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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Occurrence, growth, and relative value of lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce in the interior of British… Stanek, Walter 1966

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OCCURRENCE, GROWTH, AND RELATIVE VALUE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE IN THE INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by W. STANEK D i p l . F o r . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M u n i c h , 1955 M. Sc. F., U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department o f FORESTRY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t he Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s „ I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i - . c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The University of B r i t i s h Columbia FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAMME OF THE FINAL ORAL EXAMINATION FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY D i p l . For., University of Munich, 1955 M.Sc.F., University of Toronto, 1961 JULY 18, 1966, AT 10:30 A.M. IN ROOM 239, FORESTRY AND GEOLOGY BUILDING COMMITTEE IN CHARGE Chairman: G. H. N. Towers External Examiner: D. R. M. Scott Associate Dean, College of Forestry University of Washington of WALTER STANEK B. G. G r i f f i t h P. G. Haddock A. Kozak C. A„ Rowles J."H. G. Smith 0. S z i k l a i Research Supervisor: P. G. Haddock J. H. G. Smith OCCURRENCE, GROWTH,. AND RELATIVE VALUE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN. SPRUCE IN THE INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ABSTRACT The Study was concerned with lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. and. Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii Parry, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. C l a s s i f i c a -tions of the forests of the province as well as d i s t r i b u t i o n , s i l v i . c s , e f f e c t s of f i r e upon succes-sion, forest associations and p r o d u c t i v i t y classes of the two species were described. T h i r t y - f o u r stand variables were sub-jected to multiple c o r r e l a t i o n analyses i n regard to forest associations as well as height, diameter at breast height and volume growth of the two species. Simple regression analyses were used to estimate the height growth of several species on s i m i l a r s i t e s , and the volumes of i n d i v i d u a l trees were calculated by several methods. Height, diameter at breast height and volume growth of i n d i v i d u a l trees of both species were investigated and compared." The average crown dimensions of trees grown i n moderate to dense competitive positions and the appropriate growth curves were used to construct 'yield tables for the two species. It was shown that young i n d i v i d u a l trees and stands of lodgepole pine had a f a s t e r increment of height, diameter at breast height,.and volume than those of Engelmann spruce. Y i e l d tables based on i n d i v i d u a l tree studies showed that mean annual volume growth per acre culminated e a r l i e r i n lodge-pole pine than i n Engelmann spruce stands. Under i n t e n s i v e management l o d g e p o l e p i n e d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . L o d g e p o l e p i n e i s as w e l l s u i t e d f o r a r t i f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h -ment of s t a n d s by p l a n t i n g as i s Engelmann s p r u c e but s h o u l d c o s t l e s s . I t s i n d u s t r i a l v a l u e i n g e n e r a l i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Engelmann s p r u c e . However, on a r o t a t i o n of a maximal mean an n u a l i n c r e m e n t , i t s volume y i e l d p e r a r e a l u n i t w i l l b h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f Engelmann s p r u c e , and i t s h o u l d y i e l d a h i g h e r r a t e of r e t u r n on i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l . F i e l d o f Study: F o r e s t r y ( S i l v i c u l t u r e ) S i l v i c s and S i l v i c u l t u r e •P. G. Haddock F o r e s t M e n s u r a t i o n J . H. G. S m i t h S t a t i s t i c a l Methods i n F o r e s t r y A. Kozak R e l a t e d S t u d i e s : GRADUATE STUDIES T. M. C, T a y l o r 'V. J . K r a j i n a E. H. Gardner E. H. Gardner C. A, Rowles J . B a s a r a b a D, G. L a i r d , ' E. H. Gardner Taxonomy S y n e c o l o g y and A u t e c o l o g y S o i l C h e m i s t r y S o i l . F e r t i l i t y S o i l G e n e s i s S o i l - P l a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s PUBLICATIONS Stanek, W. 1954. Der L a e r c h e n w a l d i n F i n l a n d . H o l z -Z e n t r a l b l . 8 0 ( 1 9 ) : 216. Stanek, W. 1954. Schaeden an H o l z nach d e r F a e l l u n g . H o l z - Z e n t r a l b l . 8 0 ( 1 3 0 ) : 1525-1526. Stanek, W. 1958. E x p e r i m e n t a l p l a n t i n g of t h e s h a l l o w g r a n i t i c l a n d s of E a s t e r n O n t a r i o 1954-57. Ont. Dept. Lands & F o r . , Res. B r . , 21pp. and A p p e n d i x . Stanek, W. 1961. N a t u r a l l a y e r i n g of b l a c k s p r u c e i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o . F o r . Chron., 3 7 ( 3 ) : 245-258. J o r g e n s o n , E. and W. Stanek. 1962. Over w i n t e r s t o r a ^ of c o n i f e r o u s s e e d l i n g s as a means of p r e v e n t i n g l a t e f r o s t damage. F o r . Chron., 3 8 ( 2 ) : 192-202 Stanek, W. 1963. The c o l l e c t i o n of o r g a n i c s o i l s i n s i t u f o r p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t y t e s t s and mounting o; p r o f i l e s . Can. J o u r . S o i l S c i . 4 3 ( 2 ) : 401-402. Stanek, W. and V . J . K r a j i n a . 1964. P r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r on some ecosystems of W e s t e r n Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . I n " E c o l o g y of t h e F o r e s t s of t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t " . P r o g r e s s Report NRC G r a n t #T-92, Dept. B i o l . & B o t . , U.B.C. p.57-66. i . ¥. STANEK. OCCURRENCE, GROWTH, AND RELATIVE VALUE OP LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE IN THE INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. ABSTRACT R e s e a r c h s u p e r v i s o r s : P r o f . Dr. P. G. Haddock and P r o f . D r. J . H, G. Sm i t h The s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e , P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . and Engelmann s p r u c e , P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i P a r r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e f o r e s t s o f the P r o v i n c e as w e l l as d i s t r i b u t i o n , s i l v i c s , e f f e c t s o f f i r e upon s u c c e s -s i o n , f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s , and p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s o f the two s p e c i e s were d e s c r i b e d . Sample p l o t s were l o c a t e d i n t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones. Hohenadl's form f a c t o r was used t o compute volume g r o w t h by i n d i v i d u a l decades from stem a n a l y s e s . On 124 p l o t s , 137 t r e e s were c o l -l e c t e d f o r stem a n a l y s e s , 108 s a p l i n g s were used f o r h e i g h t - age s t u d i e s , 100 p o i n t samples were made f o r d e t e r m i n i n g b a s a l a r e a and s t a n d volume and s e v e r a l h u n d r e d h e i g h t s as w e l l as d i a m e t e r s and b o r i n g s a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , were t a k e n . T h i r t y - f o u r s t a n d v a r i a b l e s were s u b j e c t e d t o m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s and growth o f h e i g h t , d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and volume o f the two s p e c i e s . S i m p l e r e g r e s s i o n s were u s e d t o e s t i m a t e h e i g h t g r o w t h o f s e v e r a l s p e c i e s on s i m i l a r s i t e s , and t o compare s e v e r a l methods o f volume c a l c u l a t i o n . T r e e s o f t h e same d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t grown i n d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s (open, moderate t o dense, and s u p p r e s s e d ) , c o n t a i n e d d i f f e r e n t v o l u m e s . The l a r g e s t volume o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s was found w i t h t r e e s grown i n moderate t o dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l young l o d g e p o l e p i n e s had a f a s t e r i n c r e m e n t o f h e i g h t , d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , and volume, t h a n Engelmann s p r u c e s . T h i s t r e n d remained the same i n y i e l d t a b l e s based on i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s t u -d i e s and c o n s t r u c t e d f o r s t a n d s o f good ( a v e r a g e s i t e i n d e x 100 f t . a t 100 y e a r s ) , medium ( a v e r a g e s i t e i n d e x 70 f t , a t 100 y e a r s ) , and po o r ( a v e r a g e s i t e i n d e x 50 f t , a t 100 y e a r s ) p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . The mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f volume o f s t a n d s c u l m i n a t e d e a r l i e r i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e t h a n i n Engelmann s p r u c e . The p e r i o d s r e q u i r e d were ( i n b r a c k e t s a r e shown a t t a i n e d a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r s a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , t o t a l h e i g h t s and volumes p e r a c r e ) : I n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e 40 y e a r s (8.3 i n . , 58 f t . , 6,700 c u . f t . ) and i n Engelmann s p r u c e 75 y e a r s (10.0 i n . , 80 f t , , 6,000 c u . f t . ) ; i n t h e medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e 60 y e a r s (6.5 i n . , 50 f t , , 4,600 c u , f t . ) and i n Engelmann s p r u c e 130 y e a r s (9.0 i n . , 84 f t . , 5,100 c u . f t . ) ; i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e 85 y e a r s (5.3 i n . , 45 f t , , 3,100 c u . f t . ) and i n Engelmann s p r u c e 150 y e a r s (6.3 i n , , 66 f t . , 3,400 c u . f t , ) . Y i e l d t a b l e volumes p e r a c r e i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e were l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f Engelmann s p r u c e , i n the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , t o the age o f 120 y e a r s , i n t h e medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t o 150 y e a r s , and i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s f o r an u n d e t e r m i n e d p e r i o d . P r e s e n t and s u g g e s t e d f u t u r e t r e n d s o f u t i l i z a t i o n and manage-ment o f s t a n d s o f the two s p e c i e s were r e v i e w e d . G e n e r a l l y , f o r e s t management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a shows a t r e n d toward more i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n , due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r wood. S m a l l e r d i a m e t e r t r e e s and " s m a l l v i o o d " s t a n d s V 7 i l l be more and more f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d . U t i l i z a t i o n o f whole t r e e s , h i g h l y m e c h a n i z e d " h a r v e s t i n g " and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as w e l l as i n t e n s i f i e d management o f f o r e s t s t a n d s w i l l compensate f o r i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s due t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r s . Under i n t e n s i v e management, l o d g e p o l e p i n e d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I t i s as w e l l - s u i t e d f o r a r t i f i c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d s by p l a n t i n g as Engelmann s p r u c e , b u t s h o u l d c o s t l e s s . I t s v a l u e f o r t h e woodworking i n d u s t r y i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Engelmann s p r u c e . However, on a r o t a t i o n o f maximal mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t , i t s volume y i e l d p e r a c r e u n i t w i l l be h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f Engelmann s p r u c e , and i t s h o u l d y i e l d a h i g h e r r a t e o f r e t u r n on i n v e s t e d c a p i t a l . i v . ACKN01-3LEDGMENTS The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o acknowledge the c o n t i n u o u s h e l p and c o n s t -r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m g i v e n t o h i m by P r o f * D r , J , H„ G, S m i t h and P r o f . Dr. P. G, Haddock, d u r i n g t h e time he was w o r k i n g on t h i s p r o j e c t . The t h e s i s was r e v i e w e d by P r o f e s s o r s Dr. B. G„ G r i f f i t h , D r, P. G. Haddock, D r , A, Kozak, Dr, V, J , K r a j i n a , Dr. C, A. Rowles, Dr* J . H. G. S m i t h , and D r , 0. S z i k l a i . The w r i t e r i s g r a t e f u l f o r t h e i r c r i t i c a l r e v i e w and a d v i c e . F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was g i v e n by t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n t h e form o f a U n i v e r s i t y F o r e s t r y F e l l o w s h i p i n 1962-63, and a R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t s h i p and N.R.C. as w e l l as A.R.D.A. f u n d s d u r i n g t he 1963-66 s e s s i o n s . The w r i t e r r e c e i v e d a l s o t he Van Dusen G r a -duate F e l l o w s h i p i n F o r e s t r y i n t h e 1964-65 s e s s i o n . The r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was s u p p o r t e d by an e x t r a - m u r a l r e s e a r c h g r a n t from the Department o f F o r e s t r y , O t t a w a , from May, 1965 u n t i l mid-September o f 1965. The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o thank a l l o f t h e s e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t . S i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e due, t o M r 8 A, Moss, a t the ti m e o f t h e f i e l d work, Woodlands Manager f o r Simpsons L t d . F o r e s t P r o d u c t s , Kelowna, B. C., f o r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e w i t h h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n , maps, l i t e r a t u r e , p h o t o g r a p h s , and l i v i n g q u a r t e r s on t h e Tre e Farm L i c e n c e #9; t o Mr. C. J . M, S m i t h , w i t h G i l b e r t S m i t h , F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . , Kamloops, B, C , f o r ti m e t a k e n out i n f i e l d w est o f L i t t l e F o r t and v a l u a b l e d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n and f o r t h e r e f r e s h i n g h o s p i t a l i t y e x t e n d e d t o my f a m i l y and m y s e l f by h i s w i f e , B a r b a r a ; t o Mr, J . J . J e l i n e k , F o r e s t e r w i t h B. C, F o r e s t S e r v i c e S u r -v e y s and I n v e n t o r y D i v i s i o n , f o r r e a d y a s s i s t a n c e w i t h l o c a t i o n o f s u r v e y a r e a s and s h a r i n g h i s l o n g f o r e s t e x p e r i e n c e ; V. t o Mr. L. F a r s t a d , C h i e f , S o i l R e s e a r c h , Canada Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , V a n c o u v e r , B. C. f o r a c c e s s t o f i e l d d a t a , maps and l i t e r a -t u r e and t o Mr. T. M. L o r d w i t h the same agency f o r i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e -g a r d t o the s o i l s o f the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; t o Dr. V. J . K r a j i n a f o r h i s a p p r e c i a t e d c r i t i c i s m and a s s i s -t a n c e w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l i c h e n s and mosses; t o Mr. H e j j a s o f the Canada Department o f F o r e s t r y , F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L a b o r a t o r y , V a n c o u v e r , B. C , f o r w r i t i n g t he IBM 7040 programme us e d f o r stem a n a l y s i s e v a l u a t i o n ; t o D r . Kozak o f t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., f o r h i s gene-r o u s h e l p and v a l u a b l e a d v i c e as w e l l as a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the v a r i o u s p r o b l e m s and programming o f a g r e a t d e a l o f t h e f i e l d d a t a f o r t h e IBM 7040 a n a l y s e s ; t o Dr. L. Heger, f o r programming a n a l y t i c a l e q u a t i o n s ; t o M r s , H. F r o e s e f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h p r e p a r i n g t h e d a t a f o r c o m p u t i n g ; t o Mr, B. v o n S p i n d l e r f o r t h e c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s o f s o i l s s a m ples; t o M i s s E. P o p o f f f o r generous h e l p w i t h p r e p a r a t i o n and t y p i n g o f t h e t a b l e s and m a n u s c r i p t ; t o M r s , M. Lambden f o r t h e d r a u g h t i n g ; t o my c h i l d r e n , R i c h a r d and D e b b i e , f o r t h e i r h e l p w i t h many c h o r e s and j o b s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e f i e l d work; and above a l l , t o my w i f e J e a n n e f o r h e r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h many f a c e t s o f t h e work and f o r h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and encouragement w h i c h she gave me i n h o u r s o f need. v i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v i L I S T OF TABLES x i i LIST OF FIGURES x i i i L I S T OF MAPS XV INTRODUCTION 1 P a r t 1: CLASSIFICATION OF THE FORESTS I N B. C. 3 FOREST REGIONS AND FOREST ZONES OF B. C. 3 C o r d i l l e r a n C o l d Steppe and Savanna F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 7 G r a s s l a n d s o f the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B, C. 7 Semi-open f o r e s t s o f s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C, 8 Y e l l o w p i n e f o r e s t s i n v a l l e y s and a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B, C. 8 C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a n F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 9 D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s o f s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C, 9 The w e t t e r p a r t o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t s 11 F o r e s t s o f the wet b e l t i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C. 11 P a r k l a n d f o r e s t s o f the p l a t e a u i n t h e s o u t h - c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r o f B. C. 12 C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a n S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 13 Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone 13 C a n a d i a n B o r e a l F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 13 A l p i n e Tundra R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 14 P a c i f i c C o a s t a l F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) 14 C h a p t e r Summary 15 v i i . Page DISTRIBUTION AND SILVICS OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE 16 L o d g e p o l e P i n e , P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . (LP) 16 Engelmann S p r u c e , P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i P a r r y (ES) 20 Chap t e r Summary 24 ROLE OF FIRE IN FOREST SUCCESSION 26 C h a p t e r Summary 31 FOREST TYPES I N THE DOUGLAS-FIR AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE -ALPINE FI R BIOGEOCLIMATIC ZONES 33 I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r (IDF) Zone 34 P i n e g r a s s o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s Rubescens (C) A s s o c i a t i o n 34 P i n e g r a s s - K i n n i k i n n i c k o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s A r c t o s t a p h y l o s (CA) A s s o c i a t i o n 36 P i n e g r a s s - B l u e b e r r y o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s - V a c c i n i u m Sco-p a r i u m (CV) A s s o c i a t i o n 37 K i n n i k i n n i c k o r A r c t o s t a p h y l o s Uva U r s i (ARC) A s s o c i a t i o n 38 Snowberry o r S y m p h o r i c a r p o s A l b u s (SY) A s s o c i a t i o n 40 C r e e k B o t t o m (CrBo) A s s o c i a t i o n s 40 Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r (ES-AF) Zone 41 V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum C o l l e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n (CM, VM, and VV) 41 B u n c h b e r r y - Moss or Cornus C a n a d e n s i s - C a l l i e r g o n e l l a S c h r e b e r i (CM) A s s o c i a t i o n 42 B l a c k H u c k l e b e r r y - T r a i l i n g Rubus o r V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum - Rubus P e d a t u s (VM) A s s o c i a t i o n 43 B l a c k H u c k l e b e r r y - V a l e r i a n o r V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum -V a l e r i a n a S i t c h e n s i s (VV) A s s o c i a t i o n 44 M e n z i e s i a - Rhododendron - V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum A s s o c i a t i o n s 45 F a l s e Box o r P a c h i s t i m a M y r s i n i t e s (Pa) A s s o c i a t i o n 45 B l u e b e r r y o r V a c c i n i u m S c o p a r i u m (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n . , 47 Moss A s s o c i a t i o n 48 C r e e k Bottom (CrBo) A s s o c i a t i o n s 49 Cow P a r s n i p o r H e r acleum Lanatum A s s o c i a t i o n 49 B l a c k T w i n b e r r y - N e t t l e o r L o n i c e r a I n v o l u c r a t a - U r t i c a L y a l l i i A s s o c i a t i o n 50 V a c c i n i u m - T r o l l i u s (VT) and V a c c i n i u m - E q u i s e t u m - S e n e c i o T r i a n g u l a r i s (VES) A s s o c i a t i o n s 50 F a i r y B e l l s o r Disporum Oreganum (D) A s s o c i a t i o n 50 S a r s a p a r i l l a - O a k f e r n o r A r a l i a - D r y o p t e r i s (AD) A s s o c i a t i o n 51 D e v i l ' s C l u b o r Oplopanax H o r r i d u m (0) A s s o c i a t i o n 53 v i i i Page Communities o f Marshes and Bogs 54 Common H o r s e t a i l o r E q u i s e t u m A r v e n s e - Sphagnum (ES) A s s o c i a t i o n 54 L o d g e p o l e P i n e - L a b r a d o r Tea - P e a t Moss o r Ledum - Sphagnum A s s o c i a t i o n 5 5 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f A s s o c i a t i o n s and S e v e r a l Independent V a r i a b l e s 56 C h a p t e r Summary 58 PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES USED FOR ANALYSES OF TREE GROWTH 60 F o r e s t S t a n d s o f Low and Poor P r o d u c t i v i t y ( S I / 1 0 0 : L P and ES, n o t more t h a n 64 f t . ) 61 F o r e s t Stands o f Medium P r o d u c t i v i t y ( S I / 1 0 0 : L P 65 - 80 f t . ; ES 65 - 85 f t . ) . 63 F o r e s t Stands o f Good P r o d u c t i v i t y ( S I / 1 0 0 : L P l a r g e r t h a n 80 f t . ; ES l a r g e r t h a n 85 f t . ) 65 R e s u l t s o f M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s R e g a r d i n g P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s 67 C h a p t e r Summary 69 P a r t 2: EVALUATION OF MENSURATIONAL DATA 70 AREA AND NUMBER OF SAMPLES 70 METHODS 74 C o l l e c t i o n o f F i e l d D a t a 74 B a s i c t r e e measurements 74 Stem a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d measurements 74 P o i n t samples 78 Other i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d 80 O f f i c e P r o c e d u r e s 81 Age c o u n t and d e c a d a l d i a m e t e r s 81 D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the stem f o r m 81 C a l c u l a t i o n o f volumes o f t h e a n a l y z e d stems 83 C a l c u l a t i o n o f o t h e r t r e e d a t a 84 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s 85 i x . Page SITE INDEX AND HEIGHT - AGE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE STANDS UNDER STUDY 88 Review 88 S i t e Index and A s s o c i a t i o n s 89 Compar i s o n o f H e i g h t - Age Cur v e s o f LP and ES i n G e n e r a l 95 Co m p a r i s o n o f H e i g h t - Age C u r v e s o f LP and ES o f t h i s Study 97 H e i g h t Growth o f LP and ES Under D i f f e r e n t C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n s , 100 The E f f e c t o f D i f f e r e n t S i t e s Upon the S i t e I ndex 102 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f S i t e Index and H e i g h t .108 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f H e i g h t and N i n e Independent V a r i a b l e s 110 C h a p t e r Summary ;: 110 DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT - AGE CURVES OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE 113 Reviex* and Comparisons o f dbh - Age C u r v e s 113 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f dbh a n d T h i r t y - t h r e e Independent V a r i a b l e s i n L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann S p r u c e 1 1 8 C h a p t e r Summary 120 VOLUME GROWTH OF INDIVIDUAL TREES OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE 121 E f f e c t o f C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n on Volume Growth o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce 121 Gr o s s T o t a l Volume Over Age C u r v e s o f I n d i v i d u a l L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce T r e e s 123 Com p a r i s o n o f G r o s s T o t a l Volumes o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce T r e e s 127 G r o s s T o t a l Volumes o f T r e e s C a l c u l a t e d by D i f f e r e n t Methods., 130 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f Tree Volumes o f L P and ES and S e v e r a l V a r i a b l e s 134 C h a p t e r Summary 135 X. Page GROSS TOTAL VOLUME OF STANDS UNDER STUDY 137 M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f Stand Volumes and S e v e r a l Stand V a r i a b l e s 137 R e s u l t s o f t h e M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n 139 Com p a r i s o n o f Y i e l d o f L P and ES o f t h i s Study 140 I n t r o d u c t i o n 140 Method o f Y i e l d T a b l e C o n s t r u c t i o n 142 D i s c u s s i o n o f the Y i e l d T a b l e s 149 Comparisons o f PAI and MAI i n G r o s s T o t a l Volume/Acre o f LP and ES 1 1 C h a p t e r Summary 154 P a r t 3: RELATIVE VALUE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE 156 IMPORTANCE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE FOR THE ECONOMY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 156 A r e a and Volume 156 P h y s i c a l and C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s and Uses 159 P r e s e n t Trends i n F o r e s t U t i l i z a t i o n 161 C h a p t e r Summary 167 MANAGEMENT 168 R e g e n e r a t i o n 168 R e g e n e r a t i o n o f Engelmann s p r u c e 168 R e g e n e r a t i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e 170 Seed c o l l e c t i o n and p l a n t i n g s t o c k o f L P and ES 174 R o t a t i o n 175 S i l v i c u l t u r a l Management o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce Stands 178 Wood p r o d u c t i o n 178 O b j e c t i v e s o f f o r e s t management o t h e r t h a n wood p r o d u c t i o n 182 C h a p t e r Summary 182 x i . Page CONCLUDING REMARKS 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY 187 APPENDIX 211 A-TABLE 1: Summary o f b a s i c m e n s u r a t i o n a l p l o t d a t a 211 A-TABLE 2: B a s i c d a t a used f o r m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s 220 A-TABLE 3: T r e e s u s e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f growth c u r v e s ,. 221 A-TABLE 3a: L i s t i n g s o f p l o t s and l o c a l i t i e s and h o f each s p e c i e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f g r o w t h c u r v e s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o SI/100 r a n g e s 222 A-TABLE 4: B a s i c d a t a used f o r m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 223 A-TABLE 5: ' S c i e n t i f i c names o f v e g e t a t i o n 224 A-TABLE 6: S i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f 34 v a r i a b l e s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 228 A-TABLE 7: S i g n i f i c a n c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n s o f 34 v a r i a b l e s i n Engelmann s p r u c e grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 229 GLOSSARY 230 x i i . L I S T OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f o r e s t r e g i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia 4 2 34 v a r i a b l e s used f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s 85 3 Comparison o f s i t e i n d i c e s o f dominant and codominant t r e e s a t 100 y e a r s o f age o f some a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 90 4 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f po o r p r o -d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 143 5 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f Engelmann s p r u c e o f po o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 144 6 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 145 7 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f Engelmann s p r u c e o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 146 8 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 147 9 Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f Engelmann s p r u c e o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 148 10 R o t a t i o n p e r i o d s o f maximal M I ( g r o s s volume c u . f t , p e r a c r e ) o f LP and ES s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i -v i t y c l a s s e s 177 x i i i . LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n diagram of stands of low and poor pro-d u c t i v i t y 62 2. The d i s t r i b u t i o n diagram of forests of medium pro-d u c t i v i t y 64 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n diagram of the forests of good pro-d u c t i v i t y 66 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n diagram of the fontinales or creek bottom types 68 5 P o s i t i o n of the f e l l i n g cut 76 6 Positions of i n d i v i d u a l discs taken for stem analysis 77 7 Measuring of green crown lengths (CI) and width (Cw) 79 8 Comparison of regression l i n e s of s i t e index at the age of 100 years (SI/100 = y) on a s s o c i a t i o n (code and names = x) of ES, LP, DF, and AF 92 9 Height - age curves of lodgepole pine from several sources 96 10 Height - age curves of Engelmann spruce from several sources 98 11 Comparison of height - age curves of LP and ES 99 12 Height - age curves of Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine saplings and trees grown i n s i m i l a r competitive positions i n (D) and (CM) Associations near Kelowna and L i t t l e Fort 101 13 Height growth i n youth of selected dominant and co-dominant lodgepole pines i n d i f f e r e n t associations 103 14 Height growth i n youth of selected dominant and co-dominant Engelmann spruces i n d i f f e r e n t associations 104 15 Height - age curves of saplings of lodgepole pine grown under dense and suppressed competitive p o s i t i o n s i n Camosun Swamp (located near Vancouver) 106 16 Height - age curves of saplings of Engelmann spruce growing under moderate and suppressed competitive po s i t i o n s i n (D) and (CM) associations near Kelowna and L i t t l e Fort 107 x i v . F i g u r e Page 17 dbh - age c u r v e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e of s e v e r a l a u t h o r s 114 18 dbh - age c u r v e s o f Engelmann s p r u c e of B a r n e s . . (B.C.F.S., 1936) and t h i s s t u d y 116 19 C o m p a r i s o n o f dbh - age c u r v e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e 117 20 C o m p a r i s o n o f average volume - dbh c u r v e s of l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense and i n open c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 122 21 Volume - age c u r v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l Engelmann s p r u c e s a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l a u t h o r s 124 22 Volume - age c u r v e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s grown i n r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - s t o c k e d s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e i n d i c e s 125 23 Volume - age c u r v e s o f Engelmann s p r u c e s grown i n r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - s t o c k e d s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t s i t e i n d i c e s 126 24 C o m p a r i s o n o f volume - age c u r v e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e o f d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s 128 25 C o m p a r i s o n o f a v e r a g e volume - dbh c u r v e s o f i n d i v i -d u a l l o d g e p o l e p i n e s and Engelmann s p r u c e s grown i n w e l l - s t o c k e d s t a n d s i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 129 26 C o m p a r i s o n o f r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s o f volumes on dbh c a l c u l a t e d by d i f f e r e n t methods u s i n g d a t a o f l o d g e -p o l e p i n e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n 131 27 C o m p a r i s o n o f r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s o f volumes on dbh c a l c u l a t e d by d i f f e r e n t methods u s i n g d a t a o f Engelmann s p r u c e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s 132 28 C o m p a r i s o n o f v o l u m e / a c r e - age c u r v e s o f LP and ES s t a n d s of p o o r , medium and good s i t e (B.C.F.S., 1964) 138 29 PAI and MAI i n g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e o f LP o f good, medium and poor p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 152 30 PAI and MAI i n g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e o f ES o f good, medium and p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 153 XV. L I S T OF M P S MAP Page 1 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 5 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the f o u r s p r u c e s p e c i e s i n B, C . 2 1 3 L o c a t i o n o f a r e a s w i t h sample p l o t s 7 1 1. INTRODUCTION The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o compare t h e g r o w t h p e r f o r m a n c e and r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l , and Engelmann s p r u c e , P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i P a r r y . These two s p e c i e s a r e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e woodworking i n d u s t r i e s i n t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zones, w h i c h a r e the m a j o r v e g e t a t i o n b e l t s i n t h e s o u t h c e n t r a l , n o r t h c e n t r a l and s o u t h e a s t e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n -f o r m a t i o n was t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the two s p e c i e s and the a s s o c i a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y commonly o c c u r . The f i e l d work was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1965 f o l l o w i n g f i e l d r e c o n n a i s s a n c e d u r i n g the summer o f 1964. I n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o e l e v a t i o n a . s . l , , a s p e c t , s l o p e and s o i l . The s e l e c t e d s t a n d s were d e s c r i b e d and a l i s t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v e g e t a t i o n was made, t o f a c i l i t a t e g r o u p i n g i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . S e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t r e e s i n each t y p e were f e l l e d and s e c t i o n e d t o o b t a i n d a t a on t h e i r form and growth o f h e i g h t , d i a m e t e r and volume. P o i n t samples were t a k e n f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the b a s a l a r e a and c a l c u l a t i o n o f s t a n d volume. I n each s t a n d , measurements were made on a t l e a s t f i v e dominant and codominant t r e e s o f each s p e c i e s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s i t e i n d i c e s . I n B r i t i s h C o l umbia the demand f o r t h e raw m a t e r i a l wood has i n c r e a s e d o v e r the y e a r s . I t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o do so, due t o t h e gr o w i n g c a p a c i t y o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s . The f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s , though b o u n t i f u l , must be renewed t o p r o v i d e a s u f f i c i e n t and c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y o f raw m a t e r i a l . T h i s f a c t was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s s t u d y b e i n g 2. in i t i a ted . The scope of the work extended to include primarily the value of the two species with regard to forest management and as volume producers. Both occur as major species in the area of the study and mature stands of both w i l l supply the required volume for years to come. However, soon the need could arise to establish forests on extensive areas a r t i f i c i a l l y with either species. Managerial, economic and s i l v i c a l considerations w i l l govern the decisions as to which species i s the more suitable for establish-ment of new stands. The writer hoped to provide some of the pertinent answers. From that viewpoint this thesis must be looked upon as a study primarily des-tined to reveal a crossection and range of the problems at hand. 3. P a r t 1: CLASSIFICATION OF THE FORESTS I N B. C. FOREST REGIONL AND FOREST ZONES OF B. C. The v a r i e t y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f o r e s t s g r o w i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , The l a r g e u n i t s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r m i t a q u i c k o v e r a l l v i e w and f a c i l i t a t e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l e r u n i t s on w h i c h the s t u d y was b a s e d . The f a c t o r s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s and the t y p e s o f f o r e s t s a r e , i n the f i r s t p l a c e , t h e g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n and t o p o g r a p h y and the r e l a t e d c l i m a t e as w e l l as t h e g e o l o g y and b i o t i c f a c t o r s , w h i c h a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s o i l f o r m i n g p r o c e s s e s and the r e s u l t i n g s o i l s . S e v e r a l s p e c i a l i z e d r e p o r t s have t r e a t e d t h e i n v o l v e d t o p i c s t h o r o u g h l y . Some o f them, w h i c h c o n t a i n b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e : B. C. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Chapman ( 1 9 5 2 ) , Chapman, T u r n e r , F a r l e y and R u g g l e s ( 1 9 5 6 ) , H o l l a n d ( 1 9 6 4 ) , G e o l o g i c a l S u rvey o f Canada (1957) and F a r s t a d , L a i r d and Rowles ( 1 9 5 6 ) ; r e p o r t s and maps o f t h e G e o l o g i c a l S u r -v e y o f Canada and t h e B, C, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , as w e l l as t h e f i l e s o f the A i r Photo L i b r a r y , Department o f Lands and F o r e s t s and Water R e s o u r c e s , V i c t o r i a , and the N a t i o n a l T o p o g r a p h i c System Maps (4 m i l e s t o 1 i n c h ) o f t h e Map D i s t r i b u t i o n O f f i c e , Department o f M i n e s and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , O t t a w a . The r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o T a b l e 1, i n w h i c h f o u r d i f -f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e compared and t o Map 1 f o r l o c a t i o n o f the b i o g e o -c l i m a t i c z o n e s , E c o l o g i c a l terms a r e d e f i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e G l o s s a r y . •7 TABLE 1: Classifications of forest regions of British Columbia Whitford and Craig (1918) Krajina (1965) Rowe (1959) . , — . Chapman et a l . (1956) FOREST TYPES ZONES SUBZONES SECTIONS BIOTIC REGION COASTAL BELT Ii PACIFIC COASTAL MESOTHERMAL FOREST REGION COAST FOREST REGION Douglas-fir - Western Red Cedar Coastal Garry Oak - Douglas-fir (drier) CI j Strait of Georgia Gulf Islands and Douglas-fir Madrono - Douglas-fir (wetter) C2 j Southern Pacific Coast Puget Sound Lowland Western Red Cedar - Western Hemlock Coastal Western Hemlock Douglas-fir - Western Hemlock (drier) C3 , Northern Pacific Coast Western Hemlock - Sitka Spruce Pacific Silver Fir - Western Hemlock C4 Queen Charlotte Islands Coast Forest Western Hemlock - Amabilis Fir (wetter) II. PACIFIC COASTAL SUBALPINE REGION SUBALPINE FOREST REGION Subalpine Mountain Subalpine Forest (lower) SA3 Coastal Subalpine Subalpine Forest Hemlock Subalpine Parkland (upper) INTERIOR TREELESS AND SEMITREELESS IV. CORDILLERAN COLD STEPPE AND SAVANNA FOREST REGION MONTANE FOREST REGION Sage Brush--- Artemisia Tridentata Ponderosa Pine -Bunch Grass Bunch Grass (drier)- Grassland Osoyoos Arid Grass and Semiopen - Agropyron Spicatum Ponderosa Pine (wetter) Ml Ponderosa Pine - Douglas-fir Yellow Pine (dr Ponderosa Pine) III. CANADIAN CORDILLERAN FOREST REGION Dry Forest Interior Douglas-fir Interior Douglas- Pine Grass (drier) M2 Central Douglas-fir fir False Boxwood (wetter) INTERIOR WET BELT COLUMBIA FOREST REGION Douglas-fir - Western Larch Interior Western Hemlock Western Larch (drier) CL1 Southern Columbia Int. West. Red Cedar - West. Hemlock Western Hemlock (wetter) West. Red Cedar - Engelmann Spruce Columbia Forest 1 Western Hemlock - Alpine Fir CL2 Northern Columbia INTERIOR TREELESS AND SEMITREELESS • ~i • • •. .... MONTANE FOREST REGION Grass and Semiopen -Agropyron Spicatum Cariboo Aspen Lodgepole Pine -Subzones not proposed M3 M4 Northern Aspen Montane Transition Cariboo Parklands Douglas-fir Parkland M5 Douglas-fir - Lodgepole Pine SPRUCE - ALPINE FIR OF THE INTERIOR PLATEAUS AND MOUNTAIN REGIONS V. CANADIAN CORDILLERAN SUBALPINE FOREST REGION SUBALPINE FOREST REGION Engelmann Spruce - Alpine. Fir or Lodgepole Pine Engelmann Spruce -Subalpine Fir Subzones not proposed SA1 East Slope Rockies Subalpine Forest Subalpine SA2 Interior Subalpine VI. CANADIAN BOREAL FOREST REGION BOREAL FOREST REGION Sub-boreal Spruce Subzones not proposed B17 Aspen Grove (mainly white spruce B18 a) Mixed WoOd b) Hay River with some Engelmann B19 a) b) c) Lower-North-Upper Foothills Peace River Parklands and Boreal Forest White Spruce - Alpine Fir spruce) B23 a) Lower Mackenzie Boreal White and B24 Upper Hard Black Spruce B25 Stikine Plateau B26 a)Dawson b)Centr. Yukon c)East.Yukon VII. ALPINE TUNDRA REGION Treeless Waste Land a) Coastal b) Interior Subzones Tundra Alpine - Arctic mm Mop I I 0 G E 0 C L I H A T I C Z 0 il E S OF BRITISH COLUMBIA I. COASTAL ','ESTERN HEMLOCK ?.COASTAL DOUGLAS-FIR MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK (COASTAL SUBALPIHE) 4.INTERIOR WESTERN HEMLOCK 5.INTERIOR DOUGLAS-FIR 6. CARIBOU ASPEN - LODGEPOLE PINE - DOUGLAS-FIR PARKLAilC 7 . PONDEROSA PINE - BUNCHGRASS 8. ENGELMANN SPRUCE - SUBALPIHE FIR (INTERIOR SUBALPIHE) 9.SUBB0REAL SPRUCE | ~~j I0.30RCAL .,"11TE ADD BLACK SPRUCE 11.ALPINE PROPOSED UK ELABORATED BT V. J . fflAJIIA 6. Five major publications V7ith regard to large scale c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the forests of B r i t i s h Columbia were ref e r r e d to, Those are by Whitford and Craig (1918), Ha l l i d a y (1937), Chapman et a l . (1956), Rowe (1959) and Krajina (1965), from here on r e f e r r e d to only by the authors' names. Recently Haemet-Ahti (1965) outlined p r o v i s i o n a l vegetation zones and sections of Britirsh Columbia using an approach s i m i l a r to Merriam's (1899). This system's basic idea i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which would make fea-s i b l e transcontinental as well as circumpolar l i n k i n g and comparisons of vegetation u n i t s . H a l l i d a y ' s (1937) work has been revised and published i n 1959 by Rowe, who maintained the o r i g i n a l framework i n most respects, but made numerous changes i n placement of boundaries and increased the number of sections i n areas of fo r e s t d i v e r s i t y . Because of the s i m i l a r i t y of the two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , only that of Rowe was used i n Table 1. Whitford and Craig's forest types and K r a j i n a 1 s zones have few p a r a l l e l types i n Halliday's and Rowe's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Generally Whitford and Craig used d i s t r i b u t i o n of one p a r t i c u l a r f o r e s t type and Krajina applied zones of s i m i l a r biogeoclimate, whereas H a l l i d a y and Rowe used the main species occurring i n geographic units c a l l e d sections. For example, 2 Whitford and Craig's Western Hemlock - Sitka Spruce Forest Type w i l l occur i n Halliday's and Rowe's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n C2, C3 and C4 s e c t i o n s ; on the other hand t h e i r Coastal Sub-Alpine Section SA3 and some of t h e i r boreal and mountain sections possibly could be c a l l e d biogeoclimatic zones or sub-zones i n the sense of Krajina's zones, or of the Chapman et a l , b i o t i c regions. Some of the types occurring i n the v i c i n i t y of the Skeena River, 2 Common and f u l l s c i e n t i f i c names are l i s t e d i n the Glossary. 7. which Whitford and Craig differentiated as interior types, were not shown individually i n Table 1, because they appear i n the coastal forest types. They actually are forest types occurring under the influence of the maritime climate of the coastal zone, as their species composition indicates* Krajina 1s biogeoclimatic zones are similar to Whitford and Craig's forest types i n that they give information with regard to d i s t r i -bution of forests of the same species composition. However, they are arranged principal ly according to the phytocoenosis, Koeppen's c lass i f ica-tion of climate (Koeppen-Geiger, 1936; Trewartha, 1954) and the so i l forming processes of the zonal so i l s . The biot ic regions of Chapman et a l , are governed by th6 dist-ribution of plants and animals, which are well suited to the general en-vironmental conditions of the area. Therefore, the b io t ic regions are comparable to Krajina 1s regions, Whitford and Craig's forest types and some of Halliday's or Rowe's sections, However, with regard to forests, the biot ic regions are less ful ly described than the other classifications of forests i n B, C, Cordilleran Cold Steppe and Savanna Forest Region (Krajina) Grasslands of the southern inter ior of B, C, In the Sagebrush or Artemisia Tridentata Type (Whitford and Craig) or the Bunchgrass Subzone (Krajina), trees grow only where seepage 3 permits development of groves of yellow pine or poplars, often with poi-son ivy i n the shrub layer, or plant conmunities of flood plains and river 3 The ccnnmon name of yellow pine i s synonymous to ponderosa pine; the la t ter i s used when appearing i n work of authors used as reference. 8. banks (Brayshaw, 1955; K r a j i n a , i n F o r e s t r y Handbook, 1 9 5 9 ) . The p r e c i p i -t a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a i s below 10 i n , a n n u a l l y , w i t h the t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s b e i n g -45° t o o v e r 100°F= T h i s t y p e o c c u r s i n e l e v a t i o n s f r o m 700 t o 1,400 f t , above sea l e v e l (a«s 0l.) ( K r a j i n a ) , The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o i l f o r m i n g p r o c e s s i s c a l c i f i c a t i o n , t h e z o n a l s o i l s a r e o f the Cherno-zemic Order (NSSCC, 1963) . Semi-open f o r e s t s o f s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B, C, I n s o u t h e r n B. C. W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ( p . 64) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t he A g r o p y r o n S p i c a t u m Type, I n n o r t h e r n I d a h o , Daubenmire (1952) d e s c r i b e d t h e Y e l l o w P i n e - Wheat G r a s s A s s o c i a t i o n s and i n B. C,, Brayshaw (1955) s t u d i e d s i m i l a r t y p e s w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f s c a t t e r e d t r e e s o f y e l l o w p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e as w e l l as t r e m b l i n g a s p e n . T h i s t y p e has been g r e a t l y e x t e n d e d by f i r e ( W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , p. 6 4 ) . The c l i m a t e i s a l m o s t t h e same as i n the t r e e l e s s g r a s s l a n d s b u t t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s h i g h e r (10 t o 16 i n , p e r y e a r ) . T h i s t y p e o c c u r s i n the e l e v a t i o n range from 1,000 t o 3,000 f t . Y e l l o w p i n e f o r e s t s i n v a l l e y s and a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s i n s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B, C. Here t h e c l i m a t i c c l i m a x s t a n d i s the Y e l l o w P i n e - A g r o p y r o n S p i c a t u m (AG) F o r e s t T y p e . I t was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by W h i t f o r d and C r a i g and a l s o l a t e r by K r a j i n a as Ponder o s a P i n e Subzone, by H a l l i d a y and by Rowe as P o n d e r o s a P i n e - D o u g l a s - f i r S e c t i o n , and i n Chapman e t a l . as t h e Dry F o r e s t R e g i o n . I t was s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l by Brayshaw (1955) and O g i l v i e ( 1 9 5 5 ) , The young s t a n d s a f t e r f i r e a r e o f t e n dense ( K r a j i n a , 1965; F. H., 1959; Daubenmire, 1952; I l v e s s a l o , 1929; Brayshaw, 1 9 5 5 ) . 9. The f o r e s t s t a n d g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s o f y e l l o w and l o d g e p o l e p i n e s , D o u g l a s - f i r and t r e m b l i n g a s p e n . M a t u r e and ove r m a t u r e s t a n d s a r e v e r y open and have a p a r k l i k e a p p e a r a n c e . They grow on d r y , w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l . A c c o r d i n g t o I l v e s s a l o (1929, p. 38) t h i s t y p e o c c u r s on t h e s o u t h and w e s t s l o p e s and a l o n g the f l a t p a r t s o f t h e v a l l e y s . A c c o r d i n g t o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ( p . 