feature by which a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Katherine Mansfield s t o r y can be recognized 8 8  Since "Rosabel" was w r i t t e n i n 1908, i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that Mansfield had even read, much: l e s s s t u d i e d , Chekhov at t h i s time.  .Alpers thus gives some weight t o Murry's  e a r l y unsupported statement that Mansfield's 85  'Berkman, p.155. 8 6  8 7  8 8  A l p e r s , p. 217. I b i d . . p. 130. I b i d . . pp.130-131.  24 method was wholly her own, and her development would have been p r e c i s e l y the same had Tchehov never existed.°9 That Chekhov's work gave M a n s f i e l d emotional and  artistic  encouragement i s c e r t a i n ; t h a t she learned something from him seems e q u a l l y obvious; what t h a t something was, much her own  technique was  her own  how  transformation of h i s ,  has not yet been d e c i d e d . Of M a n s f i e l d ' s own be no doubt:  i n t e r e s t i n technique  the conscious a r t i s t r y  there  f o r which the  can  critics  p r a i s e her i s d i s p l a y e d i n v a r y i n g degrees i n every s t o r y she wrote.  But  i n her p e r s o n a l w r i t i n g s , the L e t t e r s , the  J o u r n a l . the Scrapbook. M a n s f i e l d seemed incapable o f s t a t i n g c l e a r l y her a r t i s t i c p r i n c i p l e s , o f i n d i c a t i n g more than her c l o s e and steady a t t e n t i o n t o technique; her methods remain i n d i c a t e d r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e d , her suggested  literary  style  r a t h e r than d e f i n e d .  The a p p a r e n t l y p l o t l e s s q u a l i t y of M a n s f i e l d ' s has l o n g been noted.  stories  Dr. Baker says t h a t  a s t o r y o f hers looks l i k e an a r t l e s s gnd unstudied outpouring of p e r s o n a l impressions, without p l o t or any c o n v e n t i o n a l f e a t u r e whatever.90 Daiches that  notes  that while we  can give an a b s t r a c t of Hamlet  " w i l l mean something t o a r e a d e r , " Murry, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " J o u r n a l , p. x i v 90Baker, p.240-  25 t h i s can h a r d l y be done w i t h the best and most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Katherine Mansfield's short s t o r i e s 9 1 because the t r u t h expressed by the formula of p l o t .  i n them does not r e v e a l i t s e l f  This aspect of her work M a n s f i e l d  h e r s e l f mentioned i n a l e t t e r to the Hon.Dorothy B r e t t who had w r i t t e n to ask about the "form" of "Prelude": 'Ytiat form i s i t ? you ask. Ah, B r e t t , i t ' s so d i f f i c u l t to say. As f a r as I know, i t ' s more or l e s s my own i n v e n t i o n . And 'How have I shaped i t ? ' This i s about as much as I can say about i t . 1  Mansfield then describes e a r l y mornings i n New  Zealand w i t h  the i s l a n d seeming as i f i t had been dipped i n the dark blue sea during the night and r i s i n g again "at gleam of  day":  I t r i e d to catch that moment — w i t h something of i t s sparkle and i t s f l a v o u r . And j u s t as on those mornings white milky mists r i s e and uncover some beauty, then smother i t again and then again d i s c l o s e i t , I t r i e d to l i f t that mist from my people and l e t them be seen and then to hide them again. I t ' s so d i f f i c u l t to describe a l l t h i s 92 This l i f t i n g the mists f o r a moment only and therefore f o r a moment of v i t a l i f u n r e a l i z e d concern to the characters shown was to remain Mansfield's method of s t o r y r e v e l a t i o n ; the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the method w i l l be discussed under Mansfield's treatment of "Time." ^Daiches,  p.76.  9 M a n s f i e l d , L e t t e r s , I , pp.83-84. 2  26 Another primary feature of Mansfield's short s t o r i e s i s her seeming e l i m i n a t i o n of h e r s e l f as i n t r u d i n g author; the characters are presented, as i t were, by the themselves.  characters  E l i z a b e t h Bowen says t h a t Mansfield seldom o u t l i n e s and never d i s s e c t s a characters i n s t e a d , she causes the person to expose themselves — and devastating  may be the effect.93  That Mansfield consciously used t h i s method of making characters r e v e a l themselves she i n d i c a t e s i n the note t o h e r s e l f which i n t e r r u p t s the "Prelude" manuscript.  She has been t r y i n g t o  shew the inner being of B e r y l i n her s t o r y and then breaks o f f to discuss the problem w i t h h e r s e l f s What i s i t that I'm g e t t i n g at? I t i s r e a l l y B e r y l ' s S o s l e . . . . . I want to. get a l l t h i s through her. j u s t as I got at Linda through L i n d a . ? 4  Again, the method Mansfield i n d i c a t e s f o r one s t o r y i s the method she attempted to apply throughout her works her characters through the characters themselves-.  to get at This  technique w i l l be discussed under "Point of View." That technique u l t i m a t e l y depends upon s e l e c t i o n of d e t a i l Mansfield seems t o have consciously r e a l i z e d . as 1915  she noted her own love of d e t a i l f o r the  As e a r l y  infinite  suggestion i t could c o n t a i n ; i n a l e t t e r t o Koteliansky she wrotes Do you, too, f e e l an i n f i n i t e d e l i g h t and  93sowen, p. 132. 94  ' M a n s f i e l d , quoted by Berkman, p.  92.  27  value i n d e t a i l — not f o r the sake of d e t a i l but f o r the l i f e i n the l i f e of i t But do you ever f e e l as though the Lord threw you i n t o E t e r n i t y — i n t o the very exact centre of e t e r n i t y , and even as you plunge you f e l t every r i p p l e f l o a t i n g out from your plunging — every s i n g l e r i p p l e f l o a t i n g away and touching and drawing i n t o i t s c i r c l e every s l i g h t e s t t h i n g that i t touched.95 L a t e r , i n l e t t e r s t o Richard Murry, Mansfield revealed something of her conscious choosing of d e t a i l f o r her s t o r i e s and of her great b e l i e f i n the n e c e s s i t y of s k i l l e d technique: . . . l e t me say how I appreciate a l l you f e e l about c r a f t . Yes, I t h i n k you're a b s o l u t e l y r i g h t . . . . . I t ' s a very queer t h i n g how c r a f t comes i n t o w r i t i n g . I mean down t o d e t a i l s . Par exemple. In 'Miss B r i l l ' I choose not only the l e n g t h of every sentence, but even the sound of every sentence. I choose the r i s e and f a l l of every paragraph t o f i t her, and to f i t her on that day at that very moment. A f t e r I'd w r i t t e n i t I read i t aloud — numbers of times — j u s t as one would play over a musical composition — t r y i n g t o get i t nearer and nearer t o the expression of Miss B r i l l — u n t i l i t f i t t e d her. Don't t h i n k I'm v a i n about the l i t t l e sketch. It's only the method I wanted to e x p l a i n . I o f t e n wonder whether other writers do the same — I f a t h i n g has r e a l l y come o f f i t seems to me there mustn't be one s i n g l e word out of p l a c e , or one word that could be taken out. That's how I AIM at w r i t i n g . I t w i l l take some time t o get anywhere near there.?° ...your longing f o r t e c h n i c a l knowledge seems to me profoundly what an a r t i s t ought to f e e l today.....You see I too have a passion f o r technique. I have a passion f o r making the t h i n g i n t o a whole i f you know what I mean. Out 95i,etters. I , p. 9 6  28.  L e t t e r s . I I , pp.88-89.  28 of technique i s born r e a l s t y l e , I b e l i e v e . There are no short cuts.97 J. t o l d me you were working at technique. So am I . I t ' s e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d i f f i c u l t — don't you f i n d ? I t ' s simply e n d l e s s l y f a s c i n a t i n g ?  8  But even to Richard Murry, himself an a r t i s t and h i g h l y conscious of a r t i s t i c technique, Mansfield seemed unable t o e x p l a i n her own method of s t o r y w r i t i n g d i r e c t l y or d e f i n i t e l y . I n her l e t t e r s she makes c l e a r l i t t l e more than her own i n t e r e s t i n the use of d e t a i l , her own consciousness importance of craftsmanship  great  of the  i n a r t , but these no c a r e f u l  reader of her work could s e r i o u s l y doubt. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Mansfield's most frequent and consistent explanation of her whole w r i t i n g a t t i t u d e and method was  that  of becoming the object or person d e s c r i b e d , of being, as she phrased i t , possessed.  As e a r l y as 1917 she describes t h i s  sensation i n a l e t t e r to B r e t t , h e r s e l f a painters It seems to me so e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y r i g h t that you should be p a i n t i n g S t i l l Lives £sic] j u s t now. What can one do, faced w i t h t h i s wonderful tumble of round b r i g h t f r u i t s ; but gather them and play w i t h them — and become them, as i t were Or do you t h i n k t h i s the greatest nonsense. I don't. I am sure i t i s not. When I w r i t e about ducks I swear I am a white duck.. ... In f a c t the whole process of becoming the duck (what Lawrence would perhaps c a l l t h i s consummation w i t h the duck or the apple!) i s so t h r i l l i n g that I can hardly breathe, only t o t h i n k about i t . Mansfield adds, 97Letters. I I , p. 9 8  I b i d . , p.  119.  92.  29  that i s why I b e l i e v e i n technique, t o o . (You asked me i f I did.) I do just because I don't see how a r t i s going t o make that d i v i n e spring i n t o the bounding o u t l i n e of things i f i t hasn't passed through the process of t r y i n g t o become these things before r e c r e a t i n g them.?? Three years l a t e r , i n a l e t t e r to J.Middleton Murry, Mansfield speaks again of  "becoming" the people, the  objects of her s t o r y , t h i s time i n reference t o "The Stranger"; her d e s c r i p t i o n i s very much the same as she had e a r l i e r sent to  Brett. What a QUEER business w r i t i n g i s i I've been t h i s man, been t h i s woman. I've stood for hours on the Auckland wharf. I've been out i n the stream w a i t i n g t o be berthed — I've been a s e a g u l l hovering at the s t e r n and a h o t e l p o r t e r w h i s t l i n g through h i s t e e t h . I t i s n ' t as though one s i t s and watches the s p e c t a c l e . That would be t h r i l l i n g enough, God knows. But one IS the spectacle for the t i m e . 1 0 0  Again, to B r e t t , M a n s f i e l d wrote of the characters of "At the Bay".: I f e e l as I w r i t e , 'you are not dead, my d a r l i n g s . A l l i s remembered And one f e e l s possessed » To W i l l i a m Gerhard! she wrote of "The Voyage": 1  1 0 1  ...when I wrote that l i t t l e story I f e l t that I was on that very boat, going down those s t a i r s , s m e l l i n g the s m e l l of the saloon And one moment I had a l i t t l e bun of s i l k - w h i t e h a i r and a bonnet and the next I was F e n e l l a 99Letters.  I , pp.  82-83.  °°Letters t o JMM, p. 584. 0 1  L e t t e r s . I I , p. 134.  30  hugging the swan neck umbrella. I t was so v i v i d — t e r r i b l y v i v i d why — I don't know. I t wasn't a memory of a r e a l experience. I t was a kind of possession. I might have remained the grandma f o r ever a f t e r i f the wind hadn't changed that moment. And that would have been a l i t t l e b i t embarrassing f o r Middleton M u r r y . . . 1 0 2 This l a c k of "possession" was one of Mansfield's most serious charges against her contemporaries; during her period of reviewing books f o r The Athenaeum she wrote to J.Middleton Murry: With an a r t i s t — one has to allow — 0 tremendously — f o r the sub-conscious element i n hiS work. He w r i t e s he knows not what — he's possessed. I don't mean, of course., always, but when he's i n s p i r e d — as a sort of d i v i n e flower to a l l h i s t e r r i f i c hard gardening there comes t h i s subconscious...wisdom. Not these people who are nuts on a n a l y s i s Q i a n s f i e l d i s here r e f e r r i n g to the w r i t e r s of novels' of what she e a r l i e r c a l l s "cheap psychoanalysis'^ seem to me to have no subconscious at a l l . They w r i t e to prove — not to t e l l the t r u t h . 1 0 3 From these passages i n Mansfield's l e t t e r s i t seems evident that she h e r s e l f had but l i t t l e accurate idea of conscious c r i t i c a l understanding  of how  she chose the  d e t a i l s which created her f i c t i o n a l world.  Something she  could only c a l l "Possession" was necessary; out of possession came technique; out of technique, s t y l e ; yet nowhere was she able to define c l e a r l y or e x p l a i n f u l l y her a r t i s t i c purpose or method.  The c r i t i c a l reader i s returned to the  example of the s t o r i e s  themselves.  •Letters. I I p. 1 9 6 . L e t t e r s to JMM.  p. 5 6 0 .  31  That Mansfield's t e c h n i c a l s k i l l was great i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged; of what her a r t i s t r y consisted has not been c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d . So complex i s her a r t that a d e f i n i t e examination would be f a r beyond the scope of t h i s paper.  My aim, t h e r e f o r e , i s t o i s o l a t e and describe what  I b e l i e v e t o be the major t e c h n i c a l devices of Mansfield's art  of s t o r y t e l l i n g ; her use of time, of point of view,  of names, and of symbolism.  Three of these techniques  time, point of view, and symbolism —  —  have been b r i e f l y  noted by many c r i t i c s but have not been c o n s i s t e n t l y r e l a t e d t o the s t o r i e s themselves; the f o u r t h , that of names, has been v i r t u a l l y and stramgely  ignored by c r i t i c s .  Since i t  i s p r i m a r i l y not Mansfield's development but her t e c h n i c a l s k i l l as a w r i t e r that I wish t o show, I am c o n f i n i n g the examination of t h i s paper to the major s t o r i e s of Mansfield's mature w r i t i n g period:  t o the completed s t o r i e s of B l i s s ,  The Garden P a r t y , and The Dove's N e s t .  1 0 4  As Mansfield made frequent use i n both f i c t i o n a l and p r i v a t e w r i t i n g s of e l l i p s e s , i t i s necessary to d i s t i n g u i s h i n quoted m a t e r i a l between her own use and d e l e t i o n s I may make.  any  I w i l l therefore f o l l o w Alpers' use:  In a l l quoted passages, dots that occur i n the o r i g i n a l t e x t are reproduced ass I am emitting "Bank Holiday" (The Garden Party) -from my d i s c u s s i o n , f o r i t i s an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c sketch r a t h e r than a s t o r y , and having no developed characters, or a c t i o n , does not d i s p l a y the techniques I am examining. ± 0 4  32 105  Deletions are presented by: .....  Because most of the quotations i n t h i s paper are 106 taken from the c o l l e c t e d e d i t i o n o f the s t o r i e s ,  I have  considered i t advisable t o note the page references t o t h i s book i n parentheses d i r e c t l y a f t e r the quotation. A l l other references w i l l be c i t e d i n f o o t n o t e s .  1 0 5  Alper  S i  p. 37.  6 c o l l e c t e d S t o r i e s of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . ed.J. Middleton Murry, (London, 1962). 1 Q  CHAPTER I I POINT  OF VIEW  Fundamental t o any t e c h n i c a l study of the short story i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of point of view, of the outlook from which the author has chosen t o r e l a t e the events o f the s t o r y .  This choice w i l l d i c t a t e and c o n t r o l not only  many other aspects of technique but a l s o w i l l c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y t o the t o t a l e f f e c t of the work by governing the way we are shown the characters concerned.  Mansfield's  use of point of view has been g e n e r a l l y recognized as one of the most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features of her s t o r i e s , yet a d e s c r i p t i o n of her method can be e a s i l y reduced t o a few words.  As K l e i n e phrases i t , To put i t most simply, the author's exposition.....employs words.the main character h i m s e l f might use.  Other commentators on Mansfield's technique have pointed out the same d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e .  F r i i s describes  Mansfield's method as her way of l e t t i n g her characters t a l k and t h i n k i n t h e i r own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c language i n t h i s way r e v e a l i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  2  Gordon speaks i n p r a i s e of that s e n s i t i v e f e e l i n g f o r characters portrayed through t h e i r own f l e e t i n g thoughts which l i e s at the basis of , K l e i n e , "Katherine Mansfield and the Prisoner of Love," p. 27. K l e i n e confines h i s d e f i n i t i o n of Mansfield's method t o "some of her mature s t o r i e s " but does not s t a t e which he considers these t o be. 2  F r i i s , pp. 125-126. -  33  -  -  all  Mansfield's  34-  -  mature work.3  E l i z a b e t h Bowen mentions not only the technique but one  of  the e f f e c t s Mansfield achieves by i t ; Bowen says that Mansfield seldom o u t l i n e s and never d i s s e c t s a character: i n s t e a d , she causes the person t o expose themselves — and devastating mayy be the e f f e c t . 4 V.S. P r i t c h e t t goes f u r t h e r i n h i s p r a i s e of Mansfield's technical a b i l i t y ;  he f e e l s that she "added something t o the  technique of s t o r y w r i t i n g , " the grace w i t h which she drops d r a m a t i c a l l y back i n t o the past or s l i d e s i n t o the ^ thoughts and daydreams of her c h a r a c t e r s . ' The grace of f a c i l i t y Mansfield c e r t a i n l y developed i n her treatment of point of view, yet i t i s important t o r e a l i z e that her technique  i t s e l f always remains only her  own  v a r i a t i o n s on the t r a d i t i o n a l f i c t i o n a l approaches: the person, the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d , the omniscient  first  author.  F i r s t person point of view Mansfield had used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the s t o r i e s of her f i r s t book, In a German Pension, but i n that e a r l y work she had i d e n t i f i e d h e r s e l f so e x c l u s i v e l y and obviously w i t h the s t o r i e s * n a r r a t o r that the reader learns f a r more about the young Mansfield than about the o s t e n s i b l e characters of the pension. 3Gordon, p. 4  Bowen, p.  ^Pritchett,  6  An  11.  132 p.87.  ^Of Mansfield's use of f i r s t person i n the Pension s t o r i e s , Berkman says: "Miss Mansfield focuses squarely upon the scene as i t i s observed by a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r . Indeed, the major f l a w i n the technique i s the part t h i s f i g u r e p l a y s . The w r i t e r intrudes w i t h l a v i s h comments." (p.42)  -  35  -  older M a n s f i e l d learned how t o make her characters express her own view of l i f e without the t e c h n i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s the f i r s t person point of view imposes and without equating h e r s e l f w i t h the f i c t i o n a l n a r r a t o r .  In the s t o r i e s covered  by t h i s paper, the f i r s t person point of view i s used only for  s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l purposes, when i t would have been  d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to achieve the e f f e c t of the s t o r y by any other means.  There are four such s t o r i e s :  "Je ne P a r l e  pas F r a n c a i s " ( 1 9 1 8 ) , "The Young G i r l "  (1920),  Maid"(1920),  The omniscient author  and "The Canary" ( 1 9 2 2 ) •  "The Lady's  point of view, the technique which gives the thoughts of more than one c h a r a c t e r , begins i n "Prelude"(1917)» 7  continues w i t h  "Psychology", and becomes a major t e c h n i c a l point of view i n the s t o r i e s of Mansfield*s l a s t years:  "The Man Without a  Temperament"(1920), "The Daughters of the Late C o l o n e l " ( 1 9 2 0 ) , " L i f e of Ma P a r k e r " ( 1 9 2 0 ) , "At the B a y " ( 1 9 2 1 ) , "Marriage a l a Mode"(1921), "Honeymoon"(1922), "The D o l l ' s H o u s e " ( 1 9 2 2 ) , and "The F l y " ( 1 9 2 2 ) ,  The e a r l i e r s t o r i e s "The L i t t l e Gover-  ness " ( 1 9 1 5 ) , "Mr. Reginald Peacock's D a y " ( 1 9 1 7 ) » and "A D i l l P i c k l e " ( 1 9 1 7 ) a l l c o n t a i n b r i e f e n t r i e s i n t o the mind of a secondary character, but i n none of these s t o r i e s i s the balanced p r e s e n t a t i o n of the omniscient author point of view ' I have not been able to d i s c o v e r the date of Mansf i e l d ' s w r i t i n g of t h i s s t o r y . By i t s t e c h n i c a l treatment I would place i t about 1917* and c e r t a i n l y i t i s included i n B l i s s , f i r s t published i n 1 9 2 0 .  -  achieved.  36  -  The remainder of the s t o r i e s discussed i n t h i s  paper belong t o the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d point of view, and thus make up the l a r g e s t group, f o r , once more f o l l o w i n g t r a d i t i o n a l methods, Mansfield apparently found the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d the most u s e f u l f i c t i o n a l point of view and used i t most o f t e n .  I t can be found i n every period of her w r i t i n g  career, from the f i r s t published sketches t o the s t o r i e s of the  l a s t year of her l i f e .  S t o r i e s Told from the F i r s t Person Point of View In the works covered by t h i s paper, there are four s t o r i e s t o l d from the f i r s t person point of view: "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s " ( 1 9 1 8 ) , "The Lady's M a i d " ( 1 9 2 0 ) , Canary" ( 1 9 2 2 ) , and "The Young G i r l , " ( 1 9 2 0 ) .  "The  I n the f i r s t  three, personal r e v e l a t i o n s are made by the chief character, r e v e l a t i o n s of thought, dreams, f e e l i n g s which could not be presented by a t h i r d person and which would lose the e f f e c t iveness of immediacy i f given as from an omniscient author. "The Young G i r l " i s a v a r i a t i o n , f o r here the story t e l l e r has some resemblance t o a Henry James' n a r r a t o r :  the  o b s e r v e r - c a t a l y s t , d i r e c t i n g and observing the a c t i o n of the story without being h i m s e l f emotionally involved i n i t . Duquette (*Je ne P a r l e pas Francais") i s a w r i t e r , moreover a w r i t e r of the school of s e l f - a n a l y s i s . Berkman  -  37  -  says of Duquette, As a promising young w r i t e r , the author of False Coins, Wrong Doors, and L e f t Umbrellas. Duquette uses a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y idiom, d i s s e c t i n g h i s conceits as w e l l as' h i s character as he r e l a t e s his n a r r a t i v e . 8  Duquette has begun r a t h e r i d l y t o w r i t e about the d i r t y l i t t l e cafe i n which he i s s i t t i n g ; he s t a r t s t o e x p l a i n on paper why he returns t o such a poor place; he s u f f e r s again the p u l l of h i s memory o f Mouse, a memory which d i s t r a c t s him even as he w r i t e s : A l l the while I wrote that l a s t page my other s e l f has been chasing up and down out i n the dark there. (65) To e x p l a i n that memory, the power of that memory —  perhaps  a l s o t o win a kind of release from i t — Duquette must f i r s t explain himself.  He begins the autobiographical s e c t i o n  which runs t o the end of the s t o r y .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p with  Dick, the p a t h e t i c i n c i d e n t of Mouse are described, and as w e l l much i s revealed about Duquette h i m s e l f . his  Throughout  s t o r y , Duquette w r i t e s as i f he were addressing a second  person; from these words on the f i r s t page, .....pray don't imagine that those brackets are a confession of my h u m i l i t y before the mystery of the human s o u l (60) to these near the end of the s t o r y , But how she makes me break my r u l e . Oh, you've seen f o r y o u r s e l f , but I could give you countless examples ( 9 0 ) 8  Berkman, p. 181.  -  38 -  there are frequent references t o a second person who i s never i d e n t i f i e d .  I t thus seems h i g h l y probable that Duquette  i s speaking t o h i m s e l f , h i s "other s e l f " —  as Mansfield not  i n f r e q u e n t l y addressed h e r s e l f i n her own Journal —  i s , as i t  were, t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n something to himself about h i m s e l f that puzzles.him.  I n h i s endless game of s e l f - a n a l y s i s he searches  f o r the answer, but h i s f e e l i n g s f o r Mouse are too strange to him, too new, too complicated f o r him t o e x p l a i n .  As he  says about h i s not r e t u r n i n g t o the h o t e l t o see Mouse, Even now I don't f u l l y understand why. ( 9 0 ) The reader ends with a f u l l e r understanding  of the l i t t l e  fox t e r r i e r than i s p o s s i b l e f o r Duquette himself t o achieve. In contrast t o the d u a l - s e l f dialogue of "Je ne P a r l e " , "The Lady's Maid" and "The Canary" are dramatic monologues, presented as i f being d i r e c t l y spoken t o another person. In her use of t h i s form Mansfield was confronted with I t s inherent problems understanding  the need t o make r e v e l a t i o n s v i t a l t o our  of the character and yet t o keep the r e v e l a t i o n s  n a t u r a l t o the p e r s o n a l i t y of the character.  "The Lady's  Maid" i s addressing "madam", probably the resident of the neighbouring  f l a t , and madam's words are so c l e a r l y i n f e r a b l e  from E l l e n ' s side of the conversation that the story has the depth of dialogue even w i t h madam's r o l e reduced t o repeated ellipses.  E l l e n knocks on the bedroom door; madam obviously  t e l l s her t o come i n .  -  39  -  . . . I hope I haven't disturbed you,madam. You weren't asleep — were you? But I've just given my lady her t e a , and there was such a nice cup over, I thought, perhaps... Madam apparently accepts the t e a and thanks E l l e n f o r her t r o u b l e , f o r E l l e n ' s next words are ...Not at a l l , madam. I always make a cup of tea l a s t t h i n g . (375) So s k i l l f u l l y i s t h i s done that the s t o r y flows on l i k e conversation; i t i s obviously madam's k i n d l y i n t e r e s t expressed while she s i p s the t e a that makes E l l e n r e v e a l so much about h e r s e l f . E l l e n ' s speeches are constantly broken by the i n d i c a t i o n of comments from madam, f o r E l l e n w i l l have been too w e l l t r a i n e d to monopolize a conversation. Madam even provides evidence of E l l e n ' s k i n d l y nature, so long t r a i n e d to servitude that i t i s n a t u r a l t o attend t o the wants of another.  The s t o r y begins w i t h E l l e n ' s b r i n g i n g  madam the "nice cup" of t e a that was l e f t over from her lady's bedtime refreshment and closes with E l l e n again extending the care she gives her lady t o madam: Can I tuck i n your f e e t ? I always tuck i n my lady's f e e t , every n i g h t , j u s t the same.(380) As Rebecca West says, throughout her p a t h e t i c s t o r y 'The Lady's Maid' a r t l e s s l y betrays h e r s e l f 9 the predestined v i c t i m of the predatory e g o t i s t . . . . . "The Canary", w r i t t e n two years l a t e r , seems t o be t r y i n g to f o l l o w the s u c c e s s f u l p a t t e r n of "The Lady's Maid." %est,  p.  678.  40  -  I t begins w i t h a d i r e c t appeal t o a second person — "You see that b i g n a i l t o the r i g h t of the f r o n t door?" (428)  —  much as "The Lady's Maid" opens w i t h E l l e n speaking t o "madam," and i t continues as i f "Missus" were t e l l i n g her sad l i t t l e story t o this l i s t e n e r .  But the answers, the comments  of such a person play no v i t a l part i n the s t o r y , do not guide the d i r e c t i o n of the Missus' memories, do not add anything t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  I n f a c t , i n t h i s s t o r y the presence  of a second person creates a problem of c r e d i b i l i t y rather than solves one o f technique:  not only does the second person  contribute nothing t o the s t o r y but i t seems u n l i k e l y that a woman as alone and i s o l a t e d as the "Missus" must be would have a f r i e n d t o whom she would t e l l t h i s personal s t o r y . Neither the use of the f i r s t person point of view nor the t e c h n i c a l device of the e l l i p s e s that combine so w e l l i n "The Lady's Maid" brings the depth of dramatic monologue t o "The Canary." There i s no i n d i c a t i o n that the i n c i d e n t s of "The Young G i r l " are t o l d t o anyone or are being w r i t t e n down; the s t o r y reads more l i k e a memory p r i v a t e l y enjoyed i n a l l i t s d e t a i l than as a reminiscence t o l d or w r i t t e n f o r another person.  The whole centre o f the story i s f i l l e d w i t h the  young g i r l h e r s e l f , so much so that i t i s never d i r e c t l y stated that the n a r r a t o r i s a man. This i s made obvious from h i s treatment of the young g i r l , from such i n c i d e n t s as  -  h i s asking her i f he may  41  -  smoke, by h i s going f i r s t t o f i n d  a t a b l e i n the cafe, by h i s consulting her wishes i n ordering the t e a .  I t i s made even more obvious by the young g i r l ' s  act of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n played f o r h i s b e n e f i t and by her almost t e a r f u l pleasure at the end when she i s treated l i k e a woman, not a c h i l d .  No explanation of who  the n a r r a t o r  i s , why he i s i n the Casino town, what h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Raddick f a m i l y has been, i s ever given.  These d e t a i l s  are unnecessary to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the young g i r l as the u n f o l d i n g bud, and i t i s t h i s which gives the s t o r y i t s purpose, yet they would have been hard t o avoid i f the s t o r y were t o l d from the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person.  As i t i s , the  n a r r a t o r knows the answers to such questions  so f u l l y  and  n a t u r a l l y that they play no part i n h i s memory, need not intrude i n t o the s t o r y .  S t o r i e s Told From the R e s t r i c t e d Third Person Point of View As has been mentioned i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s chapter, t h i s s e c t i o n covers the greatest number of stories.  Mansfield's  Her use of the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person point of  view shows some c h r o n o l o g i c a l development of technique i n the s t o r i e s considered  i n t h i s paper but only i n the ease  w i t h which she manipulates the story from the  unobtrusive  view of the author to the views, thoughts, dreams of the  characters themselves.  42  -  The b a s i c method of s l i d i n g the  a c t i o n of the story back and f o r t h between e x t e r i o r movement and i n t e r i o r f e e l i n g of the character, of g i v i n g her own observations from her author's advantage point while sharing the point of view with her character, as i t were, Mansfield learned e a r l y and continued t o use. method as e a r l y as 1915  She had discovered the  w i t h "The L i t t l e Governess"; as  Gordon says of the s t o r y , i t represents a t e c h n i c a l advance. For the. f i r s t time she i s i n s i d e her c h a r a c t e r . 10  But i t was s e v e r a l years a f t e r the w r i t i n g of t h i s s t o r y before Mansfield was master of the technique, could use i t c o n s i s t e n t l y t o r e v e a l powerfully but i n d i r e c t l y what she wished t o show about her characters. Her i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y i s shown mainly i n the decrease of such t r a d i t i o n a l s i g n posts of f i c t i o n a l point of view as "she thought," "he decided,"  "she remembered,"  which, i n the e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , are;: used f r e q u e n t l y and traditionally.  So we have the l i t t l e governess i n the Ladies'  Cabin on the boat, musing on the people around her; then comes her mental comment, 'I l i k e t r a v e l l i n g very much,' thought the l i t t l e governess. ("The L i t t l e Governess,"  175;  1915)  When we f i r s t meet Miss Moss, she i s l y i n g i n her bed, Gordon, p.  10.  -  4-3  s t a r i n g up at the c e i l i n g s 'Oh dear,' thought Miss Moss, ' I am c o l d . ' ("Pictures," 119; 1917) I n "A D i l l P i c k l e , " Vera has just met her f r i e n d i n the cafe; a f t e r a moment of conversation, she was t h i n k i n g how w e l l she remembered that t r i c k of h i s ("A D i l l P i c k l e , " 168; 1917)  Mr. Reginald Peacock i s admiring h i m s e l f i n the glass as he  dressess He was, he decided, j u s t r i g h t , j u s t i n good p r o p o r t i o n . ("Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," 146; 1917)  In each case, there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of misunderstanding the words:  Mansfield as author d i r e c t l y t e l l s the  reader that i t i s the character t h i n k i n g these words. N a t u r a l l y Mansfield never e n t i r e l y abandoned these necessary  i n d i c a t i o n s o f s t o r y entry i n t o a character's  mind, but by 1918 she had reduced them g r e a t l y , had learned to put greater r e l i a n c e on the use of language which by i t s very expression obviously belonged t o the character. She could thereby make the transference from author t o character c l e a r , could a l s o make the thoughts of the character seem to f l o w i n an uninterrupted passage, and could th&n r e l a t e the thought t o events around the character without any sense o f author i n t r u s i o n .  I t i s t h i s sense o f immediacy  of character e x p o s i t i o n that i s the greatest strength o f  -  44  -  Mansfield's method; Mansfield i s able t o gain some of the e f f e c t o f stream-of-consciousness  without the l i m i t a t i o n  of pretending t o give a l l her character's thoughts, a l l the i n d i c a t i o n s of change of thought d i r e c t i o n .  So the opening of  " B l i s s " (1918) i s obviously from the authors Although Bertha Young was t h i r t y she s t i l l had moments l i k e t h i s (91) since Bertha would not be g i v i n g her own name i n her own thoughts.  Yet the r e s t of the opening sentence i s equally  obviously expressing Bertha's own thoughts: she s t i l l had moments l i k e t h i s when she wanted t o r u n instead of walk, t o take dancing steps on and o f f the pavement, t o bowl a hoop, t o throw something up i n the a i r and catch i t again, or t o stand s t i l l and laugh at — nothing — at nothing, simply. (91) This c l e a r expression of Bertha's thoughts  continues f o r two  more short paragraphs and then there i s : 'No, that about the f i d d l e i s not quite what I mean,' she thought (92) Yet there i s no sense of j a r , of bewilderment at just whose viewpoint i s being expressed i n which phrase, f o r , given d i r e c t l y and enclosed w i t h i n quotation marks, or i n d i r e c t l y with none of the t r a d i t i o n a l i n d i c a t i o n s t o segregate i t , Bertha's thoughts are c l e a r l y l a b e l l e d by the language of t h e i r expression as belonging t o Bertha h e r s e l f . There i s no r e a l change i n the method of presenting point of view i n "Taking the V e i l " (1922), one of Mansfield's  -  l a s t completed s t o r i e s .  4-5  -  I t begins with the use of the  t r a d i t i o n a l phrase that i n d i c a t e s the character concerned: It seemed impossible that anyone should be unhappy on such a b e a u t i f u l morning. Nobody was, decided Edna, except herself.(417) The story continues w i t h a general d e s c r i p t i o n o f the scene on t h i s l o v e l y spring day, moves i n l i k e a camera f o r a c l o s e up of Edna h e r s e l f , and then, with no second phrase used, has unobtrusively entered Edna's mind. An awful thing had happened. at the theatre l a s t night  Quite suddenly, she had f a l l e n  i n love w i t h an a c t o r . (417) We l e a r n how t h i s momentous act occurred and i t s e f f e c t on Edna, a l l i n language which i s obviously Edna's and yet i s not placed w i t h i n the quotation marks of d i r e c t l y quoted thought.  It was — r e a l l y , i t was a b s o l u t e l y — oh, the most — i t was simply — i n f a c t , from that moment Edna knew that l i f e could never be the same. (418)  Throughout the s t o r y we are l e d along with Edna on her slow walk while at the same time we are l e t i n t o her young mind w i t h a l l i t s r o m a n t i c i s i n g a b s u r d i t i e s . The s t o r y may be a l i t t l e more c o n c i s e l y presented than " B l i s s , " but c e r t a i n l y the b a s i c method of showing point of view has changed very little.  I t i s common t o a l l the s t o r i e s of t h i s s e c t i o n . There are a few v a r i a t i o n s i n Mansfield's p r e s e n t a t i o n  of the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person point of view which are worth  -  46  -  n o t i n g , those of "The Wind Blows" ( 1 9 1 5 ) , "The E s c a p e " ( 1 9 1 8 ) , " F e u i l l e d'Alburn" ( 1 9 1 7 ) , "A Cup of Tea" ( 1 9 2 2 ) , "The Stranger" ( 1 9 2 0 ) , and "The Voyage" ( 1 9 2 1 ) . Perhaps "The Wind Blows" should be considered as an experimental attempt t o combine the f i r s t person point of view w i t h that of the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d , f o r , while the s t o r y i s t o l d i n t h i r d person, every sentence i s i n the young g i r l ' s phrasing so that there i s n e i t h e r outside observer nor author statement i n a s i n g l e phrase.  Every d e t a i l i s  from the young g i r l ' s viewpoint so t h a t , were the story  changed  from t h i r d person t o f i r s t , not a sentence would have to be more  than grammatically changed i n verb and pronoun reference.  For example, here i s a passage as i t appears i n the s t o r y : She has a music l e s s o n at t e n o'clock. At the thought the minor movement of the Beethoven begins t o play i n her head, the t r i l l s long and t e r r i b l e l i k e l i t t l e r o l l i n g drums...(106) In f i r s t person, t h i s becomes: I have a music l e s s o n at t e n o'clock. At the thought the minor movement of the Beethoven begins to play i n my head, the t r i l l s long and t e r r i b l e l i k e l i t t l e r o l l i n g drums... Mansfield wrote "The Wind Blows" i n 1 9 1 5 , before she had achieved her f u l l t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y .  The story's unique  p r e s e n t a t i o n of point of view may be due t o an attempt by Mansfield t o g a i n o b j e c t i v e distance from d e t a i l s which belonged t o her own past.  P o s s i b l y she found the technique  4-7  -  too r e s t r i c t i v e , f o r b i d d i n g as i t d i d a l l outside comment, f o r she never repeated the method of "'The Wind Blows." "The Escape" i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r the union i t suggests between the thoughts and words of the nagging w i f e .  The  story i s presented from the viewpoint of the long s u f f e r i n g husband, but most of the words of the story are those of the incessant complaints of the woman. Given both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y these seem to tumble out i n a n e u r o t i c kind of stream-of—consciousness» And then the s t a t i o n — u n f o r g e t t a b l e — w i t h the s i g h t of the jaunty l i t t l e t r a i n s h u f f l i n g away and those hideous c h i l d r e n waving from the windows. 'Oh, why am I made t o bear these things? Why am I exposed to them?... (197) 1  S.o w e l l does the man know h i s w i f e , so monotonously  self-  centered are her every gesture and word, that h i s thoughts make an undoubtedly correct comment upon them: She put up her v e i l and, as though she were doing i t f o r somebody e l s e , p i t i f u l l y , as though she were saying t o somebody e l s e : ' I know, my d a r l i n g . ' she pressed the handkerchief to her eyes. (197) Both " F e u i l l e d'Album" and "A Cup of Tea" make use of a group point of view as a means of introducing the main character.  " F e u i l l e d'Album" opens w i t h conversation,  reported both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y , from the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d female members of an a r t y set i n P a r i s :  the t o p i c i s the odd  but u n i v e r s a l l y acknowledge a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of young Ian French.  This group d i s c u s s i o n gives the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r  -  48  -  what happens next, f o r the general conversation flows i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of the u n s u c c e s s f u l w i l e s of three members of the group t o win the young painter's a t t e n t i o n .  As a l l  such attempts are doomed t o f a i l u r e , the women themselves need not be f u r t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d ; t h e i r importance i s t o show the genuine and sweet c h i l d i s h n e s s of the young p a i n t e r , to present a contrast to the l i t t l e dark g i r l , t o make Ian's immediate a t t r a c t i o n t o her n a t u r a l , f o r she i s the only person i n the world he f e e l s i s just h i s age. He couldn't stand g i g g l i n g g i r l s , and he had no use f o r grown-up women... (165) From the moment of the l i t t l e dark g i r l ' s entry, the s t o r y i s phrased i n Ian French's serious language, t e l l s of h i s dreams and imaginings about the dark l i t t l e g i r l next door. The women of the story's opening have served t h e i r purpose and appear no more.  This use of a general voice as a means  of character i n t r o d u c t i o n i s repeated i n "A Cup of Tea." Here the group i s not one set i n contrast t o the main character but the one t o which the main character belongs; i t thus serves d i r e c t l y as an a d d i t i o n a l means of characteri z i n g Rosemary.  The group i s composed of people who know  f a r more about Rosemary's wealth than they do about her l i t t l e son; they c a l l him "a duck of a boy" (408) but i s the  c h i l d ' s name Michael or Peter?  These are the people  Rosemary wishes t o impress by taking a poor young g i r l home to teas  -  49  -  I t would be t h r i l l i n g . And she heard h e r s e l f saying afterwards to the amazement of her friendss ' I simply took her home with me * (411) The shallowness of Rosemary's l i f e i s thus p a r t l y shown by t h i s b r i e f group c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the s o c i a l set t o which she belongs.  I n both " F e u i l l e d Album" and "A Cup 1  of Tea" the group point of view acts l i k e overheard conversation rather than as the balance of view points achieved i n the s t o r i e s of the omniscient author. The use i n "The Stranger" i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t , for here Mansfield uses the crowd on the wharf not only t o express the common s e n s a t i o n of r e s t l e s s w a i t i n g but a l s o to set the scene v i s u a l l y f o r the reader before she narrows i t down l i k e the c l o s i n g view o f a camera t o focus on John Hammond. So the f i r s t paragraph i s from the point o f view of the group o f people on the dock; the second paragraph describes the one member o f the group who "seemed t o be the leader of the l i t t l e crowd on the wharf" (350); the t h i r d paragraph has entered h i s mind; the f o u r t h has him unconsciously paraphrasing what he was j u s t shown t h i n k i n g . But what a f o o l — what a f o o l he had been not t o bring any g l a s s e s i There wasn't a pair of glasses between the whole l o t of them. 'Curious t h i n g , Mr.Scott, that none of us thought of glasses.' (350-35D From t h i s moment t o the end, the s t o r y i s from John Hammond's view p o i n t .  -  50  -  "The Voyage" has a s m a l l c h i l d as the c e n t r a l intelligence.  In t h i s s t o r y Mansfield meets and conquers  the problem that Henry James also d e l i b e r a t e l y chose i n such s t o r i e s as What Maisie Knew:  t o make the  reader  understand more than i s p o s s i b l e f o r the l i m i t e d range of the c h i l d .  Mansfield had a comparatively  easy task, f o r  her s t o r y centers on that most common of a l l experiences, death.  I t i s u n l i k e l y that any adult reader w i l l need any  explanation f o r the emotion, behind such scenes as the following: To her s u r p r i s e F e n e l l a saw her f a t h e r take o f f h i s hat. He clasped grandma i n h i s arms and pressed her to him. 'God bless.you, mother!' she heard him say. And grandma put her hand, w i t h the black thread glove that was worn through on her r i n g f i n g e r , against h i s cheek, and she sobbed, 'God bless you, my own brave son!' (323)  This t o F e n e l l a i s but part of the time which "had a l l been sad l a t e l y " ( 3 2 8 ) ; the sadness she f e e l s but the f u l l depth of the reason f o r i t she cannot understand.  Much of the  poignancy of the s t o r y depends upon the double l e v e l s of a d u l t - c h i l d understanding  which Mansfield maintains  by  r e s t r i c t i n g the s t o r y to Fenella's point of view. Three s t o r i e s of the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person group have very short passages i n which the point of view i s suddenly (and, I b e l i e v e , awkwardly) changed:  "The  Little  -  51  -  Governess" (1915), "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day" (1917, and "A D i l l P i c k l e " (1917).  These s t o r i e s a r e , of course, e a r l y ;  i n the f i r s t two the b r i e f switch of point of view seems to be more of a t e c h n i c a l f l a w i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person than any attempt at the t r u l y omniscient author point of view, and i n "A D i l l P i c k l e " the sudden change from the woman's t o the man's point of view at the  end of the story creates a necessary but weak point of  conclusion.  "The L i t t l e Governess" has been t o l d from the  view point of the young g i r l h e r s e l f ; then, at the end, we leave her weeping and suddenly we know the view of the vindictive waiter.  The l i t t l e governess has j u s t asked him  where Frau Arnholdt i s now. 'How should I know?' c r i e d the waiter •That's i t ! t h a t ' s i t ! ' he thought. 'That w i l l show her.* And as he swung the new a r r i v a l ' s box on t o h i s shoulders — hoop! — as though he were a giant and the box a f e a t h e r , he minced over againvrthe l i t t l e governess's words, 'Gehen S i e . Gehen Sie s o f p r t . S h a l l 11 S h a l l I I ' he shouted t o h i m s e l f . (189) In "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," there i s one b r i e f change to the mind of the son.  