UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

An estimate of the provincial gross domestic product at factor cost by industry of origin for British… Ohki, Takashi 1966

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1966_A8 O5.pdf [ 6.22MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302273.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302273-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302273-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302273-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302273-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302273-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302273-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302273-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302273.ris

Full Text

1  AN ESTIMATE OF THE PROVINCIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1961 by TAKASHI OHKI B.A., I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n U n i v e r s i t y , 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Economics We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, for  I agree that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  r e f e r e n c e and study.  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  thesis  gain s h a l l  Department o f  Economics Columbia  May 13, 1966,  for  representatives. thesis  not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  available  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  is understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  financial  British  I f u r t h e r agree that p e r m i s s i o n  granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s It  freely  the  for  permission  ABSTRACT  The purposes of t h i s t h e s i s are to i n v e s t i g a t e the  p o s s i b i l i t y of applying concepts used i n n a t i o n a l  income accounts to r e g i o n a l income accounts, and to estimate the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961. Some fundamental concepts of n a t i o n a l income accounts such as Gross Domestic Product, Gross N a t i o n a l Product, f a c t o r costs, and market p r i c e s are discussed as to t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y to r e g i o n a l income accounts. Considering conceptual and s t a t i s t i c a l requirements f o r r e g i o n a l economic analyses, Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n i s chosen as the best f e a s i b l e concept f o r the estimation of the p r o v i n c i a l income account of B r i t i s h Columbia. Three t r a d i t i o n a l approaches to the measurement of p r o v i n c i a l income accounts are discussed.  The  expenditure approach i s abandoned because i t has a s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i n estimating exports and imports accounts on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s .  The income approach i s  a l s o abandoned because i t contains a s t a t i s t i c a l problem  iii. o f assigning corporate p r o f i t s of Canada-wide m u l t i establishment f i r m s to provinces.  F i n a l l y , the value-  added-by i n d u s t r y approach i s examined, and the method based on t h i s approach i s employed i n t h i s t h e s i s to estimate the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961. The method employed i n v o l v e s breaking down n a t i o n a l aggregates of Gross Domestic Product o r i g i n a t i n g i n i n d u s t r y groups to those o r i g i n a t i n g i n component i n d u s t r i e s , and then a l l o c a t i n g them to B r i t i s h Columbia according to some r e l a t e d p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s . In breaking down the n a t i o n a l aggregates, the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weights measured i n Gross Domestic Product a t f a c t o r cost are used.  The main reason of  t h i s process i s to avoid a product mix problem a r i s i n g from d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d u s t r i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t provinces. We chose as p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s p r o v i n c i a l economic s t a t i s t i c s which are as close to the net value added by i n d u s t r y concept as a v a i l a b l e data permit.  iv. Two s t u d i e s of estimating r e g i o n a l income accounts are reviewed.  For each i n d u s t r y , data used  to estimate the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost are discussed, together with the r e s u l t i n g estimates.  The estimates are presented f o r each  i n d u s t r y and i n d u s t r y group, and the sum of these estimates, that i s , the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961, i s 3,333-,-000,000 current d o l l a r s .  V. TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I. II.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  GENERAL CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO  III.  PROVINCIAL INCOME ACCOUNTS  5  Gross N a t i o n a l Product  6  Gross Domestic Product  8  "At market P r i c e s " and "At f a c t o r c o s t "  9  Industrial Classification  11  "Firm B a s i s " and "Establishment B a s i s "  12  THREE APPROACHES TO THE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROVINCIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT  IV.  AT FACTOR COST  17  Expenditure Approach  17  Income Approach  22  Value-added-by-industry Approach  26  REVIEW OF OTHER STUDIES ESTIMATING REGIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS  29  Study o f Personal Income by States made by the United States Department o f Commerce  29  vi. CHAPTER  PAGE Study of Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product of the A t l a n t i c Provinces made by the A t l a n t i c Provinces Economic 32  Council V.  ALLOCATION TO BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1961 OF NATIONAL AGGREGATES OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN  37  Investigation  38  of Basic Data  The n a t i o n a l aggregates of the 1961 G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n  38  The 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system..  38  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r  41  I n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system  43  Method Employed  45  I n d u s t r i a l breakdown  46  Provincial allocation  48  Aggregation of p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by industries Discussion of Data Used  50 50  vii. CHAPTER  PAGE Agriculture  51  Forestry  52  F i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g  52  Mining, quarrying, and o i l w e l l s  53  Manufacturing  53  Construction  54  Transportation  55  Storage  58  Communication  59  E l e c t r i c power, gas and water u t i l 61  ities  VI.  Wholesale trade  62  R e t a i l trade  63  Finance, insurance and rents  63  P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and defence  66  Service  68  PRESENTATION AND APPRAISAL OF THE ESTIMATES  VII.  '  69  Presentation of the Estimates  69  A p p r a i s a l o f the Estimates  71  EXTENSIONS TO OTHER PROVINCES AND TO OTHER YEARS  73  Extension to Other Provinces  73  Extensions to Other Years  74  CHAPTER  PAGE  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  105  ix. LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I.  PAGE I n d u s t r i a l Correspondence between I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and 1949 I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System Classification  II.  76  Gross Domestic Product^.at Factor Cost by Industry of O r i g i n , B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, 1961  III.  84  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost, by Industry, 1961, f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada; and Percentage Share of B r i t i s h Columbia Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost i n Canadian Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost, by Industry, 1961  IV.  90  Type of I n d i c a t o r (Showing 1949 Percentage Coverage of T o t a l Gross Domestic Product at Factor Cost)  91  1.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The purposes of t h i s t h e s i s are to i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of applying concepts used i n n a t i o n a l income accounts to r e g i o n a l income accounts, and to estimate the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r costs by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia in  1961.  In the past t e n years, economic analyses focused a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l have become more frequent. In analysing r e g i o n a l economics, a general and comprehensive framework plays an important r o l e .  In t h i s  t h e s i s the concept of n a t i o n a l income accounts i s examined t o see whether i t can be a p p l i e d to r e g i o n a l income accounts, and i f i t can, whether i t w i l l  provide  the k i n d o f information needed f o r r e g i o n a l economic analyses. Since most r e g i o n a l economic analyses are o r i e n t e d to making d e c i s i o n s at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , r e g i o n a l income accounts should be designed with t h i s object i n view.  Thus, the kinds of economic problem  2. solved at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l should be i n v e s t i g a t e d before we determine a s u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r r e g i o n a l income accounts.  Three kinds of the most important  problems f o l l o w .  F i r s t , one of the most frequent aims  of r e g i o n a l studies i s to a s s i s t i n the estimation p o t e n t i a l tax revenues, and to evaluate  of  regional  government expenditures f o r various p r o j e c t s . Estimation of purchasing power i n the region i s also an i n t e r e s t i n g subject.  P r o v i n c i a l governments are o f t e n  required to make d e c i s i o n s which a f f e c t , p o s i t i v e l y or n e g a t i v e l y , l e v e l s of employments and personal incomes o r i g i n a t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i e s i n the  provinces.  They are a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n estimating v a r i o u s e f f e c t s of expenditure p r o j e c t s on each i n d u s t r y .  For those  purposes, the concept s i m i l a r to Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P.) by industry of o r i g i n w i l l provide the most u s e f u l information.  For the above purposes, conceptual  frameworks s i m i l a r to Personal Income, Gross N a t i o n a l Product (G.N.P.) and Gross N a t i o n a l Income (G.N.I.) may provide u s e f u l information.  Secondly, a comparative  economic a n a l y s i s of the p a r t i c u l a r region i n question with other s i m i l a r regions i s of major i n t e r e s t .  For  example, i t i s u s e f u l f o r r e g i o n a l economic p o l i c i e s to know the d i f f e r e n c e i n tax s t r u c t u r e or i n d u s t r i a l  s t r u c t u r e between one region and another.  For such  purposes, data should be a v a i l a b l e f o r a number of regions on the same b a s i s .  F i n a l l y , i f time s e r i e s  data are a v a i l a b l e at the r e g i o n a l l e v e l we can analyse the growth pattern of the r e g i o n a l economy.  In a  r e g i o n a l growth study, long-run planning of r e g i o n a l investments i s important.  This r e q u i r e s an a n a l y s i s  of the e f f e c t of changing n a t i o n a l needs on the region. For such a problem, i n d u s t r i a l o r i g i n s of income received by r e g i o n a l r e s i d e n t s and the data on r e g i o n a l production by industry may  be most h e l p f u l .  I f the  n a t i o n a l income accounts are broken down by r e g i o n ,  we  can o b t a i n u s e f u l data to analyse the i n t e r p l a y between the r e g i o n a l l e v e l and the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , because the n a t i o n a l income accounts can be used as the c o n t r o l t o t a l A concept s i m i l a r to that used i n Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost may  be used i n the l a s t case.  In Canada, data on Personal Income are a v a i l a b l annually at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  But there i s not a  complete p r o v i n c i a l product account.  In t h i s t h e s i s , we  attempt to estimate the p r o v i n c i a l Gross Domestic Product at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n f i f t e e n i n d u s t r y groups f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n  1961.  But i n applying the concepts of n a t i o n a l income  accounts to r e g i o n a l income accounts, there are conceptual and s t a t i s t i c a l problems.  In Chapters I I  and I I I , these problems are discussed.  They a r i s e  from the f a c t that r e g i o n a l economies are more open, that i s , more r e l i a n t on e x t e r n a l trade and i n s t i t u t i o n s , than n a t i o n a l economies.  Moreover, most of the data  r e q u i r e d f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of r e g i o n a l income accounts are  not a v a i l a b l e .  Much needed data are o f t e n compiled  only at a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , and not at a r e g i o n a l l e v e l . In Chapter IV, some methods of e s t i m a t i n g r e g i o n a l income accounts are reviewed.  The sources and method employed  i n t h i s t h e s i s are discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter V. The estimates of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost by,industry of o r i g i n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.) i n 1961 are  presented i n Chapter VI, together w i t h an a p p r a i s a l  of the estimates.  In Chapter V I I , suggestions to extend  the method to other provinces and other years are made.  5.  CHAPTER I I  GENERAL CONCEPTS OF NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO PROVINCIAL INCOME ACCOUNTS  I f concepts used i n estimating n a t i o n a l income accounts can be adapted f o r the estimation o f p r o v i n c i a l income accounts, t h i s method w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the understanding of the contents of the concepts and the processes of estimation.  I t w i l l a l s o permit the estimation of  p r o v i n c i a l income accounts on the same b a s i s so that the r o l e of a province i n the o v e r - a l l n a t i o n a l economy can be c l e a r l y understood.  But some concepts o f n a t i o n a l  income accounts r a i s e s p e c i a l problems when they are a p p l i e d to p r o v i n c i a l income accounts.  Alternative  concepts such as Gross N a t i o n a l Product versus Gross Domestic Product, "market p r i c e s " versus " f a c t o r c o s t " are discussed here to determine which i s meaningful and p r a c t i c a b l e a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  Then i n d u s t r i a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d i n connection with the d e f i n i t i o n s used i n t h i s t h e s i s , because data r e q u i r e d f o r estimating n a t i o n a l income accounts are u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e on the i n d u s t r i a l b a s i s .  F i n a l l y we  6.  d i s c u s s two a l t e r n a t i v e bases, " f i r m " and " e s t a b l i s h ment" on which i n d u s t r i a l data are c o l l e c t e d .  Data  based on the " f i r m " r a i s e a s p e c i a l problem i n p r o v i n c i a l income accounts.  I.  GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT  This concept i s used i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure-*- i n order t o measure the value o f a l l goods and s e r v i c e s produced by Canadian-owned f a c t o r s o f production.  I t i n c l u d e s production i n other  c o u n t r i e s as a r e s u l t of Canadian-owned f a c t o r s of production, but excludes production w i t h i n Canada as a r e s u l t o f foreign-owned i n Canada.  f a c t o r s o f production l o c a t e d  This concept i s considered t o be r e a l i s t i c  and meaningful when d e a l i n g w i t h economic a c t i v i t i e s at the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , because i t shows c l e a r l y the boundary o f production over which Canadian r e s i d e n t s have ownership. , and i t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o economic welfare o f Canadian r e s i d e n t s . When t h i s concept i s a p p l i e d to the p r o v i n c i a l income account, we define i t t o i n c l u d e production i n other provinces as a r e s u l t o f f a c t o r s of production owned by r e s i d e n t s o f the given province, and to exclude  7.  production i n t h a t province as a r e s u l t of f a c t o r s of production owned by r e s i d e n t s of other provinces. Since some f i r m s and even establishments are owned t o t a l l y or i n part by r e s i d e n t s l o c a t e d i n other provinces, a question - - concerns: with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e t u r n s to c a p i t a l ( p r o f i t s , i n t e r e s t , and rents) to provinces.  This problem should be solved before the  concept i s a p p l i e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l income account. According to the d e f i n i t i o n of the concept given above, the r e t u r n to the c a p i t a l which i s l o c a t e d i n one province, but owned by r e s i d e n t s o f another province, should be assigned on the b a s i s of the province o f residence of the owners o f the c a p i t a l . This r a i s e s a d i f f i c u l t problem.  At present  time, the data f o r that part o f the r e t u r n t o c a p i t a l which i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o non-residents are not a l l available.  2  Since the a p p l i c a t i o n of the concept to a  province means that economic a c t i v i t i e s are measured on the b a s i s of the l o c a t i o n of the owners of f a c t o r s of production, i t has an advantage of s p e c i f y i n g the boundary i n which economic welfare of the r e s i d e n t s i n the given r e g i o n can be i n f l u e n c e d by economic a c t i v i t i e s . But economic p o l i c i e s of p r o v i n c i a l governments are u s u a l l y concerned with a l l i n d u s t r i e s i n the province,  a.  i r r e s p e c t i v e of the l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r ownerships. For t h i s reason, i t i s more convenient and meaningful to analyse p r o v i n c i a l economies on the b a s i s o f the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n s o f i n d u s t r i e s r a t h e r than on the b a s i s o f the l o c a t i o n s of the owners of f a c t o r s o f production o f i n d u s t r i e s .  The concept designed t o  d e a l with the p h y s i c a l l o c a t i o n s of i n d u s t r i e s i s . • Gross Domestic Product.  II.  GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT  This i s defined i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure-^  as the value o f a l l goods and s e r v i c e s  produced w i t h i n Canada, whether the means of production are owned by Canadian r e s i d e n t s or not.  I t includes  f a c t o r incomes from f a c t o r s o f production l o c a t e d i n Canada, but owned by non-residents;  i t excludes those  from f a c t o r s o f production l o c a t e d abroad, but owned by Canadian r e s i d e n t s . When t h i s concept i s a p p l i e d to p r o v i n c i a l income accounts, f a c t o r incomes from f a c t o r s o f production owned by non-residents  of the province are i n c l u d e d , and  those a r i s i n g from the f a c t o r s o f production owned by r e s i d e n t s but l o c a t e d i n other provinces are excluded.  There are some exceptions to the gross domestic product concept i n p r a c t i c e .  The f o r e i g n  operations of a i r and water c a r r i e r s which are r e g i s t e r e d i n Canada and a c t i v i t i e s o f Canadian armed f o r c e s and diplomatic personnel i n f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s are included i n the gross domestic product.  But  conversely, the domestic operations of f o r e i g n a i r and water c a r r i e r s are excluded together with a c t i v i t i e s of f o r e i g n armed f o r c e s and diplomatic personnel i n Canada.^  III.  "AT MARKET PRICES" AND "AT FACTOR COST" The treatment o f i n d i r e c t taxes such as excise  taxes and d u t i e s , customs import d u t i e s , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal s a l e s taxes, c e r t a i n property taxes, business l i c e n c e s , and other i n d i r e c t taxes r a i s e s a problem i n the measurement of p r o v i n c i a l G.N.P. and G.D.P.  