65) the p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 14 t o 20 i n * p e r y e a r and t h e extreme t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e -42°F. and o v e r 100°F. The a l t i t u d i n a l r a nge i s between 1,500 and 2,500 f t , b u t i t may go up t o 3,500 f t . i n s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e s ( K r a j i n a ) , The s o i l f o r m i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e c a l c i f i c a t i o n and m e l a n i z a t i o n . Z o n a l s o i l s a r e o f the Chernozemic Order ( G r e e n , L o r d and H o r t i e , 1 9 6 3 ) . McLean and H o l l a n d (1958) d e s c r i b e d a D o u g l a s - f i r G r o v e l a n d Subzone w h i c h may t r u l y b e l o n g t o a d r y e c o t o p e b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e semi-open A g r o p y r o n S p i c a t u m F o r e s t Type ( W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ) . McLean and H o l l a n d c a l l e d t h e i r subzone s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Brayshaw (1955) i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t o t h e g r a s s l a n d s o c c u r r i n g " f a r t h e r s o u t h i n t h e t r e n c h " , w h i c h a r e a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e de-s c r i b e d i n s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by T i s d a l e (1947) and i n Washing-t o n by Daubenmire ( 1 9 5 2 ) . C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a n F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s o f s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C. W h i t f o r d and C r a i g d e s c r i b e d t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Type, w h i c h was named by K r a j i n a t h e P i n e G r a s s Subzone. H a l l i d a y and Rowe c a l l e d i t t h e C e n t r a l D o u g l a s - f i r S e c t i o n , and McLean and H o l l a n d (1958, p. 338) d e s c r i b e d i t as the D o u g l a s - f i r F o r e s t Subzone. The l a t t e r o c c u r s 10. i n a r e a s o f 15 t o 18 i n . p r e c i p i t a t i o n . McLean and H o l l a n d ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s m a i n l y d e s t i n e d t o s e r v e range management. T h e i r subzone i s a p p a r e n t l y s i m i l a r t o t y p e s i n the Okahagan and Thompson V a l l e y s and t h e C a r i b o o R e g i o n , a t e l e v a t i o n s o f up t o about 3,500 f t , , d e s c r i b e d by S p i l s b u r y and T i s d a l e (1944) and T i s d a l e (1950) , A c c o r d i n g t o McLean and H o l l a n d (1958) t h e D o u g l a s - f i r F o r e s t Subzone has a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d P s e u d o t s u g a -C a l a m a g r o s t i s A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c l i m a t i c c l i m a x on g r e y wooded s o i l s . The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n c a n be com-p a r e d t o t h e P i n e g r a s s S i t e Type o f I l l i n g w o r t h and A r l i d g e ( I 9 6 0 ) , w h i c h i s a common t y p e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the D o u g l a s - f i r Zone l i e s between 16 and 19 i n . p e r y e a r ( K r a j i n a ) , i n t h e n o r t h o f t h i s f o r e s t t y p e i t i s l e s s t h a n t h a t , b u t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i s a l s o l e s s . The t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s a r e -57°F. minimum and 110°F. maximum; G e n e r a l l y t h i s t y p e o c c u r s j u s t above the Y e l l o w P i n e Zone and below t h e Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone, I t s l o w e r e l e v a t i o n boundary l i e s between 1,000 t o 2,500 f t , , the upper between 3,000 and 4,500 f t . On s o u t h e r n a s p e c t s t h i s f o r e s t t y p e goes h i g h e r t h a n on n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s , i . e . s o u t h w e s t e r n a s p e c t s between 2,000 and 4,500 f t . , s o u t h e a s t e r n , between 1,000 and 2,500 f t . , on n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s , between 1,500 and 3,000 f t . The p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s i s weak p o d z o l i z a t i o n . The z o n a l s o i l s a r e t h e Brown Wooded G r e a t Group o f t h e B r u n i s o l i c O r d e r and p e r h a p s Grey Wooded G r e a t Group o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . 11 The w e t t e r p a r t o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t s The F a l s e Boxwood Subzone ( K r a j i n a ) a l s o i s r e p l a c e d a f t e r f i r e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y r e p e a t e d f i r e s , by a l m o s t p u r e l o d g e p o l e p i n e . G e n e r a l l y 50% o r more o f t h i s s t a n d c o n s i s t s o f D o u g l a s - f i r and w e s t e r n l a r c h w i t h a d m i x t u r e s o f y e l l o x ^ p i n e , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , g r a n d f i r and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . T h i s type i s l i m i t e d i n o c c u r r e n c e t o the s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , below 50° n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a i s between 20 and 22 i n . As t o t e m p e r a t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , the t y p e i s i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h e y e l l o w p i n e t y p e s on one hand and t h e Engelmann s p r u c e t y p e s o f h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s on the o t h e r . I t s a l t i t u d i n a l range i s u s u a l l y between 1,800 f t , and 4,000 f t . The p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s i s p o d z o l i z a t i o n . Z o n a l s o i l s a r e o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . The W e s t e r n Red Cedar Type, w h i c h was d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , i s a p p a r e n t l y an e d a p h i c t y p e and w i l l n o t be d e s c r i b e d h e r e . The w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h i s type a l o n g t h e E a k i n C r e e k V a l l e y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 t o 10 m i l e s from L i t t l e F o r t . The t r e e s were o f e x c e l l e n t shape and t h e s t a n d was v e r y d e n s e . F o r e s t s o f t h e wet b e l t i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C, I n the I n t e r i o r W estern Hemlock Zone K r a j i n a d i f f e r e n t i a t e d two s u b z o n e s . The d r i e r one, named W e s t e r n L a r c h Subzone, was s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l by S m i t h (1963) and B e l l ( 1 9 6 4 ) . I t has a h i g h e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , 22 t o 35 i n , , t h a n W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ' s D o u g l a s - f i r - Western L a r c h F o r e s t Type o r K r a j i n a ' s s i m i l a r F a l s e Boxwood Subzone, I n a d d i t i o n t o w e s t e r n l a r c h t h e t r e e c o v e r c o n s i s t s o f w e s t e r n hemlock, w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , g r a n d f i r , 12 D o u g l a s - f i r , w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e and y e l l o w p i n e . T h i s subzone i s t h e t r a n s i t i o n f o r e s t between t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone and t h e W e t t e r Subzone o f t h e I n t e r i o r W estern Hemlock Zone. The W e t t e r Subzone, c a l l e d W e s t e r n Hemlock Subzone ( K r a j i n a ) , i n c o r p o r a t e s W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ' s I n t e r i o r W e s t e r n Red C e d a r , W e s t e r n Red Cedar - Engelmann S p r u c e , W e s t e r n Red Cedar - W e s t e r n Hemlock and W e s t e r n Hemlock - A l p i n e F i r F o r e s t Types, and c o i n c i d e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y w i t h Rowe's Co l u m b i a F o r e s t R e g i o n , T h i s t y p e i s a l s o m e n t i o n e d by McLean and H o l l a n d (1958) as t h e W e s t e r n Red Cedar - W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone, The a n n u a l p r e -c i p i t a t i o n i s between 35 t o 67 i n . The extreme t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e -57°Fi t o o v e r 106°F, The a l t i t u d i n a l o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e I n t e r i o r W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone i s , a c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a , f r o m 1,200 t o 4,200 f t . The p r e v a i l i n g p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s i s p o d z o l i z a t i o n . The z o n a l s o i l s a r e o f t h e P o d z o l i c O r d e r . P a r k l a n d f o r e s t s o f t h e p l a t e a u i n the s o u t h - c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r o f B. C, The C a r i b o o Aspen - L o d g e p o l e P i n e - D o u g l a s - f i r P a r k l a n d ( K r a j i n a ) and the C a r i b o o P a r k l a n d s , Chapman e t a l . , a r e i n g r e a t e r p a r t comparable t o the n o r t h e r n p o r t i o n o f W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ' s G r a s s and Semi-open F o r e s t Type a s w e l l as Rowe's Montane N o r t h e r n A s p e n S e c t i o n M3 and the Montane T r a n s i t i o n S e c t i o n M4, The m a j o r s p e c i e s a r e t r e m b l i n g a s p e n , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r and w h i t e s p r u c e . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s between 14 t o 22 i n , a n n u a l l y . The t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s a r e between -61°F, and 105°F, The zone i n c l u d e s e l e v a t i o n s between 1,700 t o 3,000 f t , n o r t h w a r d f r o m t h e P o n d e r o s a P i n e and I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zones, The p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s a r e n o t d i s t i n c t ; weak c a l c i f i c a t i o n as w e l l as weak p o d z o l i z a t i o n o c c u r . The t y p i c a l s o i l s r a n g e f r o m t h i n b l a c k t o g r e y wooded s o i l s . 13. C a n a d i a n C o r d i l l e r a n S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone T h i s zone was d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a , a l s o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , and Chapman e t a l . , and i s comparable t o H a l l i d a y ' s as w e l l as Rowe's S u b a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n . I n a m i x t u r e w i t h a l p i n e f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e , m o u n t a i n hemlock, w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e and w h i t e s p r u c e o c c u r and where the Engelmann s p r u c e -a l p i n e f i r t y p e s b o r d e r on the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t , w e s t e r n hemlock and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r a r e a l s o f o u n d . I n h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s , a l p i n e l a r c h and w h i t e b a r k p i n e grow a t the t i m b e r l i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a , the a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a r i e s from 16 t o 72 i n . , t h e extreme t e m p e r a t u r e s a r e between -68°F, and 98°F, The l a t i t u -d i n a l r ange v a r i e s w i t h t h e a s p e c t and i s i n NU between 3,000 and 5,000 f t . , i n NE between 3,500 and 5,000 f t . , i n SW between 4,000 t o 7,000 and SE b e t -ween 4,200 and 7,500. The p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s a r e p o d z o l i z a t i o n and g l e i z a t i o n . Z o n a l s o i l s a r e o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r . C a n a d i a n B o r e a l F o r e s t R e g i o n ( K r a j i n a ) The B o r e a l F o r e s t R e g i o n o f Rowe o f n o r t h e r n B, C. g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e W h i t e Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Type o f W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , t h e Peace R i v e r P a r k l a n d R e g i o n s o f Chapman e t a l . and the S u b - b o r e a l Spruce and the B o r e a l W h i t e and B l a c k Spruce Zones o f K r a j i n a . I n the S u b - b o r e a l Spruce Zone t h e main s p e c i e s a r e x^hite s p r u c e and some Engelmann s p r u c e . The a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n l i e s between 16 t o 25 i n . The t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s a r e f r o m -58°F, t o 98°F. The a l t i t u d i n a l 14. range of this zone lies between 1,100 to 2,800 ft. In the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone the main species are white and black spruce. The annual precipitation lies between 12 to 23 in, The temperature extremes are ~74°F. and 105 °F, The soil forming pro-cesses are strong podzolization and mor formation. The Peace River Aspen - White Spruce Parkland Zone (Krajina, 1959 and 1964) was left out by Krajina in 1965 because it was supposed to rep-resent only an edaphic part of the Boreal White and Black Spruce Zone. Alpine Tundra Region (Krajina) The Alpine Tundra Region consists of treeless areas above the treeline and below the barren rocksB The altitude of the tree line varies in different parts of the province* In the southern interior its average elevation is between 5,000 ft, and 6,000 ft, above sea level; in the central plateau it lies between the 4,000 and 5,000 ft, contours; and in the northern interior it is bet-ween 3,000 ft, and 4,000 ft. in altitude. The Alpine Tundra Region of Krajina lies above the Sub-alpine Zone of Whitford and Craig, It is treeless and according to Krajina the prevailing pedogenic processes are skeletal disintegration, weak podzoli-zation and strong gleization. The alpine soils consist of regosols, podzols and gleyzols and what Kubiena (1953) called rankers and rendzinas. Pacific Coastal Forest Region (Krajina) Krajina (1965) distinguished in this region the Coastal Western Hemlock and Coastal Douglas-fir Zones and also differentiated the Pacific 15. C o a s t a l S u b - a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n w i t h t h e M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone. K r a j i n a 1 s zones and subzones o f t h e c o a s t a l b e l t have p a r a l l e l t y p e s i n W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , Rowe and Chapman e t a l . The f o l l o w i n g r e f e -r e n c e s t o e c o l o g i c a l work i n s p e c i f i c c o a s t a l zones a r e o n l y m e n t i o n e d f o r t h e r e c o r d and w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d , because the w r i t e r i s c o n c e r n e d m a i n l y w i t h the i n t e r i o r f o r e s t t y p e s . The C o a s t a l D o u g l a s - f i r Zone was s t u d i e d by S z c z a w i n s k i ( 1 9 5 3 ) , McMinn (1957) , S c h m i d t (1957) and M u e l l e r -Dombois ( 1 9 5 9 ) • The C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone was i n v e s t i g a t e d by L e s k o ( 1 9 6 1 ) , E i s (1962) and O r l o c i (1961 and 1 9 6 4 ) . The M o u n t a i n Hemlock Zone i n t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t a l S u b - a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n , was a n a l y z e d by P e t e r s o n (1964) and Brooke ( 1 9 6 5 ) . A r c h e r (1963) s t u d i e d e c o l o g i c a l p r o b -lems i n t h e A l p i n e Zone o f G a r i b a l d i P a r k . S p i l s b u r y and S m i t h (1947) d e s c r i b e d c o a s t a l f o r e s t s i t e t y p e s u s i n g d a t a f r o m s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y and Cascade M o u n t a i n s i n W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon, C h a p t e r Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e g i o n a l and z o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e f o r e s t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were r e v i e w e d . I n T a b l e 1 a r e shown the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e r e g i o n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e as a w h o l e . Each r e g i o n was b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e g a r d t o the m a j o r o c c u r r e n c e o f f o r e s t a s s o c i a -t i o n s , c l i m a t e , m a j o r s o i l t y p e s , and i t s g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . The r e g i o n s o f t h e i n t e r i o r , where t h e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d , were d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l t h a n t h o s e o f the r e m a i n i n g p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 16. DISTRIBUTION AND SILVICS OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE I n t h i s c h a p t e r l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o the t o p i c i s r e v i e w e d and supplemented by the w r i t e r ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s . T h i s work i s c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r and the Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zones, The g e n e r a l c l i m a t e was d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c h a p t e r on f o r e s t r e g i o n s and f o r e s t zones o f B. C. L o d g e p o l e p i n e , P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . (LP) T h i s s p e c i e s i s g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( W h i t f o r d and C r a i g , 1918; Sudworth, 1908; Haddock, 1965) e x c e p t i n g the utmost n o r t h w e s t e r n t i p and the n o r t h e a s t c o r n e r ( C r i t c h f i e l d , 1957, p. 19; T a c k l e , 1 9 5 9 ) . Macoun (1883, p. 467) w r o t e : " T h i s i s t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c t r e e o v e r t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e i n t e r i o r p l a t e a u o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and d e n s e l y c o v e r s g r e a t a r e a s I n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h i s s p e c i e s o c c u r s from sea l e v e l t o the t r e e l i n e . The w r i t e r f o u n d l o d g e p o l e p i n e g r o w i n g a t e l e v a t i o n s o f 7,100 f t , n e a r P l a c e r M o u n t a i n , f o r m i n g the t i m b e r l i n e w i t h Engelmann s p r u c e , a l p i n e f i r and w h i t e b a r k p i n e . I n t h e n o r t h o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t does n o t r e a c h t h e t r e e l i n e ( S u d w o r t h , 1 9 0 8 ) , w h i c h r a n g e s from an e l e v a t i o n o f 1,500 t o 3,000 f t , ( F o w e l l s , 1965, p. 3 7 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o T a c k l e (1959) n o r t h e r n and e a s t e r n a s p e c t s a r e f a v o u r e d over w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n a s p e c t s e x c e p t i n s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Sudworth (1908) l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s a d a p t e d t o d r y , g r a v e l l y s o i l s b u t p r e f e r s sandy, m o i s t ones, and a c c o r d i n g t o H a r l o w and H a r r a r (1941) i t does w e l l on m o d e r a t e l y a c i d , sandy, o r g r a v e l l y loams 17 t h a t a r e m o i s t , l i g h t and w e l l d r a i n e d . Sudworth (1908) s t a t e d t h a t i t a v o i d s l i m e s t o n e . B a t e s (1917) w r o t e t h a t s o i l s d e r i v e d f r o m l i m e s t o n e o r f i n e g r a i n e d i g n e o u s r o c k s g e n e r a l l y do n o t s u p p o r t good s t a n d s , Stephens (1966) i n NU Oregon Cascade M o u n t a i n s found l o d g e p o l e p i n e g r o w i n g o n l y on w e l l and e x c e s s i v e l y w e l l - d r a i n e d , m o d e r a t e l y c o a r s e and c o a r s e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s and on p o o r l y and v e r y p o o r l y - d r a i n e d o r g a n i c s o i l s . Mason (1915) and Tower (1909) b o t h found t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e shows p r e f e r e n c e f o r s i l i c e o u s s o i l s , i * e . s l i g h t l y a c i d i c s o i l s . I n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C. the w r i t e r o b s e r v e d l o d g e p o l e p i n e g r o w i n g v e r y w e l l on s o i l s o f v a r y i n g t e x -t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n , w h i c h h a d , however, the f o l l o w i n g i n common: t h e y were w e l l - a e r a t e d , \ ; e l l - d r a i n e d , f r e s h t o m o i s t , w e a k l y a c i d i n r e a c t i o n and w e l l -s u p p l i e d w i t h n u t r i e n t s , e i t h e r i n h e r e n t t o the s o i l and i t s exchange comp-l e x o r s u p p l i e d t h r o u g h seepage. On a l l o t h e r s i t e s l o d g e p o l e p i n e grew l e s s w e l l . The p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s were weak p o d z o l i z a t i o n and the t y p i c a l z o n a l s o i l s m i n i m a l p o d z o l s o r g r e y wooded s o i l s ( s o i l t y p e s a c c o r d i n g t o NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . A l o n g t h e c o a s t , l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d s h o r e o r s c r u b p i n e . The name l o d g e p o l e p i n e a p p a r e n t l y was d e r i v e d f r o m the t a l l , s l i m p o l e s o f t h e dense i n t e r i o r s t a n d s , Sudworth ( 1 9 0 8 ) , D a v i d s o n and Abercrom-b i e ( 1 9 2 7 ) , Wood (1955) and L i t t l e (1953) f o u n d l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between s h o r e p i n e and the i n t e r i o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e . They assumed t h a t l o d g e p o l e i s a p o l y m o r p h i c s p e c i e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t , S a r g e n t ( 1 8 9 7 ) , J e p s o n ( 1 9 0 9 ) , K a l e l a ( 1 9 3 7 ) , Engelmann ( i n Watson, 1880) and o t h e r a u t h o r s found g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e sh o r e p i n e and the i n t e r i o r p i n e . C r i t c h f i e l d ( 1957, p. 105) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f o u r s u b - s p e c i e s . Roche (1962) m e n t i o n e d two v a r i e t i e s o c c u r r i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The w r i t e r assumes t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n e x i s t 18, because in the coastal zone the growing conditions are very favourable for many species. However, lodgepole pine, which is shade intolerant (Krajina in F,H,, 1959, p, 565), will not become established where shading due to competing vegetation becomes a limiting factor. On the coast, in swamps or bogs, on dunes or on rocky, shallow sites this species finds refuges, but frequently forms stands of short, stunted, branchy and generally non-merchantable individuals. These stand out as different, because of their specific appearance. However, on better sites trees from the same seed source perhaps will grow well. The writer observed both tree types in the Discovery Road swamp on U.B.C, Endowment Lands, The stunted, scrubby trees grew in the swamp proper, and the well-formed and better growing lodgepole pine, in better-drained swamp margins. Good growth of coastal lodgepole pine was described by Elwes and Henry (1910), Dallimoore and Jackson (1923), Roche (1962) and MacDonald (1954). Better growth of the coastal lodgepole pine than of the interior provenances was mentioned in Roche (1962) and MacDonald (1954). In the Discovery Road - Camosun Park Swamp in Vancouver, the writer found also a third type scattered in good as well as poor environ-ment, which was short, but straight. The crown of these trees (49 and 177 years old) was wide and flat, (plot 114, tree No. 20 and 17). Perhaps this is the genotype which will preserve its appearance also on favourable sites and which was described by Roche (1962), Sargent (1897) and Tackle (1959) as one of the genotypes of the coastal lodgepole pine. In Oregon, Krajina (personal remarks, February 16, 1966) found lodgepole pine growing under a yellow pine canopy on slightly acidic (pH 5-6) pumice soils, with annual precipitation of 10 to 12 in. However, 19. lodgepole pine is not tolerant to shade (Fowells, 1965; Hansen, 1947; Heusser, 1960), but it exists in dense stands with full top light and little natural thinning out (Sudworth, 1908). According to Whitford and Craig (1918) lodgepole pine is extremely hardy and has the ability to reproduce after fire and to replace the burned stands. It grows well even on sandy and rocky soils from which all the humus has been removed. Its serotinous cones will open by light fire. These characteristics make lodgepole pine a very valuable species, particularly for the dry interior of British Columbia where many fires have occurred, Whitford and Craig, (1918) reported one lodgepole pine in the Fly Hills, which was 25 in, in diameter at breast height (dbh) and had a height (h) of 110 ft. The writer observed near Tulameen, on plot 117, a very well-growing lodgepole pine which at 180 years was 135 ft B high and 13,5 4n» in dbh. It grew together with Engelmann spruce, Douglas*fir, alpine fir and western white pine, and an understory of western red cedar and individual western hemlock. The tallest trees in the stand were Douglas-fir (190 ft, at 200 yrs,, dbh 30 in.) and alpine fir (150 ft, at 90 yrs M dbh over 20 in,). Along Eakin Creek near Little Fort at an elevation from 3,500 to 4,000 fti (plot 111 to 113) lodgepole pine exhibited good growth. One tree, 102 ft« tall at 80 yrs. and 13 in. in dbh, compared well with Engelmann spruce, 85 ft. at the age of 76 and dbh of 11 in. In both cases, lodgepole pine grew mixed with other species. The writer observed the best pure stands of lodgepole pine in the vicinity of Corral Creek in the Princeton area, at an elevation of 5,700 ft. (plot 82). The dominant trees of lodgepole pine were between 103 to 115 ft. high at an age of 180 yrs? and from 12 to 16 in, in dbh, Engelmann spruce growing nearby in a depression was 112 ft, high at an age of 180 yrsT and 21 in. in dbhf 20. The w r i t e r d i d n o t t a k e any samples i n the C a r i b o o Aspen -L o d g e p o l e P i n e - D o u g l a s - f i r P a r k l a n d Zone, b u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l i m a t i c i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by K r a j i n a (1965) the growth o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n t h i s zone i s l i k e l y t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone. Perhaps i t w i l l be somewhat p o o r e r because o f the l o w e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n and l o w e r t e m p e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l , b u t p i n e w i l l o c c u r more f r e q u e n t l y and more e x t e n s i v e l y i n pure s t a n d s because of t h e more f a v o u r a b l e m o i s t u r e c o n d i -t i o n s t h a n i n t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone. Engelmann S p r u c e , P i c e a e n g e l m a n n i i P a r r y (ES) D i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a s o f s p r u c e s o c c u r r i n g i n B, C, a r e shown i n 4 Map 2 . Among them Engelmann s p r u c e i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e S u b - a l p i n e F o r e s t R e g i o n (Haddock, 1 9 6 1 ) . The range o f Engelmann s p r u c e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s n o t c l e a r because o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e , h y b r i d t y p e , w h i c h o c c u r s where Engelmann s p r u c e and w h i t e s p r u c e P i c e a g l a u c a (Moench) V o s s . meet and o v e r l a p , Rowe (1959) c a l l e d t h i s zone t h e Engelmann s p r u c e - w h i t e s p r u c e complex. Garman (1957) showed t h a t t h e r e i s a wide range o f t h e s e i n t e r -m e d i a t e t y p e s and Roche (1964a, 1964b and 1965) e s t a b l i s h e d a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g c o r r e l a t i o n between e l e v a t i o n and the s c a l e - s e e d w i n g r a t i o ( r a t i o o f t h e cone s c a l e l e n g t h and the l e n g t h o f i t s s e e d w i n g s ) . Low r a t i o s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t y p i c a l w h i t e s p r u c e and h i g h e r r a t i o s o f t y p i c a l Engelmann s p r u c e . A c c o r d i n g l y , w h i t e s p r u c e commonly o c c u r s a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s and Engelmann s p r u c e o c c u r s a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s , g e n e r a l l y o v e r 4,000 f t , 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a s o f Map 2 a r e b a s e d on F o w e l l s ( 1 9 6 5 ) . 21. 22. I n the s t u d y r e p o r t e d h e r e i n , t r e e s w i t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p u r e Engelmann s p r u c e o r w h i t e s p r u c e as w e l l as the i n t e r m e d i a t e t y p e were l o c a t e d . A l l t h e s e t r e e s were t r e a t e d as Engelmann s p r u c e s , because the m a j o r i t y o f the m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f Engelmann s p r u c e . From the s i l v i -c u l t u r a l p o i n t o f v i e w t h e r e may be no need t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e s e s p e c i e s , a t l e a s t i n the r e g i o n o f o v e r l a p ( o r where the complex o c c u r s ) and U r i g h t (1955) as w e l l as T a y l o r (1959) a c t u a l l y d e a l t w i t h them as a p o s s i b l e s p e c i e s complex, Engelmann s p r u c e grows o n l y i n t h e w e s t e r n p a r t s o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A c c o r d i n g t o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g (1918, p. 200) on t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e o f the R o c k i e s i t e x t e n d s i n B. C. t o t h e edge o f t h e F o o t -h i l l s , I n the s o u t h e r n p o r t i o n o f the i n t e r i o r , i t forms an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f the f o r e s t a t a l t i t u d e s between 3,500 t o 5,000 f t . Though the n o r t h e r n boundary o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Engelmann s p r u c e i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r , a c c o r d i n g t o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ( 1 9 1 8 ) , i t a p p a r e n t l y does n o t o c c u r on t h e w e s t e r n s l o p e o f the c o a s t m o u n t a i n s , n o r , as f a r as i s known, i n t h e a r e a d r a i n e d by t h e S t i k i n e and L i a r d R i v e r s , A c c o r d i n g t o L, Roche, Engelmann s p r u c e o c c u r s t o g e t h e r w i t h w h i t e s p r u c e a l o n g t h e Skeena R i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y o f S m i t h e r s and T e l k w a and i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f B a b i n e L a k e . He a l s o r e p o r t e d b o t h s p e c i e s o c c u r r i n g as f a r s o u t h as M e r r i t t , and i n the Rocky M o u n t a i n s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Radium Hot S p r i n g s . A c c o r d i n g t o Garman (1957) t h e a r e a s o u t h o f B o n a p a r t e R i v e r , and s o u t h o f t h e n o r t h Thompson R i v e r a t B i r c h I s l a n d , i s o c c u p i e d by Engelmann s p r u c e , m o s t l y i n the m o u n t a i n s a t e l e v a t i o n s about 4,000 f t . However, w h i t e s p r u c e i s common a l o n g the c r e e k s a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s ( p e r s o n a l c ommunications w i t h Dr, J , H, G, S m i t h and D r , P, G, H a d d o c k ) , 23. From Map 2 i t a p p e a r s t h a t i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the s t u d y a r e a , a r o u n d P r i n c e t o n , Tulameen, Q u i l c h e n a and Kelowna, m a i n l y Engelmann s p r u c e o c c u r s , xjhereas i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the s t u d y a r e a , i n the v i c i n i t y o f L i t t l e F o r t , Engelmann s p r u c e , t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e t y p e , as w e l l as w h i t e s p r u c e o c c u r t o g e t h e r . I n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the P r o v i n c e , w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e and i n the c o a s t a l b e l t , S i t k a s p r u c e a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c cam-p o n e n t s o f t h e s t a n d s . A c c o r d i n g t o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g (1918) Engelmann s p r u c e u s u a l l y a t t a i n s f r o m 18 t o 36 i n . i n dbh and from 80 t o 100 f t . i n h e i g h t , . As a r u l e i t o c c u r s i n m i x e d s t a n d s , w i t h a l p i n e f i r o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e , b u t f r e q u e n t l y i t i s f o u n d i n a l m o s t p u r e s t a n d s . I n dense s t a n d s i t p r o d u c e s l o n g , c l e a r t r u n k s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e t a p e r . I t i s q u i t e t o l e r a n t t o shade b u t r e s p o n d s q u i c k l y t o the i n f l u e n c e o f l i g h t by i n c r e a s e d g r o w t h . A c c o r d i n g t o F o w e l l s (1965) i t o c c u p i e s the h i g h e s t and c o l d e s t f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e w e s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s ( e x t r e m e s -50°F, and 90°F t) w i t h heavy s n o w f a l l , and a t o t a l a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n o v e r 25 i n , A c c o r d i n g t o A l e x a n d e r (1958) i t grows b e s t on m o d e r a t e l y deep, w e l l - d r a i n e d s i l t and c l a y l o am s o i l s f rom m a i n l y b a s i c r o c k s . Good g r o w t h i s made on a l l u v i a l s o i l s w i t h seepage w a t e r s u p p l y i n g the n u t r i e n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o B a t e s (1923 and 1925) Engelmann s p r u c e w i l l s u r v i v e a t l o w e r l i g h t i n t e n s i t i e s t h a n l o d g e p o l e p i n e , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o F o w e l l s (1965) c a n n o t s u r v i v e deep shade as w e l l as a l p i n e f i r , n o r s t r o n g l i g h t a s w e l l as l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The f r e q u e n c y o f seed c r o p s o f Engelmann s p r u c e (Day, 1964) combined w i t h a seed bed o f m i n e r a l s o i l o r r o t t i n g wood ( B a r r , 1930; G r i f f i t h , 1931) o r d i s t u r b e d seed bed ( S m i t h and C l a r k , 1960) and f a v o u r a b l e m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s (Day, 1963 and 1964; B a r r , 1930) c o n t r o l t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e g e n e r a t i o n . B a r r (1930, p. 54) a l s o found h i g h e r m o i s t u r e 24. c o n t e n t o f the s o i l on n o r t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s , w h i c h was p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e o f s p r u c e on thes e e x p o s u r e s . The w r i t e r f ound Engelmann s p r u c e g r o w i n g e x c e l l e n t l y i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r Zone n e a r Coalmont ( p l o t 116) i n a s e e p a g e - r i c h g u l l y s i t e w i t h O p l o p a n a x . A t the age o f 200 y e a r s t h e s p r u c e r e a c h e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 180 f t . and was 24 t o 25 i n . i n dbh. A n o t h e r l o c a t i o n o f s i m i l a r l y e x c e l l e n t l y g r o w i n g Engelmann s p r u c e was found above the f o r k o f L a w l e s s and Skwum C r e e k s ( p l o t 117) on a v e r y m o i s t seepage s i t e w i t h l u x u r i a n t , h e r b - r i c h u n d e r g r o w t h . A t t h e age o f 200 t h e s p r u c e was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 170 f t . h i g h and r e a c h e d 22 i n , a t b h . A l t h o u g h the w r i t e r t o o k samples i n m a i n l y m i x e d s t a n d s o f Engelmann s p r u c e and l o d g e p o l e p i n e , a l m o s t p u r e s t a n d s o f s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r o c c u r r e d f r e q u e n t l y t h r o u g h o u t the Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone. C h a p t e r Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r the s i l v i c a l p r o p e r t i e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e were b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d . L o d g e p o l e p i n e g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e x c e p t i n t h e v e r y d r y g r a s s l a n d s and t h e a l p i n e t u n d r a a r e a s , L o d g e p o l e p i n e i s found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a l l f o u r B. C. s p r u c e s : Engelmann s p r u c e i n the c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i t e s p r u c e i n t h e c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , b l a c k s p r u c e i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and S i t k a s p r u c e a l o n g the c o a s t a l a r e a s o f t h i s p r o v i n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a o f the f o u r s p r u c e s i s shown i n Map 2. The f a c t was a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h a t a l o n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a s o f Engelmann s p r u c e and w h i t e s p r u c e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e a p u r e t y p e o f e i t h e r s p e c i e s . The s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d 25. w i t h i n the Engelmann s p r u c e d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y t h i s s p r u c e s p e c i e s was reviewed,, No a t t e m p t s were made t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e any p o s s i b l e h y b r i d s p e c i e s and a l l s p r u c e t r e e s o f the s t u d y a r e a were t r e a t e d as Engelmann s p r u c e . I n the Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone, b o t h s p e c i e s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e as w e l l as Engelmann s p r u c e can o c c u r t o g e t h e r on a l m o s t a l l s i t e s . However, on p o r o u s , q u i c k l y - d r a i n i n g , d r y s o i l o r on s h a l l o w s o i l o v e r bed-r o c k , l o d g e p o l e p i n e a p p a r e n t l y grows b e t t e r t h a n Engelmann s p r u c e ( p e r h a p s even b e t t e r t h a n D o u g l a s - f i r ) . On n u t r i e n t - r i c h seepage s i t e s o f v a l l e y b o t t o m s , draws and s l o p e s and on deep, m o i s t and n u t r i e n t - r i c h s o i l s , i n g e n e r a l Engelmann s p r u c e ( o r D o u g l a s - f i r o r even a l p i n e f i r ) outgrow l o d g e -p o l e p i n e , L o d g e p o l e p i n e i s a p i o n e e r s p e c i e s and c a n n a t u r a l l y r e - s t o c k l a n d a f t e r f i r e s and has an i n i t i a l l y f a s t g r o w t h , Engelmann s p r u c e has t h e a b i l i t y t o become n a t u r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d e v e n under canopy and t o endure o v e r t o p p i n g f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . Each has t h e r e f o r e a d i f f e r e n t s i l v i c u l -t u r a l p o t e n t i a l . 26. ROLE OF FIRE IN FOREST SUCCESSION Clements (1910) i n n o r t h e r n C o l o r a d o , s t u d i e d the l i f e h i s t o r y o f b u r n e d a r e a s , o f t e n exposed t o a s u c c e s s i o n o f f i r e s . The t h r e e m a j o r f o r e s t t y p e s o f y e l l o w p i n e , l o d g e p o l e p i n e - D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r , w i t h t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l y d i f f e r e n t b i o g e o c o e n o s e s , show a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t f i r e h i s t o r y . I n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same f o r e s t t y p e s o c c u r . The f i r e p a t t e r n a p p e a r s t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d by C l e m e n t s ( 1 9 1 0 ) . U n d o u b t e d l y many f i r e s s t a r t e d i n the Y e l l o w P i n e Zone, b u t due t o t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f y e l l o w p i n e t o f i r e damage, because o f i t s t h i c k b a r k , c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l s t a n d s r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y unchanged. I n the D o u g l a s - f i r Zone f i r e s d e v e l o p e d and s p r e a d r a p i d l y . Though l o d g e p o l e p i n e and D o u g l a s - f i r a r e e s s e n t i a l l y c o - z o n a l o r o f t e n s y m p a t r i c , D o u g l a s - f i r has been so l a r g e l y r e p l a c e d by l o d g e p o l e p i n e , a s a r e s u l t o f f i r e s , t h a t p u r e s t a n d s a r e r a r e ( C l e m e n t s , 1910, p. 7, 8 and 9 ) . Many o f t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s , w h i c h now b e l o n g t o t h e p i n e g r a s s and k i n n i k i n n i c k a s s o c i a t i o n , c o n s i s t e d o r i g i n a l l y o f D o u g l a s - f i r ( K r a j i n a , i n F. H., 1959, p. 6 1 0 ) . W h i t f o r d and C r a i g (1918, p. 74) r e p o r t e d , " I t i s h i s t o r i c a l l y known t h a t some such a r e a s had l i t t l e o r no l o d g e p o l e p i n e on them b e f o r e the o r i g i n a l f o r e s t was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e . F o r o t h e r a r e a s now c o v e r e d w i t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e , t h e r e i s no h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e n o r any i n d i c a t i o n i n the p r e s e n t v e g e t a t i o n t h a t the former f o r e s t c o v e r was a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n l o d g e p o l e p i n e * Such a r e a s u s u a l l y occupy sandy, p e b b l y , o r i m p o v e r i s h e d s o i l s , i n r e g i o n s where t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s l i g h t ... on t h e o t h e r hand, the a r e a s so c o v e r e d w i t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e show t h e e f f e c t s o f r e p e a t e d 27. b u r n i n g s and i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t s u c h b u r n i n g s have been so s e v e r e as t o d e s t r o y t h e a c c u m u l a t e d humus o f t h e o r i g i n a l f o r e s t , t h u s r e d u c i n g i t s m o i s t u r e - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y and r e n d e r i n g c o n d i t i o n s un-f a v o u r a b l e f o r the r e - e n t r a n c e o f the s p e c i e s of the o r i g i n a l f o r e s t . Be t h a t as i t may, t h e f a c t r e m a i n s t h a t on s u c h a r e a s t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e t y p e must now be c o n s i d e r e d as the permanent t y p e f o r p u r p o s e s o f management," F i r e has a l s o a f f e c t e d t h e i n t e r i o r w e t - b e l t s t a n d s . A c c o r d i n g t o W h i t f o r d and C r a i g (1918, pp. 68 t o 70) i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f i r e s c a u s e d g r e a t damage i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r - W e s t e r n L a r c h Type, whereas i n t h e W e s t e r n Red C e d a r , W e s t e r n Red Cedar - W e s t e r n Hemlock, and W e s t e r n Red Cedar - Spruce Types t h e f i r e was d e s t r u c t i v e l o c a l l y , b u t many s t a n d s i n m o i s t h a b i t a t s were p r e s e r v e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Clements ( 1 9 1 0 ) , W h i t f o r d and C r a i g ( 1 9 1 8 ) , I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 2 9 ) , Cormack ( 1 9 5 3 ) , and Bloomberg ( 1 9 5 0 ) , i n t h e Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone the s t a n d s were damaged and d e s t r o y e d t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s by f i r e s coming from d r i e r f o r e s t t y p e s and were r e p l a c e d m a i n l y w i t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e . H o r t o n (1956) d e s c r i b e d the s u c c e s s i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s a f t e r f i r e i n A l b e r t a . He f o u n d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : i n t h e S u b a l p i n e D i v i s i o n , t o Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r ; i n the Montane D i v i s i o n , t o Engelmann s p r u c e - D o u g l a s - f i r - a l p i n e f i r s t a n d s ; i n t h e H i g h F o o t h i l l s D i v i s i o n , t o w h i t e s p r u c e and b l a c k s p r u c e s t a n d s w i t h m i x t u r e s o f a s p e n . H o r t o n d i d n o t s u b d i v i d e i n t o p i n e a s s o c i a t i o n s , b u t l o o k e d upon t h e whole as a v a r y i n g c o n t i n u u m . A c c o r d i n g t o him, the range o f s u c c e s s i o n v a r i e s w i t h the abundance and v i g o r o f the c l i m a x s p e c i e s , the i n i t i a l d e n s i t y o f p i n e , and the s i t e . P i n e p e r s i s t e d l o n g e r on the d r i e r s i t e s . The s u c c e s s i o n from p i n e was c o m p l e t e d i n 225 t o 375 y e a r s . 28. Near Tulameen, along Lawless Creek on a steep valley slope at 4,400 ft. elevation a.s.l . (plot 106), the writer studied a 30 year old stand established after fire, in 1934. This consisted of about 60% Engel-mann spruce, 387= alpine fir and 2% lodgepole pine. The majority of the mature trees, which survived the fire at the lower slope and bottom of the valley, consisted of alpine f ir . The stumps, st i l l preserved on the upper slope and on the ridges, indicated that Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, alpine fir and individual lodgepole pine composed the pre-fire stand. The new stand was established with the readily available seed, A similar regeneration pattern was found on plot 105 northwest of Kelowna at an elevation of 5,000 ft. The stands were approximately 80 years old and consisted of either pure lodgepole pine or a mixture of lodgepole pine and alpine fir, with scattered trees of Douglas-fir and Engelmann spruce, or of almost pure alpine f ir . Old seed trees of all species were located which could have been very much responsible for the stand composition. Both plots serve as an example of the variability of the fire stand composition, which in turn affects the successional trends and the duration of the development toward a more stable forest community. In the Tulameen area along Lawless Creek (plot 84) the writer observed overmature alpine fir stands with scattered, old Engelmann spruce trees. In July of 1964 patches of snow were st i l l on the ground. Similar alpine fir stands were observed on the access road to the Big White Mountain south of Kelowna at elevations above 4,000 ft. These stands appear to be limited to cooler and moister parts of the Engelmann Spruce - Alpine Fir Zone and represent stands which were possibly preserved from fire and are more advanced in the successional trend or are the climatic 29. climax forest of the cooler and moister (higher) part of the Spruce -Alpine F i r Zone. According to Whitford and Craig (1918, p. 74) in the White Spruce - Alpine F i r Type, north of the 57th para l le l , fires destroyed a l l forest growth over large areas. Lodgepole pine has a more prominent role i n the present stands, but also black spruce, white spruce, aspen and alpine f i r come back i n good percentages, Lacate, Horton and Blyth (1965) and Raup (1935, 1946) described the successional trends of white spruce and black spruce stands i n the Peace River lowlands of Wood Buffalo National Park. After f i r e , usually jackpine became established on the dry sites, whereas on fresh to wet si tes, mainly brush, which they termed "brule" developed. In the mature stands spruce became the predominant component, whereas the poplars, common f o l -lowing f i re , gradually died out. The overmature stands consist of gradually disintegrating spruce, with few associated aspens, poplars and white b i r -ches, with a luxuriant shrub growth which largely prevents natural regene-rat ion. Similar successional trends may be assumed from Jeffrey's study (1964) of forest types along lower Liard River and (1961a) of the stands of the lower Peace River, and of the forest communities of northwestern Alberta (Moss, 1953). This brief review of l i terature has outlined the wide range of possible variations in stand composition introduced by f i r e . With repeated f i res , and depending upon the extent of destruction, s t i l l further variations can be introduced (Clements, 1910; Whitford and Craig, 1918). The severity of burn, ava i lab i l i ty of seed (Ilvessalo, 1929; Tackle, 1964; Garman, 1929), seed source (U.S.F.S. , 1952; Siggins, 1933; Pickford, 1929; Boe, 1956), conditions of the seedbed (Barr, 1930; Smith, 30. 1954, 1955; Smith and C l a r k , 1960; G r i f f i t h , 1931), and the e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e l o c a l i t y ( H o r t o n , 1956), a s w e l l as the p r e v a i l i n g m i c r o c l i m a t e and r e q u i r e m e n t s o f seed f o r g e r m i n a t i o n (Ackerman and F a r r a r , 1965; B a r r , 1930; F o w e l l s , 1965; T a c k l e , 1 9 5 4 ) i n t r o d u c e s t i l l new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e com-p o s i t i o n o f s t a n d s a f t e r f i r e . Garman (1929) i n t h e Upper F r a s e r V a l l e y and r e a r A l e z a L a k e , c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n a f t e r f i r e i n s p r u c e s t a n d s . He fo u n d t h a t under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s a t l e a s t one g e n e r a t i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e had t o mature b e f o r e t h e r e was s u f f i c i e n t b u i l d up o f s o i l t o p e r m i t i n v a s i o n o f o t h e r c o m m e r c i a l l y more v a l u a b l e c o n i f e r s . Bloomberg (1950) r e l a t e d t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l s t a n d s t o t h e s t a g e i n t h e s u c c e s s i o n . The m o s a i c o f c o v e r t y p e s t e n d s t o d e v e l o p i n a d i r e c t i o n o f a s t a b l e f o r e s t community, Cleme n t s (1910, p. 54) s t a t e d t h a t , w i t h o u t f i r e s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t s w o u l d be g r a d u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d and i n v a d e d b y o t h e r c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s . Thus i n i t s o p t i m a l g r o w i n g a r e a , D o u g l a s - f i r a s w e l l a s Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r w o u l d g r e a t l y o r e n t i r e l y r e p l a c e l o d g e -p o l e p i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o C l e m e n t s (1910, p. 7) l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s a p i o n e e r s p e c i e s and does n o t t o l e r a t e any s u p p r e s s i o n e ven i n t h e most s o u t h e r n zone o f i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . I t w i l l i n v a d e a r e a s w h i c h o f f e r f a v o u r a b l e c o n -d i t i o n s f o r i t s s u r v i v a l and g r o w t h , L o d g e p o l e p i n e w i l l p e r p e t u a t e i t s e l f o n l y i n t h e upper l i m i t s o f the D o u g l a s - f i r Zone, u s u a l l y o n s t e e p s l o p e s , t o p s o f h i l l s i n t h e open and p a r k l i k e s t a n d s . I t a l s o becomes e s t a b l i s h e d i n o p e n i n g s a l o n g r o a d s , and on c l e a r i n g s , where m i n e r a l s o i l has been e x p o s e d and s u f f i c i e n t l i g h t c a n e n t e r t o t h e g r o u n d . However, c o n d i t i o n s seldom a r e su c h t h a t p u r e l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . U s u a l l y l o d g e p o l e p i n e w i l l become e s t a b l i s h e d i n m i x t u r e w i t h o t h e r s p e c i e s s u c h 31 as D o u g l a s - f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e , w h i t e s p r u c e , a l p i n e f i r and even b l a c k s p r u c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t many o f t h e pure l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s w h i c h e x i s t now on e x t e n s i v e a r e a s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r e n o t t y p i c a l c l i m a x f o r e s t s , b u t r e p r e s e n t temporary s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s a f t e r f i r e s . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f o r e s t t y p e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e D o u g l a s - f i r Zone and t h e Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone, must c o n s i d e r the s u c c e s s i o n a l t r e n d s . The w r i t e r t h e r e f o r e grouped p o s s i b l e s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a n d t y p e s i n t o t he most s t a b l e c l i m a x a s s o c i a t i o n , t o w a r d w h i c h t h e y seemed t o be d e v e l o p i n g , t o make s i m p l e r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s . V e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h e change o f p r o d u c t i v i t y o f a s i t e a f t e r f i r e . A c o n s i d e r a b l e change w o u l d c e r t a i n l y be a v a l i d r e a s o n f o r n o t g r o u p i n g the s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a n d s i n t o one a s s o c i a t i o n . However, t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f such changes was beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s . C h a p t e r Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r was r e v i e w e d the work o f s e v e r a l a u t h o r s who d e s c r i b e d t h e e f f e c t s o f f i r e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l zones ( Y e l l o w P i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r , and Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zones) on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s p e c i e s and t h e s u c c e s s i o n a f t e r f i r e s . G e n e r a l l y t h e s u c c e s s i o n s s t a r t e d w i t h p u r e o r a l m o s t p u r e l o d g e p o l e p i n e and p r o g r e s s e d toward s t a n d s c o n s i s t i n g o f s p r u c e and t r u e f i r . A l s o shown was the v a r i e t y o f s t a n d c o n d i t i o n s and s t a n d c o m p o s i t i o n s w h i c h c a n be i n t r o d u c e d by f i r e s o f d i f f e r e n t s e v e r i t y and r e p e a t e d f i r e s . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n o f f o r e s t t y p e s must c o n s i d e r t h e s u c c e s s i o n a l t r e n d s from t h e . 32. v i e w p o i n t o f the most s t a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n s t o w a r d w h i c h the s t a n d s seem t o d e v e l o p . 33. FOREST TYPES IN THE DOUGLAS-FIR AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE - ALPINE F I R BIOGEOCLEIATIC ZONES A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f o r e s t t y p e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t t y p e s , must c o n s i d e r the s u c c e s s i o n a l t r e n d s . The v e g e t a t i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r e s t t y p e s o f I l l i n g w o r t h and A r l i d g e ( I 9 6 0 ) i s v e r y s i m i -l a r t o t h a t o f some D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r f o r e s t t y p e s d e s c r i b e d by I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 2 9 ) , K u j a l a (1945) and Daubenmire ( 1 9 5 2 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 610) the l o d g e p o l e p i n e c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n as d e v e l o p e d by I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) may be a u s e f u l supplement t o t h e c l i m a x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I f u n d i s t u r b e d , t h e s e s t a n d s w i l l t e n d toward t h e c l i m a x v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e r e g i o n . Based on the s t u d y o f t h e s e a u t h o r s and L a c a t e , S p r o u t , A r l i d g e and Moss (1965) and some o f t h e w r i t e r ' s own i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g b r i e f a c c o u n t i s g i v e n and c o m p a r i s o n s a r e made o f the m a j o r f o r e s t t y p e s o c c u r r i n g i n the s o u t h e r n , c e n t r a l and n o r t h e r n p a r t o f the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Types o f t h e c o a s t and o f the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t and t h e w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e t y p e s n o r t h o f t h e 5 6 t h p a r a l l e l were n o t c o n s i d e r e d . Between the m a j o r t y p e s , w h i c h a r e d i s c u s s e d h e r e , t h e r e e x i s t numerous t r a n s i t i o n s t a n d s , c a l l e d e c o t o n e s , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f w h i c h w o u l d have l e d beyond the scope o f t h i s s t u d y . The f o r e s t t y p e s o f the Y e l l o w P i n e Zone were a l r e a d y b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d F o r e s t R e g i o n s and F o r e s t Zones o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n t h e s o u t h and a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s , t h e s e r e p r e s e n t t y p e s o f d r y , i . e . x e r i c h a b i t a t s a d j a c e n t t o t h e d r i e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e D o u g l a s -f i r Zone, 34. I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r (IDF) Zone The d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c r i t e r i o n o f the most common ty p e i s the 5 p r e s e n c e o r p m e g r a s s or C a l a m a g r o s t i s r u b e s c e n s and k i n n i k i n n i c k o r A r c t o s t a p h y l o s uva u r s i . Daubenmire (195 2, p. 311) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a pos-s i b l e s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e D o u g l a s - f i r f o r e s t s o f t h e n o r t h e r n R o c k i e s m i g h t be made by s t u d y o f the p r e s e n c e o r absence o f y e l l o w p i n e as a s e r a i spe-c i e s . T h i s w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y a dvantageous f o r m a n a g e r i a l p u r p o s e s , s i n c e D o u g l a s - f i r and y e l l o w p i n e r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t measures. P i n e g r a s s o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s Rubescens (C) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on d r y t o f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n t e r -m e d i a t e s i t e s ' * ( x e r i c t o m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t i s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r c l i m a t i c c l i m a x t y p e o f t h i s zone. Thrupp (1927) f i r s t m e n t i o n e d t h i s t y p e , I l v e s s a l o (1929) and K u j a l a (1945) d e s c r i b e d i t i n d e t a i l . K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 595) c a l l e d i t t h e (CA) a s s o c i a t i o n . The w r i t e r chose I l l i n g w o r t h 1 s (1960) a b b r e v i a t i o n ( C ) , because i t c a n n o t be e a s i l y c o n f u s e d w i t h t he (CA) o r (AC) a s s o c i a t i o n s , McLean (1964) and McLean and H o l l a n d (1958) a l s o r e c o g n i z e d a D o u g l a s - f i r - P i n e g r a s s Type. A c c o r d i n g t o Daubenmire (1952, p. 310) t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t y p i c a l o f the m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e IDF Zone. A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 6 1 0 ) , I l l i n g w o r t h ' s (1960) L o d g e p o l e P i n e - C a l a m a g r o s t i s (C) t y p e a c t u a l l y i s a s u c c e s s i o n a l t y p e t o D o u g l a s - f i r - C a l a m a g r o s t i s o r D o u g l a s - f i r - Western L a r c h - C a l a m a g r o s t i s F o r e s t A s s o c i a t i o n s . The f o r e s t o f t h e (C) A s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i s t s g e n e r a l l y o f y e l l o w ^ D e f i n i t i o n s o f m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t g r a d i e n t s and s c i e n t i f i c and common names a r e g i v e n i n the G l o s s a r y . 35. p i n e w i t h v a r y i n g m i x t u r e s o f D o u g l a s - f i r o r w e s t e r n l a r c h , w i t h i n i t s r a n g e , and l o d g e p o l e p i n e , a f t e r f i r e s . P a t c h e s o f t r e m b l i n g a s p e n , u s u a l l y o f p o o r a p p e a r a n c e , may be f o u n d . I n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s , t h e s t a n d s a r e o f t e n k e p t a r t i f i c i a l l y open by f a r m e r s and show a p a r k l i k e appearance ( p l o t s 4, 5, 14 and 1 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o I l l i n g w o r t h ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p i o n e e r s t a n d s c o n s i s t o f a n o v e r s t o r y o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and sometimes a p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d under-s t o r y o f a s p e n , D o u g l a s - f i r o r w e s t e r n l a r c h ; s c a t t e r e d D o u g l a s - f i r s and o c c a s i o n a l l y Engelmann s p r u c e s may o c c u r . The shrub l a y e r o f t h e (C) a s s o c i a t i o n u s u a l l y i s p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d , a l t h o u g h k i n n i k i n n i c k as w e l l as s o a p b e r r y a r e s p a r s e l y p r e s e n t . The h e r b l a y e r i s dominated by p i n e g r a s s w h i c h , however, a c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F,H,, 1959, p, 592) seldom f l o w e r s . Mosses and l i c h e n s a r e n o t w e l l d e v e l o p e d . T h i s f o r e s t t y p e i s n o t l i m i t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r t o p o g r a p h y . However, i n t h e w e t t e r p a r t o f i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n range i t o c c u r s more f r e -q u e n t l y on s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e s , whereas i n the d r i e r p a r t s i t c a n be found o f t e n on n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e s . The a l t i t u d i n a l range v a r i e s w i t h the e x p o s u r e , A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a (1965) i t s n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e s range f r o m 1,500 t o 3,000 f t , , t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n e x p o s u r e s f r o m 2,000 t o 4,400 f t , , and the s o u t h e a s t e r n e x p o s u r e s from 1,000 t o 2,500 f t . The w r i t e r f o u n d , t h a t i n t h e s o u t h e r n m o s t p a r t o f t h e I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone, between H e d l e y and P r i n c e t o n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d a t 6,100 f t . on a s o u t h - s o u t h e a s t e r n e x p o s u r e ( p l o t 3) and a t 5,700 f t . on a s o u t h - s o u t h w e s t e r n e x p o s u r e ( p l o t 9 ) , A c c o r d i n g t o S p i l s b u r y , A r l i d g e , K e s e r , F a r s t a d and L a c a t e ( 1 9 6 3 ) , S k o c z y l a s ( 1 9 6 3 ) , and Green e t a l , (1963) the g r e y wooded s o i l s , w h i c h a r e o f t h e P o d z o l i c Order (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) , have d e v e l o p e d under t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Most o f the s t a n d s i n v e s t i g a t e d were d i s t u r b e d by g r a z i n g , f i r e o r c u t t i n g . 36. I n t h e A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1 a r e shown th e f o l l o w i n g r a n g e s o f s i t e i n d i c e s o f dominant t r e e s a t t h e age o f 100 ( S I / 1 0 0 ) : D o u g l a s - f i r , 80 t o 105 f t . ; y e l l o w p i n e , 80 t o 105 f t . ; and l o d g e p o l e p i n e , from 75 t o 90 f t . I l l i n g -w o r t h (1960) gave th e h e i g h t o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e a t the age o f 80 y r s . as 73 f t . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959) y e l l o w p i n e a t m a t u r i t y r e a c h e s a h e i g h t o f 135 f t . and a dbh o f 42 i n . P i n e g r a s s - K i n n i k i n n i c k o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s A r c t o s t a p h y l o s (CA) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on d r y t o f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y p o o r t o l e s s t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( x e r i c t o m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t was f i r s t d e s c r i b e d by I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 2 9 ^ , K r a j i n a ( i n F, H., 1959) c a l l e d i t t h e (AC) a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h he t h o u g h t was t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the (ARC) a s s o c i a t i o n . A s i m i l a r f o r e s t t y p e was a l s o d e s c r i b e d by Brayshaw ( 1 9 5 5 ) . Daubenmire (1952, p. 310) w r o t e t h a t t h e (CA) t y p e a p p e a r s t o be i d e n t i c a l t o h i s C a l a m a g r o s t i s U n i o n s o u t h o f t h e C a n a d i a n b o r d e r . As t h e (C) t y p e , i t i s s u c c e s s i o n a l t o t h e D o u g l a s - f i r and D o u g l a s - f i r - w e s t e r n l a r c h f o r e s t s , i n w h i c h l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s t h e s e r a i and D o u g l a s - f i r t h e c l i m a x s p e c i e s . The s t a n d s a r e u s u a l l y o f p a r k l i k e a p pearance and medium p r o d u c t i v i t y , the o v e r s t o r y c o n s i s t s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , sometimes w i t h s m a l l amounts o f D o u g l a s - f i r o r w e s t e r n l a r c h ( I l l i n g w o r t h , 1960) . I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 2 9 , p. 62) f o u n d on h i s p l o t s D o u g l a s - f i r as w e l l as l o d g e p o l e p i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a (F.H,, 1959, p. 59 2) w e s t e r n l a r c h may be f o u n d i n t h e s t a n d s e a s t o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y , I n t h i s t y p e p i n e g r a s s i s abundant as w e l l as k i n n i k i n n i c k and t h e t w i n f l o w e r o r L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s . O n l y a few mosses o c c u r ; however, l i c h e n s a r e f r e q u e n t and c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f C l a d o n i a s p e c i e s . I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) s a i d t h a t the s o i l s a r e o f p o d z o l i c c h a r a c t e r . 37 A c c o r d i n g t o S p i l s b u r y e t a l . (1963) the main s o i l t y p e s o c c u r r i n g under t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e the Brown Wooded and t h e Grey Wooded G r e a t Groups o f t h e B r u n i s o l i c and P o d z o l i c O r d e r s (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959) y e l l o w p i n e c a n r e a c h a t m a t u r i t y a h e i g h t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 f t . However, t h e w r i t e r d i d n o t f i n d any such t r e e s . A c c o r d i n g t o I l l i n g w o r t h , l o d g e p o l e p i n e r e a c h e s 51 f t . a t 80 y r s . of age. I n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1, under t h e (CA) a s s o c i a t i o n , a r e shown SI/100 f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e from 50 t o 75 f t , and f o r D o u g l a s - f i r , 60 t o 75 f t . W i t h r e g a r d t o t o p o g r a p h y and d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h i s t y p e o c c u r s m a i n l y on s h a l l o w o r c o a r s e s o i l s , on r i d g e s , s t e e p s l o p e s o r k n o l l s , where the d r y n e s s , due t o l a c k o f r a i n f a l l d u r i n g t h e summer months, and p o o r w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y o f the s o i l a p p e a r t o be m a j o r c a u s e s f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , r a t h e r t h a n t h e t o t a l amount o f a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n . P i n e g r a s s - B l u e b e r r y o r C a l a m a g r o s t i s - V a c c i n i u m S c o p a r i u m (CV) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on f r e s h e r and n u t r i t i o n a l l y l e s s t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) , l i v e s s a l o (1929, p. 41) found t h i s t y p e i n the Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k , c o n s i s t i n g o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s w i t h some m i n o r s p r u c e u n d e r n e a t h and s t a t e d t h a t i t was g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h t h e C a l a m a g r o s t i s A r c t o s t a p h y l o s A s s o c i a t i o n , A c c o r d i n g t o I l v e s s a l o (1929, p, 73 t o 86) the h e i g h t and d i a m e t e r g r o w t h o f t r e e s i n b o t h a r e t h e same, I l l i n g w o r t h and A r l i d g e (1960, p. 13) a l s o f o u n d the same s i t e i n d i c e s , b u t a t t h e age o f 100, the (CV) a s s o c i a t i o n c a n p r o d u c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,000 c u , f t , p e r a c r e o f t o t a l volume i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e (CA) a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h s l i g h t l y above 3,000 c u , f t . 38. This, however, could be a matter of stocking and not typical of the associations. Kujala (1945, p. 319) wrote that Ilvessalo's (CV) and (CA) types are very closely related parallel types, but should be separated as special types. According to Illingworth (1960), in British Columbia this type is limited in occurrence to the southern part of the interior, namely Oka-nagan and Similkameen drainages, and is found on gentle to moderate slopes. According to Spilsbury et a l . (1963) the soils belong to the Grey Wooded Great Group of the Podzolic Order or to the soil of the Brunisolic Order (NSSCC, 1963); frequently the B 2 horizon indicates a slightly impeded drain-age. According to Krajina (in F.H., 1959, p. 612) (CV) differs from the other four major associations (CM, C, CA, ARC) in that the latter primarily depend upon a soil moisture gradient ranging from the mesic (CM) type through to the xeric (AL) type, whereas (CV) is not limited by a moisture gradient, but apparently depends upon some other factor. Particularly characteristic are the dominant presence of Vaccinjum  scoparium and V^ membranaceum as well as the always present Pachistima  myrsinites. In the same sense of Krajina (in F.H., 1959) and Illingworth (1960), the (CV) association is moister than the (CA) association. Perhaps it is a transitional type from the IDF Zone to the Engelmann Spruce -Alpine Fir (ES-AF) Zone, or actually an association belonging i n that Zone. Kinnikinnick or Arctostaphylos Uva Ursi (ARC) Association This association occurs on dry and nutritionally poor (xeric hygrotope and oligotrophic trophotope). It was mentioned by Thrupp (1927), described by Ilvessalo (1929), Brayshaw (1955), Krajina (in F.H., 1959), 39. and called by Kujala (1945, p. 182) the Arctostaphylos - Cladina type and by Illingworth (1960) the Arctostaphylos - Lichen (AL) Association, According to Krajina (in F.H,, 1959, p, 591) the stands consist of Douglas-fir and yellow pine as well as lodgepole pine„ In the warmer and drier parts only yellow pine may be present,, At higher altitudes and cooler and moister localities, Douglas-fir mixed with lodgepole pine form the stand, which can be open, parklike, often with older, branchy Douglas-firs and younger patches of lodgepole pine, or may consist entirely of lodgepole pine, particularly after heavy fires. Characteristic is the comparative scarcity of herbaceous species and shrubs. Often the ground is covered to 50% and more by litter only. Usually are found junipers, kinnikinnick, sparse pinegrass and lichens, mainly Cladonia species and on the very poor and very dry sites (plot 27) Stereocaulon paschale. According to Ilvessalo (1929, p. 37) this type occurs in the Interior dry belt at elevations a.s.l , of about 4,000 ft, on slopes of south to southwest exposure and on level ground with the poorest and gra-velly soils. The soil survey of the Princeton and Paradise Lake and Minnie Lake areas determined the soils occurring under this association (personal communications with T, M, Lord and A, J , Green, 1965) as belonging to either the Brown Wooded and Acid Brown Wooded Great Groups of the Brunisolic Order or the Podzol Great Group of the Podzolic Order (NSSCC, 1963), It appears that this type can perpetuate a high proportion of lodgepole pine because it often contains regeneration of lodgepole pine, aspen, Douglas-fir or larch. According to Illingworth (1960) In this association lodgepole pine reaches heights from 36 to 54 ft, at 45 to 80 yrs, of age. As shown in Appendix Table 1, the site index of the stands 40. i n v e s t i g a t e d a t the age o f 100 y e a r s was: l o d g e p o l e p i n e , g e n e r a l l y under 40 f t , and D o u g l a s - f i r , from 40 t o 60 f t . The s t a n d s were v e r y p o o r i n form, low i n volume and seldom o f m e r c h a n t a b l e s i z e . P e r h a p s , t h e y s h o u l d be l o o k e d upon as p r o t e c t i o n f o r e s t s t a n d s . Snowberry o r S y m p h o r i c a r p o s A l b u s (SY) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on m o i s t t o wet and n u t r i t i o n a l l y mode-r a t e l y r i c h t o r i c h s i t e s ( m e s o h y g r i c t o h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s and s u b e u t r o p h i c t o e u t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e s ) . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 593) t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e m o i s t e s t one i n t h e IDF Zone. D o u g l a s - f i r i s t h e c l i m a x dominant r e p l a c i n g y e l l o w p i n e and l a r c h . Aspen grows w e l l and y e l l o w p i n e a t m a t u r i t y a p p a r e n t l y r e a c h e s a h e i g h t o f 130 f t . and dbh o f 40 i n . No sample p l o t s were l o c a t e d i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . C r e e k Bottom (CrBo) A s s o c i a t i o n s I n g u l l i e s , d e p r e s s i o n s , and on s l o p e s o c c u r a s s o c i a t i o n s the e x i s t e n c e o f w h i c h i s due t o seepage w a t e r c o n t i n u o u s l y s u p p l y i n g the vege-t a t i o n w i t h m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s . These a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e n o t v e r y ex-t e n s i v e i n a r e a , though t h e g r o w t h o f t r e e s and o t h e r v e g e t a t i o n i s excep-t i o n a l l y good and s p e c i e s o c c u r h e r e w h i c h g e n e r a l l y grow i n m o i s t e r ( c o o l e r ) e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n the IDF Zone one m i g h t t h i n k o f t h e s e as a t e l e s c o p i n g o f the ES-AF Zone (Daubenmire, 1 9 4 3 ) . However, due t o h i g h e r a v e r a g e tempera-t u r e s and p o s s i b l y l o n g e r f r o s t f r e e p e r i o d s o f t h e IDF Zone, on t h e s e s p e c i f i c s i t e s the s p e c i e s o f the ES-AF Zone grow b e t t e r and f a s t e r . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e shown h e r e as m o i s t t o wet and n u t r i e n t r i c h members o f the IDF Zone and n o t as t e l e s c o p i n g ES-AF Zone t y p e s . A t an e l e v a t i o n o f 3,700 f t . , on p l o t 116 s i t u a t e d a l o n g a c r e e k 41 on a n o r t h e a s t s l o p e above G r a n i t e C i t y , the w r i t e r o b s e r v e d an a s s o c i a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e Oplopanax A s s o c i a t i o n d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a (F.H,, 1959) i n t h e C o l u m b i a F o r e s t R e g i o n , The d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g t h i s p l o t a r e g i v e n i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1, The s t a n d c o n s i s t e d o f a l p i n e f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e and few D o u g l a s - f i r s ; d i r e c t l y a l o n g the c r e e k grew w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r and some unevenaged a l p i n e f i r s , a l s o w e s t e r n hemlock, but i n codominant and s u p p r e s s e d p o s i t i o n , Above t h e c r e e k , on t h e s l o p e w i t h n o r t h w e s t e x p o s u r e , t h e s t a n d s c o n s i s t e d o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e , on t h e s l o p e w i t h s o u t h -e a s t e x p o s u r e , o f D o u g l a s - f i r and y e l l o w p i n e . The SI/100 o f dominant t r e e s were as f o l l o w s : D o u g l a s - f i r , o v e r 160 f t , , Engelmann s p r u c e , 130 f t . , w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r and a l p i n e f i r , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 110 f t . The s o i l s were o f t h e G l e i s o l i c O r d e r . S i m i l a r i t i e s o f f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , s o i l t y p e and f o r e s t g r o w t h e x i s t between the C r e e k B ottom Types o f t h e IDF Zone and t h e C r e e k Bottom and Oplopanax A s s o c i a t i o n s o f the ES-AF Zone and t h o s e o f t h e c o a s t a s w e l l as o f the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t . Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r (ES-AF) Zone V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum C o l l e c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n (CM, VM, and VV) K u j a l a (1945, p. 213 f f . and 281) d e s c r i b e d the V a c c i n i u m Membra-naceum Type and t h e Rubus Pedatus - V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum S u b t y p e , B o t h a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d t o t h e P a c h i s t i m a T y p e , On page 217 K u j a l a s t a t e d t h a t C o r n u s , C l i n t o n i a and V a c c i n i u m membranaceum i n the c o l l e c t i v e t y p e may o c c u r i n v a r y i n g f r e q u e n c i e s . I n c a s e s where V a c c i n i u m membranaceum i s l a c k i n g o r s c a r c e l y o c c u r s , one c o u l d e a s i l y c a l l t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n t h e Cornus t y p e , C l i n t o n i a - Cornus t y p e o r i n c e r t a i n c a s e s a l s o A r a l i a -42. Cornus t y p e . To a v o i d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , K u j a l a h a s c hosen t h e c o l l e c t i v e name V a c c i n i u m membranaceum, w h i c h i s a l s o used h e r e . I n the ES-AF Zone t h i s c o l l e c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n i s v e r y common. D u r i n g the f i e l d work i n the a r e a o f the TFL9 ( T r e e Farm L i c e n c e No. 9, n e a r Kelowna) the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e ( V V ) , (VM), and (CM) t y p e s as d e s c r i b e d i n L a c a t e , S p r o u t , A r l i d g e and Moss (1965a) was a t t e m p t e d . However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n , s i t e i n d e x , s o i l t y p e , t o p o g r a p h y as w e l l as t h e appearance o f t h e t y p e s were so s m a l l , t h a t a c o l l e c t i v e t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p e a r e d t o t h e w r i t e r as j u s t i f i a b l e . How-e v e r , t h e t h r e e a s s o c i a t i o n s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d where p o s s i b l e . B u n c h b e r r y - Moss o r Cornus C a n a d e n s i s - C a l l i e r g o n e l l a S c h r e b e r i (CM) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) , I t was d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a ( i n F . H . , 1959, p. 598) and A r l i d g e ( 1 9 6 0 ) . I l l i n g w o r t h 1 s (1960) s e r a i L o d g e p o l e P i n e Cornus-Moss t y p e a l s o b e l o n g s i n t h e same a s s o c i a t i o n . The m o d e r a t e l y dense s t a n d s c o n s i s t o f Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r , o c c a s i o n a l l y w h i t e b i r c h and s c a t t e r e d D o u g l a s - f i r as w e l l as a s p e n and l o d g e p o l e p i n e 0 A c c o r d i n g t o I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) t h e (CM) t y p e s u p p o r t s t h e b e s t s t a n d s of l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n the ES-AF Zone. The c o m p a r i s o n o f the f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f I l l i n g w o r t h 1 s l o d g e p o l e p i n e (CM) t y p e and A r l i d g e ' s Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r (CM) t y p e shows t h a t b o t h a r e r e l a t e d . However, I l l i n g w o r t h 1 s sample p l o t s appear t o have been s i t u a t e d i n somewhat d r i e r and warmer s i t u a t i o n s o f t h e (CM) d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e a , o r a r e a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the s u c c e s s i o n a f t e r f i r e s . 43 T y p i c a l o f the (CM) t y p e i s a c o m p l e t e moss c o v e r c o n s i s t i n g o f Hvlocomium s p l e n d e n s , C a l l i e r g o n e l l a s c h r e b e r i and P t i l i u m , p r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s and u s u a l l y an abundance o f Cornus c a n a d e n s i s and V a c c i n i u m membranaceum. As p o i n t e d o u t by K u j a l a (1945, p. 217) and A r l i d g e (1960, p. 26) t h e p r o -p o r t i o n s of e a c h s p e c i e s may v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the s t a n d s t r u c t u r e and s t a n d h i s t o r y . R e g e n e r a t i o n i s composed o f a l p i n e f i r and Engelmann s p r u c e and v a r i e s i n d e n s i t y . The c l i m a t e i s c o o l e r and m o i s t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e IDF Zone. The s o i l s a r e o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r ; i n m o i s t s i t u a t i o n s humic p o d z o l s may de-v e l o p ( K r a j i n a , 1 9 6 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a (1965) t h e b e s t development o f t h e (CM) t y p e t a k e s p l a c e on l i g h t , f r e s h s o i l s , A r l i d g e (1960) gave the a v e r a g e h e i g h t o f dominant s p r u c e a t 111 f t , and t h a t o f a l p i n e f i r a t 91 f t . I l l i n g w o r t h * s (1960) dominant and codominant l o d g e p o l e p i n e a t t h e age o f 100 r e a c h e d an a v e r a g e h e i g h t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 86 f t , (76 f t , a t 80 y r s , o f a g e ) , and w e l l s t o c k e d s t a n d s y i e l d a t o t a l volume p e r a c r e o f 4,800 c u , f t . B l a c k H u c k l e b e r r y - T r a i l i n g Rubus o r V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum - Rubus Ped a t u s (VM) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t was d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e (1955) and a g a i n i n L a c a t e e t a l . (1965) as V a c c i n i u m - Moss S i t e Type and was c a l l e d the V a c c i n i u m - Rubus Pe d a t u s - Moss S i t e Type by t h e same a u t h o r ( i n S p r o u t e t a l , , 1 9 6 4 ) . The s t a n d c o n s i s t s o f e i t h e r l o d g e -p o l e p i n e w i t h an u n d e r s t o r y o f a l p i n e f i r and some Engelmann s p r u c e o r Engelmann s p r u c e - a l p i n e f i r w i t h a few l o d g e p o l e p i n e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f V a c c i n i u m 44. membranaceum, Cornus c a n a d e n s i s , Rubus p e d a t u s and C l i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a as w e l l as t h e moss c a r p e t o f C a l l i e r g o n e l l a s c h r e b e r i . T h i s t y p e o c c u r s i n t h e Kamloops a r e a between 4,500 and 5,500 f t , on d r i e r a s p e c t s and s l o p e p o s i t i o n s . The s o i l s a r e o f t h e P o d z o l i c G r e a t Group, M i n i m a l P o d z o l o r B i s e q u a P o d z o l Subgroup (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o L a c a t e ejt a l , (1965) t h i s t y p e and t h e Cornus - Moss Type o c c u r i n t h e mapping u n i t 3, where s p r u c e r e a c h e d a h e i g h t o f 85 f t , and l o d g e p o l e p i n e , 83 f t . a t t h e age o f 100. S i m i l a r i t i e s between t h i s t y p e and the (CM) Type were d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t (CM) i s somewhat more p r o d u c t i v e t h a n (VM). A c c o r d i n g t o Daubenmire (1952) t h i s t y p e w o u l d most l i k e l y come a l s o i n t o t h e P a c h i s t i m a U n i o n . B l a c k H u c k l e b e r r y - V a l e r i a n o r V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum - V a l e r i a n a S i t c h e n s i s (VV) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s t y p e o c c u r s on m o i s t and n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n t e r m e d i a t e (meso-h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e and m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) , I t was d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e ( i n L a c a t e e t a l . , 1965; and i n S p r o u t e t a l , , 1 9 6 4 ) . The s t a n d s were u s u a l l y composed o f s p r u c e i n dominant p o s i t i o n and some a l p i n e f i r and o c c a s i o n a l l y l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The r e g e n e r a t i o n c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f a l p i n e f i r s and a few s p r u c e s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the abundance o f V a c c i n i u m membranaceum, L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a , L o n i c e r a u t a h e n s i s , and V a l e r i a n s s i t c h e n s i s ; Ledum g l a n d u l o s u m and a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u m a l s o o c c u r . The s o i l s a r e o f t h e P o d z o l i c G r e a t Group, Subgroup O r t h i c P o d z o l , and where i m p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d , o f the G l e i s o l i c O r d e r (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . The w r i t e r assumes t h a t t h e (VV) t y p e o c c u r s i n t h e c o o l e r and m o i s t e r and g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e V a c c i n i u m membranaceum 45 c o l l e c t i v e t y p e . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e p l o t s a r e l i s t e d i n the A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1. M e n z i e s i a - Rhododendron - V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum A s s o c i a t i o n s These o c c u r a t high-montane l o c a l i t i e s , where t h e s t a n d s b e g i n t o open up toward t h e t r e e l i n e . K u j a l a (1945, p. 225-228) d e s c r i b e d such t y p e s a t e l e v a t i o n s o f 5,500 f t . n e a r G o l d e n and L o n g w o r t h , The f o r e s t s t a n d s c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f a l p i n e f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e and a l s o w h i t e b a r k p i n e , M e n z i e s i a f e r r u g i n e a and Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u m as w e l l as A l n u s  s i t c h e n s i s a r e f r e q u e n t l y i n the s h r u b l a y e r , e s p e c i a l l y i n o p e n i n g s . Daubenmire (1952) d e s c r i b e d s i m i l a r c o m munities i n n o r t h e r n Idaho and W a s h i n g t o n , The s t a n d s were open, t h e t r e e s u s u a l l y o vermature and the h e i g h t s l e s s t h a n i n t h e ( W ) A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h grows a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s . No sample p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s community. F a l s e Box o r P a c h i s t i m a M y r s i n i t e s (Pa) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y l e s s t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and s u b m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . "Tongues" o f a P a c h i s t i m a Type were found near Kelowna on TFL9 ( p l o t 1 0 5 ) . I n o p e n i n g s on t h i s p l o t the dominant o c c u r r e n c e of t h e dwarf shrub P a c h i s t i m a m y r s i n i t e s was r e m a r k a b l e . Under t h e dense canopy o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , and the few t r e e s o f D o u g l a s - f i r , Engelmann s p r u c e , and a l p i n e f i r , t h e ground was c o v e r e d t o more t h a n 507. w i t h l i t t e r and b o u l d e r s and moss, g r o w i n g m a i n l y on dead wood. The SI/100 was as f o l l o w s : D o u g l a s - f i r -85, Engelmann s p r u c e - 80, l o d g e p o l e p i n e - 60 and a l p i n e f i r - 50. T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e s c r i b e d by K u j a l a (1945, p. 271) n e a r S m i t h e r s , I l v e s s a l o (1929, p , 488 f f . ) n e a r Salmon Arm and Sicamous and I l l i n g w o r t h (1960, p. 8) i n the s o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f 46. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The s t a n d s e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r f i r e s and d e s c r i b e d by I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) c o n s i s t e d o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , w i t h a d m i x t u r e s o f D o u g l a s -f i r , w e s t e r n l a r c h , and a t h i g h e l e v a t i o n s , as w e l l as i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n , o f Engelmann s p r u c e . The s o i l s were m o d e r a t e l y d r y t o f r e s h , s l i g h t l y p o d z o l i z e d l o a m s , Daubenmire (1952, p, 311 f f . ) i n n o r t h e r n Idaho and W a s h i n g t o n , a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a P a c h i s t i m a U n i o n i n w h i c h t h e P i c e a E n g e l m a n i i - A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a - P a c h i s t i m a M y r s i n i t e s A s s o c i a t i o n i s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y . I t o c c u p i e s t h e l o w e s t p a r t o f t h e m a i n a r e a o f t h e s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t s and i s t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the T h u j a P l i c a t a - Tsuga H e t e r o p h y l l a Zone, A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h K u j a l a (1945, p. 282) and Daubenmire (1952, p. 325) D o u g l a s - f i r and t h e w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y t o g e t h e r i n t h e P a c h i s t i m a Type o r U n i o n , w h i c h c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e a r e a s u i t a b l e f o r w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e p r o d u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o K u j a l a (1945, p. 281) t h e P a c h i s t i m a Type i s v e r y c l o s e t o the V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum Type; however, i t a p p a r e n t l y r e q u i r e s more warmth, and on the o t h e r hand o c c u r s i n somewhat d r i e r a r e a s . S k o c z y l a s (1963) found t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n the i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n between t h e (C) and t h e (CM) a s s o c i a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Thrupp (1927) t h e y i e l d i n 90 y r s , i n t h i s t y p e i s as much as t h e y i e l d i n t h e C a l a m a g r o s t i s Type i n 150 t o 200 y r s . The w r i t e r f o u n d t h a t t h e s i t e i n d i c e s o f Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r as w e l l as D o u g l a s - f i r were h i g h e r i n the V a c c i n i u m Membranaceum Type t h a n i n t h e P a c h i s t i m a A s s o c i a t i o n found on p l o t TFL9/3, However, more r e s e a r c h i n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n and i t s y i e l d w o u l d have l e d beyond the scope o f t h i s s t u d y . 47. B l u e b e r r y o r V a c c i n i u m S c o p a r i u m (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y poor ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and o l i g o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) , A c c o r d i n g t o I l v e s s a l o (1929, p. 38) and I l l i n g w o r t h (1960, p. 9) i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y r i c h e r i n s p e c i e s t h a n t h e (ARC) A s s o c i a t i o n b u t g e o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h i t . T h i s t y p e was a l s o m e n t i o n e d by A r l i d g e ( i n L a c a t e e_t a l . , 1965; and i n S p r o u t e t a l , , 1 9 6 4), and by McLean (1964) as o c c u r r i n g on s i t e s w i t h u n m e r c h a n t a b l e l o d g e p o l e p i n e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l u p i n s . A c c o r d i n g t o Daubenmire (1952, p, 318) i t o c c u r s w e l l - d e f i n e d i n t h e ES-AF Zone. He d i d n o t o b s e r v e t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i n i t s t y p i c a l f o r m i n n o r t h e r n Idaho and W a s h i n g t o n . U s u a l l y i t was m i x e d w i t h e l e m e n t s o f the M e n z i e s i a , X e r o p h y l u m , o r P a c h i s t i m a U n i o n s , I n t h o s e s t a n d s l o d g e p o l e p i n e was a s e r a i s p e c i e s , I l v e s s a l o (1929) found t h i s t y p e e a s t o f the Y e l l o w s t o n e P a r k a t 7,000 t o 8,000 f t , e l e v a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) t h e s t a n d s a r e c o n f i n e d t o t h e s o u t h e r n l i m i t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a t e l e v a t i o n s f r o m 4,000 t o 5,500 f t . A c c o r d i n g t o I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) t h i s t y p e i s composed o f p o o r l y -g r o w i n g l o d g e p o l e p i n e . The s p r u c e o c c u r s s p o r a d i c a l l y i n the u n d e r s t o r y . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n f i t s w e l l i n t o t h e ES-AF Zone, w h i c h i s c o o l e r and m o i s t e r t h a n the IDF Zone. T h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n L a c a t e et a l . (1965, p. 8) where i n t h e ES-AF Zone t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on s h a l l o w , s t o n y outwash o r c o l l u v i u m o v e r b e d r o c k , on convex h i l l t o p s , and upper s l o p e s o f 15 t o 60%. The s o i l s a r e r a p i d l y d r a i n i n g p o d z o l s . A c c o r d i n g t o I l v e s s a l o (1929, p. 75) the l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s a t t h e age o f 100 r e a c h a h e i g h t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 f t . The SI/100 o f l o d g e -p o l e p i n e ( s e e A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1) r a n g e s from 35 t o 65 f t . A c c o r d i n g t o L a c a t e e t a l . (1965) the SI/100 o f s p r u c e i s 25 f t . , f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e , 48. 65 f t , I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) f o u n d a b e t t e r volume p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h i s t y p e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o (ARC). G e n e r a l l y t h e t r e e s o f the s t a n d s i n t h i s a s s o c i a -t i o n a r e s l o w i n r e a c h i n g m e r c h a n t a b l e s i z e . Perhaps a l s o h e r e a s i n (ARC) the f o r e s t s s h o u l d be t r e a t e d as p r o t e c t i o n f o r e s t s t a n d s . Moss A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on f r e s h and n u t r i t i o n a l l y p o o r s i t e s ( m e s i c h y g r o t o p e and o l i g o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t was d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e ( i n L a c a t e e t a l . , 1965; and i n S p r o u t e t a l , , 1964) and K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p, 6 0 7 ) . The open, p o o r and u n m e r c h a n t a b l e s t a n d s c o n s i s t o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s . B o t h t h e s h r u b and h e r b l a y e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d . The moss l a y e r i s more o r l e s s c o n t i n u o u s and composed o f C a l l i e r g o n e l l a s c h r e b e r i , D i c ranum s c o p a r i u m and f u s e e scens and P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m . Occa-s i o n a l l y poor and s c a t t e r e d V a c c i n i u m membranaceum and Rhododendron  a l b i f l o r u m o c c u r , as w e l l as p a t c h e s o f l i c h e n s and a few h e r b s l i k e P y r o l a  spp., Rubus p e d a t u s and A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a . Though V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r i u m i s l a c k i n g i n t h e h e r b a c e o u s l a y e r , the a s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be c l o s e l y r e -l a t e d t o the (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n , , A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F,H,, 1959, p. 607) the h e i g h t o f s p r u c e a f t e r 200 t o 300 y e a r s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80 f t . I n t h e Kamloops D i s t r i c t a t e l e v a t i o n s from 4,700 t o 5,500 f t . t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on s h a l l o w , r a p i d l y - d r a i n i n g , s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s and on t o p s o f r i d g e s . The s o i l s were o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r , P o d z o l G r e a t Group p o s s i b l y M i n i m a l P o d z o l Subgroup (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . The w r i t e r o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r , p r e s e n t l y u n m e r c h a n t a b l e f o r e s t t y p e s i n TFL9 ( p l o t 4 0 ) , The moss l a y e r was i n t e r s p e r s e d f r e q u e n t l y by l i c h e n s 49. b u t g e n e r a l l y more t h a n 50% o f the ground was c o v e r e d w i t h o n l y l i t t e r . I n t h e c o a s t a l r e g i o n the w r i t e r o b s e r v e d a s t a n d o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e g r o w i n g on top o f a r o c k k n o l l n e a r M u r r i n Lake n o r t h o f B r i t a n n i a B each, w h i c h a p p e a r e d r e l a t e d t o the Moss A s s o c i a t i o n . I t was comparable t o O r l o c i ' s ( i n K r a j i n a , 1965, p. 20 and 21) G a u l t h e r i e t u m S h a l l o n i s Eco-system o f t h e Rock O u t c r o p Land Type o f t h e C o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock Zone, w h i c h , however, c o n s i s t s t h e r e o f t h e s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g D o u g l a s - f i r , C r e e k Bottom (CrBo) A s s o c i a t i o n s A l l the c r e e k b o t t o m a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e Engelmann Spruce -A l p i n e F i r Zone o c c u r i n t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y s i m i l a r l o c a l i t i e s , and a r e u s u a l l y o f l i m i t e d o c c u r r e n c e . They c a n v a r y i n f l o r i s t i c c o m p o s i t i o n ( K r a j i n a , i n F.H., 1959). They o c c u r on m o i s t t o wet and n u t r i t i o n a l l y i n t e r m e d i a t e t o r i c h s i t e s ( m e s o h y g r i c t o h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s and m e s o t r o p h i c t o e u t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e s ) . U s u a l l y t h e s e s i t e s s u p p o r t a v e r y good g r o w t h o f t r e e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r . Cow P a r s n i p o r Heracleum Lanatum A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d by I l l i n g w o r t h (1960), The s t a n d s a r e composed o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , Engelmann s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r . They grow on s i t e s s u b j e c t e d t o p e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g o r d e p o s i t i o n o f f e r t i l e a l l u v i u m . The t y p i c a l s o i l s a r e o f t h e G l e i s o l i c O r d e r ( a l p h a g l e y ) , C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s t y p e i s t h e l u x u r i a n t h e r b l a y e r i n w h i c h H e r a c l e u m l a n a t u m s t a n d s o u t c o n s p i c u o u s l y . No p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . 50. B l a c k T w i n b e r r y - N e t t l e o r L o n i c e r a I n v o l u c r a t a - U r t i c a L y a l l i i A s s o c i a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 600) t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s the most i m p o r t a n t o f the v a r i o u s a l l u v i a l c r e e k b o t t o m s i t e t y p e s . I t i s h e r b r i c h , p r o d u c e s t h e l a r g e s t t r e e s , b u t n o t t h e l a r g e s t volume p e r a c r e . S t o c k i n g i s u s u a l l y heavy t o s p r u c e , w i t h a l p i n e f i r and o c c a s i o n a l l y b i r c h o r c o t t o n w o o d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e A l n u s t e n u i f o l i a , Cornus s t o l o n i f e r a , dense t h i c k e t s o f L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a , as w e l l as U r t i c a l y a l l i i and A t h y r i u m f i l i x - f e m i n a . The a v e r a g e maximum h e i g h t ( s p e c i e s n o t s p e c i -f i e d ) i s 133 f t , A s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n was m e n t i o n e d by K u j a l a (1945, p. 264 f f . ) i n the I m p a t i e n s - C i r c a e a - A t h y r i u m Type. V a c c i n i u m - T r o l l i u s (VT) and V a c c i n i u m - E q u i s e t u m - S e n e c i o T r i a n g u l a r i s (VES) A s s o c i a t i o n s B o t h were d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e ( i n S p r o u t e t a l . , 1964) as c r e e k b o t t o m t y p e s . B o t h a r e somewhat s i m i l a r t o t h e (AD) o r (VO) A s s o c i a t i o n s , however, t h e (VES) A s s o c i a t i o n i s found a l w a y s down s l o p e from t h e (VT) A s s o c i a t i o n and i t s s o i l s a r e v e r y p o o r l y d r a i n e d Rego G l e i s o l s o f t h e R e g o s o l i c O r d e r (NSSCC, 1 9 6 3 ) . F a i r y B e l l s o r Disporum Oreganum (D) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on m o i s t t o wet and n u t r i t i o n a l l y b e t t e r t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e t o m o d e r a t e l y r i c h s i t e s ( m e s o h y g r i c t o h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e and p e r m e s o t r o p h i c t o s u b e u t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t was d e s c r i b e d t y K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 597) as o c c u r r i n g i n t he ES-AF Zone. He m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h i s t y p e i s o f r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t o c c u r r e n c e . Perhaps i t w o u l d come under K u j a l a * s (1945, p. 282, 283 and 228) 5 1 . T i a r e l l a - P a c h i s t i m a o r the M i t e l l a - T i a r e l l a - Rubus P e d a t u s A s s o c i a -t i o n s . Most l i k e l y t h e F a i r y B e l l s A s s o c i a t i o n comes under I l v e s s a l o ' s ( 1929, p. 54 f f . ) m e s o - h y g r o p h i l e and h y g r o p h i l e g r a s s - h e r b t y p e s . A c c o r d i n g t o A r l i d g e (1955) the s t a n d s c o n s i s t o f Engelmann o r w h i t e s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r , w e l l - s p a c e d , w i t h o c c a s i o n a l D o u g l a s - f i r , b i r c h and a s p e n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the w e l l - d e v e l o p e d shrub l a y e r w i t h Rubus  p a r v i f l o r u s and the s h r u b - l i k e F a i r y B e l l s , Disporum oreganum. O c c a s i o n a l l y -w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d Oplopanax h o r r i d u m i s f o u n d . The s o i l s a r e m o i s t t o f r e s h , t h e t e x t u r e i s u s u a l l y s i l t y loam o r c l a y loam. The a v e r a g e h e i g h t o f dominant t r e e s a t t h e age o f 100 o f s p r u c e was 123 f t . and t h a t o f l a r c h and a l p i n e f i r , 101 f t . The w r i t e r l o c a t e d t h i s t y p e n e a r L i t t l e F o r t ( p l o t s 112 and 113) and Skwum C r e e k ( p l o t 117) • The SI/100 o f dominant D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann s p r u c e were 130 t o 140 f t . , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , 125 f t . , a l p i n e f i r , 110 f t . , p o p l a r , 100 f t . and a s p e n , 80 f t . K u j a l a ( 1945, p. 383) i n the T i a r e l l a - P a c h i s t i m a Type, l i s t e d the h e i g h t s o f dominant t r e e s a t t h e age o f 90 a s : D o u g l a s - f i r 31 m (101.7 f t . ) and s p r u c e 30 m (98.4 f t . ) and 2 3 e s t i m a t e d t h e b a s a l a r e a a t 54 m (581 s q . f t . ) and t h e volume a t 664 m /ha (9,492 c u . f t . / a c . ) . Near B a r r i e r e he r e p o r t e d a s t a n d where s p r u c e ( n o t s p e c i f i e d by K u j a l a ) and D o u g l a s - f i r a t 100 y r s . pf age r e a c h e d a h e i g h t o f 40 m (131 f t . ) . S a r s a p a r i l l a - O a k f e r n or A r a l i a - D r y o p t e r i s (AD) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on m o i s t and n u t r i t i o n a l l y b e t t e r t h a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s ( m e s o h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e and p e r m e s o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . I t was d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e ( 1 9 6 0 ) . K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 597) i n t h e P r i n c e George a r e a c a l l e d i t t h e O a k f e r n A s s o c i a t i o n , and on page 608 5 2 . d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e Kamloops F o r e s t D i s t r i c t . K u j a l a ( 1 945, p. 228 f f , ) d e s c r i b e d a M i t e l l a - T i a r e l l a - Rubus Pedatus C o l l e c t i v e Type, o f w h i c h the T i a r e l l a - Rubus Pedatus Subtype comes c l o s e t o the (AD) Type, A r l i d g e (1955) a t B o l e a n L a k e , d e s c r i b e d t h e V a c c i n i u m O v a l i f o l i u m - D r y o p t e r i s L i n n a e a n a A s s o c i a t i o n , w h i c h was a p p l i e d by S m i t h (1955) i n h i s work, and i s the same as the (AD) Type, Daubenmire (1952, p. 322) s t a t e d , t h a t h i s P a c h i s t i m a U n i o n i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from s e v e r a l o f K u j a l a * s t y p e s , among w h i c h i s a l s o i n c l u d e d t h e T i a r e l l a - Rubus P e d a t u s Type, I t a p p e a r s t h a t a l l t h o s e names r e f e r t o t h e same o r v e r y s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F . H , , 1959, p, 597) t h e s t a n d s c o n s i s t o f s p r u c e , a l p i n e f i r and b i r c h , f r e q u e n t l y w i t h s c a t t e r e d D o u g l a s - f i r and o c c a s i o n a l l y a s p e n . The u n d e r s t o r y c o n s i s t s o f a l p i n e f i r and few s p r u c e s and i s o f v a r y i n g d e n s i t y , O a k f e r n i s the dominant and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s o f t h e h e r b l a y e r . There a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r h e r b s i n d i c a t i v e o f good f o r e s t s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Under dense crown canopy the moss c o v e r c a n be c o m p l e t e , and c o n s i s t s o f P t i l i u m c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s o r Hylocomium  s p l e n d e n s . The s o i l s a r e o f the P o d z o l i c O r d e r (NSSCC, 1963) and c a n v a r y i n t e x t u r e f r o m sandy loam t o c l a y . U s u a l l y t h e r e i s m o t t l i n g i n t h e B h o r i z o n , w h i c h c o u l d i n d i c a t e a l a t e r a l seepage. The a v e r a g e maximum h e i g h t o f s p r u c e ( s p e c i e s n o t s p e c i f i e d ) i n th e P r i n c e George D i s t r i c t a c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F,H,, 1959) as w e l l as A r l i d g e (1960) i s 117 f t , and t h e n e t m e r c h a n t a b l e volume o f s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r amounts t o 4,430 c u , f t , p e r a c r e . I n t h e Kamloops F o r e s t D i s t r i c t , i n t h e b e s t s p r u c e s t a n d s , i n d i v i d u a l s may r e a c h h e i g h t s o f 125 f t , a t t h e age o f 300, The codominant a l p i n e f i r e x h i b i t s an a v e r a g e h e i g h t o f 94 f t . S e v e r a l sample p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . 53. D e v i l ' s C l u b o r Oplopanax H o r r i d u m (0) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s on wet and n u t r i t i o n a l l y m o d e r a t e l y r i c h t o r i c h s i t e s ( h y g r i c h y g r o t o p e s u b e u t r o p h i c t o e u t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 596 f f . ) and A r l i d g e (1960) d e s c r i b e d a n Oplopanax A s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e s u b a l p i n e f o r e s t o f the P r i n c e George a r e a , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f w i d e l y spaced s p r u c e ( s p e c i e s n o t s p e c i f i e d ) and a l p i n e f i r . The ave r a g e h e i g h t o f dominant s p r u c e s was 130 f t . The t o t a l volume o f a l l s p e c i e s amounted t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8,000 c u . f t . p e r a c r e . The s t a n d s o c c u r r e d on seepage s i t e s , w e l l - s u p p l i e d w i t h n u t r i e n t s . I l v e s s a l o (1929, p. 58) near Salmon Arm on Mount I d a , f o u n d a s i m i l a r t y p e , w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d as T i a r e l l a - F a t s i a (Oplopanax) - F e r n - S u b t y p e . K u j a l a (1945, p. 248 f f . ) d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r t y p e , i n w h i c h s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r d o m i n a t e d . The Oplopanax A s s o c i a t i o n , i n the most s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f the p r o -v i n c e o c c u r s w i t h w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , i n the e a s t e r n p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e w i t h w h i t e s p r u c e and p e r h a p s w e s t e r n hemlock, Daubenmire (1952, p. 315 f f . ) d e s c r i b e d a T h u j a P l i c a t a - Tsuga/Oplopanax H o r r i d u m A s s o c i a t i o n i n n o r t h e r n Idaha and W a s h i n g t o n . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s o ut o f p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e s m a l l a r e a i t c o v e r s i n the R o c k i e s . McLean and H o l l a n d (1958, p. 342) and K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 604) d e s c r i b e d a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n i n t h e C o l u m b i a F o r e s t R e g i o n w i t h D o u g l a s - f i r , w e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e , Engelmann s p r u c e and w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r . A c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959) the a v e r a g e maximum h e i g h t a t the age o f 100 a r e o f Do u g l a s -f i r , 155 f t . and o f w e s t e r n r e d c e d a r , 105 f t . I n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C, t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , i n i t s t y p i c a l f o r m , was n o t o b s e r v e d . I t was found o n l y i n s m a l l , l i m i t e d s t a n d s on 54. s l o p e s and g u l l i e s w i t h seepage, w h i c h , however, d i d not w a r r a n t s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n d . Communities o f Marshes and Bogs These a s s o c i a t i o n s o c c u r on wet t o s e m i t e r r e s t r i a l ( K u b i e n a , 1953) u s u a l l y n u t r i t i o n a l l y p o o r o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y s h a l l o w s i t e s ( h y g r i c t o h y d r i c h y g r o t o p e and m o s t l y o l i g o t r o p h i c t r o p h o t o p e ) . K u j a l a (1945, p. 352-363) d e s c r i b e d a s e r i e s o f sphagneta from n u t r i e n t r i c h C a l a m a g r o s t i s " b r u c h " (marsh) t o a bog w i t h v e g e t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g b l a c k s p r u c e , w h i t e and Engelmann s p r u c e and b i r c h , w i t h a shrub l a y e r o f B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a . Ledum, K a l m i a  p o l i f o l i a and o t h e r s . The d r i e s t t y p e , w h i c h o c c u r s i n the d r y i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i s something between h e a t h and a moor. The a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p e a t i s s l o w and t h e o r g a n i c l a y e r t h i n . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a n t s a r e u s u a l l y B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a , o f t e n J u n i p e r u s spp,, L i n n a e a a m e r i c a n a , a l s o A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u va u r s i . Most f r e q u e n t moss i s Hylocomium p r o l i f e r u m , Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e o c c u r s as t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f p a l u d i f i c a t i o n ( t h e p r o c e s s o f becoming marshy, swatnpy, b o g g y ) . I n c r e a s e d p a l u d i f i c a t i o n i s f o l l o w e d by f a s t e r a c c u m u l a t i o n o f p e a t and a d e c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y . Common H o r s e t a i l o r E q u i s e t u m A r v e n s e - Sphagnum (ES) A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s was d e s c r i b e d b y K r a j i n a ( i n F,H., 1959, p. 608) and A r l i d g e (1960), The s t a n d s c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f Engelmann s p r u c e and v a r y i n p r o d u c t i -v i t y d e p e n d i n g on d r a i n a g e . The av e r a g e h e i g h t o f dominant s p r u c e i s a b o u t 95 f t . The g l e i s o l i c m i n e r a l s o i l ( a l p h a o r b e t a g l e y ) i s sup e r i m p o s e d w i t h b l a c k muck ( s a p r o p e l ) , A c c o r d i n g t o A r l i d g e (1955) i n t h e P r i n c e George D i s t r i c t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s o f m a r g i n a l c o m m e r c i a l v a l u e and u s u a l l y c o v e r s s m a l l a r e a s . The w r i t e r o b s e r v e d s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s near Tulameen and on 55 TFL9 u s u a l l y on s l o p e s w i t h t e l l u r i c w a t e r . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o found i n the L a w l e s s C r e e k s t u d y a r e a ( M i t c h e l l , 1963) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h im-p e r f e c t l y d r a i n e d s o i l s . On t h e s e s i t e s M i t c h e l l (1963) measured t h e h e i g h t on dominant Engelmann s p r u c e s a t the age o f 100 y e a r s as 70 f t . C h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a r e Sphagnum spp. and m a i n l y E g u i s e t u r n a r v e n s e and E. s v l v a t i c u m , w i t h Ledum. K a l m i a and Andromeda p o l i f o l i a a b s e n t . K u j a l a (1945, p. 359) m e n t i o n e d b r i e f l y a n E q u i s e t u m Community w i t h Engelmann s p r u c e , l o d g e p o l e p i n e and a l p i n e f i r , w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e one d e s c r i b e d a b o v e 0 I l l i n g w o r t h (1960, p. 10) m e n t i o n e d a s i m i l a r t y p e l o c a l i z e d t o s m a l l a r e a s o f h i g h w a t e r t a b l e and p o o r d r a i n a g e , L o d g e p o l e P i n e - L a b r a d o r Tea - P e a t Moss o r Ledum - Sphagnum A s s o c i a t i o n T h i s was d e s c r i b e d by A r l i d g e (1955, p. 25) as o c c u r r i n g a t B o l e a n L a k e . He c a l l e d i t a Peat Bog A s s o c i a t i o n . The same a s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o d e s c r i b e d by K r a j i n a ( i n F.H., 1959, p. 6 0 9 ) . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r e Ledum. K a l m i a , Empetrum n i g r u m , Sphagnum spp. and among o t h e r s a l s o D r o s e r a  l o n g i f o l i a . The open s t a n d s a r e m o s t l y u n m e r c h a n t a b l e . L o d g e p o l e p i n e r e a c h e d a h e i g h t o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 51 f t . i n 250 t o 300 y e a r s , Engelmann s p r u c e , 25 f t , and a l p i n e f i r , 18 f t . The w r i t e r examined a s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n ( p l o t s 114 and 115) i n t h e D i s c o v e r y Road - Camosun P a r k Swamp on t h e Endowment Lands o f the U n i -v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t r e e l a y e r c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e . I n the somewhat b e t t e r d r a i n e d p a r t s , w e s t e r n hemlock c o n s t i t u t e d a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the s t a n d . The s i t e i n d e x o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e a t t h e age o f 100 r a n g e d from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 t o 35 f t , , and o f w e s t e r n hemlock, from 30 t o 40 f t . I t a p p e a r s t h a t the d r a i n a g e o f t h i s swamp im p r o v e d o v e r the y e a r s , because t h e younger l o d g e p o l e p i n e showed a b e t t e r g r o w t h t h a n the 56. o l d e r t r e e s , w h i c h had s t a g n a t e d f o r many y e a r s . T h i s d e d u c t i o n i s made because t h e h e i g h t g r o w t h o f s e v e r a l t r e e s i m p r o v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 y e a r s ago. M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f F o r e s t A s s o c i a t i o n s and S e v e r a l Independent V a r i a b l e s The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the dependent v a r i a b l e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n (x2) and t h i r t y - t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( l i s t e d i n t h e b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 4 and d e f i n e d i n the G l o s s a r y ) , was a n a l y z e d f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e . The f o l l o w i n g i n -dependent v a r i a b l e s : p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , h, dbh, y e a r s t o bh, volume o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s , S I / 1 0 0 , Crown c l a s s ( C I ) , m o i s t u r e r e g i m e , n u t r i e n t r e g i m e , and Crown w i d t h (CW)/dbh were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d ( 1 % l e v e l ) w i t h f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l , and group s o f v a r i a b l e s were t e s t e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the c l o s e n e s s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found when t h e s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f the a s s o c i a t i o n SI/100 (x?.3) , was c a l c u l a t e d . I n l o d g e p o l e p i n e o v e r 8 1 % o f the v a r i a t i o n o f f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r by SI / 1 0 0 . x2 = 0.8607 + • ,0.9 . x 2 3 ; r = 0.89; SE„ = + l v 3 . I n Engelmann s p r u c e a l s o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 1 % o f the v a r i a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s c a n be a c c o u n t e d f o r by SI/100. x2 = -0.5652 + :•: IP . x 2 3 ; r = 0.89; S E B = + 1 4 . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s w h i c h was c o n d u c t e d w i t h s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s S I / 1 0 0 , as w e l l a s age (A) and h o f t h e s t a n d has shown t h a t SI/100 p r i m a r i l y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a h i g h 57. percentage of the variation. This high percentage suggested omission of the variable SI/100 and the ones leading to its determination (A and h) from the multiple correlation analysis, to give the remaining variables a more prominent position. The following variables then were tested: h, dbh, years to bh, absolute form factor (fo.l), volume determined with fo.l (vfo.l), Cw, CI, terminal length (1), height growth factor (HGF), slope %, aspect, elevation a.s . l . , moisture regime, nutrient regime, basal area (g)/acre, h/Cw and Cw/dbh. The results have shown that in lodgepole pine all variables to-gether accounted for 95% of the variation of x2. Nutrient regime (x28) alone accounted for 88.5%, nutrient regime and aspect (x25) for 90%, the three variables, nutrient, moisture regime (x27) and aspect for 91%; and together with elevation a.s. l . (x26), the four variables accounted for a total of 93%. Using these variables, the following equation for associa-tion was obtained; x2 = -5.74223 + 0.29747 . x25 - 930.069 . x26 + 1.13868 ... x27 + + 1.30161 x28; R = 0.93; SE_ = + 0.74. Lt — In Engelmann spruce, 99%. of the variation of the forest asso-ciation was accounted for by all variables tested. However, moisture regime was highly significant only when the data for bogs and swamps, which are poor and wet, were omitted from the analysis. The moisture regime (x27) alone was responsible for 78%, of the variation, and the moisture regime and the nutrient regime (x28) together for 95%. The equation for association using these two variables is as follows: x2 = -0.20841 + 1.13949 x28 + 0.954479 x27; R = 0,95; SE£ = + 0.64. All the multiple correlation results indicate that 5 8 . a s s o c i a t i o n c a n be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e t e r m i n e d by use o f s i t e i n d e x ( S I / 1 0 0 ) , and m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s as w e l l as a s p e c t and e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . C h a p t e r Summary I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e work o f s e v e r a l a u t h o r s who i d e n t i f i e d and d e s c r i b e d a s s o c i a t i o n s of the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was r e v i e w e d . These a s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y were named d i f f e r e n t l y by t h e d i f -f e r e n t a u t h o r s , were gr o u p e d h e r e i n under one a s s o c i a t i o n name. I n d i v i -d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , s t a n d a p p e a r a n c e , t y p i c a l s o i l s , o c c u r r e n c e and s i t e i n d i c e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n from o t h e r a u t h o r s was s upplemented, w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , w i t h t h e w r i t e r ' s own d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a has shown t h a t f o r e s t a s s o c i a -t i o n number, when u s e d as t h e dependent v a r i a b l e , i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h S I / 1 0 0 . I n b o t h s p e c i e s ( L P & ES) 8 1 % o f the v a r i a t i o n was due t o S I / 1 0 0 . When SI/100 as w e l l as the v a r i a b l e s h and A, w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d f o r i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n were o m i t t e d , i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e , and i n Engelmann s p r u c e , e s t i m a t e s o f n u t r i e n t and m o i s t u r e r e g i m e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o v e r 90% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , a s s o c i a t i o n s c a n be d e f i n e d s u f f i c i e n t l y by the s i t e i n d e x , and e s t i m a t e d m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e s o f e i t h e r s p e c i e s . I n t h e same sense a s s o c i a t i o n i s v e r y w e l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i t e i n d e x , m o i s t u r e r e g i m e and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e . Grades o f a s s o c i a t i o n a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e G l o s s a r y . 59. Z-Iore e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o complete d e f i n i t i o n s and r a t e the p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the Engelmann Spruce -A l p i n e F i r Zone. 60. PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES USED FOR ANALYSES OF TREE GROWTH The r e v i e w and s t u d y o f t h e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s has made a p p a r e n t some s i m i l a r i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o s i t e i n d e x , t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e s i t e o f o c c u r r e n c e , s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l , and assumed m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s t a t u s ^ o f t h e l o c a l i t y . F o r p u r p o s e s o f the s t a n d e v a l u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p r o d u c t i v i t y and v a l u e , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s were a r r a n g e d i n group s o f s i m i l a r f o r e s t g r o w t h ( d e f i n e d i n t h e G l o s s a r y ) , h e r e c a l l e d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . W i t h i n each p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s keep t h e i r i d e n t i t y . The p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s c o i n c i d e w i t h the s i t e i n d e x 7a c l a s s e s o f t h e B.C.F.S., (1964) . F o r e s t s t a n d s o f f o l l o w i n g p r o d u c t i -v i t y c l a s s e s were r e c o g n i z e d : low ( l o w SI c l a s s , B.C.F.S., 1964) poor ( p o o r S I c l a s s , B.C.F.S., 1964) medium (medium SI c l a s s , B.C.F.S., 1964) good (good S I c l a s s , B.C.F.S., 1964) These p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o i n the f u r t h e r e v a l u a t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n s o f growth o f t h e two s p e c i e s under s t u d y . The diagrams F i g . 1 t o F i g . 4 show t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f each p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s a c c o r d i n g t o the a s p e c t and M o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t c l a s s e s a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e G l o s s a r y . l S i t e i n d e x c l a s s e s a r e d e f i n e d i n the G l o s s a r y . 61. e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . I n the diagrams t h e t r e e l i n e i s shown a t an e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,000 f t . T h i s e l e v a t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the i n t e r i o r o f B. C. The s u r v e y c o v e r e d a r e a s i f l a t i -t u d i n a l e x t e n t , w h i c h , i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t , c o u l d have b r o u g h t a bout a " s h i f t " o f the t r e e l i n e t o a l o w e r e l e v a t i o n ; however, the r a t e o f " s h i f t " was n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d . The diagrams a r e based on d a t a c o l l e c t e d and s h o u l d be l o o k e d upon as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y o n l y . F o r e s t S t a n d s o f Low and Poor P r o d u c t i v i t y ( S I / 1 0 0 : L P and ES, not more t h a n 64 f t . ) F i g . 1 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p l o t s s t u d i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o a l t i t u d e and e x p o s u r e . The (ARC) A s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a r s t o o c c u r a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s and on warmer and d r i e r l o c a l i t i e s t h a n the (VSc) and Moss A s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i c h were found on h i g h e r and r e l a t i v e l y m o i s t e r and c o o l e r l o c a l i t i e s . g A l l t r e e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h o c c u r on n u t r i t i o n a l l y p o o r and d r y t o f r e s h s i t e s a r e g e n e r a l l y slow g r o w i n g and r e a c h m e r c h a n t a b l e s i z e o n l y a t ages o f 150 and o v e r . The f o l l o w i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s b e l o n g h e r e : i n the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone the (ARC) A s s o c i a t i o n , and i n the Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone the (VSc) and the Moss A s s o c i a t i o n s , W i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h e s e t r e e s o c c u r on s i t e s w i t h f a s t d r a i n i n g s o i l s o f low w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , such as sandy, g r a v e l l y s o i l s w i t h l ow s i l t and c l a y c o n t e n t o r i g i n a t i n g m a i n l y from s t r a t i f i e d f l u v i o g l a c i a l d e t r i t u s , o r on s h a l l o w s o i l s o v e r b e d r o c k i n l o c a l i t i e s exposed t o g No i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o d e f i n e what i s a c t u a l l y a n u t r i t i o n a l l y p o o r s i t e and by what a g e n c i e s t h i s c o n d i t i o n was c a u s e d . 62. F i g . 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m o f s t a n d s o f low and po o r p r o -d u c t i v i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o c c u r i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e l e v a t i o n r a n g e s . The ES-AF (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s a t h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s o f t e n e r on s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n t h a n on s i t e s w i t h n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e , whereas the ES-AF (Moss) A s s o c i a t i o n o c c u r s more i n n o r t h e r n t h a n i n s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e s . IDF (ARC) i s u b i q u i t o u s a t l o w e r e l e v a t i o n s . F u l l c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t the IDF (ARC) A s s o c i a t i o n , c i r c l e s the ES-AF (VSc) A s s o c i a t i o n , h a l f f u l l c i r c l e s t h e ES-AF (Moss) A s s o c i a t i o n and c i r c l e s w i t h d o t s t h e A l p i n e Tundra A s s o c i a t i o n s . A r a b i c numerals r e p r e s e n t e l e v a t i o n s above sea l e v e l i n 1,000 f t . 63. i n s o l a t i o n , r a p i d changes o f m o i s t u r e c o n d i t i o n s and h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e a m p l i t u d e s . M uraro (1963) found t h a t the maximum and noon t e m p e r a t u r e s i n c r e a s e and the minimum t e m p e r a t u r e d e c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s e i n s l o p e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h a t , s t e e p s l o p e s o f r i d g e s , h i l l s , e s k e r s , and d r u m l i n s w i l l f a v o u r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the s t a n d s o f low and p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y . The c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s o i l s from p l o t s 27 and 52 showed t h a t t h e s e s i t e s a r e l a c k i n g i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a l s o a l a c k o f p r o -p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t , i . e . good w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , h i g h exchange c a p a c i t y , m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y , e t c . The u n m e r c h a n t a b l e , wet ( h y d r i c ) a s s o c i a t i o n s , s u c h a s bogs, swamps, moors, e t c . ( S I / 1 0 0 : L P and ES u s u a l l y s m a l l e r t h a n 40 f t . ) a l s o b e l o n g i n t h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . These t y p e s u s u a l l y o c c u r on wet s i t e s where l a c k o f a e r a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a p r i n c i p a l l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . Topo-g r a p h i c a l l y , t h e y a r e l i m i t e d t o d e p r e s s i o n s w i t h s l o w o r p o o r d r a i n a g e . An a c c u m u l a t i o n o f o r g a n i c m a t t e r i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e t y p e s . The m i n e r a l s o i l i s u s u a l l y a b l u i s h g l e y . I n t h e Y e l l o w P i n e and D o u g l a s - f i r Zones, t h e s e "wet" a s s o c i a t i o n s (h) o c c u r i n f r e q u e n t l y and a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a l i n e or a l k a l i n e s o i l s . I n t h e Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone the e x t e n t o f t h e s t a n d s b e l o n g i n g t o the "wet" a s s o c i a t i o n s ( S p h a g n a l e s ) i s l i m i t e d i n a r e a . These t y p e s o c c u r f r e q u e n t l y and c o v e r a r e a s i n t h e B o r e a l F o r e s t R e g i o n . G e n e r a l l y the t r e e s g r o w i n g i n t h e bogs a r e unmer-c h a n t a b l e . O n l y one p l o t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e u n m e r c h a n t a b l e bogs. F o r e s t Stands o f Medium P r o d u c t i v i t y ( S I / 1 0 0 : LP 65 - 80 f t . ; ES 65 - 85 f t . ) The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p l o t s s t u d i e d i n t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s shown i n F i g . 2. The t o p o g r a p h y i s v a r i a b l e . However, t h e s e s t a n d s u s u a l l y o c c u r 64. F i g . 2: The d i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m o f f o r e s t s o f medium p r o -d u c t i v i t y . The IDF (CA) A s s o c i a t i o n does n o t o c c u r above 5,000 f t . and i t a p p e a r s , t h a t on s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e t h e range o f t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n r e a c h e s i n t o h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s t h a n on s i t e s w i t h n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e . The c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t the IDF (CA) A s s o c i a t i o n , the f u l l c i r c l e s the ES-AF (CV) A s s o c i a t i o n , and the h a l f f u l l c i r c l e s the ES-AF (Pa) A s s o c i a t i o n . A r a b i c numerals = e l e v . a . s . l . i n 1,000 f t . 65. on slopes of medium to steep grade, on coarse, porous soils which, however, are of better water-holding capacity than those in the poor forest series. The parent soil material is usually of glacial origin, t i l l with high con-tent of gravel and sand. Among the limiting factors are the moisture and the nutrient content. The same type of soil parent material may support good and excellent growth of trees when supplied constantly with nutrient-containing seepage. The associations which grow on dry to fresh and apparently nutritionally better sites than the poorly growing forests, belong here. The (CA) Association occurs at the lowest elevation in the Douglas-fir Zone, higher up, almost in the Engelmann Spruce - Alpine Fir Zone, the (Pa) Asso-ciation and (CV) Association are found. At the highest elevations, which reach almost to the tree line, there may possibly be an association inc-luding Menziesia. Rhododendron and Vaccinium membranaceum. Forest Stands of Good Productivity (SI/100: LP larger than 80 ft,; ES larger than 85 ft.) The distribution of the associations studied is shown in Fig. 3. These associations grow on fresh to moist sites which appear to be well-supplied with nutrients. The soils are fine-textured, usually sandy loam to clay loam, well-drained, but retaining at least fresh moisture condition through the year. At low elevations in the Douglas-fir Zone the (C) Asso-ciation occurs, and in the Engelmann Spruce - Alpine Fir Zone the (VM), (CM), and (W) Associations are found. As mentioned earlier, the differentiation of these associations can be made on the basis of a moisture gradient which is lowest in the (C) Association and highest in the (VV) Association. These stands occur on varying topography, commonly on softly 66. N £ S F i g . 3: D i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m of the f o r e s t s o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y . The e l e v a t i o n range o f the IDF (CA) A s s o c i a t i o n i n c l u d e s h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s on s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e t h a n on n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e . The ES-AF (CM) A s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be l i m i t e d t o s i t e s w i t h n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e o n l y , where as t h e ES-AF (VM) and the ES-AF ( W ) A s s o c i a t i o n s appear t o p r e f e r s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e a t h i g h e r e l e v a -t i o n s . The c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t t h e (C) A s s o c i a t i o n , the f u l l c i r c l e s the E S - A F (CM) A s s o c i a t i o n , the h a l f f u l l c i r c l e s the ES-AF (VM) A s s o c i a t i o n and the c i r c l e s w i t h d o t s t h e ES-AF ( W ) A s s o c i a t i o n . A r a b i c numerals - e l e v . a . s . l . i n 1,000 f t . 67. r o l l i n g , g e n t l e s l o p e s o f the h i g h l a n d p l a t e a u s o r s i m p l y on g e n t l e t o m o d e r a t e l y s t e e p s l o p e s . The Ah and o f t e n the Ae h o r i z o n c o n t a i n more o r g a n i c m a t t e r t h a n t h o s e of t h e p r e v i o u s p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . The f o r e s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h seepage s i t e s a l s o b e l o n g among t h e s t a n d s o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . The s o - c a l l e d c r e e k b o t t o m t y p e s and t h e Oplopanax t y p e s ( f o n t i n a l e s ) o c c u r r i n g u s u a l l y on m o i s t t o wet s o i l s , a p p a r e n t l y r i c h l y s u p p l i e d w i t h a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s , a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s . These t y p e s grow t h e t a l l e s t and b e s t t r e e s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y t h e s t a n d s c o n t a i n h i g h v o l u m e s . I n t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s shown i n t h e G l o s s a r y t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s were g i v e n code No. 4. U s u a l l y t h e s e t y p e s o c c u r i n c r e e k b o t t o m s , narrow v a l l e y s , m o i s t draws o r on s l o p e s w i t h seepage o r i n d e p r e s s i o n s w i t h t e l l u r i c w a t e r . The s o i l s a r e u s u a l l y o f t h e g l e i s o l i c t y p e , sometimes w i t h h i g h o r g a n i c c o n -t e n t , and c a n be made up o f v a r y i n g t e x t u r e c l a s s e s . The i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r a p p e a r s t o be the s u p p l y o f n u t r i e n t s t h r o u g h the seepage w a t e r o r s o l i -f l u c t i o n . The a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h b e l o n g i n t h i s s e r i e s s h o u l d a c t u a l l y . i n c l u d e t h e (D) and p e r h a p s a l s o the (AD) A s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h a r e u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c r e e k b o t t o m t y p e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m o f p l o t s s t u d i e d i n t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s shown i n P i g . 4. R e s u l t s o f M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s R e g a r d i n g P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s o f 58 l o d g e p o l e p i n e s as w e l l as o f 24 Engelmann s p r u c e t r e e s o f moderate o r dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n has shown a v e r y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s (x3) and the f o l -l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : dbh, h, dbhu, C I , SI/100, m o i s t u r e regime ( b u t o n l y when swamp and bogs were n o t i n c l u d e d ) , and n u t r i e n t r e g i m e . The h i g h e s t c o r -r e l a t i o n f o r x3 was w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n (x2) w h i c h a l o n e a c c o u n t e d i n l o d g e p o l e 6 8 . F i g . 4: D i s t r i b u t i o n d i a g r a m o f the f o n t i n a l e s o r c r e e k bottom t y p e s . A l l a s s o c i a t i o n s were found on s i t e s below 5,000 f t . and o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y on s i t e s w i t h n o r t h e r n e x p o s u r e . The c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t the I n t e r i o r D o u g l a s - f i r Zone c r e e k bottom types, the c i r c l e s w i t h d o t s r e p r e s e n t the Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone c r e e k bottom t y p e s , the f u l l c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t the ES-AF (D) A s s o c i a t i o n and the h a l f f u l l c i r c l e s r e p r e s e n t the ES-AF (AD) A s s o c i a t i o n . A r a b i c numerals = e l e v . a . s . l . i n 1,000 f t . 69. p i n e f o r 91% and i n Engelmann s p r u c e f o r 957o of the v a r i a t i o n : L P x3 = 0.34 -i- 0.037x o; r - 0.95; SE„ = -:- 0.30 p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s ; ES x3 = 0.16 + 0.04x 2; r = 0.97; S E £ = + 0.26 p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . The second h i g h e s t s i g n i f i c a n c e showed SI/100, w h i c h a l o n e a c c o u n t e d i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e f o r 71% and i n Engelmann s p r u c e f o r 73% o f the v a r i a t i o n o f x3. E q u a t i o n s : L P x3 = -0.2 + 0.04 . x 2 3 ; r = 0.88; SE_ = + 0,50 p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s ; a -ES x3 = -0,08 + 0,04 , x 2 3 ; r = 0.85; SE_ = + 0,62 p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . a -I n c o m p a r i s o n t o a s s o c i a t i o n and SI/100 t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s were o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the r e g r e s s i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . C h a p t e r Summary The p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s a r e d e f i n e d by t h e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n ( i n the sense o f t h i s t h e s i s ) , s i t e i n d e x , t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e s i t e o f o c c u r r e n c e , s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and assumed n u t r i e n t s t a t u s o f t h e s o i l . T h e i r s i t e i n d e x r a n g e s c o r r e s p o n d t o the s i t e i n d e x c l a s s e s o f the B.C.F.S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . F o u r s t a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d : l o w , p o o r , medium and good. The i n d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w h i c h were grouped i n t o t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s showed a c e r t a i n p a t t e r n o f d i s t r i b u t i o n when a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . and a s p e c t . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n ana-l y s e s have shown t h a t o f the v a r i a b l e s a n a l y z e d , a s s o c i a t i o n s and SI/100 a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o d e t e r m i n e the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . A l s o h i g h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s were h, dbh, C I , w h i c h a r e o f p r a c t i c a l v a l u e f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e u t i l i z a t i o n and y i e l d . 70. P a r t 2: EVALUATION OF MENSURATIONAL DATA AREA AND NUMBER OF SAMPLES The m a j o r i t y o f the sample a r e a s were l o c a t e d i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o s t a n d s i n t h e c e n t r a l and s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r was a l s o o b t a i n e d f r o m p u b l i c a t i o n s by I l v e s s a l o (1929) and K u j a l a ( 1 9 4 5 ) . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e a r e a s i s shown on Map No. 3. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p l o t s was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b i o g e o c o e n o s i s i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n s . E a c h a s s o c i a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zone w h i c h was p r e v i o u s l y shown i n Map 1. The i n d i -v i d u a l zones c a n o c c u r i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s t a n t a r e a s . From t h i s v i e w -p o i n t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l o t s c a n be i d e n t i f i e d as members o f a h i g h e r o r d e r , w i t h o u t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r e x a c t l o c a t i o n . The r e c o r d o f the l o c a t i o n o f each p l o t was t h e r e f o r e n o t p r e s e n t e d h e r e , b u t i s k e p t as t h e r e s t o f t h e d a t a w i t h the F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y , U.B.C., V a n c o u v e r . U s u a l l y more t h a n one p l o t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a c h a r e a . I n the A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1 i s l i s t e d a t o t a l o f 147 p l o t s , 124 o f t h o s e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i n t o w h i c h t h e y f i t . F o r each p l o t a r e shown t h e g e n e r a l a r e a ( l o c a l i t y ) , e l e v a t i o n a . s . l . , t h e s l o p e % and the a s p e c t , a v e r a g e h , dbh, and age and s i t e i n d e x o f dominant and codominant t r e e s o f each s p e c i e s ; and where t h e b a s a l a r e a / a c r e ( g / a c r e ) was d e t e r m i n e d , t h e h , dbh and age o f t r e e s o f a v e r a g e d o b t a i n e d on p o i n t sample p l o t s . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e f i e l d work was t o o b t a i n samples f r o m s t a n d s where b o t h l o d g e p o l e p i n e as w e l l as Engelmann s p r u c e grew t o g e t h e r . However, o f t e n o n l y p u r e s t a n d s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on s i t e s o f p o o r and l o w p r o d u c t i v i t y , were a v a i l a b l e f o r s a m p l i n g . 72. G e n e r a l l y t h e w r i t e r a t t e m p t e d t o sample t r e e s and s a p l i n g s grown under d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s , b u t on s i m i l a r s i t e s . The b a s i c i d e a o f t h i s t y p e o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n was t o o b t a i n samples f o r com-p a r i s o n s o f t h e two s p e c i e s grown under d i f f e r e n t s t a n d c o n d i t i o n s . The s t a n d s w h i c h were sampled were a t d i f f e t e n t s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n . The w r i t e r was t h e r e f o r e f a c e d w i t h complex c o n d i t i o n s made s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t by the v a s t n e s s o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a as w e l l as the c h a n g i n g t o p o g r a p h y and g e n e r a l c l i m a t e . I t was t h e r e f o r e o f g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t t o l o c a t e s i t e s where b o t h s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d under s i m i l a r c o n -d i t i o n s , f o r a n a l y s i s a s t o w h i c h s p e c i e s , on w h i c h s i t e s , under what c o n d i t i o n s p e r f o r m s b e s t and y i e l d s o p t i m a l l y . When the f i e l d work s t a r t e d , i t began w i t h d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l o c a t i n g t h e r i g h t s i t e s f o r s a m p l i n g . I t became more and more e v i d e n t , t h a t a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s have a f f e c t e d development o f t h e p r e s e n t s t a n d s ( s e e c h a p t e r on f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n s ) . G r a d u a l l y , however, the s t u d y o f t h e s t a n d s r e v e a l e d a t l e a s t i n rou g h o u t l i n e s t h e i r h i s t o r y and r e -l a t i o n s h i p s and s e v e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were i d e n t i f i e d ( s e e c h a p t e r n a s s o c i a t i o n s ) and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a n d s s e l e c t e d f o r growth s t u d i e s . Among the p l o t s l i s t e d i n t h e A p p e n d i x T a b l e 1 a r e 126 p l o t s w h i c h were s t u d i e d and fr o m w h i c h d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by t h e w r i t e r . On t h e s e p l o t s were c o l l e c t e d i n t o t a l 137 t r e e s f o r stem a n a l y s i s (98 l o d g e p o l e p i n e s and 49 Engelmann s p r u c e s ) , 108 s a p l i n g s f o r h e i g h t - age a n a l y s i s (75 l o d g e p o l e p i n e s and 33 Engelmann s p r u c e s ) . On 53 o f t h e s e p l o t s w e l l o v e r 100 p o i n t samples f o r b a s a l a r e a and volume d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d s were c o l l e c t e d . E i g h t s o i l p i t s were dug t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d s o i l t y p e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s work s e v e r a l h undred h measurements and dbh 73. borings were made at breast and stump height for age determination. 74 METHODS C o l l e c t i o n o f F i e l d Data B a s i c t r e e measurements The d i a m e t e r s (d) o f a l l t r e e s were measured w i t h a d i a m e t e r t a p e t o the n e a r e s t 1/10 i n c h e s . The h e i g h t s (h) o f s t a n d i n g t r e e s were d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a "Haga" a l t i m e t e r w i t h o p t i c a l d i s t a n c e a t t a c h m e n t and a t a r g e t . The ages (A) o f s t a n d i n g t r e e s were d e t e r m i n e d a t b r e a s t h e i g h t (bh) and on s e v e r a l t r e e s a l s o a t stump h e i g h t . F r e q u e n t l y age c h e c k s were made on s a p l i n g s g r o w i n g n e a r b y , t o d e t e r m i n e y e a r s r e q u i r e d t o r e a c h b r e a s t h e i g h t . The c o u n t s a t b r e a s t h e i g h t on l a r g e r t r e e s were c o r -r e c t e d w i t h t h e s e a g e s - t o - b r e a s t h e i g h t t o o b t a i n t h e i r t o t a l age. The s i t e i n d i c e s ( S I/100) were d e t e r m i n e d on c u r v e s i n t h e B. C. F o r . S e r v i c e , F i e l d P o c k e t Manual (B.C.F.S., 1 9 6 4 ) . Stem a n a l y s i s and r e l a t e d measurements Where p o s s i b l e , s t a n d s c o n s i s t i n g o f b o t h s p e c i e s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e , were s e l e c t e d f o r s a m p l i n g . I n t h e s e s t a n d s 9 t r e e s were l o c a t e d w h i c h grew i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s , i n t h e open, w i t h no c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e s i d e o r f r o m t h e t o p ; i n m o d e r a t e l y open s t a n d s , w i t h more l i g h t a v a i l a b l e f r o m s i d e s t h a n i n d e n s e l y grown s t a n d s ; d e n s e l y grown, i . e . w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e s i d e s , b u t i n t h e f u l l b e n e f i t o f l i g h t f rom above; i n o v e r t o p p e d p o s i t i o n q C o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d a l s o i n t h e G l o s s a r y . 75. ( s u p p r e s s e d ) , grown u n d e r n e a t h the canopy o f dominant t r e e s . These f o u r c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s were s e l e c t e d t o show the growth p e r f o r m a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s under d i f f e r e n t s i l v i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e t r e e s w h i c h were s e l e c t e d , were i n dominant o r codominant p o s i t i o n s , h e a l t h y and of good form. U s u a l l y o n l y one t r e e on a 1/100 a c r e p l o t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 .8 by 20„8 f t . ) was t a k e n . T h i s sample a r e a s i z e was s e l e c t e d t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e samples and a b e t t e r c o v e r a g e o f the sampled s t a n d . The m e n s u r a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d by stem a n a l y s e s was not p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , b u t s t o r e d w i t h t h e F a c u l t y o f F o r e s t r y o f U.B . C . Each t r e e was c u t down a t the r o o t c o l l a r . The p o s i t i o n o f t h e c u t i s shown i n F i g . 5. W h i l e the t r e e s were s t i l l s t a n d i n g , t h e b r e a s t h e i g h t was d e t e r m i n e d by m e a s u r i n g 4.5 f t . f r o m t h e r o o t c o l l a r l i n e . A f t e r f e l l i n g , the t r e e l e n g t h was a c c u r a t e l y measured t o t h e n e a r e s t t e n t h f t . From e a c h t r e e were t a k e n s e v e n d i s c s f o r stem a n a l y s i s , one a t the r o o t c o l l a r , one a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , and f i v e a t 1/10, 3/10, 5/10, 7/10, and 9/10 o f the t o t a l t r e e h e i g h t . From 42 l o d g e p o l e p i n e s s e v e n d i s c s were t a k e n i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s , a t t h e r o o t c o l l a r , a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , and i n t h e m i d d l e o f f i v e s e c t i o n s o f e q u a l l e n g t h above b r e a s t h e i g h t , f o r s i m u l t a n e o u s use i n a d i f f e r e n t s t u d y . The p o s i t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s c s a r e shown i n F i g . 6. From a l l t r e e s u s e d f o r stem a n a l y s i s , d i a m e t e r s u n d e r b a r k a t 1/10, 3/10, 5/10, 7/10 and 9/10 o f t o t a l t r e e h e i g h t were a l s o o b t a i n e d . The d i a m e t e r s o u t s i d e b a r k were measured w i t h a d i a m e t e r tape t o t h e n e a r e s t 1/10 i n . , t h e n t h e b a r k was p e e l e d and the d i a m e t e r s u n d e r b a r k were measured i n t h e same way. The d i s c s f o r t h e stem a n a l y s i s were c u t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.5 t o 1 i n . t h i c k . The d i s c s were c u t w i t h a F i g . 5 : P o s i t i o n of the f e l l i n g c u t . T r e e s were c u t o f f a t the r o o t c o l l a r ( R c ) , l o c a t e d o u t s i d e b a r k where t h e upper s u r f a c e o f th e uppermost r o o t j o i n e d the stem. The c u t was made a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the l o n g a x i s ( A ) o f the t r e e 77. F i g . 