UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A phonological approach to Tennyson's Maud Horsman, Nancy Christine 1969

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A PHONOLOGICAL APPROACH TO TENNYSON 1S MAUD by NANCY CHRISTINE HORSMAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, 1950 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f ENGLISH We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APR I L , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or . by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes.is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f English The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30 , 1969. CONTENTS 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n page 1 2. C h a p t e r One 8 3. Chapter Two 21 4. Chapter T h r e e 36 5. Chapter Four 53 6. C o n c l u s i o n 64 7. B i b l i o g r a p h y 77 i A b s t r a c t Modern l i n g u i s t i c s has o f f e r e d methods o f a n a l y s i s which have per-m i t t e d f r e s h i n s i g h t s i n t o t he s t r u c t u r e o f language. Two such methods are J . R. F i r t h ' s " p r o s o d i e a n a l y s i s " , which works from t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the s y l l a b l e i s the b a s i c u n i t o f sound-meaning i n E n g l i s h , and the phonemic t h e o r y o f t h e major American s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s . T h i s t h e s i s uses a com-b i n a t i o n o f both t h e o r i e s i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e some o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s o f Maud and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o meaning. Such an a n a l y s i s h o l d s t h a t / y / , /w/ and / h / a r e p r o s o d i e s w h i c h work t o g i v e r e s o n a n t e f f e c t s t o the poem, as t h e s e same p r o s o d i e s do i n the language. From the p h o n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s t h r e e s u g g e s t i o n s emerge. F i r s t , Maud r e v e a l s a dominant /wh/ sound w h i c h , because o f i t s v e r y s t r o n g e f f e c t i n the poem, i n t i m a t e s t h a t i t i s a dominant sound i n t h e language. Second, the poem has deep imbeddings o f /ow/, / a y / , / e y / , / i y / , and /Xj and / d / s y l l a b l e s , which o c c u r i n the poem as wave p a t t e r n s o f sound-meaning r a t h e r than as l i n e p a t t e r n s o f sound and mean-i n g . T h i r d , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between the sound s y l l a b l e s and the theme words i n Maud, which p o i n t s t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a u n i t a n a l y s i s o f the s y l l a b l e as t h e r e p o s i t o r y o f sound-meaning i n the p o e t r y , and, pe r h a p s , i n the language. From t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s t h e t h e s i s o f f e r s the c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t sound symbolism i n p o e t r y - - a s i n 1anguage--has e v o l v e d , not from the poet's " i n s t i n c t i v e " r e s p o n s e s t o the c r i e s o f n a t u r e , but from h i s s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s p o n s e s t o the e v e n t s o f h i s own language, and t h a t h i s uses o f language e v e n t s may have a s u p r a - l i n e a r r a t h e r than a. l i n e - b y - l i n e l o g i c . F i n a l l y , t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f the t h e s i s i s t h e vie w t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y , be-cause o f i t s c o n s c i o u s r e c o g n i t i o n o f p o s s i b l e sound-meaning r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the language, may be the c l a s s o f a l l language e v e n t s and not the sub-c l a s s o f language e v e n t s . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y i i language) does not have t o be c o n c e i v e d as h a v i n g o n l y l i n e a r a r r a n g e m e n t s . 1. INTRODUCTION L i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s o f E n g l i s h p o e t r y has a lon g and v e r y r e s p e c t a b l e s c h o l a r s h i p , but perhaps not u n t i l t h i s c e n t u r y have the c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s f o r such a n a l y s i s been open t o any s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . However, b e g i n n i n g a t t h e t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , f o r example i n the works o f O t t o J e s p e r s e n ^ and 2 T. S. Omond, . t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s of p o e t r y have been opened t o a t t a c k . The p r e c e p t s w h i c h t h e s e two men s e t out a r e q u i t e sample. E n g l i s h p o e t r y , t h e y a r g u e , cannot be imposed upon, i t cannot be made t o conform t o language forms and language rhythms which a r e not E n g l i s h . The q u a n t i t a t i v e meters o f L a t i n and Greek v e r s e a r e not the meters of E n g l i s h v e r s e , nor a r e the sounds and the p r o s o d i e s o f L a t i n and Greek the sounds and the p r o s o d i e s o f E n g l i s h . From t h i s t h e y have argued t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y must be u n d e r s t o o d as h a v i n g an i n t e g r i t y o f i t s own i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s own sounds and rhythms. J e s p e r s e n and Omond were among t h e e a r l i e s t l i n g u i s t s t o a n t i c i p a t e the meth-ods o f the modern d e s c r i p t i v e s c h o o l , w h i c h seeks t o d e s c r i b e the i n h e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e language r a t h e r than t o p r e s c r i b e e x t r a - 1 i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n s f o r the language. The importance of the new c o n c e p t s o f language cannot be o v e r l o o k e d t o -day by any E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r . For the new c o n c e p t s have brought new t o o l s o f a n a l y s i s - - t o o l s w h i c h have a f f e c t e d a poet such as E z r a Pound q u i t e as much as they have a f f e c t e d the l i n g u i s t . The e c l e c t i c t e c h n i q u e o f a T. 1. O t t o J e s p e r s e n , Growth and S t r u c t u r e o f the E n g l i s h Language (London, 1 9 0 5 ) ; a l s o , "Notes on Meter1,",' Essays on the Language o f L i t e r a t u r e , eds. Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n ( B o s t o n , 1 9 6 7 ), pp. 7 1 - 9 0 . 2 . T. S. Omond, A Study of Meter (London, 1 9 0 3 ) . 2. S. E l i o t o r a Pound may have come v e r y l a r g e l y from the p o e t s ' i n c r e a s e d s e l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h language. F u r t h e r , the work of modern c r i t i c s , as f o r ex-' ' 3 ample Pound and C h a r l e s Olson,; may be s a i d t o be e q u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d by d e s c r i -p t i v e t h e o r i e s o f language. T h i s t h e s i s assumes the b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f d e s c r i p t i v e l i n g u i s t i c s as t e n -a b l e o n e s - - a s , i n f a c t , v e r y e x c i t i n g ones. The t o o l s o f f o r m a l d e s c r i p t i o n , a p p l i e d t o a poem, r e v e a l not o n l y the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e s o f sounds and p r o s o d i e s i n the poem, but sometimes r e v e a l a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between the poem's b a s i c sounds and b a s i c themes. Thus where l i t e r a r y s c h o l a r s h i p has t r a d i t i o n a l l y a f f i r m e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f "meanings" and " v a l u e s " i n p o e t r y , the l i n g u i s t i c s c h o l a r can now t e s t t h e s e "meanings" and " v a l u e s " i n v e r y p r a c t i -c a l ways. Even more i m p o r t a n t , he may q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y o f the v e r y con-c e p t s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i c h u n t i l now have r e s t e d upon t r a d i t i o n and u n q u a l i f i e d a c c e p t a n c e . A l f r e d Tennyson's 1855 poem, Maud, w r i t t e n l o n g b e f o r e the g e n e r a l theo-r i e s o f modern l i n g u i s t i c s were s e t down, i s o f f e r e d as s u b j e c t f o r i n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s . The poem w i l l be e x p l o r e d f o r i t s b a s i c sound-theme p a t t e r n s , and the c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l come from r e v e l a t i o n s which the poem i t -s e l f makes, and not from p r e - d e t e r m i n e d p a t t e r n s of meter and rhyme a c c e p t e d as t r a d i t i o n a l f o r a l l E n g l i s h p o e t r y . ^ The e s s a y w i l l use t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a p proach r a t h e r than the s y n t a c t i c 3 . E z r a Pound, ABC o f Reading (London, 1 9 3 4 ) ; C h a r l e s O l s o n , " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e 1 / ; S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s Olson (New York, 1951), PP- 15-31; a l s o , O l s o n , P r o j e c t i v e V erse (New York, 1959). k. T r a d i t i o n a l p r o s o d i c a n a l y s e s o f Maud have been made by George S a i n t s b u r y , H i s t o r i c a l Manual o f E n g l i s h Prosody (London, 1910), pp. 1 1 5-117, and more r e c e n t l y by Edward S t o k e s , "The M e t r i c s o f Maud',';: VP ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 9<7=110. one i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s , r e l y i n g upon i d e a s o f the E n g l i s h s y l l a b l e e x p r e s s e d by J . R. F i r t h 5 3 and Kenneth Pike,,.- and p r o v i d e d f o r i n the vowel t a b l e s s e t o u t by George L. T r a g e r and Henry Lee S m i t h , ^ I t w i l l a c c e p t F i r t h ' s g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n t h a t a language has two f u n c t i o n s f o r i t s b a s i c sound e l e m e n t , the phoneme. One o f t h e s e i s "sounds", w h i c h a r e i n t e n s i t i e s the r e a d e r h o l d s dur-i n g h i s whole e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the poem, and the second o f t h e s e i s " p r o s o d i e s " which a r e the shapes o r p a t t e r n s o f sound-meaning which the r e a d e r r e c o r d s . F i r t h ' s view a l l o w s t h e sounds t o have freedoms beyond the rhymes of l i n e ends beyond the " f e e t " and " i c t u s " o f metered p h r a s e s , and beyond the s t r e s s p a t t e r n s o f " i d e a l " E n g l i s h speech, which a r e , he a r g u e s , t h e " p r o s o d i c modes" Q of language. Sounds have a " p h o n o l o g i c a l mode o f meaning", t o o , F i r t h s a y s , w h e r e i n t h e y f i n d p a r t n e r s h i p i n a poem i n c o l l o c a t i o n w i t h other?,., s i m i l a r , sounds. Such c o l l o c a t i o n s o f sounds, w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the whole poem, 9 may be r e f e r r e d t o as the p e r s o n a l s t y l e o f the p o e t , F i r t h c o n c l u d e s . However, F i r t h ' s a n a l y s i s might have l e d him f u r t h e r : i t might have l e d him t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t imbeddings o f s i m i l a r sound s y l l a b l e s t h r o u g h o u t a 5 . J . R. F i r t h , "Sounds and Prosodies','^ Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 1 9 3 4 - 1 9 5 1 (London, 1 9 6 4 ), pp. 1 2 1 - 1 3 8 . 6 . Kenneth P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet1.*,' _CE, XXVI ( 1 9 6 4 -6 5 ) , pp. 2 8 3 - 2 9 2 . 7 . George L. T r a g e r and Henry Lee S m i t h , J r . , An O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e ( Washington, 1 9 5 1 ) . 8 . F i r t h , "Modes o f Meaning','.1 Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s , p. 1 9 4 . 9 . I b i d , pp. 1 9 6 - 2 0 3 . Here F i r t h p r e s e n t s a s t u d y o f c o l l o c a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e p o e t i c d i c t i o n o f Swinburne. He s a y s , p. 198: " I n the w i d e r c o n t e x t o f the whole p o e m . . . s i m i l a r c o l l o c a t i o n s a c c u m u l a t e which must be r e f e r r e d t o the p e r s o n a l s t y l i s t i c s o f the p o e t , t o what may, i n d e e d , be c a l l e d S w i n b u r n e s e . " 4. whole poem w i l l have an e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the r e a d e r ' s response t o the p o e t ' s " s t y l e " . The r e a d e r ' s response t o the sound p a i r i n g s w i l l be t o f i n d a "meaning" f o r them. He w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y i n f e r a sound symbolism has been i n t e n d e d by the po e t - - a symbolism w h i c h he, as r e a -d e r , must e x p l o r e b e f o r e he can u n d e r s t a n d the p o e t i c whole. Very o b v i o u s c o l l o c a t i o n s o f sound s y l l a b l e s o c c u r i n Maud: complexes of /ow/ and / i y / s y l l a b l e s a r e r e p e a t e d t h r o u g h o u t the poem. The sound symbolism d e r i v e d from t h e s e c o l l o c a t i o n s o f /ow/ and / i y / s y l l a b l e s i n Maud i s v i t a l t o the meaning o f the whole: i n f a c t , t h e y l e a d d i r e c t l y t o the poem's two l i t e r a r y s ymbols, t h e r/ow/ses and t h e V % / l / i y / s . T h i s sound symbolism t o be d i s c e r n e d i n Maud p o i n t s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t E n g l i s h p o e t r y cannot be r e g a r d e d a s , s i m p l y , a s e t o f s e n t e n c e s , but r a t h e r as a complex o f a l l t h i n g s o f the language, i n which the i n t e g r a l u n i t o f sound-meaning i s the i n d i v i d u a l s y l l a b l e . T h i s g e n e r a l v i e w w i l l be i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the m a j o r i t y o f works on s t y l i s t i c s and prosody which have been p u b l i s h e d i n t h e s e v e n t e e n y e a r s s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n o f T r a g e r and Smith's O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e . L i n g u i s t s have g i v e n some a t t e n t i o n t o " s t y l e s " o f 1 a n g u a g e - - n a r r a t i v e , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l , p o e t i c , r h e t o r i c a l , e t c . ' ^ - - b u t t h e y have come t o the t a s k w i t h t o o l s which have been f a s h i o n e d e s s e n t i a l l y from a n a l y s i s o f pro s e works o r speech p e r f o r -mances. For example, p h o n o l o g i s t s have drawn upon s u b s t a n t i a l p h o n e t i c e v i -dence, g a t h e r e d l a r g e l y by American speech s c i e n t i s t s , t o t h e o r i z e p a t t e r n s o f " s t r e s s " , " p i t c h " , and " j u n c t u r e " i n t h e spoken language. T h i s e v i d e n c e has been s y n t h e s i z e d by T r a g e r and Smith i n t h e i r b r i e f p u b l i c a t i o n , i n which the two a n a l y s t s have c o l l e c t e d , p a t t e r n e d and r e c o r d e d the prominences o f sound i n t h e E n g l i s h p h r a s e . The two men r e p o r t from t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t 10. Benjamin Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , ed. John B. C a r r o l l (Cambridge, Mass. , 1956), pp. 125-133. 5. t h e r e a r e i d e a l l y f o u r l e v e l s each o f " s t r e s s " , " p i t c h " and " j u n c t u r e " i n E n g l i s h s p eech, a l l o w i n g t he p h o n o l o g i s t s then t o c o n s t r u c t an i d e a l sound model f o r t h e language. I n i t i a l t e s t i n g o f the model o c c u r r e d i n c o n v e n t i o n -a l p r o s e s i t u a t i o n s and o n l y l a t t e r l y has i t been a p p l i e d t o p o e t r y : B e f o r e Mr. (Seymour) Chatman's e s s a y T r a g e r - S m i t h had been used on p r o s e e x c l u s i v e l y ; and now the i d e a i s t o see how i t works i n metered language... . Meter has t o be c o n t e n t w i t h a t w o - s t r e s s system i f i t i s t o be e f f e c t i v e , i . e . , w i t h v e r y s t r o n g s t r e s s e s and v e r y weak ones, o r as i t i s commonly put i n t h e o l d pr o s o d y , w i t h s t r e s s e s and non-s t r e s s e s ; but f o u r d i s t i n c t s t r e s s e s a r e a u d i b l e t o the T r a g e r - S m i t h s c i e n t i s t s i n normal p r o s e . . . . May I suggest t h a t Mr. Chatman has been p o w e r f u l l y c o n d i t i o n e d t o l i s t e n . . f o r f o u r s t r e s s e s , even when he comes t o metered l a n g u a g e ? ' ' S i m i l a r l y , t h e pr;ose s e n t e n c e has been the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e i n Noam Chomsky's i d e a l grammar, wh i c h g e n e r a t e s " a l l and o n l y t he s e n t e n c e s o f E n g l i s h . " I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t Chomsky p u b l i s h e d h i s i n i t i a l work, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s , 12 i n 1957, the ye a r which saw t h e s e v e n t h ( u n r e v i sed) 1 p r i n t i n g o f the T r a g e r -S mith Out 1i ne. D e s p i t e t he p r o s e b i a s w h i c h i s d i s p l a y e d by t h e major two models o f l a n g u a g e — t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l one o f T r a g e r - S m i t h and t h e s y n t a c t i c one o f Chomsky--some l i n g u i s t s have, i n t h e p a s t decade, n o n e t h e l e s s a p p l i e d t h e systems t o p o e t r y a n a l y s i s . They have done so by p r o c e e d i n g on t h e assumption t h a t p o e t r y i s a " s t y l e " o f language and t h a t d i f f e r e n t " s t y l e s " a r e s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f language. Each c a t e g o r y i s measured a l o n g a l i n e a r a x i s o f phonemes o r morphemes. These l i n g u i s t s have g e n e r a l l y o r d e r e d p o e t r y as " p o e t i c l a nguage" and have d e t e r m i n e d i t s q u a n t i t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the norms t h e o r i z e d by T r a g e r - S m i t h and Chomsky. Moreover l i n g u i s t s have been a b l e t o d e s c r i b e w i t h s c i e n t i f i c a c c u r a c y sequences o f E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e s , and from t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s , d e s i g -11. John Crowe Ransom, "The S t r a n g e M u s i c o f E n g l i s h Verse!*,' -JKR, XVIII ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 460-477. 12. Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s (The Hague, 1957). 6. nate t h o s e s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e " p o e t i c " and t h o s e w h i c h a r e " n o n - p o e t i c . 1 1 However, t h e y have not y e t n e c e s s a r i l y s a t i s f i e d t h a t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h we c a l l " p o e t r y " ; t h a t i s , the l i n e a r and segmental approach i n h e r e n t i n the grammar-p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s by no means a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t s the s t r u c t u r e o f p o e t r y . . In t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r of t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l s p e c u l a t e upon a con-c e p t i o n o f p o e t r y w h i c h i s s u p r a - 1 i n e a r , i n w h i c h sound-themes a r e d e e p l y imbedded i n t h e whole poem and demand f o r t h e i r e x p l i c a t i o n a view o f t h e poem wh i c h t r a n s c e n d s l i n e by l i n e a n a l y s i s . Perhaps Benjamin Whorf comes c l o s e s t t o s u g g e s t i n g t h e l a r g e r c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s o f p o e t r y when he says t h a t E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s s h a r e i n t h e " r i c h and s y s t e m a t i c o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f LANGUAGE" t h r o u g h which t h e y may v i e w an "unknown, v a s t e r w o r l d - -t h a t w o r l d o f which the p h y s i c a l i s but a s u r f a c e or s k i n , and y e t which we ARE IN, and BELONG TO." These two c o n c e p t s , o f a l i n e a r , o r language w o r l d , and a s p a t i a l , o r i n t u i t i v e 1 y - s e n s e d w o r l d , a r e not i n c o m p a t i b l e . Whorf, f o r example, speaks o f the "point-moment" a t which t h e two may c o n v e r g e : J . . . y e t many m a t h e m a t i c i a n s and s c i e n t i f i c l i n g u i s t s must have had the e x p e r i e n c e o f " s e e i n g " i n one f u g i t i v e f l a s h , a whole system o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s never b e f o r e s u s p e c t e d o f f o r m i n g a u n i t y . The harmony and s c i e n t i f i c b e a u ty i n the whole v a s t system momently overwhelms one i n a f l o o d o f a e s t h e t i c d e l i g h t . . . ' ^ For p urposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s the p o i n t i n the moment (Whorf would say the p a t t e r n i n g ) o f an i n t u i t e d harmony w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d as t h e i n d i v i d u a l sound s y l l a b l e s o f the poem from which t h e a e s t h e t i c whole i s r e a l i z e d . Thus the e s s a y t e n t a t i v e l y a c g e p t s W h o r f s " v a s t e r " w o r l d o f a e s t h e t i c harmony, and i t w i l l e x p l o r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y the language ( t h e p o i n t , o r moment) and the themes ( t h e movement, or f l u x ) o f Tennyson's Maud. The a m b i v a l e n t and y e t s t r a n g e l y c o n g r u e n t views o f p o i n t and f l u x w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n t h e chap-t e n s of d e s c r i p t i o n , which w i l l use F i r t h ' s terms "sounds" and " p r o s o d i e s " 13. Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , pp. 246-254. as the p r o p e r ones f o r the a n a l y s i s , s i n c e they e x p l o r e the s y l l a b l e s o f sound-meaning w h i c h a r e p o s s i b l e i n the poem. The s y l l a b l e , r a t h e r than t h e phoneme, w i l l be t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s , and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e s w i l l be drawn from whole s t a n z a s o f the poem, r a t h e r than from i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s o f t h e poem. The poem may thus be r e a l i z e d t o be the r e p o s i t o r y f o r the most s i m p l e as w e l l as the most complex s t r u c t u r e s o f sound and meaning i n t h e language. 8. CHAPTER I The " m u s i c a l " q u a l i t y o f A l f r e d Tennyson's p o e t r y has been commented upon by a l l r e a d e r s o f Tennyson, both i n V i c t o r i a n t i m e s and i n t h e p r e s e n t , but none o f the commentators--save perhaps the poet h i m s e l f - - h a s made s p e c i -f i c the n a t u r e of Tennyson's "music", nor a t t e m p t e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a t y p i c a l poem. C h a r l e s Tennyson, i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p o e t ' s " v e r s i f i c a -t i o n " , speaks p a r t i c u l a r l y o f "vowel m u s i c " and "vowel sounds" i n t h e works, but he does not q u a l i f y h i s terms: . . . i t s power o f a c h i e v i n g , t h r o u g h rhythm and vowel m u s i c , a l y r i c a l , s i n g i n g q u a l i t y which no o t h e r poet has a t t a i n e d i n the same d e g r e e . . . J Or a g a i n : ...To get t h e f u l l v a l u e out o f such v e r s e , one must not be a f r a i d o f e m p h a s i z i n g the rhythmt,, and the vowel sounds...^ On the o t h e r hand, A l f r e d Tennyson has shown h i m s e l f more aware o f h i s p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e s , f o r i n "The E p i c " , a s h o r t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s "Morte d 1 A r t h u r " , ^ he s a i d t h r o u g h the words o f h i s s p e a k e r , t h a t t h e poet must: Read, mouthing out h i s h o l l o w oes and a e s , . Deep-chested m u s i c , 1. C h a r l e s Tennyson, S i x Tennyson Essays (London, 1954), p. 146. 2. I b i d , p. 147. 3. Hal lam Tennyson, The Works o f Tennyson (New York, 1913). 4. l i n e 50. The " h o l l o w oes and a e s " t h a t Tennyson speaks o f a r e o f c o u r s e the s y l l a b l e s o f /ow/ and /ey/ t h a t I f i n d t o be among the most common sound c o l l o c a t i o n s i n Maud. 9. The p o e t ' s son, Hal lam Tennyson, i n h i s " N o t e s " t o Tennyson's Works, has i n c l u d e d a l e t t e r o f Edward F i t z g e r a l d w h i c h makes f u r t h e r comment upon Tennyson's "music": ...Mouthi ng out h i s hoi low oes and  aes , d e e p - c h e s t e d mus i c, t h i s i s some-t h i n g as A. T. r e a d , w i t h a broad n o r t h c o u n t r y v o w e l . . . , H i s v o i c e , v e r y deep and d e e p - c h e s t e d , but r a t h e r murmuring than m o u t h i n g , l i k e t h e sound o f a f a r sea o r of a pine-wood. T h i s v o i c e , I remember, g r e a t l y s t r u c k C a r l y l e when he f i r s t came t o know him.