Both  G.N.P. and G.D.P. can be measured e i t h e r "at f a c t o r cost or "at market p r i c e s " , t h a t i s , e x c l u s i v e o r i n c l u s i v e of a l l i n d i r e c t taxes. For p r o v i n c i a l income accounts, e s p e c i a l l y f o r p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y , we decide^ to measure production a t f a c t o r cost r a t h e r than a t market p r i c e s  10. f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  (1) Basic s t a t i s t i c s  necessary t o c a l c u l a t e production s t a t i s t i c s such as those a v a i l a b l e from Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s o f Canada are u s u a l l y estimated a t f a c t o r cost.  (2) I f we  a s s i g n the n a t i o n a l aggregate of i n d i r e c t taxes t o a province where goods are produced, s o l d , o r imported, the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t market p r i c e s w i l l be greater i n a province where r e l a t i v e l y heavier i n d i r e c t taxes are l e v i e d , than i n a province where r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t e r i n d i r e c t taxes are l e v i e d .  Therefore, p r o v i n c i a l  d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d i r e c t t a x s t r u c t u r e i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. without any a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n underlying economic a c t i v i t i e s . (3)  Even when the i n d i r e c t t a x s t r u c t u r e i s the same  i n a l l the provinces, the d i f f e r e n c e i n the r e l a t i v e importance of i n d u s t r i e s between provinces leads t o a d i s t o r t i o n i n the i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l comparison o f production.  This i s because i n a province where  i n d u s t r i e s w i t h heavy i n d i r e c t taxes produce a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e part o f p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P., i t s G.D.P. a t market p r i c e s i s overstated compared w i t h a province where those i n d u s t r i e s produce a r e l a t i v e l y small part o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P.  11. 17.  INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION  A uniform i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s necessary f o r the estimation of G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y . In t h i s t h e s i s the I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a v a i l a b l e from Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual?is used.  In the i n d u s t r i a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , an establishment i s defined as the smallest u n i t of economic a c t i v i t y ; a group of establishments makes an i n d u s t r y .  From i n d u s t r y to  i n d u s t r y , the c r i t e r i a by which establishments are c l a s s i f i e d and d i s t i n g u i s h e d one from another are d i f f e r e n t : i n mining an i n d i v i d u a l mine i s the t y p i c a l establishment,  i n manufacturing i t i s a f a c t o r y or  workshop, i n c o n s t r u c t i o n i t i s a company, and i n trade i t i s a wholesale house or r e t a i l store.  Although an  establishment has a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y f o r which i t i s organized,  i t a l s o has some other associated  activities.  The range of associated a c t i v i t i e s v a r i e s from e s t a b l i s h ment to establishment.  In such cases, i n d u s t r i e s are  defined i n terms of t h e i r primary a c t i v i t y . The  smallest u n i t of the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a -  t i o n i s a "three-digit" industry.  I t i s defined i n  Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual^ as a p a r t i c u l a r  12. group o f establishments which are engaged i n the same or s i m i l a r economic a c t i v i t i e s .  I t must contain enough  establishments t o provide u s e f u l data on employment, value of production, and other measures.  One step  higher than the " t h r e e - d i g i t " i n d u s t r y i n the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the "major i n d u s t r y group" which i s made o f a number of " t h r e e - d i g i t " i n d u s t r i e s which have some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as kinds of goods produced, raw m a t e r i a l s used, o r s e r v i c e s rendered. S i m i l a r l y , a number of "major group" i n d u s t r i e s makes up an i n d u s t r y " d i v i s i o n " . In t h i s t h e s i s , a " d i v i s i o n " i s defined as an •industry group' , and a "major group" o r a " t h r e e - d i g i t " i n d u s t r y i s defined as an i n d u s t r y , depending upon which i n d u s t r y group i s discussed.  The terms, component  i n d u s t r y , i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y , and d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r y are used synonymously w i t h an i n d u s t r y .  Fifteen industry  groups and t h e i r component i n d u s t r i e s are l i s t e d i n Table I .  V.  "FIRM" BASIS AND "ESTABLISHMENT" BASIS Basic data f o r p r o v i n c i a l income accounts  should be c o l l e c t e d on a b a s i s that enables us to obtain  comparable estimates of value added data f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s , and d i f f e r e n t provinces. uniform i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  This r e q u i r e s a At the present  time, two uniform bases of i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are a v a i l a b l e : "firm" b a s i s .  the "establishment" b a s i s and the 1 0  An establishment i s defined as the s m a l l e s t independent operating u n i t , which i s capable of r e p o r t i n g a l l elements of basic i n d u s t r i a l s t a t i s t i c s . These elements are: (1) on the input s i d e , m a t e r i a l s used, process s u p p l i e s used, f u e l and power consumed, goods purchased f o r r e s a l e , earnings and employment, and (2) on the output s i d e , commodities s o l d , shipped or produced, revenue, and other appropriate measures o f services rendered.  11  On the other hand, a f i r m represents a l e g a l arrangement of one o r more establishments which may o r may not be engaged i n the same k i n d of economic a c t i v i t i e s . A f i r m can supply not only the data r e q u i r e d of an establishment but a l s o f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , such as p r o f i t s and overhead c o s t s .  Although a f i r m can a s s i g n  a l l the elements of basic i n d u s t r i a l s t a t i s t i c s to each of i t s establishments, i t may or may not be able t o  14.  l? a s s i g n i t s f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s i n t h i s way. * Most f i r m s c o n s i s t o f only one establishment, but i n some cases a f i r m c o n s i s t s of a number of establishments which may be engaged i n d i f f e r e n t kinds of economic a c t i v i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t provinces. For example, a manufacturing establishments:  f i r m may have s e v e r a l  one engaged i n producing  intermediate  goods i n B r i t i s h Columbia, another engaged i n producing f i n a l goods i n A l b e r t a , and a t h i r d engaged i n d i s t r i b u t i n g the f i n a l goods as a wholesale branch i n Ontario. The d i f f e r e n c e between these two bases a r i s e s when we t r y to o b t a i n f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of a multi-establishment f i r m along with e i t h e r i t s i n d u s t r i a l or p r o v i n c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Profits,  r e n t s , i n t e r e s t , and c a p i t a l consumption allowances are f r e q u e n t l y a v a i l a b l e only f o r the f i r m as a whole, and cannot be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h any of i t s establishment, i n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y or i n a p a r t i c u l a r province. At the present time, t h e r e f o r e , the f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of a f i r m are assigned to the province i n which the f i r m has i t s head o f f i c e . ^ 1  Thus there are i n d u s t r i a l and  15.  p r o v i n c i a l d i s t o r t i o n s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of multi-establishment  firms.  When the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s set up at a s u f f i c i e n t l y high l e v e l of aggregation and s t a t i s t i c s cover a l a r g e area of economic a c t i v i t i e s , the i n d u s t r i a l d i s t o r t i o n created by using f i r m b a s i s data may be kept to a minimum.  This i s because not  many multi-establishment f i r m s operate across i n d u s t r i a l boundaries.  But the existence of a l a r g e number of  multi-establishment f i r m s which carry on Canada-wide a c t i v i t i e s creates both i n d u s t r i a l and p r o v i n c i a l d i s t o r t i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l products i n p r o v i n c i a l income accounts.  The f i n a n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s of these f i r m s on  the f i r m b a s i s are concentrated i n Ontario and Quebec, where many of them have t h e i r head o f f i c e s . a provincial distortion.  This creates  I t a l s o leads to an i n d u s t r i a l  d i s t o r t i o n i n a l l provinces.  Even when a high l e v e l of  i n d u s t r i a l aggregation i s used i n p r o v i n c i a l income accounts, production of multi-establishment f i r m s has a greater share i n a p r o v i n c i a l economy than i n the overa l l n a t i o n a l economy.  Therefore i f t h e i r f i n a n c i a l  s t a t i s t i c s are a l l o c a t e d  as a whole to an i n d u s t r y which  earns most of t h e i r revenue, the production of that i n d u s t r y w i l l be overestimated.  16. When an establishment has d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of a c t i v i t i e s which belong t o d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s , primary a c t i v i t y and t o t a l a c t i v i t y should be distinguished.  Primary a c t i v i t y i s defined i n  Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada^ as the a c t i v i t y by which the establishment earns most of i t s revenue. On the other hand, t o t a l a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e s not only a primary a c t i v i t y but a l s o other a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of the establishment. The important point of an establishment i s t h a t i t can provide enough s t a t i s t i c s to c a l c u l a t e census value added f i g u r e s .  As explained i n the  f o l l o w i n g chapter, t h i s census value added f i g u r e s provide a u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r f o r p r o v i n c i a l income accounts.  17.  CHAPTER I I I  THREE APPROACHES TO THE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROVINCIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST In the n a t i o n a l income accounts, there are three approaches t o the measurement o f the f i g u r e s o f Gross N a t i o n a l Expenditure, Gross N a t i o n a l Product and Gross Domestic P r o d u c t . ^  Since the d e f i n i t i o n s and  the processes o f these approaches on the n a t i o n a l l e v e l are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and widely known, t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the p r o v i n c i a l income accounts should provide a u s e f u l framework f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of p r o v i n c i a l income accounting. In t h i s chapter, these three approaches - the expenditure approach, the income approach and the value added by i n d u s t r y approach - are examined f o r the f e a s i b i l i t y of applying them to the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost; o r i g i n a t i n g i n i n d u s t r i e s .  I.  EXPENDITURE APPROACH  By the expenditure approach, the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost would be estimated using expenditure  18. s t a t i s t i c s as f o l l o w s . Add together: (1)  personal expenditure on consumer goods and s e r v i c e s by r e s i d e n t s and nonr e s i d e n t s i n a province,  (2)  expenditure on goods and s e r v i c e s by f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and municipal governments i n the province,  (3)  business expenditure on gross f i x e d c a p i t a l formation by establishments i n the province,  (4)  value o f the p h y s i c a l change i n i n v e n t o r i e s of the establishments i n the province,  (5)  exports of goods and s e r v i c e s to other provinces and other c o u n t r i e s .  Subtract from the above items the f o l l o w i n g : (6)  imports of goods and s e r v i c e s from other provinces and from other c o u n t r i e s ,  (7)  i n d i r e c t taxes c o l l e c t e d i n the province minus s u b s i d i e s paid to establishments i n the province.  Thus, i n the above formula, every component of G.D.E. i s adjusted to represent the gross domestic product  19.  of the province.  But i n p r a c t i c e , the above formula  r a i s e s both conceptual and s t a t i s t i c a l problems. Personal expenditure on goods and s e r v i c e s , business gross c a p i t a l formation, and value of the p h y s i c a l change i n i n v e n t o r i e s . Personal expenditures on consumer goods and s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e personal o u t l a y s f o r durable goods, non-durable goods, and s e r v i c e s by r e s i d e n t s and non-residents of the province.  There  are two ways to deal w i t h expenditures by non-residents who are temporarily i n the,province and expenditures by r e s i d e n t s who are t e m p o r a r i l y i n other provinces or abroad.  We can define personal expenditures on goods  and s e r v i c e s to i n c l u d e the former but to exclude the latter.  In t h i s case, we must exclude these expenditures ~  from imports and exports r e s p e c t i v e l y .  - - —,  —  Conversely, we  can define personal expenditures to exclude the former and i n c l u d e the l a t t e r .  In t h i s case, we must i n c l u d e  them i n exports and imports r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In practice,  a v a i l a b l e data on these expenditures w i l l determine which d e f i n i t i o n i s s u i t a b l e .  In general, personal  expenditure data are not a v a i l a b l e on the p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s . However, the decennial censuses of merchandising and services  do provide basic data on commodities purchased  20. i n each province, from which personal expenditure on goods and s e r v i c e s could be derived.  Data on  business gross f i x e d c a p i t a l formation are now a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , but i n f o r m a t i o n about the value of the p h y s i c a l change i n i n v e n t o r i e s i s not a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s a t the present time. Government expenditure on goods and s e r v i c e s . This component c o n s i s t s of p a y r o l l s , and purchases of goods and s e r v i c e s of the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments i n the province.  The p a y r o l l s  and purchases of the p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments 17 are a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s from P u b l i c Finance. The f e d e r a l p a y r o l l s and purchases are obtained by d i s t r i b u t i n g the n a t i o n a l aggregates to provinces. Exports and imports of goods and s e r v i c e s .  The  most d i f f i c u l t problem a r i s e s i n estimating the p r o v i n c i a l export and import accounts.  The p r o v i n c i a l export and  import accounts c o n s i s t of two p a r t s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l accounts and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l accounts.  The i n t e r n a t i o n a l  export and import account of the province records flows of goods and s e r v i c e s , and c a p i t a l between the province and other c o u n t r i e s , w h i l e the i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l export and import account records those between the given  21. Province and other provinces. °  These two kinds of  export and import accounts are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to each other.  For example, i n B.C.  a g r i c u l t u r a l and manufact-  ured goods are purchased from other provinces i n order to export to other c o u n t r i e s from the ports i n the province.  Therefore, these goods appear i n the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l as w e l l as i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l export and import accounts of B.C.  At present, data on the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l exports and of goods and s e r v i c e s are not a v a i l a b l e .  imports  This i s  because at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l no a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s set up to record the movements of goods and s e r v i c e s across p r o v i n c i a l boundaries.  I t i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to  d i s t r i b u t e p r o v i n c i a l l y the n a t i o n a l aggregates  of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l exports and imports of goods and s e r v i c e s . However, f o r B.C.,  data on i n t e r n a t i o n a l exports  and imports of commodities are a v a i l a b l e from Summary of Business A c t i v i t i e s . T h e y are exports and imports of commodities s o l d to and bought from other c o u n t r i e s through B.C. origin.  customs p o r t s i r r e s p e c t i v e of province of  Therefore, exports include commodities which  are produced i n other provinces and bought by  B.C.  r e s i d e n t s f o r r e s a l e to other c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as those produced i n B.C.  and s o l d to other c o u n t r i e s .  22. Since the p r o v i n c i a l economy depends on i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l trade much more h e a v i l y than the n a t i o n a l economy does on i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , the existence o f i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l accounts would be v i t a l t o the c a l c u l a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l income accounts.  Therefore  at the present time the expenditure approach i s not f e a s i b l e a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l .  II.  INCOME APPROACH  Secondly, the income approach, s i m i l a r t o that used i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of G.N.P. i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, 20  Income and Expenditure  i s examined f o r i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y  to the p r o v i n c i a l income account.  According t o t h i s  approach, the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost i s obtained by deducting i n d i r e c t taxes l e s s s u b s i d i e s from the sum of the r e t u r n s to the f a c t o r s of production i n the province, namely; (1) wages, s a l a r i e s , and supplementary labour income paid by the establishments i n the province, (2) m i l i t a r y pay and allowances paid by the f e d e r a l government agencies i n the province, (3) corporate p r o f i t s before taxes from the f a c t o r s of production l o c a t e d i n the province, (4) r e n t , i n t e r e s t , and m i s c e l -  23. laneous investment income from the f a c t o r s o f production i n the province, (5) accrued net income of farm operators from farm production i n the province, (6) net income of non-farm unincorporated businesses l o c a t e d i n the province, and (7) inventory v a l u a t i o n adjustments o f businesses l o c a t e d i n the province. At the present time, Personal Income and some of i t s components are a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s from N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and E x p e n d i t u r e .  21  The  components o f Personal Income a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s a r e : (1) wages, s a l a r i e s and supplementary labour income, (2) net income r e c e i v e d by farm operators from farm production, (3) net income o f non-farm unincorporated businesses, and (4) i n t e r e s t , dividends and net r e n t a l income r e c e i v e d by persons. Since those components are common t o Personal Income and G.D.P., we only have to estimate the remaining components of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P., t h a t i s , (1) corporate p r o f i t s , (2) miscellaneous investment income, (3) c a p i t a l consumption allowances, (4) inventory v a l u a t i o n adjustment, and (5) m i l i t a r y pay and a l l o w a n c e s .  