UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A history of Tristan scholarship Picozzi , Rosemary 1969

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A  HISTORY  TRISTAN  OF  SCHOLARSHIP  by ROSEMARY PICOZZI B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Reading,  1^6k  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  i n the Department of German  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming r e q u i r e d standard  t o the  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  I969  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I further for  this  thesis  degree shall  agree  scholarly  at the University make  that  purposes  h i s representatives.  of  this  written  i t freely  permission  by  thesis  may  of  gain  Columbia  Columbia,  f o r reference copying  b y t h e Head  It i s understood  German  28th A p r i l 1?6°  of British  f o r extensive  be g r a n t e d  for financial  The University of British V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r  available  permission.  Department  Date  in partial  shall  that  n o t be a l l o w e d  and  thesis  Department or  that  Study.  of this  o f my  copying  I agree  or  publication  without  my  AB S T R A C T  Although  a few  summaries of the r e s u l t s gained  Tristan  s c h o l a r s h i p have appeared, a comprehensive h i s t o r i c a l  development has not y e t been made.  The  opening c h a p t e r  poem.  As  d i s c u s s e s the t h e o r i e s on the o r i g i n s of literary tradition.  distinct  the  A f t e r examining  the views of the Romantics c o n c e r n i n g sources  of the legend  shown i n the review  and  the h i s t o r i c a l  the language of the f i r s t  and  Tristan  o f subsequent o r i g i n r e s e a r c h , o p i n i o n s  the o r a l d i f f u s i o n became s h a r p l y d i v i d e d ;  when t h i s ,  t i n e n t a l debate," s u b s i d e d ,  their attention f i r s t  structing  conclusions  s p e c u l a t i o n s about the g e o g r a p h i c a l b i r t h p l a c e of romance i t  then p r e s e n t s mythological  and  interests.  medieval Tristran romances i n o r a l and the e a r l i e s t  of c r i t i c s a r e p r e s e n t e d  and  i n i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y which account f o r the  changes i n methods, a t t i t u d e s and  of  study o f i t s  In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n the i d e a s  achievements of s u c c e s s i v e g e n e r a t i o n s drawn as to the t r e n d s  i n c e r t a i n l i m i t e d areas  s c h o l a r s turned  the a r c h e t y p a l poem and  about  the " i n s u l a r - c o n -  l a t e r to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  to  recon-  extant  material. The  first  of t h r e e c h a p t e r s  the r e c o v e r y of m a n u s c r i p t s , editions.  The  second surveys  dealing with G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n  s t u d i e s of the t r a n s m i s s i o n , and  m i n o r i t y which p o s i t e d m y t h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s , was h i s t o r i a n s on grounds of i m m o r a l i t y the poet's  admired by  condemned by most  and blasphemy. biography  criticism  a f t e r an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n  among the e a r l y Romantics G o t t f r i e d ' s poem, though s t i l l  occupied with e l i c i t i n g  p r e p a r a t i o n of  the changing p a t t e r n s i n G o t t f r i e d  up to the b e g i n n i n g o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y :  describes  literary  L a t e r c r i t i c s were p r e -  from h i s work and  the e x t e n t of h i s dependence on Thomas o f B r i t t a n y .  the  The  assessing  q u e s t i o n of G o t t f r i e d ' s  ii  o r i g i n a l i t y m a i n t a i n e d i t s prominent p o s i t i o n i n t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y i n t e r pretations,  examined i n t h e next c h a p t e r .  To most c r i t i c s  the n o v e l t y i n  h i s treatment l a y i n the a s s o c i a t i o n o f T r i s t a n - l o v e w i t h r e l i g i o n , and the problems a r i s i n g from t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p were f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d  i n terms  of the m e d i e v a l " Z e i t g e i s t . " Implicit the  throughout t h i s study and e l a b o r a t e d  i n the c o n c l u s i o n a r e  l i n k s between T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p and i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y .  the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i d e a o f human nature i n f l u e n c e d origins;  when the Enlightenment a v e r s i o n  F o r example,  the e a r l y t h e o r i e s o f  to the m e d i e v a l p e r i o d had been  overcome, the new i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r y , mythology and the age o f c h i v a l r y among the Romantics accounted f o r some approaches t o the m a t e r i a l , b u t o t h e r attitudes  (e.g.,  denigrations  o f G o t t f r i e d ' s poem and the l a c k o f i n t e r e s t  i n producing a r e l i a b l e edition) r e f l e c t e d current and  nationalistic  tendencies  h o s t i l i t y towards the F r e n c h — f r o m whom G o t t f r i e d borrowed the theme.  Later  developments ( s o u r c e s t u d i e s , g e n e a l o g i c a l  and  extant v e r s i o n s ,  the  s c i e n t i f i c outlook of p o s i t i v i s m .  research  quasi-mechanical reconstructions,  i n t o manuscripts  biographies)  typified  G o t t f r i e d ' s independence o f Thomas,  a t f i r s t underplayed f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons, f i n a l l y a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n i n t h e twentieth  c e n t u r y when i n t e r p r e t a t i o n became the p r i m a r y concern among  scholars.  Both the g e n e r a l  i n t e r e s t i n f i n d i n g an adequate d e f i n i t i o n o f  T r i s t a n - l o v e and the methods adopted i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f G o t t f r i e d ' s doctrine  showed the marked impact e x e r t e d  criticism.  by " G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e "  Depth p s y c h o l o g y and modern p o l i t i c a l  ideologies  on l i t e r a r y  (National  S o c i a l i s m and Marxism) have a l s o determined the approach taken by some I t appears t h a t T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p recent  research  itself.  scholars.  i s now moving i n new d i r e c t i o n s , f o r i n  i n t o the s t r u c t u r e and symbolism o f G o t t f r i e d ' s poem hypotheses  about the m e t a p h y s i c a l background have been d i s p l a c e d by i n t r i n s i c work  amatory  study o f the  CONTENTS CHAPTER One  PAGE  I: II:  III:  IV: V: Two  The E a r l y T h e o r i e s on the O r i g i n o f M e d i e v a l Romance The S t u d i e s d u r i n g the E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y A. H i s t o r i c a l and M y t h o l o g i c a l O r i g i n s o f the Legend (i) H i s t o r i c a l Origins ( i i ) Mythological Origins B. Language o f the F i r s t Romance The I n f l u e n c e o f P o s i t i v i s m on O r i g i n Research A. The I n s u l a r - C o n t i n e n t a l Debate B. The A r c h e t y p a l T r i s t a n Romance The I n f l u e n c e o f G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e on O r i g i n Research ... Conclusion  EDITIONS AND MANUSCRIPT CRITICISM OF THE TRISTAN ROMANCE BY GOTTFRIED VON STRASSBURG I: II: III:  Three  II:  III: Four  Five  10  15 19 23 43 .58 63  66  1777 - 1850 1850 to the P r e s e n t Conclusion  GOTTFRIED CRITICISM IN THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURIES I:  73 86  87  A d m i r a t i o n and D e n i g r a t i o n A. E a r l y Romantics B. "Lachmann S c h o o l " 90 C. M y t h o l o g i c a l School 98 P o s i t i v i s t i c Methods 10k A. B i o g r a p h i c a l S t u d i e s B. Source S t u d i e s :The Gottfried-Thomas R e l a t i o n s h i p . . 1 1 1 Conclusion 123  TWENTIETH-CENTURY  INTERPRETATIONS OF GOTTFRIED'S TRISTAN  I:  Survey o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  II:  Conclusion  CONCLUSION  126  179 I83 202  NOTES  235  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES  1  THE STUDY OF ORIGINS  A. B.  L o c a t i o n o f Complete M a n u s c r i p t s o f G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n Comparison o f the E d i t i o n s o f G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n  2^k 255  CHAPTER  THE  I  STUDY  ONE  OF  ORIGINS  The E a r l y T h e o r i e s on the O r i g i n o f M e d i e v a l Romance  P r i o r t o the appearance  in I785  o f the f i r s t  e d i t i o n o f the T r i s t a n poem  by G o t t f r i e d von Strassburg''' f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the s t o r y of T r i s t a n I s o l d e was  and  g a i n e d — d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y — f r o m German and F r e n c h prose  romances, f o r the MSS  o f the m e d i e v a l m e t r i c a l romances on the theme had  l o n g s i n c e f a l l e n into o b l i v i o n .  The  f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y German Prosaroman,  2  3  which was in  lkQk  based on the T r i s t r a n t o f E i l h a r t von Oberge,  i n Augsburgj  was  first  printed  i t c o n t i n u e d to be p r i n t e d i n t o the seventeenth  t u r y , the l a s t known e d i t i o n a p p e a r i n g i n Nuremberg i n l66k.  cen-  I n 1 5 7 8 the  k romance was  i n c l u d e d i n the Buch der L i e b e ,  but t h i s c o l l e c t i o n o f prose  romances had become so r a r e by the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t , when a new  e d i t i o n o f the a n t h o l o g y  c o p i e s were known t o e x i s t . composed c a . 1 2 1 5 - 3 5  5  was  being prepared i n 1 8 0 9 ,  The F r e n c h roman en p r o s e ,  only f i v e  a v a s t work  proved t o be much more i n f l u e n t i a l i n s p r e a d i n g and  p e r p e t u a t i n g the s t o r y .  I t became so p o p u l a r t h a t numerous h a n d - w r i t t e n  and p r i n t e d r e p r o d u c t i o n s were made i n t o the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  I n 1*4-79  Sir  Thomas M a l o r y drew on and g r e a t l y reduced t h i s v e r s i o n o f the s t o r y  for  p a r t o f h i s Morte d'Arthur,  i n Westminster  f i r s t p r i n t e d by W i l l i a m Caxton  i n 1*4-85, and l a t e r became one o f the main sources f o r  E n g l i s h s c h o l a r s and poets who In  which was  took an i n t e r e s t i n romance and  chivalry.  a d d i t i o n , an a b r i d g e d form o f a s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reworking o f the roman  en prose was  given i n I 7 7 6  by the Comte de T r e s s a n i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e  2 g U n i v e r s e l l e des Romans,  and  a g a i n i n the f i r s t  volume of h i s Corps  d ' E x t r a i t s de Romans de C h e v a l e r i e , p u b l i s h e d i n P a r i s i n I782. When academic i n t e r e s t i n the o r i g i n s of romantic in  the l a t e seventeenth  in  the same g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a .  location.  c e n t u r y , i t was The  fiction first  h e l d t h a t a l l romance o r i g i n a t e d  problem l a y i n d e c i d i n g upon the c o r r e c t  The b e l i e f i n a s i n g l e p o i n t of r a d i a t i o n , which corresponded  the common assumption t h a t c l i m a t e i n f l u e n c e d s o c i e t y and of  arose  l i t e r a t u r e produced by t h a t s o c i e t y , s t e a d i l y gained  the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The  thus a l s o the  of  r e s e a r c h were u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s on the r i s e and  of  c h i v a l r y , because romance was  the c h i l d of  area  customs  chivalry  and a l s o because the phenomenon of c h i v a l r y as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n more i n t e r e s t  type  strength during  ideas expressed by the p i o n e e r s i n t h i s  c o n s i d e r e d to be  to  aroused  than d i d the l i t e r a r y m e r i t s of the i n d i v i d u a l romances . Con-  s e q u e n t l y , among the e a r l i e s t  s c h o l a r s to f o s t e r the a n t i q u a r i a n s p i r i t - - m e n  l i k e Thomas Warton i n England  and La Curne de S a i n t e - P a l a y e i n  romances were regarded  l a r g e l y as s o c i a l documents and  France-  p i c t u r e s of manners.  Moreover, by s t r e s s i n g the h i s t o r i c o - s o c i a l v a l u e s of c h i v a l r i c  romances,  such s c h o l a r s c o u l d excuse t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the medieval In the Age barbarous  of Reason, the M i d d l e Ages were commonly h e l d i n contempt and p r i m i t i v e ;  as to medieval  literature,  "men  has not P r o b a b i l i t y enough t o a f f e c t the I m a g i n a t i o n . " ^ things medieval  s i n c e the Age  lasted u n t i l  der bewunderten A n t i k e und *barbarische,'  that i t  I n Germany d i s d a i n  the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ;  of Humanism the term M i t t e l a l t e r had  indeed,  i m p l i e d "das, was  der s e l b s t g e w i s s e n Gegenwart a l s e i n e  'gotische' Zwischenzeit  U b r i g blieb."'''^  as  of c o l d F a n c i e s ,  and P h i l o s o p h i c a l D i s p o s i t i o n s , o b j e c t to t h i s k i n d of P o e t r y ,  for  period.  zwischen  'dunkle,'  I t i s therefore  3  necessary  to t u r n to England  d i s c u s s i o n of medieval  and France  l i t e r a t u r e and  i n o r d e r to d i s c o v e r e a r l y academic  t o f i n d the f i r s t  t h e o r i e s on  the  o r i g i n s o f romance. Three d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s on the g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i g i n s of f i c t i o n became p o p u l a r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d : (or A r a b i a n ) , and was  the C e l t i c .  W i l l i a m Temple, who  was  the E a s t e r n  An e a r l y promoter of the N o r t h e r n  i n t e r e s t e d i n medieval  d e r i v i n g from the G o t h i c temperament. and  the Northern,  romantic  In h i s two  romance as a phenomenon essays  "Of h e r o i c v i r t u e "  "Of p o e t r y " (1690) he t r a c e d the s p i r i t of c h i v a l r y and  as w e l l as the enchantments and G o t h i c manners. ^ f i n d another  In the F r e n c h  sponsor  of t h i s  theory  romantic  the s u p e r n a t u r a l i n medieval  romance, to  s c h o l a r L a Curne de S a i n t e - P a l a y e  theory.  honour,  we  H i s Memoires sur l ' a n c i e n n e c h e v a l e r i e ,  c o n s i d e r e e comme un e t a b l i s s e m e n t p o l i t i q u e et m i l i t a i r e , which he began to w r i t e i n 17^6,  i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g  statement:  Je n ' a i p o i n t p a r l e j u s q u ' i c i des C h e v a l i e r s e r r a n s , t e l s que ceux de l a T a b l e Ronde & a u t r e s , que l e s f i c t i o n s romanesques ont rendu s i fameux. Les r e c i t s que nous l i s o n s de l e u r s aventures m e r v e i l l e u s e s , sont vraisemblablement fondes sur de v i e i l l e s t r a d i t i o n s , q u i e t o i e n t elles-memes empruntees des o r i g i n e s encore p l u s f a b u l e u s e s des peuples venus du Nord.^2 Meanwhile the E a s t e r n t h e o r y had been proposed by W i l l i a m Warburton, who  i n 17^2  s t a t e d t h a t the o r i g i n of romance l a y i n the O r i e n t .  view, c r u s a d e r s , p i l g r i m s and  the Moorish  i n v a d e r s of S p a i n had  In h i s brought  E a s t e r n t a l e s from A r a b i a to the West, where T u r p i n and G e o f f r e y of Monmouth then became the fountainheads t h e r n and  o f romance i n Europe.  Both the Nor-  the E a s t e r n t h e o r i e s were then p r e s e n t e d by Thomas Warton i n  h i s Observations  on the " F a i r y Queen" of Spenser (175*0 ^  Warton d i d not i n d i c a t e which of the two  I  n  t  f t i s  t h e o r i e s he f a v o u r e d , and  study con-  c e n t r a t e d i n s t e a d on h i s defence of Spenser,  c h i v a l r y , and  especially  medieval romances, " f o r however monstrous and u n n a t u r a l these compositions may  appear  to t h i s age of reason and r e f i n e m e n t , they m e r i t more a t t e n t i o n  than the w o r l d i s w i l l i n g  to bestow" ( I I , 322-23) •  I n s p i r e d by Warton's  O b s e r v a t i o n s and a l s o by the a n t i q u a r i a n i n t e r e s t of the poet Thomas Gray (who had  r e c o v e r e d a l a r g e number of M i d d l e E n g l i s h poems), R i c h a r d Hurd  composed i n I 7 6 2 h i s L e t t e r s on C h i v a l r y and Romance. t h a t "the ages, we speculation,"  Hurd, who  held  c a l l barbarous, p r e s e n t us w i t h many a s u b j e c t of c u r i o u s  had no f i r s t - h a n d knowledge o f the romances and t h e r e f o r e  r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the work o f La Curne de S a i n t e - P a l a y e . not share the l a t t e r ' s views  However, he d i d  on the o r i g i n s , s u b s c r i b i n g i n s t e a d to the  E a s t e r n t h e o r y as o u t l i n e d by Warburton and Warton. U n l i k e Hurd, B i s h o p Thomas P e r c y v o i c e d s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s to Warburton's i d e a s , and f a v o u r e d i n s t e a d the N o r t h e r n t h e o r y . critic because  P e r c y was  the f i r s t  English  a c t u a l l y to i n s p e c t m e d i e v a l romances, which a t t r a c t e d h i s a t t e n t i o n they r e p r e s e n t e d t o him one  he planned  example of p r i m i t i v e p o e t r y ; ^ a l t h o u g h  t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n he f a i l e d  to a c c o m p l i s h t h i s p r o j e c t .  In the  "Essay on the A n c i e n t M e t r i c a l Romances" p u b l i s h e d i n h i s R e l i q u e s o f Ancient English Poetry  (I765)  n e  wrote:  The o p i n i o n . . . seems v e r y u n t e n a b l e , which some l e a r n e d and i n g e n i o u s men have e n t e r t a i n e d , t h a t the t u r n f o r C h i v a l r y , and the t a s t e f o r t h a t s p e c i e s of romantic f i c t i o n were caught by the Spaniards from the A r a b i a n s . . . and from the Spaniards t r a n s m i t t e d t o the bards of Armorica, and thus d i f f u s e d through B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , I t a l y , Germany and the N o r t h . F o r i t seems u t t e r l y i n c r e d i b l e , t h a t one rude people s h o u l d adopt a p e c u l i a r t a s t e and manner of w r i t i n g or t h i n k i n g from another, w i t h o u t borrowing a t the same time any o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t o r i e s or f a b l e s , w i t h o u t a p p e a r i n g to know a n y t h i n g o f t h e i r h e r o e s , h i s t o r y , laws and r e l i g i o n . . . . A l l the o l d w r i t e r s of c h i v a l r y . . . appear u t t e r l y unacquainted w i t h whatever r e l a t e s to the Mahometan n a t i o n s .  5  P e r c y p o i n t e d out t h a t o t h e r s who  had w r i t t e n on the o r i g i n s of the  "Romances of C h i v a l r y " were seemingly unaware t h a t the f i r s t of  t h i s k i n d were i n v e r s e , and u s u a l l y sung to the h a r p .  compositions  I n h i s view  the romances were l i n e a l l y descended from the a n c i e n t h i s t o r i c a l of  the G o t h i c bards and s c a l d s , and the Normans brought  from the N o r t h to F r a n c e .  songs  the romances  Most of the E n g l i s h m e t r i c a l romances were  t r a n s l a t i o n s from the French, but the E n g l i s h d i d have some o r i g i n a l romances o f t h e i r own. wrote:  "The  When d i s c u s s i n g the sources o f the A r t h u r i a d he  s t o r i e s of K i n g A r t h u r and h i s Round T a b l e , may  supposed of the growth of t h i s i s l a n d ; p r o b a b l y had  be  reasonably  both the French and the  Armoricans  them from B r i t a i n " ( p . x v i i i ) .  The Welsh a n t i q u a r i a n Evan Evans, one of the l e a d e r s of the  Celtic  R e v i v a l which took p l a c e d u r i n g the l a t t e r h a l f of the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , suggested  d u r i n g h i s l o n g correspondence  18  w i t h P e r c y t h a t the A r t h u r i a n  19 romances o r i g i n a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Wales. was  theory,  r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t by Thomas Warton when he r e a d d r e s s e d h i m s e l f to the  question of o r i g i n s .  T a k i n g up c e r t a i n i d e a s a l r e a d y expressed  study of Spenser he now to  T h i s , the C e l t i c  attempted  in his (1774-81)  i n h i s H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h P o e t r y  r e c o n c i l e the E a s t e r n t h e o r y w i t h the N o r t h e r n .  In t h i s  literary  h i s t o r y — a work of v a s t e r u d i t i o n , and the f r u i t o f much p a t i e n t r e s e a r c h among o l d MSS  ( i n c l u d i n g those i n P a r i s of the roman en p r o s e ) — h e  main-  t a i n e d t h a t Western romance o r i g i n a t e d as E a s t e r n f a b l e , f o r the s c a l d s o r i g i n a l l y o b t a i n e d t h e i r m a t e r i a l from the A r a b i a n s . these views was (the  h i s statement  Concordant  with  t h a t G e o f f r e y of Monmouth's c h r o n i c l e  H i s t o r i a Regum B r i t a n n i a e , composed c a . II3O-36), "supposed to con-  t a i n the i d e a s of the Welsh bards, e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t s of A r a b i a n i n v e n t i o n s " (1,102).  The c l i m a t e t h e o r y i n f l u e n c e d Warton when he formed these i d e a s :  6  he c l a i m e d t h a t the f e r t i l i t y o f f i c t i o n and the e x o t i c imagery i n romances c o u l d n o t have o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e c o l d and b a r r e n c o n c e p t i o n s of a Western c l i m a t e . Warton's t h e o r i e s were vehemently  r e p u d i a t e d by Joseph R i t s o n , who  s t r o n g l y f a v o u r e d the C e l t i c t h e o r y as proposed by Evans.  Included i n  21 his  initial  c r i t i q u e o f Warton (I782)  was the b r i e f comment  t h a t the  o r i g i n o f romantic f i c t i o n was e n t i r e l y due t o the C e l t i c n a t i o n s , which "had d o u b t l e s s * a v e r y s u f f i c i e n t  stock o f l i e s o f t h e i r own growth,*  w i t h o u t b e i n g beholden  a d v e n t u r e r s " ( p . k).  to A s i a t i c  Ritson's Disser-  22 tation  on Romance and M i n s t r e l s y (1802)  c o n t a i n e d both another o u t -  spoken c r i t i c i s m o f Warton and a l s o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the C e l t i c origins, or  and on t h i s l a t t e r t o p i c he now w r o t e :  "There i s no v e s t i g e  shadow of any a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t y t h a t t h i s p i t i f u l n a t i o n lArmorica], a  s m a l l c o l o n y from South Wales, o r C o r n w a l l i n B r i t a i n , , had any o t h e r f i c t i o n than such as t h e y had c a r r i e d The  over w i t h them" ( p . 15) •  growth o f t h e a n t i q u a r i a n s p i r i t and the awakening of i n t e r e s t  i n the m e d i e v a l p e r i o d and i t s l i t e r a t u r e than i n B r i t a i n o r F r a n c e ;  took p l a c e l a t e r i n Germany  Germany was slower i n d e v e l o p i n g the h i s t o r i c a l  sense, i n which i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t e a r l i e r l i t e r a t u r e s  s h o u l d be  judged from the h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t o f view, and w i t h r e l a t i v e  standards  c o n s t a n t l y borne i n mind. historical  One o f the f i r s t  i n Germany t o d i s p l a y  this  sense was Johann G o t t f r i e d Herder, and the Romantic movement  then brought about  a deepening  ment o f s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r y .  o f t h i s sense, and thus a l s o the d e v e l o p -  Herder f e l t ,  h i s t o r y should t r a c e t h e o r i g i n s ,  f o r example, t h a t l i t e r a r y  growth, f l o w e r i n g and decay o f l i t e r a t u r e  7  a c c o r d i n g to the d i f f e r e n t  s t y l e s of r e g i o n s , times and p o e t s .  pen came t h e r e f o r e the f i r s t of  s i g n i f i c a n t German c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s t u d y  o r i g i n s o f romance, namely i n the f o u r t h p a r t of h i s Ideen z u r P h i l o s o p h i e  der G e s c h i c h t e der Menschheit In  (1791)-^  t h i s work he d i s c u s s e d the o r i g i n s and d i f f u s i o n of the o r a l A r t h u r i a n  legends, and a l s o the l i t e r a r y o r i g i n s of A r t h u r i a n romance. oral traditions  to t h e i r b i r t h  were f u r t h e r developed of  From Herder's  Europe.  French.  The  He t r a c e d  i n Wales and C o r n w a l l , and showed how  they  i n A r m o r i c a , whence they then spread over the whole  l i t e r a r y o r i g i n s of the A r t h u r i a d , on the o t h e r hand, were  Combining f e a t u r e s o f the N o r t h e r n and  c l a i m e d t h a t when the F r e n c h c u l t i v a t e d  the E a s t e r n t h e o r i e s  the a r t o f romantic f i c t i o n  were f e d by the twin impulses o f the N o r t h e r n l o v e o f adventure and for  the  women, and the E a s t e r n i n t e r e s t i n c h i v a l r y and  on t h r e e sources f o r t h e i r l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t s : s t o r i e s from c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y , and  love.  Herder they deference  The poets drew  h e r o i c t a l e s o f Charlemagne,  legends of the Round T a b l e , and  these  l a s t were made a v a i l a b l e to the poets by the o r a l legends b e i n g c i r c u l a t e d i n Armorica.  In s h o r t , Herder d i s c u s s e d t h r e e main t o p i c s :  of  the o r a l  of  the poets i n whose hands the legends f i n a l l y c r y s t a l l i z e d  the f i r s t  location  legends, t h e i r d i f f u s i o n i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n , and the n a t i o n a l i t y into written  romances. As T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p developed, the d i s c u s s i o n of o r i g i n s . attempts  The  these t o p i c s became the key i s s u e s i n  term " o r i g i n r e s e a r c h " comprehends a l l the  to e l u c i d a t e the p r e l i m i n a r y forms and development o f the legend of  T r i s t a n and I s o l d e i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n , up l i t e r a r y romance.  to i t s f i r s t  There were b a s i c a l l y two  appearance  reasons why  as a m e d i e v a l  t h i s a r e a of r e s e a r c h  c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y g i v e r i s e to a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i v e r g e n c e of o p i n i o n .  On  the  8  one hand the o r a l t r a d i t i o n s were of a f l u i d  and  largely  indeterminable  n a t u r e , unsupported as they were by any d i r e c t documentary e v i d e n c e . o t h e r hand the o r i g i n a l T r i s t a n romance was had  to deduce the o r i g i n s from secondary  triads,  troubadour  Herder was  lyrics,  lais,  the  C r i t i c s therefore  or d e r i v a t i v e m a t e r i a l such as Welsh  and e x t a n t romances.  f a m i l i a r w i t h the work of s c h o l a r s such as Warton, La Curne  de S a i n t e - P a l a y e , and Percy, he now  not e x t a n t .  On  and  l i k e these p r e c u r s o r s i n England  and  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Germany an i m a g i n a t i v e i n t e r e s t i n the r i c h  h e r i t a g e o f the M i d d l e Ages.  P r i o r to t h i s time the r e s u l t s of the  s t u d i e s of i s o l a t e d p i o n e e r s such as Bodmer, B r e i t i n g e r and H e i n r i c h M y l l e r had met  France  cultural medieval  Christoph  w i t h a poor r e c e p t i o n , as e x e m p l i f i e d by the well-known  r e a c t i o n o f F r e d e r i c k the Great to the f i r s t  volume of M y l l e r ' s Samlung 2k  deutscher  Gedichte  aus  dem  X I I . X I I I . und XIV.  Iahrhundert  —a  collection  which i n i t s second volume c o n t a i n e d the f i r s t e d i t i o n o f G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n . A t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , however, m e d i e v a l i s m among the German Romantics. Ludwig T i e c k gave an eloquent M i n n e l i e d e r aus dem  Of  the r a p i d  and  became the c u r r e n t c o i n  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the German a t t i t u d e  apt d e s c r i p t i o n i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s  schwabischen Z e i t a l t e r  (I803) '•  Sehn w i r auf e i n e u n l a n g s t v e r f l o s s e n e Z e i t zurlick, d i e s i c h durch G l e i c h g t l l t i g k e i t , M i s s v e r s t a n d n i s s e oder das N i c h t b e a c h t e n der Werke der schbnen Klinste a u s z e i c h n e t , so mtissen w i r liber d i e s c h n e l l e Wandlung erstaunen, d i e i n einem so kurzen Z e i t r a u m b e w i r k t h a t , dass man s i c h n i c h t nur f U r d i e DenkmSler v e r f l o s s e n e r Z e i t a l t e r i n t e r e s s i e r t , sondern s i e w l i r d i g t , und n i c h t nur m i t e i n s e i t i g e m v e r b i l d e n d e n E i f e r bewundert, sondern durch e i n hbheres Streben s i c h bemliht, jeden G e i s t auf s e i n e eigene A r t zu v e r s t e h e n und zu f a s s e n . . . So wie j e t z t wurden d i e A l t e n noch n i e g e l e s e n und U b e r s e t z t . . . . Man i s t i n Grundsatzen e i n i g , d i e man noch v o r wenigen Jahren T o r h e i t g e s c h o l t e n h a t t e , und dabei s i n d d i e F o r t s c h r i t t e der E r k e n n t n i s n i c h t von mehr WidersprUchen und Verwirrungen b e g l e i t e t und g e s t O r t , a l s jede grosse menschliche Bestrebung notwendig immer h e r b e i z i e h e n wird '  9 The  awakening of i n t e r e s t i n the M i d d l e Ages found  p o e t r y but a l s o i n p h i l o l o g y .  The  e d i t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n s of sources  r e c o v e r y of MSS,  and  i n England, France  period witnessed  and  the p r e p a r a t i o n of  e v a l u a t i o n s o f l i t e r a r y products  the past r a p i d l y gained prominence, and popular  e x p r e s s i o n not o n l y i n  these p h i l o l o g i c a l p u r s u i t s were  Germany c o n c u r r e n t l y .  As a r e s u l t ,  the emergence of T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p p r o p e r .  advances i n knowledge were indeed " c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " and  of  to be accompanied and  this  Whether the  d i s t u r b e d by  the  " c o n f u s i o n s " r e f e r r e d to by T i e c k w i l l become c l e a r  i n the f o l l o w i n g s u r v e y .  10  II  The S t u d i e s  during  the E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h Century  t:  A. (i)  H i s t o r i c a l and M y t h o l o g i c a l Historical  O r i g i n s o f the Legend  Origins  That T r i s t a n was a f i g u r e drawn from a n c i e n t B r i t i s h h i s t o r y was a c c e p t e d as dogma by the e a r l y s c h o l a r s . p i l e d during  The i d e a was f i r s t put forward i n works com-  the C e l t i c R e v i v a l , such as t h e M u s i c a l  of the Welsh Bards ( 1 7 8 4 ) ,  the Myvyrian A r c h a i o l o g y  and P o e t i c a l R e l i c k s (l80l),  and the Cambrian  26 ' Biography ( 1 8 0 3 ) , Trystan  which l i s t e d a l l the known appearances of T r i s t a n ( s p e l t  o r Drystan) i n extant Welsh m e d i e v a l MSS.  by Welsh a n t i q u a r i a n s itions  who f i r m l y b e l i e v e d  These books were e d i t e d  i n t h e h i g h a n t i q u i t y o f the t r a d -  i n the Welsh r e m n a n t s — d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the MSS d i d n o t themselves  antedate the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The e d i t o r s drew a v e r b a l p i c t u r e o f T r i s t a n  i n whom they found a s i x t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h c h i e f t a i n and contemporary of K i n g Arthur. him  Of the many e p i t h e t s a p p l i e d to him i n these t e x t s , one d e s c r i b e d  as the mighty swineherd, another named him the l o v e r o f I s o l d e , w h i l e  I s o l d e was d e s c r i b e d tri  as one o f the three unchaste women.  The t r i a d o f the  gwrdveichyat (the three mighty swineherds) i n the MS. P e n i a r t h  l 6 gave  evidence of a t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between D r y s t a n , h i s u n c l e March and the l a t t e r ' s w i f e  Essyllt,  and as a r e s u l t the n o t i o n h e l d sway f o r some  time t h a t the e n t i r e s t o r y o f the l o v e between T r i s t a n and I s o l d e as r e l a t e d i n the extant  r o m a n c e s — i n which the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s were the l o v e -  d r i n k and the t r a g i c c o n f l i c t w i t h the law—was, l i k e Celtic  the hero, of i n s u l a r  origin.  S i r W a l t e r S c o t t , one of the eminent founders of T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p , gave v o i c e i n 1804 to h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the legend was based on B r i t i s h h i s t o r y when d i s c u s s i n g the o r i g i n s i n the p r e f a c e  to h i s e d i t i o n o f the  11  E n g l i s h m e d i e v a l romance S i r T r i s t r e m . legend had  a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d  The  sources of t h a t v e r s i o n or  by John P i n k e r t o n ,  who  in his  the  "Essay on  28 the o r i g i n of S c o t i s h P o e t r y " ( I 7 8 6 ) p i e c e of S c o t i s h p o e t r y we by  the c e l e b r a t e d  B r i t i s h poetry;  Tristram being  Arthur's  k n i g h t s was  high  not  The  of A r t h u r ' s  xxx).  According  (p.xxvi)  but  "whether he  r e a l l y was  on  to  indeed one  of  He  flourished  a contemporary  on account of h i s  difficult  to determine.  the  legend of T r i s t a n and  the h i g h a n t i q u i t y claimed  . . .  stormy independence of C o r n w a l l  admitted, w i t h o u t i n c u r r i n g the charge of c r e d u l i t y " to S c o t t ,  be  believed  c h i e f t a i n , who  a s c r i b e d to him  the  founded  Isolde,  t r u s t the Welch [ s i c ] a u t h o r i t i e s , i s founded upon a u t h e n t i c ( p . x x v i ) , and  important  seems now  a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t demur by S c o t t .  i n t e r e s t i n g adventures, i t i s now  I t h i n k , be  first  T h i s poem, so  but  i d e a t h a t T r i s t a n was  That T r i s t r e m a c t u a l l y f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g may,  knights.  w r i t t e n about 1270,  or whether that honour was  renown and  very  of E r c i l d o n , was  an h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , "a c e l e b r a t e d  s i x t h century"  of A r t h u r ,  one  time, was 29  lost" (p.lix).  T r i s t a n to be i n the  at the  "The  hear o f , namely, the Romance of S i r T r i s t r a m  Thomas Lermont the rimer  highly celebrated  unfortunately  had w r i t t e n :  " i f we  (pp.xxix-  may  history"  f o r the Welsh t r i a d s was  probably  justified. S c o t t knew that other well before  by  the T r i s t a n theme had  the c o m p o s i t i o n of S i r T r i s t r e m , but he  as t o l d i n any perverted  poems on  e x i s t e d i n France  asserted  t h a t the  story  of these e a r l i e r French v e r s i o n s would have been a l t e r e d  the d i s e u r s  a f a l s e conclusion t i n e n t a l romances.  of Normandy.  concerning He  We  erroneously  and  S c o t t then drew  the r e l a t i o n s h i p of S i r T r i s t r e m  to the  con-  suggested t h a t the author of S i r T r i s t r e m ,  h a v i n g d i r e c t access to the insular C e l t i c o r i g i n a l s i m p l i c i t y the  can understand why  s t o r y which had  . . .  t r a d i t i o n s , brought back to i t s  undergone such a r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n  12  on  the c o n t i n e n t .  As  yet i t was  not known to T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s  E n g l i s h romance, l i k e G o t t f r i e d ' s , was B r i t t a n y , and  t h e r e f o r e not  many l a t e r s c h o l a r s , he poet, C h r e t i e n  the  based on the work o f Thomas of  taken d i r e c t l y from C e l t i c  considered  that  tradition.  Like  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the g r e a t  de Troyes, wrote a T r i s t a n romance, and  French  r e f e r r e d to  an  30  a l l u s i o n i n Chretien's to whether C h r e t i e n t h a t , had  he  positions"  work to the l o v e - p o t i o n .  