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Heating techniques in domestic food processing : a text for adult education Koerner, Anna Rosborough 1968

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HEATING TECHNIQUES IN DOMESTIC FOOD PROCESSING A TEXT FOR ADULT EDUCATION by Anna Rosborough Koerner B.H.S. McGill University, 1938 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Apr i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h lis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f /~df c a /' o *t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to prepare curriculum materials for an avocational program in adult education on the heating and cooking techniques of domestic food processing. The material was developed as a teaching device (text) to be used in an adult education program or as a self study program for adults who had never cooked. The text departed from the conventional development of food text materials. It i s customary to proceed from the food to the method of preparation. This text began with the method and applied i t , wherever possible, to each of six natural foods. These foods were meat, poultry, fis h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. It was f e l t that this presentation would provide the adult learner with the means of achieving his immediate practical objectives more readily than the conventional presentation. In addition to developing curriculum material for an avocational program on the heating and cooking techniques of domestic food process-ing the study served to examine the cooking repetoire of Canada and the United States. By means of deduction i t became apparent that certain valuable areas of cookery have been neglected i n Canadian and American cuisine. This was particularly evident in vegetable cookery. A method of preparing chicken by poaching was also found to have been largely overlooked in Canadian and American cook books. The text was developed from a conceptual classification designed especially for this study. The classification depicts the whole f i e l d of food processing starting with food i n i t s natural state and following i t through the various processes to the stage at which i t is ready for consumption. It begins by showing the six food processing techniques of preparation and preservation. These are; (l) Sub-division and fractionization, (2) combining and mixing, (3) heating and cooking, (4) removal of heat and freezing, (5) use of chemical agents, (6) use of microorganisms. The heating and cooking technique i s further classified according to media of heat transfer. These are; ( l ) water, (2) steam, (3) air, (4) fat, (5) combinations of these media. The media c l a s s i f i -cation i s sub-divided into methods of cooking. When water i s the medium of heat transfer the cooking methods are boiling, simmering, poaching and stewing; when steam is the medium the methods are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking, when air i s the medium the methods are broiling and roasting or baking, when fat i s the medium the methods are pan-frying, deep-fat frying, sauteing and pan-broiling; when a combination of media are used the methods are braising and pot-roasting. The methods may also be classified as moist heat methods, dry heat methods and combina-tion methods. The text was divided into five units as chapters, each chapter dealin with one medium of heat transfer. Each chapter gave definitions of each cooking method as well as description of i t s use with six natural foods. The foods chosen for this study were meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. If the method could be applied to these foods i t was described in detail and a basic formula was developed. These basic formulae are step of procedure which are used by experienced cooks to achieve predictable results. At the end of each chapter an appraisal of the method was made. Learning experiences were also suggested which would enable the adult learner to assess his own progress and achievement. Solutions to problems were given. Every effort was made to familiarize the adult learner with the basic principles of food preparation. It was f e l t that the intelligent performer of a s k i l l i s one who understands "why" as well as "how" a procedure is followed. It was also f e l t that i f the adult learner was given an understand-ing of basic methods, basic formulae and essential s k i l l s he would be equipped to use recipes intelligently. This study was conceived as one unit i n a broader curriculum which would embrace a l l six techniques of domestic food processing, Grateful acknowledgement is made to Dr. John A. Niemi, Professor of Adult Education, for his kind and untiring assistance i n the prep-aration of this study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Need for the Study 3 Purpose of the Study 3 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED 4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 6 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 6 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 8 II. COOKING METHODS USING WATER AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER. 11 Methods of Cooking Meat i n Water 12 Methods of Cooking Poultry in Water or Another Liquid 15 Methods of Cooking Fish i n Water or Another Liquid 16 Methods of Cooking Vegetables in Water 17 Methods of Cooking Fruit i n Water or Another Liquid 18 Methods of Cooking Eggs in Water 19 Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer 21 SUMMARY 2 4 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 26 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 2 ° CHAPTER PAGE III. COOKING METHODS USING STEAM AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER 30 Methods of Cooking Meat with Steam 32 Methods of Cooking Poultry with Steam 34 Methods of Cooking Fish with Steam 36 Methods of Cooking Vegetables with Steam 40 Methods of Cooking Fruit with Steam 42 Appraisal of Cooking Methods U t i l i z i n g Steam as the Medium of Heat Transfer <,.... 44 SUMMARY 47 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 49 SOLUTIONS TO LEARNING EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS 49 IV. COOKING METHODS IN WHICH AIR IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER 53 Methods of Cooking Meat Using Air as Medium of Heat Transfer 54 Methods of Cooking Poultry Using Air as Medium of Heat Transfer 57 Methods of Cooking Fish Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer 60 Methods of Cooking Vegetables and Fruits Using Ai r as Medium of Heat Transfer 62 Methods of Cooking Eggs Using Air as Medium of Heat Transfer 65 Appraisal of Cooking Methods Employing A i r as the Medium of Heat Exchange 65 CHAPTER PAGE IV. SUMMARY 68 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 68a ' SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 68a V. COOKING METHODS IN WHICH FAT IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER 71 Methods of Frying Meat with Fat 72 Methods of Frying Poultry with Fat 75 Methods of Cooking Fish i n Fat 77 Methods of Cooking Vegetables i n Fat 78 Methods of Cooking Fruits i n Fat 80 Methods of Cooking Eggs i n Fat 80 Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Fat as the Medium of Heat Transfer 81 SUMMARY 84 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 85 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 85 VI. COOKING METHODS USING A COMBINATION OF MEDIA OF HEAT TRANSFER 88 Methods of Braising Meat 90 Methods of Braising Poultry 92 Methods of Braising Fish 93 Methods of Braising Vegetables 94 Appraisal of the Braising Method of Cookery ... 95 CHAPTER PAGE VI. SUMMARY 97 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 99 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 99 VII. SUMMARY 102 BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 APPENDIX TABLES OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES GLOSSARY OF COOKING TERMS 125 SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL 129 Purposes of Cooking Foods 129 Purposes of Cooking Meat, Poultry and Fish .... 129 Purposes of Cooking Vegetables and Fruits 130 Purposes of Cooking Eggs 130 Heat Exchange in Cooking 132 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I FOOD PROCESSING (PREPARATION AND PRESERVATION) ... 5 II TIME TABLE FOR COOKING MEATS IN LIQUID 112 III TIME TABLE FOR BROILING MEAT 113 IV TIME TABLE FOR ROASTING MEATS 114 V TIME TABLE FOR BRAISING MEATS 115 VI ROASTING GUIDE FOR POULTRY 116 VII TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FISH IN LIQUID 117 VIII TIME TABLE FOR BROILING FISH 118 IX TIME TABLE FOR BAKING FISH AND SHELL FISH 119 X TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FRESH VEGETABLES 120 XI TEMPERATURES FOR DEEP-FAT FRYING 123 XII OVEN TEMPERATURE 124 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Although many courses dealing with food preparation are offered to adults by institutions providing adult education programs, there i s a no-table lack of appropriate teaching devices (texts) written especially for the adult learner. Instructional agents who teach these non-credit avo-cational courses usually select their own materials which have been de-, veloped for use in ri g i d credit courses i n a formal curriculum. A text has not been designed to meet the immediate practical needs of the adult learner. Presently a text on basic food preparation written especially for adults i s not available for public school adult education programs in B r i t i s h Columbia. I. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem. A text designed for the adult learner in an adult education program must take into consideration the differences which exist between the pre-adult student following a prescribed course of study i n the public school system, the adult receiving training i n a professional institution and the adult student whose enrollment i n a program i s subsiduary and supplemental to his primary vocational role. The adult i n the adult education program may be motivated by a feeling of inadequacy in his a b i l i t y to perform tasks which are expected of him i n a new social role. His interest may be motivated by special problems, responsibilities, needs, curiosities or ambitions. As a result he may be receptive to information which i s d i -rectly related to the fulfilment of his particular goals. A text for 2 the adult must provide material for new learning which meets the immediate practical objectives of the learner."^ A course on basic food preparation could be of interest and could con-ceivably meet the needs of adults assuming new societal roles. Selected examples might be: 1. The young adult who has just l e f t home and i s liv i n g by himself. 2. The retired man who has lost a spouse. 3. The professional person who wishes to engage in a hobby. 4. The young married person who has never cooked. There should be recognition of the educational differences which exist between the adult learner in the formal academic institution and the adult in the adult education program. Some of the students who attend the adult education classes w i l l have had l i t t l e training i n the sciences, whereas chemistry, biology and physics are prerequisites for food courses offered by colleges and technical schools. Although food preparation is firmly based on sci e n t i f i c principles allowances must be made for the probable disparity in educational background of a heterogeneous group subscribing to adult edu-cation courses. However, i f the adult learner is given an understanding of basic principles of cooking, basic methods and essential s k i l l s he should have the foundation for making sound judgments and for applying appropriate s k i l l s whenever he i s confronted with cooking tasks in his everyday l i f e . He w i l l also have acquired the basic knowledge on which to build more ad-vanced and complex learning and s k i l l s . Since learning i s facilitated when the learner i s aware of his progress some provision must be made for him to measure his knowledge and level of performance. This study w i l l endeavour to design a teaching device (text) which w i l l meet the special requirements of the adult learner. 3 Need for the study. In researching the literature the author has located excellent texts dealing with food preparation which have been written for the instruction of nutritionists, dietitians, food technicians, nurses, chefs, bakers and other commercial, industrial and hospital food-service personnel as well as many texts written for use of pre-adult students at the high-school level. However, for the adult whose interest in food preparation is avo-cational rather than vocational a text has not been designed for use i n the non-credit formal instructional setting. There is no shortage of cook-books, recipe-books, magazines and pamphlets, as well as newspaper and magazine articles which furnish valuable resource material. However, these often tend to be collections of recipes with limited explanatory content and they do not provide the rationale for specified procedures. These resources are valuable to the experienced cook whereas the un-initiated may find them d i f f i c u l t to follow. The l a t t e r 1 s d i f f i c u l t y arises from the fact that he does not have the necessary knowledge of basic principles, methods, s k i l l s and vocabulary. The need exists for a text on the subject of food preparation which is designed especially for the adult who wishes to learn how to cook. Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study is to design an instructional device (text) especially for the use of the adult i n an adult education program. It i s intended for use in the following formal instructional settings: 1. A night school course under the direction of an instruc-tional agent meeting for two hour sessions once a week for twenty weeks. 4 2. A similar course given by (a) A Home Demonstration Agent, (b) A Woman's Institute Agent, (c) An Agriculture Departmental Agent, (d) A University Extension Agent. Although i t i s conceived as a device (text) to be used i n a formal instructional setting under the direction of an educational agent using the seminar, demonstration, and laboratory techniques, i t could also be used as a self-teaching device for adults who wish to gain some under-standing of cooking theory and procedures on their own. It w i l l there-fore endeavour to incorporate some of the techniques peculiar to pro-grammed learning and w i l l offer ample opportunity for reinforcement of learning as well as feedback on achievement. It could also serve as a manual to be used with recipes. It w i l l not contain recipes but w i l l supply formulae into which recipes f i t . I t w i l l define the various cooking methods, provide basic formulae for using these methods with meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and, wherever practi-cal, with eggs. The teaching device w i l l include an appendix with tables of cooking temperatures and times, a glossary of cooking terms and supp-lemental material on heat exchange and transfer. II. DEFINITION OF TERMS USED As used in the context of this text the following terms are defined; Food processing. This term w i l l refer to a l l the techniques used in the alteration of natural foods. Cooking. This term is used when "heating affects the entire mass of food. The changes produced in food by heat depend upon such factors as the method of heat transfer, the time of heating, and the temperature TABLE I FOOD PROCESSING PREPARATION AND PRESERVATION Subdivision and Fractionization Combining and Mixing Heating Removal and of Cooking Heat Use of Chemical Agents Use of Mi cro organi sms Media: Techniques of Heating and Cooking Water Steam A i r Fat Combination of Media 1. Boiling 1. Steaming 1. Broiling 1. Pan Frying 1. Braising 2. Simmering 2. Waterless Cooking 2. Baking 2. Deep Fat Frying 2. Pot roasting 3. Poaching 3. Pressure Cooking of 3. Sauteing 4. Stewing Roasting 4. Pan broiling Moist Heat Methods Dry Heat Methods Combination Methods Note: This outline represents the classification of food processing techniques , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of cooking techniques according to the media of heat exchange employed^ and the classification of cooking methods within each medium group.^ Cooking methods may also be c l a s s i f i e d as dry heat methods, moist heat methods and combination methods.4 1. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and Preparation, N.Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 138. 2. Ibid., p. 145. 3. Ibid., pp. 145-50. 4. Ibid., p. 405 Osee, Hughes, Introductory Foods, N.Y., The MacMillan Co., 1962, pp. 157, 192, 202. Carl A. Rietz, Jeremiah J . Wanderstock, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn., 1965, pp. 14, 113-28. 6 reached on the surface and within the mass of food, as well as upon the 2 nature of the food i t s e l f . " Method. In general methods of cooking are divided into five classes according to the cooking medium employed for heat transfer. These media are ( l ) water, (2) steam, (3) air, (4) fat and (5) a combination of these media. They may also be classified as dry heat methods and moist heat methods. Basic principles of cooking. This term refers to established cook-ing procedures which bring about predictable modifications in natural and processed food. Formula. A procedure understood by practitioners in a f i e l d as s t i -pulating certain routine steps. It is based on classic, academic, conven-4 tional procedures. A recipe derives from a formula. Recipe. A prescription, ^.jJ.j an order written by an individual. It i s a specification as to type and amount of ingredients, manipulative pro— cedures and cooking conditions. III. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study w i l l be limited to the heating techniques of food process-ing. It w i l l not deal with the other five techniques shown on Table I. The text w i l l not deal with nutrition, nor w i l l i t deal with selection and purchase of food and food-stuffs. It w i l l not contain recipes but w i l l give basic formulae from which recipes are derived. IV. DESIGN OF THE STUDY This study which is a text on basic food preparation w i l l depart from the conventional presentation of material. It i s customary for texts which are intended for use by professional and pre-adult students to deal with the different foods i n turn and to indicate which cooking methods are applicable to each. This text w i l l develop each cooking method and w i l l 7 discuss the way i n which i t may be applied to the six types of natural food to be considered i n the text. The methods to be developed are; boiling, simmering, poaching, stewing, steaming, waterless-cooking, pressure-cooking, broiling, baking or roasting, pan-frying, deep-fat frying, sauteing, pan-broiling, braising and pot-roasting. The foods which w i l l be considered are meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. This text w i l l focus on basic cooking principles, basic methods of cooking, basic formulae, and essential s k i l l s . When these are mastered they can be used in an endless variety of ways. They are also the nece-ssary prerequisites for more complex cooking knowledge and s k i l l s . The heating and cooking methods are applicable not only to natural foods, which are the concern of this text, but to many processed and combined foods e.g., when the student has learned to steam vegetables he has mastered the knowledge and s k i l l which is essential to a l l steaming whether i t be a processed food such as rice, or a mixture such as Christmas Plum Pudding. The content of the text w i l l be organized in a manner consistent with adult educational theory. It w i l l be developed in sequential order pre-ceding from the known to the unknown, and from the simple to the complex. A l l methods using the same medium of heat transfer w i l l be presented to-gether e.g., those using steam — steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking. There are four cooking media v i z . water,, steam, air and fat. Each wi l l be presented i n turn and applied to each of the foods under discussion. When these have been defined, discussed and presented in formula form the learner w i l l be guided to a more complex cooking method v i z . braising, which ut i l i z e s two of these cooking media. The text w i l l include suggested learning experiences after each chapter. It w i l l supply the learner with an appropriate solution to each problem and w i l l refer him hack for review i f he has not mastered the content of the chapter. The educational objectives w i l l be clearly stated for the entire course as well as for each chapter. Owing to the design of the text thes objectives w i l l f a l l mainly into the Cognitive Domain and Psychomotor 5 Domain. Using Popham's adaptation of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives^, suggested learning objectives for this material are; Cognitive Domain (a) Recall C omprehension Cognitive Domain (b) Recall Comprehension Cognitive Domain (c) Recall Comprehension Analysis Psychometer Domain Learner w i l l be able to define the various cooking methods, i.e., boiling, steaming, broiling, baking or roasting, frying, braising etc., Learner w i l l be able to t e l l what is meant by various cooking terms learned during the course, e.g., sear, poach, par-boil, baste etc., Given a main course recipe learner w i l l be able to t e l l the formula from which i t derives and to prepare i t . ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The study w i l l be developed in the following chapters: Chapter II Chapter III Chapter IV Chapter V Cooking Methods using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer Cooking Methods Using Steam as Medium of Heat Transfer Cooking Methods Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer Cooking Methods Using Fat as Medium of Heat Transfer 9 Chapter VI Cooking Methods Using a Combination of Two or More Media of Heat Transfer Chapter VII Summary REFERENCES 1. Coolie Verner, Alan Booth, Adult Education, Washington, D.C. The Center for Applied Research i n Education, Inc., 1964, pp. 22-3. 2. Marion D. Sweetman, Ingehorg MacKeller, Food Selection and  Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 145. 3. Carl A. Rietz, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and  Cooking of Foods, Vol. II, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., 1965, p. 15. Gladys T. Stevenson, Cora Miller, Introduction to Food and  Nutrition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960, p. 31. 4. Ibid., p. 5-6. 5. James W. Popham, Systematic Instructional Decision Making, Film-strip Tape Program, Los Angeles, California: Vimcet Association, 1967. 