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Reality and poetic tradition in Lorca's "Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias" Collins, Nicholas Jonathan 1970

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REALITY AND POETIC TRADITION IN LORCA'S 'LLANTO POR IGNACIO SANCHEZ MEJIAS' by NICHOLAS JONATHAN COLLINS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of London, 1 9 6 7  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER.OF ARTS i n the Department of HISPANIC AND ITALIAN STUDIES  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1 9 7 0 .  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  thesis at  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  tha  in  is  financial  for  of  Columbia,  British  gain  Depa r t m e n t  Columbia  o  for  extensive by  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  of  be a l l o w e d  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  without  my  ii  ABSTRACT This t h e s i s studies the elegy t h a t Federico Garcia Lorca wrote t o commemorate the death o f h i s f r i e n d Ignacio Sanchez M e j i a s , f a t a l l y gored i n mid-August 193^. Because the poem celehrates an h i s t o r i c a l event a t t e n t i o n i s f i r s t d i r e c t e d t o the l i f e of Ignacio and t o the d e t a i l s of h i s f a t a l i n j u r y and i t s repercussions.  Because some of these d e t a i l s  have heen incorporated i n t o the poem there follows a commentary on the poem which seeks t o e x p l a i n these references, as w e l l as some of the images and metaphor;s.  Some l i n e s l a c k a convincing explanation hut  t h e i r o b s c u r i t y does not hinder t o any great extent an o v e r a l l comprehension of the poem.  The second part of the study looks at the h i s t o r y of the  Spanish Elegy, t r a c i n g i t s formation and development from the eleventhcentury 'Planctus' t o the form used "by Lorca.  I t i s i n the f i n a l chapter  that Lorca's debt t o h i s t o r y and t r a d i t i o n i s assessed, at the same time p o i n t i n g out that the poem, although "based on an h i s t o r i c a l event and drawing from a long t r a d i t i o n of the Elegy, i s very much an example of the work of a s o p h i s t i c a t e d and t a l e n t e d twentieth-century poet.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Introduction  Chapter 1:  The L i f e and Death o f I g n a c i o  Chapter 2:  R e a l i t y i n t h e Poem  13  Chapter 3:  Some T r a d i t i o n a l Forms and Symbols i n t h e Poem  ^0  Chapter h:  The E l e g i a c T r a d i t i o n i n S p a n i s h P o e t r y  ^3  Chapter 5 :  The ' L l a n t o p o r I g n a c i o Elegy  5^  Sanchez M e j i a s  ]_  Sanchez M e j i a s ' as an  6l  Bibliography;:.  Appendix _  T  e  x  t  o  f  P  o  e  m  68  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish t o thank Professor R. 0. Jones f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e help on several d i f f i c u l t passages of the poem. I am e s p e c i a l l y indebted t o Dr. M.G.R. Coope o f the Department o f Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies whose guidance, advice, patience and i n s p i r a t i o n have made p o s s i b l e the w r i t i n g o f t h i s thesis.  V  INTRODUCTION Before "beginning an a n a l y s i s of the poem i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o consider a d e c l a r a t i o n made "by Lorca himself i n h i s t a l k , I n s p i r a c i o n , Evasion' i n 1928.  'Imaginacion,  His comments.are made a l l the more  pertinent "by the f a c t that an h i s t o r i c a l event i s commemmorated by the 'Llantd por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias'.  On the process of poetic c r e a t i o n  Lorca had t h i s t o say, "La imagionacion es e l primer escalon y l a base de toda poesia ... esta. l i m i t a d a por l a r e a l i d a d . No se puede imaginar l o que no e x i s t e : n e c e s i t a de objetos, p a i s a j e s , numeros, planetas y se hacen precisas l a s r e l a c i o n e s entre e l l o s dentro de l a logica. mas pura.-*I f the poet remains t r u e t o h i s creed then one can expect t o f i n d a basic r e a l i t y i n h i s 'Swork, adorned by h i s own imagination.  This i s  c e r t a i n l y t r u e i n the case of -'Ifcdas de Sangre , i n s p i r e d by a :  newspaper r e p o r t , and'/La.Casa de Bernarda Alba ', based on a r e a l family that l i v e d i n a v i l l a g e near t o Lorca's n a t i v e  Fuentevaqueros.  Because the events at Manzanares have given r i s e t o a work of a r t t h i s t h e s i s studies Ignacio's l i f e and the circumstances of h i s death before d i s c u s s i n g the l i n e s of the poem.  By doing t h i s i t may be  p o s s i b l e t o reach a deeper and more complete understanding of the f u s i o n of a r e a l i s t i c base and Spanish poetic t r a d i t i o n achieved i n t h i s poem. In a most i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i c l e i n the Hispanic Review', C a l v i n Cannon considers the 'Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez M e j i a s ' and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the Elegiac T r a d i t i o n .  This i s the f i r s t time that such a  vi  study had "been made and because o f t h e s p e c i a l approach t a k e n by Cannon h i s a r t i c l e i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f i n a l chapter.which d e a l s the  ' L l a n t o por I g n a c i o  Sanchez M e j i a s ' as an  with  elegy.  Throughout t h i s t h e s i s t h e t e x t o f t h e poem used i s t h a t of the f i r s t  edition.  I t was  E d i c i o n e s A r b o l , Cruz y Raya. pen  and  o f two  p u b l i s h e d i n M a d r i d , i n May  C o n s i s t i n g o f twenty-two pages, w i t h  i n k drawings by Jose C a b a l l e r o , i t was thousand c o p i e s .  1 9 3 ^ , by  l i m i t e d to a p r i n t i n g  In l a t e r e d i t i o n s c o n s u l t e d t h e r e are  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a n t s from t h e o r i g i n a l t e x t .  no  The L i f e and Death of Ignacio Sanchez Mejias  Ignacio Sanchez Mejias was horn i n S e v i l l e on June 6th, of a d i s t i n g u i s h e d , r i c h f a m i l y .  1891,  His f a t h e r was a doctor at the  "Beneficencia M u n i c i p a l " and wanted Ignacio t o f o l l o w him i n medicine; his elder brother Jose had already done so. I n f a c t he never f i n i s h e d his studies f o r the B a c h i l l e r a t o and, i n 1909, he f i n a l l y gave up the study of medicine.  I n h i s e a r l y teens, according t o Marcelle A u c l a i t ,  •he spent some of h i s time p l a y i n g w i t h the h u l l s i n the ranches and p l a i n s near h i s home*. Probably t o avoid the anger o f h i s f a t h e r at g i v i n g up h i s studies Ignacio l e f t Cadiz f o r New York on the ship Manuel Calvo i n 1909.  He had n e i t h e r t i c k e t nor money, only the companionship of  Enrique Ortega, the great b u l l f i g h t e r , who, l i k e Ignacio at that time, wanted t o become a matador.  They were made t o work on board ship t o  pay f o r t h e i r passage and were not allowed t o land i n New York.  However,  Ignacio's brother A u r e l i o helped them t o gain entry t o Mexico at Veracruz. In Mexico Ignacio appeared, w i t h l i t t l e success, as a b a n d e r i l l e r o and returned t o Spain i n 1911  as a member of the c u a d r i l l a  of Fermin Munoz (Corchaito). A f t e r r e t u r n i n g , i n 1913, t o Mexico and the U.S.A. f o r a b r i e f v i s i t , Ignacio appeared i n a n o v i l l a d a i n Madrid on September 7th.  This i s the f i r s t record of h i s appearing i n a  -  2  -  b u l l r i n g i n a capacity other than that o f a peon.  From t h i s date on-  wards Ignacio's fame as a b a n d e r i l l e r o grew, as he was s u c c e s i v e l y a member o f the famous c u a d r i l l a s o f Juan Belmonte and R a f a e l , E l Gallo.  As a n o v i l l e r o Ignacio fought but t w i c e , i n 1 9 1 5 .  After  marrying the younger s i s t e r o f Los Gallos he rose t o be the outstanding peon and b a n d e r i l l e r o o f the time i n the c u a d r i l l a o f h i s b r o t h e r - i n law J o s e l i t o .  I n 1 9 1 8 he returned t o the r i n g as an espada i n the  Plaza Monumental o f h i s home town.  For the r e s t of the year he enjoyed  great success , t a k i n g the a l t e r r i a t i v a on March 6 t h 1 9 1 9 from J o s e l i t o with the b u l l Bunolero.  I t was an afternoon on which Ignacio e x h i b i t e d  exceptional s k i l l and which r e s u l t e d i n over eighty contracts f o r the season that followed.  Don Ventura i n E l Anuario of 1 9 1 9 s a i d of h i s  style, Este t o r e r o ha t r a i d o algo nuevo a l a f i e s t a de l o s t o r o s : l a exageracion d e l p e l i g r o : mas aun: l a creacion d e l p e l i g r o . Una y o t r a tarde se. ha complacido en l l e v a r a l o s astados a l o s terrenos mas p e l i g r o s o s , para exponer mas. Cuando no podia haber emocion l a ha buscado e l ; ha procurado que l a hubiera, inventando e l p e l i g r o . . . 2 On A p r i l 5 t h 1 9 2 0 he confirmed h i s a l t e r n a t i v a i n Madrid, J o s e l i t o again. a c t i n g as h i s padrino.  That evening Ignacio s a i d ,  ...os aseguro que a mi no me dan cuidado alguno l o s t o r o s . .. pero en e l momento de p e r f i l a r m e y arrancarme a matar, yo no se I d que hago...; pierdo l a nocion de como debo obrar-^ He was already r e v e a l i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that were t o mark h i s e n t i r e career:  on the one hand a t o t a l l a c k o f f e a r , and on the other,  a deep preoccupation w i t h h i s incomplete mastery of the f i n a l act. When J o s e l i t o was k i l l e d on May  l 6 t h  1 9 2 0  Ignacio, also on the b i l l ,  -  k i l l e d the h u l l B a i l a d o r .  3  -  He then accompanied the c o f f i n hack to  S e v i l l e and was present f o r the f u n e r a l and'burial.  Some fourteen  years l a t e r Ignacio, l i k e w i s e k i l l e d i n the r i n g by a b u l l , was to make the i d e n t i c a l journey t o h i s brother-in-law's tomb. With i n c r e a s i n g success Ignacio continued f i g h t i n g .  He  would spend the summer season i n Spain and the winter i n Mexico. Then, w i t h an unexpected suddenness he announced that h i s f i g h t i n A v i l a i n October 1 9 2 2 would be h i s l a s t .  He fought no c o r r i d a s i n 1 9 2 3  but the f o l l o w i n g year he was back, as popular as ever and equally successful.  Don Ventura i n EL Anuario commented, "Mejias se ha  impuesto por su voluntad f e r r e a y por su v a l o r . evidencia".  Hay que rendirse a l a  The years 1 9 2 5 and 1 9 2 6 were h i s best and he dominated  his p r o f e s s i o n .  Then as he struck up f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h men of l e t t e r s ,  i n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h the young poets, h i s i n t e r e s t i n the b u l l s waned. He had l i t e r a r y a s p i r a t i o n s and began to w r i t e a n o v e l , about which he spoke t o the Ateneo i n V a l l a d o l i d i n 1 9 2 6 .  I t was never published.  A f t e r only three c o r r i d a s i n 1 9 2 7 he announced h i s second retirement on J u l y 3 r d at Pontevedra. His l i f e now became f i l l e d by h i s l i t e r a r y occupations.  In  December 1 9 2 7 Jorge G u i l l e n went on a l i t e r a r y excursion to S e v i l l e , of which he s a i d l a t e r : mecenas".^  Ignacio  " l a excursion esta patrocinada por un  was the patron r e f e r r e d t o .  Also included i n the  party were Lorca, Damaso Alonso, Gerardo Diego, Juan Chabas, Jose Bergamin, Mauricio Bacarisse and Rafael A l b e r t i .  They gave l e c t u r e s  - k -  and r e c i t e d t h e i r poetry before small audiences of the general p u b l i c i n the Ateneo.  Lorca was received w i t h great warmth and excitement.  He read some of h i s then unpublished 'romances gitanos' and the p u b l i c threw him t h e i r jackets and handkerchiefs as they would t o a triumphant bullfighter. Only a small f r a c t i o n of the time was spent i n formal l e c t u r e s , f o r the group stayed up t i l l d a w n each night enjoying each rl  other's company and, on at l e a s t one occasion, going on a boat t r i p i n the middle of the n i g h t .  Ignacio had booked them i n t o the l u x u r i o u s  Hotel Madrid, but when the o f f i c i a l i n v i t a t i o n ended the group stayed on, at t h e i r own expense i n cheaper lodgings.  During t h i s time Lorca  met L u i s Cernuda, who had yet t o p u b l i s h anything, and was introduced to Fernando V i l l a l o n , both a poet and bull-breeder*by Ignacio.  The  expedition ended w i t h a l a r g e party at Ignacio's ranch at Pino Montano. A f t e r the d r i n k i n g , s i n g i n g and r e c i t a t i o n of poems ,Damaso Alonso brought the whole a f f a i r t o a f i t t i n g l y c l i m a c t i c end by r e c i t i n g from memory Gongora's Soledad Primera.  On-this note ended the tercentenary  celebrations of Gongora. The testimonies of those who knew Ignacio show t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n the A r t s was not merely a passing whim or a d e s i r e t o capture the l i m e l i g h t now that h i s r i n g career was over.  Marcelle  A u c l a i r t e l l s how he committed t o memory t h e romances of Gongora and how he loved t o e n t e r t a i n h i s f r i e n d s by r e c i t i n g them.''  Jorge  G u i l l e n r e c a l l s h i s s u r p r i s e at r e a l i z i n g that t h i s b u l l f i g h t e r a l s o had a very f i n e mind: "Lo mas sorprendente es que Ignacio d i s c u r r i a con  - 5 -  una de l a s mentes mas c l a r a s de nuestro tiempo."  even i f h i s f a v o u r i t e  argument was that Jose Ortega y Gasset was a gypsy. the man s u c c i n c t l y : inteligencia."7  G u i l l e n sums up  "..-.su elogio r e q u e r i a l a palahra indispensable:  The word seems a l l . t h e more a p p l i c a b l e when one  knows that Ignacio was also a playwright, an impresario and the founder of a company of Spanish dancers headed by h i s f r i e n d La A r g e n t i n i t a -Encarnacion Lopez, t o whom the "Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez M e j i a s " i s dedicated. In 1928 h i s play Sirirazon had i t s premiere i n Madrid.  I t was  w e l l received w i t h a mixture o f s u r p r i s e and admiration f o r i t had l i t t l e t o do w i t h b u l l f i g h t i n g , being an attempt t o present the problem of madness and reason.  Cossio  describes how a b u l l f i g h t e r was  grudgingly accepted as a playwright:  "...se desenvolvia  gallardamente  8  entre sus e s c o l l o s " . i n Santander.  His second p l a y , "Zayas", appeared the same year  F i l l e d w i t h atmosphere of the b u l l r i n g and of Andalusia  i t was both w e l l w r i t t e n and warmly received. While on a b r i e f v i s i t t o New York i n 1930 Ignacio again met Lorca, who was, o f f i c i a l l y , e n r o l l e d at Columbia U n i v e r s i t y .  