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Heating techniques in domestic food processing : a text for adult education Koerner, Anna Rosborough 1968

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HEATING TECHNIQUES IN DOMESTIC FOOD PROCESSING A TEXT FOR ADULT EDUCATION  by Anna Rosborough Koerner B.H.S. McGill University, 1938  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Faculty of Education (Adult Education)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g  for  that  this  an a d v a n c e d  the  Study.  thesis  thesis  degree at  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make  I further  for  Department  agree  it  that  freely  may be g r a n t e d  o r by h lis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  this  thesis  for  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department  of  /~df  c a /' o *t  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Columbia  British  available  permission for  s c h o l a r l y purposes  or p u b l i c a t i o n of  f u l f i l m e n t of  It  for  the  Columbia,  I agree  reference  and  extensive  by the  requirements  copying of  Head o f my  is understood  financial  gain  this  shall  that  n o t be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s study was  to prepare curriculum materials for  an avocational program i n adult education on the heating and techniques of domestic food processing.  cooking  The material was developed  as  a teaching device (text) to be used i n an adult education program or as a s e l f study program f o r adults who  had never cooked.  The text departed from the conventional development of food text materials.  I t i s customary to proceed from the food to the method of  preparation.  This text began with the method and applied i t , wherever  possible, to each of six natural foods. f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  These foods were meat, poultry,  I t was f e l t that t h i s presentation  would provide the adult learner with the means of achieving h i s immediate p r a c t i c a l objectives more r e a d i l y than the conventional presentation. In addition to developing curriculum material f o r an avocational program on the heating and cooking techniques of domestic food processing  the study served to examine the cooking repetoire of Canada and the  United States.  By means of deduction i t became apparent that c e r t a i n  valuable areas of cookery have been neglected i n Canadian and American cuisine.  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n vegetable cookery.  of preparing chicken by poaching was  A method  also found to have been l a r g e l y  overlooked i n Canadian and American cook books. The text was developed especially f o r t h i s study.  from a conceptual c l a s s i f i c a t i o n designed The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n depicts the whole f i e l d  of food processing s t a r t i n g with food i n i t s natural state and following i t through the various processes to the stage at which i t i s ready f o r consumption.  I t begins by showing the six food processing techniques of  preparation and preservation.  These are;  ( l ) Sub-division and  f r a c t i o n i z a t i o n , (2) combining (4)  and mixing, (3) heating and cooking,  removal of heat and freezing, (5) use of chemical agents, (6) use of  microorganisms.  The heating and cooking technique i s further c l a s s i f i e d  according to media of heat transfer. (3)  a i r , (4) f a t , (5) combinations  These are; ( l ) water, (2) of these media.  cation i s sub-divided into methods of cooking.  steam,  The media c l a s s i f i -  When water i s the medium  of heat transfer the cooking methods are b o i l i n g , simmering, poaching and stewing; when steam i s the medium the methods are steaming, waterlesscooking and pressure-cooking, when a i r i s the medium the methods are b r o i l i n g and roasting or baking, when f a t i s the medium the methods are pan-frying, deep-fat f r y i n g , sauteing and pan-broiling; when a combination of media are used the methods are braising and pot-roasting.  The methods  may also be c l a s s i f i e d as moist heat methods, dry heat methods and combinat i o n methods. The text was divided into f i v e units as chapters, each chapter dealin with one medium of heat transfer.  Each chapter gave d e f i n i t i o n s of each  cooking method as well as description of i t s use with six natural foods. The foods chosen f o r this study were meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  I f the method could be applied to these foods i t was described  i n d e t a i l and a basic formula was developed.  These basic formulae are step  of procedure which are used by experienced cooks to achieve predictable results.  At the end of each chapter an appraisal of the method was made.  Learning experiences were also suggested which would enable the adult learner to assess h i s own progress and achievement.  Solutions to problems  were given. Every e f f o r t was made to f a m i l i a r i z e the adult learner with the  basic p r i n c i p l e s of food preparation. performer of a s k i l l i s one who  I t was  f e l t that the  understands "why"  intelligent  as well as "how"  a  procedure i s followed. I t was  also f e l t that i f the adult learner was  given an understand-  ing of basic methods, basic formulae and essential s k i l l s he would be equipped to use recipes i n t e l l i g e n t l y . This study was  conceived  as one unit i n a broader curriculum which  would embrace a l l six techniques of domestic food  processing,  Grateful acknowledgement i s made to Dr. John A. Niemi, Professor of Adult Education, f o r h i s kind and u n t i r i n g assistance i n the preparation of t h i s  study.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  THE PROBLEM  II.  1  Statement of the Problem  1  Need f o r the Study  3  Purpose of the Study  3  DEFINITION OF TERMS USED  4  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY  6  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  6  ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY  8  COOKING METHODS USING WATER AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER. Methods of Cooking Meat i n Water  11 12  Methods of Cooking Poultry i n Water or Another Liquid  15  Methods of Cooking F i s h i n Water or Another L i q u i d  16  Methods of Cooking Vegetables i n Water  17  Methods of Cooking F r u i t i n Water or Another L i q u i d  18  Methods of Cooking Eggs i n Water  19  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer  21  SUMMARY  2  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  26  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  2  4  °  CHAPTER III.  PAGE COOKING METHODS USING STEAM AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER  30  Methods of Cooking Meat with Steam  32  Methods of Cooking Poultry with Steam  34  Methods of Cooking F i s h with Steam  36  Methods of Cooking Vegetables with Steam  40  Methods of Cooking F r u i t with Steam  42  Appraisal of Cooking Methods U t i l i z i n g Steam as the Medium of Heat Transfer  IV.  <,....  44  SUMMARY  47  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  49  SOLUTIONS TO LEARNING EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS  49  COOKING METHODS IN WHICH AIR IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER  53  Methods of Cooking Meat Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  54  Methods of Cooking Poultry Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  57  Methods of Cooking F i s h Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  60  Methods of Cooking Vegetables and F r u i t s Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  62  Methods of Cooking Eggs Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  65  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Employing A i r as the Medium of Heat Exchange  65  CHAPTER  IV.  V.  PAGE SUMMARY  68  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  68a  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  68a  COOKING METHODS IN WHICH FAT IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER  71  Methods of Frying Meat with Fat  72  Methods of Frying Poultry with Fat  75  Methods of Cooking F i s h i n Fat  77  Methods of Cooking Vegetables i n Fat  78  Methods of Cooking F r u i t s i n Fat  80  Methods of Cooking Eggs i n Fat  80  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Fat as the Medium of Heat Transfer  VI.  81  SUMMARY  84  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  85  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  85  COOKING METHODS USING A COMBINATION OF MEDIA OF HEAT TRANSFER  88  Methods of Braising Meat  90  Methods of B r a i s i n g Poultry  92  Methods of Braising F i s h  93  Methods of B r a i s i n g Vegetables  94  Appraisal of the B r a i s i n g Method of Cookery ...  95  '  CHAPTER  VI.  VII.  PAGE  SUMMARY  97  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  99  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  99  SUMMARY  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  105  APPENDIX TABLES OF COOKING TIMES AND TEMPERATURES GLOSSARY OF COOKING TERMS  125  SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL  129  Purposes of Cooking Foods  129  Purposes of Cooking Meat, Poultry and F i s h ....  129  Purposes of Cooking Vegetables and F r u i t s  130  Purposes of Cooking Eggs  130  Heat Exchange i n Cooking  132  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE  PAGE  I  FOOD PROCESSING (PREPARATION AND PRESERVATION) ...  5  II  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING MEATS IN LIQUID  112  III  TIME TABLE FOR BROILING MEAT  113  IV  TIME TABLE FOR ROASTING MEATS  114  V  TIME TABLE FOR BRAISING MEATS  115  VI  ROASTING GUIDE FOR POULTRY  116  VII  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FISH IN LIQUID  117  VIII  TIME TABLE FOR BROILING FISH  118  IX  TIME TABLE FOR BAKING FISH AND SHELL FISH  119  X  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FRESH VEGETABLES  120  XI  TEMPERATURES FOR DEEP-FAT FRYING  123  XII  OVEN TEMPERATURE  124  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Although many courses dealing with food preparation  are offered to  adults by i n s t i t u t i o n s providing adult education programs, there i s a notable lack of appropriate the adult learner.  teaching devices (texts) written especially f o r  Instructional agents who teach these non-credit  avo-  cational courses usually select t h e i r own materials which have been de-, veloped f o r use i n r i g i d c r e d i t courses i n a formal curriculum.  A text  has not been designed to meet the immediate p r a c t i c a l needs of the adult learner.  Presently a text on basic food preparation written especially  for adults i s not available f o r public school adult education programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I.  THE PROBLEM  Statement of the Problem. A text designed f o r the adult learner i n an adult education program must take into consideration the differences which exist between the preadult student following a prescribed course of study i n the public  school  system, the adult receiving t r a i n i n g i n a professional i n s t i t u t i o n and the adult student whose enrollment i n a program i s subsiduary and supplemental to h i s primary vocational r o l e .  The adult i n the adult education program  may be motivated by a f e e l i n g of inadequacy i n h i s a b i l i t y to perform tasks which are expected of him i n a new social r o l e .  H i s i n t e r e s t may  be motivated by special problems, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , needs, c u r i o s i t i e s or ambitions.  As a r e s u l t he may be receptive to information which i s d i -  r e c t l y related to the f u l f i l m e n t of h i s p a r t i c u l a r goals.  A text f o r  2  the adult must provide material f o r new learning which meets the immediate p r a c t i c a l objectives of the learner."^ A course on basic food preparation could be of i n t e r e s t and could conceivably meet the needs of adults assuming new societal r o l e s .  Selected  examples might be: 1.  The young adult who has just l e f t home and i s l i v i n g by himself.  2.  The r e t i r e d man who has l o s t a spouse.  3.  The professional person who wishes to engage i n a hobby.  4.  The young married person who has never cooked.  There should be recognition of the educational differences which exist between the adult learner i n the formal academic i n s t i t u t i o n and the adult i n the adult education program.  Some of the students who attend the adult  education classes w i l l have had l i t t l e  t r a i n i n g i n the sciences, whereas  chemistry, biology and physics are prerequisites f o r food courses offered by colleges and technical schools.  Although food preparation i s f i r m l y based  on s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s allowances must be made f o r the probable d i s p a r i t y i n educational background of a heterogeneous group subscribing to adult education courses.  However, i f the adult learner i s given an understanding of  basic p r i n c i p l e s of cooking, basic methods and essential s k i l l s he should have the foundation f o r making sound judgments and for applying  appropriate  s k i l l s whenever he i s confronted with cooking tasks i n h i s everyday l i f e . He w i l l also have acquired the basic knowledge on which to b u i l d more advanced and complex learning and s k i l l s . Since learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d when the learner i s aware of h i s progress some provision must be made for him to measure h i s knowledge and level of performance. This study w i l l endeavour to design a teaching device (text) which w i l l meet the special requirements of the adult learner.  3  Need f o r the study. In researching the l i t e r a t u r e the author has located excellent texts dealing with food preparation which have been written f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n of n u t r i t i o n i s t s , d i e t i t i a n s , food technicians, nurses, chefs, bakers  and  other commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and hospital food-service personnel as well as many texts written f o r use of pre-adult students at the high-school level.  However, f o r the adult whose i n t e r e s t i n food preparation i s avo-  cational rather than vocational a text has not been designed f o r use i n the non-credit formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting.  There i s no shortage of  cook-books, recipe-books, magazines and pamphlets, as well as newspaper and magazine a r t i c l e s which furnish valuable resource material. However, these often tend to be collections of recipes with l i m i t e d explanatory content and they do not provide the rationale f o r specified  procedures.  These resources are valuable to the experienced cook whereas the uni n i t i a t e d may  f i n d them d i f f i c u l t to follow.  The l a t t e r s d i f f i c u l t y 1  arises from the fact that he does not have the necessary knowledge of basic p r i n c i p l e s , methods, s k i l l s and vocabulary. The need exists f o r a text on the subject of food preparation which i s designed especially f o r the adult who wishes to learn how to cook. Purpose of the study. The purpose of t h i s study i s to design an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device (text) especially f o r the use of the adult i n an adult education program. I t i s intended f o r use i n the following formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l settings: 1.  A night school course under the d i r e c t i o n of an i n s t r u c -  t i o n a l agent meeting f o r two hour sessions once a week f o r twenty weeks.  4 2.  A similar course given by (a) A Home Demonstration Agent,  (b) A Woman's I n s t i t u t e Agent, (c) An A g r i c u l t u r e Departmental Agent, (d) A U n i v e r s i t y Extension Agent. Although  i t i s conceived as a device (text) to be used i n a formal  i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting under the d i r e c t i o n of an educational agent using the seminar, demonstration,  and laboratory techniques, i t could also be  used as a self-teaching device for adults who wish to gain some understanding of cooking theory and procedures  on t h e i r own. I t w i l l there-  fore endeavour to incorporate some of the techniques peculiar to programmed learning and w i l l offer ample opportunity f o r reinforcement of learning as well as feedback on achievement. I t could also serve as a manual to be used with recipes.  It will  not contain recipes but w i l l supply formulae into which recipes f i t . I t w i l l define the various cooking methods, provide basic formulae f o r using these methods with meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and, wherever p r a c t i c a l , with eggs.  The teaching device w i l l include an appendix with tables  of cooking temperatures and times, a glossary of cooking terms and supplemental material on heat exchange and transfer.  II.  DEFINITION OF TERMS USED  As used i n the context of this text the following terms are defined; Food processing.  This term w i l l refer to a l l the techniques used  i n the a l t e r a t i o n of natural foods. Cooking. food.  This term i s used when "heating a f f e c t s the entire mass of  The changes produced i n food by heat depend upon such factors as  the method of heat transfer, the time of heating, and the temperature  TABLE I FOOD PROCESSING PREPARATION AND  Subdivision and Fractionization  Combining and Mixing  Media:  Heating and Cooking  PRESERVATION  Use of Chemical Agents  Removal of Heat  Use of Mi cro organi sms  Techniques of Heating and Cooking Steam  Water  Fat  Air  Combination of Media  1.  Boiling  1.  Steaming  1.  Broiling  1.  Pan Frying  1.  Braising  2.  Simmering  2.  Waterless Cooking  2.  Baking  2.  Deep Fat Frying  2.  Pot roasting  3.  Pressure Cooking  of  3.  Sauteing  Roasting  4.  Pan b r o i l i n g  3.  Poaching  4.  Stewing  Moist Heat Methods Note:  Dry Heat Methods  Combination Methods  This outline represents the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of food processing techniques , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of cooking techniques according to the media of heat exchange employed^ and the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of cooking methods within each medium group.^ Cooking methods may also be c l a s s i f i e d as dry heat methods, moist heat methods and combination methods.4  1.  Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, N.Y., 1954, p. 138.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,  2.  Ibid., p. 145.  3.  Ibid., pp. 145-50.  4.  Ibid., p. 405 Osee, Hughes, Introductory Foods, N.Y., The MacMillan Co., 1962, pp. 157, 192, 202. Carl A. R i e t z , Jeremiah J . Wanderstock, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn., 1965, pp. 14, 113-28.  6 reached on the surface and within the mass of food, as well as upon the 2 nature of the food i t s e l f . " Method.  In general methods of cooking are divided into f i v e classes  according to the cooking medium employed f o r heat transfer.  These media  are ( l ) water, (2) steam, (3) a i r , (4) f a t and (5) a combination of these media.  They may  also be c l a s s i f i e d as dry heat methods and moist heat  methods. Basic p r i n c i p l e s of cooking.  This term refers to established cook-  ing procedures which bring about predictable modifications i n natural and processed food. Formula.  A procedure understood by practitioners i n a f i e l d as s t i -  pulating c e r t a i n routine steps. tional procedures. Recipe.  I t i s based on c l a s s i c , academic, conven4  A recipe derives from a formula.  A prescription, ^.jJ.j an order written by an i n d i v i d u a l .  It  i s a s p e c i f i c a t i o n as to type and amount of ingredients, manipulative pro— cedures and cooking conditions. I I I . LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY This study w i l l be limited to the heating techniques of food processing.  I t w i l l not deal with the other f i v e techniques shown on Table I.  The text w i l l not deal with n u t r i t i o n , nor w i l l i t deal with selection and purchase of food and food-stuffs.  I t w i l l not contain recipes but w i l l  give basic formulae from which recipes are derived. IV.  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  This study which i s a text on basic food preparation w i l l depart from the conventional presentation of material.  I t i s customary f o r texts  which are intended f o r use by professional and pre-adult students to deal with the d i f f e r e n t foods i n turn and to indicate which cooking methods are applicable to each.  This text w i l l develop each cooking method and w i l l  7  discuss the way i n which i t may be applied to the six types of natural food to be considered i n the text.  The methods to be developed are; b o i l i n g ,  simmering, poaching, stewing, steaming, waterless-cooking, pressure-cooking, b r o i l i n g , baking or roasting, pan-frying, deep-fat frying, sauteing, panb r o i l i n g , braising and pot-roasting. The foods which w i l l be considered are meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs. This text w i l l focus on basic cooking p r i n c i p l e s , basic methods of cooking, basic formulae, and essential s k i l l s . they can be used i n an endless v a r i e t y of ways.  When these are mastered They are also the nece-  ssary prerequisites f o r more complex cooking knowledge and s k i l l s .  The  heating and cooking methods are applicable not only to natural foods, which are the concern of t h i s text, but to many processed and combined foods e.g., when the student has learned to steam vegetables he has mastered the knowledge and s k i l l which i s essential to a l l steaming whether i t be a processed food such as r i c e , or a mixture such as Christmas Plum Pudding. The content of the text w i l l be organized i n a manner consistent with adult educational theory.  I t w i l l be developed i n sequential order pre-  ceding from the known to the unknown, and from the simple to the complex. A l l methods using the same medium of heat transfer w i l l be presented t o gether e.g., those using steam — cooking.  steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-  There are four cooking media v i z . water,, steam, a i r and f a t . Each  w i l l be presented i n turn and applied to each of the foods under discussion. When these have been defined, discussed and presented i n formula form the learner w i l l be guided to a more complex cooking method v i z . braising, which u t i l i z e s two of these cooking media. The text w i l l include suggested learning experiences after each chapter. I t w i l l supply the learner with an appropriate solution to each problem and  w i l l r e f e r him hack f o r review i f he has not mastered the content of the chapter. The educational objectives w i l l be c l e a r l y stated f o r the entire course as well as for each chapter.  Owing to the design of the text thes  objectives w i l l f a l l mainly into the Cognitive Domain and Psychomotor 5  Domain.  Using Popham's  adaptation of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational  Objectives^, suggested learning objectives for this material are; Cognitive Domain Recall C omprehension  (a)  Learner w i l l be able to define the various cooking methods, i . e . , b o i l i n g , steaming, b r o i l i n g , baking or roasting, f r y i n g , braising etc.,  Cognitive Domain Recall Comprehension  (b)  Learner w i l l be able to t e l l what i s meant by various cooking terms learned during the course, e.g., sear, poach, p a r - b o i l , baste etc.,  Cognitive Domain Recall Comprehension Analysis Psychometer Domain  (c)  Given a main course recipe learner w i l l be able to t e l l the formula from which i t derives and to prepare i t .  ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY The study w i l l be developed i n the following chapters: Chapter II  Cooking Methods using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer  Chapter III  Cooking Methods Using Steam as Medium of Heat Transfer  Chapter IV  Cooking Methods Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer  Chapter V  Cooking Methods Using Fat as Medium of Heat Transfer  9  Chapter VI  Cooking Methods Using a Combination of Two or More Media of Heat Transfer  Chapter V I I  Summary  REFERENCES  1. Coolie Verner, Alan Booth, Adult Education, Washington, D.C. The Center f o r Applied Research i n Education, Inc., 1964, pp. 22-3. 