a c t u a l l y wrote a romance on  done so,  " i t c e r t a i n l y was  t h e i r attempts to d i s c o v e r  cans and  t h i s theme, but  i n verse,  concluded  l i k e a l l h i s other  a l s o the Anglo-Normans as  a s c e r t a i n whence C h r e s t i e n have passed to him Normandy was,  p o s s i b l e routes  the i n t e r m e d i a r i e s :  by which posited  but,  the the A r m o r i -  The  tales  as the u n i o n between B r i t a i n  i n h i s days, most i n t i m a t e ,  i t seems f u l l y as p r o b a b l e  c o l l e c t e d i n England, or from E n g l i s h a u t h o r i t y ,  the  may  and that  framed i n t o Romances" ( p p . x x x v - x x x v i ) . the  succeeded i n i n t e r e s t i n g many of the Romantic poets i n  M i d d l e High German l i t e r a t u r e — a l s o h e l d  the view t h a t the  legend l a y i n B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , a c o n c l u s i o n the s t o r y w i t h a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t s .  of the  of  absorbing  the compared  interest in  d e l i v e r e d i n B e r l i n from I803  to lQOk on the h i s t o r y of Romantic l i t e r a t u r e , T r i s t a n i n the context  roots  a r r i v e d at a f t e r he had  Schlegel's  m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e animated the l e c t u r e s he  discussed  to  ancient  L i k e S c o t t , August W i l h e l m S c h l e g e l — w h o i n the f i r s t years of century  been  " i t is difficult  de Troyes p r o c u r e d h i s s u b j e c t s .  from A r m o r i c a :  B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s which he  nineteenth  com-  the ways i n which the T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l had  legends might have reached the F r e n c h p o e t s , he  he h i m s e l f  as  t h a t s c h o l a r s would l a t e r face i n  I n d i c a t i n g t h a t there were two  Arthurian  uncertain  (p.xxvi).  S c o t t a n t i c i p a t e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s  diffused.  S c o t t was  and  i t was  " B r i t t a n i s c h e und  here that  he  Nordfranzb'sische  13  Rittermythologie." British  In h i s view, A r t h u r i a n romances o r i g i n a t e d i n the  I s l e s , and  the A r t h u r i a d was  the admixture of i n s u l a r and  c o n t i n e n t a l elements i n  r e a d i l y e x p l i c a b l e i f the romances were seen i n the  light  of B r i t i s h h i s t o r y : . . . d i e G e s c h i c h t e von A r t u s [ i s t ] e i n e W a l l i s i s c h e oder A l t b r i t i s c h e n a t i o n a l e E r i n n e r u n g aus der Z e i t , wo d i e s e s Volk von den Sachsen i n seine j e t z i g e n S i t z e v e r d r a n g t worden, wie s i c h denn u n t e r d r U c k t e V S l k e r gern m i t TrSumen ehemaliger H e r r l i c h k e i t n'a"hren. Nachher [ i s t ] durch den v i e l f a l t i g e n Verkehr mit dem F r a n z ' 6 s i s c h e n Bretagne, d i e G e s c h i c h t e nach F r a n k r e i c h h i n i i b e r g e b r a c h t , und d o r t h a u p t s S c h l i c h a u s g e b i l d e t worden. Hiemit stimmt das sehr gut Uberein, dass d i e Haupt-.szene, der Hof des A r t u s s e l b s t , i n B r i t a n n i e n b e f i n d l i c h , d i e vornehmsten R i t t e r aber, e i n L a n z e l o t , P a r c i v a l , T r i s t a n u. s. aus F r a n k r e i c h g e b U r t i g s i n d . (p. I 3 8 )  w.  In h i s l a t e r essays "Observations sur l a langue et l a l i t t e r a t u r e provencale"  (l8l8)  and  "De  l ' o r i g i n e des  romans de c h e v a l e r i e " (1833-34)  S c h l e g e l e s t a b l i s h e d a more p r e c i s e h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r the T r i s t a n  legend.  He wrote : Un t r a i t du roman s'accorde avec des p r o b a b i l i t e s h i s t o r i q u e s : T r i s t a n d e l i v r e l a C o r n o u a i l l e d'un t r i b u t q u ' e l l e e t a i t f o r c e e de payer au r o i d ' I r l a n d e . Les Danois e t a b l i s sur l a cote o r i e n t a l e de c e t t e f i e y formerent un royaume assez p u i s s a n t pour i n f e s t e r l a Grande-Bretagne par l e u r s e x p e d i t i o n s m a r i t i m e s . Dans l e roman, l e r o i d ' I r l a n d e Gormon (Gorm) p o r t e un nom vraiment s c a n d i n a v e . La t r o p s e d u i s a n t e Y s e u l t , quoique nee en I r l a n d e , a u r a i t done ete une p r i n c e s s e d a n o i s e . A u s s i f u t - e l l e surnommee l a b l o n d e . ("De l ' o r i g i n e , " pp. 294^95). He  d i f f e r e d from S c o t t i n t h a t he  h i s t o r i c a l l y speaking, f o r g e r i e s : n e c t i o n whatsoever w i t h  Rather, the  Welshmen w r i t i n g i n the f o u r t e e n t h e ' e t a i e n t e n f i n Aes  etrangement offusque  i n his opinion  the  t r i a d s were the work of  century,  being,  t r i a d s had  s i x t h - c e n t u r y B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , nor had  authors been t r u e bards .  ignorants;  denounced the Welsh t e x t s as  no  con-  their patriotic  " a n t i q u a i r e s passionnes e t  celtomanes, dont l e s p r e j u g e s  les facultes i n t e l l e c t u e l l e s "  ("De  avaient  l'origine,"  p.284).  Ik  Indeed,  S c h l e g e l ' s determined  s c e p t i c i s m was  a k i n to t h a t of D a v i d W.  whose book on T a l i e s i n brought Matthew A r n o l d , the a p o l o g i s t of Welsh e r a t u r e and the C e l t i c h e r i t a g e ,  Nash, lit-  to the defence of the a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n s 33  which he b e l i e v e d  to be p r e s e r v e d i n the Welsh t e x t s .  S c h l e g e l wrote i n these l a t e r essays t h a t the Anglo-Normans were the main channel of t r a n s m i s s i o n through which the i n s u l a r legends had to F r a n c e , where the f i r s t T r i s t a n romance had F r e n c h poet who, made c l e a r , was  passed  then been composed by a North  as c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l f e a t u r e s i n the e x t a n t romances w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the B r i t i s h scene.  He h e l d t h a t  this  romance had a t an e a r l y date been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o P r o v e n c a l , f o r such a t r a n s l a t i o n would account f o r the many r e f e r e n c e s to the T r i s t a n troubadour p o e t r y .  But t h a t a P r o v e n c a l romance might  have antedated  F r e n c h T r i s t a n , as had been suggested by c e r t a i n French s c h o l a r s p. 20)  was  In 1809  i n h i s opinion n e i t h e r probable n o r  theme i n the  (see below,  possible.  the f r i e n d s and c o l l a b o r a t o r s Johann Gustav BUsching  and  F r i e d r i c h H e i n r i c h von der Hagen t o g e t h e r e d i t e d a r e - i s s u e of the a n t h o l o g y entitled  the Buch der L i e b e which,  Prosaroman of T r i s t a n . discussed;  34  as was  mentioned  earlier,  included  the  In the e d i t o r i a l p r e f a c e the sources were not  nor d i d S c h l e g e l ' s review i n 1810  d e a l w i t h the q u e s t i o n of  o r i g i n s , beyond a f l e e t i n g r e f e r e n c e to the extreme age of the l e g e n d . However, when Jacob Grimm reviewed  the book i n 1812  35  t h i s t o p i c came to the  36  v e r y f o r e f r o n t of d i s c u s s i o n .  Grimm, who  regarded the e a r l i e s t  stages i n  a legend's development as N a t u r p o e s i e , the embodiment of an innocence which was  later lost  i n the K u n s t p o e s i e  (such as c o u r t l y romance), dwelt i n p a r t i -  c u l a r on the o r i g i n s of the T r i s t a n l e g e n d .  He a l s o d i s c u s s e d the  relation-  s h i p s between the e x t a n t romances, g i v i n g f a r more a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on  15  the t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s than W a l t e r S c o t t had He  s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d BUsching  and von der Hagen f o r h a v i n g o m i t t e d a l l  mention of the appearances of T r i s t a n and f o r he,  done e i g h t years p r e v i o u s l y .  I s o l d e i n the a n c i e n t Welsh t e x t s  l i k e S c o t t , e v i d e n t l y b e l i e v e d i n the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the Welsh  tradition.  F o r Grimm, the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the e p i s o d e s i n the  s t o r y f u r n i s h e d a d d i t i o n a l proof t h a t i t o r i g i n a t e d i n the B r i t i s h "Nur  i n dem  boden des lebens s e l b s t kann d i e b a l d i n s o v i e l Sste ausgehende  sage gekeimt haben, und musz mit der g e s c h i c h t e des l a n d e s , wo jedesmal  zusammenh'dngen, i n England,  wiege der u n s r i g e n aufzusuchen" Celtic  Isles:  sie spielt,  I r l a n d und Wales haben w i r auch d i e  (p. 8 8 ) .  Commenting on the importance  t r a d i t i o n f o r the modern student of A r t h u r i a n romance he w r o t e :  "Insgemein s o l l t e n c e l t i s c h e sprache und  tradition  . . . b e i den  romanen  von der t . r . [ T a f e l r u n d e ] n i c h t v e r n a c h l a s s i g t werden" ( p . 8 8 ) . he i n d i c a t e d t h a t the legend had  Although  spread to the r e s t of Europe a t a v e r y  e a r l y date, he d i d not s p e c i f y the means by which the m a t e r i a l was m i t t e d , nor whether i t was  trans-  i n o r a l o r w r i t t e n form, but s i m p l y wrote:  Normanner s c h e i n e n dabei zugetragen  (ii)  of  zu haben" ( p .  "Die  88).  Mythological Origins While  the t h e o r y t h a t the T r i s t a n legend d e r i v e d from B r i t i s h  history  was  s t e a d i l y g a i n i n g ground, o t h e r c r i t i c s were b e g i n n i n g to s t r i k e out i n  new  d i r e c t i o n s i n the study of o r i g i n s .  Jacob Bryant's book on the  arkite  37 i d o l a t r y i n Greek mythology n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and  was  much i n vogue at the b e g i n n i n g of  the  the i n f l u e n c e e x e r t e d on T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p by  work f i r s t became e v i d e n t i n 1809,  when Edward Davies,  this  the r e c t o r of B i s h o p s t o n  16  (Glamorgan), claimed t h a t the legend d e r i v e d from a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n s . book The Mythology and R i t e s o f the B r i t i s h D r u i d s — a n o t h e r C e l t i c Revival—marked  product o f the  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the m y t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  the sources o f the T r i s t a n s t o r y . indirect  His  However s t r o n g o r weak, d i r e c t o r  the l i n k between the C e l t i c peoples  and the f a b l e was g e n e r a l l y  c o n s i d e r e d t o be, the c o n n e c t i o n was i n d i s p u t a b l e . The M y t h o l o g i c a l S c h o o l , as we may c a l l literally  this  group o f s c h o l a r s , s t r a i n e d t h i s f a c t t o support s e v e r a l  f a r - f e t c h e d hypotheses  legend, and the reasons  c o n c e r n i n g extremely  remote o r i g i n s of the  f o r i t s subsequent appearance among the C e l t s i n  Europe. In led  the Welsh t e x t s T r i s t a n appeared  Davies  to conclude  as the t h i r d swineherd,  t h a t the legend a l l e g o r i z e d  and t h i s  that period i n B r i t i s h  h i s t o r y when the P h o e n i c i a n r i t e s o f the sow were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o C o r n i s h religions. depraved;  These f o r e i g n m y s t e r i e s were regarded as b e i n g u n l a w f u l and similarly,  "the i n t e r c o u r s e o f T r y s t a n w i t h h i s m i s t r e s s  was both a d u l t e r o u s and i n c e s t u o u s " ( p . kkO).  The b l o n d e - h a i r e d  Essyllt,  Essyllt,  w i f e o f March, r e p r e s e n t e d the white-maned mare, w h i l e March's name d e r i v e d from the word f o r h o r s e — t h e  animal  s y m b o l i z i n g the s a c r e d s h i p or a r k .  T r y s t a n moreover was the son of T a l l w c h , the deluge, and t h e r e f o r e "a l e g i timate son o f the A r k i t e r e l i g i o n " ( p . kk&) .  Davies  concluded  t h a t "the  n o t i c e s which the t r i a d s have p r e s e r v e d , upon the s u b j e c t o f the c e l e b r a t e d T r y s t a n , a r e undoubtedly,  a b s t r a c t s o f some o l d m y s t i c a l t a l e s , which were  c u r r e n t among the e a r l y B r i t o n s . appeared and  i n the Welsh language,  And a l t h o u g h the t a l e s  . . . have d i s -  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t they must have e x i s t e d ,  t h a t they formed the b a s i s o f c e r t a i n romantic h i s t o r i e s , o f the famous  k n i g h t , S i r T r i s t r a m , which are s t i l l  extant i n French and E n g l i s h " ( p . kk-6) .  17  Robert Southey, one of the f i r s t  t o c r i t i c i z e and mock t h i s method of  i n t e r p r e t i n g the o r i g i n s o f the legend, wrote of D a v i e s ' study i n 1 8 1 7 : , 39 "But t h i s i s the utmost w i l d n e s s of h y p o t h e s i s . " of  o t h e r c r i t i c s adopted The  die 1821  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a number  a v i e w p o i n t s i m i l a r to t h a t o f D a v i e s .  second c o n t r i b u t i o n to the M y t h o l o g i c a l School was the e s s a y "Uber  Bedeutung der Sage vom T r i s t a n " by Franz J . Mone, which appeared i n i n the p r e f a c e to the second e d i t i o n t o be made o f G o t t f r i e d ' s romance.^'  U n l i k e S c o t t and S c h l e g e l , who m a i n t a i n e d  t h a t the legend r e s t e d upon a f i r m  h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s , Mone wrote t h a t T r i s t a n was " k e i n g e s c h i c h t l i c h e r Mensch, sondern  e i n v e r k b r p e r t e r Gedanken" ( p . X X I l ) , and as such embodied a d u a l i s t i c  principle.  T r i s t a n m a n i f e s t e d h i s b e i n g i n a m u l t i t u d e of d i f f e r e n t  but h i s one c o n s t a n t a t t r i b u t e was the exposure  to a l i f e  forms,  of s u f f e r i n g .  Mone  i n t e r p r e t e d the f a b l e as h a v i n g o r i g i n a t e d as a s o l a r myth, and T r i s t a n , a c c o r d i n g l y , was the "Sonnenheld" ( p . X X X I I ) . The next s c h o l a r to d i s c u s s the legend i n terms of mythology was von kl der Hagen, who i n h i s M i n n e s i n g e r  made ample compensation  d i s r e g a r d of the sources i n h i s and BUsching's  for his earlier  e d i t i o n of the Buch der L i e b e  by c o m p i l i n g an e x t e n s i v e l i s t of the b a s i c elements  of the legend as they  o c c u r r e d i n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e s and mythologies--which  he termed " u r v e r -  wandte a h n l i c h e Sagen" ( p . 5 ^ 3 ) — a n d by n o t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  the Welsh t r a d i t i o n s : "Uberhaupt s t e h t nun i n der W a l i s i s c h e n Sage a l l e s  - ganz mythisch da;  und so getrlibt und gedrlickt auch i h r e U b e r l i e f erungen  e r s c h e i n e n , so muss man ihnen doch e i n hb'heres A l t e r , a l s den Ubrigen e i n r'dumen" ( p . 5 6 6 ) .  He c i t e d a l l the appearances  of T r i s t a n ' s name i n the  Welsh t e x t s , and was of the o p i n i o n t h a t these t e x t s were independent of later literary traditions :  "So s i e h t es doch n i c h t aus wie e i n N a c h h a l l  18  der sp'dteren E n g l i s c h e n und F r a n z b s i s c h e n D i c h t u n g "  (p. 5 6 7 ) •  To D a v i e s '  m y t h o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the legend, which he summarized, von Hagen was  apparently  der  sympathetic:  So u n s i c h e r s o l c h e Deutungen s i n d , besonders wegen i h r e r spaten Urkunden, und so m a n c h e r l e i h i e r w i l l k l l r l i c h und s p i e l e n d , ohne s o l c h e A b s i c h t l i c h k e i t , s i c h e n t w i c k e l t , auswachst und a n s e t z t : so kann man s i e doch n i c h t g a n z l i c h ablaugnen. Und zumal z e i g t s i c h i n d i e s e n a u f f a l l e n d e n , u n p o e t i s c h e n D a r s t e l l u n g e n und AusdrUcken Zusammenstimmung m i t der a l t e n P r i e s t e r s y m b o l i k des Morgenlandes, auf welches d i e s e K e l t i s c h e n U b e r b l e i b s e l e i n e r f r l i h e r e n BevBlkerung Europa's auch b e k a n n t l i c h i n der Sprache so manche nahere Beziehung bewahren. (p. 5 6 7 ) Remote m y t h o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s o f the T r i s t a n theme were p o s i t e d a l s o Hermann K u r t z i n 1 8 ^ 7 «  F o l l o w i n g von der Hagen and Wilhelm M U l l e r  Versuch e i n e r mythologischen  E r k l a r u n g der Nibelungensage  B e r l i n i n 1 8 ^ 1 ) he drew a p a r a l l e l between T r i s t a n and r i v e d both l e g e n d a r y heroes the P h o e n i c i a n s brought Egypt  from the O s i r i s myth.  about  first  developed  Finally,  in de-  when they  left  the C e l t s ,  He r e f r a i n e d from  they specu-  of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r branch of C e l t s which  the T r i s t a n legend i n o r a l  tradition.  Edward T y r e l l L e i t h , s i m i l a r l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the i d e a s of  the p r e v i o u s m y t h o l o g i s t s , addressed S o c i e t y i n 1 8 6 8 on t h i s s u b j e c t . d e i f i c a t i o n of the powers of n a t u r e ; myth.  had appeared  He h e l d the view t h a t  to s e t t l e i n areas known to have been i n h a b i t e d by  l a t i o n upon the problem  (whose  S i e g f r i e d , and  the spread of t h i s myth:  brought w i t h them t h e i r t a l e s of gods and h e r o e s .  the Bombay Branch  of the R o y a l  Asiatic  L e i t h t r a c e d the legend to an a n c i e n t i t was,  he  thought, an a n c i e n t Aryan  H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f a b l e can serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  extremes to which the M y t h o l o g i c a l School went i n i t s equations o f the of  by  T r i s t a n and I s o l d e w i t h p r i m e v a l mythology.  He w r o t e :  story  19  The antagonism between the aged monarch and h i s y o u t h f u l h e i r would be t h a t between the stormy Winter and the golden S p r i n g - t i d e . I s o l d e , r e t a i n i n g the c h a r a c t e r of Earth-goddess . . . g i v e s h e r s e l f up j o y o u s l y to the embraces of the y o u t h f u l Sun-god who woos h e r . The Magic Draught, brought down by the mythic c l o u d - b i r d [Brangaene], becomes the welcome v e r n a l shower, through whose l i f e - g i v i n g i n f l u e n c e the E a r t h i s rendered f r u i t f u l . At length bleak Winter r e t u r n s , and, l i k e Mark, r e - a s s e r t s h i s power over the h a p l e s s Queen; w h i l e the s t r i c k e n Sun-god d i e s , o r wanders to other lands and seeks another b r i d e . (p. 1 3 2 ) L e i t h concluded t h a t the legend had been r e c e i v e d more r e c e n t l y from the C e l t s , and he s u p p l i e d w o r l d and i t s " f i r s t  the m i s s i n g  l i n k s between the myth o f the a n c i e n t  undeniable traces  (p. 1 1 8 ) by s u g g e s t i n g  . . .  i n ancient B r i t i s h  lore"  that the myth "was c a r r i e d westwards i n t o B r i t a i n  w i t h the wave of C e l t i c m i g r a t i o n ; from thence i n t o B r i t t a n y ; to the f a c t of t h a t p r o v i n c e  t h a t i t passed a t a v e r y e a r l y p e r i o d  and t h a t i t owed i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n being  there mainly  the l a s t r e s t i n g - p l a c e of the C e l t i c  language i n F r a n c e " ( p . 1 3 3 ) -  B.  Language of the F i r s t Romance Thus f a r i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century  the f i r s t appearance of a T r i s t a n  romance had not g i v e n r i s e to as much s p e c u l a t i o n as had the genesis legend.  That the o r i g i n a l romance was w r i t t e n i n F r e n c h most  accepted without demur.  S c h l e g e l , who  critical  a t t i t u d e , gave an e x p l a n a t i o n  theory:  "Cette  opinion,  scholars  and condemned  t h i s un-  f o r the p r e v a l e n c e of the French  en e f f e t , a v a i t e t e adoptee sans un examen  e l l e e t a i t fondee sur une c i r c o n s t a n c e prodigieux  recognized  of the  accidentelle.  de romans de c h e v a l e r i e en v i e u x  m a n u s c r i t s d'une date assez a n c i e n n e " ("De  approfondi  I I e x i s t e un nombre  f r a n c a i s , en p a r t i e dans des l ' o r i g i n e , " p. 2 5 7 ) •  A new  development came about when c e r t a i n F r e n c h s c h o l a r s put forward f r e s h  ideas  20  which r a n counter to the c u r r e n t o p i n i o n .  I n 1824 La P o i x de F r e m i n v i l l e  wrote t h a t the A r t h u r i a n romances a l l had a b a s i s i n the h i s t o r y of A r m o r i c a ; the f i r s t in  T r i s t a n romance was composed i n "bas-breton" and a l l the c h a r a c t e r s  the T r i s t a n s t o r y were not i n v e n t e d by a p o e t i c i m a g i n a t i o n , b u t drawn  from n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y by t h e Armorican  Celts:  personnages q u i f i g u r e n t dans ces chroniques, l a b e l l e Yseult  "On ne peut douter que l e s t e l s que l e r o i Marc  Tristan  . . .  . . . n'aient aussi veritablement  puisque  ces personnages c e l e b r e s par l e s anciens bardes  du pays,  a u s s i c i t e s dans l e s t i t r e s a u t h e n t i q u e s , e t dans l e s anciennes  . . .  existe, se t r o u v e n t legendes  44  des  s a i n t s de l a Bretagne."  The i d e a s put forward by t h i s c r i t i c  were not  taken up by any other s c h o l a r s . At  t h i s time two other French c r i t i c s were f o s t e r i n g the n o t i o n t h a t  an e a r l y T r i s t a n romance had been composed i n the P r o v e n c a l language, this  t h e o r y on the a l l u s i o n s  basing  to c e r t a i n p a r t s of the s t o r y i n troubadour 45  p o e t r y of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y .  F r a n c o i s J u s t e - M a r i e Raynouard d i d not  c l a i m t h a t the l o s t P r o v e n c a l romance was the o r i g i n a l T r i s t a n , b u t ClaudeC h a r l e s F a u r i e l , on the o t h e r hand, d i d propose t h a t the v e r y f i r s t  Tristan  romance had been composed i n the P r o v e n c a l tongue and t h a t the French v e r s i o n s were t r a n s l a t i o n s of t h i s o r i g i n a l .  He l i s t e d  v e r s i o n s of T r i s t a n known to him, and suggested one p r i m i t i v e s o u r c e .  the two prose and f i v e m e t r i c a l t h a t a l l seven were based  In h i s s e a r c h f o r " l e t e x t e p r i m i t i f "  turned to P r o v e n c a l l i t e r a t u r e , eu l ' i d e e de c h e r c h e r l ' o r i g i n e ,  ( i i , 426)  on  he  "une l i t t e r a t u r e dans l a q u e l l e personne n'a l a r e d a c t i o n premiere  de l a f a b l e dont i l  s ' a g i t , l i t t e r a t u r e dans l a q u e l l e p o u r t a n t i l e s t c e r t a i n que c e t t e meme f a b l e f i t p l u s de b r u i t e t p l u s t o t que dans aucune a u t r e " ( i l , 432) the a l l u s i o n s by t w e n t y - f i v e troubadours  testified  where  to the fame of the romance  21  which, he claimed,  had been composed i n t h e langue d'oc by 1150.  i n g l y , any of the extant lost original.  v e r s i o n s were t r a n s l a t i o n s o r i m i t a t i o n s o f the  This b e l i e f  i n a common source v e r y much a n t i c i p a t e d  developments i n T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p , b u t a t t h i s time passed F a u r i e l again  Accord-  later  unnoticed.  foreshadowed l a t e r developments by m i n i m i z i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e  of C e l t i c o r a l t r a d i t i o n s f o r the subsequent l i t e r a r y appearance of the Tristan story:  l i k e s e v e r a l of h i s s u c c e s s o r s ,  he p a i d homage t o the  c r e a t i v i t y and o r i g i n a l i t y of the c o n t i n e n t a l poets : . . . c e t t e connaissance des t r a d i t i o n s bretonnes se r e d u i s a i t , pour l e s romanciers provencaux, a c e l l e de quelques noms p r o p r e s , d e p o u i l l e s de toute v i e , de toute r e a l i t e h i s t o r i q u e . Les i d e e s , l e s sentiments, l e s a c t e s q u ' i l s ont p r e t e s aux personnages designes par ces noms, tout ce q u ' i l y a de c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e dans l e s compositions romanesques ou i l s ont mis ces personnages en action . . . est meridional et provencal. ( l l kh-7-k8) 5  The  i d e a s o f Raynouard and S c o t t i n f l u e n c e d D a v i d I r v i n g , who wrote  about the T r i s t a n romances i n 1 8 2 9 - ^ of the Welsh a n n a l s " f a b l e , and b e l i e v e d  ( p . I56) as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the extreme age of the t h a t T r i s t a n belonged t o " a u t h e n t i c  W e l l aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s the exact vencal it  L i k e S c o t t he r e l i e d on the " a u t h o r i t y  h i s t o r y " (p. I 5 6 ) .  t o be encountered when seeking  to e s t a b l i s h  o r i g i n s o f the romance, I r v i n g showed some support o f the P r o -  theory,  w r i t i n g : "In what language the s t o r y was f i r s t  i s not so easy t o a s c e r t a i n ;  b u t we l e a r n from competent  exhibited, authority  [Raynouard] t h a t a romance of T r i s t r a m and Y s e u l t must once have e x i s t e d in  the language of the t r o u b a d o u r s " (p.. 15*0 .  made e x t e n s i v e  I r v i n g claimed  t h a t he had  s t u d i e s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s  romances, b u t h e s i t a t e d to s u p p l y h i s readers w i t h the f u l l knowledge, f o r he d e s p a i r e d  f r u i t s of h i s  of f i n d i n g "any v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e  readers of a t a s t e s u f f i c i e n t l y a n t i q u a r i a n "  ( p . 159)-  Tristan  number of  22  Fortunately Francisque  I r v i n g ' s f e a r s were not  Michel,  for instance,  r e c u e i l de ce q u i r e s t e des m a t e r i a l now i n extant  being  shared by h i s  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s T r i s t a n ,  poemes ( 1 8 3 5 - 3 9 ) —  a  n  important a d d i t i o n to  discussed  the extant  romances at some l e n g t h ,  t r a c e d c e r t a i n developments i n T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p  made o n l y scant extensive  and  c o r r e c t i o n s of S c o t t ' s  reference  tradition;  and  ( i n p a r t i c u l a r the  theories).  However, Michel-  to the o r i g i n s of the s t o r y a t the base of  i n his opinion,  the s u b j e c t of songs i n Wales and  et de G a l l e s des  this  the T r i s t a n - I s o l d e legend formed  Cornwall:  "En  Grande-Bretagne, l e s  aventures de T r i s t a n f u r e n t d'abord chantees en g a l l o i s dans l e s pays Cornouailles  the  p r i n t e d — l i s t e d a l a r g e number of a l l u s i o n s to the theme  literature,  varied receptions  contemporaries.  l e s temps l e s plus r e c u l e s ;  mail  de  i l ne  p a r o f t p o i n t q u ' e l l e s a i e n t jamais ete e c r i t e s en c e t t e langue" ( i , x x ) . When d i s c u s s i n g the language of the Raynouard: not  first  a l t h o u g h an e a r l y romance had  a s c e r t a i n whether or not  t h i s was  romance he  ( l i k e Irving)  existed i n Provencal  the o r i g i n a l T r i s t a n .  one  followed could  23  III  (A)  The The  in its  Influence  Insular-Continental theories concerning  legend (the " f i r s t first  The  of P o s i t i v i s m on O r i g i n Research  Debate the  insular Celtic  i n s u l a r theory") and  romance (the " f i r s t  the c o m p o s i t i o n i n France of  than was  the m y t h o l o g i c a l  great p o p u l a r i t y i n the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h  ( o r a l and  "first  of the p r e - l i t e r a r y  century,  t h e o r y which,  t h e o r i e s " each d e a l t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t type of  T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s were t h e r e f o r e In s h o r t ,  a b l e to s u b s c r i b e  i t was  widely believed  formed i n t o a l i t e r a r y romance i n F r a n c e .  i t cannot be  among the e a r l y s c h o l a r s  Tristan material.  in particular.  The  con-  f i r s t been  trans-  s a i d that  i n v e s t i g a t i n g the o r i g i n s of  Marked d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n had  i n q u i r i n g i n t o the genesis  early  that an o r i g i n a l l y i n s u l a r  I s o l d e had  But  the  origin  to b o t h i n s u l a r and  C e l t i c legend of the l o v e - s t o r y of T r i s t a n and  harmony r e i g n e d  despite  soon became outmoded.  l i t e r a r y ) they c o u l d be h a r m o n i o u s l y r e c o n c i l e d , and  t i n e n t a l ideas .  the  c o n t i n e n t a l theory") were of more l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t  later Tristan scholarship  Because the two  genesis  of romance i n g e n e r a l ,  and  genuine the  been v o i c e d among those of the T r i s t a n romances  disagreements which bore most s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  future  developments i n v o l v e d v a r y i n g views on the v a l i d i t y of the Welsh t r a d i t i o n s in  the t r i a d s ,  the o c c a s i o n a l q u e s t i o n i n g  of F r e n c h l i t e r a r y o r i g i n s , and fable.  much i n t e r e s t d u r i n g  the e a r l y p e r i o d ,  This l a s t  for  t o p i c , although i t f a i l e d  to arouse  grew b e f o r e  of  l o n g i n t o one  the  the students of o r i g i n s .  In the l a t t e r p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h l e c t u a l l i f e and  theory  the d i s s i m i l a r i t y of the paths t r a c e d  the d i f f u s i o n of the  major problems c o n f r o n t i n g  of the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d  century  thus a l s o medieval s c h o l a r s h i p .  p o s i t i v i s m dominated The  combined  intel-  influences  2k  of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  s c i e n c e , the e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s of Darwin,  the r e a l i s t i c p o l i t i c s  of the B i s m a r c k i a n  p r a c t i c a l and m a t e r i a l i s t i c ship.  trends  Empire served  in art, literature,  to encourage more education,  Moreover, the i d e a of development, c o n t i n u i n g on from the  of Herder and  Hegel, converted  many domains of thought and  scholartraditions  research into a  study of the h i s t o r y or h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n of the p a r t i c u l a r area interest.  The  epoch was  o v e r s a t u r a t e d w i t h h i s t o r y , and  ranked h i g h on the academic agenda. of the p o s i t i v i s t i c  I t i s not  o r i g i n r e s e a r c h e r s was  critics  source  An  the extant  s i n g l e stage  i n c r e a s i n g number of  romances (see below, p.  were now  eagerly  e v i t a b l e t h a t new  problems would present  c e r t a i n issues unresolved I t was  p l a c e of the legend  of t r a g i c  t h a t no  written traditions. texts, Trystan  editing  i t was  in-  At the same time, as m a t t e r s f o r  c o n c l u s i v e evidence  as to the  l o v e c o u l d be drawn from Welsh  a n t i q u i t y of the Welsh t r a d i t i o n was  remains, because these  themselves.  by e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s c o n t i n u e d  soon r e a l i z e d  the  46).  With so much a t t e n t i o n r i v e t e d on t h i s branch of r e s e a r c h ,  The  studies  commenced work on the o r i g i n s and were a i d e d i n t h e i r work by  p h i l o l o g i c a l endeavours of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s who  debate.  of  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the d e s i r e  to c a l c u l a t e every  i n the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the T r i s t a n legend.  and  not v e r i f i e d by  the  birth-  literature. literary  t e x t s might e a s i l y have absorbed non-Welsh o r a l  The Welsh t r a d i t i o n was  and  not n e c e s s a r i l y o l d e r than  the  the l o v e r of E s s y l l t not n e c e s s a r i l y a n a t i v e of Wales.  Moreover, even i f he were a f i g u r e i n a n c i e n t B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , t h e r e a p p a r e n t l y no way  of d i s p r o v i n g t h a t the few  E s s y l l t might d e r i v e from f o r e i g n s o u r c e s .  references Any  was  to h i s l o v e f o r  s c h o l a r who  still  insisted  on the a u t h o r i t y of the Welsh t e x t s soon f a c e d a f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y :  the  25  MSS  not o n l y l a c k e d any  references  to a t r a g i c outcome to the a f f a i r ,  d i d not even i n c l u d e the c e n t r a l m o t i f p o t i o n , and had  i n the romances, namely the  love-  thus the s t o r y i n i t s p r i m a r y i n s u l a r form might p o s s i b l y have  a p l o t d i f f e r i n g i n many e s s e n t i a l s from that u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d  the T r i s t a n - I s o l d e theme.  although s t i l l  began to seek c l u e s as  and  been a t t a c h e d  p e r i o d i n which the love-theme had  to t h i s  They attempted a l s o to i d e n t i f y those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  The support  to d i s c o v e r  the t r u e c r e a t o r s of the  l o c a l e of the s t o r y was the  ground was  new  considering  T r i s t a n to be a n a t i v e of B r i t a i n , now  i n so doing  with  T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p t h e r e f o r e underwent a  development, f o r the m a j o r i t y of c r i t i c s ,  and  they  to the  place  personage.  incorporation,  love-legend.  found to be no more r e l i a b l e a prop to  theory of i n s u l a r o r i g i n s than were the t r i a d s , as by no means c o n f i n e d  to i n s u l a r C e l t i c  the back-  terrain—Cornwall,  I r e l a n d and W a l e s — b u t i n c l u d e d a l s o B r i t t a n y or A r m o r i c a , the r e g i o n i n h a b i t e d by the c o n t i n e n t a l or Armorican C e l t s .  The  q u e s t i o n now  to the r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s p l a y e d  by  the legend's e a r l y f o r m a t i o n .  Paramount importance was  henceforth  and  The had  to the t r a n s m i s s i o n  transmission  d i f f u s i o n of the  the Armoricans a s c r i b e d by  i n v o l v e d a number of debatable i s s u e s .  l a i s ) had  been t r a n s m i t t e d  the F r e n c h poets c h i e f l y by appeared to some c r i t i c s  panied  the Normans to England i n 1066  acted as an i n t e r m e d i a r y  scholars  romance,  from i t s b i r t h p l a c e i n Wales to However, i t  t h a t the Armoricans formed the most and  during  Previously i t  Arthurian  the Anglo-Normans or the Welsh.  l i n k i n the c h a i n between legend  as  legend.  been assumed t h a t the m a t i e r e de Bretagne ( c o m p r i s i n g  T r i s t a n , and  now  the i n s u l a r C e l t s and  arose  romance.  The  could,  i t was  between the Welsh and  Armoricans who  important accom-  suggested, have  the Anglo-Normans  there  before  26  l a t e r d i f f u s i n g the legend j o n g l e u r s spread on t h e i r own  i n France.  the legend  But when the  i n England and France,  i t i n e r a n t Armorican d i d they r e l y  entirely  r e c o l l e c t i o n of a n c i e n t n a t i v e Welsh t r a d i t i o n s , which  had  perhaps been r e f r e s h e d more r e c e n t l y by renewed c o n t a c t w i t h  their  confreres?  essentially  insular.  I f t h i s were the case, But,  then the legend was  on the o t h e r hand, c o u l d i t not a l s o be assumed that  j o n g l e u r s made s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n s , and embellish by  still  the t a l e ?  to  I n a d d i t i o n , i f the Armoricans were much i n f l u e n c e d perhaps  the love-theme i n t o a rudimentary t a l e of a Welsh swineherd,  knowing that i n t h i s way of course  the  drew on c o n t i n e n t a l f o l k l o r e  t h e i r audience—composed of F r e n c h and Anglo-Normans — t h e y  introduced  insular  they would b e t t e r p l e a s e  t h e i r audience.  It  a l s o p o s s i b l e that the French poets themselves i n t r o d u c e d  love-theme i n t o the o l d e r legend. the s t r o n g e s t of the m i s s i n g  However, i f the Armoricans were  l i n k s between o r a l t r a d i t i o n and  mance, the o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l might have undergone c o n s i d e r a b l e during i t s o r a l dissemination. B r e t a g n e — w a s p o t e n t i a l l y not  Thus T r i s t a n — a n d  the indeed  literary  ro-  development  the whole m a t i e r e  the M a t t e r of B r i t a i n , but  was  de  the M a t t e r of  Brittany. Towards the end of the n i n e t e e n t h the m a t i e r e  de Bretagne was  c u s s i o n by Romanists and  one  c e n t u r y the e a r l y development of  of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s under d i s -  Germanists a l i k e .  