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Approaching death : the significance of Paterson book five Schuldt, Edward Philip 1971

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APPROACHING DEATH: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PATERSON BOOK FIVE by EDWARD PHILIP SCHULDT B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November, 1971 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f €A/Gl/&/ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada Date 2^ftg.. / 9 7 I - i -A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s i s b a s i c a l l y a study o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n , w i t h emphasis on Book F i v e , the f i n a l completed book o f the poem. Because W i l l i a m s i s r e p e a t e d l y concerned w i t h the U n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s i n Book F i v e , much a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to them, and the r e s t o f Book F i v e i s seen as complementary to t h i s c e n t r a l metaphor. And because t h i s metaphor i s a r e s t r i c t i o n to the e s s e n t i a l s , o r what W i l l i a m s c a l l s "by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a r e d u c t i o n to o n e , " the t h e s i s i s l a r g e l y i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s metaphor, developed and determined by the context o f the r e s t o f the poem. P r e v i o u s l y , most c r i t i c s have e i t h e r t r e a t e d Pater son V as a p o s t s c r i p t to Pa ter son I - I V , or have d i smis sed the book by s t a t i n g i n g e n e r a l terms t h a t W i l l i a m s i n Book F i v e takes Pa ter son i n t o the rea lm o f the I m a g i n a t i o n . I n e i t h e r case , a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f Book F i v e has been avo ided . T h i s t h e s i s attempts such an a n l y s i s , i n order to r e v e a l t h a t Pa ter son V i s not a p o s t s c r i p t to the r e s t o f the poem, but i t s c u l m i n a t i o n . Though Book F i v e i s i n a sense i n a d i f f e r e n t rea lm from the f i r s t four books, the t r a n s i t i o n from the rea lm o f l i f e to t h a t o f a r t i s not o n l y foreshadowed - i i -by the former books, but i s a l s o the means o f s o l u t i o n to the Pater son dilemma, s t r u g g l e d w i t h and developed i n Pater son I-IV, , but never c r y s t a l l i z e d . T h i s occurs i n Book F i v e , where the U n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s are the metaphoric "hub" o f the c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n . Though the dilemma i n v o l v e s both Pater son the man and c i t y , i t i s most ly concerned w i t h Pa ter son the poet , and h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n , the poem P a t e r s o n . Hence the dilemma i s to a l a r g e extent a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . P a t e r s o n ' s problem i s W i l l i a m s ' problem: the n e c e s s i t y o f t r a n s f o r m i n g the p o e t ' s l i f e ques t , w i t h a l l i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , i n t o a c u l m i n a t o r y work o f a r t . To t h i s bas ic problem must be added s e v e r a l c r u c i a l o b s t a c l e s . The f i r s t i s t h a t o f approaching dea th . By the end o f Book Four , Pa ter son has reached the end o f h i s l i f e course . W i l l i a m s , i n the year o f Book F o u r ' s pub-l i c a t i o n , has had s e v e r a l c r i p p l i n g s t r o k e s . In o t h e r words, W i l l i a m s ' l i f e , l i k e P a t e r s o n ' s , may soon be t e r m i n a t e d , and thus the work o f a r t may never be c r e a t e d . Secondly , W i l l i a m s ' work o f a r t must i n c l u d e the processes o f a r t and l i f e , as w e l l as t h e i r p r o d u c t s . Without p roces s , the product w i l l s tagnate , and wi thout p roduc t , the process w i l l remain a confused d e l i r i u m . I n t h i s sense, Book F i v e becomes the product o f the processes i n v o l v e d i n Pater son I - I V , the product tha t c l a r i f i e s both the p o e t ' s quest and h i s p o e t i c s , saves - i i i -both W i l l i a m s and Pater son from meaningless death , and g i v e s the poet impetus to cont inue h i s c r a f t . I n t r i n s i c t o the union o f process and product i s the union o f l i f e w i t h l i t e r a t u r e , the p o e t i c w i t h the a n t i -p o e t i c , and the D i o n y s i a n aspect o f c r e a t i o n w i t h t h a t o f the A p o l l o n i a n . I n P a t e r s o n , these t u r n out to be the " i n t e r - p e n e t r a t i n g r e a l i t i e s " t h a t the poet seeks to u n i t e throughout the poem. The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s attempts t o r e v e a l how the union does s y m b o l i c a l l y o r m e t a p h o r i c a l l y o c c u r , how the v a r i o u s d i s p a r a t e f o r c e s i n the poem become embodied i n a complex but harmonious whole , and why t h i s u n i o n , as por t rayed i n the U n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s , does succeed, where s i m i l a r e a r l i e r attempts had f a i l e d . i v -Contents I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I 22 Chapter I I 75 C o n c l u s i o n 114 Footnotes 122 B i b l i o g r a p h y 130 I n t r o d u c t i o n H i s Autobiography c l o s e s w i t h W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s s tanding on the c l i f f t h a t o v e r l o o k s the Pa s sa i c F a l l s , q u i e t l y contemplat ing the view from where M r s . Cumming o f Pater son I had f a l l e n . Accompanying him i s h i s grandson P a u l , who, a f t e r a few minutes r e f l e c t i o n , poses the seemingly innocent q u e s t i o n , "How deep i s the water? . . . I mean at the deepest place"" 1"—which i s the f i n a l sentence o f the book. The f i g u r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f P a u l T s ques t ion have a t t r a c t e d W i l l i a m s ' c r i t i c s ever s ince the comple t ion o f Pa te r son I - V , and as the s tud ie s o f Pa te r son i n c r e a s e , the water gets c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y deeper . P a r t o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n gauging the p r e c i s e depth o f the P a s s a i c — t h e p r o f u n d i t y , l i t e r a r y s k i l l , o r a r t i s t i c v i s i o n inherent i n W i l l i a m ' s Paterson—stems from the a d d i t i o n o f Book F i v e t o the preced ing four books i n 195S, a book t h a t on the s u r f a c e , g i v e n the u s u a l l y assumed development o f Pa ter son I - I V T l e ave s a gap j u s t as b a f f l i n g as the blank f o l l o w i n g P a u l ' s unanswered q u e s t i o n . As w i t h many o f what might be c a l l e d W i l l i a m s ' "gaps" , those spaces between or a f t e r words, l i n e s , o r s tanzas i n poe t ry which n o r m a l l y imply some s o r t o f l o g i c a l o r thematic t r a n s i t i o n , the space between the end o f Book Four and the beg inning o f Book F i v e presents a problem to the r e a d e r , l a r g e l y because W i l l i a m s b e l i e v e s 2 -t h a t exp lana tory or deduct ive s o l u t i o n s are the job not o f the poet but the reader , whose ta sk i s to f i l l i n any l o g i c a l o r i n t e r p r e t i v e t r a n s i t i o n s necessary f o r unders tanding the work. B lake says , "The w i s e s t o f the a n c i e n t s b e l i e v e d t h a t what i s not too e x p l i c i t i s the f i t t e s t f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , because i t rouses the f a c u l t i e s to a c t " . I n l i k e manner, W i l l i a m s says , Without d i d a c t i c a l l y t e l l i n g what hap-pened, you make t h i n g s happen on the page, and from t h a t you see what k i n d o f people they w e r e . . . y o u c a n ' t t e l l what a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s i g n i f i e d , but i f you see the t h i n g happening before you, you i n f e r t h a t t h a t i s the k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t i s happening i n the area.-j For both W i l l i a m s and B l a k e , the f u n c t i o n o f the a r t i s t i s to c r e a t e , not to e x p l a i n h i s c r e a t i o n . ^ Thi s i n f e r e n t i a l q u a l i t y o f W i l l i a m s ' p o e t i c , c a l l e d " t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor" by L i n d a Wagner, " r e l i e s on the impact o f consecut ive images, which means t h a t the reader has to make h i s own t r a n s i t i o n s " ^ . I n o ther words, the poet f u l l y e x p l o i t s the space between the words, between the l i n e s , and i n the case o f P a t e r s o n . between the books. T h i s i s a technique much used i n l a t e r t w e n t i e t h century p o e t r y , and because of i t s dependence upon the r e a d e r ' s l e v e l o f awareness, or f o r t h a t matter i n t e r e s t , i t i s much more d i f f i c u l t to appra i se than more c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . T . S . E l i o t , i n the Pre face to h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Anabase, somewhat c l a r i f i e s the nature o f - 3 -t h i s d i f f i c u l t y for the reader, and his comment i s relevant here since St. John Perse's use of images i s s t r i k i n g l y s imilar to Williams' " t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor": ...any obscurity of the poem, on f i r s t readings, i s due to the suppression of " l i n k s i n the chain", of explanatory and connecting matter, and not to incoherence, or to the love of cryptogram. The j u s t i -f i c a t i o n of such abbreviation of method i s that the sequence of images coincides and concentrates into one intense impression ...the reader has to allow the images to f a l l into his memory successively without questioning the reasonableness of each at the moment; so that, at the end, a t o t a l e f f e c t i s produced.^ The advantage of the " t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor" i s that the image, metaphor, or description i s given freedom to a t t a i n i t s f u l l e s t a s s o c i ational value, the degree of i n t e r p r e t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y being determined only by the subject's context. As Wagner says, the more di r e c t a presentation, the more i n d i r e c t i t becomes, i n that no discursive remarks i n t e r f e r e with the reader's response.y For Williams, one disadvantage of language as we con-sta n t l y use i t i s that meanings tend to be frozen, phrases become c l i c h e , and the language i t s e l f throws up a b a r r i e r between our perceptions and the world of objects. Hence, i n 1923, he c a l l e d for a revolution of the word, and i n so doing leads us to " t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor": The word i s not l i b e r a t e d , therefore able to communicate release from the f i x i t i e s which destroy i t u n t i l i t i s accurately - 4 -tuned to the f a c t which g i v i n g i t r e a l i t y , bv i t s own r e a l i t y e s t a b l i s h e s i t s own freedom from the n e c e s s i t y o f a word, thus f r e e i n g i t and dynamizing i t at the same time T h i s dynamizat ion through c o g n i t i v e freedom means t h a t the word can "be understood aga in i n an o r i g i n a l , a f r e s h , d e l i g h t f u l s e n s e . T h u s , c o n t e x t , and not p r e c o n c e p t i o n , i s the o n l y v a l i d c o n t r o l . The obvious disadvantage here i s t h a t a l e s s e r w r i t e r can camouflage h i s own shortcomings under the p r e t e x t t h a t h i s " s k i l l f u l " o b s c u r i t y w i l l imply h i s profound v i s i o n , o r , to borrow F r y e ' s phrase , t h a t t h i s a r t i s t ' s work i s " too o c c u l t f o r syntax . " ^ Such, I b e l i e v e , i s not W i l l i a m s ' case . The o ther important development o f the p o e t ' s "word-r e v o l u t i o n " i s what Wagner c a l l s " symbol i c metaphor" !^ . Where t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor p laces i t s emphasis on the spaces or gaps between d e s c r i p t i v e words, symbolic metaphor p l ace s emphasis more on the words themselves . The terms r e f e r to two ba s i c processes i n any important metaphor i n P a t e r s o n . not n e c e s s a r i l y to two d i f f e r e n t types o f metaphor. The d i f f e r e n c e here i s more o f p e r s p e c t i v e . Symbolic , metaphor r e f e r s to the Protean f l e x i -b i l i t y o f a W i l l i a m s ' metaphor, i t s a b i l i t y i n the context o f a poem to be used polysemously . I n o ther words, throughout the course o f the poem, the image o r metaphor may a c q u i r e m u l t i p l e meanings, which i n t u r n w i l l i n t e r - r e l a t e and i n t e r -deve lop . S ince the reader i s to p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the unders tanding o f the poem, the symbol ic metaphor must be 5 capable o f c a r r y i n g any h i s t o r i c a l o r t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a -t i o n s i t may have, though again these are to be d e f i n e d u l t i m a t e l y by the context o f the poem. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , at any r a t e , i t should be w i t h i n the r e a d e r ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s to r e l a t e the dominant metaphors and themes o f Paterson V to those o f Pa ter son I - I V — i . e . — t o f i l l i n t h a t "ominous" gap between Book Four and Book F i v e — w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g the context o f the complete poem. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when cons idered i n l i g h t o f W i l l i a m s ' s tatement, a f t e r the comple t ion o f Book F i v e : I had to take the wor ld o f Pater son i n t o a new dimension i f I wanted to g ive i t imagina-t i v e v a l i d i t y . Yet I wanted to keep i t whole, as i t i s to m e . . . a f o r m . . . k e e p i n g a u n i t y d i r e c t l y continuous w i t h the Pater son o f Pa ter son I - I V . L e t ' s hope I have succeeded i n doing so . Here , he i s almost i n v i t i n g us to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s u n i t y . The ob jec t o f the t h e s i s t h e n , i s to demonstrate tha t W i l l i a m s r e a l i z e d these aims, not o n l y i n the sense t h a t Pa te r son V i s a congruent par t o f the Paterson I - I V continuum, but a l s o i n a deeper sense t h a t Pa te r son V i s some s o r t o f c u l m i n a t i o n , though perhaps temporary, o f W i l l i a m s as man, as poet , and as P a t e r s o n . I n a l e t t e r t o Lou i s M a r t z , i n 1951, W i l l i a m s says o f Book F i v e , " I must gather toge ther the s t r a y ends o f what I have been t h i n k i n g , and make my f u l l statement as to t h e i r meaning or q u i t . " 1 ^ And i n a l e t t e r to John C . T h i r l w a l l , i n 1955, W i l l i a m s f u r t h e r says , "As f a r as I know, as my f o r t h -- 6 -coming book gook F i v e ] makes c l e a r , I s h a l l use no o ther r epre sent s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l l my s t r i v i n g a f t e r an escape from the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the verse o f the p a s t " (SL, 334). When W i l l i a m s makes statements l i k e these , i t becomes f a i r l y d i f f i c u l t to d i s m i s s Pater son V as a p o s t s c r i p t to the r e s t o f the poem. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s e v e r a l o f W i l l i a m s ' c r i t i c s have done j u s t t h a t . ^ I n f a c t , a f t e r r e a d i n g some o f the s c h o l a r s h i p w r i t t e n on Pater son I - V , the poet had to c r y out " C h r i s t ! Are there no i n t e l l i g e n t men l e f t i n the world!"- '- ' ' I n W i l l i a m s ' view t h e n , some s o r t o f f u l l statement i s indeed i n t r i n s i c i n Pa te r son V . Two o f the " s t r a y ends" mentioned i n W i l l i a m s ' l e t t e r to Martz are a c t u a l l y two dominant movements working throughout the f i r s t four books. The f i r s t can be r e f e r r e d t o as the " d i v o r c e to marr iage" p r o g r e s s i o n , i n which the c o n d i t i o n s o f s e p a r a t i o n and s t e r i l i t y must be r e s o l v e d i n t o some s o r t o f f e r t i l e u n i t y . The second can be c a l l e d the " s l e e p to awakening" p r o g r e s s i o n , i n which the d r e a m - l i k e c o n d i t i o n o f mesmerizat ion must be transformed i n t o the a l e r t n e s s o f l i f e . The two are i n t u r n i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d through W i l l i a m s ' con-cept " L a Vertue est toute dans 1 ' e f f o r t " ( I V , i i i , 22 l ) w h i c h , l i k e many o f W i l l i a m s ' concepts , cou ld take the e n t i r e t h e s i s to d i s c u s s . Both o f these progre s s ions become r e s o l v e d , o r gathered t o g e t h e r , o n l y i n Book F i v e . form f o r the r e s t o f my l i f e , f o r i t - 7 -Through t r a n s i t i o n a l and symbolic metaphor, the concept o f e f f o r t a l so i n v o l v e s the r e a d e r . I n o ther words, t h i s main v i r t u e the poet speaks o f and a c t s upon throughout P a t e r s o n , he a l s o wishes to be d i r e c t l y a p p l i e d i n the read ing o f the poem. The gaps between the metaphors, o r f o r t h a t mat ter , any p a r t o f the poem—for i n s t a n c e , the gaps t h a t imply some sor t o f t r a n s i t i o n between the poe t ry and the prose exerpt s— ask the reader to make the e f f o r t necessary to complete the t r a n s i t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , concerning Anabas i s . E l i o t says : And i f , as I suggest, such an arrangement of imagery r e q u i r e s j u s t as much "fundamental b ra inwork" as the arrangement of an argument, i t i s to be expected t h a t the reader o f a poem should take at l e a s t as much t r o u b l e as a b a r r i s t e r r ead ing an important d e c i s i o n on a compl icated case.]_^ For W i l l i a m s t h e n , a thematic concern becomes a s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e , mani fes ted i n symbolic and t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor. The most obvious metaphor o f t h i s na ture i n W i l l i a m s ' epic i s Pa ter son h i m s e l f , the man, the c i t y , the r i v e r , e t c . A l e s s obvious though j u s t as important metaphor i s t h a t o f the U n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s , the dominant image o f Book F i v e . Dur ing the course o f t h i s f i f t h s e c t i o n , the t a p e s t r i e s a c q u i r e an almost equal degree o f Protean f l e x i b i l i t y i n terms o f t symbolic a s s o c i a t i o n s as does Pa ter son h i m s e l f . Al though the U n i c o r n metaphor i s a c t u a l l y j u s t another ex tens ion of the symbolic metaphor, P a t e r s o n , i t i s a s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n s i o n f o r two reasons . The f i r s t , and l e a s t , because i t i s P a t e r s o n ' s - 8 -f i n a l d i s g u i s e , or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , at l e a s t as f a r as W i l l i a m s had completed the poem. The second, and more im-port a n t , because that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n occurs a f t e r h i s con-f r o n t a t i o n w i t h death at the end of Book Four. In W i l l i a m s ' poem, as i n many other l i t e r a r y works, the presence of death act s as a sort o f c a t a l y s t t h a t g i v e s impetus to the poet's quest f o r a f u l l y r e a l i z e d l i f e . The awareness of death approaching provides f o r the poet a j o l t of n e c e s s i t y t h a t , i n terms of the two dominant, movements mentioned e a r l i e r , urges, i f not f o r c e s , W i l l i a m s / P a t e r s o n to make the prevalent c o n d i t i o n o f d i v o r c e i n t o one o f marriage, and the prevalent c o n d i t i o n of sleep i n t o one of awakening. In other words, death makes a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to e f f o r t . As W i l l i a m s p o i n t s out i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of another form o f approaching death, ...one great t h i n g about the "bomb" i s the awakened sense i t gives us t h a t c a t a s t r o p h i c (but why?) a l t e r a t i o n s are a l s o p o s s i b l e i n the human mind, i n the a r t s , i n the a r t s . . . . We are too cowed by our f e a r to r e a l i z e i t f u l l y . But i t i s p o s s i b l e . (SE, 287) This awareness seems to be i n v o l v e d i n Northrop Frye's s t a t e -ments: "the only point at which one v i s i b l y enters i n t o an i d e n t i t y w i t h nature i s death," and "death i s the most accurate symbol o f the u l t i m a t e meaning of l i f e . " 1 7 Paterson's f i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n then, must i n some sense be the answer t o , or the r e v e l a t i o n o f , h i s l i f e quest. To go back to W i l l i a m s ' d i s c u s s i o n of the "bomb": - 9 -I n de spera t ion now before the Death, l i f e begins to move v i o l e n t l y . . . i t i s to l e g i t i -matize the products o f t h a t power r e l e a s e d by the Death and i n d u c t i t i n t o the s e r v i c e s o f l i f e t h a t the a r t s are addressed and we are i t s s e r v a n t s . (SE, 247-3) Consequent ly , i f we keep i n mind both the p r i n c i p l e s o f the t r a n s i t i o n a l and the symbolic metaphor, and W i l l i a m s ' sense o f h i s approaching death , a d e t a i l e d study o f the U n i c o r n t a p -e s t r i e s as metaphor, t h e i r r e l a t i o n to the r e s t o f the poem, should r e v e a l tha t Book F i v e i s indeed a " g a t h e r i n g , " a " f u l l s t a t ement , " o r a c u l m i n a t i o n o f the e n t i r e poem, P a t e r s o n . I I Between Books Four and F i v e , P a t e r s o n . due to the dilemma o f i t s p r o t a g o n i s t , s h i f t s i n emphasis from the realm o f l i f e (the dominant symbol be ing the r i v e r ) to the realm o f a r t ( the dominant symbol be ing the U n i c o r n t a p e s t r i e s ) . By the end o f Book Four , a c c o r d i n g to the b a s i c symbol o f the r i v e r as the p o e t ' s l i f e course , o r , as S i s t e r Berne t t a Quinn suggests , " the 13 g i a n t P a t e r s o n ' s stream o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " Pa ter son here supposedly reaches the end o f h i s l i f e course , or the t e r m i n a -t i o n o f h i s consc iousness , f o r at t h i s p o i n t " the Ocean yawns" and " i t i s almost the h o u r . " ( I V , i i i , 219) However, f o r the poet , t h i s hour comes " too soon, too soon'." ( 2 1 9 ) , s ince he has not yet found the meaning to h i s l i f e course , the meaning t o " l a w whi te bes ide the s l i d i n g w a t e r s " ( I I I , i i i , 173) . The poet s t i l l hopes f o r a l l t h i s to be "made c l e a r , " and hence - 10 -give value t o h i s mutable l i f e , but "weakness dogs him," and f u l f i l l m e n t seems "only a dream, or i n a dream." (IV_, i i i , 222) He would be ready f o r death, i f the meaning could be r e a l i z e d , but the "rocks o f Areopagus"-^ have not "kept t h e i r sound." (235) The f a c t that W i l l i a m s was i n h i s e a r l y seventies at t h i s time, and a l s o that he had by now suf f e r e d s e v e r a l o f t e n c r i p p l i n g s t r o k e s , most l i k e l y i n t e n s i f i e d t h i s awareness of approaching death, and t h e r e f o r e made t h i s d e s i r e f o r t r a n s -cendence a l l the more necessary. I f W i l l i a m s allowed Paterson as r i v e r to be engulfed by the sea, "the sea t h a t sucks i n a l l r i v e r s / da z z l e d , " (234) the prot a g o n i s t would be merely remaining i n the mesmerized s t a t e of one o f the " l i f e l e s s automatons" of Book One, captured " i n t h i s dream of the whole poem." (234) In t h i s s t a t e , "you cannot b e l i e v e t h a t i t can begin again." (234) Consequently Paterson says "Turn back I warn you (October i 0 , 1 9 5 0 ) , " (234) the a c t u a l date of w r i t i n g included to serve as a reminder of the r e a l i t y of death, and the r e f o r e the n e c e s s i t y o f t h i s d e c i s i o n . Thus Book Four sees Paterson heading f i n a l l y i n l a n d from what would appear to be the sea of o r d i n a r y death, the death of no i d e n t i t y . When he says repeatedly, "the sea i s not our home," the poet may be saying t h a t he i s not ready f o r death, the great immersion, and th e r e f o r e heads i n l a n d . But i t seems more l i k e l y that he i s saying t h a t the true death, death as - l i -the u l t i m a t e meaning of l i f e , does not l i e there. For i n the sea, there i s no renewal, no r e s u r r e c t i o n . The sea i s the place where " a l l r i v e r s / (wither) run," (235) and "where the day drowns." (236) Since the sea i s u n r e l a t e d to the l o c a l e of the l a n d , i t i s t h e r e f o r e the i n t o x i c a t i n g , but d e s t r u c t i v e i r r e l e v a n t : "the blood dark sea, nicked by the l i g h t alone." (236) Because of the s u p e r f i c i a l nature o f the sea's tempting surface, the sea i s a c t u a l l y an i l l u s o r y l o c a l e , not the m i l l e f l e u r s background, but a f i l t h y surface " a f l o a t w i t h weeds." (234) Thalassa (wife of Poseidon) can be seen as a k i n t o , though i n reverse o f , Odysseus' s i r e n s . The s i r e n s attempt to shipwreck Odysseus and h i s crew on the rocks by e n t i c i n g them from the s e c u r i t y of the sea. In l i k e , though opposite manner, Thalassa attempts to taunt Paterson i n t o l e a v i n g the land (remember t h a t the r i v e r ' s i d e n t i t y i s formed by the l a n d , e s p e c i a l l y the rocks) and drowning.his i d e n t i t y i n the sea. And l i k e Odysseus, Paterson f i g h t s against h i s temptation: " I say to you, put wax i n your ears against the hungry sea." (235) L o u i s Martz i n t e r p r e t s t h i s sea as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of "the p u l l of l o n g i n g toward a l o s t c u l t u r e , a p u l l outward from the source," which makes good sense since an important part o f Book F i v e i s i n v o l v e d w i t h Paterson and h i s v a r i o u s symbols r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r sources. Martz, however, does not examine t h i s . Also he i s mistaken i n t h i n k i n g that W i l l i a m s ' - 12 -references to the "rocks of Areopagus" and "the great t h e a t r e o f Dionysus" (235) i n t h i s s e c t i o n are a parody of "the 20 l o n g i n g o f a Pound or an E l i o t . " I f they are meant to be a parody, they are a l s o a parody of W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f , s i n c e , as we s h a l l see, W i l l i a m s spends a good part of Book F i v e i n -c o r p o r a t i n g these references i n t o h i s s o l u t i o n . F u r t h e r , these two references are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the l a n d , not the sea, as s h a l l be discussed l a t e r . True, the sea may represent t h i s l onging f o r a l o s t c u l t u r e , but i t i s a l o n g i n g i n the wrong d i r e c t i o n , as the poet r e a l i z e s . W i l l i a m s ' " S a t y r i c f o o t " o f Book F i v e would only sink i n the sea. In Paterson then, the sea i s the i l l u s o r y a n t i - p o e t i c . Throughout Paterson, the a n t i - p o e t i c i s b a s i c a l l y the female counterpart t o the fundamentally masculine act o f w r i t i n g , a counterpart i n v o l v i n g both the poet's subject matter and h i s source of i n s p i r a t i o n : "We express ourselves there (men) as we might upon the whole body of the v a r i o u s female could we ever g a i n access to her. (SE, 259) U n l i k e M i l t o n ' s Muse though, W i l l i a m s ' i n s p i r a t i o n a l a n t i - p o e t i c i s b a s i c a l l y earth-bound, f o r "there can be no i d e a s , but i n t h i n g s . " ( I , i , 18) Though t h i s s h a l l be more f u l l y discussed l a t e r , i t i s to be remem-bered t h a t t h i s a n t i - p o e t i c woman-land metaphor i s j u s t as Protean as Paterson h i m s e l f . W i l l i a m s ' t r u e , as opposed to i l l u s o r y , female a n t i -- 13 -p o e t i c i s the land, against which "Paterson can i n s t r u c t h i s thoughts." ( I I , i , 57) I f the poet i s t o f u l f i l l h i s com-mitment o f Book One, "Never i n t h i s world w i l l a man l i v e w e l l i n h i s body save by dying," (Preface, 12) he must t u r n i n l a n d , f o r i n the sea, the r i v e r l o s e s i t s body. Or, i f we take Quinn's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r i v e r as Paterson's "stream of consciousness," i n the sea, Paterson would no longer have any thoughts or consciousness to " i n s t r u c t . " I n e i t h e r case, i t would be a marriage of no i d e n t i t y . W i l l i a m s ' thematic a t t i t u d e to the sea i n Book Four i s s i m i l a r to c e r t a i n Romantic a t t i t u d e s revealed i n W.H. Auden study of the romantic iconography of the sea, The Enchafed  Flood: The sea or the great waters...are the sym-bo l f o r the p r i m o r d i a l u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f l u x , the substance which became created nature only by having form imposed upon or wedded to i t . 