6. Bloom, Benjamin S., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956. CHAPTER II COOKING METHODS USING WATER AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the adult learner to l i s t and describe the four cooking methods which employ water as the means of heat transfer. He w i l l be required to l i s t and discuss the appli-cation of these methods i n the preparation of food. He w i l l be required to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The four cooking methods which employ water as the means of cooking food are boiling, simmering, poaching and stewing. This chapter w i l l define and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, vege-tables, f r u i t and eggs. The basic formula for each method w i l l be de-veloped. Boiling. Boiling i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or another liquid i s the medium of heat transfer. The food i s cooked i n a bath of boiling water or other liquid. The boiling point can be recognized by the presence of bubbles of steam which rise to the surface of the liquid and break. Boiling occurs in water at a temperature of 212°F. Simmering. Simmering i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or another liquid i s the medium of heat transfer. The food is cooked i n a bath of simmering water or liquid. Simmering occurs at a lower temperature than boiling. It i s recognized by the appearance of tiny bubbles of steam which form slowly and break before they reach the surface of the liquid. In water simmering occurs between the temperatures of 180 and 210 F. Poaching. Poaching is a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or another liquid i s the medium of heat transfer. The food is cooked i n a bath of simmering water or liquid. The term 'poaching' implies that the food i s basted with the hot liquid. This may be done by pouring some of the hot li q u i d over the food by means of a ladel or spoon, or i t can be achieved by covering the cooking utensil with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d and allow-ing the steam which rises and condenses on the l i d to perform a self-basting action. Stewing. Stewing is a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or another liquid i s the medium of heat transfer. The food i s cooked in just enough simmering liquid to produce steam. The cooking utensil is covered with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d which holds the steam in and prevents the escape of moisture. This is a slow cooking process and is used for foods which require long, slow, moist cooking. Methods of Cooking Meat in Water. Moist heat methods of cooking serve to soften the connective tissue of tough cuts of meat and thus render them more digestible and palatable. The moist heat methods of cooking meat which u t i l i z e water or another liquid as the medium of heat transfer are simmering and stewing. The boiling method does not apply to meat cookery.^ At boiling temperature meat fibers separate and the meat loses juice, shrinks and becomes drier and harder. Simmering Meat. Simmering i s frequently used i n the cooking of the tougher cuts of meat i.e., brisket, flank, etc. Another use of simmering is i n the preparation of cured meats i.e., corned-beef, smoked or cured hams and tongue. In the simmering process the meat is generally l e f t i n a large piece, placed in a large quantity of boiling water, seasoned and simmered unti l tender.^ Basic Formula for Simmering Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth. 2. Have large quantity of boiling water in a large container or kettle. 3. Add meat to the boiling water. 4. Season. 5. Simmer unt i l tender. Stewing Meat. Stewing i s a method which i s often used for less ten-der cuts of fresh meat i.e., round, flank, plate, brisket, etc. In stewing the meat i s f i r s t cut into uniform pieces, generally 1 or 2 inch cubes. If a brown stew i s desired the cubes are browned in a l i t t l e hot fat. They are placed in a stewing kettle and covered with water or other liquid. The liq u i d may be either hot or cold. The liquid may be stock, wine, or water or a combination of two or more of these liquids. Seasoning i s added and the li q u i d i s brought to a b o i l . The pot is then covered and the heat i s reduced to simmer. The meat is cooked unt i l tender, usually from one to three hours. Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cooking i f desired.^ Basic Formula for Stewing Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth. 2. Cut into uniform pieces, generally 1 or 2 inch cubes. 3. If a brown stew i s desired brown meat in a l i t t l e hot fat. 4. Place meat in a stewing kettle. 5. Cover with water or other liquid. Water or liquid may be hot or cold. 14 6. Add seasoning. 7. Cover kettle and cook at simmer temperature. 8. Cook until tender, approximately one to three hours. Making Soup or Soup Stock. Another application of this stewing method of cooking meat i s the making of soup or soup stock. Meat stocks and soups are made by cooking meat and meat bones, vegetables and seasonings in water. Meat used for soup or stock i s usually from the tougher cuts which are, of course, the cheapest. The meat i s cut from the bone and cut into small cubes. The bones are also cut into short lengths. The object i s to expose the maximum surface to the water i n order to extract a l l the flavor. If a brown soup or stock i s desired the meat and bones are f i r s t browned in hot fat. They are covered with cold water and salt i s added. The important difference between simmering or stewing meat and making soup is that the water which i s added i s always cold water. Boiling water would seal in the juices and the purpose of making soup i s to extract the juices from the meat. The water is brought to the simmer point and cooking i s continued for several hours, usually three to four hours. Vegetables are added when the meat begins to become tender. The stock, meat.and vegetables may be used for soup. For vegetable soup the meat and bones are removed leaving the stock and vegetables. If stock i s wanted i t is drawn off from the 4 meat, bones and vegetables. Basic Formula for Meat Soup or Stock. 1. Cut meat from bones. Cut bones into short lengths and meat into 1 or 2 inch cubes. 2. If a brown soup or stock i s desired brown the meat and bones in hot fat. 3. Cover with cold water. 4. Heat to simmer point. 5. Simmer for several hours, usually 3 to 4 hours. 6. Add chopped vegetables when meat begins to get tender. 7. The stock, meat and vegetables may a l l be used for soup, or the stock and vegetables may be used for vegetable soup. If stock alone is wanted i t should be drawn off from the bones, meat and vegetables. Methods of Cooking Poultry in Water or Another Liquid. Mature birds are l i k e l y to be tough and should therefore be cooked slowly i n moist heat in order to soften the connective tissue. Stewing of poultry i s a very common practice. Another method of cooking poultry in l i q u i d i s poaching and this i s frequently overlooked in many cook books. Stewing Poultry. The bird may be cooked whole but is usually dis-jointed. It may be browned in hot fat i f a brown stew i s desired. The pieces are placed in a stewing kettle and hot water or other liquid i s added to cover them. Seasonings, including l/2 teaspoon of salt per pound of fowl, are added and the liquid i s brought to a b o i l . The kettle i s tightly covered and the heat reduced to simmer. The bird i s simmered until tender, about 2 hours. Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cook-ing period. The broth may be thickened i f desired. Basic Formula for Stewing Poultry. 1. Prepare the bird for cooking. 2. Brown in hot fat for a brown stew i f desired. 3. Place fowl i n a stewing kettle. 15 a 4. Cover with boiling water or other liquid. 5. Add seasoning and l/2 teaspoon of salt per pound of fowl. 6. Cover kettle tightly. 7. Bring l i q u i d to a b o i l . 8. Reduce heat to simmer. 9. Cook unt i l tender, usually 2 hours. 10. Add vegetables, i f desired, toward the end of cooking time. 11. Thicken broth i f desired. Poaching Poultry. Very few American or Canadian Cook books provide recipes for this method of cooking poultry. However there are a number of Continental recipes from which to derive a formula. The bird may be cooked whole or may be disjointed. If whole, i t i s prepared for cooking by stuffing i f desired and trussing. The bird is placed in a deep kettle and covered with boiling chicken stock or boiling water to which may be added onions, celery, carrot, bay leaf, thyme, parsley and peppercorns in various combinations. The kettle i s covered tightly and the fowl i s simmered until tender. Tenderness is judged by testing the dark meat with a fork. The chicken is removed from the kettle and the broth i s strained through a fine sieve or cheesecloth. The chicken may be served with the broth in large soup bowls or the broth may be served f i r s t as a soup course and the chicken served separately, or the pieces may be served with a sauce. Another variation i s to add vegetables such as onions and carrots during the last hour of cooking and to serve them with the chicken.^ Basic Formula for Poaching Poultry. 1. Prepare poultry for cooking. 2. Stuff i f desired. Close cavity securely. 16 3. Truss whole bird firmly to ensure that i t holds i t s shape during cooking. 4. Place in a deep kettle. 5. Cover with chicken stock or boiling water to which have been added vegetables, herbs and spices. 6. Cover kettle tightly. 7. Simmer bird u n t i l tender. 8. Remove from kettle and keep hot. 9. Strain broth. 10. Serve chicken and broth together or serve broth f i r s t and chicken separately. Methods of Cooking Fish in Water or Another Liquid. The best method of cooking fish i n water or another liquid i s by poach-ing. The liquid most frequently used i s called a 'court bouillon.' This is a mixture of water, wine or vinegar, onion and other vegetables, herbs and 7 spices. Poaching Fish. Whole fish, f i l l e t s and steaks may a l l be cooked by the poaching method. The fish i s tied loosely i n cheese-cloth and lowered into a bath of boiling water, other liquid or court bouillon. The heat i s reduced to simmer and the kettle i s kept tightly covered. The f i s h i s cooked unti l tender. 10 minutes cooking time for each inch in thickness of f i s h 8 9 should be allowed, or 8 to 10 minutes for each pound of f i s h . Basic Formula for Poaching Fish. 1. Tie the f i s h loosely in a cheese-cloth wrapping. 2. Lower i t into boiling liquid. This may be boiling water, court bouillon, or other liquid. 3. Reduce the heat to simmer. 4. Cover kettle tightly. 5. Simmer u n t i l fish flakes readily when tested with a fork. Allow 10 minutes cooking time for each inch i n thickness of fi s h , or 8 to 10 minutes for each pound of fis h . 6. Remove f i s h from water and from cheese-cloth very care-f u l l y to avoid breaking. Methods of Cooking Vegetables in Water. Boiling i s one of the most common methods of cooking vegetables. Most vegetables should be cooked gently i n a small amount of boiling water i n a covered sauce-pan. Salting should be done at the beginning of the cooking period. There are some exceptions which are; (1) Strong-flavored vegetables such as cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, cauliflower, turnips and rutabagas should be cooked in water which covers them. They should be cooked i n an uncovered sauce-pan to allow strong volatile flavors to escape in the steam. They should only be cooked unt i l tender since the strong flavors increase with long cooking. (2) Green colored vegetables such as peas, green beans and the leafy vegetables such as spinach should be cooked in boiling water which just covers them. The pan is kept covered un t i l the vegetable i s heated through to allow some of the mild acids to escape in the steam, then the cover i s removed for the remainder of the cooking. (3) Yellow and white vegetables should be cooked in enough water to cover them since they require a longer period of cooking than other vegetables. The pan is kept covered throughout the cooking period. Time charts for cooking vegetables are located in the appendix of the text. Basic Formula for Cooking Vegetables. 1. Have recommended amount of boiling salted water in sauce-pan. 2. Place the vegetables i n the boiling water. 3. Cook strong flavored vegetables in an uncovered pan. Cook yellow and white vegetables i n a covered pan. Cook green vegetables i n a covered pan until heated, then remove cover for remainder of cooking. 4. Keep the heat high until the boiling resumes. 5. Count the cooking time from when the water resumes boiling. 6. Turn heat down so the water boils gently. 7. Cook u n t i l tender. Drain well. Methods of Cooking Fruit i n Water or Another Liquid. The methods of cooking fresh f r u i t in which water or another liquid i s the medium of heat exchange are stewing and poaching. These methods are used for making f r u i t purges, sauces and compotes. A puree i s a smooth soft sauce which has been pressed through a fine sieve or food mill or put through a blender. The word compote denotes a preparation of fresh or dried f r u i t s cooked either whole or quartered i n a thick or thin syrup. A minimum of water i s used in each case and the f r u i t i s simmered i n a covered container. This preserves the valuable volatile flavors of the f r u i t . Fruits which are required to hold their shape after cooking are cooked i n a sugar solution i.e., water to which sugar has been added. These fruits should not be stirred. Fruits which are not required to hold a definite shape when cooked should be cooked quickly i n a small amount of water to soften the cellulose and the sugar should be added at the end of the cooking time. These fruits can be used as they are, or they may be 19 put through a sieve or an electric blender to make a puree. Basic Formula for Cooking Fruit in Water. 1. Prepare f r u i t for cooking. 2. Peel and cut as directed i n recipe. 3. Place i n a shallow sauce-pan with a small amount of water, or water and sugar. If making a sauce or puree add sugar at the end of cooking. If making a compote add sugar at the beginning of cooking. 4. Cover sauce-pan. 5. Simmer un t i l soft, or i n the case of compote until f r u i t i s clear and translucent. 6. Strain i f a puree is desired. Methods of Cooking Eggs i n Water. The methods by which eggs may be cooked i n water are simmering and poaching. The boiling method does not apply to egg cookery. One basic principle which holds with a l l egg cookery is that eggs should always be cooked with low to moderate heat and for exactly the time specified in a given recipe. If this principle i s ignored and eggs are cooked at a high temperature the result i s that the protein coagulates to a degree which 12 produces a firm, tough, often rubbery product rather than a tender one. Eggs which are to be served in the shell should be cooked to a stage in which the white is tender and the yolk i s liquid or semi-liquid. There are two methods of soft-cooking eggs i n the shell. Method No.l for Soft-Cooked Eggs i n the Shell. Water should be b o i l -ing rapidly. The eggs are added to the boiling water and the heat is turned off. The saucepan is covered and the eggs are allowed to remain in the 13 water for 4 to 6 minutes, depending upon the degree of firmness desired. Method No.II for Soft-Cooked Eggs i n the Shell. The water should be at the simmering stage. The eggs are added and the water maintained at 14 simmering temperature for 4 to 6 minutes. Basic Formula for Soft-Cooked Eggs. 1. Add eggs to boiling or simmering water. 2. Maintain water at simmering. 3. Allow eggs to remain i n water for 4 to 6 minutes depending upon firmness desired. There are three methods for hard cooking eggs i n the shell. Method No.I and Method No.II follow the same methods as for soft-cooked eggs allowing the eggs i n the case of Method No.I to stand i n a warm place for 45 minutes to 1 hour, and i n the case of Method No.II to remain i n water over a double boiler for about 45 minutes. The water in the bottom of the double-boiler i s kept simmering. Method No.Ill simmers the eggs i n 15 water over direct heat for 20 to 25 minutes. On removing hard-cooked eggs from the water they should be plunged immediately into ice-cold water. This stops the cooking process and aids in the prevention of the unsightly dark green deposit which tends to form on the outside of the cooked yolk. A properly hard-cooked egg should have a white which is firm, yet tender. The yolk should be dry and mealy. If the yolk appears waxy i t 17 is insufficiently cooked. Poaching Eggs i n Water or other Liquid. In poaching eggs a f l a t shallow pan should be used. Enough hot liquid to cover the eggs i s poured into the pan. The liquid may be hot water, milk or cream. If the liq u i d i s water i t i s necessary to add l/2 or 1 teaspoon of salt to each pint of water. This tends to keep the egg white from dispersing and results i n a more compact product. If milk or cream are used they should be heated i n the top of a double—boiler. Eggs are broken gently into a saucer, one at a time, then slipped, one at a time, gently into the hot liquid. The heat is reduced to simmering and the eggs are basted with the hot liquid by means of a spoon or ladel. This ensures coagulation of the film of egg-white on top of the yolk and the result i s more pleasing to the eye. The eggs are cooked until set. The egg white should be j e l l y - l i k e and tender, the yolk w i l l be liquid or semi-liquid. The eggs should be removed from the liquid with a slotted 18 spoon. Basic Formula for Poaching Eggs. 1. Use a f l a t shallow utensil such as a frying-pan. 2. Add sufficient boiling liquid to the pan to cover the eggs. 3. Have the liquid at the boiling point. 4. Break eggs gently into a saucer, one at a time. 5. Slip, one at a time, gently into the hot liquid. 6. Reduce heat to simmer. 7. Baste eggs with the hot liquid to ensure coagulation of the film of egg-white on top of the egg-yolk. 8. Cook eggs unt i l set. 9. Remove from liquid with a slotted spoon. Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of these methods to the cook are their ease of appli-cation, the relatively low cost of heating small quantities of water, and their practicality with a l l types of natural foods. It i s comparatively 22 easy to cook food i n water and the equipment required is minimal—a burner and a cooking utensil are a l l that are necessary. It i s less expensive to heat a quantity of water sufficient to cook a food than to heat the average oven. Most natural foods and many processed foods may be cooked in water and the s k i l l i s not very d i f f i c u l t to acquire. Cooking in water i s less time consuming for foods such as vegetables and f r u i t s . The changes which are desirable are the softening of tough connective tissue in meat and poultry, the coagulation of proteins i n meat and f i s h and eggs, the softening of cellulose and the partial or complete gelatin-ization of starch involving swelling of starch grains i n vegetables and fr u i t s . The disadvantage of using water as a cooking medium is that some water-soluble constituents tend to be lost. These are valuable minerals and vitamins, albumin and sugars. Flavor i s also affected in various ways; an open kettle allows some of the volatile flavor substances of vegetables to escape; sugars, acids and some minerals which contribute to flavor in vegetables and f r u i t are water soluble and may be lost through cooking i n water. Changes may also occur i n color which make the cooked product un-pleasing to the eye. 1 9 The disadvantage of nutritive loss may be partially off-set by using the water or liquid in which the foods have been cooked for sauces or soups. Flavor losses may be reduced by cooking i n covered containers. The learner w i l l have noted that the various formulae although similar in many respects, d i f f e r greatly i n the time factor. It takes several hours to simmer a fowl whereas an egg requires a very few minutes. In each case i t i s necessary for the adult learner to analyse the purpose of the particular method i n i t s application to various foods. The 23 purpose in simmering or stewing tougher cuts of meat or poultry i s to soften the tough connective tissue and make the meat more digestible and palatable. This requires long, slow, moist cooking. The purpose of cooking vegetables and f r u i t i s to soften the cellulose, change the texture and reduce the bulk, as well as to retain the natural color and flavor. This process does not take as long and can usually be accomplished in 40 minutes at the most. The purpose of cooking eggs i s to coagulate the protein and to change the tex-ture. This requires very much less time. In cooking fi s h the purpose i s similar to that of eggs, i.e., to coagulate the proteins and to change the texture as well as to retain the flavor. There is a negligible amount of connective tissue i n fish which has to be broken down so the purpose is different from that for meat. The learner may have noticed similarities i n the cooking of f i s h and eggs. 'When the adult learner has acquired the s k i l l and knowledge of the methods of simmering, poaching and stewing he w i l l be able to use them in more complex procedures. Some more complex cooking processes require the cook to apply two or more methods. This is so i n the case of braising which i s usually a combination of frying and simmering. SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the four methods of cooking which employ water or other liquid as the medium of heat transfer. These methods are boiling, simmering, poaching and stewing. Each has been defined and the actual procedural steps involved have been given. Equipment used in these methods has also been described. It has been pointed out that these moist heat methods serve a useful purpose in softening connective tissue in tough cuts of meat and poultry, in coagulating proteins i n meat, fish and eggs, and i n softening cellulose and swelling the starch i n vegetables and f r u i t s . The advantages and dis-advantages of cooking food by these methods have been discussed with re-lation to texture, flavor, and color as well as with relation to retention of valuable food nutrients including vitamins and minerals. The dis-advantages in many cases can be minimized by observing certain rules and these have been described. Boiling is a method which has limited application i n the cooking of most natural foods; simmering, poaching or stewing are usually preferable. The boiling method i s used mainly for the preparation of vegetables. The method has been described as i t applies to the various vegetables, i.e., strong and mild flavored, red, green, white and yellow. A basic formula for using this method with these vegetables has been given. The simmering method has a wide application i n the cooking of foods. It i s used for meat, poultry, fish, f r u i t and eggs. Its application with each of these foods has been described and basic formulae developed. The poaching method may be used with poultry, f i s h and eggs. The cooking procedures using this method with these foods have been described and basic formulae given. The stewing method may be applied to meat, poultry and f r u i t . The procedures have been discussed for each of these foods and basic formulae have been prescribed. An appraisal of the value of these methods i n the preparation of natural foods has been made. Their use i n more complex methods of cooking has been indicated. 