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Biomedical imagery in William Blake's "The Four Zoas" Mahon, Elizabeth F. 1970

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BIOMEDICAL IMAGERY IN WILLIAM BLAKE'S THE FOUR ZOAS by E l i z a b e t h F. Mahon B. Sc., Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 1930 M. A., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1931  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  be  It  financial  for  of  ^  ^  l  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  '^/yo  ^  of  of  Columbia,  British  by  the  understood  gain  f  Columbia  for  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  partial  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  fo  or  publication my  Abstract W i l l i a m Blake, i n The Four Zoas, uses t h e human body as a metaphor t o d e s c r i b e stages i n t h e f a l l ,  transformation,  and approach toward Apocalypse o f t h e " U n i v e r s a l Man" l a t e r c a l l e d the giant Albion.  B i o m e d i c a l imagery d e p i c t i n g d i s t o r -  t i o n and displacement o f body p a r t s o r f u n c t i o n s i s an importrant  aspect o f t h i s metaphor.  Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s  t h e s i s a r e images o f d i v i s i o n , augmentation,  encasement,  e r u p t i o n , and r e u n i o n i n t h e poem, The Four Zoas, w i t h some emphasis on t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona as a d i v i s i v e form o f Los. N  T h i s S p e c t r e ' s r o l e i s o f fundamental importance i n Blake's myth f o r t h e achievement o f r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f f a l l e n  Albion.  Blake's use o f t h e words, " E t e r n i t y , " " v i s i o n , " "Imagination," "emanation," " S p e c t r e , " "shadow," a r e examined  i n some o f h i s  o t h e r works as an a i d f o r e x p l i c a t i o n o f h i s myth as i s t h e way i n which Blake uses metaphor and modulating symbol t o g i v e us a r i c h e r and hence a c l e a r e r v i s i o n o f t h e events r e l a t i n g to ing  t h e F a l l and Apocalypse.  M o r p h o l o g i c a l imagery  illustrat-  t h e F a l l and sparagmos o f t h e God-Man A l b i o n i s d e s c r i b e d  as a d i s t o r t i o n o f both b o d i l y organs and f a c u l t i e s , i . e . psychic states.  The manner i n which Blake uses t h i s imagery  suggests a movement from a h e a l t h y s t a t e o f expanded to  a d i s e a s e d s t a t e i n which man's powers o f p e r c e p t i o n a r e  dulled or extinguished. of  vision  T h i s change i n A l b i o n from a s t a t e  i n t e n s e c r e a t i v i t y i n Eden to a s t a t e o f c h a o t i c p a s s i v i t y  i n the f a l l e n world i s a change from wakefulness t o s l e e p . T h i s s l e e p produced the dream-nightmare s t a t e d e s c r i b e d i n The Four Zoas.  Blake's dramatis personae  emerge as symbolic  counters and i n t h e i r symbolic method of n a r r a t i o n they  reveal  how  An  e r r o r must be g i v e n form i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e i t .  analogy i s drawn between the symbolic F a l l , movement toward Apocalypse, and a pseudo cancerous growth t h a t o r i g i n a t e s by c e l l u l a r d i v i s i o n , spreads by augmentation,  coalesces into  encasement but f i n a l l y e r u p t s w i t h e x p l o s i v e f o r c e thus r e o r d e r i n g t h e elements i n t o a h e a l t h y h o l i s t i c  gestalt.  S i m i l a r i t i e s between Blake's e l i m i n a t i o n o f mind-body dichotomy  i n h i s mythic v i s i o n o f man  and F. S. P e r l s ' concept  o f an organismic whole which c r e a t e s r e i n t e g r a t i o n of d i s eased f a c u l t i e s a r e explored a t some l e n g t h .  The P h o e n i x - l i k e  q u a l i t y o f the c o n t r a d i c t o r y a f f i l i a t i o n between blood and water predominant  i n The Four Zoas i s compared t o the p h y s i o -  l o g i c a l response i n l i v i n g c e l l s t o these p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e and r e s t o r a t i v e elements.  The imagery  t r a t e s h i s d o c t r i n e of c o n t r a r i e s .  Blake uses  The U r i z e n - Ore  illus-  cycles  are touched upon, as i s the p r o v i d e n t i a l Luvah - Jesus p r i n c i p l e which a i d s Los i n h i s m i s s i o n o f r e v e r s i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f the F a l l .  The importance o f Los's S p e c t r e , the Spectre o f  Urthona, i n t h i s movement toward Apocalypse i s e l a b o r a t e d upon. The outcome of the s t r u g g l e between the c o n t r a r y s t a t e s of Los and the S p e c t r e o f Urthona w i l l be the determinant i n t h i s movement.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages  Introduction Chapter I  .  1-2 .  .  .  .  .  3-19  Chapter I I  20-29  Chapter I I I  .  .  .  Chapter IV Chapter V  30 - 41 42-80  .  .  .  .  81 - 113  Footnotes  114 - 116  Notes t o t h e Text A Selected Bibliography  117 ', .  118 - 121  Introduction W i l l i a m Blake,  i n h i s P r o p h e t i c W r i t i n g s , uses the  human body as a metaphor t o d e s c r i b e stages transformation,  i n the f a l l ,  and approach toward Apocalypse o f t h e "Uni-  v e r s a l Man" l a t e r c a l l e d t h e g i a n t A l b i o n (FZ 1:11, FZ 1:477, K277)."'"  Imagery d e p i c t i n g d i s t o r t i o n ,  K264;  displacement  o r d i s r u p t i o n o f body p a r t s o r f u n c t i o n s i s an important aspect  o f t h i s metaphor.  from b i o m e d i c a l  T h i s imagery i s sometimes drawn  or z o o l o g i c a l science.  Some knowledge o f  t h e s e f i e l d s may serve as an a i d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how t h e imagery works i n B l a k e s p o e t i c myth. f  Of p a r t i c u l a r  interest  to t h i s study a r e images o f d i v i s i o n , augmentation, encasement, e r u p t i o n , and reunion  i n t h e poem, The Four Zoas. with  some emphasis on t h e Spectre o f Urthona as a d i v i s i v e form o f Los. He i t i s who becomes i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n achieving  r e i n t e g r a t i o n of the f a l l e n Albion. With regard t o imagery, Hugh Kenner i n The A r t o f Poetry  (New York, 1 9 6 5 ) e n t i t l e s one o f h i s chapters, "The  Image: What t h e Words A c t u a l l y Name"; Kenner  elaborates:  an image: a t h i n g t h e w r i t e r names and i n t r o d u c e s because i t s presence i n the p i e c e o f w r i t i n g w i l l r e l e a s e and c l a r i f y meaning, . . . an image i n t r o d u c e s a t h i n g r a t h e r than a conc e p t , . . . t h e t e s t o f an image i s n o t i t s o r i g i n a l i t y but the i l l u m i n a t i o n o f thought and emotion i t p r o v i d e s (pp. 3 8 , 50). E x t e n d i n g t h e i d e a o f the image, Northrop Frye w r i t e s , "an image i s not merely a v e r b a l r e p l i c a o f an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t ,  2 but  any u n i t o f a v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e seen as p a r t o f a t o t a l  p a t t e r n o r rhythm" (Fables o f I d e n t i t y , N.Y., 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 4 ) . These mental images o r " u n i t s o f a v e r b a l s t r u c t u r e " taken collectively  form t h e imagery components o r essence o f a poem.  T h i s i s t h e sense i n which I use t h e word "imagery." Bioraedicine,  a modern coinage, i s d e f i n e d  Random House D i c t i o n a r y  i n The  ( 1 9 6 6 ) as b e i n g " c l i n i c a l medicine  d e a l i n g with t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f body chemistry and f u n c t i o n ; b i o - meaning l i f e ; m e d i c a l: c u r a t i v e , m e d i c i n a l , I w i l l qualify this definition  therapeutic."  by i n c l u d i n g t h e important  realm o f psychology as b e i n g a l s o r e l a t e d t o body chemistry and  physiology.  The term " b i o m e d i c a l "  p e u t i c l i f e i n t h e f u l l e s t sense.  then r e f e r s t o t h e r a -  Biomedical imagery i s t h a t  imagery which d e p i c t s e i t h e r d e c a y i n g o r r e g e n e r a t i v e  life  p r o c e s s e s i n the dramatis personae o f Blake's myth. Before d e a l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y with imagery i n The Four Zoas, i t i s necessary to d i s c u s s some Blakean concepts and poetic  techniques.  CHAPTER I " E t e r n i t y " and " v i s i o n " a r e important words i n Blake's myth o f c r e a t i o n and f a l l .  T h i s myth i s n o t s i m i l a r t o t h e  account i n Genesis; f o r Blake, t h e f a l l  and c r e a t i o n were  simultaneous occurrences which took p l a c e i n E t e r n i t y .  This  i s not E t e r n i t y i n t h e u s u a l sense o f t h e word; i t i s not an endless p r o l o n g a t i o n o f time t h a t w i l l begin i n the f u t u r e . It  i s a s t a t e o f mind equated w i t h T r u t h (VLJ K 6 1 7 ) ; i t i s  "the mental  category through which we [ i n our world] p e r c e i v e  the u n f a l i e n w o r l d . "  T h i s u n f a l i e n world i s a s t a t e which  B l a k e b e l i e v e d t o be c o - e x i s t e n t with^our p r e s e n t world. T h i s E t e r n i t y o r T r u t h can be c r e a t e d i n moments o f v i s i o n when great c r e a t i v i t y , whether i n t h e world o f a r t o r o f s c i e n c e , o r o f s o c i a l endeavour, c a l l s i n t o b e i n g a l l t h e i m a g i n a t i v e f o r c e s o f man.  Blake sees the p o e t - a r t i s t as  t h e prime agent capable o f t h i s v i s i o n : "The nature o f t h e t r u e a r t i s t ' s work i s V i s i o n a r y o r Imaginative; i t i s an Endeavour t o Restore what t h e A n c i e n t s c a l l ' d t h e Golden Age" (VLJ  K605).  Or again:  T h i s world o f Imagination i s t h e world o f E t e r n i t y ; i t i s the d i v i n e bosom i n t o which we s h a l l a l l go a f t e r t h e death o f t h e Vegetated body. T h i s world o f Imagination i s I n f i n i t e & E t e r n a l , whereas t h e world o f Generation, o r V e g e t a t i o n , i s F i n i t e & . . . Temporal. There E x i s t i n t h a t E t e r n a l World t h e Permanent R e a l i t i e s o f Every T h i n g which we see r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s Vegetable Glass o f Nature.  E t e r n i t y , t h e v i s i o n a r y o r i m a g i n a t i v e power, i s t o t a l i n t o a l l past, present, f u t u r e .  insight  Blake c a l l s i t f o u r f o l d  v i s i o n i n h i s famous l i n e s : Now I a f o u r f o l d v i s i o n see, And a f o u r f o l d v i s i o n i s g i v e n t o me; T i s f o u r f o l d i n my supreme d e l i g h t And t h r e e f o l d i n s o f t B e u l a h s n i g h t And t w o f o l d Always. May God us keep From S i n g l e v i s i o n & Newton s s l e e p ! T  f  1  (Letters, K818) The o t h e r l e v e l s o f i m a g i n a t i v e experience mentioned i n these l i n e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r ; here I w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e f o u r f o l d v i s i o n i n the state c a l l e d  Eternity.  Blake i s always w r i t i n g about s t a t e s o f mind and t h e mental energy i n v o l v e d i n these s t a t e s .  Such energy i n E t e r -  n i t y i s m e t a p h o r i c a l l y e n v i s i o n e d as a g i g a n t i c human body w i t h a l l i t s p a r t s , both mental ( i . e . reason, s t i n c t , imagination)  emotion, i n -  and p h y s i c a l ( i . e . head, h e a r t ,  loins,  d i g e s t i v e system, s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e s ) h e l d t o g e t h e r i n a homeostatic  c o n d i t i o n , i . e . i n a r e l a t i v e l y harmonious s t a t e  of tension.  T h i s u n f a l l e n body was one o f t h e "Giant forms"  o r " E t e r n a l s " who i n h a b i t e d E t e r n i t y .  S i n c e only mental  t h i n g s a r e r e a l f o r Blake, E t e r n i t y , c a l l e d Eden, i s a p l a c e as w e l l as a s t a t e . Perfect Unity  The "Giant form" o r " E t e r n a l " was "a  . . . [which] / Cannot E x i s t but from t h e U n i -  v e r s a l Brotherhood o f Eden, / The U n i v e r s a l Man," (FZ 1 : 9 - 1 1 , K264).  T h i s U n i v e r s a l Man o r A l b i o n i s t h e f a t h e r o f a l l man-  k i n d , he i s "our Ancestor,  p a t r i a r c h of the A t l a n t i c  Continent,  5  whose H i s t o r y Preceded t h a t of the Hebrews & i n whose Sleep, o r Chaos, C r e a t i o n began" (VLJ K 6 0 9 ) . as being,  " t h i s h i g h e r u n i t or body o f l i f e  mately God,  Edenic s t a t e d e s c r i b e d  Albion  [which] i s u l t i -  the t o t a l i t y of a l l i m a g i n a t i o n "  an o p e r a t i v e sense t h i s t o t a l i t y  Letters.  Frye describes  (FS, p. 4 3 ) .  i s the f o u r f o l d v i s i o n of  i n the above q u o t a t i o n  In the  from B l a k e s t  T h i s s t a t e i s an i n e x h a u s t i b l e f o u n t a i n o f c r e a t i v e  energy. The p r o d u c t s of t h i s energy were c a l l e d Blakej  they were the t o t a l form o f a l l that was  l o v e d and  Emanations by created  i n E t e r n i t y were i n e x t r i c a b l y bound to the  creator  because they were p r o j e c t i o n s o f the b e t t e r p a r t of the A l b i o n * s Emanation was  and  self.  Jerusalem:  I n Great E t e r n i t y every p a r t i c u l a r Form g i v e s f o r t h or Emanates I t s own p e c u l i a r L i g h t , & the Form i s the D i v i n e V i s i o n And the L i g h t i s h i s Garment. T h i s i s Jerusalem i n every Man A Tent & T a b e r n a c l e of Mutual F o r g i v e n e s s , Male & Female Clothings. And Jerusalem i s c a l l e d L i b e r t y among t h e C h i l d r e n of A l b i o n . (J54:l-5, If  we  t r a n s l a t e the f i r s t  t h r e e l i n e s o f the q u o t a t i o n  terminology d e a l i n g w i t h our world, we Jerusalem to the c o r p o r e a l body and and  i t s rays.  The  K684)  may  l i k e n Albion  i t s skin, or to the  sun cannot be conceived  as not  into and sun  producing  r a d i a t i o n any more than the body e x i s t i n g without i t s s k i n . They are i n s e p a r a b l e .  Although Blake does not use  the word  i n s p i r a t i o n i n these l i n e s , h i s " D i v i n e V i s i o n " i s e q u i v a l e n t  6 t o the u s u a l d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n of d i v i n e or p o e t i c a t i o n as a power compelling then the power and The  c r e a t i o n or expression.  Jerusalem the expression  Albion i s  of t h a t power.  g r e a t e s t crime would be an attempt t o set d i v i n e  i n s p i r a t i o n apart from c r e a t o r . Albion f e l l . his  inspir-  He  A l b i o n committed t h i s crime;  s e t Jerusalem apart from h i m s e l f and  d i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n with a d e l u s i o n c a l l e d V a l a .  visualizes this f a l l  replaced Blake  i n terms of human behaviour.  In the unf a l l en s t a t e -Albion was  androgynous; he  t a i n e d w i t h i n h i m s e l f h i s female p o r t i o n , Jerusalem. account of h i s f a l l Night V i l a o f The  con-  One  i s t o l d by the Shadow Of Eni'tharmon i n  Four Zoas:  . . . now l i s t e n , I w i l l t e l l Thee S e c r e t s o f E t e r n i t y which ne'er b e f o r e unlock'd My golden l i p s nor took the bar from Enitharmon's b r e a s t . Among the Flowers of Beulah walk'd the E t e r n a l Man [ A l b i o n ] & SAW V a l a , the l i l l y of the d e s a r t m e l t i n g i n high noon; Upon her bosom i n sweet b l i s s he f a i n t e d . . . . ( 2 3 6 - 2 4 1 , K326) Beulah i s the s t a t e o f repose which the c r e a t i n g mind must drop i n t o f o r r e s p i t e from the f e r o c i o u s c r e a t i v i t y of Eden. It  i s a l o v e l y garden i n h a b i t e d by females and one  adornments was  V a l a , "the l i l l y  o f the d e s a r t . "  of i t s  This  adornment took Jerusalem's p l a c e i n A l b i o n ' s bosom.  illusory Casting  out o f the emanation i s the c a s t i n g out of p a r t o f o n e s e l f ; i t is  an attempt to e x t e r n a l i z e one's i n n e r n a t u r e .  the oneness o f a l l t h i n g s i n one  Instead  u n i v e r s a l body which i s  of God,  7 p e r n i c i o u s d u a l i s m had now appeared.  The female w i l l t h a t was  p a r t o f A l b i o n and that had worked i n harmony w i t h him i s now a separate c r e a t i o n t o whom he succumbs, " i n sweet b l i s s . " Jerusalem Blake w r i t e s : "Jerusalem i s named L i b e r t y "  In  (26:3,  K 6 4 9 ) ; when l i b e r t y or freedom i s l o s t i n any way one becomes s u b s e r v i e n t t o another.  A l b i o n f o r g o t h i s d i v i n e v i s i o n and,  . . . r e v e l d i n d e l i g h t among t h e Flowers [ o f Beulah] V a l a was pregnant & brought f o r t h U r i z e n , P r i n c e o f L i g h t , F i r s t born o f Generation. Then behold a wonder t o t h e Eyes Of t h e now f a l l e n Man; a double form V a l a a p p e a r d , a Male And female; shudd'ring p a l e t h e F a l l e n Man r e c o i l d From t h e Enormity & c a l l ' d them Luvah & V a l a , t u r n i n g down The v a l e s t o f i n d h i s way back i n t o Heaven, but found none, For h i s f r a i l eyes were faded & h i s ears heavy & d u l l . T  T  f  (FZ V i l a : 2 4 3 - 2 5 0 , K 3 2 6 ) A gross d i s t o r t i o n i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e o f the  two e n t i t i e s i n A l b i o n ; he now has " f r a i l  are  "heavy and d u l l . "  ative vision.  eyes," ears t h a t  He i s unable t o r e g a i n h i s great imagin-  This d i s t o r t e d , diseased state i s the f a l l e n  c o n d i t i o n o f man. The f u l l impact o f A l b i o n ' s o b s e s s i o n with V a l a i s given on p l a t e t h i r t y - f o u r o f Jerusalem: "Art thou V a l a ? " r e p l i e d A l b i o n , "image o f my repose! "0 how I tremble! how my members pour down m i l k y f e a r ! "A dewy garment covers me a l l over, a l l manhood i s gone! "At t h y word & a t thy l o o k , death enrobes me about "From head t o f e e t , a garment o f death & e t e r n a l f e a r . "Is not t h a t Sun thy husband & t h a t Moon t h y glimmering V e i l ? "Are not t h e S t a r s o f heaven t h y C h i l d r e n ? a r t thou not Babylon? "Art thou Nature, Mother o f a l l ? . . . (2-9,  K660)  8 A l b i o n ' s f a l l e n v i s i o n sees what was p r e v i o u s l y w i t h i n him as b e i n g o u t s i d e h i m s e l f ; he sees h i s environment, v e g e t a t i v e nature,  as "a dewy garment" which i s now not p a r t o f h i m s e l f  but i s a s u b j e c t - o b j e c t world  having male ("the Sun") and  female ("that Moon") c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . is  e x i s t e n c e i n t h i s world.  c a l l s " t h e Enormity 249,  K326).  context  The "garment o f death"  He shudders at t h e s i g h t and  . . . Luvah & V a l a " (quoted  F o s t e r Damon i d e n t i f i e s Luvah and V a l a i n t h i s  as Passion  and Nature ( W i l l i a m Blake,  p. 3 7 9 ) ; Luvah r e p r e s e n t s man's emotional and  above, FZ V i l a :  Gloucester, 1 9 5 8 ,  or passional  t h e female V a l a i s t h e outward nature o r m a t e r i a l  t h a t man f a l l s i n l o v e with. separated  life universe  I n some passages she i s t h e  female w i l l which w i l l always t r y t o dominate t h e  male (e.g. she i s "born t o d r i n k up a l l h i s powers," FZ IX, K373) •  She i s a Tirzah-Rahab f i g u r e who, i n t h e l a t e r  pro-  p h e c i e s , corresponds t o t h e b i b l i c a l Great Whore o f Babylon. According  t o t h i s account given by t h e Shadow o f  Enitharmon t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l stages t o t h e f a l l c a s t i n g out o f Jerusalem  of Albion:  and r e p l a c i n g her w i t h V a l a ;  coupling  o f A l b i o n and V a l a which produces f a l l e n U r i z e n " P r i n c e o f L i g h t " (quoted  above, FZ V i l a : 2 4 2 , K 3 2 6 ) who i s i d e n t i f i e d as  Reason by Damon (Blake, p. 3 7 9 ) ; V a l a appearing  as a double  form i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h e male Luvah and t h e female V a l a . e f f e c t upon A l b i o n i s p i t i f u l : . . . t h e F a l l e n Man [ i s ] S e e k i n g t o comfort V a l a : she w i l l not be comforted.  The  9 S i c k ' n i n g l i e s t h e F a l l e n Man,  h i s head s i c k , h i s heart faint;  R e f u s i n g to behold the D i v i n e Image which a l l behold And l i v e therby, he i s sunk down i n t o a deadly s l e e p . (FZ  1:284-291,  K272)  A l b i o n ' s moment o f r e s p i t e i n Beulah has been prolonged a "deadly s l e e p " o f death. our l i f e  into  Death f o r Blake f r e q u e n t l y means  and A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i s the c r e a t i o n and the h i s t o r y o f  our f a l l e n world.  A l b i o n i s a s l e e p throughout most o f Blake's  p r o p h e c i e s and although mentioned b r i e f l y as b e i n g semi awake or  awakening i n N i g h t s V I I I and IX ( 1 6 - 1 7 , K 3 4 1 ; 6 1 7 - 2 0 , K 3 7 3 )  of  The Four Zoas and i n M i l t o n ( 2 0 : 2 5 , K 5 0 2 J , , i t i s not  till  the f i n a l p l a t e s o f Jerusalem t h a t the s t o r y emerges o f the awakening and apocalypse o f a r e i n t e g r a t e d Because f o r Blake, God i s man, to  Albion.  the F a l l was  s p l i t d i v i n i t y , o r , as Frye p u t s i t , "the f a l l  volved a f a l l  attempt  o f man i n -  i n p a r t but not a l l o f the d i v i n e n a t u r e " (FS,  p. 4 3 ) , and again, "the o r i g i n a l f a l l i n t o a waste l a n d was  o f A l b i o n from a  garden  a l o s s o f c r e a t i v e power, and so was  i m a g i n a t i v e c a s t r a t i o n " (FS, p. 3 8 8 ) . the f a l l  an  an  H a r o l d Bloom d e s c r i b e s  as "a f o r s a k i n g o f the a c t i v i t y o f Eden f o r the p a s s -  i v i t y o f Beulah; a movement of.decay, from the i n n e r t o the o u t e r w o r l d " ( c i t e d i n Erdman: The Poetry and Prose o f W i l l i a m B l a k e . N.Y.,  1 9 6 5 , pp. 8 7 7 - 8 ) .  Frye, d i s c u s s i n g Albion's f a l l  as b e i n g due t o h i s i d o l a t r o u s a d o r a t i o n o f h i s female c i p l e , w r i t e s , "the r e s u l t was  prin-  t h a t Luvah or Ore, the s e x u a l  10 aspect o f him [ A l b i o n ] assumed c o n t r o l i n p l a c e o f the  intel-  l e c t u a l one (M 21:21; M 38:39) and plunged us a l l i n t o a world dominated by a sense o f s e x u a l shame" ("Notes f o r a Commentary o  n  M i l t o n . " c i t e d i n The D i v i n e V i s i o n , ed. V. de S. P i n t o ,  Lond., 1957, pp.  108-9).  The paradox t h a t t h i s o r i g i n a l f a l l o f A l b i o n produced our p r e s e n t world o f " G e n e r a t i o n " i s , as F r y e comments, " q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p a t t e r n o f B l a k e ' s symbolism" T h i s may  be i l l u s t r a t e d by examining the f i r s t two  Blake's l y r i c ,  (FS p. 388). stanzas o f  "To T i r z a h " :  Whate'er i s Born o f M o r t a l B i r t h Must be consumed w i t h the E a r t h To r i s e from Generation f r e e : Then what have I to do w i t h thee? The Sexes Blow'd i n But Mercy The Sexes  sprung from Shame & P r i d e , the morn; i n evening d i e d ; chang'd Death i n t o Sleep; r o s e to work & weep. (K  220)  The "Mercy" here i s the d i v i n i t y o f Jesus which changed A l b i o n ' s "Death" (used here l i t e r a l l y t o mean a r e d u c t i o n i n t o non-entity) into "sleep." i t y has now but  been changed  A l b i o n ' s c r e a t i v e energy o f E t e r n into a state of chaotic p a s s i v i t y ;  out o f t h i s p a s s i v i t y are born the male and female forms  t h a t can " r i s e from Generation f r e e . " act  o f mercy.  The c r e a t i o n was  Only through work i n t h i s world as men  an  and  women are we a b l e t o become r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the t o t a l i t y of  God-Albion.  However, we are handicapped by p o s s e s s i n g  11 f a l l e n sense p e r c e p t i o n ; we see a d u a l i s t i c s u b j e c t - o b j e c t world.  T h i s i s the s t a t e t h a t Blake c a l l s "Generation"; i t  i s the s t a t e o f t w o f o l d v i s i o n .  T h i s l a t t e r term,  like  n e a r l y a l l terms t h a t Blake uses, has more than one meaning. To understand Blake's use o f the word " v i s i o n " i t i s necessary to know something  about the way  i n which Blake uses  symbols.  A symbol i s not j u s t a s i g n e q u a l l i n g a r a t i o n a l  analogue;  i t i s more l i k e an emblem which has m u l t i p l e  ences.  refer-  In s t u d y i n g Blake's work we must s t a r t w i t h p r i o r  c o n c e p t i o n s , we must assume t h a t the whole u n i v e r s e i s i n t e r p e n e t r a t e d by a s e r i e s of correspondences which g i v e i t a unity that i s a l l pervasive.  Gn the o t h e r hand, every  element  i n the u n i v e r s e i s unique and d i s t i n c t from every other one. There i s an i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of e v e r y t h i n g and a uniqueness  of  the i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l ; when these two are put t o g e t h e r a mode o f knowledge i s o b t a i n e d t h a t takes on the c h a r a c t e r of metap h o r i c apprehension.  T h i s i d e a i s expressed i n a poem which  Blake sent to h i s f r i e n d Thomas B u t t s : For double the v i s i o n my Eyes do see, And a double v i s i o n i s always w i t h me. With my inward Eye ' t i s an o l d Man grey; With my outward, a T h i s t l e a c r o s s my way. (K 817) Twofold v i s i o n here i s something other than s e e i n g a s u b j e c t o b j e c t world.  The poem i s an example of one way  uses symbols.  The symbols modulate.  t h a t Blake  The f i r s t t h i n g i s known  12 i n terms of t h e second. b e i n g unique,  The  "inward  Eye" sees the t h i s t l e as  i t sees' i t as "an o l d Man  grey," the  of the t h i s t l e resonates l i k e a plucked s t r i n g . the " o l d Man similarly.  uniqueness  The image of  grey" t h a t t h e t h i s t l e c a l l s i n t o b e i n g resonates V i s u a l i z i n g these symbols s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i s l i k e  h e a r i n g two m u s i c a l notes r e s o n a t i n g i n unison; they become i d e n t i f i e d as one.  Yet t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can not be abso-  l u t e because i t must be q u a l i f i e d by s a y i n g t h a t i t cannot made i n t o a grammar such as t h i s t l e always equals man. depends upon the p o i n t of view o f the o b s e r v e r .  be  It  Rather,  there  i s a c o n c a t e n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n each symbol; v a r i o u s q u a l i t i e s i n t h i s t l e or man  arouse a resonance  o f one  order  i n one person and not i n another. Twofold  v i s i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y easy t o grasp but t h r e e -  f o l d and f o u r f o l d v i s i o n p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t problem.  Three-  f o l d v i s i o n i s an event t h a t o c c u r s i n the s c a l e o f v i s i o n r a t h e r than b e i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f v i s i o n ; i t i s a continuum of metaphoric  v i s i o n which merges i n t o symbolic v i s i o n .  Four-  f o l d v i s i o n i s completely s y n o p t i c ; the whole of b e i n g i s p e r ceived simultaneously.  I t i m p l i e s something about the q u a l i t y  of the v i s i o n r a t h e r than the p a r t i c u l a r nature o f i t . can be  visualized:  This  13 The s l a n t l i n e r e p r e s e n t s degrees o f v i s i o n (a) t o ( d ) , t h e h o r i z o n t a l l i n e no v i s i o n a t a l l .  Somewhere at (a) t h e meta-  phor becomes a symbol and d i s t i n c t i o n between them i s a p u r e l y academic one.  The lowest degree o f v i s i o n would be at t h e  lowest p o i n t on t h e s l a n t l i n e (d) and i s s i n g l e v i s i o n ; i t p e r c e i v e s o n l y sense d a t a . D u r i n g moments o f great i n s i g h t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n t h r e e f o l d and u l t i m a t e l y a p o c a l y p t i c f o u r f o l d  vision  as i s d e s c r i b e d i n B l a k e ' s poem t o Thomas B u t t s w h i l e at Felpham: To my F r i e n d B u t t s I w r i t e My f i r s t V i s i o n o f L i g h t , On the y e l l o w sands s i t t i n g . The Sun was E m i t t i n g His G l o r i o u s beams From Heaven's h i g h Streams. Over Sea, over Land My Eyes d i d Expand Into r e g i o n s o f a i r Away from a l l Care, Into regions of f i r e Remote from D e s i r e ; The L i g h t o f the Morning Heaven's Mountains a d o r n i n g : In p a r t i c l e s b r i g h t The j e w e l s o f L i g h t D i s t i n c t shone & c l e a r . Amaz'd & i n f e a r I each p a r t i c l e gazed, A s t o n i s h ' d , Amazed; For each was a Man Human-form'd. S w i f t I r a n , For they beckon'd t o me Remote by t h e Sea, Saying: Each g r a i n o f Sand, Every Stone on t h e Land, Each rock &• each h i l l , Each f o u n t a i n & r i l l , Each herb & each t r e e , Mountain, h i l l , e a r t h & sea,  14 Cloud, Meteor & S t a r Are Men Seen A f a r . I stood i n the Streams Of Heaven's b r i g h t beams, And saw Felpham sweet Beneath my b r i g h t f e e t In s o f t Female charms; My Eyes more & more L i k e a Sea without shore Continue Expanding, The Heavens commanding, T i l l the Jewels o f L i g h t , Heavenly Men Beaming b r i g h t , Appear'd as One Man . . . (K 8 0 4 - 5 ) I n the s t a t e o f s i n g l e v i s i o n the sands are j u s t g r a i n s o f y e l l o w sand on the seashore.  