He has c a l l e d h i s father f o r breakfast  and has been made to shake hands. Adrian f e l t d r e a d f u l l y s i l j y a t having to shake hands w i t h h i s own f a t h e r every morning. And why d i d h i s f a t h e r always sort of sing to him instead of t a l k ? . . .  (146)  In n e i t h e r "The L i t t l e Governess" nor "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day" i s t h i s change of point of view necessary, f o r i n n e i t h e r  -  52  -  does i t add anything new to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the main character.  However, the i n t e r j e c t i o n s are short and do not  create more than a momentary break i n the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person point of view used throughout the r e s t of the s t o r i e s . The change at the end of "A D i l l P i c k l e " i s very d i f f e r e n t i n e f f e c t , f o r we need to know that Vera's judgment of the is true.  She has seen her recreated i l l u s i o n of him  man  destroyed  when he becomes "naive and hearty, and d r e a d f u l l y l i k e another side of that old s e l f again" (174).  That t h i s view of him  i s the true one we r e a l i z e when he becomes so engrossed i n e x p l a i n i n g a Mind System he had found i n Russia that he does not even r e a l i z e that Vera i s l e a v i n g ; then, She had gone. He sat there, thunders t r u c k , astonished beyond words... (174) The e f f e c t Mansfield achieves by t h i s s h i f t of point of view i s e s s e n t i a l t o the t o t a l e f f e c t of the s t o r y with i t s d e s t r u c t i o n of a romantic i l l u s i o n by the harshness of r e a l i t y , but the sudden and b r i e f change from the thoughts of Vera t o those of the man makes a weak end to the s t o r y .  S t o r i e s Told From the Omniscient Author Point of View T e c h n i c a l l y , Mansfield's use of the omniscient  author  point of view i s only an extension of her use of the r e s t r i c t e d third.  Her primary method i s s t i l l t o manoeuvre her s t o r y  i n and out of her characters' minds, to blend t h e i r thoughts  -  53  -  and words together w i t h her own occasional quiet comments on both.  The d i f f e r e n c e i n the s t o r i e s of the omniscient author  i s that i n these we are allowed t o see the view point of more than one character i n each s t o r y . The s t o r i e s I c l a s s under t h i s heading are "Psychology" (date u n c e r t a i n ) , "The Daughters of the Late Colonel" ( 1 9 2 0 ) ,  "The Man Without a Temperament" ( 1 9 2 0 ) ,  " L i f e of Ma Parker" ( 1 9 2 0 ) , "Honeymoon" ( 1 9 2 2 ) ,  "Marriage a l a Mode" ( 1 9 2 1 ) ,  "The F l y , ( 1 9 2 2 ) ,  "Prelude" ( 1 9 1 7 ) ,  "At the Bay" ( 1 9 2 1 ) , and "The D o l l ' s House." ( 1 9 2 2 ) .  While  each has i t s own i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n the use of the omniscient author point of view, i n each case the aim seems to create a balance to give enough of more than one point of view to make comparison and contrast between characters possible.  I n each case we l e a r n something necessary t o our  view of the main character, something that could not be omitted without l o s s t o the s t o r y . "Psychology" concerns a man and woman who, f o r reasons acquired from l i t e r a t u r e rather than learned from l i f e , b e l i e v e that t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p must not progress t o a more intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p .  I t i s thus v i t a l f o r us t o  know whether or not each experiences the same f e e l i n g each i s a f r a i d to acknowledge, and t h i s we l e a r n from the s h i f t i n point of view from one character t o the other. The s t o r y begins with the woman's pleasure at seeing the  -  54  man, suggests h i s at seeing her, and, a f t e r a b r i e f passage between "Their secret s e l v e s " who are i n agreement, a l t e r n a t e s between h i s f e e l i n g s , hers, and t h e i r s . belongs l a r g e l y t o the woman —  Though the s t o r y  i t takes place i n her s t u d i o  and continues there a f t e r the man has l e f t —  enough i s given  of the man's thoughts t o make i t obvious that the uneasy sensation o f the unquiet beast o f passion i s common t o both. In "The Daughters o f the Late C o l o n e l " Mansfield was able t o use a point of view technique that could h a r d l y be applied t o any other of her s t o r i e s , f o r i t depends so e x c l u s i v e l y on the characters and environment of Con and Jug. The domination of t h e i r f a t h e r has enclosed and confined the l i v e s o f the s i s t e r s , has thereby separated them from the normal l i f e that has gone on a l l around them; unable by nature to r e b e l , Con and Jug have unknowingly created a l i t t l e world o f t h e i r own, a world i n which they are the only n a t u r a l inhabitants.  So c o n t i n u a l l y have they been together and so  separated have they been from intimacy w i t h any others, that they achieve true communication only w i t h each other; Mansfield suggests t h i s by repeatedly g i v i n g passages that could be from e i t h e r Con or Jug, which are t r u l y from both sisters.  Yet f o r the i n t e r e s t of her story and f o r an  i n d i c a t i o n of the t y r a n n i c a l power of Colonel Pinner, Mansfield must show Con and Jug as possessing d e f i n i t e l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s , as being more than'a r e p e t i t i o n of one p a t t e r n ,  -  55  -  as being two v i c t i m s r a t h e r than one; t h i s Mansfield reveals by a l l o w i n g us t o enter the minds of the s i s t e r , to see Jug as the more p r a c t i c a l , Con the more imaginative. The s t o r y opens with: the s i s t e r s considered together: The week a f t e r was one of the b u s i e s t weeks of t h e i r l i v e s . Even when they went to bed i t was only t h e i r bodies that l a y down and rested (262) Then the two are separated i n t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e d people: l y i n g l i k e a s t a t u e , asking questions of Jug; Jug,  Con,  answering  s h a r p l y , going t o sleep curled i n t o a b a l l w i t h her f i s t s under her ears.  The next s e c t i o n begins with the two again  treated together and now the s t o r y has moved i n t o the realm of the i n d i r e c t l y reported thoughts and conversation the s i s t e r s share together: Another t h i n g which complicated matters was that they had Nurse Andrews s t a y i n g on w i t h them that week. I t was t h e i r own f a u l t ; they had asked her. (264) Once more the s t o r y separates i n t o the views of the two, of i t s being "Josephine's i d e a " to ask Nurse Andrews to s t a y , of Con's agreement.  Then the complications of Nurse Andrews'  week w i t h them are shown as coming from both —  " R e a l l y , they  couldn't help f e e l i n g that about b u t t e r , at l e a s t , she took advantage of t h e i r kindness" (265)  —  and the two again  are separated over the question of jam f o r the pudding.  This  rapid s h i f t i n g from one s i s t e r to the other to both together continues throughout  the s t o r y ; i t i s s u r e l y one of M a n s f i e l d '  -  most s u c c e s s f u l treatments  56  -  of point of view.  Twice the s t o r y  i s moved away from the point of view of Con and Jug t o give b r i e f but v i t a l comments on the s i s t e r s , comments needed to show the normality of the r e s t of the world Mansfield i s presenting.  Kate's view of h e r s e l f and of her mistresses  i s given i n one sentence;  Con has rung f o r her  And proud young Kate, the enchanted p r i n c e s s , came i n to see what the old tabbies wanted now. (265) The short entry i n t o the mind of C y r i l , the grandson, enables us t o see the t e r r i f y i n g another person:  e f f e c t of the old c o l o n e l on yet  i t i s not just that Con and Jug are both  odd and weak, f o r C y r i l , while not appearing  as a man  strong w i l l , i s yet apparently making h i s way  i n the  world of the C i t y . Grandfather  of business  Yet even C y r i l f e e l s the power when  Pinner shoots "his eyes at C y r i l i n the way  was famous f o r " ( 2 7 7 ) , and, t o t a l l y beyond h i s  conscious  d e s i r e , C y r i l begins "Smiling l i k e a p e r f e c t i m b e c i l e . " The e f f e c t of the o l d man  he  (277)  on C y r i l i s not too d i f f e r e n t  than i t has been on Con and  Jug.  "The Man Without a Temperament" i s l a r g e l y from the man's point of view, but b r i e f l y we enter the v^ife's mind, too; as K l e i n e notes of the glimpses we are given of J i n n i e ' s thoughts, I t i s enough to e s t a b l i s h those conscious f e e l i n g s about [Robert] which she i s w i l l i n g to admit t o h e r s e l f ^ K l e i n e , "Katherine Mansfield and the P r i s o n e r of p. 29.  1 Q i  Love."  -  57  -  We l e a r n f i r s t - h a n d what has caused the pressure on Robert: h i s wife's great love f o r him, her great dependence on the strength that love gives her.  At the end of t h e i r t e a , as  she s i t s reading her l e t t e r s from home, Robert moves t o the end of the veranda and almost i n s t a n t l y J i n n i e misses him: Where was he? He wasn't t h e r e . Oh, there he was at the other end of the veranda, with h i s back turned, smoking a c i g a r e t t e . (134) Her love and admiration f o r him are both great: She looked up at him. She thought he looked pale — but wonderfully handsome (136)  Tres ruml Oh, she f e l t quite f a i n t . Oh, why should she love him so much just because he said a t h i n g l i k e t h a t . Tres rum'. That was Robert a l l over. Nobody else but Robert could ever say such a t h i n g . To be so wonderful, so b r i l l i a n t , so learned, and then t o say i n that queer boyish v o i c e . . . She could have wept. ( 1 3 6 ) The rest of the story i s Robert's, but we need these b r i e f passages from J i n n i e h e r s e l f t o understand not only J i n n i e ' s appeal t o have Robert w i t h her but a l s o Robert's l a c k of "temperament" which makes him unable t o r e s i s t such an 12  appeal.  As K l e i n e notes,  of Robert's true f e e l i n g s :  we are never given an expression by keeping us thus on the surface  of the man's thought, Mansfield i s able t o i n d i c a t e the taut c o n t r o l that Robert maintains over even h i s conscious thought. " L i f e of Ma Park#r" has two b r i e f passages of entry i n t o the mind of the l i t e r a r y young gentleman f o r whom Ma K l e i n e , "Katherine Mansfield and the Prisoner of p. 2 7 .  1 2  Love,"  Parker c l e a n s .  58  -  At the beginning of the s t o r y , the young  man asks a f t e r Ma Parker's grandson, and, on hearing of the c h i l d ' s death, gives a conventional expression of sympathy. That i t i s conventional and not true sympathy becomes c l e a r immediately, f o r we see i n t o the man's mind and f i n d that he f e e l s  only personal awkwardness about the s i t u a t i o n ;  he has been i n t e r r u p t e d i n the middle of h i s breakfast but He could hardly go back to the warm s i t t i n g - r o o m without saying something something more. Then because these people set such s t o r e by f u n e r a l s he s a i d k i n d l y , ' I hope the f u n e r a l went o f f a l l r i g h t . ' (301)  —  His o p i n i o n of "these people" as beings h a r d l y capable of personal f e e l i n g s becomes c l e a r l a t e r i n the s t o r y ; on h i s way out, the young man  questions Ma Parker about a teaspoonful  of cocoa he t h i n k s he has l e f t i n a t i n which he cannot f i n d . And he walked o f f very h i m s e l f , convinced, i n Mrs. Parker that under carelessness he was as woman. (306)  w e l l pleased w i t h f a c t , he'd shown h i s apparent v i g i l a n t as a  Yet n e i t h e r has the young man any d e s i r e t o be c r u e l ;  he i s  merely concerned w i t h only h i s own p r i v a t e world i n which Ma 13  Parker i s the "hag" he gets i n once a week t o clean.  This  i s the treatment Ma has received from everyone a l l her  life,  and i t i s the reason she i s alone at the end of the s t o r y . ^^•Alpers considers that Mansfield has over-drawn her p i c t u r e of the man; he says that "the s t o r y i s marred by exaggerated c a r i c a t u r e i n the p o r t r a y a l of the u n f e e l i n g ' l i t e r a r y gentleman' whose rooms Ma Parker cleans.".(310)  -  59  -  "Marriage a l a Mode" i s separated i n t o three s e c t i o n s , the f i r s t two e x c l u s i v e l y from William's point of view, the l a s t e x c l u s i v e l y from I s a b e l ' s .  The story i s  centered on W i l l i a m , on h i s r e a c t i o n to h i s marriage which has become "a l a mode," but f o r t h i s very reason i t i s necessary f o r us to know something of Isabel's point of view i n order t o judge the t r u t h of William's f e e l i n g s .  In  the f i n a l short s e c t i o n we see not only Isabel's thoughtless reading of William's l e t t e r but her r e a c t i o n t o her own thoughtlessness.  As Rebecca West s t a t e s ,  One measures the extent of [Isabel's] r u i n when she reads [William's l e t t e r ] aloud to [her friends] But one measures from what heights she has f a l l e n when she suddenly runs from the g i g g l i n g c i r c l e of her f r i e n d s and runs t o her own room and throws h e r s e l f on her b e d . 14  Without the b r i e f f i n a l s e c t i o n from I s a b e l , we would not be sure that William's view of h i s marriage i s c o r r e c t , that I s a b e l i s indeed too " f a l l e n " to understand the depth of h i s love. "Honeymoon" i s p r i m a r i l y the woman's s t o r y , yet here a much greater sense of balance Is achieved i n the view p o i n t s , f o r the occasions of both agreement and d i f f e r e n c e between Fanny and George are shown from both points of view. George suggests that they have tea "'at the place where the l o b s t e r s grow'" and Fanny would l i k e to "'Most a w f u l l y ' " (402); "West, p. 6 7 8 .  the  60  -  s o f t wind from the sea makes George comment, " ' J o l l y ,  i s n ' t i t ' " and Fanny agrees.  Then George sees a swimmer  i n the sea and joyously announces that "'wild horses won't keep me from going i n to-morrow morning.'" (403)  Fanny i s  frightened because of a long-standing b e l i e f that the Mediterranean "was an absolute death-trap" f o r swimmers, but  she i s determined not t o s p o i l her husband's pleasure  and she suppresses her f e a r .  They a r r i v e at the h o t e l -  r e s t a u r a n t , are made equally nervous by the a t t e n t i o n s of the  "sleek manager," equally attempt t o hide t h e i r awkwardness  under an assumption of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n . asks her serious questions know me now?'"  At the t a b l e Fanny  "'Do you f e e l  that you r e a l l y  George, looking "too solemn to be quite as  serious as she," (405) i s f u l l of easy assurance and the desire "to t e l l her how much he l i k e d her l i t t l e nose." (406) At t h i s point the music s t a r t s p l a y i n g and the f i n a l occasion of d i f f e r e n c e between the young couple i s shown.  Listening  to the o l d man's song, Fanny woncfers i f she and George have the  r i g h t to be so happy: Wasn't i t cruel? There must be something else i n l i f e which made a l l these things p o s s i b l e . What was i t ? She turned to George. (407)  But  George "had been f e e l i n g d i f f e r e n t l y from Fanny." The poor o l d boy's voice was funny i n a way, but God, how i t made you r e a l i z e what a t e r r i b l e t h i n g i t was t o be at the beginning of everything, as they were, he and Fanny!(407)  -  61  -  We are allowed t o l e a r n f a r more about the d i f f e r e n c e s between Fanny and George than e i t h e r character can know, f o r we are allowed t o see the d i f f e r e n c e s from both view points and can contrast the seriousness of the opposing views w i t h the joined pleasures the young couple are sharing on t h e i r honeymoon. "The F l y " begins w i t h a complexity of point of view which i s then narrowed t o that of the main character. The opening paragraph moves from the point of view of old W o o d i f i e l d to that of h i s wife and daughters  —  characters who make no other entry i n t o the story — t o the general statement that we c l i n g t o our l a s t pleasures as the t r e e c l i n g s t o i t s l a s t leaves (422) and back t o that of o l d Woodifield as he looks at the boss, s t a r i n g almost g r e e d i l y at the boss, who r o l l e d i n h i s o f f i c e c h a i r , s t o u t , rosy, f i v e years older than he, and s t i l l going strong, s t i l l at the helm. I t d i d one good to see him. (422) Now we change t o the boss's view of h i s o l d f r i e n d ; the boss l i k e s having h i s o f f i c e admired, e s p e c i a l l y by o l d W o o d i f i e l d . I t gave him a f e e l i n g of deep, s o l i d s a t i s f a c t i o n t o be planted there i n the midst of i t i n f u l l view of that f r a i l o l d f i g u r e i n the m u f f l e r . (423) The point of view now remains with the boss but i s a l t e r n a t e d w i t h that of the author entering the s t o r y d i r e c t l y t o act  -  6-2 -  as a sympathetic observer who can be i d e n t i e d w i t h n e i t h e r the boss nor o l d Woodifield but who comments on both.  The  boss produces h i s b o t t l e of whisky and o l d Woodifield couldn't have looked more s u r p r i s e d i f the boss had produced a r a b b i t . (423) This i s not l i k e an expression of the boss's; r a t h e r , i t i s Mansfield h e r s e l f unobtrusively commenting on the o l d man. It i s M a n s f i e l d again, not the badly shaken boss, who notes that  I t was p l a i n from {Woodifield sj voice how much he l i k e d a nice broad path (423) 1  when he i s d e s c r i b i n g the m i l i t a r y cemetery i n France. method i s now used c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout the s t o r y .  This It  enables us to see the boss as he watches the f l y on h i s b l o t t i n g paper at the same time that we know what he i s himself t h i n k i n g about the i n c i d e n t : He plunged h i s pen back i n t o the i n k , cleaned h i s t h i c k w r i s t on the b b t t i n g paper, and as the f l y t r i e d I t s wings down came a great heavy b l o t . What would i t make of that? What indeed! The l i t t l e beggar seemed a b s o l u t e l y cowed, stunned, and a f r a i d to move because of what would happen next. (427) In the very l a s t paragraph we watch the o l d dog Macy pad away and the boss pass h i s handkerchief i n s i d e h i s c o l l a r while we are at the same time made aware that "For the l i f e of him he could not remember" what he had been t h i n k i n g about. Our judgment of the f i n a l scene, of the e n t i r e s t o r y , w i l l depend to a considerable extent on the contrast we have  -  -  6.3  between old Woodifield and the boss, and t h i s contrast could not have been so c l e a r l y shown without the use of the omniscient "The  author point of view.  Garden P a r t y , "  "The D o l l ' s House,"  "Prelude,"  and "At the Bay" each show one major d i f f e r e n c e from the other s t o r i e s of the omniscient  authors  each of these  s t o r i e s presents more than two view p o i n t s . "The Garden P a r t y " begins w i t h a group voice that we gradually r e a l i z e i s that of the Sheridan f a m i l y  who  have been anxiously watching the weather f o r the past dayss And a f t e r a l l the weather was i d e a l . They could not have had a more perfect day f o r a garden-party i f they had ordered i t . (245) We see the f a m i l y group at breakfast; then the men w i t h the marquee a r r i v e ; and the s t o r y narrows to the view point of Laura.  Here i t l a r g e l y remains —  l a r g e l y , not e n t i r e l y ,  f o r part of the vividness of "The Garden P a r t y " i s due i t s s b r i e f , h a l f - e n t r i e s i n t o the minds of other  to  characters.  Sio we are t o l d that the servants love obeying Jose because She always made them f e e l they were taking part i n some drama. (250) This b r i e f united opinion of the servants i s then narrowed to a quick entry i n t o the mind of Sadie; she announces the a r r i v a l of the man from Godber's. f o r She had seen the man  I  pass the window.  (252)  64  -  The group i n the k i t c h e n learns of the death of a man from the cottages, and Laura t r i e s t o e x p l a i n t o Jose why the garden party should be stopped.  Jose not only does not  understand but begins t o f e e l " s e r i o u s l y annoyed." ( 2 5 4 ) No one understands Laura and the party goes on. At i t s conclusion Mrs. Sheridan "had one of her b r i l l i a n t  ideas"  and Laura i s sent w i t h a basket of food f o r the S c o t t f a m i l y . As she i s about to l e a v e , Mrs. Sheridan begins t o add a word of c a u t i o n , but stops:  "No, better not put such ideas i n t o  the c h i l d ' s head I" ( 2 5 8 )  With these exceptions, the s t o r y  i s Laura's, not only centered on her experience but kept w i t h i n her view p o i n t .  The e f f e c t i s t o concentrate our  a t t e n t i o n on Laura but to make us aware of the complexity of l i f e i t s e l f , a complexity that Laura i s only h e r s e l f beginning t o r e a l i z e .  She i s surrounded by other people,  w i t h many of whom she shares l o v e , a l l o f whom she wishes w e l l , desires to t r e a t k i n d l y .  Yet she suddenly f i n d s that  she i s surrounded by separate beings, each w i t h a view and a d e s i r e which does not n e c e s s a r i l y coincide w i t h hers. Only w i t h L a u r i e does she achieve a u n i t y of f e e l i n g and i t i s a communication that depends very l i t t l e on words, i s achieved by a shared view point that i s expressed i n the ending o f the story: 'Isn't l i f e , ' [Laura] stammered, ' i s n ' t l i f e — ' But what l i f e was she couldn't e x p l a i n . No matter. He quite understood.  'Isn't i t , d a r l i n g ? "The  65 1  -  s a i d L a u r i e . (26l)  D o l l ' s House" opens w i t h what i s obviously  a general f a m i l y opinion of "dear old Mrs. Hay,"  then moves  t o an i n d i r e c t l y reported adult d i s c u s s i o n of the d o l l ' s house, from that to the B u r n e l l c h i l d r e n ' s nearly speechless joy: 'Oh-oh!' The B u r n e l l c h i l d r e n sounded as though they were i n despair. I t was too marvellous; i t was too much f o r them (394) and to Kezia's i n d i v i d u a l i z e d opinion: But what Kezia l i k e d more than anything, what she l i k e d f r i g h t f u l l y , was the lamp. (394) By so s i n g l i n g out K e z i a , Mansfield e s t a b l i s h e s her as the c e n t r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e of her s t o r y .  Now  she moves the s t o r y  away from Kezia and i n t o b r i e f moments i n the minds of Kezia's two s i s t e r s , and then, as the B u r n e l l c h i l d r e n share t h e i r wonderful news with t h e i r classmates,  again a group v o i c e ,  t h i s time the c o l l e c t i v e mind of the community, united i n t h e i r o p i n i o n of the Kelveys.  The s t o r y now  seems t o hover  around the c h i l d r e n without making more than b r i e f e n t r i e s i n t o any i n d i v i d u a l minds movie screen.  the scenes merely unfold as on a  Then again the story narrows to focus on  K e z i a ; she has "made up her mind" (399)  and she i n v i t e s the  Kelveys i n t o the yard t o see the d o l l ' s house.  Aunt Beryl's  i n t e r r u p t i o n of the c h i l d r e n seems an act of c r u e l s o c i a l pressure u n t i l the s t o r y again changes i t s point of view and  -  66  -  we learn the additional reason for Beryl's actions  i t may  he heartless but i t i s not without personal as well as s o c i a l purpose, f o r she has relieved the "ghastly pressure" W i l l i e Brent's l e t t e r has caused i n her own mind.  Signif-  i c a n t l y , we are never allowed to see into the minds of the l i t t l e Kelveys:  they remain more poignant with a l l t h e i r  expression confined to t h e i r appearance, t h e i r actions. As i n "The Voyage," we understand more than a child character could be made to reveal, and Mansfield wisely adds nothing more to the picture of the Kelveys s i t t i n g by the roadside. Considered together, "Prelude" (1917) and "At the Bay" (1921) show a technique unique i n Mansfield's s t o r i e s * each story presents the point of view of each major character and of the more important minor ones as w e l l .  The result  i s a v i r t u a l kaleidoscope of character view points.  "Prelude"  l e t s the reader enter the minds of Linda, Beryl, Stanley, Mrs. F a i r f i e l d , Kezia, L o t t i e , A l i c e ; b r i e f l y into the thoughts of Rags, Pip, Pat, and Isabel. With the exception of Pat and the addition of Jonathan, "At the Bay" repeats these characters and again allows the reader to know the thoughts of each one.  In addition, there i s the b e a u t i f u l  description of the Bay that begins the story, that gives the setting before any l i f e has appeared.  And there i s  the group voice of the men and the women of the Bay colony set  i n amusing contrast on the fascinating topic of the  -  Kembers.  67  -  The women become " f e r v e n t " on the subject of the  husband: How can he have married her? How can he, how can he? I t must have been money, of course, but even then! (218) The men,  on the other hand, "couldn't stand him"s they couldn't get a word out of the chap; he ignored h i s wife just as she ignored him. How d i d he l i v e ? Of oourse there were s t o r i e s , but such s t o r i e s 1 (218)  There i s even the imaginary view point of the cat F l o r r i e , of the dog Wag,  of Linda's baby boy, view points perhaps  overly whimsical and based on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of expressions and a c t i o n s .  The e f f e c t of "Prelude" and "At the Bay" i s  to give a rounded p i c t u r e of each character and by u n i t i n g t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y of view points to give the impression of a more rounded view of l i f e than Mansfield ever elsewhere.  achieved  P a r t l y t h i s i s due to the wide range of age  s o c i a l types we see:  and  the c h i l d r e n , never consciously  disobedient but f u l l of the intense c u r i o s i t y of childhood; B e r y l , aware of her own beauty but a l s o aware of the f a l s e s e l f that awareness has created; Linda, gradually r e a l i z i n g the complexity of human emotion; Stanley, hard-headed i n business, simple-hearted  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f e a r i n g the  approach of middle-age; Jonathan, already grey, knowing himself trapped but never able to understand or to r e c o n c i l e himself to h i s l i f e :  Mrs. F a i r f i e l d , her own married  life  -  68  -  many years i n the past, s a t i s f i e d and happy i n the l i f e of her f a m i l y ; A l i c e and P a t , servants but s t i l l part of the B u r n e l l f a m i l y group and therefore included.  Significantly  we never enter the minds of those other characters who  populate  the Bay colony but who are not part of the f a m i l y group: Mrs. Samuel Josephs, Mrs. Stubbs, the Kembers are a l l known to us by t h e i r appearance, by t h e i r a c t i o n s as veiwed by some member of the B u r n e l l household.  I t i s as i f Mansfield  had drawn a c i r c l e around a l l those whom the B u r n e l l roof sheltered and, by showing the m u l t i p l i c i t y of l i v e s w i t h i n t h i s l i t t l e f a m i l y world, had placed her characters i n r e l a t i o n not only to one another but als-o t o the suggested complexity of l i f e  itself.  By t h i s short examination of Mansfield's major s t o r i e s I have attempted t o show her many v a r i a t i o n s on the t h r e e - f o l d t r a d i t i o n a l approach to point of view.  The  first  person Mansfield used e x t e n s i v e l y i n her apprentice p e r i o d , but her l a t e r work employs t h i s technique s p a r i n g l y and always to make r e v e l a t i o n s impossible t o achieve as e f f e c t i v e l y by any other means.  The r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d person, the most  common l i t e r a r y point of view, Mansfield h e r s e l f used most f r e q u e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout her w r i t i n g career.  The omniscient author technique belongs t o "Prelude"  of 1917 and to the l a s t years of 1920-19225  i t i s interesting  to wonder how much of Mansfield's r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the technique were due t o her own o r i g i n a l  -  69  -  need o f the technique t o express a l l she f e l t about a l l the  characters of her o l d f a m i l y group. C e r t a i n l y there i s l i t t l e new i n l i t e r a t u r e t o be  found i n the bare d e t a i l s o f Mansfield's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f point of view.  What she added was her own complex movement  i n and out of the minds of her characters, a movement she made appear so easy and n a t u r a l that there i s seldom any sense of j a r ,  even any sense of the story's having changed  from e x t e r i o r a c t i o n t o i n t e r i o r consciousness. A c c o r d i n g l y , i n a l l her s t o r i e s Mansfield's u l t i m a t e success had t o depend i n considerable measure upon her a b i l i t y t o produce the e x a c t l y r i g h t language o f thought and speech f o r each character. Not always was Mansfield s u c c e s s f u l i n her t o t a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of  character by point of view.  There seems a j a r r i n g note i n  "The Canary" when the woman r e f e r s t o h e r s e l f by the lowerclass "Missus": the word seems t o belong i n the world o f Ma Parker, not t o f i t the l u c i d s t y l e of language used by the owner of the canary. too  Monica T y r e l l ("Revelations") appears  shallow and f o o l i s h a woman ever t o express t h i s thoughts We w h i r l along l i k e leaves, and nobody knows — nobody cares where we f a l l , i n what black r i v e r we f l o a t away. (195)  Old  Mr. Neave's judgment of h i s son's appearance ("An I d e a l  Family") hardly sounds as i f i t comes from an e l d e r l y , e f f i c i e n t , and h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l businessman: No man had a r i g h t t o , such eyes, such lashes and such l i p s ; i t was uncanny. (369) c  -  70  -  Passages i n "Sun and Moon" such as "Nurse was helping Annie a l t e r Mother's dress which was much-too-long-and-tight-underthe  arms" (154) suggest an adult attempt t o remember a  f o r g o t t e n language rather than a c h i l d ' s n a t u r a l speech. Yet i n an amazing number of s t o r i e s Mansfield d i d succeed i n capturing the words and rhythms of thought and speech that make her characters appear s h a r p l y , d e f i n i t e l y .  We l i s t e n  to Constantia("The Daughters o f the Late Colonel") express her preference on f i s h : •I t h i n k i t might be nice t o have i t f r i e d , said Constantia. On the other hand, of course, b o i l e d f i s h i s very n i c e . I t h i n k I prefer both equally w e l l . . . Unless you... In that case — 1  1  'I s h a l l f r y i t , ' said Kate, and she bounced back, leaving t h e i r door open and slamming the door of her k i t c h e n . ( 2 7 9 ) This not only seems to sum up the i n d e c i s i v e character of Con, t o catch the essence of the s i s t e r s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p with Kate, but to do so w i t h humour and kindness. We enter the mind of Reggie ("Mr. and Mrs. Dove") w i t h the f i r s t words of the sjiory and know him to be the k i n d l y but i n e f f e c t u a l p u b l i c school product he proves to be: Of course he knew — no man b e t t e r — that he hadn't a ghost of a chance, he hadn't an e a r t h l y . ( 2 8 5 ) We hear Jonathan address Linda ("At the Bay") i n h i s d e l i b e r a t e l y a r t i f i c i a l languages 'Greeting, my F a i r One I Greeting, my C e l e s t i a l Peach Blossom!' ( 2 3 5 - 2 3 6 )  -  71  -  and we r e a l i z e that Jonathan i s r e l e a s i n g some of h i s thwarted d e s i r e f o r adventure out i n " ' t h i s vast dangerous garden " ( 2 3 7 ) of l i f e . 1  We meet Miss B r i l l , already s e t t l e d  on her " s p e c i a l " seat, l i s t e n i n g t o the music of the band, and we know the narrow g e n t i l i t y o f her existences Now there came a l i t t l e ' f l u t e y ' b i t — very p r e t t y i — a l i t t l e chain of b r i g h t drops. ( 3 3 D To me, Mansfield's successes  i n character p r e s e n t a t i o n by  the use of point of view are greater i n both number and e f f e than her f a i l u r e s . Of Mansfield's c r e a t i o n of character type F r i i s says that  Katherine Mansfield commands a wide range of characters. She describes young men as w e l l as middle-aged and o l d men, and young g i r l s as w e l l as middle-aged and old women.!5  and i t i s t r u e that Mansfield presents characters of both sexes, o f many ages, of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s e t s , of s e v e r a l countries.  We have c h i l d r e n i n the New Zealand s t o r i e s , i n  Sun and Moon, i n Hennie of "The Young G i r l " ; the adolescent i n the l i t t l e governess,  i n the Sheridan c h i l d r e n , i n "The  Young G i r l " h e r s e l f ; young people just over the threshold of adulthood  i n Fanny and George ("Honeymoon"), Ian French  ( " F e u i l l e d'Album"), Edna CTaking the V e i l " ) , B e r y l o f the New Zealand  s t o r i e s ; young married couples i n Bertha and  Harry ( " B l i s s " ) , Rosemary and P h i l i p F e l l ("A Cup o f Tea"); 1  % r i i s , p. 166.  -  72  -  aging spinsters i n Miss B r i l l , the lady's maid, Miss Moss ("Pictures"); the elderly i n old Mr. Neave (J'An Ideal Family"), the  boss and old Woodifield ("The  F l y " ) , Mrs. F a i r f i e l d  ("Prelude" and "At the Bay"), the grandparents ("The Ma Parker.  Voyage"),  We have the "arty" modern set s a t i r i c a l l y presented  i n " B l i s s " and "Marriage a l a Mode" and i n the l i t e r a r y young gentleman of '"Life of Ma Parker"; the picture of wealth i n "A Cup of Tea"; the world of the i n v a l i d i n "Man Without a Temperament"; the l i f e of the lower s o c i a l class i n Ma Parker, i n Pat and A l i c e , the Samuel Josephs, Mrs. Stubbs of the Zealand s t o r i e s .  New  We are shown London and Wellington repeatedly,  Paris i n "Je ne Parle pas Francais" and "Miss B r i l l " , Germany i n "The L i t t l e Governess," some unnamed continental country i n "The Escape", "Man Without a Temperament", and"Honeymoon". Yet with a l l t h i s seeming complexity of character presentation, i t must be admitted that a certain s i m i l a r i t y of  character type developsz  i t i s a s i m i l a r i t y caused by the  vast majority of the characters of Mansfield's mature stories belonging to the middle-class i n both p o s i t i o n and outlook. Their economic security ranges from the one-and-three  that  Miss Moss ("Pictures") has i n her vanity bag to the considerable wealth of the F e l l s ("A Cup of Tea.") includes the female school teacher —  The middle-class world the l i t t l e  Miss Meadows ("The Singing Lesson"), Miss B r i l l — as the successful business man —  governess, as well  Stanley Burnell, old Mr.  Neave ("An  I d e a l F a m i l y " ) , the boss ("The  Hammond ("The  Stranger").  F l y " ) , John  I t includes the n e u r o t i c Monica  T y r e l l ("Revelations"), the nagging wife ("The the sheltered oddity of Con and Jug ("The the Late Colonel.") But, w i t h the  Escape"),  Daughters of  exception of Ma  and the lower classes of the New Zealand  Parker  stories, i t i s a  middle-class world that Mansfield chose to explore i n her f i c t i o n , undoubtedly because t h i s was the world she h e r s e l f knew best. Late i n her l i f e Mansfield accused h e r s e l f of having had too narrow a range of a t t i t u d e which had r e s u l t e d i n too narrow a p r e s e n t a t i o n of l i f e i n her work. a conversation w i t h Mansfield i n which she  Orage records  says,  I've been a s e l e c t i v e camera, and i t has been my a t t i t u d e that has determined the s e l e c t i o n ; w i t h the r e s u l t that my s l i c e s of l i f e . . . . have been p a r t i a l , misleading, and a l i t t l e m a l i c i o u s . 1 6  There i s undoubtedly considerable t r u t h i n Mansfield's indictment against h e r s e l f , yet i t seems t o me that w i t h i n her admittedly narrow focus she shows her characters c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y and achieves a high grade of t e c h n i c a l excellence i n her a b i l i t y to take her reader w i t h her i n t o the minds of her characters.  Century.  •"'A.R. Orage, "Talks w i t h Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " V. 1 0 9 , p. 3 8 .  CHAPTER I I I TIME In the preceding chapter I have stated that Mansfield's treatment of point of view was her own s t o r y by s t o r y v a r i a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of the technique.  Mansfield's use  of f i c t i o n a l time i s e q u a l l y a hall-mark of her work, an attempt t o suggest the f u l l l i f e of characters whom we see f o r only f l e e t i n g moments. The b r i e f period of time  covered  by her s t o r i e s i s noted by F r i i s : Ihen we consider Katherine Mansfield's s t o r i e s from the point of view of time, we see that her s t o r i e s d e p i c t , tsicll only a few hours, or a day, i n the l i f e of her c h a r a c t e r s . She takes a s m a l l s e c t i o n of l i f e and puts i t under the microscope.1 The meaning Mansfield attempted  to draw from these b r i e f  moments of f i c t i o n a l time i s described by Robert L i t t e l l : he says that Mansfield knew that when people marry, or make money, or d i e , very l i t t l e may r e a l l y be happening to them; and i n her s t o r i e s these and other important events happen seldom and are never at the centre of the stage The t r u t h i s i n minutes rather than i n years, i n the emotion not of a day, but of a second, i n the c h i l l or warmth of a sudden mood, i n the tunes played on the mind by anything, by nothing at a l l . 2  Mansfield's handling of f i c t i o n a l time, w i t h her r a p i d s h i f t i n g of past and present, suggests her treatment of point o f view, i F r i i s , p. 1 6 7 . 2  Robert L i t t e l l ,  XXI ( 1 9 2 2 ) ,  p.166.  "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " New Republic. -  74  -  75 and indeed the same f l e x i b i l i t y  she showed i n moving i n and  out of her characters' minds she shows i n blending what may be c a l l e d the "tenses" of t h e i r existence.  This Gordon  describes: Straightforward c h r o n o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i o n i s seldom favoured, rather an a l t e r n a t i o n of time present and time past (and sometimes time f u t u r e ) , with scenes juxtaposed t o heighten the emotional e f f e c t . 3 As w i t h most aspects of her technique, made no d i r e c t recorded  Mansfield  comment on her own methods.  She d i d ,  however, twice make references t o New Zealand s t o r i e s which seem t o apply t o her treatment of time, not only i n the New Zealand s t o r i e s but i n a l l her work:  she l i k e n e d her own  view, and therefore her p r e s e n t a t i o n , of her characters t o the l i f t i n g away of a mist which obscured them.  The f i r s t  reference i s i n a Journal entry of Feb. 14, 1916, from the time when Mansfield was s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the beginnings of "The Aloe"; l i k e so many e n t r i e s of t h i s p e r i o d , i t i s addressed to Chummie. My brother, I have doubted these l a s t few days. I have been i n dreadful places. I have f e l t that I could not come through t o you. But now, quite suddenly, the mists are r i s i n g , and I see and I know you are with me. 4  A year and a h a l f l a t e r she had revised "The Aloe" i n t o "Prelude".  She described her method of character  3Gordon, p. 21. 4  J o u r n a l , pp. 47-48.  presentation  -  76  -  i n a l e t t e r t o the Hon. Dorothy B r e t t , who had w r i t t e n t o ask her how she had "shaped" her s t o r y : j u s t as on those mornings i n New Zealand white milky mists r i s e and uncover some beauty, then smother i t again and then again d i s c l o s e i t , I t r i e d t o l i f t that mist from my people and l e t them .be seen and then t o hide them again 5 "At the Bay," the "second chapter" of the B u r n e l l f a m i l y s t o r y , begins with a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e a l morning mists l i f t i n g under the growing heat of the day. As a means of character p r e s e n t a t i o n , however, the mists are lifted  i n every s t o r y Mansfield wrote.  her primary method o f s t o r y t e l l i n g :  This was always each s t o r y i s shaped  l i k e a moment on a stage on which the drama has begun long before we see the c u r t a i n go up w i t h the beginning of the f i r s t sentence, which w i l l go on even though f o r us the c u r t a i n f a l l s at the end of the l a s t sentence.  The problem  inherent i n t h i s method i s to keep the moment of the story's r e v e l a t i o n from appearing t o be i n t o t a l i s o l a t i o n from events before and a f t e r i t , events which w i l l not themselves be d i r e c t l y shown t o us.  Mansfield's b a s i c s o l u t i o n i s t o  give a strong sense of time at the very beginning of the s t o r y , i f p o s s i b l e i n the f i r s t sentence, and then t o use t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d point as a fulcrum from which t o move backward and forward i n the l i f e of her characters. In a s u r p r i s i n g number of Mansfield s t o r i e s she ^ L e t t e r s , I , pp. 83-84.  77  -  gives the time of day of the f i r s t event of the story i n the  opening sentence i t s e l f .  meet "The L i t t l e Governess,"  I t i s night time as we f i r s t "The Lady's Maid," and the  f a m i l y of "The Voyage." Oh dear, how she wished that i t wasn't night time. ("The L i t t l e Governess," 174.) Eleven o' c l o c k . A knock at the door. ('The Lady's Maid,"375.1 The P i c t o n boat was due t o leave at h a l f - p a s t eleven. ("The Voyage," , 3 2 1 . ) I t i s evening as o l d Mr. Neave sets out from the o f f i c e . That evening f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s life Old Mr. Neave f e l t he was too old f o r the s p r i n g . ("An I d e a l Family," 368.)  It i s morning when the mist i s l i f t e d on Mr. Reginald Peacock; on Miss Moss; on l o v e l y young Edna; on Ma Parker and her l i t e r a r y "At  young gentleman; on the summer colony of  the Bay." I f there was one thing that he hated more than another i t was the way she had of waking him i n the morning. ("Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," 144.) Eight o'clock i n the morning. Miss Ada Moss l a y i n a black i r o n bedstead, s t a r i n g up at the c e i l i n g . ("Pictures," 119.) I t seemed impossible that anyone should be unhappy on such a b e a u t i f u l morning. Nobody was, decided Edna, except h e r s e l f . ("Taking the V e i l , " 417.) When the l i t e r a r y gentleman, whose f l a t old Ma Parker cleaned every Tuesday, opened the  -  78  -  door t o her that morning, he asked a f t e r her grandson. ("Life of Ma Parker," 3 0 1 . ) Very e a r l y morning. ("At the Bay," 2 0 5 . ) I t i s afternoon when the preparations f o r the party begin t o a t t r a c t the a t t e n t i o n of Sun and Moon. In the afternoon the chairs came, a whole big cart f u l l of l i t t l e gold ones with t h e i r legs i n the a i r . ("Sun and Moon," 153.)  Even when the time of day i s not stated t h i s c l e a r l y , i n a l l but "Mr. and Mrs. Dove,"  "A Cup of Tea," and "The  Canary," the opening sentence gives a strong sense of time, of the opening event occurring at a s p e c i f i c time f o r the characters.  I t i s obviously sometime during o f f i c e hours  that o l d Mr. Woodifield v i s i t s the boss, f o r old Mr. Woodif i e l d i s peering out of the great, green-leather by h i s f r i e n d the boss's desk  armchair ("The  F l y , " 422.) In much the same way of automatic i n f e r e n c e , we know that "The Singing Lesson" i s t a k i n g place sometime during school hours, f o r Miss Meadows " i n cap and gown and c a r r y i n g a l i t t l e baton" (343) i s walking t o the m u s i c - h a l l ; i n the second sentence we f i n d that i t i s "a f i n e autumn morning". (344)  "Miss B r i l l " i s enjoying the " b r i l l i a n t l y f i n e "  day i n the Jardins Publiques, and from the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the weather i t i s about the middle of the day; we l e a r n l a t e r i n the f i r s t paragraph that i t i s indeed e a r l y i n the afternoon.  I n Mansfield's work "Revelations" i s unique i n  i t s opening:  79 -  instead of one time given or suggested, t h i s  story begins by s e t t i n g a time period —  "From eight o'clock  i n the morning u n t i l about h a l f - p a s t eleven" (190).  The  a c t i o n then seems to move away from t h i s point only to be brought back w i t h the slam of Monica's f r o n t door at ninet h i r t y , a time w e l l w i t h i n the period l a b e l l e d i n the f i r s t sentence as the period of Monica's '"nerves."  "The Escape,"  "Marriage a l a Mode," and "The Stranger" begin, not w i t h a d i r e c t mention of time, but w i t h events which are obviously c l o s e l y connected w i t h a p r e c i s e point i n times  the l e a v i n g  of a t r a i n , the a r r i v a l of a s h i p . It was h i s f a u l t , wholly and s o l e l y h i s f a u l t , that they had missed the t r a i n . ("The Escape," 1 9 6 . ) On h i s way t o the s t a t i o n W i l l i a m remembered that he was t a k i n g nothing down t o the k i d d i e s . ("Marriage a l a Mode," 309) . I t seemed t o the l i t t l e crowd on the wharf that she was never going to move again. ("The Stranger," 3 5 0 . ) Time plays an important part i n the theme of "The Daughters of the Late C o l o n e l , " and t h i s i s hinted by the f i r s t  sentence:  The week a f t e r was one of the b u s i e s t weeks of t h e i r l i v e s . ("The Daughters of the Late Colonel," 2 6 2 . ) "Psychology," Party,"  "A D i l l P i c k l e , "  "Honeymoon,"  "The Garden  "Her F i r s t B a l l " , "The D o l l ' s House," and "Prelude"  a l l begin w i t h an attempt to extend time i n the present back i n t o the p a s t , t o show the event described i n the opening as  -  80  -  but one event of many i n c i d e n t s i n the l i v e s of the characters. When she opened the door and saw him standing there she was more pleased than ever before, and he, too, as he followed her i n t o the s t u d i o , seemed very, very happy to have come. ("Psychology," 111.) And then, a f t e r s i x years, she saw him again. ("A D i l l P i c k l e , " 167.) And when they came out of the lace shop there was t h e i r own d r i v e r ("Honeymoon," . 