Two  schools  emerged, each e n t e r t a i n i n g r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i d e a s :  of one  thought supported  t h e o r y of i n s u l a r o r i g i n s , the o t h e r t h a t of c o n t i n e n t a l (Armorican  the and  hQ French) o r i g i n s . behind  two  personal  The  l e a d e r s , and  feud.  proponents of the c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s the c o n t r o v e r s y  soon took on  rallied  the appearance of a  P i t t e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r were the French s c h o l a r Gaston  27  Paris The  ( i n s u l a r School) and the German Wendelin F o e r s t e r ( C o n t i n e n t a l School) .  former, who  ology, was felt  a t times combined p o e t i c f e e l i n g and i m a g i n a t i o n w i t h  on the whole l e s s of a p o s i t i v i s t  than F o e r s t e r .  Insecure when not t r e a t i n g c o n c r e t e f a c t s .  The  phil-  latter  As he h i m s e l f commented  on the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s : Der ganze Gegensatz zwischen uns b e i d e n e r k l i i r t s i c h aus u n s r e r E i g e n n a t u r . G. P a r i s z i e h e n d i e dunkeln P e r i o d e m i t wenig oder keinem M a t e r i a l an und er l i e b t es, den v e r s c h i e d e n e n Mb'glichkeiten l i e b e v o l l nachzugehen und s i c h auf d i e u n s c h e i n b a r s t e n Dinge stUtzend Wege zu e r s i n n e n , d i e i n jenes Dunkel L i c h t b r i n g e n s o l l e n ; er kann n i c h t anders, a l s j e d e r S c h w i e r i g k e i t s o f o r t mit e i n e r g e i s t r e i c h e n Hypothese zu begegnen und s e i n S t o l z i s t es, a l l d i e s zu v e r e i n i g e n zu einem s t o l z e n hoch i n d i e L U f t e ragenden Gebaude, ohne R U c k s i c h t auf d i e Fundamente und das M a t e r i a l der B a u s t e i n e . FUr mich i s t e i n d e r a r t i g e s A r b e i t s g e b i e t e i n G r e u e l , i c h v e r l a n g e f e s t e n Boden und stehe j e d e r Hypothese, mag s i e noch so glSnzend s e i n , s k e p t i s c h gegenUber--so lange etwas n i c h t bewiesen i s t , muss i c h ( i c h kann n i c h t anders) es z u r l i c k w e i s e n . ^ 9 The paper war  between P a r i s and F o e r s t e r took p l a c e d u r i n g the  last  two decades of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a l t h o u g h the g e n e r a l i n t e r - s c h o o l argument c o n t i n u e d i n t o the t w e n t i e t h . to  The opposing t h e o r i e s , when reduced  t h e i r s i m p l e s t terms, were as f o l l o w s .  Bretagne w i t h B r i t a i n , maintained among the i n s u l a r C e l t s .  The C e l t o p h i l e P a r i s ,  t h a t the m a t i e r e de Bretagne  posed  had  originated  While a l l o w i n g t h a t some o f the m a t e r i a l might  p o s s i b l y have reached the French poets by way Saxon c o n t e u r s ,  equating  of Welsh m i n s t r e l s and  Anglo-  P a r i s a s s e r t e d n o n e t h e l e s s t h a t the romances had been com-  i n accordance w i t h the L i e d e r t h e o r i e " ^ by the Anglo-Normans i n England  b e f o r e any were w r i t t e n i n F r a n c e .  To P a r i s , the l i t e r a r y form g i v e n to the  m a t e r i a l by the Anglo-Normans p r o v i d e d the c h i e f means by which i t had reached merely  the c o n t i n e n t , and French poets such as C h r e t i e n de Troyes were t r a n s l a t o r s of the i n s u l a r romances.  c o n s i d e r e d the m a t i e r e de Bretagne  F o e r s t e r , on the o t h e r hand,  to be of c o n t i n e n t a l o r i g i n ;  by  Bretagne  28  he understood B r i t t a n y .  He  regarded the i n s u l a r C e l t i c c o n t r i b u t i o n to  medieval romance as m i n i m a l ; theory  concerning  he  decried  the p r i o r i t y of Anglo-Norman over French  became convinced of the c r e a t i v e and and  the L i e d e r t h e o r i e and  transmissive  literature,  independence of  Troyes.  I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note the p o s i t i o n occupied  by T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l  i n t h i s , an argument which a c t u a l l y embraced the whole of the material.  P a r i s set up most of h i s hypotheses on  by r e f e r r i n g to the o r a l and Foerster,  on the c o n t r a r y ,  of h i s argument, and footnotes  not  the m a t i e r e de Bretagne  l i t e r a r y development of the T r i s t a n s t o r y .  d e l i b e r a t e l y excluded T r i s t a n f rom  the main body the  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n s to the works of C h r e t i e n , which he was  in  T r i s t a n by  the  two  i n f r e q u e n t l y h i s comments were r e l e g a t e d  The  critics  reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n t emphasis a l l o t e d to  l a y i n the f i r s t p l a c e  adherence to h i s dictum of d i s c u s s i n g o n l y extant discuss  the p r e - l i t e r a r y f o r m a t i o n  and  going a g a i n s t h i s academic p r i n c i p l e s . concern was interest  Arthurian  to  the process of e d i t i n g .  To  the  f u n c t i o n of the Armoricans,  above a l l championed the cause of the o r i g i n a l i t y and  C h r e t i e n de  also  w i t h the A r t h u r i a n  in Foerster's literature  Chretien's  strict  ("festen  l o s t romance would mean  In the second p l a c e F o e r s t e r ' s  Bretagne.  P a r i s ' views on the o r i g i n s of T r i s t a n appeared i n a number of j o u r n a l s from 1 8 7 9 onwards, and were g i v e n  of the H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de  la France.^  For  articles  also i n Vol. 3 0  the sake of c l a r i t y we  grouped h i s arguments under f i v e main h e a d i n g s : ( l ) I n s u l a r o r i g i n s of legend; ( 2 )  O r a l d i f f u s i o n by Welsh and Anglo-Saxons; ( 3 )  (k) Anglo-Norman romance;  (5)  main  romances proper, w h i l e P a r i s bore a wider  i n the e n t i r e m a t i e r e de  i n French l i t e r a r y  Boden") .  French romance.  have the  Liedertheorie;  29  (1) of  I t would be unreasonable  t o doubt t h e i n s u l a r C e l t i c  origins  the s t o r y , s i n c e i t c o n t a i n e d numerous elements t e s t i f y i n g to i t s b i r t h -  place.  Among those e a s i l y s i n g l e d out were t h e C e l t i c l o c a l e and the names  of M o r o l t and Marke:  M o r o l t was o r i g i n a l l y a marine monster, and h i s p r e s e n t  name r e t a i n e d the C e l t i c word f o r sea, mor, w h i l e o r e i l l e s de c h e v a l , s u f f i r a i t r  signifie  " l e r o i Marc, avec ses  p a r son nom a l ' a t t e s t e r  (marc en c e l t i q u e  Such onomastic evidence h e l p e d  to prove that the  52  'cheval')."  s i n g u l a r s t o r y o f l o v e was c r e a t e d s o l e l y by t h e C e l t i c i m a g i n a t i o n : " I I f a u t done l a i s s e r aux C e l t e s l a g l o i r e d ' a v o i r cree  . . . 1'incomparable  53  epopee de 1'amour." Furthermore, the source used by Thomas o f B r i t t a n y was Welsh, n o t Armorican, because the B r e r i whom he invoked i n h i s romance 54  was c l e a r l y the Welsh bard B l e d h e r i c u s . (2)  The o r a l d i f f u s i o n was accomplished  n o t o n l y by the Welsh b u t  a l s o by the Anglo-Saxons, both o f whom spread t h e legend i n l a i s and contes among the Anglo-Normans and a l s o on the c o n t i n e n t .  Two f a c t s gleaned  from  extant T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l served t o show t h a t the Anglo-Saxon h y p o t h e s i s was c o r r e c t :  the c o - e x i s t e n c e o f the E n g l i s h word g o t e l e f w i t h i t s French  t r a n s l a t i o n c h i e v r e f o i l i n the one l a i by M a r i e  de France which was an  episode from the Welsh T r i s t a n c y c l e , and a l s o the use by the T r i s t a n poet B e r o u l o f E n g l i s h words f o r t h e l o v e - p o t i o n , namely l o v e n d r i n s and  lovendrantThis  n o t i o n o f an E n g l i s h i n t e r m e d i a r y  was f u r t h e r  b o l s t e r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h undertaken by two o t h e r I n s u l a r i s t s , L e o p o l d and Werner So'derhjelm.^  Sudre  L i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to the legend remained i n Welsh  l i t e r a t u r e , because t h e f a b l e had c i r c u l a t e d among the Anglo-Saxons a t a v e r y e a r l y date, and a f t e r 1066 among the Anglo-Normans, was then f o r g o t t e n i n i t s n a t i v e Wales, and might have p e r i s h e d w i t h o u t  almost  the Norman  30  i n v a s i o n of England. (3)  P a r i s a p p l i e d the L i e d e r t h e o r i e to T r i s t a n i n l 8 8 l ,  and remained  57 convinced  of i t s v a l i d i t y f o r over  the m a t i e r e  twenty y e a r s .  de Bretagne i n t h e i r l a i s ,  The j o n g l e u r s  circulated  and " p l u s i e u r s de ces l a i s ,  rapportes  au meme personnage, f i n i s s e n t par l u i f a i r e une s o r t e de b i o g r a p h i e t e l l e p a r a f t e t r e l ' o r i g i n e des romans consacres  a Tristran."  poetique:  We assume  t h a t P a r i s ' f e r v e n t C e l t o p h i l i a was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s t h i n k i n g of  the o r i g i n a l romance i n terms of the L i e d e r t h e o r i e , s i n c e he s e t a f a r  h i g h e r v a l u e upon the C e l t i c o r a l t r a d i t i o n s stemming from Wales than upon the romances, and the t h e o r y t h a t the f i r s t T r i s t a n was of and  songs c l e a r l y i m p l i e d t h a t the C e l t i c  simply an  aggregate  i m a g i n a t i o n was supremely c r e a t i v e  o r i g i n a l , and t h a t from i t alone sprang  the l o v e - s t o r y l a t e r p i e c e d  together by the poets . (k)  A unique l i t e r a r y v a l u e was a t t a c h e d to the fragments of the  T r i s t a n r e d a c t i o n s by B e r o u l and Thomas, because these were extant MSS of Anglo-Norman romances composed i n England. d u r i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , B e r o u l c a . 1150, these MSS, (5)  P a r i s had no o t h e r evidence  Both poets were w r i t i n g t h e r e Thomas c a . 1170.  Apart  from  to support h i s Anglo-Norman h y p o t h e s i s .  A l l the o t h e r Anglo-Norman romances had disappeared w i t h o u t t r a c e ,  and had been r e p l a c e d by French However, i n the case of T r i s t a n ,  t r a n s l a t i o n s such as those made by C h r e t i e n . the r e v e r s e process had o c c u r r e d :  a v a i t compose -un poeme sur T r i s t a n q u i e s t completement perdu,  "Chretien  t a n d i s que  c e l u i de B e r o u l , q u i l u i a v a i t p e u t - e t r e s e r v i de source, nous e s t a r r i v e au moins en p a r t i e .  . . . C'est encore un f a i t  de l a l i t t e r a t u r e anglo-normande.  assez r a r e dans  l'histoire  II f a u t a t t r i b u e r c e t t e e x c e p t i o n a l a  beaute e t a 1'incomparable a t t r a i t des r e c i t s q u i en forment l e s u j e t . " ^  31  I t was  difficult  to determine from the t h i r d - h a n d  redactions  C h r e t i e n ' s works) j u s t what belonged to the o r i g i n a l C e l t i c what had been added i n the Anglo-Norman c o m p i l a t i o n s  and  ( f o r example, t r a d i t i o n s and  i n the F r e n c h  translations. As we  now  t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to F o e r s t e r ' s arguments i t i s e v i d e n t  a l r e a d y i n lQ&k, s c h o l a r was  i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to C h r e t i e n ' s  C h r e t i e n , and  there repeatedly  des L'dwenritters  m o d i f i c i r t und  es zutrauen,  i n t r o d u c t i o n (which was  A l l e i n man dass er den  v e r t i e f t haben mag"  kann dem  of  the T r i s t a n  V e r f a s s e r des  S t o f f ebenso  (pp . x v i i i - x i x ) .  written in  the  emphasized the o r i g i n a l i t y  lamented the l o s s of the l a t t e r ' s romance on  theme " n i c h t der F a b e l wegen. . . . . und  C l i g e s , the German  d i s p l a y i n g the a t t i t u d e which c o l o u r e d h i s whole view of  o r i g i n s of T r i s t a n H e  that  Cliges  originell  Then i n the  Lbwenritter  I887 immediately f o l l o w i n g the appearance  of P a r i s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n to the H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a France) he began h i s counter-attack  on the main hypotheses put-forward by  the F r e n c h s c h o l a r ,  61 and  continued  i t i n h i s prefaces  to o t h e r works by C h r e t i e n .  The  five  p o i n t s of P a r i s were r e f u t e d as f o l l o w s : (l)  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the assumed C e l t i c o r i g i n s of the  F o e r s t e r s t r e s s e d the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between the episodes and i n the extant the o t h e r .  romances on the one  His aim was  to demonstrate how  legend were the French r e n d e r i n g s , von  dem  hand and  k e l t i s c h e n S t i e r und  the Welsh T r y s t a n  legend features  tradition  f a r removed from the p r i m i t i v e  which were "hundert Himmel w e i t  seinen K a l b i n e n "  ( E r e c , p. x x i v , n . * ) .  e s s e n t i a l theme—namely the l o v e between hero and h e r o i n e — w a s not "Es kann n i c h t s franzb'sischeres ( E r e c , p. x x i v ) .  on  entfernt The Celtic:  geben a l s d i e T r i s t a n - Y s o l t s c h e Minne"  . . .  32  (2)  He  r e f u t e d the Anglo-Norman h y p o t h e s i s ,  understood the need which had i n t e r m e d i a r y between C e l t i c believed  driven h i s adversary  admitted  "dass d i e Franzosen d i e Artusromanen mit Haut und  the r o l e of G e o f f r e y of Monmouth as  At f i r s t  the p u b l i c a t i o n of the onomastic r e s e a r c h e s  den  Foerster stressed the  however, because  c h r o n i c l e d i d not c o n t a i n any mention of T r i s t a n , i t was  (whose work we and  critic  Haaren von  value i n s u p p o r t i n g h i s theory of c o n t i n e n t a l o r i g i n s of the Following  he  Neither  the main channel through which  de Bretagne had become known to the F r e n c h poets;  Geoffrey's  that  to seek some form of  t r a d i t i o n s and F r e n c h romance.  K e l t e n Ubernommen haben" (Lb'wenritter, p. x x i x ) .  matiere  but  of  love-theme.  by H e i n r i c h Zimmer  s h a l l c o n s i d e r below) F o e r s t e r changed h i s mind on t h i s  found a l s o a s o l u t i o n to the T r i s t a n problem, f o r Zimmer ( a l s o a  •"  no  point  Con-  •  t i n e n t a l i s t ) l a i d p a r t i c u l a r weight on the r o l e p l a y e d by the A r m o r i c a n s . By analogy w i t h now  concluded  the provenance of the s t r i c t l y A r t h u r i a n m a t e r i a l , F o e r s t e r  t h a t the C e l t i c  the c h i e f sources (3)  t r a d i t i o n s i n A r m o r i c a had  the f o r m a t i o n  the L i e d e r t h e o r i e came under heavy f i r e . he  Why  & 5)  to  tolerate this  the L i e d e r t h e o r i e , however, c o u l d not be  i n d i v i d u a l genius.  G a u t i e r s von  dem  F o e r s t e r c o u l d not  recon-  F o e r s t e r t h e r e f o r e wrote s c o r n f u l l y :  Aneinanderreihen  Rosenkranz wieder auf l e b e n " (k  of  o f romances a c c o r d i n g  F o e r s t e r c o u l d not  s i e h t h i e r n i c h t ohne Verwunderung d i e f i l r das Theorie  one  always s t r e s s e d the genius of the i n d i v i d u a l poet i n the  a c t of l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n ; c i l e d with  provided  f o r the T r i s t a n romance.  P a r i s ' notion concerning  idea i s c l e a r :  62  Volksepos g l t l c k l i c h abgethane  der c a n t i l e n e s wie  (Lb'wenritter, p.  b e i einem  xxix)  second P a r i s ' p r o p o s a l  composed romances d u r i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ,  "Man  t h a t the Anglo-Normans  a f t e r which they were t r a n s -  55  l a t e d by C h r e t i e n and o t h e r French p o e t s , f o r i t t h r e a t e n e d to minimize Chretien's poetic o r i g i n a l i t y : h e r a b g e s e t z t , und  "Christian's ThStigkeit  [wird] vfcSllig  er zu einem nur i n K l e i n i g k e i t e n ausschmUckenden und  v b ' l l i g b e z i e h u n g s l o s e Episoden e i n s c h i e b e n d e n U b e r s e t z e r ( L b w e n r i t t e r , p. x x i v ) .  gestempelt"  However, although f i r m l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t  the  A r t h u r i a n romances proper had not been g i v e n any l i t e r a r y form by Anglo-Normans, F o e r s t e r d i d p o i n t out t h a t due  the  to i t s e x c e p t i o n a l n a t u r e  the T r i s t a n f a b l e might p o s s i b l y have formed the s u b j e c t o f an Anglo-Norman romance.  He based  Norman conquest:  t h i s i d e a on the s i t u a t i o n i n England f o l l o w i n g  "Denn der T r i s t a n i s t e i n den EnglSndern  politisch  n a t i o n a l i n d i f f e r e n t e r S t o f f , der s i e a l s o durch s e i n e n Gehalt konnte,  ohne s i e , wie der s c h a t t e n h a f t e , s t e t s siegende Kbnig  s t e t s geschlagenen  und  geknechteten  R e v e r s i n g the t h e o r i e s of the French  K e l t e n , abzustossen"  und  fesseln [ A r t u s ] der  ( E r e c , p. x x i v ) .  s c h o l a r he s t a t e d t h a t C h r e t i e n wrote  h i s T r i s t a n romance b e f o r e e i t h e r B e r o u l or Thomas of B r i t t a n y had the s u b j e c t , and he added t h a t Thomas was i n England, w h i l e B e r o u l was  the  an Armorican,  a F r e n c h Norman.  who  perhaps  treated wrote  Foerster therefore concluded:  "Also s i c h e r i s t nur, dass K r i s t i a n s T r i s t a n der a l t e s t e von a l i e n i s t " ( E r e c , p. x x i v ) . We  mentioned above that the work of H e i n r i c h Zimmer e x e r t e d a s t r o n g  i n f l u e n c e on F o e r s t e r .  In h i s onomastic  study o f the T r i s t a n s t o r y  pub-  6k lished  i n I 8 9 I Zimmer t r a c e d the hero's name to a P i c t i s h  source.  In  the annals r e c o r d i n g the P i c t i s h k i n g s he had d i s c o v e r e d the name D r e s t , filius  T a l o r g a n which was  u n d e n i a b l y r e l a t e d to the T r y s t a n (Drystan)  T a l l w c h of the Welsh t r i a d s ;  t h i s etymology, t o g e t h e r w i t h the  insular  C e l t i c names p r e s e n t i n the f a b l e , served as proof of the genesis and development of the legend among those C e l t s who  mab  were l i v i n g on the  early  Scottish  34  border and l a t e r i n C o r n w a l l . t h a t , w h i l e I s o l d e ' s name was E t h y l d a , pronounced C e l t i c names.  Of the o t h e r names i n the s t o r y he wrote of Germanic o r i g i n (French I s e u t <Anglo-Saxon  by the Welsh as E s s y l l t ) , Marke and R i v a l i n were both  F i n a l l y , by combining onomatechny, h i s t o r y and i m a g i n a t i o n ,  he r e c o n s t r u c t e d what he assumed to be the o r i g i n a l North B r i t i s h of  the T r i s t a n f a b l e .  importance the  The Armorican C e l t s o c c u p i e d a p l a c e of c e n t r a l  i n Zimmer's t o t a l scheme, both f o r t h e i r share i n d e v e l o p i n g  legend from i t s rudimentary i n s u l a r form and a l s o f o r t h e i r h a v i n g  spread i t among the F r e n c h p o e t s . who  a r r i v e d i n England i n 1066  s u i t t h e i r F r e n c h audience.  No d i f f u s i v e f u n c t i o n was  I s e u t , d i d  ( o r Bretons)  embellishments  fable; to  a s c r i b e d by Zimmer  and i n t h i s , of c o u r s e , he  contra-  In c o n c l u s i o n , Zimmer wrote: "Die franzSjsische Form  T r i s t a n - S a g e i s t a l s o von Bretonen g e s c h a f f e n " ( p . P a r i s , who  et  they added t h e i r own  the Anglo-Normans or the Anglo-Saxons,  d i c t e d Gaston P a r i s . der  The b i l i n g u a l Armoricans  became f a m i l i a r w i t h the North B r i t i s h  as they spread i t f u r t h e r a f i e l d ,  to  version  d e a l t w i t h Zimmer's ideas i n 1894  83)-  in his article  "Tristan  not agree w i t h the t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the p o s s i b l e North  B r i t i s h legend, as he f e l t  t h a t the P i c t i s h name alone d i d not p r o v i d e a  s u f f i c i e n t l y s t r o n g premise f o r t h a t argument: Quant au berceau p a r t i c u l i e r de n o t r e epopee, i l e s t d i f f i c i l e a determiner. Le nom de T r i s t a n p a r a f t e t r e p i c t e d ' o r i g i n e . II y a u r a i t quelque chose de s e d u i s a n t et presque de touchant a c r o i r e que l'ame de ce peuple d i s p a r u . . . s u r v i v r a i t jusque dans n o t r e ame, grace a une des p l u s b e l l e s c r e a t i o n s p o e t i q u e s de l'humanite. Mais l a base de l'hypothese e s t t r o p peu s o l i d e : p e u t - e t r e p i c t e d ' o r i g i n e , l e nom de T r i s t a n e t a i t u s i t e au moins des l e X I siecle chez l e s Kymri, et r i e n ne nous empeche de c r o i r e q u ' i l 1 ' e t a i t d e j a quarid on l e donna au heros de n o t r e legende. (p. 155) e  35  T h i s a r t i c l e was P a r i s ' most eloquent  c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the whole debate,  f o r i n p r e s e n t i n g h i s fundamental b e l i e f legend he waxed p o e t i c i n h i s eulogy "Cest  i n the C e l t i c o r i g i n s of t h e  of these i n v e n t o r s o f the l o v e - s t o r y :  a l a race c e l t i q u e que r e v i e n t l'honneur de l ' a v o i r c r e e e .  Dans  l e c o n c e r t a m i l l e v o i x de l a p o e s i e des races humaines, c ' e s t l a harpe bretonne q u i donne l a note passionnee de l'amour i l l e g i t i m e e t f a t a l , et c e t t e note se propage de s i e c l e en s i e c l e , enchantant e t t r o u b l a n t l e s coeurs des hommes de sa v i b r a t i o n profonde e t m e l a n c o l i q u e " Apart  from mentioning e x t e r n a l s such as the C e l t i c  (p.-lUl).  l o c a l e and names, he  t r e a t e d a l s o the legend's "strange b a r b a r i t y " which was f a r removed from the C h r i s t i a n , c o u r t l y , t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y c i v i l i s a t i o n as d e p i c t e d i n the French romances : Les hommes q u i ont concu c e t t e etonnante h i s t o i r e d'amour menaient une v i e presque sauvage. . . . Les moeurs des personnages sont encore p l u s i n c u l t e s que l e u r f a c o n de v i v r e ; l e u r s ames, t o u t i m p u l s i v e s , passent d'un exces a 1 ' a u t r e avec l a soudainete des b a r b a r e s . . . . I I n'y a pas dans ces ames v i o l e n t e s l a moindre p e n e t r a t i o n de l a morale c h r e t i e n n e (sauf dans des episodes v i s i b l e m e n t p o s t i c h e s ) . (pp.-Ik5-k8) • The  veneer o f a l t e r a t i o n s , a d d i t i o n s and refinements  c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be s t r i p p e d o f f to r e v e a l the C e l t i c  i n the French versions savagery and a l s o the  p r e - C e l t i c s u b s t r a t a i n the s t o r y , namely the realm o f myth--a t i t l e which P a r i s b r a c k e t e d  under  many f e a t u r e s i n the f a b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e the s o l a r  hero, the Theseus p a r a l l e l , magic and marvels, though he d i s m i s s e d the theory of e a r l i e r m y t h o l o g i s t s  t h a t the legend  as f a l s e  c o u l d be d e r i v e d from  an Indo-European myth a n t e r i o r to the r a c i a l s e p a r a t i o n o f the Greeks and C e l t s , and wrote t h a t "aujourd'hui (p. 1 5 3 ) .  on n ' o s e r a i t emettre une t e l l e hypothese"  The C e l t s i n t e g r a t e d c e r t a i n o r i e n t a l and c l a s s i c a l m o t i f s  into  the legend, but i t s e s s e n t i a l theme, namely the s t o r y of l o v e and death, was the more r e c e n t c r e a t i o n o f the C e l t i c l e u r r a c e " ( p . 15*0 •  s o u l and formed "une des g l o i r e s de  36  T h i s a r t i c l e by P a r i s met w i t h  a h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n i n the o p p o s i t e  i n the year t h a t i t appeared (l89*0  camp;  i t was s t r o n g l y c r i t i c i z e d by  d'Arbois de J u b a i n v i l l e , whose comments, together w i t h P a r i s ' r e a c t i o n t o them, w i l l refused and  serve  to accept  f u r t h e r the i n t e r - s c h o o l a r g u m e n t . ^  He  one s i n g l e word o f P a r i s ' c l a i m t h a t the l o v e o f T r i s t a n  I s o l d e was C e l t i c , m a i n t a i n i n g  tout-puissant and  t o exemplify  t h a t " l e type de l'amour  . . . e s t une c r e a t i o n f r a n c a i s e du X I l  e  illegitime,  s i e c l e " (p. U07),  that the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y France e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d t h e  nature o f the T r i s t a n s t o r y , f o r a t t h a t time women acceeded t o f i e f s and t h e r e f o r e had the means to reward i m a g i n a t i v e to t h e i r tender t a s t e :  their tales  "On p a r l a i t d'amour a l a femme, a l a r i c h e h e r i t i e r e ,  et on l u i f a i s a i t c r o i r e qu'on e p r o u v a i t S i e l l e d o u t a i t , on l u i f a i s a i t to be dissuaded  poets who attuned  ce sentiment d'une facon  l i r e T r i s t a n e t I s e u t " (p. ^-08).  irresistible. Refusing  by such arguments P a r i s countered i n 1895-  Le r o l e des femmes, comme p r o t e c t r i c e s des poetes . . . e s t i n c o n t e s t a b l e ; mais l e d e s i r de l e u r p l a i r e a u r a i t - i l s u f f i a f a i r e i n v e n t e r l a m e r v e i l l e u s e h i s t o i r e dont 11 s ' a g i t . . . a des gens chez l e s q u e l s on c o n s t a t e une s t e r i l i t e d ' i n v e n t i o n (sauf dans l e d e t a i l ) a u s s i complete que chez l e s contemporains de Wace e t de C h r e t i e n de T r o i e s ? S i l'amour de T r i s t a n e t d'Iseut n'est pas c e l t i q u e , - - e t j e c r o i s qu'on peut s o u t e n i r q u ' i l l ' e s t avec une grande v r a i s e m b l a n c e , — i l f a u t q u ' i l s o i t germanique, c a r i l n'est certainement pas f r a n c a i s . 7 The and  argument w i t h Zimmer which i n i t i a t e d  d'Arbois de J u b a i n v i l l e was continued  L o t , who had espoused P a r i s ' cause. theory  these polemics between P a r i s  s h o r t l y afterwards  by Ferdinand  W r i t i n g i n I896 L o t r e j e c t e d Zimmer's  t h a t the Armoricans were c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f o r m a t i o n and  dissemination  o f the m a t i e r e de Bretagne, f o r " 1 ' i n f l u e n c e  i n s u l a i r e s a e t e beaucoup p l u s c o n s i d e r a b l e , dans l a t r a n s m i s s i o n  des C e l t e s  e t meme vraiment preponderante,  des elements du c y c l e a r t h u r i e n . " ^ "L'Armorique  . . . est  37  l o i n d " a v o i r l a p a r t preponderante que Ce n'est pas  l u i accorde M.  sur l e c o n t i n e n t , c ' e s t dans l ' f l e q u ' i l f a u t cherche.rles  t r a i t s e s s e n t i e l s et p r i m i t i f s " ( p . 2 8 ) . probable  I n c o n t r a s t to Zimmer he  the i n s u l a r C e l t i c o r i g i n of names and  the m a t i e r e  Zimmer. . . .  de Bretagne, and  saga-material  rendered  contained  r e p l a c e d the d e r i v a t i o n of the h e r o i n e ' s  anme  from Anglo-Saxon E t h y l d a by a Welsh etymology proposed by Joseph L o t h , a member of the I n s u l a r School, namely I s o l d e < Welsh E s s y l l t . t r u l y o r i g i n a t e d only with (who  a l r e a d y was  and I s o l d e ^ and  a legendary  the s t o r y ) , and  the Welsh were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the w e l d i n g He  dismissed  " C'est  together  of  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the amal-  (Marke, the C o r n i s h k i n g , p l a y e d concluded:  legend  f i g u r e ) i n t o the P i c t i s h s t o r y of T r i s t a n  taken p l a c e a l r e a d y among the Scots  o r the C o r n i s h  also  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the C o r n i s h k i n g , Marke  P i c t i s h and C o r n i s h legends. gamation had  The  in  ( t h e y were too d i s t a n t ) f a r too odious a r o l e i n  done a [ l e s G a l l o i s ] ,  jusqu'a  preuve  du  c o n t r a i r e , que nous p e r s i s t e r o n s a a t t r i b u e r l a c r e a t i o n de l a grande epopee d'amour du moyen age"  (p. 2 8 ) .  However, because L o t d i d not  ex-  c l u d e e n t i r e l y the i n t e g r a t i o n of Armorican elements, he opened a way agreement between the two  schools of thought.  F o r example, he wrote that  Thomas of B r i t t a n y u t i l i z e d both Welsh and Armorican sources; R i v a l i n i n h i s v e r s i o n o f f e r e d evidence  for  the name  o f the Armorican i n f l u e n c e .  In  d i s c u s s i n g the d i f f u s i o n L o t attempted to r e c o n c i l e P a r i s ' Anglo-Norman romances w i t h F o e r s t e r ' s Armorican j o n g l e u r s and F r e n c h p o e t s — a n  attempt  69 which was  immediately denounced by F o e r s t e r .  L o t ' s b a s i c ideas were adopted by Eduard Wechssler, but he went so f a r as to p o s i t the former e x i s t e n c e of a s e r i e s of A r t h u r i a n romances w r i t t e n i n W e l s h — a n i d e a which, a c c o r d i n g by Joseph L o t h . 7 °  to F o e r s t e r , was i n s t i g a t e d  As proof of the i n s u l a r l i t e r a r y sources  L o t h had  singled  38  out the use by C h r e t i e n and o t h e r poets o f c e r t a i n g e o g r a p h i c a l and p e r s o n a l names which b e t r a y e d t h a t i n f l u e n c e .  He c i t e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , the  occurrence i n F r e n c h o f the name I s e u t aux blanches mains, and e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h i s was a f a u l t y t r a n s l a t i o n by the French poet of the Welsh name E s s e l t minwen, meaning the w h i t e - l i p p e d .  Although  i n h i s view the i n s u l a r  t r a d i t i o n s p r o v i d e d the main sources f o r the p o e t s , L o t h d i d n o t exclude the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of Armorican material. Armorican  But, l i k e F e r d i n a n d L o t , he a s c r i b e d f a r l e s s importance c o n t r i b u t i o n than d i d Zimmer.  e x i s t e n c e o f Armorican all  t r a d i t i o n s on the development of the  saga-elements  Thus, d e s p i t e the u n c o n t e s t e d  i n the s t o r y , he endeavoured above  to show the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the i n s u l a r C e l t i c elements  the o r i g i n s o f the T r i s t a n Another  to the  f o r establishing  legend.  s c h o l a r making f r e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the study o f o r i g i n s  a t t h i s time was Wolfgang G o l t h e r , who a t f i r s t  seemed t o be a staunch  ally  71 of F o e r s t e r and the C o n t i n e n t a l i s t s . in his earliest  When e v a l u a t i n g the C e l t i c  element  s t u d i e s of the legend he c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of a primary i n s u l a r C e l t i c form, because i n h i s view names and s e m i - h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s gave inadequate and u n c o n v i n c i n g t e s t i m o n y to Welsh o r i g i n s , and he t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e d : "Die T r i s t a n s a g e [ i s t ] a l s e i n e franzb'sische Sch'd —  72 pfung a u f z u f a s s e n i "  He h e l d t h a t the s t o r y d e r i v e d from w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t  o r a l t r a d i t i o n s and l i t e r a t u r e s , b u t f e l t not have been a v a i l a b l e t o the C e l t s ;  t h a t access t o many of these would  the French, however, were f a r more  advanced i n i n t e l l e c t u a l and l i t e r a r y concerns, and thus more r e c e p t i v e to these f o r e i g n t r a d i t i o n s .  They alone possessed  t o g e t h e r the many d i s p a r a t e elements "Germanen, N o r d l e u t e und Angelsachsen  the a b i l i t y to j o i n and weld  of international f o l k l o r i c  traditions :  und K e l t e n haben S i t t e n und Sagen  hergegeben, aber der Schbpfer und D i c h t e r b l e i b t der franzb'sische Normanne" (p. 3 5 0 ) .  39  G o l t h e r ' s n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the C e l t i c element n a t u r a l l y caused other s c h o l a r s to rush to the defence of the i n s u l a r T r i s t a n  tradition;  the comments of E r n e s t Muret, K a r l B a r t s c h , Gaston P a r i s and Wilhelm R b t t i g e r typify this reaction.  Muret, though he  shared  G o l t h e r ' s views on  other  t o p i c s r e l a t i n g to T r i s t a n - - f o r example, both h e l d t h a t E i l h a r t d i d not t r a n s l a t e B e r o u l — a v o w e d that "en d e p i t de l ' h a b i l e argumentation de G o l t h e r , j e demeure persuade que  M.  l e fond p r i n c i p a l en e s t emprunte a une  leg-  73 ende bretonne^" der V e r f .  dem  Bartsch wrote:  "Und  da;  will  es m i r  scheinen,  a l s wenn  u r s p r l l n g l i c h e n k e l t i s c h e n Elemente zu wenig Spielraum  gerHumt h a t t e .  Denn so v i e l auch das  12.  schauung i n d i e Sage h i n e i n g e t r a g e n hat,  J a h r h . von  ein-  f r a n z S s i s c h e r An-  so b l e i b t das doch nur e i n S u s s e r e r  7^ Firniss,  der liber den a l t e n S t o f f von ganz anderem Charakter  P a r i s s t a t e d : " I I [ G o l t h e r ] p e r s i s t e a r e s t r e i n d r e autant  gezogen i s t . "  que  possible l a  p a r t de 1'element c e l t i q u e dans l a legende de T r i s t a n , e t j e p e r s i s t e . . .  75 a trouver q u ' i l l a r e s t r e i n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e , and share  to the  trop."  R b t t i g e r r a i s e d o b j e c t i o n s to the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which r e s u l t e d from G o l t h e r ' s p r e j u d i c e d  from h i s i n s i s t e n c e on a p p o r t i o n i n g a t a l l c o s t s the  lion's  French.^  That h i s argument c o n c e r n i n g s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y and which G o l t h e r was  the o r i g i n s had not been expressed  p e r s u a s i v e power i n the e a r l y d i s c u s s i o n s was  s w i f t to recognize, and  arguments more m e t h o d i c a l l y .  from now  with a fact  on he c o n s t r u c t e d h i s  In I 8 9 O , i n the a r t i c l e  "Zur Frage nach der  77 Entstehung der b r e t o n i s c h e n oder A r t u s - E p e n , " three d i f f e r e n t stages "1.  he d i s t i n g u i s h e d between  i n the h i s t o r i c a l development of the m a t e r i a l :  Die S a g e n b e s t a n d t e i l e ,  2.  d i e Sagendichtung, 3-  f r a n z O s i s c h e n Epen a l l e r A r t " (p. 2 1 2 ) .  The  d i e vorhandenen a l t -  i n s u l a r C e l t s now  l i m i t e d value w i t h i n h i s scheme: "Die K e l t e n - B r i t e n kommen nur  had  a  certain  f U r Punkt 1  ko  i n B e t r a c h t , i n s o f e r n s i e sehr v i e l E i n z e l s t o f f , aber von i h r e r S e i t e aus b e i t r u g e n . s i e n i e gedacht,  durchaus  alien  An e i n e zusammenfassende B e a r b e i t u n g haben  das b l e i b den f r a n z t i s i s c h e n D i c h t e r n des 12.  vorbehalten" ( p . 213)-  nicht  The d i s p a r a t e elements  of the f i r s t  woven t o g e t h e r to form stage two (Sagendichtung)  Jahrhunderts  stage were  a t the moment when they  were seen i n the l i g h t o f a s i n g l e u n i f y i n g theme, such as the b i o g r a p h y of a c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r l i k e T r i s t a n .  