2 1 This " b a r b a r i c vagueness" of the sea i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n t i t h e -t i c a l to W i l l i a m s ' quest, since the sea drowns both a sense of i d e n t i t y , and any hope of r e t u r n . W i l l i a m s ' references t "a g i r l standing upon a t i l t e d s h e l l , " (_JV, i i i , 236) who could be a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of Thalassa, the sea, as w e l l as, c l e a r l y , a reference to B o t t i c e l l i ' s Venus, and to h i s "rock of Areopagus" are a l s o s i m i l a r to Auden's study. Auden says th a t the s i r e n voice of the p o e t i c s h e l l " c a l l s men t o the sea to put o f f t h e i r nature and be T r o l l s . . . t o have no - 14 -conscious d i s c e r n i n g ego." To submit to the s i r e n s would be "to be swallowed up i n the waters, t o be drowned i n the deluge." Consequently, W i l l i a m s ' sea i s a "hungry sea." The "rocks o f Areopagus," the voices of the law, on the other hand, are s i m i l a r to Auden's treatment o f the Euclidean stone, the stone of transcendent s t a b l e r e a l i t y , which "speaks of a world of pure t r u t h , the image to the weary mariner of a l l that i s true t o i t s e l f . " 2 2 i n t h i s way, Paterson i s i n the dilemma of the romantic hero, a dilemma which he overcomes by t u r n i n g i n l a n d . Consequently, l i k e the new world o f the Book of R e v e l a t i o n s , W i l l i a m s ' reawakened Paterson i n Book F i v e has no more sea. For t h i s p r i m o r d i a l u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f l u x , W i l l i a m s s u b s t i t u t e s the p r i m o r d i a l , but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d substance, created a r t , a permanent form which has no b a r b a r i c vagueness. As s h a l l be seen, both a r t and Paterson i n Book F i v e r e t u r n to the p r i m o r d i a l i n the sense that both r e t u r n to t h e i r sources, but they r e t u r n w i t h i d e n t i t y . I t i s i n t h i s r e t u r n t h a t "the great t h e a t r e of Dionysus"' (IV, i i i , 235) i s very much in v o l v e d . But to make t h i s t r a n s i t i o n i n Book F i v e from l i f e to a r t a v a l i d and meaningful one, a j u s t i f i a b l e apotheosis as opposed to say, a convenient ending, t h i s t r a n s i t i o n must keep w i t h i n the thematic patterns e s t a b l i s h e d by Paterson I-IV. The - 15 -t r a n s i t i o n should conform not only because of the sometimes a r t i f i c i a l tenet t h a t a poem be t h e m a t i c a l l y and s t r u c t u r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , but more important, at l e a s t t o W i l l i a m s , i t should conform because of the poet's sense of i n t e g r i t y and d e d i c a t i o n , revealed i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of h i s works. I n Paterson, the seriousness of the quest becomes more and more the poem's dominant tone, a seriousness that by the f i n a l s e c t i o n s o f Book Four reaches a tone o f desperation: Listen'. Thalassa'. Thalassa'. Drink of i t , be drunkl Thalassa immaculate: our home, our n o s t a l g i c mother i n whom the dead, enwombed again cry out to us to r e t u r n . the blood dark sea', nicked by the l i g h t alone, diamonded by the l i g h t . from which the sun alone l i f t s undamped h i s wings of f i r e ' . not our home'. I t i s NOT our home. (IV, i i i , 236) I f the s o l u t i o n i n Book Five u l t i m a t e l y proves i t s e l f to be merely an easy o u t l e t f o r the Paterson dilemma, then the i n t e n s i t y of the Paterson persona created i n the f i r s t f o u r books would be thoroughly undermined. Another f a c t o r which should be considered b r i e f l y i n r e l a t i o n to the problem of thematic and s t r u c t u r a l consistency i s t hat aspect of W i l l i a m s ' p o e t i c s which can be c a l l e d "open goa l s . " T his term b a s i c a l l y r e f e r s to the poet's d i s l i k e of - 16 -any preconceptions concerning h i s goal or s o l u t i o n i n Paterson. In a l e t t e r to Henry Wells (1955) d e s c r i b i n g h i s approach to Paterson. W i l l i a m s says " I d i d not t h e o r i z e d i r e c t l y when I was w r i t i n g but went wherever the design forced me to go". (SL T 333) I n other words, the poem i s b a s i c a l l y an ex p l o r a -t i o n through language, i n which the poet as e x p l o r e r i s not a C h r i s t walking through h i s wilderness w i t h h i s preconceived Right Reason, but l i k e any true e x p l o r e r , i s a man who i s p a r t l y committed to h i s sense of d e d i c a t i o n , and p a r t l y com-mitted to wandering. Even when on the b r i n k of s o l u t i o n i n Book F i v e , W i l l i a m s i s anxious to keep h i s preconceptions i n check: Not prophecyl NOT prophecy! but the t h i n g i t s e l f ! (V, i , 242) and l a t e r , What but i n d i r e c t i o n w i l l get to the end of the sphere? (V, i , 246) L i k e Columbus, W i l l i a m s does not draw a map of America before he has even discovered i t . As W i l l i a m s r e v e a l s i n In The  American G r a i n , e x p l o r a t i o n i s a process, not a product which one places n e a t l y i n t o h i s t o r y books. The "open g o a l " then, i s having some sense of d e d i c a t i o n to purpose, but not having any closed notions about how one i s going to accomplish t h a t pur-pose, f o r closed notions may defeat or d i s t o r t that accomplish-ment. This openness i n v o l v e s a l i v e l i n e s s t o the p o s s i b i l i t y - 17 -that such purpose may i t s e l f become a r b i t r a r y , and thus subject to change. For example, i f Columbus and h i s men had remained on the "Santa Maria," merely content to view t h e i r d i scovery from the boat, they might s t i l l have thought t h a t America was I n d i a . In terms of thematic consistency then, i f one begins an epic w i t h " I n d i a " i n mind, but f i n d s l a t e r t h a t the end o f h i s poem d i s c o v e r s "America", the general theme of the f i n i s h e d poem may on the surface appear to be i n c o n s i s t e n t , but i t c e r t a i n l y i s n ' t i n v a l i d . Moreover, i f , because o f the a c c i d e n t , the poet changes the name of one o f h i s themes f o r the sake of consistency, then he i s being a r t i f i c i a l , i f not f a l s e , and he consequently undermines the seriousness of h i s d e d i c a t i o n , and makes h i s poem r e l a t i v e l y w o r t h l e s s . In t h i s sense, to take one of s e v e r a l examples i n Paterson, W i l l i a m s , because of h i s b e l i e f i n the "open g o a l " s t r a t e g y , can f i n a l l y r e j e c t the sea at the end of Book Four i f he f e e l s t h a t i t does not hold the t r u e s o l u t i o n to Paterson's dilemma, without under-i mining the i n t e n s i t y or the value of" the e n t i r e poem, even though he may appear to be not as t h e m a t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . In short, the "open g o a l " s t r a t e g y i s the proper s t r a t e g y f o r an epic whose s t y l e i s s t r u c t u r a l l y open, whereas M i l t o n ' s preconceived theme, or " c l o s e d " g o a l , to j u s t i f y the ways of God to man, was the proper s t r a t e g y f o r h i s epic whose pre-conceived blank verse was s t r u c t u r a l l y c l o s e d . - 18 -However, i f not completely c o n s i s t e n t t h e m a t i c a l l y or s t r u c t u r a l l y i n r e l a t i o n to the r e s t o f Paterson, Book F i v e must at l e a s t be d e f i n i t i v e or culminatory i f the "museum" of Paterson i s to "become r e a l . " (244) Though America wasn't I n d i a , Golumbus' di s c o v e r y of the land was a c u l m i n a t i o n of h i s voyage, one which made h i s voyage worthwhile. By the end of Book Four though, Paterson has not yet discovered h i s " l a n d " t h a t w i l l make the voyage of h i s l i f e worthwhile. The f o l -lowing quotation p a r t i a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s sense of n e c e s s i t y to make the l i f e o f Paterson/Williams something of permanence and v a l u e , and a l s o r e v e a l s W i l l i a m s ' b e l i e f i n the p r i n c i p l e of t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor: Paterson V must be w r i t t e n , i s being w r i t t e n . . . . Why must i t be w r i t t e n ? Paterson IY ends w i t h the p r o t a g o n i s t breaking through the bushes, i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the l a n d , w i t h America. He f i n a l l y w i l l d i e , but i t can't be cate-g o r i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t death means any-t h i n g . When you're through w i t h sex, ambition, what can an o l d man create? Art of course, a piece of a r t t h a t w i l l go beyond him...and l i v e on.23 A r t then, i s W i l l i a m s ' culminatory d i s c o v e r y t h a t transforms the r e s t o f Paterson i n t o that realm. F u r t h e r , t h i s quotation suggests t h a t the "piece o f a r t " i s created only a f t e r Book Fi v e i s added to the r e s t of Paterson. I t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g then, that W i l l i a m s should seek i n a r t "an image l a r g e enough to embody the whole knowable 19 -world about (him)." (Auto, 391) I f Paterson i s t h i s u n i -f y i n g image of the whole poem, then i t f o l l o w s that the Unicorn i s that image f o r Book F i v e , since the Unicorn i s al s o meant t o embody Paterson's l i f e , but "transmuted to a t i g h t e r form".(SE, 193) The l a s t l i n e s of W i l l i a m s ' p r e f a -t o r y statement, hard put t o i t ; an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a plan f o r a c t i o n to supplant a plan f o r a c t i o n ; a t a k i n g up o f s l a c k ; a d i s p e r s a l and a metamorphosis, (Preface, 10) seem,, on c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , to r e f e r to Paterson's f i n a l Protean i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n the poem, that of the Unicorn i n the C l o i s t e r s t a p e s t r i e s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the t a p e s t r i e s are r e a l o b j e c t s o f a r t , since they occur i n the a c t u a l l i f e of P a t e r s o n — i . e . — W i l l i a m s v i s i t e d the C l o i s t e r s Museum qu i t e r e g u l a r l y during the e a r l y f i f t i e s . Therefore, the use o f the t a p e s t r i e s i n the poem does not v i o l a t e one of the poet's more important credos e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r i n Paterson T t h a t there can be "no ideas but i n t h i n g s . " At the same time, the t a p e s t r i e s belong i n the realm of permanent a r t i f a c t , since l i k e most valuable works o f a r t , they are not subject to m u t a b i l i t y . However, u n l i k e Keat's Grecian Urn f o r example, not j u s t any t i m e l e s s a r t i f a c t w i l l be capable of a c t i n g as the philosopher's stone f o r W i l l i a m s , since the deeper thematic patterns of Paterson I-IV must a l s o be taken i n t o account. To go back to the 20 -Columbus analogy, even though America wasn't I n d i a , h i s "deeper" theme was c o n s i s t e n t i n t h a t he was s t i l l on an e x p l o r a t o r y voyage, and h i s voyage was i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . W i l l i a m s ' objet d'art must have q u a l i t i e s that r e l a t e to both Paterson as man and Paterson as c i t y , otherwise t h i s f i n a l t r a n sformation would again be j u s t a convenient ending. The Unicorn et a l must be "the s i n g l e o b j e c t " i n Paterson's quest that " r e s o l v e s ( h i s ) complex f e e l i n g s of p r o p r i e t y . " (SE, 256: IWWP. 76-7) I f W i l l i a m s can say of Whitman's poetry, What he d i d not do was to study what he had done, to go over i t , to s e l e c t and r e j e c t , which i s the making of the a r t i s t , (SE, 230) and l a t e r of Dylan Thomas', But i t i s the way itRe.-metaphors are iden-t i f i e d w i t h the meaning to emphasize i t and to u n i v e r s a l i z e and d i g n i f y i t t h a t i s the proof of the poet's a b i l i t y , (SE, 327) then he would most l i k e l y apply the same c r i t e r i a to h i s own work. Otherwise, Paterson's subsequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn i s r e l a t i v e l y w o r t h l e s s . Though the Columbus analogy i s o b v i o u s l y l i m i t e d , i t should s u f f i c e , at l e a s t f o r now, to r e v e a l the nature of W i l l i a m s ' "open g o a l " s t r a t e g y , and i t s r e l a t i o n to thematic consistency. Keeping t h i s s t r a t e g y i n mind, the f o l l o w i n g thematic study of the Unicorn and other r e l a t e d metaphors attempts to r e v e a l that W i l l i a m s i n Book F i v e d i d adhere to - 21 -the above c r i t e r i a concerning Whitman's and Thomas' works, though i t i s to be remembered that the resultant interpreta-tions are the product of just one writer's investigation, and further, that s p a t i a l and temporal l i m i t a t i o n s make the study incomplete. And when Williams says that "an a r t i s t should always speak i n symbols even when he sees most passion-ately, otherwise his v i s i o n becomes blurred," (SL, 319) t h i s basic p r i n c i p l e of both symbolic and t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor should make any c r i t i c of Williams r e a l i z e that h i s study i s automatically one of secondary inference. This i s e s p e c i a l l y so when dealing with the metaphor of a Unicorn, that rarest element which dwells obscured i n the l i f e before us. 22 Chapter One As ide from a b r i e f yet important re ference to the U n i c o r n i n Book Three , which s h a l l be d i scus sed l a t e r , W i l l i a m s ' f i r s t d i r e c t r e fe rence to the U n i c o r n i s i n the opening pages o f Book F i v e . T h i s f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n imme-d i a t e l y begins a f u r t h e r i n g process o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between Pater son and the m y t h i c a l bea s t . T h i s h i n t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s suggested through the use o f two s t r u c -t u r a l l y p a r a l l e l s t anzas : The U n i c o r n the whi te one-horned beast thra shes about r o o t t o o t a t o o t l f a c e l e s s among the s t a r s c a l l i n g f o r i t s own murder P a t e r s o n , from the a i r above the low range o f i t s h i l l s across the r i v e r on a r o c k - r i d g e has r e t u r n e d to the o l d s c e n e s . . . . ( I , i , 243) I n t h i s f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f the U n i c o r n are two c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s t h a t serve t o a l i g n the beast w i t h the reawakened w o r l d o f P a t e r s o n , mentioned i n the f i r s t s tanza o f Book F i v e . The " f a c e l e s s " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the U n i c o r n i s s i m i l a r t o " the angle o f a forehead / o r f a r l e s s " t h a t makes Paterson " r e -member when he thought / he had f o r g o t . " (V, i , 241) - 23 Secondly, the "root to o t a t o o t " reminds one of the "song of the fox sparrow / reawakening the world / of Paterson," (241) mentioned j u s t s e v e r a l stanzas e a r l i e r . This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n process i s f u r t h e r developed a stanza l a t e r , where "The C l o i s t e r s — o n i t s rock," the museum where the t a p e s t r i e s are preserved, i s p h y s i c a l l y a k i n to "Paterson...on a r o c k - r i d g e . " The rocks themselves are i n tu r n an i n t e g r a l part of the reawakening or r e s u r r e c t i v e process e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f i r s t stanzas of Paterson V: "In March-the rocks / the bare rocks / speak!" (242)1 This a l i g n i n g of the rocks w i t h r e s u r r e c t i o n can be seen as a k i n d of prelude to s o l u t i o n , f u l f i l l i n g the poet's wish u t t e r e d i n desperation towards the end o f Book Four: "Oh tha t the rocks of the Areopagus had / kept t h e i r sounds, the v o i c e s of the law'." (IV, i i i , 235) F o l l o w i n g these stanzas i s the f i r s t prose excerpt o f Book F i v e , which serves to i d e n t i f y W i l l i a m s as Paterson w i t h the t a p e s t r i e s . The d e s c r i p t i o n s of the farm i n t h i s l e t t e r from J o s i e are s i m i l a r t o the poet's subsequent d e s c r i p t i o n s of the Unicorn's " m i l l e f l e u r s background," and since J o s i e i s i n v i t i n g W i l l i a m s to come to the farm, t h i s l e t t e r i s remarkably s u i t e d to the theme of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (and a l s o t o that of r e s u r r e c t i o n ) : Forgetmenot, w i l d columbine, white and purple v i o l e t s , white n a r c i s s u s , w i l d - 24 -anemones and yards and yards of d e l i c a t e w i l d windflowers along the brook showed up at t h e i r b e s t . . . . I f you ever f e e l l i k e coming and get t r a n s p o r t a t i o n please come ....How l o v e l y to read your memories o f the place; a place i s made o f memories as w e l l as the world around i t . Most of the flowers were put i n many years ago and t h r i v e each s p r i n g , the w i l d ones i n some new spot that i s e x c i t i n g to see. (V, i , 244-4) As Book F i v e progresses, the Paterson - Unicorn i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n becomes stronger, d e s c r i p t i o n s such as "The Unicorn has no match / or mate... the a r t i s t / has no peer," (V, i , 246) and l a t e r , "Now I come to the small flowers / that c l u s t e r about the fe e t of my beloved — the hunt of the Unicorn and / the god of l o v e , " (V, i i i , 271) making the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n more and more complete. Each tends to r e i n -f o r c e the former u n t i l f i n a l l y , towards the clo s e of the poem, the d e c l a r a t i o n "a milk-white one-horned beast / I , Paterson, the K i n g - s e l f " (272) makes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the Unicorn w i t h W i l l i a m s / P a t e r s o n a t o t a l one. I f one can assume from such a b r i e f o u t l i n e t h a t Paterson's attempt to i d e n t i f y w i t h the Unicorn i s one of the main concerns o f Book F i v e , then i t should prove worthwhile to t r y t o r e l a t e the v a r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s and t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s p e r t a i n -i n g to the Unicorn w i t h the thematic concerns of Paterson. In other words, Paterson/Williams must have v a l i d reasons why he should wish t h i s s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to take p l a c e . The - 25 -main clues to these reasons would most l i k e l y r e s i d e i n the p a r t i c u l a r d e s c r i p t i o n s , the p a r t s of the Unicorn or the t a p e s t r i e s that the poet wished to emphasize most. I One of the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Unicorn t h a t W i l l i a m s c a l l s our a t t e n t i o n to i s the animal's horn; "the white one-horned beast...root toot a t o o t . " The f a c t t h a t the beast i s one-horned immediately suggests the p o t e n t i a l r e s o l u t i o n of two r e l a t e d themes; the theme of u n i t y or marriage to overcome the p r e v a i l i n g s t a t e of divorce and to r e c o n c i l e c e r t a i n p o l a r opposites i n the poem, and the theme of p h a l l i c o r sexual e f f o r t t o overcome the p r e v a i l i n g s t a t e of mesmerization or sleep. Both themes are r e l a t e d to the poet's concern over the whore-virgin i d e n t i t y , and to h i s idea of the a n t i - p o e t i c as female. Both of these w i l l be more f u l l y discussed l a t e r . According to myth, and to legends recorded i n b e s t i a r i e s , the Unicorn's horn, aside from i t s p h y s i c a l l y u n i f i e d shape, has two basic t r a d i t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s , both of which r e l a t e t o other thematic concerns of Paterson. The f i r s t can be r e f e r -red to as the m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s of the horn. Legend has i t t h a t i f the Unicorn dips i t s horn i n t o poisonous waters, these waters s h a l l be cleansed. F i g u r a t i v e l y then, t h i s horn 26 -i s a s o l u t i o n to the c o r r u p t i o n of the " f i l t h y P a s s a i c " and the "deformed m o r a l i t y " of Books One to Four, a p o l l u -t i o n a f f e c t i n g the p h y s i c a l environment, the language, and the character of the pla c e . In I Wanted to Write a Poem, W i l l i a m s says that the end of Book Four i s "the i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of the f i l t h y r i v e r w i t h the pe r v e r s i o n of i t s characters .... I was g e t t i n g c l o s e r to the c i t y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l charac-t e r [which can be seen as another i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the sea^ began to enter the innocent r i v e r and pervert i t ; sexual p e r v e r s i o n . . . . the r i v e r reaches p o l l u t i o n . " (IWWP, 78) In the opening pages o f Book One, the seed of r e s u r r e c t i o n or meaning, or f o r that matter, seed of l i f e , i s u n r e a l i z e d and surrounded by t h i s f i l t h : (The m u l t i p l e seed, packed t i g h t w i t h d e t a i l , soured, i s l o s t i n the f l u x and the mind, d i s t r a c t e d , f l o a t s o f f i n the same scum). (Preface, 12) And at the end of Book Four, t h i s m u l t i p l e seed i s s t i l l un-r e a l i z e d , and covered w i t h p o l l u t i o n : — though seeds f l o a t i n wi t h the scum and wrack . among brown fronds and limp s t a r f i s h . (IV, i i i , 235) However, i n Book Four, there i s f i n a l l y some hope of r e s u r r e c -t i o n f o r t h i s seed: Yet you w i l l come to i t , come t o i t ' . . . . . You must come to i t . Seed of venus, you w i l l r e t u r n . (236) - 27 -For t h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n to occur, t h i s scum and wrack i n the f i l t h y r i v e r must f i r s t be cleansed, and t h i s c l e a n s i n g doesn't occur u n t i l Book F i v e . The Corydon and P h y l l i s dialogues of Book Four are i n a sense a c o n c r e t i z i n g of the language and character aspects of t h i s p e r v e r s i o n . Corydon, Th e o c r i t u s ' i d y l l i c v i r t u o u s shep-herd, and P h y l l i s , the female counterpart o f f a i t h and l o v e , would normally r e v e a l an i d e a l marriage of p a s t o r a l b l i s s . But W i l l i a m s has t h e i r intended r e l a t i o n s h i p one of moral perver-s i o n and thwarted d e s i r e , which when coupled w i t h t h e i r p l a s t i c , w o r l d l y d i a l o g u e , provides an i r o n i c c o n t r a s t to the i d e a l s of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l connotations. Through t h i s c o n t r a s t , the poet r e v e a l s the extent of t h i s c o r r u p t i o n of the Passaic ur-ban l i f e . For example, consider the f o l l o w i n g t y p i c a l s e c t i o n of the C o r y d o n / P h y l l i s dialogue: Have you ever been to bed w i t h a man? Have you? Good shot'. With t h i s body? I t h i n k I'm more horse than woman. Did you ever see such s k i n as mine? Speckled l i k e a Guinea hen . Only t h e i r speckles are white. More l i k e a toad perhaps? I didn't say t h a t . Why not? I t ' s the t r u t h , my l i t t l e Oread. I n dominatable. Let's change names. You be Corydon'. and I ' l l - 28 -pla y P h y l l i s . Young I Innocent'. One can f a i r l y hear the p e l -t i n g of apples and the stomp and c l a t t e r of Pan's hoofbeats. Tantamount to nothing . (IV, i , 1$7) In f a c t , they have so corrupted and f a l s i f i e d t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s , that i t no longer matters which i s male, and which i s female, f o r the two no longer have any meaningful f u n c t i o n . Though pa r t s o f t h e i r dialogue such as the above have important r e l a t i o n s to the marriage and u n i t y themes resolved i n Book F i v e , which s h a l l be discussed l a t e r , they a l s o serve as an epitome of the poisoned character of Paterson as man and as c i t y . And i n Book F i v e , t h i s poisoned character i s p a r t l y cleansed through t h i s legendary m e d i c i n a l property of the Unicorn's horn. Paterson's subsequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn can a l l o w him to say towards the end of the poem t h a t "the times are not h e r o i c / since then / but they are cleaner and f r e e r o f disease," (V, i i i , 271) f o r Paterson and a l l h i s symbolic embodiments have now been cleansed. The m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s o f the horn a l s o imply W i l l i a m s ' other l i f e - l o n g career, t h a t of doctor. Since W i l l i a m s had e s t a b l i s h e d h i s p r a c t i c e i n Rutherford, on the banks of the Passaic R i v e r , and since most of h i s p a t i e n t s l i v e d around t h i s r i v e r s i d e area, i t can be s a i d that the man was an a c t u a l , as w e l l as a f i g u r a t i v e , h e a l e r or saviour of the Passaic community l i f e . I n both v o c a t i o n s , he attempted t o cleanse the poisonous waters of Paterson; as doctor, the diseases of - 29 the Passaic community, and as poet, i t s language and c h a r a c t e r . The second t r a d i t i o n a l property of the Unicorn's horn i s that of i t s magical powers concerning sex. In A s i a , f o r example, the horn was valued as an a p h r o d i s i a c . Because of these powers, and undoubtedly r e l a t e d to the p h a l l i c shape of the horn, the Unicorn i n time became a f a i r l y u n i v e r s a l symbol of sublimated sex. W i l l i a m s i t seems, i s aware of t h i s i m p l i -c a t i o n and uses i t , f o r a f t e r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Paterson w i t h the Unicorn, he says "Paterson, / keep your pecker up / whatever the d e t a i l ' . " (V, i i i , 273) At any r a t e , the Unicorn i n the C l o i s t e r s t a p e s t r i e s has been described as a symbol f o r the r i t u a l of marriage, moreover an i d e a l and f e r t i l e one, since i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the t a p e s t r i e s were o r i g i n a l l y created f o r the c e l e b r a t i o n of the marriage of Anne of B r i t t a n y to L o u i s X I I : two more were l a t e r added when F r a n c i s I married Anne's daughter and h e i r i n 1514. For such d i g n i f i e d marriages, the Unicorn must have been a f a i r l y appropriate marriage sym-b o l . These i m p l i c a t i o n s of the horn's magical powers, seen i n l i g h t of the p r i n c i p l e s of symbolic metaphor, are i n t i m a t e l y and s u b t l y connected to the poem's major thematic concern o f the poet as male, and the a n t i - p o e t i c , or the poet's subject matter and source of i n s p i r a t i o n (no ideas but i n things) as - 30 -female, and the poet's d e s i r e f o r the union or marriage o f the two. In keeping w i t h t h i s theme i s the r e l a t e d legend that the Unicorn can be o n l y captured by a v i r g i n . I n s p i t e of the f a c t that the beast i s reputed to l i v e over a thousand years, and i s able to evade any other form o f hunter, the Unicorn w i l l f a l l meekly i n t o the l a p of a v i r g i n . Because of t h i s , and because of W i l l i a m s ' repeated d e s c r i p t i o n s i n Book F i v e c e n t e r i n g around t h i s legend, i t can be f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t the r i t u a l of the Hunt of the Unicorn i s used by the poet as an a l l e g o r y o f h i s marriage to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Though the nature of W i l l i a m s ' v i r g i n and hence h i s female a n t i - p o e t i c needs to be more f u l l y d i s cussed, i t i s important to remember that a f t e r Paterson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn, he r e f e r s to h i m s e l f as the " K i n g - s e l f " , which both suggests the o r i g i n a l f u n c t i o n of the t a p e s t r i e s as a wedding g i f t of r o y a l marriages, and provides a complementary partner to the poet's v a r i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the v i r g i n Queen. The hunt then, becomes an act of union, e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r e d by the poet, f o r W i l l i a m s has h i s Unicorn " c a l l i n g f o r i t s own murder." ( Y - > i> 243) This c a l l i n g can be seen as a s u b t l e evocation of the a p h r o d i s i a c a l q u a l i t y o f the horn. I I Much of Book F i v e i s concerned w i t h r e s o l v i n g the nature - 31 -o f the a n t i - p o e t i c , the female counterpart to the b a s i c a l l y masculine act of w r i t i n g . Both are necessary f o r the c r e a t i o n of a r t . This of course has an obvious r e l a t i o n to the mascu-l i n e and feminine p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of l i f e , an analogy that most major a r t i s t s have recognized. W i l l i a m s ' r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: I am extremely sexual i n my d e s i r e s : I c a r r y them everywhere and at a l l times. I