^ From Tennyson's a n a l y s i s o f h i s own r e a d i n g s and from r e s p o n s e s o f t h o s e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s who l i s t e n e d t o him r e a d , a modern c r i t i c , F r a n c i s B e r r y , has g e n e r a l i z e d t h a t a poet i s ( l a r g e l y ) what h i s v o i c e i s , and t h a t the "broad n o r t h c o u n t r y v o w e l " w h i c h was Tennyson's organ became, t o o , h i s p o e t r y : But (Tennyson) t e l l s i t g r a n d l y ; not j e r k i l y but i n an u n i n t e r r u p t e d s y n t a x w i t h a s l o w l y s w e l l i n g and f a l l i n g a r c of sound. Moreover Tennyson i s g e n e r a l -i z i n g : A l l woods decay and a l l men a r e b u r i e d under the ground, w h i c h , l i v i n g , t h e y t i l l e d . C o u l d a v o i c e w i t h t h a t depth and resonance f a i l , i f i t was t o show i t s advantages o v e r o t h e r v o i c e s , f a i l t o g e n e r a l i z e i n t h a t way? G i v e n a man w i t h t h a t k i n d o f v o i c e and he wi 1 1 g e n e r a l i z e . B e r r y ' s commentary upon Tennyson r a i s e s a number o f q u e s t i o n s which a r e a d e r cannot i g n o r e . Does a p o e t - - o r a man--genera1ize h i s environment p u r e l y from a r e s o n a n c e , or l a c k of r e s o n a n c e , of c e r t a i n o f h i s speech sounds? Does a n o r t h c o u n t r y Englishman who s h a r e s w i t h Tennyson the " s l o w l y s w e l l i n g and f a l l i n g a r c o f sound" w h i c h i s t h e p e c u l i a r i t y o f the vowel i n t h i s d i a l e c t , s h a r e a l s o what B e r r y c a l l s Tennyson's p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y t o "mourn a l o t i d ? " In o t h e r d i a l e c t p r o v i n c e s where t h e Tennyson resonances are 5. Hal lam Tennyson, The Works o f Tennyson, pp. 895-896. 6. F r a n c i s B e r r y , "The Poet's V o i c e " , Poet i cs ('s Gravenhage, 196l), pp. 458-459. a l i e n , i s communication i m p o s s i b l e from poet t o p o e t , or from man t o man? Does Tennyson's p o e t r y b e g i n and end i n t h e p h o n e t i c e n c o d i n g - - 1 0 0 y e a r s ago i n n o r t h c o u n t r y England? The q u e s t i o n s begged i n B e r r y ' s t h e s i s seem q u i t e a p p a r e n t , but u n f o r t u n -a t e l y t h e y do not o f t h e m s e l v e s suggest t h e means o f d e s c r i b i n g a s i m p l e , e f f i c i e n t and y e t a c c e p t a b l e method o f d e c o d i n g p o e t r y from one g e n e r a t i o n to the n e x t , and from one d i a l e c t p r o v i n c e t o a n o t h e r . I n s t e a d t h e s e q u e s t i o n s r e - d i r e c t the e x a m i n a t i o n t o a much more g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n : what does the r e a d e r c o n c e i v e o f when he speaks o f " p o e t r y ? " Can he t r a n s l a t e f o r h i s own g e n e r a t i o n t h e p o e t r y o f a man who l i v e d a c e n t u r y ago, when he no l o n g e r has f o r t h e r e s t i t u t i o n o f t h a t p o e t r y the v o i c e o f t h e " r e s o n a n t " g r e a t poet who encoded i t ? T h i s t h e s i s makes t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t p o e t r y i s something w h i c h can be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o t h e r than t h o s e o f t h e p o e t ' s v o i c e o r the r e a d e r ' s r e i -t e r a t i o n o f t h a t v o i c e ' s q u a l i t i e s . The p o i n t o f view which g u i d e s most o f the e n q u i r y o f t h i s t h e s i s a c c e p t s as p o e t r y t h a t concept o f t h e i r r e a l i t y w h i c h men and women have g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t r a n s c e n d s t i m e and p l a c e , t h a t i s , t h a t p o e t r y i s i d e a . P o e t r y as i d e a a p p r o x i m a t e s t o F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e ' s l e v e l o f " l a n g u e " , w h i c h he d e f i n e s as "a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d whole and a p r i n c i p l e o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . " ^ The l i n g u i s t i c p erformances a r e " p a r o l e " , o r the " s p e a k i n g " p a r t s , " t h e e x e c u t i v e s i d e o f language" where " t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s Q always m a s t e r . " Thus the i n d i v i d u a l r e a d e r , or p o e t , w h i l e he may have a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n t o make t o " p a r o l e " , s h a r e s a common p r o p e r t y i n " l a n g u e . " A r e a d e r s h a r e s p o e t r y w i t h . a l l o t h e r members o f h i s language community and h i s p e rformances of p o e t r y a r e as v a l i d i n h i s own r e a d i n g s as they were i n t h e p o e t ' s i n i t i a l ones. 7. F e r d i n a n d de S a u s s u r e , Course i n G e n e r a l L i n g u i s t i c s (London, 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 9. 8. I b i d , p. 1 3 . 11. W i t h t h e concept o f p o e t r y as t h a t which i s a t once temporal and t i m e l e s s , one way t o read Tennyson's p o e t r y at any time i n which men and women f e e l such r e a d i n g t o be m e a n i n g f u l t o them, i s t o a p p l y the l i n g u i s t ' s t o o l s o f d e s c r i -p t i o n t o a poem o r group o f poems and t o d i s c o v e r , s i m p l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , the image o f the i d e a which s e r v e d t h e poet. L i n g u i s t i c t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i e d t o a Tennyson poem w i l l d e monstrate " s t r u c t u r e s " o f sound, meter or s y n t a x i n the t e x t w h i c h a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y , a t the d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l a t any r a t e , r e l a t e d t o t h e p o e t ' s own v o i c e . The a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e r s e Mr. B e r r y ' s p r o c e s s e s o f d i s c o v e r y - - i t w i l l d e s c r i b e the p o e t i c sounds w i t h a vie w t o p o s i t i n g t he p h y s i o l o g i c a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f the p o e t ' s " v o i c e . " The p o e t ' s own v o i c e , however, w i l l always be o f p e r i p h e r a l i n t e r e s t t o an i d e a which i s p o e t r y . The l i n g u i s t i c v i e w o f a Tennyson poem chooses from among t h r e e a l t e r n a -t i v e r e a d i n g s - - o n e , t h e p o e t ' s o r a l r e a d i n g o f h i s poem i n h i s own d i a l e c t ; two, t h e r e a d e r ' s o r a l r e a d i n g o f t h e poem i n a d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t ; t h r e e , the r e a d e r ' s s i l e n t r e a d i n g o f the poem a g a i n s t an i d e a l s t r u c t u r e o f the sounds o f h i s language. The t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e approa-ches w h i c h t o l e r a t e s a c o n c e p t i o n o f p o e t r y w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s h i s t o r i c d i s t i n c t - ^ . ; i o n s o f d i a l e c t , and w h i c h , e x c e p t i n t h e need o f the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n t o use i t s own t o o l s f o r i t s own d e s c r i p t i o n s , t r a n s c e n d s d i s t i n c t i o n s o f time and p l a c e . Tennyson's own a n a l y s i s o f h i s p o e t r y - m a k i n g - - h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the " h o l l o w oes and a e s " o f h i s v e r s e - - i s s u b j e c t t o q u e s t i o n i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e v i e w f o r d e s c r i p t i o n cannot b e g i n w i t h an a f f i r m a t i o n o f sound symbolism. D e s c r i p t i o n i n s t e a d r a i s e s t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f sound symbolism, but o n l y a f t e r a f u l l e x p l o r a t i o n o f a poem, a group o f poems, o r ( w i t h computer help) a language o f poems has been made. The g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s o f Maud--the sounds and the p r o s o d i e s , as J . R. F i r t h c l a s s i f i e s t he two o r a l f u n c t i o n s o f poetry9--themse1ves o f f e r 9. J . R. F i r t h , "Sounds and P r o s o d i e s " , Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s , 193^-1951 (London, 1957), pp. 121-138. 12. a s o l u t i o n t o m i n i a t u r i z i n g the long poem f o r more e f f i c i e n t y e t complete des-c r i p t i o n s o f i t s p a r t s . For example, two major changes i n the m e t e r - - o r " b e a t " , as i t w i l l h e r e i n a f t e r be c a l l e d t o a v o i d the c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t r a d i -t i o n a l p r o s o d i c a n a l y s i s ' ^ - - o c c u r i n Maud. The f i r s t o f t h e s e changes comes at t he end o f 31 s t a n z a s i n P a r t I , and t h e second comes a t the end o f P a r t I I . The long m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem has, g e n e r a l l y , a t h r e e - b e a t rhythm, as opposed t o the s i x - b e a t l i n e o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n , and the f i v e - b e a t l i n e o f the c o n c l u s i o n . The changes i n rhythm i n each o f the t h r e e p a r t s a r e i d e a l l y accommoda-te d i n e a r l i e r e d i t i o n s o f Tennyson's Works,^ ^ i n wh i c h the p r i n t e r s i n s e r t e d c e n t e r - p a g e r u l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i d - s e c t i o n o f the poem, and then s e t t w i n columns o f v e r s e on e v e r y page. Something l i k e a "frame" poem i s thus i m m e d i a t e l y s u g g e s t e d t o t h e r e a d e r , where an o p e n i n g and a c l o s i n g s e c t i o n seem t o be marked o f f f o r h i s a t t e n t i o n . The t y p o g r a p h i c s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e poem i s bound t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e a d e r of Maud; however, f o r s i m p l i c i t y , t h e t y p o g r a p h y must be c o n s i d e r e d t o be l a r g e l y a n s w e r a b l e t o t h e i m m e d i a t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n l i n e l e n g t h s between t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f Maud. The v a r i a t i o n s i n rhythm between the "frame" s e c t i o n s and t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem w i l l be shown t o have s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s , i n " b e a t " and i n "sounds", perhaps p o i n t i n g t o a k i n d o f uniqu e n e s s i n t h e poem's m i d d l e p a r t . V a r i a t i o n s i n l i n e s and l i n e rhythms w i l l , however, be g i v e n f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r : the poem's segmental sounds a r e t h e p r o v i n c e o f t h i s c h a p t e r . D i s c u s s i o n s o f the sounds i n Maud can be s i m p l i f i e d by a l l o w i n g t h e poem 10. Seymour Chatman, A Theory o f Meter ('s Gravenhage, 1965); T. S. Omond, A Study o f Meter (London, 1920). 11. The Hal lam Tennyson Works o f Tennyson, c i t e d above, i s the t e x t used f o r t h i s t h e s i s . L a t e 19th c e n t u r y and e a r l y 2 0 t h c e n t u r y e d i t i o n s o f Tennyson p r e f e r t h e c e n t e r r u l e s on each page. 13. t o suggest i t s own d i v i s i o n s ; the o p e n i n g 31 s t a n z a s o f s i x - b e a t l i n e s w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d "A", the next 118 s t a n z a s , a v e r a g i n g t h r e e b e a t s per l i n e , w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d "B", and the f i n a l f i v e s t a n z a s , composed o f f i v e - b e a t l i n e s , w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d "C." What w i l l be open t o d e s c r i p t i o n i n i t i a l l y w i l l be t h e s t a b l e r s t a n z a p a t t e r n s i n "A" and "G", as compared t o "B", i n which the number of l i n e s changes from s t a n z a t o s t a n z a . A d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e , c h a n g i n g sound p a t t e r n i n t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f Maud may be g i v e n i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each s e c t i o n , b e g i n n i n g l o g i c -a l l y w i t h "A", which not o n l y opens t h e poem, but which b e a r s the most s t a b l e s t a n z a o f a l l t h r e e . For example, i n "A", the f i r s t 19 s t a n z a s a r e f o u r - l i n e o n e s, w i t h a s i x - b e a t l i n e and w i t h a r e g u l a r a b a b rhyme scheme. The r e -m a i n i n g 12 s t a n z a s o f "A" break t h e p a t t e r n by i n t r o d u c i n g an i r r e g u l a r l y -rhymed 1 1 - l i n e s t a n z a and 1 4 - l i n e s t a n z a , but then s e t t l e i n t o a s i x - l i n e s t a n z a p a t t e r n . The s i x - b e a t l i n e i s r e t a i n e d , w i t h an a b c, a b 'c rhyme scheme. The c r i t i c o f "A", as he reads and r e - r e a d s t h e s e c t i o n , f i n d s h i s a t t e n - ' t i o n i s drawn i n t o the s t a n z a r a t h e r than o u t t o i t s b o u n d a r i e s . Tennyson, i n u s i n g t h e s i x - b e a t l i n e w hich i s l e s s f a m i l i a r i n E n g l i s h v e r s e , f r e q u e n t l y employs a h e s i t a t i o n a t m i d - l i n e , o b s e r v i n g i t w i t h a p u n c t u a t i n g mark o r w i t h a n a t u r a l break i n the s y n t a x o f t h e l i n e . He does t h i s f r e q u e n t l y i n the o p e n i n g 31 s t a n z a s by drawing a t t e n t i o n , i n t h e f i r s t l i n e , t o a r h e t o r i c a l pause1; 1 D i d he f l i n g h i m s e l f down? who knows" f o r a v a s t s p e c u l a t i o n had f a i l ' d , And ever he m u t t e r ' d and madden'd, and e v e r wann'd w i t h d e s p a i r , - P a r t 1 , I , i i i 12. Tennyson has g i v e n Maud a t h r e e - p a r t s u p e r - s t r u c t u r e , each p a r t d e l i m i -t e d by Roman nu m e r a l s , which does n o t , i n any o f i t s p a r t s , r e c o g n i z e the r h y t h m i c v a r i a t i o n s w h i c h a r e b e i n g s u g g e s t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . In h i s f i N o t e s " , Hal lam Tennyson comments*' "The d i v i s i o n i n t o P a r t s does not e x i s t i n the o r i g i n a l 1855 e d i t i o n , w hich c o n t a i n s x x v i S e c t i o n s . " Or a g a i n : V i l l a i n y somewhere! whose, One s a y s , we a r e v i l l a i n s a l l . - P a r t 1 ,1 , v And a g a i n : And: And: But t h e s e a r e the days o f advance, the works o f the men of mind - P a r t 1, 1, v i i Peace s i t t i n g under her o l i v e , and s l u r r i n g t h e days gone by, - P a r t 1 , I , i x I am s i c k o f the H a l l and the h i l l , I am s i c k o f the moor and t h e main: - P a r t 1, I , x v i Then;: Workmen up a t the Ha 11!--they a r e coming back from a b r o a d ; - P a r t 1, I , x v i i The p o e t ' s f i x i n g o f a t t e n t i o n upon an i n t e r n a l p o i n t i n t h e l i n e s e r v e s t o draw the r e a d e r from the t r a d i t i o n a l sound p a t t e r n s which mark l i n e - e n d rhymes, and send him i n quest o f an i n t e r n a l p a t t e r n o f sounds. He has not f a r t o l o o k ; Tennyson uses f r e q u e n t a l l i t e r a t i o n and consonance w i t h i n the 1i nes: The s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r i e k o f a mother d i v i d e t h e s h u d d e r i n g n i g h t . - P a r t 1 , I , i v Or: When the poor a r e h o v e l I'd and h u s t l e d t o g e t h e r , each s e x , l i k e swine. - Pa r t 1, I x i x Or: To p e s t l e a p o i s o n ' d p o i s o n b e h i n d h i s c r i m s o n 1i g h t s . - P a r t 1, I , x i 15. Or: And t h e r u s h i n g b a t t l e - b o a t sang from t h e t h r e e - d e c k e r out o f the foam, That the smooth-faced snubnosed rogue would l e a p from h i s c o u n t e r and t i l l , - P a r t 1, I , x i i i However, even w h i l e he i s aware o f the i n s i s t e n t rhythm o f consonant r e p e t i t i o n s , t he r e a d e r senses a deeper movement o f sounds i n t h e s e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud, and one which s e r v e s t o g i v e him, p e r h a p s , t h e r e a s o n - f o r -b e i n g w h i c h he d e t e c t s i n the r e p e a t e d sounds o f t h e c o n s o n a n t s . F u r t h e r r e a d i n g s o f the s t a n z a s r e v e a l t o t h e reader what he has not c o n s c i o u s l y r e g i s t e r e d on h i s f i r s t s c a n n i n g - - t h e assonance o f two long vowel sounds. In the "A" s t a n z a s o f Maud, Tennyson has used vowel s y l l a b l e s w h i c h f a l l r o u g h l y i n t o two p a t t e r n s : t h o s e e m p l o y i n g /w/ as a " p r o s o d y " , as f o r example, /ow/, /uw/ and /aw/.y where /w/ i s sometimes s y m b o l i z e d , but more o f t e n n o t , y e t works t o l e n g t h e n the sound o f t h e v o w e l ; and t h o s e e m p l o y i n g / y / as a " p r o s o d y " , a s , f o r example, / i y / , /ey/ and / a y / , where, a g a i n , the / y / may o r 1 3 may not be s y m b o l i z e d , but always s e r v e s t o l e n g t h e n t h e vowel. Between them, t h e s e two p r o s o d i e s ( w i t h a t h i r d one, / h / , t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n a moment) a r e the e n g i n e e r s d f the "broad v o w e l " which Tennyson's c o n t e m p o r a r i e s and which modern r e a d e r s o f Tennyson's p o e t r y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e c o g n i z e . L i n g u i s t s have, o f c o u r s e , commonly r e c o g n i z e d / y / and /w/ as semi-v o w e l s , b u t , e x c e p t f o r F i r t h , have not g i v e n them a l i n e a r e q u i v a l e n c e t o marks o f a c c e n t , p i t c h o r j u n c t u r e i n the l i n e . The two, /w/ and / y / , however, have a i p r o s o d i c f u n c t i o n i n the language: f o r example, from Maud may be drawn a v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l s a m p l i n g i n words l i k e r o s e , bones, o l d , g o l d e n , b r o o d , mood, ha 11, s a l t , i n which /w/, a l t h o u g h not s y m b o l i z e d , s e r v e s 13. J . R. F i r t h , "Sounds and P r o s o d i e s , " p. 132. 16. t o l e n g t h e n i n t o a smooth, g l i d i n g sound t h e back-vowels a, oo and o. S i m i -l a r l y words 1 i k e pace, p r a t e , h a t e , t ime, f r i g h t , t h e s e , f l e e , r e l y on / y / p r o s o d y . The g l i d i n g and s l i d i n g /w/ and / y / e f f e c t s , w hich w i l l be shown t o be dominant i n Maud may be the residuum o f sound out o f which a poem's rhythms a r e f a s h i o n e d . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e two p r o s o d i e s , /w/ and /y/', i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e any k i n d o f m u s i c a l a n a l o g i e s may p r o p e r l y be made o f Maud. By f a r the most hard-worked o f the p r o s o d i e s i s /w/, w h i c h may a l s o o c c u r as a semi-vowel (wood, wave, wor I d , e t c . ) , o r as a vowel element (ho'l'.l'Ow, own, saw, e t c . ) . In t h e 161 l i n e s o f s e c t i o n "A", /w/ appears i n one o f i t s t h r e e r o l e s - - i n i t s vowel r o l e , /w/ might be c a l l e d p r o s o d i c as w e l l - - 2 ^ t i m e s f o r each l i n e . A more complex t e s t i n g o f t h i s g l i d e semi-vowe1/vowel/prosody would o f c o u r s e have a s c a l e o f w e i g h t s f o r /w/,so t h a t a l l i t e r a t i o n s such a s , "And out he w a l k ' d when the wind l i k e a broken w o r l d l i n g w a i l ' d " and assonances such a s , " C o l d and c l e a r - c u t f a c e , when come you so c r u e l l y meek1'1, would be g i v e n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r q u a l i t a t i v e as w e l l as t h e i r q u a n t i t a t i v e i n t e n s i -t i e s . However, a t t h e s i m p l e s t l e v e l , i n the s t r a i g h t c o u n t i n g o f /w/'s and /w/ p r o s o d i e s i n "A", t h i s sound o u t r a n k s a l l o t h e r s . A random s a m p l i n g o f the 31 s t a n z a s o f "A" w i l l d e monstrate t h i s : D i d he f l i n g h i m s e l f d/ow/n? wh/uw/ kn/ow/s? f o r a v a s t s p e c u l a t i o n had f a i l ' d , And ever he m u t t e r ' d and madden'd, and ever wann'd w i t h d e s p a i r , And /aw/t he w a l k e d when the wind l i k e a br/ow/ken w o r I d i n g w a i l ' d , And the f l y i n g g/ow/ld of t h e r/uw/n'd woodlands dr/ow/ve thr/uw/ the a i r . - P a r t 1, I, i i i C/ow/ld and c l e a r - c u t f a c e , why come y/uw/ s/ow/ c r / u w / l l y meek, B r e a k i n g a slumber i n which /ow/11 s p l e e n f u l f o l l y was dr/aw/n'd? P a l e w i t h t h e g/ow/lden beam o f an e y e l a s h dead on the cheek, P a s s i o n l e s s , p a l e c/ow/ld f a c e , s t a r - s w e e t on a gl/uw/m prof/aw/nd; 17. Womanlike, t a k i n g revenge t/uw/ deep f o r a t r a n s i e n t wrong Done but i n th/ow/ght t/uw/ your bea/uw/ty, and e v e r as p a l e as b e f o r e Gr/ow/ing and f a d i n g and g r / o w / i n g upon me w i t h / a w / t a s/aw/nd, L/uw/minous, g e m l i k e , g h / o w / s t 1 i k e , d e a t h l i k e , h a l f the n i g h t long Gr/ow/ing and f a d i n g and g r / o w / i n g , t i l l I c o u l d bear i t n/ow/ more, But ar/ow/se, and /ow/11 by m y s e l f i n my /ow/n dark garden gr/aw/nd, l i s t e n i n g n/aw/ t/uw/ the t i d e i n i t s br/ow/d-f l u n g s h i p w r e c k i n g r/^ew/r, N/aw/ t/uw/ the scream o f a madden'd beach dragg'd d/aw/n by t h e wave, Walk'd i n a w i n t r y wind by a g h a s t l y glimmer, and f/aw/nd The s h i n i n g d a f f o d i l dead, and O r i o n 1/ow/ i n h i s g r a v e . - P a r t 1 , I I I For the d r i f t o f the Maker i s d a r k an I s i s h i d by the v e i 1 , Wh/uw/ kn/ow/s the ways o f t h e w o r l d , h/aw/ God w i l l b r i n g them ab/aw/t? /Aw/r p l a n e t i s one, t h e suns a r e many, the w o r l d i s w i de. S h a l l I weep i f a P/ow/land f a l l ? s h a l l I s h r i e k i f a Hungary f a i 1 ? Or an i n f a n t c i v i l i z a t i o n be r/uw/led w i t h r o d o r w i t h kn/aw/t? I have not made the w o r l d , and he t h a t made i t w i l l gui de. - P a r t 1, IV, v i i When have I b/aw/'d t/uw/ her f a t h e r , the w r i n k l e d head o f the race? I met her t o d a y w i t h her b r o t h e r , but not t/uw/ her b r o t h e r I b/aw/'d; I b/aw/'d t/uw/ h i s l a d y - s i s t e r as she r/ow/de by on the m/uw/r, But the f i r e o f a f / u w / l i s h p r i d e f l a s h ' d /ow/ver her b e a / u w / t i f u l f a c e , /Ow/ c h i l d , y/uw/ wrong your bea/uw/ty, b e l i e v e i t , i n b e i n g a s/ow/ pr/aw/d; Your f a t h e r has ®*ealth w e l l - g o t t e n , and I am nameless and p/uw/r. - P a r t 1, IV, i i i c 18. What! am I r a g i n g al/ow/ne as my f a t h e r raged i n h i s m/uw/d? Must I t/uw/ c r e e p t/uw/ t h e h o l l / o w / and dash m y s e l f d/aw/n and d i e Rather t h a n h/ow/ld by t h e 1/ow/ t h a t I made, nevermore t/uw/ br/uw/d On a h o r r o r o f s h a t t e r ' d l i m b s and a w r e t c h e d s w i n d l e r 1 s l i e ? - P a r t 1, I , x i v Perhaps.fche^most s i g n i f i c a n t c a p a c i t y o f the /w/ i s i t s vowel c a p a c i t y - -f o r whether i t be a t work p r o s o d i c a l l y t o l e n g t h e n the v o w e l , o r whether i t be a t work i n i t s semi-vowel r o 1 e - - f r e q u e n t 1 y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h / h / as i n who '(/huw/) e t c . - - t h i s v e r s a t i l e /w/ sounds w i t h a g l i d e w h i c h f l o w s n a t u r -a l l y i n t o the vowel. The / y / , on t h e o t h e r hand, w h i l e i t , t o o , i s a semi-v o w e l , has r e t a i n e d i t s consonant f u n c t i o n i n E n g l i s h , f o r example, y e t . The / y / does not o c c u r w i t h / h / as /#/ does, so t h a t i t cannot p e r f o r m , as /wh/ does, i n l e n g t h e n i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a v o w e l . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d here t h a t / h / i s a l s o a p r o s o d y , as w e l l as a c o n s o n a n t , i n the language: i t s sound i s . a p p a r e n t even where i t i s not s y m b o l i z e d a f t e r /w/, as f o r example i n ,wa?1, wave, wood, w i n d , e t c . F i r t h r e c o g n i z e s / h / as a s p e c i a l c l a s s i n E n g l i s h forms: E n g l i s h / h / i s a s p e c i a l s t u d y i n weak for m s , and i n a l l t h e s e r e s p e c t s i s perhaps a l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d as one o f the elements h a v i n g s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s , which I have termed p r o s o d i c . In E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s phonematic /_h/, ( i f t h e r e i s such a t h i n g ) d i s a p p e a r s , but p r o s o d i c 1 h 1 i s sometimes i n t r o d u c e d by m i x i n g up i t s f u n c t i o n s w i t h the g l o t t a l s t o p . I have l o n g f e l t t h a t the a i t c h i n e s s , a i t c h i f i c a t i o n , or b r e a t h i n e s s o f sounds and s y l l a b l e s , and s i m i l a r l y t h e i r c r e a k -i n e s s or 1 g l o t t a 1 i z a t i o n 1, a r e more o f t e n than not f e a t u r e s o f the whole s y l l a b l e o r s e t o f s y l l a b l e s . 