G o l t h e r b e l i e v e d the producers o f  t h i s second stage to be the t r u e c r e a t o r s of romance: Armorican  jongleurs •  these were the  Both the i n s u l a r C e l t s and the F r e n c h were r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r c o l l e c t i n g and t r a n s m i t t i n g the v a r i o u s elements  o f the p r i m a r y stages  to these anonymous, b i l i n g u a l , e m i n e n t l y c r e a t i v e c o n t i n e n t a l j o n g l e u r s i n England, who then informed them w i t h the u n i f y i n g i d e a . produced  The v e r s i o n s  i n stage two were soon a f t e r w a r d s adopted and adapted by the F r e n c h  c o u r t p o e t s : "Die g e r e i f t e F r u c h t i h r e r Bemlihungen e r n t e t e der r i t t e r l i c h e Kunstdichter" (p. 2 l 6 ) . G o l t h e r ' s t h e o r i e s can be reduced  to the f o l l o w i n g schema:  STAGE  RACE  LOCALITY  1  Sagenbestandteile  C e l t s & French  2  Sagendichtung  Armoricans  England  3  Epen  French  France  England & France  ACCOMPLISHMENT Acquisition & Transmission Unification Romances f o r C o u r t l y Audience  kl  G o l t h e r , when c o n s i d e r i n g the f o r m a t i o n o f T r i s t a n i n the framework of  t h i s t r i p a r t i t e system, now  the c o n t i n e n t a l Armoricans  no l o n g e r a p p o r t i o n e d the l i o n ' s  and the French;  "insbesondere d i e kymrischen  share to 1900,  r a t h e r , as he wrote i n  Zeugnisse und a l l e Grilnde, d i e f l l r Wales  sprechen, s o l l e n n i c h t mehr Ubersehen b l e i b e n . "  T h i s more t o l e r a n t  out-  look can be a t t r i b u t e d to the r e s u l t s gathered i n the i n t e r i m by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s such as Rb'ttiger, P a r i s , Zimmer and L o t .  H i s argument  r e s t e d on the n o v e l t h e o r y t h a t the T r i s t a n legend was textured: cal  tale  [p.  12]  i t was  a compound of two o r i g i n a l l y d i s t i n c t  ( i n which the main event was  Tristan's  now  essentially  double-  s t o r i e s , an  histori-  "Holmgang m i t M o r o l t "  i n the S c i l l y I s l e s ) and a f a i r y - t a l e l o v e - s t o r y .  I f the  component, h i s t o r y , were c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e l y from the second  first  component,  romance, then on the one hand the C e l t i c o r i g i n s and on the o t h e r the F r e n c h a d d i t i o n s would become c l e a r l y v i s i b l e :  "Im  ersten T e i l e finden wir  k e l t i s c h e Namen und O r t l i c h k e i t , woraus e i n e gewisse z e i t l i c h e Begrenzung f l l r d i e Entstehung  s i c h e r g i e b t , im zweiten T e i l  tritt  M'drchen e n t w i c k e l t e L i e b e s s a g e m i t dem Minnetrank  uns d i e aus  entgegen"  (p. 2 ) .  einem An  h i s t o r i c a l l y a t t e s t e d P i c t i s h p r i n c e had been a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o C o r n i s h h i s t o r y and legend;  the i n s u l a r C e l t i c  s t o r y , i n which the  love-theme  p l a y e d no p a r t , e x i s t e d i n Wales a l r e a d y i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y . of  the l o v e - s t o r y w i t h t h a t h i s t o r i c a l  cans, who  t a l e was  The  accomplished by the A r m o r i -  l e a r n e d of the s t o r y of T r i s t a n , Marke and M o r o l t from  insular confreres,  t r a n s l a t e d i t i n t o F r e n c h , and  the l o v e - s t o r y w i t h t h e i r F r e n c h audience i n mind. B r i t t a n y as the background  fusion  supplemented  their  i t with  They a l s o i n t r o d u c e d  to c e r t a i n events, and t h i s move caused the geo-  graphy of the legend to become extremely c o n f u s e d .  Both v e r s i o n s , the Welsh  k2  and  the Armorican,  B e r o u l and Thomas•  were known to French w r i t e r s such as M a r i e de A c c o r d i n g to t h i s  t h e o r y the Armorican  France,  jongleurs  were more than mere o r a l d i f f u s o r s of a legend to which they made l i t t l e i n the way  of o r i g i n a l  c o n t r i b u t i o n , f o r the p a r t they p l a y e d was  c r e a t i v e and of paramount importance "Im  f o r the development of the m a t e r i a l :  gegeben F a l l e d i i r f t e d i e L i e b e s s a g e  r e i n walschen T r i s t a n s t o f f verschmolzen"  i h r B e i t r a g s e i n , den  s i e mit  origins,  v e r y f l e x i b l e i n h i s o p i n i o n s , b e i n g e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the  c l u s i o n s reached  dem  6).  (p.  As becomes c l e a r i n a review of G o l t h e r ' s r e s e a r c h i n t o the he was  essentially  a t t h a t time by other s c h o l a r s .  H i s views on the  con-  identity  of the f i r s t T r i s t a n poet a l s o underwent c o n s i d e r a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n . ,'• O r i g i n a l l y he accorded Foersters  the l a u r e l s  to C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s :  "Die Vermutung  . . . C h r e s t i e n s T r i s t a n s e i der a l t e s t e von a l i e n und  den S a g e n s t o f f aus der Bretagne ("Bemerkungen," p. 7 ) -  e r h a l t e n , gewinnt hohe W a h r s c h e i n l i c h k e i t "  However, he  h a s t y d e c i s i o n on h i s p a r t , and  er habe  l a t e r found  i n 1907  t h a t t h i s had been an  admitted:  "Der Name des  over-  Tristan-  79 d i c h t e r s w i r d wohl immer im Dunkel b l e i b e n . " By the end of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y the I n s u l a r - C o n t i n e n t a l argument was  t h r e a t e n i n g to s t a g n a t e .  I t s p r e j u d i c e d p r a c t i t i o n e r s were  engrossed  i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l war-game, f o r which both s i d e s employed s i m i l a r and  c o n s t a n t l y obtained widely d i f f e r i n g  course by the a f f i l i a t i o n s  results—results  of the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o l a r .  i n t h i s context the onomastic  need o n l y  s t u d i e s which had been pursued  E l a b o r a t e l y c o n s t r u c t e d hypotheses  Clearly,  ad  t o t t e r e d upon the slimmest  and n e i t h e r v i c t o r y nor t r u c e seemed f o r t h c o m i n g . a r r i v e d a t an impasse.  We  determined  Students  of  tactics, of recall  infinitum. evidence,  of o r i g i n s  i f s c h o l a r s h i p were to p r o g r e s s , t h e r e  had was  k3  a p r e s s i n g need f o r a f r e s h , more p r o d u c t i v e the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the m a t e r i a l .  But  and u n i f o r m  t h i s new  s t r u c t u r e were i n t r o d u c e d ,  research  A s o l u t i o n was  of the t w e n t i e t h  century,  One The  f i n a l word must be  inaugurated  upon which f u t u r e  found when, i n the opening  there emerged the p r a c t i c e of  rather r e c o n s t r u c t i v e — r e s e a r c h  studying  approach c o u l d be  o n l y i f .some form of s o l i d could then r e s t .  method of  years  constructive—or  i n t o the o r i g i n s of T r i s t a n .  said before  t u r n i n g to t h i s new  development.  a c t u a l r e s u l t s gathered from the v a s t amount of r e s e a r c h made d u r i n g  the i n t e r - s c h o o l argument, though c o n f l i c t i n g i n many p a r t i c u l a r s , had nevertheless  made a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p .  had  been made i n the f i e l d s of onomastic and  had  been shed on the numerous p o s s i b l e sources f o r the  i n the f a b l e .  toponymic r e s e a r c h ,  and  f e a t u r e s and  The words of F o e r s t e r t h e r e f o r e form a f i t t i n g  t h i s resume of h i s feud w i t h  Advances light episodes  conclusion  Paris :  . . . verdankt man n i c h t gerade diesem W i d e r s t r e i t d i e m e i s t e n Entdeckungen? Man v e r g l e i c h e d a s j e n i g e , was man vor meinen a n f a n g l i c h e n Negazionen ( C l i g e s 1884) Uber d i e A r t u s l i t t e r a t u r wusste, mit demjenigen, was j e t z t , durch meine GegengrUnde v e r a n l a s s t , von so v i e l e n S e i t e n (auch i c h glaube pro v i r i l e p a r t e b e i g e s t e u e r t zu haben) schon an Sicherem b e i g e b r a c h t worden i s t . ( K a r r e n r i t t e r , p. XC)  (B)  The By  Archetypal  T r i s t a n Romance  the t u r n of the c e n t u r y  s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s t h a t , as had and  as  been suggested a t v a r i o u s  t e x t u a l comparisons of the extant  " a r c h e t y p a l " T r i s t a n had all,  the i d e a had begun to win  of the extant  the favour  of  times p r e v i o u s l y ,  romances seemed to show, an  been the common l i t e r a r y source f o r most, i f not  versions.  Scholars  now  employed i n p h i l o l o g y a method  to  t y p i c a l of t h i s s c i e n t i f i c , the contents archetype,  p o s i t i v i s t i c epoch and attempted t o deduce  o f the o r i g i n a l T r i s t a n (which was v a r i o u s l y c a l l e d the  poeme p r i m i t i f , U r - T r i s t a n , and e s t o i r e , and t o which we  r e f e r as the archetype) by a n a l y t i c a l work upon the extant Golther  i n d i c a t e d how g r e a t was the importance a t t a c h e d  he wrote i n 1907! verlorene Urgedicht  versions.  to such work when  "Das nSchste Z i e l a l l e r T r i s t a n f o r s c h u n g muss a l s o  jenes  s e i n , w e i l nur dadurch d i e Frage nach dem Ursprung der  Sage und nach i h r e r l i t e r a r i s c h e n E n t w i c k l u n g e n t s c h i e d e n (pp. 3 8 - 9 ) '  shall  werden kann"  T h i s development i n s c h o l a r s h i p brought about a p a r t i a l im-  provement i n the s i t u a t i o n about which George S a i n t s b u r y had made a j u s t i i n 1897 when he wrote the f o l l o w i n g :  f i a b l e and t i m e l y complaint  But of the o r i g i n a l s , and o f the legend as a whole, the knowledge i s too much l i m i t e d t o those who see i n t h a t legend o n l y an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d i s c u s s i n g t e x t s and dates, o r i g i n s and n a t i o n a l claims. I t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y beauty, and the genius which a t some time o r o t h e r , i n one b r a i n o r i n many, developed i t from the extremely meagre m a t e r i a l s which are a l l that can be c e r t a i n l y t r a c e d , too o f t e n escape a t t e n t i o n a l t o g e t h e r , and have h a r d l y , I t h i n k , i n a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e obtained f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n . 8 0 Although a f f i l i a t i o n s  to the I n s u l a r or C o n t i n e n t a l  School were  still  r e f l e c t e d i n T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p , " n a t i o n a l c l a i m s " now began t o be tempered w i t h  a f e e l i n g of r e s p e c t f o r the poet of the archetype,  of h i s i d e n t i t y , who had c r e a t e d  t h i s romance i n a c o n s c i o u s ,  regardless artistic act.  T h i s f e e l i n g was i n t e n s i f i e d ardbecame more widespread due to the f a c t critics  i n t h i s , as i n o t h e r  that  f i e l d s of m e d i e v a l study, were abandoning the  Liedertheorie. Of  the c h i e f f a i l i n g s  approach to the extant referred). type,  i n this kind of research  one l a y i n the b l i n k e r e d  romances ( o r the " o r i g i n a l s " to which  Because a t t e n t i o n was c o n c e n t r a t e d  these o r i g i n a l s claimed  Saintsbury  upon the c o n j e c t u r a l  a t t e n t i o n n o t on account o f t h e i r  arche-  literary  45  m e r i t s but i n s t e a d as instruments the of  first  romance.  the archetype  u s e f u l f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g the c o n t e n t s  Furthermore, the b a s i c assumption t h a t the  G o l t h e r , who  i n 1907  gave a p l o t  t h a t such an u n d e r t a k i n g was  highly questionable.  summary o f the U r - T r i s t a n , r e c o g n i z e d  not without  n a t t i r l i c h nur im a l l g e m e i n e n  i t s f a u l t s and  t h e r e f o r e wrote:  und  gelingt  e n g l i s c h e n und  norwegischen B e a r b e i t u n g "  (p.  f a b l e ' s beauty and who  transformed  dates,  combined w i t h a p o s i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of  the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the accomplishment of the f i r s t  the legend of o r a l  the  poet  t r a d i t i o n i n t o a l i t e r a r y romance.  The  Qp  Q-i  attempts o f B e d i e r  aus  39)-  B e g i n n i n g w i t h Joseph B e d i e r the d i s c u s s i o n o f " t e x t s and o r i g i n s and n a t i o n a l c l a i m s " was  der  i s t fttr E i n z e l h e i t e n b e i weitem  n i c h t so z u v e r l a s s i g , wie d i e W i e d e r h e r s t e l l u n g des Thomasgedichtes der deutschen,  the  Even  "Da k e i n e e i n z i g e ungetrttbte und u n m i t t e l b a r e Q u e l l e v o r l i e g t , Versuch  contents  c o u l d be deduced by means o f t e x t u a l comparisons o f  works assumed to have d e r i v e d from i t was  of  (1905)  and  Golther  (1904, p u b l i s h e d I907)  to r e p r o -  duce the s t o r y as i t might have appeared i n the common source were the first  s i g n i f i c a n t products  of the new  The work of B e d i e r t y p i f i e s he p r o f i t e d  approach to the q u e s t i o n of  the p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n a t the  origins.  beginning  of  the c e n t u r y :  from the r e c e n t developments i n r e l a t e d  of  T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p and made a n o t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i t s f u t u r e .  a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n r e s t o r i n g the m e d i e v a l 1900  v e r s i o n s o f the l e g e n d .  areas He  showed  In  t h e r e appeared h i s v e r s i o n of the T r i s t a n s t o r y i n modern French  83  prose based on the v e r s i o n by B e r o u l . The p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e f o r h i s second u n d e r t a k i n g was p r o v i d e d by the t h e o r y proposed i n I878 by Eugen  84 KBlbing  t h a t G o t t f r i e d ' s poem, the E n g l i s h S i r T r i s t r e m and  T r i s t r a m s s a g a were based on the work o f Thomas o f B r i t t a n y :  the Norwegian i n 1902  he  46  reconstructed  i n modern prose the m i s s i n g  of B r i t t a n y and  p a r t s of the romance by Thomas  combined t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h an e d i t i o n of  the  85 extant  fragments of Thomas' v e r s i o n .  of each episode i n the a r c h e t y p a l it  F i n a l l y he.  determined the p l o t  romance or poeme p r i m i t i f  (1905),  i s t h i s l a s t accomplishment which deserves most c o n s i d e r a t i o n  context. research  Textual  comparisons formed an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the  f o r these r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s ,  to the recent  and  B e d i e r was In 1877  e d i t o r s of T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l .  Sir  T r i s t r e m was  Saga ok Isondar, and  published  i n 1882.  preliminary indebted  Franz L i c h t e n s t e i n appeared Kb'lbing's  the same s c h o l a r ' s  In 1886  in this  t h e r e f o r e much  e d i t e d E i l h a r t ' s T r i s t r a n t ; ^ the f o l l o w i n g year there e d i t i o n of T r i s t r a m s  and  e d i t i o n of  H e n r i Morf's e d i t i o n of  88 the Berne F o l i e T r i s t a n was  printed,  and Muret's e d i t i o n of  Beroul's  QQ  work appeared i n 1903. E i l e r t Lb'seth wrote i n I89O a c r i t i c a l summary of the contents of the v a s t roman en prose, based on h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o the  90 numerous MSS  and  printed versions.  French prose romance was however, p u b l i s h e d in  "Les  No  critical  a v a i l a b l e , nor has  any  p a r t i e s anciennes du roman en prose f r a n c a i s e "  remnants of Thomas' romance i n F r a n c i s q u e superseded by B e d i e r ' s  primary versions  entire  yet been made. B e d i e r ,  the second volume to h i s Thomas e d i t i o n (1905)•  was  e d i t i o n of the  own  Michel's  work of 1^02.  redactions.  For  e d i t i o n of  collection  Only as  became a v a i l a b l e c o u l d a s e r i o u s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s  The  the  (l835-39)^  these e d i t i o n s of  study be made of  the  example, owing to  l a c k of a r e l i a b l e e d i t i o n of the roman en prose, the importance of romance f o r a study of the o r i g i n s had few who  recognized  the v a l u e  l o n g been o v e r l o o k e d ;  of  of t h a t v e r s i o n f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n of  e a r l y h i s t o r y of the m a t e r i a l was  Wilhelm Rb'ttiger, who  92 I897  one  w i t h the poems of E i l h a r t and  Thomas.  the that the the  compared i t i n  the  hi  As was  e a r l y as 1886  B e d i e r had s t a t e d t h a t a s i n g l e l i t e r a r y source  used by t h e French w r i t e r s of T r i s t a n romances, and had suggested a l s o  t h a t one c o u l d r e c o n s t r u c t  that common source by comparing the v e r s i o n s o f  B e r o u l , E i l h a r t , Thomas and the roman en prose He  drew up a simple  (as p r e s e r v e d  i n MS.  103)  93  c h a r t showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these v e r s i o n s : common source  Thomas  Beroul  Roman en prose (MS. 103)  Eilhart  T h i s g e n e a l o g i c a l t a b l e was reproduced i n a somewhat m o d i f i e d (p. 192)  to serve as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h i s t h e o r y  versions p r o c e e d e d — d i r e c t l y from the l o s t a r c h e t y p a l  or i n d i r e c t l y ,  t h a t the f i v e  but independently  primary  o f each  other-  romance, x.  Folie Tristan  Beroul He  form i n 1905  also supplied a genealogical  Thomas  Roman en prose  Eilhart t a b l e i n t h i s volume to i l l u s t r a t e a more  complex s e t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which e x i s t e d between the common source, the p r i m a r y v e r s i o n s , and subsequent r e d a c t i o n s  ( p . 309)-  48  His  theory t h a t the F r e n c h p o e t i c a l t r a d i t i o n was founded n o t upon a com-  p i l a t i o n o f l o o s e l y r e l a t e d l a i s o r contes  b u t upon one r e g u l a r poem  r e s u l t e d from h i s comparison of the f i v e p r i m a r y v e r s i o n s : those  he had s e l e c t e d  f e a t u r e s which, as determined by reasons o f t a s t e , f e e l i n g and l o g i c ,  appeared to be p r i m i t i v e , and had made the f o l l o w i n g d i s c o v e r y : . . . toutes l e s f o i s que l a comparaison p o u v a i t p o r t e r s u r t r o i s t e x t e s au moins, l e s t r a i t s que, pour m o t i f s de gout, de sentiment, de l o g i q u e , nous e s t i m i o n s p r i m i t i f s , . e t a i e n t des t r a i t s a t t e s t e s par l e s t r o i s v e r s i o n s ou p a r deux au moins d'entre e l l e s . Inversement, l e s t r a i t s que, pour des m o t i f s de gout, de sentiment, de l o g i q u e , nous e s t i m i o n s remanies e t r e c e n t s , a p p a r a i s s a i e n t i s o l e s dans une seule des v e r s i o n s comparees. ( p . 192) He then determined the contents  o f each episode  i n the common source  in a  mechanical r e c o n s t r u c t i o n "ou jamais n ' i n t e r v i e n t n o t r e c h o i x " ( p . 193)  :  Par s u i t e , n o t r e e n t r e p r i s e changeait de f a c e . I I ne s ' a g i s s a i t p l u s , pour des r a i s o n s l o g i q u e s ou des impressions de gout, t o u j o u r s s u s p e c t e s , de c h o i s i r e n t r e l e s d i v e r s e s v e r s i o n s de chaque episode l e s t r a i t s q u i nous semblaient p r i m i t i f s . I I s u f f i s a i t de d r e s s e r , mecaniquement, une Table des concordances e t une Table des v a r i a n t e s . A l a t a b l e des concordances, nous mettons t o u t ce q u i e s t donne p a r deux v e r s i o n s au moins. A l a t a b l e des v a r i a n t e s , nous releguons t o u t ce q u i e s t i s o l e dans une s e u l e v e r s i o n , ( p . 193) Although B e d i e r was the f i r s t  t o make such a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n the  i d e a o f a l o s t , a r c h e t y p a l T r i s t a n romance was no i n n o v a t i o n . immediate p r e c u r s o r s in  His  i n t h i s l i n e o f r e s e a r c h , Muret and G o l t h e r , had  I898 and 1900 r e s p e c t i v e l y s e t down t h e i r ideas on the common source  both v e r b a l l y and g r a p h i c a l l y . d e l i b e r a t e l y excluded  B e d i e r , u n l i k e these  the h y p o t h e t i c a l v e r s i o n s of C h r e t i e n and Robert  (Le Chevre) from h i s scheme. pouvons-nous?" ( p . 3^8,  n. 2 ) .  "Ces deux romans He accorded  . . . sont p e r d u s :  to these  o n l y the same v a l u e as the x and y i n h i s t a b l e . Muret's t h e s i s t h a t C h r e t i e n ' s roman en prose,  two s c h o l a r s ,  arguing  qu'y  two l o s t romances  He r e j e c t e d a l s o  T r i s t a n was the model f o r E i l h a r t and the  i n s t e a d t h a t the i n t r i n s i c c o u r t l y manner o f s t y l e  4  9  and conduct i n the extant works of C h r e t i e n would b e l i e h i s ever h a v i n g w r i t t e n i n the n e c e s s a r i l y crude and p r i m i t i v e f a s h i o n of the f i r s t B e d i e r c l a i m e d t h a t the archetype was  composed p r i o r to 1154,  date the troubadours were w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the s t o r y , and he moreover t h a t a much e a r l i e r date of composition was  possible.  romance. by which  suggested "Les  traits  a r c h a i q u e s et c e t t e rudesse des moeurs s i souvent remarquee dans l e s avent u r e s c e n t r a l e s de l a legende permettent et  jusqu'aux 314).  (p.  premiers temps de l a conquete  "Que  ou f r a n c a i s , i l nous s u f f i t  p l u s haut,  de l ' A n g l e t e r r e par l e s Normands"  He d i d not f e e l that the language  a s c e r t a i n e d , and wrote:  d'en  de l e f a i r e remonter  of the f i r s t  romance c o u l d be  l e poeme p r i m i t i f a i t ete a n g l a i s ,  anglo-normand,  d'avoir e t a b l i q u ' i l a reellement e x i s t e et  a v o i r a peu pres r e t r o u v e l e canevas"  (p. 317)-  In t h i s way  he  s h i f t e d the emphasis from the n a t i o n a l c l a i m s , and put more weight a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e , no matter i n what language,  on the  of the a r c h e t y p a l romance.  By p r o d u c i n g h i s "canevas" or o u t l i n e - s k e t c h of the l o s t work B e d i e r hoped to r e s t o r e the legend i n i t s o r i g i n a l beauty,  i n i t s " a r c h a i c grace,  95 more b e a u t i f u l than a l l the romances d e r i v e d from i t , ' demonstrate  the genius of i t s c r e a t o r , whose work surpassed u n d e n i a b l y  that of a l l the l a t e r r e d a c t o r s . p o e t " ( p . 127)'  "The  p r i m i t i v e poet alone was  B e d i e r s sympathetic approach 5  c i a t i o n of i t s a n c i e n t grace, was  o p i n i o n when he wrote:  aux anciens poemes sur T r i s t a n ce que  the f i r s t  to the a r c h e t y p e , h i s appre-  In I 8 9 I he had v o i c e d a  "Les romans de l a Table-Ronde sont aux l a i s  p u r : l a substance manque."^^ of  the s o v e r e i g n  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s whole a t t i t u d e to  the development of the A r t h u r i a n romances.  et  and t h e r e b y to  l e s t y l e flamboyant  e s t au  similar primitifs gothique  To B e d i e r t h e r e c o u l d ensue a f t e r the c r e a t i o n  romance o n l y a p i t i f u l  deformation;  l a t e r poets t r i e d  without  50  success  to p r e s e r v e p a r t s of the p r i m i t i v e s t o r y (such as the b e t r a y a l  by the dwarf and  p o s i t i o n i n t o the  both  He d i d r e c o g n i z e a c e r t a i n beauty  the  'precieux'  'precieux' and  [ s i c ] manner, of a poem o r i g i n a l l y f o r e i g n  c o u r t l y mind.  Charming and  Romantic; 1812  a direct  these  [these i n v e n t i o n s ] without  T h i s a t t i t u d e marks B e d i e r as a  neo-  l i n e can be t r a c e d from Jacob Grimm's comments  (above, p. Ik and below, p. 90)  century l a t e r : earlier  them" (p. 127)-  indeed,  e x q u i s i t e as they a r e  s o f t e n the i n v e n t i o n s of the p r i m i t i v e poet,  remoulders are g r e a t o n l y when they p r e s e r v e d a r i n g to touch  essen-  "the r e d u c t i o n to the tone of c o u r t p o e t r y , the t r a n s -  when they e m b e l l i s h and  of  t h e i r f a i l u r e was  the v e r s i o n s by Thomas and G o t t f r i e d , but these l a s t were even so  t i a l l y remouldings,  to  i n the f o r e s t ) and  and r i d i c u l o u s " (p. 126).  "lamentable in  the l i f e  to those of B e d i e r n e a r l y one  both d i s c o v e r e d more genuine p o e t r y (Naturpoesie)  form of the f a b l e than i n the K u n s t p o e s i e  i n the  with i t s polished, c o u r t l y  gance . Beside working on the archetype B e d i e r d i d study the h i s t o r y of the m a t e r i a l . was  P i c t i s h and  He  r e i t e r a t e d the t h e s i s t h a t the f i r s t  the second Welsh, and  a s u r v i v a l of a n c i e n t myths.  pre-literary stage  r e j e c t e d the i d e a t h a t the s t o r y  Of the l a t e r h i s t o r y he admitted  his  was  un-  c e r t a i n t y , but f o l l o w i n g p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s he p o s t u l a t e d a t r a n s m i s s i o n d u r i n g which " l a legende  a passe directement  ...  a ces j o n g l e u r s  armori^  c a i n s q u i c h a n t a i e n t e t c o n t a i e n t dans l e s chateaux normands d ' A n g l e t e r r e " (p.  129).  quest was  B e d i e r a l s o repeated  the well-worn t h e o r y t h a t the Norman con-  d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r i n g i n g the Armorican  jongleurs into  c o n t a c t w i t h the Welsh, thereby b r i n g i n g about the f u r t h e r spread of legend.  One  of the most demanding tasks f a c i n g B e d i e r was  the  the attempt to  determine the a c t u a l content of the Welsh legend b e f o r e and d u r i n g  the  ele-  51  p e r i o d of t r a n s m i s s i o n  to the F r e n c h , f o r upon t h i s depended h i s t h e s i s  that the f a b l e i n the archetype and non-Celtic  creation.  I t was  l a t e r r e d a c t i o n s was  i n essence a  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t o p i c t h a t  d i s p l a y e d most c l e a r l y h i s s t r o n g c o n t i n e n t a l l e a n i n g s .  Subjecting  a c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y a l l those elements which Gaston P a r i s had ( i n h i s " T r i s t a n et I s e u t " of  that any  elements which w i t h s t o o d h i s s c r u t i n y were i n d i s p u t a b l y  but n o n e t h e l e s s f r e e from a l l t r a c e s of the c e n t r a l theme of the  law.  The  primitive Celtic  b l i n g woman and h e r  stained with blood,"  powerful husband" (p. 110),  existence  s t o r i e s " and  of t h e i r  fatal conflict law,  c e i v e d by a people who,  of l o v e and  e a s i l y broken of t i e s .  a moral code f o r e i g n to the C e l t s , namely  the  s t o r y c o u l d not have been con-  as documentary evidence ( e . g . Howel the Good's upon m a r r i a g e as the most  Because the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r s  the Armorican C e l t s had Isolde.  c e r n i n g T r i s t a n , but  the c e n t r a l t h e m e — the  as t h e i r congeners had  about T r i s t a n and  "violent tales  i t r e l i e d upon  The  law—for  I n s t i t u t i o n s of Wales) proved, looked  i n s u l a r nor  of  110).  'Decameron'" (p.  of a s o c i a l  thought or f e l t  "dissem-  a s t o r y i n which T r i s t a n appeared " l i k e the hero of  i n d i s s o l u b i l i t y of the marriage bond.  Laws and  now  love  a theme t y p i c a l  proposed t h a t the C e l t s c o u l d not have i n v e n t e d  the permanent and  story  I s o l d e , namely the c o n f l i c t of  legend c o u l d have t o l d o n l y of a  the C e l t s ' " b r u t a l , h a l f b a r b a r i c  He  Celtic,  l o v e r , famous f o r h i s mastery i n a l l the p r i m i t i v e  a r t s , duping a j e a l o u s and  a s o r t of b a r b a r i c  out  189*0 he concluded  authentically Celtic  and  to  singled  as b e i n g  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the names T r i s t a n and  Bedier  The  c o u l d not have  never thought or f e l t ,  ever possessed a great  Welsh and  the I r i s h  neither  romance of  transmitted  these were, he presumed, simple s t o r i e s of  lais  the love  con-  adultery.  52  Only when the s t o r y of t h e i r l o v e and form i n a b i o g r a p h i c a l romance was life--and  t h i s was  i t s c o n f l i c t with  the r e a l T r i s t a n legend  the achievement of the poet who  Wolfgang G o l t h e r prepared  the law was called  composed the  in  1907,  und  sMmtlicher  11-12).  as the t i t l e  mir bekannten und  auf d i e Gegenwart h e r u n t e r .  . . . Es  suggested,  one  year  Mittelalters  was  to f u r n i s h  erreichbaren Tristandichtungen  s o l l t e g e z e i g t werden, was  s c h l e c h t e r D i c h t e r j e w e i l s aus  T h i s marked a new  archetype.  printed only  I s o l d e i n den Dichtungen des  G o l t h e r ' s aim,  den Handen g u t e r und (pp.  however, G o l t h e r ' s work was  i n h i s book T r i s t a n und  "eine Betrachtung bis  published;  der neuen Z e i t .  into  h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s t o r y t o l d i n  the a r c h e t y p a l romance (which he named the U r - T r i s t a n ) i n l^Ok, b e f o r e B e d i e r ' s was  given  departure  dem  unter  S t o f f e ward"  i n T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p , and  i n v o l v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t o the h i s t o r y of the m a t e r i a l i n medie v a l and modern times. the  I t was  " p o s i t i v i s t i s c h e Sammelwut  c o n t r i b u t i o n , i n 1929,  at the same time an endeavour t y p i c a l 97  which G o l t h e r d i s p l a y e d a g a i n i n h i s  98  to the S t o f f - und  Because B e d i e r and  Motivgeschichte.  G o l t h e r had been working i n d e p e n d e n t l y  p r o j e c t s , the l a t t e r f e l t  t h a t the o v e r a l l s i m i l a r i t i e s between  on  In c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s h i s o u t l i n e of the p l o t  from t h a t g i v e n by B e d i e r , and w h i l e i n some cases work i n o r d e r to t a l l y w i t h B e d i e r ' s archetype, f e r r e d to d i f f e r . works. contents and  There i s , however, one  B e d i e r named f i v e primary  identical  their  r e s u l t s vouched f o r the c o r r e c t n e s s of t h e i r b a s i c assumptions and s t r u c t i v e methods.  of  recon-  differed  G o l t h e r amended h i s  on o t h e r p o i n t s he  pre-  s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e between  v e r s i o n s upon which he  drew f o r the  of the l o s t romance, namely B e r o u l , E i l h a r t , Thomas, roman en  the F o l i e • T r i s t a n .  G o l t h e r used o n l y the f i r s t  their  f o u r of these; he  prose, wrote:  53  "Die e r h a l t e n e n  Tristangedichte  I n h a l t durch V e r g l e i c h u n g  von  setzen  ein Urgedicht  voraus, dessen  v i e r u n t e r e i n a n d e r unabhangigen Zeugen--  E i l h a r t , B e r o l , Thomas, Prosaroman—gewonnen werden kann, das ben wurde und  i n Bearbeitungen h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h s i c h f o r t p f l a n z t e , das (p. 67)•  a l s o e i n l i t e r a r i s c h e s Denkmal war" and  aufgeschrie-  He  omitted the F o l i e T r i s t a n ,  gave the f o l l o w i n g reason f o r t h i s d e c i s i o n :  "Da. Thomas von  Tristans  N a r r h e i t n i c h t s w e i s s , i s t zu vermuten, dass s i e i n s e i n e r V o r l a g e , Urgedicht  gar n i c h t vorkam.  fUr einen B e s t a n d t e i l des (II,  u r s p r l l n g l i c h e n Tristanromans .  287ff •) haben mich n i c h t Uberzeugt.  ausschalten, war,  Mi t h i n h a l t e i c h T r i s t a n s N a r r h e i t  um  a l s Bedier It  den  AusfUhrungei  wiederzugewinnen, der v i e l  klirzer  66).  the p r e - l i t e r a r y f o r m a t i o n  of the legend, as  essence a r e p e t i t i o n of those o u t l i n e d above ( p . hi)• stressed only that Golther  the love-theme, f o r w i t h i n critics  Bediers  i s not n e c e s s a r y to d i s c u s s here the views expressed i n t h i s book  concerning  must be  nicht  Ich glaube, w i r mlissen d i e F o l i e  u r s p r l l n g l i c h e n Schluss  annimmt" (p.  dem  they were i n At  this point i t  b e l i e v e d i n the c o n t i n e n t a l o r i g i n s of  the next s i x years of T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p  two  i n the I n s u l a r School were to f u r t h e r t h e i r c l a i m to the o r i g i n s .  These two  s c h o l a r s were Joseph L o t h and  Gertrude S c h o e p p e r l e .  As became c l e a r i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the s t u d i e s of L o t h (p. 37) a l l e g i a n c e l a y w i t h Gaston P a r i s and himself  the I n s u l a r S c h o o l .  a f t e r applyin  to a f u r t h e r study of the medieval romances, he p u b l i s h e d  r e s u l t s i n a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s which were then c o l l e c t e d and  i n the Revue C e l t i q u e from 1909  reprinted.  99  theory  t h a t the moral c o n f l i c t was  his 1912,  t o  In the c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d  drame moral de T r i s t a n et d'Iseut e s t - i l d ' o r i g i n e Bedier's  Now,  his  c e l t i q u e ? " he  a French innovation,  ii  Le  opposed supporting  54  h i s arguments by r e f e r r i n g to C e l t i c  (Welsh) l e g a l and l i t e r a r y documents.  L o t h had a l s o made f r e s h d i s c o v e r i e s c o n c e r n i n g Cornish  elements i n the f a b l e , and these d i s c o v e r i e s shed l i g h t on the  o r i g i n s of the legend and of the romance. ility  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  P r i o r to t h i s time the p o s s i b -  t h a t the legend might have o r i g i n a t e d among the C e l t s l i v i n g i n  C o r n w a l l had escaped the a t t e n t i o n of s c h o l a r s ;  the P i c t i s h name of the  hero had l e d to the assumption t h a t the f a b l e , of North B r i t i s h had  o n l y a t a l a t e r date become l o c a l i z e d  British Isles.  origin,  i n the more s o u t h e r n areas o f the  L o t h now wrote that the f a b l e was indeed known t o a l l the  i n s u l a r C e l t s , but that the p a r t i c u l a r v e r s i o n propagated i n C o r n w a l l some time b e f o r e  the Norman conquest was the o r i g i n a l legend a t the base of the  literary tradition.  He a r r i v e d a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  names ( e s p e c i a l l y p l a c e names) i n the r e d a c t i o n s Cornish  names and l o c a l i t i e s ,  a f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g proper  by B e r o u l  and Thomas w i t h  and a l s o by p o i n t i n g out t h a t the unique t r i -  l i n g u a l i s m i n C o r n w a l l — F r e n c h , Cornish  ( C e l t i c ) and E n g l i s h were a l l t h r e e  spoken t h e r e — m a d e of t h a t l o c a l i t y the i d e a l c r a d l e f o r the f o s t e r i n g of the f a b l e .  To L o t h ,  the C o r n i s h  theory  e s t a b l i s h e d beyond doubt t h a t Gaston  P a r i s had n o t been mistaken when, i n 1902, romance had been w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h . * " ^  he had proposed t h a t the f i r s t  Even B e d i e r had n o t excluded  p o s s i b i l i t y , but o f the three who suggested i t - - P a r i s , B e d i e r the l a t t e r f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d  upon the i d e a .  He c o n c l u d e d :  and  this  Loth—only  " I I e s t impos-  s i b l e de c h e r c h e r au roman de T r i s t a n une a u t r e p a t r i e que 1' A n g l e t e r r e . ^~®^~ u  Loth b e l i e v e d for a l l :  t h a t t h e i n s u l a r o r i g i n s had now been e s t a b l i s h e d once and  55  I I f a u t renoncer a T r i s t a n P i c t e , a I s e u t , f i l l e de V i k i n g e t c . Pour l a premiere f o i s l e l i e u d ' o r i g i n e d'un roman de l a T a b l e Ronde e t du p l u s important de t o u s , e s t f i x e avec p r e c i s i o n . C ' e s t l a r u i n e de l a t h e o r i e n o n - c e l t i q u e , j e s e r a i s presque t e n t e de d i r e a n t i - c e l t i q u e , de l ' o r i g i n e de l a m a t i e r e de Bretagne. ( p . Meanwhile the i d e a o f a common l i t e r a r y source had undergone a A l r e a d y i n 1872  development i n the hands o f Rudolf Zenker.  309)  new  Hermann Ethe  had c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o a p a r a l l e l between the e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y P e r s i a n  ^ e p i c Wis  102  ^ ^ and Ramin and the T r i s t a n l e g e n d .  