t h i n k that from t h a t a r i s e s the d r i v e which empowers us a l l . Given that d r i v e , a man does w i t h i t what h i s mind d i r e c t s . (Auto., Foreword) Assuming that the d r i v e t o create i s masculine, the object to which t h i s d r i v e i s d i r e c t e d w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be female, every-t h i n g other than the poet t h a t he d e s i r e s to capture, or u n i t e w i t h . Hence the m i l l e f l e u r s background and i t s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n the v i r g i n i s the a n t i - p o e t i c of the Unicorn as poet, j u s t as i n Book One, Paterson as man and c i t y i s the masculine p r i n -c i p l e of the Passaic V a l l e y , who b u i l d s h i m s e l f upon the female p r i n c i p l e of the l a n d , and "against which Paterson i n s t r u c t s h i s thoughts." Against Paterson, " s t r e t c h e s the low mountain / the Park's her head...farms and ponds, l a u r e l and the temperate w i l d cactus / y e l l o w flowered...facing him, h i s arm supporting her...her monstrous h a i r spangled w i t h apple blossoms." ( I , i 17) And j u s t as there i s o n l y one Unicorn against a thousand - 32 -f l o w e r s , so too f o r Paterson there are "innumerable women, each l i k e a flower / But / only one man — l i k e a c i t y . " ( I , i , 15) B a s i c a l l y , t h i s p o e t i c - a n t i - p o e t i c d u a l i t y i s concerned w i t h the masculine pole o f man/city and the feminine pole o f woman/land. And f o r t h e i r f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e r e a l i z a -t i o n , the two work together i n harmony. The d i f f e r e n c e bet-ween the Book One metaphor and the Book Fi v e metaphor of t h i s d u a l i t y i s l a r g e l y a d i f f e r e n c e i n emphasis; the C i t y / P a r k metaphor i s more concerned w i t h the realm o f l i f e ; the Unicorn/ m i l l e f l e u r s metaphor i s more concerned w i t h the realm of a r t . Both though, are i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d . In P a t e r s o n r as i n many of h i s other works (notably, In  The American G r a i n ) , W i l l i a m s must explore these masculine and feminine elements of the l i f e / a r t analogy i n d i v i d u a l l y , and p e r s o n a l l y , i f they are to be of any thematic worth, f o r t r a d i -t i o n .only l i v e s when seen i n the l i g h t o f the contemporary and the i n d i v i d u a l : as W i l l i a m s says: the c l a s s i c can o n l y be f u l l y developed when used i n a contemporary and a c t i v e environment, not a past h i s t o r i c a l one. In other words, the c l a s s i c i s v a l i d o n l y as a process, not a product. However, t h i s does not mean tha t W i l l i a m s wishes to destroy t r a d i t i o n , f o r : i t i s p r e c i s e l y a s e r v i c e to t r a d i t i o n , honouring i t and s e r v i n g i t t h a t i s - 33 -e n v i s i o n e d and intended by my a t t a c k , and not d i s f i gurement - c o n f i r m i n g and e n l a r -g i n g i t s a p p l i c a t i o n . ( § E , 284) I t i s o n l y through t r e a t i n g t r a d i t i o n as a present and ongoing process t h a t i t can achieve i t s t r u e s t meaning. By 1950, W i l l i a m s ' i n d i v i d u a l approach to these mascul ine and feminine r o l e s i n the c r e a t i v e process became more f u l l y r e a l i z e d . S ince Book F i v e was w r i t t e n i n the e a r l y f i f t i e s , i t i s worth n o t i n g a comment o f h i s made i n 1950, i n r e l a t i o n to the proposed marriage theme: There i s one t h i n g God h i m s e l f cannot do. Hie cannot raises the arm and lower i t at the same t i m e . Therefore d u a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e the sexes . Sex i s a t the bottom of a l l a r t . He i s u n i t y , but to accompl i sh s i m u l t a n e i t y , we must have two, m u l t i p l i c i t y , the male and the female , man and woman — a c t i n g t o -gether — the fecundat ing p r i n c i p l e . There-fore e v e r y t h i n g we do i s an e f f o r t to achieve c o n j u n c t i o n , not to say u n i t y . (Auto , 373) Here, between the C i t y / P a r k metaphor o f Book One and the U n i c o r n / m i l l e f l e u r s metaphor o f Book F i v e , l i e s the problem and hence the motive f o r much o f P a t e r s o n ' s quest . I n the f i r s t l i n e s o f Book One, W i l l i a m s has recognized t h i s ba s i c mascu l ine / femin ine d u a l i t y , and the n e c e s s i t y o f i t s p o l a r harmony, but at the same t i m e , the poet sees tha t the present s t a te o f t h i s harmony i s d i v o r c e , and the e f f o r t needed to overcome t h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s a s l e e p . The Pas sa i c V a l l e y i s comprised o f dreams, " the rumors o f separate w o r l d s , " ( I , i i - 34 -36) and the "vague accu r a c i e s of events." ( I , i i , 34) There i s no "love . combating sleep. " ( I I , i , 64) People are "auto-matons" who "walk outside t h e i r bodies...unroused." ( I , i , 14) Although the poet i n Book One recognizes the dilemma, he sees no s o l u t i o n ; "They walk incommunicado, the equation i s beyond s o l u t i o n , yet the sense i s c l e a r . " (18) The poet r e a l i z e s that there must be "an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n — both ways," (Preface 12) but i n t h i s s t a t e "hot and co l d (are) p a r a l l e l but never m i n g l i n g , " (36) and "the b i r d s (are) against the f i s h . " (36) Where the poet i n Book Five sees marriage as a s o l u t i o n to these separate worlds, i n Book One, marriage i s "a shuddering i m p l i c a t i o n . " ( I , i , 20) Divorce i n Book One i s a l s o apparent i n the language o f the people, and because W i l l i a m s i s a poet, t h i s i s an impor-tant part of the problem. As J . H i l l i s M i l l e r p o i n t s out i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n , f o r W i l l i a m s , "the f a i l u r e of language... means n e c e s s a r i l y a f a i l u r e of man's power to perceive...and s h a r e . . . l i f e . The l o s s of a proper language companies man's 3 detachment from the world and from other people." To W i l l i a m s the language of the people i s " f a l s e , " and "divorced from t h e i r minds." ( I , i , 2 l ) L i k e t h e i r s e x u a l l y unroused c o n d i t i o n , and hence t h e i r mesmerized a t t i t u d e to l i f e , t h e i r minds "are l i k e beds, always made up." (Preface, 13) Mrs. Gumming and Sam Patch, two o f the few i n d i v i d u a l s who i n Book One t r y to - 35 -break t h i s c o n d i t i o n , both u l t i m a t e l y f a i l , because i n the end the language f a i l s them: ; Patch leaped but Mrs. Cumming shrieked and f e l l — unseen.... :a body found next s p r i n g frozen i n an ice-cake; or a body f i s h e d next day from the muddy s w i r l — both s i l e n t , uncommunicative. ( I , i i , 31) Between the words d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r deaths, and t h e i r a c t u a l deaths, i s too wide a chasm. This g u l f then, becomes a f i g u -r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n of the distance between the top of the c l i f f and the bottom of the f a l l s which Patch and Gumming t r i e d to bridge, but f a i l e d . However, the poet recognizes t h a t Patch and Gumming have i n a sense challenged " t h i s roar o f e t e r n a l s l e e p , " ( I , i i , 28) and as e a r l y as Book One, he r e a l i z e s that the t r u e meaning to h i s l i f e may l i e ' i n c o n f r o n t i n g death. Though W i l l i a m s at t h i s point i s a f r a i d of t h i s s o l u t i o n , he has to ask hi m s e l f , "Why have I not....long since / put myself d e l i b e r a t e l y i n the way of death?" ( I , i i , 3 l ) The answer i s that i f he too attempted to confront death at t h i s p o i n t , the language would a l s o f a i l him, f o r i n Book One, the poet only has "a d e l i r i u m of s o l u t i o n s , " and t h e r e f o r e the theme (of h i s poem, of h i s l i f e ) might s t i l l be "as i t may prove, asleep, unrecognized." ( I , i i , 30) What the poet does a s c e r t a i n i n Book One i s tha t the bridge - 36 -necessary to cross t h i s d i v o r c e , "the s i g n of knowledge i n our time," (I,, i i , 2$) may be one o f p e r c e p t i o n . What may be needed i n Paterson the man, and hence the c i t y , i s a r e v i t a -l i z a t i o n o f perception to c l e a r the d e l i r i u m : Only of l a t e ! L a t e ! begun to know, to know c l e a r l y (as through c l e a r i c e ) whence I draw my breath or how to employ i t c l e a r l y — i f not w e l l : ( I , i i , 3 l ) The key to t h i s perceptual bridge l i e s i n the " r e v i v a l power of d e t a i l " which, as s h a l l be revealed l a t e r , plays a very impor-tant r o l e i n the poet's reawakening i n Book F i v e . Much of the problem of divorce comes from the f a c t that we are p r o d u c t — i n s t e a d o f p r o c e s s — o r i e n t e d . And though Paterson i t s e l f i s i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s a product, W i l l i a m s does attempt, as Roger Searaon p o i n t s out, t o "make the process o f c r e a t i o n a c e n t r a l part of the f i n i s h e d product."^ This i s why W i l l i a m s makes such heavy demands on the reader. I t i s those people, i n W i l l i a m s ' view the m a j o r i t y of the people, who wish to see everything i n terms of product t h a t he i s a g a i n s t . The t h i r d s e c t i o n of Book One i s l a r g e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h condemning t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n : How strange you are, you i d i o t ! So you t h i n k because the rose i s red that you s h a l l have the mastery? The rose i s green and w i l l bloom, overtopping you, green, l i v i d , green when you s h a l l no more speak, or t a s t e , or even be. ( I , i i i , 41) - 37 -To be i n v o l v e d w i t h process i s to be i n v o l v e d with d e t a i l . To g e n e r a l i z e by saying t h a t the rose i s red i s to say nothing o f the l i f e o f the rose. The flower or the product o f the rose i s red, but i t s l i v i n g processes, i t s stems, thorns, r o o t s , and leav e s , are green. Here the "master's theorum with accuracy, a c c u r a t e l y misses." ( I , i i i , 49) Product-o r i e n t a t i o n induces s t a s i s , and s t a s i s deadens l i f e . P art o f the blame f o r the perpetuation of t h i s product o r i e n t a t i o n W i l l i a m s places on i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the u n i v e r s i t i e s or the encyclopedias. 5 He even makes a statement by h i s close f r i e n d Ezra Pound seem i r o n i c , i n order to r e v e a l the extent o f t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n ; "P. Tour i n t e r e s t i s i n the bloody loam, but \tfhat I'm a f t e r i s the f i n i s h e d product." ( I , i i i , 50) In f a c t t h i s statement i s doubly i r o n i c i n th a t W i l l i a m s i s a l s o a f t e r the f i n i s h e d product; i t ' s j u s t that W i l l i a m s wants to go through the loom so that he can be part of the t a p e s t r y , as Seamon suggests. But i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h i s product-dominant s t a s i s i s much more d i f f i c u l t to p i n p o i n t , and i s more of a general c o n d i t i o n : Who r e s t r i c t s knowledge? Some say i t i s the decay o f the middle c l a s s . . . so that we do not know ( i n time) where the s t a s i s lodges. And i f i t i s not the knoxtfledgeable i d i o t s , the u n i v e r s i t y , they at l e a s t are the non-purveyors should be d e v i s i n g means to leap the gap. I n l e t s ? The outward - 38 -masks of the special interests that perpetuate the s t a s i s and make i t p r o f i t a b l e . ( I , i i i , 46) The prose passages of t h i s f i n a l section i n Book One also serve to develop t h i s product/process theme. In contrast to the prose excerpt concerning the mayonaisse j a r , ( I , i i i , 44) i n which the edge of the coloured l a b e l held down by glue i s more int e r e s t i n g to the medical student than the specimen within, there i s the prose l i s t of Cornelius Doremus' belong-ings, ( I , i i i , 45) where Doremus1 petty assortment of goods and chattels i s deemed to be of more interest than his death. In the former passage, the interest i s i n d e t a i l and process, and therefore the poet approves; i n the l a t t e r , the interest i s i n the products, and there i s just a vague mention of the man's death. Consequently, the above quoted passage follows t h i s excerpt. In the eel hunt passage, ( I , i i i , 46-7) the generality of t h i s deadening condition i s most revealed. Here the com-munity has drained the water (or l i f e process) of the lake, leaving the f i s h and eels to l i e i n heaps on the mud. The people then swarm onto the lake bottom and scoop them into baskets. By draining the lake, the community has extinguished the process of l i f e , the resultant condition for the marine inhabitants being s t a s i s . The people's interest i s only i n hunting down products. Through placing t h i s h i s t o r i c a l - 39 -excerpt i n t o the f i n a l s e c t i o n of Book One, W i l l i a m s thus transforms an otherwise f l a t prose d e s c r i p t i o n i n t o a remarkably f l e x i b l e and apt metaphor that epitomizes the nature of t h i s general decay i n l i f e around the Paterson area. Having e s t a b l i s h e d these c o n d i t i o n s , the poet as Paterson sets out i n Book Two to employ the r e v i v i n g powers of d e t a i l . And the best way to begin to i n v e s t i g a t e d e t a i l i s to take a walk.^ Consequently much of Book Two i s con-cerned w i t h doing j u s t t h i s , f o r through the v e h i c l e o f walking, Paterson i s able to avoid the a b s t r a c t i o n s of product o r i e n t a t i o n ; "outside myself / there i s a world.... which I approach / c o n c r e t e l y . " ( I I , i , 57) Armed w i t h h i s new weapon of p e r c e p t i o n , Paterson probes f o r d e t a i l s o f t h i s deadened c o n d i t i o n , i n the hope of f i n d i n g some s o l u t i o n . Yet, the d e t a i l s he d i s c o v e r s such as "the ugly l e g s of the young g i r l s , " (58) "the r o o t s . . . w r i t h i n g upon the s u r f a c e , " "the punk-dry r o t , " (59) "the stubble and matted brambles," and "the matt stone s o l i c i t i o u s l y i n s t r u c t e d to bear away some rumour" (62) a l l r e v e a l signs o f confusion and d i v o r c e . These d e t a i l s are "wings (that) do not u n f o l d f o r f l i g h t . " (62) Paterson's observations o f the s t a t e of these "modern r e p l i c a s " l a r g e l y prove to be the same as those of Book One. Consequently, "he - 40 -i s a f r a i d 1 . " (62) Further images such as "an o r c h e s t r a l d u l l n e s s , " "the amnesic crowd," "voices m u l t i p l e and i n a r t i -c u l a t e , " " f e e t a i m l e s s l y wandering," "thoughts s t i l l i n sleep — p i t i f u l , " and the frequent references to di v o r c e also r e v e a l that these c o n d i t i o n s s t i l l p r e v a i l . Towards the end of Book Two, Paterson becomes so d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h h i s world t h a t he begins to be s k e p t i c a l o f h i s o r i g i n a l marriage s o l u t i o n ; "be r e c o n c i l e d with your world, poet — i t i s the only t r u t h . Ha! / The language i s worn out." ( I I , i i i , 103) Though t h i s marriage o f the poet to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c i s to prove i t s e l f l a r g e l y the means to s o l u t i o n i n Book F i v e , the poet has only pessimism and despair f o r i t i n Book Two. The l e t t e r s from C, e s p e c i a l l y the l a s t one, a l s o serve to r e v e a l the poet's s t i l t e d uncommunicative r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . The f i r s t l e t t e r ( I I , i , 59) r e f e r s to the poet's i n f l u e n c e upon "the damming up of (her) c r e a t i v e capa-c i t i e s , " her having to work from "the surface c r u s t " o f h e r s e l f . Here again i s a remarkable instance i n which W i l l i a m s puts h i s prose excerpts to work. G's use of the d e s c r i p t i o n "surface c r u s t " enables the poet to make a subtle i l l u s i o n to earth as w e l l , and hence he r e l a t e s the woman aspect of h i s a n t i - p o e t i c to t h a t of the l a n d . Both i m p l i c a t i o n s o f "surface c r u s t " are concerned with d i v o r c e : That k i n d of blockage, e x i l i n g one's s e l f from - 41 -one's s e l f — have you ever experienced i t ? I dare say you have, at moments; and i f so, you can w e l l understand what a s e r i o u s psy-c h o l o g i c a l i n j u r y i t amounts to when turned i n t o a permanent day - t o - day c o n d i t i o n . ( I I , i , 59-60) Here i t i s as though the poet's a n t i - p o e t i c i s reproaching him f o r not r e l a t i n g to h i s subject p r o p e r l y . Paterson, whether man, c i t y , or poet, has f a i l e d h i s a n t i - p o e t i c because he has not l i v e d up to h i s h a l f o f the bargain i n the necessary " i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n both ways." And though there are s e v e r a l more o p t i m i s t i c passages i n Book Two, the long f i n a l l e t t e r from G serves to epitomize, and i n a sense c l a r i f y , what i s b a s i c a l l y wrong w i t h the g e n e r a l l y deadened world of Paterson: You've never had to l i v e , Dr. P ? — n o t i n any o f the by-wajrs and underground passages where l i f e so o f t e n has to be t e s t e d [jjf. W's des-c r i p t i o n o f the roots w r i t h i n g on the s u r f a c e ] . The very circumstances of your b i r t h and back-ground provided you w i t h an escape from l i f e i n the raw; and you confuse that p r o t e c t i o n from l i f e w i t h an i n a b i l i t y to l i v e — and thus are able t o regard l i t e r a t u r e as nothing more than a desperate l a s t extremity r e s u l t i n g from that i l l u s i o n a r y i n a b i l i t y to l i v e . ( I I , i i i , H I ) I l l u s i o n a r y or not, Paterson does f e e l t h i s i n a b i l i t y to l i v e ; i n h i m s e l f and i n h i s c i t y , and perhaps C i s r i g h t i n saying that Paterson as W i l l i a m s i s protected from l i f e . I f not, i t i s somewhat i r o n i c that G i s accusing W i l l i a m s of i g n o r i n g the processes of l i f e . But i f W i l l i a m s has escaped from l i f e - 42 -i n the raw, then C !s accusation throws a new l i g h t on the prose excerpt concerning the medical student. In t h i s case, the mayonaisse j a r l a b e l becomes the useless product, or s h a l l we say, the f a l s e approach to process. The medical student then, i s a c t u a l l y W i l l i a m s , who i s i g n o r i n g "the twenty or more i n f a n t s " ready to be examined and t r e a t e d , and thus i n t h i s perhaps semi-autobiographical excerpt, W i l l i a m s i s indeed i g n o r i n g l i f e i n the raw. In other words, i n Book Two, W i l l i a m s l i t e r a r y approach to process may have been j u s t as bad as the product o r i e n t a t i o n he condemned. C goes on to say that Paterson's language i s f a i l i n g him because he has divorced l i f e from l i t e r a t u r e . This a c c u s a t i o n , as s h a l l be seen, has important i m p l i c a t i o n s concerning W i l l i a m s ' treatment of a r t i n Books Three and F i v e , where Paterson u l t i m a t e l y t r i e s to u n i t e the two. In Book Two how-ever, C may be r i g h t l y accusing Paterson of seeing h i s a n t i -p o e t i c as a "flower i n ( h i s ) buttonhole" ( i l l ) — i e . — a s a dead p r o d u c t — i n s t e a d o f p r o p e r l y regarding i t as a l i v e flower growing from the l a n d . Thus t h i s e a r l y f a l s e approach may be part of the reason why h i s f i r s t attempt to u n i t e l i f e and a r t i n Book Three f a i l s . This attempt s h a l l be discussed l a t e r i n connection w i t h sun imagery. But a l s o inherent i n t h i s l e t t e r i s the f a c t that a r t can be a u n i f i e r of i d e n t i t y , which becomes very important regarding the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s - 43 i n Book F i v e : . . . i n w r i t i n g (as i n a l l forms of c r e a t i v e a r t ) one d e r i v e s one's u n i t y of being and one's freedom to be one's s e l f , from one's r e l a t i o n s h i p to those p a r t i c u l a r e x t e r n a l s (language, c l a y , p a i n t s etcetera) over which one has complete c o n t r o l and the shaping of which l i e s e n t i r e l y i n one's own power. ( I I , i i i , 106) Here l i e s a p a r t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r why the poet spends so much time i n Book Fi v e d e s c r i b i n g the compositional p a r t i c u l a r s of the t a p e s t r i e s . Working i n conjunction w i t h the dominant p e s s i m i s t i c and d e s p a i r i n g images of the f i r s t two books are l e s s obvious patterns o f images that begin to develop s l o w l y , perhaps because of W i l l i a m s ' "open g o a l " approach. In other words, at f i r s t , he i s insecure about t h e i r v a l i d i t y because he has not yet r e a l i z e d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Therefore the poet wishes to keep these e a r l y treatments of the images independent of of any " c l o s e d n o t i o n s . " I f the poet f i n d s l a t e r t h a t he again wishes to use them as the poem develops, and h i s meaning through more d i s c o v e r i e s becomes c l e a r e r , then he can be more c e r t a i n of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f Columbus spotted a head-land (a hopeful discovery) on h i s way across the A t l a n t i c , he would not know i f that headland was j u s t part of a small i s l a n d , or a small part of a much l a r g e r mainland, u n t i l he - ' 44 -progressed f u r t h e r i n h i s e x p l o r a t i o n . " I n t h i s analogy, Paterson's dominant images of pessimism and despair would be the ocean. Gene r a l l y , these "headland" images i n Paterson are concerned w i t h those few i n d i v i d u a l s who, i n the f i r s t two books, t r y to break t h i s deadened, divorced c o n d i t i o n . Though they a l l i n some sense u l t i m a t e l y f a i l , they are important because they have made an e f f o r t , and because Paterson w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f o l l o w i n t h e i r paths, and t r y to succeed where they have f a i l e d . One of the main patterns t h a t serves to set apart those few i n d i v i d u a l s from the r e s t of the "great beast" i s that of the sun imagery, though i t i s to be noted t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n , p a r t l y because of the "open g o a l " approach, i s not completely c o n s i s t e n t . G e n e r a l l y , those who are part of the mesmerized crowd are i n v o l v e d w i t h images of shade, while the few i n d i -v i d u a l s who t r y are in v o l v e d w i t h d i r e c t s u n l i g h t . The sun i t s e l f i s an image of r e s u r r e c t i o n , common enough i n e l e g i e s ( f o r example, " L y c i d a s " ) , and belongs to the masculine side of the p o e t i c / a n t i - p o e t i c harmony. For example, note the sexual i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f o l l o w i n g image: "The flower spreads i t s coloured p e t a l s / wide i n the sun," ( I , i , 20) and i n Book Four, " w a i t i n g f o r the sun to part the l a b i a / o f shabby clouds." (IV, i i , 210) E a r l y i n Book One, the sun as re s u r -r e c t i v e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , though u n r e a l i z e d . Here i t i s an - 45 -"ignorant sun, r i s i n g i n the s l o t of hollow suns r i s e n . " (Preface, 12) But at the end of Book Four, i t s r e s u r r e c t i v e p o t e n t i a l i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d , f o r when confronted w i t h the sea of o r d i n a r y death, "the sun alone l i f t s undamped / i t s wings of f i r e . " (IV, i i i , 236) And i n Book F i v e , i n the image of the b i r d s weaving the t a p e s t r i e s , the b i r d s are working together " i n the sun's g l a r e . " (V, i i i , 269) Between Book One and Book Four, the sun images become more and more developed when seen i n conjunction w i t h the q u a l i t i e s of those few i n d i v i d u a l s , forming i n t o complementary patterns i n which Paterson w i l l e v e n t u a l l y enter. At the end of Book One, however, Paterson i s very much a part of t h i s deadened c o n d i t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e h i s , Thought clambers up, s n a i l l i k e , upon the wet rocks hidden from sun and s i g h t — ... and has i t s b i r t h and death there i n t hat moist chamber, shut from the world — and unknown to the world. ( I , i i i , 51) In Book Two, Paterson sees t h a t the pleasure seekers i n the park " l i e protected from the o f f e n d i n g sun;" ( I I , i , 65) the white g i r l , f o r example, " l i e s under the bush," (66) and her boyfriend has "a sunshade over h i s eyes." (66) L a t e r , i n W i l l i a m s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the working c l a s s e s , since "some sor t of breakdown has occurred," (67) they are seen as p a r t l y i n the s u n l i g h t , "mottled by the shadows of the l e a v e s . " (67) - 46 -However, the few i n d i v i d u a l s who t r y , such as Mary, who dances i n the s u n l i g h t t r y i n g to get her f r i e n d s to respond, or Klaus Ehrens, the man who preaches to the mesmerized congregation on the v i r t u e s o f poverty, h i s "glabrous s k u l l ( r e f l e c t s ) the sun's l i g h t . " ( I I , i i , 80) And i n one o f the poet's more famous passages of Book 9 Two, i n f a c t W i l l i a m s ' f a v o u r i t e passage, which begins "The descent beckons / as the ascent beckoned," the sun plays an important part i n t h i s momentary r e v e l a t i o n of a s o l u t i o n : With evening, love wakens though i t s shadows which are a l i v e by reason o f the sun s h i n i n g — ... Love without shadows s t i r s now beginning to waken as night advances. ( I I , i i i , 96) Here the sun i s r e l a t e d to the sleep / awakening progression mentioned e a r l i e r . However, t h i s r e v e l a t i o n i s temporary, f o r "night advances," and t h e r e f o r e h i s "new awakening" i s "without accomplishment." And "though he sweat f o r a l l h i s worth / no poet has come." ( I I , i i i , 97) The sun's main thematic importance i n r e l a t i o n to Paterson. i s i n t h e i r p a r a l l e l r e l a t i o n s h i p to a r t . Though i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t l i k e the micro-macro s i t u a t i o n of Paterson the man, and h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n the c i t y , so too there i s the sun as a p h y s i c a l flaming o b j e c t , and i t s more u n i v e r s a l - 47 -m a n i f e s t a t i o n , s u n l i g h t . In d i s c u s s i n g the various v e r b a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of Paterson, that i s , the name Paterson, as a symbolic metaphor, S i s t e r Quinn p o i n t s out tha t i t s "conno-t a t i o n s i n c l u d e the homonym of son (sun), "which i n some sense means that Paterson i s the f a t h e r (pater) of the s u n . ^ Though t h i s does t i e i n q u i t e n i c e l y w i t h the thematic i m p l i -c a t i o n s of the sun imagery, a d i r e c t i o n which Quinn doesn't pursue, t h i s v e r b a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f the name does seem to be a b i t o f an i n t e r p r e t i v e s t r e t c h , e s p e c i a l l y since W i l l i a m s has s t a t e d that he chose Paterson the c i t y f o r reasons other than i t s name.