6: P o s i t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l d i s c s t a k e n f o r stem a n a l y s i s . Root c o l l a r ( d r c ) , b r e a s t h e i g h t ( d b h ) , m i d p o i n t s o f s e c t i o n s at 1/10, 5/10, 7/10, 9/10 of t o t a l l e n g t h ( d o . l , do.3, do.5, do.7, d o . 9 ) . F o r stem a n a l y s i s o f 42 l o d g e p o l e p i n e s on p l o t s 39 and 114 d i s c s were t a k e n a t d r c , dbh and f i v e d i s c s ( d l - 5 ) a t m i d -p o i n t s o f f i v e s e c t i o n s , each one 1/5 o f the t o t a l t r e e l e n g t h l e s s 4.5 f t . (L-4.5 f t . / 5 - 1/5) 78. Swede saw o r a c h a i n saw a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e l o n g t r e e a x i s . F o r l a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , t h e d i s c s were marked w i t h s c a l e r ' s c h a l k a t the upper s u r f a c e . A t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s v a r y i n g numbers o f s a p l i n g s were a l s o c o l -l e c t e d . Young t r e e s were c u t o f f a t t h e r o o t c o l l a r , t h e i r l e n g t h was measured and t h e i r t o t a l age and age a t b r e a s t h e i g h t were d e t e r m i n e d . S e v e r a l o f t h e s a p l i n g s were a n a l y z e d i n t h e same way as t h e o l d e r t r e e s , f o r a n a l y s i s o f the g r o w t h p a t t e r n s under d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . The d i a m e t e r s o f the s a p l i n g s were measured o u t s i d e b a r k w i t h a c a l i p e r , t o t h e n e a r e s t 1/10 i n , , whereby was n o t e d t h e a v e r a g e o f two measure-ments a t the w i d e s t and n a r r o w e s t p o i n t . The l e n g t h and w i d t h o f the g r e e n crown were a l s o measured t o t h e n e a r e s t f t . The way t h e measurements were t a k e n i s shown i n F i g , 7, The t e r m i n a l s h o o t l e n g t h was o b t a i n e d as t h e a v e r a g e o f t h e t e r m i n a l s h o o t l e n g t h grown d u r i n g t h e l a s t two y e a r s t o m i n i m i z e v a r i a t i o n o f c u r r e n t h i n c r e m e n t . I t was measured t o t h e n e a r e s t 1/10 i n . The d o u b l e b a r k t h i c k n e s s was o b t a i n e d by m e a s u r i n g two l a y e r s o f t h e p e e l e d b a r k a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and was g i v e n t o t h e n e a r e s t 1/10 i n . P o i n t samples On s e v e r a l p l o t s p o i n t samples were t a k e n o n a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s I n t h e s t a n d , u s i n g t h e method d e s c r i b e d by S m i t h and Br e a d o n ( 1 9 6 4 ) • The t r e e c o u n t was made w i t h a S p i e g e l r e l a s c o p e ( B i t t e r l i c h , 1 9 5 8 ) . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d . A l l t r e e s e x c e e d i n g t h e s i z e r e q u i r e d f o r a r e a f a c t o r (5 o r 20) were c o u n t e d by s p e c i e s and measured a t b r e a s t h e i g h t . From a l l p o i n t samples t a k e n i n a s t a n d t h e a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r o f e a c h s p e c i e s was d e t e r m i n e d . I n t h e s t a n d , n o t F i g . 7: M e a s u r i n g o f g r e e n crown l e n g t h ( C I ) and w i d t h (Cw). CI was measured from the t r e e top t o the l o w e s t g r e e n b r a n c h node a t the stem, and Cw as the l e n g t h o f the two l o n g e s t g r e e n b r a n c h e s on o p p o s i t e s i d e s o f t h e stem from the m i d d l e o f the stem 80 n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h e p o i n t sample a r e a , a t r e e was s e l e c t e d w i t h t h e d i a -m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t c l o s e s t t o t h e a v e r a g e . The s e l e c t e d t r e e s were h e a l t h y , w e l l - f o r m e d , and i n a t l e a s t codominant p o s i t i o n . On t h e s e t r e e s the d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and the t o t a l h e i g h t u s i n g a "Haga" a l t i m e t e r w i t h t a r g e t , as w e l l as the age a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and t o t a l age were d e t e r m i n e d . On s e v e r a l p l o t s o n l y t h e t r e e c o u n t by s p e c i e s \*as made u s i n g a S p i e g e l r e l a s c o p e , t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b a s a l a r e a o f t h e s t a n d s . Where no sample t r e e s were c u t down, t h e t o t a l h e i g h t (measured w i t h "Haga" a l t i -m e ter) , d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , and t h e age a t b r e a s t h e i g h t ( t h e t o t a l age was a p p r o x i m a t e d f r o m c a s e t o c a s e ) o f a n a v e r a g e o f f i v e dominant and codominant t r e e s p e r s p e c i e s were measured f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e s i t e i n d e x u s i n g the B.C.F.S, (1964) c u r v e s . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d On p l o t s where no i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s o i l t y p e was a v a i l -a b l e , t h e s o i l s were d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e N.S,S.C,C, ( 1 9 6 3 ) , The d a t a c o l l e c t e d were n o t p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , because t h e y were u s e d o n l y as s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d s i n t o a s s o c i a -t i o n s , Each f o r e s t s t a n d was d e s c r i b e d i n a s t a n d d e s c r i p t i o n , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a b r i e f a c c o u n t o f t h e g e n e r a l s t a n d a p p e a r a n c e , s p e c i e s com-p o s i t i o n , and a p p a r e n t damages by d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s were e v a l u a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o c o l l e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s t a n d s o f e a c h a s s o c i a t i o n . On a l l p l o t s the s l o p e p e r c e n t , a s p e c t , e l e v a t i o n i n f e e t above se a l e v e l , l a n d f o r m , where p o s s i b l e t h e ty p e o f g e o l o g i c a l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l 81. and the soil texture were determined. Moisture and nutrient classes were determined from the general appearance and condition of the stands and their vegetation, as well as the soil types and topographical position (see Glossary). Only the slope per cent, aspect and elevation were listed in the Appendix Table 1. The remaining characteristics were incorporated in the general description given of each association. All trees selected for the stem analysis were classified according to their crown class and the competitive position in the stand. Office Procedures Age count and decadal diameters The average radius (obtained as half of the diameter determined with diameter tape, d/2) compared favourably with the average of the largest and the smallest radius measured on the discs. On the 50 discs measured by both methods, results were almost identical. Therefore, the d/2 « average radius was used, and permanently marked on the upper side of each disc. On these "radius rays" were marked the years by decades beginning from the outside. The incomplete decade was therefore at the centre (pith) of the disc. The distance from the pith to the incomplete and complete decades was measured to the nearest 1/10 in. and recorded. The lists of the diameter measurements and age counts thus obtained were not presented in the thesis, but were kept by the Faculty of Forestry, U,B«C. Determination of the stem form The true tree form cannot be expressed in a formula. However an approximation can be obtained by comparing the tree to a body which 82. o r i g i n a t e d t h r o u g h r o t a t i o n o f d e f i n i t e c r o s s s e c t i o n s w i t h c o n t i n u o u s o u t -l i n e s . I f a t r e e i s s u b d i v i d e d i n many d i s c s , t h e s e come v e r y c l o s e t o t h e f o r m o f c y l i n d e r s . I n p r a c t i c a l m e n s u r a t i o n , s e c t i o n s o f e q u a l , a b s o l u t e l e n g t h o r sometimes s e c t i o n s o f e q u a l r e l a t i v e l e n g t h a r e u s e d . Depending on t h e d e s i r e d a c c u r a c y , t h e number o f s e c t i o n s i s c h o s e n , Hohenadl (1922/23) s u g g e s t e d t h e use f o r p r a c t i c a l a s w e l l as s c i e n t i f i c p u r p o s e s o f 5 s e c t i o n s o f e q u a l r e l a t i v e l e n g t h . A c c o r d i n g l y , the f o r m u l a f o r x = 0.2L . P i / 4 ( d 2 0 . 1 -:• d 20.3 -1- d 20.5 + d 20.7 + d 20.9) A c c o r d i n g t o P r o d a n (1951 and 1965) the t y p i c a l f o r m v a r i e s w i t h the s p e c i e s and depends g r e a t l y upon t h e f o r e s t s i t e and t h e c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e t r e e . A t r e e grown i n t h e open w i t h b r a n c h e s t o the gro u n d has a d i f f e r e n t f o r m t h a n a t r e e grown i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r s w i t h l i t t l e g r e e n crown r e m a i n i n g . However, c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e stem form o f t r e e s from t h e same s t a n d o r fr o m d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s c a n be made o n l y when a t r u e f o r m f a c t o r i s used w h i c h i s o b t a i n e d w i t h s e c t i o n s o f e q u a l r e l a t i v e l e n g t h , as s u g g e s t e d by Hohenadl ( i n P r o d a n , 1951 and 1965) and r e c e n t l y t r i e d by Heger ( 1 9 6 5 ) . P r o d a n ( 1 9 5 1 , p. 18) p r e s e n t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e d u c t i o n o f the t r u e f o r m f a c t o r . From t h e f o r m u l a f o r t r e e 2 volume shown above, d 0.1 c a n be t a k e n o u t o f the b r a c k e t s . Then v = P i / 4 . d 20.1 . L . 0.2 ((1.0 -!- ( d o . 3 / d o . l ) 2 -:- ( d o . S / d o . l ) * -!• -:- ( d o . 7 / d o . l ) 2 -:• ( d o . 9 / d o , l ) 2 ) ) » P i / 4 . d 20.1 . L . 0.2 (1.0 + E t a 2 0 . 3 •!--:- E t a 2 0 . 5 -!- E t a 2 0 . 7 + E t a 2 0 . 9 ) . 2 The e x p r e s s i o n P i / 4 . d 0.9 . L = 110.1 w h i c h i s t h e f o r m u l a f o r the volume o f a c y l i n d e r w i t h t h e d i a m e t e r d o . l and t h e l e n g t h L , The 2 2 2 2 e x p r e s s i o n 0.2 (1.0 -:- E t a 0.3 -!- E t a 0.5 -!- E t a 0.7 + E t a 0.9) i s t h e r e f o r e t h e r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r f o . l , w i t h w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e c y l i n d e r (170,1) must be m u l t i p l i e d t o o b t a i n t h e t r u e c o n t e n t s o f volume o f a stem. 83. A c c o r d i n g l y : v = VJ0.1 . f o . l = 3.1416/4 . d 0.1 . L . f o . l . Such r e d u c -t i o n numbers a r e c a l l e d the f o r m numbers ( a b s o l u t e form numbers) o r f o r m f a c t o r s ( t r u e form f a c t o r s ) , w h i c h Hohenadl c a l l e d "Lambda 0,9" ( h e r e c a l l e d f o . l , b e c a u s e o f c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h t e r m i n o l o g y ) f o . l = 0.2 (1,0 + E t a 2 0 . 3 + E t a 2 0 . 5 + E t a 2 0 . 7 -:- E t a 2 0 . 9 ) = v/U0.1. T h i s shows, t h a t f o . l depends on the i n d i v i d u a l d i a m e t e r q u o t i e n t and c a n be l o o k e d upon as a condensed e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e stem f o r m . However, i t i s a l w a y s r e l a t e d t o t h e d i a m e t e r d o . l , w h i c h i s s i t u a t e d a t 1/10 h e i g h t o f t h e stem. Mr. J . H e j j a s made a v a i l a b l e a programme f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e t r u e form f a c t o r f o . l o u t s i d e b a r k and u n d e r b a r k f o r each o f t h e stem a n a l y s e s , as w e l l as the volume o u t s i d e and u n d e r b a r k o f t h e whole t r e e s , u s i n g t h e d i a m e t e r s of 5 s e c t i o n s ( P r o d a n , 1 9 5 1 ) . C a l c u l a t i o n of volumes o f the a n a l y z e d stems A c c o r d i n g t o Prodan ( 1 9 5 1 , p. 29) t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the form f a c t o r f o . l l i e s i n t h e f a c t , t h a t i t s v a l u e e x p r e s s e s w e l l t h e t r u e g e o m e t r i c a l form o f t h e stem. I n the f o l l o w i n g a r e g i v e n f o r m numbers o f a few g e o m e t r i c a l b o d i e s : the c y l i n d e r , f o . l = 1.000; p a r a b o l o i d , f o , l = = 0.555; cone, f o . l = 0.407; n e i l o i d , f o . l = 0.338, A c c o r d i n g t o Krenn (1944) f o . l L d e s c r i b e s c l e a r l y t h e form, w h i c h i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o r e a l i z e v i s u a l l y . P r o d a n (1944, 1951, 1 9 6 5 ) , Krenn and P r o d a n (1944), and Heger (1965) have shown t h a t f o . l i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l form q u o t i e n t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was the r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o r m q u o t i e n t a t h a l f t h e t r e e h e i g h t i . e . Eta0.5 = d o , 5 / d o , l . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s have shown t h a t between f o . l and E t a 0 , 5 e x i s t s a l i n e a r s t a t i s t i c a l r e l a t i o n , f o . l = 0.894 . Eta0.5-0.126 8 4 . This relation applies generally to all tree species and the correlation is very high (r = 0.974). Similarly high correlation (r = 0.962) of fo.l and Eta0,5 was obtained by the writer for lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce of all ages of a population of 156 trees. This linear statistical re-lation was made use of in calculating the volumes of the paraboloids for each decade of the stem analysis using the IBM 7040 electronic computer. The graphical solution to this problem would have been much too time consuming* The programme was prepared by Mr. J . Hejjas of the Canada Department of Forestry, Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver, B, C, The programme utilized the available stem analysis data (the heights of the individual discs from which they were taken, the diameters at the individual complete and incomplete decades, and the ages of the individual discs) for interpolation of the total height of the tree at each individual decade and the diameters at 1/10 and 5/10 height of the tree at each decade. With the interpolated values the computer determined the true form factor fo.l and in succession the volume at each decade. At the same time the computer was programmed to introduce a correction factor k ((k =* 0,3 (dbh - do.l/do.l) 100)) for elimination of the systematic error (generally negative volume error) caused by the taper of stump section^ The computer was also programmed to calculate for the whole t*ee underbark the volumes vD^H, vlog, as well as vfo.l, the derivation of which was explained in the Glossary. Calculation of other tree data The computer also calculated and printed out several of the tree statistics for each decade of the stem analysis: the height growth factor (HGF); Periodic Annual Increment (PAI) in in, of dbh; PAI of basal area (g) 85. a t bh i n square f t . ; PAI o f h e i g h t i n f t , and i n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l h e i g h t ; as well a s the c u m u l a t i v e PAI i n f e e t and i n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l h e i g h t , w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ages a l s o l i s t e d . W i t h r e g a r d t o volume, t h e computer c a l -c u l a t e d and p r i n t e d o u t : PAI and Mean A n n u a l Increment (MAI) i n p e r c e n t o f t o t a l volume and i n c u b i c f e e t , w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e ages l i s t e d ; t he cumula-t i v e PAI i n c u b i c f e e t ; t h e volume i n c r e m e n t p e r c e n t ( ( p v - 200/n . 2 1 2 1 2 1 . ( v - v ) / ( v - v ) ; v = p r e s e n t volume, v - volume n y e a r s a g o ) ) ; and the b a r k p e r c e n t . M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n A n a l y s i s From t h e c o l l e c t e d and c a l c u l a t e d d a t a o f each s p e c i e s ( L P and ES) 34 v a r i a b l e s shown i n T a b l e 2 were chosen and s u b j e c t e d t o a m u l t i p l e c o r -r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The programme was s u p p l i e d by P r o f . D r. A. Kozak, TABLE 2: 34 v a r i a b l e s used f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o r r e l a t i o n s (Terms a r e d e f i n e d i n t h e G l o s s a r y ) A s s o c i a t i o n x 2 Compet. P o s . X I 9 P r o d , c l a s s x3 HGF x20 h x4 W i d t h 10 r i n g bh x21 dbh x5 C c l x22 dbhu x6 SI/100 x23 A x7 S l o p e % x24 Abh x8 A s p e c t x25 Y e a r s t o bh x9 E l e v a t i o n a . s . l . x26 f o . l h x l O M o i s t u r e r e g i m e x27 v f o . l h x l l N u t r i e n t regime x28 f o . l h u x l 2 g / a c r e x29 v f o . l h u x l 3 vD 2Hu x30 B a r k 2 . bh x l 4 v l o g u x31 Cw x l 5 vIBMu x32 CI x l 6 CI % x33 T e r m i n a l 1 x l 7 h/Cw x34 B a r k % x l 8 Cw/dbh x35 86. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between th e v a r i a b l e s o f L P f r o m a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s ( b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2) were t e s t e d u s i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r (F.H., 1959, p. 200 - 201) f o r t e s t i n g 2 v a r i a b l e s w i t h d e g r e e s o f freedom ( d f ) = N-2 = 106-2 = 104. The n e a r e s t v a l u e s were found under 100 d f . A t 5% l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r = ,195 and a t 17. r = .254. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t s between the v a r i a b l e s o f ES from a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s ( b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2) was t e s t e d u s i n g r ( i n F.H., 1959) f o r t e s t i n g 2 v a r i a b l e s w i t h d f = 43-2 = 4 1 . The n e a r e s t v a l u e s were found under 40 d f , a t 5% r = .304 and a t 1% r = .393. To o b t a i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t r e e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a v e r a g e f o r e s t s t a n d s u n d i s t u r b e d and o f " r e a s o n a b l y good" s t o c k i n g , o n l y t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n were used f o r a second m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s o f each s p e c i e s w i t h t h e same 34 v a r i a b l e s . The b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s a r e shown i n the A p p e n d i x T a b l e 4. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between th e v a r i a b l e s f o r LP o f moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n was t e s t e d u s i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r ( F . H . , 1959) f o r t e s t i n g 2 v a r i a b l e s w i t h d f = 58-2 = 56. The n e a r e s t v a l u e s were found under 50 d e g r e e s o f f reedom a t 5% r = .273 and a t 17. r = .354. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between th e v a r i a b l e s f o r ES of moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s were t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e u s i n g r (F.H., 1959) f o r t e s t i n g 2 v a r i a b l e s w i t h d f 24-2 = 22. The n e a r e s t v a l u e s were found under d f 22, a t 57. r = .488 and a t 17. r = .585. The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i c e s were n o t shown, i n s t e a d A p p e n d i x T a b l e 6 f o r L P and 7 f o r ES grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s were c o m p i l e d w h i c h i n d i c a t e d h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (17.) and s i g n i f i c a n t (57») 87. v a l u e s f o r e a c h o f t h e v a r i a b l e s . W i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e computer the s t u d y o f t h e d a t a on t h i s s c a l e w o u l d not have been p o s s i b l e . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e computer r e -s u l t s a l o n e t o o k c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . F o r d e t a i l s o f t h e a n a l y s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the h e i g h t and s i t e i n d e x , d i a m e t e r , b a s a l a r e a , volume o f the i n -d i v i d u a l t r e e s and t h e volume of t h e s t a n d s i n the d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s t h e r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c h a p t e r s . 88. SITE INDEX AND HEIGHT - AGE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE STANDS UNDER STUDY Review In recent years several authors reviewed the methods of assessing s i t e capacity ( H i l l s , 1960; F a r r a r , 1960, Smith, Ker and Heger, 1960; Krajina, 1961 and 1961a; Rowe, 1962; Rennie, 1963; Ralston, 1964; Lacate, 1965). According to Rennie (1963) methods of assessing s i t e capacity may be d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t . The d i r e c t methods consist of mensurational tech-niques and record a growth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f o r e s t stand. The i n -d i r e c t methods employ one or more environmental factors such as climate, ground vegetation, s o i l properties, or f o l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Several authors agree that the assessment of tree growth i s e s s e n t i a l and of prime importance for determination of the growth capacity of a forest regardless of the i n d i r e c t method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n that i s used. On the other hand, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of forests using d i r e c t mensura-t i o n a l techniques, w i l l remain a defined e n t i t y only for s p e c i f i e d units of land. The best c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t s , therefore, i s an appropriately s t r a t i f i e d d i r e c t mensurational assessment. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of forests have followed mainly the biogeocoenotic approach (Spilsbury and Smith, 1947; Krajina, i n Forestry Handbook, 1959, p. 572 f f , and others), which i n many instances was supplemented by information with regard to tree and f o r e s t growth. The biogeocoenotic associations of f o r e s t types of B r i t i s h Columbia were reviewed i n the f i r s t part of the t h e s i s . Large scale sur-veys of the f o r e s t resources of B, C. for purposes of inventory were based on d i r e c t methods mainly. For t h i s study the growth capacity of the 89. s t a n d s was c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the a v e r a g e h e i g h t and age o f f i v e t o t e n of t h e t a l l e s t t r e e s g r o w i n g on randomly s e l e c t e d sample p l o t s w i t h i n . : c e r t a i n r e c o g n i z e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t o a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by h e i g h t s o f t h e dominant and codominant t r e e s ( K e r , 1 9 5 2 ) . The r e a s o n s f o r use o f the dominant and codominant h e i g h t s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were e x p l a i n e d by Anonymous ( 1 9 1 7 ) , B e l y e a ( 1 9 3 1 ) , P a r k e r ( 1 9 4 2 ) , Prodan ( 1 9 5 1 ) , Ker ( 1 9 5 2 ) , Kramer ( 1 9 6 1 ) , V i n c e n t (1961) , D u f f y ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and o t h e r s . S i t e Index and A s s o c i a t i o n s I n T a b l e 3 t h e h e i g h t s o f dominant and codominant t r e e s a t age 100 a r e compared f o r d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s i t e i n d e x r a n g e s w h i c h one s p e c i e s c a n assume i n a p a r -t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n a r e a l s o shown. The a s s o c i a t i o n s were g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the r e s u l t s ob-t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t w o r k e r s a r e c o m p a r a b l e , though much more work must be done. I n T a b l e 3 the v a r i a t i o n o f s i t e i n d i c e s between s p e c i e s i s a l s o shown. T h i s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n s i t e r e q u i r e -ments by s p e c i e s . On a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e , t h e s p e c i e s t h a t o c c u r t h e r e c a n be t h e r e f o r e c l a s s e d as t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l l y h i g h e r o r l o w e r g r o w th capa-c i t y . So f o r i n s t a n c e , i n the r e l a t i v e l y d r y and n u t r i e n t poor s i t e s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e e x h i b i t s t h e b e s t h e i g h t g r o w t h c a p a c i t y o f a l l t h e s p e c i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d . W i t h the i n c r e a s e o f a v a i l a b l e m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s , as i n ( C A ) , (Pa) and (CV) a s s o c i a t i o n s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e as w e l l as D o u g l a s -f i r grow e q u a l l y w e l l i n h e i g h t , c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by Engelmann s p r u c e . TABLE 3: C o m p a r i s o n o f s i t e i n d i c e s o f dominant and codominant t r e e s a t 100 y e a r s o f age o f some a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia I I - I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 2 9 ) ; K r - K r a j i n a ( i n F o r . Handbook, 1959); A - A r l i d g e ( i n L a c a t e e t a l . , 1965); Thrupp ( i n I l v e s s a l o , 1 9 2 9 ) ; Ku - K u j a l a ( 1 9 4 5 ) ; Iw - I l l i n g w o r t h ( 1 9 6 0 ) ; S t - Stanek; M i - M i t c h e l l ' s (1963) a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e a p p r o x i m a t i o n s . IDF - I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r Zone; ES-AF - Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone; L P - l o d g e p o l e p i n e ; DF - Do u g l a s f i r ; YP - y e l l o w o r p o n d e r o s a p i n e ; ES - Engelmann s p r u c e ; AF - a l p i n e f i r . L P DF YP ES AF Summary o f S I r a n g e s A s s o c i a t i o n 11 Ku Kr Iw A Th S t 11 Ku S t K r S t Ku K r A S t M i Kr St L P DF ES AF IDF ARC 45 50 45 47 50 43 40 55 40 43- 50 40 40 — ES-AF VSc 45 50 65 50 58 25 45 52 44 45- 65 - - 25- 52 44 -ES-AF Moss 65 40 60 25 35 30 40- 65 - - 25- 60 30 -IDF CA 63 66 68 65 65 64 60 66 76 63- 66 60- 66 - - - -ES-AF Pa 95 75 - 65 92 85 80 71 65- 95 85- 92 71- 80 - -ES-AF CV 63 92 70 67 65 70 85 71 63- 92 - - 71- 85 - -IDF C 83 85 80 83 80 83 72 92 95 100 80- 85 72- 92 - - - -ES-AF VM 92 83 74 100 75 85 73 65 62 74- 92 100 - 73- 85 62- 65 ES-AF CM 92 81 85 93 100 97 80 81- 93 100 - 97 - 80 -ES-AF W 92 85 89 100 88 99 85 85- 92 100 - 88- 99 85 -IDF CrBo 160 140 lie - - 160 - 140 - 110 -ES-AF CrBo 112 120 120 110 112 - 120 - 120 - 110 -ES-AF 0 - 97 - - - - 97 - - -ES-AF D 125 120 120 125 125 128 104 120 120- 125 120- 125 104- 128 120 -ES-AF AD 125 83 94 120 125 105 83 90 80 114 96 70 83 83- 125 105 125 80- 114 70 83 ES-AF ES 70 70 - - - - 70 - - -B o g 45 27 20 27- 45 - - 20 - - -91 On the i n t e r m e d i a t e s i t e s , as i n ( C ) , (CM), (VM), and (VV) a s s o c i a t i o n s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e a p p e a r s t o f a l l b e h i n d D o u g l a s - f i r and Engelmann s p r u c e and p o s s i b l y a l s o a l p i n e f i r . I n the c r e e k b o t t o m a s s o c i a t i o n s on seepage s i t e s , w i t h good s u p p l y o f m o i s t u r e and n u t r i e n t s , D o u g l a s - f i r and E n g e l -mann s p r u c e a c h i e v e e x c e l l e n t h e i g h t g r o w t h f o l l o w e d by a l p i n e f i r and l o d g e p o l e p i n e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was e v a l u a t e d i n a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s A s s o c i a t i o n and s i t e i n d e x a t the age o f 100 y e a r s ( S I / 1 0 0 ; d e t e r m i n e d as i n B.C.F.S., 1964) o f the s p e c i e s ES, L P , DF, and AF, e a c h w i t h 86 o b s e r v a t i o n s . B a s i c d a t a a r e n o t shown h e r e . S e v e r a l o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s were l a c k i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s o f one o r the o t h e r s p e c i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , few o f t h e p l o t s o f the IDF Zone, a s s o c i a t i o n s (ARC) and (CA) had any ES o r AF and few o f the (D) o r (CrBo) a s s o c i a t i o n s any L P , These s p e c i e s were l o c a t e d e i t h e r n e a r b y o r i n s i m i l a r a s s o c i a -t i o n s e l s e w h e r e . V a l u e s t h u s o b t a i n e d s e r v e d as s u b s t i t u t e s i n t h e computer programme. The r e s u l t s have shown t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s a r e h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t -l y c o r r e l a t e d ( a t 1% l e v e l ) and t h a t any one c a n be f o u n d i n a p p r o x i m a t e d v a l u e w i t h a i d o f t h e o t h e r (SE_ + 8 t o 10 f t . ) . The r e s u l t s shown i n Ci -F i g , 8 c o n f i r m the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e s p e c i e s between each o t h e r shown i n T a b l e 3. The r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s o b t a i n e d a r e a s f o l l o w s , ( y = S I / 1 0 0 ; x = A s s o c i a t i o n i n c o d e ) : ES, y = 31 + 0.9 x; r = 0.91; SEg = + 13 f t . ( S I / 1 0 0 ) L P , y = 49 + 0.6 x; r = 0.86; S E E = + 11 f t . ( S I / 1 0 0 ) DF, y = 46 + 0.8 x; r = 0.89; S E £ = + 12 f t , ( S I/100) AL, y « 25 + 0.8 x; r - 0.89; S E £ - + 13 f t . ( S I / 1 0 0 ) I40 r 101 20 30 ARCj Moss CA CV VSc 40 50 Pa 60 70 C| CM VV VM AO 80 90 100 0 0 Associations Fig. 8: Comparison of regression lines of site index at the age of 100 years (SI/100 * y) on association (code and names • x) of ES, LP, DF, and AF 93, Few d a t a x^ere a v a i l a b l e i n the (CrBo) and none i n t h e (0) a s s o c i a t i o n s . W i t h a d d i t i o n a l d a t a the r e g r e s s i o n s i n t h a t range w o u l d p e r h a p s change. An impr o v e d g r a d a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n s w o u l d a l s o a f f e c t the r e g r e s s i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o add, t h a t w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , a l l a l p i n e f i r s were the y o u n g e s t t r e e s i n the s t a n d s i n v e s t i g a t e d and were t h e r e f o r e exposed t o more s h a d i n g t h a n L P , DF o r pe r h a p s even ES, T h i s i s p o s s i b l y why t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e o f AF l i e s b e l o w a l l o t h e r s , A few e x c e l l e n t specimens o f AF were found on p l o t 101, The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s o f LP and ES c r o s s e d i n the range o f the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( P a , C, VM, CM, VV a s s o c i a t i o n s ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a t t h e age o f 100 y e a r s i n a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the l o w and p o o r p r o d u c -t i v i t y c l a s s e s , L P outgrows ES i n h e i g h t ; i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , b o t h s p e c i e s a r e g r o w i n g e q u a l l y f a s t i n h e i g h t (ES d o i n g b e t t e r on r e l a t i v e l y m o i s t e r s i t e s ) ; and i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , a t the age o f 100 y e a r s ES outgrows L P , DF i s b e s t - g r o w i n g a t the age o f 100 y e a r s i n a l l b u t the a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e low t o p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y r a n g e s , where i t j u s t e q u a l s LP. The m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n o f A s s o c i a t i o n on SI/100 o f ES, L P , DF and AF has shown t h a t 85,5% o f the v a r i a t i o n o f A s s o c i a t i o n i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by the SI/100 o f the f o u r s p e c i e s . A f t e r e l i m i n a t i o n o f the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , SI/100 o f ES a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 82,4% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n and i s t h e r e f o r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n i n g v a r i a b l e . The r e m a i n i n g SI/100 o f L P , DF, and AF added o n l y l i t t l e t o t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . The d e r i v e d ' e q u a t i o n i s : A s s o c i a t i o n = 17,9742 + 0.88 SI/100 o f ES; r = 0.82; SE„ = + 12.9 Code v a l u e s 9 4 . I f a n a l y z e d i n s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s , t h e S I / 1 0 0 o f the s p e c i e s on a s s o c i a -t i o n shows, t h a t ES a c c o u n t s f o r 8 2 . 4 % (as a b o v e ) , DF f o r 7 9 % , AF f o r 79% arid LP f o r 7 4 » 8 7 o o f the v a r i a t i o n . This d e f i n e s ES as the s p e c i e s s a f e s t t o use i n d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n . However, i n many a r e a s no s p e c i e s o t h e r t h a n L P occurs i n mature stands,, A l s o LP i s an u b i q u i t o u s s p e c i e s i n B, C, and c o v e r s a wider range of h a b i t a t s t h a n t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e . T h e r e f o r e , the e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n u s i n g ^ . S I / 1 0 0 o f LP i s g i v e n . A s s o c i a t i o n = - 4 8 . 4 4 4 1 + 1 . 2 6 4 1 5 S I / 1 0 0 o f L P ; r = 0 . 7 5 S E E = -h 1 5 , 5 Code v a l u e s and t h e e q u a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e S I / 1 0 0 o f ES, DF and AF u s i n g S I / 1 0 0 o f LP a r e : S I / 1 0 0 o f ES = - 3 0 . 0 6 9 5 + 1 . 3 7 8 5 8 S I / 1 0 0 o f LP; r = 0 . 9 1 S E £ = -'c 1 2 . 8 f t . ; x S I / 1 0 0 o f DF = - 2 2 2 3 1 5 1 -:- 1 . 2 0 8 6 5 S I / 1 0 0 o f LP; r = 0 . 8 9 ; S E E = + 1 1 . 5 f t . ; S I / 1 0 0 of AF = - . 2 7 „ 9 3 1 4 •!- 1 . 2 0 5 9 0 S I / 1 0 0 o f L P ; r = 0 . 8 9 ; SE_. = -1- 1 2 , 9 f t . The range c o v e r e d by t h e s e e q u a t i o n s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y from S I / 1 0 0 o f L P o f 4 0 f t . t o 1 2 0 f t . D e i t s c h m a n and Green ( 1 9 6 5 ) d e f i n e d s i m i l a r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s o f x j e s t e r n w h i t e p i n e and s e v e r a l o t h e r s p e c i e s . The s i t e i n d e x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c a n be used t o c l a s s i f y t h e i n -d i v i d u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y t o grow a s p e c i f i c t r e e s p e c i e s t o a c e r t a i n h e i g h t i n a g i v e n number o f y e a r s . F o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s s i t e i n d e x g i v e s the s i l v i c u l t u r a l i s t an i n d i c a t i o n o f what s p e c i e s s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d f o r r e f o r e s t a t i o n o f a c e r t a i n s i t e , o r what s p e c i e s s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d i n a c e r t a i n f o r e s t t o pr o d u c e d e s i r e d s i z e s 95. f o r t he f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y . S i t e i n d e x a l s o makes p r e d i c t i o n s pos-s i b l e w i t h r e g a r d t o the e x p e c t e d growth o f d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s i n the same a s s o c i a t i o n s and on the same s i t e s . The s i t e i n d e x c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d a s s o c i a t i o n s makes c o m p a r i s o n s o f s t a n d s f r o m d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s p o s s i b l e . S i t e i n d i c e s a r e a l s o needed f o r p r e p a r a t i o n as w e l l as a p p l i c a -t i o n o f y i e l d t a b l e s . C o m p a r i s o n o f H e i g h t - Age C u r v e s o f L P and ES i n G e n e r a l I n F i g . 9 a r e shown t h e h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f LP f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s and the s i t e i n d e x r a n g e s o f t h e B.C.F.S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The t r e n d s o f t h e c u r v e s o f I l v e s s a l o (1929) and Dahms (1964) a r e s i m i l a r , b e c a u s e t h e y b o t h i n d i c a t e a s l o w e r growth a t the b e g i n n i n g and somewhat b e t t e r g r o w t h i n the mature s t a g e , t h a n t h e t r e e s r e p r e s e n t e d by the h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f t h e 5. C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e (1964) and i n the F.H. ( 1 9 5 9 ) . The t r e n d o f b o t h l a t t e r c u r v e s i s so s i m i l a r t h a t o n l y the B.C.F.S. (1964) were drawn. The c u r v e s o f F o r b e s and Meyer (1955) i n c o r p o r a t e f e a t u r e s o f b o t h t y p e s o f c u r v e s . They shown an i n i t i a l l y s l o w e r h e i g h t g r o w t h t h a n t h e c u r v e s o f B. C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e (1964) b u t r u n a l m o s t p a r a l l e l t o them a t m a t u r i t y . The c u r v e o f I l l i n g w o r t h (1960) , i n the good s i t e c l a s s , shows t h e same t r e n d as the c u r v e o f Dahms ( 1 9 6 4 ) , i n t h e medium c l a s s as t h e c u r v e o f F o r b e s and Meyer ( 1 9 5 5 ) , and i n the poo r c l a s s as the c u r v e shown by t h e B.C.F.S. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y (shown i n F i g . 11) a r e d u r i n g the f i r s t 100 y e a r s v e r y s i m i -l a r t o the B.C.F.S. (1964) c u r v e s , b u t c o n t i n u e w i t h a somewhat b e t t e r i n c r e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e medium and p o o r s i t e c l a s s e s . The h e i g h t -age c u r v e s o f t h e B.C.F.S. (1964) were u s e d h e r e i n f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a l l Legend: Age In Years Fig. 9 : Height - age curves of lodgepole pine from several sources 97. s i t e i n d i c e s , b ecause t h i s s t u d y was t o compare the two s p e c i e s L P and ES, on s e l e c t e d s i t e s and n o t t o d e v e l o p new h e i g h t - age c u r v e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o h e i g h t - age c u r v e s f o r ES, l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The B.C.F.S. (1964) c u r v e s a p p l y t o a l l i n t e r i o r s p r u c e s . The o n l y r e f e r e n c e s t o ES h e i g h t - age c u r v e s were f o u n d i n B . C. F o r . S e r v i c e ( 1 9 3 6 ) , H o r n i b r o o k ( 1 9 4 2 ) , and i n M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 6 3 ) . The c u r v e s f r o m t h e s e s o u r c e s a r e shown i n F i g . 10. The c u r v e s o f H o r n i b r o o k (1942) f o r c u t - o v e r s t a n d s o f ES i n C o l o r a d o f o r e i t h e r 60 o r 100 y e a r s show a v e r y low h e i g h t i n c r e m e n t . H o r n i b r o o k ' s c u r v e s f o r a l l s i t e i n d i c e s change v e r y l i t t l e up t o the age o f 400 y e a r s . The c u r v e s o f M i t c h e l l (1963) show a d i s t i n c t l y s l o w e r g r o w t h i n y o u t h i n c o m p a r i s o n t o a l l c l a s s e s o f t h e B , C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e (1936 and 1 9 6 4 ) . The t r e n d o f M i t c h e l l ' s (1963) c u r v e o f SI/100 o f 110 f t . i n t h e immature and mature s t a g e f o l l o w s t h e same t r e n d as t h e b e s t s i t e i n d e x c l a s s o f t h e B . C. F o r e s t S e r v i c e . However, i n t h e medium and p o o r s i t e c l a s s e s , M i t c h e l l ' s c u r v e s show a b e t t e r i n c r e m e n t o f h e i g h t , w h i c h con-t i n u e s t h r o u g h the mature and o v e r mature s t a g e s . The h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f ES, w h i c h were o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y (shown i n F i g . 1 1 ) , c o n f i r m t h o s e o f M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 6 3 ) . C o m p a r i s o n o f H e i g h t - Age C u r v e s o f LP and ES o f t h i s Study I t was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o a n a l y z e the g r o w t h o f t h e two s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d . I n F i g , 11 t h e h e i g h t - age c u r v e s a r e compared as t h e y were o b t a i n e d f r o m stem a n a l y s e s and measurements on s e v e r a l p l o t s ' ^ , " ^ T r e e s u s e d f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c u r v e s a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 3 and 3A 150 r 140 -120 110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 40 -30 20 Legend* B-C-Forest Service (1964), inter tor spruce Sl-ronges Mitchell (l963),Engelmann spruce » * Barnes In BC Forest Service (1936) • • Hornibrook (1942) IK) Good .„ -—*K)0 - -80 80 Medium y . -50 Poor -*50 / / Low /X 1 40 60 80 I0Q w 120 140 Age in Years 160 180 200 220 Fig. 10: Height - age curves of Engelmann spruce from several sources Legend — — • Lodgepole pine Engelmann spruce SI ranges n - ' G o o d 1 2 2 E S 117 L P Medium Poor Low Age in Years Fig. 11: Comparison of height - age curves of LP and ES. Based on stem analysis and measurements of dominant and codominant trees. The SI ranges a r e in accordance with B.C.F.S. (1964); n » number of trees used for determination of c u r v e s 4 4 E S 122 L P 23 E S 98 L P 14 E S 78 L P VO 100. The d a t a f o r t h e s e c u r v e s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m n a t u r a l ( v i r g i n ) and " w e l l " s t o c k e d s t a n d s i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t a r e a s . O n l y one c u r v e was drawn i n each o f the good, medium, p o o r and low s i t e i n d e x r a n g e s (B.C.F.S., 1964) . The c u r v e s o f each s p e c i e s f o l l o w e d a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r o w t h t r e n d . I n y o u t h ES grew s l o w e r i n c o n t r a s t t o L P , However, the r a t e o f h e i g h t g r o w t h o f ES i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y , so t h a t e v e n t u a l l y the t r e e s r e a c h e d t h e same h e i g h t as the i n i t i a l l y a d v a n t a g e d L P , I n mature and o v e r mature s t a n d s , the h e i g h t i n c r e m e n t r a t e o f ES d e c r e a s e d , b u t i t was much b e t t e r t h a n t h a t o f L P . G e n e r a l l y LP s t a r t e d i t s g r o w t h under c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g a f t e r f i r e , i , e , i n a m i n e r a l seed bed, w i t h l i t t l e shade and c o m p e t i t i o n from above, a l l o f w h i c h a r e r e q u i r e d f o r good growth o f t h i s s p e c i e s . However, t h e w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h a t ES o f t e n becomes e s t a b l i s h e d n a t u r a l l y u n d e r a canopy o f e i t h e r L P o r o t h e r c o n i f e r s and i n y o u t h i s e xposed t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s h a d i n g . Seldom were the c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e under w h i c h L P s t a r t e d o u t . Of i n t e r e s t , t h e r e f o r e , was t h e g r o w t h o f t h e two s p e c i e s under s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s . H e i g h t Growth o f L P and ES Under D i f f e r e n t C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n s H e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f L P and ES s a p l i n g s and t r e e s c o l l e c t e d i n s i m i l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s and w h i c h grew i n t h e same o r s i m i l a r c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s a r e shown i n F i g . 12, The s a p l i n g s o f b o t h s p e c i e s were exposed t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same amount o f l i g h t , grew on n e a r l y the same s o i l s and o b t a i n e d s i m i l a r amounts o f m o i s t u r e . The a v e r a g e c u r v e s o f b o t h s p e c i e s , grown w i t h o u t c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m above, i n d i c a t e t h a t L P r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n y e a r s t o r e a c h b r e a s t h e i g h t and ES between n i n e and 101. Legend: f- Average.without competition from above LP ES 191- lndividuais,under canopy / I 5 10 15 2 0 2 S 3 0 3 5 4 0 4 5 5 0 5 5 6 0 6 5 7 0 7 5 Age in Years Fig. 1 2 : Height - age curves of Engelmann spruce and lodgepole pine saplings and trees grown in similar competitive positions in (D) and (CM) Associations near Kelowna and Little Fort 102. ten years. In other words juvenile ES i s slower growing than LP, The uni-formity of the growth pattern of both species was remarkable. The curves of trees grown under a canopy in moderate to suppressed competitive posi-tions show that LP required between ten to twenty-three years to reach breast height, whereas ES required between seventeen and thirty years. Merchantable LP rarely take more than twenty-three years to reach breast height. This indicates that LP i s less shade tolerant than ES and, when shaded, exhibits less height increment than under absence of shade from above. This intolerance of LP to shade goes so far that under a canopy where ES grows, LP i s missing or perhaps only existed for a few years and died out. The trend of the average height - age curves of F i g . 12 agrees with the one of F ig . 11 i n the good productivity class. I n i t i a l l y slow growth, which i s the rule with most of the ES in the stands studied b y Mitchell (1963) and the writer, possibly can be looked upon as the most common pattern of naturally established ES trees i n the stands in the interior of Br i t i sh Columbia. The Effect of Different Sites Upon the Site Index In Figs. 13 and 14 the height growth in youth of several dominant and codominant LP and ES trees i s shown by association. These examples were selected from the tree data used i n construction of the height - age curves of F ig , l l * - * . The height growth development of LP (Fig , 13) from the ^ I n F.H. (1959, p. 365-366) are l i s ted corrections i n years to be added to age determined at boring heights from 1 - 4.5 f t . on good, medium and poor si tes. The least years are needed on good, the most on poor si tes. Similar differentiation also was found i n Douglas-fir by Smith and Ker (1.956) and i n white spruce by Dr. S. Eis (personal communication, March, 1966) and by the writer in LP and ES. 103. Age in Years Fig. 13: Height growth in youth of selected dominant and codorainant lodgepole pines in different associations. The abbreviated names of the associations are given in brackets. The numbers identify the stems analyzed. 104. (ARC) II f ft JL-JL 6 8 10 12 14 16 t8 20 22 24 26 28 30 Age in Year* Fig. 14: Height growth in youth of selected dominant and codominant Engelmann spruces in different associations. The abbreviated names of the associations are given in brackets. The numbers identify the stems analyzed. 105. b e g i n n i n g was " t y p i c a l l y " d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The p o o r s i t e s were s l o w e s t , t h e b e s t s i t e s the f a s t e s t i n g r o w t h . I n n a t u r a l s t a n d s o f ES ( F i g . 14) a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n e x i s t e d , b u t commonly was d i s t u r b e d . O f t e n t r e e s on a good s i t e , ( A s s o c i a t i o n CM, t r e e no. 405) f o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s , e x h i b i t e d a s l o w g r o wth comparable t o t h a t o f t r e e s from p o o r s i t e s ( A R C ) , I t c a n be assumed t h a t such " i r r e g u l a r i t i e s " a r e c a u s e d by c o m p e t i t i o n and o v e r t o p p i n g and n o t by s i t e f a c t o r s . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s e s t a n d s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , p a r a l l e l c a s e s comparable t o s u c h t h a t may have e x i s t e d a t t h e time o f s t a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t were s e l e c t e d , t o show the h e i g h t g r o w t h development o f L P and ES u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . I n F i g . 15 a r e shown t h e h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f LP s a p l i n g s from th e Camosun Swamp ne a r V a n c o u v e r , These s a p l i n g s were s e l e c t e d i n t h e f i e l d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . The g r o w t h p a t t e r n o f t r e e s grown i n a dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n , b u t w i t h o u t c o m p e t i t i o n from above, i s d i s t i n c t l y f a s t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s u p p r e s s e d t r e e s . I n F i g . 16 i s shown a s i m i l a r h e i g h t g r o w t h p a t t e r n o f ES, t h e s a p l i n g s o f w h i c h were c o l l e c t e d f r o m s i t e s near Kelowna and L i t t l e F o r t . On t h e s e two so d i f f e r e n t s i t e s t h e h e i g h t c u r v e s o f open-grown t r e e s o f b o t h s p e c i e s i n d i c a t e , t h a t young LP has a b e t t e r h e i g h t g r o w t h t h a n ES. From t h i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n c a n be made t h a t on s i m i l a r s i t e s , i n t h e s e e d l i n g and s a p l i n g s t a g e , LP outgrows ES i n h e i g h t . B o t h f i g u r e s show t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t , t h a t on t h e same s i t e the c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n , i n w h i c h one p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s i s g r o w i n g a f f e c t s t h e h e i g h t g r o w t h p a t t e r n . Latham ( 1 9 6 5 , p. 17) f o u n d , t h a t d e n s i t y had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon t h e t o t a l h e i g h t o f L P s e e d l i n g s . A l t h o u g h s i t e 106. e» 6 -dense grown without competition from above and strong from sides Legend: — — individual Trees Average Curves extremely suppressed— grown under the canopy of lodgepole pines Fig. 15: 25 30 35 4 0 Age in Years Height - age curves of saplings of lodgepole pine grown under dense and suppressed competitive position in Camosun Swamp (located near Vancouver) 107. Age in Yeors Fig. 16: Height - age curves of saplings of Engelmann spruce growing under moderate and suppressed competitive posi-tions in (D) and (CM) associations near Kelowna and Little Fort 1 0 8 . and d e n s i t y may have been co n f o u n d e d , open s p a c i n g r e s u l t e d i n s m a l l e s t , i n t e r m e d i a t e s p a c i n g i n l a r g e s t , and dense s p a c i n g i n medium h e i g h t g r o w t h . P a r k e r ( 1 9 4 2 , p. 10) has shown t h e r e l a t i o n o f dominant h e i g h t o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and s t a n d d e n s i t i e s (number o f t r e e s p e r 1 /10 a c r e ) by age c l a s s e s . H i s c u r v e s s u g g e s t t h a t s i t e i n d e x v a r i e s v e r y l i t t l e d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w enty y e a r s i n s t a n d s o f d i f f e r e n t d e n s i t i e s ( a p p a r e n t l y t h e t r e e s were n o t exposed t o c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m a b o v e ) , b u t i m p o r t a n c e of s t a n d d e n s i t y i n c r e a s e s w i t h age. The s e n s i t i v i t y o f t r e e s t o c o m p e t i t i o n a p p e a r s t o i n c -r e a s e r a p i d l y from the age o f f o r t y on ( P a r k e r , 1 9 4 2 , p. 1 0 , F i g . 