The de-  t a i l s of Ignacio's l i f e f o r the next four years are somewhat sketchy. I t i s known that he helped and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y encouraged a group of young poets, and was forever i n t h e i r company.  Of -this group the poet  that Ignacio helped most was probably Fernando V i l l a l o n , who, l i k e w i s e , was both a man of l e t t e r s and b u l l f i g h t i n g .  He l i s t e n e d t o h i s con-  fidences and plans and convinced him that he should continue h i s attempts to become a poet.  -  6  -  A f t e r a seven-year retirement and a t o t a l immersion i n l i t e r a r y p u r s u i t s i t came as a u n i v e r s a l s u r p r i s e when, i n 1 9 3 ^ , Ignacio decided to r e t u r n t o the r i n g as a matador.  He had become .  rather r e s t l e s s and found that l i f e lacked s u f f i c i e n t challenge f o r him i n s p i t e of h i s publicly acknowledged T  literature.  success i n the world of  His d e c i s i o n was not taken l i g h t l y :  he spent several  weeks p r a c t i s i n g and shed a good deal of excess weight before he pronounced himself f i t to r e t u r n . S t a r t i n g o f f w e l l i n t o the season, h i s f i r s t f i g h t was J u l y 1 5 t h . at Cadiz.  on  Although i t was a very windy, and therefore very  dangerous afternoon, there was obviously no diminishing i n h i s s k i l l or bravery.  A f t e r f i g h t i n g a week l a t e r at San Sebastian he fought  again at Santander on August 5 t h . ears and the t a i l .  For h i s e f f o r t s he was awarded both  Cossio reported,  E l desprecio. d e l riesgo l l e g o a extremos mayores aun que en su epoca de n o v e l , cuando, a fuerza de v a l o r , se a b r i a paso en todos l o s c a r t e l e s para colocarse junto a J o s e l i t o y Belmonte.9  The f o l l o w i n g day, the 6 t h , Ignacio fought at La Coruna i n a c o r r i d a which h e l d t r a g i c repercussions f o r the three espadas who afternoon.  fought that  When Belmonte went i n f o r the estocada he h i t bone and the  sword flew i n t o the crowd f a t a l l y i n j u r i n g a twenty-year  o l d youth.  Immediately a f t e r the f i g h t Domingo Ortega heard of the death of h i s brother and set o f f from the r i n g i n great haste. accident:  His car was i n an  he was i n j u r e d and a passenger f r i e n d was k i l l e d .  Ignacio  was i n v i t e d t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r the i n j u r e d Domingo Ortega i n Manzanares  - 7 -  on the next day. With the myths that grow w i t h time i t i s not easy t o a s c e r t a i n the true reactions of Ignacio to t h i s i n v i t a t i o n .  For the  s u p e r s t i t i o u s Ignacio i t was s i g n i f i c a n t that he was forced t o stay i n room number 13i there being no other h o t e l room a v a i l a b l e i n the town, and that he departed from h i s s t r i c t r u l e of seeing the b u l l f o r the  f i r s t time when i t enters the r i n g by attending the drawing of  l o t s f o r a l l o c a t i n g the b u l l s to the espadas."^  I t may also be true  t h a t , i n i t i a l l y , he refused the f i g h t because of the immense s i z e of the  b u l l s , only agreeing t o appear when i t was pointed out t o him that  a r e f u s a l would be a public admission of f e a r .  What i s c e r t a i n i s  t h a t , on August 11th 193^-, he was f a t a l l y gored by the f i r s t b u l l , Grariadino. Ignacio, says Cossio, "Fue muy v a l i e n t e con e l capote, e i n i c i o l a faena de muleta con un pase cambiado por a l t o con l a derecha"." He t r i e d t o repeat t h i s f a v o u r i t e t r i c k of h i s while s t i l l seated on 12 the  estribo  but something went wrong and the b u l l caught him. •  The most obvious source of reports about Ignacio's.death and the  circumstances around i t i s the newspapers of Madrid of the time.  A.B.C. p r i n t e d a r e p o r t , under the heading 'Manzanares 11. 7 Tarde', which included a b r i e f account of the event, "sentado en e l e s t r i b o , es enganchado por l a i n g l e y volteado horriblemente, saliendo suspendido 13 y dando l a impresion de una grave cornada."  At the end of the report  of the afternoon's proceedings the Parte F a c u l t a t i y o spoke o f ,  - 8  -  "una h e r i d a penetrante en l a region autero-interna d e l muslo derecho, de d i r e c c i o n ascendente, y deunos 12 centlmetros de profundidad. - +•  El  "1^  pronostico es grave. For some reason Ignacio received only s u p e r f i c i a l treatment at the enfermeria i n Manzanares.  He s u f f e r e d a j o l t i n g journey t o  Madrid, delayed by a breakdown i n the ambulance and a r r i v e d i n the c a p i t a l at h a l f past one on the Sunday morning. transfusions and developed a fever.  He required blood  Throughout Sunday he was  delirious  and the f a t a l , gaseous gangrene had already set i n . He was v i s i t e d by a whole host of f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s and died at 9-^5  a.m.  on Monday  August 13th 193V at the Sanatorio Crespo, C a l l e Goya 22. But where was Lorca? Morla Lynch '' suggests but does not 1  state d e f i n i t e l y that Lorca was i n the north of Spain, d i r e c t i n g La Barraca. This suggestion i s supported by Masini i n h i s d i a r y of the towns v i s i t e d by the theatre group.  For August 193^-  he l i s t s the  f o l l o w i n g towns:Santander Ampuero V i l l a r c a j o CsicH Fromista Valencia P e n a f i e l CsicD Sepulveda C s i c1 Riaza Segovia w i t h the f o l l o w i n g p l a y s , T i r s o de Molina: KL Burlador.de..Sevi 11 a. Juan d e l Enciria: ' P l a c i d a y V i c t o r i a n o " ^ Antonio Kachado : ' La T i e r r a .'de Alvargonzalez .  - 9 -  Andre Belamich p i n p o i n t s the place and the plays w i t h more d e t a i l , Ce meme mois CAugustH, La Barraca s ' i n s t a l l e sur une p e t i t e place en p l e i n a i r de Santander. Repertoire varie: Le Trompeur de S e v i l l e , de T i r s o de M o l i n a ( 1 3 a o u t ) Le lendemain: l'elogue P l a c i d a y V i c t o r i a n o .de Juan d e l Encina."  1 7  l8  On the other hand Marcelle A u c l a i r  suggests that Lorca had l e f t  Santander f o r Madrid because of the catastrophe at Manzanares. She says that Lorca made many phone c a l l s , t h e most important being t o Jorge G u i l l e n who was i n Santander, g i v i n g d e t a i l s of Ignacio's death and saying t h a t he was r e t u r n i n g : presumably t o Santander from Madrid. I t seems that he must have returned immediately because the A g u i l a r e d i t i o n of the Obras Completas i n c l u d e s , dated 'lU de agosto, 1 9 3 V , a short explanation by Lorca o f the aims of La Barraca,. together w i t h a welcome t o a l l students, under the t i t l e 'En La Universidad 19 Internacional de Santander'. On p i e c i n g together t h i s information there emerges the p i c t u r e of Lorca paying a b r i e f v i s i t t o the c a p i t a l , but, apparently, he never v i s i t e d Ignacio i n the Sanatorio Crespo, "a aucun moment Garcia' Lorca n'a penetre dans l a piece ou Sanchez' Mejias c r i a i t sa s o i f de v i e et d'eau".^ That Lorca had always possessed a deep f e a r of death i s a f a c t t h a t has been mentioned by many of h i s biographers. Vaquez 21 * Ocana  r e c a l l s how Salvador D a l i and h i s s i s t e r Ana Maria had t o  hold the poet's hands when they went bathing at Cadaques because he was a f r a i d o f drowning.  When Lorca found h i m s e l f , although i n the  -  1 0  -  company of f r i e n d s , i n a "boat on the Guadalquivir i n the middle of the night he became extremely frightened.  22  * 23 Angel d e l Rio tells  Lorca was f r i g h t e n e d i n the C a t s k i l l Mountains because he was alone w i t h a t a x i - d r i v e r whom he could not understand.  how left  In each of  these three episodes i t was a fear of death that caused Lorca t o be so strange i n h i s behaviour.  This fear of h i s could quite e a s i l y  be the simple reason why he d i d not v i s i t the C a l l e Goya. :  His name  c e r t a i n l y does not f i g u r e i n the l i s t of v i s i t o r s t o the c l i n i c , • e i t h e r before or a f t e r Ignacio's death.  In f a c t Lorca's name i s most  conspicuous f o r i t s absence from the Madrid newspapers f o r the whole of the period August  . . 9 t h  -  l 6 t h  1 9 3 U .  Lorca was kept busy w i t h La Barraca u n t i l the end of August. During September and October he must have worked almost e x c l u s i v e l y on the poem f o r , i n the f i r s t week of November he had ready h i s poetic homage to h i s l a t e f r i e n d .  The f i r s t known reading of the  "Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez M e j i a s " took place on November Uth 193^, at the house of Carlos Morla Lynch who r e c a l l s the immediate impact of the poem, "se produce e l hechizo ....No se puede alcanzar mayor a l t u r a ni mayor grandeza . I t was not u n t i l March 1 2 t h of the f o l l o w i n g year that the f i r s t p u b l i c reading of the poem took p l a c e . Lorca read the "Llanto" i n the 'Teatro Espanol a f t e r the one hundredth performance of Yerma. 1  The f i r s t e d i t i o n of the poem was p r i n t e d some two months l a t e r by Ediciones d e l A r b o l , Cruz y Raya i n Madrid.  -  1 1  -  FOOTNOTES Chapter I  1.  Marcelle A u c l a i r . Enfances et Mort de Garcia Lorca. S e u i l , P a r i s , 1 9 6 8 . p. 2 6 .  2.  Jose Maria de Cossio.  Los Toros:  E d i t i o n s de  Tratado Tecnieb e. H i s t o r i c o .  Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 1 9 ^ 5 - Tomo i i i , p. 8 7 6 . . Loc . C i t .  3.  k.  Jorge G u i l l e n .  'Federico en Persona', i n Federico Garcia Lorca.  Obras Completas. 5-  Marcelle A u c l a i r .  6.  Jorge G u i l l e n .  9.  10.  Op. C i t . p. 1 5 •  Loc. C i t .  7. 8.  A g u i l a r , Madrid, Undecima e d i c i o n , 1 9 6 6 . p. xxxv.  Op. C i t . p. x x x v i . Jose Maria de Cossio.  Loc. C i t .  " ' ' '  .. Op. C i t . p.  8 7 9 .  11. 12.  Carlos Morla Lynch. En Espana con Federico Garcia Lorca. A g u i l a r , . Madrid, Segunda E d i c i o n , 1 9 5 8 . p. 3 9 9 Jose Maria de Cossio. Loc. C i t . The ' e s t r i b o ' i s l i k e a bench that runs around the i n s i d e o f the w a l l of the b u l l r i n g . I t s main f u n c t i o n i s t o help a 'torero' leap the w a l l t o escape from the pursuing b u l l .  13.  A.B.C. Madrid, domingo, 1 2 de agosto de 193k. p. 3 6 .  lh.  A.B.C. Loc. C i t .  15.  Carlos Morla Lynch.  16.  F e r r u c i b , M a s i n i . Federico Garcia Lorca e La Barraca. 119661.  Op. C i t . p. k02.  p. 6 3 .  17.  Andre Belamich.  18.  Marcelle A u c l a i r .  19.  Federico Garcia Lorca. Obras Completas. e d i c i o n , 1 9 6 6 . p. l * + 9 . Marcelle A u c l a i r . Op. C i t . p. 2 5 -  20.  Cappeli , Bologna,  Lorca.  E d i t i o n s Gallimard., P a r i s , 1 9 6 2 . p. ^ 0 .  Op. C i t . pp. 2 ^ - 5 . A g u i l a r , Madrid, Undecima  -  12  -  21.  Fernando Vazquez Ocana. Garcia Lorca. V i d a , cantico y. muerte. E d i t o r i a l G r i j a l b o , Mexico, 1 9 5 7 . p. 1 8 .  22.  Jose Luis Cano. Garcia Lorca: B i o g r a f i a I l u s t r a d a . Destino, Barcelona, 1 9 6 2 . p. 6 5 .  23.  Federico Garcia Lorca. Poet i n Hew York. Translated by Ben B e l i t t . Grove Press, New York, 1 9 5 5 - p. xv.  2k.  Carlos Morla Lynch.  Op. C i t . p. -1+22.  Ediciones  - 13 -  R e a l i t y i n the Poem The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the 'Llanto' c l a i m s , i n i t s t i t l e 'La Cogida y l a Muerte', t o be the story of the f a t a l event.  It is  that and more, but the n a r r a t i o n of the story occupies only a small f r a c t i o n of the whole poem.  Ignacio himself i s not mentioned at a l l  i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n , although i t i s obvious from the t i t l e that i t i s h i s death that Lorca i s d e s c r i b i n g .  I t i s the d e s c r i p t i o n of  a b u l l f i g h t e r , gored f a t a l l y i n the t h i g h , i n c l u d i n g d e t a i l s that could apply t o almost any such death.  However, the f a c t s i n general-  agree w i t h the f a c t s surrounding Ignacio's death.  The three remaining  sections of the 'Llanto' are made up of poetry t h a t , p r o g r e s s i v e l y , i s more concerned w i t h the c r e a t i o n of atmosphere than w i t h the s t a t i n g of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s .  There a r e , i n these three s e c t i o n s ,  several flashes of r e a l i t y but few which could be claimed t o r e f e r d i r e c t l y , and u n i q u e l y , t o Ignacio. • The opening l i n e of the poem i s , because of i t s constant r e p e t i t i o n , obviously a l i n e of supreme importance and therefore i t s source may w e l l be very c l o s e t o the events surrounding Ignacio's death.  I t mentions a point i n time, a time apparently o f great  significance.  I t was not the time at which Ignacio d i e d ; nor i s i t  the time at which he was gored, nor at which the b u l l f i g h t s t a r t e d , nor at which any s i g n i f i c a n t event, except one, took place. f M o r l a Lynch's explanation i s both vague and inaccurate, " c i t a , puntual e implacable, d e l 'espada' con l a muerte.""''  - Ill -  In a l l of the contemporary newspaper reports on  Ignacio's  death the only mentions of 'a l a s cinco de l a tarde' r e f e r to the time at which the f u n e r a l procession l e f t the Sanatorio Crespo i n the C a l l e Goya.  A black-bordered  announcement of Ignacio's death  appeared on the l a s t page of A.B.C. , August lUth. 193^.  Dominated by  the l e t t e r s R.I.P., i t s l a s t paragraph read, Su viuda, h i j o s , madre, hermanos, hermanos p o l i t i c o s y demas parientes ruegan a sus amigos l e encomiendan a.Dios y a s i s t a n a l a conduccion del cadaver, tendra lugar hoy, d i a ik, a l a s cinco de l a tarde,. desde e l Sanatorio de l o s doctores Crespo-Gonzalez, c a l l e de Goya 2 2 , a l a estacion d e l Mediodia".^ The words that are p r i n t e d i n bold type, immediately capturing the eyes of the reader from a l l e l s e on that page are "A LAS CINCO DE TARDE".  LA  With the p u n c t u a l i t y t y p i c a l of a Spanish b u l l f i g h t the  procession l e f t on time.  The f o l l o w i n g day's papers contain photographs  of the procession with the s t r e e t s l i n e d several deep on e i t h e r s i d e . Ignacio's l a s t journey i n the c a p i t a l took him to the overnight t r a i n to S e v i l l e .  There he was buried i n the same tomb as J o s e l i t o  August 15th,  193U.  on  A.B.C. of that date notes, "A l a s cinco en punto fue  sacado de l a c a p i l l a ardiente e l f e r e t r o que contenia l o s restos de -5  Sanchez  Mejia CsicH".  To f i n d the famous opening l i n e and i t s  v a r i a n t i n newspaper reports that describe s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of the death and b u r i a l of Ignacio seems to be more than a coincidence.  