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Carlyle and Tennyson : relations between a prophet and a poet Allgaeir, Johannes 1966

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CARLILE AND TENNYSON: RELATIONS BETWEEN A PROPHET AND A POET by JOHANNES ALLGAIER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f E n g l i s h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of. the requirements for an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of . B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that per-mission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholar ly -purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives,. It i s understood that copying, or p u b l i -cation of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. JOHANNES ALLGAIER Department of ENGLISH The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date A p r i l ^0, 1966 CARLYLE AND TENNYSON: RELATIONS BETWEEN A PROPHET AND A POET ABSTRACT C a r l y l e was much, more popular and i n f l u e n t i a l i n the n i n e t e e n t h century than he i s i n the t w e n t i e t h . Many c r i t i c s "believe t h a t he exerted an i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson, but there i s v e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t evidence to support such an o p i n i o n . However, c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence shows t h a t Tennyson must have been i n t e r e s t e d i n what C a r l y l e had to o f f e r ; t h a t C a r l y l e and Tennyson were p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s ; and t h a t there are many p a r a l l e l s between the works of C a r l y l e and Tennyson. C a r l y l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a romantic. H i s a t t i t u d e toward a r t i s ambivalent, a f a c t which i s i n d i c a t i v e of the c o n f l i c t between C a r l y l e ' s l o n g i n g f o r beauty, goodness, and t r u t h on the one hand, and, on the other, h i s r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a f f i r m i n g these absolutes w i t h i n the s p i r i t of h i s age. This ambivalence i s r e l a t e d t o the p o s t - K a n t i a n c o n f l i c t between "Mere Reason" and "Understanding". C a r l y l e d e s c r i b e s t h a t c o n f l i c t as the r e s u l t of a process of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of both the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . Tennyson's e a r l y p o e t r y i s determined by the i i same "romantic" c o n f l i c t , "but whereas i n C a r l y l e ' s w r i t i n g s t h i s c o n f l i c t i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y r e s o l v e d , Tennyson's e a r l y poems l a c k t h i s r e s o l u t i o n . One may say t h a t these poems represent Tennyson's " E v e r l a s t i n g No." C a r l y l e and Tennyson met f i r s t i n 18J8 and soon became p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s . Although d u r i n g the f o r t i e s t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p was at times v e r y i n t i m a t e , i t seems t h a t C a r l y l e took Tennyson not v e r y s e r i o u s l y , and t h a t Tennyson was sometimes annoyed over C a r l y l e ' s b l u s t e r i n g manner. But on the whole, Tennyson regarded C a r l y l e v e r y h i g h l y . I n In Memoriam. many s e c t i o n s of which were w r i t t e n a f t e r Tennyson had become acquainted w i t h C a r l y l e , Tennyson a r r i v e s at an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea," i . e . , at a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of "Mere Reason" and "Understanding" through r e n u n c i a t i o n ( S e l b s t t o t u n g ) . I n a d d i t i o n , the poem d i s p l a y s many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h S a r t o r Hesartus. But whereas i n C a r l y l e ' s w r i t i n g s the r e s o l u t i o n of the " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " i s mainly r a t i o n a l , i t becomes an i n t e n s e emotional experience i n Tennyson's poem. "L o c k s l e y H a l l " d i s p l a y s many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h S a r t o r Resartus i n g e n e r a l , and w i t h Book I I i n p a r t i c u l a r . These s i m i l a r i t i e s have l e d W i l l i a m D. Templeman t o m a i n t a i n t h a t " L o c k s l e y H a l l " i s a dramat i -z a t i o n of Book I I of S a r t o r . But apart from p a r a l l e l s i i i "between the two works, there i s no evidence t o support t h i s view. A f t e r 1850, when Tennyson r e c e i v e d the l a u r e a t e s h i p and founded a f a m i l y , he became more s e l f -r e l i a n t . H i s meetings w i t h C a r l y l e became l e s s frequent and more f o r m a l . However, there are many i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t both men h e l d each other i n h i g h esteem, d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t C a r l y l e o f t e n c r i t i c i s e d Tennyson. The p l o t and the c h a r a c t e r s i n Maud resemble Book I I of S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . I n a d d i t i o n , there are s e v e r a l other p a r a l l e l s between Maud and some of C a r l y l e * s works. I n one in s t a n c e i t appears l i k e l y t h a t Tennyson has used an image from Past and P r e s e n t . Furthermore, the hero i n Maud undergoes a p r o g r e s s i o n from an " E v e r l a s t i n g No" t o an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea," but there i s l i t t l e evidence t o prove t h a t such p a r a l l e l s r e f l e c t i n f l u e n c e s . A f t e r 1855» the f r i e n d s h i p between C a r l y l e and Tennyson may be d e s c r i b e d as a " f r i e n d l y companionship between two eq u a l s , n e i t h e r i g n o r i n g the o t h e r , but each e n j o y i n g f u l l i n t e l l e c t u a l independence." A f t e r a temporary estrangement, probably caused by C a r l y l e ' s overbearing manner, Tennyson appears to have taken the i n i t i a t i v e i n r e v i v i n g the f r i e n d s h i p (1865)• Although C a r l y l e ' s c r i t i c i s m of Tennyson continued t o be u n f a i r and d e s t r u c t i v e , Tennyson o f t e n i n d i c a t e d t h a t he had an i v a f f e c t i o n a t e r e g a r d f o r C a r l y l e . " L o c k s l e y H a l l S i x t y Years A f t e r " suggests t h a t Tennyson agreed c l o s e l y w i t h C a r l y l e ' s p o l i t i c a l views. Because C a r l y l e and Tennyson were i n t e r e s t e d i n the same i n t e l l e c t u a l problems; because C a r l y l e formulated s o l u t i o n s t o these problems much e a r l i e r than Tennyson; because Tennyson appears t o have accepted these s o l u t i o n s a f t e r he had met C a r l y l e ; because the two men were p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s ; and because there are many p a r a l l e l s between t h e i r works, i t appears l i k e l y t h a t C a r l y l e has exer t e d some i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson, although the extent of such i n f l u e n c e cannot be determined. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . A DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM AND A JUSTIFICATION OF THE METHOD EMPLOYED IN ITS SOLUTION 1 I I . CARLYLE AS A ROMANTIC . . . . . . . . . 12 I I I . TENNYSON AS- A ROMANTIC: AN EXAMINATION OF HIS EARLY POETRY . 28 IV. CARLYLE'S INTERCOURSE WITH TENNYSON BETWEEN THE TIME OF THEIR FIRST MEETING AND THE PUBLICATION OF IN MEMORIAM . 44 V. PARALLELS BETWEEN SARTOR AND IN MEMORIAM AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES FROM CARLYLE UPON TENNYSON 61 V I . PARALLELS BETWEEN SARTOR AND "LOCKSLEY HALL", AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES FROM CARLYLE UPON TENNYSON 84 V I I . TENNYSON'S INTERCOURSE WITH CARLYLE FROM 1850 TO 1855 (PUBLICATION OF MAUD) 100 V I I I . CARLYLE AND MAUD: PARALLELS AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES I l l Chapter Page IX. CARLYLE AND TENNYSON AITER MAUD . . . . 125 X. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 136 WORKS CITED 142 CHAPTER I A DEFINITION OP THE PROBLEM, AND A JUSTIFICATION OP THE METHOD EMPLOYED IN ITS SOLUTION I n the second h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century-i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o estimate the f u l l i n f l u e n c e which C a r l y l e ' s thought ex e r t e d over the minds of h i s contemporaries. The sharp d e c l i n e of C a r l y l e ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , can o n l y p a r t l y be e x p l a i n e d as the outcome of a c r i t i c a l examination of h i s i d e a s . Today, Thomas C a r l y l e i s not so much d i s l i k e d as he i s simply i g n o r e d . H i s e c l i p s e was caused by the f a c t t h a t h i s l i t e r a r y f a t e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the h i s t o r y of Europe d u r i n g the l a s t f i f t y y e a r s . During h i s l i f e t i m e , C a r l y l e had been the c h i e f i n t e r p r e t e r of German l i t e r a t u r e and thought i n England. Some time a f t e r h i s death, d u r i n g two World Wars, many of h i s ideas were used c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y as r a l l y i n g c r i e s by those who were to be the vanquished. Thus i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t the estrangement between England and Germany c o n t r i b u t e d d e c i s i v e l y t o the d e c l i n e of C a r l y l e ' s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h h i s countrymen. And having been unpopular w i t h one g e n e r a t i o n , C a r l y l e came t o be almost i g n o r e d by the next. To accept the near o b l i v i o n i n t o which C a r l y l e ' s works have passed i n the l a t e t w e n t i e t h century as an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a n d i n g i n the n i n e t e e n t h may t h e r e f o r e be h i g h l y d e c e p t i v e . I n h i s prime the "Sage of Chelsea" was regarded by most l i t e r a t e Englishmen as the prophet of the age. The f a c t t h a t h i s compatriots seldom heeded h i s advice r a t h e r confirms than denies h i s sta n d i n g as a prophet, i f indeed a "prophet i s not without honour, save i n h i s own country, and i n h i s own house." I n the words of a s c h o l a r who was a V i c t o r i a n h i m s e l f , the "man who f i r s t g i v e s us a key t o the s i g n i -f i c a n c e of the age of Tennyson i s not Tennyson h i m s e l f , nor Browning, nor any w r i t e r of v e r s e , but one who b e l i e v e d t h a t the day of p o e t r y was p a s t , — Thomas C a r l y l e . " ^ * And t h i s man "was d u r i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of h i s l i f e p . . . the g r e a t e s t l i t e r a r y f o r c e i n England." I n the o p i n i o n of the same s c h o l a r S a r t o r Resartus " i s the f i r s t great book which f a c e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s , and, i n a way, embodies the a s p i r a t i o n s of the new p e r i o d . " ^ The f a c t t h a t S a r t o r was n e v e r t h e l e s s not v e r y popular at any time may e a s i l y be a s c r i b e d t o C a r l y l e ' s devious and d i f f i c u l t s t y l e . " S w i f t , whom C a r l y l e resembled i n not a few ways, wrote a s t y l e unsurpassed f o r c l e a r n e s s and s i m p l i c i t y yet he i s not much read. How much l e s s would he be read were G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s w r i t t e n i n the s t y l e of S a r t o r Resartus!" John N i c h o l compares C a r l y l e to two of h i s g r e a t e s t contemporaries as f o l l o w s : C a r l y l e "remains the 3 master s p i r i t of h i s time, i t s Censor, as Macaulay i s i t s P a n e g y r i s t , and Tennyson i t s M i r r o r . " ' ' The a s s e r t i v e n e s s of such c r i t i c a l estimates makes i t worth one's w h i l e t o c o n s i d e r the i n f l u e n c e C a r l y l e may have exerted over Tennyson. Many c r i t i c s h o l d t h a t C a r l y l e d i d indeed e x e r t a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e over the poet. For example, the Rev. John Wi l s o n says: Most of the l i v i n g w r i t e r s of our time hear some t r a c e of C a r l y l e i n t h e i r work, even those who are i n other r e s p e c t s u n l i k e him. Do we no t , f o r i n s t a n c e , f i n d the poet-l a u r e a t e g i v i n g f o r t h t h i s p u r e l y C a r l y l e a n u t t e r a n c e [ i . e . , the p r o t e s t a g a i n s t modern shams], as i f the s p i r i t of the Chelsea sage, s t r u g g l i n g t o f i n d f o r i t s e l f e x p r e s s i o n i n p o l i s h e d v e r s e , had taken temporary p o s s e s s i o n of Tennyson?" One of Tennyson's "biographers concurs. H a r o l d N i c o l s o n s t a t e s t h a t C a r l y l e was "at the outset of h i s p r o p h e t i c c a r e e r when Tennyson was f i r s t admitted to h i s i n t i m a c y , and h i s o u t r i g h t c e r t i t u d e on a l l those problems which d i s t u r b e d and muddled the younger man, acted as an immediate and ve r y b r a c i n g s t i m u l u s . " ' Both men t r i e d t o s o l v e those problems through t h e i r " m i s t r u s t of l o g i c " and of " s o u l l e s s i n t e l l i g e n c e " , through the " b e l i e f i n t r u t h and v i r t u e dominant and triumphant i n face of the evidence of sense, i n face of those two d i s t u r b i n g n e g a t i v e s — the i n f i n i t y of space and the i n f i n i t y of time;" and through t h e i r " u l t i m a t e appeal t o i n t u i t i v e 8 theology." 4 These common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , shared as they were by A r n o l d and Browning, t o name j u s t two, s h a r p l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d the poet and the prophet from those who h e l d the o p i n i o n t h a t reason alone, s u b j e c t e d t o q u a s i -mechanical r u l e s of l o g i c , p r o v i d e d the means by which man c o u l d a r r i v e at the t r u t h . The s p l i t between the i n t u i t i v e and the e m p i r i c a l way of knowing c o n s t i t u t e s , of course, Western man's fundamental s p i r i t u a l problem. Nowhere was t h a t s p l i t more i n evidence than i n the r e l a t i o n s between C a r l y l e and John S t u a r t M i l l . I n order to understand what drew C a r l y l e and Tennyson t o g e t h e r i t may be h e l p f u l t o examine what kept C a r l y l e and M i l l f a r a p a r t . I r o n i c a l l y , when C a r l y l e , i n 1831, read M i l l ' s a r t i c l e s on "The S p i r i t of the Age" i n The Examiner, he Q h a i l e d the d i s c i p l e of Jeremy Bentham as "a new M y s t i c . " To be sure, these a r t i c l e s were M i l l ' s f i r s t p u b l i c admission t h a t he had recog n i z e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of the p u r e l y Benthamite view of human nature. But M i l l was f a r from making any metaphysical concessions. He merely m a r v e l l e d at h i s recent d i s c o v e r y , i n s p i r e d by Wordsworth, t h a t p o e t r y c o u l d be "a source of inward j o y , of sympathetic and i m a g i n a t i v e p l e a s u r e , " as he put i t i n h i s A u t o b i o g r a p h y . 1 0 U n l i k e Bentham, M i l l had acknowledged beauty as a commodity of l i f e . 5 M i l l ' s f i r s t l i t e r a r y acquaintance w i t h C a r l y l e i s s i m i l a r l y i r o n i c . I n the Autobiography he mentions C a r l y l e ' s gospel of s t o i c r e n u n c i a t i o n as "one of the channels through which [he] r e c e i v e d the i n f l u e n c e s which enlarged [ h i s ] e a r l y narrow creed." But i n s t e a d of renouncing "happiness" on metaphysical grounds, he merely r e j e c t s i t as a d i r e c t , p r i n c i p a l aim, o n l y i n order t o enjoy i t the more f u l l y , as he says, "en p a s s a n t . " 1 1 Perhaps never has a l i t e r a r y f r i e n d s h i p t h r i v e n on a deeper misunderstanding than t h a t between C a r l y l e and M i l l . J . A. Froude, C a r l y l e ' s good f r i e n d and a u t h o r i z e d b i o grapher, suggests t h a t what r e a l l y drew C a r l y l e and M i l l together i n i t i a l l y was t h e i r b e l i e f " t h a t the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l arrangements i n t h i s country were i n c u r a b l y bad, t h a t . . . there was at present such deep i n j u s t i c e t h a t the system which p e r m i t t e d such t h i n g s 12 c o u l d not be of l o n g endurance." But when i t came t o p r e s c r i b i n g a cure f o r the s i c k body p o l i t i c , the two p r a c t i t i o n e r s c o u l d not even agree on the nature of the p a t i e n t . B e l i e v i n g i n the supremacy of l o g i c , M i l l c o u l d not imagine h i m s e l f t o form an unconscious p a r t i n a h i s t o r i c a l , q u a s i - b i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . For him s o c i e t y f u n c t i o n e d by v i r t u e of a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t which e x i s t e d s o l e l y f o r the b e n e f i t of the i n d i v i d u a l . C a r l y l e , on the other hand, had found i n Kant and the post-Kantians a r a t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r h i s Promethean d e f i a n c e of the r e s t r a i n t of e m p i r i c a l knowledge. H i s view of the body p o l i t i c as an organism i s the s o c i a l - p o l i t i c a l consequence of the C r i t i q u e of Pure Reason. 1^ Man, C a r l y l e f e l t , cannot "understand" the mechanism of a process i n which he h i m s e l f i s i n v o l v e d ; he can merely "see" or " f e e l " t h a t he forms a n a t u r a l p a r t of something g r e a t e r than h i m s e l f . Thus i t was not l o n g before both men d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they were worlds a p a r t . As e a r l y as 1836 C a r l y l e wrote to h i s w i f e about a v i s i t t o M i l l : " I t seemed to me the s t r a n g e s t t h i n g what t h i s man c o u l d want w i t h me, or I w i t h such a man so u n h e i m l i c h t o me. . . . 1 t h i n k I 15 s h a l l see l e s s and l e s s of him." ' About M i l l ' s Autobiography. which had appeared s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s death i n 1873i C a r l y l e wrote to h i s b r o t h e r : " I t i s w h o l l y the l i f e of a l o g i c - c h o p p i n g engine, l i t t l e more of human i n i t than i f i t had been done by a t h i n g of mechanized i r o n . However, i t goes w h o l l y t o the c r e d i t of M i l l ' s noble c h a r a c t e r t h a t he always spoke of C a r l y l e w i t h the h i g h e s t . r e s p e c t . In the Autob i o graphy he says: " I d i d not . . . deem myself a competent judge of C a r l y l e . I f e l t t h a t he was a poet, and t h a t I was not; t h a t he was 17 a man of i n t u i t i o n , which I was not." I n c o n t r a s t t o M i l l , Tennyson was a "poet" and a "man of i n t u i t i o n " . Indeed, H a r o l d N i c o l s o n suggests t h a t Tennyson's and C a r l y l e ' s "mutual i d e n t i t y of thought" 7 was so profound t h a t i t overcame t h e i r r a t h e r obvious temperamental d i f f e r e n c e s . For C a r l y l e d i d not t r e a t Tennyson the poet w i t h the same sympathy which he extended to Tennyson the man; nor was the l a t t e r g e n e r a l l y g i v e n t o c u l t i v a t i n g the acquaintance of people who were outspoken i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of h i s work. And C a r l y l e , w i t h h i s broad Annandale accent, was v e r y outspoken. He advised Tennyson to give up w r i t i n g verses a l t o g e t h e r ; . . . he laughed at him f o r h i s s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o c r i t i c i s m ; . . . t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p was not based on a community of l i t e r a r y t a s t e s , and we do not f i n d Tennyson i n d u l g i n g C a r l y l e w i t h r e c i t a t i o n s from Maud or The Duke of W e l l i n g t o n . T h e i r companionship was of a more r o b u s t , and i n t r u t h of a more enduring character.18 Froude a l s o confirms what others have s t a t e d . "Tennyson became the v o i c e of t h i s f e e l i n g [ i . e . , the r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t i n s i n c e r i t y ] i n p o e t r y ; C a r l y l e i n what was c a l l e d prose, . . . C a r l y l e stood beside him as a 19 prophet and t e a c h e r . " 7 Henry J . Jennings, who p u b l i s h e d a biography of Tennyson as e a r l y as 1884, says, " C a r l y l e , there can be l i t t l e doubt, had a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e upon 20 Tennyson." And, f i n a l l y , a more recent c r i t i c of Tennyson, V a l e r i e P i t t , f i n d s t h a t " . . . the i n f l u e n c e of C a r l y l e on h i s verse i s more than the mere echo of C a r l y l e ' s d e d i c a t e d b e l l i g e r e n c e . I t i s deeply absorbed 21 i n t o h i s t h i n k i n g . " Yet d e s p i t e t h e i r a s s e r t i v e h e s s , none of the c r i t i c s and biographers quoted p r o v i d e s any d i r e c t , concrete evidence f o r such " i n f l u e n c e s . " Indeed, such 8 evidence cannot "be drawn from the incomplete b i o g r a p h i c a l r e c o r d of the f r i e n d s h i p and i n t e r c o u r s e between C a r l y l e and Tennyson. The b i o g r a p h i c a l data merely permit one t o form a p i c t u r e of the f r i e n d s h i p i n g e n e r a l , r a t h e r than to p o i n t t o s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e s i n e i t h e r man's work. 22 C h a r l e s R i c h a r d Sanders has c a r e f u l l y compiled most of the a v a i l a b l e d a t a concerning the i n t e r c o u r s e between C a r l y l e and Tennyson i n t o a c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e c o r d . Without the d i s c o v e r y of new evidence, l i t t l e c o u l d be added t o t h i s study, upon which the b i o g r a p h i c a l p a r t of the present work l a r g e l y r e s t s . P r o f e s s o r Sanders suggests t h a t the . . . f u l l impact of C a r l y l e ' s mind on Tennyson's p o e t r y . . . i s important and should be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u l l y . I t i s concerned w i t h such matters as common sense and p r a c t i c a l i t y i n C a r l y l e ' s Abbot Samson and Cromwell and i n Tennyson's f i r s t Northern Parmer, the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n , and K i n g A r t h u r ; w i t h a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t a l l k i n d s of shams and a h o l d i n g up of v e r a c i t y and s i n c e r i t y as h i g h i d e a l s ; w i t h a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the p a s t , and w i t h the v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l problems of the pres e n t ; . . . w i t h a p r a i s e of honest doubt but a l s o w i t h f a i t h i n the i m a g i n a t i o n and a conception of r e a l i t y which emphasizes the p a r t mystery has i n the nature of t h i n g s ; w i t h a p e r s i s t e n t p r o t e s t a g a i n s t m a t e r i a l i s m and a f r e s h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n ; [and wi t h ] . . • a s t y l e which at times makes much of sug g e s t i o n , s i l e n c e , s i m p l i c i t y , and b r e v i t y and at other times u n f o l d s i t s e l f i n forms which are c o l o r f u l , complex, i r r e g u l a r , r i c h l y ornamented, rough-grained, expansive, or baroque.23 Now i t need not be p o i n t e d out t h a t a l l of the p a r a l l e l s which P r o f e s s o r Sanders l i s t s are so general t h a t they can be found i n a great number of men other than C a r l y l e and Tennyson. Some of the p a r a l l e l s i n t h e i r works are indeed s t r i k i n g and have l e d many c r i t i c s t o c l a i m " i n f l u e n c e s " . However, taken by themselves these p a r a l l e l s do not prove t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson. S i m i l a r l y , as has been p o i n t e d out, the b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence alone i s e q u a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . This essay w i l l attempt to s u b s t a n t i a t e some of the b i o g r a p h i c a l and i n t e r n a l evidence by what may be termed, f o r want of a b e t t e r word, " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " evidence. There was, i t w i l l be argued, an e s s e n t i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l k i n s h i p between C a r l y l e and Tennyson before the two men ever became acquainted; and t h a t , furthermore, by the time t h e i r acquaintance began, Tennyson had reached a stage i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l development i n which the poet's mind was e a g e r l y r e c e p t i v e of the word of the prophet; i n which, moreover, i t may be assumed t h a t he had been a c t i v e l y s e a r c h i n g f o r the s o l u t i o n s of those problems which C a r l y l e had a l r e a d y s o l v e d . Separate from the b i o g r a p h i c a l and i n t e r n a l evidence, the p s y c h o l o g i c a l method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f e r e d here leads t o w h o l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s . But a psycho-l o g i c a l comparison i t s e l f may have c r i t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s i f 10 i t c o n t r i b u t e s something t o the understanding of the authors compared. As R i c h a r d D. A l t i c k put i n i n The A r t of L i t e r a r y Research. . . . once we r e a l i z e t h a t both k i n d s of answer — i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a unique source and the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a g i v e n f e a t u r e of a work can be found i n many-other p l a c e s — have p o t e n t i a l c r i t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s , we need not worry about the d i r e c t i o n i n which our evidence leads us. I t i s what we conclude at our journey's end t h a t counts. At the end i t may appear t h a t a l l three c a t e g o r i e s of evidence regarded as a whole w i l l p o i n t t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t , indeed, C a r l y l e d i d e x e r t a n o t i c e a b l e i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson. FOOTNOTES 1Hug5h Walker, The Age of Tennyson (London, 1897), p. 12. ^ I b i d . , p. 16. 5 I b i d . , p. 25. 4 I b i d . , p. 35. ^Thomas C a r l y l e (London, 1892), p. 244. Thomas C a r l y l e , The I c o n o c l a s t of Modern Shams ( P a i s l e y , 1881), pp. 101-102. ^Tennyson (London, 1923), p. 140. 8 I b i d . , pp. 140-141. 9john S t u a r t M i l l , Autobiography (London, 1873), p. 17^« 1 0 I b i d . , p. 148. i : L I b i d . , pp. 142, 174. 1 2Thomas C a r l y l e (London, 1884), I I , 420-421. 1 5Q.v. be low;,, p. 19 f f . ^uncanny. 1 5 P r o u d e , I , 74-75. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 420. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 176. 1 8 N i c o l s o n , op. c i t . , pp. 141-142. 1 9 P r o u d e , I , 291. L o r d Tennyson. A B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch (London, 1884), p. 81. 2 1Tennyson Laureate (London, 1962), p. 177* 2 2 , , C a r l y l e and Tennyson," PMLA, LXXVI (1961), 82-97-2 5 I b i d . , p. 97. 2 4(New York, 1963), pp. 82-83. CHAPTER I I CARLYLE AS A ROMANTIC Long before C a r l y l e and Tennyson became acquainted w i t h each o t h e r , t h e i r minds were engaged w i t h s i m i l a r problems. Indeed, the p a r a l l e l i s m i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s , at a time when they d i d not know each other, was so c l o s e , t h a t i t appears as an i n t e r -e s t i n g t a s k t o explore the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s and the nature of t h e i r e v e n t u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . The assumption t h a t C a r l y l e came to e x e r t an i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson i s supported by the c h a r a c t e r s of the two men. C a r l y l e , who was f o u r t e e n years o l d e r than Tennyson, was a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , almost arrogant prophet w i t h a t u r n f o r b i t t e r i r o n y , whereas Tennyson was a somewhat shy and withdrawn, h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e a r t i s t who probably suspected i r o n y even where i t was not intended. I t seems probable — and i t may be shown c l e a r l y l a t e r on — t h a t Tennyson was s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d by C a r l y l e *s magnetism, and became, from an acquaintance, an i n t i m a t e and p l i a n t f r i e n d . I t seems t o be taken f o r granted t h a t any i n f l u e n c e occurred i n one d i r e c t i o n o n l y , namely from C a r l y l e t o Tennyson; indeed, to one f a m i l i a r w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s and works of C a r l y l e and Tennyson such a 13 one-sidedness seems so obvious t h a t the opposite case tends t o be d i s r e g a r d e d a l t o g e t h e r . I n g e n e r a l , however, i t should f i r s t be considered t h a t C a r l y l e was f o u r t e e n years o l d e r than Tennyson and had a r r i v e d at a more or l e s s d e f i n i t e p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e at a time when Tennyson was s t i l l s e a r c h i n g ; secondly, i t w i l l be seen t h a t C a r l y l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o Tennyson's p o e t r y , whether fa v o u r a b l e o r , more o f t e n , unfavourable, were always so gene r a l and epigrammatic t h a t i t i s f a i r t o say t h a t C a r l y l e took Tennyson's p o e t r y f o r l i t t l e more than a time-consuming d i v e r s i o n . T h i r d l y and l a s t l y , there i s the i n t e r n a l evidence, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l of Tennyson's poems which show d i s t i n c t p a r a l l e l s w i t h c e r t a i n of C a r l y l e ' s thoughts and images were w r i t t e n l a t e r than the corresponding works by C a r l y l e . Conversely, no evidence t h a t i n f l u e n c e may have taken p l a c e i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n has been d i s c o v e r e d . 