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Early days of the Maritime fur trade, 1785-1794 Little, Margaret E. 1973-12-31

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"EARLY JAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRAPS, 1 7 8 5 - 1 7 9 4 "  Margaret S  a  Little.  U.B.C.  LIBRARY  CAT. m. U=Sfl7- fi3*fli:  Mai. « 6 ! . ^~ ^ 1  iStzl,  ~^  EARLY  ro  DAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRADE.  1785-1794."  By M a r g a r e t E.  Little  A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l  fulfilment of the  R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f Master of Arts. I n t h e Department of HISTORY.  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  A p r i l , 1934.  Columbia  "EARLY DAYS OF THE MARITIME FUR TRADE.  1785-1794."  CHAPTER INDEX. C h a p t e r 1.  "The D i s c o v e r y o f t h e N o r t h West C o a s t " . a ) The " L a n d o f B o i s t e r o u s b ) The E a r l i e s t V i s i t o r s . c ) C a p t a i n Cook.  Chapter 11.  Chapter 111,  "The E a r l y T r a d e r s " .  C h a p t e r 1V«  Page 2 8 ,  Columbia.  (1785-1787)  "The N o o t k a Sound C o n t r o v e r s y " *  Chapter V l l . Chapter V l l l . Chapter IX.  1. 11. 111. IV. V.' VI. Vll.  Bibliography  Seas".  p  a g e  43.  "The B e n g a l F u r Company a n d t h e K i n g G e o r g e ' s Sound Company." (1786-1789) Page 8 4 .  Chapter V I .  Appendix. Appendix*. Appendix. Appendix. Appendix. Appendix. Appendix.  a  "The O p e n i n g o f t h e F u r T r a d e " a) The New E n t e r p r i s e b ) The S e a O t t e r . c ) The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h  C h a p t e r V*  p g e 1.  "The A m e r i c a n E n t r y " "The C h a n g i n g T i m e s "  (1789-1790) Page 1 1 6 .  (1788-1790) (1791)  Page 1 3 5 . p  a  g  e  156.  "The S p a n i a r d s a n d C a p t a i n G e o r g e V a n c o u v e r " (1792-1794) page 182. "The l a s t T h r e e Y e a r s o f t h e E a r l y (1792-1794)  Trade" p g a  e  206.  Page 2 6 0 . Page 2 6 1 . Page.263. Page 2 6 5 . 6 Page 2 6 7 . Page 268. Page 2 7 0 . Page 282.  I N D E X OF  1.  F r e n c h Map  2.  Map o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t b y C a p t a i n J a m e s Cook, s h o w i n g t h e t r a c k s o f t h e " D i s c o v e r y " and "Resolution". f o l l o w i n g page  3.  of North  MAPS.  America,  circa  Nootka.  2.  15,  Map  page  26«  following  page  29  Indians, following  page  35.  Modern  5.  linguistic  6.  Track  7.  M o d e r n Map, s h o w i n g Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e to the Coast o f B r i t i s h . Columbia*  3.  Chart of the North to the d i s c o v e r i e s  11.  page  following  4.  10.  following  Photograph o f Chinese M e d a l l i o n Discovered i n Northern B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and M e d a l l i o n l e f t b y C a p t a i n Cook at  9.  1775.  of Vancouver I s l a n d . Stocks  o f the Coast  of the Expedition  Chart of Part James Hanna.  o f James  Strange,  following  West  Coast  General Routes o f the Fur Traders West C o a s t .  by C a p t a i n f o l l o w i n g page  to the North following  Map  o f C a p t a i n George Dixon,  showing the tracks  the  "King  Charlotte",  George" and  Sketch  of Friendly  13.  Map o f t h e Q u e e n Ingraham.  "Queen  Cove  i n N o o t k a Sound,  Charlotte  49«  Islands i n relation f o l l o w i n g page 60„  West C o a s t o f A m e r i c a , a c c o r d i n g of l a Perouse. f o l l o w i n g page  o f the North  12.  page  8  Islands,  by  67  0  76.  page  85.  of  following following  Joseph following  page page  page  92. 104.  172.  NOTE. A s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n from the f o o t n o t e method a d v i s e d hy T h i r d Year H i s t o r i c a l Methods Seminar has been p r a c t i s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g pages.  The f u l l t i t l e o f every  work i s c i t e d on each q u o t a t i o n , i n s t e a d o f the u s u a l a b b r e v i a t i o n , f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t r e f e r e n c e . Stature o f the f u r t r a d e r s and the complete t i t l e  1  The t r a n s i e n t  v i s i t s lends i t s e l f to much c o n f u s i o n ,  of each a u t h o r i t y i s g i v e n on a l l  o c c a s i o n s f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y . at  "op.cit,"  Hence the reader may see  a glance whether the i n f o r m a t i o n o r i g i n a t e s from the t r a d e r s  themselves, w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the exact e x p e d i t i o n , o r whether i t i s merely the statement o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f a secondary source.  "EARLY DAYS OF THE Chapter  1.  "THE  MARITIME FUR  DISCOVERY OF  The  TRADE,  THE  1785-1794."  NORTH WEST COAST".  n o r t h west c o a s t of America  p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d maps o f a h u n d r e d and  s i x t y y e a r s ago.  was  unknown and u n e x p l o r e d ,  and  a s u b j e c t of u n l i m i t e d scope f o r the I m a g i n a t i o n s of  graphers.  The  merely  found  the ""backside o f  e a r l y maps o f N o r t h A m e r i c a  b y t h e h o p e s o f an e x i s t i n g w e s t e r n  no It  America", carto-  were s t r o n g l y c o l o u r e d  passage to the O r i e n t .  In  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e German g e o g r a p h e r S c h o n e r p u b l i s h e d a map  s h o w i n g t h e c o n t i n e n t as a s e r i e s  of  i s l a n d s , s e p a r a t e d by e a s i l y n a v i g a b l e p a s s a g e s l e a d i n g t o South  Seas.  C o n s i d e r a b l e a d v a n c e s h a d b e e n made by t h e  of  t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and now  of  the east coast of the N o r t h American c o n t i n e n t , from  Bay  south to C e n t r a l America,  America  north to C a l i f o r n i a .  fairly  l a k e " to which intrusion.  c l a i m was  b y Pope A l e x a n d e r  Exploration  Hudson's  Here S p a n i s h e x p l o r a t i o n s ended, other ships  from  left off.  Ocean more o r l e s s as a  t h e e n t r a n c e , o f any o t h e r n a t i o n was  Her  South America  a c c u r a t e maps e x i s t e d  c o n t i n u i n g t h e w o r k w h e r e she h a d  Spain c o n s i d e r e d the P a c i f i c  middle  and on t h e w e s t s i d e , f r o m C e n t r a l  and h e r m o n o p o l y o f t h e P a c i f i c p r e v e n t e d p e n e t r a t i n g , and  "Spanish regarded  b a s e d on t h e P a p a l B u l l o f 1 4 9 3 ,  VI, which  d i v i d e d t h e new  world of North  b e t w e e n S p a i n and P o r t u g a l , a s s i g n i n g s p h e r e s  to each.  The  the  T r e a t y o f T o r d e s i l l a s , J u n e 1494,  as  issued and of set  Page 2  a l i n e three hundred and seventy leagues west o f Cape Verde as the boundary, t o the apparent s a t i s f a c t i o n o f both n a t i o n s although the d i v i s i o n was imme^sur/eably i n Spain's f a v o u r . had e x p l o r e d and c o l o n i z e d on the P a c i f i c seabord  0  Spain  i n Mexico and  C a l i f o r n i a , b u t , r e s t i n g , o n h e r l a u r e l s , had made no f u r t h e r attempt a t n o r t h e r n e x p l o r a t i o n u n t i l alarmed by rumors o f Russian  a c t i v i t i e s i n Alaska* b e g i n n i n g i n 1741, S i r F r a n c i s  Drake, i n the famous voyage c f the "Golden Hind" round t h e w o r l d v i s i t e d the C a l i f o r n i a n Bay,  coast i n 1577-9*  and s a i l e d n o r t h to 4 8  England under the t i t l e  g  0  He wintered i n Drake's  t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f the l a n d f o r  o f New A l b i o n .  The E n g l i s h Government,  however, made no e f f o r t to f o l l o w up h i s e x p l o r a t i o n s , and the claims of discovery lapsed. The  accounts which reached  Europe o f the Russian  voyages to the new lands were o f the vaguest n a t u r e , and added n o t h i n g to g e o g r a p h i c a l knowledge.  B e l l i n ' s c h a r t ©f 1748 shows  the northwest c o r n e r o f the map i n s c r i b e d "The Russians  have come  as f a r as t h i s i n 1741^ but they have been shipwrecked i n the shoals and drowned". The blank i n the coast l i n e i s f i l l e d i n by a d o t t e d l i n e , running from n o r t h , south to the Bay o f A g u i l a r i n C a l i f o r n i a , w i t h the i n s c r i p t i o n "Probably America goes as f a r as t h i s " , while n o r t h o f C a l i f o r n i a i s added the o b s e r v a t i o n "Here the sea begins t© be v e r y boistrous"»(1)  So i t came about  that i n 1775, the year o f Captain Cook's e v e n t f u l v i s i t  to these  unknown r e g i o n s , a French map o f North America was p u b l i s h e d  B  showing the n o r t h west coast as a g i g a n t i c p e n i n s u l a , e n c l o s i n g the "Sea o r Bay o f the West", a body ©f water which  occupied  more than h a l f o f the present p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and' (1) F.W.Howay and E . O . S . S c h o l e f i e l d " B r i t i s h Columbia".7 v o l * 1. S.J.Clarke P u b l i s h i n g Co. Vancouver, 1914.~^Page 11.  F~R£LNCH  MAP  Or  NORTH  CJffCA  /7T5  AMERICA,  Page 3 Alberta.  0  Y e t i n f i f t e e n y e a r s ' time the ownership o f t h i s  nebulous t e r r i t o r y was to be a major d i p l o m a t i c question,, and an i s s u e which narrowly avoided  p l u n g i n g Europe i n war.  The n o r t h west coast escaped European n o t i c e so l o n g because o f i t s d i s t a n c e from Europe and i t s inaccessibility® I t was l i t e r a l l y  the o t h e r s i d e o f the world, separated,  either  by d i r e c t western o r e a s t e r n r o u t e , by a c o n t i n e n t and an ocean. At t h i s p e r i o d no d i r e c t route was p o s s i b l e , and to reach i t s shores  s h i p s had e4*feer- to s a i l we.sifc, circumnavigate  the c o n t i n e n t  Sf South America, and make t h e i r way n o r t h , past C e n t r a l America, and the south western coast o f North America. westward from the e x i s t i n g settlements  land explorations  i n North America was a l s o  checked by a double b a r r i e r o f mountains, f i r s t and  seemingly impassable Rockies,  Range.  the snow-capped  and at the seabord, the C o a s t a l  The e a s t e r n s e a route was even l o n g e r .  Ships must  sail  around the South A f r i c a n c o n t i n e n t , c r o s s the Indian Ocean, thread t h e i r way east to the P a c i f i c , at which p o i n t they were separated to  still  from t h e i r g o a l by a voyage which v a r i e d from s i x weeks  two months.  There was no e x t r a spur to search f o r a f i e l d o f  raw m a t e r i a l s — t h e r e were r i c h e r and more a c c e s s i b l e  sources  n e a r e r home— the v a s t s t r e t c h o f e a s t e r n North America and the West I n d i e s o f f e r e d more than c o u l d be expected from the western c o a s t , and the raw m a t e r i a l f o r which the n o r t h west coast was almost the unique source  —'the  s e a o t t e r p e l t — was as y e t  unsuspected. There was o n l y one r e a l i n c e n t i v e towards e x p l o r a t i o n --the b e l i e f i n the H o r t h West Passage. west f o r easy access  The d e s i r e o f the  to the east was o f l o n g standing, and hope  Page 4. s t i l l f l o u r i s h e d that somewhere a n a v i g a b l e waterway to I n d i a must e x i s t . Anian, and the sum  T h i s m y t h i c a l passage "became known as the S t r a i t s o f i n 1745  England passed an Act of P a r l i a m e n t  o f twenty thousand pounds f o r i t s d i s c o v e r y , "but made o n l y  owners o f p r i v a t e s h i p s e l i g i b l e f o r the reward. was  offering  Such a passage  d e s i r e d , both to f u r n i s h a s h o r t e r route to the O r i e n t ,  as a means o f a v o i d i n g the Spanish monopoly. Canada i n 1763  The  a c q u i s i t i o n of  made i t o f i n c r e a s i n g importance to England,  roused her to i n v e s t i g a t e the legend.  The  and  and  monopolies o f the g r e a t  j o i n t stock companies, the East I n d i a Company, and the South  Sea  Company made i t almost i m p o s s i b l e f o r p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e to c a r r y on such a search, i t was I n d i a Company was o f "The  too s e v e r e l y handicapped.  The  East  i n c o r p o r a t e d by Queen E l i z a b e t h under the  Governor and Company of Merchants of london,  the East I n d i e s " i n 1599-1600.  I t had  title  Trading i n  a c h a r t e r o f monopolies  which c o n f e r r e d the s o l e r i g h t o f t r a d i n g w i t h the E a s t I n d i e s , —that  i s , w i t h a l l c o u n t r i e s l y i n g beyond the Cape o f Good Hope,  o r the S t r a i t s of Magellan.  The o r i g i n a l grant was  o f f i f t e e n y e a r s , but renujed i n 1609,  f o r a period  under James 1. " f o r ever",  w i t h the s o l e r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t i t might be revoked on three n o t i c e i f the trade should not prove p r o f i t a b l e to the Unauthorized and by 1700 trade.  years  realm.  i n t e r l o p e r s were l i a b l e to f o r f e i t o f s h i p a and the company had  a p r a c t i c a l monopoly o f the  cargo,  Indian  Down to the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h century the famous  "East Indiamen" were preeminent among m e r c a n t i l e s h i p p i n g . South Sea Company was  of a l a t e r o r i g i n .  The  Formed i n 1711, i t s  promoters were c h i e f l y wealthy merchants, who  were granted  a  monopoly o f trade w i t h the west coast o f America, from Cape Horn  Page 5  0  to the f r o z e n n o r t h , and three hundred leagues i n t o the ocean, i n e l u d i n g the i s l a n d s o f the P a c i f i c ,  A f t e r the "bursting o f the  South Sea Bubble i n 1720, the company continued to e x i s t  although  i n a moribund c o n d i t i o n , and kept i t s e x c l u s i v e p r i v i l e g e s 1807,  till  Between them they c l o s e d the s e a to B r i t i s h e n t e r p r i s e and  hindered e x p l o r a t i o n . The e a r l i e s t v i s i t o r s t o the n o r t h west c o a s t b e l o n g to the realm o f legend.  F i r s t , and perhaps  the most probable, i s  the e x p e d i t i o n o f the Chinese to North America, called  i t , i n 500 A.D.  l a t e l y been brought the e x p e d i t i o n .  o r Fusang as they  Chinese s t a t e papers o f the p e r i o d have  to l i g h t which l e n d weight  to the account o f  An a n c i e n t Chinese medallion, d a t i n g from  about  t h i s c e n t u r y , has r e c e n t l y been d i s c o v e r e d among a t r i b e o f Northern B r i t i s h Columbia  I n d i a n s , but w i t h l e t t e r i n g  and o l d t h a t i t cannot be p r o p e r l y d e c i p h e r e d . present i n V i c t o r i a , of the Chinese v i s i t . convincing.  His  The o t h e r apocryphal voyages are l e s s  The Portuguese,Lorenzo  F e r r e r de Maldonado, claimed to Davis S t r a i t , and  on through the S t r a i t o f Anian u n t i l he reached the P a c i f i c .  s t o r y was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d at the time.  de Fuca was p u b l i s h e d by Samuel Purchas 1625,  This curio i s at  B.C., and i s b e l i e v e d by some t o be a r e l i c  t h a t i n 1588 he c r o s s e d the North A t l a n t i c sailed  so worn  The account o f Juan  i n "His P i l g r i m e s " i n  although the a c t u a l journey was supposed to have been made  i n 1592  8  —the  l e n g t h o f the i n t e r v a l  was s u s p i c i o u s i n i t s e l f .  De Fuca, a Greek p i l o t , s a i d he was sent by the V i c e r o y o f New Spain to seek f o r the S t r a i t o f Anian, and h e l d t h a t he s a i l e d up the coast u n t i l he f i n a l l y came to the S t r a i t , which was t h i r t y to f o r t y  leagues wide a t i t s opening. N e i t h e r the Spanish A r c h i v e s ,  Page nor the A r c h i v e s o f New  6.  Spain, show any r e c o r d o f h i s h a v i n g been  d i s p a t c h e d , a matter which c o u l a h a r d l y have been overlooked, he s a i l e d tinder such a u t h o r i t y . p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1708, 1640.  The  s t o r y of De Fonte was  although h i s fabulous voyage was  De Fonte claimed n o t h i n g l e s s than t h a t he had  had  not  placed i n penetrated  the n o r t h American c o n t i n e n t from east to west by means o f a c h a i n o f r i v e r s and l a k e s . The f i r s t  s c i e n t i f i c e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the n o r t h west  were made by V i t u s B e r i n g , a Dane i n Russian  service.  Russia  was  the p i o n e e r both i n the d i s c o v e r y and the f u r trade of the c o a s t . E a r l y i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, B e r i n g , while o f f i c i a l l y mapping and determining  the bounds o f n o r t h e a s t e r n A s i a and the Kamchatka  p e n i n s u l a , penetrated glimpse  the s t r a i t named a f t e r him,  o f the c o n t i n e n t to the e a s t .  but caught no  Rumours of i t s e x i s t e n c e  were abroad, and i n consequence a second and mammo#th e x p e d i t i o n was  planned  i n 1733.  Due  to the i n t e r f e r e n c e o f the Bnpress Anne  Ivanovna, i t aimed to serve such d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s t h a t from the b e g i n n i n g i t was  overwhelmingly handicapped.  took e i g h t years to complete, and i t was  Preparations  the f o u r t h o f June,  1741j  b e f o r e the i l l - f a t e d p a r t y s a i l e d from the harbour of S t . P e t e r and S t . P a u l i n Avatcha Bay,  Kamchatka.  the " S t . P e t e r " w i t h a crew of seventy and the " S t . P a u l " w i t h seventy  I t c o n s i s t e d o f two seven, commanded by  ships,  Bering,  s i x , under A l e x e i C h i r i k o f f .  s h i p s had been newly b u i l t f o r the e x p e d i t i o n , and were both  The brig-  r i g g e d , c a r r i e d f o u r t e e n guns, and measured e i g h t y by twenty by nine f e e t . (1)  Almost immediately  and permanently separated.  they were caught i n a storm  B e r i n g continued alone, and  sighted  l a n d i n A l a s k a , i n the r e g i o n o f Kadiak i s l a n d on the 16 t h . of (1) F.A.Golder "Bering's Voyages" P u b l i s h e d by American Geographical v o l . 1. Pase 34.  S o c i e t y , New  York,  1925.  Page 7. July,  Scurvy e a r l y made i t s appearance among the crew. A f t e r c h a r t i n g p a r t o f the coast B e r i n g wished to  r e t u r n , as w i n t e r was s e r i o u s l y impaired.  approaching  and the h e a l t h o f the  men  The sea c o u n c i l agreed to r e t u r n to  hut wished to do so by way  of the American c o a s t ,  Avatcha,  Bering  thought  more f a v o u r a b l e winds might be o b t a i n a b l e i n l a t i t u d e 49° o r 50°, but allowed h i s o p i n i o n s to be r e j e c t e d without The  contradiction.  (1)  " S t , P e t e r " continued n o r t h and n o r t h west, f o l l o w i n g the  coast u n t i l i t became entangled i n the c h a i n o f the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , where t e r r i f i c  storms were encountered,  narrowly escaped b e i n g wrecked.  and the s h i p  Scurvy raged unchecked, and  misery and p r i v a t i o n s o f the s a i l o r s were by t h i s time F i n a l l y o n l y e i g h t men  almost exhausted,  terrible.  were capable o f dragging themselves  while the r e s t were " s i c k unto death".  the  about,  Water and p r o v i s i o n s were  and no a l t e r n a t i v e o f f e r e d to the f a t e o f  w i n t e r i n g i n these i n h o s p i t a b l e p a r t s to replenish them and g i v e the s i c k a chance of l i f e .  The i s l a n d n e a r e s t them at t h i s  time  — l a t e r known as Bering's I s l a n d , the f a r t h e s t west o f the A l e u t i a n c h a i n , was  approached, and a camp prepared on i t s shores.  The s i c k were, landed w i t h the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y , and amid the most gruesome scenes.  Foxes mangled the dead b e f o r e they c o u l d  be b u r / i e d , and s n i f f e d at the l i v i n g and h e l p l e s s . men  complained  Some of the  o f c o l d , o t h e r s o f hunger and t h i r s t , f o r the  scurvy had so a f f e c t e d t h e i r mouths t h a t t h e i r gums grew over t h e i r t e e t h l i k e sponges.  They were f i n a l l y lodged i n r o o f e d  s a n d p i t s , and f o r a time the l o g of the " S t . P e t e r " seems n o t h i n g but a r e c o r d o f deaths.  Misfortunes increased.  The  " S t , P e t e r " was  wrecked because there were not s u f f i c i e n t a b l e -  ID  "Bering's Voyages" v o l . 11. Page 68  F.A.Golder  Page 8» "bodied men l e f t  to h a u l h e r on shore,  B e r i n g d i e d o f scurvy.  and on the 8 t h o f December  Slowly others began to r e c o v e r  h e a l t h , and by Christmas Day a few were able to hunt.  their Stellar  remarks on the number and f e a r l e s s n e s s o f the f u r b e a r i n g  animals  of the v i c i n i t y , s e a - l i o n s , sea-cows, f u r s e a l s and s e a o t t e r s abounded, s e y e r a l s p e c i e s o f which were unknown to him. The s u r v i v o r s b u i l t a hooker from the wreck, which they c a l l e d the "St,: P e t e r " a f t e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l s h i p , and i n i t managed t o escape from the i s l a n d . 1742,  They s t a r t e d f o r Avatcha on August 13th  w i t h f o r t y s i x on board, o n l y one o f whom d i e d on the way,  l i e u t e n a n t Sven Waxel i n h i s r e p o r t o f the e x p e d i t i o n , says they wished to name the coast o f America "New R u s s i a " , l i k e European powers, but d i d n o t l i k e to do so without the A d m i r a l t y  other  orders  from  C o l l e g e , (1) The  C h i r i k o f f continued  "St, Paul" fared b e t t e r .  After separation  e a s t , a r r i v i n g by the twenty s i x t h o f June  i n l a t i t u d e 48°, where he j u s t missed B e r i n g , who was i n the same v i c i n i t y f o u r days l a t e r .  The c o n t i n e n t was s i g h t e d on J u l y  15th i n l a t i t u d e 55* 2 l " on the west coast o f the A r c h i p e l a g o Alexandria.  A l a n d i n g was made two days l a t e r i n the r e g i o n o f  S i t k a Sound, about ashore f o r water.  l a t . 5 7 ° , when a p a r t y o f t e n were sent Nothing was heard o f them again, o r o f a  second boat d i s p a t c h e d i n search o f them. massacred by n a t i v e s . had no more b o a t s ,  Doubtless  they were  The l o s s e s were s e r i o u s , f o r C h i r i k o f f  and h i s crew was now reduced to a p o i n t o f  danger, others b e i n g i n c a p a c i t a t e d by s c u r v y .  I t made f u r t h e r  geographic d i s c o v e r i e s i m p o s s i b l e , and t h e ^ S t , Paul°'was o b l i g e d to r e t u r n t o Kamchatka, h a v i n g l o s t i n a l l twenty two o f h e r crew, (1)  F.A.Golder  "Bering's  Voyages"  v o l , 1.  Page 281,  Page 9. C h i r i k o f f , when he had recovered from h i s own made an attempt to f i n d B e r i n g , "but without ition  a t t a c k of scurvy,  success.  The  exped-  of B e r i n g and C h i r i k o f f had r e v e a l e d the f u r p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of the new  c o n t i n e n t , and although the Russian government made  no e f f o r t to f o l l o w up  their explorations, enterprising individuals  d i d , i n search o f the sea o t t e r .  The A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s were  mapped and thoroughly e x p l o i t e d , and as the sea o t t e r the f u r s e a l rose i n commercial v a l u e .  Soon new  opened i n the P r i b y l o f f I s l a n d s and i n A l a s k a .  decreased  lands were I n 1799  the former  ventures o f Gregory S k e l i S o f f and o t h e r S i b e r i a n merchants were o r g a n i z e d as the Russian American Company, imdersaogrant  from  the Emperor P a u l , which gave i t c o n t r o l o f the f u r trade o f America and  the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s .  i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , was and e s t a b l i s h e d i t s own  The Russian American Company,  r a t h e r l i k e the Hudson's Bay posts and d i s t r i c t s i n the new  r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y to the c h i t f d i r e c t o r .  Company, territories,  U n f o r t u n a t e l y the  regu-  l a t i o n s governing i t were not always w e l l a p p l i e d , and the r u l e of the Company was,  on the whole, s o r d i d .  S h o r t l y before 1799,  a R u s s i a n f o r t was  S i t k a Sound, under Baranoff, c a l l e d Archangel became a c e n t r e of the new  Gabrial.  at  It quickly  i n d u s t r y , injspite o f the o p p o s i t i o n  o f the n a t i v e s , the w a r l i k e T E l i n k & t s , who intrusion.  built  resented  Russian  Baranoff entered the Russian American Company, and  became i t s g r e a t e s t governor.  At a much l a t e r date he began  to f o s t e r schemes f o r a c q u i r i n g C a l i f o r n i a and the Sandwich Islands f o r Russia. Spain, although c o n t r o l l i n g the sea r o u t e s to the n o r t h west, made no e f f o r t to continue her d i s c o v e r i e s , u n t i l  Page 10. aroused i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y by rumours of  Russian a c t i v i t i e s i n the n o r t h .  The exact extent o f these  c o u l d n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d , as R u s s i a kept s i l e n t on the s u b j e c t of h e r d i s c o v e r i e s , and perhaps f o r t h i s reason Spain was a l l the more alarmed f o r the s a f e t y o f h e r t e r r i t o r i e s .  She claimed  s o l e ownership o f e v e r y t h i n g bordered by the North P a c i f i c Ocean, and f e l t  t h a t u n l e s s a v i g o r o u s p o l i c y o f e x p l o r a t i o n and s e t t l e -  ment on the n o r t h west coast was adopted, h e r p o s i t i o n was precarious. B u c a r e l i , the v i c e r o y o f New Spain was ordered t o i n v e s t i g a t e by Madrid.  He sent an e x p e d i t i o n i n charge o f Juan  Perez to spy out the threatened r e g i o n s i n 1774. The purpose of  the voyage was to be kept s e c r e t , s i n c e i t was merely a r e c -  onnaissance, no  n o t a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n , and Perez was to make  settlement.  The most minute i n s t r u c t i o n s were  Perez was t o r e a c h the coast i n l a t . 60 , and s a i l c  prepared. southward  down i t , o b s e r v i n g any f o r e i g n s e t t l e m e n t s , n o t i n g the b e s t s i t u a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e Spanish ones, and t a k i n g f o r m a l p o s s e s s i o n i n the name o f C a r l o s 111.  F r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s were to be e s t a b -  l i s h e d w i t h the n a t i v e s , whose f a v o u r was t o be won w i t h the h e l p o f f o u r c h e s t s o f g l a s s beads, and f o u r hundred and s i x t y e i g h t strings.  Perez was to r e p o r t on the r e s o u r c e s o f the country,  p l a n t wooden c r o s s e s i n stone bases as v i s i b l e s i g n s o f ownership, and s e a l i t by r e a d i n g a l e g a l and p i u s f o r m u l a . The  c o r v e t t e "Santiago", one o f the best s h i p s o f  the C a l i f o r n i a servicejWas chosen f o r the e x p e d i t i o n , and l e f t San B i a s , January  25th 1774., w i t h a crew o f e i g h t y e i g h t , i n c l u -  d i n g o f f i c e r s , r e g u l a r crew, surgeon and c h a p l a i n .  A t Monteray  Page 11. F a t h e r s C r e s p l and Tomas de l a Pena j o i n e d the e x p e d i t i o n as c h a p l a i n s , and the d i a r i e s kept hy them are v a l u a b l e r e c o r d s o f events.  Estevan Martinez went as n a v i g a t i n g o f f i c e r .  Heavy  storms, h a r d s h i p and s i c k n e s s delayed the s h i p , so t h a t "by the 15th o f &uly the "Santiago" was o n l y i n l a t i t u d e 51°.  Contrary  winds made i t d o u b t f u l i f 60°could be reached w i t h s a f e t y , w h i l e the low water supply made i t imperative to l a n d a t an e a r l y d a t e . Perez h e l d a c o u n c i l , and began p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r l a n d i n g .  The  c a r p e n t e r s made a wooden c r o s s , i n s c r i b e d " I N R I' C a r o l u s 111 Hispaniarum  Rex —  Ano de 1774". (Jesus o f Nazareth, K i n g o f the  Jews, C a r l o s 111. K i n g o f the Spains — t h e year 1774)  l a n d was  s i g h t e d on the 18th o f J u l y o f f the n o r t h end o f the Queen Charlotte Islands.  The Spaniards named the spot Santa M a r g a r i t a  P o i n t , but were prevented by s w i f t c u r r e n t s from making a l a n d i n g although they t r i e d f o r s e v e r a l days. the Haida n a t i o n , soon appeared  The Indians, who belonged to  and q u i c k l y conquered t h e i r  first  shyness, r e c e i v i n g p r e s e n t s , and b e g i n n i n g to trade i n f i s h and furs.  Some o f the s a i l o r s bought c u t s a r k s , b u t l a t e r repented o f  t h e i r b a r g a i n , b e i n g much t r o u b l e d w i t h the vermin imported a t the same time.  I t i s the f i r s t  r e c o r d o f f u r trade w i t h the  Indians o f the n o r t h west c o a s t . The weather d i d n o t improve, so Perez s a i l e d  south-  ward, anchoring on August 8 t h i n San l o r e n z o Harbour, a"C shaped roadstead", near Nootka Sound.  He c o u l d n o t have entered the  Sound, f o r i f he had he would have been safe i n a l l weathers. (1) As i t was he was again unable  t o l a n d , and was d r i v e n out to s e a  by a storm, b e i n g o b l i g e d to s a c r i f i c e h i s anchor.  Perez made  no f u r t h e r e f f o r t a t e x p l o r a t i o n , but with a crew weak from (1) Howay and S c h o l e f i e l d  " B r i t i s h Columbia"  v o l . 1.  scurvy  Page 41.  Page  12.  s a i l e d south a l o n g the coast to Monteray, which he reached on 27th o f August, and proceeded from there to San B i a s hy the of November.  2nd.  He had not p l a n t e d a s i n g l e c r o s s , but had made a  d a r i n g voyage. of  the  Perez was  the f i r s t  to v i s i t  the present  B r i t i s h Columbia, and a s c e r t a i n i t s g e n e r a l t r e n d ,  coast  although  m i s s i n g the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca, as no mention i s made of i t i n the j o u r n a l s .  P o s s e s s i o n had not beenntaken, but Spain c o u l d  c l a i m the r i g h t of p r i o r d i s c o v e r y . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r B u c a r e l i sent another e x p e d i t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of two  s h i p s and a despatch boat, the "San C a r l o s " •  The "Santiago" was  r e f i t t e d under n a v a l l i e u t e n a n t Don  Heeeta, w i t h Juan Perez the l i t t l e  as quartermaster.  schooner "Sonora", who  She was  Bruno  accompanied by  s h o r t l y a f t e r the s t a r t of the  voyage came under the command of l i e u t e n a n t Juan F r a n c i s c o de Y Quadra.  Quadra had  j o i n e d the e x p e d i t i o n because "even the  l i g h t e s t u n d e r t a k i n g would be noteworthy, both on account small s i z e , scanty crew, evident l a c k o f n e c e s s a r i e s , of  accumulation  r i s k s , and e n t i r e want of s u i t a b l e q u a l i t i e s f o r such r o u t e s  (1)  I t was  ".  an accurate summary o f the s i t u a t i o n , as subsequent  events proved. at  of i t s  A deeply r e l i g i o u s atmosphere pervaded the p o r t  t h e i r departure, March 16th 1775.  Before embarking a l l  attended mass i n San B i a s , and walked i n p r o c e s s i o n to the  shore  b e a r i n g the image of our l a d y Maria S a n t i s i m a , and c h a n t i n g the litany.  The padres Benito de l a S i e r r a and Miguel de l a Campa  accompanied the voyage. The r e l i g i o u s d e t a i l s had been b e t t e r c o n s i d e r e d than the p r a c t i c a l ones. and l i t t l e  The  s h i p s proved  difficult  care had been g i v e n to t h e i r o u t f i t t i n g .  (1) Bodega Y Quadra  to s t e e r , On the 8th  " E x p e d i t i o n s i n the Years 1775, 1779, Towards the West Coast of North America" T r a n s l a t i o n i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Page 2.  Page 13. of  A p r i l the bowsprit was "we  found to be sprung i n the  were t o l d t h a t the c o n d i t i o n o f the spar was  when i n p o r t — h e a v e n knows i f i t be t r u e " . (1) marked the s t a r t of the e x p e d i t i o n . of  "Santiago" duly reported  A c l o u d soon  Don Miguel Marique, c a p t a i n  the despatch boat, went insane, and became obsessed by the  i d e a t h a t someone wanted to k i l l him.  He s t a l k e d the decks armed  w i t h s i x loaded p i s t o l s , gave o r d e r s h i g h l y c o l o u r e d by h i s mental c o n d i t i o n , and prepared to shoot anyone who With c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y he was much to h i s own  s a t i s f a c t i o n , was  d i d not c a r r y them o u t .  conveyed ashore.  Quadra,  appointed c a p t a i n of the "Sonora",  #i?thtMaurelle second i n command, while h i s s e n i o r o f f i c e r  was  t r a n s f e r r e d to the "San C a r l o s " . Hecate's i n s t r u c t i o n s were to reach 65 and survey and take p o s s e s s i o n o f the c o a s t . delayed p r o g r e s s , but a l a n d i n g was at  P o i n t G r e n v i l l e , i n l a t . 47®  20"  latitude,  Adverse winds  made on the 14th of J u l y , when Hecate and three  o t h e r s e r e c t e d a c r o s s and took p o s s e s s i o n o f the country. were the f i r s t Europeans on the n o r t h west c o a s t .  They  The s h i p s '  v i s i t had a t r a g i c ending, f o r the same day a p a r t y of  seven  g o i n g ashore f o r water i n the "Sonora"'s o n l y boat, were ambushed and k i l l e d w i t h i n f u l l view o f the "Sonora" which was to h e l p them. men  Quadra was  l e f t w i t h a crew o f f i v e  and a boy, b e s i d e s f o u r s t r i c k e n w i t h s c u r v y .  powerless  able-bodied The  Indians  t r i e d to a t t a c k the s h i p i n canoes, but were d r i v e n o f f . the d i s a s t e r Hecate wished to t u r n back, but was the wishes of Quadra and M a u r e l l e . were separated by a storm. Nootka So^nd i n l a t . 4 9 ° 30°  After  over r u l e d by  Soon afterwards the v e s s e l s  Hecate reached  the neighbourhood of  , where he s i g h t e d l a n d and  turned  (1) D i a r y of Padre Benito de l a S i e r r a : Made on board the F r i g a t e "Santiago" 1775. T r a n s l a t e d by A.J.Baker, Mexico C i t y , 1929. Copy i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Pa*e 8.  Page south,  14.  d i s c o v e r i n g the mouth of the Columbia R i v e r on h i s r e t u r n  voyage.  Perez d i e d i n the Santa Barbara Channel b e f o r e  Mexico.  Quadra and Maurelle  out t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . foolhardy".  went on, v a l i a n t l y t r y i n g to c a r r y  The  attempt was  "bo,th h e r o i c  Seas swept i n soaking food and  and scurvy i n c r e a s e d . Edgecumbe was  The  reaching  and  sleeping quarters, :  "Sonora" continued n o r t h , u n t i l Mount  s i g h t e d on the A l a s k a c o a s t .  A l a n d i n g was  attempted  i n the v i c i n i t y , but d i f f i c u l t i e s arose w i t h the n a t i v e s wanted payment f o r the d r i n k i n g water.  who  Quadra fought h i s  to l a t . 58° before d e c i d i n g to s a i l f o r San B i a s , having a f u r t h e r p o i n t than any o t h e r e x p l o r e r . named i n l a t . 55° 17° obtained.  reached was  and f r e s h s u p p l i e s of wood and water  Quadra c h a r t e d the coast from 58^ south to Monteray.  The r e t u r n voyage was so badly  Port B u c a r e l i  way  one  of t e r r i b l e hardship.  scurvy s t r i c k e n t h a t Quadra h i m s e l f had  to manage the s a i l s . at t h e i r b e s t .  The  Cheering  The  crew were  to go  t r i a l s show h i s s t r e n g t h and the s i c k , encouraging the  to h e l p w i t h n a v i g a t i n g , Quadra f i n a l l y brought the  aloft endurance  convalescing completiy  scurvy s t r i c k e n s h i p to Monteray, almost by p e r s o n a l w i l l power, on October 6 t h .  San B i a s was  reached on the 20th o f November,  a f t e r e i g h t months' absence. A t h i r d e x p e d i t i o n was Ignacio Arteaga  second i n command.  The " F a v o r i t a "  twice the s i z e of the "Sonora", and Quadra made every e f f o r t  safeguard  the h e a l t h of the crew and prevent  u n n e c e s s a r i l y exposed. amd  under  i n the " P r i n c e s a " , a s s i s t e d by Bodega Y Quadra  i n the " F a v o r i t a " , w i t h M a u r e l l e was  made i n 1779,  The  them from  being  s h i p s l e f t San B i a s 17th o f February  reached P o r t B u c a r e l i on May  4 t h , where they made an extended  to  Page 15.  stay.  M a u r e l l e was  commissioned to c h a r t i t s p o r t s and hays,  while c l o s e examination  was  customs, f l o r a and fauna.  