A  more d e f i n i t e l i n k seems to be e s t a b l i s h e d when, one reads l i n e s  33  and 3^ of the poem, "Un ataud con ruedas es l a cama / a l a s cinco de l a tarde".  Photographs taken at 5 p.m.  August l ^ t h . 193^,  and p r i n t e d  - 15 -  i n A.B.C. o f t h e f o l l o w i n g day show t h a t t h e c o f f i n was l a i d on some k i n d o f gun c a r r i a g e and dragged t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f M a d r i d t o Atocha S t a t i o n .  I n t h i s i n s t a n c e t h e r e does appear t o be a d e f i n i t e  c o r r e l a t i o n between an h i s t o r i c a l event and t h e words o f t h e poem. M a r c e l l e A u c l a i r ' s e v i d e n c e about L o r c a b e i n g i n M a d r i d , b u t n o t v i s i t i n g t h e c l i n i c , t e n d s t o suggest t h a t h i s communication w i t h  events  as t h e y p r o g r e s s e d was by word o f mouth and t h r o u g h t h e M a d r i d newspapers.  I f L o r c a was r e a d i n g t h e newspapers i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume  t h a t i t was t h e r e t h a t he f o u n d t h e source f o r t h e l i n e . f v The  i d e a o f c o v e r i n g t h e body w i t h a sheet has a base i n t h e  events s u r r o u n d i n g I g n a c i o ' s d e a t h .  A M a d r i d newspaper r e p o r t e d  "Como e r a e s p e c i a l deseo de Sanchez M e j i a CsicH que cuando f a l l e c i e r a no f u e r a expuesto s u c a d a v e r , porque e r a enemigo de e x h i b i c i o n e s , e l cuerpo ha s i d o c u b i e r t o c o n una sabana."^' When a b u l l f i g h t e r i s k i l l e d i n t h e r i n g t h e r e i s a t r a d i t i o n t h a t h i s body s h o u l d be covered w i t h a shroud but t h a t h i s f a c e s h o u l d be l e f t exposed.  I f t h i s i s done i t g i v e s  h i s f r i e n d s and t h e p u b l i c a chance t o see t h e f e a t u r e s and pay a more p e r s o n a l homage.  L o r c a demands t h a t t h i s be done w i t h I g n a c i o t o o .  b e l i e v e s t h a t he s h o u l d f a c e d e a t h , and i s , a g a i n s t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t would t e n d t o d i m i n i s h t h e courage and o u t s t a n d i n g g r e a t n e s s o f h i s friend, Wo q u i e r o que l e t a p e n l a c a r a c o n p a n u e l o s p a r a que se acostumbre con l a muerte que l l e v a . A l t h o u g h L o r c a d i d n o t go near t h e room i n w h i c h I g n a c i o d i e d he does i n c l u d e many r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e h o s p i t a l and i t s  He  -  accompanying a s s o c i a t i o n s .  16  -  He remains f a i t h f u l t o the a c t u a l events,  recording that Ignacio died because h i s t h i g h wound became i n f e c t e d w i t h gangrene, un muslo con un asta desolada A l o l e j o s ya viene l a gangrena. I t was the s e t t i n g - i n of the gaseous gangrene that heralded Ignacio's death, expressed by Lorca i n a l i n e that i s at once p o e t i c a l l y moving and shockingly r e a l i s t i c , • Trompa de l i r i o por l a s verdes i n g l e s . With the i n f e c t i o n came a day of high fever and d e l i r i u m as Ignacio fought f o r h i s l i f e , Las heridas quemaban como soles. A f t e r having twice r e t i r e d , Ignacio returned t o the r i n g i n a serious attempt t o recapture the g l o r y of h i s youth. complicated metaphor t o express t h i s idea.  Lorca uses a  Taking the evening to be  the approach of o l d age, and n i g h t , o l d age i t s e l f , he t e l l s us how Ignacio sought the dawn of h i s youth, Buscaba e l amanecer y e l amanecer no e r a . The use of the simple negative conveys the absolute f u t i l i t y i n seeking something t h a t i s past. his  He t r i e d t o regain the body o f h i s youth,  previous heights of power, and died i n the attempt,. Buscaba su hermoso cuerpo y encontro su sangre a b i e r t a . For twenty l i n e s Lorca concentrates s o l e l y on a panegyric  -  IT  -  of the f i n e q u a l i t i e s of Ignacio as he r e c a l l s h i s f r i e n d i n l i f e .  He  begins by bestowing on him the t i t l e of Prince of S e v i l l e , h i s b i r t h place.  His tremendous strength was, como un r i o de leones.  Ignacio's t o r s o de marmol.suggests the s t a t i c , immobile posture of the bravest and best b u l l f i g h t e r s .  Strong, handsome and brave, Ignacio  was also a man w i t h a quick mind, .. su r i s a era un nardo de s a l y de i n t e l i g e n c i a . I n t e l i g e n c i a i s the very word that Jorge G u i l l e n used to describe the outstanding q u a l i t y of Ignacio. In a s e r i e s of i n t e r j e c t i o n s Lorca marvels at the exceptional q u a l i t i e s of Ignacio's character, using a c a r e f u l j u x t a p o s i t i o n to show h i s s k i l l as a horseman and h i s gentle nature as a person, IQue duro .con l a s espuelas.'IQue t i e r n o con e l rocfo.' For a matador t o be an expertlgbariderillero, as was i s something of a r a r i t y .  Ignacio,  Miguel Mateo (Miguelin) i s a contemporary  f i g h t e r who i s s k i l l e d i n both these a r t s :  a f t e r a triumphant  ex-  h i b i t i o n of h i s v e r s a t i l i t y i n the Corrida de l a Prensa i n Madrid i n 1 9 6 8 , A.B.C. compared him t o Ignacio Sanchez Mejias at the height of his  career.  Ignacio o r i g i n a l l y won fame as a placer of the b a n d e r i l l a s  and i t i s i n t h i s a c t , i n the t w i l i g h t of h i s career, that Lorca remembers him l a s t of a l l , IQue tremendo con l a s ultimas b a n d e r i l l a s de t i n i e b l a s !  - 18 -  A report of the v i g i l kept over Ignacio's body was given i n A.B.'C. ^ His brother, Don A u r e l i o , a f e l l o w b a n d e r i l l e r o , M e l l a , and a mozo de espada, Conde, were the only people i n the room. p u b l i c were excluded from t h i s intimate scene.  A l l the  Therefore, apart from  the general idea of the body being l a i d out, the s e c t i o n "Cuerpo Presente" (which means l y i n g i n . s t a t e ) i s a product of the poetic imagination of Lorca. The  line, EL ontono vendra con c a r a c o l a s ,  reveals an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the poet's n a t i v e region.  This season i s  marked i n the area around Granada by the shepherds b r i n g i n g t h e i r f l o c k s down from the h i l l s t o escape the c o l d of the approaching winter.  As a  form of communication they use conch-shells. Marcelle A u c l a i r ^ remembers Ignacio t e l l i n g of how he f i r s t fought b u l l s at the age of s i x t e e n .  had  Alone w i t h the b u l l s i n the  f i e l d s at night h i s one companion was the wind w h i s t l i n g through the trees.  Whenever he heard the wind blowing through the o l i v e branches  he would t u r n h i s mind back and salute w i t h h i s hand the beginning of an apprenticeship that was, e v e n t u a l l y , t o l e a d to h i s premature death. his  Lorca was aware of these facts, as Marcelle A u c l a i r r e l a t e s , and  l a s t l i n e i s a reminder of Ignacio's humble beginnings  as a b u l l -  f i g h t e r and of how h i s subsequent l i f e was i n f l u e n c e d and ended by bulls, Y recuerdo una b r i s a t r i s t e por l o s o l i v o s .  - 19 -  FOOTNOTES Chapter  1.  Carlos Morla Lynch.  II  En Espana con Federico Garcia Lorca.  Aguilar,  Madrid, 1958. p. h22. 2. A.B.C. Madrid, martes, ik de agosto de 193k. p. 58. 3. , miercoles, 15 de agosto de 193^. p. 39. k. J.B. Trend, i n h i s a r t i c l e "Lorca", published i n Lorca. .. A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays.• P r e n t i c e - H a l l , New Jersey, 1962. pp. 27-^9» remarks " i t i s so p l a i n a statement ... that he may have read i t f i r s t i n a newspaper." (p. k&). 5- • A.B.C. Madrid, martes, Ik de agosto de 193^. p. 28. 6.  Loc. C i t .  7.  Marcelle A u e l a i r . Enfance et Mort de Garcia Lorca. P a r i s , 1968. p. /26.  8. •  . Loc.,Cit.  E d i t i o n s de S e u i l ,  - 20 -  Some T r a d i t i o n a l Forms'* "'and Symbols i n the Poem The purpose of t h i s chapter i s t o work through the poem, considering the use of t r a d i t i o n a l forms and symbols i n r e l a t i o n both to works of e a r l i e r Spanish w r i t e r s and t o e a r l i e r works by Lorca. The  f i r s t l i n e o f the poem i s made up o f eight s y l l a b l e s  as was the t r a d i t i o n a l verso of the b a l l a d .  Another aspect' of t h i s  l i n e that i s both popular and t r a d i t i o n a l i s i t s use of a f i x e d numerical d e t a i l .  Carlos Ramos-Gil explains that such formulas  pormenorizadas are very frequent i n the o l d Spanish  Romaricero,  c i t i n g as examples, con t r e s c i e n t o s cascabeles / alrededor del p r e t a l . and s i e t e veces l o pensaba / s i l o t i r a r i a o no.  1  Lorca himself makes an i d e n t i c a l use of d e t a i l e d numerical references, Este t o r o ha de morir antes de l a s cuatro y media. E l v e i n t i c i n c o de j u n i o l e d i j e r o n a e l Amargo E l v e i n t i c i n c o de j u n i o abrio sus ojos Amargo y el. v e i n t i c i n c o de agosto se tendio para c e r r a r l o s . h  un d i a senalado  entre l a s dos y l a s t r e s .  Ramos-Gil t h i n k s that t h i s l i n e i s an echo of the tendency t o f i x times and numbers e x a c t l y , the i n t e n t i o n being t o " m a t e r i a l i z a r l o i r r a c i o n a l , valiendose d e l dato p r e c i s o y matematico".^  - 21 -  A l l these examples show how close a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l brings about a feeling, of r e a l i s m and importance t o the d e s c r i p t i o n . Nearly a l l c r i t i c s have r e f e r r e d t o the opening l i n e as an ' e s t r i b i l l o ' but few have t r i e d t o give any explanation of i t s meaning.-  J.B. Tr,end points out that the " e s t r i b i l l o  i s a device  used i n sixteenth-century Romanceros and by the playwrights G i l Vicente and Lope de Vega.^  In Spanish poetry the ' e s t r i b i l l o i n :  i t s simplest form, i s a r e f r a i n repeated at the end of a stanza. I f t h i s use of the • ' e s t r i b i l l o • i s taken l i t e r a l l y here, i t gives an example of one l i n e stanzas each w i t h the same e s t r i b i l l o ' r  However,  from the layout of the f i r s t e d i t i o n i t i s obvious that the f i r s t eight l i n e s and the remainder of the f i r s t s e c t i o n are designed t o stand as two separate stanzas.  This follows quite l o g i c a l l y f o r ,  a f t e r the opening announcement o f the death, the poet then goes on t o give -details of the death i n t h i s second stanza. in this  estribillo  narrative.  The innovation  i s i t s r e p e t i t i o n a f t e r each l i n e of the  The i n s i s t e n c e upon the e s t r i b i l l o ' breaks up the flow o f  the verse w i t h a perpetual swing from the intervening l i n e s as they t e l l the s t o r y , back t o the inescapable reference t o time; reproducing the sensation of a t o l l i n g b e l l .  Associations w i t h a b e l l , are also  brought t o mind by the f a c t that the time i s stated t o be e x a c t l y f i v e o'clock; a time at which a clock would s t r i k e .  One f u r t h e r  comment i s required t o point out that here, Lorca takes f u l l advantage of poetic l i c e n c e w i t h respect t o time.  He enumerates a sequence of  - 22 -  events, though not i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, that,.apparently, a l l (  took place at the same time.  This i s , obviously, t o t a l l y impossible  unless time i t s e l f were t o have stopped.  For Ignacio i t has stopped  and so events concerning him no longer occupy any. amount of time.The  e s t r i b i l l o - was used by Lorca i n some dozen other  poems, appearing only r a r e l y before h i s Primeras Canciones o f 1922.  The f i r s t poem of Poema d e l Cante Hondo, 1921, " B a l a d i l l a  de l o s Tres R i o s " has the r e f r a i n , IAy, Amor que se fue y no vino.' which i s a form o f lament placed between stanzas.  I t s main f u n c t i o n  i s t o c r y s t a l l i z e the a l l - p e r v a d i n g mood of sadness and regret of the poem while remaining completely separated from the l i n e s that describe the three r i v e r s .  P r i n t e d i n i t a l i c s , i t stands alone as a  separate stanza and a l t e r n a t e s a l l the way through the poem w i t h , IAy, Amor que se fue por e l aire.' Lorca uses t h i s r e f r a i n t o express the f i n a l i t y of the l o s s of somet h i n g nebulous.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that t h i s poem of atmosphere i s  given the t i t l e of ' B a l a d i l l a ' , acknowledging the poet's debt t o music f o r the use of the r e f r a i n . - The majority of h i s l a t e r poems that employ the e s t r i b i l l o technique are c a l l e d  Canciones.  Another poem that uses an e s t r i b i l l o i s the "Muerte de l a  Q  Petenera"°.  Here Lorca uses the l i n e s , Cien jacas caracolean. Sus j i n e t e s estan muertos.  - 23 -  to create a background of mystery to the tragedy of the n a r r a t i v e and to r e i n f o r c e the idea that death i s everywhere and i n e v i t a b l e . The book of poems e n t i t l e d Primeras Canciones 1922 some unusual uses of the e s t r i b i l l o .  shows  Normally i t s r o l e i s secondary  to the r e s t of the poem, i t s use being t o a i d i n the c r e a t i o n o f an atmosphere and to comment upon the happenings of the n a r r a t i v e . However, i n "Remanso, Cancion F i n a l " ^ the l i n e , Ya viene l a noche. expresses the theme of the poem, and the remainder of the poem i s an elaboration of i t , as f o r example, the l i n e s Golpean rayos de luna sobre e l yunque de l a t a r d e . Of the "Cuatro Baladas A m a r i l l a s " number I I ^ gives an example of 1  a r e f r a i n that has no l i t e r a l meaning and i s merely a musical chant placed i n between descriptions of the landscape, Orillo, orillo, pastorcillo. In i t s s i m p l i c i t y i t i s very close to a c h i l d ' s song:  being j u s t a  succession of words that rhyme. "Cancion de J i n e t e (i860)"11 shows a d e f i n i t e development on the part of Lorca i n the use of the e s t r i b i l l o . two e s t r i b i l l o s  In each of the  used there i s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c a b a l l i t o ; i n  one i t i s negro and i n the other i t i s f r i o .  These are two adjectives  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the idea of death, each commanding the use of one  - 2k -  of the senses, hut i t i s the r i d e r and not the horse that i s dead. By t r a n s f e r r i n g the power of these adjectives t o the horse the poet introduces the concept of the horse as both the messenger and the c a r r i e r o f death.  