1 But before we examine the q u e s t i o n of i n f l u e n c e s i n d e t a i l , i t i s our task t o assess the extent of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , and s p i r i t u a l k i n s h i p between Tennyson and C a r l y l e . I t w i l l be shown t h a t both C a r l y l e and Tennyson were e s s e n t i a l l y r omantics, and t h a t i t was t h e i r romanticism which drew them t o g e t h e r . The present chapter w i l l t h e r e f o r e concern i t s e l f w i t h a c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of C a r l y l e as a romantic. Chapter I I I w i l l then examine some of those poems by Tennyson which were w r i t t e n at a 14 time when the poet i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y c o u l d not have been p acquainted w i t h C a r l y l e and h i s i d e a s . Tennyson's i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t s and problems, i t w i l l be found, were v e r y s i m i l a r to C a r l y l e ' s , although i n Tennyson's e a r l y p o e t r y t h e i r e l a b o r a t i o n s and s o l u t i o n s are s t i l l l a c k i n g . Many of Tennyson's poems i n the 1830 and 1833 volumes have such t y p i c a l l y romantic themes as the nature of a r t ; the nature of the a r t i s t and h i s r e l a t i o n t o other men; the r e l a t i o n of a r t t o l i f e and r e a l i t y ; and the r e l a t i o n between the t r u e , the good, and the b e a u t i f u l . Such themes are foremost i n C a r l y l e ' s thought. H i s a t t i t u d e toward a r t and the a r t i s t i n modern s o c i e t y , i n i t s marked ambivalence, i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t 4 of Oswald kpengler, whom C a r l y l e , as E r i c B e n t l e y has p o i n t e d out, resembles i n more than one way. Spengler c o n s i d e r s h i s own ph i l o s o p h y t o be t h a t of Goethe;"^ but the young men who are t o shape the Twentieth Century he urges not to i m i t a t e Sophocles and Goethe, nor N i e t z s c h e , whom he r i d i c u l e s f o r h i s romanticism, but — C e c i l Rhodes. S i m i l a r l y , i t may be s a i d t h a t C a r l y l e ' s head belongs t o the d r i l l sergeant, the empire b u i l d e r , the c a p t a i n of i n d u s t r y , but h i s heart owed a l l e g i a n c e t o the poet. Such dualism i s , of course, a b a s i c c o n d i t i o n of the romantic; " Z e r r i s s e n h e i t " the Germans c a l l i t , "being t o r n a p a r t . " I t i s the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Te u f e l s d r o c k h . "To the 15 eye of v u l g a r l o g i c , " says he, "what i s man? An omnivorous Biped t h a t wears Breeches. To the eye of Pure Reason what n i s he? A S o u l , a S p i r i t , and d i v i n e A p p a r i t i o n . " ' ' "Over such a u n i v e r s a l medley of h i g h and low, of hot, Q c o l d , moist and d r y , i s he here s t r u g g l i n g , " says C a r l y l e of h i s c r e a t u r e , and, " . . . i n T e u f e l s d r o c k h , there i s always the s t r a n g e s t Dualism."^ S i m i l a r l y , C a r l y l e c o u l d both condemn and p r a i s e a r t and p o e t r y i n the most outspoken terms. L a t e l y , a t t e n t i o n has been drawn to the f a c t , h i t h e r t o unsuspected by most of h i s r e a d e r s , t h a t C a r l y l e h i m s e l f wrote some p o e t r y , m a i n l y before 1 8 4 0 . 1 0 But by the time he wrote " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " i n 1831 he was a l r e a d y h i g h l y s u s p i c i o u s of l i t e r a r y a r t , which he d i v i d e s i n t o "Babylon the Mother of Abominations" and "such l i t e r a t u r e as can be s a i d to have some attempt towards t r u t h i n i t . " 1 1 He f i n d s t h a t " a l l l i t e r a t u r e has become one boundless s e l f - d e v o u r i n g 12 Review"; Byron "mistakes earthborn passionate D e s i r e f o r h e a v e n - i n s p i r e d F r e e w i l l , " and S h e l l e y i s " f i l l i n g the 15 e a r t h w i t h i n a r t i c u l a t e w a i l . " y When C a r l y l e was i n the e a r l y stages of h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h Tennyson, i n 1842, he a p p a r e n t l y comforted h i m s e l f by c a l l i n g the poet "a life-guardsman s p o i l t by 14 making p o e t r y . " And Edward F i t z g e r a l d marvels at the new f r i e n d s h i p s i n c e C a r l y l e was 16 . . . n a t u r a l l y p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t one whom everyone was p r a i s i n g , and p r a i s i n g f o r a s o r t of p o e t r y which he despi s e d . But d i r e c t l y he saw and heard the man, he knew there was a man to d e a l w i t h and took p a i n s t o c u l t i v a t e him; assiduous i n e x h o r t i n g him t o leave Verse and Rhyme, and to apply h i s genius to Prose and Work.15 Wilson quotes a s i m i l a r s t o r y from Margaret F u l l e r ; At a d i n n e r - p a r t y i n October, 1846, C a r l y l e . . . was t a l k i n g about p o e t r y . Tennyson wrote verse because the schoolmaster had taught him t h a t i t was great to do so, and had thus , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , been turned from the t r u e path f o r a man. Burns had, i n l i k e manner, been turned from h i s v o c a t i o n . Shakespeare had not the good sense t o see t h a t i t would have been b e t t e r t o w r i t e s t r a i g h t on i n prose.16 The appearance of Tennyson's P r i n c e s s f u r n i s h e d C a r l y l e w i t h "new melancholy proof of the f u t i l i t y of what they 17 c a l l ' A r t ' , " he noted i n h i s j o u r n a l . ' At h i s a n g r i e s t , the o l d C a r l y l e accuses the men of genius of f o r s a k i n g t h e i r d i v i n e l y ordained duty i n favour of an escape " i n t o ' L i t e r a t u r e * , i n t o what they c a l l A r t , P o e t r y and the l i k e ; [where they] w i l l m ainly waste themselves i n t h a t inane r e g i o n , — f a l l e n so inane i n our mad e r a . A l s o , though born Sons of Wisdom, they are not exempt from a l l our "I Q 'Swarmeries 1', but on l y from the gro s s e r k i n d of them. Th i s of ' A r t ' , 'Poetry' and so forth., i s a r e f i n e d Swarmery. C a r l y l e * s mind, which d e r i v e d i t s moral earnestness from S c o t t i s h p u r i t a n i s m , was on l y too p a i n f u l l y aware of the d i f f i c u l t y of r e c o n c i l i n g the 17 good and the b e a u t i f u l . But h i s h e a r t belonged neverthe-l e s s t o the a r t i s t . C a r l y l e ' s c r u e l vehemence, h i s dyspepsia, and u l t i m a t e l y h i s c r e a t i v e d r i v e may be regarded as symptoms of the s t r u g g l e w i t h i n h i m s e l f between the p u r i t a n bourgeois and the passionate a r t i s t . Whenever the a r t i s t succeeded i n s i l e n c i n g the p r o t e s t s of the bourgeois, C a r l y l e c o u l d p r a i s e the a r t s and l i t e r a t u r e i n the l o f t i e s t terms. In such moments of e x a l t a t i o n a r t became f o r him once again a r e v e l a t i o n of the d i v i n e , as i t had been i n the b e g i n n i n g of h i s t o r y . L i k e Matthew A r n o l d he d i s c o v e r e d the t r u e , the good, and the b e a u t i f u l i n r e l i g i o n apart from t h a t which men c o u l d no l o n g e r b e l i e v e i n . "Our r e l i g i o n has m a t e r i a l i z e d i t s e l f i n the f a c t , i n the supposed f a c t ; i t has attached i t s emotion to the f a c t , and now the f a c t i s f a i l i n g i t . . . . The s t r o n g e s t p a r t of our r e l i g i o n today i s i t s unconscious p o e t r y , " says Matthew A r n o l d i n the opening paragraph of 20 h i s essay "The Study of P o e t r y . " C a r l y l e pronounces 21 l i t e r a t u r e the r e l i g i o n of the f u t u r e , when the poet w i l l once again r e v e a l the E t e r n a l behind the v e i l of time and space, — Goethe's open s e c r e t . "Vates means both Prophet and Poet: and indeed at a l l t imes, Prophet and 22 Poet, w e l l understood, have much k i n d r e d of meaning." The poet i s f i r s t and foremost a great man, a hero, whom mere ac c i d e n t of fortune and environment has pressed i n t o 23 the s e r v i c e of h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a l l i n g . 18 C a r l y l e 1 s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the music i n p o e t r y o f t e n borders on the r h a p s o d i c . A m u s i c a l thought i s one spoken by a mind t h a t has pen e t r a t e d i n t o the inmost h e a r t of the t h i n g ; d e t e c t e d the inmost mystery of i t , namely the melody t h a t l i e s hidden i n i t ; the inward harmony of coherence which i s i t s s o u l , whereby i t e x i s t s , and has a r i g h t t o be, here i n t h i s w o r l d . . . . Who i s there t h a t , i n l o g i c a l words, can express the e f f e c t music has on us? A k i n d of i n a r t i c u l a t e unfathomable speech, which l e a d s us t o the edge of the I n f i n i t e , and l e t s us f o r moments gaze i n t o that:24 And " . . . wherever you f i n d a sentence m u s i c a l l y worded, of t r u e rhythm and melody i n the words, there i s somethin 25 deep and good i n the meaning too." ' F i t z g e r a l d t o l d Hallam Tennyson t h a t C a r l y l e once s a i d t h a t Tennyson "must have music dormant i n him, r e v e a l i n g i t s e l f i n v e r s e , " and t h a t h i s v o i c e was " l i k e the sound of a p i n e -26 wood." I n some of h i s l e t t e r s C a r l y l e pays homage t o the music of Tennyson's p o e t r y and even of h i s o r d i n a r y speech. He c a l l s him "a great melodious P o e t - s o u l " who 27 has a "deep, c l e a r m e t a l l i c v o i c e , " ' and whose speech 28 borders on s i n g i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f i r s t requirement f o r a poet, and the foremost, i s not any s p e c i a l s k i l l or knowledge, but a d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a b i l i t y t o see t h i n g s as they, r e a l l y a r e . I f he cannot or w i l l not see r e a l i t y , C a r l y l a d vises him, ". . . i t i s of no use t o keep s t r i n g i n g rhymes t o g e t h e r , j i n g l i n g s e n s i b i l i t i e s a g a i n s t each other and name y o u r s e l f a Poet." 7 The poet i s the 19 m y s t i c a l v o i c e of the s o c i a l organism, "Nature's own sacred v o i c e heard once more athwart, the dre a r y "boundless element of h e a r s a y i n g and c a n t i n g , of twaddle and p o l t r o o n e r y , i n which the bewi l d e r e d e a r t h , n i g h p e r i s h i n g , has l o s t i t s way."^° "The Poet i s a h e r o i c f i g u r e b e l o n g i n g to a l l ages; whom a l l ages possess, when once he i s produced, whom the newest age as the o l d e s t man produce; — and w i l l produce, always when Nature p l e a s e s . " ^ 1 The l a t t e r l i m i t a t i o n i s important, f o r i t c o n t a i n s the c l u e f o r an understanding of C a r l y l e ' s s t r a n g e l y p a r a d o x i c a l r e l a t i o n t o a r t and p o e t r y . The l i m i t a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the r i s e of a poet i n a p a r t i c u l a r age i s determined by f a c t o r s which are not under human c o n t r o l . Nature s e t s the stage f o r the appearance of the tr u e poet and, i n the ups and downs of human c u l t u r e , Nature i s c a l l e d H i s t o r y . L i k e Ruskin and A r n o l d , C a r l y l e l ooked at c u l t u r e as a f u n c t i o n of i r r e v e r s i b l e time. The q u a l i t y of a work of a r t was not to be judged s o l e l y on i t s i n h e r e n t , u n i v e r s a l , " t i m e l e s s " v a l u e , but a l s o , and mainly, on i t s v e r a c i t y as a r e f l e x i o n of the human c o n d i t i o n at a p a r t i c u l a r time. S i m i l a r l y , f o r C a r l y l e the c h a l l e n g e of the armoured champion of England at the c o r o n a t i o n ceremony^ was as much an anachronism i n 19th century England as f o r R u s k i n the e r e c t i o n of the Y o r k s h i r e Exchange i n G o t h i c . ' C a r l y l e ' s keen p e r c e p t i o n of the Z e i t g e i s t 20 found an e a r l y e x p r e s s i o n i n " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " w r i t t e n i n 1831 w h i l e C a r l y l e was i n London seeking a p u b l i s h e r f o r S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . I f one were t o s e l e c t one of C a r l y l e ' s s h o r t e r essays as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s l i f e ' s work one would have t o choose " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " s i n c e i t c o n t a i n s the e s s e n t i a l s of a l l of h i s . i m p o r t a n t i d e a s . Fundamentally, the essay arose out of the c r e a t i v e t e n s i o n between the two extremes of what one may c a l l the " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " between "Pure Reason", and "Understanding" ( K a n t ) ; ^ between l o g i c and i n t u i t i o n ; between r e a l i t y p e r c e i v e d as c a u s a l i t y and U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y conceived as Truth. I n e t h i c s , t h i s p o l a r i t y manifests i t s e l f i n man's Z e r r i s s e n h e i t between duty and law on the one hand and between w i l l and d e s i r e on the other. The v o i c e of "Thou s h a l t , " however conceived, forms a p a i n f u l cacophony w i t h t h a t of " I w i l l . " F i c h t e saw the c o n f l i c t between the N i c h t - I c h and the I c h , and he considered a l l a r t and ph i l o s o p h y as an attempt to c l o s e the gaping wound t h a t Tieck and N o v a l i s -saw as the l i f e of man. Be t h a t as i t may, romantic a r t and thought are pervaded w i t h a s t r o n g y e a r n i n g to be "whole" again, to be "innocent" i n Blake's sense, and u l t i m a t e l y , to be unconscious of one's e x i s t e n c e as a l i t t l e r i v a l t o Absolute E x i s t e n c e . There was once a time i n the l i f e of mankind and of every i n d i v i d u a l man when, as C a r l y l e says, we had 21 . . . seasons of a l i g h t , a e r i a l t r a n s l u c e n c y and e l a s t i c i t y and p e r f e c t freedom; the body had not yet become the prison-house of the s o u l , but was i t s v e h i c l e and implement, l i k e a c r e a t u r e of the thought, and a l t o g e t h e r p l i a n t t o i t s b i d d i n g . We knew not t h a t we had l i m b s , we o n l y l i f t e d , h u r l e d and l e a p t ; through eye and e a r , and a l l avenues of sense, came c l e a r unimpeded t i d i n g s from w i t h o u t , and from w i t h i n i s s u e d c l e a r v i c t o r i o u s f o r c e ; we stood as i n the centre of Nature, g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g , i n harmony w i t h i t a l l . 3 5 But man f o r f e i t e d P a r a d i s e by e a t i n g the f r u i t of the Tree of Knowledge, which " s p r i n g s from a r o o t of e v i l . " 5 6 Man wanted "to be l i k e God," 5 7 t h a t i s , know the d i f f e r e n c e between good and e v i l ; and as a r e s u l t 38 l o g i c took the p l a c e of i n s i g h t ; - ^ r h e t o r i c t h a t of 39 40 o r a t o r y ; ^ J moral p h i l o s o p h y r e p l a c e d v i r t u e , and 41 s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , t r u e a f f e c t i o n . F i n a l l y , when C a r l y l e was w r i t i n g " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " science was e s t a b l i s h i n g 42 i t s e l f as the r e l i g i o n of the Modern Age, complete w i t h human s a c r i f i c e . L i t e r a t u r e has f a r e d no b e t t e r ; i t "has 4-5 become one boundless s e l f - d e v o u r i n g Review"; ^ i t s s u b j e c t matter d i s p l a y s not "the l o v e of greatness, but the l o v e 44 of the love of greatness." I t must be emphasized here t h a t i n h i s exami-n a t i o n of the i l l s accompanying knowledge and consciousness C a r l y l e makes no d i s t i n c t i o n between man and s o c i e t y . I t can e a s i l y be seen t h a t h i s c r i t e r i a apply t o both. In "the Body P o l i t i c , as i n the animal body, the s i g n of 45 r i g h t performance i s Unconsciousness." ' Indeed, f o r C a r l y l e "to f i g u r e S o c i e t y as endowed w i t h l i f e i s s c a r c e l y 22 a metaphor; but r a t h e r the statement of a f a c t by such i m p e r f e c t method as language a f f o r d s . . . . S o c i e t y has i t s p e r i o d s of s i c k n e s s and v i g o u r , of youth, manhood, he. d e c r e p i t u d e , d i s s o l u t i o n and new b i r t h . " C a r l y l e ' s view of s o c i e t y as a l i v i n g organism i s so important i n h i s t h i n k i n g t h a t i t pervades through a l l h i s w r i t i n g s . May i t s u f f i c e here t o r e f e r t o a chapter i n S a r t o r Resartus almost e x c l u s i v e l y devoted t o a demonstration of "organic f i l a m e n t s " ' between men. C a r l y l e uses here the f a m i l i a r image of the Phoenix w i t h whose d e s t r u c t i o n and r e g e n e r a t i o n the f a t e s of men are i n e x t r i c a b l y bound. Even h a t r e d and envy among men c o n f i r m t h e i r brotherhood, which o n l y c o l d i n d i f f e r e n c e would deny. Such "organic f i l a m e n t s " even reach beyond other men i n t o the whole u n i v e r s e . " I t i s a mathematical f a c t t h a t the c a s t i n g of t h i s pebble from my hand a l t e r s the centre of g r a v i t y of the U n i v e r s e , " says T e n f e l s d r o c k h . But " i f Nature i s one, and a l i v i n g i n d i v i s i b l e whole, much more i s mankind," he c o n t i n u e s . T r a d i t i o n 'weaves' together generations of men, so t h a t "the Present seems l i t t l e other than an i n c o n s i d e r a b l e P i l m d i v i d i n g the Past and the Future." Small wonder t h a t such a "mystic Union" i s not t o be governed "by Mechanism, but 48 by R e l i g i o n ; not by S e l f - i n t e r e s t , but by L o y a l t y . " The q u e s t i o n whether s o c i e t y i s an organism or the mere r e s u l t of a s o c i a l c o n t r a c t i s , of course, the fundamental problem of h i s t o r i c a l s c i e n c e . W i t h i n the frame of the present 23 study no attempt can be made to solv e a problem which some s t i l l c o n s i d e r unsolved i n A r n o l d Toynbee's many-volumed Study of H i s t o r y . Be i t emphasized here once again t h a t f o r C a r l y l e , and a l s o f o r A r n o l d and R u s k i n , the concept of s o c i e t y as a q u a s i - b i o l o g i c a l organism i s more than a mere analogy. To sum up what has been s a i d so f a r : C a r l y l e * s general a t t i t u d e toward c u l t u r a l phenomena and a r t i s ambivalent. Such ambivalence i s o n l y one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the dualism which determines the t y p i c a l romantic. I t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the c o n f l i c t between C a r l y l e ' s l o n g i n g f o r beauty, goodness, and t r u t h on the one hand, and, on the o t h e r , h i s r e a l i z a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y i n r e a f f i r m i n g those a b s o l u t e s w i t h i n the s p i r i t of h i s age. " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " may be c a l l e d an attempt t o r e l a t e h i s ambivalence t o the p o s t - K a n t i a n c o n f l i c t between "Pure Reason" and "Under-s t a n d i n g , " which, i n the present work, w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " . C a r l y l e d e s c r i b e s t h a t p o l a r i t y as the r e s u l t of a process of e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of both the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y as a whole, a process which s l o w l y and p a i n f u l l y p a r a l y s e s the c r e a t i v e or i n t u i t i v e , t h a t i s subconscious, f a c u l t i e s of man and r e s u l t s i n an i s o l a t i o n of the ego which we may give, ithe modern term " a l i e n a t i o n . " As i t a p p l i e s t o s o c i e t y , C a r l y l e regards t h i s process not merely as 24 analogous "but as t r u l y homologous w i t h the mental growth of an i n d i v i d u a l . 25 FOOTNOTES ^ C a r l y l e d i d quote Tennyson once. See below, p. 4 9 . p For a b i o g r a p h i c a l account of Tennyson's f i r s t acquaintance w i t h C a r l y l e and t h e i r f i r s t meeting see Chapter IV. ^ I t i s d i f f i c u l t to avo i d o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n a d e f i n i t i o n of romanticism. I n b r i e f , then, "romanticism" i s understood here as a mode of thought and e x p r e s s i o n which s t r e s s e s the above themes. Moreover, the a t t i t u d e of the romantic toward such themes i s one of marked ambivalence, which i s the r e s u l t of the u l t i m a t e i r r e c o n c i l i b i l i t y of e m p i r i c a l and i n t u i t i v e knowledge. (See below, p. 20). A more thorough d e f i n i t i o n of romanticism i s i m p l i c i t i n the d i s c u s s i o n which f o l l o w s . I t i s t r u e , of course, t h a t romanticism, as d e f i n e d here, i s not c o n f i n e d t o C a r l y l e and Tennyson, nor t o the ni n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , but i n C a r l y l e and Tennyson such "romantic" themes determine t h e i r whole c r e a t i v i t y more d e c i s i v e l y and p r o f o u n d l y than i n most other men. I t i s t h e r e f o r e c r i t i c a l l y u s e f u l , and i n the present study r e l e v a n t , t o compare the "romanticism" of both men. ^The C u l t of the Superman (London, 1 9 4 7 ) , passim. ^Der Untergang des Abendlandes (Munchen, 1923), I , 65, 1. 6 I b i d . , I I , 591 f f . "^Sartor R e s a r t u s . "The Ashburton E d i t i o n " (London, Chapman and H a l l , 1885), p. 4-5. (The "Ashburton E d i t i o n " w i l l be used h e r e a f t e r f o r a l l page r e f e r e n c e s t o C a r l y l e ' s works.) 8 I b i d . , p. 54. 9 I b i d . , p. 127. 1 0 G . B. Tennyson, " C a r l y l e ' s P o e t r y t o 1840: A C h e c k l i s t and D i s c u s s i o n , A New A t t r i b u t i o n , and S i x Unpublished Poems," V i c t o r i a n P o e t r y . I (1963), 161-81. ^ " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " ( h e r e a f t e r Char.), p. 211. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 212. 1 5 I b i d . , pp. 217-218. 26 14 Hallam Tennyson, A l f r e d Lord Tennyson. A Memoir (London, Macmillan, 1897). ( h e r e a f t e r Memoir). I . 188. ^ R e p o r t e d t o Hallam Tennyson, Memoir. I , 188. 1 6D. A. W i l s o n , C a r l y l e (London, 1923-1931), I I I , 34-8. 1 7 F r o u d e , I , 422. "I Q From the German Sehwarmerei. which means "enthusiasm" ( i n the contemptuous sense of the R e s t o r a t i o n ) , " f a n a t i c i s m " , " e c s t a s y " , " w i l d i maginings", or "devotion t o unsound i d e a l s " . 1 9 S h o o t i n g Niagara: And A f t e r ? ( h e r e a f t e r N i a g . ) , p. 607. 20 Essays i n C r i t i c i s m . Second S e r i e s . 2 1 C h a r . , p. 211, S a r t o r , p. 171. 2 2"The Hero as Poet," pp. 66-67. 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 65-66. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 69. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 75. 2 6Memoir, I , 77. 2 7 " C a r l y l e ' s Unpublished L e t t e r s t o Miss Wilson," Nineteenth Century. LXXXIX (May, 1921) , 811. 2 8 C . E. Norton, ed., The Correspondence of Thomas  C a r l y l e and Ralph Waldo Emerson (Boston, 1883), I I , 49. For C a r l y l e and music see C. R. Sanders, " C a r l y l e , P o e t r y , and the Music of Humanity," Western Hum. Rev.. XVI (1962), 53-66. 2 9"The Hero as Poet," p. 87. 5°Past and P r e s e n t , p. 73, ( h e r e a f t e r P a s t ) . 5 1 , ,The Hero as Poet," p. 65 (my i t a l i c s ) . 5 2 P a s t , p. 119. 5 5 T h e Crown of W i l d O l i v e : " T r a f f i c . " -'Note t h a t C a r l y l e , i n a t y p i c a l l y N i etsschean " t r a n s v a l u a t i o n of a l l v a l u e s " uses these terms i n t h e i r o pposite meanings. By "Pure Reason" Kant means "Mere Reason", as d i s t i n c t from i n t u i t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n , e t c . 5 5 C h a r . , P. 194. 3 6 I b i d . , P. 194. ^ G e n e s i s , I l l , 5 . 3 8 C h a r . , P. 197. 5 W . , P. 198. 4 0 I b i d . , P. 2 0 0 . 4 1 I b i d . , P. 205 f f . 4 2 I b i d . , P. 212. 4 3 I b i d . , P. 212. ^ I b i d . , P« 211 . 4 5 I b i d . , P. 2 0 3 . 4 6 I b i d . , P. 2 0 2 . 4 7 S a r t o r , P . 165 f f ^ C h a r . , P. 226. CHAPTER I I I • TENNYSON AS A ROMANTIC: AN EXAMINATION OF HIS EARLY POETRY I t becomes now an i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g t a s k t o s u b j e c t Tennyson's e a r l y poems of the 1830 and 1833 e d i t i o n s t o a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s . These poems were w r i t t e n at a time when Tennyson c o u l d not have known C a r l y l e , who moved t o London i n 1834, s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s f i r s t major work, S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . had begun t o appear i n F r a s e r ' s Magazine. I t w i l l be shown t h a t the b a s i c s p i r i t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l problems expressed i n Tennyson's e a r l y p o e t r y are v e r y s i m i l a r to C a r l y l e ' s . But whereas C a r l y l e never f a i l e d t o provide p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o l u t i o n s f o r h i s problems, the young Tennyson, l i k e Browning and A r n o l d , made h i s v e r y u n c e r t a i n t y the theme of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g examination of some of Tennyson's e a r l y poems w i l l r e v e a l a s p i r i t u a l development t h a t l e d the poet i n t o a s t a t e of mind i n which he would accept r a t i o n a l f o r m u l a t i o n s of ideas which he had a l r e a d y i n t u i t i v e l y conceived. L i k e C a r l y l e ' s " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , " Tennyson's "Supposed Confessions" d e a l s w i t h m e l a n c h o l i c reminiscences of c h i l d l i k e innocence and f a i t h . The poem examines the p s y c h o l o g i c a l causes of doubt and c l o s e s w i t h a year n i n g t o f i n d new f a i t h . 29 The poet remembers a p e r i o d i n h i s l i f e when h i s I c h was almost t o t a l l y fused w i t h h i s N i c h t - I c h . when he was b l i s s f u l l y unconscious of h i s own i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e : T h r i c e happy s t a t e again t o be The t r u s t f u l i n f a n t on the knee, Who l e t s h i s r o s y f i n g e r s p l a y About h i s mother's neck, and knows Nothing beyond h i s mother's e y e s l They comfort him by n i g h t and day; They l i g h t h i s l i t t l e l i f e alway; He hath no thought of coming woes; He hath no case of l i f e or death; Scarce outward s i g n s of j o y a r i s e , Because the S p i r i t of happiness And p e r f e c t r e s t so inward i s i S i m i l a r l y , C a r l y l e says of the young Te u f e l s d r o c k h t h a t he was " e n c i r c l e d by the Mystery of E x i s t e n c e ; under the deep heavenly Firmament; waited on by the f o u r golden Seasons." 1 But soon the growing ego a s s e r t s i t s i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e under the guise of c r i t i c a l i n q u i r y . The i n t e r e s t s and d e s i r e s of the I c h are no l o n g e r those of the Nicht-I.ch. The poet asks, Why pray To one who heeds not, who can save But w i l l not?-And i t i s w i t h growing consciousness t h a t he r e a l i z e s That p r i d e , the s i n of d e v i l s , stood Betwixt', me and the l i g h t of God; 30 At t h i s stage Tennyson draws l i t t l e comfort from the awareness t h a t the growing a s s e r t i o n of the s e l f i s the d e s t i n y of man i n t h i s w o rld. S h a l l we not look i n t o the laws Of l i f e and death, and t h i n g s t h a t seem, And t h i n g s t h a t "be, and analyze Our double nature . . . ? Tennyson knows t h a t such indeed i s the f a t e of man, but he r e j e c t s h i s p a i n f u l "double n a t u r e " w i t h a c u r s e , p "0 damned v a c i l l a t i n g s t a t e ! " A recent c r i t i c notes t h a t Tennyson's Poems. C h i e f l y L y r i c a l (1830) r e p r e s e n t s the poet's " E v e r l a s t i n g No," and i t w i l l be suggested i n subsequent chapters here t h a t C a r l y l e had a g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e i n Tennyson's eventual a r r i v a l at an " E v e r l a s t i n g Tea." One of Tennyson's most obscure poems, "The Kraken," may be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the l i g h t of what has been s a i d so f a r . What i s the Kraken but a symbol of t h a t which man f e e l s but does not know, of what he l o v e s and f e a r s at the same time but does not understand? A f t e r a b r i e f moment of f u l f i l l m e n t i n which man t r i u m p h a n t l y approaches an understanding of love and beauty he f i n d s t h a t he has l o s t f o r e v e r the experience of that'.; which alone c o u l d make him happy. So the Kraken . . . once by man and angels t o be seen, I n r o a r i n g he s h a l l r i s e and on the sur f a c e d i e . 31 C a r l y l e s a i d of the same phenomenon, "could you ever e s t a b l i s h a Theory of the Universe t h a t were e n t i r e , unimprovable, and which needed only to be got by h e a r t ; man then were s p i r i t u a l l y d efunct, the s p e c i e s we now name •z Man had ceased t o e x i s t . " . L i k e C a r l y l e , Tennyson, i n these e a r l y poems, i s almost obsessed w i t h the t y p i c a l l y romantic concept t h a t i n d u c t i v e knowledge a l i e n a t e s the i n d i v i d u a l and f o s s i l i z e s s o c i e t y . Both see i n a growing s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s the v e r y process by which man and the body p o l i t i c grow o l d and d i e e v e n t u a l l y . But i n d u c t i v e knowledge i s o n l y one of the "two ways of knowing." At the other extreme of the " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " l i e s i n t u i t i v e e xperience, which i s nourished by t h a t which man does not understand, namely wonder. I n "The Hesperides," Tennyson f u r t h e r develops the theme of mystery destroyed by knowledge. P o s s e s s i o n of the golden apple, . . . the t r e a s u r e Of the wisdom of the V e s t , b r i n g s about e t e r n a l p l e a s u r e , which i s d e s c r i b e d as almost t o t a l t r a n q u i l i t y out of which mystery i s c o n s t a n t l y born anew ( 1 . 