2. Marion D. Sweetman, Ingehorg MacKeller, Food Selection and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 145. 3. Carl A. Rietz, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, V o l . I I , Westport, Conn.: The A v i Publishing Co., 1965, p. 15. Gladys T. Stevenson, Cora M i l l e r , Introduction to Food and N u t r i t i o n , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960, p. 31. 4.  Ibid., p. 5-6.  5. James W. Popham, Systematic Instructional Decision Making, F i l m - s t r i p Tape Program, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a : Vimcet Association, 1967. York:  6. Bloom, Benjamin S., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New David McKay Company, Inc., 1956.  CHAPTER I I COOKING METHODS USING WATER AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives t h i s chapter w i l l require the adult learner to l i s t and describe the four cooking methods which employ water as the means of heat transfer.  He w i l l be required to l i s t and discuss the a p p l i -  cation of these methods i n the preparation of food.  He w i l l be required to  use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The four cooking methods which employ water as the means of cooking food are b o i l i n g , simmering, poaching and stewing.  This chapter w i l l define  and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  The basic formula f o r each method w i l l be de-  veloped. Boiling.  B o i l i n g i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or  another l i q u i d i s the medium of heat transfer. of b o i l i n g water or other l i q u i d .  The food i s cooked i n a bath  The b o i l i n g point can be recognized by  the presence of bubbles of steam which rise to the surface of the l i q u i d and break.  B o i l i n g occurs i n water at a temperature of 212°F. Simmering.  Simmering i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water  or another l i q u i d i s the medium of heat transfer. bath of simmering water or l i q u i d . than b o i l i n g .  The food i s cooked i n a  Simmering occurs at a lower temperature  I t i s recognized by the appearance  of t i n y bubbles of steam  which form slowly and break before they reach the surface of the l i q u i d .  In  water simmering Poaching.  occurs between the temperatures of 180  and 210 F.  Poaching i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water  or another l i q u i d i s the medium of heat transfer. bath of simmering water or l i q u i d .  The food i s cooked i n a  The term 'poaching' implies that the  food i s basted with the hot l i q u i d .  This may be done by pouring some of  the hot l i q u i d over the food by means of a ladel or spoon, or i t can be achieved by covering the cooking u t e n s i l with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d and allowing the steam which r i s e s and condenses on the l i d to perform a self-basting action. Stewing.  Stewing i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which water or  another l i q u i d i s the medium of heat transfer. enough simmering  l i q u i d to produce steam.  The food i s cooked i n just  The cooking u t e n s i l i s covered  with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d which holds the steam i n and prevents the escape of moisture.  This i s a slow cooking process and i s used f o r foods which  require long, slow, moist cooking. Methods of Cooking Meat i n Water. Moist heat methods of cooking serve to soften the connective tissue of tough cuts of meat and thus render them more d i g e s t i b l e and palatable. The moist heat methods of cooking meat which u t i l i z e water or another l i q u i d as the medium of heat transfer are simmering does not apply to meat cookery.^  and stewing.  The b o i l i n g method  At b o i l i n g temperature meat f i b e r s separate  and the meat loses juice, shrinks and becomes d r i e r and harder. Simmering Meat.  Simmering i s frequently used i n the cooking of the  tougher cuts of meat i . e . , brisket, flank, etc. Another use of simmering i s i n the preparation of cured meats i . e . , corned-beef, smoked or cured hams and tongue.  In the simmering process the meat i s generally l e f t i n a large  piece, placed i n a large quantity of b o i l i n g water, seasoned and simmered u n t i l tender.^ Basic Formula f o r Simmering Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean, damp c l o t h .  2.  Have large quantity of b o i l i n g water i n a large container or k e t t l e .  3.  Add meat to the b o i l i n g water.  4.  Season.  5.  Simmer u n t i l tender.  Stewing Meat.  Stewing i s a method which i s often used f o r less ten-  der cuts of fresh meat i.e.,  round, flank, plate, brisket, etc. In stewing  the meat i s f i r s t cut into uniform pieces, generally 1 or 2 inch cubes. I f a brown stew i s desired the cubes are browned i n a l i t t l e hot f a t . They are placed i n a stewing k e t t l e and covered with water or other l i q u i d . l i q u i d may be either hot or cold.  The l i q u i d may be stock, wine, or water  or a combination of two or more of these l i q u i d s . the l i q u i d i s brought to a b o i l . reduced to simmer. three hours.  The  Seasoning i s added and  The pot i s then covered and the heat i s  The meat i s cooked u n t i l tender, usually from one to  Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cooking i f  desired.^ Basic Formula f o r Stewing Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth.  2.  Cut into uniform pieces, generally 1 or 2 inch cubes.  3.  I f a brown stew i s desired brown meat i n a l i t t l e hot f a t .  4.  Place meat i n a stewing k e t t l e .  5.  Cover with water or other l i q u i d . or cold.  Water or l i q u i d may be hot  14  6. Add seasoning. 7.  Cover k e t t l e and cook at simmer temperature.  8.  Cook u n t i l tender, approximately one to three hours.  Making Soup or Soup Stock. Another application of t h i s stewing method of cooking meat i s the making of soup or soup stock.  Meat stocks and soups  are made by cooking meat and meat bones, vegetables and seasonings i n water. Meat used f o r soup or stock i s usually from the tougher cuts which are, of course, the cheapest. The meat i s cut from the bone and cut into small cubes.  The bones are also cut into short lengths.  The object i s to expose  the maximum surface to the water i n order to extract a l l the f l a v o r .  If a  brown soup or stock i s desired the meat and bones are f i r s t browned i n hot fat.  They are covered with cold water and s a l t i s added.  The important  difference between simmering or stewing meat and making soup i s that the water which i s added i s always cold water.  B o i l i n g water would seal i n  the juices and the purpose of making soup i s to extract the juices from the meat.  The water i s brought to the simmer point and cooking i s continued  for several hours, usually three to four hours. Vegetables are added when the meat begins to become tender. used f o r soup.  The stock, meat.and vegetables may be  F o r vegetable soup the meat and bones are removed leaving  the stock and vegetables.  I f stock i s wanted i t i s drawn o f f from the  4 meat, bones and vegetables. Basic Formula f o r Meat Soup or Stock. 1.  Cut meat from bones.  Cut bones into short lengths and meat  into 1 or 2 inch cubes. 2.  I f a brown soup or stock i s desired brown the meat and bones i n hot f a t .  3.  Cover with cold water.  4.  Heat to simmer point.  5.  Simmer f o r several hours, usually 3 to 4 hours.  6. Add chopped vegetables when meat begins to get tender. 7.  The stock, meat and vegetables may a l l be used f o r soup, or the stock and vegetables may be used for vegetable soup. If stock alone i s wanted i t should be drawn off from the bones, meat and vegetables.  Methods of Cooking Poultry i n Water or Another Liquid. Mature birds are l i k e l y to be tough and should therefore be cooked slowly i n moist heat i n order to soften the connective tissue. of poultry i s a very common practice.  Stewing  Another method of cooking poultry  i n l i q u i d i s poaching and t h i s i s frequently overlooked i n many cook books. Stewing Poultry. jointed.  The b i r d may be cooked whole but i s usually d i s -  I t may be browned i n hot f a t i f a brown stew i s desired. The  pieces are placed i n a stewing k e t t l e and hot water or other l i q u i d i s added to cover them.  Seasonings, including l/2 teaspoon of s a l t per pound  of fowl, are added and the l i q u i d i s brought to a b o i l . t i g h t l y covered and the heat reduced to simmer. tender, about 2 hours. ing period.  The k e t t l e i s  The b i r d i s simmered u n t i l  Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cook-  The broth may be thickened i f desired.  Basic Formula f o r Stewing Poultry. 1.  Prepare the b i r d f o r cooking.  2.  Brown i n hot f a t f o r a brown stew i f desired.  3.  Place fowl i n a stewing k e t t l e .  15 a 4.  Cover with b o i l i n g water or other l i q u i d .  5.  Add seasoning and l/2 teaspoon of s a l t per pound of fowl.  6.  Cover k e t t l e t i g h t l y .  7.  Bring l i q u i d to a b o i l .  8.  Reduce heat to simmer.  9.  Cook u n t i l tender, usually 2 hours.  10. Add vegetables, i f desired, toward the end of cooking time. 11.  Thicken broth i f desired.  Poaching Poultry. Very few American or Canadian Cook books provide recipes f o r t h i s method of cooking poultry. However there are a number of Continental recipes from which to derive a formula. cooked whole or may be d i s j o i n t e d . by s t u f f i n g i f desired and trussing.  The b i r d may  be  I f whole, i t i s prepared f o r cooking The b i r d i s placed i n a deep kettle  and covered with b o i l i n g chicken stock or b o i l i n g water to which may  be  added onions, celery, carrot, bay leaf, thyme, parsley and peppercorns i n various combinations. simmered u n t i l tender. a fork.  The k e t t l e i s covered t i g h t l y and the fowl i s Tenderness i s judged by t e s t i n g the dark meat with  The chicken i s removed from the k e t t l e and the broth i s strained  through a fine sieve or cheesecloth.  The chicken may be served with the  broth i n large soup bowls or the broth may be served f i r s t as a soup course and the chicken served separately, or the pieces may be served with a sauce. Another v a r i a t i o n i s to add vegetables such as onions and carrots during the l a s t hour of cooking and to serve them with the chicken.^ Basic Formula f o r Poaching Poultry. 1.  Prepare poultry f o r cooking.  2.  Stuff i f desired.  Close cavity securely.  16  3.  Truss whole b i r d f i r m l y to ensure that i t holds i t s shape during cooking.  4.  Place i n a deep k e t t l e .  5.  Cover with chicken stock or b o i l i n g water to which have been added vegetables, herbs and  spices.  6.  Cover k e t t l e t i g h t l y .  7.  Simmer b i r d u n t i l tender.  8.  Remove from k e t t l e and keep hot.  9.  S t r a i n broth.  10. Serve chicken and broth together or serve broth f i r s t  and  chicken separately. Methods of Cooking F i s h i n Water or Another Liquid. The best method of cooking f i s h i n water or another l i q u i d i s by poaching.  The l i q u i d most frequently used i s c a l l e d a 'court bouillon.'  This i s  a mixture of water, wine or vinegar, onion and other vegetables, herbs and 7 spices. Poaching F i s h . the poaching method.  Whole f i s h , f i l l e t s and steaks may  a l l be cooked by  The f i s h i s t i e d loosely i n cheese-cloth and  into a bath of b o i l i n g water, other l i q u i d or court bouillon. reduced to simmer and the k e t t l e i s kept t i g h t l y covered.  lowered  The heat i s  The f i s h i s cooked  u n t i l tender.  10 minutes cooking time f o r each inch i n thickness of f i s h 8 9 should be allowed, or 8 to 10 minutes f o r each pound of f i s h . Basic Formula f o r Poaching F i s h . 1.  Tie the f i s h loosely i n a cheese-cloth wrapping.  2.  Lower i t into b o i l i n g l i q u i d .  This may be b o i l i n g water,  court bouillon, or other l i q u i d .  3.  Reduce the heat to simmer.  4.  Cover k e t t l e t i g h t l y .  5.  Simmer u n t i l f i s h flakes readily when tested with a fork. Allow 10 minutes cooking time f o r each inch i n thickness of f i s h , or 8 to 10 minutes for each pound of f i s h .  6.  Remove f i s h from water and from cheese-cloth very caref u l l y to avoid breaking.  Methods of Cooking Vegetables i n Water. B o i l i n g i s one of the most common methods of cooking vegetables. Most vegetables should be cooked gently i n a small amount of b o i l i n g water i n a covered sauce-pan. of the cooking period. (1)  S a l t i n g should be done at the beginning  There are some exceptions which are;  Strong-flavored vegetables such as cabbage, brussels sprouts,  b r o c c o l i , cauliflower, turnips and rutabagas should be cooked i n water which covers them.  They should be cooked i n an uncovered  to allow strong v o l a t i l e flavors to escape i n the steam.  sauce-pan They should  only be cooked u n t i l tender since the strong flavors increase with long cooking. (2)  Green colored vegetables such as peas, green beans and the leafy  vegetables such as spinach should be cooked i n b o i l i n g water which just covers them.  The pan i s kept covered u n t i l the vegetable i s heated  through to allow some of the mild acids to escape i n the steam, then the cover i s removed f o r the remainder (3)  of the cooking.  Yellow and white vegetables should be cooked i n enough water to  cover them since they require a longer period of cooking than other vegetables.  The pan i s kept covered throughout the cooking period.  Time charts f o r cooking vegetables are located i n the appendix of  the text. Basic Formula f o r Cooking Vegetables. 1.  Have recommended amount of b o i l i n g salted water i n sauce-pan.  2.  Place the vegetables i n the b o i l i n g water.  3.  Cook strong flavored vegetables i n an uncovered pan. Cook yellow and white vegetables i n a covered pan. Cook green vegetables i n a covered pan u n t i l heated, then remove cover f o r remainder of cooking.  4.  Keep the heat high u n t i l the b o i l i n g resumes.  5.  Count the cooking time from when the water resumes b o i l i n g .  6.  Turn heat down so the water b o i l s gently.  7.  Cook u n t i l tender. Drain w e l l .  Methods of Cooking F r u i t i n Water or Another L i q u i d . The methods of cooking fresh f r u i t i n which water or another l i q u i d i s the medium of heat exchange are stewing and poaching. are used f o r making f r u i t purges, sauces and compotes.  These methods  A puree i s a  smooth soft sauce which has been pressed through a fine sieve or food m i l l or put through a blender. The word compote denotes a preparation of fresh or dried f r u i t s cooked either whole or quartered i n a thick or t h i n syrup. A minimum of water i s used i n each case and the f r u i t i s simmered i n a covered container. fruit.  This preserves the valuable v o l a t i l e flavors of the  F r u i t s which are required to hold t h e i r shape a f t e r cooking are  cooked i n a sugar solution i . e . , water to which sugar has been added. These f r u i t s should not be s t i r r e d .  F r u i t s which are not required to hold  a d e f i n i t e shape when cooked should be cooked quickly i n a small amount of water to soften the c e l l u l o s e and the sugar should be added at the end of the cooking time.  These f r u i t s can be used as they are, or they may be  19  put through a sieve or an e l e c t r i c blender to make a puree. Basic Formula f o r Cooking F r u i t i n Water. 1.  Prepare f r u i t f o r cooking.  2.  Peel and cut as directed i n recipe.  3.  Place i n a shallow sauce-pan with a small amount of water, or water and sugar.  I f making a sauce or puree add sugar  at the end of cooking.  I f making a compote add sugar at  the beginning of cooking. 4.  Cover sauce-pan.  5.  Simmer u n t i l soft, or i n the case of compote u n t i l  fruit  i s clear and translucent. 6.  S t r a i n i f a puree i s desired.  Methods of Cooking Eggs i n Water. The methods by which eggs may be cooked i n water are simmering and poaching.  The b o i l i n g method does not apply to egg cookery.  One basic  p r i n c i p l e which holds with a l l egg cookery i s that eggs should always be cooked with low to moderate heat and f o r exactly the time specified i n a given recipe.  If t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s ignored and eggs are cooked at a high  temperature the result i s that the protein coagulates to a degree which 12 produces a firm, tough, often rubbery product rather than a tender one. Eggs which are to be served i n the s h e l l should be cooked to a stage i n which the white i s tender and the yolk i s l i q u i d or semi-liquid.  There  are two methods of soft-cooking eggs i n the s h e l l . Method No.l f o r Soft-Cooked Eggs i n the S h e l l . ing r a p i d l y .  Water should be b o i l -  The eggs are added to the b o i l i n g water and the heat i s turned  o f f . The saucepan i s covered and the eggs are allowed to remain i n the 13 water f o r 4 to 6 minutes, depending upon the degree of firmness desired.  Method No.II f o r Soft-Cooked Eggs i n the S h e l l .  The water should be  at the simmering stage. The eggs are added and the water maintained at 14 simmering temperature f o r 4 to 6 minutes. Basic Formula f o r Soft-Cooked Eggs. 1.  Add eggs to b o i l i n g or simmering water.  2.  Maintain water at simmering.  3.  Allow eggs to remain i n water for 4 to 6 minutes depending upon firmness desired. There are three methods f o r hard cooking eggs i n the s h e l l .  Method  No.I and Method No.II follow the same methods as f o r soft-cooked eggs allowing the eggs i n the case of Method No.I to stand i n a warm place f o r 45 minutes to 1 hour, and i n the case of Method No.II to remain i n water over a double b o i l e r f o r about 45 minutes. the double-boiler i s kept simmering.  The water i n the bottom of  Method N o . I l l simmers the eggs i n 15  water over d i r e c t heat f o r 20 to 25 minutes. On removing hard-cooked eggs from the water they should be plunged immediately into i c e - c o l d water.  This stops the cooking process and aids  i n the prevention of the unsightly dark green deposit which tends to form on the outside of the cooked yolk. A properly hard-cooked egg should have a white which i s firm, yet tender.  The yolk should be dry and mealy. 17 i s i n s u f f i c i e n t l y cooked.  I f the yolk appears waxy i t  Poaching Eggs i n Water or other L i q u i d . In poaching eggs a f l a t shallow pan should be used.  Enough hot  l i q u i d to cover the eggs i s poured into the pan. The l i q u i d may be hot water, milk or cream.  I f the l i q u i d i s water i t i s necessary to add l/2  or 1 teaspoon of s a l t to each pint of water.  This tends to keep the egg  white from dispersing and results i n a more compact product.  I f milk or  cream are used they should be heated i n the top of a double—boiler.  Eggs  are broken gently into a saucer, one at a time, then slipped, one at a time, gently into the hot l i q u i d .  The heat i s reduced to simmering  and  the eggs are basted with the hot l i q u i d by means of a spoon or l a d e l . This ensures coagulation of the f i l m of egg-white on top of the yolk and the result  i s more pleasing to the eye.  The eggs are cooked u n t i l set.  The egg white should be j e l l y - l i k e and tender, the yolk w i l l be l i q u i d or semi-liquid.  The eggs should be removed from the l i q u i d with a  slotted  18 spoon. Basic Formula f o r Poaching Eggs. 1.  Use a f l a t shallow u t e n s i l  such as a frying-pan.  2.  Add s u f f i c i e n t b o i l i n g  3.  Have the l i q u i d at the b o i l i n g point.  4.  Break eggs gently into a saucer, one at a time.  5.  S l i p , one at a time, gently into the hot l i q u i d .  6.  Reduce heat to simmer.  7.  Baste eggs with the hot l i q u i d to ensure coagulation of the  l i q u i d to the pan to cover the eggs.  f i l m of egg-white on top of the egg-yolk. 8.  Cook eggs u n t i l set.  9.  Remove from l i q u i d with a slotted  spoon.  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Water as Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of these methods to the cook are t h e i r ease of a p p l i cation, the r e l a t i v e l y low cost of heating small quantities of water, and their p r a c t i c a l i t y with a l l types of natural foods.  I t i s comparatively  22  easy to cook food i n water and the equipment required i s minimal—a and a cooking u t e n s i l are a l l that are necessary.  burner  I t i s less expensive to  heat a quantity of water s u f f i c i e n t to cook a food than to heat the average oven.  Most natural foods and many processed foods may be cooked i n water  and the s k i l l i s not very d i f f i c u l t to acquire.  Cooking i n water i s less  time consuming f o r foods such as vegetables and f r u i t s . The changes which are desirable are the softening of tough connective tissue i n meat and poultry, the coagulation of proteins i n meat and f i s h and eggs, the softening of cellulose and the p a r t i a l or complete g e l a t i n i z a t i o n of starch involving swelling of starch grains i n vegetables and fruits. The disadvantage of using water as a cooking medium i s that some water-soluble constituents tend to be l o s t . and vitamins, albumin and sugars.  These are valuable minerals  Flavor i s also affected i n various ways;  an open k e t t l e allows some of the v o l a t i l e flavor substances of vegetables to escape; sugars, acids and some minerals which contribute to flavor i n vegetables and f r u i t are water soluble and may be l o s t through cooking i n water.  Changes may also occur i n color which make the cooked product un-  pleasing to the e y e .  19  The disadvantage of n u t r i t i v e loss may be p a r t i a l l y off-set by using the water or l i q u i d i n which the foods have been cooked for sauces or soups. Flavor losses may be reduced by cooking i n covered containers. The learner w i l l have noted that the various formulae although similar i n many respects, d i f f e r greatly i n the time factor.  I t takes several hours  to simmer a fowl whereas an egg requires a very few minutes. In each case i t i s necessary f o r the adult learner to analyse the purpose of the p a r t i c u l a r method i n i t s application to various foods.  The  23  purpose i n simmering or stewing tougher cuts of meat or poultry i s to soften the tough connective  tissue and make the meat more d i g e s t i b l e and palatable.  This requires long, slow, moist cooking.  The purpose of cooking vegetables  and f r u i t i s to soften the c e l l u l o s e , change the texture and reduce the bulk, as well as to r e t a i n the natural color and f l a v o r .  This process does not  take as long and can usually be accomplished i n 40 minutes at the most.  The  purpose of cooking eggs i s to coagulate the protein and to change the texture.  This requires very much less time.  In cooking f i s h the purpose i s  similar to that of eggs, i . e . , to coagulate the proteins and to change the texture as well as to r e t a i n the f l a v o r . connective  There i s a n e g l i g i b l e amount of  tissue i n f i s h which has to be broken down so the purpose i s  d i f f e r e n t from that for meat.  The learner may  have noticed  similarities  i n the cooking of f i s h and eggs. 'When the adult learner has acquired the s k i l l and knowledge of the methods of simmering, poaching and stewing he w i l l be able to use them i n more complex procedures. cook to apply two  Some more complex cooking processes require the  or more methods.  This i s so i n the case of braising  which i s u s u a l l y a combination of f r y i n g and simmering.  SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the four methods of cooking which employ water or other l i q u i d as the medium of heat transfer. b o i l i n g , simmering, poaching and stewing.  These methods are  Each has been defined and the  actual procedural steps involved have been given.  Equipment used i n these  methods has also been described. I t has been pointed out that these moist heat methods serve a useful purpose i n softening connective tissue i n tough cuts of meat and poultry, i n coagulating proteins i n meat, f i s h and eggs, and i n softening cellulose and swelling the starch i n vegetables and f r u i t s .  The advantages and d i s -  advantages of cooking food by these methods have been discussed with r e l a t i o n to texture, f l a v o r , and color as well as with r e l a t i o n to retention of valuable food nutrients including vitamins and minerals.  