UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A phonological approach to Tennyson's Maud Horsman, Nancy Christine 1969

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 H67.pdf [ 4.06MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302240.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302240-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302240-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302240-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302240-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302240-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302240-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302240-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302240.ris

Full Text

A PHONOLOGICAL APPROACH TO TENNYSON S MAUD 1  by  NANCY CHRISTINE HORSMAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  o f W a s h i n g t o n , 1950  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n t h e Department o f ENGLISH  We a c c e p t required  this  t h e s i s as conforming  t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A P R I L , 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  in partial  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  I further for  shall  make i t f r e e l y  agree that  permission  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r of B r i t i s h  available  Columbia,  his representatives.  f o r extensive  of  this  written  It i s understood  thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l permission.  Department o f  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  Date  gain  A p r i l 30,  Columbia  1969.  shall  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . copying of this  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  by  I agree  that  thesis  Department o r .  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  CONTENTS  1.  Introduction  2.  C h a p t e r One  8  3.  C h a p t e r Two  21  4.  Chapter Three  36  5.  Chapter  53  6.  Conclusion  64  7.  Bibliography  77  Four  page 1  i  Abstract  Modern mitted J.  linguistics  fresh  insights  R. F i r t h ' s  syllable  has o f f e r e d methods o f a n a l y s i s w h i c h  i n t o the s t r u c t u r e o f language.  t h e o r y o f t h e major  u n i t o f sound-meaning  American  b i n a t i o n o f both t h e o r i e s s t r u c t u r e s o f Maud  structural  i n E n g l i s h , and t h e phonemic  linguists.  This thesis  and t h e i r  relation  t o meaning.  Such  and / h / a r e p r o s o d i e s w h i c h work t o g i v e  t h r e e s u g g e s t i o n s emerge.  sound w h i c h , because i s a dominant  sound  i n t h e language.  ing.  Second,  i n Maud, w h i c h  the s y l l a b l e  points  resonant e f f e c t s t o From t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l /wh/  t h e poem h a s deep i m b e d d i n g s o f  than as l i n e  Third, there i s a strong c o r r e l a t i o n  theme w o r d s  holds  i n t h e poem, i n t i m a t e s t h a t i t  a n d /Xj a n d / d / s y l l a b l e s ,  wave p a t t e r n s o f s o u n d - m e a n i n g r a t h e r  an a n a l y s i s  F i r s t , Maud r e v e a l s a d o m i n a n t  of i t s very strong e f f e c t  /ow/, / a y / , / e y / , / i y / ,  u s e s a com-  i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e some o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  t h e poem, a s t h e s e same p r o s o d i e s do i n t h e l a n g u a g e . descriptions  Two s u c h m e t h o d s a r e  " p r o s o d i e a n a l y s i s " , which works from t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e  i s the basic  t h a t / y / , /w/  have per-  which occur  p a t t e r n s o f sound  between t h e sound  to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  as t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f sound-meaning  i n t h e poem a s a n d mean-  syllables  of a unit  and t h e  analysis of  i n the poetry, and, perhaps,  in the language. From t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s t h e t h e s i s o f f e r s symbolism  the conjectures  that  sound  i n p o e t r y - - a s i n 1anguage--has e v o l v e d , n o t f r o m t h e p o e t ' s  "instinctive"  responses t o t h e c r i e s o f n a t u r e , but from  his sophisticated  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e e v e n t s o f h i s own l a n g u a g e , a n d t h a t h i s u s e s o f l a n g u a g e e v e n t s may have a s u p r a - l i n e a r  rather  t h a n a. l i n e - b y - l i n e  the underlying assumption o f the t h e s i s  i s the view that  cause o f i t s c o n s c i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n o f p o s s i b l e in  logic. English  sound-meaning  Finally, p o e t r y , be-  relationships  t h e l a n g u a g e , may be t h e c l a s s o f a l l l a n g u a g e e v e n t s a n d n o t t h e sub-  c l a s s o f language e v e n t s .  This assumption  recognizes that  English poetry  ii l a n g u a g e ) d o e s n o t have t o be c o n c e i v e d  as h a v i n g o n l y  linear  arrangements.  1.  INTRODUCTION  Literary scholarship, for  a n a l y s i s of English but perhaps  such a n a l y s i s  poetry  not u n t i l  been o p e n t o a n y  this  has a  very  respectable  c e n t u r y have t h e c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s  serious  t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , f o r example  l o n g and  question.  i n the works  However, b e g i n n i n g a t  o f O t t o J e s p e r s e n ^ and  2  T. The  S.  Omond,  . traditional  precepts which  t h e s e two men  they argue, cannot  be  forms and  language  rhythms  Latin  Greek  and  and  an  imposed  t h e y have a r g u e d  integrity  of  upon,  i t s own  Greek  that  sample.  English.  t h e sounds  English  The  of E n g l i s h  English  and  the p r o s o d i e s of  i t s own  sounds  and  ods  seeks to d e s c r i b e  for  the  than to p r e s c r i b e  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e new  by a n y  English  literary  concepts of  English.  to anticipate the  t h e meth-  inherent patterns  scholar.  l a n g u a g e c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d t o -  F o r t h e new  c o n c e p t s have b r o u g h t  a poet  as much a s t h e y h a v e a f f e c t e d  The  the  linguist.  s u c h as E z r a  eclectic  Pound  new quite  technique of a  T.  O t t o J e s p e r s e n , G r o w t h and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 5 ) ; a l s o , " N o t e s on Meter ,",' E s s a y s on t h e L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n ( B o s t o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 7 1 - 9 0 . 1  2.  sounds  rhythms.  extra-1inguistic  t o o l s o f a n a l y s i s - - t o o l s w h i c h have a f f e c t e d  1.  of  language.  The day  school, which  rather  language  v e r s e , nor a r e the  linguists  language  to  q u a n t i t a t i v e meters  J e s p e r s e n and Omond w e r e among t h e e a r l i e s t  patterns of the  poetry,  p o e t r y must be u n d e r s t o o d a s h a v i n g  in accordance with  o f t h e modern d e s c r i p t i v e  to attack.  i t c a n n o t be made t o c o n f o r m  which a r e not  and  h a v e been o p e n e d  set out are q u i t e  v e r s e a r e not the meters  the p r o s o d i e s of L a t i n  From t h i s  concepts of poetry  T.  S. Omond, A S t u d y o f M e t e r  (London,  1903).  2.  S.  Eliot  or a  consciousness  Pound may with  have come v e r y  language.  largely  from  the poets'  F u r t h e r , t h e w o r k o f modern  increased  critics,  self-  a s f o r ex-'  '3 ample  Pound a n d C h a r l e s O l s o n , ;  ptive  theories of This  thesis  able ones--as, applied  may  be s a i d  descri-  language. assumes  in fact,  the b a s i c concepts very e x c i t i n g  ones.  of descriptive The  linguistics  t o o l s of formal  as t e n -  description,  t o a poem, r e v e a l n o t o n l y t h e u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f s o u n d s and  prosodies  i n t h e poem, b u t s o m e t i m e s r e v e a l a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n  poem's b a s i c s o u n d s and b a s i c t h e m e s . traditionally  a f f i r m e d the presence  linguistic  s c h o l a r c a n now  cal  Even more  ways.  cepts  t o be e q u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by  themselves,  test  important,  which  until  literary  s c h o l a r s h i p has  o f " m e a n i n g s " and " v a l u e s " i n p o e t r y ,  these he may  now  Thus w h e r e  between the  " m e a n i n g s " and " v a l u e s " i n v e r y question  the v a l i d i t y  practi-  of the very  h a v e r e s t e d upon t r a d i t i o n  and  the  con-  unqualified  acceptance. Alfred ries  Tennyson's  o f modern  gation  in this  1855 poem, Maud, w r i t t e n l o n g b e f o r e  linguistics thesis.  were  as  and n o t from  traditional The e s s a y  3.  theo-  s e t down, i s o f f e r e d a s s u b j e c t f o r i n v e s t i -  The poem w i l l  p a t t e r n s , and t h e c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l s e l f makes,  the general  be e x p l o r e d f o r i t s b a s i c  come f r o m  pre-determined  r e v e l a t i o n s which  sound-theme t h e poem i t -  p a t t e r n s o f m e t e r a n d rhyme  accepted  for a l l English poetry.^ will  use t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h  r a t h e r than  the s y n t a c t i c  E z r a Pound, ABC o f R e a d i n g ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 4 ) ; Charles Olson, " P r o j e c t i v e Verse /; S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s O l s o n (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 1 ) , PP- 15-31; a l s o , O l s o n , P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 ) . 1  k.  T r a d i t i o n a l p r o s o d i c a n a l y s e s o f Maud have been made by G e o r g e S a i n t s b u r y , H i s t o r i c a l M a n u a l o f E n g l i s h P r o s o d y ( L o n d o n , 1 9 1 0 ) , pp. 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 , a n d more r e c e n t l y by Edward S t o k e s , "The M e t r i c s o f Maud',' VP ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 9<7=110. :  ;  one by out  in i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s , J . R.  Firth  and  Kenneth  by G e o r g e L. T r a g e r  zation  that  phoneme. ing  5 3  a  One  relying  upon  ideas of the  Pike,,.- and  and  H e n r y Lee  language  has  two  of these  i s "sounds",  Smith,^  functions which  are the shapes or p a t t e r n s of  Firth's  syllable  p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e vowel It w i l l  accept  for i t s basic are  h i s w h o l e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e poem, and  which  English  second  the  sound-meaning which  patterns of " i d e a l "  " i c t u s " of metered  English  speech,  which  p h r a s e s , and  Firth's  the  set  generalithe  r e a d e r h o l d s dur-  of these  v i e w a l l o w s t h e sounds t o have freedoms beyond t h e  b e y o n d t h e " f e e t " and  tables  sound element,  intensities  the  expressed  is "prosodies"  reader records. rhymes o f  beyond t h e  line  ends  stress  a r e , he a r g u e s , t h e " p r o s o d i c m o d e s "  Q of  language.  wherein sounds.  S o u n d s h a v e a " p h o n o l o g i c a l mode o f m e a n i n g " ,  too, F i r t h  says,  t h e y f i n d p a r t n e r s h i p i n a poem i n c o l l o c a t i o n w i t h other?,., s i m i l a r , S u c h c o l l o c a t i o n s o f s o u n d s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e w h o l e poem, 9  may  be  referred  t o as t h e p e r s o n a l s t y l e o f the p o e t , F i r t h  However, F i r t h ' s  a n a l y s i s might  him  to the c o n c l u s i o n that  5.  J . R.  Firth,  (London,  6.  Kenneth 65),  pp.  "Sounds and  1964),  Pike,  imbeddings  pp.  have  l e d him  of s i m i l a r  Prosodies','^ P a p e r s  further: sound  concludes. i t might  syllables  in Linguistics,  have l e d  throughout  a  1934-1951  121-138.  " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e and  P o e t r y Meet .*,' _CE, 1  XXVI  (1964-  283-292.  7.  G e o r g e L. T r a g e r and (Washington, 1 9 5 1 ) .  8.  Firth,  9.  I b i d , pp. 1 9 6 - 2 0 3 . Here F i r t h p r e s e n t s a s t u d y o f c o l l o c a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the p o e t i c d i c t i o n of Swinburne. He s a y s , p. 198: "In the wider context o f t h e w h o l e p o e m . . . s i m i l a r c o l l o c a t i o n s a c c u m u l a t e w h i c h must be r e f e r r e d t o t h e p e r s o n a l s t y l i s t i c s o f t h e p o e t , t o what may, i n d e e d , be c a l l e d Swinburnese."  Henry Lee  "Modes o f Meaning','.  1  S m i t h , J r . , An  Papers  O u t l i n e of English  in L i n g u i s t i c s ,  p.  Structure  194.  4. whole  poem w i l l  reader's  have an e f f e c t  upon t h e r e a d e r more s i g n i f i c a n t  response t o the poet's " s t y l e " .  pairings will  be t o f i n d  a "meaning"  The r e a d e r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e s o u n d  f o r them.  He w i l l  sound  s y m b o l i s m h a s been  der,  m u s t e x p l o r e b e f o r e he c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o e t i c  /ow/  and / i y /  syllables  symbolism d e r i v e d is  vital  poem's two l i t e r a r y  infer a  i n Maud:  a r e r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem.  of the whole:  in fact,  s y m b o l s , t h e r/ow/ses  s y m b o l i s m t o be d i s c e r n e d  whole.  s y l l a b l e s occur  f r o m t h e s e c o l l o c a t i o n s o f /ow/  t o t h e meaning  undoubtedly  i n t e n d e d by t h e p o e t - - a s y m b o l i s m w h i c h h e , a s r e a -  V e r y o b v i o u s c o l l o c a t i o n s o f sound of  that the  i n Maud  points  and / i y /  complexes  The  sound  syllables  they lead d i r e c t l y  and t h e V % / l / i y / s . to the p o s s i b i l i t y  t o the  This that  i n Maud  sound  English  p o e t r y c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d a s , s i m p l y , a s e t o f s e n t e n c e s , b u t r a t h e r a s a complex  of a l l things of the language, i n which the i n t e g r a l  meaning  i s the individual  This general stylistics the  have g i v e n poetic,  syllable.  view w i l l  be i n o p p o s i t i o n  some a t t e n t i o n  h a v e been f a s h i o n e d e s s e n t i a l l y  t h e y have come t o t h e t a s k w i t h from a n a l y s i s o f prose works  "stress",  "pitch",  has b e e n s y n t h e s i z e d the  two a n a l y s t s  sound  10.  Linguists  and " j u n c t u r e "  speech s c i e n t i s t s , i n t h e spoken  by T r a g e r and S m i t h  in their  which perfor-  phonetic evi-  to theorize  language. brief  tools  o r speech  p h o n o l o g i s t s h a v e drawn upon s u b s t a n t i a l  d e n c e , g a t h e r e d l a r g e l y by A m e r i c a n of  Structure.  since  to " s t y l e s " of 1anguage--narrative, conversational,  etc.'^--but  For example,  on  in the seventeen years  o f T r a g e r and S m i t h ' s O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h  rhetorical,  mances.  t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f works  and p r o s o d y w h i c h h a v e been p u b l i s h e d  publication  u n i t o f sound-  patterns  This evidence  publication,  i n which  have c o l l e c t e d , p a t t e r n e d a n d r e c o r d e d t h e p r o m i n e n c e s o f  in the English  phrase.  The two men  r e p o r t from t h e i r  B e n j a m i n W h o r f , L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t and R e a l i t y , ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 125-133.  ed. John  findings  B.  that  Carroll  5. there  are ideally  English model al  four  l e v e l s each o f " s t r e s s " , " p i t c h " and " j u n c t u r e " i n  speech, a l l o w i n g  the phonologists  f o r t h e language.  Initial  p r o s e s i t u a t i o n s and o n l y  then t o c o n s t r u c t  an i d e a l  t e s t i n g o f t h e model o c c u r r e d  latterly  has i t been a p p l i e d  sound  i n convention-  t o poetry:  B e f o r e M r . ( S e y m o u r ) Chatman's e s s a y T r a g e r - S m i t h h a d been u s e d o n p r o s e e x c l u s i v e l y ; a n d now t h e i d e a i s t o s e e how i t w o r k s i n m e t e r e d l a n g u a g e . . . . M e t e r has t o be c o n t e n t w i t h a t w o - s t r e s s s y s t e m i f i t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e , i . e . , w i t h v e r y s t r o n g s t r e s s e s a n d v e r y weak o n e s , o r a s i t i s commonly p u t i n t h e o l d p r o s o d y , w i t h s t r e s s e s a n d n o n stresses; but f o u r d i s t i n c t s t r e s s e s a r e a u d i b l e t ot h e T r a g e r - S m i t h s c i e n t i s t s i n normal p r o s e . . . . May I s u g g e s t t h a t M r . Chatman h a s been p o w e r f u l l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o l i s t e n . . f o r f o u r s t r e s s e s , e v e n when he comes t o m e t e r e d l a n g u a g e ? ' ' Similarly, ideal  t h e pr;ose s e n t e n c e h a s b e e n t h e b a s i c  grammar, w h i c h g e n e r a t e s " a l l a n d o n l y  is noteworthy that  Chomsky p u b l i s h e d  structure  i n Noam Chomsky's  the sentences o f E n g l i s h . "  his initial  work, S y n t a c t i c  It  Structures,  12 in  1957,  t h e y e a r w h i c h saw t h e s e v e n t h  ( u n r e v i sed)  1  p r i n t i n g o f the Trager-  S m i t h Out 1 i ne. Despite  the prose bias which  language—the phonological Chomsky--some l i n g u i s t s systems t o poetry that  poetry  different  i n t h e past decade, n o n e t h e l e s s a p p l i e d t h e They have done s o by p r o c e e d i n g o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n  i s a " s t y l e " o f language and t h a t  categories  o f language.  a x i s o f phonemes o r morphemes. as  "poetic  Moreover  d i f f e r e n t " s t y l e s " are simply  Each c a t e g o r y  These l i n g u i s t s  l a n g u a g e " a n d have d e t e r m i n e d  norms t h e o r i z e d  by t h e m a j o r two m o d e l s o f  one o f T r a g e r - S m i t h and t h e s y n t a c t i c one o f  have,  analysis.  i s displayed  its  i s measured along  a  linear  have g e n e r a l l y o r d e r e d  quantities according  poetry  tothe  by T r a g e r - S m i t h a n d Chomsky.  linguists  sequences o f E n g l i s h  have been a b l e  to describe  with  sentence s t r u c t u r e s , and from t h e i r  scientific  descriptions,  11.  J o h n Crowe Ransom, "The S t r a n g e M u s i c o f E n g l i s h Verse!*,' ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 460-477.  12.  Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s  ( T h e Hague,  accuracy  1957).  -JKR,  desig-  XVIII  6. n a t e t h o s e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e " p o e t i c " and  those which are "non-poetic.  H o w e v e r , t h e y have n o t y e t n e c e s s a r i l y s a t i s f i e d "poetry";  that  i s , the l i n e a r  phonetic analysis  and  segmental  ception of poetry which imbedded  i n the whole  poem and  c o n c e p t u a l framework  when he s a y s t h a t E n g l i s h  that w o r l d of which the p h y s i c a l BELONG TO."  example,  Perhaps  t h e y may  i n t h e grammar-  s p e c u l a t e upon a c o n -  sound-themes a r e d e e p l y  Benjamin  a v i e w o f t h e poem  W h o r f comes  closest  f o r t h i s analysis of poetry  speakers share in the " r i c h  z a t i o n o f LANGUAGE" t h r o u g h w h i c h  and a s p a t i a l , o r  I will  demand f o r t h e i r e x p l i c a t i o n  to  suggesting the larger  inherent  call  the s t r u c t u r e of p o e t r y .  i s supra-1inear, in which  line analysis.  I N , and  approach  thesis  w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s l i n e by  ARE  t h a t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h we  by no means a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t s  . In t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r o f t h i s  1 1  and  systematic organi-  v i e w an "unknown, v a s t e r w o r l d - -  i s but a s u r f a c e o r s k i n , and y e t w h i c h  T h e s e two c o n c e p t s , o f a l i n e a r , o r  i n t u i t i v e 1 y - s e n s e d w o r l d , a r e not  language w o r l d ,  incompatible.  s p e a k s o f t h e " p o i n t - m o m e n t " a t w h i c h t h e two may  we  Whorf, f o r  converge:  J . . . y e t many m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and s c i e n t i f i c l i n g u i s t s must h a v e had t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f " s e e i n g " i n one f u g i t i v e f l a s h , a whole system of r e l a t i o n s h i p s never b e f o r e suspected o f forming a unity. The harmony and s c i e n t i f i c b e a u t y i n t h e w h o l e v a s t s y s t e m m o m e n t l y o v e r w h e l m s one i n a f l o o d o f aesthetic delight...'^ For  purposes of t h i s  t h e p a t t e r n i n g ) o f an sound  syllables  analysis  intuited  the p o i n t  harmony w i l l  i n t h e moment (Whorf w o u l d  be d e s i g n a t e d as t h e  o f t h e poem f r o m w h i c h t h e a e s t h e t i c w h o l e  the  essay t e n t a t i v e l y acgepts W h o r f s  and  i t will  the  themes ( t h e movement, o r f l u x ) o f T e n n y s o n ' s Maud.  yet  s t r a n g e l y c o n g r u e n t v i e w s o f p o i n t and f l u x w i l l  tens of d e s c r i p t i o n , which w i l l  13.  use F i r t h ' s  W h o r f , L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t and  individual  is realized.  "vaster" world of aesthetic  e x p l o r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the language  Reality,  Thus  harmony,  ( t h e p o i n t , o r moment) and  terms  pp.  say  The  ambivalent  be e x p l o r e d i n t h e  "sounds"  246-254.  and chap-  and " p r o s o d i e s "  as  t h e p r o p e r ones f o r t h e a n a l y s i s ,  meaning which will  are possible  The well  i n t h e poem.  be t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s ,  s t a n z a s o f t h e poem, r a t h e r  since  t h e y e x p l o r e t h e s y l l a b l e s o f sound-  The s y l l a b l e , r a t h e r  and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e s  than from  individual  will  be drawn f r o m  whole  l i n e s o f t h e poem.  poem may t h u s be r e a l i z e d t o be t h e r e p o s i t o r y  a s t h e most c o m p l e x s t r u c t u r e s  t h a n t h e phoneme,  o f sound and meaning  f o r t h e most s i m p l e a s i n t h e language.  8.  CHAPTER  The  " m u s i c a l " q u a l i t y o f A l f r e d T e n n y s o n ' s p o e t r y has b e e n commented  upon by a l l r e a d e r s o f T e n n y s o n ,  both  b u t none o f t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s - - s a v e fic  I  in V i c t o r i a n  perhaps  t i m e s and  in the present,  t h e p o e t h i m s e l f - - h a s made s p e c i -  the n a t u r e of Tennyson's "music", nor attempted a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a  typical tion",  poem.  C h a r l e s Tennyson,  speaks  i n a d i s c u s s i o n of the poet's  p a r t i c u l a r l y o f "vowel  b u t he does n o t q u a l i f y  m u s i c " and " v o w e l  sounds"  "versificain the  works,  h i s terms: . . . i t s power o f a c h i e v i n g , t h r o u g h r h y t h m and vowel music, a l y r i c a l , singing q u a l i t y w h i c h no o t h e r p o e t has a t t a i n e d i n t h e same degree...J  Or a g a i n : ...To g e t t h e f u l l v a l u e o u t o f s u c h v e r s e , one must n o t be a f r a i d o f e m p h a s i z i n g the rhythmt,, and t h e vowel sounds...^ On  t h e o t h e r h a n d , A l f r e d T e n n y s o n has  p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s , f o r i n "The A r t h u r " , ^ he s a i d  shown h i m s e l f more a w a r e o f h i s  Epic", a short  introduction  t h r o u g h the words o f h i s s p e a k e r , t h a t  t o h i s "Morte  d  1  the poet must:  Read, mouthing out h i s h o l l o w o e s and a e s , . Deep-chested music,  1.  C h a r l e s Tennyson,  S i x Tennyson Essays  (London,  1 9 5 4 ) , p.  146.  2.  I b i d , p.  3.  Hal lam T e n n y s o n ,  4.  