22  No data are  a v a i l a b l e f o r the above components on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s , t h e r e f o r e the income approach i s not p o s s i b l e unless we  24. o b t a i n those components by d i s t r i b u t i n g n a t i o n a l aggregates to provinces on the b a s i s of r e l a t e d provincial indicators.  Since the d i s t r i b u t i o n  problem d i f f e r s f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s , i t would be d e s i r a b l e to d i s t r i b u t e n a t i o n a l aggregates to provinces f o r each of the i n d u s t r y groups, shown i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and  Expenditure. ^ 2  We can o b t a i n corporate p r o f i t s by provinces by d i s t r i b u t i n g n a t i o n a l aggregates to provinces on the b a s i s of census value added by i n d u s t r y data a v a i l a b l e from Survey of Production,  or on the b a s i s of wages  and s a l a r i e s by i n d u s t r y a v a i l a b l e from the decennial Census of Canada. ^ 2  The census value added by  i n d u s t r y i s estimated on the "establishment" b a s i s , while the n a t i o n a l aggregate of corporate p r o f i t s a v a i l a b l e 26  from Taxation S t a t i s t i c s ^ basis.  i s estimated on the " f i r m "  This problem of "establishment" b a s i s versus  " f i r m " b a s i s a f f e c t s the matching of i n d u s t r y d a t a , ? 2  but t h i s should be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant when corporate p r o f i t s are combined w i t h other components of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. which are much l a r g e r than corporate profits. Miscellaneous investment income.  This component  25. c o n s i s t s of investment income r e c e i v e d by l i f e  insurance  companies on behalf of the p r o v i n c i a l r e s i d e n t s , government investment income and s e v e r a l q u a n t i t a t i v e l y unimportant miscellaneous c a t e g o r i e s of income such as i n t e r e s t on p r i v a t e pension f u n d s . ^ 2  Data on investment  income of l i f e insurance companies are a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s from v a r i o u s r e p o r t s , ^ but they 2  represent investment income of the l i f e  insurance  companies l o c a t e d i n the province, but not the r e t u r n s to the f a c t o r s of production owned by the p r o v i n c i a l residents.  Part of government investment income has  been already d i s t r i b u t e d p r o v i n c i a l l y as the p r o f i t s of p r o p r i e t a r y crown corporations i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure?^  The t r a d i n g p r o f i t s o f  p r o v i n c i a l and municipal government business e n t e r p r i s e s are a v a i l a b l e on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s from v a r i o u s r e p o r t s . A r e l a t i v e l y small r e s i d u a l amount of miscellaneous investment i s obtained by d i s t r i b u t i n g a n a t i o n a l aggregate t o provinces according to the t o t a l miscellaneous investment income already d i s t r i b u t e d to provinces. N a t i o n a l aggregates of c a p i t a l consumption allowances and miscellaneous v a l u a t i o n adjustments are d i s t r i b u t e d to provinces using the p r o v i n c i a l estimates  of r e p a i r expenditures a v a i l a b l e from Supplement t o P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Investment i n Canada, Outlook, 1958, Regional E s t i m a t e s . ^  2  Thus, i n order t o estimate the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by the income approach, we must introduce some assumptions.  For example, we assume that corporate  p r o f i t s vary w i t h census value added by i n d u s t r y o r w i t h wages and s a l a r i e s .  Though the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f  the above assumption i s the l a r g e s t problem i n the e s t i m a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by the income approach, there i s another l a r g e problem i n using the a v a i l a b l e p r o v i n c i a l data.  Although the f i r s t three  of the remaining components are based on the G.D.P. concept, i n t e r e s t , dividends, and net r e n t a l income received by persons are based on the G.N.P. concept. Therefore the d i r e c t use o f these components i n the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. would l e a d t o a conceptual d i f f i c u l t y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e s u l t i n g estimates.  III.  VALUE ADDED BY INDUSTRY APPROACH F i n a l l y , the value-added-by-industry  approach  i s examined f o r i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the measurement of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost.,  This approach  27. i n v o l v e s o b t a i n i n g the revenue (excluding i n d i r e c t taxes) a r i s i n g from the production o f goods and s e r v i c e s i n each i n d u s t r y l o c a t e d i n the province, and s u b t r a c t i n g from i t a l l the intermediate goods and s e r v i c e s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s and other establishments of the same i n d u s t r y .  The r e s u l t i n g  estimate represents the unduplicated net c o n t r i b u t i o n of the i n d u s t r y t o the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r c o s t s . A l l data must be c o l l e c t e d on the e s t a b l i s h ^ ment b a s i s i n order t o avoid i n d u s t r i a l and p r o v i n c i a l d i s t o r t i o n s o f production.  These are the most s e r i o u s  d i s t o r t i o n s occuring i n t h i s approach, because production i s measured on the b a s i s o f each i n d u s t r y i n the province, which i s a smaller u n i t than other bases. At the present time, the value added data on the commodity-producing i n d u s t r i e s are a v a i l a b l e from Survey of Product i o n . 35  g -t they are not e x a c t l y equivalent u  to the G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these i n d u s t r i e s , since they s t i l l contain s e r v i c e s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a d v e r t i s i n g , l e g a l , and r e p a i r expenditures, and miscellaneous i n d i r e c t taxes such as some l i c e n s e s and property taxes.  No data on the  s e r v i c e s purchased and the miscellaneous i n d i r e c t taxes are a v a i l a b l e f o r any industry.^6  Moreover, the value  28.  added data are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the non-commodityproducing i n d u s t r i e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, wholesale trade, r e t a i l t r a d e , e t c . Since these non-commodity-producing i n d u s t r i e s cover about one h a l f o f the value added by the t o t a l i n d u s t r i e s i n Canada, t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l gap should be f i l l e d t o o b t a i n comprehensive data f o r the value added by i n d u s t r i e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . Thus, the d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f the valueadded-by-industry  approach t o the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t  f a c t o r costs i s not p o s s i b l e .  But the i n d u s t r i a l break-  down o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost provides very important s t a t i s t i c s f o r p r o v i n c i a l economic analyses.  Therefore, i n t h i s t h e s i s an i n d i r e c t method  of the value added approach i s discussed i n d e t a i l i n connection w i t h the a c t u a l estimation of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1961.  29.  CHAPTER IV  REVIEW OF OTHER STUDIES ESTIMATING REGIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTS Two previous s t u d i e s o f estimating r e g i o n a l income accounts are b r i e f l y reviewed here, and t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s and estimating methods are examined. I.  STUDY OF PERSONAL INCOME BY STATES MADE BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. ? 3  Data on Personal Income by s t a t e s are published by the United States Department o f Commerce f o r the years 1929 t o date.  Personal Income by s t a t e  i s defined as the current income r e c e i v e d by r e s i d e n t s of a s t a t e from a l l sources before deduction of d i r e c t personal taxes, but a f t e r deduction of i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o s o c i a l insurance programs.  The current  income i s obtained as the sum o f i t s separately estimated components: (1) wages, s a l a r i e s , and supplementary labour income, (2) m i l i t a r y pay and allowances, (3) net income r e c e i v e d by farm operators from farm production, (4) net income of non-farm unincorporated business, (5) i n t e r e s t , dividends, and net r e n t a l  30.  income of persons, (6) government t r a n s f e r payments, (7) c h a r i t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s from c o r p o r a t i o n s , (8) d i r e c t taxes by s t a t e s and (9) employer and employee c o n t r i b u t i o n s to s o c i a l insurance and government pension funds.  To get Personal Income by  s t a t e s the f i r s t eight of the components are added together, and from t h i s sum the l a s t component i s subtracted.  I t i s obtained as the sum of i t s components  which are measured separately on the s t a t e b a s i s using a wide v a r i e t y of s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Wages, s a l a r i e s and supplementary labour income.  They are b u i l t up from separate s e r i e s f o r  numerous i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s .  I n d u s t r i a l survey data  are used most. Net income of farm operators from farm production.  State data are a v a i l a b l e from annual surveys.  Non-farm unincorporated business income.  The  n a t i o n a l aggregate of each item of t h i s component i s d i s t r i b u t e d to s t a t e s on the b a s i s of r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n about s a l e s , number of p r o p r i e t o r s , p a y r o l l s , and value added data. I n t e r e s t , dividends, and r e n t a l income to persons. For each item of t h i s component, a n a t i o n a l aggregate i s  31. d i s t r i b u t e d to s t a t e s using the information contained  i n f e d e r a l income r e t u r n s . Government t r a n s f e r payments.  Most government  t r a n s f e r payments are a v a i l a b l e on the state b a s i s from the f i s c a l records of administering government agencies. For the remaining payments, n a t i o n a l aggregates are d i s t r i b u t e d to s t a t e s on the b a s i s of the data already a v a i l a b l e by s t a t e s . Personal c o n t r i b u t i o n s to s o c i a l insurance programs• For a few of the s o c i a l insurance programs, data are a v a i l a b l e by s t a t e s from f e d e r a l government agencies.  For the remaining programs, n a t i o n a l aggregates  are d i s t r i b u t e d to s t a t e s on the b a s i s of the data already a v a i l a b l e by s t a t e s . An i n d u s t r i a l breakdown of the state  Personal  Income i s a v a i l a b l e only f o r wages, s a l a r i e s , and supplementary labour income, but the a v a i l a b l e data do not permit the i n d u s t r i a l breakdown of a l l the components of the state Personal Income.  The estimates of the state  Personal Income are judged by the United States Department of Commerce to be r e l i a b l e measures of income d i f f e r e n t i a l s among the v a r i o u s s t a t e s f o r most a c t u a l uses of the estimates.  32. In Canada, Personal Income by provinces i s published f o r the years 1926 t o date i n N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and E x p e n d i t u r e ^ by the Dominion 3  Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s of Canada.  Personal Income by  province i s defined s i m i l a r l y t o Personal Income by s t a t e s i n the United States of America, and i t i s estimated by the income approach.  II.  STUDY OF GROSS PROVINCIAL PRODUCT OF THE ATLANTIC PROVINCES MADE BY THE ATLANTIC PROVINCES ECONOMIC COUNCIL  39  The A t l a n t i c Provinces Economic Council estimated the Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product o f the A t l a n t i c Provinces, that i s , Nova S c o t i a , New Brunswick, Prince Edward I s l a n d , and Newfoundland, f o r the years 1940 to 195#.  Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product was estimated p r i m a r i l y  f o r h i s t o r i c a l and comparative analyses o f the economic achievements i n the A t l a n t i c provinces.  The A t l a n t i c  Provinces Economic Council p r i m a r i l y aimed t o break down n a t i o n a l aggregates by provinces w i t h s u f f i c i e n t accuracy t o analyse p r o v i n c i a l trends i n production. Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product at market p r i c e s ( t h i s i s equivalent t o p r o v i n c i a l G.N.P. a t market p r i c e s i n  our terms) i s estimated by an income approach s i m i l a r to t h a t described i n the previous chapter.  The  f o l l o w i n g formula i s used f o r any given year: (Personal Income, Province) + (Earnings not paid to persons, Canada) x d - (Transfer p o r t i o n of i n t e r e s t on p u b l i c debt, Canada) x d - (Transfer payments, Province) = (Net p r o v i n c i a l income a t f a c t o r cost) (Net p r o v i n c i a l income a t f a c t o r cost) + ( D e p r e c i a t i o n and s i m i l a r business c o s t , Canada) x i = (Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product at f a c t o r cost) (Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product at f a c t o r cost) x k = (Gross P r o v i n c i a l Product at market p r i c e s ) where  d  =  ( I n t e r e s t , dividends and net r e n t a l income to persons, Province) ( I n t e r e s t , dividends and net r e n t a l income to persons, Canada) during the given year,  i  =  (Investment i n province, 1948-1958) (Investment i n Canada, 1948-1958)  34. k  =  (G.N.P. a t market p r i c e s , Canada) (G.N.P. a t f a c t o r c o s t s , Canada) f o r any given year. Data necessary f o r the above c a l c u l a t i o n s are  a v a i l a b l e from N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expendit u r e ^ except these necessary f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n of ( i ) . The c o e f f i c i e n t ( i ) i s c a l c u l a t e d using the data a v a i l a b l e from P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Investment  i n Canada.^  The same method can be a p p l i e d t o a l l the provinces using the same type of data so t h a t we can o b t a i n p r o v i n c i a l income estimates which are comparable between d i f f e r e n t provinces and between d i f f e r e n t years. But i n order to use these estimates f o r the analyses of p r o v i n c i a l incomes, t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y should be examined.  The r e l i a b i l i t y depends on the three co-  e f f i c i e n t s , ( d ) , ( i ) , and ( k ) . In order to use the c o e f f i c i e n t (d) i n estimating the net p r o v i n c i a l income a t f a c t o r c o s t , we assume that earnings not paid to persons and t r a n s f e r p o r t i o n of i n t e r e s t on p u b l i c debt are p r o p o r t i o n a l to i n t e r e s t , dividends and net r e n t a l income to persons from province to province.  Earnings not paid to persons  of Canada mainly c o n s i s t o f u n d i s t r i b u t e d c o r p o r a t i o n p r o f i t s , miscellaneous  investment income, and  inventory v a l u a t i o n adjustments.  They are  estimated  on the b a s i s of the G.D.P. concept, and no adjustment i s made f o r u n d i s t r i b u t e d corporation p r o f i t s and other income payments to Canadian r e c e i p t s from nonr e s i d e n t s t o a r r i v e a t G.N.P.^  -2  Therefore,  earnings  not paid t o persons o f Canada w i l l overstate (or unders t a t e ) the true values t o the extent that the r e t u r n s to the foreign-owned f a c t o r s o f production exceed (or f a l l short of) those t o the Canadian-owned f a c t o r s of production.  I n t e r e s t , dividends and net r e n t a l  income of Canada are adjusted t o represent G.N.P., by excluding i n t e r e s t and dividends paid t o abroad and i n c l u d i n g a l l i n t e r e s t and dividends received from abroad.  But no adjustment i s made f o r those o f provinces.  Therefore, the c o e f f i c i e n t (d) i s the r a t i o o f the data based on the G.D.P. concept t o those based on the G.N.P. concept.  The e f f e c t o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n G.N.P. and  G.D.P. i s more s i g n i f i c a n t a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l than a t the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , because i n a r e l a t i v e l y small p r o v i n c i a l economy, an increase o r decrease o f f o r e i g n owned f a c t o r s o f production has a l a r g e i n f l u e n c e on the economy.  36.  The c o e f f i c i e n t ( i ) represents r a t i o s of accumulated c a p i t a l of provinces to that by Canada. Therefore, i t i s assumed that c a p i t a l d e p r e c i a t i o n i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to accumulated c a p i t a l from province to province. The adoption of the c o e f f i c i e n t (k) assumes the same i n d i r e c t t a x s t r u c t u r e i n a l l the provinces, and n e g l e c t s the s t r u c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s from province to province. In the A t l a n t i c provinces study, p r o v i n c i a l gross values of production of eight i n d u s t r y groups are estimated i n order to analyse a h i s t o r i c a l development of employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n each i n d u s t r y . The examination of the above three assumptions suggests the p r o v i n c i a l income by t h i s approach, i t would be d e s i r a b l e to break down earnings not paid to persons i n t o t h e i r components, and then f o r each component to d i s t r i b u t e a n a t i o n a l aggregate to provinces on the b a s i s of a r e l a t e d provincial  indicator.  37-  CHAPTER V ALLOCATION TO BRITISH COLUMBIA IN 1961 OF NATIONAL AGGREGATES OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN  In t h i s chapter, the method employed t o estimate the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n f o r B.C. i n 1961 i s presented, followed by a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of the data used. The concept used i n t h i s t h e s i s i s that of Gross Domestic Product a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n , as defined i n the N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure.  The  method employed i n v o l v e s breaking down n a t i o n a l aggregates of G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n i n d u s t r y groups to G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n component i n d u s t r i e s , and d i s t r i b u t i n g them t o provinces on the b a s i s of r e l a t e d p r o v i n c i a l statistics.  At the beginning of t h i s chapter, the  n a t i o n a l aggregates of G.D.P by i n d u s t r y a v a i l a b l e from N a t i o n a l Accounts are reviewed b r i e f l y , followed by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of two important concepts, the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system, and a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  38. Numerical examples f o r mining,  quarrying, and o i l  w e l l s are shown a t each step of the estimating procedures.  I.  INVESTIGATION OF BASIC DATA  Before d i s c u s s i n g the method employed, we o u t l i n e b r i e f l y the data and the concepts used i n the estimation. The n a t i o n a l aggregates o f the 1961 G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n .  The income approach  i s used by the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s (D.B.S.) t o estimate the n a t i o n a l aggregates o f G.D.P. f o r f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r y groups.  The income approach f i r s t  estimates each component o f G.D.P. f o r each i n d u s t r i a l group, and then t o t a l s these components by i n d u s t r y group to obtain G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n .  Since the  domestic concept i s used i n estimating these components, production by i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d i n Canada i s measured, not  the c o n t r i b u t i o n t o production by f a c t o r s of pro-  duction owned by r e s i d e n t s o f Canada. The 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system.  The 1949  i n d u s t r i a l weighting system f o r some three hundred i n d u s t r i e s or i n d u s t r y groups i s a v a i l a b l e from the Indexes of Real Domestic Product by Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-  39.  