The d i s -  advantages i n many cases can be minimized by observing c e r t a i n rules and these have been described. B o i l i n g i s a method which has l i m i t e d application i n the cooking of most natural foods; simmering, poaching or stewing are usually preferable. The b o i l i n g method i s used mainly f o r the preparation of vegetables.  The  method has been described as i t applies to the various vegetables, i . e . , strong and mild flavored, red, green, white and yellow.  A basic formula  for using t h i s method with these vegetables has been given. The simmering method has a wide application i n the cooking of foods. I t i s used f o r meat, poultry, f i s h , f r u i t and eggs.  I t s application with  each of these foods has been described and basic formulae  developed.  The poaching method may be used with poultry, f i s h and eggs.  The  cooking procedures using t h i s method with these foods have been described  and basic formulae given. The stewing method may be applied to meat, poultry and f r u i t .  The  procedures have been discussed for each of these foods and basic formulae have been prescribed. An appraisal of the value of these methods i n the preparation of natural foods has been made. has been indicated.  Their use i n more complex methods of cooking  26  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1.  What inexpensive main course dishes might you prepare using the simmering method of cooking?  2.  Cabbage and brussel sprouts often taste unpleasantly strong when cooked.  3.  What can be done to minimize this?  You need some hard cooked eggs to garnish a salad.  How would you  cook them to avoid dark, greenish rings between the yolks and whites? 4.  Using the Bantam edition of the Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal;  I r i s h Lamb Stew  p. 186  Buttered peas  p. 263  Apple-sauce with cream  p. 366  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1.  Meat and poultry stews are economical.  The cheaper cuts of meat,  i . e . , beef brisket, pig's knuckles, o x t a i l s , poultry backs and many other unusual and inexpensive cuts are very f l a v o r f u l when cooked by slow moist heat methods. of cooking.  Simmering and stewing are economical methods  Once the l i q u i d has been brought to the b o i l i t takes  r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e heat to keep i t at the simmer point. 2.  These strong flavored vegetables should not be overcooked because they develop strong flavor and odor with long cooking.  They should be  cooked just enough to render them tender i n b o i l i n g salted water just covering them.  They should not be cooked i n a covered u t e n s i l .  27  3.  Use whichever of the three methods f o r hard cooking eggs you prefer and immediately a f t e r cooking immerse the eggs i n i c e cold water. This stops the cooking process and helps to prevent the formation of the chemical compound that results i n the greenish black ring between the egg yolk and egg white.  4.  The apple-sauce can be cooked several hours i n advance of serving time and c h i l l e d i n the r e f r i g e r a t o r . mately 1.1/2 minutes.  hours to cook.  The lamb stew w i l l take approxi-  The green peas w i l l take from 8 to 20  Preparation time before actual cooking should require about  half an hour.  28  REFERENCES 1. P h y l l i s C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 52-3. Louise Stanley, Jessie A l i c e Cline, Foods, Their Selection and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 202. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg McKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 403. 2. Madge M i l l e r , Mary Barnhart, Essentials of Food Preparation, DuBuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown, Co., 1947, p. 259. Stanley, l o c . c i t . Canada Department of Agriculture, Meat, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956, p. 7. 3.  Stanley, j)p. c i t . , pp. 202-3. Canada Department of Agriculture, l o c . c i t .  4.  Stanley, £p. c i t . , pp. 203-4. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, pp. 182-3. Henri Paul P e l l a p r a t , Modern French Culinary A r t , Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 388. 5. Jean I. Simpson, The Frozen Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: Avi Publishing Co. Inc., 1962, p. 301.  The  6. Robert C a r r i e r , Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1963, p. 188. P e l l a p r a t , ^p. c i t . , p. 415. Prosper Montagne, Larousse Gastronomique, New York: Crown Publishers, 1965, p. 248. Samuel Chamberlain, Bouquet de France, New York: Gourmet D i s t r i b u t i n g Corporation, 1957, p. 226. L i l l i a n Longseth Christensen, Gourmet's Old Vienna Cookbook, New York: Gourmet D i s t r i b u t i n g Corporation, 1959, p. 226. 7. Ottawa:  Robert C a r r i e r , og. c i t . , p. 26. pp. 86, 88. Department of F i s h e r i e s of Canada, The Way to Cook F i s h , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965, p. 20.  8.  Department of F i s h e r i e s of Canada, l o c . c i t .  9.  Stanley, £p. c i t . , p. 254.  10. University of Wisconsin, Vegetables i n Our Meals, Madison, Wisconsin: C i r c u l a r , 629, May, 1964, pp. 6-9. Stanley, £p. c i t . , pp. 78-9. Hughes, oj£. c i t . , pp. 68-73.  REFERENCES CONTD. 11.  Pelleprat, eg. c i t . , p. 117. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 54. Hughes, op. c i t . , pp. 37-8„  12.  Hughes, 0 £ . c i t . , pp. 125-6.  13.  Ibid., p. 126.  14.  Ibid.  15.  Ibid.  16.  Ibid.  17.  Ibid.  18.  Ibid., pp. 123-25.  19.  Ibid., pp. 58-65.  20.  C a r r i e r , p. 26.  CHAPTER I I I  COOKING METHODS USING STEAM AS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives t h i s chapter w i l l require the adult learner to l i s t and describe the three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food and to l i s t and discuss the application of these methods i n food preparation. He w i l l be required to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. The three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food are steaming, waterless—cooking, and pressure-cooking.  This chapter  w i l l define and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t .  The basic formulae f o r these methods w i l l be  outlined. Introduction to Learner. The three cooking methods which employ steam as the means of cooking food are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking.  This chapter  w i l l define and discuss each method as i t may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t .  The basic formula f o r each method w i l l be  developed. Steaming.  Steaming i s a moist heat method of cooking i n which steam  i s the medium of heat transfer.  The food being steamed does not come i n  contact with water but i s bathed or surrounded by steam which i s generated by b o i l i n g water.  This i s accomplished by placing the food i n a special  u t e n s i l known as a steamer.  This piece of equipment has two parts which  consist of a sauce-pan f o r b o i l i n g water and a perforated inset pan which  f i t s over the sauce-pan.  The steam from b o i l i n g water i n the sauce-pan  r i s e s and passes through the perforations i n the inset pan and surrounds the food contained i n i t .  1  The steamer must have a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d to  prevent the escape of the steam. Waterless-cooking.  In t h i s method steam i s generated by the mois-  ture or juice which i s contained i n the food i t s e l f . i s used.  A minimum of water  The u t e n s i l used i n t h i s method i s c a l l e d a waterless-cooker.  I t consists of a pan or other container made of heavy metal or glass such as i n Corning Ware or ceramic which distributes heat evenly on a l l sides. Waterless-cooking may also be done i n a heavy frying-pan or sauce-pan. The container must have a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d . Waterless-cooking must employ low temperatures.^  I t i s sometimes done on the top of the range and some-  times i n the oven. Pressure-cooking.  In t h i s method the food i s cooked i n an atmos-  phere of steam which i s held under pressure. a pressure-cooker.  The u t e n s i l used i s c a l l e d  There are various types of pressure—cookers.  A  pressure-cooker i s a heavy metal pan which has a t i g h t - f i t t i n g cover which locks on. The cover i s equipped with a rubber washer, a safety-valve and a vent-pipe.  A pressure-gauge  over the vent-pipe.  comes with each pressure-cooker and i t f i t s  When food i s to he steamed i n this u t e n s i l a small  amount of b o i l i n g water i s added which generates steam when heated to the b o i l i n g point. When the cover i s locked on steam emerges from the ventpipe.  When a steady stream of steam i s v i s i b l e the pressure-gauge i s  placed over the vent-pipe and the steam i s contained and may be held under pressures of 5, 10 or 15 pounds.  Since heat i s not l o s t through vapori-  zation temperatures r i s e higher than the normal 212°F. of b o i l i n g water and cooking i s rapid; e.g.,  meat and chicken require approximately  one-third the cooking time required by other methods. Since these three methods which employ steam f o r heat transfer are moist heat methods they have many useful applications.  They are frequently  used to soften tough connective tissue i n meat and poultry, to coagulate th protein and soften any connective tissue i n f i s h , and to soften the c e l l u l o i n vegetables and f r u i t s .  Not a l l methods are applicable to every type of  food under discussion here but one or more may be used with each.  Those  methods which may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t w i l l be described and the accepted procedures f o r each w i l l be outlined. Methods of Cooking Meat with Steam Meat i s seldom steamed i n a steamer but may be cooked by the waterles cooking method or the pressure-cooker method.  These are moist heat methods  and are very useful i n cooking the tougher cuts of meat or meat of poor quality or grade.  Such meat w i l l be rendered tender and j u i c y since the  moist heat softens the tough connective tissue. Waterless-cooking Meat.  The meat i s prepared f o r cooking as directed  i n the recipe and i s placed i n a heavy pan or Dutch oven with a t i g h t f i t t i n g cover.  A small amount of water i s added to prevent burning before  the juices i n the meat start to produce steam.  The cooking i s done either  on top of the range or i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F. The moisture and steam from the meat i t s e l f surround the meat and render i t tender and f l a vorful.  One authority has c a l l e d the oven method of waterless cooking  4 " steam-roasting." Basic Formula f o r Waterless-cooking Meat. 1.  Wipe the meat with a clean, damp cloth.  2.  Place i n a heavy pan or Dutch oven.  3.  Season.  4.  Add a small quantity of hot l i q u i d to the container.  5.  Cover the container.  6.  Cook on top of the range at simmer heat or i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F.  7.  Cook u n t i l meat i s tender. Pressure-cooking Meat.  The meat i s prepared f o r cooking as directed.  The pressure-cooker i s heated on top of the range.  I f the meat i s to he  browned a small amount of f a t i s added to the cooker and the meat i s seared on a l l sides.  The meat i s placed on a rack, seasoning i s added and a small  quantity of hot l i q u i d i s poured i n . The cooker i s covered immediately to prevent the loss of steam.  When steam emerges i n a steady stream from the  vent-pipe the pressure-gauge i s placed over i t .  The indicator on the  pressure-gauge i s allowed to reach the "cook" position.  The heat must be  regulated to keep the pressure-gauge indicator at the required l e v e l . time must also be c a r e f u l l y checked.  The  The meat i s cooked f o r the length of  time s p e c i f i e d i n the recipe and when this time has elapsed the heat must be removed.  I f the recipe c a l l s f o r immediate  cooling t h i s may be done by  holding the cooker under cold running water, or by placing i t i n cold water. I f the recipe does not indicate immediate  cooling then the cooker may be  allowed to cool of i t s own accord. When the pressure has been reduced the cover may be removed.  I t must never be removed while there i s any pressure.  Any juice which remains i n the cooker should be saved and used f o r sauce 5 or gravy. Basic Formula f o r Pressure—cooking Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth.  2.  Prepare meat as directed i n the recipe.  34 3.  Heat pressure cooker.  4.  Add f a t i f meat i s to be browned.  5.  Place meat on a rack i n the cooker.  6.  Add a small quantity of hot l i q u i d .  7.  Close pressure cooker.  8.  Heat u n t i l steam comes from vent-pipe.  9.  Adjust pressure—gauge  Sear meat on a l l sides.  to vent-pipe.  10. Adjust heat to maintain the cook position on the gauge. 11. Cook f o r time specified i n the recipe. 12. Remove from heat and cool under cold running water or i n cold water i f rapid cooling i s indicated i n the recipe. 13. When pressure has been reduced remove the l i d from the pressure—cooker. 14. Use any juice which may remain i n the pressure-cooker f o r sauce or gravy.  Methods of Cooking Poultry with Steam. In cooking poultry as i n cooking meat the same p r i n c i p l e applies. Tough and older birds require long slow cooking i n moist heat to soften the tough connective tissue and make the meat tender.  The cooking methods  which employ steam as the medium of heat exchange are very useful i n tenderizing older b i r d s .  Steaming, waterless cooking, and pressure cooking  are a l l employed. Steaming Poultry. When a b i r d has reached i t s f i r s t or second year i t no longer q u a l i f i e s f o r the cooking procedures applied to younger b i r d s . However, an older b i r d , or fowl, i s often more f l a v o r f u l than a young one but i t w i l l have developed tougher connective tissue which w i l l have to be softened by the moist heat methods of cooking.  Therefore, steaming i s  an excellent method of preparation f o r fowl.  The b i r d i s prepared f o r  cooking and i s seasoned inside and out with s a l t and pepper. on the rack of the steamer.  I t i s placed  Water i n the lower part of the steamer i s  kept b o i l i n g b r i s k l y and the steamer i s t i g h t l y covered.  The b i r d i s  allowed to steam f o r three to four hours, depending upon age and s i z e . I f desired i t may be browned i n the oven after steaming. Basic Formula f o r Steaming Poultry. 1.  Prepare fowl for cooking.  2.  Season inside and out.  3.  Place on rack i n steamer.  4.  Have water i n lower compartment b o i l i n g vigorously.  5.  Cover steamer t i g h t l y .  6.  Cook u n t i l b i r d i s tender.  7.  If desired brown b i r d i n the oven after steaming.  Waterless Cooking Poultry. young as well as f o r mature b i r d s . placed i n a roasting pan.  This i s a method which may be used f o r The b i r d i s prepared f o r cooking and  If the b i r d i s not young a small amount of  water i s added to the pan, i f the b i r d i s young water may not be required. Seasonings are added, the pan i s covered and the b i r d i s cooked i n a moderate oven, 350° F. u n t i l tender.  The cover may be removed toward the end  7 of cooking to brown the b i r d . Summary f o r Waterless Cooking Poultry. 1.  Prepare b i r d f o r cooking.  2.  Place i n a roasting pan.  3.  I f b i r d i s mature add a small amount of water to pan.  4.  Cover the pan.  36  5.  Place i n a moderate oven, 350° F.  6.  Cook u n t i l tender.  7.  Remove l i d toward end of cooking to brown the b i r d i f desired.  Pressure-cooking Poultry. t h i s method.  Mature and young birds may be cooked by  The b i r d i s prepared f o r cooking.  I f desired the b i r d may  be browned i n hot f a t i n the pressure cooker.  One cup of b o i l i n g water  i s added to the cooker as well as seasonings.  The cooker i s covered and  the b i r d i s cooked under 15 pounds of pressure f o r about 35 minutes. cooker i s removed from the heat and allowed to cool. g i s reduced the cover i s removed.  The  When the pressure  Basic Formula f o r Pressure-cooking Poultry. 1.  Prepare b i r d f o r cooking.  2.  I f desired brown b i r d i n hot f a t i n cooker.  3.  Add 1 cup of b o i l i n g water.  4.  Cover the pressure-cooker.  5.  Heat u n t i l steam emerges from the vent-pipe.  6. Adjust the pressure-gauge. 7.  Cook at 15 pounds pressure f o r about 35 minutes.  8.  Remove from heat.  9. Allow pressure-cooker to cool of i t s own accord. 10. When pressure has been reduced remove cover. 11. Use any l i q u i d which remains f o r sauce or gravy. Methods of Cooking F i s h with Steam. The most common methods of cooking f i s h with steam i s steaming. The steam serves to coagulate the f i s h proteins and render the f i s h tender and opaque.  Steaming F i s h .  Steaming i s a method which gives very s a t i s f a c t o r y  r e s u l t s with most types of f i s h .  Steamers are available which are es-  p e c i a l l y designed f o r whole f i s h .  They are usually long and oval i n shape  with a perforated inset rack and a t i g h t - f i t t i n g cover. able steamer can be improvised. loosely i n cheese-cloth.  However, a s u i t -  F i s h to be steamed i s frequently t i e d  The cheese-cloth allows the steam to surround  the f i s h and i t permits the f i s h to be l i f t e d from the steamer without fear of breaking i t . The water i n the steamer or other container must be kept b o i l i n g vigorously during the entire cooking period.  The f i s h i s t i e d loosely  i n a piece of cheese-cloth and placed on the perforated rack i n the steamer. The steamer i s covered t i g h t l y and the water kept b o i l i n g rapidly.  The f i s h  i s cooked u n t i l i t i s opaque and flakes easily when tested with a fork. 9  Cooking usually requires from 10 to 20 minutes per pound of f i s h ,  or 10  minutes cooking time per inch thickness of f i s h . " ^ Basic Formula f o r Steaming F i s h . 1.  Have water i n lower part of steamer b o i l i n g vigorously.  2.  Prepare f i s h f o r cooking.  3.  T i e f i s h loosely i n cheese-cloth.  4.  Place on rack i n the steamer.  5.  Cover the steamer t i g h t l y .  6.  Keep water b o i l i n g vigorously.  7.  Cook u n t i l f i s h i s opaque and flakes e a s i l y when tested with a fork.  Allow 10 to 20 minutes per pound of f i s h , or 10  minutes f o r each inch i n thickness. 8.  Remove gently from the steamer.  9.  Remove the cheese-cloth wrapping.  Pressure—cooking F i s h . pressure—cooker. ing.  There are two ways of cooking f i s h i n a  In one the f i s h i s wrapped i n cheese—cloth as f o r steam-  In the other the f i s h may be browned i n hot f a t i n the bottom of the  cooker before c o o k i n g .  11  The time of cooking must be very c a r e f u l l y ob-  served to prevent overcooking.  I f f i s h i s overcooked i t f a l l s apart.  Method No.l f o r Pressure—cooking F i s h . The f i s h i s prepared f o r cooking and wrapped i n a piece of cheesecloth.  The pressure—cooker i s heated and hot water i s added.  The f i s h  i s placed on the rack i n the cooker and the cover locked i n place.  Steam  i s allowed to come from the vent-pipe i n a steady stream and then the pressure—gauge  i s placed on i t . The indicator i s brought to the "cook"  position, and the f i s h i s cooked for the time indicated i n the recipe. The cooker i s cooled by holding under cold running water or plunging into 12 cold water.  When the pressure has been reduced the cover may be removed.'  The f i s h i s removed from the cooker and from the cheese—cloth very c a r e f u l l y to avoid breaking. Basic Formula f o r Method No.l of Pressure-cooking. 1.  Prepare f i s h f o r cooking.  2.  Wrap l i g h t l y i n cheese—cloth.  3.  Heat pressure—cooker and add hot water.  4.  Place f i s h on rack i n the cooker.  5.  Lock cover into place.  6. Heat and allow steam to come from vent-pipe. 7. Adjust pressure-gauge  on vent-pipe.  8.  Bring the indicator to "cook" position.  9.  Cook f o r s p e c i f i e d time.  10.  Cool cooker immediately at end of cooking time.  11.  Remove cover when pressure has been reduced.  12.  Remove f i s h gently.  Method No.2 f o r Pressure-cooking F i s h . The f i s h i s prepared f o r cooking and seasoned.  I f a crust i s r e -  quired f i s h i s dredged with f l o u r , crumbs or corn-meal and browned i n hot fat i n the bottom of the cooker.  The f i s h i s placed on a rack i n the  cooker, a small amount of water i s added to the cooker and the cover i s locked on. The cooker i s heated, steam i s allowed to come from the ventpipe and the pressure-gauge i s put i n place.  The indicator i s brought to  the "cook" p o s i t i o n and the f i s h i s cooked f o r the s p e c i f i e d length of time.  The cooker i s cooled immediately and when the pressure has been r e 13  duced the cover i s removed.  The f i s h i s removed c a r e f u l l y to avoid  breaking. Basic Formula f o r Method No.2 of Pressure-cooking F i s h . 1.  Prepare f i s h f o r cooking.  2.  I f a crust i s desired dredge f i s h i n f l o u r , cornmeal or dry bread crumbs.  3. 4.  Season. Melt a small amount of f a t i n the cooker and brown on both sides.  5.  Place f i s h on a rack i n the cooker.  6.  Add. a small amount of b o i l i n g water.  7.  Cover and lock the cooker.  8.  Heat u n t i l steam emerges from the vent-pipe.  9.  Adjust the pressure-gauge over the vent-pipe.  10. Regulate the heat to keep the pressure-gauge indicator at "cook" p o s i t i o n .  11.  Cook for length of time specified i n the recipe.  12.  Remove from heat and cool  13.  Remove cover when pressure has been reduced.  14.  Remove f i s h very gently.  immediately.  Methods of Cooking Vegetables with Steam. A l l three methods may be used f o r cooking vegetables.  Steam i s con-  sidered one of the best heat exchange media because i t does not rob the vegetables of valuable nutrients.  I t i s not used with green vegetables  because the steaming process i s carried out i n a covered container which holds i n the v o l a t i l e acids which rob the green vegetables of t h e i r color. Steaming Vegetables.  The vegetables are prepared f o r cooking. Water  i n the lower compartment of the steamer i s brought to a vigorous b o i l . The vegetables are placed i n the top inset pan and covered t i g h t l y .  The  14 vegetables are cooked u n t i l tender. Basic Formula f o r Steaming Vegetables. 1.  Prepare vegetables f o r cooking.  2.  Prepare steamer.  Have water b o i l i n g rapidly i n bottom  compartment. 3.  Place vegetables i n top perforated inset pan.  4.  Cover steamer.  5.  Cook vegetables u n t i l tender.  Waterless-cooking. This method has always been a great favorite with French and Chinese chefs.  I t i s also highly thought of by n u t r i t i o n i s t s since few of the  valuable nutrients are l o s t i n water.  The vegetables cook i n steam which  i s generated by the moisture or juices of the vegetables  themselves.  The vegetables are prepared f o r cooking by dicing, s l i c i n g or shredding.  The heavy frying pan or sauce—pan i s pre-heated and a very small  amount of f a t i s added, just enough to keep the vegetables from s t i c k i n g to the pan.  The vegetables are added and i f they are not very moist a  small amount of b o i l i n g water i s added, not usually more than one or two tablespoons.  The pan i s t i g h t l y covered and cooking i s done over low 15  heat.  The vegetables are cooked u n t i l tender yet s l i g h t l y c r i s p . Basic Formula for Waterless-cooking Vegetables.  1.  Prepare vegetables f o r cooking by dicing, s l i c i n g or shredding.  2.  Pre-heat the waterless cooker.  3.  Add a small amount of f a t to the cooker, - just enough to prevent the vegetables from sticking to the pan.  4.  Add the vegetables and mix l i g h t l y .  5.  I f necessary a very small amount of b o i l i n g water may  be  added to i n i t i a t e the steaming process. 6.  Cover the cooker t i g h t l y .  7.  X6 Cook over low heat u n t i l vegetables are crisp - tender. Pressure-cooking Vegetables.  The vegetables are prepared f o r cook-  ing and the recommended quantity of b o i l i n g water i s added to the cooker. The vegetables are placed i n the cooker and the cover locked i n place. The pressure-gauge a steady stream.  i s adjusted when steam emerges from the vent-pipe i n The vegetables must only be cooked f o r the recommended  length of time since there i s a tendency to overcooking by t h i s method. The pressure must be reduced immediately by subjecting the cooker to cold water.  