l i n e 50. The " h o l l o w o e s and a e s " t h a t T e n n y s o n s p e a k s o f a r e o f c o u r s e the s y l l a b l e s o f /ow/ and / e y / t h a t I f i n d t o be among t h e most common s o u n d c o l l o c a t i o n s i n Maud.  147. The Works o f T e n n y s o n  (New  York,  1913).  9. The  p o e t ' s s o n , H a l lam T e n n y s o n ,  included a letter Tennyson's  i n h i s " N o t e s " t o Tennyson's Works,  o f E d w a r d F i t z g e r a l d w h i c h makes f u r t h e r  has  comment upon  "music": . . . M o u t h i ng o u t h i s h o i low o e s and aes, d e e p - c h e s t e d mus i c , t h i s i s somet h i n g as A. T. r e a d , w i t h a b r o a d n o r t h c o u n t r y v o w e l . . . , H i s v o i c e , v e r y deep and d e e p - c h e s t e d , b u t r a t h e r m u r m u r i n g t h a n m o u t h i n g , l i k e t h e sound o f a f a r sea o r o f a p i n e - w o o d . This voice, I remember, g r e a t l y s t r u c k C a r l y l e when he f i r s t came t o know h i m . ^  From T e n n y s o n ' s a n a l y s i s o f h i s own c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who generalized  listened  that a poet  t o him  r e a d i n g s and  r e a d , a modern c r i t i c ,  i s ( l a r g e l y ) what h i s v o i c e  n o r t h c o u n t r y v o w e l " w h i c h was  from responses of Francis  i s , and  that  those  B e r r y , has the "broad  T e n n y s o n ' s o r g a n became, t o o , h i s p o e t r y :  But ( T e n n y s o n ) t e l l s i t g r a n d l y ; n o t j e r k i l y b u t i n an u n i n t e r r u p t e d s y n t a x w i t h a s l o w l y s w e l l i n g and f a l l i n g a r c of sound. Moreover Tennyson i s g e n e r a l izing: A l l woods d e c a y and a l l men a r e b u r i e d under t h e g r o u n d , w h i c h , l i v i n g , they t i l l e d . Could a voice with that d e p t h and r e s o n a n c e f a i l , i f i t was t o show i t s a d v a n t a g e s o v e r o t h e r v o i c e s , f a i l t o g e n e r a l i z e i n t h a t way? Given a man w i t h t h a t k i n d o f v o i c e and he wi 1 1 g e n e r a l i z e . B e r r y ' s c o m m e n t a r y upon T e n n y s o n r a i s e s reader cannot  ignore.  a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h  Does a p o e t - - o r a m a n - - g e n e r a 1 i z e  a  h i s environment  p u r e l y from a resonance, or l a c k of resonance, of c e r t a i n o f h i s speech sounds?  Does a n o r t h c o u n t r y E n g l i s h m a n who  swelling  and  this  falling  dialect,  "mourn a l o t i d ? "  5. 6.  s h a r e a l s o what B e r r y c a l l s In o t h e r d i a l e c t  H a l lam T e n n y s o n , Francis  458-459.  a r c of sound" which  "slowly  i s t h e p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e vowel Tennyson's p a r t i c u l a r  p r o v i n c e s where t h e Tennyson  The Works o f T e n n y s o n ,  B e r r y , "The  shares w i t h Tennyson the  pp.  ability  in to  resonances  are  895-896.  P o e t ' s V o i c e " , P o e t i c s ('s  Gravenhage,  196l),  pp.  alien,  i s communication  i m p o s s i b l e from  T e n n y s o n ' s p o e t r y b e g i n and north  country The  ately  end  t h e n e x t , and re-direct reader  from  one  dialect  the examination  suggest  y e a r s ago  t h e means o f d e s c r i b i n g  Does  in  restitution  province to another.  speaks  of "poetry?"  who  lived  Can  but  g e n e r a t i o n to  Instead these  he  questions  what d o e s  translate  a c e n t u r y ago,  unfortun-  a simple,  p o e t r y f r o m one  t o a much more g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n :  c o n c e i v e o f when he  the  t o man?  seem q u i t e a p p a r e n t ,  y e t a c c e p t a b l e method o f d e c o d i n g  g e n e r a t i o n t h e p o e t r y o f a man for  in the phonetic encoding--100  in Berry's thesis  t h e y do n o t o f t h e m s e l v e s and  t o p o e t , o r f r o m man  England?  q u e s t i o n s begged  efficient  poet  the  for his  when he no  own  longer  has  o f t h a t p o e t r y the v o i c e o f the " r e s o n a n t " g r e a t poet  who  encoded i t ? This  t h e s i s makes t h e a s s u m p t i o n  understood teration  i n terms o t h e r than  which that  men  The  P o e t r y as  of "langue", which  of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " ^  reader's  of t h e i r  to Ferdinand  linguistic  performances  "the executive side of  language"  de  are " p a r o l e " , or where " t h e  be reiof  reality  place, that i s ,  he d e f i n e s as "a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w h o l e and  The  can  g u i d e s most  t r a n s c e n d s t i m e and  idea approximates  which  v o i c e or the  t h e s i s a c c e p t s as p o e t r y t h a t c o n c e p t  i s idea.  "speaking" parts,  i s something  p o i n t of view which  a n d women h a v e g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d  poetry  level  those of the poet's  of that voice's q u a l i t i e s .  the e n q u i r y of t h i s  that poetry  Saussure's a  principle  the  individual  is  Q always  master."  unique  contribution  A  reader  his  Thus t h e  individual  t o make t o " p a r o l e " , s h a r e s a common p r o p e r t y  shares poetry w i t h . a l l  performances  the poet's  F e r d i n a n d de  8.  Ibid,  p.  13.  o t h e r members o f h i s l a n g u a g e  o f p o e t r y a r e as v a l i d  initial  7.  r e a d e r , o r p o e t , w h i l e he may  i n h i s own  r e a d i n g s as  have a in "langue."  community  and  they were i n  ones.  Saussure,  Course  in General  Linguistics  (London,  1969),  p.  9.  11. With t h e concept o f p o e t r y as t h a t which one way t o r e a d T e n n y s o n ' s p o e t r y a t a n y t i m e  i s a t once temporal and t i m e l e s s , i n w h i c h men a n d women f e e l  r e a d i n g t o be m e a n i n g f u l t o them, i s t o a p p l y t h e l i n g u i s t ' s ption the  t o a poem o r g r o u p o f poems a n d t o d i s c o v e r ,  image o f t h e i d e a w h i c h  a T e n n y s o n poem w i l l  served t h e poet.  demonstrate  t h e p o e t ' s own v o i c e .  discovery--it will  L i n g u i s t i c techniques applied to  " s t r u c t u r e s " o f sound, meter  The a n a l y s i s w i l l  describe the poetic  physiological  peculiarities  however, w i l l  a l w a y s be o f p e r i p h e r a l  The tive  the  reader's s i l e n t  ches which  a t any r a t e ,  sounds  interest  The p o e t ' s own  t o an i d e a w h i c h  dialect;  dialect; three,  structure of the  i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e a p p r o a -  t o l e r a t e s a conception of poetry which  i o n s o f d i a l e c t , and w h i c h , e x c e p t  i s poetry.  r e a d i n g o f h i s poem i n h i s own  alternative  voice,  f r o m among t h r e e a l t e r n a -  r e a d i n g o f t h e poem a g a i n s t an i d e a l The t h i r d  related  w i t h a view t o p o s i t i n g the  r e a d i n g o f t h e poem i n a d i f f e r e n t  o f h i s language.  or syntax i nthe  r e v e r s e Mr. B e r r y ' s p r o c e s s e s o f  of the poet's " v o i c e . "  readings--one, the poet's oral  sounds  level  l i n g u i s t i c v i e w o f a T e n n y s o n poem c h o o s e s  two, t h e r e a d e r ' s o r a l  tools of descri-  s i m p l y and e f f i c i e n t l y ,  t e x t which a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y , at the d e s c r i p t i v e to  such  transcends h i s t o r i c  distinct-^.;  i n t h e need o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n t o  use  i t s own t o o l s f o r i t s own d e s c r i p t i o n s ,  and  place.  transcends d i s t i n c t i o n s o f time  T e n n y s o n ' s own a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o e t r y - m a k i n g - - h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e " h o l l o w oes and a e s " o f h i s v e r s e - - i s view f o r d e s c r i p t i o n Description a full  instead  cannot raises  subject  to question in the descriptive  b e g i n w i t h an a f f i r m a t i o n o f s o u n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f sound  symbolism,  symbolism. but o n l y  e x p l o r a t i o n o f a poem, a g r o u p o f poems, o r ( w i t h c o m p u t e r  after  help) a  l a n g u a g e o f poems h a s been made. The  general l i n g u i s t i c  as J . R. F i r t h 9.  classifies  s t r u c t u r e s o f Maud--the sounds  t h e two o r a l  and t h e p r o s o d i e s ,  f u n c t i o n s o f poetry9--themse1ves  J . R. F i r t h , " S o u n d s a n d P r o s o d i e s " , ( L o n d o n , 1 9 5 7 ) , pp. 121-138.  Papers  in Linguistics,  offer  193^-1951  12. a solution  to miniaturizing  criptions of i t s parts. " b e a t " , as i t w i l l tional at  hereinafter  two m a j o r  be c a l l e d  prosodic analysis'^--occur  changes  to avoid  i n Maud.  y e t complete  des-  i n the meter--or  the connotations of t r a d i -  The f i r s t  o f t h e s e changes  comes  I , a n d t h e s e c o n d comes a t t h e e n d o f P a r t  The l o n g m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem h a s , g e n e r a l l y , a t h r e e - b e a t r h y t h m ,  as o p p o s e d  to the six-beat  l i n e o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , and t h e f i v e - b e a t  line  the conclusion. The  ted  For example,  t h e e n d o f 31 s t a n z a s i n P a r t  II.  of  t h e l o n g poem f o r more e f f i c i e n t  changes  in earlier  center-page columns  i n rhythm  i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p a r t s a r e i d e a l l y accommoda-  e d i t i o n s o f Tennyson's  rules  Works,^ ^  i n which the p r i n t e r s  inserted  t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i d - s e c t i o n o f t h e poem, a n d t h e n s e t t w i n  o f v e r s e on e v e r y p a g e .  Something  l i k e a " f r a m e " poem  i s thus  i m m e d i a t e l y s u g g e s t e d t o t h e r e a d e r , w h e r e an o p e n i n g a n d a c l o s i n g  section  seem t o be m a r k e d o f f f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n . The of  t y p o g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e poem i s bound t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e a d e r  Maud;  however,  for simplicity,  t h e t y p o g r a p h y m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be  l a r g e l y answerable t o the immediately recognizable v a r i a t i o n s between  t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f Maud.  The v a r i a t i o n s  s e c t i o n s a n d t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem w i l l distinctions, uniqueness will,  i n t h e poem's m i d d l e p a r t .  however,  segmental  i n " b e a t " and i n "sounds",  be g i v e n f u l l e r  sounds  i n rhythm between be shown t o have  perhaps p o i n t i n g  Variations  discussion  in line  the "frame" significant  to a kind of  in lines  in a later  lengths  and l i n e  chapter:  rhythms  t h e poem's  are the province of this chapter.  D i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e sounds  i n Maud c a n be s i m p l i f i e d  ('s G r a v e n h a g e ,  by a l l o w i n g  1965);  t h e poem  10.  Seymour C h a t m a n , A T h e o r y o f M e t e r A Study o f Meter (London, 1920).  T. S. Omond,  11.  The H a l lam T e n n y s o n Works o f T e n n y s o n , c i t e d a b o v e , i s t h e t e x t u s e d f o r this thesis. L a t e 19th c e n t u r y and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y e d i t i o n s o f T e n n y s o n p r e f e r t h e c e n t e r r u l e s on e a c h p a g e .  13. to  suggest  be  designated  "A",  the next  be  designated  "B",  and  will the  be  i t s own  divisions;  designated  "C."  s t a b l e r stanza  number o f  118  five  What w i l l  w i t h "A",  be  given  which not  l i n e and  o f "A"  rhymed  11-line stanza  stanza  pattern.  The tion in  critic  i s drawn  using the  The  o f "A",  six-beat  a n a t u r a l break  pause ; 1  as  i n t o the  c o m p a r e d t o "B",  line,  lines,  he  i n "A",  the f i r s t  and  19  in the  three  then  settle  the  to  are  of the  line.  an  into a  drawing a t t e n t i o n , in the  The  re-  six-line  a b c, a b 'c rhyme scheme.  s e c t i o n , f i n d s his atten-' Tennyson,  in English verse, frequently  i t with a punctuating He  four-line  irregularly-  i t s boundaries.  is less familiar  logic-  t h e most s t a b l e  stanzas  introducing  re-reads  r a t h e r than out  l i n e which  syntax  which bears  i s r e t a i n e d , w i t h an  reads  be the  w i t h a r e g u l a r a b a b rhyme scheme.  line  will  in which  c h a n g i n g sound p a t t e r n  at m i d - l i n e , observing  by  per  will  stanza.  1 4 - l i n e s t a n z a , but  stanza  in the  stanzas  as  b r e a k t h e p a t t e r n by  six-beat  employs a h e s i t a t i o n  o p e n i n g 31  and  three beats  lines  composed o f f i v e - b e a t  o n l y o p e n s t h e poem, b u t  ones, with a s i x - b e a t stanzas  six-beat  in a d e s c r i p t i o n of each s e c t i o n , beginning  For example,  12  to  "G",  distinctive,  stanza of a l l three.  maining  of  open t o d e s c r i p t i o n i n i t i a l l y w i l l  and  l i n e s changes from s t a n z a  p a r t s o f Maud may  stanzas,  be  i n "A"  of t h i s  stanzas  stanzas, averaging  final  patterns  A demonstration  ally  the  t h e o p e n i n g 31  does t h i s first  mark o r  with  f r e q u e n t l y i n the  line,  to a  rhetorical  1  Did  he f l i n g h i m s e l f down? who k n o w s " f o r a v a s t s p e c u l a t i o n had f a i l ' d , And e v e r he m u t t e r ' d and madden'd, and e v e r wann'd w i t h d e s p a i r , -Part 1, I,ii i  12.  T e n n y s o n has t e d by Roman the rhythmic his fiNotes", not e x i s t i n  g i v e n Maud a t h r e e - p a r t s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e , e a c h p a r t d e l i m i n u m e r a l s , w h i c h d o e s n o t , i n any o f i t s p a r t s , r e c o g n i z e v a r i a t i o n s which are being suggested in t h i s t h e s i s . In Hal lam T e n n y s o n comments*' "The d i v i s i o n i n t o P a r t s does t h e o r i g i n a l 1855 e d i t i o n , w h i c h c o n t a i n s x x v i S e c t i o n s . "  Or  again: V i l l a i n y somewhere! villains all.  w h o s e , One  s a y s , we  are  - Part And  1,1,  v  again: But t h e s e a r e t h e days o f a d v a n c e , t h e works o f t h e men o f m i n d - P a r t 1, 1, v i i  And: Peace s i t t i n g under her o l i v e , d a y s gone b y ,  and s l u r r i n g -Part  the 1 , I, ix  And: I am  s i c k o f t h e H a l l and t h e h i l l , o f t h e moor and t h e m a i n :  I am  sick  - Part  1, I , x v i  Then;: Workmen up a t t h e Ha 1 1 ! - - t h e y a r e c o m i n g from abroad;  back  - Part The  poet's f i x i n g of a t t e n t i o n  upon an  t o draw t h e r e a d e r f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r h y m e s , and s e n d him far  to look;  i n q u e s t o f an  Tennyson  internal  point  1, I , x v i i in the l i n e  s o u n d p a t t e r n s w h i c h mark  internal  p a t t e r n o f sounds.  uses f r e q u e n t a l l i t e r a t i o n  line-end He has n o t  and c o n s o n a n c e w i t h i n  1i n e s : The  s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r i e k o f a mother divide the shuddering night. -Part  serves  1, I, iv  Or: When t h e p o o r a r e h o v e l I ' d a n d h u s t l e d t o g e t h e r , each s e x , l i k e swine. - Pa r t  1, I x  To p e s t l e a p o i s o n ' d p o i s o n b e h i n d h i s c r i m s o n 1i g h t s . -Part  1, I , x i  ix  Or:  the  15. Or: And  t h e r u s h i n g b a t t l e - b o a t sang from t h e t h r e e - d e c k e r o u t o f t h e foam, That t h e smooth-faced snubnosed rogue would leap from h i s c o u n t e r and t i l l , - P a r t 1, I , x i i i H o w e v e r , e v e n w h i l e he i s a w a r e o f t h e i n s i s t e n t repetitions,  the reader  senses  s t a n z a s o f Maud, a n d one w h i c h being which  he d e t e c t s  a d e e p e r movement o f s o u n d s serves  t o g i v e him, perhaps,  i n the repeated  readings of the stanzas  reveal  r e g i s t e r e d on h i s f i r s t  scanning--the  two p a t t e r n s :  works t o lengthen "prosody",  opening  the reason-forFurther  t o t h e r e a d e r what he has n o t c o n s c i o u s l y  those employing  /uw/ a n d /aw/.y w h e r e /w/  i n these  sounds o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s .  a s s o n a n c e o f two l o n g v o w e l  t h e "A" s t a n z a s o f Maud, T e n n y s o n h a s u s e d v o w e l into  rhythm o f consonant  /w/  syllables  as a " p r o s o d y " ,  i s sometimes s y m b o l i z e d ,  t h e sound o f t h e v o w e l ;  which  sounds. fall  In  roughly  as f o r example,  /ow/,  b u t more o f t e n n o t , y e t  and t h o s e e m p l o y i n g  / y / as a  a s , f o r e x a m p l e , / i y / , / e y / a n d / a y / , w h e r e , a g a i n , t h e / y / may o r 13  may n o t be s y m b o l i z e d , them, t h e s e  but always  two p r o s o d i e s  ( w i t h a t h i r d one, /h/,to  are the engineers d f the "broad which  vowel" which  the vowel.  Between  be c o n s i d e r e d  i n a moment)  Tennyson's contemporaries  and  modern r e a d e r s o f Tennyson's p o e t r y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e c o g n i z e . Linguists  vowels,  h a v e , o f c o u r s e , commonly r e c o g n i z e d / y / a n d /w/  but, except  f o r F i r t h , have n o t g i v e n them a l i n e a r  marks o f a c c e n t , p i t c h  or juncture i n the l i n e .  h o w e v e r , have a i p r o s o d i c f u n c t i o n may be drawn a v e r y golden, 13.  serves t o lengthen  superficial  b r o o d , mood, ha 11, s a l t ,  sampling i n which  i n words /w/,  and / y / ,  f o r example, from  Maud  l i k e r o s e , bones, o l d ,  although  J . R. F i r t h , " S o u n d s a n d P r o s o d i e s , " p. 132.  semi-  equivalence to  The t w o , /w/  i n t h e language:  as  not symbolized,  serves  16. to  l e n g t h e n i n t o a smooth,  gliding  sound  t h e b a c k - v o w e l s a , oo and o.  l a r l y w o r d s 1 i k e p a c e , p r a t e , h a t e , t ime, f r i g h t , t h e s e , f l e e , prosody.  The  be d o m i n a n t are  gliding  and  i n Maud may  fashioned.  s l i d i n g /w/  A description  etc.).  a n a l o g i e s may  roles--in each  line.  i t s vowel  properly  be shown t o  etc.),  lines of section  r o l e , /w/  A more c o m p l e x  might  testing  o r as a vowel  "A",  be c a l l e d  /w/  rhythms  and /y/', i s n e c e s s a r y  be made o f Maud.  o f t h e p r o s o d i e s i s /w/,  (wood, w a v e , wor I d ,  In t h e 161  which w i l l  o f t h e s e two p r o s o d i e s , /w/  By f a r t h e most h a r d - w o r k e d  saw,  r e l y on / y /  be t h e r e s i d u u m o f s o u n d o u t o f w h i c h a poem's  b e f o r e any k i n d o f m u s i c a l  as a s e m i - v o w e l  and / y / e f f e c t s ,  Simi-  w h i c h may element  appears  also occur  (ho'l'.l'Ow,  i n one o f  own,  i t s three  p r o s o d i c as w e l l - - 2 ^ t i m e s f o r  of t h i s glide  semi-vowe1/vowel/prosody  w o u l d o f c o u r s e h a v e a s c a l e o f w e i g h t s f o r /w/,so t h a t a l l i t e r a t i o n s s u c h a s , "And  o u t he w a l k ' d when t h e w i n d  s u c h a s , " C o l d and c l e a r - c u t given ties.  recognition for their  l i k e a b r o k e n w o r l d l i n g w a i l ' d " and  f a c e , when come y o u so c r u e l l y meek ' , w o u l d 1  qualitative  However, a t t h e s i m p l e s t  as w e l l  as t h e i r  l e v e l , i n the s t r a i g h t  /w/  p r o s o d i e s i n "A",  this  sound o u t r a n k s a l l o t h e r s .  the  31  will  demonstrate  s t a n z a s o f "A"  Did  assonances  he f l i n g  1  quantitative  and  A random s a m p l i n g o f  wh/uw/ kn/ow/s?  f o r a v a s t s p e c u l a t i o n had f a i l ' d , And e v e r he m u t t e r ' d and madden'd, and e v e r wann'd w i t h d e s p a i r , And /aw/t he w a l k e d when t h e w i n d l i k e a br/ow/ken w o r I d i n g w a i l ' d , And t h e f l y i n g g / o w / l d o f t h e r/uw/n'd woodlands dr/ow/ve thr/uw/ t h e a i r . -Part  intensi-  c o u n t i n g o f /w/'s  this:  h i m s e l f d/ow/n?  be  1, I ,  i i i  C / o w / l d and c l e a r - c u t f a c e , why come y/uw/ s/ow/ c r / u w / l l y meek, B r e a k i n g a s l u m b e r i n w h i c h /ow/11 s p l e e n f u l f o l l y was dr/aw/n'd? P a l e w i t h t h e g / o w / l d e n beam o f an e y e l a s h dead on t h e c h e e k , P a s s i o n l e s s , p a l e c / o w / l d f a c e , s t a r - s w e e t on a gl/uw/m p r o f / a w / n d ;  17. W o m a n l i k e , t a k i n g r e v e n g e t/uw/ deep f o r a t r a n s i e n t wrong Done b u t i n t h / o w / g h t t/uw/ y o u r b e a / u w / t y , and e v e r as p a l e as b e f o r e G r / o w / i n g and f a d i n g and g r / o w / i n g upon me w i t h / a w / t a s/aw/nd, L/uw/minous, g e m l i k e , g h / o w / s t 1 i k e , d e a t h l i k e , h a l f the n i g h t long G r / o w / i n g and f a d i n g and g r / o w / i n g , t i l l I c o u l d b e a r i t n/ow/ more, But a r / o w / s e , and /ow/11 by m y s e l f i n my /ow/n dark garden gr/aw/nd, l i s t e n i n g n/aw/ t/uw/ the t i d e i n i t s br/ow/df l u n g s h i p w r e c k i n g r/^ew/r, N/aw/ t/uw/ t h e s c r e a m o f a madden'd b e a c h d r a g g ' d d/aw/n by t h e w a v e , W a l k ' d i n a w i n t r y w i n d by a g h a s t l y g l i m m e r , and f / a w / n d The s h i n i n g d a f f o d i l d e a d , and O r i o n 1/ow/ in his grave. -Part  1 , III  For  t h e d r i f t o f t h e M a k e r i s d a r k an I s i s h i d by t h e v e i 1 , Wh/uw/ kn/ow/s t h e ways o f t h e w o r l d , h/aw/ God w i l l b r i n g them a b / a w / t ? /Aw/r p l a n e t i s o n e , t h e s u n s a r e many, t h e w o r l d is wide. S h a l l I weep i f a P / o w / l a n d f a l l ? shall I shriek i f a Hungary f a i 1 ? Or an i n f a n t c i v i l i z a t i o n be r / u w / l e d w i t h rod o r w i t h kn/aw/t? I have n o t made t h e w o r l d , and he t h a t made i t w i l l g u i de. -Part  1,  IV, v i i  When have I b/aw/'d t/uw/ her f a t h e r , the w r i n k l e d head o f the race? I met h e r t o d a y w i t h h e r b r o t h e r , b u t n o t t/uw/ h e r b r o t h e r I b/aw/'d; I b/aw/'d t/uw/ h i s l a d y - s i s t e r as she r/ow/de by on t h e m/uw/r, But t h e f i r e o f a f / u w / l i s h p r i d e f l a s h ' d /ow/ver her b e a / u w / t i f u l f a c e , /Ow/ c h i l d , y/uw/ wrong your bea/uw/ty, b e l i e v e i t , i n b e i n g a s/ow/ pr/aw/d; Y o u r f a t h e r has ®*ealth w e l l - g o t t e n , and I am n a m e l e s s and p/uw/r. -Part  c  1,  IV, i i i  18. What!  am I r a g i n g a l / o w / n e as my f a t h e r r a g e d i n h i s m/uw/d? M u s t I t/uw/ c r e e p t/uw/ t h e h o l l / o w / and d a s h m y s e l f d/aw/n and d i e R a t h e r t h a n h / o w / l d by t h e 1/ow/ that I made, n e v e r m o r e t/uw/ br/uw/d On a h o r r o r o f s h a t t e r ' d l i m b s and a w r e t c h e d swindler s  lie?  1  - Part Perhaps.fche^most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r whether be  at work  who ally  i t be  at work p r o s o d i c a l l y t o  i n i t s semi-vowel  i n t o the has  The  /y/  /wh/  does,  does not  sound  The  /y/,  on  I, x i v  i s i t s vowel  the  vowel, or whether i t  in combination  w i t h /h/  sounds w i t h a g l i d e w h i c h f l o w s  the other  hand, w h i l e  i t , too,  occur  w i t h /h/  in lengthening  the  as /#/  that  as  even where i t i s not  recognizes  /h/  1  as  a consonant, symbolized  i n the  a f t e r /w/,  a special class in English  1  1  Ibid,  in  natur-  is a  It should  forms:  E n g l i s h /h/ i s a s p e c i a l study in weak f o r m s , and i n a l l t h e s e r e s p e c t s i s p e r h a p s a l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d as one of the elements having s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s , w h i c h I have t e r m e d p r o s o d i c . In E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s p h o n e m a t i c /_h/, ( i f t h e r e i s such a t h i n g ) d i s a p p e a r s , but p r o s o d i c h i s s o m e t i m e s i n t r o d u c e d by m i x i n g up i t s f u n c t i o n s w i t h the g l o t t a l stop. I have l o n g f e l t t h a t t h e a i t c h i n e s s , a i t c h i f i c a t i o n , or b r e a t h i n e s s o f sounds and s y l l a b l e s , and s i m i l a r l y t h e i r c r e a k i n e s s o r g l o t t a 1 i z a t i o n , a r e more o f t e n than not f e a t u r e s of the whole s y l l a b l e or set of s y l l a b l e s .  