14. I b i d , p. 134. 19. He d e s c r i b e s t h e " b r e a t h i n e s s " o f the / h / sound as a f e a t u r e o f t h e whole s y l l a b l e : t h i s " b r e a t h i n e s s " i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e d i n the /wh/ sounds / w h / a i l , /wh/ave, /wh/ood, /wh/ind, e t c . Thus t h e g l i d i n g /w/ ( o r /wh/), when i t i n i t i a t e s a s y l l a b l e , combines b o t h ; the s o f t n e s s o f the vowel and the " b r e a t h -i n e s s " o f i t s s p e c i a l p rosody t o g i v e i t d i s t i n c t c o n t r a s t t o the consonant e f f e c t s o f /y_/: 1. /Wh/alked i n a / w h / i n t r y /wh/ind... - P a r t 1 , I I I 2. AY/our f a t h e r i s e v e r i n London, /y/ou wander about a t / y / o u r w i l l ; - P a r t 1, I I I The dominance o f /w/ sounds i n t h e s e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud thus i n r e a l i t y marks the assonance i n s e c t i o n "A" o f t h e /ow/ long v o w e l . The com-b i n a t i o n o f t h i s vowel and the prosody /w/ w h i c h g i v e s the oo(w)e sound w i t -n essed i n r o s e , owe, l o n e , e t c . , o r the r e v e r s e c o m b i n a t i o n o f /w/ p l u s t h e lo n g vowel w h i c h g i v e s t h e (w)ooe sound w i t n e s s e d i n wood, wor1d, wound, e t c . , i s t h e dominant s y l l a b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f Maud's ope n i n g s t a n z a s . A v e r y c a r e -f u l s o u n d i n g o f the l i n e s w i l l r e v e a l a continuum o f sound i s p r o v i d e d by the /w/ p r o s o d y , both by i t s e l f , and i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h i t s s t a n d a r d p a r t n e r , / h / . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f g l i d i n g and b r e a t h i n g i n the /wh/ p r o s o d i e s s u g g e s t s s t r o n g l y the a n a l o g y t o music w h i c h r e a d e r s o f Tennyson's p o e t r y have i n s i s t e d upon. The r e a d e r c o u l d p o i n t t o a "woodwind" q u a l i t y i n the o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud, and he w o u l d , q u i t e i d e a l l y , have found a metaphor which c o n t a i n e d i n i t s own name--/wh/ood/wh/i nd--the v e r y sound q u a n t i t i e s which he had sought t o d e s c r i b e i n t h e poem. However, even more s i g n i f i c a n t than the m u s i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h i s a s s o n a n t o(woo)e i n s e c t i o n "A" o f Maud i s the t h e m a t i c f u n c t i o n which t h e sound p l a y s . T h i s long^vowel i s keyed t o t h e " r o s e " theme o f t h e s e c t i o n , and i t i s keyed, t o d , t o t h e t h e m a t i c "who knows?" or "whose?" w h i c h o c c u r i n 20. s i x forms i n t h e o p e n i n g , and wh i c h have f i n a l o c c a s i o n i n P a r t 1, IV, x, j u s t p r i o r t o t h e s e l i n e s o f r e s o l u t i o n : Y/uw/ have but f e d on the r/ow/ses and l a i n i n the 1 i 1 i es o f 1i f e . - P a r t 1, IV, x. But b e f o r e t h e m a t i c t h r e a d s may be e x p l o r e d i n s e c t i o n "A", o r i n any s e c t i o n o f the poem, a second g e n e r a l assonance must be r e c o r d e d i n t h e open-in g 31 s t a n z a s . That i s , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e second g e n e r a l c l a s s o f vowe1s--those e n g i n e e r e d by t h e / y / p r o s o d i e s - - i s now n e c e s s a r y . Consonant sounds must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , which r e l i e s h e a v i l y on / _ ] / , /m/, / n / , and / r / r e s o n a n t s . And, f i n a l l y , a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n must be made o f Tennyson's use o f s y l l a b l e s o f I si and Id/ i n h i s o p e n i n g l i n e s o f Maud. Only when a l l t h e prominent sounds o f "A" have been e x p l o r e d can any meaning-f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be i m p l i e d between sounds and themes; t h e r e f o r e f u l l t h e m a t i c d i s c u s s i o n s w i l l a w a i t the next t h r e e c h a p t e r s ' d e s c r i p t i o n s . ff CHAPTER I I A second major vowel prominence i n t h e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud i s t h e one which depends upon /y/ as a p r o s o d y , s y m b o l i z e d i n the T r a g e r - S m i t h model a s : bee: /b i y/; bay: /bey/; buy: /bay/ , and , boy: /boy/.^ A g a i n , l i k e / w / , /y_/ has t h r e e f u n c t i o n s i n the lan g u a g e , as a c o n s o n a n t , as a v o w e l , and as a p r o s o d y . However, /y/, u n l i k e /w/, which i s a t most o n l y a s e m i - c o n s o n a n t , even when i t i n i t i a t e s a s y l l a b l e , has s t r o n g consonant q u a l i t y i n t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n , f o r example, you, y o u r , y e t , young, where /y/ has p a l a t a l a r t i c u l a -t i o n . The vowel q u a l i t i e s o f /y/ r e s t l a r g e l y i n i t s p r o s o d i c and vowel r o l e s , f o r example as a p r o s o d y i n t i me: /tayme/; t a 1 e : / t e y 1 / ; me: /m i y/; o r as a vowel i n my_, s k y , o r s t a t e l y, n i c e l y , e t c . A t h i r d g r o u p i n g would i n -c l u d e t h o s e vowel s y l l a b 1es i n which /y/ i s s y m b o l i z e d , but a c t s i n e f f e c t as a p r o s o d y r a t h e r . t h a n a vo w e l ; f o r example, boy, p l a y , b u y , e t c . To t h i s t h i r d group would have t o be appended a n o t h e r c l a s s (some members o f which appear t o be morphophonemic i n c h a r a c t e r ) which graphemica11y r e p r e s e n t s the pr o s o d y as f o r example i n r e j o i c e , v o i c e , w a i 1 , p r a i s e , r e c e i v e , e t c . To summarize, t h e n , /y/, u n l i k e /w/, has a s t r o n g consonant q u a l i t y i n i n i t i a t i n g a s y l l a b l e , and thus l o s e s one o f t h o s e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e language i n which i t might behave as a v o w e l , o r a t b e s t , l i k e /w/, as a s e m i - v o w e l . In t h e o p e n i n g 3' s t a n z a s o f Maud t h e /w/ semi-vowel i s a prominent one. Thus the ooo (w)ooe g l i d e q u a l i t i e s o f the /w/ a r e i n s i s t e n t i n t h i s "A1;1 s e c t i o n . The /y/ so u n d s , l o s i n g as t h e y do any vowel q u a l i t i e s when'/y/ i s i n an i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e p o s i t i o n , cannot compete i n o v e r a l l i n t e n s i t y w i t h /w/ 1. George L. T r a g e r and Henry Lee S m i t h , J r . , An Out 1ine o f E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e (Washington, 1951) , p. 27. 22 . s o u n d s , but remain n o n e t h e l e s s a second major assonance i n Maud's o p e n i n g l i n e s . Examples o f t h i s h i g h - f r o n t , / y / - l e n g t h e n e d vowel s y l l a b l e , which goes aaa ( y ) e e e , appear i n t h e s e t y p i c a l s t a n z a s from Maud's "A" s e c t i o n : I remember t h e t/ay/me, f o r the r o o t s o f m/ay/ ha i r were s t i r r ' d By a s h u f f l e d s t e p , by a dead w/ey/t t r / e y / 1 ' d , by a w h i s p e r ' d f r / a y / g h t , And my p u l s e s c l o s e d t h e i r g / e y / t e s w i t h a s h o c k on m/ay/ h e a r t as / a y / h e a r d The s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r / i y / k o f a mother d i v / a y / d e t h e s h u d d e r i n g n/ay/ght. - P a r t 1 , I , i v And S l / i y / p must l / a y down arm'd, f o r the v i l l a i n o u s c e n t r e b i t s Gr'ay'nd on t h e w / e y / k e f u l / i y / r i n the hush o f the moonless n / a y / g h t s , Wh/ay/le a n o t h e r i s c h / i y / t i n g the s i c k o f a few l a s t g a s p s , as h / i y / s i t s To p e s t l e a p/oy/son'd p/oy/son beh/ay/nd h i s c r i m s o n 1/ay/ghts. - P a r t 1 , I , x i A m i l l i o n emeralds b r / e y / k from t h e ruby-budded 1/ay/me In t h e l i t t l e g r o v e where /ay/ s i t — a h , w h e r e f o r e cannot /ay/ b / i y / L/ay/ke t h i n g s o f t h e s / i y / s o n g/ey/, 1/ay/ke t h e b o u n t i f i l s / i y / s o n b l a n d , When t h e f a r - o f f s/ey/1 i s blown b/ay/ t h e b r / i y / z e o f a s o f t e r c l / a y / m e , H a l f - l o s t i n the l i q u i d / e y / z u r e bloom o f a c r e s c e n t o f s / i y/ , The s / a y / l e n t s a p p h / a y / r e - s p a n g l e d m a r r i a g e r i n g o f t h e land? - P a r t 1, IV, i For t h e d r i f t o f the M/ey/ker i s d a r k , an / a y / s i s h i d b/ay/ t h e v/ey/1 . Who knows t h e w/ey/s o f t h e w o r l d , how God w i l l b r i n g them about? Our p l a n e t i s one, t h e suns a r e many, t h e w o r l d i s w/ay/de. S h a l l /ay/ w/iy/p i f a P o l a n d f a l l ? s h a l l /ay/ s h r / i y / k <i>f a Hungary f / e y / l ? Or an i n f a n t c i v i 1 i z / e y / t i o n be r u l e d w i t h r o d o r w i t h knout? / a y / have not m/ey/de t h e w o r l d , and H / i y / t h a t m/ey/de i t w i l l g/ay/de. - P a r t 1, IV, v i i i 2 3 . A s e p a r a t e c l a s s , o f the / y / p r o s o d i e s has as y e t gone u n r e c o g n i z e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , but t h i s sound now demands a t t e n t i o n because o f Tennyson's f r e q u e n t use o f i t i n t h e "A" s e c t i o n of. Maud. T h i s c l a s s o f / y / sounds i s t h e one which employs t h e " s h o r t i " , as i t i s p o p u l a r l y d e s i g n a t e d . In E n g l i s h , " s h o r t i " s y l l a b l e s a r e not r e p r e s e n t e d as d i p h t h o n g s , as f o r example a r e a l l o t h e r vowels o f t h e / y / pro s o d y g r o u p . However t h i s vowel has a d i p h t h o n g a l q u a l i t y when i t a p p e a r s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a consonant o f the r e s o n a n t g r o u p , l i k e / _ ] / , / r r / , / n / , /r/ , a n d , o f c o u r s e , /w/ and / y / , where t h e r e s o n a n t q u a l i t i e s o f t h e vowel merge w i t h t h e .resonance o f the c o n s o n a n t , p r o d u c i n g a /y_/ p r o s o d y sound which might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as / i-y/ , as i n f i l l : / f i-y 1 /, and which has a q u a l i t y , i f not a q u a n t i t y , e q u al t o the ana l o g o u s sound i n , f o r example, f e e l : / f i y l / . ^ In s e c t i o n "A" Tennyson makes a d i s t i n c t i v e use o f t h i s sound /4-y/ w i t h t h e re s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s / ]_/ , /m/, / n/ , I x_l, / w/ , and /y/ . An example from t h i s "A" s e c t i o n o f Maud i s : When a Mammon i t e mother YJ i-y/ l i s her babe f o r a b u r i a l f e e , And T/4y/mour-Mammon gr/4-y/ns on a p i l e o f c h / r y / l d r e n 's bones, Is i t peace o r war? b e t t e r , war! Loud war by l a n d and sea , War w i t h a thousand b a t t l e s , and s h a k i n g a hundred t h r o n e s . Or: • P a r t 1 , I , x i i A m/t-y/1 1 ion emeralds b r e a k from t h e ruby-budded 1 ime In t h e 1 / 4 - y / t t l e g r o v e where I s i t — a h , w h e r e f o r e cannot I be, L i k e th/+y/ngs o f t h e season gay, l i k e t he b o u n t i f u l season b l a n d , When t h e f a r - o f f s a i l i s blown by t h e b r e e z e o f a s o f t e r c1ime 2 . O t t o J e s p e r s e n , " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f t h e Vowel 1",, L i n g u i s t i c s (Copenhagen, 1 9 3 3 ) , PP 2 8 3 - 3 0 3 . 3 . A. C. Gimson, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 96. 2k. H a l f - l o s t i n the l/4y/q/-iy/d a z u r e bloom o f a c r e s c e n t o f s e a , The s i l e n t s a p p h i r e - s p a n g l e d m a r r i a g e r/4iy/ng o f the land? - P a r t 1 , IV, i Tennyson has used t h e s h o r t / ] _ / — w h i c h i s more c o r r e c t l y a " s h o r t " / ] _ / i n t h e s y l l a b l e s o f o b s t r u e n t c o n s o n a n t s , as f o r example b i t , b i d , s i t , h i d , c i t y , p i t y , t r i p , e t c . ^ — 1 0 1 . t i m e s i n s e c t i o n "A", and i n 75 i n s t a n c e s he had used t h i s vowel i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h . t h e r e s o n a n t s /U, /m/, / n / , / vj , / w/, o r /y/. In the environment o f t h e s e consonants " s h o r t " / i / becomes d i p h t h o n g i z e d as / fy/. A c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e / y / p r o s o d y sounds i n "A" must t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e t h i s c l a s s o f sounds. The / r y / vowel s y l l a b l e must be a l l o w e d t o j o i n the r o u g h l y d e s c r i b e d c l a s s o f " l o n g " vowels d e t e r m i n e d p r o s o d i c a l l y by /w/ o r /y/. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d i p h t h o n g a l /ry/ does not end h e r e , however. The r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s w i t h which i t f i n d s most f r e q u e n t company p o i n t t o t h e most i m p o r t a n t consonant p a t t e r n i n "A." Whereas i t may be demonstrated t h a t t h e " l o n g " vowel sounds p r e d o m i n a t e i n "A", i t may now be demonstrated t h a t the r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s ,/_!/, An/, / n / , / r / , /w/, and Ay/, which have been d e l i m i -t e d a l r e a d y , make up more than 50 per c e n t o f t h e consonant sounds o f t h e s e c t i o n . A s e l e c t i o n o f seven s t a n z a s chosen a t random from "A" w i l l show the h i g h f r e q u e n c y o f r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s ! k. In h i s e s s a y " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f t h e Vowel I " , J e s p e r s e n has s u g g e s t e d t h a t " s h o r t " I \J has a s y m b o l i c v a l u e i n some Indo-European l a n g u a g e s , and p a r -t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h , where i t connotes " l i t t l e n e s s . " He has n o t , however, seen t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s y l l a b l e s o f " s h o r t " / ] _ / — a s , f o r example, the q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n sound between " b i t " and " t h i n " , o r between " s l i t " and " s l i m . " He c a n n o t , t h u s , a c c o u n t f o r words l i k e " m i l l i o n " , " f i l l " , " h i l l " , " s i n " . , , " k i 1 .1 " , " w i n 1 , "Him", e t c . S i n c e t h e s e r e s o n a n t /Ty/ s y l l a b l e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t ones i n Tennyson's Maud, t h e poem s e r v e s t o p o i n t up t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s o f J e s p e r s e n ' s a n a l y s i s . The e s s a y i s , however, a p r o v o c a t i v e one, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t i m p l i e s t h a t a more c o r r e c t a n a l y s i s might be t h e one w h i c h . c o n s i d e r s t h e s y l l a b l e r a t h e r than the phoneme. i 25. D i d he f l i n g h i m s e l f down? Who knows, f o r a v a s t s p e c u l a t i o n had f a i _ j _ 1 d Ajnd ever, he m u t t e r e d a_nd madden.1 d, and eve£ warm'd w i t h d e s p a i r . And out he w a l k ' d when_ t h e wind V\ke a br_oken. wor I d l i n g w a i j _ ' d , And t h e fj.yi.ng goJ_d o f t h e r_uin.'d woodJ_an_ds dr.ove t h j r o 1 the a i r . . - P a r t 1 , I , i i i WJny do t h e y pr_ate o f t h e bj.essi.ngs o f Peace? we have made them a c u r s e , P i c k p o c k e t s , each hand _l.usti.ng fo_r a 1 1 t h a t i s not i t s own.; And J u s t o f gain_, i_n t h e s p i r i t o f Cai_n, i s i t b e t t e r . o£ wo£se Than_ t h e hea_rt o f t h e c i t i z e n , h i s s i n g in_ wa_r on. h i s own. hea_rthston_e? - P a r t 1 , I , v i And SJ_eep must J_ie dow£ arm 1 d, for. t h e v i 1 l a i n o u s c e n t r e - b i t s G_ri£d on. the wakefuj_ ear. ini t h e hush o f t h e moon l e s s n i ghts , WhJJe a n o t h e r i s c h e a t i n g t h e s i c k o f a few J.ast gasps , as he s i t s To pestj_e a p o i s o n / d poison, b e h i n d h i s crimson. J _ i g h t s . - P a r t 1 , I , x i What! am I r_agin.g aJ_on.e as my f a t h e r . £aged in. h i s mood? Must I t o o c r e e p t o t h e ho i low and dash mysej_f dowjn and d i e _Rather_ than_ hoJ_d by the J_aw t h a t I made, nevermore t o brood On. a h o r r o r o f shatte£'d J_imbs ajnd a w r e t c h e d swi n.dj_ejr's J_ie? - P a r t 1 , I , x i v . J.ojng have I s i g h ' d f o r . a c a l m : God g,ranit I may fin_d i t at- J a s t l I t wiJJ.ri.ever. be broken, by Maud, she has neigher. savour, nor. s a j _ t , But a coJ_d an_d c j . e a r - c u t f a c e , as I found when her c a r r i a g e p a s t , P e r f e c t l y beaut i f u j _ : J_et i t be g r a n t e d hejr: where i s t h e f a u l t ? A l 1 t h a t I saw (fo_r he_r eyes we_re downcast, not t o be seen) Fau__ti_l_y fau__t]_ess , i c i _ l _ y _regu_lar , s p j e n d i d_l_y • £LU_LL > Dead pe_rf e c t i o r _ , no mo£e: r_othir_g more, i f i t had. not beer_ Fo_r a chance o f trave_l_, a pa_l_eness , ajn hou_r's d e f e c t o f the._rose, 0_r ajn under l i p , .y_ou may ca 1 1 i t a _Mtt__e too _ r i p e , too f u 1 1 , 0_r t h e _l_east _]_i tt_]_e d e d i c a t e a q u i j j n e c u r v e in. a s e n s i t i ve no s e , From wh i c h I escaped h e a r t - f r e e , w i t h t h e _l_east _l_itt_l_e t o u c h o f s p j e e n . - P a r t 1,11 When have I bow'd t o her_ f a t h e _ r , the w r i n k l e d head o f t h e _race? I met hejr today w i t h he_r b_rother_, but not to her. b_rothe_r I bow'd: I bow'd t o h i s _l_ady-s i s t e _ r as she _rode by or_ t h e moo_r But t h e f i r e o f a foo_]_ish p_ride f_l_ash'd ovejr he_r beaut i f uj_ f a c e . 0 chi_l_d, _y_ou wrong ypur_ b e a u t y , b e l i e v e i t , i r _ b e i n g so p_roud; , _You_r fathe_r has wea_]_th wel 1 - q o t t e n , ajnd I am name_]_ess an_d poo_r. - P a r t 1 , IV, H i Be. mi ne a ,ph i_losophe£'s _ l _ i f e ijn t h e q u i e t wood_land ways , Where i f I cannot be gay _l_et a pass i o n l e s s peace be my _l_o t , Fa_r o f f from t h e c_l_amou_r o f _l_ia_rs be_l_ief i r _ the hubbub o f _ l _ i es ; F_rom t h e _l_or_g-r_eck'd geese o f the wor_l_d t h a t a_re eve_r h i s s i j n g d i s p _ r a i s e Because thei_r n a t u r e s a_re _ l _ i t t _ l _ e , an.d whether he heed i t o_r not, Where each majn walks w i t h h i s head i r _ a c j p u d o f po i sonous f l _ i es . - P a r t 1 , IV, i x One o f t h e s e r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , /__./, needs s p e c i a l comment, f o r i t i s t h i s one which appears kO out o f 75 times i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n s o f / - fy/ and a r e s o n a n t . For example, Tennyson makes heavy p l a y on v i i i , as i n v i l l a i n and 27. v i 1 l a q e ; on m i l l as i n mi 11 ion and mi 11-stone; on h i l l , a n d , f i n a l l y , on 1i t t 1 e , a word he used e i g h t times i n s e c t i o n "A." Two s t a n z a s o f "A" show the i n t e n s i t i e s o f /}_/'• ,/j/ong have I s i g h ' d f o r a c a l m : God g r a n t I may f i n d i t a t / J / a s t ! I t w i / J / never be broken by Maud, she has n e i t h e r s a v o u r nor s a / J / t , But a c o / J / d and c/J_/ear-cut f a c e , as I found when her c a r r i a g e p a s t , P e r f e c t / J / y beaut i f u / J / : /']_/et i t be g r a n t e d h e r : where i s the f a u / J / t ? A/1/ t h a t I saw ( f o r her eyes were downcast, not t o be seenY F a u / J / t i / J / y f a u / J / t / J / e s s , i c i / J / y r e g u / J / a r , s p / J / e n d i d / J / y nu/]/, Dead p e r f e c t i o n , no more; n o t h i n g more, i f i t had not been For a chance o f t r a v e / J / , a pa/J/eness , an hour's d e f e c t o f t h e r o s e , Or an u n d e r / J / i p , you may ca/]_/ i t a / J / i t t / J / e too r i p e , too f u / J / , Or t h e / J / e a s t / J / i t t / J / e d e / J / i c a t e a q u i / J / i n e c u r v e i n a sens i t i ve n o s e , From which I escaped h e a r t - f r e e , w i t h t h e / J / e a s t / 1 / i t t / l / e touch o f s p / l / e e n ' . - P a r t 1,11 Be mine a p h i / J / o s o p h e r 1 s / J / i f e i n the q u i e t wood/J/and ways , Where i f I cannot be gay /J_/et a pass i o n / J / e s s peace be my / 1 / o t , F a r - o f f from t h e c/J/amour o f / J / i a r s be/J_/ied i n the hubbub o f / 1/i e s ; From t h e /_[_/ong-neck'd geese o f the wor/_l/d t h a t a r e ever h i s s i n g d i s p r a i s e Because t h e i r n a t u r e s a r e / J / i t t / J / e , a n d , whether he heed i t o r n o t , Where each man walks w i t h h i s head i n a c/J/oud o f p o i s o n o u s f / j h / i e s . - P a r t 1 , IV, i x The r e m a i n i n g consonants o f any s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f "A" a r e /s_/ , / h / and / d / , the last-named b e i n g the o n l y s t o p consonant which Tennyson uses t o any g r e a t e x t e n t , and even h i s use o f t h i s s t o p sound i s ambi-v a l e n t , as w i l l be shown. His use o f / h / , which i s both a consonant and a p r o s o d y in E n g l i s h , i s so r e g u l a r and so c o n s i s t e n t , t h a t i t s e r v e s more than 28. any o t h e r s i n g l e sound t o i n t i m a t e t h a t Tennyson i s r e s p o n d i n g t o a fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e language. (This p o i n t w i l l be r a i s e d . l a t e r ; Tennyson's use o f I hi sounds w i l l be o n l y s u p e r f i c i a l l y d e a l t w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t chap-t e r . ) Tennyson makes f r e q u e n t use o f I si i n s e c t i o n "A", not o n l y i n i t s e l f , but i n c o m b i n a t i o n a l s o w i t h Ihl. T h i s c o n s o n a n t , one o f t h e group o f c o n t i n -uants which i n c l u d e s Iml , Inl , I\l , I rl , /w/, / y / , as w e l l as Izl , I fl , / v / , cannot be c l a s s e d i n the c u r r e n t a n a l y s i s as a r e s o n a n t , as the Iml, Inl, /]/, I rl , /w/, / y / group c a n . For t h e r e s o h a n t s a r e t h o s e c o n t i n u a n t s which work to l e n g t h e n t h e vowel s y l l a b l e by c o n t i n u i n g v o i c i n g o v e r t h e whole s y l l a b l e . The c o nsonant I si, on the o t h e r hand, works t o s h o r t e n the v o w e l , as t h e s e c o n t r a s t e d p a i r s o f I si and / z / r s o u n d s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : h i s s : / h i s / o r h i s : /h i y z / ; r e s t : / r e s t / o r res i n: / r e y z n / . The two o t h e r c o n t i n u a n t s , Izl and / V / J which a r e r e s o n a n t s , have l i t t l e f u n c t i o n i n Maud, and thus have not been c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . Tennyson's use of./s/ and Isl consonance i n "A" s e c t i o n may be seen i n t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : I remember t h e t i m e , f o r t h e r o o t / s / o f my h a i r were / s / t i r r 1 d By a / j [ / u f f l e d / s / t e p , by a dead w e i g h t t r a i l ' d , by a w h i / s / p e r ' d f r i g h t , And my pu l / s / e / s _ / c l o / s / e d t h e i r g a t e / s / w i t h a / s / o c k on my h e a r t a / s / I h e a r d T h e / s / r i 1 1 - e d g e d / s / r i e k o f a mother d i v i d e t h e / s / u d d e r i n g n i g h t . - P a r t 1 , I , i v In t h i s s t a n z a , t h e i n d i v i d u a l /si sounds a r e emphasized i n r o o t s , s t i r r ' d , s t e p , w h i s p e r 1 d , p u l s e s , c l o s e d , gates , a s ; t h e i n d i v i d u a l Ihl sounds a r e g i v e n i n ha i r , h e a r t and h e a r d ; I si + Ihl sounds a r e hear d i n s t i r r ' d , w hich might be s y m b o l i z e d / s t a h r d / i n wh i s p e r ' d , and i n t h e p h r a s e "on my h e a r t as I h e a r d 1 ; the Isl sounds a r e prominent i n s h u f f l e d , s h r i 11- edqed s h r i e k and shudder i nq . Other c o m b i n a t i o n s o f I si and It/ sounds may be h e a r d i n the f o l l o w i n g 1i nes: When t h e poor a r e h o v e l I'd and h u / s / t l e d t o g e t h e r , each / s / e x , l i k e / s / w i n e . - P a r t 1 , I , i x On a h o r r o r o f /sVatter'd l i m b / s / and a w r e t c h e d / s / w i n d l e r V s / l i e ? - P a r t 1 , I , x i v Walk'd i n a w i n t r y wind by a g h a / s / t l y glimmer and found The./£/ining d a f f o d i l dead, and O r i o n low i n h i / s / g r a v e . - P a r t 1,111 The I si\lent / s / a p p h i r e - / s / p a n g 1 e d m a r r i a g e r i n g o f th e land? - P a r t 1 , IV, i The M a y f l y i / s / t o r n by t h e / s / w a l l o w , t h e / s / p a r r o w / s / p e a r ' d by t h e / ^ / r i k e , - P a r t 1, IV, i v We w h i / s / p e r , and h i n t , and c h u c k l e , and g r i n a t a b r o t h e r ' / s / /s7ame; - P a r t 1 , IV, v / S / a l l I weep i f a P o l a n d f a l l ? / s ? a l l I / s / r i e k i f a Hungary f a i 1 ? - P a r t 1 , IV, v i i i From the lo n g - n e c k ' d gee/s/e o f t h e w o r l d t h a t a r e eve r h i / s / i n g d i / s / p r a i / s / e - P a r t 1, IV, i x The prominence o f I hi as a p r o s o d y i n s y l l a b l e s i n i t i a t i n g w i t h /w/ was commented upon i n Chapter I : however, i t s prominence as pro s o d y w i t h Irl has not been examined, and might be s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a s : 3 0 . I r/h/ememb/h/r the t i m e f o / h / r t h e r/h/oots o f my h a i / h / r we/h/re s t i / h / r ' d By a s h u f f l e d s t e i p , by a dead w e i g h t t r / h / a i l ' d by a w h i s p e / h / r ' d f / h / r i g h t , And my p u l s e s c l o s e d t h e i / h / r g a tes w i t h a shock on my h e a / h / r t as I hea/h/rd The s h r i l l - e d g e d s h r i e k o f a mothe/h/r d i v i d e the s h u d d e / h / r i n g n i g h t . - P a r t 1 , I , i v Why do t h e y p r / h / a t e o f t h e b l e s s i n g s o f Peace? we have made them a c u / h / r s e , P i c k p o c k e t s , each hand l u s t i n g f o / h / r a l l t h a t i s not i t s own; And l u s t o f g a i n , i n the s p i / h / r i t o f C a i n , i s i t b e t t e / h / r o r wo/h/rse Than the h e a / h / r t o f the c i t i z e n h i s s i n g i n w/h/ar on h i s own h e a / h / r t h s t o n e ? - P a r t 1 , 1 , v i A c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e / h / p r o s o d i es , t h e I si , Ici and /J&I s y l l a b l e s a l l o f which s h a r e " b r e a t h i n e s s " , and t h e Ihl consonants i n Maud demonstrates t h a t Ihl i s a major sound i n t h e poem, e s p e c i a l l y i n "A" s e c t i o n , i n which /w/ p r e d o m i n a t e s as a s e m i - c o n s o n a n t / v o w e l / p r o s o d y . Perhaps a s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sound /wh/, t a k e n t o be a paradigm c a s e o f a l l /w/ and Ihl f u n c t i o n s i n the p o e t r y , might l e a d t o s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s a b a s i c . s o u n d o f t h e language. However, such s p e c -u l a t i o n b e l ongs p r o p e r l y t o a c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t about s o u n d s , and s h o u l d not i n f l u e n c e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s o f sound prominences i n a p a r t i c u l a r poem. The s p e c u l a t i o n w i l l be r a i s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r o f t h i s t hes i s. F i n a l l y , Idl has an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e s e o p e n i n g s t a n z a s o f Maud. There i s a s t r o n g consonance o f t h i s s o u n d , not because Tennyson has used I dl as an>a 1 1 i t e r a t i ve d e v i c e , as he has done w i t h Ijsl, I si , Ihl, I\l, I rl, I w/, e t c . , but because he has r e l i e d s o l e l y upon t h e sound i n t e r m i n a l po-s i t i o n s i n t h e word, a s , f o r example, i n. madden'd, c r u s h ' d , di n t e d , e t c . A s t r a i g h t c o u n t i n g o f /d/'s i n "A" s e c t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t 3 3 5 o f t h e s e c o n -s o n a n t s a p p e a r ; 2k2 o f them, o r 72% o f the t o t a l , f i n d p o s i t i o n s i n t h e 3 1 . t e r m i n a l s y l l a b l e s o f the words. Tennyson uses an e x c e p t i o n a l number o f and's and o f p a s t p a r t i c i p l e s o f t h e verb i n t h e s e "A" s t a n z a s , which s u g g e s t s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s y n t a c t i c arrangement i n t h e p o e t r y - - i n d e e d , such arrangement e x i s t s and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . However, th e poet has had o t h e r than s y n t a c t i c needs f o r t h e t e r m i n a l /jd/ s y l l a b l e s , as t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : ...For t h e r e i n the g h a s t l y p i t long s i n c e a body was f o u n / d / , H i s who ha/d/ g i v e n me l i f e — 0 f a t h e r ! 0 Go/d/! was i t wel 1 ? — M a n g l e / d / , and f l a t t e n ' / d / and c r u s h Vd/, and d i n t e / d / i n t o t h e g r o u n / d / : - P a r t 1 , 1 , i i ...And e v e r he m u t t e r Vd/ and madden'/d/ and e v e r wann'/d/ w i t h d e s p a i r , And.out he w a l k ' / d / when th e w i n / d / l i k e a broken w o r l / d / -1 i ng wa i 1 Vd/ , And t h e f l y i n g g o l / d / o f t h e r u i n ' / d / woo/d/lan/d/s drove t h r o 1 t h e a i r . - P a r t 1 , I , i i i . . . t h e r o o t s o f my h a i r were s t i r r ' / d / By a s h u f f l e / d / s t e p , by a dea/d/ w e i g h t t r a i l Vd/, by a w h i s p e r ' / d / f r i g h t , And my p u l s e s c l o s e / d / t h e i r g a tes w i t h a shock on my h e a r t as I h e a r / d / The s h r i 1 1 - e d g e / d / s h r i e k o f a mother d i v i d e t h e s h u d d e r i n g n i g h t . - P a r t 1 , I , i v Dropt o f f g o r g e / d / from a scheme t h a t ha/d/ l e f t us f l a c c i / d / and d r a i n ' / d / . - P a r t 1 , I , v That t h e s m o o t h 1 f a c e / d / , snubnose/d/ rogue woul/d/ leap from h i s c o u n t e r and t i l l , - P a r t 1 , I , x i i i I p l a y ' / d / w i t h t h e g i r l when a c h i l d ; she p r o m i s e / d / then t o be f a i r . - P a r t 1 , I , x v i i When have I bow'/d/ t o her f a t h e r , the w r i n k l e / d / hea/d/ o f t h e race? - P a r t 1, IV, i i i An eye wel 1 - p r a c t i s e / d / i n n a t u r e , a s p i r i t bounde/d/ '••< and poor; The p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t o f the poet i s w h i r l ' / d / i n t o f o 1 1 y and v i c e . - P a r t 1, IV, v i i I have not ma/d/e t h e w o r l / d / , and He t h a t ma/d/e i t w i l l gu i / d / e . - P a r t 1 , IV, v i i i A g a i n , as s u g g e s t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h e p o e t , i n t h e use o f con -s o n a n c e , seems d e l i b e r a t e l y t o b r i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o i n t e r n a l r h y t h m s , where t h e I'6/ sounds g i v e a r h e t o r i c a l w e i g h t as w e l l as a l y r i c a l q u a l i t y t o the l i n e s . Tennyson had a model f o r such r h e t o r i c i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y i n M i l t o n ; to quote one c r i t i c : . . . i n M i l t o n ( t h e r e i s ) an u n o b t r u s i v e b e g i n n i n g f o l l o w e d by a s t r o n g c o n s o n a n t a l f i n a l e — c r e s c e n d o . The M i l t o n i c f o r m u l a i s r e p r e s e n t e d by such words as e a r t h , arms, Heav'ns, wor1d, r o w l ' d , b u r n t . . . .5 However, t h e consonant c l u s t e r s which a r e b e i n g remarked i n t h e d e s c r i -t i o n s both o f M i l t o n and o f Tennyson cannot be d i s c u s s e d out o f c o n t e x t : they must be r e a l i z e d i n t h e i r own e n v i r o n m e n t s — t h e p o e t r y — b e f o r e they may p r o p e r l y be d i s c u s s e d . Tennyson's / d / c l u s t e r s , f o r example, f r e q u e n t l y become s e p a r a t e d by a n d , a d e v i c e which s e r v e s t o de-emphasize, f o r the r e a d e r , t h e " s p e c i a l m a s s i v e n e s s o f the c o n s o n a n t s : t h e s e /d/ c l u s t e r s i n v o l v e t h e same r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , IJJ , Im/ , / nf , IT] , t h a t have a l r e a d y 5. A n t s Oras , "Some P a r a 1 l e l s and C o n t r a s t s i n the H a n d l i n g o f Sound", Essays on t h e Language o f L i t e r a t u r e , e ds. Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n (Bos ton , 1967) , pp. 19-32. 6. I b i d , p. 20. 33. been remarked upon as t h e dominant ones o f s e c t i o n "A" o f Maud. F i r s t , t h e r h e t o r i c a l ajnd, a n d , s e c o n d , t h e r e s o n a n t consonants b e f o r e Id/, s e r v e , once a g a i n , t o . l e n g t h e n t h e vowel sound. For example: An/d/ out he w a l k ' d when the wi n/d/ 1 i k e a broken wor1/d/i nq wa i 1 ' / d / , - P a r t 1 , I , i i i And t h e f l y i n g go 1d o f the ru i n'd woodlands... - P a r t 1 , I , i i i When t h e poor a r e h o v e l 1'd and h u s t l e d t o g e t h e r , - P a r t 1 , I , i x To p e s t l e a po i son'd p o i s o n beh i nd h i s c r i m s o n 1 i grits . - P a r t 1 , I , x i On a h o r r o r o f s h a t t e r ' d 1imbs and a w r e t c h e d  swi n d l e r ' s 1i e? - P a r t 1 , I , x i v In summary o f the c u r r e n t c h a p t e r , t h e n , Tennyson has employed f o u r s i g n i f i c a n t sounds i n the o p e n i n g l i n e s o f Maud. These i n c l u d e : ( l ) a gen-e r a l a s s o nance o f /w/ pr o s o d y and I'__// pro s o d y v o w e l s , V o w / and / ey/; (2) a g e n e r a l consonance o f r e s o n a n t sounds, o f which 1/4y/1 appears p r o m i n e n t l y , and I rl p l u s an Ihl p r o s o d y appears s i g n i f i c a n t l y ; (3) a s p e c i f i c conson-ance o f Is/, I si and Idl s o u n d s , and (k) a s t r i k i n g r e p e t i t i o n o f t e r m i n a l Id/ s y l l a b l e s . These sounds which have been d e s c r i b e d as t h e dominant ones i n t h e l o n g , expos i'tory s t a n z a s of. Maud's i n t r o d u c t i o n a r e the dominant ones a l s o , o f i t s c o n c l u d i n g l i n e , as a s i m p l e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h a t l i n e w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : Y/uw/ have but f e d on t h e r/ow/ses and . 1/ey/n i n the l / 4 y / l / i y / s o f 1/ay/fe T h i s l i n e appears t o have been t h e r e s o l u t i o n f o r Tennyson o f t h e "A" s e c t i o n , f o r he t u r n s a t t h i s p o i n t t o the t h r e e - b e a t l y r i c o f t h e m i d d l e s e c t i o n o f the poem. The two l i t e r a r y s y m b o l s , t h e " r o s e " and t h e " l i l y " , 34. which bear t h e s e m a n t i c meanings o f t h e poem, bear a l s o t h e major vowel and consonant sounds o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p between theme and sound i n p o e t r y has been p o i n t e d t o b e f o r e by l i n g u i s t s , a good example b e i n g James J . Lynch's d e s c r i p t i o n o f John K e a t s ' "On F i r s t L o o k i n g i n t o Chapman's Homer." In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f sounds i n t h i s s o n n e t , Lynch found t h e phonemes/s, /ay/ , /]_/-, I' aj , / n / , / xj t o be the dominant, d i s t i n c t i v e u n i t s o f sound. These phonemes, o f c o u r s e , p r o v i d e t h e word / s a y l a n t / , s i 1ent, which i s t h e key word i n t h e s o n n e t . Lynch g e n e r a l i z e s from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f sounds i n the poem: .•...we can see t h a t the word we found to occupy such an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n f o r numerous r e a s o n s , which i n f a c t sums up t h e theme o f t h e s o n n e t , a l s o sums up i t s dominant sound s t r u c t u r e . The poet's " s i x t h s e n s e " , whether o p e r a t i n g c o n s c i o u s l y , o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y , l e d him t o consummate h i s poem not o n l y i n terms a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s meaning, but a l s o i n terms which c l i m a x t h e w o r k i n g s o f the l y r i c a l f a c u l t y on i t s most b a s i c l e v e l , sound.7 Lynch's s t a t e m e n t s a r e m e t a p h o r i c , f o r , a f t e r w o r k i n g w i t h a l l t h e s k i l l o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l l i n g u i s t who knows h i s t o o l s , Lynch i m p l i e s o f h i s a n a l y s i s t h a t i t has no u l t i m a t e v a l u e i n . t h e whole c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e poem. The poem, he s t a t e s , i s something "consummated." I t h i n k t h a t he has been l e d away from the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s f i n d i n g s by h i s s u b s c r i p t i o n t o t h e myth o f p o e t r y - m a k i n g which has been p e r s i s t e n t i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e : t h a t i s , t h a t the poet has a s p e c i a l d i v i n i t y , r a t h e r than a s p e c i a l m o r t a l i t y . Had Lynch sought h i s d e f i n i t i o n from h i s own p r o c e s s e s o f d e s c r i p t i o n , he would perhaps have g e n e r a l i z e d " i d e a t i o n " i n s t e a d o f "consummation", and he would have r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n d e s c r i b i n g K e a t s ' "Homer" as a p o e t i c p r o c e s s , he had been d e f i n i n g what i s , i n f a c t , t h e p o e t i c process" i n t h e language. K e a t s ' " s i l e n t " may have begun w i t h 7. James J . L y n c h , "The T o n a l i t y o f L y r i c P o e t r y : An Experiment i n Method", Word, IX ( 1 9 5 3 ) , P P 211-224. the i d e a , o r c o n c e p t , o f a s o l i t u d e which can be r e c o g n i z e d and s h a r e d by us a l l , and which f o r Keats becomes a l i n g u a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f a " f u g i t i v e o f l a s h " o f i n t e g r a t e d human e x p e r i e n c e . The poem may have begun w i t h t h e i d e a , b u t , much more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h t h e ide a o c c u r r i n g on 1y when i t  had been l i n g u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . A s i m i l a r i n d u c t i o n might be made from the "A" s e c t i o n o f Tennyson's Maud. Tennyson's sound p a r a p h r a s e o f " r o s e " and " l i l y " t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c t i o n may e v i d e n c e not o n l y the c o n s c i o u s poet a t work a t a c r a f t as s k i l l e d as t h e l i n g u i s t s ' , but a l s o a l i n g u a l " i d e a t i o n " f o r t h e poem which began w i t h t h e sound u n i t s , r o ses and 1 i 1 i e s . Such a c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between sound and theme as i s e v i d e n c e d i n s e c t i o n "A" o f Maud r e q u i r e s a n a l y s i s and e x p l a n a t i o n , and s h o u l d not be d i s m i s s e d as c o i n c i d e n c e , o r m i s t e d o v e r w i t h s u g g e s t i o n s o f such i n t a n g i b l e s as " s i x t h s e n s e " o r "consummation." I t i s worth c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the poet began w i t h t h e con-c e p t i o n s , o r i d e a s , r o s e s and 1 i 1 i e s , a l r e a d y l i n g u a l l y e x p r e s s e d as gen-e r a l i z a t i o n s o f a human e x p e r i e n c e , ^ and wr o t e from t h e s e the expanding e x p e r i e n c e s o f the poem. C e r t a i n l y t he p r o c e s s h e r e i n o n l y p a r t i a l l y r e -v e a l e d c o n f i r m s t h e p o e t ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a t a l i n g u a l l e v e l . 8. Benjamin Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , ed. John B. C a r r o l l (Cambridge, Mass. , 1956) , p. 254. 9. L. S. V y g o t s k y , "Language and Thought: The Problem and the A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f Language, Thought and I n s t r u c t i o n , ed. John P. "DeCecco (New Y o r k , 1967), p. 5». 3 6 . CHAPTER I I I The most complex s e c t i o n o f Tennyson's Maud i s P a r t "B", which i n -c l u d e s t h e 118 s t a n z a s c o n s i d e r e d f o r purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e m i d d l e poem. In t h e s e s t a n z a s Tennyson v a r i e s h i s "beat"^ among two, t h r e e , f o u r and f i v e - b e a t l i n e s , and he v a r i e s h i s s t a n z a l e n g t h s from two l i n e s ( t h e r e a r e t h r e e rhyming couplets)', t o 3 5 l i n e s . No two c o n s e c u t i v e s t a n z a s , ex-c e p t f o u r " s e t " l y r i c s , have the same number o f l i n e s t h r o u g h o u t "B" s e c t i o n . The e c l e c t i c i s m o f v e r s e t e c h n i q u e s which Tennyson uses i n t h e s e s t a n z a s <is n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t e d i n h i s rhyme schemes, which v a r y from rhyming c o u p l e t t o a rhymed, but s e e m i n g l y u n o r d e r e d p a t t e r n o f l i n e s i n th e s e c t i o n ' s l o n g e s t s t a n z a , P a r t 1 1 , s t a n z a 1 , which b e g i n s : "'The f a u l t was mine, t h e f a u l t was m i n e 1 . . . . " There a r e , however, f o u r e x t e n d e d l y r i c passages i n "B" s e c t i o n which have, i n c o n t r a s t t o the i r r e g u l a r rhythm schemes o f the major p a r t o f t h i s m i d = s e c t i o n o f Maud, a s t a b l e rhyme, " b e a t " and s t a n z a l e n g t h . These f o u r a r e t h e passages which b e g i n : ( l ) D i d I hear i t h a l f i n a doze:/ Long s i n c e , I know not where?/ D i d I dream i t an hour ago,/ When a s l e e p i n t h i s a r m - c h a i r ? / ( P a r t 1 , V I I , i ) a n d , (2 ) B i r d s i n t h e h i g h H a l l - g a r d e n / When t w i l i g h t was f a l l i n g , / Maud, Maud, Maud,/ Maud,/ They were c r y i n g and c a l l i n g . / ( P a r t 1 , X I I , i ) a n d , (3) Go n o t , happy day,/ From t h e s h i n i n g f i e l d s , / Go n o t , happy day,/ T i l l t he maiden y i e l d s . / ; ( P a r t 1 , X V I l ) ; a nd, f i n a l l y , (k) Come i n t o t he g a r d e n , Maud, ( P a r t 1 , X X I l ) e t c . These f o u r " s e t " l y r i c s s e r v e as c o n t r a s t t o the g r e a t e r b u l k o f "B" 1 . The t e r m : " b e a t " i s used t o s i g n i f y t h e a u t h o r ' s r e l i a n c e upon a rhythm o f s t r e s s e d sounds t o be h e a r d i n t h e poem, and not upon a meter o f a c c e p t e d sounds t o be imposed upon the- poem. A f u l l d i s c u s s i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h p o e t i c meter i s g i v e n i n Seymour Chatman, A Theory o f Meter ('s Gravenhage, 1 9 5 6 ) and i n T. S. Omond, A Study . o f Meter (London" 1 9 0 3 ) .. 3 7 . s e c t i o n s t a n z a s , where t h e rhythms and rhymes a r e i r r e g u l a r . However, r e p e a t e d s c a n n i n g o f t h e s e more s t a b l e , l i n e s , a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r s t a n -zas o f "B", r e v e a l s a c e r t a i n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n t h e whole o f t h i s long i n n e r passage o f Maud. The r e a d e r senses i n t u i t i v e l y t h a t ( l ) a t h r e e -beat l i n e p r e d o m i n a t e s ; (2) a rhyme p a t t e r n e x i s t s i n r e p e a t e d vowel assonances a t t h e l i n e ends; and (3) t h e s t a n z a s depend e n t i r e l y upon th e l i n e - e n d a s s o n a n c e s , and not upon i n t e r n a l l i n e rhythms. A t e s t i n g o f h i s i n t u i t i o n s demonstrates t h e i r v a l i d i t y . For example, 57 o f t h e 118 s t a n z a s (or a l m o s t 50% o f t h e t o t a l ) have dominant t h r e e - b e a t rhythms; 7 more have a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h r e e - b e a t and f o u r - b e a t l i n e s . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n z a s , 20 have a dominant f o u r - b e a t rhythm, w i t h some t h r e e - b e a t l i n e s i n t e r s p e r s e d , as f o r example: / / / / For a raven e v e r c r o a k s , a t my s i d e , / / / Keep watch and ward, keep watch and ward, / / / Or thou w i l t p r o v e t h e i r t o o l . / / / Yea t o o , m y s e l f from m y s e l f I g u a r d , / / / / For o f t e n a man's own a n g r y p r i d e / / / Is cap and b e l l s f o r a f o o l . - P a r t 1 , VI , v i i l n t h e s e l i n e s , t h e t h i r d and s i x t h l i n e s a r e rhymed, and both s h a r e i n a t h r e e - b e a t rhythm. Thus w h i l e t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r l i n e s a r e f o u r - b e a t o n e s , i t i s t h e s h o r t e r beat which t h e r e a d e r c o n s c i o u s l y r e t a i n s . A n o t h e r example o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i t h rhythm i s : / / / / I s a i d t o the l i l y , 'There i s but one / / / W i t h whom she has h e a r t t o be gay. / / / / When w i l l t h e dancers l e a v e her a l o n e ? / / / She i s weary o f dance and p l a y . 1 / / / / Now h a l f t o t h e s e t t i n g moon a r e gone, / / / And h a l f t o t h e r i s i n g day: / / / Low on the sand and l o u d on t h e s t o n e / /' / The l a s t wheel echoes, away. - P a r t 1 , XXII , i v These l i n e s a r e from s t a n z a f o u r o f "Come i n t o t he g a r d e n , Maud", which v a r i e s i t s e l e v e n s t a n z a s v e r y l i t t l e : f o r example, seven s t a n z a s have an o p e n i n g f o u r - b e a t l i n e , and t h e r e m a i n i n g s t a n z a s have an o p e n i n g t h r e e - b e a t l i n e . The rhythms a r e i n o t h e r ways p r e d i c t a b l e and the rhymes a r e o r d e r e d . Repeated s c a n n i n g s o f "B" s e c t i o n v e r s e s d e m o n s t r a t e what the two ex-amples s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t a t h r e e - b e a t rhythm speaks i n s i s t e n t l y from wi t h i n t h e 1i nes . The r e a d e r ' s o t h e r i n t u i t i o n , which i s t h a t the l i n e - e n d assonances p r o v i d e "B" s e c t i o n ' s i m p o r t a n t rhyme p a t t e r n s , i s equa11y v a 1 i d . The s t a n z a s do not f o l l o w c o n s i s t e n t rhyme p a t t e r n s : i n s t e a d t h e y r e l y upon r e p e t i t i o n o f a s i n g l e vowel s y l l a b l e , sometimes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a complementary sound s y l l a b l e , t o g i v e a k i n d o f sound tone t o the whole. For example, i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s , t he /w/ pro s o d y i s imbedded i n the l i n e - e n d a s s o n a n c e : Perhaps t h e s m i l e and t e n d e r t/ow/ne Came o u t o f her p i t y i n g womanh/uw/d, For am I n o t , am I n o t , h e r e al/ow/ne So many a summer s i n c e she d i e d , My mother, who was so g e n t l e and g/uw/d? L i v i n g a l o n e i n an empty h/aw/se, Here h a l f - h i d i n the glea m i n g w/uw/d, Where I hear t h e dead a t midday m/ow/n, And t h e s h r i e k i n g rush o f the w a i n s c o t m/aw/se, And my own sad name i n c o r n e r s c r i e d , When the s h i v e r o f d a n c i n g leaves i s thr/ow/n About i t s e c h o i n g chambers w i d e , T i l l a morbid h a t e and h o r r o r have gr/ow/n Of a w o r l d i n which I have h a r d l y m i x t , And a morbid e a t i n g l i c h e n f i x t On a h e a r t h a ; l f - t u r n ' d t o st/ow/ne. - P a r t 1 , VI , v i i i The h i g h , f r o n t v o w e l , / a y / ,.wh i c h i s a common /y/ p r o s o d y s y l l a b l e i n t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n of, Maud, i s imbedded i n the l i n e - e n d assonance o f th i s s t a n z a : S i c k , am I s i c k o f a j e a l o u s dread? Was not one o f t h e two a t her s/ay/de T h i s new-made l o r d , whose s p l e n d o u r p l u c k s The s l a v i s h hat from the v i l l a g e r ' s head? Whose o l d g r a n d f a t h e r has l a t e l y d/ay/d, Gone t o a b l a c k e r p i t , f o r whom Grimy nakedness d r a g g i n g h i s t r u c k s And l a y i n g h i s trams i n a p o i s o n ' d gloom Wrought, t i l l he c r e p t from.a g u t t e d m/ay/ne Master o f h a l f a s e r v i l e s h / a y / r e , And l e f t h i s c o a l a l l t u r n ' d i n t o g o l d To a g r a n d s o n , f i r s t o f h i s n o b l e 1/ay/ne, R i c h i n t h e g r a c e a l l women d e s / a y / r e , S t r o n g i n the power t h a t a l l men a d o r e , And simper and s e t t h e i r v o i c e s l o w e r , And s o f t e n as i f t o a g i r l , and h o l d A w e - s t r i c k e n b r e a t h s a t a work d i v / a y / n e , S e e i n g h i s gewgaw c a s t l e s h / a y / n e , New as h i s t i t l e , b u i l t l a s t y e a r , 40. There amid p e r k y l a r c h e s and p/ay/ne, And o v e r the s u l l e n - p u r p l e moor (Look a t i t ) p r i c k i n g a cockney e a r . - P a r t 1 , X, i A l e s s common vowel s y l l a b l e - - t h e one heard i n , fe11 , where t h e f o l l o w -ing / _ ] / s e r v e s t o draw out t h e vowel r e s o n a n c e , as remarked i n c h a p t e r two i n the more common f i l l , h i l l , ch i1 1 , e t c . - - i s g i v e n prominence i n t h i s s t a n z a : Is t h a t e n c hanted moan o n l y the swel1 Of the long waves t h a t r o l l i n yonder bay? And h a r k the c l o c k w i t h i n , t h e s i l v e r kne11 Of t w e l v e sweet hours t h a t p a s t i n b r i d a l w h i t e , And d i e d t o l i v e , long as my p u l s e s p l a y ; But now by t h i s my l o v e has c l o s e d her s i g h t And g i v e n f a l s e death her hand, and s t o l ' n away To dreamful wastes where f o o t l e s s f a n c i e s dwel1 Among the fragments o f the g o l d e n day. May n o t h i n g t h e r e her maiden g r a c e a f f r i g h t ! Dear h e a r t , I f e e l w i t h t hee the drowsy, s p e l 1 . My b r i d e t o be, my evermore d e l i g h t , My own h e a r t ' s h e a r t and ownest own, f a r e w e l 1 . I t i s but f o r a l i t t l e s pace I go: And yemeanwhile f a r o v e r moor and f e l 1 Beat to the n o i s e l e s s music o f the n i g h t ! Has our whole e a r t h gone n e a r e r t o t h e glow Of your s o f t s p l e n d o u r s t h a t you l o o k so b r i g h t ? J_ have c l i m b ' d n e a r e r out o f l o n e l y Hel1 B e a t , happy s t a r s , t i m i n g w i t h t h i n g s below, Beat w i t h my h e a r t more b l e s t than h e a r t can t e l 1 , B l e s t , but f o r some da r k u n d e r c u r r e n t woe That seems t o d r a w — b u t i t s h a l l not be s o : Let a l l be w e l 1 , be w e l 1 . - P a r t 1, XVI I I , v i i i Each s t a n z a o f Maud's "B" s e c t i o n has imbedded i n i t one vowel s y l l -a b l e sound which draws t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n q u i t e away from the l i n e a r d e v i c e s . T h i s vowel s y l l a b l e , which i s g i v e n prominence because o f i t s end p o s i t i o n i n the t h r e e - b e a t and f o u r - b e a t l i n e s , may be echoes i n t e r n a l l y i n i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s o f the s t a n z a . However, the i n t e r n a l echoes have none o f t h e sound s i g n i f i c a n c e s , nor r h e t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f the s y l l a b l e r e p e t i t i o n s w i t h i n the l i n e s o f s e c t i o n "A." In t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n , 4 1 . r e p e t i t i o n o f consonants and r e p e t i t i o n o f vowel s y l l a b l e s a t t h e h a l f -p o i n t o f t h e l i n e a c c e n t e d p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n s — b o t h o f s y n t a x . a n d sound. The p a t t e r n o f sound prominences i n s e c t i o n "B" o f Maud has an e n t i r e -l y d i f f e r e n t l o g i c from t h a t o f t h e p a t t e r n o f sounds i n "A." In "A", which f e a t u r e d t h e s i x - b e a t l i n e , t h e r e a d e r was d i r e c t e d t o the i n t e r n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h a t L i n e : h i s i n t e r e s t i n t h e v e r s e s t r u c t u r e was a r h e t o r i c a l one, f o r i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n them s t r o n g and s t a b l e p a r a l l e l s , i n sound, i n s y n t a x , i n " b e a t . " The m i d - p o i n t o f t h e l i n e became, t h e n , t h e f u l c r u m upon which the l i n e ' s b a l a n c e depended. On t h e o t h e r hand, i n "B" s e c t i o n , where the l i n e s a r e , on t h e a v e r a g e , o n l y h a l f t h e l e n g t h o f t h o s e i n "A", what was i n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n an i n t e r n a l d e v i c e , becomes i n the m i d - s e c t i o n o f the poem a rhyme d e v i c e . P a r a l l e l i s m o f sounds i n each l i n e i s no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t : i n s t e a d , the imbedding o f i n d i v i d u a l sounds w i t h i n whole s t a n z a s i s i m p o r t a n t . When he reads the "B" s e c t i o n o f Maud t h e r e a d e r c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i -c u l a t e s t h e sound a t the l i n e - e n d s ; i n "A" s e c t i o n , t h e r e a d e r j u s t as c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e s t h e sounds a t m i d - l i n e , but always w i t h t h e s y n t a c t i c p e r m i s s i o n o f a p u n c t u a t i o n mark, o r a c o n j u n c t i o n . The r e a d e r o f "B" must read f i r s t f o r sound; the r e a d e r o f "A", f o r r h e t o r i c . The r e a d e r r e c o g n i z e s i n "A" and "B" a d i s t i n c t i o n i n the l o g i c o f t h e l i n g u a l p r o c e s s e s — i n "A" t h e t e c h n i q u e i s n a r r a t i v e and r h e t o r i c a l , w hich he may j u d g e p r o s a i c ; i n "B" t h e t e c h n i q u e i s l y r i c a l and a c o u s t i c , which he may j u d g e p o e t i c . I f , t h e n , t h e i n n e r s t a n z a s o f Tennyson's Maud a r e s t a n z a s o f sound r a t h e r than r h e t o r i c , what a r e t h e dominant sounds o f t h e s e l y r i c pages pa s s a g e s ? A g a i n , as i n "A" s e c t i o n , the dominant sounds are< the r e s o n a n t o n e s , a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e v o w e l s . Of t h e s e c t i o n ' s 1058 l i n e s , o n l y 219 have p o l y s y l l a b i c rhyme words; and 839 have m o n o s y l l a b i c rhyme w o r d s , 42. where the emphasis must be on the vowel s y l l a b l e . A t o t a l 8 8 7 l i n e s have rhymes o f " l o n g " vowel s y l l a b l e s , t h a t i s s y l l a b l e s o f /w/ p r o s o d y and /y/ p r o s o d y v o w e l s , o r s y l l a b l e s o f a vowel p l u s a r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t , l.\J, /m/, / n / , / r / , /w/, /y/. The " l o n g " vowel thus has prominence i n 8 3 % o f th e l i n e rhymes o r a s s o n a n c e s . However, where t h e /w/ p r o s o d y sound dominated the l o n g e r l i n e s o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n , i t s i m p o r t a n c e i s not so s i g n i f i c a n t i n "B." The /y/ p r o s o d y v o w e l s , o r t h e h i g h , f r o n t v o w e l s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e /-fy/ vowels o f . f i 1 1 , h i l l , ch i 1 d r e n , e t c . , appear i n 486 l i n e s , w h i l e /w/ p r o s o d y sounds appear i n o n l y 173 l i n e s . (The r e m a i n i n g " l o n g " vowel rhymes a r e c o n j u n c t i o n s o f " s h o r t " vowels w i t h r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , as d w e l 1 , H e i 1 , hand, l a n d , e t c . ) Examples o f the h i g h f r o n t vowels used as l i n e - e n d assonances a r e found i n t h e s e s t a n z a s : What, has he found my j e w e l o u t ? For one o f t h e two t h a t rode a t her s/a.y/de Bound f o r t h e H a l l I am s u r e was h / i y / : Bound f o r t h e H a l l , . a n d I t h i n k f o r a br/ay/de B l i t h e would her b r o t h e r ' s a c c e p t a n c e b / i y / . Maud c o u l d be g r a c i o u s t o o , no d o u b t , To a l o r d , a c a p t a i n , a padded s h / e y / p e , A bought c o m m i s s i o n , a waxen f / e y / c e , A r a b b i t mouth t h a t i s ever ag/ey/pe--Bought? What i s i t he cannot b/ay/? And t h e r e f o r e s p l e n e t i c , p e r s o n a l , b / e y / s e , S i c k , s i c k t o t h e h e a r t o f l i f e , am/ay/. - P a r t 1 , X, i i Go n o t , happy d/ey/, From the s h i n i n g f / i y / 1 d s , Go "not, happy d/ey/, T i l l t h e maiden y / i y / 1 d s . Rosy i s t h e West, Rosy i s t h e S o u t h , Roses a r e her c h / i y / k s , And a r o s e her mouth... - P a r t 1 , XVII T h i s lump o f e a r t h has l e f t h i s e s t / e y / t e The l i g h t e r by t h e l o s s o f h i s w/ey/ght; And so t h a t he f i n d what he went to s / i y / k , And f u l s o m e P l e a s u r e c l o g him, and drown His h e a r t i n t h e g r o s s mud-honey o f town, He may s t a y f o r a y e a r who has gone f o r a w / i y / k : But t h i s i s t h e day when I must s p / i y / k , And 1 see my Oread coming down, 0 t h i s i s t h e d/ey/1 0, b e a u t i f u l c r e a t u r e , what am /ay/? That I d are to l o o k her w/ey/; T h i n k I may h o l d dominion s w / i y / t , . . . . I know i t t h e one b r i g h t t h i n g t o s/ey/ve My y e t young l i f e i n t h e w i l d s o f T/ay/me, Perhaps from madness, perhaps from cr/ay/me, Perhaps from a s e l f i s h g r / e y / v e . - P a r t 1 , XVI , i The s l e n d e r a c a c i a would not sh/ey/ke One long m i l k - b l o o m on t h e t r / i y / ; The w h i t e l a k e - b l o s s o m f e l l i n t o t h e 1/ey/ke, As t h e p i m p e r n e l dozed on t h e 1 / i y / ; But t h e r o s e was awake a l l n i g h t f o r your s / e y / k e , Knowing your p r o m i s e t o m/iy/; The l i l i e s and r o s e s were a l l aw/ey/ke, They s i g h ' d f o r t h e dawn and t h / i y / . - P a r t 1, XXII , v i i i There has f a l l e n a s p l e n d i d t / i y / r From t h e p a s s i o n - f l o w e r a t t h e g / e y / t e . She i s c o ming, my dove, my d / i y / r ; She i s c o ming, my l i f e , my f / e y / t e ; The red r o s e c r i e s , 'She i s n e a r , she i s n / i y / r ; ' And t h e w h i t e r o s e weeps, 'She i s 1 / e y / t e ; 1 The l a r k s p u r l i s t e n s , 'I h e a r , I h / i y / r ; ' And t h e l i l y w h i s p e r s , 'I w/ey/t. 1 - P a r t 1 , XXII , x I t leads me f o r t h a t / i y / v e n i n g , I t l i g h t l y winds and s t / i y / I s , In a c o l d w h i t e robe b e f o r e m / iy/, When a l l my s p i r i t r / i y / l s A t t h e s h o u t s , t h e leagues o f 1/ay/ghts, And t h e r o a r i n g o f t h e w h / i y / l s . P a r t 2 , IV, i v T h r o 1 t h e hubbub o f t h e market 1 s t e a l , a wasted f r / e y / m e , I t c r o s s e s h e r e , i t c r o s s e s t h e r e , T h r o ' a l l t h a t crowd c o n f u s e d and l o u d The shadow s t i l l t h e s/ey/me; And on my heavy / a y / l i d s My a n g u i s h hangs l i k e sh/ey/me. - P a r t 2 , IV, x But t h i s imbedding o f t h e sounds o f t h e " l o n g " vowels and r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , a f e a t u r e both o f "A" and "B", meets i n "B" w i t h a c o n s i d e r a -b l e c o n f l i c t o f new consonant s o u n d s - - / t / v e r s u s /6/. The r e s o n a n t sound q u a l i t i e s o f "A" met w i t h some r e s t r a i n t , t o o , imposed by the r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s ; however, the c o n f l i c t o f sounds i n "B" o c c u r s because o f a c o u s t i c d e v i c e s w i t h /tJ and /6/ which t h e poet p r a c t i s e s t h r o u g h o u t whole s t a n z a s . Perhaps an e f f i c i e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s new consonant s y l l a b l e might b e g i n w i t h a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the dead rhyme which i s found i n J,S l i n e s o f "B" s e c t i o n , and which i s found w i t h g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y i n t h e s t a n z a s o f P a r t I I . A p a r t from i t s t h e m a t i c r o l e i n the c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a o f M a u d — t h a t i s , t h e one which b e g i n s "Dead, long dead,/Long d e a d . . . . " — the I'6/ sound, and i t s v o i c e l e s s p a r t n e r the /Xj, has a c r i t i c a l sound f u n c t i o n , t o o , i n the whole m i d - s e c t i o n o f the poem. What g i v e s i n t e n s i t y t o t h e s e c onsonant sounds in. Maud i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f A t / and / d / s y l l a b l e s i n t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s , which b e g i n w i t h t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f P a r t II — " t h e f a u l t was mine, t h e f a u l t was m i n e ! " — a n d c u l m i n a t e i n t h e "Dead, long dead" c r e s c e n d o , 25 v e r s e s l a t e r . In t h i s s t a n z a , t h e n a r r a t o r l e t s : t h e r e a d e r know f o r the f i r s t t i m e t h a t he i s i n the "mad-house", haunted by t h e shadows, g h o s t s and shapes o f h i s murderous g u i l t . Here t h e d e n t a l p l o s i v e sounds rea c h t h e i r g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y : /D/ea/d/ , lo n g dea/d/, Long /d/ea/d/! And my h e a r / t / i s a h a n d f u l o f d u s / t / , And t h e wheels go o v e r my hea/d/, And my bones a r e shaken w i t h p a i n , For i n / t / o a s h a l l o w g r a v e t h e y a r e t h r u s / t / , Only a y a r / d / beneath t h e s / t / r e e / t / , And t h e hoofs o f t h e h o r s e s b e a / t / , b e a / t / , The hoofs o f the h o r s e s b e a / t / , B e a / t / i n / t / o my s c a l p and my b r a i n , W i t h never an end / t / o t h e s/t/ream o f p a s s i n g f ee/_t/, / D / r i v i n g , h u r r y i n g , m a r r y i n g , b u r y i n g , Clamour and rumble, and r i n g i n g ' a n d c l a / t / e r , And h e r e beneath i / t / i s a l l as ba/d/, For I t h o u g h / t / the /d/ea/d/ ha/d/ peace, b u / t / i / t / i s n o / t / s o ; /T/o have no peace i n t h e g r a v e , i s t h a / t / no/1/ sa/d/? Bu/t/ up and /d/own and / t / o and f r o , Ever a b o u / t / me the /d/ea/d/ men go; And then / t / o hear a /d/ea/d/ man c h a / t / e r Is enough / t / o d r i v e one ma/d/. - P a r t 2, V, i In t h i s s t a n z a , rhymes upon dead become t r a n s f e r r e d t o i n s i s t e n t consonance o f sounds i n b e a t , s t r e e t , f e e t , then , a t m i d - s t a n z a ,the rhyme becomes c l a t t e r - c h a t t e r , a n d , f i n a l l y , s a d , mad. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p l o s i v e consonants t o t h e c l i m a c t i c l i n e s o f the l y r i c s e c t i o n o f Maud needs extended comment. In t h e s e 25 s t a n z a s o f Maud's "B" s e c t i o n t h e p l o s i v e s t a k e p r e c e d e n c e o v e r a l l s o u n d s , both vowel and c o n s o n a n t — e v e n o v e r t h e i n s i s t e n t let and / i y/ s y l l a b l e s o f dead and l a t e r o f s t r e e t , f e e t and b e a t . The / df sound now no lo n g e r s e r v e s t o l e n g t h e n the vowel s y l l a b l e as i t d i d , i n s e c t i o n "A", i n d i mm'd , madden'd , wa i 1 ' d , e t c . The Idf sound i s now a p l o s i v e one, i t s e r v e s t o draw i n s i s t e n t a t t e n t i o n t o i t s e l f , as i n dead, bad, good, e t c . But even more i m p o r t a n t than t h e /df sound i n s e c t i o n "B" i s i t s p a r t n e r Itf w h i c h , i n t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s o f t h e poem, dominates l i n e - e n d rhymes as w e l l as i n t e r n a l rhythms. Not o n l y , t h e n , does /d/ have a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t r o l e t o p l a y i n "B" s e c t i o n than i t d i d i n "A", i t a l s o t a k e s on new c o l o r a t i o n from i t s p l o s i v e c o n t r a s t , /_t /. Examples o f t h e IXj consonance i n t h e m i d d l e l y r i c s o f Maud may be drawn a g a i n from t h e 25 s t a n z a s which l e a d i n t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f i n a l c r y o f d e s p a i r , "Dead, long dead,". A c l e a r example o f t h e s t r o n g prominence o f / Xj i s g i v e n i n t h e l i n e s t h a t f o l l o w upon "0 t h a t 'twere p o s s i b l e " , c o n s i d e r e d by Tennyson c r i t i c s t o be the g e r m i n a l l i n e s f o r : M a u d : 2. Hal lam Tennyson, " N o t e s " , The Works o f Tennyson (New Y o r k , 1 9 1 3 ) > p. 9 4 2 . 46. IA_/ leads me f o r t h a / t / e v e n i n g , I A / l i g h / t / l y winds and s / t / e a l s In a c o l d whi,A/e robe b e f o r e me, When a l l my s p i r i / t / r e e l s A A / t h e shouA/s, the leagues o f l ighA/s And t h e r o a r i n g o f the w h e e l s . - P a r t 2 , IV, i v And, one s t a n z a l a t e r : / T / i s a morning pure and sweeA/, And a dewy s p l e n d o u r f a l l s On t h e 1 i / t / l e f l o w e r t h a / t / c l i n g s /T/o t h e A / u r r e / t / s and t h e w a l l s ; / ' T / i s a morning pure and sweeA/, And the l ighA/ and shadow f l e e / t / ; She i s w a l k i n g i n t h e meadow, And t h e woodland echo r i n g s ; In a momen/t/ we s h a l l mee/t/; She i s s i n g i n g i n t h e meadow, And the r i v u l e / t / a / t / her f e e / t / R i p p l e s on i n l i gh A/ and shadow /T/o the b a l l a d t h a / t / she s i n g s . - P a r t 2 , IV, v i C o n t r a s t t o t h e s t a c c a t o ' A / ' s i n the l y r i c j u s t g i v e n i s o f f e r e d by two l i n e s a t m i d - s t a n z a : "She i s w a l k i n g i n t h e meadow,/ And t h e wood-l a n d echo r i n g s ; " / . These l i n e s r e - c a p t u r e the sounds o f "A" s e c t i o n , and o f t h e o p e n i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f Maud, s t a n z a one o f s e c t i o n "B": A v o i c e by t h e c e d a r t r e e In t h e meadow under t h e H a l l ! She i s s i n g i n g an a i r t h a t i s known t o me, A p a s s i o n a t e b a l l a d g a l l a n t and gay, A m a r t i a l song l i k e a trumpet's c a l l ! S i n g i n g a l o n e i n t h e morning o f l i f e , In the happy morning o f l i f e and o f May, S i n g i n g o f men t h a t i n b a t t l e a r r a y , Ready i n h e a r t and ready i n hand, March w i t h banner and b u g l e and f i f e To the d e a t h , f o r t h e i r n a t i v e l a n d . - P a r t 1 , V, i A l t h o u g h the A / ' s have an i n t e r n a l sound f u n c t i o n i n t h e s e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f s e c t i o n "B", they have no f u n c t i o n a t a l l i n the l i n e - e n d rhymes, w h i c h , i n e v e r y c a s e but f i f e , have t h e r e s o n a n t consonants and " l o n g " vowels which have been imbedded i n a l l s t a n z a s o f Maud. I t i s when Tennyson i n t r o d u c e s t h e A / c o n s o n a n c e — w h i c h he does f o u r s t a n z a s 47. a f t e r t h e f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f M a u d — t h a t t h e l u l l i n g resonances o f t h e poem a r e d e s t r o y e d . The f i f t h s t a n z a o f "B" s e c t i o n , f o r example, g i v e s to.Maud i t s f i r s t s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t o f s o u n d s , when i t i n t r o d u c e s , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , t h e s t r e e t rhyme: Whom but Maud s h o u l d I. meet L a s t n i g h t , when t h e s u n s e t burn'd On t h e blossom'd gable-ends A t the head o f the v i l l a g e s t r e e t , Whom but Maud s h o u l d I meet? And she to u c h ' d my hand w i t h a s m i l e so sweet She made me d i v i n e amends For a c o u r t e s y not r e t u r n ' d . - P a r t 1 , V I , i i Two s t a n z a s l a t e r , a n o t h e r p a i r o f ; s t r e e t rhymes i s u s e d , f i r s t , d e c e i t and f e e t , a n d , t h e n , a s t a n z a l a t e r , c h e a t and sweet. The- rhyme s u b s i d e s a g a i n f o r f o u r s t a n z a s , o n l y t o be r e v i v e d w i t h some i n t e n s i t y i n a s t a n z a t h a t needs r e p e t i t i o n i n t h i s e s s a y : I have p l a y ' d w i t h her when a ch'hld; She remembers i t now we. meet. Ah w e l 1 , w e l 1 , wel1 , I may be b e g u i l e d By some c o q u e t t i s h d e c e i t . Y e t , i f she were not a c h e a t , I f Maud were a l l t h a t she seem'd, And her s m i l e had a l l t h a t I dream'd, Then the w o r l d were not so b i t t e r But a s m i l e cou1d make i t sweet. - P a r t 1 , VI , x What makes t h i s v e r s e s i g n i f i c a n t i s the c o n t r a s t o f the,meet, d e c e i t , c h e a t sounds w i t h t h e l o n g e r vowel resonance i n s eem'd, dream'd , o r i n ch i 1 d , bequ i 1 e d . These l a t t e r rhymes, once a g a i n , r e c a p t u r e t he " l o n g " v o w e l s , t he 1 i q u i d - 1 a b i a 1 c o n s o n a n t s , and t h e re s o n a n t t e r m i n a l /6/ s y l l a b l e s which were a l l f e a t u r e s o f "A" s e c t i o n . The s t r o n g con-sonant v a l u e o f t h e I xj , g i v e n emphasis by the b i t t e r , which i s t h e odd l i n e i n t h i s n i n e - l i n e s t a n z a , i s , however, a d o m i n a t i n g sound i n t h e whole v e r s e . There a r e o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f the s t r e e t , s w e e t , c h e a t rhymes i n t h e e a r l i e r s t a n z a s o f '.'B" s e c t i o n , but i t i s i n t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s t h a t 48. t h e f t / c o n s o n a n c e , o f t e n accompanied by r e p e a t e d / d / ' s , reaches i n t e n -s e s t e x p r e s s i o n . Both the dead, and t h e s t r e e t rhymes f o r example, e n t e r i n t o t h e rhythm o f "Come i n t o t h e garden Maud", a t s t a n z a s e v e n , and a g a i n a t s t a n z a e l e v e n , j u s t b e f o r e the o p e n i n g o f P a r t I I , and t h e c r y , '"The f a u l t was mine, t h e f a u l t was m i n e ' — . " T h i s l a s t s t a n z a o f P a r t I r e a d s : She i s coming, my own, my sweet; Were i t ever so a i r y a t r e a d , My h e a r t would hear her and b e a t , Were i t e a r t h i n an e a r t h y bed; My du s t would hear her and b e a t , Had I l a i n f o r a c e n t u r y dead; Would s t a r t and t r e m b l e under her f e e t , And blossom i n p u r p l e and r e d . - P a r t 1 , XXI I , x i Between t h i s s t a n z a , which ends w i t h the / e / and t h e Id/ o f t h e dead rhyme, and t h e o p e n i n g s t a n z a o f P a r t I I : 'The f a u l t was mine, the f a u l t was m i n e 1 — Why am I s i t t i n g h e r e so s t u n n ' d and s t i l l , P l u c k i n g the ha r m l e s s w i l d - f l o w e r on t h e h i l l ? — I t i s t h i s g u i l t y h a n d ! — - P a r t 2 , I , i t h e r e a d e r i s a s k e d t o a c c e p t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s murder o f Maud's b r o t h e r . Tennyson's c h o i c e o f r e d /as t h e f i n a l sound o f P a r t I i s d e l i b e r a t e : i t s e r v e s t o a c c e n t t h e dead which precedes i t by two l i n e s , and which i s i t s e l f foreshadowed by bed and t r e a d . C e r t a i n l y the s t a n z a s h a r e s e q u a l l y t h e dead rhymes and t h e s t r e e t rhymes which the poet i s t o r e l y on i n h i s c1imax. I t i s t h e s e two rhymes , dead and s t r e e t , which a r e t h e dominant p l o s i v e rhymes i n "B" s e c t i o n . There a r e , i n a l l , 30 dead rhymes i n the s e c t i o n ( p l u s s i x death words) , and 50. s t r e e t rhymes. By c o n t r a s t , s t r e e t has no i n s t a n c e o f rhyme a t a l l i n s e c t i o n "A", and dead i s used o n l y once. The o p e n i n g s t a n z a o f "A" h a s , i n i t s f i n a l word, the term . d e a t h ; i t has as w e l l a s t r o n g /dl consonance t h r o u g h o u t the v e r s e . 4 9 . However, t h i s p a t t e r n i s not t y p i c a l o f "A" s e c t i o n . Thus a major sound c o n f l i c t i s o b s e r v a b l e i n Maud, f i r s t , between "A" and "B", a n d , s e c o n d , w i t h i n "B" i t s e l f . The c o n f l i c t i n "B" o c c u r s when, d e s p i t e t h e continuum o f r e s o n a n t sounds i n t h e s e c t i o n , a new, i n s i s t e n t consonant sound--/_t/ o r / d / - - i s f e l t s t r o n g l y . T h i s sound, because i t has i n t e n s i t y i n the f o u r c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s o f "B", s h o u l d not be i g n o r e d . F u r t h e r , i n h i s comparison o f "B" w i t h "A", the r e a d e r f i n d s t h a t a d i f f e r e n t l i n g u a l p r o c e s s o b t a i n s . In "B", sounds a r e imbedded i n t o t h e s t a n z a s and f u n n e l e d outward t h r o u g h t h e l i n e - e n d s ; i n "A" sounds a r e r e i t e r a t e d i n i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s and f u n n e l e d i n w a r d . The sounds o f "A" a r e p r e d i c t a b l e , l i n e - o r i e n t e d ; the sounds o f "B" a r e not p r e d i c -t a b l e and a r e not l i n e - o r i e n t e d . The r e a d e r i s c o n s c i o u s i n "B" o f an expandin g movement o f sound, outward and away from the l i n e - - a movement w i t h i n which he cannot f i n d l i n e a r b e a r i n g s . What d e - l i m i t , f i n a l l y , t h e waves o f s y l l a b l e sounds i n s e c t i o n " B " — t h a t i s the s y l l a b l e s of /VJ/ and•/y/ p r o s o d y vowels and r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s — a r e t h e p l o s i v e s o u n d s , t h e I xj and e c h o i n g /6/. These con-s o n a n t s a l o n e p r o v i d e b o u n d a r i e s o f sounds; f o r example, i n. f e e t , s t r e e t , p i t , f l i t , i t , f r a u g h t , the vowel sound i s reduced by the p l o -s i v e e f f e c t o f t h e / _ t / , and in, bed, dead, r e d , mad, s a d , t h e vowel s y l l a b l e i s g i v e n a boundary o f sound i n the / d / c o n s o n a n t . However, once a g a i n , t h e /6/ has an a m b i v a l e n t r o l e t o p l a y i n the s t a n z a s - - a s i t d i d i n "A" s e c t i o n when i t j o i n e d w i t h t h e l a b i a l s and l i q u i d s t o l e n g t h e n the vowel resonance even w h i l e i t d e f i n e d the l i m i t s o f t h e s e r e s o n a n c e s . For example, t h e consonant V d / does not have t h e 3 . A. C. Gimson, An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h (London, 1 9 6 2 ) , p. Sk. 5 0 . power o f /1/ t o reduce t h e vowel s y l l a b l e s , as t h e s e m a t c h i n g p a i r s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : , d e b t , dead; b e t , bed; s a t , s a d ; f r a u g h t , f r a u d ; b e a t , bead; f e e t , f e e d , so t h a t , once a g a i n , t h i s p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t , / d / , seems t o work a g a i n s t i t s e l f as i t f u n c t i o n s i n p a r t t o l e n g t h e n the vowel s y l l a b l e . However, i t s a m b i v a l e n c e l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y not o n l y t o l e n g t h e n t h e vowel s y l l a b l e i n t h e word, but a l s o t o d e - l i m i t t h e .vowel s y l l a b l e s i n t h e s t a n z a . So t h a t i n "B" s e c t i o n ' s c l i m a x i n g v e r s e s , w h i l e /6/ has a token f u n c t i o n w i t h t h e vowel s y l l a b l e i n i n -d i v i d u a l w o rds, i t has a major f u n c t i o n i n i t s p l o s i v e p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h A t / i n whole s t a n z a s . In t h e c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s of, Maud, t h o s e d e f i n e d as the f i r s t 25 s t a n z a s o f P a r t I I , / d / p l a y s i t s p l o s i v e r o l e , as a t y p i c a l s t a n z a w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : Is i / t / gone? my p u l s e s b e a / t / — Wha/t/ was i / t / ? a l y i n g / t / r i c k o f t h e b r a i n ? Y e / t / I t h o u g h / t / I saw her s / t / a n d , High over t h e sha/_d/owy l a n d . I / t / 'ijs gone; - P a r t 2 , 1, i i A g a i n , i n t h i s s t a n z a : B r e / t / o n , not B r i / t / o n ; h e r e L i k e a s h i p w r e c k ' / d / man on a c o a s / t / , Of a n c i e n / t / f a b l e and fear-.