The f i r s t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a  m e t a p h o r i c a l one, the sands become "jewels o f L i g h t , " and then, each p a r t i c l e becomes a man.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n extends t o  the v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the landscape; the whole world becomes humanized.  The a f f e c t i v e response o f the poet  i s then m o d i f i e d : he l o o k s on the landscape as he would l o o k on " s o f t Female charms"; h i s f e e l i n g s toward the landscape are heterosexual.  T h i s i s the s t a t e o f Beulah, which i s a mental  s t a t e as w e l l as a p l a c e - - t h e lower Eden o f E t e r n i t y .  The  p e r c e i v e r ' s p o i n t o f view has changed when he achieves t h r e e fold vision. ing" t i l l  The poet's eyes "more & more / Continue Expand-  i n a s t a t e o f f o u r f o l d v i s i o n he a t t a i n s a s y n o p t i c  view o f a l l the human atoms c o a l e s c i n g u n t i l they as One Man."  T h i s "One Man"  i s Jesus.  l y p t i c moment i s aware o f h i s d i v i n i t y .  "Appear'd  The poet i n an  apoca-  H i s mental world has  15 been changed and he w i l l now l i v e d i f f e r e n t l y .  This i s stated  i n t h e remainder o f the poem, " L i k e d r o s s p u r g d away / A l l my T  mire & my c l a y . . . I remain'd as a C h i l d ; / A l l I ever had known / Before me b r i g h t Shone." in  The " C h i l d " i s not a c h i l d  t h e o r d i n a r y sense o f t h e word but i s now t h e c h i l d o f en-  l i g h t e n e d wise innocence t h a t has absorbed t h e experience o f apocalyptic vision. Horn'd with life.  In a t t a i n i n g t h i s , t h e poet ("0 thou Ram  gold") has a c q u i r e d defences a g a i n s t t h e blows o f  The blows o f l i f e a r e d e s c r i b e d : On t h e Mountains around The r o a r i n g s resound Of t h e l i o n & wolf, The l o u d Sea & deep g u l f . These a r e guards o f My F o l d , . . . (K 8 0 5 )  The word "These" r e f e r s t o t h e v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s i n l i f e ; t h e "My" r e f e r s t o Jesus who i s t h e speaker a t t h i s p o i n t i n t h e poem.  F o r Blake,  l i f e c o n s i s t s o f p o l a r i t i e s , i t s blows  ("Mountains," i t r o a r i n g s , " "lionS&Swolf," " l o u d Sea & deep g u l f " ) a r e not n e g a t i v e  o b s t a c l e s t o be overcome but a r e a l s o  p o s i t i v e i n t h e sense t h a t they serve t o arm man as a b a t t e r i n g ram  i s armed i n order t o engage i n c o n f l i c t ; t h i s i s a working  by f r u i t f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n through o p p o s i t i o n .  Harmonious t e n -  s i o n between t h e c o n t r a r i e s and f u l l use o f t h e i m a g i n a t i v e powers l e a d i n e v i t a b l y t o a p o c a l y p t i c  vision.  Frye equates f o u r l e v e l s o f human e x i s t e n c e Blake's f o u r s t a t e s o f v i s i o n :  with  16 The lowest i s t h a t o f t h e i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t i n g on h i s memories o f p e r c e p t i o n and e v o l v i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s and a b s t r a c t i d e a s . T h i s world i s s i n g l e , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t i s l o s t and we have o n l y a brooding s u b j e c t left. Blake c a l l s t h i s world U l r o ; i t i s h i s h e l l , and h i s symbols f o r i t a r e symbols o f s t e r i l i t y , c h i e f l y r o c k s and sand. Above i t i s t h e o r d i n a r y world we l i v e i n , a double world o f s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , o f organism and environment, which Blake c a l l s G e n e r a t i o n . No l i v i n g t h i n g i s completely a d j u s t e d t o t h i s world except t h e p l a n t s , hence Blake u s u a l l y speaks o f i t as v e g e t a b l e . Above i t i s t h e i m a g i n a t i v e world and Blake d i v i d e s t h i s i n t o an upper and a lower p a r t , . . . the lower P a r a d i s e he c a l l s Beulah, a term d e r i v e d from I s a i a h which means " m a r r i e d , " . . . i t i s a t r i p l e world o f l o v e r , beloved and mutual c r e a t i o n ; t h e f a t h e r , t h e mother and t h e c h i l d . . . . The h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s t a t e , t h e r e f o r e , i s not t h e union o f l o v e r and beloved, but o f c r e a t o r and c r e a t u r e , o f energy and form. T h i s l a t t e r i s t h e s t a t e f o r which Blake r e s e r v e d t h e name Eden . . . . T h i s world . . . i s f o u r f o l d , expanding t o i n f i n i t y l i k e t h e f o u r p o i n t s o f t h e compass which i n t h i s world p o i n t t o t h e i n d e f i n i t e . (FS pp. 4 8 - 5 0 ) T h i s Edenic s t a t e with i t s union o f c r e a t o r and c r e a t u r e (emanation), o f energy  and form, has been d e s c r i b e d above  as b e i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e u n f a l i e n A l b i o n . a t t a i n e d momentarily  I t may be  i n our f a l l e n world d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f  f o u r f o l d v i s i o n ; when i t i s s u s t a i n e d , great a r t i s c r e a t e d because t h e a r t i s t ' s i m a g i n a t i v e powers a r e brought  into  full  creativity. Imagination i s an extremely important word i n B l a k e ' s vocabulary.  I n t h e poem M i l t o n Blake w r i t e s , "The Imagination  i s n o t a S t a t e ; i t i s t h e Human E x i s t e n c e i t s e l f "  (32:32,  Frye^ e x p l a i n s t h e term i m a g i n a t i o n as Blake uses i t . we have f i v e senses we have o n l y one mind. s t a n c e , i s merely  K522).  Although  The eye, f o r i n -  a l e n s f o r t h e mind t o l o o k through.  Percep-  17 t i o n i s a mental  a c t , consequently when our l e g s walk, i t i s  the mind t h a t walks t h e l e g s . t i o n between mental  T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c -  and b o d i l y a c t s .  The mind means t h e a c t -  i n g man; i f man p e r c e i v e d i s a form o r image, man p e r c e i v i n g i s a former o r imaginer.  "Imagination" i s t h e r e g u l a r term  used by Blake t o denote man as an a c t i n g and p e r c e i v i n g b e i n g : a man's i m a g i n a t i o n i s h i s l i f e .  In Blake's work, the words  "Mental" and " i n t e l l e c t u a l " a r e synonymous with "imaginative";;, "Fancy" means t h e i m a g i n a t i o n but " f a n t a s y " r e l a t e s t o memory and i t s " s p e c t r e s . " I t i s through a r t t h a t we understand why p e r c e p t i o n i s meaningless comes t o us.  u n l e s s the i m a g i n a t i o n o r d e r s t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t Such o r d e r i n g when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h genius r a t h e r  than w i t h m e d i o c r i t y produces  " v i s i o n " as Blake uses t h e term.  T h i s " v i s i o n " i s t h e goal o f a l l energy,  freedom, and wisdom.  The way i n which Blake uses metaphor and modulating symbol i s an example o f t h e way h i s i m a g i n a t i o n ordered t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t came t o i t .  Although Blake's symbols modulate,  t h i s does not mean they a r e i n f i n i t e l y s u g g e s t i v e ; they must be understood w i t h i n the l i m i t e d but complex framework o f Blake's cosmos.  The metaphor may range from A combining  with  B t o A b e i n g i d e n t i f i e d w i t h B, o r , t h e i d e n t i t y can have a number o f d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s . symbols i n Blake.  I t i s useless to look f o r f i x e d  F o r example, t h e Albion-Jesus-Luvah meta-  phor i n one context means t h a t A l b i o n can p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e Luvah p r i n c i p l e o f compassionate  love: "Albion c a l l ' d Urizen  18 & s a i d : . . . / Thy b r o t h e r Luvah hath s m i t t e n me, but p i t y thou h i s youth  . . . » (FZ 1 1 : 3 - 7 , K 2 8 0 ) ; i n another context,  Jesus puts on Luvah's "robes o f b l o o d " : For t h e D i v i n e Lamb, Even Jesus who i s t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n , Permitted a l l , l e s t Man should f a l l i n t o E t e r n a l Death; For when Luvah sunk down, h i m s e l f put on t h e robes o f blood L e s t t h e s t a t e c a l l ' d Luvah should cease; & t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n Walked i n robes o f blood t i l l he who s l e p t should awake. (FZ 1 1 : 2 6 1 - 5 , K 2 8 7 ) "Man" here i s A l b i o n ; "Luvah sunk down" r e f e r s to Luvah's fall;  " h i m s e l f " r e f e r s to J e s u s ; "the s t a t e c a l l ' d Luvah" i s  l o v e and t h e "he" i n t h e l a s t l i n e r e f e r s a g a i n t o A l b i o n . The passage  f o l l o w i n g t h e above q u o t a t i o n d e s c r i b e s a c y c l e  o f nature and i m p l i c i t i n i t i s t h e concept t h a t f a l l e n Luvah i s a l s o a d y i n g n a t u r e god f i g u r e .  Thus t h e A l b i o n - J e s u s -  Luvah a s s o c i a t i o n resonates i n t h e "robes o f b l o o d "  symbol.  I t i s as i f a note i n music c a l l e d A l b i o n i s s t r u c k , i t r e s o n a t e s and t h e Jesus aspect comes up, then you s t r i k e  another  note, t h e resonance b r i n g s up t h e Luvah aspect; when t h e two notes a r e sounded t o g e t h e r they become one, i . e . Jesus becomes Luvah.  Another i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a complex symbol i s found i n  the lament o f U r i z e n i n Night V I : My songs a r e turned i n t o c r i e s o f Lamentation Heard on my Mountains, & deep s i g h s under my p a l a c e r o o f s , Because t h e Steeds o f U r i z e n , once s w i f t e r than t h e l i g h t , Were kept back from my Lord & from h i s c h a r i o t o f m e r c i e s . (FZ 206-9)  19 The words "my  L o r d " are t e n t a t i v e l y Jesus, A l b i o n +  Jesus,  or Jesus + A l b i o n . The meaning of any p a r t i c u l a r metaphor or symbol Blake uses w i l l depend upon whatever aspect o f the m a t e r i a l chooses to present ing  Blake's  lyrics,  are a l l important; ings.  i n any  Blake's  given c o n t e x t .  Gleckner,^  emphasizes t h a t p o i n t of view and  he discusscontext  the same holds t r u e f o r the p r o p h e t i c w r i t -  constant  considerable a g i l i t y  s h i f t i n g of p e r s p e c t i v e r e q u i r e s  on the p a r t of the reader; the a s s o c i a -  t i o n s of the symbol, no matter how  o b l i q u e or vague they  seem to be, must be c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d .  may  T h i s unique way  u s i n g symbols t h a t burgeon with meaning c r e a t e s a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g of m a t e r i a l which g i v e s us u l t i m a t e l y a r i c h e r , hence a c l e a r e r v i s i o n of the events r e l a t i n g t o the and Apocalypse i n Blake's  myth.  Fall  of  CHAPTER I I The  r i c h e r v i s i o n Blake g i v e s us i s enormously sug-  g e s t i v e but my immediate purpose i s t o c o n c e n t r a t e morphological  on t h e  imagery d e p i c t i n g t h e F a l l and sparagmos o f t h e  God-Man A l b i o n .  As Frye i n d i c a t e s (FS pp. 2 8 7 , 2 8 9 , 3 8 7 ) ,  Blake d e s c r i b e s t h e F a l l m e t a p h o r i c a l l y  as a sparagmos  ( l i t e r a l l y : a " t e a r i n g " or "rending").  It i s a  displacement,  d i s r u p t i o n , and d i s t o r t i o n o f b o d i l y organs and f a c u l t i e s . F a c u l t i e s was t h e word used i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h for  what we today c a l l the p s y c h i c f o r c e s o f man.  A l b i o n ' s f a c u l t i e s o r aspects o f h i s i m a g i n a t i v e  century  In E t e r n i t y energy were  "Four Mighty Ones" which formed "a P e r f e c t U n i t y " (FZ 1 : 9 , K 2 6 4 ) ; they were "the Four Zoas t h a t stood around t h e Throne D i v i n e " (M 1 9 : 1 8 ,  K 5 0 0 ) . The f o u r F a c u l t i e s o r Zoas had  worked i n harmony i n Eden but became d i v i d e d and separated when A l b i o n f e l l . our world, and  S i n c e t h e F a l l was a l s o t h e c r e a t i o n o f  the Zoas a r e i d e n t i f i e d as newly c r e a t e d  universes  a r e given compass p o i n t s : Four U n i v e r s e s round the Mundane Egg . . . One t o t h e North, named Urthona: One t o t h e South, named U r i z e n : One t o t h e E a s t , named Luvah: One to t h e West, named Tharmas; They a r e t h e Four Zoas. . . . (M 1 9 : 1 5 - 1 8 ,  I n a l a t e r p l a t e i n t h e same poem Blake  K 500)  a s s i g n s these f o u r f a c -  u l t i e s o r s t a t e s t o the head, h e a r t , l o i n s , and d i g e s t i v e system:  21 And the Four S t a t e s o f Humanity i n i t s Repose Were shewed them. F i r s t of Beulah, a most p l e a s a n t Sleep On couches s o f t with m i l d music, tended by Flowers of Beulah, Sweet female forms, winged or f l o a t i n g i n the a i r spontaneous; The Second S t a t e i s A l i a , & the t h i r d S t a t e A l - U l r o : The F i r s t S t a t e i s i n the Head, the Second i s i n the Heart, The T h i r d i n the L o i n s & Seminal V e s s e l s , & the Fourth In the Stomach & I n t e s t i n e s t e r r i b l e , deadly, u n u t t e r a b l e . (34:8-16, K 523-4) In Jerusalem anatomical as "The  ( p i . 98 K 745)  Blake mixes g e o g r a p h i c a l  and  l o c a t i o n s ; the f o u r Zoas are v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d  Four L i v i n g C r e a t u r e s " or "the Four R i v e r s of  d i s e / And  the Four Faces of Humanity" which are  specifically  a s s o c i a t e d with o r i f i c e s of the head r e g i o n : the eye, "Expansive N o s t r i l s , " the mouth, and  Para-  the  the " L a b y r i n t h i n e  Ear."  Although i n these excerpts meaning has changed with context  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the l o c a t i o n of the f o u r s t a t e s  i n v a r i o u s b o d i l y organs has been maintained. The F a l l , which took p l a c e i n s e v e r a l stages, not only the i n i t i a l and  s e p a r a t i o n of A l b i o n but a l s o d i v i s i o n  s e p a r a t i o n of each Zoa i n t o mental s t a t e s which Blake  c a l l e d s p e c t r e s , emanations, s e l f h o o d s , shadows. o f these terms i s important sis.  involved  The  meaning  and r e q u i r e s c l o s e t e x t u a l a n a l y -  Sometimes Blake s p e c i f i e s meaning i n a p a r t i c u l a r con-  t e x t as when he w r i t e s i n M i l t o n : The  Negation i s the Spectre, the Reasoning Power i n Man, (40:34, K  o r i n Jerusalem: >  533)  . . .  22  The S p e c t r e i s t h e Reasoning Power i n Man, & when separated From Imagination and c l o s i n g i t s e l f as i n s t e e l i n a R a t i o Of t h e Things o f Memory, I t thence frames Laws & M o r a l i t i e s To d e s t r o y Imagination, t h e D i v i n e Body, by Martyrdoms & Wars, (74:10-14, K 714)  The S p e c t r e i s , i n Giant Man, insane and most deform'd.. (37:4, K 664) In these contexts t h e s p e c t r e i s t h e r a t i o n a l i z i n g power, t h i s i s t h e a t t r i b u t e o f man and o f e i g h t e e n t h century thought t h a t Blake hated most.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he draws i t as a  hideous monster h o v e r i n g over the p r o s t r a t e f i g u r e o f h e l p l e s s "Giant Man.""*  ( I w i l l comment l a t e r on t h i s p t e r o d a c t y l - l i k e  creature.)  I t i s important  emanation.  The emanation, already r e f e r r e d t o i n connection  with A l b i o n ' s f a l l ,  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s p e c t r e and  i s t h e s p l i t o f f female p o r t i o n o f t h e  p e r s o n a l i t y which seeks a l i f e o f i t s own; i t may be e i t h e r dominating  and d e s t r u c t i v e o r h e l p f u l i n b r i n g i n g about r e -  integration.  In t h e l a t t e r sense i t i s a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e  b e t t e r aspect o f t h e s e l f . of t h i s .  The s p e c t r e i s sometimes a parody  I t i s o f t e n w i l d l y i r r a t i o n a l , s i m u l a t i n g an exces-  s i v e egoism which Blake c a l l s a S e l f h o o d .  The E t e r n a l c a l l e d  M i l t o n describes the s t a t e : I i n my S e l f h o o d am t h a t Satan: He i s my S p e c t r e ! . . .  I am t h a t E v i l One! (M 1 4 : 3 0 - 3 1 , K 4 9 6 )  23 ^  n  Jerusalem t h e s p e c t r e o f U r i z e n i s Satan and a d d r e s s i n g  A l b i o n s t a t e s : " I am your R a t i o n a l Power, 0 A l b i o n , "  (33:5,  K 6 5 9 ) ; Blake comments: "So spoke t h e S p e c t r e t o A l b i o n : he i s t h e Great S e l f h o o d , Satan, Worship'd as God by t h e Mighty Ones o f t h e E a r t h , " ( 3 3 : 1 7 - 1 8 ,  K 6 5 9 ) . The S p e c t r e o f Urthona  i s a s p e c i a l case and I w i l l make an attempt i t s f u n c t i o n i n The Four Zoas.  l a t e r to define  The Shadow i s d i f f i c u l t t o  d e f i n e as t h e name would i n d i c a t e .  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , i t  does seem t o r e p r e s e n t , as Damon suggests,^ t h e r e s i d u e o f suppressed d e s i r e s ; a t l e a s t i t has t h i s meaning i n The Marr i a g e o f Heaven and H e l l when Blake w r i t e s , "And b e i n g r e s t r a i n d , i t [ d e s i r e ] by degrees becomes p a s s i v e , t i l l f  i t is  o n l y t h e shadow o f d e s i r e " (K 1 5 0 ) . These s t a t e s o f t h e Zoas ( s p e c t r e s , emanations,  self-  hoods, shadows), r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s f a c e t s o f f a l l e n imagi n a t i v e energy, may a c t as s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s o r they may be i n t e r m i n g l e d , t h e one t a k i n g on shades o f t h e o t h e r ' s meaning. T h i s c r e a t e s d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r Blake's r e a d e r s .  Blake does  demand t h a t we " D i s t i n g u i s h t h e r e f o r e S t a t e s from i n those S t a t e s , / S t a t e s Change, but I n d i v i d u a l never change n o r cease" (M 3 2 : 2 2 - 3 , K 5 2 1 ) .  Individuals Identities  Blake's meaning  o f " I d e n t i t y " i s e x p l a i n e d i n h i s own proverb i n The Marriage o f Heaven and H e l l : "The apple t r e e never asks t h e beech how he s h a l l grow; n o r t h e l i o n , t h e horse, how he s h a l l take h i s p r e y " (K 1 5 2 ) .  Another important t h i n g t o keep i n mind w h i l e  r e a d i n g Blake i s t o d i s t i n g u i s h whether t h e p a r t i c u l a r passage d e a l s with t h e u n f a l l e n o r t h e f a l l e n  state.  24 As a h e l p f u l guide, a s i m p l i f i e d t a b l e adapted  from  Frye's study o f The Four Zoas (FS p. 2 7 7 ) i s u s e f u l a t t h i s point.  I have added minor a d d i t i o n s i n p a r e n t h e s i s . TABLE I  E t e r n a l Name  Luvah  Urizen  Tharmas  Urthona  Time Name  Ore  Satan  Covering Cherub  Los  Emanation  Vala  Ahania  Enion  Enitharmon  Quality  Love  Wisdom  Power  Fancy  Sense  Nose  Eye  Tongue  Ear  Body P a r t  Loins  Head  Heart  Legs  Position  Centre  Zenith  Circumf erence Nadir  Element  Fire  Air  Water  Earth  Beulah  "Ulro"  State  "Generation" Eden  Activity  Weaver  Plowman  Shepherd  Blacksmith  Point  East  South  West  North  Faculty or P s y c h i c State)(Emotion) (Jung's terminology)' (Feeling)  ( I n t e l l e c t ) ( i n s t i n c t f o r (imagination) Wholeness) (Thinking)  (Sensation)  (intuition)  R e t u r n i n g t o t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l imagery o f t h e sparagmos  o f A l b i o n , when t h e g i a n t body f e l l head downwards body  p a r t s w i t h attendant f a c u l t i e s were d i s p l a c e d .  The u n f a l i e n  i n t e l l e c t u a l powers had h e l d t h e h i g h e s t p l a c e i n "the Golden p o r c h e s " o f the b r a i n .  The f i g u r e i n the myth r e p r e s e n t i n g  25 them i s " U r i z e n , P r i n c e o f L i g h t " (FZ 1 1 : 8 , K 2 8 0 ) .  Urizen's  e x a l t e d p l a c e i n t h e human b r a i n i s usurped by Luvah. story of the usurpation  The  i s t o l d i n Night I :  The F a l l e n Man takes h i s repose, U r i z e n s l e e p s i n t h e porch, Luvah & V a l a wake & ( f l e w d e l . ] f l y up from t h e Human Heart Into t h e B r a i n from thence; upon t h e p i l l o w V a l a s l u m b e r d , And Luvah s i e z ' d t h e Horses o f L i g h t & r o s e i n t o t h e C h a r i o t o f Day. f  (FZ 2 6 1 - 4 ,  K 271)  F r y e (FS, p. 1 7 8 ) notes t h a t t h i s i s a v e r s i o n o f t h e Phaeton myth and i s concerned with one o f t h e main events o f the F a l l — the s e i z u r e o f t h e sun which belonged t o U r i z e n , P r i n c e o f L i g h t , by Luvah, P r i n c e o f Love.  Love i s now i n t h e head  r a t h e r than i n t h e l o i n s where i t had been i n E t e r n i t y ; sexu a l i t y has changed p l a c e s with r e a s o n .  F a l l e n reason i s /  d r a m a t i c a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d by what H a r o l d f a n t a s t i c account o f V a l a ' s It  o  Bloom  e v o l u t i o n (FZ 1 1 : 8 1 - 1 1 0 ,  K 282).  i s an account o f Luvah's c r e a t i o n and n u r t u r i n g o f t h e  d e c e i v i n g beauty o f h i s l o s t Emanation, V a l a ; an earthworm, a s c a l e d serpent, The  c a l l s the  she i s , i n t u r n ,  a dragon, and a human i n f a n t .  z o o l o g i c a l imagery Blake uses here p o r t r a y s d i s t o r t i o n o f  the normal e v o l u t i o n a r y processes;  t h i s enhances t h e account  o f Luvah's d e l u s i o n . Initially,  t h e g r e a t e s t d i s r u p t i o n o f A l b i o n ' s body  i s when h i s c i r c u l a t o r y system, which had contained R i v e r s o f t h e water o f l i f e "  (J 97:15,  t h e "Four  K 7 4 5 ) , burst i t s  bounds and becomes a deluge which f l o o d s t h e newly  created  26 universe.  The  f o u r r i v e r s o f Eden thus become a sea of chaos  and the p r e s i d i n g Zoa i s watery t h e "Parent pow'er" (FZ 1 : 2 4 , for  "Tharmas" who  i n Eden had been  K 2 6 4 ) o r the o r g a n i z i n g power  the o t h e r f a c u l t i e s ; t h i s i s a l s o the power t h a t h e l p s t o  b r i n g the work o f t h e c r e a t i v e a r t i s t t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u sion.  Tharmas i s , as H a r o l d Bloom w r i t e s , ( B l a k e ' s Apocalypse 1963,  N.Y.,  p. 2 1 0 ) ,  "the body's i n s t i n c t u a l energy, which can  comprehend and h o l d t o g e t h e r the r i v a l i m a g i n a t i o n , and emotion all  the r e s t down with  energies of i n t e l l e c t ,  and h i s f a l l must n e c e s s a r i l y b r i n g . him."  A l b i o n ' s sense organs a l s o underwent g r o s s d i s t o r t i o n . In  the u n f a l l e n s t a t e these senses were " a l l f l e x i b l e "  K 223),  (BU,  t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y i s d e s c r i b e d i n Night V o f The  Four  Zoas: His  eyes, the l i g h t s o f h i s l a r g e s o u l , c o n t r a c t o r e l s e expand: C o n t r a c t e d they behold the s e c r e t s o f the i n f i n i t e mountains, The v e i n s o f g o l d & s i l v e r & the hidden t h i n g s o f V a l a , Whatever grows from i t s pure bud or breathes a f r a g r a n t s o u l : Expanded they behold the t e r r o r s o f the Sun & Moon, The Elemental P l a n e t s & the orbs o f e c c e n t r i c f i r e . H i s n o s t r i l s breathe [with d e l . ] a f i e r y flame, h i s l o c k s are l i k e the f o r e s t s Of w i l d b e a s t s ; t h e r e the l i o n g l a r e s , the t y g e r & wolf howl there, And t h e r e the E a g l e h i d e s her young i n c l i f f s & p r e c i p i c e s . (121-129,  K 308)  Although the myth at t h i s p o i n t i s concerned w i t h the bound f i g u r e o f Ore i n a U r i z e n i c world of  (i.e.  a c o n s t r i c t i n g world  a b s t r a c t i o n s — o u r w o r l d ) , h i s eyes have not l o s t the f l e x -  ibility  o f the Edenic v i s i o n .  They move from i n s i d e the  mountains o u t s i d e t o where the spheres are; by c o n t r a c t i o n  and  expansion they comprehend and become p a r t o f the t o t a l i t y of the p h y s i c a l u n i v e r s e .  Ore's n o s t r i l s have r e t a i n e d  their  o r i g i n a l c a p a c i t y t o breathe "a f i e r y flame"; the u s u a l assoc i a t i o n of t h i s image i n Blake i s w i t h the f i r e o f c r e a t i v i t y . The h a i r on Ore's head, w h i l e not a sense organ proper, i s used here as a s e n s i t i v e a n t e n n a - l i k e r e c e p t o r organ t h a t a vitality  comparable to the enormous e n e r g i e s o f such w i l d  b e a s t s as the p r e d a t o r y l i o n , t i g e r , wolf, and e a g l e . imagery  has  The  suggests t h a t Ore's b e i n g permeates a l l t h i n g s , ex-  t e n d i n g even t o the d i s t a n t s t a r s .  T h i s i s consistent with  B l a k e ' s cosmos which i m p l i e s an i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f everything i n i t .  Ore, the bound Promethean f i g u r e , mocks a t the  c h a i n s o f the U r i z e n i c world; he i s h e l d i n an u n s t a b l e s t a t e o f t e n s i o n between a p o s i t i v e outward f o r c e and an Urizenic, r e s t r i c t i n g force. ambivalent  and produce  inward,  These c o n t r a s t i n g f o r c e s are  a k i n d o f " f e a r f u l symmetry"; the t e r -  r o r s o f the U r i z e n i c world are apprehended a l o n g w i t h t h e t e r r o r s of the c r e a t i v e f o r c e s i n h e r e n t i n a f a l l e n A l b i o n . The imagery  i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f the s u g g e s t i v e imagery i n  Blake's l y r i c ,  "The Tyger."  The c o n t r a r i e s t h a t Blake images  p a r a l l e l the a c t u a l c o n t r a r i e s found i n nature among the p r e d a t o r y animals where the k i l l  or be k i l l e d mechanism  o p e r a t e s t o m a i n t a i n the balance o f n a t u r e . One of these p r e d a t o r s , the eagle, always an important symbol i n Blake's p o e t r y , i s a p e r f e c t image f o r the concept  28 of  t e n a c i t y i n an u n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n .  I t possesses s e v e r a l  mechanisms f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n i n a c r e a t i v e - d e s t r u c t i v e the a c u i t y of i t s v i s i o n i s keener than t h a t of man;  world: i t has  extremely powerful wings and f l i e s h i g h e r i n r o u t i n e (non m i g r a t o r y ) f l i g h t than any other b i r d ; i t s s t r o n g t o e s armed w i t h sharp claws are a necessary a d a p t a t i o n to i t s h a b i t a t which i s i n h i g h barren t r e e s growing on rocky  promontories.  Blake's l i n e "the Eagle h i d e s her young i n c l i f f s & p r e c i p i c e s " has more s c i e n t i f i c v a l i d i t y than was  perhaps intended.  The  commonly h e l d b e l i e f t h a t eagles nest i n t a l l t r e e s , f r e q u e n t ly  ones t h a t have been l i g h t n i n g s t r u c k , has been r e c e n t l y o  amended by McGahan  who  found golden e a g l e s n e s t i n g on  cliffs.  The armature o f the eagle strengthens i t s h o l d upon a p r e c a r i o u s h a b i t a t and thus enables i t t o overcome i t s f e a r of extinction.  T h i s g e n e r a l i d e a of t e n a c i t y i n a p r e c a r i o u s  s t a t e of t e n s i o n which i s seen i n nature would seem t o m i r r o r f o r c e s t h a t operate i n a s t a t e o f E d e n i c v i s i o n bound i n a Urizenic  world. In  c o n t r a s t t o t h i s imagery o f Edenic  i s the g r a p h i c account  expansiveness  Blake g i v e s us o f the d i s t o r t i o n of  the senses t h a t took p l a c e as a r e s u l t of the F a l l . III  o f The Four Zoas, Ahania,  In Night  speaking t o U r i z e n , r e t e l l s  the  s t o r y of the s e p a r a t i o n o f Luvah: Then frown'd the F a l l e n Man  [ a l t . readg. A l b i o n ! & put f o r t h Luvah from h i s presence ( I heard him: frown not, U r i z e n , but l i s t e n to my V i s i o n ) Saying, 'Go & d i e the Death of Man f o r V a l a the sweet wanderer.  29 I w i l l t u r n the v o l u t i o n s o f your Ears outward, & bend your Nostrils Downward, & your f l u x i l e Eyes englob'd r o l l round i n f e a r ; Your w i t h r i n g L i p s & Tongue s h r i n k up i n t o a narrow c i r c l e T i l l i n t o narrow forms you creep. . . , 1  T  (83-89, K In M i l t o n , p l a t e f i v e , the d i s t o r t i o n s are both and  294) anatomical  physiological:  Ah weak & wide a s t r a y ! Ah shut i n narrow d o l e f u l form, C r e e p i n g i n r e p t i l e f l e s h upon the bosom of the ground! The Eye of Man a l i t t l e orb, c l o s ' d up & dark, S c a r c e l y b e h o l d i n g t h e great l i g h t , c o n v e r s i n g with the Void; The Ear a l i t t l e s h e l l , i n small v o l u t i o n s s h u t t i n g out A l l melodies & comprehending o n l y D i s c o r d and Harmony; The Tongue a l i t t l e moisture f i l l s , a l i t t l e food i t c l o y s , A l i t t l e sound i t u t t e r s & i t s c r i e s are f a i n t l y heard. (19-26, K  484)  In these excerpts, images of encasement are used t o p o r t r a y f u n c t i o n a l degeneration tongue.  