1961.^  These i n d u s t r i a l weights are expressed i n  percentage form, t h a t i s , as a r a t i o o f the n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. of an i n d u s t r y belonging t o an i n d u s t r y group t o t h a t o f a l l Canadian i n d u s t r i e s i n 1949.  The weighting system i s estimated by D.B.S. using data a v a i l a b l e mainly from the 1949 i n t e r - i n d u s t r y f l o w t a b l e , ^ i n order t o develop i n d u s t r i a l indexes of r e a l domestic product at f a c t o r cost f o r i n d u s t r i e s and i n d u s t r y groups from 1935 to 1961.  The data on  primary input values ( f a c t o r cost and c a p i t a l  consumption  allowances) f o r some f o r t y i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s o r i n d u s t r y groups are derived from the f l o w t a b l e .  Then  by the f u l l e x p l o i t a t i o n of the data a v a i l a b l e from D.B.S. as w e l l as other sources, these aggregates o f the primary input values are broken down i n t o t h e i r d e t a i l e d components.  F i n a l l y , adopting the concept of G.D.P. a t  f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n as defined i n National Accounts,^  G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost -is.* derived  f o r the i n d u s t r i e s o f each i n d u s t r y group, and the i n d u s t r i a l weights are expressed i n percentage form.^? The 1949 G.D.P. used t o o b t a i n the i n d u s t r i a l weighting system i s not e n t i r e l y comparable w i t h those  40. of the same year a v a i l a b l e from . Accounts.^  National  The problem a r i s e s from the d i f f e r e n t  bases i n which those estimates are c a l c u l a t e d .  As  discussed above, the n a t i o n a l accounts* current d o l l a r data are a mixcture of the f i r m and establishment data, while the weighting system i s based on the e s t a b l i s h ment data only.  Thus, f o r the purpose of the weighting  system, D.B.S. breaks down a f i r m i n t o i t s component establishments, and each of these i s a l l o c a t e d to one of the i n d u s t r i e s according to i t s major a c t i v i t y . Therefore, these two sets of G.D.P. can be r e c o n c i l e d 49 only a t the t o t a l l e v e l . Though there are some minor d i f f e r e n c e s i n some i n d u s t r i e s , the weighting system i s based on the 1948 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification.$° Therefore, f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , we need some adjustments to make them match the I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 5-*- These adjustments are l i s t e d i n Table 1. This method of estimating the i n d u s t r i a l weighting system i s evaluated by D.B.S. thus: I t i s f e l t that the r e s u l t a n t weights (that i s the a l l o c a t i o n of Gross Domestic Product t o i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n ) are s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate t o avoid s i g n i f i c a n t biases i n the composite q u a n t i t y index.52  41.  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  A provincial  i n d i c a t o r i s a measurement o f economic a c t i v i t i e s of an i n d u s t r y which i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the geographical boundaries or a province.  Since the purpose of the  p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r i s t o a l l o c a t e G.D.P. by z' < i n d u s t r y t o the given province, the best i n d i c a t o r would be one which would be designed to represent the concept of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y as c l o s e l y as a v a i l a b l e data would permit. The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s used i n t h i s t h e s i s are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f i v e f o l l o w i n g groups:  (1) net  value added by i n d u s t r y o f sample survey, (2) census value added by i n d u s t r y , (3) t o t a l wage o f the decennial census, (4) gross output, and (5) other i n d i c a t o r s . Sample data o f G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y are a v a i l a b l e f o r only a very few i n d u s t r i e s such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication from sample i n d u s t r y surveys.  Although i n these i n d u s t r i e s , the  sample data are considered to represent a large  percentage  of the i n d u s t r y , they do not cover a l l the a c t i v i t i e s of the i n d u s t r y . Census value added by i n d u s t r y i s the used i n the Survey of Production  53  concept  to measure value added  42.' by i n d u s t r y .  I t i s obtained by the value added  approach by s u b t r a c t i n g e l e c t r i c i t y , f u e l s used, and a l l intermediate goods purchased from other commodityproducing i n d u s t r i e s , from the revenue (excluding i n d i r e c t taxes) a r i s i n g from the production of goods i n the i n d u s t r y .  The census value added by i n d u s t r y  i s not e x a c t l y equivalent to G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n the i n d u s t r y , because i t s t i l l contains miscellaneous i n d i r e c t taxes such as l i c e n s e s and property taxes as w e l l as the s e r v i c e s such as insurance and a d v e r t i s i n g purchased from the service-producing i n d u s t r i e s . T h e value added data are a v a i l a b l e from ' ' > Survey of Production f o r the commodityproducing i n d u s t r i e s such as a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g , mining, e l e c t r i c power, manufacturing, and c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e y are a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s of manufacturing from : - General Review of the Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s . ^ T o t a l wage of the decennial census i s the t o t a l of wages, s a l a r i e s and supplementary labour income of wage-earners who worked during the twelve months p r i o r to June 1961.  I t i s obtained f o r each i n d u s t r y i n a  given province by m u l t i p l y i n g the average earning by the number of wage-earners, which are a v a i l a b l e from the  43. decennial Census of Canada.^  Since persons i n the  labour f o r c e were asked to s t a t e earnings and the k i n d of establishments i n the province where they l i v e d , not i n the province where they worked, the t o t a l wage represents the G.N.P. concept on the "establishment" basis.  In other words, these are wages and s a l a r i e s  received i n the province, not those paid out i n the province.  The d i f f e r e n c e between them may be small i n  a province such as B.C. where most wage-earners work i n the establishments i n the same province. Gross output i s the t o t a l value of production, shipment, or s a l e s of an i n d u s t r y .  This i s used when the  above p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are not a v a i l a b l e . I n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system. I t i s necessary to r e c l a s s i f y the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , f o r the f o l l o w i n g reasons:  (1) The 1949 i n d u s t r i a l  weights are based on the 1948 Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s necessary to make them match the I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . (2)  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r i s o f t e n a v a i l a b l e f o r a  group of "three d i g i t " i n d u s t r i e s , but i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r any s i n g l e "three d i g i t " i n d u s t r y .  (3) A study on  the b a s i s of "three d i g i t " i n d u s t r i e s would be too  d e t a i l e d f o r the a n a l y s i s of p r o v i n c i a l economies. Therefore, aggregation of i n d u s t r i e s i s necessary. The l e v e l o f aggregation of d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s should be small enough to include only i n d u s t r i e s engaged i n s i m i l a r economic a c t i v i t i e s , but i t a l s o should be l a r g e enough t o match the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s .  In p r a c t i c e , "major  i n d u s t r y group" i s used i n mining, manufacturing, finance and insurance, t r a t i o n and defence.  s e r v i c e s , and p u b l i c adminis"Three d i g i t " i n d u s t r y i s used  i n f i s h i n g and trapping, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , storage, communication, e l e c t r i c power, gas, and water u t i l i t i e s , and r e t a i l trade.  I n a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and constr  u c t i o n , the whole i n d u s t r y group i s used as the c l a s s i fication unit. A summary o f the correspondences among i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s given i n Table I . Here the i n d u s t r i a l weights and the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are grouped r e s p e c t i v e l y on the basis of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t s described above.  In some i n d u s t r y group  there remains a r e l a t i v e l y small number o f i n d u s t r i e s f o r which no corresponding i n d u s t r i a l weights are available.  I n such cases, G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these  i n d u s t r i e s are assumed t o be p r o p o r t i o n a l t o the sum of the G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the r e s t o f the i n d u s t r i e s i n the same i n d u s t r y group from province to province.  II.  METHOD EMPLOYED  The p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n f o r B.C. i n 1961 i s estimated by a l l o c a t i n g the n a t i o n a l aggregates o f G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y o f o r i g i n t o B.C. on the b a s i s of r e l a t e d p r o v i n c i a l data.  This method i n v o l v e s o b t a i n i n g the  t o t a l value o f production o f an i n d u s t r y on the p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s and deducting from t h i s the value o f goods and s e r v i c e s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s . The method employed has a t h e o r e t i c a l advantage as w e l l as a s t a t i s t i c a l one. Since one o f the major problems o f r e g i o n a l economic analyses i s a comparative  study o f d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s , i t i s neces-  sary to have comparable estimates f o r a number o f regions on the same b a s i s .  As shown l a t e r i n t h i s  chapter, the method used could be a p p l i e d t o a l l the provinces i n the same way, and could u t i l i z e the same types o f s t a t i s t i c a l sources.  The same methodological  approach and the homogeneous s t a t i s t i c a l sources would ensure that d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l estimates o f G.D.P. a r i s i n g from sources and methods would be minimized. I n d u s t r i a l breakdown.  The f i f t e e n industry-  groups used i n the N a t i o n a l Accounts are broken down to t h e i r component i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s , and the n a t i o n a l aggregates o f G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the i n d u s t r y groups are a l l o c a t e d t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r i e s using the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weighting system. Since the weights are expressed as the r a t i o s of G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the i n d u s t r i e s t o G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y group of Canada, they are adjusted t o obtain a new system o f i n d u s t r i a l weights, which sum to one i n each i n d u s t r y group.  The new system i s constructed  by d i v i d i n g each i n d u s t r i a l weight by the sum of the i n d u s t r i a l weights o f the corresponding i n d u s t r y group. Then, the n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y group i s m u l t i p l i e d by an adjusted i n d u s t r i a l weight to obtain the n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the given i n d u s t r y . This procedure i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the example of mining, quarrying, and o i l w e l l s as f o l l o w s .  From  47. the Indexes of Real Domestic Product by Industry o f Origin,59  the i n d u s t r i a l weights are a v a i l a b l e f o r  some ten d e t a i l e d i n d u s t r i e s .  They are grouped i n t o  the four "major i n d u s t r y groups", namely:  metal  mines, mineral f u e l s , non-metal mines (except c o a l mines), and quarries and sand p i t s .  The i n d u s t r i a l  weights are given as 1.925, 0.915, 0.268 and 0.137, respectively.  D i v i d i n g each weight by the sum of  these weights, the adjusted weights are obtained as 0.5932, 0.2820, 0.0826, and 0.0422, which are added to 1.0000.  The n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. o r i g i n a t -  i n g i n mining, 1,445,000,000 d o l l a r s i s m u l t i p l i e d by each o f the adjusted weights, g i v i n g us the n a t i o n a l aggregates o f G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these i n d u s t r i e s as 857,000,000 d o l l a r s (metals),  407,000,000 d o l l a r s ( f u e l s ) ,  119,000,000 d o l l a r s (non-metals), and 61,000,000 d o l l a r s (quarries).  No i n d u s t r i a l weight i s a v a i l a b l e f o r  s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l t o mining. measured separately, proportionately  These s e r v i c e s are not  but are assumed to be d i s t r i b u t e d  to G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these i n d u s t r i e s .  The breakdown of the industry groups i s done i n t h i s way f o r two f o l l o w i n g reasons:  (1) Since the  r e l a t i v e importance o f each i n d u s t r y i n a given i n d u s t r y  group may vary from province t o province, t o d i s t r i b u t e G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y group t o provinces i n accordance with an i n d i c a t o r which represents the i n d u s t r y group as a whole w i l l lead to d i s t o r t e d estimates o f p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y .  I n our  example, i f the n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. of mining as a whole were d i s t r i b u t e d p r o v i n c i a l l y using the sum o f the gross output of the four i n d u s t r i e s as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r o f mining, i t would lead t o a p r o v i n c i a l d i s t o r t i o n o f mining.  The p r o v i n c i a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n of G.D.P. by i n d i v i d u a l i n d u s t r y , not G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y group, can avoid t h i s product mix problem i n the i n d u s t r y group. s t a t i s t i c a l advantage too.  (2) This method has a  The data required f o r  the p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the n a t i o n a l aggregates are o f t e n a v a i l a b l e f o r some i n d u s t r i e s , even when they are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the whole i n d u s t r y group. I t also makes i t p o s s i b l e to use a d i f f e r e n t type o f a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r f o r each i n d u s t r y . P r o v i n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n . The n a t i o n a l aggregat of G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y i s then a l l o c a t e d t o provinces by the use of a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  D i v i d i n g an  i n d i c a t o r i n a given province by i t s Canadian t o t a l , a  49. p r o v i n c i a l weight of the i n d i c a t o r i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r each i n d u s t r y .  This weight i s m u l t i p l i e d by the n a t i o n a l  aggregate of G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the corresponding i n d u s t r y t o obtain the estimate o f G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the i n d u s t r y i n that province. In mining, the gross values of production a v a i l a b l e from the General Review of the M i n e r a l I n d u s t r i e s , 1961  are chosen as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s  f o r a l l these four i n d u s t r i e s .  The weights of the  i n d i c a t o r s i n B.C. a r e : 0.0936 (metals),  0.0318 ( f u e l s ) ,  0.0735 (non-metals), and 0.0677 ( q u a r r i e s ) .  Multiplying  G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these i n d u s t r i e s by the above i n d i c a t o r s , the 1961 G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y i n mining f o r B.C. are estimated as 80,000,000 d o l l a r s , 13,000,000 d o l l a r s , 8,000,000 d o l l a r s , and 4,000,000 d o l l a r s , respectively. When we use p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , we assume that G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to i t s corresponding p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r from province to province.  For example, i n i n d u s t r i e s such as  a g r i c u l t u r e , f o r e s t r y , and manufacturing, census values added by i n d u s t r y are used as p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s .  50.  Since the census value added by industry s t i l l  contains  s e r v i c e s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s , we assume  '  that these s e r v i c e s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s are p r o p o r t i o n a l to G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y from to province.  province  When we use gross output as a p r o v i n c i a l  i n d i c a t o r , we assume that not only s e r v i c e s but a l s o m a t e r i a l s purchased from other i n d u s t r i e s are p r o p o r t i o n a l to G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y from province to province. Aggregation o f p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y . The p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. estimated separately f o r each i n d u s t r y are f i n a l l y aggregated i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost o r i g i n t i n g i n the given group.  industry  I n our example of mining, i t i s 106,000,000  dollars.  III.  DISCUSSION OF DATA USED  This s e c t i o n describes the s t a t i s t i c a l data on which the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y of o r i g i n f o r B.C. i n 1961 was estimated.  The aim i s  p r i m a r i l y t o show i n d e t a i l the contents o f the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s , so that readers can o b t a i n a general background to appraise estimates.  the r e l i a b i l i t y o f the  Whenever a m o d i f i c a t i o n was made t o the method  described i n the previous s e c t i o n , i t i s discussed here.  Otherwise the method shown i n the example of  mining was a p p l i e d to each i n d u s t r y . Agriculture.  Since the 1949  industrial  weight i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e as a whole, no attempt was made to break i t down i n t o i t s component industries.  The n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. of  a g r i c u l t u r e was d i r e c t l y a l l o c a t e d to B.C. provincial indicator.  using the  The i n d i c a t o r used was  the  census value added by i n d u s t r y a v a i l a b l e from Survey of Production.°^  I t was obtained by D.B.S. by  deducting operating expenses (excluding taxes on a l l farm land, net farm r e n t , d e p r e c i a t i o n , purchased s e r v i c e s , wages paid to labour, and i n t e r e s t on mortgages and other debt), from gross farm production (the sum of the cash r e c e i p t s from the sale of farm products, income i n k i n d excluding house r e n t , and value of changes i n i n v e n t o r i e s ) on the basis.  establishment  0 2  The value of s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to a g r i c u l t u r e was not included i n the net value added by a g r i c u l t u r e . I t was not measured separately, but was assumed to be  52. p r o p o r t i o n a l i n a l l provinces t o the net value added by i n d u s t r y .  Since these s e r v i c e s are a r e l a t i v e l y  small part o f a g r i c u l t u r e , and since they are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the t o t a l production o f a g r i c u l t u r e , i t i s p l a u s i b l e to assume that they are i n p r o p o r t i o n t o G.D.P. by a g r i c u l t u r e .  