-. P l a g u e / d / w i t h a f l . i . / t / i n g / t / o and f r o , A / d / i s e a s e , a h a r / d / mechanic ghosAt/ - P a r t 2 , I I , v And, one a g a i n : For a / t / u m u l / t / shakes t h e c i / t / y , And I wake, my /d/ream i s f l e / d / ; In t h e s h u / d / e r i n g /d/awn, b e h o l d , W i t h o u / t / knowledge, w i t h o u / t / p i / t / y , By t h e c u r / t / a i n s o f my.be/_d/ T h a / t / a b i / d / i ng phan/t/om c o l d . - P a r t 2 , IV, v i i In summary, t h e n , the r e p e t i t i o n o f A t / and / d / sounds i n "B" s e c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . The s t r o n g i n t e n s i t i e s o f p l o s i v e s i n t h e 25 5 1 . s t a n z a s which c l i m a x the poem have c r i t i c a l e f f e c t upon the r e a d e r . When, i n accompaniment w i t h t h e p l o s i v e i n t e n s i t i e s , t h e r e a d e r f i n d s h i m s e l f r e c o r d i n g one prominent sound w o r d — a n d , s t r e e t , because o f i t s c o r o l l a r y sounds i n b e a t , f e e t , meet, must be j u d g e d such a w o r d — h e i s prone t o a s k a g a i n i f he has not found some c o r r e l a t i o n between sound and theme i n t h e poem. J u s t as i n "A" s e c t i o n he was l e d t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e key words roses and 1 i 1 i e s were r e p o s i t o r i e s , t o o , o f t h e s e c t i o n ' s major s o u n d s , so i n "B" he i s l e d to c o n c l u d e t h a t the key word, s t r e e t , w i t h i t s h i g h vowel / i y/, i t s r e s o n a n t Ivi and i t s p l o s i v e I tl i s a r e p o s i -t o r y a l s o o f t h e major sound c o m b i n a t i o n f o r "B." The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s argument t o the r e a d e r i s t o l e a d him t o c o n j e c t u r e , a g a i n , t h a t the p o e t ' s l i n g u a l e x p e r i e n c e has i n i t i a t e d w i t h some u n i t o f sound-meaning; i n "B" s e c t i o n t h e word-sound s t r e e t appears as such a u n i t . T h i s l i n g u a l p a r t i c l e / 1 ' s t r e e t , becomes, t h e n , i n Tennyson's c o n s c i o u s e x p a n s i o n o f i t s r e l a t i v e sounds and r e l a t i v e themes, t h e l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n o f Maud's i n n e r p a s s a g e s . T h i s v i e w o f the p o e t r y -making p r o c e s s in.Maud r e i n f o r c e s the i m p o r t a n c e g i v e n t o the s t a n z a s which Tennyson w r o t e i n 1837 and which b e g i n : " 0 t h a t 'twere p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r e d t o be the g e r m i n a l ones f o r Maud. For the s i g n i f i c a n t c i t y images a r e c l e a r l y o b s e r v e d i n t h i s e a r l y poem, which Tennyson has i n c l u d e d , n e a r l y i n t a c t , i n h i s c l i m a x t o Maud. In t h e view o f t h e poem here b e i n g p r o f f e r e d , s t r e e t would be the p a r a d i gm o f 1 i ngua 1 mean i ng f o r Maud's "B" s e c t i o n , j us t as roses and 1 i 1 i es wou1d be the paradigms o f meaning f o r "A" s e c t i o n . ^ In t h i s 4 . Kenneth P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet", CE, XXVI ( 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 2 8 4 . 5 . E.D.H. J o h n s o n , "The L i l y and t h e Rose: Symbo1ic Meaning in,Maud", PMLA, LXIV ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 1 2 2 2 - 1 2 2 7 . 5 2 . v i e w , a poem i s the e x p a n s i o n o f u n i t s o f sound-meaning: t h a t i s , a poem i s a s t r u c t u r e which may be d e f i n e d i n l i n e a r terms o n l y a t i t s lowest l e v e l — a n d then o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y — o f t he s y l l a b l e , o r word, o r o t h e r a c c e p t a b l e u n i t o f sound-meaning. What seems to g i v e l i n e a r l i m i t s t o t h e expanding s o u n d - c o n s c i o u s -ness o f Maud may be t h e de- 1 imi t i ng /\J 1 s and Ad/ 's o f "B" s e c t i o n , wh i c h c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e b a s i c sound imbeddings i n the o p e n i n g two s e c t i o n s . These p l o s i v e s , which s e r v e not o n l y t o g i v e b o u n d a r i e s t o the e c h o i n g resonances o f the vowel s y l l a b l e s i n "B" s e c t i o n , but which s e r v e a l s o t o emphasize the r h e t o r i c a l consonances o f t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y v e r s e s o f "A", may s e r v e as t h e l i n e a r agents i n the poem. . 6 . P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet", p. 285ll] 53. CHAPTER IV The c o n f l i c t o f sounds i n Maud, which was marked i n p a r t "B" by Tennyson's i n t r o d u c t i o n o f I tl and Idl consonances i n the c l i m a x i n g s t a n -zas o f the long poem, might be e x p e c t e d t o r e s o l v e i t s e l f i n p a r t "C." However, such r e s o l u t i o n does not t a k e p l a c e , as even a s u p e r f i c i a l r e a d i n g o f the c o n c l u s i o n would d e m o n s t r a t e . ' The poet has r e t a i n e d both t h e resonances o f t h e poem's e a r l y v e r s e s , as w e l l as the / t / ' s and /d/'s o f the "Dead, long dead" s t a n z a s . Perhaps the most c o n v e n i e n t and s u p e r -f i c i a l a n a l y s i s o f p a r t "C"'s b a s i c consonant sounds can be made by g a t h e r -ing t o g e t h e r c l e a r examples o f a l l i t e r a t i o n s , and f i n d i n g w i t h i n t h e i r community any p o s s i b l e p a t t e r n s o f consonant sounds which may o c c u r . To t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e n , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l open w i t h a l i n e - b y - l i n e s a m p l i n g o f consonant r e p e t i t i o n s i n p a r t "C": St a n z a 1 . l i n e 2 "haunts o f h o r r o r (and f e a r ) " l i n e 3 " a t l a s t f o r a l i t t l e t h i n g " l i n e 4 " f o r i t f e l l a t a ti m e (of y e a r ) " l i n e 5 " t h e f a c e o f t h e n i g h t i s f a i r " l i n e 5 "on t h e dewy downs" l i n e 6 " s h i n i n g d a f f o d i l d i e s " l i n e 10 " t o d i v i d e i n a dream" S t a n z a 2 . l i n e 1 "but a dream, y e t i t y i e l d e d a dear d e l i g h t " l i n e 3 " i n a weary w o r l d " l i n e 4 "was but a dream, y e t i t l i g h t e n ' d my d e s p a i r " l i n e 5 "when 1 thought t h a t a war w o u l d a r i s e " 1 i n e 9 .. "be a l l i n a l 1" l i n e 9 - 1 0 "and P e a c e / P i p e on her p a s t o r a l h i l l o c k " l i n e 11 "her h a r v e s t r i p e n , her h e r d i n c r e a s e " l i n e 12 " r u s t on a s l o t h f u l s h o r e " 1. I t does not t a k e p l a c e t h e m a t i c a 1 1 y , e i t h e r . See: Roy B a s l e r , Tennyson t h e P s y c h o l o g i s t " , SAQ., XLI I (1944), pp. 143 -159 . 54. l i n e 13 ...... " t h e cobweb woven a c r o s s the cannon's t h r o a t " l i n e 14 " s h a l l shake i t s t h r e a d e d t e a r s " S t a n z a 3 . l i n e 1 " r a n o n , and rumor o f b a t t l e grew" l i n e 2 " i t i s t i m e , i t i s t i m e " l i n e 3 "I c l e a v e d t o a c a u s e " 1 i n e 4 " i t i s t i m e " S t a n z a 4. l i n e 2 "a l a n d t h a t has l o s t f o r a l i t t l e her l u s t o f g o l d " l i n e 4 " h o r r i b l e , h a t e f u l , m o n s t r o u s " l i n e 5 "banner o f b a t t l e ( u n r o l l ' d l ) " l i n e 7 " c r u s h ' d i n t h e c l a s h o f t h e j a r r i n g c l a i m s " l i n e 8 "wrath s h a l l be wreak'd on a g i a n t l i a r " 1 i n e 9 ...... " 1 i g h t s h a l 1 l e a p " l i n e 10 " s h i n e i n the sudden making o f s p l e n d i d names" l i n e 13 "For t h e p e a ce, t h a t 1 deem'd no peace" 1 i n e 14 " B l a c k and B a l t i c " l i n e 15 " f o r t r e s s f l a m e s " l i n e 16 , " b l o o d - r e d blossom o f war ( w i t h a h e a r t o f f i r e ) " S t a n z a 5. l i n e 1 " l e t i t flame o r f a d e " l i n e 1 " t h e war r o l l down 1 i k e a w i n d " l i n e 2 "we have pro v e d we have h e a r t s i n a c a u s e , we a r e n o b l e s t i l l " l i n e 4 " b e t t e r t o f i g h t f o r t h e good (than t o r a i l a t t h e i l l ) " A g a i n , as i n s e c t i o n "B", t h e poet shows h i s r e l i a n c e on / j t / ' s and / d / ' s , but as the a l l i t e r a t e d fragments d e m o n s t r a t e , the i n s i s t e n t /tl sounds a r e i n "C" s e c t i o n ' s second s h o r t e s t s t a n z a , the n i n e l i n e s o f s t a n -za t h r e e . R e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p h r a s e , " i t i s t i m e " , i n t h i s v e r s e r e v i v e s t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f , "and t h e h o o f s o f the h o r s e s b e a t , b e a t / The hoofs o f t h e h o r s e s b e a t / " i n s e c t i o n "B"s c l i m a x i n g v e r s e ; o r n f , " I s i t gone What was i t . . . I t i s gone;" which o c c u r s near t h e o p e n i n g l i n e s o f the c l i m a c t i c 25 s t a n z a s o f "B." However, t h e s t r o n g p l o s i v e q u a l i t y o f the t h i r d v e r s e o f s e c t i o n "C" i s muted, i n the two o p e n i n g s t a n z a s , by s o f t e r s y l l a b l e s o f /w/, a n d , c o n s i s t e n t t o the end i n i t s a m b i v a l e n t r o l e i n the poem, by t h e p l o s i v e 16/ i n i t s v o w e l - c o n t i n u a n t r o l e . The /w/ conson-ance i s d e m o n s t r a b l e h e r e : " t h e w o r l d i n t h e coming wars"; " i n a weary 55. w o r l d " ; "war would a r i s e " , a n d , i n the f i n a l s t a n z a , " t h e war r o l l down l i k e a w i n d " , "we have p r o v e d we have h e a r t s i n a c a u s e , we a r e n o b l e s t i l l . " However, the /w/ consonance t a k e s second p l a c e i n t h e s e f i n a l s t a n z a s t o a l l i t e r a t e d /_d/'s--the f i r s t t i m e i n t h e long s t a n z a s t h a t Tennyson has r e l i e d f o r a major a l l i t e r a t i o n upon Id/ s y l l a b l e s : "on the /d/ewy /d/owns" ' V d / a f f o / d / i 1 / d / i e s " " / d / i v i / d / e i n a /d/ream" "but a /d/ream, y e t i t y i e I / d / e / d / a / d / e a r / d / e l i g h t " "but a /d/ream, y e t i t l i g h t e n ' / d / my / d / e s p a i r " Once a g a i n , i n "C", t h e /dl consonant p l a y s i t s dual r o l e i n the sound s t r u c t u r e : i t c o - o p e r a t e s i n s t a n z a s t h r e e and f o u r w i t h t h e i n -c r e a s e o f . / t / s o u n d s , as w e l l as w i t h the consonance o f /VJ , a t the same t i m e . t h a t ' i t appears i n s t a n z a s one and two i n sound p a i r i n g s w i t h long vowels and r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s . For example, i n s t a n z a t h r e e , Id/ p l a y s i t s p l o s i v e r o l e : And as months ran on and rumour o f b a t t l e grew, " I t i s t i m e , i t i s t i m e , 0 p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t " , s a i / d / I (For I cle a v e / d l t o a cause t h a t I f e l t t o be pure and t r u e ) , ' I t i s t i m e , 0 p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t and m o r b i / d / e y e , That o l d h y s t e r i c a l m o c k - / d / i s e a s e s h o u l d / d / i e . ' And I s t o o / d / on a g i a n t /d/eck and mix'/d/ my b r e a t h W i t h a l o y a l p e o p l e s h o u t i n g a b a t t l e c r y , T i l l I saw t h e d r e a r y phantom a r i s e and f l y F a r i n t o t he N o r t h , and b a t t l e , and seas o f / d / e a t h . - P a r t 3 , VI , i i i By c o n t r a s t , i n s t a n z a two, i t p l a y s i t s r e s o n a n t r o l e : An/d/ i t was but a /d/ream, y e t i t y i e l / d / e d a / d / e a r / d / e l i g h t T o h a v e l o o k ' d , t h o ' but i n a /d/ream, upon eyes so f a i r , That had been i n a weary w o r l / d / my one t h i n g b r i g h t ; An/d/ i t was but a /d/ream, y e t i t l i g h t e n ' / d / my d e s p a i r When I thought t h a t a war woul/d/ a r i s e i n d e f e n c e o f t h e r i g h t , That an i r o n t y r a n n y now s h o u l d ben/df o r c e a s e , The g l o r y o f manhoo/d/ s t a n / d / on h i s a n c i e n t h e i g h t , Nor B r i t a i n ' s one s o l e Go/d/ be t h e m i l l i o n a i r e : Nor more s h a l l commerce be a 11 i n a l l , an/d/ Peace P i p e on her p a s t o r a l h i l l o c k a l a n g u i / d / n o t e , ' Ah/d/ watch her h a r v e s t r i p e n , her h e r / d / i n c r e a s e , Nor the c a n n o n - b u l l e t r u s t on a s l o t h f u l s h o r e , An/d/ t h e cobweb woven a c r o s s t h e cannon's t h r o a t , 56. S h a l l shake i t s t h r e a d e d t e a r s i n t h e w i n / d / no more - P a r t 3, VI , i i In t h i s second s t a n z a t h e / d / appears c o n s i s t e n t l y w i t h long vowels and r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , as i n. dream, bend, and wi nd. I t s p l o s i v e q u a l i t y g i v e s way b e f o r e t h e r e s o n a t i n g s y l l a b l e s o f /d/'s immediate e n v i r o n m e n t . In s t a n z a t h r e e , on t h e o t h e r hand, /6/ i s p a i r e d f o r t h e most p a r t w i t h " s h o r t " vowels and n o n - r e s o n a n t c o n s o n a n t s , so t h a t i t f i n d s s t r o n g p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h i t s a l l y , / xj, i n t h i s s h o r t e r v e r s e . The c o n f l i c t o f r e s o n a n t and p l o s i v e s o u n d s , which was so s t r o n g l y marked i n "B" s e c t i o n , i s thus r e t a i n e d i n Maud/s c o n c l u s i o n . The c o n -f l i c t can be shown b e s t i n a c o n t r a s t o f l i n e s from s t a n z a two and s t a n z a f o u r : S t a n z a 2 S t a n z a 4 And i t was but a dream, y e t Tho 1 many a l i g h t s h a l l i t y i e l d e d a dear d e l i g h t d a r k e n , and many s h a l l weep To have l o o k ' d , t h o ' but i n For t h o s e t h a t a r e c r u s h ' d a dream, upon eyes so f a i r , i n t h e c l a s h o f j a r r i n g . That had been i n a weary w o r l d c l a i m s , my one t h i n g b r i g h t ; Yet God's j u s t w r a th s h a l l And i t was but a dream, y e t be wreak'd on a g i a n t l i a r ; i t l i g h t e n ' d my d e s p a i r In the 4th v e r s e t h e /Jk / consonants j o i n w i t h t h e / t / ' s and the /d/'s t o d e - l i m i t t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e vowels and r e s o n a n t consonants which have e x p r e s s i o n i n s t a n z a two. There a r e no /w/ a l l i t e r a t i o n s i n t h e f o u r t h s t a n z a . The use o f / ] _ / as a sound d e v i c e i n l i n e s 1 and 2 (.in t h e e x c e r p t above) and i n l i n e s 2, 8, 9 o f t h e f u l l s t a n z a i s c o n t r a s t e d by t h e / xj and IVJ consonances which a l s o o c c u r : Tho' many a l i g h / t / s h a l l d a r / k / e n , and many s h a l l weep For t h o s e t h a / t / a r e A / r u s h ' / d / i n t h e / k / l a s h o f t h e j a r r i n g /Jk/-la ims , Y e / t / God's J u s / j t / w r a t h s h a l l be wrea/k/'d on a g i a n / t / l i a r ; And many a dar/k/ness i n / t / o the l i g h / t / s h a l l l e a p , • - P a r t 3, VI , i v In l i n e 2 o f t h e s t a n z a : Of a l a n d t h a / t / has l o s / t / f o r a l i / _ t / l e her l u s / t / o f g o l d 5 7 . In s t a n z a two, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e /y/ pr o s o d y vowel / i y / w i t h the r e s o n a n t c onsonants / ] / and / m/, as w e l l as t h e non-r e s o n a n t / d / , c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f p l o s i v e sounds i n s t a n z a f o u r . Thus s t a n z a f o u r i s a m i n i a t u r e f o r t h e sound c o n t r a s t s i n "B" s e c t i o n ' s 25 c l i m a c t i c s t a n z a s , where t h e r e s o n a n t sounds o f t h e e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h e poem f e l l away b e f o r e the p l o s i v e sounds. The s t a n z a r e v e a l s t h e u n d e r l y i n g g l i d e sounds o f t h e /w/ s y l l a b l e s i n ph r a s e s l i k e : " l u s t o f g o l d " , "Not t o be t o l d " , " b a t t l e u n r o l l ' d " , a l l o f which a r e rhymed in t h i s v e r s e . But i t i s i n s i s t e n t , a t t h e same t i m e , i n i t s p l o s i v e sounds : L e / t / i / j t / g/ow/ o r s / t / a y , s/ow/ I wake /t/uw/ the h i g h e r aims - P a r t 3 , V I , i v and: H o r r i b l e , Ha/_t/eful mons/_t/rous , n o / t / /t/uw/ be / t / o w / l d - P a r t 3, VI , i v and: And n/ow/ble th/ow/gh/_t/ be f r e e r under t h e sun - P a r t 3, V I , i v There i s l i t t l e c o n f l i c t o f b a s i c sounds i n s t a n z a two, j u s t as i n the long i n t r o d u c t i o n t o M a u d — s e c t i o n " A " — t h e r e was l i t t l e c o n f l i c t . However, where-the o p e n i n g s e c t i o n o f t h e poem r e l i e d on /w/ p r o s o d y vowel s y l l a b l e s , s t a n z a two o f t h e poem's c o n c l u s i o n r e l i e s on Ay/ prosody vowel sounds. A key word i s dream, which i s used t h r e e times i n t h e s t a n -z a , and which has s t r o n g echoes i n y i e l d e d , dear , weary, d e l i g h t . A s e c o n d a r y a s s o n a n c e l i e s i n t h e rhymed words c e a s e , P e a c e , i n c r e a s e . The f i n a l s t a n z a of, Maud, t h e f i f t h . j o n e o f "C" s e c t i o n , does not r e s o l v e the p r o s o d i c c o n f l i c t s o f t h e poem: however, t h e p l o s i v e sounds a r e f o u n d now w i t h any i n t e n s i t y i n o n l y two l i n e s o f t h e s i x , t h e r e -58. ma i n i n g f o u r l i n e s r e v e a l resonances o f / y / prosody and /w/ pro s o d y s y l l a -b l e s : Let i t f l / e y / m e o r f / e y / de, and the w/ow/r r/ow/11 d/aw/n 1/ay/ke a w/ty/nd, W/iy/ have pr/uw/ved w / i y / have h e a r t s i n a c / j w / s e , w/iy/ a r e n/ow/b1e s t / t y / 1 1 , And m / a y / s e l f have aw/ey/ke/d/ as i / t / s/iy/ms /_t/uw/ the be/t/er m/ay/nd; I / t / i s . b e / t / e r / t / o f / a y / g h / t / f o r t h e g/uw/d/ than / t / o r/ey / 1 a / t / t h e / t y / 1 1 ; ^ /Ay/ have f e l t w i t h m/ay/ n / a y / t i v e l a n d , /Ay/ am /uw/ne w i t h m/ay/ k/ay/nd, /Ay/ embr/ey/ce t h e purpose o f G/ow/d, and the d/uw/m a s s / a y / g n ' d . - P a r t 3, V I , v As w e l l as t h e dominant s t r u c t u r e s o f r e s o n a n t s y l l a b l e s i n t h i s s t a n z a , s t r u c t u r e s which re-echo t he sound p a t t e r n s o f Maud's "A" s e c t i o n , t h e r e i s o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e s t a n z a a more s t a b l e rhythm, o r " b e a t " , which a l s o f i n d s p a r a l l e l i n t h e s t a n z a s o f the poem's op e n i n g s e c t i o n . . The l i n e s have a f i v e - b e a t rhythm: t h i s rhythm i s c o n s t a n t i n a l l t h e s t a n z a s o f "C" s e c t i o n . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e l o n g e r l i n e s o f t h i s s e c t i o n r e l y f r e q u e n t l y on i n t e r n a l a l l i t e r a t i o n and a s s o n a n c e , j u s t as t h e y d i d i n s e c t i o n "A." However, where i n s e c t i o n "A" t h e r e were s t r o n g i n t e r n a l rhythms o c c u r r i n g upon beat t h r e e o f t h e s i x - b e a t l i n e , i n s e c t i o n "C" t h e i n t e r n a l sound d e v i c e s a r e r a t h e r imbeddings o f s i m i l a r s y l l a b l e arrangements through c o n t i n u o u s l i n e s o f t h e who 1e s t a n z a : My m/uw/d i s changed, f o r i t f e l l a t a tim e o f year When t h e f a c e o f the n i g h t . i s f a i r on the d/uw/y d/aw/ns , And t h e s h i n i n g d a f f o d i l d i e s , and t h e C h a r i o t e e r And s t a r r y Gemini hang l i k e g l / o w / r i o u s cr/aw/ns /Ow/ver / j w / r i o n ' s g r a v e 1/ow/ d/aw/n i n t h e West - P a r t 3, V I , i Or: And i t was but a d r / i y / m , y e t y / i y / 1 d e d a d / i y / r d e l i ght To have l o o k ' d , t h o ' but i n a d r / i y / m , upon eyes so f a i r , And i t was but a d r / i y / m , . . . - P a r t 3 , VI , i i 59. Or, a g a i n , i n s y l l a b l e s o f / r _ / ' s : And watch h e / r / h a / r / v e s t / r / i p e n , h e / r / h e / r / d i n c / _ r / e a s e , No/r_/ t h e c a n n o n - b u l l e t /_r/ust on a s l o t h f u l sho/_r/e, And t h e cobweb woven a c / r / o s s the cannon's t h / j V o a t , S h a l l shake i t s t h / j V e a d e d t e a / j V s i n t h e wind no mo/r/e. - P a r t 3 , V I , i i As w e l l , t h e rhyme words a t t h e l i n e - e n d s o f s e c t i o n "C'"s s t a n z a s c a r r y t h e f i f t h c b e a t o f t h e f i v e - b e a t l i n e r h y t h m — a n d thus s i g n i f i c a n t l y emphasize e x t e r n a l sound s t r u c t u r e s . The f i n a l l i n e s of. Maud, t h e n , w h i c h a r e l e n g t h e n e d from "B" s e c t i o n ' s i n s i s t e n t t h r e e - b e a t rhythm, have s t i l l not t h e f u l l s t a t u r e o f "A"'s l i n e s , w hich i n s i s t upon r h e t o r i c a l and a c o u s t i c p a r a l l e l s i n each h a l f l i n e . . The r e a d e r ' s i n t e r e s t i s drawn i n "C" toward i n t e r n a l sound d e v i c e s , y e s , but not f o r l i n e a r r e a s o n s . He i s drawn t h e r e by t h e imbeddings o f i n d i v i d u a l sound s y l l a b l e s t h r o u g h -out s e v e r a l l i n e s . These s y l l a b l e s may r e v e r b e r a t e f o r him as o u t w a r d , e x p a n d i n g movements o f s o u n d , r a t h e r than as i n w a r d , s e t s t a t e m e n t s o f sound. T h i s movement away from t h e l i n e s t r u c t u r e - - p e r h a p s not as impor-t a n t as a s i m i l a r movement i n "B" s e c t i o n ' s s h o r t e r l y r i c , l i n e s — i s , however, l i k e "B", g i v e n some impetus i n s i g n i f i c a n t assonances o f l i n e rhymes. For example, i n s t a n z a f o u r , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g imbedding o f t h e h i g h - f r o n t v o w e l , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the /ey/ s y l l a b l e , i n the rhymes. Of t h e 16 l i n e s o f t h i s v e r s e , 11 f e a t u r e t h e /y/ p rosody s y l l a b l e ; f i v e o f t h e s e a r e rhymes o f /ey/ , which have some a s s i s t a n c e from i n t e r n a l a s s o n a n c e s , as t h e s e s e l e c t e d l i n e s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e : Let i s go o r s t / e y / , so I w/ey/ke to the h i g h e r /ey/ms - P a r t 3, VI , i v And l o v e o f a peace t h a t was f u l l o f wrongs and sh/ey/mes , H o r r i b l e , h / e y / t e f u l , m o n s t r o u s , not t o be t o l d ; And h/ey/1 once more to t h e banner o f b a t t l e u n r o 1 1 1 d ! - P a r t 3 , VI , i v 60. For t h o s e t h a t a r e c r u s h ' d i n the c l a s h o f the j a r r i ng c1/ey/ms, - P a r t 3 , V I , i v And s h i n e i n the sudden m/ey/king o f s p l e n d i d n/ey/mes , - P a r t 3 , VI , i v And d e a t h f u l - g r i n n i n g mouths o f the f o r t r e s s f l / e y / m e s . - P a r t 3 , V I , i v A second _y_ pr o s o d y which i s imbedded i n t h i s s t a n z a i s t h e / a y / vowel o f 1 i g h t . I t o c c u r s , f o r example, i n t h e s e p h r a s e s : "And many a darkness i n t o t h e 1/ay/ght s h a l l l e a p , / And sh/ay/ne i n the sudden mak-ing o f s p l e n d i d names",/ and i n the e a r l i e r l i n e : "Tho 1 many a 1/ay/ght s h a l l d a r k e n , and many s h a l l weep/." T h i s /ay/ as s o n a n c e i s echoed i n h i q h e r , l i a r , des i r e , and f i r e , t h e l a s t t h r e e s y l l a b l e s b e i n g rhyming ones i n t h e s t a n z a . The / a y / s y l l a b l e i s , i n f a c t , t he dominant one i n the rhyme scheme o f s t a n z a s two, t h r e e and f o u r . In f i v e , i t appears a g a i n i n t h r e e out' o f s i x l i n e s , becoming v o i c e d f i n a l l y i n the l a s t vowel sound o f the poem. "I embrace t h e purpose o f God, and