401.) And a f t e r a l l the weather was i d e a l . ("The Garden P a r t y , " 245.) When dear o l d Mrs. Hay went back t o town a f t e r s t a y i n g w i t h the B u r n e l l s she sent the c h i l d r e n a d o l l ' s house. (The D o l l ' s House," 3 9 3 . ) There was not an inch of room f o r L o t t i e and K e z i a i n the buggy. ("Prelude," 11.) The poised moment of the adolescent i s expressed i n the opening of "The Young G i r l , " f o r she looks as i f she has just achieved that f i r s t symbolic gesture of womanhoods  her golden  c u r l s seem to be pinned up as though f o r the f i r s t time ("The Young G i r l , " 294.) " B l i s s " uses an a d v e r b i a l time phrase t o give a sense of immediacy, of the reader's being w i t h Bertha i n t h i s moments Although Bertha Young was t h i r t y she s t i l l had moments l i k e t h i s when she wanted t o run instead of walk ( " B l i s s , " 91*, i t a l i c s mine.) "The Wind Blows" i s , of course, an e a r l y story and t h i s probably accounts f o r the method Mansfield used there but  -  never repeated::  81  -  to use the present tense apparently i n an  attempt to give the e f f e c t of events occurring  simultaneously  with the reading: Suddenly — d r e a d f u l l y — ("The Wind Blows," 1 0 6 . )  she wakes up.  This use of the present tense Mansfield maintains  throughout  the s t o r y . Once the opening had l i f t e d the c u r t a i n of mist from the characters, Mansfield had then r a p i d l y to advance the a c t i o n from the c h r o n o l o g i c a l point she had established with the opening.  Most of the s t o r i e s w r i t t e n before 1 9 1 8  tend to move too much by the c l o c k , to seem to advance i n mechanical jerks from i n c i d e n t t o incident l a b e l l e d with the a c t u a l time of happening and with the past l i f e of the characters known only by inference from t h e i r  present.  Sometime during her work of 1 9 1 7 > Mansfield seems t o have r e a l i z e d that i t was unnecessary to i d e n t i f y the moments of time i n her s t o r i e s as c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y as she had done, that the events of the s t o r i e s could themselves be made to i n d i c a t e the passing of time.  Then, as the i n t e r e s t of her  s t o r i e s moved more and more i n t o the i n t e r i o r l i f e of her characters, Mansfield faced a new t e c h n i c a l problem.:  how  to keep her s t o r i e s moving, t o keep the f l e x i b l e sense of time passing when i n a l i t e r a l . s e n s e very l i t t l e was happening to the characters.  This i s the d i f f i c u l t y she gradually  faced and, I b e l i e v e , f i n a l l y solved i n the s t o r i e s of her  -  82  last w r i t i n g period, 1920-1922. Since there does seem t o be a t e c h n i c a l development i n Mansfield's use of time i n her s t o r i e s , they w i l l be discussed i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l groupings:  the s t o r i e s of 1 9 1 5 -  1 9 1 7 , the s t o r i e s o f 1 9 1 8 , the s t o r i e s o f her l a s t p e r i o d , 1920-1922.  6  The S t o r i e s o f 1 9 1 5 - 1 9 1 7 : "The Wind Blows," "The L i t t l e Governess," {"Pictures," "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," "A D i l l P i c k l e , " " F e u i l l e d'Album," "Psychology."7 "The Wind Blows" ( 1 9 1 5 ) has a d i v i s i o n i n t o two sections which themselves become part of i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n of time.  The f i r s t s e c t i o n , which makes up most of the s t o r y ,  begins j u s t before the t e n o'clock music l e s s o n and continues c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y t o the end o f the l e s s o n .  Then the events  jump t o a point l a t e i n the day, t o the b r i e f period that the brother and s i s t e r are shown spending together.  The  f l e e t i n g impressions, the scraps of conversation of t h i s second s e c t i o n give no i n d i c a t i o n of how much time i s meant to be passing, and, indeed, time i n t h i s s e c t i o n seems momentarily t o reverse.  I t i s "dusky —  just getting  ^During 1919 Mansfield produced no major f i c t i o n , no s t o r i e s that she h e r s e l f wished included i n B l i s s , The Garden P a r t y , or The Dove's Nest. This was a period of i n c r e a s i n g poor h e a l t h f o r her and was a l s o the year i n which she reviewed novels f o r The Athenaeum, then under Murry's editorship. ^Because "Prelude" ( 1 9 1 7 ) i n i t s treatment of time belongs w i t h "At the Bay," i t w i l l be discussed w i t h that s t o r y i n the l a s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter.  -  83  -  dusky" ( 1 0 9 ) as Bogey and M a t i l d a reach the ^esplanade; as they see the steamer put out t o sea, " I t i s g e t t i n g very . dark"  (110),  but at the end of the story the dark i s only  "Now" s t r e t c h i n g "A wing over the tumbling water." ( 1 1 0 ) This s t o r y i s unique i n Mansfield's work f o r i t s use o f the  present tense, a use which, w i t h the d i f f e r i n g treatments  of time i n the two s e c t i o n s , seems t o be t r y i n g t o convey the  mixed time-sense of the adolescent. The f i r s t  part of  the  day, the part M a t i l d a spends with a d u l t s , i s ruled by  the  c l o c k ; even the time spent with the sympathetic Mr.  B u l l e n i s ended w i t h the a r r i v a l of the next music p u p i l . The second s e c t i o n i s the time spent with Bogey, with the brother who i s a l s o adolescent, whose breaking voice s u i t s the  gusty day as the day i t s e l f s u i t s the mood of the g i r l .  As she and Bogey watch the steamer put out t o sea, i t seems as i f They are on board leaning over the r a i l arm i n arm. ( 1 1 0 ) Here, very b r i e f l y , the f u t u r e of imagination suddenly becomes part of the a c t u a l present i n the mind o f the s i s t e r s the  in  future she and Bogey are s t i l l together, s t i l l arm i n  arm, but something h a l f - m y s t e r i o u s , h a l f - e x c i t i n g i s c a r r y i n g them away from the l i f e of the past-present at home. "The L i t t l e Governess" very q u i c k l y gives the two points of time which are important i n the s t o r y :  the time  of the l i t t l e governess' a r r i v a l i n Munich, the time she  -  84 -  w i l l meet her employer there: •The t r a i n a r r i v e s at Munich at eight o'clock i n the morning Frau Arnholdt w i l l a r r i v e at s i x the same evening ' (175) Then, w i t h these points e s t a b l i s h e d , Mansfield f o r the f i r s t part of the s t o r y seems t o pace the events unnecessarily to time on the clocks at  the l i t t l e governess wakes on the t r a i n  "Half-past f o u r " ( 1 8 2 ) and receives the g i f t of strawberries  from the o l d man; the t r a i n a r r i v e s i n Munich and the o l d man c a l l s f o r her at her h o t e l "at t e n o'clock" ( 1 8 5 ) ;  they  eat together "at eleven o'clock i n the morning" ( 1 8 6 ) .  Now  the d i r e c t references t o time cease and, as w e l l , the events of the s t o r y are condensed t o mention of happenings that by t h e i r very nature could take much time or a very l i t t l e : lunch, a v i s i t  "to a cafe t o hear a gypsy band" ( 1 8 6 ) , a  period at the E n g l i s c h e r Garten. Thus n e i t h e r the reader nor the l i t t l e governess i s allowed t o know how much time has passed u n t i l a f t e r the s i x o'clock hour of appointment has already gone.  This seems t o destroy much of the t e n s i o n set  by the beginning and the f i r s t part of the s t o r y w i t h the importance of the appointment t o the l i t t l e governess and of the passing hours of the day. Again, t h i s s t o r y has only the past we can i n f e r from the l i t t l e governess' i n the present:  position  she i s young and apparently very much alone  i n the world. " P i c t u r e s " and "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," both  -  85  -  show an advance on the method of time p r e s e n t a t i o n used i n the 1915 s t o r i e s , "The Wind Blows" and "The L i t t l e  Governess."  T e c h n i c a l l y , " P i c t u r e s " and "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day" are more a d r o i t , the statements of time being more c o n s i s t e n t l y used and the passing of time more smoothly matched to the i n c i d e n t s of the s t o r i e s .  In contrast to "The Wind Blows"  with i t s seemingly d e l i b e r a t e confusion i n time p r e s e n t a t i o n , the very conception of the i n e v i t a b l e , regular passage of time becomes part of the theme of " P i c t u r e s " and "Mr.Reginald Peacock's Day"; the b r i e f i n d i c a t i o n s of the past l i v e s of the characters are shown to be i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the events of the present, both together f o r e c a s t i n g the f u t u r e . I t i s eight o'clock i n the morning when Miss Moss wakens.  S h o r t l y a f t e r , she t r i e s to have a cup of tea at  an A B C which has i t s doors open but w i l l not yet accept customers.  Miss Moss s t a r t s her day's rounds at K i g and  Kadgits as she knows "'They're open at n i n e ' " ( 1 2 3 ) , then goes to B e i t and Bithems and spends some minutes t h e r e , continues on to the t h i r d t h e a t r i c a l agency; i t i s crowded since "'There was a c a l l at n i n e - t h i r t y f o r a t t r a c t i v e who have " ' a l l been w a i t i n g f o r hours.'" (126)  girls'"  A f t e r one  more attempt and one more r e f u s a l , Miss Moss s i t s down to have her "good c r y " and notices opposite her the Cafe' de Madrid.  I t i s l a t e enough i n the day f o r her to t h i n k of  the evening concerts that are held i n the Cafe and i s c e r t a i n l y  86  -  too l a t e f o r her to have any hope of t r y i n g other agencies; they w i l l be closed f o r the weekend. now time moves very q u i c k l y .  She enters the Cafe" and  "Hardly had she sat down" when  the very stout gentleman a r r i v e s , "Five minutes l a t e r " he admires her "'tempting b i t o'ribbon'," and i n another f i v e minutes asks, '"Well, am I going' your way, or are you comin' mine?'"(128)  As w e l l as t h i s interwoven means of making  time and a c t i o n advance i n close unison, " P i c t u r e s " seems to make a s p e c i a l use of time, a use which i s i t s e l f of the character's l i f e .  symbolic  I t i s eight o'clock i n the morning  when Miss Moss's s t o r y begins; she i s given to eight that night to pay her rent and t h i s i s i n her mind as she looking across at the Cafe de Madrid —  sits  i t i s the reason f o r  her hasty assurance to h e r s e l f that she i s indeed a respectable woman. This twelve-hour period i s suggestive of the of the  circling  c l o c k , a subtle reference which i s supported by the  story's o r i g i n a l t i t l e , "The  Common Round."  8  What has  happened t o Miss Moss on t h i s day w i l l happen on succeeding There i s undoubtedly  something of the same meaning  i n the events of "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day,"  but here the  tolling  t h i s i s the  of time i s made obvious by the t i t l e :  t y p i c a l day of a Mr. Reginald Peacock. scattered references to c l o c k time:  Again there are  Reginald i s awakened  by h i s wife at h a l f - p a s t eight i n the morning; he dresses, 'Berkman, p. 82.  days.  -  87  -  bathes, b r e a k f a s t s l e i s u r e l y ; meets h i s f i r s t p u p i l at t e n - t h i r t y ; that p u p i l i s followed by two more. The morning's events are presumably repeated i n the afternoon, for By the end o f the afternoon he was quite t i r e d and l a y down on a s o f a t o r e s t h i s voice before d r e s s i n g . ( 1 5 2 ) He i s t o sing at Lord Timbuck's at nine t h i r t y and he goes f i r s t t o dine t^te-a-te'te w i t h Aenone F e l l .  On h i s way  home from Timbuck's, he sums up the events o f the past few hours as "What a triumphant evening!" ( 1 5 2 ) but, once home, he i s unable t o break out of the t r a p of h i s own c l i c h e to communicate h i s triumph t o h i s w i f e . " F e u i l l e d'Album" covers by d i r e c t events a longer period o f time than that of any other Mansfield s t o r y but "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s . "  " F e u i l l e d'Album" has nothing  l i k e the complexity of time p r e s e n t a t i o n that i s i n the l a t e r s t o r y , f o r i t r e l a t e s i t s events i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l present time.  The s t o r y f a l l s  f i r s t covers the f u t i l e  i n t o three d i v i s i o n s J  the  attempts of the women t o a t t r a c t  t h i s oddly charming young man; the second gives a b r i e f summary of the young painter's l i f e w i t h "Every day much the same" (163); the t h i r d and l a s t d i v i s i o n begins when one evening Ian French sees the l i t t l e dark g i r l come out on the balcony of the house across the s t r e e t .  There-  a f t e r the thoughts of her are a combination of imagined past of the g i r l —  "The f a t h e r was dead...  He had been a  -  j o u r n a l i s t " (164-165) —  88  -  and of imagined f u t u r e f o r them  together -- "as a r u l e they sat together very q u i e t l y . " (165)  &n. i n d e f i n i t e amount of time passes i n t h i s But how could he get to know her? might go on f o r years... (165)  way:  This  before he n o t i c e s that she goes shopping every Thursday.  On  the t h i r d Thursday Ian seizes the opportunity to o f f e r h i s love and an egg.  Whatever the f u t u r e of the young couple  (and the i n d i c a t i o n i s s u r e l y that Ian's dreams w i l l come true i n o u t l i n e i f not i n exact d e t a i l ) , the past cannot he repeated:  the g i r l can no longer ignore the young p a i n t e r .  "A D i l l P i c k l e " i s d i f f e r e n t from the other s t o r i e s discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n :  i t covers a matter of f i c t i o n a l  minutes r a t h e r than hours and because of t h i s has no occasion to mention c l o c k time as a means of showing advance of time.  I t also makes such extensive use of the events of  the past that i t i s v i r t u a l l y showing the present through time p a s t .  This i s done p r i m a r i l y by two methods.  First,  the woman and the man each remember d e t a i l s about the other, small items which have not changed:  she remembers h i s " s p e c i a l "  way of p e e l i n g an orange, he r e c a l l s that she always hated the cold weather; she remembers " h i s t r i c k of i n t e r r u p t i n g her  and how i t used to exasperate her s i x years ago,"  (168),  he notes that she " ' s t i l l say[s] the same t h i n g s . ' " ( 1 6 8 ) Second, i n c i d e n t s of the past are shown as he says he r e c a l l s them, as she i n f a c t does remember them:  the afternoon at  -  89 -  Kew Gardens, the Christmas time they spent together, h i s t e l l i n g of h i s unhappy boyhood.  By the use of t h i s double  method, M a n s f i e l d i s able t o give a sense of the movement and yet of the blending of time, to l e t the p a t t e r n of the two l i v e s repeatedly move back some s i x years i n t o the past, then leap forward again t o the present time of the i n c i d e n t s i n the l i t t l e cafe. As I have p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , I have been unable t o l e a r n the date of Mansfield's w r i t i n g of "Psychology." However, i n i t s method of time p r e s e n t a t i o n i t seems t o belong t o the pre-1918 period and uses a m o d i f i c a t i o n of the methods shown i n "A D i l l P i c k l e . "  The beginning of the story i s  given as an extension of the past w i t h the shared t e a obviously but one event i n a long chain of such moments the man and woman have spent together.  The past remains important  throughout the s t o r y ; the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e f i n e d , the reason f o r I t s s t a t i c q u a l i t y e x p l a i n e d , the pleasure i t has given emphasized, i n passages of thought that move s u b t l y between h i s , hers, and what can only be described as t h e i r s , f o r on these matters they have agreed.  These explanations from the  past are interspersed w i t h the d e t a i l s of having t e a and conversation i n the present.  Unexpectedly, the couple f i n d  that they cannot again repeat the ease and comfortable acceptance of each other they have maintained i n the past; they p a r t , both pretending t h i s has been an occasion l i k e  -  -  90  many others, both knowing that the present i s d i f f e r e n t i n some i n t a n g i b l e yet v i t a l way.  L e f t alone, the woman  at f i r s t i s i n a "rage" at something she cannot define then an e l d e r l y woman f r i e n d who up" (117)  but  "had t h i s habit of t u r n i n g  c a l l s ; w i t h t h i s b r i e f v i s i t , a moment which  i t s e l f i s one of many such, the t e n s i o n of the tea s e s s i o n dissolves. return:  The woman now writes and i n v i t e s the man  to  by t h i s l e t t e r the events of the s t o r y are extended  i n t o a future time w i t h more t'&te-a-t^te  teas.  The S t o r i e s of 1918: "Je ne P a r l e pas ./Francais," " B l i s s , " "Sun and Moon," "Revelations." "The Escape." Mansfield's f i r s t s t o r y of 1918  was  F r a n c a i s , " the s t o r y that Alpers says was  "Je ne P a r l e pas  "the f i r s t of a  9  new k i n d . "  Mansfield h e r s e l f r e a l i z e d that she had achieved  i n t h i s piece something d i f f e r e n t , something she wished to repeat but was unable to d u p l i c a t e .  Of her attempts i n the  months a f t e r she had w r i t t e n the s t o r y of Mouse and Duquette, she wrote to Murry that she had thought myself n e a r l y black i n the face, but got very l i t t l e down. Trouble i s I f e e l I have found an approach to a story now which I must apply to everything. Is t h i s nonsense? I read what I wrote before that l a s t fwhich Murry's note i d e n t i f i e s as 'Je ne P a r l e pas'3 and I f e e l : No, t h i s i s a l l once removed. I t won't do. And i t , won't. I've got t o reconstruct everything. ^ A l p e r s , p.  242.  • ^ L e t t e r s to Murry. p.  166.  Q  -  91  -  It i s of course impossible to say j u s t what Mansfield meant by her new  "approach"; c e r t a i n l y part of the success of  "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s " depends upon i t s f i r s t  person  point of view, but t h i s Mansfield had used many times before. D e f i n i t e l y new to her work i n "Je ne P a r l e pas" was i t s p a r t i c u l a r use of times  t o carry the method shown i n "A  D i l l P i c k l e " many steps f u r t h e r so that the time covered by the events r e l a t e d i n the s t o r y s t r e t c h over years of the past and but moments of the present, to make a complex s e p a r a t i o n between the d i s t a n t past, the near past, and the present so that the f i r s t two together e x p l a i n the t h i r d and a l l three suggest the f u t u r e .  Much of the method, of  course, i s due to Duquette's w r i t i n g h i s s t o r y , w r i t i n g i t as i f to another person; perhaps t h i s was one Mansfield could not d u p l i c a t e her success — could she create a P a r o l l e s who  reason  not always  could know what he was yet  s t i l l be what he was, unchanged and w i l l i n g , to r e v e a l a l l sides of h i m s e l f . Yet at l e a s t part of the power of "Je ne P a r l e pas" i s due to i t s p r e s e n t a t i o n of time, a p r e s e n t a t i o n that suggests the complexity of the past i n i t s e f f e c t upon the present.  Duquette uses the present tense  for what i s happening simultaneously w i t h h i s w r i t i n g , the past f o r events previous to t h i s exact present, and thus can weave back and f o r t h with l i t t l e chance of confusing the reader.  So we have the present t o begin the story as  -  92  -  Duquette describes the cafe i n which he i s s i t t i n g and w r i t i n g the s t o r y : I do not know why I have such a fancy for t h i s l i t t l e cafe'. (60) Then he e x p l a i n s why he returns to t h i s admittedly u n a t t r a c t i v e cafe, and we have i n two consecutive sentences the d i r e c t r e l a t i o n of the past t o the present: I enjoyed one of these moments [of. emotional i n t e n s i t y ^ the f i r s t time I ever came i n here. T h a t s why I k e e p c o m i n g 1  back,  I suppose.  (62)  With b r i e f comments from the present on the past, Duquette proceeds to describe the moment he had had i n t h i s c a f e , the moment which keeps b r i n g i n g him back.  Even as he w r i t e s ,  however, he f i n d s that h i s "other s e l f " has l e f t him, l e f t him to run a f t e r the memory of what happened before and what indeed caused h i s great moment i n the cafe. becomes Duquette's  Now the s t o r y  biography; beginning w i t h Duquette's  childhood, the events are a l l of the past, the comments a l l from the present. short s e c t i o n s .  This i s maintained u n t i l the l a s t three In these Duquette r e v e a l s how the memory  of Mouse makes him break h i s r u l e of never t r y i n g to hang on to what i s "over and done w i t h , "  hoYi  he knows h i s f u t u r e  w i l l be only a c o n t i n u a t i o n of h i s past-and-present, and how empty t h i s t r u l y i s . I must go. I must go. I reach down my coat and h a t . Madame knows me. 'You haven't dined yet?' she s m i l e s . 'No, not y e t , Madame.  1  (91)  -  93  -  This complexity of time i s presented without one d i r e c t reference to c l o c k time, without any d i r e c t comment from Duquette on the passing of time.  The t e c h n i c a l advance on  the method used i n the pre-1918 s t o r i e s i s immense:  i n "Je  ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s " Mansfield achieves a time that has m u l t i p l e dimensions without i s o l a t i o n of the three l e v e l s of past, present, f u t u r e times. None of the other 1918 s t o r i e s attempts t h i s complexity of time p r e s e n t a t i o n — of the past —  only " B l i s s " makes any extensive use  yet c e r t a i n l y none r e t u r n s to the mechanical  development of time that was used i n the e a r l i e r s t o r i e s . " B l i s s " uses Bertha's excited thoughts to blend the necessary explanations from the near past of Bertha and Harry's marriage w i t h the events of the dinner party; the story thus constantly moves from Bertha's thoughts t o her actions.  This method i s l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l due, f i r s t , t o  Bertha's s t a t e of " b l i s s " which makes rapid changes of thought n a t u r a l , but, second and more important, to the amount of p h y s i c a l movement there i s i n the story to maintain the sensation of advancing time.  Bertha a r r i v e s home from  shopping f o r her dinner party and arranges the f r u i t before she goes u p s t a i r s ; she v i s i t s her baby i n the nursery and feeds the c h i l d part of her supper; she i s c a l l e d to the phone t o speak to her husband, who w i l l be l a t e f o r dinner; t h i s b r i e f conversation n a t u r a l l y flows i n t o Bertha's mental  -  94 -  summary of the expected guests, i n t o her a t t i t u d e t o Miss F u l t o n , i n t o Harry's apparent coldness t o Miss F u l t o n , i n t o her own f e e l i n g of " b l i s s " from husband, f r i e n d s , home, a l l aspects of her l i f e .  Now, w i t h only b r i e f glimpses of the  past, the story moves s t e a d i l y on i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l present time to the climax and Bertha's r e a l i z a t i o n of her b e t r a y a l . Up to t h i s point Bertha has seen the future as the b l i s s f u l extension of the present: i n the summer" ( 9 6 ) .  she and Harry "were going abroad  Now she c r i e s out her question, "'Oh,  what i s going t o happen n o w ? ' " ( 1 0 5 ) and there i s no answer w i t h i n the time presented by the &ory. "Sun and Moon" seems t o attempt t o f o l l o w the same p a t t e r n i n i t s s e t t i n g of a party and i t s b u i l d i n g t o a climax of d i s i l l u s i o n e d i n s i g h t f o r the main character, but here there i s no past g i v e n , very l i t t l e suggested.  Though  t h i s i s at l e a s t p a r t l y necessary since the point of view i s t o t a l l y that of a s m a l l c h i l d , the story i s c e r t a i n l y reduced i n depth by i t s r e s t r i c t i o n to present time c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y developed.  Indeed, the main i n t e r e s t i n  t h i s story's method of showing time i s i n i t s contrast t o the e a r l i e r work, f o r "Sun and Moon" has no reference t o c l o c k time but allows the succession of events to i n d i c a t e the passing hours, a method which i s i t s e l f appropriate t o the c h i l d ' s point of view from which the story i s t o l d .  As  many hours are covered as i n " P i c t u r e s " yet without e i t h e r  -  95  -  the clock reference or the somewhat jerky transference from incident to incident there i s i n that story. "Revelations" uses actual time references to set the boundaries of the story — one-thirty —  from nine-thirty to approximately  and, within these, moves by i t s own  events.  "Revelations" i s closer to the method of " B l i s s " thacn to that of "Sun and Moon," f o r the near-past of Monica i s given by her own memories of i t .  The story begins with t h i s near-  past generalized i n a way that extends d i r e c t l y to the presents from Monica..':s general complaint to Ralph about her nerves i n the morning to t h i s p a r t i c u l a r morning of nerves and telephone c a l l  e  Ralph's  From the present Monica moves i n thought  to the conversation of "only last night," (191)  from that to  "that dinner party months ago" ( 1 9 2 ) when she had f i r s t  met  Ralph, mixed with a bemused wonder of "What had &e been doing" (192)  i n the i n t e r v a l to be i n love with him.  Nov/ the  story returns to the present with a suggestion of the future as Monica makes her decision that her a r t i f i c i a l l i f e with Ralph "was  a l l over" and hereafter she would belong "to  nobody but L i f e . " ( 1 9 2 )  Her f i r s t action i s to go to her  hairdressers', f o r that has always been her refuge. The story now remains i n the present 5 the force of the past enters with George's pathetic explanation of what i s wrong i n the shop, the future i s again suggested by Monica's sobbing return to her l i f e of "nerves" between nine-thirty and one-thirty  -  96 -  followed by lunch at P r i n c e s ' . The events of "The Escape" remain i n present time presented i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, but because of the s p e c i a l nature of the s t o r y , the past seems a l s o present i n a way that i s not p o s s i b l e f o r "Sun and Moon."  The man and woman  of "The Escape" are i n d i v i d u a l i z e d but well-known character types: husband.  the impossibly nagging w i f e , the c o n t i n u a l l y patient The d i s t a n t past i s o f no i n t e r e s t , f o r the emphasis  of the s t o r y i s on the immediate cure rather than the d i s t a n t cause of the man's s i t u a t i o n .  The near-past has obviously  been only a r e p e t i t i o n of what we see i n the  present:  'I've asked you hundreds and hundreds of times before, but you've f o r g o t t e n . . . . . I beg and implore you f o r the l a s t time that when we are d r i v i n g together you won't smoke ' 'Very w e l l , ' he s a i d . 'I won't. And he put the case back.  I forgot.'  'Oh no,' said she, and almost began t o laugh, and put the back of her hand across her eyes. 'You couldn't have f o r g o t t e n . Not t h a t . ' (199-200) The future i s apparently meant t o be d i f f e r e n t : the woman w i l l remain the same but the man has found h i s way of escape. Now, so great [is] h i s heavenly happiness he wished he might l i v e f o r e v e r . (202) The S t o r i e s of the Last Period.1920-1922 By 1920, Mansfield had worked out her b a s i c methods of presenting time:  t o use the events of the story t o give  -  97  -  the immediate sense of passing time, t o use flash-backs of memory t o give necessary d e t a i l s from the past, t o u n i t e events of past and present i n such a way as t o suggest the future.  There i s thus no r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n the methods  of time p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the s t o r i e s o f the f i n a l p e r i o d . There i s , however, an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on the i n t e r i o r l i f e o f the characters and t h i s required a new refinement of time p r e s e n t a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y e a r l i e r work had made the story's climax the emotional r e a c t i o n s u f f e r e d by the characters, but the events which were shown t o lead t o the moment of r e a c t i o n were c l o s e l y bound w i t h a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement.  The l i t t l e governess would not g e n e r a l l y t r u s t a  strange man so completely*  i t i s e s s e n t i a l that she be shown  under the s t r e s s and s t r a i n of u n f a m i l i a r t r a v e l f o r her acceptance of Herr Regierungsrat t o be p l a u s i b l e .  The p l i g h t  of Miss Moss i s presented i n the terms of constant r e f u s a l of employment as she goes h o p e f u l l y from o f f i c e t o o f f i c e . The man and woman i n "The Escape" are being j o l t e d along a road i n a buggy, t r y i n g t o catch a t r a i n ; during the only pause i n t h e i r r i d e , the man achieves h i s emotional  escape,  and i n the l a s t s e c t i o n of the story the couple are rushing on t h e i r way on the t r a i n .  Even "A D i l l P i c k l e " i s f u l l of  reference t o p h y s i c a l movement which i s v i t a l to the s t o r y , f o r while she has remained at home, he has t r a v e l l e d as she  has always longed to do. difficult  98 -  In these pre-1920 s t o r i e s , i t i s  to separate the physical movement of the plot from  the emotional reaction of the characters: necessitate some change i n the other.  to change one would  But i n the stories of  the last period, the i n t e r i o r l i f e of the characters i s of such overwhelming importance that much of the exterior action i n the story seems manipulated to show, rather than to cause, the emotional reaction we see. In'Marriage a l a Mode," Mansfield needs to give considerable exposition of the past and uses William's t r a i n t r i p home for the weekend to do so; the journey  i t s e l f does not have the importance to the plot  that the journey has i n "The L i t t l e Governess."  In " L i f e of  Ma Parker," nothing i n the young man's f l a t i t s e l f or i n her work there causes Ma's f l i g h t  from i t as Monica i n "Revelations"  i s driven from the hairdressers' shop by George's pathetic confidence.  I t i s not being taken out f o r tea which i n i t s e l f  causes the change i n "The Young G i r l " at the end of her story as the sight of the wrecked party loveliness produces the child's outburst at the end of "Sun and Moon."  In the work  of Mansfield's last period, the thoughts and feelings of the characters are revealed more frequently and at greater length, yet by the very nature of thought i t alone cannot be used to indicate the passing of time, and upon the sensation of the r e l e n t l e s s movement of time much of the tension of the stories depends.  In some stories of the f i n a l period Mansfield  still  -  99 -  uses considerable exterior action but now slants i t to reveal more deeply the i n t e r i o r l i f e of her characters i n the past as well as the present time.  In some she confines  herself to present time and reveals the past only by inference. In some Mansfield makes extensive use of the thoughts of her characters i n conjunction with physical action, attempting to weld together the i n t e r i o r and exterior l i v e s .  'The Young GirL.  f  'Miss B r i l l . '  'A Gun of Tea.'  'Honeymoon'  None of these stories covers more than a short period i n present time, none has more than the immediate past shown b r i e f l y ; the distant past we know by inference from character type*. What "The Young G i r l " has been i s indicated by her l i t t l e brother Hennie, t o whom she s t i l l bears great resemblance; what she w i l l probably become i s forecast by her mother, to whom she also shows considerable likeness. The events of the story i t s e l f are completely  i n present  time,  the time which i s i t s e l f poised between the past the the future, and which w i l l not l a s t long f o r the b e a u t i f u l , spoiled young American.  As Alpers says, she i s the flower 11  that " i s only making ready to be spoiled by the f r o s t . " "Miss B r i l l " i s i n two sections, the f i r s t  completely  from Miss B r i l l ' s point of view, the second a rapid summary of the repeated past, the present after the events of the 'Alpers, p. 3 0 5 .  first  s e c t i o n , and  100  -  the f u t u r e by s u g g e s t i o n .  makes p a r t i c u l a r l y good use  The  story  of i t s p l o t , f o r there  is a  r e s t r i c t i o n i n p h y s i c a l movement i t s e l f which i n d i c a t e s the s t a t i c i s o l a t i o n of Miss B r i l l .  She  c o n s t a n t l y moving Sunday crowd and people are  i n great  i s surrounded by  r e a l i z e s t h a t these a c t i v e  c o n t r a s t to the r e g u l a r attenders  c o n c e r t s , people who  are  "odd,  old,  odd,  the l i k e n e s s between h e r s e l f and  l e a r n of Miss B r i l l ' s  past are the  "her E n g l i s h p u p i l s " and r e a d i n g  Gentleman".  T h i s i s a p a t t e r n which has  how  f a r back i n the past, has  and  w i l l go on i n t o the  B r i l l to her own "A Cup  the  those  she  other rooms  a f u t u r e of shared love move out  of the a c t i v e crowd around her t o share her  teaching  Yet  unwanted people from the dark, cupboard-like  u n t i l a young couple w i t h  A l l we  of  s i l e n t , nearly a l l o l d , " with  "something funny about n e a r l y a l l of them." (332) does not see  the  continued  " s p e c i a l " bench.  few  d e t a i l s of her  to "the o l d s t a r t e d who  up t o the  invalid knows  present,  f u t u r e ; only i n the a t t i t u d e of Miss  l i f e w i l l there be  change.  of Tea" begins with the g e n e r a l i z e d v o i c e  of  Rosemary's f r i e n d s d e s c r i b i n g the d e l i g h t s of Rosemary's present  life:  she  i s so r i c h t h a t i f she  wanted to shop she would go t o P a r i s as you and I would go t o Bond S t r e e t . (408) This i s narrowed to the events of one t r i p , Rosemary's v i s i t Time now  p a r t i c u l a r shopping  to the Curzon S t r e e t antique  i s developed c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y and  completely  shop. i n the  present:  101  -  on her way out of the shop, Rosemary meets the  poor g i r l , takes her home, gives her t e a , r e a l i z e s her husband's admiration of the g i r l , dismisses her, and then goes h e r s e l f to make her i n d i r e c t feminine appeal t o her husband.  I t i s obviously near, to the l a t e afternoon of  E n g l i s h tea-time when the p a r t i c u l a r i z e d a c t i o n of the story begins; i t i s obviously just a f t e r t e a when Rosemary refreshes her makeup and goes t o s i t on P h i l i p ' s knee.  No more d i r e c t  i n d i c a t i o n of passing time i s needed, no more given; the e f f e c t on the future i s the e f f e c t on Rosemary who has seen a p o s s i b l e end to the s e c u r i t y of her past and present. "Honeymoon" a l s o keeps i t s events to the time of the present and the immediate past, the time f o r Fanny and George "since they —  came abroad" (401) on t h e i r honeymoon. Fanny  " i s i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n everything George had ever done" (402) but the only event of the past that i s mentioned between them i s George's having kept a white mouse i n h i s pocket when he "'was a k i d . ' "  There seems a subtle suggestion  that many more important matters i n the pst of both are not known t o each other, that there i s ample reason f o r Fanny's anxious q u e s t i o n , "'Do you f e e l . . . . . t h a t you r e a l l y know me now?'" (405)  The story ends w i t h Fanny and George l e a v i n g  the cafe f o r t h e i r h o t e l room: And a moment l a t e r they were gone. (407) A moment more of a l a r g e r u n i t of time and t h e i r honeymoon,  too, w i l l be gone;  102  -  the i n d i c a t i o n s of the present are not  promising f o r t h i s future p e r i o d .  'Man Without a Temperament,' 'The Daughters of the Late Colonel,' 'Marriage a l a Mode, 'The Garden Party,' 'The D o l l ' s House,' 'Her F i r s t B a l l . ' 1  The s t o r i e s l i s t e d above have more e x t e r i o r a c t i o n than i s frequent i n the s t o r i e s of the l a s t p e r i o d .  In each  case, however, the e x t e r i o r a c t i o n of the p l o t i s developed i n such a way that i t reveals much of the i n t e r i o r depth of the characters. The p l o t of "The Man Without a Temperament" shows the slow movements of the i n v a l i d wife being matched by 1! -• the taut quiet of the husband as he holds the pace of h i s l i f e t o that of hers.  He i s confined t o w a i t i n g f o r her,  to a i d i n g her " l i g h t , dragging steps"(130), to p u l l i n g out her c h a i r , g e t t i n g her shawl from the bedroom, sharing t e a , g e t t i n g her cape from the h a l l , going w i t h her f o r t h e i r " l i t t l e t u r n , " having dinner.  The only s w i f t movements he  allows himself are i n h i s r e t u r n t o her when he i s a f r a i d he had stayed too long on h i s solo walk, h i s rush to get her medicine when he i s a f r a i d she has been out i n the evening too long while he was away.  There i s very l i t t l e  of.the  past needed since the very f a c t of J i n n i e ' s i l l n e s s contains most of the necessary  explanation f o r the events of the s t o r y  -  103  -  and a l s o gives a tension to the present woman may  not have a f u t u r e .  just because the  For t h i s reason the man must  give h i s time to h i s w i f e , to give h i m s e l f as, when he i s going t o take h i s b r i e f walk along, he gives her h i s watch and the assurance that he w i l l be back "'at a five.'"(136)  quarter-past  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s J i n n i e h e r s e l f who  Robert on h i s l i t t l e walk:  sends  she r e a l i z e s h i s need f o r freedom.  But she needs the s u s t a i n i n g power of h i s presence and must s p o i l her gesture by asking immediately, "'How 12 be?'"(I36)  long w i l l  you  D i r e c t r e v e l a t i o n of the past i s r e s t r i c t e d  t o three memory flashbacks by the man;  that these are shown  occurring only when he i s alone increases t h e i r poignancy  —  they are memories of a shared l i f e that he cannot share w i t h his wife as they w i l l r e v e a l that he does unavoidably a w f u l l y ' " h i s present r e s t r i c t e d  life.  Time plays a major part i n the very theme of  1?  "'mind  "The  K l e i n e seems to suggest that J i n n i e i s subconsciously a f r a i d that Robert w i l l not r e t u r n and that she therefore seizes on the watch as a kind of assurance that he w i l l be back, that "'At l e a s t he w i l l r e t u r n f o r t h a t . " (26) To me t h i s i s completely misreading J i n n i e ' s pleasure at holding the watch which i s "warm" and d a r l i n g " to hers s u r e l y she i s f i n d i n g the watch a representative of Robert h i m s e l f , of h i s l i f e which i s being given to her. ,,;  -  104  -  *  13 Daughters of the Late C o l o n e l "  but as w e l l i s one of the  d i r e c t methods of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of Con and Jug.  Theirs  i s a world of three kinds of time, a l l e x i s t i n g simultaneously and yet independently.  There i s time as known by l i f e outside  the Pinner f l a t , time as experienced by C y r i l w i t h appointments at V i c t o r i a and Paddington; by Mr. F a r o l l e s who w i l l  arrange  the Colonel's f u n e r a l as one of h i s d u t i e s of St.John's; by the postman on h i s morning rounds; by Nurse Andrews who  has  held the dying Colonel's w r i s t i n her e f f i c i e n t hand and t i c k e d o f f the pulse beat w i t h her own watch.  There i s time  i n the f l a t as r u l e d by the l a t e C o l o n e l , who must never be disturbed i n the morning "whatever happened"(270),  whose  demands were punctuated by thumps of h i s s t i c k , whose gold watch, l i k e h i s h e a r t , has now stopped.  And there i s time  ^ I b e l i e v e Gordon m i s i n t e r p r e t s t h i s s t o r y . He speaks of the two "Tenses" of the s t o r y as "past, the happiness of l i f e w i t h f a t h e r ; present, the d e s o l a t i o n of l i f e without him" and says the scenes a l t e r n a t e "between present and past w i t h o c c a s i o n a l shuddering glances i n t o the empty f u t u r e . " That the s t o r y weaves between past and present i s , of course, obviously t r u e , but I do not f e e l that the s i s t e r s view t h e i r past l i f e w i t h f a t h e r as one of happiness or t h e i r present l i f e as d e s o l a t e . The past has been a long s e r i e s of small events and minor pleasures (such as t h e i r y e a r l y h o l i d a y ) and has been mainly confined to " t r y i n g not to annoy father."(284) I t has s u r e l y been n e i t h e r very happy nor very unhappy and seems, now i t i s over, t o be u n r e a l and to have happened " i n a kind of t u n n e l . " (284) The s i s t e r s express no doubts about the f u t u r e , seem to f e e l quite capable of handling the events of the week " a f t e r , " from m a i l i n g the newspaper n o t i c e s to asking Mr. F a r o l l e s to arrange a f u n e r a l " ' s u i t a b l e t o . . . f a t h e r ' s p o s i t i o n ' " ( 2 6 8 ) , and are indeed e x c i t e d at the " f a s c i n a t i n g " (280) prospect of d i s m i s s i n g Kate and managing t h e i r own food i n f u t u r e . Only at the very end of the s t o r y do t h e i r minds seem to shudder away from the thought that they are now f r e e of f a t h e r , w i t h a l l that freedom i m p l i e s .  -  105  -  as l i v e d by Con aid Jug, caught a l l t h e i r l i v e s between the world of outside r e a l i t y and the world as ruled by f a t h e r . Their l i v e s have been l i v e d " i n a kind of t u n n e l " (284) i n which i s has not mattered whether clocks were f a s t or slow; they have long l o s t any immediate reference to time as i t i s understood by the outside  world.  'Speaking of Benny,  1  s a i d Josephine.  And though Benny hadn't been mentioned Constantia immediately looked as though he had. (273) This leads to a d i s c u s s i o n of what to do w i t h father's watch, with the time piece that has c o n t r o l l e d t h e i r e x t e r n a l existence i n the t u n n e l .  The  s i s t e i s i r o n i c a l l y decide to  give the watch to C y r i l , to the one member of t h e i r f a m i l y who  seems to lead a clock-regulated l i f e .  muddled  To p a r a l l e l the  sense of time of Con and Jug, the events of the s t o r y  are given i n a complex presentation that s h i f t s back and f o r t h from past to present to suggested future through the twelve sections of the s t o r y .  Sections three and four take  place i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, but the events of both come chronologically before those of sections one and two.  After  these f i r s t four s e c t i o n s , there i s a jump of a few days to s e c t i o n f i v e , and another jump of two days to the events of s e c t i o n s - s i x and seven.  Sections eight and nine go back to  some i n d e f i n i t e period i n the past.  S e c t i o n ten i s again  i n the present and contains the s i s t e r s ' one b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n  -  106  -  of t h e i r f u t u r e i n terms that look f u r t h e r than the events of t h i s busy week.  S e c t i o n eleven returns to the past, and  s e c t i o n twelve blends past, present, and thwarted f u t u r e together.  Taken as a u n i t , these twelve sections give  another dimension to the e f f e c t of passing time:  they seem  s y m b o l i c a l l y to represent the twelve strokes of midnight, the time which has been t o l l e d f o r Con and Jug.  At the end  of the s t o r y , 'It's Saturday. I t ' s a week to-day, a whole week.' (282) since f a t h e r d i e d , but there has been no c r e a t i o n of a new l i f e f o r Con and Jug on the Sunday morning a f t e r t h e i r father's death.  They make t h e i r l a s t , feeble gesture toward  a l i f e of sunshine, toward the l i f e outside the f l a t ; as Mansfield s a i d , And a f t e r t h a t , i t seemed to me, they died as s u r e l y as Father was d e a d . 14  "Marriage a l a Mode" i s i n three s e c t i o n s , each dealing w i t h present time but w i t h the f i r s t s e c t i o n interwoven w i t h e x p o s i t i o n from the past i n extensive memory flashbacks by W i l l i a m as he t r a v e l s home f o r the weekend. The phrasing Mansfield has given W i l l i a m may be too feminine, 15  as Berkman b e l i e v e s , his  but the r a p i d s l i d i n g of h i s mind from  l e g a l papers t o events and scenes around him to what i s 1 4  L e t t e r s . I I , p. 1 2 0 .  •^Berkman, p. 1 8 3 .  -  107  -  r e a l l y engrossing h i s whole being i s e x c e l l e n t l y presented. From his thoughts of the old Isabel, William moves to thoughts of the new Isabel, the Isabel of the near-past/present, f o r this i s the way he has come to think of her: i n two time compartments, the old and the new, with only surface resemblances between the two. Mansfield spends nearly h a l f the length of her story i n t h i s f i r s t section.  The result i s that when  William a r r i v e s at his home station and the c r u c i a l action of the present time begins, the story can be told  without  further explanation from the past, with only phrases needed to keep William's established i s o l a t i o n constantly evident. What the future w i l l be i s indicated only i n the b r i e f f i n a l section with Isabel's receipt of William's l e t t e r and her subsequent return to her "new" f r i e n d s . "The Garden Party" seems to unfold l i k e a flower i t s e l f , to progress as i f to a barely heard, gently t i c k i n g clock.  