Basic Formula f o r Pressure-cooking Vegetables. 1.  Prepare vegetables f o r cooking.  2.  Heat pressure cooker.  3.  Add recommended amount of b o i l i n g water.  4.  Place vegetables i n the cooker.  5.  Cover t i g h t l y and adjust the pressure-gauge.  6.  Cook f o r recommended length of time,  7.  Remove the cooker from heat.  8.  Cool rapidly by holding under cold running water or plunging into cold water.  9. When pressure has been reduced remove cover. Methods of Cooking F r u i t with Steam. F r u i t i s frequently cooked by the waterless-cooking method and also by the pressure-cooking method.  As i n cooking f r u i t with water the time  of adding sugar has an important effect on the finished product.  If i t is  desirable that the f r u i t r e t a i n i t s o r i g i n a l shape after cooking the sugar should be added at the beginning of cooking.  I f a sauce i s desired the  18 sugar i s added a f t e r the f r u i t has been cooked. Waterless-cooking F r u i t . natural color of f r u i t .  This i s a very good way of preserving the  F r u i t s such as plums, soft type b e r r i e s ,  rhubarb  and cranberries r e t a i n t h e i r natural colors when cooked i n this manner. The f r u i t i s prepared f o r cooking by cutting into small pieces. The container i s heated and a very small amount of b o i l i n g water may be added i f the f r u i t i s not j u i c y .  The f r u i t i s placed i n the cooker and covered  t i g h t l y and cooking i s done over low heat or i n a moderate oven, 325° F., 19 u n t i l the f r u i t i s tender.  43 Basic Formula f o r Waterless-cooking F r u i t . 1.  Prepare f r u i t f o r cooking by cutting into small pieces i n the case of larger f r u i t .  2.  Pre-heat the container.  3.  I f f r u i t i s not j u i c y add a small amount of b o i l i n g water.  4.  Place f r u i t i n the cooker.  Add sugar i f f r u i t i s required to  hold i t s shape. 5.  Cover t i g h t l y .  6.  Cook over low heat or i n a moderate oven, 325° F. u n t i l  fruit  i s tender. Pressure-cooking F r u i t .  This method of cooking f r u i t prevents the  loss of a good percentage of the valuable nutrients and f l a v o r since very l i t t l e water i s used and steam i s not allowed to escape. The f r u i t i s prepared f o r cooking.  The recommended amount of b o i l -  ing water i s added to the heated pressure-cooker. the cooker.  Sugar i s added i f i t i s desired that the f r u i t r e t a i n i t s  o r i g i n a l shape. adjusted.  The f r u i t i s placed i n  The cooker i s t i g h t l y covered and the pressure-gauge i s  The f r u i t i s cooked f o r the recommended length of time.  If  the recipe c a l l s f o r immediate cooling the cooker i s cooled under cold running water or by plunging into cold water.  When the pressure has been  reduced the cover i s opened.^ Basic Formula f o r Pressure-cooking F r u i t . 1.  Prepare f r u i t f o r cooking.  2.  Add recommended amount of b o i l i n g water to the pre-heated cooker.  3.  Place f r u i t i n the cooker.  4.  Add sugar i f f r u i t i s required to keep i t s o r i g i n a l shape.  5.  Lock the cover i n place and adjust the  6.  Cook f o r the recommended time.  7.  Remove cooker from the heat.  8.  I f recipe c a l l s f o r immediate cooling cool r a p i d l y under  pressure-gauge.  cold running water, or plunge cooker into cold water. 21 9.  When pressure has been reduced open cover.  Appraisal of Cooking Methods U t i l i z i n g Steam as the Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of steam as a cooking medium are i t s softening and tenderizing c a p a b i l i t i e s .  The retention of food nutrients and flavor of  foods are also important.  The short time of cooking required i n the  pressure-cooker method i s useful to the cook with l i m i t e d time. In a l l forms of steaming heat i s conducted from the steam to the food. Since steaming i s a moist heat method of cookery, i t i s a useful means of tenderizing tough or less tender cuts of meat and poultry, I t i s also usef u l as a means of preserving the natural flavors of f i s h .  Steaming i s  rated second to baking as a method f o r cooking vegetables from the stand7 point of retention of nutrients and f l a v o r .  The loss of soluble nutrients  i s less than i n b o i l i n g and vegetables r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l shape and color. The methods of cooking which use steam as the means of heat exchange are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking.  Steaming usually r e -  fers to cooking i n steam a r i s i n g from added water; waterless-cooking refers to cooking i n steam formed from the water or moisture inherent i n the food 22 i t s e l f ; pressure-cooking i s cooking with steam held under pressure. In ordinary cooking u t e n s i l s where the pressure i s that of the atmosphere the temperature  of steam i s the same as of b o i l i n g water, 212° F.  The continuous formation of steam requires a high input of heat. c a l o r i e i s required to raise the temperature centigrade.  One  of 1 gram of water 1 degree  540 calories are required to change 1 gram of water at 100° C  into steam at the same temperature.  When cooking i s done i n a pressure-  cooker the steam i s held under pressure and the heat of vaporization i s not l o s t and the temperature  rises.  The high temperatures  reached i n  cooking with steam under pressure shortens the cooking time very appre23 ciably.  Although the temperatures  of the cooking medium of steam under  pressure are much higher than those of steaming, simmering, or b o i l i n g , the vitamin losses have not been found to be any greater when cooking i s 24 carried to the same stage.  The cooked product i s of good texture and  flavor. The proper equipment i s essential f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y results i n a l l three methods. available.  For steaming vegetables, a special piece of equipment i s  I t consists of a sauce-pan with a perforated inset-pan and a  tight—fitting l i d .  When poultry or f i s h are to be steamed, they are  placed on a rack i n a container of suitable size and water i s poured into the container to a depth which comes just below the rack. must be t i g h t l y covered during cooking.  The container  Waterless cooking requires a pan,  or other container, made of some heavy material which conducts and d i s tributes heat evenly from a l l sides. lid.  I t must also have a t i g h t - f i t t i n g  Pressure-cooking i s done i n a pressure-cooker.  This i s a heavy  metal pan with a cover which locks on and i s equipped with a rubber washer a pressure-gauge manufacturer.  and a safety-vent.  I t must be used as directed by the  Since i t i s designed to hold steam under pressure and per-  mits the steam to reach very high temperatures extreme care.  i t must be handled with  A pressure-cooker must always be cooled before opening.  If  used as directed i t can be of great use to the cook who has limited time. The great advantage of a l l three methods which u t i l i z e steam i s the tenderizing effect they have on tough cuts of meat and poultry and the softening effect on vegetables and  fruits.  These methods have a great many applications.  Steaming and water-  less cookery methods are u t i l i z e d i n more complex cooking such as b r a i s i n g , pot-roasting and casserole cookery.  procedures,  SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the three methods of cooking which employ steam as the medium of heat transfer. less-cooking and pressure-cooking.  These methods are steaming, water-  Each method has been defined and i t s  application wherever p r a c t i c a l has been described i n the cooking of meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t s .  Basic formula f o r the use of each  method with these foods have been given.  Equipment used i n these methods  has also been described. I t has been shown that these moist heat methods serve a useful funct i o n i n softening connective tissue of meat and poultry, i n coagulating proteins i n meat, poultry and f i s h , and i n softening c e l l u l o s e and swelling starch i n vegetables and f r u i t s .  The advantages of cooking food by these  methods have been discussed with r e l a t i o n to texture and f l a v o r as well as with r e l a t i o n to retention of valuable food nutrients including vitamins and minerals.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of overcooking by the pressure-cooking method  has been stressed., If properly applied i t has been shown to have great advantages f o r the cook with limited time. Steaming i s a method which i s applicable to poultry, f i s h and vegetables.  This method has been described as i t i s used with these foods and  basic formulae have been given. Waterless-cooking i s a method which may be used with meat, poultry, vegetables and f r u i t .  The method has been described f o r each of these  foods and basic formulae  developed.  Pressure-cooking i s applicable to a l l the foods under discussion, v i z . meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t . has been described and basic formulae given.  Its use with each of these foods  48  An appraisal of these steaming methods has been made and t h e i r usefulness i n more complex methods has been indicated.  Their usefulness with  processed and mixed foods has also been commented upon.  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES  You have purchased a 4 pound piece of beef of doubtful quality and tenderness.  You would l i k e to serve i t whole as a roast.  In the  l i g h t of what you have learned i n t h i s chapter what method could you use which would ensure tenderness and flavor? You have caught a 4 pound salmon and you would l i k e to serve i t to your friends i n i t s entire size (by way of boast).  How would you  cook i t ? Rhubarb i s i n season and consequently i t i s inexpensive. you cook i t to r e t a i n i t s color?  How would  To r e t a i n i t s shape?  You have been held up at the o f f i c e and you have to cook dinner. You had bought a roasting chicken the day before.  How could you  prepare i t quickly? Using the 1965 edition of the Bantam Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook, prepare the following meal. Hungarian Chicken Paprika  p. 229  Steamed potatoes  p. 266  Panned green beans  p. 243  Baked rhubarb  p. 376  SOLUTIONS TO LEARNING EXPERIENCE PROBLEMS If there i s plenty of time the roast w i l l develop good flavor and color i f i t i s steam roasted. i n the pressure-cooker.  I f time i s short i t could be cooked  By t h i s method i t would be advisable to  brown the roast well before cooking i t under pressure. then have a more pleasing color.  It will  50  2.  The best method would be to wrap i t i n cheese-cloth and to steam i t . A smaller f i s h could be pressure-cooked.  3.  The waterless—cooking method done i n the oven i s an excellent way to cook rhubarb.  I t may also be pressure-cooked.  i s added before cooking. 4.  Both methods w i l l preserve the color.  The chicken could be cooked i n the pressure—cooker. the  5.  To r e t a i n shape sugar  quickest  This would be  way.  The oven should be used f o r the Hungarian Chicken Paprika and f o r the Baked rhubarb.  The potatoes should be cooked i n a steamer and the  green beans i n a heavy sauce-pan with a t i g h t - f i t t i n g l i d . The chicken w i l l require approximately 1 hour. The rhubarb w i l l also require approximately 1 hour. The potatoes w i l l take from 30 to 45 minutes. The green beans w i l l require about 30 minutes. These are approximate cooking times after the necessary preparation.  REFERENCES 1. Louise Stanley, Jessie A l i c e Cline, Foods Their Selection and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950. pp. 78, 254. Henri Paul Pellaprat, Modern French Culinary A r t , Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 108. 2.  Stanley, C l i n e , o_p. c i t . , p. 79. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , p. 109.  3.  Stanley, Cline, OJD. c i t . , pp. 78-9. Pellaprat, l o c . c i t . Irma S. Rombauer, Marion Rombauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, New York: Bobbs M e r r i l l Co., 1953, pp. 886-7. 4. Louis P. de Gouy, The Gold Cook Book, New York: Publisher, 1948, p. 989. 5. Rombauer, l o c . c i t . Meat, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956, p. 7.  Greenberg:  Ontario Department of Agriculture,  6.  Stanley, Cline, l o c . c i t . , p. 237. Ruth Benolzheimer, (ed.) The American Woman s Cook Book, New York: Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc., 1943, p. 281. 1  7.  Stanley, C l i n e , l o c . c i t .  8. Poultry, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa, Ont.: of Agriculture, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964, p. 21-2.  Canada Department  9. The Way to Cook F i s h , Ottawa, Ont., Department of F i s h e r i e s , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965, p. 20. Jean I . Simpson, Ph.D., The Freezer Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: The A v i Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, pp. 252-3. 10. The Way to Cook F i s h , l o c . c i t . 11. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, Wallaceburg, Ont.: Cooker Co., (Canada) Ltd., 1948, p. 68.  National Pressure  12. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, l o c . c i t . 13. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 71. 14. Robert Carrier, Great Dishes of the World, London: and Son, Ltd., 1963, p. 27. 15. Pellaprat, og. c i t . , p. 115. 16. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 79.  Thomas Nelson  REFERENCES CONTD.  17. Pellaprat, l o c . c i t . Stanley, C l i n e , l o c . c i t . 18. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 80. Rombauer, oj3. c i t . p. 882. 19. Stanley, oi£. c i t . , p. 54. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: 1962, p. 37.  The Macmillan Co.,  20. Fannie Merrit Farmer, The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Toronto, Ont.: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1936, p. 57. P h i l l i p Harben, The Grammar of Cooking, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965, p. 238. 21. Presto Cooker Recipe Book, op. c i t . , p. 102 Rombauer, £p. c i t . , p. 892. 22. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food Selection and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, pp. 148-9. Stanley, o>£. c i t . , p. 78. 23. Louise Stanley, Jessie A l i c e C l i n e , Foods, Their Selection and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 78. Sweetman, ojp. c i t . , pp. 416, 148-9. 24. Ibid., p. 416. 25. Stanley, l o c . c i t .  CHAPTER IV  COOKING METHODS IN WHICH AIR IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT EXCHANGE Introduction to Instructor As i t s learning objectives t h i s chapter w i l l require the learner to l i s t and describe the two methods which employ a i r as the medium of heat transfer as well as to l i s t and discuss the applications of these methods. He w i l l also be required to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal.  Instroduction to Learner The methods which employ a i r as the medium of heat exchange are b r o i l ing, roasting and baking. synonymously.  Roasting and baking are terms which are used  Roasting i s generally used f o r meats whereas baking i s used  for f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t as well as for f l o u r and other mixtures. This chapter w i l l define and discuss these methods as they may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  Basic formulae  for each method as i t applies to these foods w i l l be given. Broiling.  B r o i l i n g i s a dry heat method of cooking i n which a i r i s  the medium of heat transfer.  The food i s exposed to heat by radiation and  convection at temperatures ranging from 250° to 900° F ^  The heat may come  from an open f i r e or the b r o i l i n g element of a gas or e l e c t r i c range.  The  food i s held i n place by means of a rack or open g r i l l or i s secured to a revolving s p i t as i n r o t i s s e r i e cooking.  When b r o i l i n g i s done out of doors  on an open f i r e i t i s usually c a l l e d "barbecuing."  The food being barbecued  i s generally basted with a highly seasoned sauce.  When food i s to be b r o i l e d  i t i s placed from 2 to 5 inches from the source of heat, the distance  depending upon the i n t e n s i t y of the heat and the size of the portions to he broiled.  Larger pieces are placed farther from the heat than smaller ones  because they require longer cooking and the surface w i l l become overcooked i f they are too close.  When the cooking i s done on a rack i t i s cooked  f i r s t on one side and then turned and cooked on the other. Since t h i s type of cooking subjects the surface of the food to rapid evaporation of moisture i t may r e s u l t i n a dry product i f something i s not done to counteract i t .  This may be done by brushing the food before and 2  during cooking with melted butter, f a t or o i l . B r o i l i n g involves high temperatures  and short cooking periods and  produces a brown crust on the exterior of the food and a soft, moist i n terior.  I t i s a suitable method f o r cooking tender cuts of meat, tender 3  poultry, most f i s h and some vegetables and f r u i t s . Baking and roasting. synonymously.  Baking and roasting are terms which are used  Roasting (baking) i s a dry heat method of cooking which  ploys a i r as the medium of heat transfer.  em-  The cooking takes place i n a  heated oven where convection currents heat the a i r and equalize the oven temperatures.  The heated a i r surrounds the food and cooks i t .  This method  of cooking i s suitable f o r tender cuts of meat, poultry, f i s h , some vegetables and f r u i t s and eggs. Methods of Cooking Meat Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. B r o i l i n g Meat.  Only tender cuts of meat such as steaks, chops, cut-  l e t s , ground meat p a t t i e s , ham and bacon s l i c e s should be cooked i n t h i s manner.  Since meat to be b r o i l e d should have some f a t content, veal which  i s low i n f a t should not be cooked i n t h i s way.  The exterior f a t of the  meat i s generally scored at i n t e r v a l s , that i s cut at r i g h t angles to the red muscle, to prevent i t from curling during cooking.  I t i s placed on a  55  pre-heated, greased broiling—rack and placed over or under the source of heat at a distance of 2 to 5 inches, depending upon the thickness of the cut.  While cooking i t should be brushed with melted butter, f a t or o i l  from time to time.  I t i s cooked f i r s t on one side and then turned and  cooked on the other side.  The length of cooking depends upon individual  preference i n the finished product. There are four ways of determining when meat i s cooked,  ( l ) If  the thickness of the meat permits a thermometer may be inserted into the middle edge of the meat.  The temperature reading of the cooked meat  should be the same as the reading f o r a roast of the same v a r i e t y , i . e . , a rare beef steak w i l l have the same internal temperature as a rare roast of beef, - 130° to 140° F.  (2)  I f the exterior surface of the meat i s  r e s i s t a n t to the touch i t should be cooked.  The meat w i l l have become  firm and the exterior surface w i l l have developed a brown crust.  (3) I f  drops of red l i q u i d are seen on the surface of the meat i t should be cooked to a state which i s neither too rare nor too well done.  The drops of l i -  quid are juices from the i n t e r i o r which come to the surface when the meat i s cooked. visible  I f the meat i s allowed to reach a stage where no drops are  i t w i l l be very well cooked or overcooked.  (4) The most usual way  of determining how well the meat i s cooked i s by making a small i n c i s i o n i n the meat with a sharp knife near the bone or center of the meat.  The color 4  may be observed and a judgement made as to i t s readiness f o r serving. Basic Formula f o r B r o i l i n g Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth and prepare f o r cooking. 2.  Place on a pre-heated, greased b r o i l i n g rack.  3.  Place meat 2 to 5 inches from the source of heat.  4.  Brush meat with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  5.  Brown f i r s t on one side.  6.  Season with s a l t .  7.  Turn and b r o i l on other side.  8.  Cook u n t i l the meat has reached the stage of individual p r e f erence. Roasting Meat.  The dry-heat methods of cooking are used only f o r  tender cuts of meat, the tougher cuts being cooked by the moist-heat methods.  Any tender cut of beef, veal, pork, or lamb may be roasted or baked. Meat which i s to be roasted i s prepared f o r cooking by wiping with  a clean damp cloth.  I t i s then seasoned with s a l t and pepper i f desired.  I t has been proven that s a l t does not penetrate to any appreciable extent so whether the meat i s salted before or during cooking i s not very important.  The s a l t w i l l be found at the end of cooking only to have pene-  trated to a depth of about one-half inch.  The oven should be pre-heated.  The meat i s placed f a t side up on a rack i n a shallow roasting pan. I f the f a t i s on top i t w i l l perform a self-basting action during cooking and w i l l prevent the meat from drying out.  The rack i s used to keep the  meat out of the drippings. A meat thermometer should be inserted into the center of the largest muscle, taking care that i t does not touch f a t or bone.  The meat i s roasted i n an uncovered roasting pan i n a slow oven,  325° F. Experiments have shown that meat which i s cooked at a low temperature tends to be j u i c i e r and to lose l e s s through shrinkage than meat cooked at higher temperatures.  A new method f o r roasting beef and lamb  i s c a l l e d the " a l l day method."  When t h i s method i s used the meat loses  less through shrinkage and i s more evenly cooked throughout. i n t h i s manner i s subjected to oven temperatures  Meat cooked  of only 200° F. As a  result t h i s method usually takes twice the conventional roasting time,  i.e.,  the time required to roast at 325° to 350° F.  cooked to individual preference.  The meat should be  The use of a meat thermometer i s the  best way of insuring that the meat w i l l be cooked to the desired degree. Basic Formula f o r Roasting Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth.  2.  Pre-heat oven to 325° F.  3.  Season roast with s a l t and pepper i f desired.  4.  Insert meat thermometer into center of largest muscle.  5.  Place meat on rack i n roaster. Leave uncovered.  6. Place i n oven and cook u n t i l stage of preference. Methods of Cooking Poultry Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. B r o i l i n g Poultry. B r o i l i n g chickens, fryers, Rock Cornish hens, 4 to  8 pound turkeys or turkey parts, and ducklings, may be b r o i l e d or  cooked on a r o t i s s e r i e .  I f the birds are to be b r o i l e d on a rack or g r i l l  they should be s p l i t i n half lengthwise.  Those to be b r o i l e d on a r o t i -  sserie are l e f t whole. Half birds are prepared f o r b r o i l i n g by fastening the wing to the back by means of a skewer.  This exposes the breast to the heat.  If b r o i l i n g i s to be done on a r o t i s s e r i e the body cavity of the b i r d i s f i r s t rubbed with s a l t then the wings are t i e d close to the breast, the neck skin i s fastened to the back with a skewer and the drumsticks crossed and t i e d with s t r i n g to the t a i l .  This process i s c a l l e d "trussing."  When the b i r d has been trussed i t i s placed on the s p i t .  The spit i s passed  through the bird lengthwise by i n s e r t i n g i t between the branches of the wish-bone, running i t p a r a l l e l to the back-bone and bringing i t out just above the t a i l .  The b i r d i s centered and securely fastened to the s p i t .  Both whole and h a l f birds should be rubbed with melted butter, f a t or o i l , and sprinkled with s a l t .  The h a l f birds are placed on the g r i l l  about 3 inches from the source of heat.  They are browned on the skin  side f o r about 3 minutes, turned and browned on the under side f o r about 3 minutes.  The g r i l l i s raised, or lowered, 4 to 6 inches from the heat  and cooking i s continued. The b i r d i s turned frequently and i s brushed occasionally with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  Cooking time f o r a h a l f  7 chicken i s approximately 50 to 55 minutes.  Whole birds which are being  b r o i l e d on a r o t i s s e r i e should have a meat thermometer inserted into the heaviest part of a drumstick. ter  190° F .  