26 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1. What inexpensive main course dishes might you prepare using the simmering method of cooking? 2. Cabbage and brussel sprouts often taste unpleasantly strong when cooked. What can be done to minimize this? 3. You need some hard cooked eggs to garnish a salad. How would you cook them to avoid dark, greenish rings between the yolks and whites? 4. Using the Bantam edition of the Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal; Irish Lamb Stew p. 186 Buttered peas p. 263 Apple-sauce with cream p. 366 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1. Meat and poultry stews are economical. The cheaper cuts of meat, i.e., beef brisket, pig's knuckles, oxtails, poultry backs and many other unusual and inexpensive cuts are very flavorful when cooked by slow moist heat methods. Simmering and stewing are economical methods of cooking. Once the liquid has been brought to the boil i t takes relatively l i t t l e heat to keep i t at the simmer point. 2. These strong flavored vegetables should not be overcooked because they develop strong flavor and odor with long cooking. They should be cooked just enough to render them tender in boiling salted water just covering them. They should not be cooked in a covered utensil. 27 3. Use whichever of the three methods for hard cooking eggs you prefer and immediately after cooking immerse the eggs in ice cold water. This stops the cooking process and helps to prevent the formation of the chemical compound that results in the greenish black ring between the egg yolk and egg white. 4. The apple-sauce can be cooked several hours in advance of serving time and chilled in the refrigerator. The lamb stew w i l l take approxi-mately 1.1/2 hours to cook. The green peas w i l l take from 8 to 20 minutes. Preparation time before actual cooking should require about half an hour. 28 REFERENCES 1. Phyllis C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 52-3. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods, Their Selection  and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 202. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg McKellar, Food Selection and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 403. 2. Madge Miller, Mary Barnhart, Essentials of Food Preparation, DuBuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, Co., 1947, p. 259. Stanley, loc. c i t . Canada Department of Agriculture, Meat, How to Buy, How to  Cook, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1956, p. 7. 3. Stanley, j)p. c i t . , pp. 202-3. Canada Department of Agriculture, loc. c i t . 4. Stanley, £p. c i t . , pp. 203-4. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, pp. 182-3. Henri Paul Pellaprat, Modern French Culinary Art, Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 388. 5. Jean I. Simpson, The Frozen Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co. Inc., 1962, p. 301. 6. Robert Carrier, Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1963, p. 188. Pellaprat, ^p. c i t . , p. 415. Prosper Montagne, Larousse Gastronomique, New York: Crown Publishers, 1965, p. 248. Samuel Chamberlain, Bouquet de France, New York: Gourmet Distributing Corporation, 1957, p. 226. L i l l i a n Longseth Christensen, Gourmet's Old Vienna Cookbook, New York: Gourmet Distributing Corporation, 1959, p. 226. 7. Robert Carrier, og. c i t . , p. 26. pp. 86, 88. Department of Fisheries of Canada, The Way to Cook Fish, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965, p. 20. 8. Department of Fisheries of Canada, loc. c i t . 9. Stanley, £p. c i t . , p. 254. 10. University of Wisconsin, Vegetables in Our Meals, Madison, Wisconsin: Circular, 629, May, 1964, pp. 6-9. Stanley, £p. c i t . , pp. 78-9. Hughes, oj£. c i t . , pp. 68-73. REFERENCES CONTD. 11. Pelleprat, eg. c i t . , p. 117. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 54. Hughes, op. c i t . , pp. 37-8„ 12. Hughes, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 125-6. 13. Ibid., p. 126. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid., pp. 123-25. 19. Ibid., pp. 58-65. 20. Carrier, p. 26. CHAPTER III COOKING METHODS USING STEAM AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the adult learner to l i s t and describe the three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food and to l i s t and discuss the application of these meth-ods i n food preparation. He w i l l be required to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. The three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food are steaming, waterless—cooking, and pressure-cooking. This chapter w i l l define and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, fis h , vegetables and f r u i t . The basic formulae for these methods w i l l be outlined. Introduction to Learner. The three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking. This chapter w i l l define and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables and f r u i t . The basic formula for each method w i l l be developed. Steaming. Steaming i s a moist heat method of cooking in which steam is the medium of heat transfer. The food being steamed does not come i n contact with water but is bathed or surrounded by steam which i s generated by boiling water. This i s accomplished by placing the food i n a special utensil known as a steamer. This piece of equipment has two parts which consist of a sauce-pan for boiling water and a perforated inset pan which f i t s over the sauce-pan. The steam from boiling water in the sauce-pan rises and passes through the perforations in the inset pan and surrounds the food contained i n i t . 1 The steamer must have a tig h t - f i t t i n g l i d to prevent the escape of the steam. Waterless-cooking. In this method steam i s generated by the mois-ture or juice which is contained i n the food i t s e l f . A minimum of water is used. The utensil used i n this method is called a waterless-cooker. It consists of a pan or other container made of heavy metal or glass such as i n Corning Ware or ceramic which distributes heat evenly on a l l sides. Waterless-cooking may also be done in a heavy frying-pan or sauce-pan. The container must have a ti g h t - f i t t i n g l i d . Waterless-cooking must employ low temperatures.^ It is sometimes done on the top of the range and some-times i n the oven. Pressure-cooking. In this method the food i s cooked in an atmos-phere of steam which i s held under pressure. The utensil used i s called a pressure-cooker. There are various types of pressure—cookers. A pressure-cooker i s a heavy metal pan which has a tig h t - f i t t i n g cover which locks on. The cover is equipped with a rubber washer, a safety-valve and a vent-pipe. A pressure-gauge comes with each pressure-cooker and i t f i t s over the vent-pipe. When food i s to he steamed in this utensil a small amount of boiling water is added which generates steam when heated to the boiling point. When the cover i s locked on steam emerges from the vent-pipe. When a steady stream of steam i s visible the pressure-gauge i s placed over the vent-pipe and the steam is contained and may be held under pressures of 5, 10 or 15 pounds. Since heat i s not lost through vapori-zation temperatures rise higher than the normal 212°F. of boiling water and cooking is rapid; e.g., meat and chicken require approximately one-third the cooking time required by other methods. Since these three methods which employ steam for heat transfer are moist heat methods they have many useful applications. They are frequently used to soften tough connective tissue in meat and poultry, to coagulate th protein and soften any connective tissue in fish, and to soften the cellulo in vegetables and f r u i t s . Not a l l methods are applicable to every type of food under discussion here but one or more may be used with each. Those methods which may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables and f r u i t w i l l be described and the accepted procedures for each w i l l be outlined. Methods of Cooking Meat with Steam Meat is seldom steamed i n a steamer but may be cooked by the waterles cooking method or the pressure-cooker method. These are moist heat methods and are very useful i n cooking the tougher cuts of meat or meat of poor quality or grade. Such meat w i l l be rendered tender and juicy since the moist heat softens the tough connective tissue. Waterless-cooking Meat. The meat i s prepared for cooking as directed i n the recipe and i s placed i n a heavy pan or Dutch oven with a tight-f i t t i n g cover. A small amount of water i s added to prevent burning before the juices i n the meat start to produce steam. The cooking i s done either on top of the range or i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F. The moisture and steam from the meat i t s e l f surround the meat and render i t tender and f l a -vorful. One authority has called the oven method of waterless cooking 4 " steam-roasting." Basic Formula for Waterless-cooking Meat. 1. Wipe the meat with a clean, damp cloth. 2. Place i n a heavy pan or Dutch oven. 3. Season. 4. Add a small quantity of hot liquid to the container. 5. Cover the container. 6. Cook on top of the range at simmer heat or i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F. 7. Cook unt i l meat i s tender. Pressure-cooking Meat. The meat is prepared for cooking as directed. The pressure-cooker i s heated on top of the range. If the meat i s to he browned a small amount of fat i s added to the cooker and the meat is seared on a l l sides. The meat i s placed on a rack, seasoning i s added and a small quantity of hot liquid is poured in. The cooker i s covered immediately to prevent the loss of steam. When steam emerges i n a steady stream from the vent-pipe the pressure-gauge i s placed over i t . The indicator on the pressure-gauge i s allowed to reach the "cook" position. The heat must be regulated to keep the pressure-gauge indicator at the required level. The time must also be carefully checked. The meat i s cooked for the length of time specified in the recipe and when this time has elapsed the heat must be removed. If the recipe calls for immediate cooling this may be done by holding the cooker under cold running water, or by placing i t i n cold water. If the recipe does not indicate immediate cooling then the cooker may be allowed to cool of i t s own accord. When the pressure has been reduced the cover may be removed. It must never be removed while there i s any pressure. Any juice which remains i n the cooker should be saved and used for sauce 5 or gravy. Basic Formula for Pressure—cooking Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth. 2. Prepare meat as directed i n the recipe. 34 3. Heat pressure cooker. 4. Add fat i f meat i s to be browned. Sear meat on a l l sides. 5. Place meat on a rack in the cooker. 6. Add a small quantity of hot li q u i d . 7. Close pressure cooker. 8. Heat until steam comes from vent-pipe. 9. Adjust pressure—gauge to vent-pipe. 10. Adjust heat to maintain the cook position on the gauge. 11. Cook for time specified in the recipe. 12. Remove from heat and cool under cold running water or in cold water i f rapid cooling i s indicated in the recipe. 13. When pressure has been reduced remove the l i d from the pressure—cooker. 14. Use any juice which may remain in the pressure-cooker for sauce or gravy. Methods of Cooking Poultry with Steam. In cooking poultry as in cooking meat the same principle applies. Tough and older birds require long slow cooking in moist heat to soften the tough connective tissue and make the meat tender. The cooking methods which employ steam as the medium of heat exchange are very useful in ten-derizing older birds. Steaming, waterless cooking, and pressure cooking are a l l employed. Steaming Poultry. When a bird has reached i t s f i r s t or second year i t no longer qualifies for the cooking procedures applied to younger birds. However, an older bird, or fowl, is often more flavorful than a young one but i t w i l l have developed tougher connective tissue which w i l l have to be softened by the moist heat methods of cooking. Therefore, steaming i s an excellent method of preparation for fowl. The bird i s prepared for cooking and i s seasoned inside and out with salt and pepper. It i s placed on the rack of the steamer. Water i n the lower part of the steamer i s kept boiling briskly and the steamer is tightly covered. The bird i s allowed to steam for three to four hours, depending upon age and size. If desired i t may be browned in the oven after steaming. Basic Formula for Steaming Poultry. 1. Prepare fowl for cooking. 2. Season inside and out. 3. Place on rack i n steamer. 4. Have water in lower compartment boiling vigorously. 5. Cover steamer tightly. 6. Cook unt i l bird i s tender. 7. If desired brown bird in the oven after steaming. Waterless Cooking Poultry. This is a method which may be used for young as well as for mature birds. The bird i s prepared for cooking and placed in a roasting pan. If the bird i s not young a small amount of water is added to the pan, i f the bird i s young water may not be required. Seasonings are added, the pan i s covered and the bird i s cooked in a mod-erate oven, 350° F. unt i l tender. The cover may be removed toward the end 7 of cooking to brown the bird. Summary for Waterless Cooking Poultry. 1. Prepare bird for cooking. 2. Place in a roasting pan. 3. If bird is mature add a small amount of water to pan. 4. Cover the pan. 36 5. Place in a moderate oven, 350° F. 6. Cook unt i l tender. 7. Remove l i d toward end of cooking to brown the bird i f desired. Pressure-cooking Poultry. Mature and young birds may be cooked by this method. The bird i s prepared for cooking. If desired the bird may be browned in hot fat i n the pressure cooker. One cup of boiling water is added to the cooker as well as seasonings. The cooker is covered and the bird i s cooked under 15 pounds of pressure for about 35 minutes. The cooker i s removed from the heat and allowed to cool. When the pressure g is reduced the cover is removed. Basic Formula for Pressure-cooking Poultry. 1. Prepare bird for cooking. 2. If desired brown bird in hot fat i n cooker. 3. Add 1 cup of boiling water. 4. Cover the pressure-cooker. 5. Heat until steam emerges from the vent-pipe. 6. Adjust the pressure-gauge. 7. Cook at 15 pounds pressure for about 35 minutes. 8. Remove from heat. 9. Allow pressure-cooker to cool of i t s own accord. 10. When pressure has been reduced remove cover. 11. Use any liquid which remains for sauce or gravy. Methods of Cooking Fish with Steam. The most common methods of cooking fish with steam i s steaming. The steam serves to coagulate the fis h proteins and render the fish ten-der and opaque. Steaming Fish. Steaming is a method which gives very satisfactory results with most types of fish. Steamers are available which are es-pecially designed for whole fi s h . They are usually long and oval in shape with a perforated inset rack and a ti g h t - f i t t i n g cover. However, a suit-able steamer can be improvised. Fish to be steamed i s frequently tied loosely in cheese-cloth. The cheese-cloth allows the steam to surround the fi s h and i t permits the fis h to be l i f t e d from the steamer without fear of breaking i t . The water i n the steamer or other container must be kept boiling vigorously during the entire cooking period. The f i s h i s tied loosely in a piece of cheese-cloth and placed on the perforated rack i n the steamer. The steamer i s covered tightly and the water kept boiling rapidly. The fish is cooked until i t i s opaque and flakes easily when tested with a fork. 9 Cooking usually requires from 10 to 20 minutes per pound of fis h , or 10 minutes cooking time per inch thickness of f i s h . " ^ Basic Formula for Steaming Fish. 1. Have water i n lower part of steamer boiling vigorously. 2. Prepare fish for cooking. 3. Tie fish loosely in cheese-cloth. 4. Place on rack in the steamer. 5. Cover the steamer tightly. 6. Keep water boiling vigorously. 7. Cook unt i l f i s h is opaque and flakes easily when tested with a fork. Allow 10 to 20 minutes per pound of fish, or 10 minutes for each inch i n thickness. 8. Remove gently from the steamer. 9. Remove the cheese-cloth wrapping. Pressure—cooking Fish. There are two ways of cooking f i s h i n a pressure—cooker. In one the f i s h i s wrapped i n cheese—cloth as for steam-ing. In the other the fis h may be browned i n hot fat i n the bottom of the cooker before cooking. 1 1 The time of cooking must be very carefully ob-served to prevent overcooking. If fis h i s overcooked i t f a l l s apart. Method No.l for Pressure—cooking Fish. The fi s h i s prepared for cooking and wrapped i n a piece of cheese-cloth. The pressure—cooker i s heated and hot water i s added. The f i s h is placed on the rack i n the cooker and the cover locked i n place. Steam is allowed to come from the vent-pipe i n a steady stream and then the pressure—gauge i s placed on i t . The indicator i s brought to the "cook" position, and the fish i s cooked for the time indicated in the recipe. The cooker i s cooled by holding under cold running water or plunging into 12 cold water. When the pressure has been reduced the cover may be removed.' The fi s h i s removed from the cooker and from the cheese—cloth very carefully to avoid breaking. Basic Formula for Method No.l of Pressure-cooking. 1. Prepare fi s h for cooking. 2. Wrap li g h t l y i n cheese—cloth. 3. Heat pressure—cooker and add hot water. 4. Place fi s h on rack in the cooker. 5. Lock cover into place. 6. Heat and allow steam to come from vent-pipe. 7. Adjust pressure-gauge on vent-pipe. 8. Bring the indicator to "cook" position. 9. Cook for specified time. 10. Cool cooker immediately at end of cooking time. 11. Remove cover when pressure has been reduced. 12. Remove fish gently. Method No.2 for Pressure-cooking Fish. The f i s h i s prepared for cooking and seasoned. If a crust i s re-quired f i s h i s dredged with flour, crumbs or corn-meal and browned in hot fat i n the bottom of the cooker. The fis h i s placed on a rack in the cooker, a small amount of water i s added to the cooker and the cover i s locked on. The cooker i s heated, steam is allowed to come from the vent-pipe and the pressure-gauge i s put in place. The indicator i s brought to the "cook" position and the fish i s cooked for the specified length of time. The cooker i s cooled immediately and when the pressure has been re-13 duced the cover i s removed. The f i s h i s removed carefully to avoid breaking. Basic Formula for Method No.2 of Pressure-cooking Fish. 1. Prepare fi s h for cooking. 2. If a crust i s desired dredge fish i n flour, cornmeal or dry bread crumbs. 3. Season. 4. Melt a small amount of fat i n the cooker and brown on both sides. 5. Place fish on a rack i n the cooker. 6. Add. a small amount of boiling water. 7. Cover and lock the cooker. 8. Heat unt i l steam emerges from the vent-pipe. 9. Adjust the pressure-gauge over the vent-pipe. 10. Regulate the heat to keep the pressure-gauge indicator at "cook" position. 11. Cook for length of time specified i n the recipe. 12. Remove from heat and cool immediately. 13. Remove cover when pressure has been reduced. 14. Remove f i s h very gently. Methods of Cooking Vegetables with Steam. A l l three methods may be used for cooking vegetables. Steam i s con-sidered one of the best heat exchange media because i t does not rob the vegetables of valuable nutrients. It i s not used with green vegetables because the steaming process i s carried out in a covered container which holds i n the volatile acids which rob the green vegetables of their color. Steaming Vegetables. The vegetables are prepared for cooking. Water in the lower compartment of the steamer i s brought to a vigorous b o i l . The vegetables are placed in the top inset pan and covered tightly. The 14 vegetables are cooked u n t i l tender. Basic Formula for Steaming Vegetables. 1. Prepare vegetables for cooking. 2. Prepare steamer. Have water boiling rapidly i n bottom compartment. 3. Place vegetables in top perforated inset pan. 4. Cover steamer. 5. Cook vegetables u n t i l tender. Waterless-cooking. This method has always been a great favorite with French and Chinese chefs. It i s also highly thought of by nutritionists since few of the valuable nutrients are lost i n water. The vegetables cook i n steam which is generated by the moisture or juices of the vegetables themselves. The vegetables are prepared for cooking by dicing, s l i c i n g or shred-ding. The heavy frying pan or sauce—pan is pre-heated and a very small amount of fat i s added, just enough to keep the vegetables from sticking to the pan. The vegetables are added and i f they are not very moist a small amount of boiling water i s added, not usually more than one or two tablespoons. The pan i s tightly covered and cooking is done over low 15 heat. The vegetables are cooked un t i l tender yet slightly crisp. Basic Formula for Waterless-cooking Vegetables. 1. Prepare vegetables for cooking by dicing, slicing or shred-ding. 2. Pre-heat the waterless cooker. 3. Add a small amount of fat to the cooker, - just enough to prevent the vegetables from sticking to the pan. 4. Add the vegetables and mix l i g h t l y . 5. If necessary a very small amount of boiling water may be added to i n i t i a t e the steaming process. 6. Cover the cooker tightly. X6 7. Cook over low heat un t i l vegetables are crisp - tender. Pressure-cooking Vegetables. The vegetables are prepared for cook-ing and the recommended quantity of boiling water i s added to the cooker. The vegetables are placed in the cooker and the cover locked i n place. The pressure-gauge i s adjusted when steam emerges from the vent-pipe i n a steady stream. The vegetables must only be cooked for the recommended length of time since there is a tendency to overcooking by this method. The pressure must be reduced immediately by subjecting the cooker to cold water. Basic Formula for Pressure-cooking Vegetables. 1. Prepare vegetables for cooking. 2. Heat pressure cooker. 3. Add recommended amount of boiling water. 4. Place vegetables i n the cooker. 5. Cover tightly and adjust the pressure-gauge. 6. Cook for recommended length of time, 7. Remove the cooker from heat. 8. Cool rapidly by holding under cold running water or plunging into cold water. 