t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . " The dominance o f /w/ and /y/ p r o s o d i e s i n t h i s f i n a l s t a n z a o f Maud leads, n a t u r a l l y i n t o t he poem's f i n a l p h r a s e : " t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . " The p l o s i v e sounds a r e muted i n t h i s p h r a s e , f o r t h e Yd/ has a s t r o n g r e s o n -a n t q u a l i t y , both i n i t s i n i t i a l r o l e i n doom and i n i t s t e r m i n a l r o l e i n ass i g n ' d , because o f t h e resonances o f /m/, o f /uw/, o f / n / , and o f / a y / . The "doom a s s i g n ' d " , t h e l a s t s y l l a b l e s o f Maud, thus i n c o r p o r a t e s major vowel s y l l a b l e s and major consonant s y l l a b l e s o f t h e poem. E x c e p t e d , o f c o u r s e , a r e t h e p l o s i v e sounds which were so s t r o n g l y marked i n the long i n n e r s e c t i o n o f "B", and which were echoed i n t h e b r o i e f , f i v e -s t a n z a "C." A l s o e x c e p t e d i s the r e s o n a n t /_]_/ w hich was f e a t u r e d i n "A." However, the o b v i o u s sound p a i r i n g s i n t h e s e f i n a l f i v e s t a n z a s — b e t w e e n 6 1 . doom and dream; between ass i qn'd and t ime / 1 i q h t — w h e r e each o f the p a i r e d words', dream, t i m e , and 1 i q h t , i s used f o u r times i n the s h o r t "C" s e c t i o n - * g i v e s e v i d e n c e t h a t the p l o s i v e sounds o f /1/ and t h e r e s o n a n t sounds o f / _ ] / a r e s t i l l major p a t t e r n s even unto t h e f i n a l l i n e s o f the poem. When t h e s o u n d - p a i r s o f t h e f i n a l s t a n z a a r e g a t h e r e d , i t i s the h i g h , f r o n t vowel s y l l a b l e /ay/ , as i n t ime and 1 i g h t , t h a t dominates over t h e back vowel /uw/ o r /ow/ which i s f e a t u r e d i n doom o r ro11 ' d. A second dominance i s g i v e n i n the l i n e s t o a n o t h e r h i g h , f r o n t v o w e l , / i y/, as i n dream, y i e l d . Thus i t i s t h e dream, and t ime o r 1i g h t , which p l a y key sound r o l e s i n t h e s t a n z a s , a n d , because o f t h e i r appearances i n t h e c l i m a x -in g l i n e s o f t h e long poem, p l a y theme r o l e s as w e l l . These sound-theme u n i t s j o i n w i t h t h e roses and the 1 i 1 i e s and who knows? o f s e c t i o n "A", as wel1 as wi th t h e s t r e e t / beat / dead o f s e c t i o n "B", as. t h e s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t s o f the poem. A p a t t e r n i n g o f the key sound u n i t s would f i n d the f o l l o w i n g m a t r i x : x y , r o s e s / 1 i 1 i e s / w h o knows, e t c . . s t r e e t / b e a t / d e a d , e t c . doom/dream/ass i qn'd . t i me/1i ght The u n i t s o f " x " a r e t h e ones which depend w h o l l y upon r e s o n a n t c o n -s o n a n t s , whereas t h o s e o f " y " depend upon t h e p l o s i v e c o n s o n a n t s . The u n i t s o f " x " f r e q u e n t l y employ t h e /w/ pro s o d y vowel s y l l a b l e ; t h o s e o f "y" do not employ t h i s s y l l a b l e . Both " x " and " y " f e a t u r e t h e h i g h , f r o n t vowel s y l T a b l e . -However, perhaps t h e t h e m a t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s between the two g r o u p s , w h i l e l e s s a v a i l a b l e t o q u a n t i t a t i v e measurement, a r e q u a l i t a t i v e l y more i m p o r t a n t . There i s , f o r example, a marked c o n t r a s t i n the groups o f sounds — " x " d e n o t i n g t h e " p r i v a t e " symbols o f f l o w e r s and dreams, and "y" d e n o t i n g t h e " p u b l i c " symbols o f s t r e e t s and t i m e . T h i s dichotomy o f t h e " p r i v a t e " and t h e " p u b l i c " man has been a common theme i n Tennyson 6 2 . 2 c r i t i c i s m : perhaps t h i s f i r s t d i s t i n c t i o n i n the groups p o i n t s o n l y t o t h e o b v i o u s . However a second v i e w o f Tennyson i s the one i n which the p a s t o r a l p o e t i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e urban p o e t — i n Maud t h i s c o n f l i c t i s made ex-p l i c i t e x a c t l y as t h e above m a t r i x s u g g e s t s . Terms which f i t " x " group a r e meadow, ho 1 low, wood, moor, f i e l d , ch i 1 d ; . terms which f i t " y " a r e b e a t , f e e t , meet, t r e a d , c i t y , f l i t , f l e e t . A l l o f t h e s e terms a r e used r e p e a t e d -l y by Tennyson t h r o u g h o u t the poem, v a r y i n g i n i n t e n s i t y from the r e s o n a n t sounds t o t h e p l o s i v e o n e s , as the poet moves from the r u r a l scene t o t h e c i t y one. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s second t h e m a t i c c o n t r a s t i s perhaps not so o b v i o u s . S u p e r f i c i a l l y the s i g n i f i c a n c e would appear t o l i e i n t h e sugges-t i o n o f a sound symbolism i n the language: t h a t i s , i t would appear t o l i e i n t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Tennyson i s r e a l i z i n g w i t h i n h i s language sounds w h i c h imi t a t e i n some way h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . However, t h e r e i s a s e c o n d , l e s s o b v i o u s , a l t e r n a t i v e , and i t i s one which the d i s c o v e r i e s o f t h i s t h e s i s have c o n t i n u a l l y been d i r e c t e d t o w ard. T h i s a l t e r n a t i v e i s t h a t t h e poet began w i t h t h e l i n g u a l c o n c e p t i o n , perhaps wood, o r meadow, and expanded t h e sounds and t h e themes o f t h e s e i n i t i a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n t o the sounds and the themes o f the poem. For example, wood might l e a d t o wrpod 1 and , wor 1 d l i nq , womanhood , wa i 1 ' d , e t c . , and mea dow might l e a d t o me 1 low, h o i low, s wa11ow, morn i nq , May, e t c . The c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n s o f th e sound-themes might f i n a l l y s u g g e s t a sound symbolism; however, such symbolism must be a c h o i c e , f i r s t , o f t h e poet from h i s l a n g u a g e , and not n e c e s s a r i l y a n a t u r a l o c c u r r e n c e i n the body o f h i s language. The c o n f l i c t o f sounds which has been n o t e d i n Maud has a p a r a l l e l 2 . Jerome H. B u c k l e y , Tennyson t h e Growth o f a Poet ( B o s t o n , I 9 6 0 ) ; E l t o n E. S m i t h , The Two V o i c e s : A Tennyson Study ( L i n c o 1 n , Neb., 1 9 6 4 ) . 63, i n a n o t h e r major poem, w r i t t e n o v e r 60 yea r s l a t e r , by t h e American T. S. E l i o t . In "The Love Song o f J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k " i d e n t i c a l l y - s i m i l a r sound-theme p a i r i n g s a p p e a r , as may be shown, from s e l e c t e d l i n e s from each poem: . Maud It l e a ds me f o r t h a t even i ng And t h e y e l l o w vapours choke But t h e br o a d l i g h t g l a r e s and b e a t s , And t h e shadow f l i t s and f 1 e e t s And w i l l not l e t me be; And I l o a t h e t h e squares and s t r e e t s , And t h e f a c e s t h a t one meets , But up and down and t o and f r o , Ever about me the dead men go; I t i s t i m e , i t i s t i m e , '0 p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t , ' sa i d I . . . l i t i s t i m e , 0 p a s s i o n a t e h e a r t and m o r b i d e y e , Let i t go o r s t a y . . . Is i t gone? My p u l s e s beat--What was i t ? ...What i s i t ? . . . P r u f r o c k When t h e e v e n i n g i s s p r e a d o u t a g a i n s t t h e s k y For the y e l l o w smoke t h a t s l i d e s a l o n g t h e s t r e e t t h rough c e r t a i n h a l f -d e s e r t e d s t r e e t s The m u t t e r i n g r e t r e a t s To p r e p a r e a f a c e t o meet the f a c e s t h a t you meet; In t h e room t h e women come and go T a l k i n g o f M i c h e l a n g e l o . There w i l l be t i m e , t h e r e w i l l be ti m e ....There w i l l be t i m e t o murder and c r e a t e Let us go then you and I . . . Oh, do not a s k , 'What i s i t ? ' L e t us go and make our v i s i t . However, the impo r t a n c e o f such sound-theme-imagery para11 e l s must remain f o r the moment a t t h e l i t e r a r y l e v e l , f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f one poem, not w i t h p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a l l p o e t r y . That E l i o t , i n h i s e a r l y work, may have been much i n f l u e n c e d by Tennyson i s e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g from a 1 i n g u i s t i c v i e w p o i n t , t o o , but t h e e x t e n t o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e — d o e s t h e Tennyson sound-theme u n i t e x t e n d t o E l i o t ' s l a t e r poems?—must be measured b e f o r e i t can be d e f i n e d . Such measurement i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r a n o t h e r t h e s i s than t h i s p r e s e n t one. 64. CONCLUSION The sound s t r u c t u r e s i n Tennyson's Maud which have been d e s c r i b e d i n the f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n , d e f i n a b l e l i n g u a l p r o c e s s e s t o be o b s e r v e d i n t h e poem. S i n c e i t cannot be argu e d t h a t t h i s one poem, Maud, i s so unusual t h a t i t d e f i e s t he s t a n d a r d p r o c e s s e s o f p o e t r y - m a k i n g i n Eng 1 i s-h,.. t h i s t h e s i s has f u r t h e r assumed t h a t i n d e f i n i n g the l i n g u a l p r o c e s s e s o f Maud i t i s d e f i n i n g , a l s o , c e r t a i n g e n e r a l l i n g u a l p r o c e s s e s o f a 11 E n g l i s h p o e t r y . That Maud i s a u n i q u e poem may, o f c o u r s e , be a r g u e d , but i t cannot be argu e d t h a t i t i s so d e v i a n t t h a t i t does not meet t h e i d e a l which we c a l l "poem." The uniqueness o f Maud may l i e , e v e n , i n the v e r y e v i d e n c e which t h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s f o r i t s d e f i n i t i o n s o f p o e t r y : i t may l i e i n t h e po e t ' s own and p a r t i c u l a r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f c e r t a i n sounds o f t h e language. How-e v e r , s i n c e a l l E n g l i s h p o e t r y s h a r e s i n a common u n i v e r s e o f E n g l i s h s o u n d s , i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e s o f vowel s y l l a b l e s and consonant sounds by i n -d i v i d u a l p o e ts s h o u l d s e r v e o n l y t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o the body o f the language i t s e l f . For example, i n d i v i d u a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f E n g l i s h s o u n d s , p r a c t i s e d by i n d i v i d u a l p o e t s , s h o u l d s e r v e t o c a t e g o r i z e t he t o l e r a b l e , m e a n i n g f u l sound c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h e language. The u n i q u e n e s s o f a poem, t h e n , may be d e f i n e d as the i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e which a re a d e r makes t o a p a r t i c u l a r poem. H i s res p o n s e t o the m e a n i n g f u l l i n g u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n an i n d i v i d u a l poem may be examined i n a c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e poem's " u n i t s " ' o f sound-meaning, a d e s c r i -p t i o n which t h i s t h e s i s has a t t e m p t e d w i t h Tennyson's Maud. 1. Kenneth P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet", _CE, XXVI (1964-65) , p. 284. 65. But what cannot be d e f i n e d so e a s i l y — a l t h o u g h , s t r a n g e l y enough, i t , a l s o , f i n d s immediate, i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e from t h e . r e a d e r — i s t h e i d e a l w h ich we c a l l "poem." How we c o n c e i v e o f p o e t r y i s t h e q u e s t i o n which has d i r e c t e d t h e c h a p t e r s o f d e s c r i p t i o n u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s t h e s i s . U nless the d e s c r i p t i o n s may be made, now, t o p o i n t t o c e r t a i n t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u -s i o n s upon t h a t which we c a l l . " p o e m " o r " p o e t r y " , t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e t r i v i a l o n e s , and they deny t h e l i n g u a l c o n c e p t i o n s which have framed them. The d e s c r i p t i o n s do, o f c o u r s e , p o i n t t o c e r t a i n , d e f i n a b l e p a t t e r n s i n t he poem, patterns which open t o s p e c u l a t i o n c e r t a i n hypotheses not o n l y upon t h e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y , but a l s o upon the n a t u r e o f the language. What seems most s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t t h e p a t t e r n s o f p o e t i c meaning e x p l o r e d i n Maud a l l l e a d i n . a c e r t a i n g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n . They l e a d toward a d e f i n i -t i o n o f p o e t r y as t h e paradigm o f l i n g u a l meaning, t h a t i s , as t h e repo-s i t o r y o f a 11 . s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s and c o m b i n a t i o n s o f events o f the language. Such a d e f i n i t i o n o f "poem" p a r a l l e l s , f o r example, l i n g u i s t s ' d e f i n i t i o n o f "phoneme", which i s taken to be t h e r e p o s i t o r y f o r s i g n i f i -c a n t sound e v e n t s o f t h e language. In t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s what i s i n t e r e s t -in g i s t h a t n e i t h e r poem nor phoneme i s an o b j e c t o f i t s e l f , and y e t each s e r v e s as i d e a t i o n , not j u s t f o r sums o f l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but f o r i n f i n i t e d i m e n s i o n s o f p a t t e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s s u g g e s t i v e o f Benjamin Whorf's "word o f h y p e r - s p a c e , o f h i g h e r d i m e n s i o n s . " However, w h i l e "poem" i s l i n g u a l i d e a t i o n , i t i s , because i t can be both a l i n g u a l event i t s e l f and a t the same ti m e s u g g e s t i n f i n i t e dimen-s i o n s i n i t s l i n g u a l p a t t e r n s , something o t h e r than t h e sum o f a l l i t s 2. L. S. V y g o t s k y , "Language and Thought, The Problem and the A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f Language, Thought and I n s t r u c t i o n , ed. John P. DeCecco (New Y o r k , 1967), pp. 55-60. 3. Benjamin Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , ed. John B. C a r r o l l (Cambridge, Mass., 1956), p. 248. • 6 6 . known p a r t s N e i t h e r may a l l p a r t s ever be known, nor may t h e g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n which honors t h i s knowledge be m e r e l y a sum o f p a r t s . T h e r e f o r e the c o n c e p t o f "poem" as the v e h i c l e which c a r r i e s a l l p o s s i b l e sound-meanings o f language p o s i t s a s u p r a - l i n e a r environment f o r lan g u a g e , where even though l i n g u a l e v e n t s may be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d by l i n e s , t he r e l a -t i o n s h i p s o f s y l l a b l e - m e a n i n g s w i t h i n g i v e n l i n e s depend upon s u p r a -l i n e a r p a t t e r n i ngs o f sounds and themes. Such, c o n c e p t u a l l y , i s t h e view o f p o e t r y which t h i s t h e s i s h o l d s t o be c o r r e c t . The e s s a y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f sounds and sound s t r u c t u r e s i n Maud have l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t p o e t r y i s the c l a s s o f lan g u a g e , 5 r a t h e r than t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n , f a v o r e d by s t r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t s , t h a t p o e t r y i s a s u b - c l a s s o f language. Summary e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s v i e w i s o f f e r e d i n t h e t h e s i s by t h e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t l ) a sound /wh/ i s a dom-i n a n t one i n Maud, might o f i t s e l f be the most s i g n i f i c a n t sound u n i t o f the l a n g u a g e , 2) the two b a s i c sound p a t t e r n s which a r e w i t n e s s e d i n Maud might be t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between p o e t i c and p r o s a i c s t r u c t u r e s o f th e language, and 3) the s y l l a b l e u n i t s o f Maud appear t o be r e p o s i -t o r i e s f o r sound-theme p a t t e r n s i n the poem, as th e y may be, s i m i l a r l y , f o r sound-theme p a t t e r n s i n any g i v e n E n g l i s h poem. From t h r e e such 4. A s i m i l a r v i e w i s made o f t h e " l i t e r a r y s y m b o l " by W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l , . T h e L i t e r a r y Symbol (New Y o r k , 1955), pp. 8-11. 5. Samuel R. L e v i n , " P o e t r y and Grammatica1ness", Essays on the  Language o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n ( B o s t o n , 1967), pp. 224-230; R i c h a r d Ohmann,. " L i t e r a t u r e as S e n t e n c e s " , , E s s a y s on the Language o f L i t e r a t u r e , pp. 231-238; R o n a l d S u t h e r l a n d , " S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h P r o s o d y " , Readings i n A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. H a r o l d B. A l l e n (New Y o r k , 1964), pp. 492-499; Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s o f the Theory o f Syntax (Cambridge, Mass.,.1965), pp. 148-153. 67. views o f Maud may be d e r i v e d , f i r s t , a d e f i n i t i o n o f p o e t r y as l i n g u a l p r o -c e s s , a n d , s e c o n d , a s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t p o e t r y i s the l i n g u a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f n o n - l i n e a r d i m e n s i o n s . The t h r e e t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s which t h i s e s s a y has r e a c h e d a f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n . o f the s o u n d s , the sound s t r u c t u r e s , a n d , f i n a l l y , t h e sound p a t t e r n i n g s o f Maud need b r i e f r e v i e w . They w i l l be d i s c u s s e d now i n the o r d e r i n which t h e y have been p r o f f e r e d , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e poet Tennyson's s i g n i f i c a n t r e p e t i t i o n o f /wh/ sounds. The /w/ sounds have been found t o be prominent ones i n Maud, p a r t i c u -l a r l y i n s e c t i o n "A", where the vowel s y l l a b l e s /ovi/, /uw/ and /aw/ domin-a t e d a l l o t h e r r e s o n a n t sounds i n t h e s e c t i o n . These /w/ p r o s o d y vowel s y l l a b l e s a r e a l s o p r o m inent ones i n s e c t i o n s "B" and "C" o f Maud. Taken t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e a l 1 i t e r a t i o n s . o f /w/ which Tennyson r e l i e s on i n s e c t i o n "A" and s e c t i o n "C"; w i t h t h e r e p e t i t i v e use o f who and whose o r whom common t o "A" and t o "B"; and w i t h t h e f r e q u e n t use o f where, when, why, e t c . , i n "B", t h i s one language sound ooow(h)ooe i s found t o have a major r o l e i n t h e poem. What i s even more s i g n i f i c a n t , p e r h a p s , i s Tennyson's f r e q u e n t c h o i c e o f t h e /wh/ p r o n o u n — f o r examp1e , who ,,wha t , why, when, where, how,--as an i n i t i a t i n g s y l l a b l e i n l i n e s o f "A" s e c t i o n and "B" s e c t i o n . Not o n l y does the r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e /wh/ s y l l a b l e s h e r e d e s c r i b e d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g e n e r a l sound resonances o f the poem, i t more s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o i n t s up a t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n i n the poem—a p a t t e r n e s t a -b l i s h e d by r e p e a t e d q u e s t i o n s o f "who?", "what?", "why?", e t c . T h i s s y n t a c t i c p a t t e r n i n g r e v e a l s t h e u n d e r l y i n g themes o f doubt a n d d e s p a i r i n Maud, themes w h i c h , o f c o u r s e , c r i t i c s have c o n s i s t e n t l y acknowledged i n t h e poems o f Tennyson. 6. T. S. E l i o t , f o r example, c a l l e d Tennyson a " V i r g i l among the Shades, the s a d d e s t o f a l l E n g l i s h poets , among the Great i n Limbo, t h e most i n s t i n c t i v e r e b e l a g a i n s t the s o c i e t y i n which he was t h e most p e r -f e c t c o n f o r m i s t " , T. S. E l i o t , "Tennyson's 'In Memoriam'", S e l e c t e d  P r o s e (Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , 1958), p. 184. When t h i s s y l l a b l e /wh/ i s found a l s o t o be t h e b a s i c sound i n words wh i c h do not s y m b o l i z e both /w/ and / h / , but r a t h e r s y m b o l i z e ondy /w/, a s , f o r example, /wh/ave, /wh/ent, / w h / a i l , /wh/ant, / w h / i n , /wh/ar, e t c . , we a r e brought t o r e c o n g i z e t h a t /wh/ p l a y s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t sound r o l e i n Maud. For now we must r e c o g n i z e t h a t a l l /w/ p r o s o d i e s , as w e l l as a l l /w/ semi-vowels and vowels i n the poem have t h i s /wh/ imbedding (which may then be s a i d t o e x t e n d t h e themes o f doubt e x p r e s s e d i n t h e poem). T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the poem begs a g e n u i n e q u e s t i o n : does E n g l i s h h ave, as a b a s i c q u a l i t y o f sound, t h i s /wh/ imbedding which Tennyson, because o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r /w/ p r o s o d i e s and /w/ v o w e l s , has here em-p h a s i z e d ? S i n c e /w/ p l a y s a t r i p l e r o l e .in the lang u a g e , as p r o s o d y , as v o w e l , as s e m i - v o w e l , l o g i c s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s imbedding o f /wh/ sounds i s indeed a f e a t u r e o f the language. The second h y p o t h e s i s which t h i s e s s a y o f f e r s i s t h a t t he two b a s i c sound p a t t e r n s o f Maud e s t a b l i s h b a s i c d i s t i n e t i o n s - - 1 y r i c . a n d n a r r a -t i v e - - i n t h e l i n g u a l p r o c e s s e s o f E n g l i s h . S e c t i o n "A" o f t h e poem f e a t u r e s t he s i x - b e a t l i n e s which a r e not common i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y : Tennyson's use f o r the l i n e s may be, as t h i s t h e s i s has a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d , q u i t e p r o s a i c . He d e l i b e r a t e l y emphasizes a m i d - 1 i n e pause by u s i n g a c o u s t i c d e v i c e s such as a l l i t e r a t i o n , as w e l l as s y n t a c t i c and r h e t o r i -c a l d e v i c e s . The r e a d e r i s drawn by t h e s e v a r i o u s l i n g u a l t e c h n i q u e s i n t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f the l i n e a s s a u n i t o f measure, so t h a t he can q u i t e p r o p e r l y r e - a s s i g n t he l i n e s o f p o e t r y t o s e n t e n c e s o f n a r r a t i v e . T h i s w i l l b e, o f c o u r s e , a v e r y l y r i c a l s e t o f s e n t e n c e s which the re a d e r c o n s i d e r s , f o r he i s aware t h r o u g h o u t s e c t i o n "A" o f the s t r o n g under-ground p u l l o f /w/ p r o s o d y and / y / pro s o d y vowel s y l l a b l e s imbedded i n the whole o f "A." In s e c t i o n "B" o f t h e poem, from i t s i n i t i a l l i n e s , t h e poet i s 69. h i g h 1 y • 1 y r i c a 1 . The l i n e s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h r e e - b e a t ones w i t h sound emphasis thrown upon e x t e r n a l rhymes and e x t e r n a l a s s o n a n c e s . N e i t h e r r h e t o r i c a l nor s y n t a c t i c d e v i c e s o p e r a t e , i n t e r n a 1 l y upon i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s i n "B." Even where t h e / t / ' s . a n d t h e /d/'s become i n s i s t e n t sounds i n "B" s e c t i o n , t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e remains a p u r e l y a c o u s t i c , and not a s y n -t a c t i c one ( a l t h o u g h i n the E n g l i s h p a s t t e n s e , as f o r example, dropped o r b u r n t , t h e d e n t a l /1/ o r /6/ has an o b v i o u s m o r p h o - s y n t a c t i c f u n c t i o n ) , The r e a d e r o f "B" s e c t i o n i s thus drawn from the l i n e t o the s t a n z a , and he can q u i t e p r o p e r l y a s s i g n t h e s e l i n e s o f p o e t r y t o s t a n z a s o f l y r i c . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f l i n g u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s between p r o s e and p o e t r y s t r u c t u r e s i n Maud has i t s p a r a l l e l i n r e c e n t l i t e r a r y d i s c u s s i o n s o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f s i m i l a r l i n g u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n p r o s e f i c t i o n , a s , f o r example, i n James J o y c e ' s U l y s s e s . As remarked by R a l p h Freedman i n h i s work., The L y r i c a l N o v e l , whenever an a u t h o r has chosen t o use a "stream-o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t e c h n i q u e such as J o y c e has done, he has chosen an e s s e n t i a l l y " l y r i c a l p r o c e s s " , h e l d o n l y l o o s e l y by a p r o s e form: The n o v e l ^ U l y s s e s ) i s b u i l t on an o b v i o u s c o u n t e r p o i n t . On t h e one hand, we e n c o u n t e r t h e e p i c quest through t h e c o n c r e t e w o r l d o f D u b l i n , b u t , on t h e o t h e r , we o b s e r v e t h e f i l t e r i n g o f t h a t q u e s t through the c o n s c i o u s and uncon-s c i o u s s t r e a m . A n a r r a t o r exposes him-s e l f w h i l e o s t e n s i b l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e w o r l d o f h i s p e r c e p t ion .. ...A " l y r i c a l p r o c e s s " based on t h e q u e s t seems t o move toward a moment o f r e c o g n i t i o n i n each o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t o be u n i f i e d i n the end by the n o v e l ' s r e s o l u t i o n as a whole. In many ways, t h e n , U l y s s e s seems t o use both the q u e s t and the s t r e a m - o f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r a l y r i c a l p u r p o s e . . . . The j u g g l i n g o f l y r i c a l t e c h n i q u e i s o n l y one a s p e c t among many o f t h i s complex work, , which extends from a parody o f l i t e r a t u r e and language t o a c o n c i s e d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f men and e v e n t s . Freedman s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s a "web o f m o t i f s " by which J o y c e exposes 7 0 . h i s themes t h r o u g h o u t U l y s s e s J I t i s j u s t such p a t t e r n i n g , not s i m p l y o f themes, but. o f sound-themes , which t h i s t h e s i s on Maud s u g g e s t s i s t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f p o e t r y . A second p r o s e c r i t i c , W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l , comes upon the sound-theme a n a l y s i s when he d e s c r i b e s i n J o y c e ' s U l y s s e s the a u t h o r ' s use o f key sound words t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l — w o r d s 1i ke k e y s , o t e a , p o t a t o , r o s e , c o d , e t c . — w h i c h a r e i t e r a t e d and r e i t e r a t e d t h r o u g h -o u t the w h o l e , t o form h i e r a r c h i e s o f meanings w i t h i n meanings. A f i n a l h y p o t h e s i s which t h i s e s s a y o f f e r s i s t h a t t h e s y l l a b l e u n i t s o f Maud (or o f any E n g l i s h poem) a r e indeed sound-theme u n i t s , . a n d a r e not composed o f one p a r t , s o u n d , and one p a r t , meaning. The dominant sound s y l l a b l e i n Maud's "A" s e c t i o n i s /ow/, a sy1 lab 1e which i s f e a t u r e d i n one o f the two major l i t e r a r y symbols o f t h i s s e c t i o n : r/ow/se. A s e c o n d a r y vowel assonance i n "A" s e c t i o n i s t h e / y / pr o s o d y v o w e l , found i n two forms i n t h e s e c t i o n ' s o t h e r main sym b o l : 1 / -f y/ 1 / i y/ s . The major consonant p a t t e r n s o f "A" s e c t i o n a r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n roses and l i l i e s . S i m i l a r sound-theme a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e who-whose o f "A" s e c t i o n , the s t r e e t - d e a d o f "B" s e c t i o n , and the dream-doom, t ime- 1i qht o f "C" s e c t i o n . The whole p a t t e r n o f sound-themes might be s a i d t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the long poem's f i n a l p h r a s e , " t h e doom a s s i g n ' d . " The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e c l e a r l y - e s t a b l i s h e d sound-theme p a t t e r n s i n Maud i s t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n o f a p r o c e s s o f p o e t r y - m a k i n g . The p r o c e s s i s a l i n g u a l one: t h e poet's c h o i c e o f h i s poem i s t h e language u n i t , be i t r o s e , wood, s t r e e t , c i t y , dream o r t ime. From t h e s e s y l l a b l e s he b u i l d s h i s poem, expand i n g upon and s t i l l e x p a n d i n g upon t h e i n i t i a l 7 . Ralph Freedman, The L y r i c a l Novel ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J., 19^3), pp. 12-1 3 . 8 . W i l l i a m York T i n d a l l , A Reader's Guide t o James J o y c e (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 2 3 - 2 3 6 . 71. sound-theme s y l l a b l e s . Thus r o s e becomes f1ows, q1ows, b1ows, u n t i l the sound reaches a c r e s c e n d o i n the l y r i c s t a n z a s , "Come i n t o the g a r d e n , Maud", which a r e p r e l u d e t o t h e poem's d i s a s t e r . And, s i m i l a r l y , s t r e e t , w hich i s foreshadowed i n sweet, c h e a t , d e c e i t , becomes i n the c l i m a x i n g s t a n z a s o f t h e poem s t r e e t , f e e t , b e a t . The sounds a r e echoed and r e -echoed i n p a r a l l e l u n i t s , u n t i l l a r g e wave p a t t e r n s ^ o f sound emerge, c a r r y i n g w i t h them t h e i r own c l e a r l i n g u a l meanings. Out o f the i n t r i -c a t e p a t t e r n s o f sound-meaning i n Maud may be chosen the r e s o n a n t ( p a s t o r a l ) q u a l i t i e s o f , r o s e , l i l y , wood, meadow, h i l l , ha 11 , h o i low, mellow, l e a , f i e l d , s t r e a m , o r t h e p l o s i v e ( c i t y ) q u a l i t i e s o f s t r e e t , f e e t , b e a t , meet, c h e a t , f l e e t , f l i t , c i t y , p i t y , c i t i zen , d u s t , m a r k e t , p i t . And w i t h i n each o f .these p a t t e r n s l i e s y e t more i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n s — r o s e s u g g e s t s t h e /ow/ sounds o f ha 11 , h o i low, wood, wound,  ru i n ' d wood 1 ands , broken wor 1 d-1 i ng , moor , moan , ghos t , g r o v e , go 1 d and gloom, w h i l e l i l y s u g g e s t s t h e / t y / and / i y/ sounds o f f i e l d , l e a , mead, h i l l , wi nd, m i 1 k , mi 1k-wh i t e , t r e e , sea , beam, g i l t and glearn. In t h e s e two p r e v i o u s p a t t e r n s what i s shown i s the gloom q u a l i t i e s o f the /w/ p r o s o d y s y l l a b l e s and the q1 earn q u a l i t i e s o f the /y/ prosody s y l l a b l e s : t h a t i s , images o f darkness a r e i n the one p a t t e r n and images o f l i g h t a r e i n t h e o t h e r p a t t e r n . The q u e s t i o n which now p r e s s e s i n t h i s v i e w o f t h e poem i s : a r e we r e c o g n i z i n g i n t h e poem a sound symbolism which the poet has been a b l e to e x p l o i t from w i t h i n h i s n a t i v e language? The u n i t s o f roses and 1 i 1 i e s seem p r e t t y e x p l i c i t : t h e /ow/ s y l l a b l e p o i n t s d i r e c t l y t o the ,qloom images o f woods and groves , and the / i y/ s y l l a b l e s p o i n t d i r e c t l y t o t h e gleam images o f f i e l d and s e a . How i s such a p p a r e n t symbolism i n 9. P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet", p. 284. E n g l i s h t o be e x p l a i n e d ? A t l e a s t two t h e o r i e s o f sound symbolism have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been ad vanced by language s c h o l a r s i n t h e i r . a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n the phenomenon which i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e gleam and g loom p a t t e r n s . . The two a r e g i v e n v e r y c l e a r e x p o s i t i o n i n Edward Sap i r's Language, where he speaks o f an " i n t e r j e c t i o n t h e o r y " and an "onomatopoeic t h e o r y . " The f i r s t o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s f i n d s e v i d e n c e f o r a sound symbolism i n the language i n ex-p r e s s i o n s such as "oh!", "awk!", " a a h l " , " o o h l " , and a l l s i m i l a r i n t e r -j e c t i o n s which i m i t a t e (so t h e s e t h e o r i s t s c l a i m ) t h e e m o t i o n s . ^ The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s t h e o r y i s i t s r e l i a n c e upon an " i n s t i n c t i v e " b a s i s f o r a l l language. However, such a t h e o r y , whenever i t i s s u b j e c -t e d t o more t h o u g h t f u l a n a l y s i s , i s not t e n a b l e . I t i s t r u e t h a t the emotions themselves may g i v e r i s e t o i n v o l u n t a r y c r i e s , a s , f o r example, t h e t e r r i b l e , t e a r i n g sound o f sudden g r i e f , but such sounds a r e not themselves s p e e c h , and become so o n l y when t h e y a r e c o n s c i o u s l y a r t i c u l a t e d by t o n g u e , t e e t h o r l i p s i n the form o f a s y l l a b l e , p e r h a p s — f o r g r i e f — " a i y e e i . " Such a speech s y l l a b l e i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r e s e n -t a t i o n which t h e s p e a k e r f e e l s b e s t g e n e r a l i z e s t h e emotion,. In t h e words o f Edward S a p i r : The m i s t a k e must not be made o f i d e n -t i f y i n g our c o n v e n t i o n a l i n t e r j e c t i o n s (our oh! and a h ! and s h l ) w i t h the i n s t i n c t i v e c r i e s t h e m s e l v e s . These i n t e r j e c t i o n s a r e m e r e l y c o n v e n t i o n a l f i x a t i o n s o f t h e n a t u r a l sounds. They t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r w i d e l y i n v a r i o u s languages i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c p h o n e t i c g e n i u s o f each o f t h e s e . ' ' 10. For o t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f speech sounds see Leonard B l o o m f i e l d , Language, New Y o r k , 1933 , PP- 21-56; a l s o , J . R. F i r t h , Papers i n  L i n g u i s t i c s 1934-1951, . 11. Edward Sap i r , .Language (New Y o r k , 1921), p. 5. 73. An "onomatopoeic t h e o r y " o f sound symbo 1 i sm yjh i ch i s c l o s e s t t o the g e n e r a l hypotheses s u g g e s t e d by t h i s t h e s i s , h o l d s words t o be sound-i m i t a t i o n s o f the eve n t s and the moods o f n a t u r e . P o e t s , o f c o u r s e , have r e l i e d c o n s c i o u s l y upon t h i s t h e o r y o f sound s y m b o l i s m , and p a r t i -c u l a r l y has t h i s been t r u e o f Tennyson, who s a i d o f h i s own work t h a t i t s p e c u l i a r i t y l a y i n h i s " h o l l o w oe's and a e ' s . " L i t e r a r y c r i t i c s have a s s e n t e d t o the "mournful m u s i c " o r t h e " e l e g a i c n o t e " i n Tennyson's work, a d o p t i n g u n c r i t i c a l l y t h e whole t h e o r y o f sound symbol-ism w hich i s i m p l i e d . However, a g a i n , t h e t h e o r y i s not a t e n a b l e one. S i n c e t h e poet's use o f sound i m i t a t i o n s i s more c o n s c i o u s and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than th e o r d i n a r y s p e a k e r ' s use o f i n t e r j e c t i o n s , t h e r e l a t i o n between the sound and t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s even more a r t i f i c i a l : What a p p l i e s t o t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n s a p p l i e s w i t h even g r e a t e r f o r c e t o t h e s o u n d - i m i t a t i v e words. Such words as " w h i p p o o r w i 1 1 " , t o "mew", to "caw" a r e i n no sense n a t u r a l sounds t h a t man has i n s t i n c t i v e l y o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e p r o -duced. They a r e j u s t as t r u l y c r e a t i o n s . o f the human mind, f l i g h t s o f human f a n c y , as a n y t h i n g e l s e i n language. They do not grow d i r e c t l y o ut o f n a t u r e , t h e y a r e s u g g e s t e d by i t and p l a y wi t h i t J 2 When Tennyson, f o r example, uses a l i n e such a s : "And out he wa l k ' d when the wind l i k e a broken w o r l d l i n g w a i l ' d " , he draws upon a whole h i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h sound-meanings which a r e h i g h l y complex, and which a r e not t o be a n a l y z e d s i m p l y as d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n s o f n a t u r e . The d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Tennyson's Maud which have been made by t h i s t h e s i s s u g g e s t a t h i r d t h e o r y o f sound-symbolism, one which i s g e n e r a t e d  w i t h i n t h e language i t s e l f and which has no m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o 12. I b i d , p. 7. 74. t h e e v e n t s o f n a t u r e . In t h i s t h e o r y words a r e r e c o g n i z e d as g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s o f n a t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e and not s i m p l y as sound r e f l e c t i o n s o f t h a t 13 e x p e r i e n c e . - l n t h i s v i e w , whenever s p e a k e r s r e c o g n i z e a new e x p e r i e n c e and f i n d a g e n e r a l i z i n g c o n c e p t — a w o r d — t o f i t t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , they i n i t i a t e a new p a t t e r n o f sound-meanings which f u t u r e s p e a k e r s may draw upon and i n f i n i t e l y expand. Such a t h e o r y d e n i e s t h e c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e " i n s t i n c t i v e " t h e o r i e s of. i n t e r j e c t i o n s and onomatop-v-p a e i a — f o r i n i t i a l causes have no re 1evance w i t h i n a wave t h e o r y o f language. T h i s t h e o r y of. language s u g g e s t s t h a t a t a c e r t a i n " p o i n t - m o m e n t " ^ w i t h i n t h e whole harmony o f human e v e n t s , s p e a k e r s c o n c e i v e o f new r e l a -t i o n s h i p s f o r s p e c i f i c and immediate h a p p e n i n g s . C i t y i s a r e c e n t ex-ample i n E n g l i s h , whereas wood (qloom) and sea (q1 earn) a r e v e r y e a r l y examples from t h e language. W i t h i n t i m e , language-users- :expand t h e sound-theme s y l l a b l e s o f t h e new g e n e r a l i z i n g c o n c e p t t o i n c l u d e t h e growing and c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s which t h e i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e r e c o g n i z e d . The word " c i t y " , f o r example, came i n t o t h e language i n the M i d d l e E n g l i s h p e r i o d o f a g r o w i n g c o m m e r c i a l i s m (1150-14-75). But i t was not perhaps u n t i l the 19th c e n t u r y t h a t Englishmen had t h e view o f t h e i r r e a l i t y which a l l o w e d them to e x p l o i t t h e sound-theme s y l l a b l e s o f c i t y . An e a r l y 19th c e n t u r y p o e t , B y r o n , makes use o f t h i s l i n g u a l un i t , c i t y , i n t h e s e c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s o f Ch i1de Haro1d: The armamen/t/s which thun/_d/ers/_t/r i ke t h e w a l l s Of r o c k - b u i 1 / t / c i / t / i e s , b i / d / i n g n a t i o n s quake And monarchs / t / r e m b l e i n t h e i r c a p i / _ t / a Is . 1 3 . L. S. V y g o t s k y , Thought and Lanqiuaqe (Cambridge, Mass., 1962), p. 5 14. P i k e , "Language—Where S c i e n c e and P o e t r y Meet", pp. 291-292. 15. Whorf, Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , p. 248. These l i n e s c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e e a r l i e r l i n e s o f the f i n a l s e c t i o n , l i n e s which a r e o f t e n quoted q u i t e a p a r t from the whole poem, Ch i1de H a r o l d , and g i v e n the t i t l e " A p o s t r o p h e t o t h e Ocean": R o l l o n , thou deep and dark b l u e O c e a n — r o l l ! Ten thousand f l e e t s sweep over, thee i n v a i n ; Man marks the e a r t h w i t h r u i n — h i s c o n t r o l Stops w i t h t h e s h o r e ; upon t h e w a t e r y p l a i n The wrecks a r e a l l t h y deed, nor doth remain A shadow o f man's r a v a g e , save h i s own. When f o r a moment, 1 i k e a drop o f r a i n , He s i n k s i n t o t h y depths w i t h bubb 1 i n g ? g r o a n , W i t h o u t a g r a v e , u n k n e l l ' d , u n c o f f i n ' d , and unknown. In t h e s e l i n e s , once a g a i n , the /ow/ sounds a r e d e e p l y imbedded, and a g a i n t h e y p o i n t t o t h e p a s t o r a l , even b e t t e r , t o t h e gloom images o f d a r k . The sounds o f the c i t y a r e not i n t h i s s t a n z a , even though t h e s e s o u n d s — m a r k e d i n Byron as i n Tennyson by / t / ' s , /d/'s and an accompany-in g IVJ—occur b r i e f l y one s t a n z a l a t e r . However, Tennyson' s Maud, because i t has imbedded i n i t major sound-theme s y l l a b l e s o f c i t y , i s one o f t h e c e n t u r y ' s s i g n i f i c a n t r e c o r d s o f t h i s new vie w o f human e x p e r i e n c e . The poem Maud c a r r i e s i n i t s sound-meanings t h e whole " c i t y s o c i e t y " o f the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s , a p o e t i c event which i s echoed i n T. S. E l i o t ' s "The Love Song o f J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k . " Thus what appears t o be onomatopoeic i n Tennyson may have come i n -s t e a d w i t h t h e c o n t i n u i n g e x p a n s i o n s o f sounds and themes d e r i v e d from the i n i t i a l l i n g u a l e x p e r i e n c e , as f o r example c i t y . S i n c e i t appears l i k e l y t h a t c i t y as a g e n e r a l i z i n g c o n cept may be an a r c h a i s m f o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k e r s - o f the m i d d l e 20th c e n t u r y , perhaps no language s t u d e n t w i l l e v er come t o i t i n s e a r c h o f s y m b o l i c r e l a t i o n s between i t s 16. The merging o f s e v e r a l urban a r e a s i n t o one l a r g e " m e g a l o p o l i s " i s a co n t e m p o r a r y development, Which may be s e e n , f o r example, on the U. S. A t l a n t i c S e a b o a r d , e s p . New Yor k . Such urban complexes have q u a l i t a t i v e l y changed t h e " c i t y " o f C h a r l e s D i c k e n s , Thomas Hardy, Stephen C r a n e , Thomas W o l f e and Tennyson. 76. l i n g u a l sounds and i t s s e m a n t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . However, o l d e r c o n c e p t s , such as wood and s e a , which have come down t o us from Old E n g l i s h , may be open t o l i n g u i s t i c s p e c u l a t i o n o n .the n a t u r e o f a sound-symbolism i n the language. Perhaps a f t e r c e n t u r i e s o f use o f t h e s e s y l l a b l e sounds wood and sea , Eng 1 ish-speakerjs- c o n s c i o u s 1 y r e c o g n i z e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e sound and t h e .in i t ia.t i ng e x p e r i e n c e , even though the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l one, and not an " i n s t i n c t i v e " one. I t h e o r i z e , t h e n , t h a t language i s i d e a t i o n , and i t s u n i t s a r e the s y l l a b l e s upon s y l l a b l e s o f sound-meanings which expand and a g a i n expand upon t h e c o n c e i v i n g i d e a . The paradigm o f l i n g u a l m e a n i n g — t h a t i s , t h e v e s s e l which must c a r r y a l l t he s i g n i f i c a n t sound-theme r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e l a n g u a g e - - i s p o e t r y . For the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p o e t r y l i e s i n i t s c o n s c i o u s e x p l o i t a t i o n o f language meanings f o r t h e i r most i n t r i c a t e , and ye t t o l e r a b l e , p a t t e r n s , s t r u c t u r e s o r l i n e s . Perhaps from p o e t r y l i n -g u i s t s may one day r e a l i z e as Whorf has remarked, t h a t t h e r e i s a "harmony and s c i e n t i f i c b eauty i n the whole v a s t s y s t e m , t h a t system o f which we a r e p a r t and b e l o n g t o " - - b u t as y e t o n l y b r i e f l y g l i m p s e . BIBLIOGRAPHY B a s l e r , Roy. "Tennyson^ t h e Psycho l o g i s t M ,. SAO., XLI I (1944), pp. 143-159 B e r r y , F r a n c i s . "The Poet's V o i c e " , P o e t i c s . 's Gravenhage, 1961. pp. 453 461. B l o o m f i e l d , L e o n a r d . Language. New Y o r k , 1933. Boas, F r a n z a . Handbook o f American I n d i a n Languages. W a s h i n g t o n , 19.11. B u c k l e y , Jerome H. Tennyson, t h e Growth o f a P o e t . B o s t o n , I960. Chatman, Seymour. "Robert F r o s t ' s 'Mowing': An I n q u i r y i n t o P r o s o d i c S t r u c t u r e " , , KR, X V I I I (Summer, 1956), pp. 421-438. . A Theory o f Me t e r . 's Gravenhage, 1965. Chomsky, Noam. S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s . The Hague, 1957 . . A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach t o S y n t a x . T h i r d Texas Con-f e r e n c e . A u s t i n , 1962. . .Aspects o f a Theory o f S y n t a x . Cambridge, Mass., 1965. d e S a u s s u r e , F e r d i n a n d . . Course i n Gener a l L i n g u i s t i c s . London, 1959. E l i o t , T. S. S e l e c t e d P r o s e . Harmondsworth, M i d d l e s e x , 1958. F i r t h , J . R. Papers i n L i n g u i s t i c s 1934-1951. London, 1964. F r a n c i s , W. N e l s o n . "Syntax and L i t e r a r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , Readings i n A p p l i e d E n g l i s h L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. H a r o l d B. A l l e n . New Y o r k , 1964, pp. 514-522. Freedman, R a l p h . The L y r i c a l N o v e l . P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1963. Gimson,,A. C. .An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h . London, 1962. H i l l , A r c h i b a l d . " P r i n c i p l e s G o v e r n i n g Semantic P a r a l l e l s " , Readings i n . A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. H a r o l d B. A l l e n . New Y o r k , 1964, pp. 506-514. J a k o b s o n , Roman and M o r r i s H a l l e . Fundamentals o f Language., 's Gravenhage 1956. . S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s . 's:-, Gravenhage, 1962. J e s p e r s e n , O t t o . Growth and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h Language. London, 1905. . " S y m b o l i c V a l u e o f the Vowel I " , L i n g u i s t i c s . Copenhagen, 1 9 3 3 , P P - 2 8 3 - 3 0 3 . J o h n s o n , E.D.G. "The L i l y and t h e Rose: S y m b o l i c Meaning i n Maud", PMLA, LXIV ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 1 2 2 2 - 1 2 2 7 . L e v i n , Samuel R . " P o e t r y and Grammatica 1ness" , Essays on t h e Language . o f L i t e r a t u r e , eds. Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n . B o s t o n , 1967, pp. 224 - 2 3 0 . L y n c h , James J . "The T o n a l i t y o f L y r i c P o e t r y : An E x p e r i m e n t i n Method", Word, IX ( 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 211-224. McLuhan, H. M a r s h a l l . "Tennyson and P i c t u r e s q u e P o e t r y " , Cr i t i ca1  Essays on the P o e t r y o f Tennyson, ed. John K i l l h a m . London, 1 9 6 6 , pp. 6 7 - 8 5 . Ohmann, R i c h a r d . " L i t e r a t u r e as S e n t e n c e s " , Essays on t h e Language  o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n . B o s t o n , 1967, pp. 2 3 1 - 2 3 8 . O l s o n , C h a r l e s . " P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e " , S e l e c t e d W r i t i n g s o f C h a r l e s Olson New Y o r k , 1951 , pp. 15-31 . P r o j e c t i v e V e r s e . New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 . Omond, T. S. A Study o f M e t r e . London, 1 9 0 3 . Oras , A n t s . "Some P a r a l l e l s and C o n t r a s t s i n t h e H a n d l i n g o f Sound Essays on .the Language o f L i t e r a t u r e , e d s . Seymour Chatman and Samuel R. L e v i n . 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" P o e t i c and N o n - P o e t i c Language", P o e t i c s . 's Gravenhage, 1 9 6 1 , pp. 1 1 - 2 3 . 79. S t o k e s , Edward. "The M e t r i c s o f Maud", . VP ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 97-110. S t r a n g , B a r b a r a M. H. .Modern E n g l i s h S t r u c t u r e . London, 1962. S u t h e r l a n d , R o n a l d . " S t r u c t u r a l L i n g u i s t i c s and E n g l i s h P r o s o d y " , CE, XX ( 1 9 5 8 ) , pp. 492-499. Sweet, Henry. The P r a c t i c a l Study o f Language. London, 1899. Tennyson, C h a r l e s . S i x Tennyson E s s a y s . London, 1954. Tennyson, Hal lam. The Works o f Tennyson. New Y o r k , 1913. T i n d a l l , W i l l i a m York. The L i t e r a r y Symbol. New Y o r k , 1955. . A Reader's Guide t o James J o y c e . New Y o r k , 1965. T r a g e r , George L. and Henry Lee S m i t h , J r . An O u t l i n e o f E n g l i s h  S t r u c t u r e . W a s h i n g t o n , 1951. V y g o t s k y , L. S. Thought and Language. Cambridge, Mass., 1962. . "Language and Thought: The Problem and the A p p r o a c h " , The P s y c h o l o g y o f Language, Thought and I n s t r u c t i o n , ed. John P. DeCecco. New Y o r k , 1967, pp. 56-60. W h i t e h a l l , H a r o l d . " E n g 1 i s h Verse and What I t Sounds L i k e " , KR, X V I I I (Summer, 1956), pp. 411-421. Whorf, B e n j a m i n . Language, Thought and R e a l i t y , ed. John B. C a r r o l l . Cambridge, Mass., 1956. 

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