When cooked the thermometer w i l l r e g i s -  8  Basic Formula f o r B r o i l i n g Poultry. 1.  Prepare b i r d f o r b r o i l i n g .  2.  Rub with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  3.  Sprinkle with s a l t .  4.  Place b i r d 3 inches from source of heat.  5.  Brown h a l f birds on skin side f o r 3 minutes.  6.  Turn and brown on other side f o r 3 minutes.  7.  Move g r i l l 4 to 6 inches from heat.  8.  Continue cooking, turning  9.  Brush occasionally with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  frequently.  10. In whole birds use meat thermometer inserted i n heavy part of drumstick. 11. Cook u n t i l thermometer registers 190° F. Roasting Poultry.  In cooking poultry as i n cooking meat the same  basic p r i n c i p l e applies, _i.j?., moist heat methods are necessary to soften  59  the tough connective tissue found i n older, mature birds. birds may be cooked by the dry heat methods.  Young tender  Roasting i s a method which  should only be used with tender poultry. Large birds such as turkeys, geese, capons, and ducklings should be roasted i n a slow oven, at 325° F., i n order that they be uniformly cooked throughout.  Smaller birds such as chicken, Rock Cornish hens, and squab  develop better color and do not dry out as much i f roasted i n a hotter oven at 375° to 400° F. If the b i r d i s to be stuffed the cavity should be well washed, drained and patted dry with paper towels.  The cavity should be rubbed  l i g h t l y with s a l t and the s t u f f i n g packed i n loosely to allow f o r expansion during cooking.  The cavity i s t i g h t l y closed with skewers and s t r i n g .  The b i r d should next be trussed. pact shape and aids i n even cooking.  Trussing holds the b i r d i n a com-  I t also makes the b i r d more attrac-  tive f o r serving. The neck skin i s fastened to the back with a skewer, the wings are brought to the back and fastened.  The drumsticks are t i e d  to the t a i l except i n the case of ducklings and geese.  In these birds the  drumsticks are t i e d together but not attached to the t a i l . the b i r d i s rubbed with softened butter, f a t or o i l .  The skin of  I t i s placed i n a  roasting pan and roasted breast-side down f o r the f i r s t two-thirds of the cooking time.  I t i s then turned breast-side up f o r the remainder of the  cooking time.  I t i s basted occasionally during roasting with pan drippings  and roasted u n t i l tender.  The best way to determine when the b i r d i s cooked  i s to use a meat thermometer which should be inserted into the heavy muscle of a drumstick.  When the chicken i s cooked the thermometer w i l l register  190° F. A b i r d i s considered cooked when the thickest part of the drums t i c k f e e l s soft when pressed with the fingers.  Small birds are cooked  60  when the drumstick turns e a s i l y out of the thigh-joint. Basic Formula f o r Roasting Poultry. 1.  Prepare the b i r d f o r cooking.  2.  Rub body cavity l i g h t l y with s a l t .  3.  I f b i r d i s to be stuffed pack stuffing i n loosely.  4.  Close cavity securely.  5.  Truss the b i r d .  6.  Rub b i r d with softened butter, f a t or o i l .  7.  Place, breast-side down i n roasting pan.  8.  Roast f o r two-third of cooking time.  9.  Turn and roast breast-side up.  10. Roast u n t i l tender.  Meat thermometer w i l l r e g i s t e r 190° F.  Methods of Cooking F i s h Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. Broiling Fish. types of f i s h .  B r o i l i n g i s a very suitable method f o r cooking most  I t i s especially good f o r f a t t y v a r i e t i e s since i t allows  f a t to drip off during the cooking process. and steaks may be cooked i n this way. er pieces before b r o i l i n g . or o i l before b r o i l i n g .  Small whole f i s h , f i s h f i l l e t s  Large f i s h should be cut into small-  The f i s h i s brushed with melted butter, f a t  The pieces are placed 3 to 5 inches from the source  of heat on a pre-heated and greased broiling-rack and are b r o i l e d u n t i l golden brown on one side then turned and the cooking i s completed other side.  Time f o r b r o i l i n g may be estimated by allowing 10 minutes f o r  each inch of thickness of the f i s h . minutes.  1 0  11  Basic Formula f o r B r o i l i n g F i s h . 1.  on the  Prepare f i s h f o r b r o i l i n g .  Most f i s h w i l l b r o i l i n 10 to 20  61  2.  Pre-heat and grease b r o i l i n g rack.  3.  Sprinkle f i s h with s a l t and pepper.  4.  Brush with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  5.  Place on rack with skin 3 to 5 inches from heat.  6.  B r o i l u n t i l golden brown.  7.  Turn and b r o i l on other side.  8.  Brush occasionally with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  9.  Cook u n t i l golden brown and f i s h flakes r e a d i l y when tested with a fork.  Allow 10 minutes f o r each inch of thickness of  fish. Baking F i s h . steaks or f i l l e t s .  Baking i s a method suitable f o r cooking whole f i s h , Any f i s h may be baked.  Temperatures used are very  high, 450° to 500° F. Baking Whole F i s h (3-4 lbs.)  To bake whole f i s h which have been  dressed (scaled, gutted and trimmed) the f i s h should be rubbed inside and out with s a l t and pepper.  The f i s h i s placed on a buttered baking-pan  and brushed with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  I t i s baked i n a pre—heated  oven at 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time f o r each inch 12 of thickness of f i s h .  I t should flake e a s i l y when tested with a fork.  Basic Formula f o r Baking Whole F i s h . (3-4 lbs) 1.  Prepare f i s h f o r cooking.  2.  Pre-heat oven to 450° to 500° F.  3.  Rub f i s h inside and out with s a l t and pepper.  4.  Place on a buttered baking pan.  5.  Brush with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  6.  Bake at 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time per inch thickness of f i s h .  62  Baking F i s h F i l l e t s or Steaks.  Pieces of f i s h such as f i l l e t s and  steaks should be dipped i n salted milk, allowing 1 tablespoon s a l t per cup of milk.  The f i s h i s then r o l l e d i n fine bread or cracker—crumbs  placed on a buttered baking-pan. ^ 1  500  o  and  I t i s baked i n a very hot oven, 450° -  F., allowing 10 minutes cooking time f o r each inch thickness of f i s h .  14  Basic Formula f o r Baking F i s h F i l l e t s or Steaks. 1.  Pre-heat oven to 450° to 500° F.  2.  Dip pieces of f i s h i n salted milk, using 1 tablespoon s a l t per cup of milk.  3.  R o l l f i s h i n fine bread or cracker crumbs.  4.  Bake i n very hot oven, 450° to 500° F., allowing 10 minutes per inch thickness of f i s h .  Methods of Cooking Vegetables and F r u i t s Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. B r o i l i n g Vegetables and F r u i t s .  Very few cook-books devote much atten-  t i o n to b r o i l i n g as a method of cooking vegetables and f r u i t s .  Since this i s  a dry heat method of cooking i t i s very useful i n preserving natural flavors which might be l o s t i n water or steam i n the moist heat methods.  The f r u i t  i s f i r s t o i l e d with melted butter, f a t or o i l and then arranged on a bakingpan and placed on the broiling-rack about 4 inches from the source of heat. The vegetable or f r u i t i s b r o i l e d under f u l l heat for four minutes.  It i s  then turned and the cooking i s continued at low heat, f o r 20 to 30 minutes, or u n t i l tender.  The subjection of the vegetable or f r u i t to a lower tem-  perature may be achieved by moving the b r o i l i n g rack farther away from the source of heat.  Vegetables which may be cooked i n this manner are unpeeled  beets, new spring potatoes, corn on the cob, green peppers, tomatoes, mush15 rooms and onions.  F r u i t s which lend themselves to t h i s type of cooking  63  are bananas, pears, apples, plums, peaches,  s l i c e d pineapple and half grape-  fruit . Basic Formula f o r B r o i l i n g Vegetables and F r u i t s . 1.  Rub vegetables or f r u i t with melted butter, f a t or o i l .  2.  Place on baking pan about 4 inches from source of heat.  3.  B r o i l at high heat f o r 4 minutes.  4.  Reduce heat to low.  5.  Turn f r u i t or vegetable and cook u n t i l tender, about 20 to 30 minutes.  Root vegetables w i l l require longer cooking then the  f r u i t type vegetables such as tomatoes and green peppers. Baking Vegetables.  Baking i s an excellent way of cooking root veget-  ables such as potatoes, carrots, beets, and onions, as well as vegetables which have heavy skins such as squash, cucumbers, and tomatoes.  This method  serves to r e t a i n valuable nutrients and to protect f l a v o r since there i s no 16 loss by solution.  The vegetables are f i r s t washed and i f a crusty skin  i s not desired i n the finished product, such as baked potatoes, the skin i s o i l e d with melted butter, f a t or o i l . ate  oven, 350° F. f o r 35 to 45 minutes.  The vegetables are baked i n a moderBaked starchy vegetables such as  potatoes and squash should be opened when baking i s finished to allow steam 17 to escape. Otherwise the vegetables w i l l become soggy. Basic Formula f o r Baking Vegetables. 1.  Wash vegetables.  2.  O i l i f desired.  3.  Place i n a shallow baking pan.  4.  Bake i n a pre-heated oven, 350° F. f o r 30 to 45 minutes.  Root  vegetables w i l l require longer cooking than the f r u i t types such as tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.  Baking S l i c e d , Diced or Shredded Vegetables.  Another way of baking  vegetables i s to s l i c e , dice or shred them, add seasonings and a very small amount of l i q u i d and bake them at 350° F. i n a covered c a s s e r o l e . A casserole i s a heat-proof baking dish.  18  I t may be made of ceramic, glass  as i n Pyrex or Corning Ware, enamelled metal etc. Basic Formula f o r Baking S l i c e d , Diced or Shredded Vegetables. 1.  Peel vegetables.  2.  S l i c e , dice or shred vegetables.  3.  Place i n a buttered casserole.  4.  Season with s a l t and pepper.  5.  Add a very small amount of l i q u i d i f the vegetable i s dry.  6.  Bake at 350° F. u n t i l tender.  Baking F r u i t .  F r u i t s are very high i n v o l a t i l e flavors (evapora-  t i n g rapidly) and since i t i s desirable to r e t a i n these delicate flavors baking i s a very s a t i s f a c t o r y method of cooking.  I t i s especially useful  for cooking those f r u i t s which have a heavy skin or peel, such as apples or pears.  The skin serves to hold the v o l a t i l e flavors and the steam 19  which r e s u l t s from heating the juices helps to soften the c e l l u l o s e . The oven should be pre-heated to 350° F.  The f r u i t i s washed and placed  i n a shallow baking dish and a minimal amount of water i s added to prevent 20 burning. The f r u i t i s placed i n the oven and baked u n t i l tender. Basic Formula f o r Baking F r u i t . 1.  Pre-heat oven to 350° F.  2. 3.  Wash f r u i t . Place i n a shallow baking dish.  4.  Add a very small amount-of water.  5.  Bake at 350° F. u n t i l tender.  Methods of Cooking Eggs Using A i r as Medium of Heat Transfer. Eggs may be baked i n individual ramekins or casseroles (these are i n d i v i d u a l heat-proof dishes).  The french c a l l these l i t t l e dishes  "cocottes" and there are many recipes f o r "Eggs en Cocottes." also c a l l e d shirred eggs.  They are  These combine eggs with other foods such as  ground chicken or other meat, cheese, spinach, mushrooms etc. The ramekin should be warmed and buttered generously. An egg i s broken into each ramekin and i s sprinkled l i g h t l y with s a l t and pepper.  The ramekin i s  placed on a cookie-sheet and baked i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F., f o r 8 to 10 minutes, or u n t i l the eggs are set. The eggs may be served i n the  ramekins or may be turned out onto a piece of toast.  They are often  served with a sauce. Basic Formula f o r Baking Eggs. 1.  Warm the ramekins.  2.  Butter generously.  3.  Break a fresh egg into each ramekin.  4.  Sprinkle l i g h t l y with s a l t and pepper.  5.  Place ramekins on a cookie-sheet.  6.  Place i n a slow oven, 300° to 325° F., and bake f o r 8 to 10 minutes, or u n t i l eggs are set.  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Employing A i r as the Medium of Heat Exchange. The advantages of cooking methods which use a i r as the medium heat exchange are that color i s changed, flavor i s improved and i n the case of meat, f i s h , and poultry, the plasma proteins are coagulated, i . e . made  66 firm or set. The two methods which employ a i r as the medium of heat exchange are b r o i l i n g and roasting (baking). These are both dry heat methods of cooking  and are suitable f o r tender cuts of meat, poultry, f i s h and some  vegetables and f r u i t . In b r o i l i n g the food i s subjected to intense direct heat and the outer surface i s cooked f a s t e r than the i n t e r i o r and a crust i s formed which has an agreeable color and f l a v o r .  The time required f o r b r o i l i n g  a food depends upon the temperature employed, the size and shape of the 25 food and the degree of doneness preferred. In roasting (baking) i n an oven, temperatures and time of cooking are  very important i n c o n t r o l l i n g the changes that take place.  ing  meat and poultry the lower the temperatures the lower the cooking  losses w i l l be.  In roast-  When temperatures are low there i s less loss through  shrinkage and less loss of juices which contain valuable vitamins, min26 erals and f l a v o r s .  In baking vegetables and f r u i t s p r a c t i c a l l y a l l  the vitamins, minerals and f l a v o r are retained since there i s no loss by 27 solution. These methods are r e l a t i v e l y easy to employ with modern cooking equipment, although b r o i l i n g requires considerably more s k i l l than roasting  (baking). Modern ovens are usually thermostatically controlled and  i f times and temperatures are c a r e f u l l y checked the cook should have l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y with the roasting (baking) method.  In roasting meat  and poultry, i t i s advisable to use a meat thermometer to prevent over or under-cooking.  In b r o i l i n g meat, poultry or f i s h , the b r o i l i n g rack should  be pre-heated and greased before the food i s placed on i t . i n i t i a l sticking.  This prevents  I t i s also important to brush food with melted f a t or  o i l before and during b r o i l i n g to prevent i t from drying out.  The distance  from the source of heat i s important i n b r o i l i n g and the inexperienced cook may require some practice with t h i s method before mastering the s k i l l . Since b r o i l i n g and roasting (baking) are dry heat methods of cooking t h e i r application i s limited to tender cuts of meat and poultry, i - . ^ . those cuts which do not have appreciable connective tissue to be broken down. They may also be used with f i s h and to a more l i m i t e d degree with vegetables and eggs.  I f cost i s a consideration i t must be borne i n mind that  the cuts of meat which lend themselves to this type of dry cooking are the most expensive. The learner w i l l f i n d that the roasting (baking) method has many applications. and processed.  I t may be used with a wide v a r i e t y of foods both natural I t i s also one of the most frequently used methods with  f l o u r mixtures such as cake, p a s t r i e s , bread, etc., as well as with egg mixtures such as custards, souffles, etc.  SUMMARY This chapter has discussed the two methods of cooking which employa i r as the medium of heat transfer. ing (baking).  These methods are b r o i l i n g and roast-  Each has been defined and the actual procedural steps i n -  volved have been described.  Equipment used i n these methods has also been  described. I t has been pointed out that these are dry heat methods of cooking and that t h e i r application i s limited to tender cuts of meat and poultry and they should not be used with tough cuts of meat or poultry. also be used with f i s h , vegetables and f r u i t .  They may  Eggs also may be baked.  The  purpose of these methods i s to develop flavor i n foods as well as to coagulate the plasma proteins i n meat, poultry and f i s h .  The baking method i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y useful i n conserving vitamins and minerals and other nutrients i n vegetables. B r o i l i n g i s a method which may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h and vegetables.  Its application to each of these foods has been described and  basic formulae have been given. Roasting (baking) i s a method which may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  I t s application with each of these foods  has been described and basic formulae  developed.  An appraisal of the value of these methods i n the preparation of the foods under discussion i n this text has been made.  Their use with pro-  cessed foods and mixtures has been indicated as well as t h e i r usefulness i n more complex cooking procedures.  68a  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1.  Choose two i d e n t i c a l roasts of beef conformation.  Weigh them before roasting.  tional manner at 325° F. at 200° F.  the same cut, weight and Roast one i n the conven-  Roast the other by the " a l l day method"  Weigh each when roasted and compare the loss of weight.  S l i c e and compare the juiciness and color.  This could be a class  project with one group cooking one roast another the other. 2.  You are planning the menu f o r a supper party on the patio or i n the back-yard.  You would l i k e to barbecue the main course so you have  decided to prepare shish-kabobs.  Which meats and which vegetables  might you use? 3.  You are planning to bake a whole f i s h .  Could you use the same oven  to bake: the vegetables which might accompany i t on the menu? 4.  Using the 1965 edition of the Bantam Fannie Farmer Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal; Roast Loin of Pork  p. 196  Baked Potatoes  p. 265  Baked Tomatoes  p. 276  Baked F r u i t Compote  p. 365  SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS 1.  You have performed a t y p i c a l laboratory experiment. sumptious to predict the exact r e s u l t .  I t would be pre-  Other experimenters have found  the shrinkage i n the "all-day method" roast to be considerably less than i n the conventional method roast. 2.  The meats could be, - lamb, beef, pork, ham and the variety meats.  The  vegetables could be onions, green peppers, mushrooms, s l i c e d zucchini or summer squash.  68b  3.  The f i s h and vegetables cannot be baked at the same temperature  since  the f i s h requires a high heat and the vegetables a moderate heat. I t might be possible to bake the vegetables f i r s t and remove them to a place where they can be kept warm, and then increase the temperature and bake the f i s h . 4.  The entire meal can be baked i n the oven.  The pork w i l l take approx-  imately 3 hours to roast so i t should be put i n the oven 3 hours before dinner.  The baked potatoes w i l l need approximately 1 hour so they must  go i n 2 hours a f t e r the pork.  The baked tomatoes and the f r u i t compote  each require approximately 30 minutes to bake so they w i l l go i n l a s t ; jjr hour after the potatoes. I t i s always wise to allow some extra time at the end of cooking. time i s needed f o r seasoning i f necessary, garnishing and serving.  This  69  REFERENCES 1. Carl A. Rietz, A Guide to the Selection, Combination, and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, p. 113. 1948,  2. Louise P. de Gouy, The Gold Cook Book, New York: p. 984.  Greenberg,  3.  Ibid., p. 983. University of Wisconsin, Meat i n our Meals, Agriculture Extension Service of the College of Agriculture, C i r c u l a r 628, A p r i l , 1964. 4. P h y l l i s C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 56-7. 5. Louise Stanley, Jessie A l i c e Cline, Foods, Their S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Co., 1950, pp. 198-9. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 158. 6. Reynolds, op. c i t . , p. 55. 7. Jean I . Simpson, The Frozen Food Cook Book, Westport, Conn.: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, p. 299. Canada Department of Agriculture, Poultry, How to Buy, How to Cook, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1964, p. 20. Home Economics S t a f f , Big Boy Barbecue Book, New York: Tested Recipe I n s t i t u t e , Inc., 1957, pp. 19, 32. 8.  Canada Department of Agriculture, l o c . c i t .  9.  Canada Department of Agriculture, op. c i t . , p. 16.  10. Department of Fisheries of Canada, The Way to Cook F i s h , Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965, p. 14. 11. Henri Paul P e l l a p r a t , Modern French Culinary A r t , Cleveland and New York: World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 424. Department of F i s h e r i e s of Canada, l o c . c i t . Simpson, oj). c i t . , p. 252. 12. P e l l a p r a t , OJD. c i t . , p. 426. 13. Simpson, ag. c i t . , p. 252. 14. Department of F i s h e r i e s , l o c . c i t . 15. Jehane Benoit, Encyclopedia of Canadian Cuisine, Toronto: Southam P r i n t i n g Co., Ltd., 1953, p. 262. Home Economics S t a f f , oj>. c i t . , p. 55  70  REFERENCES CONTD.  16.  Stanley, <yg. c i t . , p. 78. Hughes, c i t . , pp. 63-4. P e l l a p r a t , ££. c i t . , p. 116.  17.  Pellaprat, l o c . c i t . Hughes, c i t . , p. 64.  18.  Pellaprat, loc. c i t . , Stanley, l o c . c i t .  19.  Hughes, c i t . , p. 38. Stanley, ££. c i t . , p. 54.  20.  Hughes, l o c . c i t .  21.  de Gouy, op. c i t . , p. 163.  22. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 404. 23.  Stanley, l o c . c i t . , p. 404.  24. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: 1962, pp. 62-4. Louise Stanley, J e s s i e A l i c e C l i n e , Foods: Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950, p. 78.  The Macmillan Company, Their Selection and  CHAPTER V  COOKING METHODS IN WHICH FAT IS THE MEDIUM OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives this chapter w i l l require the adult learner to l i s t and describe the four cooking methods which employ f a t as the medium of heat transfer as well as to discuss t h e i r application i n food preparation.  He w i l l also be required to use these methods i n the prep-  aration of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The methods which employ f a t as the medium of heat transfer are panfrying, sauteing, pan-broiling, and deep-fat f r y i n g .  This chapter w i l l  define and describe each method as i t may be applied to the cooking of meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables,  f r u i t and eggs.  The basic formula f o r each  method w i l l be developed. Pan-Frying.  Pan-frying i s cooking i n a small amount of f a t i n an un-  covered frying-pan over d i r e c t heat.  Food cooked i n t h i s manner may be  f r i e d i n i t s natural state or i t may f i r s t be floured or egg-and-crumbed to give a brown c r i s p crust. i n seasoned f l o u r .  The f l o u r i n g process involves coating the food  I f food i s to be egg and crumbed i t i s f i r s t floured  then dipped i n s l i g h t l y beaten egg and f i n a l l y covered with f i n e bread or cracker crumbs.^ Sauteing.  Sauteing i s f r y i n g l i g h t l y and quickly i n a l i t t l e hot f a t .  If any excess f a t accumulates during cooking i t should be poured o f f . The food i s turned or f l i p p e d constantly. Pan-Broiling.  Pan-broiling i s f r y i n g on a hot surface, usually a metal  pot or pan, without adding f a t , or hy o i l i n g s l i g h t l y with a piece of f a t 2 meat,  or by s p r i n k l i n g s a l t on the hot pan.  from the food i t s e l f must be poured o f f . Deep-Fat F r y i n g .  Any f a t which  accumulates  The food cooks i n i t s own f a t .  The deep-fat f r y i n g method i s f r y i n g i n a deep  k e t t l e with enough f a t to cover or f l o a t the food being cooked.  To pre-  vent absorption of f a t by the food the f a t must be hot enough to seal the surface as soon as the food i s immersed i n i t . c i e n t l y hot u n t i l i t stops bubbling.  The f a t i s never  suffi-  I t i s wise to use a deep-fat ther-  mometer f o r deep—fat f r y i n g but i f one i s not r e a d i l y available i t i s possible to test the temperature  by means of an inch cube of bread.  If  the f a t i s hot enough f o r deep-fat f r y i n g the bread cube w i l l turn golden 3" brown i n 40 seconds a f t e r being immersed. Methods of Frying Meat with Fat. Methods which employ f a t as the medium of heat exchange are dry-heat methods and can be used only for tender cuts of meat.  