9. When pressure has been reduced remove cover. Methods of Cooking Fruit with Steam. Fruit i s frequently cooked by the waterless-cooking method and also by the pressure-cooking method. As in cooking f r u i t with water the time of adding sugar has an important effect on the finished product. If i t is desirable that the f r u i t retain i t s original shape after cooking the sugar should be added at the beginning of cooking. If a sauce i s desired the 18 sugar i s added after the f r u i t has been cooked. Waterless-cooking Fruit. This i s a very good way of preserving the natural color of f r u i t . Fruits such as plums, soft type berries, rhubarb and cranberries retain their natural colors when cooked i n this manner. The f r u i t i s prepared for cooking by cutting into small pieces. The container i s heated and a very small amount of boiling water may be added i f the f r u i t i s not juicy. The fr u i t i s placed in the cooker and covered tightly and cooking is done over low heat or i n a moderate oven, 325° F., 19 until the f r u i t i s tender. 43 Basic Formula for Waterless-cooking Fruit. 1. Prepare f r u i t for cooking by cutting into small pieces i n the case of larger f r u i t . 2. Pre-heat the container. 3. If f r u i t i s not juicy add a small amount of boiling water. 4. Place f r u i t i n the cooker. Add sugar i f f r u i t i s required to hold i t s shape. 5. Cover tightly. 6. Cook over low heat or i n a moderate oven, 325° F. until f r u i t i s tender. Pressure-cooking Fruit. This method of cooking f r u i t prevents the loss of a good percentage of the valuable nutrients and flavor since very l i t t l e water i s used and steam i s not allowed to escape. The f r u i t i s prepared for cooking. The recommended amount of b o i l -ing water i s added to the heated pressure-cooker. The f r u i t i s placed i n the cooker. Sugar i s added i f i t i s desired that the f r u i t retain i t s original shape. The cooker i s tightly covered and the pressure-gauge i s adjusted. The f r u i t i s cooked for the recommended length of time. If the recipe calls for immediate cooling the cooker i s cooled under cold run-ning water or by plunging into cold water. When the pressure has been reduced the cover is opened.^ Basic Formula for Pressure-cooking Fruit. 1. Prepare f r u i t for cooking. 2. Add recommended amount of boiling water to the pre-heated cooker. 3. Place f r u i t in the cooker. 4. Add sugar i f f r u i t i s required to keep i t s original shape. 5. Lock the cover i n place and adjust the pressure-gauge. 6. Cook for the recommended time. 7. Remove cooker from the heat. 8. If recipe calls for immediate cooling cool rapidly under cold running water, or plunge cooker into cold water. 21 9. When pressure has been reduced open cover. Appraisal of Cooking Methods U t i l i z i n g Steam as the Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of steam as a cooking medium are i t s softening and tenderizing capabilities. The retention of food nutrients and flavor of foods are also important. The short time of cooking required in the pressure-cooker method is useful to the cook with limited time. In a l l forms of steaming heat is conducted from the steam to the food. Since steaming i s a moist heat method of cookery, i t i s a useful means of tenderizing tough or less tender cuts of meat and poultry, It is also use-ful as a means of preserving the natural flavors of fish. Steaming i s rated second to baking as a method for cooking vegetables from the stand-7 point of retention of nutrients and flavor. The loss of soluble nutrients is less than i n boiling and vegetables retain their original shape and color. The methods of cooking which use steam as the means of heat exchange are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking. Steaming usually re-fers to cooking i n steam arising from added water; waterless-cooking refers to cooking i n steam formed from the water or moisture inherent i n the food 22 i t s e l f ; pressure-cooking i s cooking with steam held under pressure. In ordinary cooking utensils where the pressure is that of the atmos-phere the temperature of steam is the same as of boiling water, 212° F. The continuous formation of steam requires a high input of heat. One calorie i s required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade. 540 calories are required to change 1 gram of water at 100° C into steam at the same temperature. When cooking is done i n a pressure-cooker the steam is held under pressure and the heat of vaporization i s not lost and the temperature rises. The high temperatures reached i n cooking with steam under pressure shortens the cooking time very appre-23 ciably. Although the temperatures of the cooking medium of steam under pressure are much higher than those of steaming, simmering, or boiling, the vitamin losses have not been found to be any greater when cooking i s 24 carried to the same stage. The cooked product i s of good texture and flavor. The proper equipment is essential for satisfactory results in a l l three methods. For steaming vegetables, a special piece of equipment i s available. It consists of a sauce-pan with a perforated inset-pan and a ti g h t — f i t t i n g l i d . When poultry or fi s h are to be steamed, they are placed on a rack in a container of suitable size and water is poured into the container to a depth which comes just below the rack. The container must be tightly covered during cooking. Waterless cooking requires a pan, or other container, made of some heavy material which conducts and dis-tributes heat evenly from a l l sides. It must also have a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d . Pressure-cooking i s done in a pressure-cooker. This i s a heavy metal pan with a cover which locks on and i s equipped with a rubber washer a pressure-gauge and a safety-vent. It must be used as directed by the manufacturer. Since i t is designed to hold steam under pressure and per-mits the steam to reach very high temperatures i t must be handled with extreme care. A pressure-cooker must always be cooled before opening. If used as directed i t can be of great use to the cook who has limited time. The great advantage of a l l three methods which u t i l i z e steam i s the tenderizing effect they have on tough cuts of meat and poultry and the softening effect on vegetables and f r u i t s . These methods have a great many applications. Steaming and water-less cookery methods are u t i l i z e d i n more complex cooking procedures, such as braising, pot-roasting and casserole cookery. SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the three methods of cooking which employ steam as the medium of heat transfer. These methods are steaming, water-less-cooking and pressure-cooking. Each method has been defined and i t s application wherever practical has been described i n the cooking of meat, poultry, fish, vegetables and f r u i t s . Basic formula for the use of each method with these foods have been given. Equipment used i n these methods has also been described. It has been shown that these moist heat methods serve a useful func-tion in softening connective tissue of meat and poultry, i n coagulating proteins i n meat, poultry and fish, and in softening cellulose and swelling starch i n vegetables and f r u i t s . The advantages of cooking food by these methods have been discussed with relation to texture and flavor as well as with relation to retention of valuable food nutrients including vitamins and minerals. The possibility of overcooking by the pressure-cooking method has been stressed., If properly applied i t has been shown to have great advantages for the cook with limited time. Steaming is a method which is applicable to poultry, f i s h and vege-tables. This method has been described as i t i s used with these foods and basic formulae have been given. Waterless-cooking is a method which may be used with meat, poultry, vegetables and f r u i t . The method has been described for each of these foods and basic formulae developed. Pressure-cooking is applicable to a l l the foods under discussion, v i z . meat, poultry, fish, vegetables and f r u i t . Its use with each of these foods has been described and basic formulae given. 48 An appraisal of these steaming methods has been made and their use-fulness in more complex methods has been indicated. Their usefulness with processed and mixed foods has also been commented upon. SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES You have purchased a 4 pound piece of beef of doubtful quality and tenderness. You would like to serve i t whole as a roast. In the light of what you have learned in this chapter what method could you use which would ensure tenderness and flavor? You have caught a 4 pound salmon and you would like to serve i t to your friends i n i t s entire size (by way of boast). How would you cook it? Rhubarb is in season and consequently i t i s inexpensive. How would you cook i t to retain i t s color? To retain i t s shape? You have been held up at the office and you have to cook dinner. You had bought a roasting chicken the day before. How could you prepare i t quickly? Using the 1965 edition of the Bantam Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking  School Cookbook, prepare the following meal. Hungarian Chicken Paprika p. 229 Steamed potatoes p. 266 Panned green beans p. 243 Baked rhubarb p. 376 SOLUTIONS TO LEARNING EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS If there i s plenty of time the roast w i l l develop good flavor and color i f i t i s steam roasted. If time is short i t could be cooked in the pressure-cooker. By this method i t would be advisable to brown the roast well before cooking i t under pressure. It w i l l then have a more pleasing color. 50 2. The best method would be to wrap i t i n cheese-cloth and to steam i t . A smaller fi s h could be pressure-cooked. 3. The waterless—cooking method done in the oven i s an excellent way to cook rhubarb. It may also be pressure-cooked. To retain shape sugar is added before cooking. Both methods w i l l preserve the color. 4. The chicken could be cooked i n the pressure—cooker. This would be the quickest way. 5. The oven should be used for the Hungarian Chicken Paprika and for the Baked rhubarb. The potatoes should be cooked in a steamer and the green beans in a heavy sauce-pan with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d . The chicken w i l l require approximately 1 hour. The rhubarb w i l l also require approximately 1 hour. The potatoes wi l l take from 30 to 45 minutes. The green beans w i l l require about 30 minutes. These are approximate cooking times after the necessary preparation. REFERENCES 1. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods Their Selection and  Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950. pp. 78, 254. Henri Paul Pellaprat, Modern French Culinary Art, Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 108. 2. Stanley, Cline, o_p. c i t . , p. 79. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , p. 109. 3. Stanley, Cline, OJD. c i t . , pp. 78-9. Pellaprat, loc. c i t . Irma S. Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, New York: Bobbs Merrill Co., 1953, pp. 886-7. 4. Louis P. de Gouy, The Gold Cook Book, New York: Greenberg: Publisher, 1948, p. 989. 5. Rombauer, loc. c i t . Meat, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Ontario Department of Agriculture, Queen's Printer, 1956, p. 7. 6. Stanley, Cline, loc. c i t . , p. 237. Ruth Benolzheimer, (ed.) The American Woman1s Cook Book, New York: Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc., 1943, p. 281. 7. Stanley, Cline, loc. c i t . 8. Poultry, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa, Ont.: Canada Department of Agriculture, Queen's Printer, 1964, p. 21-2. 9. The Way to Cook Fish, Ottawa, Ont., Department of Fisheries, Queen's Printer, 1965, p. 20. Jean I. Simpson, Ph.D., The Freezer Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, pp. 252-3. 10. The Way to Cook Fish, loc. c i t . 11. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, Wallaceburg, Ont.: National Pressure Cooker Co., (Canada) Ltd., 1948, p. 68. 12. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, loc. c i t . 13. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 71. 14. Robert Carrier, Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Son, Ltd., 1963, p. 27. 15. Pellaprat, og. c i t . , p. 115. 16. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 79. REFERENCES CONTD. 17. Pellaprat, loc. c i t . Stanley, Cline, loc. c i t . 18. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 80. Rombauer, oj3. c i t . p. 882. 19. Stanley, oi£. c i t . , p. 54. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 37. 20. Fannie Merrit Farmer, The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Toronto, Ont.: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1936, p. 57. P h i l l i p Harben, The Grammar of Cooking, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965, p. 238. 21. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 102 Rombauer, £p. c i t . , p. 892. 22. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and  Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, pp. 148-9. Stanley, o>£. c i t . , p. 78. 23. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods, Their Selection and  Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 78. Sweetman, ojp. c i t . , pp. 416, 148-9. 24. Ibid., p. 416. 25. Stanley, loc. c i t . CHAPTER IV COOKING METHODS IN WHICH AIR IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT EXCHANGE Introduction to Instructor As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the learner to l i s t and describe the two methods which employ air as the medium of heat transfer as well as to l i s t and discuss the applications of these methods. He w i l l also be required to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. Instroduction to Learner The methods which employ air as the medium of heat exchange are b r o i l -ing, roasting and baking. Roasting and baking are terms which are used synonymously. Roasting i s generally used for meats whereas baking is used for fish, vegetables and f r u i t as well as for flour and other mixtures. This chapter w i l l define and discuss these methods as they may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. Basic formulae for each method as i t applies to these foods wi l l be given. Broiling. Broiling i s a dry heat method of cooking i n which air i s the medium of heat transfer. The food i s exposed to heat by radiation and convection at temperatures ranging from 250° to 900° F ^ The heat may come from an open f i r e or the broiling element of a gas or electric range. The food i s held i n place by means of a rack or open g r i l l or is secured to a revolving spit as i n rotisserie cooking. When broiling i s done out of doors on an open f i r e i t i s usually called "barbecuing." The food being barbecued is generally basted with a highly seasoned sauce. When food is to be broiled i t i s placed from 2 to 5 inches from the source of heat, the distance depending upon the intensity of the heat and the size of the portions to he broiled. Larger pieces are placed farther from the heat than smaller ones because they require longer cooking and the surface w i l l become overcooked i f they are too close. When the cooking i s done on a rack i t i s cooked f i r s t on one side and then turned and cooked on the other. Since this type of cooking subjects the surface of the food to rapid evaporation of moisture i t may result i n a dry product i f something i s not done to counteract i t . This may be done by brushing the food before and 2 during cooking with melted butter, fat or o i l . Broiling involves high temperatures and short cooking periods and produces a brown crust on the exterior of the food and a soft, moist i n -terior. It i s a suitable method for cooking tender cuts of meat, tender 3 poultry, most fish and some vegetables and f r u i t s . Baking and roasting. Baking and roasting are terms which are used synonymously. Roasting (baking) is a dry heat method of cooking which em-ploys air as the medium of heat transfer. The cooking takes place i n a heated oven where convection currents heat the air and equalize the oven temperatures. The heated air surrounds the food and cooks i t . This method of cooking is suitable for tender cuts of meat, poultry, fish, some vege-tables and fruits and eggs. Methods of Cooking Meat Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. Broiling Meat. Only tender cuts of meat such as steaks, chops, cut-lets, ground meat patties, ham and bacon slices should be cooked in this manner. Since meat to be broiled should have some fat content, veal which is low i n fat should not be cooked in this way. The exterior fat of the meat is generally scored at intervals, that is cut at right angles to the red muscle, to prevent i t from curling during cooking. It i s placed on a 55 pre-heated, greased broiling—rack and placed over or under the source of heat at a distance of 2 to 5 inches, depending upon the thickness of the cut. While cooking i t should be brushed with melted butter, fat or o i l from time to time. It i s cooked f i r s t on one side and then turned and cooked on the other side. The length of cooking depends upon individual preference in the finished product. There are four ways of determining when meat i s cooked, ( l ) If the thickness of the meat permits a thermometer may be inserted into the middle edge of the meat. The temperature reading of the cooked meat should be the same as the reading for a roast of the same variety, i.e., a rare beef steak w i l l have the same internal temperature as a rare roast of beef, - 130° to 140° F. (2) If the exterior surface of the meat is resistant to the touch i t should be cooked. The meat w i l l have become firm and the exterior surface w i l l have developed a brown crust. (3) If drops of red liq u i d are seen on the surface of the meat i t should be cooked to a state which i s neither too rare nor too well done. The drops of l i -quid are juices from the interior which come to the surface when the meat is cooked. If the meat i s allowed to reach a stage where no drops are visible i t w i l l be very well cooked or overcooked. (4) The most usual way of determining how well the meat is cooked i s by making a small incision in the meat with a sharp knife near the bone or center of the meat. The color 4 may be observed and a judgement made as to i t s readiness for serving. Basic Formula for Broiling Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth and prepare for cooking. 2. Place on a pre-heated, greased broiling rack. 3. Place meat 2 to 5 inches from the source of heat. 4. Brush meat with melted butter, fat or o i l . 5. Brown f i r s t on one side. 6. Season with salt. 7. Turn and broil on other side. 8. Cook u n t i l the meat has reached the stage of individual pref-erence. Roasting Meat. The dry-heat methods of cooking are used only for tender cuts of meat, the tougher cuts being cooked by the moist-heat meth-ods. Any tender cut of beef, veal, pork, or lamb may be roasted or baked. Meat which i s to be roasted i s prepared for cooking by wiping with a clean damp cloth. It is then seasoned with salt and pepper i f desired. It has been proven that salt does not penetrate to any appreciable extent so whether the meat i s salted before or during cooking i s not very im-portant. The salt w i l l be found at the end of cooking only to have pene-trated to a depth of about one-half inch. The oven should be pre-heated. The meat is placed fat side up on a rack i n a shallow roasting pan. If the fat i s on top i t w i l l perform a self-basting action during cooking and w i l l prevent the meat from drying out. The rack is used to keep the meat out of the drippings. A meat thermometer should be inserted into the center of the largest muscle, taking care that i t does not touch fat or bone. The meat i s roasted i n an uncovered roasting pan in a slow oven, 325° F. Experiments have shown that meat which i s cooked at a low temper-ature tends to be juic i e r and to lose less through shrinkage than meat cooked at higher temperatures. A new method for roasting beef and lamb is called the " a l l day method." When this method i s used the meat loses less through shrinkage and is more evenly cooked throughout. Meat cooked in this manner is subjected to oven temperatures of only 200° F. As a result this method usually takes twice the conventional roasting time, i.e., the time required to roast at 325° to 350° F. The meat should be cooked to individual preference. The use of a meat thermometer i s the best way of insuring that the meat w i l l be cooked to the desired degree. Basic Formula for Roasting Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth. 2. Pre-heat oven to 325° F. 3. Season roast with salt and pepper i f desired. 4. Insert meat thermometer into center of largest muscle. 5. Place meat on rack i n roaster. Leave uncovered. 6. Place i n oven and cook unt i l stage of preference. Methods of Cooking Poultry Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. Broiling Poultry. Broiling chickens, fryers, Rock Cornish hens, 4 to 8 pound turkeys or turkey parts, and ducklings, may be broiled or cooked on a rotisserie. If the birds are to be broiled on a rack or g r i l l they should be s p l i t i n half lengthwise. Those to be broiled on a r o t i -sserie are l e f t whole. Half birds are prepared for broiling by fastening the wing to the back by means of a skewer. This exposes the breast to the heat. If broiling i s to be done on a rotisserie the body cavity of the bird i s f i r s t rubbed with salt then the wings are tied close to the breast, the neck skin i s fastened to the back with a skewer and the drumsticks crossed and tied with string to the t a i l . This process i s called "trussing." When the bird has been trussed i t i s placed on the spit. The spit i s passed through the bird lengthwise by inserting i t between the branches of the wish-bone, running i t parallel to the back-bone and bringing i t out just above the t a i l . The bird i s centered and securely fastened to the spit. Both whole and half birds should be rubbed with melted butter, fat or o i l , and sprinkled with salt. The half birds are placed on the g r i l l about 3 inches from the source of heat. They are browned on the skin side for about 3 minutes, turned and browned on the under side for about 3 minutes. The g r i l l is raised, or lowered, 4 to 6 inches from the heat and cooking is continued. The bird i s turned frequently and i s brushed occasionally with melted butter, fat or o i l . Cooking time for a half 7 chicken i s approximately 50 to 55 minutes. Whole birds which are being broiled on a rotisserie should have a meat thermometer inserted into the heaviest part of a drumstick. When cooked the thermometer w i l l regis-ter 190° F. 8 Basic Formula for Broiling Poultry. 1. Prepare bird for broiling. 2. Rub with melted butter, fat or o i l . 3. Sprinkle with salt. 4. Place bird 3 inches from source of heat. 5. Brown half birds on skin side for 3 minutes. 6. Turn and brown on other side for 3 minutes. 7. Move g r i l l 4 to 6 inches from heat. 8. Continue cooking, turning frequently. 9. Brush occasionally with melted butter, fat or o i l . 10. In whole birds use meat thermometer inserted i n heavy part of drumstick. 