made o f the n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , n a t i v e From here Arteaga and Quadra s a i l e d  North and explored f o r n e a r l y a month, s i g h t e d Mount S t . E l i a s , so named hy B e r i n g i n 1741, to the A r c t i c .  and searched  c a r e f u l l y f o r a passage  T h e i r labours were unrewarded.  Lieutenant  Quiros  took p o s s e s s i o n o f Regla I s l a n d , and "by August 7 t h they were f o r c e d by s i c k n e s s and f a i l i n g p r o v i s i o n s to t u r n back.  They  a r r i v e d at San B i a s November 21, t a k i n g w i t h them some I n d i a n c h i l d r e n who  had been o b t a i n e d w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s i n b a r t e r w i t h  the n a t i v e s o f P o r t B u c a r e l i .  The  s h i p s were met  that war had been d e c l a r e d between England Spain was  now  by the news  and Spain, and t h a t  a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the American R e v o l u t i o n a r y  War.  The Spanish voyages had shown the n o r t h e r n c o a s t l i n e and  helped  to d i s p r o v e the legend of the S t r a i t s o f Anian, but l e f t  the  deeply i n d e n t e d shore and maze o f i s l a n d s uncharted War  now  and  unexplored.  f o r c e d Spain to abandon her newly awakened i n t e r e s t s ,  by the time she was  and  again f r e e to t u r n Her a t t e n t i o n s to the  northwest, Captain Cook and the f u r t r a d e r s who g r e a t l y complicated her t a s k of In 1776  f o l l o w e d him  had  annexation.  the B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y sent a s c i e n t i f i c  e x p e d i t i o n to the n o r t h west coast of America under C a p t a i n James Cook, to v e r i f y or disprove the e x i s t e n c e of the n o r t h westppassage whose rumoured e x i s t e n c e had g i v e n r i s e to so much c o n t r o v e r s y . The  search was  to be made from the P a c i f i c , seeking a way  to the  A t l a n t i c , i n s t e a d of the u s u a l method o f working east to west from the A t l a n t i c c o a s t . o f 1745,  As a f u r t h e r stimulus the Act of P a r l i a m e n t  o f f e r i n g twenty thousand pounds f o r the d i s c o v e r y of?the  9  16 N o r t h west passage, c l a i m a b l e o n l y by owners o f p r i v a t e s h i p s who h a d d i s c o v e r e d a p a s s a g e o p e n i n g i n t o H u d s o n ' s B a y , was amended a n d w i d e n e d .  The p a s s a g e m i g h t be s o u g h t i n a n y d i r -  e c t i o n o r p a r a l l e l a b o v e t h e 52°of n o r t h l a t i t u d e , o f t h e R o y a l N a v y w e r e i n c l u d e d among t h o s e  and s h i p s  eligible.  A  f u r t h e r r e w a r d o f f i v e t h o u s a n d p o u n d s was o f f e r e d f o r a n y s h i p r e a c h i n g w i t h i n one d e g r e e o f t h e N o r t h  Pola.  C a p t a i n Cook was a man e m i n e n t l y o f such a venture,  f i t t e d t o take  h a v i n g b r o u g h t two p r e v i o u s  charge  e x p l o r i n g ex-  p e d i t i o n s t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n , andf\received the Gold Medal o f the Royal scuryy.  S o c i e t y f o r h i s p a p e r on the p r e v e n t i o n o f  When t h e v o y a g e was f i r s t  point o f retirement, having  Cook was o n t h e  b e e n made C a p t a i n o f G r e e n w i c h  H o s p i t a l , b u t he e a g e r l y a c c e p t e d sea-faring l i f e .  suggested  the chance o f p r o l o n g i n g a  Two s h i p s w e r e c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r t h e v o y a g e ,  "H.M.S. R e s o l u t i o n " , a n d a s m a l l e r v e s s e l o f t h r e e h u n d r e d  tons,  " H.M.S. D i s c o v e r y " , u n d e r C a p t a i n C l e r k e , C o o k ' s f o r m e r s e c o n d I lieutenant. S e c r e t i n s t r u c t i o n s were i s s u e d b y t h e A d m i r a l t y . Cook was t o make t h e c o a s t i n l a t i t u d e 4 5 ° , go n o r t h t o l a t i t u d e 65" o * f u r t h e r i f c o n d i t i o n s p e r m i t t e d , any  and search and explore  r i v e r s and i n l e t s which might c o n c e i v a b l y l e a d towards  Hudson's o r B a f f i n B a y s .  I f t h e p a s s a g e were d i s c o v e r e d , o r  even i f a p o s s i b i l i t y developed,  i t was t o be f o l l o w e d t o t h e  b i t t e r end, e v e n t h o u g h i t n e c e s s i t a t e d d i v i d i n g t h e e x p e d i t i o n , and sending  one o f t h e s m a l l e r s h i p s .  a t i o n s prove f r u i t l e s s ,  Should  investig-  Cook was t o w i n t e r i n K a m c h a t k a ,  poss-  i b l y a t the harbour o f S t . P e t e r and S t . P a u l , and continue the s e a r c h next year, going n o r t h as f a r as p o s s i b l e , c h a r t i n g , mapping, and t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f a l l (I) James Cook a n d James K i n g , " V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d " , N i c o l , London, 1784, Pages 374-377.  Page 17 •unknown l a n d s .  P e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s were to be maintained  any European settlements The o f J u l y , 1776,  with  encountered.  e x p e d i t i o n l e f t Plymouth Sound on the  w i t h a number o f domestic  animals, — c o w s  12th.  and  s h e e p , — and a v a r i e t y o f European garden seeds f o r the purpose o f s t o c k i n g new  i s l a n d s , e i t h e r f o r t h e i r own  use of the i n h a b i t a n t s . assortment the new  The  convenience,  or the  s h i p s a l s o c a r r i e d an e x t e n s i v e  o f irom t o o l s and t r i n k e t s f o r p r e s e n t s and trade i n  countries.  During the voyage to the Cape o f Good Hope  the e q u i t o r i a l heat opened the b a d l y c a l k e d seams o f the " R e s o l u t i o n " so t h a t l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f water entered, completely  ruining  some of the spare s a i l s , but otherwise no c a s u a l t i e s occured. At the Cape the l i v e s t o c k was  c o n s i d e r a b l y supplemented, u n t i l  l i e u t e n a n t Rickman observed,  as  " s t o r e d w i t h these, the " R e s o l u t i o n "  resembled the Ark, i n which a l l the animals t h a t were to stock the e a r t h c o l l e c t e d , and w i t h t h e i r provender, s m a l l p a r t of the s h i p ' s s t o r a g e . " (1) the voyage a new  they o c c u p i e d  During the p r o g r e s s of  group of i s l a n d s were d i s c o v e r e d i n the  c o n s i d e r a b l y n o r t h of New  Zealand  no  Pacific,  and the F r i e n d l y I s l a n d s , i n  l a t i t u d e 20°north l o n g i t u d e 155° 30° west, which Cook named the Sandwich I s l a n d s a f t e r the E a r l o f Sandwich.  The  Spaniards  had  probably d i s c o v e r e d the I s l a n d s a l r e a d y , but knowledge o f them had e v i d e n t l y been l o s t .  Much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  these and the southern i s l a n d s was p a r t s great care was  collected.  While i n these  taken to supply the crew d a i l y w i t h p l e n t l y  o f scurvy grass and w i l d c e l e r y to b o i l w i t h t h e i r soup. was  Fish  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r s a l t meat when i t c o u l d be obtained,and  beer was  brewed i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s as "the l i q u o r was  found  ( l ) J o h n Rickman " J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n Cook's l a s t Voyage" Newberry, London, 1781. Page 21.  spruce  Page  so s a t i s f a c t o r y that i t  seemed to s t r i k e at the v e r y r o o t o f the  scurvy, and l e f t not the l e a s t symptom o f i t remaining man  i n the s h i p " ,  18,  about  any  (1) The  journey from the Sandwich I s l a n d s was  cold  and  stormy, w i t h showers o f h a i l and d i s p l a y s o f aurora borealis?.  The  c o a s t o f Oregon was  s i g h t e d on March 7 1778  , i n l a t . 44° 36*  Cape Blanco b e a r i n g about e i g h t or nine leagues n o r t h n o r t h I t was "The  W,,  east.  a change from the h o s p i t a b l e i s l a n d s of the South Seas,  l a n d near shore was  of moderate h e i g h t , the h i l l s were  covered w i t h s t r a i g h t t a l l - t r e e s of the f i r k i n d , and where they were but t h i n l y scattered the The  a r r i v a l was  ground was  covered with  snow.".(2)  c e l e b r a t e d on the "Discovery" where "the  gentlemen  o f the gunroom, dined on a f r i c a s s e e of r a t s , which they a venison f e a s t , and i t was  accounted  a h i g h t r e a t to the s a i l o r s , whenever  they c o u l d be l u c k y enough to c a t c h a number s u f f i c i e n t to make a meal", (3)  The weather d i d not improve, snow and h a i l  fell  d u r i n g the n i g h t , while heavy s q u a l l s and f o g made i t impossible to  f o l l o w the coast c l o s e l y .  C a p t a i n Cook began the northward  journey, naming Cape Poulweather, Cape Gregory and Cape Perpetua, Before he had gone f a r , a storm drove him back to l a t . 42 i t was  , and  the 22nd of March b e f o r e he again s i g h t e d l a n d i n l a t . 47°5"  and named Cape F l a t t e r y i n l a t . 4 8 ° 22£"  , having missed  mouth o f the Columbia R i v e r .  made f o r the S t r a i t of  Fuca, but  Search was  "stormy weather l i k e some d i a b o l i c a l deamon"  the d i s c o v e r y from him, and l a n d was  f o r c i n g him  the  snatched  to seek s a f e t y i n open sea,  next seen at Breakers P o i n t , Vancouver I s l a n d , i n  (1) John Rickman " J o u r n a l of C a p t a i n Cook's l a s t Voyage" Page 59, (2) W . E l l i s "Cook's Voyage?' G.Robinson, London, 1784.  Page  184,  (3) John Rickman " J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n Cook's L a s t Voyage " Potfe  232.  Page 19.  l a t i t u d e 4 9 ° 15^. The "Resolution" anchored i n an arm of the sea very near shore, and next morning with the help of the " "Discovery" sought suitable anchorage. nearby "a convenient,  Captain Cook discovered  snug cove, well suited to our purpose",  and lieutenant King after recohoitering reported i t to be an excellent harbour.  The ships moored i n what became l a t e r famous  as Friendly Cove, Nootka Sound, the trading centre of the northwest coast.  It was t h e i r f i r s t anchorage on the north American  shore. s A little appearance.  l a t e r the Indians made a ceremonious  Three laden canoes approached, directed by a fur  clad orator with a r a t t l e i n each hand which he used to some effect.  The natives sang melodiously and flung handfuls of red  dust or powder into the sea.  The orator harangued and threw  white feathers on the water.  Then they withdrew to return l a t e r  with more oratory and singing and l a r g e l y increased numbers. The word "Haela ? was repeated frequently as the burden of the 1  song.  One of the chiefs attracted notice for his remarkable head  dress of feathers and the extroardinary manner i n which he was painted.  In his hand he carried a large wooden r a t t l e carved li&e  a b i r d , and h i s canoe was decorated by a b i r d ' s eye, and a b i l l of c o l l o s a l s i z e . (1) According to Nootka legend, the natives  thought  Cook's ships were salmon turned into a boat, and sent a woman doctor named Hahtsaik, who had power over a l l kinds of salmon, out to meet them i n a canoe with three strong young men.  She  wore a red cedar bark cap and apron, and carried a whalebone i n each hand.  rattle  As they approached she sang, and then h a i l e d the  ship c a l l i n g "Hello you, you spring salmon, hello you dog salmon, (1) Cook and King "Voyage Round the World" Page 635-7.  Page  hell© coho salmon". Wiwai, who  20.  Another canoe f o l l o w e d , w i t h a second d o c t o r ,  spoke i n the same manner.  Wiwai soon r e t u r n e d to the  Tillage  Nanaimis o f the Muchalats then put two s k i n s i n h i s canoe and set o f f w i t h ten men wanted him  to come on board, o f f e r e d him  t r i e d to shake hands. r e a l i z e d Cook was gave him  to v i s i t  two  heaver  the s h i p . Cook  black blankets  Nanaimis, although d e c l i n i n g the  invitation,  not an enchanted salmon, and t a k i n g the  the beaver s k i n s i n r e t u r n .  also paid a v i s i t  Maquinna, not to be  and exchanged p r e s e n t s .  b r a i d hat and gave a sea o t t e r s k i n .  He  and  blankets outdone,  received a f i n e gold  The n a t i v e s then performed a  wolf dance on the beach i n honour of the s t r a n g e r s .  (1)  Cook f i r s t named the p l a c e "King George's Sound", but soon changed i t to "Nootka" b e l i e v i n g i t to be the n a t i v e name. A lengthy s t a y was  made to make a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  f r e s h s u p p l i e s of wood and water, and r e p a i r s h i p s and Trade or rude form o f "barter developed  secure  rigging.  w i t h the I n d i a n s , who  in  r e t u r n f o r oddments, such as k n i v e s , n a i l s , c h i s e l s , p i e c e s of copper and t i n , h a t c h e t s , r e d c l o t h , b r a s s buttons, pewter,  and  m i r r o r s gave s k i n s and r6bes of sea o t t e r .  linen  had no value i n t h e i r eyes. commodity, and  themselves.  They p r e f e ^ e d i r o n to any  other  appeared to be p e r f e c t l y f a m i l i a r w i t h i t , u s i n g  i t f o r arrow heads, although for  Glass beads and  they had no means o f p r o c u r i n g i t  Cook concluded  that the metal had o r i g i n a t e d i n  the Russian  t r a d e r s of Kamschatka, and s a t i s f i e d h i m s e l f by  careful  examination  t h a t d i r e c t trade had not taken p l a c e at the Sound.  Other f u r s were o f f e r e d , bear, wolf and l y n x , as w e l l as f o o d s u p p l i e s , game, f i s h , mussels, s p r i n g onions, l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of whale blubber, n e a r l y twenty g a l l o n s o f t r a i n o i l , and s e v e r a l  (1)  '•»-^ S{. py; g5fyf« 1  0f  a  " » t i *  Columbia" v o l  0  1.  Page 21.  b a l e s o f f i s h d r i e d i n smoke, which t a s t e d much l i k e r e d h e r r i n g s . In some cases the Indians t r i e d to cheat them by f i l l i n g b l a d d e r s w i t h water i n s t e a d of o i l .  The men  the  e a g e r l y bought the  o i l to make sauce f o r t h e i r s a l t f i s h , "and no b u t t e r i n England was  ever thought h a l f so good".  s k u l l s and hands s t i l l  The Indians a l s o e x h i b i t e d human  p a r t l y covered w i t h f l e s h , the f i r s t  o f the c a n n i b a l i s m p r a c t i s e d by the Kwakfaitl and Tsimshian  evidences tribes.(1)  Cook commented on the I n d i a n s ' h a b i t s o f t r a d e , s a y i n g that i n g e n e r a l p r a c t i s e they were f a i r enough, and showed t h e i r c h i e f p r o p e n s i t y to t h i e v e as the E n g l i s h were p r e p a r i n g to  dep  depart, when they bacame so covetous of the goods that they c o u l d not r e s i s t the temptation to c a r r y o f f a l l that came i n t h e i r The Nootka Indians never s t o l e anything f o r which they had immediate use.  way.  no  They were content to procure a r t i c l e s which they  knew they wanted, and Cook remarked that i t was  fortunate f o r h i s  e x p e d i t i o n t h a t they were a t t r a c t e d by "the s i n g l e a r t i c l e s of our metals". perfect  l i n e n and such o b j e c t s c o u l d be l e f t hanging ashore i n safety. P r e p a r a t i o n s on the s h i p s took f o u r weeks to  complete,  d u r i n g which time Indians c o l l e c t e d from a l l over the  Sound to see the phenomena.  They announced t h e i r a r r i v a l s  by  p a d d l i n g three times round the s h i p s , w h i l e a c h i e f or person o f note stood up and spoke i n a l o u d v o i c e .  New  masts were s e t up  w i t h n a t i v e a s s i s t a n c e , and l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f spruce beer brewed. The E n g l i s h l e f t the coast w i t h f i f t e e n hundred beaver and  sea  o t t e r p e l t s , obtained f o r a mere song, a c c o r d i n g to Miss Agnes C. l a u t (2)  L i e u t e n a n t Rickman observes that they had more than  t h r e e hundred sea o t t e r s k i n s on board, b e s i d e s others l e s s v a l u a b l (1)  Diamond Jenness "Indians of Canada" F.A.Acland, Ottowa, 1932. P.338.  Page  foxes,  racoons,  animals,  b u t g i v e s no  "Discovery" finally  wolves, bears,  alone,  left  i n d i c a t i o n w h e t h e r he  26,  search o f the northwest  w h e r e Mount i t s name.  not  continued  H e r e he l e f t  he  trade  date o f d i s c o v e r y , and Bay  i n f u r s was  received  was  named o n  two  silver  the coins  the m a i n l a n d .  o f the  The  disposition,  ships'boats.  resumed.  they  c l o a k as a symbol o f peace, T h e y were a d i f f e r e n t  w o r e l i p o r n a m e n t s and  type  from  paddled i n  canoes. A f t e r two  d a y s t h e s h i p s went o n  Sound, w h e r e t h e y w e r e much d i s a p p o i n t e d any  54*44',  t h e n a t i v e s were f r i g h t e n e d o f f , but  t h e p e o p l e o f N o o t k a , and skin  latitude  s o o n a p p e a r e d , seemed o f a more s a v a g e  difficulty  in  a b o t t l e with a paper bearing  soon r e t u r n e d d i s p l a y i n g a white and  the coast  reached Kaye I s l a n d i n l a t -  a n d n e a r l y s u c c e e d e d i n c u t t i n g o f f two With great  up  ships  named C r o s s S o u n d a n d Mount B ' a i r -  d i d not l a n d u n t i l  Comptroller  I n d i a n s , who  and  the  The  a l a r g e peak to the n o r t h w a r d ,  names o f t h e s h i p s a n d 1772.  r e f e r s to  passage.  Cook p a s s e d and  i t u d e 59*49'.  dated  1778,  sighted again t i l l  fidgecumbe,  weather, but  several other w i l d  o r to the e n t i r e e x p e d i t i o n . ( 1 )  on A p r i l  L a n d was  d e e r and  22.  o t h e r sea,  first  the  William's  t o f i n d no  passage  e i g h t days were spent i n s e a r c h i n g .  I n d i a n s v i s i t e d them i n s m a l l n u m b e r s , s t r e w i n g  f e a t h e r s on c h i e f was  although  to P r i n c e  the w a t e r and  dressed  h o l d i n g up  i n sea o t t e r robes,  seen at Nootka, decorated  a white  At  white  The  a n d w o r e a cap l i k e  w i t h blue beads,  of* b e a d s w e r e h i g h l y e s t e e m e d , and  garment.  to  f o r t r a d e any  were r e a d i l y exchanged,  those kind even  (1) J o u r n a l o f C a p t a i n C o o k ' s L a s t V o y a g e t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean. T h o u g h t t o be w r i t t e n b y l i e u t e n a n t J o h n H i c k m a n . P a g e 246.  Page 23.  f o r their fine sea o t t e r skins.  P i e c e s o f i r o n w e r e a l s o much  i n demand, b u t s m a l l p i e c e s , l e s s t h a n n i n e o r t e n i n c h e s l o n g were r e j e c t e d .  Soon t h e I n d i a n s grew b o l d e r , a n d even t r i e d t o  plunder the "Resolution".  One n i g h t t h e y b o a r d e d h e r , a n d d r a w -  i n g t h e i r k n i v e s made s i g n s t o t h e o f f i c e r o f t h e w a t c h t o k e e p o f f , w h i l e they began t o search f o r p l u n d e r .  When t h e r e s t o f  the crew appeared w i t h drawn c u t l a s s e s t h e y s l i p p e d o f f t o t h e i r canoes w i t h every appearance o f i n d i f f e r e n c e . F r o m h e r e t h e e x p e d i t i o n went w e s t , a n d e x p l o r e d C o o k ' s River. proved The  The I n d i a n s w e r e n o t s e e n f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e , b u t t o be v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f P r i n c e W i l l i a m S o u n d .  b o t a n i s t s made o b s e r v a t i o n s a t e v e r y p o r t o f c a l l , a n d  c o l l e c t e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f w i l d c e l e r y and v e t c h f o r the use o f the ships'company.  Great  c a r e was a l s o t a k e n r e g a r d i n g t h e  c l e a n l i n e s s and v e n t i l a t i o n o f t h e s h i p s .  T w i c e a week t h e y  were a i r e d between d e c k s w i t h f i r e s ,  a n d f i r e s w e r e made i n  i r o n p o t s a t t h e bottom o f the w e l l ,  t o ensure a pure atmosphere  i n the lower parts o f the ship. the s h i p s ' coppers,  S t r i c t a t t e n t i o n was g i v e n t o  w h i l e c a r e was t a k e n t o e x p o s e t h e c r e w a s  l i t t l e a s p o s s i b l e t o w e t w e a t h e r , a n d k e e p t h e i r hammocks a n d bedding  c l e a n and dry.  o f J u n e 1778,  passed  The s h i p s l e f t  Cook's R i v e r o n t h e 6 t h .  t h e Shumagin I s l a n d s , where a n I n d i a n  m e s s e n g e r brougfht t h e m a R u s s i a n n o t e  w h i c h no one o n b o a r d  could decipher, and s a i l e d on to Oonalashka. itude steadily, the f r o s t ice,  They g a i n e d  and t h e weather grew p i e r c i n g l y c o l d .  s e t i n s o t h a t t h e r u n n i n g r i g g i n g was l o a d e d  lat-  I n 66" with  a n d t h e i c e e v e n f o r m e d a t t h e men's f i n g e r t i p s i f t h e y  Page  exposed froze made but  them  while  we  were  i tnecessary  o r s i x minutes.  at table."  increased leave  to substitute sea l i o n  their  were and  the d i f f i c u l t i e s ,  invited  pired  well  eagerly with,  bought  paying  the Russian  them  any furs  which  course  overtook  them  Cook l o s t  to the Bering  passage.  The route  anchored  i n Avatcha  where  they  showed  that  Gierke  decided  of (1)  hislife  who  message.  The  south  west  1  i n Ealekakooa  without search  by solid t o Europe  the fruitless  a t Avatcha  trans-  to part  Bay, where  On F e b r u a r y  14 t h .  the natives,  the great  commander,  f o rthe northwest The  ships  k i n d l y received by the Russians.  was" l a b o r i o u s l y  passage  d i d so,  f o r t h e Sandwich  t h e Kamchatkan c o a s t .  was b l o c k e d  and  Russians  i n a skirmish with  Bay and were  to Isles.  They  i tl a t e r  l a ypast  to abandon  leaders  oars,  final  no n o r t h w e s t  calling  the great  o f twelve  Sea i n a  f u r t h e r passage  England,  a t t h e Sandwich  a few months l a t e r .  made t h e i r  seas  (1)  the expedition had to continue  From here  and the  barge  was now s t e e r e d  disaster  north  common,  t h e crews were w i l l i n g  and the v e s s e l s anchored  and  became  f a c t o r y and f o r t .  the mysterious  Islands,  Captain  food,  a n d i n 7 0 * 9 ' N. i t was d e c i d e d  £5.6 to £7.9 a skin.  The  1779  f o r other  e n t e r t a i n e d by the governor,  had sent  "hot v i c t u a l s  Bad weather and heavy  met a R u s s i a n  to visit  N.  meat  f o r the season and winter  r e t u r n they  were  Icebergs  was n e a r l y w r e c k e d .  the coast  A t 69°46'  T h e s t a t e o f t h e p r o v i s i o n s now  t h e move w a s n o t p o p u l a r .  "Discovery"  On  f o rf i v e  24.  Bay f i r s t  t o 69° 3 4 '  i c efields, could  search,  exist.  and Captain  and s a i l f o r  f o rrepairs.  survived the voyage.  north,  Captain  Neither Clerke's  Third J o u r n a l o f Cook"s^Voyage, b y George G i l b e r t (one o f crew o f H.M.S. R e s o l u t i o n ) . O r i g i n a l i n B r i t i s h Museum. Written c o p y i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C. Page 166.  Page  h e a l t h f i n a l l y "broke down, a n d  o n A u g u s t 22 n d . 1779  he  succumbed to c o n s u m p t i o n i n l a t i t u d e 53°7  1  assumed command, a n d  i n charge o f  "Discovery". and  The  the K u r i l e  put L i e u t e n a n t  course  King  so t h a t no  published u n t i l  men  w e r e r e q u i r e d t o g i v e up  information regarding  the  to preserve one  ships might  had  had  no  idea of t h e i r value,  doing  s u p p l y o f f u r s were now  t h o u s a n d pounds s t e r l i n g .  a  realized  King  f u l l y sympathized w i t h the  not  p r e v a i l e d among  p o s s i b l e , but  scheme, a n d  t i o n to i t s p r a c t i c a b i l i t y i n h i s o f f i c i a l voyage.  S e v e r a l o f t h e men  who  had  the  drew p u b l i c a t t e n account o f  s a i l e d w i t h Cook's  Among them, V a n c o u v e r , R o b e r t s ,  H e r g e s t w e r e m i d s h i p m e n , P o r t l o c k was  and  Lieutenant  i o n l a t e r p l a y e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i n the a f f a i r s o f northwest coast.  for  two  t h e y were e a g e r , a l m o s t t o  T h i s was  few  original  p o i n t o f m u t i n y , t o r e t u r n t o C o o k ' s R i v e r f o r more f u r s make t h e i r f o r t u n e s .  Now  w e l l preserved,  these  Great excitement  crew i n consequence, and  and  Only a t h i r d o f the  s u r v i v i n g , but  little  bedding.  seaman s o l d h i s s t o c k f o r e i g h t h u n d r e d d o l l a r s ,  twenty d o l l a r s each.  offering  American  and  s k i n s f o r c l o t h e s and  p r i m e s k i n s w h i c h h a p p e n e d t o be c l e a n a n d  the  be  t h e w i s h e s o f t h e A d m i r a l t y w e r e known.  them, u s e d t h e  a hundred and  At  their  C h i n e s e m e r c h a n t s amazed t h e s a i l o r s b y  'The men  and  the p o r t o f Macao.  l a r g e sums o f money f o r t h e f u r s c o l l e c t e d o n t h e coast.  Gore  the  I s l a n d s , a l o n g the e a s t e r n coast o f Japan,  Macao t h e o f f i c e r s a n d  The  Captain  w a s . s e t down t h e c o a s t o f K a m c h a t k a  from t h e n c e to the C h i n e s e c o a s t and  diaries,  north.  25.  the expeditthe  Colnett,and  a m a s t e r ' s mate,  and  P a g e 26.  Dixon an armourer. The ive, ing  voyage had n o t been s u c c e s s f u l i n i t s m a i n o b j e c t -  but g e o g r a p h i c a l knowledge had been g f e a t l y extended. the whole f o u r years  the " R e s o l u t i o n " had o n l y l o s t  Dur-  five  men b y s i c k n e s s , t h r e e o f whom w e r e i n a p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e o f h e a l t h when t h e y l e f t man.  England.  The " D i s c o v e r y " h a d n o t l o s t  a  (1) A t a t i m e when s c u r v y was t h e t e r r o r o f t h e o c e a n , i t  was a t r e m e n d o u s a c h i e v e m e n t , due t o t h e s t r i c t C a p t a i n Cook's r e g u l a t i o n s .  observation of  The c h i e f p r e v e n t a t i v e s u s e d w e r e  s a u e r k r a u t a n d p o r t a b l e s o u p , a n d t h e s e were s o s u c c e s s f u l t h a t no o c c a s i o n a r o s e  f o r t e s t i n g the a n t i s c o r b u t i c s with  w h i c h t h e y were s u p p l i e d .  The b a n e f u l e f f e c t s o f s a l t  pro-  v i s i o n s w e r e a v o i d e d b y v a r y i n g them w i t h e v e r y p o s s i b l e s u b stitute  - fish,  white bear,  sea horse,  and the l i k e .  Captain  Cook's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e n o r t h west i s a b l y summarized by L i e u t e n a n t K i n g . western  " C a p t a i n Cook e x p l o r e d t h e  c o a s t o f A m e r i c a f r o m 4 3 " - 70° n o r t h , c o n t a i n i n g a n  extent o f three thousand f i v e hundred m i l e s , a s c e r t a i n i n g the p r o x i m i t y o f t h e two g r e a t c o n t i n e n t s o f A s i a a n d A m e r i c a : passed  t h e S t r a i t s b e t w e e n them, a n d s u r v e y e d  each s i d e , strate  t o s u c h a h e i g h t o f n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e a s t o demon-  the i m p r a c t i c a Z b i l i t y o f a passage i n t l a t  from the A t l a n t i c  to the P a c i f i c  o r Western course." An  entrance  hemisphere,  Ocean, e i t h e r b y a n E a s t e r n  (2)  i n t e r e s t i n g b r o n z e m e d a l l i o n was f o u n d d u r i n g t h e  summer o f 1 9 3 3 , b y a n I n d i a n y o u t h o n V i l l a g e  (1) (2)  the c o a s t , on  I s l a n d , a t the  t o K y u q u o t S o u n d s , w h i c h h a s b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s one o f  Cook a n d K i n g , "Voyage Round t h e W o r l d " , I b i d , Page 50.  I I I , 488.  —Photo by H . "Whittlesey, Victoria Studio.  A  B O V E are depicted the reverse and obverse sides of the medallion found at Kyuquot by Arthur Nicolaye, an Indian youth, and which has been identified as having been brought by Captain Cook, in 1778, when he discovered this country. It is regarded as the most valuable relic of our history.  •  Chinese In Old B.C.  This Oriental talisman, with other Buddhist relies, teas found in a jar round which the roots of a centuries-old fallen tree had entwined in Northern B. C. This gives added color to the theory that Chinese, ages ago, paid long visits to Western America.  Page  27  t h o s e s t r u c k t o commemorate C o o k ' s s e c o n d v o y a g e o f 1 7 7 2 - 5 . On one the  s i d e the l i l c ^ i e s s o f George I I I can e a s i l y  e n g r a v e r s ' i n i t i a l s "B.F.", r e p r e s e n t i n g  I ' o t h e r g i l l o f Birmingham, the reverse no  shows two  question  Cook l e f t i n gold,  o f the  The  medallions  "bronze a n d  brass.  medallion.  lands.  leaving  to the  Pacific,  They were l e f t w i t h  T h e r e i s no  record  t h e n t h a t a few brought along g a v e one  o r two  The  and  o f the medallions  by C a p t a i n  o f c a r r y i n g out previous  "Resolution"  "Discovery".  the  first  dis-  t h a t any  such  t o k e n s w e r e s t r u c k when Cook s t a r t e d o n h i s t h i r d a n d v e n t u r e w i t h the  The  w e r e s t r u c k when  t e s t i m o n i a l s t h a t the E n g l i s h were the  o f t h e new  with  and  a p o r t i o n o f the l e g e n d ,  of i t s identity.  silver,  seen,  Boulton  f o r h i s second voyage o f d i s c o v e r y  n a t i v e s as coverers  s h i p s and  designers  he  last  " I t i s possible  p r e v i o u s l y s t r u c k were  Cook, and  to important n a t i v e  t h a t a t N o o t k a he  sparingly  c h i e f s , w i t h the  intention  t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h he h a d  them on  his  adventure i n t o the u n c h a r t e d seas o f the P a c i f i c . "  relic  n o r t h west  i s the  f i r s t o f i t s k i n d t o be  discovered  on  the  coast.  (1) The " V i c t o r i a D a i l y C o l o n i s t " , J a n u a r y 21, 1934. P u b l i s h e d by the " C o l o n i s t " O f f i c e , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P a g e s 1-2.  (10  Page  Chapter  II.  Captain north  west  about  the  and  region.  delayed  Treaty  of  1784,  C o o k made  coast,  Spain,  "THE  gave  The  the  the  the the  war  profit was  by  the  discovered  enthusiastic be  obtained  pieces cost  of  the  of  to  and  i n science  of  men,  coast  iron  and  copper  and  -  sixpence  circumstances  crews  of  eager  made  i t impossible India  combining  exploration with  suggested  that  ships  be  to  i t .  sent  The  Prom h i s of  The  gave  an but the  could  cloth, did  not  dollars. commerc-  strongly  "Discovery", enterprise. King fur  experiences, a  an  hundred  and  market  furs  appealed  enter  to  fur  for purely  time,  with freely  - beads,  i n such  should  now  sometimes  idea  the  i n pairs,  western  Valuable  for a  the  year,  chances  King  "Resolution"  at  Company  were  for trifles  engage  and  after  the  knowledge.  undertaken  the  of  equal  Lieutenant  handsomely.  Circumstances  East  nation  skins which  voyages  too  the  Prance  been undertaken  s o l d i n China  only  that  that  i t s possibilities.  were  ended  and  i t s results  and  American  the  had  and  the  and  era,  expedition  on  King  they  new  g i v i n g every  purposes would pay  both and  account  a  the  information  following  Cook's  purchaser  Under such ial  by  definite  of  i n the  The  advance  survey  I t s appearance  beginning  wofcld,  extended  until  d i s i n t e r e s t e d views, the  TRADE".  voyage  the  to  PUR  the  f u r trade.  offered  world  THE  between England,  maritime most  OP  first  publication of  Versailles.  marked  OPENING  28.  recommtrade, he  c e r t a i n tonnage,  Page  one  of  These  two  hundred,  could  easily  fitted price  he  the  other  acquired  including provisions, a of  the  ships  Articles advised expert most  and  to  talce  smith  d e s i r e d hy  staple  of  trade tons  his  Indians  of  barter  -  capriciousness  - but  a  large-pointed  few  gross  of  woollen  cloth,  given),  and  vessels  would  the  beginning  River near Two  be  prevented three  of  the  first  of April,  and  make  end  from  fifty  ipation  June,  without  much  East of  leave at  coast, India the of  return  Shumagen skins  absence own  successful, they sea  west  otter  to  but  for  their  to  coarse was The about  and  Cook's  dollars  each,  ships which  after  small  I n 1786  I f the  of  reason  early i n a  cargo  went.  i n v e s t i g a t e the  were w i l l i n g  industry,  only  monsoon,  The  but  coast.  expense.  the  they  and  China  an  articles  Islands  56°N.,  was  trinkets.  as  hundred  Company p l a y e d  north  his  to  no  westerly  winds,  the  and  the  noted  but  difficulty.  contrary  ship  forge,  glass  visiting  f u r trade  i n the  south  a  Each  some b a l e s  c o p p e r and  the  a  were  50°-  by  out-  original  I r o n was  refused,  worth  he  tons.  i n c l u d i n g i n the  collecting  pelts,  the  making  time.  r e g i o n from l a t i t u d e  development  financially  of  of  knaves,  formerly  and  iron,  recommended case  fifty  might  expensive.  Indians  with  months on  the  the  of  the  James S t r a n g e  the  two  sail  pay,  unwrought  at  and  and  pounds.  not  or  and  The the  barrel  obtained  explore  King  ( l i n e n was  the  hundred  should to  a  hundred  Canton,  year's  were  of  a  a s s i s t a n t s capable  the  commodity  at  f o r s i x thousand  five  and  of  29.  were Cook  then was  spending October. part  they  i n  granted  possibilities  voyage consider  when i t f a i l e d  was partictheir  MAPhr  VANCOUVER ' /SI  SHOW/NG  NO&TKA. I  AND HA&80UR  &  SOUND  QUATS/NO  SO  49  *=>/KC/r/C C?C£AA/  Page 30.  interest flagged.  I n J u l y o f t h e same y e a r 1 7 8 6 , t h e " L a r k " ,  a s h i p owned h y t h e B a s t  I n d i a Company, l e f t  w e s t c o a s t , h u t was w r e c k e d o n t h e v o y a g e .  f o r the north  Strange's  expedit-  i o n had not r e t u r n e d a t t h i s time, and t h e purpose o f t h e East I n d i a Company i n s e n d i n g a s e c o n d s h i p s o s o o n i s n o t k n o w n . The  owners o f B a r k l e y ' s " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " were m o s t l y  of the East capacity.  officials  I n d i a Company, h u t s h a r e h o l d e r s i n a n u n o f f i c i a l When t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s n e f a r i o u s  venture  was d i s c o v e r e d t h e y w e r e o b l i g e d t o d i s c l a i m B a r k l e y a n d s e l l the  " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " t o save t h e i r p o s i t i o n s .  record o f the East any  T h e r e i s no o t h e r  I n d i a Company o r i t s a c t i v e e m p l o y e e s t a k i n g  i n t e r e s t i n the a f f a i r s o f the P a c i f i c north west. The  prise,  c o a s t was s o o n c r o w d e d b y s h i p s o f p r i v a t e e n t e r -  e a g e r t o e x p l o i t t h i s new a n d s e e m i n g l y i n e x h a u s t i b l e  mine o f w e a l t h .  The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e 1 7 8 4 e d i t i o n o f C o o k ' s  "voyages was f a r r e a c h i n g b o t h i n E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a .  I t was  d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e a r l y E n g l i s h t r a d e r s such as Strange,  Meares, and the Etches  firm.  I t s t i m u l a t e d t h e Russ-  ians t o g r e a t e r a c t i v i t y i nAlaska, and i n s p i r e d the French government t o send a s i m i l a r e x p l o r i n g a n d s c i e n t i f i c i o n t o the South P a c i f i c  and t h e n o r t h west c o a s t t o c o l l e c t  data on the f u rp o s s i b i l i t i e s . was r e a d w i t h i n t e r e s t ,  expedit-  I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e repoxfcb  and t h e Boston  m e r c h a n t s l o s t no t i m e  i n entering the f i e l d . A f u r t h e r p l a n f o r promoting ing i t f o r England Alexander  Dalrymple  the f u rtrade and secur-  was made i n 1 7 8 9 , b y t h e C a r t o g r a p h e r , who w i s h e d  to u n i t e the operations o f the  Page 31.  E a s t I n d i a Company w i t h t h o s e o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Dalrymple s t i l l  Company.  b e l i e v e d t h a t some w a t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n  must  e x i s t between the w e s t e r n and e a s t e r n c o a s t s , e i t h e r by or r i v e r s .  sounds:  He made much o f t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f Cook, D i x o n  a n d B a r k l e y w h i c h seemed t o f a v o r s u c h a t h e o r y , f o r w e r e i t c o r r e c t the companies ing.  