We define these k i n d s o f  r e s i d u a l amounts o f production as " p r o p o r t i o n a l r e s i d u a l s " , and no independent estimates are made f o r them i n t h i s t h e s i s . F o r e s t r y . For the same reason as i n a g r i c u l t u r e , the n a t i o n a l aggregate o f G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n f o r e s t r y was a l l o c a t e d to B.C. without any i n d u s t r i a l breakdown. The census value added by i n d u s t r y o f Survey o f P r o d u c t i o n ^ was used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . I t was obtained by deducting from the value of production the value of s u p p l i e s and m a t e r i a l s used estimated on the b a s i s o f r e t u r n s from the establishments o f the more important l o g g i n g concerns i n B.C. The p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n f o r e s t r y s e r v i c e s was not measured separately i n t h i s t h e s i s , but was assumed t o be proporti o n a l to the census value added by f o r e s t r y . F i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g .  As shown i n Table I ,  53. t h i s i n d u s t r y group was broken down i n t o the two i n d u s t r i e s , f i s h i n g , and t r a p p i n g .  For both i n d u s t r i e s ,  the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s used were the census values added by i n d u s t r y a v a i l a b l e from Survey of Production.°^ In f i s h i n g the census value added by i n d u s t r y i s the t o t a l value of sea and i n l a n d f i s h caught and landed i n B.C.  In t r a p p i n g i t i s the t o t a l value of w i l d l i f e  p e l t s taken i n B.C.  No data are a v a i l a b l e as to the cost  of m a t e r i a l s and supplies used by fishermen and trappers. Therefore the data used are the gross values of production. In these i n d u s t r i e s the term "establishment" i s defined by D.B.S. to i n c l u d e a person working alone or only w i t h members of h i s own family.^5 Mining, quarrying, and o i l w e l l s .  The  sources  and the methods used i n t h i s i n d u s t r y group are shown i n the previous s e c t i o n as the example of c a l c u l a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P.  In the example, the gross values  of production are used f o r the four component i n d u s t r i e s , but the census value added by i n d u s t r y group as a whole i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e from Survey of Production. ^ 0  1  The  gross values of production were used simply because they are a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l f o u r i n d u s t r i e s . Manufacturing. The manufacturing i n d u s t r y group  54. was broken down i n t o twenty component i n d u s t r i e s as shown i n Table I .  From Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of  Canada,^7 the census value added data are a v a i l a b l e f o r each of these i n d u s t r i e s on the "establishment" b a s i s , except f o r the tobacco and tobacco product i n d u s t r y , and the petroleum and c o a l i n d u s t r y . The census values added by the manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s are c a l c u l a t e d by f i r s t a d j u s t i n g the revenue from production f o r the changes i n i n v e n t o r i e s and then s u b t r a c t i n g from t h i s revenue the cost of m a t e r i a l s , f u e l and e l e c t r i c i t y used.  These data are c o l l e c t e d  on " t o t a l a c t i v i t y " b a s i s , that i s , i n c l u d i n g the value added o r i g i n a t i n g i n each establishment*s revenueproducing, non-manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as t h e i r primary, manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s . In the tobacco and tobacco product i n d u s t r y , and the petroleum and c o a l i n d u s t r y , t o t a l wages of the decennial census were used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s . These data are a v a i l a b l e from 1961 Construction.  Census of Canada.^  Census value added by i n d u s t r y  a v a i l a b l e from Survey of P r o d u c t i o n ?  0  was used as the  p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r f o r constructions as a whole.  55.  I t represents a l l new and r e p a i r c o n s t r u c t i o n undertaken i n B.C., the Yukon, and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . I t i n c l u d e s not only work done by general and trade c o n t r a c t o r s , and sub-contractors, i n a l l f i e l d s , but a l s o work done by the labour f o r c e o f i n d u s t r i a l concerns, i n s t i t u t i o n s , governments, and by i n d i v i d uals.?  1  No separate data are a v a i l a b l e f o r the Yukon  and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  The values of  c o n s t r u c t i o n work done on r e p a i r and maintenance by workers o f i n d u s t r i e s which are c l a s s i f i e d t o other i n d u s t r i e s are not i n c l u d e d i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . But t h i s r e s u l t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d u p l i c a t i o n of production between c o n s t r u c t i o n and other i n d u s t r i e s . Transportation. The t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r y group c o n s i s t s o f the seven i n d u s t r i e s l i s t e d i n Table I . For a i r t r a n s p o r t , r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t , and t a x i cab operations, t o t a l wages o f the decennial census were used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s .  I n the f i r s t  two i n d u s t r i e s , an establishment u s u a l l y operates across p r o v i n c i a l boundaries, and the data o f value of production o r i g i n a t i n g i n given province i s not a v a i l a b l e . In a i r t r a n s p o r t , D.B.S. d e f i n e s G.D.P. t o i n c l u d e only  56.  the s e r v i c e s of Canadian companies wherever they are performed.^2  i n t h i s t h e s i s , a n a t i o n a l aggregate  was a l l o c a t e d to B.C. according to the total.,wage of the decennial census i n B.C.  In r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t  and t a x i c a b operations, t o t a l wages of the decennial census i n B.C. were used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s . ?  3  Urban t r a n s i t system i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c passengers s e r v i c e s by buses, t r o l l e y coaches, s t r e e t c a r s , and subway cars i n urban areas.  Net value added by i n d u s t r y was used  as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  I t was estimated on a  p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s by adding wages and s a l a r i e s , operating taxes, and licens.es to net t r a n s i t revenue of e s t a b l i s h ments l o c a t e d i n B.C.  These data are a v a i l a b l e from a  sample survey published i n Urban T r a n s i t . ^  Since the  estimate of net value added by i n d u s t r y was based on the sample survey, i t was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . Bus t r a n s p o r t i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n common and contract passenger s e r v i c e s outside of urban areas.  Sample data of net value added by  i n d u s t r y were obtained by adding wages and s a l a r i e s and d e p r e c i a t i o n to net operating revenue of the f i r m s ^ l o c a t e d i n B.C. using data a v a i l a b l e from Passenger Bus  57.  Statistics.?5  Since the estimate was based on the  sample survey, i t was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . Water t r a n s p o r t i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n f r e i g h t shipping and passenger s e r v i c e s , ocean, i n l a n d , and coastwise, but excludes establishments engaged only i n the f i s h i n g or (  lumbering trades.  Only v e s s e l s operating under  Canadian r e g i s t r y are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s industry.?^  1  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r used was value added by i n d u s t r y c a l c u l a t e d from sample data of Water Transport77  ation.  Net value added by the f i r m s operating i n  the P a c i f i c Ocean was obtained by deducting the cost ( t o t a l operating expenses and other expenses) from the revenues ( t o t a l operating revenues and other income, s a l a r i e s and wages, and d e p r e c i a t i o n ) .  The data are  a v a i l a b l e f o r the four geographic d i v i s i o n s , A t l a n t i c , P a c i f i c , Great Lakes, and Inland.  Since the P a c i f i c  d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e s a l l the west coast p o r t s , net value added i n t h i s r e g i o n was assumed to represent production only.  B.C.  When a f i r m operated across the  d i v i s i o n s , net value added was a l l o c a t e d to the d i v i s i o n where the f i r m performed  the m a j o r i t y of i t s s e r v i c e s .  Truck t r a n s p o r t i n c l u d e s establishments  58. p r i m a r i l y engaged i n the p r o v i s i o n of l o c a l and  long  distance t r u c k i n g , t r a n s f e r , and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s . The  sum of gross values of production of truck  transport and i n t e r c i t y motor c a r r i e r s was used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  Both data are a v a i l a b l e 78  from sample surveys of Motor Transport T r a f f i c  and  Motor C a r r i e r s - F r e i g h t . ? 9 P i p e l i n e transport i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n t r a n s p o r t i n g goods by p i p e l i n e s . This industry i s not r e s t r i c t e d to establishments of gas and o i l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , but since they represent by f a r major part of the i n d u s t r y , the t o t a l of wages and s a l a r i e s of gas and o i l p i p e l i n e workers i n was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r .  B.C.  The data were  a v a i l a b l e from Gas U t i l i t i e s f a n d O i l P i p e l i n e Q  The G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and highway and bridge maintenance were assumed to be p r o p o r t i o n a l residuals. Storage. This i n d u s t r y group i n c l u d e s g r a i n e l e v a t o r s , and other storage and warehousing. Grain e l e v a t o r s include establishments p r i m a r i l y  59.  engaged i n operating g r a i n e l e v a t o r s and t e r m i n a l elevators.  Country g r a i n e l e v a t o r s under contract to  the Canadian Wheat Board, and g r a i n e l e v a t o r s of the 82 Board of Grain Commissioners are a l s o i n c l u d e d . T o t a l wage of the decennial census was used as a provincial indicator. Storages and warehousing include  establish-  ments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n c o l d storages, other storages and warehousing, but exclude storages operated as a n c i l l a r y a c t i v i t i e s by establishments.  Establish-  ments engaged i n moving and storage of household goods are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n d u s t r y .  The sum of net values  addediby both i n d u s t r i e s was used as a p r o v i n c i a l indicator.  I t was estimated using data a v a i l a b l e from-  Moving and Storage of Household G o o d s a n d Warehousing.^  from  Since these data are based on sample  surveys, the estimate of net value added by i n d u s t r y was used as p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . Communication• This i n d u s t r y group c o n s i s t s of r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasting', telephone systems, telegraph and cable systems, and p o s t a l s e r v i c e s . Radio and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasting i n c l u d e establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n broadcasting r a d i o  60. and t e l e v i s i o n programs, such as those operated by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation as w e l l as those operated by p r i v a t e companies.  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r  used was net value added by establishments l o c a t e d i n B.C.  I t was c a l c u l a t e d using data a v a i l a b l e from Radio 85  and T e l e v i s i o n Broadcasting ' by deducting from gross value o f production (operating expenses, and l i c e n c e s ) . Although i t represents net value added by i n d u s t r y , i t i s not e x a c t l y the same as the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. Q  r i g i n a t i n g i n that i n d u s t r y . While net value added by  p r i v a t e establishments was estimated f o r the calendar year, that o f the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was estimated f o r the f i s c a l year ended 'March 1962.  There-  f o r e the estimate of net value added by i n d u s t r y was used simply as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . Telephone systems i n c l u d e establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n telephone systems whether owned by governments o r not.  Census value added by i n d u s t r y was  estimated using data a v a i l a b l e from Telephone S t a t i s t i c s by deducting operating expenses from the t o t a l revenue of the f i r m s l o c a t e d i n B.C. The estimate was used as a provincial indicator. For G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n telegraph and cable stations,tte number o f telegrams sent i n B.C. a v a i l a b l e  i  from Telegraph and Cable S t a t i s t i c s ' was used as a provincial indicator. P o s t a l s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n s e r v i c e s such as post o f f i c e s operated by the Government of Canada, r u r a l m a i l c a r r i e r s , and postmasters.  Since labour income of  the post o f f i c e s operated by the government i s the major part of G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y , t o t a l wage of the decennial census was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . E l e c t r i c power, gas, and water u t i l i t i e s . This i n d u s t r y group i n c l u d e s e l e c t r i c power, gas and water u t i l i t i e s , steam d i s t r i b u t i o n , and garbage disposal services. E l e c t r i c power i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n generation, t r a n s m i s s i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of e l e c t r i c power, whether owned by govern ments or not.  Census value added by i n d u s t r y a v a i l a b l e 88  from Survey of Production indicator.  was used as a p r o v i n c i a l  I t was obtained by deducting the cost of  f u e l consumed from the gross value of production. Data f o r other costs of m a t e r i a l s and s u p p l i e s are not available. Gas d i s t r i b u t i o n i n c l u d e s establishments  62.  p r i m a r i l y engaged i n s e l l i n g of manufactured or n a t u r a l gas to u l t i m a t e consumers through d i s t r i b u t i o n pipelines.  The p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r used was the sum  of wages and s a l a r i e s of the n a t u r a l and manufactured gas f i r m s i n B.C.^  9  Water systems i n c l u d e establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n processing and d i s t r i b u t i o n of water f o r households and other purposes. u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o c a l governments.  They are Since wages  and s a l a r i e s of workers employed by the l o c a l governments are the major part of net value added by i n d u s t r y , t o t a l wage ,of the decennial census was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . Wholesale trade. Establishments i n t h i s i n d u s t r y group are p r i m a r i l y engaged i n buying merchandi s e s f o r r e s a l e to r e t a i l e r s , to i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l users, to other wholes a l e r s and to agents i n these t r a n s a c t i o n s . They are c l a s s i f i e d according to t h e i r p r i n c i p a l commodities sold.  They are a l s o c l a s s i f i e d according to t h e i r types  of o p e r a t i o n , that i s , wholesale proper and other wholesalers.  9 0  The 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weights of the whole-  salers proper and other wholesalers were r e c l a s s i f i e d to  63. twenty i n d u s t r i e s as l i s t e d i n Table I .  For each  i n d u s t r y t o t a l wage o f the decennial census was used as a p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r . 9 R e t a i l trade.  1  Establishments p r i m a r i l y  engaged i n buying commodities f o r r e s a l e t o u l t i m a t e consumers f o r personal o r household consumption are i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n d u s t r y group.  I n general, they are  c l a s s i f i e d according t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l commodities s o l d . In t h i s t h e s i s , they are c l a s s i f i e d to s i x i n d u s t r i e s as shown i n Table I .  Gross p r o f i t was used as a  p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r f o r each i n d u s t r y .  I t was obtained  by m u l t i p l y i n g a gross p r o f i t r a t i o t o gross s a l e o f the corresponding i n d u s t r y . Both data are a v a i l a b l e from 1961 Census of Canada  92  on the "establishment" b a s i s .  Finance, insurance, and r e n t s .  This i n d u s t r y  group i n c l u d e s such establishments as commercial banks, l i f e and n o n - l i f e insurance companies, personal loan companies, c r e d i t unions, investment d e a l e r s , and a "dummy" i n d u s t r y , r e n t s .  The "dummy" i n d u s t r y i s defined  by D.B.S. t o r e c e i v e a l l r e n t s except r e n t s r e c e i v e d by corporations. These finance and insurance establishments are c a l l e d f i n a n c i a l i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . I t i s conceptually  64.  d i f f i c u l t t o perceive t h e i r outputs.  This i s because  t h e i r institutional arrangements make i t d i f f i c u l t to break down t h e i r output i n t o quantity and p r i c e components, and because money i t s e l f i s d e a l t i n t h e i r activities.  In order to determine the output of  f i n a n c i a l i n t e r m e d i a r i e s , D.B.S. defines t h e i r  functions  as the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i a t i n g s e r v i c e f o r the flows of funds between and among sectors, i n d u s t r i e s , z a t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l s .  organi-  Then these s e r v i c e s are  assumed to c o n s t i t u t e the economic production of f i n a n c i a l intermediaries.  This treatment of i n c l u d i n g  a l l r e n t s except these received by corporations i n the "dummy" i n d u s t r y i s made because t h i s w i l l free G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y of i t s r e n t i n g a c t i v i t i e s . ^ 9  In f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s such as banks, t r u s t companies, and loan companies, t h e i r outputs should be measured by t h e i r income other than the r e c e i p t of i n t e r e s t , because by the d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s only the s e r v i c e s they provide t o persons, governments and other i n d u s t r i e s should be measured.  Since s e r v i c e s  provided to persons are u s u a l l y f r e e , imputations are made i n the n a t i o n a l income accounts to represent a l l these s e r v i c e s rendered. ^ 9  6$. In the case o f insurance companies, there i s a s i m i l a r type of conceptual d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring t h e i r outputs.  The premiums charged are not  the cost of the s e r v i c e s rendered by the insurance companies, because they i n c l u d e claims to be disbursed t o claimants i n the same year, o r i n the f u t u r e years.  Since l i f e insurance companies i n v e s t  f o r t h e i r p o l i c y holders, t h e i r r e a l outputs should r e f l e c t the investment s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the protection services.  D.B.S. defines t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  expenses ( i n c l u d i n g p r o f i t s ) as the cost of the s e r v i c e s rendered by insurance companies.  At the  present time, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses o f f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are a l s o used by D.B.S. t o represent t h e i r 96  r e a l outputs. In t h i s t h e s i s , t o t a l wages of the decennial census were used as p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s f o r both, finance and insurance.9? In the "dummy" i n d u s t r y are i n c l u d e d r e n t s r e c e i v e d by unincorporated businesses, imputed r e n t s on government-owned b u i l d i n g s used by the government, and a l l other r e n t s such as paid commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l r e n t s , imputed r e s i d e n t i a l r e n t s , and garage r e n t s .  66.  Owner-occupants of r e s i d e n t i a l dwellings and  the  governments are considered f o r n a t i o n a l income accounts purposes as l a n d l o r d s who  rent houses and government  b u i l d i n g s to themselves.  