o f the eye,  ear, nose, l i p s ,  and  The movement has been from the h e a l t h y s t a t e of  expanded v i s i o n to the d i s e a s e d s t a t e i n which man's power of  sense p e r c e p t i o n has been d u l l e d .  T h i s i s one  of the  c r u c i a l r e s u l t s of t h e o r i g i n a l sparagmos of A l b i o n .  CHAPTER I I I The change i n A l b i o n from a s t a t e o f i n t e n s e c r e a t i v i t y i n Eden t o a s t a t e o f c h a o t i c p a s s i v i t y i n t h e f a l l e n world  i s a change from wakefulness t o s l e e p .  One o f t h e e a r l y  r e f e r e n c e s t o i t i s i n The French R e v o l u t i o n ; "man [ A l b i o n ] l a y h i s faded head down on t h e rock / Of e t e r n i t y " K 138). (5:1,  (95-96,  I n America t h i s rock i s c a l l e d " t h e Stone o f n i g h t "  K 1 9 7 ; 7 : 2 , K 1 9 8 ) ; t h i s "Stone o f N i g h t " i s r e f e r r e d  to as t h e "Rock o f Ages" i n l a t e r p r o p h e t i c w r i t i n g s (FZ I : 468,  K 277; J 48:4,  K 677; J 57:16,  K 689).  Damon (Blake,  p. 3 3 5 ) i d e n t i f i e s t h e Stone o f Night w i t h t h e Mosaic t a b l e o f t h e Ten Commandments and Bloom (E, p. 8 1 5 ) c l a i m s i t sugg e s t s t h e p i l l o w s o f Jacob i n Genesis  28:11.  In h i s poem,  Europe. t h e Stone o f Night Blake i d e n t i f i e s with  Albion s f  skull: Now a r r i v ' d t h e a n c i e n t Guardian  [ U r i z e n ] at t h e southern porch That p l a n t e d t h i c k with t r e e s o f b l a c k e s t l e a f & i n a v a l e Obscure e n c l o s ' d t h e Stone o f Night; o b l i q u e i t stood, o'erhung With p u r p l e f l o w e r s and b e r r i e s r e d , image o f t h a t sweet south Once open to t h e heavens, and e l e v a t e d on t h e human neck, Now overgrown with h a i r and c o v e r d w i t h a stony r o o f . f  (24-29,  K 241-2)  F r y e e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e above passage: T h i s stone i n r e a l i t y i s not o u t s i d e A l b i o n ' s head, but i n s i d e i t : i t i s i n other words h i s own s k u l l ; but t h e image, though somewhat m i s l e a d i n g , b r i n g s out t h e p r o t e c t i v e aspect o f t h e "Rock o f Ages," t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l i m i t o f death i s i n t e r p o s e d  31 between l i f e and a n n i h i l a t i o n ; t h a t the p h y s i c a l world i s s o l i d and permanent, and o r d e r l y enough f o r the i m a g i n a t i o n to get a g r i p on i t : t h a t , i n s h o r t , t h e C r e a t i o n , though p a r t of the F a l l , was the s o l i d bottom of the F a l l , and thus "an act of Mercy." (FS,  pp.  225-6)  T h i s i s another example of the c o n t r a r i e s t h a t operate throughout Blake's myth. was  A l b i o n ' s s l e e p on the Stone o f Night  not a s l e e p o f o b l i v i o n but a s l e e p which produced  dream-nightmare s t a t e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n The Four Zoas. by B l a k e : "a DREAM o f Nine N i g h t s . "  the  subtitled  The c h a r a c t e r s i n Blake's  myth emerge from A l b i o n ' s subconscious mind to g i v e t h e i r v a r ied  accounts o f events l e a d i n g to the F a l l  and  Apocalypse.  S i n c e myth i s a symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p between o n e s e l f and a l l being, the d e t a i l s o f which c o n s i s t o f a sequence o f events which c u l m i n a t e i n an act of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  or.recognition,  t h e r e f o r e , "the very f a c t of s a y i n g what happened r e v e a l s the t h i n g i n q u e s t i o n was tell  realized.""'"^  how  Blake's c h a r a c t e r s who  the s t o r y thus a c t as agents i n the r e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s ;  by t h e i r predominantly symbolic method of n a r r a t i o n , they r e v e a l how  e r r o r must be given form ( i . e .  s c i o u s n e s s ) b e f o r e i t can be c a s t o u t .  brought t o con-  In medical p r a c t i c e  t h e symbolic language produced by the dream r e q u i r e s a guru or  wise man  imagery  who  a i d s the dreamer i n f i n d i n g the p a t t e r n s of  that the symbols imply; the dreamer can then a t t a c h  t h e s e p a t t e r n s to c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s or concepts which the cons c i o u s mind can d e a l w i t h on a r a t i o n a l b a s i s . about a new  i n s i g h t or apocalypse.  This brings  But s i n c e we are c o n s i d e r i n g p o e t r y and not case h i s t o r y , our main concern, as r e a d e r s who  wish to understand  what Blake i s s a y i n g , i s to f i n d p a t t e r n s i n the m u l t i t u d i n o u s a r r a y of symbols which he, as mythopoeic  poet, g i v e s us.  We  do not become gurus; Blake, as a r c h i t e c t i s , i n a c e r t a i n sense, the guru who, n a l f o r reawakening  f o r example, has A l b i o n sneeze as a s i g and f u t u r e apocalypse (FZ V I I I : 1 7 , K 3 4 1 ) .  W i t h i n the poem i t s e l f are t o be found a l l the necessary c l u e s that lead to Albion's r e i n t e g r a t i o n .  These c l u e s or symbolic  counters i n c l u d e the dramatis personae, the imagery, v a r i o u s m y t h l e t t e s w i t h i n the l a r g e r myth.  and the  One t h i n g t o be  kept i n mind i s t h a t the symbolic counters, l i k e elements i n a dream, may  p l a y t r i c k s on us.  Blake has s e t i t up t h i s  T h i s makes i n t e r p r e t a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t .  way.  While Blake does  not p l a y t r i c k s , h i s s u b t l e i r o n y and d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n o f syntax r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e x t e r i t y on the reader's part.  One  i s reminded  of Blake's own  dictum:  What i s Grand i s n e c e s s a r i l y obscure t o Weak men. That which can be made E x p l i c i t to the I d i o t i s not worth my c a r e . The w i s e s t of the A n c i e n t s c o n s i d e r ' d what i s not too E x p l i c i t as t h e f i t t e s t f o r I n s t r u c t i o n , because i t rouzes the f a c u l t i e s to act. . . . ( L e t t e r s . K 793) The q u o t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the t e x t u r e o f The Four Zoas.  The great v a r i e t y of l i t e r a r y d e v i c e s and  changes of s t y l e i n i t can a t times be l i k e n e d to the p y r o -  techniques o f Wagnerian o r c h e s t r a t i o n and at other times t o the s u b t l e i n t r i c a c i e s of Mozart's a r t . l i e i t m o t i f s i n music correspond t o the symbolic ers i n Blake's p o e t r y .  count-  They undergo v a r i a t i o n and development  by h a v i n g the uncanny power o f s u g g e s t i n g i n a word o r phrase a personage,  an emotion,  or an i d e a ; through a process o f  c o n t i n u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n they u n f o l d the meaning o f the drama, the changes i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r experiences and memories, t h e i r thoughts and hidden d e s i r e s . ers,  like leitmotifs,  accumulate  u n t i l they become the drama  Thus, the symbolic  count-  l a y e r upon l a y e r of meaning  itself.  T h i s drama which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i s the drama o f the sparagmos o f A l b i o n . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough the f i r s t image Blake uses t o v i s u a l i z e A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i s the very o p p o s i t e of r e n d i n g .  It  i s one of encasement: A l b i o n ' s s k u l l on t h e Stone of N i g h t . A symbol from b i o l o g i c a l physical science.  s c i e n c e i s combined w i t h one  from  The bony s k u l l and the Stone of Night are  modulating symbols which become i d e n t i c a l as Frye has p o i n t e d out ( c i t e d above, FS pp.  225-6).  The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s the  concept o f p r o t e c t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n .  Encasement o f d e l i c a t e  b r a i n t i s s u e by an o s s i f i e d c o v e r i n g i s , l i t e r a l l y  speaking,  p r o t e c t i v e ; m e t a p h o r i c a l l y speaking, i t i s a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r which p r e v e n t s A l b i o n from s i n k i n g i n t o Non passage quoted  Entity.  In the  from Europe ( t h i s t h e s i s , p. 30) we are t o l d  t h a t A l b i o n ' s head had once been opened t o the heavens. i s reminded o f the l i n e s from M i l t o n :  One  34 Now A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i n g Humanity began to t u r n upon h i s Couch, F e e l i n g the e l e c t r i c flame of M i l t o n ' s awful p r e c i p i t a t e descent. Seest thou the l i t t l e winged f l y , s m a l l e r than a g r a i n o f sand? I t has a h e a r t l i k e thee, a b r a i n open to heaven & h e l l , W i t h i n s i d e wondrous & expansive,: i t s gates are not c l o s ' d : I hope t h i n e are not: ... (20:25-29,  K  502)  Here, the f l y ' s b r a i n i s open as the u n f a l l e n A l b i o n ' s  once  was:  this  " w i t h i n s i d e wondrous & expansive."  Commenting on  passage Bloom w r i t e s : The descent o f M i l t o n begins to awaken A l b i o n , a s t i r r i n g which inaugurates a statement of the poem's theme, the necess i t y of c a s t i n g o f f e v e r y t h i n g i n the s e l f t h a t i s not human. As even a f l y i s a Minute P a r t i c u l a r of c r e a t i o n , capable of opening w i t h i n to the e t e r n a l c o n t r a r i e s , so man i s urged a l l the more to open h i s i n t e r n a l gates t o r e a l i t y . . . . (E The  r o o f i n g over of A l b i o n ' s b r a i n was  i n the c l o s i n g of h i s  832)  an important f a c t o r  gates.  A l b i o n ' s s k u l l and  the f l y ' s b r a i n are c o n c r e t e  and  p h y s i c a l l y c o r r e c t symbols because the essence of t h e i r meani n g conjures  up images of the two-opposing s t a t e s i n Blake's  myth.  The  to and  becomes one  a r i g i d and  s l e e p i n g g i a n t A'lbion whose bony s k u l l i s anchored w i t h the Stone of Night suggests not  only  f i x e d p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the environment  the s k u l l - s t o n e i s extremely c l o s e to a l i f e l e s s U l r o  but  state—  the n a d i r of the F a l l or " l i m i t of o p a c i t y " below which i s the chaos t h a t would l e a d i n t o a n n i h i l a t i o n or " N o n - E n t i t y . " U l r o i s Blake's death s t a t e i n which the p h y s i c a l body i s  The  reduced t o i n e r t matter such as rock and sand ( F r y e , FS. p. 2 0 8 ) . In t h i s s t a t e t h e s k u l l - s t o n e , not only as symbol but  as a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y , b l o c k s out l i g h t from A l b i o n ' s  brain.  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s , the t i n y winged f l y has a c h i t -  inous head c a p s u l e which allows some l i g h t t o pass through i t . S y m b o l i c a l l y speaking i t has not l o s t i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e l i g h t of Eternity.  The f l y a l s o possesses a c h i t i n o u s exo-  s k e l e t o n which, although not p l i a b l e , i s movable due t o the f l e x i b l e a r t i c u l a r membranes between i t s s c l e r i t e s .  It i s  one o f t h e l e a s t r e s t r i c t e d animals w i t h r e s p e c t t o i t s environment and moves w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o f ease.  This a g i l i t y  and f l e x i b i l i t y makes i t a f i t symbol as awakener o f " s l e e p i n g Humanity" and as p o i n t e r o f t h e way toward the Edenic o r apocalyptic  state.  While B l a k e ' s image o f A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i s one o f encasement,  in hisfirst  attempt at p o r t r a y i n g Apocalypse he  uses images o f e r u p t i o n and augmentation. the  These a r e found i n  p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y , America (K 1 9 5 ) , t h e theme o f which i s  t h a t achievement o f l i b e r t y through r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t i o n would b r i n g about an a p o c a l y p t i c s t a t e .  Z o o l o g i c a l and b i o m e d i c a l  imagery i s used t o d e p i c t emergence o f t h i s s t a t e . one o f t h e poem, Ore, t h e s p i r i t o f r e v o l t ,  On p l a t e  though bound, w i l l  "rend t h e s e c a v e r n s " because he possesses a k i n d o f t o t a l i t y o f t h e same f i e r c e energy possessed by t h e t h r e e b e a s t s which Blake l i n k s t o g e t h e r by use o f t h e word, "Sometimes" ( l . 1 3 ) . These beasts, masters o f t h e i r environment, a r e : the eagle,  36 which Blake comments upon elsewhere, "When thou seest an Eagle, thou s e e s t a p o r t i o n o f Genius; l i f t (MHH,  up thy head!"  K 1 5 2 ) ; t h e l i o n , p o p u l a r l y r e f e r r e d t o as k i n g o f  beasts; and t h e mammoth c r e a t u r e o f t h e sea, t h e whale. Blake, by h i s c h o i c e o f these p a r t i c u l a r beasts, i s i n f e r r i n g t h a t Ore a t t h i s p o i n t possesses t h e energy o f a i r , e a r t h , and s e a . The emergence o f Ore i n Blake's myth i s o f t h e g r e a t e s t importance.  I n "A Song o f L i b e r t y " (K 1 5 9 ) he i s " t h e  new born t e r r o r ,  . . . t h e new born wonder . . . with f l a m i n g  h a i r . . . and f i e r y l i m b s . " the importance o f Ore.  Frye (FS, p. 2 0 7 f f ) summarizes  He i s not o n l y B l a k e ' s Prometheus but  a l s o h i s Adonis, t h e d y i n g and r e v i v i n g god o f h i s mythology. He r e p r e s e n t s v i c t o r y o f c r e a t i v e power over something mons t r o u s and s i n i s t e r symbolized by t h e dragon o r b i b l i c a l sea serpent, t h e L e v i a t h a n .  The a d j e c t i v e "ruddy" most f r e q u e n t l y  used t o d e s c r i b e " r e d Ore" a s s o c i a t e s him with r e v o l u t i o n , blood, rage, and s e x u a l p a s s i o n , a l l o f which i n d i c a t e mous forms o f energy.  enor-  Damon'*""'' suggests h i s name i s an anagram  o f c o r because he i s born from Enitharmon's  h e a r t (FZ V : 3 7 ) .  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f Ore w i t h t h e c i r c u l a t o r y system i n Blake's metaphor i s a n a t u r a l one. The sparagmos i n t r a d i t i o n a l mythology  was t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e body and blood o f  a god. Blood was thought t o be t h e l i f e g i v i n g f o r c e , without which t h e body was an empty s h e l l .  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o  f i n d r e f e r e n c e s t o blood and blood imagery r u n n i n g p e r s i s t e n t l y  37 throughout Blake's p r o p h e t i c w r i t i n g s . The  Four Zoas. Ore  I f i n the l a t e r poem,  i s born from Enitharmon's h e a r t , i n the  e a r l i e r p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y , America, he a r i s e s from "the red c l o u d s " o f blood hanging over the A t l a n t i c ocean which  now  12 covers what was  once Eden or the l o s t A t l a n t i s .  Since  the  s u b j e c t of t h i s poem i s America's r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t England, here c a l l e d A l b i o n , and  Ore i s the s p i r i t o f r e v o l t  " A l b i o n ' s w r a t h f u l P r i n c e " who  against  i s George I I I , the b l o o d meta-  phor i s w e l l chosen because i t s e r v e s s e v e r a l purposes: sparagmos i s d e p i c t e d p o l i t i c a l l y , tomically.  Blake's  illustrates  this:  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , and  s i m i l e d e s c r i b i n g the b i r t h of  ana-  Ore  Solemn heave the A t l a n t i c waves between the gloomy n a t i o n s , S w e l l i n g , b e l c h i n g from i t s deeps red c l o u d s & r a g i n g f i r e s . Albion i s sick! America f a i n t s ! enrag'd the Z e n i t h grew. As human blood s h o o t i n g i t s v e i n s a l l round the orbed heaven, Red r o s e the c l o u d s from the A t l a n t i c i n vast wheels of blood, And i n t h e red c l o u d s r o s e a Wonder o'er the A t l a n t i c sea, I n t e n s e ! naked! a Human f i r e , f i e r c e glowing, . . . (A 4 : 2 - 8 , The major image i n these l i n e s i s one are volcanoes  K  of eruption.  197) The waves  which b e l c h "red c l o u d s & r a g i n g f i r e s , " which,  l i k e the c i r c u l a t o r y system w i t h i t s p r o p u l s i v e f o r c e  shoots  i t s v e i n s t o the h i g h e s t p o i n t "the orbed heaven"; t h i s "orbed heaven" can be t h e h i g h e s t p o i n t i n the u n i v e r s e or i t can t h e human b r a i n , seat of the i m a g i n a t i o n which i s nourished r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the a n t e r i o r c a r d i n a l v e i n s . c l o u d s o f blood  That the r e d  erupt from the A t l a n t i c " i n v a s t wheels o f  be by  38 b l o o d " i s l o g i c a l and powerful imagery because two important i d e a s a r e combined i n i t .  S i n c e the heaving A t l a n t i c now  covers t h e l o s t Eden, only out o f t h i s portentous area c o u l d come t h e new f o r c e t h a t i s capable o f overthrowing t h e o l d t y r a n n y j t h i s f o r c e t h a t expends i t s e l f i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y war i s imaged by " v a s t wheels o f b l o o d , " l i t e r a l l y , war c h a r i o t wheels besmattered  with b l o o d .  That Grc was t h e new f o r c e ,  the "Wonder" who r o s e from t h e " r e d c l o u d s " i s s t a t e d explicitly.  Blake has, with great compression,  combined  imagery s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e b i r t h o f t h e r e v i v i n g god i s c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o the same l i f e f o r c e t h a t d r i v e s t h e human blood t o t h e b r a i n . dimension  The e x p l o s i v e f o r c e i s o f the same  as t h a t t o be found i n r e v o l u t i o n a r y war.  e r u p t i o n r e l e a s e s t h e dynamic f o r c e s o f energy  Thus,  that are  necessary f o r reunion o f t h e sparagmos• C o n t i n u i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y , t h e K i n g o f England trembles a t t h e appearance o f t h e dynamic f o r c e s r e p r e s e n t e d by Orej h i s f i r s t r e a c t i o n i s t o stand " b e s i d e t h e Stone o f N i g h t " ( p i . 5) which here must mean guarding A l b i o n ' s s l e e p i n g c o n d i t i o n , i . e . p r e s e r v i n g h i s book o f laws o r s t a t u s quo position.  Blake's d i s t o r t i o n o f cosmology i n l i n e s f o u r and f i v e  may be a d e l i b e r a t e parody o f the chaos i n the King's mind. sudden t r a n s i t i o n occurs i n l i n e s i x . appears;  A  Ore's S p e c t r e now  he i s i n t h e form o f a serpent, " h i s h o r r i d l e n g t h  s t a i n i n g t h e temple l o n g / With beams o f blood; & thus a v o i c e came f o r t h , and shook t h e temple."  The "serpent form" r e c a l l s  39 the "dragon form" o f t h e K i n g i n p l a t e 3.  The word  "temple"  ( 5 s 7 ) seems t o suggest a k i n d o f combined r e p o s i t o r y f o r t h e King's r e l i g i o n and laws.  The f a c t t h a t t h e S p e c t r e ' s v o i c e ,  u t t e r i n g prophecy ( p i . 6 ) , has t h e power t o shake i t n o t o n l y s t r i k e s t e r r o r i n t o t h e h e a r t o f the K i n g but i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e S p e c t r e h i m s e l f c o n t a i n s some s o r t o f unnamed power. T h i s i s p o s s i b l y the f i r s t reference to a Spectre i n the minor p r o p h e c i e s . two  I have a l r e a d y mentioned i n chapter  (p. 22) t h a t from Blake's own s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e  S p e c t r e i s t h e r a t i o n a l power but i s o f t e n w i l d l y  irrational.  These d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l h o l d only i n t h e contexts i n which they a r e g i v e n .  C r i t i c a l o p i n i o n has been v a r i e d and t e n t a -  t i v e r e g a r d i n g Blake's S p e c t r e s .  F o r t h e moment i t i s note-  worthy t h a t t h i s S p e c t r e ' s speech i s a great statement o f l i b e r a t i o n from tyranny. g i v e such an important  speech,  i s t h e key t o Ore's power? "compulsive  I s Blake, by having t h e S p e c t r e suggesting that the Spectre  I s he, as Damon suggests, t h e  machinery" ( D i e t , p. 382) t h a t Ore must use t o  be e f f e c t i v e ?  An attempt  w i l l be made t o f i n d answers t o  these q u e s t i o n s when t h e problem o f t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona ( t o whom Ore's S p e c t r e i s r e l a t e d ) i s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s thesis. In t h e speech i t s e l f ,  images o f encasement and t h e  b r e a k i n g out o f i t a r e t e l e s c o p e d i n t h e s e pregnant  lines:  The grave i s b u r s t , t h e s p i c e s shed, t h e l i n e n wrapped up; The bones o f death, t h e c o v ' r i n g c l a y , t h e sinews shrunk &• dry'd  40 R e v i v i n g shake, i n s p i r i n g move, b r e a t h i n g , awakening, S p r i n g l i k e redeemed c a p t i v e s when t h e i r bonds & bars a r e burst. Let t h e s l a v e g r i n d i n g at t h e m i l l run out i n t o t h e f i e l d , Let him l o o k up i n t o t h e heavens & laugh i n t h e b r i g h t a i r ; Let the i n c h a i n e d s o u l , shut, up i n darkness and i n s i g h i n g , Whose f a c e has never seen a s m i l e i n t h i r t y weary y e a r s , R i s e and l o o k out; h i s c h a i n s a r e l o o s e , h i s dungeon doors are open; And l e t h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n r e t u r n from t h e o p p r e s s o r ' s scourge. (A  6:2-11, K 198)  The r e s u r r e c t i o n images h i g h l i g h t t h e theme o f Ore as a r e v i v i n g god. However, Apocalypse does not occur i n t h i s poem; t h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t because i t i s , i n p a r t , p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y .  The  r e v o l t a g a i n s t George t h e T h i r d by the American c o l o n i e s d i d not  b r i n g f o r t h t h e Apocalypse Blake had hoped f o r .  As F r y e  has worked out i n FS, t h e appearance o f Ore i n America i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e r i e s o f Ore c y c l e s i n each o f which Ore appears as a young dynamic  f o r c e , he l a t e r matures, grows o l d ,  s o l i d i f i e s into a Urizenic figure. and p a r a l l e l t h e c y c l e s o f h i s t o r y .  These c y c l e s a r e repeated Blake l o s t f a i t h i n t h e  i d e a o f f i n a l Apocalypse from t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c y c l e s and t u r n e d h i s a t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l Apocalypse. In  t h i s mood Blake began The Four Zoas, h i s great  m y t h i c a l account o f t h e s t r u g g l e between t h e f a l l e n of  man.  The f i r s t  faculties  form o f t h e t i t l e was: "VALA o r The Death  and Judgement o f t h e A n c i e n t Man, a DREAM o f Nine Nights"; the  second form: "The Four Zoas. The torments o f Love &  J e a l o u s y i n The Death and Judgement of A l b i o n the A n c i e n t Man."  In the second form Blake i s p i n p o i n t i n g t h e s t r u g g l  between the f a l l e n f a c u l t i e s o f the Zoas r a t h e r than the death and judgement of A l b i o n .  Biomedical imagery used t o  d e p i c t t h i s aspect of Blake's myth w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h following chapter.  CHAPTER IV The Zoas may  F a l l and movement toward Apocalypse i n The  be l i k e n e d to a pseudo cancerous growth t h a t o r i g i n -  a t e s by c e l l u l a r d i v i s i o n , spreads  by augmentation, c o a l e s c e s  i n t o encasement i n order to destroy the c e l l s but  finally  erupts with e x p l o s i v e f o r c e i n an attempt to r e o r d e r elements i n t o a healthy h o l i s t i c It of  Four  the  gestalt.  i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Night I begins with the  Tharmas, the "Parent pow'er," t h i s Zoa  i s the  fall  instinctual  r e g u l a t o r y mechanism r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h o l d i n g the o t h e r Zoas (i.e.  f a c u l t i e s ) t o g e t h e r i n the u n i t y o f A l b i o n .  "Mighty F a t h e r " ( 4 1 3 , " b r i g h t sheephook."  K 275)  who,  He  as p a s t o r , possesses  Whereas the u n f a l i e n Tharmas was  i s the a the  o r i g i n a l f a c u l t y o f great s t r e n g t h and power which c o u l d t h e data of experience,  the f a l l e n Tharmas, as F i s h e r  alter  com-  11 ments  becomes the f i x e d data of f a l l e n experxence.  f a c u l t y i s now  l i m i t e d to a s o r t o f r e f l e x arc type of  The exist-  ence; i t can no l o n g e r e x c l u s i v e l y "sense" t h i n g s i n t u i t i v e l y but i n s t e a d must depend upon s e n s a t i o n s r e c e i v e d through the sense organs.  These s e n s a t i o n s are not i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a gut  l e v e l of experience.  S h a k e s p e a r e s F a l s t a f f i s an example of  an i n t u i t i v e person who  T  has not l o s t t h e sense o f f e e l i n g h i s  awareness; h i s l a r g e b e l l y i s not only a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y a symbol of h i s c a p a c i t y to f e e l h i s own  life  forces.  but  It is  i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e word Tharmas might be from the word  43 Tharm,  I n both t h e E n g l i s h D i a l e c t D i c t i o n a r y (New York, ed.  J o s . Wright, 1 9 0 5 ) and t h e O.E.D. Tharm i s given as a d i a l e c t form from t h e Anglo-Saxon, and West Saxon's thearm. A.D. in  i n some works i t was g l o s s e d f o r t h e L a t i n  In 7 0 0  Intestinum;  1 4 6 0 i t meant an i n t e s t i n e , c h i e f l y bowels, v i s c e r a , en-  trails;  and i n 1 7 2 1 i t was used: "He t h a t has a wide therm  had never a l o n g arm." I t was a l s o sometimes w r i t t e n as Thairm.  1 4  In t h e f a l l e n s t a t e t h e senses a r e f i v e i n s t e a d o f t h e o r i g i n a l four. combined.  I n u n f a l i e n A l b i o n touch and t a s t e had been  When Tharmas' f a l l was completed, t h e daughters o f  Beulah " c l o s ' d t h e Gate o f t h e Tongue" ( 1 0 8 , K 6 7 ) thus t i n g the generative o f t h e whole b e i n g . for  split-  and d i g e s t i v e f u n c t i o n s t o t h e d e p r i v a t i o n Psychic  as w e l l as p h y s i o l o g i c a l hunger  both food and sex remain f o r t h e most p a r t f o r e v e r un-  appeased as both Freud with h i s l i b i d o theory  and, l a t e r ,  Perls"* -* with h i s emphasis on t h e hunger i n s t i n c t , have s t r e s s e d -  as b e i n g t h e crux o f t h e m a l f u n c t i o n i n g lem.  i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e prob-  Tharmas r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e body with i t s a p p e t i t e s and  Enion r e p r e s e n t i n g the g e n e r a t i v e e n d l e s s l y search f o r one another.  i n s t i n c t s a r e separated and With t h e f a l l o f Tharmas  the v i v i d immediacy o f s e n s i n g and e x p e r i e n c i n g was l o s t . The  initial  irreparable loss.  r e s u l t o f t h e F a l l i s one o f chaos and Tharmas' f i r s t  are my Emanations! Enion, (25 K 264).  c r y i s "Lost! Lost!  Lost!  [come f o r t h , d e l . ] / 0 Enion,  . . ."  Tharmas' emanations, i . e . h i s c h i l d r e n , h i s  c r e a t i o n s , are d i v i d e d from him as i s h i s w i f e Enion who been r e p l a c e d i n h i s bosom by Enitharmon. i n d e s p a i r and g u i l t , It i s Pity."  has  Tharmas c r i e s out  " I t i s not Love I bear to Enitharmon.  Love i s an i n t e g r a t i v e power; p i t y a r i s e s from  s e p a r a t i o n and i s a poor s u b s t i t u t e f o r l o v e . d i s t u r b e d emotional s t a t e s abound.  Torments o f  Enion l i k e Eve i n P a r a d i s e  L o s t t u r n s on Tharmas, she blames him f o r the s t a t e o f chaos and s e t s h e r s e l f up as a moral judge ( 3 5 - 4 5 ) .  She wishes to  become hidden, t o become a shadow; she does not wish t o see h e r s e l f as a f a l l e n c r e a t u r e .  She i s f i l l e d with s e l f  because she has had to l o o k upon s i n . s t a t e t h a t f a l l e n f a c u l t i e s produce. each o t h e r .  pity  S i n i s the d i s - e a s e d The f a l l e n p a i r accuse  Tharmas blames her beauty f o r drawing him i n t o a  s t a t e of d e s p a i r which " w i l l b r i n g self-murder on my  soul. /  0 E n i o n , " he says, "thou a r t t h y s e l f a r o o t growing  in^hell"  (56-7).  I d e n t i t i e s are l o s t .  Enion says, " F a r e w e l l , I d i e .  