He  might d e r i v e l a r g e p r o f i t s from  combin-  t h o u g h t C h i n a w o u l d make a n e x c e l l e n t m a r k e t  f o r the  i n l a n d f u r s c o l l e c t e d b y t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, and the m a r i t i m e t r a d e r s to i n c l u d e s e a l s k i n s as w e l l as  wanted sea  o t t e r i n t h e i r c a r g o e s , as t h e y were v a l u e d by t h e C h i n e s e . I t seemed p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company w o u l d g e t f u r s c h e a p e r b y d o i n g away w i t h t r a d e r m i d d l e m e n , a n d s u p p l y t h e I n d i a n s w i t h more s t a p l e g o o d s , and i r o n ware, i n s t e a d o f ammunition destruction".  could  coarse woollens  and s p i r i t s  "to t h e i r  I n c i d e n t a l l y , w h i l e t h e Hudson's Bay  Company  c o n t r o l l e d the t r a d e , c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Mother Country assured. might  O t h e r w i s e i t was  settle,  quite possible  their  that the  become i n d e p e n d e n t , a n d b r e a k away.  was  traders Dalrymple  s u g g e s t e d t h a t a " c o p p e r e d s h i p " be s e n t f r o m C h i n a t o t h e _ " n o r t h west  c o a s t about  J u l y 1, p o s s i b l y t o P o r t  ( w h i c h he b e l i e v e d t o be i n l a t i t u d e 55°)  to c o l l e c t the  r e c e i v e d b y t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company's a g e n t s . the subject to P o r t l o c k ,  Bucarelli  He  broached  but c o n t i n u e s , " C a p t a i n P o r t l o c k i s  i n c l i n e d t o p r e f e r some p o r t t o t h e n o r t h w a r d , i n t h e f r o m Mount Edgecumbe t o C r o s s S o u n d o r b e t w e e n 57° n o r t h , f r o m t h e abundance o f s e a - o t t e r s k i n s . " he made l i t t l e  furs  sounds  a n d 58  4  (l) Apparently  i m p r e s s i o n , f o r h e r e t h e m a t t e r ended,  and  (1) A l e x a n d e r D a l r y m p l e , " P l a n f o r P r o m o t i n g t h e P u r T r a d e " , Pub. 1789. P r i n t e d i n T. L o n g , " v o y a g e s a n d T r a v e l s " , Pub., R o b i n s o n , London, 1791. Page 30.  Page  P o r t l o c k makes no  r e f e r e n c e to the  scheme e i t h e r i n the  32.  introd-  u c t i o n o r j o u r n a l o f h i s voyage. The world.  The  sea o t t e r i s one  o f the  tragedies  o f the  fur  h i s t o r y o f the n o r t h west coast i s that o f i t s  p u r s u i t and  extermination.  that as great wealth was  To the  e a r l y n a v i g a t o r s i t seemed  to he found i n f u r s as i n the  mines o f M e x i c o and P e r u , and  consequently the  sea o t t e r , which  abounded i n hundreds of thousands a c e n t u r y ago a l l y extinct.  i s now  practic-  Had an independent s t a t e a r i s e n i n these  times i n the northwest, i f ' m i g h t sea o t t e r as  silver  early  f i t t i n g l y have chosen the  i t s emblem."  The  sea o t t e r or K a l a n , c a l l e d "sea beaver" by  R u s s i a n s , i s a s p e c i e s o f o t t e r , but  the  much l a r g e r than the  f r e s h water v a r i e t y , w e i g & i n g from s i x t y to e i g h t y pounds. I n i t s habits  i t b e a r s more resemblance to the  f u l l y grown i t measures from three and length,  and  has  a stumpy t a i l  alone o f t e n g i v e s the  is  s l i g h t l y stretched  d u r i n g the p r o c e s s . rocks of bays and prefers food and and  The  the and The  and  and  the  body i s  I n t h i s shape i t lengthens  sea o t t e r f r e q u e n t s the  estuaries,  considerably  sea washed  b u t being v e r y t i m i d ,  really  t h e neighbourhood o f i s l a n d s , where i t can get shelter.  s l e e p s on  I t l i v e s on f i s h ,  the f o r e s t s o f k e l p and  an  When i t i s removed i n  s k i n i n s i d e out. a i r dried,  in  pelt  erroneous i m p r e s s i o n o f coming from  i t i s cut o n l y at the p o s t e r i o r s ,  drawn f o r t h , t u r n i n g  When  a h a l f t o four feet  seven i n c h e s l o n g .  animal at l e a s t s i x f e e t i n l e n g t h . skinning  fur seal.  C r u s t a c e a and seaweed.  both ::  mollusks,  I t i s not  very  Page  prolific,  h a v i n g h u t one  pup  a n i m a l , the sea o t t e r cannot come up  e v e r y few m i n u t e s  s t a y down, g a s e s  at a time.  The  storms  for air.  form i n i t s body b r i n g i n g i t to the  of was  to escape  d r i v e i t on shore to escape  the body.  Hussian  surface,  being  smothered. The  colour s i l v e r when  s l i g h t l y t i n g e d w i t h brown on the upper p a r t s  The  a favorite  to  from h u n t e r s .  b u t i t i s g e n e r a l l y a r i c h ebony, s h o w i n g  b l o w n open, and  must  Even i f i t attempts  f u r i s v e r y b e a u t i f u l and o f g r e a t v a l u e .  varies,  marine  b r e a t h e u n d e r w a t e r , and  a s e r i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e when t r y i n g Pierce  Although a  33.  head i s o c c a s i o n a l l y marked w i t h s i l v e r .  f u r both w i t h the Chinese mandarins  and  It  the  nobility. T h e r e were t h r e e d i f f e r e n t methods o f h u n t i n g the  s e a o t t e r - s t o r m h u n t i n g when t h e a n i m a l s w e r e d r i v e n shore, s t i l l rifle ing  h u n t i n g i n f i n e weather,  and l a t e r l o n g d i s t a n c e  s h o o t i n g taught the A l e u t s by t h e R u s s i a n s .  was  spirit  w i l d work, l i k e itself.  Storm  the very i n c a r n a t i o n o f the  At great r i s k o f l i f e  r o c k s and h e a v i n g k e l p beds,  storm  the hunters reached  and  r i g h t i n hundreds.  the H u s s i a n t e r r i t o r i e s o f the A l e u t i a n I s l a n d s , and  4 r  A  " k a y a k s " c a r r y i n g two o r t h r e e , mere c o c k l e  made o f o i l e d w a l r u s s k i n s t r e t c h e d o v e r a f r a m e , kayaks  o r c a n o e s were u s e d  the  for still  - big and  shells, only  h u n t i n g on a calm  a n d e q u i p m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f bows, a r r o w s a n d a s m a l l  In  the  t y p e s o f h u n t i n g b o a t s were used,  - f e e d a r k i e s " , h o l d i n g b e t w e e n t w e n t y a n d t h i r t y men, little  hunt-  and l e a p e d a s h o r e c l u b i n nana,  s l a y i n g the s l e e p i n g animals l e f t  n o r t h e r n c o a s t , two  on  sea,  harpoon.  Page 34.  The  l a t t e r had s e v e r a l fathoms  its  h e a d was s o n o t c h e d a n d "barbed t h a t onoe i t h a d e n t e r e d  t h e f l e s h i t was a l m o s t  o f strong l i n e attached, and  impossible to extract i t .  w e r e bone p o i n t e d a n d s m a l l , w i t h a s i n g l e b a r b . formed  a c i r c l e as soon as a round head appeared  face, o r a bubble As  The a r r o w s The h u n t e r s at the sur-  i n d i c a t e d i t was somewhere i n t h e v i c i n i t y .  s o o n a s t h e s e a o t t e r b o b b e d up, i t was g r e e t e d b y s h o u t s  a n d weapons, a n d e v e n i f t h e h a r p o o n s m i s s e d , was f o r c e d t o dive again before gaining i t s breath. to  The a n i m a l h a d t o come  the s u r f a c e f o r oxygen every f i f t e e n o r twenty minutes, and  e a c h t i m e was f o r c e d down w i t h a s c a n t s u p p l y o f a i r u n t i l f i n a l l y i t became s o f u l l t h a t i t cannot skill  o f gases  from suppressed b r e a t h i n g  s i n k , a n d t h e h u n t e r s made t h e i r c a p t u r e .  i n t h e chase  The  c o n s i s t e d i n f o l l o w i n g i n t h e same l i n e a s  t h e s e a o t t e r t o o k u n d e r w a t e r a n d k e e p i n g up w i t h h i s h i g h speed.  The a n i m a l f r e q u e n t l y e s c a p e d ,  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h young, male and female courage, and  but i f cornered, fought w i t h ferocious  t e a r i n g o u t harpoons and arrows w i t h t h e i r  even a t t a c k e d the canoes.  teeth,  The l o n g d i s t a n c e r i f l e s o f t h s  R u s s i a n s were a l a t e r and d e a d l i e r development w h i c h s e a l e d the f a t e o f the s e a o t t e r .  The I n d i a n s s h o t s e a l s a n d s e a  o t t e r o n s h o r e w i t h bows a n d a r r o w s .  They h i d themselves on  l a n d w e a r i n g masks r e s e m b l i n g t h e d e s i r e d a n i m a l t o s e r v e a s decoys,  c o v e r i n g t h e i r bodies w i t h branches  of trees.  The  masks w e r e s u c h e x c e l l e n t l i k e n e s s e s t h a t t h e v i c t i m s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y d e c e i v e d , a n d came w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e a r r o w s . one  time the s e a o t t e r e x i s t e d from Lower C a l i f o r n i a  At  to the  Page  B e r i n g Sea.  Today i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y w i p e d o u t .  A l e u t s are a l l o w e d one  t o hunt i t , and  a white  man  under p e n a l t y of f i v e hundred d o l l a r s .  r e m e d i e s h a v e come t o o l a t e , s i n c e the animals The reaching  do n o t  and  may  not  kill  Unfortunately  even f u r farming  i s useless,  f u r t r a d e r s was  an e x t e n s i v e  from Southern C a l i f o r n i a n o r t h to the A l a s k a n  native tribes,  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n h i s t o r y , and  concerns the  The  that of i t s  a smooth and u n i n d e n t e d s o u t h  The  the  i n latitude,  to jagged f i o r d s , l a r g e  a maze o f i s l a n d s i n t h e n o r t h .  the  character of  c o a s t l i n e changed c o n s i d e r a b l y as i t g a i n e d  one,  ports  r e g i o n between the mouth o f  C o l u m b i a R i v e r to__the P o r t l a n d C a n a l .  and  Only n a t i v e  thrive i n captivity.(1)  r e g i o n o f the  o f the Russians.  35.  from  inlets  l a r g e s t group  of  i s l a n d s l y i n g o f f t h e c o a s t were t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e s i n l a t i t u d e 54°,  a happy h u n t i n g  a d v e n t b e g a n a new Indians.  ground o f the  e r a i n the h i s t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h  There were s i x p r i n c i p a l  n o r t h e r n and  three  fur traders. Their  southern.  t r i b e s on  I n the  the c o a s t ,  f o l l o w e d by in  culture.  b u t most r e s e m b l i n g  the Tsimshian  and  Haida,  some o f  The  three northern  the their  r e g u l a r ' eskimo t r i b e s  -  tribes closely related  I n t h e s o u t h were t h e K w a k i u t l , N o o t k a j  Salish tribes.  three  extreme n o r t h were  T l l n g i t ' - b e y o n d t h e m came t h e E s k i m o s , h a v i n g characteristics,  Columbian  and  t r i b e s were grouped i n  still  l a r g e r u n i t s c a l l e d p h r a t r i e s , w h i c h employed a s p e c i a l h e r a l d ^ i c c r e s t , but  these  o r g a n i z a t i o n s were not  popular  in  (1) Good d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s e a o t t e r a p p e a r i n : S. Kewhouse, "The T r a p p e r s ' G u i d e " The O n e i d a Community, W a l l i n g f o r d . , * G.' T.' 1 8 6 7 . / "-' A g n e s C. L a u t ,-'•"> The P u r - T r a d e o f ' A m e r i c a " , M a c m i l l a n Co., New Y o r k , 1 9 2 1 . f  "BRIT/SH C.HILL  NORTH TOUT  CONS TABLE,  AMERICA. PAGE  LONDON  ggg 1907.  Page 3 6 .  the south. no  The N o o t k a , K w a k i u t l ,  phratric divisions,  and Coast S a l i s h  recognized  hut w i t h i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  tribes  w e r e numbers o f " g e n e o l o g i c a l f a m i l i e s " o r c l a n s . Kwakiutl particularly, of the clans.  great  r i v a l r y e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e head®  I t was shown s t r o n g l y i n t h e p o t l a t c h e s , i n  w h i c h e v e r y o n e who r e c e i v e d a g i f t ,  unless o f lower  s t a t u s , was o b l i g e d t o r e t u r n i t i n d o u b l e The  Among t h e  quantity.  t r i b e s i n common " p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a  w h i c h was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e p o s s e s s i o n  social  civilization  o f large  rectangular  w o o d e n h o u s e s , a n d o f dug o u t c a n o e s , whose d r e s s was  scanty,  who d e p e n d e d a l m o s t e n t i r e l y u p o n t h e s e a f o r f o o d , who h e l d i n great  regard those  p e r s o n s who w e r e o f p u r e d e s c e n t a n d  benevolent i n the d i s p o s a l o f property, v e n t i o n a l i z e d g r o t e s q u e a r t . " (1) p e c u l i a r to the coast, alities. separate shell.  a n d who h a d a c o n -  These wooden h o u s e s were  and v a r i e d s l i g h t l y i n d i f f e r e n t  loc-  A l l h a d o n a common f e a t u r e , a n d w e r e b u i l t w i t h a i n n e r main framework and a n o u t s i d e c o v e r i n g o r The f r a m e w o r k l a s t e d f o r many y e a r s ,  but the Indians,  who w e r e a r a c e o f t r a n s i e n t s , a n n u a l l y t o r e down t h e p l a n k s o f t h e o u t e r s h e l l a n d r e m o v e s them f o r a s h o r t t i m e t o o t h e r localities. sites,  I t was common f o r a t r i b e t o h a v e s e v e r a l  village  a n d s p e n d some p a r t o f t h e y e a r a t e a c h , a h a b i t w h i c h  caused considerable  inconvenience  o f Nootka thought nothing  to the traders.  o f moving h i s v i l l a g e  Maquinna  from F r i e n d l y  Cove t o T a s h e e s , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e l e n g t h y b a r t e r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , a n d t h e t r a d e r s h a d t o f o l l o w o r go e l s e w h e r e . The  c l o t h i n g o f t h e I n d i a n s was s i m p l e  - i n summer  (1) P l i n y E a r l e G-oddard, " I n d i a n s mf t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t " , A m e r i c a n Museum P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 S 4 . P a g e 1 3 .  Page  t h e men  f r e q u e n t l y dispensed  o r f o r ceremonial  occasions,  woven c e d a r f i b r e ,  with i t altogether.  t h e y w o r e g a r m e n t s and  o r robes,  o t t e r s k i n s , i n w h i c h the  In  w e r e sewn  the; s i d e o f t h e t h i r d sewn t o t h e e n d s o f t h e  The  t o t a l l a c k o f f o o t w e a r was The  f o o d o f the  chief staple of diet, ichan o r "candle porpoises  and  The  one  o f the  n a t i v e s was  important  item,  drying of f i s h ,  e l e m e n t a r y t o o l s , and basketry  and  s i n c e i t was  and  had  clams.  storing of o i l ,  fishers,  making  progress  in  wood c a r v e r s , t h e  w e r e n o t e d f o r t h e i r enormous t o t e m  many o f w h i c h a r e  still  perhaps s u p e r i o r i n  acted  i n existence.  s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n took the  c h i e f at the top,  having  w e r e b y no  means d e m o c r a t i c ,  commoners made up  s l a v e s were a l l o w e d  were  form o f a pyramid,  u n d e r him  d i s t i n c t grades o f s o c i e t y , nobles, whom t h e  Tlingit  poles,  basketry.  f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l groups.  Indians  The  dev-  Haidas  w e r e supreme, a n d  w i t h the  of  a t y p e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d a r t , as w e l l as As  to  s u p p l i e s became e x h a u s t e d .  made c o n s i d e r a b l e  e l o p i n g a fondness f o r music.  The  ool-  always p o s s i b l e  were a p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e , but were good  u n d e r s t o o d the  the  v a r i e d b y game, t h e f l e s h o f s e a l s ,  b a c k o n t h e m , when o t h e r f o o d Indians  the  - s a l m o n was  along w i t h h a l i b u t , sturgeon,  fish",  sea  features of  simple  of  others.  s e a o t t e r , b e r r i e s , r o o t s , seaweed and  Clams were an fall  hats  together,  and  coast.  winter,  " c u t s a r k s " , made o f t h r e e  s i d e s o f two  37.  The  lesser chiefs  British  and  Columbian  recognized  commoners, and  the b u l k o f the  t o m a r r y i n t h e i r own  who  three slaves,  population. class only,  The and  of  Page 3 8 .  p o s s e s s e d no r i g h t s , "being m o s t l y p r i s o n e r s o f w a r who c o u l d he p u t t o d e a t h a t t h e w h i m o f t h e m a s t e r s .  S l a v e r y was  u n i v e r s a l l y p r a c t i s e d , a n d w e a l t h was t h e c r i t e r i o n o n t h e coast.  Women h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e v o i c e i n m a t t e r s o f t r a d e a n d  g o v e r n m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e H a i d a s o f t h e Queen lotte  Islands.  Char-  I n t h a t r e g i o n no I n d i a n " d a r e d c o n c l u d e a  b a r g a i n w i t h o u t h i s w i f e ' s c o n s e n t ; i f h e d i d t h e moment he went t o h i s canoe he was s u r e t o g e t a b e a t i n g . s e e n t o b e t h e c a s e more t h a n o n c e ,  T h i s I have  a n d t h e r e i s no m e r c y t o  be e x p e c t e d w i t h o u t t h e i n t e r c e s s i o n o f some k i n d f e m a l e . " ( I ) T h e i r p o s i t i o n a t N o o t k a was n o t q u i t e s o d o m i n a n t ,  although  o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s owing  frequently  left the  allegiance  t o Maquinna w e r e  i n charge o f h i s feminine r e l a t i o n s .  S t r a n g e comments o n  acuteness o f t h e N o o t k a women i n b a r g a i n i n g : "  i n my  m e r c a n t i l e c a p a c i t y I d r e a d e d t h e s i g h t o f a woman: f o r whenever they were p r e s e n t , they were s u r e t o p r e s i d e o v e r a n d d i r e c t a l l commercial  t r a n s a c t i o n s , a n d a s o f t e n a s t h a t was  t h e c a s e , I was o b l i g e d t o p a y t h r e e t i m e s t h e p r i c e , f o r what i n t h e i r a b s e n c e I c o u l d h a v e p r o c u r e d f o r o n e t h i r d t h e v a l u e . " (2) Ornaments a n d customs v a r i e d w i t h t h e t r i b e s . d e f o r m a t i o n was p r a c t i s e d hy t h e  ^ S a l i s h , w h e r e t h e h e a d was  f l a t t e n e d so t h a t i t s l o p e d backwards,  a n d a l s o among t h e  K w a k i u t l , who b o u g d t h e h e a d s o a s t o d e c r e a s e and  e l o n g a t e i t upward a n d backward,  type. (1)  (2)  Head  the diameter  p r o d u c i n g t h e s u g a r loaof  The H a i d a women a n d t h o s e of' N o r f o l k Sound f a v o r e d l i p J o h n H o s k i n s , " N a r r a t i v e o f a Voyage t o t h e N o r t h West otff A m e r i c a a n d - C h i n a " , P e r f o r m e d i n t h e " C o l u m b i a R e d i v i a " , 1790-3. T r a n s c r i p t i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , 33. C. Page 5 6 . James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West C o a s t o f A m e r i c a " , Page 3 2 .  Page 39.  o r n a m e n t s - l a r g e wooden d i s k s i n s e r t e d i n t h e l o w e r l i p , w i t h hideous r e s u l t s ,  the o n l y d i f f e r e n c e being  that at Norfolk  Sound i t s i g n i f i e d r a n k , w h i l e t h e f a s h i o n was o p e n t o a l l a t t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . P o r t Mulgrave: "an a p e r t u r e under l i p , and Increased  D i x o n d e s c r i b e s the process  at  i s made i n t h e t h i c k p a r t o f t h e  by degrees i n a l i n e p a r a l l e l w i t h  t h e mouth a n d e q u a l l y l o n g .  In t h i s aperture  is  o u t on each s i d e l i k e a spoon,  c o n s t a n t l y worn, h o l l o w e d  b u t n o t so d e e p . " (1)  a p i e c e o f wood  A t t h e Q u e e n C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s he  n o t i c e d one l i p p i e c e w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o be p e c u l i a r l y ed,  ornament-  a n d made s e v e r a l e f f o r t s t o b u y i t , b u t t o e s , b a s i n s ,  hatchet,  were a l l r e f u s e d .  The o l d l a d y ' s  t a k e n by some b r i g h t b u t t o n s  f a n c y was  a  finally  a n d s h e e a g e r l y made t h e e x c h a n g e .  "This c u r i o u s l i p p i e c e measured t h r e e and i n c h e s l o n g , a n d two a n d f i v e - e i g h t h s i n c h e s  seven-eighths i n the widest  p a r t ; i t was i n l a i d w i t h a s m a l l p e a r l y s h e l l , r o u n d w h i c h was a r i m o f c o p p e r . " low.  The g e n e r a l  standard  of l i f e  was  The I n d i a n s w e r e i n f e s t e d w i t h v e r m i n , a n d t h e i r  w e r e so e n c r u s t e d to  (2)  w i t h p a i n t a n d d i r t t h a t i t was  t e l l what t h e i r e x a c t  sanitary,  c o l o u r was.  and reeked o f r o t t i n g  fish,  bodies  difficult  T h e i r houses were i n the remains o f which  were s t r e w n on t h e f l o o r . The H a i d a s w e r e b y f a r t h e f i e r c e s t a n d most w a r l i k e of the B r i t i s h Columbian Indians,  a n d d i d n o t b e a r much  resemblance to the o t h e r t r i b e s .  T h e i r f a c e s were b r o a d w i t h  protuding Powerful  cheek bones, and t h e i r eyes had a m o n g o l i a n i n build,  t h e y w e r e t h e most a d v a n c e s a n d  (1) D i x o n , "Voyage Bound t h e (2) I b i d , P a g e 2 0 8 .  World", Page 172.  slant.  notable  Page  people  on the c o a s t .  T h e i r language,  traditions, physical  a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s were d i s t i n c t .  The  t h e s q u a r e wooden t y p e w i t h b r o w n s k i n s and elsewhere.  40.  H a i d a s were black h a i r  not  found  T h e i r women w e r e a l s o e x c e e d i n g l y s t r o n g ,  and  b e t t e r l o o k i n g than the average coast I n d i a n , o f t e n having ruddy cheeks. tribes,  and  T a t o o i n g was  more f a v o u r e d t h a n b y t h e  other  took p l a c e i n t h r e e s t a g e s , a t each o f w h i c h  p o t l a t c h was  g i v e n , and  The  a new  other tribes,  a  name a s s u m e d . ( 1 )  s u c h a s t h e .Nootka I n d i a n s , w e r e  shorter,  f u l l e r i n the f i g u r e ,  observed  "a v e r y r e m a r k a b l e  a n d much more p h l e g m a t i c .  Cook  sameness o f e x p r e s s i o n seemed t o  c h a r a c t e r i z e the countenances o f the whole n a t i o n , a  dull  want o f e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h v e r y l i t t l e  marked  i n a l l o f them." appearance.  v a r i a t i o n being  The women, c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e d  On t h e w h o l e t h e y seemed t o b e " a  eous, good matured p e o p l e ,  concern  them, a n d  (2)  p r a y e r s and  people of  t h e y w e r e much g i v e n  Theory and p r a c t i c e o f government d i d not they lacked p o l i t i c a l  i v a l s w i t h r e l i g i o u s and men,  look  T h e i r c u r i o s i t y , l i k e most  interests centred i n social a c t i v i t i e s ,  medicine  court-  and l i k e most p a s s i o n a t e  t h e i r p a s s i o n s seemed t o l i e d o r m a n t , a n d to p e t t y t h i e v i n g .  docile,  in  q u i c k i n r e s e n t i n g what t h e y  upon as an i n s u l t o r i n j u r y , as soon i n f o r g e t t i n g i t . "  t h e men  ability.  Their  c e r e m o n i e s and  traditional significance.  fest-  The  c l a i m i n g s u p e r n a t u r a l powers as a r e s u l t  of  f a s t i n g s , were v e r y p o w e r f u l , and d i s t i n g u i s h e d  by p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f d r e s s and  appearance.  R i t u a l i s m had  a  (1) D i a m o n d J e n n e s s , " I n d i a n s o f Canada", A. A c l a n d , P r i n t e r t o t h e K i n g , O t t a w a , 1 9 3 2 , c f . c h a p s . 10 a n d 2 1 . (2) Cook a n d King,'-• "Voyage" Round t h e W o r l d " , ' P a g e s 3 0 0 - 3 3 2 .  Page  strong appeal, spirits, and  and  d i s e a s e was  o u r e d by  a s s i s t e d b y massage a n d  Tsimshian  carved),  the K w a k i u t l s , and  literally  as d e v o u r i n g battle.  Tlingit,  sick  Secret s o c i e t i e s  b e e n a d o p t e d by the o t h e r s . the "Cannibal  d i s m e m b e r e d human c o r p s e s ,  t h e f l e s h . (1)  the  Haida,  flourished  The  most  S o c i e t y " , whose members and  consumed p o r t i o n s o f  O t h e r forms o f c a n n i b a l i s m were p r a c t i s e d , s u c h t h e hands and  According  o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f enemies s l a i n i n  to Jenness,  a v i r i l e one,  and  "had  the c u l t u r e o f the west  coast  a p p a r e n t l y reached  blossom  c o m i n g o f t h e w h i t e man,  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r h e a l t h and  a n d was  full  lacking i n further  vigorous growth."  (2)  S u c h were t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e n o r t h w e s t who  w e r e s o o n t o be  engulfed  coast  i n such keen commercial  T h e y were more o r l e s s f r i e n d l y , ed w i t h o u t  but  considerable l o s s of l i f e  t r a d e was  not  rivalry.  accomplish-  and p r o p e r t y .  The  c o n s c i e n c e l e s s bahavior o f the t r a d e r s o f t e n aroused n a t i v e s t o a t t a c k , w h i c h was blood.  The  Islands, and  f o l l o w e d by  the  r e p r i s a l s and  bad  t r a d e r s t h e m s e l v e s were o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o u t -  w i t t i n g e a c h o t h e r and i n China.  and  I n d i a n s , t h o u g h t t o h a v e o r i g i n a t e d among  h o r r i b l e o f t h e s e was  at  The  f o r c a p t u r i n g the w a n d e r i n g s o u l s o f the  among t h e w e s t c o a s t  not  sucking.  evil  u s e d a " s o u l c a t c h e r " o r bone t u b e ( g e n e r a l l y  r e t u r n i n g them t o t h e i r b o d i e s .  was  f r i g h t e n i n g the  41.  The  best  t h e n a t i v e s , and  reaping r i c h  rewards  f u r c e n t r e s l a y i n t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e  Vancouver I s l a n d , the  i s l a n d mazes o f f t h e  t h e P r i n c e o f Wales A r c h i p e l a g o .  The  earlier  mainland,  visitors  g o t g o o d f u r s a t C o o k ' s H i v e r , P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound, (1) D i a m o n d J e n n e s s , (2) I b i d , P a g e 1 4 8 .  n  I n d i a n s o f Canada", P a g e , .  338.  and  Page 42.  N o r f o l k Sound, b u t e v e n t h e n e n c o u n t e r e d H u s s i a n c o m p e t i t i o n , a n d f o u n d t h e a r e a was b e i n g w e l l d r a i n e d , a n d t h e I n d i a n s a f r a i d to trade w i t h strangers.  The f u r s o f t h e R u s s i a n  t r a d e r s r e s e r v e d f o r t h e C h i n e s e m a r k e t e n t e r e d b y way o f K i a k h t a , a town on t h e b o r d e r between S i b e r i a and M o n g o l i a , a n d d i d n o t compete w i t h t h o s e o f t h e m a r i t i m e t r a d e r s , t o o k t h e i r p e l t s d i r e c t t o t h e p o r t o f Macao i n C h i n a .  who  Page  Chapter  III.  "THE  43.  EARLY TRADERS". (1785-1788) .  During  the f i r s t  three years of the f u r trade -  1785-1787, a l l t h e s h i p s on the c o a s t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the e x p l o r i n g e x p e d i t i o n o f L a P e r o u s e were E n g l i s h , a l t h o u g h some f l e w t h e f l a g s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o a v o i d t h e o f t h e E n g l i s h j o i n t s t o c k companies and on t r a d e . to  The  their strangle hold  B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y h a d made c o n s i d e r a b l e  check the spread o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  coast before the o f f i c i a l 1784.  the n o r t h west ,  C a p t a i n G i e r k e were  "To  demand f r o m t h e o f f i c e r s a n d p e t t y o f f i c e r s ,  and  j o u r n a l s t h e y may  i n s p e c t i o n ; and  have k e p t ,  and  e n j o i n i n g them a n d  d i v u l g e where t h e y have been, u n t i l so."  to  be  merely  m a r k e t , and p r e v e n t a u t h o r i z e d one  the l o g books f o r our  the whole crew not  to  t h e y have p e r m i s s i o n to j o u r n a l s had  o r d e s t r o y e d , b u t he was  a p r e c a u t i o n to guard  instructed  t o s e a l t h e m up  2immerman l a t e r s t a t e d t h a t t h e  surrendered  efforts  p u b l i c a t i o n o f "Cook s Voyages" i n  B o t h C a p t a i n Cook and  do  monopolies  mistaken.  either It  was  a g a i n s t the f o r e s t a l l i n g o f  the  other versions c i r c u l a t i n g before  yhe  appeared.  C a p t a i n Cook a n d  C a p t a i n C l e r k e d i e d on t h e  so t h a t t h e d u t y o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e o r d e r s d e v o l v e d C a p t a i n G-ore a n d  Captain King.  As  the s h i p s neared  voyage,  upon Macao,  Page 44.  d u r i n g November 1779,  b o t h s h i p s ' companies were mustered o n  d e c k , w h e r e t h e c a p t a i n s r e a d t h e command, a n d u r g e d them t o comply w i t h i t .  C a p t a i n K i n g t r i e d t o make i t a s e a s y a s  p o s s i b l e f o r t h e men*. " I t o l d t h e m t h a t a n y p a p e r s w h i c h were d e s i r o u s o f n o t h a v i n g  sent  t o t h e a d m i r a l t y , s h o u l d be  s e a l e d up i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e , a n d k e p t i n my own c u s t o d y , the i n t e n t i o n s o f the board w i t h regard  a f t e r which  should  be f a i t h f u l l y r e s t o r e d t o t h e m . "  little  o b j e c t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e men, a n d C a p t a i n with great  satisfaction:  till  to the p u b l i c a t i o n o f  t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e voyage, were f u l f i l l e d :  recorded  they  they  T h e r e seemed t o b e King  " I am p e r s u a d e d t h a t  every  scrap o f paper, c o n t a i n i n g any t r a n s a c t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e v o y a g e was g i v e n u p . " evident,  The e r r o r o f t h i s a s s u m p t i o n was s o o n  f o r w i t h i n s i x months o f t h e s h i p s ' r e t u r n t h e f i r s t  s u r r e p t i o u s j o u r n a l a p p e a r e d , a n d two more f o l l o w e d i n t h e n e x t two y e a r s .  T h e y w e r e t h e anojoymous ( H i c k m a n ' s ) i n 1 7 8 1 ,  -Zimmerman's i n 1 7 8 1 ,  and E l l i s  9  i n 1782.  H i c k m a n ' s J o u r n a l was t h e f i r s t  account o f f e r e d t o  the  interested world.  for  t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r r e p t i o u s e d i t i o n s , and the a u t h o r i t -  ies  had'.been, f o r c e d t o i n t e r f e r e , p r e v i o u s l y a n d p r e v e n t  from f o r e s t a l l i n g  H i s p u b l i s h e r , d e w b e r r y , was  L o n d o n i n A p r i l 1781,  H i c k m a n ' s n a r r a t i v e was p u b l i s h e d a t and read widely,  being  reprinted at  D u b l i n w i t h i n a f e w months, a n d a l s o t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  its  no s t e p s w e r e t a k e n  distribution.  him  t h e market w i t h a n u n l i c e n s e d v e r s i o n o f  C o o k ' s S e c o n d "voyage.  Apparently  notable  German.  to r e s t r a i n uewberry o r check  The  second unauthorized  William E l l i s ,  Me  much a s  i t lost Ellis  p r o t e g e he  had  "Discovery ',  I t was  the support  formerly  been.  On  that  of  which  1  n e e d e d money, a n d  bookseller f o r i l r t y guineas.  45  E n g l i s h a c c o u n t was  a s s i s t a n t surgeon o f the  a p p e a r e d i n 1782..  Page  so s o l d h i s n o t e s t o  a dear bargain,  i n as  o f S i r J o s e p h Banks: whose J a n u a r y 23,  r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r xrom B a n k s e x p r e s s i n g  1782.,  Ellis  r e g r e t t h a t he  had  " e n g a g e d i n so i m p r u d e n t a b u s i n e s s "  and  "that i t w i l l  p o w e r t o do what m i g h t  not  i n f u t u r e be  h a v e b e e n done, h a d was  ation,  i s no and  1784  record of o f f i c i a l the  i n my  f o l l o w e d my  r e p r i n t e d i n L o n d o n 1783,  there  and  you  f e a r e d i n consequence  advice." and  (1)  1785,  protest.  f o l l o w i n g y e a r was  The  Journal  during which time  I t had  a wide  circul-  p u b l i s h e d both i n Prance  Germany. An  e d i t i o n a p p e a r e d i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s i n 178 3,  t h e work o f John L e d y a r d , an A m e r i c a n s a i l o r .  It i s especially  I n t e r e s t i n g because i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t L e d y a r d all  h i s n o t e s i n o b e d i e n c e to the o f f i c i a l  his  v e r s i o n f r o m memory, w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f  journal.  surrendered  command, and  most i m p o r t a n t  v e r s i o n s , was  German s a i l o r o n b o a r d t h e a t Mannheim. publication,  One  of the  wrote  Hickman s 1  I n many p l a c e s h i s a c c o u n t i s s i m p l y a  t r a n s c r i p t i o n " o f the l a t t e r .  was  a  "barefaced  earliest,  and  perhaps  t h a t o f n e i n r i c h Zimmerman, a  "Discovery",  which appeared i n  I t i s n o t known w h e t h e r t h i s was  the  first  o r i f t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n belonged to Rickman.  c e r t a i n l y the f i r s t  not as a c c u r a t e  on  the c o n t i n e n t .  r e g a r d i n g the day  t o day  The  1781  German w o r k  navigation of  the  (1) P. W. Howay, "Zimmerman''s C a p t a i n Cook", The C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s , Hyerson P r e s s , T o r o n t o , Canada. P u b l i s h e d 1930. P a g e 8.  It was  Page 4 6 .  ship as Rickman s, and l a c k e d t h e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge o f 1  Ellis' had  later journal.  I t i shardly surprising,  n o t t h e same f a c i l i t i e s  f o r observation,  and i s a l t o g e t h e r  a r e m a r k a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t f o r a common s a i l o r . book was p r i n t e d i n l e n g t h e n e d with a preface  form a t B e r l i n  Zimmerman's (1) i n 1 7 8 1 ,  b y a f e l l o w German, J . R. P o r s t e r , f o r m e r l y a  n a t u r a l i s t on Cook's second voyage.  A French  a p p e a r e d a l m o s t a t o n c e , a n d a R u s s i a n one, i n 1786.  s e e i n g t h a t he  The R u s s i a n s  Rickman o r E l l i s ,  from t h a t ,  F r e n c h a n d German c o p i e s  T h e r e seems l i t t l e  furnished the i n c e n t i v e f o r the f i r s t n o r t h west c o a s t ,  taken  made no a t t e m p t t o t r a n s l a t e e i t h e r  although  i v e l y were a v a i l a b l e .  translation  respect-  doubt t h i s work  proposed venture  to the  that o f William B o l t s , an Englishman i n the  s e r v i c e o f t h e Emperor, i n 1781. T r i e s t e on the A d r i a t i c ,  P r e p a r a t i o n s w e r e made a t  and two s h i p s were o u t f i t t e d , t h e  " C o b e n z e l l " a n armed s h i p o f s e v e n h u n d r e d t o n s , w i t h a of forty five to  tons.  The d o u b l e o b j e c t of" t h e e x p e d i t i o n was  make d i s c o v e r i e s a n d t r a d e f o r f u r s o n t h e n o r t h w e s t  o f America.  conduct  t h e v e s s e l s and a good r e c e p t i o n a t f o r e i g n c o u r t s .  unexpectedly,  Then,  t h e e n t e r p r i s e was o v e r t h r o w n b y a g r o u p o f  " i n t e r e s t e d men t h e n i n p o w e r i n V i e n n a " , never s a i l e d . intrigue,  coast  Men o f h i g h s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e h a d b e e n e n g a g e d ,  w h i l e t h e E u r o p e a n c e n t r e s were a p p r o a c h e d f o r a s a f e for  tender  Little  (.2) a n d t h e s h i p s  i s known, e i t h e r o f t h e n a t u r e  o r of Bolts himself.  F r o m one s o u r c e  of this  we h e a r o f  (1) 2 i m m e r m a n s T h i r d Voyage o f C a p t a i n C o o k . P u b . W.A.G. S k i n n e r , Government P r i n t e r , W e l l i n g t o n , 1 9 2 6 . A p p e n d i x , Page 4 7 . (2) D i x o n , "A V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d " , G o u l d i n g , L o n d o n , 1 7 8 9 , P a g e XX. T  .Page  him  as  "a w e l l i n f o r m e d  and  Bengal,  a n d who  man,  had  f o r managing w e l l an e x p e d i t i o n o f  (1) w h i l e C a p t a i n P o r t l o c k comments "  f e e b l e e f f o r t o f an  i m p r u a e n t man  t o causes w h i c h have not Captain  yet  on A p r i l 15,  before  The  g a l e s and  "Sea  p a s s a g e was  r a i n , and  not  Sound f i v e d a y s l a t e r , Almost immediately  i t was  far distant.  a t n i n e P. M.,  distance got  unnecessary, f o r the  coast,  s a i l e d from  theTypa  with  almost  tne second o f August i n the ocean,  indicat-  Hanna r e a c h e d N o o t k a when i t was  already  In t h i s Indians  (3)  Hanna was  the f i r s t  instance,  "hollow d  i n experiencing Nootkans had  Indian h o s t i l i t y .  at  1  t r a d e r on  t h e p i o n e e r b o t h i n t h e f u r t r a d e , and  as  we  His suspicions of  the they were  repulsed w i t h considerable slaughter, a f t e r which they  o f h i s voyage are  soon  the  been w e l l grounded, f o r a few days l a t e r  Hanna c a l l e d a t o t h e r p o i n t s , b u t  a  i t chanced,  attempted to board the v e s s e l i n broad d a y l i g h t , but  peacefully.  