The second l i n e of the e s t r i b i l l o allows the  poet t o ask a d i r e c t question of the horse, that increases the mystery surrounding i t s r i d e r ' s death, iDonde l l e v a s t u j i n e t e muerto?. By introducing a reference t o the smell o f death, which c a l l s f o r the e x e r c i s e ; o f yet another o f the senses, Lorca increases the f e e l i n g of the presence of death, iQue perfume de f l o r de c u c h i l l o ! During the journey o f the horse Lorca uses the e s t r i b i l l o t o help i n the c r e a t i o n of an aura of mystery about the d e s t i n a t i o n of the horse and i t s r i d e r .  The metaphorical and s e n s o r i a l evocations i n  t h i s e s t r i b i l l o show the increased s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the poet. One of the most musical o f Lorca's e s t r i b i l l o s appears i n 12  "Anda J a l e o " ,  from h i s Canciories Populares.  I t i s a poem about  confusion and death by shooting, superbly mirrored i n the r e f r a i n , Anda j aleo-j a l e o ; ya se acabo e l alboroto y ahora empieza e l t i r o t e o . His  c a r e f u l choice of words allows him t o summarize the events o f  the poem, at the same time reproducing the noise of the d i s t u r b i n g events i n h i s verse. both  This rare example of an e s t r i b i l l o that i s  a r e f l e c t i o n and a summary of the main body of the poem was set  to music by the poet himself. The melody i s p r i n t e d i n the A g u i l a r  -  25  -  E d i t i o n o f the Ohras Completas. The  'Llanto' i t s e l f uses two r e f r a i n s i n a d d i t i o n t o that i  which begins i n the opening l i n e .  The second s e c t i o n of the poem  resembles a t r a d i t i o n a l Romance both i n i t s changes from the present to the past tenses and i n its.-.-use of an e s t r i b i l l o , IQue no quiero verla.' I t i s used at i r r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s throughout the s e c t i o n , i n t r u d i n g with a violence that conveys w e l l the poet's r e c o i l from seeing h i s f r i e n d ' s blood on the sand of the b u l l r i n g .  From the r i n g there are  flashbacks t o Ignacio's l i f e and the n a r r a t i v e i s then taken up again, continuing t i l l the b u r i a l , . w i t h the s i x - s y l l a b l e j a r r i n g l i n e b u r s t i n g i n at several p o i n t s .  A climax i s reached i n the f i n a l l i n e  when the exclamation marks are doubled and the personal pronoun added, I JYo no quiero verla.'.' As the poet calms down i n the gentle t r a n q u i l i t y of the f o u r t h , and f i n a l , s e c t i o n - 'Alma Ausente' he r e a l i z e s t h a t , because of h i s death, h i s f r i e n d i s , no longer, a part of t h i s e a r t h l y existence, Por que t e has muerto para siempre. Each of the f i r s t three stanzas ends with t h i s l i n e of p r o t e s t . Lorca now r e a l i z e s that t h i s great man has j o i n e d the anonymous dead.  With an immediate r e p e t i t i o n of the l i n e at the beginning  of the fourth stanza, Lorca s p i t s out the words that complain of  -  26  -  the l e v e l l i n g of a l l animate objects brought about by death, Porque t e has muerto para siempre, como todos l o s muertos de l a t i e r r a , como todos l o s muertos que se o l v i d a n en un monton de perros apagados. Deeply grieved by the death of t h i s close f r i e n d , who had been an extraordinary man and died prematurely, Lorca i s shocked by the r e a l i z a t i o n that Ignacio w i l l now lose a l l h i s g l o r y and be equal to each and every other dead t h i n g and person.  What shocks the  poet most i s that Ignacio w i l l be f o r g o t t e n ; f o r death means. o b l i v i o n and Lorca i s saddened by the thought that t h i s should be the f a t e of Ignacio. The three e s t r i b i l l o s used by Lorca i n t h i s poem i n s i s t upon one f a c t which i s elaborated by the n a r r a t i v e .  In 'La Cogida  y l a Muerte' the verses are almost suffocated between the r e f r a i n which accounts f o r more than h a l f the l i n e s .  With the idea that  time has stopped impressed upon the reader, Lorca introduces both the f a c t and the circumstances of the death.  In the second  section he describes h i s r e p u l s i o n at the sight of the s p i l t blood by r e f u s i n g t o look at i t , b u t , e s s e n t i a l l y , the second r e f r a i n plays only a minor part i n the v e r s e , which concerns i t s e l f w i t h the p h y s i c a l d i s s o l u t i o n of a f i n e man.  In the fourth s e c t i o n the  acknowledgement of death as something f i n a l i s expressed quite calmly, but i t i s repeated because the author  f i n d s the idea  abhorrent i n i t s e l f and because i t leads people to forget the  - 27 -  greatness of the dead.  I n each section a preoccupation, almost an  obsession, of the poet i s introduced, by means of the e s t r i b i l l o , without d i s t u r b i n g the n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of the poem. The symbols and images used by Lorca are not new but the dramatic impact o f the poem derives , i n part from the i n t e g r a t e d metaphors.  As the culmination of h i s p o e t i c work the 'Llanto'  fuses the s t y l e s and techniques of Poeta en Kueva York and Romancero Gitano. When the story of the poem begins Lorca immediately introduces the f i g u r e of a c h i l d , Un nino t r a j o l a blanca sabana. A riino a l s o appears, 'vestido de bianco'-^, at the beginning o f Yerma.  In the opening scene of La Zapatera P r o d i g i b s a ^ another 1  riino i s present, i n a s e t t i n g 'completamente blanca'.  Innocence  and p u r i t y are the concepts that the poet i s p o r t r a y i n g here, both i n the form o f a c h i l d and by using the colour white t h a t , so often i n Lorca's work, symbolizes something t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n blemishes.. The combining of the two elements i s employed by Lorca as a means of r e i n f o r c i n g an idea through suggesting i t i n two ways.  A c h i l d may seem t o be a strange witness f o r death,  but death i t s e l f i s something very pure and simple, making a l l men equal as they were, o r i g i n a l l y , at b i r t h . A f t e r the mention of medicines and the attempts t o save Ignacio, r e a l i s m departs, momentarily, w i t h the image o f a  - 28 -  battle, Ya luchan l a paloma y e l leopardo. There seem t o he many ways of i n t e r p r e t i n g t h i s l i n e .  I t can be  Ignacio f i g h t i n g death, i n the f i g u r e of a leopard; or p u r i t y f i g h t i n g c r u e l t y . Whatever the poet intended, the q u a l i t i e s of a dove are t r a d i t i o n a l l y peace., gentleness and f r a g i l i t y .  Against  these he set a f i e r c e and w i l d adversary, many times l a r g e r .  Marcelle  A u c l a i r has pointed out that"'blanca paloma'.... en Andalousie toujours l a Vierge de l a Rosee." ^ 1  c'est  Although t h i s information adds  a s p e c i f i c a l l y Andalusian weight t o the image i t does not e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s t r u g g l e .  Because of t h e unequal nature of  the s t r u g g l e , w i t h the leopard being the i n e v i t a b l e v i c t o r , i t seems that the idea of man, i n p a r t i c u l a r Ignacio, f i g h t i n g a l o s i n g b a t t l e against death i s the most p l a u s i b l e explanation. As the c o n d i t i o n of the p a t i e n t worsened Lorca t e l l s how death spread out from the wound, La muerte puso huevos en l a h e r i d a . The l a y i n g of eggs i s , normally, a symbol of v i t a l i t y , o f the beginning of l i f e .  Lorca uses the phrase i n a rather paradoxical  way w i t h the l a y i n g o f eggs s i g n i f y i n g the beginning of an end death.  The o v e r a l l impression l e f t by the f i r s t s e c t i o n i s one of  a kaleidoscopic view of a man f a t a l l y tossed i n the b u l l r i n g , o f many of the h o r r i f i c s i g h t s , smells and sounds that ensued. A l l t h i s takes place i n an i n s t a n t . When the human b r a i n r e c a l l s such  -  29  -  an event i t seems t o be able t o f l a s h scores of p i c t u r e s across the mind i n an i n s t a n t ; Lorca achieves the same e f f e c t w i t h h i s verse. Section I I i s concerned w i t h the large amount o f blood that Ignacio l o s t and the p h y s i c a l r e s u l t s of h i s death.  It  represents a nightmarish view o f events, w i t h the l o c a t i o n changing r a p i d l y i n a night-time s e t t i n g .  At the beginning, as  at the end, the poet i s concerned w i t h r i d d i n g himself of the red  of the l i f e blood.  He invokes the moon t o come and change i t s  colour t o one of s i l v e r y white.  A l l h i s attempts t o r i d himself of  .the haunting redness i n v o l v e the i d e a o f s u b s t i t u t i n g f o r i t somet h i n g e i t h e r white or s i l v e r , iAvisad a l o s jazmines con su blancura pequena! but they do not succeed.  Such was the greatness of the man that  nothing i s capable of containing h i s blood.  Lorca i s proud t o admit  this, No hay escarcha de l u z que l a e n f f i e . no hay canto n i d i l u v i o de azucenas no hay c r i s t a l que l a cubra de p l a t a . His wish i s t o erase the horror of the blood w i t h a colour o f p u r i t y and negation; h i s attempts  fail.  On h i s r e t u r n t o the b u l l r i n g at night Lorca sees everyt h i n g , except the blood, i n the grey l i g h t of the f u l l moon.  Willow,  t r a d i t i o n a l l y a symbol of weeping and mourning, now grow around the r i n g ' s perimeter.  Ignacio's blood s t i l l s t a i n s the sand as the  -  30  -  poet r e c a l l s the long t r a d i t i o n of b u l l f i g h t s , a n d b u l l s i n Spanish h i s t o r y .  Mention of the Toros de Guisando, large stone  s c u l p t u r e s , the work of the I b e r i a n s , i s one such evocation.  Another  i s ' l a vaca d e l v i e j o mundo,' a symbol of motherhood, l i c k i n g at the  blood shed i n the r i n g :  not only Ignacio's, but a l l the blood-  'sangres derramadas' - that has ever been shed i n a l l the b u l l r i n g s of the world.  There i s no condemnation of b u l l f i g h t i n g 'per se'  here but rather a sadness caused by the i n e v i t a b l e death that i s i t s major f a c e t .  The cow has a ' t r i s t e lengua' which re-appears some  s i x t y l i n e s l a t e r , representing the blood of Ignacio as i t i s soaked up by the earth and meets the 'miles de pezunas' of the dead animals. Although i t has changed from i t s l i t e r a l sense t o a metaphorical sense i t s t i l l c a r r i e s the same concept of r e g r e t . For  the' f i r s t time Ignacio i s mentioned i n the poem by  name, already a dead man, Por l a s gradas sube Ignacio con toda su muerte a cuestas. These l i n e s may w e l l be a reference t o the ascension of C h r i s t , but there i s no d i r e c t mention here, or elsewhere i n the poem, of Heaven. The major i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the concept of a man who i s strong enough to c a r r y away death.  When a man loses h i s struggle he i s , t r a d i t i o n a l l y ,  depicted as being absorbed or c a r r i e d away by death.  Here i s a rare  example of the reverse, o f Per grosse Tod o f R i l k e , a personal death i n which a man c a r r i e s o f f Death.  Although Ignacio has l o s t the  - 31 -  struggle he i s s t i l l man enough to he the dominant force i n h i s death. Throughout t h i s second s e c t i o n the primary concern of the poet i s w i t h Ignacio's blood.  A f t e r the e x p l i c i t announcement  of h i s f r i e n d ' s death he no longer ha's t o make d i r e c t reference to i t , but constantly returns t o the idea through a l l u s i o n s t o blood. Such was the strength of the l i n k between the two t h a t , i n a  way,  Lorca dies w i t h Ignacio, expressing h i s empathy as he f e e l s Ignacio's pulse, i n the form of a spurting wound, gradually weakening, No quiero s e n t i r e l chorro cada vez con menos f u e r z a ; A d i r e c t censure of the b l o o d - t h i r s t y crowds that attend b u l l f i g h t s i s apparent i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Ignacio s p i l l i n g h i s blood oyer them as he ascends the steps of the b u l l - r i n g , ese chorro que ilumina los tendidos y se vuelca sobre l a pana y e l cuero de muchedumbre sedienta. Lorca himself was not against b u l l f i g h t s .  His i n v e c t i v e i n t h i s  instance i s d i r e c t e d against those who went t o see a bloody spectacle and were s a t i s f i e d ; on t h i s occasion, w i t h Ignacio's blood.  The  poet's answer i s t o pour that blood over t h e i r c l o t h e s , and so charging them w i t h some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Ignacio's death. At the moment of the f a t a l impact two reactions ocur:  sympathetic  the 'madres t e r r i b l e s ' l i f t up t h e i r heads and  the bull-breeders on the ranches cry out.  They shout because a  - 32  -  "bull has k i l l e d an extraordinary man, because i t i s they who have bred that b u l l .  Their r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the death of a man i s  made a l l the more d i r e c t by the greatness of Ignacio.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the 'madres t e r r i b l e s ' i s obscure but may w e l l be explained by a book, published i n Barcelona i n 1931, about Spanish 17  f o l k l o r e and customs.  Lorca i s known to have been a keen  student of f o l k l o r e and was,.most probably, acquainted w i t h t h i s book.  I t explains that the madres e x i s t e d i n Pre-Roman Spain as  a force that was n e i t h e r s p e c i f i c a l l y malevolent nor benevolent, but e x i s t e d as f a t e s , or a force of death.  That they acted as an  overseer of man's l i f e seems to e x p l a i n t h e i r presence  and  r e a c t i o n at a sudden and v i o l e n t death. Lorca turns suddenly away from the nightmarish atmosphere to one i n which he r e c a l l s h i s f r i e n d i n l i f e .  His tremendous  strength was, como un r i o de leones. A r i v e r i s sometimes used by Lorca as a symbol of s t r e n g t h , c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h v i r i l i t y and sexual prowess.  La Novia  i n Bodas de  Sangre r e j e c t e d her husband because he was only *un poquito de agua* 18  and p r e f e r r e d i n s t e a d Leonardo —  'un r i o oscuro'.  However, the  poet, w r i t i n g i n very condensed v e r s e , i s not content t o use simply the r i v e r , but increases the power of the s i m i l e by i n t r o d u c i n g f i g u r e s of great strength of l i o n s .  With t h i s hyperbole Lorca  underlines the unusual strength of Ignacio.  The n e x t s i x l i n e s  - 33 -  interweave  a whole s e r i e s of images; r i s a , nardo, s a l and  suggest Andalusian q u a l i t i e s .  