3 1 ) . " S i l e n c e i s the element i n which great t h i n g s f a s h i o n themselves t o g e t h e r ; t h a t at l e n g t h they may emergy, f u l l - f o r m e d and m a j e s t i c , i n t o the d a y l i g h t 32 of L i f e , " 4 says C a r l y l e . But a f t e r an a l l u s i o n t o the organic theory of s o c i a l change, Kingdoms l a p s e , and c l i m a t e s change, and races d i e ; Tennyson expresses f e a r t h a t "the golden apple- he s t o l ' n away", the "ancient h e a r t " of i t s weary guardian "drunk w i t h overwatchings n i g h t and day." For I f the golden apple be taken, The world w i l l be overwise. Tennyson seems to imply here t h a t the v e r y mechanism of s o c i a l change c o n s i s t s of an i n c r e a s e i n knowledge which s u f f o c a t e s man's i n t u i t i v e f a c u l t y . As the poem co n t i n u e s , the poet r e v e a l s more of the nature of the golden apple. I t i s a "wound" which must not be "healed," a " g l o r y " which must not be "unsealed," a " s e c r e t " not " r e v e a l e d , " the s e c r e t , perhaps, t h a t p l e a s u r e i s m y s t e r i o u s l y interwoven w i t h p a i n , t h a t man a t t a i n s h i s g r e a t e s t i n tragedy. Out of watchings, out of w i l e s , Comes the b l i s s of s e c r e t s m i l e s . A l l t h i n g s are not t o l d to a l l . But once the magic v e i l of mystery i s t o r n from the face of r e a l i t y man can o n l y see h i m s e l f alone i n the u n i v e r s e . "The man who cannot wonder," says C a r l y l e , 33 "who does not h a b i t u a l l y wonder . . . i s but a P a i r of S p e c t a c l e s behind which there i s no Eye."^ I n "The Poet's Mind" Tennyson c o n t r a s t s the poet's a b i l i t y to wonder w i t h the p l a t i t u d i n o u s "Attorney-L o g i c " of the "Dark-brow'd s o p h i s t , " the c r i t i c , the p h i l o l o g i s t , who cannot hear the poet's i n n e r v o i c e , the " f o u n t a i n " of c r e a t i v i t y which r i s e s from the subconscious mind and . . . s i n g s a song of undying l o v e ; And y e t , tho' i t s v o i c e be so c l e a r and f u l l , the a n a l y s t can no longer hear i t because he understands i t . T e u f e l s d r o c k h mocks him, "Thou w i l t have no Mystery and M y s t i c i s m ; w i l t walk through the world by the sunshine of what thou c a l l e s t T r u t h , . . . and ' e x p l a i n ' a l l , 7 'account' f o r a l l , or b e l i e v e n o t h i n g of i t ? " ' N e v e r t h e l e s s , n e i t h e r C a r l y l e nor Tennyson c o u l d simply surrender t h e i r r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s t o the i n t u i t i v e . C a r l y l e had formed a s y n t h e s i s of both i n h i s i d e a l i s t i c creed. But under the s c r u t i n y of h i s r a t i o n a l mind the young Tennyson underwent p e r i o d s i n which he doubted the r e a l i t y of the realm of i m a g i n a t i o n . I n "The Lady of S h a l o t t , " Tennyson r e l a t e s the romantic dichotomy between reason and i n t u i t i o n t o t h a t between l i f e and a r t . Which side i s man's proper realm? Since the c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the poet was by no means r e s o l v e d , one must expect t h a t h i s answer t o the q u e s t i o n 34 i s ambivalent, and i t should be r e c a l l e d here t h a t C a r l y l e d i s p l a y e d a s i m i l a r ambivalence i n h i s a t t i t u d e toward a r t . The Lady of S h a l o t t weaves a "magic web w i t h c o l o r s gay," t h a t i s , she i s c r e a t i n g a work of a r t . The f i g u r e s i n her t a p e s t r y represent r e a l i t y as i t r e f l e c t s i t s e l f i n the " m i r r o r " of the a r t i s t ' s mind or i m a g i n a t i o n . But t h a t r e f l e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o n l y of "shadows of the world" as i t r e a l l y i s . Upon the Lady l i e s a curse which f o r b i d s her t o lo o k at l i f e and r e a l i t y as they r e a l l y a r e , "To l o o k down to Camelot." She knows not what the curse may be, And so she weaveth s t e a d i l y . She "hath no l o y a l k n i g h t and t r u e , " But i n her web she s t i l l d e l i g h t s To weave the m i r r o r ' s magic s i g h t s . However, when the image of "two young l o v e r s l a t e l y wed" appears i n her m i r r o r , she e x c l a i m s , I am h a l f s i c k of shadows, and when she sees the image of the "red-cross k n i g h t , " S i r L a n c e l o t , She l e f t the web, she l e f t the loom, She saw the helmet and the plume, She l o o k ' d down to Camelot. 35 As soon as she a c t u a l l y sees the r e a l i t y behind the mere appearance of t h i n g s The m i r r o r c r a c k 1 d from s i d e t o s i d e ; 'The curse i s come upon me," c r i e d The Lady of S h a l o t t . She has l o s t the a b i l i t y t o wonder. Her I c h and N i c h t - I c h . w i d e l y c l e f t asunder, can o n l y be r e u n i t e d i n death. But Tennyson's a l l e g o r y i s ambivalent, f o r the Lady does not o n l y r a i s e the v e i l of mystery, she a l s o opens the door t o l i f e , of which her a r t had o n l y been a "shadow." The poet h i m s e l f gave the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n t o Canon Ainger: "The new-born love f o r some-t h i n g , f o r some one i n the wide world from which she has been so l o n g secluded, takes her out of the r e g i o n of shadows o i n t o t h a t of r e a l i t i e s . For the f i r s t time i n her l i f e the Lady of S h a l o t t a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e s , r a t h e r than d e s c r i b e s l o v e ; she does t h a t which f o r m e r l y she had o n l y contemplated, she f e e l s t h a t which before she had understood. But Tennyson i m p l i e s t h a t S i r L a n c e l o t does not r e t u r n her l o v e . Having once experienced l i f e the Lady of S h a l o t t cannot r e t u r n t o the world of shadows. One i s reminded of Sappho's legendary leap from the Leucadian rock once her l o v e to Phaon had been thwarted. I n h i s examination of what we have termed the " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " Tennyson here goes deeper than 36 C a r l y l e . A r t and l i f e themselves, r a t h e r than knowledge and i n t u i t i o n , are seen as opposite p o l e s of the human microcosm, a r t becomes the s c r i p t of the dialogue of the t o r t u r e d , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s mind w i t h i t s e l f . Perhaps such an i n s i g h t l i e s a l s o a t the r o o t of the i n t u i t i v e and t y p i c a l l y P u r i t a n s u s p i c i o n w i t h which C a r l y l e regarded a r t and the a r t i s t . Genone may be s a i d t o undergo the Lady of S h a l o t t ' s metamorphosis i n the opposite d i r e c t i o n . Deprived of l i f e , Oenone becomes an a r t i s t , she s i n g s of l o v e , the experience of which i s denied her by P a r i s . . . . f o r i t may be That, w h i l e I speak of i t , a l i t t l e w h i l e My h e a r t may wander from i t s deeper woe. One should a l s o note t h a t P a r i s ' l u s t f o r beauty, the o b j e c t of a l l t r u e a r t , becomes the cause f o r the c a t a c l y s m i c d o w n f a l l of Troy. P a r i s r e j e c t s the power "wisdom-bred" of Hera and the " s e l f - r e v e r e n c e , s e l f -knowledge, s e l f - c o n t r o l " of Athena i n favour of the beauty of Aphrodite which d e f i e s a l l e t h i c a l nomenclature. Tennyson, the a r t i s t , i s q u e s t i o n i n g the e t h i c s of a r t . In the end Oenone has l o s t her power of love a l t o g e t h e r , when she draws f i e r c e comfort from the catastrophe which i s t o b e f a l l the c i t y of her former l o v e r . In a l i t t l e poem e n t i t l e d "To -," which appeared i n the 1833 e d i t i o n , as a foreword to "The Palace of A r t " 37 Tennyson's doubts of the benign nature of h i s own v o c a t i o n f i n d t h e i r s t r o n g e s t e x p r e s s i o n . With l i t t l e d i s g u i s e he c a l l s h i m s e l f A s i n f u l s o u l possess'd of many g i f t s , A spacious garden f u l l of f l o w e r i n g weeds, A g l o r i o u s d e v i l , l a r g e i n h e a r t and b r a i n , That d i d love beauty o n l y . . . And knowledge f o r i t s beauty; or i f good, Good only f o r i t s beauty, s e e i n g not That Beauty, Good, and Knowledge, are three s i s t e r s That dote upon each other, f r i e n d s to man, L i v i n g t o g e t her under the same r o o f , And never can be sunder'd without t e a r s . I n t h i s e a r l y stage of h i s s p i r i t u a l p r o g r e s s , Tennyson does not understand t h a t the t e a r f u l sundering of "Beauty, Good, and Knowledge" i s not o n l y the c r o s s but, a l s o the g l o r y of man wherein he alone of a l l c r e a t u r e s r e a l i z e s h i s p o t e n t i a l "to be l i k e God", t o "know good and e v i l . " I n h i s l a m e n t a t i o n over h i s " s i n f u l s o u l " the poet s t i l l l o o k s back to where the t r e e tops of Eden disappear under the h o r i z o n , so t h a t he cannot see the towers of the C e l e s t i a l C i t y r i s i n g before him. L i t t l e does i t dawn on him t h a t before h i s g u i l t can become the f e l i x c u l p a ^ of the " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" he must f i r s t p r o c l a i m h i s freedom i n an " E v e r l a s t i n g No." I n h i s s t a t e of ambivalence toward a r t and the a r t i s t Tennyson, l i k e T e u f e l s d r o c k h , has v i s i o n s of "green Paradise-groves i n the waste of Ocean-waters," 1 0 i n which i t appears t o him t h a t the l u r e of the S e a - F a i r i e s 38 and L o t o s - E a t e r s p r o v i d e s the o n l y r e l i e f f o r h i s p a i n f u l Z e r r i s s e n h e i t . I f e x i s t e n c e depends upon the t e n s i o n "between the I c h and N i c h t - I c h . then non-existence i s s a l v a t i o n . A l l t h i n g s have r e s t : why should we t o i l a lone, We o n l y t o i l , who are the f i r s t of t h i n g s . . . ? (I'The L o t o s - E a s t e r s , " 11. 60-61) To be " i n the middle of the wood" again , t o r e v e r t t o a lower order of l i f e , t o fuse w i t h nature appears as the on l y way out. Again, the poet does not o n l y d e r i v e h i s cosmic f e a r of change from h i s own growing s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , but a l s o from t h a t of s o c i e t y . L i k e C a r l y l e , Tennyson sees no good i n the growth of the body p o l i t i c , which he regards as decay. 1 I n stanza v i of "The L o t o s - E a t e r s " he may be e x p r e s s i n g h i s r e v u l s i o n at the seemingly mad and sens e l e s s p u r s u i t of s o c i a l progress i n the England of the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n . I s there c o n f u s i o n i n the l i t t l e i s l e ? Let what i s broken so remain. The Gods are hard t o r e c o n c i l e ; 'Tis hard t o s e t t l e order once again. There i s c o n f u s i o n worse than death. And indeed i t was not u n t i l he wrote Shooting Niagara:  And A f t e r ? t h a t the angry C a r l y l e r e s i g n e d h i m s e l f to the prospect t h a t the o l d order had t o burn i t s e l f out t o t a l l y 39 before a new c o u l d r i s e . Whether Tennyson a c t u a l l y ever came t o share C a r l y l e ' s o p t i m i s t i c f a i t h i n the r e s u r -r e c t i o n of the Phoenix remains t o be examined. Among the e a r l y poems "The Palace of A r t " i s Tennyson's most a r t i c u l a t e and mature statement on a r t and the a r t i s t i n s o c i e t y . Through the v o i c e of h i s s o u l , the female speaker of the poem, Tennyson t e l l s us h i s s p i r i t u a l h i s t o r y up t o the p u b l i c a t i o n of the 1833 volume. I t i s a s t o r y of h y b r i s . t r a g i c i s o l a t i o n , and r e n u n c i a t i o n . The drama, which i s the drama of human l i f e , began when h i s . . . s o u l would l i v e alone unto h e r s e l f I n her h i g h palace t h e r e . Prom her c l o i s t e r e d ( 1 . 26) P a r n a s s i a n h e i g h t , amidst "a c l o u d of incense" ( 1 . 39) she would l u x u r i a t e i n the dreamland of an amoral a e s t h e t i c i s m , r e g a r d i n g Heaven, i n the e x i s t e n c e of which her e g o i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s would not a l l o w her t o doubt, as an e x t e n s i o n of the Eldorado of her mind, complete w i t h A group of Houris bow'd t o see The d y i n g I s l a m i t e , w i t h hands and eyes That s a i d , We wait f o r thee. With God and the angels a w a i t i n g her ple a s u r e she would d i s r e g a r d the s u f f e r i n g of her f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s , But over these she t r o d ( l . 157) ; 40 . . . l e t the world have peace or wars, • T i s one t o me" (11. 182-183). She f e l t L o r d over Nature, l o r d of the v i s i b l e e a r t h , L o r d of the senses f i v e (11 . 179-180) and p l e a s e d h e r s e l f "To mimic heaven." But P l a t o , whose wisdom she acknowledges ( 1 . 163) knew t h a t no man can he l o r d over h i s senses; t h a t once the h i g h e r reason has argued the good out of e x i s t e n c e i t cannot he r e d i s c o v e r e d i n the b e a u t i f u l . "Consider t h i s , f a i r youth, and know t h a t i n the f r i e n d s h i p of the l o v e r there i s no r e a l k indness; he has an a p p e t i t e and wants t o feed upon you: 'As wolves love lambs so l o v e r s l o v e t h e i r l o v e s ! " 1 1 S i m i l a r l y , once r e l i g i o n becomes a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t of "mere reason," separated from the wealth of human experience r e f l e c t e d i n the m y t h o l o g i c a l "garment" of a s p e c i f i c c r eed, f a i t h has a l r e a d y been l o s t . Then of the moral i n s t i n c t would she p r a t e And of the r i s i n g from the dead, As hers by r i g h t of f u l l - a c c o m p l i s h ' s F a t e ; And at the l a s t she s a i d : 'I care not what the s e c t s may b r a w l . I s i t as God h o l d i n g no form of creed, But contemplating a l l . ' But punishment i s here an in h e r e n t and necessary consequence of the crime. Once the " A t t o r n e y - L o g i c " of "mere reason" has been p e r m i t t e d to s t r i p the Almighty of h i s garment 41 by which men may see Him, man can o n l y see h i m s e l f i n a great nothingness which he w i l l o n l y recognize as an A l l once he has purged h i m s e l f of a l l d e s i r e s . Thus, Le s t she should f a i l and p e r i s h u t t e r l y , God, before whom ever l i e bare The abysmal deeps of p e r s o n a l i t y , Plagued her w i t h sore d e s p a i r . The p a r a l l e l s of t h i s stage i n the young poet's s p i r i t u a l journey w i t h t h a t of Te u f e l s d r o c k h i n the " E v e r l a s t i n g No" are indeed d i s t i n c t . Por C a r l y l e ' s c r e a t u r e , t o o , "Doubt had darkened i n t o U n b e l i e f , " and "the l o s s of h i s r e l i g i o u s B e l i e f was the l o s s of every-t h i n g . " And y e t , says C a r l y l e , i n h i s "strange i s o l a t i o n " T e u f e l s d r o c k h was never "more d e c i s i v e l y the Servant of Goodness, the Servant of God, than even now when doubting God's e x i s t e n c e . " Thus, t o o , a f t e r the poet's s o u l had found f o r g i v e n e s s through " S e l b s t t o t u n g , " through r e n u n c i a t i o n or self-abandonment, she s t i l l regards her h y b r i s . and her consequent l o n e l i n e s s ^ . i n the w i l d e r n e s s , f o r both of which the Palace of A r t g i v e s evidence, as necessary steps toward s a l v a t i o n . A f t e r much s u f f e r i n g She threw her r o y a l robes away. "Make me a cottage i n the v a l e , " she s a i d , "Where I may mourn and pray. Yet p u l l not down my palace towers, t h a t are So l i g h t l y , b e a u t i f u l l y b u i l t ; Perchance I may r e t u r n w i t h others there When I have purged my g u i l t . " (my i t a l i c s ) 42 For n e a r l y t e n years Tennyson was s i l e n t . When he "r e t u r n e d " i n 1842 w i t h two new volumes of poems, and i n 1850 w i t h I n Memoriam. a f t e r he had met C a r l y l e , the 12 subject-matter and s t y l e of h i s p o e t r y had changed. He had found the "New Mythus" of C a r l y l e ' s " E v e r l a s t i n g Y e a " ; 1 5 he had embodied "the d i v i n e S p i r i t " of C h r i s t i a n i t y " i n a new v e h i c l e and v e s t u r e , t h a t our S o u l s , otherwise 14 too l i k e p e r i s h i n g , may l i v e . " I n the meantime the death of Hallam toward the end of 1833 had shown Tennyson the whole abysmal nothingness of a uni v e r s e s t r i p t of "wonder". I t i s the t a s k of the remaining pages of the present work to show how the poet's acquaintance and f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e , which began i n 1839» may have helped him t o shape t h a t great Nothingness i n t o an A l l through an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea". 43 FOOTNOTES S a r t o r , p. 6 7 . Of course, such, experiences and reminiscences are by no means the s o l e p r o p e r t y of C a r l y l e and Tennyson. Indeed, i t may be argued t h a t the c e n t r a l theme of l i t e r a r y a r t i s the search f o r innocence. But, as major l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s of the n i n e t e e n t h century both C a r l y l e and Tennyson gave t h a t theme g r e a t e r prominence, more profound c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and more eloquent e x p r e s s i o n than most of t h e i r p r e d ecessors, contemporaries, and s u c c e s s o r s . For t h i s reason i t may be assumed t h a t Tennyson was i n t e r e s t e d i n what C a r l y l e had t o o f f e r a f t e r he had become acquainted w i t h him. p Clyde de L. R y a l s , Theme and Symbol i n Tennyson's  Poems to 1850 ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1964), pp. 39-40. 3 C h a r . , p. 2 2 3 . ^ S a r t o r , p. 148. 5 I b i d . , p. 47. 6 I b i d . , p. 48. 7 I b i d . , p. 48. 8Memoir, I , 117. ^Laudes, Roman E a s t e r L i t u r g y . 1 0 S a r t o r , p. 1 0 3 . •^"Phaedrus?*," i n B. Jowett, t r a n s . , The Dialogues  of P l a t o . 4 t h ed. (Oxford, 1953) , I I I , 14-7. 1 2D. T. S t a r n e s , "The I n f l u e n c e of C a r l y l e upon Tennyson," Texas Rev.. VI ( 1921) , 3 3 6 . 1 3 C l y d e de L. R y a l s , "The 'Heavenly F r i e n d ' : The •New Mythus' of I n Hemoriam." The P e r s o n a l i s t . X L I I I ( 1 9 6 2 ) , 402. 14 - ^ S a r t o r , p. 132. CHAPTER 17 CARLYLE'S INTERCOURSE WITH TENNYSON BETWEEN THE TIME OF THEIR FIRST MEETING AND THE PUBLICATION OF IN MEMORIAM Tennyson probably f i r s t beard of C a r l y l e a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of The French R e v o l u t i o n i n 1837 when C a r l y l e e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as an important l i t e r a r y f i g u r e . P r e v i o u s l y , from 1833 t o 1834, S a r t o r Resartus had appeared i n F r a s e r ' s Magazine, but the work was at f i r s t so unpopular t h a t i t h a r d l y a t t a i n e d any n o t i c e at a l l . However, a f t e r S a r t o r had appeared w i t h great success i n America i n 1836, under Emerson's s u p e r v i s i o n , C a r l y l e had i t p u b l i s h e d i n book form i n London two years l a t e r , when i t may be assumed t h a t Tennyson read i t . The two men met f o r the f i r s t time i n 1838 i n the newly founded " S t e r l i n g Club," a l i t e r a r y c l u b named a f t e r John S t e r l i n g , the b r i l l i a n t son of Edward S t e r l i n g , The Times' "Thunderer". P r e v i o u s l y , i n 1835, J . S. M i l l had i n t r o d u c e d C a r l y l e t o S t e r l i n g ; 1 and S t e r l i n g had been an o l d f r i e n d of Tennyson's from the days of the "ApostlesV:' ; c l u b at Cambridge t e n years e a r l i e r . I n h i s L i f e of John p S t e r l i n g C a r l y l e quotes a membership l i s t of the S t e r l i n g Club, signed by "James Spedding, S e c r e t a r y " , i n which the most important names, among many o t h e r s , are those of C a r l y l e , M i l l , S t e r l i n g , and Tennyson. On September 5, 1840, C a r l y l e wrote t o h i s br o t h e r : 4-5 Some weeks ago, one n i g h t , the Poet Tennison [ s i c ] and Matthew A l l e n were d i s c o v e r e d here, s i t t i n g smoking i n the garden. Tennison had been here b e f o r e , but was s t i l l new t o Jane, — who was alone f o r the f i r s t hour or two of i t . A f i n e l a r g e - f e a t u r e d , dim-eyed, bronze-c o l o r e d , shaggy-headed man i s A l f r e d ; d u sty, smoky, free-and-easy: who swims, outwardly and i n w a r d l y , w i t h great composure i n an i n a r t i c u l a t e element as of t r a n q u i l chaos and tobacco smoke; great now and then when he does,emerge: a most r e s t f u l , b r o t h e r l y , s o l i d -h e arted man.^ T h i s l e t t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t by the time i t was w r i t t e n the r e l a t i o n s between C a r l y l e and Tennyson had a l r e a d y been more i n t i m a t e than those one should expect i n a mere acquaintance. One c r i t i c a l biographer suggests t h a t Tennyson's i m p r e s s i o n upon C a r l y l e was such t h a t i t 4-broke C a r l y l e ' s a n t i p a t h y toward p o e t r y , and t h a t he was perhaps more drawn to Tennyson the man than the poet.^ Indeed, '"He seemed to take a fancy t o me*, Tennyson . . . t o l d a v i s i t o r at F a r r i n g f o r d i n speaking of C a r l y l e * s f a v o r a b l e treatment of him i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s . " Perhaps C a r l y l e ' s ardent t r i b u t e t o the poet i n h i s l e c t u r e , "The Hero as Poet," presented on May 12, 1840, had something t o do w i t h h i s new f r i e n d s h i p . Hallam Tennyson w r i t e s : During the ' f o r t i e s ' he was i n the h a b i t of w a l k i n g w i t h C a r l y l e at n i g h t , . . . They were not i n the l e a s t a f r a i d of one another although many were a f r a i d of them, and they had l o n g and f r e e d i s c u s s i o n s on every conceivable s u b j e c t , and once o n l y almost q u a r r e l l e d , when C a r l y l e a s s e r t e d t h a t my f a t h e r t a l k e d of p o e t r y as 'high a r t ' , which he f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d , 'I never i n my whole l i f e spoke of a h i g h a r t ' . 7 46 This l i t t l e episode g i v e s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n how f i r m l y both men r e f u s e d t o commit themselves t o an absolute a e s t h e t i c i s m at the expense of l i f e and r e a l i t y . About t h i s time, S t e r l i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o Andrew Lang, wrote to Tennyson t h a t C a r l y l e " s a i d more i n your p r a i s e than i n any one's except Cromwell, and an American backwoodsman who has k i l l e d t h i r t y or f o r t y people w i t h a b o w i e - k n i f e . " A c c o r d i n g t o Hallam Tennyson, h i s f a t h e r became q i n t i m a t e w i t h C a r l y l e i n 184-2,' probably a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the new Poems. What was perhaps C a r l y l e ' s most l a v i s h t r i b u t e t o Tennyson i s contained i n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n i n response t o a r e a d i n g of the 1842 poems. Cheyne Road, Chelsea, 7th Dec. 1842 Dear Tennyson, Wherever t h i s f i n d you, may i t f i n d you w e l l , may i t come as a f r i e n d l y g r e e t i n g t o you. I have j u s t been r e a d i n g your Poems; I have read c e r t a i n of them over a g a i n , and mean t o read them over and over t i l l they become my poems: t h i s f a c t , w i t h the i n f e r e n c e s t h a t l i e i n i t , i s of such emphasis i n me, I cannot keep i t to m yself, but must needs acquaint you too w i t h i t . I f you knew what my r e l a t i o n has been to the t h i n g c a l l ' d E n g l i s h 'Poetry' f o r many years back, you would t h i n k such f a c t almost s u r p r i s i n g ! T r u l y i t i s l o n g s i n c e i n any E n g l i s h Book, P o e t r y or Prose, I have f e l t the p u l s e of a r e a l man's hea r t as I do i n t h i s same. A r i g h t v a l i a n t , t r u e f i g h t i n g , v i c t o r i o u s h e a r t ; s t r o n g as a l i o n ' s , yet g e n t l e , l o v i n g and f u l l of music: what I c a l l a genuine s i n g e r ' s h e a r t ! There are tones as of the n i g h t i n g a l e ; low murmurs as of wood-doves at summer noon; everywhere a noble sound as of the f r e e winds and l e a f y woods. The s u n n i e s t glow of L i f e d w e l l s i n t h a t s o u l , chequered d u l y w i t h dark s t r e a k s from n i g h t and Hades: everywhere one 47 f e e l s as i f a l l were f i l l ' d w i t h y e l l o w glowing s u n l i g h t , some g l o r i o u s golden Vapor; from which form a f t e r form bodies i t s e l f ; n a t u r a l l y , golden forms. I n one word, there seems to be a note of "The E t e r n a l Melodies' i n t h i s man; f o r which l e t a l l other men be t h a n k f u l and j o y f u l ! Your 'Dora' reminds me of the Book of Ruth: i n the 'Two V o i c e s , ' which I am t o l d some Reviewer c a l l s ' t r i v i a l m o r a l i t y , ' I t h i n k of passages i n Job. For t r u t h i s q u i t e t r u e i n Job's time and Ruth's as now. I know you cannot read German: the more i n t e r e s t i n g i s i t to t r a c e i n your 'Summer Oak' a b e a u t i f u l k i n d r e d t o something t h a t i s best i n Goethe; I mean h i s ' M u l l e r i n n ' ( M i l l e r ' s daughter) c h i e f l y , w i t h whom the very M i l l - d a m gets i n l o v e ; tho' she proves a f l i r t a f t e r a l l and the t h i n g ends i n s a t i r i c a l l i n e s ! v e r y s t r a n g e l y too i n the ' V i s i o n of S i n ' I am reminded of my f r i e n d Jean P a u l . This i s not babble, i t i s speech; t r u e d e p o s i t i o n of a v o l u n t e e r w i t n e s s . And so I say l e t us a l l r e j o i c e somewhat. And so l e t us a l l smite r h y t h m i c a l l y , a l l i n co n c e r t , 'the sounding furrows'; and s a i l forward w i t h new cheer, 'beyond the sunset,' whither we are bound — I t may be t h a t the g u l f s w i l l wash us down, I t may be we s h a l l touch the happy I s l e s And see the great A c h i l l e s whom we knew! These l i n e s do not make me weep, but there i s i n me what would f i l l whole Lachrymatories as I read. But do you, when you r e t u r n t o London, come down t o me and l e t us smoke a pipe t o g e t h e r . With few words, w i t h many, or w i t h none, i t need not be an inelo q u e n t P i p e ! F a r e w e l l , dear Tennyson; may the gods be good t o you. With v e r y great s i n c e r i t y (and i n great haste) I subsc r i b e myself Yours, T. C a r l y l e 1 0 Tennyson val u e d t h i s l e t t e r so h i g h l y t h a t he had i t copied by h i s s i s t e r E m i l y t o be sent t o h i s mother. But how s i n c e r e was C a r l y l e i n h i s p r a i s e ? H i s comment on "Dora" and the "Two V o i c e s " , the l a t t e r perhaps the d r e a r i e s t poem i n the e d i t i o n , c o n s i s t s of commonplaces. 48 And the f a c t t h a t the " V i s i o n of S i n " reminded C a r l y l e of h i s " f r i e n d Jean P a u l " was probably not v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o Tennyson. I t i s d o u b t f u l whether C a r l y l e n o t i c e d the ambiguity i n the mood and i n the ending of " U l y s s e s " . Despite the general p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s poem, c r i t i c s have o f t e n been at a l o s s t o determine i t s p r e c i s e meaning. The predominant modern c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n about "Uly s s e s " i s w e l l summed up by W. W. Robson: "Tennyson, the r e s p o n s i b l e s o c i a l b e i n g , the admirably s e r i o u s and 'committed' V i c t o r i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l , i s u t t e r i n g strenuous sentiments i n the accent.t of Tennyson the most un-strenuous, l o n e l y , and poignant of p o e t s . " 1 1 Tennyson h i m s e l f s a i d , "Ulysses was w r i t t e n soon a f t e r A r t h u r Hallam's death, and gave my f e e l i n g about the need of going forward, and b r a v i n g the s t r u g g l e of l i f e 12 perhaps more simp l y than anything i n I n Memoriam." He a l s o t o l d James Knowles: "Ulysses* . . . was w r i t t e n under the sense of l o s s and t h a t a l l had gone by, but t h a t s t i l l l i f e must be fought out t o the end. I t was more w r i t t e n w i t h the f e e l i n g of [Hallam's] l o s s upon me than many poems i n 'In Memoriam'." 1 5 But U l y s s e s i s not "going forward" t o l e a d men, t o "produce" — he bequeaths:, these t a s k s to h i s son whom he l e a v e s behind — he seeks the "Happy I s l e s , " which are not so u n l i k e those of the L o t o s -E a t e r s . 49 However, i n Past and Pr e s e n t , w r i t t e n a year a f t e r the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of "Ul y s s e s , " C a r l y l e quotes the "Happy I s l e s " i n the sense of an abode of a c t i v e heroes and hero-worshippers. T y p i c a l l y , C a r l y l e ' s q u o t a t i o n of a l i n e from "Ul y s s e s " i s d i s t o r t e d . C a r l y l e says about h i s proposed f u t u r e age of hero-worship: There l i e s the Heroic Promised Land; under t h a t Heaven's-l i g h t , my b r e t h r e n , bloom the Happy I s l e s , — t h e r e , 0 there 1 T h i t h e r w i l l we; 'There d w e l l s the great A c h i l l e s whom we knew'. 1 4 But Tennyson's l i n e reads i n a l l e d i t i o n s , And see the great A c h i l l e s , whom we knew ( 1 . 64). The l i b e r a l c a r e l e s s n e s s w i t h which C a r l y l e uses Tennyson's p o e t r y t o s u i t h i s own ends may be i n d i c a t i v e of h i s somewhat arrogant r e f u s a l to occupy h i s mind s e r i o u s l y w i t h Tennyson. S i m i l a r l y , a poem e n t i t l e d "Summer Oak", which C a r l y l e mentions i n h i s l e t t e r to Tennyson, does not e x i s t . C a r l y l e must mean "The T a l k i n g Oak," the "kin d r e d " of which t o Goethe's " M i i l l e r i n " may w e l l be d i s p u t e d . Besides, as Tennyson s a i d to h i s s i s t e r E m i l y , " C a r l y l e i s mistaken about the s a t i r i c a l l i n e s , c o n c l u d i n g the 15 ' M u l l e r i n n ' [ s i c ] . They are i n another poem." y C a r l y l e ' s somewhat haughty assumption t h a t Tennyson d i d not know German a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the j o v i a l 50 s u p e r f i c i a l i t y of the l e t t e r . E m i l y e x p l a i n s , I asked A l f r e d what C a r l y l e meant by s a y i n g he c o u l d not read German, and he s a i d , when the poems he ( i . e . C a r l y l e ) a l l u d e d t o were w r i t t e n he knew l i t t l e or n o t h i n g of German. 