dark.  the  'Ivlaamook* - t h a t ' i s , a s k i n g t o t r a d e , a n d  them a l o n g . "  (2)  ( o r "Harmon"),  t h r e e n a t i v e c a n o e s came o f f , a n d  crew, f e a r i n g t r o u b l e , armed a t o n c e . h o w e v e r , i t was  Otter"  a r o u g h one  stumps o f t r e e s were chanced on  i n g t h a t A m e r i c a was  owing  been s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l a i n e d . "  James Hanna i n t h e  1785.  this  f a i l e d prematurely,  a s i x t y ton b r i g w i t h a crew o f t h i r t y ,  continuous  Indies  a c q u i r e d i n s e v e r a l l o n g voyages a l l  the knowledge necessary this kind",  l o n g employed i n t h e East  47.  the  traded  accounts  so meagre t h a t t h e e x a c t p l a c e s v i s i t e d  are  (1) E t i e n n e ' K a r c h a n d , "A V o y a g e R o u n d the".World":, Straham;:: r . London, 1801." Page LXXX. (2) N a t h a n i e l P o r t l o c k , "A "Voyage R o u n d t h e W o r l d " , S t o c k d a l e a n d G o u l d i n g , London, 1789. Page- 2. (3) James Hanna, "Log o f t h e Sea O t t e r " 1 7 8 5 . Original i n Provincial Archives. Q u o t a t i o n i s l a s t e n t r y made, A u g . 9, 1785. Hence l o g i s o f l i m i t e d v a l u e , b e i n g no r e c o r d o f time passed on the c o a s t .  Page: 4 8 .  uncertain.  Among o t h e r t h i n g s , h e  Cleaskina,. a c h i e f o f Clayoquot  e x c h a n g e d names w i t h  Sound.  The  e x c h a n g e o f names  by t h e I n d i a n c h i e f s w i t h t h e i r v i s i t o r s was  i n t e n d e d as  g r e a t compliment, and Meares mentions t h i s c h i e f under  a  the  name o f Hanna, a s c o m i n g o f f t o t h e " P e l i o e " i n company w i t h another  c h i e f , D e t o o c h e , when he was  1788.(1)  Hanna l e f t  p a s s i n g A h o u s a t i n June  i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f September,  c o l l e c t e d f i v e hundred and i n t h e end o f D e c e m b e r .  s i x t y s k i n s , and  having  a r r i v e d a t Macao  Dixon quotes the Chinese  values  set  o n h i s p e l t s , w h i c h a s a w h o l e b r o u g h t Hanna t w e n t y t h o u s a n d six  hundred d o l l a r s .  I t was  an i n t e r e s t i n g example o f  r e t u r n s o b t a i n a b l e at the b e g i n n i n g o f the t r a d e . Chinese  the  The  d i v i d e d t h e m i n t o f i v e c l a s s e s , a n d p r i c e d them  accordingly.(2) 140 175 880 65 50 500  prime s k i n s 2nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. whole s k i n s .  240  f l i p s a n d p i e c e s , e s t i m a t e d a t 60 s k i n s , #600.  T o t a l - 560 The o n l y attempt  $60 §45 !§30 #15 §10 "§20,000 sold f o r  s k i n s - s o l d f o r #20,600.  expedition of o f the B a s t  James S t r a n g e  represents  the  I n d i a Company t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e  '  p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the n o r t h west f u r t r a d e o f w h i c h t h e r e i s any  detailed information.  first  p l a c e from Lieutenant  Dalrymple,  met  w i t h no  James S t r a n g e , o f t h e (1) J o h n T. Walla r a n , P r i n t i n g Bureau," (2) G e o r g e D i x o n , "A ' '  The  s u g g e s t i o n , coming i n the  K i n g and  response  the  cartographer  f r o m t h e Company s 1  governors.  M a d r a s E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the. E a s t I n d i a " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P l a c e lTames"Government Ottawa,'1909,:Page. .2.28,. .; . V o y a g e Round t h e W o r l d " , L e t t e r Z L V I , f 316 . p a  e  Page  Company, was  independently  49  i n f l u e n e e d by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f  C o o k ' s T h i r d "voyage t o c o n s i d e r s u c h a scheme d u r i n g a v o y a g e to  India.  Ample l e i s u r e o n b o a r d s h i p e n a b l e d  his  p l a n s , w h i c h he  Mr.  David  submitted  was  deeply  became t h e p a t r o n o f t h e e x p e d i t i o n .  whose m e r c a n t i l e Europe as w e l l as  and  I n d i a . " (1)  the  d i r e c t i o n o f Mr.  The  East  I n d i a Company  granted  seemed s e r i o u s l y t o  c o n s i d e r e s t a b l i s h i n g commercial i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the i f the f i n a n c i a l  r e t u r n s were  Scott,  and  invested h i s entire personal  i n t o the  under-  fortune therein.  Mr.  " w i t h a l i b e r a l i t y p e c u l i a r t o h i m s e l f " a d o p t e d i t on  a g r a n d s c a l e , and his  north  satisfactory.  Strange threw h i m s e l f wholeheartedly taking,  Scott,  s p i r i t - a r e acknowledged i n  S t r a n g e t e m p o r a r y l e a v e o f absence, and  ,west c o a s t ,  a  i n t e r e s t e d , and  Meares spoke o f  "equipped under the  experience  to complete  on l a n d i n g i n Bombay, t o  S c o t t o f t h a t c i t y , who  e n t e r p r i s e as b e i n g  him  put  Strange at i t s head.  He  relinquished  r i g h t o f p a t r o n a g e i n n a m i n g t h e o f f i c e r s who  accompany him,  were  to  on the g r o u n d t h a t i f S t r a n g e were t o work  w i t h them he must f i n d t h e m c o n g e n i a l . i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l men  o f s c i e n c e , and  o f t h e B r i t i s h "Navy.  Two  Strange's  choice  f i v e former l i e u t e n a n t s  s h i p s were o u t f i t t e d ,  the  "Captain  Cook", named i n t h e memory o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d n a v i g a t o r , o f t h r e e hundred and  fifty  tons burthen,  Henry L a u r i e , w i t h a crew o f s i x t y , "Experiment".  The  a hundred and  fifty  " E x p e r i m e n t " , hew  under Captain Guise.  tons,  and  commanded b y  accompanied by o f f the  Captain  the  s t o c k s , , was  c a r r i e d a crew o f t h i r t y  S t r a n g e went a s s u p e r c a r g o o n  (1) J o h n M e a r e s , " V o y a g e s " made i n 1788 . London, 1790, Page 131.  and  1789.  J.  about five  the Walter,  Page  " C a p t a i n Cook", a n d to  sea.  i n h i s o p i n i o n b e t t e r v e s s e l s n e v e r went  B o t h were " c o p p e r bottomed, and  boats",  were amply s u p p l i e d w i t h e v e r y  England or India could provide, ematical instruments ion  and  available.  had  very  store that  h e a v y , due  enhanced p r i c e o f p r o v i s i o n s and  The  outfitting  Bombay o n  on for  to Nootka.  first  Strange planned to secure  these  regret,  found on a r r i v a l t h a t the  obtained  a t any  o f them.  further instructions, J a n u a r y 1785  necessary  too l a t e  with l i t t l e  courtesy,  and  then  commodities  great  on the 1 s t .  secure  intended  of  off, The  concerning  " I f the  brought i n t o account,  such are the  be  to  supplies.  information  n a v i g a t i o n o f nearby S t r a i t s .  be o m i t t e d ,  to h i s  ports  - t h e D u t c h t r e a t e d them  even r e f u s e d  o f b r e a t h i n g c o u l d h e r e be  a  to t u r n back f o r  Cachin  t o s t o p a t B a t a v i a and  a most u n c o m f o r t a b l e one  the p a s s a g e and  1785,  S i n c e t h e C h i n a t r i p was  s o j o u r n was  i t would not  but  f o r t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t , w h i c h he north.  crew.  d e s i r e d goods c o u l d not  so S t r a n g e l e f t  make i n l a t i t u d e 40" 00' i t was  I t was  Cochin,  very  to China w i t h  t h e C h i n e s e m a r k e t o n the. c o a s t o f M a l a b a r , a t t h e Mangalore, T i l l e c h e r r y and  ege  f o r the  r i c h a r t i c l e s o f commerce, a n d  o f Goa,  the  naval  the 8 t h . o f December  i n t e n d i n g to d e f r a y expenses by g o i n g c a r g o o f sandalwood and  expenses were  t h e h i g h wages n e c e s s a r y  ships l e f t  expedit-  to extend knowledge  science.  s t o r e s i n the E a s t , and  math-  b r a n c h o f commerce w i t h  o f n a v i g a t i o n and to the  complete  either  o b j e c t s of the  o f A m e r i c a , d i s c o v e r y , and The  two  c a r r i e d the b e s t  The  w e r e w i d e , t o e s t a b l i s h a new  western coast  50.  privil-  I am  extortions of this  sure self  Page  interested nation." T h e r e was  51.  (1) o n l y one  i n n , government c o n t r o l l e d ,  but  so u n h e a l t h y t h a t c e r t a i n a p a r t m e n t s w e r e p o p u l a r l y k n o w n a s "Tavern Sepulchres".  S t r a n g e and s e v e r a l o f the  officers  went a s h o r e i n o r d e r t o h a s t e n b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s , a n d gaged rooms. in,  W h i l e t h e p a r t y was  a t d i n n e r t h e l a n d l o r d came  asked the u s u a l q u e s t i o n s as t o whether  their liking,  and complimented  en-  t h e f o o d was  them on t h e i r h e a l t h y  to  appear-  a n c e , s a y i n g i n D u t c h t h a t he h o p e d t h e y w o u l d l e a v e h i s h o u s e i n a s g o o d a c a s e a s t h e y came i n t o it  i t , b u t t h a t he  e x c e e d i n g l y " . U n p e r t u r b e d by s u c h c r o a k i n g , S t r a n g e p a s s e d  a c o m f o r t a b l e n i g h t , but h i s peace C o n v e r s i n g w i t h a n E n g l i s h m a n who  o f m i n d was  gentleman  s t a r t e d f r o m me  short  lived.  had been i n the. house a  w e e k s , he h a p p e n e d t o m e n t i o n t h a t he was "My  "doubted  o c c u p y i n g No.  a t t h e m e n t i o n o f No.  w o u l d no more t h i n k o f s l e e p i n g i n t h a t room. me  He  and I  informed  t h a t d u r i n g a r e s i d e n c e o f f i w weeks i n the house,  s e e n no l e s s t h a n s e v e n b o d i e s , d e a d o f p u t r i d f e v e r , to  18.  18,  w i t h hands and eyes u p l i f t e d to Heaven, e n t r e a t e d t h a t  few  t h e i r g r a v e s o u t o f t h a t v e r y bed, on w h i c h I had  he  had  carried last  n i g h t r e p o s e d , a n d t h a t i t h a d n o t he b e l i e v e d , b e e n a i r e d i n a l l that period."  (2)  Strange immediately f e l t  "a t h o u s -  and p a i n s and a c h e s " and s e n t f o r t h e l a n d l o r d t o r e p r o a c h him i n the b i t t e r e s t  terms  f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t he h a d  received.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v e d t h a t S t r a n g e had b e e n a l o t t e d No. because  18  i t had been f r e e from i n f e c t i o u s d i s e a s e f o r s i x o r  e i g h t d a y s , w h i l e i n many o f t h e o t h e r rooms i t was  only  (1) James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , , R e c o r d s o f F o r t S t . George, Madras, Government P r e s s , 1928. P a g e 7. (2) I b i d , Page 7.  Page  f o r t y eight hours. the b e s t on  bed  i n the house, and  the b i l l i a r d  departure  Strange refused  table.  I t was  t h a t made h i m  A f t e r a t e n day g e t u n d e r way,  but  the  to spend a n o t h e r n i g h t  s l e p t f o r the  stay  speed  s h i p s a t l a s t managed t o  e f f e c t s o f B a t a v i a were soon  felt.  f i f t e e n seamen went down w i t h  f e v e r , many o f them v e r y d a n g e r o u s l y i l l . e i g h t days l a t e r  - 17th.  Further disaster  o f February - both  s h i p s ran aground near Borneo, i n a r e g i o n i n f e s t e d w i t h ates.  C a p t a i n Guise f e a r e d at f i r s t that the  was  lost  and  spars,  s h i p was  to s e r v i c e , but and  a l a r m and  m u t i n y appeared, and  i a l watch to guard the boats. " E x p e r i m e n t " t o be  o r e i g h t days, but  a f t e r midnight.  next the  no  alternative offered.  now  so  d e s i r e d to take  to America.  o f J a n u a r y and  the  20th.  there  o f June.  i s a gap  seven stay  depleted,  some p o u l t r y w h i c h  s e r i o u s t h a t f o r f o u r months he was  e n t r y i n t h e l o g book, and  During the greatly  holes  streak,  r e p a i r e d by l a n d i n g w i t h a stop o f  r e d u c e d t o a few h o g s , a n d  particularly  garboard  spec-  the  i n a serious state, with-five large  t h e l i v e s t o c k t a k e n a b o a r d a t B a t a v i a was being  of  necessary to set a  I n v e s t i g a t i o n proved  the  The  seamen - symptoms  i t was  t h r o u g h h e r bottom i n the p l a n k s w h i c h c o u l d o n l y be  booms  heavy s t o r e s onto t h i s ,  freed a l i t t l e  d a n g e r showed t h e l o w m o r a l e o f t h e  pir-  "Experiment"  b y making" a r a f t o f a l l t h e  moving the guns and  l i g h t e n e d and  in  shore.  v i s i t the  A l m o s t at once S t r a n g e and  f o l l o w e d , and  rest of his  only h i s a n x i e t y to  r e m a i n on  52.  Strange  St range's f e v e r u n a b l e t o make between the  A f t e r t w e n t y days on  was an  18th. the  Page  coast  o f Borneo the journey  " E x p e r i m e n t " was  and  the  the  supplies of sauerkraut,  and  hy  a c r o s s t h e P a c i f i c "began.  t h e t i m e N o o t k a was  confined, with l i t t l e The  s o u p and  malt proved  the 2 4 t h .  and  Nootka they proved f u t i l e , o f the coast  ships dozen  r e c o r d i n g : "no  a f f o r d e d me  a  pur-  like  collected..  As  guides  shore, to  f o r none w o u l d i n d i c a t e a n y  e x c e p t t h a t o f h i s own  expedition to anchor there. ed t o f i f t y ,  ohce,  the n i g h t the v e s s e l s stood o f f  b y m o r n i n g many I n d i a n s h a d  in  s i x bunches o f l e e k s , which  made o n t h e c o a s t  During  J u n e , 1786,  approached the  Strange e a g e r l y bought f o r the i n v a l i d s ,  satisfaction."  of  T h e y h a d w i t h them h a l f a  s m a l l b r e a m , some s a r d i n e s , a n d  chase I a f t e r w a r d s  out,  inadequate,  c a n o e s came o f f a l m o s t a t  c o n t a i n i n g s i x o r e i g h t n a t i v e s , who hesitation.  S c u r v y "broke  recovery.  s h i p s made l a n d o n Two  seaworthy,  r e a c h e d , a t h i r d o f t h e crew were  hope o f  latitude'48*44' north.  with l i t t l e  pronounced  residence,  By m i d d a y t h e  v a r y i n g i n o c c u p a n t s f r o m two  natives offered a great variety of f i s h  part  and w i s h e d  canoes had to t e n .  f o r sale,  the  increas The  salmon,  cod,  s k a t e , h a l i b u t , bream, t r o u t , h e r r i n g s , s a r d i n e s  and  flat  f i s h , but  ships  t h e s u p p l y was  w e r e swamped w i t h f i s h ,  and  i r r e g u l a r - one  day  coast,  very  r a g g e d s p e c i m e n s , and  the  Indians  e x c e p t i o n o f a few  obtained.  only  so s a i l e d s l o w l y up  a r r i v i n g a t N o o t k a Sound on The  the  t h e n e x t none c o u l d be  Strange began e n q u i r i e s f o r sea o t t e r s k i n s , but a few  53.  the  27th. o f  secured the  June.  c o l l e c t e d i n l a r g e n u m b e r s , but. w i t h chiefs  t o whom S t r a n g e w i s h e d t o show  Page 54.  some m a r k s o f r e s p e c t a n d d i s t i n c t i o n , up  the ships' sides.  t r o u b l e was a v o i d e d ,  I t was f e l t  none were e v e r a l l o w e d  t h a t h y s o d o i n g much  e i t h e r from q u a r r e l l i n g o r t h e f t ,  un  t h e 6th. o f J u l y t h e s h i p s ' m o o r i n g s w e r e c h a n g e d t o P r i e n d l y Cove, i n t h e h o p e s o f o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r s h e l t e r f o r t h e i n v a l i d s on shore, and Strange Indian village  and the surgeon  v i s i t e d the  t o b u y some s o r t o f a h u t f o r t h e i r u s e .  They  w e r e r e c e i v e d w i t h much f r i e n d l i n e s s , a n d g i v e n p r e s s i n g i n v i t a t i o n s to enter a l l houses.  S t r a n g e was d e e p l y  ed b y t h e " b e a s t l y f i l t h  the natives o f this  of  i m which  the w o r l d pass t h e i r l i v e s .  impresspart  I d e c l a r e t h a t b e f o r e I was  a n eye w i t n e s s t o i t , I h a d a v e r y i m p e r f e c t c o n c e p t i o n o f the e x t e n t o f i t .  I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o move a s i n g l e  step  w i t h o u t b e i n g up t o t h e a n k l e s i n mud, f i s h g u t s a n d m a g g o t s , a n d t h i s i n c o n v e n i e n c e was a l i k e doors."fl) his  Strange  f e l t w i t h i n and without  e x p l a i n e d he w i s h e d  t o buy a hut f o r  s i c k , a n d was o f f e r e d a n y one he c h o s e .  concluded  f o r twenty  five  The b a r g a i n was  c e n t s a n d t h e s h e l t e r was d u l y  cleaned and s e t i n o r d e r , b u t proved  so i n s a n i t a r y t h a t  after  a f e w d a y s t h e p a t i e n t s w e r e moved t o a t e n t some d i s t a n c e from t h e v i l l a g e ,  where t h e y s l o w l y r e c o v e r e d .  While  con-  v a l e s c i n g , the s a i l o r s occupied t h e i r time by gardening, i n the hopes t h a t i t might b e n e f i t f u t u r e voyagers, "a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f g a r d e n The than procure. knives,  and planted  seeds."  s e a o t t e r s - w e r e much more d i f f i c u l t  to preserve  The I n d i a n s r e a d i l y t r a d e d t h e m f o r a x e s ,  c h i s e l s and swords, but s i n c e b o t h s k i n s and i n h a b i t -  (1) James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e W o r t h West Coast o f America", Page. 20.  Page  a n t s swarmed w i t h v e r m i n , much l a b o u r h a d f o r e t h e p e l t s were f i t  f o r storage.  t o he e x p e n d e d  Strange  55.  he-  s a i d o f them,  " I d r e a d e d no l e s s t h e i r u t t e r l o s s t h a n t h e want o f t h e m t h e f u r s seemed t o me  t o he a s o r t o f s a n c t u a r y f o r t h e  to which they r e s o r t from p e r s e c u t i o n . p r i v i l e g e o f e a t i n g the l i v e  I have a l s o  seen the  s t o c k o f a v e r y l o u s y head,  s u b j e c t o f much s e r i o u s a l t e r c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h r e e o f persons;  w h e r e a s I a t no  vermin,  t i m e p e r c e i v e d t h e m t o be  the  four objects  o f p u r s u i t o r c o n t e n t i o n when o n c e t h e y h a d t a k e n r e f u g e i n t h e f u r . " (1)  B e s i d e s t h u s t h i s the s k i n s abounded i n e v e r y  possible description of f i l t h , task of dressing. a n d was  S t r a n g e worked on them e i g h t h o u r s a  day,  o n l y on shore t h r e e t i m e s f o r b u s i n e s s p u r p o s e s  dur-  i n g a month's s t a y a t B o o t k a . f i n d t h a t h i s l a b o u r s won Canton,  which g r e a t l y complicated the  He was  gratified,  however, t o  the a p p r o v a l o f the merchants  and g r e a t l y enhanced t h e i r v a l u e . S t r a n g e h a d h o p e d t o make d e t a i l e d n o t e s o n  the  I n d i a n s ' form o f government, but found h i s time f u l l y ied.  of  He  commented o n t h e e x t r e m e  a c c u r a c y o f C a p t a i n Cook's  d e s c r i p t i o n s , w i t h w h i c h he a g r e e d i n e v e r y d e t a i l . H o o t k a m s w o r s h i p p e d S n k i t s u m , t h e God image was  occup-  The  o f t h e Snow, whose  k e p t i n the house o f Maquinna t h e c h i e f ,  but  d e s p i t e an e l a b o r a t e d i s p l a y o f w o r s h i p , Bnkitsum and d e c o r a t e d c u r t a i n o f h i s s a n c t u a r y were s o l d w i t h o u t  the hesitat-  i o n when S t r a n g e made a n o f f e r f o r them.  The  had c o n s i d e r a b l e ascendency  and t h e t r a d e r s ,  o v e r t h e men,  I n d i a n women  t h e i r m e r c a n t i l e c a p a c i t y , d r e a d e d t h e s i g h t o f them. (1)  in  Whenever  James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e W o r t h West Coast o f America, Page 21.  P a g e 56  p r e s e n t t h e y d i r e c t e d t r a n s a c t i o n s and asked three  times the  p r i c e f o r a r t i c l e s w h i c h i n t h e i r absence c o u l d have been obtained  f o r a t h i r d o f the value.  Human h a n d s a n d h e a d s  were f r e q u e n t l y o f f e r e d f o r s a l e , a n d S t r a n g e , a n x i o u s t o f i n d o u t what u s e t h e I n d i a n s  p u t them t p , , o n e d a y i n t i m a t e d  t h a t h e d i d n o t know what t o do w i t h  such a r t i c l e s .  C l a m a t a , s a i d t h e y w e r e "good t o e a t " , the. f a c t " v e r y and  and t o demonstrate  c o m p o s e d l y p u t one o f t h e h a n d s i n h i s mouth,  s t r i p p i n g i t through h i s teeth, tore o f f a  piece  A chief,  considerable  o f t h e f l e s h , w h i c h he i m m e d i a t e l y d e v o u r e d , w i t h much  apparent r e l i s h . "  fl)  When S t r a n g e e x p r e s s e d h i s  horror,  Olamata sought t o appease h i m b y e x p l a i n i n g t h a t he w o u l d n o t e a t a f r i e n d , b u t o n l y a n enemy k i l l e d act  "acceptable  established that The  i n t h e eyes o f Heaven." cannibalism  i n war,  w h i c h was a n  I t has since  was p r a c t i s e d b y t h e t r i b e .  N o o t k a n s were e x t r e m e l y f o n d o f m u s i c , a n a t t r i b -  ute n o t i c e d by Captain On one o c c a s i o n  Cook, a n d h a d m o s t r e t e n t i v e m e m o r i e s .  s e v e r a l l a r g e canoes v i s i t e d t h e s h i p s ,  w i t h n a t i v e s , who f r o m t h e i r d r e s s a n d a t t e n d a n t s t o be o f a n u p p e r c l a s s .  B a c h wore two o r t h r e e  o t t e r s k i n s w h i c h t h e t r a d e r s were v e r y but  been  the Indians  desirous  would appear fine sea o f buying,  seemed u n i m p r e s s e d b y t h e d i s p l a y o f i r o n  mongery, c o p p e r w a r e a n d b e a d s .  T h e i r a t t e n t i o n seemed t o be  c o n s t a n t l y wandering t o t h e music o f t h e i r attendants, which they themselves kept time, with great (1)  precision.(S)  by beating  to  two s h e l l s  T h i s reminded Strange that  together  among  James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f America / Page 27. I t was o b s e r v e d b y D r . W. N. Sage o n a r e c e n t v i s i t t o N o o t k a t h a t t h i s n a t i v e custom s t i l l p e r s i s t s , o n l y t h a t now t h e I n d i a n s s u b s t i t u t e b o a r d s f o r s h e l l s . 1  (2)  filled  P a g e 57.  the v a r i o u s a r t i c l e s o f t r a d e were a number o f c y m b a l s , w h i c h would s u b s t i t u t e w e l l f o rt h e s h e l l s ,  a n d be i n k e e p i n g  t h e m u s i c w h i c h was v e r y much o n m a r t i a l l i n e s . c l a s h o f t h e c y m b a l s was r e c e i v e d w i t h and  The  expressions  d e l i g h t , and t o demonstrate t h e instruments  with  first  o f rapture  S t r a n g e com-  posed a s o r t o f r i n g t i n g tune, w h i c h drew b u r s t s o f applause f r o m h i s a u d i e n c e , a n d was e n c o r e d a g a i n  and a g a i n  p h y s i c a l f a t i g u e forced the performer t o cease. been p l a y e d  until  A f t e r i t had  h a l f a dozen times t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e Indians  j o i n e d i n , and as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n i n an hour's time t h e n a t i v e s were c o m p l e t e l y c o n t e n d i n g who s h o u l d brought three,  stripped o f their furs,  be s e r v e d  first.  each  Every p a i r o f cymbals  sometimes f o u r s k i n s , a n d as t h e r e s u l t t h e  i n h a b i t a n t s s p e n t a n i g h t o f harmony a n d g l e e o n s h o r e . returned only  n e x t d a y w i t h more s k i n s , w h i c h t h e y w o u l d  S t r a n g e s t r u c k up t h e f i r s t  came i n t o h i s h e a d , b u t f a r f r o m b e i n g p r a c t i c a l l y "hissed o f f the stage"suffered a l i k e yesterday's all  appreciated,  composition  that  i t was  i t was h i s  w h i c h was r e q u i r e d o f h i m , b u t , " h a d  t h e s e a o t t e r s k i n s o f Nootka been t h e p r i c e o f i t , I  t h a t i t was s i m p l y  I t was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g , s e e -  a j i n g l e made up o n t h e s p u r o f t h e  moment, b u t i t h a d made a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n and  before  A second and a t h i r d  jfTate, u n t i l he r e a l i z e d t h a t  could not r e c o l l e c t a note." ing  trade  f o r cymbals, a n d i n s i s t e d t h a t Strange p l a y a song  t h e y w o u l d r e c e i v e them.  They  on the Indians,  t i r e d o f w a i t i n g , t h e y now s t r u c k i t u p f o r t h e m s e l v e s ,  w i t h a s t o n i s h i n g p r e c i s i o n o f time and tune.  The m e l o d y  Page 58.  immediately in.  came b a c k t o  Strange,  a n d he was a b l e t o j o i n  I n t h r e e d a y s t h e r e was n o t a b o y o r g i r l i n t h e v i l l a g e  who c o u l d n o t s i n g i t , a n d a f t e r t h a t p e r i o d t h e u n f o r t u n a t e composer seldom bought a s k i n w i t h o u t  b e i n g c a l l e d upon t o  sing. The was l e f t  young s u r g e o n o f t h e "Experiment",  John Mackay,  behind a t Uootka t o r e c o v e r from p u r p l e f e v e r , and  persuade the Indians to c o l l e c t f u r s against t h e i r r e t u r n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , a t r i p w h i c h was n e v e r made. w o u l d be r e d u c e d  Expenses  considerably i f ships could begin trading at  once, i n s t e a d o f w a i t i n g f o r a f o r t n i g h t o r so w h i l e t h e natives collected skins.  M a c k a y was p l a c e d i n t h e f a m i l y o f  M a q u i n n a , t o whom S t r a n g e  made many p r e s e n t s , a n d who, i n t h e  presence  o f Enkitsum,  assured him i n r e t u r n that h i s "doctor  s h o u l d e a t t h e c h o i c e s t f i s h t h e Sound p r o d u c e d " , a n d s h o u l d be  found on h i s r e t u r n "as f a t as a whale".  M a c k a y was a l r e a d y  g a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n by c u r i n g t h e scabby hands and l e g s o f the c h i l d r e n .  Strange  l e f t h i m some s i m p l e r e m e d i e s ,  but  n o t h i n g which even i n j u d i c i o u s l y a d m i n i s t e r e d c o u l d prove fatal,  and a d v i s e d him not to take s e r i o u s cases.  was a l s o i n s t r u c t e d t o make n o t e s o f the people,  Mackay  o n t h e manners a n d customs  and amply s u p p l i e d w i t h p e n and paper.  only s u r v i v i n g l i v e s t o c k - a p a i r o f goats  The  - was g i v e n t o  Mackay, a s w e l l a s g e n e r o u s q u a n t i t i e s o f E u r o p e a n f o o d s . A t the  Indians  r e q u e s t he was s u p p l i e d w i t h a m u s k e t a n d p i s t o l s ,  as w e l l as a r e d coat and cap f o r t h e purpose o f f r i g h t e n i n g t h e enemy.  Strange  r e f u s e d t o l e t t h e n a t i v e s have r i f l e s ,  Page  b u t t h i s w i s e r u l e was  b r o k e n by l a t e r  P r e p a r a t i o n s w e r e now  59.  traders.  made t o l e a v e t h e Sound,  c o l l e c t i n g e v e r y s c r a p o f f u r i n the d i s t r i c t .  During  after  the  p r o c e s s s e v e r a l h u n d r e d w o r d s had b e e n a d d e d t o C a p t a i n Cook's' v o c a b u l a r y , and to Strange. 1786,  this scientific  The  c o n t r i b u t i o n was  s h i p s g o t u n d e r way  a n d were c a u g h t  T h e y made t h e i r way  like  immediately i n a t h i c k fog.  s l o w l y up  the coast, but encountered  who  those o f Nootka,  Nootkan language. which Strange  about midday on J u l y  almost  n a t i v e s u n t i l n o r t h o f 50°latitude. c a r r y i n g f o u r men,  very pleasing  H e r e t h e y met  28th.  no  a canoe  g r e a t e d them w i t h a s o n g and  harangue  but u n d e r s t o o d o n l y a few words o f the  They had  two  o l d and  t h o u g h t p r o p e r t o buy,  ragged  and  The  ships stay-  a n d made e v e r y e f f o r t  the I n d i a n v i l l a g e , , but u n s u c c e s s f u l l y .  skins,  showed e x t r a v a g a n t  j o y o v e r the i r o n t h e y r e c e i v e d i n exchange. ed t h e n i g h t i n t h e d i s t r i c t  sea o t t e r  to  find  T h e y named and e x p l o r -  ed Queen C h a r l o t t e I n l e t a n d Sound, a n d t o o k p o s s e s s i o n o f i t " i n t h e name o f h i s B r i t t a n i c M a j e s t y " . o p p o s i t e some o l d h u t s , S t r a n g e l e f t  I n one  copper,  bays,  a mark o f h i s h a v i n g  v i s i t e d and t a k e n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e C o a s t . c u t i n the body o f a l a r g e t r e e ,  o f the  A deep h o l e  was  i n w h i c h were d e p o s i t e d  i r o n a n d b e a d s , b e s i d e s t h e names o f t h e s h i p s  and  d a t e o f d i s c o v e r y . (1) The Captain n  Cook" a n d t h e " E x p e r i m e n t "  continued  n o r t h , but concluded*! t h a t t h e c o a s t between Nootka P r i n c e W i l l i a m s Sound was t h e y were o f t e n n e a r shore  very t h i n l y inhabited, t h e y saw  no  and.  f o r although  signs of Indians. After  (1) James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 32.  rage  a s t o r m y p a s s a g e t h e e x p e d i t i o n r e a c h e d Cape H i n c h i n b r o k e  60.  on  Snug  the 29th. o f August,  and o n t h e 3 0 t h . a n c h o r e d  Cove a t P r i n c e W i l l i a m S o u n d . l o n g b o a t was  i n Busy  So n a t i v e s a p p e a r e d ,  sent on a c r u i s e o f d i s c o v e r y .  so  On t h e  day a n o l d man  v i s i t e d the; s h i p s , b u t w i t h g r e a t f e a r  trembling.  c o u l d n o t be  He  Corner the  second and  i n d u c e d t o come n e a r , u n t i l  offer-  ed a s t r i n g o f b e a d s , when he p a d d l e d c l o s e e n o u g h t o t a k e them o n t h e end o f a s p e a r . later,  one  Two  y o u n g men  boat of  to encourage'them, but l i t t l e  r e t u r n e d a f t e r f o u r days,  fish,  The  The  long  having found n o t h i n g but  piles  f o r e v e r y w h e r e t h e p e o p l e d i s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e them During the  t h r e e o f f o u r days s e v e r a l canoes c o l l e c t e d ,  skins.  were a l m o s t  next  each c o n t a i n i n g  from t e n t o f i f t e e n I n d i a n s , but t h e y had l i t t l e  appeared  skin,  t r a d e r s bought i t ,  developed.  t h e y were g e t t i n g i n t o H u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y .  of  little  o f whom o f f e r e d f o r s a l e a d i r t y o l d o t t e r  a l s o s h o w i n g g r e a t symptoms o f f e a r . hoping  came a  i n the  way  " I n t h e a r t i c l e o f f u r s , w h e t h e r good o r bad  they  d e s t i t u t e compared w i t h o u r N o o t k a f r i e n d s .  They  little  v e r s e d i n the a r t o f t r a f f i c ,  and n e v e r  hes-  i t a t e d a moment i n a c c e p t i n g a n y o f f e r t h a t was made to: them. They, as r e a d i l y c o n c l u d e d t h e ba:rga.in f o r one w o u l d have f o r t w e n t y . the o f f e r ,  bead as  Colour alone c o n s t i t u t e d the value  a n d none o t h e r t h a n s k y b l u e w o u l d h a v e b e e n  e i v e d , a l t h o u g h t h e number o f f e r e d h a d b e e n t e n t i m e s ied."  they of  rec-  multipl-  fl) The  f a i l u r e of the f u r supply at P r i n c e W i l l i a m  S o u n d was a s e r i o u s m a t t e r t o S t r a n g e - i t doomed t h e e x p e d i t i o n (1) James S t r a n g e , " G o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West C o a s t o f A m e r i c a " , P a g e 37.  CHARLOTTE/SLANDS  QUEEN  —  CHARLOTTE:  ISLANDS  AND THEIR DISTANCE F~ROM NOOTKA  —  S3'  Page 61.  to f i n a n c i a l  failure,  a n d meant t h a t a s e c o n d v e n t u r e c o u l d  n o t p o s s i b l y he u n d e r t a k e n o n t h e same s c a l e , a s he h a d i n a l l y planned.  The  orig-  s k i n s from the good f u r c e n t r e s were  n o t numerous e n o u g h t o j u s t i f y s u c h b i g s h i p s , w h i l e p r o f i t s w e r e swamped b y h e a v y o v e r h e a d e x p e n s e s .  the  At the  same t i m e , S t r a n g e a d m i t t e d t h a t b y d i s m i s s i n g t h e " C a p t a i n Cook", a n d c u t t i n g down e v e r y s u p e r f L o u s e x p e n s e , the  "Experiment" s s i z e might run a p r o f i t a b l e f  b u s i n e s s o n s u c h a s c a l e was I n d i a Company.  a ship  trade,  of  but  beneath the scope o f the E a s t  Strange took c o l d comfort i n the  reflection  t h a t h i s f a i l u r e w o u l d p r e v e n t o t h e r s e n g a g i n g i n t h e same l i n e o f commerce " u n t i l  s u c h t i m e as o u r f r e q u e n t i n t e r c o u r s e  w i t h t h e n a t i v e s o f t h i s c o n t i n e n t h a d t a u g h t t h e m t o be p r e p a r e d w i t h t h a t a r t i c l e o f t r a d e w h i c h t h e y now  perceived  t o be t h e o b j e c t o f o u r p u r s u i t , a n d w h i c h t h i s c o a s t w o u l d d o u b t l e s s s u p p l y i n no i n c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a n t i t i e s . " was  convinced that  t r a d e was  f o r the present at l e a s t  the sea  t o o h a z a r d o u s and u n d e v e l o p e d t o have any  (1)  He  otter possibil-  i t i e s f o r h i s company. On t h e f i f t h o f S e p t e m b e r , 1786,  a second  ship  a r r i v e d a t P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound, a h u n d r e d t o n s c r e w , "Sea  O t t e r " , u n d e r C a p t a i n W i l l i a m T i p p i n g , who,  by an  the odd  c h a n c e , h a p p e n e d t o be a c l o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e o f C a p t a i n G u i s e of the "Experiment".  The  "Sea O t t e r " had s a i l e d f r o m B e n g a l  a s c o n s o r t t o t h e " N o o t k a " , a two h u n d r e d by C a p t a i n John Meares, different courses.  H. N.,  t o n s h i p commanded  although the ships xollowed  T i p p i n g had been i n s t r u c t e d t o s u r v e y  (1) James S t r a n g e , " C o m m e r c i a l E x p e d i t i o n t o t h e N o r t h West Coast o f A m e r i c a " , Page 37.  Page  the western  coast o f Japan before proceeding  Sound, where he was Nootka.  t o meet  M e a r e s , who  C a p t a i n T i p p i n g d i n e d on the  to P r i n c e W i l l i a m * s first  gone t o  " C a p t a i n Cook" t h a t  n i g n t , but h i s resentment towards Strange s u p p l y was  had  so m a r k e d t h a t t h e m e a l was  f o r skimming  the  not a comfortable  one.  T i p p i n g refused to b e l i e v e that besides t r a d i n g a l l the f r o m N o o t k a , one  o f Strange's  of  to get there r i r s t .  again,  The  so p r e s u m a b l y was  w r e c k e d o n t h e way  "Sea  O t t e r " was  frantic never  and l o s t  Strange,  who  heard  e i t h e r c u t o f f by n a t i v e s , o r w i t h a l l hands.  S i n c e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d number o f f u r s were forthcoming,  Cook's  disappearing  the d i r e c t i o n o f Cook's R i v e r , a p p a r e n t l y i n a  attempt  way  s h i p s had a l r e a d y v i s i t e d  R i v e r , a n d he w e i g h e d a n c h o r e a r l y n e x t m o r n i n g , in  62.  was  a man  not  o f undoubted d a r i n g  ingenuity,  sought to counterbalance  An a c c o u n t  had a p p e a r e d i n "Coxe's ' R u s s i a n D i s c o v e r i e s ' " o f  a Copper I s l a n d , i n l a t i t u d e s u p p o s e d t o be the sea.  S i n c e c o p p e r was  " C a p t a i n C o o k " was  i n h i g h demand i n C h i n a , secure a ship o f ore.  Should  "Experiment" the  " C a p t a i n Cook" g e t  The  "Experiment"  o n t h e 1 5 t h . o f November 1786, e d h e r a month l a t e r ,  having  E.,  by  the The  went t o C h i n a w i t h  i n s t r u c t e d to t r y f o r a cargo  defray expenses.  w a s h e d up  d i s p a t c h e d f r o m P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound  t h i s mission, while the sea o t t e r s k i n s .  commodity.  5 4 ' 4 0 ' N. l o n g i t u d e 182°30'  r i c h i n t h a t m e t a l , w h i c h was  e x p e d i t i o n d e c i d e d t o t r y and  L a u r i e was  i t by a n o t h e r  and  on the  nothing,  i n China  to  help  a n c h o r e d i n Macao R o a d s  where t h e  " C a p t a i n Cook"  join-  s t r i v e n vainly f o r nearly three  Page 63.  weeks a g a i n s t  opposing gales  Copper I s l a n d . the  The s h a t t e r e d  extreme s i c k n e s s  s t a t e o f the s a i l s and r i g g i n g ,  o f t h e ship£s company, a n d t h e r e d u c e d  state o f provisions f i n a l l y and  t o make g o o d t h e i r p a s s a g e t o .  f o r c e d them t o abandon t h e q u e s t  return to China. Strange c o l l e c t e d s i x hundred and f o u r s k i n s  w h i c h were s o l d a t Canton, A p r i l 4 t h ,  1787, r e a l i z i n g  altogether, twenty  four thousand d o l l a r s - an average o f f o r t y d o l l a r s a s k i n . I t was n o t e v e n e n o u g h t o p a y t h e c o s t s o f t h e v o y a g e . c a r g o was c l a s s i f i e d a s f o l l o w s :  (1)  prime s k i n s 2 nd. 3 rd. 4 th. In halves small pieces pieces yellow and i n f e r i o r  55 134 142 63 46 33 131  Total  604  Strange submitted the chart voyage t o t h e  The  - s o l d f o r $24,000.  