5 ) . M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f S i t e Index and H e i g h t The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x was based on measurements o f t r e e s o f a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . The b a s i c d a t a a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2 . M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were computed f o r each s p e c i e s s e p a r a t e l y . The f o l l o w i n g o f the i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were h i g h l y ( a t 17o l e v e l ) s i g n i f i -c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d i n LP and ES w i t h t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s S I / 1 0 0 and h: A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o d . C l a s s , ( h ) , dbh, dbhu, Y e a r s t o bh, v f o . l , v f o . l u , 2 vD Hu, v l o g u , vIBMu, Cw, C I , B a r k 1, HGF, ( S I / 1 0 0 ) , N u t r i e n t r e g i m e , h/Cw, Cw/dbh, Where d a t a f r o m the bog a s s o c i a t i o n s were o m i t t e d f r o m t h e compu-t a t i o n ( b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 4 ), m o i s t u r e regime a l s o became h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t and an i n c r e a s e i n m o i s t u r e c l a s s c o r r e s -ponded t o an i n c r e a s e i n S I / 1 0 0 o r h„ I n a way, the s i t e i n d e x i s a means of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l t r e e s i n t o p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s by h e i g h t and age, whereas h e i g h t s a l o n e g e n e r a l l y do n o t s i g n i f y a n y t h i n g e l s e b u t the h e i g h t of t h e t r e e s . T h e r e -f o r e , some o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y f o r one o f the two, the h e i g h t o r t h e s i t e i n d e x . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the i n d i v i d u a l 109 v a r i a b l e s a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 6 and 7. M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f H e i g h t and N i n e Independent V a r i a b l e s The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the n i n e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s dbh, Y e a r s t o bh , S I / 1 0 0 , Cw, g / a c r e , C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n , A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o d . C l a s s , and 2 A f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h e i g h t was t e s t e d . I n LP the r e s u l t i n g R was v e r y h i g h ( 0 . 9 5 8 9 ) , meaning t h a t 95.39% o f the v a r i a t i o n o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e h was c o n t r i b u t e d by the n i n e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . However, the o m i s s i o n o f the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s showed t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e SI/100 a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 88% o f the v a r i a t i o n o f h. The a d d i t i o n o f a second i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e A, i n c r e a s e d t h e p e r c e n t a g e t o a t o t a l o f 957., A f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n , i n c r e a s e d t h i s p e r -c e n t a g e o n l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y by a p p r o x i m a t e l y 0.0387.. T h i s meant t h a t i n t h e s e l e c t e d group the two v a r i a b l e s SI/100 and A, were the o n l y i m p o r t a n t ones f o r p r e d i c t i o n o f h. I t was shown p r e v i o u s l y t h a t h was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h S I / 1 0 0 , w h i c h i n t u r n i s d e t e r m i n e d by m e a s u r i n g the h e i g h t and the age. T h e r e f o r e , t h e v a r i a b l e s SI/100 and A were o m i t t e d from the c a l c u l a -t i o n s and too i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , P r o d . C l a s s and dbh, were t e s t e d r o r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n p r e d i c t i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e h. The r e g r e s s i o n equa-t i o n s f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h e t o t a l h e i g h t (h) o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s o f L P ( d e t e r m i n e d on 106 t r e e s from a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s - b a s i c d a t a i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2) a r e shown i n t h e f o l l o w i n g : h = 1.85 + 4.13 dbh + 8.43 P r o d . C l a s s ; R = 0.90; SE„ = + 10.50 f t . ; h = 6.84 + 5.71 dbh; r = 0,84; SEg = + 12.81 f t . ; h = 13.10 -:- 16.3 P r o d . C l a s s ; r = 0.75; SE_ = + 15.65 f t . 110. A somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n a r o s e i n ES when t h e same n i n e v a r i a b l e s were s u b j e c t e d t o m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e dependent v a r i a b l e h . D a t a f r o m 43 t r e e s were u s e d . A g a i n the most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d e p e n d e n t 2 v a r i a b l e was SI/100 (R = n . 6 0 ) . The a d d i t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e A i n c r e a s e d 2 R t o 0.92, Any f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e by a d d i t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e s dbh and Cw was s m a l l . The c o n t r i b u t i o n o f P r o d . C l a s s was however i n s i g n i f i c a n t . As w i t h L P , t h e v a r i a b l e s SI/100 and A were o m i t t e d . I n s t e a d t h e v a r i a b l e s dbh and Cw were c o r r e l a t e d . The r e s u l t i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r e s t i m a t i n g t o t a l h e i g h t o f i n d i v i d u a l ES t r e e s ( d e t e r m i n e d on 43 t r e e s f r o m a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s - see A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2) a r e : h = 5.37 + 0.66 dbh - 0.28 Cw; R = 0.93; SEg • + 10.09 f t . ; h = 4.29 + 0.63 dbh; r = 0.93; SEg = + 10.05 f t . ; h = 16.38 + 2.61 Cw; r = 0.61; SE_ = + 22.19 f t . & -P r e d i c t i o n o f h e i g h t u s i n g v a r i a b l e s dbh o r Cw i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e . However, i f an e s t i m a t e o f h e i g h t i s r e q u i r e d , i t u s u a l l y i s d e t e r m i n e d d i r e c t l y i n t h e f o r e s t o r from a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s . A c t u a l l y t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as P r o d , C l a s s have shown a v e r y h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h SI/100 o f t h e t r e e s when o n l y t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense com-p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n were used i n c o m p u t a t i o n . Examples o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between the P r o d . C l a s s , A s s o c i a t i o n and SI/100 were shown i n t h e c h a p t e r s on P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s e s and on A s s o c i a t i o n s . C h a p t e r Summary I t has been shown i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h a t i n t h e p r e s e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d a s s o c i a t i o n s , t he s i t e i n d e x o f one s p e c i e s c a n assume a range o f v a l u e s . I t was a l s o shown t h a t i n t h e same a s s o c i a t i o n , o r on t h e same s i t e , SI/100 f o r d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s , c a n assume d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s . R e g r e s s i o n l i n e s a r e 111. shown i n F i g . 8. T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r p r e d i c t i n g s u i t a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l l o c a l i t i e s f o r a s p e c i f i c s p e c i e s and s e l e c t i n g t h e b e s t s p e c i e s w i t h r e g a r d t o m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y . The h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f s e v e r a l a u t h o r s f o r LP and ES were com-p a r e d and d i s c u s s e d . From t h e f i e l d d a t a h e i g h t - age c u r v e s o f L P and ES i n d i f f e r e n t s i t e i n d e x ranges were c o n s t r u c t e d . I t was shown t h a t ES i n c o m p a r i s o n t o L P grows s l o w e r i n i t i a l l y . T h i s may be because most LP s t a n d s were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r a b u r n , w h i c h e l i m i n a t e d c o m p e t i t i o n , whereas most ES became e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r n e a t h t h e canopy and i n t h e shade o f a "mother" s t a n d . I t was shown t h a t under o p t i m a l c o n d i t i o n s and on v e r y good s i t e s , LP r e q u i r e d two t o t h r e e y e a r s l e s s t o r e a c h b r e a s t h e i g h t t h a n ES. I t was a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t ES a p p a r e n t l y c a n s u s t a i n l o n g e r and more i n -t e n s i v e s h a d i n g o r s u p p r e s s i o n t h a n L P , Dominant and codominant t r e e s o f LP i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i -t i v e p o s i t i o n i n u n d i s t u r b e d and r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - s t o c k e d s t a n d s , showed a d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t g r o w t h i n d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . T r e e s i n t h e " p o o r e s t " a s s o c i a t i o n s showed the l o w e s t , and i n the " b e s t " a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e b e s t h e i g h t g r o w t h . I n ES the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f h e i g h t was s i m i l a r ; however, i n y o u t h , t h e g r o w t h p a t t e r n o f a t r e e o f t e n was comparable t o t h a t o f a t r e e g r o w i n g i n a p o o r e r a s s o c i a t i o n . T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y due t o s h a d i n g f r o m above o r t o a s u p p r e s s e d c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . T r e e s o f L P and ES g r o w i n g i n dense o r moderate c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i -t i o n w i t h o u t s h a d i n g from above, grew f a s t e r i n h e i g h t t h a n t r e e s s u p p r e s s e d by and i n shade o f t h e canopy o f o t h e r t r e e s . LP was l e s s shade t o l e r a n t t h a n ES and s t a g n a t e d o r d i d n o t become e s t a b l i s h e d where ES s u s t a i n e d g r o w t h . The e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t 112. height (h) was highly significantly correlated to the site index at the age of 100 years (SI/100), total age (A) of trees, diameter at breast height (dbh), as well as productivity class (Prod. Class), and crown length (CI). In other words, with known site index and age, the height of trees can be predicted, and therefore the application of site index curves for height classification of stands is statistically justified. If the two variables, SI/100 and A, are omitted from the regression equations, in LP stands, almost 81% of the variation of h was due to the independent variables dbh and Prod. Class, In ES 87% of the variation of h was due to the variables dbh and Cw. 113. DIAMETER AT BREAST HEIGHT - AGE CURVES OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE Review and Comparisons of dbh - Age C u r v e s I n F i g . 17 a r e shown t h e dbh - age c u r v e s o f LP a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , w i t h s u p e r i m p o s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s o f the B.C.F.S, ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The dbh - age c u r v e s o f I l v e s s a l o (1929) and o f S m i t h e r s (1961) i n g e n e r a l a r e s i m i l a r . The t r e n d o f c u r v e s o f B.C.F.S, (1936 and 1964) i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . The dbh - age c u r v e s o f the B.C.F.S, (1936) appear t o c u l m i n a t e sooner t h a n the c u r v e s o f e i t h e r a u t h o r s . B a i l e y (1964) i n v e s t i g a t e d among o t h e r f a c e t s the development o f dbh o f LP grown i n s e v e r a l a r e a s and s i t e s . M ost o f h i s t r e e s were l e s s t h a n 50 y e a r s o l d . The dbh o f h i s open grown as w e l l as f o r e s t grown t r e e s was g e n e r a l l y l a r g e r t h a n t h a t shown i n F i g , 17 a t comparable a g e s . The a v e r a g e t r e e s o f the s e r i e s 100 (CA A s s o c i a t i o n ) , open grown, r e a c h e d a dbh o f 14.5 i n . a t t h e age of 59 y e a r s ; o f the s e r i e s 200 (CM A s s o c i a t i o n ) , a dbh o f 10.3 i n . a t the age o f 31; s e r i e s 300, open grown (Swamp), a dbh o f 3.8 i n , a t t h e age o f 18; s e r i e s 600, open grown (C A s s o c i a t i o n ) , a dbh o f 7,7 i n . a t t h e age o f 26; s e r i e s 800 and 1,200 (Swamp), f o r e s t grown, a dbh o f 6.1 i n , a t the age o f 40; e t c . F o r t h i s r e a s o n h i s c u r v e s were n o t shown s e p a r a t e l y i n F i g , 17, The dbh - age c u r v e s o f LP o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y ( s e l e c t e d c u r v e s a r e shown l a t e r i n F i g , 19) compared v e r y w e l l w i t h t h o s e o f B a r n e s (B.C.F.S,, 1 9 3 6 ) , The s l i g h t d i s a g r e e m e n t o f t h e c u r v e s i n y o u t h i s because i n t h i s s t u d y a l l d i a m e t e r s were used i n d e r i v a t i o n o f the c u r v e s , whereas B a r n e s u s e d o n l y d i a m e t e r s 1 i n c h and o v e r . Fig. 17: dbh - age curves of lodgepole pine of several authors 115. Several dbh - age curves of ES and the productivity ranges (B.C.F.S., 1936) as well as curves obtained in this study are shown in Fig. 18. There is a general agreement in the shape of the curves. The small discrepancy at the lower end of the curves can be explained by the fact that in Stanek's all the diameters were included, whereas Barnes (B.C.F.S,, 1936) started with diameters 1 inch and over. In this study the curves were obtained from trees and plots listed in Appendix Table 3 and 3A (particularly trees no. 401, 407, 419, 529, 530, 547, 563, 705, 714, 803 and 808 should be pointed out). In Fig, 19 the dbh - age curves of LP and ES, which were ob-tained in this study are compared. The selected pairs of curves are of the same site index. The sources of the data used for construction of the LP curves are listed in Appendix Table 3 and 3A (trees no. 402, 403, 406, 422, 522, 523, 524, 525, 528, 532, 601, 602, 708, 713, 716, 717, 724, and 807 are particularly characteristic), The curves of ES are the same as Stanek's curves in Fig, 18, The trend of the curves rather clearly indicates, that in all site index ranges LP exhibits a faster diameter growth than ES, After an initially fast growth, LP culminates sooner than ES, However, ES continues to grow at a steady diameter increment rate and eventually surpasses LP in diameter size. The age at which this happens varies with the productivity range. In the good productivity class (SI/100 of 100 ft.) ES grows to the same dbh as LP at the age of approximately 110 years; in the medium productivity class (SI/100 of 70 ft,), at the age of approximately 140; and in the poor productivity class (SI/100 of 50 ft.), at the age of approximately 160 years. It must be pointed out, that trees of LP and ES of the same site index may not grow, on the same site, The relationship of SI/lQp o f LP, ES, PF and AF and. associations was shown in Age in Years at bh-Fig. 18: dbh - age curves of Engelmann spruce of Barnes (B.C.F.S., 1936) and this study Age in Years,at b h Fig. 19: Comparison of dbh - age curves of lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce 118. F i g . 8 and d i s c u s s e d i n the c h a p t e r on s i t e i n d e x and h e i g h t . M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f dbh and T h i r t y - t h r e e Independent V a r i a b l e s i n L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce I n b o t h s p e c i e s the f o l l o w i n g i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( 1 % l e v e l ) c o r r e l a t e d w i t h dbh as w e l l as dbhu: A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s , h , Age, Age a t bh, Y e a r s t o bh, volumes o f t r e e s ( c o m p i l e d by f i v e d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s ) , d o u b l e b a r k t h i c k n e s s , Cw, C I , B a r k 7., C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n , HGF, S I , N u t r i e n t r e g i m e , and Cw/dbh, I n ES M o i s t u r e r e g i m e and h/C*7 were a l s o h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d , whereas i n L P t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s were non s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d . I n ES Crown C l a s s was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d , whereas i n L P t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e was o n l y a t the 57. l e v e l . I n ES a l s o t h e v a r i a b l e s , C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n and W i d t h o f t e n a n n u a l r i n g s and S l o p e 7», were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (57= l e v e l ) c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h dbh and dbhu. I n b o t h s p e c i e s t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s , f o . l , f o . l u , T e r m i n a l s h o o t l e n g t h , A s p e c t , E l e v a t i o n a . s . l . , g / a c r e , and CI 7« were non s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h dbh and dbhu. F o r each s p e c i e s a s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e dbh and n i n e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o d . C l a s s , h , Age, Age a t b h , Cw, C I , C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n , and HGF was c o n d u c t e d . I n ES t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d a l t o g e t h e r f o r 947. o f t h e v a r i a -t i o n . A f t e r o m i t t i n g the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , h a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 827. o f t h e v a r i a t i o n o f dbh. W i t h Cw, h a c c o u n t e d f o r 83,77., w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e Age added, 83.97., and w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e Age a t bh added, 917. o f the v a r i a t i o n was a c c o u n t e d f o r , A s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s o f dbh i n r e l a t i o n t o SI/100 has 119. shown t h a t t h e s i t e i n d e x a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 50% o f the v a r i a t i o n . When t h e v a r i a b l e , h was u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h SI/100 t h e n b o t h v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t e d 83% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n s o f dbh. The e q u a t i o n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g dbh w i t h t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i s as f o l l o w s : dbh = 0.16 -1- 0.12 . h + 1.79 S I / 1 0 0 ; R = 0.91; SE^ - + 1.7 i n . The e q u a t i o n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g dbh u s i n g t h e two v a r i a b l e s h and Cw i s as f o l l o w s : dbh = 0.25 + 0.12 . h + 0.11 . Cw; R = 0.92; SEg = + 1.6 i n . I n L P the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e dbh and the same n i n e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a s ES has shown t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r c o n t r i b u t e d 95%, o f t h e v a r i a t i o n . A f t e r o m i t t i n g t h e l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s , A s s o c i a t i o n a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 46% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n , A s e p a r a t e m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n has shown t h a t the v a r i a b l e h c o n t r i b u t e d 82% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n o f dbh. The e q u a t i o n f o r c a l c u l a t i n g dbh w i t h t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s i s as f o l l o w s : dbh = 0.65 -l- 0.12 . h + 0.01 . C I ; R = 0,91; SE^ = + 1.7 i n . I n L P the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f dbh t o the r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s was p o o r e r t h a n i n ES, However, u s i n g t h e two v a r i a b l e s h and Cw f r o m t r e e s o f a l l c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s ( b a s i c d a t a shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 2) t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n was o b t a i n e d : dbh = 0.69 + 0.09 . h + 0,29 . Cw; R = 0.95; S E E = + 1.1 i n . W i t h t h i s e q u a t i o n dbh o f LP s t a n d s c a n be d e t e r m i n e d f o r any ty p e o f t r e e s p r o v i d e d t h e t o t a l h e i g h t o f t h e t r e e and t h e crown w i d t h o f t h e t r e e s a r e known. S i m i l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were r e c o g n i z e d f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s by Nash ( 1 9 4 8 ) , I l v e s s a l o ( 1 9 5 0 ) , M i n o r ( 1 9 5 1 ) , W i l l i n g h a m ( 1 9 5 7 ) , E u l e ( 1 9 5 9 ) , M i n o r ( 1 9 6 0 ) , S m i t h , K e r and C s i z m a z i a ( 1 9 6 1 ) , S p u r r ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 120 V e z i n a (1962 and 1 9 6 3 ) , Bonnor (1962 and 1 9 6 4 ) , and B a i l e y ( 1 9 6 4 ) . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t f r o m a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s . C h a p t e r Summary The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t (dbh) and age, as d e m o n s t r a t e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r s f o r LP and ES was shown i n F i g s , 17 and 18, The t r e n d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c u r v e was d i s c u s s e d . I n F i g , 19 c o m p a r i s o n s were made o f dbh - age c u r v e s o f L P and ES o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s . I t was shown t h a t LP has an i n i -t i a l l y f a s t e r dbh i n c r e m e n t t h a n ES, When th e i n c r e m e n t r a t e o f L P d e c r e a s e d , i t was s u r p a s s e d by ES, w h i c h c o n t i n u e d w i t h a s t e a d y and e v e n i n c r e m e n t o f dbh. The y e a r s r e q u i r e d f o r ES t o o v e r t a k e LP i n dbh growth v a r i e d w i t h s i t e i n d e x . I n a good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i t t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 110 y e a r s ; i n the medium, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 140; and i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , up t o 160 y e a r s . I t was p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t LP and ES t r e e s o f t h e same s i t e i n d e x do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y come from the same s i t e . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s has shown t h a t dbh i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e v a r i a b l e s h e i g h t (h) and crown w i d t h (Cw), R e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d f o r p r e d i c t i n g t h e dbh u s i n g d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s . 121. VOLUME GROWTH OF INDIVIDUAL TREES OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE E f f e c t o f C o m p e t i t i v e P o s i t i o n on Volume Growth o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce I n F i g , 20 a v e r a g e g r o s s t o t a l volume - dbh c u r v e s o f LP t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense and i n open c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n were compared. The c u r v e s were b a s e d on one p a r t o f the d a t a shown i n A p p e n d i x T a b l e 3 and 3A. (50 stem a n a l y s e s f o r moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s and 25 f o r open c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s ) . The two a v e r a g e c u r v e s show t h a t t r e e s grown i n the open have a s m a l l e r volume t h a n t r e e s o f t h e same d i a m e t e r grown i n moderate o r dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s p r i -m a r i l y t h a t t h e "open" t r e e s o f t h e same d i a m e t e r a r e s h o r t e r and a c c o r d i n g l y have a s t r o n g e r stem t a p e r and s m a l l e r a b s o l u t e f o r m f a c t o r ( f o , l ) t h a n t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . These c u r v e s d e m o n s t r a t e the i m p o r t a n c e o f u s i n g t r e e s grown i n one and t h e same ( h e r e i n moderate t o dense) c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s f o r c o m p a r i s o n s o f g r o w t h d a t a . Thus the v a r i a t i o n o f r e s u l t s o f t r e e measurement c a n be r e d u c e d and the d i s t u r b a n c e s o f t h e g r o w t h p a t t e r n s , w h i c h c o u l d have been c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s , g r e a t l y e l i m i n a t e d . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f volume g r o w t h was o b s e r v e d i n open grown and moderate t o d e n s e l y grown ES. However, t o o few measurements o f open grown ES were a v a i l a b l e f o r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n o f volume g r o w t h c u r v e s . The c u r v e s do n o t mean t h a t on the same s i t e open grown t r e e s have s m a l l e r volumes t h a n t r e e s i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i -t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , on one and the same s i t e t he open grown t r e e s were r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t e r , b u t w i t h l a r g e r d i a m e t e r s and volumes t h a n t r e e s grown o u c 70 65 60 » £ 55 50 -S 45 3 U 6 _3 O > o <s o o Legend: overage of moderate and dense (50 trees) average of open grown (25 trees) 6 7 8 9 10 li 12 13 dbh- in inches 14 15 16 17 18 ho Fig. 20: Comparison of average volume - dbh curves of lodgepole pine trees grown in moderate and dense and i n open competitive position 123. i n o t h e r c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . I n L P as w e l l as i n ES, the stems of open grown t r e e s had b r a n c h e s a l m o s t t o t h e ground, t h e b r a n c h e s were o f t e n l a r g e r and t h i c k e r t h a n t h o s e o f t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense compe-t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . The volume growth p a t t e r n s o f s u p p r e s s e d t r e e s o f e i t h e r s p e c i e s was n o t shown, because a l l o f t h e s u p p r e s s e d t r e e s r e a c h e d o n l y s m a l l d i a m e t e r s and volumes ( g e n e r a l l y under 5 c u b i c f e e t ) , G r o s s T o t a l Volume Over Age C u r v e s o f I n d i v i d u a l L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce T r e e s I n a l l examples and c o m p a r i s o n s t h e w r i t e r ' s d a t a r e f e r t o v f o . l , t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f w h i c h was d e f i n e d i n t h e G l o s s a r y . I n t h e a v a i l -a b l e l i t e r a t u r e the w r i t e r d i d not f i n d any r e f e r e n c e s t o volume growth o f L P i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o age. However, i n ES, M i t c h e l l (1963) and W a l d i e (1949) p r e s e n t e d c u r v e s o f volume o v e r age w h i c h a r e shown i n F i g , 21. I n a d d i t i o n volume - age c u r v e s were i n t e r p o l a t e d from t h e B.C.F.S, (1936) y i e l d t a b l e s f o r ES, I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d o f a l l t h e s e c u r v e s i s s i m i l a r . I n F i g , 22 volume o v e r age c u r v e s o f LP ( d e r i v e d from 50 stem a n a l y s e s and t o t a l ages and volumes o f 144 t r e e s ) a r e shown and i n F i g , 23 volume o v e r age c u r v e s o f ES ( d e r i v e d from 26 stem a n a l y s e s and t o t a l ages and volumes o f 77 t r e e s ) a r e i l l u s t r a t e d . I n b o t h c a s e s o n l y t r e e s grown i n r e a s o n a b l y w e l l - s t o c k e d s t a n d s and i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s were u s e d . The volume growth p a t t e r n s o f each s p e c i e s a r e d i f -f e r e n t and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o r the s p e c i e s . The growth t r e n d s o f ES d e t e r -mined i n t h i s s t u d y a r e a l m o s t t h e same as those o f M i t c h e l l (1963) and a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e d e t e r m i n e d by i n t e r p o l a t i o n from B.C.F.S. (1936) d a t a . Total Age in Years Fig. 21: Volume - age curves of individual Engelmann spruces according to several authors SI- 100/100 SI- 90/100 SI- 80/100 SI- 7X)/I00 SI- 60/100 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 Total Age In Years Fig. 22: Volume - age curves of lodgepole pines grown in reasonably well-stocked stands of different site indices (determined on 50 stem analyses and 144 trees) Total Age in Years Fig. 23: Volume - age curves of Engelmann spruces grown in reasonably well-stocked of different site indices (determined on 26 stem analyses and 77 trees) 127. C o m p a r i s o n o f G r o s s T o t a l Volumes o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce T r e e s The volume - age c u r v e s o f b o t h s p e c i e s ( L P and ES) o f d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s were compared i n F i g . 24. The s u p e r i m p o s e d c u r v e s show t h a t LP i n e v e r y p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e x h i b i t s a f a s t e r i n i t i a l g r o w t h , b u t a l s o an e a r l i e r c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f volume, ES i s a s l o w s t a r t e r w i t h a s l o w and even i n c r e a s e o f t h e c u r r e n t a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f volume f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . C u l m i n a t i o n o f the c u r r e n t a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f volume i n ES t a k e s p l a c e a t g r e a t e r ages t h a n i n L P . T h e r e f o r e , d u r i n g s e v e r a l d e c a d e s , t h e t o t a l volume o f i n d i v i d u a l ES i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h a t o f LP a t comparable a g e s . However, ES e v e n t u a l l y s u r -p a s s e s LP i n t o t a l volume g r o w t h . T h i s t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( SI/100 o f 100 f t . ) a f t e r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 y e a r s , i n t h e medium p r o -d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 o f 70 f t . ) a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t t h e age o f 120 y e a r s , and i n the p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 o f 50 f t . ) a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 170 y e a r s . I t s h o u l d be remembered from T a b l e 3 o r F i g , 8 t h a t t h e s i t e i n d e x i n the same a s s o c i a t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e same f o r b o t h s p e c i e s . The c u r v e s o f F i g , 25 a r e b a s e d on t h e same d a t a as F i g s , 22 and 23, The volume - dbh c u r v e s , however, a r e a v e r a g e c u r v e s and a p p l y t o LP and ES f r o m a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s and p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s grown i n moderate and dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s . The g r a p h i c a l l y o b t a i n e d c u r v e s o f F i g . 25 ( i n the dbh range from 6 t o 14 i n . ) c o r r e s p o n d t o c u r v e s d e s c r i b e d by t h e e q u a t i o n s o f second degree p a r a b o l a s ( y = volume; x = dbh) 2 L P , y = - 2.85 + 0.53x -i- 0.18x ; ( b a s e d on 73 t r e e s ) , and ES, y = 7.80 - 3.42x + 0 . 4 5 x 2 ; ( b a s e d on 22 t r e e s ) . N5 oo Total Age in Years F i g . 24: C o m p a r i s o n o f volume - age c u r v e s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e o f d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s Fig. 25: Comparison of average volume - dbh curves of individual lodgepole pines and ,Engelmann spruces grown in well-stocked stands in moderate and dense competitive position 130. LP increases i n volume f a s t e r i n youth than ES, which surpasses LP only a f t e r s e v e r a l decades, i n terms of diameter s i z e , when the dbh of both species reaches approximately 12,2 i n . Gross T o t a l Volumes of Trees C a l c u l a t e d by D i f f e r e n t Methods The computer programme was a l s o designed to c a l c u l a t e the f o l -lowing volumes: v f o . l h ( x l l ) , v f o . l h u ( x l 3 ) , vIBMu (x32) v l o g u (x31), and 2 vD Hu (x30), How these volumes were c a l c u l a t e d i s expl a i n e d i n the G l o s s a r y , The f i r s t three volumes were obtained using the absolute form f a c t o r described by Hohenadl ( i n Prodan, 1951) and used by Heger (1965), vlogu was c a l c u l a t e d by l o g a r i t h m i c equations i n F.H. (1959), and vD^Hu by the combined v a r i a b l e equations i n F.H. (1959) . As e x p l a i n e d i n the Glo s s a r y , u i n d i c a t e s measurements underbark and r e f e r s i n t h i s case to volumes under-bark. The volumes were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each species independently (LP n = 77, ES n = 22) and the r e s u l t s were i n c l u d e d i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s of LP volumes on dbh which were obtained are shown i n » F i g . 26 and of ES volumes i n F i g . 27. The equations f o r p l o t t e d equation l i n e s are as f o l l o w s : In LP, v f o . l h = - 13.1 3 = 51 dbh; r = 0.95; SE E = 3.4 c u , f t . v f o . l h u = - 12.0 J _ 3.17 dbh; r = 0.95; S E E = — 3.3 c u . f t . vIBMu - 12.4 3.25 dbh; r = 0.94; S E E = _L. 3.6 c u . f t . vlogu = - 11.9 - l - 3.06 dbh; r = 0.94; S E E = i ~r 3.4 c u . f t . vD 2Hu - 11.8 + 3.06 dbh; r = 0.94; S E E = + 3.5 c u . f t . In ES, v f o . l h = - 16.3 3.93 dbh; r = 0.88; SE E - + 7.6 c u . f t . v f o . l h u = - 14.8 •!- 3.48 dbh; r 0.88; SE E = j . 7.5 c u . f t . vIBMu - 15.0 -!- 3.50 dbh; r = 0.86; S E E = 4.8 c u , f t . v l o g u = - 12.8 i T 3.08 dbh; r = 0.91; SE = E + 8.9 c u . f t . vD 2Hu = - 10.3 2.86 dbh; r = 0.89; SE E = 5.8 c u . f t . 7 0 r 65 -60 -• 55 -e db-h- in inches Fig. 26: Comparison of regression lines of volumes on dbh (range 2.3 - 14.4 in.) calculated by different methods using data of lodgepole pines grown in moderate and dense competitive position. (vfo.O = 11; vfo.lu = xl3; vD2Hu = x30; vlogu * x31; vIBMu = x32) Gross Total Volume in cu ft of Individual Trees o r 133, All equations are for determination of volumes of individual trees grown in moderate and dense competitive position, which is comparable to conditions existing in well-stocked stands. Preliminary tests have shown that trees grown in open or in suppressed competitive positions con-tain volumes which would result in different regression equations. The comparisons were made to find the most suitable volume for calculation of the volume per acre of the study plots. The writer assumed, that the volumes closest to the "true volume" came from those calculated with the absolute form factor (vfo.l, vfo.lu and vIBMu), According to Prodan (1951, 1965) volumes calculated by this method deviate most likely in average + 0,57, from the "true" volume of a stem. It is evident that the logarithmic equations and the combined variable equations result in lower volumes per tree. In individual cases of trial volume calculations, the volume differences were almost 10 cubic feet for a single tree (tree no. 407). The new combined variable equations developed by Smith and Munro (1965) were not used. However, trials have shown that the volumes obtained by their new equations are a little higher than the ones obtain-able by the combined variable equations given in F.H, (1959) or the logarithmic equations of the B. C, Forest Service (F.H., 1959). The regression lines indicate, that the use of the combined variable equations as well as of the logarithmic equations results in volumes which are smaller than the ones calculated with the absolute form factor, fo. l . In comparison to the regression lines of Figs. 26 and 27, the average volume - dbh curves shown previously in Fig. 25 will give more accurate volume estimates for the individual trees, because they fit the data better. These curves were based on volumes of trees growing in moderate and dense competitive positions in well-stocked stands. This makes 134. the curves p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable, because they are a p p l i c a b l e i n a l l asso-c i a t i o n s cr s i t e index classes as long as the trees grow i n moderate and dense competitive p o s i t i o n s , i . e . i n well-stocked stands and not i n an open or suppressed competitive p o s i t i o n . M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n of Tree Volumes of Lodgepole Pine and Engelmann Spruce and Several V a r i a b l e s A l l f i v e volumes ( v f o . l , v f o . l u , vIBMu, vlogu, and vD^u) calcu-l a t e d by d i f f e r e n t methods i n both species (LP and ES) were hig h l y s i g n i -f i c a n t l y (1% l e v e l ) c o r r e l a t e d with each other and also with the v a r i a b l e s A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o d u c t i v i t y Class, h, dbh, dbhu, Abh, Years to bh, Double bark thickness, Cw, CI, Bark %, HGF, SI, Nutrient regime, h/Cw, and Cw/dbh. In LP a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (17.) c o r r e l a t i o n existed also between volumes and the Competitive P o s i t i o n , and a s i g n i f i c a n t (57.) c o r r e l a t i o n between the Terminal shoot length, whereas i n ES the three v a r i a b l e s were non s i g n i f i c a n t -l y c o r r e l a t e d with tree volume. In ES the volume was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y (17.) c o r r e l a t e d with (CC1) whereas i n LP t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was non s i g n i f i c a n t . In both species the tree volume was non s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with f o . l , f o . l u , Width of l a s t ten annual rings, Slope 7., Aspect, E l e v a t i o n a , s , l . , g/acre and CI %. In both species best c o r r e l a t e d with volume (compiled by any of the methods) were dbh, dbhu, h, SI, CI and Cw, The importance of dbh and h i n determination of tree volumes has a l s o been shown by Smith et a l . (1961), Smith and Ker (1957, 1959, 1960), Smith, Walters and Ker (1961), Smith, Ker and Heger (1960), Spurr (1952 and 1954) and others, who a l l found these r e l a t i o n s h i p s to be very 135. d i s t i n c t i n s e v e r a l s p e c i e s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s x*ere u s e d by Smith and Bre a d o n (1964) and S m i t h and Munro (1965) f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f combined v a r i a b l e e q u a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t o t a l c u b i c f o o t volume o f t h e co m m e r c i a l t r e e s o f B, C, as w e l l as f o r d e r i v a t i o n o f p o i n t s a m p l i n g a i d s and m e r c h a n t a b l e volume f a c t o r s . C h a p t e r Summary I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o use f o r co m p a r i s o n s o f volume g r o w t h , t r e e s grown i n one and t h e same ( h e r e i n moderate t o dense) c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n , w h i c h g r e a t l y m i n i m i z e s v a r i a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d by volumes f r o m t r e e s grown i n open and s u p p r e s s e d c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n , L o d g e p o l e p i n e i n e v e r y p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e x h i b i t e d a f a s t e r i n i t i a l volume g r o w t h i n c o n t r a s t t o Engelmann s p r u c e . The t r e n d o f t h e volume - age c u r v e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e volume i n c r e m e n t o f LP i n a l l a s s o -c i a t i o n s c u l m i n a t e d e a r l i e r t h a n t h a t o f ES, the volume i n c r e m e n t o f w h i c h s l o w l y and e v e n l y i n c r e a s e d f o r s e v e r a l d e c a d e s . T h e r e f o r e f r o m t h e b e g i n -n i n g the t r e e volume o f LP was l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f ES, however, ES e v e n t u a l l y s u r p a s s e d LP i n volume g r o w t h . T h i s t o o k a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 y e a r s i n the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , 120 i n t h e medium and 170 i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . T h i s a p p l i e s t o L P and ES t r e e s o f t h e same s i t e i n -d i c e s , b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t o t r e e s g r o w i n g i n one and the same l o c a l i t y , b e c a u s e , i n the same a s s o c i a t i o n , d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s can have a d i f f e r e n t s i t e i n d e x ( s e e F i g , 8 i n t h e c h a p t e r on s i t e i n d e x and h e i g h t - age r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) . C o mparisons o f average volume - dbh c u r v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l L P and ES t r e e s ( s e e F i g , 25) were s i m i l a r l y r e l a t e d as t h e volume - age c u r v e s . The average c u r v e s o f volume o v e r dbh o f t r e e s grown i n moderate and dense 136. c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n ( i n F i g , 25) were a p p l i c a b l e i n a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s ( a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s ) , A c o m p a r i s o n was made o f t r e e volumes c a l c u l a t e d by f i v e d i f -f e r e n t methods. The w r i t e r assumed t h a t t h e volumes c a l c u l a t e d w i t h the a b s o l u t e form f a c t o r were c l o s e s t t o t h e I : t r u e volume" of t h e t r e e s . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t the volumes o b t a i n e d by l o g a r i t h m i c and combined v a r i a b l e e q u a t i o n s were s m a l l e r . The i n c r e a s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n volume a p p e a r e d t o i n c r e a s e i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the d i a m e t e r . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t r e e volumes and s e v e r a l s t a n d v a r i a b l e s has shown t h e b e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o f volume w i t h dbh, dbhu, h, S I , CI and Cw, 137. GROSS TOTAL VOLUME OF STANDS UNDER STUDY M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n o f St a n d Volumes and S e v e r a l S t a n d V a r i a b l e s The dbh, h, age a t bh o f t r e e s o f a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r , SI/100 and g/ a c r e o f a l l s p e c i e s composing the s t a n d were d e t e r m i n e d on 42 p l o t s i n the s t u d y a r e a . I n the m a j o r i t y o f t h e p l o t s the main s p e c i e s were LP and ES, Where o t h e r s p e c i e s o c c u r r e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e two m e n t i o n e d s p e c i e s , f o r c o m p u t a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , t h e b a s a l a r e a o f t h e s e s p e c i e s was e x p r e s s e d as the b a s a l a r e a o f LP and ES. The b a s a l a r e a o f a l l D o u g l a s - f i r s was c o u n t e d as t h e b a s a l a r e a o f LP, and o f a l p i n e f i r s , p o p l a r s and aspens as the b a s a l a r e a o f ES, P l o t s w i t h p u r e LP s t a n d s were a d j u s t e d f o r c o m p u t a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s by l o c a t i n g specimens o f the m i s s i n g s p e c i e s n e a r b y o r on s i m i l a r s i t e s . Measurements from t h e s e t r e e s were used as n o m i n a l v a l u e s i n the c o d i n g o f t h e programme. The volumes p e r a c r e (VD2!!) f o r 2 each p l o t were o b t a i n e d u s i n g D H a c c o r d i n g t o the method d e s c r i b e d by Smi t h and Munro (1965) ( s i m i l a r t o t h e one d e s c r i b e d i n the c h a p t e r on methods by Smith and B r e a d o n , 1 9 6 4 ) . I n t h i s case t h e volume c u r v e s p r e -v i o u s l y shown i n F i g . 25 were n o t u s e d . A second s e t o f volumes p e r a c r e (V BCFS) was c a l c u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t a n d a r d c u r v e s used by t h e B.C.F.S. F i g . 28 shows the B.C.F.S, (1964) c u r v e s w h i c h were u s e d . These a r e comparable t o d a t a i n F l i g g (1960) f o r V / a c r e i n c u . f t . o v e r age, c l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n , a l l t r e e s above 7 i n . i n dbh. The V BCFS was d e t e r m i n e d e i t h e r f o r t h e sp r u c e t y p e o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e t y p e depending on t h e p r e v a l e n t s p e c i e s on t h e p l o t . B e f o r e t h e volumes p e r a c r e were d e t e r m i n e d , t h e d i a m e t e r s o f a v e r a g e t r e e s were c o r r e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o Sm i t h and Munro ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The m e r c h a n t a b l e volumes \*ere c o n v e r t e d i n t o g r o s s t o t a l volumes by t h e r e d u c t i o n f a c t o r s 00 Average Volume/Acre in 1000 cu* ft - net for decay only,close utilization o? 7 y. y | T T I § p 3 co m r - ^ 5 s O 3 o 2 a. o «o o> 1 a * 3 1 "° o o 3 3 W - . •O 3 S • O <» *8€T 139. f o r d e c a y , waste and l o s s e s i n S m ith and Munro ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The volumes 2 o b t a i n e d f o r each s p e c i e s by b o t h methods (VD H and V BCFS) were s u b j e c t e d t o a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s t o g e t h e r w i t h the v a r i a b l e s S I / 1 0 0 , 2 Age, h , dbh, g / a c r e , o f e a c h s p e c i e s , t o t a l VD H o f L P and ES, A s s o c i a t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e o f ES i n a s t a n d ( g / a c r e ES . 1 0 0 ) / ( g / a c r e ES + g / a c r e L P ) , The r e s u l t s o f t h e volume c a l c u l a t i o n s and b a s i c d a t a o f t h e m u l t i p l e c o r -r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s a r e n o t shown i n t h e t h e s i s . R e s u l t s o f the M u l t i p l e C o r r e l a t i o n The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d , t h a t t h e V BCFS was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l of t h e v a r i a b l e s , b u t t h a t a l l v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 73% o f i t s v a r i a t i o n . The b e s t c o r -r e l a t i o n showed g / a c r e o f ES w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r 51% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by the dbh o f LP and dbh o f ES, These t h r e e v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r 60% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n o f V BCFS w i t h SE., = + 1,25 2 c u . f t . / a c r e , 2 The t o t a l VD H o f L P and ES was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 100% o f t h e v a r i a t i o n . The v a r i a b l e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s h i g h p e r c e n t a g e were the i n d i v i d u a l V / a c r e o f ES and L P . The s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t V BCFS was b e s t c o r -r e l a t e d w i t h Age, w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r 51% o f i t s v a r i a t i o n . A l l o f t h e r e m a i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s A s s o c i a t i o n , SI/100 o f LP and ES, Age o f L P and ES as w e l l as V D ^ o f L P and ES were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h V BCFS, b u t e ach SE r a n g e d between + 1,200 t o 1,600 c u . f t . / a c r e and a c c o u n t e d f o r l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n , between 10 and 36%. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were 2 o b t a i n e d by the s i m p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s o f VD H w i t h the same v a r i a b l e s , e a c h o f w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r between 20 and 41% o f i t s v a r i a t i o n . The SE„ was 140. between -r 1,300 and 3,240 c u . f t , / a c r e . F o r a p p r o x i m a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f volumes p e r a c r e u s i n g v a r i a b l e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n s were o b t a i n e d : V BCFS = 2.937 + 31.0 . % o f ES i n the s t a n d ; r = 0.64; S E E = + 1,359 c u . f t . / a c r e ; V BCFS = 1.871 -:- 19.2 . Age o f the s t a n d ; r = 0.71; S E E = -'r 1,244 c u . f t . ; V BCFS = 3.012 + 15.9 . g / a c r e o f ES; r = 0.71; S E E «* + 3,013 c u . f t . / a c r e ; VD 2H = - 747 -r 87.6 . h o f L P ; r = 0.73; SEg = 2,461 c u . f t . / a c r e ; VD 2H = 874 + 66.2 . h o f ES; r = 0.77; SE,. = 2,289 c u . f t . / a c r e . G e n e r a l l y t h e r e was p o o r c o r r e l a t i o n o f volumes p e r a c r e and A s s o c i a t i o n s , b ecause o f t h e v a r i a b l e s g / a c r e o f L P and ES, w h i c h e x h i b i t e d a h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y ( f r o m 1 t o 300 s q , f t . / a c r e ) . VD2!! appea r e d t o be i n b e t t e r agreement w i t h t h e " a c t u a l " volumes p e r a c r e t h a n t h a t o f V BCFS. The l a t t e r volumes were o b t a i n e d f r o m c u r v e s g e n e r a l i z e d f o r l a r g e s c a l e s u r v e y s and t h e r e f o r e a r e n o t s u i t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e g/ a c r e o f each s p e c i e s w h i c h d i f f e r f rom p l o t t o p l o t . The range o f volumes o f t h e s t u d y a r e a was from 1,000 t o 14,000 g r o s s t o t a l c u . f t . / a c r e b u t the l a r g e s t B.C.F.S. (1964) volume was o n l y 5,400 c u . f t . / a c r e o f m e r c h a n t a b l e volume, w h i c h e q u a l s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7,000 c u . f t . g r o s s t o t a l v o l u m e / a c r e . Comparison o f Y i e l d o f LP and ES o f t h i s Study I n t r o d u c t i o n The m e r c h a n t a b l e volume p e r a c r e o v e r age c u r v e s (B.C.F.S., 1964) shown i n F i g . 