-^ A f t e r a l l , one could j u s t as e a s i l y look f o r a e s t h e t i c and decadent q u a l i t i e s i n Paterson on the grounds that the name i m p l i e s t h a t W i l l i a m s i s the "son" of(Walter) Pater. At any r a t e , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Paterson to the sun becomes more s p e c i f i c i n Book Three i n the poet's metaphorical d i s c u s s i o n of a r t , and because of the treatment of the images of flame and heat i n r e l a t i o n to a r t and l i f e i n a r t , t h i s d i s c u s s i o n has an important relevance to Book F i v e . Consider f o r example the f o l l o w i n g b r i e f o u t l i n e i n terms o f t h i s sun imagery development. In Book One occurs the l i n e , "Ignorant sun r i s i n g i n the s l o t of hollow suns r i s e n . " (Preface, 12) Then i n Book Three, i n the l i b r a r y s e c t i o n , the poet says "When the sun r i s e s , i t r i s e s i n the poem." ( I l l , i , 122) - 48 -Then l a t e r , the poet's d e s c r i p t i o n of the books ( a r t ) of the past are l i k e the hollow suns r i s e n , where "We read not the flames / but the r u i n s l e f t / by the c o n f l a g r a t i o n . " ( I l l f i i , 148) A sun without flames i s a hollow sun. S i m i l a r l y , a book or work of a r t without the "flame" of the a r t i s t present i s a hollow a r t i f a c t , "as there are f i r e s t h a t /smolder / smolder a l i f e t i m e and never burst / i n t o flame." ( I I I , i i , 142) As the poet says, "That which should be rare i s t r a s h because i t contains nothing of you." ( I l l T i i i , 148) This passage i s immediately followed by the only reference to the Unicorn t a p e s t r y other than Book F i v e . Therefore, i t merits c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S i m i l a r to the process of Paterson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn i n Book F i v e , Paterson i n Book Three attempts to overcome the " s t a g n a t i o n " and "death" o f the hollow a r t i f a c t s i n the l i b r a r y by g i v i n g h i s l i f e (flame, blood) to the a r t of the past: Awake, he dozes i n a fever heat, cheeks burning [l i k e the sun] ... l o a n i n g blood to the past, amazed . . r i s k i n g l i f e . And as h i s mind fades, j o i n i n g the others, he seeks to b r i n g i t back — but i t eludes him, f l u t t e r s again and f l i e s o f f and again away. ( I l l , i , 124) As i n Book F i v e , Paterson i s "awake," which i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n con t r a s t to the dominant sleep imagery of the f i r s t two books. - 49 -And because Paterson i s r i s k i n g h i s l i f e , Thalassa appears on the scene: 0 Thalassa, Thalassa'. the l a s h and h i s s o f water-^ The seat How near i t was to them'. Soon'. Too soon . ( I l l , i , 124) S i m i l a r l y , i n Book Four, she i s to reappear when Paterson as r i v e r i s coming to h i s l i f e ' s end. U n l i k e the c o n f r o n t a t i o n i n Book Four though, Thalassa i n Book Three thwarts Paterson from h i s attempt: B r e a t h l e s s and i n haste the v a r i o u s night (of books) awakesI awakes and begins (a second time) i t s song... I t w i l l not l a s t f o r e v e r against the long sea, the long, long sea, swept by winds, the "wine-dark" sea... they cannot penetrate and cannot waken, to be again a c t i v e but remain — books that i s , men i n h e l l , t h e i r r e i g n over the l i v i n g ended. ( I l l , i i , 140) In t h i s passage the term " r e i g n " has an important i m p l i c a t i o n regarding h i s l a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn as Paterson, the " K i n g - s e l f . " F u r t h e r , i t i s t h i s r i s k i n g o f l i f e f o r the sake o f a r t that again motivates Paterson i n Book Four to t u r n away from the sea o f death, and i n Book F i v e , he succeeds. 50 -When i n Book Four both the poet and the sun t u r n t h e i r "undamped wings" of " f i r e " away from the sea o f o r d i -nary death, Paterson i s i n a sense a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the symbolic i m p l i c a t i o n s of the flame and heat c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the sun, e s t a b l i s h e d i n Book Three. In Book F i v e , t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n becomes more developed, f o r j u s t as the t a p e s t r i e s are being weaved under the sun's " g l a r e , " so Paterson i n t h i s book i s i n a sense " g l a r i n g " at these t a p e s t r i e s . Nov/ when Paterson i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the Unicorn he, because of h i s p a r a l l e l w i t h the sun, becomes the "flame" f o r the t a p e s t r i e s , the flame that makes them rare i n s t e a d of t r a s h , and i n t h i s way he allows the museum to become r e a l . Thus, at the moment of Paterson's complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn, the t a p e s t r i e s are r e f e r r e d to as "the l i v i n g f i c t i o n . " I n other words, Paterson r e s u r -r e c t s A r t , Art r e s u r r e c t s Paterson, and again there i s "an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n — both ways." Consequently, both s u r v i v e . Here, the Santayana excerpt at the beginning o f Book Three becomes s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r when Paterson the man r e s u r r e c t s A r t , and v i c e versa, they a l s o r e s u r r e c t the deadened c o n d i t i o n of Paterson, the c i t y : . . . c i t i e s are a second body f o r the human mind, a second organism, more r a t i o n a l , permanent and d e c o r a t i v e than the animal organism of f l e s h and bone: a work of  n a t u r a l vet moral a r t , where the soul sets 51 -up her t r o p h i e s of a c t i o n and instruments of pleasure. ( I l l , 116, My i t a l i c s . ) I n other words, the c i t y i s i n a sense an intermediate l i n k between Nature and A r t . Thus, the i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n and i n t e r -r e s u r r e c t i o n becomes t h r e e f o l d . Working along l i n e s s i m i l a r to the sun images are the images of b i r d s , those " c o u r i e r s to the ceremonial o f l o v e . " ( I I , i , 63) Love, i n t u r n , i s seen by the poet as a flame. The f a c t that the poet means these sun and b i r d images to be r e l a t e d can be seen i n such l i n e s as "aflame i n f l i g h t ! — aflame only i n f l i g h t ! " ( 6 3 ) , r e f e r r i n g to b i r d s ; and "wings of f i r e , " (IV, i i i , 236) r e f e r r i n g to the sun. x3 L i k e the ignorant sun of Book One, the b i r d s i n t h i s book are observed, but at the moment seen as i n s i g n i f i c a n t , j u s t part of the g e n e r a l l y s t e r i l e p a t t e r n . These f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n s of the b i r d s show them as not i n f l i g h t , but on the ground. For i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m s ' f i r s t reference to b i r d s i s : Womanlike.... f l o a t i n g l i k e a pigeon a f t e r a long f l i g h t to h i s cote., ( I , i , 23) which i s an image of weariness and r e p i t i t i o n , and i s something that the poet doesn't wish to be a part of: C e r t a i n l y I am not a r o b i n nor e r u d i t e , no Erasmus nor b i r d that r e t u r n s to the same ground year by year. ( I , i i , 29) - 52 -S i m i l a r l y , the "white crane w i l l f l y / and s e t t l e l a t e r , " (30) and: the b i r d a l i g h t i n g , that pushes i t s f e e t forward to take up the impetus and f a l l s forward nevertheless among the t w i g s . ( I , i i , 34) In Book One, the b i r d s seem merely a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the deadened, divorced c o n d i t i o n , f o r they are o n l y "the b i r d s as against the f i s h . " (36) The beginning of Book Two t r e a t s b i r d s i n a s i m i l a r , i f not worse f a s h i o n : Signs everywhere of b i r d s n e s t i n g , w h i l e i n the a i r , slow, a crow zigzags w i t h heavy wings before the wasp-thrusts of smaller b i r d s c i r c l i n g about him that dive from above stabbing f o r h i s eyes. ( I I , i , 61) Then suddenly, during h i s walk, Paterson p r a c t i c a l l y stumbles over some b i r d s , causing them to take f l i g h t , and h i s s u r p r i s e at t h e i r a c t i o n causes him to r e a l i z e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e : They f l y away, c h u r r i n g l . . . .. and disappear — but leave, l i v e n i n g the mind, a f l a s h i n g of wings and a c h u r r i n g song... ...aflame only i n f l i g h t I... He i s l e d forward by t h e i r announcing wings. ( I I , i , 62-3) Here then, i s a c l e a r example of the value of "open go a l s . " When W i l l i a m s allows us to see h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , or s h a l l we say, the process that l e d to h i s i n s p i r a t i o n , the s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f the b i r d s " l i v e n i n g the mind" which leads the poet forward seems a l l the more r e a l , and hence a l l the more 53 -v a l u a b l e . I f W i l l i a m s had p e r s i s t e d i n r e t a i n i n g any " c l o s e d " notions of the b i r d s , p e r s i s t e d f o r the sake of thematic consistency to keep the b i r d s i n the divorced s t a t e of "the b i r d s as against the f i s h , " as the poet says the product-o r i e n t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s tend to do, then the p a t t e r n of h i s b i r d imagery would have been forced and a r t i f i c i a l , and hence i n v a l i d . And i t would have been j u s t as i n v a l i d f o r W i l l i a m s to have r e v i s e d those e a r l i e r images to make them c o n s i s t e n t with the i n s p i r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e he discovered l a t e r . Although W i l l i a m s i s a poet who b e l i e v e s i n the n e c e s s i t y of r e v i s i o n , i t i s important to r e a l i z e that he r a r e l y r e v i z e s the meaning of a p a r t i c u l a r work or phrase, but the language which he has used to convey that meaning. A quick comparison of e a r l i e r and l a t e r d r a f t s o f many of W i l l i a m s ' poems w i l l r e v e a l that he u s u a l l y r e v i s e s h i s approach to the su b j e c t , and not the subject which he i s approaching. The l a t e r d r a f t s thus r e s u l t i n a more d i r e c t p e r c e p t i o n , as the poem happens, not as i t a b s t r a c t l y happens, or should happen. A f t e r W i l l i a m s ' fortunate " a c c i d e n t a l " d i s c o v e r y , he r e l a t e s the b i r d s , l i k e the sun, to what can be r e f e r r e d t o as the heat of l i f e . A synonym of t h i s heat i s what has p r e v i o u s l y been c a l l e d " e f f o r t , " which manifests i t s e l f i n lo v e . And i t i s t h i s love t h a t w i l l e v e n t u a l l y overcome the deadened divorced sleep that Paterson's world i s now i n . - 54 -Consequently, i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate f o r W i l l i a m s to have the song of the fox sparrow reawaken the world of Paterson i n Book F i v e , and have the image of the b i r d s working together to produce the t a p e s t r i e s . And when Paterson does reawaken i n Book F i v e , "He looks out the i^indow / (and) sees the b i r d s s t i l l there — " . (V, i , 242) I I I The second main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Unicorn that W i l l i a m s c a l l s our a t t e n t i o n t o , i n f a c t repeatedly, i s the white colour o f the Unicorn. Although t h i s i s the legendary colour of the beast, i t s whiteness seems s i g n i f i c a n t not only because the poet repeatedly mentions t h i s c o l o u r , but al s o because a col o u r m o t i f , e s p e c i a l l y the c o l o u r white, runs throughout the preceding four books. This motif becomes so developed i n Paterson t h a t by Book F i v e , the col o u r white has as many i m p l i c a t i o n s as other symbolic metaphors i n the poem. Further, these i m p l i c a t i o n s are i n t e g r a l to the poet's s o l u t i o n . As W i l l i a m s says, towards the c l o s e of Book Three: No meaning. And ye t , unless I f i n d a place apart from i t [the f a l l s 3 , I am i t s s l a v e , i t s s l eeper, bewildered — dazzled by distance . I cannot stay here to spend my l i f e l o o k i n g i n t o the past: The f u t u r e ' s no answer. I must  f i n d mv meaning and l a v i t , white, beside the s l i d i n g water: myself — . ( I l l , i i i , 172-3. My i t a l i c s . ) - 55 -In Book F i v e , t h a t "place apart" i s discovered. In general terms, the place i s the realm of a r t , detached from l i f e , yet i n t e g r a l to i t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the place i s the C l o i s t e r s Museum, detached from Paterson's l i f e i n th a t i t i s about f i f t e e n m iles from Paterson the c i t y , yet i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d to the thoughts of Paterson the man. And i n t h i s museum i s "the s i n g l e o b j e c t " that i s to re s o l v e Paterson's "complex f e e l i n g s o f p r o p r i e t y , " the white Unicorn. In t h i s sense, white i s the s i n g l e c o l o u r t h a t r e s o l v e s a l l the "complex" mani f e s t a t i o n s of a l l the other c o l o u r s . That i s , i n the world of c o l o u r , white i s "by m u l t i p l i c a t i o n a r e d u c t i o n to one." (Preface, 10) W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f has s a i d that "Color i s l i g h t . C o lor i s what most d i s t i n g u i s h e s the a r t i s t , " (SE, 334) and that the c o l o u r white i s "the background of a l l good work" because i t " i s at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of blue and green and y e l l o w and red." (.SE, 122) In col o u r symbolism, these four colours are basic d i v i s i o n s , a f a c t which W i l l i a m s here seems to be aware of. I n terms of archetype, blue i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c l e a r reason or r a r e f i e d t h i n k i n g ; yellow w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s of the sun such as i n t u i t i o n ; red w i t h the emotions, blood, f i r e , the l i f e - g i v i n g p r i n c i p l e ; and green w i t h sensation or l i v i n g . Though W i l l i a m s develops these basic connotations much f u r t h e r i n Paterson. these conventional a s s o c i a t i o n s are not that incompatible w i t h h i s - 56 -use of the c o l o r m o t i f . For example, W i l l i a m s "wine-dark sea" i s a l s o "the sea o f blood," and the poet's rose, d i s -cussed e a r l i e r , i s a green rose because i t i s a growing and l i v i n g p l a n t . The important t h i n g , however, i s th a t both W i l l i a m s and archetypal convention see white as the culmina-t i o n , or the balanced u n i t y o f these four main aspects of colour symbolism. On t h i s l e v e l then, white i s the appropriate colour f o r the poet's f i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In A D i c t i o n a r y of Symbols, from which these i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n s come, J.E. G i r l o t p o i n t s out another important aspect o f t h i s c olour t h a t r e l a t e s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to Paterson: "The f u n c t i o n of white i s derived from that o f the sun: from mystic i l l u m i n a t i o n — s y m b o l i c a l l y of the East; when i t i s regarded as p u r i f i e d y e l l o w (genius)." That W i l l i a m s i s aware of t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n can be seen i n t h i s passage of Book Four: "Yellow, f o r genius, the Jap s a i d . Y ellow / i s your c o l o u r . The sun. Everybody looked." (IV, i i i , 226) Thus, i n Book F i v e , when Paterson and the sun a l i g n themselves w i t h the white Unicorn, Paterson i n t h i s sense does become p u r i f i e d yellow, and i n t h i s way t h e i r union may become a symbol of " i l l u m i n a -t i o n , ascension, timelessness, ecstasy, r e v e l a t i o n , f a i t h . . " " ^ e t c . E a r l i e r i n Book Two, i n the famous descent passage, i t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g that the co l o u r white i s r e l a t e d to W i l l i a m s ' treatment o f the sun: 57 -a wor ld unsuspected beckons to new p lace s and no whiteness ( l o s t ) i s so whi te as the memory o f whiteness . W i t h evening , l ove wakens though i t s shadows which are a l i v e by reason o f the sun s h i n i n g . . . . ( I I , i i i , 196) I n t h i s passage then i s another i m p l i c a t i o n o f P a t e r s o n ' s " reawakening" i n Book F i v e , where the p r o t a g o n i s t remembers "when he thought / he has f o r g o t . " (V, 241) These m y s t i c a l connota t ions o f whi te are i n t u r n r e l a t e d to W i l l i a m s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f i n a l t a p e s t r y i n the s e r i e s , the t a p e s t r y where the U n i c o r n " i s penned by a low /wooden fence / i n A p r i l . " (V, i i i , 270) As Wagner says , " A p r i l , the U n i c o r n , and the snake suggest W i l l i a m s ' i n c r e a s i n g preoccu-p a t i o n w i t h t i m e l e s s n e s s , i n f i n i t y , and God."15 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , perhaps l a b o u r i n g under the fear t h a t the passages here are too o c c u l t f o r syntax, ' Wagner does not r e v e a l how these images are r e l a t e d to these m y s t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . However, these passages are too important t o be i g n o r e d . I n t h i s f i n a l t a p e s t r y , the U n i c o r n i s i n what i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y known as the " h o r t u s c o n c l u s u s " o r enclosed garden w h i c h , accord ing to Jung, i s an a r c h e t y p a l symbol f o r the d i s c o v e r y o f the t rue s e l f . - ^ I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, Jung sees the d i s c o v e r y o f the t rue s e l f as the marr iaee o f the mascul ine (conscious) and feminine (unconscious) elements i n our p e r s o n a l i t y , and t h a t the quest - 58 -f o r the di s c o v e r y of the s e l f i s a c t u a l l y the attempts t o come to terms w i t h the unconscious and to t r y to b r i n g about a synthesis of these conscious and unconscious opposites.^'' 7 In t h i s sense, W i l l i a m s ' d e s i r e to u n i t e the poet i c w i t h what has been c a l l e d the a n t i - p o e t i c i s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d to h i s quest f o r i d e n t i t y . Since Paterson i s a l s o described as being i n the garden; "coming / to search me out — w i t h a rare smile / among the thronging flowers of th a t f i e l d / where the Unicorn / i s penned...", (V, i i i , 268) the passage can be i n t e r p r e t e d as Paterson on the b r i n k of d i s c o v e r i n g h i s i d e n t i t y . Since Paterson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the f i n a l t a p e s t r y i s an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n l i g h t of the f a c t that "Paterson has grown o l d e r , " (V, i i i , 268) and that h i s I'ageing body" (270) i s coming f o r him, i n other words, that death i s approaching Paterson, W i l l i a m s seems to be i n d i c a t i n g some sor t of r e l a t i o n s h i p between death, and the hortus conclusus discovery of the true s e l f . Again, another of Northrop. Frye's comments on the nature of the romantic death becomes p e r t i n e n t : Death i s a k i n d of f l i g h t of the alone t o the alone, where the i n d i v i d u a l becomes a universe i n h i m s e l f , a microcosm of the a c t u a l u n iverse, and. so a t t a i n s a genuine sense of being at the centre of r e a l i t y . ^ Thus Paterson, a f t e r h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn i n the f i n a l t a p e s t r y , can f i n a l l y say t h a t "anywhere i s - 59 -everywhere , " (273) f o r once the i n d i v i d u a l f u l l y d i s c o v e r s h i m s e l f he , l i k e the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Atman and Brahma, becomes u n i v e r s a l , and i n t h i s sense i s everywhere. To support t h i s sense o f i l l u m i n a t i o n or t i m e l e s s n e s s , W i l l i a m s juxtaposes the two ends o f h i s l i f e i n two s tanzas , p a r a l l e l i n g the image o f Ouroborus, " the a l l - w i s e s e r p e n t . " (271) I n the f i r s t s t a n z a , he r e f e r s to " the aging body / w i t h the deformed great toe n a i l , " (270) which i s immediate ly f o l l o w e d i n the second stanza by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f W i l l i a m s ' e a r l y ch i ldhood episode concerning h i s Uncle Godwin and a snake, whose " t a i l / would not stop w r i g g l i n g t i l / a f t e r the sun / goes down." (270) Though t h i s passage i s a l s o r e l a t e d to the sun imagery d i scus sed e a r l i e r , i t s main s i g n i f i c a n c e i s i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p o e t ' s c h i l d h o o d . Cons ider i t s s i m i l a r i t y to W i l l i a m s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f what he sees as an important event i n h i s e a r l y l i f e : Once they were d i g g i n g a p o s t - h o l e and turned up a l a r g e red snake. I remember as though i t were yes terday t h a t Godwin s a i d i t would not d i e u n t i l sunset though i t s head had been comple te ly crushed , f o r i t s t a i l was s t i l l w r i g g l i n g . (Auto , 7) I n t h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the p o e t ' s o l d age and h i s youth i s an image p a r a l l e l i n g Ouroborous, the wor ld- serpent whose t a i l o f death and crown o f l i f e meet t o g e t h e r . For W i l l i a m s , t h i s sense o f t ime le s snes s prov ides some s o r t o f c u l m i n a t i o n , f o r - 60 -" i n every man there must f i n a l l y occur a f u s i o n between h i s dream which he dreamed when he was young and the phenomenal world of h i s l a t e r years i f he i s to be rated high as a master of h i s a r t . " (SE, 236) L i k e the poet's concept "death i s a h o l e , " (V, i , 246) t h i s f u s i o n of both ends of the poet's l i f e i s a c i r c u l a r image. Both resemble the f i g u r e of Ouroborus. Thus W i l l i a m s ' r e v e l a t i o n "anywhere i s everywhere" does not mean that "place i s only p l a c e , " to borrow E l i o t ' s phrase, but l i k e "the end of the sphere," t r u e death i s not a vast g e n e r a l i z e d sea, but a p o i n t , a p l a c e , a t h i n g ; the f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n of any one s p e c i f i c l o c a l e . Thus death must be seen as some s o r t of s p e c i f i c p l a c e , that i s , a h o l e , i f the imagination i s to escape i n t a c t . By p l a c i n g the stanza of the red snake i n the post-hole immediately a f t e r the stanza d e s c r i b i n g the penned Unicorn and saying t h a t they both occur i n "the same month," A p r i l , W i l l i a m s i s a l i g n i n g the pen o f the wooden fence w i t h the post^hole, and i n t h i s way both become r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the "hole / at the bottom of the cavern / of death, (through which) the imagination escapes i n t a c t . " (V, i , 247) This r e s u r r e c t i o n / d e a t h a l t e r n a t i o n i s a l s o inherent i n the colour white. L i k e any culminatory symbol, white i s a balance or s y n t h e s i s of p o l a r opposites. J u s t as t h i s c olour symbolizes r e v e l a t i o n , timelessness, i l l u m i n a t i o n e t c . , i t - 61 -a l s o , l i k e the ambiguous Moby Dick, symbolizes death. This i s important i n r e l a t i o n to another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Unicorn, that o f i t s use by the alchemists as the Monstrum Hermaphroditum. L i k e the " s p i r i t u s m e r c u r i a l i s , " which was a l s o white, that the Unicorn of the alchemists came to represent, the Unicorn because of c e r t a i n of i t s ambivalent i m p l i c a t i o n s became one of t h e i r symbols f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . As C i r l o t says, basing h i s study on Jung, "on one hand, (the Unicorn) i s r e l a t e d to p r i m o r d i a l monsters and appears on occasion w i t h c e r t a i n e v i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , harboring i l l w i l l toward men; on the other hand, the Unicorn i s r e l a t e d to C h r i s t , an emblem of the sword or Word of God . "19 Jung observed that the Church ignored t h i s negative side o f the Unicorn. For P a t e r s o n T the importance of t h i s ambivalent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not i n the s p e c i f i c nature of these o p p o s i t e s , but more i n the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the beast as a symbol f o r the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of o p p o s i t e s . For example, j u s t as the "whore" and the " v i r g i n " form an i d e n t i t y to Paterson, so too the f u l -l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f l i f e at the p o i n t of death forms Paterson's i d e n t i t y . In t h i s way, the Unicorn i s the p h i l o -sopher's stone f o r Paterson, though u n f o r t u n a t e l y the r e v e l a -t i o n or awakening i t provides f o r the poet seems only momen-t a r y . Though h i s union w i t h the Unicorn provides f o r the protagonist some so r t of c u l m i n a t i o n , nothing can thwart - 62 Paterson's i n e v i t a b l e death. S i m i l a r l y , nothing seemed able to thwart C h r i s t ' s c r u c i f i x i o n . And i n the c l o s i n g pages o f Book F i v e , as s h a l l be discussed i n the next chapter, Paterson r e a l i z e s t h i s i n e v i t a b i l i t y . At any r a t e , the hermetic q u a l i t y of the Unicorn makes the beast a m y s t i c a l supporter o f the marriage theme, the s p i r i t us mercurialus f o r the poet-~s marriage to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c , a union i n which the two can become, though only momentarily, " i n t e r - p e n e t r a t i n g r e a l i t i e s . " IV As mentioned e a r l i e r , the concept of union i n t h i s act of momentary r e s u r r e c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s the concept of r e t u r n . When Paterson says i n the Preface of Book One tha t "the beginning i s assuredly the end — since we know nothing, pure and simple, beyond our own c o m p l e x i t i e s , " (Pre-face, 11) i t seems at f i r s t that the poet i s saying there i s no s o l u t i o n to the dilemma. As w i t h the poet's e a r l y despair over the "ignorant sun" and "the m u l t i p l e seed... l o s t i n the f l u x and the mind," the poet i n Book One a l s o b e l i e v e s that "there i s no r e t u r n . " (12) J u s t as the sun's importance i n Book One seems only i n "winding the yellow bindweed about a bush," ( I , i i , 34) so too, i n Book One, W i l l i a m s ' serpent i s no Ouroborous: "The p i t i f u l snake w i t h i t s mosaic s k i n and f r a n t i c tongue." (34) However, by Book F i v e , an important part of the poet's thematic a c t i v i t y i s i n v o l v e d with - 63 -r e t u r n i n g to the b e g i n n i n g , i m p l y i n g t h a t the statement reads more " the end i s a s s u r e d l y the b e g i n n i n g ; " t h a t , l i k e Ouroborous, the t a i l o f death and the crown o f l i f e become "an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n — both ways . " I n Book F i v e , W i l l i a m s ' t reatment o f the r i v e r i s very s i m i l a r to h i s treatment o f t h i s snake, f o r j u s t as " the snake r o l l s backward i n t o the p a s t , " (V, i , 249) Pa ter son as r i v e r "has r e t u r n e d t o i t s b e g i n n i n g s ; " (V, i i i , 271) both i n a sense complet ing the c i r c l e o f the l i f e / d e a t h a l t e r n a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t W i l l i a m s wishes the snake image and the r i v e r image t o be r e l a t e d can be seen i n the f o l l o w i n g l i n e from Book Four : "My se rpent , my r i v e r ' , genius o f the f i e l d s . " ( I V , i i i , 226) F u r t h e r , the r e t u r n o f the r i v e r t o i t s sources becomes more important when seen i n l i g h t o f W i l l i a m s ' statement i n I Wanted to W r i t e a Poem, a book w r i t t e n approx imate ly the same t ime as Book F i v e : " the concept o f a beg inning o f a r i v e r i s o f course a symbol f o r a l l b e g i n n i n g s . " (IWWPT 74) And f o r Pa ter son as man, he "has r e t u r n e d to the o l d s cenes . " (V, i , 243) In terms o f the t r a d i t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f Ouroborus however, t h i s r e t u r n i s r e a l l y no s o l u t i o n , but an i n e v i t a b l e par t o f the c y c l e o f l i f e . The union o f the s e r p e n t ' s t a i l w i t h i t s mouth imparts a sense o f c y c l i c a l movement t h a t , l i k e the wheel o f Sarnsara, i n d i c a t e s the cease les s a l t e r n a t i o n s between l i f e and death , l i g h t and dark , whi te and b l ack ( f o r Ouroborous i s h a l f b l ack and h a l f w h i t e ) , disappearance and - 64 -appearance e t c . In f a c t , the Ouroborous f i g u r e has been r e f e r r e d to as "the t e r r i b l e c i r c l e . " 2 1 But W i l l i a m s ' t r e a t -ment o f Ouroborous and h i s other r e l a t e d images of r e t u r n i n Paterson do not n e c e s s a r i l y imply t h i s i n e v i t a b l e meaningless c i r c l e . For one, W i l l i a m s ' Ouroborous r o l l s backward i n t o the past; h i s snake i s not a s t a t i c mandala. However, t h i s by i t s e l f i s not reason enough. Secondly, according to t r a d i t i o n , there i s one way the closed double c i r c l e can be broken, and th a t i s through l o v e . L i k e W i l l i a m s ' treatment of death as a h o l e , which i s a l s o an image of a c i r c l e , the f a t e of the Ouroboric c i r c l e can be broken through the Imagination, what f o r the poet i s synonymous w i t h l o v e , and what he g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s to as e f f o r t . I n t h i s sense, the image of the snake r o l l i n g backwards i n t o the past i s an image o f e f f o r t . Here then i s another key t o Paterson's r e s u r r e c t i o n . J u s t as e f f o r t (love) i s necessary to u n i t e the poet w i t h h i s a n t i -p o e t i c i n the marriage a l l e g o r y , so too t h i s e f f o r t i s to break Paterson from the bondage o f o r d i n a r y meaningless death. Though Paterson i s unavoidably going to d i e , as s h a l l be seen, Paterson's l i f e w i l l be transformed i n t o something e l s e more meaningful and permanent, the realm o f a r t . Through the s a t y r images