11. Cook until thermometer registers 190° F. Roasting Poultry. In cooking poultry as in cooking meat the same basic principle applies, _i.j?., moist heat methods are necessary to soften 59 the tough connective tissue found in older, mature birds. Young tender birds may be cooked by the dry heat methods. Roasting i s a method which should only be used with tender poultry. Large birds such as turkeys, geese, capons, and ducklings should be roasted i n a slow oven, at 325° F., in order that they be uniformly cooked throughout. Smaller birds such as chicken, Rock Cornish hens, and squab develop better color and do not dry out as much i f roasted i n a hotter oven at 375° to 400° F. If the bird i s to be stuffed the cavity should be well washed, drained and patted dry with paper towels. The cavity should be rubbed ligh t l y with salt and the stuffing packed in loosely to allow for expan-sion during cooking. The cavity i s tightly closed with skewers and string. The bird should next be trussed. Trussing holds the bird in a com-pact shape and aids i n even cooking. It also makes the bird more attrac-tive for serving. The neck skin i s fastened to the back with a skewer, the wings are brought to the back and fastened. The drumsticks are tied to the t a i l except i n the case of ducklings and geese. In these birds the drumsticks are tied together but not attached to the t a i l . The skin of the bird i s rubbed with softened butter, fat or o i l . It i s placed i n a roasting pan and roasted breast-side down for the f i r s t two-thirds of the cooking time. It i s then turned breast-side up for the remainder of the cooking time. It i s basted occasionally during roasting with pan drippings and roasted un t i l tender. The best way to determine when the bird i s cooked is to use a meat thermometer which should be inserted into the heavy muscle of a drumstick. When the chicken is cooked the thermometer w i l l register 190° F. A bird is considered cooked when the thickest part of the drum-stick feels soft when pressed with the fingers. Small birds are cooked 60 when the drumstick turns easily out of the thigh-joint. Basic Formula for Roasting Poultry. 1. Prepare the bird for cooking. 2. Rub body cavity l i g h t l y with salt. 3. If bird i s to be stuffed pack stuffing i n loosely. 4. Close cavity securely. 5. Truss the bird. 6. Rub bird with softened butter, fat or o i l . 7. Place, breast-side down i n roasting pan. 8. Roast for two-third of cooking time. 9. Turn and roast breast-side up. 10. Roast unt i l tender. Meat thermometer w i l l register 190° F. Methods of Cooking Fish Using Air as Medium of Heat Transfer. Broiling Fish. Broiling i s a very suitable method for cooking most types of fis h . It i s especially good for fatty varieties since i t allows fat to drip off during the cooking process. Small whole fis h , f i s h f i l l e t s and steaks may be cooked i n this way. Large fish should be cut into small-er pieces before broiling. The f i s h i s brushed with melted butter, fat or o i l before broiling. The pieces are placed 3 to 5 inches from the source of heat on a pre-heated and greased broiling-rack and are broiled until golden brown on one side then turned and the cooking i s completed on the other side. Time for broiling may be estimated by allowing 10 minutes for each inch of thickness of the f i s h . 1 0 Most f i s h w i l l b r o i l i n 10 to 20 minutes. 1 1 Basic Formula for Broiling Fish. 1. Prepare fish for broiling. 61 2. Pre-heat and grease broiling rack. 3. Sprinkle fi s h with salt and pepper. 4. Brush with melted butter, fat or o i l . 5. Place on rack with skin 3 to 5 inches from heat. 6. Broil until golden brown. 7. Turn and br o i l on other side. 8. Brush occasionally with melted butter, fat or o i l . 9. Cook unt i l golden brown and f i s h flakes readily when tested with a fork. Allow 10 minutes for each inch of thickness of fis h . Baking Fish. Baking is a method suitable for cooking whole fis h , steaks or f i l l e t s . Any fis h may be baked. Temperatures used are very high, 450° to 500° F. Baking Whole Fish (3-4 lbs.) To bake whole fis h which have been dressed (scaled, gutted and trimmed) the fish should be rubbed inside and out with salt and pepper. The fish i s placed on a buttered baking-pan and brushed with melted butter, fat or o i l . It i s baked in a pre—heated oven at 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time for each inch 12 of thickness of fis h . It should flake easily when tested with a fork. Basic Formula for Baking Whole Fish. (3-4 lbs) 1. Prepare f i s h for cooking. 2. Pre-heat oven to 450° to 500° F. 3. Rub f i s h inside and out with salt and pepper. 4. Place on a buttered baking pan. 5. Brush with melted butter, fat or o i l . 6. Bake at 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time per inch thickness of fish. 62 Baking Fish F i l l e t s or Steaks. Pieces of fi s h such as f i l l e t s and steaks should be dipped in salted milk, allowing 1 tablespoon salt per cup of milk. The fi s h i s then rolled i n fine bread or cracker—crumbs and placed on a buttered baking-pan.1^ It i s baked in a very hot oven, 450° -o 14 500 F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time for each inch thickness of f i s h . Basic Formula for Baking Fish F i l l e t s or Steaks. 1. Pre-heat oven to 450° to 500° F. 2. Dip pieces of f i s h in salted milk, using 1 tablespoon salt per cup of milk. 3. Roll f i s h i n fine bread or cracker crumbs. 4. Bake in very hot oven, 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes per inch thickness of f i s h . Methods of Cooking Vegetables and Fruits Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. Broiling Vegetables and Fruits. Very few cook-books devote much atten-tion to broiling as a method of cooking vegetables and f r u i t s . Since this i s a dry heat method of cooking i t i s very useful i n preserving natural flavors which might be lost in water or steam in the moist heat methods. The f r u i t i s f i r s t oiled with melted butter, fat or o i l and then arranged on a baking-pan and placed on the broiling-rack about 4 inches from the source of heat. The vegetable or f r u i t i s broiled under f u l l heat for four minutes. It i s then turned and the cooking i s continued at low heat, for 20 to 30 minutes, or u n t i l tender. The subjection of the vegetable or f r u i t to a lower tem-perature may be achieved by moving the broiling rack farther away from the source of heat. Vegetables which may be cooked i n this manner are unpeeled beets, new spring potatoes, corn on the cob, green peppers, tomatoes, mush-15 rooms and onions. Fruits which lend themselves to this type of cooking 63 are bananas, pears, apples, plums, peaches, sliced pineapple and half grape-fr u i t . Basic Formula for Broiling Vegetables and Fruits. 1. Rub vegetables or f r u i t with melted butter, fat or o i l . 2. Place on baking pan about 4 inches from source of heat. 3. Broil at high heat for 4 minutes. 4. Reduce heat to low. 5. Turn f r u i t or vegetable and cook until tender, about 20 to 30 minutes. Root vegetables w i l l require longer cooking then the f r u i t type vegetables such as tomatoes and green peppers. Baking Vegetables. Baking i s an excellent way of cooking root veget-ables such as potatoes, carrots, beets, and onions, as well as vegetables which have heavy skins such as squash, cucumbers, and tomatoes. This method serves to retain valuable nutrients and to protect flavor since there is no 16 loss by solution. The vegetables are f i r s t washed and i f a crusty skin i s not desired in the finished product, such as baked potatoes, the skin i s oiled with melted butter, fat or o i l . The vegetables are baked in a moder-ate oven, 350° F. for 35 to 45 minutes. Baked starchy vegetables such as potatoes and squash should be opened when baking is finished to allow steam 17 to escape. Otherwise the vegetables w i l l become soggy. Basic Formula for Baking Vegetables. 1. Wash vegetables. 2. Oil i f desired. 3. Place i n a shallow baking pan. 4. Bake in a pre-heated oven, 350° F. for 30 to 45 minutes. Root vegetables w i l l require longer cooking than the f r u i t types such as tomatoes, cucumbers, etc. Baking Sliced, Diced or Shredded Vegetables. Another way of baking vegetables i s to slice, dice or shred them, add seasonings and a very small amount of liquid and bake them at 350° F. in a covered casserole. 1 8 A casserole i s a heat-proof baking dish. It may be made of ceramic, glass as i n Pyrex or Corning Ware, enamelled metal etc. Basic Formula for Baking Sliced, Diced or Shredded Vegetables. 1. Peel vegetables. 2. Slice, dice or shred vegetables. 3. Place in a buttered casserole. 4. Season with salt and pepper. 5. Add a very small amount of liquid i f the vegetable i s dry. 6. Bake at 350° F. unt i l tender. Baking Fruit. Fruits are very high i n volatile flavors (evapora-ting rapidly) and since i t i s desirable to retain these delicate flavors baking i s a very satisfactory method of cooking. It i s especially useful for cooking those fruits which have a heavy skin or peel, such as apples or pears. The skin serves to hold the volatile flavors and the steam 19 which results from heating the juices helps to soften the cellulose. The oven should be pre-heated to 350° F. The f r u i t i s washed and placed in a shallow baking dish and a minimal amount of water i s added to prevent 20 burning. The f r u i t is placed in the oven and baked unt i l tender. Basic Formula for Baking Fruit. 1. Pre-heat oven to 350° F. 2. Wash f r u i t . 3. Place in a shallow baking dish. 4. Add a very small amount-of water. 5. Bake at 350° F. unt i l tender. Methods of Cooking Eggs Using Air as Medium of Heat Transfer. Eggs may be baked i n individual ramekins or casseroles (these are individual heat-proof dishes). The french c a l l these l i t t l e dishes "cocottes" and there are many recipes for "Eggs en Cocottes." They are also called shirred eggs. These combine eggs with other foods such as ground chicken or other meat, cheese, spinach, mushrooms etc. The ramekin should be warmed and buttered generously. An egg i s broken into each ramekin and is sprinkled li g h t l y with salt and pepper. The ramekin is placed on a cookie-sheet and baked i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F., for 8 to 10 minutes, or unt i l the eggs are set. The eggs may be served i n the ramekins or may be turned out onto a piece of toast. They are often served with a sauce. Basic Formula for Baking Eggs. 1. Warm the ramekins. 2. Butter generously. 3. Break a fresh egg into each ramekin. 4. Sprinkle l i g h t l y with salt and pepper. 5. Place ramekins on a cookie-sheet. 6. Place in a slow oven, 300° to 325° F., and bake for 8 to 10 minutes, or until eggs are set. Appraisal of Cooking Methods Employing A i r as the Medium of Heat Exchange. The advantages of cooking methods which use air as the medium heat exchange are that color is changed, flavor i s improved and i n the case of meat, fish, and poultry, the plasma proteins are coagulated, i.e. made 66 firm or set. The two methods which employ air as the medium of heat exchange are broiling and roasting (baking). These are both dry heat methods of cook-ing and are suitable for tender cuts of meat, poultry, f i s h and some vegetables and f r u i t . In broiling the food is subjected to intense direct heat and the outer surface i s cooked faster than the interior and a crust i s formed which has an agreeable color and flavor. The time required for broiling a food depends upon the temperature employed, the size and shape of the 25 food and the degree of doneness preferred. In roasting (baking) in an oven, temperatures and time of cooking are very important in controlling the changes that take place. In roast-ing meat and poultry the lower the temperatures the lower the cooking losses w i l l be. When temperatures are low there i s less loss through shrinkage and less loss of juices which contain valuable vitamins, min-26 erals and flavors. In baking vegetables and fruits practically a l l the vitamins, minerals and flavor are retained since there i s no loss by 27 solution. These methods are relatively easy to employ with modern cooking equipment, although broiling requires considerably more s k i l l than roast-ing (baking). Modern ovens are usually thermostatically controlled and i f times and temperatures are carefully checked the cook should have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with the roasting (baking) method. In roasting meat and poultry, i t i s advisable to use a meat thermometer to prevent over or under-cooking. In broiling meat, poultry or fish, the broiling rack should be pre-heated and greased before the food is placed on i t . This prevents i n i t i a l sticking. It i s also important to brush food with melted fat or o i l before and during broiling to prevent i t from drying out. The distance from the source of heat i s important i n broiling and the inexperienced cook may require some practice with this method before mastering the s k i l l . Since broiling and roasting (baking) are dry heat methods of cooking their application i s limited to tender cuts of meat and poultry, i - . ^ . those cuts which do not have appreciable connective tissue to be broken down. They may also be used with fi s h and to a more limited degree with vege-tables and eggs. If cost is a consideration i t must be borne in mind that the cuts of meat which lend themselves to this type of dry cooking are the most expensive. The learner w i l l find that the roasting (baking) method has many applications. It may be used with a wide variety of foods both natural and processed. It i s also one of the most frequently used methods with flour mixtures such as cake, pastries, bread, etc., as well as with egg mixtures such as custards, souffles, etc. SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the two methods of cooking which employ-air as the medium of heat transfer. These methods are broiling and roast-ing (baking). Each has been defined and the actual procedural steps i n -volved have been described. Equipment used in these methods has also been described. It has been pointed out that these are dry heat methods of cooking and that their application is limited to tender cuts of meat and poultry and they should not be used with tough cuts of meat or poultry. They may also be used with fi s h , vegetables and f r u i t . Eggs also may be baked. The purpose of these methods is to develop flavor i n foods as well as to coagu-late the plasma proteins i n meat, poultry and fi s h . The baking method i s particularly useful in conserving vitamins and minerals and other nutrients in vegetables. Broiling i s a method which may be applied to meat, poultry, fi s h and vegetables. Its application to each of these foods has been described and basic formulae have been given. Roasting (baking) i s a method which may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. Its application with each of these foods has been described and basic formulae developed. An appraisal of the value of these methods in the preparation of the foods under discussion i n this text has been made. Their use with pro-cessed foods and mixtures has been indicated as well as their usefulness in more complex cooking procedures. 68a SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1. Choose two identical roasts of beef the same cut, weight and conformation. Weigh them before roasting. Roast one i n the conven-tional manner at 325° F. Roast the other by the " a l l day method" at 200° F. Weigh each when roasted and compare the loss of weight. Slice and compare the juiciness and color. This could be a class project with one group cooking one roast another the other. 2. You are planning the menu for a supper party on the patio or in the back-yard. You would like to barbecue the main course so you have decided to prepare shish-kabobs. Which meats and which vegetables might you use? 3. You are planning to bake a whole fish. Could you use the same oven to bake: the vegetables which might accompany i t on the menu? 4. Using the 1965 edition of the Bantam Fannie Farmer Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal; Roast Loin of Pork p. 196 Baked Potatoes p. 265 Baked Tomatoes p. 276 Baked Fruit Compote p. 365 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1. You have performed a typical laboratory experiment. It would be pre-sumptious to predict the exact result. Other experimenters have found the shrinkage in the "all-day method" roast to be considerably less than in the conventional method roast. 2. The meats could be, - lamb, beef, pork, ham and the variety meats. The vegetables could be onions, green peppers, mushrooms, sliced zucchini or summer squash. 68b 3. The fish and vegetables cannot be baked at the same temperature since the f i s h requires a high heat and the vegetables a moderate heat. It might be possible to bake the vegetables f i r s t and remove them to a place where they can be kept warm, and then increase the temperature and bake the fis h . 4. The entire meal can be baked in the oven. The pork w i l l take approx-imately 3 hours to roast so i t should be put in the oven 3 hours before dinner. The baked potatoes w i l l need approximately 1 hour so they must go in 2 hours after the pork. The baked tomatoes and the f r u i t compote each require approximately 30 minutes to bake so they w i l l go i n last; jjr hour after the potatoes. It i s always wise to allow some extra time at the end of cooking. This time i s needed for seasoning i f necessary, garnishing and serving. 69 REFERENCES 1. Carl A. Rietz, A Guide to the Selection, Combination, and  Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, p. 113. 2. Louise P. de Gouy, The Gold Cook Book, New York: Greenberg, 1948, p. 984. 3. Ibid., p. 983. University of Wisconsin, Meat in our Meals, Agriculture Extension Service of the College of Agriculture, Circular 628, A p r i l , 1964. 4. Phyllis C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 56-7. 5. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods, Their Selection  and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, pp. 198-9. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 158. 6. Reynolds, op. c i t . , p. 55. 7. Jean I. Simpson, The Frozen Food Cook Book, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, p. 299. Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964, p. 20. Home Economics Staff, Big Boy Barbecue Book, New York: Tested Recipe Institute, Inc., 1957, pp. 19, 32. 8. Canada Department of Agriculture, loc. c i t . 9. Canada Department of Agriculture, op. c i t . , p. 16. 10. Department of Fisheries of Canada, The Way to Cook Fish, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965, p. 14. 11. Henri Paul Pellaprat, Modern French Culinary Art, Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 424. Department of Fisheries of Canada, loc. c i t . Simpson, oj). c i t . , p. 252. 12. Pellaprat, OJD. c i t . , p. 426. 13. Simpson, ag. c i t . , p. 252. 14. Department of Fisheries, loc. c i t . 15. Jehane Benoit, Encyclopedia of Canadian Cuisine, Toronto: Southam Printing Co., Ltd., 1953, p. 262. Home Economics Staff, oj>. c i t . , p. 55 70 REFERENCES CONTD. 16. Stanley, <yg. c i t . , p. 78. Hughes, c i t . , pp. 63-4. Pellaprat, ££. c i t . , p. 116. 17. Pellaprat, loc. c i t . Hughes, c i t . , p. 64. 18. Pellaprat, loc. c i t . , Stanley, loc. c i t . 19. Hughes, c i t . , p. 38. Stanley, ££. c i t . , p. 54. 20. Hughes, loc. c i t . 21. de Gouy, op. c i t . , p. 163. 22. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and  Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 404. 23. Stanley, loc. c i t . , p. 404. 24. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1962, pp. 62-4. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods: Their Selection and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950, p. 78. CHAPTER V COOKING METHODS IN WHICH FAT IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the adult learn-er to l i s t and describe the four cooking methods which employ fat as the medium of heat transfer as well as to discuss their application i n food preparation. He w i l l also be required to use these methods in the prep-aration of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The methods which employ fat as the medium of heat transfer are pan-frying, sauteing, pan-broiling, and deep-fat frying. This chapter w i l l define and describe each method as i t may be applied to the cooking of meat, poultry, fi s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. The basic formula for each method w i l l be developed. Pan-Frying. Pan-frying i s cooking in a small amount of fat i n an un-covered frying-pan over direct heat. Food cooked in this manner may be fried i n i t s natural state or i t may f i r s t be floured or egg-and-crumbed to give a brown crisp crust. The flouring process involves coating the food in seasoned flour. If food i s to be egg and crumbed i t is f i r s t floured then dipped in slightly beaten egg and f i n a l l y covered with fine bread or cracker crumbs.^ Sauteing. Sauteing is frying l i g h t l y and quickly in a l i t t l e hot fat. If any excess fat accumulates during cooking i t should be poured off. The food is turned or flipped constantly. Pan-Broiling. Pan-broiling i s frying on a hot surface, usually a metal pot or pan, without adding fat, or hy oiling slightly with a piece of fat 2 meat, or by sprinkling salt on the hot pan. Any fat which accumulates from the food i t s e l f must be poured off. The food cooks in i t s own fat. Deep-Fat Frying. The deep-fat frying method i s frying in a deep kettle with enough fat to cover or float the food being cooked. To pre-vent absorption of fat by the food the fat must be hot enough to seal the surface as soon as the food is immersed in i t . The fat i s never s u f f i -ciently hot until i t stops bubbling. It is wise to use a deep-fat ther-mometer for deep—fat frying but i f one is not readily available i t i s possible to test the temperature by means of an inch cube of bread. If the fat i s hot enough for deep-fat frying the bread cube w i l l turn golden 3" brown in 40 seconds after being immersed. Methods of Frying Meat with Fat. Methods which employ fat as the medium of heat exchange are dry-heat methods and can be used only for tender cuts of meat. The tough cuts of meat must always be cooked by the moist heat methods. Any thin tender cut of beef, veal, pork or lamb may be frie d . A l l four methods may be used with meat i.e., pan-frying, sauteing, pan-broiling and deep-fat frying. Pan-Frying Meat. The meat should he wiped with a clean damp cloth. It should be seasoned with salt and pepper. If a golden crust i s desired the meat should be floured or egg-and-crumbed. The flouring process is the covering of the meat with seasoned flour. This may be accomplished by the following means; (a) the food is shaken i n a paper bag containing the seasoned flour; (b) the food i s dipped or rolled in the seasoned flour. The fat i s melted i n a frying-pan but not allowed to reach the smoke point. The meat i s added to the pan and browned f i r s t on one side then turned and browned on the other side. Cooking should be done at moderate temperatures and the food should be turned occasionally to cook both sides evenly. Basic Formula for Pan-Frying Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth. 2. Season with salt and pepper. 