the s i m i l a r i t y ,  and i n the year 1911  Zenker,  More c r i t i c s had d i s c u s s e d acknowledging  with Bedier  the n e c e s s i t y o f p o s t u l a t i n g some k i n d o f a r c h e t y p e , a s s e r t e d t h a t t h i s source c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as the P e r s i a n romance, or  either  alternatively,  that the a r c h e t y p a l T r i s t a n romance and Wis and Ramin both d e r i v e d from an 103 e a r l i e r common s o u r c e . Zenker's t h e o r i e s have r e c e n t l y been r e v i v e d by 1 OilFranz R. Schrb'der. When f i r s t expounded, however, they met w i t h some severe c r i t i c i s m , p a r t i c u l a r l y from Gertrude Schoepperle, who  shortly  105 a f t e r put forward a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t h e o r y of h e r Schoepperle, who l i t e r a r y appearance, ment-story, mentioned She of  t r a c e d the f a b l e ' s development up  to i t s f i r s t  f o s t e r e d the n o t i o n t h a t a C e l t i c a i t h e d or e l o p e -  s i m i l a r to t h a t of the I r i s h t a l e o f D i a r m a i d and G r a i n n e — a  as e a r l y as the t e n t h c e n t u r y — f o r m e d  f u r n i s h e d p r o o f f o r her well-documented analogues  own.  from I r i s h l i t e r a t u r e ,  and l a i d  first  the nucleus of the l e g e n d .  argument by c u l l i n g an a r r a y s p e c i a l emphasis on  m o t i f s i n T r i s t a n such as the imram o r voyage. T r i s t a n as i t was  saga  In h e r view  Irish  "the s t o r y of  c o n c e i v e d , and c o n c e i v e d i n no l e s s o f t r a g i c  beauty than i n the forms i n which we now  have i t , was  C e l t i c " (p.  C a r r y i n g f u r t h e r the i d e a s a l r e a d y propounded by o t h e r c r i t i c s  469)-  about  common source she wrote t h a t a l o s t French poem (which she named the  the estoire)  56  was  the source  of some, but not a l l ,  B e r o u l , E i l h a r t , Thomas and on the e s t o i r e .  Her  B e d i e r and G o l t h e r , roman en prose and  for, u n l i k e the other  accurate tives.  two,  she d i d not  the c o n t i n u a t i o n of B e r o u l  of the method which he had  from B e d i e r and  ...  from i t s extant  At o t h e r  to be,  of the d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s and or more r e d a c t i o n s .  Eilhart  Bedier's  upon a mechanical  a preference  for  supposed.  i n accord-  v e r s i o n , u s i n g simple E n g l i s h p r o s e .  X and  the l o s t the  Schoepperle t h e r e f o r e r e t o l d She  excluded  not  In h e r view E i l h a r t ' s  ( B e d i e r i n t e r p o s e d a r e d a c t i o n y_ between the archetype p. k"j\  those  l o g i c which appear i n  the fragments of B e r o u l , b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d  see above,  had  f e l t moreover t h a t the l o s t poem had  been as a r t i s t i c a l l y p e r f e c t as B e d i e r  hart tradition;  M.  It i s constructed  of t a s t e , sentiment, and She  who  times he  from Thomas.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not based e n t i r e l y , as i t p u r p o r t s  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  deriva-  the more p r i m i t i v e c h a r a c t e r of the  v e r s i o n to i n c l u d e an e s p e c i a l l y charming t r a i t  h i s d i s c u s s i o n s " (pp. 7 - 8 ) .  G o l t h e r came when  " i n v i o l a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s  set f o r h i m s e l f .  d i s r e g a r d e d both h i s method and  by two  the  seemed  the method employed by B e d i e r ,  f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e d d e t a i l s from E i l h a r t  v e r s i o n , along w i t h  that  c o n s i d e r i t p o s s i b l e to make an adequate or  Furthermore, she c r i t i c i z e d  ance w i t h  feel  of  estoire.  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a common l i t e r a r y source  which are supported  those  because, i n h e r e s t i m a t i o n , p a r t s of these  d i d not  comparison of the t r a i t s  that  d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y or e x c l u s i v e l y  t r a c e s of a v e r s i o n a n t e r i o r to the  s t a t e d t h a t she  claimed  the author of the Berne F o l i e T r i s t a n depended  Schoepperle's most r a d i c a l departure she  She  thoughts on the s u b j e c t c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  from t h i s common source, to p r e s e r v e  of the romances.  from her  Beroul-EilEilhart's  study any  c u s s i o n of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the m a t e r i a l from the C e l t s to the  source.  dis-  French:  57  "On  the q u e s t i o n of the channel of t r a n s m i s s i o n . . .  premature,  i t seems t o us  i n our p r e s e n t knowledge of the h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e of the  C e l t i c c o u n t r i e s i n the M i d d l e Ages, to pronounce"  ( p . V75)•  Nor d i d  she t r y to determine the a d d i t i o n s made by the poet of the e s t o i r e when he a p p r o p r i a t e d the C e l t i c  material.  Jacob Kelemina, another staunch member of the I n s u l a r S c h o o l , p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n h i s G e s c h i c h t e der T r i s t a n s a g e nach Dichtungen des M i t t e l a l t e r s h i s t o r y which  resembled  (Vienna, 1923), a review of the m a t e r i a l ' s  t h a t g i v e n by G o l t h e r i n 1907,  c o n t a i n the p o s t - m e d i e v a l v e r s i o n s of the l e g e n d .  but which d i d not  To Kelemina,  the  Irish  sagas to which Schoepperle drew a t t e n t i o n f u r n i s h e d the most r e l i a b l e dence f o r the C e l t i c  genesis of the legend, because  the Welsh t r i a d s and the P e r s i a n e p i c . P a r i s by w r i t i n g : G. P a r i s gewiesenen  Weg  He openly defended a l s o  of G o l t h e r ' s c o l l e c t i v e  summary was  was  Kelemina  (p. 220).  h a t z. B.  Thus, w h i l e the b i a s  c o n t i n e n t a l , t h a t of Kelemina's work  thought t h a t i t was  t y p a l romance had a c t u a l l y e x i s t e d , but h e — l i k e a r e s t o r a t i o n was  Gaston  d i e s p a t e r e Forschung h a t t e d i e s e n r i c h t i g e n  n i c h t mehr v e r l a s s e n s o l l e n " (p. 199)-  decidedly insular.  evi-  these antedated both  "Auf den k e l t i s c h e n Ursprung des Liebesromans  . . . hingewiesen;  den  e v i d e n t t h a t an a r c h e -  Schoepperle—doubted  whether  p o s s i b l e or even a d v i s a b l e as a s c h o l a r l y u n d e r t a k i n g  However, i f any such r e c o n s t r u c t i v e attempts were to be made  i n the f u t u r e more a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d to the roman en p r o s e , which i n h i s o p i n i o n preservednuch of the o r i g i n a l  romance.  58  IV  The I n f l u e n c e of G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e on O r i g i n  Research  In F r i e d r i c h Ranke, one o f the eminent T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s of t h i s c e n t u r y , Schoepperle found a sympathetic d i s c i p l e who  o p e n l y acknowledged h i s  106 indebtedness to her C e l t i c r e s e a r c h e s . und I s o l d in  Ranke s aim i n h i s T r i s t a n 5  (1925) was to r e t e l l the s t o r y as i t appeared at e v e r y p e r i o d  i t s development from the o r a l through the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n of the  M i d d l e Ages, and he based the f i r s t p e r l e s comparisons 5  t h r e e c h a p t e r s of h i s book on Schoep-  o f the e x t a n t m a t e r i a l w i t h I r i s h  literature.  Schoep-  p e r l e had f u r n i s h e d the C e l t i c m o t i f s w i t h o u t forming them i n t o a coherent legend, and Ranke now  l i n k e d a l l these m o t i f s t o g e t h e r i n an attempt  r e c o n s t r u c t the o r a l t r a d i t i o n .  The  g r e a t weakness of such an u n d e r t a k i n g ,  as Ranke h i m s e l f admitted, l a y i n the assumption (p.  l ) could restore a f l u i d o r a l legend.  o t h e r s c h o l a r s to produce His  markedly  relationship  a more adequate  insular a f f i n i t i e s  to  that  "Motiwergleichung"  But, undaunted, he c h a l l e n g e d r e n d e r i n g of the o r i g i n a l  l e d him to' c l a i m t h a t the  fable.  triangular  ( T r i s t a n - I s o l d e - M a r k e ) e x i s t e d a l r e a d y " i n der Dammerung a l t e r  k e l t i s c h e r Sage und D i c h t u n g " ( p . 3)-  D e s c r i b i n g the f a b l e ' s e a r l y d e v e l o p -  ment among the C e l t s he showed by what means the imram and a i t h e d had been joined together.  The imram ( T r i s t a n s voyage to an i s l a n d where h i s wound, 5  y  r e c e n t l y i n f l i c t e d by M o r o l t , i s h e a l e d by the l a t t e r s s i s t e r , who falls  i n l o v e w i t h him,  and T r i s t a n s  then  s o l i t a r y r e t u r n t o Cornwall) and  the  a i t h e d (the f l i g h t o f T r i s t a n and h i s u n c l e s w i f e to the f o r e s t a f t e r  the  5  5  enamoured Queen I s o l d e has c a s t a s p e l l on the w a r r i o r T r i s t a n ;  their  Waldleben,  thus  and t h e i r death, when the d y i n g hero k i l l s  avenges the l o s s of h i s honour) a t one  time formed  two  I s o l d e and  s e p a r a t e and  distinct  59  stories,  t h e i r o n l y c o n n e c t i o n b e i n g t h a t T r i s t a n appeared i n each.  ever, when an unknown poet who p r o b a b l y was l i v i n g i n C o r n w a l l in  How-  introduced  the f i r s t h a l f o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y the m o t i f o f the l o v e - p o t i o n i n t o  the legend of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , these two d i s p a r a t e episodes were c a l l y blended  t o form a t i g h t l y - k n i t whole, and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  hero and h e r o i n e was s e t on an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t b a s i s : neuen Erfundung i s t k l a r : i s t beiden Liebenden ihr  durch  i n g l e i c h e r Weise jede s i t t l i c h e Verantwortung f l l r  Handeln abgenommen;  s c h u l d l o s werden s i e durch  ohne i n n e r e Verbindung einander  immer  " j e t z t e r s t konnten d i e u r s p r l i n g l i c h  z u r geschlossenen  d i e T o d f e i n d i n des M o r h o l d t b t e r s ,  romans werden" ( p . l 6 ) .  den Zaubertrank  f o l g e n d e n b e i d e n Handlungen, d i e F a h r t z u r  h e i l e n d e n Fee und der Fluchtroman, heilende Jungfrau,  "Der S i n n d e r  den unwissend getrunkenen L i e b e s t r a n k  t i e f e r i n Schuld v e r s t r i c k t " (p. 15) j  "das  artisti-  E i n h e i t , konnte d i e zur H e l d i n des L i e b e s -  The name and n a t i o n a l i t y of t h e c r e a t o r o f t h i s ,  a l t e s t e T r i s t a n - E p o s " (p. 8 ) , would remain a r i d d l e : War der D i c h t e r F r a n z o s e . . . . Oder war es e i n k e l t i s c h e r E r z S h l e r , dem durch d i e Berilhrung mit der romanischen Welt der Sinn f U r d i e s t r e n g e r e Form und d i e k l a r e r e n L i n i e n geweckt war, und wurde s e i n k e l t i s c h e r Prosaroman e r s t s p a t e r i n f r a n z b s i s c h e Verse umgegossen?—Doch wie es s i c h damit auch v e r h a l t e n mag: f r a g e n w i r nach dem e i g e n t l i c h e n Schbpfer des m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Tristanromans, so kann ftir d i e s e n E h r e n t i t e l e r n s t l i c h nur der D i c h t e r i n B e t r a c h t kommen, der den L i e b e s t r a n k e r f a n d und d i e getrennten M o t i v e der S i t e s ten k e l t i s c h e n Dichtung durch die k u n s t v o l l e Szenenbrlicke des M i t t e l s t i i c k s z u r g r o s s a r t i g e n e p i s c h e n E i n h e i t zusammenschloss. (p. 21) There i s one o u t s t a n d i n g and h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between  Ranke's work and t h a t o f G o l t h e r and Kelemina, a l l t h r e e of whom t r a c e d the i n n e r development of the legend versions.  Ranke was the f i r s t  through  i t s numerous h y p o t h e t i c a l and known  t o advance the t h e s i s t h a t the h i s t o r y o f the  6o  material c l e a r l y reflected  the changing s p i r i t u a l c l i m a t e  ("Geistes-  und  K u n s t e n t w i c k l u n g , " p. 2) of Western Europe: Der Tristanroman b e g l e i t e t d i e E n t w i c k l u n g des Liebesproblems im Abendlande von den n a i v e r e n V e r h a l t n i s s e n der F r t t h z e i t zu der t i e f g e h e n d e n E r o t i s i e r u n g der r i t t e r l i c h e n G e s e l l s c h a f t urn d i e Wende des z w a l f t e n zum d r e i z e h n t e n Jahrhundert, und w e i t e r zum Durchbruch der b l i r g e r l i c h e n G e s i t t u n g , die f l l r d i e g e f U h l v o l l e n U b e r t r e i b u n g e n der h b f i s c h e n Z e i t k e i n V e r s t S n d n i s mehr h a t t e . (p. l ) The  a t t i t u d e displayed;b,y Ranke must be  seen i n the framework of the  ments i n i n t e l l e c t u a l thought i n Germany at t h i s had now  time.  develop-  Scientific positivism  begun to be r e p l a c e d by G e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t e , which sought to e x p l a i n  l i t e r a t u r e i n terms of a Z e i t g e i s t .  T h i s Z e i t g e i s t was  a quintessential  s p i r i t of the time, an i n t e l l e c t u a l atmosphere or c l i m a t e of o p i n i o n , a u n i t a r y f o r c e a b s t r a c t e d l a r g e l y from the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l c u l t u r a l 107 and  other a c t i v i t i e s  and  the a d o p t i o n  of man.  The  gradual  t u r n i n g away from p o s i t i v i s m  of the g e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t l i c h e Methode (the p h i l o s o p h y  Geistesgeschichte  as a b a s i s f o r l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m ) e x e r t e d a  of  strong  i n f l u e n c e i n a l l branches of T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p .  The  diminished  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the  r a p i d l y i n the t w e n t i e t h century, w h i l e  s p i r i t of the times as r e v e a l e d i n extant . important. 1  The chapter,  0  8  interest  l i t e r a t u r e became i n c r e a s i n g l y  f i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to o r i g i n r e s e a r c h  to be c o n s i d e r e d  namely the work by Bodo M e r g e l l e n t i t l e d T r i s t a n und  Ursprung und  Entwicklung  in origins  der T r i s t a n s a g e des M i t t e l a l t e r s  in this  Isolde.  (Mainz, 19*1-9),  w e l l e x e m p l i f i e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of the g e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t l i c h e Methode to Tristan criticism, ship.  and  demonstrates a l s o the change of d i r e c t i o n i n s c h o l a r -  F o r M e r g e l l , the legend's h y p o t h e t i c a l o r i g i n  important  ("Ursprung") was  than i t s l a t e r known development ("Entwicklung").  His  less  principal  61  aim was to g a i n "einen U b e r b l i c k liber den Weg, den, g e i s t e s g e s c h i c h t l i c h gesehen, d i e i n d i e s e n Dichtungen  s i c h m a n i f e s t i e r e n d e T r i s t a n s a g e von  i h r e n Anfangen b i s zum H o c h m i t t e l a l t e r a l s e i n Stllck a b e n d l a n d i s c h e r , von f r a n z S s i s c h e m und deutschem G e i s t getragener B i l d u n g s - und I d e e n g e s c h i c h t e genommen h a t " ( p . 9)•  As he t r a c e d the f a b l e ' s h i s t o r y he drew s t r u c t u r e -  c h a r t s o f the c o n j e c t u r a l and e x t a n t v e r s i o n s , and i n so doing he  extended  the p r e l i m i n a r y s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s e s made i n 1933 by A r t h u r W i t t e ("Der Aufbau der a l t e s t e n T r i s t a n d i c h t u n g e n " ) his  b a s i s , had shown t h a t a c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l development accounted f o r  the expansion this  w i t t e , t a k i n g Ranke's book as  o f the content o f the s t o r y , and had m a i n t a i n e d  also that  s t r u c t u r a l t h e o r y would vouch f o r the c o r r e c t n e s s o f Ranke's r e c o n -  structions .  W i t t e based  a l l h i s t h e o r i e s on the " W i l l e z u r Doppelung"  (p.  I65) or d u p l i c a t i o n o f m o t i f s found  for  i n s t a n c e , Ranke viewed the imram and the a i t h e d as b e i n g o r i g i n a l l y  and d i s t i n c t , W i t t e w r o t e : l i c h aufgebauten, Verbundenheit zur  throughout  the m a t e r i a l .  der b e i d e n T e i l e l i e g t  wrote c o n c e r n i n g W i t t e ' s r e s e a r c h : lasst sich  Die innere  . . . v o r a l l e m i n dem S t i l w i l l e n  s t e i g e r n d e n und abwandelnden Doppelung" (pp.  166-67) • M e r g e l l now  " D i e s e r von W i t t e gewiesene Weg  stil-  . . . noch w e i t e r v e r f o l g e n " ( p . 13)*  M e r g e l l i l l u s t r a t e d both v e r b a l l y and v i s u a l l y h i s own t h e s i s the symmetrical,  separate  " H i e r haben w i r es v i e l m e h r m i t einem e i n h e i t -  wohl ausgewogenen k l e i n e n Kunstwerk zu tun.  k r i t i s c h e r Betrachtung  Where,  concerning  a r c h i t e c t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f the f a b l e as i t expanded  from U r - T r i s t a n to the e x t a n t romances. that C h r e t i e n composed the f i r s t  I n a d d i t i o n , . b e c a u s e he b e l i e v e d  romance, he i n c l u d e d s t r u c t u r e - c h a r t s of  the extant works by t h a t p o e t . A c c o r d i n g to M e r g e l l the " a l t e s t e T r i s t a n d i c h t u n g " c o n s i s t e d (as W i t t e suggested) of imram and a i t h e d a r t i s t i c a l l y j o i n e d t o g e t h e r , and the  62  Z e i t g e i s t inhe r e n t i n t h a t f i r s t  "Epoche der Romanik" (p. 200).  of the  c a t i o n of m o t i f s p r i n c i p l e s as  and  There was  C e l t i c elements, but  evidence not  a l s o of s p e c i f i c a l l y F r e n c h  The  s i t u a t e d "zwischen Hochromanik und  first  romance, on  F r t l h g o t i k " ( p . 200)  making s i m i l a r equations between the p a r t i c u l a r Z e i t g e i s t and  und  damit  concluded: "Tristansage  wie  formal diese  Gestaltung  . . . d i e s i c h schon i n der F'Ugung  der a l t e s t e n D i c h t u n g k u n d g i b t " (p. 18).  v e r s i o n s he  that  o n l y of d u p l i -  l i t e r a r g e s c h i c h t l i c h wirksam wurden, i h r e r  Erhbhung durch romanische Formkunst  hand, was  legend's development was  shown i n the c e n t r a l c o m p o s i t i o n : "[Es] b e d u r f t e ,  keltischen Gestalten und  stage of the  Tristandichtung  the .  the  other After  extant  s i n d , nach Gehalt  Form, Ausdruck der namlichen g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n Wandlungen m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n  G e i s t e s " (p . 203)  .  Since M e r g e l l ' s genesis  and  the legend f i r s t  study of  sought to r e s u s c i t a t e the L i e d e r t h e o r i e , suggested  that  been made.  L a t i n chronicles ("delle narrazioni  c r o n i s t i c h e , c e l t i c h e , s c r i t t e i n l a t i n o , q u e l l e che  I t a l i a n , Camillo Schrbder's r e c e n t  the 1951  spread abroad i n l a i s and  Tristano"''"^^)—but  prima  da  i l a i s hanno tramandato e d i f f u s o l a l.eggenda d i  t h i s suggestion  was  immediately quashed by a f e l l o w  C r o c e t t i . I t remains to be  seen whether or  P e r s i a n h y p o t h e s i s — w h i c h can be viewed as an  of the e a r l y e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a f f e c t the c u r r e n t  o r i g i n , was  significant  In  s o l e e p o i insieme con  any way  no  e a r l y development of the T r i s t a n f a b l e has  Bruno P a n v i n i , who  prosastiche,  work appeared i n 19^9  Eastern  theory  t h a t the o r a l legend, of i n s u l a r C e l t i c  c r e a t i o n became the b a s i s f o r most of the Isolde.  extension  t h e o r y — w i l l r a d i c a l l y a l t e r or i n  transformed i n the hands of an unknown poet whose  the s t o r y of T r i s t a n and  not  112  literary  subsequent medieval r e d a c t i o n s  of  63  V  The  f o r e g o i n g survey  Conclusion  of t h e o r i e s on the o r i g i n s of T r i s t a n y i e l d s i n the  f i r s t p l a c e the c e r t a i n knowledge t h a t those  origins resist  definition.  In the se cond p l a c e i t demonstrates t h a t the h i s t o r y o f s c h o l a r l y i n q u i r y i n t o the e a r l y development of the T r i s t a n s t o r y f a l l s periods  into four well-defined  and t h a t the c h a r a c t e r o f each has been determined l a r g e l y by the  contemporary s t a t e of i n t e l l e c t u a l During  the f i r s t  thought.  p e r i o d , i n the l a t e seventeenth and e i g h t e e n t h  c e n t u r i e s , the medieval T r i s t a n romances were known f o r the most p a r t indirectly,  and the s t o r y o f T r i s t a n and I s o l d e was c l a s s i f i e d  p a r t o f the A r t h u r i a d . geographical first  source  sprang.  only  as forming  The p r i m a r y aim a t t h i s time was t o i d e n t i f y the  from which romances o f c h i v a l r y ( i n c l u d i n g the A r t h u r i a d )  The t h r e e main t h e o r i e s propounded by the e a r l y s c h o l a r s ,  namely the Northern,  the E a s t e r n and the C e l t i c ,  reflected i n their  very  d i v e r s i t y the g r e a t u n c e r t a i n t y of the p i o n e e r s working i n t h i s branch of scholarship.  During  this,  the pre-Romantic e r a , s c h o l a r s w i t h  interests constituted a distinct  antiquarian  minority.  With the emergence of Romanticism however a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n s c h o l a r s h i p was e f f e c t e d :  f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of the romances was encouraged  by Romantic medievalism, and when T r i s t a n c r i t i c i s m proper began s e v e r a l distinct  trends  the o r a l  tradition,  events,  while  mythologies, nineteenth  soon appeared i n the study o f s o u r c e s .  others  some sought a b a s i s f o r the legend explained  Of those  discussing  i n actual h i s t o r i c a l  the genesis by drawing p a r a l l e l s  to ancient  the l a t t e r i n t e r e s t g a i n i n g dominance i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the century.  A l t h o u g h v a r i o u s l i n k s between o r a l legend  and l i t e r a r y  romance were suggested, the t r a n s m i s s i o n d i d n o t g i v e r i s e to any argument  6k  at  t h i s time.  Furthermore, the g e n e r a l  view that the f i r s t  T r i s t a n romance  was w r i t t e n i n French went l a r g e l y u n c h a l l e n g e d , and any minor d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n d i d n o t o c c a s i o n lay  heated c o n t r o v e r s y .  The i n t e r e s t o f the Romantics  i n the p o e t i c and p h i l o l o g i c a l renewal o f m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e r a t h e r  than  i n a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s p r e h i s t o r y . The  t h i r d p e r i o d , e x t e n d i n g from the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h  e a r l y twentieth,  assigned  This  on s c h o l a r s h i p by p o s i t i v i s m .  ship c o n s i s t e d  l a r g e l y of painstaking  A t t h i s time, T r i s t a n s c h o l a r -  p h i l o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e s and s e a r c h i n g  D u r i n g the course of the i n t e r - s c h o o l debate, when the  I n s u l a r School and the C o n t i n e n t a l  to d i s c o v e r  School championed t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  the i d e n t i t y of the person o r persons who f i r s t  p r e t a t i o n s o f extant  introduced  i n the f i r s t  The spate o f T r i s t a n  by the contemporary p h i l o l o g i c a l p u r s u i t s g r e a t l y  i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h  reconstructions  inter-  endeavours, the great advances made i n the study  of o r i g i n s were b e n e f i c i a l to T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p . e d i t i o n s occasioned  into  T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l were n e c e s s a r i l y hampered by the o n e - s i d e d  n a t u r e of the p o s i t i v i s t i c  and  theories  the m a t i e r e de Bretagne, the p r i m a r y aim o f T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s was  the rudimentary legend the love-theme as we now know i t . A l t h o u g h  critics  develop-  s h i f t o f emphasis was due t o the marked  impact exerted  concerning  i n t o the  overweening importance t o the h i s t o r i c a l  ment o f the T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l .  source s t u d i e s .  century  century  when they began t h e i r  aided  quasi-mechanical  o f the s t o r y as i t might have been t o l d i n the o r a l legend romance.  I t was now h e l d  t h a t the o r i g i n a l romance o r  archetype was^not formed i n accordance w i t h the L i e d e r t h e o r i e — as had been proposed by c e r t a i n e a r l i e r s c h o l a r s — b u t  that t h i s was the l i t e r a r y  of a s i n g l e poet, and furthermore t h a t the a r c h e t y p a l  romance p r o v i d e d the  common source f o r most, i f n o t a l l , o f the extant m e d i e v a l v e r s i o n s fable.  creation  o f the  65  The  heyday o f o r i g i n r e s e a r c h  influenced  by the p o s i t i v i s t i c  branch o f s c h o l a r s h i p  was reached by those s c h o l a r s  who were  approach t o l i t e r a t u r e , and i n t e r e s t i n t h i s  soon faded w i t h the encroachment o f the g e i s t e s -  g e s c h i c h t l i c h e Methode.  In t h i s ,  the f o u r t h p e r i o d ,  h i s t o r i e s o f the m a t e r i a l  c o n c e n t r a t e d c h i e f l y on the known development, i . e . , on the extant romances. T h i s h i s t o r y was t r a c e d n o t o n l y spiritually, interpreted  thematically  and s t r u c t u r a l l y , b u t a l s o  f o r each stage i n the development o f the T r i s t a n f a b l e was as b e i n g symptomatic o f the Z e i t g e i s t .  The removal of emphasis  from the study o f o r i g i n s had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , i n t h a t pretation  t o come to the f o r e i n T r i s t a n  scholarship.  i t allowed i n t e r -  66  CHAPTER  EDITIONS TRISTAN  AND  TWO  MANUSCRIPT  ROMANCE  BY  I  CRITICISM  GOTTFRIED  VON  OF  THE  STRASSBURG  1777 - 1850  When the r e c o v e r y o f the MSS of G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n began i n the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the f i r s t MS t o become w i d e l y known was that i n Florence (F)•  In 1777 Bodmer's p u p i l , Leonhard M e i s t e r ,  der m a g l i a b e c c h i s c h e n B i b l i o t h e k  i n Florenz  wrote:  "In  l i e g e n u n t e r anderm d i e  Codices von den zwey Gedichten Twein und Laudine, und T r i s t r a n von Brytannie  . . . das l e t z t e r e h a t zween T h e i l e und zween V e r f a s s e r .  e r s t e n T h e i l v e r f e r t i g t e G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g , den andern von  Vriberc,"''" and Bodmer a l s o drew a t t e n t i o n  Den  Heinrich  to t h i s MS i n h i s L i t t e r  2 r a r i s c h e Denkmale von v e r s c h i e d e n e n V e r f a s s e r n .  Bodmer knew i n a d d i t i o n  that another MS o f the romance was t o be found i n S t r a s s b u r g , and wrote in  I78O:  "Von G o e t f r i t von S t r a s s b u r g i s t e i n sch'dner Nachlass i n der  Johanniterbibliothek  zu S t r a s s b u r g a u f b e h a l t e n . "  mention o f the Munich MS.  The e a r l i e s t  (M) was made i n I782 by Johann  public  Christoph  k  Adelung i n the Magazin fttr d i e deutsche Sprache.  When the f i r s t  edition  of G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n appeared i t was based ( i n d i r e c t l y ) on the F l o r e n c e MS. The and  he had o f f e r e d  erature his  editor, Christoph  plan  Museum.^  H e i n r i c h M y l l e r , was a younger f r i e n d o f Bodmer,  to c o n t i n u e the p u b l i c a t i o n of M i d d l e High German  begun by the Swiss s c h o l a r s  Bodmer and B r e i t i n g e r ;  lit-  he had p r e s e n t e d  t o the p u b l i c i n I78O i n the November i s s u e o f the Deutsches D e s p i t e the p r e v a l e n t  l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the  67  medieval p e r i o d enough s u b s c r i b e r s had p r i n t i n g , and dem  the f i r s t  X I I . X I I I . und  XIV.  been found to cover the c o s t of  volume of h i s Samlung deutscher Gedichte  aus  I a h r h u n d e r t appeared i n B e r l i n i n 1784.  Undis-  mayed by the u n g r a c i o u s response of F r e d e r i c k  the Great, M y l l e r proceeded  with h i s preparations  Published  contained  f o r the second volume.  d i d not use MS.  F but  i n s t e a d the  were l a c k i n g i n F and the Z U r i c h e r  h i g h l y i n a c c u r a t e , but  first  Furthermore, not  102  f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n (see below, p. 88),  lb'bliche Canton  been d e p o s i t e d the copy  in  itself  numerous p r i n t i n g  of the e a r l i e s t a d u l a t o r s was  admitted,  1 i n e s of the romance  o n l y was  a l s o the e d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d  Bernhard Joseph Docen, one  accordingly:  The  thus a l s o i n t h i s copy which had  Staatsarchiv.  the work, and  As M y l l e r h i m s e l f  " A b s c h r i f t , welche der  Z U r i c h hat nehmen l a s s e n " (p. 141) .  in  von  c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h a t romance.^  There were s e v e r a l d e f e c t s i n t h i s e d i t i o n .  errors.  this  among other works both G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n and H e i n r i c h  Freiberg's  he  i n I785,  of  Gott-  w e l l aware of the d e f i c i e n c i e s In 1807  planned to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n .  "Diesem Ubel aber h o f f e i c h i n k u r z e r F r i s t  he wrote  abzuhelfen,  da ti7  ich  eine neue Ausgabe d i e s e s u n v e r g l e i c h l i c h e n Gedichtes Ubernommen habe."  However, Docen was an i n t e n t i o n but  but  the f i r s t  failed  of s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s who  expressed such  to c a r r y i t o u t .  By the time Eberhard von  Groote p u b l i s h e d  a new  Tristan edition  8 ( l 8 2 l ) s e v e r a l more MSS  had  been brought to l i g h t .  taken to the V a t i c a n from H e i d e l b e r g the seventeenth century, Adelung.^  In  and was  by  0  In 1815  the F r e n c h a t the b e g i n n i n g  f i r s t mentioned i n 1796  l 8 l 6 , however, t h i s MS was  L i b r a r y i n Heidelberg.'''  H (Heidelberg)  von  returned  by  was of  Friedrich  to the U n i v e r s i t y  Groote recovered  B (Cologne),  which  68  o r i g i n a l l y belonged to "den Schatzen des S c h l o s s e s Blankenheim Eifel,  d i e i n den StUrmen der franzb'sischen R e v o l u t i o n z e r s t r e u t und v e r -  s c h l e p p t wurden," and a f t e r h i s death the MS was Stadtbibliothek, Groote bought was  0 (Cologne) from O b e r l i n i n 1815  Jacob Grimm i n P a r i s i n 1815 Blankenheim  taken i n t o the Kb'lner  "und von da i n das H i s t . A r c h i v der S t a d t  e v e n t u a l l y p l a c e d i n the Cologne a r c h i v e s .  termed  K b l n . V o n  i n P a r i s , and  t h i s MS  N ( B e r l i n ) was  also  found by  a f t e r i t too had been removed from the  c o l l e c t i o n d u r i n g the French R e v o l u t i o n (which von  the " I n v a s i o n der f r a n z b s i s .  Barbaren," p. LXX).  s u b s e q u e n t l y p l a c e d i n the Royal L i b r a r y of B e r l i n . l e a r n t of R ( B r u s s e l s ) and wrote auf  i n der  Groote  T h i s MS  was  Leo von S e c k e n d o r f f  l 8 l 0 : "Noch e i n e Hs. des T r i s t a n ,  in  Pap. i n F o l . m i t B i l d e r n , b e f i n d e t s i c h , nach E. Brentano's mlindlicher  12 Anzeige, i n der G r a f 1 .  B i r r e s h e i m i s c h e n B i b l . zu K o b l e n z . "  Groote then r e c o r d e d i n 1821:  As  von  " S i e wurde m i r durch d i e GUte i h r e s  jetzigen  B e s i t z e r s , des a l s Kenner und EigenthUmer v o r z l i g l i c h e r Sammlungen von Kunstwerken und Altenthllmern [ s i c ] a l l e r A r t r U h m l i c h s t bekannten  Grafen  von Rennes, auf lange Z e i t g e l i e h e n , und so war  Facsimile  i c h im Stande das  sowohl der S c h r i f t , a l s auch des a l s T i t e l v i g n e t t e d a r i n vorkommenden B l a t t e s , welches T r i s t a n i n v o l l e r RUstung zu P f e r d e d a r s t e l l t , zu (pp. L X X I - L X X I l ) . its  Of the Vienna MS.  s c r i p t , abbreviations, c a p i t a l s ,  supplied i n  1810 by S e c k e n d o r f f (pp. 631-32), and he gave the f i r s t (as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned) t h i s  l a c k i n g i n F and thus i n M y l l e r ' s e d i t i o n a l s o .  between W and F as f a r as was  a d e s c r i p t i o n of such d e t a i l s  1. 899>  cut s h o r t by h i s death.  D  U  as  l i n e s per page and p u n c t u a t i o n were  l i n e s of the romance from W because was  (w)  liefern"  t  He l i s t e d  102 section  the v a r i a n t s  the planned completion o f t h i s  list  R e c o g n i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l v a l u e of W f o r a  6  new  9  e d i t i o n of G o t t f r i e d ' s work, Seckendorff w r o t e : "Da d i e s e H a n d s c h r i f t  den M U l l e r s c h e n Abdruck n i c h t b l o s s i n Sprache und O r t h o g r a p h i e , sondern auch im S i n n h'dufig b e r i c h t i g t , Abdruck  so v e r d i e n t s i e b e i einem k l l n f t i g e n neuen  durchaus v e r g l i c h e n zu werden" ( p .  632).  Thus f a r we have mentioned o n l y the complete MSS T r i s t a n which became a v a i l a b l e t o the e a r l y s c h o l a r s . MSS  of G o t t f r i e d ' s Whereas the complete  u s u a l l y formed p a r t of p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s b e f o r e they were  a c q u i r e d by c i v i c or u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s ,  finally  the fragments on the o t h e r hand  were more t r u l y d i s c o v e r e d , usually, i n b o o k - b i n d i n g s , as " d i e t r a u r i g e n Reste ehemaliger, durch d i e unbarmherzige Hand des Buchbinders zerstb'rter H a n d s c h r i f t e n , deren man  zum E i n b i n d e n anderer . . . Werke s i c h b e d i e n t  13 hatte."  The f i r s t  Docen i n 1807-  such fragment  to become known was m,  identified  T h i s i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as fragment D.  He  by  described  Ik  the  fragment i n some d e t a i l , and a l s o gave i t s v a r i a n t s from F.  Another  fragment found a t an e a r l y date was w, which S e c k e n d o r f f p u b l i s h e d i n  1810.''"^ was  S h o r t l y a f t e r von Groote had e d i t e d the romance a t h i r d  discovered:  this  ( l ) was  p u b l i s h e d by Johann Gustav BUsching i n  The second T r i s t a n e d i t i o n the "Mir  first.  Von Groote examined  s e v e r a l MSS  b i s h e r bekannt waren, und v i e l l e i c h t  the  following:  R (Brussels).  1826.^  ( l 8 2 l ) marked a c o n s i d e r a b l e advance on during h i s preliminary study:  f l l h r t e n gUnstige Z u f a l l e , deren [der H a n d s c h r i f ten]  gebracht werden" ( p . L X X I I l ) .  fragment  mehr zu, a l s  j e wieder an einem Orte zusammen-  Those to which he had d i r e c t a c c e s s were  H ( H e i d e l b e r g ) , B ( C o l o g n e ) , N ( B e r l i n ) , 0 (Cologne) and He knew F o n l y from M y l l e r ' s e d i t i o n , and though he had  heard o f M (Munich) and W (Vienna) he c o u l d not use t h e s e f o r h i s work. Had  c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t t e d , the e d i t o r would w i l l i n g l y have f o l l o w e d up  S e c k e n d o r f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t W should be u t i l i z e d  f o r a new  e d i t i o n of  70  the romance:  " i c h muss daher um  so mehr beklagen a l l e r naheren  Verbindung  m i t Wiener G e l e h r t e n bey d i e s e r B e a r b e i t u n g g a n z l i c h e n t b e h r t zu haben, a l s es n i c h t u n w a h r s c h e i n l i c h i s t ,  dass jene H a n d s c h r i f t wohl v e r d i e n t  h a t t e vor a l i e n andern der Ausgabe des Gedichtes zum werden.  Es h a t t e dazu aber entweder  Grunde g e l e g t zu  des Codex s e l b s t , oder e i n e r guten  A b s c h r i f t d e s s e l b e n b e d u r f t , zu deren B e s c h a f f u n g zunachst k e i n e A u s s i c h t e r b f f n e t war"  (p. L X I I l ) .  