inteligencia  Roman influence and c u l t u r e are  present i n the ' a i r e ' that g i l d s Ignacio's head: 'torso de marmol' and 'dibujada. prudencia' give an impression of the s k i l l f u l  and  circumspect matador i n the r i n g . A sharp.reminder of the p h y s i c a l decay brought about by death i s introduced by a gentle l i n e , Pero ya duerme s i n f i n . The buildup t o a f r e n z i e d f e a r of blood begins  immediately  w i t h the shocking l i n e s , Ya l o s musgos y l a hierba abren con dedos seguros l a f l o r de su calavera. which contrast sharply w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of the handsome Ignacio during h i s l i f e of only a few l i n e s p r e v i o u s l y .  His blood has  l e f t h i s body and now spreads through the e a r t h , Y su sangre viene cantando: cantando por marismas y praderas, Lorca had used the i d e n t i c a l image of a r i v e r of blood before, i n "New  York:  19  O f i c i n a y Denuncia." Un rio  que viene cantando  por l o s dormitorios de l o s arrabales I t sings because i t announces the death of the person t o whom i t belonged, and because i t sings i t i s c a l l e d a n i g h t i n g a l e , iOh ruisenor de sus venas.'  -k 3  -  representing the l i v i n g song that contrasts w i t h the generations of 20  dead.  P a r t i a l i m m o r t a l i t y , i n the beauty of the b i r d ' s song,  introduces a note of s l i g h t c o n s o l a t i o n .  In the f i n a l two l i n e s  of the poem i t i s song that consoles the poet. Ignacio's blood reaches up t o the 'Guadalquivir de l a s e s t r e l l a s ' - the M i l k y Way- and here there i s , p o s s i b l y , a reference to the ascension of C h r i s t t o Heaven.  Although t h i s poem i s not  i n the l e a s t based on a C h r i s t i a n outlook of death, there i s most c e r t a i n l y a l i n k between the c r u c i f i x i o n of C h r i s t and the l i n e s , Que no hay c a l i z que l a contenga, que no hay golondrinas que se l a beban. 21  According t o Spanish legends Golgotha.  swallows drank C h r i s t ' s blood at  Lorca evokes the p a r a l l e l of C h r i s t t o e x a l t Ignacio,  f o r both were s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s . There i s , t o o , the i m p l i c a t i o n that the greatness o f Ignacio, seen i n h i s blood, exceeds that o f C h r i s t , f o r there i s not a c h a l i c e l a r g e enough t o contain i t , nor are the swallows able t o drink up h i s blood.  I t i s w i t h the  idea of the inescapable redness o f Ignacio's blood which a l l the images o f whiteness cannot change,that the poet ends t h i s s e c t i o n , s t i l l r e f u s i n g t o look at i t . A readily--recognizable system o f v e r s i f i c a t i o n appears f o r the f i r s t time i n the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Cuerpo Presente". Consisting of quatrains w r i t t e n i n the elegiac metre of the Spanish Alexandrine, which contains fourteen s y l l a b l e s ,*.~it 'describes the-scene  -  35  -  of Ignacio's body l a i d out on a stone s l a b .  The verse r e c a l l s the  cuaderna v i a of Berceo but, while r e t a i n i n g the h e m i s t i c h , Lorca has dispensed w i t h rhyme. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of much of t h i s s e c t i o n i s obscure. In the f i r s t e d i t i o n the opening twelve l i n e s are set out apart from the others  .  I t I s not u n t i l the f o u r t h quatrain that any s p e c i f i c meaning or reference begins to appear.  The l i n e ^  Ya esta sobre l a p i e d r a Ignacio e l b i e n nacido. c a l l s to mind the epic epithet used i n the Poema de Mio C i d , e l que en buen ora n a s c o : ^ The use of a succinct l i n e s i m i l a r to the r e c u r r i n g epithet applied to the f o l k hero i m p l i e s an e q u a l i t y i n the stature of the two  men.  Dialogue, a technique often used i n the elegy and also i n the r.omance, i s introduced i n t o the poem i n the form of a question - "iQue dicen?".. This i s l i n k e d up t o the f i r s t l i n e of the f o l l o w i n g stanza, the seventh, which contains an e x t r a l i n e , iQuien arruga e l sudario?  IWo es verdad l o que d i c e !  Somebody has p u l l e d back the shroud and spoken, seeking t o b r i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l message of comfort that the man i s not r e a l l y dead; that he, i n f a c t , l i v e s on.  Lorca omits the words of the unknown  speaker but the i n t e r r u p t i o n i s easy to imagine f o r the poet himself breaks i n t o the flow of the verse w i t h h i s r e t o r t .  He  knows that Ignacio i s dead and wishes t o continue h i s task of  - 36 -  lamenting t h i s fact and so keeps the i n t e r r u p t i n g dialogue down t o the barest minimum. Following the t r a d i t i o n of Seneca, Lorca demands a s t o i c a l and quiet r e c e p t i o n of death.  Bernarda A l b a , i n her l a s t  speech, expresses her desire f o r the conduct o f her c h i l d r e n on the death of Adela, Yo no quiero l l a n t o s . La muerte hay que m i r a r l a car a a car a. I S i l e n c i o .'• 23' Lorca wants a s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n t o the death of Ignacio, Aqui no canta nadie, n i l l o r a en e l r i n c o n . He -wants the sole witnesses t o be men who embody q u a l i t i e s s i m i l a r to those possessed by Ignacio, Los que doman caballos y dominan l o s r i o s . Again the r i v e r i s used as a symbol of strength and again Lorca r e i n f o r c e s the metaphor by adding an e x t r a concept t o i t .  Instead  of using a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d comparison, i n the form of a s i m i l e , he uses the verb 'dominar' t o s t r e s s once more the great strength of the man.  A d d i t i o n a l force i s added, i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , by  the use of the horse and the verb 'domar'. The using of four such meaningful words i n one l i n e gives another example of the compression of meaning that Lorca achieved i n t h i s poem.  A metaphor  suggesting the s k i l l s of horsemanship i s a l s o used t o make a l l u s i o n t o the f a c t that Ignacio i s now dead, este cuerpo con l a s riendas quebradas.  - 37 -  which follows very c l o s e l y the metaphor used i n 'Cancion de J i n e t e ( i 8 6 0 ) i n which reference i s made t o the dead bandit que perdio ft  l a s riendas". Lorca, recognizing the f i n a l i t y and i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f death, demands a s p i r i t u a l permanence f o r Ignacio, Yo quiero que me ensenen donde esta l a s a l i d a para este capitan atado por l a muerte. Because h i s f r i e n d was no ordinary man he i s not content t o see him burdened w i t h the shackles that death normally brings t o mortals. The i d e a l ' s a l i d a ' i s seen i n Ignacio's l o s i n g himself i n the moon when i t i s f u l l .  I n t h i s way he would, quite l i t e r a l l y , r i s e up  above other men and become something as marvellous and d i s t a n t as the stars and planets.- The idea of the moon as a symbol and witness of death i s not new, but the complicated metaphor used f o r the f u l l moon i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g , Que se pierda en l a p l a z a redonda de l a luna que finge cuando nina•doliente res i n m o v i l ; The shape of the crescent moon appears l i k e the. horns of a young motionless, b u l l .  When i t grows, i t f i l l s out l i k e a b u l l r i n g ,  thus completing the t a u r i n e metaphor. As t h i s s e c t i o n ends a consolatory note i s struck.  Death  i s the ultimate f a t e of a l l men, whatever t h e i r greatness, and Ignacio had nothing t o be ashamed of e i t h e r i n h i s l i f e or i n the manner of h i s death; he has now won h i s r e s t , Duerme ,.---vuela, ..reposa':; rTambien ^se muere e l mar.'  - 38 -  Four . stanzas above the r i v e r i s used as a symbol of s t r e n g t h , here Jorge Manrique's famous metaphor o f man's l i f e being a r i v e r that flows i n t o the sea of death i s c l e a r l y echoed, Nuestras vidas son l o s r i o s que van. a dar e i ^ l a mar, que es e l m o r i r : — By using the hyperbole that even the sea dies Lorca i s seeking t o r e c o n c i l e Ignacio w i t h death. As the poem draws t o a c l o s e i n the l a s t s e c t i o n the t i t l e of which, 'Alma Ausente, balances w i t h that of s e c t i o n t h r e e , Cuerpo Presente, Lorca again takes up the complaint t h a t people w i l l forget Ignacio. - He uses quatrains of hendecasyllables of blank verse and a s e r i e s of statements t h a t express the short memories of people.  There i s a r e p e t i t i o n of the verb conocer which c a r r i e s  both the meanings of 'recognize' plus the meaning of ' r e c a l l ' . I n an e a r l i e r poem, 'Sorpresa'  26  .. , Lorca had used an s i m i l a r  l i n e on  the f a t a l stabbing of an unknown person, No l o c o n o c i a nadie.  Objects of everyday l i f e l i k e horses and ants and even the b u l l no longer remember Ignacio.  The 'nino', t o o , has forgotten him.  This  i s a very poignant statement, f o r the 'nino' was the f i r s t character t o appear i n the poem, c a r r y i n g the white sheet. I f somebody who was so i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the death forgets, few people can be counted on t o remember. Spring, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , i s associated w i t h b i r t h , happiness  - 39 -  and v i t a l i t y .  Autumn heralds the end of the year and begins w i t h i n  two months of Ignacio's death, but, by t h i s time, nobody w i l l t h i n k of him, porque t e has muerto para siempre. Again Lorca i n s e r t s an e x t r a l i n e i n t o the form of h i s stanzas, and again i t i s a l i n e of great s i g n i f i c a n c e , No t e conoce nadie. No. Pero yo t e canto. I t i s a l i n e that explains above a l l e l s e why. the poem was w r i t t e n . Lorca d i d not, and could not, forget Ignacio and, i n w r i t i n g t h i s elegy, he immortalized h i s f r i e n d so that we s h a l l never f o r g e t . In three l i n e s he summarizes the worth of Ignacio, g i v i n g one l i n e each t o h i s p h y s i c a l bearing, h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e and h i s career as a b u l l f i g h t e r , Yo canto, para luego t u p e r f i l y t u g r a c i a . La madurez i n s i g n e de. t u conocimiento. Tu apetencia de muerte y e l gusto de su boca. The f i n a l stanza i s the most impressive part of the poem. For three l i n e s i t b u i l d s up to a crescendo, blending panegyric and  lament,  balancing p r e c a r i o u s l y on the f i n a l word f i l l e d w i t h emotion, Tardara much tiempo en nacer, s i es que nace, un andaluz tan c l a r o , t a n r i c o de aventura. Yo canto su elegancia con palabras que gimen before plummeting down i n t o a sorrowful  . nostalgia  Y recuerdo una b r i s a t r i s t e por l o s o l i v o s . The " L l a n t o " i s one of Lorca's l a s t poems.  After writing  Poeta en Nueva York he turned h i s a t t e n t i o n i n the 1930's t o drama.  - k O -  When he returned t o poetry t o w r i t e the "Llanto" i t was as a mature a r t i s t . . He d i s p l a y s f u l l y h i s intimate knowledge o f myth and f o l k l o r e .  When Lorca evokes an image or sensation he does i t  w i t h flamboyance, often using hyperbole or a double reference. He shows complete command of a changing atmosphere and t o t a l mastery o f h i s verse.  An outstanding feature o f t h i s poem i s  h i s c u l t i v a t i o n of the metaphor.  His e a r l i e s t work shows a  tendency t o use metaphors and i t i s i n the "Llanto" that h i s power i n t h e i r use i s most obvious and most s u c c e s s f u l . They do not p l a y a merely decorative f u n c t i o n but are i n t e g r a l parts of the verse.. The great t a l e n t s of a modern Spanish poet are evident but there remains also a debt on the part o f Lorca t o a long t r a d i t i o n of Spanish E l e g i e s .  - Ul -  FOOTNOTES Chapter I I I Carlos Ramos-Gil. Claves L i r i c a s de Garcia Lorca. Madrid, I 9 6 7 . p. 1 7 0 . Federico Garcia Lorca. Obras Cdmpletas. Undecima e d i c i o n , I 9 6 6 . p. 6 5 5 . 3.  Op. C i t . p. U-52.  k.  Op. C i t . p.  5.  Carlos Ramos-Gil.  6.  J.B. Trend.  1952.  A g u i l a r , Madrid,  1272.  Loc. C i t .  Medieval L y r i c s i n Spain and P o r t u g a l , Cambridge,  Federico Garcia Lorca  Op. C i t . P-  295.  8.  Op, C i t . P-  315.  9.  Op. C i t . P-  3^6.  10.  Op. C i t . P-  3^8.  11.  Op. C i t . •P- •376.  12.  Op. C i t . P-  659.  13.  Op. C i t . P>  1865.  Ik.  Op. C i t . P-  1273.  15.  Op. C i t . P-  912.  7.  Aguilar,  16.  Marcelle"Auclair. Enfances et. Mort de. Garcia Lorca. "'Seuil', P a r i s , 1 9 6 8 . pp. 3 1 - 2 .  17-  F o l k l o r e y Costumbres de Espana. E d i t o r i a l A l b e r t o M a r t i n , Barcelona, 1 9 3 1 - Tomo i , Pp. 2 2 5 - 6 . I am indebted t o Professor R.D. Jones f o r showing me t h i s reference.  18.  Federico Garcia Lorca.  Op. C i t . p.  I269.  .  Op. C i t . p.  -515.  19.  E d i t i o n s de  -.U2  -  20.  John'Keats' n i g h t i n g a l e played a s i m i l a r r o l e i n h i s "Ode to a N i g h t i n g a l e " , the theme of which was 'the song's e t e r n a l q u a l i t y throughout man's decay'. Robert G i t t i n g s . John Keats. Heinemann, London, 1968. p. 317•  21.  Carlos Ramos-Gil. Claves, L i r i c a s de Garcia Lorca. A g u i l a r , Madrid, 1967. P- 222. Confirmed i n conversations w i t h Sra Concha Barrena and Senor Isaac Rubio-Delgado, members of the teaching s t a f f of t h i s Department.  22.  Foema de Mio Cid.  23.  Federico Garcia  Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 19I1O. Lorca.  2k.  Op. C i t . p.  . Op. C i t . p.  L.  2k8.  1532. 376.  25.  Jorge Manrique. Coplas por la. muerte de su padre. B l a c k w e l l , Oxford, 1919. P- k.  26.  Federico Garcia Lorca.  Op. C i t . p.  30^4.  The Elegiac T r a d i t i o n i n Spanish Poetry An elegy can he e i t h e r a lament or a f u n e r a l ode, i t i s with the l a t t e r type that we are concerned i n t h i s t h e s i s . • In Spain the t r a d i t i o n begins i n the eleventh century w i t h the planctus , a poem w r i t t e n i n L a t i n .  Generally the poem opens w i t h a  b r i e f epitaph which dwells on the death o f one p a r t i c u l a r man; a man of some standing such as a p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s or m i l i t a r y c h i e f , or an a r i s t o c r a t .  The 'planctus  enumerates the accomplishments and  personal q u a l i t i e s of the deceased thus demonstrating the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the l o s s t o those who l i v e on. Only o c c a s i o n a l l y does the' planctus contain a prayer f o r the soul o f the departed.  The primary aim i s  not t o console but t o heighten the f e e l i n g s of g r i e f and t o lament the f a c t that death i s common t o a l l men. The first'example of an elegy w r i t t e n i n the vernacular i s i n the epic poem, known as the fragment of Roricesvalles, w r i t t e n i n the t h i r t e e n t h century.  