i n r e l a t i o n to "the great Dionysian t h e a t r e , " both the e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n the marriage theme, and the e f f o r t necessary f o r the perpetuation of the l i f e c y c l e are i n v o l v e d w i t h - 65 -another aspect o f r e t u r n i n Book F i v e , t h a t o f a r t r e t u r n i n g to i t s b e g i n n i n g s . The unders tanding o f the nature o f t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n l i e s i n the t h i r d and most important reason f o r not seeing W i l l i a m s ' concept o f r e t u r n as merely the cease les s a l t e r n a -t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s . T h i s reason comes from W i l l i a m s ' treatment o f the f a l l s i n Book Three . C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the metaphor o f the r i v e r as the p o e t ' s l i f e course o r stream o f consciousness has the f a l l s as the pre sent , w i t h the r e l a t i v e l y q u i e t par t o f the r i v e r above the f a l l s as the pa s t , and the u n c e r t a i n course o f the r i v e r below the f a l l s as the f u t u r e : The past above, the f u t u r e below and the present pour ing down: the r o a r , the r o a r o f the p r e s e n t . . . . ( I l l , - i i i , 172) For Pater son at the end o f Book Four and throughout Book F i v e , though he has a l r e a d y had s e v e r a l r e v e a l i n g g l impses o f the u n c e r t a i n yet f a t a l sea o f the f u t u r e , P a t e r s o n , i n terms o f the f a l l s metaphor as p r e s e n t , i s now at the bottom o f the f a l l s , a t the p o i n t where he has the choice to cont inue the now s h o r t - l i v e d course o f the r i v e r i n t o the sea , o_r become par t o f the " f a l l s unseen , " which " tumbles and r i g h t s i t s e l f and r e f a l l s — and does not cease, f a l l i n g and r e f a i l i n g w i t h a r o a r , a r e v e r b e r a t i o n , not o f the f a l l s , but o f i t s rumour unabated . " ( I l l , i , 119) I n o ther words, when Pater son heads - 66 -i n l a n d , he chooses to become part of the " f a l l s unseen." Therefore, W i l l i a m s concept of r e t u r n i s not a r e t u r n to past l i f e as l i f e , "not o f the f a l l s , but o f i t s rumour." And what i s t h i s "rumour," or the " r e p l i c a " o f t h i s f a l l s but a r t . Con-sequently, W i l l i a m s says: Books w i l l give r e s t sometimes against the uproar of water f a l l i n g and r i g h t i n g i t s e l f to r e f a l l f i l l i n g the mind w i t h i t s r e v e r b e r a t i o n shaking stone. ( I l l , i , 119) What e l s e can make the Ouroboric snake r o l l backwards i n t o the past but a r t ? Thus, at the end o f Book Three, l i k e the end of Book Four, Paterson r e a l i z e s that "the f u t u r e ' s no answer," (173) and so chooses to become part of the f a l l s unseen, the place apart from the f a l l s o f l i f e , where the p r o t a g o n i s t says: I must f i n d ray meaning and l a y i t white, beside the s l i d i n g water: myself — comb out the language — or succumb whatever the complexion. Let me out'. (Well go1.) t h i s r h e t o r i c i s real'. ( I l l , i i i , 173) Here the r e t u r n of the " f a l l s unseen" or Paterson's r e t u r n to h i s sources i n t h i s way becomes mostly a transformation from the realm o f l i f e , f o r Paterson's l i f e must i n e v i t a b l y end, i n t o the realm of a r t . In terms of one thematic p a t t e r n , t h i s i s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from images of water to images of flame. These images i n c l u d e both the flame o f c r e a t i o n (developed - 67 -most ly i n Book Three) and the flame o f l o v e o r i m a g i n a t i o n (developed most ly i n Book F i v e ) : " t h e w a t e r f a l l o f the f lames , a c a t a r a c t r e v e r s e d , shoot ing upward (what d i f f e r e n c e does i t make?) / the l anguage . " ( I l l , i i , 146) And, s e v e r a l l i n e s l a t e r : " R i s i n g , w i t h a w h i r l i n g mot ion , the person passed i n t o the f lame, becomes the flame — the flame t a k i n g over the p e r s o n . . . a secre t j oy i n the flame which we dare not acknowledge." (146-7) I n Book F i v e though, as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , W i l l i a m s does acknowledge t h i s f l ame, and so escapes the bonds o f the o r d i n a r y l i f e c o u r s e . T h i s then i s the t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f W i l l i a m s ' images o f r e t u r n i n Book F i v e , the r e t u r n o f Pater son as a r t to f i n d the i d e n t i t y and the meaning o f h i s l i f e . And i n pas s ing from the realm o f l i f e i n t o the realm o f a r t , Pa ter son a l s o t rans forms from water i n t o f lame; on the one s i d e , the flame o f c r e a t i o n t o overcome the p r e -v a i l i n g deadened, s t e r i l e c o n d i t i o n , and on the o ther s i d e , the flame o f love to combat the p r e v a i l i n g s t a t e o f mesmeri-z a t i o n and d i v o r c e . Both f u n c t i o n s o f the flame are i n e x t r i -c a b l y bound through the I m a g i n a t i o n , W i l l i a m s ' u l t i m a t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f e f f o r t , and as s h a l l be seen i n the next chap te r , both c r e a t i o n and love are i n e v i t a b l y i n v o l v e d i n the p o e t ' s d e s i r e f o r union w i t h what has been c a l l e d h i s a n t i -p o e t i c . - 68 -Also p e r t i n e n t to t h i s concept o f r e t u r n i s what can be termed the "hunt m o t i f " i n Paterson. L i k e the m o t i f s o f marriage, e f f o r t , and awakening, i t serves to bind together Book Fi v e w i t h the preceeding four books of Paterson. Paterson i s not o n l y concerned f o r h i s own divorce and mesmerization, but a l s o f o r those o f h i s c i t y . Where the other thematic movements i n Paterson have the p r o t a g o n i s t l i k e C h r i s t bearing the brunt of h i s community, the hunt imagery, l i k e the sun imagery, serves to d i s t i n g u i s h Paterson as a r t i s t from the r e s t o f "the great beast." In t h i s sense, the hunt imagery serves t o define t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . For though Paterson i s a saviour f i g u r e i n t h a t h i s quest i s a l s o done f o r the s e r v i c e o f h i s mankind, Paterson, again l i k e C h r i s t , i s subject to mankind's a s s a u l t . Since another important legend has the Unicorn i n the t a p e s t r i e s as an embodiment of C h r i s t , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p of C h r i s t and Paterson i s another important con-cern o f Book F i v e , and s h a l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n the next chapter. At any r a t e , though the a r t i s t i s i n a sense a redeemer o f h i s mankind, he a l s o , as W i l l i a m s says, " i s the prey o f l i f e . He i s easy of a t t a c k . " (IWWP. 21) In t h i s way, when the a r t i s t becomes the "hunter" o f the meaning to h i s l i f e , he a l s o becomes the hunted. The c l u e s to t h i s somewhat pa r a d o x i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p seem to l i e i n W i l l i a m s ' treatment o f dogs or hounds, the dominant image patte r n i n the hunt m o t i f . - 69 -T h i s p a t t e r n runs throughout the f i v e books of the poem, and culminates i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the hounds i n the "Hunt of the Unicorn" t a p e s t r i e s . I n the beginning l i n e s of Book One, since the poet f e e l s h i m s e l f as j u s t a part o f the general dilemma of "the great beast," Paterson i s described as " j u s t another dog / among a l o t of dogs. What / e l s e i s there? And t o do?" (Preface, l l ) Though at t h i s p o i n t he i s a long way from h i s subsequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn, which i s attacked by dogs, even here Paterson i s a unique dog i n t h a t he i s lame: "The r e s t have run out — a f t e r the r a b b i t s . Only the lame stands — on three l e g s . " ( l l ) By i t s e l f , t h i s image of the c r i p p l e d dog doesn't seem too important. However, concerning W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f , t h i s image r e l a t e s q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to an episode i n the poet's young l i f e t h a t , to borrow a Paterson metaphor, changes the p r o t a g o n i s t from a dog i n t o a Unicorn. The episode i s o b v i o u s l y important to the poet because he discusses i t i n the opening pages of two of h i s other works. In h i s Autobio-graphy, W i l l i a m s says: I had put on my s p r i n t and was g e t t i n g ready to q u i t when someone y e l l e d "You've got one more l a p to go I'.' I knew whoever had given the order was wrong...I went around the t r a c k once more ....and collapsed....The l o c a l doctor was c a l l e d and t h a t ended my running. "Adolescent heart s t r a i n " was the v e r d i c t . . . . I was t o l d I would never be able t o take part i n a t h l e t i c s again; the most t h a t I could do would be to - 70 -take long walks i n the c o u n t r y . I w a s . . . cons idered to be l i t t l e b e t t e r than an i n v a l i d . Tha t , t o o , p layed a major par t i n de te rmin ing my c a r e e r . M e n t a l l y , I was c rushed . (p . 46) R e f e r r i n g to the same i n c i d e n t some years l a t e r i n IWWP f he says , " I began poetry w i t h a hear t a t t a c k (16-17 y r s o l d ) . T h i s fo rced me t o be more o f a r e c l u s e . " (IWWP. l ) I n t h i s way, the lame dog i n Book One most l i k e l y r e f e r s t o W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f , and s ince t h i s a c c i d e n t s t a r t e d him on h i s ca reer as a r t i s t , i t i s a f i t t i n g beg inning f o r the poem t h a t i s meant t o embody h i s l i f e ques t . E a r l i e r than t h i s episode however, W i l l i a m s exper ienced i n c i d e n t s o f h u n t i n g tha t gave the poet p e j o r a t i v e connota t ions o f dogs. L i k e the Uncle Godwin / snake ep i sode , these i n c i -dents r e v e a l t h a t the hunt m o t i f i n the t a p e s t r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e s to W i l l i a m s ' c h i l d h o o d and hence i s i n v o l v e d w i t h P a t e r s o n ' s r e t u r n to h i s sources . A g a i n , there i s a f u s i o n o c c u r i n g "between h i s dream which he dreamed as a young man and the phenomenal w o r l d o f h i s l a t e r y e a r s . " I n Chapter F i v e o f h i s Autobiography. the poet somewhat c l a r i f i e s the nature o f t h i s f u s i o n when he says t h a t " t h e r e i s a l o n g h i s t o r y i n each o f us t h a t comes as not o n l y a reawakening, but a repos-se s s ion when confronted by t h i s w o r l d . " (19) By Book F i v e , W i l l i a m s has confronted t h i s wor ld s i n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y d i s -cussed, death approaching p r o v i d e s the u l t i m a t e c o n f r o n t a t i o n - 71 -i n l i f e . Therefore, when the poet says i n the opening stanzas of t h i s f i f t h book that the world o f Paterson i s "reawakening," he i s a l s o saying that h i s childhood i s reawakening, and fu s i n g w i t h h i s l a t e r "phenomenal world." Consequently, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t both Paterson V and W i l l i a m s ' e a r l y c h i l d -hood episodes as revealed i n h i s Autobiography are concerned w i t h images o f the hunt. For example, the poet mentions s e v e r a l times h i s childhood r e v u l s i o n to the hunting a c t i v i t i e s which took place around the Bagellon House, where as a c h i l d he l i v e d f o r a time: Another day I saw Uncle I r v i n g shooting ...at a red s q u i r r e l . . . a t l a s t the s q u i r r e l f e l l , a l l bloody, at our f e e t . (Auto, 7) and, h a l f a page l a t e r : Men would come t o hunt r a b b i t s i n the open f i e l d s back o f the orchard. There I saw some hunter who had k i l l e d a r a b b i t take a sharp k n i f e and laughing stab i t i n t o the poor creature's body j u s t under the t a i l . I t made me i l l . (Auto, 7) Further d e s c r i p t i o n s such as the lamb being slaughtered or the s q u i r r e l chased by a hunter then eaten by h i s dog tend to r e v e a l t h a t hunting was a d e f i n i t e concern of the poet i n h i s e a r l y l i f e , and f u r t h e r , that many p e j o r a t i v e connotations surrounded t h i s concern. Though perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n t o the poet as Unicorn i n the t a p e s t r i e s i s W i l l i a m s ' childhood game o f hare and hounds, a game which he devotes s e v e r a l pages of h i s Autobiography t o . B a s i c a l l y , the game - 72 -c o n s i s t e d o f two teams, the hares who would run o f f i n t o the t h i c k e t and t r y to elude the hounds, the o t h e r team, who would t r y t o c a t c h them. The poet remembers t h i s as t h e i r best game, a game i n which "a few o f us kept on , i n a s o r t o f f r e n z y , f o r no reason at a l l except t h a t we werehtt go ing to l e t them beat u s . " ( Auto t 13) Al though at t h i s age, because he as yet wasn ' t an i n v a l i d , W i l l i a m s l o v e d t o p l a y one o f the hounds, by the t ime o f Book F i v e ' s w r i t i n g , W i l l i a m s was more o f a U n i c o r n than a dog, f o r " the dog o f h i s thoughts (had) s h r u n k . " (V, i i i , 268) Consequent ly , i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the t a p e s t r i e s , he c a l l s our a t t e n t i o n to " the r a b b i t ' s rump escaping / through the t h i c k e t . " (V, i , 25 l ) S ince the poet i s no l o n g e r i n t e r e s t e d i n be ing a hound, the r a b b i t i s a l lowed t o escape. Though t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n at f i r s t may seem f a r -f e t c h e d , i t i s important to note t h a t o f a l l the man i fo ld de-t a i l s i n the t a p e s t r y , W i l l i a m s happened to d e s c r i b e t h i s one. True , W i l l i a m s does d e s c r i b e o ther d e t a i l s , n o t a b l y the v a r i e t y o f the f l o w e r s , but t h e r e are many o m i s s i o n s . S ince many o f the d e s c r i b e d d e t a i l s r e l a t e t h e m a t i c a l l y t o the r e s t o f P a t e r s o n . i t should most l i k e l y h o l d t r u e f o r the d e t a i l o f the r a b b i t . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so , when one regards the t a p e s t r i e s and d i s c o v e r s tha t the r a b b i t , appear ing i n o n l y the f i r s t o f the s e r i e s , i s indeed q u i t e d i f f i c u l t to l o c a t e , and f u r t h e r , t h a t t h i s r a b b i t i n the t a p e s t r y i s not t r y i n g to escape through - 73 -the t h i c k e t , but s i t t i n g l i k e many of the other animals watching the Unicorn's capture. That W i l l i a m s would pur-posely d i s t o r t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n must then be important. And the importance o f the d i s t o r t i o n of the r a b b i t ' s d e s c r i p t i o n seems to l i e i n i t s r e l a t i o n to Paterson's r e t u r n to h i s c h i l d -hood sources. In c o n t r a s t to W i l l i a m s ' childhood enthusiasm f o r chasing the "hares," the r a b b i t i n the t a p e s t r i e s escaping p r a c t i c a l l y unnoticed i n d i c a t e s some s o r t of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . And i n l i g h t of W i l l i a m s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn and the f a c t that he e v e n t u a l l y became a "lame dog," the t r a n s -formation f o r the a r t i s t seems to be i n l e a v i n g the r e s t o f the hunters, the mob of the great beast, and becoming one of the treasured v i c t i m s or one of the "wonders" of Book One, a r a r e treasure t h a t the r e s t o f the mob wishes to hunt down. However, l i k e the r a b b i t who escapes, W i l l i a m s as Unicorn w i l l not be captured by the hunters, but by a v i r g i n . But since the poet a l s o d e s i r e s to be captured by her, the hunt then assumes the p a r a d o x i c a l shape o f the hunter being the same t h i n g as the hunted, and again we have "an i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n — both ways." I f t h i s i s t r u e , what then i s the motive o f the hunt? W i l l i a m s provides the answer i n the very f i r s t l i n e o f Paterson: Rigor of beauty i s the quest. But how w i l l you f i n d beauty when i t i s locked i n the - 74 -mind past a l l remonstrance. (Preface, l l ) For both the Unicorn, who d e s i r e s t o be captured by the v i r g i n , and f o r the v i r g i n , who d e s i r e s the capture of the Unicorn, the motive i s beauty. In t h i s way, the hunt becomes an act o f union, the poet united w i t h h i s a n t i - p o e t i c , which, l i k e the momentary union of l i f e and death, unleashes the Imagination which i n t u r n w i l l unlock the mind, producing the r e v e l a t i o n necessary to r e a l i z e the meaning of the e n t i r e quest. - 75 -Chapter Two Book Fi v e i s mostly concerned w i t h the realm of a r t , f o r i t i s through a r t alone t h a t the imagination, the tru e l i f e of the poet, w i l l escape the hole o f death. And f u r t h e r , i t i s t h i s imagination or l i f e of the poet t h a t w i l l , i n t u r n , r e s u r r e c t a r t . F i n a l l y , i t i s again a r t alone that can u n i t e the masculine and feminine p o l a r i t i e s o f c r e a t i o n ; o n l y a r t can marry the poet t o h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . I t i s the imagination which cannot be fathomed. I t i s through t h i s hole we escape . . So, through a r t alone, male and female f a f i e l d o f f l o w e r s , a t a p e s t r y , s p r i n g flowers unequaled i n l o v e l i n e s s . Through t h i s hole at the bottom of the cavern of death, the imagination escapes i n t a c t . ( V , i , 247) Since W i l l i a m s i n Book Fi v e i s us i n g the t a p e s t r i e s as the a r t i f a c t f o r the a l l e g o r y of h i s marriage to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c , much o f Book F i v e i s concerned w i t h r e v e a l i n g the v a r i o u s aspects o r i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t are most p e r t i n e n t to t h i s female counterpart necessary f o r the masculine act of c r e a t i n g . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, the v i r g i n i n the t a p e s t r i e s w i t h her - 76 -m i l l e - f l e u r s background seems to be some s o r t of development of the woman-land i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n Book One. However, i f l e f t w i t h only her t r a d i t i o n a l connotations, such as p u r i t y , c h a s t i t y , innocence, beauty, t h i s v i r g i n would be a r a t h e r incomplete p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of W i l l i a m s ' a n t i - p o e t i c . Conse-quently, much of Book F i v e , c h i e f l y through various images of women, attempts t o support and develop t h i s p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n i n order to make i t a s u i t a b l e complement f o r the Unicorn as poet. As he says, "Lik e Toulouse-Lautrec | t o whom Book F i v e i s dedicated^) (who had the advantage of h i s d e f o r m i t y ) , I would glady have l i v e d i n a b r o t h e l . " (Auto, 224) W i l l i a m s needs to enlarge the t r a d i t i o n a l connotations of the t a p e s t r i e s i n order t o transform the hunt of the Unicorn legend i n t o a s u i t a b l e a l l e g o r y f o r h i s type of marriage. As the t a p e s t r i e s stand by themselves, they merely represent what W i l l i a m s says of Lorca's The Love of Don P e r l i m p l i n . t h a t t h i s i s "the f i r s t phase," since i n both the t a p e s t r i e s and Lorca's work, i t i s onl y "the young g i r l / no more than a c h i l d / (leading) her aged bridegroom / i n n o c e n t l y enough / to h i s d o w n f a l l . " (V, i 242) Though t h i s young g i r l ' s a l l u r i n g i s only the f i r s t step, the word "bridegroom" does provide a p e r t i n e n t foreshadowing t o the l a t e r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The next two stanzas serve to immediately develop t h i s " f i r s t phase." The f i r s t c o n s i s t s o f two prose excerpts - 77 -which juxtapose the concept o f the v i r g i n w i t h t h a t o f her o p p o s i t e , the whore. Both are then l i n k e d through the concept o f marr iage . I n c o n t r a s t to J u l i e t , B e a t r i c e , and L o r c a ' s young g i r l , we have the phrase "she was a hot l i t t l e b i t c h but n o t h i n g u n u s u a l , " (242) and then both the connota t ions o f whore and v i r g i n are u n i t e d i n an image o f marr iage : " L o v e ' s whole gamut, the wedding n i g h t ' s p r o m i s c u i t y i n the g i r l ' s m i n d . " (242) The second s tanza then c l a r i f i e s the nature o f t h i s u n i o n : "The moral / proc la imed by the whorehouse / c o u l d not be b e t t e r proc la imed / by the v i r g i n , a p r i c e on her head / her maidenhead'." (242-3) Thus, by the t ime we reach the f i r s t mention o f the t a p e s t r i e s i n Book F i v e , which immediate ly f o l l o w s t h i s passage, W i l l i a m s has so a l t e r e d and developed the t r a d i t i o n a l connota t ions o f the v i r g i n i n the t a p e s t r i e s t h a t we tend t o a s s o c i a t e her w i t h her c o n t r a r y . Throughout the r e s t o f t h i s book, the poet cont inues to enlarge these by i n t e r s p e r s i n g v a r i o u s r e l a t e d images concern ing the a n t i - p o e t i c between d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the t a p e s t r i e s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y those passages which tend t o l i n k Pater son w i t h the U n i c o r n , as d i s cus sed i n Chapter One. For example, a f t e r the i n i t i a l passage t h a t a l i g n s Pa ter son w i t h the U n i c o r n through two p a r a l l e l s t anzas , W i l l i a m s mentions S o u p a u l t ' s n o v e l , The  La s t N i g h t s o f P a r i s T (243) , which s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i s a n o v e l about a marvelous French w h o r e . 1 And, a f t e r the f i r s t r e fe rence - 73 -t o the C l o i s t e r s "on i t s rock / c a s t i n g i t s shadow," 2 W i l l i a m s says " l a r e a l i t e ' . l a r e ' a l i t e ! / l a r e a , l a re'a, l a realite'.'.' (244) Since " l a r e a " i s a Spanish word meaning "a female who i s charged w i t h the commission o f a crime, " 3 i n other words, a whore, and i s presented by the poet i n conjunction w i t h " l a r e a l i t e , " W i l l i a m s here i s developing the a p p l i c a t i o n of the whore-virgin concept i n r e l a t i o n t o the woman-land metaphor, e s t a b l i s h e d i n Book One. This r e a - r e a l i t e p a r a l l e l a l s o h i n t s a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r o y a l t y , since the word " r o y a l " i s accor-ding to the Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , r e l a t e d to " r e a l i t y " through " r e a l " (Latin—'regal';" S p a n i s h — " r e a l " ; Old F r e n c h — " r e a l " ) . The word " r e a l i t y " i n t u r n comes from e i t h e r the L a t i n r e a l i t a s or the French r e a l i t e . Although the L a t i n " r e g i n a " and Spanish " r e i n a " ( E n g l i s h "queen") are not e t y m o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d to " r e a , " ^ i t i s worth r e c a l l i n g t h a t " r e a " i s feminine, s / i s juxtaposed to " r e a l i t e , " a term r e l a t e d t o r o y a l t y , and i s i t s near homonym; i t i s worth r e c a l l i n g , too, tha t t h i s j u x t a -p o s i t i o n occurs i n the context o f t a p e s t r i e s which t r e a t o f r o y a l t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y the marriage of a k i n g and queen. I t should not be at a l l s u r p r i s i n g , then, t o d i s c e r n i n the ety-mology and pro n u n c i a t i o n of these words a connection between " l a r e a , " the whore, and " l a r e i n a , " the v i r g i n queen o f the t a p e s t r i e s , both of which i n t u r n r e l a t e t o t h e i r " r e a l i t e " or m i l l e f l e u r s b a c k g r o u n d . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s strengthened - 79 -by the f a c t that J o s i e ' s l e t t e r immediately f o l l o w s t h i s passage, s i n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y discussed, J o s i e 1 s l e t t e r provides an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m i l l e f l e u r s background f o r W i l l i a m s , which supports h i s subsequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn. And since J o s i e i s i n v i t i n g W i l l i a m s to come there, she i s s i m i l a r to the v i r g i n e n t i c i n g the Unicorn, and hence she i s another aspect of t h i s a n t i - p o e t i c p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n . As \cLth Paterson's progressive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn, W i l l i a m s i n the above manner employs t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor to develop an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n w i t h v a r i o u s aspects of the a n t i - p o e t i c concept. By the end o f Book F i v e , again l i k e the Unicorn, the v i r g i n queen i n t h i s way becomes a symbolic metaphor. By the end o f J o s i e ' s l e t t e r , through the passages discussed above, W i l l i a m s has so developed h i s concept of the v i r g i n t h a t , even at t h i s p o i n t , he can a f f o r d to r e c o n c i l e her w i t h her opposite i n the phrase: "The whore and the v i r g i n , an i d e n t i t y . " T h i s statement i s again strengthened by G i l b e r t S o r r e n t i n o ' s (G. S.) d e s c r i p t i o n s of whores whose seductions are i n t e r l a c e d w i t h a l l u s i o n s to v i r g i n s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , these d e s c r i p t i o n s a l s o r e l a t e to the colour w h i t e ^ as discussed i n the previous chapter: a smooth faced g i r l a gainst a door, a l l white . . . . snow, the v i r g i n , 0 b r i d e . . . . ... making love to a whore i s funny but i t i s - 80 -not funny as her b lood beneath f l e s h . . . . but heat and pa s s ion b r i g h t and w h i t e , b r i g h t e r -whi te than l i g h t s o f the whorehouses, than the g i n f i z z w h i t e , whi te and deep as b i r t h , deeper than d e a t h . (V, i , 250) Here , l i k e W i l l i a m s treatment o f w h i t e , the c o l o u r i s ambiva-l e n t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h both l i f e and death , and i n t h i s r e c o n -c i l i a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s , we a l s o tend t o see a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the whore and the v i r g i n . I n t h i s f i r s t s e c t i o n o f Book F i v e , W i l l i a m s has thus e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s b a s i c i d e n t i t y . I t remains f o r subsequent passages concerning the a n t i - p o e t i c i n the second and t h i r d s e c t i o n s to more f u l l y e x p l a i n how these oppos i te s i n h e r e n t i n W i l l i a m s ' a n t i - p o e t i c are r e l a t e d . Once a g a i n , l i k e the male and female p o l a r i t i e s , the w h o r e - v i r g i n p o l a r i t y i s u n i t e d through the I m a g i n a t i o n : "The v i r g i n and the whore, which / most endures? the wor ld / o f the i m a g i n a t i o n most endures . " (V , i , 248) And t h i s w o r l d o f the i m a g i n a t i o n i s i n t e g r a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h e f f o r t , f o r whether i t be whore or v i r g i n , "no woman i s v i r t u o u s / who does not g ive h e r s e l f to her l o v e r / f o r t h w i t h . " (V , i i i , 266) U n l i k e P h y l l i s o f Book Four , the a n t i - p o e t i c must be r e c e p t i v e t o the e f f o r t s o f l o v e ; P h y l l i s denied these e f f o r t s to Corydon, was content w i t h j u s t p l a y i n g games, and hence was a f a l s e and a r t i f i c i a l v e r s i o n o f the a n t i - p o e t i c ; the s u p e r f i c i a l a n t i -p o e t i c c rea ted by i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . Because o f t h i s , there was no marriage i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f P h y l l i s and Corydon - 81 -The Sappho t r a n s l a t i o n i n Book F i v e i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o P h y l l i s ' a t t i t u d e , f o r the v o i c e i n her poem i s one o f com-p l e t e r e c e p t i o n t o l o v e . For example, c o n s i d e r the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s : At mere s i g h t o f you my v o i c e f a l t e r s , my tongue i s b r o k e n . S t r a i g h t w a y , a d e l i c a t e f i r e runs i n my l i m b s , my eyes are b l i n d e d , and my ears t h u n d e r . . . a t r e m b l i n g hunts me down. (V , i i , 253) I n t h i s g i v i n g o f the l o v e r s , we have the i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g r e a l i t i e s t h a t c rea te the necessary union o f the poet and the a n t i - p o e t i c , f o r both must "Loose ( t h e i