f i e d h i s c h o i c e as  Von Groote r e l i e d most h e a v i l y on H, and  justi-  follows:  Da i c h es i n z w i s c h e n f l l r sehr w e s e n t l i c h h a l t e , e i n e n guten Text nach e i n e r bewahrten H a n d s c h r i f t m i t m b g l i c h s t enger Abanderung zum Grunde zu l e g e n , m i r jedoch z u r Erlangung des F l o r e n t i n e r Codex, oder e i n e r guten A b s c h r i f t d e s s e l b e n eben so wenig a l s bey dem Wiener e i n M i t t e l zu Gebot stand, dafUr aber der Senat der H e i d e l b e r g e r U n i v e r s i t a t m i t zuvorkommender B e r e i t w i l l i g k e i t m i r den Gebrauch j e n e r , u n t e r Nro. 3^0 • • • Handschrift g e s t a t t e t e , so g l a u b t e i c h u n b e d e n k l i c h vor a l l e m dem Texte der l e t z t e r n bey meiner Ausgabe f o l g e n zu mUssen. (p. LXIV) L i s t e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n were the v a r i a n t r e a d i n g s from FBNOHR, and a few from W made a v a i l a b l e to the e d i t o r by Jacob Grimm. an u n s c h o l a r l y a t t i t u d e i n u s i n g M y l l e r s 5  Von Groote  displayed  e d i t i o n as h i s source o f the  v a r i a n t s i n F, f o r t h a t he was w e l l aware of the c o r r u p t n a t u r e of the t e x t i n t h a t e a r l i e r e d i t i o n was  shown i n the f o l l o w i n g remarks :  Weglassungen und S c h r i f t f e h l e r mbgen wohl dem Last f a l l e n ; welche  "Manche  S c h r e i b e r des Codex zu  d i e v i e l e n g r b s s e r e n und k l e i n e r e n U n r i c h t i g k e i t e n aber,  den Abdruck  b e i M y l l e r n i c h t nur e n t s t e l l e n ,  sondern f a s t  unbrauch-  bar machen, d U r f t e n wohl der Unkenntnis des ZUrcher A b s c h r e i b e r s und C o r r e k t o r s des Druckes  S c h u l d zu geben seyn" ( p . L X V l ) .  The fragments were n e i t h e r u t i l i z e d nor even mentioned  by von Groote,  but the t h i r d e d i t o r of G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n , von der Hagen, made f u l l of them.  des  He p u b l i s h e d much of the T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l i n 1823,  and  use  advanced  71  beyond the work of p r e v i o u s  e d i t o r s by s t u d y i n g the complete MSS.  MWF  at  17 f i r s t hand. copy of M, own  Von  der Hagen was  Schottky's  aided i n h i s p r e l i m i n a r y work by  r e s e a r c h on W,  Wackernagel's study of 0,  18  c o l l a t i o n of F a g a i n s t M y l l e r ' s e d i t i o n .  or no  der  value  i t o f f e r s o n l y the t e x t of  the poem s i n c e the supplement of v a r i a n t s which he had for  and h i s  However, because von  Hagen's e d i t i o n l a c k s the c r i t i c a l apparatus i t i s of l i t t l e from the p o i n t of view of t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m ;  Scherer's  already  prepared  p u b l i c a t i o n were a c c i d e n t a l l y d e s t r o y e d : Bei meiner Ausgabe von G o t t f r i e d s Werken . . . habe i c h a l l e mir b i s dahin z u g a n g l i c h e n Hdss. u n m i t t e l b a r v e r g l i c h e n . . . . Eine Lesartensammlung s o l l t e den B e s c h l u s s machen. . . . Von d i e s e r Ausgabe war schon 1822 G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n mit beiden F o r t s . gedruckt, a l s mit der D r u c k e r e i i n Oels d i e ganze A u f l a g e i n Flammen a u f g i n g , so dass i c h nur das e i n z i g e Exemplar i n den Aushangebogen davon b e h i e l t . 1 9 The  f o u r t h e d i t o r was  e i g h t complete MSS MSS.  MHW,  and  and  Hans F e r d i n a n d Massmann, who  the fragment D;  f o r the e d i t i o n which was  he  used a t o t a l of  s t u d i e d i n p a r t i c u l a r the  p r i n t e d i n 18^3  relied  three  f o r the  20 most p a r t on H. v e r g l i c h e n worden.  "Von  diesen Handschriften  s i n d MHW  M i s t offenbar die a l t e s t e  aufs Neue s o r g f a l t i g  . . . Uber i h r e n i n n e r n  Werth hingegen l a s s t s i c h wenig glinstiges sagen. . . . D i e s e war  daher nur behutsam zu gebrauchen. . . .  Verwandschaftsgrade zu M s t e h t H, und  In nahem, doch n i c h t erstem,  i s t aber w e i t b e s s e r und  v e r d i e n t Uberhaupt u n t e r a l i e n H a n d s c h r i f t e n den  T h i s e d i t i o n of the romance was  sorgfaltiger,  e r s t e n P l a t z " (p.  591)-  at b e s t s e m i - c r i t i c a l , because Massmann  s u p p l i e d i n the L e s a r t e n o n l y the v a r i a n t s i n MHWF; the f a c t t h a t von Groote (who  Handschrift  he gave as h i s  a l s o based h i s e d i t i o n on H) had  g i v e n the v a r i a n t s from the o t h e r MSS.  And,  reason  already  d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t  the  v a r i a n t s which Massmann chose to l i s t were f a r fewer i n number than would have been the case had he f u r n i s h e d a complete V a r i a n t e n a p p a r a t ,  he  failed  72  to p r e s e n t even these v a r i a n t s from MHWF i n a s c h o l a r l y manner.  The  method which he adopted was d e s c r i b e d by the e d i t o r as f o l l o w s :  "Wir  s i n d d a r i n anfangs a u s f U h r l i c h e r gewesen, um dem prlifenden und s p r a c h forschenden L e s e r d i e S c h r e i b w e i s e machen. (p.  592).  der H a n d s c h r i f t e n a n s c h a u l i c h zu  Sp'dter h i n e i n genligen mehr d i e w e s e n t l i c h e n Textabweichungen"  73  II  When faced w i t h a choice Tristan, since mission,  I 8 5 O to the P r e s e n t  among MSS  the e a r l y e d i t o r s of G o t t f r i e d ' s  they had no c l e a r i d e a of the " U b e r l i e f e r u n g "  tended to s i n g l e out one MS f o r t h e i r t e x t as b e i n g most  s e n t a t i v e of the o r i g i n a l .  The t r a n s m i s s i o n  of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a i n s t a k i n g  systematic  of the day, and from now on the t r a n s m i s s i o n  repre-  as such went l a r g e l y  u n t i l the heyday of p o s i t i v i s m i n T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p .  analysis.  or t r a n s -  ignored  In the l a t t e r  research  part  became the o r d e r  was s u b j e c t e d  to c a r e f u l  The f i r s t attempts to c l a s s i f y the MSS were made when c r i t i c s  sought to c o r r e c t the v a r i a n t s the e a r l i e s t  g i v e n by e d i t o r s such as von Groote, and  such examination of G o t t f r i e d ' s romance was the d i s s e r t a t i o n 21  by Theodor von Hagen the  (l868) .  The c r i t e r i a upon which he (and each of  subsequent t e x t u a l c r i t i c s ) based h i s t h e o r i e s were the e r r o r s and  lacunae which he found to be common to the v a r i o u s MSS. gained from t e x t u a l comparisons he drew the c o n c l u s i o n  From the r e s u l t s t h a t the MSS  could  be d i v i d e d i n t o two main groups, which he termed X and Y, and he submitted the f o l l o w i n g  table  (p.  30)  :  (G)  (Y)  (X)  (x) M  H W  w F  0 (B )  L (B)  N  D  S  74  Concerning the X group he s t a t e d  "dass M und H nahe verwandte G l i e d e r  e i n e r , s'ammtlichen tibrigen H a n d s c h r i f ten f r e m d a r t i g  gegenliber  stehenden  -X-  Gruppe s i n d " ( p . 30).  Thus, w h i l e MH d e r i v e d from  (FNWOSwlD) descended from  X, a l l the other MSS  Y, a MS which von Hagen d e s c r i b e d  as f o l l o w s :  So v i e l s i c h aus dem a l i e n G l i e d e r n d i e s e r K l a s s e Gemeinsamen s c h l i e s s e n l'dsst, muss der im Vorstehenden m i t Y b e z e i c h n e t e Archetypus eine v o r z l l g l i c h e , von LUcken f r e i e H a n d s c h r i f t gewesen s e i n , aus der d i e m e i s t e n Codices des T r i s t a n h e r v o r g i e n g e n , welche so gewissermassen d i e V u l g a t a d e s s e l b e n b i l d e n . Bestimmtere RUckschlUsse Uber s e i n e B e s c h a f f e n h e i t s i n d n i c h t mbglich, da k e i n e d i r e k t e A b s c h r i f t aus ihm e r h a l t e n i s t . ( p . 17) MS. B belonged to n e i t h e r group e x c l u s i v e l y , f o r the f i r s t h a l f had been copied  from MS . N, b u t f o r the second h a l f o f the romance the s c r i b e had  drawn a l s o on MS. F . B e l i e v i n g t h a t the two " a r c h e t y p a l " MSS. XY had been v e r y Hagen now d e f i n e d  a new task  wie  i h r [X] . . . der Archetypus der andern v e r b r e i t e t e n  an GUte stand  Recension  for T r i s t a n scholars :  s i m i l a r von  "An V o l l s t a n d i g k e i t  [Y] v o l l s t a n d i g g l e i c h : .Ihre s i c h erganzenden L e s a r t e n , und  damit d i e D i c h t u n g r e i n und schb'n w i e d e r h e r z u s t e l l e n (p. 3 1 ) .  i s t Aufgabe der K r i t i k "  The c l a i m t h a t a l o s t common source c o u l d be deduced by a n a l y t i c a l  work on extant  material  and Wolfgang G o l t h e r  c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d the t h e o r i e s which Joseph  Bedier  put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n t h e i r r e s t o r a t i o n s o f the T r i s t a n  archetype (above, p . 4 3 ) ,  and was a t r e n d  advocated by the p o s i t i v i s t i c  t y p i c a l o f the s c i e n t i f i c methods  approach to l i t e r a t u r e .  This  t h e o r y was  n o t i c e a b l e a l s o i n the work of Hermann P a u l , whose study of the t r a n s m i s s i o n (published  i n 1872)  contained  a r e f u t a t i o n o f a number o f von Hagen's  other  22 ideas had  and i n p a r t i c u l a r those c o n c e r n i n g  group Y.  Paul agreed t h a t FN  a common source, and that B was a m i x t u r e o f FM, but h e l d  proposal rect:  t h a t von Hagen's  t h a t a l l the MSS except MH(B) belonged t o one group (Y) was i n c o r -  "Er [von Hagen] sucht  d i e s z zu erweisen aus gemeinsamen F e h l e r n von  75  WOFN(DG), denen gegenUber MH das r i c h t i g e haben s o l l e n . ihm  . . . angeftihrten S t e l l e n s i n d entweder  Aber an a l i e n von  d i e L e s a r t e n b e i d e r von ihm  angenommenen Gruppen g l e i c h b e r e c h t i g t , oder noch b'fter d i e von WOFN e n t s c h i e d e n v o r z u z i e h e n " (p. •386).  W was not c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o FN, and  t h e r e f o r e one c o u l d p o s i t not two, b u t t h r e e independent MH, FN, and W. method by which  transmissions,  I n accordance w i t h t h i s new t h e o r y P a u l then d e s c r i b e d a the o r i g i n a l  t e x t might be r e c o v e r e d :  Wir haben wenigstens d r e i von einander unabhangige U b e r l i e f e r u n g e n FN, MH, W. D i e s e r Satz g i b t e i n e entscheidende Norm f i i r d i e T e x t k r l t i k . . . . Demnach i s t d i e Ubereinstimmung zweier von d i e s e r Gruppen e i n h i n r e i c h e n d e r Beweis f U r d i e U r s p r l i n g l i c h k e i t e i n e r L e s a r t , wahrend jede e i n s e i t i g e Bevorzugung e i n e r C l a s s e u n t e r a l i e n Umstanden zu verwerfen i s t , i n s b e s o n d e r e n i c h t d i e A u t o r i t a t von MH, wie v . Hagen w i l l und d i e Herausgeber gethan haben, der a l l e r Ubrigen H a n d s c h r i f t e n g l e i c h g e s e t z t werden kann. D i e DurchfUhrung d i e s e s Grundsatzes w i r d den Text noch an manchen S t e l l e n anders gestalten. (p. 389) He then proceeded t o note many i n s t a n c e s where the t e x t would changed  i f t h i s p r i n c i p l e were put i n t o  indeed be  effect.  The next s c h o l a r t o d i s c u s s the t r a n s m i s s i o n was Johannes  Kottenkamp  23 (I879) .  While a g r e e i n g w i t h von Hagen and Paul t h a t H belonged t o a  t r a d i t i o n independent o f the Y group, he doubted whether the same c o u l d be s a i d o f M, f o r t h i s l a s t had so many e r r o r s i n common w i t h MSS i n group Y (FWN) t h a t i t was e v i d e n t l y r e l a t e d t o the Y b r a n c h : Da nun e i n e r s e i t s d i e Verwandtschaft von H und M durch v . Hagen u n w i d e r l e g l i c h nachgewiesen i s t , . a n d r e r s e i t s aber e i n e A n z a h l gemeinsamer F e h l e r von M und G l i e d e r n von Y e i n e Verwandtschaft von M auch m i t Y w a h r s c h e i n l i c h macht, so drangt s i c h d i e Frage a u f : S o l l t e n i c h t der S c h r e i b e r von M nach zwei V o r l a g e n g e a r b e i t e t haben, und zwar so, dass e r d i e Q u e l l e von H (X) zu Grunde l e g t e und daneben den Archetypus von WFNO (Y) benutzte? (p.. 6,n-3) Von Hagen's placement o f M had been c r i t i c i z e d who  i n I87O by Oskar  Janicke,  had suggested t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f M t o X might be l e s s d i r e c t  than  76  von  Hagen h a d t h o u g h t , a n d c o n c l u d e d :  n i c h t geradezu a l s w i l l k U r l i c h  "Man w i r d  z u s e h e n mtissen,  ob M s i c h  Sndernde und abkllrzende A b s c h r i f t von H  2k herausstellt." critics  The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s  show t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e s e  three  c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f M t o X: von  Hagen  J'dnicke  X  M  /\  Kottenkamp  X  X  H  H  I  H  Y  K/ M  M Kottenkamp s e c o n d e d v o n Hagen's v i e w s on t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i v e methods t o be  employed i n r e c o v e r i n g  Hagen w r o t e t h a t Lesart  "stets derjenigen  Following  in  t e x t o f t h e romance, and q u o t i n g v o n  F a m i l i e der Vorzug zu e r t h e i l e n s e i , deren  durch e i n G l i e d d e r andern u n t e r s t l l t z t w i r d ,  gebrauch oder M e t r i k  the  the o r i g i n a l  this  variants  gegen d i e aufzunehmende L e s a r t  p r i n c i p l e he then l i s t e d  rejected by e d i t o r s .  Finding  failed  s p r e c h e n " ( p . 7) • selected  that h i s rule could  from  n o t be a p p l i e d  means o f c o r r e c t i n g  these  Bechstein,  conducting research  into the trans-  t o r e a c h agreement on t h e f i n e r problems r a i s e d b y t h e m a t e r i a l  under d i s c u s s i o n  in  Sprach-  ( p p . 11 f f ) •  I t was l a r g e l y b e c a u s e t h e s c h o l a r s mission  nicht Sinn,  a l t e r n a t i v e readings  c e r t a i n c a s e s , however, he then s e l e c t e d o t h e r  editions  falls  that  t h e i r work d i d n o t e x e r t  any great  t h e f i f t h e d i t o r o f G o t t f r i e d ' s poem.  I869 h e c h o s e MH a s t h e n e a r e s t completely  representatives  and  even though he l a t e r  did  n o t m o d i f y h i s views on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  For the edition of the o r i g i n a l  reworked the t e x t o f MH:  i n f l u e n c e on  ( 3 r d ed.,  Reinhold  published text,  I89O-9I)  he  77  Die dankenswerthen Bemtihungen Theodor's von Hagen (l868) und Hermann Paul's (1872) urn d i e K l a s s i f i c a t i o n der H a n d s c h r i f t e n und urn d i e k r i t i s c h e H e r s t e l l u n g e i n z e l n e r S t e l l e n haben mich n i c h t i n meinem Grundsatz, d i e a l t e s t e MUnchener H a n d s c h r i f t (M) und d i e verhaltnissm'dssig b e s t e H e i d e l b e r g e r (H) Z U Grunde zu l e g e n , zumal s i e e i n e r und d e r s e l b e n K l a s s e angehbren, wankend gemacht. Einmal stimmen b e i d e K r i t i k e r p r i n c i p i e l l und i n E i n z e l h e i t e n n i c h t zusammen, sodann geben s i e o f t gerade jUngeren und a b g e b l a s s t e n L e s a r t e n den Vorzug. (p. X L V I l ) T h i s T r i s t a n e d i t i o n appeared i n the  s e r i e s e d i t e d by Franz P f e i f f e r e n t i t l e d  the Deutsche K l a s s i k e r des M i t t e l a l t e r s ,  and  like  the next e d i t i o n of  G o t t f r i e d ' s work ( t h a t made by Wolfgang G o l t h e r and  i n 1888  in  intended f o r  the  published  26 Joseph KUrschner's Deutsche N a t i o n a l - L i t t e r a t u r  )  27  educated r e a d i n g p u b l i c , not studies as and  the MSS  for scholars.  at f i r s t hand;  instead,  g i v e n by e a r l i e r e d i t o r s and of the  two  complete MSS  the  (E:  was  N e i t h e r of these two  they r e l i e d on the  descriptions  Modena, and  P:  editors  t e x t s and  variants  of the newly-found fragments B e r l i n ) which had  recently  28 been brought to l i g h t .  For  the  of B e c h s t e i n ' s work, use  had  MHW  der Hagen.  and  t h a t of F by von  t h i r d , u n d e n i a b l y more s c h o l a r l y e d i t i o n  a l s o been made of P f e i f f e r ' s c o l l a t i o n s of I n some of h i s numerous e x p l a n a t o r y  f o o t n o t e s to the t h i r d e d i t i o n B e c h s t e i n d i d now of t e x t u a l m a t t e r s , s t a t i n g t h a t  enter i n t o a  discussion  "wenn auch nach der Anlage d i e s e r Ausgaben  k r i t i s c h e Fragen u n b e r l l c k s i c h t i g t b l e i b e n mllssen, so boten s i c h doch b i s w e i l e n F a l l e dar,  wo  auch h i e r zu Gunsten der  Erklarung die  U b e r l i e f e r u n g e n h e r a n z u z i e h e n waren" (p. X L V I l ) . this refashioning  of h i s e d i t i o n was  ein zwitterhaftes  Aussehen e r h a l t und  such t h a t dem  handschriftlichen  However, the  r e s u l t of  " d i e Ausgabe dadurch wieder  gebildeten  Publikum zu  viel  ii29  b i e t e t , den  Fachgenossen aber zu wenig."  G o l t h e r was von  Hagen, P a u l ,  cerning  the  more r e a d i l y i n f l u e n c e d  by  and  into practice t h e i r theories  Kottenkamp, and  put  f e a s i b i l i t y of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g  the  r e s e a r c h e s c a r r i e d out  by con-  the o r i g i n a l t e x t i n a mechanical  78  process of e l i m i n a t i o n .  Thus, w h i l e B e c h s t e i n f e l t  v e r s i o n of the poem c o u l d be o b t a i n e d i f one  drew c h i e f l y on MH,  on the other hand contended t h a t the o r i g i n a l was one or two  of the extant MSS  which, as s c h o l a r s had  t h a t the most  reliable Golther  b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d not  but r a t h e r by a s e l e c t i o n from a l l the  by  MSS  r e c e n t l y shown, formed d i s t i n c t groups :  Man kann zwei Gruppen u n t e r s c h e i d e n , HM e i n e r s e i t s , d i e Ubrigen andererseits. E i n e besondere S t e l l u n g v i e l l e i c h t a l s d r i t t e ' . K a t e g o r i e nimmt W e i n . D i e s a m t l i c h e n L e s a r t e n , welche s i c h i n W und den andern H a n d s c h r i f ten ausser HM f i n d e n und d i e man f r l i h e r von zu e i n s e i t i g e m Standpunkte ausgehend e i n f a c h a l s F e h l e r b e z e i c h n e t e , s i n d n i c h t nur m i t dem i n HM Stehenden g l e i c h b e r e c h t i g t , sondern sehr h a u f i g ihm v o r z u z i e h e n . . . . K e i n e der uns e r h a l t e n e n Hands c h r i f t e n geht u n m i t t e l b a r auf das O r i g i n a l zurtick und kbnnte deshalb e i n e besondere A u t o r i t a t beanspruchen. Es w i r d s i c h demnach die Wahl e i n e r b e t r e f f e n d e n L e s a r t vor a l l e m nach dem h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h e n Gesamtbefunde zu r i c h t e n haben: e i n e L e s a r t zweier Gruppen gegen e i n e , a l s o HMW bder FNOW gegen FNO resp . HM v e r d i e n t meistens den Vorzug. Der v o r l i e g e n d e Text wurde u n t e r B e r l i c k s i c h t i g u n g der h i e r kurz angedeuteten P r i n z i p i e n k o n s t i t u i e r t und w e i c h t darum mehrfach von B e c h s t e i n ab. (p. XIX) T h i s e c l e c t i c method of s e l e c t i n g the t e x t of G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n  was  based on e s s e n t i a l l y the same p r i n c i p l e s as those f o l l o w e d twenty years l a t e r by G o l t h e r i n h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the U r - T r i s t a n (above, p.  52).  As was  critical  noted  above, G o l t h e r intended-'this as a p o p u l a r r a t h e r than a  e d i t i o n of the romance, and as such nor s u p p l i e d a V a r i a n t e n a p p a r a t .  i t ( l i k e Bechstein's) n e i t h e r required  The numerous f o o t n o t e s p r o v i d e d  more than e x p l a n a t i o n s and modern t r a n s l a t i o n s of the more obscure and  terminology  little vocabulary  i n the M i d d l e High German t e x t .  The next e d i t o n to appear n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y popular  (1906) stood i n marked c o n t r a s t to the l a t e  e d i t i o n s f o r i t was  preceded  by e x t e n s i v e  and 30  p e n e t r a t i n g s t u d i e s of the MSS He was  conducted  by i t s e d i t o r , K a r l  Marold.  not o n l y the f i r s t among those i n v e s t i g a t i n g the t r a n s m i s s i o n to  base h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on a f i r s t - h a n d study of the MSS  r a t h e r than  on  79  the v a r i a n t s g i v e n by o t h e r s c h o l a r s , but was  a l s o the f i r s t  to  "Zur h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h e n  prepare  a Tristan edition.  In the a r t i c l e  such  critic  •51 U b e r l i e f e r u n g des T r i s t a n G o t t f r i e d s von S t r a s s b u r g " (I896) t h a t he had  d i s c o v e r e d common e r r o r s i n HF,  mented those i n MF then c o n c l u d e d :  and MW  HW  and FW,  to which Kottenkamp had  "Die angefUhrten  he wrote  and he a l s o s u p p l e -  drawn a t t e n t i o n .  B e i s p i e l e s i n d wohl geeignet,  Marold  gegen d i e  b i s h e r i g e K l a s s i f i k a t i o n der T r i s t a n h a n d s c h r i f t e n b e d e n k l i c h zu machen und die  Notwendigkeit  e i n e r erneuten  g r l l n d l i c h e n Behandlung der H a n d s c h r i f t e n -  v e r h a l t n i s s e nahe zu l e g e n " (p. 186). of  In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s e d i t i o n  the romance he a g a i n d i s c u s s e d the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the  MSS.  He commenced w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the common o m i s s i o n s , but the o n l y c o n c l u s i o n drawn from t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was p l e t e nature and  thetype of episodes  omitted,  r e d a c t i o n " of G o t t f r i e d ' s poem, "deren Texte Ubergegangen i s t " (p. L V l ) .  t h a t M,  represented  t h i s as evidence  He  showed t h a t B was  auf e i n e n Archetypus  gegenlibersteht" (p. LX) . one was [z]  of MF)  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to FHW,  zurlickgehen, dem  and  aber vorzugsweise  wenigen S t e l l e n W a n s c h l i e s s e n ;  used  e i n e kompakte  d i e V o r l a g e von  Among the o t h e r p r o o f s to support  s t e l l e n s i c h zu (M)HFW S O , dass s i e e i n e ganze Anzahl . . . im Ubrigen  von  had no v a l u e f o r  this  "Sie  eigener Lesarten  s i c h F, demnSchst H und  an  d i e V o r l a g e n e i g t e s i c h a l s o schon nach  F zu, stand aber auch den anderen Texten  M  theory  f u r n i s h e d by the r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d Z U r i c h fragments ( z ) :  aufweisen  then  opposed the n o t i o n f a v o u r e d by  to support h i s main t h e s i s , namely t h a t "FHW  E i n h e i t b i l d e n und  "first  e r w e i t e r t e G e s t a l t i n d i e anderen  Hagen, P a u l and Kottenkamp t h a t B (the m i x t u r e he  the  A f t e r h i s study of the lacunae he  turned to the " i n n e r e T e x t g e s t a l t . "  textual c r i t i c i s m ;  because of i t s incom-  noch nahe" (p. L X I l ) .  According  8o  to  M a r o l d the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s by von Hagen (group X and group Y) and P a u l  (groups FN, MH far  and W) were i n a c c u r a t e because the t r a n s m i s s i o n had  more u n i f i e d  concede t h a t  than proposed by these two s c h o l a r s .  " b i s zu einem gewissen Grade  Paul das R i c h t i g e gesehen h a t :  been  He d i d however  sowohl v . Hagen, a l s auch  H.  F und W haben t a t s H c h l i c h e i n e etwas engere  Verwandtschaft u n t e r e i n a n d e r a l s jede von b e i d e n Hs. mit H, aber s i e gehen auch wieder jede i h r e eigenen Wege" ( p . LXV). Of Marold's proposed three-volume e d i t i o n of the poem ( i : II:  S a c h l i c h e und k r i t i s c h e E r l S u t e r u n g e n ;  appeared.  F o r t u n a t e l y , however, t h i s was  I I I : Glossar)  Text; o n l y the f i r s t  not a t o r s o s i m i l a r to t h a t  p u b l i s h e d by von der Hagen, f o r i t d i d c o n t a i n the "sehr r e i c h h a l t i g e n 32 V a r i a n t e n a p p a r a t , " as C a r l von Kraus wrote i n 1909 • the  e d i t o r s e l e c t e d the t e x t from the v a r i o u s MSS  t h e o r y that FHW  The manner i n which  was  b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d the a r c h e t y p a l MS.  determined by h i s He  wrote:  Am b e s t e n b e g l a u b i g t s i n d a l s o a l l e L e s a r t e n , d i e HFW gemeinsam U b e r l i e f e r n , wenngleich, wie s i c h g e z e i g t h a t , e i n i g e s R i c h t i g e i n M hinlibergerettet i s t . Ebenso r i c h t i g s i n d noch d i e L e s a r t e n , d i e H (M) mit e i n e r der b e i d e n andern Hss. gemein h a t ; aber b e i der geschlossenen U b e r l i e f e r u n g werden auch FW gegenUber H das R i c h t i g e haben aufbewahren kbnnen; nur mllssen h i e r i n n e r e .Grlinde massgebend fllr d i e Wahl der L e s a r t e n s e i n , und ebenso, wenn F oder W a l l e i n gegenUber den b e i d e n anderen H s s . s t e h e n . (p. LXV) Although Marold's was  undoubtedly the most s c h o l a r l y of a l l the e d i t i o n s  which had thus f a r appeared, i t was  still  inadequate:  "Im U b r i g e n aber  muss a l s das U r t e i l der A u t o r i t a t e n auch h i e r w i e d e r h o l t werden, dass d i e Ausgabe Marolds den Anforderungen, d i e w i r heute an e i n e k r i t i s c h e Ausgabe zu  s t e l l e n gewohnt s i n d , v i e l f a c h n i c h t  entspricht."  K u r t H e r o l d , i n Der MUnchener T r i s t a n .  33  E i n B e i t r a g zur U b e r l i e f e r u n g s -  3^ g e s c h i c h t e und K r i t i k des T r i s t a n G o t t f r i e d s von S t r a s s b u r g  (1911),  con-  f i n e d h i s study of the t r a n s m i s s i o n to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n and c o l l a t i o n of  81  MS.M,  "der  a l t e s t e n und  and m a i n t a i n e d way:  "Das  n a c h dem der  zugleich eigenartigsten TextUberlieferung"  t h a t the  singular nature  Gottfriedsche Gedicht  hat  o f t h e MS  c o u l d be  explained  i n M eine durchgreifende  in  zeigt,  tribution  d u r c h g e m a c h t " ( p . 3)-  t o T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p was  "Die A r b e i t von  Herold  An  apt  assessment of Herold's  con-  made b y F r i e d r i c h Ranke when h e  der Ubrigen  T e x t U b e r l i e f e r u n g , was  R e s u l t a t zwar n i c h t w e s e n t l i c h b e e i n t r a c h t i g t , doch hat der H a n d s c h r i f t e n v e r h a l t n i s s e deshalb the  sie  wrote:  Uber d i e MUnchner T r i s t a n h s . e n d l i c h b e t r a c h t e t  d i e s e Hs . l o s g e l b ' s t v o n  I n 1917  one  Umarbeitung  M u s t e r Hartmanns, s p e z i e l l nach s e i n e r v o l l e n d e t e n E p i k , wie  Iwein  2),  (p.  results  nur  o f R a n k e ' s own  indirekt  research  i h r schbnes  s i e die  f'drdern  Erkenntnis  kbnnen."  35  i n t h i s area.were  published  36' under the  title  prompted by  "Die U b e r l i e f e r u n g von  Gottfrieds Tristan,"  Ranke's d i s c o v e r y o f the d e f e c t s  w h i c h l a c k e d n u m e r o u s v a r i a n t s and  i n Marold's  l i s t e d many o t h e r s  an  undertaking  Lesartenapparat,  inaccurately.  When  d i s c u s s i n g the  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f R a n k e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n G o t t f r i e d Weber w r o t e  in  g r u n d l e g e n d e A r b e i t Uber d i e H a n d s c h r i f t e n v e r h a l t n i s s e  I965 :  "Die  T r i s t a n v e r d a n k e n w i r F r i e d r i c h R a n k e und  d e s s e n s c h a r f s i n n i g e r und  des  im  37 ganzen weder U b e r h o l t e r he  noch Uberholbarer  Untersuchung,"  g a v e a d e t a i l e d summary o f R a n k e ' s t h e o r i e s ( p p .  indicate  t h e manner i n w h i c h the  precursors  in this  c u s s i o n on  this  former c r i t i c s t h e i r outworn The"first  area  11-14) he  l a t t e r ' s work d i f f e r e d  of r e s e a r c h .  We  shall  and  although  did  not  from t h a t of h i s  therefore centre  our  dis-  s e c o n d p o i n t , and show w h a t R a n k e r e j e c t e d i n t h e w o r k and  a l s o t h e new  a r g u m e n t s w h i c h he  put  forward  to  of  replace  ideas. t a s k he  f a c e d was  variants i n Marold's e d i t i o n .  the  c o r r e c t i o n of  R a n k e was  able  the d i s t o r t e d l i s t  t o work w i t h most o f  the  of  82  c o m p l e t e and  f r a g m e n t a r y MSS  o f M made b y K u r t  Herold  himself,  and  occupy a l a r g e p a r t of t h i s  and  t h o s e o f FH study  (pp.  was  aided  by. Hermann P a u l .  158-204) and  Ranke to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s arguments c o n c e r n i n g t h e MSS.  The  t h a n had and  Y)  i n t e r r e l a t e d , but  e x i s t e d of which e a r l i e r  critics  mate t o the  complicated  ein solches  Stemma l e i s t e t  could,  relationships.  ( o m i t t i n g the  From h i s i n i t i a l Ranke f i r s t  und  was  and  X  those of  o n l y were the  as he  emendations by  earlier  f a r more two  intricate  main groups  himself  genealogical  admitted,  only  seine Aufstellung r e c h t f e r t i g t , ( p . 12),  comparison of three  the  p.  the  12  and  he  therefore  of h i s s t u d y  of  H went back i n d e p e n d e n t l y  13.  to the  Unlike same  approxi"was  i s t die reproduced  Gottfried.  common l a c u n a e i n t h e  groups, X ^ a n d  (X  cross-connections  As Weber commented, h o w e v e r ,  f r a g m e n t s ) on  of a l l defined  thought that M  and  been unaware. Even the  libersichtliche Orientierung"  Ranke's c h a r t  he  had  The  collations  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  t r a n s m i s s i o n was  not  the  w e r e d r a w n on  a l s o w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p many  b y R a n k e ( p . kOk)  t a b l e d r a w n up  MSS  t h a t the  p r e v i o u s l y been s u g g e s t e d :  r a s c h e und  the  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e between h i s r e s u l t s  s c h o l a r s r e s t e d on h i s o p i n i o n  a l s o by  complete  Janicke,  source:  R  P  (p.  209)  83  The way i n which the MSS were grouped  i n this  t a b l e bore some  to Paul's t h e o r y o f the t r i p l e grouping, namely MH, that <* + R = Y was then demonstrated v a r i a n t s and thus von Hagen's i n i t i a l  resemblance  FN and W.  However,  by Ranke i n h i s f u r t h e r study of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of group Y was  be more a c c u r a t e than the a l t e r n a t i v e as put forward by P a u l .  shown  But, as  Ranke's s m a l l c h a r t w e l l e x e m p l i f i e d , von Hagen had no c o n c e p t i o n of the intricate  p a t t e r n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the v a r i o u s MSS: von Hagen  (p.  17)  (Y)  (x) W  w  r ~ r ~ i — i  I  I  0  L  D  Ranke  F  N  S  (p.-262)  W  N o  R  S  -p  84  F u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m o f Marold and c o r r e c t i o n o f h i s f a u l t y arguments followed  i n l a t e r parts  of Ranke's work.  of FHW) was r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t :  Marold's main tenet  (the  "Und auch d i e ' r e s u l t a t e ' aus d i e s e n  f l t i c h t i g e n zusammenstellungen e r s c h e i n e n i n sehr wenig g l i l c k l i c h e r rung; und  unity  formulier-  denn dass HFW eine compacte e i n h e i t M gegenliber d a r s t e l l e n , i s t f a l s c h , d i e v o r s t e l l u n g von e i n e r h a n d s c h r i f t ,  i n der ' d i e t e x t e von HFW s i c h  noch n i c h t i n i h r e j e t z i g e n v e r t r e t e r g e s p a l t e n h a t t e n , ' aus der s i c h der schreiber zum  von M f e h l e r aus j e d e r d i e s e r  mindesten u n k l a r "  (p.206).  3 h s s . habe a b s c h r e i b e n k'dnnen, i s t  Ranke's r e s e a r c h  i n t o the fragments,  including  38 the newly d i s c o v e r e d  fragment t ,  n o t o n l y confirmed the r e s u l t s gathered  from the c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y t o which he had submitted the complete MSS b u t a l s o showed f u r t h e r l i n k s which rendered the whole t e x t u a l more c o m p l i c a t e d  t r a d i t i o n even  ( p . 403) •  He put forward another new t h e o r y based on h i s c l o s e study o f the e a r l i e s t T r i s t a n MSS. they were a l l w r i t t e n  T h e i r u n i t y o f o r t h o g r a p h y and language showed i n one l o c a t i o n i n A l s a c e d u r i n g  D i a l e c t p e c u l i a r i t i e s as w e l l  the t h i r t e e n t h  that century.  as h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l reasons enabled him  to s i n g l e out S t r a s s b u r g as the most l i k e l y p l a c e f o r t h i s medieval S c h r e i b 39 stube. ^ Ranke was the second s c h o l a r to i n v e s t i g a t e the t r a n s m i s s i o n p r i o r t o editing Gottfried's  romance;  h i s e d i t i o n appeared i n 1930 > b u t as had been 40  the  case w i t h Marold, o n l y  the f i r s t  Ranke's e d i t i o n d i d n o t c o n t a i n  any c r i t i c a l  Behaghel reviewed the work i n 1932 eigentlich nichts nur  volume ever appeared i n p r i n t .  he w r o t e :  apparatus, and thus when "Von diesem Buch i s t zunSchst  zu sagen, a l s dass es da i s t .  Denn es b i e t e t t a t s S c h l i c h  den nackten Text und e i n Nachwort von sechs Z e i l e n .  Den  ausfUhrlichen  R e c h e n s c h a f t s b e r i c h t w i r d e i n z w e i t e r Band b r i n g e n , der i n diesem J a h r e  85  erscheinen s o l i . "  Ranke proposed to complete and  volume when an emeritus p r o f e s s o r , i t had  still  not  the  second  the year of h i s death  (1950)  appeared, nor have h i s p r e p a r a t o r y  However, i n 1946  posthumously.  but by  publish  an  notes been  published  "Auswahl" of G o t t f r i e d ' s poem, e d i t e d  42 by Ranke, was  p r i n t e d i n the A l t d e u t s c h e Ubungstexte ;  p r e f a t o r y remarks Ranke l i s t e d (HMFWEOPRS), n o t i n g Gruppe X von sections  the  a l s o t h a t fragment a was  i n o r d e r of  "als bester  preference  Vertreter  besonders hohem Wert f U r d i e T e x t k r i t i k " ( p . 3) •  i n t h i s "Auswahl" ( l l .  furnished  complete MSS  in his brief  a V a r i a n t e n a p p a r a t but  For  due  to l a c k of space i t was i n Betracht  incomplete:  kommenden  Lesarten  der H a u p t h a n d s c h r i f t e n HMFW, n i c h t dagegen i h r e o f f e n s i c h t l i c h e n f e h l e r und  d i e Abweichungen, d i e s i c h aus  erklaren;  Lesarten  a l l g e m e i n e n nur anschliessen; W o r t v e r l u s t und  d o r t angegeben, wo  Schreib-  durchgehenden Schreibgewohnheiten  jUngeren H a n d s c h r i f t e n  und  Fragmente s i n d  im  s i e s i c h e i n e r der v i e r H a u p t h a n d s c h r i f t e n  g e l e g e n t l i c h dienen d i e Angaben auch Beobachtungen W o r t e r s a t z " (p. 4);  sparse s u p p l y of v a r i a n t s Textherstellung  three  1-244, 4555-5068, and 10803-12568) he  "Er e n t h a l t a l l e f U r d i e T e x t h e r s t e l l u n g  der  der  the  remaining episodes have but  " i n den wenigen F a l l e n  zweifelhaft erscheint"  von  (p.  4).  ...  i n denen mir  a die  86  III  Conclusion  "Gewiss von A l l e n , welche den T r i s t a n G o t t f r i e d s von  S t r a s s b u r g zum  Gegen-  stand eines eingehenderen Studiums gemacht haben, i s t der Mangel e i n e r guten 43  k r i t i s c h e n Ausgabe  . . . schwer empfunden worden."  was  made by Kottenkamp i n 1879  has  been one  i t is still  Although  v a l i d today.  of the major causes of t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,  Gottfried's Tristan  have been based on inadequate  this  statement  Poor s c h o l a r s h i p  f o r most e d i t i o n s of critical  Furthermore, the r e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h conducted by  those  foundations. e d i t o r s who  make more thorough p r e p a r a t i o n s have e i t h e r not been p u b l i s h e d  (von  did  der  Hagen, Ranke) o r , i f p r i n t e d , have proved to be h i g h l y i n a c c u r a t e (Massmann, Marold) . With the encroachment of p o s i t i v i s m on T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p the s h i p s between the MSS  a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of a few  the p a s t f i f t y years no The to  causes.  I n the f i r s t  has not been q u e s t i o n e d ,  during  i n t h i s l i n e of r e s e a r c h can be put down  p l a c e the v a l i d i t y of Ranke's t h e o r i e s (1917)  and h i s work i s t h e r e f o r e assumed to be  statement on the t r a n s m i s s i o n .  In the second p l a c e , G o t t f r i e d  d u r i n g the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has been devoted l a r g e l y to the of  h i s romance, and  of  the o r i g i n s of the legend,  have receded  but  f u r t h e r s t u d i e s of the t r a n s m i s s i o n have appeared.  