As he laments the death of Roland on the  b a t t l e f i e l d covered w i t h corpses, Charlemagne tugs at h i s beard i n a f r e n z y , causing h i s face t o b l e e d , Muerto es mjo sobryno,. e l buen de don Roldane. Aquj veo a t a l cosa que nunca v j t a n grande: Jo era pora morir e uos pora escapare.l His major complaint i s that he h i m s e l f , a very o l d man, has not been k i l l e d , but that a youth w i t h many years of great deeds ahead o f him has perished.  He f e e l s that death has been u n f a i r i n i t s choice of  - lik -  v i c t i m s , at the same time that i t condemns an o l d man t o a l o n e l y existence, w i t h a l l h i s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s now k i l l e d o f f . This same f e e l i n g i s apparent i n the words of Gonzalo Gustios i n the Cantar de Los Infantes de Lara. As he takes the heads of h i s seven slaughtered sons i n h i s hands he d e l i v e r s an elegy over each one: comenzo de facer su duelo et su l l a n t o tan grande sobre e l l o s que no ha hombre que l o viese que se pudiese s u f r i r de non l l o r a r ; . . . e contaba de l o s infantes todos l o s buenos fechos que f i c i e r a n . ^ His complaint i s also that younger men have died while an o l d man been allowed to l i v e on.  has  I t i s made a l l the more poignant by the  f a c t that the l i n e a g e ' o f a proud family has come t o an end. These two e p i c ' fragments base t h e i r complaints on the unf a i r n e s s of death i n s t r i k i n g down youth while l e a v i n g o l d age to suffer i n loneliness.  The g r i e f i s a very personal one that seems to  be l a c k i n g consolation because the s i g n i f i c a n c e of death remains incomprehensible, and therefore d i s t u r b i n g .  A s e r i e s of r h e t o r i c a l  questions which are addressed to the dead are r e a l l y addressed t o death i t s e l f .  An obvious development from the  planctus-'• i s the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a personal involvement on the part of the mourner and an increased concern w i t h the meaning and understanding of death. C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the next important elegy appears i n Juan Ruiz's L i b r o de Buen Amor.. Occupying some two hundred l i n e s , i t c o n s i s t s of the 'planto' pronounced by the A r c i p r e s t e on the death of Trotaconventos, De como morio Trotaconventos e de como, e l A r c i p r e s t e faze su planto denostando e maldiziendo l a muerte.3  -1+5. -  I t c o n s i s t s of four d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n s ; beginning w i t h an apostrophe t o death, iAy muerteIIrauerta seas! Mataste a v i v i e j a , Enemiga d e l mundo, de t u memoria amarga. i t i s followed by an expression of the author's personal sorrow.  The  A r c i p r e s t e then o f f e r s a prayer f o r the repose of the soul of the departed and concludes w i t h a e u l o g i z i n g epitaph, F i z e l e un p i t a f i o l a t r i s t e z a me f i z o . 5 Like Charlemagne and Gonzalo Gustios the A r c i p r e s t e dwells upon the personal l o s s caused by death.  However, he introduces a novelty  i n t o the complaint by lamenting the f a c t that Trotaconventos,  who  was of great use t o him as a procuress, can no longer serve him. His s e l f i s h n e s s intrudes rudely i n t o what had h i t h e r t o seemed t o be a t r a d i t i o n a l elegy.  This f a c t shows that not even an elegy was  exempt from the humour and i r o n y which the A r c i p r e s t e i n j e c t e d i n t o so much of h i s book. With the l y r i c poets of the f i f t e e n t h century personal and p r i v a t e g r i e f i s no longer i n f a s h i o n .  L i k e the '.'•'•planctus/. they -  are very concerned w i t h the forms of g r i e f , at the same time i n t r o ducing innovations i n the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of abstract q u a l i t i e s such as V i r t u e and Bravery.  These p e r s o n i f i e d q u a l i t i e s weep f o r that  part of themselves that died w i t h the person being mourned. The Dezir d e l a s vanidades d e l Mundo, a t t r i b u t e d t o  Ferrant Sanchez Calavera, shows the poet concerned i n a general sense w i t h the m o r t a l i t y of mankind, Certidumbre de v i d a un ora non avemos; g con l l a n t o venimos, con l l a n t o nos imos. Stress i s l a i d upon the fact that a l l the f i n e q u a l i t i e s of a l i v i n g man are, i n e v i t a b l y , destined t o be l o s t i n a decaying heap of f l e s h , Por ende buen sesso era guarnescer de v i r t u d e s l a s almas que estan despojadas, t i r a r estas houras d e l cuerpo juntadas, pues somos c i e r t o s que se han de perder.T An i n d i v i d u a l death sets o f f a t r a i n of thought t h a t '• dwells upon the a n n i h i l a t i o n caused by death.  The elegy i n the epic poem was able to  s t r i k e a j o y f u l note amidst the general note of mourning by l o o k i n g back to the past g l o r i e s of the dead; the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l y r i c poets i n t h e i r elegies pointed out only the t e r r i b l e , blank f a t e that awaits a l l men. I t i s i n the celebrated Coplas por l a muerte ..de su padre, w r i t t e n by Jorge Manrique i n 1^76, that a blending of a personal g r i e f w i t h a u n i v e r s a l g r i e f i s seen f o r the f i r s t time. set out the orthodox C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e towards death.  These verses  A man should  welcome death as a g i f t from God, c e r t a i n that he w i l l be saved because of the exemplary l i f e that he has l e d on earth.  Any man  who  believes i n God and who repents h i s sins before death can expect God's b l e s s i n g i n the pyramid-like world of the Middle Ages i n which God r u l e s over everything.  Following C h r i s t i a n teaching, death i s  seen as an escape from a world f u l l of cares i n t o a form of p a r a d i s e ,  -  hr-  Este mundo es e l camino para e l o t r o , que es morada s i n pesar. The q u a l i t i e s of Don Rodrigo as a man are r e c a l l e d i n : Aquel de huenos a b r i g o , amado por v i r t u o s o de l a gente, e l maestre don Rodrigo Manrique, tanto famoso, y tan valiente;9 The whole poem i s noticeably'lacking i n pessimism and i t ends on a note of c o n s o l a t i o n , verging on j u b i l a t i o n , y aunque l a v i d a murio, • nos dexo harto consuelo su memoria.10 The Coplas c e l e b r a t e the passing of an exemplary l i f e and a r e , themselves, a prime example of the orthodox C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e to death. The  1  p l a n t o of P l e b e r i o i n the l a s t act of La C e l e s t i n a 1  i s caused by very d i f f e r e n t circumstances.  Melibea had committed  s u i c i d e and was, on her own admission, a f a l l e n woman.  However,  some aspects of previous laments are present on t h i s occasion. P l e b e r i o c h a s t i s e s death f o r t a k i n g away h i s young daughter, Mas dignos eran mis sesenta anos de l a sepultura que tus v e y n t e . 11  His  complaint i s based on two f a m i l i a r grievances.  F i r s t l y , she  has died young while he, an o l d man, l i v e s on, and, secondly, he i s now forced t o l i v e out h i s o l d age i n l o n e l i n e s s . the tragedy i s named as l o v e ,  The cause of  - kQ -  Pero iquien forco a mi h i j a morir sino l a fuerte fuerga de amor?12 Here the novelty l i e s i n seeking, and claiming t o have found, a complete explanation of the course of events. By the time of Pleberio's lament the basic of the Spanish f u n e r a l lament had been l a i d .  foundations  We have seen the  lament that death i s common t o a l l , but u n f a i r t o some.  Personal  involvement, p u b l i c g r i e f and a C h r i s t i a n view of death, plus the unpleasant p h y s i c a l aspects of death are t h e main features of Spanish e l e g i e s .  From here onwards there are no fundamental  innovations i n any l a t e r e l e g i e s .  This point can be i l l u s t r a t e d  by l o o k i n g at Z o r r i l l a ' s elegy, w r i t t e n on the s u i c i d e of Larra. The opening l i n e s of the poem l e a d s t r a i g h t i n t o the unpleasant p h y s i c a l r e a l i t i e s of death and decay, un cadaver sombrio y macilento ^ que en sucio polvo dormira manana. i. Melodramatic v i o l e n c e and r e s t r a i n e d h y s t e r i a , combined with a t o t a l l a c k of reverence, are the outstanding features of t h i s poem, como una v i r g e n a l placer perdida ^ cuelga e l profano v e l o en e l a l t a r . Perplexed by h i s doubt concerning the a f t e r - l i f e , the poet thinks of h i s l a t e f r i e n d , Poeta, s i en e l no ser hay un recuerdo de ayer una v i d a como aqui consagrame un. pensamiento como e l que tengo de tj.,15  -k  9  -  We'are never given any d e t a i l s about the manner i n which Larra died. The poet i s concerned only w i t h the u g l y , unknown, nature of death. On the death of - ^ J o s e l i t o ' i n 1920 Gerardo Diego wrote an elegy to.commemorate the event.  The poem e n t i t l e d 'ELegia a  J o s e l i t o ' , opens i n an evening s e t t i n g , with the shadows climbing grada a grada.  Complete s i l e n c e greets the death of the matador  as h i s l i f e ebbs away, captured i n a l i n e that i s a metaphor derived from a play on words, apagarse l a s luces de su t r a j e . ^ 1  A f t e r the announcement and b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of ''Joselito's death Diego goes back to the day on which he confirmed the .'alternativa' . He describes the f o l l o w i n g f i f t e e n years of g l o r y w i t h packed stadiums, dwelling at some length of '-'Joselito' 's t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y w i t h the cape, dibujando en l a arena, a f l o r de r i e s g o , un radiante teorema entrecruzado.17 The whole a r t of b u l l f i g h t i n g i s summarized i n one  line,  sabio ajedrez contra e l funesto hado. Maintaining a s t r i c t l y e u l o g i z i n g tone, Diego puts forward the idea t h a t  Joselito"' gave h i m s e l f , almost w i l l i n g l y , to death, 1  , 19 Y todo ceso a l f i n , porque q u i s i s t e . and he stresses that -Joselito'- was a brave master of the b u l l s 1  d i c t a t e d the events i n the r i n g .  In form, the elegy c o n s i s t s of  who  -  50  -  f i f t e e n quatrains, with no dialogue or r e f r a i n .  Diego r e s t r i c t s  himself t o considering one death, o m i t t i n g any i n t r u s i o n of the 'Yo', any general comments on death or complaints against death. Keeping a strong check on h i s emotions, he simply t e l l s the s t o r y of the l i f e and death of a great b u l l f i g h t e r . Rafael A l b e r t i has also w r i t t e n an elegy t o Ignacio Sanchez Mejias. 'ELEGIA — A Ignacio Sanchez Mejias' dated e x a c t l y one year a f t e r h i s death and w r i t t e n , a l l e g e d l y , i n the b u l l r i n g i n Mexico City.  I t i s a long and d i f f i c u l t poem made up of four sonnets,  each followed by a parenthesis i n i t a l i c s and t h i s , i n t u r n , followed by about twenty l i n e s of i r r e g u l a r verse.  I t i s a poem  concerned completely w i t h atmosphere and p h i l o s o p h i c a l musings, without any lamentations about death or any expression of sorrow on the part of the author. The poem begins w i t h an explanation that the b u l l s bred to f i g h t a l s o have t o d i e .  I t i s t h e i r job t o t r y and k i l l a man,  a un t o r e r o de espuma, s a l y arena, ya que intentas h e r i r , dale l a muerte. A l b e r t i gives a sober, reasoned account of b u l l f i g h t i n g w i t h death as the l o g i c a l , i n e v i t a b l e end. Wo doubt the passing of a year and the p u b l i c a t i o n of Lorca's poem are major reasons why personal g r i e f seems t o be l a c k i n g i n t h i s poem.  For the b u l l f i g h t e r ,  as f o r the b u l l , death i s i n e v i t a b l e and he may w e l l meet h i s end i n the r i n g , and should be prepared f o r i t :  -51-  Me va a coger l a muerte en z a p a t i l l a s , a s i , con medias rosas y z a p a t i l l a s negras me va a matar ^ l a muerte. When death does s t r i k e time stops f o r the i n d i v i d u a l  concerned,  No hay r e l o j no hay ya tiempo, no e x i s t e ya r e l o j que quiera darme tiempo a s a l i r de l a muerte. but there i s no attempt t o give an i d e n t i t y t o the dead man.  This  poem explores the two major r o l e s played i n the b u l l r i n g , those of the b u l l and the matador, but keeps e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the realms of A l b e r t i ' s imagination, mentioning Ignacio but t w i c e .  The e l e g i e s of  Diego and Alberti'-.-laek dramatic impact and treat' t h e i r subject coldly;* 1  for these reasons they leave l i t t l e impression on the reader. This b r i e f survey of the Spanish Elegy and the h i s t o r y of i t s t r a d i t i o n shows the development of the elegy w i t h two twentieth-century examples, both dedicated t o matadors k i l l e d i n the r i n g .  Both the poems are notable f o r t h e i r c o o l a t t i t u d e s  towards death, i n d i s t i n c t contrast t o the passionate complaints of a l l previous e l e g i e s , w i t h the p o s s i b l e exception of Manrique's Coplas.  I t i s now time t o see where Lorca's " L l a n t o " stands i n  that t r a d i t i o n .  - 52 -  FOOTNOTES Chapter IV Jules Horrent. Roncesvalles. Societe d'editions 'Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s ' , P a r i s , 1951. Vv. 3^-6. Angel d e l R i o . A n t o l o g i a de l a L i t e r a t u r a Espanola. Rinehart, Winston, New York, i960. Tomo I . p.  Holt, 15.  Juan Ruiz. L i b r o de Buen Amor.. Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, T i t l e to strophe 1520. .  Op.  C i t . 1520  abed.  .  Op.  C i t . 1575  ab..  1958.  Ferrant-Sanchez Calavera. "Dezir de l a s vanidades d e l mundo." Cancionero de Baena, numero. 530. Quoted in. A. M i l l a r e s Carlo. L i t e r a t u r a Espanola hasta .fines d e l s i g l o xv. Robredo, Mexico, 1950 p. 188. Op. C i t . p. 3^.  '  Jorge Manrique. Coplas por l a muerte de su padre. Oxford, 1919. p. 6. .  Blackwell,  Op. C i t . p. -3h. Op. C i t . p. 52.  .  Fernando de Rojas. La Celestina.. Edicion c r i t i c a por M. Criado de V a l y G. D. T r o t t e r . Clasicos Hispanicos, Madrid, 1958. p. 295. .  Op. C i t . p. 298.  Jose Z o r r i l l a . "A l a memoria desgraciada d e l joven l i t e r a t o don Mariano Jose de L a r r a " . Quoted i n Fernando DiazP l a j a . • A n t o l o g i a d e l Romanticismo Espanol. EspasaCalpe, Madrid, 1957. p. 15^Loc. C i t . Loc. C i t . Gerardo Diego. Primera Antologia. Espasa-Calpe , Buenos A i r e s , Cuarta e d i c i o n , 19^7p. 151-  - 53 -  17.  Gerardo Diego.  18. 19. 20.  •  Op. C i t . p.  .  Op. C i t . p. 153.  "  Loc. C i t .  Rafael A l b e r t i .  Aritdlogia Poetica.  A i r e s , 1958. 21. 22.  152.  '  p. lU6.  Op. C i t . p.  1U7.  . Op. C i t . p.  1U9.  E d i t o r i a l Losada, Buenos  - 5U -  The  'Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias' as an Elegy  Lorca's debt to the past i s evident, f i r s t of a l l , i n the t i t l e of the poem.  