and n a r r a t i v e o f t h e  Honourable Ma^or General S i r A r c h i b a l d  K. B., G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l o f F o r t  S t . George.  Campbell,  Through t h e  h e a v y l o s s e s he h a d i n c u r r e d b y i n v e s t i n g n i s p e r s o n a l i n the venture,  he was no?/ u n a b l e t o meet h i s f i n a n c i a l  fortune oblig-  a t i o n s , a n d was o b l i g e d t o a s k t h e B a s t I n d i a Company f o r some p e c u n i a r y unfortunate that  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e t e r m he h a d l o s t u p o n t h e  voyage.  The C o u n c i l o f P o r t  Strange had f u l l y deserved i t ,  S t . George  considered  and forwarded the a p p l i c a t -  i o n t o t h e C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s i n L o n d o n , b u t no f u r t h e r a t i o n on the subject  i s at present a v a i l a b l e as t h e records  t h e E a s t I n d i a Company a r e c l o s e d (1) G e o r g e D i x o n , Page 318.  "A  inform-  f o r so r e c e n t  a date.  V o y a g e Hound t h e W o r l d " , L e t t e r X L V I .  of  Page 64.  Prance,  at the time o f the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Cook*s  t h i r d voyage, was e n j o y i n g a short p e r i o d o f peace, and viewed the new d i s c o v e r i e s w i t h much i n t e r e s t . power she f e l t  As a maritime  i t h e r duty to c o n t r i b u t e to the advance o f  s c i e n c e and i n c r e a s e the knowledge o f the globe, and o r g a n i z e d a s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d i t i o n on l i n e s s i m i l a r t o C a p t a i n C o o k s . T  It was p l a c e d i n charge o f Jean-Francois Galaup de l a Perouse, a man o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d n a v a l e x p l o i t s and s c i e n t i f i c a c q u i r e ments.  Two f r i g a t e s were o u t f i t t e d ,  "La Boussole",  commanded  by L a Perouse,  and " L A s t r o l a b e " under De Langle, the second  in authority.  The Government was e n t h u s i a s t i c over t h e prosp-  T  e c t s , and caused seven hundred medals to be s t r u c k , one hundred o f s i l v e r and bronze,  and s i x hundred o t h e r s o f d i f f e r -  ent k i n d s o f metals, which L a d i s t r i b u t e wherever he touched.  Perouse was i n s t r u c t e d t o One s i d e o f t h e medal bore  the e f f i g y o f t h e K i n g o f France, w i t h the common i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i l e on the r e v e r s e was t h e legend - "Les F r e g a t e s du r o i de France, L a Boussole  et L A s t r o l a b e , commandoes p a r M.M. 1  de L a  Perouse et de Langle, p a r t i e s du P o r t de B r e s t en J u i n 1785" e n c i r c l e d by two o l i v e branches t i e d t o g e t h e r by a r i b b a n d . The f r i g a t e s were to make s c i e n t i f i c and a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and continue e x p l o r a t i o n s i n the P a c i f i c a f t e r a survey o f the n o r t h west coast o f America.  completing  Special  attention  was to be g i v e n to the l a t t e r r e g i o n between 49* and 57" because C a p t a i n Cook had been p r e v e n t e d by adverse winds examining  any p o i n t i n t h e d i s t r i c t  except Nootka.  from  Detailed  i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the f u r trade was t o be c o l l e c t e d .  The  French Government wished to be t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a l l  Page 65.  i t s aspects  before encouraging  French  trading ships to enter  into competition w i t h those o f o t h e r nations i n a which might begin w i t h great p r o f i t s , 'The v e n t u r e 1V88  traffic  but end i n g r e a t e r l o s s e s .  came t o a t r a g i c e n d , t h e s h i p s b e i n g w r e c k e d i n  on t h e r e e f o f the Mannicolo  Islands i n the P a c i f i c ,  s u r v i v i n g c r e w o f one s h i p w e r e m u r d e r e d by n a t i v e s .  The  Some o f  t h e men f r o m t h e s e c o n d made l a n d n e a r P a i o w o n t h e I s l a n d and "built a s m a l l s h i p , i n w h i c h t h e y d i s a p p e a r e d ,  and were  never heard o f again.(1) i'he t h r e e y e a r s ' j o u r n a l o f L a P e r o u s e ' s e x p e d i t i o n was n o t l o s t ,  s i n c e s e c t i o n s had been s e n t t o Europe a t e v e r y  o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d when d i s a s t e r o v e r t o o k r e c o r d s were a l r e a d y i n s a f e k e e p i n g .  t h e p a r t y most o f t h s These were  more p a r t i c u l a r l y a s a t L a P e r o u s e ' s f o r m e r  interesting,  request  t h e y were  n o t t u r n e d o v e r t o a l i t e r a r y man who m i g h t " s a c r i f i c e t o t h e t u r n i n g o f a phrase t h e p r o p e r word i c a l and a s t r o n o m i c a l d e t a i l s ,  and d e s i r o u s o f making o f i t  a n i n t e r e s t i n g romance, commit e r r o r s fatal  t o my s u c c e s s o r s :  which w i l l  but choose a n e d i t o r v e r s e d  e m a t i c a l k n o w l e d g e , who may be c a p a b l e combining  o r l a y aside a l l naut-  prove  i n math-  of calculating, o f  my d a t a w i t h t h a t o f f o r m e r n a v i g a t o r s , o f c o r r e c t i n g  e r r o r s w h i c h may h a v e e s c a p e d me, a n d n o t commit o t h e r s self."  (2)  manuscripts  him-  L a P e r o u s e ' s w i s h e s were c a r r i e d o u t , a n d h i s came u n d e r t h e e d i t o r s h i p o f o n e f u l l y  f o r t h e t a s k , H. L . A. M i l e t M u r e a u .  qualified  M u r e a u was a B r i g a d i e r  (1) R e f . : P e t e r D i l l o n , " D i s c o v e r y o f t h e F a t e o f L a P e r o u s e " , H u r s t , Chance a n d Co., S t . P a u l ' s C h u r c h Y a r d , L o n d o n , 1829, v o l s . I a n d I I . (2) J . F. G. de L a P e r o u s e , "A Voyage R o u n d t h e W o r l d " , v o l . 1 , J . J o h n s o n , L o n d o n , 1799.- P a g e 4.  Page 66.  General o f t h e Corps o f  Engineers, a D i r e c t o r o f F o r t i f i c a t -  i o n s , a member o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m b l y ,  and a F e l l o w o f  several l i t e r a r y societies of Paris. L a P e r o u s e s i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n o r t h west T  c o a s t were t o a p p r o a c h from t h e South P a c i f i c ,  make l a n d i n  l a t i t u d e 36"30", a n d c o n t i n u e n o r t h w a r d s r e c o n n o i t e r i n g a s he went.  C a r e f u l w a t c h was t o he k e p t f o r a g u l f o r r i v e r  which  m i g h t l e a d t o H u d s o n ' s Bay - i n s p i t e o f C o o k ' s s u r v e y b e l i e f i n t h e North West P a s s a g e was n o t d e a d ,  ( l ) J o o f f e n c e was t o  be g i v e n t o S p a i n , b u t t h e e x a c t e x t e n t o f h e r c o l o n i z a t i o n must be a s c e r t a i n e d , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t s h e h a d s e t t l e d a t Los Remedios a n d P o r t B u c a r e l l i . n o r t h t o Mount S t . E l i a s ,  ( t h e 60 t h . p a r a l l e l ) ,  make a f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f Cook's R i v e r .  The e x p e d i t i o n was t o go b u t need n o t  P r i n c e W i l l i a m ' s Sound a n d  I n s t e a d a c o u r s e was t o be s h a p e d f o r t h e  Shumagen I s l a n d s a n d t h e A l e u t i a n  Islands, continuing to  A v a t c h a i n Kamchatka f o r p r o v i s i o n s , and from thence t o t h e Kurile  I s l a n d s and Japan.  L a P e r p u s e h a d , a t t h e same t i m e ,  a u t h o r i t y t o make a n y c h a n g e s plans.  he t h o u g h t n e c e s s a r y i n t h e  M i n u t e d a t a was r e q u i r e d o n t h e f u r t r a d e - i n what  l a t i t u d e f u r s m i g h t be p r o c u r e d - t h e q u a l i t y ,  the a r t i c l e s  most d e s i r e d i n t r a d e , a n d what s k i n s "have most e a s y , and l u c r a t i v e  s a l e i n t h e two  certain  Empires o f China and Japan."  A  s p e c i m e n c a r g o o f s e a o t t e r s k i n s was t o be c o l l e c t e d a n d s o l d i n China f o r e a s t e r n merchandise. The  e x p e d i t i o n was c l o s e l y m o d e l l e d o n t h a t o f C a p t a i n  Cook, a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t was a r o u s e d i n E n g l a n d . S i r (1) J . F. G. de L a P e r o u s e , "A Voyage Round t h e W o r l d " , I 74. (2) I b i d , " i , &9.  Page  Joseph Banks, h e a r i n g t h a t d i f f i c u l t y had  been e x p e r i e n c e d  o b t a i n i n g a d i p p i n g compass, l e n t L a P e r o u s e t h e o r i g i n a l u s e d by C a p t a i n  Cook.(l)  The  of a l l variety of scientific  67.  in one  ships carried a large l i b r a r y  b o o k s , among t h e m " C o o k ' s V o y a g e s "  i n French and E n g l i s h , "Hawksworth s C o l l e c t i o n " ,  Dalrymple s  1  1  " H i s t o r i c a l C o l l e c t i o n o f Voyages", Coxe's " H u s s i a n D i s c o v e r i e s " , a n d M u l l e r "Voyage o f t h e R u s s i a n s " .  The  other texts referred  to such s u b j e c t s as astronomy, n a v i g a t i o n , n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , and n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . physics,  zoology,  The  minerology,  a n a l y s i s o f atmospheric livres and  (2) was  barter.  copper,  s c i e n t i s t s h o p e d t o make a d v a n c e s i n anatomy, p h y s i o l o g y , b o t a n y  a i r . M e r c h a n d i s e v a l u e d at. 5 8 , 3 6 5  t a k e n on t h e voyage f o r p u r p o s e s o f  The  tools,  and  presents  c h i e f i t e m s werer b a r a n d p l a t e i r o n , (hammers, wedges, saws, e t c . ) ,  sheet  eighteen hundred  d r i n k i n g g l a s s e s w i t h f e e t , o n l y s i x h u n d r e d m i r r o r s , combs, needles,  p i n s , d i s h e s and p e w t e r ware, c o l o u r e d f e a t h e r s ,  jewelry, t i n s e l s , and  flannels).  animals,  silk  r i b b o n s , and c l o t h  (serges,  Besides these La Perouse c a r r i e d  a n d t h e s e e d s o f most common f r u i t  and h e r b s .  Mureau c r i t i c i z e d t h e attempt,  knittings  domestic  trees,  vegetables  questioning the  use  o f s u p p l y i n g n a t i v e s w i t h a r t i c l e s w h i c h t h e y knew n e i t h e r  how  t o a p p l y , p r e s e r v e , not? p e r p e t u a t e ,  a n d c o n s i d e r e d i t . more  p r a c t i c a l t o t r y a n d make a n o r d e r l y c o l o n y b e f o r e a p o l i s h e d people.  "Can  t h e b e n e f i t d e r i v e d f r o m a new  o r a new  rruit,  o r even the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f domestic  be c o m p a r e d t o t h e sum result  farinaceous plant  of e v i l which these people  animals,  will  find  to  from t h e a d o p t i o n o f European customs and manners?  (1) J . F. G. de L a P e r o u s e , (2) I b i d , I , 3 1 9 .  "A  Voyage Round t h e W o r l d " , I ,  449.  /SO  /40  /30  <oO  SO  4-0  CHART Or  OF  THE  AMERICA,  DISCOVER  I ES  NORTH  WEST TO  AGREEABLY OF  YEARS/78  L.A PEROUSSE G AND  1787  COAST THE IN THE  Page  —•  at present  i t can not."  (1)  68.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g as a contem-  p o r a r y o p i n i o n , b e i n g made a f e w y e a r s a f t e r t h e l o s s o f  the  expedition. La Perouse s a i l e d from B r e s t on the i i r s t 1785,  a f t e r every p r e c a u t i o n had  h e a l t h of the crews,  The  board. left  Gape H o r n was  the Hawaiian  been t a k e n to p r e s e r v e  scrupulous  c l e a n l i n e s s was  rounded w i t h o u t mishap, and  I s l a n d s , June 1, 1786,  r e v e r s e d h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s , and the t h i r t y s i x t h p a r a l l e l ,  kept  by the  the  k e e p t h e men and  out to sea, and  T h i c k and  about s c u r v y .  warm a n d d r y ,  ships  La Perouse  first  continuous  The  not a s i n g l e case The all  La  e f f o r t was  made t o  e x t r a c l o t h e s were g i v e n o u t ,  were p l a c e d u n d e r t h e h a l f deck and b e t w e e n t h e d e c k s , slept.  t h e i r own  made  f o g s were  n o r t h , and  Bvery  shore  f l a n n e l underwear, w h i l e stoves f i l l e d w i t h burning  the people  measures proved  on  f o r the n o r t h west  9 t h . o f J u n e , a b o u t 34°  P e r o u s e became a n x i o u s  at  observed  i n s t e a d of reaching the  land i n the s i x t i e t h p a r a l l e l . encountered  the  f r e s h p r o v i s i o n s were t a k e n  c o a s t , h a v i n g o b t a i n e d a t h r e e week s u p p l y o f f o o d .  in  .august,  ships carried large stocks of pre-  v e n t a t i v e s and a n t i s c o r b u t i c s , e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y , and  of  boots coals  wherever  very satisfactory,  and  occurred.  s h i p s w e r e u n i q u e i n one  respect - they  ground  flour with a mill  on board.  pursers  s e t up  The  b e l i e v e d t h a t k i l n d r i e d c o r n k e p t much b e t t e r t h a n f l o u r  or  biscuit,  a n d h e n c e s e n t a b o a r d a n immense q u a n t i t y o f i t , w i t h  two  stones,  mill  twenty four inches i n diameter  h a l f inches t h i c k . (1) L a P e r o u s e ,  I t r e q u i r e d f o u r men  "Voyage R o u n d th©  and  f o u r and  a  to put and keep them  World, I,  446.  Page  i n m o t i o n , but  L a P e r o u s e had  been a s s u r e d t h e i r s i z e  f u l l y a d e q u a t e f o r a s h i p ' s company s u c h as h i s . when t h e m i l l was i n g g r a i n was  s e t up  The  g r o u n d , and  The  formed n e a r l y h a l f the  a d a p t t h e movements o f a w i n d m i l l simple  s u c c e s s f u l t h a t two  store of provisions.  to the m i l l  o p i n i o n o f the  experiment, whether o r not  to the untimely  ships  Mount S t . E l i a s ,  stones.  he  ending o f the  ran north u n t i l  so  cove i t v i s i t e d a f t e r t h e S a i l i n g a l i t t l e , south,  his  considered  expedition.  Then, f o r t h e  commanding o f f i c e r ,  i t biscuit  t h e y were i n s i g h t  sent ashore to r e c o n n o i t r e ,  and  of  first  named  de M o n t s  Bay,  not  La Perouse concluded that Captain  the Bay.  and  the  north,  same d a y longitude  s i g h t e d on a new  the  p o r t was  139" 50'  the  although i t s actual s i t u a t i o n could Cook  must h a v e b e e n d e c e i v e d by t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h a s h o r e . P a i r w e a t h e r was  time,  f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s w e r e made i n  v i c i n i t y of Behring be l o c a t e d , a n d  Now  s u p p l i e s o f f l o u r and  i n l a t i t u d e 59"41'.  t h e l o n g b o a t was  he managed t o  L a P e r o u s e does n o t g i v e  p r e f e r a b l e to c a r r y i n g the u s u a l due  and  h u n d r e d pounds o f e x c e l l e n t f l o u r were  Unfortunately  The  rescue,  t u r n i n g of a handle, i t proved  ground d a i l y .  - doubtless  labour  s i t u a t i o n was  o f t h e c r e w , a n o x - m i l l e r ' s boy,  o p e r a t e d by t h e  result-  t h a t a mere t w e n t y  i n v e n t i v e g e n i u s o f de L a n g l e came t o t h e  a s s i s t e d by one  Unfortunately  f l o u r r e s u l t e d from t h e whole day's  r e l i e v e d every h a l f hour.  s e r i o u s , as c o r n  was  baker complained that the  o n l y broken, not  f i v e pounds o f bad o f f o u r men,  the  69.  2nd.  o f J u l y , more t o t h e  discovered  i n l a t i t u d e 58  west o f P a r i s , c h r i s t e n e d  "Port  Mount south, 3' des  Page  Pfancais.""This navigator:  p o r t has  by any  other  I t i s s i t u a t e d t h i r t y three leagues to the  north  west o f t h a t o f Los  never been d i s c o v e r e d  Remedios, t h e extreme boundary o f  navigators,  a b o u t two  Mootka, and  a hundred from  hundred and  Spanish  twenty f o u r leagues  Prince William's  thought that i f the French  Government h a d  Sound.  from I  had  entertained  ideas  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g f a c t o r i e s i n t h i s part of the American no  other  could pretend  project." d i d not  (1)  to the smallest  favour  the  founding  memoir on t h e  f u r trade.  however, L a  o f such a post. and  coast,  r i g h t o f opposing  I n the c o l d l i g h t o f reason,  s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s i n t h e way,  He  saw  the  t o o many  he o u t l i n e d t h e s e i n h i s  T h e r e was  coast. object  c o m p e t i t i o n o f Spanish,  the Perouse  the  immense d i s t a n c e  Europe, the u n c e r t a i n t y o f the commercial r e t u r n s from and  R u s s i a n s and  In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the French East  from China,  E n g l i s h on  the  I n d i a Company w o u l d  to the extension of i t s p r i v i l e g e s of t r a d i n g w i t h "The  e q u i p m e n t w o u l d a l s o be  t h a t t h e mere s a l e  f u r s w o u l d n o t be o f H u d s o n ' s Bay,  considerable  sufficient  to indemnify  a company l i k e  i f t h e i r s h i p s were o b l i g e d , t o r e t u r n  Europe i n b a l l a s t . be  so  expenses o f  the  Chinese markets, to these adventurers,  should  70  of  that  to  I t w o u l d be a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t  f r e i g h t e d back by t h e F r e n c h E a s t  the  they  I n d i a Company a t  a p r i c e o f tonnage a g r e e d upon i n Europe, as w e l l as a l l o w them i n t e r e s t f o r the v a l u e o f t h e i r f u r s , and i n the p u r c h a s e o f i t s c a r g o e s . " that the prospects  (2)  t o make u s e  o f them  La Perouse d i d not  consider  w a r r a n t e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u c h a company,  o r t h a t i f f o r m e d i t c o u l d e v e r come t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y a g r e e m e n t (1) L a P e r o u s e , "Voyage B o u n d t h e W o r l d " , I I , 8 5 . (2) I b i d , I I I , 311, "Memoir o n t h e F u r T r a d e . "  Page  w i t h the French Bast  I n d i a Company.  On t h e w h o l e he  t h e m a t t e r much more f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t  71.  viewed  of a large  organized  company - p o s s i b l y w i t h g o v e r n m e n t b a c k i n g ,  t h a n as a  speculat-  ive  hence not  encourag-  f i e l d f o r s m a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e , and  ing.  T h e r e w e r e a l s o d i p l o m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o sway h i s  judgment.  Spain would undoubtedly v i e w as u s u r p a t i o n  any  attempt o f France to e s t a b l i s h a f a c t o r y on the n o r t h west c o a s t , and L a Perouse thought i t f o o l i s h t o endanger E u r o p e a n r e l a t i o n s and  France's Spanish  alliance  I f t h e F r e n c h Government d e c i d e d d e s p i t e these be w i s e n o t  deterents,  to grant  La Perouse suggestefi that i t would  the trade  t o one  e x c l u s i v e company,  f i f t y l e a g u e s a l o n g the  t e n t h o u s a n d s e a o t t e r m i g h t be The  Indians of Port  c l o a k s and  different  a b o v e e v e r y t h i n g , and conclude a bargain,  native dress. bargaining,  and  The  skins.  The  still  hanging  natives desired  sea o t t e r s k i n s , and  The  French  p l a t e s and  an a l t e r n a t i v e . by c a l l i n g  of  acute  a b i l i t y t o make a n e x c h a n g e i n t h e i r own  c h i e f became a r e g u l a r n u i s a n c e ,  up  iron  small a r t i c l e s  s u r p r i s e d them b y t h e i r  c h o s e i r o n i f t h e r e was  at  beads o n l y as a measure t o  - t h e y were f i n a l l y p e r s u a d e d t o a c c e p t but  estimated  des F r a n c a i s a p p e a r e d a l m o s t  would take  Indians  des  collected annually.  never as the o r i g i n a l b a s i s .  traded i r o n f o r f i s h ,  At P o r t  shore La Perouse  o n c e , a n d made s i g n s o f f r i e n d s h i p b y w a v i n g a n d white  but  t o some c o m m e r c i a l t o w n o f  t h r e e e x p e d i t i o n s o f two. s h i p s a n n u a l l y .  F r a n c a i s and  matter.  t o e n t e r the. s e a o t t e r t r a d e  suggests a l l o w i n g the p r i v i l e g e sending  f o r so s m a l l a  favour  pewter pots, The  Indian  d a i l y at the  ship  Page 7 a .  and  expecting a present  t o be g i v e n h i m e v e r y  few h o u r s .  The F r e n c h made a t e m p o r a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t  on an  i s l a n d i n t h e b a y o f P o r t d e s F r a n c a i s where t h e y s e t up a n o b s e r v a t o r y , and d i d c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e i n sea o t t e r s k i n s f o r h a t c h e t s , k n i v e s , and b a r i r o n .  The p i l f e r i n g of' t h e I n d i a n s  caused L a Perouse s e r i o u s annoyance, but a l t h o u g h t h e t h i e v e s when d e t e c t e d , he made no e f f o r t  punishing  to reclaim the  g o o d s , " i n o r d e r t o a v o i d e v e r y q u a r r e l t h a t m i g h t be With melancholy  consequences."  attended  As a r e s u l t t h e d a r i n g and  insolence o f the t h i e v i n g increased, c u l m i n a t i n g i n an which brought a s e r i o u s l o s s to the French.  episode  One n i g h t w h e n  t h e s c i e n t i s t s were s l e e p i n g by t h e o b s e r v a t o r y ,  the Indians  " t r a v e r s e d a v e r y t h i c k wood, w h i c h was t o t a l l y  impervious  t o t h e day, without  stirring a leaf,  sentinals, address  and g l i d e d upon t h e i r b e l l i e s l i k e adders,  they contrived, i n s p i t e o f our  t o c & . r r j o f f some o f o u r e f f e c t s .  to i n t r o d u c e themselves  Messrs.  o f the observatory,  T h e y t o o k away a m u s k e t , o r n a m e n t e d w i t h s i l v e r ,  w e l l a s t h e c l o t h e s o f t w o o f f i c e r s , who h a d p l a c e d them u n d e r t h e i r b o l s t e r . a guard  They had the  i n t o t h e t e n t where  de L a u r i s t o n a n d D a r p a u d , who w e r e t h & g u a r d slept.  almost  o f twelve s o l d i e r s ,  two o f f i c e r s .  " (1)  as  b y way o f p r e c a u t i o n  T h e y were u n p e r c e i v e d  by  and t h e y n e v e r once wakened t h e  Among o t h e r t h i n g s l o s t was t h e o r i g i n a l  memorandum book i n w h i c h a l l a s t r o n o m i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s h a d b e e n made s i n c e t h e a r r i v a l a t P o r t d e s F r a n c a i s . ent  i t was j u d g e d  After this  i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t i n u e t h e camp a n y l o n g e r .  P o r t d e s F r a n c a i s was e l a b o r a t e l y s u r v e y e d (1)  L a Perouse,  incid-  "Voyage  Round t h e W o r l d " , I I , 92.  a n d mapped,  Page 73.  and  w h i l e t h e e x p e d i t i o n was so e n g a g e d t h e I n d i a n c h i e f came  aboard, and o f f e r e d to s e l l o r y had been s t a n d i n g .  the i s l a n d on which t h e observat-  L a Perouse accepted  p u r c h a s e was c o m p l e t e d f o r - s e v e r a l e l l s knives,  b a r i r o n and n a i l s .  w i t h customary f o r m a l i t i e s ,  the o f f e r ,  of red cloth,  and the hatchets,  F o r m a l p o s s e s s i o n was t h e n  taken  and a b o t t l e c o n t a i n i n g a s u i t a b l e  i n s c r i p t i o n a n d a m e d a l w e r e b u r i e d a t t h e f o o t o f a r o c k . So far  a l l h a d gone w e l l ,  a n d t h e F r e n c h were c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m  t h e most f o r t u n a t e o f n a v i g a t o r s d i s t a n c e from Europe without  " i n having  a r r i v e d so great  a s i n g l e p e r s o n s i c k , o r o n e man  o f t h e two s h i p s ' c o m p a n i e s a f f e c t e d w i t h s c u r v y , " the venture  was m a r r e d b y a t r a g i c  incident.  both t h e " A s t r o l a b e " and "Boussole" ing  a  (1) when  The p i n n a c e s o f  were w r e c k e d w h i l e  attempt-  a l a n d i n g a t a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e bay, a n d f o u r t e e n p e r s o n s  were drowned.  L a Perouse prolonged  t h e s t a y a t P o r t des  F r a n c a i s o v e r two w e e k s i n t h e h o p e s o f o b t a i n i n g a t l e a s t t h e i r bodies,  but with l i t t l e  success,  n e c e s s i t a t e d a change o f p l a n s .  and the enforced  Unless  he c o u l d reach  wait Monteray  b e t w e e n t h e 1 6 - 1 5 o f S e p t e m b e r , a n d make t h e t r a d e w i n d s , i t meant t h a t a y e a r must be l o s t  before he c o u l d p r o c e e d t o  China and t h e r e c o n n o i t r i n g o f t h e Japanese and Kamschatka coasts.  I f t h i s was t o be a v o i d e d ,  s t r a i g h t down t h e A m e r i c a n c o a s t ,  t h e r e was o n l y £ime t o r u n  determining  i t s direction,  but m a k i n g no a t t e m p t t o l a n d , a n d h e a d i n g s t r a i g h t f o r Monteray.  L a Perouse planned t o s e l l  the skins obtained i n  China f o r the sole b e n e f i t o f the s a i l o r s . mostly (1)  sea o t t e r ,  L a Perouse,  b u t h a d some v a r i a t i o n s ,  The p e l t s w e r e as P o r t des F r a n c a i s  "Voyage R o u n d t h e W o r l d " , V, 9 7 .  Page 74.  abounded i n f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s , marten, g r e y s q u i r r e l , and  b l a c k bear, C a n a d i a n l y n x , ermine,  and  red fox.  beaver,  brown  C a n a d i a n marmot,  T h e I n d i a n s o f f e r e d most v a r i e t i e s f o r t r a d e , b u t  o n l y i n h a b i t e d P o r t des F r a n c a i s a t t h e f a v o u r a b l e season, and never spent  a winter there.  them "as rude a n d b a r b a r o u s Progress  On t h e w h o l e L a P e r o u s e as t h e i r s o i l  considered  i s rocky and barren."  down t h e c o a s t w a s s l o w o w i n g t o b a d f o g s ,  m a k i n g e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f 55', been d r i v e n o f f shore by storm,  w h e r e Cook h a d  quite impossible.  By t h e 2 5 t h .  o f A u g u s t t h e s h i p s w e r e o f f N o o t k a Sound, b u t e n c o u n t e r e d f o g banks, and d i d n o t r e a c h Monteray u n t i l September.  more  the 12th. o f  They were p i l o t e d i n w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Don  E s t i v a n M a r t i n e z , whose s h i p s l a y i n t h e h a r b o u r ,  a n d who h a d  been informed b o t h by t h e v i c e r o y o f Mexico a n d t h e Governor o f the Presidency o f t h e French  ^probable  arrival.  L a Perouse's  comments o n t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t l i n e a r e v a g u e a n d h u r r i e d , b u t h i s map i s s u r p r i s i n g l y a c c u r a t e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m e a t his  disposal. The  French  Spaniards,  both  G o v e r n o r a n d p r i e s t s , made t h e  v e r y w e l c o m e , a n d showed t h e m g r e a t h o s p i t a l i t y .  P e r o u s e made a n i n t e r e s t i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e Monteray - t h e Spanish  La  during h i a stay a t  c o m m i s s a r y M. "Vincent V a s s a d r e y Vega,  who h a d b r o u g h t o r d e r s t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o c o l l e c t a l l t h e s e a o t t e r skins o f h i s t e nmissions and four presidencies, as t h e government h a d r e s e r v e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s  i t s exclusive trade.  Vega was "a y o u n g man o f g r e a t m e r i t a n d g e n i u s " ,  then l e a v i n g  by o n e o f t h e M o n t e r a y s h i p s f o r C a n t o n , t o c o n c l u d e  a commercial  Page  t r e a t y r e l a t i v e to sea o t t e r s k i n s . a b o u t two  I t was  t h o u s a n d were a n n u a l l y g a t h e r e d ,  t h o u g h t c o u l d e a s i l y he  estimated  that  which the  Spaniards  i n c r e a s e d t o t h r e e t h o u s a n d when t h e  Chinese markets r e q u i r e d  La Perouse b e l i e v e d t h a t i t  o n l y s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n o f C o o k s "Voyages" t h a t t h e  r e a l i z e d the v a l u e o f sea o t t e r s k i n s as a r t i c l e s  commerce.  T h i s was  not  the case,  m e n t i o n s t h a t t r a d e had  b e e n o p e n e d a s e a r l y a s 1777,  sent  to China i n t h a t y e a r .  L i m a , and  brought from P e r u to M a n i l a ,  through Acapulco. t r a d e , but  "New had  (1)  i t was  Spanish  King's  r e p o r t may  The  c o l l e c t e d by  The  - 1795  t h e p r i e s t s , were sent enterprise.  i t was  o n l y the- o d d  even i n  made t o  waters o f the O r i e n t .  The  the southern  to China,  collect  but  that  It i s significant  that  t r a d e r who  mentioned  f u r s i n C h i n a - i n somewhat  i n g t o n e s - w h i l e none r e c o r d e d  o f the  e f f o r t was  f u r trade  s k i n s w h i c h came t o h a n d a t M o n t e r a y ,  the existence of Spanish  M o n t e r a y and  the  aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g  Christianization.  a t N o o t k a , no  the extent of Spanish  b e t w e e n 1785  to  passing  nave i n c r e a s e d  n e v e r f u r n i s h e d an i n c e n t i v e f o r e x p l o r a t i o n , and  sea o t t e r s .  hund-  s k i n s were sent  t r a d e no l o n g e r  e x p l o r e r s wanted the l a n d , and  S p a i n " by c o l o n i z a t i o n a n d  mostly was  The  two  by no means r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t s b e g i n n i n g .  t h e i r l a t e r settlements the  of  however, f o r D a l r y m p l e  red being  The  was  Span-  I  i a r d s had  75  meeting a Spanish  French considered regions a l i t t l e  disparag-  s h i p i n the  the skins  i n f e r i o r to  of those  north.  y  L a P e r o u s e l e f t M o n t e r e y on t h e 2 4 t h . o f and  r e a c h e d Macao i n t h e b e g i n n i n g  (1) A l e x a n d e r D a l r y m p l e , P a g e 27.  o f J a n u a r y 1788,  September, where  he  " P l a n f o r P r o m o t i n g t h e F u r Trade',',  was  Page  76.  r e c e i v e d w i t h much c o u r t e s y by t h e P o r t u g e s e g o v e r n o r ,  and  permitted  to anchor i n the Typha.  He  experienced  a  little  d i f f i c u l t y i n s e l l i n g t h e p e l t s , w h i c h numbered s i x hundred, as the p e r m i s s i o n o f the P o r t u g e s e had Tne  t o be  obtained.  f u r s r e a l i z e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount, w h i c h D i x o n q u o t e s  as t e n thousand d o l l a r s , f o u r hundred. and  (2)  (1)) a l t h o u g h Harchand adds a n  T h i s sum  was  went f r o m t h e r e  to the  While i n Kamschatka, Gierke,  The  the o f f i c e r s s h a r i i i g i n  s h i p s next v i s i t e d M a n i l l a ,  E a s t e r n c o a s t o f T ^ r t a r y and La Perouse v i s i t e d  Captain  inscription  cut short  i n h i s explorations,  nence o n l y an u n f i n i s n e d j o u r n a l and  some h u r r i e d r e p o r t s  survived.  L a P e r o u s e was  and  Kamschatka.  the grave o f  t h e c o m p a n i o n o f C a p t a i n Cook, a n d l e f t a n  copper.  extra  d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e s o l d i e r s  s a i l o r s o f the f r i g a t e s without  a n y manner w h a t s o e v e r .  in  first  M u c h v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n was  when t h e e x p e d i t i o n met  i t s untimely  Mannicolo I s l a n d e a r l y i n C a p t a i n James  end  lost  to the  on the r e e f  world of  1788.  Hanna came i n t h e wake o f S t r a n g e  L a P e r o u s e , a r r i v i n g a f e w w e e k s l a t e r i n A u g u s t , 1786, second t r i p .  The  s h i p t h i s t i m e was  snow, a l s o c a l l e d t h e of thirty,  ure,  The  to  a hundred and  O t t e r " , but  undertaking  carrying only a  take  - being  his ton  crew  f o r m e r l y been r e q u i r e d f o r the was  a serious financial  t h r e e h u n d r e d p i e c e s were c o l l e c t e d ,  eight thousand dollars..  and  on  twenty  f o r f u r s u p p l i e s were t e m p o r a r i l y e x h a u s t e d , and  hundred s k i n s and ing  "Sea  t h e same s i z e as n a d  smaller vessel.  and  I t was  a chance every  f o r e s t a l l e d by a r i v a l and  finding  fail-  only  a  realiz-  trader  had  nothings  (1) D i x o n , "Voyage Hound t h e W o r l d " , A p p e n d i x , P a g e (2) M a r c h a n d , "A V o y a g e Hound t h e W o r l d " , P a g e U L X I I I . g i v e s t h e f i g u r e a s L2083.  '618. -  CHftflT  OF PRRT  Of THE NOOTH Vriesr  CBfiTt»r> ? R n e & HftWMFv  ^OftST  flheft^ft  >* snova "seft-OTTeR" n&t>  Page  but t n e p i c k i n g s l e f t ure.  Hanna was  - w i t h consequent  77  d i s a s t e r f o r h i s vent-  f o r c e d h y s c u r v y t o s p e n d two w e e k s a t N o o t k a ,  w h e r e he met M a c k a y , a n d o f f e r e d h i m a p a s s a g e home - w h i c h was  refused.  A f t e r w a r d s he t r a c e d t h e c o a s t l i n e n o r t h t o 53* ,  hut w i t h small r e t u r n s ,  Hanna named s o u n d s ,  a s he w e n t , c h i e f o f w h i c h w e r e C o x ' s I s l a n d , I s l a n d s , Lane's  Bay,  "Lane's  B a y " was  E s q u i r e , o f Canton.  Cape Cox,  F i t z h u g h Sound a n d S m i t h I n l e t .  c h a r t i s crude and i n c o r r e c t , respect.  i s l a n d s and  (1)  hut i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  His i n one  a d m i t t e d l y named a f t e r H e n r y  a n d f i n a n c i a l men  inence.  There  Lane,  o f t h e same c e n t r e ,  a n d t h e y were a l l members o f t h e company w h i c h p u t up  t w i c e on the c h a r t  Lance's  J o h n H e n r y Cox a n d W i l l i a m P i t z h u g h  were o u t s t a n d i n g merchants  money f o r M e a r e s '  hays  enterprises.  The  the  o c c u r r e n c e o f C o x ' s name  i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c o u n t e d f o r b y h i s prom-  i s no known c a s e i n t h s w h o l e m a r i t i m e f u r  t r a d e w h e r e a m a s t e r was  a l s o s o l e owner.  The m a s t e r  was  f r e q u e n t l y m e r e l y t h e m a s t e r , o c c a s i o n a l l y h e was  also a part  o w n e r , b u t he n e v e r made t r i p s w h o l e l y i n h i s omi  interest.  Hence i t i s p r o b a b l e f r o m t h e n a m i n g o f t h e most p r o m i n e n t p o i n t s i n h i s c h a r t - i f Hanna r e s e m b l e d h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s at  a l l- that  i t was  f i n a n c i a l backers. O c t o b e r 1786, ing  Cox, L a n e a n d P i t z h u g h who Hanna l e f t  the coast on the f i r s t  a n d r e a c h e d Macao o n t h e e i g h t h o f t h e  F e b r u a r y , where undaunted  voyage,  were h i s  by t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e  he b e g a n t o make a r r a n g e m e n t s  for a third.  of follow-  second The f u r  (1) H. H. B a n c r o f t , " H i s t o r y o f t h e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t s , v o l . X X V I I , A. L . B a n c r o f t a n d Co., San F r a n c i s c o , 1 8 8 4 . Page 174. (2) L e t t e r r e c e i v e d f r o m Judge F. W. Howay, New W e s t m i n s t e r , B. C , J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1 9 3 4 .  Page 78.  s a l e was c o m p l e t e d  o n M a r c h 1 7 , 1 7 8 7 , a n d showed a d r o p i n  p r i c e o v e r t h e y e a r b e f o r e - w h i c h was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g a s an e x t r a t w e l v e hundred s k i n s had been thrown o n the by S t r a n g e  market  and L a Perouse. 100 s e a o t t e r s k i n s 300 p i e c e s  f |  50 10  $ 8,000 The  t h i r d v o y a g e was n e v e r made, f o r Hanna d i e d s u d d e n l y a n d  very unexpectedly, The for  i n the middle o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s .  "Lark", a  B r i t i s h snow o f B e n g a l , l e f t  Macao  t h e n o r t h west c o a s t i n J u l y 1786 u n d e r C a p t a i n P e t e r s .  She was two h u n d r e d a n d t w e l v e t o n s b u r t h e n , w i t h a c r e w o f seventy.  The B a s t  I n d i a Compnay h a d t h e m o n o p o l y o f t r a d e i n  C h i n a , a n d h e n c e a s t h e " L a r k " , a n E n g l i s h s h i p , was f i r s t t o c a l l a t Kamchatka t o arrange  t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e two l a n d s , i t  f o l l o w s s h e must h a v e b e l o n g e d The  t o t h e E a s t I n d i a Company. (1)  r e c o r d s o f t h e v e s s e l a r e meagre i n t h e e x t r e m e .  There  i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t P e t e r s was a n y t h i n g b u t a n o r d i n a r y e m p l o y ee o f t h e Company, m e r e l y Yankee s h i p o w n e r  the master o f t h e v e s s e l .  or  two  with i t s servant.  f o r the  The e x p e d i t i o n h a d a  fatal  " L a r k " was w r e c k e d o n C o p p e r I s l a n d , a n d o n l y  o f the crew s u r v i v e d .  