1 6He must have t o l d C a r l y l e t h i s who has made a jumble. I t should a l s o be n o t i c e d t h a t C a r l y l e d i d not at a l l mention " L o c k s l e y H a l l , " which became one of the most popular of the poems i n the 1842 e d i t i o n , and which shows some evidence of having been w r i t t e n under C a r l y l e ' s 17 i n f l u e n c e . ' One would not do C a r l y l e an i n j u s t i c e i f one assumed t h a t he had not bothered to read i t . C a r l y l e ' s l e t t e r and subsequent sayings w e l l i l l u s t r a t e the p e c u l i a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two men. Tennyson, the poet, l i s t e n e d t o C a r l y l e and took him s e r i o u s l y , perhaps too s e r i o u s l y . C a r l y l e , the c r i t i c who perhaps b e l i e v e d i n s i l e n c e because he wanted t o do a l l the t a l k i n g h i m s e l f took no one s e r i o u s l y , w i t h the 1 ft p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of h i m s e l f . Tennyson's s i n c e r i t y sometimes bordered on the n a i v e . When Amos B. A l c o t t , the American a p o s t l e of v e g e t a r i a n i s m , v i s i t e d London i n 1842, he c o u l d soon p r i d e h i m s e l f on " h i s success i n c o n v e r t i n g Tennyson — f o r a time. Tennyson ab s t a i n e d from mutton chops f o r three whole months before he r e l a p s e d i n t o f l e s h - e a t i n g . C a r l y l e was l e s s open to such ' l i g h t ' , c o n f e s s i n g t o Spedding, 19 • I defended myself w i t h q u i z z i n g , ' . . ." 7 51 Despite t h e i r d i f f e r e n t temperaments, i t may he assumed t h a t r e l a t i o n s between C a r l y l e and Tennyson d u r i n g the e a r l y f o r t i e s were q u i t e amicable. The f o l l o w i n g b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s may help one t o form a p i c t u r e o f the f r i e n d s h i p . On December 27, 1842, a meeting took p l a c e at C a r l y l e ' s home between Tennyson, C a r l y l e , Dr. John C a r l y l e and Erasmus Darwin, b r o t h e r of C h a r l e s , at which Tennyson probably read some of h i s 20 p o e t r y . The f o l l o w i n g day C a r l y l e p r a i s e d Tennyson i n e n t h u s i a s t i c terms i n a l e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r 21 Alexander. A l e t t e r dated March 1843, w r i t t e n by Jane f o r her c o u s i n Helen Welsh, and c a l l i n g Tennyson "handsome", "noble-hearted" and a "genius," i n d i c a t e s a degree of a f f e c t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y which leads one t o assume t h a t 22 the meetings continued. I n a l e t t e r t o Emerson, a l r e a d y mentioned, C a r l y l e p r a i s e d the m u s i c a l q u a l i t y of Tennyson's speech (Nov. 17, 1843). Anne Thackeray R i t c h i e r e p o r t s t h a t i n the summer of 1844 Tennyson, C a r l y l e and F i t z g e r a l d sometimes dined together at "The Cock" i n the S t r a n d , 2 5 and F i t z g e r a l d says t h a t C a r l y l e "opened the gates of h i s V a l h a l l a " t o Tennyson "and now kept a pipe f o r him i n a s p e c i a l niche i n the garden w a l l at Cheyne Row."^ More of C a r l y l e ' s p l e a s a n t r i e s abound i n a l e t t e r t o Emerson of August 5, 1844. A l f r e d i s "a t r u e human s o u l " , ". . . a man s o l i t a r y and sad,* . . . c a r r y i n g a h i t of Chaos about him . . . , which he i s manufacturing i n t o Cosmos 1." 2^ Another l e t t e r t o F i t z g e r a l d , dated October 26, 1844, d e s c r i b e s an " u n f o r g e t t a b l e day" w i t h Tennyson. Some time i n 1845 C a r l y l e was at h i s p a t r o n i z i n g best when he persuaded R i c h a r d Monckton M i l n e s , M.P., t o get a pension f o r the 27 poet. ' But i t seems t h a t by the end of 1844 Tennyson, f o r a w h i l e at l e a s t , had enough of the b l u s t e r i n g C a r l y l e . The poet must have g i v e n the p h i l o s o p h e r some of h i s due, f o r C a r l y l e complained i n a l e t t e r of October 12, 1844, t o h i s b r o t h e r James t h a t he "got an p o u g l y headache from the j o g , . . . " The meetings seem t o have become l e s s f r e q u e n t , f o r C a r l y l e wrote t o F i t z g e r a l d February 6, 1845, t h a t he met A l f r e d o n l y 29 " t w i c e , " 7 probably s i n c e he l a s t t o l d F i t z g e r a l d about him the p r e v i o u s autumn (see above). Jane, t o o , i n a l e t t e r t o her husband who was then i n S c o t l a n d , i m p l i e s t h a t a c e r t a i n estrangement had taken p l a c e . When she met Tennyson at a p l a y he d i d not r e c a l l her name, although he r e c o g n i z e d her. To h i s b r o t h e r John, on May 5, 1846, C a r l y l e complained about Tennyson t h a t "no man has a r i g h t t o be so l a z y i n t h i s w o rld; — and none 31 t h a t i s so l a z y w i l l ever make much way i n i t , I t h i n k ! n > 53 N e v e r t h e l e s s , S i r Charles Tennyson assures us t h a t "Patmore's sympathy and comeradeship, and A l f r e d ' s a f f e c t i o n f o r C a r l y l e , were the c h i e f i n f l u e n c e s which kept him so much i n London d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s •52 year [184-6]."^ I t seems t h a t the deep d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperament between the men were not s u f f i c i e n t to cut the deeper bonds which u n i t e d t h e i r k i n d r e d s p i r i t s . I n the c o n c l u s i o n of "The Golden Year," which appeared f i r s t i n the f o u r t h e d i t i o n of Poems i n 184-6 and has been r e t a i n e d i n subsequent e d i t i o n s , Tennyson pays obvious t r i b u t e to C a r l y l e . 5 5 The poem i s i n the form of a d i a l o g u e . A f t e r the f i n a l speaker has expressed a somewhat b l e a r y -eyed, i d e a l i s t i c f a i t h i n a "golden" f u t u r e of peace and abundance, he i s countered by an o l d c h o l e r i c c h a r a c t e r , here c a l l e d James, as f o l l o w s : •What s t u f f i s t h i s ! Old w r i t e r s push'd the happy season back, — The more f o o l s they, — we forward: dreamers both: You most, t h a t i n an age, when every hour Must sweat her s i x t y minutes t o the death, L i v e on, God love us, as i f the seedsman, r a p t Upon the teeming h a r v e s t , should not plunge Hi s hand i n t o the bag: but w e l l I know That unto him who works, and f e e l s he works, This same grand year i s ever at the d o o r s i Tennyson's probable indebtedness t o C a r l y l e i n t h i s passage becomes the c l e a r e r the more f u l l y one r e a l i z e s how s t r o n g l y C a r l y l e ' s advocacy of the v i t a a c t i v a -c o n f l i c t s w i t h the contemplative temperament of the poet of "The L o t o s - E a t e r s . " 54-But soon Tennyson seems t o have withdrawn somewhat. I n a l e t t e r t o F i t z g e r a l d , dated September 22, 1846, C a r l y l e complained t h a t Tennyson, who had j u s t r e t u r n e d from a t r i p t o S w i t z e r l a n d , had not v i s i t e d him, 34 although he had been i n London upon h i s r e t u r n . A few days l a t e r , a t a dinner p a r t y , C a r l y l e made the remark, r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , t h a t Shakespeare, Burns, and Tennyson would a l l have done b e t t e r i n prose. And a f t e r h i s v i s i t t o England i n 1847 Emerson s a i d , "He [ C a r l y l e ] i s q u i t e contemptuous about Kunst ( a r t ) . . . ," and, " C a r l y l e t h i n k s him [Tennyson] the best man i n England t o smoke a pipe w i t h , and used t o see him much; had a p l a c e i n h i s l i t t l e garden, on the w a l l , where 35 Tennyson's pipe was l a i d up." >-' I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the l a t t e r p a r t of Emerson's d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n the past tense. I n September, 1847, Tennyson p u b l i s h e d The P r i n c e s s , which C a r l y l e regarded as something of an a f f r o n t . One c r i t i c 3 ^ suggests t h a t C a r l y l e ' s Simonianism — he had t r a n s l a t e d Saint-Simon's Le Nouveau C h r i s t i a n i s m e , but never p u b l i s h e d i t — p o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson, but " C a r l y l e . . . thought v e r y i l l of the 'femme l i b r e ' 37 i n t e r e s t s of the S a i n t - S i m o n i a n s . n y ' He wrote t o Lady H a r r i e t B a r i n g , l a t e r Lady Ashburton, t h a t the P r i n c e s s 38 was "almost i m b e c i l e . " ^ Another time he s a i d t h a t i t "had e v e r y t h i n g but common-sense." 3^ To Emerson he wrote 55 at the end of 1847 t h a t Tennyson had "almost l o s t h i s way among the w i l l - o - w i s p s , " t h a t he "may f l o u n d e r even deeper, over neck and nose at l a s t , among the quagmires t h a t aboundl" and t h a t A l f r e d "wants a t a s k " . 4 0 But C a r l y l e was ver y fond of "Tears, i d l e Tears." Hallam Tennyson quotes h i s f a t h e r as s a y i n g , "Old C a r l y l e , who i s never moved by p o e t r y , once quoted these l i n e s of mine, w h i l e we were out wa l k i n g , " and, Hallam says, "He 41 valued C a r l y l e ' s o p i n i o n . " How much he d i d so i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g d i n n e r t a l k , g i v e n i n the presence of C a r l y l e : " ' I don't t h i n k t h a t s i n c e Shakespeare there has been such a master of the E n g l i s h language as I , ' s a i d he, and when the others were l o o k i n g a s t o n i s h e d , he 42 c a l m l y added — 'To be sure, I've got n o t h i n g t o say'." How d i f f i c u l t i t a c t u a l l y was f o r Tennyson t o get a l o n g w i t h the f r i e n d whom he o b v i o u s l y admired so much i s i n d i c a t e d by what he t o l d E l i z a b e t h Bundle i n 1848. "You would l i k e him f o r one day," he s a i d , "but then get 43 t i r e d of him; so vehement and d e s t r u c t i v e . " ' Tennyson d i d not seek the company of C a r l y l e as o f t e n as he c o u l d have. I n a l e t t e r t o Aubrey de Vere of January 17, 1849, C a r l y l e d e s c r i b e d him as f o l l o w s : "Tennyson i t seems, has r e t u r n e d t o Town: a glimpse of him was got, the other day, 'walking w i t h l a r g e s t r i d e s i n t o Regent S t r e e t , ' — i n a n o r t h e r l y d i r e c t i o n ; and then then he went over the h o r i z o n a g a i n , and has not reemerged 56 44 s i n c e . " , But there must have been a meeting e a r l y i n 1849, f o r C a r l y l e wrote t o John F o r s t e r on March 21, 1849, t h a t Tennyson had l e f t h i s u m b r e l l a at Cheyne Row.' whenever they met C a r l y l e would p l a y the "vehement Jeremiah" i n a manner t h a t p r o b a b l y l e f t the poet speechless. Espinasse r e p o r t s one such encounter: I found him [ C a r l y l e ] one forenoon deep i n the A c t a  Sanctorum, and f u l l of the s t o r y of the d e a l i n g s of an e a r l y C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r y w i t h some Scandinavian and heathen p o t e n t a t e . ' A l f r e d ' , he d e c l a r e d , ' would be much b e t t e r employed i n making such an episode i n t e r e s t i n g and b e a u t i f u l than i n c o b b l i n g h i s odes,' the occupation i n which, when v i s i t i n g him some time b e f o r e , C a r l y l e had found him engaged, and w i t h the f u t i l i t y of which he had then and there reproached him. I asked C a r l y l e i f the l a t e Laureate d i d not 'stand up' f o r h i s l i t e r a r y procedure. 'Noi he l a y down f o r i t , ' C a r l y l e r e p l i e d , d o u b t l e s s w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o ' A l f r e d ' s ' c a r e l e s s , i n d o l e n t ways.46 On' June 1, 1850, Tennyson p u b l i s h e d I n Memoriam. Two weeks l a t e r he married, and i n November he became Poet Laureate. Thus i t appears t h a t d u r i n g i t s f i r s t decade the f r i e n d s h i p between C a r l y l e and Tennyson was s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t i m a t e , and of such a p e c u l i a r , r a t h e r one-sided q u a l i t y , t h a t i t i s probable t h a t C a r l y l e impressed Tennyson w i t h h i s i d e a s . An examination of Tennyson's g r e a t e s t poem, begun s h o r t l y before the p u b l i c a t i o n of S a r t o r R e s a r t u s , and p u b l i s h e d at the end of the f i r s t decade of the poet's f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e , w i l l suggest t h a t Tennyson's mind d i d indeed not remain unchanged under the onslaught of C a r l y l e ' s JeremiacLs, r e c e p t i v e as i t was d u r i n g a p e r i o d i n which the poet must have been se a r c h i n g f o r the v e r y ideas C a r l y l e had a l r e a d y formulated. 58 FOOTNOTES •'•Wilson, I I , p. 3 7 2 . 2 P . 133. ^Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," 82 (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . H. I* A. Fausset, Tennyson. A Modern P o r t r a i t (London, 1 9 2 3 ) , p. 9 3 . 5 I b i d . , p. 141. Hallam, Lord Tennyson, Tennyson and H i s F r i e n d s (London, 1911) , pp. 131-132. ^Memoir. I , 267 . 8 A l f r e d Tennyson (London,: 1901) , p. 3 6 . 9Memoir, I , 188. 1 0 I b i d . , I , 213-214. l l f ,The Dilemma of Tennyson," i n C r i t i c a l Essays On  the P o e t r y of Tennyson, ed. John K i l l h a m (London, I960), p. 159. 1 2Memoir, I , 196. 1 3James Knowles, "Aspects of Tennyson," Nineteenth  Century. X X X I I I ( l 8 9 3 ) , 182. 1 4 P a s t , p. 3 1 . 1^Memoir. I , 214. 16 I b i d . , I , 214. I f not e a r l i e r , Tennyson became acquainted w i t h modern German thought through the " A p o s t l e s " at Cambridge, among whom the Germans were h i g h l y i n vogue. (See Lore Metzger, "The E t e r n a l Process: Some P a r a l l e l s Between Goethe's Faust and Tennyson's In Memoriam." V i c t . P o e t r y . I , 189 - 9 6 ) . I n J u l y 1832 Tennyson toured the Rhineland w i t h A r t h u r Hallam, and a year or so l a t e r a t y p i c a l week's work looked l i k e t h i s : Monday Tuesday H i s t o r y , German Chemistry, German 59 Wednesday Botany, German Thursday E l e c t r i c i t y , German F r i d a y Animal P h y s i o l o g y , German Saturday Mechanics Sunday Theology (Memoir, I , 124.) In 1839 Tennyson i s known t o have read German p o e t r y (See B a r t l e T e e l i n g , ed., "A V i s i t to the Tennysons i n 1 8 3 9 , " Blackwood's Magazine. CLV [ 1 8 9 4 ] , 6 0 5 - 2 1 ) . But i n 1890 Tennyson admits t o he no "judge of German v e r s e " (Memoir. I I , 3 7 8 ) . 1 7 S e e Chapter V I . l ft See a l s o below, p. 130. h 20, 1 9 W i l s o n , I I I , 169. ' I b i d . , p. 196. 21 Alexander C a r l y l e , ed., New L e t t e r s of Thomas C a r l y l e (London, 1904), I , 279-280. 2 2Memoir, I , 188. 2 5 R e c o r d s of Tennyson, Ruskin, Browning (New York, 1893), PP. 59-60. ?4 S i r C h a r l e s Tennyson, A l f r e d Tennyson (New York, 194-9), p. 202. ^Correspondence of C a r l y l e and Emerson, I I , 66-67• t o F . R. Barton, ed., Some New L e t t e r s of Edward  F i t z g e r a l d (London, 1923), I , 321 - 3 2 2 . 2 7Memoir, I , 2 2 5 . 2 8 S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 87 (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 85 (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 5°J. A. Froude, ed., L e t t e r s and Memorials of Jane Welsh C a r l y l e (London, 1883), I , 339-344. 5 1 S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 85 (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 32 ^ Charles Tennyson, op. c i t . , p. 214. 5 5 P i t t , op. c i t . , p. 129. ^Some New L e t t e r s of Edward F i t z g e r a l d , pp. 131-133. 35 y<Edward Watts Chubb, "Emerson on C a r l y l e and Tennyson," i n - S t o r i e s of Authors. B r i t i s h and American (New York, 1 9 2 6 ) , pp. 150-5. 5 6 J o h n K i l l h a m , Tennyson and "The P r i n c e s s . " (London, 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 3 0 , 38. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 39 ( n o t e ) ; see Cofer, D. B. S a i n t - Simonianism i n the R a d i c a l i s m of Thomas C a r l y l e , London, 1 9 3 D . 38 ' Lawrence and E l i z a b e t h Hanson, Necessary E v i l :  The L i f e of Jane Welsh C a r l y l e (London, 1 9 5 2 ) , p. 3 6 1 . 5 ^ F . E s p i n a s s e , "The C a r l y l e s and a Segment of T h e i r C i r c l e , " i n L i t e r a r y R e c o l l e c t i o n s and Sketches (London, 1 8 9 3 ) , pp. 213-214. 40 Correspondence of C a r l y l e and Emerson. I I , 159* 4 1Memoir, I I , 7 3 . 4 2 W i l s o n , IV, 11 . 4 5 C h a r l e s Tennyson, op. c i t . , p. 231. Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 88. (From the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of Scotland.) ^ C h a r l e s R i c h a r d Sanders, " C a r l y l e ' s L e t t e r s , " B u l l . John Rylands L i b r . . XXXVIII ( 1955) , 2 2 0 . 4 6 E s p i n a s s e , op. c i t . , p. 214. CHAPTER V PARALLELS BETWEEN SARTOR AND IN MEMORIAM, AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES FROM CARLYLE UPON TENNYSON L i t t l e i s known about the dates at which the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of In Memoriam were w r i t t e n . Tennyson h i m s e l f s a i d , I t must be remembered t h a t t h i s i s a poem, not an a c t u a l biography. . . . The s e c t i o n s were w r i t t e n at many d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , and as the phrases of our i n t e r c o u r s e came to my memory and suggested them. I d i d not w r i t e them w i t h any view of weaving them i n t o a whole, or f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , u n t i l I found t h a t I had w r i t t e n so many.l Because i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h dates f o r the composition of most s e c t i o n s of I n Memoriam. i t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e s p e c i f i c i n f l u e n c e s from C a r l y l e upon Tennyson. To be sur e , there are many s i m i l a r i t i e s and p a r a l l e l s between S a r t o r and I n Memoriam. but most of these passages, as they appear i n the poem, may, f o r a l l we know, have been w r i t t e n before Tennyson knew C a r l y l e . Moreover, even when i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t Tennyson composed a c e r t a i n s e c t i o n a f t e r he had met C a r l y l e , i t s mere s i m i l a r i t y w i t h C a r l y l e ' s thought does not, of course, prove any i n f l u e n c e . I t w i l l be seen t h a t those c r i t i c s who do s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r a s s e r t i o n s t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u -enced Tennyson w i t h s p e c i f i c examples i n v a r i a b l y base t h e i r c l a i m s on mere p a r a l l e l s . I n i t s examination of a 62 c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n h e l d by s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s , the present study can go no f u r t h e r than t o p o i n t out such p a r a l l e l s , and t o show t h a t i t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y probable and b i o g r a p h i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson. C e r t a i n c l u e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the composition of In Memoriam occupied Tennyson i n t e r m i t t e n t l y throughout the seventeen years between Hallam's death and the 2 p u b l i c a t i o n of the poem. There are some s p e c i f i c c l u e s as t o dates, S e c t i o n LXXXVI was w r i t t e n at Barmouth,^ which Tennyson v i s i t e d i n 1839. ^he n o s t a l g i c tone of S e c t i o n LXXXVII suggests t h a t a lo n g time has passed between the w r i t i n g of the poem and the poet's departure from Cambridge i n 1831. S i m i l a r l y , i n S e c t i o n XC the poet speaks as i f a l o n g span of years had elapsed s i n c e Hallam's death. S e c t i o n s C - C I I I r e f e r t o the removal of the Tennysons from Somersby t o High Beech i n Epping F o r e s t i n 1837, and the f o l l o w i n g two S e c t i o n s (CIV - V) a l l u d e t o the new home. The "black f r o n t s long-withdrawn" i n S e c t i o n CXIX a l s o suggest t h a t the s e c t i o n was w r i t t e n c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e . Edward Lushington, f o r whose marriage w i t h the poet's s i s t e r C e c i l i a i n 1842 Tennyson wrote the epithalamium which concludes I n Memoriam. had some o p p o r t u n i t y t o observe the progress of the poem. He wrote, 63 At Christmas 1841 . . . the number of the memorial poems had r a p i d l y i n c r e a s e d s i n c e I had seen the poet [ i n the summer of 1840], h i s book c o n t a i n i n g many t h a t were new to me. Some I heard him repeat before I had seen them i n w r i t i n g , others I l e a r n t t o know f i r s t from the book i t s e l f which he* k i n d l y allowed me to l o o k through without s t i n t . I remember one p a r t i c u l a r n i g h t when . . . he began to r e c i t e the poem t h a t stands s i x t h i n "In Memoriam," . . . On one other o c c a s i o n he came and showed me a poem he had j u s t composed, s a y i n g he l i k e d i t b e t t e r than most he had done l a t e l y , t h i s was No. L I , . . .5 Lushington v i s i t e d Tennyson again i n the summer of 1845. About t h i s v i s i t he wrote: He [the poet] had then completed many of the cantos i n "In Memoriam" and was engaged on "The P r i n c e s s , " of which I had heard n o t h i n g b e f o r e . . . . He s a i d t o me, 'I have brought i n your marriage at the end of " I n Memoriam" and then showed me those poems of " I n Memoriam" which were f i n i s h e d and which were a p e r f e c t l y n o v e l s u r p r i s e t o me. 6 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of No. L I , Lushington does not mention s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s . He merely seems to imply t h a t "many" of the s e c t i o n s were w r i t t e n between 1840 and 1845, t h a t i s , d u r i n g the f i r s t f i v e years of the f r i e n d s h i p between C a r l y l e and Tennyson, when, as the b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s , both men had a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n each other than d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s . Furthermore, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t those s e c t i o n s which may be s a i d t o breathe an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" i n the face of Death were w r i t t e n l a t e r than those i n which the poet's g r i e f and doubt appear u n r e s o l v e d , i f I n Memoriam 64 r e f l e c t s a s p i r i t u a l p i l g r i m a g e at a l l . We "can h a r d l y help t h i n k i n g i t improbable t h a t many of the l a s t t h i r t y or f o r t y s e c t i o n s were composed w i t h i n a few years of Hallam's death", says A.: C. B r a d l e y w i t h great c a u t i o n i n h i s Commentary t o In Memoriam.' To show how Tennyson a r r i v e d at an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea", and, i f p o s s i b l e , t o suggest where C a r l y l e c o u l d have exerted a g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e , w i l l be the purpose of the remaining pages of t h i s chapter. Of course, t h i s i s not to imply t h a t Tennyson's " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" i s simply the outcome of C a r l y l e ' s i n f l u e n c e . I t has been shown i n Chapter I I I t h a t Tennyson's i n t e l l e c t u a l problems, and a few t e n t a t i v e steps toward s o l v i n g them, were ve r y s i m i l a r t o C a r l y l e ' s at a time when he c o u l d not have known C a r l y l e . Moreover, an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea", i n i t s wider meaning, i s an almost u n i v e r s a l human experience. The only c o n j e c t u r e s to be drawn from the e x i s t i n g p a r a l l e l s between S a r t o r and I n Memoriam. w i t h due c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence, are t h e r e f o r e t h a t C a r l y l e may have e x e r t e d a " g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e " over Tennyson w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f i n a l form of the poet's " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea", and t o the time at which i t occurred. The "Prologue", w r i t t e n i n 1849, when almost a l l of the poems had been w r i t t e n and arranged as they stand now, i n t r o d u c e s the b a s i c problem of I n Memoriam. the s p l i t between the "two ways of knowing," which forms 65 the b a s i s of what has been d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I as the " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " . To h e a l t h a t s p l i t , reason i s t o be t r a n s f u s e d by emotion and emotion p u r i f i e d by reason, so t h a t U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , the r e a l nature of t h i n g s , once again manifests i t s e l f i n such a way t h a t reason cannot p r o t e s t and emotion may be persuaded to f o l l o w a l o n g . The manner i n which U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y manifests i t s e l f to the new man i s through the "human form d i v i n e " , i n the present case, through the t r a n s f i g u r e d Q Hallam, so That mind and s o u l , a c c o r d i n g w e l l , May make one music as b e f o r e . Such an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" i m p l i e s , as i t always does, an " E v e r l a s t i n g No". Man may o n l y t r u l y l o v e t h a t which arouses h i s p i t y . Jealous and r e v e n g e f u l Jehoya, t h r o n i n g i n the Heavens, arouses a brave man's contempt, to the same extent t o which the s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t arouses h i s love and d e v o t i o n . " R e l i g i o n c o n t a i n s i n f i n i t e sadness. I f we are t o love God, he must be i n Q d i s t r e s s , " C a r l y l e quotes N o v a l i s , and says t h a t , on the i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e of our n a t u r e , "To become acquainted w i t h a t r u t h , we must f i r s t have d i s b e l i e v e d i t , and d i s p u t e d a g a i n s t i t — # » 1 0 I n Memoriam i s Tennyson's great d i s p u t e w i t h God. That the poet's s p i r i t u a l s t r u g g l e may be r e l a t e d 66 t o C a r l y l e ' s i s s u g g e s t e d even i n some o f t h e " e a r l y " 1 1 s e c t i o n s . I n S e c t i o n IV Tennyson compares h i s l a n g u i s h i n g g r i e f t o a s u p e r c o o l e d l i q u i d w h i c h f r e e z e s as soon as i t i s shaken. H i s l a n g u o r stems f r o m s o m e t h i n g . . . w h i c h t h o u h a s t l o s t , Some p l e a s u r e f r o m t h i n e e a r l y y e a r s . B r e a k , t h o u deep vase o f c h i l l i n g t e a r s , That g r i e f h a t h shaken i n t o f r o s t ! I n The F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n C a r l y l e u s e s t h e same image i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t : . . . i n few d a y s , some s a y i n n o t many h o u r s , a l l F r a n c e t o t h e utmost b o r d e r s b r i s t l e s w i t h b a y o n e t s . . . . But t h u s may any c h e m i c a l l i q u i d , t h o u g h c o o l e d t o t h e f r e e z i n g - p o i n t , o r f a r l o w e r , s t i l l c o n t i n u e l i q u i d ; and t h e n on t h e s l i g h t e s t s t r o k e o r s h a k e , i t a t once r u s h e s w h o l l y i n t o i c e . Thus has F r a n c e , f o r l o n g months and even y e a r s , been c h e m i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h : b r o u g h t b e l o w z e r o ; and now, shaken by t h e F a l l o f a B a s t i l l e , i t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y congeals.12 One c r i t i c b e l i e v e s t h a t i n S e c t i o n V C a r l y l e ' s i m a g e r y may be i n t h e back o f Tennyson's mind. I n t h e l a s t s t a n z a t h e p o e t d e s c r i b e s h i s p o e t r y i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s g r i e f as " c l o t h e s " i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t w h i c h t h e y " e n f o l d " . 3h words, l i k e weeds, I ' l l wrap me o ' e r , L i k e c o a r s e s t c l o t h e s a g a i n s t t h e c o l d ; But t h a t l a r g e g r i e f w h i c h t h e s e e n f o l d I s g i v e n i n o u t l i n e and no more. C a r l y l e s a y s i n S a r t o r . "Language i s c a l l e d t h e Garment o f Thought: however, i t s h o u l d r a t h e r b e , 67 Language i s the Flesh-Garment, the Body, of Thought." 1 5 I n a d d i t i o n , the whole imagery i n S a r t o r Resartus r e v o l v e s , of course, about " c l o t h e s " . A l i c e Maddeford Darch accepts the mere f a c t t h a t Tennyson employs such a w i d e l y used metaphor as proof t h a t S e c t i o n V i s one of those " s e c t i o n s of In Memoriam t h a t show the d i r e c t 14 i n f l u e n c e of S a r t o r Resartus". Obviously, her reasoning i s w h o l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e , and u n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s i n d i c a t i v e of the q u a l i t y of evidence which one encounters a l l too f r e q u e n t l y i n a c r i t i c a l examination of a f i r m l y h e l d s c h o l a r l y o p i n i o n , such as the one under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s t o be remembered once again t h a t a l l evidence based on p a r a l l e l s between words, i d e a s , and images i n the w r i t i n g s of C a r l y l e and Tennyson must remain i n c o n c l u s i v e i f c o nsidered apart from the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence. Only i f one regards a l l three c a t e g o r i e s of evidence as a whole may one conclude t h a t i t i s probable t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson. Even so, one must not imagine t h a t Tennyson accepted C a r l y l e * s ideas without r e s e r v e . I t i s known t h a t he l i s t e n e d t o him, but as poet he was f o r e v e r s u s p i c i o u s of any p h i l o s o p h i c a l system which l a i d c l a i m t o u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . Whereas C a r l y l e , the p h i l o s o p h e r , would j u b i l a n t l y p r o c l a i m the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s o l u t i o n of h i s r e l i g i o u s doubts as v a l i d and o b l i g a t o r y f o r a l l men, Tennyson, the poet, would always f e e l t h a t the w i s e r i s a l s o the sadder man. 68 Thus i n S e c t i o n XXXIII he seems t o he 15 addr e s s i n g a man much l i k e C a r l y l e , y perhaps i n response to a t y p i c a l argument d u r i n g one of those n i g h t l y walks i n the ' f o r t i e s ' . 