14.  as  semi-  i t cannot perform,  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a vowel.  i s a l s o a p r o s o d y , as w e l l  is.apparent  d o e s , so  i n ,wa?1, w a v e , wood, w i n d , e t c .  Firth  capacity--  r e t a i n e d i t s consonant f u n c t i o n in E n g l i s h , f o r example, y e t .  here t h a t /h/  example  vowel.  lengthen  ro1e--frequent1y  '(/huw/) e t c . - - t h i s v e r s a t i l e /w/  vowel,  its  c a p a c i t y o f t h e /w/  1,  p.  134.  1  be  noted  language: as  as  for  19. He d e s c r i b e s t h e " b r e a t h i n e s s " o f t h e / h / s o u n d syllable:  this  "breathiness"  / w h / a v e , /wh/ood, / w h / i n d , initiates  a syllable,  e v i d e n c e d i n t h e /wh/  e t c . Thus t h e g l i d i n g  combines  iness" of i t s special effects  is clearly  prosody  as a f e a t u r e o f t h e whole  /w/  i tdistinct  contrast  /Wh/alked  2.  AY/our f a t h e r about  i s ever  at /y/our  The  d o m i n a n c e o f /w/  sounds  r e a l i t y marks t h e assonance bination of this  vowel  i n r o s e , owe,  l o n g vowel  will;  syllable  p r o s o d y , b o t h by i t s e l f ,  reveal  a continuum  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f g l i d i n g  and b r e a t h i n g  The r e a d e r c o u l d p o i n t  sound  wit-  plus the  Maud, a n d he w o u l d , q u i t e  in  i t s own name--/wh/ood/wh/i n d - - t h e  to  describe  A very care-  i s p r o v i d e d by t h e  i t s standard partner,  i n t h e /wh/ p r o s o d i e s s u g g e s t s  r e a d e r s o f T e n n y s o n ' s p o e t r y have  t o a "woodwind" q u a l i t y  of  stanzas.  o f sound  and i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h  s t r o n g l y the analogy t o music which  ideally,  insisted  i n the opening stanzas  have f o u n d a m e t a p h o r w h i c h c o n t a i n e d v e r y sound  q u a n t i t i e s which  he had s o u g h t  i n t h e poem.  H o w e v e r , e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t assonant o(woo)e  and  t h e oo(w)e  The com-  s o u n d w i t n e s s e d i n wood, w o r 1 d , wound, e t c . ,  c o m b i n a t i o n o f Maud's o p e n i n g  /w/  plays.  which gives  long vowel.  l o n e , e t c . , o r t h e r e v e r s e c o m b i n a t i o n o f /w/  sounding of the l i n e s w i l l  sound  "A" o f t h e /ow/  a n d t h e p r o s o d y /w/  ful  upon.  1, I I I  i n t h e s e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud t h u s i n  in section  w h i c h g i v e s t h e (w)ooe  t h e dominant  1, III  i n London, / y / o u wander  -Part  /h/.  t o the consonant  i n a / w h / i n t r y /wh/ind... -Part  is  and t h e " b r e a t h -  o f /y_/: 1.  nessed  /wh/ail,  ( o r / w h / ) , when i t  b o t h ; t h e s o f t n e s s o f t h e vowel to give  sounds  in section  than the m u s i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h i s  "A" o f Maud  T h i s long^vowel  i s keyed  i s the thematic f u n c t i o n which the t o t h e " r o s e " theme o f t h e s e c t i o n ,  i t i s k e y e d , t o d , t o t h e t h e m a t i c "who k n o w s ? " o r " w h o s e ? " w h i c h o c c u r i n  20. six  forms  prior  i n the opening,  t o these  a n d w h i c h have f i n a l  occasion  i n Part  lines of resolution: Y/uw/  h a v e b u t f e d on t h e r / o w / s e s a n d i n t h e 1 i 1 i e s o f 1i f e . -Part  But  before  thematic  t h r e a d s may be e x p l o r e d  s e c t i o n o f t h e poem, a s e c o n d g e n e r a l ing  31 s t a n z a s .  That  lain  1, I V , x .  i n s e c t i o n "A", o r i n a n y  a s s o n a n c e must be r e c o r d e d  i s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e second general  vowe1s--those engineered  / n / , and / r / r e s o n a n t s .  in this  s e c t i o n , which  And, f i n a l l y ,  o f T e n n y s o n ' s u s e o f s y l l a b l e s o f I si  a n d Id/  a brief  relies  i n h i s opening  r e l a t i o n s h i p s be i m p l i e d b e t w e e n s o u n d s a n d t h e m e s ;  thematic  discussions will  ff  class of  await  the next  Consonant  h e a v i l y on / _ ] / ,  d e s c r i p t i o n must be made  O n l y when a l l t h e p r o m i n e n t s o u n d s o f "A" have been e x p l o r e d ful  i n t h e open-  by t h e / y / p r o s o d i e s - - i s now n e c e s s a r y .  s o u n d s must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d /m/,  1, I V , x , j u s t  three chapters'  l i n e s o f Maud. can any meaning-  therefore  full  descriptions.  CHAPTER  A second major  vowel  prominence  I I  i n t h e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud i s t h e o n e  which  depends upon /y/ a s a p r o s o d y , s y m b o l i z e d i n t h e T r a g e r - S m i t h model a s :  bee:  /b i y/;  bay:  /bey/;  /y_/ has t h r e e f u n c t i o n s  buy:  /bay/ , and , boy:  /boy/.^  Again,  like/w/,  i n t h e l a n g u a g e , a s a c o n s o n a n t , as a v o w e l , a n d as a  prosody.  H o w e v e r , /y/, u n l i k e /w/,  which  i s a t most o n l y a  semi-consonant,  e v e n when  i t initiates  a s y l l a b l e , has s t r o n g c o n s o n a n t  position,  f o r example,  y o u , y o u r , y e t , y o u n g , w h e r e /y/ has p a l a t a l  quality  in the i n i t i a l articula-  tion. The for  vowel  q u a l i t i e s o f /y/  e x a m p l e as a p r o s o d y  as a v o w e l  third  s y l l a b 1es  i n i t s p r o s o d i c and vowel  /tayme/;  i n w h i c h /y/  rather.than a vowel;  group  appear  i n t i me:  largely  ta1e: /tey1/;  i n my_, s k y , o r s t a t e l y, n i c e l y , e t c .  c l u d e t h o s e vowel a prosody  rest  would  /m i y/;  i s symbolized, but acts  f o r example,  or  A t h i r d g r o u p i n g would i n in effect  boy, p l a y , buy, e t c .  h a v e t o be a p p e n d e d a n o t h e r c l a s s  t o be m o r p h o p h o n e m i c  me:  roles,  To  as  this  (some members o f w h i c h  i n c h a r a c t e r ) which graphemica11y  represents the  p r o s o d y as f o r e x a m p l e i n r e j o i c e , v o i c e , w a i 1 , p r a i s e , r e c e i v e , e t c . To s u m m a r i z e , initiating in  which  t h e n , /y/, u n l i k e /w/,  a s y l l a b l e , and thus  i tmight  has a s t r o n g c o n s o n a n t  loses one o f those p o s i t i o n s  b e h a v e as a v o w e l , o r a t b e s t ,  In t h e o p e n i n g 3' s t a n z a s o f Maud t h e /w/ Thus t h e o o o (w)ooe g l i d e section. an  1.  initial  The /y/ s o u n d s ,  q u a l i t i e s o f t h e /w/ losing  l i k e /w/,  semi-vowel  i n t h e language  as a s e m i - v o w e l . i s a prominent one.  are insistent  as t h e y do a n y vowel  quality in  in this  "A;  1 1  q u a l i t i e s when'/y/  s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n , cannot compete i n o v e r a l l  intensity with  G e o r g e L. T r a g e r a n d H e n r y Lee S m i t h , J r . , An Out 1 i n e o f E n g l i s h ( W a s h i n g t o n , 1951) , p. 2 7 .  is in  /w/  Structure  22.  sounds, but remain n o n e t h e l e s s a second major Examples  of this  aaa ( y ) e e e , appear  assonance  h i g h - f r o n t , / y / - l e n g t h e n e d vowel  in these typical  i n Maud's o p e n i n g s y l l a b l e , which  s t a n z a s f r o m Maud's "A"  lines.  goes  section:  I remember t h e t / a y / m e , f o r t h e r o o t s o f m/ay/ ha i r w e r e s t i r r ' d By a s h u f f l e d s t e p , by a dead w / e y / t t r / e y / 1 ' d , by a w h i s p e r ' d f r / a y / g h t , A n d my p u l s e s c l o s e d t h e i r g / e y / t e s w i t h a s h o c k on m/ay/ h e a r t as / a y / h e a r d The s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r / i y / k o f a m o t h e r d i v / a y / d e the shuddering n/ay/ght. -Part  1, I, iv  And S l / i y / p m u s t l / a y down a r m ' d , f o r t h e villainous centre bits G r ' a y ' n d on t h e w / e y / k e f u l / i y / r i n t h e h u s h o f the moonless n / a y / g h t s , Wh/ay/le another i s c h / i y / t i n g the s i c k o f a f e w l a s t g a s p s , as h / i y / s i t s To p e s t l e a p / o y / s o n ' d p / o y / s o n b e h / a y / n d h i s crimson 1/ay/ghts. -Part  1, I, x i  A m i l l i o n emeralds br/ey/k from the rubyb u d d e d 1/ay/me In t h e l i t t l e g r o v e w h e r e / a y / s i t — a h , w h e r e f o r e cannot /ay/ b / i y / L / a y / k e t h i n g s o f t h e s / i y / s o n g / e y / , 1/ay/ke the b o u n t i f i l s/iy/son bland, When t h e f a r - o f f s/ey/1 i s b l o w n b / a y / t h e b r / i y / z e of a s o f t e r cl/ay/me, H a l f - l o s t i n the l i q u i d / e y / z u r e bloom o f a c r e s c e n t o f s / i y/ , The s / a y / l e n t s a p p h / a y / r e - s p a n g l e d m a r r i a g e r i n g of the land? -Part  1,  IV, i  F o r t h e d r i f t o f t h e M / e y / k e r i s d a r k , an / a y / s i s h i d b/ay/ t h e v/ey/1 . Who knows t h e w/ey/s o f t h e w o r l d , how God w i l l b r i n g them a b o u t ? Our p l a n e t i s o n e , t h e s u n s a r e many, t h e w o r l d i s w/ay/de. S h a l l /ay/ w/iy/p i f a Poland f a l l ? s h a l l /ay/ s h r / i y / k <i>f a H u n g a r y f / e y / l ? Or an i n f a n t c i v i 1 i z / e y / t i o n be r u l e d w i t h r o d or w i t h knout? / a y / h a v e n o t m/ey/de t h e w o r l d , a n d H / i y / t h a t m/ey/de i t w i l l g / a y / d e . -Part  1, I V ,  viii  23.  A s e p a r a t e c l a s s , o f t h e / y / p r o s o d i e s has a s y e t gone u n r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , but this  sound  now demands a t t e n t i o n  u s e o f i t i n t h e "A" s e c t i o n of. Maud. employs  the "short  syllables of  i",  This  as i t i s p o p u l a r l y  because o f Tennyson's  class  o f / y / sounds  designated.  t h e/ y / prosody group.  However t h i s  vowel  i s t h e one which  In E n g l i s h ,  a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d as d i p h t h o n g s , as f o r example  frequent  area l l  has a d i p h t h o n g a l  "short i " other  vowels  q u a l i t y when i t  appears, in c o n j u n c t i o n with a consonant o f the resonant group, l i k e /_]/ , / r r / , / n / , /r/  , a n d , o f c o u r s e , /w/ a n d / y / , w h e r e t h e r e s o n a n t q u a l i t i e s  merge w i t h might if  o f t h e vowel  t h e . r e s o n a n c e o f t h e c o n s o n a n t , p r o d u c i n g a /y_/ p r o s o d y s o u n d  b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s / i-y/ , a s i n f i l l :  / f i-y 1 / , a n d w h i c h has a  n o t a q u a n t i t y , equal t o t h e analogous sound In s e c t i o n  "A" T e n n y s o n  makes a d i s t i n c t i v e  r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s / ]_/ , /m/, / n/ , I x_l,  i n , f o r example, use o f this  / w/ , a n d / y / .  which  quality,  feel:  /fiyl/.^  s o u n d /4-y/ w i t h t h e  An example  from t h i s  "A"  s e c t i o n o f Maud i s : When a Mammon i t e m o t h e r YJ i-y/ l i s h e r b a b e for a burial f e e , A n d T/4y/mour-Mammon gr/4-y/ns o n a p i l e o f c h / r y / l d r e n 's b o n e s , Is i t p e a c e o r w a r ? b e t t e r , war! Loud war by l a n d a n d s e a , War w i t h a t h o u s a n d b a t t l e s , a n d s h a k i n g a hundred t h r o n e s . •Part  1, I, x i i  Or: A m/t-y/1 1 i o n e m e r a l d s b r e a k f r o m t h e r u b y b u d d e d 1 ime In t h e 1 / 4 - y / t t l e g r o v e w h e r e I s i t — a h , wherefore cannot I be, L i k e th/+y/ngs o f t h e s e a s o n g a y , l i k e t h e b o u n t i f u l season b l a n d , When t h e f a r - o f f s a i l i s b l o w n b y t h e b r e e z e of a s o f t e r c1ime  2.  O t t o J e s p e r s e n , " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f t h e Vowel 1933),  3.  PP  1",, L i n g u i s t i c s  (Copenhagen,  283-303.  A . C. G i m s o n , A n I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 96.  to thePronunciation  of English  (London,  2k. H a l f - l o s t i n the l/4y/q/-iy/d a z u r e bloom o f a crescent of sea, The s i l e n t s a p p h i r e - s p a n g l e d m a r r i a g e r/4iy/ng of the land? -Part Tennyson the s y l l a b l e s  vowel  u s e d t h e s h o r t / ] _ / — w h i c h i s more c o r r e c t l y a " s h o r t " / ] _ /  o f o b s t r u e n t c o n s o n a n t s , as f o r e x a m p l e  etc.^ —101.times  pi t y , t r i p , this  has  in section  this  "A",  resonant consonants with which important consonant p a t t e r n sounds  he had  / n / , / vj , / w/,  i n "A" must t h e r e f o r e  predominate  does  Whereas  i n "A",  i t may  i t may  r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s ,/_!/, A n / , / n / , / r / , /w/, t e d a l r e a d y , make up more t h a n 5 0  /y/.  include the  now  The  t o t h e most  be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t be d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t  and A y / , w h i c h have been  per c e n t o f t h e c o n s o n a n t sounds  /y/.  or  n o t end h e r e , h o w e v e r .  i t f i n d s most f r e q u e n t company p o i n t  i n "A."  used  or  d e t e r m i n e d p r o s o d i c a l l y by /w/  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i p h t h o n g a l /ry/  " l o n g " vowel  hid, city,  The / r y / v o w e l s y l l a b l e must be a l l o w e d t o j o i n  r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d c l a s s o f " l o n g " vowels The  /m/,  instances  in  " s h o r t " / i / becomes d i p h t h o n g i z e d as  A c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e / y / p r o s o d y sounds c l a s s of sounds.  bit, bid, sit,  i n 75  and  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h . t h e r e s o n a n t s /U,  In t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e s e c o n s o n a n t s /fy/.  1 , IV, i  the the  delimi-  of the  sect ion. A selection  o f s e v e n s t a n z a s c h o s e n a t random f r o m "A" w i l l  show t h e h i g h  frequency of resonant consonants!  k.  In h i s e s s a y " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f t h e Vowel I " , J e s p e r s e n has s u g g e s t e d t h a t " s h o r t " I \J has a s y m b o l i c v a l u e i n some I n d o - E u r o p e a n l a n g u a g e s , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h , where i t connotes " l i t t l e n e s s . " He has n o t , h o w e v e r , seen the d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s y l l a b l e s o f " s h o r t " / ] _ / — a s , f o r example, the q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n sound between " b i t " and " t h i n " , o r between " s l i t " and " s l i m . " He c a n n o t , t h u s , a c c o u n t f o r w o r d s l i k e " m i l l i o n " , " f i l l " , " h i l l " , " s i n " . , , " k i 1.1", " w i n , "Him", e t c . S i n c e t h e s e r e s o n a n t / T y / s y l l a b l e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t ones i n T e n n y s o n ' s M a u d , t h e poem s e r v e s t o p o i n t up t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f J e s p e r s e n ' s a n a l y s i s . The e s s a y i s , h o w e v e r , a p r o v o c a t i v e o n e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t i m p l i e s t h a t a more c o r r e c t a n a l y s i s m i g h t be t h e o n e w h i c h . c o n s i d e r s t h e s y l l a b l e r a t h e r t h a n t h e phoneme. 1  i  25. D i d he f l i n g h i m s e l f down? Who k n o w s , f o r a s p e c u l a t i o n had fai_j_ d Ajnd ever, he m u t t e r e d a_nd madden. d, a n d eve£ warm'd w i t h d e s p a i r . And o u t he w a l k ' d when_ t h e w i n d V\ke a br_oken. wor I d l i n g w a i j _ ' d , And t h e fj.yi.ng goJ_d o f t h e r_uin.'d woodJ_an_ds dr.ove t h j r o t h e a i r . . vast  1  1  1  -Part  1, I ,  i i i  WJny do t h e y pr_ate o f t h e bj.essi.ngs o f P e a c e ? we h a v e made them a c u r s e , P i c k p o c k e t s , e a c h h a n d _l.usti.ng fo_r a 1 1 t h a t i s n o t i t s own.; And J u s t o f g a i n _ , i_n t h e s p i r i t o f Cai_n, i s i t b e t t e r . o £ wo£se Than_ t h e hea_rt o f t h e c i t i z e n , h i s s i n g in_ wa_r on. h i s own. hea_rthston_e? -Part  1, I, v i  A n d SJ_eep must J _ i e dow£ a r m d , f o r . t h e v i 1 l a i n o u s centre-bi ts G_ri£d on. t h e w a k e f u j _ ear. ini t h e h u s h o f t h e moon l e s s n i ghts , W h J J e a n o t h e r i s c h e a t i n g t h e s i c k o f a f e w J.ast g a s p s , a s he s i t s To p e s t j _ e a p o i s o n / d p o i s o n , b e h i n d h i s c r i m s o n . J_ights. 1  -Part What!  am  1, I , x i  I r_agin.g aJ_on.e a s my f a t h e r . £aged  in. h i s  mood? M u s t I t o o c r e e p t o t h e h o i l o w a n d d a s h mysej_f dowjn and d i e _Rather_ than_ hoJ_d by t h e J_aw t h a t I made, n e v e r m o r e to brood On. a h o r r o r o f shatte£'d J_imbs ajnd a w r e t c h e d s w i n.dj_ejr's J _ i e ? -Part  1, I, x i v  . J.ojng h a v e I s i g h ' d f o r . a c a l m : God g,ranit I may fin_d i t at- J a s t l I t wiJJ.ri.ever. be b r o k e n , by Maud, s h e has n e i g h e r . s a v o u r , nor. s a j _ t , But a coJ_d an_d c j . e a r - c u t f a c e , as I f o u n d when her c a r r i a g e p a s t ,  P e r f e c t l y b e a u t i f u j _ : J_et i t be g r a n t e d hejr: where i s t h e f a u l t ? A l 1 t h a t I saw (fo_r he_r e y e s we_re d o w n c a s t , n o t t o be s e e n ) Fau__ti_l_y fau__t]_ess , i c i _ l _ y _regu_lar , s p j e n d i d_l_y  • £L_LL > U  Dead pe_rf e c t i o r _ , no mo£e: r_othir_g m o r e , i f i t had. n o t beer_ Fo_r a c h a n c e o f t r a v e _ l _ , a pa_l_eness , ajn hou_r's d e f e c t o f the._rose, 0_r ajn u n d e r l i p , .y_ou may c a 1 1 i t a _Mtt__e t o o _ripe, too fu 1 1, 0_r t h e _l_east _]_i tt_]_e d e d i c a t e a q u i j j n e c u r v e i n . a s e n s i t i ve n o s e , From wh i c h I e s c a p e d h e a r t - f r e e , w i t h t h e _l_east _l_itt_l_e t o u c h o f s p j e e n . -Part  1,11  When h a v e I bow'd t o her_ f a t h e _ r , t h e w r i n k l e d h e a d o f t h e _race? I met hejr t o d a y w i t h he_r b_rother_, b u t not to her. b_rothe_r I bow'd: I bow'd t o h i s _l_ady-s i s t e _ r a s s h e _rode by or_ t h e moo_r But t h e f i r e o f a foo_]_ish p_ride f_l_ash'd ovejr he_r b e a u t i f uj_ f a c e . 0 c h i _ l _ d , _y_ou w r o n g ypur_ b e a u t y , b e l i e v e i t , i r _ b e i n g s o p_roud; , _You_r f a t h e _ r has wea_]_th w e l 1 - q o t t e n , ajnd I am name_]_ess an_d poo_r. -Part Be. mi ne a ,ph i_losophe£'s _ l _ i f e  1 , IV, H i  ijn t h e q u i e t wood_land  ways , Where i f I c a n n o t be g a y _l_et a p a s s i o n l e s s p e a c e be my _l_o t , Fa_r o f f f r o m t h e c_l_amou_r o f _l_ia_rs be_l_ief i r _ t h e hubbub o f _l_i es ; F_rom t h e _l_or_g-r_eck'd g e e s e o f t h e wor_l_d t h a t a_re eve_r h i s s i j n g d i s p _ r a i s e B e c a u s e t h e i _ r n a t u r e s a_re _ l _ i t t _ l _ e , an.d w h e t h e r he h e e d i t o_r not, Where e a c h majn w a l k s w i t h h i s h e a d i r _ a c j p u d o f po i s o n o u s f l _ i es . -Part  1 , IV, i x  One o f t h e s e r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , /__./, needs s p e c i a l comment, f o r i t i s this  o n e w h i c h a p p e a r s kO o u t o f 75 t i m e s  resonant.  i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f /-fy/ and a  F o r e x a m p l e , T e n n y s o n makes h e a v y p l a y on  viii,  as i n v i l l a i n a n d  27. vi1laqe;  on  1i t t 1 e ,  a word  intensities  mill  i n mi 11 i o n and  as  he u s e d e i g h t  times  mi 1 1 - s t o n e ; in section  on h i l l ,  "A."  Two  and, f i n a l l y ,  on  s t a n z a s o f "A" show t h e  o f /}_/'• ,/j/ong have I s i g h ' d f o r a c a l m : God g r a n t I find i t at / J / a s t ! I t w i / J / n e v e r be b r o k e n by Maud, s h e has n e i t h e r s a v o u r nor s a / J / t , B u t a c o / J / d a n d c / J _ / e a r - c u t f a c e , as I f o u n d when her c a r r i a g e p a s t , P e r f e c t /J / y b e a u t i f u / J / : /']_/et i t be g r a n t e d h e r : where is the f a u / J / t ? A / 1 / t h a t I saw ( f o r h e r e y e s w e r e d o w n c a s t , n o t t o  may  be seenY  Fau/J/ti/J/y fau/J/t/J/ess , i c i / J / y regu/J/ar, sp/J/endid/J/y nu/]/, Dead p e r f e c t i o n , no more; n o t h i n g m o r e , i f i t had n o t been F o r a c h a n c e o f t r a v e / J / , a p a / J / e n e s s , an h o u r ' s defect of the rose, Or an u n d e r / J / i p , you may c a / ] _ / i t a / J / i t t / J / e t o o r i p e , too fu/J/, Or t h e / J / e a s t / J / i t t / J / e d e / J / i c a t e a q u i / J / i n e c u r v e i n a s e n s i t i ve n o s e , From w h i c h I e s c a p e d h e a r t - f r e e , w i t h t h e / J / e a s t / 1 / i t t / l / e touch of sp/l/een'. -Part Be m i n e a p h i / J / o s o p h e r s / J / i f e 1  ways ,  1,11  in the q u i e t  wood/J/and  Where i f I c a n n o t be g a y / J _ / e t a p a s s i o n / J / e s s p e a c e be my /1/ot, F a r - o f f from t h e c/J/amour o f / J / i a r s be/J_/ied i n t h e hubbub o f / 1/i e s ; From t h e /_[_/ong-neck'd g e e s e o f t h e w o r / _ l / d t h a t a r e e v e r hissing dispraise B e c a u s e t h e i r n a t u r e s a r e / J / i t t / J / e , a n d , w h e t h e r he heed i t o r n o t , Where e a c h man w a l k s w i t h h i s head i n a c / J / o u d o f poisonous f/jh/ies. -Part The are  r e m a i n i n g consonants o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e  in this  description of  /s_/ , / h / a n d / d / , t h e l a s t - n a m e d b e i n g t h e o n l y s t o p  Tennyson  uses  t o any g r e a t e x t e n t , and even  v a l e n t , as w i l l prosody  in  be s h o w n .  English,  consonant  h i s use o f t h i s  His use o f / h / , which  1 , IV, i x  s t o p sound  "A"  which i s ambi-  i s both a consonant and a  i s so r e g u l a r and so c o n s i s t e n t ,  that  i t serves  more t h a n  28. any  other  s i n g l e sound t o i n t i m a t e t h a t Tennyson  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e language. o f I hi  use  sounds w i l l  i s responding  (This p o i n t w i l l  be o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y  t o a fundamental  be r a i s e d . l a t e r ;  dealt with  Tennyson's  in the present  chap-  ter.) T e n n y s o n makes f r e q u e n t but  a l s o w i t h Ihl.  in combination  uants  which  u s e o f I si  i n c l u d e s Iml , Inl  , I\l  This  i n s e c t i o n "A", n o t o n l y  in i t s e l f ,  c o n s o n a n t , one o f t h e group o f c o n t i n -  , I rl , /w/,  / y / , as w e l l  as Izl  , I fl , / v / ,  c a n n o t be c l a s s e d i n t h e c u r r e n t a n a l y s i s a s a r e s o n a n t , as t h e Iml, I rl , /w/, to The  / y / group c a n .  lengthen  t h e vowel s y l l a b l e  c o n s o n a n t I si,  contrasted pairs his: Izl  For the resohants  /h i y z / ;  by c o n t i n u i n g v o i c i n g o v e r  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , w o r k s o f I si  rest:  and / z / s o u n d s w i l l r  /rest/  a r e those continuants  o r r e s i n:  to shorten  and / V / J which a r e resonants , have l i t t l e  not been c o n s i d e r e d Tennyson's use the f o l l o w i n g  the whole  hiss:  T h e two o t h e r  /]/,  which work syllable.  t h e v o w e l , as  demonstrate:  /reyzn/.  Inl,  these  / h i s / or continuants,  f u n c t i o n i n Maud, a n d t h u s  have  here.  of./s/  and  Isl  consonance  i n "A" s e c t i o n may be s e e n i n  lines: I remember t h e t i m e , f o r t h e r o o t / s / o f my h a i r were / s / t i r r d By a / j [ / u f f l e d / s / t e p , by a d e a d w e i g h t t r a i l ' d , by a whi/s/per'd fright, A n d my p u l / s / e / s _ / c l o / s / e d t h e i r g a t e / s / w i t h a / s / o c k on my h e a r t a / s / I h e a r d The/s/ri11-edged / s / r i e k o f a mother d i v i d e t h e /s/uddering night. 1  -Part In sti rr'd,  this  stanza, the individual  step, whisper d,  sounds a r e g i v e n  1  my h e a r t as  sounds a r e emphasized  pulses , c l o s e d , gates , a s ;  i n ha i r , h e a r t a n d h e a r d ;  s t i r r ' d , w h i c h m i g h t be s y m b o l i z e d "on  /si  I heard ; 1  t h e Isl  e d q e d s h r i e k a n d s h u d d e r i nq .  