r ) l o v e t o f l o w . . . m a l e and f e m a l e . " (V , i , 251) I n t h i s i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g union i s the beauty o f a r t , and the moral s t a b i l i t y t h a t enables the whore and the v i r g i n to become an i d e n t i t y . I n c o n t r a s t t o the Sappho t r a n s l a t i o n i s another s e c t i o n o f correspondence from the p o e t ' s f r i e n d , E z r a Pound. (254) And as w i t h Pound's o t h e r statement i n Book One, W i l l i a m s here seems t o t r e a t h i s f r i e n d ' s correspondence d e r o g a t o r i l y . A l though Pound, even i n t h i s e x c e r p t , i s much more s e r i o u s and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y concerned than P h y l l i s i s , Pound i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y s i m i l a r to P h y l l i s i n one important way: both Pound and P h y l l i s are d i v o r c e d from l i f e because o f t h e i r entanglement i n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . I n h i s r e p l y to Pound's l e t t e r , W i l l i a m s w r i t e s , "Dear Assen P o o p : . . . . D o n ' t speak o f apes and Roosevel t t o m e . . . . Y O U DON'T EVEN BEGIN TO KNOW what the problem i s . . . - 82 -you d o n ' t come CLEAR enough, and the o n l y r e s u l t i s f u r t h e r o b f u s c a t i o n : as f a s t as you open your mouths you put your f ee t i n t h e m . " (SL, 333-9) The word "mouths" here seems to r e f e r t o Pound's f a l s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . Pound's obses s ion w i t h the a b s t r a c t i o n s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l economics i s comple te ly i r r e l e v a n t t o , and i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o , W i l l i a m s ' l o v i n g concern f o r h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Consequent ly , to r e v e a l t h i s c o n t r a s t , Pound's correspondence i s f o l l o w e d by: There i s a woman i n our town walks r a p i d l y , f l a t b e l l i e d i n worn s l a c k s upon the s t r e e t where I saw h e r . (V, i i , 255) No word a b o r t i o n s , no condescens ion, no f l i p p a n c y , and no a b s t r a c t i o n s ; W i l l i a m s ' d e s c r i p t i o n i s j u s t a p l a i n statement o f a r e a l f a c t . At the same t i m e , W i l l i a m s uses t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the woman to c o n t r o l the nature o f h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Perhaps i n f e a r o f becoming, l i k e Pound, too l o f t y i n h i s treatment o f the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n — i . e . — w o r k i n g i n l i g h t o f C ' s a c c u s a t i o n i n Book Two t h a t he i s d i v o r c i n g l i f e from l i t e r a t u r e — W i l l i a m s i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n seems t o be drawing a p a r a l l e l between the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n and t h i s somewhat o r d i n a r y , e a r t h -bound, i f not epitome o f a woman. I n t h i s sense, the purpose o f t h i s p a r a l l e l may be as Roger Seamon proposes : "The func-t i o n o f the commonplace i n Pa ter son i s to guarantee t h a t . . . ennobl ing evas ions are not permi t ted to remain u n c r i t i c i s e d - 83 -by the basic r ea l i ty they would ignore."7 That this woman seems a representative of women can be seen i n such phrases as "neither short / nor t a l l , nor old nor young" and "any woman might have / done the same to / say she was a woman and warn / us of her mood." (255-6) Although Williams des-cribes th i s woman i n d e t a i l , as he does the tapestry v i r g i n , she i s basical ly a woman of no special ident i ty . Establishing th i s basic 'feverywoman" description, Williams then relates her to the v i r g i n queen, for without the l i f e of this real woman, the v i rg in queen would merely remain part of a hollow a r t i -fact . One method the poet uses to create a para l le l between the two i s through s imi la r i ty of d e t a i l . For example, just as th i s "everywoman" i s described as "dressed in male a t t i r e , " "her hair. . .gathered simply behind the ears," and "her expres-sion. . . ser ious , " (255-6) the v i rg in queen i s s imi lar ly described as "her hair slicked back . . . l i ke her cousin's, the King , " and "The lady's brow i s serene." (V, i , 250-1) And since the Unicorn as Paterson i s fascinated by the v i rg in i n that he w i l l meekly f a l l into her lap, and ca l l s for his own murder, there i s a further para l le l drawn through Paterson's fascination with this ordinary woman: "She stopped / me i n ray t r acks . . . i f I ever see you again / as I have dai ly sought you / without success." (V, i i , 256) F i n a l l y , when Williams says "have you ever read anything that I have written? / I t i s a l l for you," - 84 -(257) there i s no doubt t h a t she i s to be cons idered as pa r t o f h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Consequent ly , the v i r g i n - q u e e n i s g i v e n l i f e , j u s t as Pater son g i v e s l i f e to the U n i c o r n , and the bond between the t a p e s t r i e s and Pa te r son the community i s s t rengthened . I n the remaining pages o f Book F i v e : S e c t i o n I I , W i l l i a m s cont inues to enhance t h i s concept o f the a n t i - p o e t i c , a con-cept t h a t on one l e v e l can become an o b s e s s i o n . For example, W i l l i a m s uses Mezz Mezzrow's d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s f a s c i n a t i o n f o r Bes s ie Smith as a m u s i c a l p a r a l l e l f o r t h i s : "Every note t h a t woman w a i l e d v i b r a t e d on the t i g h t s t r i n g s o f my nervous system: every word she sang answered a que s t ion I was a s k i n g . You c o u l d n ' t drag me away from t h a t v i c t r o l a , not even to e a t . " (258) S i m i l a r l y , W i l l i a m s r e f e r s t o D u r e r ' s Me lancho ly as an awareness o f t h i s o b s e s s i o n , and says t h a t Leonardo Da V i n c i i n La. Gioconda^ "saw i t , the o b s e s s i o n , and r i d i c u l e d i t . " (259) S ince these re fe rences to the a n t i - p o e t i c are q u i t e s u b t l e , as w i t h those r e f e r r i n g to the D i o n y s i a n t h e a t r e i n these pages ( to be d i s cus sed l a t e r ) , W i l l i a m s p l a c e s the t e l e v i s i o n i n t e r v i e w at the end o f t h i s s e c t i o n to remind us how h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor f u n c t i o n s . The i n t e r v i e w i s important because i t re-emphasizes the f a c t t h a t a n y t h i n g i s good m a t e r i a l f o r p o e t r y , tha t the poet i s indeed concerned - 85 -w i t h meaning, and tha t i n poetry, true t o the p r i n c i p l e s o f t r a n s i t i o n a l metaphor: "You're l i s t e n i n g to two t h i n g s . . . t o the sense, the common sense of what i t says. But i t says more. That i s the d i f f i c u l t y . " (262) P a r t of what the poet "says more" i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h e n l a r g i n g the concept of the a n t i - p o e t i c . Though W i l l i a m s continues t o enlarge t h i s concept i n S e c t i o n I I I , t h i s f i n a l s e c t i o n i s more concerned w i t h the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the poet's marriage to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Further enhancements o f t h i s a n t i - p o e t i c w i l l thus be t r e a t e d i n r e l a t i o n to the s i g n i f i -cance o f t h e i r union w i t h the poet. Before d i r e c t l y r e v e a l i n g Paterson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the a l l e g o r y inherent i n the t a p e s t r i e s , W i l l i a m s discusses Breughel's N a t i v i t y p a i n t i n g i n a manner th a t r e v e a l s the work's s i m i l a r i t y t o them. Both the t a p e s t r i e s and Breughel's p a i n t i n g have an a l l e g o r y t h a t u n i t e s the poe t i c or masculine side o f c r e a t i o n w i t h t h a t of i t s female counterpart. And since Breughel's N a t i v i t y i s concerned w i t h the b i r t h o f C h r i s t , i t r e l a t e s to the C h r i s t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Unicorn. S i m i l a r to the savage hounds and armed hunters i n the t a p e s t r i e s , i n the N a t i v i t y we have the "savagely armed men.... showing t h e i r amazement at the scene / fe a t u r e s l i k e the more s t u p i d German s o l d i e r s o f the l a t e war." (V, i i i , 263) Both a r t i f a c t s show -86-these p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of the "mob" or "great beast" as detached from, and unable to comprehend or capture, the cen-t r a l "wonder" i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e scenes. Yet, these are not the same as the "wonder / great beast" d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Paterson I-IV. In the e a r l i e r d e s c r i p t i o n s , Paterson was an onlooker, i n d e s p a i r because the language was f a i l i n g the attempts of the "wonders." In Book F i v e , however, Paterson has committed h i m s e l f to the realm of a r t , and l i k e Sam Patch, Mrs. Cumming, and Klaus Ehrens, has a l s o become a "wonder;" though u n l i k e the former i n t h a t he i s now -equipped wi t h " r e a l r h e t o r i c " ( I I I , i i i , 173), and thus i s p o t e n t i a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . J u s t as the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s are b a s i c a l l y concerned w i t h the union of Williams/Paterson as an o l d man w i t h h i s a n t i -p o e t i c , as p e r s o n i f i e d by a b e a u t i f u l v i r g i n , so too Breughel's N a t i v i t y i s concerned w i t h "a baby / born to an o l d man / out o f a g i r l and a p r e t t y g i r l / at t h a t . " (265) And l i k e the flowers i n the m i l l e f l e u r s background, which the poet l a t e r i n Book Fi v e r e f e r s to as poems, the union i n Breughel's p a i n t i n g i s adorned with the g i f t s of the three wise men; g i f t s which, l i k e the f l o w e r s , are r e f e r r e d to as "works of a r t . " (265) Thus the l i n e that f o l l o w s the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p a i n t i n g , "how e l s e to honour / an o l d man, or a woman," (265) seems to r e f e r t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the o l d man and the g i r l i n both -S7-a r t i f a c t s . F i n a l l y , Breughel's a r t i f a c t i s s i m i l a r to W i l l i a m s ' because, l i k e W i l l i a m s , Peter Breughel the a r t i s t saw i t from the two s i d e s : the imagination must be served — and he served d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y . (265) Because of the context i n which t h i s passage appears, these "two s i d e s " most l i k e l y r e f e r to the p o e t i c and the a n t i -p o e t i c . On a m y t h o l o g i c a l l e v e l , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p of W i l l i a m s as the o l d man and the v i r g i n as the young g i r l symbolizes the union of "the Unicorn and / the god of l o v e . " Though i n other o f h i s poems, W i l l i a m s ' "god of l o v e " appears to be God h i m s e l f , f o r example "Calypsos:" "Well God i s / love / so love me / God i s love so / love me God,"^ i n Paterson V the god o f love i s female and of " v i r g i n b i r t h . " 9 (V } i i i , 272) Therefore the god of love i n t h i s context appears to be Venus. Because of her v i r g i n b i r t h and her i m p l i e d p a r a l l e l w i t h the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n since she i s seen as a complement to the Unicorn, she must i n some sense be an embodiment of the a n t i -p o e t i c , even though there i s a d i s t u r b i n g sensual paradox created by W i l l i a m s ' reference to her as the god of l o v e . I f i n t e n t i o n a l , the paradox does strengthen the union of these masculine/feminine p o l a r i t i e s i n the Unicorn/god of love r e l a t i o n s h i p . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Venus at her b i r t h r i s e s from the sea, and -88-l i k e Paterson, heads i n l a n d . Then, according to myth, she becomes associated w i t h images of the l a n d , most n o t a b l y f l o w e r s , f o r she a l s o appears as the goddess of gardens. Here then, i s mythological support f o r the "seed of Venus" coming i n from the sea at the end of Book Four. In Book F i v e , t h i s seed becomes the m i l l e f l e u r s background to the tapes-t r i e s , f o r Venus i s the goddess of gardens, and Venus h e r s e l f , because she i s also the god o f l o v e , becomes the v i r g i n queen i n the t a p e s t r i e s . In other words, Venus h e r s e l f can be seen as a woman-land metaphor. Through her union w i t h the Unicorn then, we have a union of connotations that best describe the union o f the p o e t i c and the a n t i - p o e t i c , necessary f o r the c r e a t i o n of a r t . Also s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t t h a t i n most c l a s s i c a l s t o r i e s , Venus i s s a i d to be the wife o f Hephaestus (Vulcan, M u l c i b e r ) . Since, i n Paterson V, Venus i s seen as the w i f e o f Paterson (through h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the U n i c o r n ) , W i l l i a m s may be suggesting a p a r a l l e l between Paterson (Williams) and Hephaestus. At any r a t e , t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y i n terms of c e r t a i n image patterns i n Paterson T p r e v i o u s l y discussed, i s too great to be ignored. F i r s t l y , l i k e W i l l i a m s , because of h i s t r a c k accident and l a t e r s trokes, and hence l i k e Paterson, "the lame dog," Hephaestus was a lame god. Robert Graves 1^ s t a t e s t h a t Hephaestus was c r i p p l e d by Zeus when he threw him from Olympus, -89-though Larousse says that Hephaestus was lame from b i r t h . Both agree, however, t h a t Hephaestus became married to Venus through the Zeus/Hera/Hephaestus entanglement. When Hera gave b i r t h to him, she apparently threw him i n t o the sea i n d i s g u s t . There he came under the p r o t e c t i o n of sea-goddesses, who kept him i n an underground g r o t t o . L a t e r , Hera discovered that Hephaestus was s t i l l a l i v e , brought him back to Olympus, and through her married Venus. Thus, l i k e Venus and Paterson, Hephaestus a l s o turns i n l a n d away from the sea. T h i r d l y , Hephaestus was the god o f f i r e , which i s important i n r e l a t i o n t o Paterson's alignment w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the sun imagery,12 discussed e a r l i e r , where Paterson becomes the "flame" f o r the t a p e s t r i e s . L i k e Hephaestus, Paterson's "flames" are b e n e f i c i e n t , not d e s t r o y i n g . I n f a c t , t h i s sun-f i r e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i n t r i n s i c i n the name i t s e l f . Larousse:. says t h a t "Hephaestus" comes from the Greek words meaning "hearth" and "to k i n d l e , " and thus can be seen as a p e r s o n i f i -c a t i o n of t e r r e s t r i a l f i r e . 1 3 Graves, on the other hand, b e l i e v e s that the name i s e t y m o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the sun, through the word "hemero-phaistos," which means "he who shines by day." This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s strengthened through Hephaes-tus ' r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Athena (moon-goddess—"she who shines by n i g h t " ! ^ ) , where, c e n t r a l t o the l i f e of the c i t y , they are the two patrons o f the a r t s . F o u r t h l y , when c h i l d r e n o f -90-ancient Greece were f o r m a l l y admitted i n t o c i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , the god of the ceremony was Hephaestus. In t h i s way, Hephaestus as husband of Venus i s a m y t h o l o g i c a l embodiment of Wi l l i a m s / P a t e r s o n as man, i n t h a t he i s lame; W i l l i a m s / Paterson as a r t i s t , i n t h a t he i s patron o f the a r t s and the god of f i r e ; and Paterson as c i t y , i n t h a t he i s concerned f o r the c i t y ' s w e l f a r e . An i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t to t h i s lame Smith-god t r a d i t i o n i s Hephaestus' r e l a t i o n s h i p to "the great t h e a t r e of Dionysus," as revealed by Graves: ...a hobbling p a r t r i d g e dance was a l s o performed i n e r o t i c o r g i e s connected w i t h the mysteries o f s m i t h c r a f t and, since Hephaestus had married Aphrodite, he may have been hobbled onl y once a year: at the Spring F e s t i v a l . ^ -Since an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s i s i t s i n t r i n s i c Dionysian r i t u a l (to be discussed i n the second s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r ) , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Hephaestus as part of the Unicorn symbolic metaphor i s strengthened through t h i s dance honouring h i s s m i t h c r a f t . Also inherent i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Venus and Hephaestus i s the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n or union o f the sun and flower image patterns i n Paterson. as discussed above. Because of W i l l i a m s ' e a r l i e r treatment of the two p a t t e r n s , they symbolize the union o f the p o e t i c (sun) w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c ( f l o w e r s ) . In t h i s l i g h t , the purpose of the f o l l o w i n g bold i t a l i c s i n Book - 9 1 -F i v e becomes c l e a r e r : " I F YOU DON'T HAVE ANY TIME FOR ANYTHING ELSE / PLEASE READ THE ENCLOSED "SUNFLOWER SUTRA" (V , i , 248) . The f a c t t h a t W i l l i a m s emphasizes these l i n e s most l i k e l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t we should l i t e r a l l y do as they s a y — i . e . — r e a d G i n s b e r g ' s "Sunf lower S u t r a , " f o r the "YOU" here i s the r e a d e r , as w e l l as the e l d e r poet , W i l l i a m s . I n 1952, W i l l i a m s wrote to Robert L o w e l l , " I ' v e become i n t e r e s t e d i n a young poet , A l l e n G i n s b e r g , o f Pater son — who i s coming to p e r s o n i f y the p lace f o r me." (SL, 312) T h i s statement inc rea se s the impor-tance o f the above i t a l i c s . I n "Sunf lower S u t r a , " G i n s b e r g ' s sunflower transcends the scum and wrack o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l l u -t i o n , as W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f must t ranscend the poisoned waters o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , i f the poet i s to be poe t . As ide from the union i n t r i n s i c i n the name " s u n f l o w e r , " G i n s b e r g ' s images o f the sun and the sunflower are s i m i l a r to W i l l i a m s ' treatment o f sun and f l o w e r s . S ince G i n s b e r g ' s images r e c o n c i l e W i l l i a m s ' i n h i s poem, G i n s b e r g ' s poem i s an important par t o f Book F i v e ' s r e s o l u t i o n . "Sunf lower S u t r a " gathers towards W i l l i a m s ' f u l l s tatement: and those b l e a r thoughts o f death and dusty l o v e l e s s eyes and ends and w i t h e r e d r o o t s below, i n the home-pi le o f sand and sawdust, rubber d o l l a r b i l l s , s k i n o f machinery, the guts and innards o f weeping coughing c a r , the empty l o n e l y t i n c a n s w i t h t h e i r r u s t y t o n -gues b l a c k , what more cou ld I name, the smoked ashes o f some cock c i g a r , the cunts o f wheelbarrows and the m i l k y brea s t s o f c a r s , wornout asses out o f c h a i r s & -92-s p h i n c t e r s of dynamos — a l l these entangled i n your mummied r o o t s — and you there standing before me i n the sunset, a l l g l o r y i n your form! A p e r f e c t beauty o f a sunflower! a p e r f e c t e x c e l l e n t l o v e l y sunflower e x i s t e n c e ! a sweet n a t u r a l eye to the new h i p moon, woke up a l i v e and e x c i t e d grasping i n the sunset shadow sunrise golden monthly breeze! ... we're a l l b e a u t i f u l golden sunflowers i n s i d e . L i k e the "wonder" o f the Unicorn (sun) and the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n (flower) surrounded by the hunters and hounds, the sunflower i s surrounded by i t s form of "the great beast," yet i t too stands apart i n a l l i t s g l o r y . And f u r t h e r , l i k e Paterson*s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn as man and c i t y , the sun-flower i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o t e n t i a l r e s u r r e c t i o n i n a l l of us. Another of Venus' important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Book F i v e i s i n her r e l a t i o n to the whore-virgin i d e n t i t y . As W i l l i a m s p o i n t s out i n Chapter One o f h i s Autobiography f the word Venus i s r e l a t e d to venereal. And though she was "of v i r g i n b i r t h , " she was w i d e l y renowned f o r her whore-like p e r s o n a l i t y , f o r Venus was one "who laughed sweetly or mockingly at those her w i l e s had conquered; the i r r e s i s t a b l e goddess who s t o l e away 16 even the w i t s o f the wise." Consequently, Venus i n the t a p e s t r i e s can be seen as an embodiment o f the whore-virgin i d e n t i t y . T h i s i s important to the poet because the whore-v i r g i n concept provides a necessary union w i t h i n the a n t i -- 93 -poeti c t h a t , l i k e the "everywoman" d e s c r i p t i o n i n conjunction w i t h the t a p e s t r y v i r g i n , r e l a t e s l i f e or r e a l i t y (whore) to the i d e a l s or a b s t r a c t i o n s ( v i r g i n ) i n a r t . In other words, through t h i s concept, l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e are i n t e r p e n e t r a t i n g r e a l i t i e s , o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , are a new r e a l i t y . This i s what the poet i s implying i n the f o l l o w i n g passage which occurs j u s t a f t e r h i s mention of the Unicorn and the god o f l o v e , and j u s t before P a t e r s o n 1 s complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn i n the t a p e s t r i e s : N — s h a l l we speak of love seen only i n a m i r r o r — no r e p l i c a ? r e f l e c t i n g only her impalpable s p i r i t ? which i s she whom I see and not touch her f l e s h ? (V, i i i , 272) As G. poi n t s out i n her long l e t t e r o f Book Two, "one must bring...one's l i f e t o l i t e r a t u r e , " otherwise one has only "the i n s i g h t s and humanity of words on paper o n l y . " ( I I , i i i , 111) W i l l i a m s r e a l i z e s and ac t s upon t h i s i n Book F i v e , and thus at the po i n t where the poet completely i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the Unicorn, thereby "marrying" h i s a n t i - p o e t i c , he says: every married man c a r r i e s i n h i s head the beloved and sacred image of a v i r g i n whom he has whored. (V, i i i , 272) In t h i s way, l i f e i s fused w i t h a r t i f a c t , both the p o e t i c and the a n t i - p o e t i c are a combination o f a r t and l i f e , and the ta p e s t r y becomes "a l i v i n g f i c t i o n . " (272) This i s why Paterson -94-must "keep ( h i s ) pecker up / whatever the d e t a i l ' . " (273) I I I f Paterson i s to succeed f i n a l l y as poem, however, the Unicorn must f u n c t i o n not simply i n r e l a t i o n to Paterson the man and poet, but a l s o to Paterson the c i t y , the community o f man. In such community, and c e r t a i n l y here, the poet becomes p r i e s t or s a v i o u r , f o r h i s endeavors w i l l inform the l i v e s o f h i s f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . Hence, i n Book F i v e there i s cl o s e a t t e n t i o n both to "the great d i o n y s i a n t h e a t r e " and to C h r i s t , and once again, the Unicorn i s the common denominator l i n k i n g these together. James Rorimer, i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of the h a l l of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s , i d e n t i f i e s the s t o r y of the hunt w i t h the myth o f the i n c a r n a t i o n , where "the Unicorn i s a symbol of C h r i s t , the v i r g i n i s the V i r g i n Mary, (and) the huntsman i s the angel G a b r i e l . T h a t W i l l i a m s i s aware o f t h i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n i s f i r s t o f a l l h i n t e d at by h i s i n c l u s i o n o f Klaus Ehrens' sermon i n Book Two, where Klaus t e l l s h i s congregation how the Lord advised him to give up h i s money, i n order to i n h e r i t g r eater r i c h e s . W i l l i a m s however, uses money i n the context, or as a symbol of, i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , as even a s u p e r f i c i a l reading o f Book Two w i l l r e v e a l . I n t h i s sense - 95 -to give up money i s to foresake a l l the f a l s e n e s s , meaning-l e s s n e s s , and greed as s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l l u -t i o n . Therefore an important i m p l i c a t i o n of the Unicorn as C h r i s t , which supports the medicinal c l e a n s i n g q u a l i t y of the horn, i s that C h r i s t i s the a n t i t h e s i s of t h i s w o r l d l i n e s s , a r o o t l e s s v i c e condemned throughout Paterson. Secondly, W i l l i a m s supports t h i s r e l i g i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t a p e s t r i e s by h i s i n c l u s i o n s i n Book Fi v e o f Peter Breughel's N a t i v i t y , as discussed e a r l i e r , and the excerpt from the Gospel according to Saint Matthew. On t h i s r e l i g i o u s l e v e l , the Unicorn's capture and c a p t i v i t y may be seen as the c r u c i -f i x i o n , where Paterson i s l i k e C h r i s t i n tha t h i s s p i r i t (the Imagination) i s r e s u r r e c t e d . And j u s t as C h r i s t redeems man-k i n d , Paterson cleanses the poisoned character o f h i s c i t y . Also inherent i n t h i s a l l e g o r y i s the act of r e s i g n a t i o n , where the Unicorn, l i k e C h r i s t ' s h u m i l i t y , f a l l s meekly i n t o the l a p of the v i r g i n . This r e s i g n a t i o n , according to Wi l l i a m s and indeed i m p l i e d i n the B i b l e , also a p p l i e s to Mary, the a n t i -p o e t i c , f o r a f t e r the Matthew excerpt, the poet says "no woman i s v i r t u o u s / who does not give h e r s e l f t o her l o v e r / f o r t h w i t h . " (V, i i i , 266) The r e s u l t a n t union of mother and c h i l d then, through mutual r e s i g n a t i o n , i s one o f love and f a i t h , p e r s o n i f i e d by the Holy Ghost or God hi m s e l f . But since the union i n v o l v e s God, C h r i s t , Joseph, and Mary, the terms - 96 -p o e t i c and a n t i - p o e t i c are d i f f i c u l t to assign t o any "one o f these f i g u r e s . Further, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by i t s e l f i s r a t h e r an incomplete p i c t u r e , i f not an i r r e l e v a n t s o l u t i o n to the dilemma of the e n t i r e Paterson. Therefore t h i s C h r i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n should be seen as more of a general embodiment of the p o e t i c / a n t i - p o e t i c movement, resembling, but not d i r e c t l y c o r r e l a t e d t o , the more s p e c i f i c , and b a s i c a l l y e a r t h -bound embodiments of t h i s d u a l i t y i n the r e s t of the poem. As we have already seen, Jung po i n t s out that though the Unicorn i s a symbol of C h r i s t , the beast a l s o has a negative or p r i m o r d i a l s i d e , a side which the C h r i s t i a n Church ignores, and i n Psychology and Alchemy, Jung po i n t s to s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s i n C h r i s t , g e n e r a l l y ignored by the Church. The western a t t i t u d e , w i t h i t s emphasis on the o b j e c t , tends t o f i x the i d e a l — C h r i s t — i n i t s outward aspect and thus to rob i t of i t s mysterious r e l a t i o n to the inner man.