contemporary l a c k of i n t e r e s t two  critics,  relation-  the  definitive  criticism  interpretation  as a r e s u l t other r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t i e s - - s u c h as the c r i t i c i s m of MSS  and p r e p a r a t i o n of  i n t o the background of T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s h i p .  study  editions—  87  CHAPTER THREE  GOTTFRIED AND  CRITICISM  EARLY  I  IN  TWENTIETH  THE  NINETEENTH  CENTURIES  A d m i r a t i o n and D e n i g r a t i o n T i u r unde wert i s t m i r der man, der guot und Ubel b e t r a h t e n kan, der mich und i e g e l i c h e n man nach sinem werde erkennen kan. (Tristan,  11. 17-20)  A.  Early  Romantics  The T r i s t a n e d i t i o n by C. H. M y l l e r  (I785)  f i r s t brought  Gottfried's  romance to the a t t e n t i o n of the r e a d i n g p u b l i c , and when i n t e r e s t i n medie v a l l i t e r a t u r e burgeoned the  first  critical  among the early.Romantics i t was  commentary on the work appeared.  the Museum f U r a l t d e u t s c h e L i t t e r a t u r und Kunst  not l o n g b e f o r e  I n the opening i s s u e of  (1809), a p e r i o d i c a l founded  by Docen, BUsching and von der Hagen f o r the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n of m e d i e v a l p o e t r y , was G o t t f r i e d ' s T r i s t a n ?~  and  publication  p u b l i s h e d the e a r l i e s t s i g n i f i c a n t a p p r a i s a l of Bernhard Joseph Docen d i s c u s s e d the poet and h i s  work at some l e n g t h , and i n h i s assessment  d e l i b e r a t e l y r e f r a i n e d from the  use o f standards such as were p o p u l a r i n the c u r r e n t study o f the N i b e l u n g e n -  2 l i e d , which was that  compared from the f i r s t w i t h Homer's e p i c s .  the l i t e r a t u r e of Greek and Roman a n t i q u i t y (which u n t i l  been the s o l e r u l e by which  He m a i n t a i n e d r e c e n t l y had  l i t e r a r y m e r i t was measured) s h o u l d not serve  as a c r i t e r i o n i n value-judgments  of t h i s medieval romance:  Es i s t unlSugbar e i n g r o s s e r Unverstand, d i e Gattungen der v e r s c h i e d e n e n Z e i t a l t e r zu vermischen, und zu p a r a l l e l i s i r e n , wenn man f U r d i e e i n e Z e i t schon Uberwiegend eingenommen i s t . E i n Roman, wie der T r i s t a n , im K a r a k t e r der I l i a s d a r g e s t e l l t , mlisste a l s e i n Unding e r s c h e i n e n ; daraus aber l'dsst s i c h noch  88  n i c h t f l i r den hbheren Werth des e i n e n oder des andern f o l g e r n . . . . Was O r t l i c h k e i t und Zeitumstande auf e i n G e d i c h t wirken, bestimmt s e i n e I n d i v i d u a l i t a t , s e i n besonderes S ^ i n . . . . J e d e r , der d i e P o e s i e a l s etwas Ganzes a u f z u f a s s e n im Stande i s t , w i r d s i c h l e i c h t Uberzeugen, dass s i e i n ihrem Umkreise unmb'glich s t e t s d i e s e l b e n G e s c h l e c h t e r und S i t t e n a n t r i f f t . (pp60-1) A c c o r d i n g to Docen, T r i s t a n e p i t o m i z e d the s p i r i t and  the poet's  i n t e n t i o n , which amply m a n i f e s t e d  itself  was  to compose a romance e s p e c i a l l y f o r anyone i n l o v e .  between T r i s t a n and I s o l d e ( h i s u n c l e Marke's w i f e ) was  of medieval  chivalry,  throughout  the work,  That  the  relationship  f r e e from blame was  3 proven above a l l by the Judgment of  God:  Nur durch d i e s e versb'hnende V e r m i t t e l u n g konnte das Ganze an e i n e hbhere, l e t z t e Instanz gebunden werden, ohne welche der S c h e i n n i c h t zu vermeiden gewesen ware, dass d i e Aventtlre durch b l o s s e — m i t Brangane's Zaubertrank l e i c h t e n t s c h u l d i g t e - - L i e b e s g e l u s t nur dem i r d i s c h e n P r i n z i p e i n z i g zu h u l d i g e n , d i e A b s i c h t habe. So etwas aber ware dem kindlich-frommen S i n n j e n e r Z e i t e n ganz entgegen gewesen. (pp56-7) All  through  the n a r r a t i v e G o t t f r i e d knew how  to r e t a i n a "noble  simplicity,"  which s t r o n g l y c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the " w i l d n e s s " i n Wolfram's P a r z i v a l , and T r i s t a n romance c o n s t i t u t e d  "das  Schbnste  . . . was  Deutsche K u n s t s i n n h e r v o r g e b r a c h t h a t " ( p . 58).  i n jenen Z e i t e n der  G o t t f r i e d ' s source  not yet been r e c o v e r e d , but l i k e o t h e r German medieval t h e i r works on f o r e i g n models G o t t f r i e d was  poets who  gegebenen S t o f f e s gewesen ware" (p. 5*0 •  der Natur urn i h n h e r .  s e i n e s Daseins,  . . . Wir besitzen--um  [ s i c ] Werk" (p.  59)•  the e v o c a t i v e  "Mit L i e b e  der Seele des  mein U r t h e i l i n den  Worten zu s a g e n — w e n i g e Gedichte, d i e im G e i s t e d i e Ahnung des l i c h e n , g a t t l i c h e n Schbnen i n dem  k e i n e neue  Employing  v o c a b u l a r y of n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Romanticism Docen c o n c l u d e d :  und  based  eigenes  B i l d e n s , ohne welches d i e P o e s i e nur e i n mllhsames Nachzeichnen,  v e r s i n k t er [ G o t t f r i e d ] i n das GefUhl  had  f a r from b e i n g a mere t r a n s l a t o r ;  r a t h e r , he must s u r e l y have worked "mit jenem l e b e n d i g e n GefUhl  Belebung des  this  Grade anregen, wie  Alls kUrzesten  ursprUng-  dieses unvergleiche  89  Several  t o p i c s p r e s e n t i n Docen's T r i s t a n e v a l u a t i o n  subsequent c r i t i c i s m of the romance.  recurred  These were the q u e s t i o n  the l o v e r s ' - r e l a t i o n s h i p , the meaning of the  episode of the  of g u i l t  a r t i s t r y i n G o t t f r i e d ' s work, and  f i n a l l y the problem of the  o r i g i n a l i t y and  source.  August Wilhelm S c h l e g e l  had  in  Judgment, of  the comparison w i t h Wolfram's P a r z i v a l , the r e c o g n i t i o n of the  dependence on h i s  in  God,  supreme  poet's  a l r e a d y made an a l l u s i o n to the  innocence  1). of T r i s t a n - l o v e i n h i s B e r l i n l e c t u r e s of " l l i s t e r n e n verbotnen und des  Lanzelot  out  that such f a b l e s were not  Romantic v e i n : und  Sinnesart  On  that occasion  i n d i g e n o u s , and  " F r e y l i c h war,  bey  dem  g e l e s e n wurden" (p.  as  47)-  In  " z a r t e r , i n n i g e r , wunder- und  He  preferred  Gottfried's former  . . . e i n unnachahmlich  Werk" (p. 233).  i h n ab,  edelsten  d i e z a r t e s t e n und  f r e e from  ( p . 235)-  blisst Spiegel  Almost  repeated h i s p r a i s e of the T r i s t a n romance, " l e "de  toutes  connues, c e l l e de Godefroy de S t r a s b o u r g e s t •  he guilt:  Tod  r i t t e r l i c h e n Tugenden, deren  romans d ' a m o u r , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t  l a plus b e l l e " (p. 295)  Docen,  s e i n Ungllick und  er i s t , s i n d F U r b i t t e r gegen jedes s t r e n g e G e r i c h t " f o r t y years l a t e r S c h l e g e l  Following  h i s d i s l o y a l t y to the k i n g — w a s seinen F e h l t r i t t ,  de T r i s t a n a. moi  demselben  i n t h a t anthology, d e s c r i b i n g the  " E i n Verhangniss e n t s c h u l d i g t  chef d'oeuvre des  early  b i s i n d i e k l e i n s t e n T h e i l e h i n e i n nach Einem grossen  that T r i s t a n — d e s p i t e  und  pointed  l 8 l 0 Schlegel discussed G o t t f r i e d  geheimnisvoller  Gedanken k t i n s t l e r i s c h a u s g e b i l d e t e s felt  also  d i e s e Verdeutschungen beweisen  G e s c h i c h t e n i n D e u t s c h l a n d mit  to the Prosaroman p u b l i s h e d  s e e l e n v o l l e s und  he had  then added i n t r u e  i n more d e t a i l when r e v i e w i n g the Buch der L i e b e . ^ version  the  damaligen E i n h e i t Europa's, Geschmack  U b e r a l l sehr verwandt, und  wenigstens, dass d e r g l e i c h e n Interesse  when he mentioned  doch gewissermassen so u n s c h u l d i g e n L i e b e s h a n d e l n  T r i s t a n " (p. 46).  und  1803-1804  les  redactions  incomparablement  90  When Jacob Grimm reviewed the Buch der L i e b e i n 1812 G o t t f r i e d ' s work w i t h the Prosaroman (which was had  accorded  most l a u r e l s  he a l s o c o n t r a s t e d  based on E i l h a r t ) .  Schlegel  to G o t t f r i e d , but Grimm r e s e r v e d most of h i s  p r a i s e f o r the o l d e r r e n d e r i n g of the f a b l e , i n which he s i m p l i c i t y which Docen had  found  the  noble  e a r l i e r a s c r i b e d to G o t t f r i e d :  . . . so z e i g t s i c h i n dem E i l h a r t i s c h e n d i e sage doch u n s t r e i t i g a l t e r , e i n f a c h e r und p o e t i s c h e r . . . . Was uns s e l b s t nach a l l e m d i e s e n noch weit Uber d i e anderen beweise geht, und das v o r a l t e r der i n diesem g e d i c h t wie i n der p r o s a t r e u behaltenen f a b e l unzweif e l h a f t macht, das i s t d i e i n n e r e g e s c h l o s s e n h e i t , rUndung und e i n f a c h h e i t d e r s e l b e n , wie s i e h i e r e r s c h e i n t , im gegensatz zu G o t t f r i e d s g e d i c h t , das w i r i n so f e r n auch u n t e r d i e p r o s a s e t z e n mUssen. (pp. 89-95) For Grimm the e a r l i e r stages and more p o e t i c , and  i n any  legend's  development were more n a t u r a l  as such were p r e f e r a b l e to the l a t e r treatment  hands of c o u r t l y p o e t s .  He admitted  nonetheless  i n the  t h a t G o t t f r i e d c o u l d not  be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e " k U n s t l i c h e zusammenhangslosigkeit" (p. because the f a b l e had source. "Von  doubtless  a l r e a d y been deformed by Thomas, h i s  Furthermore, G o t t f r i e d should be r e c o g n i z e d  der p o e s i e s e l b s t i s t h i e r gar k e i n e rede,  so k b s t l i c h ,  dasz s i e n i c h t U b e r s e t z t  as a master of  d i e s e i s t i n dem  French style:  Deutschen  s e i n kann, und ware i h r das  original  90).  d a r i n g l e i c h , d i e s e s n i c h t U b e r s e t z t h a t t e werden kbnnen" (p.  B.  95)  "Lachmann S c h o o l " In 1820  K a r l Lachmann, who  g r e a t e s t m e d i e v a l and  classical  i s now  remembered as  "one  of Germany's  s c h o l a r s , as a p h i l o l o g i s t of the  first  ''8 order, and,  lastly,  as the most i n d e f a t i g a b l e and p a t i e n t of  condemned the T r i s t a n romance as b e i n g blasphemous and  teachers,"  immoral.  In h i s  b r i e f n o t i c e on the work, which accompanied an e x c e r p t from the poem i n h i s Auswahl aus  den hochdeutschen D i c h t e r n des  dreizehnten  Jahrhunderts  91  ( B e r l i n , l820)--an anthology his  o f M i d d l e High German p o e t r y prepared  for  students--Lachmann p r a i s e d the a e s t h e t i c s and denounced the e t h i c s i n  G o t t f r i e d ' s poem: Darstellungsweise Uppigkeit  "Seine  [ G o t t f r i e d s ] gehaltene,  verstSndig  geschmlickte  e r h e l l e t wohl aus dem gew'dhlten A b s c h n i t t ;  oder Gottesl'dsterung, boten d i e H a u p t t h e i l e  anderes, a l s  seiner weichlichen,  Q u n s i t t l i c h e n ErzMhlung n i c h t d a r . of c r i t i c s work;  I n the n i n e t e e n t h  and l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s echoed t h i s  century  the m a j o r i t y  evaluation of Gottfried's  such s c h o l a r s , t o whom we s h a l l r e f e r as the Lachmann School,  expressed  " e i n e r s e i t s d i e HochschStzung und das Lob von G o t t f r i e d s Kunst, d e r S s t h e t i s c h e n S e i t e s e i n e s Werkes, a n d e r e r s e i t s d i e Abwertung im G e h a l t l i c h e n auf Grund der v e r m e i n t l i c h e n U n s i t t l i c h k e i t ,  d i e Verwerfung der e t h i s c h e n S e i t e .  When the h i s t o r i a n Georg G o t t f r i e d Gervinus,. "der w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e Begrlinder der L i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t s s c h r e i b u n g , " f o r whom " n a t i o n a l e und e t h i s c h e Forderungen s e t z e n s i c h an d i e S t e l l e der a s t h e t i s c h e n Wertung,•"'^ commented on G o t t f r i e d i n h i s Geschichte he echoed Lachmann i n s t a t i n g  der deutschen D i c h t u n g  (1835-42)  "man muss verdammen, aber bewundern und  12 bedauern" (p. 423).  The T r i s t a n - I s o l d e s t o r y e x e m p l i f i e d  "Jugend h a t n i c h t Tugend," w h i l e T r i s t a n - l o v e on c h a r a c t e r . "den  r e i n s t e n Charakter  Oheimes, den E r o b e r e r  in  i t s theme was t h e d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t o f  The poet showed how such p a s s i o n  destroys  . . . den t h a t e n l u s t i g e n T r i s t a n , den R e t t e r  s e i n e s eigenen Landes  aufhbren, a l l e Handlungen s t i l l e die  the motto  stehen,  . . . wie nun a l l e  Thaten  nur d i e k l e i n e n Entwlirfe n i c h t ,  ihm s e i n neues BUndniss m i t I s o l d e i n g i b t " (p. 417)• t h e throes o f h i s f i r s t  seines  The hero,  l o v e - a f f a i r , was degraded by these  They dishonoured him because he surrendered  depicted  emotions.  t o them e n t i r e l y , and remained  f o r g e t f u l o f h i s k n i g h t l y d u t i e s and r e p u t a t i o n .  I s o l d e ' s c h a r a c t e r was  92  s i m i l a r l y d e f i l e d by  love:  "Was  von  nun  an f o l g t ,  i s t nicht  etwas anderes a l s unseren Abscheu zu wecken. . . . S o gute k i n d l i c h e I s o l d denn g l e i c h , nachdem s i e den dazu g e r e i f t , dem  neuen Eheherrn zum  Betrug zu b e r e i t e n . und  des On  . . . Sie fangt  trauten nun  an,  i s t die reine  Trank der  Empfang den  Schuld  liebe gekostet,  schmahlichsten  i n den KUnsten der  Schlangenlist  Betrugs d i e r a s c h e s t e n F o r t s c h r i t t e zu machen" (p. k-20) . the o t h e r hand Gervinus d i d express some a d m i r a t i o n f o r  artistry, his  "charming form," which so c o n t r a s t e d  in Parzival.  Following  literature und  geeignet,  "was  dem  Ganzen der N a t i o n a l g e s c h i c h t e  h e r l e i t e n l a s s t " (p. kl6),  Gottfried's  stylistic  traditional  story:  "coarseness"  h i s maxim of s e l e c t i n g t h a t element i n m e d i e v a l  s i c h aus  of the T r i s t a n m a t e r i a l  w i t h the  Gottfried's  but  he  erlautern  r e f r a i n e d from g i v i n g a complete h i s t o r y  s i n g l e d out  enhancement and  instead  the d i f f e r e n c e between  E i l h a r t ' s cruder v e r s i o n of  the  Wir begnligen uns mit der Bemerkung, dass der D i c h t e r d i e htichste Bewunderung v e r d i e n t , wenn man s i e h t , welch e i n b e d e u t u n g s v o l l e s Gedicht er aus einem S t o f f e b e r e i t e t e , der noch i n dem T r i s t a n des E i l h a r t von Oberg so wllst und e k e l d a l i e g t und i n s i c h von a l l e r Grbsse und WUrde vollkommen e n t b l b s s t i s t . Es i s t der S t o f f e i n e r b l o s s e n N o v e l l e . . . . Aus e i n e r so n i e d e r e n Sphare, i n der d i e F a b e l des T r i s t a n zu einem u n t e r h a l t e n d e n l e i c h t s i n n i g e n G e s c h i c h t c h e n gemacht i s t , rlickte s i e G o t t f r i e d i n e i n e wunderbare Hb'he, mit. e i n e r wahrhaft g e n i a l e n Kunst. (p. kl6) On  the whole, however, any  by  condemnation.  a p p r o v a l of the romance was  Deaf to Docen's warning t h a t  more than o u t b a l a n c e d  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  classical  standards to m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e l e d to f a l s e judgments, Gervinus p a r a l l e l s between the  German medieval poets and  constructed  A e s c h y l o s , Sophocles  and  13 Euripides. ignoble  He  equated G o t t f r i e d ' s h i g h l y a r t i s t i c  theme w i t h E u r i p i d e s '  a r t i s t i c method, but  profound moral c o n t e n t — t h e f o r t e of A e s c h y l o s and was  u l t i m a t e l y of g r e a t e r  worth:  formal treatment of  then showed that Wolfram von  an  a  Eschenbach—  93  W o l l e n w i r e i n Werk von s e i n e r d i c h t e r i s c h e n S e i t e b e u r t h e i l e n , so sehen w i r von s e i n e r m y s t i s c h e n und r e l i g i ' b s e n , . s i t t l i c h e n oder w i s s e n s c h a f t l i c h e n W e i s h e i t und Werth ab und h a l t e n uns an D a r s t e l l u n g und Form. . . . Suchen w i r aber im D i c h t e r den ganzen Menschen, im Gedichte d i e ganze Bedeutung des Lebens, dann s c h l a g e n wir uns e n t s c h i e d e n auf d i e S e i t e der e r s t e r n , und v e r f e c h t e n m i t A e s c h y l o s , dass der D i c h t e r , der L e h r e r der Erwachsenen, das Gute nur l e h r e n und das Unedle verbergen, dass e r n u r wUrdigen und grossen S t o f f behandeln s o l l e . ( p . 415) In  1839  H e i n r i c h Laube s a i d of G o t t f r i e d ' s work:  "Wenn der sogenannte 14  m o r a l i s c h e Maasstab His  a n g e l e g t w i r d , so i s t T r i s t a n und I s o l d e e i n G r a u e l . "  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was based on the t h e s i s t h a t the l i c e n t i o u s ,  immoral,  f r i v o l o u s n a t u r e o f the romance r e c o r d e d a t u r n i n the path o f medieval history.  G o t t f r i e d marked the end o f the "romantic" M i d d l e Ages, he  p r e f e r r e d s e n s u a l i t y to s p i r i t u a l i t y , romantic:  the e x t e r n a l to the inward and  " J u s t an d i e s e r S t e l l e , wo das M i t t e l a l t e r s e i n e  V e r g e i s t i g u n g auf d i e S p i t z e g e t r i e b e n , t r i t t  i n Gottfried  theoretische . . . e i n e so  glanzende Mahnung e i n , dass der Mensch auch noch etwas ganz Anderes s e i " (p.  113).  Laube f e l t d u l y d i s t r e s s e d t h a t G o t t f r i e d , a former monk ( l ) ,  advocated T r i s t a n - l o v e and was moreover a p p a r e n t l y a man o f some e x p e r i e n c e in  amatory a f f a i r s .  The poet was an adept master o f form who  skilfully  r e g i s t e r e d h i s o p p o s i t i o n to contemporary moeurs,• and i t was no mean task for  a critic  to p i n him down f o r l i c e n t i o u s n e s s .  As a r e s u l t , no-one had  r e c o g n i z e d i n G o t t f r i e d the g r e a t e s t b e t r a y e r of the M i d d l e Ages, h e a p i n g r i d i c u l e on h i s contemporaries and t h e i r customs: die zu  r i t t e r l i c h e und k i r c h l i c h e Konvenienz fassen.  Durchbruch  adroitly  "Er [hb'hnt]  der L i e b e , und i s t doch n i r g e n d s  . . . Kurz, w i r haben i n diesem G o t t f r i e d ' s c h e n Werk e i n e n der glUhendsten u r s p r l i n g l i c h s t e n S i n n l i c h k e i t , der a l l e Kon-  venienz der Z e i t m i t FUssen t r i t t ,  und s i c h auf Kosten der ganzen  E x i s t e n z g e l t e n d macht" (pp. 112^13)  •  damaligen  94  S i m i l a r views on  the h i s t o r i c a l background to the  superabundant  s e n s u a l i t y i n the T r i s t a n poem were expressed by August V i l m a r when 15 l e c t u r i n g i n Marburg from 1843 the  "immer mehr dem  materiellen  to 1844.  bloss weltlichen  Gewinn und  Besitz  G o t t f r i e d was Streben, dem  a f o r e r u n n e r of  physischen Wolsein,  zugeneigten, z u l e t z t i n t i e f e R o h e i t  f a s t t h i e r i s c h e n Genuss v e r s i n k e n d e , aus Mundbekennern und  c h r i s t l i c h e n Wahrheit bestehenden e u r o p S i s c h e n Menschheit des  15-  J a h r h u n d e r t s " (p. 182).  the T r i s t a n  theme as the most d e s p i c a b l e  In h i s condemnation of the love-potion the  and  instead  love-trap.  theme not  arraigned  However, he  to G o t t f r i e d but  originated:  the  f o r having lured T r i s t a n i n t o  imputed the shamelessness of the a n t i - C h r i s t i a n to the p r o f l i g a t e C e l t s among whom the  "Gb'ttliche und  menschliche Rechte werden mit einer  to  LUsternheit  story  . . . die  schamlosen U n s i t t l i c h k e i t l i e g e n b e r e i t s i n den  Erzahlungen s e l b s t " ;  britischen  m e n s c h l i c h e Gesetze, g'dttliche  FUssen g e t r e t e n ,  . . . hartstirnigen Frechheit  und  a l s mllsse das  the  (p. 177).  s t o r y j u s t as  t r a d i t i o n by  The  French r e d a c t o r s  they found i t . The  imbuing i t w i t h a s p i r i t  the new  the  psychological  Ekel  a l s o deserved blame f o r r e p r o d u c i n g  German poet, G o t t f r i e d , a l t e r e d "welchen das  depth i n h i s treatment of the p o r t r a y a l of an  the  dumpfe b r i t i s c h e Ingenium but  V i l m a r viewed  s p i r i t which G o t t f r i e d i n s p i r e d i n t o the  e f f e c t of i n t e n s i f y i n g the  und  e i n e r nackten Schamlosig-  n i c h t oder n i c h t mehr zu erzeugen vermochte" (p. I78), w i t h much d i s f a v o u r  und  so s e i n ,  k e i t , welche o f t i n Erstaunen s e t z t , a f t e r mit W i d e r w i l l e n , j a m i t erfUllt"  und  fidelity.  omitted a l l reference  " L e i c h t f e r t i g k e i t , F r i v o l i t a t und  Grundzllge d i e s e r  o f t mit  Isolde  14.  theologian—denounced  mockery of m a r i t a l  l o v e - a f f a i r he  und  Thatleugnern  der  V i l m a r — a Protestant  dem  s t o r y had  material:  the  immoral e a r t h l y p a s s i o n .  sole "Er  95  [ G o t t f r i e d ] schwimmt i n v o l l e m Zuge m i t der Welt,  j a der Welt voraus, a l s  (p. l 8 l ) .  i h r Fiihrer zu GelUst und Genuss"  U n l i k e most o f the d e n i g r a t o r s Wilhelm Wackernagel  found f a u l t n o t  o n l y w i t h the moral c o n t e n t b u t a l s o w i t h t h e \ p o e t i c form i n G o t t f r i e d ' s work, and t h e r e f o r e h i s h i s t o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d i n 1851 t h a t the poet's d a z z l i n g s t y l e ,  f a r from b e i n g genuine a r t i s t i c  noted brilliance,  was simply a gaudy d i s p l a y amounting to l i t t l e more than French mannerisms and s t y l i s t i c  tricks.^  B e s i d e such f a u l t s  a l i e n E r n s t der Gesinnung, und zu s o l c h e r Beschb'nigung  ein Leichtsinn  t h e r e was " e i n W i d e r w i l l e gegen  . . . der das Unrecht b e s c h b n i g t  sogar den F r e v e l am H e i l i g s t e n n i c h t  G o t t f r i e d had the g i f t  scheut"  (p.  200).  the  s t o r y a c e r t a i n e x t e r n a l charm, and here used the g l i t t e r i n g a r t of  c o u r t l y p o e t r y which the  o f l e n d i n g to m o r a l l y suspect p a r t s o f  left Eilhart's  s i m p l e r r e d a c t i o n i n the shade.  c r i t i c d i d f i n d one good q u a l i t y i n G o t t f r i e d .  i n more r e c e n t times Wieland's  He wrote  However,  t h a t , j u s t as  r e a c t i o n to K l o p s t o c k had b e n e f i c i a l  results,  17 so too d i d the response o f G o t t f r i e d t o Wolfram have a p o s i t i v e outcome: Und doch i s t d i e s e A r t e i n V o r t h e i l f U r d i e L i t t e r a t u r gewesen: dem a h n l i c h , wie i n s p a t e r e r Z e i t Wieland s i c h zu K l o p s t o c k v e r h i e l t , g l i c h G o t t f r i e d die-Mangel Wolframs vergUtend aus und r e t t e t e , v e r e i n t m i t Hartmann, d i e Anmuth, d i e K l a r h e i t , d i e Leichtigkeit; Rudolf von Ems h a t s e i n e n g e f a l l i g e n Satzbau, es haben Konrad F l e c k und Konrad von WUrzburg i h r e n bequemen R e d e f l u s s von G o t t f r i e d g e l e r n t , und mancher u n t e r g e o r d n e t e D i c h t e r Gedanken und Worte ebenso gern von ihm a l s von Hartmann genommen. ( p . 200) G o t t f r i e d was r o u n d l y condemned by E i c h e n d o r f f i n h i s G e s c h i c h t e  18 der p o e t i s c h e n L i t e r a t u r Deutschlands of 1857,  s i n c e the romance was  to be censured f o r d e s t r o y i n g morals, r e l i g i o n , v i r t u e , h o n e s t y — i n s h o r t , e v e r y t h i n g which made l i f e  n o b l e and g r e a t ( p . 76).  The language i n which  E i c h e n d o r f f phrased h i s plot-summary underscored h i s d i s g u s t :  96  Der S t o f f des Gedichtes i s t durchaus gemein: d i e VerfUhrungsgeschichte einer v e r h e i r a t e t e n Frau, d i e gern Lob und Ehre und S e e l e i h r e r e h e b r e c h e r i s c h e n Liebesbrunst opfert; e i n a r t i g e r , s i c h v o r den Damen n i e d l i c h machender Fant . . . der s i c h i n s e i n e r liebenswllrdigen F l a t t e r h a f t i g k e i t z u l e t z t noch gar i n e i n e zweite I s o l d e v e r l i e b t ; und e n d l i c h e i n schwacher Ehemann, der n i c h t b l o s s gefoppt, sondern auf das s c h S n d l i c h s t e v e r r a t e n und betrogen w i r d und welcher am Ende noch a l l e Schuld a l l e i n t r a g e n s o l i , w e i l er s i c h u n t e r s t a n d e n h a t , s e i n t o l l e s Weib zu hliten und i n i h r e n sauberen KunststUcken zu s t b r e n . ( p . 76) He reprimanded  G o t t f r i e d f o r h a v i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o German l i t e r a t u r e t h e  "dogma o f u n r e s t r a i n e d s e x u a l l o v e " ( p . 76)  and f o r h a v i n g  r e v e r s e d a l l moral v a l u e s b y f o u n d i n g a new system  completely  i n which d e c e p t i o n  became a c a r d i n a l v i r t u e , constancy i n s i n was named f i d e l i t y , w h i l s t t h e l o y a l t y o f the c o u r t i e r s t o Marke was counted not s h i r k from blasphemous mockery:  as a c r i m e .  "Der f r e i g e i s t e r i s c h e D i c h t e r scheut  s i c h n i c h t , m i t der H e i l i g k e i t des E i d e s und des Gebetes Spott zu t r e i b e n " (pp. found w a n t i n g : was  76-7)-  The poet d i d  frevelhaften  When measured by Wolfram, G o t t f r i e d was  the C h r i s t i a n view of l i f e which was symbolized by P a r z i v a l  t o t a l l y negated  anti-Christian art.  i n T r i s t a n , and G o t t f r i e d was the l e a d e r and master o f When Wackernagel drew t h e p a r a l l e l  "Gottfried:Wolfram--  Wieland :Klopstock" (above, p.95 ) he a r r i v e d a t p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , b u t now E i c h e n d o r f f drew the same p a r a l l e l  i n a way t h a t d i d l i t t l e  t o enhance  Gottfried's reputation: Das Verh'dltnis b e i d e r war ungefahr ebenso, wie i n neuerer Z e i t zwischen K l o p s t o c k und Wieland. . . . [ G o t t f r i e d s ] G e i s t v e r b r e i t e t e s i c h wie e i n h e i m l i c h zehrendes F i e b e r i n den v e r s c h i e d e n s t e n Krankheitssymptomen Uber mehrere D i c h t e r g e n e r a t i o n e n , aus denen Rudolf von Ems und Konrad von WUrzburg a l s d i e bedeutendsten h e r v o r r a g e n . Das C h a r a k t e r i s t i s c h e der G o t t f r i e d s c h e n Schule aber i s t eben d i e l a x e weltmSnnische L e b e n s a n s i c h t des M e i s t e r s , d i e m i t Sage und Heldentum n i c h t s mehr anzufangen w e i s s , daher am l i e b s t e n nach gewbhnlichen, j a gemeinen S t o f f e n g r e i f t und, um das K l e i n e gross zu machen, a l i e n Nachdruck f a s t a u s s c h l i e s s l i c h auf e i n e g e l e c k t e Form der D a r s t e l l u n g l e g t . ( p . 78)  97  In s h o r t , E i c h e n d o r f f ' s  o u t l o o k on  that of Lachmann:  schade um  absolut  "Wie  Hassliche  D e s p i t e the  the T r i s t a n romance s t r o n g l y so v i e l  resembled  SchSnheit, d i e h i e r an  das  77)-  verschwendet i s t " (p.  f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t which H e i n r i c h K u r z ^ and  Octave  20 d'Assailly  c a s t on  the  romance i n 1853  to i n f l u e n c e p u b l i c o p i n i o n , of i t s most s e r i o u s  and  setbacks.  T r i s t a n , dipped h i s pen  in  1859  and  respectively,  they  I865 G o t t f r i e d ' s cause met w i t h  failed one  In that year G. H a e b l e r , i n w r i t i n g about  i n t o a w e l l of u n d i l u t e d  venom  ("Uber Wolfram  21 von  Eschenbach und  G o t t f r i e d von  u s u a l l y found at l e a s t one Eichendorff  could not  Haebler now  asserted:  Strassburg") .  p o s i t i v e feature  deny t h a t  Other d e n i g r a t o r s  i n G o t t f r i e d or h i s w o r k — e v e n  i n T r i s t a n t h e r e was  "Neben einem I n h a l t ,  dem  "so v i e l  Feder zum  Proteste  the romance but  sind wir n i c h t  l a t t e r had  rlihren kb*nnen" (p. 503)  a l s o to the o v e r - l e n i e n t  failed  to take the  f a r enough, H a e b l e r now "Es  soil..  . . das  Lob  U r t h e i l , welches man  set out  had  •  took e x c e p t i o n not  reproof with p r a i s e .  between Wolfram and  Wolfram's erwiesen und  gesteigert,  G o t t f r i e d z u t h e i l werden la.sst, auf  c o u l d not  excused as a s i g n of the Rather, "es  was  (p. 514),  das  to  Because  Gottfried study:  rllhmende  e i n Husserst  Such h i g h moral p r i n c i p l e s  contemporaries t h a t  times nor was  i s t eine w a l i s i s c h e  ihrem Schmuze r e p r o d u c i r t "  p a r c e l by G o t t f r i e d , who  .  only  romance adopted  to extend G e r v i n u s ' p r e l i m i n a r y  i n the work of G o t t f r i e d ' s  all  He  spiced  contrast  were evident  of Germany.  anmasslichste  a t t i t u d e toward the  geringes Mass h e r a b g e s e t z t werden" (p. 459)  be  das  gesonnen, solange w i r noch Zunge oder  by a f e l l o w damnator, G e r v i n u s , who the  Schbnheit"—but  a l l e s i t t l i c h e Wlirde f e h l t ,  eine Form zu dulden, i n der klimmerliche Kilnste s i c h auf b r e i t machen, das  had  the  romance  i t an o f f s p r i n g  Schandgeschichte  typical  . . . mit  a f o r e i g n import adopted p a r t  singularly lacking i n poetic  invention,  and  and  98  who  adhered more r i g i d l y t o every l e t t e r of h i s "Welsh" o r i g i n a l  any l e t t e r of the law.  Throughout  his bitterly ironical  Haebler s t r e s s e d time and a g a i n G o t t f r i e d ' s shortcomings  than to  plot-summary as a poet,  and  above a l l " d i e e k e l e r r e g e n d e n Eindrtlcke der f u r c h t b a r e n U n s i t t l i c h k e i t " (p. 510).  Two  of the most important e p i s o d e s , namely the d r i n k i n g of the  l o v e - p o t i o n and the cave o f l o v e r s , were both d i s m i s s e d summarily critic.  He w r o t e :  ( p . 508),  Waldung, h o l t  und nun  i s t das UnglUck  and then "[Marke] s c h i c k t b e i d e m i t e i n a n d e r i n d i e  s i c h aber d i e schbne F r a u b a l d w i e d e r "  r e f e r e n c e to the M i n n e g r o t t e was  (p. 5 H )  s t r o n g l y t h a t anyone who  •  Specific  made o n l y when the c r i t i c ' s s c a t h i n g  f i n g e r p o i n t e d to the d e p l o r a b l e s t y l e of the romance.  sins:  Haebler  felt  p r a i s e d t h i s episode s h o u l d be punished f o r h i s  he s h o u l d . l e a r n by h e a r t a l l 250  complete h i s penance r e c i t e the passage  l i n e s of the a l l e g o r y , and then to thrice daily,  e i t h e r u n t i l he  c o n v e r t e d or u n t i l he c o u l d no l o n g e r bear to hear the "Jammer" ( p .  C.  this  "Da v e r s c h l u c k e n d i e b e i d e n U n g l U c k l i c h e n e i n e n  L i e b e s t r a n k , der f i i r Kb'nig Marke bestimmt war, fertig"  by  was 512).  M y t h o l o g i c a l School A few prominent  i n t h e i r assessments  T r i s t a n s c h o l a r s begged to d i f f e r from the d e t r a c t o r s of G o t t f r i e d ' s work, and i t was  t h i s m i n o r i t y belonged  t o or was  ( d i s c u s s e d above, p. 15)•  sympathetic  no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t  towards the M y t h o l o g i c a l School  In s e e k i n g the o r i g i n s o f the s t o r y i n remote  m y t h o l o g i e s , and i n r e g a r d i n g the T r i s t a n - I s o l d e legend as one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a u n i v e r s a l  theme, such c r i t i c s  felt  t h a t they had a t t a i n e d to a f a r  deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g of G o t t f r i e d ' s romance than c o u l d be a c q u i r e d by d e n i g r a t o r s whose knowledge of the f a b l e was o n l y from the m e d i e v a l  versions.  those  s u p e r f i c i a l because a c q u i r e d  99  Franz J . Mone, the f i r s t  t o defend G o t t f r i e d from the charges  levelled  a g a i n s t him by h i s damnators, i n 1821 s t r e s s e d the k i n s h i p of the T r i s t a n s t o r y w i t h Germanic legends and suggested a l s o where t h e i r common source 22 might l i e .  He m a i n t a i n e d t h a t G o t t f r i e d ' s romance was f r e e from a l l t r a c e s  of i m m o r a l i t y :  " G o t f r i t i s t durchaus e i n z l l c h t i g e r D i c h t e r ,  r e c h t wol L u s t von L i e b e . Ehe,  er unterscheidet  . . . T r i s t a n und I s a l t s i n d daher e i n e  heimliche  k e i n Ehebruch, und Marke s t e h t e i g e n t l i c h nur a l s der f e i n d l i c h e HUter  des Weibes da, a l s der Drache, der s i e h e i r a t e n w i l l , Uber s i e bekommt" ( p . X V I ) .  aber doch k e i n e Gewalt  G o t t f r i e d was semi-aware o f the r e c o n d i t e  meaning i n the o l d f a b l e , namely how the pure s o u l (goodness) i s contaminated by matter ( e v i l ) ,  and how the s o u l i s f i n a l l y  d u a l i s m thus overcome.  r e l e a s e d from the f l e s h and  The s u f f e r i n g i n v o l v e d i n T r i s t a n - l o v e r e s u l t e d from  t h i s c o n t a m i n a t i o n , f o r , as Mone wrote, . . . d e r j e n i g e A u s f l u s s des gb'ttlichen G e i s t e s , der s i c h der M a t e r i e zuwendet, [wird] i n e i n e b e s t S n d i g e V e r w i r r u n g v e r w i c k e l t , d i e b e i n a h s e i n e n Ursprung v e r d u n k e l t ; was i n der S e e l e n l e h r e h e i s s t , der A b f a l l der Seele von Gott i s t der Anfang der l e i d v o l l e n PrUfung und j e w e i t e r s i e s i c h vom gb'ttlichen G e i s t e n t f e r n t , desto schw3cher w i r d der Zusammenhang m i t ihm, des to grb'sser das Ubergewicht der M a t e r i e . ( p . XXXVI) T r i s t a n resembled other folklore;  l e g e n d a r y heroes and p a r t i c u l a r l y those of Germanic  the s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r adventures showed t h a t a l l  such legends shared a common o r i g i n i n " S e e l e n l e h r e . "  The l o v e - p o t i o n i n  the T r i s t a n s t o r y was the d r i n k o f o b l i v i o n , a f e a t u r e c u r r e n t these l e g e n d s :  i n many o f  "Durch d i e s e Verzauberung werden d i e Helden zu Doppelwesen,  deren Natur b a l d k'ampfend b a l d l e i d e n d , gut und bo's, erscheint" (p.XIX).  g l U c k l i c h und u n g l U c k l i c h  G o t t f r i e d ' s c h i e f purpose was to enhance the Germanic  i d e a l s o f heroism and l o y a l t y unto death i n h i s " H e l d e n l i e d " o f T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , i n which T r i s t a n e x e m p l i f i e d  the brave and s t e a d f a s t h e r o .  23  Thus  100  the s t o r y t o l d by G o t t f r i e d was o s i t y , as was  not aimed a t s a t i s f a c t i o n of s e n s u a l  the case w i t h the French  curi-  redactors:  Noch umfassender und t i e f e r e r g r i f f e n d i e t e u t s c h e n D i c h t e r d i e Sage, n i c h t nur, dass s i e d i e grosse H e l d e n k r a f t T r i s t a n s n i c h t im weichmtithigen L e i d e , wie d i e Franzosen, verschmelzen l i e s s e n , sondern i h n den grb'ssesten Helden t e u t s c h e r Sage, D i e t e r i c h e n und H i l t e b r a n d e n vorzogen, sondern auch, dass s i e ihm und den Sagen Uberhaupt e i n e g r o s s a r t i g e Deutung zugestanden, wie man s i e b e i den Franzosen n i c h t f i n d e t . (p. IX) K a r l Simrock's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n resembled t h a t g i v e n by Mone i n t h a t he s t r e s s e d the Germanic element and,  although a p u p i l of Lachmann, defended  G o t t f r i e d a g a i n s t the a c c u s a t i o n s which t h a t c r i t i c had brought a g a i n s t His T r i s t a n s t u d i e s appeared f i r s t i n D i e Q u e l l e n des N o v e l l e n , MSrchen und  Sagen (Bonn, I 8 3 I )  and  him.  Shakespeare i n  l a t e r i n the p r e f a c e to h i s  2h t r a n s l a t i o n of the romance notes  on the o r i g i n s he  (1855, extended i n 1875)•  s t a t e d t h a t the f a b l e was  In a f ew  "uraltes  brief  deutsches  Eigentum" (p. X I I ) , a moral " L i e b e s s a g e " c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Germanic "Freundschaftssage." Tristan:  The  s t o r y of S i e g f r i e d shared  " L i e b e s t r a n k , den Drachenkampf und  c e r t a i n features with  d i e Schwertlegung.  So b e t r a c h t e t e r s c h e i n t d i e T r i s t a n s a g e a l s d i e nSchste f r i e d s s a g e " (p. X I I ) . to  o t h e r legends  . . .  Verwandte der S i e g -  H i s main t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  however was  this  t h a t the s t o r i e s of T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , Romeo  and J u l i e t , Pyramus and T h i s b e , and Hero and Leander shared "eine u r a l t e L i e b e s s a g e ,  a s i n g l e theme,  and  represented  d i e i n v i e l e n G e s t a l t e n umgeht  und  s i c h immer wieder von Neuem zu erzeugen s c h e i n t " . • ( Q u e l l e n , p. lkk) :  i n a l l these s t o r i e s l o v e knows no bounds, and i n each case a chance a mistaken  n o t i o n about one's p a r t n e r — h a s  tragic results.  