I si  + Ihl  1 , I, iv i n roots ,  the individual  Ihl  sounds a r e heard i n  / s t a h r d / i n wh i s p e r ' d , a n d i n t h e p h r a s e sounds a r e prominent  i n s h u f f l e d , s h r i 11-  O t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f I si  a n d It/  s o u n d s may b e h e a r d  in the following  1i n e s : When t h e p o o r a r e h o v e l I ' d a n d h u / s / t l e d t o g e t h e r , each / s / e x , l i k e / s / w i n e . -Part On a h o r r o r o f /sVatter'd /s/windlerVs/ lie?  limb/s/ and a wretched  -Part Walk'd  1, I, i x  1, I, x i v  i n a w i n t r y wind by a g h a / s / t l y glimmer and  found The./£/ining d a f f o d i l grave.  dead, and O r i o n  low i n h i / s /  -Part 1,111  the  The I si\lent land?  /s/apphire-/s/pang1ed  marriage ring o f  -Part  1 , IV, i  The M a y f l y i / s / t o r n b y t h e / s / w a l l o w , t h e / s / p a r r o w / s / p e a r ' d by t h e / ^ / r i k e , -Part  1, I V ,  iv  We w h i / s / p e r , a n d h i n t , a n d c h u c k l e , a n d g r i n a t  a b r o t h e r ' / s / /s7ame; -Part / S / a l l I weep i f a P o l a n d f a l l ? i f a Hungary f a i 1 ?  /s?all  I /s/riek  -Part From t h e l o n g - n e c k ' d g e e / s / e ever h i / s / i n g di/s/prai/s/e  prominence  commented upon  o f I hi  i n Chapter  n o t been e x a m i n e d ,  as a p r o s o d y  in syllables  I : however, i t s prominence  and might  be s u g g e s t e d  1 , IV, v i i i  o f the world that a r e  -Part The  1 , IV, v  1, I V ,  ix  i n i t i a t i n g w i t h /w/ was a s p r o s o d y w i t h Irl  in the following  stanzas:  has  30.  I r/h/ememb/h/r t h e t i m e f o / h / r t h e r / h / o o t s o f h a i / h / r we/h/re s t i / h / r ' d By a s h u f f l e d s t e i p , by a dead w e i g h t t r / h / a i l ' d by a w h i s p e / h / r ' d f / h / r i g h t , A n d my p u l s e s c l o s e d t h e i / h / r g a t e s w i t h a s h o c k on my h e a / h / r t as I h e a / h / r d The s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r i e k o f a m o t h e / h / r d i v i d e the shudde/h/ring n i g h t . my  -Part  1, I, iv  Why do t h e y p r / h / a t e o f t h e b l e s s i n g s o f P e a c e ? h a v e made them a c u / h / r s e , P i c k p o c k e t s , each hand l u s t i n g f o / h / r a l l t h a t i s n o t i t s own; And l u s t o f g a i n , i n t h e s p i / h / r i t o f C a i n , i s i t b e t t e / h / r or wo/h/rse Than t h e h e a / h / r t o f t h e c i t i z e n h i s s i n g i n w/h/ar on h i s own h e a / h / r t h s t o n e ? we  -Part A collection  o f t h e / h / p r o s o d i es , t h e I si , Ici  o f which s h a r e " b r e a t h i n e s s " , and t h a t Ihl /w/  i s a major  predominates Perhaps  paradigm  not  as a  a structural  that  consonants  i n t h e poem, e s p e c i a l l y  this  description a n d Ihl  i n "A"  demonstrates  section,  in which  functions  t a k e n t o be a  in the p o e t r y , might  i s a b a s i c . s o u n d o f the language.  belongs p r o p e r l y  The  i n Maud  o f t h e s o u n d /wh/,  speculation w i l l  be r a i s e d  lead  to  However, such  to a c o n c l u d i n g statement about  i n f l u e n c e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f sound  poem.  a n d /J&I s y l l a b l e s a l l  semi-consonant/vowel/prosody.  c a s e o f a l l /w/  speculation ulation  sound  t h e Ihl  1, 1, vi  spec-  s o u n d s , and s h o u l d  prominences  in a  particular  in the c o n c l u d i n g chapter of  this  thes i s. F i n a l l y , Idl There I dl I w/,  has an  important r o l e  is a s t r o n g consonance  of this  s o u n d , n o t b e c a u s e T e n n y s o n has  as an>a 1 1 i t e r a t i ve d e v i c e , as he has e t c . , but because  sitions  he has  relied  c o u n t i n g o f /d/'s  sonants appear;  2k2  i n "A"  done w i t h Ijsl,  I si , Ihl,  s o l e l y upon t h e s o u n d  i n the word, a s , f o r example,  A straight  i n t h e s e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud. used  I\l,  in terminal  I po-  i n. m a d d e n ' d , c r u s h ' d , d i n t e d , e t c .  section  reveals  o f t h e m , o r 72% o f t h e t o t a l ,  t h a t 335 find  of these con-  positions  in the  rl,  31.  terminal  syllables  a n d ' s and  of past  of  the words.  participles  of  T e n n y s o n u s e s an the  verb  exceptional  i n t h e s e "A"  number  stanzas,  of  which  suggests strong  evidence f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c arrangement  in  poetry--indeed,  s u c h a r r a n g e m e n t e x i s t s and  However,  p o e t has the  had  other  will  t h a n s y n t a c t i c needs f o r t h e  following lines w i l l  be  discussed.  the  t e r m i n a l /jd/ s y l l a b l e s ,  the as  demonstrate:  ...For t h e r e in the g h a s t l y p i t long s i n c e a body foun/d/ , H i s who h a / d / g i v e n me l i f e — 0 f a t h e r ! 0 Go/d/! was i t wel 1 ? — M a n g l e / d / , and f l a t t e n ' / d / and c r u s h Vd/, and d i n t e / d / into the groun/d/: was  -Part  1, 1, i i  ...And e v e r he m u t t e r Vd/ a n d madden'/d/ a n d e v e r wann'/d/ w i t h d e s p a i r , A n d . o u t he w a l k ' / d / when t h e w i n / d / l i k e a b r o k e n w o r l / d / 1 i ng wa i 1 Vd/ , And t h e f l y i n g g o l / d / o f t h e r u i n ' / d / woo/d/lan/d/s d r o v e thro the a i r . 1  -Part  1, I, i i i  . . . t h e r o o t s o f my  h a i r were  stirr'/d/ By a s h u f f l e / d / s t e p , by a d e a / d / w e i g h t t r a i l Vd/, whisper'/d/ f r i g h t , A n d my p u l s e s c l o s e / d / t h e i r g a t e s w i t h a s h o c k on my h e a r t as I h e a r / d / The s h r i 1 1 - e d g e / d / s h r i e k o f a m o t h e r d i v i d e t h e shuddering night. -Part  1 , I , iv  D r o p t o f f g o r g e / d / f r o m a scheme t h a t h a / d / f l a c c i / d / and d r a i n ' / d / . -Part  left  us  1 , I, v  That the s m o o t h f a c e / d / , snubnose/d/ rogue woul/d/ f r o m h i s c o u n t e r and t i l l , 1  -Part I play'/d/ with t h e n t o be f a i r .  the g i r l  when a c h i l d ;  -Part  by  leap  1, I, xi i i she  promise/d/  1, I, xvii  a  When h a v e of t h e race?  I bow'/d/ t o h e r f a t h e r , t h e w r i n k l e / d / h e a / d /  -Part  1, I V ,  i i i  An e y e w e l 1 - p r a c t i s e / d / i n n a t u r e , a s p i r i t b o u n d e / d / ' • • • < poor; The p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t o f t h e p o e t i s w h i r l ' / d / i n t o fo11y and v i c e .  and  -Part  1, I V , v i i  I h a v e n o t ma/d/e t h e w o r l / d / , a n d He t h a t ma/d/e i t w i l l gu i / d / e . -Part A g a i n , as s u g g e s t e d  in the f i r s t  s o n a n c e , seems d e l i b e r a t e l y r h y t h m s , w h e r e t h e I'6/ quality  chapter, the poet,  t o b r i n g the reader's  sounds g i v e a r h e t o r i c a l  i n t h e use o f con-  attention to internal  weight  as w e l l  as a  lyrical  to the l i n e s .  T e n n y s o n h a d a model to  1 , IV, v i i i  f o r such  rhetoric  i n English poetry  in Milton;  quote one c r i t i c : . . . i n M i l t o n ( t h e r e i s ) an u n o b t r u s i v e b e g i n n i n g f o l l o w e d by a s t r o n g c o n s o n a n t a l finale—crescendo. The M i l t o n i c f o r m u l a i s r e p r e s e n t e d by such words as e a r t h , a r m s , H e a v ' n s , w o r 1 d , r o w l ' d , b u r n t . . . .5 However, t h e consonant c l u s t e r s  tions  both  which a r e being  remarked  in the descri-  o f M i l t o n a n d o f T e n n y s o n c a n n o t be d i s c u s s e d o u t o f c o n t e x t :  t h e y must be r e a l i z e d  i n t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t s — t h e  may p r o p e r l y be d i s c u s s e d . become s e p a r a t e d  Tennyson's / d / c l u s t e r s ,  by a n d , a d e v i c e w h i c h s e r v e s  reader, the "special  massiveness  i n v o l v e t h e same r e s o n a n t  poetry—before  f o r example, f r e q u e n t l y  to de-emphasize, f o r the  o f the consonants:  consonants,  IJJ  they  t h e s e /d/  clusters  , Im/ , / nf , IT] , t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y  5.  A n t s O r a s , "Some P a r a 1 l e l s a n d C o n t r a s t s i n t h e H a n d l i n g o f S o u n d " , E s s a y s on t h e L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman a n d Samuel R. L e v i n (Bos t o n , 1967) , p p . 1 9 - 3 2 .  6.  I b i d , p. 20.  33. been r e m a r k e d  upon as t h e d o m i n a n t  ones  o f s e c t i o n "A" o f Maud.  F i r s t , the  ajnd, a n d , s e c o n d , t h e r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s b e f o r e Id/,  rhetorical  once a g a i n , t o . l e n g t h e n  t h e vowel  sound.  serve,  For example:  A n / d / o u t he w a l k ' d when t h e wi n/d/ 1 i k e a b r o k e n w o r 1 / d / i nq wa i 1 ' / d / , -Part And  t h e f l y i n g go 1d o f t h e r u i n'd  1, I,  woodlands...  -Part  1, I,  When t h e p o o r a r e h o v e l 1'd a n d h u s t l e d -Part To p e s t l e a po i s o n ' d p o i s o n 1 i grits .  i i i  i i i  together,  1, I , i x  beh i nd h i s c r i m s o n  -Part  1, I , x i  On a h o r r o r o f s h a t t e r ' d 1imbs a n d a w r e t c h e d s w i n d l e r ' s 1i e? -Part In summary o f t h e c u r r e n t c h a p t e r , significant eral  sounds  a s s o n a n c e o f /w/  general  consonance  a n d I rl  plus  a n c e o f Is/, Id/  i n the opening  t h e n , Tennyson o f Maud.  has e m p l o y e d  These  include:  p r o s o d y a n d I'__// p r o s o d y v o w e l s , V o w /  o f resonant sounds, o f which  an Ihl I si  lines  1, I, x i v  a n d Idl  s o u n d s , a n d (k)  ( l ) a gen-  and / ey/;  1/4y/1 a p p e a r s  prosody appears s i g n i f i c a n t l y ;  (2) a  prominently,  (3) a s p e c i f i c  a striking  four  conson-  repetition of terminal  syllables. These  sounds  expos i'tory s t a n z a s concluding  w h i c h h a v e been d e s c r i b e d as t h e d o m i n a n t o f . Maud's  l i n e , as a s i m p l e  i n t r o d u c t i o n a r e t h e dominant r e p e t i t i o n of that  Y/uw/ h a v e b u t f e d o n t h e r/ow/ses 1/ey/n i n t h e l / 4 y / l / i y / s o f 1 / a y / f e This  l i n e appears  o f t h e poem.  ones  in the long, also, of i t s  demonstrate:  and .  t o h a v e been t h e r e s o l u t i o n f o r T e n n y s o n  s e c t i o n , f o r he t u r n s a t t h i s section  line will  ones  point to the three-beat  o f t h e "A"  l y r i c of the middle  T h e two l i t e r a r y s y m b o l s , t h e " r o s e " a n d t h e " l i l y " ,  34. w h i c h b e a r t h e s e m a n t i c m e a n i n g s o f t h e poem, b e a r a l s o consonant  sounds  Such  sounds  in this  First  L o o k i n g i n t o Chapman's Homer."  s o n n e t , Lynch  t o be t h e d o m i n a n t ,  generalizes  and  been  pointed  description  In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  of of  f o u n d t h e p h o n e m e s / s , / a y / , /]_/-, I' aj , / n / , / xj  d i s t i n c t i v e units  p r o v i d e t h e word / s a y l a n t / , Lynch  i n p o e t r y has  l i n g u i s t s , a g o o d e x a m p l e b e i n g James J . L y n c h ' s  K e a t s ' "On  vowel  introduction.  a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n theme a n d s o u n d  t o b e f o r e by John  of the  the major  of sound.  s i 1ent, which  from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n  These phonemes, o f c o u r s e ,  i s t h e key w o r d  o f sounds  in the sonnet.  i n t h e poem:  .•...we c a n s e e t h a t t h e w o r d we f o u n d t o o c c u p y s u c h an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n f o r numerous r e a s o n s , w h i c h i n f a c t sums up t h e theme o f t h e s o n n e t , a l s o sums up i t s d o m i n a n t s o u n d s t r u c t u r e . The p o e t ' s " s i x t h s e n s e " , w h e t h e r operating c o n s c i o u s l y , or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , l e d h i m t o consummate h i s poem n o t o n l y in terms a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s m e a n i n g , but a l s o i n terms which c l i m a x t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e l y r i c a l f a c u l t y on i t s most b a s i c l e v e l , sound.7 Lynch's skill  of a professional  analysis The  statements are metaphoric, f o r , a f t e r working with a l l the  that  i t has  i s something  I t h i n k t h a t he has  in E n g l i s h rather own  knows h i s t o o l s ,  no u l t i m a t e v a l u e i n . t h e w h o l e  poem, he s t a t e s ,  by h i s s u b s c r i p t i o n  l i n g u i s t who  been  Lynch  c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e poem.  "consummated."  l e d away f r o m t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s f i n d i n g s  t o t h e myth o f p o e t r y - m a k i n g w h i c h has  literature:  than a s p e c i a l  that  implies of his  i s , that  mortality.  t h e p o e t has a s p e c i a l  Had  Lynch sought  p r o c e s s e s o f d e s c r i p t i o n , he w o u l d  i n s t e a d o f "consummation", and  been  he w o u l d  perhaps  7.  process" in the language.  have g e n e r a l i z e d  have r e c o g n i z e d t h a t  K e a t s ' " s i l e n t " may  James J . L y n c h , "The T o n a l i t y o f L y r i c M e t h o d " , W o r d , IX ( 1 9 5 3 ) , P P 2 1 1 - 2 2 4 .  divinity,  his definition  K e a t s ' "Homer" as a p o e t i c p r o c e s s , he had b e e n d e f i n i n g what the p o e t i c  Poetry:  persistent  An  from h i s  "ideation"  in describing i s , in f a c t ,  h a v e begun w i t h  Experiment  in  the  i d e a , o r c o n c e p t , o f a s o l i t u d e w h i c h c a n be r e c o g n i z e d a n d s h a r e d b y  us a l l ,  and which  f o r K e a t s becomes a l i n g u a l  recognition of a  "fugitive  o flash"  o f i n t e g r a t e d human e x p e r i e n c e .  i d e a , b u t , much more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h had been  i n d u c t i o n might  Tennyson's sound  t h e sound  between sound  units, roses and 1i1i es.  " i d e a t i o n " f o r t h e poem w h i c h Such  a n d theme as i s e v i d e n c e d i n s e c t i o n  a close  s u g g e s t i o n s o f such  "consummation."  I t i s worth c o n s i d e r i n g  intangibles that  c e p t i o n s , o r i d e a s , roses and 1 i 1 i e s , a l r e a d y eralizations  "A" o f Maud  requires  as " s i x t h  sense" or  t h e poet began w i t h t h e conl i n g u a l l y e x p r e s s e d as gen-  o f a human e x p e r i e n c e , ^ a n d w r o t e f r o m t h e s e t h e e x p a n d i n g  e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e poem.  Certainly  the process herein only p a r t i a l l y r e -  vealed confirms the poet's c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a t a l i n g u a l  9.  correspondence  a n d e x p l a n a t i o n , a n d s h o u l d n o t be d i s m i s s e d a s c o i n c i d e n c e , o r  misted over with  8.  throughout the  t h e c o n s c i o u s p o e t a t w o r k a t a c r a f t as  as t h e l i n g u i s t s ' , b u t a l s o a l i n g u a l  began w i t h  analysis  be made f r o m t h e "A" s e c t i o n o f T e n n y s o n ' s  p a r a p h r a s e o f " r o s e " and " l i l y "  s e c t i o n may e v i d e n c e n o t o n l y skilled  t h e i d e a o c c u r r i n g on 1y when i t  lingually recognized.  A similar Maud.  The poem may h a v e begun w i t h t h e  level.  Benjamin Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , e d . John ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1956) , p. 2 5 4 .  B.  Carroll  L. S. V y g o t s k y , " L a n g u a g e a n d T h o u g h t : The P r o b l e m and t h e A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , e d . J o h n P. "DeCecco (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 5».  36.  CHAPTER  The m o s t c o m p l e x  II I  s e c t i o n o f Tennyson's  Maud  is Part  cludes  t h e 118 s t a n z a s c o n s i d e r e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s  poem.  In t h e s e s t a n z a s T e n n y s o n  varies  and  five-beat  l i n e s , a n d he v a r i e s  are  t h r e e rhyming couplets)', t o 35  "B", w h i c h i n -  a n a l y s i s , the middle  h i s " b e a t " ^ among t w o , t h r e e ,  h i s stanza lines.  lengths  f r o m two l i n e s  "set" lyrics,  section.  The e c l e c t i c i s m o f v e r s e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h Tennyson  rhyming c o u p l e t the  section's  was m i n e ,  h a v e t h e same number o f l i n e s  reflected  t h e f a u l t was  in contrast  this  arm-chair?/  four extended  to the irregular  (Part  fields,/  These  1.  four  "'The f a u l t  i n "B" s e c t i o n  ( l ) D i d I hear  i thalf  length.  Come i n t o  "set" lyrics  Birds  a n d , (3)  t h e g a r d e n , Maud,  in the high  s e r v e as c o n t r a s t  Long  Hall-garden/  They were c r y i n g and  yields./; (Part  four  When a s l e e p i n  Go n o t , h a p p y d a y , /  t h e maiden  These  i n a doze:/  Maud, Maud, Maud,/ Maud,/  Till  which  r h y t h m schemes o f t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h i s  1 , V I I , i ) a n d , (2)  1, X I I , i )  (k)  l y r i c passages  rhyme, " b e a t " and s t a n z a  Go n o t , h a p p y d a y , /  and, f i n a l l y ,  1, which b e g i n s :  D i d I dream i t an h o u r a g o , /  When t w i l i g h t was f a l l i n g , / (Part  11, stanza  1  I know n o t w h e r e ? /  calling./  in these  mine ...."  t h e passages which b e g i n :  since,  uses  i n h i s rhyme s c h e m e s , w h i c h v a r y f r o m  longest stanza, Part  m i d = s e c t i o n o f Maud, a s t a b l e are  t h r o u g h o u t "B"  t o a rhymed, but s e e m i n g l y u n o r d e r e d p a t t e r n o f l i n e s i n  There a r e , however, have,  (there  No two c o n s e c u t i v e s t a n z a s , e x -  cept four  s t a n z a s <is n e c e s s a r i l y  four  From t h e s h i n i n g  (Part  1,  XVIl);  1, XXIl) e t c .  to the greater  b u l k o f "B"  T h e t e r m : " b e a t " i s u s e d t o s i g n i f y t h e a u t h o r ' s r e l i a n c e upon a r h y t h m o f s t r e s s e d s o u n d s t o be h e a r d i n t h e poem, a n d n o t upon a m e t e r o f a c c e p t e d s o u n d s t o be i m p o s e d upon the- poem. A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h p o e t i c m e t e r i s g i v e n i n Seymour C h a t m a n , A T h e o r y o f M e t e r ('s G r a v e n h a g e , 1 9 5 6 ) a n d i n T. S. Omond, A S t u d y . o f M e t e r ( L o n d o n " 1 9 0 3 ) ..  37. section  s t a n z a s , where t h e rhythms and  rhymes a r e  r e p e a t e d s c a n n i n g o f t h e s e more s t a b l e , z a s o f "B",  reveals a certain  inner passage beat  at the  testing  o f the  rhythms;  118  reader senses  and  exists  internal  demonstrates  validity.  7 more h a v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e - b e a t and  lines  i n t e r s p e r s e d , as  /  /  /  example,  four-beat lines.  Of  w i t h some  /  /  side,  /  Keep w a t c h a n d w a r d , keep w a t c h a n d  /  For  f o r example:  F o r a r a v e n e v e r c r o a k s , a t my  /  upon  have dominant t h r e e - b e a t  t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n z a s , 20 h a v e a d o m i n a n t f o u r - b e a t r h y t h m , three-beat  vowel  rhythms.  their  50% o f t h e t o t a l )  (or a l m o s t  (l) a three-  in repeated  line  stan-  long  t h e s t a n z a s depend e n t i r e l y  n o t upon  of his intuitions stanzas  (3)  and  i n the whole o f t h i s  i n t u i t i v e l y that  a rhyme p a t t e r n  l i n e ends;  However,  l i n e s , along with a l l other  predictability  (2)  line-end assonances, A  57  The  l i n e predominates;  assonances the  o f Maud.  irregular.  /  ward,  /  Or  thou w i l t prove t h e i r t o o l . / / / Yea t o o , m y s e l f f r o m m y s e l f I g u a r d ,  /  /  /  F o r o f t e n a man's own  /  /  angry  /  Is c a p a n d  pride  /  bells  for a  fool. -Part  ln these  l i n e s , t h e t h i r d and s i x t h  in a t h r e e - b e a t rhythm. ones,  i t is the s h o r t e r  example o f t h i s  lines  1 , VI , v i i  a r e r h y m e d , and  Thus w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r l i n e s beat which  /  / to the  /  lily,  /  /  is but  /  W i t h whom s h e has  / /  gay.  /  the dancers  one  /  h e a r t t o be  /  When w i l l She  'There  /  leave her  /  i s weary o f dance and  alone?  / play.  1  share  are four-beat  the reader c o n s c i o u s l y r e t a i n s .  t e c h n i q u e w i t h rhythm i s :  I said  both  Another  /  /  Now h a l f  /  to the setting  /  /  moon a r e g o n e ,  /  /  And / Low  half  t o t h e r i s i n g day: / / on t h e s a n d a n d l o u d o n t h e s t o n e  The  l a s t wheel  /  /  /'  echoes, away. -Part  These which  l i n e s a r e f r o m s t a n z a f o u r o f "Come  varies  i t s eleven stanzas very l i t t l e :  have an o p e n i n g three-beat  1 , XXII , i v  into  t h e g a r d e n , Maud",  f o r example,  seven s t a n z a s  f o u r - b e a t l i n e , a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n z a s h a v e an o p e n i n g  line.  The rhythms  a r e i n o t h e r ways p r e d i c t a b l e a n d t h e rhymes  are ordered. Repeated  s c a n n i n g s o f "B" s e c t i o n  v e r s e s d e m o n s t r a t e what t h e two e x -  amples s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t a t h r e e - b e a t rhythm  speaks  insistently  from  wi t h i n t h e 1i nes . The  reader's o t h e r i n t u i t i o n , which  p r o v i d e "B" s e c t i o n ' s stanzas  i m p o r t a n t rhyme p a t t e r n s ,  do n o t f o l l o w c o n s i s t e n t  repetition of a single complementary For example, line-end  sound  i s that  vowel  syllable,  in the following  rhyme p a t t e r n s :  s y l l a b l e , sometimes  the line-end  i s equa11y v a 1 i d . instead  t h e /w/  they r e l y  prosody  i s imbedded  t h e s m i l e a n d t e n d e r t/ow/ne  Came o u t o f h e r p i t y i n g F o r am  I n o t , am  womanh/uw/d,  I not, here  al/ow/ne  So many a summer s i n c e s h e d i e d , My m o t h e r , who was s o g e n t l e a n d g/uw/d? L i v i n g a l o n e i n an empty h/aw/se, Here h a l f - h i d Where And  i n the gleaming  w/uw/d,  I h e a r t h e dead a t m i d d a y m/ow/n,  the shrieking  upon  tone to the whole.  assonance: Perhaps  The  in conjunction with a  t o g i v e a k i n d o f sound lines,  assonances  r u s h o f t h e w a i n s c o t m/aw/se,  inthe  And  my own s a d name i n c o r n e r s  cried,  When t h e s h i v e r o f d a n c i n g  leaves  About  wide,  Till  i t s echoing a morbid  Of a w o r l d And  chambers  h a t e a n d h o r r o r have gr/ow/n  i n which  a morbid  i s thr/ow/n  I have h a r d l y m i x t ,  eating lichen  On a h e a r t h a ; l f - t u r n ' d  fixt  t o st/ow/ne. -Part  The in  high, front  the opening  1 , VI , v i i i  v o w e l , / a y / ,.wh i c h i s a common /y/ p r o s o d y  syllable  s e c t i o n o f , Maud, i s imbedded  i n the l i n e - e n d assonance o f  S i c k , am  dread?  th i s s t a n z a : I sick of a jealous  Was n o t o n e o f t h e two a t h e r s / a y / d e This The  new-made l o r d , whose s p l e n d o u r slavish  h a t from  plucks  the v i l l a g e r ' s  Whose o l d g r a n d f a t h e r has l a t e l y  head?  d/ay/d,  Gone t o a b l a c k e r p i t , f o r whom Grimy nakedness And  l a y i n g h i s trams  Wrought, t i l l Master And  in a poison'd  of half a servile  left  h i s trucks  h i s coal  sh/ay/re,  a l l turn'd  first  into  gold  of h i s noble  i n t h e g r a c e a l l women  Strong  gloom  he c r e p t f r o m . a g u t t e d m/ay/ne  To a g r a n d s o n , Rich  dragging  des/ay/re,  i n t h e power t h a t a l l men and s e t t h e i r  1/ay/ne,  And  simper  And  s o f t e n as i f t o a g i r l , a n d h o l d  Awe-stricken Seeing  breaths  a t a work  h i s gewgaw c a s t l e  New a s h i s t i t l e ,  voices  adore,  built  lower,  div/ay/ne,  sh/ay/ne, last  year,  40. There amid perky And  l a r c h e s and  p/ay/ne,  over  t h e s u l l e n - p u r p l e moor  (Look a t  i t ) p r i c k i n g a cockney  ear.  -Part A ing in  l e s s common v o w e l  /_]/ serves  s y l l a b l e - - t h e one  t o draw o u t  t h e more common f i l l ,  the  hill,  vowel  heard  i n , fe11 , where the f o l l o w -  r e s o n a n c e , as  ch i1 1 , e t c . - - i s  1 , X, i  remarked  given  in chapter  prominence  in  two  this  s tanza: Is t h a t e n c h a n t e d moan o n l y t h e s w e l 1 Of t h e l o n g waves t h a t r o l l i n y o n d e r b a y ? And h a r k t h e c l o c k w i t h i n , t h e s i l v e r kne11 Of t w e l v e s w e e t h o u r s t h a t p a s t i n b r i d a l w h i t e , And d i e d t o l i v e , l o n g as my p u l s e s p l a y ; But now by t h i s my l o v e has c l o s e d h e r s i g h t And g i v e n f a l s e d e a t h h e r h a n d , and s t o l ' n away To d r e a m f u l w a s t e s w h e r e f o o t l e s s f a n c i e s dwel1 Among t h e f r a g m e n t s o f t h e g o l d e n d a y . May n o t h i n g t h e r e h e r m a i d e n g r a c e a f f r i g h t ! Dear h e a r t , I f e e l w i t h t h e e t h e drowsy, s p e l 1 . My b r i d e t o b e , my e v e r m o r e d e l i g h t , My own h e a r t ' s h e a r t a n d o w n e s t own, farewel1. I t i s but f o r a l i t t l e s p a c e I go: And y e m e a n w h i l e f a r o v e r moor a n d f e l 1 Beat to the n o i s e l e s s music o f the n i g h t ! Has o u r w h o l e e a r t h g o n e n e a r e r t o t h e g l o w Of y o u r s o f t s p l e n d o u r s t h a t you l o o k so b r i g h t ? J_ h a v e c l i m b ' d n e a r e r o u t o f l o n e l y H e l 1 B e a t , happy s t a r s , t i m i n g w i t h t h i n g s b e l o w , B e a t w i t h my h e a r t more b l e s t t h a n h e a r t c a n t e l 1 , B l e s t , b u t f o r some d a r k u n d e r c u r r e n t woe T h a t seems t o d r a w — b u t i t s h a l l n o t be s o : L e t a l l be  wel1,  be  wel1. -Part  Each s t a n z a  o f Maud's "B"  a b l e s o u n d w h i c h draws t h e devices. end  This  reader's  three-beat  in  individual  lines of  of  the sound s i g n i f i c a n c e s , nor w i t h i n the  and  the s t a n z a .  lines  imbedded  viii  i n i t one  vowel  a t t e n t i o n q u i t e away f r o m t h e  vowel s y l l a b l e , w h i c h  p o s i t i o n i n the  repetitions  s e c t i o n has  1, XVI I I ,  is given  four-beat  l i n e s , may  be  internal  echoes  internally  e c h o e s h a v e none  s i g n i f i c a n c e s of  o f s e c t i o n "A."  linear  prominence because of i t s  However, the  rhetorical  syll-  the  syllable  In t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n ,  41. repetition  of consonants  p o i n t of the  and  line accented  repetition  parallel  o f vowel s y l l a b l e s  at the  constructions—both of  half-  syntax.and  sound. The ly  p a t t e r n o f sound prominences  different  which  logic  from  in s e c t i o n  rhetorical  one,  Line:  his  for individual  stable parallels,  interest lines  internal  the  contained within  P a r a l l e l i s m o f sounds of  When he culates  reads  i n "A",  line  lines  what was  i s no  the sound at the  consciously articulates  "B" must r e a d f i r s t  reader  recognizes  longer  balance  lingual  f o r sound; and  i n "A"  he may  judge  prosaic;  which  he may  judge  poetic.  rather  then, the  than  "B"  average,  is  i n s t e a d , the  important.  with  i n "B"  i n the  i s n a r r a t i v e and  the technique  The  reader  for rhetoric. logic of  i n "A"  ones, and,  p a r t i c u l a r l y , the vowels.  the  is l y r i c a l  and a c o u s t i c ,  lyric  s e c t i o n , t h e d o m i n a n t s o u n d s are< t h e  rhyme w o r d s ;  Of and  t h e s e c t i o n ' s 1058 839  The  rhetorical,  r h e t o r i c , what a r e t h e dominant sounds o f t h e s e A g a i n , as  as  the  i n n e r s t a n z a s o f T e n n y s o n ' s Maud a r e s t a n z a s o f  have p o l y s y l l a b i c  an  s e c t i o n , the reader j u s t  a distinction  passages?  219  the  section  important:  t h e r e a d e r o f "A",  the technique  which  If,  of  t h e poem a rhyme d e v i c e .  the sounds a t m i d - l i n e , but always  p r o c e s s e s — i n "A"  and  depended.  the  in the f i r s t  a  s e c t i o n o f Maud t h e r e a d e r c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i -  line-ends;  i n "A"  internal  mid-point  s y n t a c t i c p e r m i s s i o n o f a p u n c t u a t i o n mark, or a c o n j u n c t i o n . of  entire"A",  to the  a r e , on  sounds w i t h i n whole s t a n z a s  t h e "B"  In  them s t r o n g  The  line's  in the m i d - s e c t i o n o f  i n each  individual  the  s e c t i o n , where the  length of those  d e v i c e , becomes  imbedding  directed  in sound, in syntax, in "beat."  t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n "B"  i n "A."  an  i n t h e v e r s e s t r u c t u r e was  l i n e b e c a m e , t h e n , t h e f u l c r u m upon w h i c h  only half  o f Maud has  t h a t o f the p a t t e r n o f sounds  f e a t u r e d t h e s i x - b e a t l i n e , t h e r e a d e r was  construction of that  On  "B"  pages resonant  lines,  have m o n o s y l l a b i c  sound  only  rhyme w o r d s ,  42. where the emphasis  must be on  rhymes o f " l o n g " v o w e l /y/ /m/, the  syllables,  prosody vowels, or s y l l a b l e s /n/, / r / , line  /w/,  /y/.  The  that  syllable.  A  is syllables  o f a vowel  " l o n g " vowel  total o f /w/  887  lines  prosody  have  and  l.\J,  plus a resonant consonant, t h u s has  prominence  i n 83%  dominated  the longer  lines  of  The  /y/  of  rhymes o r a s s o n a n c e s .  H o w e v e r , w h e r e t h e /w/ the  t h e vowel  introduction,  prosody sound  i t s importance i s not so s i g n i f i c a n t  prosody vowels, or the h i g h , f r o n t vowels o f . f  i11 , h i l l ,  p r o s o d y sounds  appear  rhymes a r e c o n j u n c t i o n s dwel1, Hei1 , hand, line-end assonances  vowels, in conjunction with  ch i 1 d r e n , e t c . , appear in only  lines.  i n 486  a r e found  Examples  lines,  /w/  vowel  r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , as  of the high  front  vowels  in these stanzas:  he f o u n d my j e w e l  the /-fy/  while  (The r e m a i n i n g " l o n g "  o f " s h o r t " vowels w i t h  land, etc.)  W h a t , has  173  i n "B."  out?  For o n e o f t h e two t h a t r o d e a t h e r s/a.y/de Bound f o r t h e H a l l I am s u r e was h / i y / : Bound f o r t h e H a l l , . a n d I t h i n k f o r a b r / a y / d e B l i t h e would her b r o t h e r ' s acceptance b / i y / . Maud c o u l d be g r a c i o u s t o o , no d o u b t , To a l o r d , a c a p t a i n , a p a d d e d s h / e y / p e , A b o u g h t c o m m i s s i o n , a waxen f / e y / c e , A r a b b i t mouth t h a t i s e v e r a g / e y / p e - Bought? What i s i t he c a n n o t b / a y / ? And t h e r e f o r e s p l e n e t i c , p e r s o n a l , b / e y / s e , S i c k , s i c k t o t h e h e a r t o f l i f e , am/ay/. -Part  1 , X,  -Part  1 , XVII  i i  Go n o t , h a p p y d / e y / , From t h e s h i n i n g f / i y / 1 d s , Go "not, h a p p y d / e y / , T i l l t h e maiden y / i y / 1 d s . Rosy i s t h e West, Rosy i s t h e S o u t h , Roses a r e h e r c h / i y / k s , And a r o s e her mouth...  used  as  T h i s lump o f e a r t h has l e f t h i s e s t / e y / t e The l i g h t e r by t h e l o s s o f h i s w / e y / g h t ; And s o t h a t he f i n d what he w e n t t o s / i y / k , And f u l s o m e P l e a s u r e c l o g h i m , and drown H i s h e a r t i n t h e g r o s s mud-honey o f t o w n , He may s t a y f o r a y e a r who has g o n e f o r a w / i y / k : But t h i s i s t h e day when I must s p / i y / k , And 1 s e e my O r e a d c o m i n g down, 0 t h i s i s t h e d/ey/1 0, b e a u t i f u l c r e a t u r e , what am /ay/? T h a t I d a r e t o l o o k h e r w/ey/; T h i n k I may h o l d d o m i n i o n s w / i y / t , ....I know i t t h e one b r i g h t t h i n g t o s / e y / v e My y e t y o u n g l i f e i n t h e w i l d s o f T/ay/me, Perhaps from madness, perhaps from cr/ay/me, Perhaps from a s e l f i s h gr/ey/ve. -Part  1 , XVI , i  The s l e n d e r a c a c i a w o u l d n o t s h / e y / k e One l o n g m i l k - b l o o m on t h e t r / i y / ; The w h i t e l a k e - b l o s s o m f e l l i n t o t h e 1 / e y / k e , As t h e p i m p e r n e l d o z e d on t h e 1 / i y / ; But t h e r o s e was awake a l l n i g h t f o r y o u r s / e y / k e , Knowing your p r o m i s e t o m/iy/; The l i l i e s and r o s e s w e r e a l l a w / e y / k e , T h e y s i g h ' d f o r t h e dawn and t h / i y / . -Part  1, X X I I , v i i i  T h e r e has f a l l e n a s p l e n d i d t / i y / r From t h e p a s s i o n - f l o w e r a t t h e g / e y / t e . She i s c o m i n g , my d o v e , my d / i y / r ; She i s c o m i n g , my l i f e , my f / e y / t e ; The r e d r o s e c r i e s , 'She i s n e a r , s h e i s n / i y / r ; ' A n d t h e w h i t e r o s e w e e p s , 'She i s 1 / e y / t e ; The l a r k s p u r l i s t e n s , 'I h e a r , I h / i y / r ; ' And t h e l i l y w h i s p e r s , 'I w / e y / t . 1  1  -Part  1 , XXII , x  I t l e a d s me f o r t h a t / i y / v e n i n g , It l i g h t l y winds and s t / i y / I s , In a c o l d w h i t e r o b e b e f o r e m / i y / , When a l l my s p i r i t r / i y / l s At the s h o u t s , the leagues of 1/ay/ghts, And t h e r o a r i n g o f t h e w h / i y / l s . Part  2,  Thro t h e hubbub o f t h e m a r k e t 1 s t e a l , a wasted fr/ey/me, It c r o s s e s h e r e , i t c r o s s e s t h e r e , T h r o ' a l l t h a t crowd c o n f u s e d and loud The s h a d o w s t i l l t h e s/ey/me; 1  IV,  iv  And My  on  my  heavy  anguish  /ay/lids  hangs  like  sh/ey/me. 2,  -Part But  this  imbedding o f the sounds o f  consonants, a f e a t u r e both o f ble  conflict  qualities devices occurs  new  o f "A"  within  new  t h e one  s o u n d , and too,  lines;  intensity  from  i n J,S  is found  w i t h /tJ  which begins  consonant sounds  of  The  /6/  "B"  which  efficient  s e c t i o n , and  t h e /Xj,  has  t h e poem.  a critical  What g i v e s  the by  reader  know f o r t h e  verses first  t h e s h a d o w s , g h o s t s and  p l o s i v e sounds  reach  later.  o f A t / and  the opening  In t h i s  t i m e t h a t he  "B"  d e s c r i p t i o n of  which  the  is found  of Maud—  lines  stanza,  i s i n the  that  I'6/  the  /d/  to  these  syllables  of Part in the  II  in  —  "Dead,  the n a r r a t o r  lets:  "mad-house", h a u n t e d  shapes o f h i s murderous g u i l t .  their greatest  in  poet  intensity  mine!"—and culminate  l o n g d e a d " c r e s c e n d o , 25  rhetorical  sound f u n c t i o n ,  "the  f a u l t was  the  dead,/Long d e a d . . . . " —  in. Maud i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n  mine, the  the  sound  of Part I I .  with  was  resonant  description of  the c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s , which begin fault  considera-  o f sounds  in the c l i m a x i n g stanza  "Dead, long  in the whole m i d - s e c t i o n  and  with a b r i e f  lines of  role  i t s voiceless partner  /6/.  resonant  with a  i m p o s e d by  P e r h a p s an  in the stanzas  i t s thematic  i n "B"  however, the c o n f l i c t  consonant s y l l a b l e might begin  greatest  meets  w i t h some r e s t r a i n t , t o o ,  throughout whole s t a n z a s .  Apart is,  "B",  x  " l o n g " vowels and  consonant sounds--/t/ versus  individual  d e a d rhyme w h i c h with  met  and  because of a c o u s t i c devices  practises this  of  "A"  the  IV,  Here the  intensity:  /D/ea/d/ , long dea/d/, Long / d / e a / d / ! And my h e a r / t / i s a h a n d f u l o f d u s / t / , A n d t h e w h e e l s go o v e r my h e a / d / , And my b o n e s a r e s h a k e n w i t h p a i n , For i n / t / o a s h a l l o w g r a v e they a r e t h r u s / t / , Only a yar/d/ beneath the s / t / r e e / t / , And t h e h o o f s o f t h e h o r s e s b e a / t / , b e a / t / , The h o o f s o f t h e h o r s e s b e a / t / , B e a / t / i n / t / o my s c a l p a n d my b r a i n ,  dental  W i t h n e v e r an end / t / o t h e s / t / r e a m o f p a s s i n g f ee/_t/, /D/riving, hurrying, marrying, burying, Clamour and r u m b l e , and r i n g i n g ' a n d c l a / t / e r , And h e r e beneath i / t / i s a l l as ba/d/, For I t h o u g h / t / t h e /d/ea/d/ h a / d / p e a c e , b u / t / i / t / i s n o / t / s o ; /T/o h a v e no p e a c e i n t h e g r a v e , i s t h a / t / no/1/ s a / d / ? Bu/t/ up a n d /d/own a n d / t / o a n d f r o , E v e r a b o u / t / me t h e /d/ea/d/ men go; A n d t h e n / t / o h e a r a /d/ea/d/ man c h a / t / e r Is enough / t / o d r i v e o n e ma/d/. 2, V,  i  become t r a n s f e r r e d  to  -Part In  this  consonance  s t a n z a , rhymes upon dead  o f sounds  i n b e a t , s t r e e t , f e e t , t h e n , a t m i d - s t a n z a ,the rhyme  becomes c l a t t e r - c h a t t e r , a n d , f i n a l l y , The the  l y r i c s e c t i o n o f Maud needs the p l o s i v e s  vowel and c o n s o n a n t — e v e n dead a n d  o v e r t h e i n s i s t e n t let  s y l l a b l e as  d i mm'd  , madden'd , wa i 1 ' d ,  serves  t o draw i n s i s t e n t a t t e n t i o n  etc.  qualitatively  as i n t e r n a l different  it  also  t a k e s o n new  of  t h e IXj c o n s o n a n c e  "Dead, long dead,". in the lines  by T e n n y s o n  2.  sound  i s now  rhythms.  coloration  from  i n "B" s e c t i o n  "B"  is i t s partner line-end  than  have a  i t did in  i t s p l o s i v e c o n t r a s t , /_t /. o f Maud  may final  "A",  Examples  b e drawn a g a i n cry of  o f the s t r o n g prominence  t o be the g e r m i n a l l i n e s  in  in dead, bad, good, e t c .  into the narrator's  example  "A",  Not o n l y , t h e n , does /d/  in the middle l y r i c s lead  no l o n g e r  a p l o s i v e one, i t  in section  t h a t f o l l o w upon "0 t h a t  H a l lam T e n n y s o n , p. 9 4 2 .  now  s t a n z a s o f t h e poem, d o m i n a t e s  A clear  critics  sound  t o i t s e l f , as  role to play  f r o m t h e 25 s t a n z a s w h i c h  a n d / i y/ s y l l a b l e s o f  i t d i d , in section  The Idf s o u n d  B u t e v e n more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e /df which, in the climaxing  lines o f  In t h e s e 25 s t a n z a s o f  The / df  l a t e r o f s t r e e t , f e e t and b e a t .  rhymes a s w e l l  to the c l i m a c t i c  take precedence over a l l sounds, both  t o l e n g t h e n t h e vowel  given  mad.  e x t e n d e d comment.  serves  Itf  sad,  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p l o s i v e consonants  Maud's "B" s e c t i o n  insistent  'twere p o s s i b l e " ,  despair,  o f / Xj i s considered  for Maud: :  " N o t e s " , The Works o f T e n n y s o n  (New  York,  1913)>  46. IA_/  leads  me  forth a/t/  evening,  I A/ l i g h / t / l y w i n d s and s / t / e a l s In a c o l d w h i , A / e robe b e f o r e me, When a l l my s p i r i / t / r e e l s  A A / t h e shouA/s, t h e leagues o f lighA/s  And  the  roaring of  the  wheels. -Part  And,  one  stanza  2,  IV,  2,  IV, v i  iv  later:  / T / i s a m o r n i n g p u r e and sweeA/, A n d a dewy s p l e n d o u r f a l l s On t h e 1 i / t / l e f l o w e r t h a / t / c l i n g s /T/o t h e A / u r r e / t / s and t h e w a l l s ; / ' T / i s a m o r n i n g p u r e and sweeA/, And t h e l i g h A / and shadow f l e e / t / ; She i s w a l k i n g i n t h e meadow, And t h e w o o d l a n d e c h o r i n g s ; In a momen/t/ we s h a l l m e e / t / ; She i s s i n g i n g i n t h e meadow, And the r i v u l e / t / a / t / her f e e / t / R i p p l e s on i n l i g h A / and shadow /T/o the b a l l a d t h a / t / she s i n g s . -Part Contrast two  staccato'A/'s  lines at mid-stanza:  land and  to the  echo r i n g s ; " / . of  the  opening  "She  i n the  is walking  l y r i c j u s t given i n t h e meadow,/ And  These l i n e s re-capture d e s c r i p t i o n of  is o f f e r e d  the  Maud, s t a n z a  sounds o f one  "A"  the  by  wood-  section,  of section  "B":  A v o i c e by t h e c e d a r t r e e In t h e meadow u n d e r t h e H a l l ! She i s s i n g i n g an a i r t h a t i s known t o me, A p a s s i o n a t e b a l l a d g a l l a n t and gay, A m a r t i a l song l i k e a trumpet's c a l l ! S i n g i n g a l o n e in the morning of l i f e , In t h e h a p p y m o r n i n g o f l i f e a n d o f May, S i n g i n g o f men t h a t i n b a t t l e a r r a y , R e a d y i n h e a r t and r e a d y i n h a n d , M a r c h w i t h b a n n e r and b u g l e and fife To t h e d e a t h , f o r t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . -Part Although lines  the A / ' s  of s e c t i o n  "B",  h a v e an  "long"  v o w e l s w h i c h h a v e been  when T e n n y s o n  i n t e r n a l sound f u n c t i o n  t h e y h a v e no  rhymes, w h i c h , i n e v e r y c a s e but  introduces  function  fife,  imbedded  the A /  1 , V,  a t a l l i n the  have the  i in these opening line-end  resonant consonants  i n a l l s t a n z a s o f Maud.  consonance—which  he  does f o u r  and  It is stanzas  47. after  the f i r s t  description o f Maud—that the lulling  poem a r e d e s t r o y e d . to.Maud the  its first  first  time,  The f i f t h  stanza  resonances o f t h e  o f "B" s e c t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , g i v e s  s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t o f s o u n d s , when  i t introduces, f o r  t h e s t r e e t rhyme: Whom b u t Maud s h o u l d  I. meet  L a s t n i g h t , when t h e s u n s e t b u r n ' d On t h e b l o s s o m ' d g a b l e - e n d s A t t h e head o f t h e v i l l a g e s t r e e t , Whom b u t Maud s h o u l d I m e e t ? And s h e t o u c h ' d my h a n d w i t h a s m i l e s o s w e e t She made me d i v i n e amends For a c o u r t e s y n o t r e t u r n ' d . -Part Two s t a n z a s  l a t e r , a n o t h e r p a i r o f ; s t r e e t rhymes  decei t and f e e t , and, then, a stanza subsides  again  in a s t a n z a  1, VI, i i  l a t e r , cheat and sweet.  f o r four stanzas, only  t h a t needs r e p e t i t i o n  i s used,  t o be r e v i v e d w i t h  in this  first, The- rhyme  some  intensity  essay:  I h a v e p l a y ' d w i t h h e r when a ch'hld; She remembers i t now we. m e e t . Ah w e l 1 , w e l 1 , w e l 1 , I may be b e g u i l e d By some c o q u e t t i s h d e c e i t . Y e t , i f s h e were n o t a c h e a t , I f Maud w e r e a l l t h a t s h e s e e m ' d , And h e r s m i l e h a d a l l t h a t I d r e a m ' d , Then t h e w o r l d w e r e n o t s o b i t t e r B u t a s m i l e c o u 1 d make i t s w e e t . -Part What makes t h i s  verse  d e c e i t , c h e a t sounds w i t h or  i n c h i 1 d , bequ i 1 e d .  significant t h e longer  These  latter  1 , VI , x  i s the c o n t r a s t o f the,meet,  vowel  resonance  i n s eem'd, dream'd ,  rhymes, once a g a i n ,  recapture the  " l o n g " vowels, t h e 1iquid-1abia 1 consonants, and t h e resonant /6/ s y l l a b l e s  w h i c h w e r e a l l f e a t u r e s o f "A" s e c t i o n .  The s t r o n g  s o n a n t v a l u e o f t h e I xj , g i v e n  emphasis by t h e b i t t e r , which  line  i s , however, a dominating  in this  whole  nine-line stanza,  terminal con-  i s t h e odd  sound  in the  verse. There a r e other  earlier  stanzas  instances  o f the s t r e e t , sweet, cheat  rhymes  o f '.'B" s e c t i o n , b u t i t i s i n t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s  in the that  48. t h e f t / c o n s o n a n c e , o f t e n accompanied by r e p e a t e d / d / ' s , reaches sest expression.  B o t h t h e dead, a n d t h e s t r e e t  inten-  rhymes f o r e x a m p l e ,  enter  i n t o t h e r h y t h m o f "Come i n t o t h e g a r d e n Maud", a t s t a n z a s e v e n , a n d again at stanza '"The I  eleven, just  before the opening o f Part  f a u l t was m i n e , t h e f a u l t was m i n e ' — . "  This  I I , and t h e c r y ,  last stanza of Part  reads: She  i s c o m i n g , my own, my  sweet;  Were i t e v e r s o a i r y a t r e a d , My h e a r t w o u l d h e a r h e r a n d b e a t , Were i t e a r t h i n an e a r t h y b e d ; My d u s t w o u l d h e a r h e r a n d b e a t , Had I l a i n f o r a c e n t u r y d e a d ; Would s t a r t and t r e m b l e under her f e e t , And b l o s s o m i n p u r p l e and r e d . -Part Between dead  this  s t a n z a , w h i c h ends w i t h  1 , XXI I , x i  t h e / e / a n d t h e Id/ o f t h e  rhyme, and t h e o p e n i n g s t a n z a o f P a r t I I : 'The f a u l t was m i n e , t h e f a u l t was m i n e — Why am I s i t t i n g h e r e s o s t u n n ' d a n d s t i l l , P l u c k i n g t h e h a r m l e s s w i l d - f l o w e r on t h e h i l l ? — It i s t h i s g u i l t y h a n d ! — 1  -Part  2,  the reader  i s a s k e d t o a c c e p t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s murder  Tennyson's  choice of red  /as t h e f i n a l  I, i o f Maud's  sound o f P a r t  brother.  I is deliberate:  it  serves  t o a c c e n t t h e d e a d w h i c h p r e c e d e s i t by two l i n e s , a n d w h i c h  is  itself  foreshadowed by bed and t r e a d .  equally on  t h e dead  rhymes a n d t h e s t r e e t  Certainly  the stanza shares  rhymes w h i c h t h e p o e t  is to rely  i n h i s c1imax. It  i s t h e s e two rhymes , d e a d a n d s t r e e t , w h i c h a r e t h e d o m i n a n t  plosive  rhymes  i n "B" s e c t i o n .  There a r e , i n a l l ,  section  ( p l u s s i x d e a t h w o r d s ) , a n d 50. s t r e e t  s t r e e t has no i n s t a n c e o f rhyme a t a l l only once. . death;  30 d e a d  rhymes.  in section  a s t r o n g /dl c o n s o n a n c e  in the  By c o n t r a s t ,  "A", a n d dead  T h e o p e n i n g s t a n z a o f "A" h a s , i n i t s f i n a l  i t has as w e l l  rhymes  i s used  word, t h e term  throughout the verse.  49.  However, t h i s  pattern  i s not t y p i c a l  Thus a m a j o r s o u n d c o n f l i c t "A" a n d " B " , a n d , s e c o n d , w i t h i n  o f "A"  section.  i s o b s e r v a b l e i n Maud, f i r s t , "B" i t s e l f .  The c o n f l i c t  between  i n "B" o c c u r s  when, d e s p i t e t h e c o n t i n u u m o f r e s o n a n t sounds  i n t h e s e c t i o n , a new,  insistent  strongly.  because not  be  c o n s o n a n t sound--/_t/ o r / d / - - i s  i t has i n t e n s i t y  felt  i n the four climaxing  stanzas  This  o f "B", s h o u l d  ignored.  Further, a different  i n h i s c o m p a r i s o n o f "B" w i t h  lingual  process obtains.  the  stanzas and funneled outward  are  reiterated  in individual  "A" a r e p r e d i c t a b l e ,  "A", t h e r e a d e r f i n d s  In " B " , s o u n d s  lines  and f u n n e l e d  line-oriented;  t h e sounds  inward.  i n "A"  What d e - l i m i t , "B"—that  sonants  finally,  is the s y l l a b l e s  consonants—are  linear  o f "B" a r e n o t p r e d i c -  it,  movement  bearings.  t h e waves o f s y l l a b l e s o u n d s  of /VJ/ a n d • / y /  in section  prosody vowels and r e s o n a n t  t h e p l o s i v e s o u n d s , t h e I xj a n d e c h o i n g /6/.  flit,  sounds  The r e a d e r i s c o n s c i o u s i n " B " o f a n  a l o n e p r o v i d e boundaries o f sounds;  street, pit,  into  The sounds o f  e x p a n d i n g movement o f s o u n d , o u t w a r d a n d away f r o m t h e l i n e - - a w h i c h he c a n n o t f i n d  that  a r e imbedded  through the line-ends;  t a b l e and a r e not l i n e - o r i e n t e d .  within  sound,  f o r example,  f r a u g h t , t h e vowel sound  These  con-  i n. f e e t ,  i s r e d u c e d by t h e p l o -  s i v e e f f e c t o f t h e / _ t / , a n d i n , b e d , d e a d , r e d , mad, s a d , t h e v o w e l syllable  i s g i v e n a boundary o f sound  i n the /d/ consonant.  H o w e v e r , o n c e a g a i n , t h e /6/ has a n a m b i v a l e n t r o l e stanzas--as liquids of  3.  i t d i d i n "A" s e c t i o n when  to lengthen  these resonances.  t h e vowel  i t joined with  r e s o n a n c e even w h i l e  For example,  A. C. G i m s o n , An I n t r o d u c t i o n ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . Sk.  to play  in the  t h e l a b i a l s and  i t defined  t h e c o n s o n a n t V d / does  the limits  not have t h e  to the Pronunciation of English  50.  power o f /1/  to reduce the  d e m o n s t r a t e : , d e b t , dead; bead;  f e e t , f e e d , so  to  syllable.  