B e l g i a n negro,  concern  I n d i a Compnay w o u l d b e t a n g l e d up i n p a r t n e r s h i p  co-ownership  ending,  a  might be g l a d t o have h i s c a p t a i n i n t e r e s t e d  w i t h him i n the venture, i t i s u n l i k e l y that a r i c h l i k e the Bast  While  These were a P o r t u g u e s e  and a  who w e r e o b l i g e d t o w i n t e r o n C o p p e r I s l a n d ,  before being u l t i m a t e l y rescued by a Russian v e s s e l which took (1) P.W.Howay, " T r a d i n g V e s s e l s i n the M a r i t i m e P u r Trade", Proceedings.of the Royal S o c i e t y o f Canada, Ottawa, 1 9 3 0 . Page 1 1 4 . L e t t e r from J u d g e P.W.Howay, New W e s t m i n s t e r , B.C., J a n u a r y 18, 1 9 3 4 .  Page  them t o N i j e n a i , Kamchatka.  (1)  C a p t a i n C h a r l e s B a r k l e y a r r i v e d i n 1787, first to  East  nominal,  the French Revolution.  ( 2 ) ) The  v e s s e l was  B a r k l e y h i m s e l f had East  The  him  t h e n o r t h ?/est c o a s t .  She  o f exuberant s p i r i t s and  journey  rhumatic  f e v e r and  the  and  just  and  first  for of  accompan-  w h i t e woman t o  visit  h u s b a n d a s "a  man  show when o n  (3)  r o u n d Cape H o r n was  a very hard  Captain Barkley  f e a r e d he m i g h t n o t  the  married  o f s e v e n t e e n , who  on b o a r d , "  slow.  the  At the time  h i s c o n d i t i o n became so c r i t i c a l  s e v e r a l weeks i t was  purely  Indiaman,  had  de s c r i b e s ^ e r  t e r r i b l e s t o r m s made p r o g r e s s  remain-  p a r t l y h i s own,  f o n d o f company a n d  but a g r e a t m a r t i n e t The  a girl was  Ostend  i n the sea-service of  only twenty f i v e ,  on the voyage, and  and  c a m o u f l a g e was  a former East  e n t e r p r i s e was  Prances Hornby Trevor,  shore,  The  i n v e s t e d t h r e e t h o u s a n d pounds i n i t .  s a i l i n g B a r k l e y was Miss  from  s t i l l k e p t i n t h e name o f  b e e n b r o u g h t up  I n d i a Company.  had  the  "Imperial Eagle" under the A u s t r i a n f l a g .  a s t h e s h i p ' s l o g was  "Loudoun"  first  "Loudoun" - f o u r hundred  at t h i s time part o f the A u s t r i a n Netherlands,  ed so u n t i l  ied  His s h i p , the  s h i p r i g g e d , and mounting t w e n t y guns - s a i l e d  Ostend as the  he  the  c o l o u r s to a v o i d p r o c u r i n g a l i c e n s e from  I n d i a Company.  tons,  was  Tooth t h e  E n g l i s h m a n t o come d i r e c t l y f r o m E u r o p e , a n d  f l y false  79.  recover,  as  one,  and  took that  for  skilled  (1) M a r c h a n d , "A Voyage R o u n d t h e W o r l d " , P a g e L X X X I V . (2) C h a r l e s B a r k l e y , "Log o f t h e L o u d o u n " ( " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " ) . Original i n Provincial Archives, Victoria, B r i t i s h Columbia. (3) P r a n c e s B a r k l e y , " D i a r y " , T r a n s c r i p t i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P a g e 2.  Page  medical little  a t t e n t i o n c o u l d not  a s s i s t a n c e , even from the f i r s t  Henry P o l g e r and  William Miller,  c o n d i t i o n very calmly, amorous a t t e n t i o n s . he was  be o b t a i n e d .  and  She  pressed  constitution,  more h o n o u r . "  f o r B r a z i l , where he provisions. friendly,  At  Captain's  instead with  their  being  took place.  by M r .  his  s i d e , and  shaped the s h i p ' s  course  o b t a i n more  t h e P o r t u g e s e g o v e r n o r was  not at a l l  The  who  and  rel-  social  shore f o r a  chaperoned to the o f f i c i a l  interfew recept-  "cut q u i t e a dash, w i t h his. sword  h i s naval uniform."  gave a v e r y p i c t u r e s q u e  considerable  B a r k l e y s l i v e d on  B a r k l e y was  Miller,  the  h e r t w e n t y g u n s , b u t more f r i e n d l y  a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d l a t e r ,  ion  strong  s u s p i c i o u s o f the w a r l i k e appearance o f  " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " and  d a y s , and M r s .  and  hence  blessed with a  c o u l d r e g a i n h i s h e a l t h and  first  In r e t u r n Captain  At "Winnee", who the  first  attached The  the  f e t e on board s h i p , d r e s s i n g her  with he  fired salutes.  Sandwich I s l a n d s Mrs.  B a r k l e y engaged a maid,  accompanied h e r t o the n o r t h west c o a s t , and  reputed  H a w a i i a n woman t o do  so.  Winnee became  t o h e r m i s t r e s s , a n d l a t e r went w i t h h e r  to  " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " a r r i v e d a t N o o t k a i n J u n e 1787,  obtained  by  Barkley  t h e f l a g s o f a l l n a t i o n s , a n d when t h e v i s i t o r s a r r i v e d , manned t h e y a r d s a n d  -  M i l l e r most h e a v i l y , , s i n c e  Being  Barkley recovered,  got  second o f f i c e r s  took the  her  b l a m e d Mr.  Barkley  a f o r m e r l i e u t e n a n t o f t h e B r i t i s h . N a v y , and  " S h o u l d have had  course  who  and  Mrs.  80.  was very  China. and  a l a r g e number o f s e a o t t e r s k i n s t h r o u g h M a c k a y ' s  assistance,  i n r e t u r n f o r w h i c h B a r k l e y o f f e r e d him  a passage  Page  to  China.  M a c k a y waa  p o s i t i o n had  n o t l a t e l y b e e n one  C a p t a i n Hanna l e f t and  f o r c e d him  of prestige.  t h e n a t i v e s had  s t r i p p e d him  As  i t chanced,  As  soon  and  filthiest  o f them a l l .  his  t i m e among t h e  of his  clothes  and  filth-  the  slovenliest  I n o t h e r ways he made g o o d u s e  of  Indians, mastered t h e i r language, c o l l e c t e d  did sufficient  N o o t k a Sound was  as  Mackay proved q u i t e adapt-  soon earned the r e p u t a t i o n f o r being  f u r s , and  Sound, f o r h i s  t o c o n f o r m t o " t h e i r mode of* d r e s s  i n e s s o f manners." a b l e , and  q u i t e ready to l e a v e the  81.  e x p l o r i n g to convince  not p a r t o f the  a chain o f detached i s l a n d s .  At  h o w e v e r , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t he h a d  himself  that  c o n t i n e n t , but belonged the time o f B a r k l e y " s had  e n o u g h , and,  a c c e p t i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f e s c a p e , was  to  arrival,  eagerly  h e a r d o f no more i n  coast h i s t o r y . Prom N o o t k a t h e south  from bay  Cape B e a l e ,  t o bay,  " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " moved, g r a d u a l l y  t r a d i n g a s she w e n t , and  P r a n c e s and  ion he  was  a p u r e l y m e r c a n t i l e one,  S t r a i t was obtained his  t o be not  S t r a i t o f J u a n de  any  Since the  geographical  suppressed, and hence the  recorded  Barkley's  discovery.  i n the l o g o f the  c h a r t s , and  The  v o y a g e was  s h o r t l y a f t e r entering the b o a t ' s c r e w u n d e r Mr. Martyr's  the l o s t  named a f t e r t h e m y t h i c a l v o y a g e r .  made h a d  t r i e d to c l a i m the m a r r e d bgt one  Strait  No  Fuca,  expedit-  discoveries  discovery of  ship.  Meares  the later  credit  for  unhappy i n c i d e n t ,  o f J u a n de P u c a , w h e n a  M i l l e r were k i l l e d  by t h e n a t i v e s , n e a r  P o i n t , where a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t had  Bodega Y Q u a d r a .  Sound,  H o r n b y P e a k s r e c e i v e d t h e i r names.  B a r k l e y " s m a j o r d i s c o v e r y was w h i c h he  Barkley  formerly befallen  f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n s w e r e made,  and  Page  C a p t a i n B a r k l e y s a i l e d f o r Macao w i t h h i s c a r g o o f  82.  eight  hundred sea o t t e r s k i n s , which r e a l i z e d t h i r t y thousand  dollars,  the l a r g e s t returns yet r e c e i v e d from a s i n g l e e n t e r p r i s e . A f t e r t h i s B a r k l e y had  p l a n n e d t o go  s h i p , hut unexpected t r o u b l e s arose "Imperial Eagle".  The  the s e r v i c e s o f the  w i t h t h e owners o f  East  I n d i a Company, a n d On  found they  the ship's a r r i v a l  was  q u i t e pe.rmissable  h i s was  a "country  t o poact i n t h e property  f o r M e a r e s t o e x p l o r e and  ship  but the  she  be  s o l d , and  B a r k l e y was  " I m p e r i a l E a g l e " was  he was  The  not  s o , and  t o go  s u e d f o r damages, b u t  j o u r n a l s t h a t t h e y m i g h t be w i t h h e l d i t was  was  Furthermore, five  thousand charts  from p u b l i c a t i o n f o r  thought to the disadvantage  f u r t r a d e t h a t t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d be g i v e n t h e s e  " D i a r y " , T r a n s c r i p t , Page  of  the  particulars.  Then i n s t e a d o f r e s t o r i n g t h e p a p e r s t o B a r k l e y , t h e (1) P r a n c e s B a r k l e y , (2) I b i d , P a g e 6.  that  Barkley his salary.  r e t u r n o f h i s i n v e s t e d money.  as  ship  from  ship i n s i s t e d  o b l i g e d under p e n a l t y of a heavy f i n e ,  a c e r t a i n time,  port  c o u l d have  p o u n d s , t o t u r n o v e r t o t h e Company a l l h i s p a p e r s , and  It  because  aotually a  allowed  owners o f the  r e f u s e d e v e n t o pay  o b l i g e d t o do  o n l y awarded the  trade,  company's s e r v a n t s  by w h i c h t h e Company's c h a r t e r was C h i n a t o Eurd>pe." (2)  (1)  namely a t r a d i n g s h i p from The  found  situations oblig- .  t o a v o i d worse consequences."  I n d i a n seas.  i n her,  i n China  f o r what p u r p o s e , so t h e y  t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h f e a r o f l o s i n g t h e i r own t h e s h i p and  s e v e r a l o f them  were n o t w a r r a n t e d i n t r a d i n g  t o C h i n a b e i n g w e l l known a n d  ed t o s e l l  the  l a t t e r were s u p e r c a r g o e s i n C h i n a i n  were d i r e c t o r s i n E n g l a n d . "the owners t h e r e  t o E n g l a n d hy a n o t h e r -  6.  owners  Page 83  of the"Imperial  E a g l e " g a v e them, o r more l i k e l y  t o M e a r e s a n d o t h e r s , who t r i e d discoveries.  to claim credit f o r Barkley's  C a p t a i n and Mrs. B a r k l e y soon r e t u r n e d  England, hut a l t e r e d circumstances pense w i t h Winnee's s e r v i c e s . and to  soon f e l l  s o l d them,  seriously i l l .  forced the l a t t e r  to to dis-  Winnee was t e r r i b l y d i s t r e s s e d , I n 1788 C a p t a i n Meares p r o m i s e d  t a k e h e r back t o t h e H a w i i a n I s l a n d s , b u t she d i e d on t h e .  way a n d was b u r i e d a t s e a .  Barkley d i d not attempt  v o y a g e u n t i l 1 7 9 1 , when h e v i s i t e d m a i n l y Alaska.  another  i n the waters of  Page 84.  Chapter IV.  "THE BENGAL FUR COMPANY AID THE KING GEORGE'S SOUND COMPANY." (1786-1789)  In January 1786, two ships flying the English flag wore outfitted at Caloutta by a set of gentlemen calling themselves the Bengal far Society,  (1) and placed i n charge of  Lieutenant John Meares, late of the Royal Navy.  They were the  "JSootJca" of two hundred tons, and the "Sea Otter" of one hundred, the l a t t e r under Lieutenant William Tipping R.N. The vessels did not s a i l together, each having commissions to f u l f i l before starting for the north west coast.  The "Sea Otter"  l e f t i n February laden with opium for Malacca, for which she received three thousand rupees, and then set her course for Prince William's Sound, the appointed meeting place. arrived f i r s t , hut found  Strange already at anchor i n the  Sound, having taken the cream of a very poor trade. account which  Tipping  Tipping gave  The  Strange of the activities and  plans of the expedition varied widely from that of Meares - and in this instance  MeareSf; story is more probably correct*  Tipping was doubtless trying to discourage Strange from v i s i t ing Nootka, i f he Had not already done so, by t e l l i n g him that Meares was already there.  The "Sea Otter" oame to an untimely  i  .  end, and St range's record of the meeting i s the last news ever heard of that ship. (1) Dixon, "Voyage  Tipping weighed anchor early next morning, Round the World", Page 318.  Page 85.  and setting out i n the apparent direction of cook * s River, was heard of no more* The'^ootka" did not s a i l u n t i l the second of March 1786, after conveying the Paymaster general o f the King's Forces and his suite to Madras, a t r i p which brought i n another three thousand rupees.  Meares carried provisions for eighteen  months, and a orew of forty Europeans and ten laaoars.  There  was no carpenter on hoard - Meares said i t was impossible to obtain one - and the deficiency was f e l t at every part of the voyage.  Throughout his career Meares* ships were character-  ized by the severe outbrealcs of scurvy - pointing at negligence amounting to criminal carelessness on the part of the commander.  Since Cook's investigations great advances had been made  i n the use of preventatives and antisoorbutios, with which Meares, as a naval man must have been familiar.  Yet after  seven weeks, i n which several ports had been visited where i t was possible to obtain fresh provisions, scurvy had already broken out on the "Nootka", and the boatswain was the f i r s t victim, "an irreparable loss".  There would seem to be ample  foundation for Dixon's later oharge that the supply of a n t i scorbutics was inadequate - indeed, one might almost say i t was a chronic condition of his every undertaking. The "Nootka" touched at the Russian Islands and Onalaska on her way to Prince William's Sound, and anchored at Cape Douglas, near Cook's River.  They traded with the Indians,  and obtained a few sea otter furs, i n the ratio of a pound of unwrought iron for a skin.  In this v i c i n i t y a party of  Page 86 Russians passed the Englishmen, leaving Cook's River to winter at the Island of Kodiak.  It was now so lat®  i  n  the year that  Meares determined to pass the winter months at Prince William's Sound, anchoring at Snug Corner Cove.  The natives told them  that a ship with two masts had l e f t only a few days before, which Meares concluded must have been the "Sea Otter" leaving early, but i t is more probable that the description belonged to Strange's "Experiment". As usual, complaints were made of the pilfering of the natives, who even went to the extent of taking i n their teeth a n a i l which stood out a l i t t l e way from the wood i n either boat or ship, and pulling i t out.  Meares f i n a l l y  taught them a lesson by firing cannons along the water, and this threatening demonstration had the desired effect.  Trade  was once more resumed on what the captain called "a moderate basis", and sixty fine sea otter skins were traded for a small quantity of large spike n a i l s .  An effort was then made  to conciliate the chiefs by presenting them with strings of beads.  Beads were very popular i n the north, at Prince  William's Sound, and Cook's River, but were hardly accepted at Nootka. Preparations for winter were at once begun on the "Nootka".  Meares intended to cover the vessel with spars, and  close i t i n a l l round, but only "one half from aft, forward was completed when heavy f a l l s of snow made i t impossible to get any more wood from the shore.  In anticipation of native  attack the ship was boarded and netted a l l round, ten feet  Page 87.  above the gunwhale, and could well hope to resist a sally, although the ice forming a l l round gave the Indians an advantage.  Fortunately, however, the situation did not arise.  Fresh salmon and ducks were obtained up to the end of Ootober, but after that with the rapidly f a l l i n g temperature the supply soon failed.  Winter had come i n earnest." "!Phe stupendous  mountains which met our eye on every side, were now white with snow to the very edge of the water, while the natives had no other means of support but the whale fish and blubber which they had prepared for their winter provisions." (1)  The snow  was soon as deep on the ice as i t was on the shore, and during November and December the thermometer hovered between £0* 28 F. s  The sun rose no higher than the sixth meridian, and at  high noon gave only a faint glimmering light*  The mountains  "forbade almost a sight of the sky, and oast their nocturnal shadows over us i n the midst of day, the land was impenetrable from the depth of snow, so that we were excluded from a l l hopes of any recreation, support, or comfort, except, what could be found i n the ship and i n ourselves." (2)  Discomforts  increased as the winter advanced and the decks proved incapable of resisting the intense cold of January, despite the large fires which burned twenty out of twenty four hours, and the lower parts were an inch and a half thlok in hoar frost* A temporary stove was constructed out of one of the forges,  in  an effort to keep fires going day and night, u n t i l the sick complained that excessive smoke was the real cause of their illness.  By the end of January there were four dead, with  (1) John Meares, "Voyages", J . Walter, London, 1790. Page AVI. (2) Ibid, Page XVII.  Page 88.  twenty three others including the surgeon, confined to bed i n a vary grave condition*  The Indians blamed the scurvy on  the absence of whale o i l and blubber i n the traders* diet. In February the death t o l l rose to eight, while the sick numbered thirty, and the crew gave up hope. pegged at 15" F.  The thermometer seemed  The surgeon and the p i l o t died, but hope  revl  vived a l i t t l e when a few of the more strong minded recovered through drinking pine juice - a remedy so nauseating that many preferred death.  Only three men were able to tend the sick -  Meares, the f i r s t officer, and a seaman, and their task was complicated by the great deficiency of provisions.  Cordials,  wine and sugar were exhausted, and there only remained biscuit, rice and a l i t t l e flour to prepare for the sufferers.  Beef  and pork the crew refused to eat, and f i n a l l y the two remaining goats were k i l l e d to make broth.  In a l l , twenty three  died, and Meares gives a gruesome picture of their burials. » — Too often did I find myself called to assist i n performing the dreadful office of dragging the dead bodies across the ice to a shallow sepulchre which our own hands had hewn out for them on the shore.  The sledge on which we fetched the (1)  wood was their hearse, and the chasms i n the ice their grave." The terrible winter dragged on, and not u n t i l May did temperature begin to r i s e .  the  The men revived a l i t t l e when i t  was possible to get fresh fowl again from the natives. Unexpected deliverance was at hand, and on the 17 of May 1787, the Indians arrived with the news that two ships had anchored i n another part of the Sound. Meares could (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page XX.  Page 89  liardly believe i t , but i t waa verified on the 19th., by the arrival of Captain Dixon of the "Queen Charlotte" and a boat's crew.  They were welcomed as guardian angels by the sick, who  had feared they would never leave.  The new ships were English,  under the leadership of Captain Portlock, who commanded the larger of the two, the "King George".  They were licensed by  the East India Company, and were lawfully traders, not pirati c a l adventurers l i k e Meares.  Despite the salvation which  Portloclc and Dixon undoubtedly brought the "flootka", strong feeling arose between Dixon and Meares at their meetings, which found outlet in. the famous Dixon - Meares Controversy, following the publication of Meares "Voyages" i n 1790.  Dixon and  Meares disagreed fundamentally on the facts concerning the meeting and the assistance rendered - what one stated the other denied.  Meares* reputation for integrity and veracity was  not high, either among his contemporaries or later historians. In the words of Judge Howay - "this gentleman* s tendencjcesoto distort the truth justify the student i n doubting any important and uncorroborated statement made by Meares — - even Maquinna dubbed him 'Aitaaita Meares* - 'the lying Meares".' (1) Dixon was an able navigator - praised as such by Mozino i n his Hoticlas de M i t k a , and Milet Mureau when editing La Perouse's voyage - whose honour and accuracy have never been questioned by any except Meares.  In regards to the controversy Meares  was undoubtedly i n the wrong. Meares was an Englishman on an unlicensed ship f l y ing British colours - hence a barefaced poacher operating an (1) JP. W. Howay, ''The Dixon Meares Controversy ', "The Canadian Historical Studies", Kyerson Press, Toronto, 1929, Page 8. 1  Page 90  i l l e g a l venture.  Portlock and Dixon were licensed, and law-  f u l l y i n trade - hampered by a l l the restrictions of the paths of virtue.  Apparently Meares was given a l l the assist-  ance that means permitted as regards food and repairs, including two of their sailors to make sufficient hands for the navigation of his vessel.  Meares on his side expressed no  graditude, but oomplained bitterly of the wages asked by the seamen.  In return Portlock required Meares to take a bond  that he would do no further trading on the coast, but return to China at onoe.  Meares accepted this oondition - but did  not keep i t , on the ground that Portlock simply took advantage of his helplessness to r i d himself of a competitor.  He  kept carefully i n the background that he was a thief caught i n the act - a lawful seizure - who had been given his freedom on promising to offend no further.  Hiehol, a seaman of  the "King George" records "Captain Portlock could have made a f a i r prize of him (Meares) as he had no charter and was trading i n our limits; but he was satisfied with his bond not to trade on our coast." (1)  In extracting this bond Portlock  was actually exceeding his powers.  Beresford, the supercargo  of the "Queen Charlotte", and aauthor of Dixon's "Voyage" said that the devastating effects of scurvy on the "Hootka" was partly due to an over use of s p i r i t s .  Meares hotly denied i t ,  but Beresford s testimony i s supported by Mohol i n his 1  "Voyages". Meares traded profitably down the coast, and after a month at the Sandwich Islands reached Macao on the 20th. of (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Page 11.  Page 91.  October 1787.  The expedition had been a financial failure -  only three hundred and f i f t y seven sea otter skins had been secured - and these through making the most of every opportunity.  Meares sold his cargo at Canton on April 4th. 1788 for  fourteen thousand, seven hundred and two dollars - amazingly good returns considering what the venture had undergone, and immediately began preparations for a second voyage. (1) Meares was daring, original and enterprising, and his audacity where his own interests were concerned was unbounded.  Yet the  "Lying Meares" was undoubtedly the "stormy petrcfl." of the coast, and i l l Peeling and discord seemed to follow inevitably i n his wake. Dixon's report of the sale of Meares* furs is interesting because of i t s inaccuracy.  The cargo was apparently  sold i n five lots, and Meares* final returns are quoted at #14,  842 instead of $14,702.  It i s generally believed that,  with the exception of the introduction, Dixon* s "Voyage" was the work of the supercargo, William Beresford.  The "voyage"  was written i n letter form, and his i n i t i a l s , "w. B." appear at the close of a l l accounts.  Beresford*s records of former  fur sales, where i t is possible to check the figures, have been quite correct.  Were i t not for the unfortunate Dixon -  Meares Controversy, the incident would be dismissed as a mere slip of calculation.  Even so the chances are a l l i n favour  of i t s being a genuine accident.  Beresford had no motive i n  falsifying the returns, while i t seems unlikely that a man of Dixon's standing, so universally well spoken of, would have il^cDlxon;::"y6yagexBx>und the World", Page 319. quoted i n Appendix | V to thesis.  Fur sale  Page 9E.  demeanoured himself to that extent.  Mad Dixon wished to do  so, i t is more probable that i t would have been done for a worth while amount, not a t r i f l i n g sum running under a hundred pounds.  Perhaps the strongest proof that the deception was  not intentional, l i e s i n the faot that a l l the figures for Meares supposed transactions are given - the number of furs, 1  and the price of each, making i t possible to check the quotations for the entire sale i n about fifteen minutes.  A course  open to such easy detection would hardly have been followed had the error been deliberate;: even although the act were inspired by the most petty of motives. The "King George*s Sound company" was organized i n May 1785 by Richard Cadman Etches, his brothers John and William, and other merchants, to engage i n the fur trade of the north west coast.  The company was noteworthy i n that i t  had conformed to the f a l l regulations, and wad licensed both by the South Sea Company and the East India Company. The furs were to be sold i n China by the supercargoes of the East India Company, and an agreement had been made to freight the vessels back to England with tea from Canton.  They bought  and outfitted two ships - the "King George" of three hundred and twenty tons, and a snow of two hundred, the "Queen Charlotte'.' The venture was placed i n charge of Captain Nathaniel Portlock, while Captain George Dixon commanded the "Queen Charlotte" - both men had previously visited the coast with Captain Cook: on his third voyage. The expedition set out under exalted auspices - the  Page 93  "King George" was christened! by the Secretary of the Treasury, and carried several gentlemen's sons whom Portlock was to initiate into seafaring l i f e *  Great care was taken to lay  In an adequate store of antiscorbutics, and Dixon records with pride that on a voyage lasting over three years, the "Queen Charlotte" out of a crew of thirty three lost only one man.  When this record is compared with that of Meares and  the "tfoot&a" there seems conclusive evidence that Meares did not take proper precautions for health preservation.  Dixon  took great pains to acknowledge his indebtedness to other navigators when employing their charts to compile his own, while Mears made f u l l use of the work of his predecessors, but ignored the sources, and tried to pass off the result as his own unaided effort - even to the extent - as i n the case of Barkley - of claiming their discoveries. The ships l e f t England on the second of September 1785, doubled Cape Horn, called at the Sandwich Islands for fresh provisions, and then made straight for Cook's River, arriving on the 16th. of July, at the Barren Islands.  During  the voyage the armourer's forge had been set up on deck, and articles had been made both for the ship's use and "toes" for future trade,  i'hese toes were long, flat pieces of iron,  resembling a oarpenter's plane, only narrower, and were much valued by the Indians. Almost at once the English encountered the Russians, who had a temporary trading headquarters on Kodiak Island, made of boats l a i d on their beam ends with skins drawn fore  Page 94.  and aft*  Their relations with the natives were such that  they never slept without arms ready loaded hy their sides. (1) From Kodiak, parties l e f t for various points - that which encountered the British ships was from Cook's River, twenty five strong.  Dixon was not impressed hy the skins, which  were green and not very p l e n t i f u l .  Courtesies were exchanged  with the Russians. The English vessels entered Cook's River, and a small trade with the Indians developed - salmon was sold for heads, and ahout twenty sea otter skins and a few marmot cutsarks were collected.  Some of the marmot cloaks contain-  ed as many as a hundred skins, hut the supply was soon exhausted, so Portlock then made for Prince William's Sound* Such had storms were encountered hy the time they reached Montague Island that i t was judged wiser to run south rather than continue*  Portlock f e l l i l l , so Dixon took the leaai  with instructions to go south to Cross Sound, Cape Edgecombe, and thence to Nootka, where they planned to winter and build a sloop about sixty or seventy tons.  The gales continued -  Dixon missed Cross Sound - and the ships were caught i n a great tempest outside Nootka. After vainly trying to enter the Sound for several days the attempt was abandoned, and the ships left the coast for the season, to winter at the Sandwich Islands - the "Paradise of the Pacific''. Portlock and Dixon returned to the north west coast i n the middle of March 1787, and reached Montague Island on the 23rd. of A p r i l .  A few  Indian canoes visited them, but  (1) Dixon, "Voyage Round the World", Page 60.  Page 9 5 . had no xurs - i t was concluded they had been trading from the green and yellow heads which they wore - so Dixon was sent i n the long boat to reconnoitre.  Meanwhile Portlock  had the "King George" hauled on shore for purposes of scraping and graving, and large quantities of spruce beer were brewed.  Dixon was much interested i n the Indians report of 1  a vessel i n the vicinity of Snug Corner Cove, and f i n a l l y discovered Meares and the unfortunate "Nootka"* Considerable difficulty was experienced i n trading with the inhabitants, as the only ertioles readily accepted were green and red beads and toes.  Hatchets, howels, saws,  brass pans, adzes, pewter basins and t i n kettles were refused even for fish - and these articles formed Portlock*s chief cargo.  Dixon cites an incident which took place when his  long boat was returning to the ship, showing how impossible i t was even to give the Indians useful objects - let alone f a i r value for their furs.  "Some canoes joined us, and one  of the Indians had a few sea-otter skins which he offered to sell.  Happening to cast his eyes on a frying pan, which my  people i n the long boat had to dress their victuals with, he requested to have i t i n barter*  Accordingly i t was offered  him, but he absolutely refused to take i t entire, and desired us to break off the handle, whioh he seemed to regard as a thing of inestimable value, and rejected the bottom part with contempt." (1) Portlock was greatly mortified to hear of Meares' existence, and to learn that there were other ships on the (1) Dixon, "Voyage Bounc" the World", Page 156.  Page 96.  ooast engaged i n the fur trade.  It was news to him, and he  mentally reduced his goal of four thousand skins to one thousand between the two ships.  Meares arrived a l i t t l e later i n  the long boat of the "Hootka", and received due assistance. Meares also gave Portlock to understand that he was expecting a ship to arrive at King George's Sound early i n June.  Port-  look concluded that i f such were the case the "Queen Charlotte" and tne "King George^ had better separate - the l a t t e r staying i n and about Prince William's Sound, and the former making straight for Nootka.  His resolution was strengthened by  the fact that the season was already far advanced, so the "Queen Charlotte" set s a i l i n due course - May 15th., and made her way slowly down the coast. Portlock stayed some weeks i n the v i c i n i t y of Montague Island, doing a f a i r trade.  In the beginning of  August the ship was spring-cleaned, well aired with fires and sprinkled with vinegar, after which she l e f t Prince William's Sound for the season.  The "King George" made one stop only,  when she anchored near Cross Sound, and accomplished a certain amount of business with the Indians.  The skins obtained here  were of a poorer grade since the Indiana did not take the same care i n drying and stretching their skins as those of Prince William's Sound and Cook's River.  Traces of La Perouse's  expedition were discovered, for the natives produced a carpenter's adze made i n a new fashion, with the l e t t e r "33" and the fleur de l i s on i t , and described the arrival of two ships, each with three masts.  The tribe was badly marked with  Page 97.  smallpox, which Portloolc concluded must have been brought by the Spaniards i n 1775.  He l e f t the coast for the Sandwich  Islands 24th. of August 1787, commenting that the fur trade would become a very valuable and lucrative branch of commerce i f established on a proper foundation, such as could easily be done by the government or the East India Company. The ''Queen Charlotte™ after leaving Prince William's Sound,made^her f i r s t stop at Port Mufcgrave. A few furs were obtained, but from the beads and iron articles owned by the natives i t was obvious that they were not the f i r s t traders.  Ten days were spent i n collecting these pelts -  chiefly owing to the extremely slow mode of trade practised by the Indians, deliberately aimed at spinning out the t r a f f i c . A canoe containing four or five Indians would draw alongside the vessel, and wait for perhaps an hour before giving any sign that they had anything to s e l l .  Finally by significant  movements and shrugs they endeavoured to hint that they had something very precious, but before showing i t , wished to see what would be given i n exchange.  If this manouuver brought  no results, the cargo would f i n a l l y be produced - after much deliberation - i t usually proved to be a few t r i f l i n g pieces of old sea otter.  Even then the bargain was not concluded  for some time, so that frequently the whole day was wasted i n picking up t r i f l e s .  Dixon extimated the inhabitants at about  seventy, and noted that their favorite articles were toes and pewter basins.  They would trade beads and objects of  small value, but would take only the deep blue and small  Page 98.  green.  The Indiana, as elsewhere, were so >- E.no rusted with  paint and d i r t , that their real features were obsoured.  To  satisfy their curiosity, the traders f i n a l l y bribed one woman to wash her face, and were much surprised by the handsome countenance disclosed by the process.  The Indians of Fort  Mulgreve ohewed a plant - a species of tobacco,  generally  mixing i t f i r s t with lime, or resine from the inner rind of the pine tree. Norfolk Sound'was the next port of c a l l .  Here the  natives seemed much more l i v e l y , and produced some excellent sea otter.  Toes were greatly desired, but only those from  eight to fourteen inches were accepted.  The demand varied  greatly at the different ports - here pewter basins were very popular, while hatchets, howels, buckles and rings were easily traded.  Beads were regarded with suoh contempt that they were  hardly received even as presents.  The "Queen Charlotte" v i s i t -  ed Port Banks, but saw no inhabitants and sailed on, reaching the Queen Charlotte Islands, which Dixon so named after his ships, and anchored off Cloak Bay on the 4th. of July 1787. They were the f i r s t traders i n the region, and were visited by about ten Indian canoes, carrying roughly a hundred and twenty people.  Dixon was much struck by their beautiful beaver  cloaks, and other furs.  At f i r s t the Haidas were too much  occupied by studying the vessel to trade, although shown toes, adzes, hatchets, howels, t i n kettles and pans.  Once trade  began, i t went fast and furiously - making, i n the words of Dixon, "a scene which beggered description".  Some of the  Page 99.  Indians even threw their furs on hoard i f there was no one to attend to them, hut care was taken to see that a l l received payment - largely i n the form of toes.  In half an hour three  hundred f i r s t grade sea otter skins had been collected.  The  cloaks or outsarks "generally consisted of three good sea otter skins, one of which was out i n two pieces, and afterwards sewn together 90 that they formed a square.  They were loosely  tied about the shoulders with small leather strings fastened on each side." (1) The "Queen Charlotte" followed the Island south, naming Hippa island, and remarking on the savage and brutal strain noticeable even i n the singing of the Haida people. The sailors received the impression that had they landed on the fortified Hippa they would have been k i l l e d immediately. Lip ornaments were as popular among the women as they had been at Port Mulgrave and Norfolk Sound, only i n these plaoes they signified rank, while i n the Queen Charlotte Islands they were worn indiscriminately.  The natives were  skilled and daring robbers, and on one occasion when trade had been completed, tried to engage the attention of the sailors by selling halibut while some canoes paddled astern and tried to retrieve the furs by spearing them through the cabin portholes. ent unoonoern.  When detected they paddled off with apparThe traders could make no headway with the  language, for the natives were not communicative and treated attempts to speak i t with sarcastic laughter or silent contempt. (1) Dixon, "Voyage Hound the World", Page 201.  Pago 100.  The voyage had been commercially a very successful one - one thousand eight hundred and twenty one sea otter skins had been obtained at the Queen Charlotte Islands alone. The ship was now headed xor Nootka Sound, and on the way encountered two ships also belonging to the "King George's Sound Company", which had l e f t England i n September 1786« They were the "Prince of Wales" under Captain Oolnett", and the "Princess Royal" a f i f t y ton sloop with a orew of fifteen under Captain Duncan, and had with them Mr. John Etches, brother of Richard Cadman fitches, the moving s p i r i t of the enterprise.  