away from e a r t h l y e x i s t e n c e , to which they are no way,  and  w i r d , was  enter i n t o a h i g h e r sphere of l i f e ,  "wo  The  event—  l o v e r s pass  l o n g e r a t t a c h e d i n any s i c h ihnen das  s i e h i e r vergebens zu v e r w i r k l i c h e n s t r e b t e n " (p.  ganz  397)-  erflillen  101  G o t t f r i e d ' s g r e a t e s t achievement  was  h i s o r i g i n a l i t y , h i s a b i l i t y to  take t h i s well-known German legend and handle the theme i n a way poet c o u l d :  no o t h e r  " G o t t f r i e d hat z u e r s t von der Minne m i t j e n e r I n b r u n s t des  s e e l e n v o l l s t e n GefUhls und i n der n a i v s t e n Sprache  auch m i t dem  hohen  Schwunge gesprochen, welche des T i e f s i n n s der L i e b e s s a g e wUrdig  sind"  (p. if  k-02) . T h e  moral content of h i s r e d a c t i o n c o u l d be t r u l y a s s e s s e d o n l y  the c o n c l u d i n g episodes (not p r e s e n t i n G o t t f r i e d ' s u n f i n i s h e d romance)  were taken i n t o  account.  . . . das u n v o l l e n d e t e Werk muss manchen Vorwurf hinnehmen, der das v o l l e n d e t e v i e l l e i c h t n i c h t m i t s o l c h e r Harte g e t r o f f e n h a t t e . Der schwerste f r e i l i c h , a l s ob der Gegenstand d i e s e s G e d i c h t s schmahliche VerhBhnung der G a t t e n t r e u e ware, l a s s t s i c h schon damit abweisen, dass zwischen Marke und I s o l d so wenig a l s zwischen T r i s t a n und der andern, weisshandigen I s o l d j e e i n e h e l i c h e s V e r h a l t n i s s zu Stande kommt, wenn s i e g l e i c h vor der Welt Gatten s c h e i n e n . ( p. 395) The  l o v e r s were i n n o c e n t , and t h e i r death s h o u l d r e c o n c i l e them w i t h e v e r y  reader of the poem.  Simrock  f u r t h e r v i n d i c a t e d G o t t f r i e d by p o i n t i n g out  t h a t F r e n c h sources were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the immoral t u r n which the  story  took i n the c o n t i n u a t i o n s of G o t t f r i e d ' s romance by U l r i c h von TUrheim and H e i n r i c h von F r e i b e r g :  "Nach i h r e r A u f f a s s u n g des G e d i c h t s a l s Verhb'hnung  der G a t t e n t r e u e , h a t t e n d i e Franzosen noch e i n e Reihe l i s t i g  ersonnener  e h e b r e c h e r i s c h e r Anschlage h i n z u g e f U g t , von welchen der l e t z t e , b e i Tristan f a l l t , (p.  ganz u n z w e i d e u t i g und k e i n e r A r t von Beschbnigung  dem  fahig i s t "  XI) . The e n t h u s i a s t i c and a p p r e c i a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of T r i s t a n made i n I 8 3 8 by  von der Hagen i n c l u d e d s i m i l a r remarks on the German poet, the  Siegfried  25 p a r a l l e l and the m y t h o l o g i c a l s o u r c e s . c o u l d be o n l y t o G o t t f r i e d ' s advantage,  Comparisons w i t h F r e n c h v e r s i o n s because  enhanced through i t s r e i n c a r n a t i o n i n h i s hands.  the f a b l e had been g r e a t l y The i n f e r i o r  French  102  r e n d e r i n g s " [ g e f a l i e n ] s i c h i n h a r t e n , j a rohen und eben n i c h t z l i c h t i g e n Ausmalungen" ( p . 6l0); "der  echte Kodex der Minne, das  nackten Ausdrticken  moreover, G o t t f r i e d ' s romance —  e i g e n t l i c h e Buch der L i e b e "  (p. 562)--far  outranked a l l medieval French works whatever t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r : a l l e m was  auch i c h seitdem von  habe, i s t k e i n e Spur und Sprache" (p. 609). f r e e from any  so wie  und  of the exemplary l o v e r s  was  w i r d " (p. 609)•  "Dabei s t r a h l t d i e  durch den  Blessed  G o t t f r i e d expressed i n T r i s t a n a m y s t i c a l  Darstellung  i n der D i c h t u n g s e l b s t das  unleidliche Liebesverhaltnis  Zaubertrank e n t s c h u l d i g t  Bildung,  gehbrt  Seele  t a i n t of g u i l t or shamelessness: Reinigkeit;  "Im  Gedichten gesehen und  d i e s e r Z a r t h e i t und  Gottfried's representation  i n hoher Unschuld und s t r a f l i c h e und  Altfranzbsischen  Ahnung von  und  sonst  verhangnisvollen  by a d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n ,  y e a r n i n g which f a r surpassed  anything  of t h a t n a t u r e i n P a r z i v a l : . . . das ganze G e d i c h t s p i e g e l t d i e k l a r e und u n e r g r U n d l i c h e T i e f e eines l i e b e v o l l e n und sehnsllchtigen g b t t l i c h e n Gemllthes. Und obwohl G o t t f r i e d auch, im G e i s t e s e i n e r Z e i t , dem Religib's-Mystischen z u g e n e i g t i s t , so e r s c h e i n t Wolfram doch h a r t und s t r e n g e neben ihm, f a s t wie das A l t e r neben der Jugend. G o t t f r i e d s S c h i l d e r u n g von dem s e l i g e n Leben der G e l i e b e n [ s i c ] i n der z u g l e i c h ganz a l l e g o r i s c h e n Minnehbhle im Walde gehbrt zu dem Schbnsten, was j e g e d i c h t e t worden, und i s t i n der k r y s t a l h e l l e n D a r s t e l l u n g . . . . z u g l e i c h l e b e n d i g d i c h t e G e s t a l t und vom t i e f s t e n m y s t i s c h e n G e i s t e durchdrungen. (p. 610) Furthermore, because G o t t f r i e d was legend, i n one  episode the poet d e l i b e r a t e l y p r e s e n t e d I s o l d e  Tristan's fate, according U r g e s c h i c h t e und The  f u l l y , aware of a u n i v e r s a l meaning i n  das  to von  der Hagen, was  a l l g e m e i n e Geschick des  l a s t of the m y t h o l o g i s t s to be  Hermann K u r t z ,  who  i n the l e n g t h y  of h i s T r i s t a n t r a n s l a t i o n (lSkj)  Eve-figure.  t h a t of a l l mankind,  Menschen" (p.  considered  "die  5^2).  i n t h i s context  introduction written discussed  as an  the  f o r the  was  second e d i t i o n  the o r i g i n s , the S i e g f r i e d  26 parallel,  and  G o t t f r i e d ' s treatment of the myth.  Following  Mone he  pointed  103  out  t h a t the t r u e meaning o f the o r i g i n a l cosmic myth had been f o r g o t t e n by  the  time that medieval poets produced t h e i r corrupted  He c l e a r e d G o t t f r i e d o f any charges o f immorality, r e l a t i o n s h i p was not o f h i s own i n v e n t i n g :  versions  f o r the T r i s t a n - I s o l d e  "Er [ G o t t f r i e d ] i s t somit nur  fUr s e i n e Form, s e i n e Theilnahme, f U r B i l l i g u n g und T a d e l , d i e Mare s e l b s t v e r a n t w o r t l i c h " des Trug ist  S t o f f e s und was des D i c h t e r s . . . gehb'rt der Mare an;  ( p . LXXXVl);  des D i c h t e r s Eigenthum" ( p . LXXXVIIl) .  h a v i n g enhanced and p u r i f i e d described  aber n i c h t f l i r  " T h e i l e n w i r a l s o gerecht was  i s t : d i e Schuld die Liebe,  o f the theme.  und der u n v e r m e i d l i c h e  d i e Treue, das Fromme und H e i l i g e Besides p r a i s i n g G o t t f r i e d f o r  the French v e r s i o n o f the o l d myth, K u r t z then  t h i s r e f i n i n g process as a moral a c t i o n on G o t t f r i e d ' s p a r t :  L i e g t nun n i c h t genug s i t t l i c h d i c h t e r i s c h e s V e r d i e n s t d a r i n wenn G o t t f r i e d , an s e i n e U b e r l i e f e r u n g gebunden, e i n e n o v e l l e n h a f t heruntergekommene T r a g b d i e i n den K r e i s des r e i n Menschliehen, i n d i e Sprache e c h t e r Minne zurlick Ubertrug, i n jene ewig leuchtenden Farben von L i e b und L e i d wovon d i e welschen V o r b i l d e r k e i n e Ahnung haben k l e i d e t e , und der nur a l l z u gefUgen Weise s e i n e r Z e i t e i n e s i t t l i c h e r e Grundlage, e i n e i n n i g e r e Beseelung gab? ( p . LXXXVIIl) When c o n s i d e r i n g  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l o v e r s he wrote t h a t  Isolde  belonged t o T r i s t a n through n a t u r a l law. T h i s was shown above a l l by Tristan's k i l l i n g  of the dragon, an event which, a c c o r d i n g  r e f l e c t e d the b a s i c myth: "Der i h r [der T r i s t a n s a g e ]  to K u r t z ,  zu Grunde  vergessene Mythus e r z a h l t von e i n e r J u n g f r a u d i e i n der Gewalt  liegende eines  Drachen i s t " (p. L X V I I l ) .  These " n a t u r a l p a r t n e r s " were i n l o v e b e f o r e  imbibed the magic p o t i o n ,  and thus "man s i e h t wohl, und G o t t f r i e d weiss  es m i t glanzender Kunst a n s c h a u l i c h  zu machen, dass d i e V e r e i n i g u n g der  Liebenden auch ohne H e x e r e i zu Stande gekommen ware" ( p . L X V I I l ) .  they  104  II  The  P o s i t i v i s t i c Methods  i n f l u e n c e of p o s i t i v i s m was  as d i s c e r n i b l e i n G o t t f r i e d  towards the end of the c e n t u r y as i t was of  the m a n u s c r i p t s ,  and  G o t t f r i e d ' s biography, A.  criticism  i n o r i g i n r e s e a r c h and s t u d i e s  c o n c e n t r a t e d i n two  s p e c i f i c areas.  These were  and s e c o n d l y , the poet's dependence on h i s s o u r c e .  B i o g r a p h i c a l Studies Johann M a t t h i a s W a t t e r i c h wrote about G o t t f r i e d ' s l i f e  i n h i s study  e n t i t l e d G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g , e i n Sanger der Gottesminne I858). to  first,  As was  p a r t i a l l y i n d i c a t e d by t h i s t i t l e ,  (Leipzig,  W a t t e r i c h ' s main aim  was  f u r n i s h an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i s p a r i t y between the form of Minne i n  the T r i s t a n romance and Gottfried  ("Das  t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n c e r t a i n o t h e r works a t t r i b u t e d  L i e d von der Gottesminne" and  "Das  to  L i e d von der w i l l i g l i c h e n  Armuth"), t h a t i s , between the s e c u l a r Frauenminne " d i e den A d e l des Weibes n i c h t kennt noch a c h t e t , d i e , der v e r k l a r e n d e n Macht des abgewandt, auch des and  schbnen Namens n i c h t werth war"  i r r e l i g i o s i t y i n T r i s t a n , and  hymns.  He  suggested  on a crusade  Christenthums  (pp. 4 - 5 ) ,  the  immorality  the f e r v e n t Gottesminne and p i e t y i n the  t h a t , b e f o r e completing  to g a i n the f a v o u r of h i s own  the romance, G o t t f r i e d went  "Isolde";  however, b e f o r e  r e t u r n i n g home he underwent a r a d i c a l change i n moral o u t l o o k f o r he St-  F r a n c i s of A s s i s i and became a F r a n c i s c a n .  been l e f t u n f i n i s h e d not because the poet had  Thus the T r i s t a n poem had  d i e d (as was  g e n e r a l l y assumed)  but because "von i r d i s c h e n , w e l t l i c h e n WUnschen e r f l l l l t , h a t t e den Kreuzzug  a n g e t r e t e n , a l s e i n v S l l i g Anderer,  met  Gottfried  a l s Gottesminnesanger sah  27 er  d i e Heimath wieder"  on l i f e  (p. 33)-  The romance r e f l e c t e d G o t t f r i e d ' s  d u r i n g h i s "immoral" p e r i o d p r i o r to c o n v e r s i o n , and was  respects autobiographical.  F o r example, " d i e ganze S t e l l e ,  outlook  i n many  i n welcher  105  G o t t f r i e d das Leben T r i s t a n s b e i der weisshSndigen  Isolde schildert  ( l 9 1 7 1 f f - ) j v e r r a t h s i c h a l s e i n e S e l b s t s c h i l d e r u n g des D i c h t e r s " ( p . n-9)-  W a t t e r i c h e v i d e n t l y presumed t h a t h i s r e a d e r s would know the s t o r y of  T r i s t a n and I s o l d e , f o r he d i d not g i v e a plot-summary, but merely to  s k e t c h was  Gottfried's v i s i t  An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e i n the b i o g r a p h i c a l  t o P a r i s i n o r d e r to study a t the  university—  P a r i s , du Netz der L a s t e r , du P f e i l der Hb'lle, wie durchbohrst  Herz der Unbesonnenen!" (p. 1 3 9 n . 8 ) . 5  Gottfried his  referred  some i s o l a t e d p a r t s of the romance i n o r d e r to e l i c i t b i o g r a p h i c a l and  autobiographical information.  "0  139»  I t was  By p o i n t i n g out t h i s  later  single fact Watterich i m p l i c i t l y  the "Ehre unserer P o e s i e im d r e i z e h n t e n J a h r h u n d e r t "  ( p . 5)•  This  w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the views expressed by o t h e r c r i t i c s who  based  saved critic,  frowned upon  the romance, f o r example Gervinus, V i l m a r and E i c h e n d o r f f , r e i t e r a t e d main p o i n t s of t h e i r T r i s t a n e v a l u a t i o n and  das  i n France, not Germany, t h a t  f i r s t became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the sources upon which he  romance.  du  the  l i k e them d e p l o r e d the f a c t t h a t  such a base s t o r y should have been graced by G o t t f r i e d ' s i n d i s p u t a b l e a r t i s t i c gifts : Ein" D i c h t e r v o r a l i e n war es, der der Minne d i e s e Schmach angethan, der mit e i n e r a l l e U b e r t r e f f e n d e n M e i s t e r s c h a f t d i e Sprache des deutschen Herzens, den Liebesschmuck unseres e r s t e n D i c h t e r f r l l h l i n g s zur V e r h e r r l i c h u n g z u c h t - und s i t t e n l o s e r L e i d e n s c h a f t m i s s b r a u c h t , und d i e deutsche Dichtung auf Jahrhunderte h i n i n f a l s c h e Bahnen fortgerissen hat. (p. 5) Ten years a f t e r the appearance of W a t t e r i c h ' s  study a second  biography  28 was  p u b l i s h e d , namely R i c h a r d H e i n z e l ' s "Uber G o t t f r i e d von S t r a s s b u r g . " 29  H e i n z e l , who  has been named the "Typus des P o s i t i v i s t e n , "  b i o g r a p h i e s of medieval  poets were e s s e n t i a l s o u r c e - m a t e r i a l f o r "eine  G e s c h i c h t e der m o r a l i s c h e n Empfindungen und Gesetze (p-  533)J and  b e l i e v e d that  im deutschen  Mittelalter"  t h a t compensation f o r the l a c k of contemporary b i o g r a p h i e s  was  106  provided  by  the works themselves:  "Uber v i e l e s von  diesen  Dingen kb'nnen  d i e Werke der D i c h t e r A u f s c h l t i s s e geben, j a , wenn s i e etwas ausgedehnt s i n d , mtissen s i e e s "  (p. 533)*  He  therefore  conducted a prolonged d i s s e c t i o n of  the  romance i n o r d e r to e s t a b l i s h the p r e c i s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , environmental  and  h i s t o r i c a l motives which u n d e r l a y G o t t f r i e d ' s treatment of the Much of h i s c h a r a c t e r - s t u d y  came of a b o u r g e o i s f a m i l y and or S t a d t s c h r e i b e r - - a  r e s t e d on  was  material.  the assumption t h a t G o t t f r i e d  employed i n S t r a s s b u r g  p o s i t i o n i n which p o l i t i c s p l a y e d  as a  rodelarius  a greater  part  than  30 the p o l i t e n e s s e s  of c h i v a l r y .  n o b i l i t y was  always one  not  Indeed, G o t t f r i e d ' s a t t i t u d e toward  of a d m i r a t i o n :  "Er mag  als BUrgerlicher  i n s e i n e r a m t l i c h e n S t e l l u n g G e l e g e n h e i t gehabt haben, d i e einfach  r i t t e r l i c h e r A u f f a s s u n g s o c i a l e r und  erproben. Ritter.  N a t U r l i c h konnte e i n BUrger und  oder  Schadlichkeit  politischer Verhaltnisse  Beamter das  zu  eher a l s wieder e i n  Denn er z e i g t i n der That Spuren der F e i n d s e l i g k e i t gegen d i e  I n s t i t u t i o n des A d e l s "  (p. 535);  nach gewbhnlicher R i t t e r m o r a l  "Tristan . . . wollte  der D i c h t e r  (p. 537)-  handeln l a s s e n "  o b t a i n e d "proof"  of G o t t f r i e d ' s p a t r i o t i s m :  einem Mann ganze Theilnahme f l l r das Wohl des d e u t l i c h aus  seinem G e d i c h t .  b e t o n t " (p. 534). biirgerlich gelehrte  Of  R i c h t u n g " (p. 550),  poem, as for.example when he a l l e g o r y of the M i n n e g r o t t e :  [Gottfried]  Vaterlandes fordere,  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the was  on o c c a s i o n  paraded h i s l e a r n i n g and "Dann d i e A l l e g o r i e , von  sieht  der  man  wird o f t first,  detrimental  poetic  von  "seine  to  the  talents i n  the  G o t t f r i e d wahrhaft  Misbrauch  [ s i c ] macht.  sie.  Waldleben w i r d geradezu verdorben durch d i e a l l e g o r i s c h e Minnen-  Das  g r o t t e " (p. 5*4-1) .  Und  "Dass er  Heinzel's  the manner i n which  Tristans feurige Vaterlandsliebe  G o t t f r i e d ' s two  nicht  T y p i c a l of  method of e l i c i t i n g c h a r a c t e r - t r a i t s from the romance was he  the  j e t r e f f e n d e r s i e i s t , desto f r o s t i g e r  wirkt  107  The  second major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was  a p p r e c i a t i o n of beauty and  love.  the poet's acute  Decency, and  and s e n s i t i v e  decorum—lacking i n French  l i t e r a t u r e — c h a r a c t e r i z e d G o t t f r i e d ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s t o r y , w h i l e d e l i c a c y and (p. 5^9)•  t a c t d i s p l a y e d by G o t t f r i e d were absent from Wolfram's work  His views on l o v e had  been sublimated  by h i s p a s s i o n f o r a woman  of noble s t a n d i n g i n a r a r e l i n k f o r g e d between the two "Das  SingulSre  social classes:  s e i n e r Lage musste d i e Empfindungen und F a h i g k e i t e n G o t t f r i e d s  s t e i g e r n " ( p . 5kh). to  the  Moreover, h i s amatory d o c t r i n e bore l i t t l e  resemblance  the customary Minnesangermoral: L i e b e i s t nur mb'glich b e i u r s p r U n g l i c h e r u n w i l l k l l r l i c h e r Empfindung. Wo aber G o t t f r i e d i n der Meinung s e i n e r Z e i t g e n o s s e n oder der l i t e r a r i s c h e n Ubung der D i c h t e r e i n e g l e i c h m a s s i g immer wiederkehrende Form des Empfindens v o r f i n d e t , da s c h e i n t er an der E c h t h e i t d e s s e l b e n zu z w e i f e l n und l a s s t d i e Personen s e i n e r D i c h t u n g n i c h t nur s i c h anders benehmen, sondern e r k l a r t auch a u s d r u c k l i c h , dass s i e s i c h von der Regel e n t f e r n t e n . (p. 550)  The  poet should not a t t r a c t censure on the charge of i m m o r a l i t y  c o n s t i t u t e d f o r him and  I s o l d e was  the h i g h e s t value i n human l i f e ;  since love  the l o v e o f T r i s t a n  j u s t i f i e d , whereas Marke on the o t h e r hand was  the  guilty  party,/, b l i n d l y d e c e i v i n g h i m s e l f i n o r d e r not to see where h i s w i f e ' s affections lay. reconciled:  I n T r i s t a n - l o v e the demands of s e l e and  " S i e lb'st d i e Gegensatze zwischen G e i s t und  Menschen a u f , — e r nennt es ere und ware t a d e l n s w e r t h " T r i s t a n and prologue  (p. 552).  I s o l d e c o u l d one  Sinnlichkeit  a part) .  im  l i p . . . . Jede E i n s e i t i g k e i t h i e b e i  Only from l o v e such as t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d o b t a i n ere  ( r e p u t a t i o n ) and v i r t u e .  e i n ander w e r l t  ( i n which j o y and  by  In h i s  G o t t f r i e d d e s c r i b e d two worlds, i r a l l e r werlde (which c o u l d  t o l e r a t e unhappiness) and played  s i n n e were  not  sorrow both  T r i s t a n and I s o l d e belonged to t h i s l a t t e r s o c i e t y , and  t h e i r conduct, however immoral or i l l i c i t  i n the eyes of i r a l l e r werlde  108  (the normal, n o n - G o t t f r i e d i a n — a n d by  n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y — w o r l d ) was  approved  the c i t i z e n s of t h a t o t h e r s e l e c t , i d e a l community: Seine Welt, auf deren U r t h e i l er so hohen Werth l e g t , i s t i n der That n i c h t d i e gewb'hnliche, i s t n i c h t d i e g r o s s e Masse; vielmehr e i n e Auswahl von beschr'ctnkter Z a h l . . . . M i t d i e s e r Welt i s t G o t t f r i e d h b c h l i c h s t z u f r i e d e n , i h r B e i f a l l ihm e i n sehr wlinschenswerthes Gut. I h r gehbrt er an und widmet i h r s e i n e n D i e n s t und s e i n G e d i c h t . (pp« 552-53)  G o t t f r i e d ' s a p p r o b a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between hero and h e r o i n e  was  p a r t i a l l y due  to  to h i s environment:  i n 1212  eighty heretics belonging  a s e c t which preached a d o c t r i n e of complete s e x u a l death i n S t r a s s b u r g Heinzel  concluded,  welche von  f o l l o w i n g an o r d e a l by  fire  l i c e n c e were put  to  ("Feuerprobe"), and,  as  "Es ware n i c h t unmbglich, dass d i e s e Anschauungen,  so v i e l e n Z e i t g e n o s s e n und  wurden, zu der R U c k s i c h t s l o s i g k e i t  Mitblirgern G o t t f r i e d s g e t h e i l t  b e i g e t r a g e n haben, mit welcher er  fiir 556).  d i e L i e b e u n t e r a l i e n Umstanden auch i h r s i n n l i c h e s Recht f o r d e r t " (p. The length  next s c h o l a r  on the  to d i s c u s s  G o t t f r i e d ' s b i o g r a p h y dwelt a t  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  "Feuerprobe."  In h i s  "Zum  great  Leben G o t t f r i e d s  31 von  Strassburg"  to l e a v e  Hermann Kurz s t r e s s e d  the i d e a l h e i g h t s  "muss mit  dem  Masse s e i n e r  during  The  the Judgment of God  the  was  attacking  "die G e i s t l i c h k e i t , die schandlichsten  i t was  beyond doubt that h i s own  during  the  "Strassburger  e p i s o d e , the  action  " P f a f f e n f e i n d " G o t t f r i e d , although h i m s e l f (p. 338),  Church p r a c t i c e of  p f l e g t , das Werkzeug des  appeared  and  l o c a l , h i s t o r i c a l background should  sympathetic to the h e r e t i c a l d o c t r i n e s r i d i c u l e the c o r r u p t  lovers  [ G o t t f r i e d s ] Z e i t gemessen werden" (p. 336)  i n o r d e r to view i t i n t h a t way taken i n t o account.  t h a t , a l t h o u g h the  wanted to h o l d up  "Feuerproben";  . . . das  Feuerprobe" of 1212  unto  Gottfried  G o t t e s u r t h e i l hegt  Betruges (p. 335)-  r e l a t i v e s had  i n short,  be  und  Furthermore,  as  h e l p e d condemn h e r e t i c s  the Judgment of God  episode i n  109  T r i s t a n was of way  c l e a r l y the d i r e c t r e s u l t of h i s d i s t r e s s at the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  h i s f a m i l y i n t h i s shameful e v e n t — a n d was,  moreover,  i n which f u r t h e r to exonerate the l o v e r s who  b e f o r e God and  a most  fitting  were u n d e n i a b l y g u i l t y  man:  Die Sage, d i e er [ G o t t f r i e d ] s i c h e r k o r e n , h a n d e l t von einem L i e b e s p a a r e , das gb'ttlichen und m e n s c h l i c h e n Satzungen entgegentritt. D i e s e Schuld zu t i l g e n oder doch zu U b e r s c h l e i e r n , g r i f f die Sage nach dem Minnetrank, und s i e h a t i h r e n Zweck so gut e r r e i c h t , dass d i e b e i d e n Liebenden u n a n t a s t b a r e I d e a l e des M i t t e l a l t e r s wurden. G l e i c h w o h l b l e i b t zwischen der D i c h t u n g und. der Satzung e i n Widerspruch b e s t e h e n . . . . Seine Liebenden, s c h u l d i g wie s i e v o r dem Gesetze s i n d , f l i h l t e r auch durch d i e l i e b e v o l l s t e Theilnahme, d i e er i h n e n widmet, n i c h t d u r c h g r e i f e n d freigesprochen: s i e bedllrfen noch e i n e r w e i t e r e n A b s o l u t i o n . . . . Er wendet s i c h a l s o zu der e i n z i g e n Behbrde, d i e h i e r a u s z u h e l f e n geeignet i s t , d i e n i c h t b l o s s d i e Macht h a t , sondern auch d i e M i t s c h u l d . Welche Behbrde konnte G o t t f r i e d auch f U r s e i n e slindigen L i e b l i n g e b e s s e r i n Anspruch nehmen, a l s eben jene, d i e ganz d i e g l e i c h e n , j a noch w e i t andere SUnder ( f a l l s s i e nur k e i n e K e t z e r waren) f r e i s p r a c h , s i e , d i e im V e r z e i h e n o f t f a s t noch s t a r k e r a l s im N i c h t v e r z e i h e n war? (pp. 329-30) A l t h o u g h much of the g e n e r a l b i o g r a p h i c a l data i n K u r z ' study was  the  same as t h a t s u p p l i e d by H e i n z e l , i t f r e q u e n t l y underwent a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n h i s hands.  A f u r t h e r example of the reassessment of  g i v e n f a c t s i s found i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of G o t t f r i e d ' s antagonism nobility.  A c c o r d i n g to Kurz t h i s  t r a i t was  ground r a t h e r than h i s o c c u p a t i o n : Familien.  f U h l t e s i c h b a l d wegen s e i n e s Reichthums The predominance was  " [ z a h l t e ] zu den h e r r s c h e n d e n  dem Landadel e b e n b U r t i g und hoch Uber ihm" ( p . 2l6)  that one o f the main f e a t u r e s i n h i s T r i s t a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n was r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i o g r a p h y and romance. (Berlin,  .  of p o s i t i v i s t i c methods i n German l i t e r a r y  due l a r g e l y to Wilhelm S c h e r e r , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e h a r d l y  Litteratur  I883) he wrote  the  due to the poet's f a m i l y back-  Gottfried  . . . Jener s t a d t i s c h e A d e l war  towards  research  surprising the c a u s a l  I n h i s G e s c h i c h t e der deutschen  t h a t G o t t f r i e d s e l e c t e d the T r i s t a n  110  theme f o r e p i c treatment w i t h a d i s t i n c t purpose p r o b a b i l i t y not a nobleman by b i r t h , he wished c r a t i c as p o s s i b l e and had  t h e r e f o r e adopted  i n mind:  ina l l  to make h i m s e l f as  aristo-  as g o s p e l the easy-going,  t o l e r a n t , m o r a l l y l a x view of l i f e h e l d by the n o b i l i t y and defended i t i n h i s romance w i t h the i n e x o r a b l e l o g i c o f a f a n a t i c a l a p o s t l e . the o r i g i n a l  theme of the legend showed how  n o b l e k n i g h t h o o d was  by p a s s i o n , G o t t f r i e d t r e a t e d the f a b l e i n such a way c h i v a l r o u s p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e  While  as to defend  even i n i t s utmost extremes.  t a i n e d , however, t h a t such a view of l i f e was  ruined the  S c h e r e r main-  not indigenous, f o r the  F r e n c h c h i v a l r i c moeurs and the French o u t l o o k on l i f e had a s s e r t e d thems e l v e s on the n e i g h b o u r i n g Germans, and German c h i v a l r y then itself  i n a l l a s p e c t s a f t e r the French model.  developed  Thus, as Scherer had c l a i m e d  i n h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the G e s c h i c h t e des E l s a s s e s : In gewissem Sinne i s t G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n der f r a n z b s i s c h s t e Roman des deutschen M i t t e l a l t e r s . . . wenn w i r u n t e r dem F r a n z b s i s c h e n d i e v o l l e n d e t e 'dussere D u r c h b i l d u n g , d i e u n t a d e l i g e F e i n h e i t der g e s e l l i g e n Form, d i e l i b e r a l e Lebensanschauung, d i e l a s s i g e B e u r t h e i l u n g s i t t l i c h e r Dinge . . . v e r s t e h e n : so i s t der T r i s t a n das f r a n z b s i s c h s t e Buch der a l t e r e n deutschen L i t t e r a t u r . The  importance  a t t a c h e d to the French c h a r a c t e r of the romance must be  seen a l s o i n the c o n t e x t o f S c h e r e r ' s t h e o r y of the t h r e e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d s in  German l i t e r a t u r e  ( c a . 600,  1200  and 1800).  the second and t h i r d of these l i t e r a r y peaks, Germans was  As was  made e v i d e n t d u r i n g  the a e s t h e t i c sense of the  a t those times shaped by the Romance n a t i o n s :  uns der a u s g e b i l d e t e r e romanische Geschmack, v e r l o c k t uns  Formkunst zu H i l f e ,  zur Nachahmung, und,  "Und  lautert  so kommt  unsern  indem e r uns zu unterwerfen  33 s c h i e n , hat er uns  s e l b s t a n d i g gemacht."  Due  to t h i s i n f l u e n c e  the  second and t h i r d c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d s were marked by an abandonment o f  rigid  Ill  conventionalities i n l i f e liberal:  and l i t e r a t u r e ,  and moral  "Mit der T o l e r a n z der N a t i o n a l i t a t e n geht d i e T o l e r a n z der  R e l i g i o n e n und  d i e Lb'sung von s t a r r e n Lebensgesetzen  werden w i r duldsamer im s i t t l i c h e n U r t e i l , GefUhl von Ehre und  B.  judgments became more  Source  Hand i n Hand.  Und  so h e r r s c h t daflir e i n f e i n e r e s  l e i t e t zu e d l e r M e n s c h l i c h k e i t " ( p . - 2 1 ) .  Studies:  The Gottfried-Thomas R e l a t i o n s h i p  Q u e l l e n f o r s c h u n g e n s i n d j e t z t an der Tagesordnung. Aus ihnen w i r d s p a t e r auch d i e a s t h e t i s c h e B e u r t h e i l u n g Gewinn Z i e h e n . Es w i r d s i c h immer mehr h e r a u s s t e l l e n , wie unsere a l t e n D i c h t e r g e a r b e i t e t haben, i n wie w e i t s i e der Q u e l l e u n t e r t h a n und In reasons  i n wie w e i t s i e i n der Benutzung des S t o f f e s s e l b s t s t a n d i g  the survey of t h e o r i e s on the o r i g i n s we  • sind.  noted t h a t one of the b a s i c  f o r the wide d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n among s c h o l a r s l a y i n the  minate n a t u r e o f o r a l t r a d i t i o n and a l s o i n the l a c k o f the f i r s t  indeter-  romance.  S c h o l a r s a t t e m p t i n g to assess the e x t e n t of G o t t f r i e d ' s dependence on h i s source (Thomas of B r i t t a n y ) found themselves  i n a similar s i t u a t i o n , for  much of the e a r l y p a r t of t h i s French work had been l o s t and the remains  began a t almost  the v e r y p o i n t where G o t t f r i e d ' s own  fragmentary  incomplete  romance broke o f f . C l o s e study of the Gottfried-Thomas when the fragments  r e l a t i o n s h i p commenced i n I 8 6 5 ,  of a T r i s t a n by a c e r t a i n "Thomas" p r i n t e d t h i r t y years 35  p r e v i o u s l y by F r a n c i s q u e M i c h e l  were i d e n t i f i e d by Adolphe B o s s e r t as the  work of Thomas of B r i t t a n y i n the study e n t i t l e d T r i s t a n et I s e u l t :  Poeme  de G o t f r i t de S t r a s b o u r g , compare a d'autres poemes sur l e meme s u j e t I865) .  B o s s e r t a n a l y z e d t h a t p o r t i o n i n the Thomas fragments  lapped w i t h the German poem, and proved  which over-  c o n c l u s i v e l y that G o t t f r i e d  Thomas f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e c t i o n i n h i s own  romance:  (Paris,  utilized  112  E s t - i l b e s o i n d ' i n s i s t e r sur l a parente de ces deux t e x t e s ? I I s e m b l e r a i t meme, s ' i l e t a i t permis de p o r t e r un jugement sur une page i s o l e e , que l e s emprunts de G o t f r i t ont ete p l u s c o n s i d e r a b l e s qu'on ne l e suppose d ' o r d i n a i r e . I I transforme son modele, mais i l en p r o f i t e largement. . • . E n f i n , i l e s t permis de c r o i r e que l e poete allemand a trouve dans Thomas plus qu'une r e l a t i o n exacte des aventures de T r i s t a n , e t q u ' i l s ' e s t i n s p i r e souvent de l a p o e s i e du l i v r e q u ' i l a v a i t devant l u i . G o t f r i t , b i e n q u l l ne s o i t pas t o u t a f a i t exempt des defauts de ses contemporains, e t a i t un homme de gout e t d'un t a c t d e l i c a t , e t nous pensons que l a v a l e u r l i t t e r a i r e l ' a decide, autant que toute a u t r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , a prendre Thomas de Bretagne pour modele, en r e j e t a n t des t r a d i t i o n s plus generalement a c c r e d i t e e s . (pp. 112-13) The Richard  next s c h o l a r t o attempt a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was H e i n z e l , who i n  I869 f o l l o w e d up h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l study o f G o t t f r i e d  by an a r t i c l e on the source ( " G o t t f r i e d s Quelle")  von S t r a s s b u r g  T r i s t a n und s e i n e  wherein he propounded a misguided h y p o t h e s i s based on an a n a l y s i s  of s e v e r a l medieval v e r s i o n s , namely B e r o u l ,  E i l h a r t , Thomas, S i r T r i s t r e m  36 and  Gottfried.  He h e l d  t h a t G o t t f r i e d drew on two s o u r c e s :  an h i s t o r i c a l  c h r o n i c l e w r i t t e n by Thomas, (who a l s o wrote p a r t o f a T r i s t a n romance commencing w i t h the hero's a r r i v a l i n B r i t t a n y ) and a l o s t F r e n c h T r i s t a n romance which, h a v i n g been formed i n accordance w i t h the was  a compilation  of t h i s  o f o r i g i n a l l y s e p a r a t e poems (see  s u b j e c t , p • 27 ) •  Heinzel  n i c h t Gottfrieds unmittelbare  concluded:  quelle.  Liedertheorie,  the e a r l i e r  discussion  "Thomas von B r i t a n n i e n [war]  . . . G o t t f r i e d s e l b s t [hat] i n  einem geschriebenen buche e i n e d a r s t e l l u n g von T r i s t a n und I s o l d e n d i e i n den h i s t o r i s c h e n thatsachen mit  gefunden,  den angaben der v i t a T r i s t a n i  bei  Thomas zusammentraf" ( p . - 2 7 4 ) . However, as Otto Behaghel p o i n t e d  out  inI878,  " H e i n z e l hat  etwas  wichtiges  Ubersehen, indem ihm d i e n o r d i s c h e n Fassungen d e r Sage unbekannt 37  geblieben  sind."  Behaghel compared the t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  v e r s i o n o f the theme ( T r i s t r a m s s a g a )  Norwegian  w i t h G o t t f r i e d ' s r e d a c t i o n , and con-  113  eluded t h a t both d e r i v e d B r y n j i i l f s s o n , who rendering  i n 1851  from the had  same French o r i g i n a l .  The  e d i t e d p a r t of the Saga, had  scholar  Gisli  noted t h a t  this  corresponded so c l o s e l y to the Thomas fragments i n M i c h e l ' s e d i t i o n  38 that now  the Norwegian r e d a c t o r suggested t h a t one  ships may  that—contrary  had  v i r t u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d Thomas' work.  Behaghel  c o u l d deduce from these u n d e n i a b l e t e x t u a l r e l a t i o n -  to H e i n z e l ' s  supposition—a  T r i s t a n romance by Thomas  indeed have been G o t t f r i e d ' s d i r e c t s o u r c e : Wir haben somit i n der Saga e i n z i e m l i c h s i c h e r e s M i t t e l , das V e r h a l t n i s s G o t t f r i e d s zu s e i n e r Q u e l l e zu b e u r t h e i l e n . Welches i s t aber nun jenes gemeinsame O r i g i n a l ? . . . G o t t f r i e d und Saga haben im W e s e n t l i c h e n e i n und d i e s e l b e Q u e l l e : G o t t f r i e d und Saga stimmen i n den v e r g l e i c h b a r e n T h e i l e n zu Thomas : i s t a l s o doch Thomas d i e Q u e l l e f U r G o t t f r i e d s T r i s t a n ? (p. 228) That same year Emil Lobedanz approached the Gottfried-Thomas problem  from another angle i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n Das von  Strassburg  Tristan  (published  franzbsische  i n Schwerin,  I878) .  Element i n G o t t f r i e d s To  e s t a b l i s h whether  the Thomas to whom G o t t f r i e d r e f e r r e d wrote i n F r e n c h or i n L a t i n (a p o s s i b i l i t y which had  not  yet been excluded) he  conducted an a n a l y s i s of the e x t e n t  which G o t t f r i e d drew on F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e . of the  " P a r a l l e l e n j a g d " and  From t h i s , an u n d e r t a k i n g  to  typical  "pedantische K l e i n l i c h k e i t s k r a m e r e i " of p o s i -  39 tivism,  he  determined t h a t s u f f i c i e n t  prove t h a t G o t t f r i e d not source, but  only u t i l i z e d  evidence had  been accumulated  a F r e n c h T r i s t a n romance as h i s  t h a t i n a l l h i s a c t i v i t i e s as a poet G o t t f r i e d was  dependent upon F r e n c h  to  totally  literature:  Unser D i c h t e r s c h i l d e r t das Leben der R i t t e r wie e i n C h r e s t i e n , er b e f o l g t das hb'fische C e r e m o n i e l l b i s auf d i e e i g e n t h l l m l i c h s t e n V o r s c h r i f t e n der E t i q u e t t e so genau wie d i e F r a n z o s e n . . . . Mochte das f r a n z b s i s c h e R i t t e r w e s e n s i c h auch zum grossen T h e i l e auch u n t e r dem deutschen A d e l e i n g e b l l r g e r t haben, immerhin b l e i b t es a u f f a l l e n d , dass G o t t f r i e d d a s s e l b e b i s auf a l l e E i n z e l h e i t e n . . . den Trouveres n a c h z e i c h n e t . . . . G o t t f r i e d entnahm dem F r a n z b s i s c h e n eine Reihe von Wbrtern und Redensarten. . . . Er f o l g t d a r i n der Mode, aber er z e i g t d i e s e n Geschmack s t a r k e r ausgepragt a l s andere m i t t e l h o c h d e u t s c h e D i c h t e r . . . . Er malt S i t t e n und Gebrauche mit ihrem P i n s e l . (p. k-k)  114  Lobedanz m a i n t a i n e d a l s o that and  the correspondence between G o t t f r i e d ' s poem  the fragments p r i n t e d by M i c h e l  i n d i c a t e d e i t h e r t h a t G o t t f r i e d used  Thomas as h i s sour