It i s breakfast time when the story opens, i t i s dusk  when i t ends.  In between there i s no overt insistence on  the passing hours, yet Laurie and his father leave f o r the o f f i c e , K i t t y i s invited to lunch at one, there i s the succession of various workmen a r r i v i n g to put up the marquee, to bring the l i l i e s , to deliver the cream puffs, and "By half-past two they were a l l ready f o r the f r a y . " ( 2 5 6 ) . F i n a l l y , "The perfect afternoon slowly ripened, slowly faded, slowly i t s petals closed." ( 2 5 7 )  Just as b r i e f l y , l i g h t l y ,  the  108 -  past h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y i s i n d i c a t e d .  The garden  party i s a y e a r l y event, f o r Mrs. Sheridan says she i s '"determined t o leave everything t o you c h i l d r e n t h i s year.'" (245) the  The c h i l d r e n had always been warned t o stay away from  cottages "because of the r e v o l t i n g language and of what  they might catch," (254) but 'since they were grown up" Laura and Laurie f e e l they must not be sheltered and they have made the great gesture o f prowling through the lane together i n order to "see everything."  With these few h i n t s  of the past, a whole way of l i f e that has existed f o r Laura up t o the time of the garden party i s l i g h t l y sketched i n and contrasted with the world of the cottages. The future i s never mentioned or even d i r e c t l y suggested; i t i s yet included by the dead man's s i l e n t and peaceful forecast of the  f i n a l f u t u r e f o r everyone and by Laura's dawning  r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s . "The D o l l ' s House" i s d i v i d e d i n t o four s e c t i o n s , with each s e c t i o n introduced by a "time" i n d i c a t o r .  The  giver of the house and the reason f o r the g i f t are both explained i n the opening sentence;  between t h i s opening  and the next sentence, as i t were, the d o l l ' s house i t s e l f has a r r i v e d .  By the next s e c t i o n , the B u r n e l l c h i l d r e n  have absorbed the wonders of the toy and "could hardly walk to school f a s t enough the next morning"'' (394) t o t e l l t h e i r playmates of t h e i r d o l l ' s house.  I n the midst of the school  -  109  -  scene the background of the Kelveys i s given, slipped i n with no sense of interruption for i t comes while the l i t t l e g i r l s are chatting i n the school yard, describing the d o l l ' s house that we have already seen.  "Days passed" and the fame  of the d o l l ' s house spreads, but s t i l l the Kelveys are excluded from a l l but overheard scraps of conversation.  As  the f i n a l section opens, "At last everybody had seen i t except them" (398).  In searching f o r the excitement.the  doll's house has been supplying, some of the children begin to tease the l i t t l e Kelveys rather than to ignore them as usual.  It is after school on this day that Kezia makes up  her mind to invite the Kelveys to see the doll's house  —  apparently the turning of the l i t t l e Kelveys into the victims of active rather than passive ill-treatment has tipped the emotional scales f o r Kezia.  Aunt Beryl's snobbish cruelty  to the l i t t l e Kelveys i s explained by a sudden jump into the past, by a suggestion of the future:  she has been having a  secret relationship with a W i l l i e Brent, a relationship she is not w i l l i n g to acknowledge openly.  Beryl has relieved  "That ghastly pressure" by her short dismissal of the children but she s t i l l has the evening and W i l l i e to face:  time does  not stop f o r the characters when our view of them i s over. Something of this same extension of a time motif into the very theme of the story i s presented with "Her F i r s t Ball."  It opens with young L e i l a ' s great excitement which  -  110 -  her uncertain as to the exact point when the b a l l r e a l l y begins; this starts the interweaving of time, and emotion for L e i l a that Is continued throughout the story.  Two  short passages that b r i e f l y describe her country home and her boarding school dancing lessons give a l l we need to know of L e i l a ' s past and are set i n contrast to the story i n present time, with i t s bright, whirling scene of the ball.  The other young dancers can see this b a l l as but  one of many: 'Were you at the B e l l s ' l a s t week?O40) 'Were you at the Neaves' on Tuesday?' (341) and they are not interested i n hearing this l i t t l e country make her confession that this i s indeed her f i r s t b a l l .  girl  Only  .16 the f a t man who has been attending dances f o r twelve years before L e i l a was born knows a l l she i s f e e l i n g without her t e l l i n g him and can, moreover, forecast what she w i l l be feeling In the future.  This comes as a t e r r i b l e shock to  Leila: Was i t — could i t a l l be true? It sounded t e r r i b l y true. Was this f i r s t b a l l only the beginning of her l a s t b a l l , after a l l ? Oh, how quickly things changed I Why didn't happiness l a s t forever? Forever wasn't a b i t too long. (342) I wonder i f there i s again the symbolic s t r i k i n g of the clock of life i t s e l f hidden i n this b r i e f mention. It i s L e i l a who notes that the fat man has been "'doing this kind of thing'" as he phrases i t , f o r "Twelve years before she was borni" (342) and this i s the start of her r e a l i z a t i o n of the inevitable approaching future for her as w e l l as for the f a t man. x  -  Ill  -  Adults may f e e l the same way but they no longer are shocked by the reminder that happiness does not l a s t .  For a moment  L e i l a feels that the f a t man "had spoiled i t a l l "  (34-3)  for  her, but she i s very young and i n another moment, with a new tune and a new partner, her happiness i s restored.  Leila is  too young to r e a l i z e the significance of the events, feelings of the evening:  the e s s e n t i a l aloneness of each person i n  facing and f e e l i n g the passing of time.  'Mr. 'The 'The and  and Mrs. Dove,' 'An Ideal Family,' Singing Lesson,' 'Life of Ma Parker, Lady's Maid,' 'The F l y , ' 'The Stranger,' 'The Voyage.' 1  This group of s t o r i e s shows an increasing emphasis on the thoughts and feelings of the characters and therefore an increase i n the importance of the events of the past:  Miss  Moss's mention of her e a r l i e r singing successes i s a l l we need of her past to understand what i s happening to her i n the present of "Pictures," but the s i t u a t i o n i s f a r d i f f e r e n t for an understanding of what Ma Parker i s facing at the end of her story. In i t s method of presentation, "Mr. and Mrs. Dove" follows much the same pattern as "Marriage a l a Mode": the beginning has the necessary exposition from the past given i n the thoughts of the main character and interspersed with events of the present, but the events i n "Mr. and Mrs. Dove" require very l i t t l e physical movement by the three characters  concerned.  The  a young man  on h i s nervous way  one  —  112  -  b a s i c s i t u a t i o n i n "Mr.  and Mrs.Dove"  —  t o propose to h i s l o v e d  needs no e x p l a n a t i o n from the past, but the  specific  a  understanding  of Reggie's p o s i t i o n does.  to  go to see Anne, we  he  can o f f e r Anne, of h i s own  As Reggie  l e a r n of the a d m i t t e d l y  dresses  limited  l a c k o f " l o o k s " and  life  even of  robust h e a l t h , of h i s a d o r a t i o n of Anne and h i s view o f her p e r f e c t i o n , and, most important, It  o f Reggie's own  i s t o escape l i f e w i t h mater that Reggie has  life  on the Rhodesian f r u i t  w i t h no one  farm, but  the events of the s t o r y now proposes, i s f i r s t  be Mrs.  With t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d ,  r e f u s e d , then accepted.  and  Reggie  Anne f u l l y  "'only t h a t awful mother t o  g i v e s up her own  Dove f o r Reggie.  the s t o r y , was  Reggie t h e r e f o r e  remain i n the present:  r e a l i z e s Reggie's p o s i t i o n with w r i t e t o ' " (294)  accepted  i t i s a lonely existence  on the dark veranda w i t h him.  not only l o v e s Anne, he needs h e r .  life.  imagined f u t u r e t o  M a n s f i e l d was  not sure that she had  not s a t i s f i e d  with  succeeded i n implying 17  "that those  two may  not be happy t o g e t h e r "  , but  t h i s d o u b t f u l f u t u r e i s amply i n d i c a t e d by the types  I feel  character  themselves. "An  I d e a l F a m i l y " begins  i n much the  same way:  background of the i d e a l f a m i l y i s g i v e n i n o l d Mr.  Weave's  thoughts as he walks home from the o f f i c e at the end s p r i n g day.  the  of a  In order t o give a sense of movement t o t h i s  J o u r n a l , p.  187.  -  113  -  exposition, there are repeated indications of the old man's physical actions and progress along the s t r e e t s .  His home  reached, old Mr. Neave joins h i s wife and daughters i n the drawing-room.  We see the i d e a l family i n i t s own setting:  the mother i n e f f e c t u a l , the daughters snobbish, old Mr. Neave f i r s t c r i t i c i z e d , then ignored.  On the daughters'  insistence, he goes to dress for dinner and drops into a doze i n his bedroom chair.  From here to•the end of the story  the present i s deliberately blurred with b r i e f references to.the actual past, with b r i e f passages of dream with himself as "the l i t t l e old spider" (374) doomed to climb up and down endless s t a i r s , of the l i t t l e pale f a i r y - g i r l who seems to be r e a l l y h i s wife.  But the f a i r y - g i r l has come only to say  good-bye and the story ends with old Mr. Neave answering the s o c i a l c a l l to dinner as he has answered a l l the other c a l l s his family have made on him, as he w i l l continue to answer as long as he i s physically able: 'I'm  coming, I'm coming,' said old Mr. Neave.(375)  •"The Singing Lesson" uses the f a m i l i a r pattern of interspersing memory passages with the events of the present , thus explaining past gradually while Miss Meadows goes mechanically about the events of her teaching day.  She  releases her own t i g h t l y controlled emotion by the music she is teaching:  the g i r l s have  been learning a song of flowers,  f r u i t , ribbons and congratulations, but this song i s obviously  -  114  -  unendurable to Miss Meadows now her own engagement has been broken and she changes t o a song whose words f i t her own mood of cold despair: Fasti  Ah, too Fast Fade the Ro-o-ses of Pleasure;  Soon Autumn y i e l d s unto W i - i - n t e r Drear.(346) A f t e r r e c e i v i n g B a s i l ' s telegram, Miss Meadows j o y f u l l y returns to the song of e a r l i e r l e s s o n s , and her own voice sounds, "glowing w i t h expression" ( 3 5 0 ) , over a l l . that  Berkman considers  'The Singing Lesson' i s one of Miss Mansfield's l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l s t o r i e s  1 8  and c e r t a i n l y the music motif i s used crudely to i n d i c a t e Miss Meadows' emotional r e a c t i o n to the treatment she receives from B a s i l .  There seems l i t t l e hope that Miss Meadows' f u t u r e  w i l l indeed be one of f l o w e r s . " L i f e of Ma Parker" has a method of time p r e s e n t a t i o n that I f i n d p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g f o r i t s s k i l l i n interweaving the past and present.  The story i s l a r g e l y composed of passages  i n Ma Parker's memory, from her e a r l i e s t r e c o l l e c t i o n s of S t r a t f o r d and the bush at the front door which "smelt ever so n i c e " (304) to the immediate past of Lennie's death.  But, at  the same time, we are never allowed t o forget that Ma Parker i s moving i n automatic e f f i c i e n c y through the l i t e r a r y young gentleman's d u s t b i n of a f l a t .  She changes to her cleaning  clothes as soon as she a r r i v e s , but before she can begin work Berkman, p. 175  -  her mind i s on Lennie.  115  -  A f t e r a moment,  The o l d woman sprang up, seized the i r o n k e t t l e o f f the gas stove and took i t over to the s i n k . ( 3 0 3 ) Then there i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the state of the f l a t , and now Ma Parker s t a r t s her cleaning. While the water was h e a t i n g , Ma Parker began sweeping the f l o o r . 'Yes, she thought, as the broom knocked,'what w i t h one t h i n g and another I've had my share. I've had a hard l i f e . ' (303) 1  This leads t o memories of the events of her hard l i f e :  her  childhood; her f i r s t places of s e r v i c e ; her marriage; her c h i l d r e n ; her husband's death; her i n c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n as her c h i l d r e n grow and s c a t t e r ; "And now l i t t l e Lennie — grandson  "(305)  my  This i s followed by a r a p i d summary of  the work Ma Parker has accomplished during t h i s lengthy memory passage:  the dishes washed, the knives cleaned, the t a b l e  and sink scrubbed.  Her mind returns t o Lennie; she i s b r i e f l y  i n t e r r u p t e d by her young gentleman as he goes out; she returns to work and t o the unavoidable thoughts of Lennie.  The c r u e l  thoughts continue u n t i l MarParker can bear no more, yet even at the end of the story we are reminded again of the p h y s i c a l actions which have continued while the r e a l story of MarParker was being revealed. "The Lady's Maid" has an unusual method of time p r e s e n t a t i o n , a method which i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the story's theme.  A l l the events of the s t o r y take place i n the past;  -  116  -  only the actual t e l l i n g of the story (and Ellen's bringing a cup of tea to "madam" at the beginning, her tucking i n the woman's feet at the end) belong to the present. is surely symbolic of Ellen's l i f e *  i t was over at the  time of the last event presented i n her story — to marry Harry.  This  her r e f u s a l  The explanation f o r Ellen's deprived  life  is given d i r e c t l y though innocently by E l l e n , from the death of her mother to her years i n her grandfather's shop to her work with her aunt to the rest of her l i f e , waiting on her lady.  This has stretched from when E l l e n was "thirteen,  turned" ( 3 7 7 ) to the present and w i l l continue as long as "my lady" l i v e s ; what w i l l happen then E l l e n i s a f r a i d to think o f — " I f you can't find something better to do than to  start thinking...1"(380)  E l l e n to change her l i f e s  And i t i s t r u l y too late f o r symbolically her l i f e i s over  as surely as the day is over at the end of the story when the clock strikes  mid-night.  "The F l y " has a balancing of time periods within the story which John T. Hagopian likens to the movement of a pendulum, "a pendulum swing of time from the present  into  18  the past and back into the present again".  F i r s t , the  present and an undefined past period of old Mr. Woodifield are contrasted with the present and the same past period of  the boss.  The story then continues i n the present and  J o h n T. Hagopian, "Capturing Mansfield's Modern F i c t i o n Studies, IX, p. 3 8 6 . ± 0  'Fly,'"  -  117  -  the extent of that past period i s indicated "by the boy's photograph: old  the boss does not need to point this out to  Mr. Woodifield, for It was not new. over s i x years.  It had been there f o r (423)  S t i l l i n the present, old Mr. Woodifield t r i e s to remember something he wanted to t e l l the boss, f a i l s , and i s given a drink of the boss's s p e c i a l whiskey.  Under i t s warming  influence, old Mr. Woodifield remembers what he wished to t e l l his friend:  of h i s daughters' t r i p to Belgium l a s t  week and of t h e i r v i s i t i n g the graves of the Woodifield boy and the boss's son.  This memory of the near-past extends by  implication to the events of s i x years ago, to the deaths of both young men,  to the effects on the two fathers.  Left  alone, the boss makes his preparations to weep for that past event but finds he can only think of the events before that time, of h i s increasing the business, of the boy's joining him at the o f f i c e .  At this point the man notices the f l y  f a l l e n into his inkpot, and the rest of the story remains i n the present.  At the end the man t r i e s to return t o his  e a r l i e r thoughts but "For the l i f e of him" cannot remember what "he had been thinking about before." (428)  The  indica-  tions are that the boss's moments of g r i e f , moments which for  some time have been but conventional expressions of what  he had t r u l y f e l t e a r l i e r , are now  over.  "The Stranger" proceeds i n d i r e c t chronological order  -  118  -  from the time the t i r e d crowd are w a i t i n g on the dock t o the l a s t scene i n the h o t e l bedroom.  Yet the events of  the story i t s e l f depend g r e a t l y on the events of the past, and these Mansfield s k i l l f u l l y makes the characters themselves reveal.  John, b u r s t i n g w i t h the news of h i s wife's r e t u r n ,  has t o l d "every man-jack" on the dock the d e t a i l s of her absence and thus the reader i s informed a l s o .  The period of  the voyage i t s e l f , of happenings not of the ordinary, i s suggested by the passengers' f a r e w e l l s to Janey —  i n some  way, she has mattered to them more than u s u a l f o r shipboard acquaintances —  and by the touch of strangeness i n Janey's  own manner that makes John wonder i f she has been i l l on the t r i p .  F i n a l l y , Janey t e l l s John of the stranger and h i s  death from a heart c o n d i t i o n , a death symbolic of the end of all life.  John, who  "hated to hear of death" and who  would  have been somehow upset i f "he and Janey had met a f u n e r a l on t h e i r way to the h o t e l "  (362),  now i s confronted w i t h what  he cannot face, what Janey q u i e t l y accepts.  This d i f f e r e n c e  w i l l come between John and Janey f o r the r e s t of t h e i r shared l i f e , f o r the r e s t of t h e i r time together. "The Voyage" covers only a few hours of f i c t i o n a l time, from j u s t before the. h a l f - p a s t eleven at which the boat s a i l s to very e a r l y next morning when i t docks, and once the grandmother and F e n e l l a are s a f e l y on board, time i s of no immediate concern f o r them u n t i l they a r r i v e .  But i n t h i s  -  119  -  story time i t s e l f i s shown as part of the theme.  Fenella  has apparently been on v i s i t s before, f o r she judges the time she w i l l be away by the amount of spending money her father gives her.  She  i s momentarily h o r r i f i e d at having  a whole s h i l l i n g pressed  i n t o her hand:  A s h i l l i n g 1 She must be going away f o r ever! (323) And, of course, i n a sense she i s ; her father has gently put o f f her anxious whisper, "'How (323)  long am I going to s t a y ? " 1  because the answer i s probably f o r the rest of her  childhood, and t h i s i s something that F e n e l l a i s too young to understand. lately,  She knows only that " i t had a l l been so sad  l a s I t going to change?" (328)  I t i s change, the  i n e v i t a b l e passing of time that means u l t i m a t e death and yet not u l t i m a t e despair f o r everyone, that i s behind the poignancy of "The Voyage," that i s summed up i n the text grandmother painted.  Mrs. Crane has obviously lead a r i c h  and s a t i s f y i n g l i f e w i t h her husband and f a m i l y ; she i s w i l l i n g t o place the timing of death i n God's keeping  —  she t e l l s the stewardess that the death of Fenella's mother "'was  God's w i l l ' " (325)  —  and so sees nothing morbid i n  the black-framed motto on her bedroom w a l l . 'Taking the V e i l '  and  'The  Canary'  'Taking the V e i l ' and "The Canary' do not seem to me s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r presentation of time; i n each the f l a w  -  120 -  i s i n the divorce created between the i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r actions of the characters. In 'Taking the V e i l  1  a l l the e s s e n t i a l a c t i o n of  the s t o r y i s i n t e r i o r , t a k i n g place i n Edna's romantic young mind.  The best Mansfield could manage i n the way of a c t u a l  p h y s i c a l movement was to give Edna a l i b r a r y book as an excuse f o r her walk and then t o d i r e c t her walk t o pass by the Convent of the Sacred Heart.  Events of the d i s t a n t past  — Edna and Jimmy's shared childhood — immediate past —  and events of the  the play l a s t evening —  lead to Edna's  d e c i s i o n t o take the v e i l of a nun rather than that of a b r i d e . That, i n t u r n , w i l l lead her to a s u i t a b l y romantic and p a t h e t i c a l l y b r i e f f u t u r e .  The present i s only the  v e h i c l e of expression f o r t h i s combined a c t u a l past and imagined f u t u r e , and as there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of the future of Edna's imagination coming true i n r e a l future time, there i s not only no sense of progression i n the story but a l s o no sense of dramatic t e n s i o n . There i s an even more serious l a c k of progression and of s t o r y tension i n "The Canary."  I n i t s b a s i c method  of s t o r y p r e s e n t a t i o n , "The Canary" has great resemblance to "The Lady's Maid," f o r i t , too, i s a dramatic monologue, and i t , too, deals with events of the past.  But unfortunately  the events of the past given i n "The Canary" are not used to e x p l a i n the present.  Why does "Missus" f e e l the need of  something t o love so desperately, why has she nothing t o give  -  121  -  her a f f e c t i o n t o , why does she love only non-human beings or objects?  Can she r e a l l y f i n d no d i f f e r e n c e i n her f e e l i n g  for her f l o w e r s , a l i v e and close t o her, and her f e e l i n g f o r the inanimate and d i s t a n t evening s t a r ?  Is her love f o r her  canary greatest because i t i s the only t h i n g of animal l i f e she has loved?  There are, of course, many possible  explanations  but none i s given and t h i s omission leaves an emotional i n the s t o r y .  hiatus  We can p r e d i c t E l l e n ' s f u t u r e because we know  an o u t l i n e of a l l her past; we know only b r i e f moments of the immediate past of the "Missus," nothing of a more d i s t a n t time, and therefore cannot assess what kind of woman i t i s who says that she w i l l "get over" the l o s s of her pet because she "must." One can get over anything i n time ( 4 3 2 ) but what t h i s future "time" w i l l be f o r the "Missus" we cannot say. 'Prelude'  and 'At the Bay'  In "Prelude" Mansfield f i r s t used a method of time p r e s e n t a t i o n that she repeated  i n , f i r s t , "Daughters of  19  the Late C o l o n e l , " Burnell story:  and, l a t e r , i n "At the Bay," the second  I t was t o use twelve numbered sections t o  t i c k o f f the hours f o r the characters.  I n "Prelude" the  sections of the s t o r y do not attempt to cover the same amount of time i n each; f o r example, s e c t i o n nine, t e l l i n g of the l ^ i h i c h Mansfield s a i d was i n something the same "form" as Prelude." ( L e t t e r s . I I , p. 3 5 9 )  -  122  -  k i l l i n g of the duck, cannot take more than h a l f an hour; s e c t i o n seven, Stanley's journey home and the for  preparations  t e a , must cover at l e a s t four times that period of time.  The events of the week are presented  c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , from  the loaded buggy which cannot be made to hold L o t t i e and Kezia t o B e r y l ' s l e t t e r t o Nan Pym t e l l i n g her that " a f t e r the most awful week of my l i f e we r e a l l y are s e t t l e d . " The past i s d i r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o only by occasional  (56)  phrases,  by the passage d e s c r i b i n g the Trout cousins (4-3-42), by Linda's b i t t e r mental summary of her own l i f e (53-54); the r e s t i s s u b t l y revealed by inference —  i f we f e e l we know  the past and can guess the f u t u r e of these characters i t i s only because we know them so w e l l i n the  present.  By the time of "At the Bay," w r i t t e n four years l a t e r , Mansfield had tightened her c o n t r o l of t h i s method. Again, the main r e v e l a t i o n of the past i s by inference from character type, an inference which can of course include the previous B u r n e l l story and which i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y strengthened  by i t .  But as w e l l Mansfield gives s e v e r a l  passages of thought and conversation that d i r e c t l y show the past of her people and i t s e f f e c t on the present and f u t u r e : Linda's memory of her f a t h e r and h i s l i g h t promises of t h e i r coming adventurous l i f e together; Mrs. F a i r f i e l d ' s thoughts of her dead son and her r e a l i z a t i o n that the memory does not make her sad; Jonathan's t a l k with Linda of h i s l i f e ,  -  123  -  past, present, and f u t u r e , a l l l i v e d as i f i n a cage.  The  time d i v i s i o n s of "Prelude" are repeated but used much more s k i l l f u l l y .  I n the beginning of "At the Bay" i t i s  e a r l y morning, so e a r l y that the sun has not yet r i s e n ; by the end of the s e c t i o n i t i s f u l l d a y l i g h t , b i r d s are s i n g i n g , and  "the f i r s t i n h a b i t a n t " i n the person of F l o r r i e the cat  has appeared.  As the sections f o l l o w one a f t e r the other,  we see an i n t e r l o c k i n g of time that focuses on separate characters yet s t i l l suggests the passing  of time f o r a l l .  So i n the second s e c t i o n Stanley dashes away from h i s e a r l y morning swim, leaving the beach and the rest of the s e c t i o n to Jonathan, and when we see Stanley again i n s e c t i o n three he i s dressed f o r the o f f i c e and impatient f o r h i s breakfast. So, t o o , the time we see A l i c e spend at Mrs. Stubb's i n s e c t i o n eight passes f o r the B u r n e l l f a m i l y as w e l l , and s e c t i o n nine s t a r t s a f t e r t e a , with the c h i l d r e n assembled i n the washhouse f o r t h e i r animal game of cards.  This s e c t i o n  ends with the momentarily f r i g h t e n i n g a r r i v a l of Uncle Jonathan and the beginning of s e c t i o n t e n reveals that "He had meant t o be there before" (235) but had stopped to t a l k to Linda; now. we see the scene that was t a k i n g place at the same time as the animal game but which covered only part of that time. Beryl:  As i n "Prelude," the l a s t s e c t i o n belongs t o  i t i s she who i s f e e l i n g and resenting most b i t t e r l y  the passing of time.  I t i s the fear that midnight may already  have struck f o r her romantic hopes, that she i s doomed t o be  -  124 -  a Cinderella without a h a l l , that sends her out over her low window s i l l to meet Harry Kember i n the garden.  With  the end of this section, the world of New Zealand, of the Burnell-Beauchamp family and their home', at the bay, i s l e f t to the dark and the sound of the sea, as i t was shown forty pages and a i l i t t l e under twenty-four hours e a r l i e r . not  Thus,  only do a l l the events take place on one day which  thereby becomes t y p i c a l of many days spent at the bay, but v i r t u a l l y twenty-four hours are covered i n the twelve sections of approxima-tely equal time length.  Each section seems to  represent an hour of day and an hour of night while simultaneously advancing the time of the events of the story, giving the important moments i n each of the many l i v e s shown i n this one day "At the Bay." As has been suggested i n the opening of this chapter, Mansfield's fundamental approach to the world of her short f i c t i o n was what she h e r s e l f described as a l i f t i n g of the mists, a presenting of a v i t a l moment but of a moment only i n the l i v e s of her characters. Yet never i s the moment she chooses to show us meant to be i n true isolations i t isoonly a revealed section of the continuous l i n e of time. The f i c t i o n a l world of the characters must seem to be as ruled by the passing of hours as the world of r e a l i t y ; the characters must seem to have a past or they w i l l appear more as inanimate objects than as people, they must seem to have a future or the events of the story w i l l not seem to  -  -  125  matter. Very e a r l y i n her of g i v i n g a strong her  the  present  with  be  frequent  r e c a l l e d , the  early s t o r i e s , Mansfield's  s t o r y was  point  1918  could  Mansfield be  of her  i n the  overt  goes t o her and  adults  and  t o t i m e on the  Bertha prepares f o r her hairdressers'  a r o u n d them g e t  of events f u l l  a train,  the the  attending  suggested, point.  beginning on  seemed t o move story.  passing  the  of  of  and  But  time  exterior actions changing hours  clock.  This  f o r i n each the  method very  amount o f p h y s i c a l movement o f  woman t r y t o c a t c h  a flat,  the  s u b t l y suggest the  dinner  party;  plot the  Monica  then t o P r i n c e s ' ; a nameless  a t r a i n ; Sun  and  ready f o r a party;  though w r i t i n g h i s s t o r y s i t t i n g tells  that  s t o r i e s o f 1918,  a considerable  characters;  man  could  references  worked w e l l i n the requires  discovered  was  t o o much  day  s u g g e s t e d more o b l i q u e l y , t h a t  characters  w i t h no  had  in  reference  i n sudden j e r k s from i n c i d e n t t o i n c i d e n t of the by  value  manipulating  given  t o the hour of the  future  the  too mechanical; i t r e l i e d  references  the  e a r l y as p o s s i b l e  t h a t moment as  f i c t i o n a l t i m e around the  of the  learned  moment o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l t i m e  past could  continued  I n many o f t h e her  s e n s e o f t i m e as  s t o r y , f o r once one  e s t a b l i s h e d , the  work M a n s f i e l d  i n the  Moon w a t c h  even Duquette,  shabby l i t t l e  of p h y s i c a l a c t i o n —  the  t h e moving  cafe, into  of evening f u n c t i o n s , the meeting  j o u r n e y t o the h o t e l .  For  s t o r i e s s u c h as  of these,  -  M a n s f i e l d had adroitly  faced  characters. much o f t h e interior  Mansfield  there  on t h e  interior  seems a g r e a t e r  o f the  and  characters  i n "The  e x t e r i o r '"plots" — C a n a r y " and  past  out  p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s of the  of the  present.  interior  i n the beginning  of h i s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ; e f f i c i e n t l y around the  this for  so Ma  immediate,  immediate ("Mr.  and  of the s t o r y , but p a r t i a l l y on t h e  his  events  l i t e r a r y young g e n t l e m a n ' s f l a t ,  her  work.  last  of her  Parker  Mrs.  and  Technically, Mansfield's i n her  lives,  moves c o n s t a n t l y  thoughts h a r d l y touch her  move t h e b e g i n n i n g  separation  b o t h d i s t a n t and  So R e g g i e  o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y and  thus created  the  action  I believe  always i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the  emotional  and  r e v e a l i n g what i s a known i f g e n e r a l l y  g r o w i n g as t h e y do  Dove") i s d r e s s i n g  her  between  "Taking the V e i l " —  t h a t our  she  separation  of  There i s seldom a sense o f u n n a t u r a l  seems t o be  thoughts are  caused  lives  emotions i n which the r e a l  unacknowledged f a c t of l i f e :  are not  was  p e r i o d , however,  p h y s i c a l movements o f t h e  between i n t e r i o r only  last  t e c h n i c a l problem, a problem  concentration  Now  world  place.  s t o r i e s of the a new  greater  occurs  time t h a t  successful.  Mansfield  takes  -  f o u n d a method o f p r e s e n t i n g  W i t h the  by h e r  126  s o l u t i o n t o the  s t o r i e s was  problem  three-fold;  s t o r y ever c l o s e r t o the  c l i m a x so t h a t l i t t l e  to  point  c h r o n o l o g i c a l time has  to  of  -  127  -  be covered, as i n "Honeymoon"; t o heighten her use of the p h y s i c a l a c t i o n to r e v e a l the emotional state of the characters, as i n "The Man Without a Temperament"; t o make more d i r e c t use of the thoughts and words of the characters themselves to r e v e a l the past, as i n " L i f e of Ma Parker." Behind Mansfield's i n t r i c a t e and t e c h n i c a l use of time i n her s t o r i e s seems a keen and personal r e a l i z a t i o n of the i n e v i t a b l e passing flf time i t s e l f , a r e a l i z a t i o n that was probably i n t e n s i f i e d by her  own i l l n e s s .  As Berkman  says, i m p l i c i t i n her work, appearing and disappearing l i k e a winding thread, i s a dispersed expression of the great P r o u s t i a n theme: that i n the s h i f t and f l u x of time, through the i n v a s i o n of other values, other demands, other i n t e r e s t s , no human r e l a t i o n s h i p remains unchanged..... 20  20Berkman, p. 196.  CHAPTER IV USE  OF  NAMES  The use of names as a means of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n i s a Mansfield technique that has been v i r t u a l l y ignored by the c r i t i c s .  Berkman c a l l s Mr. Reginald Peacock "that  1 f l a s h y b i r d of plumage,"  i n d i c a t i n g that she i s aware of  Mansfield's obvious use of name symbolism f o r t h i s character but she does not discuss the p o i n t .  K l e i n e considers that  Robert Salesby, "The Man Without a Temperament," i s i r o n i c a l l y named since He cannot s a i l by the reefs of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; love has foundered on them 2  and K l e i n e a l s o points out the obvious s a t i r i c a l nicknames i n t h i s one s t o r y .  Only Alpers of the c r i t i c s I have read  touches on Mansfield's use o f names as a consistent  techniques  Names had always f a s c i n a t e d Katherine M a n s f i e l d . She had an ear f o r the name that sounded r i g h t 3 However, Alpers then l i m i t s h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o the names o f the characters i n the s t o r i e s most obviously based on Mansfield's own f a m i l y : D o l l ' s House."  "Prelude,"  "At the Bay," and "The  With Alpers' d i s c u s s i o n of the names i n  these s t o r i e s I agree and I w i l l summarize Alpers' f i n d i n g s at the end of t h i s chapter, but Alpers c e r t a i n l y does not •'•Berkman, p. K l e i n e , "Katherine Mansfield and the Prisoner of Love," p.30. 2  3Alpers, p.219.  -  128  -  exhaust M a n s f i e l d ' s On  the  interested attempted let  use  o f names by h i s b r i e f  contrary,  I believe  i n more t h a n the t o use  them a c t  as  names as a brief,  blatantly  o b v i o u s , some so  s i n g l e use  Mansfield  i n her  established  of s o c i a l by  i s her use  Noggs, E s t e l l a symbolism  had  subtle  various  character  methods, some  Havishams, l i t t l e  o f names, a  Mrs.  admired  consciously i n the  use  learned  already  broad  connotation  type,  shown i n  That  J o e s ; the of  suggestive  contemporary  t h a n i n the  Mansfield  know f r o m h e r from t h e i r  o f names she  own  c o n t r i b u t i o n was  she  made o f t e c h n i q u e s  but  the  already  letters;  to the  say.  Brook,  i n Dickens  whether  she  Certainly  t r a d i t i o n s of  i n d i v i d u a l and  long  fiction  works o f H e n r y  delighted  a r t I cannot  belonged  used  the  V e r v e r , H y a c i n t h R o b i n s o n , Mrs.  her  literature.  Indeed,  p o p u l a t e d w i t h Newman  common f e a t u r e  Monarch.  James we  the  p r o b a b l y most c l e a r l y  s u r e l y n e v e r more i m p o r t a n t  M a j o r and  techniques  or n a t i o n a l i t y , character  and  together.  original.  literatures  created  she  t h a t t h e y become c l e a r  method u n i q u e o r  Dickens  James w i t h h i s M a m  and  she  in English  many a u t h o r s but  was  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , to  sumraary o f t h e  o f names f o l l o w s  c l a s s , race  f i c t i o n a l world  but  purpose  Mansfield  a f t e r s e v e r a l s t o r i e s have been c o n s i d e r e d  I n no  well  of her  pointed  For  that  coverage.  i n t o n a t i o n o f names, t h a t  part  himself.  only  this  -  129  established  strong  both: blend  in English  -  130 -  In examining M a n s f i e l d ' s attempted  first  t e c h n i q u e and  to isolate  t h e major f e a t u r e s  t h e n t o group t o g e t h e r  each t e c h n i c a l p a t t e r n .  I will  names u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s : diminutives;  u s e o f names I h a v e  other  of her  t h e names t h a t  therefore  be d i s c u s s i n g t h e  names o f n a t i o n a l i t y and c l a s s :  nicknames; o m i s s i o n o f p a r t  name; names o f s y m b o l i c  follow  or a l l of a  meaning.  Names o f N a t i o n a l i t y and C l a s s Mansfield  o f t e n u s e s names w h i c h c a r r y o n l y  but  always  The  names o f D i c k Harmon ("Je ne P a r l e  Bullen ("The  important  Young G i r l " ) ,  t h e Neaves  p a s F r a n c a i s " ) , Mr.  Arnold,  ("An I d e a l F a m i l y " ) ,  the h o t e l master  J o h n s o n , t h e h a r b o u r m a s t e r , and Mr. ("The S t r a n g e r " ) a r e a l l o f t h i s  names c a r r y i n g t h e c o n n o t a t i o n  middle-class  background.  s u c h as M i n n i e P i n e , Millie, contrast  of British  t o Antonio  Maudie, A l i c e , nationality  s t o c k and  I n t h e same way, m i n o r  the "cockroach" landlady  t h e S a l e s b y ' s E n g l i s h maid who  ("Man W i t h o u t  Ralph  J o h n Hammond and h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e s Mr. G a v e n  the S c o t t s , C a p t a i n  type,  of n a t i o n a l i t y or c l a s s .  ("The Wind B l o w s " ) , M r s . R a d d i c k and M r s . MacEwen  ("Revelations"), and  connotation  the broad  appears  characters  i n "Pictures"; i n sharp  and Mr. Queet o f t h e f o r e i g n h o t e l  a Temperament"); and Ma P a r k e r ' s Jim, are given  children,  names s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r  and " s t a t i o n i n l i f e . "  Major  characters  of  -  131  -  f o r e i g n n a t i o n a l i t y have names w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t meaning and w i l l be discussed l a t e r ; minor characters such as Frau Arnholdt of "The L i t t l e Governess" and the Countess l i l k o w s k y 1  of "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day,"  like their British  p a r t s , are named s u i t a b l y f o r t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y and  counterclass.  The young p a i n t e r of " F e u i l l e d'Album" has a name that i n i t s e l f seems to h i n t at the boy's futures  Ian French i s not  himself French but i s studying In P a r i s , i s i n love w i t h a French g i r l , i s undoubtedly hoping t o remain i n France f o r the rest of h i s l i f e .  Perhaps Mansfield meant h i s name t o be  an i n d i c a t i o n that h i s dreams w i l l come t r u e , that h i s future l i f e w i l l be as "French" as h i s name.  Diminutives Many characters are known by the diminutive form of a name; always t h i s use i n d i c a t e s some c h i l d i s h q u a l i t y i n the character. In those characters who  are i n f a c t c h i l d r e n , the  c h i l d i s h q u a l i t y i s of course n a t u r a l , and the use of the diminutive serves only to underline the youth of the character i n contrast t o the surrounding adult world.  In "The L i f e of  Ma Parker," i t i s the p o i n t l e s s s u f f e r i n g and death of l i t t l e Lennie that brings Ma Parker to her own hopeless of l i f e .  questioning  She has known l o s s and sorrov* many times before  she has buried seven of her t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n and f i n a l l y  — has  -  l o s t her husband also —  132  -  but she has s i l e n t l y and s t o i c a l l y  "borne i t up t i l l now"(307).  Now she i s faced w i t h not only  death but a l s o the intense s u f f e r i n g of l i t t l e Lennie, and i t i s t h i s that brings t o Ma her h o r r i f i e d r e a l i z a t i o n of a senseless universes Why d i d he have t o s u f f e r so? That's what she couldn't understand. Why should a l i t t l e angel c h i l d have to arsk f o r h i s breath and f i g h t f o r i t ? There was no sense i n making a c h i l d s u f f e r l i k e t h a t . (307) Ma Parker apparently can accept adult s u f f e r i n g as somehow part of some kind of u n i v e r s a l p l a n , but no plan she can bear t o contemplate includes the agony of small c h i l d r e n . In  "The S t r a n g e r " a p a r a l l e l i s made between  little  Jean S c o t t , the c h i l d w a i t i n g with her parents on the dock, and Janey Hammond, r e t u r n i n g on the s h i p .  Janey never r e f e r s  to h e r s e l f i n the story and on her luggage l a b e l i d e n t i f i e s h e r s e l f as "Mrs. John Hammond" (356); i t i s John who c a l l s her  by the diminutive and i t i s p a r t l y as a c h i l d - f i g u r e  that John wishes to see Janey.  He admires her small neatness  he wishes t o protect her, to get her the only cup of t e a to be had on board ship; he wonders at her courage i n making such a long journey by h e r s e l f , although since Janey has t r a v e l l e d f i r s t - c l a s s on an established l i n e r , she has h a r d l y needed any unusual degree of courage f o r t h i s part 4 of the voyage; he bounces her on h i s knee l i k e a c h i l d , ^•Ironically, Janey has needed and man; apparently only he need not d i e w i t h help around him.  the incident on the journey f o r which found courage i s the death of the young Janey has offered t o nurse him so that only the scant comfort of p r o f e s s i o n a l  -  133 -  u n t i l Janey quietly stops him: "'Don't do that, d e a r . ' " ( 3 6 l ) While waiting for Janey to a r r i v e , John has had h i s attention caught by l i t t l e  Jean Scott.  When the c h i l d starts to cry  for her tea, Hammond wishes he had a b i t of chocolate to give her, as he wishes he could get Janey the only cup of tea to be had on board; he picks the child up and holds her as he wishes to hold Janey, and he finds that The movement of holding her, steadying her, relieved him wonderfully, lightened his heart. (352) For the moment John makes l i t t l e Jean a substitute for Janey, and the mental transference i s automatic for him because of his desire to treat Janey as a child dependent upon him. When he sees the ship begin to move again toward the dock, John forgets a l l about l i t t l e Jean and the child's father i s only "just i n time" (353) to save Jean from f a l l i n g :  "Mr.  Hammond had forgotten about Jean" (353) because his Janey is now coming closer to him.  Upon her a r r i v a l he unconsciously  wishes to reverse the roles of child and protector to have Janey become to him something of what the mother i s to the child.  In between John's two desires and two views of Janey  comes The Stranger. In "The Young G i r l , " Hennie seems present only to sharpen by contrast the characterization of h i s seventeenyear old s i s t e r .  The boy i s only twelve, s t i l l a complete  child with no attempt at sophistication, wearing "a very  broad, d e l i g h t e d smile"(295) strong approval of pine-apple genuinely  134  -  and making no secret of h i s creams.  By p a r a l l e l i n g the  c h i l d i s h q u a l i t i e s of Hennie with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of the young g i r l h e r s e l f , Mansfield i s able t o show how much l i k e a c h i l d , and yet how d i f f e r e n t to a c h i l d , she i s . The diminutives used f o r Paddy and Johnny, the r e a l c h i l d r e n i n "Marriage a l a Mode," serve to underline the c h i l d i s h n e s s of Bobby Kane, the only adult i n the story known by a diminutive.  H i s very surname suggests a candy  cane and when we f i r s t meet him he i s coming out of a candy shop? having ordered "'a perfect l i t t l e ballet'"(315) of confections which must be paid f o r by I s a b e l .  Throughout  the story he i s shown as l o o k i n g t o I s a b e l as a kind of b i g sister-mother figures he looks "frightened" when the candy shopman appears and Bobby has to admit that he has not paid f o r the candy he has chosen; he i s "radiant again" when I s a b e l pays f o r i t ; he asks Isabel i f she would l i k e him "'to wear my N i j i n s k y dress tonight'"(316) l i k e a c h i l d Suggesting dressing up.  Again, near the end of the s t o r y ,  the group of Isabel's f r i e n d s are a l l s i t t i n g outside on the lawn, w a i t i n g f o r the post. Only Bobby Kane l a y on the t u r f at Isabel's feet 'Do you t h i n k there w i l l be Mondays i n heaven?' asked Bobby c h i l d i s h l y . (318) And Bobby Kane i s the only one of the group who i s given no  -  135  -  occupation, no named way of making a l i v i n g .  B i l l Hunt i s  a painter, Dennis Green a writer, Moira Morrison an a r t i s t of some kind —  they at least make a pretense of creatively  j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r existence. Bobby alone apparently does nothing, l i k e a c h i l d . Much the same use of diminutives occurs i n " B l i s s . " Eddie Warren i s c h i l d i s h l y s i l l y , always pretending to be " i n a state of acute d i s t r e s s " (98), speaking with affected emphasis and gushing over the poetry of the worst type of l i t t l e magazine, trying to show h i s l i t e r a r y knowledges 'I think I've come across the same idea i n a l i t - t i e French review, quite unknown in England.' (100) If Eddie plays up to h i s lack of aggressive q u a l i t i e s , Harry Young deliberately and c h i l d i s h l y emphasizes h i s own possession of thems  he loves "doing things at high pressure" (98), seeks  " i n everything that came up against him another test of h i s power and of h i s courage" (99), exaggerates h i s love of good food to speak of his "'shameless passion for the white f l e s h of the lobster' and 'the green o f pistachio ices —  green  and cold l i k e the eyelids of Egyptian dancers.'" (100) At the end of the story, Eddie accepts the "protection" of Miss Fulton f o r the taxi-ride home —  "'so thankful not to have  to face another drive alone after my dreadful experience'" (104) —  as Harry i s extending h i s "protection" to her. "Mr. and Mrs. Dove" has a somewhat d i f f e r e n t use of  -  -  136  the diminutive, for here the male character's name i s given as both "Reggie" and "Reginald."  