In choosing to c a l l i t "Llanto..."  he was continuing a t r a d i t i o n that, began i n the eleventh century with the word ^ p l a n c t u s ' .  By the time of the A r c i p r e s t e de H i t a  p h i l o l o g i c a l development had changed the word to "planto" which then l a t e r developed.into the form as used by Lorca.  The  fact  that he chose not to c a l l t h i s poem " E l e g i a " or "Lamento" i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l Lorca's consciousness "of a l l the various elements that he fused together i n h i s poetry.  He once explained to Gerardo  Diego: Si esCverdad que soy poeta por l a g r a c i a de Dios - o d e l domonio - , tambien l o es que l o soy por l a g r a c i a de l a t e c n i c a y d e l esfuerzo, y de darme cuenta en absoluto de l o que es un poema.l When considering Lorca's.poem as one of a long l i n e of elegies i t i s wise to keep w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the  planctus  and poems w r i t t e n i n Spanish; f o r i t i s from these that he drew most, i f not a l l , of h i s knowledge of such poems.  C a l v i n Cannon  2  i n h i s study of Lorca's 'Llanto'  and the elegiac t r a d i t i o n  mentions the c l a s s i c s and then concerns himself e n t i r e l y with elegies w r i t t e n i n English.His second paragraph begins,  The  - 55 -  debt of Lorca's elegy t o the t r a d i t i o n i s considerable. Of the seventeen or so devices-commonly used from Theocritus t o Arnold, t e n appear i n the 'Llanto':. Announcement of death of person to. be mourned, Expression of g r i e f and b i t t e r resentment against c r u e l t y of death, E x a l t a t i o n of dead man, Eulogy of l i f e of dead man, Account o f how and/when he d i e d , Funeral w i t h mourners, Use of f l o w e r s , Use of r e f r a i n , Use of dramatic frame, u t i l i z i n g dialogue, Conclusion on note of c o n s o l a t i o n , t r a n q u i l l i t y , or even r e j o i c i n g . The i m p l i c a t i o n i n h i s a r t i c l e i s that Lorca used as h i s d i r e c t sources the t r a d i t i o n as explained by Cannon.  I n omitting  to study any other Spanish elegy, Cannon has, apparently, f a i l e d to see that Spanish elegies too always contain some o f these t e n devices. - I t would be more.correct, t h e r e f o r e , t o say that Lorca drew from the European t r a d i t i o n i n d i r e c t l y by making use of h i s knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n i n Spanish elegiac poetry. The  'Llanto' coincides with the form o f the "planctus" i n  so f a r as i t dwells upon the p a r t i c u l a r death of a famous man of some standing.  I t r e c a l l s h i s f i n e q u a l i t i e s and exceptional  accomplishments.and points out the l o s s suffered by mankind on the death of t h i s great man.  An exprssion of personal g r i e f i s  f i r s t found in-the elegy i n epic poetry.  There, as i n the L i b r o  de Buen Amor and i n La C e l e s t i n a i t i s a g r i e f suffered by one of the protagonists.  The A r c i p r e s t e was the f i r s t author t o express  n  -  56  -  his own g r i e f , though he, t o o , also appears as a protagonist. Before the Romantics the author tended t o keep h i s own f e e l i n g s out of h i s work.  With the Romantics personal f e e l i n g s enter t o  such an extent that the elegy seems t o c o n s i s t of s e l f - p i t y and l i t t l e else.  R e l i g i o u s a t t i t u d e s towards death are very r a r e i n  e l e g i e s , Manrique's Goplas being the outstanding exception.  He  b u i l d s h i s long poem on a C h r i s t i a n framework and, f o r the f i r s t timej introduces the idea o f . i m m o r t a l i t y . For t h i s reason Manrique's work i s very d i f f e r e n t from the laments o f a l l the other w r i t e r s . He accepts death calmly, almost j o y f u l l y , e x t o l l i n g an exemplary l i f e and ending on a strong note of c o n s o l a t i o n . Both the l y r i c poets of the f i f t e e n t h century and the Romantics discuss the p h y s i c a l decay of a corpse, which i s unpleasant i n i t s e l f but more so because i t i s a sad, but u n i v e r s a l , end f o r a great man. In respect of technique and use of form and v e r s i f i c a t i o n there i s no set p a t t e r n used i n the elegy down the c e n t u r i e s . There i s no attempt t o c o r r e l a t e form and emotion i n the s t r i c t l y regular verse schemes of Manrique, the A r c i p r e s t e and Diego, whereas Lorca, as we have seen, paid great a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s aspect o f h i s work. I t can be r e a d i l y seen how Lorca incorporated h i s own deep f e e l i n g s i n t o a complaint against the absurd negativism of death while at the same time w r i t i n g a t r a d i t i o n a l elegy.  This  i s very much a personal poem that keeps i n mind the death of Ignacio a l l the time, r a r e l y d i s c u s s i n g death as a u n i v e r s a l f a c t  -  57  -  without making reference t o Ignacio. and describes how i t happened.  He announces the death  He then begins h i s complaint  which i s d i r e c t e d at Ignacio's blood alone.  He r e c a l l s Ignacio  and h i s gentle d i s p o s i t i o n fused w i t h great courage, copying exactly Manrique's s e r i e s of l i n e s beginning w i t h "Que.*" Que amigo de sus amigos.' que senor para criados Que seso para d i s c r e t o s ! que g r a c i a para donosos.^ The p h y s i c a l decay of the body i s captured i n a very s t r i k i n g image: Ya l o s musgos y l a h i e r b a abren con dedos seguros l a f l o r de su c a l a v e r a . Although God i s never mentioned and t h i s could never be described as a C h r i s t i a n poem, the p a r a l l e l of C h r i s t and Ignacio i s observable.  I t i s both an exaggeration of the standing of  Ignacio and an i m p l i c i t hope f o r immortality. There i s no p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n about death nor i s there a general complaint against the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of death.  Lorca's f r i e n d i s  dead, having died b r a v e l y , No se cerraron sus ojos cuando v i o l o s cuernos cerca. and the author i s seeking t o p r a i s e , and i f p o s s i b l e t o perpetuate, the memory of Ignacio, at the same time o f f e r i n g some k i n d of consolation.  He draws f r e e l y from a l l previous stages i n the  development of the elegy t o provide some of the m a t e r i a l f o r h i s poem.  -  58  -  There remains much that has not been derived from previous authors.  The most obvious sections that are purely Lorca's c r e a t i o n  are those which have a r e l a t i o n w i t h the f a c t s concerning Ignacio's life.  Outstanding i n t h i s category i s the opening l i n e of the  poem, very probably taken from a newspaper.  The f a c t s surrounding  Ignacio's death; the f a t a l wound i n the t h i g h , the gangrene and the fever all.: appear i n the poem.  From Lorca's personal r e c o l l e c t i o n  come the references to conch s h e l l s i n autumn.  The reference t o  the breeze through the o l i v e t r e e s comes from Lorca's knowledge of a r e c o l l e c t i o n of Ignacio's. •  .  ._. '  '-._ , . ' .. .  The h i s t o r y and the t r a d i t i o n are the bedrock upon which the " L l a n t o " i s b u i l t , but the superstructure, the most s t r i k i n g part of the whole, i s created by Lorca's p o e t i c powers.  He  uses short l i n e s i n i r r e g u l a r patterns to mirror h i s anguish, r e t u r n i n g to a more regular set of stanzas f o r h i s q u i e t , contemplat i v e moods.  When something of supreme importance i s s a i d i t has  a l i n e to i t s e l f . Images of great v a r i e t y and many colours catch the readers' eyes.  Some of the s u r r e a l i s m of Poeta eh Wueva York i s s t i l l i n  evidence but the t o t a l l y incomprehensible images are very few. Lorca shows h i s great s k i l l i n h i s use of metaphor.  His metaphors  are unusual i n that they are not simply an adornment but they also have a s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r own w i t h i n the context of the n a r r a t i v e .  - 59 -  The blood, n i g h t i n g a l e of h i s v e i n s , that sings i n the earth i s simple and s t r i k i n g .  More d i f f i c u l t i s the metaphor of the f u l l  moon as a b u l l r i n g and the crescent moon as the horns of a young, motionless b u l l .  The u n r a v e l l i n g of. the complexities o f  such l i n e s shows how Lorca was able t o compress i n t o a few words i n t r i c a t e concepts and images.  Seemingly i n s i g n i f i c a n t  touches  l i k e the reference t o a handkerchief t o cover the face and t o the "madres t e r r i b l e s " show the conscious..attempts of Lorca t o i n s t i l a wealth of meaning i n t o each l i n e .  This concentration of  meaning and emotion helps the reader t o understand and sympathize w i t h the f e e l i n g s of f r i e n d s h i p that caused t h i s poem t o be w r i t t e n , and i s a key f a c t o r i n i t s success.  The s t o r y i s t o l d  using" t r a d i t i o n a l elements but i t i s the verse o f Lorca that makes t h i s a great poem.  He pours out h i s soul i n an attempt t o console  himself and laments h i s f r i e n d s ' s m o r t a l i t y .  A r a y of hope i s  seen i n the l i n e , Wo t e conoce nadie.  No.  Pero yo t e canto.  Because Lorca was moved t o w r i t e t h i s poem he has succeeded i n p r o v i d i n g an immortal memory and epitaph f o r Ignacio  Sanchez  Mejias., A good b u l l f i g h t e r i s remembered as a great man i n , as Cossio points out  versos que han de. perpetuar su memoria mas que sus fugaces hazanas t a u r i n a s . 3 And, as Manrique says, the memory of him i s "harto consuelo".  - 60 -  FOOTNOTES Chapter V 1.  Gerardo Diego.  Poesia  Espanola Contemporanea.  Signo, Madrid,  1932. p. U23. 2.  C a l v i n Cannon.  "Lorca's 'Llanto ...' and the Elegiac Tradtion".  Hispanic Review, V o l x x x i , I963. Pp. 229-238. 3.  Jose Maria de Cossio. Los Toros:  Tratado Tecnico e H i s t o r i c o .  Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, 19^5, Tomo i i i P. 879. k.  Jorge Manrique. Cdplas por l a muerte de su padre. Oxford, 1919. P- 7^.  Blackwell,  - 61 BIBLIOGRAPHY A g u i r r e , J.A. Antologia de l a poesia espanola contemporanea (1900-36). Segunda e d i c i o n , corregida y aumentada, Clasicos Ebro, Zaragoza, 1966. A l b e r t i , Rafael.  1958.  Antologia P o e t i c a .  E d i t o r i a l Losada, Buenos A i r e s ,  A l l e n , Rupert. "Una e x p l i c a c i o n simbologica de l a I g l e s i a Abandonada". H i s p a n o f i l a , enero 1966. 1  Alonso, Damaso.  Poetas Espanoles.'Coritemporaneos.  Gredos, Madrid, 1952. •  Anderson, Imbert Enrique. "La Muerte de Garcia Lorca". A i r e s , num. 230, pp. 97-98. A u c l a i r , M a r c e l l e . Enfarices et. Mort de Garcia Lorca. S e u i l , P a r i s , 1968. Babin, Maria Teresa. Garcia Lorca. York, 1955.  Vida y Obra.  Sur, Buenos E d i t i o n s de  Las Americas, New-  E l Mundo Poetico de- Federico Garcia Lorca. U n i v e r s i t y Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , 1951.  Columbia  "Narciso y l a e s t e r i l i d a d en l a obra de Garcia  Lorca". R.H.M. X I , I9U5. •  . " E l Hombre y e l mundo s o c i a l en l a obra de Federico Garcia Lorca".  La Nueva Democracia XXXV i i i , pp. 18-22.  Balbontin, Jose Antonio. Three Spanish Poets: R o s a l i a Castro, Federico Garcia Lorca, Antonio Machaco. A l v i n Redman, London, 1961. B a r d i , U b a l d i . "La Fortuna d i Federico Garcia Lorca i n I t a l i a " . R.L.C. XXXIII. pp. 1+22-25. Barea, Arturo. Lorca: The Poet and His People. London, 19^.  Faber & Faber,  . "Las Raices d e l lenguaje poetico de Garcia Lorca". B.S.S. XXII. I9I+5. B a r t r a , A g u s t i . "Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca, Miguel Hernandez, temas de v i d a y muerte". C A . Ano XXI, c x x i v . Belamich, Andre.  Lorca.  E d i t i o n s Gallimard, P a r i s , 1962.  - 62 -  Belamich, Andre. P. I .  "Cartas i n e d i t a s de Garcia Lorca".  I n s u l a XV c l x i i  Berenguer Carisomo, Arturo. Las Mascaras de Federico Garcia Lorca. T a l l e r e s Graf icos , Buenos-Aires , 19^-1. Blanquat, J o s e t t e . "La Lune Manicheene dans l a Mythologie du Romancero Gitano".^R.L.C. XXXVIII pp. 376-399.  "Mithra et La Rome Andalouse".  R.L.C. XXXVII pp.  337-3U9. Bluefarb, Sam. " L i f e and Death i n Garcia Lorca's House of Bernarda Alba".. Drama Survey (Minneapolis) IV pp. 109-20. Boneschi, Francesco. "La Poesia d i Federico Garcia Lorca". N u o v a . V i , pp. 52-59.  Poesia  Bosch, R a f a e l . " E l Choque de imagenes como p r i n c i p i o creador de Garcia Lorca". R.H.M. XXX, 196k. pp. 35-^. . . "Los Poemas P a r a l e l i s t i c o s de Garcia Lorca".  x x v i i i , i960, pp. 36-hk. Bousono, Carlos. Bowra, C e c i l M.  ^~  Teoria de la. Expresion P o e t i c a . The Creative Experiment.  R.H.M.  Gredos, Madrid, 1952.  MacMillan & Co., London, 19^9-  Brenan, Gerald. The Face of Spain. Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1958. Campbell, Roy. Lorca: An Appreciation of h i s Poetry. Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, New Haven, 1952. Cannon, C a l v i n . "Lorca's 'Llanto...' and the Elegiac T r a d i t i o n " . Hispanic Review, XXXI, 1963• Cano, Jose  L u i s . Garcia Lorca. B i o g r a f i a I l u s t r a d a . . Ediciones Destino, Barcelona, 1962.  '  "Ultimos meses de Federico Garcia Lorca".  Asomanfrp  XVIII i , pp. 88-93. '  . "Garcia Lorca y La Residencia de Estudiantes". R.N.C. XXIV c x l v i i i , pp. 116-25.  _.  "1921-27 en l a v i d a de Federico Garcia Lorca".- C.A.  Ano XXI c x x i i i , pp. 201-13. C a r a v i g g i , Giovanni. " I I 'Llanto por Ignacio Sanchez Mejias' d i Garcia Lorca". R.L-.M.C. XV, 1962, pp. 116-1^5.  - 63 -  Carreter, Fernando Lazaro. "Juan Ramon Jimenez, Antonio Machado, Federico Garcia Lorca". v I n s u l a X I I c x x v i i i - c x x i x , pp. ,1, 5, 21. C a r r i e r , Warren.  "Meaning i n the poetry o f Lorca".  1950, p. 159.'  Accent. V o l . I I ,  Cernuda, L u i s . Estudios sobre Poesia Espanola Contemporanea. Guadarrama, Madrid, 1957.  Ediciones  C i r r e , Jose Francisco. Forma y E s p i r i t u de una l i r i c a Espanola. G r a f i c a Panamericana, 1950. Lorca".  Mexico,  " E l Caballo y e l Toro en l a Poesia de Garcia C A . XLVI. 1952.  . . "Algunos aspectos del 'jardin cerrado' en l o s cancioneros de Federico Garcia Lorca". C A . XXIII c x x x i i ,  pp. 206-17.  Correa, Gustavo. La Poesia M i t i c a de Federico Garcia Lorca. of Oregon Press, Eugene, 1958.  University  . " E l Simbolismo d e l Sol en l a Poesia de Federico Garcia Lorca".-N.R.F.H. XIV, i960, pp 110-119. . " E l Simbolismo r e l i g i o s o en l a Poesia de Federico Garcia Lorca". ^ Hi span i a XXXIX, 1956 pp. i+1-8. . " E l Simbolismo de l a Luna en Garcia Lorca". P.M.L.A., XXII, 1957, pp. 1060-1081+. Cossio, Jose Maria de. Los'Tor.os: Calpe, Madrid, I9I+5.  