lengthen  b e t , bed;  itself  as  vowel s y l l a b l e  .vowel s y l l a b l e s  in the s t a n z a .  v e r s e s , w h i l e /6/ dividual At/ as  has  a token  w o r d s , i t has  in whole stanzas. the  typical  first  25  stanza  this  that  in part  lies  I I , /d/  section's  /d/, the  not  only  climaxing in i n -  in i t s p l o s i v e partnership of, Maud, t h o s e  with  defined  i t s p l o s i v e r o l e , as  a  demonstrate:  Is i / t / gone? my p u l s e s bea/t/— Wha/t/ was i / t / ? a l y i n g / t / r i c k o f t h e Y e / t / I t h o u g h / t / I saw h e r s/t/and, H i g h o v e r t h e sha/_d/owy l a n d . I / t / 'ijs g o n e ; -Part Again,  beat,  lengthen  the vowel s y l l a b l e  plays  will  a l s o to d e - l i m i t the  In t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s of Part  to  in i t s a b i l i t y  i n "B"  function with  a major f u n c t i o n  stanzas will  fraught, fraud;  i n the word, but So  matching p a i r s  p l o s i v e consonant,  i t functions  However, i t s a m b i v a l e n c e  the  these  s a t , sad;  t h a t , once a g a i n ,  seems t o w o r k a g a i n s t vowel  v o w e l s y l l a b l e s , as  in this  2,  1,  brain?  i i  stanza:  Bre/t/on,  not  Bri/t/on;  here  L i k e a s h i p w r e c k ' / d / man on a c o a s / t / , Of a n c i e n / t / f a b l e and fear-.-. P l a g u e / d / w i t h a f l . i . / t / i n g / t / o and f r o , A / d / i s e a s e , a har/d/ mechanic ghosAt/ -Part And,  one  2,  II, v  again:  For a / t / u m u l / t / shakes the c i / t / y , And I w a k e , my / d / r e a m i s f l e / d / ; In t h e s h u / d / e r i n g / d / a w n , b e h o l d , Withou/t/ knowledge, w i t h o u / t / p i / t / y , By t h e c u r / t / a i n s o f my.be/_d/ T h a / t / a b i / d / i ng p h a n / t / o m c o l d . -Part In summary, t h e n , section  is s i g n i f i c a n t .  the  repetition  The  strong  o f A t / and intensities  2, /d/  IV, v i i sounds  in  "B"  of p l o s i v e s in the  25  51.  stanzas which climax in accompaniment  t h e poem h a v e c r i t i c a l  with  the p l o s i v e  e f f e c t upon  intensities,  the reader.  the reader  finds  When,  himself  r e c o r d i n g one p r o m i n e n t sound w o r d — a n d , s t r e e t , because o f i t s c o r o l l a r y sounds  i n b e a t , f e e t , m e e t , must be j u d g e d s u c h a w o r d — h e  ask again in  i f he has n o t f o u n d some c o r r e l a t i o n  t h e poem.  words  high  i n "A" s e c t i o n  1 i 1 i e s were  roses and  sounds, so its  J u s t as  i n "B" he  he was  repositories,  i t s r e s o n a n t Ivi  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s conjecture, again, that  Tennyson's the  lyric  This  conscious  lingual  major  is a  to the reader  lingual  i s t o l e a d him t o  e x p e r i e n c e has  initiated  inner passages.  images a r e c l e a r l y intact,  "0  and which b e g i n :  observed  This  then, in  in this  in his climax  f o r Maud.  that  to the stanzas 'twere p o s s i b l e  For the s i g n i f i c a n t  e a r l y poem, w h i c h T e n n y s o n  p r o f f e r e d , s t r e e t w o u l d be t h e  p a r a d i gm o f 1 i ngua 1 mean i ng f o r Maud's "B" s e c t i o n , j us t a s r o s e s 1 i 1 i es w o u 1 d be t h e p a r a d i g m s o f m e a n i n g  Kenneth P i k e , "Language—Where (1965),  5.  p.  f o r "A" s e c t i o n . ^  and  In t h i s  S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y M e e t " , CE,  XXVI  284.  E.D.H. J o h n s o n , "The PMLA, L X I V  has  t o Maud.  In t h e v i e w o f t h e poem h e r e b e i n g  4.  themes,  view o f the poetry-  the importance given  ones  with  t h e word-sound s t r e e t appears  1  t o be t h e g e r m i n a l  with  reposi-  e x p a n s i o n o f i t s r e l a t i v e sounds and r e l a t i v e  w h i c h Tennyson w r o t e i n 1837  included, nearly  t h e key  f o r "B."  p a r t i c l e / ' s t r e e t , becomes,  in.Maud r e i n f o r c e s  considered  theme  t h e key w o r d , s t r e e t ,  i t s p l o s i v e I tl  i n "B" s e c t i o n  e x p r e s s i o n o f Maud's  making process  city  argument  the poet's  some u n i t o f s o u n d - m e a n i n g ; as s u c h a u n i t .  too, o f the section's  and  t o r y a l s o o f the major sound combination  between sound and  led to conclude that  is l e d to conclude that  vowel / i y/,  i s prone t o  (1949),  L i l y and the Rose:  pp.  1222-1227.  Symbo1ic Meaning  in,Maud",  52. v i e w , a poem  i s the expansion o f units  i s a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h may be d e f i n e d level—and  then o n l y  o f sound-meaning:  in linear  tentatively—of  that  i s , a poem  terms o n l y a t i t s l o w e s t  the s y l l a b l e , or word, o r other  a c c e p t a b l e u n i t o f sound-meaning. What seems t o g i v e  linear  limits  to the expanding  n e s s o f Maud may be t h e de- 1 i m i t i ng /\J c o n f l i c t with  t h e b a s i c sound  imbeddings  1  sound-conscious-  s a n d A d / 's o f "B" s e c t i o n , wh i c h i n t h e o p e n i n g two s e c t i o n s .  These p l o s i v e s , which s e r v e not o n l y t o g i v e boundaries t o the echoing resonances  o f t h e vowel  to emphasize  syllables  the rhetorical  i n "B" s e c t i o n , b u t w h i c h s e r v e a l s o  consonances  "A", may s e r v e a s t h e l i n e a r a g e n t s  .6.  of the introductory  verses o f  i n t h e poem.  P i k e , " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y M e e t " , p . 285ll]  53.  CHAPTER IV  The  c o n f l i c t o f sounds  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f I tl  Tennyson's zas  a n d Idl  reading the  r e s o l u t i o n does n o t t a k e  o f the conclusion  in part  " B " by  i n the climaxing itself  in part  stan-  "C."  p l a c e , as even a s u p e r f i c i a l  would demonstrate.'  T h e p o e t has r e t a i n e d  both  r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e poem's e a r l y v e r s e s , as w e l l as t h e / t / ' s a n d / d / ' s t h e "Dead, long  ficial ing  dead" s t a n z a s .  analysis of part  together  this  c l e a r examples o f a l l i t e r a t i o n s , and f i n d i n g w i t h i n  purpose, then,  of consonant  P e r h a p s t h e most c o n v e n i e n t a n d s u p e r -  "C"'s b a s i c c o n s o n a n t s o u n d s c a n b e made by  community any p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s this  chapter  repetitions in part  will  line line line line line line line  2 3 4 5 5 6 10  9  a l i n e - b y - l i n e sampling  1.  "haunts o f h o r r o r (and f e a r ) " "at last f o ra l i t t l e thing" " f o r i t f e l l a t a time (of y e a r ) " "the face of the night is f a i r " "on t h e dewy downs" "shining daffodil dies" " t o d i v i d e i n a dream"  1 3 4 5 9-10 11 12  To  "C":  Stanza line line line line 1 ine line line line  open w i t h  gather-  their  o f c o n s o n a n t s o u n d s w h i c h may o c c u r .  Stanza  1.  consonances  o f t h e l o n g poem, m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t o r e s o l v e  However, such  of  i n Maud, w h i c h was m a r k e d  ..  2.  "but a dream, y e t i t y i e l d e d a dear d e l i g h t " " i n a weary w o r l d " "was b u t a d r e a m , y e t i t l i g h t e n ' d my d e s p a i r " "when 1 t h o u g h t t h a t a war w o u l d a r i s e " "be a l l i n a l 1" " a n d P e a c e / P i p e on h e r p a s t o r a l h i l l o c k " "her harvest r i p e n , her herd i n c r e a s e " " r u s t on a s l o t h f u l shore"  I t does n o t t a k e p l a c e t h e m a t i c a 1 1 y , e i t h e r . S e e : Roy B a s l e r , T e n n y s o n t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t " , SAQ., X L I I (1944), p p . 1 4 3 - 1 5 9 .  54. line  13  line  14  ......  " t h e cobweb woven a c r o s s "shall  shake  1  " r a n o n , and  2  line line line line 1 ine line line 1 ine line line  4 5 7 8 9 10 13 14 15 16  "a l a n d t h a t has l o s t f o r a l i t t l e h e r l u s t of g o l d " " h o r r i b l e , h a t e f u l , monstrous" "banner o f b a t t l e ( u n r o l l ' d l ) " "crush'd in the c l a s h of the j a r r i n g c l a i m s " " w r a t h s h a l l be w r e a k ' d on a g i a n t l i a r " "1ight shal 1 leap" " s h i n e i n t h e s u d d e n m a k i n g o f s p l e n d i d names" " F o r t h e p e a c e , t h a t 1 deem'd no p e a c e " " B l a c k and B a l t i c " "fortress flames" , " b l o o d - r e d b l o s s o m o f war ( w i t h a h e a r t o f fire)"  A g a i n , as b u t as  ......  1 1 2  in section  "B",  the a l l i t e r a t e d  the poet  s e c t i o n ' s second  za t h r e e .  R e p e t i t i o n of the phrase,  i n s i s t e n c e o f , "and  climactic third  it...It  the hoofs  in section i s gone;"  25 s t a n z a s o f "B."  verse of section  syllables  o f /w/,  and,  "C"  is demonstrable  "B"s which  demonstrate,  " i t is time",  of the horses  occurs  near  in this  lines  /tl of stan-  verse revives The  o r n f , "Is  the opening  and  insistent  beat, beat/  climaxing verse;  lines  hoofs  i s m u t e d , i n t h e two  "the world  opening  of  s t a n z a s , by  in i t s ambivalent role.  The  i n the coming wars";  /w/  of  i t gone the  However, the s t r o n g p l o s i v e q u a l i t y o f  in i t s vowel-continuant  here:  the  s h o r t e s t s t a n z a , the nine  c o n s i s t e n t t o t h e end  poem, by t h e p l o s i v e 16/ ance  shows h i s r e l i a n c e on / j t / ' s  fragments  i n "C"  beat/"  5.  " l e t i t flame or fade" " t h e war r o l l down 1 i k e a w i n d " "we h a v e p r o v e d we h a v e h e a r t s i n a c a u s e , we are noble s t i l l " " b e t t e r t o f i g h t f o r t h e good (than t o r a i l a t the i l l ) "  sounds a r e  What was  grew"  line  line 4  the horses  rumor o f b a t t l e  " i t is time, i t is time" "I c l e a v e d to a cause" " i t is time" S t a n z a 4.  line line line  the  tears"  line 2 line 3 1 ine 4  Stanza  /d/'s,  i t s threaded  3.  Stanza line  the cannon's t h r o a t "  role  the softer in the  conson-  " i n a weary  55. world";  "war w o u l d a r i s e " , a n d , i n t h e f i n a l  l i k e a w i n d " , "we h a v e p r o v e d still." stanzas  we h a v e h e a r t s  H o w e v e r , t h e /w/ c o n s o n a n c e t a k e s t o a l l i t e r a t e d /_d/'s--the  T e n n y s o n has r e l i e d  first  s t a n z a , " t h e war r o l l  i n a c a u s e , we a r e n o b l e  second place  time  f o r a major a l l i t e r a t i o n  down  i n these  i n t h e long stanzas upon Id/  final that  syllables:  "on t h e /d/ewy / d / o w n s " 'Vd/affo/d/i 1 /d/ies" " / d / i v i / d / e i n a /d/ream" "but a /d/ream, y e t i t y i e I / d / e / d / a /d/ear / d / e l i g h t " " b u t a / d / r e a m , y e t i t l i g h t e n ' / d / my / d / e s p a i r " Once a g a i n ,  i n "C", t h e /dl  sound s t r u c t u r e : crease o f . / t /  i t co-operates  s o u n d s , as w e l l  time.that' i t appears vowels and resonant its  consonant plays i n stanzas  as w i t h  i n stanzas consonants.  i t s dual  role  in the  three and f o u r w i t h t h e i n -  t h e c o n s o n a n c e o f /VJ , a t t h e same  o n e a n d two i n s o u n d p a i r i n g s w i t h For example, i n stanza  t h r e e , Id/  long plays  plosive role: A n d a s months r a n o n a n d rumour o f b a t t l e g r e w , " I t is time, i t is time, 0 passionate heart", sai/d/ I ( F o r I c l e a v e / d l t o a c a u s e t h a t I f e l t t o be p u r e and t r u e ) , ' I t i s time, 0 p a s s i o n a t e heart and morbi/d/ e y e , That o l d h y s t e r i c a l mock-/d/isease s h o u l d / d / i e . ' A n d I s t o o / d / on a g i a n t / d / e c k a n d m i x ' / d / my b r e a t h With a loyal people shouting a b a t t l e c r y , T i l l I saw t h e d r e a r y p h a n t o m a r i s e a n d f l y Far i n t o t h e N o r t h , and b a t t l e , and seas o f / d / e a t h . - P a r t 3 , VI , i i i  By c o n t r a s t , i n s t a n z a  two, i t plays  i t s resonant  role:  An/d/ i t was b u t a / d / r e a m , y e t i t y i e l / d / e d a / d / e a r / d / e l i g h t T o h a v e l o o k ' d , t h o ' b u t i n a / d / r e a m , upon e y e s s o f a i r , T h a t h a d been i n a w e a r y w o r l / d / my o n e t h i n g b r i g h t ; An/d/ i t was b u t a / d / r e a m , y e t i t l i g h t e n ' / d / my d e s p a i r When I t h o u g h t t h a t a war w o u l / d / a r i s e i n d e f e n c e o f t h e r i g h t , T h a t a n i r o n t y r a n n y now s h o u l d ben/df o r c e a s e , The g l o r y o f manhoo/d/ s t a n / d / on h i s a n c i e n t h e i g h t , Nor B r i t a i n ' s o n e s o l e Go/d/ be t h e m i l l i o n a i r e : Nor more s h a l l commerce be a 11 i n a l l , a n / d / P e a c e P i p e on h e r p a s t o r a l h i l l o c k a l a n g u i / d / n o t e , ' Ah/d/ watch h e r h a r v e s t r i p e n , h e r her/d/ i n c r e a s e , Nor t h e c a n n o n - b u l l e t r u s t on a s l o t h f u l s h o r e , A n / d / t h e cobweb woven a c r o s s t h e c a n n o n ' s t h r o a t ,  56. Shall  shake  i t s threaded  tears  i n t h e w i n / d / no - P a r t 3,  In t h i s and  second stanza  the /d/  r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , as  gives  way  before  In s t a n z a  the  t h r e e , on  " s h o r t " v o w e l s and  marked flict  conflict i n "B"  can  be  syllables  h a n d , /6/  of  s e c t i o n , i s thus shown b e s t  long  vowels  Its p l o s i v e  immediate  quality  environment.  i s p a i r e d f o r t h e most p a r t  in this  r e s o n a n t and  wi n d .  o f /d/'s  non-resonant c o n s o n a n t s , so  i t s a l l y , / xj,  partnership with The  the other  VI , i i  appears c o n s i s t e n t l y with  i n. d r e a m , b e n d , and  resonating  more  that  shorter  i t finds  strong  verse.  p l o s i v e s o u n d s , w h i c h was  retained  so  i n Maud/s c o n c l u s i o n .  in a contrast of  lines  with  from stanza  two  strongly The  con-  and  stanza  four: 2  Stanza  Stanza  And i t was b u t a d r e a m , y e t i t y i e l d e d a dear d e l i g h t To h a v e l o o k ' d , t h o ' b u t i n a d r e a m , upon e y e s s o f a i r , T h a t had been i n a w e a r y w o r l d my one t h i n g b r i g h t ; And i t was b u t a d r e a m , y e t i t l i g h t e n ' d my d e s p a i r In t h e 4th to  verse  t h e /Jk/  have e x p r e s s i o n  in stanza  fourth stanza.  The  excerpt  a b o v e ) and  t h e / xj  and  IVJ  use  Tho many a l i g h t s h a l l d a r k e n , a n d many s h a l l weep For t h o s e t h a t a r e c r u s h ' d in the c l a s h of j a r r i n g . claims, Y e t God's j u s t w r a t h s h a l l be w r e a k ' d on a g i a n t l i a r ; 1  consonants j o i n  d e - l i m i t the boundaries of  the  two.  v o w e l s and  There are  with  2,  8,  9 of  no /w/  consonances which a l s o  the  t h e / t / ' s and  the  resonant consonants  o f / ] _ / as a s o u n d d e v i c e  in lines  4  full  alliterations in lines stanza  1 and  which  in  the  2  (.in  is contrasted  • - P a r t 3, 2 of  the  Of a  the by  occur:  Tho' many a l i g h / t / s h a l l d a r / k / e n , a n d many s h a l l weep For t h o s e t h a / t / a r e A / r u s h ' / d / in the / k / l a s h o f the j a r r i n g /Jk/-la ims , Y e / t / God's J u s / j t / w r a t h s h a l l be w r e a / k / ' d on a g i a n / t / And many a d a r / k / n e s s i n / t / o t h e l i g h / t / s h a l l l e a p ,  In l i n e  /d/'s  liar;  VI , i v  stanza:  l a n d t h a / t / has  los/t/ for a  l i / _ t / l e her  l u s / t / of  gold  57. In  stanza  t w o , on t h e o t h e r  vowel / i y / w i t h resonant four.  the resonant  /d/,conflicts  Thus s t a n z a  four  25 c l i m a c t i c  section's  with  p a r t o f t h e poem f e l l  hand, the occurrence  in  this  the occurrence  o f p l o s i v e sounds  in stanza  i s a m i n i a t u r e f o r t h e sound c o n t r a s t s s t a n z a s , where t h e resonant  away b e f o r e  "Not t o be t o l d " ,  verse.  prosody  c o n s o n a n t s / ] / a n d / m/, as w e l l as t h e n o n -  syllables  i n "B"  sounds o f t h e e a r l i e r  the p l o s i v e sounds.  t h e u n d e r l y i n g g l i d e s o u n d s o f t h e /w/ of gold",  o f t h e /y/  The s t a n z a  i n phrases  like:  reveals "lust  " b a t t l e u n r o l l ' d " , a l l o f w h i c h a r e rhymed  B u t i t i s i n s i s t e n t , a t t h e same t i m e ,  in its plosive  sounds : Le/t/  i / j t / g/ow/ o r s / t / a y , s/ow/ h i g h e r aims  I wake / t / u w / t h e  -Part 3 , V I ,i v and: H o r r i b l e , H a / _ t / e f u l mons/_t/rous , n o / t / / t / u w / be /t/ow/ld - P a r t 3, VI , i v and: And  n / o w / b l e th/ow/gh/_t/ be f r e e r  under t h e sun - P a r t 3, V I , i v  There the  long  is l i t t l e  c o n f l i c t o f b a s i c sounds  introduction to Maud—section  in stanza  "A"—there  was  t w o , j u s t as i n  little  conflict.  H o w e v e r , w h e r e - t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e poem r e l i e d on /w/ vowel s y l l a b l e s , s t a n z a vowel s o u n d s . za,  two o f t h e poem's c o n c l u s i o n r e l i e s  A key word  i s dream, which  a n d w h i c h has s t r o n g e c h o e s  secondary assonance The  final  lies  stanza  on A y / p r o s o d y  i s used t h r e e times  in the stan-  i n y i e l d e d , dear , weary, d e l i g h t .  i n t h e rhymed w o r d s c e a s e ,  Peace,  A  increase.  of, Maud, t h e f i f t h . j o n e o f "C" s e c t i o n , does n o t  resolve the prosodic c o n f l i c t s are  prosody  o f t h e poem:  f o u n d now w i t h a n y i n t e n s i t y  in only  however, t h e p l o s i v e sounds  two l i n e s  o f the s i x , ther e -  58. ma i n i n g  four  lines  r e v e a l resonances  o f / y / p r o s o d y a n d /w/ p r o s o d y  sylla-  bles : L e t i t f l / e y / m e o r f / e y / d e , a n d t h e w/ow/r r/ow/11 d/aw/n 1 / a y / k e a w / t y / n d , W/iy/ have pr/uw/ved w / i y / have h e a r t s i n a c / j w / s e , w / i y / a r e n/ow/b1e s t / t y / 1 1 , A n d m / a y / s e l f h a v e a w / e y / k e / d / a s i / t / s / i y / m s /_t/uw/ t h e be/t/er m/ay/nd; I / t / i s . b e / t / e r / t / o f / a y / g h / t / f o r t h e g/uw/d/ t h a n / t / o r / e y / 1 a/t/ t h e/ t y / 1 1 ; ^ / A y / h a v e f e l t w i t h m/ay/ n / a y / t i v e l a n d , / A y / am /uw/ne w i t h m/ay/ k / a y / n d , /Ay/ e m b r / e y / c e t h e p u r p o s e o f G/ow/d, a n d t h e d/uw/m ass/ay/gn'd. -Part As  well  as t h e dominant s t r u c t u r e s o f resonant  syllables  in this  structures  which  observable  i n t h e s t a n z a a more s t a b l e r h y t h m , o r " b e a t " , w h i c h a l s o  parallel five-beat  re-echo  3, V I , v  i n the stanzas rhythm:  Significantly, alliteration  this  t h e s o u n d p a t t e r n s o f Maud's "A" s e c t i o n , t h e r e i s  o f t h e poem's o p e n i n g rhythm  t h e longer  i s constant  lines  and assonance, j u s t  i n s e c t i o n "A" t h e r e w e r e s t r o n g of  thesix-beat line,  imbeddings o f s i m i l a r  stanza,  of this  section..  in a l l the stanzas  section rely  as t h e y internal  The l i n e s  have a  o f "C" s e c t i o n .  f r e q u e n t l y on  d i d i n s e c t i o n "A."  internal  However, where  r h y t h m s o c c u r r i n g upon b e a t  i n s e c t i o n "C" t h e i n t e r n a l s y l l a b l e arrangements  sound devices  through  continuous  three  are rather lines  who 1e s t a n z a : My  m/uw/d i s c h a n g e d , f o r i t f e l l a t a t i m e of year When t h e f a c e o f t h e n i g h t . i s f a i r on t h e d/uw/y d/aw/ns , And t h e s h i n i n g d a f f o d i l d i e s , a n d t h e C h a r i o t e e r And s t a r r y G e m i n i hang l i k e g l / o w / r i o u s c r / a w / n s /Ow/ver / j w / r i o n ' s g r a v e 1/ow/ d/aw/n i n t h e West - P a r t 3, V I ,  finds  i  Or: i t was b u t a d r / i y / m , y e t y / i y / 1 d e d a d / i y / r d e l i ght To h a v e l o o k ' d , t h o ' b u t i n a d r / i y / m , upon e y e s so f a i r , A n d i t was b u t a d r / i y / m , . . . And  - P a r t 3 , VI , i i  of the  59. Or,  again,  in s y l l a b l e s  of /r_/'s:  And w a t c h h e / r / h a / r / v e s t / r / i p e n , h e / r / h e / r / d i n c / _ r / e a s e , No/r_/ t h e c a n n o n - b u l l e t / _ r / u s t on a s l o t h f u l s h o / _ r / e , And t h e cobweb woven a c / r / o s s t h e c a n n o n ' s t h / j V o a t , S h a l l s h a k e i t s t h / j V e a d e d t e a / j V s i n t h e w i n d no mo/r/e. -Part As carry  well,  the  the  rhyme w o r d s a t  fifthcbeat  emphasize e x t e r n a l  of  the  the  line-ends  five-beat  sound s t r u c t u r e s .  The  l e n g t h e n e d f r o m "B"  section's  still  the  "A"'s  and  acoustic  full  parallels  in  "C"  He  i s drawn t h e r e  out  toward  several  s t a t u r e of  internal by  lines.  sound devices , y e s , imbeddings of  These s y l l a b l e s  This  movement away f r o m t h e  t a n t as  a similar  however, l i k e rhymes.  For  high-front the of  16  "B",  movement i n "B" given  v o w e l , and  lines  these are  of  verse,  11  rhymes o f / e y / ,  a s s o n a n c e s , as Let  this  these selected  not  for  the /ey/  interest linear  i s go o r s t / e y / , s o /ey/ms  i s drawn  reasons.  sound s y l l a b l e s f o r him  as  shorter  lyric,  is a strong syllable,  t h e /y/  will  through-  outward,  inward, set statements not  as  i n the  from  higher  3,  VI , i v  And  l o v e o f a p e a c e t h a t was f u l l o f w r o n g s and sh/ey/mes , H o r r i b l e , h / e y / t e f u l , m o n s t r o u s , n o t t o be t o l d ; And h/ey/1 o n c e more t o t h e b a n n e r o f b a t t l e unro11 d! 1  -Part  line the  rhymes.  demonstrate:  -Part  impor-  lines—is,  prosody s y l l a b l e ;  I w/ey/ke t o t h e  of  imbedding of  w h i c h h a v e some a s s i s t a n c e lines  rhetorical  in s i g n i f i c a n t assonances of  f o u r , there  feature  stanzas  rhythm, have  upon  line structure--perhaps  section's  particularly  insist  reverberate  t h a n as  some i m p e t u s  example, in stanza  three-beat  individual  may  "C'"s  thus s i g n i f i c a n t l y  reader's  but  i i  l i n e s of. Maud, t h e n ,  insistent  l i n e . . The  e x p a n d i n g movements o f s o u n d , r a t h e r sound.  final  l i n e s , which  in each h a l f  the  of s e c t i o n  line rhythm—and  which are not  3 , VI,  3 , VI , i v  five  internal  Of  60. For  those that a r e crush'd i n the clash o f the j a r r i ng c 1 / e y / m s , -Part 3 , VI,  And  s h i n e i n t h e sudden n/ey/mes ,  m/ey/king  iv  of splendid  - P a r t 3 , VI , i v And  d e a t h f u l - g r i n n i n g mouths o f t h e f o r t r e s s fl/ey/mes. -Part 3 , VI,  A s e c o n d _y_ p r o s o d y w h i c h vowel o f 1 i g h t . darkness ing  into  I t o c c u r s , f o r example,  t h e 1/ay/ght  shall  o f s p l e n d i d names",/  shall  ones  l i a r , des i r e ,  in this  leap,/  weep/."  stanza  And sh/ay/ne line:  i n t h e sudden  "Tho  three syllables  i s , in fact,  t h e dominant  s t a n z a s two, t h r e e and f o u r .  of  s i x l i n e s , becoming  "I  e m b r a c e t h e p u r p o s e o f G o d , a n d t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . " The  In f i v e ,  p l o s i v e sounds  voiced f i n a l l y  i n the last  i n t o t h e poem's f i n a l a r e muted  q u a l i t y , both  in this  in i t s i n i t i a l  phrase:  role  i s echoed i n being  rhyming  syllables  and major consonant  c o u r s e , a r e t h e p l o s i v e sounds  "C."  final  s t a n z a o f Maud  " t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . "  has a s t r o n g r e s o n -  o f Maud, thus  syllables  incorporates  o f t h e poem.  which were so s t r o n g l y marked  pairings  role in  i n t h e broief,  in these f i n a l  five  major  Excepted, in the five-  A l s o e x c e p t e d i s t h e r e s o n a n t /_]_/ w h i c h was f e a t u r e d  However, t h e o b v i o u s sound  The  o f /uw/, o f / n / , a n d o f / a y / .  