In f i t t i n g  upper-class  matron s t y l e , the mater c a l l s her son "Reginald," but his loved one, Anne, always softens the name to "Reggie." In h i s own thoughts the man i s apparently both, a touch of characterization which f i t s his own feeling of i n s e c u r i t y . There i s possibly another inference to be drawn from the vary use of the name i n this storys views of Reggie —  the name indicates opposing  to his mother he i s the young B r i t i s h  gentleman since t h i s i s what he, as her son, must be; to Anne he i s the boyish suitor whose sweetness she loves but whose immaturity she also knows; to the man himself he knows he must play the role h i s mater assigns to him but r e a l i z e s the truth of Anne's candid opinion. The  childishness of Fanny i n "Honeymoon" Mansfield  shows i n a kindly l i g h t .  Fanny i s s t i l l overwhelmed by the  novelty of being "grown up"s 'Isn't i t extraordinary to think that here we are quite alone, away from everybody, with nobody to t e l l us to go home, or to — order us about except ourselves?' (402) This seems acceptable, even charming, partly because Fanny obviously i s young i n actual years, because she .is on her honeymoon, but .even more because she i s t r y i n g , a l b e i t fumblingly, to solve one of the basic problems of the adult world;  the need for communication.  In her r e a l i z a t i o n of  this need Fanny seems more mature than her young husband.  -  137  -  There i s a subtle and different use of the diminutive i n "The Man Without a Temperament."  Here the wife is "Jinnie  the husband the more formal "Robert."  But, revealingly, the  woman i s referred to as "Jinnie" only i n the passages of Robert's memory of t h e i r l i f e i n London, of the days before her i l l n e s s , of a time when her childishness could be charmin And then f l y i n g l i g h t l y , l i g h t l y down the s t a i r s — J i n n i e . 'Oh, Robert, isn't fthe snow) wonderful I Oh, what a p i t y i t has to melt. Where's the pussy-wee? (133) 1  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the memory passage i n which the wife makes her c h i l d i s h but surely natural appeal to have her husband go abroad with her (142-143), her name i s no longer given: Jinnie is now only "she."  Other Nicknames Although diminutives make up by f a r the largest group of nicknames, Mansfield occasionally uses others i n her s t o r i e s .  There seems to be no one quality common to  this group; the nickname seems to express not only something of the character so named but something of the bestower of the name as w e l l . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p l a i n i n "The Man Without a Temperament." husband  Near the end of the story the wife c a l l s her  "Boogies" (143), the pet name from the early days  of t h e i r marriage.  Coming at the end of a story showing  the t e r r i b l e , c o n t r o l l e d  138  -  s t r a i n under which the husband  must l i v e , the use of the name from the time of e a r l i e r happiness clear:  r e i n f o r c e s what the r e s t  there i s nothing Robert  of the s t o r y has made  can do but k i s s h i s wife and  t e l l her i t i s "'Rot!'" t o suppose he minds " ' a w f u l l y ' " being i n e x i l e with her abroad.  The  other nicknames i n t h i s  are some of M a n s f i e l d ' s most c r u e l l y sharp: sum up the essence, the most important guests at the h o t e l , Robert,  f a c t about the other  and, s i n c e the names are bestowed by  these c r e a t u r e s i s a l s o shown.  The Two  t h e i r t i g h t l y bound h a i r  with her  " p i l e of l e t t e r s  1  are j u s t t h a t :  from  k i t t e n i s h c r y of going " ' r i g h t  her C o n s u l " ( 1 2 9 ) should anything harm h e r .  particular  lines  The American Woman very c o n s c i o u s l y  home" and her attempted  The  between them;  suggests the r i g i d i t y of the  emphasizes her n a t i o n a l i t y  much r e v e l l i n g  from  Topknots are so  a l i k e that there i s no need t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Couple  the nicknames,  something of the great i s o l a t i o n he f e e l s  of t h e i r l i v e s .  story  to  The Honeymoon  very much on t h e i r honeymoon, very  i n being a couple.  nicknames i n " B l i s s " serve t o emphasize the "modern" q u a l i t y  that Mansfield i s s a t i r i z i n g .  So the Norman Knights c a l l each other "Face" and r e d u c i n g romantic l o v e t o the f r i e n d l y  "Mug,"  i n s u l t s of t e e n a g e r s .  Harry and Bertha exchange no endearments and,  i n h i s phone  c a l l t o her, Harry c a l l s h i s wife "Ber": perhaps h i s use  of  -  139  -  this rather ugly nickname indicates that Harry and Bertha are,  as i t were, part way to the Knight kind of marriage.  The Knights' nicknames seem to sum up the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the " B l i s s " world, f o r "Face" and "Mug"  suggest the masks  of hidden i d e n t i t y , suggest the permanent assumption shaped to f i t the avant-garde  view of society.  of roles  It i s against  this backdrop of a r t i f i c i a l i t y , of the sordid melodrama i n modern art approved by the Knight-larren set that Bertha finds she i s unwittingly playing her part i n her r e a l and personal tragedy.  The only nickname Bertha has given her baby i s  " L i t t l e B," which, while i t shows nothing about the c h i l d , seems to reveal a p a r a l l e l to the mother:  Bertha i s herself simply  a large c h i l d and acts l i k e one i n the scene with the nurse, longing to hold her baby yet not daring to ask to have her: |jBertha3 stood watching (the nurse and L i t t l e B r j , her hands by her side, l i k e the poor l i t t l e g i r l i n front of the r i c h l i t t l e g i r l with the d o l l . (93) There i s something of the same use of a nickname acting as a means of contrast i n "Marriage a l a Mode."  Bill  Hunt seems to stand i n d i r e c t comparison to William, whose name i s never shortened, whose l i f e of the e f f i c i e n t business man  i s paying for the l i f e the B i l l Hunt "crowd" (313)  enjoying i n William's home.  are  Yet i t i s B i l l , not William,  who draws "the cork out of a bottle of whisky" (317)  at  dinner, acting as host to the dinner guests. The use of nicknames i n "Sun and Moon" i s unusual  -  140 -  and, i t seems to me, not s u c c e s s f u l . when Mansfield's  Alpers comments that  i n s t i n c t f o r the r i g h t name f a i l e d h e r , 5  " i t u s u a l l y meant that something else was wrong" and c e r t a i n l y the weakness of the names i n "Sun'and Moon" seems to be part of a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n the basic symbolism of the s t o r y .  The f a t h e r once c a l l s the boy "Son," and t h i s  could give r i s e to the g i r l ' s being j o k i n g l y c a l l e d "Moon," but i n a c t u a l f a c t t h i s never occurs i n the s t o r y i t s e l f . Indeed, i t seems u n l i k e l y that t h i s f a m i l y would give t o the adored g i r l a petname that depended f o r i t s meaning on the boy's nickname. There i s c e r t a i n l y the suggested symbolism of the boy's being the more i n t e l l i g e n t , the more o r i g i n a l c h i l d , of h i s being the l i t t l e sun who shines by h i s own 6  light,  but i n no way i s Moon shining by r e f l e c t e d l i g h t  from her brother.  Since indeed the reverse i s t r u e , the  names could be s a i d to be given by Mansfield i n i r o n y : i n the s t o r y the boy shines by h i s s i s t e r ' s l i g h t , i s used I n the party scene as a complement t o h i s s i s t e r ' s beauty, but i n the future he w i l l f a r outshine her i n matters f a r more important than c h i l d i s h appearance.  But t o be s u c c e s s f u l  t h i s meaning would need to be made c l e a r by the family's use, ^Alpers, p. 219. There may be a personal reference by Mansfield t o her own brother. S h o r t l y a f t e r Chummie's death, Mansfield wrote i n her Journal that the s t o r i e s she would w r i t e about t h e i r childhood " a l l must be t o l d w i t h a sense of mystery, a radiance, an afterglow, because you, my l i t t l e sun of i t , are set. You have dropped over the d a z z l i n g brim of the world." (p.44). 6  -  141 -  i f not explanation, of the c h i l d r e n ' s nicknames; i n the s t o r y the names remain, i n e x p l i c a b l y , only i n the mind of the boy. Mansfield wrote t o Murry that she had "dreamed" the s t o r y , apparently complete t o t i t l e and p l o t d e t a i l : I dreamed a short story l a s t n i g h t , even down t o i t s name, which was Sun and Moon. I t was very l i g h t . I dreamed i t a l l — about c h i l d r e n . ' I t may be that t h i s dream o r i g i n of both p l o t and names accounts for the mixed q u a l i t y of the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Omission of Names O c c a s i o n a l l y a major character has e i t h e r no name at a l l or, more f r e q u e n t l y , has e i t h e r C h r i s t i a n or f a m i l y name but not both.  I n the f i r s t instance, the character may  be simply r e f e r r e d t o by a pronoun or may have the name replaced by a phrase which w i l l then be used i n i t s e n t i r e t y as a name.  I n a l l cases the l a c k of part or a l l of a given  name i n d i c a t e s a l a c k of some q u a l i t y e i t h e r i n the character or i n the vie?/ of the character as presented.  This becomes  p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r when such a character i s used i n contrast w i t h characters having both names. There i s such a use of names i n "Je ne P a r l e pas Francais."  Mouse e x i s t s i n the s t o r y simply as "Mouse";  as Dick Harmon says, "'She's not Madame,'"(78) and she w i l l ^ L e t t e r s t o JMM. p. 161  never be permitted his  mother.  142  -  t o share D i c k and Dick's  D i c k h i m s e l f i s too upset  surname w i t h  at the prospect o f  the coming night with Mouse and a l l that n i g h t w i l l  symbolize  i n h i s break from h i s mother t o introduce Mouse t o Duquette; t h i s at one and the same time gives an important  detail  about Dick and leaves the g i r l the complete l i t t l e v i c t i m , frail,  h e l p l e s s , incomplete  i n the very sense of h e r need  o f h e l p and p r o t e c t i o n . Two o f the c h a r a c t e r s i n " R e v e l a t i o n s " have only C h r i s t i a n names, and a g a i n the omission The life  two men most important covered  seems d e l i b e r a t e .  t o Monica i n the p e r i o d of her  by the s t o r y are known only as Ralph and George:  t h i s p l a c i n g of the two on a common l e v e l i n the s t o r y i s s u r e l y meant t o be i r o n i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r Ralph i s 8 Monica's adoring  s u i t o r , George but h e r h a i r d r e s s e r .  Ralph  claims that he knows Monica " ' i n f i n i t e l y b e t t e r t h a n you know y o u r s e l f , ' " ( 1 9 0 - 1 9 1 ) , understood n o t h i n g . " Monica f l i e s  but Monica f e e l s that "He had  (192)  From such l a c k o f understanding  to her h a i r d r e s s e r ' s where Monica f e e l s she i s  r e a l l y understood and l o v e d .  Monica's s e l f - c e n t e r e d l a c k  o  °The Scrapbook records a s t o r y fragment o f Jan.12, 1918, which may w e l l be a f i r s t d r a f t opening of "Revelations A b e a u t i f u l young woman enters her h a i r d r e s s e r ' s , i s e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y greeted by "Madame" and f i n d s "Georges" w a i t i n g t o do h e r h a i r . I f M a n s f i e l d d i d change the "Georges o f t h i s fragment to the "-George" o f " R e v e l a t i o n s , " i t would seem t o i n d i c a t e h e r d e l i b e r a t e l i k e n i n g o f the young h a i r d r e s s e r t o the young s u i t o r , a l i k e n e s s suggested by the B r i t i s h background o f both C h r i s t i a n names.  -  143  -  of understanding of the people i n the shop makes up the rest of the story; she i s faced with the tragedy that has gripped the  shop and from vhLch she f l i e s back to the security of  Princes' and Ralph. not  The lack of surname f o r the two men is  therefore meant as a lack i n them but i n Monica, f o r her  view of them is very much the same: the  she runs from Ralph to  shop, from George and his tragedy back to Ralph. Reggie of 'Mr. and Mrs. Dove" is given no surname  and t h i s stands i n sharp contrast to the name of his loved 9  one, Anne Proctor.  Reggie knows that he has l i t t l e to  .7-  offer Anne —  he was dashed i f he could think of one blessed  thing i n his favour" ( 2 8 6 ) —  and c e r t a i n l y Reggie has no  great strength of body, mind, or finances to offer with his name.  But he i s w i l l i n g to be Mr. Dove, following and hoping  to please Mrs. Dove; this Anne knows and f i n a l l y accepts. In i t s presentation of names, "The Singing Lesson" has a resemblance to "Mr.and Mr. Dove," for both stories are concerned with a couple who are to marry, i n both the man has C h r i s t i a n name only, i n both the man i s obviously a limited person,  Reggie, of course, i s a much kinder and  therefore more a t t r a c t i v e man than B a s i l , but i n neither story does the reader know what the woman's married name w i l l be.  Anne w i l l symbolically be Mrs. Dove i n the cage of the  veranda i n Rhodesia; Miss Meadows, h e r s e l f less complete i n 9 Anne Proctor's surname w i l l be discussed on page /S6 of the section, "Names with Symbolic Meaning."  -  144  -  s e l f and name t h a n A n n e , i s n o t g i v e n e v e n t h a t of  10  indication  the future. T h r e e o f t h e s t o r i e s o f young p e o p l e g i v e no surnames  to  the c h a r a c t e r s :  "The Wind B l o w s , "  "Taking the V e i l . "  "Honeymoon," and  I n each t h e use i s something  t h e same,:  the emphasis i s on t h e p e r s o n a l , i n t i m a t e q u a l i t i e s between t h e couple —  they are the centre of t h e i r  shared world.  B o g e y and M a t i l d a , f i c t i o n a l v e r s i o n s o f Chummie and K a t h e r i n e , would o f course share a surname, b u t a t t h e time caught  t h e y s h a r e , o f b e i n g two a g a i n s t t h e r e s t  of the  F a n n y and G e o r g e a r e n e w l y m a r r i e d ; t h e s h a r e d  is hardly realized delighted  as y e t h u t remains  shy dodging  surname  a t h i n g o f wonder, o f  r a t h e r t h a n o f open acknowledgement.  Fanny m e n t a l l y r e f e r s t o i t as "ever s i n c e they — (401)  lives  i n t h e s t o r y , t h e y a r e most c o n s c i o u s o f t h e p e r s o n a l  similarity world.  i n their  came  abroad."  Much t h e same u s e i s made o f t h e names o f E d n a and  Jimmy i n " T a k i n g t h e V e i l " ; future marriage  t h e y have been c o n t e m p l a t i n g  their  e v e r s i n c e t h e y were t o d d l e r s , and t h e i r  present  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t i l l h a s much o f t h e w o r l d o f c h i l d h o o d a b o u t it.  I n t h e s e t h r e e s t o r i e s t h e o m i s s i o n o f surnames  certainly  i n d i c a t e s , a l a c k o f m a t u r i t y , b u t by t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e s t o r i e s and t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s . t h i s l a c k i s n o t i n i t s e l f  a  fault. The  be s a i d  f o rE l l e n ,  "The L a d y ' s  Maid."  M i s s Meadows' name w i l l be d i s c u s s e d o n page /57bf ' s e c t i o n , "Names w i t h S y m b o l i c M e a n i n g . " x u  the  same c a n n o t  -  14-5 -  The r e l a t i o n s h i p of E l l e n and Harry, the boy she nearly married, was  broken when E l l e n refused to leave her lady.  With that double r e f u s a l E l l e n has doomed herself to a l i f e of being only the lady's maid, of being only " E l l e n " receives orders and carries them out, who care but receives none.  who  gives personal  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Harry i s the only  person i n the story to whom E l l e n gives a name, not a l a b e l ; the personal quality of the C h r i s t i a n name thus stands out amongst "my  grandfather," "my  aunt,"  "Mrs.James, our cook  that was,"  "madam" and, repeatedly, "my  lady."  There i s an interesting reversal of Mansfield's usual use of names i n "Marriage a l a Mode," f o r here a l l the minor characters are given both C h r i s t i a n and family names and Isabel and William alone are given no surname.  To  me, Mansfield's use of names i n this story seems to emphasize the personal intimacy that William and Isabel once shared, that they share no longer.  Meant to have their complementary  part i n each other, to share each other as they share the ungiven surname, William and Isabel are now their r e l a t i o n s h i p .  incomplete  in  He remains William, she Isabel, among  11 the double names, constantly repeated, of Moira Morrison, l-^-An interesting variety of Mansfield's name technique is the derogatory effect she gains by the r e p e t i t i o n of i n i t i a l consonants: the f i l m companies "Beit and Bithems" and"Kig and Kadgit" i n "Pictures," Betty B r i t t l e and Marian Morrow i n "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day," Moira Morrison i n "Marriage a l a Mode," a l l seem held up to r i d i c u l e by the very sound of t h e i r names. Perhaps this i s due to the comic music h a l l connotation of such r e p e t i t i o n ; Mansfield apparently had a considerable repertoire of comic skits and songs.(Alpers,p.I87)  -  146  -  Dennis Green, B i l l Hunt, Bobby Kane. In some stories no C h r i s t i a n name i s given for a main character, and, i n general, this seems to indicate the lack of a personal l i f e .  There are the spinsters whom  the world views i n the formal, impersonal l i g h t summarized by the  "Miss":  Miss Meadows ("The  Singing Lesson") who  w i l l marry B a s i l so as not to become another version of Miss W'yatt, her headmistress,  or of the even more anonymous  Science Mistress; Miss B r i l l , older than Miss Meadows, r e s t r i c t e d to finding her excitement others; Miss Moss("Pictures") who,  through the l i v e s of  though her C h r i s t i a n name  is twice given, i s steadily losing more of her personal s e l f , as she i s losing a l l p o s s i b i l i t y of having  "Miss Ada Moss"  (as she h e r s e l f gives her name) printed on a music program. Her C h r i s t i a n name i s never given by i t s e l f ; that part of her l i f e — friends, who  the time when she must have had family, close called her simply "Ada" —  has long since gone,  the time traced by the story she is further forded away from the personal l i f e :  at the start of the story her landlady  addresses her as "Miss Moss," ( 1 1 9 ) at the end the "very stout gentleman" does not even inquire her name or give his own before asking, "'Well, am I goin' your way, comin' m i n e ? ' " ( 1 2 8 )  or are you  There is the g i r l Rosemary F e l l brings  home f o r "A Cup of Tea."  Rosemary wishes to treat the g i r l  as a toy, as another of her own possessions, and  apparently  -  147  -  does not think of asking the g i r l ' s name or of giving her own u n t i l she must introduce the g i r l to her husband.  Then  the g i r l gives only her surname, and that as "Smith";  she  remains a figure of mystery, of a certain anonymity, more a symbol than a person i n the story. not d i r e c t l y given any name.  "The Young G i r l " i s  Presumably she shares her  mother's married name of "Raddick," and her brother i s called "Hennie,"' but she h e r s e l f is what the t i t l e of the story indicatess the (not a) young g i r l , having a l l the child-woman c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make her age appear i n f u r i a t i n g , amusing, lovely by turn.  Old Mr. Weave of {".An Ideal Family" is never  mentioned without the adjective, never without the formal t i t l e of the business world i n which he has somehow l e f t a l l his personal s e l f , unknowingly s a c r i f i c e d for his ideal family. The rest of the family a l l have C h r i s t i a n names; he alone does not.  He has given his name and a secure s o c i a l p o s i t i o n  to them, they have given him no f e e l i n g of intimacy i n return. There i s some resemblance between old Mr. Neave and old Mr. Woodifield of "The F l y . " He, too, always has the adjective "old"  with h i s name, whether i t i s given as the general  o f f i c e knows him —  "old Mr. Woodifield" -- or, without  t i t l e of address —  "old Woodifield" —  of him.  the  as the boss thinks  This business world has l i t t l e place i n i t for the  personal; i t i s inhabited by old Woodifield, Macy, the boss. "The L i f e of Ma Parker" i s one of a very few Mansfield  148 stories using one name i n several versions as a subtle i n d i c a t i o n of the different worlds i n which every person lives.  (There is something of the same use i n Reggie/  Reginald of "Mr. and Mrs. Dove," already discussed.)  The main  character i s "Ma Parker" to her neighbours and friends, to the people of her own class: the growing Parker brood.  she i s well-known as the mother of She is "Mrs. Parker"' to the doctor  who attends her husband and to the young l i t e r a r y gentleman for whom she chars.  She i s "Gran" to Lennie. To herself  she i s a l l three, the name i n use around her being the.name i n her thoughts at the moment, with "Ma Parker," the name by which she would have been known the longest and by the 12  most people, predominating. Some characters are given no name at a l l but instead are referred to by a phrase which expresses the most important aspect of the character.  The young man f o r whom Ma Parker  chars i s always referred t o as a "gentleman": he i s "the l i t e r a r y gentleman," "the gentleman," gentleman."  "the poor young  This undoubtedly i s h i s view of himself;  Mansfield's own opinion of him she makes clear by giving his attitude to Ma Parker. To the '"literary gentleman" she i s only the "hag" (303)he has i n once a week to clean up. "The T h e name "Ma Parker" i t s e l f i s probably due to the r e a l Ma Parker who did cleaning work f o r Mansfield i n 1 9 1 7 . In a l e t t e r to Murry of Dec.13, 1 9 1 7 , Mansfield wrote: "Ma Parker yesterday went to my heart. She said suddenly: 'Oh, Miss, you do make the work go easy] What could be a sweeter compliment?" (Letters to JMM. p . 9 7 . ) 12  1  -  L i t t l e Governess  11  149  -  i s always r e f e r r e d t o by t h i s f u l l phrase;  i t emphasizes her s i z e , her youth, her p o s i t i o n i n the world, and, as the s t o r y develops, becomes i r o n i c a l i n showing how much the young g i r l h e r s e l f needs guidance and help.  In  "The Lady's Maid" E l l e n always r e f e r s t o her mistress as "my lady":  t h i s i s how the mistress has t r a i n e d E l l e n to  t r e a t her, as a combination r o y a l - s a i n t f i g u r e f o r whom one automatically gives up one's whole personal l i f e .  Indeed,  E l l e n i n her maid's c o l l a r and c u f f s resembles a p a t i e n t nun i n holy s e r v i c e on the V i r g i n Mary, i n t e r c e s s o r w i t h C h r i s t and God. E l l e n ' s lady i n s i s t s on praying f o r a l l her acquaintances every night and when E l l e n t r i e s to persuade her to k n e e l , not on the "hard carpet" ( 3 7 5 ) but on an eiderdown, she gave me such a look — holy i t was, madam. 'Did our Lord have an eiderdown, Ellen?!, she s a i d . ( 3 7 6 ) E l l e n considers her lady "too good, you know, madam" ( 3 7 6 ) for  t h i s wicked world and undoubtedly considers h e r s e l f  fortunate t o have such a s a i n t l y lady f o r her m i s t r e s s . The main character i n "The F l y " i s always and only l a b e l l e d "the boss"; i n t u r n , he never gives a personal name t o h i s dead son, as o l d Woodifield does t o h i s own boy. Surely t h i s i n d i c a t e s a l a c k of personal warmth i n the boss, a q u a l i t y which perhaps he once had, as the boy himself apparently has had, but which the boss has somehow l o s t during the years i n which he has given himself more and more  -  150  -  to his business. A few stories have characters who have neither name, t i t l e , nor descriptive phrase attached to them; the pronoun used i n place of any name and indicating as i t does only the sex of the character, sums up what i s most important about the character f o r the purpose of the story.  This is  p a r t i c u l a r l y clear i n "The Escape" and "Psychology," stories concerning a man and a woman i n which the relationship i s most important.  male-female  That, indeed, i s part of  the irony of "Psychology": that amidst a l l the discussion of the psychological novel of the present and the future, the man and woman are s t r i v i n g to ignore the basic needs of their own personalities and are therefore constantly having to fight against the r e s u l t of being "he" and "she" alone together.  The characters of "The Escape" are v i r t u a l types  rather than people, she the nagging wife, he the enduring husband.  As such, perhaps the man's emotional "escape" i s  meant to have the broad significance of the inherent indivi d u a l i t y and therefore of the ultimate freedom of each personality.  Mr. Reginald Peacock i s certainly aware of  the opposite sex; he mentally notes the names of a l l h i s pupils and admirers, even the cleaning woman i s named as "that tiresome Elsa"(145), but his wife i s simply "she," the one female who unaccountably seems to take pleasure i n annoying him.  It i s to something of the same cruel state  -  151  -  of anonymity that i l l n e s s has reduced the wife of "The Man Without a Temperament."  Once she was "Jinnie"; now she  is merely the woman to whom Robert i s t i e d , with whom he shares his surname, from whom he, being the person he i s , cannot free himself. names:  "A D i l l P i c k l e " makes an odd use of  the man remembers at least the woman's C h r i s t i a n  name although at f i r s t he did not even recognize her; the woman never refers to him by name i n word or thought and yet  knows him instantly, knows.even the length of time that  has passed since she saw him lasts An then, after s i x years, she saw him a g a i n . ( 1 6 7 ) This i n i t s e l f seems a pertinent summing up of the odd h a l f - r e l a t i o n s h i p they have had i n the past and i n the story b r i e f l y renew; the loneliness of each has had more importance than the personal q u a l i t i e s of either. "The Canary" contains no true names at a l l , only the woman's own reference to herself as "Missus," to her washerwoman's c a l l i n g her "Miss" (431).  Since the story i s  told i n the f i r s t person, there is l i t t l e need to name the narrator, but surely i t i s unusual that the woman has apparently given no name to the l i t t l e bird which has been the centre of her l i f e . life  There i s a t e r r i f y i n g lack of personal  i n the "Missus," a lack which seems to be reflected i n  the omission of any name f o r her pet.  She has loved flowers,  then the evening star, f i n a l l y her canary.  This r e s t r i c t e d  -  152  -  search f o r a loved one suggests the starved q u a l i t y of a p r i s o n e r , yet the "Missus" Is surrounded by people, takes i n lodgers, i s apparently emotionally close enough t o someone to make the r e v e l a t i o n s of the story p o s s i b l e .  Hers seems a  very empty existence, yet p o s s i b l y her s t o r y i s meant t o have the  wider meaning of the t r u e existence of "Everyman", of  each one being t r u l y and f i n a l l y alone. The t i t l e of "The Stranger" touches on the very centre of the s t o r y , the very heart of the problem between Janey and John.  Though Janey most c e r t a i n l y knows the man's  name, she never gives i t and therefore f o r the reader of the story as f o r John himself the young man remains ominously and impersonally part of an experience we do not share. Janey, he i s simply the "'poor f e l l o w , ' " who "'died i n my the  arms.'"(362)  "'Quite young,'"  To John he i s THE stranger,  embodiment of a l l who have of Janey something he wishes  concentrated s o l e l y on h i m s e l f . the  To.  R e v e a l i n g l y , the people on  boat remain nameless i n the s t o r y , and the Hammond  c h i l d r e n a l s o remain a group q u a n t i t y , another body of people who " ' w i l l have  Janey  soon enough. "  i l  (358)  John,  caught between the people on the ship who have had her company, her h e l p , her care, and the c h i l d r e n at home who w i l l soon claim her and who have sent on a reminder of t h i s i n t h e i r l e t t e r s , i s t r y i n g to seize a few hours of a l l Janey.  I n between comes The Stranger: representative of  -  153  -  the children, f o r he seems to be about the age of the oldest daughter whom Janey has been v i s i t i n g ; part of the world of the ship from which John has been excluded.  The Stranger  receives from Janey what John so desperately wants for himself: to be treated, at least for a moment, as a kind of child-lover, to l i e i n Janey's arms and receive a l l of her care.  From t h i s there i s also the ominous but  Mansfield hint that i t is Janey and John who  typical  are the r e a l  strangers; otherwise this kind of incident, this kind of stranger, could never come between them.  Names With Symbolic Meaning There i s considerable  symbolism associated with many  of the names already discussed but as well there are some names which seem to have a more d i r e c t l y symbolic function. This is obviously true of Mr. Reginald Peacock. Peacocks are most noted for t h e i r vanity, and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y true of the music teacher: Vanity, that bright b i r d , l i f t e d i t s wings again, l i f t e d them u n t i l he f e l t his breast would break. (148) Mansfield makes no d i r e c t comment on the man's a b i l i t y as an a r t i s t , but there is c e r t a i n l y an i n d i c a t i o n i n his very name:  the wings of the peacock are as useless for f l i g h t  as i s the harsh, strident voice for singing. Although a vastly superior piece of work, "Je ne  -  154  -  P a r l e " contains i n Mouse an example of name symbolism as d e l i b e r a t e l y obvious as that i n the above s t o r y .  Mouse  c a r r i e s "out the mouse i d e a " (80) even i n her c l o t h e s , dressing i n grey w i t h grey f u r around her dark cloak, c a r r y i n g a grey fur muff that she strokes as one would a small pet.  She i s  t i n y , t i m i d , nearly h e l p l e s s i n a strange place; instead of the p r o t e c t i o n of her Englishman, she i s l e f t to the mercies of the i n t r i g u e d "fox t e r r i e r , " Raoul Duquette —  and  13 t e r r i e r s are noted f o r t h e i r " r a t t i n g " q u a l i t i e s . S e v e r a l s t o r i e s contain names suggesting  various  p l a n t s and generally there seems to be a symbolic i n t e n t i o n i n these names.  Rosemary ("A Cup of Tea")  bears the name of  an herb, that i s , of a trimming, a s p i c e , of something not essential i n i t s e l f ;  Rosemary h e r s e l f i s a shallow,  self-  centered p e r s o n a l i t y , i n t r i g u e d with the s o c i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n of a r t i s t s , showing no c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y or personal warmth herself.  Rosemary's name may  a l s o have a reference  to  Ophelia's "There's rosemary, that's f o r remembrance —  pray  you, l o v e , r e m e m b e r R o s e m a r y w i l l not d e l i b e r a t e l y •^Mansfield s e v e r a l times r e f e r r e d to h e r s e l f as "Mouse" i n her l e t t e r s , thus i n d i c a t i n g the personal symbolism of the s t o r y . She signs a l e t t e r to Murry of No.7, 19.19, with "Think of me as your own Mouse." ( L e t t e r s to JMM. p.377) The next day, r e f e r r i n g to L.M.'s l e a v i n g , she w r i t e s , "Then I t u r n i n t o a r e a l Mouse and make as t i n y a noise as p o s s i b l e " , (p.378) Later that month, she pleads f o r a "M0USEH0LD FOR MOUSE," (p.410) and a few days l a t e r ends a l e t t e r with "Now with a groan and a f l i c k of a disconsolate paw I ' l l run away again. I ' l l come back and nibble a l e t t e r and then t a l k . . . . . Your deadly d u l l Mouse." (p.416)  -  155  -  remember the incident of the Smith g i r l , but she may have cause i n the future to remember her husband's reaction to the to  girl.  There seems something of the same double meaning  the name of Basil("The Singing Lesson"), f o r i t i s clear  that the man who here bears the name i s much more the man who w i l l marry Miss Meadows rather than the person whom she deeply loves; B a s i l i s e s s e n t i a l only i n what he w i l l add to her l i f e , not for himself. There i s the additional grim p o s s i b i l i t y cf name reference i n the old superstition that  14  b a s i l had the power of generating scorpions, and  indeed  "The Singing Lesson" shows B a s i l as capable of i n f l i c t i n g vicious hurt upon Miss Meadows.  Miss Moss ("Pictures")  has a sturdy quality of her own, able to thrive on very' l i t t l e , green i n the sense of lacking experience i n the harshest areas of l i f e . the  She appears i n sharp contrast to  vigorous, coniferous quality of her landlady, Minne Pine;  Mrs. Pine is' firmly rooted i n putting on the market an essential commodity, lodging, and has no h e s i t a t i o n i n ridding herself of a non-paying occupant.  Old Mr.Woodifield  ("The Fly") shares something of t h i s strength with Minnie Pine; he i s exactly what h i s name suggests —  a solidly  14-According to the Chambers Encyclopaedia, i t was believed that b a s i l not only has the power of generating scorpions but can do so "even i n a man's head," t h r i v i n g on the brains of men. Certainly Basil's cruelty to Miss Meadows i s mental cruelty, i n f l i c t e d by B a s i l ' s mind and suffered i n Miss Meadows' despairing thoughts. (v.II , London, 1 9 5 9 , P. 149) r  -  156  -  English gentleman who has grown old, s t i l l English and vigorous enough to object to "foreigners" trying to trade on good old B r i t i s h f e e l i n g s . As well as the names discussed above, there are a number of instances of names having a symbolic function through the actual d e f i n i t i o n of the name.  There i s Colonel  Proctor i n "Mr. and Mrs. Dove"; he never appears i n person but the combination of army t i t l e and university suggested  official  by his name gives a picture of a very authoritative  man, of a father who may have much i n common with Reggie's mater and who may himself be a major reason why Anne i s w i l l i n g to leave home, to be a Mrs. Dove f o r Reggie. Certainly the name "Proctor" i s used only once i n the story and that to identify Anne's father; the name i s never used i n r e l a t i o n to Anne h e r s e l f .  That other Colonel ("The Daughters of the  Late Colonel") has surely been given h i s name to underline the dominant nature of his character:  Colonel Pinner has  indeed been one who used his authority to p i n down h i s whole family;  Con and Jug, C y r i l , possibly even Benny who i s  following h i s father's c o l o n i a l career, a l l show the effects of the s t a t i c l i f e they have l e d .  Rosemary and P h i l i p F e l l  i n "A Cup of Tea" have names which can be read as sentences. Certainly Rosemary " f a l l s " very easily for expensive  articles  i n expensive shops and c e r t a i n l y she " f a l l s " for the poor young g i r l i n much the same way, not r e a l i z i n g the emotional  -  157  -  p r i c e she h e r s e l f may  have t o pay f o r the i n c i d e n t . Rosemary's  husband has  " f a l l e n " for his " l i t t l e wasteful  one"  certainly  (416), and Rosemary suddenly r e a l i z e s that he could  possibly  " f a l l " f o r another woman:  (415) when he saw the Smith g i r l . . name once b e f o r e , used in  he was  "'bowled over'"  M a n s f i e l d had used  the  i t f o r the predatory s o c i e t y woman  "Mr. ReginaU Peacock s 1  Day" and a g a i n used  p o s s i b i l i t y of the name a c t i n g as a v e r b : very t h o r o u g h l y f o r Peacock.  i t w i t h the  Aenone  "fell"  I n both these s t o r i e s the  name " F e l l " can a l s o be taken w i t h i t s other d i c t i o n a r y meaning, as something  c r u e l , deadly, f o r the c h a r a c t e r s v/ho  bear the name show l i t t l e  evidence of genuine warmth or  sympathy and appear as thoroughly s e l f - c e n t e r e d . of  two  of Mr. Peacock's  The names  female music p u p i l s give an  indica-  t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s of these women whom Reginald f i n d s e q u a l l y "charming":  Miss B e t t y B r i t t l e , shallow, e a s i l y  hurt and e a s i l y cheered;  Miss Marian Morrow, ready to have her  "unbearable" moods q u i c k l y changed from day t o day, from to  hour. Two  hour  of the minor c h a r a c t e r s i n "Marriage a l a  Mode" a l s o have names of t h i s type:  B i l l Hunt, the p a i n t e r ,  on the hunt f o r someone t o keep him w h i l e he p a i n t s over l i f e - s i z e d f i g u r e s with very wobbly l e g s ;  Dennis  Green,  the w r i t e r , green i n the sense of immaturity, saying he give W i l l i a m ' s l e t t e r book.  "'a whole chapter "'(320) i n h i s  will  new  I t i s the same kind of a r t y set whose members are  -  158  s a t i r i c a l l y named i n " B l i s s " :  -  the Norman Knights, carrying  the double name of the mighty fighting conquerors of England, now reduced to t i l t i n g over plays called "Love i n False Teeth" and to decorating rooms i n f r i e d - f i s h schemes "'with the backs of the chairs shaped l i k e frying-pans and lovely chip potatoes embroidered  a l l over the curtains.'"  (103)  Eddie Tsfarren, as well as being c h i l d i s h , i s r a b b i t - l i k e , pale, wearing white socks and "an immense white s i l k s c a r f " (98), given to much exaggerated t i m i d i t y .  Perhaps h i s  C h r i s t i a n name indicates not only the c h i l d i s h quality of the diminutive but also describes the man as an eddy, out of the main stream of l i f e , turning endlessly on h i s own centre.  The Youngs themselves are certainly young;  comparatively young i n years — apparently about the same age —  15 they are immature.  Bertha  Bertha i s t h i r t y , Harry but, f a r more important,  ' i s given to s c h o o l g i r l crushes  on more mature women ("she always did f a l l i n love with b e a u t i f u l women who had something strange about them"), Harry must make of "everything" (90) a test of his power and his courage, and i t i s of course this immaturity i n both hesitate to suggest the etymological meaning of names as important i n Mansfield, but there is an example i n " B l i s s " which seems to be unique. According to The Oxford Dictionary of English C h r i s t i a n Names "Bertha" means "bright." The story begins with Bertha feeling "as though you'd suddenly swallowed a bright piece of that late afternoon sun and i t burned i n your bosom, sending out a l i t t l e shower of sparks into every p a r t i c l e , into every finger and toe..." (91-92) Bertha answers Eddie "brightly"(98) when he a r r i v e s . She sees herself i n the mirror as "radiant;"(92) she piles the f r u i t into pyramids of "bright round shapes."(93) The touch of Miss Fulton's cool arm "could fan — fan — start blazing — blazing — the f i r e of b l i s s "(99) If Mansfield did not choose the name f o r this meaning, at least the meaning f i t s the imagery and language of the story.  -  159  -  the Youngs which leads to Harry's disastrous relationship with Miss Fulton.  Miss  Fulton's C h r i s t i a n name of "Pearl"  seems to carry several symbolic connotations:  the name i s  used i r o n i c a l l y since the pearl has traditionally denoted purity; i t seems to be part of the moon imagery associated with Miss Fulton since a pearl, l i k e the moon, i s round and opaquely white; i t may also refer to the construction of a pearl, many layers of beauty around a grain of d i r t , as Miss Fulton's body i s a b e a u t i f u l l y cared f o r s h e l l containing a s e l f i s h and corrupt s p i r i t .  Miss Meadows ("The Singing  Lesson") bears a name that suggests green grass lands; the greenfess of emotional immaturity Miss Meadows shows. She has been naturally crushed by Basil's cruel l e t t e r , but a l l too e a s i l y she mounts rapidly "On the wings of hope, of love, of joy" ( 3 4 9 ) when she receives B a s i l ' s b r i e f and largely impersonal telegram. surnames of Raoul Duquette  The l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the  ("Je ne Parle pas Francais") and  the Herr Regierungsrat("The L i t t l e Governess") seem to sum up important aspects of the characters. "Of the quest or c o l l e c t i o n " i s certainly an apt description of Duquette who makes no secret of h i s seeking out people f o r use as l i t e r a r y types, of h i s delighting i n seeing h i s fellows as objects i n nicely labelled scenes.  HerrRegierungsrat bears a name  embodying the German verb "regieren," "to govern," and undoubtedly i t i s the Herr's s o l i d l y respectable appearance  -  160  -  and t i t l e which make the conquest of the l i t t l e governess so easy f o r him to accomplish: He took out h i s pocket-book and handed her a card. "Herr Regierungsrat...' He had a t i t l e I Well, i t was bound to be a l l right I (184) In  "Pictures" Mansfield extends her use of name  symbolism beyond her three main characters and s a t i r i c a l l y (and  u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y ) names the f i l m companies to which Miss  Moss applies.  The l e t t e r the landlady brings to Miss Moss  is from the Backwash Film Co.; we need no other i n d i c a t i o n that the company i s a f a i l u r e and l i t t l e apt to need new employees.  The last company to which Miss Moss applies i s  the  B i t t e r Orange Company and i t i s here that Miss Moss receives  the  most discourteous r e f u s a l :  a rude g i r l at a t i c k e t - o f f i c e  window slaps down a form f o r Miss Moss to f i l l out, a form asking f o r s k i l l s very f a r from contralto singing.  What should  be sweet l i k e an orange (the chance to use her good t r a i n i n g to earn a good l i v i n g ) i s b i t t e r (not only r e f u s a l but discourteously administered humiliation).  From the B i t t e r  Orange Miss Moss can only go to the Cafe'' de Madrid with i t s very name r e f l e c t i n g the garish i n t e r i o r and sordid adventure Miss Moss finds within i t .  Family Names It has long been recognized that the f i c t i t i o u s Burnell  161 family of "Prelude,"  -  "At the Bay," and "The Doll's House"  is based on Mansfield's own New Zealand family.  Alpers  appears to be the f i r s t to attempt to relate the names of the Burnell family to t h e i r r e a l - l i f e o r i g i n s , to trace  16 what he c a l l s Mansfield's "systematic use of r e a l names." As I find no reason to disagree with Alpers, the following paragraph w i l l be a summary of his conclusions on pages  217-218. The Burnell stories contain names which are v i r t u a l anagrams of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The f i c t i o n a l family name of  "Burnell" i t s e l f was the r e a l - l i f e name of Annie Dyer's grandmother, great-grandmother to Katherine Mansfield. Her own beloved grandmother, Mrs. Dyer, seems to be brought closer to Katherine by being given the f i c t i o n a l name of "Mrs. F a i r f i e l d , " anglicized.  Katherine's own name of "Beauchamp"  Katherine's father, Harold, i s given the C h r i s t i a n  name of "Stanley," the maiden name of h i s own mother.  Katherine"s  s i s t e r Vera becomes '"Isabel," the r e a l name of the aunt who appears i n the s t o r i e s as "Aunt Beryl"; Katherine's s i s t e r Charlotte i s now known as " L o t t i e " rather than as the "Chaddie" she was actually c a l l e d , and Katherine changes her own childhood name of "Kass" to "Kezia."  Their uncle,  Valentine Waters, becomes "Jonathan Trout": the rhythm of the C h r i s t i a n name i s kept and "Waters" could certainly Alpers, p. 219  -  suggest  17  "Trout."  162  -  Pat, the Burnell handyman, and A l i c e ,  the serving g i r l , keep their names unchanged from r e a l  life.  It was a Mrs. Heywood who sent the d o l l ' s house to the Beauchamp g i r l s ; i n "The Doll's House" i t i s "dear old Mrs. Hay."  The r e a l l i t t l e Kelveysswere indeed children of a  washerwoman; her name was McKelvey and her husband was present, although i n s i g n i f i c a n t .  The o r i g i n a l of "Mrs. Samuel Josephs"  of "Prelude" and "At the Bay" was Mrs. Walter Nathan, whose father was Joseph Joseph; the r e p e t i t i o n of the name probably induced the plural-sounding name of "Josephs" i n the s t o r i e s . I suspect there i s an a d d i t i o n a l cross-reference i n the name that Alpers has not noticed, f o r , i n the Old Testament, Nathan is the prophet who succeeds Samuel and indeed i s the spokesman of God i n the book of Second Samuel.  It seems possible  that t h i s B i b l i c a l connection between Nathan and Samuel could have made Mansfield give her f i c t i o n a l version of Mrs. Walter Nathan the name of "Mrs. Samuel Josephs."  I also  wonder about the name given t o the woman who i n l i f e was Mansfield's Aunt Belles  she becomes "Aunt B e r y l . "  Alpers  mentions that Mansfield's paternal great-grandmother Stone was  one of a family of lovely g i r l s who were known as "the 18  Six Precious S,tones"  but suggests no connection with  'Although Alpers suggests another p o s s i b i l i t y . A great-aunt of the Dyer s i s t e r s , a Miss Burnell of Plymouth, married a Baptist missionary, a Brother Thomas Trowt. Alpers, p. 2 3 .  -  163  -  Beryl's own name which i s that of.a gem.  It seems possible  that t h i s fragment of family history was the creative germ of the name "Beryl" given i n Mansfield's f i c t i o n to a lovely young g i r l . I have found no c r i t i c a l discussion of the names i n the two stories of the Sheridan family, "The Garden Party" and "Her F i r s t B a l l . "  C e r t a i n l y the names are not as  c l e a r l y labelled from Mansfield's own family c i r c l e as the names discussed above, but there are s t i l l some resemblances. For "Sheridan" i t s e l f I can f i n d no reference, although with the comparatively  small body of material available on  19 Mansfield's own New Zealand base i n r e a l i t y .  l i f e , the name may well have a  In "The Garden Party" i t s e l f the name  seems to have one main purpose: to indicate that the prejudice shown i n the story i s one purely of class, not of race as well, for the family of the dead man  are named "Scott,"  c l e a r l y of the same B r i t i s h background as the Sheridans. The C h r i s t i a n names of the Sheridan children do have some possible reference to facts and names from Mansfield's life.  