1 h i d e from thy s e a r c h i n g eyes."  Tharmas becomes "a p a l e  white c o r s e " and s i n k s down i n t o the " f i l m y Woof" t h a t Enion begins to weave. T h i s i s no o r d i n a r y woof t h a t Enion weaves.  It i s a  "woof o f t e r r o r " ( 8 1 , K 266) and Blake draws from anatomy to c r e a t e an image o f augmentation.  Enion uses t h e v i t a l  con-  n e c t i v e s o f the body, the nerves, v e i n s , and l a c t e a l s as woof threads.  The word " l a c t e a l s " i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  In modern usage  l a c t e a l s are the lymphatics c o n t a i n i n g c h y l e which l e a d from the s m a l l i n t e s t i n e ; i n 1664 ( a c c . to the O.E.D.) the word  was  used i n t h i s sense: "The Stomach & guts and t h e i r appendent v e s s e l s , the l a c t e a l v e i n s . "  Blake must have noted the asso-  c i a t i o n w i t h t h e stomach and guts and a l r e a d y h a v i n g i n h i s mind the word Tharmas. the d e r i v a t i o n of which was  noted  above, i t i s a c o n s i s t e n t word c h o i c e on Blake's p a r t  because  out of the "woof o f t e r r o r " w i l l a r i s e the p h y s i c a l form o f the S p e c t r e of Tharmas.  The nerves, v e i n s , l a c t e a l s a c t as  conduits, l i n e s , pipes.  In Enion's determined f i n g e r s they  become "sinewy  t h r e a d s " ( 6 9 , K 2 6 6 ) ; they are powerful,  r o b u s t , tendon l i k e .  The m a t e r i a l now  b e i n g woven d i f f e r s  g r e a t l y from the " s o f t s i l k e n v e i l s " t h a t the female emanat i o n s wove i n Eden or g e n t l e Beulah l a n d ( 6 4 - 7 , K 266) i n which they enwrapped themselves d u r i n g winter t o conserve t h e i r s t r e n g t h so t h a t i n s p r i n g t i m e they might  a c t as r e -  s t o r a t i v e agents f o r t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s — t h e androgynous Eternals. The manner and p l a c e o f b i r t h o f the S p e c t r e of Tharmas  i s significant.  The " p a l e white c o r s e " o f the f a l l e n  Tharmas s i n k s down i n t o the sea t o flow amongst Enion's "woof of t e r r o r . "  Enion's f i b r o u s t h r e a d s o f the woof match the  f i x e d s t a t i c f i b r e s of the warp thus g i v i n g s t r u c t u r e — a n d b i r t h to a new  and independent p h y s i c a l being, the Spectre of  Tharmas (metaphor f o r a new mental  state).  An image of d i v i -  s i o n d e p i c t s t h i s b i r t h : " H i s [Tharmas'] s p e c t r e i s s u i n g from h i s f e e t i n flames o f f i r e " ( 7 8 , K 2 6 6 ) .  The b i r t h p l a c e  s e l f i s a p l a c e o f t e r r o r because t h e u n f a l l e n Tharmas  it-  was  46 a l s o t h e water o f l i f e i n Beulah, t h e l i q u i d i m a g i n a t i o n which c o u l d , t h e r e b e i n g no r i g i d i t i e s ,  c o n t i n u a l l y change  its  shape.  The f a l l e n Tharmas, b e i n g t h e s p i r i t o f chaos,  the  c h i e f form o f which i n t h e f a l l e n world i s t h e sea^has  no shape, but i n s t e a d , i s bounded by i t s c o n t a i n e r w h i l e a t the  same time i t i s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y i n g t o break i t s bounds  and t o overwhelm l i f e i n r u i n . is  Although t h i s  birthplace  a p l a c e o f t e r r o r , Blake has s u b t l y i n s e r t e d t h e phrase  t h a t t h e b i r t h took p l a c e i n "flames o f f i r e . "  T h i s suggests  t h e r e may be a t e r r i b l e P h o e n i x - l i k e q u a l i t y to t h i s  birth.  The imagery o f d i v i s i o n and augmentation c o n t a i n s w i t h i n i t self,  as pseudo cancerous c e l l s do, elements t h a t may be  restorative. in  I t i s o n l y l i g h t l y touched upon a t t h i s p o i n t  Blake's myth but i t i s w e l l t o keep i n mind t h a t i t may  be taken s y m b o l i c a l l y o r i r o n i c a l l y . There i s a great d e a l o f s u b t l e i r o n y i n t h e passages p r e c e d i n g and f o l l o w i n g t h i s b i r t h . c r e a t i o n myth.  Blake i s p a r o d y i n g t h e  Tharmas i s a parody o f t h e d e i t y ,  Tharmas groan'd among h i s Clouds Weeping; [and d e l . ] then bending from h i s Clouds, he stoop'd h i s [holy d e l . ] i n n o c e n t head, And s t r e t c h i n g out h i s h o l y hand i n t h e v a s t deep sublime, Turn'd iiQund t h e c i r c l e o f D e s t i n y w i t h t e a r s & b i t t e r s i g h s And s a i d : "Return, 0 wanderer, when t h e day o f Clouds i s o'er." (71-5,  K 266)  "The day o f Clouds" i s t h e p e r i o d from t h e F a l l t o t h e Apocal y p s e ; t h e "wanderer"  i s Enion i.e£ "anyone."  Blake i s h i n t -  i n g here t h a t t h e r e may  be a r e s t o r a t i v e reunion, but i t i s  only a h i n t because immediately  a f t e r t h i s comes the d e s c r i p -  t i o n of Tharmas s i n k i n g down i n t o Enion*s " f i l m y Woof." . Enion i s a parody of the a r t i s t  creating,  . . . . . T e r r i f i e d & d r i n k i n g t e a r s o f woe Shudd'ring she wove n i n e days & n i g h t s , s l e e p l e s s ; her food was t e a r s . Wond'ring she saw her woof begin to animate, & not As Garments woven s u b s e r v i e n t t o her hands, but having a w i l l Of i t s own, p e r v e r s e & wayward. Enion l o v ' d & wept. Nine days she l a b o u r d at her work, & n i n e dark s l e e p l e s s nights. T  (81-6, K  266)  Enion, as a r t i s t ; , i s forming a p a t t e r n ; she i s weaving t h e n i n e days and the n i n e n i g h t s of The Four Zoas; the book parodies i t s e l f being w r i t t e n .  But Enion i s a l s o a parody  of the c r e a t o r , her woof begins to animate, to have a w i l l of was  i t s own.  Enion both l o v e d and f e a r e d t h i s new  "perverse and wayward."  and " w i l l of i t s own" ter  w i l l which  The a s s o c i a t i o n between S p e c t r e  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chap-  i n c o n n e c t i o n with F r y e ' s t e n t a t i v e p o s t u l a t e t h a t the  S p e c t r e o f Urthona Due another  i s the w i l l  (FS, p.  232).  t o the augmentation p r o c e s s t h a t i s t a k i n g p l a c e  e n t i t y i s c r e a t e d : E n i o n s shadow (90, K 266). T  In  a c t u a l i t y i t i s a p r o j e c t i o n r a t h e r than a c r e a t i o n because , when one i s on t h i s s i d e of Apocalypse,  one i s unable t o  c r e a t e but r a t h e r p r o j e c t s onto something e l s e a from one's own  mind.  phantasy  The word " c r e a t e d " w i l l be used i n t h i s  sense i n the f o l l o w i n g comments.  Enion views with t e r r o r her  c r e a t i o n because i t i s her u n r e a l s e l f , o r , the p a r t of h e r s e l f t h a t she f e a r s ; as a l r e a d y s t a t e d , Damon c a l l s the shadow the r e s i d u e of suppressed  desire.  With t h i s c r e a t i o n  l o s e s her i d e n t i t y meaning t h a t now  she i s given over to the  s p e c t r o u s aspect of Tharmas and i s i n h i s power. shadow i s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r r e a l i t y the S p e c t r e i s p a r t o f r e a l i t y .  Enion  Whereas the  ( c f . P l a t o ' s cave myth),  The shadow i s the d e s i r e t o  u n i t e ; the Spectre of Tharmas i s the t h i n g Enion u n i t e s w i t h . Enion as God has c r e a t e d and the c r e a t i o n i s an act o f s i n i n the same way  that d i s e a s e d cancerous  c e l l s (which are a l s o  "perverse and wayward"*) are an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t the n a t u r a l order o f the l i f e p r o c e s s e s . t e r r i f i e d o f her own image o f her t e r r o r .  As mother of the Spectre she i s  c r e a t i o n but she i s a l s o drawn to the Her "dread i n t o x i c a t i o n " i n d i c a t e s  d e l i g h t s i n her s i n and at the same time she f e e l s the  she  full  h o r r o r of i t ; no amount o f s e l f a c c u s a t i o n w i l l overcome her guilt: "What have I done," s a i d Enion, "accursed wretch! What deed? " I s t h i s a deed o f Love? I know what I have done. I know "Too l a t e now t o repent. Love i s chang'd t o deadly Hate, "Already are my Eyes r e v e r t e d ; a l l t h a t I behold " W i t h i n my s o u l has l o s t i t s s p l e n d o r , & a b r o o d i n g Fear "Shadows me o'er & d r i v e s me outward to a world of woe." So w a i l ' d she, t r e m b l i n g b e f o r e her own Created Phantasm d e l . ( 1 0 9 - 1 1 8 , K 267)  49 T h i s "Created Phantasm" i s t h e S p e c t r e she draws f o r t h from Tharmas i n her loom o f V e g e t a t i o n .  Blake draws  from m e t a l l u r g y and zoology t o g i v e us an image o f t h i s Spectre: Rear'd up a form o f g o l d & stood upon t h e g l i t t e r i n g rock A shadowy human form winged. & i n h i s depths The d a z z l i n g s as o f gems shone c l e a r ; . . . ( i t a l i c s mine) (126-8, K 267) I t i s important t o compare t h i s image w i t h that o f Blake's winged f i g u r e s appearing i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o Job, p i . 3; t h e I n f e r n o . p i . 69 Canto XXXIV; Jerusalem, p i . 3 7 . Keeping i n mind these comparisons  one can l o o k a g a i n a t Kenner's s t a t e -  ment, " t h e t e s t o f an image i s not i t s o r i g i n a l i t y but t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n o f thought and emotion i t p r o v i d e s " (quoted above, p. 1 ) . attempt  I i n t e n d t o e n l a r g e upon t h i s concept i n my  t o c l a r i f y t h e meaning o f t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona i n  chapter V o f t h i s t h e s i s . For t h e moment i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o note t h e r e l a t i o n ship between Enion, Tharmas, and t h e S p e c t r e o f Tharmas.  The  Spectre, once h a v i n g been c r e a t e d ( i . e . p r o j e c t e d ) , Three days i n s e l f admiring r a p t u r e s on t h e rocks he flam'd, And t h r e e dark n i g h t s r e p i n ' d t h e s o l i t u d e , but t h e t h i r d morn A s t o n i s h * d he found Enion hidden i n t h e darksom Cave. (134-6, K 267) The t h r e e days and n i g h t s echo the disappearance o f C h r i s t a f t e r t h e c r u c i f i x i o n but s i n c e i t has been c r e a t i o n at t h e  50 level  of Enion, t h e r e can o n l y be a parody o f the  fixion. Jesus.  Enion remains i n the cave i n s t e a d of escaping  own  like  Roles and r e l a t i o n s h i p s are r e v e r s e d ; the r e s u l t s o f  Enion's c r e a t i o n are a l l n e g a t i v e . his  cruci-  The  Spectre, f i l l e d  with  p r i d e , becomes dominant and judgmental toward h i s  mother Enion: "Who a r t thou, D i m i n u t i v e husk & s h e l l I scorn my p r i s o n , I scorn & y e t I love. " I f thou hast s i n n ' d & a r t p o l l u t e d , know t h a t I am pure "And u n p o l l u t e d , & w i l l b r i n g t o r i g i d s t r i c t account " A l l thy p a s t deeds; hear what I t e l l thee! mark i t w e l l ! remember! " T h i s world i s Thine i n which thou d w e l l e s t ; t h a t w i t h i n thy soul, "That dark & dismal i n f i n i t e where Thought roams up & down, " I s Mine, & t h e r e thou goest when w i t h one S t i n g of my tongue "Envenom*d thou r o l l ' s t inwards to the p l a c e [ o f death & h e l l d e l . ] whence I emerg d." "Broke from my  bonds?  T  (149-157, The person  K  268)  c r e a t e d becomes s t r o n g e r than the c r e a t o r .  a s i t u a t i o n with murderous and i n c e s t u o u s overtones.  It i s The  tongue b e i n g not only a sexual organ but a l s o an organ o f speech, Tharmas can now  use i t to c o n t r o l Enion.  Like  Mac-  B e t t y s h a l l u c i n a t i o n of the dagger at the banquet the word e n v i s i o n e d becomes the deed; he w i l l k i l l S p e c t r e ' s a c c u s a t i o n s , Enion's  Duncan.  A f t e r the  s i n becomes c l e a r t o her:  " I thought Tharmas a s i n n e r & I murder'd h i s Emanations, " H i s s e c r e t l o v e s & Graces. Ah me wretched! What have I done? "For now I f i n d t h a t a l l those Emanations were my C h i l d r e n ' s souls, . . . (163-5,  K  268)  Summing up the s i t u a t i o n , the Spectre o f Tharmas which s t a r t e d out as a s e r i e s of l i f e l e s s f i b r o u s systems woven by Enion i n t o a garment t o h i d e h e r s e l f from the gaze of Tharmas becomes, t o her amazement, an independent  l i v i n g e n t i t y which  r e f u s e s t o accept the. s u b s e r v i e n t r o l e Enion had wished t o c r e a t e f o r him.  His f i r s t  a c t was  to spurn her ( 9 2 , K 2 6 6 ) ,  then he i s going to f o l l o w her, to accuse her, to h i d e her i n his  " j e a l o u s wings" ( 1 7 6 , K 2 6 9 ) .  I t i s the Oedipus stance.  Enion s e e i n g Tharmas i n the S p e c t r e i s s e e i n g the husband i n the son.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Enion, Tharmas, S p e c t r e i s a  s e l f d e l u s i o n of Enion's who  thereby becomes "the  Solitary  wanderer" ( 2 0 3 , K 269) s e a r c h i n g f o r her c h i l d r e n who her because of her s p e c t r o u s involvement. the "two  Los and  l i t t l e I n f a n t s , " the " f i e r c e boy & g i r l , "  reject  Enitharmon, are the  p r o d u c t s of the i n c e s t u o u s c o u p l i n g o f Enion w i t h the Spectre of  Tharmas and again, the persons c r e a t e d tend t o become  s t r o n g e r than t h e i r c r e a t o r .  They r e p e l Enion "away & away  by a dread r e p u l s i v e power / Into Non  Entity" (218-9, K 2 7 0 ) .  There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d to the S p e c t r e at this point.  I t a l s o has the power to work f o r Enion as w e l l  as a g a i n s t her; the l i n e [she] "Rehumanizing from the Spectre in  pangs of maternal l o v e " i n d i c a t e s t h a t Enion's  original  g e n e r a t i v e power has been r e s t o r e d ; she has been rehumanized in  the b i r t h process.  The b i r t h o f Los and Enitharmon, r e p -  r e s e n t Time and Space, a p r o v i d e n t i a l a c t which p r e v e n t s Enion ( i . e . any one of us) from f a l l i n g completely i n t o  Non  52 Entity.  Regeneration, h i n t e d at i n the l i n e :  y e t the Hand D i v i n e  ..."  "They saw  not  ( 2 3 0 , K 270) can only come from  t h i s k i n d of p r o v i d e n t i a l a c t . t o be a f r e e f l o a t i n g p s y c h i c  Thus the S p e c t r e would seem energy t h a t can be used f o r  e i t h e r good or e v i l purposes. As has  been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , blood  imagery runs  p e r s i s t e n t l y throughout the p r o p h e t i c w r i t i n g s .  In the  h a l f of Night I i t i s a s s o c i a t e d with Enitharmon, Los, Vala, Urizen  and  Book of U r i z e n  Ore.  (V, 1 4 : 7 , K 230) a "globe o f b l o o d "  and  She  was  "the f i r s t  female form  r a c e " of f a l l e n U r i z e n i c men. by p l a c i n g m i n i a t u r e  The  The  231)  enormous  (BU,  important and c o n t r a d i c t o r y  enormous race i s reduced to  pi. 17).  concepts  miniature  f i g u r e s encapsulated by the l i m i t i n g membrane of the globule.  now  Blake r e i n f o r c e s t h i s f o r e c a s t  f i g u r e s i n s i d e the g l o b u l e  s t r o k e two  are s i g n a l l e d .  to bear "an  The  initiated  " A l l E t e r n i t y shudder'd at the s i g h t " (K  as w e l l they might; they knew she was  Thus at one  Luvah,  I t i s p e r t i n e n t t o remember t h a t i n  the b i r t h of Enitharmon. separate,"  latter  actual  encasement imagery suggests s e v e r a l t h i n g s :  mind-forged manacles appear even before  the b i r t h of Enitharmon,  she w i l l be manacled as w i l l be a l l o f her o f f s p r i n g ; however, s i n c e Blake has one  chosen a g l o b u l e f i l l e d  w i t h blood  r a t h e r than  f i l l e d w i t h a s t a t i c f i b r o u s network, t h i s i n d i c a t e s not  only the a n c i e n t b e l i e f t h a t from blood psychic  l i f e f o r c e , but,  s p r i n g s some mysterious  from more recent  f a c t t h a t the membrane i s semipermeable.  s c i e n t i f i c data The  suggestion  the  53 i m p l i e d i s t h a t the bounding  l i n e o f the image of c i r c u l a r i t y -  i s counterbalanced by the p o s s i b i l i t y encasement.  T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with Blake's dictum:  c o n t r a r i e s t h e r e i s no p r o g r e s s i o n . " logical  o f e r u p t i o n out o f the  imagery  That Blake used  "Without embryo-  i n The Book o f U r i z e n has a l r e a d y been de-  s c r i b e d by Carmen K r e i t e r ? but I do not t h i n k t h a t what I 1  s a y i n g here has been p o i n t e d out b e f o r e .  am  Frye does make the  important b i b l i c a l c o n n e c t i o n when d i s c u s s i n g the g l o b u l e o f blood: The c h a o t i c world, r e p r e s e n t e d by the sea, d i s a p p e a r s i n the apocalypse (Rev. XXI, 1 ) , i t s p l a c e b e i n g taken by a c i r c u l a t i n g r i v e r of f r e s h water ('the deeps s h r i n k t o t h e i r fount a i n s ' , as Blake says i n America). T h i s r i v e r i s the water of l i f e r e s t o r e d to man, and as i t i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the c i r c u l a t i n g blood of man's r i s e n body a l l water i s a s i n g l e 'Globule of Blood', as Blake c a l l s i t . " 1  The c o n t r a d i c t o r y a f f i l i a t i o n between blood and water i s a f f i r m e d i n Blake's d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the newly c r e a t e d , i . e . " f a l l e n " Los and Enitharmon. first  s t a t e i s one of i n t e n s e emotional  Their  turmoil:  A l t e r n a t e Love & Hate h i s b r e a s t : hers Scorn & Jealousy In embryon p a s s i o n s ; they k i s s ' d not nor embrac'd f o r shame & fear. She drave the Females a l l away from Los, And Los drave the Males from her away. They wander'd l o n g , t i l l they s a t down upon the margin'd sea, C o n v e r s i n g w i t h the v i s i o n s of Beulah i n dark slumbrous b l i s s . (FZ 1:237-246, K  270-1)  54  Although t h e i r emotions run the gamut of l o v e , hate, s c o r n , j e a l o u s y , shame, f e a r , and they wander l o n g i n such a s t a t e , it  i s not u n t i l they s i t "upon the m a r g i n d  are  f  sea" t h a t they  able t o be i n c o n t a c t w i t h the "dark slumbrous  the Beulah s t a t e .  D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s the sea of  time and space t h a t i s our world, they can s t i l l fold vision.  b l i s s " of  have t h r e e  L i k e Adam and Eve a f t e r the F a l l they ponder  on the world they have l o s t .  Enitharmon  i n a m i l d v o i c e and  w i t h "a dropping t e a r " s i n g s a Song of Death,  v i z . a song of  our l i f e upon t h i s v e g e t a t i v e e a r t h , the p r e s i d i n g goddess of which i s V a l a or the v e i l of i l l u s i o n .  The song recaps the  F a l l the i n i t i a l consequence o f which has a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s t h e s i s .  Due t o the upheaval o f emotional  t u r m o i l , the f a c u l t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d by U r i z e n , Luvah, V a l a have exchanged p l a c e s . l a u g h t e r s i e z ' d me For  i n my  Enitharmon  becomes d e f i a n t , "Sweet  s l e e p ; s i l e n t & c l o s e I laugh'd, /  i n the v i s i o n s of V a l a I walk'd w i t h the mighty  One"  [Albion].  She adopts not o n l y V a l a ' s power t o d i s t o r t  r e a l i t y but i n her somnolent Vala.  Fallen  s t a t e imagines h e r s e l f to be  She s e i z e s upon an e x i s t e n t i a l p o i n t o f view: t h e r e  i s no c e r t a i n t y except such pockets of c e r t a i n t y as one create.  can  T h i s has the i l l u s i o n of c e r t a i n t y . F a l l e n A l b i o n i s p u z z l e d by her Mona L i s a  mystique;  he asks: "•Why i s the l i g h t o f Enitharmon  darken'd i n [her d e l . ] dewy morn?  55 "'Why  i s the s i l e n c e o f Enitharmon a [ c l o u d d e l . ] t e r r o r , & her s m i l e a w h i r l w i n d ,  "'Why dost thou weep as Vala & wet thy v e i l w i t h dewy t e a r s , 'In slumbers o f my n i g h t - r e p o s e i n f u s i n g a f a l s e morning, " ' D r i v i n g t h e Female Emanations a l l away from Los? tt  ( 1 : 2 6 8 - 2 7 6 , K 271) A l b i o n ' s f i n a l q u e s t i o n , what has happened t o the female "Once born f o r the s p o r t & amusement o f Man,  now born t o d r i n k up  a l l h i s Powers," i s the t y p i c a l q u e s t i o n asked by the wondering  n a i v e male i n the presence o f a rampant female w i l l at  work.  A l l t h e time Enitharmon has been s i n g i n g her s t r a n g e  song the "sounding s e a " has been echoing i n her e a r s . the  This i s  sea o f Tharmas which has become a watery chaos s u r r o u n d i n g  Enitharmon.  B l a k e ' s concept o f the i n s i d e and the o u t s i d e as  b e i n g one and t h e same i s e v i d e n t here.  The c h a o t i c sea s u r -  rounding Enitharmon becomes a t one w i t h her own passionate tears.  sea o f com-  T h i s c u r i o u s commingling i s t y p i c a l o f the  e t e r n a l female enigma. T h i s i n f u r i a t e s Los who  smites her; he w i l l not be  d e f e a t e d by her Song o f Death nor w i l l he be t o r t u r e d by her rampant female w i l l . did  He i s the only Zoa who,  not l o s e t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n .  at the F a l l ,  He i s the v i s i o n a r y whose  i m a g i n a t i v e a c t i v i t y i s prophecy and whose p e r c e p t i o n can produce a r t ; he r e p r e s e n t s , as John Beer n o t e s , "the f u n c t i o n of  c r e a t i v e energy i n a v i s i o n l e s s w o r l d . " ^  i n the myth he uses h i s p r o p h e t i c powers:  At t h i s p o i n t  56 " I see, i n v i s i b l e descend i n t o t h e Gardens o f V a l a , "Luvah walking on t h e winds! I see t h e i n v i s i b l e k n i f e , " I see t h e shower o f blood, I see t h e swords & spears o f futurity. (1:299-301, K 272) The  shower o f b l o o d " imagery i s c u r i o u s ; one u s u a l l y a s s o c i -  ates a shower w i t h water.  The l i n e s quoted have come j u s t  a f t e r Los's prophecy concerning  the Incarnation o f C h r i s t ; i t  i s t h e Jesus aspect o f Luvah t h a t Blake i s p r e s e n t i n g .  There  i s an i m p l i e d a s s o c i a t i o n between water and blood as r e s t o r a t i v e and r e g e n e r a t i v e agents.  Enitharmon, having r e c e n t l y  a c q u i r e d her separate female w i l l ,  i s f i l l e d w i t h "Scorn &  I n d i g n a t i o n " a t t h i s prophecy; she f e e l s t h a t t h e I n c a r n a t i o n o f C h r i s t w i l l somehow d i m i n i s h h e r own power.  She c a l l s upon  the sky god U r i z e n t o descend "with horse & c h a r i o t " t o wreak vengeance.  The i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y i s not t o be t r u s t e d ; t h e  awful r e i g n o f Reason i s about t o begin t h a t w i l l b r i n g "War & Princedom, & V i c t o r y & Blood." answer t h a t Reason i s a l l .  I t i s the eighteenth  century  U r i z e n hears her c a l l and does  descend, "Gloomy sounding: Now I am God from E t e r n i t y t o l,:  Eternity.  m  A t t h e moment t h i s happens Luvah and Vala "shudder'd  i n t h e i r Orb, an orb o f b l o o d " (1:314, K 273).  Blood i s no  l o n g e r l i k e an ever f l o w i n g f o u n t a i n t h a t c o u l d produce a shower; i t i s now c o n f i n e d w i t h i n an orb; i t i s an encasement. I f one uses t h e r e d blood c e l l as a model f o r an "orb o f b l o o d , " from a b i o l o g i c a l s t a n d p o i n t ,  t h e membrane o f t h i s  c e l l i s permeable t o water but seemingly impermeable t o s a l t s .  57 However, t h e r e i s an apparent paradox i n t h a t i t i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o make a t r u l y semipermeable membrane t h a t i s p e r meable to water but not t o s o l u t e s .  I f too mueh water and n o t  enough s o l u t e flow a c r o s s t h e membrane i n t o t h e c e l l , e r u p t i o n t a k e s p l a c e j i f t o o l i t t l e , shrinkage and d i s t o r t i o n i s t h e result.  Some approximate  p r o p o r t i o n o f water and s o l u t e h e l d  w i t h i n t h e c o r p u s c l e p r o v i d e s t h e necessary homeostatic dition.  con-  T h e r e f o r e , water may be s a i d t o be both e r u p t i v e and  r e s t o r a t i v e and an a c t u a l encasement can be t h e necessary condition that w i l l preserve l i f e .  T h i s analogy may not be  so f a r f e t c h e d as i t might a t f i r s t  appear to be when one  c o n s i d e r s Blake's h a t r e d o f t h e i n d e f i n i t e and h i s emphasis upon t h e bounding  line in hisart.  Blood and water  both avenging and r e s t o r a t i v e agents. of  symbolize  Blood i s an a c t u a l i t y  war and o f t h e s a c r i f i c e o f Jesus on t h e c r o s s ; water can  be a d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e as i n a deluge o r i t can be r e s t o r a t i v e as i n a f o u n t a i n .  I n t e n t i o n a l o r not as t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n i s  on Blake's p a r t , t h e f a c t remains  t h a t t h e imagery  exists i n  the l i n e s he wrote. When Blake a s s o c i a t e s U r i z e n and blood imagery  i n the  l a t t e r h a l f o f Night I , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f d e s t r u c t i o n i s emphas i z e d by t h e s t a r t l i n g image o f t h e heavens b e i n g f i l l e d blood at the c l a r i o n c a l l  f o r war ( 3 4 6 , K 2 7 3 ) .  s h r i e k e d , "The S p e c t r e i s t h e Man. & fancy."  I t i s a complete  with  U r i z e n has  The r e s t i s o n l y d e l u s i o n  i n v e r s i o n o f Blake's a s s e r t i o n  t h a t "The S p e c t r e i s i n every man insane"; i t i s t h e n e g a t i v e  58 d o c t r i n e t h a t dominated e i g h t e e n t h century thought. r e i g n w i l l produce "War these terms.  f  & Princedom, & V i c t o r y & Blood" i n  The blood of d e s t r u c t i v e war  f i c i a l blood o f Jesus.  Urizen s  i s not the  sacri-  Songs of c e l e b r a t i o n of t h i s U r i z e n i c  world are g i v e n i n l i n e s 3 4 7 - 4 3 3 .  Blake w i t h f i e r c e i r o n y  p a r o d i e s the communion s e r v i c e , the bread i s " f l e s h l y " the wine i s "nervous";  and  t h e s e are strange a d j e c t i v e s f o r a  strange r e i g n t h a t i s about t o b e g i n . estranged i n t h i s a l i e n world.  Humanity w i l l  be  Luvah and V a l a are alone,  forsaken, and i n f i e r c e j e a l o u s y are suspended i n blood; imagery r e f e r s back to l i n e 314 where they are encased orb of b l o o d . song of war.  the  i n an  The n u p t i a l song o f Los and Enitharmon i s a Irony i m p l i c i t i n t h i s cannot  perceptive reader.  Animals  be l o s t on  are c a l l e d upon t o dominate  the horse, the l i o n , the t i g e r i n t u r n c a l l upon the t i v e s p i d e r , "0 S p i d e r , spread thy web!  the man,  diminu-  E n l a r g e thy bones &  f i l l ' d / W i t h marrow, sinews & f l e s h , E x a l t t h y s e l f ,  attain  a voice."  The c a l l i s to achieve a s t a t e where "Man  shall  no more!"  Blake was  perhaps more p r o p h e t i c than he  realized.  Today we know t h a t o n l y the i n s e c t world i s r e l a t i v e l y v i o u s to r a d i a t i o n .  The web  augment i s U r i z e n s d i r e web f  be  imper-  the s p i d e r i s c a l l e d upon t o of f a l s i t i e s of a l l s o r t s .  It  i s the world Roszak d e s c r i b e s : I f the melancholy h i s t o r y of r e v o l u t i o n over the past h a l f century teaches us anything, i t i s the f u t i l i t y of a p o l i t i c s which c o n c e n t r a t e s i t s e l f s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y on the overthrowing o f governments, or r u l i n g c l a s s e s , or economic systems. T h i s  59 brand o f p o l i t i c s f i n i s h e s w i t h merely r e d e s i g n i n g t h e t u r r e t s and towers o f t h e t e c h n o c r a t i c c i t a d e l . I t i s the foundations of the e d i f i c e t h a t must be sought. And those foundations l i e among t h e r u i n s o f t h e v i s i o n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n and the sense o f human community. Indeed, t h i s i s what S h e l l e y r e c o g n i z e d even i n the e a r l i e s t days o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n , when he p r o claimed t h a t i n t h e defense of poetry we must invoke " l i g h t and f i r e from those e t e r n a l r e g i o n s where t h e owl-winged f a c u l t y of c a l c u l a t i o n dare not ever s o a r . " 2 0 Blake p r o p h e s i e s t h a t from t h e r u i n s o f t h e v i s i o n a r y a t i o n two important f i g u r e s w i l l appear,  imagin-  Ore, t h e " f i e r c e  T e r r o r " w i l l be born and t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona  i s c a l l e d up:  " B u r s t i n g f o r t h from t h e l o i n s o f Enitharmon,  Thou f i e r c e Terror, "Go howl i n v a i n ! Smite, smite h i s f e t t e r s ! smite, 0 wintry Hammers! "Smite, S p e c t r e o f Urthona! mock t h e f i e n d who drew us down "From heavens o f j o y i n t o t h i s deep. Now rage, but rage i n vain!"  (1:430-3) T h i s i s t h e f i r s t mention o f t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona  i n this  poem; i t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t t h i s S p e c t r e i s i n t r o d u c e d as a f i g u r e o f great power.  Apocalypse w i l l not come q u i c k l y but  these two f i g u r e s w i l l both help Los whose "wintry hammers" w i l l be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e l e a s i n g mankind from t h e f e t t e r s o f the U r i z e n i c  world.  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f Enitharmon, s e p a r a t e " with blood imagery  "the f i r s t  female now  i s important because i t v i v i d l y  p r e s e n t s one o f Blake's most important and p e r s i s t e n t themes. Blake saw t h a t t h e " e n l i g h t e n e d " U r i z e n i c world o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h century was dominated by t h e rampant female w i l l . the o r i g i n a l f a l l t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f Jerusalem from A l b i o n  At  60  i n s t i g a t e d rampaging havoc on a l l f r o n t s .  The "rampant  female  w i l l " i n Blake's w r i t i n g s does n o t . r e f e r s o l e l y t o a sexual d i s t i n c t i o n ; i t does r e f e r t o havoc amongst t h e f a c u l t i e s and to t h e dominance o f one over t h e o t h e r s .  Instead o f a c t i n g as  a u n i t y t h e organism's v a r i o u s p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s attempt  t o a c t independently.  In t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f Night I v a r i o u s images and/or references v i v i d l y portray blood.  I have counted  some p e r t i n -  ent i n s t a n c e s which I p l a c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : TABLE I I Count  Line  #  #  Paee  1  K271  262  2  K272  287  3  301  4  K272 K272  5 6 7  K273 K273 K274  314 346 352  8  K274  359  9  K274 K274 K275  364  10 11 12 13 14  311  -4  389  K276  401 409 430  K278  512  K275  Quotation Luvah . . . f l y . . . Human Heart Luvah . . . bloody beams . . . f a l s e morning the shower o f blood War . . . V i c t o r y & Blood  Luvah & V a l a . . . orb o f blood heavens f i l l ' d w i t h blood Los  . . . love . . . i n a l l h i s veins Luvah and V a l a s t a n d i n g i n the bloody sky Luvah's robes o f blood Fatten'd on Human blood C h i l d r e n f e d w i t h blood Triumphant i n t h e bloody sky Bursting forth . . . loins . . . f i e r c e Terror with hands o f blood  Suggested response Negative Negative Positive Positive and/or Negative Negative Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Negative Negative Positive Negative  61 Of the f o u r t e e n counts made, n i n e suggest n e g a t i v e t i o n s , f o u r are p o s i t i v e , and one  i s ambivalent.  connotaThe s e l e c t e d  l i n e s can be t i e d i n n i c e l y with t h r e e main elements of  Blake s 1  myth: f a l l o f the Zoas, s t r u g g l e between U r i z e n and Ore, reawakening o f man.  The l e s s o n o f The Four Zoas a c c o r d i n g to  Beer (op., ext., p. 144)  t h a t men  spend t h e i r time i n  e a l War* when they should be d e v o t i n g themselves to War'  'Corpor'Mental  i s a l s o contained i n the l i n e s I have s e l e c t e d .  counts 4,,6, (italicized  8, 10, 11, 12, 13. by Blake)  and  See  In count 1 the word " f l y "  e m p h a t i c a l l y suggests t h a t the n a t u r a l  flow of blood to the b r a i n has been t r a u m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d ; the b r a i n r a t h e r than the h e a r t has now emotions.  become the seat o f the  The F r e u d i a n i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s d i s t o r t i o n due  the F a l l have been p o i n t e d out by Bloom and o t h e r s .  From a  b i o m e d i c a l p o i n t o f view a comparison can be made w i t h flight  the  of blood from c e l l s t h a t have become cancerous.  importance of blood as a primary  to  The  and v i t a l source of n o u r i s h -  ment i s seen i n the e a r l y f o r m a t i o n o f blood i s l a n d s on  the  y o l k sac of the d e v e l o p i n g c h i c k embryo; i n h i g h e r v e r t e b r a t e s t h e flow of blood i n t o the w a l l s o f the pregnant uterus i s i n c r e a s e d a t the moment o f i m p l a n t a t i o n o f the ovum. puberty  and concomitant  with development o f sexual  At  identity,  tumescense o f the g e n i t a l organs i s a n a t u r a l phenomenon.  The  body responds p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y to changes i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s as P e r l s (op., c i t . ) emphasizes again and again with h i s repeated q u e s t i o n , "What i s your body d o i n g ? "  P e r l s ' attempt  62 to b r i n g h i s p a t i e n t to an awareness of the s i g n a l s the bodyg i v e s i s somewhat s i m i l a r to Blake's p r o p h e t i c Apocalypse and  how  One  o f the c h a r a c t e r s  Blake's myth t h a t c o u l d be i n s t r u m e n t a l necessary changes i s Ore. o f Enitharmon" (count  t i o n has  begun.  i n b r i n g i n g about  Blake's c o l o u r i n g of h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y Ore  u s u a l l y a bloody, f i e r y The  fluid  parturithreaten  h i s r e i g n ; he i s c a l l e d upon to "mock the f i e n d who down."  the  of the waters, i . e . amniotic  w i l l s t r u g g l e w i t h U r i z e n and  the  loins  i 3 above) i s an apt d e s c r i p t i o n of  i s the s i g n a l the body g i v e s t h a t Ore  to  in  H i s " B u r s t i n g f o r t h from the  the b r e a k i n g  mixed w i t h blood,  the  a r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s v i s i o n w i l l h e l p  reintegrate distorted faculties.  b i r t h process;  v i s i o n of  drew us figure i s  red.  Urizen-Orc s t r u g g l e s are a l s o expressed i n Blake's  c u r i o u s poem, "The  Mental T r a v e l l e r " (K 4 2 4 ) .  Ore  can be  "the  frowning Babe," the " b l e e d i n g y o u t h , " or the "aged Shadow," w h i l e U r i z e n can be the "Woman O l d , " "a V i r g i n b r i g h t , " o r , with savage i r o n y , a "Garden f r u i t f u l s e v e n t y - f o l d . " s t r u g g l e s between f i e r y y o u t h f u l r e v o l u t i o n a r y f r o z e n r i g i d i t y go on and vice versa.  The  end  attacked  one  z e a l and  can become the other  r e s u l t wiMi never be a p o c a l y p t i c  and vision.  58-59),  of the r u i n e d v i s i o n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n  have to  out  be  r a t h e r than the e d i f i c e t h a t r e s u l t s from t h e s e r u i n s .  Blake used the Urizen-Orc c y c l e s f o r h i s p o l i t i c a l but  aged  (quoted above, t h e s i s pp.  As Roszak has p o i n t e d the foundations  on;  The  abandoned the theme when he saw  t h a t the  allegory  revolutionary  63 a t t a c k upon the p o l i t i c s o f h i s day r e s u l t e d only i n e n d l e s s s t r u g g l e s w i t h c y c l e s and w i t h n o t h i n g e l s e .  The  similarity  between what Blake saw happening i n h i s day t o what the more e n l i g h t e n e d h i p p i e s see happening i n our s o c i e t y i s s e l f dent.  evi-  Youth today t u r n s i n e x a s p e r a t i o n and d e s p e r a t i o n t o -  ward such e a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i e s as Zen Buddhism, Taoism,  Maoism;  Blake turned h i s a t t e n t i o n f u l l y toward the a n c i e n t Hebrew p r o p h e t i c v i s i o n as recorded i n the C h r i s t i a n The t h i r d element man,  Bible.  i n Blake's myth, the awakening of  i s d e a l t with i n counts 2, 3, 5, 7, 9.  I t i s the Luvah-  Jesus p r i n c i p l e r a t h e r than the Urizen-Orc s t r u g g l e t h a t be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g about f i n a l Apocalypse.  will  The means  o f change w i l l not come from r e v o l u t i o n a r y Ore's s t r u g g l e with U r i z e n i n c o r p o r e a l war but w i l l come from an i n t e r n a l  spirit-  u a l and emotional change based on d i v i n e l o v e , mutual t r u s t , and mutual f o r g i v e n e s s of s i n s as e x e m p l i f i e d on e a r t h by Jesus.  M e t a p h o r i c a l l y speaking, Luvah, though  the f a l l e n f a c u l t i e s , i s a l s o t h i s J e s u s .  a l s o one of  In count 2 he i s  unable to a c t , he i s l o s t i n "bloody beams of your f a l s e morni n g " ; Apocalypse i s not y e t h e r a l d e d ; the "your" r e f e r s t o Enitharmon  who  i s enmeshed i n the t o i l s o f , not d i v i n e l o v e ,  but profane l u s t .  The suggested response i n count 5 i s one  o f n e g a t i o n due t o encasement.  The response i s a l s o n e g a t i v e  i n count 1 4 , Luvah, with "hands of b l o o d " wishes t o smite A l b i o n ; t h i s wish i s the S a t a n i c aspect of the Jesus p r i n c i p l e . Blake b e l i e v e d t h a t p a r t of the C r e a t o r God  essence was  evil  64 from t h e b e g i n n i n g and a t t h e F a l l t h i s e v i l also " f e l l "  into  existence. When an i n d i v i d u a l w i l f u l l y remains i n t h i s s t a t e o f e v i l he cannot  be redeemed.  The o n l y c h a r a c t e r i n Blake's  myth who so remains i s Satan, i n t h e f i n a l Apocalypse be c a s t out.  Blake warns us about t h e importance  he must  of being  a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between these i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e i r "mild obscure a r t s " and t h e s t a t e i t s e l f : "There i s a S t a t e nam'd Satan; l e a r n d i s t i n c t t o know, . . . "The d i f f e r e n c e between S t a t e s & I n d i v i d u a l s o f those S t a t e s . "The S t a t e nam'd Satan never can be redeem'd i n a l l E t e r n i t y ; "But when Luvah i n Ore became a Serpent, he descended i n t o "That S t a t e c a l l ' d Satan. . . . (FZ V I I I : 3 7 9 - 3 8 3 , K 3 5 1 ) The u l t i m a t e d e g r a d a t i o n i s when an i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f with Satan. of  He becomes Satan.  identifies  T h i s Blakean  concept  e v i l i s e x p l i c a t e d by Frye:  The c e n t r a l c o n c e p t i o n i n Blake's thought might be expressed somewhat as f o l l o w s : t h e i m a g i n a t i o n t u r n s nature i n s i d e o u t . "Where man i s not, n a t u r e i s b a r r e n , " s a i d Blake, and by " n a t u r e " he meant t h e world as, say, i t would have appeared t o a s i n g l e i n t e l l i g e n c e at t h e b e g i n n i n g of human l i f e . Such an i n t e l l i g e n c e would be a t i n y c e n t e r o f a u n i v e r s e s t r e t c h i n g away from him i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , a u n i v e r s e with p l e n t y o f r e s o u r c e s f o r k i l l i n g him, and f u l l o f f o r c e and w i l l t o s u r v i v e , but with n o t h i n g i n i t t o respond t o h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . The " n a t u r a l man" s t a r e s h e l p l e s s l y a t nature, m i n i m i z i n g h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and f a s c i n a t e d by i t s mysterious remoteness and s t u p i d power. He b u i l d s h i s own s o c i e t i e s on t h e analogy o f n a t u r e , g i v i n g t h e primary p l a c e t o f o r c e and cunning, so t h a t the " n a t u r a l s o c i e t y " which was so widely d i s c u s s e d i n Blake's day i s , f o r Blake, i d e n t i c a l with tyranny, c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s and economic i n j u s t i c e . The n a t u r a l man b u i l d s h i s r e l i g i o n s on t h e assumptions t h a t some "god" must l u r k behind nature, combining i t s mystery w i t h something analogous t o i n t e l l i g e n c e .  65 R e l i g i o n o f t h i s k i n d — n a t u r a l r e l i g i o n as Blake c a l l s i t — begins by p e r s o n i f y i n g the f o r c e s of nature, then goes on t o e r e c t , on the analogy of human s o c i e t y , a r u l i n g c l a s s o f Olympian a r i s t o c r a t s , and f i n a l l y a r r i v e s at i t s masterpiece, a whiskery o l d man up i n the sky, w i t h an u n c e r t a i n temper and r e a c t i o n a r y p o l i t i c a l views, whom Blake c a l l s Nobodaddy, and, i n the Prophecies, U r i z e n or S a t a n ( I t a l i c s are mins). 2 1  The p r o g r e s s i o n i n the myth i s t h u s : Satan •  ^Luvah  ^.Urizen  •> Ore  ^-Los; each one i s a h i g h e r form o f the one p r e -  c e d i n g but one must remember that i n context each can a l s o become any one of the o t h e r s . R e t u r n i n g to the counts on page s i x t y - f o u r o f t h i s t h e s i s , counts 3, 7, 9, suggest p o s i t i v e responses. poetic s p i r i t  Los, the  (Luvah i n h i s h i g h e s t form), speaks w i t h the  v o i c e o f v i s i o n and prophecy been d i s c u s s e d above.  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of which have  In count 7 Los repents h i s v i o l e n t  a c t i o n toward Enitharmon,  r e a l l o v e r e t u r n s and blood  fills  " a l l h i s veins." Love and Imagination are f o r Blake the two most imp o r t a n t f a c u l t i e s , the word f a c u l t i e s i s used here to s i g n i f y a b i l i t i e ' s . v i z , a b i l i t y to l o v e , a b i l i t y t o imagine  creatively.  T h e r e f o r e i n h i s e p i c drama he p l a c e d Luvah, " P r i n c e of Love" and Los, the p o e t i c genius, i n s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s to b r i n g about Apocalypse.  In the i t a l i c i z e d l i n e s i n F r y e s comment T  quoted above (pp. 6 4 - 6 5 ) , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t s e p a r a t i o n of the i m a g i n a t i v e f a c u l t y from i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l i s a l s o a l o s s of intelligence.  F a l l e n man  imagines t h a t he i s under the c o n t r o l  o f the s t u p i d power of the " n a t u r a l " world.  I n s t e a d of b e i n g  i t s master he has a phantasy t h a t he must be i t s s e r v a n t .  It  I  66 totally  escapes h i s befuddled mind t h a t t h e r e i s no  He thus g i v e s h i s power over t o a phantasy; is  a c t u a l l y g i v i n g away h i s own energy.  "its."  i n d o i n g t h i s he  Energy  i s not only  power but i s , as B l a k e says i t i s , " E t e r n a l D e l i g h t . " the elan v i t a l that i s l i f e .  It i s  The g i v i n g away o f energy under  these p e r v e r t e d c o n d i t i o n s i s an a c t o f s e l f h a t r e d ; i t i s an i n a b i l i t y t o f e e l t h e proper s e l f l o v e t h a t i s necessary f o r development o f t h e d i v i n e p o t e n t i a l i n man.  P e r l s says, l i k e  Blake, we a r e a l l geniuses i f we but knew i t . For  purposes of, t h i s study t h e next important t h i n g t o  examine i s t h e imagery  and a few o f t h e concepts t h a t Blake  develops i n t h e remaining N i g h t s to p r e s e n t Luvah and Los as agents who w i l l b r i n g about r e l e a s e from the d i v i s i v e and encasement f o r c e s t h a t plague f a l l e n man. Night I I i s a compensatory response t o the chaos d e s c r i b e d i n Night I .  The main a c t i v e f i g u r e i s U r i z e n who  is  the e f f i c i e n t c r e a t o r o f t h e Mundane S h e l l .  is  a U r i z e n i c response t o t h e F a l l ;  l i m i t s on chaos.  This creation  i t i s an attempt t o s e t  I t a l s o symbolizes t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y ' s  o b s e s s i o n w i t h t h e f a l l o f Rome and t h e concern t o i m i t a t e t h e Augustan  Roman p e r i o d — t h e l o n g e s t p e r i o d o f peace ever known.  T h i s p e r i o d was h e l d t o g e t h e r by a l e g a l concept o f c i v i l i z a tion.  The f e a r o f r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h century was  a l s o s i m i l a r t o today's f e a r o f t o t a l chaos.  I t i s not so  much f e a r o f t h e government f a l l i n g (today i t i s too h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d f o r t h a t ) as i t i s f e a r o f a c o l l e c t i v e amnesia  67 and hence l o s s o f i d e n t i t y , l o s s o f the p a s t , l o s s o f c i v i l i zation i t s e l f .  The  response i n Rome, i n the eighteenth  t u r y , and today i s a r a l l y i n g c r y f o r law and o r d e r . for  men  cen-  A cry  t o c r e a t e a world a c c o r d i n g to what they conceive to.  be the best p r i n c i p l e s of the day.  U r i z e n * s f e a r was  and h i s i n t e n t i o n s were good but l i k e today and l i k e times he went about t h i n g s the wrong way t i o n was  f a u l t y and of t h i s he was  Labour was K 285).  sound former  around; h i s concep-  dimly aware: "To him h i s  but Sorrow & h i s Kingdom was  Repentance" ( 2 0 8 ,  He had p l a c e d emphasis on the b u i l d i n g of m a t e r i a l  s t r u c t u r e s a c c o r d i n g to Newtonian mathematic form r a t h e r than on a r e i n t e g r a t i o n of the u l t i m a t e i d e a l o r d e r o f the human integral.  Blake d e s c r i b e s the b u i l d i n g o f the Mundane S h e l l  w i t h deep, deep i r o n y ; elsewhere he has commented, " B r i n g out number, weight & measure i n a y e a r of d e a r t h " (MHH,  K 151).  T h i s a c t i v i t y o f U r i z e n * s i s a parody o f a n c i e n t c r e a t i o n myths.  C r e a t i o n of the S h e l l i s merely a r e a r r a n g i n g of a l r e a d y  e x i s t e n t m a t e r i a l s ; a comparison can be made with Hindu c r e a t i o n myths where d i f f e r e n t types of c r e a t i v i t y are assigned as a gesture to each of the d i f f e r e n t gods. While the main a c t i v e f i g u r e o f Night I I i s U r i z e n the main s t o r y presented  i s the f a l l  of Luvah.  Blake has i n c o r -  porated i n t h i s a very comprehensive concept  o f l o v e only a  few d e t a i l s of which can p o s s i b l y be handled  in this thesis.  The c r e a t i o n o f the Mundane S h e l l has connections t h i s l a r g e r concept  of l o v e .  The  with  f a l l o f Luvah comes about  as  68 a consequence o f t h i s b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y . l o g i c o f Blake's We a r e deceived from form.  Why i s t h i s so? The  imagery suggests something l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g . by t h e n o t i o n t h a t we can separate  thought  For Blake, t o g i v e form t o a t h i n g i s t o p l a c e i t  i n an e x i s t e n t i a l p o s i t i o n whereby i t may be e i t h e r r e j e c t e d or p r e s e r v e d .  U r i z e n , t h e f a l l e n r a t i o n a l f a c u l t y i s not only  t r y i n g t o p r e s e r v e t h e wrong k i n d o f t h i n g but i s t r y i n g to^ c r e a t e order a l l by h i m s e l f ; l o v e which i s p a r t o f t h e human i n t e g r a l i s not brought i n t o t h i s ; i t i s c a s t out; Luvah i s p l a c e d i n t h e "Furnaces o f a f f l i c t i o n & s e a l e d . " " i d e a l " k i n d o f order i s t h e law i d e a l l y conceived admits o f no e x c e p t i o n .  Urizen*s which  J u s t i c e does not admit mercy.  The  common s a y i n g , "The Law i s an Ass" i s c o r r e c t ; i t i s Shakespeare's theme i n Measure f o r Measure.  A c c o r d i n g t o Blake's  e t h i c , i d e a l m o r a l i t y does not l e g i s l a t e ; t h e t e n commandments are an abomination. operate  C o d i f i e d m o r a l i t y i s unnecessary when you  i n complete awareness o f what t h e human i n t e g r a l i s  a l l about.  U r i z e n i s o p e r a t i n g i n an i r o n i c s i t u a t i o n :  i s b e i n g imposed by reason  from without,  order  though done from a  c o n s t r u c t i v e impulse i t l e a d s t o consequences t h a t a r e d i s astrous. Luvah's f a l l meant t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f the Zoa from h i s Emanation, V a l a .  T h e i r l o v e f o r one another i n t h e U r i z e n i c  world becomes hate t o t h e p o i n t where they "What! a r e we t e r r o r s t o one another?"  say i n h o r r o r :  (11:124, K 283).  Love  as a general concept i s d e a l t with i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n between  Luvah and Jesus; t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n tends t o be r a t h e r b a f f l i n g at t h i s p o i n t i n t h e myth.  Perhaps an examination  of the  "robes o f b l o o d " imagery w i l l be h e l p f u l . R e f e r r i n g back t o t h e q u o t a t i o n above and t o t h e , l i n e , " L e s t t h e s t a t e c a l l ' d Luvah should cease," i t i s apparent that the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the s t a t e of love i s the c r u c i a l reason f o r t h e I n c a r n a t i o n ; i f t h i s event had not o c c u r r e d i t would have meant t h a t man would f o r e v e r have been i n c a p a b l e o f either r e c e i v i n g or of g i v i n g love.  I n t h e same q u o t a t i o n i t  i s Jesus, " t h e D i v i n e V i s i o n " who walks i n "robes o f b l o o d . " When t h e I n c a r n a t i o n V i s i o n was given i n Night I , E t e r n i t y appear*d above them as One Man i n f o l d e d In Luvah*s robes o f blood & b e a r i n g a l l h i s a f f l i c t i o n s ; As t h e sun s h i n e s down on t h e misty e a r t h , such was t h e Vision, . . . (363-5, K 274) here Jesus i s c l o t h e d i n Luvah's "robes o f b l o o d " and bears "all hisafflictions."  The s t a t e o f Luvah takes on the.form  o f l o v e as i t i s attached t o Jesus.  T h i s image o f l o v e i s  preserved and i s something that can be appealed f a l l e n world.  to i n the  We know i t e x i s t s ; i t i s proven t o us over and  over again when we experience t h e r e i n f o r c i n g power o f human l o v e i n t h i s , our world.  We only go wrong when we f a i l t o  d i s t i n g u i s h between l o v e and d e s i r e ; d e s i r e i s wanting somet h i n g we do not have; d e s i r e i s p o s s e s s i o n ; i t i s not bad i f we add t o i t t h e o t h e r ' s d e s i r e .  70 Luvah and Vala are the symbolic  counters Blake uses i n  Night I I to exemplify j e a l o u s p o s s e s s i v e l o v e . of  affliction  The  and the robes o f blood images are important  an understanding o f t h i s l o v e - h a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p . i s a f l e x i b l e symbol; i t can go e i t h e r way. ing,  furnaces  The  to  furnace  Literally  speak-  one can v i s u a l i z e " f u r n a c e " as f u r n a c e ; w h i l e i t d e s t r o y s  whatever i s put i n i t , i t s f i r e , l i k e can transmute base metals reverse process.  t h a t of the a l c h e m i s t s  i n t o g o l d or i t can c a r r y on  the  S i n c e these p a r t i c u l a r furnaces were e r e c t e d  d u r i n g the b u i l d i n g o f the Mundane S h e l l ( 3 0 , K 2 8 1 ) ,  they  are  p a r t of U r i z e n ' s a p p a r a t i i n which t h i n g s are ground d o w n — i n t h i s ease,  Luvah and V a l a — e v e n  the f u r n a c e . of  though V a l a i s not put  The furnaces of a f f l i c t i o n  as b e i n g s t a t e s of i n t e n s e emotion.  i n s i d e the furnace? who,  "age  The  a f t e r age, was  can a l s o be  " f u r n a c e " as furnace consumes Luvah q u i t e melted w i t h woe"  who  (113,  when an emotional deadly hate?  here  symbolizes  i n c o n t r o l of Luvah; she i t  f e d the f u r n a c e w i t h f i r e i n c r u e l d e l i g h t .  t h e f i r e come from except  K 283)  The agent  o r goddess o f nature who  outward beauty o n l y ; she i s now was  thought  What happens to Luvah  and i n the end became simply "molten m e t a l . " i s V a l a , v e i l of i l l u s i o n  inside  Where can  from the i n t e n s e energy d i s c h a r g e d  s t a t e changes from one of pure l o v e t o  "In joy she heard h i s howlings & f o r g o t he  her Luvah" ( 7 8 ,  K 282).  The heat generated  by t h i s energy  exchange i s great enough to consume a l s o the possessor o f hate.  V a l a at l a s t  fell,  "a heap of ashes"  was  (115,  K 283).  such In  l i n e 166  Blake with b i t t e r i r o n y d e s c r i b e s  the work o f  "the  A r c h i t e c t d i v i n e " ( U r i z e n ) , the Mundane S h e l l a r i s e s as a "wondrous s c a f f o l d [which] r e a r ' d one  notes not  a l l round the  infinite";  o n l y the i n c o n g r u i t y of t h i s concept but  the  d e n s i t y o f i m p l i c a t i o n i n Blake's use of the word " s c a f f o l d . " There i s deep b l a c k humour i n V a l a ' s f i n a l end; the wondrous b u i l d i n g was (171,  K  "mingled w i t h the ashes of  second metaphor to be c o n s i d e r e d  t h a t of the  Imagination.  "furnace"  I t has been p o i n t e d  fallen state.  i n Luvah's  fall  as body b e i n g a metaphor f o r the  t u a l powers become f a n t a s y  K 282)  Vala"  284). The  is  the mortar o f  and  out  above how  the  intellec-  s p e c i o u s r e a s o n i n g i n the  Luvah's lament from the f u r n a c e s  (81-110,  r e c o r d merely f a n t a s i e s which can be compared w i t h  kaleidoscopic  d i s t o r t i o n s of the dream s t a t e .  the  These, P e r l s  says, are a l l s i g n a l s the body i s g i v i n g to compel the  sleeper 22  xnto an awareness of the v a r i o u s Working out "hot  "holes" i n h i s personality.  from these s i g n a l s P e r l s uses psychodrama and  s e a t " to b r i n g the s l e e p e r to an awareness of h i s  d e f i c i e n c i e s ; b i t s of the u n f a l i e n s t a t e are r e c o v e r e d .  the  own In  Blake's l i n e s , . . . 0 Lamb "Of God c l o t h e d i n Luvah's garments! l i t t l e knowest thou "Of death E t e r n a l , that we a l l go to E t e r n a l Death, "To our P r i m e v a l Chaos i n f o r t u i t o u s concourse of i n c o h e r e n t "Discordant p r i n c i p l e s o f Love & Hate. I s u f f e r a f f l i c t i o n "Because I l o v e , f o r I [am d e l . ] was l o v e , but hatred awakes i n me, . . . (Night  11:99-104,  K  282)  Luvah i s having a fantasy  t h a t only he and not God " c l o t h e d  i n Luvah's garments" ( i . e . Jesus t a k i n g on m o r t a l i t y ) i s capa b l e o f knowing "death E t e r n a l " — w h i c h  i s l i f e i n our world.  T h i s i s one o f t h e most blasphemous and d e s p a i r i n g statements t h a t Luvah can make.  He i s a c t u a l l y denying t h e I n c a r n a t i o n ;  he i s s a y i n g t h a t Jesus cannot know human p e r s o n a l i t y , t h a t Jesus i s unaware t h a t we a c t c h a o t i c a l l y because our minds ( i n c l u d i n g Imagination, Reason, I n t e l l e c t ) no l o n g e r our b o d i e s (Luvah's garments) a r e d o i n g .  know what  We merely put on t h e  body as i f i t were a garment, we c a r r y i t around as excess baggage which we wish t o l e a v e unattended, o r , we may it  consider  t o be "the l i n e n c l o t h e s f o l d e d up" (MHH, K 149) which  Jesus l e f t i n t h e tomb but which we r e s u r r e c t and worship as a fake J e s u s .  Thus we have no d e s i r e t o be i n c o n t a c t  c o r e o f our being,  w i t h that which i s a l l o f us.  with t h e  There may be  some s i m i l a r i t y here t o t h e t h i n k i n g o f Paul T i l l i c h who devoted h i s whole l i f e t o showing us t h a t God's presence i n the world was t h e r e as t h e "ground" o f our being. searching  Instead of  f o r t h i s "ground" Blake saw t h a t we l i v e out our  l i v e s ". . . i n f o r t u i t o u s concourse o f incoherent ant p r i n c i p l e s o f Love & Hate." f i n d s himself  T h i s i s t h e f e a r f u l s t a t e man  i n when l o v e i s separated  l o v e i s no longer  / Discord-  from t h e Imagination;  f r e e but i s chained down by a f a n t a s y  life  dominated by a "Primeval Chaos." I t may seem odd t o t h e reader t h a t I b r i n g i n P e r l s who speaks not o f God at a l l but i t i s apparent t o me t h a t  B l a k e never f o r g e t s the body g i v e n t o men Divine. are  by the E t e r n a l Form  Although Blake has s a i d elsewhere,  R e a l , " he i s speaking both l i t e r a l l y  "Only Mental Things  ("the Eye  altering  a l t e r s a l l " K 4 2 6 ) , and f i g u r a t i v e l y ; i n no sense has he ever negated the human body which our s p i r i t u a l essences i n h a b i t . B l a k e was no Maniehean, h i s dictum, " E v e r y t h i n g t h a t l i v e s i s H o l y " ( K 1 6 0 ) , a p p l i e s to b o d i l y j o y s as w e l l as t o b o d i l y sufferings. T h i s would e x p l a i n , i n p a r t , the enormous importance Blake a t t a c h e s to the "robes o f b l o o d " image which dominates t h e Luvah-Jesus Any  concept.  robe i s an a l l encompassing garment, t h a t i t i s , i n  the context here, a robe o f b l o o d i s not a s u r p r i s i n g image t o a z o o l o g i s t who  can e a s i l y see i t as a v a s c u l a r network pene-  t r a t i n g the body i n a l l i t s a r e a s .  The h e a r t i s the pumping  organ t h a t d i s t r i b u t e s the n o u r i s h i n g f l u i d o f the blood stream c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout l i f e or  and Luvah's f a l l was  r e n d i n g away from A l b i o n ' s h e a r t .  a sparagmos  U n t i l t h i s rending i s  healed t h e r e can be no r e i n t e g r a t i o n o f Body: Mind:  Emotions.  