1 6 0 thou t h a t a f t e r t o i l and storm Mayst seem to have reach'd a purer a i r , Whose f a i t h has centre everywhere, Nor cares t o f i x i t s e l f to form, Leave thou t h y s i s t e r when she prays Her e a r l y heaven, her happy views; Nor thou w i t h shadow'd h i n t confuse A l i f e t h a t l e a ds melodious days. Her f a i t h t h r o ' form i s pure as t h i n e , Her hands are q u i c k e r unto good. . . . Indeed, Tennyson's warning seems to be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t C a r l y l e ' s t y p i c a l i r r e v e r e n c e , f o r which Tennyson once 17 m i l d l y reproached C a r l y l e d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n (XXXIV) Tennyson touches upon the b a s i c q u e s t i o n of S a r t o r Resartus and In Memoriam. i n f a c t , the b a s i c q u e s t i o n of man: t o be or not t o be. I n the l i g h t of an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" God i s r e v e a l e d through H i s garment, which i s the u n i v e r s e ; i n the darkness of the " E v e r l a s t i n g No" t h a t garment appears as a shroud spread over the dead body of mankind. In the absence of f a i t h , 'Twere best a t once to s i n k t o peace, L i k e b i r d s the charming serpent draws, To drop head-foremost i n the jaws Of vacant darkness and t o cease. T e u f e l s d r o c k h undergoes a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r experience. At one p l a c e he d e s c r i b e s h i s doubts thus: I t seemed as i f a l l t h i n g s i n the Heavens above and the e a r t h beneath would h u r t me; as i f the Heavens and the E a r t h were but boundless jaws of a devouring monster, wherein I , p a l p i t a t i n g , waited t o be devoured.- 1" In S e c t i o n XXXVI Tennyson d e a l s w i t h the P l a t o n i c i d e a t h a t words, and t h e r e f o r e p o e t r y , or " t a l e s can o n l y approach U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , but never a t t a i n i t . Yet p a r a d o x i c a l l y , words are the o n l y means by which man can approach the T r u t h . For wisdom d e a l t w i t h m o r t a l powers, Where t r u t h i n c l o s e s t words s h a l l f a i l , When t r u t h embodied i n a t a l e S h a l l e n t er i n at l o w l y doors. I n "The E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" T e u f e l s d r o c k h , t o o , begins to see the R e a l i t y of t h i n g s behind t h e i r measurable mani-f e s t a t i o n s . He expresses h i s new f a i t h thus: One B i b l e I know, of whose P l e n a r y I n s p i r a t i o n doubt i s not so much as p o s s i b l e ; nay w i t h my own eyes I saw the God's-Hand w r i t i n g i t , t h e r e o f a l l other B i b l e s are but Leaves, -- say, i n P i c t u r e - W r i t i n g t o a s s i s t the weaker f a c u l t y . x 9 But d e s p i t e such glimpses, Tennyson, i n h i s s p i r i t u a l journey, has not yet reached the h e i g h t from which he can see the p i n n a c l e s of the C e l e s t i a l C i t y before him. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n S e c t i o n XLV, f o r i n s t a n c e , he begins to l o o k forward and to understand the purpose 70 of the p i l g r i m a g e . H i s s t r u g g l e , l i f e i t s e l f , i s here conceived as the p r o g r e s s i v e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the Ic h and the N i c h t - I c h . Only when t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s complete, when the I c h stands, so to speak, w h o l l y on i t s own f e e t , o n l y then can the poet d i s s o l v e h i s ego i n t o an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea." Th i s use may l i e i n blood and b r e a t h , Which e l s e were f r u i t l e s s of t h e i r due, Had man t o l e a r n h i m s e l f anew Beyond the second b i r t h of death. However, at t h i s stage, Tennyson's ego s t i l l c l i n g s a n x i o u s l y t o i t s e a r t h l y shape, from which by nature i t i s d e s t i n e d t o separate. I n S e c t i o n XLVII he r e v e a l s what he expects t o f i n d "Beyond the second b i r t h of death": not the unio m y s t i c a w i t h the N i c h t - I c h . but an e t e r n a l I c h ap p a r e n t l y s t r o n g enough t o w i t h s t a n d i t s l o n e l i n e s s . "Eemerging i n the gene r a l S o u l " I s f a i t h as vague as a l l unsweet. E t e r n a l form s h a l l s t i l l d i v i d e The e t e r n a l s o u l from a l l b e s i d e ; And I s h a l l know him when we meet; As y e t the poet cannot renounce t h a t which i t i s most p a i n f u l t o renounce, h i s own e x i s t e n c e . U l t i m a t e l y , i t w i l l be h i s l o n g i n g t o be r e u n i t e d w i t h the f r i e n d t h a t w i l l r e c o n c i l e him t o the nature of such a reunion which h i s reason t e l l s him t o be the o n l y r e a l one: the reun i o n of dust w i t h dust. 71 Thus, when he n e v e r t h e l e s s " f a i n t l y " t r u s t s "the l a r g e r hope" ( L V ) , the s p l i t between the two ways of knowing, between Kant's "Mere Reason" and C a r l y l e ' s "Pure Reason" i s as wide open as ever. I t r e v e a l s some-t h i n g v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g of Tennyson's mind to observe t h a t when he c o n s i d e r s the a l t e r n a t i v e to h i s " l a r g e r hope" i n unsparing h o r r o r , h i s mind, o n l y s u b c o n s c i o u s l y perhaps, t u r n s t o C a r l y l e . Was he l o o k i n g f o r a s o l u t i o n without f u l l y r e a l i z i n g i t ? What i s probably the most famous image i n I n Memoriam. "Nature, r e d i n t o o t h and claw" ( L V I ) , bears such resemblance t o an image C a r l y l e used r e p e a t e d l y , t h a t one i s tempted t o r e g a r d i t as something more than a mere 20 c o i n c i d e n c e . I n Past and P r e s e n t . C a r l y l e says about nature: Nature, l i k e the Sphinx, i s of womanly c e l e s t i a l l o v e l i n e s s and tenderness: the face and bosom of a goddess, but ending i n claws and the body of a l i o n e s s . There i s on her a c e l e s t i a l beauty, . . . but there i s a l s o a darkness, a f e r o c i t y , f a t a l i t y , which are i n f e r n a l . . . . Answer her r i d d l e , i t i s w e l l w i t h thee. Answer i t not, pass on r e g a r d i n g i t n o t , i t w i l l answer i t s e l f ; the s o l u t i o n f o r thee i s a t h i n g of t e e t h and claws; Nature i s a dumb l i o n e s s , deaf to t h y p l e a d i n g s , f i e r c e l y devouring. . . . thou a r t her mangled v i c t i m . . . .21 (my i t a l i c s ) And i n S a r t o r . C a r l y l e a l s o uses the Sphinx image. T e u f e l s d r o c k h says, The Universe was a mighty S p h i n x - r i d d l e , which I knew so l i t t l e o f , yet must rede, or be devoured. I n r e d s t r e a k s of unspeakable grandeur, yet a l s o i n the blackness 72 of darkness, was L i f e , t o my to o - u n f u r n i s h e d Thought, u n f o l d i n g i t s e l f . 2 2 S e c t i o n LVI c l o s e s w i t h the poet's desperate demand to see the t r u e nature of t h i n g s , t o f i n d the s o l u t i o n of the r i d d l e , Behind the v e i l , behind the v e i l . Were he ever granted the lo o k behind the v e i l , he would see h i m s e l f . Indeed, l a t e r , when the poet's I c h has become r e u n i t e d w i t h the N i c h t - I c h through r e n u n c i a t i o n , he says i n l y r i c XCVII: My love has t a l k ' d w i t h rocks and t r e e s ; He f i n d s on m i s t y mountain-ground H i s own v a s t shadow glory-crown'd; He sees h i m s e l f i n a l l he sees, (my i t a l i c s ) The way i n which the poet's s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and u l t i m a t e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n are brought about i n I n Memoriam may be c l o s e l y compared t o the s t r u g g l e of Te u f e l s d r o c k h . Through Hallam as mediator, the poet asks whether the ens a se owes him happiness ( L X ) . But he f i n d s the answer h i m s e l f , . . . "How v a i n am I ! How should he love a t h i n g so low?" (LX) "What Act of L e g i s l a t u r e was there t h a t thou shouldst be Happy?" 2 3 T e u f e l s d r o c k h asks h i m s e l f the same q u e s t i o n . 73 And i n Past and Present C a r l y l e devotes a whole chapter to the s u p e r s t i t i o n t h a t man has a r i g h t t o he "happy". G r a d u a l l y , the poet has accomplished the 24 " f i r s t p r e l i m i n a r y moral A c t , A n n i h i l a t i o n of S e l f " ; w i t h T e u f e l s d r o c k h , he b i d s the phantoms of h i s w i l l - t o -s u r v i v e f a r e w e l l . " F l y , then, f a l s e shadows of Hope; 25 I w i l l chase you no more, I w i l l b e l i e v e you no more." ' Once man has renounced h i s p e t t y c l a i m s on time and space they l o s e t h e i r s p e l l over him and f l e e l i k e s p e c t r e s . "And seest thou t h e r e i n any glimpse of IMMORTALITY? — " e x u l t s T e u f e l s d r o c k h . I s the white Tomb of our Loved One, who d i e d from our arms, and had t o be l e f t behind us t h e r e , which r i s e s i n the d i s t a n c e , l i k e a p a l e , m o u r n f u l l y r e c e d i n g M i l e s t o n e , t o t e l l how many to i l s o m e uncheered m i l e s we have journeyed on a l o n e , — but a pa l e s p e c t r a l I l l u s i o n I I s the l o s t F r i e n d s t i l l m y s t e r i o u s l y here, even as we are Here m y s t e r i o u s l y , w i t h Godl — Know of a t r u t h t h a t o n l y the Time-shadows have p e r i s h e d , or are p e r i s h a b l e ; t h a t the r e a l Being of whatever was, and whatever i s , and whatever w i l l be, i s even now and f o r e v e r . For the modern poet as f o r the anc i e n t s c u l p t o r , Thanatos becomes one w i t h E r o s . I n l y r i c L X V I I I , death, f o r the f i r s t time, i s no longer looked upon w i t h g r i e f but almost w i t h a s i g h of r e l i e f . "Sleep, Death's t w i n -b r o t h e r " grants f o r a whi l e what Lethe g i v e s f o r e v e r . I t may be s a i d t h a t Tennyson passes through a "Centre of I n d i f f e r e n c e " when he becomes r e s i g n e d t o the ...inevitable. I curse not Nature, no, nor Death; For n o t h i n g i s t h a t e r r s from law. ( L X I I I ) 74-From here one does not have to go f a r u n t i l one regards t h a t which i s as t h a t which ought t o he; u n t i l one says " l e a . " Thus the whole i n c o n c e i v a b l e nothingness by which the poet has f o r m e r l y been h o r r o r - s t r u c k becomes t r a n s f u s e d w i t h the v e r y being of the beloved f r i e n d . . . . Death has made Hi s darkness b e a u t i f u l w i t h thee. (LXXIV) One can onl y understand the f u l l meaning of such an emotional process i f one understands the whole depth of the f r i e n d s h i p between the poet and Hallam. And t h a t depth cannot be measured by standards which happen to be regarded as "normal" at the present time. For the E l i z a b e t h a n s , as f o r the Romantics, and p a r a d o x i -c a l l y , f o r the modern psychoanalyst, there was and i s only one love which i s i n s e p a r a b l e and u l t i m a t e l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from i t s p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . To observe how a w h o l l y s u p e r s t i t i o u s b e l i e f i n love apart from the body, i . e . , apart from r e a l i t y , serves as the b a s i s f o r moral and l e g a l judgements alone s u f f i c e s t o d i s c r e d i t the myth t h a t ours i s a r a t i o n a l age. Many of the expressions of Tennyson's love f o r Hallam s t r i k e the unbiased modern ear as unusual, and the p r u d i s h as o f f e n s i v e . The poet once compares h i m s e l f to 75 A happy l o v e r who has come To look on her t h a t l o v e s him w e l l . ( V I I I ) A r t h u r Hallam i s t o the poet Dear as the mother t o the son. More than my b r o t h e r s are t o me. ( i X ) And he sheds Tears of the widower, when he sees A l a t e - l o s t form t h a t sleep r e v e a l s , And moves h i s d o u b t f u l arms, and f e e l s Her p l a c e i s empty, . . • ( X I I I ; I f he c o u l d see Hallam's dead body, he, . . . f a l l i n g on h i s f a i t h f u l h e a r t , Would b r e a t h i n g t h r o ' h i s l i p s impart The l i f e t h a t almost d i e s . . . . ( X V I I I ) The repeated use of the word "Love" i n the context.; of S e c t i o n s XXV - XXVII sounds e q u a l l y strange t o modern e a r s . I n l y r i c XL the poet compares h i s f r i e n d ' s death to the departure of a b r i d e from home. I n another p l a c e , Tennyson says t h a t i n the f r i e n d he found and admired "manhood fused w i t h female grace" (CIX). A recent s t u d y 2 7 of Tennyson t r a c e s h i s ambi-valence toward women, which expresses i t s e l f i n the f a c t t h a t the poet's female c h a r a c t e r s tend t o be e i t h e r d e v i l s or a n g e l s , t o a s t r o n g homosexual t r a i t i n Tennyson's c h a r a c t e r which became manifest i n h i s love 76 f o r Hallam. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a r e a d i n g of M i l t o n ' s Samson Agonistes had a profound e f f e c t on the twelve year o l d Tennyson and caused h i s l i f e l o n g f e a r of b l i n d n e s s . P s y c h o a n a l y s i s has suggested t h a t an i r r a t i o n a l f e a r of b l i n d n e s s i s a symbolic e x p r e s s i o n of a person's f e a r of l o s i n g h i s manhood. Such a f e a r may e a s i l y be r e l a t e d t o homosexual behaviour. With these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n mind, one can understand the m y s t i c a l experience d e s c r i b e d i n l y r i c LXXXV. Through h i s death Hallam has become p a r t of the N i c h t - I c h . of the u n i v e r s e ; and the poet l o o k s at h i s own death as a consummation of h i s l o v e , by which he w i l l be 29 u n i t e d w i t h the f r i e n d . J And every p u l s e of wind and wave R e c a l l s , i n change of l i g h t or gloom, My o l d a f f e c t i o n of the tomb, And my prime p a s s i o n i n the grave. Such a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of man w i t h nature i s p o s s i b l e o n l y a f t e r the poet has asked h i m s e l f , l i k e T e u f e l s d r o c k h i n the " E v e r l a s t i n g No", "What a r t thou a f r a i d o f ? " . . . what i s the sum-total of the worst t h a t l i e s before thee? Death? W e l l , D e a t h ; " 5 0 Now the poet's f r i e n d s h i p . . . Masters Time indeed, and i s E t e r n a l , separate from f e a r s , (my i t a l i c s ) 77 I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n h i s contemplation of death, Tennyson thought of an i d e a he may have read i n S a r t o r . T e u f e l s d r o c k h , at one p l a c e , t r i e s t o v i s u a l i z e the e t e r n a l law of change i n the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n : Nay i t i s v e r y mournful, yet not u s e l e s s , to see and know, how the Greatest and Dearest, i n a s h o r t w h i l e , would f i n d h i s p l a c e q u i t e f i l l e d - u p here, and no room f o r him; the v e r y Napoleon, the very Byron, i n some seven y e a r s , has become o b s o l e t e , and were now a f o r e i g n e r to h i s Europe.31 S e c t i o n XC of In Memoriam expresses a s i m i l a r i d e a : But i f they came who past away, Behold t h e i r b r i d e s i n other hands; The hard h e i r s t r i d e s about t h e i r l a n d s , And w i l l not y i e l d them f o r a day. And i n S e c t i o n L I Tennyson asks, Do we indeed d e s i r e the dead Should s t i l l be near us at our s i d e ? I s there no baseness we would hide? No i n n e r v i l e n e s s t h a t we dread? According t o Lushington, t h i s s e c t i o n was composed around Christmas 1841 (see above, p. 63), at a time when Tennyson had a l r e a d y been q u i t e i n t i m a t e w i t h C a r l y l e f o r more than a year. But Tennyson's p e r s o n a l love f o r Hallam i s s t r o n g e r than C a r l y l e ' s r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The l o v i n g poet s c o l d s the r a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r , 78 He t a s t e d l o v e with, h a l f h i s mind, Nor ever drank the i n v i o l a t e s p r i n g Where h i g h e s t heaven, who f i r s t c o u l d f l i n g T h i s b i t t e r seed among mankind. (XC) I n f a c t , i n S e c t i o n CXIV Tennyson seems to t e l l C a r l y l e t h a t "Knowledge", or r a t i o alone, even C a r l y l e ' s c r i t i c a l , K a n t i a n , use of i t , "cannot f i g h t the f e a r of death" ( 1 . 10). . . . Let her [ r a t i o ] know her p l a c e ; She i s the second, not the f i r s t . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , a c r i t i c d e f i n e s the theme of l y r i c CXIV as the " K a n t i a n - C o l e r i d g e a n - C a r l y l e a n d i s t i n c t i o n " ''between the two ways of knowing, between knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e . 3 2 T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s pursued i n S e c t i o n CXXIV. Tennyson here r e j e c t s a l l ' r a t i o n a l ' approaches toward a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the I c h w i t h the N i c h t - I c h . of man w i t h n a t u r e , or God. I found Him not i n world or sun, Or eagle's wing, or i n s e c t ' s eye, Nor t h r o ' the questions men may t r y , The p r e t t y cobwebs we have spun. Inste a d , the poet has found God i n the c o l d f e a r of H i s •53 v a s t nothingness, i n C a r l y l e ' s " E v e r l a s t i n g N o " r > and i n the l o v e of t h a t nothingness which Hallam's death had t r a n s f i g u r e d i n t o an A l l , i n C a r l y l e ' s " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea". 79 A warmth w i t h i n the b r e a s t would melt The f r e e z i n g reason's c o l d e r p a r t , And l i k e a man i n wrath the h e a r t Stood up and answered, " I have f e l t . " For the poet, as f o r T e u f e l s d r o c k h , f e a r was a necessary-f i r s t step i n h i s growth because i t made him conceive the whole vastness of t h a t which he came to l o v e . No, l i k e a c h i l d i n doubt and f e a r : But t h a t b l i n d clamor made me wise; Then was I as a c h i l d t h a t c r i e s , But, c r y i n g , knows h i s f a t h e r near. But Tennyson d i d not transcend h i s Weltangst merely as a r e s u l t of T e u f e l s d r o c k t ' s quasi-mathematical " l e s s e n i n g " of the "Denominator" of h i s " F r a c t i o n of L i f e . " 5 ' ' U l t i m a t e l y , man cannot achieve f u l f i l l m e n t by renouncing a l l d e s i r e s , because to l i v e means to have a w i l l - t o - p o w e r , a d e s i r e to l o v e . The poet, r a t h e r , reached f u l f i l l m e n t because w i t h the power of h i s i m a g i n a t i o n he welded h i s d e s i r e s t o h i s f a t e . The dust of the beloved f r i e n d had transformed a h o s t i l e u n i v e r s e i n t o the l o v i n g womb of n a t u r e . Thy v o i c e i s on the r o l l i n g a i r ; I hear thee where the waters run;. Thou standest i n the r i s i n g sun, And i n the s e t t i n g thou a r t f a i r . . . . Tho' mix'd w i t h God and Nature thou I seem t o lo v e thee more and more. (CXXX Thus Tennyson, the poet, had achieved what 80 C a r l y l e , the t h i n k e r , c o u l d o n l y c a l l f o r . He had embodied "the d i v i n e s p i r i t " of C h r i s t i a n i t y " i n a new 36 Mythus, i n a new v e h i c l e and v e s t u r e " ^ by " s u b s t i t u t i n g a symbolic and transformed Hallam f o r the f i g u r e of C h r i s t . " 5 7 81 FOOTNOTES Memoir. I , 304. p For the f o l l o w i n g c h r o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s I am l a r g e l y indebted t o A l i c e Maddeford Darch, "A Comparison of Tennyson's I n Memoriam w i t h C a r l y l e ' s S a r t o r Resartus." (Master's essay, Univ. of Western O n t a r i o , 1927) , p. 19 . ^Memoir, I , 313 . 4 I b i d . , p. 173. ^Memoir, I , 2 0 2 - 2 0 3 . 6 I b i d . , p. 2 0 3 . 7(London, 1915) , p. 18. 8See below, p. 74. i • q " N o v a l i s , " p. 4 5 6 . 1 0 I b i d . , p. 454. l l f , e a r l y " , t h a t i s , i n the present arrangement of the poem. French R e v o l u t i o n . I , 175. Of. Thomas Baynes, " C a r l y l e and Lord Tennyson," Notes and Queries. 7 t h s e r . , XI ( 1891) , 204. 1 5 S a r t o r , p. 5 0 . Cf. Darch, op. c i t . , p. 56 . 14 Darch, op. c i t . , p. 55 . 1 5 C f . Darch, op. c i t . , p. 55* 16 See above, p. 4 5 . 1 7 S e e below, p. 129 f . l ft S a r t o r , pp. 115. Of. Darch, op. c i t . , p. 56. i q S a r t o r , p. 132. Cf. Thomas Davidson, Prolegomena  to " I n Memoriam" (Boston, 1 9 0 9 ) , p. 39-40. O f ) Of course, t h i s does not mean t h a t Tennyson owes the i d e a expressed i n h i s f a m i l i a r image t o C a r l y l e . The concept of organic e v o l u t i o n , and the problems i t presented, were among the main i n t e l l e c t u a l i s s u e s of the 82 n i n e t e e n t h century. Tennyson was d i s t u r b e d by these problems many years before the p u b l i c a t i o n of Darwin's O r i g i n of Species i n 1859. As e a r l y as 1837 Tennyson was "deeply immersed" i n Charles L y e l l ' s P r i n c i p l e s of  Geology (Memoir. I , 162), and i n November 1844 Tennyson asked h i s p u b l i s h e r Moxon for. a copy of Robert Chambers' V e s t i g e s of the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y of C r e a t i o n . But Hallam Tennyson assures us t h a t "the s e c t i o n s of In Memoriam about E v o l u t i o n " had been w r i t t e n before the p u b l i c a t i o n of Chambers' book i n 1844 (Memoir. I , 2 2 3 ) . B a s i l W i l l e y , i n More Nineteenth Century S t u d i e s (London, 1956), p r o v i d e s no c o n c l u s i v e evidence f o r h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t " t h i s book c o n t a i n s so many passages which seem to be paraphrased i n In Memoriam t h a t we cannot doubt i t s consonance w i t h Tennyson's own thought, and i n some p a r t i c u l a r s i t s d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e " (p. 87). In the present case we are mainly concerned w i t h Tennyson's image, r a t h e r than w i t h h i s i d e a s . 2 1 P a s t , p. 6. Cf. Robert A. Greenberg, "A P o s s i b l e Source of Tennyson's 'Tooth and Claw'." Modern Language  Notes. LXXI (1956), 491 - 9 2 . 2 2 S a r t o r , p. 88. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 131. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 127. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 127 2 6 I b i d . , .p. 177. 2 7 B e t t y M i l l e r , "Tennyson and the S i n f u l Queen," Twentieth Century, CLVIII (1955), 355-63. 2 8 C f . "Enid and NimuS, "Morte D'Arthur," "The Dead Prophet," a.o. 2^See a l s o the d e s c r i p t i o n of the poet's own death and r e u n i o n w i t h Hallam i n l y r i c C I I I . 30 5 1 I b i d . , p. 3 2 . 3 2 R y a l s , Theme and Symbol i n Tennyson's Poems to 1850. p. 250. 5 5 R y a l s , "The 'Heavenly F r i e n d ' : The 'New Mythus' of I n Memoriam." 395. 3°Sartor, p. 115-83 34 ^ Darch, op. c i t . , p. 56. 5 5 S a r t o r , p. 130. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 132. Quoted by R y a l s , "Tne 'Heavenly F r i e n d ' : The 'New Mythus' of In Memoriam." p. 402. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 384. CHAPTER VI PARALLELS BETWEEN SARTOR AND "LOCKSLEY HALL", AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES FROM CARLYLE UPON TENNYSON An examination of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " r e v e a l s many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h C a r l y l e * s ideas i n general and w i t h those expressed i n S a r t o r Resartus i n p a r t i c u l a r . A c cording t o R y a l s , 'Locksley H a l l ' i s a poem of t e n s i o n between the E v e r l a s t i n g No and the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea. . . . [The] speaker undergoes the same p a t t e r n of development as t h a t which l e d T e u f e l s d r o c k h t o argue the E v e r l a s t i n g No i n t o the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea. For .the speaker, and presumably f o r Tennyson, p o s i t i v e romanticism has supplanted n e g a t i v e romanticism. W i l l i a m D. Templeman i s convinced " t h a t Tennyson has e x t r a c t e d the s y m b o l i c a l heart of S a r t o r  R e s a r t u s , compressed i t s a c t i o n , and turned i t i n t o p o e t r y predominantly l y r i c a l yet r e t a i n i n g the o r i g i n a l dramatic t e n s i o n between the E v e r l a s t i n g No and the E v e r l a s t i n g Yea." 2 The d a t i n g of "Loc k s l e y H a l l " p r e s e n t s some d i f f i c u l t i e s . At l e a s t one l i n e , L e t the great world s p i n f o r e v e r down the r i n g i n g grooves of change, was w r i t t e n as e a r l y as 1830. Tennyson t o l d h i s son: "When I went by the f i r s t t r a i n from L i v e r p o o l to Manchester (1830), I thought t h a t the wheels r a n i n a groove. I t was 85 a b l a c k n i g h t and there was such a va s t crowd round the t r a i n at the s t a t i o n t h a t we c o u l d not see the wheels. Then I made t h i s l i n e . " 5 S i r C h a r l e s Tennyson b e l i e v e s t h a t "the b u l k of the poem was composed a f t e r the death of o l d George Tennyson i n 1835"» out he has no evidence t o support h i s view; i n f a c t , he admits t h a t there " i s no evidence as t o the date of composition". Besides, S i r Charles does not say how soon a f t e r 1835 " L o c k s l e y H a l l " was w r i t t e n . Hallam Tennyson p r o v i d e s a f u r t h e r c l u e . He r e p o r t s t h a t " d u r i n g some months of 1837" h i s f a t h e r read Thomas P r i n g l e ' s A N a r r a t i v e of a Residence i n South A f r i c a . from which the poet "got the image of the hungry l i o n used i n h i s s i m i l e i n 'Locksley H a l l ' ( 1 . 135). " 6 7 However, Templeman's c o n j e c t u r e ' t h a t the poem as a whole was completed i n 1841 appears t o be most p l a u s i b l e . John C. Walters t e l l s us t h a t an o l d h a l l at North Somercotes, at the L i n c o l n s h i r e c o a s t , served p a r t l y as model f o r L o c k s l e y H a l l ; t h a t "on the a u t h o r i t y of the l a t e Rev. Dr. Wood, Tennyson i s s a i d t o have a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n p a r t of the poem i n i t s i v i e d casement;" and t h a t g the poem "was the r e s u l t of s i x weeks' continuous l a b o u r " . And Hallam Tennyson quotes a l e t t e r from h i s f a t h e r t o F i t z g e r a l d which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the poet spent some time 9 i n 1841 at Mablethorpe on the L i n c o l n s h i r e c o a s t . Tennyson s a i d t h a t " S i r W i l l i a m James' prose 86 t r a n s l a t i o n of the Mojallakat, the seven A r a b i c poems hanging up i n the temple of Mecca, gave him the i d e a of the poem." 1 0 One of the seven poems, e n t i t l e d " A m r i o l k a i s , " t e l l s of a young man who stops by the des e r t e d camp s i t e of h i s beloved t o lament her departure. The resemblance between the poems goes no f u r t h e r . On the other hand, the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the s t o r i e s of S a r t o r Resartus. Book I I , and "Loc k s l e y H a l l " are indeed remarkable. I n both works, the romantic hero f a l l s i n love w i t h a high-born maiden who e v e n t u a l l y , under pressure from her wealthy f a m i l y , breaks the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n favour of a s o c i a l l y more acceptable match. The hero undergoes an emotional r e v o l t a g a i n s t h i s misfortune but at l a s t becomes r e c o n c i l e d w i t h r e a l i t y through s t o i c r e n u n c i a t i o n . Both heroes d i s p l a y d i s t i n c t B y r o n i c or "Wertherian" t r a i t s . Both are orphans whose o r i g i n s are somewhat out of the o r d i n a r y ; T e u f e l s d r o c k h , "God-born", was handed over t o h i s f o s t e r - p a r e n t s by a mysterious, u n e a r t h l y s t r a n g e r ; Tennyson's hero was born " i n yonder s h i n i n g O r i e n t ( 1 . 154)." Poor and without f a m i l y connections, they are f r e e t o s u b j e c t s o c i e t y t o m e r c i l e s s s c r u t i n y . Being r a t h e r preoccupied w i t h the f a i l u r e of s o c i e t y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of "happiness", they f a i l c ompletely t o sense t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward the s o c i a l order, u n t i l a f t e r a g o n i z i n g c a r t h a r s e s . 87 Thus both heroes a p p a r e n t l y do no p r o d u c t i v e work. Te u f e l s d r o c k h g i v e s up h i s p o s i t i o n as " a u s c u l t a t o r " t o seek "Food and Warmth" somewhere e l s e i n the "whole wide U n i v e r s e " . 1 1 The hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " s i m i l a r l y seems to roam the c o u n t r y s i d e without aim or purpose. But both are e m o t i o n a l l y s e n s i t i v e , h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t , and w e l l educated so t h a t they are c o n s t a n t l y d r i v e n to review t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the u n i v e r s a l context of Absolute E x i s t e n c e . L i k e Hamlet, they tend t o express such s o u l -s e a r c h i n g i n p o e t i c terms. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between Blumine and Cousin Amy a r e , perhaps, even more d i s t i n c t . To be sure, Templeman i s s t r e t c h i n g h i s case to the b r e a k i n g p o i n t when he c l a i m s a p a r a l l e l between the two female c h a r a c t e r s on the ground t h a t Amy's name i s d e r i v e d from the French aimee, and t h a t C a r l y l e sometimes r e f e r s t o Blumine as "the IP Loved". On the other hand, there are c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s which may be more than c o i n c i d e n c e s . Thus Tennyson's heroine i s made "Cousin Amy", and C a r l y l e says about Teufelsdrockh's beloved: "We seem t o gather t h a t she was 13 young, hazel-eyed, b e a u t i f u l , and some one's Cousin." Amy, t o o , has " h a z e l eyes" ( 1 . 28), and Templeman p o i n t s out " t h a t nowhere e l s e does Tennyson provide one of h i s 14 c h a r a c t e r s w i t h h a z e l eyes". Both authors s t r o n g l y i d e n t i f y t h e i r h e roines w i t h the noble mansions i n which they l i v e . Amy's residence p r o v i d e s the v e r y t i t l e f o r 88 Tennyson's poem; and f o r T e u f e l s d r o c k h , Blumine's abode seems to possess some of her magic charm. Te u f e l s d r o c k h r h a p s o d i z e s : "Noble MansionI There stoodest thou, i n deep Mountain Amphitheatre, on umbrageous lawns, i n t h y serene s o l i t u d e ; s t a t e l y , massive, a l l of g r a n i t e ; g l i t t e r i n g i n the western sunbeams, l i k e a palace of E l Dorado, over-l a i d w i t h p r e c i o u s m e t a l . " " ^ Although Towgood i s a more p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r than Amy's husband, the two men have s e v e r a l t r a i t s i n common. Both are t y p i c a l young country gentlemen who f i t w e l l i n t o Matthew Arnold's category of " B a r b a r i a n s " . Amy's husband i s a coarse boor, a "clown" ( 1 . 