C a p i t a l consumption  allowances on r e s i d e n t i a l property are a l s o i n c l u d e d og i n this industry.  7  In t h i s t h e s i s , a p r o v i n c i a l  i n d i c a t o r used was income received by persons i n  B.C.  QQ  a v a i l a b l e from Taxation S t a t i s t i c s .  7  I t includes  a l l kinds of r e n t a l income received by persons, but does not include imputed r e s i d e n t i a l r e n t s and imputed r e n t s on government buildings.-'-  00  We assume these  imputed r e n t s are p r o p o r t i o n a l to r e n t a l income r e c e i v e d by persons from province to province. P u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and defence.  This  i n d u s t r y group i n c l u d e s establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s that are b a s i c a l l y governmental i n character, such as enacting l e g i s l a t i o n , e n f o r c i n g and administering the law, c o l l e c t i n g p u b l i c revenues, and c o n t r o l l i n g the disbursement of p u b l i c funds. Defence s e r v i c e s are included i n t h i s i n d u s t r y group. Government-owned and operated establishments p r i m a r i l y engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s assigned to other i n d u s t r i e s , such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication, l i q u o r s a l e s ,  67.  h e a l t h and educational  s e r v i c e s are c l a s s i f i e d t o  those corresponding i n d u s t r i e s but not t o p u b l i c administration.  1 0 1  In t h i s thesis, t h i s industry  group i s d i v i d e d i n t o four component i n d u s t r i e s , namely; defence s e r v i c e s , other f e d e r a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o v i n c i a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and municipal government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Unpublished data on m i l i t a r y pay and allowances f o r B.C. were supplied by the N a t i o n a l Accounts Section of the D.B.S. They were used as the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n defence s e r v i c e s . Unpublished data on f e d e r a l government p a y r o l l f o r defence s e r v i c e s (excluding armed forces) and other f e d e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (excluding overtime payments and r e t r o a c t i v e payments) were supplied by the Government Employment and P a y r o l l s Section of the D.B.S. The sum of these two kinds o f f e d e r a l p a y r o l l s was used as the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n f e d e r a l government administration i n t h i s thesis.  For p r o v i n c i a l and  municipal governments, n a t i o n a l aggregates were a l l o c a t e d to B.C. using t o t a l wages o f the decennial census as provincial indicators." " 1  02  68. Service.  This i n d u s t r y group i n c l u d e s  eight i n d u s t r i e s , namely; education and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s , r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , business s e r v i c e s , r e p a i r s e r v i c e s , miscellaneous ,services, and h o t e l and  restaurants. Establishments i n the f i r s t three i n d u s t r i e s  are motivated d i f f e r e n t l y than are business e n t e r p r i s e s , and they do not operate p r i m a r i l y f o r gain.  Some of  them make a charge to the i n d i v i d u a l f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , but the charge u s u a l l y does not cover a l l expenses rendered.  Therefore, as i n government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  D.B.S. measures G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n these n o n - p r o f i t motivated i n s t i t u t i o n s by t h e i r labour c o s t s , that i s , wages, s a l a r i e s and supplementary labour i n c o m e .  103  t h i s t h e s i s , we a l l o c a t e d n a t i o n a l aggregates to  In  B.C.  using t o t a l wages of the decennial census as p r o v i n c i a l indicators. For other i n d u s t r i e s , net values of production were used as p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s .  They were obtained  by m u l t i p l y i n g gross values of production a v a i l a b l e from the 1961 Census of Canada 5 10  by net value of production  r a t i o of the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r y group a v a i l a b l e from Taxation S t a t i s t i c s .  1 0 0  CHAPTER VI  69.  PRESENTATION AND APPRAISAL OF THE ESTIMATES The  estimates of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t  f a c t b r cost by industry f o r B.C. i n 1961 are presented, followed by a b r i e f a p p r a i s a l of the estimates.  I.  PRESENTATION OF THE ESTIMATES The estimates o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t  f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y are presented i n Table I I , together w i t h Canadian G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y i n 1961. For B.C. Gross Domestic Product o r i g i n a t i n g i n component i n d u s t r i e s are also presented i n Table I I .  When an i n d u s t r y group i s d i v i d e d i n t o  i t s component i n d u s t r i e s , the sum o f G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n the component i n d u s t r i e s i s equal t o G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y .  The p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t  f a c t o r cost, 3,333,000,000 d o l l a r s , i s obtained as the sum o f G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n a l l the i n d u s t r y groups.  Percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n s of G.D.P.  at f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y are presented i n Table I I I f o r B.C. and Canada.  They show r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f  i n d u s t r i e s to the t o t a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost i n B.C. and  Canada r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Forestry and service show  70.  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost i n B.C. than i n Canada, while manufacturing shows a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r c o n t r i b u t i o n i n Canada than i n B.C.,  as i s shown i n these r e s u l t s :  Forestry  B.C. 4«5 (percent)  Canada 1.0  Service  17.8  13.2  Manufacturing  20.3  25.5  Other i n d u s t r i e s show about the same c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost both i n B.C. and Canada. In Table I I , a r e l a t i v e share of B.C. Gross Domestic Product a t f a c t o r cost t o Canadian G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost i s presented f o r each i n d u s t r y group.  Most  B r i t i s h Columbia i n d u s t r y groups have about 10 percent shares i n Canadian G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y . But f o r e s t r y , and f i s h i n g and trapping have s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e shares i n Canadian G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y , as i s shown i n these r e s u l t s : Forestry  42.$ (percent)  F i s h i n g and trapping  28.3  In the course of c a l c u l a t i o n , we used a thousand of d o l l a r s as a u n i t , i n order to guard against  71. round-off e r r o r s .  But i n the f i n a l r e s u l t s , the numbers  were rounded to the c o r r e c t number of s i g n i f i c a n t figures.  Since the n a t i o n a l aggregates a v a i l a b l e  from ^ a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and E x p e n d i t u r e ? have 10  three or f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s measured i n m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s , the f i n a l r e s u l t s a l s o have three or f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t f i g u r e s measured i n m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s .  II.  APPRAISAL OF THE ESTIMATES  A q u a n t i t a t i v e summary of the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s used i n the e s t i m a t i o n i s presented i n Table IV, showing the 1949  percentage coverage of  Canadian G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost.  Census net value  added by i n d u s t r y data were most used (46.6 p e r c e n t ) , f o l l o w e d by t o t a l wage of the decennial census data (27.8  p e r c e n t ) , and net value added by i n d u s t r y from  sample surveys data (2.9 percent). The r e l i a b i l i t y of the estimates depends on the three assumptions made i n Chapter V.  Provincial  d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i o n a l aggregates i s considered to be h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , because the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are close approximations of net value added by i n d u s t r i e s . Therefore r e l i a b i l i t y depends mainly on the f i r s t assumption, that i s , t h a t r e l a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s of an  72. i n d u s t r y group were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y between 1949 and 1961.  different  Although the r e a l i s m of t h i s  assumption v a r i e s from i n d u s t r y group  to i n d u s t r y group,  we f e e l that the r e l i a b i l i t y of the estimates as a whole i s adequate f o r most of p r a c t i c a l analyses of p r o v i n c i a l economies.  73.  CHAPTER V I I  EXTENSIONS TO OTHER PROVINCES AND TO OTHER YEARS I f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by industry of o r i g i n were a v a i l a b l e on the same b a s i s f o r other provinces and f o r other years, i t would provide important data f o r comparative and h i s t o r i c a l analyses of p r o v i n c i a l economies.  Here we make suggestions t o  extend the method t o other provinces and t o other years.  I.  EXTENSION TO OTHER PROVINCES  The method employed i n the estimation o f G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by industry of o r i g i n f o r B.C. i n 1961 uses data which are u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e f o r other provinces on the same b a s i s .  Therefore, i t can be  e a s i l y extended t o other provinces.  However, i n some  i n d u s t r i e s the data used as the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s f o r B.C. are not a v a i l a b l e f o r other provinces on the same b a s i s .  I n such cases i t would be necessary t o  use d i f f i e r e n t kinds of p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s which are a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l the provinces on the same b a s i s .  For example, i n urban t r a n s i t systems data on net value added by i n d u s t r y are a v a i l a b l e f o r B.C., but they are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the A t l a n t i c provinces. T o t a l wages o f the decennial census may be used as new p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s .  Since a n a t i o n a l  aggregate  of G.D.P. i s d i s t r i b u t e d t o provinces, the sum of a l l p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. must be adjusted t o be equal t o the n a t i o n a l aggregate f o r each i n d u s t r y .  This can be  achieved e i t h e r by d i s t r i b u t i n g r e s i d u a l e r r o r s o f computation t o provinces o r by estimating G.D.P. o f a province as a d i f f e r e n c e between a n a t i o n a l G.D.P. and the sum o f G.D.P. of other provinces.  II.  EXTENSIONS TO OTHER YEARS  Since n a t i o n a l aggregates o f G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by i n d u s t r y o r i g i n are a v a i l a b l e f o r the years 1926 t o date, the extension of the same method t o other years w i l l be p o s s i b l e f o r i n d u s t r i e s whose p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are a v a i l a b l e on an annual b a s i s .  For most  i n d u s t r i e s whose p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c @ o r s are a v a i l a b l e from industry surveys, annual data are a v a i l a b l e p r i o r to 1961. But f o r i n d u s t r i e s whose p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s are taken from 1961 decennial Census of Canada ^ 10  75.  other methods to d i s t r i b u t e n a t i o n a l aggregates t o provinces must be introduced. methods:  We suggest two f o l l o w i n g  (1) P r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i v e shares of n a t i o n a l  G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y i n three census years, 1941, 1951 and 1961 are e x t r a p o l a t e d t o other years.  (2) Prov-  i n c i a l G.D.P. by i n d u s t r y i n census years are extrapolated t o other years using some r e l a t e d economic statistics.  For example, G.D.P. by e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  of B.C. i n I960 may be estimated by e x t r a p o l a t i n g G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n education i n 1961 according t o the number o f B.C. students i n schools i n I960.  I n the  e x t r a p o l a t i n g process we assume a l i n e a r homogeneous r e g r e s s i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between G.D.P. o r i g i n a t i n g i n education and the number o f students i n B.C. The sum of the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. i s then adjusted t o confirm to the n a t i o n a l aggregate, o f G.D.P. ^ 10  76.  TABLE I INDUSTRIAL CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN I960 STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION AND 1949 INDUSTRIAL WEIGHTING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group  1949 I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System  Industry  I. Agriculture I I . Forestry  Industry Agriculture(excluding agricultural service) Forestry(excluding forestry service)  I I I . F i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g 1. Sea f i s h e r i e s  Sea f i s h e r i e s  2. Inland f i s h e r i e s  Inland f i s h e r i e s  3. Trapping  Trapping  IV. Mining 1. Non-metals  Non-metals  2. Metals  Metals  3. Fuels  Fuels  4. Structual materials  Quarrying and sand p i t s  V. Manufacturing 1. Foods and beverages  Foods and beverages  2. Tobacco Products  Tobacco and Tobacco products  3. Rubber products  Rubber products  4. Leather Product  Leather products  77. TABLE I (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group 5.  1949 I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System  Industry  Textiles  Industry Textiles  6. K n i t t i n g m i l l s  Knitting mills  7. C l o t h i n g  Men's, women*s and children's clothing Miscellaneous c l o t h i n g  8. Wood products  Saw and p l a n i n g m i l l s Other wood i n d u s t r i e s  9. F u r n i t u r e  Furniture  10. Paper products  Paper products  11. P r i n t i n g  P r i n t i n g , p u b l i s h i n g and a l l i e d industries  12. Primary metals  Primary i r o n and s t e e l Sheet metal products Miscellaneous i r o n and s t e e l products Iron c a s t i n g s Non-ferrous metal products  13• Metal f a b r i c a t i n g  B o i l e r s , tanks and platework Bridge b u i l d i n g s and structural steel Hardware and t o o l s Heating and cooking apparatus Wire and wire goods  14.  Machinery  A g r i c u l t u r a l implements machinery  15. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  Transportation equipment  TABLE I  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group  (continued)  1949  I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System Industry  Industry  16.  E l e c t r i c a l machinery E l e c t r i c a l apparatus and supplies  17.  Non-metals  Non-metallic mineral  products  IS. Petroleum  Products of petroleum and c o a l  19•  Chemicals  Chemicals and a l l i e d  20.  Miscellaneous  Miscellaneous  VI. Construction  products  Construction  V I I . Transportation 1.  A i r transport  A i r t r a n s p o r t and a i r p o r t s  2. RailwayI transport  Railway t r a n s p o r t ( i n c l u d i n g express)  3. Urban t r a n s i t s  Passenger t r a n s p o r t ( i n t e r urban)  4.  Passenger transport(urban and suburban)  Bus t r a n s p o r t  5. Taxicab  operations  6.  Truck transport  Truck t r a n s p o r t  7.  Water t r a n s p o r t  Water t r a n s p o r t  8. P i p e l i n e s VIII.  Taxicab s e r v i c e  Pipelines  Storage 1.  Grain e l e v a t o r s  2. General  storage  Grain e l e v a t o r s Storage and warehousing  79. TABLE I (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification  1949 I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System  Industry Group Industry  Industry  IX. Communication 1. Radio and t e l e v i s i o n Radio and t e l e v i s i o n broadcasting 2. Telephone  Telephone  3. Telegraph and cable  Telegraph and cable  4. P o s t a l service  Postal service  X. P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 1. E l e c t r i c power  E l e c t r i c power u t i l i t i e s  2. Gas  Gas  utilities  3• Water systems  utilities  Water and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e  XI. Wholesale trade 1. L i v e s t o c k  Part of farm products  2. Grain  Part of farm products  3. Coal and coke  Coal and coke  4.  Petroleum and petroleum Products  Petroleum  5. Paper 6. General 7. Foods  Paper.-,and paper products merchandise  General  merchandise  Part of food products and tobacco Groceries and food s p e c i a l t i e s Beer,wine and d i s t i l l e d spirits  80. TABLE I (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group  1949 I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System Industry  Industry  8. Tobacco products  Part of food products and tobacco  9. Drugs  Chemicals  10. Apparel  Dry goods and apparel  11. F u r n i t u r e  Furniture and house furnishing  12. Motor v e h i c l e  Automotive  13. E l e c t r i c a l goods  E l e c t r i c a l goods  14. Farm machinery  Farm s u p p l i e s  15.  Machinery,equipment supplies  Machinery  and  16. Hardware  Plumbing and heating equipment, and s u p p l i e s Hardware  17. Metals  Metals and metal work  18. B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s  Lumber and b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s Forest products  19.  Waste m a t e r i a l s ( i n c l u d i n g scrap metal)  Scrap  20. Miscellaneous  Other kinds of business Amusement and s p o r t i n g goods Jewellery Leather and l e a t h e r products  X I I . R e t a i l trade 1.  Foods  Grocery and combination s t o r e s Other food and beverage s t o r e s  81. TABLE I  (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group  1949  I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System  Industry  Industry  2. General merchandise  General s t o r e s Department stores V a r i e t y stores  3. Automotive  Motor v e h i c l e dealers Garages and f i l l i n g s t a t i o n s Automotive r e p a i r  4.  Men s c l o t h i n g stores Family c l o t h i n g stores Women's c l o t h i n g stores Shoe stores  Apparel  f  5. Hardware  Hardware stores F u r n i t u r e , appliance radio s t o r e s Radio r e p a i r  6. Others  Fuel dealers Jewellery stores Jewellery r e p a i r shops B i c y c l e and r e p a i r shops  and  X I I I . Finance, insurance .and r e n t s 1. Finance  Banking Other finance  2. Insurance  L i f e insurance N o n - l i f e insurance Insurance and r e a l estate agents and agencies  3. Rents  Rents  82. TABLE I (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification Industry Group  1949  I n d u s t r i a l Weighting System  Industry  Industry  XIV. P u b l i c Administration and defence 1.  XV.  Defence s e r v i c e  Defence s e r v i c e (armed forces only)  2. Other f e d e r a l service  Other f e d e r a l administration  3. P r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e  P r o v i n c i a l government administration  4.  Municipal and other l o c a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Local s e r v i c e  Service 1.  Education  2. Health  Education  service  3• R e l i g i o n  Health  service  Religion  4. Recreation  service  Theatres and t h e a t r i c a l service Other r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e  5. Business s e r v i c e  Business s e r v i c e  6. Personal  Barbering and h a i r d r e s s i n g Domestic s e r v i c e Dyeing,cleaning and pressing Laundries T a i l o r i n g and dress making Blacksmithing, horseshoeing and general r e p a i r  service  7. Repair s e r v i c e  TABLE I (continued)  I960 Standard I n d u s t r i a l Classification * Industry Group  Industry  1949 I n d u s t r i a l System  Weighting  Industry Armature rewinding Harness r e p a i r shops Locksmiths,gunsmiths,tools and c u t l e r y  8. Miscellaneous  Undertaking Photography Other personal s e r v i c e  9. Hotels and restaurants  Hotels, motels and lodging houses Restaurants, cafes and taverns  *The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , of Canada, Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual,(Ottawa: Queen*s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , i 9 6 0 ) . **The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, Indexes o f r e a l Domestic Product by Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61 "(Ottawa: fueen»s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1963).  