3. If a crust i s desired flour the meat or egg-and-crumb i t . 4. Melt fat in a hot frying-pan to a stage just before smoking. Use a pan with a heavy bottom. 5. Add meat and brown f i r s t on one side. 6. Turn and brown on other side. 7. Cook meat in uncovered pan at moderate temperatures, turning occasionally to cook both sides evenly. 8. Cook until tender. Sauteing Meat. The meat should be wiped with a clean damp cloth. It i s seasoned with salt and pepper. The pan is heated and a l i t t l e fat is added, about 2 tablespoons i s generally sufficient for four servings. The meat i s browned quickly on both sides. If more cooking i s necessary •5' the heat should be lowered and the cooking and turning continued. Basic Formula for Sauteing Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth. 2. Season with salt and pepper. 3. Heat frying-pan over high heat. 4. Add a l i t t l e fat to the frying-pan, about 2 tablespoons are usually enough for meat for four. 5. Brown meat quickly on both sides. 6. If more cooking i s necessary reduce the heat and continue cooking and turning. 7. Cook u n t i l tender. Pan-Broiling Meat. The meat should be wiped with a clean damp cloth. This type of cooking should only be attempted i n a heavy thick frying-pan. The pan should s i t squarely on the stove and the heat should be evenly dis-tributed. The pan is heated and used in an ungreased state or i t may be rubbed with a piece of fat meat, to keep meat from sticking to the pan. Usually a piece of the fat trimmed from the outside of the steak or chop i t s e l f i s used. When the pan i s hot, but not smoking, the meat i s added. It is browned f i r s t on one side then turned and browned on the other. The cooking and turning are continued until the meat i s sufficiently cooked. Any fat which accumulates during cooking should be poured off - the meat must not pan-fry.-1^" Pan-broiling of bacon i s different from other pan-broiling i n that the bacon i s placed i n a cold pan and heated slowly with frequent turning. T Accumulated fat i s poured off. Bacon i s cooked u n t i l crisp. Basic Formula for Pan-Broiling Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth. 2. Heat pan. 3. Rub pan with fat from the meat i f necessary. 4. Add meat. 5. Brown f i r s t on one side then on the other. 6. Pour off any fat which accumulates in the pan. 7. Cook and continue turning u n t i l done. Deep-Fat Frying Meat. The meat should be wiped with a clean, damp cloth and prepared for cooking. It i s usually floured or crumbed. The fat i s heated to frying temperature, 360° to 375° F."8" It i s advisable to use a thermometer to determine the correct temperature. The meat is placed, a few pieces at a time, in the wire basket and lowered into the hot fat. The meat i s browned and cooked through. It is not necessary to turn the meat because i t i s exposed to the fat on a l l sides. When cooked the meat i s l i f t e d out of the fat by means of the raising the wire basket. Fat should be allowed to drain off before removing from the basket and then the food 19/ is placed on absorbent paper towels to remove any excess fat. Basic Formula for Deep-Fat Frying Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth and prepare for cooking by flouring or crumbing. 2. Heat fat in kettle to 360° - 375° F. 3. Place meat, a few pieces at a time, i n wire basket and lower into hot fat. 4. Brown and cook meat until tender. 5. Drain off a l l excess fat before removing from wire basket. 6. Place cooked meat on absorbent paper towels to remove any 10 remaining fat. Methods of Frying Poultry with Fat. Young birds of any size may be fried. The usual size for chickens is 2^ - to 3-jj pounds. Small birds may be cut into fourths or halves while larger birds are usually disjointed. Two methods are used for frying poultry. Pan-Frying Poultry. The poultry should be prepared for cooking by cutting bird i n half or quarters or by disjointing. The pieces are wiped dry, seasoned with salt and pepper and sometimes floured or crumbed. Fat is melted in a heavy pan to a depth of l/4 inch for chicken to l/2 inch for turkey. The larger pieces are added to the pan f i r s t and allowed to brown, then the smaller pieces are added and browned. The pieces are turned occasionally to brown and cook evenly. When pieces are brown the heat is reduced and the poultry cooked unt i l tender, the thickest pieces of a 2jr pound bird require approximately 25 minutes to cook. Basic Formula for Pan-Broiling Poultry. 1. Cut bird into parts or disjoint. 2. Dredge with flour or egg-and-crumb i f directed to do so. 3. Heat fat i n frying pan. Allow l/4 inch of fat for chicken, l/2 inch for turkey. 4. Add large pieces to pan and brown. 5. Add smaller pieces. 6. Brown on a l l sides. 7. Keep turning to brown and cook evenly. 8. Cook unt i l tender, a l\ pound bird w i l l require approximately 25 minutes. Deep-Frying Poultry. The bird should be cut into serving pieces. The pieces are egg—and-crumbed or dipped in a batter, ( l cup flour, 1 cup milk, 1 egg and l/2 teaspoon salt) The fat should be heated in a deep kettle to 300° - 325° F. The pieces are placed in the wire basket and lowered, a few at a time, into the hot fat. The bird should be cooked unt i l tender. It 11 is drained i n the wire basket and then placed on absorbent paper towels. Basic Formula for Deep-Fat Frying Poultry. 1. Cut bird into serving pieces. Pat dry. 2. Prepare by egg-and-crumbing or by dipping i n batter. 3. Heat the fat to a temperature of 350° F. 4. Lower the pieces, a few at a time, into the hot fat. 5. Regulate the heat to maintain a constant temperature of between 300° and 325° F. 6. Cook unt i l tender. 7. Drain i n wire basket and then on absorbent paper towels. Methods of Cooking Fish i n Fat. Any small fish, f i l l e t s or steaks may be fried. The two methods used are pan-frying and deep-fat frying. Pan-Frying Fish. The f i s h i s prepared for cooking. It i s seasoned with salt or floured or rolled in fine bread crumbs. Fat is melted in a frying-pan to a depth of 1/8 inch to l/4 inch. The fish i s placed i n the pan, skin side up and cooked at moderate heat until brown. It i s carefully turned and browned on the other side. It i s cooked unt i l i t flakes easily 12 when tested with a fork. The complete cooking time w i l l be about 10 13 minutes per inch thickness of f i s h . Basic Formula for Pan-Frying Fish. 1. Prepare f i s h for cooking. 2. Season, flour or egg-and-crumb. 3. Melt fat i n a heated frying-pan allowing l/8 to l/4 inch of fat. 4. Place fi s h in pan, skin side up. 5. Cook slowly at moderate heat. 6. When browned, turn carefully. 7. Cook on other side unt i l golden brown and fis h flakes easily. The approximate cooking time is 10 minutes for each inch of thickness of f i s h . Deep-Fat Frying Fish. This method i s suitable only for small lean fis h or steaks cut into serving pieces of not more than l-g- inch thickness. The f i s h should be thoroughly dried. It i s floured, crumbed or dipped in 78 batter. It i s fried until golden brown at a temperature of 375 F. It w i l l 14 require approximately 3 or 4 minutes. The fish should be well drained. Basic Formula for Deep-Fat Frying Fish. 1. Cut f i s h into serving pieces. 2. Dry fi s h thoroughly. 3. Prepare f i s h for frying by flouring, egg-and-crumbing, or dipping in batter. 4. Lower into hot fat a few pieces at a time. 5. Fry unt i l golden brown at 375° F. for approximately 3 to 4 minutes. Methods of Cooking Vegetables in Fat. Frying i s a method which may be used with many vegetables. The f i n -ished product contains a l l the soluble nutrients and flavor of the vege-table. Vegetables which are frequently cooked in this manner are cabbage, celery, carrots, beets, parsnips, turnips, potatoes, onions, green beans, spinach, and other greens. Pan-Frying Vegetables. French and Chinese cooks are world famous for this method of preparing vegetables. The result i s crisp, tender vege-tables with delicious flavor. The vegetables are prepared by shredding, slicing or dicing. One or two tablespoons of fat are added to a heavy frying-pan. The vegetables are added and mixed ligh t l y to develop flavor. The pan is covered and the vegetables are cooked, stirring once or twice, until they sizzle. They are cooked only u n t i l crisp - tender. The water 15 that cooks out of the vegetables evaporates, so there is no excess liquid. Basic Formula for Pan-Frying Vegetables. 1. Shred, slice or dice vegetables. 2. Melt 1 or 2 tablespoons of fat in a heavy frying-pan. 3. Add vegetables. 4. Mix lightly. 5. Cook in covered pan un t i l vegetables sizzle. 6. Reduce heat. 7. Cook only u n t i l crisp - tender, stirring once or twice. Sauteing Vegetables. Shredded, chilled vegetables may be cooked by this method, £.g. they are cooked in an uncovered pan in a small amount of 16 fat. They are stirred frequently un t i l cooked. Basic Formula for Sauteing Vegetables. 1. Shred chilled vegetables. 2. Melt a very small quantity of fat i n a heavy frying pan. 3. Add vegetables. 4. Cook un-covered over moderate heat. 5. S t i r frequently and cook u n t i l tender. Deep-Fat Frying Vegetables. This method is used for cooking some vegetables, notably potatoes and onion rings. The vegetables should be peeled and cut into slices or strips. Potatoes should be washed in cold water, drained and dried thoroughly between clean towels. Onion rings should be dipped i n milk and then i n seasoned flour. The vegetables are placed i n the wire basket, a few pieces at a time, and lowered into deep fat at a temperature of 375° F. They are fried u n t i l golden brown. They 17 are removed from the fat, drained and turned onto paper towels. Basic Formula for Deep-Fat Frying Vegetables. 1. Prepare vegetables by peeling and cutting. 2. Prepare each vegetable as instructed in recipe. 3. Place vegetables, a few at a time, in the wire basket. 4. Lower vegetables into hot fat at 375° F. 5. Cook unt i l golden brown. 6. Drain off fat and turn onto paper towels. Methods of Cooking Fruits i n Fat. A few fruits may be fried although this is not a common way of pre-paring f r u i t . Those fruits which may be cooked in this manner are apples, 18 bananas and pineapple slices. The method commonly used in sauteing. Sauteing Fruit. The fru i t should be peeled and cut. Apples and pineapple are usually sliced, bananas are usually cut lengthwise. Apples and pineapple are sauteed i n a small amount of flavorful fat such as butter or bacon fat. Bananas are usually dredged with flour, browned in butter and sprinkled with powdered sugar. Basic Formula for Sauteing Fruit. 1. Prepare f r u i t as directed i n recipe. 2. Melt butter or flavorful fat in frying-pan. 3. Add f r u i t . 4. Brown and cook on both sides. Methods of Cooking Eggs Using Fat as a Cooking Medium. Eggs may be cooked by pan-frying. Just enough fat should be used to prevent eggs from sticking to the frying-pan. The fat i s heated to moder-ately hot, not allowed to smoke. The eggs are broken, one at a time, into a saucer, then slipped, one at a time, into the frying pan. They are seasoned with salt and pepper. The pan should be covered i f the eggs are not to be turned. The eggs are cooked unt i l the white i s opaque and of a j e l l y - l i k e consistency. If eggs are to be turned they are cooked in an 81 un-covered pan. The egg is cooked on one side then turned with an egg-turner or a broad spatula. The eggs should be removed from the pan care— 19 f u l l y with an egg-turner or spatula. Basic Formula for Frying Eggs. 1. Melt only enough fat i n pan to prevent sticking. 2. Heat pan to moderate temperature. Fat should not smoke. 3. Break the eggs, one at a time, into a saucer. 4. Slip, one at a time, into the frying-pan. 5. Season with salt and pepper. 6. Cover pan, or leave un-covered and turn eggs when cooked on one side. 7. Cook u n t i l white is opaque and of a j e l l y - l i k e consistency. 8. Remove from pan carefully with an egg-turner or a broad spatula. Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Fat as the Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of using fat as the cooking medium are that practi-cally no food nutrients are lost and that flavor is developed in browning. Frying i s also a fast method of cooking and i s therefore useful to the cook who has limited time. It i s an important method for preparing food from left-overs. Such left-over food as meat, poultry, f i s h and vegetables may a l l be prepared i n some appetizing way by means of these methods. Recipes which u t i l i z e these methods in the preparation of left-over food are: fi s h cakes, potato cakes, hash and croquettes. The object of cooking with fat i s to cook the food through and brown the outside with the minimum absorption of fat. Fat absorption must be kept to a minimum to insure palatability and d i g e s t i b i l i t y . Fat absorption is affected by (l) the length of time of heating, (2) the temperature of the fat, (3) the amount of surface exposed to the fat, and (4) the character and composition of the food. The longer the food remains in the fat the greater the absorption. The higher the temperature of the fat, the lower the absorption. The larger the proportion of surface of food, the greater the absorption. No difference i n fat absorption has been found to exist 20 due to the kinds of fat used. Of great importance to flavor and digestability i s the "smoke point" of fat used for frying, i.e. the amount of heat the fat can stand before i t smokes. When fat smokes i t is breaking down chemically and when this happens i t becomes i r r i t a t i n g to the digestive tract as well as smelling 21 and tasting badly. Therefore fat used for frying should never be allowed 22 to reach the smoke stage. For deep—fat frying the temperatures should not exceed 385° F. and most foods may be fried at lower temperatures. Pan-frying and sauteing are done at much lower temperatures. The fats suitable for deep-fat frying are the hydrogenated fats, com-pounds, high quality lard, and vegetable oils with the exception of olive o i l . Olive o i l , butter and margarine are not suitable for deep-fat frying since they smoke at too low a temperature. The fats which may be used successfully in pan-frying and sauteing include butter, lard, hydrogenated fats, margarine, vegetable oil s and meat drippings. Deep-fat frying can be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of the proper equipment. A deep kettle with a wire inset-basket and a deep-fat thermo-meter are very important. For pan-frying or sauteing i t is necessary to have a frying-pan with a bottom of uniform thickness which sits squarely on the stove, otherwise there w i l l be areas which are hotter than others and frying w i l l be uneven. Frying requires somewhat more s k i l l on the part of the cook than some other cooking methods. Attention must he given to selection of the fat most suitable for the particular method, preparation of the food,- tempera-ture of the fat, and the length of time required for frying. However, when the s k i l l s have been learned, the food prepared by these methods w i l l be palatable, nutritive and pleasing to look at. SUMMARY This chapter has dealt with the four methods of cooking which employ fat as the medium of heat transfer. Each method has been defined and i t s application has been described in the cooking of meat, poultry, fi s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. Basic formulae have been developed for each method as i t applies to the different foods. Equipment used for the various methods has been described. The pan-frying method of cooking may be used with meat, poultry, fis h , vegetables and eggs. The method has been described as i t applies to each of these foods and basic formulae have been developed. The saute'ing method of cooking may be applied to meat, vegetables and f r u i t . The method has been described as i t applies to each of these foods and basic formulae have been given. The pan-broiling method is applicable to meat. The method has been described and a basic formula given. Deep-fat frying may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Its application has been described with each of these foods and basic formulae developed. An analysis of the methods which use fat as the medium of heat trans-fer has been made. Ways in which these methods may be used i n more complex cooking procedures have been indicated. 85 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1. You wish to prepare a breakfast of bacon and fried eggs. Would you begin the frying process i n the same way for each? 2. Fried chicken may be prepared by two different methods. What are these? 3. You find that you have some left—over cooked food i n the refrigera-tor. If these foods are boiled potatoes, cooked corn beef how might you use them? 4. Using the Bantam edition of the A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following recipes: 1. F i l l e t of Sole a l a Meuniere p. 128 2. French-fried potatoes p. 269 3. Panned green beans p. 243 4. Sauteed bananas p. 368 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1. Bacon is an exception to the rule for pan-frying. It is always placed in a cool frying pan and heated. The bacon should be fried f i r s t and then removed from the pan and drained on paper towels. The eggs may be fried in the remaining bacon fat. They should be cooked at a moderate temperature. 2. Chicken can be deep fat- f r i e d or pan-fried. 3. These left-overs would make an excellent hash with the addition of some chopped onion. The three ingredients should be chopped, seasoned with salt and pepper and pan-fried i n a small quantity of melted fat. 4. The equipment necessary for this menu i s a deep-frying kettle and i n -set basket for the french-fried potatoes and two frying pans, one each for the sole and the green beans. Since the green beans w i l l require the longest cooking time they should be started f i r s t . The sole and the french-fried potatoes w i l l require approximately the same cooking time. The temperature of the fat for french-frying must be carefully checked. The bananas might be saute'ed at the table i n a chaffing dish or an electric frying-pan. 87 REFERENCES 1. Wilma Lord Perkins, ed., The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston  Cooking School Cookbook, Boston: L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1959, p. 4. 2. Rietz, op. c i t . , p. 114. Robert Carrier, Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1963, p. 28. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 177. 3. Pellaprat, loc. c i t . 4. Phyllis C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 58-9. 5. Ibid. Reitz, jig. c i t . , p. 118 6. Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 199-200 Reynolds, oj>. c i t . , p. 58. 7. Hughes, jp_£. c i t . , p. 178. 8. Hughes, og. c i t . , p. 179. 9. Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 200-1. 10. Jean I. Simpson, Ph.D., The Frozen Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, p. 300. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 232. 11. Simpson, jrp. c i t . , pp. 300-1. Stanley, loc. c i t . 12. Simpson, op. c i t . , p. 252. Department of Fisheries of Canada, The Way to Cook Fish, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, p. 16. 13.Department of Fisheries, loc. c i t . , 14. Department of Fisheries, 22' c i t . , p. 18. Simpson, loc. c i t . , 15. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , p. 115. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 79. 16. Prosper, Montagne, Larousse Gastronomique, New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1965, p. 326. Hughes, c i t . , p. 67. 88 REFERENCES CONTD. 17. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , pp. 790, 796. 18. Hughes, OJD. c i t . , p. 39. 19. Ibid., p. 289. 20. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 104. 21. Ibid., p. 146. 22. Ibid. CHAPTER VI COOKING METHODS USING A COMBINATION OF MEDIA OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the learner to name and describe the cooking methods which employ two media of heat trans-fer and to discuss the applications of these methods. He w i l l also be re-quired to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The two cooking methods which u t i l i z e two different media of heat transfer are braising and pot-roasting. These methods also u t i l i z e a dry heat method and a moist heat method of cooking. This chapter w i l l define and discuss these methods as they may be applied to meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. Basic formulae for these methods as they apply to each food w i l l be given. Braising. Braising u t i l i z e s two different media of heat transfer. It also combines a dry heat method and a moist heat method of cooking. Dry heat i s used for browning and adding flavor and may be applied by sauteing, pan-frying or baking. Moist heat i s used to soften tough connective tissue in meat and poultry and to soften cellulose i n vegetables. 1 It may be applied by simmering, steaming, or waterless cooking. There are two important variations of this method. Most frequently used i s the one in which the food i s f i r s t sauteed or fried i n a small quan-t i t y of hot fat unt i l i t i s nicely browned on a l l sides and then subjected to moist-heat cooking in a tightly covered container. The other method f i r s t subjects the food to the moist heat method in a tightly covered con-tainer and then applies the dry heat method by removing the cover and either 2 baking the food i n an oven or frying i t i n a small quantity of fat. The container used for braising may be a casserole for oven cookery or a heavy frying-pan or kettle for surface cooking. A Dutch Oven which i s made of cast iron or other metal and has a close-fitting l i d i s suitable for both oven and surface cooking. The close f i t t i n g l i d i s essential for this method of cooking since the food i s partially cooked in the steam from i t s own juices or from added liquid. Pot-Roasting. A variation of braising i s pot-roasting which also uses a combination of cooking media and a combination of cooking methods. Brais-ing i s the term used for cooking smaller cuts of meat such as steaks, chops, slices and cubes whereas pot-roasting i s used for large less tender pieces of meat such as roasts.