4-7), and a drunkard. " L i k e a dog, he hunts i n dreams" ( 1 . 79) • Towgood seems to have preserved some of the n o b i l i t y of the b a r b a r i a n , but he i s "unspeakably i l l - c u l t i v a t e d " ; he b e t r a y s " t o t a l ignorance, f o r he knew n o t h i n g except 16 Boxing and a l i t t l e Grammar." In a d d i t i o n t o these p a r a l l e l s between the p l o t s and between the c h a r a c t e r s , S a r t o r and " L o c k s l e y H a l l " d i s p l a y many s i m i l a r i t i e s of ideas and images. One may d e s c r i b e the fundamental theme of those of C a r l y l e ' s and Tennyson's works which have been d i s c u s s e d i n preceding chapters as the c o n f l i c t between Kant's "Pure Reason" and "Understanding", o r , t o put i t simply, between reason and i m a g i n a t i o n . T h i s c o n f l i c t , as f a r as i t i s recognized as man's t y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n , as the p r i c e man has to pay 89 f o r h i s r a t i o n a l mind, has a l s o been d e s c r i b e d above i n terms of a " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " . I n one of the opening l i n e s of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " Tennyson i n t r o d u c e s t h i s theme again i n a manner r e m i n i s c e n t of C a r l y l e ' s thought and imagery. I n 1. 12 the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " expresses h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h "the f a i r y t a l e s of s c i e n c e " which have f a i l e d t o b r i n g about t r u e p r o g r e s s . S a r t o r R e s a r t u s , t o o , opens w i t h a s a t i r i c d i s p r a i s e of s c i e n c e : " C o n s i d e r i n g our present advanced s t a t e of c u l t u r e , and how the Torch of Science has now been brandished and borne about, w i t h more or l e s s e f f e c t , f o r f i v e thousand years and upwards;" C a r l y l e expresses h i s s u r p r i s e t h a t "nothing of a fundamental c h a r a c t e r . . . has been w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t of C l o t h e s " (p. 3)» And i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "Pure Reason" C a r l y l e e x p l a i n s t h a t "progress of S c i e n c e , which i s t o d e s t r o y Wonder, and i n i t s stead s u b s t i t u t e Mensuration and Numeration, f i n d s s m a l l favour w i t h T e u f e l s d r o c k h , much as he otherwise venerates these two l a t t e r processes" (p. 4 7 ) . But w h i l e they are s t i l l young, l i f e seems to be a f a i r y t a l e f o r the two heroes. The purpose of the N i c h t - I c h seems to be the procurement of happiness f o r the I c h . Both the young Teufe l s d r o c k h and the young hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " , under the s p e l l of t h e i r d e s i r e s , hear a harmony where there i s d i s c o r d . Both d e s c r i b e t h e i r experience of love i n s i m i l a r terms. Tennyson says, 90 Love took up the harp of L i f e , and smote on a l l the chords w i t h Might; Smote the chord of S e l f , t h a t , t r e m b l i n g , pass'd i n Music out of s i g h t . (11 . 3 3 - 3 4 ; And C a r l y l e d e s c r i b e s the song of the s i r e n s i n prose which approaches po e t r y : Thus d i d s o f t melodies f l o w through h i s h e a r t ; tones of an i n f i n i t e g r a t i t u d e ; sweetest i n t i m a t i o n s t h a t he a l s o was a man, t h a t f o r him a l s o u n u t t e r a b l e j o y s had been p r o v i d e d . . . . As from A e o l i a n Harps i n the b r e a t h of dawn, as from the Memnon's Statue s t r u c k by the r o s y f i n g e r of Aurora, u n e a r t h l y music was around him, and lapped him i n t o u n t r i e d balmy Rest . 1 ? Templeman p o i n t s t o the s i m i l a r i t y i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of a k i s s i n S a r t o r and "Lock s l e y H a l l " . Tennyson's l i n e , And our s p i r i t s rush'd together at the tou c h i n g of the l i p s , i s perhaps one of h i s most b e a u t i f u l . When Teufels d r o c k h and Blumine b i d each other f a r e w e l l , C a r l y l e says: t h e i r l i p s were j o i n e d , t h e i r two s o u l s , l i k e two dew-drops, rushed i n t o one, — f o r the f i r s t time, and f o r the l a s t (p. 1 0 1 ) . One cannot deny the s i m i l a r i t y between the two images. But one must a l s o admit t h a t the thoughts of the young l o v e r s are, perhaps, not fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from those of any young man i n s i m i l a r circumstances. Templeman supports h i s o p i n i o n t h a t Tennyson d e r i v e d h i s l i n e from C a r l y l e w i t h the a s s e r t i o n t h a t no one "has ever 91 found another passage t h a t begins t o approach the above sentence i n S a r t o r as a probable b a s i s f o r Tennyson's 18 l i n e . " S u r e l y , the poet may have used C a r l y l e ' s image, but t o base such an o p i n i o n on the assumption t h a t Tennyson must- have had a source appears as a gross under-e s t i m a t i o n of h i s c r e a t i v e power. When Teuf e l s d r o c k h and the hero of "Lock s l e y H a l l " d i s c o v e r t h a t l i f e i s not a f a i r y t a l e they r e a c t r a t h e r v i o l e n t l y . Amy's j i l t e d l o v e r curses the world t h a t has r e j e c t e d him. Cursed be the s o c i a l wants t h a t s i n a g a i n s t the s t r e n g t h of youth I Cursed be the s o c i a l l i e s t h a t warp us from the l i v i n g t r u t h I Cursed be the s i c k l y forms t h a t e r r from honest Nature's r u l e I Cursed be the go l d t h a t g i l d s the s t r a i t e n ' d forehead of the f o o l l Although the speaker c l o t h e s h i s p r o t e s t i n the guise of moral i n d i g n a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t h i s anger i s not j u s t d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t c e r t a i n f a u l t s of s o c i e t y but a g a i n s t s o c i e t y i t s e l f , which by i t s v e r y e x i s t e n c e must impose a r e s t r a i n t on the i n d i v i d u a l . S i m i l a r l y , Teufelsdrockh's d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and disappointment l e a d to h i s Promethean d e f i a n c e i n the " E v e r l a s t i n g No". A f t e r he had d i s c a r d e d hope he asks h i m s e l f the e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n "What a r t thou a f r a i d o f ? " And r e a l i z i n g t h a t the N i c h t - I c h does not owe him 92 happiness, and t h a t f o r t h i s reason he i s at l e a s t a f r e e man, he c h a l l e n g e s F a t e . "Let i t come, then; I w i l l meet 19 i t and defy i t i " 7 To the post-Nietzschean reader i t . appears as something of an a n t i - c l i m a x , when, a few sentences below, T e u f e l s d r o c k h r a t h e r meekly r e v e a l s the o b j e c t of h i s t i t a n i c h a t r e d — the d e v i l . Perhaps, l i k e M i l t o n , he blames Satan f o r the s i n s of Jehovah. However, a f t e r h i s " F i r e - b a p t i s m " , T e u f e l s d r o c k h " s i g n i f i e s t h a t h i s Unrest was but i n c r e a s e d ; as, indeed, ' I n d i g n a t i o n and Defiance', e s p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t t h i n g s i n 20 g e n e r a l , are not the most peaceable inmates." Whether Te u f e l s d r o c k h knows i t or not, h a t r e d i s but the r e s u l t of f e a r , and man can o n l y overcome h i s f e a r of Fate by embracing i t l o v i n g l y . T e u f e l s d r o c k h d e s c r i b e s the next step i n h i s s p i r i t u a l journey as f o l l o w s : " I seemed to surrender, t o renounce u t t e r l y , and say: F l y , then, f a l s e shadows of hope; I w i l l chase you no more, I w i l l b e l i e v e you no 21 more." And the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " f r e e s h i m s e l f from the demon of f a l s e hope i n these words: " I w i l l p l u c k i t from my bosom, tho' my h e a r t be at the r o o t " (1 . 6 6 ). Thus both c h a r a c t e r s accomplish the " f i r s t 22 p r e l i m i n a r y moral A c t , A n n i h i l a t i o n of S e l f . " L i k e T e u f e l s d r o c k h , the speaker i n " L o c k s l e y H a l l " becomes contemptuous of man's quest f o r "happiness".' S c o r n f u l l y he h u r l s h i s o l d d e s i r e s , which had enslaved 93 him, at Amy: O v e r l i v e i t — lower yet — be happyi Wherefore should I care? I myself must mix w i t h a c t i o n , l e s t I w i t h e r by d e s p a i r (11. 97-98). I n h i s " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea", C a r l y l e s i m i l a r l y c a l l s f o r a c t i o n . He quotes Goethe's Wilhelm M e i s t e r : "Doubt of any s o r t cannot be removed except by A c t i o n " (p. 133), and many years l a t e r , i n 1866, he concludes h i s i n a u g u r a l address as Rector of the U n i v e r s i t y of Edinburgh w i t h the words "Work, and d e s p a i r not." But the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " f a c e s a modern problem; he does not know what he should do. He ponders the p o s s i b i l i t y of a c t i o n on the b a t t l e f i e l d , But the j i n g l i n g of the guinea helps the hurt t h a t honor f e e l s , And the n a t i o n s do but murmur, s n a r l i n g at each other's h e e l s . C a r l y l e , i n Past and P r e s e n t , i s e q u a l l y contemptuous of the uneasy peace of Europe, and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t he gave vent t o h i s anger i n one of h i s e a r l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h Tennyson, although there i s n o t h i n g at a l l to suggest t h a t Tennyson,had to w a i t f o r C a r l y l e ' s words. " ' V i o l e n c e ' , 'war', ' d i s o r d e r ' , " says C a r l y l e , " w e l l , what i s war, and death i t s e l f , to such a p e r p e t u a l l i f e - i n - d e a t h , and 24 'peace, peace, where there i s no peace'!" As the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " c o n s i d e r s the world he becomes more and more d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h those 94 endeavours upon which men o r d i n a r i l y base t h e i r hopes. What i s the p r o s p e r i t y of a f l o u r i s h i n g commerce (11. 121-124), the peace of " u n i v e r s a l law" ( 1 . 130), . . . t o him t h a t reaps not h a r v e s t of h i s y o u t h f u l j o y s , Tho' the deep he a r t of e x i s t e n c e beat f o r e v e r l i k e a boy* s? I t i s through sorrow t h a t T e u f e l s d r o c k h and the speaker i n " L o c k s l e y H a l l " r e a l i z e t h a t man "has a s o u l q u i t e other than h i s stomach," 2 5 t h a t the "deep he a r t of e x i s t e n c e " longs f o r something q u i t e beyond peace and p r o s p e r i t y . The great i n c r e a s e i n s c i e n t i f i c knowledge d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h century encouraged man t o l o o k forward to a f u t u r e i n which the s a t i s f y i n g of h i s m a t e r i a l needs would o n l y p a r t l y r e q u i r e h i s f u l l s t r e n g t h . But as s c i e n t i f i c knowledge l i b e r a t e d man from m a t e r i a l want, i t enslaved h i s mind to e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y , a process which had been gi v e n p h i l o s o p h i c a l s a n c t i o n by F r a n c i s Bacon, and which reached i t s u l t i m a t e consequence i n n i n e t e e n t h century p o l i t i c a l economy. The a b i l i t y t o see beyond s c i e n t i f i c r e a l i t y , which C a r l y l e regards as mere phenomena of man's sensory p e r c e p t i o n , i n t o the realm of t h i n g s as they r e a l l y are i s what Tennyson c a l l s "wisdom" i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " : Knowledge comes, but wisdom l i n g e r s , and I l i n g e r on the shore, And the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h e r s , and the world i s more and more. 95 The concern expressed i n these l i n e s was shared by a l l l i t e r a t e V i c t o r i a n s . Even John S t u a r t M i l l came to recognize the v i s i o n i n t o the r e a l nature of t h i n g s behind t h e i r e m p i r i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as an important h e d o n i s t i c u t i l i t y , but U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y was never more than a p l e a s a n t yet v a i n fancy f o r him. I t i s perhaps c o r r e c t t o say t h a t i n none of t h e i r contemporaries' work d i d t h a t " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y " determine every u t t e r a n c e more d e c i s i v e l y than i n the works of C a r l y l e and Tennyson, although i t was e q u a l l y d e c i s i v e i n the w r i t i n g s of Dickens, A r n o l d , and Browning. I n the stanza immediately f o l l o w i n g the one quoted above, Tennyson expresses the main i d e a of C a r l y l e ' s " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " , the i d e a namely, t h a t the more conscious man becomes of h i m s e l f through knowledge, the more l o n e l y w i l l he be i n an empty univ e r s e i n which h i s w i l l t o act w i l l be p a r a l y z e d by i n d e c i s i o n whether "to be or not to be." Knowledge comes, but wisdom l i n g e r s , and he bears a laden b r e a s t , F u l l of sad experience, moving toward the s t i l l n e s s of h i s r e s t . I n t h e i r d e s o l a t i o n , T e u f e l s d r o c k h and the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " y i e l d t o the l u r e of the L o t o s - E a t e r s . T e u f e l s d r o c k h has v i s i o n s .of "green Paradise-groves i n p c the waste Ocean-waters,." and Tennyson's hero dreams 96 of a l a n d where Droops the heavy-"blossom'd bower, hangs the h e a v y - f r u i t e d t r e e — Summer i s l e s of Eden l y i n g i n dark-purple spheres of sea. But both recognize t h e i r p h antasies as mere escapes. Both are d r i v e n by an i r r e s i s t i b l e urge t o go forward. They accept time and change as the law of the world. T e u f e l s d r o c k h says: . . . how c o u l d your Wanderer escape from h i s own shadow? Nevertheless s t i l l Forward! I f e l t as i f i n great haste; to do I saw not what. From the depth of my own h e a r t , i t c a l l e d to me, Forwards! The winds and the streams, and a l l Nature sounded t o me, Forwards! Ach Gott. I was even, once f o r a l l , a Son of Time.27 Tennyson's hero expresses h i s r e s o l u t i o n v e r y s i m i l a r l y : Not i n v a i n the d i s t a n c e becons. Forward, forward l e t us range, Let the great world s p i n f o r e v e r down the r i n g i n g grooves of change. In the exuberance of t h e i r " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" both heroes i m p l i c i t l y r e s o l v e t o make t h e i r i n t u i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n of what l i e s hidden beyond time and space v i s i b l e t o t h e i r contemporaries through l i t e r a r y works of a r t . Ancient f o u n t s of i n s p i r a t i o n w e l l t h r o ' a l l my fancy y e t , exclaims the hero of " L o c k s l e y H a l l " , and T e u f e l s d r o c k h 97 r e s o l v e s to b r i n g order i n t o a c h a o t i c w o r l d . The p a r a l l e l s between the two works examined here are d i s t i n c t and remarkable. To conclude from such a s i m i l a r i t y alone t h a t "Locksley H a l l " was w r i t t e n under the i n f l u e n c e of S a r t o r Resartus c o n s t i t u t e s a case of post hoc l o g i c . However, i f one i s w i l l i n g t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t Tennyson had something to g a i n from C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y and the f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p e x i s t e d between the poet and the p h i l o s o p h e r , one may, perhaps, conclude w i t h Templeman t h a t "Thanks to Tennyson's genius, 'Locksley H a l l ' i s a poem t h a t gives an e f f e c t i v e i l l u s t r a t i o n of C a r l y l e ' s romantic p h i l o s o p h i z i n g i n S a r t o r , and gives i t i n such an e n r i c h e d way as t o defy a charge of p l a g i a r i s m . " To be sure, Templeman i s g r o s s l y o v e r s t a t i n g h i s case when he defends Tennyson agai n s t the charge of " p l a g i a r i s m " at the c o n c l u s i o n of a study which a c t u a l l y does no more than p o i n t out a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s between "L o c k s l e y H a l l " and S a r t o r . 98 FOOTNOTES •'•Ryals, Theme and Symbol i n Tennyson's Poems t o 1850. p. 125. 2"Tennyson*s 'Locksley H a l l ' and C a r l y l e , " i n Booker Memorial S t u d i e s , ed. H. Shine (Chapel H i l l , 19507, pp. 34-59. . ^Memoir, I , 195. ^ A l f r e d Tennyson, p. 194. 5 I b i d . , p. 193. 6Memoir, I , 162. 7 0 p . c i t . , p. 57* 8 J o h n Cuming Wal t e r s , I n Tennyson Land (London, 1 8 9 0 ) , pp. 2 1 , 2 3 . ^Memoir, I , 178. 1 0 I b i d . , P. 195. i : L S a r t o r , P' . 9 2 . 12 Qp.i.ci.t,, P« 51 . 1 5 S a r t o r , • P . 9 5 . 1 4 I b i d . , P. 51. 1 5 I b i d . , P. 9 6 . 1 6 I b i d . , P. 80.. 1 7 I b i d . , P. 100. 1 8 0 p . c i t . , P. 54-• ^ S a r t o r , » P . 115. 2 0 I b i d . , P. 116. 2 1 I b i d . , P. 127. 2 2 I b i d . , P. 127. Cf. Templeman, op. c i t . , pp. 5 2 - 5 3 . 99 2 5 S a r t o r . p. 130. 2 4 P a s t , p. 207. 2 5 S a r t o r , p. 130. 26 I b i d . , p. 103. Cf. Templeman, op. c i t . , p. 46. 2 7 S a r t o r , p. 108. Templeman, op. c i t . , p. 58. CHAPTER V I I TENNYSON'S INTERCOURSE WITH CARLYLE FROM 1850 TO 1855 (PUBLICATION OP MAUD) With h i s marriage i n June of 1850 a new phase began i n the l i f e of Tennyson. One may assume t h a t h i s new s t a t u s gave him a sense of independence and s e l f -r e l i a n c e which he had f o r m e r l y l a c k e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s encounters w i t h C a r l y l e . He had now p u b l i s h e d In Memoriam. which turned out t o be the g r e a t e s t of h i s works, and i n November he was appointed Poet Laureate, becoming almost overnight one of the most famous men i n England. Hence-f o r t h he c o u l d meet C a r l y l e on an equal f o o t i n g . Both Tennyson and C a r l y l e were now u s u a l l y accompanied by t h e i r wives when they met each other — not at C a r l y l e ' s home, as so o f t e n p r e v i o u s l y , but u s u a l l y at the home of v a r i o u s mutual f r i e n d s . One must assume t h a t the atmosphere at these meetings was much more for m a l than d u r i n g the e a r l y f o r t i e s , and t h a t consequently C a r l y l e was much more i n h i b i t e d i n h i s e c c e n t r i c i t i e s and exaggerations than d u r i n g the e a r l i e r , more i n t i m a t e meetings. C a r l y l e met Mrs. Tennyson f o r the f i r s t time i n October, wh i l e he was a guest of Mr. and Mrs. James M a r s h a l l at C o n i s t o n . The M a r s h a l l s had a l s o p r o v i d e d one of t h e i r houses nearby f o r the Tennysons! honeymoon. I n a l e t t e r t o Jane, dated October 3 , C a r l y l e w r i t e s : 101 . . . A l f r e d l o o k s r e a l l y improved, I should say; c h e e r f u l i n what he t a l k s , and l o o k i n g forward t o a f u t u r e l e s s 'detached' than the past has been. Poor f e l l o w , a good s o u l , f i n d him where or how s i t u a t e d you may! Mrs. T. a l s o p l e a s e d me; the f i r s t glance of her i s the l e a s t f a v o r a b l e . A f r e c k l y round-faced woman, r a t h e r t a l l i s h and without shape, a s l i g h t l i s p too: something very k l e i n s t a d l i s c h ["small-townish"] and unpromising at the f i r s t glance; but she l i g h t s up b r i g h t g l i t t e r i n g blue eyes when you speak to her; has w i t , has sense, and, were i t not t h a t she seems t o be v e r y d e l i c a t e i n h e a l t h , " s i c k without d i s o r d e r " , I should augur r e a l l y w e l l of Tennyson's adventure.1 Hallam Tennyson r e p o r t s how E m i l y helped t o keep C a r l y l e somewhat i n check d u r i n g meetings such as the one at Coniston: ". . . i n answer t o one of h i s w i l d p grumbles, she s a i d , 'That i s not sane, Mr. C a r l y l e ' . " To prove h i s s a n i t y , or to show genuine a p p r e c i a t i o n of someone who dared t o oppose him, C a r l y l e wrote a l e t t e r t o Tennyson s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s r e t u r n t o Chelsea e a r l y i n October, again paying h i s r e s p e c t s t o Mrs. Tennyson. He a l s o t o l d Tennyson of the i l l f o r t u n e of a mutual admirer, a f r i e n d of Dr. John A. C a r l y l e . But i t seems t h a t d u r i n g the f i f t i e s and the e a r l y s i x t i e s n e i t h e r C a r l y l e nor Tennyson a c t i v e l y sought each other's company. On December 21, 1850, C a r l y l e wrote t o h i s b r o t h e r John: " I have never a c t u a l l y seen him [Tennyson] since the evening at Con i s t o n , — nor 4-i n f a c t i n my present mood and h i s do I much wish i t . " Perhaps C a r l y l e f e l t t h a t he had helped, l a y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r Tennyson's " E v e r l a s t i n g 102 Yea," and t h a t he had n o t h i n g more to o f f e r t o the p o e t . 5 I f Jane's f e e l i n g s are i n d i c a t i v e of h i s own, he d i d not r e a l l y d i s l i k e Tennyson; f o r i n a l e t t e r t o the s c u l p t o r Thomas Woolner, Coventry Patmore mentions Jane's keen d e s i r e t o have a m e d a l l i o n of Tennyson. 6 when Mrs. Tennyson had a m i s c a r r i a g e i n A p r i l 7 1851, the C a r l y l e s v i s i t e d her r i g h t a f t e r the mishap. Ac c o r d i n g t o J . N i c h o l , the C a r l y l e s and the Tennysons met at Malvern i n the summer of 1851, wh i l e 8 C a r l y l e was undergoing Dr. G u l l y ' s water cure. However a c c o r d i n g t o Hallam Tennyson, h i s parents had l e f t f o r q I t a l y on J u l y 15th. In a l e t t e r t o Emerson, w r i t t e n at Malvern on August 25th, 1851, C a r l y l e confirms h i s presence hut mentions t h a t Tennyson " i s gone t o I t a l y w i t h h i s w i f e . " I n the same l e t t e r C a r l y l e expresses some d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h Tennyson: " A l f r e d has been taken up on the top of the wave, and a good d e a l jumbled about sin c e you were h e r e . " 1 0 However, the Tennysons and the C a r l y l e s d i d meet e a r l i e r i n the summer. Hallam Tennyson t e l l s how C a r l y l e d e s c r i b e d the poet t o S i r J . Simeon as " s i t t i n g on a dung-heap among innumerable dead dogs." Hallam e x p l a i n s t h a t " C a r l y l e meant t h a t he [Tennyson] was apt to brood over o l d - w o r l d s u b j e c t s f o r h i s poems." Many years l a t e r , when Tennyson teased C a r l y l e about t h i s u t t e r a n c e , C a r l y l e r e p l i e d : "Ehi t h a t was not a very 103 luminous d e s c r i p t i o n of y o u . " 1 1 A l e t t e r from Jane t o Mrs. Tennyson proves t h a t another meeting took place e a r l y i n 1852. Jane r e f e r s t o an evening a t the home of Mr. and Mrs. A l a n Ker at which the C a r l y l e s and the Tennysons were p r e s e n t . The l e t t e r bears no date, but one may gather an approximate date from the f a c t t h a t the Kers l e f t f o r Jamaica e a r l y i n 1852, and 12 t h a t Jane r e f e r s t o t h e i r recent departure. E a r l y i n 1852 Tennyson wrote "Hands A l l Round". The poem was i n s p i r e d by L o u i s Napoleon's r i s e to po w e r 1 5 i n December, 1851, and was p u b l i s h e d February 7, 1852 i n the Examiner. The f i r s t s t anza c o n t a i n s a metaphor which C a r l y l e had p r e v i o u s l y used i n Past and P r e s e n t , p u b l i s h e d i n the s p r i n g of 184-3. Tennyson wrote: May Freedom's oak f o r ever l i v e With s t r o n g e r l i f e from day t o day; That man's the true Conservative Who l o p s the moulder'd branch away. Speaking of "Co n s e r v a t i v e s " , C a r l y l e had s a i d i n the chapter e n t i t l e d "The E n g l i s h " : The bough t h a t i s dead s h a l l be cut away, f o r the sake of the t r e e i t s e l f . . . . l e t the Conservatives t h a t would preserve cut i t away.-^ Of course, the metaphor of the "moulder'd branch" i s almost commonplace, but the f a c t t h a t Tennyson uses i t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the i d e a of a 'true conservatism' does 104 l e a d one t o suspect an i n f l u e n c e from F a s t and P r e s e n t . 1 ^ Some time d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1852 the Tennysons were s t a y i n g w i t h the Rev. John R a s h d a l l at Malvern, and i t seems t h a t the C a r l y l e s v i s i t e d them t h e r e . However, i n t h e i r b i o g r a p h i e s of C a r l y l e , n e i t h e r Froude nor Wilson records t h i s v i s i t , and Hallam Tennyson merely mentions i t without any p a r t i c u l a r s . C a r l y l e ' s r e a c t i o n t o Tennyson's "Ode on the Death of the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n " may be i n d i c a t i v e of h i s r e l a t i o n t o the poet at t h a t time. On November 19, 1852, he wrote i n h i s j o u r n a l : "Tennyson's verses are naught. 17 S i l e n c e alone i s r e s p e c t a b l e on such an o c c a s i o n . " ' Not even Mrs. Tennyson was safe from C a r l y l e ' s d y s p e p t i c grumblings. When i n January, 1853 a f r i e n d suggested t o him t h a t "Marriage was d i p p i n g i n t o a p i t c h e r of snakes f o r the chance of an e e l , and t h a t A l f r e d Tennyson had found an e e l , " C a r l y l e r e t o r t e d t h a t " e e l s had a f a c u l t y by ver y n a t u r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r becoming -1 Q snakes." For the next two and a h a l f years no meeting or i n t e r c o u r s e of any k i n d between C a r l y l e and Tennyson has been recorded. C a r l y l e was busy w r i t i n g h i s F r e d e r i c k , and, as suggested p r e v i o u s l y , he may have f e l t t h a t he had n o t h i n g more t o o f f e r Tennyson a f t e r the poet had accepted C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . C a r l y l e tended to dominate over people, but a f t e r 105 Tennyson had married and had achieved fame and r e l a t i v e wealth he was not t o he dominated so e a s i l y . I t may have taken C a r l y l e some time t o r e c o n c i l e h i m s e l f to h i s f r i e n d ' s new s t a t u s . A p p a r e n t l y , t h a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n came s h o r t l y before the summer of 1855. On June 1st of t h a t year C a r l y l e wrote i n a l e t t e r t o John F o r s t e r : " I f A l f r e d do come t o you, remind him t h a t there i s an o l d i n h a b i t a n t l i v i n g here, whom he ought not t o have been so l o n g without s e e i n g . " i q Wilson's biography of C a r l y l e c o n t a i n s a r e p o r t of a v i s i t Tennyson made to C a r l y l e sometime i n 1855» perhaps i n response t o the above i n v i t a t i o n . T h i s time Tennyson came alone, and the f r i e n d s h e l d a smoking pa r l i a m e n t as i n former days. One t o p i c of the c o n v e r s a t i o n was the Crimean War, but u n f o r t u n a t e l y no s i g n i f i c a n t 20 d e t a i l s of the c o n v e r s a t i o n have been recorded. I t seems t h a t by t h i s time the f r i e n d s h i p had once again a t t a i n e d some of i t s former i n t i m a c y . An anonymous witness r e p o r t s the f o l l o w i n g i n Chamber's  J o u r n a l : At t h a t time, seeing t h a t I was devoted to Tennyson, [Mrs. C a r l y l e ] sent me h i s l i k e n e s s , g i v i n g me some c u r i o u s l i t e r a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , and remarking, concerning Maud — which had, I t h i n k , j u s t come out at t h a t time — t h a t before i t was p r i n t e d , Tennyson used t o come and read i t aloud t o her, and ask her what she thought of i t . Her r e p l y the f i r s t time was: " I t h i n k i t i s p e r f e c t s t u f f 1 " S l i g h t l y discouraged by t h i s remark, the 106 Laureate read i t once more; upon which Mrs. C a r l y l e remarked: " I t sounds b e t t e r t h i s time;" and on being read t o her the t h i r d time, she was o b l i g e d t o confess t h a t she l i k e d i t very much. This l i t t l e i n c i d e n t shows how Tennyson must have valued her c l e a r judgment and e x c e l l e n t t a s t e . 2 1 One may assume, of course, t h a t Tennyson's f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e was not l e s s c o r d i a l t h a t t h a t w i t h h i s w i f e . But w i t h Maud Tennyson made i t c l e a r t o C a r l y l e t h a t he was more than ever determined t o go h i s own way. He had l o n g come to accept C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y ; an examination of Maud w i l l show how f u l l y Tennyson had absorbed the b a s i c t e n e t s of t h a t p h i l o s o p h y . But he res e r v e d the r i g h t t o i n t e r p r e t r e a l i t y f o r h i m s e l f , and t o have h i s own v i s i o n of the T r u t h . Thus i t was probably Tennyson's enthusiasm f o r the Crimean War and C a r l y l e ' s condemnation of i t which caused the l a t t e r t o judge Tennyson's Maud ve r y h a r s h l y . In the s p r i n g of 1854- C a r l y l e had w r i t t e n i n h i s notebook r e g a r d i n g the war: " [ I t ] seems to me p r i v a t e l y I have 22 h a r d l y seen a madder b u s i n e s s . " On September 26, 1855 he mentioned i n a l e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r John t h a t he had never yet read Maud because he "wanted heart t o p e r s i s t . " 2 ^ Two months l a t e r C a r l y l e t o l d Edward 24 F i t z g e r a l d t h a t Maud was a "cobweb". I t seems t h a t even J a n e 1 s c o n v e r s i o n to Maud was o n l y temporary, f o r she wrote to her u n c l e ' s widow, 107 Mrs. George Welsh, t h a t Tennyson t a l k e d so much about Maud when he and the C a r l y l e s were guests at Lady Ashburton's Grange at Christmas, 1855, t h a t she wished h e r s e l f " f a r away among people who o n l y read and wrote 25 prose or who n e i t h e r read nor wrote at a l l " . y And when Tennyson read Maud to the assembled guests, C a r l y l e went 26 f o r a walk. Tennyson composed most of Maud d u r i n g the l a s t 27 s i x months of 1854; ' he copied i t out f o r the press at the end of A p r i l 1855 and p u b l i s h e d i t i n J u l y . I t appears, then, t h a t he d i d not have any p e r s o n a l i n t e r -course w i t h C a r l y l e d u r i n g the composition of Maud. I t has been seen t h a t i n i t s treatment of the Crimean War the poem was opposed to C a r l y l e * s o p i n i o n . But i n s p i t e of these f a c t s i t must be considered t h a t C a r l y l e was now approaching the c l i m a x of h i s l i t e r a r y fame and i n f l u e n c e and t h a t he was u n l i k e l y to be ignored by any l i t e r a r y personage. The f o r e g o i n g account of the p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s between C a r l y l e and Tennyson has shown t h a t the poet was the l e a s t l i k e l y t o ignore C a r l y l e , w i t h whose t r a n s c e n -d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y he wholeheartedly agreed, because, d e s p i t e v a r i o u s d i s t u r b a n c e s , he was u n i t e d w i t h C a r l y l e i n a bond of t r u e f r i e n d s h i p . An examination of Maud w i l l r e v e a l a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h ideas and 108 images found i n C a r l y l e ' s w r i t i n g s . I n the l i g h t of Tennyson's f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e , one may, perhaps, t r a c e some of these s i m i l a r i t i e s to C a r l y l e ' s i n f l u e n c e . 