28 i n d i c a t e d t h a t ES i n a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s and 141. ages p r o d u c e d h i g h e r volumes p e r a c r e t h a n L P . However, c o m p u t a t i o n s o f volumes p e r a c r e a c c o r d i n g t o S m ith and l i u n r o (1965) u s i n g t h e f i e l d d a t a o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y and t h e r e s u l t s o f the g r o w t h a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l L P and ES showed t h a t L P was t h e b e t t e r volume p r o d u c e r . To f i n d out w h e t h e r t h i s was r e a l l y the c a s e , p u r e s t a n d s o f LP and ES g r o w i n g on the same f o r e s t s i t e had t o be compared. However, such s t a n d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y ES s t a n d s were n o t s t u d i e d . T h e r e f o r e t h e y i e l d t a b l e s shown i n T a b l e s 4 t o 9 were c o n s t r u c t e d . I n t h e l o w and p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( A s s o c i a t i o n s ARC, VSc, Moss; SI/100 i n L P and ES up t o 64 f t . ) t h e s i t e i s g e n e r a l l y more f a v o u r a b l e f o r LP t h a n f o r ES, T h i s was shown i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s on s i t e i n d e x and h e i g h t , dbh, and volume g r o w t h o f i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s and a l s o i n t h e c h a p t e r on a s s o c i a t i o n s . I n the s t a n d s o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( A s s o c i a t i o n s CA, CV, and P a ; SI/100 i n L P , 65 t o 80 and i n ES, 65 t o 85 f t . ) the f o r e s t s i t e i s w e l l - s u i t e d f o r b o t h s p e c i e s . I n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( A s s o c i a t i o n s CM, VM, W, AD, D, 0 and the Creek Bottom Types) the f o r e s t s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the f r e s h and m o i s t h a b i t a t s , a r e s u i t e d f o r ES, w h i c h i n m i x t u r e w i t h o t h e r s p e c i e s becomes e s t a b l i s h e d n a t u r a l l y . I n t h e same p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s LP becomes e s t a b l i s h e d n a t u r a l l y w i t h o u t f i r e p e r h a p s o n l y i n t h e (C) A s s o c i a t i o n . L P i s seldom found g r o w i n g on the f r e s h t o wet s i t e s , because o f c o n d i t i o n s u n f a v o u r a b l e t o i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , b u t , not because th e s i t e s a r e l e s s s u i t a b l e f o r i t s g r o w t h . 142. Method o f Y i e l d T a b l e C o n s t r u c t i o n The y i e l d t a b l e s o f p u r e s t a n d s o f LP and ES o f t h e t h r e e p r o -d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 4 t o 9, i n w h i c h were u t i l i z e d the r e s u l t s o f t h e g r o w t h s t u d i e s . The h e i g h t s ( h , f t . ) were o b t a i n e d from c u r v e s o f F i g , 1 1 , The d i a m e t e r s a t breast h e i g h t (dbh) came from F i g . 19. The crown w i d t h (Cw) came from the f o l l o w i n g r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s (Cw on d b h ) : L P , Cw - 3,2 -1- 0.92 . dbh; r = 0,63; SEg = -r 3.5 f t . ( d e t e r m i n e d on 58 t r e e s ) ES, Cw = 3.5 1.0 dbh; r = 0.65; SEg = -!_- 4.7 f t . ( d e t e r m i n e d on 24 t r e e s ) The r e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t s o f L P , Cw a g r e e w i t h c o n s t a n t s o f S m i t h (1966) f o r f o r e s t grown t r e e s ( a * 5 3.0 and b = 0 , 7 5 ) . However, t h e c o n s t a n t s o f the w r i t e r ' s e q u a t i o n s appear t o be d e r i v e d from t r e e s grown i n l e s s dense c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n and show a l s o a g r e a t e r i n c r e m e n t o f Cv; w i t h dbh. The o r d e r o f the r e g r e s s i o n c o n s t a n t s o f ES f o r CU a l s o a g r e e s w i t h t h o s e o f Smith (1966) b u t the c o n s t a n t s o f the w r i t e r a r e i n t e r m e d i a t e between t h e open and f o r e s t grown t r e e s ( a = 2.5 - 6,8; b = 0,33 - 1,20). A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e s u l t s o f the f i e l d measurements, Cw o f s p r u c e i s somewhat l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f L P , x^hich a c c o u n t e d f o r the l a r g e r number o f t r e e s i n L P s t a n d s o f the same a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r . Number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e x?as o b t a i n e d as f o l l o w s : N = 43,560/(Cw 2 . 3.14159/4). The b a s a l a r e a p e r a c r e x?as o b t a i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g g o f t h e t r e e o f a v e r a g e dbh by N o f t r e e s . 143. TABLE 4: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 = 50 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range f r o m 40 t o 64 f t . ) Age dbh h . No. o f g G r o s s t o t a l volume i n c u . f t . B a r k S p a c i n g y e a r s i n . f t . t r e e s s q . f t . P.A.I. M.A.I. 'A o r Cw f t . 10 1.1 5 3300 23.1 297 29.7 29.7 16 4.1 20 1.9 12 2305 46.1 600 30.3 30.0 16 4.9 30 2.7 19 1771 70.8 960 36.0 32.0 15 5.6 40 3.4 26 1396 87.9 1346 38.6 33.7 15 6.3 50 3.9 31 1234 102.4 1740 39.4 34.8 14 6.7 60 4.4 37 1070 113.4 2148 40.8 35.8 14 7.2 70 4.8 42 959 120.8 2559 41.1 36,5 14 7.6 80 5.2 45 866 127.3 2991 43.2 37.4 14 8.0 90 5.5 48 825 136.1 3340 34.9 37.1 13 8.2 100 5.7 50 786 139.1 3670 33.0 36.7 13 8.4 110 6.0 52 752 147.4 3980 31.0 36.2 13 8.7 120 6.1 54 716 145.3 4240 26.0 35.3 13 8.8 130 6.2 55 700 147.0 4366 12.6 33.6 13 8.9 140 6.3 56 680 148.0 4456 9.0 32.1 13 9.0 150 6.4 57 670 148.5 4500 5,0 30.0 13 9,1 144. TABLE 5: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f Engelmann s p r u c e o f p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( SI/100 = 50 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range from 40 t o 64 f t . ) Age dbh h . No. o f g G r o s s t o t a l volume i n c u . f t . B a r k S p a c i n g y e a r s i n . f t . t r e e s s q . f t . P.A.I. M.A.I. % o r Cw f t . 10 0.5 2 3661 7.3 56 5.6 5.6 18 3.9 20 1.1 6 2624 18.4 236 18.0 11.8 17 4.6 30 1.6 11 2135 29.9 427 19.1 14.2 17 5.1 40 2.2 17 1708 44.4 627 20.0 15.6 17 5.7 50 2.6 22 1539 56.9 829 20.2 16.5 16 6.0 60 3.1 28 1274 66.2 1032 20.3 17.2 16 6.6 70 3.5 35 1131 75.8 1271 23.9 18.1 16 7.0 80 3.9 40 1013 84.1 1521 28.7 19.0 16 7.4 90 4.4 45 889 94.2 1814 29.3 20.2 16 7.9 100 4.7 50 846 101.5 2114 30.0 21.1 16 8.1 110 5.1 54 768 109.1 2404 29.0 21.8 16 8.5 120 5.4 57 716 113.8 2688 28.4 22.7 16 8.8 130 5.7 61 670 118.6 2934 24.6 22.7 15 9.1 140 6.0 64 640 125.0 3174 24.0 22.7 15 9.4 150 6.3 66 620 133.0 3410 23.6 22.6 14 9.8 145. TABLE 6: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 = 70 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range from 65 t o 80 f t . ) Age rears dbh i n . h , f t . No. o f t r e e s g s q . f t . G r o s s t o t a l P volume . A . I . i n c u . f t . M.A.I. B a r k % Spacing o r Cw f t 10 1.5 7 2740 32.9 411 41.1 41.1 16 4.5 20 2.9 17 1650 75.9 1180 76.9 59.0 15 5.8 30 4.0 27 1274 110.8 2038 85.8 67.9 14 6.6 40 5.0 36 934 127,0 2989 95.1 74.7 14 7.7 50 5.8 43 768 140.5 3832 85.3 76.6 13 8.5 60 6.5 50 655 150.7 4585 75.3 76.4 13 9.2 70 7.1 56 589 162.0 5301 71.6 75.7 12 9.7 80 7.6 61 533 168.0 5863 56.2 73.2 12 10.2 90 8.2 66 484 177.6 6300 43.7 70.0 12 10.7 100 8.6 70 450 181.4 6700 40.0 67.0 11 11.1 110 8.9 74 427 184.5 7045 34.5 64.0 11 11.4 120 9.2 77 405 187.1 7250 20.5 59.7 11 11.7 130 9.4 79 392 188,9 7430 18.0 55.8 11 11.9 140 9.7 82 379 189.5 7590 16.0 54.2 11 12.1 150 9.8 84 373 194.0 7721 13.1 51.5 11 12.2 146. TABLE 7: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f Engelmann s p r u c e o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I/100 -• 70 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range from 65 t o 85 f t . ) Age dbh h. No. o f g G r o s s t o t a l volume i n c u . f t . B a r k S p a c i n g y e a r s i n . f t . t r e e s s q . f t . P.A.I. M.A.I. % o r Cw f t . 10 1.0 4 2740 16.4 247 24.7 24.7 17 4.5 20 2.0 9 1830 40.3 580 33.3 29.0 17 5.5 30 2.8 16 1396 60.0 958 37.8 31.9 17 6.3 40 3.6 24 1100 78.1 1340 38.2 33.5 16 7.1 50 4.4 32 889 94.2 1725 38.5 34.5 16 7.9 60 5.0 42 768 104.4 2118 39.3 35.3 16 8.5 70 5.7 50 655 115.9 2534 41.6 36.2 15 9.2 80 6.3 57 578 124.8 2951 41.7 36.9 15 9.8 90 6.9 64 500 130.0 3380 43.9 37.5 15 10.9 100 7.5 70 459 140.9 3820 44.0 38.2 15 11.0 110 8.0 75 419 146.2 4274 45.4 38.8 14 11.5 120 8.5 80 385 151.7 4686 41.2 39.0 14 12.0 130 9.0 84 355 156.2 5076 39.0 39.0 14 12.5 140 9.5 88 328 161.4 5465 38.9 39.0 14 13.0 150 10.0 92 304 164.2 5837 37.2 38.9 14 13.5 147. TABLE 8: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 = 100 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range from 80 - 120 f t . ) Age dbh h. No, o f g G r o s s t o t a l volume i n c u . f t . B a r k S p a c i n g y e a r s i n . f t . t r e e s s q . f t . P.A.I. M.A.I. % o r Cw f t . 10 2.4 9 1902 59.0 951 95.1 95.1 15 5.4 20 5.0 32 911 123.9 2733 178.2 136.7 14 7.8 30 6.9 42 602 156.5 5117 238.4 170.6 12 9.6 40 8.3 58 476 179.0 6664 154.7 166.6 12 10.8 50 9.4 67 392 188.9 7252 58.8 145.0 11 11.9 60 10.3 75 344 199.2 7752 50.0 129.2 10 12.7 70 11.3 82 304 211.6 8210 45.8 117.2 10 13.6 80 12.0 83 271 212.7 8641 43.1 108.0 10 14.3 90 12.6 94 253 219.1 9041 40.0 100.5 9 14.8 100 13.2 100 234 222.3 9243 20.2 92.4 9 15.4 110 13.6 104 225 227.0 9433 19.0 85.8 8 15.8 120 14.1 108 209 226.6 9440 .7 78.7 8 16.3 130 14.4 111 201 227.3 9447 .7 72.7 8 16.6 148. TABLE 9: Y i e l d t a b l e s p e r a c r e of Engelmann s p r u c e o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I/100 = 100 f t . , r e p r e s e n t i n g a range from 80 - 120 f t , ) Age dbh h . No. o f g G r o s s t o t a l volume i n c u . f t . B a r k S p a c i n g y e a r s i n . f t . t r e e s s q . f t . P.A.I. M.A.I. % o r Cw f t . 10 1.6 6 2135 29.9 600 60.0 60.0 17 5.1 20 3.1 20 1274 66.2 1274 67.4 63.7 17 6.6 30 4.6 33 866 99.6 1992 71.8 66.4 16 8.0 40 5.9 48 642 122.0 2889 89.7 72.2 15 9.3 50 7.2 60 493 139.5 3800 91.1 76.0 15 10.6 60 8.4 72 399 153.6 4788 98.8 79.8 14 11.8 70 9.5 80 333 163.8 5694 90.6 81.3 14 12.9 80 10.5 88 287 172.5 6458 76.4 80.7 14 13.9 90 11.5 94 250 180.3 7200 74.2 80.0 13 14.9 100 12.5 100 219 186.6 7930 73,0 79.3 13 15.9 110 13.5 105 192 190.8 8650 72.0 78.6 12 17.0 120 14.5 110 174 199.6 9360 71.0 78.0 12 17.9 130 15.5 114 155 203.1 10060 70.0 77.3 12 18.9 149. The g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e was o b t a i n e d from volume c u r v e s o f F i g , 25 m u l t i p l i e d by the N o f t r e e s p e r a c r e . The B a r k % was c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s : L P , B a r k % = 16,6 - 0.59 . dbh; ES, B a r k % = 17.3 - 0.40 . dbh. PAI and M I were c a l c u l a t e d d i r e c t l y from t h e s t a n d v o l u m e s . S l i g h t a d j u s t m e n t s o f t o t a l volumes were n e c e s s a r y i n few c a s e s f o r s m o o t h i n g o u t o f t h e PAI and MAI r a t e s . D i s c u s s i o n o f the Y i e l d T a b l e s I n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s LP was the b e t t e r volume p r o -d u c e r . To t h e age o f 150 y e a r s LP grew l a r g e r d i a m e t e r s , and up t o t h e age o f 90 a l s o t a l l e r t r e e s t h a n comparable s t a n d s o f p u r e ES. I n the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s L P was t h e b e t t e r volume p r o -d u c e r t o t h e age o f 150 y e a r s . To t h e age o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 y e a r s the d i a m e t e r s and t o t h e age o f 100 y e a r s a l s o t h e h e i g h t s o f LP were l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f ES. I n the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s LP was t h e b e t t e r volume p r o -d u c e r t o the age o f 120 y e a r s . Lp t o t h e age o f 110 grew l a r g e r i n d i a m e t e r and t o t h e age o f 100 h i g h e r t h a n ES. These t h r e e examples show t h a t i n p u r e s t a n d s of b o t h s p e c i e s LP i s the s u p e r i o r volume p r o d u c e r . The g e n e r a l t r e n d of t h e w r i t e r ' s y i e l d t a b l e s and t h o s e o f B a r n e s ( i n B.C.F.S,, 1936) i s s i m i l a r . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o B a r n e s , the w r i t e r ' s t a b l e s show: I n the p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s o f LP ( T a b l e 4) ( B a r n e s a t 80 y e a r s , 40 f t . ) g e n e r a l l y good agreement, b u t more t r e e s , s m a l l e r dbh and 150. a l i t t l e l a r ger volumes; In the poor p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s of ES (Table 5) (Barnes at 80 years, 40 f t . ) fewer trees, l a r g e r dbh and smaller h up to 100 and greater h over 100 years, and smaller volume at 100 years of age by 1,900 c u . f t . ; In the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s of LP (Table 6) fewer trees from age 60 on, dbh l a r g e r (1.2 i n , more at age of 100 years), h generally greater and volume l a r g e r ; In the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s of ES (Table 7), fewer trees, ca, 1 i n , l a r g e r dbh, h smaller at ages of under 100 years, and smaller volume at 100 years of age ca. 1,500 c u . f t , ; In the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s of LP (Table 8) (Barnes at 80 years, 90 f t . ) , fewer trees, dbh at 100 years 2 i n . l a r g e r , h generally greater, volume generally the same (same at 140 years); In the good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s of ES (Table 9), Barnes does not give number of trees and dbh but the w r i t e r ' s h, g/acre and volume are l a r g e r . The Bark 7. i n a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y classes i s higher i n ES than i n LP, This i n d i c a t e s that the deduction for losses i n ES are higher. It must be pointed out, that the comparisons are based on the volumes of pure and f u l l y stocked stands of medium stand density, of the same s i t e index, which not necessarily grew on the same forest s i t e (see Table 3 and F i g , 8), I t i s important to r e c a l l that the y i e l d tables are based on r e s u l t s of measurements i n n a t u r a l l y established stands i n which LP was generally established a f t e r f i r e and grew i n evenaged stands, ES was generally established i n p a r t i a l shade of unevenaged stands and grew i n mixed, unevenaged stands. I f y i e l d table information of planted ES would be a v a i l a b l e , 151. perhaps t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the two s p e c i e s w o u l d t u r n out somewhat l e s s f a v o u r a b l y f o r L P . Comparisons o f PAI and MAI i n G r o s s T o t a l Volume p e r A c r e o f LP and ES F i g . 29 shows the g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e PAI and MAI f o r LP and F i g . 30 f o r ES. I n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 , 100 f t . ) L P has a r a p i d i n c r e m e n t i n volume and a c u l m i n a t i o n o f MAI a p p r o x i m a t e l y a t 40 y e a r s . A t t h i s age the a v e r a g e dbh r e a c h e d 8.3 i n . and t h e g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e 6,664 c u . f t . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t , i n t h e same p r o d u c t i -v i t y c l a s s , ES shows a somewhat s l o w e r MAI r a t e , c u l m i n a t i n g a t the age o f 75 y e a r s . A t t h i s age t h e dbh r e a c h e d 10 i n . and t h e a c c u m u l a t e d g r o s s t o t a l volume 5,694 c u . f t . The d e c r e a s e o f b o t h PAI and MAI was more g r a -d u a l i n ES t h a n i n L P . ES outgrows L P o n l y i n the l o n g r u n and i t s v a l u e r e s t s upon the s t e a d y and r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n c r e m e n t r a t e a t h i g h e r age c l a s s e s . S i m i l a r p a t t e r n s a r e shown i n the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ( S I / 1 0 0 , 70 f t . ) . I n L P the c u l m i n a t i o n p o i n t o f MAI was r e a c h e d a t the age o f 60 y e a r s . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e a v e r a g e dbh o f the s t a n d was 6.5 i n . and t h e g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e 4,585 c u . f t . The MAI o f ES c u l m i n a t e d a t t h e age o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 130 y e a r s w i t h average d i a m e t e r s o f 9 i n , and a volume o f 5,076 c u . f t . A g a i n t h e p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s ; however t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n c r e m e n t i s a t a s t i l l l a t e r a g e . I n L P the MAI c u l m i n a t e d a t the age o f 85 y e a r s and i n ES a t t h e age o f w e l l o v e r 150 y e a r s . T h i s a g a i n i n d i c a t e s t h e v a l u e o f ES as a " l o n g t e r m s p e c i e s " . 152. Total Age of the Stand in Years Fig. 29: PAI and MAI in gross total volume per acre of LP of good, medium and poor productivity class 153. Legend: SI/100 100 ft-SI/100 70 ft-S-I/IOO 50 ft-§ 60|-< a. 50K 3 0 -20 -10 -"MAT P A I MA i 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 Totol Age of the Stand in Years F i g . 30: PAI and MAI i n g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e o f ES o f good, medium and poor p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 154. C h a p t e r Summary G r o s s t o t a l volumes p e r a c r e were c a l c u l a t e d on 42 p l o t s u s i n g D^H a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method d e s c r i b e d by S m i t h and Munro (1965) and t h e volume p e r a c r e o v e r age c u r v e s of B.C.F.S, ( 1 9 6 4 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e volume c a l c u l a t i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h the v a r i a b l e s S I/100, Age, h , dbh, g / a c r e , o f e a c h s p e c i e s , A s s o c i a t i o n , and P e r c e n t a g e of ES i n t h e s t a n d were sub-j e c t e d t o a m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . Though s e v e r a l o f t h e v a r i a b l e s were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d , t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r c a l -c u l a t i o n o f t h e volumes were o f l i m i t e d u s e , b ecause o f the h i g h s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e . G e n e r a l l y t h e r e was a p o o r c o r r e l a t i o n o f volumes p e r a c r e and A s s o c i a t i o n s , because o f the i n c o n s i s t e n t v a l u e o f b a s a l a r e a p e r a c r e o f L P and ES, I t was f ound t h a t t h e volume c u r v e s B, C, F o r e s t S e r v i c e (1964) were n o t r e a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r c a l c u l a t i o n o f volumes o f i n -d i v i d u a l p l o t s , and t h e r e f o r e were n o t a p p l i c a b l e f o r c omparing t h e volume growth p e r a c r e o f L P and ES, The c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e volume p e r a c r e - age c u r v e s (B.C.F.S., 1964) i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s and ages ES p r o d u c e d h i g h e r volumes p e r a c r e t h a n L P ( s e e F i g . 2 8 ) , T h i s d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . I t was f o u n d t h a t t h e range o f volumes p e r a c r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c u r v e s (B.C.F.S., 1964) was g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r and the 2 volumes p e r p l o t a l s o s m a l l e r t h a n the ones c a l c u l a t e d w i t h D H u s i n g t h e method o f S m i t h and Munro (1965) and t h e c o l l e c t e d f i e l d d a t a . C o m p a r i s o n o f y i e l d t a b l e s o f L P and ES o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e p o o r , medium and good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s , LP was t h e b e t t e r volume p r o d u c e r and f o r s e v e r a l decades was g r o w i n g f a s t e r i n d i a m e t e r and h e i g h t . The y i e l d t a b l e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i v i t y 155. c l a s s e s a r e shown i n T a b l e s 4 t o 9. The c o m p a r i s o n s o f PAI and MAI i n g r o s s t o t a l volume p e r a c r e o f L P and ES have shown an e a r l i e r c u l m i n a t i o n o f PAI and MAI o f LP (see F i g s . 29 and 3 0 ) . The c u l m i n a t i o n o f MAI i n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t o o k p l a c e a t the age o f 40 y e a r s , i n t h e medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s a t t h e age o f 60 y e a r s and i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s a t the age o f 85 y e a r s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t , t h e c u l m i n a t i o n p o i n t o f ES i n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s was a t t h e age o f 75, i n the medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s a t the age o f 130, and i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s a t the age o f w e l l o v e r 150 y e a r s . I n a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s t h e g r o s s t o t a l volumes p e r a c r e o f LP grown t o the p o i n t o f t h e MAI c u l m i n a t i o n were l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f ES. 156. P a r t 3: RELATIVE VALUE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE IMPORTANCE OF LODGEPOLE PINE AND ENGELMANN SPRUCE FOR THE ECONOMY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A r e a and Volume A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y o f B. C. ( B . C. Dept. o f Lands and F o r e s t s , 1958) t h e a r e a ( i n m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s ) o f t h e p r o v i n c e i s c o m p r i s e d o f : F o r e s t L a n d : B e a r i n g Commercial F o r e s t 118.0 Not B e a r i n g Commercial F o r e s t 18.7 T o t a l F o r e s t Land 136.7 Non F o r e s t L a n d : B a r r e n 50.1 Non P r o d u c t i v e Tree Cover 34.6 A g r i c u l t u r a l and Urb a n 1.4 Range and Meadow 2,4 Swamp 2.8 T o t a l Non F o r e s t Land 91.3 Water 6.1 T o t a l P r o v i n c e 234.1 Of the t o t a l a r e a o f t h e P r o v i n c e , 193.6 m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o r 82% make up t h e I n t e r i o r o f B. C. Of t h a t , 119.4 m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s o r 61.7% c o m p r i s e t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r e s t l a n d . I n t h a t a c r e a g e s p r u c e t y p e s occupy 54.1 and l o d g e p o l e p i n e t y p e s 20.9 m i l l i o n s o f a c r e s . 157. The gross volume of sound wood of trees 4 in. and larger in the spruce type amounts to 81.6 and in the lodgepole pine type to 16.2 billions of cu.ft. The currently exploitable forest in the interior of B. C, is comprised of 40.2 billions cu.ft, gross volume of useable sound wood. This volume is made up of 48% spruces, 18% lodgepole pine, 10% true fir, 8% western hemlock, and 8% Douglas-fir, , According to B.C.D.L.F, (1958) the forests of the interior of the spruce and lodgepole pine types consist of the following productivity classes (acreage in millions of acres; productivity classes defined in the Glossary). Good Medium Poor Low Total Mature ES 3.0 16,3 7.7 1,3 28,3 Immature ES 2.8 11.4 11.4 0.2 25.8 Total ES 5,8 27.7 19.1 1.5 54.1 Immature LP 1.9 0.8 1.3 0.0 4.0 Mature LP 4.0 5.7 5.0 2.2 16.9 Total LP 5.9 6,5 6.3 2.2 20.9 The greater part of the spruce and lodgepole pine stands is of medium and good productivity class. Presently of importance for utiliza-tion by the woodworking industries are the good and medium productivity classes where LP and ES grow into merchantable sizes in a reasonable length Of time. The forests of medium productivity class (CA, Pa and CV Associa-tions) are valuable for production of pulpwood material, and the forests of good productivity class (C, CM, VM, W, AD, D, 0, and the Creek Bottom Associations) can be used for pulp and timber as well. The poor and low productivity classes can supply fenceposts and 158. p o l e s o r t h e i r l i k e , b u t the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the s t a n d s i s p r e s e n t l y c o n -s i d e r e d u n m e r c h a n t a b l e . Stands o f good and medium p r o d u c t i v i t y a r e o f g r e a t e s t i m p o r t a n c e f o r the woodworking i n d u s t r i e s o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t i n u o u s f o r e s t i n v e n t o r y o f B. C, (B.C.D.L.F., 1958, p. 91) i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C. the p r e s e n t a n n u a l g r o w t h o f t h e f o r e s t s ( t r e e s o v e r 4 i n . i n dbh) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 b i l l i o n g r o s s c u . f t . o u t o f w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 b i l l i o n a r e e x p l o i t a b l e . The g r o w t h p o t e n t i a l however, c a n be i n c r e a s e d p r o v i d e d t h a t the a r e a o c c u p i e d p r e s e n t l y by f o r e s t s does n o t change, so t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2% b i l l i o n g r o s s c u . f t . o f wood volume c o u l d be h a r v e s t e d a n n u a l l y . T h e r e f o r e , f o r t h e time b e i n g , t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C, has a v a s t f o r e s t r e s o u r c e . P r e s e n t l y n o t more t h a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f o f the a n n u a l volume i n c r e m e n t i s b e i n g u t i l i z e d . From t h i s may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s w i l l s u p p l y even a g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d demand f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e . The f o r e s t s o f the s p r u c e t y p e occupy a l a r g e r a c r e a g e t h a n t h o s e o f t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e t y p e and t h e i r t o t a l a n n u a l g r o w t h i s h i g h e r t h a n t h a t i n t he l o d g e p o l e p i n e t y p e . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n o r t h e a s t and n o r t h c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r o f B. C. the s p r u c e t y p e c o n t r i b u t e s l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f t h e a n n u a l g r o w t h . However, t h e a n n u a l volume i n c r e m e n t o f LP ( i n t h e n o r t h c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r , s o u t h c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r , and s o u t h e a s t e r n i n t e r i o r o f B, C.) i s v e r y h i g h due t o t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f immature L P f o r e s t s . I n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B. C. the a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t o f volume i s a l s o v e r y h i g h b u t i s due l a r g e l y t o v i g o r o u s immature D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s f o l l o w i n g l o g g i n g i n t h e o r i g i n a l m i x e d D o u g l a s - f i r t y p e s . I n g e n e r a l t h e f o r e s t s o f the i n t e r i o r o f B. C. a r e g r o w i n g w e l l . The g e n e r a l f o r e s t s i t u a t i o n i s b e s t e x p r e s s e d by a q u o t a t i o n f r o m B.C.D.L.F. (1958, p. 9 7 ) , "The abnormal age c l a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e w i l l be 159. r e c t i f i e d u l t i m a t e l y by a p p r o p r i a t e c u t t i n g i n mature and o vermature f o r e s t s . However, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e a c t u a l g r o w t h w i l l a p p r o a c h the p o t e n t i a l g r o w t h , even w i t h t h e b e s t o f f o r e s t r y p r a c t i c e , u n t i l the t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n -t u r y . R e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f u l l p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y o f a l l f o r e s t l a n d must, n e v e r t h e l e s s , be a p r i m a r y ai m o f f o r e s t management." P h y s i c a l and C h e m i c a l P r o p e r t i e s and Uses I n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e l i s t e d some o f t h e p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l p r o -p e r t i e s o f LP and ES wood, a c c o r d i n g t o N e l s o n ( 1 9 6 3 ) , McMahon ( 1 9 5 7 ) , I s e n b e r g ( 1 9 5 1 ) , USDA Handbook No. 72 (1955) and Guernsey and Dobie ( 1 9 6 5 ) . P r o p e r t i e s Non M e c h a n i c a l P h y s i c a l P r o p e r t i e s L P ES 3 S p e c i f i c g r a v i t y , gr/cm , g r e e n volume 0.38 0.31 a i r d r y volume 0,41 0.33 o v endry volume 0.43 0.35 D e n s i t y , l b , / c u . f t . , g r e e n volume 39.00 39.00 a i r d r y volume 29.00 23.00 ovendry volume 27.00 22.00 D e n s i t y , l b . / c u . f t . , o vendry w e i g h t p e r g r e e n volume 24.00 20,00 M o i s t u r e c o n t e n t %, when g r e e n , b a s e d on o v e n d r y w e i g h t 65,00 100.00 S a s t r y (1966) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e wood p r o p e r t i e s o f s e v e r a l ES o f t h i s s t u d y . The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t i e s b a s e d on d r y w e i g h t were g e n e r a l l y 3 h i g h e r t h a n 0.31 g/cm , The f i b r e l e n g t h r a n g e d i n i n d i v i d u a l t r e e s f r o m 2.1 t o 2,8 mm. 160 M e c h a n i c a l P r o p e r t i e s S t a t i c b e n d i n g s t r e n g t h , l b s , / s q , i n . Maximum c r u s h i n g s t r e n g t h , l b s . / s q . i n . , ( c o m p r e s s i o n p a r a l l e l t o g r a i n ) H a r d n e s s , a i r d r y , l o a d r e q u i r e d t o imbed an 0.444 i n . b a l l t o one h a l f i t s d i a m e t e r i n s i d e - g r a i n L P ES 6,700.00 5,500.00 5,370.00 4,770.00 480.00 310.00 C h e m i c a l C o m p o s i t i o n P r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s , 7., l i g n i n h o l o c e l l u l o s e t o t a l p e n t o s a n s a s h L P 25.00 63.20 9.20 0.20 ES 26.30 67.90 9.20 0.20 The wood o f b o t h s p e c i e s has a low r e s i s t a n c e t o decay and i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage by s e v e r a l k i n d s o f i n s e c t s . The a g e n t s c a u s i n g damage w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d h e r e . F o r some r e f e r e n c e s t h e r e a d e r i s d i r e c t e d t o F o w e l l s (1965) . The p r o p e r t i e s f o r g e n e r a l use o f b o t h s p e c i e s a r e s i m i l a r , b u t the wood o f LP i s somewhat u n e v e n - g r a i n e d , i t s c o l o r i s l i g h t r e d d i s h brown and i t shows u s u a l l y a c o n s p i c u o u s f i g u r e , whereas i n ES the wood i s w i t h -o u t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t a s t e o r o d o r , e a s i e r t o work w i t h hand t o o l s t h a n LP and i t s c o l o r i s n e a r l y w h i t e . B o t h s p e c i e s appear t o be e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r l u m b e r . LP i s g e n e r a l l y used f o r ro u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n , s i d i n g , f i n i s h , and f l o o r i n g , and ES c h i e f l y f o r b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and b o x e s . I n m e c h a n i c a l p u l p i n g L P wood r e d u c e s r e a d i l y ; i t s c o l o r i s 161. e x c e l l e n t , y i e l d f r o m 84%, power r e q u i r e d 15-25% more t h a n f o r ES, s t r e n g t h a v e r a g e . I n m e c h a n i c a l p u l p i n g ES wood r e d u c e s r e a d i l y ; i t y i e l d s 92% ( b a s e d on w e i g h t ) , i s o f e x c e l l e n t c o l o r and s t a n d a r d s t r e n g t h , t h e power r e q u i r e d ( s i m i l a r t o w h i t e s p r u c e ) i s l e s s t h a n f o r L P , and a l l u s e s r e -q u i r e ground wood. I n s u l p h i t e p u l p i n g L P wood r e d u c e s u n e v e n l y , t h e heartwood i s d i f f i c u l t , t o p u l p , b u t the p u l p i s s t r o n g , e a s i l y b l e a c h e d ; t h e y i e l d i s normal; i t i s s u i t e d f o r news, w r a p p i n g , book, and h i g h - g r a d e p r i n t i n g p a p e r s . I n s u l p h i t e p u l p i n g ES wood r e d u c e s r e a d i l y ; y i e l d i s n o r m a l , p u l p i s s t r o n g , o f f i n e t e x t u r e and e x c e l l e n t c o l o r , e a s i l y b l e a c h e d ; i t i s s u i t e d f o r w r a p p i n g , book, h i g h - g r a d e p r i n t i n g , and bond p a p e r s . ES i s s u i t a b l e f o r n e u t r a l s u l p h i t e s e m i - c h e m i c a l u t i l i z a t i o n . F o r k r a f t p u l p t h e wood o f b o t h s p e c i e s r e d u c e s r e a d i l y , t h e y i e l d i s n o r m a l , and the p u l p i s s t r o n g . L P k r a f t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l -s u i t e d f o r b l e n d i n g w i t h c o a r s e r f i b r e s , i t i s e a s i l y b l e a c h e d and s u i t a b l e f o r h i g h - g r a d e w r a p p i n g p a p e r s and f i b r e b o a r d . B o t h s p e c i e s a r e e q u a l l y s u i t e d f o r mine t i m b e r s , p o l e s , and f u e l s as w e l l as t i e s . I n b o t h s p e c i e s the heartwood i s d i f f i c u l t t o pene-t r a t e w i t h p r e s e r v a t i v e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Coe ( i n L e e , 1966) and Guernsey and Dobie ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i n most a r e a s i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m a r k e t , l o d g e p o l e p i n e lumber p r o d u c t s a r e m i x e d w i t h s p r u c e and b o t h p r o d u c t s a r e e q u a l l y w e l l - a c c e p t e d . P r e s e n t T r e n d s i n F o r e s t U t i l i z a t i o n I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a the s a w m i l l s and p u l p m i l l s a r e t h e main c o n -sumers o f LP and ES raw m a t e r i a l . A c c o r d i n g t o B.C.F.S. (1965) t h e number o f s a w m i l l s i n B. C. 162. s t e a d i l y d e c r e a s e d from 2,489 i n 1955 t o 1,417 i n 1964. The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e s a w m i l l s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,300 i n 1964) produce lumber o n l y , and f o r t h a t p u r p o s e u t i l i z e p r e f e r a b l y t h e l a r g e s t t r e e s and the b e s t q u a l i t y wood. O n l y t i m b e r t o c e r t a i n d i a m e t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e an 8 i n . t o p , i s e c o n o m i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e . S m i t h (1965) i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y one t h i r d as much p r o f i t w i l l come from m i l l i n g 8 i n . dbh t r e e s as from 18 i n . t r e e s . T h i s t y p e o f u t i -l i z a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s o f t e n on c e r t a i n s p e c i e s i n a s t a n d ( f o r i n s t a n c e l o d g e p o l e p i n e o r D o u g l a s - f i r o r y e l l o w p i n e ) and t h e "unwanted" s p e c i e s r e m a i n i n t h e s t a n d . G e n e r a l l y t h i s group i s e x t e n s i v e i n u t i l i z a t i o n . The l o s s e s due t o w a s t e a r e a c c o u n t a b l e f o r by t h e t o p s l e f t and i m p e r f e c t i o n s o f f o r m (Can. Dept. F o r . , V a n c o u v e r F o r , P r o d . L a b , , 1 9 5 5 ) . To implement c l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n w i l l be d i f f i c u l t i f t h e s t a n d s s u p p l y sawtimber o n l y . An i m p r o v e d u t i l i z a t i o n i n t h e f o r e s t w o u l d be a c h i e v e d by e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f a g e n c i e s w h i c h l o g and s o r t t h e l o g s I n t o " d i m e n s i o n s " b y w e l l -t r a i n e d and e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l . Thus t h e l a r g e m a t e r i a l w o u l d be r e s e r v e d f o r the s a w m i l l s and t h e s m a l l d i m e n s i o n s w o u l d be b r o u g h t t o u t i l i z a t i o n by wood c h i p p i n g o r c h a n n e l l i n g toward u t i l i z a t i o n f o r p u l p . T h i s s y s t e m m i g h t be a p p l i e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a r e a s where t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l s m a l l s a w m i l l s and where c l o s e u t i l i z a t i o n i s o t h e r w i s e i m p o s s i b l e t o implement. I n r e c e n t y e a r s some s a w m i l l s have begun u t i l i z i n g "smallwood s t a n d s " making up t h e l o s s e s t h r o u g h sawing o f s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r t r e e s by s e l l i n g t h e b y - p r o d u c t c h i p s and sawdust t o p u l p m i l l s . Out o f t h e 1,417 s a v / m i l l s i n 1964, 97 had a t t a c h e d c h i p p e r s and 82 b a r k e r s (B.C.F.S., 1 9 6 5 ) . T h i s number has p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e d s i n c e . T h i s p o i n t s toward i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Anonymous (1966, 163. 1966a) the u t i l i z a t i o n s t a n d a r d i n t h e sawlog s t a n d s i s m e r c h a n t a b l e wood c u t t o 6 i n . t o p , 24 f t . l o n g . But p r e s e n t l y u t i l i z a t i o n o f "smallwood s t a n d s " i s s t i l l p r o f i t a b l e when th e minimum ave r a g e t r e e i s 8.5 i n . a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and the s t a n d c o n s i s t s of 220 t o 230 t r e e s p e r a c r e . D o yle (1960) r e p o r t e d t h a t t r e e s o f 6.4 i n . a t bh r e p r e s e n t the b r e a k - e v e n p o i n t i n sawing lumber. He s u g g e s t e d t h a t maximum u t i l i z a t i o n o f sawing r e s i d u e , maximum man-day and machine-day p r o d u c t i o n and maximum q u a l i t y p r o d u c t s f o r t h e market w i l l improve t h e r e v e n u e f r o m a m i l l . I t may come t h a t p e r -haps a l s o i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h t h e s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g demand and imp-r o v e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n , t r e e s o f s m a l l d i a m e t e r c o u l d be u t i l i z e d p r o f i t a b l y . However, an i n d i c a t i o n o f t r e n d s may be t h a t s a w m i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r -l y l a r g e r ones, a r e b e i n g b o u g h t - o u t by i n d u s t r i a l c o n c e r n s w h i c h c a n u t i l i z e the raw m a t e r i a l wood f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s . I n s u c h c a s e s the u t i l i z a t i o n c a n be q u i t e h i g h . The h i g h e s t f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n f rom a t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t i s a c h i e v e d where t r e e s a r e c u t f o r p u l p and p a p e r p r o d u c t i o n . The t o p d i a -meter l i m i t s c a n be v e r y s m a l l ( 3 % i n . ) and t h e mechanized u t i l i z a t i o n tends t o move toward u t i l i z a t i o n o f the whole stem. A c c o r d i n g t o the Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s i n V i c t o r i a , B. C. ( c i t e d i n L e e , 1 966), as o f September 1965 t h e r e were 14 e x i s t i n g m i l l s i n B. C,, 13 o f them i n the c o a s t a l a r e a and 1 i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n -t e r i o r ; 5 new m i l l s were t h e n under c o n s t r u c t i o n , 3 o f them i n t h e i n t e r i o r ; 6 p r o p o s e d m i l l s w i t h t i m b e r s u p p l y s e c u r e d , 5 of them i n t h e i n t e r i o r ; 5 p r o p o s e d m i l l s w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t i m b e r , 2 o f them i n the n o r t h c o a s t a l a r e a and 3 i n the i n t e r i o r wet b e l t ; and 2 p r o p o s e d m i l l s under i n v e s t i g a -t i o n i n the s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r . By 1970 when t h e s e 35 m i l l s a r e i n c o m p l e t e 164. o p e r a t i o n , t o t a l a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n w i l l have r e a c h e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 m i l l i o n t o n s o f s u l p h a t e , ground wood, and k r a f t p u l p as w e l l as n e w s p r i n t and o t h e r p a p e r s . The p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s tonnage w i l l r e q u i r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 900 m i l l i o n c u . f t , o f g r o s s volume o f wood ( t h e w r i t e r ' s c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on d a t a o f S t e p h e n s o n , 1950, p, 2 2 3 ) , The use o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l wood f o r p u l p i n g f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f h i g h u t i l i z a t i o n s t a n d a r d s . The consumer " p u l p m i l l " i s c h i e f l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n by d e c r e a s i n g c o s t s . From t h i s v i e w p o i n t t h e h a r v e s t i n g and t h e u t i l i z a t i o n a r e c o n t i n u o u s l y b e i n g b r o u g h t "up t o d a t e " . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i s t o n (1965) Crown Z e l l e r b a c h d e v i s e d a method of u s i n g sawdust, n o t a l o n e b u t i n m i x t u r e w i t h wood c h i p s , f o r making i m p r o v e d q u a l i t y p a p e r . Weight s c a l i n g i s a l s o e n c o u r a g e d as a b e t t e r method i n s m a l l d i a m e t e r l o g s t h a n i n d i v i d u a l l o g s c a l i n g . The c h i p - a n d -saw p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n V a n c o u v e r ca n u t i l i z e s m a l l l o g s o f minimum top d i a m e t e r s o f 4,5 i n . t o b u t t d i a m e t e r s o f 17 i n . A c c o r d i n g t o Rees (1966) s a w m i l l r e s i d u e c o n s t i t u t e s the e n t i r e s o u r c e o f raw m a t e r i a l f o r t h e Kamloops P u l p and Paper Company w h i c h i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on use o f c h i p s . W i l k i e (1965) r e p o r t e d t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a good grade o f " f i l l e r " t y p e p u l p from sawdust. T h i s t r e n d toward i n c r e a s e d u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e h a r v e s t e d raw m a t e r i a l goes hand i n hand w i t h the " c o s t r e d u c i n g " m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f h a r v e s t i n g . B j e r k e l u n d , Grimmer, Mason, M i l l a r , and S o n l e y (1966) p r o j e c t e d t h e development o f o p e r a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i n pulpwood s t a n d s . " B e l o i t " h a r v e s t e r l o g g i n g i n r e c e n t y e a r s has been i n t r o d u c e d i n e a s t e r n Canada, the f u n c t i o n o f w h i c h i s t o l i m b and top s t a n d i n g t r e e s t h u s s c a t t e r i n g 165, s l a s h and seed i n the stump a r e a . The b a r e t r e e s a r e t h e n s h e a r e d o f f v e r y c l o s e t o the g round and d e p o s i t e d i n b unches. The p r o d u c t i o n r a t e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 t r e e p e r 50 s e c . T h i s t y p e o f l o g g i n g a p p a r e n t l y i s good f r o m t h e s i l v i c u l t u r a l v i e w p o i n t because o f even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s l a s h . However, the main o b j e c t i v e o f H a r v e s t e r l o g g i n g i s t o r e d u c e t h e c o s t s o f raw m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e p u l p m i l l s . H i g h f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n has been ob-t a i n e d by c e n t r a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g o f t r e e l e n g t h ( B i g g a r and Hanna, 1 9 6 6 ) . The method c o n c e n t r a t e s s l a s h , b a r k and o t h e r r e s i d u e w h i c h c a n be u t i l i z e d f u r t h e r . Some examples o f m e c h a n i z e d management were g i v e n by Weetman (1965) where t r e e h a r v e s t e r s a r e e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e t r e e s from 4 i n . t o 18 i n . dbh up t o 60 f t . h i g h . F o l l o w i n g c l e a r - c u t t i n g t h e a r e a s a r e a s s e s s e d f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t . N a t u r a l s t o c k i n g i s supplemented by p l a n t i n g o r sowing t o r e s t o c k t h e a r e a s as q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . F l a n n , D o b i e and M c B r i d e (1962) l i s t e d "Cambio" p o r t a b l e b a r k e r s w h i c h c a n h a n d l e d i a m e t e r s f r o m 2.5 t o 14 i n , minimum l o g l e n g t h o f 4 f t . a t a f e e d r a t e o f 5-10 c o r d s p e r h o u r , F o r b e s (1965) d i s c u s s e d d e b a r k i n g - a n d - c h i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s and t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n and d e c r e a s e d power r e q u i r e m e n t o f some equipment, w h i c h w i l l improve the economy o f such v e n t u r e s . S e v e r a l o t h e r a u t h o r s d i s -c u s s e d the i m p r o v e d u t i l i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t r e -s o u r c e s by i n c r e a s e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f h a r v e s t i n g ( S t e n z e l , 1963; S i l v e r s i d e s , 1964; McKay, 1964; D u f r e s n e , 1965; H a m i l t o n , 1965; and o t h e r s ) . P erhaps t h e most p r o m i s i n g development was p r o j e c t e d by B l a c k f o r d ( 1 9 6 5 ) . The w h ole t r e e s a r e h a r v e s t e d and c h i p p e d w i t h o u t d e b a r k i n g . The b a r k i s s e p a r a t e d m e c h a n i c a l l y . E x p e r i m e n t s w i t h s o u t h e r n p i n e s w i t h stems t o 3 i n . dbh showed t h a t p u r i t y t o 1,7% o f b a r k c o n t e n t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d w h i c h made good b l e a c h e d k r a f t p u l p . He found t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t r e e 166. s i z e t h e wood r e c o v e r y i s h i g h e r . A t the same time the p r o c e s s of removing b a r k improves t h e c h i p q u a l i t y f o r p u l p i n g . T h i s p r o c e s s c o u l d l e a d t o f e l l i n g - a n d - c h i p p i n g i n t h e f o r e s t and s e p a r a t i o n o f b a r k from the wood a t the m i l l s i t e . A l s o the r e c e n t development w i t h r e g a r d t o c h i p s t o r a g e o u t s i d e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f c h i p s t h r o u g h p i p e l i n e s (Anonymous, 1963; R i t c e y , 1963; E l l i o t , 1964) may l e a d t o s t i l l c l o s e r u t i l i z a t i o n , h i g h e r and c heaper p r o d u c t i o n . Methods thus d e v e l o p e d a r e p r o v i d i n g a h i g h u t i l i -z a t i o n s t a n d a r d . The c l o s e r the h a r v e s t e r method comes t o a h i g h u t i l i z a t i o n , the more f o r e s t r y a p p r o a c h e s t h e s i t u a t i o n o f a f o r e s t - f a r m . W i t h c l e a r -c u t t i n g , o r a l m o s t c l e a r - c u t t i n g , s i t u a t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d w h i c h r e q u i r e a r t i f i c i a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o r t r e a t m e n t s t o o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t o c k i n g o f the f u t u r e s t a n d s . The more t h e s e f u t u r e s t a n d s assume a type o f made-to-measure f o r e s t s (Anonymous, 1965) the more p e r t i n e n t become t h e e c o n o m i c a l and m e c h a n i c a l - s i l v i c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f f o r e s t r y . S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f l o g g i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a r o u n d the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , t h e r e has been a t r e n d toward u t i l i z a t i o n o f s m a l l e r t r e e s and l o g s . T h i s i s due t o the f a c t t h a t the b e s t and most e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s t a n d s were l o g g e d f i r s t and now s m a l l e r s i z e s o f t r e e s as w e l l as f o r m e r l y n o n-merchantable s p e c i e s f i n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o B.C.D.L.F. (1958, and s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n n u a l r e p o r t s , 1959 and 1960) t h e volume o f t i m b e r c u t i n the i n t e r i o r o f B. C. i s i n c -r e a s i n g . I n 1937 l e s s t h a n 10% and i n 1957 38% and r e c e n t l y n e a r l y 50% ( p e r s o n a l communications w i t h Dr, J . H. G. Smith) o f the t o t a l t i m b e r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was c u t i n the i n t e r i o r . The demand f o r wood from b o t h s p e c i e s f o r d o m e s t i c use and e x p o r t w i l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e y e a r s t o come. H a l e y (1964) e s t i m a t e d t h a t C a n a d i a n demand f o r lumber i n 1975 w i l l be 4,7 167. billion fbm as compared with the average consumption in the three-year period, 1961-1963, of 3.426 billion fbm. Similar trends were also reported by Davis, Lachance, Pringle, Smith, Wilson and Wilson (1957) who predicted that the total demand for roundwood will be 4,890 million cu.ft. by 1980, an increase of 577. over 1957 consumption. This indicates that there will be a continuous demand in both species for a variety of products. Chapter Summary The greater part of the forests of the interior of British Colum-bia consists of spruce and lodgepole pine stands. These extend over 75 million acres with a useable, sound wood volume of trees over 4 in. dbh of 60 billion cuft. The present annual increment is approximately 2 billion cu.ft. Under more intensified management this increment can be raised to at least 2% billion annually. The forests of British Columbia should therefore supply the raw material for many years to come, The physical and chemical properties of LP and ES are similar and both species are equally well-suited for most uses. There appears to be a transitional trend from utilization of large to small tree sizes and to utilization of whole trees. At the same time the productivity is being increased and utilization improved by mechanization of "harvesting" and transportation. The organization of logging of "smallwood stands" follows three patterns. One, based on processing of individual trees and then bunching, the second where trees are cut and taken to centralized pro-cessing (delimbing and debarking) and the third, in which individual trees including bark are made into chips. 