Without h e a l i n g , each of the f u n c t i o n s becomes i s o l a t e d attempts to a c t by i t s own motive power.  Homeostasis  and  i s lost.  B l a k e g i v e s an example of such d i v i s i o n i n these l i n e s : . . . they the s t r o n g s c a l e s e r e c t That Luvah r e n t from the f a i n t Heart o f the F a l l e n Man, And weigh the massy [Globes d e l . ] Cubes, then f i x them i n t h e i r awful s t a t i o n s . ( 1 1 : 1 4 2 - 4 , K 283)  74 When s c a l e s , standard image f o r measurement of j u s t i c e ,  are  separated from t h e heart the human i n t e g r a l i s denied.  Pol-  itical  single  and c o s m o l o g i c a l imagery  i s also fused i n t o t h i s  image of Luvah r e n d i n g the s c a l e s from A l b i o n ' s h e a r t .  The  i r o n y here i s t h a t Luvah i s a c t i n g l i k e U r i z e n d i d i n h i s c r e a t i o n o f t h e Mundane S h e l l . a d m i n i s t e r e d the way  J u s t i c e should i d e a l l y  Jesus a d m i n i s t e r s i t s e e i n g each case  and each s i t u a t i o n f o r i t s own  sake; t o see thus i n t o the  h e a r t , judgment can then be based on r e a l i t y . w r i t e s on t h e l a s t page o f h i s n o v e l , (Harmondsworth, 1 9 6 2 ) , it  be  As Graham Green  The Heart o f the Matter,  "The Church knows a l l t h e r u l e s .  But  doesn't know what goes on i n a s i n g l e human h e a r t . "  Blake's myth j u s t i c e i s meted out by the r e l i g i o n t h a t  In devel-  oped from f a l l e n Urizen-Luvah-Orc, t h i s form o f j u s t i c e no l o n g e r l o o k s a t i n d i v i d u a l s but o n l y measures the r a t i o or d i f f e r e n c e between them. In Ahania's v e r s i o n of A l b i o n ' s f a l l  (111:44-70,  K 2 9 2 - 3 ) two important concepts are a s s o c i a t e d : the J e s u s Luvah p r i n c i p l e and the b i r t h o f a k i n d o f s p e c t r e o f A l b i o n . The imagery  i n both cases i s r e l e v a n t to t h i s  As the "Dark'ning Man"  i s falling,  discussion.  a "soft cloud" i n  which Luvah d w e l l s overshadows him; t h e Jesus p r i n c i p l e a l though obscured i s ever p r e s e n t ; i t p e r s i s t s , but f a l l e n does not always r e c o g n i z e i t .  I t does not p r e v e n t t h e F a l l  but from A l b i o n ' s "wearied i n t e l l e c t " a Shadow i s born Blake d e s c r i b e s i r o n i c a l l y  man  as b e i n g ,  which  75 "Of  l i v i n g g o l d , pure, p e r f e c t , h o l y j i n white l i n e n pure he hover'd, "A sweet e n t r a n c i n g s e l f d e l u s i o n , a wat'ry v i s i o n of Man " S o f t e x u l t i n g i n e x i s t e n c e , a l l the Man absorbing. (111:51-3, K I s t h i s phantasm C h r i s t ?  No,  i t i s a p e r v e r s i o n of C h r i s t  symbolized by h i s "white l i n e n pure"; i t i s a fake counterpart  392)  o f Nobodaddy, y e t i t has  Jesus—a  enormous powers, so much  so t h a t A l b i o n i n a h a l f slumberous dream s t a t e becomes i d o l a t r o u s toward i t : " I d o l a t r o u s t o h i s own  Shadow, words o f E t e r n i t y [ i . e . A l b i o n ] uttering; 0 I am n o t h i n g when I enter i n t o judgment with thee. »»If thou withdraw thy b r e a t h I d i e & v a n i s h i n t o Hades; "' I f thou dost l a y t h i n e hand upon me, behold I am s i l e n t ; I f thou w i t h h o l d t h i n e hand I p e r i s h l i k e a f a l l e n l e a f . " ' 0 I am n o t h i n g , & to n o t h i n g must r e t u r n a g a i n . " ' I f thou withdraw thy breath, behold I am o b l i v i o n . ' n t  1,1  (111:59-65, K The  r e p e t i t i o n of "thee," " t h y , "  i s not,  h i s own  " t h i n e , " i n d i c a t e that A l b i o n  as i n another v e r s i o n of the F a l l  worshipping V a l a , "the l i l l y faded  intellect.  293)  (Vila:236-41, K  o f the d e s a r t " but now  326)  worships  T h i s weakened r e a s o n i n g power c r e a t e s  not a t r u e r e l i g i o n but merely a concept o f r e l i g i o n .  This  c r e e p i n g Jesus concept begs to be worshipped and thus o b t a i n s power over A l b i o n .  By having power over another, one  deni-  g r a t e s t h a t o t h e r , the "Human Form D i v i n e " (K 221) becomes the human form human.  The power o f the Shadow and/or s p e c t r e i s a  p s y c h i c f o r c e o f ambivalent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t w i l l be cussed i n chapter  five.  dis-  76  But f a l l e n A l b i o n i s not Satan, he w i l l not be c a s t out.  The p r o v i d e n t i a l aspect comes i n t o f o c u s ,  "He  [ A l b i o n ] ceas'd: the shadowy v o i c e was s i l e n t , but the c l o u d hover*d over t h e i r heads "In golden wreathes, the sorrow Man, & the balmy drops f e l l down, "And Lo, t h a t Son of Man, t h a t shadowy S p i r i t of the F a l l e n One, f a i t , readg. A l b i o n ! "Luvah, descended from the c l o u d . In t e r r o r [Man arose, d e l . ] Albion rose; "Indignant r o s e the Awful Man & t u r n ' d h i s back on V a l a . (111:66-70,  293)  K  There i s a c o n n e c t i o n between the "robes o f b l o o d " imagery the image o f the "balmy drops" t h a t f a l l  and  from Luvah's c l o u d ;  one hears an echo of the b i b l i c a l balm of G i l e a d and drops of Jesus* s a c r i f i c i a l b l o o d . that Albion i s s t i l l  At t h i s p o i n t i t i s o n l y h i n t e d  capable of r e j e c t i n g the i l l u s o r y  world  but he does not f u l l y r e c o g n i z e Luvah's t r u e import; he w i l l not accept t h a t Luvah-Jesus fall.  does descend a f t e r the balmy drops  He i s f i l l e d with p r o p h e t i c dread; he sees what w i l l  happen t o man  i n the f a l l e n world ( l . 7 2 f f . ) .  The  distortions  o f h i s d i s e a s e d senses have been commented upon above ( t h e s i s , p.26).  H i s g u i l t r i d d e n s e l f , a t t a c h e s blame t o Luvah whom he  equates w i t h the Satan of the Book of Job.  He t h e r e f o r e puts  f o r t h Luvah from h i s presence thus f u r t h e r s e p a r a t i n g the fallen  emotional l i f e from the weakened i n t e l l e c t .  o f t h e myth i s Blake*s e x p l a n a t i o n of how institutionalized of  by f a l l e n f a c u l t i e s ,  This part  the C h r i s t i a n church,  cursed the f i f t h  sense  touch or sex and equated the emotional energy d e r i v i n g from  sex with s i n .  The power of the s p e c t r e of A l b i o n has been  involved i n bringing t h i s  about.  The complexity of the Jesus-Luvah  principle i s  em-  bodied i n the symbols of c l o u d , Luvah, and b l o o d . In the t h r e e r e f e r e n c e s commented upon on pages f i f t y e i g h t and s i x t y - t h r e e of t h i s t h e s i s , the images o f blood gest n e g a t i o n but when from t h e c l o u d the balmy drops down, the s t a t e of c o n t r a r i e s b e g i n to o p e r a t e .  sug-  fall  In the n a t -  u r a l order c l o u d s are made up of water vapour but U r i z e n * s reign w i l l f i l l  the heavens with b l o o d .  have to come from a combination  The balmy drops  o f these two  elements.  will The  c l o u d symbol modulates ( 1 1 . 6 6 - 7 ) , i t becomes "golden wreathes, then "balmy drops."  The c e n t r a l movement i s descending;  Luvah i s descending;  the word " g o l d " or "golden" i n Blake  u s u a l l y p o s i t i v e suggestiveness.  Luvah i s emerging by  c e s s of m e t a p h o r i c a l s y m b o l i c a l s t e p s .  I f two  a.pro-  a s p e c t s of  Luvah are kept i n mind, the Jesus aspect and the  Ore-fallen  l o v e aspect, the c o n t r a r y mixture of blood and water can ily  has  eas-  be transposed t o the blood and wine symbolism of the  Eucharist.  A f u r t h e r step i n the metaphorical p r o c e s s i s a  movement to the "wine p r e s s e s o f Luvah" ( i l l : 3 5 , K 292) H a r o l d Bloom c l a i m s are another affliction;  form of Luvah's f u r n a c e s of  he w r i t e s , " i n the context of temporal  the wine p r e s s symbolizes  which  enslaved energy,  warfare,  and the blood of  Luvah streaming from i t i s a parody of the l i f e - g i v i n g blood o f A l b i o n i n the f e a s t s of E t e r n i t y " (E, p. 8 7 1 ) .  At Apoca-  l y p s e the wine p r e s s e s w i l l be used i n r e i n t e g r a t i o n .  78 Blake a l s o a t t a c h e s t o the c l o u d symbolism such p a r a t e elements  dis-  as " l i n e n c l o t h e s , " " s e l f d e l u s i o n , " "wat'ry  v i s i o n , " "wat'ry  shadow"; t h i s i s a phantasm that man  projects  hoping thereby to c r e a t e p u r i t y , h o l i n e s s , and p e r f e c t i o n but t h e r e i s something  wrong with i t .  I t i s too m o n o l i t h i c .  There i s no p e r f e c t i o n i n Blake; E t e r n i t y i s a w a r r i n g s t a t e ; the c o n t r a r i e s are always o p e r a t i n g .  T h e r e f o r e the b l o o d sym-  b o l i s m must be brought i n with i t s t e r r i f y i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r man. P h y s i o l o g i c a l l y man p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y he i s not.  i s prepared f o r these i m p l i c a t i o n s In a s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n the a d r e n a l -  alarm syndrome comes i n t o p l a y , the h e a r t beats f a s t e r a s s u r i n g i n c r e a s e d blood supply to the muscular  and nervous  systems  automatic response t o the s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n i s i n s t a n t a n e o u s . I n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l arena man's response l a g s d i s a s t r o u s l y behind; i s he not perhaps more prone to remain power than to have the enormous energy  i n h i s spectre'  o f the s p e c t r e work f o r  him? The analogy I s e t up at the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s chapter h o l d s t r u e here.  Blake's symbolism r e blood may  be l i k e n e d to  the p h y s i o l o g y of cancerous versus pseudo cancerous  tissues.  I n cancerous c e l l s t h e r e i s a b l o o d l o s s ; i t i s the r e p l e n i s h ment o f blood to pseudo cancerous c e l l s t h a t p r e v e n t s t h e i r annihilation.  In o t h e r words a pre-cancerous c o n d i t i o n  can  be a r r e s t e d by some i n d e f i n a b l e change i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n of the s t r e s s e d animal.  As s t r e s s i s l e s s e n e d the  79 normal, c u r a t i v e r o l e o f t h e blood comes i n t o p l a y and t h e p r o c e s s toward malignancy In lithic;  i s reversed.  Blake's myth a l l i n Urizen»s system has t o be mono-  a l l have t o abide by U r i z e n ' s laws.  U r i z e n sees t h a t  t h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e because t h e r e a r e m a g n i f i c e n t i n d e f i n a b l e p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s a t work i n each o f t h e Zoa's psyches. The Mundane S h e l l , U r i z e n ' s attempt t o l i m i t chaos and t o c o n t a i n a l l t h e e r r o r s o f man, w i l l have to go, and i t does go: A c r a s h r a n t h r o * t h e immense.  The bounds o f D e s t i n y were broken. The bounds o f D e s t i n y c r a s h ' d d i r e f u l , & t h e s w e l l i n g sea Burst from i t s bonds i n w h i r l p o o l s f i e r c e , r o a r i n g with Human voice, Triumphing even t o t h e s t a r s a t b r i g h t Ahania's f a l l . (111:136-9, K. 295) Ahania, U r i z e n ' s b r i g h t emanation, of  t h e F a l l i n an attempt t o l u l l  has been g i v i n g h e r v e r s i o n U r i z e n ; she has t o l d him  t h a t s i n c e he usurped Luvah's p l a c e , t h e l a t t e r i s no l o n g e r any t h r e a t t o him. U r i z e n sees through t h i s ; i t i s not as simple as Ahania p u t s i t .  He accuses her o f becoming l i k e  V a l a whom he blames f o r t h e f a l l (116, K 295).  o f " a c t i v e masculine v i r t u e "  He, l i k e A l b i o n , senses t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e  Luvah-Jesus p r i n c i p l e but because o f h i s g u i l t r i d d e n cons c i e n c e wishes t o p l a c e t h e blame elsewhere; he c a s t s Ahania out.  By so d o i n g he i s throwing out t h e core o f h i s being,  he becomes an i m p o s s i b i l i t y and h i s whole world w i l l The r e s u l t o f U r i z e n ' s f a l l  collapse.  which o c c u r s i r o n i c a l l y by an  attempt t o p u r i f y h i s essence, i s a Noah's f l o o d ; out o f "the  80 s w e l l i n g s e a " w i t h i t s " w h i r l p o o l s f i e r c e " a "Human v o i c e " i s heard  " r o a r i n g " and t r i u m p h a n t .  Luvah-Jesus p r i n c i p l e .  The human v o i c e e m b o d i e s t h e  T h e w h o l e e f f e c t may be l i k e n e d t o t h e  " i n n e r p s y c h i c s p r i n g " t h a t c a s t s Ishmael  ( e v e r y m a n ) up f r o m  t h e v o r t e x o f t h e w h i r l p o o l a t t h e e n d o f M e l v i l l e ' s Moby D i c k . The  cracking of Urizen's world leads to the opposite  of monolithic structure; and  i t l e a d s t o t h e s t r u g g l e between Los  h i s Spectre o f Urthona.  rules,  I n t h i s s t r u g g l e t h e r e a r e no  t h e r e i s no " m a t h e m a t i c f o r m "  such  a s Newton ( i n B l a k e ' s  e y e s ) e n v i s i o n e d , t h e i n n e r p s y c h i c f o r c e g u i d i n g i t cannot be m e a s u r e d a n y more t h a n B l a k e ' s be m e a s u r e d .  imagery o f b l o o d and w a t e r c a n  From t h e chaos o f Tharmas' w a t e r y  world t o a  U r i z e n i c world o f "order" t o t h e a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n o f Los's Golgonooza i s one g i a n t i m a g i n a t i v e l e a p . In who w i l l  N i g h t I V B l a k e c o n c e n t r a t e s upon t h e m i s s i o n o f L o s  be, through  h i s S p e c t r e ' s power, i n s t r u m e n t a l i n r e -  versing the effects of the F a l l .  The o u t c o m e o f t h e s t r u g g l e  b e t w e e n t h e c o n t r a r y s t a t e s o f L o s and t h e S p e c t r e o f U r t h o n a will  be t h e d e t e r m i n a n t  i n t h e movement t o w a r d  Apocalypse.  CHAPTER V The  sparagmos i n Night I was a d i v i s i o n from t h e l o i n s  o f A l b i o n ; Luvah*s f a l l  (Night I I ) was a r e n d i n g o f A l b i o n ' s  h e a r t ; i n Night I I I t h e d i v i s i o n was from t h e head, U r i z e n became an i s o l a t e d r a t i o c i n a t i n g f a c u l t y ; i ? f i n a l l y i n Night IV the i m a g i n a t i v e s p i r i t was d i v i d e d a g a i n s t The is  itself.  importance Blake attached t o t h i s l a s t  splitting  s i g n i f i e d by t h e prominence he gave t o Urthona e a r l y i n  the poem: Los was t h e f o u r t h immortal s t a r r y one, & i n t h e E a r t h Of a b r i g h t Universe, Empery attended day & n i g h t , Days & n i g h t s o f r e v o l v i n g j o y . Urthona was h i s name In Eden; i n t h e A u r i c u l a r Nerves o f Human L i f e , Which i s t h e E a r t h o f Eden, he h i s Emanations propagated, [ L i k e Sons & Daughters d e l . ] F a i r i e s o f A l b i o n , afterwards Gods o f t h e Heathen. Daughter o f Beulah, S i n g His f a l l into D i v i s i o n & h i s Resurrection to Unity: H i s f a l l i n t o the Generation o f decay & death, & h i s Regeneration by the R e s u r r e c t i o n from t h e dead. (1:14-23, K 264) H a r o l d Bloom comments upon these  lines:  In t h e u n f a l i e n world Los l i v e d i n the e a r t h , and h i s e t e r n a l name, Urthona, may be a p l a y on earth-owner. Then t h e r e v o l v i n g e a r t h was a movement from j o y t o j o y , f o r t h e e a r t h o f Eden was t h e same as t h e u n f a l i e n Man's sense o f h e a r i n g , t h e a p o c a l y p t i c sense o f poetry and music. In t h a t e a r t h o f song, Urthona bred " h i s Emanations," . . . An emanation i s l i t e r a l l y what comes i n t o b e i n g from a p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i o n i n which a s e r i e s o f e f f l u x e s flow from a c r e a t o r . As a c r e a t e d form an emanation can be male o r female o r both; e i t h e r way i t i s opposed t o t h e S p e c t r e o r shadow, a b a f f l e d c r e a t i o n o r r e s i due o f s e l f t h a t has f a i l e d t o emanate, t o reach an outer but connected e x i s t e n c e . The emanations o f Los are h i s "Sons &  82  Daughters," forming f i r s t the p o e t i c mythology of Eden ( F a i r i e s o f A l b i o n ) and then the pagan Gods a f t e r the f a l l of Los, when forms o f worship are a b s t r a c t e d from p o e t i c tales.24 Los's f a l l was  from a very great h e i g h t because f o r Blake,  the i m a g i n a t i o n or p o e t i c genius, i s the h i g h e s t of the f a c ulties.  The  e v o l u t i o n o f Los as a great h e r o i c f i g u r e i s the  t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the a c t i o n toward Apocalypse take p l a c e i n Night IV. the S p e c t r e o f Urthona,  which begins t o  H i s s t r u g g l e s w i t h h i s Spectre, i . e . whom Bloom r e f e r s t o as "the most  enigmatic of Blake's mythic  b e i n g s " (Apocalypse, p. 249) i s ,  from my p o i n t o f view, the most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e remaining N i g h t s i n the poem. Blake's f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s S p e c t r e i n t h i s Night i s an important c l u e t o i t s meaning: A shadow b l u e , obscure & d i s m a l ; l i k e a s t a t u e of l e a d , Bent by i t s f a l l from a h i g h tower, the d o l o r o u s shadow r o s e . (65-6, K  299)  Bloom comments: These b r i l l i a n t l i n e s v i v i d l y present the S p e c t r e of the f e a r f u l o r d i n a r y ego or s e l f h o o d o f f a l l e n man, a of the i m a g i n a t i v e power man once possessed. Los has mature i n t o the a r t i s t - p r o p h e t o r capable i m a g i n a t i o n to become, but the S p e c t r e , who i s the burden of s e l f every a r t i s t , i s a l r e a d y a f i n i s h e d being, leaden and and p a r a d o x i c a l l y cloudy (pj>. c i t . . p. 249).  Urthona, shadow yet to he i s in twisted  Bloom f u r t h e r comments i n the Erdman e d i t i o n o f Blake's works (pp.  872-3):  83  The S p e c t r e of Urthona i s p o s s i b l y Blake's most o r i g i n a l i n v e n t i o n . . . . The best commentary on him i s i n Frye [ F S ] , pp. 292-299. Each man's S p e c t r e o f Urthona i s t h a t p a r t i n him t h a t begins by f e a r i n g o l d age, poverty, s i c k n e s s , l o n e l i n e s s , and then expands t o an omnipresent a n x i e t y , a nameless dread of d e a t h - i n - l i f e , o f time as an O p p r e s s i v e burden d a i l y i n c r e a s i n g i n weight. . . . The S p e c t r e i s i r r e s o l u t e and dependent, c o l o r e d d i s m a l l y b l u e i n a parody o f the c o l o r o f i m a g i n a t i o n , shod and armored i n i r o n as b e f i t s a s e l f - c r i p p l e d and time-obsessed w i l l . He i s a c r i p p l e . . . but h i s s t r e n g t h w i t h i n any a r t i s t i s a s u b t l e and p e r s i s t e n t r e a l i t y . L a t e r i n t h i s chapter I w i l l r e f e r t o Frye's t e n t a t i v e c l u s i o n s about the S p e c t r e of  con-  Urthona.  Blake r e f e r s to t h i s S p e c t r e twice i n Night I ( 4 3 2 , K 2 7 6 ; 5 3 0 , K 2 7 8 ) but r e s e r v e s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of i t t i l l Night IV, l i n e s 6 5 - 6 quoted  above.  I t i s important t o l o o k  c a r e f u l l y a t the words Blake uses i n the d e s c r i p t i o n .  The  word " b l u e " stands out, i t i s p l a c e d between "shadow" and "obscure & d i s m a l . "  I t h i n k t h e r e i s more t o Blake's c h o i c e  o f the word " b l u e " than i t s b e i n g simply a parody of the i m a g i n a t i o n as Bloom suggests.  Looking a t o t h e r c o n t e x t s i n  which Blake uses " b l u e " i n The Four Zoas i s somewhat informative: Count Pasce Night L i n e 1  273  I  350  2  285  II  192  3  295  III  146  Quotation "the b l u e s h e l l t h a t soon s h a l l b u r s t away" "the b l u e smoke r o l l e d t o revive" "From the c r a s h roared a flame of b l u e sulphureous f i r e . . . Swallowing up the h o r r i b l e d i n i n agony on! agony."  Connotation eruption rejuvenation  consummation  84 4  312  VI  13  5 6 7  312 VI 341 V I I I IX 359  31 11 97  8 9  365 371  IX IX  296 522  371  IX  LO  531  "Thou t e r r i b l e woman c l a d i n b l u e , whose s t r o n g a t t r a c t i v e power / Draws a l l into a fountain" "Into the b l u e expanse" "dark blue sky" "He l i f t s the b l u e lamps o f h i s Eyes" "the b l u e w a l l s o f heaven" "Open the orbs o f thy blue eyes & s m i l e upon my gardens." "thy heavenly b l u e eyes"  renewal  rejuvenation  rejuvenation  I n counts nos. 5, 6, 8, 10, I do not f i n d any s p e c i a l  signifi-  cance o t h e r than p o s i t i v e s u g g e s t i v e n e s s as i s a l s o to be found i n Blake's o t h e r w r i t i n g s such as, "blue c u r t a i n s o f the sky" (K 3, "Evening S t a r , " 1. 6); " b l u e r e g i o n s o f the a i r " (K 10, "To The Muses," 1. 7); "with a b l u e sky spread . . ." (K 642, Jerusalem. 19:44).  In the f i f t h Memorable  Fancy o f The Marriage of Heaven and H e l l  (K 158)  the word  " b l u e " i s used to i n d i c a t e an i n t e n s e s t a t e of emotion:  "The  Angel h e a r i n g t h i s became almost b l u e " ; t h i s i s a l s o the case i n Jerusalem, p i . 37, K 664:  "So Los apoke.  But when he  saw  [ p a l e a l t e r e d t o ] b l u e death i n A l b i o n ' s f e e t / Again he j o i n ' d the D i v i n e Body, f o l l o w i n g m e r c i f u l , / While f l e d more i n d i g n a n t , r e v e n g e f u l c o v e r i n g . "  Albion  In p l a t e 65 o f the  same poem (K 699) Luvah, i . e . C h r i s t i s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o when, They vote the death of Luvah & they n a i l ' d him to A l b i o n ' s Tree i n Bath They s t a i n ' d him with poisonous b l u e , they inwove him i n cruel roots To d i e a death of S i x thousand y e a r s bound round w i t h vegetation. (8-10)  85 I n these l a s t t h r e e cases use of the word " b l u e " i s , I f e e l , very c a r e f u l l y chosen.  The p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t a t e t h a t i s b e i n g  d e s c r i b e d i s one t h a t goes beyond anger; i t c o u l d be c a l l e d a s t a t e of shock, p a r a l y s i s , or suppressed  fury.  In anger the  blood i s a good h e a l t h y red c o l o u r ; i n shock, p a r a l y s i s , suppressed  f u r y anoxia o c c u r s .  the blood a b l u i s h t i n g e .  or  T h i s oxygen d e p r i v a t i o n g i v e s  Blake, f r i e n d o f the famous surgeon  John Hunter, would most c e r t a i n l y have known t h i s . Going back to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the Spectre o f thona as b e i n g "blue, obscure,  Ur-  & d i s m a l , " " b l u e " becomes a  loaded word f i l l e d with i m p l i c a t i o n s .  I t can s i g n i f y bound-  l e s s hope l i k e T. S. E l i o t ' s "Mary's c o l o u r , " or i t can gest o b s c u r i t y , mystery, power.  sug-  Perhaps i t i s not a c c i d e n t a l  t h a t today's comic s t r i p c h a r a c t e r s Rex  Morgan, super d o c t o r ,  and Tarzan,  P o s s i b l y l i k e Samson,  super man,  have b l u e h a i r .  t h e i r strength l i e s i n t h e i r hair. meated by shadowy mysterious o p p o s i t i o n to each o t h e r . dow"  But t h i s s t r e n g t h i s p e r -  forces.  Forces t h a t are a l s o i n  The S p e c t r e , although  i s " l i k e a statue of l e a d . "  it is a  T h i s would seem to be i n -  congruous but i t i s t h i s i n c o n g r u i t y t h a t s e t s up the t e n s i o n to i n d i c a t e great f o r c e .  "sha-  necessary  Lead i s one of the most  common metals i n the e a r t h , i t i s base i n q u a l i t y , cheap, heavy, i n e l a s t i c , but p l i a b l e .  In Blake's image the  Spectre  i s "bent by i t s f a l l from a h i g h tower," i t i s a l l c r i p p l e d up,  i t s p l i a b i l i t y means t h a t i t can be compelled  or  easily  manipulated; i t can a l s o be stubbornly r e s i s t a n t and a c t upon its  own.  86 Night IV; opens w i t h Tharmas who i s a mass o f ambiv a l e n c e s , he does not understand Enitharmon, E n i o n . i s gone!"—despair  h i s f e e l i n g s toward Los,  He i s i n a s t a t e o f d e s p a i r , " A l l my hope b e i n g the l o s s o f hope.  Hope i s the s t a t e  of  t h e human s o u l t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y p r o d u c t i v e , i m p l i c i t i n i t  is  a harmony o f the s o u l .  Hope suggests p o s s i b i l i t y of order  dramatized by union o f Tharmas and Enion.  Tharmas i s s a y i n g ,  how can I f e e l l o v e and p i t y when I don't have any hope? l i k e C o l e r i d g e , i s w r i t i n g " D e j e c t i o n : an Ode."  He,  He wants two  opposing t h i n g s , he wants Enion, s i g n i f y i n g l i f e and he wants oblivion^  s i g n i f y i n g death.  But he l o o k s elsewhere  and not t o  h i m s e l f f o r a s o l u t i o n ; t h i s i n f u r i a t e s Los who, a t l e a s t , i s a r e a l i s t and r e a l i z e s what they have done. i s who i s t o be i n c o n t r o l . "The Dark S p e c t r e . "  own, but Los's.  Tharmas i n d e s p e r a t i o n c a l l s upon  I s he not attempting t o c a l l  i n n e r source o f power? his  The argument now  upon some  The dark S p e c t r e who comes up i s not  Something very important  exists i n this.  Perhaps Tharmas cannot have access t o h i s own i n n e r power u n t i l Los's m i s s i o n has been  completed.  Recapping b r i e f l y t h e s t r u g g l e o f c o n t r a r y s t a t e s i n t h i s Night, we f i r s t  see ambivalent  Tharmas opposing Los, he,  Tharmas, wishes t h i n g s were d i f f e r e n t but Los i s w i l l i n g t o accept t h e f a l l e n world and U r i z e n s r e i g n . 1  he was once Urthona,  "keeper o f t h e gates o f heaven," but now  c l a i m s t o be more powerful and says, "Urthona dow."  F a l l e n Los knows  i s but my  sha-  I f "shadow" here means S p e c t r e (and Blake i s not always  87 c o n s i s t e n t i n h i s use o f these terms) i t would appear t h a t the power t h e S p e c t r e does have must have o r i g i n a l l y come from Urthona~the  highest faculty.  Enitharmon opposes Tharmas and  blames him f o r t h e overthrow o f t h e U r i z e n i c world ( 5 2 ) . Tharmas i n t u r n d e c l a r e s h i s supremacy over U r i z e n , "my s h a l l be my Law"; he h i m s e l f w i l l now be t h e c r e a t o r .  will He com-  mands "the Dark S p e c t r e " who "with d i s l o c a t e d Limbs had f a l l ' n , " t o go f o r t h , t o obey and l i v e . best he can i n t h e f a l l e n world.  To l i v e , t h a t i s , as  Even though h i s bones had  been s p l i n t e r e d i n the F a l l , w i t h i n t h e bone i s the "spungy marrow" from which o s t e o g e n e s i s w i l l o c c u r .  This i s the nat-  u r a l p r o c e s s i n recovery from d i s e a s e but i f the S p e c t r e o f Urthona  r e f u s e s , h i s l o t w i l l be l i k e t h a t o f Tharmas s, he T  w i l l be r u l e d by "demons o f d e s p a i r & hope." ambivalence  Living i n total  w i l l g i v e r i s e t o a l l s o r t s of.psychosomatic  ill-  nesses, " t h y limbs s h a l l separate i n s t e n c h & r o t t i n g , " warns Tharmas.  The S p e c t r e has s t r o n g f e e l i n g s t o o and w i l l not be  d i c t a t e d t o ; he reminds Tharmas t h a t a t t h e F a l l he, t h e S p e c t r e , had seen Tharmas " r o t t i n g upon t h e Rocks," t a k i n g p i t y on him he had hovered  over him and p r o t e c t e d h i s " g h a s t l y  c o r s e / From V u l t u r e s o f t h e deep." s t r a t e s t h a t even immediately  Thus t h e S p e c t r e demon-  a f t e r h i s own b i r t h ( i n t h i s  case from the n o s t r i l s o f Enion) he, t o o , has power. an a l l around b a t t l e f o r supremacy.  It i s  Although Tharmas d e c l a r e s  h i m s e l f God (131) he d i s l i k e s t h e onerous r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the r o l e , " I s t h i s t o be A^God? f a r r a t h e r would I be a Man /  88  To know sweet S c i e n c e & t o do with simple companions / S i t t i n g beneath a t e n t & viewing  sheepfolds & s o f t p a s t u r e s " ;  the m i s s i o n t o Los t o whom he says, Urthona: r e b u i l d these f u r n a c e s . "  he g i v e s  "Take thou t h e hammer o f Again he t h r e a t e n s ; he  t h r e a t e n s Los with death i f he r e f u s e s h i s o r d e r .  Like  Lear  he seems t o l i k e t h e t r a p p i n g s o f r o y a l t y but not t h e responsibility.  Los i s t e r r i f i e d ; he knows t h a t i n r e b u i l d i n g U r i z -  en s r u i n e d f u r n a c e s , i t w i l l not be, as i n the Book o f U r i z e n , T  an attempt t o s e t some l i m i t t o t h e d i s s o l v i n g mind of U r i z e n , but r a t h e r t o b u i l d a world o f h o r r i b l e chaos, t h i s b e i n g t h e only k i n d o f world  t h a t t h e f a l l e n Tharmas can order i n t o  being. Blake i s moving deeply o f h i s myth at t h i s p o i n t .  i n t o t h e dream f a n t a s y  element  U r i z e n i s s l e e p i n g i n a "stoned  s t u p o r " but i s having horrit>le nightmares t h a t a r e producing some k i n d o f power o f t h e i r own; a mental t r a n s f e r e n c e i s t a k i n g p l a c e between h i s mind and Los's.  