Tratado Tecnico. e H i s t o r i c o .  Couffon, Claude. A Grenade, sur l e s pas de Garcia Lorca. Seghers, Deuxieme e d i t i o n , P a r i s , 1969.  Espasa-  Editions  Crow, James A. Federico Garcia Lorca. U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a Los Angeles Press, Los Angeles, 19^5C u r t i u s , Ernst Robert. European L i t e r a t u r e and the L a t i n Middle Ages. t r a n s , by W i l l i a m R. Trask. Routledge &Kegan P a u l , London,  1953.  De La Guar d i a , A l f r e d o . A i r e s , 19kl.  Garcia Lorca-Persona y .Creadon.  Sur, Buenos  - 6k -  D e l p i e r r e s , J . Chant funebre pour F.G.. Lorca. 195k.  E d i t i o n s Welle, P a r i s ,  Devoto, D a n i e l . "Notas sobre e l ELemento T r a d i c i o n a l en l a obra de Garcia Lorca". F i l o l o g i a . I I , 1950. D i a z - P l a j a , Fernando. Antologia del Romanticismo .Espanol. Calpe, Madrid, 1957. D i a z - P l a j a , Guillermo. Federico Garcia Lorca. Buenos A i r e s , 19^-8.  Espasa-  Estudio C r i t i c o .  H i s t o r i a de l a Poesia L i r i c a Espanola.  Kraft, Ediciones  Labor, Barcelona, 19^-8. .  . Federico Garcia Lorca. l a Poesia Espanola. .  Su Obra e I n f l u e n c i a en  Espasa-Calpe, Buenos A i r e s , 195^-  E l Teatro.  Noguer, Barcelona, 1958.  . H i s t o r i a General de l a s L i t e r a t u r a s Hispanicas. V o l . V. Romanticismo y Modernising. Ediciones Barna, Barcelona,  1956.  Diego, Gerardo. Poesia Espanola. Contemporanea. Madrid, 193k. '  . Primera .Antologia.  Ediciones Taurus,  Espasa-Calpe , Buenos A i r e s , Cuarta  e d i c i o n 19^-7. Doreste, V. "Lorca, r e d i v i v o " .  I n s u l a XVII e x c i , p. 3. •  Duran, Manuel. (Ed.) Lorca. A C o l l e c t i o n of C r i t i c a l Essays. H a l l , New Jersey, I962. .  "Garcia Lorca, poeta entre dos mundos".  Prentice-  Asomante XVIII  i , pp. 70-77. E i c h , Christoph. Federico Garcia Lorca. Madrid, 1958.  Poeta.de l a Intensidad.  Gredos,  Flecniakoska, Jean J u i s , L'Univers poetique de Federico Garcia Lorca. E d i t i o n s Biere., Bordeaux, 1952. F l y s , Joroslaw. E l Lenguaje Poetico de Federico GarcaaLorca. Madrid, 1955F o l k l o r e , y Costumbres  1931.  Gredos,  de Espana, E d i t o r i a l Alberto M a r t i n , Barcelona,  - 65 -  Giovate, B. "Serenidad y . c o n f l i c t o en l a poesia de Federico Garcia Lorca. Asomante XVIII i , pp. 7-13. Gomez, Lance.  "Muerte y v i d a en e l drama de Federico Garcia Lorca".  Hispania X L I I I pp. 376-7;.'.  Gonzalez, Jose. V i d a , Obra y Muerte de Federico Garcia Lorca. Santiago.de C h i l e , 1938.  Ercilla,  Gonzalez, Guzman Pascual. "Federico en Almeria: Nuevos datos para l a b i o g r a f i a de Garcia Lorca". SP.S.A. XXXV pp. 203-220. Gonzalez-Muela, J . E l Lenguaje Poetico de. l a Generacion G u i l l e n - L o r c a . I n s u l a , Madrid, 195*1. G u i l l e n Jorge.  Language and Poetry.  1961.  Gullon, Ricardo.  Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cambridge,  "Motivos en l a Poesia de Lorca".  3, 8, 11.  Honig, Edwin.  Garcia Lorca.  Horrent, J u l e s . Roncesvalles. P a r i a , 1951.  /Insula, c i i i , pp 1,  New D i r e c t i o n s , New York, 1963. Societe d'editions 'Les B e l l e s L e t t r e s , '  Laffranque, Marie. Les Idees Esthetiques de. Federico Garcia Lorca. Centre de Recherches Hispaniques, P a r i s , 1967. .  "Essai de chronologie de Federico Garcia Lorca".  ^ J L LIX, 1957, pp. U18-U29. Leighton, Charles H.  "Time and Space i n 'Romancero Gitano'".  X L I I I pp. 378-383.  Lopez-Morillas, Juan. Intelect.uales y E s p i r i t u a l e s . Madrid, I961. Manrique, Jorge.  1919.  Coplas por la.muerte de su padre.  Hispania  Revista de Occidente, B l a c k w e l l , Oxford,  M a s i n i , F e r r u c i o . Federico Garcia Lorca e. La Barraca.. C a p p e l l i , Bologna,  1966.  M i l l a r e s C a r l o , Antonio. L i t e r a t u r a Espanola hasta f i n e s d e l s i g l o xv. Robredo, Mexico, 1950.  - 66 -  Mora Guarnido, Jose. Federico Garcia Lorca y su murido. Buenos A i r e s , 1958.  Losada,  Morla Lynch, Carlos. En Espana con Federico -Garcia Lorca: Eaginas de un d i a r i o ihtimo (1928-1936). A g u i l a r , Madrid, 1957Ory, Carlos Edmundo de. Lorca.  E d i t i o n s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , P a r i s , 1967-  P a r r o t , Loui s . Federico Garcia Lorca. P h i l l i p s , ¥. A l l e n .  pp. 36-U8.  Ramos-Gil, Carlos.  1967.  E d i t i o n s Seghers , P a r i s , 19^-9 •  "Sohre l a p o e t i c a de Garcia Lorca". . R.H.M. XXIV  Claves L i r i c a s de Garcia Lorca.  A g u i l a r , Madrid,  Rio Angel d e l . Antologia General de l a L i t e r a t u r a Espanola. Rinehart, Winston, New York, i960. T o m o l . .  Vida y Obra de Federico. Garcia .Lorca.  Holt,  Imprenta Heraldo  de Aragon, Zaragoza, 1952. Rojas, Fernando de. La C e l e s t i n a . E d i c i o n c r i t i c a por M. Criado de Val y G.D. T r o t t e r . C l a s i c o s Hispanicos, Madrid, 1958. R u i z , Juan.  L i b r o de Buen Amor.  S a l i n a s , Pedro.  1958.  '  Espasa--Calpe, Madrid, 1958.  Ensayos de L i t e r a t u r a Hispanica..  A g u i l a r , Madrid,  . R e a l i t y .and the Poet, i n Spanish Poetry.  John Hopkins  Press, Baltimore, 19UO. Scarpa, Roque Esteban. Poetas Espanoles contemporaneos. Zag, Santiago de C h i l e , 1953. '  Editorial Zig-  . E l Dramatismo en l a Poesia. de Garcia Lorca. Imprenta U n i v e r s i t a r i a , Santiago de C h i l e , 1961.  Schonberg, Jean-Louis. Federico Garcia Lorca. P l o n , P a r i s , 1956.  L'Homme-- L'Oeuvre.  Schwartz, Kessel.  Hispania XLII pp. 50-55-  "Garcia Lorca and Vermont".  Serrano Poncela, Segundo.  "Lorca y l o s Unicornios".  Taylor, L e t i c i a s , . " F e d e r i c o Garcia Lorca".  I n s u l a , CCXXI, p. 3-  Hispania, XXXIII. pp. 33-36.  - 67 -  Urena, Pedro Enriquez. La -Versif icaciori espanola i r r e g u l a r . - Gredos, Madrid, 1933. Vazquez Ocana, Fernando. G a r c i a Lorca./ V i d a , canticd y muerte. E d i t o r i a l G r i j a l b o , Mexico, 1957. Wardropper, Bruce. "The Modern Spanish Elegy: Antonio Machado's lament f o r Federico Garcia Lorca". -Symposium XIX, 1965»  pp. 162-170.-  "T  X i r a u , Ramon. "La r e l a c i o n metal-muerte en l o s poemas de Federico Garcia Lorca". - N.R.F.H., j u l i o - d i c i e m b r e 1957? PP>  36U-372.  1  r  Yahni, Roberto. "Funcion d e l parentesis en l a l i r i c a de Federico Garcia Lorca".• B.H. LXVI pp. 106-2U. Young, Howard T. The V i c t o r i o u s Expression. Press, Madison, I96U. Zardoya, Concha.  U n i v e r s i t y o f Wisconsin  "La Tecnica metaforica de Federico Garcia Lorca".  R.H.M., Ano XX, numero h, octubre 195b, pp. 295-326.  LLANTO POR IGNACIO SANCHEZ MEJIAS 1.  La cogida y l a muerte  A l a s cinco de l a tarde. Eran l a s cinco en punto de l a tarde. Un nifio t r a j o l a "blanca sabana a l a s cinco de. l a tarde. Una espuerta de c a l ya prevenida a l a s ciricb de l a tarde.. Lo demas era muerte y solo muerte a l a s cinco de l a tarde. E l vient.o se. l l e v o l o s algodones a l a s cinco. de l a tarde.. Y e l oxido sembro c r i s t a l y n i q u e l a l a s cinco de l a tarde. Ya luchan l a paloma y e l leopardo a las, cinco de l a tarde. Y un muslo con un asta. desolada a l a s cinco de l a tarde. Comenzaron l o s sones de bordon a l a s ciricb de. l a tarde. Las campanas de arsenico y e l humo a l a s ciricb de l a tarde. En l a s esquinas grupos de s i l e n c i o a l a s cinco de l a tarde. *,Y e l toro solo, corazon arriba.' a l a s .cinco de tarde. Cuando e l sudor de nieve fue llegando a l a s cirico de l a t a r d e , cuando l a plaza se cubrio de yodo a l a s cinco de l a t a r d e , l a muerte puso huevos en l a herida a l a s cinco de.la tarde. A l a s cinco de l a tarde. A l a s ciricb en punto de '.la tarde. Un ataud con ruedas es. l a cama a l a s cinco de l a t a r d e . Huesos. y f l a u t a s s.uenan en su oido a l a s cirico de l a tarde. E l toro ya mugia por su frente a l a s cinco de l a t a r d e . E l cuarto se i r i s a b a de agonia a l a s ciricb de l a tarde.  - 69 -  A l o l e j o s ya viene l a gangrena a l a s cinco de l a tarde. Trompa de l i r i o por las.verdes i n g l e s a l a s cinco de l a ;tarde. Las heridas quemaban como soles a l a s cinco de l a t a r d e , y . e l gentio rompia l a s ventanas a l a s cinco de l a tarde. A l a s cinco de l a tarde. ?Ay,- que t e r r i b l e s cinco de l a tarde.' jEran l a s cinco en todos l o s r e l o j e s ! ;Eran l a s cinco en s.sombra de l a t a r d e !  -  2.  TO  -  La sangre derramada  ; Que no quiero verla.' D i l e a l a luna que venga, que no quiero ver l a sangre de Ignacio sobre l a arena. •,Que no quiero verla.' La luna de Caballo de y l a plaza con sauces  par. en par. nubes q u i e t a s , g r i s d e l suefio en l a s barreras.  •Que no quiero v e r l a ! f  Que mi recuerdo se quema. ;Avisad a l o s jazmines con su blancura pequena! ;Que no quiero v e r l a ! La vaca d e l v i e j o mundo pasaba su t r i s t e lengua sobre un hocico de sangres derramadas en l a arena, y l o s toros de Guisando, c a s i muerte y c a s i p i e d r a , mugieron como dos s i g l o s hartos de p i s a r l a t i e r r a . No. •,Que no quiero v e r l a ! ' Por l a s gradas sube Ignacio con toda su muerte a cuestas. Buscaba e l amanecer, y e l amanecer no era. Busca su p e r f i l seguro, y e l sueno l o desorienta. Buscaba su hermoso cuerpo y encontro su sangre a b i e r t a . •Wo me d i g a i s que l a vea! No quiero s e n t i r e l chorro cada vez con menos f u e r z a ; ese chorro que ilumina t  - 71 -  l o s tendidos y s e v u e l c a sobre l a pana y e l cuero de muchedumbre sedienta. •,Quien me g r i t a que me asome! ;No me d i g a i s que l a v e a l . No se cerraron sus ojos cuando v i o l o s cuernos cerca, pero l a s madres t e r r i b l e s levantaron l a cabeza. Y a traves de l a s ganaderias, hubo un a i r e de voces secretas que gritaban a toros c e l e s t e s , mayorales de p a l i d a niebla."'. No.hubo p r i n c i p e en S e v i l l a que compararsele pueda, n i espada como su espada n i corazon t a n de veras. Como un r i o de leones su m a r a v i l l o s a f u e r z a , y como un torso de marmol su dibujada prudencia. • A i r e de Roma andaluza l e doraba l a cabeza donde su r i s a era un nardo de s a l y de i n t e l i g e n c i a . • ;Que gran t o r e r o en l a p l a z a ! ;Que buen serrano en l a sierra.' •,Que blando con l a s espigas! •Que duro con l a s espuelas! ;Que t i e r n o con e l r o c i o ! •,Que deslumbrante en l a f e r i a ! • ;Que tremendo con l a s ultimas b a n d e r i l l a s de t i n i e b l a ! t  ;;  Pero ya duerme s i n f i n . Ya l o s musgos y l a hierba abren con dedos seguros l a f l o r de su calavera. Y su sangre ya viene cantando: cantando por marismas y praderas, resbalando por cuernos a t e r i d o s , vacilando s i n alma por l a n i e b l a , tropezando con miles de pezufias como una l a r g a , oscura, t r i s t e lengua, para formar un charco de agonia junto a l Guadalquivir de l a s e s t r e l l a s .  - 72 -  JOh bianco muro de Espana.' Oh negro toro de pena.' •,0h sangre dura de Ignacio.' ^Oh ruisenor de sus.venas!. No. ;Que no qui ero verla.' Que no hay c a l i z que l a contenga, que no hay golondrinas que se l a beban, no hay escarcha de l u z que l a e n f r i e , no hay canto n i d i l u v i o de azucenas, no hay c r i s t a l que l a cubra de p l a t a . No. ; ;Yo no quiero verla.'.',  - 73 -  3.  Cuerpo presente  La p i e d r a es una f r e n t e donde l o s suenos gimen s i n tener agua curva n i cipreses helados. La p i e d r a es una espalda para l l e v a r a l tiempo con arboles de lagrimas y c i n t a s y planetas. Yo he v i s t o l l u v i a s g r i s e s c o r r e r hacia l a s olas levantando sus t i e r n o s hrazos a c r i b i l l a d o s , para no ser cazadas por l a p i e d r a tendida que desata sus miembros s i n empapar l a sangre. Porque l a p i e d r a coge simientes y nublados, esqueletos de alondras y lohos de penumbra; pero no da sonidos, n i c r i s t a l e s , n i fuego, sino plazas y plazas y otras plazas s i n muros. Ya esta sobre la. p i e d r a Ignacio e l bien nacido. Ya se. acabo; £que pasa? Contemplad su f i g u r a : l a muerte l e ha cubierto de p a l i d o s azufres y l e ha puesto cabeza de oscuro minotauro. Ya se acabo. La l l u v i a penetra por su boca. E l a i r e como l o c o deja su pecho hundido, y e l Amor, empapado con' ,lagrimas de nieve, se c a l i e n t a en l a cumbre de l a s ganaderias. v  iQue dieen? Un s i l e n c i o con hedores reposa. Estamos con un cuerpo presente que se esfuma, con una forma c l a r a que tuvo ruisenores y l a vemos l l e n a r s e de agujeros s i n fondo. iQuien arruga e l sudario? ;Wo es verdad l o que dice.' Aqui no canta nadie, n i l l o r a en e l r i n c o n , n i p i c a las. espuelas, n i espanta l a serpiente: aqui no quiero mas que l o s ojos redondos para ver ese cuerpo s i n p o s i b l e descanso. Yo quiero ver aqui l o s hombres de voz dura. Los que doman caballos. y dominan l o s r i o s : l o s hombres que l e s suena e l esqueleto y cantan con una boca l l e n a de s o l y pedernales.  - lb -  Aqui quiero yo v e r l o s . Delante Delante de este cuerpo con l a s Yo quiero que me ensenen donde para este capitan atado por l a  de. l a p i e d r a . riendas quebradas. esta l a s a l i d a muerte.  Yo quiero que me ensenen un l l a n t o como un r i o que tenga dulces n i e b l a s y profundas o r i l l a s , para l l e v a r e l cuerpo de Ignacio y que se pierda s i n escuchar e l doble r e s u e l l o de l o s t o r o s . Que se pierda en l a p l a z a redonda de l a luna que finge. cuando nina d o l i e n t e res i n m o v i l ; que se pierda en l a noche s i n canto de l o s peces y en l a maleza hlanca d e l humo congelado. No quiero que l e tapen l a cara con pafiuelos para que se acostumbre con l a muerte que l l e v a . Vete, Ignacio: No sientas e l c a l i e n t e bramido. Duerme, v u e l a , reposa: jTambien se muere e l mar!  -  k.  75  -  Alma„, aus ent e  No t e conoce e l t o r o n i l a higuera, n i caballos n i hormigas de t u casa. No t e conoce e l nino n i l a tarde . porque t e has muerto para siempre. No t e conoce e l lomo de l a p i e d r a , n i e l raso negro donde t e destrozas. No te. conoce t u recuerdo mudo porque t e has muerto para siempre. E l ootono. vendra con c a r a c o l a s , uva de n i e b l a y montes agrupados, pero nadie querra mirar tus ojos porque t e has muerto para siempre. Porque t e has muerto para siempre, como todos l o s muertos de l a . T i e r r a , como todos l o s muertos que se olvidan en un monton de perros apagados. No Yo La Tu La  t e conoce nadie. No. Pero yo t e canto. canto para luego t u p e r f i l y t u g r a c i a . madurez insigne de t u conocimiento. apetencia de muerte y e l gusto de su "boca. t r i s t e z a que tuvo t u v a l i e n t e a l e g r i a .  Tardara mucho tiempo en nacer, s i es. que nace, un andaluz t a n c l a r o , t a n r i c o de aventura. Yo canto su elegancia con palabras que gimen y recuerdo una h r i s a t r i s t e por l o s o l i v o s .  

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