168. MANAGEMENT R e g e n e r a t i o n The r e s u l t s o f the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r on f o r e s t u t i l i z a t i o n show t h a t the s a w m i l l s i n B . C . c a n depend on l o g s from p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g s t a n d s , b u t more and more " s m a l l w c o d " s t a n d s may have t o be u t i l i z e d i n f u t u r e . The p u l p m i l l s c a n e x p e c t a c o n t i n u o u s s u p p l y o f raw m a t e r i a l , b u t must con-s i d e r "whole t r e e " u t i l i z a t i o n by mechanized methods. However, the w o o d - u t i l i z i n g i n d u s t r y i n B. C. i s i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y . T h i s makes i t a d v i s a b l e t o t h i n k about t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f LP and ES s t a n d s and the manner i n w h i c h t h e t r e e s s h o u l d be grown i n t h e s e s t a n d s . R e g e n e r a t i o n o f Engelmann s p r u c e A c c o r d i n g t o R o e s e r ( 1 9 2 4 ) , Le B a r r o n and J e m i s o n ( 1 9 5 3 ) , Day ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and Hoar and Young ( 1 9 6 5 ) , t h e i n i t i a l g r o w t h o f Engelmann s p r u c e i s s l o w . T h i s a g r e e s w i t h f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . Pogue (1949) f o u n d t h a t c l e a r - c u t a r e a s s t o c k p o o r l y b u t a r e n o t d e v a s t a t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Day and D u f f y (1963) i n s o u t h w e s t e r n A l b e r t a , r e g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r l o g g i n g g e n e r a l l y i s n o t a d e q u a t e . The c o n c l u s i o n i s t h e r e f o r e t h a t n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f ES t a k e s time t o e s t a b l i s h and may n o t be a d e q u a t e . I n some i n s t a n c e s , good r e s u l t s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by s e l e c t i v e c u t t i n g i n s t a n d s w i t h advanced growth (McKinnon, 1940; F r a s e r and A l e x a n d e r , 1949; Pogue, 1949; and Day, 1 9 6 4 ) , o r c u t t i n g i n s t a n d s w i t h abundant advance g r o w t h , o r c l e a r - c u t t i n g i n s t a n d s w i t h no advance r e g e n e -r a t i o n w i t h p r o v i s i o n f o r adequate seed s u p p l y ( S m i t h , 1954). De G r a c e (1950 and 1950a) p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t i n t h e F o o h i l l s o f 169. A l b e r t a , c l e a r - c u t t i n g tended t o d e s t r o y advance g r o w t h . Even w i t h seed s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , r e - s t o c k i n g t o o k a t l e a s t 30 y e a r s . H i s recommendations were s t r o n g l y i n f a v o u r o f " s e l e c t i v e l o g g i n g " , because r e s i d u a l s p r u c e s s u p p l y seed c o n t i n u o u s l y and t h e r e f o r e r e p r o d u c t i o n becomes e s t a b l i s h e d , E i s (1965) f o u n d t h a t m o r t a l i t y on u n d i s t u r b e d seed-beds o f w h i t e s p r u c e and a l p i n e f i r g e r m i n a n t s was h i g h . S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s c a n be e x p e c t e d a l s o i n Engelmann s p r u c e . G r i f f i t h ( 1 9 3 1 ) , Pogue (1949) C l a r k , L e h r l e , and Smith ( 1 9 5 4 ) , Smith (1954 and 1 9 5 5 ) , Smith and C l a r k ( 1 9 6 0 ) , Day ( 1 9 6 3 ) , L e e s (1963), G i l m o u r and K o n i s h i (1965) and Roe and D e J a r n e t t e (1965) found t h a t t o s e c u r e adequate n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f s p r u c e , seed-bed p r e p a r a t i o n by s c a r i f i c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . The r e s u l t s o f s c a r i f i c a t i o n c a n be i m p r o v e d by s p o t - s e e d i n g ( S m i t h and C l a r k , 1960; and Moss, 1960) o r b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o Schopmeyer and Helmers ( 1 9 4 7 ) , B l y t h (1955) , and Prochnau (1960 and 1963) g i v e s s t i l l b e t t e r r e s u l t s t h a n s p o t - s e e d i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o A d d i s o n (1965) t h e c o s t o f s p o t - s e e d i n g w i l l p r o b a b l y be a r o u n d $6, p e r a c r e , and the c o s t o f b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g w i l l be between $5. and $10, p e r a c r e , F i n n i s (1959) a r r i v e d a t $8. p e r a c r e u s i n g a B e l l H e l i c o p t e r and sowing 1% l b , o f seed o f D o u g l a s - f i r p e r a c r e . Prochnau (1963) i n d i c a t e d a c o s t o f $5.65 p e r a c r e , sowing 1 l b . w h i t e s p r u c e s e e d p e r a c r e u s i n g a c y c l o n e s e e d e r , A d d i s o n (1965) t h o u g h t t h a t d i r e c t s e e d i n g i s l a r g e l y a gamble be-cause i f i t f a i l s the c o s t o f r e f o r e s t i n g an a r e a w i l l be i n c r e a s e d by t h e c o s t o f d i r e c t s e e d i n g . U a l d r o n (1961) f o u n d t h a t p l a n t i n g o f w h i t e s p r u c e under a s p e n was b e t t e r t h a n s e e d i n g on s c a l p s . Moss (1960) recom-mended p l a n t i n g t o m i n i m i z e the l o s s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y . Day and D u f f y (1963) recommended p l a n t i n g f o r r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c l e a r l o g g e d a r e a s . A d d i s o n (1965) assumed a p l a n t i n g c o s t from $15. t o $40, p e r a c r e , d e p e n d i n g on 170 g r ound c o n d i t i o n s and t h e crew, and $20, p e r a c r e f o r s e e d l i n g s o f Engelmann s p r u c e . A c c o r d i n g t o A d d i s o n (1965) o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t i n g crew and s u p e r v i s i o n t o keep c o s t s t o a minimum w i l l be one o f the most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f l a r g e s c a l e p l a n t i n g p r o j e c t s i n t h e P r i n c e George R e g i o n , I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p l a n t i n g o f ES has n o t been p r a c t i s e d v e r y commonly. There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s however, t h a t t h i s may change i n f u t u r e (Anonymous, 1 9 6 2 ) , R e g e n e r a t i o n o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e L o d g e p o l e p i n e i s an i n i t i a l l y f a s t g r o w i n g s p e c i e s ( s e e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s on s i t e i n d e x and h e i g h t as w e l l as volume growth o f L P and E S ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Clements (1910) and W h i t f o r d and C r a i g (1918) most o f t h e n a t u r a l s t a n d s o f L P a r e o f f i r e o r i g i n . The f i r e s consumed t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d s and f a v o u r e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f LP ( P a r k e r , 1942a) ( s e e a l s o c h a p t e r on f o r e s t s u c c e s s i o n ) , W i t h o u t f i r e the r e g e n e r a t i o n o f L P depends g r e a t l y on a v a i l a b l e s eed, r a d i a t i o n , and seed-bed c o n d i t i o n s ( P r o c h n a u , 1 9 5 8 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Clements ( 1 9 1 0 ) , Thompson ( 1 9 2 9 ) , L e x e n ( 1 9 4 9 ) , A l e x a n d e r ( 1 9 5 4 ) , Trappe and H a r r i s ( 1 9 5 8 ) , Trappe ( 1 9 5 9 ) , and T a c k l e (1964) t h e seed s u p p l y o f L P i n s o u t h c e n t r a l Oregon, i n C o l o r a d o and Wyoming, i s good. The seed d i s p e r s i o n was g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y up t o 200 f t , f r o m t h e s t a n d edge. The cones were s h e d d i n g seed a l m o s t e v e r y y e a r . A c c o r d i n g t o T a c k l e (1959) the seed s u p p l y depends on w h e t h e r t h e cones a r e s e r o t i n o u s o r n o n - s e r o t i n o u s . The o p e n i n g o f s e r o t i n o u s cones depends, however, on m e l t i n g p o i n t o f b o n d i n g m a t e r i a l i n cones (Cameron, 1 9 5 3 ) , T h i s f a c t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n by c u t t i n g methods, L e x e n (1949) and A l e x a n d e r (1954) i n n o r t h w e s t e r n U.S.A. sug-g e s t e d c l e a r - c u t t i n g i n n a rrow s t r i p s , p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t w i n d , and 171. s c a t t e r i n g o f s l a s h t o a v o i d f i r e h a z a r d f o r o b t a i n i n g good r e g e n e r a t i o n o f L P . N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n came i n r e a d i l y . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were a l s o r e -p o r t e d by Le B a r r o n ( 1 9 5 2 ) , Boe ( 1 9 5 6 ) , and Trappe and H a r r i s ( 1 9 5 8 ) . N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t the a u t h o r s were sometimes con-c e r n e d a b out t o o many LP s e e d l i n g s becoming e s t a b l i s h e d . Trappe (1959) found t h a t l i t t l e n a t u r a l advance r e g e n e r a t i o n o f LP became e s t a b l i s h e d i n dense s t a n d s . However, l o d g e p o l e p i n e was a v e r y good " n u r s e " t r e e f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s . I n Canada t h e r e a r e few i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e g i v i n g i n f o r m a -t i o n on seed r e l e a s e o f L P , T h i s , however, a c c o r d i n g t o T a c k l e (1959) i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r s i l v i c u l t u r a l d e c i s i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o C r o s s l e y (1955a) i n t he s u b a l p i n e r e g i o n o f A l b e r t a the seed f a l l i n 1952 was a p p a r e n t l y v e r y meagre. The g r e a t e s t amount o f seed was shed d u r i n g t h e f i r s t sum-mer seas o n a f t e r c u t t i n g and from cones "near g r o u n d " ; and a c c o r d i n g t o C r o s s l e y (1955) i n a r e a s o f maximum r a d i a t i o n . Roe and Boe (1952) and T a c k l e (1961) s t a t e d t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n on c u t - b u r n e d and c l e a r - c u t a r e a s was n o t as good as e x p e c t e d p r e v i o u s l y . I n some a r e a s r e g e n e r a t i o n was n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y , C r o s s l e y (195 2) on the K a n a n a s k i s F o r e s t E x p e r i m e n t S t a t i o n , A l b e r t a , made t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s on l o d g e p o l e p i n e r e g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r c l e a r - c u t t i n g i n s t r i p s , on a poor s i t e (51 f t , a t 83 y e a r s o f a g e ) . R e - s t o c k i n g w i t h p r i n c i p a l l y l o d g e p o l e p i n e a l o n g w i t h some w h i t e s p r u c e and p o p l a r was s a t i s f a c t o r y . L a c k o f competing v e g e t a t i o n on t h e p o o r s i t e was a p p a r e n t l y an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r s u c c e s s . B a t e s , H i l t o n , and K r u e g e r (1929) on the M e d i c i n e Bow N a t i o n a l F o r e s t o f Wyoming and the G u n n i s o n N a t i o n a l F o r e s t o f C o l o r a d o c o n d u c t e d e x p e r i m e n t s i n the s i l v i c u l t u r a l c o n t r o l o f n a t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f LP. 172. R e g e n e r a t i o n was e a s i l y o b t a i n e d i n d e p e n d e n t o f f i r e on medium t o good s i t e s whenever s u f f i c i e n t c u t t i n g was done t o make room f o r i t . Abundant r e p r o d u c t i o n was o b t a i n e d on a l l c l e a r - c u t s t r i p s . On s i t e s w i t h s o u t h e r n e x p o s u r e , l e a v i n g o f s l a s h was b e n e f i c i a l t o the growth o f the r e p r o d u c t i o n . Clements (1910) i n the E s t e s P a r k o f n o r t h e r n C o l o r a d o , i n v e s t i -g a t e d s e v e r a l LP s t a n d s a f t e r a b u r n . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t optimum r e p r o d u c -t i o n c a n r a r e l y t ake p l a c e i n unburned c u t o v e r s because they l a c k e v e r y -t h i n g w h i c h makes the b u r n so f a v o u r a b l e t o r e p r o d u c t i o n . Though Clements (1910) s u g g e s t e d f i r e as a s i l v i c u l t u r a l t o o l , Ackerman (1957) found t h a t r e m o v a l o f u n i n c o r p o r a t e d o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l by f i r e had a d v e r s e e f f e c t s on g e r m i n a t i o n and s u r v i v a l o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and w h i t e s p r u c e . G a y l e and G i l g a n (1951) found t h a t b u r n i n g s l o w s g e r m i n a t i o n and g r o w t h , p e r h a p s due t o i n i t i a l a s h c o n t e n t and h i g h pH a f t e r b u r n i n g and t o r e m o v a l o f humus fro m the top s o i l . F o r i m p r o v e d r e g e n e r a t i o n o f LP i n a r e a s o f s l o w r e -s t o c k i n g , seed-bed p r e p a r a t i o n by s c a r i f i c a t i o n o r s c a l p i n g was s u g g e s t e d by Boe ( 1 9 5 1 ) , C r o s s l e y (1955 and 1 9 5 5 a ) , T a c k l e (1961 and 1 9 6 4 ) , G i l m o u r and K o n i s h i ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Weetman (1965) and o t h e r s . The n e c e s s a r y seed was s u p p l i e d by s c a t t e r i n g s l a s h , s p o t o r b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g . L o t a n (1964) found t h a t s e r o t i n o u s cones p l a c e d 1 f t . o r more above the ground d i d n o t open, whereas a l a r g e number o f cones p l a c e d d i r e c t l y on t h e g r o u n d opened. I n j a c k p i n e s t a n d s i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o , t h e w r i t e r o b s e r v e d t h a t a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of cones p l a c e d on t h e ground ab-s o r b e d too much m o i s t u r e , and r e m a i n e d c l o s e d . I n c e r t a i n a r e a s w i t h sandy s o i l , the s o i l i m p a c t e f f e c t o f r a i n d r o p l e t s c o v e r e d t h e s e cones w i t h s o i l p a r t i c l e s . The b e s t r e s u l t s , however, were o b t a i n e d when th e cones were p l a c e d 1 t o 2 i n . above t h e g r o u n d , b u t n o t t o u c h i n g t h e g r o u n d . A c c o r d i n g t o G e i g e r (1950) the a i r i m m e d i a t e l y above t h e g r o u n d forms a l a y e r o f a 173. maximum t e m p e r a t u r e . L o g i c a l l y t h i s l a y e r i s the most s u i t a b l e f o r o p e n i n g s e r o t i n o u s cones o f j a c k p i n e and a c c o r d i n g l y a l s o o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e . Boe (1951) i n Montana, o b t a i n e d good s t o c k i n g r e s u l t s where mine-r a l s o i l was exposed on s k i d r o a d s and by s c a r i f i c a t i o n , and where s l a s h was l o p p e d and s c a t t e r e d . A few p e r c e n t p o o r e r s t o c k i n g was o b t a i n e d on u n d i s t u r b e d n a t u r a l f o r e s t f l o o r . Poor r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d where s l a s h was l e f t t o o t h i c k t o p e r m i t g r o w t h o f s m a l l t r e e s or where w i t h s l a s h b u r n e d , the seed s o u r c e was removed. T a c k l e (1964) r e p o r t e d f a i l u r e o f r e g e n e r a t i o n when the s l a s h was b u r n e d o r p i l e d . TJhere the seed was sup-p l i e d e i t h e r by seed s p o t t i n g (Roe and Boe, 1952; T a c k l e , 1961) o r b r o a d -c a s t i n g seed (Ackerman, 1 9 5 9 ) , t h e r e s u l t s were g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r t h a n w i t h seed s u p p l i e d from c o n e - b e a r i n g s l a s h . R e - s t o c k i n g by p l a n t i n g o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e has seldom been t r i e d . S m i t h e r s (1961) r e p o r t e d v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g r e s u l t s o f p l a n t i n g i n E u r o p e . T a c k l e (1961) r e p o r t e d an e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a few s e e d l i n g s o f 1-1 s t o c k p l a n t e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o s p o t s e e d i n g ( a c c o r d i n g t o Roe and Boe, 1952, the seed used f o r t h i s s p o t s e e d i n g e x p e r i m e n t was o n l y 30% v i a b l e ) . The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d were 69% s u r v i v a l o f s p o t - s e e d e d s e e d l i n g s and 98% o f p l a n t e d s e e d l i n g s . A l s o the a v e r a g e h e i g h t of the p l a n t e d s e e d l i n g s a f t e r 10 y e a r s (5 f t . ) was 1% f t . more t h a n the b e s t seeded s e e d l i n g . The A l b e r t a F o r e s t S e r v i c e (Kennedy, i n L e e , 1966) has c a r r i e d o u t b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and o p e r a t i o n a l p l a n t i n g o f LP. The e s t i m a t e d a v e r a g e c o s t o f s c a r i f i c a t i o n was $8.50 p e r a c r e . The c o s t o f r a i s i n g 3-0 s e e d l i n g s was $2.50 p e r t h o u -sand. T h i s c o s t i n c l u d e d p u t t i n g t h e s e e d l i n g s i n t o bags and i n t o c o l d s t o r a g e . A c c o r d i n g t o S m i t h e r s (1961) t h e a v e r a g e p l a n t i n g c o s t s a r e r o u g h l y $45. p e r a c r e , o f w h i c h between $10. t o $15, r e p r e s e n t s the c o s t o f p l a n t i n g s t o c k . Though p l a n t i n g i s t h e most e x p e n s i v e method of r e -174 stocking stands to lodgepole pine, i t i s apparently the safest and fastest method of re-stocking i n areas where poor or no natural regeneration can be obtained. Seed Collection and Planting Stock of LP and ES It appears that regeneration of both species, LP as well as ES, can be obtained under certain conditions by conventional, s i lv i cu l tu ra l cutting methods. The reseeding of the logged areas can be aided by scari-f icat ion. According to Gilmour and Konishi (1965) and Weetman (1965) scarif ication can be done economically by heavy machinery. When the natural seed supply f a i l s , spot or broadcast seeding offer an alternative. According to Tourney and Korstian (1960) for different reasons (amount of seed required, seed-bed preparation, removal of surface vege-tation) the cost of seeding may be far above that incurred by planting. Generally the true costs can be estimated better from case to case, because of several factors such as topography, cover of area, distances, wages, transport, methods of seeding and planting, Kraft, E.C. as well as Z i l l g i t t , W, M, (both i n U.S.D.A, For. Serv., 1958) stated that planting offers an effective way of restoring unproductive lands to productivity. In 1964 the B, C. Forest Service nurseries distributed over 14 mi l l i on trees (mainly 2-0 stock) (B, C, Forest Service, 1965) and i t appears that the number of nursery stock grown w i l l steadily increase. It appears that the amount of seed collected can not keep pace with the number of nur-sery stock required and which could be used (Anonymous, 1962). LP i s rated as a p r o l i f i c seeder. ES i s rated as fa i r to good and only occasionally p r o l i f i c (Fowells, 1965). In LP crops are produced i n 1-3 year intervals, 175. i n ES e v e r y 2-6 y e a r s . I n LP the seed c a n r e m a i n i n the a t t a c h e d cones f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s ( t h e w r i t e r c o u n t e d up t o 9 " y e a r c l a s s e s " o f cones on one and the same b r a n c h o f L P ) . ES cones b e g i n t o open i n September and most o f the seed i s shed by the end o f O c t o b e r ( F o w e l l s , 1965). I n e i t h e r s p e c i e s the c o l l e c t i o n o f cones f o r t r e e s i s e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t . However, the c o l l e c t i o n o f L P cones (seed) c a n be t i m e d b e t t e r , and t h e y i e l d f rom one t r e e c a n be h i g h ; a c c o r d i n g t o F o w e l l s ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 50,000 seeds from one LP t r e e . N u r s e r y p r a c t i c e s a r e s i m i l a r f o r b o t h s p e c i e s , however, i n gene-r a l t h e LP s e e d l i n g s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a t a younger age t h a n t h o s e o f ES. O f t e n t h e LP s e e d l i n g s a r e n o t t r a n s p l a n t e d whereas t r a n s p l a n t i n g i s a r u l e w i t h ES. A c c o r d i n g t o Tourney and K o r s t i a n (1960, p. 432) commonly used a r e 2-1 L P and 2-2 ES s e e d l i n g s . The LP p l a n t i n g s t o c k i s c h e a p e r t o o b t a i n t h a n t h a t o f ES, because o f r e l a t i v e ease o f seed c o l l e c t i o n and l e s s time r e q u i r e d i n the n u r s e r y . R o t a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o Chapman and Meyer (1947) the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e r o t a t i o n p e r i o d i s the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e d e c i s i o n i n management p l a n s . A c c o r d i n g t o the West C o a s t F o r e s t r y P r o c e d u r e s Committee (1950, p. 21) the r o t a t i o n i s based g e n e r a l l y on the c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t ( e x p r e s s e d i n t h e u n i t o f measurement used f o r the p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t s o f th e f o r e s t ) as i n d i c a t e d by s t a n d a r d normal y i e l d t a b l e s f o r the p r e d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s . I t c o u l d be b a s e d on t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f maximum f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n , xtfhich, however, i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t . The r o t a t i o n age has t o be l o n g enough t o produce t i m b e r o f m e r c h a n t a b l e s i z e f o r the d e s i r e d p r o d u c t a f t e r a l l o w i n g f o r a r e g e n e r a t i o n p e r i o d . I t s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be l o n g enough t o produce the maximum ave r a g e growth p e r a c r e p e r y e a r (maximum mean a n n u a l 176 increment). The choice of rotation will be influenced by intermediate cuts or thinnings, when they are made, or it may be influenced by the higher value of products produced at ages greater than the culmination of the mean annual increment. If we assume that the most important function of the forest stands is the production of wood volume, then the rotation of the maximal MAI is justified. Table 10 shows the rotation periods of maximum gross volume (in cu.ft. per acre) production of LP and ES stands of different producti-vity classes based on the results of this study (see Tables 4 to 9). The rotation ages obtained vary with the species and productivity class. The lower productivity class required a longer rotation period than the medium and good productivity class. If certain limitations are imposed with re-gard to the log size, the rotation period will change. Anonymous (1966) recommended a minimum average size tree of 8,5 in. dbh. In that case the rotation period is dictated by desired tree size. According to Tables 4 to 9 in LP and ES stands of poor productivity class, the dbh limit of 8.5 in, is not reached during the period investigated and therefore the stands remain unmerchantable. In LP in the medium productivity class, the average diameter of 8,5 in. is reached at the age of approximately 95, and in the good productivity class at the age of 45 years. In ES, in the medium pro-ductivity class, the minimum diameter is reached at the age of 120 and in the good productivity class at the age of approximately 63 years. The rotation period often is dictated by technical considerations, such as the minimum and maximum diameter of debarking equipment, type of mill organization (see Anonymous, 1966, p. 53) or the utilization standard. Dickson (1965) from Newfoundland reported that their merchantable pulpwood is composed of spruce and balsam fir 4 in. at dbh and up. Usually trees 177. TABLE 10: Rotation periods of maximal MAI (gross volume cu . f t , per acre) of LP and ES stands of different productivity classes Gross Prod. Rotation No. of dbh MAI tot . volume pecies class age trees i n . gross c u . f t . c u . f t . per acre LP poor 80 866 5.2 37.4 2991 medium 50 768 5.8 76,6 3832 good 35 541 7.6 170.6 6839 ES poor 130 670 5.7 24.6 2934 medium 120 385 8.5 39.0 4686 good 70 333 9.5 81.3 5694 178. c o n t a i n i n g one o r more s t i c k s o f 4 f t . pulpwood a r e h a r v e s t e d and t h i s t e n d s t o g i v e a h i g h e r number o f t r e e s p e r c o r d t h a n most o p e r a t o r s a r e us e d t o . T h i s e v i d e n c e o f smallwood u t i l i z a t i o n i n d i c a t e s a p o s s i b l e t r e n d i n f o r e s t r y i n B. C, toward p r o d u c t i o n o f volume p r i m a r i l y . I n s t a n d s where b u l k p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i v e , i t may p r o v e p r o f i t a b l e t o manage the f o r e s t v e r y i n t e n s i v e l y . The h a r v e s t i n g c a n be g r e a t l y m e chanized w i t h i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y and d e c r e a s i n g c o s t s . On the b e s t s i t e s , p e r h a p s p l a n t i n g ( a s mechanized as p o s s i b l e ) w i l l p r o v e p r o f i t a b l e , a i d e d by s e l e c -t i o n o f p r o v e n a n c e s c h o s e n because o f t h e i r wood and g r o w t h p r o p e r t i e s (Anonymous, 1965; H u t c h i n s o n and Roe, 1 9 6 2 ) , Perhaps f e r t i l i z a t i o n may p r o v e e c o n o m i c a l l y f e a s i b l e because o f the i n c r e a s e d r e t u r n s o f volume i n s h o r t e r t i m e (Anonymous, 1 9 6 5 a ) , Eco-n o m i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l become e v e n g r e a t e r i n i m p o r t a n c e and the o p t i m a l f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n ( H a l e y , 1963 and 1964; Sm i t h and H a l e y , 1964; P e a r s e , 1965 and 1966; and o t h e r s ) s h o u l d r e p l a c e t h e r o t a t i o n o f t h e maximal M I , S i l v i c u l t u r a l Management o f L o d g e p o l e P i n e and Engelmann Spruce Stands Wood p r o d u c t i o n I f t h e management o f a f o r e s t e n t e r p r i s e r e q u i r e s the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f s t a n d s o f e i t h e r s p e c i e s i t w i l l be d i r e c t e d by e c o n o m i c a l c o n s i -d e r a t i o n s , w h i c h a r e d i c t a t e d by t h e market demand p r e s e n t and f u t u r e , Newnham and S m i t h (1964) d e v e l o p e d s t a n d models f o r D o u g l a s - f i r and l o d g e -p o l e p i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o Lee (1966) t h e s e models p e r m i t r a p i d and i n e x p e n s i v e c o m p a r i s o n s o f a l a r g e number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s r e l a t e d t o i n i t i a l s p a c i n g . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e models c a n be f u r t h e r i m p r o v e d t o p r o v i d e d a t a 179 on v a r i o u s end p r o d u c t s , s u c h as t i m b e r f o r pulpwood, p o l e s , s a w l o g s , v e n e e r . S m i t h (1954) d i s c u s s e d t h e f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f p r u n i n g D o u g l a s -f i r t o p roduce c l e a r l o g s . H i s a p p r o a c h c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e 0 S m i t h (1958) , S m ith e t aXg_ (1961) , B a i l e y ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and o t h e r s on c omparable s i t e s e s t i m a t e d g r o w th i n dbh o f s e v e r a l s p e c i e s t o be a l m o s t t w i c e as f a s t a t open d e n s i t i e s as on t r e e s grown i n dense s t a n d s . B a i l e y (1964) found t h a t i n s t a n d s o f s i t e i n d e x 90 a t t h e age o f 80 y e a r s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e , 25 y e a r s were r e q u i r e d f o r a f o r e s t grown s t a n d t o grow t o a n a v e r a g e dbh o f 6 i n , , b u t o n l y 20 y e a r s f o r an open grown f o r e s t . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h age and t h e d i a m e t e r grown. S e v e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s were r e q u i r e d f o r a f o r e s t grown s t a n d t o a c h i e v e an a v e r a g e dbh o f 10 i n . , b u t o n l y 30 y e a r s f o r an open grown s t a n d . B a i l e y (1964) f o u n d t h a t a r e -d u c t i o n i n t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e and the r e d u c e d h e i g h t o f open grown t r e e s , a f f e c t e d g r e a t l y t h e y i e l d i n terms o f volume p e r a c r e as compared t o y i e l d o f n o r m a l l y f o r e s t grown s t a n d s . However, use o f t h e open-to-normal o r dense model p e r m i t s maximum y i e l d and r a t e o f g r o w t h o f t r e e s o f a c c e p t a b l e , or e ven s u p e r i o r ( D o b i e , 1966) q u a l i t y and v a l u e . The y i e l d t a b l e s shown i n T a b l e s 4 t o 9 c a n be u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e " o p e n - t o - n o r m a l " p a t t e r n . I f r o t a t i o n p e r i o d s a r e assumed as d e f i n e d by the maximal MAI o f volume and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g op-t i m a l numbers o f t r e e s , the numbers o f t r e e s a t the end o f t h e r o t a t i o n p e r i o d become th e m i n i m a l numbers o f t r e e s w i t h w h i c h a s t a n d must be e s t a b l i s h e d . I n LP o f poor p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 866 t r e e s a r e r e q u i r e d , i n medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 768, and i n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 540. I n ES o f p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 670 t r e e s a r e r e q u i r e d , i n medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 385, and i n t h e good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 333. 180. I n t h e t i m e from the e s t a b l i s h m e n t u n t i l the end o f t h e r o t a t i o n t h e t r e e s w o u l d grow from "open t o n o r m a l " s p a c i n g p a t t e r n . The use o f the o p t i m a l f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n p e r i o d , w h i c h i s g e n e r a l l y s h o r t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e maximal MAI o f volume, w o u l d change t h e number o f the r e q u i r e d t r e e s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e s t a n d . More t r e e s w o u l d be r e q u i r e d , because o f t h e s h o r t e r r o t a t i o n p e r i o d . I f fewer t r e e s a r e u s e d t h a n t h e numbers d e f i n e d by the o p t i m a l number o f t r e e s a t t h e end o f a r o t a t i o n p e r i o d , t h e n t h e space most l i k e l y i s n o t u t i l i z e d f u l l y , w h i c h w i l l r e s u l t p r o b a b l y i n r e d u c t i o n o f t h e volume p r o d u c e d (compare volumes d e r i v e d by B a i l e y , 1 9 6 4 ) . The g r o w i n g o f the s t a n d a c c o r d i n g t o a n "open t o n o r m a l " p a t t e r n a p p a r e n t l y w i l l n o t r e q u i r e any t e n d i n g o r i n t e r m e d i a t e c u t t i n g . There s h o u l d be c o n -s i d e r a b l e s a v i n g s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o s t s due t o the fewer t r e e s p l a n t e d ( S m i t h and B a i l e y , 1 9 6 4 ) . Jameson (1963) found t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n g r o w t h , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o i l , t o p o g r a p h y , and v e g e t a t i o n , were s u f f i c i e n t t o w a r r a n t s e p a r a t i o n o f the s i t e s f o r f o r e s t management p u r -p o s e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a s s e s s i n g t h e s i t e b e f o r e d e c i d i n g on the method o f s i l v i c u l t u r a l management ( s e e a l s o Hartmann, 1952; Lemmon, 1955; Carmean, 1961; and Hebb, 1 9 6 2 ) . F o r i n t e n s i f i e d management, the most s u i t a b l e s i t e s a r e t h o s e o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . I n the a r e a o f t h e s t u d y the s t a n d s c o n s i s t e d g e n e r a l l y o f ES, AF, and DF. LP p a r t i c i p a t e d l i t t l e i n t h e s t a n d composi-t i o n b ecause o f c o m p e t i t i o n and r a r e f i r e o c c u r r e n c e w h i c h p r e v e n t e d i t s n a t u r a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T here i s h a r d l y anybody who now w o u l d t h i n k o f e s t a b l i s h i n g LP on t h e s e s i t e s . However, i t i s a f a c t t h a t h e r e L P w o u l d p r o d u c e a good and f a s t r e t u r n i f e s t a b l i s h e d by p l a n t i n g . P r o b a b l y on t h e s e s i t e s , DF c o u l d 181. do as well as or better than LP, but LP would outgrow ES, because of its initial fast growth. According to Haddock (1961a) the highest quality sites should be promptly re-stocked at suitable spacing with best genotypes available of the species best fitted for the specific location. Similar suggestions were made by Lacate et al . (1965) for the management of TFL9 near Kelowna. In associations of the medium productivity class LP also grows much faster initially than ES. If stands with a rotation period as low as 50 years are desired (see Table 11), the LP stands established by planting would provide larger volumes than stands of ES, On sites of poor as well as low productivity class LP will remain the species of importance. It appears that stands of low productivity (site index 40 ft. and less at 100 years of age) which produce in the vicinity of 10 cu.ft. of annual gross volume increment per acre should be declared protection forests. These stands are generally unmerchantable and grow on sites which are exposed to extremes (temperature, drought, physiological shallowness of soil, steep slopes, etc.). Their function is mainly the protection of the site against erosion. They provide relative stability and building-up of the soil. Their value is in their presence and clear-cutting, burning and devastating should be prevented. Moss (1960) projected a trend of future management of currently over-mature and mature stands and stated that clear-cutting methods will largely supercede selective cutting systems,although not entirely. The; forest will be cut in strips or patches, probably not exceeding 10 to 15 chains in width. This type of logging is possible on almost any type of productive forest terrain. As was shown in the chapter on forest utiliza-tion, this type of logging will be compatible with the increased mechanization 182. o f l o g g i n g methods. Moss (1960) s t a t e d a l s o t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f a u n i f o r m s t a n d o f young g r o w t h w i l l i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n young g r o w t h s i l v i c u l t u r e , C l o s e a t t e n t i o n w i l l p r o b a b l y be p a i d t o s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n and i n i t i a l s t a n d a r d s o f s t o c k i n g t o a c h i e v e maximum i n c r e m e n t . Heath ( 1 9 5 9 ) , a l s o c i t e d i n Haddock ( 1 9 6 1 ) , s u g g e s t e d managing o f many s p r u c e s i t e s i n the B. C, i n t e r i o r f o r p r o d u c t i o n o f LP c r o p s . A c c o r d i n g t o H u t c h i n s o n and Roe (1962) i n Montana i n t e n s i f i e d f o r e s t management a p p e a r s t o be good b u s i n e s s , w i l l b r i g h t e n t h e l o n g - r u n p r o s p e c t s o f l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s and c a n s e r v e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s as w e l l . I t a p p e a r s t h a t a l s o i n Canada the same w i l l a p p l y i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . O b j e c t i v e s o f f o r e s t management o t h e r t h a n wood p r o d u c t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o C l a w s o n , H e l d and S t o d d a r d (1962) o b j e c t i v e s o f f o r e s t management o t h e r t h a n wood p r o d u c t i o n a r e s e v e r a l . R e c r e a t i o n , w a t e r s h e d , w i l d l i f e management and management o f l a n d u s e d f o r g r a z i n g and e x t r a c t i o n o f m i n e r a l s a r e the most i m p o r t a n t g r o u p s . M a j o r government o r company p o l i c i e s must t a k e more and more i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n management o f t h e f o r e s t from t h e v i e w p o i n t o f m u l t i p l e u s e . The i m p o r t a n c e o f the f o r e s t as a m u l t i p l e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e was p o i n t e d o u t i n USDA (1958) and by F l o c k (1959) , Penman ( 1 9 6 3 ) , Haddock (1963) and many o t h e r s . I t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o m e n t i o n h e r e t h a t the m u l t i p l e use management o f the f o r e s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i s o f e v e r - g r o w i n g i m p o r -t a n c e f o r two r e a s o n s . An e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n w i l l c r e a t e i n c r e a s i n g demands on t h e f o r e s t a r e a w h i l e a t the same t i m e t h i s a r e a i s d e c r e a s i n g , however i m p e r c e p t i b l y . 183. C h a p t e r Summary From l i t e r a t u r e i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e r e g e n e r a t i o n of b o t h s p e c i e s , L P as w e l l as ES, c a n be o b t a i n e d under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s by s i l v i c u l t u r a l c u t t i n g methods. I n ES i t w i l l r e q u i r e s e v e r a l y e a r s t o a c h i e v e a r e a s o n a b l y good s t o c k i n g . N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f LP i s more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n , b ecause o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n h e r e n t t o t h e s p e c i e s ( s l o w seed r e l e a s e , i n t o l e r a n c e t o shade and c o m p e t i t i o n , r e q u i r e m e n t o f m i n e r a l s e e d - b e d ) , I n i n s t a n c e s where n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n i s s l o w , seed-bed p r e p a r a t i o n by s c a r i -f i c a t i o n ( p e r h a p s w i t h heavy equipment) f o l l o w e d by s e e d i n g ( s p o t o r b r o a d -c a s t ) w i l l i mprove s t o c k i n g . However, t h e s e methods a r e o f t e n u n p r e d i c t a b l e and may f a i l . I t a p p e a r s t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t a n d s by p l a n t i n g w i l l become a common p r o c e d u r e i n f u t u r e . P l a n t i n g p e r m i t s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s t a n d s w i t h the d e s i r e d s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , s e l e c t e d p r o v e n a n c e s and t r e e s p e c i -mens; i t p e r m i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f s p a c i n g t o f i t s t a n d models (Newnham and S m i t h , 1964; S m ith and B a i l e y , 1 9 6 4 ) . F o r p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s the seed c o l l e c t i o n i n L P i s e a s i e r and c h e a p e r t h a n t h a t o f ES, The g e n e r a l n u r s e r y p r a c t i c e s a r e s i m i l a r f o r b o t h s p e c i e s however, LP c o u l d be p l a n t e d younger ( g e n e r a l l y 2-1) t h a n ES ( g e n e r a l l y 2-2). T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e time s a v i n g and a l s o a r e -d u c t i o n i n 'cost. I n t h e w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e the b e s t s u r v i v a l and g r o w t h i n e x p e r i m e n t a l and l a r g e s c a l e p l a n t i n g w i t h w h i t e and b l a c k s p r u c e i n N o r t h e r n O n t a r i o was o b t a i n e d w i t h 2-2 s t o c k , i n c o n t r a s t t o younger o r non-t r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have shown t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y LP i s s u i t a b l e f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d d e n s i t y . S i m i l a r r e s p o n s e c o u l d most l i k e l y be e x p e c t e d f r o m ES, 184. The s t u d y has shown t h a t under i n t e n s i v e management L P woul d be the more p r o m i s i n g s p e c i e s because o f i t s f a s t i n i t i a l g rowth i n c o n t r a s t t o ES, w h i c h i s a s l o w s t a r t e r , b u t c o n t i n u e s w i t h a good i n c r e m e n t f o r many y e a r s . G e n e r a l l y on s i t e s o f p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s L P w i l l r e m a i n t h e i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s . On s i t e s o f medium p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , LP s t a n d s e s t a b l i s h e d by p l a n t i n g w o u l d p r o v i d e l a r g e r volumes t h a n ES s t a n d s , i f s h o r t r o t a t i o n s a r e u s e d . On s i t e s o f good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s , LP has l i t t l e chance o f be-coming e s t a b l i s h e d n a t u r a l l y . However, on t h e s e s i t e s L P , i f e s t a b l i s h e d a r t i f i c i a l l y , w o u l d p r o d u c e v e r y good volumes i n a s h o r t t i m e . T h i s s t u d y has shown ( T a b l e s 4 t o 9) t h a t on a l l s i t e s LP i s a more s u i t a b l e s p e c i e s f o r f a s t e r volume g r o w t h t h a n ES, because o f i t s f a s t i n i t i a l g rowth and h i g h i n c r e m e n t . I t a p p e a r s t h a t w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n t e n s i v e management ( s e e under r o t a t i o n ) the o p t i m a l f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n p e r i o d may d e t e r m i n e the management p a t t e r n i n f u t u r e . I t c a n be assumed t h a t the o p t i m a l f i n a n c i a l r o t a t i o n w i l l be s h o r t e r t h a n t h e one of t h e o p t i m a l mean a n n u a l i n c r e m e n t . D u r i n g t h e s e " s h o r t " r o t a t i o n p e r i o d s , L P w i l l n o t be exceeded i n volume p r o d u c t i o n by ES under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The s u g g e s t i o n o f Sm i t h and B a i l e y (1964) t h a t due t o the i n c r e a s e o f crown s i z e w i t h age the d e n s i t y o f the s t a n d p r o c e e d s from open t h r o u g h normal t o dense f o r e s t c o n d i t i o n s , s h o u l d be s t u d i e d c a r e f u l l y , because o f the i m p r o v e -ments and c o s t r e d u c t i o n s t h a t c a n r e s u l t by f o l l o w i n g t h e "open t o n o r m a l " p a t t e r n . The w r i t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a c c u r a t e c o s t s o f se e d , n u r s e r y s t o c k and p l a n t i n g i n B, C, s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n , because o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r i n t e n s i v e f o r e s t management. 185 CONCLUDING REMARKS T h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e purpose o f comparing t h e o c c u r -e n c e , r e l a t i v e g r o w t h and v a l u e o f t h e two s p e c i e s , l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e . I t was found t h a t on s i t e s o f common o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l o d g e p o l e p i n e i s the i n i t i a l l y f a s t e r g r o w i n g s p e c i e s i n c o n t r a s t t o Engelmann s p r u c e . The a n n u a l h e i g h t , d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and volume i n c r e m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s , as w e l l a s o f s t a n d s , c u l m i n a t e d e a r l i e r t h a n t h a t o f Engelmann s p r u c e . Y i e l d t a b l e s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t l o d g e p o l e p i n e c o u l d p r o d u c e l a r g e r volumes p e r a c r e t h a n Engelmann s p r u c e , i n t he good p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t o t h e age o f 120 y e a r s , i n t h e medium p r o -d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t o t h e age o f o v e r 150 y e a r s , and i n t h e p o o r p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s f o r an u n d e t e r m i n e d p e r i o d o f y e a r s . L o d g e p o l e p i n e has a stem f o r m w h i c h i s more p a r a b o l i c t h a n t h a t o f Engelmann s p r u c e . T h i s f a c t may c o n t r i -b u t e t o the l a r g e r t o t a l g r o s s volume o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e t r e e s i n c o m p a r i s o n t o Engelmann s p r u c e o f t h e same d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t and c o u l d mean t h a t r e l a t i v e l y more lumber c a n be o b t a i n e d from l o d g e p o l e p i n e s a w l o g s . Growth d a t a o f t h i s and o t h e r s t u d i e s i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s (open grown and moderate t o dense s p a c i n g ) r e s u l t e d i n d i f f e r e n t g r o w t h r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s p e c i e s . F o r t h a t r e a s o n t h e r e s p o n s e o f Engelmann s p r u c e t o c o m p l e t e l y open c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u l l y . A l s o o f i n t e r e s t w o u l d be a c o m p a r i s o n o f growth o f b o t h s p e c i e s under d i f f e r e n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o d i a m e t e r a t b r e a s t h e i g h t , h e i g h t , volume, s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y and f i b r e l e n g t h . 186. The a p p a r e n t l y s l o w i n i t i a l g r o w t h o f Engelmann s p r u c e under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d more f u l l y . The e f f e c t s o f s p a c i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y when b o t h s p e c i e s a r e grown f r o m open t o dense com-p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n ("open t o n o r m a l " s p a c i n g ) d e s e r v e much more s t u d y . I n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f crown d i m e n s i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o the s i t e , s p a c i n g , h e i g h t , volume p r o d u c t i o n , form, e t c . s h o u l d be made. F o r t h e s e p u r p o s e s p l a n t a t i o n s o f b o t h s p e c i e s under d i f f e r e n t s p a c i n g s and on d i f f e r e n t s i t e s (good, medium and poor) s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d . A d d i t i o n a l e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s a r e needed f o r i m p r o v e d d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e Engelmann Spruce - A l p i n e F i r Zone. The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n f o r the t h e s i s was l i m i t e d t o t h e s o u t h e r n i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . However, i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t the two s p e c i e s w i l l grow s i m i l a r l y i n o t h e r a r e a s . P o s s i b l y t h e c o m p a r i s o n s o f l o d g e p o l e p i n e and Engelmann s p r u c e w i l l a p p l y t o o t h e r s p r u c e s p e c i e s . F o r i n t e n s i v e l y managed f o r e s t s l o d g e p o l e p i n e a p p e a r s t o have many ad v a n t a g e s o v e r Engelmann s p r u c e . I t i s hoped t h a t f o r e s t managers w i l l i n i t i a t e t h e s t u d i e s needed l o c a l l y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s p e c i e s s h o u l d be f a v o u r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s o f management. 187 . BIBLIOGRAPHY Remarks: Volume number i s on the l e f t s i d e o f c o l o n ( : ) ; Number o f p u b l i c a -t i o n i s i n b r a c k e t s ( ) on l e f t s i d e o f c o l o n ( : ) ; pages on r i g h t s i d e o f c o l o n ( : ) ; o r i n d i c a t e d w i t h p»-; t o t a l pages i n d i c a t e d w i t h pp. ABERCROMBIE, M. , C. J . HICKMAN and M . L. JOHNSON. 1964. A d i c t i o n a r y o f b i o l o g y . A l d i n e P u b l 0 Co., C h i c a g o , 254pp» ABRAMS, L. and R. F. FERRIS, 1944-60. I l l u s t r a t e d f l o r a o f t h e P a c i f i c S t a t e s , W a s h i n g t o n , Oregon and C a l i f o r n i a , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , S t a n f o r d , C a l i f o r n i a . 1-4: ACKERMAN, R. F. 1957. The e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s seedbed t r e a t m e n t s on t h e g e r m i n a t i o n and s u r v i v a l o f w h i t e s p r u c e and l o d g e p o l e p i n e s e e d l i n g s . Can. Dept. NANR, F o r . B r . , F o r . Res. D i v . , Techn. Note 63, 23pp. ACKERMAN, R. F. 1959. A c o m p a r i s o n o f methods o f d i r e c t s e e d i n g on m o u n t a i n l i t h o s o l s . Can Dept. NANR, F o r . B r . , F o r . Res. D i v . , Mimeo 59-11. ACKERMAN, \R. F. and J . L. FARRAR. 1965. The e f f e c t o f l i g h t and tempera-t u r e on t h e g e r m i n a t i o n o f j a c k p i n e and l o d g e p o l e p i n e s e e d s . F a c . F o r . , U n i v . T o r o n t o . Techn. Rep. (5) :41pp. ADDISON, J . W. 1965. R e g e n e r a t i o n o f w h i t e s p r u c e i n the P r i n c e George R e g i o n . F a c . F o r . , U.B.C, E s s a y , J a n , 12, 24pp., u n p u b l i s h e d . ALEXANDER, R. R. 1954. M o r t a l i t y f o l l o w i n g p a r t i a l c u t t i n g i n v i r g i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e s t a n d s . USDA, F o r . S e r v , , Rocky Mount. F o r . & Range Exp. S t a . , F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o , S t a . Pa. No. 16, 9pp. ALEXANDER, R. R. 1958. S i l v i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Engelmann s p r u c e . USDA, F o r . S e r v . , Rocky Mtn., F o r , R e s . Exp. S t a . Paper ( 3 1 ) , . 2 0 p p . ANONYMOUS. 1917. (Committee o f t h e Soc. o f A m e r i c a n F o r e s t e r s ) . J o u r . F o r . 1 5 ( 1 ) : 74. ANONYMOUS. 1962. S u s t a i n e d y i e l d does n o t e x i s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C a r i b o o S e c t i o n , C . I . F . R e p o r t . 4pp., u n p u b l i s h e d . ANONYMOUS. 1963. C h i p p r o d u c t i o n - a c h a n g i n g s c e n e . Canada Lumberman. 8 3 ( 4 ) : 2 4 - 2 6 . ANONYMOUS. 1965. How t o p l a n t f o r e s t s f o r m e c h a n i z e d l o g g i n g . Can, F o r . I n d u s t r i e s . J u l y , p. 43-44. ANONYMOUS. 1965a. T r e e f e r t i l i z i n g o f f e r s hope f o r h i g h e r y i e l d . C a n a d i a n P u l p and Paper I n d u s t r y . Dec. 1965, p. 29-30. 188. ANONYMOUS. 1966. L e s s t h a n 3% waste i n whole l o g p r o c e s s i n g , B. C. Lumberman, 5 0 ( 2 ) : 5 2 - 5 4 . ANONYMOUS. 1966a, L o g g i n g s t a g e s e t t o s u p p l y smallwood m i l l , B, C, Lumberman, 5 0 ( 3 ) : 3 2 - 3 4 . ARCHER, A. C. 1963. Some s y n e c o l o g i c a l p roblems i n the a l p i n e zone o f G a r i b a l d i P a r k . U.B.C, M.Sc } i 2 9 p p . ARLIDGE, J . U. C. 1955. 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Note No. 99, 1pp. BOE, K. N. 1956. R e g e n e r a t i o n and s l a s h d i s p o s a l i n l o d g e p o l e p i n e c l e a r c u t t i n g s . N o r t h w e s t S c i . 30(1) :1-11. BONNOR, G. M. 1962. A t r e e volume t a b l e f o r use w i t h a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s -r e d p i n e . Can. Dept. F o r . , F o r . R e s . B r , , M u l t i l i t h Rep. 63-H-4. BONNOR, G, M. 1964. The i n f l u e n c e o f s t a n d d e n s i t y on the c o r r e l a t i o n o f stem d i a m e t e r w i t h crown w i d t h and h e i g h t f o r l o d g e p o l e p i n e . F o r , C h r o n . 4 0 ( 3 ) : 3 4 7 - 3 4 9 . BOROS, G. 1958. L e x i k o n d e r B o t a n i k (Handbook o f B o t a n y ) . V e r l a g . E, U l m e r , S t u t t g a r t , BRAUN-BLANQUET, J . 1921. 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