The tough cuts of  meat must always be cooked by the moist heat methods.  Any thin tender cut  of beef, veal, pork or lamb may be f r i e d .  A l l four methods may be used  with meat i . e . , pan-frying, sauteing, pan-broiling and deep-fat f r y i n g . Pan-Frying Meat.  The meat should he wiped with a clean damp cloth.  I t should be seasoned with s a l t and pepper.  I f a golden crust i s desired  the meat should be floured or egg-and-crumbed. the covering of the meat with seasoned f l o u r .  The f l o u r i n g process i s This may be accomplished  by  the following means; (a) the food i s shaken i n a paper bag containing the seasoned f l o u r ; (b) the food i s dipped or r o l l e d i n the seasoned  flour.  The f a t i s melted i n a frying-pan but not allowed to reach the smoke point. The meat i s added to the pan and browned f i r s t on one side then turned and browned on the other side.  Cooking should be done at moderate  temperatures  and the food should be turned occasionally to cook both sides evenly. Basic Formula f o r Pan-Frying Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth.  2.  Season with s a l t and pepper.  3.  I f a crust i s desired f l o u r the meat or egg-and-crumb i t .  4.  Melt f a t i n a hot frying-pan to a stage just before smoking. Use a pan with a heavy bottom.  5.  Add meat and brown f i r s t on one side.  6.  Turn and brown on other side.  7.  Cook meat i n uncovered pan at moderate temperatures, turning occasionally to cook both sides evenly.  8.  Cook u n t i l tender.  Sauteing Meat.  The meat should be wiped with a clean damp cloth.  I t i s seasoned with s a l t and pepper.  The pan i s heated and a l i t t l e f a t  i s added, about 2 tablespoons i s generally s u f f i c i e n t f o r four servings. The meat i s browned quickly on both sides.  I f more cooking i s necessary •5'  the heat should be lowered and the cooking and turning continued. Basic Formula f o r Sauteing Meat. 1. Wipe meat with a clean, damp c l o t h . 2.  Season with s a l t and pepper.  3.  Heat frying-pan over high heat.  4. Add a l i t t l e f a t to the frying-pan, about 2 tablespoons are usually enough f o r meat f o r four. 5.  Brown meat quickly on both sides.  6.  I f more cooking i s necessary reduce the heat and continue cooking and turning.  7.  Cook u n t i l tender.  Pan-Broiling Meat.  The meat should be wiped with a clean damp cloth.  This type of cooking should only be attempted i n a heavy thick frying-pan. The pan should s i t squarely on the stove and the heat should be evenly d i s tributed.  The pan i s heated and used i n an ungreased  state or i t may be  rubbed with a piece of f a t meat, to keep meat from sticking to the pan. Usually a piece of the f a t trimmed from the outside of the steak or chop i t s e l f i s used.  When the pan i s hot, but not smoking, the meat i s added.  It i s browned f i r s t on one side then turned and browned on the other. The cooking and turning are continued u n t i l the meat i s s u f f i c i e n t l y cooked. Any f a t which accumulates  during cooking should be poured off - the meat  must not pan-fry. ^" -1  Pan-broiling of bacon i s d i f f e r e n t from other pan-broiling i n that the bacon i s placed i n a cold pan and heated slowly with frequent turning.  T Accumulated f a t i s poured o f f . Bacon i s cooked u n t i l c r i s p . Basic Formula f o r Pan-Broiling Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth.  2.  Heat pan.  3.  Rub pan with f a t from the meat i f necessary.  4.  Add meat.  5.  Brown f i r s t on one side then on the other.  6. Pour o f f any f a t which accumulates 7.  i n the pan.  Cook and continue turning u n t i l done. Deep-Fat Frying Meat.  The meat should be wiped with a clean, damp  cloth and prepared f o r cooking.  I t i s usually floured or crumbed.  i s heated to f r y i n g temperature,  360° to 375° F." " 8  a thermometer to determine the correct temperature.  The f a t  I t i s advisable to use The meat i s placed, a  few pieces at a time, i n the wire basket and lowered into the hot f a t . The  meat i s browned and cooked through.  I t i s not necessary to turn the meat  because i t i s exposed to the f a t on a l l sides.  When cooked the meat i s  l i f t e d out of the f a t by means of the r a i s i n g the wire basket.  F a t should  be allowed to drain off before removing from the basket and then the food 19/  i s placed on absorbent paper towels to remove any excess f a t . Basic Formula f o r Deep-Fat Frying Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean, damp cloth and prepare f o r cooking by f l o u r i n g or crumbing.  2.  Heat f a t i n k e t t l e to 360° - 375° F.  3.  Place meat, a few pieces at a time, i n wire basket and lower into hot f a t .  4.  Brown and cook meat u n t i l tender.  5.  Drain off a l l excess f a t before removing from wire basket.  6. Place cooked meat on absorbent paper towels to remove any 10 remaining f a t . Methods of F r y i n g Poultry with Fat. Young birds of any size may be f r i e d . i s 2^- to 3-jj pounds.  The usual size f o r chickens  Small birds may be cut into fourths or halves while  larger birds are usually d i s j o i n t e d .  Two methods are used f o r f r y i n g  poultry. Pan-Frying Poultry.  The poultry should be prepared f o r cooking by  cutting b i r d i n half or quarters or by d i s j o i n t i n g .  The pieces are wiped  dry, seasoned with s a l t and pepper and sometimes floured or crumbed. F a t i s melted i n a heavy pan to a depth of l/4 inch f o r chicken to l/2 inch for turkey.  The larger pieces are added to the pan f i r s t and allowed to  brown, then the smaller pieces are added and browned. turned occasionally to brown and cook evenly.  The pieces are  When pieces are brown the  heat i s reduced and the poultry cooked u n t i l tender, the thickest pieces of a 2jr pound b i r d require approximately 25 minutes to cook. Basic Formula f o r Pan-Broiling Poultry. 1.  Cut b i r d into parts or d i s j o i n t .  2.  Dredge with f l o u r or egg-and-crumb i f directed to do  3.  Heat f a t i n f r y i n g pan.  so.  Allow l/4 inch of f a t for chicken,  l/2 inch f o r turkey. 4.  Add large pieces to pan and brown.  5.  Add  6.  Brown on a l l sides.  7.  Keep turning to brown and cook evenly.  8.  Cook u n t i l tender, a l\ pound b i r d w i l l require approximately  smaller pieces.  25 minutes. Deep-Frying Poultry.  The b i r d should be cut into serving pieces.  The  pieces are egg—and-crumbed or dipped i n a batter, ( l cup f l o u r , 1 cup milk, 1 egg and l/2 teaspoon salt) 300° - 325° F.  The f a t should be heated i n a deep k e t t l e to  The pieces are placed i n the wire basket and lowered, a few  at a time, into the hot f a t .  The b i r d should be cooked u n t i l tender.  It 11  i s drained i n the wire basket and then placed on absorbent paper towels. Basic Formula f o r Deep-Fat Frying Poultry. 1.  Cut b i r d into serving pieces.  2.  Prepare by egg-and-crumbing or by dipping i n batter.  3.  Heat the f a t to a temperature of 350° F.  4.  Lower the pieces, a few at a time, into the hot f a t .  5.  Regulate the heat to maintain a constant temperature of between 300° and 325° F.  Pat  dry.  6.  Cook u n t i l tender.  7.  Drain i n wire basket and then on absorbent paper towels.  Methods of Cooking F i s h i n F a t . Any small f i s h , f i l l e t s or steaks may be f r i e d .  The two methods used  are pan-frying and deep-fat f r y i n g . Pan-Frying F i s h .  The f i s h i s prepared f o r cooking.  with salt or floured or r o l l e d i n fine bread crumbs. frying-pan to a depth of 1/8 inch to l/4 inch.  Fat i s melted i n a  The f i s h i s placed i n the  pan, skin side up and cooked at moderate heat u n t i l brown. turned and browned on the other side.  I t i s seasoned  I t i s carefully  I t i s cooked u n t i l i t flakes easily  12 when tested with a fork.  The complete cooking time w i l l be about 10 13 minutes per inch thickness of f i s h . Basic Formula f o r Pan-Frying F i s h . 1.  Prepare f i s h f o r cooking.  2.  Season, f l o u r or egg-and-crumb.  3.  Melt f a t i n a heated frying-pan allowing l / 8 to l / 4 inch of f a t .  4.  Place f i s h i n pan, skin side up.  5.  Cook slowly at moderate heat.  6.  When browned, turn c a r e f u l l y .  7.  Cook on other side u n t i l golden brown and f i s h flakes easily. The approximate cooking time i s 10 minutes f o r each inch of thickness of f i s h .  Deep-Fat Frying F i s h .  This method i s suitable only f o r small lean  f i s h or steaks cut into serving pieces of not more than l-g- inch thickness. The f i s h should be thoroughly dried.  I t i s floured, crumbed or dipped i n  78  batter.  I t i s f r i e d u n t i l golden brown at a temperature  of 375  F.  It will 14  require approximately 3 or 4 minutes.  The f i s h should be well drained.  Basic Formula f o r Deep-Fat Frying F i s h . 1.  Cut f i s h into serving pieces.  2.  Dry f i s h thoroughly.  3.  Prepare f i s h f o r f r y i n g by f l o u r i n g , egg-and-crumbing, or dipping i n batter.  4.  Lower into hot f a t a few pieces at a time.  5.  Fry u n t i l golden brown at 375° F. f o r approximately 3 to 4 minutes.  Methods of Cooking Vegetables i n Fat. Frying i s a method which may be used with many vegetables.  The f i n -  ished product contains a l l the soluble nutrients and f l a v o r of the vegetable.  Vegetables which are frequently cooked i n this manner are cabbage,  celery, carrots, beets, parsnips, turnips, potatoes, onions, green beans, spinach, and other greens. Pan-Frying Vegetables.  French and Chinese cooks are world famous  for t h i s method of preparing vegetables. tables with delicious f l a v o r . s l i c i n g or d i c i n g . frying-pan.  The result i s c r i s p , tender vege-  The vegetables are prepared by shredding,  One or two tablespoons of f a t are added to a heavy  The vegetables are added and mixed l i g h t l y to develop f l a v o r .  The pan i s covered and the vegetables are cooked, s t i r r i n g once or twice, u n t i l they s i z z l e .  They are cooked only u n t i l crisp - tender.  The water 15  that cooks out of the vegetables evaporates, so there i s no excess l i q u i d . Basic Formula f o r Pan-Frying Vegetables. 1.  Shred, s l i c e or dice vegetables.  2.  Melt 1 or 2 tablespoons of f a t i n a heavy frying-pan.  3.  Add vegetables.  4.  Mix  5.  Cook i n covered pan u n t i l vegetables s i z z l e .  6.  Reduce heat.  7.  Cook only u n t i l crisp - tender, s t i r r i n g once or twice.  lightly.  Sauteing Vegetables.  Shredded, c h i l l e d vegetables may be cooked by  t h i s method, £.g. they are cooked i n an uncovered pan i n a small amount of 16 fat.  They are s t i r r e d frequently u n t i l cooked. Basic Formula f o r Sauteing Vegetables. 1.  Shred c h i l l e d vegetables.  2.  Melt a very small quantity of f a t i n a heavy f r y i n g pan.  3.  Add vegetables.  4.  Cook un-covered  5.  S t i r frequently and cook u n t i l tender.  over moderate heat.  Deep-Fat F r y i n g Vegetables.  This method i s used f o r cooking some  vegetables, notably potatoes and onion rings. peeled and cut into s l i c e s or s t r i p s .  The vegetables should be  Potatoes should be washed i n cold  water, drained and dried thoroughly between clean towels. should be dipped i n milk and then i n seasoned f l o u r .  Onion rings  The vegetables are  placed i n the wire basket, a few pieces at a time, and lowered into deep f a t at a temperature  of 375° F.  They are f r i e d u n t i l golden brown. 17  are removed from the f a t , drained and turned onto paper towels. Basic Formula f o r Deep-Fat F r y i n g Vegetables. 1.  Prepare vegetables by peeling and cutting.  2.  Prepare each vegetable as instructed i n recipe.  They  3.  Place vegetables, a few at a time, i n the wire basket.  4.  Lower vegetables into hot f a t at 375° F.  5.  Cook u n t i l golden brown.  6.  Drain off f a t and turn onto paper towels.  Methods of Cooking F r u i t s i n Fat. A few f r u i t s may be f r i e d although t h i s i s not a common way of preparing f r u i t .  Those f r u i t s which may be cooked i n t h i s manner are apples, 18  bananas and pineapple s l i c e s . Sauteing F r u i t .  The method commonly used i n sauteing.  The f r u i t should be peeled and cut.  Apples and  pineapple are usually s l i c e d , bananas are usually cut lengthwise.  Apples  and pineapple are sauteed i n a small amount of f l a v o r f u l f a t such as butter or bacon f a t . Bananas are usually dredged with f l o u r , browned i n butter and sprinkled with powdered sugar. Basic Formula for Sauteing F r u i t . 1.  Prepare f r u i t as directed i n recipe.  2.  Melt butter or f l a v o r f u l f a t i n frying-pan.  3.  Add  4.  Brown and cook on both sides.  fruit.  Methods of Cooking Eggs Using Fat as a Cooking Medium. Eggs may be cooked by pan-frying. J u s t enough f a t should be used to prevent eggs from s t i c k i n g to the frying-pan. ately hot, not allowed to smoke.  The f a t i s heated to moder-  The eggs are broken, one at a time, into  a saucer, then slipped, one at a time, into the f r y i n g pan. seasoned with s a l t and pepper. not to be turned.  They are  The pan should be covered i f the eggs are  The eggs are cooked u n t i l the white i s opaque and of a  j e l l y - l i k e consistency.  I f eggs are to be turned they are cooked i n an  81  un-covered pan.  The egg i s cooked on one side then turned with an egg-  turner or a broad spatula.  The eggs should be removed from the pan care—  19 f u l l y with an egg-turner or spatula. Basic Formula f o r Frying Eggs. 1.  Melt only enough f a t i n pan to prevent s t i c k i n g .  2.  Heat pan to moderate temperature.  3.  Break the eggs, one at a time, into a saucer.  4.  S l i p , one at a time, into the frying-pan.  5.  Season with s a l t and pepper.  6.  Cover pan, or leave un-covered  Fat should not smoke.  and turn eggs when cooked  on one side. 7.  Cook u n t i l white i s opaque and of a j e l l y - l i k e consistency.  8.  Remove from pan c a r e f u l l y with an egg-turner or a broad spatula.  Appraisal of Cooking Methods Using Fat as the Medium of Heat Transfer. The advantages of using f a t as the cooking medium are that p r a c t i c a l l y no food nutrients are l o s t and that f l a v o r i s developed i n browning. Frying i s also a fast method of cooking and i s therefore useful to the cook who has l i m i t e d time. left-overs.  I t i s an important method f o r preparing food from  Such l e f t - o v e r food as meat, poultry, f i s h and vegetables  a l l be prepared i n some appetizing way by means of these methods.  may  Recipes  which u t i l i z e these methods i n the preparation of l e f t - o v e r food are:  fish  cakes, potato cakes, hash and croquettes. The object of cooking with f a t i s to cook the food through and brown the outside with the minimum absorption of f a t . Fat absorption must be kept to a minimum to insure p a l a t a b i l i t y and d i g e s t i b i l i t y .  Fat absorption i s  affected by ( l ) the length of time of heating, (2) the temperature  of the  f a t , (3) the amount of surface exposed to the f a t , and (4) the character and composition of the food. greater the absorption.  The longer the food remains i n the f a t the  The higher the temperature  of the f a t , the lower  the absorption.  The larger the proportion of surface of food, the greater  the absorption.  No difference i n f a t absorption has been found to exist 20  due to the kinds of f a t used. Of great importance  to f l a v o r and d i g e s t a b i l i t y i s the "smoke point"  of f a t used f o r frying, i . e . the amount of heat the f a t can stand before i t smokes. When f a t smokes i t i s breaking down chemically and when t h i s happens i t becomes i r r i t a t i n g to the digestive t r a c t as well as smelling 21 and tasting badly. Therefore f a t used f o r f r y i n g should never be allowed 22 to reach the smoke stage.  For deep—fat f r y i n g the temperatures  should  not exceed 385° F. and most foods may be f r i e d at lower temperatures. f r y i n g and sauteing are done at much lower  Pan-  temperatures.  The fats suitable f o r deep-fat f r y i n g are the hydrogenated  f a t s , com-  pounds, high q u a l i t y l a r d , and vegetable o i l s with the exception of olive oil.  Olive o i l , butter and margarine  are not suitable f o r deep-fat f r y i n g  since they smoke at too low a temperature. The fats which may be used successfully i n pan-frying and sauteing include butter, l a r d , hydrogenated  f a t s , margarine, vegetable o i l s and  meat drippings. Deep-fat f r y i n g can be greatly f a c i l i t a t e d by the use of the proper equipment.  A deep k e t t l e with a wire inset-basket and a deep-fat thermo-  meter are very important.  For pan-frying or sauteing i t i s necessary to  have a frying-pan with a bottom of uniform thickness which s i t s squarely on the stove, otherwise there w i l l be areas which are hotter than others and f r y i n g w i l l be uneven.  Frying requires somewhat more s k i l l on the part of the cook than some other cooking methods. Attention must he given to selection of the f a t most suitable f o r the p a r t i c u l a r method, preparation of the food,- temperature of the f a t , and the length of time required f o r f r y i n g .  However, when  the s k i l l s have been learned, the food prepared by these methods w i l l be palatable, n u t r i t i v e and pleasing to look at.  SUMMARY This chapter has dealt with the four methods of cooking which employ f a t as the medium of heat transfer.  Each method has been defined and i t s  application has been described i n the cooking of meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, f r u i t and eggs.  Basic formulae have been developed f o r each  method as i t applies to the d i f f e r e n t foods.  Equipment used for the  various methods has been described. The pan-frying method of cooking may be used with meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables and eggs.  The method has been described as i t applies  to each of these foods and basic formulae have been developed. The saute'ing method of cooking may be applied to meat, vegetables and f r u i t .  The method has been described as i t applies to each of these  foods and basic formulae have been given. The pan-broiling method i s applicable to meat.  The method has been  described and a basic formula given. Deep-fat f r y i n g may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , and vegetables. Its application has been described with each of these foods and basic formulae  developed.  An analysis of the methods which use f a t as the medium of heat transfer has been made. Ways i n which these methods may be used i n more complex cooking procedures have been indicated.  85  SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1.  You wish to prepare a breakfast of bacon and f r i e d eggs.  Would you  begin the f r y i n g process i n the same way f o r each? 2.  F r i e d chicken may be prepared by two d i f f e r e n t methods. What are these?  3.  You f i n d that you have some left—over cooked food i n the r e f r i g e r a tor.  I f these foods are b o i l e d potatoes, cooked corn beef how might  you use them? 4.  Using the Bantam edition of the A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following recipes: 1.  F i l l e t of Sole a l a Meuniere  p. 128  2.  French-fried potatoes  p. 269  3.  Panned green beans  p. 243  4.  Sauteed bananas  p. 368 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  1.  Bacon i s an exception to the rule f o r pan-frying. i n a cool f r y i n g pan and heated.  I t i s always placed  The bacon should be f r i e d f i r s t  then removed from the pan and drained on paper towels. be f r i e d i n the remaining bacon fat.  and  The eggs may  They should be cooked at a  moderate temperature. 2.  Chicken can be deep f a t - f r i e d or pan-fried.  3.  These left-overs would make an excellent hash with the addition of some chopped onion.  The three ingredients should be chopped, seasoned with  s a l t and pepper and pan-fried i n a small quantity of melted f a t . 4.  The equipment necessary f o r t h i s menu i s a deep-frying k e t t l e and i n set  basket f o r the french-fried potatoes and two f r y i n g pans, one each  for the sole and the green beans. the longest  Since the green beans w i l l  cooking time they should be started f i r s t .  require  The sole and  the french-fried potatoes w i l l require approximately the same cooking time.  The temperature  checked.  of the f a t f o r french-frying must be c a r e f u l l y  The bananas might be saute'ed at the table i n a chaffing dish  or an e l e c t r i c  frying-pan.  87  REFERENCES 1. Wilma Lord Perkins, ed., The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook, Boston: L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1959, p. 4. 2.  Rietz, op. c i t . , p. 114. Robert C a r r i e r , Great Dishes of the World, London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, Ltd., 1963, p. 28. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1962, p. 177. 3.  Pellaprat, l o c . c i t .  4. P h y l l i s C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 58-9. 5.  Ibid. Reitz, jig. c i t . , p. 118  6.  Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 199-200 Reynolds, oj>. c i t . , p. 58.  7.  Hughes, jp_£. c i t . , p. 178.  8.  Hughes, og. c i t . , p. 179.  9.  Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 200-1.  10. Jean I . Simpson, Ph.D., The Frozen Cookbook, Westport, Conn.: The A v i Publishing Co., Inc., 1962, p. 300. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 232. 11. Simpson, jrp. c i t . , pp. 300-1. Stanley, l o c . c i t . 12. Simpson, op. c i t . , p. 252. Department of F i s h e r i e s of Canada, The Way to Cook F i s h , Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , p. 16. 13.Department of F i s h e r i e s , l o c . c i t . , 14. Department of F i s h e r i e s , 22' c i t . , p. 18. Simpson, l o c . c i t . , 15. Pellaprat, op. c i t . , p. 115. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 79. 16. Prosper, Montagne, Larousse Gastronomique, New York: Crown Publishers Inc., 1965, p. 326. Hughes, c i t . , p. 67.  88  REFERENCES CONTD. 17.  P e l l a p r a t , op. c i t . , pp. 790,  18.  Hughes, OJD. c i t . , p.  19.  Ibid., p.  20.  Stanley, op. c i t . , p.  21.  Ibid., p.  22.  Ibid.  39.  289.  146.  104.  796.  CHAPTER VI  COOKING METHODS USING A COMBINATION OF MEDIA OF HEAT TRANSFER Introduction to Instructor. As i t s learning objectives t h i s chapter w i l l require the learner to name and describe the cooking methods which employ two media of heat transfer and to discuss the applications of these methods.  He w i l l also be r e -  quired to use these methods i n the preparation of a meal. Introduction to Learner. The two cooking methods which u t i l i z e two d i f f e r e n t media of heat transfer are braising and pot-roasting.  These methods also u t i l i z e a dry  heat method and a moist heat method of cooking.  This chapter w i l l define  and discuss these methods as they may be applied to meat, poultry, f i s h , and vegetables. Basic formulae f o r these methods as they apply to each food w i l l be given. Braising.  B r a i s i n g u t i l i z e s two d i f f e r e n t media of heat transfer.  I t also combines a dry heat method and a moist heat method of cooking. Dry heat i s used f o r browning and adding f l a v o r and may be applied by sauteing, pan-frying or baking.  Moist heat i s used to soften tough connective tissue  i n meat and poultry and to soften cellulose i n vegetables.  1  I t may be  applied by simmering, steaming, or waterless cooking. There are two important variations of t h i s method.  Most frequently  used i s the one i n which the food i s f i r s t sauteed or f r i e d i n a small quant i t y of hot f a t u n t i l i t i s n i c e l y browned on a l l sides and then subjected to moist-heat cooking i n a t i g h t l y  covered container. The other method  f i r s t subjects the food to the moist heat method i n a t i g h t l y covered container and then applies the dry heat method by removing the cover and either 2 baking the food i n an oven or f r y i n g i t i n a small quantity of f a t . The container used f o r b r a i s i n g may be a casserole f o r oven cookery or a heavy frying-pan or k e t t l e f o r surface cooking.  A Dutch Oven which i s  made of cast i r o n or other metal and has a c l o s e - f i t t i n g l i d i s suitable for both oven and surface cooking.  The close f i t t i n g l i d i s essential f o r  t h i s method of cooking since the food i s p a r t i a l l y cooked i n the steam from i t s own juices or from added l i q u i d . Pot-Roasting.  