^ Although braising and pot-roasting are used for less tender cuts of meat and poultry as well as some vegetables braising may also be used to cook tender cuts of meat and f i s h . Braising Meat. Meat to be braised may be prepared in a number of ways. It should f i r s t be wiped with a clean, damp cloth. It may be cooked i n i t s natural state or i t may be rubbed with seasoned flour or i t may be pounded with a wooden mallet to break down some of the connective tissue, e,g. Swiss steak, wiener schnitzel. It i s sauteed i n hot fat un t i l i t i s evenly browned on a l l sides. It is then placed in a casserole or kettle which i s 4 just large enough to hold i t , and enough liquid to cover the bottom of the container i s added. The container must be covered tightly and the meat cooked slowly either i n an oven at 300° to 325° F. or on top of the stove at simmer. During the cooking extra liquid is added i f necessary to keep the meat moist and steaming. It is cooked unt i l tender. The pan juices should be saved for sauce or gravy.^ Basic Formula for Braising Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth. 2. Prepare meat as directed in the recipe. 3. Heat a heavy frying-pan or kettle. 4. Add a small amount of fat. 5. Add meat and brown on a l l sides. Beef should be allowed to take on a real dark brown color. 6. Transfer meat to a casserole i f a frying-pan has been used for browning. 7. Add a small quantity of hot liquid. This may be wine, stock or water. 8. Cover the container tightly. 9. Cook i n an oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat. 10. Add more liq u i d during cooking i f i t is necessary to keep meat moist and steaming. 11. Cook u n t i l tender. 12. Reserve pan juices for making sauce or gravy. Pot-Roasting Meat. Large, less tender pieces of meat are used. The meat is wiped with a clean, damp cloth. Meat which i s to be cooked by this method i s frequently marinated in a mixture of herbs and spices and wine or vinegar. If marinated i t should be drained and dried with paper towels before cooking. It i s sauteed i n a small amount of hot fat or o i l then placed i n a kettle and a small amount of liquid is added. The liquid may be some of the marinade, or wine, stock or hot water. It is tightly covered and cooked slowly in a slow oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat. Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cooking period. The juices should be saved for making sauce or 6 gravy. Basic Formula for Pot-Roasting Meat. 1. Prepare the meat by wiping with a clean, damp cloth. Marinate i f recipe calls for i t . 2. Heat a frying-pan or heavy kettle and add a small amount of fat or o i l . 3. Add meat and brown on a l l sides i n the hot fat. 4. Transfer meat to a heavy kettle i f a frying-pan has been used. 5. Add a small quantity of hot liquid to cover the bottom of the container. 6. Cover the container tightly. 7. Cook i n a slow oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat. 8. Cook unt i l tender. 9. Vegetables may be added toward the end of cooking. 10. Reserve pan juices for sauce or gravy. Braising Poultry. Any mature bird may be cooked i n this manner. Poultry cooked by this method is often called a fricassee. The bird i s wiped with a clean, damp cloth. It is seasoned with salt and pepper and browned on a l l sides in a l i t t l e hot fat or o i l . It i s placed in a casserole or heavy kettle and hot liquid i s added to cover the bottom of the container. Liquid may be chicken stock, wine or water. The container i s covered tightly and the poultry cooked in a slow oven at 300° to 325° F or on top of the stove at simmer heat. It i s cooked until tender. The 7 cooking liquid should be saved for sauce or gravy. Basic Formula for Braising Poultry. 1. Prepare bird by wiping with a clean, damp cloth. 2. Disjoint i f the recipe ca l l s for i t . 3. Heat a heavy frying-pan or kettle and add a small amount of fat or o i l . 4. Add poultry and brown on a l l sides. 5. Transfer poultry to a casserole i f a frying-pan has been used. 6. Add a small amount of hot liquid. 7. Cover the container tightly. 8. Cook i n a slow oven at 300° fo 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat. 9. Cook unt i l tender. Braised Fish. Although braising is not a very common method of pre-paring f i s h i t may be used to lend variety to fish cookery. Small pieces of f i s h such as f i l l e t s or steaks may be used. The f i s h i s sauteed in a small amount of melted butter then placed i n an oven-proof dish to which may be added f i s h stock, dry white wine, cream or other liquid. The dish is covered and the f i s h placed i n an oven at 350° F. It is cooked u n t i l i t flakes readily when tested with a fork. It takes approximately 15 g minutes, or 10 minutes per inch thickness of fish. Basic Formula for Braising Fish. 1. Prepare fish by cutting into f i l l e t s or steaks. 2. Heat a heavy frying-pan and add a small amount of butter. 3. Brown the fish l i g h t l y on a l l sides. 4. Transfer to an oven-proof dish. 5. Add dry, white wine or cream to cover bottom of container. 6. Cover tightly. 7. Cook in a moderate oven at 350° F. until fish flakes readily when tested with a fork. F i l l e t s w i l l require approximately 15 minutes. Braised Vegetables. Certain vegetables lend themselves to this method of cooking. Some of these are celery, leeks, lettuce, okra, en-dive, cucumbers, squash and carrots. The vegetable i s f i r s t prepared by peeling or removing the outer leaves. It is sliced or cut into f a i r l y small pieces. Frequently vege-tables to be braised are cut in half lengthwise, ^.g., carrots, parsnips, leeks. It i s sauteed in a small amount of butter then enough liquid to cover the bottom of the container is added. The container is covered tightly and the vegetable is cooked i n a moderate oven at 350° F., until 9 most of the liquid has been absorbed. Basic Formula for Braising Vegetables. 1. Prepare vegetables as directed i n the recipe. 2. Saute in a small amount of butter in a heavy frying-pan. 3. Transfer to an oven-proof dish. 4. Add enough liquid to cover bottom of container. 5. Cook in a moderate oven at 325° F., until tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed. Appraisal of the Braising Method of Cookery. The advantage of braising i s that i t combines the good features of both a dry and a moist heat method of cooking. Through the dry heat cook-ing the food being cooked develops color and flavor and through the moist heat cooking i t i s softened and tenderized,. Braising i s a two step process involving preliminary browning f o l -lowed by moist cooking, or moist cooking followed by browning. The dry heat method employed for browning may be either frying, sauteing or roast-ing. The moist heat method may be steaming or cooking with water. The steam may come entirely from the food i t s e l f or partly from liquids added in small amounts. The steaming may be done on top of the stove or i n the oven in an oven-proof container such as a casserole. The general aim i s to produce a well—browned product which is both tender and juicy. Since the foods which are cooked i n this way usually contain large amounts of connective tissue the time for cooking must allow for conver-sion to gelatin to ensure tenderness. Meat cooked in this way to the well-done stage w i l l have lost much of i t s juice, however since the pan juices are flavorful they are seldom discarded and the dissolved minerals and vitamins are consumed as gravy or sauce.^ In the preparation of foods by this method care must be taken during the moist heat cooking that they are not allowed to reach the point where bundles of fibres f a l l apart. In the case of the meats this makes carving d i f f i c u l t . In general, shrinkage of meat cooked by moist heat is greater than in meat cooked by dry heat methods. This is partly the result of the need to reach a more advanced stage of doneness to dissolve the connective , . 12 tissue. In using this method the cook must analyse the purpose of i t s appli-cation. It may be used i f a tough cut of meat or poultry i s to be cooked i n a flavorful way. It may also be used to develop flavor and juiciness tender cuts of meat such as pork chops, veal, chicken and f i s h . Since braising i s a method which allows the cook to produce tender, flavorful dishes from the tougher cuts of meat and poultry and since the tougher cuts are always the least expensive i t provides a means of ex-ercising economy. SUMMARY This chapter has dealt with the two methods of cooking which employ two media of heat transfer as well as two methods of cooking viz . a dry-heat method and a moist-heat method. These methods are braising and pot-roasting. The methods have been described as they may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h and vegetables. Basic formulae have been developed for these methods with each of these foods. Equipment which i s used for cook-ing by these methods has been described and an appraisal has been made of the methods. Braising i s a method which may be used to cook meat, poultry, fish and vegetables. The method has been described as i t applies to each of these foods and basic formulae have been developed. Pot-roasting i s a method which may be used with large less tender or tough cuts of meat. Its application has been described and a basic formula given. 99 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1. While shopping for meat you observed that pork was reasonable i n price. How could you cook pork chops to ensure tenderness and flavor? 2. You plan to entertain friends who like chicken. You would prefer to do most of the cooking before they arrive. What could you prepare? 3. Using the Bantam edition of the Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal. Braised Beef p. 173 Braised Red Cabbage and Apples p. 249 Lyonnaise Potatoes p. 271 Sauteed Pears p. 374 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1. The pork chops could be braised. Long slow moist heat destroysround-worms called trichinellae. The recipe for Braised Pork Chops on page 197 of the Bantam edition of the Fannie Farmer Cookbook would produce a good result. 2. There are many ways of preparing chicken in advance. Smothered Chicken i s an excellent way. A recipe can be found on page 223 of the Fannie Farmer Cookbook. Other excellent braised chicken dishes are Chicken Casserole, Chicken a l a Cacciatore, Coq au Vin, and Hungarian Chicken Paprika. These recipes may a l l be found in the Fannie Farmer Cookbook. 3. The potatoes should be boiled i n advance of frying. After i n i t i a l preparation the Braised Beef w i l l require approximately 3^ - hours of cooking, the Red Cabbage and Apples w i l l require 1/2 to 3/4 hour, the Lyonnaise Potatoes approximately 20 minutes. The pears w i l l require 10 to 15 minutes. REFERENCES 1. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 179. 2. Wilma Lord Perkins, The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking  School Cookbook, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1965, pp. 239, 258. 3. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods: Their Selection  and Preparation, Boston; Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 201. 4. Robert Carrier, Great Dishes of the World, London: Sphere Books, Ltd., March, 1967, p. 56. 5. Stanley, loc. c i t . Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York; The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 179. 6. Henri—Paul Pellaprat, Modern French Culinary Art, Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 550. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 202. 7. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , pp. 651—2. Stanley, o_p. c i t . , p. 236. Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 195. 8. Irma S. Rambauer, Marion Rambauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, Indianapolis: The Bobbs Merrill Co., Inc., 1953, p. 234. Pellaprat, o_p. c i t . , p. 492. 9. Myra Waldo, The Complete Book of Vegetables Cookery, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1962, pp. 58, 65. Perkins, op. c i t . , pp. 252, 258. University of Wisconsin Extension Service College of Agriculture. Vegetables i n Our Meals, Wisconsin: May 8, 1964, Circular 629, p. 9. 10. Carl A. Rietz, Jeremiah J . Wonderstock, A Guide to The Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport; Conn: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, pp. 119, 416. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and  Preparation, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 416. 11. Sweetman, loc. c i t . 12. Ibid., op. c i t . , p. 420. CHAPTER VII SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to design an instructional device (text) on basic food preparation to meet the needs of the adult learner in either an adult education program or a program of self study. It has been recognized that the adult learner who participates in an avocational adult education program has different practical objectives than the adult in the professional school or college. His reasons for participating i n such a program may be motivated by inadequacies in a new social role or by special problems, responsibilities, needs, interest, curiosities or ambitions. Whatever his reasons for participation i n such a program the new learning must be made meaningful for him and applicable in his daily l i f e . In this study the educational objectives on goals were outlined for the entire course as well as for each unit of the course. Material was presented in sequential order proceeding from the known to the unknown and from the simple to the complex. The text departed from conventional design of food text material. It is customary to proceed from the food to the method of preparation. This text began with the method and applied i t , wherever possible, to each of six natural foods v i z . meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits and eggs. It was f e l t that this presentation would provide the adult learner with the means for achieving his immediate practical objectives more readily than the conventional presentation. Every effort was made to familiarize the adult learner with the basic principles of food preparation. It was f e l t that the intelligent performer of a s k i l l i s one who understands "why" as well as "how" a procedure is 103 followed. These basic principles are the keystone of a l l cookery. They form the basis for sound decisions in the application of cooking methods. The text was developed from a conceptual classification designed especially for this study. The classification depicts the whole f i e l d of food processing starting with food in i t s natural state and following i t through the various processes to the stage at which i t i s ready for con-sumption. It begins by showing the six food processing techniques of preparation and preservation. These are; (1) subdivision and fractioni-zation, (2) combining and mixing, (3) heating and cooking, (4) removal of heat, (5) use of chemical agents, (6) use of microorganisms. The heat-ing and cooking technique i s further classified according to media of heat transfer. These are; (l) water, (2) steam (3) a i r , (4) fat, (5) combina-tions of these media. The media classification i s subdivided into methods of cooking. When water i s the medium of heat transfer the cooking methods are boiling, simmering, poaching and stewing; when steam i s the medium the methods are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking; when a i r ; i s the medium the methods are broiling and roasting or baking; when fat i s the medium the methods are pan-frying, deep—fat frying, sauteing and pan-broiling; when a combination of media are used the methods are braising and pot-roasting. The methods may also be classified as moist heat methods, dry heat methods and combination methods. The moist heat methods employ as the media of heat transfer water and steam. The dry heat methods employ as the media of heat exchange air and fat. The combination methods employed two or more methods. The text was organized into five units or chapters, each chapter dealing with one medium of heat transfer. Each chapter gave definitions of the cooking methods u t i l i z i n g the medium of heat transfer as well as descriptions of their use with the six natural foods. If a method could be applied to a food i t s application was discussed i n detail and a basic formula was developed. These basic formulae are steps of pro-cedure which are followed by experienced cooks to achieve predictable results. At the end of each chapter an appraisal of each method was made. Learning experiences were also suggested which would enable the adult learner to assess his own progress and achievement. Solutions to prob-lems were given. It was necessary to refine the objectives and to limit them to what could be encompassed in a limited time. In cases where there were several acceptable ways of performing the same task i t was found expedient to choos one way giving preference to the simplest. The study also served to examine the cooking repetoire of Canada and the United States of America. By means of deduction i t became apparent that certain valuable cooking procedures have been neglected in Canadian and American cuisine. This was particularly evident in vegetable cookery. In the search for evidence of the use and practicality of certain methods with the various vegetables i t was found that French and Chinese vegetable cookery was much more varied. The formulae were tested and the results were found to be very pleasing. A method of preparing chicken by poaching was also found to have been neglected in most American and Canadian cook books. This is a method which is very popular in most European countries. An appendix to the text included tables of cooking times and tempera-tures, a glossary of cooking terms, and supplemental material on heat ex-change and on the purposes of cooking. This study has been conceived as one unit in a broader curriculum which would embrace a l l six techniques of domestic food processing. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1. American Dietetic Association, A Manual for Teaching Dietetics  to Student Nurses, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, Co., 1949. 2. - - , Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington: American Home Economics Association, 1964. 3. Anderson, Miles H., Teaching Apprentices and Preparing Training  Materials, Chicago: American Technical Society, 1947. 4. Beard, James A., The Fireside Cookbook, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1949. 5. Benoit, Madame Jehane, Encyclopedia of Canadian Cuisine, Toronto: Southam Printing Company Limited, 1963. 6. Benolzheimer, Ruth, ed., The American Woman's Cook Book, New York: Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc., 1943. 7. Berqeuin, Paul, Dwight Morris, Robert M. Smith, Adult Education  Procedures, Conn: Seabury Press, 1963. 8. Bloom, Benjamin S., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956. 9. Campion, Margaret, Byrta Carson, McRue Carson Ramee, Planning and Preparing Meals, New York: McGraw-Hill Co., of Canada, 1964. 10. Carr, W.J., A Review of the Literature on Certain Aspects of  Automated Instruction, Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, Wash.: National Education Association, 1960. 11. Carrier, Robert, Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1963. 12. Chamberlain, Samuel, Bouquet de France, New York; Gourmet Distributing Corporation, 1957. 13. Christensen, L i l l i a n Longseth, Gourmet's Old Vienna Cookbook, New York: Gourmet Distributing Corporation, 1959. 14. Clark, Burton R., Educating the Expert Society, San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 1962, 15. Cook, Ben D., "Result Demonstrations and Result Demonstration Meetings," The Cooperative Extension Service, ed., H.C. Sanders, Englewood C l i f f s , N.I.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966. 106 16. Cranbach, Lee J., Text Materials in Modern Education, Ubana, 111.: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955. 17. de Gouy, Louis P., The Gold Cookbook, N.Y.: Greenberg: Publishers, 1948. 18. Farmer, Fannie Merrit, The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1936. 19. Fellows, Charles, A Selection of Dishes and the Chef's Reminder, Evanston, I l l i n o i s : John Wiley, Inc., 1944. 20. Halliday, Evelyn, Isobel T. Noble, Food Chemistry and Cooking, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1943. 21. _ _ — - - _ } Hows and Whys of Cooking,. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1946. 22. Harben, P h i l l i p , The Grammar of Cooking, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965. 23. Havinghurst, Robert J., Developmental Tasks and Education, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1964. 24. Hollenbeck, Wilbur, "Role of Adult Education i n Society", Adult  Education - Outlines of an Emerging.Field.of University Study, ed. Gale Jensen et. a l . , Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964. 25. Hughes, Ossee, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962. 26. Kapp, Reginald 0., The Presentation of Technical Information, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1957. 27. Knowles, Malcolm S., ed., Handbook of Adult Education in the United States, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. 1960. 28. Mager, Robert F., Preparing Instructional Objectives, Palo Alto, California: Fundamental Research Laboratory, Fearson Publishers, 1962. 29. McMurry, Foster, Lee J . Cronbach, The Proper Function of Text  Materials, Urbana, 111.: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955. 30. Miller, Harry L., Teaching and Learning in Adult Education, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1964. 31. Miller, Madge, Mary Barnhart, Essentials of Food Preparation, Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1947. 32. Montagne, Prosper, Larousse Gastronomique, New York: Crown Publishers, 1965. 33. National Pressure Cooker Co., (Canada) Ltd., Presto Cooker  Recipe Book, Wallaceburg, Ont.: 1948. 34. Pellaprat, Henri Paul, Modern French Culinary Art, Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966. 35. Perkins, Wilma Lord, ed., The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston  Cooking School Cookbook, Boston: L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1959. 36. Reynolds, Phyllis C , The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963. 37. Rietz, Carl A., Jeremiah Wanderstock, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co. Inc., 1965. 38. Rambauer, Irma S., Marion Rambauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, New York: The Bobbs Merrill Co., Inc., 1953. 39. Sanders, H.C., ed., The Cooperative Extension Service, Englewooi C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-^Iall, Inc., 1966. 40. Sauliner, L., Le Repertoire de l a Cuisine, London: Leon Jaeggi and Sons., Ltd., (N.d.) 41. Sherman, Henry C. Ph.D., Sc.D., Chemistry of Food and Nutrition New York: The Macmillan Company, 1937. 42. , Food Products, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1935. 43. Simpson, Jean I., The Frozen Food Cookbook, Easton, Penn.: Mack Printing Co., 1962. 44. Soper, Musia, ed., Encyclopedia of European Cooking, London: Spring Books, 1962. 