One  own  of Annie Beauchamp's best friends was Laura Kate  Bright; she was  godmother to Annie's children and a l i t t l e 20  over a year after Annie's death became Harold's second wife. •^The main sources for details of Mansfield's early l i f e are Alpers and Berkman. Their works are, of course, p a r t i a l l y based on the e a r l i e r L i f e of Katherine Mansfield by Mantz and Murry. 2 0  pp.  S i r Harold Beauchamp, Reminiscences,  306-307.  quoted Alpers  -  164  -  A y e a r and a h a l f a f t e r t h i s second m a r r i a g e , M a n s f i e l d wrote  "The Garden P a r t y " ; i t thus seems p o s s i b l e t h a t h e r  naming o f h e r s t o r y ' s h e r o i n e and most s y m p a t h e t i c c h a r a c t e r was meant as b o t h a compliment  and a s i g n o f  acceptance o f h e r godmother i n t o t h e c l o s e r f a m i l y t i e . The naming o f " L a u r i e " i s p r o b a b l y an attempt t o emphasize t h e a f f e c t i o n o f the boy f o r h i s one s i s t e r above o t h e r s , to  i n d i c a t e t h e k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between L a u r i e and L a u r a  t h a t M a n s f i e l d f e l t she had had w i t h Bogey; p o s s i b l y L a u r a and L a u r i e a r e meant t o be t w i n s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e o n l y the i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r names and o f t h e i r o b v i o u s c l o s e n e s s for  this.  The f i r s t  g i r l i n t h e Beauchamp f a m i l y was V e r a  M a r g a r e t ; one o f t h e g i r l s i n the S h e r i d a n f a m i l y i s c a l l e d "Meg," and, i f she i s not t h e o l d e s t , c e r t a i n l y she i s the f a m i l y ' s automatic f i r s t  c h o i c e t o go and s u p e r v i s e t h e  men p u t t i n g up the marquee f o r t h e garden p a r t y . g i r l i n the Beauchamp f a m i l y was c a l l e d  The second  " C h a r l o t t e , " the  f e m i n i n e form o f a m a s c u l i n e name, and i t was shortened t o the s e x l e s s nickname o f "Chaddie"; t h i s seems t o p a r a l l e l the naming o f " J o s e " i n the s t o r y , f o r the name i t s e l f i s 21  s u r e l y a nickname f o r " J o s e p h i n e . "  "Her F i r s t B a l l " adds  the c h a r a c t e r " L e i l a " t o t h e f a m i l y , f o r she i s t h e Sheridan's cousin.  I can f i n d no r e f e r e n c e t o h e r name,  ^The fragment "By M o o n l i g h t " i n t h e Scrapbook seems t o be a f i r s t d r a f t of"'"The Garden P a r t y . " Meg, L a u r a , and L a u r i e have t h e i r f i n a l names b u t Jose i s r e p l a c e d by " F r a n c i e , " a g a i n i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h i s S h e r i d a n daughter bears the f e m i n i n e form o f a m a s c u l i n e name. 2  -  165 -  although again I have too l i t t l e evidence  to say the name  does not have a basis i n Mansfield's own l i f e .  The g i r l  herself is siown as a country-cousin version of Laura, kindhearted, sensitive, as yet very immature through lack of any harsh contacts with l i f e . mirror Laura's:  Perhaps her name i s meant to  the same f i r s t and f i n a l l e t t e r s , the same  length and the same rhythm of pronunciation. The family name reference i n "The Voyage" i s more subtle.  A crane i s of the same zoological family as a heron;  therefore, the Cranes i n the story are Herons, are not only of Mansfield's family but belong to her own v i s i o n of a l l that meant love and s e c u r i t y . The Cranes themselves also unite the two sides of Mansfield's family, the grandfather based on her paternal grandfather, the grandmother on her mother's mother, on the loving woman who gave the shelter of her arms to the l i t t l e Kass.  Fenella's name seems to  have been created for i t s unusual yet old-fashioned sound, q u a l i t i e s which certainly suit the c h i l d ; the name may owe something to that of Miss Clara Fenessa Wood, the proprietor of the Harley Street boarding house where Mansfield l i v e d during her Queen's College days. story are s k i l l f u l l y  The other names i n the  used to indicate the old world  correctness of the grandmother.  She has made the boat t r i p  many times and the stewardess knows her and her name very  -  166  -  well, but Mrs. Crane apparently does not know the stewardess's name — the  i t would not occur to her to inquire.  She w i l l t e l l  woman of the sad event which has happened i n the Crane  family, and indeed i t seems that the stewardess already knows enough of the family history to'be prepared for i t ; Mrs. Crane w i l l t e l l Fenella to leave her "'nice Banana'" for  the stewardess, b u t . i t would not be proper for her to  assume the f a m i l i a r i t y of addressing the stewardess by name. In the same way the old man who has come to meet Mrs.Crane and Fenella i s "Mr. Penready" and h i s wife baked some scones for  "Mr. Crane" last week.  These people belong to a time  when formality did not mean coldness but could express mutual respect and l i k i n g . In t h i s chapter I have attempted to summarize Mansfield's use of names i n the stories of her mature writing period.  It  is a use that seems one of her most consistent techniques i n revealing the people of her f i c t i o n a l world. f i e l d could sum up a character:  By names Mans-  Mr.Reginald Peacock, the  proud bird of vanity; the Norman Knights, a r t i f i c i a l masks of the pseudo avant-garde; Duquette, the ceaseless questing beast.  She could point out the subtle q u a l i t i e s of a  relationship:  "The Man Without a Temperament" and his wife,  once Jinnie, now merely "she"; Vera ("A D i l l Pickle") and the man she has not seen for s i x years; E l l e n , doomed by forces beyond her control or understanding, to be "The Lady's Maid."  -  167  She could underline important aspects of a character that we know but might otherwise underestimates  the pathetic  irony of "The L i t t l e Governess"; the t o t a l business t i o n of the boss("The F l y " ) ; the reduced  absorp-  g e n t i l i t y of "Miss  Brill." For the characters of the New Zealand  stories,  Mansfield seems deliberately t o have, moved half-way to r e a l i t y , to attempt to make permanent, not the world, but the essence of her childhood, and her choice of names f o r the New Zealand characters mirrors the attempt.  We cannot  say that l i t t l e Kathleen Beauchamp ever invited two of the McKelvey g i r l s to see the g i f t of Mrs. Heywood, but we know from "The Doll's House" that Mansfield's memory of her New Zealand childhood was not u n c r i t i c a l , that she pictured h e r s e l f as the small, determined  rebel.  We cannot  say that Harold Beauchamp ever brought home g i f t s of bottled oysters and fresh pineapples for Mansfield's mother, but we have the evidence of the names themselves to allow us to f e e l that the Stanley-Linda relationship was the kind CL mature Mansfield believed had existed between her parents. The New Zealand stories have long been considered Mansfield's highest l i t e r a r y achievement; they are also important f o r what they reveal of Mansfield h e r s e l f , of her deliberately used memories of her own family. In no way i s Mansfield's use of names unusual or  -  168  -  unique: counterparts can be found i n English l i t e r a t u r e both before and after her.  Yet, as with her other uses  of short story techniques, Mansfield achieved a blend which i s both her own and v i t a l to the t o t a l i t y of her work.  It i s indeed strange that her use of names has  attracted so l i t t l e attention from her admirers and  critics.  CHAPTER  V  SYMBOLISM  I now come to the fourth and l a s t of Mansfield's major techniques, her use of symbolism.  That Mansfield  made extensive use of symbolism has long been re'cognized, and, indeed, i n many stories the symbolism i t s e l f i s obvious.  But, as J.Middleton Murry observed,  "It i s curious  how l i t t l e good c r i t i c i s m of Katherine Mansfield's stories  1 has been written,"  and this c r i t i c a l hiatus extends even  to the seemingly natural subject of Mansfield's use of symbolism.  Moreover, much of the l i t t l e c r i t i c a l work i s  concerned with a few i n d i v i d u a l s t o r i e s ; few c r i t i c s have suggested  any o v e r a l l pattern or meaning to Mansfield's  symbolism. Wagenknecht i n h i s 1928 a r t i c l e wrote that  2 Mansfield's "symbolism i s s k i l l f u l l but not extensive" made no further comment on the subject.  and  Arthur Sewell i n  Katherine Mansfield: A C r i t i c a l Essay makes but this passing mention of the obvious: that Miss B r i l l ' s f u r "becomes a symbol, i f you l i k e , giving substance to the old lady's 3  dreams."  Baker devotes some sixteen pages i n The History  of  the English Hovel to Mansfield (he gives but ten pages ^Murry, Katherine Mansfield and Other Literary P o r t r a i t s , p.7. 2  Wagenknecht, p. 280.  ^Sewell, p. 26.  - 169  -  170  -  more to Galsworthy), yet, strangely, Baker does not once mention Mansfield's use of symbolism.  F r i i s , i n her b r i e f  discussion of Mansfield's technique, states: An important f a c t o r i n Katherine Mansfield's technique i s her use of symbolism 4  but F r i i s then merely l i s t s ,  rather than discusses, some  of the more obvious symbols, as i n the following passage: In " B l i s s " the flowering pear-tree is the outward symbol of the inward emotional state of Bertha. In "The Wind Blows" the wind is symbolic of the s p i r i t of unrest i n the mind of the g i r l , Matilda And, in "The Escape," the state of t r a n q u i l i t y for which the man is yearning i s symbolized by a tree.5 Alpers' Katherine Mansfield i s , of course a biography; i t contains no extensive treatment  of technique.  Gordon's  Writers and Their Work pamphlet on Mansfield has neither general discussion nor s p e c i f i c examples of her symbolism; indeed, Gordon's Fly"  only comment on the subject i s that  is " f u l l " of personal symbolism that Mansfield  "The "may  6  not h e r s e l f have recognized."  Celeste Turner Wright has  named "Darkness as a Symbol i n Katherine Mansfield" and c l e a r l y states i n the opening of her a r t i c l e that "The power of Katherine Mansfield's short stories resides partly 7  in symbols." 4  However, Wright then does l i t t l e more than  F r i i s , p.  137.  ^Ibid., pp. 1 3 7 - 1 3 8 . ^Gordon, p. 17 ^Wright, "Darkness as a Symbol i n Katherine Mansfield," p.  204.  -  171  -  c i t e some of the examples of darkness i n Mansfield's autobiographical and f i c t i o n a l work without suggesting more than the obvious surface meaning for the examples. Berkman, i n her 1951 study, i s the only c r i t i c I have read who attempts to give both general statement and s p e c i f i c example of Mansfield's use of symbolism.  Berkman  believes that Mansfield's view of the world is of a "ruined Eden," a "scheme of things" with which the large symbols Miss Mansfield uses — the b i r d , the tree, the insect — accord perfectly.° Berkman then l i s t s several examples of each, but she confuses her point by r e - l i s t i n g some of the examples three pages l a t e r under "lesser symbols";  these she says Mansfield  generally employs s k i l l f u l l y , so that they form an i n t r i n s i c element of a story and carry t h e i r symbolic and thematic significance at the same time.9 Because of this slight confusion and because of the brevity of Berkman's treatment of the subject, her discussion does l i t t l e more than indicate some interesting aspects of Mansfield's symbolism.  However, in-the s c a r c i t y of good  c r i t i c a l material available, Berkman's account is useful and I w i l l be referring to i t again i n my discussion of the individual stories. °Berkman, p. 1 9 2 . 9  l b i d . , p. 1 9 5 -  -  172  -  I find the chapter Daiches gives to Mansfield i n The Novel and the Modern World more perceptive, f o r , while the chapter i s not i t s e l f concerned with symbolism, Daiches c l e a r l y recognizes the basis of Mansfield's  technique.  He mentions her " s e n s i t i v i t y " and then explains what he means by the terms What i s this s e n s i t i v i t y that Katherine Mansfield cultivated so d e l i b e r a t e l y , to the point where i t tended to defeat i t s e l f ? It i s simply an a b i l i t y to see as symbols objects which to others are not symbols at a l l or are symbols of more obvious things If by our way of writing we can persuade others to see as we see, to view as a subtle symbol what they otherwise would regard merely as a stray f a c t , our l i t e r a r y work -is sensitive, as Katherine Mansfield's i s s e n s i t i v e . 1 0  A few pages l a t e r Daiches describes Mansfield's method of writing as working "out" by means of symbols rather than " i n " by means of plot: She preferred to approach human a c t i v i t y from the very limited single s i t u a t i o n and work "out," setting going overtones and implications by means of her manipulation of symbols, rather than to start from some general view and work "In" by means of i l l u s t r a t i v e f a b l e . 1 1  Objects that are not symbols to others or that seem symbols only of more obvious things; symbols that are subtly at the centre of the story;  this seems to express the heart of  Mansfield's use of symbolism.  Daiches, p. 7 3 * Ibid., p. 7 5 .  -  173  -  Daiches' observations a l s o serve to point out the importance of Mansfield's symbolism, and indeed there are few s t o r i e s of hers i n which symbolism i s not a major technique. In any n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d d i s c u s s i o n , the problem becomes one of s e l e c t i o n , f o r i n Mansfield's work there are many passing uses of what can indeed be c a l l e d symbols although they are not fundamental t o the s t o r y .  F r i i s , f o r instance,  notes Mansfield's "habit of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g her persons by a 12 symbolic gesture" and l i s t s such examples as In "Prelude" the impatience of B e r y l i s denoted by her gesture of b i t i n g her l i p In "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s , " Mouse's gesture of s t r o k i n g her muff denotes embarrassment, i t i s a gesture -> which we f i n d again i n "A D i l l P i c k l e . " J  S;urely i n such passages Mansfield i s doing no more than any capable author i n g i v i n g appropriate gestures to her c h a r a c t e r s , gestures a i d i n g the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n but. not more symbolic than i s every speech, thought, or a c t i o n of the characters. Berkman speaks of Mansfield's use of d e t a i l t o gain an " e x t e r n a l l z a t i o n of f e e l i n g by a s s o c i a t i n g i t with some 14 f i t t i n g concrete c o r r e l a t i v e , " with the associated object playing "a n a t u r a l part on the whole, hovering between  15  f u n c t i o n a l d e t a i l and symbol." F r i i s , p. •^Loc.cit. 1 2  14 Berkman, p. 1  ^ I b i d . . p.  140.  174. 175.  y  Berkman gives such examples  -  as Mouse's l i t t l e  174  grey muff ("Je ne P a r l e pas  Francais"),  Vera's glove ("A D i l l P i c k l e " ) , , Robert S,alesby's r i n g Man  Without  a Temperament"), and  ("The  c e r t a i n l y these o b j e c t s  are used t o add t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and may be symbols of t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d owners.  be s a i d t o  Yet these o b j e c t s  are not c e n t r a l t o the meaning of the c h a r a c t e r s or t o the s t o r i e s , are but s u b s i d i a r y t o the main core of the  stories'  meaning. It concerned  i s major r e c u r r e n t symbols w i t h which I w i l l i n t h i s chapter.  M a n s f i e l d ' s use  I w i l l attempt  be  to outline  of symbols which are v i t a l t o the very core  of the s t o r i e s , which i n themselves  convey much of the e f f e c t  "out" ( i n Daiches' phrase) t o the reader and which, i n themselves, to  life.  express something  of M a n s f i e l d ' s own  attitude  I f i n d f i v e types of such r e c u r r e n t symbolss  animal, p l a n t , communion, and  The  wings,  travel.  Symbol of Wings  Berkman s t a t e s that the "'bird-wing'" image i s 16 "Predominant above a l l o t h e r s " but makes no mention of what I b e l i e v e may  w e l l have been M a n s f i e l d ' s emotional  s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s symbol: (originally spelled  the f a m i l y name of "Heron"  "Herron"), g i v e n as a second 17 name t o M a n s f i e l d ' s b r o t h e r , L e s l i e .  Berkman, p.  187  A l p e r s , p. 41  Christian  -  175  -  During her e a r l y w r i t i n g days, M a n s f i e l d b r i e f l y used 18 " L i l i Heron" as a nom d'plume and certainly after Leslie's death she attached the name of "The Heron" t o her dream home, t o the i d y l l i c day own the  spot she i n s i s t e d she and Murry would some 19  i n which a l l was happiness, a r t , and l o v e .  Heron meant t o her i s shown many times i n her  What letters,  i n passages such as the f o l l o w i n g : Our house must be honest and s o l i d l i k e our work e v e r y t h i n g must r i n g l i k e E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l i s h and l i k e those gentlemen?-;I always seem t o be mentioning: 'the P o e t s ' . There i s a l i g h t on them.... which I f e e l i s the b r i g h t s h i n i n g s t a r which must hang i n the sky above the Heron as we d r i v e home.20 Oh, how I do t h i r s t a f t e r the Heron and our l i f e t h e r e . I t must come q u i c k l y . We must s t a r t LOOKING f o r i t ~ spying i t out, buying maps of England and so on and marking l i k e l y spots as soon as I get back. Sundays w i l l be Heron days.21 More unusual and r e v e a l i n g  i s M a n s f i e l d ' s naming o f her own •  damaged lungs her "wings" and so r e f e r r i n g to them i n her letters: I t ' s a l l sunny o u t s i d e and I am bored. A f t e r (the doctor] i s gone I've a mind t o throw away my wings and go o f f f o r a f r i s k . But I w o n ' t .  22  The doctor says I'm b e t t e r . I am indeed, but I must be very c a r e f u l o f t h i s wing. 3 2  l8  1 9  2 0  2  and Murry, p. 2 2 3 -  A l p e r s , p. 2 3 8 . L e t t e r s t o JMM. 1  2 2  2  Mantz  p. 198.  I b i d . , p. 2 0 5 . L e t t e r of D e c . 1 5 , 1 9 1 7 to Murry; L e t t e r s t o JMM.p.100  3 L e t t e r of D e c . 1 7 , 1 9 1 7 t o Murry; I b i d . , p . 1 0 2 .  -  176  -  I have been s t r i c t l y i n bed for days, nearly weeks, with my 14ft water-wing (alias my lung) e n t i r e l y out of action for the time 2 4  the King of the Hanky-Pankies i s coming this morning to electrify me and I hope to have new legs — arms — wings — everything -- i n a week or two. 5 2  So that's my program for the present, quite a s a t i s f a c t o r y one except .that i t prevents me from spreading my wings. " 2  Now I have come to Paris to see a Russian doctor who promises to give me new wings for old, " 2  To Mansfield, i t seemed that i t was her damaged "wing" that kept her from soaring above the sordid, petty d e t a i l s of l i f e , that kept her from having a Heron-home with Murry. In her s t o r i e s , the use of or reference to wings seems to symbolize a kind of emotional freedom, a r i s i n g to heights of peace and happiness.  Ocasionally this  happiness is achieved, most often i t is r e s t r i c t e d by uncontrollable forces of l i f e . Mansfield seems  The deep personal feelings  to have hidden i n the symbol are probably  most c l e a r l y revealed i n "The Voyage" and ^ L e t t e r of Dec.22, 1917, L e t t e r s. I, p. 86. ^ L e t t e r of July 22, 1918, L e t t e r s. I I , p. 209. 2 6  II,  P.  317. 2 7  II,  P.  L e t t e r of Dec.18, 1918 L e t t e r of Jan.31, 1922,  "The Man Without  to Anne E s t e l l e Rice: to Lady Ottoline M o r r e l l ; to Miss F u l l e r t o n ; L e t t e r s , to John Galsworthy; Letters,  -  177  -  a Temperament." "The Voyage" of course uses the wing symbolism i n i t s very naming of the characters, f o r cranes are of the 28 same b i r d f a m i l y as herons.  I t would make l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e  to the p l o t i f i t were F e n e l l a ' s ifather or mother who was the  o l d couple's c h i l d , but by making Fenella's f a t h e r t h e i r  son, Mansfield has created a blood f a m i l y of Cranes, o f Heron people.  What t h i s name meant t o Mansfield she c a r e f u l l y  b u i l d s up i n the d e t a i l s o f the grandparents:  the deep  a f f e c t i o n shown between mother and son and the quiet r e s t r a i n t that breaks only b r i e f l y ; the calm s e c u r i t y of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h that leads the grandmother t o pray as soon as she i s on board but which Is not imposed on the c h i l d ; the gentleness with which suggestions, not orders, are given t o F e n e l l a ; the neatness of the l i t t l e home and yet the tolerance of the grandmother over her husband's wandering bluchers and watering can; the a f f e c t i o n a t e demandoof the o l d man f o r a k i s s from his  granddaughter.  Even the presence of the cat on the table  suggests a home i n which a f f e c t i o n and comfort come before the  demands of excessive c l e a n l i n e s s and order. The symbolism  of the name i s c a r r i e d i n t o the imagery connected with the old  couple:  the  grandfather looks " l i k e a very o l d , wide-awake b i r d . "  (330) IV,  the grandmother  c a r r i e s a swan-headed umbrella,  Though F e n e l l a has l o s t her mother, she s t i l l w i l l be ^°For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , see page i&>C of Chapter "Use of Names".  -  178  -  surrounded by a l l the love and security she needs because she w i l l s t i l l be i n a Heron home. "The Man Without a Temperament" has only two  brief  references to the wing symbol, but these references stand i n sharp contrast, showing something of what Mansfield wanted from l i f e and what she f e l t she was receiving. Throughout the story the young Honeymoon Couple suggest the shared happiness the Salesbys have once known but have now  l o s t ; the Honeymoon Couple are "an i r o n i c p a r a l l e l to  the Salesbys.  At the f i r s t  joined b l i s s i s expressed  entry of the newlyweds their  i n terms of swooping b i r d s :  Their laughing voices charged with excitement beat against the glassed-in verandah l i k e birds (134) and, as the Salesbys leave the dining room, behind them bursts the self-absorbed laughter of the young people: Whirling, tumbling, swooping, the laughter of the Honeymoon Couple dashed against the glass of the verandah. (13 5) This is a state of winged b l i s s that the Salesbys have once known.  Now,  the day over, Robert s i t s alone on the  of the bedroom.  balcony  In the two previous passages i n which the  man has been alone, Mansfield has used flashbacks of the old  l i f e i n London, of the l i f e before Jinnie was known  to be i l l . No?/ there i s no flashback; the image of the 29 le ine, p. 3 0 . K  Love,"  "Katherine Mansfield and the Prisoner of  -  179  -  struggling, broken bird expresses not only Robert's present emotional state i n his helpless role as spectator but also his  wife's physical condition: Far away l i g h t n i n g f l u t t e r s — f l u t t e r s l i k e a wing — f l u t t e r s l i k e a broken bird that t r i e s to f l y and sinks again and again struggles. ( 1 4 2 )  As Kleine has noted, "The 30  position"  figure encompasses Salesby's entire  and also describes the pathetic state of J i n n i e .  Revealing  of Mansfield's  attitude to l i f e , most  uses of the wing symbolism place the emphasis on a lack of f l i g h t , on a r e s t r i c t i o n to some kind of f u l f i l l m e n t expressed by the l i f t i n g "Mr.  of wings.  and Mrs. Dove," "The  This is central to the meaning of Canary," and  of an important scene i n "At the Bay"  "The and  F l y , " and "The  i s part  Daughters of  the Late Colonel." The to "Mr.  symbol of the caged bird i s obviously central  and Mrs.  and bird l o v e r s .  Dove" with i t s p a r a l l e l pairs of human<j The likeness i s pointed out, not only by  the s i t u a t i o n , but by Anne's appearance with her grey eyes and  shoes and white jacket and pearls.  against the first  Reggie proposes  sound of Mr. Dove's soft cooing  and Anne at  refuses him because '  we'd  be l i k e . . . l i k e Mr.  and Mrs.Dove.'  (293)  The doves are caged, confined  30Kleine, p. 3 0 .  to a l i f e of walking up  and  -  180  -  down t h e i r dove house; as Anne s a y s , "'They never do a n y t h i n g e l s e , you k n o w . ' " ( 2 9 1 )  T h i s i s t h e caged l i f e t h a t Reggie  and Anne w i l l a l s o l e a d on the veranda i n R h o d e s i a , c o n f i n e d "by f o r c e s "beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l t o a l i f e w i t h no f l i g h t s of  s o a r i n g h a p p i n e s s , t o . a l i f e o f b e i n g Mr. and Mrs. Dove  -- w i t h Mrs. Dove always i n f r o n t and Mr. Dove always t r y i n g to  please her —  i n a cage.  31 "The Canary" was w r i t t e n l a t e i n M a n s f i e l d ' s  life;  i n i t she seems t o be s t r i v i n g t o express t h e b i t t e r  sweetness  of  life  e x i s t e n c e , t h e need t o be j o y f u l i n t h e cage t h a t  p l a c e s around t h e wings o f t h e s p i r i t .  In the story the  woman i s f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o the b i r d because o f h i s c h e e r fulness, chirping f a i n t l y i n his tiny  cage  instead of f l u t t e r i n g , f l u t t e r i n g , l i k e the poor l i t t l e g o l d f i n c h e s From t h a t moment he was mine. ( 4 2 9 ) In  s p i t e o f h i s cage —  and t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f " M i s s u s "  ever l e t t i n g h i m out o f i t —  he s i n g s e x q u i s i t e l y ,  daily;  the  b i r d seems i n s t i n c t i v e l y t o know t h e beauty as w e l l as  the  p a i n o f l i f e and c a n e x p r e s s b o t h i n h i s song: But i s n ' t i t e x t r a o r d i n a r y t h a t under h i s sweet, j o y f u l l i t t l e s i n g i n g i t was j u s t t h i s — sadness? — Ah, what i s i t ? — t h a t I h e a r d . ( 4 3 2 )  The woman, l i v i n g i n t h e c l o s e d cage o f h e r own l i f e , can h e a r , wonder a t , but n o t f u l l y understand what t h e l i t t l e winged c r e a t u r e knows by i n s t i n c t and e x p r e s s e s i n h i s cage. Murry, i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the J o u r n a l , c a l l s "The Canary" "the l a s t complete s t o r y " M a n s f i e l d wrote and d a t e s i t J u l y , 1922. (p.xiii) J  I n "The that the be  F l y " i t i s of  provides the plot  o f the  insect  as  i s made c l e a r  story there  the  inks  first  the  once  i s no  i t cleans  to f l y again —  the boss drop is the  life  drop,  of emotional  but  business,  not  blot  symbolism of the  and  s o o n now  story.  symbolism s a t i s f a c t o r y ;  32  is  confused"  giver  and  the  to  meaning  of  crushed,  itself  she  until  the  again" then, the  insect  —  (427)  because the  he,  after  be  cat,  does  the f l y  third.  too, w i l l  are  is  So  t o f l y above a l i f e  has  by of  dead.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ' of the f l y -  Berkman does n o t says  from  a minute  r e s t r i c t i o n descended, dark drop ability  of  insect  now  "like  s e c o n d and  own  bird,  O n l y when i t s w i n g s  o f i n k and  T h e r e have b e e n s e v e r a l c r i t i c a l boss  symbolic  of f l i g h t ,  for life  to f l y , the  upon the boss's  nothing  f o r the  f l y begin,  And  "ready  the f i r s t  once more r e a d y  the  i t s wings.  a  the n e c e s s i t i e s  d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s f r e e i n g  c l e a n i t s f a c e . " (427)  ready  i n s e c t , not  reason  capable  a b l e t o expand a g a i n does the to  an  By  a s p i d e r , but  a being by  course  c e n t r a l symbol.  a f l y rather than  the  -  181  that  "the  find  central  b o s s seems t o s t a n d  r e c e i v e r o f blows o f f a t e .  the symbolism  f o r both  Celeste  the  Turner  W r i g h t d i s a g r e e s w i t h Berkman's o p i n i o n and a d v a n c e s t h e t h e o r y t h a t the f l y r e p r e s e n t s M a n s f i e l d h e r s e l f and t h e b o s s a kind  o f God:  "He  represents  Fate, l i k e  the  'wanton b o y s '  33 i n King Lear,  killing  3 Berkman, p. 2  ^Wright,  flies  for sport".  I b e l i e v e a more  195.  "Genesis  of a Short  Story,"  p.94.  -  182 -  recent c r i t i c has come closer to Mansfield's meaning i n the story when he notes: The boss i s neither a wanton boy carelessly destroying the f l y for sport, nor one of the gods grandly exerting his power with f u l l knowledge of an indifference toward the consequences. The Lear c i t a t i o n i s absolutely misleading. The boss i s obviously seeking to discover or confirm some knowledge — and i n doing so i s f e a r f u l of the consequences of that knowledge. Within the story he i s neither a monster nor a saint — merely a poor suffering mortal, whose wealth and s o c i a l power cannot protect him from the anguish of loss through death.35 With this interpretation of the boss as a symbolic figure only i n the sense that any character i n a story can be said to be symbolic of such a type of person i n such circumstances, I agree.  I would add that i t i s not merely the "anguish of  loss through death" the boss faces at the end of the story but death i t s e l f , the boy's but also the f l y ' s and his- own. To me the f l y represents both the boy and the father, f o r both have been denied the l i f e of f r e e - f l y i n g happiness symbolized by the insect's wings:  the boy has suffered physical  death i n the war, the father s p i r i t u a l death i n his own l i f e . It i s the man's submerged r e a l i z a t i o n that h i s s p i r i t has never soared freely and that soon he w i l l j o i n his son and the  f l y . i n death, which produces the grinding  wretchedness  3 John T.Hagopian, "Capturing Mansfield's 'Fly,'" Modern F i c t i o n Studies, Winter, I963-I964, p. 389. 4  3 5 i b i d . , p. 390.  -  he suffers at the It  -  end.  i s again a winged insect which i s used to show  the r e s t r i c t i o n s of l i f e end of "At the Bay." hut who  183  i n an important  Jonathan, who  scene near the  is "gifted,exceptional"  never sees his dreams f u l f i l l e d , who  often has 'a  look l i k e hunger i n his black eyes," ( 2 3 7 ) pauses to t a l k with Linda i n the garden.  His holiday i s over and on Monday  he must go back to the o f f i c e , or, as Jonathan phrases i t , "'On Monday the cage door opens and clangs to upon the victim f o r another eleven months and a week.'" ( 2 3 6 )  In f a c t ,  he feels h i s p o s i t i o n to be worse than that of a prisoner, for  he has somehow imprisoned  let  him out.  himself and nobody w i l l ever  He is l i k e an insect that has flown into a  room of i t s own  accord:  'I dash against the walls, dash against the windows, f l o p against the c e i l i n g , do everything on God's earth, i n f a c t , except f l y out again 'Why don't I f l y out again? There's the window or the door or whatever i t was I came i n by. It's not hopelessly shut -is i t ? Yftiy don't I find i t and be off? 'I'm exactly l i k e that insect again. For some reason i t ' s not allowed, i t ' s forbidden, i t ' s against the insect law, to stop banging and flopping and crawling up the pane even f o r an i n s t a n t . ' ( 2 3 7 - 2 3 8 ) A moment l a t e r , the children playing i n the washhouse see Jonathan's pale face "Pressed against the window"; Jonathan is always pressing himself against the window of l i f e ,  too  -  184  -  responsible to desert the family and s t a t i o n i n l i f e which he was  to  born, too unworldly i n his desires ever to  enjoy the push and pressure of business l i f e within the cage.  (The cage-wing image i s never associated with Stanley,  that successful and happy businessman.)  Jonathan's words  seem to carry the image of the caged insect back to the children's game and s p e c i f i c a l l y to Kezia, to the young Mansfield:  at the same time Jonathan i s t a l k i n g to Linda,  Kezia alone of the children i s i n s i s t i n g on being a winged "'ninseck'" i n their game. Jonathan thus seems  The  same l i f e that has  claimed  to be waiting to claim Kezia:  the  animal game i n the washhouse becomes a symbol of the cageenclosed  adult l i f e of the  future.  In the f i n a l section of "The Daughters of the Late Colonel," some l i t t l e sparrows come to chirp on the window ledge of the London f l a t s But Josephine f e l t they were not sparrows, not on the window-ledge. It was inside her, that queer l i t t l e crying noise. Yeep — eyeep — yeep. Ah, what was i t crying, so weak and forlorn? What i s r e a l l y crying Jug reveals by her next thought: If mother had l i v e d , might they have married? But there had been nobody for them to marry.(283) The birds are outside the f l a t and free to f l y away; Con and Jug have been caged a l l their l i v e s i n the tunnel of t h e i r father-dominated existence, have never had  an  opportunity  185  -  to develop wings of t h e i r  In "Mr.  Reginald  own.  Peacock's Day"  the use  of the  wing symbolism i s i r o n i c , f o r here the c e n t r a l image i s of a b i r d who  by nature  of plumage,"  cannot f l y .  "That f l a s h y b i r d  as Berkman c a l l s Mr. R e g i n a l d  confident t h a t he, the a r t i s t , escape from l i f e . " ( 1 5 2 )  The  Peacock, i s  i s "teaching them a l l t o  wings on which Reginald  c a r r i e d a l o f t , however, are only those  is  o f the peacock he  t r u l y iss Vanity, that b r i g h t b i r d , l i f t e d i t s wings (14-8) and R e g i n a l d  i s always ready t o be swept away, by the s i g h t  of h i m s e l f i n a m i r r o r , by a note from an  obviously  d e s i g n i n g woman, by the a d m i r a t i o n o f h i s female p u p i l s . T h i s k i n d o f imaginary f o r he  f l i g h t Reginald  i s unaware that he l a c k s any  achieves  repeatedly,  other wings than the  f a l s e ones of v a n i t y . Thus M a n s f i e l d  c o n s i s t e n t l y uses the symbol of wings  to express a kind of emotional realms of peace and happiness.  release, a rising  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , only i n  "The Voyage," a s t o r y based on her own with her beloved and  childhood r e l a t i o n s h i p  " g r a n n i e , " does the symbol  deep happiness f o r a main c h a r a c t e r .  the shallow Mr. R e g i n a l d  i n "The  Man  express?:achieved  F a l s e wings  lift  Peacock a l o f t , wings o f the  honeymoon p l e a s u r e s of the moment are couple  i n t o the  c a r r y i n g the young  Without a Temperament," a l l other  wings.  -  186  -  are shown confined or "broken by forces outside that make them incapable of their natural f l i g h t .  Animal Symbolism Berkman considers that Mansfield uses animal symbolism with a consistently narrow range of meaning.  Berkman  states that: Danger, almost always i d e n t i f i e d with sexual passion, invariably appears as a frightening animal. At times the terror is nameless <— the cry of the beast i n the jungle that disturbs the man and woman i n 'Psychology': but most often i t takes concrete form as a cat or dog. Miss Moss's downfall i n 'Pictures' is foreshadowed by her glimpse of an old brown t a i l l e s s cat which appears i n the street from nowhere and greedily laps up a splash of milk. S i m i l a r l y , Bertha Young sees the exquisite beauty of the flowering pear tree disfigured by the two dragging cats that creep before i t through the garden bed .37 In general, I agree with t h i s b r i e f discussion of animal symbolism as applied to the s p e c i f i c a l l y named s t o r i e s , but there are several instances of animal references i n Mansfield which do not seem to carry any implication of sexual passion and which therefore seem to destroy the inclusive quality of Berkman's d e f i n i t i o n .  In "The  Daughters of the Late Colonel,"  for instance, Jug considers the p o s s i b i l i t y of the  sisters'  having t h e i r dressing-gowns dyed black as part of the mourning r i t u a l s 3?Berkman, pp.191-192  -  187  -  Two b l a c k d r e s s i n g - g o w n s and two p a i r s of black woolly s l i p p e r s , creeping o f f t o t h e bathroom l i k e b l a c k c a t s . ( 2 6 3 ) The  p i c t u r e may be s e e n as u n p l e a s a n t ,  there  even r e p u l s i v e , but  i s s u r e l y no s e x u a l m e a n i n g t o t h e s c e n e .  i s any s y m b o l i c  I f there  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o t h e c a t s , i t would  seem  t o be o f C o n and J u g a s tamed p e t s , as t h e " o l d t a b b i e s " (265)  t h a t proud young K a t e c a l l s them.  runs f r o m t h e young gentleman's f l a t  When Ma  Parker  out onto the s t r e e t ,  P e o p l e went f l i t t i n g b y , v e r y f a s t ; t h e men w a l k e d l i k e s c i s s o r s ; t h e women t r o d l i k e c a t s . (308) T h i s seems t o e x p r e s s  o n l y the s l e e k grace  o f t h e women, t h e  f l a s h i n g t r o u s e r - c l a d l e g s o f t h e men, t h e non-human q u a l i t y of a world Again,  i n w h i c h "nobody knew —  there  cat imagery. wings  1  seems no p o s s i b l e s e x u a l c o n n o t a t i o n t o t h e "The F l y " f i r s t  "as t h e s t o n e  goes o v e r  proceeds t o c l e a n i t s tiny, If there  nobody cared.' ( 3 0 8 )  i s any s y m b o l i c  passes i t s t i n y l e g along i t s and u n d e r t h e s c y t h e " and t h e n  face  "like  i n t e n t i o n here  a minute  c a t " . (427)  I would agree  with  Hagopian that The s c y t h e e v o k e s t h e g r i m r e a p e r D e a t h , while the t r a d i t i o n a l nine l i v e s of a cat evoke S u r v i v a l . 3 ° As w e l l a s d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h Berkman's that every and  c a t image i n M a n s f i e l d s u g g e s t s  implication  sexual  passion  d a n g e r , I f e e l t h a t Berkman's d e s c r i p t i o n o f D u q u e t t e  3°Hagopian, p . 3 8 8 .  -  188  -  ("Je ne Parle pas Franqais") i s misleading by being  incomplete.  Berkman says that Raoul Duquette i s repeatedly characterized as a sharp-nosed fox t e r r i e r , s n i f f i n g and prowling about the defenseless Mouse, who by her very name is defined as a small, helpless, hunted creature.39 Certainly I agree with this obvious' symbolism of Mouse's name as a d e s c r i p t i o n of her pathetic p o s i t i o n and  certainly  Duquette repeatedly characterized himself as a sharp-nosed terrier.  But Duquette uses the t e r r i e r reference i n  describing his relationship with Dick as well as with Mouse and repeats It i n the  h o t e l scene i n which, he is but an  interested observer of the complexities of the Mouse-Dick relationship.  When Dick has l e f t him, Duquette expresses  his hurt indignation i n terms of the pet dog image; after a l l i t was you who whistled to me, you who asked me to come 1 What a spectacle I've cut wagging my t a i l and leaping around you  (73-74)  He returns to the act of the pet dog and the image describing i t when Dick returns to Paris with Mouse; at f i r s t Duquette has f e l t he w i l l meet Dick with a l l the dignity f i t t i n g a promising young writer, but the intriguing p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the s i t u a t i o n between Dick and Mouse destroy Duqette's design. He w i l l again assume the role of the pet dog i n order to be able to remain and watch the fascinating play unfold.  He  t e l l s himself, "Come, my P a r i s i a n f o x - t e r r i e r 1 Amuse these 39Berkman, p.  192.  -  sad E n g l i s h ! " ( 8 3 )  189  -  Trying to break the s t r a i n of the f i r s t  moments i n the hotel room, he makes "a vivacious l i t t l e bound at Mouse," ( 8 3 ) and when Mouse serves tea, "the f a i t h f u l and l a i d i t at  f o x - t e r r i e r carried his  feet, as i t were." ( 8 4 )  Certainly there is a sexual  aspect to these instances of animal symbolism but the symbolism goes deeper into the problem of Duquette than a mere reference to h i s unexpected a t t r a c t i o n to Mouse: the dog symbolism i s used to express part of his relationship with Dick, part of his b r i e f relationship with Mouse, and also part of his loneliness when he is incapable of following even h i s f o x - t e r r i e r c u r i o s i t y and does not see Mouse again. Then his "other s e l f " i s forever dashing o f f distracted, " l i k e a lost dog who thinks at l a s t , at l a s t , he hears the f a m i l i a r step again" and forever coming back, "his t a i l between his legs, quite exhausted"(65) because "she's nowhere...to...be seen."(66)  The f o x - t e r r i e r references  seem to embody Duquette's h a l f - r e a l i z e d sexual interest i n Mouse but to include much more of h i s character than t h i s , to  indicate h i s sordid lap-dog role i n l i f e , playing the  maiden's dream for l i t e r a r y young women, pandering to d i r t y old  gallants, being the amusing l i t t l e pet to Dick during  his  time i n Paris, now uncontrollably running after thoughts  of the l o s t Mouse.  This complexity of the animal symbol  Berkman's b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n seems to deny.  -  190  -  The two cats creeping across the garden i n " B l i s s " certainly symbolize the ugliest aspect of sexual Intimacy, but there i s a second reference i n the story which no c r i t i c I have read seems to have noticed.  Near the end  of the story, after Bertha has learned of her husband's unfaithfulness with Miss Fulton, she sees Miss Fulton leave "with Eddie following, l i k e the black cat following the grey c a t . " ( 1 0 5 )  There Is thus a strong hint i n t h i s second  use' of the animal symbol that Harry i s not Miss Fulton's only follower; certainly i f Mansfield had chosen she could have made Harry escort Miss Fulton out to a t a x i and the scene would then have completed  the sexual meaning of the  cat symbol while leaving Eddie as the inane but harmless young man he has appeared.  " B l i s s " also has the Image of  Mrs. Norman Knight as a monkey.  She i s wearing "the most  amusing orange coat with a procession of black monkeys round the hem and up the f r o n t s , " ( 9 7 ) but i t Is Bertha who the  image further and sees Mrs. Knight h e r s e l f as a "very  i n t e l l i g e n t monkey".(97) seems two-fold: the  carries  Here the use of the animal image  to show Mrs. Knight (and by implication  rest of the Knight-Warren set) as something subhuman,  perhaps also to hint that t h e i r art i s a case of "monkey see, monkey do," purely imitative of the work of "higher forms of l i f e , " the true a r t i s t s ; and.to show Bertha's  own  childishness i n her a t t r a c t i o n to such people as the Knights,  -  191  -  her own state of Inexplicable b l i s s that i s ready to find delight i n every aspect of her l i f e . Rather strangely, i n her summary of animal-sexual symbolism, Berkman does not mention that of "A D i l l P i c k l e , ; a story which twice refers to a strange sleeping beast i n the woman's bosom, once i n terms which certainly suggest a cat.  The man says he has r e a l l y travelled to a l l the  foreign places he and Vera once talked of seeing together; as she l i s t e n s to him, she f e l t the strange beast that had slumbered so long within her bosom s t i r , stretch i t s e l f , yawn, prick up i t s ears, and suddenly bound to i t s feet, and f i x i t s longing, hungry stare upon those faraway places. (170) Again, as the man says that he once longed to "'turn into a magic carpet and carry you away to a l l those lands you longed to see,'" she l i f t e d her head as though she drank something; the strange beast i n her bosom began to purr...  (173)  According to Berkman s general statement that sexual passion 1  is usually presented as a frightening animal, the strange beast Vera experiences would seem to be physical desire. But I believe this to be too narrow a d e f i n i t i o n of the animal symbol i n "A D i l l P i c k l e . "  Rather, I find the symbol  to be a l l the romantic dreams that Vera has had and has once centered on the man;  these dreams certainly include  the sexual element of such a relationship but also include  192  -  the  -  romance of t r a v e l and wealth as w e l l . The fur neck piece i n "Miss B r i l l " is one of  Mansfield's most obvious uses of symbolism.  I agree with  Berkman that, by the end of the story, the association of emotion with the external object has been pushed to an identity which Miss B r i l l h e r s e l f points out, and we are conscious of e x c e s s . 40  Yet the p a r a l l e l that Mansfield builds between Miss B r i l l and her f u r i s s k i l l f u l l y done:  both are o l d , odd i n  appearance,battered by l i f e , spending much of their time i n small, dark enclosures, going together for l i t t l e Sunday excursions to the Jardins Publique.  More revealing of the  story's true picture of Miss B r i l l i s her own attitude to her f u r : the dead fur of a once l i v e animal is considered by Miss B r i l l as v i r t u a l l y a l i v e pet.  Delicately, i n a  lengthy passage beginning Miss B r i l l put up her hand and touched her f u r . Dear l i t t l e thing! (331) Mansfield makes both points simultaneously clear; the actual condition of the f u r , and Miss B r i l l ' s attitude to her " l i t t l e rogue".  It i s the young boy's cruel whisper about  her own appearance and the g i r l ' s giggled comment on the look of the fur that combine to awake Miss B r i l l to the r e a l i t y of an existence that, l i k e the f u r , i s not t r u l y alive.  More subtly, Mansfield makes another use of animal  imagery i n "Miss B r i l l , " a use which seems to complement the  symbolism of the f u r . While Miss B r i l l i s s i t t i n g on Berkman, p. 175•  -  her  193  -  " s p e c i a l " bench, she watches an elderly prostitute, wearing the ermine toque she'd bought when her hair was yellow. Now everything, her h a i r , her face, even her eyes, was the same colour as the shabby ermine, and her hand, i n i t s cleaned glove, l i f t e d to dab her l i p s , was a tiny yellowish paw. ( 3 3 3 )  The woman attempts to make a conquest, is rudely repulsed, and "The ermine toque was alone  "(333)  This woman, too  is closely associated with the fur of the dead aninal she wears; she too, is alone and unwanted, but she i s not shocked or deeply hurt by the rude and direct rebuff she receives;  she is used to this treatment, expects l i t t l e  better because she l i v e s i n a world of the harshest r e a l i t i with no imagined stage l i f e and surprise g i f t s of almond fragments to shelter her. Gentle beasts of burden are used to indicate the terms of another r e s t r i c t e d l i f e , that of "The Lady's Maid. E l l e n t e l l s of once taking two l i t t l e nieces of her lady's to a f a i r and of seeing some r i d i n g donkeys: And I don't know what i t was, but the way the l i t t l e feet went, and the eyes — so gentle — and the soft ears — made me want to go on a donkey more than anything i n the world! ( 3 7 8 ) E l l e n cannot have her ride because of her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to look after the children and because of her maid's uniform —  "what would I have looked l i k e prched up there i n my  uniform?" ( 3 7 8 )  —  a pretended dream.  