A v a r i a t i o n of braising i s pot-roasting which also uses  a combination of cooking media and a combination of cooking methods.  Brais-  ing i s the term used f o r cooking smaller cuts of meat such as steaks, chops, s l i c e s and cubes whereas pot-roasting i s used f o r large less tender pieces of meat such as roasts.^ Although b r a i s i n g and pot-roasting are used f o r less tender cuts of meat and poultry as well as some vegetables b r a i s i n g may also be used to cook tender cuts of meat and f i s h . B r a i s i n g Meat.  Meat to be braised may be prepared i n a number of ways.  I t should f i r s t be wiped with a clean, damp cloth.  I t may be cooked i n i t s  natural state or i t may be rubbed with seasoned f l o u r or i t may be pounded with a wooden mallet to break down some of the connective tissue, e,g. Swiss steak, wiener s c h n i t z e l . browned on a l l sides.  I t i s sauteed i n hot f a t u n t i l i t i s evenly  I t i s then placed i n a casserole or k e t t l e which i s  4 just large enough to hold i t , container i s added.  and enough l i q u i d to cover the bottom of the  The container must be covered t i g h t l y and the meat  cooked slowly either i n an oven at 300° to 325° F. or on top of the stove at simmer.  During the cooking extra l i q u i d i s added i f necessary to keep the  meat moist and steaming.  I t i s cooked u n t i l tender.  The pan juices should  be saved f o r sauce or gravy.^ Basic Formula f o r Braising Meat. 1.  Wipe meat with a clean damp cloth.  2.  Prepare meat as directed i n the recipe.  3.  Heat a heavy frying-pan or k e t t l e .  4.  Add a small amount of f a t .  5.  Add meat and brown on a l l sides.  Beef should be allowed to  take on a r e a l dark brown color. 6.  Transfer meat to a casserole i f a frying-pan has been used for  7.  browning.  Add a small quantity of hot l i q u i d .  This may be wine, stock  or water. 8.  Cover the container t i g h t l y .  9.  Cook i n an oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat.  10. Add more l i q u i d during cooking i f i t i s necessary to keep meat moist and steaming. 11. Cook u n t i l tender. 12. Reserve pan juices f o r making sauce or gravy. Pot-Roasting Meat.  Large, less tender pieces of meat are used.  meat i s wiped with a clean, damp c l o t h .  The  Meat which i s to be cooked by this  method i s frequently marinated i n a mixture of herbs and spices and wine or vinegar.  I f marinated i t should be drained and dried with paper towels  before cooking.  I t i s sauteed i n a small amount of hot f a t or o i l then  placed i n a k e t t l e and a small amount of l i q u i d i s added.  The l i q u i d may  be some of the marinade, or wine, stock or hot water.  It i s tightly  covered and cooked slowly i n a slow oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat. Vegetables may be added toward the end of the cooking period.  The juices should be saved f o r making sauce or  6 gravy. Basic Formula f o r Pot-Roasting Meat. 1.  Prepare the meat by wiping with a clean, damp cloth. Marinate i f recipe c a l l s f o r i t .  2.  Heat a frying-pan or heavy k e t t l e and add a small amount of f a t or o i l .  3.  Add meat and brown on a l l sides i n the hot f a t .  4.  Transfer meat to a heavy k e t t l e i f a frying-pan has been used.  5.  Add a small quantity of hot l i q u i d to cover the bottom of the container.  6.  Cover the container t i g h t l y .  7.  Cook i n a slow oven at 300° to 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat.  8.  Cook u n t i l tender.  9. Vegetables may be added toward the end of cooking. 10. Reserve pan juices f o r sauce or gravy. B r a i s i n g Poultry.  Any mature b i r d may be cooked i n t h i s manner.  Poultry cooked by this method i s often c a l l e d a f r i c a s s e e . wiped with a clean, damp cloth.  The b i r d i s  I t i s seasoned with s a l t and pepper and  browned on a l l sides i n a l i t t l e hot f a t or o i l .  I t i s placed i n a  casserole or heavy k e t t l e and hot l i q u i d i s added to cover the bottom of the container.  L i q u i d may be chicken stock, wine or water.  The container  i s covered t i g h t l y and the poultry cooked i n a slow oven at 300° to 325° F or on top of the stove at simmer heat.  I t i s cooked u n t i l tender. The 7  cooking l i q u i d should be saved f o r sauce or gravy. Basic Formula f o r B r a i s i n g Poultry. 1.  Prepare b i r d by wiping with a clean, damp cloth.  2. D i s j o i n t i f the recipe c a l l s f o r i t . 3.  Heat a heavy frying-pan or k e t t l e and add a small amount of fat or o i l .  4. Add poultry and brown on a l l sides. 5.  Transfer poultry to a casserole i f a frying-pan has been used.  6.  Add a small amount of hot l i q u i d .  7.  Cover the container t i g h t l y .  8.  Cook i n a slow oven at 300° fo 325° F., or on top of the stove at simmer heat.  9.  Cook u n t i l tender.  Braised F i s h .  Although b r a i s i n g i s not a very common method of pre-  paring f i s h i t may be used to lend v a r i e t y to f i s h cookery. of f i s h such as f i l l e t s or steaks may be used.  Small pieces  The f i s h i s sauteed i n a  small amount of melted butter then placed i n an oven-proof dish to which may be added f i s h stock, dry white wine, cream or other l i q u i d . i s covered and the f i s h placed i n an oven at 350° F.  The dish  I t i s cooked u n t i l  i t flakes r e a d i l y when tested with a fork.  I t takes approximately 15 g minutes, or 10 minutes per inch thickness of f i s h . Basic Formula f o r Braising F i s h . 1.  Prepare f i s h by cutting into f i l l e t s or steaks.  2.  Heat a heavy frying-pan and add a small amount of butter.  3.  Brown the f i s h l i g h t l y on a l l sides.  4.  Transfer to an oven-proof dish.  5.  Add dry, white wine or cream to cover bottom of container.  6.  Cover t i g h t l y .  7.  Cook i n a moderate oven at 350° F. u n t i l f i s h flakes readily when tested with a fork.  F i l l e t s w i l l require approximately  15 minutes.  Braised Vegetables. method of cooking.  Certain vegetables lend themselves to this  Some of these are celery, leeks, lettuce, okra, en-  dive, cucumbers, squash and carrots. The vegetable i s f i r s t prepared by peeling or removing the outer leaves.  I t i s s l i c e d or cut into f a i r l y small pieces. Frequently vege-  tables to be braised are cut i n half lengthwise, ^.g., carrots, parsnips, leeks.  I t i s sauteed i n a small amount of butter then enough l i q u i d to  cover the bottom of the container i s added.  The container i s covered  t i g h t l y and the vegetable i s cooked i n a moderate oven at 350° F., u n t i l 9 most of the l i q u i d has been absorbed. Basic Formula f o r Braising Vegetables. 1.  Prepare vegetables as directed i n the recipe.  2.  Saute i n a small amount of butter i n a heavy frying-pan.  3.  Transfer to an oven-proof  4.  Add enough l i q u i d to cover bottom of container.  5.  Cook i n a moderate oven at 325° F., u n t i l tender and most of  dish.  the l i q u i d has been absorbed.  Appraisal of the Braising Method of Cookery. The advantage of braising i s that i t combines the good features of both a dry and a moist heat method of cooking.  Through the dry heat cook-  ing the food being cooked develops color and flavor and through the moist heat cooking i t i s softened and tenderized,. Braising i s a two step process involving preliminary browning lowed by moist cooking, or moist cooking followed by browning.  fol-  The dry  heat method employed f o r browning may be either frying, sauteing or roasting.  The moist heat method may be steaming or cooking with water.  steam may  The  come e n t i r e l y from the food i t s e l f or partly from l i q u i d s added  i n small amounts.  The steaming may be done on top of the stove or i n the  oven i n an oven-proof container such as a casserole. to produce a well—browned  The general aim i s  product which i s both tender and j u i c y .  Since the foods which are cooked i n t h i s way usually contain large amounts of connective tissue the time f o r cooking must allow f o r conversion to g e l a t i n to ensure tenderness.  Meat cooked i n t h i s way to the w e l l -  done stage w i l l have l o s t much of i t s j u i c e , however since the pan juices are  f l a v o r f u l they are seldom discarded and the dissolved minerals and  vitamins are consumed as gravy or sauce.^ In the preparation of foods by t h i s method care must be taken during the moist heat cooking that they are not allowed to reach the point where bundles of f i b r e s f a l l apart. difficult.  In the case of the meats t h i s makes carving  In general, shrinkage of meat cooked by moist heat i s greater  than i n meat cooked by dry heat methods. need to reach a more advanced  This i s p a r t l y the r e s u l t of the  stage of doneness to dissolve the connective  ,. 12 tissue. In using this method the cook must analyse the purpose of i t s a p p l i cation.  I t may be used i f a tough cut of meat or poultry i s to be cooked  i n a f l a v o r f u l way.  I t may also be used to develop f l a v o r and juiciness  tender cuts of meat such as pork chops, v e a l , chicken and f i s h . Since braising i s a method which allows the cook to produce tender, f l a v o r f u l dishes from the tougher cuts of meat and poultry and since the tougher cuts are always the least expensive i t provides a means of exercising economy.  SUMMARY This chapter has dealt with the two methods of cooking which employ two media of heat transfer as well as two methods of cooking v i z . a dryheat method and a moist-heat method. roasting.  These methods are b r a i s i n g and pot-  The methods have been described as they may be applied to meat,  poultry, f i s h and vegetables.  Basic formulae have been developed f o r  these methods with each of these foods.  Equipment which i s used f o r cook-  ing by these methods has been described and an appraisal has been made of the methods. B r a i s i n g i s a method which may be used to cook meat, poultry, f i s h and vegetables.  The method has been described as i t applies to each of  these foods and basic formulae have been developed. Pot-roasting i s a method which may be used with large less tender or tough cuts of meat. formula given.  Its application has been described and a basic  99 SUGGESTED LEARNING EXPERIENCES 1.  While shopping f o r meat you observed that pork was reasonable i n price.  How  could you cook pork chops to ensure tenderness and  flavor? 2.  You plan to entertain friends who l i k e chicken. You would prefer to do most of the cooking before they arrive.  What could you  prepare? 3.  Using the Bantam edition of the Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook prepare the following meal. Braised Beef  p. 173  Braised Red Cabbage and Apples  p. 249  Lyonnaise Potatoes  p. 271  Sauteed Pears  p. 374 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS  1.  The pork chops could be braised. worms c a l l e d t r i c h i n e l l a e .  Long slow moist heat destroysround-  The recipe f o r Braised Pork Chops on  page 197 of the Bantam e d i t i o n of the Fannie Farmer Cookbook would produce a good r e s u l t . 2.  There are many ways of preparing chicken i n advance.  Smothered  Chicken i s an excellent way.  A recipe can be found on page 223 of  the Fannie Farmer Cookbook.  Other excellent braised chicken dishes  are Chicken Casserole, Chicken a l a Cacciatore, Coq au V i n , and Hungarian Chicken Paprika.  These recipes may  a l l be found i n the  Fannie Farmer Cookbook. 3.  The potatoes should be b o i l e d i n advance of f r y i n g .  After i n i t i a l  preparation the Braised Beef w i l l require approximately 3^- hours of cooking, the Red Cabbage and Apples w i l l require 1/2 to 3/4 hour, the Lyonnaise Potatoes approximately 20 minutes. require 10 to 15 minutes.  The pears w i l l  REFERENCES 1. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York: Co., 1962, p. 179.  The Macmillan  2. Wilma Lord Perkins, The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1965, pp. 239, 258. 3. Louise Stanley, J e s s i e A l i c e C l i n e , Foods: and Preparation, Boston; Ginn and Co., 1950, p. 201.  Their S e l e c t i o n  4. Robert C a r r i e r , Great Dishes of the World, London: Books, Ltd., March, 1967, p. 56. Stanley, l o c . c i t . Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York; 1962, p. 179.  Sphere  5.  The Macmillan Co.,  6. Henri—Paul P e l l a p r a t , Modern French Culinary A r t , Cleveland and New York: The World Publishing Co., 1966, p. 550. Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 202. 7.  Pellaprat, op. c i t . , pp. 651—2. Stanley, o_p. c i t . , p. 236. Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 195.  8. Irma S. Rambauer, Marion Rambauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, Indianapolis: The Bobbs M e r r i l l Co., Inc., 1953, p. 234. P e l l a p r a t , o_p. c i t . , p. 492. 9. Myra Waldo, The Complete Book of Vegetables Cookery, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1962, pp. 58, 65. Perkins, op. c i t . , pp. 252, 258. University of Wisconsin Extension Service College of A g r i c u l t u r e . Vegetables i n Our Meals, Wisconsin: May 8, 1964, C i r c u l a r 629, p. 9. 10. Carl A. Rietz, Jeremiah J . Wonderstock, A Guide to The Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport; Conn: The Avi Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, pp. 119, 416. Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 416. 11. Sweetman, l o c . c i t . 12. Ibid., op. c i t . , p. 420.  CHAPTER VII SUMMARY The purpose of t h i s study was  to design an i n s t r u c t i o n a l device  (text) on basic food preparation to meet the needs of the adult learner i n either an adult education program or a program of s e l f study. been recognized that the adult learner who  I t has  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n an avocational  adult education program has d i f f e r e n t p r a c t i c a l objectives than the adult i n the professional school or college. such a program may  His reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  be motivated by inadequacies i n a new  social role or  by special problems, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , needs, i n t e r e s t , c u r i o s i t i e s or ambitions. new  Whatever h i s reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n such a program the  learning must be made meaningful f o r him and applicable i n h i s d a i l y  life. I n t h i s study the educational objectives on goals were outlined f o r the entire course as well as f o r each unit of the course.  Material  was  presented i n sequential order proceeding from the known to the unknown and from the simple to the complex. The text departed from conventional  design of food text material.  i s customary to proceed from the food to the method of preparation.  It  This  text began with the method and applied i t , wherever possible, to each of six natural foods v i z . meat, poultry, f i s h , vegetables, It was  f r u i t s and eggs.  f e l t that t h i s presentation would provide the adult learner with  the means for achieving his immediate p r a c t i c a l objectives more r e a d i l y than the conventional  presentation.  Every e f f o r t was made to f a m i l i a r i z e the adult learner with the basic p r i n c i p l e s of food preparation. of a s k i l l i s one who  I t was  understands "why"  f e l t that the i n t e l l i g e n t performer as well as "how"  a procedure i s  103  followed.  These basic p r i n c i p l e s are the keystone of a l l cookery.  They  form the basis f o r sound decisions i n the application of cooking methods. The text was developed from a conceptual c l a s s i f i c a t i o n designed especially f o r t h i s study.  The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n depicts the whole f i e l d of  food processing starting with food i n i t s natural state and following i t through the various processes to the stage at which i t i s ready f o r consumption.  I t begins by showing the six food processing techniques of  preparation and preservation.  These are; (1) subdivision and f r a c t i o n i -  zation, (2) combining and mixing, (3) heating and cooking, (4) removal of heat, (5) use of chemical agents, (6) use of microorganisms.  The heat-  ing and cooking technique i s further c l a s s i f i e d according to media of heat transfer.  These are; ( l ) water, (2) steam (3) a i r , (4) f a t , (5) combina-  tions of these media. of cooking.  The media c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s subdivided into methods  When water i s the medium of heat transfer the cooking methods  are b o i l i n g , simmering, poaching and stewing; when steam i s the medium the methods are steaming, waterless-cooking and pressure-cooking; when a i r ; i s the medium the methods are b r o i l i n g and roasting or baking; when f a t i s the medium the methods are pan-frying, deep—fat f r y i n g , sauteing and panb r o i l i n g ; when a combination of media are used the methods are braising and pot-roasting.  The methods may also be c l a s s i f i e d as moist heat methods,  dry heat methods and combination methods.  The moist heat methods employ  as the media of heat transfer water and steam.  The dry heat methods employ  as the media of heat exchange a i r and f a t . The combination methods employed two or more methods.  The text was organized into f i v e units or chapters,  each chapter dealing with one medium of heat transfer.  Each chapter gave  d e f i n i t i o n s of the cooking methods u t i l i z i n g the medium of heat transfer as well as descriptions of t h e i r use with the six natural foods.  If a  method could be applied to a food i t s application was discussed i n d e t a i l  and a basic formula was developed.  These basic formulae are steps of pro-  cedure which are followed by experienced cooks to achieve predictable results.  At the end of each chapter an appraisal of each method was made.  Learning experiences were also suggested which would enable the adult learner to assess h i s own progress and achievement.  Solutions to prob-  lems were given. I t was necessary to refine the objectives and to l i m i t them to what could be encompassed i n a limited time.  In cases where there were several  acceptable ways of performing the same task i t was found expedient to choos one way giving preference to the simplest. The study also served to examine the cooking repetoire of Canada and the United States of America.  By means of deduction i t became apparent  that c e r t a i n valuable cooking procedures have been neglected i n Canadian and American cuisine.  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n vegetable cookery.  In the search f o r evidence of the use and p r a c t i c a l i t y of c e r t a i n methods with the various vegetables i t was found that French and Chinese vegetable cookery was much more varied. were found to be very pleasing.  The formulae were tested and the results A method of preparing chicken by poaching  was also found to have been neglected i n most American and Canadian cook books.  This i s a method which i s very popular i n most European countries.  An appendix to the text included tables of cooking times and temperatures, a glossary of cooking terms, and supplemental material on heat exchange and on the purposes of cooking. This study has been conceived as one u n i t i n a broader curriculum which would embrace a l l s i x techniques of domestic food processing.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  BOOKS  1. American D i e t e t i c Association, A Manual f o r Teaching D i e t e t i c s to Student Nurses, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders, Co., 1949. 2. - - , Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington: American Home Economics Association, 1964. 3. Anderson, Miles H., Teaching Apprentices and Preparing Training Materials, Chicago: American Technical Society, 1947. 4. Beard, James A., The F i r e s i d e Cookbook, New York: Schuster, 1949.  Simon and  5. Benoit, Madame Jehane, Encyclopedia of Canadian Cuisine, Toronto: Southam P r i n t i n g Company Limited, 1963. 6. Benolzheimer, Ruth, ed., The American Woman's Cook Book, New York: Consolidated Book Publishers, Inc., 1943. 7. Berqeuin, Paul, Dwight Morris, Robert M. Smith, Adult Education Procedures, Conn: Seabury Press, 1963. 8. Bloom, Benjamin S., Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1956. 9. Campion, Margaret, Byrta Carson, McRue Carson Ramee, Planning and Preparing Meals, New York: McGraw-Hill Co., of Canada, 1964. 10. Carr, W.J., A Review of the Literature on Certain Aspects of Automated Instruction, Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, Wash.: National Education Association, 1960. 11. C a r r i e r , Robert, Great Dishes of the World, London: Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1963.  Thomas  12. Chamberlain, Samuel, Bouquet de France, New York; Gourmet D i s t r i b u t i n g Corporation, 1957. 13. Christensen, L i l l i a n Longseth, Gourmet's Old Vienna Cookbook, New York: Gourmet D i s t r i b u t i n g Corporation, 1959. 14. Clark, Burton R., Educating the Expert Society, San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 1962, 15. Cook, Ben D., "Result Demonstrations and Result Demonstration Meetings," The Cooperative Extension Service, ed., H.C. Sanders, Englewood C l i f f s , N.I.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1966.  106  111.:  16. Cranbach, Lee J . , Text Materials i n Modern Education, Ubana, U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955.  17. de Gouy, Louis P., The Gold Cookbook, N.Y.: Publishers, 1948.  Greenberg:  18. Farmer, Fannie Merrit, The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd., 1936. 19. Fellows, Charles, A Selection of Dishes and the Chef's Reminder, Evanston, I l l i n o i s : John Wiley, Inc., 1944. 20. H a l l i d a y , Evelyn, Isobel T. Noble, Food Chemistry and Cooking, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1943. 21. _ _ — - - _ Hows and Whys of Cooking,. Chicago: of Chicago Press, 1946. }  The University  22. Harben, P h i l l i p , The Grammar of Cooking, Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965. 23. New York:  Havinghurst, Robert J . , Developmental Tasks and Education, David McKay Company, Inc., 1964.  24. Hollenbeck, Wilbur, "Role of Adult Education i n Society", Adult Education - Outlines of an Emerging.Field.of University Study, ed. Gale Jensen et. a l . , Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964. 25.  Hughes, Ossee, Introductory Foods, New York:  The Macmillan Co.,  1962. 26. New York:  Kapp, Reginald 0., The Presentation of Technical Information, The Macmillan Co., 1957.  27. Knowles, Malcolm S., ed., Handbook of Adult Education i n the United States, Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. 1960. 28. Mager, Robert F., Preparing Instructional Objectives, Palo A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : Fundamental Research Laboratory, Fearson Publishers, 1962. 29. McMurry, Foster, Lee J . Cronbach, The Proper Function of Text Materials, Urbana, 111.: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1955. 30. New York:  M i l l e r , Harry L., Teaching and Learning i n Adult Education, The Macmillan Co., 1964.  31. M i l l e r , Madge, Mary Barnhart, E s s e n t i a l s of Food Preparation, Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C. Brown Co., 1947. 32. Montagne, Prosper, Larousse Gastronomique, Publishers, 1965.  New York:  Crown  33. National Pressure Cooker Co., (Canada) Ltd., Presto Cooker Recipe Book, Wallaceburg, Ont.: 1948. 34. P e l l a p r a t , Henri Paul, Modern French Culinary A r t , Cleveland: The World Publishing Co., 1966. 35. Perkins, Wilma Lord, ed., The A l l New Fannie Farmer Boston Cooking School Cookbook, Boston: L i t t l e Brown and Co., 1959. 36. Reynolds, P h y l l i s C , M. Barrows and Co., 1963.  The Complete Book of Meat, New York:  37. Rietz, Carl A., Jeremiah Wanderstock, A Guide to the Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn.: The A v i Publishing Co. Inc., 1965. 38. New York:  Rambauer, Irma S., Marion Rambauer Becker, The Joy of Cooking, The Bobbs M e r r i l l Co., Inc., 1953.  39. Sanders, H.C., ed., The Cooperative Extension Service, Englewooi C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-^Iall, Inc., 1966. 40. Sauliner, L., Le Repertoire de l a Cuisine, London: and Sons., Ltd., (N.d.) 41. New York: 42.  Leon Jaeggi  Sherman, Henry C. Ph.D., Sc.D., Chemistry of Food and N u t r i t i o n The Macmillan Company, 1937. , Food Products, New York:  The Macmillan Company,  1935. 