i n n e r s e c t i o n o f "B", a n d w h i c h w e r e e c h o e d  stanza  s o u n d o f t h e poem.  i n doom a n d i n i t s t e r m i n a l  "doom a s s i g n ' d " , t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e s  vowel  vowel  p h r a s e , f o r t h e Yd/  ass i g n ' d , b e c a u s e o f t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f /m/,  long  1/ay/ght  i t a p p e a r s a g a i n i n t h r e e out'  d o m i n a n c e o f /w/ a n d /y/ p r o s o d i e s i n t h i s  leads, n a t u r a l l y  of  mak-  o n e i n t h e rhyme scheme  of  The  many a  1  This /ay/ assonance  and f i r e , t h e l a s t  "And many a  in the stanza. The / a y / s y l l a b l e  ant  is the /ay/  in these phrases:  and i n the e a r l i e r  d a r k e n , a n d many s h a l l  h iqher,  i s imbedded  iv  i n "A."  stanzas—between  61. doom a n d dream;  between  a s s i qn'd a n d t ime / 1 i q h t — w h e r e e a c h o f t h e p a i r e d  words', d r e a m , t i m e , a n d 1 i q h t , gives  evidence that  /_]/ are s t i l l  i s used f o u r  t h e p l o s i v e sounds  major  patterns  even  vowel  is given  dream, y i e l d . sound ing  roles  lines  and t h e r e s o n a n t sounds o f l i n e s o f t h e poem.  stanza a r e gathered, i t i s the high,  is featured  in the lines  Thus  dominates  i n doom o r ro11 ' d.  to another high, front  s t r e e t / b e a t / dead o f s e c t i o n  These  u n i t s would  "A", a s  find  the f o l l o w i n g  .street/beat/dead , e t c .  doom/dream/ass i qn'd The  units  . t i me/1i g h t  o f " x " a r e t h e ones  s o n a n t s , whereas  do n o t e m p l o y  w h i c h depend  t h o s e o f " y " depend  o f " x " f r e q u e n t l y employ this  matrix:  y  , r o s e s / 1 i 1 i e s / w h o knows, e t c .  upon t h e p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t s .  t h e /w/  syllable.  w h o l l y upon r e s o n a n t c o n -  p r o s o d y vowel  syllable;  The  those o f  Both " x " and " y " f e a t u r e t h e h i g h ,  front  sylTable.However, perhaps  while  sound-theme  "B", as. t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  x  vowel  in the climax-  o f t h e poem. A p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e key sound  "y"  v o w e l , / i y/, as i n  t h e r o s e s a n d t h e 1 i 1 i e s a n d who knows? o f s e c t i o n  w e l 1 a s wi t h t h e  units  A second  i n t h e s t a n z a s , a n d , because o f t h e i r appearances  with  over the  i t i s t h e d r e a m , a n d t ime o r 1i g h t , w h i c h p l a y k e y  o f t h e l o n g poem, p l a y theme r o l e s as w e l l .  units join  units  i n t h e s h o r t "C" s e c t i o n - *  s y l l a b l e / a y / , as i n t ime a n d 1 i g h t , t h a t  b a c k v o w e l /uw/ o r /ow/ w h i c h dominance  o f /1/  unto t h e f i n a l  When t h e s o u n d - p a i r s o f t h e f i n a l front  times  less a v a i l a b l e  important.  There  the thematic d i s t i n c t i o n s  t h e two g r o u p s ,  t o q u a n t i t a t i v e m e a s u r e m e n t , a r e q u a l i t a t i v e l y more  i s , f o r example, a marked c o n t r a s t  sounds — " x " d e n o t i n g t h e " p r i v a t e " symbols denoting  between  t h e " p u b l i c " symbols  i n t h e groups o f  o f f l o w e r s and dreams, and " y "  o f s t r e e t s and time.  This  dichotomy o f t h e  " p r i v a t e " a n d t h e " p u b l i c " man has been a common theme i n T e n n y s o n  62.  criticism: obvious. poet  2  perhaps  first  However a s e c o n d  is in c o n f l i c t  plicit  this  e x a c t l y as  with  distinction  view o f Tennyson  the urban  sounds city  ch i1d;  fleet.  tion  significance of this Superficially  o f a sound  which  imi t a t e  second,  thesis  that  the poet  second  in intensity  the s i g n i f i c a n c e would  symbolism  in the  language:  i n some way  pastoral  i s made e x -  f i t "x" group  are  a r e used r e p e a t e d from the resonant  the r u r a l  expanded  have c o n t i n u a l l y began w i t h t h e sounds  t h e sounds  and  that  scene  i t i s one  i s perhaps to  to the  within  finally  suggest a sound  necessarily a natural The  conflict  of the poet  o f sounds  which  has  symbolism;  wood m i g h t might  expansions  to of  however, such not  language.  i n Maud has  a  parallel  J e r o m e H. B u c k l e y , T e n n y s o n t h e G r o w t h o f a P o e t ( B o s t o n , I 9 6 0 ) ; E l t o n E. S m i t h , The Two V o i c e s : A T e n n y s o n S t u d y ( L i n c o 1 n , Neb., 1964).  lead  lead  from h i s l a n g u a g e , and  been n o t e d  of  generalizations  continuing  o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e body o f h i s  sounds  w o o d , o r meadow,  wrpod 1 a n d , wor 1 d l i nq , womanhood , wa i 1 ' d , e t c . , a n d mea dow  sound-themes might  to  the d i s c o v e r i e s  For example,  The  appear  This a l t e r n a t i v e is  t h e themes o f t h e s e i n i t i a l  etc.  sugges-  h i s language  c o n c e p t i o n , perhaps  t h e themes o f t h e poem.  so  However, t h e r e i s a  which  toward.  not  l i e in the  i s , i t would  environment.  been d i r e c t e d  the lingual and  appear  is realizing  his physical  s y m b o l i s m m u s t be a c h o i c e , f i r s t ,  2.  the  to the  f i t "y" are beat,  thematic contrast  me 1 l o w , h o i l o w , s wa11ow, morn i nq , May, the  which  t h e p o e t moves f r o m  l e s s o b v i o u s , a l t e r n a t i v e , and  this  into  conflict  A l l o f t h e s e terms  t h r o u g h o u t t h e poem, v a r y i n g  i n the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Tennyson  and  in which  Terms w h i c h  . terms  points only  one.  obvious.  to  flit,  t o t h e p l o s i v e o n e s , as  The  lie  Maud t h i s  the above m a t r i x s u g g e s t s .  f e e t , meet, t r e a d , c i t y , by T e n n y s o n  i s t h e one  poet—in  meadow, ho 1 l o w , w o o d , m o o r , f i e l d ,  ly  i n the groups  63, in a n o t h e r Eliot.  m a j o r poem, w r i t t e n o v e r  60 y e a r s  In "The L o v e Song o f J . A l f r e d  l a t e r , by t h e A m e r i c a n T. S.  Prufrock" identically-similar  theme p a i r i n g s a p p e a r , a s may be shown, f r o m s e l e c t e d l i n e s . Maud It  For  But  t h e broad l i g h t g l a r e s and beats , t h e shadow f l i t s and f1eets w i l l n o t l e t me b e ;  through c e r t a i n h a l f deserted streets The m u t t e r i n g r e t r e a t s  I l o a t h e t h e squares and s t r e e t s , t h e f a c e s t h a t one meets ,  To  And  vapours  p r e p a r e a f a c e t o meet t h e f a c e s t h a t you meet;  But  up a n d down a n d t o and f r o , E v e r a b o u t me t h e d e a d men go;  t h e room t h e women come and go Talking of Michelangelo.  It  i s time, i t is time, '0 p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t , ' sa i d I . . . l i t i s time, 0 passionate h e a r t and morbid e y e ,  T h e r e w i l l be t i m e , t h e r e w i l l be t i m e . . . . T h e r e w i l l be t i m e t o murder and c r e a t e  Let  In  L e t us go t h e n  i t go o r s t a y . . .  Is  i t gone? My p u l s e s What was i t ? ...What i s i t ? . . .  o f such  s o u n d - t h e m e - i m a g e r y p a r a 1 1 e l s must  r e m a i n f o r t h e moment a t t h e l i t e r a r y  level, f o r this  d e s c r i p t i o n s o f o n e poem, n o t w i t h p r e s c r i p t i o n s  Eliot,  i n h i s e a r l y w o r k , may h a v e b e e n much  extremely  interesting  influence—does  from a 1 i n g u i s t i c  thesis  f o r another  than  That  i n f l u e n c e d by T e n n y s o n i s  viewpoint, t o o ,but the extent o f  i t c a n be d e f i n e d .  thesis  i s concerned  f o r a l l poetry.  t h e Tennyson sound-theme u n i t e x t e n d  p o e m s ? — m u s t be m e a s u r e d b e f o r e subject matter  you and I . . .  Oh, do n o t a s k , 'What i s i t ? ' L e t us go a n d make o u r v i s i t .  beat--  However, t h e importance  this  t h e y e l l o w smoke t h a t s l i d e s along the street  the yellow choke  And  poem:  When t h e e v e n i n g i s s p r e a d out a g a i n s t the sky  And  And  with  from each  Prufrock  l e a d s me f o r t h a t e v e n i ng  And  sound-  this  to E l i o t ' s  later  Such m e a s u r e m e n t i s  present one.  64.  CONCLUSION  The the  sound  t o be o b s e r v e d  lingual  that  i t defies  be a r g u e d , b u t i t c a n n o t b e a r g u e d meet t h e i d e a l  w h i c h we c a l l  ever, since a l l  exploitation  English  individual  that  of certain  poetry shares  sounds  syllables  The  individual  sounds  by i n -  t o t h e body o f t h e  combinations o f English  poets, should serve to categorize  sounds,  the tolerable,  o f a poem, t h e n , may be d e f i n e d a s t h e i n t u i t i v e  r e s p o n s e w h i c h a r e a d e r makes t o a p a r t i c u l a r  a careful  How-  combinations o f t h e language.  uniqueness  meaningful  o f t h e language.  and consonant  itself.  For example,  lingual  relationships  thesis  poem.  i n an i n d i v i d u a l  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e poem's " u n i t s " '  His response t othe  poem may be e x a m i n e d i n  o f sound-meaning, a  descri-  p t i o n which  this  1.  P i k e , " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y M e e t " , _CE, XXVI  Kenneth  this  i n a common u n i v e r s e o f E n g l i s h  language  sound  i t does n o t  i t may l i e i n t h e p o e t ' s  p o e t s s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y t o draw a t t e n t i o n  meaningful  lingual  i n the very evidence which  of poetry:  c h o i c e s o f vowel  by i n d i v i d u a l  general  i t i s so deviant that  dividual  practised  in defining  "poem."  for its definitions  own a n d p a r t i c u l a r  this  Maud i s a u n i q u e poem may, o f c o u r s e ,  u n i q u e n e s s o f Maud may l i e , e v e n ,  thesis offers  sounds,  has f u r t h e r a s s u m e d t h a t  That  that  the standard processes o f  p r o c e s s e s o f Maud i t i s d e f i n i n g , a l s o , c e r t a i n poetry.  lingual  S i n c e i t cannot be a r g u e d  i n Eng 1 i s-h,.. t h i s t h e s i s  p r o c e s s e s o f a 11 E n g l i s h  The  there are c e r t a i n , definable  i n t h e poem.  poem, Maud, i s s o u n u s u a l  poetry-making the  i n T e n n y s o n ' s Maud w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e s c r i b e d i n  foregoing chapters suggest that  processes one  structures  (1964-65) , p . 284.  has a t t e m p t e d w i t h T e n n y s o n ' s Maud.  65. B u t w h a t c a n n o t be d e f i n e d s o e a s i l y — a l t h o u g h , s t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , i t , also, finds  immediate,  w h i c h we c a l l directed the  response from  undertaken  may be made, now, t o p o i n t  o n e s , a n d t h e y deny t h e l i n g u a l  The  in this  to certain  thesis.  Unless  tentative  conclu-  descriptions  c o n c e p t i o n s which have framed  do, o f c o u r s e , p o i n t  to certain, definable  t h e poem, p a t t e r n s w h i c h o p e n t o s p e c u l a t i o n c e r t a i n  upon t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y , b u t a l s o seems most s i g n i f i c a n t Maud a l l l e a d tion  the ideal  upon t h a t w h i c h we c a l l . " p o e m " o r " p o e t r y " , t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e  trivial  i s that  in.a certain  hypotheses  them.  patterns not only  upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e .  What  t h e p a t t e r n s o f p o e t i c meaning e x p l o r e d i n  general d i r e c t i o n .  o f p o e t r y as t h e p a r a d i g m o f l i n g u a l  s i t o r y o f a 11 . s i g n i f i c a n t  They  lead toward a  meaning, that  defini-  i s , as t h e r e p o -  events and combinations o f events o f the  language.  Such  definition  o f "phoneme", w h i c h  cant sound  events o f the language.  ing  the.reader—is  How we c o n c e i v e o f p o e t r y i s t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h has  the chapters of description  descriptions  sions  in  "poem."  intuitive  a d e f i n i t i o n o f "poem" p a r a l l e l s , f o r e x a m p l e ,  linguists'  i s t a k e n t o be t h e r e p o s i t o r y f o r s i g n i f i In t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s  what  is interest-  i s t h a t n e i t h e r poem n o r phoneme i s an o b j e c t o f i t s e l f , a n d y e t e a c h  s e r v e s as i d e a t i o n , infinite  not j u s t  f o r sums o f l i n e a r  dimensions o f p a t t e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but f o r  s u g g e s t i v e o f Benjamin  Whorf's "word o f h y p e r - s p a c e , o f h i g h e r d i m e n s i o n s . " H o w e v e r , w h i l e "poem" i s l i n g u a l both a l i n g u a l sions  event  in i t s lingual  itself  ideation,  i t i s , because  a n d a t t h e same t i m e s u g g e s t  p a t t e r n s , something  i t c a n be  infinite  o t h e r t h a n t h e sum o f a l l  dimenits  2.  L. S. V y g o t s k y , " L a n g u a g e a n d T h o u g h t , The P r o b l e m a n d t h e A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , e d . J o h n P. D e C e c c o (New Y o r k , 1967), p p . 55-60.  3.  Benjamin Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , e d . John ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1956), p . 2 4 8 .  B.  Carroll  •66. known p a r t s tion  which  Neither honors  this  may a l l p a r t s knowledge  e v e r be known, n o r may t h e g e n e r a l i z a -  be m e r e l y a sum o f p a r t s .  Therefore the  c o n c e p t o f "poem" a s t h e v e h i c l e w h i c h c a r r i e s a l l p o s s i b l e of  language p o s i t s a s u p r a - l i n e a r  though  lingual  tionships linear  p a t t e r n i ngs  o f sounds  Such, c o n c e p t u a l l y ,  Maud h a v e  f o r language, where  e v e n t s may be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d  of syllable-meanings  be c o r r e c t .  environment  w i t h i n given  sound-meanings  lines  by l i n e s ,  d e p e n d upon  even  the r e l a supra-  and themes.  i s the view o f poetry  which  The e s s a y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f sounds  led to the conclusion  that poetry  this  thesis holds to  and sound  structures  in  i s the c l a s s o f language,  5 rather  than t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n ,  poetry  i s a sub-class  offered  o f language.  by s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s ,  Summary e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s  i n t h e t h e s i s by t h e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t  i n a n t o n e i n Maud, m i g h t the  favored  language,  2)  of itself  t h e two b a s i c  patterns  language, and  tories  3)  the s y l l a b l e  f o r sound-theme p a t t e r n s  sound  unit of  which a r e w i t n e s s e d i n  Maud m i g h t be t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n p o e t i c a n d p r o s a i c the  view i s  l ) a s o u n d /wh/ i s a dom-  be t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  sound  that  u n i t s o f Maud a p p e a r  structures of t o be r e p o s i -  i n t h e poem, as t h e y may b e , s i m i l a r l y ,  for  sound-theme p a t t e r n s  i n any given  English  poem.  From t h r e e  such  4.  A s i m i l a r v i e w i s made o f t h e " l i t e r a r y s y m b o l " b y W i l l i a m T i n d a l l , . T h e L i t e r a r y Symbol (New Y o r k , 1955), p p . 8 - 1 1 .  5.  Samuel R. L e v i n , " P o e t r y a n d G r a m m a t i c a 1 n e s s " , E s s a y s on t h e L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman a n d Samuel R. L e v i n ( B o s t o n , 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 224-230; R i c h a r d Ohmann,. " L i t e r a t u r e a s S e n t e n c e s " , , E s s a y s on t h e L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , p p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 8 ; Ronald S u t h e r l a n d , " S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h P r o s o d y " , R e a d i n g s i n A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , e d . H a r o l d B. A l l e n (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 492-499; Noam C h o m s k y , A s p e c t s o f t h e T h e o r y o f S y n t a x ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass.,.1965), p p . 148-153.  York  67. v i e w s o f Maud may  be d e r i v e d , f i r s t , a d e f i n i t i o n o f p o e t r y as  c e s s , and, second, a s p e c u l a t i o n of  that poetry  i s the l i n g u a l  lingual  pro-  demonstration  non-linear dimensions. The t h r e e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h t h i s  description.of  the sounds, the sound s t r u c t u r e s , and, f i n a l l y ,  p a t t e r n i n g s o f Maud n e e d b r i e f order  review.  significant  The /w/  in s e c t i o n  syllables  r e s o n a n t sounds  "A" a n d s e c t i o n  "C";  etc.,  i n "B", t h i s one  a major r o l e  in sections  with  whom common t o "A" a n d t o "B";  Tennyson's  sounds.  in the s e c t i o n .  t h e a l 1 i t e r a t i o n s . o f /w/  i n t h e poem.  p r o s o d y vowel  "B" a n d "C" o f Maud. relies  on i n a n d whose o r  i s found t o have  p r o n o u n — f o r examp1e , who ,,wha t ,  initiating  Not o n l y does  syllable  i n l i n e s o f "A"  t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e /wh/  i n Maud, themes  here  s o u n d r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e poem, i t more  up a t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n  reveals  section  syllables  i n the poem—a pattern  b l i s h e d by r e p e a t e d q u e s t i o n s o f "who?", " w h a t ? " , " w h y ? " , e t c . patterning  Taken  t h e f r e q u e n t u s e o f w h e r e , when,  language sound ooow(h)ooe  described c o n t r i b u t e to the general  syntactic  domin-  What i s e v e n more s i g n i f i c a n t , p e r h a p s , i s  why, w h e n , w h e r e , how,--as an  s i g n i f i c a n t l y points  a n d /aw/  t h e r e p e t i t i v e u s e o f who  f r e q u e n t c h o i c e o f t h e /wh/  a n d "B" s e c t i o n .  i n Maud, p a r t i c u -  T h e s e /w/  which Tennyson  and w i t h  i n the  the poet  t h e v o w e l s y l l a b l e s /ovi/, /uw/  "A", w h e r e  a r e a l s o p r o m i n e n t ones  together with section  r e p e t i t i o n o f /wh/  a  the sound  be d i s c u s s e d now  s o u n d s h a v e been f o u n d t o be p r o m i n e n t ones  ated a l l other  why,  They w i l l  i n w h i c h t h e y h a v e been p r o f f e r e d , b e g i n n i n g w i t h  Tennyson's  larly  e s s a y has r e a c h e d a f t e r  the underlying  which, of course, c r i t i c s  themes  o f doubt  have c o n s i s t e n t l y  esta-  This  anddespair acknowledged  i n t h e poems o f T e n n y s o n . 6.  T. S. E l i o t , f o r e x a m p l e , c a l l e d T e n n y s o n a " V i r g i l among t h e S h a d e s , t h e s a d d e s t o f a l l E n g l i s h p o e t s , among t h e G r e a t i n L i m b o , t h e most i n s t i n c t i v e r e b e l a g a i n s t t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h he was t h e most p e r f e c t c o n f o r m i s t " , T. S. E l i o t , " T e n n y s o n ' s 'In Memoriam'", S e l e c t e d P r o s e ( H a r m o n d s w o r t h , M i d d l e s e x , 1958), p. 184.  When t h i s  s y l l a b l e /wh/ i s f o u n d a l s o  t o be t h e b a s i c s o u n d  i n words  w h i c h do n o t s y m b o l i z e b o t h /w/ a n d / h / , b u t r a t h e r s y m b o l i z e o n d y  /w/,  a s , f o r example, /wh/ave, /wh/ent, / w h / a i l , /wh/ant, / w h / i n , /wh/ar, e t c . , we a r e b r o u g h t t o r e c o n g i z e t h a t /wh/ p l a y s a n e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t s o u n d role  i n Maud.  F o r now we m u s t r e c o g n i z e t h a t a l l /w/ p r o s o d i e s , a s w e l l  as a l l /w/ s e m i - v o w e l s a n d v o w e l s ( w h i c h may t h e n be s a i d  i n t h e poem h a v e t h i s /wh/  t o e x t e n d t h e themes o f d o u b t  imbedding  expressed in the  poem). This  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e poem begs a g e n u i n e q u e s t i o n :  h a v e , as a b a s i c q u a l i t y o f s o u n d ,  does  t h i s /wh/ i m b e d d i n g w h i c h  English  Tennyson,  b e c a u s e o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r /w/ p r o s o d i e s a n d /w/ v o w e l s , has h e r e emphasized?  S i n c e /w/ p l a y s a t r i p l e  r o l e .in t h e l a n g u a g e , a s p r o s o d y ,  as v o w e l , a s s e m i - v o w e l , l o g i c s u g g e s t s t h a t sounds  second h y p o t h e s i s which  p a t t e r n s o f Maud e s t a b l i s h  tive--in  the lingual  features  the six-beat  Tennyson's  acoustic  into  basic  essay offers  processes of English.  Section  emphasizes  thesis  poetry:  has a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , by u s i n g  as s y n t a c t i c a n d r h e t o r i -  T h e r e a d e r i s drawn b y t h e s e v a r i o u s  the lines  narra-  "A" o f t h e poem  a m i d - 1 i n e pause  r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l i n e a s s a u n i t o f measure,  lingual  techniques  s o t h a t he c a n q u i t e  o f poetry to sentences o f n a r r a t i v e .  be, of course, a very l y r i c a l  s e t o f sentences which  c o n s i d e r s , f o r he i s a w a r e t h r o u g h o u t s e c t i o n ground p u l l  t h e two b a s i c  l i n e s w h i c h a r e n o t common i n E n g l i s h  He d e l i b e r a t e l y  re-assign  i s that  distinet ions--1yric.and  d e v i c e s s u c h as a l l i t e r a t i o n , as w e l l  devices.  properly will  this  u s e f o r t h e l i n e s may b e , a s t h i s  quite prosaic.  cal  i m b e d d i n g o f /wh/  i s indeed a f e a t u r e o f the language.  The sound  this  the reader  "A" o f t h e s t r o n g  o f /w/ p r o s o d y a n d / y / p r o s o d y v o w e l  syllables  This  under-  imbedded i n  t h e w h o l e o f "A." In s e c t i o n  "B" o f t h e poem, f r o m  its initial  l i n e s , t h e poet i s  69. high1y • 1yrica1. emphasis  thrown  rhetorical in "B"  "B."  or The  upon e x t e r n a l  rhymes a n d  their  remains  (although i n the E n g l i s h  r e a d e r o f "B"  /1/  o r /6/  section  has  i s thus  discussion of  structures  i n Maud has  importance of s i m i l a r  lingual  e x a m p l e , i n James J o y c e ' s work., The  Lyrical  ,  p a s t t e n s e , as  the  distinctions As  "lyrical  such  in  not a s y n -  f o r example,  dropped function),  l i n e t o t h e s t a n z a , and  between p r o s e and  in recent  lines  sounds  an o b v i o u s m o r p h o - s y n t a c t i c  lyric.  poetry  l i t e r a r y discussions  of  the  in prose f i c t i o n , a s , f o r  remarked  N o v e l , w h e n e v e r an a u t h o r has  of-consciousness" technique essentially  a p u r e l y a c o u s t i c , and  distinctions  Ulysses.  individual  lines of poetry to stanzas of  its parallel lingual  Neither  become i n s i s t e n t  drawn f r o m  quite properly assign these  This  assonances.  d e v i c e s o p e r a t e , i n t e r n a 1 l y upon  insistence  burnt, the dental  t h r e e - b e a t ones w i t h sound  external  Even where t h e / t / ' s . a n d t h e /d/'s  one  he c a n  lines are predominantly  nor s y n t a c t i c  section,  tactic  The  as J o y c e has  by R a l p h chosen  Freedman  t o use a  d o n e , he has  p r o c e s s " , h e l d o n l y l o o s e l y by a p r o s e  in h i s  "stream-  chosen  an  form:  The n o v e l ^ U l y s s e s ) i s b u i l t on an o b v i o u s c o u n t e r p o i n t . On t h e one h a n d , we e n c o u n t e r t h e e p i c q u e s t t h r o u g h t h e c o n c r e t e w o r l d o f D u b l i n , b u t , on t h e o t h e r , we o b s e r v e t h e f i l t e r i n g o f t h a t q u e s t t h r o u g h t h e c o n s c i o u s and unconscious stream. A n a r r a t o r exposes hims e l f w h i l e o s t e n s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g the w o r l d o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n .. ...A " l y r i c a l p r o c e s s " b a s e d on t h e q u e s t seems t o move t o w a r d a moment o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n e a c h o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t o be u n i f i e d i n t h e end by t h e n o v e l ' s r e s o l u t i o n as a whole. In many w a y s , t h e n , U l y s s e s seems t o use b o t h t h e q u e s t and t h e s t r e a m - o f consciousness f o r a l y r i c a l purpose.... The j u g g l i n g o f l y r i c a l t e c h n i q u e i s o n l y o n e a s p e c t among many o f t h i s c o m p l e x w o r k , which extends from a parody o f l i t e r a t u r e and language t o a c o n c i s e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f men a n d e v e n t s .  