The surgeon of the "Prince of Wales" was  Archibald Menzies, later the famous botanist of Vancouver's expedition.  The newcomers had already spent a month at  Nootka, but with l i t t l e results i n the way of furs, since Captain sarkley had secured the best by the time they arrived. Supplies being low, they obtained wine, tobacco and portable soup from the latter, for which Dixon later made payment i n China* (1)  Dixon had been from England twenty three months  and so could not offer much i n the way of extra stores himself, but gave them a puncheon of molasses, a hogshead and a name38 cask of Sandwich island pork, what trade they wanted, and a copy of his charts. (2)  Comparison of notes  showed that i t was useless for the "Queen Charlotte" to go to Nootka, or for .Captains Oolnett and Duncan to go to Prince William's Sound.  Dixon advised the latter to explore the  north east shore of the Queen Charlottes and then l e f t for China via the Sandwich islands. (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", "Dixon's Remarks", . Page £ 9 . (2) Ibid, Page 28.  Page 101.  The ships had obtained between them two thousand five hundred and f i f t y two skins - the largest cargo yet recorded, which realized f i f t y four thousand eight hundred and f i f t y seven dollars.  Dixon remarks that this sale shows the  extreme fluctuations of the Chinese market, as two hundred of the skins ought to have fetched f i f t y dollars each, and the remainder i n proportion.  The supercargo of the East India  Company were blamed as well for the way they conducted the sale - as licensed ships Portlock and Dixon were not permitted to dispose of the skins themselves.  By this method Portlock  Bays they received twenty dollars apiece for two thousand of their best furs, which i f properly handled would have brought eighty or ninety each - the current rate at the time.  (1)  Portlock s estimate runs higher than Dixon's, but i n spite of 1  the loss and disappointment - which must have been considerable - Portlock comments on the fur trade "so far from being a losing branch of commerce, i t i s perhaps the most profitable and lucrative that the enterprising merchant can possibly engage i n . " (2)  The King George's Sound Company had not made  large fortunes, but were the gainers by several thousand pounds. After meeting i n Macao early in 1788, Portlock and Dixon went home to England.  Portlock mentions meeting Captain  Barkley and the "Imperial Eagle" - at this time under Portugese oolours. (!)  The "Imperial Eagle" had previously worn the  Austrian flag - but i t i s quite possible that Barkley changed, (1) Hathaniel Portlock, "A Voyage Round the World, 1785-8", Randal, London, 1789, Page 370. (£) Ibid, Page 371. (3) Ibid, Page 368.  Page 10S  since Portugese shipping received preferential duties at Macao• The "Prince of Wales'' and the "Princess Royal" had not come straight from England.  On their way they stopped at  Staten's Land and founded a factory for the purpose of collecting seal skins and o i l , before proceeding to Hootka Sound. Scurvy obtained a strong hold during the voyage, and the ships suffered much more heavily than Dixon and Portlock had before them.  Finding trade worthless at Nootka. where the "Imperial  Eagle" had already secured most of the furs, the ships were leaving for Prince William's Sound, when a chance meeting with Dixon showed the f u t i l i t y of this, and made them v i s i t the Queen Charlotte Islands instead.  Colnett and Duncan  wintered at the Sandwich Islands, and returned to the coast i n the spring of 1788.  Here the vessels separated, the  "Prince of Wales" going north to Prince William's Sound, while the "Princess Royal" visited Nootka and the Queen Charlotte Islands, as well as a group of islands eastward off the mainland shore, later named "Princess Royal Islands" after the sloop.  While i n these inner channels off the main-  land, Duncan had a narrow escape, for the natives attacked the tiny vessel - the smallest yet to v i s i t the north west coast - and were only driven off with difficulty*  He sailed  southward i n the beginning of August, enoountered Meares near Ahousat, and l e f t for China via the Sandwich Islands, where he met Colnett on August 17, 1788.  Duncan l e f t for England  almost immediately after reaching China, but the "Princess  Page 103.  Royal "and Colnetfremained.  The Bast India Company charter-  ed the "Prince of Wales" to load teas, and the ship returned immediately to England, carrying Duncan and two young Hawaiiana as passengers. Early i n 1788  Meares made a second voyage, ffought  with serious international consequences.  He intended to est-  ablish a factory at Nootka; and build a small vessel for trading on the coast - as Portlock and Dixon had planned to do in the winter of 1786-7.  Two ships were outfitted by John Henry  Cox and Company, merchants of Canton, (1) the "Felice" of two hundred and thirty tons with a orew of f i f t y ,  and the  ^Iphigenia" of two hundred, the l a t t e r under Captain Douglas with a crew of forty. the Portugese company,  They were ostensibly the property of Juan Cavalho and his firm, and flew  the Portugese flag to avoid the English license duties.(2) Cavalho had actually no share in the undertaking, which was an entirely B r i t i s h enterprise.  Meares commanded the exped-  i t i o n and was a joint proprietor.  Chinamen were included in  the crew for purposes of economy, since they lived on fish and rice and asked low wages, but they were mainly handicraft men, not sailors. satisfactory, fifty.  Meares regarded the experiment as highly  and quoted the number of Chinamen engaged as  (30) If this was so, they outnumbered  since the total of both ships  1  the whites,  crews was only ninety.  This  was the f i r s t employment of Chinese by Europeans on the British Columbia coast. (1) George Vancouver, "Voyage to the North Pacific Ocean", Edwards, London, 1798. Page 404. (S) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Pages £, 5-6. (3) Meares, "Voyages", Page 3.  Page 104.  Both ships were copper bottomed, and built to stand the rigours of the north west coast - after the last experience Meares was taking fewer chances, and provided warm clothing for the crew, both European and Chinese*  He records  that large supplies o f antiscorbutics were included, but subsequent events leave i t open to question.  Each ship carried  a five months supply of water, and allowed every person a gallon a day.  A considerable amount of livestock was includ-  ed i n the cargo, with the idea of stocking islands for future use - six cows, three bulls, four calves, goats, turkeys, rabbits and pigeons.  During the t r i p Meares meant to restore  the Atooian Prince, Tianna, to his native Sandwich Islands, from whence he had taken him to China i n 1787* The ships l e f t on the 2End. of January 1788, and encountered bad weather at once.  The Chinese crew became very  seasick, the rolling so upset the cattle that most of them had to be k i l l e d , and by the 2nd. of February scurvy had broken out seriously on the "Iphigenia"* "The carpenter, two of the quarter masters, and some of the seamen were already i l l - others discovered symptoms which were truly alarming, their legs swelling and their gums beooming putrid? (1) - and a l l this after only eleven days at sea.  Circumstances sugg-  est that general oonditions on both ships l e f t something to be desired, for while Meares makes no specific mention of scurvy on the "Felice", he speaks of " a small mutiny" which was quelled "by gentle means".  Douglas sought to check  scurvy by substituting spruce beer for s p i r i t s and resorting (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 23.  Page 105  to oranges and antiscorbutics. Meares reached Nootka on the 13th. of May, 1788, and returned another wanderer to his home - the Indian Comekela, a brother of Maquinna, who had been taken to China by an e a r l i e r expedition.  Comekela s appearance excited high admiration 1  - he was garbed i n a  "scarlet regimental coat, decorated  with brass buttons, a military hat set off with a flaunting (1) cockade, decent linens, and other appendages of European dressy and his return was celebrated by a great feast of whale blubber and o i l .  Maquinna and Callicum were absent from Nootka when  the ships arrived, but returned a few days later, esoorted by twelve war canoes, each holding an average of eighteen people. Most of the Indians wore "most beautiful sea otter robes, reaching from neck to ankle", and sang as they paddled.  It  was a v i s i t of state, and hence the hair of the natives "was powdered with the white down of birds, and their faces bedaubed with red and black ochre i n the form of a shark's jaw, and a kind of spiral l i n e , which rendered their appearance very savage  The chief was distinguished by a high cap,  pointed at the crown, and ornamented on top with a small tuft of feathers." (2)  Meares made presents of copper and iron to  the chiefs, who i n return threw their sea otter robes at his feet.  They were given blankets, and went off, apparently well  satisfied. Meares set about establishing a base for future trading, and purchased a piece of territory from Maquinna on which his factory could be b u i l t . (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 109. (2) Ibid, Page 112.  Maquinna readily granted i t ,  Page 106.  and received copper, iron and other articles, including a pair of pistols.  Meares i s the f i r s t trader recorded to have  supplied firearms to the natives - Dixon and Portlock refused to do so. (1)  Maquinna promised to assist the work i n every  way, and gave his protection to the party left at Nootka. Captain Ingraoam makes an interesting comment i n connection with the later dispute regarding the sale of Nootka.  In his  journal for September 1792 he asserts that Maquinna made "a declaration that he never sold any lands whatever to Mr. Meares or any other person except Captain Kendriok, whom he acknowledged to he the proprietor of lands around Mawhinna. Captain Magee and Mr. Howell witnessed this — declaration. If Mr. Meares did purchase the land he mentions no doubt a man of his penetration knowing the laws of his country had a deed drawn at the time ——  11  (2)  The fact that Meares never  produced nor mentioned any suoh document i s conclusive evidence that none existed* The Indiana were employed i n the erection of the building, which was f i n a l l y finished on the 28th. of May, 1788. Meares described i t : "The house was sufficiently spacious to contain a l l the party intended to be l e f t i n the Sound - on the ground floor there was ample room for the coopers, s a i l makers and other artisans to work i n bad weather, and a large room was also set apart for the stores and provisions, and the armourer's shop was attached to one end of the building and oommunioated with i t .  The upper story was divided into an  eating room and ohambers for the party,  on the whole, our  (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy","Dixon's Remarks", Page 35. (2) Ibid, Page 7. . . .  Page 107.  house, though i t was not built to satisfy a lover of architectural beauty, was admirably well calculated for the purpose to which i t was destined, and appeared to be a structure of uncommon magnifloenoe to the natives of King George's Sound. A strong breastwork was thrown up round the house, enclosing a considerable area of ground, which with one piece of cannon, placed i n such a manner as to command the cove and village of Nootka, formed a f o r t i f i c a t i o n sufficient to secure the party from any intrusion.  Without the breastwork, was l a i d the  keel of a vessel 40-50 tons which was now to be built agreeable to our former determination." (1) The fur trade had not been allowed to suffer through building activities, and a hundred and forty sea otter pelts were collected.  On his arrival Meares had set a prioe for  every kind of fur. but this did not suit the natives'  instincts  for bargaining, and they tried every means i n their power to alter the agreement.  The Indians much preferred to trade by  giving presents, rather than common barter, and the chiefs used to send Meares a message whenever they were prepared to make such a present.  Meares took what he was prepared to  give i n return, and want on shore, where the skins were l a i d at his feet with much ceremony and noise.  Everyone gathered  to see the spectacle, and dead silence followed to see what return would be made.  It was not an ideal method of traffic  from the traders point of view, who had no previous inkling 1  of the amount or value of the chief's "present". The fashion for European dress had begun since the (1) Meares, "Voyages", Pages 115-116.  Page 108.  return of Comekela, and a bargain could now be fixed by a bat or shoe.  A s p i r i t of mutiny s t i l l pervaded the crew of the  "Felice" under the leadership of the boatswain.  Meares  sought to discredit him i n the eyes of his fellows by degrading him to serve before the mast, and hoped that the discontent would thus die a natural death.  Meares began preparations  for a trading t r i p south, planning to leave a party on shore to complete the new vessel, while he collected the furs taken by the Indians during the summer months.  Meares l e f t on the  11th. of June, after v i s i t i n g Maquinna, and intimating that they would return i n about four months.  Maquinna was given a  suit of clothes covered with buttons and promised that when they f i n a l l y quitted the coast "he should enter into f u l l possession of the house and a l l the goods and chattels thereunto belonging." (1)  The "Iphigenla" was already north, covering  the coast from Cook's River to Nootka, while Meares and the "Felloe" went south. Meares visited Wiokananish and his village, which was almost three times the size of the Nootka one, and did a considerable trade, securing a hundred and f i f t y sea otter skins.  The articles chiefly i n demand were brass hilted  swords, copper tea kettles, pistols, muskets, and powder. Meares had no scruples i n supplying the Indians with firearms. As a whole he considered the Indians of Wiokananish Sound much more uncivilized than the Nootkans, but far superior i n sagacity and activity.  The "Felice" continued down the coast,  trading and exploring as she went. (1) Meares, "voyages", Page 130.  In this latter capacity  Pag© 109  Meares deliberately tried to claim the discoveries of Barkley, not only of Juan de Fuca Strait, but also on the island, saying, "We endeavoured to keep i n with the shore as much as possible, i n order to have a perfect view of the land. This was an object of particular anxiety as the part of the coast along which we were now sailing had not been seen by Captain Cook, and we know of no other navigator said to have been this way except Maurelle,  — and his chart convinced  us he had never seen this part of the coast." (1)  Yet while  making such a statement he was i n possession of Barkley s 1  own chart, (2) and when preparing his map drew freely upon the work of Barkley, Laurie and Guise, Duncan, Portlock and Dixon, without any acknowledgement.  (3)  Meares entered the  Straits of Juan de Fuca, and took possession i n the name of tne King of England.  The ship returned to Nootka on July 26,  1788, having made excellent progress and collected many skins, and found the new vessel well advanced.  The long delayed  mutiny on the "Felice" f i n a l l y oame to a head, but was at once quelled.  The eight ringleaders were given the choice of  continuing i n irons, or being landed among the savages.  They  chose the latter, so Meares turned them over to the tender mercies of Maquinna, who made - and treated them as - domestic slaves with a l l that coast slavery implied.  Meares considered  this a humane way i n which to "settle the affair without bloodshed." Meares met the "Princess Royal" about the 16th. of August 1788, making for Port Cox i n Wiokananish Sound. (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 152. (2) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", Page 8. (3) Ibid, Page 15.  In  Pago 110.  Meares opinion she had done an extremely good trade, and "there is reason to believe that this l i t t l e vessel accomplished more for her owners than any ship that ever sailed to the North West Coast of America." (1) Friendly Cove, where the  Meares now returned to  "Iphigenia" arrived on the 27th. of  August, having covered the  American coast from Cook's Bivor  to King George's Sound. Captain Douglas had gone straight north, towards Alaska, and passed the Barren Islands at Cook's Bivor on June 17, 1788* Be anchored i n Cook's River, whore almost at once he was visited hy a number of native canoes, a l l manned by "ticket men".  They immediately showed the tokens as pass-  ports of good usage.  The Russians sold these tickets to the  Indians at exhorbitant prices, asserting that they Would protect the people from i l l treatment from any strangers who might v i s i t the ooast.  The "licence" was encouraged by exor-  cising "great oruelty on such natives as were not provided with these instruments of safety,  so that the poor people  were very happy to purchase them on any terms." (2)  The  particular Indians i n the canoes were so poverty stricken that they had not a rag of fur between them. Trade was slow - the Indians were afraid to barter for fear of the  Russians, and Douglas got only fish, for  beads, and five sea otter skins, purchased for two feet of broad bar iron each.  At the Indians' request he sent the  long boat higher up the rivor on a trading expedition where business could be transacted unobserved. (1) Mearos, "Voyages", (2) Ibid, Page 307.  Page 200.  The results of this  Page 111.  t r i p were disappointing, and the "Iphigenia" moved on to Snug Corner Cove i n Prince William's Sound.  Luck again deserted  them, for a tree on shore revealed the inscription. " J . Etches of the "Prince of Wales",  May 9th. 1788 and John Hutohins",  showing that the ship had preceded them hy ten days,  AS a  result Douglas only obtained one sea otter skin and "five seal skins for the rigging.  11  (1)  The "Ipha'genia" continued trading  south along the coast, with more success, u n t i l rejoining the "Felice" i n Friendly  Cove.  At Nootka work on the new schooner was progressing fast.  The season for leaving the west coast approached, but  the year had been a satisfactory one, and a very valuable cargo of furs collected which should be marketed as soon as possible.  Hence Meares planned to take the pelts to China  himself i n the ''Felice", while leaving the "Iphigenia" and the schooner to carry on the trade.  The "Felice'' was then made  ready for sea, and the mutineers - with the exception of the boatswain - were allowed on board.  Meares presented Maquinna  with a musket and a l i t t l e ammunition, (2) as well as a few blankets.  The vogue for articles of European dress was gain-  ing, and Callioium commissioned Meares to bring back to him shoes, stockings and a hat.  His friends did likewise, and the  goods were duly delivered by the "Argonaut" i n 1789. On the 16 of September, 1788, a new s a i l appeared on the horizon, which proved to be the sloop ''Washington" from Boston, under Captain Robert Gray. ican participation i n the fur trade. (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 316. (2) Ibid, Page 216. -  It marked the f i r s t AmerGray had no idea that  Page 112  other competitors were already i n the f i e l d , and was greatly surprised to see the ship i n the stocks.  "He appeared, how-  ever, to he very sanguine i n the superior advantages which his countrymen from New England might reap from this track of trade, and was big with many mighty projects, i n which we under understood he was protected hy the American Congress." (1) The launching of the new ship took place three days later - at 12 o'clock on the 20th. of September 1788, a proceedure at which the ceremony of other dockyards was s t r i c t l y observed.  "As soon as the tide was at i t s proper height, the  English ensign was displayed on shore at the house, and on board the new vessel, which at the proper moment was named the "North-West America", as being the f i r s t bottom ever built and launched i n this part of the globe." (2)  the Indians  and Americans watched the ceremony with great interest.  In  actual fact, the ship entered the water with such velocity that she nearly went out of the harbour - since Meares, being unaccustomed to such matters, had forgotten to put an anchor and cable oh board to pull her up.  Meares l e f t almost immed-  iately for China, and a l i t t l e later Douglas sailed with the "Iphigenia" and "North West America" to winter at the Sandwich Islands.  Gray wintered and traded at Nootka, where  he was joined by his companion and commander, Captain Kendrick, of the "Columbia".  They w i l l be f u l l y discussed l a t e r .  In the autumn of 1788 a reorganization of interests took place i n China, shortly after Meares return, between the 1  agent of the merchants i n England, (The King George's Sound (1) Meares, ''Vftyages", Page 220. (2) Ibid, Page 220.  Page 113.  Company) and the agent of the merchants in India*  n  (1) form-  ing a Joint stock company to carry on the fur trade and eliminate injurious competition.  It was known as the "Associated  Merchants trading to the North West Coast of America, and consisted of: John Meares, John Henry Cox, Richard Caiman Etches, John Etches, William Etches, William STtzhugh, Henry Lane, and Daniel Beale. (2) throughout.  The East  Meares acted as the spokesman  India Company and the South Sea Comp-  any derived no further revenue from the enterprise, firm took the name of Juan Portuguese flag.  for the  Cawalho, and the ships flew the  Meares gives his own explanation for s a i l -  ing under false colours, i n his memorial —  "In order to  evade the excessive high port charges demanded hy the Chinese from a l l other  European nations except the Portugese, he and  his associates had obtained the name of Juan Cawalho to their firm, although he had no actual connection i n their stock. Cawalho, though by birth a Portuguese, had been naturalized at Bombay, and had resided there many years under the protection of the  East India Company, and had carried on an extens-  ive trade from thence to their various settlements in that part of the world.  The intimacy subsisting between Cawalho  and the Governor of Macao had been the principal cause of their forming this nominal connection, and Cawalho had i n consequence obtained his permission that the two ships above mentioned, i n case i t should be found convenient to do so, should be allowed to navigate under, or claim any advantages granted to the Portuguese flag." (3)  Certain t a r i f f advantages  (l)Meares, "Voyages", Page 106. e 8 J W n D l a w n ((3)John S l ^ 1 ^ »Meares, rtK 9 , Controversy" Introduction. Page 3. 'Memorial*, Appendix:Howay and Scholefiild, "British Columbia", I, Page 6 of "Memorial".  Page 114.  may undoubtedly nave been gained by this deception, but i t was merely an excuse to camouflage the real reason - to avoid the expense of licenses required of a l l independent British traders i n those regions. At the same time  Meares asserted that the ships of  the Etches brothers - the "Prince of Wales" and the "Princess Royal", carried licenses from the English joint stock companies which did not expire t i l l 1790.  Colnett •* a evidence support-  ed Meares, for he stated that the King George's Sound Company held a license from the South Sea Company "good for five years after September 1st. 1786, for trading i n the South Sea and other parts of America*" (1)  Hence the "Princess Royal", when  she returned to America i n 1789 as the property of the "Associated Merchants", was s t i l l a legal trader.  Colnett's  trading license for the "Prince of Wales" was also valid, one of Meares principal reasons for enlisting his services.  The  "Prince of Wales" was not considered f i t for another voyage to the north west coast, having damaged her keel, and so was freighted to England with teas by the East India Company. Another vessel, the "Argonaut", was bought"by the new company to take her place.  Colnett saw no disadvantage to his permit  i n the change of ships - had there been, he suggested i t would have been completely remedied by renaming the new vessel "Prince of Wales" (2) but i t was considered unnecessary* The Spanish Viceroy alone questioned the legality of the transfer. This explains why, although Meares and the "Associated Merchants" (1) W. R. Manning, "The Nootka Sound Controversy", American Historical Association, Armual Report 1904, Washington, Government Press, Page 296. (2) Ibid, Page 296.  Page 115.  owned four trading ships on the north west coast during the season 1789, half flew the English flag and half the Portuguese - two were authorized, and two were poaching. Captain Colnett was given charge of a l l the concerns of the company, and received instructions from Daniel Beale i n i t s name before leaving Macao.  He was ordered to build a  substantial house as soon as the ship reached Nootka. The second ship, the veteran "Princess Royal", was placed under Captain Hudson, and both sailed early i n the year.  Meares  believed that the best passage was obtained by leaving i n March, but for some reason i t was the middle of A p r i l before Colnett was able to start.  Page 116  Chapter V.  "THE NOOTKA SOUND CONTROVERSY." (1789-1790)  The peace and tranquility of the north wesv coast was soon to he rudely disturbed, and hy 1789 there were indications that Russia, Spain and Britain, a l l aimed to occupy and trade at Nootka Sound*  Spain sent an expedition north in  1788 under Martinez and Haro, who visited the Russian settlements i n Alaska, and learnt that Cusmiok only awaited the arrival of four frigates from Siberia to establish a trading post at Nootka Sound.  Martinez was much perturbed by this  news, and persuaded Florez, the Viceroy of New Spain, to fores t a l l the move by making a Spanish settlement there immediately.  Florez was sufficiently impressed to send two ships from  San Bias on February 17, 1789, the "Prinoesa" and "San Carlis", having orders to make a permanent base, under the command of Martinez with Haro as his assistant.  Careful instructions  were given regarding the chance meeting of British, Russian or American ships.  The British were to be convinced by  explanatory argument of Spain's prior and superior claim to the l o c a l i t y .  The Russians, f i r s t reminded of the strong  friendship existing between the two countries, were to be finally cajoled by the news that i n case of trouble Spain could rely on the assistance of her French a l l y .  The Americans  were simply to be informed that Spain was opening up her  Page 117.  territory north to Prince William's Sound, and that troops, colonists and missionaries were on the point of arriving.  If  any of the intruders, unquelled Toy such arguments, attempted to make a settlement, Martinez was to "repel force hy force", and "endeavour to prevent as far as possible their intercourse and commerce with the natives." (1) Florez regarded the Americans as more dangerous rivals than the Russians or even the English.  As the great  commercial nation of the American continent he saw the immense value to them of an outlet on the western coast* and expressed himself: "We ought not to be surprised that the English colonies of America, being now an independent Republic, should carry out the design of finding a safe port on the Pacific and of attempting to sustain i t by crossing the Immense country of the continent above our possessions of Texas, New Mexico, and California." (2)  As proof of his suspicions he mentioned  the American ship "Columbia" of Boston, who was known to have called at Juan Fernandez Islands earlier i n the year, and continued towards the north west coast i n 1788, with a small companion vessel, the "Washington", somwehere i n the offing. Spanish anxiety was increased by the fact that their real destination and intentions were unknown, since the Spanish Governor of the Islands, Bias Gonzales, had allowed them to depart without ascertaining.  For this offence he was cash-  iered by the Captain-General of Chile, whose action i n the matter was upheld by the Viceroy of Peru. Spain s t i l l clung to her claim that the Treaty of (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy ', cf. Martinez Instructions, Page 304. (2) Ibid, Page 302. 1  1  Page 118.  Tordesillas, 1494, Had given Her sovereignty over the entire American continent west of the l i n e set hy that agreement, and strove to exclude a l l other nations as interlopers. The Nootka Sound Controversy, although developing between Spain and England, not  America, as Florez had seemed to anticipate,  was i n reality a struggle for the freedom of the seas.  It  was "a decisive conflict between two great colonial principles, of which England and Spain were the exponents." (1) England upheld that discovery without colonization did not constitute ownership, and that such land belonged to the nation who f i r s t settled and developed i t , end won her point. The Spanish expedition entered Friendly Cove on the 5th. of  May 1789, and found two foreign vessels at  anchor - the "Iphlgenia" of Captain Douglas, and the American "Columbia" - Captain Kendriek.  Captain Gray and the  "Washington", meeting Martinez a l i t t l e earlier as she was leaving the Sound, had paused for friendly intercourse. To the American officers who went aboard, Martinez represented himself as an explorer, sent from Cadiz with two other ships to explore the coast.  He also told them he had been north to  Bering Straits, and showed a northern skin canoe lashed to his quarter as a proof.  Martinez asked some searching quest-  ions concerning the ships already i n the Cove, and remarked, on hearing of the "Iphigenia", that "she would make a good prize."  Th®  only explanation for Martinez* curious l i e s was  that he wished to put the American traders entirely off their guard, and by assuming an unofficial guise, ascertain the (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 284.  Page 119.  true motive of their activity at Nootka. There i s BO positive evidence that Meares house 1  was s t i l l standing when Martinez arrived.  The Americans,  Gray and Ingraham, wrote three years l a t e r that no trace of i t remained, and that Captain Douglas had pulled i t down i n 1788 before leaving for the Sandwich Islands, taking the boards with him, and giving the roof to Captain Kendrick who used i t for firewood.  The strong Spanish bias of the American  captains detracts from the value of their testimony, but there i s indirect evidence i n their favour, unwittingly supplied by Meares himself.  It is an extract from the log of the  "Iphigenla" of May 88 nd. 1789, made two days after Captain Douglas'' return from the Sandwich Islands, and two weeks before Martinez arrived on the scene.  "(We) sent some sails  on shore and erected a tent to put our empty casks i n . " (1) Manning argues With seeming logic that i f the house had s t i l l been standing i t would naturally have been used for this purpose instead of a mere pitched tent.  The case is strength-  ened by the fact that nowhere i n the journal for 1789 i s any reference made to the house, and that even i n his "Memorial", Meares makes no definite statement that his house was s t i l l standing*  Thus i t may safely be concluded that however  disposed of, the house had gone by May 1789, and there were no evidences to indicate that Meares intended to form a peremanent establishment*  Hence Martinez was perfectly justified  in taking possession of Nootka. Captain Douglas tried to represent to the Spaniards (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 313.  Page 1£0.  that the "Iphigenla" was a Portuguese ship, following Meares policy for the past season.  1  He carried a passport hearing  the signatures of the governor and captain general of Macao, saying i t was a Portuguese vessel, under the command of Francisco Josef Viena, "also a subject of the same crown." The real oaptain was represented as an English supercargo. Haswell records that when the "Washington" reached Nootka, both the "Felice" and the "Iphigenie" were flying Portuguese colours, while Duncan t e l l s the same story of Meares when he met the "'Felice" off Nootka.  She was under the Portuguese  flag, and posed as coming from Lisbon under the command of Don Antonio Pedro Mannella. (1)  Douglas explained the presence  of the "Iphigenla" i n the Sound, saying that he was awaiting essential supplies from China.  Martinez acoepted this story,  but was by no means blind to the dual nationality of the ship.  Friendly relations continued for a few days u n t i l  perusal of the Portuguese instructions revealed a clause whereby the captain was ordered i f accosted by Russian, Spanish or English ships to defend his ship, and i f superior to the attacking vessel to capture and take her as a prize to Macao. The Spanish authorities took violent exception to this although i t was probably an error of interpretation - and Martinez seized the "Iphigenla", struck the Portuguese flag, and flew the Spanish i n its place. The officers and crew of the "Iphigenla" were confined, some i n the "Princesa" and the rest on the "San Carl is". Martinez having made his prize, found that he could not spare (1) Howay, "Dixon Meares Controversy", cf. Duncan's Letter, Page 112.  Pago 121.  sufficient men to send her to San Bias, and so released her after twelve days, i n exchange for a h i l l upon Cavalho, ths supposed Portuguese owner, promising to pay as ransom the f a i r value of the ship and cargo i f the Viceroy ruled that Martinez had been within his rights to make the capture. A farewell dinner was given on hoard $he "Prineesa", after which the "Iphigenla" l e f t the Sound, supposedly for China, hut running north after midnight instead.  Douglas had only  between sixty and seventy sea otters on board but raised the number to about seven hundred during the voyage.  Hence i t  is f a i r l y obvious that the ship's supplies of food and trading articles cannot have been diminished to the extent claimed by Meares i n his "Memorial". The "Uorth West America" had been absent on a cruise when the Spaniards arrived, and returned to Nootka on the 8th. of June, quite unaware of the progress of events i n her absence*  On hearing the vessel belonged to the firm of Cavalho,  Martinez seized her, and renamed her "Gertrudis", after his wife.  Being a small ship she could be sailed with a limited  crew, which the Spaniards were able to supply, and was sent south on a trading expedition under David Coolidge of the "Washington".  Meanwhile no time was lost i n forming an estabfe  lishment at Nootka - far more elaborate than.that of Meares. Hog Island was fortified and garrisoned, while on shore barracks, a workshop and a bakery were b u i l t ,  Formal possess -  ion was taken on June 24, 1789, i n the "Name of the Holy Trinity, Father, Son and Holy Ghost  and his Majesty the  Page 128.  King, Don Carlos  III, and for the service of God and the  good and prosperity of his vassala." (1)  It was accompanied  hy much impressivejpomp and ceremony. Captain Hudson and the "Princess Royal" arrived on the 15th. of June, and was met hy Martinez, Kendrick and Funter (late captain of the "north West America"). Martinez permitted her to take on wood and water and depart i n peace, as well as presenting Hudson with a "circular letter to a l l Spanish vessels to allow him to pass on his way unmolested, (2) In so doing Martinez was perhaps too lenient.  His instructions  ordered him "to prevent intercourse and commerce with the natives" and quite justified him i n seizing both the "Iphigenla" and the "North West America", as the only a v a i l able method of asserting authority.  Captain Hudson's commiss-  ion; said that the voyage was one of discovery, which possibly explains why Martinez allowed the "Princess Royal ' to leave 1  and mentioned its exploratory aims i n his circular.  Martinez'  friendly attitude to the American ships was perfectly consistent with his orders, since they oarried"letters from the Spanish minister i n the United States, recommending the attention of the authorities of his nation on the Pacific coasts." (3)  On examining the Americans' papers Martinez  found their object was not colonization, but to circumnavigate the globe.  There was no reason for preventing this,as there  (1) Howay and Soholefield, "British Columbia", I, 139-143. (2) Manning, "The Nootka Sound Controversy", Pages 328-329. (3) c; F . Newcombe, "First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island", Cullin,-Victoria, B. C , 1914. Page 33.  Page 183  was nothing i n their instructions derogatory to Spanish rights, hut he forbade them i n the name of Carlos III,  to  return either to the seas or coast without a special permit, since Spain had prohibited navigation hy any foreign power on the American shores.  She Americans were very useful to  Martinez, both i n his dealings with the English and the Indians, and he beoame so friendly with the Americans, that the English accused them of being i n league. As the "Princess Royal" sailed out, she passed the "Argonaut" entering - July 8nd. - which was also met by Martinez, vainly hoping i t was his expected supply ship "Aranzazu".  