-^ g Jung argues that C h r i s t i a n i t y i s a consciousness-oriented r e l i g i o n , whereas C h r i s t i s r e l a t e d to both the earth (feminine, unconscious) and the s p i r i t u a l (masculine, conscious). Since C h r i s t i s supposedly the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of our s o u l s , and s i n c e , as Jung observes, our souls are b a s i c a l l y dual-natured (both good and e v i l ) , then i t f o l l o w s that C h r i s t i s al s o some sor t o f combination of t h i s d u a l i t y . Now since the Church i s consciousness-oriented, i t cannot conceive of C h r i s t as a - 97 -union o f the two, and t h e r e f o r e t h i s d u a l i t y i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o C h r i s t and the D e v i l . I n t h i s sense, the c l o s e s t p a r a l l e l to t h i s more encompassing C h r i s t i s the A p o l l o n i a n - D i o n y s i a n d u a l i t y . Though the s i m i l a r i t i e s between C h r i s t and A p o l l o are r e a d i l y apparent , i t i s a l s o to be remembered t h a t Dionysus , l i k e C h r i s t , was persecuted by u n b e l i e v e r s , d i e d and came to l i f e a g a i n . Aga in l i k e Dionysus , to be a C h r i s t " i n v o l v e s a s u f f e r i n g t h a t i s unendurable to most o f m a n k i n d . " ^ At any r a t e , the p a r a l l e l s between the two are numerous. As Jung says , " the D i o n y s i a n element has to do w i t h emotions and a f f e c t s which found no s u i t a b l e r e l i g i o u s o u t l e t s i n the p r e -20 dominant ly A p o l l o n i a n c u l t and ethos o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . " Now s i n c e W i l l i a m s ' treatment o f C h r i s t i n Book F i v e i s i n the context o f the D i o n y s i a n t h e a t r e , and s ince W i l l i a m s changes the name o f Mary to M i r i a m , 2 1 (V, i i i , 266) thereby r e l a t i n g her to the D i o n y s i a n r i t u a l , the f u l l e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the t a p e s t r y U n i c o r n as C h r i s t can o n l y be seen i n t h i s expanded c o n t e x t , f o r i t i s the D i o n y s i a n r i t e , the " p r e - t r a g i c p l a y , " (V, i i , 258) t h a t p rov ides the necessary l i n k , i n terms o f W i l l i a m s ' thematic concerns , between a r t and r e l i g i o n . The f a c t t h a t t h i s r i t e i s the f o r e - r u n n e r to drama, as opposed to p o e t r y , i s i r r e l e v a n t , f o r as Char le s Ol son says : I gather t h a t drama and t h e a t r e were more language & movement before Aeschylus than s i n c e , before he added a second a c t o r , and - 98 -had dialogue, and before he added masks (and had a hollow t h i n g , mechanical pro-j e c t i o n ) . I t was a double change he e f f e c t e d : words as gab and masks to s i g -n i f y s ensation. And the r e s u l t ? The b i r t h of t h a t exaggerated i n d i v i d u a l c a l l e d hero, and of t h a t exaggerated n a r r a t i v e c a l l e d tragedy.2 2 In other words, the language and movement of the p r e - t r a g i c p l a y i s more a k i n to poetry, at l e a s t W i l l i a m s ' conception of poetry, than what we r e f e r t o as drama. W i l l i a m s h i m s e l f says, "poetry began w i t h measure, i t began w i t h the dance." (SL, 331) Nevertheless, the Dionysian r i t u a l , or what W i l l i a m s r e f e r s to as "a p r e - t r a g i c p l a y / a s a t y r i c p l a y , " (258) i s i n one sense a symbol f o r the o r i g i n of a r t , f o r out o f t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n evolved the a r t i s t i c medium of drama. When W i l l i a m s at the end of Book Four says: Oh that the rocks of the Areopagus had kept t h e i r sounds, the voices of the l a w l Or t h a t the great t h e a t r e o f Dionysus could be aroused by some modern magic to r e l e a s e what i s bound i n i t , (IV, i i i , 235) i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the poet i n Book F i v e searches f o r , and f i n d s the "modern magic" necessary to arouse t h i s r i t u a l -i s t i c a r t o r i g i n . For i n doing so, he i s a l l o w i n g a r t , l i k e Paterson, the r i v e r , and the snake, to r e t u r n to i t s beginnings. The modern magic necessary f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of a r t and - 99 -the r e t u r n of a r t t o i t s sources i s inherent i n the a l l e g o r y of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s . In terms of the r e l i g i o u s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f the t a p e s t r i e s , these r i t u a l s , l i k e the whore-v i r g i n i d e n t i t y , provide the necessary union between the sen-s u a l and the s p i r i t u a l , f o r " A l l p l a ys / were s a t y r i c when they were most devout." (V, i i , 258) This i s a f u s i o n which C h r i s t , i f l e f t w i t h only h i s conventional C h r i s t i a n connota-t i o n s , would be unable to accomplish. On one l e v e l then, W i l l i a m s uses these Hunt of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s as an evocation of these p r i m i t i v e pagan r i t e s . B a s i c a l l y , these Dionysian r i t u a l s were f e r t i l i t y r i t e s , i n which dancing and r e v e l r y predominated. Through them the attempt was made to master the v i s i b l e and i n v i s i b l e world by g e t t i n g c l o s e r to nature. In doing so, the p a r t i c i -pants saw themselves as working against death. Here then l i e s a c l o s e p a r a l l e l to Paterson's quest, f o r to overcome the co n d i t i o n s of divorce and sleep, Paterson must "keep ( h i s ) pecker up, whatever the d e t a i l . " (V, i i i , 273) In other words, l i k e those i n the r i t u a l of Dionysus, Paterson must ensure, f o r h i mself and f o r h i s community, continued f e r t i l i t y . And i n doing so Paterson, p a r t l y because he i s an o l d man, and p a r t l y because i t i s a prevalent c o n d i t i o n of h i s time, i s a l s o f i g h t i n g against death. Secondly, l i k e the C l o i s t e r s Museum on i t s rock, the Dionysian r i t e was i n t e g r a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h - 100 -stone; f o r i n s t a n c e , the staging o f the r i t u a l was u s u a l l y w i t h i n a stone temple. Because the t a p e s t r i e s are i n the C l o i s t e r s Museum, they too have t h e i r stone temple. Hence, "In March — / the rocks / the bare rocks / speak!" (V, i , 242) John Gassner i n h i s Masters o f the Drama provides the c l o s e s t and t h e r e f o r e most important p a r a l l e l between these r i t e s and the allegoric i n the t a p e s t r i e s , as can be seen by h i s f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of one of the types of the r i t u a l s : Life...was a l s o asserted by the worship o f potency i n an animal (sometimes a p l a n t , l i k e the "soma" of the Hindus) i n which the a n c e s t r a l s p i r i t and the t r i b e ' s u n i t y were o f t e n i n c r ^ n a t e d . I t became customary f o r the community to s a c r i f i c e a b u l l , horse, goat, or other creature and t o i n c o r p o r a t e i t s mana or magical power by p a r t a k i n g o f i t s f l e s h and blood. Then, since i t was s e r i o u s business to k i l l the sacred animal, i t s death was s y m b o l i c a l l y "undone" i n v a r i o u s ways.23 Now, i f we take Paterson the c i t y to be the t r i b e , and Paterson as Unicorn to be the potent animal, i n l i g h t of the p h a l l i c and a p h r o d i s i a c a l q u a l i t i e s of the Unicorn's horn, then we have a Dionysian f e r t i l i t y r i t u a l inherent i n the Hunt of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s . Dionysus was a Spring s p i r i t , and h i s r i t u a l u s u a l l y c e l e b r a t e d the resurgence o f Spring; Book F i v e ' s rocks, speaking i n March, begin the r i t u a l ; the r i t u a l i s terminated i n A p r i l , when the Unicorn i s penned by a low wooden - 101 -fence. ^ The resurgence of Spring occurs, w i t h a l l i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s , i n these two months. F i n a l l y , though the p r i e s t s of Dionysus occupied thrones c l o s e to the stage, c e r t a i n of these r i t u a l s were held i n honour of Aphrodite (Venus). Though t h i s honouring o f Aphrodite i s u s u a l l y i n connection w i t h Adonis, Robert Graves has pointed out (see page 90) that Hephaestus i s o c c a s i o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n these r i t u a l s . But since the Unicorn i s a symbolic metaphor, the phrase "the Unicorn and the god of l o v e " on one l e v e l can r e f e r to the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Hephaestus and Venus, w h i l e on another l e v e l i t can r e f e r to the Unicorn as the potent animal of the f e r t i l i t y r i t e , h e l d i n honour of Venus. S i m i -l a r l y , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Paterson as r i v e r , or as man does not negate the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Paterson as c i t y or as Unicorn. On the contrary, i t i s t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y o f i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n concerning the Unicorn t h a t allows Paterson's f i n a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n to be the s i n g l e image that does indeed "res o l v e ( h i s ) complex f e e l i n g s of p r o p r i e t y . " In t h i s sense, the Unicorn can be seen as a k i n d of Emersonian " f a c t " which, f o r W i l l i a m s , contains the whole universe, and hence a p a r a l l e l , though l i m i t e d , can be drawn between the romantic conception o f an organic cosmos, and W i l l i a m s ' symbolic metaphor. Thematically then, the Dionysian r i t u a l that W i l l i a m s i m p l i e s i s i n the t a p e s t r i e s can be seen as an emphatic - 102 -supporter of the marriage theme, since the r i t u a l i s primarily-concerned w i t h f e r t i l i t y and u n i t y . F u r t h e r , i t expands the r e s u r r e c t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the Unicorn as C h r i s t , by b a l a n -c i n g C h r i s t ' s s p i r i t u a l i m p l i c a t i o n s w i t h more sensual ones, thereby performing a f u n c t i o n s i m i l a r to t h a t of the "every-woman" d e s c r i p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the t a p e s t r y queen. I n t h i s sense, Dionysus i s to C h r i s t what the whore i s to the v i r g i n . Now, since the marriage of the p o e t i c to the a n t i - p o e t i c i s b a s i c a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of the c r e a t i v e process, and since on one l e v e l Paterson can be seen as the e v o l u t i o n of W i l l i a m s ' c r e a t i v e process, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f the t a p e s t r i e s w i t h the Dionysian r i t u a l can a l s o be seen as an embodiment of t h i s process. In other words, the union of the t a p e s t r i e s w i t h the r i t u a l provides a metaphor symbolic of W i l l i a m s ' basic p o e t i c s . To understand the nature of t h i s union, i t i s f i r s t of a l l necessary to d i s c u s s what i s meant by the terms A p o l l o n i a n and Dionysian f o r , as Nietzche says, "the continuous development of a r t i s bound up with the A p o l l o n i a n and Dionysian d u a l i t y , j u s t as p r o c r e a t i o n depends on the d u a l i t y of the sexes, i n v o l v i n g perpetual s t r i f e w i t h only p e r i o d i c a l l y i n t e r v e n i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s . " 2 - * That W i l l i a m s i s aware o f , and a c t s upon t h i s d u a l i t y i n h i s p o e t i c s or c r e a t i v e process can only be seen a f t e r an explanation of the two terms. And i n Book F i v e , through the t a p e s t r i e s as pre-- 103 -t r a g i c p l a y , W i l l i a m s presents a metaphor symbolic f o r one of these p e r i o d i c i n t e r v e n i n g r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s of the two. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , A p o l l o and Dionysus are the two a r t d e i t i e s of the Greeks; two d e i t i e s , because the c r e a t i v e process i s b a s i c a l l y a process of d u a l i t y , i f Nietzsche i s c o r r e c t . Jung, at any r a t e , agrees w i t h Nietzsche's con-e l u s i o n s . ° C e r t a i n l y , Nietzsche's view c o i n c i d e s w i t h W i l l i a m s ' , as the l a t t e r ' s d i s c u s s i o n of the sexes suggests (p. 33 above). On the A p o l l o n i a n s i d e , represented by mas-c u l i n i t y and consciousness, we have the c o n d i t i o n s of measured r e s t r a i n t , and what i s r e f e r r e d to as the " p r i n c i p i u m i n d i v i d u a t i o n i s ; " the s t r i v i n g f o r i d e n t i t y through d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n . On the Dionysian s i d e , presented by f e m i n i n i t y and unconsciousness, we have u n c o n d i t i o n a l e x a l t a t i o n and r e l e a s e . This leads to a c o l l a p s e of the p r i n c i p i u m i n d i v i d u a t i o n i s through the r e a l i z a t i o n of man's p r i m o r d i a l u n i t y w i t h nature and mankind, the r e a l i z a t i o n of what Jung c a l l s "the c o l l e c t i v e unconscious." As Nietzche says, through the "Dionysian not only i s the union between man and man r e - a f f i r m e d , but nature which has become a l i e n a t e d , h o s t i l e , or subjugated, c e l e b r a t e s once more her r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h her l o s t son, man."2? The c l e a r e s t example of t h i s type of Dionysian r e l e a s e i s Whitman's "Song of Myself." But f o r W i l l i a m s , t h i s i s only part o f the p i c t u r e , though an important p a r t . L i k e C o l e r i d g e , W i l l i a m s - 104 -wishes to give equal weight to judgement as to genius. For W i l l i a m s , C o l e r i d g e , and Nietzsche then, t r u e a r t r e l i e s on the inter-dependence or balance o f these two separate yet i n t e r - r e l a t e d worlds, j u s t as the mind f u n c t i o n s according to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the conscious w i t h the unconscious, and l i f e according to the masculine and feminine p o l a r i t i e s of c r e a t i o n i n t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p . These d u a l i t i e s are l a r g e l y what W i l l i a m s i s r e f e r r i n g to when he says i n Book One, " r o l l i n g up out of chaos, / a nine months 1 wonder, the c i t y / the man, an i d e n t i t y — i t can't be otherwise — an / i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , both ways." (Preface, 12) While the Dionysian longs f o r u n i t y and e x a l t a t i o n of e x i s t e n c e , the A p o l l o n i a n , the apotheosis of i n d i v i d u a t i o n , "knows but one law — the i n d i v i d u a l — i . e . — t h e d e l i m i t i n g of the boundaries of the i n d i v i d u a l , measure i n the H e l l e n i c s e n s e . Y e t , as Jung, Nietzsche and others r e v e a l , only i n s o f a r as the A p o l l o -n i an genius i n the 'act o f c r e a t i o n coalesces w i t h the Diony-s i a n p r i m o r d i a l a r t i s t of the world, does he know anything o f the e t e r n a l essence of a r t . Here again, the long l e t t e r from C. at the end of Book Two i s r e l e v a n t . C Ts accusation t h a t W i l l i a m s d i v o r c e s l i f e from l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s her Dionysian point of view, and suggests that up to the time we read her l e t t e r , W i l l i a m s ' s o - c a l l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of process was purely an A p o l l o n i a n employment; i t ignored and t h e r e f o r e f a i l e d - 105 -to coalesce w i t h the Dionysian " l i f e i n the raw." By 1942, however, W i l l i a m s acknowledged t h i s Dionysian element, and h i s comment at t h i s time provides us wi t h a p e r t i n e n t foreshadowing of h i s l a t e r use of the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s , where he speaks of "the unsounded depths of the unconscious, where f e r t i l i z a t i o n 29 and murder s t r u g g l e to recreate and cleanse the world." I n Book F i v e , W i l l i a m s ' "unsounded depths" coalesce w i t h h i s Ap o l l o n i a n p o e t i c s , thus enabling him to r e a l i z e the t r u e essence o f a r t . W i l l i a m s i n "How to W r i t e " r e v e a l s h i s treatment o f t h i s union i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s c r e a t i v e process, thereby r e v e a l i n g h i s awareness of the n e c e s s i t y o f t h i s coalescence i n Book F i v e : The f a c u l t i e s , u n t i e d , proceed backward through the nigh t of our unconscious past. I t goes down to the r i t u a l i s t i c , amoral part o f the race, to f e t i s h , to dream, to wherever the "genius" of the p a r t i c u l a r w r i t e r f i n d s i t s e l f able to go...unless t h i s i s tapped by the w r i t e r , nothing o f moment can r e s u l t . . . . from there i t comes to a new f i e l d , that of i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . then becomes an object of a t t e n t i o n t h a t the f u l l mind can give i t . 3 0 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s essay was w r i t t e n about the time of Book Fi v e ' s w r i t i n g . What W i l l i a m s r e f e r s to as the f u l l mind i s b a s i c a l l y the conscious mind, "the most recent mind, the f o r e -b r a i n , the seat of m e m o r y . T h i s progression of the c r e a t i v e f a c u l t i e s , what Joyce c a l l s "the he and she o f i t , " i s - 106 -p r i m a r i l y a movement or development of the unconscious to the conscious, where the unconscious r i t u a l i s t i c amoral p a r t i s the Dionysian, and the new conscious f i e l d o f the i n t e l l i g e n c e that works upon and gives i d e n t i t y to these unconscious elements i s the A p o l l o n i a n . Therefore, on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l , the sun imagery i n Book Fi v e r e l a t e s more to A p o l l o than to Hephaes-t u s , though both embodiments, because of the f l e x i b i l i t y o f symbolic metaphor, are v a l i d . Consequently, j u s t as Paterson gives up h i s f a l s e approach to d e t a i l at the end o f Book Two because i t i s purely A p o l l o n i a n , Paterson, at the end o f Book Four, turns away from the p r i m o r d i a l , u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d sea at the end o f h i s r i v e r ' s l i f e course because i t i s purely Diony-s i a n . I n the sea, the A p o l l o n i a n t o o l s o f memory and measure would be unable to f u n c t i o n . Not so, however, w i t h the Diony-s i a n r i t u a l , f o r through the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s , both memory and measure can be a p p l i e d . To understand how the poet can apply these, i t i s f i r s t o f a l l necessary to b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the unconscious to conscious progression inherent i n the opening l i n e s of Book F i v e , a progression that a llows the poet to have h i s temporary r e c o n c i l i a t i o n or marriage w i t h h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . In l i g h t of the above d i s c u s s i o n , the opening l i n e s can be seen as a metaphoric d e s c r i p t i o n of the poet reawakening or tapping the resources o f h i s unconscious. The f i r s t step i n t h i s process i s the unleashing of the c r e a t i v e f a c u l t i e s by - 107 -c a s t i n g o f f the chains o f the conscious mind, as symbol ized by the eagle on i t s crag ( p o s s i b l y used as an A p o l l o n i a n symbol o f Amer ica ) : I n o l d age the mind ca s t s o f f r e b e l l i o u s l y an eagle from i t s c rag — the angle o f a forehead o r f a r l e s s makes him remember when he thought he had f o r g o t . (V, i , 241) By doing so , the unconscious mind, " the angle o f a forehead / o r f a r l e s s , " i s r e a c t i v a t e d . Consequent ly , the unconscious wor ld o f Pater son i s reawakened " f rom ( i t s ) l ong w i n t e r s l e e p . " (24 l ) I n the prev ious four books, P a t e r s o n ' s " r o c k s and streams" were i n a r t i c u l a t e , s ince they were symbols f o r P a t e r -son's dormant unconsc ious . However, i n Book F i v e , the Diony-s i a n rocks speak. And because at the beg inn ing o f Book F i v e , Paterson i s i n the wor ld o f the unconsc ious , " i t i s a c loudy m o r n i n g . " (242) I n o t h e r words, Pa ter son as yet does not a l l o w h i s A p o l l o n i a n sun—his conscious mind—to i n t e r f e r e . U n t i l P a t e r s o n ' s unconscious i s r e v i v e d , i t must be "Not prophecy! NOT prophecy! / but the t h i n g i t s e l f . " (242) But s ince P a t e r -son's rocks now speak, Pater son can now wi thout f e a r a l l o w h i s f u l l mind to i n t e r - a c t w i t h h i s newly-aroused unconsc ious . - 108 -S i m i l a r l y , Paterson's r e t u r n to the o l d scenes, h i s snake r o l l i n g backwards i n t o the past, and h i s r i v e r r e t u r n i n g to i t s beginnings are b a s i c a l l y metaphors o f the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f Paterson's f u l l conscious i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h h i s now awakened unconscious past. In other words, on one l e v e l , W i l l i a m s ' concept o f r e t u r n i s the poet's i n d i c a t i o n o f the coalescence o f the A p o l l o n i a n and the Dionysian f u n c t i o n s o f h i s mind. And since the t a p e s t r i e s are both an evocation of the Dionysian r i t u a l , and ob j e c t s i n the poet's present and conscious r e a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e o b j e c t s which the A p o l l o n i a n elements of the poet's mind can study, the t a p e s t r i e s i n t h i s way become a symbol f o r the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the two worlds. In another sense, the Apollonian-Dionysian d u a l i t y i s inv o l v e d w i t h the poet's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s a n t i - p o e t i c . Since the a n t i - p o e t i c embodies both woman and land ( n a t u r e ) , W i l l i a m s ' d e s i r e f o r union w i t h t h i s a n t i - p o e t i c i s a c t u a l l y a Dionysian obsession. As Wallace Stevens p o i n t s out, W i l l i a m s ' "passion f o r the a n t i - p o e t i c i s a blood passion, and not a passion of the i n k - p o t . The a n t i - p o e t i c i s h i s s p i r i t ' s c u r e — i s t hat t r u t h , that r e a l i t y t o which a l l of us are f o r e v e r 32 f l e e i n g . " However, as W i l l i a m s r e a l i z e s , t h i s blood passion does not create a r t u n t i l the measured r e s t r a i n t o f the A p o l l o n i a n mind gives i t i d e n t i t y . This n e c e s s i t y of i n t e r -a c t i o n then, i s a good part of the reason why W i l l i a m s i n Book - 109 Fi v e spends so much time d e s c r i b i n g the compositional p a r t i c u -l a r s of the t a p e s t r i e s , f o r i n doing so, the poet i s c o n t r o l l i n g , and hence g i v i n g meaning t o , the energies i n t r i n s i c to them. S i m i l a r l y , W i l l i a m s ' v a r i a b l e foot technique i s a concept of c o n t r o l , a c o n t r o l that leads to the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e awareness of the l i n e ' s inherent energies. As the poet i n Book F i v e says, "you cannot be / an a r t i s t / by mere i n e p t i t u d e , " (V, i i , 258) f o r pure Dionysian r e l e a s e does not c o n s t i t u t e a r t . W i l l i a m s complained of Whitman's poetry t h a t what he d i d not do was to study what he had done, to go over i t , to s e l e c t and r e j e c t , which i s the making of the a r t i s t . Whitman's poetry i s not a r t because i t i s pure Dionysian 33 r e l e a s e . Whitman has no A p o l l o n i a n sense of c o n t r o l necessary to transform h i s poetry i n t o a r t . S i m i l a r l y , Pound says o f Whitman, "Whitman broke the wood. Now i s a time f o r c a r v i n g . " - ^ I t i s on t h i s p o i n t that Pound and W i l l i a m s are i n complete agreement, though t h e i r approaches are c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t . Both a r t i s t s see l i t e r a t u r e as "language charged w i t h meaning;"35 the Dionysian part of the mind p r o v i d i n g the "charge," and the A p o l l o n i a n p r o v i d i n g the "meaning." W i l l i a m s mentions Paul Klee's work because h i s drawings, though c h i l d - l i k e , are "not the work of a c h i l d , " (259) because, l i k e Durer and "Leonardo," Klee was aware of h i s obsession. Though the Dionysian element, l a r g e l y symbolized i n Book Fi v e by the dance, i s e s s e n t i a l to - 110 -a r t , i t i s s t i l l a dance that must be c o n t r o l l e d by measure. As W i l l i a m s says, i n the c l o s i n g l i n e s o f Paterson. measure i s a l l we have to give us i d e n t i t y : At the same time, i f there i s no dance, there i s nothing to measure, and again there i s no a r t . J u s t as e s s e n t i a l to a r t as the A p o l l o n i a n p o e t i c s i s the Dionysian l i f e process, which must of n e c e s s i t y continue. Therefore, Paterson can o n l y be the Unicorn u n i t e d w i t h h i s t a p e s t r y v i r g i n "once on a time / on.a time," (V, i i i , 276) f o r though the Unicorn i s the c u l -minatory embodiment f o r the p r o t a g o n i s t t h a t transforms the r e s t of Paterson i n t o the realm of a r t , the poet must give up h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . To remain i n the realm of a r t i f a c t , as Book Three r e v e a l s , i s f a t a l . The f o l l o w i n g l i n e , "Caw1. Caw'. Caw', the crows cry'." (276) i s , i n t h i s sense, r e a l i t y ' s warning to the poet t h a t he must r e t u r n to the realm o f l i f e . I f W i l l i a m s r e t a i n e d h i s culminatory i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn, h i s l i f e process would cease, become product, and both the t a p e s t r i e s and Paterson would become hollow a r t i f a c t . In t h i s case, Death would be the v i c t o r i n every sense. I t The measure i n t e r v e n e s , to measure i s a l l we know, a choice among the measures.... the measured dance ... We know nothing and can know nothing - I l l -i s o n l y when Pa ter son uses h i s l i f e as a means to renew the processes o f a r t , and uses i t t o the very end, t h a t P a t e r s o n ' s death w i l l achieve i t s f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e s i g n i f i -cance, death as the u l t i m a t e meaning o f l i f e . As l o n g as Pa ter son i s a l i v e , there i s a n e c e s s i t y f o r Book S i x . Though the U n i c o r n does prove to be the p h i l o s o p h e r ' s stone f o r P a t e r s o n , r e c o n c i l i n g the d i v o r c e d c o n d i t i o n o f both the man and the c i t y , and reawakening P a t e r s o n ' s mesmer iza t ion , t h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n i s w o r t h l e s s i f the awareness that accompanies the r e s u r r e c t i o n i s not acted upon. For much g r e a t e r than the ac t s o f r e s u r r e c t i o n and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s the sense o f renewed purpose. As i n M i l t o n ' s L y c i d a s , the r e s u r r e c t i o n o f Lycidas ' * body from the sea i s not enough. L y c i d a s i s to be the p r o t e c t i n g d e i t y " t o a l l t h a t wander i n t h a t p e r i l o u s f l o o d . " ( l . 185) I f Columbus had remained i n Amer ica , he would have ceased t o be an e x p l o r e r . I f W i l l i a m s as Pa te r son had r e t a i n e d h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the t a p e s t r i e s , he would have ceased t o be a poet . T h i s i s why Pater son f i n a l l y r e j e c t s h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n at the end o f Book F i v e : "The past i s f o r those tha t l i v e d i n the p a s t . Cessa' ." (V, i i i , 277) To remain as a r t i f a c t i s t o become par t o f the p a s t , i g n o r i n g the present ongoing processes o f r e a l i t y , which are the o n l y p o s s i b l e form o f e x i s t e n c e . I n "Shadows," a poem t h a t bears an obvious s i m i l a r i t y to the end - 112 -o f Book F i v e , the poet says: The i n s t a n t t r i v i a l as i t i s i s a l l we have unless - unless t h i n g s the imagination feeds upon, the scent of the rose, s t a r t l e us anew. p. 151) Therefore the importance of the dance s i n c e , l i k e W i l l i a m s ' " e f f o r t , " i t i s an a c t i o n of the present, and without t h a t , there i s no l i f e . Heisenburg says: a t h i n g can be measured i n i t s mass only by a r b i t r a r i l y assuming a stoppage o f i t s motion, or i n i t s motion only be n e g l e c t i n g f o r the moment of the measuring, i t s mass. And e i t h e r way, you are f a i l i n g to get what you're a f t e r — so f a r as the human being goes, h i s l i f e . There i s o n l y one t h i n g you can do about k i n e t i c , re-enact i t . 