Freedman s u g g e s t s  there is a  "web  o f m o t i f s " by w h i c h  Joyce  exposes  70. his  themes t h r o u g h o u t  Ulysses J  It is just  t h e m e s , but. o f s o u n d - t h e m e s , w h i c h true nature of poetry.  A second  upon t h e s o u n d - t h e m e a n a l y s i s author's  use o f key sound  this  such  p a t t e r n i n g , not simply of  t h e s i s o n Maud  suggests  prose c r i t i c , W i l l i a m  Y o r k T i n d a l l , comes  when he d e s c r i b e s i n J o y c e ' s  words t h r o u g h o u t  is the  Ulysses the 1 i ke k e y s ,  the novel—words  o tea , p o t a t o , r o s e , c o d , e t c . — w h i c h out  the whole, A final  of  Maud  t o form h i e r a r c h i e s  hypothesis which  (or o f any E n g l i s h  this  a r e i t e r a t e d and r e i t e r a t e d  o f meanings w i t h i n essay o f f e r s  meanings.  is that  the s y l l a b l e  syllable  i n Maud's "A" s e c t i o n  i n o n e o f t h e two m a j o r secondary in  two f o r m s  consonant Similar  i s the /y/ prosody  reflected  a r e t o be f o u n d  r/ow/se.  A  vowel,  found  1 / -f y/ 1 / i y/ s .  o t h e r main s y m b o l :  The  i n roses and  major  lilies.  i n t h e who-whose o f "A"  The w h o l e p a t t e r n o f s o u n d - t h e m e s m i g h t  i n t h e l o n g poem's  final  is their  one:  t h e p o e t ' s c h o i c e o f h i s poem  upon a n d s t i l l  Freedman, The L y r i c a l  Novel  t o be  sound-theme p a t t e r n s  suggestion of a process o f poetry-making.  h i s poem, e x p a n d i n g  Ralph  be s a i d  p h r a s e , " t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . "  i t r o s e , w o o d , s t r e e t , c i t y , dream o r t ime.  builds  section:  s i g n i f i c a n c e of these c l e a r l y - e s t a b l i s h e d  is a l i n g u a l  7.  of this  is featured  t h e s t r e e t - d e a d o f " B " s e c t i o n , a n d t h e dream-doom, t i m e - 1 i q h t  The  be  symbols  i n "A" s e c t i o n  in the section's  "C" s e c t i o n .  Maud  assonance  The d o m i n a n t  i s /ow/, a s y 1 l a b 1e w h i c h  p a t t e r n s o f "A" s e c t i o n a r e a l s o  incorporated  in  literary  sound-theme a s s o c i a t i o n s  section, of  vowel  The p r o c e s s  i s t h e language  unit,  From t h e s e s y l l a b l e s  expanding  upon t h e i n i t i a l  ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . , 19^3), pp.  12-  13. 8.  units  poem) a r e i n d e e d s o u n d - t h e m e u n i t s , . a n d a r e  not composed o f one p a r t , s o u n d , and one p a r t , m e a n i n g . sound  through-  W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l , A Reader's 1965), pp. 123-236.  Guide  t o James J o y c e  (New Y o r k ,  he  71. sound-theme s y l l a b l e s . sound  Thus  reaches a crescendo  Maud", w h i c h which  echoed  i n the  s t a n z a s , "Come i n t o  in sweet, c h e a t , decei t ,  o f t h e poem s t r e e t , f e e t , b e a t . in p a r a l l e l  carrying  with  cate patterns  units, until  them t h e i r  mellow,  own  lea, field,  of,rose,  within  lingual  i n Maud lily,  sounds  in the  may  be c h o s e n  flit,  c i ty,  e a c h o f .these p a t t e r n s  p a t t e r n s — r o s e s u g g e s t s t h e /ow/  sounds  p i ty,  lies  hill, two  lily  wi n d , m i 1 k ,  p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s what  prosody s y l l a b l e s that are  in the other  exploit  1i1ies ,qloom to  9.  now  y e t more  i s the gloom  intricate  g r o v e , go 1 d a n d  of f i e l d ,  In t h e s e  of the  prosody  p a t t e r n and  l e a , mead,  glearn.  qualities  o f t h e /y/  i n t h e one  presses  i n t h e poem a s o u n d from w i t h i n  images o f woods a n d  in this  /w/  syllables:  images o f  language?  t h e /ow/  groves , and  images o f f i e l d  v i e w o f t h e poem  symbolism which  his native  seem p r e t t y e x p l i c i t :  the gleam  street,  light  pattern.  q u e s t i o n which  recognizing  of  o f ha 11 , h o i l o w , w o o d , w o u n d ,  t h e q1 earn q u a l i t i e s  i s , images o f d a r k n e s s a r e  The  to  and  ha 11 , h o i l o w ,  t r e e , s e a , beam, g i l t a n d  i s shown  intri-  c i t i zen , d u s t , m a r k e t ,  s u g g e s t s t h e / t y / and / i y/ s o u n d s mi 1k-wh i t e ,  re-  emerge,  o f the  qualities  ru i n ' d wood 1 ands , b r o k e n wor 1 d-1 i ng , moor , moan , ghos t , gloom, w h i l e  and  the resonant  w o o d , meadow, h i l l , (city)  street,  climaxing  a r e echoed  Out  the  garden,  similarly,  becomes  meanings.  stream, or the p l o s i v e  f e e t , b e a t , meet, c h e a t , f l e e t , And  The  And,  the  l a r g e wave p a t t e r n s ^ o f s o u n d  clear  o f sound-meaning  (pastoral) qualities  pit.  lyric  a r e p r e l u d e t o t h e poem's d i s a s t e r .  is foreshadowed  stanzas  r o s e becomes f 1 o w s , q 1 o w s , b 1 o w s , u n t i l  and s e a .  The  syllable  t h e p o e t has  o f roses  and  points  directly  to the  point  directly  i s such apparent symbolism  P i k e , " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y M e e t " , p.  284.  we  been a b l e  units  t h e / i y/ s y l l a b l e s How  i s : are  in  English  t o be e x p l a i n e d ?  At vanced which  least by  two  language s c h o l a r s  exposition  "interjection theories pressions jections The  ted  which  to explain  a n d g loom p a t t e r n s . .  "onomatopoeic  e v i d e n c e f o r a sound  s u c h as  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  The  "oh!",  t h e phenomenon two a r e g i v e n  imitate  symbolism  (so t h e s e t h e o r i s t s  f o r a l l language.  t o more t h o u g h t f u l t h e m s e l v e s may  example,  the t e r r i b l e ,  The  first  i n the language  claim) the  t a t i o n which  However, such a t h e o r y , whenever  give  i s not t e n a b l e .  rise  Such  lips  a speech  the speaker f e e l s  inter-  i t is subjec-  It is true that  the  to involuntary c r i e s , as, f o r  t e a r i n g sound o f sudden  by t o n g u e , t e e t h o r  w o r d s o f Edward  i n ex-  "instinctive"  g r i e f , but such  a r e n o t t h e m s e l v e s s p e e c h , a n d become s o o n l y when t h e y a r e  for g r i e f — " a i y e e i . "  of these  emotions.^  t h e o r y i s i t s r e l i a n c e upon an  analysis,  emotions  theory."  "awk!", " a a h l " , " o o h l " , a n d a l l s i m i l a r  importance o f t h i s  articulated  been a d  i n E d w a r d Sap i r ' s L a n g u a g e , w h e r e he s p e a k s o f an  t h e o r y " a n d an  finds  symbolism  in their.attempts  i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e g l e a m  very clear  basis  t h e o r i e s o f sound  sounds  consciously  i n the form o f a s y l l a b l e , syllable  i s an  best generalizes  intellectual  t h e emotion,.  perhaps— presen-  In t h e  Sapir: The m i s t a k e must n o t be made o f i d e n t i f y i n g our c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s (our o h ! and a h ! and s h l ) w i t h t h e i n s t i n c t i v e c r i e s themselves. These i n t e r j e c t i o n s a r e merely conventional f i x a t i o n s of the natural sounds. They t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r w i d e l y i n v a r i o u s languages in accordance w i t h the s p e c i f i c p h o n e t i c g e n i u s o f each o f t h e s e . ' '  10.  11.  For o t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f s p e e c h sounds see Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , L a n g u a g e , New Y o r k , 1933 , PP- 2 1 - 5 6 ; a l s o , J . R. F i r t h , P a p e r s L i n g u i s t i c s 1934-1951, . E d w a r d Sap i r , .Language  (New  Y o r k , 1 9 2 1 ) , p.  5.  in  73. An general  h y p o t h e s e s s u g g e s t e d by t h i s  imitations  cularly  c o n s c i o u s l y upon t h i s  has t h i s  peculiarity  Poets, of course,  t h e o r y o f sound s y m b o l i s m , and p a r t i -  been t r u e o f T e n n y s o n , who s a i d o f h i s own w o r k l a y i n h i s " h o l l o w oe's and a e ' s . "  Literary  have a s s e n t e d t o t h e "mournful m u s i c " o r t h e " e l e g a i c Tennyson's ism  which  work, a d o p t i n g u n c r i t i c a l l y  t h e whole  that  critics  note" in  t h e o r y o f sound  symbol-  is implied.  However, a g a i n , t h e t h e o r y i s not a t e n a b l e one. use o f sound the  to the  t h e s i s , h o l d s words t o be s o u n d -  o f t h e e v e n t s a n d t h e moods o f n a t u r e .  have r e l i e d  its  t h e o r y " o f s o u n d symbo 1 i sm yjh i c h i s c l o s e s t  "onomatopoeic  imitations  Since the poet's  i s more c o n s c i o u s a n d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  o r d i n a r y speaker's use o f i n t e r j e c t i o n s ,  s o u n d a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s e v e n more  the relation  between  than the  artificial:  What a p p l i e s t o t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n s a p p l i e s w i t h even g r e a t e r f o r c e t o t h e s o u n d - i m i t a t i v e words. Such w o r d s a s " w h i p p o o r w i 1 1 " , t o "mew", t o "caw" a r e i n no s e n s e n a t u r a l s o u n d s t h a t man has i n s t i n c t i v e l y o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e p r o duced. T h e y a r e j u s t as t r u l y c r e a t i o n s . o f t h e human m i n d , f l i g h t s o f human f a n c y , as a n y t h i n g e l s e i n l a n g u a g e . T h e y do n o t g r o w d i r e c t l y o u t o f n a t u r e , t h e y a r e s u g g e s t e d by i t a n d p l a y wi t h i t J 2 When T e n n y s o n , when t h e w i n d  sound-meanings  descriptions  thesis  suggest a t h i r d  within  t h e language  12.  I b i d , p. 7.  o f Tennyson's  reflections  of nature.  Maud w h i c h h a v e been made by t h i s  theory o f sound-symbolism,  itself  whole  which a r e h i g h l y complex, and which a r e  t o b e a n a l y z e d s i m p l y as d i r e c t The  "And o u t he w a l k ' d  l i k e a b r o k e n w o r l d l i n g w a i l ' d " , he draws upon a  history of English not  f o r example, uses a l i n e such a s :  one which  is generated  a n d w h i c h has no m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o  74. the  events of nature.  tions of natural  In t h i s  t h e o r y words a r e r e c o g n i z e d as  e x p e r i e n c e a n d n o t s i m p l y as s o u n d  generaliza-  reflections of  that  13 experience. and  - ln this  v i e w , w h e n e v e r s p e a k e r s r e c o g n i z e a new  find a generalizing concept—a word—to  i n i t i a t e a new upon and  relationships paeia — for  f i t that e x p e r i e n c e , they  p a t t e r n o f sound-meanings which  infinitely  expand.  f u t u r e s p e a k e r s may  causes  draw  Such a t h e o r y d e n i e s t h e c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t  o f the " i n s t i n c t i v e " t h e o r i e s of. i n t e r j e c t i o n s  initial  experience  h a v e no  and onomatop-v-  r e 1 e v a n c e w i t h i n a wave t h e o r y o f  language. This within  t h e o r y of. language suggests that a t a c e r t a i n  the whole  tionships  harmony o f human e v e n t s , s p e a k e r s c o n c e i v e o f new  f o r s p e c i f i c and  immediate happenings.  a m p l e i n E n g l i s h , w h e r e a s wood examples  from the language.  sound-theme s y l l a b l e s  (qloom) a n d s e a  word " c i t y " ,  f o r example,  until  early the  g e n e r a l i z i n g concept to include which  the i n i t i a l  came i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e  E n g l i s h p e r i o d of a growing commercialism perhaps  (q1 earn) a r e v e r y :  o f t h e new  r e a l i t y w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o e x p l o i t An  early  in  t h e s e c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s o f Ch i 1 d e  had  in the M i d d l e But  i t was  the view of  t h e sound-theme s y l l a b l e s  1 9 t h c e n t u r y p o e t , B y r o n , makes u s e o f t h i s  the  s y l l a b l e recognized.  (1150-14-75).  t h e 19th c e n t u r y t h a t E n g l i s h m e n  rela-  C i t y i s a r e c e n t ex-  W i t h i n t i m e , language-users- expand  g r o w i n g and c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s The  "point-moment"^  lingual  not  their of c i t y .  un i t ,  c i ty,  Haro1d:  The armamen/t/s w h i c h t h u n / _ d / e r s / _ t / r i ke t h e w a l l s Of r o c k - b u i 1 / t / c i / t / i e s , b i / d / i n g n a t i o n s q u a k e And m o n a r c h s / t / r e m b l e i n t h e i r c a p i / _ t / a Is . 13.  L. S. V y g o t s k y , T h o u g h t a n d  14.  P i k e , " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y M e e t " , pp.  15.  W h o r f , Language, Thought and  Lanqiuaqe  Reality,  ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 5  p.  248.  291-292.  These lines  lines  contrast with  the e a r l i e r  which a r e o f t e n quoted q u i t e apart  H a r o l d , and g i v e n  the t i t l e  lines  of the f i n a l  from t h e whole  section,  poem, Ch i 1 d e  "Apostrophe t o t h e Ocean":  R o l l o n , t h o u deep a n d d a r k b l u e O c e a n — r o l l ! Ten t h o u s a n d f l e e t s sweep over, t h e e i n v a i n ; Man m a r k s t h e e a r t h w i t h r u i n — h i s c o n t r o l S t o p s w i t h t h e s h o r e ; upon t h e w a t e r y p l a i n The w r e c k s a r e a l l t h y d e e d , n o r d o t h r e m a i n A s h a d o w o f man's r a v a g e , s a v e h i s own. When f o r a moment, 1 i k e a d r o p o f r a i n , He s i n k s i n t o t h y d e p t h s w i t h bubb 1 i n g ? g r o a n , Without a g r a v e , u n k n e l l ' d , u n c o f f i n ' d , and unknown. In again  t h e s e l i n e s , o n c e a g a i n , t h e /ow/ s o u n d s  they point  dark.  The s o u n d s  sounds—marked ing  t o t h e p a s t o r a l , even b e t t e r , o f the c i t y  a r e not i n t h i s  i n B y r o n as i n T e n n y s o n  IVJ—occur  b r i e f l y one s t a n z a  this  o f c i ty,  t h e whole  a poetic  event which  Alfred  "city  i t has imbedded  i n i t major  T h e poem Maud c a r r i e s  i n T. S. E l i o t ' s  t o be o n o m a t o p o e i c  the continuing  initial  lingual  sound-  records of  i n i t s sound-  20th  centuries,  "The L o v e Song o f J .  student w i l l  i n Tennyson  e x p a n s i o n s o f sounds  e x p e r i e n c e , as f o r e x a m p l e  t h a t c i t y as a g e n e r a l i z i n g  English-speakers-of  16.  these  Prufrock."  stead with  likely  though  b y / t / ' s , / d / ' s a n d an a c c o m p a n y -  s o c i e t y " o f t h e 19th and e a r l y  i s echoed  Thus what a p p e a r s  the  s t a n z a , even  images o f  i s one o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s s i g n i f i c a n t  new v i e w o f human e x p e r i e n c e .  meanings  t o t h e gloom  later.  H o w e v e r , T e n n y s o n ' s Maud, b e c a u s e theme s y l l a b l e s  a r e d e e p l y imbedded, and  may h a v e come i n -  a n d themes d e r i v e d city.  from  S i n c e i t appears  c o n c e p t may be a n a r c h a i s m f o r  t h e m i d d l e 20th c e n t u r y ,  perhaps  no  e v e r come t o i t i n s e a r c h o f s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s  language between i t s  The m e r g i n g o f s e v e r a l u r b a n a r e a s i n t o o n e l a r g e " m e g a l o p o l i s " i s a c o n t e m p o r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , W h i c h may be s e e n , f o r e x a m p l e , on t h e U. S. A t l a n t i c S e a b o a r d , e s p . New Y o r k . Such u r b a n c o m p l e x e s h a v e q u a l i t a t i v e l y c h a n g e d t h e " c i t y " o f C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , Thomas H a r d y , S t e p h e n C r a n e , Thomas W o l f e a n d T e n n y s o n .  76. lingual  sounds  and  i t s semantic implications.  However, o l d e r c o n c e p t s ,  s u c h as wood a n d s e a , w h i c h h a v e come down t o us f r o m O l d E n g l i s h , may open  to l i n g u i s t i c  language.  s p e c u l a t i o n on.the nature o f a sound-symbolism  Perhaps a f t e r  centuries  t h e s o u n d a n d t h e .in i t ia.t i ng e x p e r i e n c e , e v e n an  intellectual  o n e , a n d n o t an  I t h e o r i z e , then, that syllables  upon s y l l a b l e s  upon t h e c o n c e i v i n g vessel the  language  the s i g n i f i c a n t  one  and s c i e n t i f i c  or  day r e a l i z e as W h o r f has beauty i n the whole  between  the r e l a t i o n s h i p is  i t s units  a r e the  w h i c h expand and a g a i n meaning—that  expand i s , the  sound-theme r e l a t i o n s h i p s  For the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p o e t r y  yet t o l e r a b l e , p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r e s  wood  one.  i s i d e a t i o n , and  c o n s c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f language meanings  g u i s t s may  though  The p a r a d i g m o f l i n g u a l  w h i c h must c a r r y a l l  language--is poetry.  "instinctive"  o f sound-meanings  idea.  in the  o f use o f t h e s e s y l l a b l e sounds  a n d s e a , Eng 1 i s h - s p e a k e r j s - c o n s c i o u s 1 y r e c o g n i z e a r e l a t i o n s h i p  lies  f o r t h e i r most  lines.  be  Perhaps  in i t s  intricate,  from p o e t r y  remarked, that there  and  lin-  i s a "harmony  vast system, that system of which  a r e p a r t a n d b e l o n g t o " - - b u t as y e t o n l y b r i e f l y g l i m p s e .  of  we  BIBLIOGRAPHY  B a s l e r , Roy.  " T e n n y s o n ^ t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t ,. SAO., XLI I M  Berry, Francis.  "The P o e t ' s  Voice", Poetics.  (1944),  p p . 143-159  's G r a v e n h a g e , 1961. p p . 453  461. B l o o m f i e l d , Leonard. Boas, Franza.  Language.  New Y o r k , 1933.  Handbook o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n  B u c k l e y , J e r o m e H.  Languages.  T e n n y s o n , t h e Growth o f a P o e t .  W a s h i n g t o n , 19.11.  Boston,  I960.  Chatman, Seymour. " R o b e r t F r o s t ' s 'Mowing': An I n q u i r y i n t o P r o s o d i c S t r u c t u r e " , , KR, X V I I I (Summer, 1956), p p . 421-438. . C h o m s k y , Noam.  A Theory o f Meter.  Syntactic  Structures.  's G r a v e n h a g e , 1965. T h e H a g u e , 1957  . .A Transformational Approach t o Syntax. ference. A u s t i n , 1962. .  .Aspects o f a Theory o f Syntax.  deSaussure, Ferdinand. . Course i n General E l i o t , T. S.  Selected  Prose.  F i r t h , J . R.  Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s  T h i r d Texas  Cambridge, Mass.,  Linguistics.  1965.  L o n d o n , 1959.  Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , 1934-1951.  Con-  1958.  L o n d o n , 1964.  F r a n c i s , W. N e l s o n . "Syntax and L i t e r a r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , Readings i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s , e d . H a r o l d B. A l l e n . New Y o r k , 1964, p p . 514-522. Freedman, R a l p h . G i m s o n , , A . C.  The L y r i c a l  Novel.  .An I n t r o d u c t i o n  P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1963.  to the Pronounciation o f English.  London,  1962. H i l l , Archibald. " P r i n c i p l e s Governing Semantic P a r a l l e l s " , Readings i n . A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , e d . H a r o l d B. A l l e n . New Y o r k ,  1964, p p . 506-514. J a k o b s o n , Roman a n d M o r r i s  Halle.  F u n d a m e n t a l s o f Language., 's G r a v e n h a g e  1956. .  Selected Writings.  's:-, G r a v e n h a g e ,  1962. Jespersen, Otto.  Growth a n d S t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h  1905.  Language.  London,  .  Johnson,  " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f t h e Vowel Copenhagen, 1933, PP- 2 8 3 - 3 0 3 .  I", Linguistics.  E.D.G. "The L i l y a n d t h e R o s e : Symbolic Meaning PMLA, L X I V ( 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . 1 2 2 2 - 1 2 2 7 .  i n Maud",  R . " P o e t r y a n d G r a m m a t i c a 1 n e s s " , E s s a y s on t h e Language . o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman a n d Samuel R. Levin. B o s t o n , 1967, p p . 2 2 4 - 2 3 0 .  L e v i n , Samuel  L y n c h , James J . "The T o n a l i t y o f L y r i c P o e t r y : An E x p e r i m e n t M e t h o d " , W o r d , IX ( 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 211-224. McLuhan,  H. M a r s h a l l . "Tennyson and P i c t u r e s q u e P o e t r y " , E s s a y s on t h e P o e t r y o f T e n n y s o n , e d . J o h n London, 1966, pp. 6 7 - 8 5 .  in  Cr i t i ca1 Killham.  Ohmann, R i c h a r d . " L i t e r a t u r e as S e n t e n c e s " , E s s a y s on t h e L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman a n d Samuel R. Levin. B o s t o n , 1967, p p . 2 3 1 - 2 3 8 . O l s o n , C h a r l e s . " P r o j e c t i v e Verse", S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f Charles Olson New Y o r k , 1951 , p p . 15-31 . Omond, T.  S.  A Study o f Metre.  Oras , A n t s .  Pike,  P r o j e c t i v e Verse.  New  York,  1959.  1903.  London,  "Some P a r a l l e l s a n d C o n t r a s t s i n t h e H a n d l i n g o f Sound E s s a y s on .the L a n g u a g e o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman a n d Samuel R. L e v i n . B o s t o n , 1967, pp. 19~32.  Kenneth  L.  " L a n g u a g e — W h e r e S c i e n c e a n d P o e t r y Meet",, CE, (1964-65) , pp. 283-292.  P o s t a l , P a u l M. A s p e c t s o f P h o n o l o g i c a l T h e o r y . Pound, E z r a . Ransom, J o h n  . ABC  of Reading.  1968.  York,  1934.  Crowe. "The S t r a n g e M u s i c o f E n g l i s h (1956) , pp. 4 6 0 - 4 7 7 .  Rus , L o u i s C.  Verse",  ,KR,  XVIII  " S t r u c t u r a l A m b i g u i t y : A N o t e on M e a n i n g a n d t h e Linguistic Analysis of Literature, with Illustrations f r o m E. E. Cummings", _LL, VI ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 6 2 - 6 7 .  S a i n t s b u r y , George. Historical 1910. S a p i r , Edward. Smith, Elton  London,  New  XXVI  Language.  E. The Two 1964.  New  Voices :  Manual o f E n g l i s h  York,  Prosody.  London  1921.  A Tennyson  Study.  Lincoln,  S t a n k i e w i c z , Edward. " P o e t i c and N o n - P o e t i c Language", 's G r a v e n h a g e , 1 9 6 1 , p p . 1 1 - 2 3 .  Neb.,  Poetics.  79.  S t o k e s , E d w a r d . "The M e t r i c s o f Maud", . VP S t r a n g , B a r b a r a M.  H. . M o d e r n E n g l i s h  ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 97-110.  Structure.  L o n d o n , 1962.  Sutherland, Ronald. " S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h CE, XX ( 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 4 9 2 - 4 9 9 . Sweet, Henry.  The P r a c t i c a l  S t u d y o f Language.  Tennyson, Charles.  S i x Tennyson E s s a y s .  T e n n y s o n , Hal lam.  The Works o f T e n n y s o n .  T i n d a l l , W i l l i a m York. .  The  London, New  L i t e r a r y Symbol.  L o n d o n , 1899. 1954.  York, New  Prosody",  1913.  York,  1955.  A R e a d e r ' s G u i d e t o James J o y c e .  New  York,  1965.  T r a g e r , G e o r g e L. a n d H e n r y Lee S m i t h , J r . An O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h Structure. W a s h i n g t o n , 1951. V y g o t s k y , L. S. .  Thought and Language.  Cambridge, Mass.,  1962.  " L a n g u a g e a n d T h o u g h t : The P r o b l e m a n d t h e A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t a n d I n s t r u c t i o n , e d . J o h n P. D e C e c c o . New Y o r k , 1 9 6 7 , p p . 56-60.  Whitehall, Harold. " E n g 1 i s h V e r s e a n d What I t Sounds X V I I I (Summer, 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 4 1 1 - 4 2 1 .  Like",  W h o r f , B e n j a m i n . L a n g u a g e , T h o u g h t a n d R e a l i t y , e d . J o h n B. C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1956.  KR,  Carroll.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302240/manifest

Comment

Related Items