While Los i s working  t o b u i l d anew the r u i n e d furnaces he i s b e i n g compelled by a power he does not understand.  Raging a g a i n s t Tharmas he binds  U r i z e n by c r e a t i n g d i v i s i o n s of time, t h e seven ages o f man. In doing t h i s he i s r e f a s h i o n i n g t h e mind i n the image o f Adamic man, t h e only image t h e sundered prophet can v i s u a l i z e as Bloom has p o i n t e d out (Apocalypse,  p. 250). Gn f i r s t  r e a d i n g i t would appear that Los h i m s e l f i s doing t h i s but l o o k i n g c l o s e l y a t l i n e s 170-183, one notes a p e c u l i a r t r a n s f e r e n c e o f power.  U r i z e n s nightmare " h o r r i b l e s t a t e " 1  89  causes h i s body f i r s t t o shudder  and then t o f r e e z e i n t e r r o r ;  semi awake he moves i n t o a mood o f "brooding c o n t e m p l a t i o n " which produces "roll d T  "a mighty power."  T h i s i n t u r n a f f e c t s Los who  f u r i o u s / H i s thunderous wheels from f u r n a c e t o f u r -  nace" around U r i z e n , thus b i n d i n g him.  U r i z e n , "the contem-  p l a t i v e t e r r o r " i s f r i g h t e n e d by Los*s s c o r n , he i s f r i g h t e n e d w i t h " c o l d i n f e c t i o u s madness."  The key phrase here i s " c o l d  i n f e c t i o u s madness," where does i t come from? in line 1 8 3 .  Blake t e l l s us  I t had seemed t h a t i t was Los who was w i e l d i n g  t h e hammer, t h e t e x t says so, but i t i s i n r e a l i t y  Los's  S p e c t r e o r "dark Urthona" who compels Los t o w i e l d i t .  Power  has been s u b t l y t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e sky god U r i z e n who was o r i g i n a l l y the P r i n c e o f L i g h t ; i t has now become the d i s e a s e d i n f e c t i o u s madness t h a t the S p e c t r e o f Urthona r e p r e s e n t s a t this point.  I t presages t h e madness o f t h e dance o f death  t h a t i s t o come i n Night V.  The Spectre has no r e a l awareness,  he i s mad as Blake s t a t e s over and over a g a i n : " t h e S p e c t r e i s i n Every Man i n s a n e , b r u t i s h , d e f o r m d , t h a t I [ t h e S p e c t r e ] T  am thus a r a v e n i n g devouring l u s t c o n t i n u a l l y c r a v i n g 8 P d e vouring"  (FZ 1 : 1 0 3 ) ;  VII:304;  J 37:4).  The  Spectre  i s mad  and  the madness i s c o n t a g i o u s , Los becomes demonic, he i s f i l l e d w i t h revenge, wrath, and d e l i g h t i n the c r u e l t y h.e^is i n f l i c t ing.  The energy t h e S p e c t r e possesses and t r a n s f e r s i s t h e  s o r t o f power t h a t g i v e s r i s e t o o b s e s s i v e compulsive  acts.  T h i s energy i s a k i n d o f f r e e f l o a t i n g i d , o r impersonal mass of  i n t e r a c t i n g e n e r g i e s , which can c o n t r o l o r be c o n t r o l l e d by  i t s possessor.  90 M a r g o l i o u t h ' s comment on l i n e s 184-193 throws some l i g h t on the reason f o r L o s s T  efforts:  Here we have at t h e moment Los, S p e c t r e , Enitharmon, U r i z e n , with Tharmas as a s o r t o f c o m p e l l i n g D e s t i n y i n the background. Los, the u n r e s t r a i n e d non-moral Imagination, makes use o f the h o r r i b l e ghost o f the c r e a t i v e n e s s of God, [the shadow/ s p e c t r e ? ] o f which t h e r e i s something i n every man, t o compel the I n t e l l e c t t o a p a r t i c u l a r Weltanschauung, that of temporal s u c c e s s i o n and o f the l i m i t e d human form. I n so doing Los does v i o l e n c e t o h i s own i n t u i t i o n t h a t much i s l o s t . He i s not r e b u i l d i n g U r i z e n ' s world: h i s a c t i v i t i e s make a worse one, and Enitharmon knows t h i s . He r e j o i c e s i n c r u s h i n g something i n h i m s e l f , e l i m i n a t i n g some 'good* t o work f o r some o t h e r •good . Yet at the same time he hates what he i s doing, rages 'against Tharmas h i s God . The r e s u l t o f Los's work cannot be what Tharmas wants, f o r Tharmas i s backward-looking and Los forward-looking.25 1  1  In the midst of h i s demonic a c t i v i t y , Los, the  "Pro-  phet of E t e r n i t y " has an i n s i g h t which t e r r i f i e s him; i n worshipping a f a l s e god he sees the "Shapes / Enslav'd humani t y p u t [ s ] on."  He sees h i m s e l f and what he has become,  became what he beheld: / He became what he was h i m s e l f t r a n s f o r m ' d " (K 3 0 5 ) . become demons. us.  doing: he  "he was  In the S p e c t r e ' s power we a l l  T h i s theme i s c e n t r a l to Blake's myth—and to  Our s a l v a t i o n , as the " C o u n c i l of God  on h i g h " r e v e a l s ,  i s t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the v e s t i g i a l image of man  covered i n  Luvah's robes o f blood must not be l o s t ; the s a v i n g remnant of t h i s D i v i n e V i s i o n f e l l t o Los.  His Spectre, instead of r e -  maining t h e burden o f s e l f i n t h e a r t i s t , can become the comp u l s i v e power t h a t makes the a r t i s t c r e a t e a Golgonooza world o f a r t t h a t i s worth l i v i n g i n .  " L i f e i s a dance and not a  r a c e , " as G. K. Chesterton has s a i d .  T h i s i s the c e n t r a l  91 theme of L o s s T  (and o f Blake's) m i s s i o n — t o warn us t h a t while  we have to l i v e i n a U r i z e n i c world because o f the F a l l ,  we  must not a l l o w the demonic powers of t h a t world t o compel us. I f we do, we f i n d t h a t a l l our senses are " i n c h a i n s of the mind l o c k ' d up"  (IV:211, K 303).  Blake o r i g i n a l l y intended to  b r i n g i n a t t h i s p o i n t i n h i s myth the i d e a of the  restorative  f u n c t i o n of blood as a s s o c i a t e d with Luvah's robes, but line,  the  ( B r i n g i n here the Globe o f Blood as i n the B. of U r i z e n ,  K. 305), was  deleted.  Instead he p r e s e n t s a v i v i d p i c t u r e o f  t h e d i s - e a s e d s t a t e o f man  when t h e energy o f t h e Spectre  be-  comes merely muscular spasm which i f t o n i c wholly c o n t r a c t s the muscle as i n tetanus; muscle f a t i g u e , anoxia and follow.  death  The spasms t h a t s e i z e Los are not o f t h i s k i n d but  are more l i k e the i n v o l u n t a r y muscular t w i t c h i n g s as seen i n choreamania or S t . V i t u s dance.  While Blake i s d e s c r i b i n g a  pseudo dance o f death by u s i n g imagery drawn from pathology  he  i s a l s o p r e p a r i n g the reader f o r the establishment of the r e p e t i t i v e and automatic main theme of Night  Ore c y c l e s of h i s t o r y t h a t w i l l be  the  V.  Bloom e x p l i c a t e s t h i s theme: . . . , the f i f t h Night draws us i n t o i t s f r i g h t e n i n g theme, t h e c y c l e of i r o n i c r e p e t i t i o n s t h a t c o n f i n e s a merely o r g a n i c energy, a d e s i r e t h a t w i l l not r i s e above the n a t u r a l . In these l i n e s [1-17] Los's metamorphosis i n t o our time becomes complete. Blake's p a s s i o n i s so b l a c k and m a j e s t i c an emotion t h a t most of h i s c r i t i c s f a l s i f y i t by e v a s i o n . The mountains are as dark and h i g h as heaven, and as s t o n i l y d e c e p t i v e . T h i s i s the e x i s t e n c e of man, and man indeed at h i s imaginat i v e best; an i n f e c t e d , mad dance i n t o confinement, a w i t h e r i n g up of our p o t e n t i a l . Los dances b r a n d i s h i n g the master-  )  92  l e s s hammer o f Urthona, but he w i e l d s i t v a i n l y , f o r h i s anvil of c r e a t i v i t y i s cold. (Apocalypse,  p. 2 5 2 )  The r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e c y c l e s a r e i r o n i c because with each new b i r t h o f Ore, enthusiasm i s a t i t s h e i g h t g i v i n g p r o mise o f great t h i n g s to come.  The " c o l d E a r t h wanderers" o f  "The Mental T r a v e l l e r " never r e a l i z e t h e i r o n y o f t h e endless r e p e t i t i o n because t h e i r f u r n a c e s , l i k e Los's, have gone o u t . Man's d e s i r e w i l l never r i s e beyond t h e l i m i t s o f h i s s h o r t s i g h t e d " n a t u r a l " v i s i o n u n l e s s he l e a r n s t o make use o f t h e demonic power he possesses. T h i s demonic power i s , I b e l i e v e , to be found i n t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona.  The words " d i s m a l " and "obscure"  are key  words t h a t l i n k Blake*s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S p e c t r e with Los's dance.  I f t h e energy o f t h e S p e c t r e i s a k i n d o f f r e e f l o a t -  i n g i d , i t i s worthwhile t o look a t t h e o r i g i n of t h i s term. The word i d ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O.E.D.) was formed i n German i n 1 8 9 1 by Weismann.  I t i s d e f i n e d as an a n c e s t r a l germ plasm:  each o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e c e l l s c o n t a i n s i n i t s nucleus a number o f ' i d s ' and each i d r e p r e s e n t s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an a n c e s t r a l member o f t h e s p e c i e s o r o f an antecedent  species.  L a t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s c r i b e t h e i d s ' as chromosomes. T  Freud's  use o f t h e term i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t : . . . [with r e g a r d t o ] t h e elements o f t h e p s y c h i c apparatus, . . . t h e c h i l d b r i n g s i n t o t h e world an unorganized c h a o t i c m e n t a l i t y c a l l e d t h e Id, t h e s o l e aim o f which i s g r a t i f i c a -  93  t i o n o f a l l needs, t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f hunger, s e l f p r e s e r v a t i o n , and l o v e , t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s . However, as the c h i l d grows o l d e r , t h a t p a r t o f t h e i d which comes i n t o c o n t a c t with t h e environment through t h e senses l e a r n s t o know the i n e x o r a b l e r e a l i t y o f the o u t e r world and becomes m o d i f i e d i n t o what Freud c a l l s t h e ego. T h i s ego, p o s s e s s i n g awareness o f t h e environment, h e n c e f o r t h s t r i v e s t o curb t h e l a w l e s s i d t e n d e n c i e s whenever they attempt t o a s s e r t themselves incompatibly. The n e u r o s i s , as we see i t here, was, t h e r e f o r e , a c o n f l i c t between t h e ego and t h e i d . The ego, aware o f t h e f o r c e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , and e t h i c s , r e f u s e d t o allow motor d i s c h a r g e t o t h e powerful sexual impulses emanating from the l a w l e s s i d , and thus blocked them from obtainment o f t h e o b j e c t towards which they aimed. The ego then defended i t s e l f by r e p r e s s i n g them.26  I f f o r purposes o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n we make t h e f o l l o w i n g equat i o n s : ego = Los, t h e i d = S p e c t r e o f Urthona;  "powerful  s e x u a l impulses" = t h e urge toward a l l forms o f c r e a t i v i t y ; " f o r c e s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " = t h e U r i z e n i c world t h a t Los ( o r any o f u s ) , i n h a b i t s , Blake's myth i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e world we live in.  I f Los r e p r e s s e s t h e S p e c t r e t h e r e i s endless  con-  f l i c t w i t h i n Los; i f t h e S p e c t r e ' s e n e r g i e s run w i l d , chaos r e s u l t s and Los becomes mad.  When Frye w r i t e s i n F e a r f u l  Symmetry. " i f one had t o p i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n down t o a s i n g l e word, one might c a l l Blake's S p e c t r e o f Urthona t h e w i l l " (p. 292); I agree w i t h Frye but t h e o b s c u r i t y i n t h e concept l i e s i n t r y i n g t o p i n down e x a c t l y where the energy o f t h e S p e c t r e comes from.  I s i t not necessary t o have some knowledge  o f t h i s i n o r d e r t o exert t h e w i l l ?  Does t h e S p e c t r e ' s energy  come from t h e germ plasm w i t h i n t h e organism t h a t i s passed from one g e n e r a t i o n t o another it  as Weismann d e s c r i b e s , o r i s  something immanent ( i n t h e Wordsworthian sense) i n t h e  u n i v e r s e o r even beyond t h e u n i v e r s e t h a t we know?  Does t h e  94 energy come from what P i e r r e T e i l h a r d de Chardin c a l l s the noosphere, the t h i n k i n g envelope o f the e a r t h , which e n t e r s the b i o s p h e r e to form a u n i t y o f mind-body f u n c t i o n ? ^  Devel-  opment o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s l i e s beyond the scope o f t h i s  thesis.  2  For the p r e s e n t I am merely t r y i n g t o p o i n t out the importance o f Blake's use o f the word "obscure" when he d e s c r i b e s the S p e c t r e o f Urthona. That Los's dance was  " d i s m a l " and that the S p e c t r e i s  a l s o " d i s m a l " i s not c o i n c i d e n t a l .  The choreamania t h a t  Los  i s s u f f e r i n g from corresponds to the d a n c i n g madness which spread i n the f i f t e e n t h century from Germany throughout  Europe  i n epidemic p r o p o r t i o n s , i t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n t o r t i o n s , c o n v u l s i o n s , and dancing. symptoms was  The o r i g i n and cure o f h y s t e r i c a l  as much shrouded i n o b s c u r i t y i n the e i g h t e e n t h  century as i s f r e q u e n t l y t h e case today.  D e s p i t e Freud and  h i s great c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f i e l d , modern a n a l y t i c a l psyc h i a t r y cannot reach the i d .  Blake's a t t e n t i o n t o h y s t e r i a  was p r o b a b l y caught by h i s r e a d i n g J . G. Spurzheim's  Observa-  t i o n s on the Deranged M a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the Mind, or I n s a n i t y . a book Blake owned which has been l o s t a c c o r d i n g t o B e n t l e y  28 and Nurmi. Blake's great b a t - l i k e c r e a t u r e i s a symbol o f c r u c i a l importance f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the Spectre o f Urthona. S i n c e the poem b e i n g d i s c u s s e d i s a dream o f n i n e n i g h t s , the b a t - l i k e c r e a t u r e i s a dream symbol,  i.e. "it  i s an image,  u s u a l l y a v i s u a l image, o f an o b j e c t , a c t i v i t y o r scene; the  95 r e f e r e n t f o r t h e symbol i s a c o n c e p t i o n .  The f u n c t i o n o f the  symbol i s t o express as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e the p a r t i c u l a r 29 c o n c e p t i o n t h a t t h e dreamer has xn mind." the symbol i s understood  7  '  .  ~  The meaning o f  when t h e r e f e r e n t i s brought t o  consciousness. L i k e a l l Blake's symbols, simple equations w i l l not work.  There i s no b a t - l i k e c r e a t u r e i n The Four Zoas but  t h e r e a r e two r e f e r e n c e s t o a c t u a l b a t s t h a t a r e important t o an understanding o f t h e concept t h a t Blake wishes to p r e s e n t . The  f i r s t one appears  i n f o u r o f the most b e a u t i f u l  lines  Blake ever wrote: The w i n t e r spread h i s wide b l a c k wings a c r o s s from p o l e t o pole: Grim f r o s t beneath & t e r r i b l e snow, l i n k ' d i n a marriage c h a i n , Began a dismal dance. The winds around on p o i n t e d r o c k s S e t t l e d l i k e bats innumerable, ready t o f l y abroad. (V:32-5, K 3 0 6 ) The "dismal dance" i s performed great beauty  and great power.  amidst  a scene  suggesting  The image o f w i n t e r  having  "wide b l a c k wings" c o n j u r e s up t h e s i l e n t and portentuous wheeling o f bats overhead. i n c i r c u l a r motion.  The winds a r e a l s o imaged as b e i n g  These l i n e s precede the b i r t h o f Ore.  The themes o f c i r c u l a r i t y and portentuousness  predominant i n  t h i s Night V a r e c o n s i s t e n t with t h e symbols p r e s e n t e d .  The  o t h e r r e f e r e n c e i n t h i s poem i s i n l i n e 608, Night IX: The S c a l y newt creeps From t h e stone, & t h e armed f l y s p r i n g s from t h e rocky c r e v i c e ,  96 The s p i d e r , t h e bat b u r s t from t h e harden'd s l i m e , c r y i n g To one another: "What are we & whence i s our j o y & d e l i g h t ? Here t h e bat imagery i s t h e d i r e c t o p p o s i t e to t h a t i n t h e p r e v i o u s q u o t a t i o n ; i t i s one o f e r u p t i o n and Apocalypse i s near.  I n t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e poem between these two r e f e r e n c e s  B l a k e t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona and Los. it  I t i s a s t o r y o f encasement and e r u p t i o n ;  i s a s t o r y o f t h e w i l l b e i n g chained  and o f t h e w i l l  being  freed. The  first  i n d i c a t i o n o f some mysterious power a r i s i n g  from f a l l e n Urthona i s found i n t h e l i n e s : "When dark Urthona wept i n torment.of t h e s e c r e t p a i n : "He wept & he d i v i d e d & he l a i d h i s gloomy head "Down on t h e Rock o f E t e r n i t y on darkness o f t h e deep, "Torn by b l a c k storms & c e a s e l e s s t o r r e n t s o f consuming fire, "Within h i s b r e a s t h i s f i e r y sons chain'd down & f i l l ' d with c u r s i n g s . "And  b r e a t h i n g t e r r i b l e blood & vengeance, gnashing h i s t e e t h with p a i n , " L e t l o o s e t h e Enormous S p i r i t on t h e darkness o f t h e deep. (V:53-9, K 3 0 6 ) The  fall  o f Urthona i s b e i n g r e t o l d and s i n c e t h e f a l l and  c r e a t i o n a r e simultaneous i n Blake, t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona i s c r e a t e d as an "Enormous S p i r i t " t h a t i s l e t l o o s e "on the darkness o f t h e deep," t h e "deep" b e i n g t h e n a t u r a l waters t h a t were once A l b i o n ' s  blood.  97  T h i s "Enormous S p i r i t "  i s a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the  a c t i o n and i t w i l l a i d Los i n the l a t t e r s attempt to  circum-  f  vent the r e p e t i t i o u s Ore c y c l e s . disturbs  Ore's b i r t h  ( l . 63)  vastly  Los:  Sweat & b l o o d stood on the l i m b s o f Los i n globes; h i s f i e r y Eyelids Faded: he rouz'd, he s i e z ' d the wonder i n h i s hands & went Shuddering & weeping t h r o ' the Gloom & down i n t o the deeps. (V:66-8, K  307)  Los f e a r s establishment of t h e O r c - U r i z e n c y c l e s which w i l l r e p l a c e h i m s e l f as r u l e r and i.e.  b r i n g a l l to " E t e r n a l Death,"  to a s t a t e o f n o n - e n t i t y ; he i s a l s o i n t e n s e l y j e a l o u s of  Ore when he r e c o g n i z e s the O e d i p a l s i t u a t i o n i n which he been p l a c e d . of  H i s only hope i s to b u i l d Golgonooza, h i s c i t y  a r t t h a t w i l l g i v e form t o chaos.  form t o chaos but f a i l e d .  U r i z e n attempted  to give  G i v i n g form i s a p o s i t i v e a c t which  i s c o n s i s t e n t with the D i v i n e V i s i o n ; by g i v i n g form one see the t o t a l i t y  of the V i s i o n .  i d e a of Jesus, through understands  A r t i s c o n s i s t e n t with  a r t and never through  the human d i v i n e i n t e g r a l .  philosophy  For Blake,  i n g moves by means o f g r a s p i n g i t s y m b o l i c a l l y . of  has  can the one  understand-  The  Spectre  Urthona i s the dream symbol whose p s y c h i c power comes t o  Los's a i d both i n the b u i l d i n g o f Golgonooza and  i n the b i n d -  ing  action  o f Ore on t h e Tree of Mystery.  b e i n g compelled woe"  by the S p e c t r e , and  In the f i r s t i n a s t a t e of  "howling  does complete the b u i l d i n g w i t h " p i l l a r s o f i r o n /  brass & s i l v e r  & gold f o u r f o l d " (V:73-74>  K 307).  Los,  The  And artist,  98 b e i n g s u p p l i e d as i t were w i t h the t o o l s of h i s t r a d e , and compelled by an o b s e s s i v e compulsive power does complete l e a s t the outward form of h i s work.  But the attempt  at  to b i n d  Ore i s u n s u c c e s s f u l , the c h a i n s o f j e a l o u s y are c o n t i n u a l l y reformed u n t i l they take r o o t l i k e the branches o f a banyan t r e e ; the image suggests t o t a l encasement. now  repentant, attempt  r e b e l l i o u s son who  Los and  Enitharmon,  i n v a i n t o unchain t h e i r f i e r y ,  has now  fierce,  taken on some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s of a p o l y p u s — t h a t v o r a c i o u s l y s e l f r e p r o d u c i n g coe l e n t e r a t e o f the sea.  The parents* s t a t e i s d e s c r i b e d :  . . D e s p a i r & T e r r o r & Woe & Rage Inwrap the Parents i n c o l d c l o u d s as they bend howling over The t e r r i b l e boy, t i l l f a i n t i n g by h i s s i d e , the Parents f e l l . (V:170-2, K 309) Again the S p e c t r e of Urthona comes t o t h e i r a i d , he becomes a medicine man  b r i n g i n g "herbs o f the p i t , / Rubbing t h e i r  temples, he r e v i v ' d them."  Los and Enitharmon,  to Golgonooza,  on the road of Dranthon [which  / Enitharmon  "Return*d  back has  some k i n d of p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n ] f e l t the inmost gate / Of her b r i g h t heart b u r s t open & again c l o s e with a deadly p a i n . " Apocalypse i s not y e t but as Night V ends the S p e c t r e has moved i n t o the p o s i t i o n o f a i d i n g Los i n h i s m i s s i o n to b u i l d a world b e t t e r than a U r i z e n i c  one.  Most o f Night VI d e a l s w i t h the n e g a t i v e a c t i v i t y o f U r i z e n e x p l o r i n g h i s dens; h i s journey has been l i k e n e d t o Satan's i n P a r a d i s e Lost- and has l o n g s i n c e been e x p l i c a t e d by Dennis Saurat (Blake and M i l t o n , Lond., 1 9 3 5 ) .  99 Toward the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s Night the Spectre o f Urthona comes i n t o f o c u s .  U r i z e n has entered the world  "Dark Urthona" (281, K 319) "globe of f i r e " ; of  i r o n i c a l l y c a r r y i n g with him h i s  i n t h i s world o f darkness  imaginative a c t i v i t y .  of  Ore i s imprisoned  there i s a blackout i n i t s deadness.  Bloom comments t h a t l i n e s 33-34 c o n t a i n a savage judgment o f Augustan p o e t r y and a r t , the i m a g i n a t i o n i s wasted down " i n t o the d o l e f u l V a l e s " (E, p. 876). a r e only b r i e f l y mentioned. tre  of Urthona, now  p l i a b l e lead. he i s supported in  Los and red Ore  "howling"  The dominant f i g u r e i s the Spec-  imaged i n i r o n " s c a l e d " r a t h e r than i n  There i s a k i n d o f S a t a n i c s c a l i n e s s about by Tharmas, h i s second i n command, who  s t e r n d e f i a n c e " beside  him;  "stood  him.  As s t a t e d above I do not b e l i e v e , although H a r o l d Bloom does (E, p. 876), t h a t the a l l i a n c e of Tharmas and  the  S p e c t r e o f Urthona a g a i n s t U r i z e n i n defence o f Ore i s the f i r s t p o s i t i v e t u r n i n the poem's a c t i o n . t h e S p e c t r e ' s power can go e i t h e r way, to  Remembering t h a t  i t i s very  difficult  d i s e n t a n g l e to whom i t is. attached o r i f i t i s a c t i n g on  i t s own.  . I s Tharmas, the o r d e r i n g power, making use o f i t t o  p r o t e c t the Luvah-Orc l i f e f o r c e from the s o l i d darkness  or i s  the S p e c t r e , unable to a c t on h i s own,  Thar-  mas?  Roles seem to be r e v e r s e d as they must be i n dark Ur-  thona 's n i g h t . his  f o r c e d to r e l y on  own  d i r e Web,  In any  event U r i z e n , f a c e d by the r e v o l t of  c r e a t i o n , i s s u c c e s s f u l l y routed, he r e t i r e s " i n t o h i s s c a t t e r i n g f l e e c y snows" behind him.  Yet, i n h i s  100 r o u t , t h e r e i s some k i n d o f a n t i c i p a t i o n .  The "Web  vibrated  s t r o n g , / From heaven t o heaven, from globe t o globe*? suggests some new c r e a t i o n o r energy exchange. t i o n s o f energy.  V i b r a t i o n s are p u l s a -  I s i t t h i s energy from U r i z e n ' s " d i r e Web"  t h a t "Compulsive r o l l ' d t h e Comets" and threw t h e "Wheel impetuous among Urthona's v a l e s / And round r e d Ore; r e t u r n i n g back t o U r i z e n , gorg'd w i t h b l o o d " (320-3, K 320)?  Or, has  U r i z e n l o s t c o n t r o l and a r e o t h e r f o r c e s t h a t he does not understand o p e r a t i n g ?  There i s c e r t a i n l y a s t r o n g s u g g e s t i o n  t h a t e n e r g i e s a r e b e i n g r e c r e a t e d and a r e b e i n g thrown down i n t o "Urthona's v a l e s . "  back  The phrase "gorg'd w i t h b l o o d "  suggests t h a t t h e L u v a h - C h r i s t p r i n c i p l e i s o p e r a t i n g amidst t h i s complexity. Support i s g i v e n t o t h i s l a s t c o n t e n t i o n i n l i n e s 101 3 o f Night V i l a .  Although U r i z e n has triumphed f o r t h e  moment over Tharmas and t h e S p e c t r e o f Urthona, when he descends t o Ore's cave he f i n d s t h e complete o p p o s i t e o f what he expected t o f i n d .  H i s h o r s e s a r e t h e r e , not as t h e "horses o f  i n s t r u c t i o n " but as t h e " t y g e r s o f wrath"; h i s u n y i e l d i n g s c a l e s o f j u s t i c e a r e here tempered  by the mercy o f J e s u s ,  t h i s mercy pours holy o i l " t h r o ' a l l t h e cavern'd r o c k s . " There i s something about t h e bound Ore t h a t t e r r i f i e s  Urizen,  Blake g i v e s us t h e reason i n l i n e 151• " T e r r i f i e d U r i z e n heard Ore, now c e r t a i n t h a t he was Luvah"; Ore i s a lower form o f Luvah and U r i z e n knows t h a t he cannot c o n t r o l t h i s aspect.  Luvah  N e v e r t h e l e s s , U r i z e n though t e r r i f i e d does n o t g i v e  101 up e a s i l y : he t r i e s to absorb Ore t o h i s system because he f e a r s him;  h i s u l t i m a t e i m p e r a t i v e i s to destroy Los.  He  t h i n k s t h a t i f he can b r i n g the f a l l e n Enitharmon's Shadow underneath h i s "wonderous t r e e " (113,  K 3 2 3 ) , h i s Tree o f  Mystery and o f Knowledge ( i . e . f a l s e r e l i g i o n and Los w i l l soon f o l l o w her as Adam f o l l o w e d Eve.  materialism),  The n a d i r o f  the F a l l would be reached i f U r i z e n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  this,  could  a l s o compel the Spectre of Urthona to have dominion over  Los.  With savage i r o n y Blake d e s c r i b e s the U r i z e n i c p h i l a n t h r o p y t h a t would ensue when a l l would be reduced to U r i z e n ' s (117-129).  The  speech r e v e a l s U r i z e n as b e i n g a  S a t a n i c c h a r a c t e r who  will  thoroughly  imposes h i s w i l l by use o f the  "mild  a r t s " of the smooth s l i c k h y p o c r i t e . What r o l e does the S p e c t r e of Urthona p l a y i n U r i z e n ' s plan?  E v e n t u a l l y he c o p u l a t e s with the Shadow o f Enitharmon  (211).  U r i z e n b r i n g s t h i s about with great  deviousness.  U r i z e n begins w i t h Ore whom he can c o n t r o l , he makes him  assume a serpent  Mystery.  form i n o r d e r to climb up the Tree o f  I t i s noteworthy t h a t U r i z e n does not a t t a c k  Eni-  tharmon d i r e c t l y , he e x e r t s h i s c o n t r o l over the Shadow o f Enitharmon i n s t e a d .  Neither w i l l he attack Los d i r e c t l y ,  w i l l work on the Spectre o f Urthona although i s Los.  he  h i s r e a l enemy  Normally U r i z e n b i n d s t h i n g s down but here h i s t a c -  t i c s have to be d i f f e r e n t .  Ore,  i n serpent  form, becomes the  dead body o f Jesus on the c r o s s ; t h i s i s what we worship i n U r i z e n ' s world.  The whole t h i n g i s a parody o f the  cruci-  102 f i x i o n (the i d e a of which Blake abhorred).  Things are turned  i n s i d e out.  becomes d e s t r u c -  tive fire;  The wine becomes p o i s o n ; l i g h t a f f e c t i o n becomes f u r y ; thought  becomes a b s t r a c t i o n .  Ore as c l i m b i n g serpent becomes the "dark devourer"  (156).  Blake i s s a y i n g , l e t us show mankind s a c r i f i c e d on the Tree of Mystery.  The Shadow o f Enitharmon can be l u r e d by the  serpen-  t i n e Ore simply because i t i s a shadow, i . e . the r e s i d u e of suppressed  d e s i r e and not the r e a l d e s i r e i t s e l f .  r e c o g n i z e and obey the l a t t e r we do not go wrong. of  suppressed d e s i r e i s energy  I f we The r e s i d u e  used i n a p e r v e r t e d sense.  It  i s a mental f i x a t i o n or a b s t r a c t i o n because shadows have no i d e n t i t i e s and o n l y occur when t h e r e i s an opaque o b j e c t , i n t h i s case, Enitharmon. of  U r i z e n i s s a y i n g t h a t i f you get h o l d  the p e r v e r s i o n s and l e t them take over the p r o c r e a t i v e p r o -  c e s s e s you w i l l get g e n e r a t i o n s of v i p e r s i n s t e a d o f humans. From the c o p u l a t i o n o f the S p e c t r e o f Urthona of  and the Shadow  Enitharmon t h e r e w i l l be no g e n e r a t i o n s of p o e t i c geniuses.  Los w i l l  "Evaporate  l i k e smoke & be no more" (114, K  323).  A r a t h e r weird d i a l o g u e f o l l o w s the c o p u l a t i o n .  