3 6 Therefore i f the culmination i n W i l l i a m s ' Book F i v e was perma-nent, the motion or k i n e t i c o f the quest would cease, and n e i t h e r a r t nor l i f e would s u r v i v e . Nietzsche says t h a t the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the A p o l l o n i a n w i t h the Dionysian can o n l y be a p e r i o d i c i n t e r v e n t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the marriage of the p o e t i c to the a n t i - p o e t i c can only be momentary. In both cases, i f the p o l a r i t i e s of these d u a l i t i e s are u n i t e d , there i s no more quest, and t h e r e f o r e , no more l i f e . The reason f o r t h i s i s apparent s i n c e , as W i l l i a m s says (see Chapt. One, p. 33) , "everything we do i s an e f f o r t t o achieve c o n j u n c t i o n , - 113 -not to say u n i t y . " Thus a r t and l i f e must remain d i s t i n c t , i f both are to s u r v i v e . I f W i l l i a m s gives h i s l i f e up to the t a p e s t r y a r t i f a c t , both remain products, and both decay. But i f W i l l i a m s devotes the r e s t of h i s l i f e to u n i t i n g and r e - u n i t i n g the p o e t i c w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c , i n t h i s way he i s con t i n u i n g and developing the process of a r t . Thus both a r t and l i f e become l i v i n g processes, and both s u r v i v e . I n t h i s sense, the Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s are the thematic measure t h a t , i n t h e i r embodiment of the r e s t of Paterson, give Paterson both i d e n t i t y and meaning, thereby r a i s i n g the poem i n t o the realm of a r t . But f o r t h i s realm to s u r v i v e , Paterson must c o n t i n u a l l y renew h i s purpose, to give meaning and i d e n t i t y through measure to the only t h i n g that i s p o s s i b l e f o r the poet to measure, h i s l i f e t i m e dance w i t h h i s l i f e l o n g p a r t n e r , the a n t i - p o e t i c . - 114 -Conclusion Though he i s approaching death, he i s possessed by many poems. (V, i i i , 269) On March 4 , 1963, W i l l i a m s ceased h i s d e d i c a t i o n to the l i f e and development of a r t , f o r on t h a t day he confronted the death t h a t he'd been expecting f o r s e v e r a l decades. Yet the poet, f u l f i l l i n g the r e s o l u t i o n s o f Paterson V , pursued h i s quest to the very end, as Denise Levertov's d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s l a s t days w i l l t e s t i f y : When I f i r s t met Dr. W i l l i a m s about twelve years ago he had a l r e a d y had a s e r i o u s s t r o k e . Over the years, I used to say to myself ... "He's o l d and f r a i l : t h i s may be the l a s t time you w i l l see him." And each time he would a s t o n i s h me again w i t h h i s v i t a l i t y ... h i s undeviating, i l l u m i n a t i n g a t t e n t i o n to what concerned him — the poem, the poem .... Except f o r the l a s t time of a l l , a few weeks ago, [ a r t i c l e published March 16, 6fJ when h i s tongue could no longer f i n d the words he needed f o r the ideas one could see i n h i s eyes, and he kept g i v i n g up i n mid-sentence, sad and b a f f l e d . Yet even then, vague as he had become about many t h i n g s , there remained that eagerness to hear a new poem ... he was more confused t h a t day than I had ever seen him, but poetry remained i n p r i s t i n e focus. Through the hole of death, W i l l i a m s ' imagination escaped i n t a c t . Because W i l l i a m s d i d remain tr u e to h i s Book F i v e r e s o l u t i o n s - 115 -up t o the point o f death, many o f the poems w r i t t e n concur-rent w i t h , and subsequent t o , Book F i v e are ma n i f e s t a t i o n s of the now c l a r i f i e d , e a r l i e r dilemmas. As Levertov says, "when we see the l a t e r poems i n r e l a t i o n to one another, each separate poem, though i t had given us of i t s e l f before, be-gins to r e l e a s e more l e v e l s o f meaning than we r e a l i z e d when we read i t i n i s o l a t i o n . " ^ 8 This p r i n c i p l e holds a l l the more tr u e i n the case o f Book F i v e ' s r e l a t i o n to them. W i l l i a m s had s a i d o f t h i s book, " I must gather together the s t r a y ends of what I have been t h i n k i n g , and make my f u l l statement as to t h e i r meaning or q u i t . " (SL, 298) Since the poet d i d not q u i t , but went on to complete P i c t u r e s from Breughel,^9 a n f j [ part of Paterson V I , i t f o l l o w s that W i l l i a m s d i d r e a l i z e t h i s f u l l statement, as the previous chapters d i s c u s s , and t h e r e -fo r e was given impetus to continue the development of h i s c r a f t as manifested i n these l a t e r works. To borrow a phrase from Wordsworth, W i l l i a m s ' culmina-t o r y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the Unicorn was one of the poet's s i g n i f i c a n t "spots of time" t h a t gave him the i n s i g h t necessary f o r him to r e a l i z e the v a l i d i t y of h i s "open g o a l " quest, and th e r e f o r e ennabled him to continue i t . The Unicorn t a p e s t r i e s , however, though mentioned o c c a s i o n a l l y i n l a t e r poems such as "A Formal Design" or "The Sparrow," and though an i n t e g r a l part of Book F i v e ' s f u l l statement, are not developed i n the - 116 -m a j o r i t y of the l a t e r poems s i n c e , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , they are not a part o f the process of l i f e , but are products. Though the t a p e s t r i e s may be a culminatory symbol f o r the poet's quest at one very c r u c i a l point i n h i s l i f e , they can-not continue to be so, f o r i f the poet's quest i s to s u r v i v e , i t must remain a process. Thus the permanent u n i t y i m p l i e d i n Paterson's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the t a p e s t r i e s must be broken. The most important c o n d i t i o n of the "open g o a l " s t r a t e g y i s that the s t r i v i n g f o r those goals must never cease. I n u n i t y , there i s c e s s a t i o n , the c e s s a t i o n of d e s i r e , and t h e r e f o r e the c e s s a t i o n of l o v e . And i f there i s no more l o v e , the imagination d i e s . And i f the imagination d i e s , there i s nothing to escape through the hole o f death. In the f i n a l decade o f the poet's l i f e , l a r g e l y due t o h i s d i s c o v e r i e s i n Paterson V, W i l l i a m s became c e r t a i n of two ba s i c p r i n c i p l e s necessary f o r the perpetuation of a r t and l i f e , a c e r t a i n t y t h a t gave him impetus to continue h i s " e f f o r t " f o r the sake of a r t t o the point of death. The f i r s t i s t hat the c r e a t i o n of a r t l i e s only i n the continued recon-c i l i a t i o n of the p o e t i c with the a n t i - p o e t i c . L i k e the "Sm i l i n g Dane," what W i l l i a m s sees "cannot be more / than the male / and female / o f i t . " And though t h i s d u a l i t y i s i n t r i n -s i c i n h i s e n t i r e p o e t i c career, nowhere i s i t more c l e a r l y manifested than i n h i s l a t e r poems. On the masculine, po e t i c - 117 -s i d e , we have r e c u r r i n g i n these poems such images as man, poet, p a i n t e r , brid§groom, hunter, c i t y , and sun; on the female, a n t i - p o e t i c s i d e , we have the r e c u r r i n g images o f women, fl o w e r s , and e a r t h . And when the two have been s u c c e s s f u l l y u n i t e d , we have the triumph of the imagination manifested i n the f a v o u r i t e of W i l l i a m s ' art-marriages: the p a i n t i n g , and the poem. Three of these th a t most success-f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e the nature of t h i s triumph are "The Chrysanthemum," "The Mental H o s p i t a l Garden," and "View by Color Photography." In the f i r s t , the po e t i c sun i s i n harmony w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c flower: how s h a l l we t e l l the b r i g h t p e t a l s from the sun i n the sky c o n c e n t r i c a l l y crowding the branch save that i t y i e l d s i n i t s modesty to t h a t splendor? (PB, 17) S i m i l a r l y , i n "The Mental H o s p i t a l Garden," the sun i s uni t e d w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c as woman: One emboldened, p a r t i n g the leaves before her, stands i n the f u l l s u n l i g h t , alone shading her eyes as her heart beats w i l d l y and her mind d r i n k s up the f u l l meaning - 118 -of i t a l l ! (PB, 100) And i n "View by Color Photography," the sun i s i n union w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c as land: there i s no h o r i z o n ... . . . i n the mountains where the sun shines of a springtime afternoon. Something has come to an end here, i t has been accomplished. In a l l t h r e e , the union of the sun w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c im-p l i e s f o r the poet the beauty and meaning of h i s e n t i r e quest. Yet, t h i s quest f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the two i s , by nature, p a r a d o x i c a l . To remain f u l l y a l i v e , one must c o n t i n u a l l y s t r i v e t o u n i t e these d u a l i t i e s ; but i f the two are completely and permanently u n i t e d , i t i s the end o f l i f e . In the f o l l o w -i n g comment, W i l l i a m s plays upon t h i s ambiguity: "the end o f l i f e i s to penetrate the female." (Auto, 376) In t h i s sense, the end of l i f e means both l i f e ' s quest and l i f e ' s f i n i s h : To r e s o l v e the paradox, the quest must thus become a c y c l i c a l process u n t i l the point o f the poet's n a t u r a l death. Here then, the poet's r e l a t i o n to the a n t i - p o e t i c i s l i k e the sun's r e l a t i o n to the e a r t h . The harmony th a t produces the f u l l e s t meaning of l i f e and a r t must of n e c e s s i t y be continuous, but What do I look f o r i n a woman? Death, I suppose, since i t ' s a l l I see anyhow i n those v a r i o u s p e r f e c t i o n s . (Auto, 222) - 119 -since the sun s i n k s every day, a l s o o f n e c e s s i t y , the harmony cannot be permanent. This r e s o l u t i o n leads to W i l l i a m s ' second basic p r i n c i p l e . Necessary to transform t h i s c y c l i c a l process i n t o a r t i s the A p o l l o n i a n c o n t r o l that the poet must use over h i s obsessive d e s i r e f o r union w i t h the a n t i - p o e t i c . I t i s only through the balance of unconscious passion (the acknowledgement o f Dionysian l i f e i n the raw) and conscious r e s t r a i n t (manifested i n W i l l i a m s ' use of the most s p e c i f i c , most accurate rhythm and the most s p e c i f i c , most accurate word) th a t the poet i s able to measure, and hence give i d e n t i t y t o , the union. And through t h i s captured i d e n t i t y i s created what we c a l l a r t . S i m i l a r l y , the sun's heat (emotion) i s always kept at a con-t r o l l e d d i stance from the earth ( a n t i - p o e t i c ) . I f the poet attempts to v i o l a t e t h i s balance, he i n e v i t a b l y f a i l s , as W i l l i a m s ' "Landscape w i t h the F a l l o f I c a r u s " v i v i d l y p o i n t s out: sweating i n the sun that melted the wing's wax u n s i g n i f i c a n t l y o f f the coast there was a splash quite unnoticed t h i s was Icarus drowning. (El, 4) 120 -Once t h i s A p o l l o n i a n - D i o n y s i a n harmony i s thwarted by the poet , the poet as I carus i s d e s t r o y e d . Kept i n ba lance , however, as W i l l i a m s p o i n t s out i n " A s p h o d e l , " " the heat w i l l not overtake the l i g h t " (PB, 179)• I c a ru s a l lowed the heat to overtake the l i g h t , and so d i e d . Thus, a c c o r d i n g to W i l l i a m s ' use o f " i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y " and " q u i t e u n n o t i c e d , " I c a r u s ' drowning was a death o f no i d e n t i t y . Through the unders tanding o f these two p r i n c i p l e s neces-sary f o r the c r e a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f a r t , we can now see P a u l ' s enigmat ic que s t ion f o r what i t i s : i r r e l e v a n t . I t i s not how deep the water i s tha t mat te r s , but what the poet can b r i n g f o r t h from i t s depths . I f we see " b l a c k f i s h " as the a n t i - p o e t i c , the " f i s h i n g l i n e and hook" as the p o e t i c , the w a t e r ' s depths as the D i o n y s i a n , and the f i sherman as the poet employing h i s A p o l l o n i a n p o e t i c s , then the f o l l o w i n g poem i s a symbolic metaphor, a p p r o p r i a t e l y t i t l e d " P a u l , " t h a t best d e s c r i b e s how the f o u r poles i n v o l v e d i n these two p r i n c i p l e s i n t e r - r e l a t e t o produce that phenomenon c a l l e d a r t : I when you s h a l l a r r i v e as deep as you w i l l need go to ca tch the b l a c k f i s h the hook has been f e a t l y b a i t e d by the a r t you have - 121 and you do ca tch them I I w i t h what a thoroughness you know s e i z e t h a t g l i s t e n i n g body t r a n s l a t e d to t h a t language you w i l l understand gut c l e a n r o a s t g r a n i s h and I I I serve to y o u r s e l f who b e t t e r eat and enjoy however you d i v i d e and share t h a t b l a c k f i s h h e f t and shine i s your own. (PB, 23) - 122 -Footnotes I n t r o d u c t i o n W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , The Autobiography (New l o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 5 l ) , p . 394. Herea f t e r r e fe rences are c i t e d w i t h page numbers as Auto i n t e x t . 2 A r c h i b a l d G. R u s s e l l , e d . , The L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m  Blake (London: Methuen, 1906) , p . oT7 3 From a speech about P a t e r s o n . August 6, 1953. As recorded by John C. T h i r l w a l l in "Append ix I V " o f " W i l l i a m s C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n f " New D i r e c t i o n s 17, p . 309. ^ I n h i s works o f n o n - f i c t i o n , however, such as The  S e l e c t e d Es savs . I Wanted to W r i t e a Poem, o r The S e l e c t e d  L e t t e r s , W i l l i a m s goes to great l eng ths to e x p l a i n h i s p o e t i c s . c L i n d a W. Wagner, The Poems o f W i l l i a m : C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ( M i d d l e t o n : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), p . 40 . ^ T . S . E l i o t , t r a n s . . Anabas i s : A Poem by S t . John Perse (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , 1949), p . 10. 7 Wagner, p . 51. 8 W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , S p r i n g and A l l ( D i j o n : Contact P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923), p . 9 3 • ( m y i t a l i c s . ) Q W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , S e l e c t e d Essays (New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1954), p . 90. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d w i t h page numbers as SE i n t e x t . - 123 -10 Northrope F r y e , Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m : Four Essays (1957; r p t . New York : Atheneum, 1969), p . 4 . 1 1 T I Wagner, p . 47 . 12 W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , Pa ter son (New York : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1963) , p . 4 . H e r e a f t e r , where the immediate context i s not c l e a r , re ference i s made i n the t e x t to book, s e c t i o n , and page number. Where the context i s c l e a r , the page number a lone i s g i v e n . 13 ^John C . T h i r l w a l l . e d . . The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s (New York : M c Dowel l -Obolensky , 1957), p . 298. Herea f te r c i t e d w i t h page numbers as SL i n t e x t . 14 For example, see Roy Harvey Pearce , i n The C o n t i n u i t y  o f American P o e t r y ( P r i n c e t o n , N . J . 1 9 6 l ) ; An. Approach to  Pater son (New Haven, I 9 6 6 ) ; Glauco Cambon, The I n c l u s i v e  Flame: S tud ie s i n American P o e t r y (Bloomington, I n d . , I 9 6 3 ) . And, though J o e l Conarroe g ive s Book F i v e more importance than the former do, he a l s o says t h a t "Book F i v e . . . h a s l i t t l e surface r e l a t i o n to the m a t e r i a l t h a t precedes i t " PWilliam  C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n : Language and Landscape ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1970), p . 1 3 ] . 15 Unpubl i shed m a t e r i a l i n the W i l l i a m s ' papers , Lock-wood Memoria l L i b r a r y Poe t ry C o l l e c t i o n , State U n i v e r s i t y o f New York at B u f f a l o . As recorded by Conarroe , p . 159. 16 E l i o t , p . 10 . 17 Northrope F r y e , A Study o f E n g l i s h Romanticism (New York : Random, 1968) , ' pp. 34, 52. 18 S i s t e r M . B e r n e t t a Quinn, "On P a t e r s o n , Book One , " i n W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s : A C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Es says , ed . J . H i l l i s M i l l e r (Englewbod, N . J . : P r i n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 111. - 124 -19 Areopagus i s the name g i v e n t o the body o f men w h i c h , s i t t i n g on the h i l l o f Areopagus, judged cases o f murder, m a l i c i o u s wounding, a r s o n , and p o i s o n i n g . T h i s body a l s o had the i n d e f i n i t e powers o f s u p e r v i s i n g the m a g i s t r a t e s , guarding the l aws , c o n t r o l l i n g educat ion and c e n s o r i n g morals (from Oxford Cpmp. to C l a s s i c a l L i t . ) . 20 L o u i s M a r t z , The U n i c o r n i n P a t e r s o n : W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , " i n W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Es says . p . 86. 21 W.H. Auden. The Enchafed F l o o d : The Romatic Icono-graphy o f the Sea (New Y o r k : Random, 1950), p . 7 . 22 Auden, pp. 43-46. 23 W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , I Wanted t o W r i t e a Poem, e d . , E d i t h Hea l (Boston: Beacon P r e s s , 1953) , p . 22. Here-a f t e r c i t e d w i t h page numbers as IWWP i n t e x t . Chapter One 1 I r o n i c a l l y , W i l l i a m s a c t u a l l y d i e d i n March, the month he r e f e r s to as h i s f a v o u r i t e , i n the Prologue to Kora i n H e l l . 2 James J . Ror imer , The C l o i s t e r s (New York : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, 1951), p . 120. 3 J . H i l l i s M i l l e r , " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " p . 13 . 4 Roger Seamon, "The B o t t l e i n the F i r e : Res i s t ence as C r e a t i o n i n W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n , " Twent ie th  Century L i t e r a t u r e . XL ( A p r i l 1965) , p . 22. - 125 -5 Here , W i l l i a m s mainta ins an American t r a d i t i o n : h i s views on educat ion are s i m i l a r to Emerson's and Whitman' s , though a p p a r e n t l y W i l l i a m s was l a t e r to change h i s o p i n i o n about . the deadening i n f l u e n c e o f the academies, through contact w i t h people such as John Holmes and J . C . T h i r l w a l l . (see S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s T pp . 315, 323.) 6 When W i l l i a m s was about 16, he su f fe red from a hear t s t r a i n due to an i n j u s t i c e on the t r a c k squad. S ince then h i s e x e r c i s e was most ly conf ined to long w a l k s . He a l s o says t h a t t h i s a c c i d e n t changed him from an a t h l e t e to an a r t i s t . (See Autobiography t p . 1+6.) 7 D r . P—presumably a s a r c a s t i c re ference to W i l l i a m s as " D r . P a t e r s o n . " 8 T h i s "head land" analogy i s s i m i l a r t o Pound's concept o f " p e r i p l u m " i n h i s Cantos , where the poet as voyager maps h i s r e a l i t y from what he can see from h i s s h i p . 9 W i l l i a m s s e l e c t e d t h i s passage from the antho logy , P o e t ' s C h o i c e . 10 11 12 Quinn, p . 108. For example, see I Wanted t o W r i t e a. PoemT p . 72. W i l l i a m s here seems to be aware o f the onomatapoeic q u a l i t y o f the name T h a l a s s a . 13 T h i s s u n - b i r d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s not unprecedented; f o r example, the r e l a t i o n o f the Phoenix ( b i r d o f r e s u r r e c t i o n ) to Phoebus (the sun, w i t h A p o l l o n i a n c o n n o t a t i o n s ) . 14 J . E . C i r l o t , A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols (New Y o r k : P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1962), p . 55. 15 Wagner, p . 68 . - 126 -16 , C . G . Jung, Psychology and Alchemy ( P r i n c e t o n : B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s XX, 1963), p . 113. 17 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t many o f Jung ' s a r c h e t y p a l symbols, f o r example the sun, the serpent , the garden, and the sea, are s i m i l a r l y t r e a t e d i n P a t e r s o n . A comparison o f W i l l i a m s ' and Jung ' s treatment of images would be v a l u a b l e . 13 „ F r y e , Romanticism, p . 77. C i r l o t , p . 333. 20 J o e l Conarroe , W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' Pa te r son ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsy lvan ia P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 6 2 . 21 C i r l o t , p . 56. Chapter Two 1 W i l l i a m s t r a n s l a t e d P h i l i p p e S o u p a u l t ' s n o v e l from French i n 1929. 2 Note the use o f "shadow" i n r e l a t i o n to the sun imagery p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . I n o t h e r words, the museum i s i n d i r e c t s u n l i g h t . 3 Peers et a l , e d s . , C a s s e l l ' s S p a n i s h - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (London: C a s s e l l , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 653. 4 C . T . Lewis and C. S h o r t , e d s . , A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y (Oxford : C l a rendon , 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 1592, 1550. - 127 -5 I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t " r e s " ( th ings ) i s e tymolog ic-a l ly r e l a t e d to " r e a l i t y , " thus suppor t ing the p o e t ' s n o t i o n t h a t there can be "no i d e a s , but i n t h i n g s . 6 S i m i l a r l y , i n H i s l e t t e r i n c o r p o r a t e d b y W i l l i ™ i n Book F i v e , Ginsberg says " I ' l l see i ceberg s and w r i t e great whi te p o l a r r h a p s o d i e s . " 7 Seamon, p . 18. W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s , P i c t u r e s From Breughel (New York : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1962), pp. 56-57. H e r e a f t e r c i t e d w i t h page numbers as PB i n t e x t . 9 The god o f l ove as God h i m s e l f should not be i g n o r e d , however, f o r i t may be important i n r e l a t i o n to the U n i c o r n as C h r i s t . (To be d i s cus sed l a t e r . ) ^ Robert Graves , The Greek Myths (Middlesex : Penguin , 1955), I , p . 87. 11 R i c h a r d A l d i n g t o n and Delano Ames, t r a n s . , New Larouss  E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Mythology (London: Hamlyn, 1959), p . 126. 12 Though A p o l l o and H e l i o s are more a c c u r a t e l y the gods o f the sun, W i l l i a m s ' sun imagery i n P a t e r s o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f Venus, tends to make Hephaestus more compat ib le w i t h the sun ' s i m p l i c a t i o n s . A p o l l o , as god o f l i g h t and t r u t h and as hea ler , • i s a compat ible embodiment, but more incomplet 13 A l d i n g t o n , p . 126. Graves , p . 37. 15 Graves , p . 33 . - 128 -16 E d i t h H a m i l t o n , Mythology (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1942), p . 33 . 17 Ror imer , p . 122. 18 . A Jung, p . 8 . 19 Jung, p . 22. 20 Jung, p . 143. 21 I n Hebraic l i t e r a t u r e and c u l t u r e , " M i r i a m the prophetess o f the exodus l e d a dance w i t h t i m b r e l s i n honour o f the L o r d . . . . L i k e Dionysus , Jehovah had h i s d i thyramb, and l i k e h i s Greek c o u t e r p a r t he was c e l e b r a t e d f o r h i s benevolence and h i s p o t e n c y . " Masters o f the Drama. p . 108. 22 C h a r l e s O l s o n , "Notes on Language and T h e a t r e , " Human Univer se and Other Essays (New York : Grove P r e s s , 1967) , p . 73 . 2 3 John Gassner, Masters o f the Drama (New York : Dover, 1954), p . 7 . 2 it C f . W i l l i a m s ' e a r l i e r comment: "March had always been my f a v o r i t e month, the month of the f i r s t r o b i n ' s song s i g n a l l i n g the r e t u r n o f the sun £.my i t a l i c s } to these l a t i t u d e s " ( P r o l . to Kora i n H e l l , 5 ) . 25 F r i e d r i c h N i e t z s c h e , The B i r t h o f Tragedy (New York : V i n t a g e , 1967) , p. 33-26 _ _ Jung, p . 89. 27 N i e t z s c h e , p . 37. 28 N i e t z s c h e , p . 4 6 . - 129 -29 William Carlos Williams, "The I n v i s i b l e University," Trend. I , i , (1942), p. 4. 30 Appendix to Wagner, p. 145. 31 Appendix to Wagner, p. 145. 32 Wallace Stevens, Opus Posthumous (New York: A l f r e d A Knopt, Inc., 1957), p. 255. 33 That Whitman ac t u a l l y revised his work i s of course well known. Williams' view of him i s thus p a r t i a l l y inaccu-rate, though t h i s i s beside the point. Important i s Williams;', insistence i n 1939, that the poet should maintain control. 34 William P r a t t , The Imagist Poem (New York: Dutton, 1963), pp. 11-41. 35 Ezra Pound, "A Pact," Selected Poems (New York: New Directions, 1957), p. 27. 36 As related by Charles Olson, "Human Universe," Human Universe t p. 10. 37 Denise Levertov, "William Carlos Williams," The Nation (March 1963), p. 260. 38 Levertov, p. 260. - 130 -S e l e c t e d Bib l iography-A l d i n g t o n , R i c h a r d , and Delamo Ames, t r a n s . New Larousse  E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Mytho logy . London: Hamlyn, 1959. Auden, W . H . The Enchafed F l o o d : The Romantic Iconography o_f the Sea. New Y o r k : Random, 1950. Cambon, G lauco . The I n c l u s i v e Flame: S tud ie s i n American P o e t r y . B loomington, I n d i a n a : Ind iana U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963. C i r l o t , J . E . A D i c t i o n a r y o f Symbols. New York : P h i l o s o -p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1962. Conarroe , J o e l . W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s 1 P a t e r s o n : Language  and Landscape. P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1970. E l i o t , T . S . , t r a n s . Anabas i s : A Poem by S t . John P e r s e . New York : H a r c o u r t , 1949. F r y e , N o r t h r o p . A Study o f E n g l i s h Romantic ism. New York : Random, 1968. Gassner, John . Masters o f the Drama. New York : Dover, 1954. Graves , R o b e r t . The Greek Myths , v o l . I . M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin , 1955. H a m i l t o n , E d i t h . Mytho logy . Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1942. Jung, C . G . Psychology and Alchemy. P r i n c e t o n : B o l l i n g e n S e r i e s XX, 1963. - 131 L e v e r t o v , Den i se . " W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . " The N a t i o n , March 1963, p . 260. M a r t z , L o u i s . "The U n i c o r n i n P a t e r s o n : W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . " Thought.XXXV (Winter i 9 6 0 ) , 537-554. Inc luded i n M i l l e r , e d . , W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . M i l l e r , J . H i l l i s , ed . W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s : A C o l l e c -t i o n o f C r i t i c a l E s says . Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 196"6"7 N i e t z s c h e , F r i e d r i c h . The B i r t h o f Tragedy. New Y o r k : V i n t a g e , 1967. O l s o n , C h a r l e s . Human Univer se and Other Es says . New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1967. Pearce , Roy Harvey. The C o n t i n u i t y o f American P o e t r y . P r i n c e t o n , N . J . : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. P e t e r s o n , W a l t e r S c o t t . An Approach to P a t e r s o n . New Haven, C o n n . : Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Pound, E z r a . Se l ec ted Poems. New York : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1957. P r a t t , W i l l i a m . The Imagist Poem. New Y o r k : Dut ton , 1963. Quinn, S i s t e r M . B e r n e t t a . The Metamorphic T r a d i t i o n i n Modern P o e t r y . New Brunswick, N . J . : Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955. Ror imer , James J . The C l o i s t e r s . New Y o r k : M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum, 1951. Seamon, Roger. "The B o t t l e i n the F i r e : Res i s t ance as C r e a t i o n i n W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n . " Twent ie th Century  L i t e r a t u r e . XL ( A p r i l 1965), 16-24. - 132 -Stevens , W a l l a c e . Opus Posthumous. N ew Y o r k : A l f r e d A . Knopf , I n c . , 1957. T h i r l w a l l , John C . " W i l l i am C a r l o s W i l l i a m s ' P a t e r s o n . " New D i r e c t i o n s 17. N o r f o l k , C o n n . : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1951. , ed . The Se l ec ted L e t t e r s o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s Williams. New Y o r k : McDowel l , Obolensky, 1957. Wagner, L i n d a . The Poems o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . M i d d l e -t o n , Connm: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. W a l l a c e , E m i l y M i t c h e l l . A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s  W i l l i ams. M i d d l e t o n , C o n n . : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press 196X W h i t e , T . H . , ed . and t r a n s . The B e s t i a r y : A Book o f Bea s t s . New York : C a p t i c o r n , I960. W i l l i a m s , W i l l i a m C a r l o s . The Autobiography o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s  W i l l i a m s . New Y o r k : Random, 1951. . I n the American G r a i n . New Y o r k : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1956. . I Wanted t o W r i t e a Poem, ed . E d i t h H e a l . Bos ton : Beacon P r e s s , 1958. . Kora i n H e l l : I m p r o v i s a t i o n s . San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1957. "The I n v i s i b l e U n i v e r s i t y . " Trend. I , i (1942), 4 - 133 . P a t e r s o n . New York : New D i r e c t i o n s , 1963. (The f i v e books were o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n s i n g l e volumes by New D i r e c t i o n s i n 1946, 1948, 1949, 1951, and 1958. P i c t u r e s from Breughel and Other Poems. New York": New D i r e c t i o n s , 1962. .. S e l e c t e d Essays o f W i l l i a m C a r l o s W i l l i a m s . New Y o r k : Random, 1954. . S p r i n g and A l l . D i j o n : Contact P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1923. 

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