110 1 7 F r o u d e , I I , 126. 1 8 W i l s o n , IV, 463. i q S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e ' s L e t t e r s , " p. 220, (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, South Kensington). 2 0 W i l s o n , V, 152. 2 1 " J a n e Welsh C a r l y l e , " Chamber's J o u r n a l , L V I I I (1881), 135. 2 2 W i l s o n , V, 9 3 . 2 5 S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 91, (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 2 4 W i l l i a m A. Wright, ed., The L e t t e r s of Edward  F i t z g e r a l d (London, 1894), I , 305. 2 5 L e o n a r d Huxley, ed., " L e t t e r s from Jane Welsh C a r l y l e , " C o r n h i l l Magazine. LXI (November, 1926), 633-635. 2 6 W i l s o n , V, 201. 2 7 C h a r l e s Tennyson, op. c i t . , p. 282. 2 8Memoir, I , 384. 109 FOOTNOTES ^Trudy B l i s s , Thomas C a r l y l e : L e t t e r s to H i s Wife (Cambridge, Mass., 1953) , pp. 271-272. 2 Tennyson and H i s F r i e n d s , p. 133* ^Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 8 9 . 4 I b i d . , p. 8 9 , (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 5 •^Admittedly, there i s no f u r t h e r evidence t o support such a h y p o t h e s i s , other than the s t r o n g p r o b a b i l i t y , as has been seen i n Chapter V, t h a t Tennyson's acceptance of an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" c o i n c i d e d w i t h the e a r l y and most i n t i m a t e p e r i o d of h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e . Amy Woolner, Thomas Woolner. S c u l p t o r and Poet (London, 1917) , p. 12 . 'Charles Tennyson, op. c i t . , p. 262. 8 0 p . c i t . , p. 107. ^Memoir. I , 34-0. However, C a r l y l e met Tennyson the f o l l o w i n g year at Malvern w h i l e the Tennysons were guests of the Rev. John R a s h d a l l . N i c h o l probably confuses the two v i s i t s . See below, p. 104. 1 Q T h e Correspondence of Thomas C a r l y l e and Ralph  Waldo Emerson. I I , 205-207- , 1 1Memoir, 1, 34-0 • -i p Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 9 0 , (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r at Yale U n i v e r s i t y ) . •^Memoir, I , 3 4 3 . 1 4 P a s t , p. 139. ^ I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r E. M o r r i s o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r having drawn my a t t e n t i o n t o these p a r a l l e l passages. See a l s o below, p. 114 f o r a f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e from Past and  Pres e n t . 1 6Memoir, I , 355 . Cf. Fausset, op. c i t . , p. 175. CHAPTER V I I I CARLYLE AND MAUD: PARALLELS AND SOME POSSIBLE INFLUENCES In many r e s p e c t s , Maud resembles " L o c k s l e y H a l l " and the love s t o r y i n S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . Again, the hero i s a romantic young l o v e r , poor, and r a t h e r preoccupied w i t h h i s own i n n e r s e l f i n the f a s h i o n of Werther or Hamlet. L i k e T e u f e l s d r o c k h or the speaker i n "Lo c k s l e y H a l l " , the hero i n Maud i s i n f a t u a t e d w i t h a young woman of s u p e r i o r s o c i a l rank. Perhaps such a r a t h e r h u m i l i a t i n g , s e l f - e f f a c i n g p a s s i o n i n d i c a t e s the endeavour of the romantic ego t o r i d i t s e l f of i t s own p a i n f u l e x i s t e n c e . To be or not to be are a l t e r n a t i v e s which, u l t i m a t e l y , a l l o w no compromise. The s t r o n g e r , the more s e l f -conscious the I c h , the more p a i n f u l and i r r e s i s t i b l e w i l l be i t s l o n g i n g t o d i s s o l v e i t s e l f again i n the N i c h t - I c h . As i n "Lo c k s l e y H a l l " or i n S a r t o r , the "mansion" i n Maud i s a symbol of the magic and charm of i t s noble i n h a b i t a n t , a k i n d of E l Dorado i n which Maud i s the Foun t a i n of Youth. I n a l l three s t o r i e s , the hero's antagonist i s a r a t h e r b r u t i s h a r i s t o c r a t , a s o u l l e s s sportsman and a Mammon worshipper, a b a r b a r i a n at best and a greedy e x p l o i t e r and deceptive demagogue at worst. V a l e r i e P i t t , i n her recent r e a p p r a i s a l of 112 Tennyson, w r i t e s : "To C a r l y l e ' s i d e a o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y Maud owes an o b v i o u s d e b t . " 1 A g a i n , one f i n d s t h a t t h e a s s e r t i v e n e s s o f s u c h a c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n l e a v e s n o t h i n g t o be d e s i r e d . A l l t o o o f t e n , however, as has been s e e n , s t a t e m e n t s s u c h as t h i s a r e b a s e d on d i f f u s e g e n e r a l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n on s p e c i f i c e v i d e n c e . V a l e r i e P i t t f a i l s t o d e f i n e " C a r l y l e ' s i d e a o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s o c i e t y . " And t h e most a r d e n t a d m i r e r o f C a r l y l e w i l l have t o concede t h a t t h e i d e a o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s n o t C a r l y l e ' s d i s c o v e r y , n o r t h a t o f any s i n g l e man. Y e t i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t C a r l y l e and Tennyson were, a f t e r a l l , m a j o r spokesmen o f one p a r t i -c u l a r W e l t a n s c h a u u n g , w h i c h one may sum up as a t i t a n i c r e f u s a l t o bow t o t h e s o u l l e s s t y r a n n y o f e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y ; and i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f u r t h e r f a c t t h a t , d e s p i t e t e m p e r a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e s e two men had an a f f e c t i o n a t e , p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n each o t h e r , i t becomes an i n t e r e s t i n g and i l l u m i n a t i n g t a s k t o compare Tennyson's Maud t o some o f C a r l y l e ' s i d e a s and images. To be s u r e , Tennyson's g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f war i n Maud seems t o come f r o m t h e v e r y s o u l o f C a r l y l e . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t C a r l y l e was mad enough t o l o v e war f o r i t s own s a k e , b u t he d i d a c c e p t i t q u i t e j o y f u l l y as t h e o n l y r e a l i s t i c means t o end chaos and a n a r c h y ; and C a r l y l e , r i g h t l y o r w r o n g l y , saw chaos and a n a r c h y 113 almost everywhere. Besides, war was f o r C a r l y l e one of the paths which l e a d the hero t o h i s g l o r i o u s d e s t i n y . Thus he once angered Tennyson w i t h h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r p W i l l i a m the Conqueror, and d u r i n g the F r a n c o - P r u s s i a n war he shocked some Englishmen w i t h h i s defence of Bismarck. Past and Present had been p u b l i s h e d i n 184-3, t h a t i s , more than t e n years before the composition and p u b l i c a t i o n of Maud. Hence i t may be assumed t h a t Tennyson had read Past and P r e s e n t . I n Book IV, Chapter I , C a r l y l e says: "'Violence', 'war*, 'disorder';;: w e l l , what i s war, and death i t s e l f , t o such a p e r p e t u a l l i f e - i n - d e a t h , and 'peace, peace, where there i s no peace'!" V a l e r i e P i t t c i t e s the r e j e c t i o n of peace at a l l c o s t i n Past and Present and Maud i n support of her view t h a t Tennyson's enthusiasm f o r the Crimean War had •5 been i n f l u e n c e d by C a r l y l e . Yet o b v i o u s l y , such enthusiasm must have i n s p i r e d many more than C a r l y l e and Tennyson, f o r otherwise i t i s u n t h i n k a b l e t h a t B r i t a i n c o u l d have engaged i n the war w i t h any hope f o r success. However, i n one i n s t a n c e at l e a s t there i s a s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n t h a t Tennyson d i d indeed t h i n k of C a r l y l e w h i l e composing Maud. George 0. M a r s h a l l J r . p o i n t s out t h a t Tennyson's l i n e , When a Mammonite mother k i l l s her babe f o r a b u r i a l f e e , 114 4 appears to have i t s source i n Past and P r e s e n t . C a r l y l e r e p o r t s the f o l l o w i n g i n c i d e n t : At S t o c k p o r t A s s i z e s . . . a Mother and a Father are a r r a i g n e d and found g u i l t y of p o i s o n i n g t h r e e of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t o defraud a ' b u r i a l - s o c i e t y ' of some 3 £ 8s. due on the death of each c h i l d : they are a r r a i g n e d , found g u i l t y ; and the o f f i c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s , i t i s whispered, h i n t t h a t perhaps the case i s not s o l i t a r y , t h a t perhaps you had b e t t e r not probe f a r t h e r i n t o t h a t department of t h i n g s . This i s i n the autumn of 1841; the crime i t s e l f i s of the p r e v i o u s year or season. I t i s t r u e t h a t Tennyson co u l d have l e a r n e d of the i n c i d e n t from some other source, a newspaper, f o r example; but the f a c t t h a t he d i d not make p o e t i c use of i t u n t i l t h i r t e e n years a f t e r i t had happened seems t o show t h a t he r e c e i v e d the i n f o r m a t i o n from a l a t e r source such as Past and P r e s e n t , although he may have been w r i t i n g of another s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t . However, Tennyson's use of the word "Mammonite" f u r t h e r supports M a r s h a l l ' s o p i n i o n . "Mammonism", although by no means r e s t r i c t e d to C a r l y l e , i s a word c o n s t a n t l y used i n almost a l l h i s major w r i t i n g s . One chapter i n Past and Present bears the t i t l e "Gospel of Mammonism". Thus i t i s q u i t e probable t h a t Tennyson a s s o c i a t e d the word w i t h C a r l y l e i n g e n e r a l , and, i n the above i n s t a n c e , w i t h Past and  Present i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t seems t h a t the r a d i c a l tone of the p o l i t i c a l passages i n Maud, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , approaches C a r l y l e ' s r a d i c a l i s m much more c l o s e l y than 115 anything e l s e Tennyson has w r i t t e n , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the two " L o c k s l e y H a l l " poems. I n Maud Tennyson has come a l o n g way from the c a u t i o u s conservatism expressed i n "You Ask Me, Why, Tho' 111 at E a s t , " w r i t t e n i n 1853. I n t h i s poem he had wished t h a t England was A l a n d of s e t t l e d government, A l a n d of j u s t and o l d renown, Where Freedom s l o w l y broadens down From precedent t o precedent; Although Tennyson does not a c t u a l l y encourage r e v o l u t i o n i n Maud, he expresses extreme impatience w i t h the k i n d of slkow, o r d e r l y s o c i a l change advocated i n the 1833 poem. One can w e l l imagine how contemptuous C a r l y l e would have been of progress "from precedent to precedent," who, i n The French R e v o l u t i o n had d e s c r i b e d a mob as "a genuine outburst of Nature; i s s u i n g from, or communicating w i t h , the deepest deep of Nature, . . . a S i n c e r i t y and R e a l i t y " ( V o l . I , Bk. V I I , Chap, i v ) . 7 I t i s t r u e t h a t these words r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to France and the French R e v o l u t i o n ; but as C a r l y l e grew o l d e r he became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p a t i e n t w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n England. F a s t  and Present i s an eloquent a t t a c k a g a i n s t what C a r l y l e considered t o be modern "shams". H i s condemnation of n i n e t e e n t h century England i s so sweeping t h a t n o t h i n g short of a r e v o l u t i o n c o u l d b r i n g about a s o c i a l system e n v i s i o n e d by C a r l y l e . And i n Shooting Niagara he i s 116 a c t u a l l y l o o k i n g forward to a general "Niagara plunge" t o put an end to what he c a l l e d England's " b a l l o t -b oxing, Nigger-emancipating, empty, d i r t - e c l i p s e d days."' Thus, f e e l i n g as he e v i d e n t l y d i d d u r i n g the composition of Maud. Tennyson's thoughts may have q u i t e n a t u r a l l y turned t o C a r l y l e , whom f r i e n d and foe a l i k e regarded as a r a d i c a l . As e a r l y as S a r t o r Resartus C a r l y l e had made a contemptuous remark about the Peace S o c i e t y , which had been founded by the Quakers i n 1816 i n London. C a r l y l e asks w i t h some sarcasm, . . . what w i l l any member of the Peace S o c i e t y make of such an a s s e r t i o n as t h i s : 'The lower people everywhere d e s i r e War. Not so unwisely; there i s then a demand f o r lower people — t o be shot!9 S i m i l a r l y , i n Maud. Tennyson devotes a whole s t a n z a (11. 366-381) to a d e v a s t a t i n g condemnation of a member of the Peace S o c i e t y . T h i s h u c k s t e r put down war! can he t e l l Whether war be a cause or a consequence? Of course, t h i s i s not t o imply t h a t Tennyson was provoked i n t o w r i t i n g the stanza by C a r l y l e . The s i m i l a r i t y between the passages does show, however, t h a t Tennyson's t h i n k i n g was c l o s e l y a k i n t o C a r l y l e ' s d u r i n g the composition of Maud. L i k e C a r l y l e ' s , Tennyson's regard f o r h i s f e l l o w human beings was never of the sen t i m e n t a l k i n d . I n 1866, d u r i n g the Eyre c o n t r o v e r s y , 117 "both men, as members of the Defence Committee, took d e c i s i v e i s s u e on the side of the governor, who was under a t t a c k by the l i b e r a l s of those days, John S t u a r t M i l l among them, f o r having caused ex c e s s i v e bloodshed i n p u t t i n g down a r e v o l t i n Jamaica. The i n t e r n a l development of the hero i n Maud i s , a g a i n , v e r y s i m i l a r t o Teufelsdrockh's i n S a r t o r  Resartus. The hero's u n f u l f i l l e d l o v e f o r Maud, the misfortune of h i s f a m i l y , h i s pov e r t y and d e p r i v a t i o n , the t e r r i b l e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n of England d u r i n g the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , and f i n a l l y h i s l o s s of f a i t h i n a benign order of t h i n g s have l e d him i n t o d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and d e s p a i r . L i k e T e u f e l s d r o c k h , he can o n l y rescue h i s I c h i n a h o s t i l e Universe through a Promethean def i a n c e of the N i c h t - I c h . C a r l y l e ' s " E v e r l a s t i n g No." He does r e a l i z e t h a t h i s own hopes and d e s i r e s are u l t i m a t e l y the cause of h i s misery, f o r without hopes there can be no disappointment; without d e s i r e , no f r u s t r a t i o n . For not t o d e s i r e or admire, i f a man c o u l d l e a r n i t , were more Than t o walk a l l day l i k e the s u l t a n of o l d i n a garden of sp i c e (11. 142-143). But before the hero can c a r r y out the " f i r s t p r e l i m i n a r y moral A c t , A n n i h i l a t i o n of S e l f , " 1 0 he must f i r s t a s s e r t h i s s e l f i n i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . I n S e c t i o n 118 IV, P a r t I , the hero h u r l s h i s d e f i a n t No at e v e r y t h i n g t h a t had f o r m e r l y i n s p i r e d h i s love and a d m i r a t i o n . He condemns nature as . . . a world of plunder and prey ( 1 . 125). Man i s a mere puppet, being u n m e r c i f u l l y and c r u e l l y manipulated by an amoral Fate (11. 126-131). Although the supreme achievement of organic e v o l u t i o n , man has never been able to conceal h i s animal a n c e s t r y . He now i s f i r s t , but i s he the l a s t ? i s he not too base? (1. 137) I f man subdues h i s emotion i n favour of reason, he becomes a mere c a l c u l a t i n g machine. The man of science h i m s e l f i s fonder of g l o r y , and v a i n , An eye w e l l - p r a c t i s e d i n na t u r e , a s p i r i t bounded and poor (11. 138-139)• I f man f o l l o w s h i s emotion i n s t e a d , he can never d i s t i n g u i s h between a r t i s t i c i n s p i r a t i o n and a n i m a l i s t i c p a s s i o n . The p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t of the poet i s w h i r l ' d i n t o f o l l y and v i c e ( 1 . 140). E v e n t u a l l y , the speaker comes to r e s i g n t o the i n e v i t a b l e , but he accepts i t o n l y under p r o t e s t . When he concludes • B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I * REQUEST * T r a n s a c t i o n Number ' 4654580 P a t r o n Name i ADMINSTRATIVE REQUEST ! I P a t r o n Number ; Item Number : 39424050635579 ! Title j Carlyle and Tenyson relations beta P i c k u p L o c a t i o n • I.K. BARBER c i r c u l a t i CLC^ R , na + o/Timo 119 t h a t . . .. the d r i f t of the Maker i s dark ( 1 . 144), he does not merely note t h a t the order of t h i n g s surpasses h i s reason, hut t h a t i t surpasses h i s sense of j u s t i c e , t r u t h , and beauty as w e l l . He l a y s the blame where i t belongs, when he says: I have not made the wo r l d , and He t h a t made i t w i l l guide ( 1 . 149). What C a r l y l e says about T e u f e l s d r b c k h i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o the hero i n Maud: " . . . perhaps at no e r a of h i s l i f e was he more d e c i s i v e l y the Servant of Goodness, the Servant of God, than even now when doubting God's e x i s t e n c e . 1 , 1 1 Only through r e b e l l i o n , t h a t f e l i x c u l p a , can the I c h overcome i t s f e a r of being devoured by the N i c h t - I c h . Only when f r e e from f e a r can the hero f i n d the s t o i c peace and s e r e n i t y of the "Centre of I n d i f f e r e n c e " , and r e s o l v e : Be mine a p h i l o s o p h e r ' s l i f e i n the q u i e t woodland ways, Where i f I cannot be gay l e t a p a s s i o n l e s s peace be my l o t (11. 150-151). But whereas T e u f e l s d r b c k h , on h i s p i l g r i m a g e from the "Centre of I n d i f f e r e n c e " to the " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea", has to f i n d h i s own way, the hero i n Maud i s guided by h i s beloved. I n h i s l o v e , he has found 120 The countercharm of space and hollow sky ( 1 . 641). Love has enabled him to h e a l the s p l i t between the I c h and the N i c h t - I c h by renouncing the I c h a l t o g e t h e r . Through love the hero can renounce t h a t t o which man c l i n g s most t e n a c i o u s l y , l i f e i t s e l f . For the beloved he Would d i e , f o r sullen-seeming Death may give More l i f e t o Love than i s or ever was In our low w o r l d , where yet ' t i s sweet to l i v e . (11. 644-647) L i k e T e u f e l s d r b c k h , the hero awakens "to a new Heaven and a new E a r t h . The f i r s t p r e l i m i n a r y moral A c t , 12 A n n i h i l a t i o n of S e l f , had been h a p p i l y accomplished." In the face of death, l i f e becomes worth l i v i n g a g a i n , the dead m o r a l i t y of the Law gives way t o a new m o r a l i t y of Love: Not d i e , but l i v e a l i f e of t r u e s t b r e a t h , And teach t r u e l i f e t o f i g h t w i t h m o r t a l wrongs. (11. 651-652) Tennyson s a i d about these l i n e s : "This i s the c e n t r a l 13 i d e a , the h o l y power of Love." ^ But s i n c e the hero's r e g e n e r a t i o n depends so s t r o n g l y on h i s p a s s i o n f o r Maud, Tennyson s t i l l regards i t as incomplete. He has the hero k i l l Maud's br o t h e r i n a d u e l and consequently accept e x i l e " i n B r i t t a n y . I t i s here, f a r away from the beloved, whom he w i l l never 121 see a g a i n , t h a t he completes h i s " A n n i h i l a t i o n of S e l f " . B e r e f t of Maud's beauty, he begins t o see beauty i n the sm a l l and modest aspects of nature. A s m a l l s h e l l on the beach appears to him as a "work d i v i n e " , which teaches him t o "wonder", t o regard nature as a symbol of U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y . "Wonder", says C a r l y l e , " i s the b a s i s of W o r s h i p . " 1 4 Purged of a l l d e s i r e s , the hero's I c h forms a unio m y s t i c a w i t h the N i c h t - I c h . Strange, t h a t the mind, when fra u g h t With a p a s s i o n so in t e n s e One would t h i n k t h a t i t w e l l Might drown a l l l i f e i n the eye, — That i t should, by being so overwrought, Suddenly s t r i k e on a sharper sense Por a s h e l l , or a f l o w e r , l i t t l e t h i n g s Which e l s e would have been past b y i (P a r t I I , 11 . 106-113) The hero's love f o r Maud had merely been the f i r s t rung of the P l a t o n i c l a d d e r of love which reaches i n t o Heaven. H i s love has become completely s e l f l e s s : Comfort her, comfort her, a l l t h i n g s good, While. I am over the s e a l Let me and my passionate love go by, But speak t o her a l l t h i n g s h o l y and h i g h , Whatever happen t o me I Me and my harmful love go by; But come t o her waking, f i n d her a s l e e p , Powers of the h e i g h t , Powers of the deep, And comfort her tho' I d i e ! ( 11 . 119-131) But before the hero can be r e s u r r e c t e d t o the f u l l g l o r y of the " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea;;-," he has t o descend 122 i n t o the h e l l of an imaginary death (11. 239-34-2). When he r i s e s a g a i n , he i s at one w i t h U l t i m a t e R e a l i t y , w i t h the wo r l d , w i t h h i s people. He no longer t r i e s t o stem the r i v e r of time, hut he j o y f u l l y r i d e s i t s waves toward the ocean i n which a l l t h i n g s j o i n i n t o one. I embrace the purpose of God, and the doom a s s i g n ' d . Although the c l o s e k i n s h i p of t h i s poem w i t h C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h y and i t s s i m i l a r i t y i n some p l a c e s w i t h C a r l y l e ' s images cannot he denied, there i s l i t t l e evidence t o prove t h a t these s i m i l a r i t i e s are the r e s u l t of C a r l y l e ' s d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . I n d e a l i n g w i t h l i t e r a r y sources and i n f l u e n c e s one must he on guard a g a i n s t the e r r o r of b e l i t t l i n g the c r e a t i v e power of an author. P o e t r y i s p r i m a r i l y the r e f l e x i o n of experience, r a t h e r 15 than of " i n f l u e n c e s " . Ralph Wilson Rader ' has demonstrated t h a t the p l o t , the c h a r a c t e r s , and even some of the images i n Maud may be t r a c e d t o events and experiences i n Tennyson's l i f e . T h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g i f one regards a r t as a m i r r o r of r e a l i t y . However, the poet i s f r e e t o communicate h i s r e a l experiences through f i c t i o n a l s t o r i e s and images. I n re f e r e n c e t o Maud Tennyson d e s c r i b e d the c r e a t i v e process as f o l l o w s : I n a c e r t a i n way, no doubt, poets and n o v e l i s t s , however dramatic they a r e , give themselves i n t h e i r works. The mistake t h a t people make i s t h a t they t h i n k the poet's 123 poems are a k i n d of 'catalogue r a i s o n n e ' of h i s ve r y own s e l f , and of a l l the f a c t s of h i s l i f e , not see i n g t h a t they o f t e n o n l y express a p o e t i c i n s t i n c t or judgment on ch a r a c t e r r e a l or imagined, and on the f a c t s of l i v e s r e a l or imagined.16 S u r e l y , such a process as e x p l a i n e d here i s open t o v a r i o u s m o d i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e s which may become p a r t of the o r i g i n a l experience i t s e l f . I f one t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r s t h a t C a r l y l e ' s thought corresponded so c l o s e l y t o Tennyson's i m a g i n a t i o n , t h a t C a r l y l e was the most i n f l u e n t i a l and best known spokesman of a p h i l o s o p h y which c l o s e l y resembles the u n d e r l y i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m of the poem, and t h a t the p h i l o s o p h e r and the poet were p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s , i t appears v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t the many s i m i l a r i t i e s between Maud and some of C a r l y l e ' s w r i t i n g s do not r e f l e c t some i n f l u e n c e from C a r l y l e . However, the a v a i l a b l e evidence does not enable one t o determine the extent of such an i n f l u e n c e . 124 FOOTNOTES 1Memoir, I , 174-5. p Tennyson once r e t o r t e d to C a r l y l e ' s repeated exclamation, "Oh, f o r a day of Duke W i l l i a m a g a i n ! " w i t h the f o l l o w i n g words: " I suppose you would l i k e your Duke W i l l i a m back, to cut o f f some twelve hundred Cambridgeshire gentlemen's l e g s , and leave t h e i r owners squat upon the ground, t h a t they mightn't be able any longer t o bear arms again s t him!" C a r l y l e r e p l i e d , "Ah! That was no doubt a v e r y sad t h i n g f o r the Duke to do; but somehow he conceived he had a r i g h t t o do i t — and upon the whole he had!" "Let me t e l l your r e t u r n i n g hero one t h i n g then," c r i e d Tennyson, "and t h a t i s t h a t he had b e t t e r s t e e r c l e a r of my p r e c i n c t s , or he w i l l f e e l my k n i f e i n h i s guts v e r y soon." (Wilson, IV, 7 - 8 . ) 5 0 p . c i t . , p. 175. 4"An I n c i d e n t from C a r l y l e i n Tennyson's Maud," Notes and Queries.•new s e r . , VI ( 1959) , 77-78. ^ P a s t , p. 3 . . The Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y l i s t s C a r l y l e as the e a r l i e r of two authors who used the word "Mammonism". ?Cf. P i t t , op. c i t . , p. 175. Q N i a g a r a , p. 612. ^ S a r t o r , p. 169. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 127. i : L I b i d . , p. 112. 1 2 I b i d . , p. 127. 13 Memoir. I , 404. 1 4 S a r t o r , p. 46. •^Tennyson's "Maud": The B i o g r a p h i c a l Genesis (B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s ) , 1963. 1 6Memoir, I , 402. CHAPTER IX CARLYLE AND TENNYSON AFTER MAUD The r e l a t i o n s between C a r l y l e and Tennyson a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Maud remained much the same as they had been s i n c e 1850, when Tennyson had reached h i s m a t u r i t y as a p o e t ; 1 never again were they as i n t i m a t e as d u r i n g the e a r l y f o r t i e s , although on many occasions the two men i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had never l o s t i n t e r e s t i n p each o t h e r . In 1855 C a r l y l e was s i x t y years o l d and Tennyson was f o r t y - s i x ; both had reached t h a t age at which men do not u s u a l l y change what Newman c a l l e d " p h i l o s o p h i c a l h a b i t s " . One may perhaps d e s c r i b e the years a f t e r 1855 as a p e r i o d of f r i e n d l y companionship between two equals , n e i t h e r i g n o r i n g the ot h e r , but each e n j o y i n g f u l l i n t e l l e c t u a l independence. Probably l a t e i n 1855> j u s t before the C a r l y l e s went t o the Ashburton's Grange, 5 they were v i s i t e d by Tennyson at Chelsea. The two f r i e n d s smoked a pipe as they had i n e a r l i e r years and t a l k e d about such t h i n g s as the a d v i s a b i l i t y of a c c e p t i n g t i t l e s i f they were o f f e r e d , an honour which Tennyson was then disposed t o d e c l i n e . During the c o n v e r s a t i o n Tennyson suggested t h a t at the time of the Crimean War P e t e r the Great of R u s s i a would have been a b e t t e r s u b j e c t f o r C a r l y l e than h. F r e d e r i c k ; C a r l y l e agreed. 126 The next meeting, at Christmas, at the Ashburton's country residence has a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d t o . A p p a r e n t l y C a r l y l e dominated the c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h s p e c i a l f e r v o u r , f o r Wilson says t h a t " C a r l y l e was more i n evidence on t h i s v i s i t than u s u a l . n y For the next ten years no meeting between C a r l y l e and Tennyson has been recorded. Mrs. Tennyson sent a number of i n v i t a t i o n s t o Mrs. C a r l y l e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , but Jane d e c l i n e d them a l l because of her own i l l h e a l t h and her husband's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o leave h i s work. I t i s t r u e t h a t Mrs. C a r l y l e ' s h e a l t h was ve r y d e l i c a t e , e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the l a s t t e n years before her death i n 1866, and t h a t C a r l y l e laboured h e a v i l y at h i s F r e d e r i c k ; but i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t both C a r l y l e s , alone and to g e t h e r , d i d t r a v e l q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . J u s t i n McCarthy says t h a t i n "the e a r l y s i x t i e s Thomas C a r l y l e wast,commonly accepted as the d e s p o t i c n s o v e r e i g n of thought."' There i s d e f i n i t e l y a s t r a i n of i n t e l l e c t u a l despotism i n C a r l y l e ' s c h a r a c t e r which may permit one t o co n j e c t u r e t h a t i n those years i n which he avoided Tennyson he p r e f e r r e d the r e s p e c t f u l company of i n f e r i o r s t o the demanding f e l l o w s h i p of the few who were h i s equals. On October 14, 1864, " C a r l y l e "spoke w i t h great a f f e c t i o n of [Tennyson], but . . . thought him i n f e r i o r t o Burns: he had known ' A l f r e d ' f o r years: s a i d he used t o 127 come i n h o b - n a i l e d shoes and rough coat t o blow a c l o u d Q w i t h him." Perhaps these words show s t u d i e d condescension, s t u d i e d , because i t may seem t h a t C a r l y l e deemed i t necessary to emphasize h i s former i n t i m a c y w i t h the Laureate w h i l e b e l i t t l i n g him. I t appears t h a t Tennyson took the i n i t i a t i v e i n r e v i v i n g the f r i e n d s h i p . On December 5, 1865, C a r l y l e wrote t o h i s b r o t h e r John t h a t Tennyson had v i s i t e d him two days before at Chelsea: "[Tennyson] had a d i l a p i d a t e d k i n d of l o o k , but i n t a l k was c h e e r f u l 9 of tone," C a r l y l e wrote. C a r l y l e took a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the f o r m a t i o n of the Governor Eyre Defence Committee i n August 1866, and Tennyson entered h i s name i n support of the Governor i n October, 1866. The Committee c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y boast of the membership of such men as C a r l y l e , R u s k i n , Tennyson, Dickens, and K i n g s l e y . The Eyre c o n t r o v e r s y found the two o l d f r i e n d s on the same s i d e . 