43. Simpson, Jean I., The Frozen Food Cookbook, Easton, Penn.: Mack P r i n t i n g Co., 1962. 44. Soper, Musia, ed., Encyclopedia of European Cooking, London: Spring Books, 1962. 45. Stanley, Louise, Jessie A l i c e Cline, Foods: and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950.  Their Selection  46. Steveson, Gladys T. Cora M i l l e r , Introduction to Foods and N u t r i t i o n , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1962. 47. Sweetman, Marion Deyoe, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954. 48. Verner, Coolie, Alan Booth, Adult Education, Washington, The Center f o r Applied Research i n Education, Inc., 1964.  D.C.:  49. Waldo, Myra, The Complete Book of Vegetable Cookery, New York: Bantam Books, Inc., 1962.  108  50. Weisz, Paul B., The Science of Biology, New York: Book Company, Inc., 1963.  McGraw-Hill  51. Welch, John, A Task Unit Concept f o r on the Job Training i n Food Service, University of Missouri Extension Service, Manual .66, Feb. 1966. 52. — Instructor's Guide, Accelerated Adult Training Program f o r the Quantity Food Service Industries, U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri, Marketing Food Service Program, 1966. 53. Woodruff, Asahel D., Basic Concepts of Teaching, San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Co., 1961. 54. Wright, Carlton, Food Buying - Food Standards and Grades, New York: Macmillan Company, 1962.  PUBLICATION OF GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND  OTHER ORGANIZATIONS  1. Canadian Department of Agriculture, Meat, How Cook, Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1956. 2. Queen's P r i n t e r ,  - - j 1964.  Poultry, How  to Buy,  How  3. Canada Department of F i s h e r i e s , The Way Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965.  to Buy, How  to  to Cook, Ottawa: to Cook F i s h , Ottawa:  4. F l o r y , Josephine, Your Greens, Agriculture Extension Service, College of A g r i c u l t u r e , University of Missouri, C811/5, Oct., 1964. 5. - - - - » Your Yellow Vegetables, Agriculture Extension Service, College of Agriculture, U n i v e r s i t y of Missouri, C812/6, Oct., 1965. 6. K l i p p s t e i n , Ruth N., The V e r s a t i l e Egg, Cooperative Extension Service, New York State College of Home Economics at Cornell University, B u l l e t i n 915, Nov., 1964. 7. Kornbluch, Margaret, Helen Cannon Park, "Survey of the use of Written Recipes", Journal of the American D i e t e t i c Association, V o l . 47, No.2, pp. 113-15, Aug., 1965. 8. Levenson, Mildred P a l l a s , " S k i l l Courses", Adult Leadership, V o l . 12, No. 5, Nov., 1963. 9. The Medical Foundation Inc., "Programmed Instruction, D i r e c t i o n s " , 1962 i n Review, 1962.  New  10. P h e i l , J u d i t h A., Let's Eat Maryland Vegetables, Cooperative Service, University of Maryland, HE-62-FN 259. 11. - - - - - - , Maryland Seafood Part I I , F i s h , Cooperative Extension Service, University of Maryland, HE-62-FN-323. 12. Pressy, S.S., "Development and Appraisal of Devices Providing Immediate Scoring of Objective Tests and Con-comitant S e l f - i n s t r u c t i o n " , Journal of Psychology, 29, 417-447, 1950. 13. University of Maryland Extension Service, Family Dinners, A 4-H Food Preparation Project, Agriculture and Home Economics Extension Service, # 35, 4-41, A p r i l , 1964. 14. University of Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service, Conducting Educational Work with Operators of Food Service Establishments, College of Agriculture Food Manual, No.l, 1963.  15. - - - - - Conducting Educational Work with Operators of Food Service Establishments, College of Agriculture Food Manual, No. 2, 1964. }  16. U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Extension Service College of A g r i culture, Vegetables i n our Meals, C i r c u l a r 629, May 1964. 17.  N.Y.,  , Meats i n our Meals, C i r c u l a r 628, A p r i l  18. U.S. Department of Agriculture, The U.S. Poker Books, Inc., 1965.  1964.  Government Cook Book,  Ill  FILMS 1. Popham, W. James, Systematic Instructional Decision Making, F i l m - s t r i p Tape Progmam, Los Angeles, C a l i f o r n i a , Vimcet Association, 1967.  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING MEATS IN LIQUID  TABLE II  Kind of Cut  Approximate Weight  Approximate Total Cooking Time  Pounds  Hours  Beef Corned beef b r i s k e t (piece) Beef shanks  3  3 to 3.3/4  4  3 to 4 3 to 3-§-  Beef tongue For Stew ( l to 2 pieces)  3 to 4  1\ to 3  Chicken Lamb  2% to 3  3 to 4  l i to 2  For Stew ( l to 2 pieces) Pork Smoked ham (whole country style) Smoked ham (country style)  16 5  4  ^2  Smoked picnic shoulder (country style)  7 to 8  3 i to 4  Smoked pork shoulder butt, boneless  2 to 3  l i to 2  Pork hocks  3/4 to 1 ea.  2-§- to 3  Veal For Stew ( l to 2 pieces)  2 to 3  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 32.  TABLE I I I  Kind and Cut  TIME TABLE FOR BROILING MEAT  Approximate Thickness Inches  Approximate Total Ckng. Time Rare Medium Well Done M I N U T E S 4 to 5  Bacon Beef Steaks  3/4 - 1  10  14  18  1*  16  20  26  12  14  Rib, Club, Tenderloin T-Bone, S i r l o i n Ground Meat Patties Ham,  3/4  Cured and 20  Smoked, S l i c e Lamb chops, r i b  3/4  l o i n , shoulder Ground Lamb Patties  3/4  Liver Calf, Young beef, lamb  1/2  12  14  18  22  12  14  12  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 34.  114  TABLE IV  Kind and Cut of Meat Beef. Standing Ribs Rare Medium well done Rolled Rib Rare Medium Well done Rolled rump Sirloin tip  TIME TABLE FOR ROASTING MEATS  Ready to cook Weight Pounds 6-8 6—8 6-8 4-6 4 — 6 4-6 5 3  Approximate Roasting Time at 325 F.  Internal Temp, of Meat When Done  Hours  F.  2 t o 2f 2f t o 3 3i t o 4 i  140 160 170  2 to 3  140 160 170 160-170 160-170  t o 3-J 3 to 4 3 t o 3i 2 t o 2± 2^  Veal Leg Loin Rolled shoulder  5-8  2-g- t o  3-5  3 3 to 3i  170-180 170-180 170-180  6-7 3-6 3-5  3f - 4 21- to 3^ 2|- to 3  180 180 180  3—5 5-8 10-14 6 3  3 to 4 3 i to 5 5f to 6 4 2  185 185 185 185 185  12—16 6 6  3 i to 4f3i  160 160 170  12—16 6  2 to 3 About 1-jjr  130 130  5  2^2  Lamb Leg Shoulder Rolled Shoulder Pork Fresh Loin Shoulder Ham, whole Ham, h a l f Spare r i b s Pork Cured Cook before eating Ham, whole Ham, h a l f P i c n i c Shoulder F u l l y cooked Ham, whole Ham, h a l f  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 33.  115  TABLE V  Kind and Cut  TIME TABLE FOR BRAISING MEATS  Approximate Weight or Thickness  Approximate Total Cooking Time  Beef Pot roast Round or Chuck Steak Flank Steak Short r i b s Cubed beef f o r stew Oxtails Lamb Shoulder, r o l l e d Shoulder chops Shanks Cubed lamb f o r stew Pork Rib and l o i n chops Shoulder steaks Spareribs Tenderloin patties Veal Shoulder, r o l l e d Round Steam (cutlets) Loin or r i b chops Cubed veal f o r stew  3 - 5 lbs 1 - l i in. 1^- 2 l b s .  !-§- i n . cubes  3 lb. 3/4 i n . 1 lb.  l-g- i n . cubes  3/4 i n . - 1 i n . 3/4 i n .  in. 3 lb. \ in. 3/4 i n . 1 i n . cubes  3-^-4 h r s . 2-2% hrs. 2 hrs. 2-2% hrs. 2% - 3 h r s . 3 - 3 i hrs.  2-2-1-  hrs.  40 min. i f - 2 hrs. 1-g- - 2 h r s .  50 - 60 min. 45 min. l£ - 2\ hr. 30 min.  2% hr. 45 min. 45 min. 1-t - 2 h r s .  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 32.  TABLE VI  Kind of B i r d  ROASTING GUIDE FOR POULTRY  Ready to cook weight (pounds)  Amount of Stuffing (quarts)  Approximate Roasting time at 325 for stuffed c h i l l e d birds (Hrs)  Chicken B r o i l e r s or Fryers  1$ to 2%  i  to i  l i to 2  Roasters  2+ to 4 i  i  to i £  2 to 3f  Capons  4 to 8  l-f-l.3/4  3 to 5  Duck  3 to 5  I to 1  2% to 3  Goose  4 to 8  3/4  2.3/4-3i  8 to 14  1-5-  4 to 8  1 to 2  3 to 4%  6 to 12  2 to 3  3% to 5  3 to 4  5 to 6  16 - 20  4 to 5  6 to 7-g-  20 - 24  5 to 6  7 i to 9  -li to 2+  3 i to 5  Tui-key Fryers or Roasters (very young birds) Roasters ( f u l l y grown young birds)  12  - 16  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 34.  TABLE VII  Product  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FISH IN LIQUID  Market Form  Approx. Weight  Cooking Temp.  pounds Fish  Approx. Total Cooking Time minutes  Pan-dressed  l/2 to 1 Simmer  10  Steaks  l/2 to 1 Simmer  10  Fillets  Simmer  10  Crabs  Live  Simmer  15  Lobster  Live  3/4 to 1 Simmer  10-15  1 to 1-g- Simmer  15-20  Scallops  Shucked  Simmer  4-5  Shrimp  Headless  Simmer  5  Spiny Lobster  Headless  4.oz  Simmer  10  8.oz  Simmer  15  Tail  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35.  TABLE VIII  Product  Fish  TIME TABLE FOR BROILING FISH  Market form  Approx. Weight or Thickness  Cooking Temp.  Approx. Total Cooking Time  pounds or ins.  minutes  Pan-dressed  l/2 to 1.1b  10-15  Steaks  l/2 to 1"  10-15  Fillets  10-15  Clams  Live  Lobster  Live  "Oysters  Live  5  Shucked  8-10  Shucked  8-10  Scallops  5-8 3/4 to 1.1b  Shrimp  10-12  8-10  Lobster  8.oz  10-12  Tails  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35.  119  TABLE LX  Product  TIME TABLE FOR BAKING FISH AND SHELL FISH  Cooking Temp, deg. F.  Approx. Total Cooking Time Minutes  Market Form  Approx. Weight pounds and inches  Dressed  3 to 4  350  40-60  Pan-dressed  i  to 1  350  25-30  Steaks  £ to 1"  350  25-35  Fillets  350  25-35  Clams  Live  450  15  Lobster  Live  3/4 to 1  400  15-20  1 to l i  400  20-25  Live  450  15  Shucked  400  10  Scallops  Shucked  350  25-30  Shrimp  Headless  350  20-25  Spiny Lobster  Headless  4.oz  450  20-25  8.oz  450  25-30  Baking Fish  Oysters  Tails  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 35.  TIME TABLE FOR COOKING FRESH VEGETABLES  TABLE X  Vegetable  Artichokes, French or Globe, whole Artichokes, Jerusalem, whole Asparagus, whole tips Beans, Lima, green Beans, Soy, green  Boiling Minutes  - 45 25 - 35 10 - 20 5 - 15  shredded Beet greens Beets, new, whole old, whole B r o c c o l i , heavy stalks, s p l i t Brussels sprouts, whole Cabbage, green quartered shredded Cabbage, red, shredded  20  - 25  - 30 15 - 20 10 - 20 5 - 15 30 - 45 45 - 90 10 - 15 10 - 20 10 - 15 3  - 10  8  - 12  sliced  10  - 25 - 20  mature, whole  20  - 30  15  25  Carrots, young, whole  sliced  10 -- 12  35  20  Beans, green whole or 1-inch pes.  Pressure Cooking Baking Steaming 15-lb.press. Minutes Minutes Minutes  15  35 12  30 - 60  - 30  I  2 — 14 1 2 2 ~  1 - 2  15  - 15 - 35 - 35 - 35 - 25  40  - 60  5 - 10  40 - 60  10- 18  40 - 60  7 25 25 20  50 15 10  - 90  - 20 - 20  !*•-  3  1 - 2  i4-  3  1 - 2 2 - 3  15 8  1 - 2  - 12  l  2 "" 1 2 ~"  14  - 15 20 - 30 15 - 25 40 - 50  10- 15  25  3  10  30  14  3 - 5  35 - 40  i4-  30-  3  60  40  TABLE X CONTD.  Vagetable Cauliflower, whole  Boiling Minutes  Pressure Cooking Steaming 15—lb.press. Baking Minutes Minutes Minutes  15  25  —  20  Celery, diced  15  - 15 - 18  Chard, Swiss  10  20  flowerets  8  30  - 20 25 - 30 15 - 25 10  Eggplant, s l i c e d  - 20 5 - 15 10 - 20  Kale  10  - 25  Kohlrabi, s l i c e d  20  - 25  30  Okra, s l i c e d  10  -  15  20  Onions, small, whole  15  - 25  25  large, whole  20  Collards  —  10 l i 2  3  - 3  l i -  3  10  Corn, on cob  quartered Peas, green Potatoes, white, medium, whole quartered Rutabagas, diced Spinach Squash, Hubbard, 2-inch pes. Squash, Summer, s l i c e d  - 40 10 - 20 8 - 20 25 - 40 20 - 25 20 - 30 3 - 10 15 - 20 10 - 20 20  Parsnips, whole  - 40  15  10 15  -  0  - 1*  3  - 4  20  - 35  3 -  4  50 - 60  8  30 - 45  35  - 40  5 -  30  - 45  9 - 10  30  - 40  - 20 30 - 45 20 - 30 10  35  - 40  - 12 25 - 40 15 - 20 5  4 -  8  0 -  1  8 -  11  3 -  5  5 -  8  0 -  1*  6 - 12 3  45 - 60  40 - 60 30  122 TABLE X CONTD.  Vegetable Sweet potatoes, whole quartered Tomatoes Turnips, whole sliced  Boiling Minutes  Pressure Cooking Steaming 15-lb press. Baking Minutes Minutes Minutes  25  35  30  35  15  25  25  30  7  15  20  30  15  20  5 - 8  30 - 45  1  15 - 30  8 - 12 20 - 25  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 31.  123  TABLE XI TEMPERATURES FOR DEEP-FAT FRYING  Food  ° F.  Chicken  350  Fish  350  Fritters  350  Shell Fish  350 - 375  Cauliflower  375 - 385  Croquettes  375 - 385  Egg-plant  375 - 385  Onions  375 - 385  French-fried potatoes  385 - 395  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 29.  124 TABLE XII  OVEN TEMPERATURE  Temperatures i n ° F.  Description  250 - 275  Very slow oven  300 - 325  Slow oven  350 - 375  Moderate oven  400 - 425  Hot oven  450 - 475  Very hot oven  500 - 525  Extremely hot oven.  American Home Economics Association, Handbook of Food Preparation, Washington, 1964, p. 29.  125  GLOSSARY OF COOKING TERMS Acidulate - to add vinegar or lemon juice to water, usually 1 tablespoon to each quart of water. Barbecue - to cook meat, poultry or f i s h over an open f i r e .  The term also  denotes dishes which are served with a pungent sauce. Baste - to pour f a t or l i q u i d over food while cooking to moisten, glaze or flavor i t . Bind - to hold foods together with a sauce so that they form a cohesive mass. Blanch - to immerse foods b r i e f l y i n b o i l i n g water to loosen skins or to whiten.  This process i s generally used with vegetables, f r u i t and nuts.  Bone - to remove the bones from meat, f i s h or poultry. Bread - to r o l l i n or coat with crumbs before cooking. Bouquet-garni - bunch of aromatic herbs used to f l a v o r soups, stews, braised dishes and sauces.  Usually i t i s made of parsley, thyme, and bay l e a f t i e d  together i n cheese c l o t h . Casserole - a special earthenware or other oven-proof  dish i n which food  i s cooked and from which i t may be served at the table. Chop - to cut into small pieces with a sharp knife on a board. C l a r i f y - to clear a l i q u i d such as soup by adding s l i g h t l y beaten egg-white and broken egg s h e l l s .  These coagulate when the l i q u i d i s heated and the  p a r t i c l e s of food adhere to them.  The l i q u i d i s then strained.  Court B o u i l l o n - a l i q u i d i n which f i s h , poultry or meat i s cooked to give added f l a v o r .  A simple court b o u i l l o n consists of water, wine, vinegar or  stock, either used alone or i n combination, to which have been added onion, celery, carrots, bay leaf, s a l t and pepper. Crisp - to place i n ice-water u n t i l crisp; a process used with vegetables. Croquettes — a mixture of chopped or ground cooked food—vegetables, cereal cheese, meat, f i s h , etc., bound together by eggs or a thick sauce, shaped into small b a l l s , r o l l s , or pyramids,  and f r i e d i n deep f a t .  Croutons - cubes of bread toasted or f r i e d .  Usually served i n salads, soup  or over various dishes. Cube - to cut into even-sided pieces. Dice - to cut into very small cubes. D i s j o i n t - to cut poultry into pieces at the j o i n t s . Dredge — to cover food completely with a dry ingredient such as f l o u r or crumbs. Dress - to remove the internal organs and to trim o f f unedible portions of meat, poultry, or f i s h . Dutch Oven - a large heavy iron casserole with a c l o s e - f i t t i n g l i d .  May  be  used on top of the range or i n the oven. Eviscerate — to remove the internal organs. F i l l e t - to cut meat or f i s h into desired shape removing a l l bones. Flake - to break up into f l a t pieces, usually with a fork. Forcemeat - pastes of meat, f i s h or shell f i s h bound with egg white, butter or cream f o r use as stuffings or soup garnishes. Fricassee - to stew meats, usually poultry or v e a l .  Meat may  browned before subjecting to long slow moist cooking.  or may not be  Grate - to reduce to small p a r t i c l e s by rubbing against a grater. Grind - to reduce to small p a r t i c l e s or powder with rotary cutters or a mortar and p e s t l e . Lard - to i n s e r t pieces of f a t meat into larger pieces of lean meat f o r f l a v o r and j u i c i n e s s .  Fat may be inserted into small deep gashes made  i n the meat, or run through with a special butcher's tool c a l l e d a l a r d ing needle. Marinate - to allow food to stand i n a marinade, usually a mixture of o i l , vinegar or wine, spice and herbs, to flavor or tenderize. Mince - to chop or cut very f i n e . Par-boil - to pre-cook or p a r t l y cook i n l i q u i d . Plank - to b r o i l or roast and serve on a board similar to a small wooden bread board. Poach - to cook gently i n l i q u i d kept below the b o i l i n g point. Ragout - a French term for a well seasoned stew. Ramekin - an i n d i v i d u a l oven-proof baking dish. Reduce - to b o i l a l i q u i d to lessen the quantity and to concentrate the flavor. Render - to melt f a t meat such as salt-pork or bacon so that the connect i v e tissue may be removed leaving the l i q u i d f a t . Roux - a mixture of f a t and f l o u r blended together over low heat.  This i s  the f i r s t step i n making sauces and gravies which are thickened with f l o u r . Scald - to heat to just below the b o i l i n g point.  Scallop — to bake food i n layers covered with sauce and crumbs i n an ovenproof dish. Score - to make l i g h t cuts i n a surface, usually i n l i n e s . Sear - to apply heat, usually to meat, quickly so as to harden the outside and thus prevent juices from escaping. Skewer - a metal or wooden pin used to hold meat i n shape or to close an opening. S l i v e r - to cut or to shred into long t h i n pieces. Steep - to extract the essence from a food by applying hot l i q u i d .  This  term usually applies to tea making but i s also applicable to other leaves such as herbs. S t r a i n - to separate a l i q u i d from s o l i d pieces of food by pouring  through  a sieve. Try-out - to remove f a t from such meats as salt-pork and bacon. f a t i s often used f o r f r y i n g .  The  liquid  129 Purposes of Cooking Foods The purposes of cooking food are to render i t more d i g e s t i b l e , to develop, improve and a l t e r i t s flavor, to make i t more palatable through changes i n color and texture and to destroy harmful organisms which might make i t injurious to health."'' Purposes of Cooking Meat, Poultry and F i s h Meat i s the lean portion or muscle tissue and surrounding connective tissue of edible animals.  The muscle i s made up of thousands of muscle  f i b r e s , or c e l l s , which are surrounded by connective t i s s u e .  The proteins  i n the muscle f i b r e s , or c e l l s , are delicate and soft, l i k e the protein i n a raw egg.  Meat juices contain extractives or flavoring substances, v i t a -  mins and minerals.  Connective tissue to-gether with i n t e r i o r muscle f a t  serves to hold i n the plasma proteins and the meat j u i c e s .  The amount and  concentration of connective tissue determines whether the cut of meat w i l l be tough or tender.  Those cuts of meat with the least connective tissue 2  are  apt to be tender, those with the most are apt to be tough. There are two general methods of cooking meat.  heat methods and the dry heat methods.  These are the moist  Moist heat increases tenderness by  softening some connective tissue and converting i t to g e l a t i n . does not increase tenderness and may often reduce i t .  Dry heat  The moist heat meth-  ods are used f o r cooking tough or less tender cuts of heat.  The dry heat  g  methods are used f o r cooking tender cuts. The methods of cooking poultry are based on the same p r i n c i p l e s as apply to meat cookery.  Tender poultry i s cooked by dry heat methods, less  4 tender or tough poultry by moist heat methods. Since f i s h does not contain any appreciable amount of connective tissue there i s no need to use methods of cooking to make i t tender.  It  i s usually cooked by dry heat methods but i s also frequently cooked by  moist heat methods.  Care must he exercised i n cooking f i s h that i t does  not become overcooked and f a l l  apart.  Purposes of Cooking Vegetables and F r u i t s The general purposes of cooking vegetables  are to improve the d i -  g e s t i b i l i t y , to change the texture, to reduce the bulk, to conserve the 7 color, to r e t a i n or change the f l a v o r , and to destroy microorganisms. A l l vegetable sugars,  and f r u i t tissues contain n u t r i t i v e material (such as  starches, vitamins and minerals), pectins, and c e l l u l o s e .  cellulose i s i n the form of a fibrous supporting wall surrounding plant c e l l s which contain the n u t r i t i v e materials. g to hold the c e l l s  The the  The pectins serve  to—gether.  Heating plant material i n a moist atmosphere softens the t i s s u e s . This i s the r e s u l t of a breakdown and d i s s o l v i n g of pectins and a softening of c e l l u l o s e as well as the swelling of starch grains which r e s u l t s 9 i n p a r t i a l or complete g e l a t i n i z a t i o n . Purposes of Cooking Eggs The purposes of cooking eggs are to coagulate the protein, to change the texture and to change the f l a v o r . Eggs i f soft-cooked i n a way to prevent toughening are e a s i l y and rapidly digested. cooked.  Hard-cooked eggs are not as r a p i d l y digested as s o f t -  Both egg-white and egg-yolk coagulate when heated however egg-  yolk requires a s l i g h t l y higher temperature for coagulation than egg-white. The toughness and greater shrinkage  of the protein coagulated  at high tem-  perature i s the basis for the recommendation of low or moderate temperatures * for egg  ,. 10 cooking.  REFERENCES 1. Marion D. Sweetman, Ingeborg MacKellar, Food S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954, p. 134. Gladys T. Stevenson, Cora M i l l e r , Introduction to Foods and N u t r i t i o n , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960, p. 30. 2. P h y l l i s C. Reynolds, The Complete Book of Meat, New York: M. Barrows and Co., 1963, pp. 52-3. Sweetman, op c i t . , pp. 370—2. 3. Louise Stanley, J e s s i e A l i c e C l i n e , Foods, Their S e l e c t i o n and Preparation, Boston: Ginn and Company, 1950, p. 194. Osee Hughes, Introductory Foods, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1962, pp. 157-8. 4.  Stanley, og. c i t . , pp. 229-30. Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 192.  5.  Stanley, oj). c i t . , pp. 250-1. Hughes, ££. c i t . , pp. 202-3.  6.  Ibid., pp. 202-3,.  7.  Stanley, op. c i t . , pp. 74-77.  8.  Hughes, op. c i t . , p. 29.  9.  Sweetman, op. c i t . , p. 242.  10. Hughes, op_. c i t . , p. 110  Heat Exchange i n Cooking Cooking i s actually the subjection of food to heat exchange. are  three methods of exchanging or transferring heat to a food.  are  ( l ) by conduction, (2) by convection and (3) by r a d i a t i o n .  There  These  D i r e c t transfer of heat by contact i s called conduction i.e. heat i s conducted to the food through contact with a hotter substance.  The  hotter substance may be a cooking u t e n s i l and/or the cooking medium (water, steam, a i r , f a t ) .  The best conductor used i n domestic cooking u t e n s i l s  i s copper but many other materials perform the same function more or less effectively.  As cooking media water and steam are better conductors of  heat than a i r . (2) Convection i s the movement caused by changes of temperature within a f l u i d or gas.  The f l u i d or gas nearest the source of heat i s the f i r s t  to become warm and consequently less dense; t h i s causes i t to r i s e and to be replaced by colder denser portions. quids.  This i s apparent i n b o i l i n g l i -  I t also takes place within an oven but i s not v i s a b l e .  Convection  takes place i n the heating medium as well as within the f l u i d of the food being heated. (3) Radiation i s the transfer of heat from one substance to another through space when the two are not i n contact.  In b r o i l i n g , food receives  heat by r a d i a t i o n from the open flame or glowing metallic b r o i l e r .  The  food i s not i n contact with the b r o i l e r . (4) The various methods of cooking employ these three means of a l t e r i n g temperature.  In b r o i l i n g much of the heat i s derived through radiation.  In roasting (baking) the transfer of heat i s by convection and by some conduction from the cooking u t e n s i l .  In l i q u i d cooking the transfer of heat  133  i s by conduction and convection currents. conduction from the steam to the food.  In steaming the transfer i s by  In deep-fat f r y i n g the heat i s r e -  ceived by the f a t through conduction from the pan and i s transferred to the food by convection currents.  134 REFERENCES 1.  Marion Deyoe Sweetman, Ingeborg Mackellar, Food Section and Preparat i o n , New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 954, p. 141. C a r l A. R i e t z , Jeremiah J . Wonderstock, A Guide to The Selection, Combination and Cooking of Foods, Westport, Conn., The A v i Publishing Co., Inc., 1965, p. 151.  2.  Sweetman, ag. c i t . , p. 142.  3.  Rietz, l o c . c i t .  4.  Rietz, l o c . c i t .  

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