and so releases her intense desire i n The patient, gentle donkeys i n t h e i r  gay of  194  -  t r a p p i n g s show "both E l l e n ' s a c t u a l l i f e giving  of servitude,  p l e a s u r e t o o t h e r s w h i l e r e m a i n i n g always i n  h a r n e s s h e r s e l f , and t h e b r i g h t , h a p p y l i f e  r e p r e s e n t e d by  the h o l i d a y f a i r . M a n s f i e l d ' s use o f a n i m a l symbolism v a r i e t y o f purposes. p a s s i o n t h a t appears  I t i s the u g l i e s t  thus  serves a  aspect of sexual  i n t h e c a t s i n " B l i s s " and  "Pictures,"  the f r i g h t e n i n g danger o f i t i n "Psychology," the e n t i c i n g romance o f i t i n "A D i l l lapdog, fawning  Pickle."  forhis living,  Duquette i s the sordid  yet keeping h i s f o x - t e r r i e r  c u r i o s i t y s e c r e t l y a c t i v e , and Mouse t h e t i m i d v i c t i m , n o t only o f Duquette, The  b u t o f D i c k and o f h e r own l o v e f o r h i m .  Norman K n i g h t s e t a r e no more t h a n " v e r y  monkeys" b u t t h e y a r e e x c i t i n g immaturity. life  Miss B r i l l  "dears" t o Bertha i n her  i s a s dead t o t h e e m o t i o n s  a s h e r f u r , as i s t h e e l d e r l y p r o s t i t u t e  toque.  Ellen will  always  g e n t l e e y e s and w i l l i n g perpetual harness.  be t h e p a t i e n t  of r e a l  i n h e r ermine  l i t t l e donkey w i t h  f e e t , going round a n d round i n  I n each  case M a n s f i e l d has t a k e n a  q u a l i t y o f t h e r e a l a n i m a l and u s e d r e v e a l o r emphasize a q u a l i t y  Plant In  intelligent  i t symbolically to  i n her characters.  Symbolism  s e v e r a l s t o r i e s M a n s f i e l d uses  plant  symbolism  as a means o f c o n v e y i n g t h e c e n t r a l m e a n i n g o f a s c e n e  or  -  195 -  or a s i t u a t i o n to the reader.  In most cases the symbolism  takes the form of flowers; i n three s t o r i e s , " B l i s s , " "The Escape," and "Prelude," the main symbol i s a tree. As Berkman notes, i n ' B l i s s ' the central symbol i s the lovely pear tree, which to Bertha Young represents her l i f e and which embodies Bertha's own virginal quality. 1  This symbolism Bertha h e r s e l f c l e a r l y points out when she closes her eyes and seems to see "on her eyelids the lovely pear tree with i t s wide open blossoms as a symbol of her own lif."  (96) Though Bertha has not done so deliberately* with  her white dress, green stockings and jade necklace she has even dressed to make h e r s e l f resemble her pear tree, and, as she goes to welcome her guests, she f e e l s her dress r u s t l e around her l i k e petals.  The pear tree thus becomes,  as F r i i s says, "the outward v i s i b l e symbol of the inward 42  emotional state of Bertha," :  who feels that she, too, i s  at the peak of her flowering sexual beauty.  The tree  becomes a symbol with a d i f f e r e n t meaning by the end of the storyt  as Harry i s the true cause of Bertha's emotional  flowering, so is he the cause of Miss Fulton's heightened sensuality; the mystic moment the two women share at the sight of the beautiful tree thus becomes heavily i r o n i c a l . 41  4 2  Berkman, p. 192. F r i i s , p. 137.  -  196  -  B e r t h a ' s g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e from the u n e m o t i o n a l f l o w e r i n g t r e e she h e r s e l f i s f o r c e d t o r e a l i z e a t the end o f t h e story.  Having seen t h e t r e e as t h e symbol o f h e r own " p e r f e c t "  l i f e , B e r t h a runs t o t h e window i n s e a r c h o f h e l p , but the t r e e has none t o give h e r .  I t i s a s s " f u l l o f f l o w e r " and  as " s t i l l " as e v e r ; i t i s unchanged; i t i t i s a symbol a t a l l i n t h i s l a s t scene, i t i s a symbol o f n a t u r e ,  fulfilling  i t s own u n e m o t i o n a l purpose o f f e r t i l i t y . Of t h e t r e e i n "The E s c a p e , " Berkman says: the man's 'escape' i s t h r o u g h m y s t i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the complete, harmonious p a t t e r n o f l i f e r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t r e e 43 and w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r e e symbol I a g r e e . However, I t h i n k i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t M a n s f i e l d has c a r e f u l l y g i v e n the t r e e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t mark its  s u i t a b i l i t y as a symbol f o r t h e complete, harmonious  pattern of l i f e .  The nagging w i f e has j u s t l e f t h e r husband  alone w h i l e she goes back t o f i n d h e r u m b r e l l a ,  l e a v i n g her  husband w i t h the words, " ' i f I don't escape from you f o r a minute I s h a l l go mad.'"(201)  Sitting  i n the c a r r i a g e ,  w a i t i n g f o r h i s w i f e and h e r e n d l e s s c o m p l a i n t s t o r e t u r n , the man f e e l s h i m s e l f ' a h o l l o w man, a p a r c h e d , -withered as i t were, o f ashes . ( 2 0 1 ) u  Then he s,ees t h e t r e e and  i m m e d i a t e l y the t r e e seems more t h a n a l a r g e p l a n t : man becomes c o n s c i o u s "of i t s p r e s e n c e , " 4  3Berkman, p. 1 9 2 .  man,  the  I t i s "Immense"  -  197  -  and he has been c o n s t a n t l y b e l i t t l e d a "round, t h i c k s i l v e r  by h i s w i f e ;  stem and a great  a r c of copper l e a v e s "  and he has been f e e l i n g h i m s e l f as burnt and  i t has  wood, made  withered  l i f e l e s s by h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s wife which has  combined w i t h the heat of the day t o exhaust him; the great l e a v e s seem "to expand i n the q u i v e r i n g heat u n t i l the great carved  l e a v e s h i d the sky" and he i s thus s h i e l d e d by i t  from the h e a t .  The c o l o u r s of the t r e e and i t s l e a v e s ,  s i l v e r and copper, suggest  beauty and permanence; i t s leaves  seem "carved" and thus suggest which the t r e e f u l f i l l s the  a master c a r v e r , a purpose  by i t s e x i s t e n c e .  In contrast to  "immense" t r e e i s the "Something dark, something  unbearable and d r e a d f u l " that pushed i n h i s bosom " l i k e a great weed". (202)  The weed seems t o be the symbol o f not  only the nagging o f the woman but o f a l l the emotional entanglements of l i f e  which keep the man from r e a l i z i n g h i s  own m y s t i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l a r g e p a t t e r n o f l i f e , an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n he achieves  through the t r e e ,  "Prelude" makes i t s symbolic  use of the aloe  clear  i n the passages i n which L i n d a i s shown i n the garden. The t r e e was t o be the c e n t r a l symbol o f the e a r l i e r of the s t o r y , f i t t i n g l y named it  version  "The A l o e , " but i n "Prelude"  f i g u r e s o n l y i n the end o f s e c t i o n s i x , b r i e f l y  i n the  middle of s e c t i o n e l e v e n and i s e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e d only L i n d a .  She i s l i k e the t r e e , f e e l i n g  "flat  with  and w i t h e r e d " ( 3 4 )  like  i t s old l e a v e s , yet  flesh,  l i k e the  198  at the  same t i m e s w e l l i n g i n  growing stem of the  of yet another c h i l d .  Linda  her  t r e e but  resemblance t o the  p l a n t , w i t h the  does n o t she  consciously  likes  the  i t "'more t h a n a n y t h i n g  Linda  t h e a l o e a p p e a r s as a s h i p w i t h r a p i d o a r s  and  away f r o m h e r  mother, that  thorns.  Flat  w i t h new  life,  tired  could hold  and  withered  life  as M r s .  in spirit,  reader  sees the  to  that  could  B u r n e l l , wife i t s sharp  swelling physically  b i t t e r l y r e a d y t o "give h u r t  escape; the  —  because  off Stanley with  p r o t e c t h e r s e l f , L i n d a f i n d s i n the and  —  recognize  aloe  likes  take her  here'"(53)  life  i n order  tree a s i g n of  to freedom  a l o e as a s y m b o l o f  Linda  herself. In several stories indicate  the  flowers  are used s y m b o l i c a l l y t o  c e n t r a l theme o r mood o f t h e  story.  h e r s e l f very fond  o f f l o w e r s , makes s k i l l f u l  a t t r i b u t e s of the  p l a n t s as  The at the  end  of  various  a means o f s t o r y s y m b o l i s m .  most o b v i o u s example o f f l o w e r s y m b o l i s m of  young l a d y she out h e r  use  Mansfield,  "The has  Young G i r l . "  Treated  pretended to be,  d e s i r e t o w a i t , t o be  sweetness of a c h i l d  eager to  the  occurs  as t h e b e a u t i f u l young g i r l  stammers  no t r o u b l e , w i t h a l l t h e pleases  Her d a r k c o a t f e l l o p e n , and h e r white throat — a l l her: s o f t young body i n t h e b l u e d r e s s — was l i k e a f l o w e r t h a t i s j u s t emerging from i t s d a r k bud.(301) In her  past  i s the  tightly  c l o s e d bud  of childhood,  ahead i s  -  first  199  -  the full-blown loveliness of a moment, and then the  rapidly fading beauty of increasing old age.  The symbolism  here uses both the beauty of a flower and the transitory quality of that beauty to sum up the young g i r l ' s  life.  In "The LadyVT Maid" flowers seem to represent a l l the natural beauty and sweetness that l i f e has denied E l l e n . She  i s "such a one for flowers" ( 3 7 9 )  flower-shop •flowerss  }  Harry kept "a l i t t l e  just down the road" ( 3 7 8 ) and woos E l l e n with  the l i n k i n g of the flower references seems to  indicate that Ellen's l i f e with Harry would have been suitable, happy for her.  Harry has given her  lilies-of-  the v a l l e y , the sweet, white flowers often used to deck a 'bride. she has  Now  the only flowers for E l l e n are those of death-  " l a i d out" her lady's mother with "a bunch of most  b e a u t i f u l purple pansies" ( 3 7 6 ) at the neck and w i l l soon perform the same o f f i c e for her lady.  Then the only purpose  i n Ellen's l i f e w i l l be gone and this she knows but is a f r a i d to face: for  she who has used pansies, the flower of thoughts,  the dead, t e l l s h e r s e l f , "If you can't find  anything  better to do than to start thinking I . . . " ( 3 8 0 ) In "A D i l l Pickle" flowers are part of the story's contrast of the multiple relationship of the man woman i n past and present. the man did  The f i r s t  and the  scene of the past  r e c a l l s to her is an afternoon at Kew  Gardens; he  not know the names of any flowers, she recited them to  him,  200  -  and now he s a y s t h a t he f e e l s t h a t h i s memory o f  h e r words  " ' a r e a l l I r e c a l l o f some f o r g o t t e n , h e a v e n l y  language..."  ( 1 6 8 ) What V e r a t r u l y remembers o f t h e same  afternoon i s her suffering  a c u t e e m b a r r a s s m e n t when t h e man  made a n a b s u r d s c e n e o v e r w a s p s a t t h e t e a - t a b l e , b u t s h e is willing  t o a l l o w h i s memory t o r e p l a c e h e r s : Yes, i t had been a w o n d e r f u l a f t e r n o o n , f u l l o f g e r a n i u m and m a r i g o l d and v e r b e n a , and — warm s u n s h i n e . (16|)  The if  s t o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t e a c h memory i s e q u a l l y t r u e , a n d , e q u a l l y t r u e , t h e m e m o r i e s r e v e a l two s e p a r a t e  that  c o u l d n e v e r come t o t h e f l o w e r i n g  relationship. of  of a joined  B e t w e e n t h e m now i n t h e l i t t l e  paper d a f f o d i l s , t h e t r u e symbol o f t h e i r  i n b o t h p a s t and p r e s e n t : possible.  lives emotional  cafe i s a vase relationship  f a l s e w i t h no f r a g r a n c e o r g r o w t h  As V e r a h e a r s t h e man r e c a l l t h e Kew G a r d e n  i n terms h i g h l y f l a t t e r i n g  visit  to her,  she d r e w a l o n g , s o f t b r e a t h , as t h o u g h t h e p a p e r d a f f o d i l s b e t w e e n them were a l m o s t t o o sweet t o b e a r . (168) Vera i s too ready t o accept pleasant i l l u s i o n f o r unpleasant reality. The  c e n t r a l symbolism  obviously, that it  o f "The G a r d e n P a r t y " i s ,  o f the garden party i t s e l f ,  does t h e major  summing u p a s  aspects o f the Sheridan l i f e .  Their  s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s siown i n t h e g a r d e n p a r t y ' s o b v i o u s l y being an annual a f f a i r  (Mrs. S h e r i d a n . i s determined  t o leave  201  everything Mrs.  -  to the c h i l d r e n " t h i s y e a r " ) ; t h e i r wealth i n  S h e r i d a n ' s o r d e r i n g o f the t r a y s of expensive  lilies;  t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y i n t h e obvious, success of the p a r t y . A l l the s e c u r i t y of t h i s e n j o y a b l e  world  seems r e p r e s e n t e d  the f l o w e r s , f o r , as i f t o show t h e f a v o u r  in  of nature i t s e l f ,  the f l o r i s t l i l i e s a r e supplemented by "Hundreds, y e s , l i t e r a l l y hundreds" ( 2 4 5 ) of roses which-have come out i n the p r e v i o u s  night.  The v e r y hours o f p l e a s u r e  become l i k e  a flower: And t h e p e r f e c t a f t e r n o o n s l o w l y r i p e n e d , slowly faded, slowly i t s petals closed. (257) The whole c o n t r a s t of the S h e r i d a n - c o t t a g e w o r l d s i s summed up i n the S h e r i d a n garden p a r t y , open t o a l l t h e i r automatically  friends,  c l o s e d t o such as t h e S c o t t s ; the garden  p a r t y i t s e l f seems shown s y m b o l i c a l l y by t h e f l o w e r s  that  adorn i t . The use o f f l o w e r s i s part o f the general  i n "Mr. R e g i n a l d  Peacock's Day"  i r o n y of the s t o r y , f o r flowers are  a s s o c i a t e d as g i f t s from a l l the a d o r i n g women f o r Mr. Peacock.  He suggests t o h i s f i r s t music p u p i l t h a t  while  she s i n g s she t h i n k about the f l o w e r s she has seen i n t h e park i n order Miss B r i t t l e  t o "'give your v o i c e c o l o u r and warmth.'" i s t h r i l l e d w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n  genius Mr. Peacock was" — pansy" ( 1 4 9 ) f o r him.  —  "What a  and begins " t o s i n g l i k e a  The e n c h a n t i n g Countess Wilkowsky  202  -  takes her v i o l e t s from her bosom and drops them into a l i t t l e vase that just happens to stand " i n front of one of Reginald's photographs." ( 1 5 0 ) When she is leaving the flowers remain i n their place of t r i b u t e ; as the Countess says, "'I think I w i l l forget them.'"(151)  Aenone F e l l  has already written to Reginald a note i n v i o l e t coloured. ink and when she phones to invite him to dine with her alone, he returns the suggested  flowery compliment:  the words of his reply dropped l i k e flowers down the telephone. ( 1 5 2 ) The climax of the day comes with h i s appearance at Lord Timbuck's; as Reginald walks home afterwards he remembers the applause of the l a d i e s : And as he sang, as i n a dream he saw t h e i r feathers and t h e i r flowers and t h e i r fans, offered to him, l a i d before him, l i k e a huge bouquet. ( 1 5 2 ) S i g n i f i c a n t l y , only his wife has no f l o r a l offering for Mr. Reginald Peacock. "The Singing Lesson" uses plant symbolism to show two extremes of mood for Miss Meadows, to show the reason for the extremes, and thus to suggest the l i f e that w i l l be Miss Meadows' i n the future.  For "ages and ages" Miss  Meadows has been going through a " l i t t l e r i t u a l " (34-5) of receiving a flower from Mary, her pupil-pianist for the singing lesson. acceptance  Usually Miss Meadows is gracious i n her  of the g i f t but since she has received the l e t t e r  -  203  -  f r o m B a s i l s h e h a s no s y m p a t h y t o s p a r e f r o m h e r s e l f ; t h i s m o r n i n g she i g n o r e s the  the f l o r a l  o f f e r i n g and s t a r t s  l e s s o n w i t h a song t h a t e x p r e s s e s  h e r own s t a t e o f c o l d  despair: F a s t ! A h , t o o F a s t Fade t h e R o - o - s e s o f Pleasure; S o o n Autumn y i e l d s u n t o W i - i - n t e r . D r e a r . (346)  Ihen Basil's  telegram  t u r n s M i s s Meadows' s u f f e r i n g t o  exhileration,  she f l i e s h a c k t o t h e m u s i c h a l l ,  the n e g l e c t e d  f l o w e r , and d i r e c t s t h e g i r l s  they had a p p a r e n t l y  been s t u d y i n g  of flowers, f r u i t , ribbons certainly her  suggests Miss  own j o y o u s  i n their  p i c k s up  t o t h e song last  l e s s o n , a song  and c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s .  The s o n g  Meadows' c o m i n g w e d d i n g t o B a s i l and  a t t i t u d e t o i t . What t h e r e a l i t y  i s apt t o  be i s more o m i n o u s l y shown b y t h e a c t u a l f l o w e r s  i n the  story.:  Meadows  significantly,  flowers; B a s i l ,  bearing  i t i s Mary who g i v e s M i s s t h e name o f t h e  scorpion-breeding  45  herb,  apparently  keeps h i s r o s e s  f o r h i s own  buttonhole.  "Revelations" closes w i t h Monica having thought" o f sending little  f l o w e r s f o r the f u n e r a l o f George's  daughters, white flowers w i t h a card reading F r o m an unknown f r i e n d . . . From one who understands... For a l i t t l e g i r l . . . (196)  Monica does not succeed she  i s taken  past  i n stopping  h e r t a x i and i n a moment  t h e f l o w e r shop t o P r i n c e s ' .  make a n i r o n i c a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e two l i t t l e  chapter  the "perfect  i l ' s name h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d o n "Names".  The f l o w e r s  girls,  o n page 155  between  of the  -  Monica and  the dead c h i l d .  204  -  A l l f l o w e r s are f r a g i l e  q u i c k t o f a d e ; the c h i l d i s dead b e f o r e she l e a v e s c h i l d h o o d and Monica has been c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the l o n e l y r e a l i z a t i o n  of d e a t h .  and her  f o r the f i r s t  The  time  f l o w e r s Monica  sees i n the shop window are o f the c o l o u r of innocence: the c h i l d  and Monica have been innocent  r e a l i t i e s of l i f e , and  o f f a c i n g b e f o r e now  of the  both  harsher  the t e r r i b l e  finality  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of deaths A moment b e f o r e Monica l e a r n e d  the c h i l d ' s p a s s i n g , she has  felt utterly  of  alone:  We w h i r l a l o n g l i k e l e a v e s and nobody knows — nobody cares where we f a l l , i n what b l a c k r i v e r we f l o a t away. (195) Monica cannot accept t h e f a c t of. d e a t h , the u n i v e r s a l end the b l a c k r i v e r .  Monica i s f l y i n g from the l i t t l e  knowledge  she has been f o r c e d t o g a i n and she w i l l t h u s remain a girIL:the f l o w e r s w i l l not be  of  little  sent.  M a n s f i e l d ' s use of p l a n t symbolism i s thus composed of two t y p e s , t h a t of a t r e e i n " B l i s s , " "The  Escape" and  " P r e l u d e , " and t h a t o f f l o w e r s i n some h a l f a dozen o t h e r stories.  I n the f i r s t  i n s t a n c e , the c e n t r a l meaning of the  symbol seems t o be t o show the s e p a r a t i o n o f man a separation that Bertha c r u e l l y t h a t the husband i n "The own  emotional  in  "Prelude".  and  nature,  r e a l i z e s a t the end of  "Bliss,"  Escape"" i s a b l e t o use t o f i n d h i s  f u l f i l l m e n t , that Linda l o n g i n g l y recognizes I n the second use o f p l a n t symbolism, t h a t o f  f l o w e r s , M a n s f i e l d emphasizes v a r y i n g q u a l i t i e s  of the  plant  -  life  205  -  t o make a p a r a l l e l w i t h a l i k e q u a l i t y i n h e r  characters.  The b e a u t y , f r a g i l i t y ,  of a bud make i t a f i t t i n g  and a p p r o a c h i n g m a t u r i t y  symbol t o c l o s e "The Young G i r l " .  The l i f e o f n a t u r a l f u l f i l l m e n t shown i n t h e f l o w e r s o f Harry's  shop i s denied  t o "The Lady's Maid"; t h e o n l y f l o w e r s  f o r h e r i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l be those o f h e r l a d y ' s The c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d  and expensive  funeral.  f l o w e r s o f "The  Garden P a r t y " show t h e S h e r i d a n w o r l d o f t h o u g h t l e s s and s n o b b i s h w e a l t h .  F l o w e r s a r e used as female  beauty  tributes  t o Mr. R e g i n a l d Peacock, t r i b u t e s he g a t h e r s from a l l but his wife.  F l o w e r s a r e p a r t o f a b a s i c c o n t r a s t between  past and present and  i n "A D i l l P i c k l e , " between a d o r i n g  pupil  i n d i f f e r e n t f i a n c e i n "The S i n g i n g L e s s o n , " between t h e  two l i t t l e g i r l s  of "Revelations."  t o use d i f f e r e n t  aspects  M a n s f i e l d i s thus able  o f t r e e and f l o w e r l i f e t o h e l p  reveal a c e n t r a l q u a l i t y of a character or of a s i t u a t i o n i n her s t o r i e s .  Communion Symbolism It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h e number  s t o r i e s i n which characters partake  of Mansfield's  o f food o r d r i n k ; i t  i s even more i n t e r e s t i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h e number o f cases i n w h i c h t h i s consumption o f food o r d r i n k seems t o a c t as a symbol o f communion, a communion not i n t h e r e l i g i o u s sense but i n t h e sense o f showing something t a n g i b l y shared  which  206  -  thus represents the inexpressible sharing of the r e l a t i o n s h i p . In three s t o r i e s , "Miss B r i l l , " "A Cup of Tea," and "The Lady's maid," the. food i s consumed alone by one of the characters and therefore points out the i s o l a t i o n of a character, the lack of s p i r i t u a l communion.  In "The L i t t l e  Governess," " B l i s s , " and "Marriage a l a Mode," the communion symbol i s used i r o n i c a l l y :  communion of minds i s d e l i b e r a t e l y  suggested and then shown to be t o t a l l y non-existent.  With  the exception of "Psychology," the communion symbol i n the remainder of the stories i s used to show a separation of v i r t u a l worlds of existence, worlds which then stand i n direct contrast; t h i s i s perhaps most subtly presented yet c l e a r l y shown i n "Je ne Parle pas Francois." In "Psychology," the act of sharing tea has become a precious r i t u a l to the couple, summarizing  as i t does, the  close, private moments the two share and value and yet i t s e l f being only a break i n the day's routine, not permitted to be more.  The woman "always had d e l i c i o u s things to eat" (112)  for tea:  she has something  r i c h to offer the r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The man notices what he eats with her i n the studio "'and never anywhere else'"(113):  he i s subtly aware that what  she has to o f f e r i s more to him than he has found elsewhere. Yet " d e l i g h t f u l " as "this business of having tea" (112) i s to both, He wanted i t over....and the moment come when he took out h i s pipe, f i l l e d i t , and  -  207  -  said 'I have been t h i n k i n g over what you s a i d l a s t time and i t seems t o me...' Yes, that was what he waited d i d she. (112) The  f o r and so  couple place the whole importance o f t h e i r  relationship  on the i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l o r a t i o n they make together; the g r e a t e r intimacy of a p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p they s u b c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i r e and C o n s c i o u s l y deny. to  r e p r e s e n t t h i s p a r t i a l intimacy:  both  The t e a seems  what they  share  together i s " d e l i g h t f u l " t o both but must be subordinated to  t h e i r r o l e as s e r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p l o r e r s o f l i f e  together. "Miss B r i l l , " in  "The Lady's Maid" and the poor  girl  "A Cup o f Tea" are marked out i n t h e i r i s o l a t i o n by  t h e i r lone consumption of f o o d .  Miss B r i l l  lives  i n :t  v i r t u a l s o l i t u d e yet f e e l s that she t r u l y has "a p a r t " ( 3 3 4 ) in  the l i f e  going on a l l around her.  h a b i t of buying  She has been i n the  a s l i c e o f honey-cake on her way home from  the Sunday a f t e r n o o n c o n c e r t s ; i t makes "a great d i f f e r e n c e " to  her whether or not there i s an almond i n her s l i c e , f o r  an almond changes the s l i c e  i n t o a p r e s e n t , i n t o a communion  w i t h some unnamed and unnamable g i v e r although Miss eats h e r cake a l o n e .  When Miss B r i l l  i s forced  r e a l i z i n g the true i s o l a t i o n o f her l i f e , to  into  she does not stop  buy her honey-cake but passes t h e baker's  "The  Brill  by.  Ellen,  Lady's Maid," always makes her l a d y a cup of t e a " l a s t  -  208  -  t h i n g " a t n i g h t ; E l l e n p u t s t h e k e t t l e o n when h e r l a d y kneels  t o say h e r prayers  much t o o s o o n . the  mistress  but the k e t t l e i s always  boiling  No b e t t e r p i c t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  and t h e m a i d c o u l d  p r e p a r e d by E l l e n w h i l e  be g i v e n :  t h e cup o f t e a  her lady displays her sanctity  ("She's t o o g o o d , y o u know, madam")is consumed a l o n e b y t h e mistress.  So used i s E l l e n t o h e r l i f e  t h a t when t h e r e  o f humble  servitude  i s "such a n i c e  cup o v e r " she i m m e d i a t e l y  t h i n k s o f t a k i n g i t t o "madam";  E l l e n r e m a i n s unaware o f  how much o f h e r own d e p r i v e d  life  she r e v e a l s w h i l e  cup  o f t e a i s consumed b u t n o t s h a r e d .  the  poor g i r l  the  food  this  Rosemary F e l l  takes  home f o r "A Cup o f T e a " b u t d o e s n o t s h a r e  she p r o v i d e s : As f o r h e r s e l f s h e d i d n ' t e a t ; s h e smoked and l o o k e d away t a c t f u l l y s o t h a t t h e o t h e r s h o u l d n o t be s h y . ( 4 1 4 )  And, i n d e e d , t h e r e and  the g i r l .  that  i s no communion  her  and t h a t women were  s e e s h e r own s e c u r i t y t h r e a t e n e d .  away and goes t o t e l l P h i l i p , us  between Rosemary  Rosemary who was g o i n g t o p r o v e t o t h e g i r l  " r i c h people had h e a r t s ,  (412)  of s p i r i t  tonight!"(4l6)  sisters"  She s e n d s t h e g i r l  " ' M i s s S m i t h won't d i n e  Miss Smith has been forced  with  to return to  own i s o l a t i o n and R o s e m a r y w i l l h a v e d i n n e r  tete-a-tete  w i t h h e r husband. I n "The L i t t l e a l a Mode,"•Mansfield  G o v e r n e s s , " " B l i s s , " and " M a r r i a g e seems t o u s e t h e communion s y m b o l w i t h  -  209 ironic for  purpose:  skillfully  the obvious  avoids The  shared  she p r e s e n t s  is  without  intimacy d e l i b e r a t e l y  t h e symbol i t s e l f  n e v e r s p o k e n o f as "The  a basket it  Little  suggested  feast,  "she f e l t  have n o t s h a r e d together  b e i n g weakened, f o r t h e f o o d  shared.  s i n c e he was  "'brave  The c o u p l e share  her s o l i t a r y ( 1 8 4 )yet they  spend  refreshment,  speaks o n l y o f the l i t t l e  since  enough t o e a t  she had known h i m f o r y e a r s " the b e r r i e s .  Regierungsrat  consume a l o n e  when she h a s f i n i s h e d  and o b v i o u s l y must  Mansfield  at t h e s t o r y ' s  Governess" r e c e i v e s from Herr  strawberries'"(183);  place.  by t h e  destroyed  o f s t r a w b e r r i e s w h i c h she must  i s twenty years  calls  t h a t any s h a r i n g t a k e s  communion s y m b o l i s t h e n d e l i b e r a t e l y end  that  consumption of food y e t c a r e f u l l y  u s i n g words w h i c h s t a t e  emotional  a plot  governess  t !  the day but c a r e f u l l y eating:  She a t e two w h i t e s a u s a g e s and two l i t t l e r o l l s o f f r e s h bread at eleven o'clock i n t h e m o r n i n g and she d r a n k some b e e r ( 1 8 6 ) Late for  i n the afternoon her l o v e l y some c h o c o l a t e  eats the t r e a t for  the f a i r y  of  Herr  to  his flat  bottle"  ice-cream;  o l d grandfather  while  the l i t t l e  " h e r g r a t e f u l baby h e a r t grandfather"  (187)  and p r o d u c e s  governess  glowed w i t h  but a g a i n t h e r e  Regierungsratii t a k i n g food.  takes her  He t a k e s  love  i s no m e n t i o n  t h e young  "two p i n k g l a s s e s and a t a l l  ( 1 8 7 ) b u t he d r i n k s a l o n e  never t o t o u c h wine o r a n y t h i n g  f o r she has  like  girl pink  "'promised  t h a t . ' " ( 1 8 8 )  Not once  210  has Mansfield spoken of food as shared:  the young g i r l  belongs to the child's world of chocolate ice-cream, the depraved Herr Regierungsrat to that of pink wine as the preliminary for kisses i n his bachelor f l a t . In " B l i s s " Bertha i s t h r i l l e d to be able to have her "dears" of friends around her table, t o be "giving them delicious food and wine" (100) but she feels that her true communion i s with Miss Fulton.: Pearl Fulton, s t i r r i n g the b e a u t i f u l red soup i n the grey plate, was f e e l i n g just what she was feeling.(100) Bertha glories i n Harry's exaggerated love of food, not recognizing the depth of sensuality that hides i t s e l f under Harry's seemingly harmless i f absurd phrases;  when Harry  praises the souffle Bertha "almost could have wept with c h i l d - l i k e pleasure" (100) as i f the words express some kind of personal love and devotion.  Yet, as i n "The L i t t l e  Governess," food i s not spoken of as being shared, and at the end of the story Bertha finds that her own "brimming 44  cup of b l i s s " (101) i s r e a l l y dry and empty.  In "Marriage  44-Perhaps Bertha's true position i n her own home i s revealed by the t i t l e of Eddie's "'new poem'": Table d'Hote — Bertha, who has to be l e t i n to the house by another woman since she forgets her door key, who has her baby cared for by another woman, who finds her husband i s making love to another woman, Bertha i s but serving food to, not achieving communion with, the people around her dinner table. Bertha has served a red soup and has f e l t an exchange of f e e l i n g as she watched Miss Fulton s t i r the red l i q u i d ; Eddie comments on his poem, 'Tomato soup i s so dreadfully eternal'.(105) What has happened at her dinner party w i l l affect Bertha a l l the eternity of her l i f e .  -  211  -  a. l a Mode," the dinner scene i s dominated by Isabel's "crowd"; they drink William's  whisky and are waited on by  Isabel who finds even rude table manners "charming"(317) from her f r i e n d s ;  William i s quickly forgotten and ignored  at his own table.,  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , a l l the food mentioned  is most closely associated with Isabel and the "crowd": Bobby Kane buys candy which Isabel pays f o r ; Isabel and Moira Morrison together  seize the f r u i t that William has  brought home for his l i t t l e  sons; Moira searches out the  sardines and carries the can into the dining-room l i k e a trophy; B i l l Hunt opens the whisky at dinner and he and Dennis Green eat "enormously" ( 3 1 7 ) ;  the next morning Isabel  wonders what has "happened to the salmon they had for supper last night" ( 3 1 8 ) .  Isabel's r o l e i n providing free and  p l e n t i f u l room-and-board for the "crowd" and William: ;s 1  total  lack of status i n his own home are thus both shown by the use of the several references to food, to food being consumed by Isabel's f r i e n d s . In the remaining stories i n which the communion symbol appears, i t i s used to present a contrast, to show what seem to be v i r t u a l l y separate worlds of existence. In "Revelations," i t i s Ralph's phoning to ask " ' i f Madame w i l l lunch at Princes' at one-thirty t o - d a y ' " ( 1 9 1 ) which leads Monica to her f i r s t  r e v e l a t i o n , that there i s  more to l i f e than the false existence she has been accepting,  -  212  -  that she i s bored by her role i n i t .  When her second  moment of insight reveals b r i e f l y to her the loneliness and i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death, she runs back to the security of lunch with Ralph at Princes.'  Ralph, who has said he  knows her better than she knows herself, w i l l be waiting in the vestibule f o r her to j o i n him i n spite of her e a r l i e r refusal.  The l i f e of lunch at Princes' with the adoring  Ralph i s the only one that Monica i s capable of facing. In  "Sun and Moon" the boy i s shown as separate from  the attitudes of the adult world, attitudes that h i s l i t t l e s i s t e r Moon accepts and imitates. for  Sun sees the food prepared  the adult party as the most b e a u t i f u l part of the magical  evening, as something  so perfect i t i s a matter of wonder to  him that anyone should consider the food as material f o r consumptions 'Are people going to eat the food?' asked Sun. 'I should think they are,' laughed Cook, laughing with N e l l i e . Moon laughed, too (155-156)  The destruction of the beauty at the end of the evening suddenly reveals to Sun h i s i s o l a t i o n from those around  him,  that h i s view of the adult world of beauty i s incorrect; Moon is eager to accept scraps from the ruined table but to Sun the destruction is "'horrid — In  horrid —  horrid! "(160) 1  "Mr. Reginald Peacock's Day" the references to  food help reveal the distance between husband and wife, a  -  213  -  a distance he deliberately accentuates.  Mr. Reginald  Peacock has bacon and an egg for breakfast, his wife a cold baked apple; he is sure t h i s means that she i s hinting that she grudges having to cook his breakfast.  Having asked his  wife to prepare a special soup for him, he then accepts an i n v i t a t i o n to dine t&te-a-t&te with Aenone F e l l ; when h i s annoyed wife remarks, "'You might have l e t me know before!'" (153), she i s only showing her lack of interest i n his a r t i s t i c success.  Reginald winds up his evening of triumph  by sharing champagne with Lord Timbuck; i t i s an evening i n which Reginald's wife has had no part. "The Young G i r l " shares tea with Hennie and the narrator; she attempts a pose of sophistication but her tea alone would give her away.  The narrator apparently has only  a cup of tea, the young g i r l matches Hennie item by item, from hot chocolate to four pastries to a cold, sweet drink. She is both child and adult, sharing, tea with a representative of each world, having most a f f i n i t y s t i l l with the world of childhood. In  "Man Without a Temperament," food is used as part  of the contrast between the old l i f e i n London and the l i f e of the foreign hotel the Salesbys must now  lead.  In London,  their f r i e n d l y , considerate Mollie brought the early morning cup of tea (132), there was  bacon for breakfast (133);  now  the Salesbys are attended by the wooden d o l l , Antonio,  who  -  214  -  never remembers the hot water for the tea although Jinnie has told him about i t "'sixty times at l e a s t " ' ( 1 3 1 )  Back  home i n London friends came i n to slaare the evening meal: Supper — cold beef, potatoes i n their jackets, c l a r e t , household bread. They are gay everybody's laughing. ( 1 3 8 ) Now  the Salesbys are surrounded  eating habits:  by people with unpleasant  the Two Topknots, with t h e i r whitish, greyish  "decoction they always drank at this hour" (129)jthe Countess and the General, dubious about the soup, complaining that "'The General's egg's too hard again'"(140); the American woman (and Klaymongso) who  "'can't eat anything mushy'"(140).  The Honeymoon Couple have a personal feast of t h e i r  own,  sharing the f i s h they caught together that afternoon; even their conversation together i s so much of an emotional unity that Mansfield subtly places i t within a single set of quotation marks: 'Give me that one. That's the one I caught. No, i t ' s not. Yes, i t i s , No, i t ' s not. Well, i t ' s looking at me with i t s eye, so i t must be. Teei Heel Heel' Their feet were locked together under the table. (141) They are i n obvious sharp contrast not only to the other foreign guests but also to the Salesbys who  once shared a  happy intimacy of t h e i r own as they once shared good English food.  Now,  Robert, understandably, is "'Off food'" (141),  but there i s nothing he can do since Jinnie has made her appeal i n terms that show her dependence on him:  -  215  -  'You see — you're e v e r y t h i n g . You're b r e a d and w i n e , R o b e r t , b r e a d and w i n e . ' (143) The  o l d i n t i m a c y was  precious t o Robert  of r o a s t beef f o r supper spiritual  i n L o n d o n ; now  the comparison  he  t h e same use  i n "A D i l l P i c k l e , "  o f t h e p a s t and  man,  he  communion as p h y s i c a l f o o d w i t h  There i s something  is  a l s o i n the days  the p r e s e n t .  and  s h a r e s as Jinnie.  o f f o o d as p a r t again the  When V e r a f i r s t  i s p e e l i n g a n o r a n g e " I n a way  she  v/ay" (167)  t o t a l k , he a s k s  h a v e some f r u i t  here  i s v e r y good'"(l68) —  do n o t  s h a r e any f o o d i n t h e p r e s e n t .  remember a t e a t h e y had made a s c e n e  "the t r u e r . "  shared  sees  and,  as t h e y —  the  begin  "'The  only coffees Vera begins  s i x y e a r s ago  fruit they  to  i n which  (169)  and  he  g r a d u a l l y V e r a a c c e p t s h i s memory as  He  r e c a l l s a Christmas  t i m e when he  t o l d h e r about h i s m i s e r a b l e c h i l d h o o d ; B u t o f t h a t e v e n i n g she had remembered l i t t l e pot o f c a v i a r e (172)  and  comparison  a b o u t t h e w a s p s ; h i s memory o f t h i s t i m e i s  totally different  first  b u t she has  of  recognized  i m m e d i a t e l y as h i s " s p e c i a l ' i f she w i l l  little  of h i s shock  t h e r e was t h e man  at the  cost of the  jar.  Even i n the  no t r u e communion, no r e a l s h a r i n g .  speaks  of the p i c n i c  had w i t h some f r i e n d s and  a  Ironically,  by t h e B l a c k S.ea t h a t he  o f t h e coachman c o m i n g up t o  them t o ""•have a d i l l p i c k l e , " t o s h a r e w i t h us.' (171)  He  past  wanted  has ask  The man  i s able to admire  216  the "beauty of s h a r i n g when i t  r e q u i r e s nothing from him; Vera f e e l s she can see the f e e l s she i s part of i t , but sour..."(171) man;  "the d i l l  p i c k l e was  picnic,  terribly  She has never had a t r u e communion with the  i n t h i s sense the r e l a t i o n s h i p has been as imaginary  as Vera's  s h a r i n g the B l a c k Sea p i c n i c and the d i l l  the d e s t r u c t i o n of Not t o the man;  her i l l u s i o n s  he i s merely  pickle;  i s indeed sour t o V e r a .  "astounded  when Vera s i l e n t l y walks away from him,  beyond words"  (174)  and, as i n the  scene w i t h the c a v i a r , h i s concern i s with the p r i c e of Vera's  coffee: 'But the cream has not been touched,' he said. 'Please do not charge me f o r i t . ' (174)  The man's l i m i t e d c o n c e p t i o n of s h a r i n g , the couple's l a c k of  genuine  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n past and present i s thus  r e l a t e d t o the food used "The Daughters  i n the  directly  story.  of the Late C o l o n e l " c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l  r e f e r e n c e s t o f o o d , a l l of which h e l p r e v e a l the shared oddness of Jug and Con, ordinary world.  t h e i r complete  s e p a r a t i o n from the  They have asked Nurse Andrews t o s t a y on  with them f o r a week but she has become a problem:  she  keeps them on a r e g u l a r meal schedule vrtiich they would h a p p i l y abandon; makes them worry their  about having no jam f o r  "white, t e r r i f i e d blancmange," which,  i f Nurse Andrews  were not t h e r e , they "would, o f course, have eaten  -  217  -  without," (266); and, as well, i s "simply f e a r f u l " about  the amount o f butter she consumes.  (265)  Q u i t e obviously  there is no communion of s p i r i t s during these meals.  Mr.  Farolles has kindly offered the sisters "'a l i t t l e Communion'" of the Church i n their time of trouble, but the idea t e r r i f i e s them.  When they have been through the ordeal  of t h e i r father's room, they turn, not to the Communion of the Church, but to cups of hot water, to a l i q u i d as weak as t h e i r characters, as cheap as their poor l i v e s , meekly obtained from the tyrannical young Kate, shared together but consumed with the l i t t l e mark out the two  personal idiosyncracies that  sisters:  Josephine curved her small red hands round the cup; Constantia sat up and blew on the wavy steam, making i t f l u t t e r from one side to the other. (273) One of t h e i r "rare t r e a t s " (275)  is t o have their nephew  C y r i l f o r tea, and f o r such rare occasions they w i l l i n g l y s a c r i f i c e their own necessities to provide luxuries for the tea  table.  nephew:  But there is no r e a l communion between aunts and  C y r i l , for a l l h i s good intentions, i s too normal  to understand h i s odd r e l a t i v e s and he experiences only increasing tension and embarrassment as he takes tea with them.  Is h i s father s t i l l fond o f meringues?  C y r i l has no  idea but, faced with the b i t t e r disappointment of his aunts, assures them that "'Father's most f r i g h t f u l l y keen on  -  218  -  meringues.'" They d i d n ' t only beam. Aunty Josephine went s c a r l e t with p l e a s u r e ; Auntie Con gave a deep, deep s i g h . (276) The  s i s t e r s Seem t o f e e l they have achieved a communion not  only with C y r i l but w i t h the d i s t a n t Benny and,  perhaps,  that they have renewed a communion between f a t h e r and as w e l l .  In t h i s s p i r i t  son  they i n s i s t on C y r i l ' s r e p e a t i n g  the good news to C o l o n e l P i n n e r ; the o l d man  receives i t i n  a moment of brooding s i l e n c e and then sums up the whole situation: 'What an e s s t r a o r d i n a r y . t h i n g t o come a l l t h i s way here t o t e l l me!' And It  Cyril felt  i s the s i s t e r s who  from the r e s t  i t was. ( 3 7 8 )  are t r u l y  " e s s t r a o r d i n a r y , " set apart  of the world, able t o achieve r e a l communion  only with the o d d i t y of each o t h e r . In  "The  Garden P a r t y " food i s used as part of the  c o n t r a s t of the S h e r i d a n - S c o t t worlds. meringues, p a s s i o n - f r u i t  Godber cream p u f f s ,  i c e s , f i f t e e n kinds of sandwiches  are taken f o r granted i n the S h e r i d a n world of wealth: food belongs w i t h the garden p a r t y and guests.  I t i s Laura, the g i r l who  distinction  "a b i t " (248), who  i s shared w i t h the  didn't f e e l  class  t h i n k s t o ask f o r refreshments  to be g i v e n t o the bandsmen ( 2 5 7 ) , who across the l i n e of s o c i a l c l a s s . Mrs. S h e r i d a n has the  such  i s w i l l i n g t o share  At the end  of the a f t e r n o o n ,  " b r i l l i a n t " i d e a of r e s o l v i n g  the  -  219  -  awkward problem of the poor f a m i l y i n the cottage hy sending some of the p a r t y l e f t o v e r s t o them, food that i s a l l prepared  and i s " a l l going t o be wasted" ( 2 5 8 ) anyway:  i n the sense of s h a r i n g , Mrs. Sheridan i s g i v i n g n o t h i n g . It  i s Laura who i s u n c e r t a i n about t a k i n g the basket and  who sees the food f o r what i t i s : To take scraps from t h e i r p a r t y . Would the poor woman r e a l l y l i k e t h a t ? ( 2 5 8 ) Laura s u b c o n s c i o u s l y r e a l i z e s that there i s no l o v e , only a s o c i a l condescension It  behind  the g i f t .  i s perhaps i n "Je ne P a r l e pas F r a n c a i s " that, the  communion symbol i s used most, s u b t l y yet i m p o r t a n t l y . i s the " l i t t l e  round f r i e d  There  cake covered with sugar" ( 6 6 )  that the A f r i c a n laundress gave Duquette; i t s symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n Duquette i n d i c a t e s when he speaks o f h i s way of  earning a.'.living: If I f i n d myself i n need o f down-right cash — w e l l , t h e r e ' s always an A f r i c a n laundress and an outhouse, and I am very f r a n k and bon enfant- about p l e n t y of sugar on the l i t t l e f r i e d cake a f t e r w a r d s . . . (68)  Duquette has had many s e x u a l experiences but no sugared  emotional  intimacy:  the l i t t l e  cake i s a payment, not a shared  pleasure.  When Mouse and D i c k a r r i v e with Duquette i n the  h o t e l room, the taut and exhausted Immediately 1'"(82)  Mouse orders  "'Tea.  and she pours out three cups.  But  Duquette i s a p p a r e n t l y t h f only one who d r i n k s the t e a : t h e r e  220  -  -  i s no m e n t i o n o f Mouse's c o n s u m i n g h e r s does n o t , to  f o r he  w r i t e the  intriguing  l e a v e s h i s cup  letter  possibilities  he has  Dick  of the  Duquette's i n s t i n c t  m o m e n t a r i l y wanted t h e  go  The  (84-).  s i t u a t i o n have  Mouse's u n e x p e c t e d d i s p l a y o f h e r  definitely  l e a v e s Mouse) t o  o s t e n s i b l y t o h i s mother  come c l o s e t o s a t i s f y i n g dramatic;  (as he  and  earlier  for  the  scene t o s t o p  at  E n g l i s h need f o r t e a :  'No! N o i E n o u g h . E n o u g h . L e t us l e a v e off there. A t t h e word — tea. For r e a l l y , r e a l l y , you've f i l l e d y o u r g r e e d i e s t s u b s c r i b e r s o f u l l t h a t he w i l l b u r s t i f he has t o s w a l l o w a n o t h e r word. (83) 1  Such "food" of the  i s a l l t h a t Duquette w i l l  ever  curiosity.  But  when he  feels  a p o s s i b l e intimacy even h i s c u r i o s i t y venture  on t h a t s h a r e d  h i m s e l f and  "eating f r u i t  and,  and  when he  a most l i m i t e d fish  he has  sitting  l e a n i n g out  t h e man  and  i n the  down t r y i n g finally  s t o r y , as  This i t has  attraction  c a n n o t make  "To  been f i s h i n g  together  of  him  and  gives  at an open window,  l a u g h i n g " and  he  f o r her.  in reality  But  saves  song D i c k used t o s i n g : get  a dinner  f i n d s a p l a c e , he  m e a l , f o r "'We  ball.'"(70)  o f the  are  the  I n h i s dreams D u q u e t t e p i c t u r e s  strawberries'"(90)  is like  w a n d e r i n g up (70)  and  the w i l d  Duquette  meal.  