The  S p e c t r e says t o Enitharmon*s Shadow, do you f e a r Ore? d i d you f e a r h i s b i r t h — a n a t u r a l one where "red flow'd t h e  blood"?  I f so, he c o n t i n u e s , do not worry, your next joy w i l l be i n "sweet d e l u s i o n . " h a v i n g seduced comfort her.  S i n c e the S p e c t r e can go e i t h e r way,  i.e.  her w i t h "the p o i s o n o f sweet l o v e " he can  now  The Shadow answers t h a t s i n c e she drank the  p o i s o n ( M i l t o n * s " F r u i t / Of t h a t Forbidden Tree"?)  she  cannot  103  fly  away from him even although she sees him as a " t e r r i b l e  Shade" and a form "so h o r r i b l e " she would never be found b e i n g embraced by him i f she had not been drunk.  Her t r u e d e s i r e  would never put up w i t h t h i s monster but she i s o n l y t h e r e s i d u e o f suppressed d e s i r e . In the  t h e midst o f p e r v e r t e d thought and p e r v e r t e d a c t i o n  S p e c t r e speaks w i t h some t r u t h :  The S p e c t r e s a i d : "Thou l o v e l y V i s i o n , t h i s d e l i g h t f u l Tree " I s g i v e n us f o r a s h e l t e r from the tempests of V o i d & S o l i d , " T i l l once again the morn o f ages s h a l l renew upon us, "To r e u n i t e i n those m i l d f i e l d s o f happy E t e r n i t y "Where thou & I i n u n d i v i d e d Essence walk'd about "Imbodies, thou my garden o f d e l i g h t & I the s p i r i t i n t h e garden; "Mutual t h e r e we dwelt i n one another's j o y , r e v o l v i n g "Days o f E t e r n i t y , w i t h Tharmas m i l d & Luvah sweet melodious "Upon t h e waters. . . . (Vila:266-275,  K  326-7)  The S p e c t r e remembers the days o f E t e r n i t y b e t t e r than E n i tharmon 's Shadow does. of  She had j u s t g i v e n a strange account  A l b i o n ' s f a l l but f o r g e t s t h e ending t o i t .  The S p e c t r e i s  reminding her o f t h e happy times when they walked Essence" where she was spirit  i n t h e garden."  " i n undivided  h i s "garden o f d e l i g h t " and he was The garden was  "the  the garden ready p l a n t e d  where d e s i r e s were unrepressed and he, the S p e c t r e , c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d here as the w i l l , would b r i n g them to f r u i t i o n . Urthona's S p e c t r e i s not an i r r a t i o n a l i d i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e d i a l o g u e ; he i s making a great d e a l o f sense a t times. In  t e l l i n g h i s own  S p e c t r e t e l l s how  s t o r y o f the f a l l of Urthona, t h e  he had been "an i n f a n t t e r r o r i n t h e womb o f  104  E n i o n , " but  t h a t he, now  spirit,  scorned her f r a i l  had  aware of h i s separated body and  masculine  " i s s u e d f o r t h / From  Enion's b r a i n " thus becoming an a b s t r a c t i o n cut o f f from passional l i f e .  The  will  henceforth  r a t h e r than the i n s t i n c t u a l  obey the  emotional l i f e .  abstraction forces his s p i r i t ,  This  i.e. his w i l l ,  . . . poor d i v i d e d Urthona" ( 2 9 3 - 6 , K 3 2 7 ) .  l i n e s 2 3 6 - 2 6 1 , at the moment o f the F a l l a l s o occurred,  Male / And  dreadful  to form a male  the Shadow of Enitharmon*s account of A l b i o n ' s  sexes had  abstraction  to thee, [Shadow o f Enitharmon] 0 Love, / "Dark-  "counterpart ened & Lost  will  the  In  f a l l told in  separation  into  the  "a double form V a l a appear'd, a  female."  Remembering t h a t t h i s i s happening i n the s p e c t r a l life,  i n the world o f a b s t r a c t i o n s or mental f i x a t i o n s , two  questions lar  arise.  I s Blake's f a l l  of androgynous A l b i o n  to P l a t o ' s myth t h a t the o r i g i n a l egg s p l i t  female p a r t s and male and  f o r e v e r a f t e r seek one  female c o u n t e r p a r t s  another?  simi-  i n t o male and Or,  are  the  s i m i l a r to the Jungian animus and  anima, the symbolic counters i n our dream f a n t a s i e s , t h a t , when we p r o j e c t them onto people i n the world around us cause all  of our sexual misunderstandings?  F r i e d a Fordham  explains  Jung's terms: The anima i s expressed i n a man's l i f e not only i n p r o j e c t i o n upon women and i n c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y , but i n f a n t a s i e s , moods, presentiments, and emotional o u t b u r s t s . An o l d Chinese t e x t says t h a t when a man wakens i n the morning heavy or i n a bad mood, t h a t i s h i s feminine s o u l , h i s anima. She d i s t u r b s the attempt to c o n c e n t r a t e by w h i s p e r i n g absurd n o t i o n s i n h i s  105 ear, s p o i l s t h e day by c r e a t i n g the vague, unpleasant sensat i o n t h a t t h e r e i s something p h y s i c a l l y wrong with him, o r haunts h i s s l e e p with s e d u c t i v e v i s i o n s ; and a man possessed by h i s anima i s a prey t o u n c o n t r o l l a b l e emotion. The animus i n women i s t h e c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e anima i n man. He seems t o be ( l i k e t h e anima) d e r i v e d from t h r e e r o o t s : t h e c o l l e c t i v e image o f man which a woman i n h e r i t s ; her own experience o f m a s c u l i n i t y coming through t h e c o n t a c t s she makes w i t h men i n h e r l i f e ; and t h e l a t e n t masculine principle i n herself.30 T h i s would e x p l a i n t h e Spectre of U r t h o n a s compulsion T  to  form a male body i n o r d e r t o c o p u l a t e with t h e Shadow o f  Enitharmon.  I t would a l s o help t o e x p l a i n the s e l f  and time obsessed (E,  p. 8 7 3 ) .  w i l l t h a t Bloom f e e l s t h e Spectre  crippling represents  But, as Bloom p o i n t s out, t h e Spectre i s a l s o a  p e r s i s t e n t s t r e n g t h i n any a r t i s t . The mating o f t h e Spectre w i t h t h e Shadow i s r e a l l y an emasculation, "broodings" t r e had,  t h e o f f s p r i n g o f any such mating w i l l only be  that w i l l  emasculate c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y .  The Spec-  a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s t o r y , c r e a t e d a c r i p p l e d Los and  he, h i m s e l f , can only be a " s l a v e o f t h a t C r e a t i o n I c r e a t e d " ( 2 9 7 ) ; he can only be a t o o l b r i n g e r t o Los. other hand, cannot c r e a t e without may  him.  Los, on t h e  C o n t r a d i c t o r y as i t  seem t o be t h e S p e c t r e ' s power i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t u r n i n g  the a c t i o n toward Apocalypse.  I t i s t h e c o u p l i n g o f t h e Spec-  t r e w i t h t h e Shadow o f Enitharmon t h a t b r i n g s Los t o a sudden awareness o f what h i s r o l e must be. The monstrous a b s t r a c t i o n brought f o r t h by t h i s c o p u l a t i o n i s a "wonder h o r r i b l e " ( 3 1 7 , K 328) which t e r r i f i e s Los; t h i s "wonder h o r r i b l e " i s a r e animated form o f V a l a but Vala i n a more dangerous form; i t  7  106  i s the s p e c t r a l form of V a l a .  The  enough i n i t s e l f to d i s t r a c t man  m a t e r i a l u n i v e r s e i s bad  from h i s t r u e c r e a t i v i t y  but  the o f f s p r i n g o f t h i s c o u p l i n g i s even more horrendous because i t d i s t r a c t s man  wholly  from t r u e c r e a t i v i t y .  He can only  come a genius manque' i n s t e a d of a t r u e genius.  The  d e s c r i b e d i n Lawrence Lubie's book e n t i t l e d , The  be-  state i s  Neurotic  D i s t o r t i o n of the C r e a t i v e Process (Lawrence, Kansas, 1 9 6 1 ) . T h i s s p e c t r a l form of V a l a who  "burst the Gates of  E n i t h a r m o n s heart w i t h d i r e f u l C r a s h " i s a "Cloud" which T  "grew & grew / T i l l many o f the Dead b u r s t f o r t h from the bottoms of t h e i r tombs / In male forms without female p a r t s , or Emanations, / C r u e l and Hatred & War"  (327-331).  counter-  r a v e n i n g with Enmity &  These spectrous  forms w i l l have male  forms o n l y , i . e . they w i l l only c o p u l a t e w i t h t h e i r own  animae.  they w i l l never be able to get beyond the p r o j e c t i o n of  their  own  dream f a n t a s y .  shadow who  The  a r t i s t w i l l only be a s e l f  brooding  w i l l remain f o r e v e r a genius manque because he  never found h i s own  i d e n t i t y ; he cannot get beyond h i s  has  own  s e l f h o o d , t h e r e f o r e , h i s i n a b i l i t y to u n i v e r s a l i z e h i s work w i l l be h i s d o w n f a l l .  Los who  has not l o s t e n t i r e l y  D i v i n e V i s i o n because of Luvah's "robes of b l o o d " t h i s ; he must t h e r e f o r e f i n d h i s own l e d g i n g the S p e c t r e The  the  realizes  t r u e i d e n t i t y by acknow-  of Urthona as b e i n g p a r t of h i s t r u e  self.  change i n Los comes when,  Obdurate Los f e l t P i t y . Enitharmon t o l d the t a l e Of Urthona. Los embrac'd the Spectre, f i r s t as a b r o t h e r ,  107 Then as another S e l f , a s t o n i s h * d , humanizing & i n t e a r s , In S e l f abasement G i v i n g up h i s Domineering l u s t . (338-341, K 328) Los's i n s i g h t does not come e a s i l y .  He i s f u r i o u s  t h a t i t was t h e S p e c t r e who reminded him, "Thou never canst embrace sweet Enitharmon, t e r r i b l e Demon, Till "Thou a r t u n i t e d w i t h thy Spectre, Consummating by p a i n s & labours "[Thy d e l . ] That m o r t a l body, & by S e l f a n n i h i l a t i o n back returning "To l i f e E t e r n a l . . . . (342-345, K 328) Fury f o r Blake i s always a p o s i t i v e f o r c e , "The t y g e r s o f wrath a r e wiser than the horses o f i n s t r u c t i o n " (MHH, K 152). The way i s now open whereby Los, by an a c t o f w i l l , can make use o f t h e S p e c t r e * s  enormous p s y c h i c energy.  Together,  They B u i l d e d Golgonooza, Los l a b o u r i n g [word d e l . ] b u i l d e d p i l l a r s high And Domes t e r r i f i c i n t h e nether heavens, f o r beneath Was open*d new heavens & a new E a r t h beneath & w i t h i n , T h r e e f o l d , w i t h i n t h e b r a i n , w i t h i n t h e heart, w i t h i n t h e loins: A T h r e e f o l d Atmosphere Sublime, continuous from Urthona's world But y e t having a L i m i t Twofold named Satan & Adam. (378-383, K 329) The  sparagmos o r r e n d i n g o f A l b i o n * s body w i l l thus be healed,  t h e b r a i n , t h e h e a r t , t h e l o i n s w i l l resume t h e i r proper  func-  t i o n and w i l l no l o n g e r be at war with t h e i m a g i n a t i v e powers ("Urthona*s w o r l d " ) . yet  T h i s i s t o come, i t has not q u i t e come  a t t h i s p o i n t i n Blake's myth.  108 Los and Enitharmon s t i l l S p e c t r e of Urthona as mediator acknowledges h i s own  have doubts but now  comforts  Los ( 3 9 7 )  the  and a l s o  responsibility:  "I am t h e cause "That t h i s d i r e s t a t e commences. I began the d r e a d f u l s t a t e "Of s e p a r a t i o n , & on my dark head the c u r s e & punishment "Must f a l l u n l e s s a way be found t o Ransom & Redeem. "But I have thee my [Counterpart d e l . ] [ V e g e t a t i v e d e l . ] miraculous, "These s p e c t r e s have no [ C o u n t e r p a r t s d e l . ] , t h e r e f o r e they ravin "Without the food of l i f e . Let us C r e a t e them Coun [ t e r p a r t s : ] "For without a Created body t h e S p e c t r e i s E t e r n a l Death." (403-410,  K 330)  The Spectre i s acknowledging t h a t t h e r e must be a body; a world o f a b s t r a c t i o n s or mental f i x a t i o n s w i l l not do. S p e c t r e by i t s e l f has no l i f e  of i t s own.  The  The  reiterated  theme i s t h a t t h e r e must be no dichotomy o f body-mind.  Bodily  p a r t s must r e i n t e g r a t e and operate s u c c e s s f u l l y through  the  mental f a c u l t i e s working harmoniously  together.  Los then  sees  the v i s i o n o f "Luvah's robes o f blood descending t o redeem," he,  Los, i s a b l e now  to  Enitharmon.  He  ".  . . l o o k , my  fires  t o b r i n g comfort  t o both the S p e c t r e  r e c a p t u r e s the o r i g i n a l f i r e o f Urthona, enlume a f r e s h / Before my  l i n g with d e l i g h t as i n a n c i e n t t i m e s " ( 4 4 4 - 5 , U r i z e n ' s p l a n w i l l not succeed, not hate f i n d s h i s "Enemy U r i z e n now  f a c e assembK  330).  Los, f e e l i n g l o v e and  / In h i s hands."  union of a l l f a c u l t i e s w i l l come i n time but as Blake us:  and  The tells  109 . . . T h i s Union Was n o t t o be E f f e c t e d without Cares & Sorrows & T r o u b l e s Of s i x thousand Years o f s e l f d e n i a l and [many T e a r s d e l . ] of b i t t e r C o n t r i t i o n . (398-400, K 330) The m i l l e n i u m i s not y e t .  The most we can hope f o r i n t h i s  U r i z e n i c l i f e i s t o c r e a t e e x i s t e n t i a l l y as many times as i s possible,  "a Moment i n each Day that Satan cannot f i n d . "  35, K 5 2 6 ) .  (M:  The c h o i c e i s ours, we a r e Adams, s t a n d i n g on t h e  l i m i t o f c o n t r a c t i o n and not o f o p a c i t y as i s t h e case with Satan.  I f we have enough i n s i g h t we stand, l i k e Los, on t h e  " L i m i t o f T r a n s l u c e n c e , " which both Frye (FS, pp. 389-92) and Bloom (E, p. 8 7 8 ) e x p l i c a t e as b e i n g t h e p o i n t o f c r i s i s i n t h e f a l l e n world, where the v i s i o n a r y e i t h e r overcomes t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f n a t u r e , o r e l s e s i n k s back, exhausted with h i s failed  effort.  I t i s t h e upper l i m i t o f Beulah and from i t  t h e way l e a d s e i t h e r up and i n t o Eden o r down and out t o U l r o . E a r l i e r I had suggested an a s s o c i a t i o n between Blake's bat-winged  symbol and t h e s p e c t r e o f Urthona.  need c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  Bat-winged  imagery  Some p o i n t s  i n a vague and lumin-  ous sense surrounds Blake's p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Spectre o f Urthona i n N i g h t s IV and V ( t h e s i s , pp. 94--95). An examination of p l a t e t h i r t y - s e v e n o f Blake's l a s t great p r o p h e t i c poem, Jerusalem, may h e l p t o throw some l i g h t upon t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n .  The p l a t e reads as f o l l o w s :  And One stood f o r t h from t h e D i v i n e f a m i l y & s a i d : " I f e e l my S p e c t r e r i s i n g upon me! A l b i o n ! arouze t h y s e l f !  110 "Why dost thou thunder with f r o z e n Spectrous wrath a g a i n s t us? "The S p e c t r e i s , i n Giant Man, insane and most deform'd. "Thou w i l t c e r t a i n l y provoke my S p e c t r e a g a i n s t t h i n e i n f u r y ! "He has a Sepulcher hewn out of Rock ready f o r thee, "And a Death o f E i g h t thousand y e a r s , f o r g ' d by t h y s e l f , upon "The p o i n t o f h i s Spear, i f thou p e r s i s t e s t t o f o r b i d w i t h Laws "Our Emanations and t o a t t a c k our s e c r e t supreme d e l i g h t s . " \  So Los spoke.  But when he saw  [ p a l e a l t e r e d t o ] blue death i n Albion's feet A g a i n he j o i n ' d the D i v i n e Body, f o l l o w i n g m e r c i f u l , While Albion f l e d . . . (K 664) Blake's i l l u s t r a t i o n  0  shows a p t e r o d a c t y l l i k e c r e a t u r e hov-  e r i n g over the prone body o f "Giant Man"  ( A l b i o n ) who  is  r e p o s i n g on and almost merging i n t o the Rock o f Ages or Stone of Night.  Bloom comments t h a t t h i s i s the S p e c t r e o f U r i z e n  o r Satan,  "who  must be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the Spectre o f  Urthona.  In Jerusalem. Satan i s A l b i o n ' s S p e c t r e , w h i l e the  S p e c t r e o f Urthona p. 8 5 1 ) .  i s the shadow-self  John M i d d l e t o n Murry had  o f Los or B l a k e " (E,  e a r l i e r commented t h a t i n  The Four Zoas. V I I , 332-337 and V I I , 3 3 8 - 3 5 6 , "the S p e c t r e o f Urthona  i s h a r d l y t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from U r i z e n , . . . [ i t ]  i s thus an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f U r i z e n . "  0  Examination  of the  p t e r o d a c t y l l i k e c r e a t u r e suggests some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s . F i r s t , P t e r o d a c t v l a are a f o s s i l o r d e r o f f l y i n g  reptiles  which have many a n a l o g i e s i n s t r u c t u r e w i t h b i r d s , but are independently developed although both b i r d s and p t e r o d a c t y l s evolved from the same group o f n o n - f l y i n g r e p t i l e s .  In  Blake's i l l u s t r a t i o n the c r e a t u r e ' s head and s t o u t neck are elongated l i k e a p t e r o d a c t y l ' s w h i l e i t s r i b b e d membranous  Ill wings are more bat l i k e .  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e however  i s the p a i r o f p i e r c i n g and wide opened eyes t h a t are most un-bat l i k e .  I t would appear t h a t Blake has combined  v i s u a l image s e v e r a l concepts.  i n this  P i e r c i n g i n s i g h t suggests the  S p e c t r e of Urthona which was not f a r from Blake*s mind when he wrote the l i n e s f o r the p l a t e (Los: "I f e e l my S p e c t r e r i s i n g upon me!"); the a l t e r a t i o n o f the word " p a l e " to " b l u e " death i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the l i g h t o f what I have s a i d above r e g a r d i n g the i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s S p e c t r e . I f the p t e r o d a c t y l - l i k e c r e a t u r e symbolizes both the S p e c t r e o f U r i z e n and o f A l b i o n and u l t i m a t e l y Satan h i m s e l f , it  i s u s e f u l to examine Blake's i l l u s t r a t i o n o f Satan i n the  Dante I n f e r n o .  Dante, d e s c r i b i n g Satan i n Canto XXXIV, w r i t e s :  Under each E f f a c e o f Satan] t h e r e i s s u e d f o r t h two mighty wings, of s i z e b e f i t t i n g such a b i r d : s e a - s a i l s I never saw so broad. No plumes had they; but were i n form and ,, t e x t u r e l i k e a b a t ' s : and he was f l a p p i n g them. . . In Blake's i l l u s t r a t i o n , Satan's wings are heavy, membranous, and b a t - l i k e ; they a r e more b a t - l i k e i n appearance than the " a n g e l i c " wings t h a t he, Blake, g i v e s t o L u c i f e r i n h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s to M i l t o n ' s P a r a d i s e Lost.35 Kathleen Raine s t a t e s f l a t l y , symbolism,  "Bat-wings, i n Blake's  belong t o Satan and h i s kingdom ( N a t u r e ) . "  comment i s made i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the bat-winged  The  female  g e n i t a l i a — " T h e gates o f the g r a v e " — i l l u s t r a t e d on p l a t e f i f t y - e i g h t o f Blake's Jerusalem.  I s Blake b e i n g i r o n i c here  112 o r i s the gate o f b i r t h "hideous and bat-winged"  because i t  ushers i n " P l a t o n i c d e a t h - i n - l i f e " as Raine s u g g e s t s ? ^ 0  In any case Blake's use o f the bat-winged p o w e r f u l l y s u g g e s t i v e modulating symbol.  figure i s a  The q u e s t i o n remains,  does the power the symbol r e p r e s e n t s come from the s o r t o f energy Urthona's S p e c t r e possesses or does i t come from Satan —or  from both?  I s t h e r e some s i m i l a r i t y t o the mana that  p e o p l e o f the South Seas b e l i e v e t o be an immanent power i n t h e u n i v e r s e t h a t has no w i l l o f i t s own bad or f o r good purposes? it  but can be used f o r  Mana i s not easy t o d e f i n e because  i s a p s y c h i c energy with dynamic potency; i t i s not f i x e d  i n a n y t h i n g but c a p a b l e of b e i n g conveyed Spirits c o u l d have i t and impart i t ,  men  i n almost e v e r y t h i n g .  too might harbour i t ,  but even stones, s t i c k s , and o t h e r inanimate o b j e c t s might possess i t . 3 7  B l a k e ' s "To see a World  i n a G r a i n of Sand"  (K 431) comes t o mind, h i s v i s i o n a r y power t h a t enabled him t o see t h i s came from some combination o f these p s y c h i c f o r c e s . That p s y c h i c power was b l o o d may  b e l i e v e d by p r i m i t i v e man  t o come from  have had something t o do w i t h Blake's c h o i c e of a  b a t - l i k e c r e a t u r e , i . e . a blood sucker, to r e p r e s e n t one o f h i s most b a s i c c o n c e p t s — t h e c o n t r a r y s t a t e s o f good and  evil  t h a t e x i s t i n our f a l l e n world. When sparagmos took p l a c e at the F a l l A l b i o n ' s blood was  s p i l t and became a deluge of the n a t u r a l waters of our  world without which no l i v i n g c e l l can e x i s t . uge" o f A l b i o n ' s blood qua water was  Thus the " d e l -  not t o t a l c a t a s t r o p h e .  113 A s when Adam a n d E v e l e f t t h e G a r d e n o f E d e n a t t h e end o f Paradise Lost, M i l t o n t e l l s us that another within  . . . happier  f a r " was o p e n e d t o u s .  world,  "A p a r a d i s e  In Blake's  myth  t h e c r e a t i o n was a l s o a n o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d we do n o t r e m a i n i n t h e " V a l e s o f H a r " ( i . e . memory a n d f a n t a s y ) .  I f by i m p o s -  i n g upon t h e n a t u r a l u n i v e r s e o u r r e i n t e g r a t e d i m a g i n a t i o n s r e c r e a t e a G o l g o n o o z a w o r l d we c a n a t t a i n t h e i n s i g h t a t t a i n e d when h e s a i d , Albion's blood i s h e d by i t .  we  Blake  "Everything that l i v e s i s Holy."  i s r e g e n e r a t i v e as i s h i s f l e s h which i s nourH i s f a l l e n , m u t i l a t e d f l e s h l y body n e e d n o t l i v e  i n a state of dis-eased, disparate, discordant p a r t i c l e s of s o l i d opaque m a t t e r ;  i t c a n become t r a n s l u c e n t w h e r e b y t h e  p a r t s work h a r m o n i o u s l y i n p e r f e c t harmony.  together,  each meshing w i t h t h e other  The mind-body d i c h o t o m y c a n be b r o k e n  down a n d t h e w h o l e become t h e i n t r i c a t e , instrument  t h a t i t was meant t o b e .  the D i v i n e V i s i o n symbolized becomes o u r v i s i o n ;  perfected  T h i s i s p o s s i b l e when  by L u v a h ' s " r o b e s o f b l o o d "  t h e sparagmos w i l l  b o t h o r g a n i c a l l y and p s y c h i c a l l y . depicting the degenerative  finely  be made w h o l e  again,  Blake's use o f imagery  biological states resulting  from  t h e s p a r a g m o s i s an a i d i n t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of Blake's  Vision.  FOOTNOTES W i l l i a m Blake, "The Four Zoas." c i t e d i n The Complete W r i t i n g s o f W i l l i a m Blake with V a r i a n t Readings, ed. Geoffrey Keynes, Lond., 1 9 6 6 , p. 263. A l l q u o t a t i o n s and r e f e r e n c e s to Blake's own works, u n l e s s otherwise s t a t e d , are from t h i s e d i t i o n ; page r e f e r e n c e s are preceded by the l e t t e r K; p l a t e and l i n e number are g i v e n when a p p r o p r i a t e . A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r Blake's and o t h e r author's works are given i n my "Notes to t h e Text." Northrop Frye, F e a r f u l Symmetry: A Study of W i l l i a m Blake. Boston, 1 9 6 5 , p. 46. ( T i t l e of t h i s t e x t w i l l be a b b r e v i a t e d h e r e i n a f t e r to FS.) ^ M a t e r i a l i n t h i s and the subsequent paragraph been drawn from Frye, FS, pp. 1 2 , 25.  has  4R. F . Gleckner, " P o i n t o f View and Context i n Blake's Songs," c i t e d i n E n g l i s h Romantic Poets, ed. M. H. Abrams, New York, I 9 6 0 , pp. 6 8 - 7 5 . ^ i l l iam Blake, Jerusalem. A c o l o r F a c s i m i l e of the I l l u m i n a t e d Book, London, 1 9 5 1 , p i . 37. S. F o s t e r Damon, W i l l i a m Blake, G l o u c e s t e r , Mass., 318.  1 9 5 8 , p.  ^C. G. Jung c i t e d i n An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Jung's Psychology, by F r i e d a Fordham, (Harmondsworth, 1 9 6 3 , p. 3 5 ) s "Jung c o n s i d e r s t h e r e are f o u r f u n c t i o n s which we use f o r o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h i n and without, s e n s a t i o n which i s p e r c e p t i o n through our senses; t h i n k i n g which g i v e s meaning and unders t a n d i n g ; f e e l i n g , which weighs and v a l u e s ; and i n t u i t i o n , which t e l l s us of f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and g i v e s us i n f o r m a t i o n of the atmosphere which surrounds a l l e x p e r i e n c e . " In P s y c h o l o g i c a l Types, p. 568, Jung says, " I n t u i t i o n i s percept i o n v i a the "unconscious." (Fordham's f o o t n o t e 1, p. 35.) o  °Harold Bloom, "Commentary," c i t e d i n The Poetry and Prose o f W i l l i a m Blake, ed. D. V. Erdman, New York, 1 9 6 5 , p. 8 6 9 . (References to t h i s t e x t w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by the l e t t e r E preceding pagination.) J . McGahan, "The Ecology of the Golden E a g l e , " c i t e d V o l . 8 5 , Jan., 1 9 6 8 , pp. 1-12 (see p. 1 ) . 9  i n Auk,  ^^Mircea 1 9 6 7 , p. 1 5 .  E l i a d e , Myths. Dreams and M y s t e r i e s . New  York,  115 S.  F o s t e r Damon, A Blake D i c t i o n a r y . Providence, 1965, p. 309. 1 1  R.I.,  l B l a k e ' s v e r s i o n o f t h e A t l a n t i s legend p l a t e 10 o f t h i s poem. 2  1 3  Peter  i s given on  F i s h e r , The V a l l e y o f V i s i o n . Toronto, 1961,  p. 232. % a r r e n Stevenson, D i v i n e Analogy: A Study o f t h e C r e a t i o n M o t i f i n Blake and C o l e r i d g e , chap. IV (work i n progress). 1  • ^ F r e d e r i c k s. P e r l s , Ego, Hunger and Aggression. New York, 1969, pp. 107-111. l 6  N o r t h r o p Frye, F e a r f u l Symmetry. Boston, 1965, p. 281.  •^Carmen K r e i t e r , " E v o l u t i o n and W i l l i a m Blake," c i t e d i n S t u d i e s i n Romanticism. V o l . 5, #1> May, 1965, pp. 110-8. •^Northrop F r y e , "Notes f o r a Commentary on M i l t o n . " c i t e d i n The D i v i n e V i s i o n , ed. V. de S. P i n t o , Lond., 1957, p. 110. 1 9  J o h n Beer, Blake's Humanism. New York, 1968, p. 2 2 8 .  T h e o d o r e Roszak, The Making o f a Counter C u l t u r e . New York, 1969, p. 55. 20  N o r t h r o p Frye, c i t e d i n S e l e c t e d Poetry and Prose o f W i l l i a m Blake, ed. Northrop Frye, New York, 1953, p. x x i v . 2 1  F r e d e r i c k S. P e r l s , G e s t a l t Therapy Verbatim, L a f a y e t t e , C a l i f . , 1969, p. 2. 2 2  23 azard Adams, Blake and Y e a t s , Lawrence, Kansas, H  1958. % a r o l d Bloom, Blake's Apocalypse: A Study i n P o e t i c Argument, New York, 1965, pp. 209-10. 2  5H. M. M a r g o l i o u t h , p. 120. 2  1956,  W i l l i a m Blake's V a l a . Oxford,  ^Sigmund Freud, The B a s i c W r i t i n g s o f Sigmund Freud. t r a n s . & ed. with i n t r o d . by Dr. A. A. B r i l l , New York, 1938, p. 12. 2  ^ P i e r r e T e i l h a r d de Chardin, New York, 1959, p. 182. 2  The Phenomenon o f Man.  116  ^G. E. B e n t l e y , J r . , and M a r t i n K. Nurmi, A Blake B i b l i o g r a p h y . M i n n e a p o l i s , 1 9 6 4 , p. 2 0 9 . 2  C a l v i n S. H a l l , "A C o g n i t i v e Theory o f Dream Symb o l s , " c i t e d i n Psychopathology: A Source Book, eds. C. F. Reed, I . E. Alexander, S. S. Tomkins, New York, 1 9 6 4 , p. 2 6 4 . 2 9  ^ F r i e d a Fordham, op. c i t . . p. 5 5 . Keynes, A Study o f t h e I l l u m i n a t e d Books o f W i l l i a m Blake. P o e t : P r i n t e r : P r o p h e t . New York, 1 9 6 4 , p i . 3 7 . 3 J o h n M i d d l e t o n Murry, W i l l i a m B l a k e . New York, 1 9 6 4 , P. 1 6 2 . 2  3 3 o a n t e A l i g h i e r i , The I n f e r n o o f Dante Lond., 1 9 1 9 , p. 3 8 5 .  Alighieri.  ^ ^ W i l l i a m Blake, I l l u s t r a t i o n s t o t h e D i v i n e Comedy o f Dante. Lond., 1 9 2 2 , p i . 6 9 . 35John M i l t o n , P a r a d i s e L o s t . c i t e d i n The Catalogue o f W i l l i a m B l a k e ' s Drawings & P a i n t i n g s i n t h e Huntington L i b r a r y . San Marino, 1 9 6 3 , p i s . IV, V, V I . ^6 * K a t h l e e n Raine, Blake and T r a d i t i o n . 2 v o l s . , P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 8 , v o l . I , p. 2 3 4 . 3 7 i f o r m a t i o n on mana has come from R. H. C o d r i n g t o n , "Mana," c i t e d i n Reader i n Comparative R e l i g i o n ; An Anthropol o g i c a l Approach, eds. W. A. L e s s a , & Evan Z. Vogt, New York, 1 9 6 5 , P. 2 5 3 . n  NOTES TO THE TEXT A b b r e v i a t i o n s f o r Blake's Works  A -  M  America  - The Book a£ Urizen E - Europe  £Z - TJis F o u r Zoas j. -  Jerusalem  MHH - The M a r r i a g e o f Heaven a n d H e l l M - MjltQP VLJ - A V i s i o n o f The Last Judgement  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, Hazard. Blake and Yeats: The C o n t r a r y Ithaca, 1954. A l i g h i e r i , Dante. 1919. Beer, John.  Vision.  The I n f e r n o o f Dante A l i g h i e r e .  Blake's Humanism.  New  London,  York, 1 9 6 8 .  Bentley, G. E. and Nurmi, M a r t i n K. A Blake B i b l i o g r a p h y : Annotated L i s t s o f Works. S t u d i e s , and Blakeana. Minneapolis, 1964. Berger, P i e r r e .  W i l l i a m Blake.  Blackstone, Bernard.  New  York, 1 9 1 5 .  E n g l i s h Blake.  Cambridge, 1 9 4 9 .  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