1 0 A c c o r d i n g to Charles Tennyson, the prophet and the poet met f r e q u e n t l y e a r l y i n 1866, u n t i l the time of Mrs. C a r l y l e ' s death on A p r i l 21, 1866. Tennyson had seen Jane f o r the l a s t time when he v i s i t e d the C a r l y l e s at Chelsea on March 22, 1 8 6 6 . 1 1 Despite the apparent r e s t o r a t i o n of c l o s e r e l a t i o n s between the f r i e n d s C a r l y l e ' s subsequent u t t e r a n c e s about Tennyson were mostly d i s p a r a g i n g . He 128 wrote to Emerson on January 27, 1867, t h a t Tennyson's I d y l l s of the K i n g had an "inward p e r f e c t i o n of vacancy" 12 d e s p i t e t h e i r " f i n e l y e l a b o r a t e d e x e c u t i o n " . On A p r i l 2, 1870, C a r l y l e wrote to h i s b r o t h e r John t h a t he had found Tennyson, who had v i s i t e d him r e c e n t l y , "good-natured, almost k i n d ; but r a t h e r d u l l . . . !" 1 5 And on June 28, 1871, he s a i d t o W i l l i a m A l l i n g h a m t h a t "Browning has f a r more ideas than Tennyson, but i s not 14 so t r u t h f u l . Tennyson means what he says, poor f e l l o w ! " Charles E l i o t Norton noted i n h i s j o u r n a l on January 13, 1873, t h a t C a r l y l e had spoken of "Tennyson's d e c l i n e " . 1 5 I n the autumn of t h a t year C a r l y l e almost surpassed h i m s e l f i n a l e t t e r to John C a r l y l e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t of a recent meeting w i t h Tennyson: Tennyson was d i s t i n c t l y r a t h e r wearisome; n o t h i n g coming from him t h a t d i d not smack of u t t e r i n d o l e n c e , what one might almost c a l l t o r p i d s l e e p i n e s s and stupor; a l l s t i l l e n l i v e n e d , however, by the tone of b o g l i k e n a i v e t e and t o t a l want of malice except a g a i n s t h i s Q u a r t e r l y and other unfavorable Reviewers.16 Near the end of December, 1873, Tennyson v i s i t e d C a r l y l e w i t h h i s two sons. Mrs. Tennyson wrote i n her j o u r n a l t h a t d u r i n g t h i s v i s i t C a r l y l e had d e s c r i b e d D i s r a e l i as "a gentleman Jew who s i t s at the top of c h a o s . " 1 7 A p p a r e n t l y , Tennyson d i d not q u i t e agree w i t h him, f o r a few days l a t e r C a r l y l e wrote to h i s b r o t h e r John t h a t the Tennysons were "poor s o u l s 129 a f t e r a l l . " 1 8 A few months l a t e r , i n March 1874, C a r l y l e expressed the o p i n i o n t o L e s l i e Stephen t h a t "Tennyson has d e c l i n e d i n t o a comparatively s e n t i m e n t a l and 19 effeminate l i n e of w r i t i n g , mere a e s t h e t i c i s m . " C a r l y l e greeted Tennyson's tragedy Queen Mary 20 w i t h shocked d i s b e l i e f . "Did you ever?" he exclaimed a f t e r he had read i t . And t o h i s b r o t h e r he d e s c r i b e d i t 21 as "stone-dead" and " i n e f f e c t u a l " . However, he t o l d A l l i n g h a m i n 1876 t h a t he p r e f e r r e d Tennyson to Browning, 22 although Browning was "a man of great a b i l i t i e s . " Yet i t seems t h a t Tennyson was e i t h e r unaware of C a r l y l e ' s u n f r i e n d l y c r i t i c i s m or took no n o t i c e of i t . The poet was among the w e l l - w i s h e r s on C a r l y l e ' s e i g h t i e t h b i r t h d a y , on December 4, 1875. Hallam Tennyson w r i t e s t h a t i n the years 1875-1879, "whenever a chance o f f e r e d i t s e l f , we c a l l e d on the C a r l y l e s . " 2 3 I t i s not c l e a r why Hallam says "the C a r l y l e s " , f o r Mrs. C a r l y l e had d i e d i n 1866. But s i n c e Hallam r e f e r s t o h i s note-book w i t h i n the same c o n t e x t , and s i n c e he was o n l y f o u r t e e n when Mrs. C a r l y l e d i e d , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he confuses the above p e r i o d w i t h an e a r l i e r one. During these v i s i t s , the c o n v e r s a t i o n ranged over a wide v a r i e t y of t o p i c s , some of which Hallam 24 Tennyson mentions i n h i s Memoir. Once, when C a r l y l e p a i d him a r e t u r n v i s i t Tennyson c a l l e d C a r l y l e "the 130 most re v e r e n t and most i r r e v e r e n t man" he knew. Another time Tennyson read poems to C a r l y l e , among which "Harold", "The Revenge", "The May Queen", and "The F i r s t Q u a r r e l " were warmly r e c e i v e d . Other t o p i c s were Goldsmith, Goethe, the c o n d i t i o n of England, Gladstone, and M i l t o n . During what Hallam d e s c r i b e d as t h e i r l a s t meeting, the two f r i e n d s t a l k e d about death. Both were t i r e d a f t e r l o n g , s u c c e s s f u l l i v e s . C a r l y l e s a i d , " I am j u s t t w i n k l i n g away, and I wish I had had my D i m i i t i s l o n g ago." Then he gave Tennyson h i s tobacco box "as a 25 pledge of e t e r n a l brotherhood." ^ C a r l y l e d i e d on February 5, 1881, at the age of e i g h t y - f i v e . We do not know how Tennyson r e c e i v e d the news; but P r o f e s s o r Sanders has shown t h a t the poet was s e r i o u s l y d i s t r e s s e d over Froude's d e s c r i p t i o n of C a r l y l e ' s married l i f e i n the o f f i c i a l biography, which 26 was p u b l i s h e d i n 1884. Ac c o r d i n g to W i l f r i d Ward, Tennyson spoke of Mrs. C a r l y l e a few years a f t e r C a r l y l e ' s death as "a most charming, w i t t y converser, but o f t e n s a r c a s t i c . " But Ward added t h a t C a r l y l e h i m s e l f always dominated the c o n v e r s a t i o n . Ward asked Tennyson, "Did he not l i s t e n t o you when you t a l k e d ? " Tennyson r e p l i e d , "In a way, 27 but he h a r d l y took i n what one s a i d . " T h i s l a s t q u o t a t i o n best sums up the r e l a t i o n between C a r l y l e and Tennyson. C a r l y l e ' s extreme 131 s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s made i t n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r him t o become more i n t i m a t e w i t h anyone than he had been w i t h Tennyson. H i s self-imposed l o n e l i n e s s made C a r l y l e appear as a despot of thought t o h i s contemporaries. I t i s always s a f e s t t o s t a y out of a despot's way, but one cannot ignore him. Tennyson was c a r e f u l not t o l e t C a r l y l e d e s t r o y him as a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t ; but i f he succeeded, perhaps b e t t e r than any other, i n r e c o n c i l i n g h i s countrymen t o r e a l i t y as i t presented i t s e l f to h i s age, i t may have been because C a r l y l e helped him t o d i s t i n g u i s h r e a l i t y from sham, t o p e r c e i v e the great nothingness behind man's high-sounding p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and moral phrases; and because C a r l y l e showed him how t o c r e a t e an A l l out of t h a t nothingness through an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea". In 1886, when Tennyson was seventy-seven, he p u b l i s h e d " L o c k s l e y H a l l S i x t y Years A f t e r . " T h i s sequel t o the e a r l i e r " L o c k s l e y H a l l " c o n t a i n s a b i t t e r i n d i c t m e n t of modern democracy, which provoked Gladstone to defend the p o l i c i e s of h i s government i n The Nineteenth Century. January, 1887,. agai n s t what he con s i d e r e d Tennyson's a t t a c k . Indeed, Tennyson's condemnation of u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e sounds as angry i n some passages of the poem as C a r l y l e ' s i n h i s Latter-Day Pamphlets and 29 ''Shooting Niagara." V a l e r i e P i t t quotes the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from 132 Tennyson's poem as i l l u s t r a t i o n f o r her o p i n i o n t h a t "echoes of [ C a r l y l e ' s superman] are v e r y e v i d e n t i n 30 Tennyson's admirations and h i s contempts:-^ Plowmen, Shepherds, have I found, and more than once, and s t i l l c o u l d f i n d , Sons of God, and k i n g s of men i n u t t e r nobleness of mind, T r u t h f u l , t r u s t f u l , l o o k i n g upward to the p r a c t i s e d h u s t i n g s - l i a r ; So the Higher w i e l d s the Lower, wh i l e the Lower i s the Higher. Here and there a c o t t e r ' s babe i s r o y a l - b o r n by r i g h t d i v i n e ; Here and there my l o r d i s lower than h i s oxen or h i s swine (11. 121-126). 31 I n a d d i t i o n Hugh T'Anson Fausset^ suggests t h a t Tennyson may have thought of C a r l y l e * s " p e r s i s t e n t r e f u s a l to see how p r o g r e s s i v e the V i c t o r i a n world was," when he wrote these l i n e s : I s i t w e l l t h a t while we range w i t h S c i e n c e , g l o r y i n g i n the Time, C i t y c h i l d r e n soak and b l a c k e n s o u l and sense i n c i t y slime? (11. 217-218) I t seems t h a t , f i v e years a f t e r C a r l y l e ' s death, Tennyson once again remembered h i s f r i e n d , i n the sequel to a poem which he may have a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a r l y l e f o r 32 i t s resemblance to S a r t o r Resartus^ and f o r i t s p l a c e i n the 1842 e d i t i o n of poems, which evoked C a r l y l e ' s 33 p a r t i c u l a r l y warm response. ^ 133 FOOTNOTES ^See above, p. 100. p See esp. above, p. 105. 5See above, p. 107. 4 D a v i d Davidson, Memories of a Long L i f e (Edinburgh, 1 8 9 0 ) , pp. 2 9 9 - 3 0 9 . Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 9 2 . 5V, 2 0 3 . 6 S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 9 2 . ^"Thomas C a r l y l e — A l f r e d Tennyson," i n P o r t r a i t s of the S i x t i e s (New York, 1 9 0 3 ) , p. 34-. 8 V i l s o n , V, 557. ^Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 9 3 , (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 1 0 F o r a d e t a i l e d account of C a r l y l e ' s and Tennyson's c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the defence of Governor Eyre, see Bernard Semmel, The Governor Eyre Controversy (London, 1962). " ^ S i r Charles Tennyson, op. c i t . , p. 3 6 3 . 1? Correspondence of C a r l y l e and Emerson, I I , 303-304, 1 5New L e t t e r s of Thomas C a r l y l e , I I , 265-266. 1 4 W i l l i a m A l l i n g h a m , A D i a r y (London, 1907) , p. 2 0 5 . 1 5 L e t t e r s , ed. Sara Norton and M. A. DeWolfe Howe (New York, 1913) , I , 457• 1 6New L e t t e r s of Thomas C a r l y l e , I I , 3 0 0 - 3 0 1 . 1 7Memoir, I I , 152. 1 8 S a n d e r s , " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 94, (from the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 1 9 V i l s o n , V I , 323-324. 134 20 Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 95, (from C a r l y l e ' s o r i g i n a l l e t t e r t o John F o r s t e r , now i n the V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum). 21 I b i d . , (from C a r l y l e ' s o r i g i n a l l e t t e r t o h i s b r o t h e r John, October 26, 1875, now i n the N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y of S c o t l a n d ) . 22 Alli n g h a m , op. c i t . , p. 244. 2 5Memoir, I I , 2 3 3 . 2 4 I b i d . , pp. 234-237. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 237. 2 6 " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 96. 2 7 " T a l k s w i t h Tennyson," New Review. XV ( J u l y , 1896), 80-81. Sanders, " C a r l y l e and Tennyson," p. 97. 2 8 S e e Chapter V I . , 29 'For example: "The Noble i n the h i g h p l a c e , the Ignoble i n the low; t h a t i s , i n a l l times and i n a l l c o u n t r i e s , the Almighty Maker's Law. To r a i s e the Sham-Noblest . . . i s . . . a p r a c t i c a l blasphemy, and Nature w i l l - i n no wise f o r g e t i t . . . . I t i s the N o b l e s t , not the Sham-Noblest, . . . t h a t must i n some approximate degree be r a i s e d t o the supreme p l a c e . . . . W i l l the b a l l o t - b o x r a i s e the Noblest to the c h i e f p l a c e ; does any sane man d e l i b e r a t e l y b e l i e v e such a t h i n g ? I say, i t i s the e v e r l a s t i n g p r i v i l e g e of the f o o l i s h to be governed by the wise." (Latter-Day Pamphlets, "The Present Time," p. 20) " A r i s t o c r a c y by t i t l e , by f o r t u n e and p o s i t i o n , who can doubt but there are s t i l l p r e c i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s among the chosen of t h a t c l a s s ? And i f t h a t f a i l us, there i s s t i l l , we hope, the unclassed A r i s t o c r a c y by n a t u r e , not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n numbers, and supreme i n f a c u l t y , i n wisdom, human t a l e n t , nobleness and courage, 'who d e r i v e t h e i r patent of n o b i l i t y d i r e c t from Almighty God.'" (''Shooting N i a g a r a , • p. 605) 5°0p. c i t . , p. 176. 5 1 0 p . c i t . , pp. 271-272. 135 5 2 S e e Chapter V I . 3 5 S e e above, p. 46 f f . CHAPTER X SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The present study has been i n s p i r e d by a c u r i o s i t y t o know whether the most outspoken and perhaps most i n f l u e n t i a l prophet of the V i c t o r i a n age has exe r t e d any n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t upon the Poet Laureate. There are indeed a number of c r i t i c s who m a i n t a i n t h a t C a r l y l e has i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson, but the evidence on which these views are based has been seen t o be i n s u f f i c i e n t and i n c o n c l u s i v e . Furthermore, no d i r e c t , t h a t i s , b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence has been found which would enable one t o reason c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t a s p e c i f i c poem by Tennyson has been w r i t t e n under C a r l y l e ' s i n f l u e n c e (Chapter I ) . Therefore our i n v e s t i g a t i o n had t o r e l y e n t i r e l y on c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence, which has been d i v i d e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t concerned i t s e l f w i t h the a v a i l a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l evidence, which, although scarce and i n c o n c l u s i v e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t there was s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r c o u r s e between C a r l y l e and Tennyson t o make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the former t o i n f l u e n c e the l a t t e r . The second category i s an assessment of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t C a r l y l e e xerted an i n f l u e n c e over Tennyson. And the t h i r d , the i n t e r n a l evidence, can go 137 no f u r t h e r than t o show t h a t there are many p a r a l l e l s between C a r l y l e ' s and Tennyson's work. None of the three c a t e g o r i e s of evidence i s c o n c l u s i v e i n i t s e l f , but a l l three considered as a whole may he l p one t o ga i n a new i n s i g h t i n t o the workings of Tennyson's c r e a t i v e mind. Chapter I I i s an attempt t o draw a c h a r a c t e r s k e t c h of C a r l y l e as a romantic t h i n k e r . H i s ambivalence and dualism, t y p i c a l l y romantic t r a i t s , have been r e l a t e d t o the p o s t - K a n t i a n c o n f l i c t between "Pure Reason" and "Understanding", which, i n the present work, has been r e f e r r e d to as " b a s i c romantic p o l a r i t y . " I t has been shown t h a t the same romantic t r a i t s are d e termining f a c t o r s i n Tennyson's e a r l y p o e t r y , w r i t t e n at a time when he c o u l d not have known C a r l y l e (Chapter I I I ) . But although Tennyson f e l t much the same way as C a r l y l e , h i s e a r l y p o e t r y l a c k s the comfort and r e s o l u t i o n which one f i n d s i n C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l ! s t p h i l o s o p h y . In g e n e r a l , one may say t h a t those e a r l y poems d i d not go beyond C a r l y l e ' s " E v e r l a s t i n g No." Although C a r l y l e and Tennyson possessed w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t temperaments, they became i n t i m a t e f r i e n d s d u r i n g the decade between 184-0 and 1850 (Chapter I V ) . C a r l y l e , i n h i s b u s t l i n g manner, tended t o dominate Tennyson, who was at t h a t time r a t h e r shy and withdrawn. But t h i s p e c u l i a r one-sidedness i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p 138 makes i t appear a l l the more probable t h a t C a r l y l e impressed Tennyson w i t h h i s i d e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e Tennyson must have been i n t e r e s t e d i n C a r l y l e ' s answers to problems which he had h i m s e l f r a i s e d i n the e a r l y poems. I n Memoriam (Chapter V) does indeed provide these answers i n agreement w i t h t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y . To speak i n C a r l y l e ' s terms, Tennyson now goes beyond the " E v e r l a s t i n g No" of h i s e a r l y poems t o achieve an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" i n much the same f a s h i o n as Teu f e l s d r o c k h i n S a r t o r Resartus. A number of a d d i t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s between S a r t o r Resartus and In Memoriam have a l s o been p o i n t e d out. Since i t appears t h a t much of In Memoriam was w r i t t e n when C a r l y l e and Tennyson were a l r e a d y f r i e n d s , or when Tennyson, at any r a t e , must have known S a r t o r  R e s a r t u s , i t cannot be r u l e d out t h a t C a r l y l e exerted a " g u i d i n g i n f l u e n c e " over Tennyson d u r i n g the composition of I n Memoriam. But Tennyson went f u r t h e r than C a r l y l e by shaping the i n t e l l e c t u a l concepts of t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s m i n t o an in t e n s e emotional experience. I n a d d i t i o n t o many s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h S a r t o r R e s a r t u s . "Lo c k s l e y H a l l " d i s p l a y s a s i m i l a r p r o g r e s s i o n from an " E v e r l a s t i n g No" to an " E v e r l a s t i n g Yea" (Chapter V I ) . But there i s simply n o t h i n g to prove t h a t these p a r a l l e l s are the r e s u l t of C a r l y l e ' s i n f l u e n c e . One may co n s i d e r the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t 139 Tennyson had something t o g a i n from C a r l y l e , and the f a c t t h a t a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p e x i s t e d between the poet and the p h i l o s o p h e r , but here the case must r e s t . I t seems t h a t i n 1850, when Tennyson married and achieved fame, h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h C a r l y l e l o s t some of i t s i n t i m a c y (Chapter V I I ) . Meetings became l e s s f r e q u e n t , but there are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t Tennyson by no means l o s t i n t e r e s t i n C a r l y l e , who was approaching the cli m a x of h i s l i t e r a r y fame at the time when Tennyson p u b l i s h e d Maud ( 1 9 5 5 ) . An examination of Maud (Chapter V I I I ) r e v e a l s many p a r a l l e l s between the poem and some of C a r l y l e ' s works. I n one i n s t a n c e i t appears very l i k e l y t h a t Tennyson u t i l i z e d something he had read i n Fast and Pre s e n t . The r a d i c a l tone of the poem, and the u n d e r l y i n g t r a n s -c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y are v e r y s i m i l a r t o C a r l y l e ' s , but such s i m i l a r i t i e s i n themselves do not prove t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between C a r l y l e and Tennyson a f t e r 1855 has been d e s c r i b e d as "a p e r i o d of f r i e n d l y companionship between two equals, n e i t h e r i g n o r i n g the other, but each e n j o y i n g f u l l i n t e l l e c t u a l independence." Despite C a r l y l e ' s f r e q u e n t l y u n f a i r and d e s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , Tennyson always r e t a i n e d an a f f e c t i o n a t e regard f o r C a r l y l e , without ever f a l l i n g v i c t i m t o h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l despotism. F i v e years a f t e r C a r l y l e ' s death 140 Tennyson p u b l i s h e d " L o c k s l e y H a l l S i x t y Years A f t e r , " which, i n i t s angry condemnation of u n i v e r s a l s u f f r a g e and i t s a t t a c k on V i c t o r i a n complacency, i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n tone and content t o C a r l y l e ' s L a t ter-Day Pamphlets and "'Shooting Niagara/' The present study has not answered the q u e s t i o n how Tennyson would have developed d i f f e r e n t l y i f he had never known C a r l y l e . One may argue t h a t such a q u e s t i o n i s l o g i c a l l y i n v a l i d because no man can say what Tennyson would have done, other than what he a c t u a l l y d i d . U l t i m a t e l y , the q u e s t i o n may be reduced to one which has l o n g p u z z l e d p h i l o s o p h e r s but which no one has answered c o n c l u s i v e l y , namely, whether man has a f r e e w i l l or whether he i s a mere l i n k i n the c h a i n of c a u s a l i t y . Thus even the most abundant evidence i n favour of l i t e r a r y " i n f l u e n c e s " i s always subject t o a l o g i c a l o b j e c t i o n . C i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence has shown t h a t Tennyson had something t o g a i n from C a r l y l e ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y ; t h a t there was s u f f i c i e n t i n t e r c o u r s e between the two men t o make i t p o s s i b l e t h a t C a r l y l e i n f l u e n c e d Tennyson; t h a t indeed Tennyson appears to have accepted C a r l y l e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a l i s m i n In Memoriam. many s e c t i o n s of which were w r i t t e n a f t e r Tennyson had met C a r l y l e ; and, l a s t l y , t h a t " L o c k s l e y H a l l " and Maud d i s p l a y many s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h some of C a r l y l e ' s thoughts and images. 14-1 To i n t e r p r e t a l l of these s i m i l a r i t i e s as i n f l u e n c e s from C a r l y l e would he as u n j u s t t o Tennyson's c r e a t i v e genius as i t would be l o g i c a l l y f a l l a c i o u s . But i f the present study of the r e l a t i o n s between a prophet and a poet has c o n t r i b u t e d a t e n t a t i v e i n s i g h t i n t o the m y s t e r i e s of Tennyson's c r e a t i v e mind, i t s purpose has been achieved. LIST OP WORKS CITED Primary Sources B l i s s , Trudy, ed. Thomas C a r l y l e : L e t t e r s t o H i s Wife. Cambridge, Mass.:: Harvard Univ. P r e s s , 1953* C a r l y l e , Alexander, ed. New L e t t e r s of Thomas C a r l y l e . 2 v o l s . London: John Lane, 1904. C a r l y l e , Thomas. Thomas C a r l y l e ' s Works. "The Ashburton E d i t i o n . " 1? v o l s . London: Chapman and H a l l , 1885-1888. Norton, C. E., ed. The Correspondence of Thomas C a r l y l e  and Ralph Waldo Emerson. 2 v o l s . Boston: J . R. Osgood, 1885. Tennyson, A l f r e d , L o r d . The Works of Tennyson, ed. Hallam, Lo r d Tennyson. 9 v o l s . London: Macmillan, 1908. (The E v e r s l e y E d i t i o n ) . Secondary Sources Books Al l i n g h a m , W i l l i a m . A Diary., eds. H. A l l i n g h a m and D. Radford. London: Macmillan, 1907. A l t i c k , R i c h a r d D. The A r t of L i t e r a r y Research. [1s t ed.] New York: Norton, 1965. B e n t l e y , E r i c . The C u l t of. the Superman. London: R. Hale, 1947-B r a d l e y , A. C. Commentary t o " I n Memoriam." 3d ed. r e v . London: Macmillan, 1915• Chubb, Edwin Watts. S t o r i e s of Authors. B r i t i s h and .: American. Rev. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1926. Cofer, D. B. Saint-Sjmonianism i n the R a d i c a l i s m of Thomas C a r l y l e . C ollege S t a t i o n : E n g l i s h P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1931. Darch, A l i c e Maddeford. "A Comparison of Tennyson's I n Memoriam w i t h C a r l y l e ' s S a r t o r Resartus." Master's essay, U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1927. 143 Davidson, David. Memories of a Long L i f e . Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1890. Davidson, Thomas. Prolegomena t o " I n Memoriam." Boston: D. C. Heath, 1909. E s p i n a s s e , F r a n c i s . L i t e r a r y R e c o l l e c t i o n s and Sketches. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893. Fausset, Hugh T 1Anson. Tennyson. A Modern P o r t r a i t . London: Selwyrt and Bl o u n t , 1923. F i t z g e r a l d , Edward. The L e t t e r s of Edward F i t z g e r a l d , ed. W i l l i a m A. Wright. 2 v o l s . London: Macmillan, 1894. . Some New L e t t e r s of Edward F i t z g e r a l d , ed. F. R. Barton. 2 v o l s . London: W i l l i a m s and Norgate, 1923* Froude, James Anthony, ed. L e t t e r s and Memorials of Jane Welsh C a r l y l e . 2 v o l s . New York: C. S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1883. . Thomas C a r l y l e . 2 v o l s . London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1884. Hanson, Lawrence and E l i z a b e t h . Necessary E v i l ; The L i f e of Jane Welsh C a r l y l e . London: Constable, 1952. Jennings, Henry J . Lord Tennyson. A B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch. London: Chatoo and Windus, 1884. K i l l h a m , John. Tennyson and "The P r i n c e s s . " [London]: Univ. of London, Athlone P r e s s , 1958. Lang, Andrew. A l f r e d Tennyson. London: W. Blackwood, 1901. McCarthy, J u s t i n . P o r t r a i t s of the S i x t i e s . New York: Harper, 1903. M i l l , John S t u a r t . Autobiography. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1873. N i c h o l , John. Thomas C a r l y l e . E n g l i s h Men of L e t t e r s S e r i e s . London: Macmillan, 1892. N i c o l s o n , H a r o l d . Tennyson. Aspects of H i s L i f e . C h a r a c t e r , and P o e t r y . London: Constable, 1923. 144 Norton, Charles E l i o t . L e t t e r s , ed. Sara Norton and M. A. DeWolfe Howe. 2 v o l s . New York: Constable, 1913. P i t t , V a l e r i e . Tennyson Laureate. London: B a r r i e and R p c k c l i f f , 1962. Rader, Ralph Wi l s o n . Tennyson's "Maud": The B i o g r a p h i c a l  Genesis. Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles, 1963. R i t c h i e , Anne Thackeray. Records of Tennyson. R u s k i n . Browning. New York: Harper, 1892. Robson, W. W. "The Dilemma of Tennyson," i n C r i t i c a l Essays  on the P o e t r y of Tennyson, ed. John K i l l h a m . London: Routledge and K. P a u l , I960. R y a l s , Clyde de L. Theme and Symbol i n Tennyson's Poems  to 1850. P h i l a d e l p h i a : Univ. of P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1964. Semmel, Bernhard. The Governor Eyre Controversy. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1962. Spengler, Oswald. Der Untergang des AXbendlandes. Munchen: Beck, 1923. Templeman, W i l l i a m Darby. "Tennyson's 'Locksley H a l l ' and C a r l y l e , " i n Booker Memorial S t u d i e s , ed. H. Shine, Chapel H i l l : Univ. of North C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1950. Tennyson, S i r C h a r l e s . A l f r e d Tennyson. New York: Macmillan, 1949. Tennyson, Hallam, L o r d . A l f r e d Lord Tennyson, A Memoir. 2 v o l s . London: Macmillan, 1897. . Tennyson and H i s P r i e n d s . London: Macmillan, 1911. Walker, Hugh. The Age of Tennyson. Handbooks of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . London: B e l l , 1897* Walters, John Cuming. I n Tennyson Land: I n f l u e n c e s of  L i n c o l n s h i r e . London: Redway, 1890. W i l l e y , B a s i l . More Nineteenth Century S t u d i e s . London: Chatto and Windus, 1956. 14-5 Wi l s o n , David A l e c . f L i f e of C a r l y l e 1 . 7 v o l s . [each volume has own t i t l e . ] London: K. P a u l , Trench, Trubner and Co., 1923-1931. Wilson, Rev. John. Thomas C a r l y l e . The I c o n o c l a s t of  Modern Shams. P a i s l e y : A. Gardner, 1881. Woolner, Amy. Thomas Woolner. S c u l p t o r and Poet. London: Chapman and H a l l , 1917* A r t i c l e s i n P e r i o d i c a l s and J o u r n a l s 1 Baynes, Thomas. " C a r l y l e and Lord Tennyson." Notes  and Queries. 7th S e r i e s , XI (March, 1891), 204. Greenberg, Robert A. "A P o s s i b l e Source of Tennyson's •Tooth and Claw'." Modern Language Notes. LXXI (1956), 491-92. Huxley, Leonard, ed. " L e t t e r s from Jane Welsh C a r l y l e . " C o r n h i l l Magazine. LXI (November, 1926), 633-635. Knowles, James. "Aspects of Tennyson." Ni n e t e e n t h  Century, XXXIII (1893), 182. M a r s h a l l , George, 0. "An I n c i d e n t from C a r l y l e i n Tennyson's Maud." Notes and Queries. New S e r i e s , VI (February, 1959), 77-78. M i l l e r , B e t t y . "Tennyson and the S i n f u l Queen." Twentieth Century. CLVIII (1955), 355-63. R y a l s , Clyde De L. "The 'Heavenly F r i e n d ' : The 'New Mythus' of I n Memoriam." The P e r s o n a l i s t , X L I I I (1962), 383-402. Sanders, Cha r l e s R i c h a r d . " C a r l y l e , P o e t r y , and the Music of Humanity." Western Humanities Review. XVI (1962), 53-66. . " C a r l y l e ' s L e t t e r s . " B u l l e t i n of the John Rylands L i b r a r y . XXXVIII (1955), 199-224. " C a r l y l e and Tennyson." PMLA, LXXVI (March, 1961), 82-97-Sta r n e s , D. T. "The In f l u e n c e of C a r l y l e upon Tennyson." Texas Review. VI (1921), 316-336. 146 Tennyson, G. B. " C a r l y l e ' s P o e t r y t o 1840: A C h e c k l i s t and D i s c u s s i o n , a New A t t r i b u t i o n , and S i x Unpublished Poems." V i c t o r i a n P o e t r y , I (August, 1963), 161-81. Ward, W i l f r i d . "Talks w i t h Tennyson." New Review. XV ( J u l y , 1896), 80-81. 

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