45. Stanley, Louise, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods: Their Selection  and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950. 46. Steveson, Gladys T. Cora Miller, Introduction to Foods and  Nutrition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. 47. Sweetman, Marion Deyoe, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954. 48. Verner, Coolie, Alan Booth, Adult Education, Washington, D.C.: The Center for Applied Research in Education, Inc., 1964. 49. Waldo, Myra, The Complete Book of Vegetable Cookery, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1962. 108 50. Weisz, Paul B., The Science of Biology, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1963. 51. Welch, John, A Task Unit Concept for on the Job Training i n Food  Service, University of Missouri Extension Service, Manual .66, Feb. 1966. 52. — Instructor's Guide, Accelerated Adult Training  Program for the Quantity Food Service Industries, University of Missouri, Marketing Food Service Program, 1966. 53. Woodruff, Asahel D., Basic Concepts of Teaching, San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co., 1961. 54. Wright, Carlton, Food Buying - Food Standards and Grades, New York: Macmillan Company, 1962. PUBLICATION OF GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS 1. Canadian Department of Agriculture, Meat, How to Buy, How to  Cook, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1956. 2. - - j Poultry, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. 3. Canada Department of Fisheries, The Way to Cook Fish, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1965. 4. Flory, Josephine, Your Greens, Agriculture Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, C811/5, Oct., 1964. 5. - - - - » Your Yellow Vegetables, Agriculture Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, C812/6, Oct., 1965. 6. Klippstein, Ruth N., The Versatile Egg, Cooperative Extension Service, New York State College of Home Economics at Cornell University, Bulletin 915, Nov., 1964. 7. Kornbluch, Margaret, Helen Cannon Park, "Survey of the use of Written Recipes", Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Vol. 47, No.2, pp. 113-15, Aug., 1965. 8. Levenson, Mildred Pallas, " S k i l l Courses", Adult Leadership, Vol. 12, No. 5, Nov., 1963. 9. The Medical Foundation Inc., "Programmed Instruction, New Directions", 1962 i n Review, 1962. 10. Pheil, Judith A., Let's Eat Maryland Vegetables, Cooperative Service, University of Maryland, HE-62-FN 259. 11. - - - - - - , Maryland Seafood Part II, Fish, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Maryland, HE-62-FN-323. 12. Pressy, S.S., "Development and Appraisal of Devices Providing Immediate Scoring of Objective Tests and Con-comitant Self-instruction", Journal of Psychology, 29, 417-447, 1950. 13. University of Maryland Extension Service, Family Dinners, A 4-H Food Preparation Project, Agriculture and Home Economics Extension Service, # 35, 4-41, A p r i l , 1964. 14. University of Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service, Conducting Educational Work with Operators of Food Service Establishments, College of Agriculture Food Manual, No.l, 1963. 15. - - - - - - } Conducting Educational Work with Operators of Food Service Establishments, College of Agriculture Food Manual, No. 2, 1964. 16. University of Wisconsin, Extension Service College of Agri-culture, Vegetables in our Meals, Circular 629, May 1964. 17. , Meats in our Meals, Circular 628, A p r i l 1964. 18. U.S. Department of Agriculture, The U.S. Government Cook Book, N.Y., Poker Books, Inc., 1965. I l l FILMS 1. Popham, W. James, Systematic Instructional Decision Making, Film-strip Tape Progmam, Los Angeles, California, Vimcet Association, 1967. TABLE II TIME TABLE FOR COOKING MEATS IN LIQUID Kind of Cut Approximate Weight Approximate Total Cooking Time Pounds Hours Beef Corned beef brisket (piece) Beef shanks Beef tongue For Stew ( l to 2 pieces) Chicken Lamb For Stew ( l to 2 pieces) Pork Smoked ham (whole country style) Smoked ham (country style) Smoked picnic shoulder (country style) Smoked pork shoulder butt, boneless Pork hocks Veal For Stew ( l to 2 pieces) 3 4 3 to 4 3 to 4 16 5 7 to 8 2 to 3 3/4 to 1 ea. 3 to 3.3/4 3 to 4 3 to 3-§-2% to 3 1\ to 3 l i to 2 4 ^ 2 3 i to 4 l i to 2 2-§- to 3 2 to 3 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 32. TABLE III TIME TABLE FOR BROILING MEAT Kind and Cut Approximate Thickness Inches Approximate Total Ckng. Time Rare Medium Well Done M I N U T E S Bacon Beef Steaks Rib, Club, Tenderloin T-Bone, S i r l o i n 3/4 - 1 1* 10 16 14 20 4 to 5 18 26 Ground Meat Patties Ham, Cured and Smoked, Slice Lamb chops, rib loin, shoulder Ground Lamb Patties Liver Calf, Young beef, lamb 3/4 12 3/4 3/4 1/2 12 18 12 14 20 14 22 14 12 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 34. 114 TABLE IV TIME TABLE FOR ROASTING MEATS Kind and Cut of Meat Ready to cook Weight Approximate Roasting Time at 325 F. Internal Temp, of Meat When Done Beef. Pounds Standing Ribs Rare 6 - 8 Medium 6 — 8 well done 6 - 8 Rolled Rib Rare 4 - 6 Medium 4 — 6 Well done 4 - 6 Rolled rump 5 S i r l o i n t i p 3 Veal Leg 5 - 8 Loin 5 Rolled shoulder 3 - 5 Lamb Leg 6 - 7 Shoulder 3 - 6 Rolled Shoulder 3 - 5 Pork Fresh Loin 3 — 5 Shoulder 5 - 8 Ham, whole 10-14 Ham, half 6 Spare ribs 3 Pork Cured Cook before eating Ham, whole 12—16 Ham, half 6 Picnic Shoulder 6 Fully cooked Ham, whole 12—16 Ham, half 6 Hours 2 t o 2f 2f t o 3 3 i t o 4 i 2 t o 3 2^ t o 3-J 3 t o 4 3 t o 3 i 2 t o 2± 2-g- t o 2^2 3 3 t o 3 i 3f - 4 21- to 3^ 2|- to 3 3 to 4 3 i to 5 5f to 6 4 2 3i to 4f-3i 2 to 3 About 1-jjr F. 140 160 170 140 160 170 160-170 160-170 170-180 170-180 170-180 180 180 180 185 185 185 185 185 160 160 170 130 130 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 33. 115 TABLE V TIME TABLE FOR BRAISING MEATS Kind and Cut Approximate Weight or Thickness Approximate Total Cooking Time Beef Pot roast Round or Chuck Steak Flank Steak Short ribs Cubed beef for stew Oxtails 3 - 5 lbs 1 - l i i n . 1^- 2 lbs. !-§- in . cubes 3-^-4 hrs. 2-2% hrs. 2 hrs. 2-2% hrs. 2% - 3 hrs. 3 - 3 i hrs. Lamb Shoulder, rolled Shoulder chops Shanks Cubed lamb for stew 3 lb. 3/4 i n . 1 lb. l-g- i n . cubes 2-2-1- hrs. 40 min. i f - 2 hrs. 1-g- - 2 hrs. Pork Rib and loin chops Shoulder steaks Spareribs Tenderloin patties 3/4 3/4 i n . i n . - 1 i n . i n . 50 - 60 min. 45 min. l£ - 2\ hr. 30 min. Veal Shoulder, rolled Round Steam (cutlets) Loin or rib chops Cubed veal for stew 3 lb. \ i n . 3/4 i n . 1 in. cubes 2% hr. 45 min. 45 min. 1-t - 2 hrs. American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 32. TABLE VI ROASTING GUIDE FOR POULTRY Kind of Bird Ready to cook weight (pounds) Amount of Approximate Stuffing Roasting time at 325 for stuffed chilled (quarts) birds (Hrs) Chicken Broilers or Fryers Roasters Capons Duck Goose 1$ to 2% 2+ to 4 i 4 to 8 3 to 5 4 to 8 8 to 14 i to i i to i£ l-f-l.3/4 I to 1 3/4 - l i 1-5- to 2+ l i to 2 2 to 3f 3 to 5 2% to 3 2.3/4-3i 3 i to 5 Tui-key Fryers or Roasters (very young birds) 4 to 8 Roasters ( f u l l y grown young birds) 6 to 12 12 - 16 16 - 20 20 - 24 1 to 2 2 to 3 3 to 4 4 to 5 5 to 6 3 to 4% 3% to 5 5 to 6 6 to 7-g-7 i to 9 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 34. TABLE VII TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FISH IN LIQUID Product Market Approx. Cooking Approx. Form Weight Temp. Total Cooking Time pounds minutes Fish Pan-dressed l/2 to 1 Simmer 10 Steaks l/2 to 1 Simmer 10 F i l l e t s Simmer 10 Crabs Live Simmer 15 Lobster Live 3/4 to 1 Simmer 10-15 1 to 1-g- Simmer 15-20 Scallops Shucked Simmer 4-5 Shrimp Headless Simmer 5 Spiny Lobster Headless 4.oz Simmer 10 Ta i l 8.oz Simmer 15 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35. TABLE VIII TIME TABLE FOR BROILING FISH Product Market form Approx. Weight or Thickness Cooking Temp. Approx. Total Cooking Time pounds or ins. minutes Fish Pan-dressed l/2 to 1.1b 10-15 Steaks l/2 to 1" 10-15 F i l l e t s 10-15 Clams Live 5-8 Lobster Live 3/4 to 1.1b 10-12 "Oysters Live 5 Shucked 8-10 Scallops Shucked 8-10 Shrimp 8-10 Lobster 8.oz 10-12 Tails American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35. 119 TABLE LX TIME TABLE FOR BAKING FISH AND SHELL FISH Product Baking Market Form Approx. Weight pounds and inches Cooking Temp, deg. F. Approx. Total Cooking Time Minutes Fish Clams Lobster Oysters Scallops Shrimp Spiny Lobster Tails Dressed Pan-dressed Steaks F i l l e t s Live Live Live Shucked Shucked Headless Headless 3 to 4 i to 1 £ to 1" 3/4 to 1 1 to l i 4.oz 8.oz 350 350 350 350 450 400 400 450 400 350 350 450 450 40-60 25-30 25-35 25-35 15 15-20 20-25 15 10 25-30 20-25 20-25 25-30 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35. TABLE X TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FRESH VEGETABLES Pressure Cooking Baking Vegetable Boiling Steaming 15-lb.press. Minutes Minutes Minutes Minutes Artichokes, French or Globe, whole 35 - 45 10 -- 12 Artichokes, Jerusalem, whole 25 - 35 35 30 - 60 Asparagus, whole 10 - 20 12 - 30 I 2 — 14 tips 5 - 15 7 - 15 1 2 ~ 2 Beans, Lima, green 20 - 25 25 - 35 1 - 2 Beans, Soy, green 20 - 30 25 - 35 1 - 2 Beans, green whole or 1-inch pes. 15 - 20 20 - 35 !*• - 3 shredded 10 - 20 15 - 25 1 - 2 Beet greens 5 - 15 Beets, new, whole 30 - 45 40 - 60 5 - 10 40 - 60 old, whole 45 - 90 50 - 90 10- 18 40 - 60 Broccoli, heavy stalks, s p l i t 10 - 15 15 - 20 i4- 3 Brussels sprouts, whole 10 - 20 10 - 20 1 - 2 Cabbage, green quartered 10 - 15 15 2 - 3 shredded 3 - 10 8 - 12 l 2 "" 14 Cabbage, red, shredded 8 - 12 10 - 15 1 2 ~" 14 Carrots, young, whole 15 - 25 20 - 30 3 - 5 35 - 40 sliced 10 - 20 15 - 25 i4- 3 30- 40 mature, whole 20 - 30 40 - 50 10- 15 60 sliced 15 25 25 30 3 TABLE X CONTD. Pressure Cooking Boiling Steaming 15—lb.press. Baking Vagetable Minutes Minutes Minutes Minutes Cauliflower, whole 15 — 20 25 — 30 10 flowerets 8 - 15 10 - 20 l i - 3 Celery, diced 15 - 18 25 - 30 2 - 3 Chard, Swiss 10 20 15 - 25 l i - 3 Collards 10 - 20 Corn, on cob 5 - 15 10 15 0 - 1* Eggplant, sliced 10 - 20 15 - 20 Kale 10 - 25 Kohlrabi, sliced 20 - 25 30 Okra, sliced 10 - 15 20 3 - 4 Onions, small, whole 15 - 25 25 - 35 3 - 4 large, whole 20 - 40 35 - 40 5 - 8 Parsnips, whole 20 - 40 30 - 45 9 - 10 quartered 10 - 20 30 - 40 4 - 8 Peas, green 8 - 20 10 - 20 0 - 1 Potatoes, white, medium, whole 25 - 40 30 - 45 8 - 11 quartered 20 - 25 20 - 30 3 - 5 Rutabagas, diced 20 - 30 35 - 40 5 - 8 Spinach 3 - 10 5 - 12 0 - 1* Squash, Hubbard, 2-inch pes. 15 - 20 25 - 40 6 - 12 Squash, Summer, sliced 10 - 20 15 - 20 3 50 - 60 30 - 45 45 - 60 40 - 60 30 122 TABLE X CONTD. Vegetable Boiling Minutes Pressure Cooking Steaming 15-lb press. Baking Minutes Minutes Minutes Sweet potatoes, whole quartered Tomatoes Turnips, whole sliced 25 15 7 20 15 35 25 15 30 20 30 25 35 30 5 - 8 30 - 45 20 - 25 8 -1 15 12 - 30 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 31. 123 TABLE XI TEMPERATURES FOR DEEP-FAT FRYING Food ° F. Chicken 350 Fish 350 Fritte r s 350 Shell Fish 350 - 375 Cauliflower 375 - 385 Croquettes 375 - 385 Egg-plant 375 - 385 Onions 375 - 385 French-fried potatoes 385 - 395 American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 29. 124 TABLE XII OVEN TEMPERATURE Temperatures i n ° F. Description 250 - 275 Very slow oven 300 - 325 Slow oven 350 - 375 Moderate oven 400 - 425 Hot oven 450 - 475 Very hot oven 500 - 525 Extremely hot oven. American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 29. 125 GLOSSARY OF COOKING TERMS Acidulate - to add vinegar or lemon juice to water, usually 1 tablespoon to each quart of water. Barbecue - to cook meat, poultry or fis h over an open f i r e . The term also denotes dishes which are served with a pungent sauce. Baste - to pour fat or liquid over food while cooking to moisten, glaze or flavor i t . Bind - to hold foods together with a sauce so that they form a cohesive mass. Blanch - to immerse foods briefly i n boiling water to loosen skins or to whiten. This process i s generally used with vegetables, f r u i t and nuts. Bone - to remove the bones from meat, fish or poultry. Bread - to r o l l i n or coat with crumbs before cooking. Bouquet-garni - bunch of aromatic herbs used to flavor soups, stews, braised dishes and sauces. Usually i t is made of parsley, thyme, and bay leaf tied together i n cheese cloth. Casserole - a special earthenware or other oven-proof dish i n which food is cooked and from which i t may be served at the table. Chop - to cut into small pieces with a sharp knife on a board. Clari f y - to clear a liquid such as soup by adding slightly beaten egg-white and broken egg shells. These coagulate when the liquid i s heated and the particles of food adhere to them. The liquid is then strained. Court Bouillon - a liq u i d i n which f i s h , poultry or meat is cooked to give added flavor. A simple court bouillon consists of water, wine, vinegar or stock, either used alone or in combination, to which have been added onion, celery, carrots, bay leaf, salt and pepper. Crisp - to place in ice-water un t i l crisp; a process used with vegetables. Croquettes — a mixture of chopped or ground cooked food—vegetables, cereal cheese, meat, fis h , etc., bound together by eggs or a thick sauce, shaped into small balls, r o l l s , or pyramids, and f r i e d in deep fat. Croutons - cubes of bread toasted or fried. Usually served i n salads, soup or over various dishes. Cube - to cut into even-sided pieces. Dice - to cut into very small cubes. Disjoint - to cut poultry into pieces at the joints. Dredge — to cover food completely with a dry ingredient such as flour or crumbs. Dress - to remove the internal organs and to trim off unedible portions of meat, poultry, or f i s h . Dutch Oven - a large heavy iron casserole with a close-fitting l i d . May be used on top of the range or in the oven. Eviscerate — to remove the internal organs. F i l l e t - to cut meat or f i s h into desired shape removing a l l bones. Flake - to break up into f l a t pieces, usually with a fork. Forcemeat - pastes of meat, f i s h or shell fish bound with egg white, butter or cream for use as stuffings or soup garnishes. Fricassee - to stew meats, usually poultry or veal. Meat may or may not be browned before subjecting to long slow moist cooking. Grate - to reduce to small particles by rubbing against a grater. Grind - to reduce to small particles or powder with rotary cutters or a mortar and pestle. Lard - to insert pieces of fat meat into larger pieces of lean meat for flavor and juiciness. Fat may be inserted into small deep gashes made in the meat, or run through with a special butcher's tool called a lard-ing needle. Marinate - to allow food to stand i n a marinade, usually a mixture of o i l , vinegar or wine, spice and herbs, to flavor or tenderize. Mince - to chop or cut very fine. Par-boil - to pre-cook or partly cook in liquid. Plank - to b r o i l or roast and serve on a board similar to a small wooden bread board. Poach - to cook gently in liquid kept below the boiling point. Ragout - a French term for a well seasoned stew. Ramekin - an individual oven-proof baking dish. Reduce - to boil a liquid to lessen the quantity and to concentrate the flavor. Render - to melt fat meat such as salt-pork or bacon so that the connec-tive tissue may be removed leaving the liquid fat. Roux - a mixture of fat and flour blended together over low heat. This is the f i r s t step i n making sauces and gravies which are thickened with flour. Scald - to heat to just below the boiling point. Scallop — to bake food i n layers covered with sauce and crumbs in an oven-proof dish. Score - to make light cuts in a surface, usually in lines. Sear - to apply heat, usually to meat, quickly so as to harden the outside and thus prevent juices from escaping. Skewer - a metal or wooden pin used to hold meat in shape or to close an opening. Sliver - to cut or to shred into long thin pieces. Steep - to extract the essence from a food by applying hot liquid. This term usually applies to tea making but is also applicable to other leaves such as herbs. Strain - to separate a liquid from solid pieces of food by pouring through a sieve. Try-out - to remove fat from such meats as salt-pork and bacon. The li q u i d fat i s often used for frying. 129 Purposes of Cooking Foods The purposes of cooking food are to render i t more digestible, to develop, improve and alter i t s flavor, to make i t more palatable through changes in color and texture and to destroy harmful organisms which might make i t injurious to health."'' Purposes of Cooking Meat, Poultry and Fish Meat i s the lean portion or muscle tissue and surrounding connective tissue of edible animals. The muscle is made up of thousands of muscle fibres, or c e l l s , which are surrounded by connective tissue. The proteins in the muscle fibres, or cel l s , are delicate and soft, like the protein in a raw egg. Meat juices contain extractives or flavoring substances, v i t a -mins and minerals. Connective tissue to-gether with interior muscle fat serves to hold i n the plasma proteins and the meat juices. The amount and concentration of connective tissue determines whether the cut of meat wi l l be tough or tender. Those cuts of meat with the least connective tissue 2 are apt to be tender, those with the most are apt to be tough. There are two general methods of cooking meat. These are the moist heat methods and the dry heat methods. Moist heat increases tenderness by softening some connective tissue and converting i t to gelatin. Dry heat does not increase tenderness and may often reduce i t . The moist heat meth-ods are used for cooking tough or less tender cuts of heat. The dry heat g methods are used for cooking tender cuts. The methods of cooking poultry are based on the same principles as apply to meat cookery. Tender poultry i s cooked by dry heat methods, less 4 tender or tough poultry by moist heat methods. Since f i s h does not contain any appreciable amount of connective tissue there is no need to use methods of cooking to make i t tender. It is usually cooked by dry heat methods but is also frequently cooked by moist heat methods. Care must he exercised in cooking f i s h that i t does not become overcooked and f a l l apart. Purposes of Cooking Vegetables and Fruits The general purposes of cooking vegetables are to improve the d i -ge s t i b i l i t y , to change the texture, to reduce the bulk, to conserve the 7 color, to retain or change the flavor, and to destroy microorganisms. A l l vegetable and f r u i t tissues contain nutritive material (such as sugars, starches, vitamins and minerals), pectins, and cellulose. The cellulose is in the form of a fibrous supporting wall surrounding the plant cells which contain the nutritive materials. The pectins serve g to hold the c e l l s to—gether. Heating plant material in a moist atmosphere softens the tissues. This i s the result of a breakdown and dissolving of pectins and a soften-ing of cellulose as well as the swelling of starch grains which results 9 in partial or complete gelatinization. Purposes of Cooking Eggs The purposes of cooking eggs are to coagulate the protein, to change the texture and to change the flavor. Eggs i f soft-cooked i n a way to prevent toughening are easily and rapidly digested. Hard-cooked eggs are not as rapidly digested as soft-cooked. Both egg-white and egg-yolk coagulate when heated however egg-yolk requires a slightly higher temperature for coagulation than egg-white. The toughness and greater shrinkage of the protein coagulated at high tem-perature is the basis for the recommendation of low or moderate temperatures * , . 10 for egg cooking. REFERENCES 1. Marion D. Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and  Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 134. Gladys T. Stevenson, Cora Miller, Introduction to Foods and  Nutrition, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960, p. 30. 2. Phyllis C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 52-3. Sweetman, op c i t . , pp. 370—2. 3. Louise Stanley, Jessie Alice Cline, Foods, Their Selection and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950, p. 194. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1962, pp. 157-8. 4. Stanley, og. c i t . , pp. 229-30. Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 192. 5. Stanley, oj). c i t . , pp. 250-1. Hughes, ££. c i t . , pp. 202-3. 6. Ibid., pp. 202-3,. 7. Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 74-77. 8. Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 29. 9. Sweetman, op. c i t . , p. 242. 10. Hughes, op_. c i t . , p. 110 Heat Exchange in Cooking Cooking i s actually the subjection of food to heat exchange. There are three methods of exchanging or transferring heat to a food. These are ( l ) by conduction, (2) by convection and (3) by radiation. Direct transfer of heat by contact i s called conduction i.e. heat is conducted to the food through contact with a hotter substance. The hotter substance may be a cooking utensil and/or the cooking medium (water, steam, air, fat ) . The best conductor used i n domestic cooking utensils is copper but many other materials perform the same function more or less effectively. As cooking media water and steam are better conductors of heat than ai r . (2) Convection is the movement caused by changes of temperature within a f l u i d or gas. The f l u i d or gas nearest the source of heat i s the f i r s t to become warm and consequently less dense; this causes i t to rise and to be replaced by colder denser portions. This i s apparent in boiling l i -quids. I t also takes place within an oven but is not visable. Convection takes place i n the heating medium as well as within the f l u i d of the food being heated. (3) Radiation i s the transfer of heat from one substance to another through space when the two are not in contact. In broiling, food receives heat by radiation from the open flame or glowing metallic broiler. The food is not in contact with the broiler. (4) The various methods of cooking employ these three means of altering temperature. In broiling much of the heat i s derived through radiation. In roasting (baking) the transfer of heat i s by convection and by some conduction from the cooking utensil. In liquid cooking the transfer of heat 133 is by conduction and convection currents. In steaming the transfer i s by conduction from the steam to the food. In deep-fat frying the heat i s re-ceived by the fat through conduction from the pan and i s transferred to the food by convection currents. 134 REFERENCES 1. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg Mackellar, Food Section and Prepara-tion, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 954, p. 141. Carl A. Rietz, Jeremiah J . Wonderstock, A Guide to The Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn., The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, p. 151. 2. Sweetman, ag. c i t . , p. 142. 3. Rietz, loc. c i t . 4. Rietz, loc. c i t . 

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