84TABLE I I GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN, BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CANADA, 1961 (MILLIONS OF CURRENT DOLLARS)  Industry  B.C.  I. Agriculture I I . Forestry III.  IV.  88.2  1,581  151.3  355  28.3  100  106.1  1,445  F i s h i n g and trapping 1. Sea f i s h e r i e s  27.5  2. Inland f i s h e r i e s  0.0  3. Trapping  0.8  Mining 1. Non-metals 2. Metals 3. Fuels  Canada  80.2 8.8  ,  4. Structual materials V. Manufacturing  13.O 4.1 678.0  1. Foods and beverages 106.0 2. Tobacco products  0.0  3. Rubber products  0.4  4 . Leather products  1.4  8,501  85.  TABLE I I (continued)  Industry  B.C.  Canada  5-  Textile  5.6  6.  Knitting m i l l s  2.1  7.  Clothing  7.7  8. Wood products 9.  Furniture  279.5 9.3  10.  Paper products  37.2  11.  Printing  29.6  12.  Primary metals  65.1  13.  Metal f a b r i c a t i n g  19.5  14.  Machinery  16.5  15.  Transportation  36.1  16. E l e c t r i c a l machinery  6.3  17.  Non-metals  12.2  18.  Petroleum  14-0  19.  Chemicals  24-8  20. Miscellaneous  4-7  VI. Construction  209.2  1,823  VII. Transportation  258.0  2,170  1.  A i r transport  2. Railway transport 3 . Urban t r a n s i t  9*4 109.8 15.7  86.  TABLE I I (continued) Industry  B.C.  4 . Bus t r a n s p o r t  7-6  5. Taxicab operations  11.5  6. Truck t r a n s p o r t  15.5  7. Water t r a n s p o r t  88.1  8. P i p e l i n e s VIII.  Canada  0.4  Storage 1.  Grain e l e v a t o r s  2. General  storage  Radio and t e l e v i s i o n  2.  Telephone  3. Telegraph and cable 4. P o s t a l s e r v i c e s  E l e c t r i c power  2. Gas  utilities  3• Water systems XI.  Livestock  796  3.7  43.5  9.2  29.9 120.1  1,139  103.6  8.4 8.1  Wholesale trade 1.  86.3  4.2  X. P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 1.  85  5.4  IX. Communication 1.  9.6  165.3  0.0  2. Grain  7.1  3 . Coal and coke  0.8  1,547  87.  TABLE I I (continued) Industry  B.C.  Canada  4. Petroleum  14-9  Paper  3-9  5-  6. General merchandises  0.0  7. Foods  19-5  8. Tobacco products  13.3  9. Drugs  5.1  10. Apparel  5.5  11. Furniture  4-3  12. Motor v e h i c l e s  12.4  13. E l e c t r i c a l goods  9.2  14. Farm machinery  1.3  15-  Machine  16. Hardware 17.  Metals  18. B u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s 19. Scrap 20. Miscellaneous X I I . R e t a i l trade  27-8 8.1 3-8 13.6 1.9 12.8 319-7  1. Foods  46.3  2. General merchandises  81.0  3 . Automotives  60.3  3,106  88.  TABLE I I (continued) Industry  B.C.  4.  Apparels  20.6  5.  Hardware  20.7  6.  Others  90.8  Canada  X I I I . Finance, insurance and 273-9  rents  1.  Finance  73.3  2.  Insurance  57'8  3.  Rents  XIV. P u b l i c  142.8  Administration  and defence  235-1  1.  Federal s e r v i c e  2.  P r o v i n c i a l service  73-3  3.  Local s e r v i c e  56.0  Education  603.4 70.8  XV. Service 1.  3,532  service  105-8  2.  Health  3.  Religion  4-  Recreational  5.  Business s e r v i c e  81.6  6.  Personal  88.3  7-  Repair s e r v i c e  8.  Miscellaneous  109-7 9.3  service  service  2,516  28.9  7-1 14.9  4,655  89.  TABLE I I (continued) Industry  B.C.  9. Hotel and restaurants  192.8  Totals  Canada  3,333.4  33,351  * The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure,  1964 (Ottawa: Queen's  P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 5 ) .  90.  Table I I I PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST, BY INDUSTRY, 1961, FOR.BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CANADA; AND PERCENTAGE SHARE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST IN CANADIAN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST, BY INDUSTRY, 1961 IndustryGroup I. A g r i c u l t u r e I I . ForestryI I I . F i s h i n g and trapping IV. Mining V. Manufacturing VI. Construction V I I . Transportation V I I I . Storage IX. Communication X. P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s XI. Wholesale trade X I I . R e t a i l trade X I I I . Finance, i n s urance and r e n t s XIV. P u b l i c admini s t r a t i o n and defence XV. Service Totals  B.C.  Canada  2.6  5-7 1.0  4.5 o.a  B.C./Canada* 5.6  42.5  4.6 9.3  28.3 7.3 7-9 11.2 11.9 10.7 10.8 10.6 10.7 10.2  a.2  10.6  7.8  7-1 18.3  7.5 13-2  9.3 12.9  100.0  100.0  3.2 20.3 6.3 7-7 0.3 2.6 3.6 4.9 9.6  0.3  4«4  25-5  5.4  6.5 0.2  2.4 3.4  *This i s obtained by d i v i d i n g B.C. Gross Domestic Product by i n d u s t r y by Canadian Gross Domestic Product by i n d u s t r y shown i n Table I I .  91. TABLE IV TYPE OF INDICATOR (SHOWING 1949 PERCENTAGE COVERAGE OF TOTAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT FACTOR COST)  Indicator  Percentage  Census value added by i n d u s t r y  46. 6  T o t a l wage o f decennial census  27- a  Net value added by i n d u s t r y of sample survey  2. 9  A l l other types Total  22. 7 100. 0  92. ''"The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of Canada (D.B.S.) National Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-57 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1958), pp. 105-107. 2  I b i d . , p. 146.  3  I b i d . , pp. 106-107.  4  Ibid.  5 I b i d . , p. 113; and V.R. B e r l i n g u e t t e F.H. Leacy, "The Estimation  and  of Real Domestic Product by  F i n a l Expenditure Categories and by Industry of O r i g i n i n Canada," Output Input and P r o d u c t i v i t y Measurement (Studies i n Income and Wealth, V o l . XXV, N a t i o n a l of Economic Research: Princeton: Princeton  Bureau  University  Press, 1961), pp. 214-217D.B.S., Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964). ^D.B.S., Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery,  I960).  93D.B.S., Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , I960). 9  Ibid-  1 0  11  I b i d . , pp. 7-9. D . B . S . , N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and  Expenditure, 1926-57, pp. 135-36. l 2  Ibid.  !3The Department of ^ a t i o n a l Revenue of Canada, Taxation S t a t i s t i c s , 1963 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 3 ) , 14  D  p.109.  . B . S . , Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s o f Canada.  -^D.B.S.^  N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and  Expenditure, 1926-57 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and Contr o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 5 8 ) . l6  D . B . S . , 1961 Census of Canada: Census of  Merchandising, V o l . V (Ottawa: Queen's B r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) . . B . S . , F i n a n c i a l S t a t i s t i c s of P r o v i n c i a l Governments, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964).  18  Werner Hochwald, "Conceptual Issues of  Regional Income E s t i m a t i o n , " Regional Income (Studies i n Income and Wealth, V o l . XXI, N a t i o n a l Bureau of Economic Research; P r i n c e t o n : Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 19  10-13.  T h e Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s of  B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Summary of Business A c t i v i t y , 1961 ( V i c t 6 r i a :  The Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s ,  1962). 20  T h e Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of  Canada, N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-572 1  2 2  2 3  Ibid. I b i d . , p. 34Ibid.  4-D.B.S. , 1 9 6 1 Census of Canada: Labour Force,  2  Vol.  I l l (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of  Stationery, 2  1964).  ^The Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue of Canada,  Taxation S t a t i s t i c s , 1963 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1963) p. 117.  2  ^D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and  Expenditure, 1926-57, pp. 135-137. 2 7  2  I b i d . , pp. 146-147.  %he  Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue of  Canada, Taxation S t a t i s t i c s . 29The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-57, p. 174. 30  D  •B.S., Consolidation of P u b l i c Finance S t a t i s t i c s (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964); and D.B.S., Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964). -^D.B.S. , Supplement to P r i v a t e and Public Investment i n Canada, Outlook, 1961, Regional Estimate (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964). ^ D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and 2  Expenditure. 1926-57, p. 3 4 . 33D.B.S.,  Survey of Production, 1962  (Ottawa  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1 9 6 5 ) ,  96. 34D.B.S., 3 5  3  Survey of Production, 1962.  I b i d . , p. 7-  ^The United States Department of Commerce,  A Supplement t o the Survey of Current Business, Personal Income by S t a t e s , Since 1929 (Washington:  United States  Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1956). 37D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure. 3g  A.C. Parks, The Economy of the A t l a n t i c  Provinces, 1940-1958 (second e d i t i o n ; H a l i f a x :  The  A t l a n t i c Provinces Economic C o u n c i l , I960). 39 D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure. 1926-57. 4  °D.B.S., Supplement t o P r i v a t e and P u b l i c  Investment i n Canada, Outlook, 1961, Regional Estimates. 41  D.B.S., P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Investment i n  Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964). 42  D  .B.S. N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-57, (Ottawa; Queen's P r i n t e r . a n d C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1958), p.34-  ^ D . B . S . , N a t i o n a l Accounts,. Income and Expenditure (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery,  1 9 6 5 ) . p.30.  4 4 D . B . S . , Indexes of Real Domestic Product  by Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y ,  1963).  ^ I b i d . , pp. 51-52. 5  ^ D . B . S . , pjp_. c i t . pp, 107, 134-138. ^ D . B . S . , Indexes of Real Domestic Product £Z Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61, pp. 105-123. ^ D . B . S . , p_p_. c i t . ^ D . B . S . , Indexes of Real Domestic Product by_ Industry o f , O r i g i n , 1935-61, p. 51. 5°D.B.S., Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of 1948)  Stationery,  5 ! D . B . S . , Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of I960).  Stationery,  5 D.B.S., Indexes o f Real Domestic Product 2  „by_ Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61, p. 51.  5 3 D . B . S . , Survey o f Production, 1962  (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1965).  S^Ibid., p. 5. 5 5  i b i d . , pp. 2 0 - 2 7 -  5 ^ D . B . S . , General Review of Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s i n Canada (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 5 7  1964).  D . B . S . , 1961 Census of Canada: Labour  Force, V o l . I l l (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n a r y , 1 9 6 4 ) . . B . S., op_. c i t . 59D.B.S.,  02. c i t .  ^ ° D . B . S . , General Review of the Mining Industries  (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r  of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 ) . D L  6 2  6 3  D.B.S.,  op_. c i t .  I b i d . , p. 8 . I b i d . , pp. 8 , 2 1 .  ( 99.  ^ I b i d . , pp. 8, 22-23; D.B.S., F i s h e r i e s  6  S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery,  1964),  pp. 6-7; and D.B.S., F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, Canada Summary 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964), pp. 10-12. 65 I b i d . , p. 8. 6 6  I b i d . , p. 2 4 .  6 ? D . B . S . , Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada: Section F B r i t i s h Columbia, Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1 9 6 1 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r Of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 21; and D.B.S., Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada: Section A, Summary f o r Canada, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 25. 68  69  D.B.S., Appendix. D.B.S., 1961 Census of Canada: Labour  Force, V o l . I l l (Ottawa:, Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) . 7  °D.B.S., p_p_. c i t . , p. 27.  ? I b i d . , p. 9 . 1  72  D.B.S., Indexes of Real Domestic Product  Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 3 ) , 73  p.113.  D.B.S., 1961 Census of Canada: Labour  Force, V o l . I I I . 74  D.B.S., Urban T r a n s i t , 1961 (Ottawa:  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , pp. 9 ,  1964),  12.  75 "D.B.S., Passenger Bus S t a t i s t i c s , 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964),  pp. 8 - 9 . 7A  D.B.S., Water Transportation  (Ottawa:  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y ,  1964),  pp. 8 - 9 . 7 7  7  I b i d . , p. 5.  ^D.B.S., Motor Transport T r a f f i c :  National  Estimates, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 4 . 79  D.B.S., Motor C a r r i e r s - F r e i g h t : P a r t i ,  Class 1 and Class 2 C a r r i e r s , 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 8 - 9 , 21.  101. 8o  D.B.S., Gas U t i l i t i e s , 1961  (Ottawa:  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 4 0 . 8l  D.B.S., O i l P i p e l i n e Transport, 1961  (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964),  pp. 3 6 - 3 7 .  ^ D.B.S., Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 2  Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, I960),  p. 3 8 .  ^^D.B.S., Moving and Storage, Household, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964), pp.8-9• ^D.B.S., Warehousing, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 7. -'D.B.S., Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Broadcastings, 1961 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964), p. 5. D.B.S., Telephone S t a t i s t i c s , 1961  (Ottawa:  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964) p. 19.  102  87 'D.B.S., Telegraph and Cable S t a t i s t i c s , 1961  (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r o f  S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 8, 14•  ^D.B.S., p_p_. c i t . , p. 2 5 . 8  9D.B.S.,  Gas U t i l i t i e s , 1961 (Ottawa:  Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 4 0 . 90  D  .B.S., Indexes of Real Domestic Product by_ Industry o f O r i g i n , 1935-61, pp. 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 . ^D.B.S., 1 9 6 1 Census of Canada: Labour Force, V o l . I l l , pp. 28-29, 1 0 7 . 92D.B.S., 1 9 6 1 Census o f Canada: Merchandising; R e t a i l Trade, V o l . V I , pp. 1 7 - 2 1 . 93 V.R. B e r l i n g u e t t e and F.H. Leacy, op. ext.,  pp. 237-240; D.B.S., Indexes o f Real Domestic  Product by Industry o f O r i g i n , 1 9 3 5 - 6 1 , p. 4 2 ; and D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-57,  p. 123. 9 4  Ibid.  9 5  Ibid.  103.  9°Ibid. 97  D.B.S., 1961 Census of Canada: Labour  Force, V o l . I l l , ^D.B.S., Indexes of Real Domestic Product by_ Industry o f O r i g i n , 1935-61, p. 1 1 9 . " T h e Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue of Canada, Taxation S t a t i s t i c s , I 9 6 3 (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1963),.p. 6 2 - 6 3 . 1 0 0  I b i d . , p.25.  ^"^D.B.S., Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, i 9 6 0 ) , 102  p. 4 5 -  D.B.S., 1 9 6 1 Census of Canada, Labour  Force, V o l . I l l , pp. 28, 1 0 9 . 103  ^D.B.S., N a t i o n a l Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1 9 2 6 - 5 7 , p. 123; and D.B.S., Indexes of Real Domestic Product by Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61, pp. 4 2 - 4 3 . 10Zf  D.B.S., 1 9 6 1 Census o f Canada: Labour  Force, V o l . I l l , pp. 28, 1 0 9 .  1 0  5D.B.S.,  1961  Census o f Canada: Wholesale  Trade; Services, V o l . VI. The Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue of Canada, Taxation S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 6 3 , pp. 9 0 - 9 1 . 107  108  1 0 9  D.B.S. , p_p_. c i t . D.B.S., 1961 Census of Canada. E d w i n F. Terry, "Regional Income Account  Estimates," Elements of Regional Accounts, Werner Z. H i r s c h , e d i t o r (Papers presented a t the Conference on Regional Accounts, 1 9 6 2 . Hopkins Press, 1 9 6 4 ) ,  Baltimore: The Johns  pp. 28-34-  105.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  PRIMARY SOURCES  B e r l i n g u e t t e , V.R., and Leacy, F.H. "The Estimation of Real Domestic Product by F i n a l Expenditure Categories and by Industry of O r i g i n i n Canada," Output, Input, and P r o d u c t i v i t y Measurement. N a t i o n a l Bureau of Economic Research Study i n Income and Wealth, V o l . XXV. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961, pp. 203-249. H i r s c h , Werner Z. "Design of and Use of Regional Accounts," The American Economic Review, May 1962, pp.365373. Hochwald, Werner. "Conceptual Issues of Regional Income E s t i m a t i o n , " Regional Income. N a t i o n a l Bureau of Economic Research Study i n Income and Wealth, V o l . XXI. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957, pp. 9-26. Hoover, Edgar M., and C h i n i t z , Benjamine. "The Role of Accounts i n the Economic Study of the P i t t s b u r g h M e t r o p o l i t a n Region, "Design of Regional Accounts, Werner Hochwald, e d i t o r . Papers presented at the Conference on Regional Accounts, I960. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961, pp. 253-274Isard,  W. , and F r e u t e l , G. "Regional and N a t i o n a l Product P r o j e c t i o n and Their I n t e r - R e l a t i o n , " Long Range Economic P r o j e c t i o n . N a t i o n a l Bureau of Economic Research Studies i n Income and Wealth, V o l . XVI, Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1954, pp. 427-471.  Leven, Charles L. "Regional Income and Product Accounts: Construction and A p p l i c a t i o n s , " Design of Regional Accounts, Werner Hochwald, e d i t o r . Papers presented at the Conference on Regional Accounts, I960. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961, pp. 148-198.  106.  Meyer, John R. "Regional Economics: A Survey/" • The American Economic Review, March 1963, pp. 19-54-  Parks, A.C. The.'Economy of the A t l a n t i c Provinces, 194Q195^7 Second E d i t i o n . H a l i f a x : The A t l a n t i c Provi n c e s Economic Council, I960. Ruggles, Richard, and Ruggles, Nancy D. "Regional Breakdowns of N a t i o n a l Economic Accounts, "Design of Regional Accounts, Werner Hochwald, e d i t o r . Papers presented at the "Conference on Regional Accounts, I 9 6 0 . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1 9 6 1 ,  pp. 1 2 2 - 1 4 7 .  Terry, Edwin F. "Regional Income Accounts Estimates," Elements of Regional Accounts, Werner Z. H i r s c h e d i t o r . Papers presented at the Conference on Regional Accounts, 1 9 6 2 . Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1 9 o 4 , pp. 2 5 - 4 9 . The Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. Summary of Business A c t i v i t i e s . V i c t o r i a : The Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 6 2 . The Department of N a t i o n a l Revenue of Canada, Taxation S t a t i s t i c s , 1963. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 19$3. The United States Department of Commerce. A Supplement to the Survey of Current Business. Personal Income by States Since 1 9 2 9 . Washington: United States Department P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 5 6 . B.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS OF CANADA  The Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. Canadian N a t i o n a l Railways. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . C o n s o l i d a t i o n of P u b l i c Finance S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . 1961 Census of Canada: Labour Force, V o l . I I I . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964.  107-  . 1961 Census of Canada: Census of Manufacturing, V o l . V. Ottawa: Queen's . P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964• .1961 Census of Canada: Merchandising: R e t a i l Trade, V o l . VI. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . .1961 Census of Canada: Wholesale Trade: Services, V o l . VI. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964. F i n a n c i a l S t a t i s t i c s of P r o v i n c i a l Governments, 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . . F i s h e r i e s S t a t i s t i c s of Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery,1964. .Gas U t i l i t i e s , 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 . • General Review of the Mining I n d u s t r i e s , 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of~~^ Stationery,1964• .General Review of Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s i n Canada, 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . •Indexes of Real Domestic Product by Industry of O r i g i n , 1935-61. Ottawa: Queen's "Printer and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 3 . .Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada: Section F, B r i t i s h Columbia, Yukon and Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . .Manufacturing I n d u s t r i e s of Canada, Summary f o r Canada. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 . .Motor C a r r i e r s - F r e i g h t : Part I , Class I and Class 2 C a r r i e r s , 19&T. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and Controller of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 .  108. .Motor Transport T r a f f i c : N a t i o n a l Estimates, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964. .Moving and Storage, Household, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964.  .National Accounts, Income and Expenditure, 1926-57> Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1958. . O i l P i p e l i n e Transport, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964. '.Passenger Bus S t a t i s t i c s , 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964. .Radio and T e l e v i s i o n Broadcasting, 1961. Ottawa: , Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1964.  .Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual. Ottawa Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1948.  .Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, I960., .Supplement to P r i v a t e and P u b l i c Investment i n Canada, Outlook, 1961. Regional Estimates, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964. Survey of Production, 1962. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1965. Telegraph and Cable S t a t i s t i c s , 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery,  1964.  Telephone S t a t i s t i c s , 1961. Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1964.  109.  •Urban T r a n s i t , 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen s P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 . 1  .Warehousing, 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, 1 9 6 4 . .Water Transportation, 1 9 6 1 . Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , 1 9 6 4 .  110. APPENDIX C0MPUT0R OUTPUT SHEETS, CALCULATION OF PROVINCIAL G.D.P. AT FACTOR COST BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN  We used an e l e c t r i c computor, IBM 7040 f o r the calculations^required i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Here we e x p l a i n  the n o t a t i o n s used i n the computor output sheets, using the sheet of mining as an example.  The data  l i s t e d i n these sheets are discussed i n d e t a i l i n Chapter V.  The computor output sheets contain the  f o l l o w i n g items f o r each i n d u s t r y group: ( i ) GDP OF CANADA This i s the n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n an i n d u s t r y group.  We provide 1,445,000,000  d o l l a r s f o r mining, ( i i ) SUB-INDUSTRY This i s a number  of i n d u s t r i e s which  belongs to the corresponding i n d u s t r y group. The numbers correspond to those l i s t e d i n Table I . In t h i s example, they a r e : 1 (non-metals), 2(metals), 3 ( f u e l s ) , and 4 (construcual m a t e r i a l s ) .  111.  (iii)  PROVINCIAL INDICATORS They are the p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r s and t h e i r corresponding n a t i o n a l t o t a l s . For mining, gross value of output was provided f o r each i n d u s t r y ,  (iv)  1949 GDP WEIGHT This i s the 1949 i n d u s t r i a l weight of each i n d u s t r y . industry.  We provide i t f o r each  The sum offthese weights i s given  at the l a s t row. (v)  ADJUSTED WEIGHT Each of the 1 9 4 9 i n d u s t r i a l weight i s d i v i d e d by the sum o f these weights to o b t a i n the adjusted weight.  I t shows a  r e l a t i v e share o f G.D.P. by each i n d u s t r y i n the i n d u s t r y group, and the sum o f these adjusted weights i s equal to one. (vi)  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY M u l t i p l y i n g the adjusted weight by Canadian G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n mining, we o b t a i n Canadian G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n the component industry.  The sumcf them i s equal t o the  n a t i o n a l aggregate of G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n mining.  EXAMPLE OP COMPUTOR OUTPUT SHEET IV. A.  MINING, QUARRYING, AND OIL WELLS (i) GDP OF CANADA 1445000. (UNIT THOUSAND OF DOLLARS)  B.  SUB-INDUSTRIAL AND PROVINCIAL DISTRIBUTIONOF GDP  SUB- ( i i )1949 GDP INDUSTRY. WEIGHT  ADJUSTED ~ WEIGHT  1  1.925(i )  0.5932( )  857203.  0.0936( i)  2  0.268  0.0826  119341.  0.0735  8770.  3  0.915  0.2820  407450.  0.0318  12963.  4  0.137  0.0422  61006.  0.0677  4131.  TOTAL  3.245  1.0000  1445000^  C.  v  v  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1961 GDP SUB-INDUSTRY 80243.(viii!  vi  106107. PROVINCIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN* *) 106107. 1  PROVINCIAL INDICATORS< ) D. SUB . B.C.. CANADA 1. . 129853. 1387159. 111  2  15467.  210468.  3  20785.  653328.  4  22438.  331346.  END  1961 B.C. WEIGHT  CALCULATION FOR THE ABOVE INDUSTRY  113.  (vii)  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT D i v i d i n g the p r o v i n c i a l  indicator  by i t s corresponding n a t i o n a l t o t a l , we o b t a i n the 1 9 6 1 p r o v i n c i a l weight f o r each (viii)  indicator  industry,  1 9 6 1 B.C. GDP SUB-INDUSTRY M u l t i p l y i n g the 1 9 6 1 p r o v i n c i a l i n d i c a t o r weight by i t s corresponding G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n the component i n d u s t r y , we obtain the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n the component industry.  (ix)  PROVINCIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT BY INDUSTRY OF ORIGIN The sum o f the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. at f a c t o r cost o r i g i n a t i n g i n these component i n d u s t r i e s i s the p r o v i n c i a l G.D.P. a t f a c t o r cost by industry group, which i s the f i n a l f i g u r e we want. mining.  I t i s106,107,000 dollars i n  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS DOMESTIC PRUDUCT INDUSTRY OF O R I G I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  1961  I .AGRICULTURE A.  GCP CF CANADA 1581000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WE IGHT  CANADA GDP S U B - INDUSTRY  1 .  10.714  l.COOO  1581000.  TOTAL  1C.714  l.COOO  1581000.  C.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS DOMESTIC  ~  PRODUCT BY  88174.  ~T5T SUB  B. C.  1  95673.  1  END  C A L C U L A T I O N FOR  :  CANADA 1715467. fHE ABOVE  INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT . 0.0558  =  ~~~ ~~ J  1961 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY 88174.  •  INDUSTRY OF  =  P R O V I N C I A L I N D I C A f CRS'~  GDP  ORIGLN  88174.  III.  FISHING  A.  AND  TRAPPING  GDP OF CANADA 1CCC00. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF C O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 5 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1  0.374  0.6926  69259.  0.3966  2  0.083  0.1537  15370.  0.0000  3  0.083  0.1537  15370. -  0.0553  0.540  1.0000  TOJAL  27467. 0. , 850. 28316.  100000.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT  C.  BY  INDUSTRY  •  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  OF O R I G I N  2 8 3 16 .  C.  PROVINCIAL  INDICATORS -  SUB  B.C. -  CANADA  _ 38778.  97782.  2  C.  12450.  3  64 7.  1L704.  1  END C A L C U L A T I O N  FOR THE ABOVE  -i  -  INDUSTRY  -  -  r  -  J  II.  FORESTRY  A.  GCP OF CANADA 355000. (UNIT T H G U S A N D S OF C O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L  8.  SUBINOUSTRY 1  "  1949,GDP WEIGHT  - ADJUSTED WE I G H T  2.108  DISTRIBUTION  CANADA G D P " 1961 B . C . S U B - I N D U S T R Y _ ____WEIGHT  1.0000  355000.  C.  2.1C8  PROVINCIAL  1.0000  GROSS  151309.  DOMESTIC  PRODUCT  1  "END  OF OR f G I N  =  C.  284041.  CALCULATION  151309.  151309.  BY I N D U S T R Y  " B.  0.4262  355000.  H G . ""PRTTVT^ SUB  1961 B . C . G D P SUB-INDUSTRY  x  1  TOTAL  OF GDP  CANADA 666414.  FOR T H E A B O V E  INDUSTRY  "  "  ~ — *  — -  IV.  M I N I N G , QUA'RRYING,  A.  AND  O I L WELLS  GDP CF CANADA 1445000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U t l O N OF GDP  B.  SUB-" INDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  1  1.925  . 0.5932  2  0.268  3  CANADA GDP ' SUB-INDUSTRY  1961B.C. WEIGHT  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  857203.  0.0936  80243.  C.0826  119341.-  0.0735  8770.  0.915  C.2820  407450.  0.0318  12963.  .  0.137  0.0422  0.0677  4131.  TOTAL  3.245  1.0000  4  C.  '  PROVINCIAL  106107.  INDUSTRY  OF O R I G I N  INDICATORS  SLIB  B. C.  1  129853.  ,1387159.  2  15467.  210468.  3  2C785.  653328.  4  22 438.  331346.-  CALCULATION  *•  1445000.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY  ~Cl  END  61006.  CANADA  FOR-THE ABOVE  INDUSTRY  _  t  . .  ________  \ •  MANUFACTURING  V. A. B.  GDP OF CANADA 8501000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / SUB— I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT '  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  /  S 1961.B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  0.0829  106064.  8317?.  0.0000  0.  0.0170  144210.  0.0027  385.  0.5C8  0.0200  170369.  0.0080  1363.  5  1.623  0.0640  544303.  0.0103  5583.  6  0.394  0.0155  132136.  0.0158  2094.  -7  1.407  0.0555  4 71868.  0.0163  7707.  8  1.648  0.0650  552692.  0.5057  279517.  9  0.460  0.0181  154271.  0.0601  9266.  1C  0.649  217656.  -0. 1 7 0 8  37171.  11  1.273  C.0502  426928.  0.0692  29553.  12 .  3.299  0.1301  1106391.  0.0589  65112.  13  1.024  G.0404  343421.'  0.0569  19533.  14  .1.304  0.0514  437325.  0.0377  16487.  15 .  2.628  0.1C37  881357.  0.0409  36060.  16  1.401  0.0553  469856.  0.0135  6343.  17  0.794  0.0313  266285.  0.0459  12232.  1  3.814  0.1505  2  C.248  0.0098  3  0.430  4  , 1279107.  , 0.0256  .  <  -  -  -  -  •  -  •  •  J  ' _  18  0.513  0.0202  172046.  0.0813  13991.  19  1.381  0.0545  463148.  0.0535  24766.  20  0.550  0.0217  L§^5_4.  _0__02j56__  25.348  1 .OCOO  8501000.  TOTAL C.  PROVINCIAL  GROSS DOMESTJC PRODUCT BY  4724. 677952.  INDUSTRY _0F• O R I G I N  677952. D.  PROVINCIAL  _ _ _ _ _  -  __  INDICATORS  e7"C".  CANADA  141355.  1704715.  2  0.  128639.  3  458.  171593.  112 3.  140387.  5  4028.  392688.  6  JOT.  44606.  7  6159.  377072.  8  218161.  431372.  9  11118.  185102.  10  182960.  1071316.  11  40917.  591099.  12  66500.  1129978.  13  42033.  739018.  4  ^  '  ~  ~~  ^  ^  "  __  _  ____  , "  . "  END  14  12432.  329763,  15  33906.  828699.  16  8337.  617534.  17  1752C.  381393.  18  7132.  87704.  19  40689.  760927.  20  7927.  309523.  CALCULATION  FOR  THE  ABOVE  INDUSTRY  VI.  CONSTRUCTION  A.  GDP OF CANADA 1823000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  8.  SUBINDUSTRY 1 TOTAL C.  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  6.379  1.0000  1823000.  6.379  1.0000  1823000.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS  DOMESTIC PRODUCT BY  209178. O T " PROVINCIAL  INDICATOR'S"  SUB  B. C.  1  424652.  END  C A L C U L A T I O N FOR  CANADA 3700868; THE  ABOVE  GDP  INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT 0.1147  INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY 209178. 209178.  OF O R I G I N  VII.  TRANSPORTATION  A.  GCP OF CANADA 2170C0C. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  8.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WE IGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  I  0.150  0.0231  50077.  0.1868  9354.  2  3.594  0.5529  1199843.  0.0916  109859.  3  0.555  0.0854  185285.  0.0845  15660.  4  0.260  0.0400  86800.  0.0800  7639.  5  0.407  0.0626  135875.  0.0845  11486.  6  0.497  0.0765  165922.  0.0934  15495.  7  1.029  0.1583  343528.  0.2565  88103.  -8  0.008  0.0012  2671.  0.1549  414.  6.500  1.0000  2170000.  -  *  TOiTAL C.  PROVINCIAL  GROSS DOMESTIC  PRODUCT  258009..  BY INDUSTRY  -  OF O R I G I N  258009. D.  PROVINCIAL  -  INDICATORS •  SUB  B. C.  1  20049.  2  .  50122.  -  -  -  CANADA 107335 • 547416 •  3  26081.  308589 •  4  3127.  35533 •  5  2295.  27149.  i  t  VIM. A.  STORAGE GDP OF CANADA 85000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S 1 R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  B.  SUBINDUSTRY 1 2  "  TOTAL C.  1 9 4 9 GCP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  0.186  0.8087  68739.  0.0779  5354.  0.044  0.1913  , 1-6261.  0.2554  "4i53.  0.230  1.0000  85000.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS DOMESTIC '" 9 5 0 7 .  ~Ul  ~~  PRODUCT BY ~~  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  INDUSTRY  B_.__C.  1  3003.  38556.  2  10879.  42599.  C A L C U L A T I O N FOR  CANADA  THE ABOVE "INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  9507. OF O R I G I N '  P R O V I N C I A L INDICATORS  SUB  END  GDP  .  245C  '}  END  26234,  29133.  113594.  2666.  17210.  CALCULATION  FOR  THE  ABOVE  INDUSTRY  IX.  COMMUNICATION  A.  GDP CF CANADA 796C00. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  TOTAL  0. 174  0.1084  86295.  0.0426  3678.  0.805  0.5016  399240.  0.1089  43474.  0. 186  C.1159  92247,  0. 1001  9238,  C. 4 40  C.2741  218218.  0.1369  29884,  1.6C5  l.COCO  796000.  PROVINCIAL  SUB  INDICATORS  B. C.  CANACA  3 545.  END  83169.  19963,  183329,  1346.  13441.  17748.  CALCULATION  FOR  , THE  129597. ABOVE  INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  B.C.GDP  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY.  86274,  •4  -< 1961  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY  T~.  GDP  INDUSTRY  86274. OF  ORIGIN  X.  E L E C T R I C PGWER, G A S , AND  A.  WATER  GDP CF CANADA 1139C00. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  B•  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1  1.480  0.7831  891915.  0.1162  103633.  2  0.166  0.0878  100039.  0.0839  8388.  3  0.244  0.129]  147046.  0.0552  8110.  1.890  1.0000  1139000.  TOTAL  PROVINCIAL  C.  120131.  GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY INDUSTRY  OF O R I G I N  - 120131.  -  r D.  PROVINCIAL  — —I ;  INDICATORS  SUB  B. C.  1  97647.  840397.  2  3821.  45569.  3  1131.  20507.  END C A L C U L A T I O N  —  ;  •  -  'CANADA  FOR THE ABOVE  •  INDUSTRY  ,  ,  ~ ______  __  _____  —_  .  __  „  ,—.  ~  —_  _  XI. A. B.  WHOLESALE TRADE GDP OF CANADA 1547000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF C O L L A R S / SUB- I N D U S ! R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N  SUBINDUSTRY  1949 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WE IGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  OF GDP 1 9 6 L B.C. WEIGHT _____  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1  0.000  C.0000  0.  0.0000  0.  2  0.315  0.0631  97578.  0.0726  7081.  3  C.C78  0.0156  24162.  0.0335  809.  4  0.467 '  0.0935  144663.  0.1027  14863.  5  0. 165  0.0330  51112.  0.0762  3893.  6  0.114  0.0228  35314.  0.0000  0.  7  0.431  0.0863  .133512.  0.1460  19486:  8  C.431  0.0863  133512.  0.1000  13346.  0.162  0.C324  50183.  0.1020  5118.  1C  0.273  0.0547  84568.  0.0652  5512.  11  0.096  0.O192  .29738.  0.1458  4335.  12  0.339  0.0679  105013.  0.1179  12386.  13  C.256  0.0513  79302.  0. 1 1 6 6  9244.  14  0.055  0.0110  17037.  0.0738  1257.  15  0.67 3  0.1348  208476.  0.1335  27834.  16  0.213  C.0427  65981.  0.1228  8105 .  17  0. 1 7 9  0.0358  -55449.  0.0688  ^ 3814.  9  .  )  -  J  -  -  -  -  .,  -  •  -  18  0 .3 37  0 .0675  104393.  0.1301  13577.  19  0 .075  0 .0150  23233.  0.0802  1864.  20  c .335  0 .0671  103774.  0.1234  12801.  /  \  **  TOTAL C.  4 .954  I .0000  PROVINCIAL -  c.  GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY INDUSTRY OF O R I G I N  165325.  PROVINCIAL  SUB  165325.  1547000.  INDICATOR S  B.  CANADA  C.  --  1  0.  337.  2  699.  9632.  3  253.  7558.  10553.  •  •  102717.  •  -  •V-"  • 1598.  -  20980.'  -~  0.  1265. • •  18461.  • 126487.  ",  i • 8  1201.  -  -  12015. *  9  10  2524.  24750.  1562.-  23966.  •  -  11 . 12  1837 . 7953.  -  12603. 67429.  ,  -  < -  13  6624.  56823.  -  •  ENC  14  2668,  36152,  15  18591.  139247.  16  7552.  61481,  17  1369,  19 9'05v  18  14484.  111363.  19  1221.  15215,  2C  14656.  CALCULATION  FOR  1 L8808. THE  ABOVE  INDUSTRY  XII.  RETAIL  A.  •  TRACE  3106000. GDP CF CANADA (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / SUB- I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF  6.  SUBINDUSTRY  1949 GDP HEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  -  GDP 1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1961 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1  1.510  0.1568  487077.  0.0950  46265.  2  2. 175  0.2259  701584.  0.1155  81048.  3  1.757  0.1825  566751.  0.1065  60332.  4  0.786  0.0816  253538.  0.0811  20551.  5  0.701  0.0728  226120.  0.0915  20684.  6  2.700  0.2804  870932.  0.1043  90836.  9.629  1.0000  3106000.  TOTAL  PROVINCIAL  C.  *  GROSS D O M E S T I C PRGDUCT BY  INDUSTRY  J  -  •  319715. OF  ORIGIN  -  •  319715. •  D.  PROVINCIAL  SUB  B.  C.  73488.  1 2  98232. .., .  3 A  INDICATORS  -  CANADA 773683.  >  f  850339.  -  i  1C2888. .  31673.  966516.  390758.  5  32357.  353735.  6  78197.  749748.  *  -  <  4  ENC  CALCULATION  FOR  THE ABOVE  INDUSTRY  J  XIII. A.  F I N A N C E , I N S U R A N C E , AND REAL  ESTATES  GDP OF CAN AC A 3532000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP , SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1961 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1  2.GC9  0.2201  777450.  0.0943  ' 73295.  2  1.573  0.1723  608725.  0.0949  57796.,  3  5.545  0.6075  2145824.  0.0666  142813.  9.127  1.0000  3532000.  TOTAL  PROVINCIAL  C.  GROSS C O M E S T I C  PRODUCT. BY INDUSTRY  -  •  •  273904.  OF O R I G I N  273904.  D.  PROVINCIAL  INDICATORS  -  SUB  B. C.  CANADA  1  35024.  371506.  2  37561.  395606.  3  53160.  798750.  -  -  *  END C A L C U L A T I O N  FOR THE ABOVE  -  •  INDUSTRY  •  -  0*  •  •  -  XIV.  PUBLIC  A.  ADMINISTRATION  AND  DEFENCE  GCP OF CANADA 2516000. (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WEIGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SU B -_I NDUS T R Y  1  0.866  0.1723  433517.  0.1046  45349.  2  1.746  0.3474  874042.  0.0823  71939.  3  1.4C6  0.2797  703839.  0.1041  73283.  4  1.C08  0.2006  504602.  0.1109  55978.  5.026  l.COCO  2516000.  TOTAL C.  P R O V I N C I A L GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY  246549.  INDUSTRY .....  — P R O V I N C I A L  B. C.  1  70279.  671838.  2  36727.  446222.  25334.  243319.  47685.  429846.  4  '  END C A L C U L A T I O N  -•—  "  •  •  •  INDICATORS  SUB  3  OF O R I G I N  CANADA  FOR THE ABOVE  INDUSTRY  '  |  XV.  SERVICE  A.  GDP OF CANADA 4655000. ' (UNIT THOUSANDS OF D O L L A R S / S U B - I N D U S T R I A L AND P R O V I N C I A L D I S T R I B U T I O N OF GDP  B.  SUBINDUSTRY  1 9 4 9 GDP WEIGHT  ADJUSTED WE IGHT  CANADA GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C.GDP SUB-INDUSTRY  1 9 6 1 B.C. WEIGHT  1  1.568  0.1568  730088.  0.0970  70796.  2  2.012  0.1987  925023.  0.1186  109677.  3  0.275  0.0272  126432.  0.0730  9232".  4  0.471  0.0465  216544.  0.1334  28888.  5  1.260  C.1244  .579289.  0.1409  81601.  6  1.360  0.1343  625264.  0.1413  88337.  7  0. 1 2 1  0.0120  55630.  0.1281  7125.  8  0.220  0.0217  101146.  0.1475  14920.  9  2.818  0.2783  1295 5 8 4 .  0.1488  10.125  l.GOOO  4655000.  .  PROVINCIAL  C.  GROSS D O M E S T I C PRODUCT BY INDUSTRY  -  •  -  Si  >  192783. *  TOTAL  •  6033 59.  •  OF O R I G I N  603359. D.  PROVINCIAL  SUB 1"  INDICATORS  B. C. .  •<J  86745.  •  -  CANADA 894565 •  2  71630.  604131 •  3  5122.  70145 •  4  5170.  38754  -  -  •  -  -  *  a  c_  a  CD  m  >»  ft ft ft ft ft « ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft  m 2  «  t—t  «<  ft ft ft * ft ft ft  i  n  x XI  oo  CO  r—  o c  (V)  *->  \s X  o 2  73 00  o o  M  ai _:  *  oo m o  2  O  UJ  o  UJ CO  o o  X)  CD  UJ  \0  -J  o  o  CO  -J  X m >  •  CD  oo  a <  m  a  2  %  ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft *c ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft t ft ft ft -ftft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft ft >:<  m 2 a o >  o  00 —I  J>  J>  UJ  o o  J> -J  o  co  -si  XI  < -J  o  a j> X a oo 70  m  t>  a  > r~ m  00  ~o  72  2  o  o  CO  —I IT,  o  o a  c  X c  CI j> 73  O oo  o c  CO  • o rr Cl  X  c  2  Cl  X m  C  <  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302273/manifest

Comment

Related Items