Mouse t o g e t h e r :  f i s h to her, they  "'all  glimpses  p a s s i o n o f o t h e r s , momentary s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r h i s  insatiable  the  receive:  don't serve  i n the  town...'  can a f f o r d  bread  with  i s Duquette's c o n d i t i o n at the b e e n and  will  be  a l l his l i f e ,  only one end going  -  221  vaguely  i n search  o f a s p i r i t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n he w i l l  never  have: I must g o . I must g o . I r e a c h down m y c o a t and h a t . Madame knows me. 'You haven't dined y e t ? ' she s m i l e s . 'Ko,  n o t y e t , Madame.  (91)  1  I n t h e s e many u s e s o f f o o d , M a n s f i e l d uses t h e very  a t t r i b u t e s of food  Food may be e x p e n s i v e : one  o f the reasons f o rthe l i t t l e  t h e means o f m a k i n g  sophistication.  o f h e r symbolism.  the p r i c e of the strawberries Is  I t may be a n e n t i c i n g d e l i c a c y : is  as p a r t  skillfully  governess'  capitulation.  the t r a y of French p a s t r i e s  "The Y o u n g G i r l "  lower  h e r armour o f  I t may i n d i c a t e a w h o l e s o c i a l  cream p u f f s and p a s s i o n - i c e s b e l o n g  world:  t o the Sheridan  garden  party but only the l e f t - o v e r s are taken t o the S c o t t s . always t h e s h a r i n g of food intimacy.  represents  T h i s may be p r e s e n t e d  may be u s e d t o u n d e r l i n e t h e in  "Miss  Brill,"  the sharing of an  i r o n i c a l l y , as i n " B l i s s , "  i s o l a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r , as  o r may show t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f v i r t u a l  w o r l d s o f e x i s t e n c e , a s i n "The D a u g h t e r s o f t h e L a t e and  "The Man W i t h o u t a Temperament."  stories the food that  But  Significantly,  t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r does n o t a c h i e v e  Colonel" i n most  a communion and  i s t h e r e f o r e n o t s p o k e n o f as s h a r e d :  Vera  imagines  s h e t a s t e s "A D i l l P i c k l e " b u t i s n o t s h a r i n g any r e a l  i n t i m a c y w i t h t h e man; "The L i t t l e with her "grandfather"  G o v e r n e s s " spends t h e day  but i s not s a i d t o share food  with him;  -  222  -  Duquette can dream of sharing f r u i t and fresh-caught f i s h with Mouse but i n r e a l i t y he has "not yet" dined.  In her  use of the communion symbol, Mansfield seems to be stating her b e l i e f i n the p o s s i b i l i t y of a true communion between people but also her disillusionment i n the amount of such communion actually achieved i n the world of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Travel Symbolism The meaning of the symbol of t r a v e l i n her work Mansfield herself suggested  i n one of her book reviews:  It does not matter how many times L i f e has been compared to a journey, there comes a day when each of us makes that comparison f o r himself and wonders at the mysterious fitness of i t A* In a number of her s t o r i e s Mansfield uses such a symbol: l i f e as a journey, as the act of t r a v e l l i n g with death often suggested,aalways  Implied as the ultimate and  inescapable end of the journey.  Most commonly, but not  always, the journey i s made on water. "The Voyage" suggests this symbolism by i t s very t i t l e and the t i t l e leads into the central meaning of the story.  So l i t t l e seems to happen:  the very voyage i t s e l f  is merely a short boat t r i p across the narrow s t r a i t s separating the two islands of New Zealand; i t takes place at night and does not appear as a major adventure Mansfield, Novels and Novelists, p. 279.  even to  -  the c h i l d .  223  -  But Fenella has been forced to make a f a r  greater voyage than she r e a l i z e s , one from childhood with i t s innocent happiness to the f i r s t point of adulthood, the r e a l i z a t i o n of death.  Fenella wonders how long she  w i l l stay with her grandparents but her father avoids answering her whispered  question; there can be no going  back to the old home f o r the mother i s permanently  gone.  Yet l i f e i n general and Fenella's l i f e i n particular w i l l go on and can, indeed should be happy.  In the early morning  l i g h t Fenella looks out at her new home; she hopefully wonders, Oh, i t had a l l been so sad l a t e l y . i t going to change? ( 3 2 8 )  Was  Change i s the unavoidable fact of l i f e u n t i l death;  Fenella  is shown as being fortunately secure and guided i n her voyage of l i f e by the sheltering love of her grandparents. The same symbolism of l i f e as a journey is also the symbolic core of "The Stranger."  Janey and John are t r a v e l l i n g  side by side as Mr. and Mrs. Hammond, yet they are as f a r apart emotionally as they have been physically while Janey was overseas.  John has f e l t that there i s a great difference  between the land and the sea; once Janey i s back with him, a l l danger i s over and security regained.  As he waits f o r  her i n her cabin, he feels that The s t r a i n was over. He f e l t he could have sat there f o r ever sighing h i s relief The danger was over. That  -  224  -  was the f e e l i n g . They were on dry land a g a i n . (356-357) Yet, even when Janey r e t u r n s to her c a b i n and he c l a s p s her  i n h i s arms, i t i s not q u i t e  right:  And again, as always, he had the f e e l i n g he was h o l d i n g something that never was q u i t e h i s — h i s . Something too d e l i c a t e , too p r e c i o u s , that would f l y away once he l e t go. (358) Janey and John are never i n the same unmoving spot on s a f e , dry l a n d :  i t i s as i f they e x i s t  i n a world  I n which they  are always packed, ready to move: There was t h e luggage, ready t o be c a r r i e d away again, anywhere, t o s s e d t r a i n s , carted on t o boats. (363)  into  T h i s has always been so but only now, only a f t e r the i n c i d e n t of the s t r a n g e r on the boat, The Stranger represents  a l l the strangeness  i n l i f e who thus  which remains i n even the  most loved one, only a f t e r t h i s does John r e a l i z e the insecurity  even o f l o v e .  In "The Wind Blows" the s i s t e r sees the f u t u r e o f h e r s e l f and h e r b r o t h e r as somehow part of the b i g b l a c k steamer which i s p u t t i n g out t o s e a . For a moment she can v i s u a l i z e a time when she and her b r o t h e r , s t i l l  together,  w i l l be l e a v i n g t h e i r home; f o r t h i s moment i n the present the g i r l  catches  something of both the d i s t a n c e and t h e  poignancy o f that i n e v i t a b l e childhood.  l e a v e - t a k i n g from home and  The boss i n "The F l y " f e e l s very much i n c o n t r o l  of  h i s business world;  225  -  i t i s as such that o l d W o o d i f i e l d  considers him:  the boss i s " s t i l l  going s t r o n g , s t i l l  the helm" (422)  of h i m s e l f and of h i s b u s i n e s s .  In  at  "The  Man Without a Temperament," a boat  symbol i s used  for  emotionally s t a t i c f o r  l i f e has  become p h y s i c a l l y and  the S a l e s b y s .  When Robert  has h a s t i l y taken h i s  wife back to the bedroom f o r her medicine, two white  b e d s . . . l i k e two  ironically  ships  coughing  he sees  "(140)  "the  Later, after  he  has watched the d i s t a n t l i g h t n i n g f l u t t e r l i k e a broken b i r d , he r e t u r n s t o the bedroom and seemjed] to f l o a t . " (142)  The  i n the dusk "the two beds are only l i k e  only seem t o f l o a t , f o r there i s no escape, from t h i s spot p o s s i b l e f o r Robert beds, " l i k e  (Robert's]  beds  two s h i p s ,  no movement away  or f o r J i n n i e .  days of e x i l e , d r i f t  The  boat-  nowhere i n  46 particular."  I t i s the Honeymoon Couple who  on the r e a l sea i n one  r e a l boat  and who  have been out  have together  caught the f i s h they share f o r t h e i r d i n n e r .  Ian  French  ( " F e u i l l e d'Album") i s young i n y e a r s , e m o t i o n a l l y immature, working t o be an a r t i s t .  I t i s t h i s combination  c h i l d i s h n e s s and d e t e r m i n a t i o n that make him to  of  so a t t r a c t i v e  t h e a r t y women of t h e P a r i s s e t : that blue j e r s e y and the grey jacket w i t h the sleeves that were too short gave him the a i r of a boy that has made up h i s mind to run away t o s e a . Who has  Love,"  ^°Kleine, "Katherine M a n s f i e l d and p.32.  the P r i s o n e r of  -  226  -  run away, i n f a c t , and w i l l get up i n a moment and walk out into the night and be drowned. ( l 6 l ) It is t h i s apparent determination to accept the challenge of  l i f e ' s journey and yet h i s lack of sophisticated control  of l i f e that set Ian apart i n the cheap salons and dingy cafes. In  "Je ne Parle pas Francais" Duquette sees Dick i n  somewhat of the same images I cannot think why his indolence and dreaminess always gave me the impression he had been to sea. And a l l his l e i s u r e l y slow ways seemed to be allowing f o r the movement of the ship. ( 7 2 ) Duquette's infatuation for Dick seems at least  partially  based on his feeling that Dick, with h i s "calm  acceptance"  ( 7 1 ) of a l l Duquette can t e l l him, i s somehow more experienced, more self-assured than he.  When Dick abruptly t e l l s Duquette  that he i s leaving for England  i n the morning, Duquette sees  him " l i g h t l y swaying upon the step as though the whole hotel were h i s ship, and the anchor weighed" while Duquette Is being l e f t  "on the shore alone".(73)  That Dick is a less  experienced t r a v e l l e r than Duquette has supposed i s revealed when the English man  returns to Paris with Mouse; at f i r s t  Duquette i s shocked by Dick's haggard appearance — assured Dick somehow been destroyed by l i f e ? —  has the  but then  Duquette believes h i s friend's obvious tension is but due to nervousness, embarrassment, to "the famous English seriousness" before the sexual adventure:  -  ~  227  L i g h t broke on the dark waters and s a i l o r hadn't been drowned. ( 7 8 )  my  D i c k escapes back to the s e c u r i t y of h i s mother; deserted Mouse who the  Paris hotel.  i t i s the  i s n e a r l y drowned by what happens  in  A f t e r she has read D i c k ' s f a r e w e l l  letter  she f l u n g out her hands as though the l a s t of her poor l i t t l e weapons was gone and now she l e t h e r s e l f be c a r r i e d away, washed out i n t o the deep water ( 8 7 ) and when she speaks Her v o i c e was q u i t e calm, but i t was not her v o i c e any more. It was l i k e the voice you might imagine coming out of a t i n y , cold s e a - s h e l l swept h i g h and dry at l a s t by the salt tide.. . (88) Mouse has been d e s e r t e d , thrown up alone on a cold beach by the moving  t i d e of l i f e .  i s not a t r a v e l l e r , the  Duquette knows that he h i m s e l f  i s not and does not wish to be part of  emotional s t r a i n of l i f e ' s  journey.  He p i c t u r e s h i m s e l f  as the Customs' o f f i c i a l , f r e e t o ask of a l l t r a v e l l e r s , "'Have you anything t o d e c l a r e ? ' " ( 6 1 ) His most  thrilling  moments come as he judges whether  or not he has been taken  i n by the baggage of o t h e r s ; t h i s  i s as c l o s e as Duquette  i s w i l l i n g and able to come to t a k i n g an a c t i v e part  i n the  emotional movement o f l i f e . In  "An I d e a l F a m i l y " and " R e v e l a t i o n s " the  becomes of the water i t s e l f ;  symbolism  i n each case the meaning  l a c k of human c o n t r o l or d i r e c t i o n .  i s of  Old Mr. Neave f i n d s  h i m s e l f suddenly t i r e d , of  -  228  "too o l d " f o r the y o u t h f u l promise  s p r i n g ; he pbds slowly home, " l i f t i n g  h i s knees h i g h as  i f he were walking through a i r that had somehow grown heavy and s o l i d old  l i k e water." (368)  L i f e has become too much f o r  Mr. Neave, has become something through which he must  push r a t h e r than something on which he f l o a t s on h i s way. When Monica f a c e s the second of her " R e v e l a t i o n s , " l i f e which had seemed t o take place i n a " v i b r a t i n g , e x c i t i n g , f l y i n g world" (192)  now  trembling,  is terrifying,  dreadful,  lonely;: We w h i r l along l i k e l e a v e s , and nobody knows nobody cares where we f a l l , i n what b l a c k r i v e r we f l o a t away. (195) Monica suddenly f i n d s t h a t l i f e  i s not so e a s i l y  controlled  as she had thought, that there i s a movement of l i f e  toward  death which i s beyond human power t o d i r e c t . In  "The Escape" and  "The Young G i r l " the t r a v e l  i s expressed i n terms of a t r a i n . the  In "The Escape" there i s  a c t u a l journey of the couple, f i r s t  on the t r a i n .  The f i r s t  t o the s t a t i o n ,  so f u l l of heavenly  "he wished he might l i v e f o r ever." (202)  between has come the man's emotional escape. the  later  i s marred by the w i f e ' s incessant  complaining, the second f i n d s the man happiness t h a t  symbol  s t o r y , the woman i s s t i l l  At the end of  complaining of "'mes  and o f her husband's i n c o n s i d e r a t e n a t u r e : happy as when he i s t r a v e l l i n g . ' " ( 2 0 2 )  In  nerfs'"  he " ' i s never so  T h i s seems t o express  -  229  -  the man's c a p a c i t y f o r e n j o y i n g l i f e , a c a p a c i t y which was b e i n g d e s t r o y e d by t h e constant nagging wife.  of his neurotic  Now he has made a m y s t i c j o u r n e y , has found h i s  e m o t i o n a l escape, he w i l l be a b l e t o be what he i s by n a t u r e —  a good t r a v e l l e r o f l i f e .  trains  A l l t h i s i s summed up by the  o n l y another cause f o r complaint t o the. w i f e but t h e  moving e x p r e s s i o n o f the man's h a p p i n e s s .  Mrs. R a d d i c k ,  mother o f "The Young G i r l , " r e t u r n s from h e r attempt t o take her daughter met  i n t o the casino a d i f f e r e n t  creature:  she has  a f r i e n d from New York who i s h a v i n g t h e most w o n d e r f u l  r u n o f l u c k i n the S a l l e P r i v e e .  Mrs. R a d d i c k i s " w i l d " t o  j o i n her f r i e n d : She was l i k e a woman who i s y s a y i n g 'goodbye' t o h e r f r i e n d s on t h e s t a t i o n p l a t f o r m , w i t h not a minute t o spare b e f o r e t h e t r a i n s t a r t s . (296) Mrs. R a d d i c k ' s  life  i s i n the gambling h a s t e o f c a s i n o s  and a teenage daughter becomes an i n c o n v e n i e n c e t h a t may make h e r miss t h i s e m o t i o n a l t r a i n . The use o f t h e t r a v e l symbol i n "The Daughters o f the L a t e C o l o n e l " i s b r i e f b u t , coming as i t does near t h e end o f t h e l a s t s e c t i o n , i t s e r v e s t o sum up t h e l i v e s of Con and J u g .  I t i s a symbol o f c o n t r a s t :  the l i f e t h e  s i s t e r s have l e d compared t o the l i f e t h e y might have had and can o n l y v a g u e l y imagine.  Con f e e l s t h a t the l i f e w i t h  F a t h e r has " a l l seemed t o have happened i n a k i n d o f t u n n e l "  -  230  -  (284) with somehow another l i f e going on outside. She remembered how, whenever they were at the seaside, she had gone o f f by herself and got as close to the sea as she could, and sung something, something she had made up, while she gazed a l l over that r e s t l e s s water. (284) Condonestions, "What did i t mean?  What did i t a l l lead  to?"(284) but the tunnel she travels with Jug is a closed labyrinth, never leading to a journey on that a t t r a c t i v e l y 47 r e s t l e s s water. The  characters of "Prelude" take an actual journey,  although one of only a few miles from t h e i r house i n town to a house near the sea.  But each character i n the story  Is shown to react to the move i n a way  that reveals the  character's attitude to the journey of l i f e  itself.  is at once exhausted, excited, yet i n d i f f e r e n t .  Linda  Stanley is  enthusiastic about the move, intrigued i n the- same way is for anything new;  his deepest pleasure  based on his sound business  he  i n the move is  judgment, for "'land about here  is bound to become more and more valuable"'.(23) Mrs. F a i r f i e l d continues her serene, useful l i f e which is v i r t u a l l y unchanged by the move; i n a matter of hours It was hard to believe that she had been i n that kitchen for years; she so much a part of It (29)  not was  ?Wright suggests that the tunnel image i n this story represents death ("Darkness as a Symbol i n Katherine Mansfield", p.204) but this does not seem to me to f i t i t s use and p o s i t i o n i n the story. Rather, i t seems to represent the narrow l i f e walled i n by r e s t r i c t i o n s , a l i f e which is a kind of l i v i n g death. 4  -  231  -  Beryl d i s l i k e s the distance from town for i t decreases her chance of a romantic l i f e and a successful marriage, but i n more depressed moments she admits that the move to the country i s only part of her larger grievance against l i f e : 'One may as well rot here as anywhere else," she muttered savagely (31) None of the children i s old enough to f e e l the move as a single causal effect on t h e i r l i v e s ;  the children treat  each incident as a separate event yet are shown to react i n ways that reveal their Individual t r a i t s .  L i t t l e Lottie i s  in tears at being l e f t behind f o r a few hours; Isabel i s "bursting with pride"(12) at riding on top of the loaded wagon; Kezia i s ready to cry but w i l l not allow h e r s e l f to do so " i n front of those awful Samuel Josephs."(14)  Always  Kezia i s shov/n to be a l i t t l e more perceptive, a l i t t l e more sensitive than her s i s t e r s ; i t i s Kezia alone of the three l i t t l e g i r l s who explores the garden on their f i r s t morning i n the new house, who as i t were, wishes to know as much as possible about the new l i f e . The t r a v e l symbolism  i n "Psychology" i s somewhat  different from that i n the other s t o r i e s .  The man and woman  f e e l that they are "eager, serious t r a v e l l e r s " but that i n their relationship they are only moving safely, though e x c i t i n g l y , from one city of the soul to the other: Like two open c i t i e s i n the midst of some vast p l a i n t h e i r two minds lay open to each other. And i t wasn't as i f he  -  232  -  rode into hers l i k e a conqueror, armed to the eyebrows and seeing nothing but a gay s i l k e n f l u t t e r ~- nor did she enter his l i k e a queen walking soft on petals. No, they were eager, serious t r a v e l l e r s , absorbed i n understanding what was to be seen and discovering what was hidden (112-113)  They have persuaded themselves that they are interested only i n a voyage of the i n t e l l e c t s , a serious journey that dismisses the f o o l i s h trappings of romance as i t ignores the p o s s i b i l i t y of a closer, physical intimacy.  What the  true relationship of any such man and woman is they suddenly feels  they are indeed t r a v e l l e r s but not between two safe,  open c i t i e s on a clear, harmless p l a i n .  Their way i s  through a dark jungle: Again they were conscious questioning dark. Again, two hunters, bending over hearing suddenly from the shake of wind and a loud, (115)  of the boundless, there they were — t h e i r f i r e , but jungle beyond a questioning cry...  They are not "serious t r a v e l l e r s " but "hunters" of something they are not at this moment prepared to recognize; t h e i r minds may indeed be l i k e two wealthy c i t i e s ready to be explored but their bodily needs place them on a path through the jungle of l i f e ' s emotions and the loud, questioning cry of passion i s sounding In the dark around them. Mansfield's use of t r a v e l as a symbol of l i f e ' s journey thus occurs i n many stories and i n stories written  -  233  -  throughout the major period of her short writing career. The predominance of the boat-water aspect of the symbol may  be p a r t i a l l y due to the several actual journeys  water that Mansfield h e r s e l f made during her three voyages from New to New  Zealand,  Zealand  ;  by  l i f e t i m e --  to England, two from Englacl  and many crossings of the Channel —  but  is more apt to be due to the very quality of a voyage on water that suggested the meaning Mansfield wished her symbol to convey.  It is the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the  natural movement of l i f e , a movement that man  constant,  can do  little  to control, nothing to stop, that i s most fundamental to Mansfield's many uses of the t r a v e l symbol.  Late i n her  l i f e , Mansfield wrote i n a l e t t e r : I f we set out upon a journey, the more wonderful the treasure, the greater the temptations and p e r i l s to be overcome and i f someone rebels and says, L i f e isn't good enough on those terms,' one can only say: 'It i s . ' We r e s i s t , we are t e r r i b l y frightened. The l i t t l e boat enters the dark f e a r f u l gulf and our only cry is to escape — 'put me on land again.' But i t ' s useless. Nobody l i s t e n s . The shadowy figure rows on. One ought to s i t s t i l l and uncover one's eyes. " 4  A journey that was both perilous and wonderful and somehow "good enough on those terms" seemed to be Mansfield's most persistent attitude to l i f e . 'Letters. I I  p. 57-58.  In t h i s  chapter  234  I have attempted t o o u t l i n e the  major r e c u r r i n g symbols I f i n d mature w r i t i n g i s obvious:  period.  -  i n the  That t h i s  v i r t u a l l y every  stories  of  Mansfield's  d i s c u s s i o n I s not  story presents  definitive  a multitude  of  e x a m p l e s o f i m a g e r y and  symbolism, examples t h a t v a r y g r e a t l y  in their  subtlety.  he  complexity  and  speaks of M a n s f i e l d ' s  to defeat  itself,  Daiches 49  "sensitivity"  f o r n a t u r a l l y the  when i t i s u n d e r s t o o d  and  i s c o r r e c t when  f o r symbols  tending  symbol o n l y communicates  much o f t h e m e a n i n g o f  v  Mansfield's  s y m b o l i s m becomes c l e a r o n l y a f t e r a n o v e r a l l v i e w o f  her  vjork. So t h e b i r d s y m b o l i s m o f "Mr. and M r s . D o v e " i s g l a r i n g l y o b v i o u s , as M a n s f i e l d h e r s e l f a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y 50 realized, now  but  t h e doves as  f o r e v e r c a g e d , does n o t  story alone. restricted  We  will  caged b e i n g s  ending, 'You 'No,  flight,  c e r t a i n l y r e a l i z e something of  haven't dined  of food  one the  from a f i r s t  n o t u n t i l M a n s f i e l d ' s use  as a communion s y m b o l i s r e c o g n i z e d the  of  p r o p e r l y emerge f r o m t h i s  d e p r a v i t y of D u q u e t t e ' s l i f e  o f the s t o r y , but  capable  reading and  i n other s t o r i e s  drink  does  yet?".....  n o t y e t , Madame"  4 9 c i t e d on page/'Wof t h e  (91)  i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s  chapter.  5°Mansfield n o t e d i n h e r J o u r n a l t h a t "Mr. and M r s . D o v e " was "not i n e v i t a b l e " and t h a t she had "a s n e a k i n g n o t i o n " t h a t she h a d , a t the e n d , "used t h e Doves u n w a r r a n t a b l y . " (p. 187)  acquire i t s f u l l poignancy.  235  -  We are used to the symbolism of the  road of l i f e but not u n t i l we f i n d the symbol i n i t s s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n Mansfield's other s t o r i e s are we prepared t o understand the importance of the simple move from town t o country i n "Prelude." We can hardly miss seeing Miss B r i l l ' s fur  as a symbol of the s p i n s t e r h e r s e l f , yet even t h i s  obvious symbolism gains i n force when we f i n d i t s complement i n the y e l l o w i s h f u r of the aging p r o s t i t u t e , so c l o s e l y associated with her f u r hat that she i s referred to as "the ermine toque."  " B l i s s " has Bertha p o i n t i n g out her own  resemblance to the flowering pear t r e e , Linda i n "Prelude" i s nearly as e x p l i c i t , to the reader i n her l i k e n i n g of h e r s e l f to the aloe; such obvious examples of plant symbolism a i d us i n f i n d i n g the meaning of Mansfield's use of the flowers of l i f e and of death i n "The Lady's Maid."  One use of symbolism thus  serves t o point out, to c l a r i f y , to e x p l a i n more f u l l y another. Berkman speaks of Mansfield's view of the world as 51  revealed i n her symbolism as that of a "ruined Eden" there i s c e r t a i n l y some t r u t h i n Berkman's statement. the  and Yet  moral judgment implied by Berkman seems to me t o be  misleading, f o r Mansfield's symbolism seems t o r e v e a l , not a wicked, but an i n d i f f e r e n t world, not a world of an a c t i v e f a l l from grace but one of passive, h i g h l y complex forces.  The question of why the "other" l i f e of Con and rkman, p.192.  -  236  -  Jug remains c r y i n g f o r l o r n l y outside simply old  answered; more than the  Colonel  the f l a t  restrictive  cannot  power of the  i s needed t o e x p l a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  "lady" does not  take from E l l e n the  which i n c l u d e the m i s t r e s s  be  flowers  Ellen's  of l o v e :  forces  combine to make E l l e n h e r s e l f  exchange the b r i d a l l i l i e s - o f - t h e - v a l l e y f o r the pansies death.  The  immediate f u t u r e of "The  l a r g e l y c o n t r o l l e d by her Raddick does or does not l o v e l y bud's maturing and to me  that by her  view of l i f e of l i f e  inadequate mother, but  be  nothing  do w i l l . s t o p the process of ultimately fading.  symbolism M a n s f i e l d  Mrs.  the  It thus seems  i s showing, not  as a "ruined Eden," but merely the  that makes i t wonderful and  same time.  Young G i r l " may  of  her  complexity  p e r i l o u s at one  and  the  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION  I n t h i s paper I have attempted to i s o l a t e and examine the major techniques of Katherine Mansfield as displayed i n the completed s t o r i e s of her mature w r i t i n g period.  Obviously, i n d i s c u s s i n g an a r t as subtle as  M a n s f i e l d ' s , the main problem has been one of s e l e c t i o n , f o r v i r t u a l l y every scene, every movement of a character, even the punctuation of the s t o r i e s , can be seen as part of a c a r e f u l l y developed  technical pattern.  I have thus  had t o make somewhat of an a r b i t r a r y choice, s e l e c t i n g what I consider t o be the b a s i c techniques, the t e c h n i c a l foundation on which the elaborate s t r u c t u r e of Mansfield's stories i s b u i l t :  the treatment of time, of point of view,  of names, and of symbolism.  These have been discussed  i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the preceding  chapters.  The d i v i s i o n i n t o such chapters has been necessary both f o r f a c i l i t y and f o r c l a r i t y of examination but has perhaps suggested  too great a separation or i s o l a t i o n of  aspects of Mansfield's technique.  Obviously the t o t a l i t y  of e f f e c t i s not only greater than the sum of the p a r t s but a l s o the r e s u l t of an i n t e r r e l a t i o n , an i n t e g r a t i o n , of the parts themselves.  So Mansfield's treatment of point  of view p a r t i a l l y d i c t a t e s her use of time, yet her use of time  -  237  -  238 -  can also be seen as d i c t a t i n g point of view; so the names Mansfield gives to her characters can be seen as a separate facet of technique or as part of the central symbolism of the s t o r i e s .  My d i v i s i o n was necessary for the purpose  of examination and discussion but has unavoidably implied an a r t i f i c i a l i t y that i s not present i n the application of the techniques i n the stories  themselves.  I have not found the aspects of Mansfield's technique to be i n themselves d i f f e r e n t from those of other writers. Rather, her technical excellence l i e s i n her apparently i n s t i n c t i v e recognition of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t r a d i t i o n a l techniques; the result of her recognition and application is the unique technical blend that i s a Mansfield story. Her use of point of view has long been considered one of her most advanced techniques, yet even this  technique  becomes, under examination, only Mansfield's v a r i a t i o n on the t r a d i t i o n a l f i c t i o n a l approaches of the f i r s t the r e s t r i c t e d t h i r d , the omniscient author.  person,  The difference  comes from Mansfield's s k i l l and consistency of applications seldom are we unaware of whether we are seeing from inside or outside a character's mind and very seldom indeed are we conscious of any jar at the moment of t r a n s f e r .  Mansfield's  presentation of time has also been f e l t to be a hallmark of her work, yet i n analysis what i s i t but a technical p a r a l l e l to that of her use of point of view, Mansfield's  239  -  Subtle movement of the story through the "tenses" of her characters' past, present and f u t u r e l i v e s ?  I t i s by  her t e c h n i c a l d e x t e r i t y i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n that Mansfield i s able t o give a double sense of time:  time as the packages  of experience which are the immediate concern of the characters, but a l s o time as the everflowing, u n c o n t r o l l a b l e r i v e r of ceaseless movement towards death.  Mansfield's  use of names as a means of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n combines the opposing name techniques of the Dickens  1  and James' schools  of f i c t i o n , f o r at times Mansfield f o l l o w s Dickens i n using names to connote the broad d i s t i n c t i o n s of s o c i a l c l a s s , n a t i o n a l i t y , character type; at times, l i k e James, she uses names s y m b o l i c a l l y t o i n d i c a t e a more s u b t l e and important feature of her characters.  Symbolism i n i t s many varying  aspects i s c e r t a i n l y one of Mansfield's major techniques, so c e n t r a l t o her s t o r i e s that there have been c r i t i c s ready to see every gesture of the characters, every object associated w i t h them as a symbol of the characters  themselves.  In my n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d d i s c u s s i o n , I have concentrated on the f i v e major r e c u r r i n g symbols I have found i n Mansfield's work:  the symbols of bird/wings; communion; t r a v e l ; p l a n t s ;  and animals.  These I b e l i e v e t o be c e n t r a l t o the meaning  of the s t o r i e s of Mansfield's mature w r i t i n g p e r i o d . The s u b t l e complexity of Mansfield's technique has been demonstrated i n the previous chapters.  The question  -  240  -  that n a t u r a l l y a r i s e s i s the question of Mansfield's suggested  but unwritten works  we know t h a t , though Mansfield  had v i r t u a l l y ceased w r i t i n g during her l a s t weeks of l i f e , she f u l l y intended w r i t i n g again at some undefined time i n the f u t u r e when she f e l t her v i s i o n had a t t a i n e d s u f f i c i e n t new c l a r i t y of purpose.  Would t h i s work indeed have been  d i f f e r e n t , b e t t e r , or merely an extension of the l i m i t e d canon of her e a r l i e r work?  The most i l l u m i n a t i n g explanation  I have found of what M a n s f i e l d hoped to do i n the f u t u r e i s i n A.R. Orage's account of a conversation w i t h her a few weeks before her death. In a passage I have p r e v i o u s l y quoted, Orage records that M a n s f i e l d stated that she had been too " s e l e c t i v e " a camera, seeing not f a l s e l y but r e s t r i c t i v e l y s 'I have not been able to t h i n k , " she s a i d , 'that I should not have made such observations as I have made of people, however c r u e l they may seem. A f t e r a l l , I d i d observe those t h i n g s , and I had to set them down. I've been a camera. But t h a t ' s j u s t the p o i n t . I've been a s e l e c t i v e camera, and i t has been my a t t i t u d e that has determined the s e l e c t i o n 1 Therefore, i n order to widen the "scope" of her camera, a new a t t i t u d e was necessary, an a t t i t u d e Mansfield c a l l e d " c r e a t i v e " and which she f e l t she had achieved at the B u r d j i e f f I n s t i t u t e s 'I'm aware of a recent change of a t t i t u d e i n myself: and at once not only my old s t o r i e s have come t o look d i f f e r e n t to me, but l i f e i t s e l f looks d i f f e r e n t . I could not w r i t e my ^•Orage, p. 37  -  241 -  old s t o r i e s again, or any more l i k e them; and not because I do not see the same d e t a i l as before, but because somehow or other the p a t t e r n i s d i f f e r e n t . The o l d d e t a i l s now make another p a t t e r n ; and t h i s perception of a new p a t t e r n i s what I c a l l a c r e a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward l i f e . '  2  Orage then asks how t h i s new theory w i l l apply to her s t o r i e s —  "'How w i l l your new idea work out i n p r a c t i c e ? ' " — and  Mansfield gives a r e v e a l i n g example of a p o s s i b l e o u t l i n e f o r her new kind of s t o r y : 'Two people f a l l i n love and marry. One, or perhaps both of them, has had previous a f f a i r s , the remains of which s t i l l l i n g e r l i k e ghosts i n the new home. Both wish to f o r g e t , but the ghosts s t i l l walk. How can t h i s s i t u a t i o n be presented? O r d i n a r i l y a w r i t e r , such as the l a t e lamented Katherine M a n s f i e l d , would bring her passive, s e l e c t i v e , and r e s e n t f u l a t t i t u d e to bear upon i t , and the r e s u l t would be one of her famous s a t i r i c sketches, r e i n f o r c i n g i n her readers the a t t i t u d e i n h e r s e l f . ' 3 And one must admit the t r u t h of Mansfield's i n d i r e c t indictment of much of her past work', Mansfield now says that 'Thanks to some change i n me since I have been i n i n s t i t u t e [ s i c j , I see any such s i t u a t i o n [as described above] as an opportunity f o r the exercise and employment of a l l the i n t e l l i g e n c e , i n v e n t i o n , imagination, bravery, endurance and, i n f a c t , a l l the v i r t u e s , of the most a t t r a c t i v e hero and heroine I can see such a scope f o r s u b t l e t y of observation that Henry James might appear myopic. At the same time, no q u a l i t y need n e c e s s a r i l y remain unemployed; but every power of the a r t i s t might be brought i n t o play.'4 2  3  4  0rage, p. 38. I b i d , p. 38. T b i d , p. 39.  -  242  -  While there would of course not n e c e s s a r i l y be a happy ending to such a s t o r y , 'Heroes and heroines are not measured e i t h e r by what they p a s s i v e l y endure or by what they a c t u a l l y achieve, but by the quantity and q u a l i t y of the e f f o r t they put f o r t h . The reader's sympathy would be maintained by the c o n t i n u i t y and v a r i e t y of the e f f o r t of one or both of the characters, by t h e i r indomitable renewal of the struggle w i t h ever f r e s h invention.'? Mansfield  concludes: •I see the way (of w r i t i n g such s t o r i e s ] but I s t i l l have to go i t . ' 6  Katherine Mansfield never had the opportunity of t e s t i n g , of presenting her new a t t i t u d e i n new s t o r i e s , but c e r t a i n l y the i n d i c a t i o n s from Orage's recorded  conversation  are that she not only recognized a f l a w i n her old work, but recognized that the f l a w was caused not by l a c k of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l but by her p r e v i o u s l y l i m i t e d a t t i t u d e . I f Mansfield had indeed achieved a wider view of l i f e , which would enable her to see l i f e as an  one  "indomitable  renewal of the struggle w i t h ever f r e s h i n v e n t i o n , " then Indeed she might have w r i t t e n s t o r i e s which would have r i v a l e d Henry James* i n t h e i r ' s u b t l e t y of observation." C e r t a i n l y by the time of her death, Mansfield had developed a t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y capable of expressing whatever complexity her new a t t i t u d e and observation would suggest to her. ^Orage, p. 39I b i d . . p. 40.  6  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A.  WORKS. BY MANSFIELD  M a n s f i e l d , Katherine. C o l l e c t e d S t o r i e s of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . E d i t e d by John Middleton Murry. London, Constable, 1962. Murry, John Middleton, ed. Journal of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . London, Constable, 1 9 2 7 . Murry, John Middleton, ed. Katherine Mansfield's L e t t e r s t o John Middleton Murry, 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 2 2 . London, Constable, 1951.  Murry, John Middleton, ed. The L e t t e r s of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . London, Constable, 1 9 2 8 . 2 v o l s . Murry, John Middleton, ed. The Scrapbook of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . London, Constable, 1 9 3 9 .  B.  WORKS. BY OTHER  AUTHORS  A l p e r s , Antony. Katherine M a n s f i e l d . Cape, 1954-.  London, Jonathan  Baker, Ernest A. The H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Novel. New York, Barnes & Noble, I960. V o l . 1 0 . Berkman, S y l v i a . Katherine M a n s f i e l d . New Haven at the Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 1 . Brewster, Dorothy & Angus B u r r e l l , Modern F i c t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press at New York, 1934. Cather, W i l l a . Not Under F o r t y . 1936.  New York, A l f r e d A Knopf,  C l a r k e , I s a b e l C. Katherine M a n s f i e l d . The Beltane Book Bureau at W e l l i n g t o n , 1944. Daiches, David. The Novel and the Modern World, Chicago at the U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1940.  -  243 -  244- F r i i s , Anne. Katherine M a n s f i e l d . L i f e and S t o r i e s . Copenhagen, E i n a r Munksgaard, 194o~7~ Gordon, Ian A. Katherine M a n s f i e l d . W r i t e r s and Their Work: No. 49, London, Longmans, Green, 1 9 5 5 . Mantz, Ruth E l v i s h and Murry, John Middleton. The L i f e of Katherine M a n s f i e l d . London, Constable, 1 9 3 3 . Murry, John Middleton. Between Two Worlds. New York, J . Messner, 1 9 3 6 . Murry, John Middleton. Katherine Mansfield and Other L i t e r a r y P o r t r a i t s . London, Peter V e v e i l l , 194-9• Katherine Mansfield and Other L i t e r a r y S t u d i e s . London, Constable, 1 9 5 9 . O r v i s , Mary Buchard. The Art of Writing; F i c t i o n . P r e n t i c e H a l l , New York, 1948. S e w e l l , A r t h u r . Katherine M a n s f i e l d . Auckland, New Zealand, The Unicorn P r e s s , 1936.  C.  PERIODICAL  ARTICLES  Aiken, Conrad. "The Short S t o r y as C o n f e s s i o n , " New Statesman and Nation, vol.33 (1923), 490. Armstrong, M a r t i n . "The A r t o f Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " F o r t n i g h t l y Review, v o l . 2 9 (1923), 484-490. Beach, J.W.. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d and her R u s s i a n Master," V i r g i n i a Q u a r t e r l y Review, v o l . 2 7 ( 1 9 5 D , 6 0 4 - 6 0 8 . B e l l , Margaret. "In Memory of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Bookman, vol.74 (1933), 36-46. Bowen, E l i z a b e t h . "A L i v i n g W r i t e r , " C o r n h i l l . (Winter 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 5 7 ) , 120-134.  vol.160  Boyle, E l i z a b e t h . "Katherine M a n s f i e l d ; A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , " New R e p u b l i c , v o l . 9 2 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , 3 0 9 . Brown, G.Z. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d ' s Quest," Bookman. v o l . 6 l (1925), 687-691.  -  245 -  Church, Richard. " S e n s i b i l i t y , " (1928) 597. Cowley, Malcolm. 365-367.  Spectator.  vol.141  "Page Dr. Blum!" D i a l , v o l . 7 1  (1921),  "The Author of B l i s s , " D i a l , v o l . 7 3 (1922), 230-232. Cox, Sidney. "The Fastidiousness of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Sewanee Review, v o l . 3 9 (1931), 158-161. D i n k i n s , P a u l . "Blythe S i b y l , " Saturday Review, v o l . 3 6 (1953), 34-35. Freeman, Kathleen. "The Art of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " The Canadian Forum, v o l . 7 (1927), 302-307. G a r l i n g t o n , J . "Katherine M a n s f i e l d : the C r i t i c a l Trend," Twentieth Century L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . 2 (1956), 49-61. _____  "Unattributed Story by Katherine M a n s f i e l d ? " Modern Language Notes, v o l . 7 1 (1956), 91-93.  Gregory, -Alyse. " A r t i s t or Nun," D i a l , v o l . 7 5 (1923) ,484-486. Hagopian, John T. "Capturing Mansfield's ' F l y , ' " Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , v o l . 9 (Winter I963-I964),385-390. Harper, G.M. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Quarterly Review. v o l . 2 5 2 (1929), 377-387. Houghton, E l i z a b e t h . " L i f e at Close Range," L i t e r a r y Review. v o l . 3 (1922), 737Hudson, Stephen. " F i r s t Meeting with Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " C o r n h i l l . v o l . 1 7 0 (1958), 202-212 Huxley, Aldous. "The Traveller's-Eye View." Nation and Athenaeum v o l . 3 7 (1925) 202-204. Hynes, Sam. "The Defeat of the Personal," South A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 2 (1953), 555-560. K l e i n e , Don.W. "Katherine Mansfield and the Prisoner of Love," v o l . 3 (Spring/Winter,I960), 20-33, C r i t i q u e . "The Chekhovian Source of 'Marriage a l a Mode.'" P h i l o l o g i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , vol.42 (1963), 284-288.  K r u t c h , J.W.  246 -  "The Unfortunate Mendoza" Nation, v o l . 1 1 5  (1922),  100.  Krutch, J.W. "Imponderable Values," Nation, vol.118(1929) 210-211. L i t t e l l , Robert "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " New Republic, v o l . 3 1 (1922), 1 6 6 . L o f t i s , A. " I I Pesceballos Child«s F i s h b a l l Operetta," New England Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 6 ( 1 9 5 3 ) ? 1 0 5 - 1 0 6 Lynd, S y l v i a . "Answer t o Conrad Aiken," New Statesman and Nation and Athenaeum v o l . 3 3 (1923) 5 1 9 . Murry, John Middleton. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " L i t e r a r y Review, vol.3 (1923), 461-462. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , Stendhal, and S t y l e , " A d e l p h i , y o l . l (1923), 34-2-343. "Katherine Mansfield i n France," A t l a n t i c , vol.184 (1949), 72-75. "The Short S t o r y , " Nationand  Athenaeum  vol.31,  ( 1 9 2 2 ) , 712-713.  Norman, S.. "A Word on Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " F o r t n i g h t l y Review, v o l . 2 7 8 (1948), 2 7 8 . O'Brien, Edward J . "The F i f t e e n F i n e s t Short S t o r i e s , " Forum, vol.79 (1928), 908. Olgivanna [Mrs.Frank Lloyd Wright.1 "The Last Days of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Bookman, v o l . 1 2 3 ( 1 9 3 D , 6 - I 3 . Orage, A.R. "Talks w i t h Katherine MansfieId,"Century, v o l . 1 0 9 (November 1924-April 1 9 2 5 ) , 36-40. P o r t e r , Katherine Anne. "The A r t of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Nation, vol.145 ( 1 9 2 3 ) , 4 3 5 - 4 3 6 . P r i e s t l e y , J.B. "The Dove's Nest." London Mercury.vol.8 (1923) ,  438-439.  P r i t c h e t t , V.S. "Books i n General," New Statesman and Nation, v o l . 3 1 (1946), 87. Saurat, D. " V i s i t t o Gourdyev," L i v i n g Age, vol.145 428*.429C.--'; , '7  (1934),  -  247  -  Schneider, E l i s a b e t h . "Katherine M a n s f i e l d and Chekhov," Modern Language Motes. vol,50 (1935),394-397. Shanks, Edward. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " London Mercury. v o l . 1 7 (1928), 286-293. S t a n l e y , C l . "TheAitt of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Dalhousje Review, v o l . 1 0 ( A p r i l 1930-January 1931), 26-41. S t r e e t , G.S. "Nos et Mutamur," London Mercury, v o l . 5 (1921) 54-56. S u l l i v a n , J.W.N. "The S t o r y - W r i t i n g Genius," The Athenaeum. v o l . 9 6 (192) 447. Sutherland, Ronald. "Katherine Mansfield: P l a g i a r i s t , D i s c i p l e , or Ardent Admirer?" C r i t i q u e , v o l . 5 ( F a l l , 1962), 27. T a y l o r , D.S. "A Dream — A Wakening," Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s . v o l . 4 (1958), 361-362. Thorp, W. "Unburned L e t t e r s of Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " New Republic. vol.126 (1952), 18. Van.Kranendonk, A.G. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s . v o l . 1 2 (1930), 56-57. Wagenknecht, Edward. "Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l , v o l . 1 7 (1928), 272-284. Walker, Warren S. "The Unresolved C o n f l i c t i n the Garden P a r t y , " Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , v o l . 3 (1957),354-358. Weiss, D a n i e l A. "The Garden Party of Proserpine," Modern F i c t i o n S t u d i e s , v o l . 4 (1958), 363-364. Welty, Eudora, "The Reading and W r i t i n g of Short S t o r i e s , " A t l a n t i c , vol.183 (1949), 54-58. Wright, Celeste Turner, "Darkness as a Symbol i n Katherine M a n s f i e l d , " Modern P h i l o l o g y , vol.51(1954),204-207. "Genesis of a Short Story," P h i l o l o g y Quarterly. v o l . 3 4 (1955), 91-96. "Katherine Mansfield's Boat Image," Twentieth L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . 1 (1955), 128-131.  Century  Unsigned  248  Articles:  "Review o f The G a r d e n P a r t y " , ( 1 9 2 2 ) , 602.  The E n g l i s h R e v i e w , v o l . 3 4  " R e v i e w o f The G a r d e n P a r t y . "  Nation,  vol.30(1922),949-950.  " K a t h e r i n e M a n s f i e l d , " Times L i t e r a r y Supplement. 25, 1958), 225. "Miss M a n s f i e l d ' s Stories."''Times (Dec.16, 1920), 855.  Literary  Supplement.  " M i s s M a n s f i e l d ' s New S t o r i e s , " T i m e s L i t e r a r y (March 2, 1922), 137. "Miss M a n s f i e l d ' s L a s t S t o r i e s , " (June 28, 1923), 437. "Katherine Mansfield," 1928), 801.  (April  Supplement.  Times L i t e r a r y  Supplement.  Times L i t e r a r y Supplement,(November  "Katherine Mansfield's S t o r i e s , " (March 2, 1946), 102. "Greatest Short Story W r i t e r , " 1923), 32-33  Times L i t e r a r y Literary  1,  Supplement,  Digest .(March 17,  " R e a l L i f e and Dream L i f e , " New S t a t e s m a n and N a t i o n . V o l . 2 8 (1921-1922) 639-640.  D.  GENERAL REFERENCE WORKS  E.G. W i t h y c o m b e . The O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y o f E n g l i s h C h r i s t i a n Names. O x f o r d a t t h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 . Chambers E n c y c l o p e d i a ,  London, George Nownes,1959.  Vol.2.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302277/manifest

Comment

Related Items