Hudson had l e f t a l e t t e r for Colnett, which re-  assured him completely as to the friendliness of the Spaniards, and he allowed his ship to be towed into the harbour regardless of the warnings of Captain Funter of the "north West America", alias "Gertrudis". The "Argonaut" carried a l l the necessary equipment for founding a trading post, as well as material for another sloop and twenty nine Chinamen of the artisan class who were to begin the future colony of the trading post - Port P i t t .  Meares also planned to internationalize the  population s t i l l further by importing wives for these Chinese from the Sandwich  Islands.  Colnett wished to leave the next  day, but Martinez vacillated, and finally demanded his papers. A bitter dispute arose over some t r i f l i n g matter concerning them, reaching a climax where Martinez arrested Colnett and seized the "Argonaut", sending her as a prize to San Bias. Some of the English were sent with her, and the rest later i n  Page 124.  the "Aranzazu".  The ''Argonaut" was ready for the voyage to  San Bias on July 13th., when just as she was sailing, the "Princess Royal" came i n sight.  Captain Hudson had found  himself i n the vicinity, and so stopped off at Nootka Sound to see i f a l l was well with the "Argonaut". Leaving' his ship he visited the "Prinoesa", where he was at once made prisoner, and ordered to direct the "Princess Royal" to enter the Nootkan trap.  The Spaniards were prepared to capture her  hy force i f this failed, and realizing the hopelessness of the situation, Hudson ordered the ship to surrender.  Both  the English vessels were sent as prizes to Mexico, a voyage on which their crews experienced great discomfort, Colnett being looked a l l night i n his cabin without water, while the men were confined and kept i n irons. (1) i n August 1789.  The ships arrived  Florez recalled Martinez the same year,  February 2nd, 1789, but the order did not arrive u n t i l after the disturbances and before the news of his exploits had reached Europe.  Martinez arrived i n San Bias, December 6th. (2)  1789, and the f i r s t Spanish settlement at Nootka was deserted. Florez supported Martinez in his actions, but he was succeeded in October 1789 by Hevilla Gigedo, and the handling of the a f f a i r devolved on the new Viceroy. Gigedo, i n spite of Florea' letters,  did not consider the matter of  much importance, and assumed the attitude that Martinez had insufficient ground for making the captures.  Yet he was  sufficiently interested in Nootka to wish to reoocupy i t , and (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 145. (2) W. N. Sage, "The Spanish Explorers of the British Columbian Coast", Canadian Historical Review, December 1931. Page 394.  Page 125.  selected Lieutenant Erancisco KLijsa of the Spanish Navy to carry i t out, giving him three ships, the frigate "Conception? the "San Carlos" and the sloop "Prinoesa Real", alias "Princess Royal".  His instructions included the exploration  of the "coasts, islands, and parts up,to 6 8 ° , Cook's River, and the Strait of Juan de Fuca' * 1  E l i z a arrived on the 5th. of  April 1790, and began both tasks at once, establishing a military post at Nootka, and sending Lieutenant Fidalgo on the "Filipino" to explore the shore line from 57° south.  Weather  oonditions prevented Fidalgo from completely f u l f i l l i n g his instructions, but he visited the Russians of Cook Inlet, and took possession of Prince William's Sound.  Failing supplies,  and continuation of unfavourable winds then forced him to return to Monteray. Revilla Gigedo expected advice from Spain regarding the English ships, but none oame, so i n May 1790 he ordered them to be released and returned to Colnett on his own authority.  It was a practical repudiation of Martinez' actions.  The English sailors s t i l l confined i n Mexico were freed as well, although the majority had reached Macao at an earlier date.  Gigedo stated that his action was one of "pure gener-  osity", but forbade Colnett to v i s i t the Spanish American coasts again either for trade or settlement.  At Colnett's  earnest request this was later modified to places under the control of Spain. in 1790.  Colnett l e f t Mexico i n the "Argonaut" late  He missed the "Princess Royal" at Hootka, and only  obtained possession at the Sandwich Islands i n March 1791, and  Page 126.  the "North West  America was also regained about this time. 11  E l i z a sent Manual Quimper to explore the Strait of Juan de Fuca i n the "Princess Heal" i n May 1790.  He set.fa out  on the 31st., making slow and careful progress, exploring both north and south shores, and taking formal possession in the south.  Eliza continued his explorations along the southern  coast, when a bad storm prevented him from returning to Nootka, so he made for Monteray, and arrived on the 2nd. of September 1790.  E l i z a must have passed the freed "Argonaut" on the way,  with the order for the surrender of the "Princess Royal". Colnett was greatly incensed on finding she was not at "Nootka, and accused the Spanish of tricking him. The diplomatic side of the Nootka Sound Controversy must be considered briefly, since the actual discussions and incidents have l i t t l e direct connection with the fur trade* The f i r s t information of the course of events reached England indirectly on January 4th. 1790, through Anthony Merry, the British ambassador at Madrid, who sent an account of a confuse ed rumour i n Madrid to the effect that an English ship had been captured by a Spanish man-of-war at Nootka, and sent as a prize to Mexico*  The matter was not investigated*  The  f i r s t important intimation arrived i n the form of a protest from the Marquis del  Campo, February 10, 1790,  against  British Invasion of Spanish territory, and suggested that such intruders should be punished*  The Marquis of Leeds repl-  ied brusquely that in the f i r s t place the vessel so seized must be restored, and then investigation would be made when  Page 127.  information concerning a l l circumstances of the a f f a i r had been gathered.  The Spanish diplomats had not expected such  an attitude, and disliked the tone of the British reply. Immediate preparations were made for war; for i t was thought that Pitt desired to humble Spain.  ELoridablanea, the Prime  Minister of Spain made every effort to preserve the outward appearance of peace, and keep Merry i n ignorance of his plans. Spain would not agree to the British demand of "satisfaction before discussion", and sent another note i n a simi l a r tone i n March, expressing the hope that British subjects would now be requested to respeot Spanish rights, and that i t . would "not be necessary to enter into discussions regarding the indubitable rights of the Spanish Crown." (1) was only known that one ship had been captured.  So far i t The Spanish  authorities were i n f u l l possession of the facts, but for some unknown reason had not made them public.  Then, l i k e a  thunderbolt, Meares arrived i n London i n April 1790, and presented his famous memorial to a government whose previous information depended only on vague rumours, and possessed no clear idea of the facts.  The Memorialv,was a document "more  useful to s t i r the public mind to war with Spain than as a statement of facts.  Exaggerated, contradictory, intention(2)  a l l y false,  i t exists today a complete proof of his mendacity'.  It was written i n the expectation of exacting large money payments from Spain, and the case against the Spaniards was twisted with the deliberate intention of arousing a rampant war s p i r i t i n the general public. At a cabinet meeting (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 149. (2) Ibid, I, 149.  1  Page 128. following the presentation of the document, A p r i l 30, 1790, the government resolved to demand "an immediate and adequate satisfaction for the outrages committed hy M. de Martinez", (1) and advised the king to prepare for war.  Plans were begun,  hut kept secret u n t i l the middle of May, when information concerning the affairs of Nootka was sent to Parliament hy the king, stressing that no satisfaction had been given, and that Spain claimed the right to exclude a l l nations from the waters and territory of that part of the world*  The king  added that as steps were being taken i n Spain towards war, he felt bound to ask  Commons for supplies to do likewise.  The  idea was popular, and Parliament voted a million pounds to "enable his Majesty to aot as the exigency of affairs might require", and preparations were speedily got underway*  Great  Britain informed her a l l i e s of the Triple Alliance, Holland and Prussia of her need, and asked for aid with gratifying results*  Holland sent ten ships, while Prussia promised to  stand by her agreement should war occur. Spain was not so fortunate. Prance, but although the  She was a l l i e d with  French king was willing to help her,  the French minister said that the tone of the Assembly made i t advisable to keep peace*  Seeing l i t t l e possibility of aid,  Spain began to change her diplomatic attitude, but made one last effort to get help, and sent a circular l e t t e r to the courts of Europe, asking for assistance on the ground that Great Britain was trying to force a quarrel while Spain wished to maintain peace*  The general European situation did not  (1) Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 376.  Page 129  favour war, and matters became less belligerent i n tone. Britain declared that she had every desire to reach a peaceful agreement, but stated that  "no negotiations to that end could  be undertaken u n t i l the vessels were restored, Meares indemnified, and satisfaction given for the insult to the British flag." (1)  P i t t forced Spain to choose between war and abandon-  ing her claim to sovereignty.  War seemed imminent.  Both  fleets lay i n readiness, as well as the Dutch ships, which were prepared to assist desire.  Great Britain whenever she should so  Matters dragged on u n t i l September, Spain began to  realize the seriousness of her isolation, while the people of England began to complain at the length of negotiations and the uncertainty.  In July Floridablanca had signed an agree-  ment to restore Meares ships, indemnify the owner, and give 1  satisfaction for injury, While Fitzherbert signed a counter declaration for England, accepting the indemnity and apology. Further abortive efforts were made, but ho agreement was reached, u n t i l October 2, 1790, Pitt "sent a ten day ultimatum together with two drafts for the Convention of which the Spanish ministry might take i t s choice" - the only difference c being that one of them provided for the definite demarkatlon of Spanish territory. (2)  Floridablanoe procrastinated t r y -  ing to obtain a few small concessions - the Spanish considered the British demands preposterous - no greater surrender could be required as the result of a disastrous war." (3)  No avenue  (1) Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 152. (2) Lennox M i l l s , "The Real Significance of the Nootka Sound Incident", Canadian Historical Review, 1925, VI, 118. (3) Ibid, VI, 118.  Page 130.  of evasion opened, and he was forced to agree. The Nootka Sound Convention was signed on the 28th. of October 1790.  By i t s articles Meares lands were restored, 1  and reparation for his loses promised.  The freedom of the  Pacific was assured to both British and Spanish shipping, while at Nootka and elsewhere "both should have free access and carry on their commerce without molestation wherever either power should form a settlement." (1) was approved i n  The Convention  England, hut bitterly attacked in Spain.  Jjloridablanca's f a l l from power i n 1792, after fifteen years of service, is attributed to his signing i t .  (2)  The Convention l e f t the north west coast i n the nature of a no-man ?-s land, claimable only by settlement, while Spain had renounced - for the f i r s t time i n history - her claim to exclusive sovereignty of the coasts and waters of the Pacific Oceans.  Captain George Vancouver was sent from  England to receive the property and buildings at Nootka. Spain paid Meares a large compensation - $210,000 - "a very l i b e r a l allowance, and far exceeded any actual loss." (3) Meares reached this figure by his usual methods of exaggeration, such as assuming that the "Argonaut" would have collected two thousand skins worth a hundred dollars each - a feat never accomplished i n coast history i n such a period by a ship her size.  Dixon further points out that the price of a l l  such skins since 1785 was only about twenty nine dollars. (4) Meares further estimated that the "Iphigenla", ''Princess Royal" 41). (2) (3) (4)  Manning, "Nootka Sound Controversy", Page 119. Ibid, Page 459. Howay and Scholefield, "British Columbia", I, 156. Ibid, I, 156.  Page 131.  and "north West  America" would have secured a thousand skins  apiece, although the combined cargoes of the "Felice" and "Iphigenla" for the previous season had only produced seven hundred and f i f t y pelts, sold, Meares stated, for f i f t y dollars a skin.  Meares had Hsinged the King of Spain's beard"  as effectively as ever i t was done by S i r Francis Drake - the oontrast lying merely in the methods - mendacity versus bravado.  So ended the Hootka Sound Controversy - which when  i t f i r s t opened was regarded as "the insignificant quarrel of two obscure sea captains" - a mere "fight for the cat skins of Hootka", and at i t s climax nearly precipitated European war.  The settlement determined the subsequent positions of  England and Spain on the north west coast, broke the Spanish monopoly, and provided a future factor of the Oregon Boundary Dispute. The incident marked the end of the f i r s t era i n the Maritime Fur Trade, in which i t reached i t s peak.  Furs were  plentiful, traders were sufficiently scarce to make barter profitable, and no great Ingenuity was required in selecting articles of trade.  Iron, copper, firearms and powder were  the most desired commodities.  The metals either came i n bars  or sheets, or made into articles such as kettles, swords, and a variety of tools.  Beads were more valued i n the north,  but soon brought l i t t l e but fish in any d i s t r i c t .  Pewter  ware, blankets and mirrors were highly popular, and by 1788 the vogue for articles of European dress had begun. The fur trade, although mainly sea otter, was  Page 132.  exclusively so only a snort time.  Fur seal was soon included,  as well as beaver, river otter, marten, marmot, and practica l l y every animal found on the coast.  Meares, i n his "orders  to Captain Douglas" gives an idea of the relative value of these furs. (1)  Black beaver fetched from ten to twelve  dollars, river otter between four and five. were valuable, brown were not.  Black marten  Small hurst skins were worth  collecting, since they brought between ten and fifteen dollars a hundred.  Oil was a prized commodity, fetching a price of  forty five pounds starling a ton. market.  Whale bone had a certain  No skin approached the sea. otter i n value, but  beaver and fox - particularly black fox - always brought good returns.  The price of the l a t t e r was not quoted.  Ginseng  was included i n the trade. Some traders made a practice of setting a price for every kind of fur when they arrived, and remained adamant, despite the wiles of the Indians who were notorious barterers. As was l a t e r said of the natives,  "the modern Hebrew could  teach them nothing i n the art of bargaining." (2)  Great  care was taken over the skins and their preservation.  Meares*  instructions to Douglas and Colnett on the subject were explicit; "Furs must be classified and packed i n chests, let them be smoked and carefully put in, with heavy weights over them, so that when they are produced at market, they may bear such appearance as w i l l enhance their value." (3)  Samples of  each quality had to be put i n separate boxes, and every skin, (1) (2) (3)  Meares, "Voyages", Appendix II, "Orders to Captain Douglas. Marohand, "A Voyage Round the World", Page 192. Meares, Tvbyages", Appendix II, "Orders to Captain Douglas." ,?  Page 133  piece, and t a i l numbered and registered.  The Chinese rated  the sea otters under eight or nine denominations of proportionate worth, concerning which, according* to Meares, "they would never suffer us to intrude an opinion." (1) Unsatisfactory conditions i n China increased the difficulties of the traders.  The Chinese were said to regard  the power of Great Britain with much apprehension, and the regulations concerning foreign vessels certainly did not tend to encourage them.  A l l European shipping oame under the Hong  merchants, one of whom was put i n charge of each ship at Canton.  Every trading operation of the ship depended on his  pleasure, and was arranged to his personal advantage.  The  Hong merchants were heavily taxed by the Mandarins and higher o f f i c i a l s , and paid these taxes with what they collected from the Europeans.  They were not security for each other.  All  ships on their f i r s t arrival had to pay a certain "measurement? which was calculated by their tonnage, before they were allowed to trade.  The sum was collected by the Hoppo, (or Viceroy) of  Canton, and within a few years had been much augmented.  An  East Indiaman, for instance, paid from eight hundred to twelve hundred pounds.  The ships were barred from entering Canton,  and had to remain at Macao, fourteen miles away.  They were  obliged to send their goods ashore on Chinese boats, and continual robberies were committed, on the cargoes on their way to Canton, for which there was no redress. was r i f e among the o f f i c i a l s .  Bribery and corruption  An additional burden was placed  on licensed ships, for they were not permitted to bargain for (1) Meares, "Voyages", Page 243.  Page 134  their own cargoes, and the sale was conducted by the supercargo of the East India Company. Portlock and Dixon observed that by this method they received twenty dollars apiece for two thousand of their best furs, which i f properly handled would have brought eighty or ninety each, —•- the current rate at the time. (1)  In spite of this, they commented on the  fur trade: "So far from being a losing branch of commerce, i t is perhaps the most profitable and lucrative employ that the enterprising merchant can possibly engage i n . " (2)  (1) Portlock, "A Voyage Hound the World, 1765-.1788V, Page 370. (2) ibid, Page 371.  Page 135.  Chapter VI..  "THE AMERICAN ENTRY." (1788-1790)  The New Englanders entered the f i e l d under veryfavourable circumstances.  Unhampered by monopolies, they  found a rich supply of furs, and returned to a country enjoying peace, and anxious to build up a merchant marine. The city of Boston early got control of the trade, and managed to maintain the lead i n spite of competition.  Massachusetts  depended almost entirely upon her marine commerce, and prospered or flagged according as i t waxed or waned.  In 1784 she  was seeking substitutes for the protected trade of colonial days, for without fresh outlets she could no longer maintain her former dominant position among the States of America. Her seamen had to compete with the English, Spots and Dutch i n the Baltic and Indies, and hoped that new markets and sources of supply might be found i n the Pacific.  Commerce and the  struggle for existence oooupied them entirely, and Emerson wrote "Prom 1790 to 1820 there was not a book, a speech, a conversation, or a thought i n the State." (1)  The Chinese  market was discovered i n 1784, when the "Empress of China" from New York, carrying Major Samuel Shaw as supercargo, anchored at Macao.  Prom then on America imported her own  teas and silks direct, and depended no more on the Dutch and British.  Major Shaw was given the honorary t i t l e of American  Consul at Canton, and returned with Captain Magee i n the "Hope" (1) S. E . Morison, "Maritime History of Massachusetts, 17831860", Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 1921. Page 42.  Pago 136.  of Now York In 1786, and established the f i r s t American commercial house i n China. America was sadly lacking i n suitable commodities with which to compote i n the China trade, for the Canton market required either money or purely Eastern articles such as edible birds nests, opium, and sharks fins. 1  1  The New  Englanders had nothing to offer exoopt ginseng, and that i n limited quantities, u n t i l the discovery of the sea otter, and, although less important, of the sandalwood of Hawaii* The "Columbia" was the f i r s t ship to return to Boston after v i s i t ing the north west coast, and her arrival, on August 9, 1790, opened the sea otter trade to the enterprising Boston merchants, and gave them access to Oriental wealth.  The furs and sandal-  wood were mere "middlemen" to the American traders, - commodi t i e s of exchange for the teas and textiles of China. Japan took no part in the commerce*  She was a hermit nation -  isolated and closed to the foreigner since 1640, and remained so u n t i l 1867, when an opening was forced by Commodore Perry of the American Navy.  Hence  China was the sole market for  the sea otter, and Canton the only port at which i t might be traded*  The western people wore regarded as the "Pan Kwae" -  the foreign devils, with whom i t was wise to have as l i t t l e intercourse as possible.  Japan was barred i n a practical  sense as well as a theoretical one, for in 1791 Captain Kondrick of the "Washington" with Captain Douglas i n the "Grace" of New York, ventured into a southern Japanese harbour i n the hope of selling sea otter.  Nothing came of i t , however, for  Page 137.  the natives were unenthusiastic and seemed to nave no use for the fur, so no business was done. Despite this the Chinese developed a husiness prooeedure so complicated and involved, that the confused trader was glad to shift the responsibility to the Boston Mercantile Agencies which sprang up at Canton.  The f i r s t of these -  Shaw and Randall - was founded in 1786, and took entire charge of the sale for which i t exacted seven and a half per cent on the return lading.  In later days competition reduced this to  two and a half per oent of which the supercargo received one. Business at Canton was necessarily expensive.  Fees, expenses,  and repairs absorbed nearly half the proceeds of the "Columbia" & 1  f i r s t sale - with a total cost of over ten thousand dollars. Even the cleverest captain knowing the business by heart, seldom brought i t below six thousand.  Yet the growing western  demand for oriental goods made the trade increase by leaps and bounds*, while the value of American imports rose steadily. Wages were not high, and masters and mates of trading ships received only twenty to twenty five dollars monthly wages. The officers treatment was more generous - doubtless with the idea of removing the temptation for private smuggling, and they were usually allowed one half to five tons cargo space on the return voyage for private enterprise i n Chinese goods, as well as a commission varying from one to eight per cent on the net proceeds of the venture.  (1)  The Mew England fur traders made their f i r s t appearance on the north west coast i n 1788, having l e f t Boston the :(1) Morison, r"Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860", Pages 76-77.  Pago 138.  previous year.  Here again the influence of Cook's Third  Voyage may he traced, for the Boston merchants hoped that the furs desorihod hy King would furnish the desired commodity for the China trade.  The expedition was organized hy Joseph  Barroll for purposes of "trade and discovery".  His f i r s t  associates considered the speculation too risky, and f e l l out of the agreement, hut i n the summer of 1787 Barroll was joined hy five other men, Samuel  Brown, Charles Bui finch, John  Derby, Crowell Hatch, and John M. Pintard.  They financed i t  privately, by fourteen shares of thirty fivo hundred dollars. Two ships wero purchased, the "Columbia Rodiviva" of two hundred and twelve tons under  Captain John Kondriok who had  charge of the expedition, with the "Washington" a ninoty ton sloop as consort under Captain Robert Gray.  Kondriok was "an  old experienced navigator", but does not seom to have been quite the man for such an undertaking.  The owners had no  intention of allowing the voyage to pass unnoticed or uncommemorated, and caused several hundred medals to be struck and sent with the vessels.  On one side was "the sloop, encircled  with theirs and the commanders' name: on the other the name of the owners, encircled with 'Fitted at Boston, North America for the Pacbfic Ocean 1787'". (1)  A few silver ones wore  prepared for special distribution, one of which was sent to General Washington who "returned polite thanks" and ffwished the undertaking a l l success." The expedition was no ordinary private venture, but was "provided with sea letters by the Federal Qovornmont, agroeablo to a resolution of Congress, with (1) John Ho skins, "Narrative of a Voyage to the North West Coast, of America, (Performed i n the ship "Columbia Rodiviva") Transcript in Provincial Archives, Victoria, B.C. Pages 2-3.  Page 139  passports from the State of Massachusetts and letters from the Spanish Minister i n the United States, recommending the attention of the authorities of his nation on the Pacific coasts." (1) Great celebrations were held on board the night the ships l e f t , but the atmosphere of camaraderie was short l i v e d . Kendrick was forty seven at the time of sailing, and was not an easy man to get on with, possessing a violent and uncontrolled temper.  He assaulted Haswell, his second officer before  the expedition had gone very far, and took an early opportuni t y to transfer him to the "Washington". According to Haswell, Kendrick was always fighting with his officers, and certainly i n the course of the voyage Roberts, the surgeon, and Woodruffe the f i r s t mate, also l e f t the ship.  Gray was fifteen years  junior to the commander, but beyond this and the fact that he came from Rhode Island of good New England pioneer stock, l i t t l e is known of his l i f e before the turbulent years on the north west coast.  Haswell, although himself an American, was  the son of a British naval officer.  (2)  Kendrick had a d i l i t o r y nature, and even when started was uncertain whether he would round the Horn at once, rather favouring a plan of wintering on the near side.  His officers  so opposed the idea that he consented to make the passage. Weather conditions were trying, and the ships encountered i n rapid succession intense frost, thaw, snow, hail and heavy seas.  While actually making the Horn they were caught i n a  (1) Newcombe, "The First Circumnavigation of Vancouver Island", Page 33. . (2) Robert Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World, 1787-9", Transcript i n Provincial Arohives, Victoria, B . C . , Page 32.  Pag© 140  t e r r i f i c storm, ana lost sight of each other until both a r r i v ed in Nootka Sound.  The "Washington" sighted the coast of  Hew Albion on the 2nd. of August 1788, i n latitude 41° 28* H . , and met native canoes a few days l a t e r .  The crew landed for  the f i r s t time about 45"33*, to replenish necessary supplies of wood and water, with tragic consequences.  The natives  mad© a treacherous attack, k i l l i n g a black boy, and wounding others - apparently without provocation - and the place was commemorated by the name "Murderers* Bay". A number of Indians were encountered i n the v i c i n i t y of 48* 5* who welcomed them with the usual ceremonies of paddling round the ships, singing and whooping.  The chiefs were only too eager to come  aboard, but had no sea otter skins, and few of any others. Ho skins concluded "Beyond a doubt some other Engliah ships must have visited here this season for they plainly articulated several English names* " (1) . The native demands were considered extravagant, and consequently l i t t l e trade resulted*  Some  nice furs had been acquired i n their journey up the coast, i n exchange for knives, axes and adzes, although the Indians would have much preferred copper. More of the inhabitants appeared on the morning of the 30th. of August, 1788, coming from Clayoquot Sound with large quantities of furs, but ''greatly to our mortification there was nothing i n our vessel excepting muskets would purchase one of them, and we had barely enough for our defence. Copper was a l l their cry, and we had none of it*" (2)  The  latter item was an unfortunate omission in the cargo, but (1) Robert Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World 1787-9", Transcript i n Provincial Archives, Victoria, B . C . , Page 32.  Page 141  apparently the Americans were not prepared to take the firm stand of Barkley, Dixon and Portlock in refusing to supply firearms to the Indians. the ship, clad i n  Wiokananish and his brother visited  European fashion, and spoke of Captains  Meares, Barkley "Hannah (sie) 11  After a short stay the  "Dunkin" (sio) and Douglas.  "Washington" set s a i l for Nootka, but  ran into a t e r r i f i c gale* The ship, now sadly scurvy-stricken, entered the Sound on the 16th. of  September, having met one of the English  ships outside who guided them i n . the acquaintance of  At Friendly Gove Gray made  Meares and Douglas, and learnt to his  regret that the "Columbia" had not yet arrived. expected to find  He had not  Nootka such a center of activity, but was  interested i n the "North West America" which was within three days of launching.  Speaking of the undertaking, Gray said  that Meares "first built a tolerably strong garrison and then went to work building a small schooner about thirty tons, while Captain Meares cruised the coast collecting skins. found this vessel nearly completed." (1)  We  Meares was already  preparing to leave for Macao, and did his best to discourage the Americans from staying on the coast, talking vaguely of the dangers and savage disposition of the Indians, and the poor condition of the fur trade.  He said he had only collect-  ed f i f t y skins that season, but Gray was not deceived, and f u l l y realized that Meares was trying to r i d himself of a competitor.  At the same time Meares was not unfriendly, the  officers dined with one another, and Meares lent Gray his (1) Haswell,  Transcript,  Page 36.  Page 142  blacksmith to repair the damage done to his rudder irons i n Murderers? Harbour,  Hpskins was very poorly impressed by  the English captain, and wrote "this Mr. Meares behaved himself scandalously, and by no means l i k e a gentleman, a character he dares to assume." (1) them when he l e f t .  Certainly he played a nasty t r i c k on  Meares offered to take any letters to  China that Gray might wish to send, and the l a t t e r eagerly seized the chance to write to his owners.  Gray then helped  to tow Meares out of the harbour, but found on his return that Meares was not as sincere as he sounded.  There were his  letters lying on the table, enclosed by a note, i n which Meares apologized for returning them, saying he "was not certain to what part of India he should go and therefore could not ensure delivery of them." Meares feared they contained further information for the Boston traders which must be disadvantageous to his company, and had devised the ruse because he knew, had he refused to carry letters, his officers and crew would have been prevailed upon to do so.  The trick angered the  Americans a l l the more because they had had to give Meares  1  vessels extra provisions to enable them to reach the Sandwich Islands, so poorly were they fitted with supplies, although having plenty of the principal articles of trade - copper and iron. Captain Kendrick and the "Columbia" arrived on the 23rd., having called at the Juan Fernandez Islands for repairs, where they were very well received hy the Spanish Governor. Scurvy had claimed two victims during the voyage, while others (l)Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 4.  Page 143  of the crew were i n an advanced state.  Kendrick immediately  assumed control, hut felt he could "do nothing u n t i l these Englishmen have l e f t the place", and so did a l l i n his power to speed Douglas" departure, lending him carpenters, workmen, provisions and naval stores.  The "Iphigenla", or "Yagene"  as Haswell records i t , finally sailed on the 26th. of October, 1788, and the Americans began preparations for winter. There is some evidence that another American ship visited the coast during 1788, the "ELeanore" of Hew York, a hundred and ninety ton brig under Captain Simon Metcalfe. John Bolt i n his log of the "Union" mentioned Metcalfe at Macao, buying a companion vessel for his ship after returning from the north west coast.  He gave the command of his consort  - the "Fair American" - to his eldest son, and since the l a t t e r ship was known to be at Nootka i n 1789, i t would follow that the "ELeanore" must have been on the coast alone i n 1788.  (1)  There is no other known record of the voyage. The Americans made/scathing comments on Meares* methods of trading, although l a t e r inoidents would suggest that the whole community l i v e d i n "glass houses".  Hoskins spoke of  Meares as arriving at a native village and securing " a l l the fish and o i l to be found, giving them i n return a small piece of copper far less valuable than the provisions they had taken by force* and leave the poor harmless wretches unprovided for a long and vigorous winter. — They would often send their boat from the snow i n chase of the canoes and bring them to by (1) F.W. Howay, "Trading vessels i n the Maritime Fur Trade 17851794". The-Koyal Society of Canada, Section 2, 1930. Published at Ottawa, Page 116.  Page 144,  firing musket balls at them (for the native canoes were far swifter than those of European build) and! then rob them of their fish." (1)  The story relies purely on Haswell's account,  but thetie i s no reason to suppose that he was less dependable in his evidence than any other trader. Kendrick was leisurely i n his movements, and rather unstable i n his ideas.  He occupied the winter at Nootka, f i r s t  by trying to sloop-rig the "Washington" - an attempt which had to be given up since neither the required cordage duck nor blocks were available.  He next started to build a house on  shore, but soon abandoned i t , and f i n a l l y found occupation on board by constructing a huge brick chimney where the mizzen mast stood.  His officers did not favour the plan, as Kendrick  had already a good brass stove on board, and the new addition was a serious fire hazard.  Kendrick could not be dissuaded  however, and i n due course the chimney was completed,  The  general forebodings were apparently justified for a few days later the "Columbia" did catch f i r e , and the "Washington" had to come to her assistance.  The oonflagation was dangerous,  being i n the v i c i n i t y of the magazine, but fortunately oame under control before large damage had been done. During the winter the weather was rainy and disagreeable, and the crews depended on fowling and hunting for their principal amusements.  Various disputes arose between the two  ships, chiefly because  Kendrick would not allow the "Washington"  to shift i t s anchor without his express permission. Kendrick was altogether a ourious character.  In the spring of 1789 the  (1) Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World", Transcript, Page 41.  Page 145  "Washington" was sent on several small cruises, the f i r s t of these being to the south.  Gray l e f t on the 4th. of March for  Clayoouot, where he obtained a few skins.  The ilatives i n this  d i s t r i c t struck him as better proportioned and stouter than the Nootkans, although resembling them i n custom.  The Indians -+  demanded copper and muskets for their furs, and sometimes refused to s e l l i f denied them.  Gray made no express state-  ment that these guns were ever withheld - except when the "supply was so limited that they had barely enough for themselves." Gray continued down the coast line u n t i l he oame to the entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.  On returning to  Nootka he found a l l was s t i l l well, but that l i t t l e had been done to f i t the "Columbia" for sea.  Captain Douglas had  arrived from the Sandwich Islands with the "Iphigenla" and ths "North West America", and the l a t t e r vessel was almost immediately sent on a cruise under  Captain Funter.  The "Washington"  l e f t Nootka on the 1st. of May 1789 for another t r i p - this time to the north, and encountered Martinez as he l e f t the Sound.  The meeting has already been described - the Spaniard's  friendly attitude, and eagerness to know what ships were anchored i n the Sound. Kendrick was provided with letters from the Spanish minister to America, which saved his vessels from capture i n the f i r s t instance.  He showed considerable diplomacy i n his  l a t e r relations with "Martinez, trying to disguise his" trading activities.  Martinez was not deceived but friendship suited  him for the moment." (1)  Officially the American ships were  (1) F.W. Howay, "John Kendrick and his Sons", Oregon Historical Society, December 1922. Pages £77-302.  Page 146.  on a voyage of exploration and discovery, and when the "Washington" l e f t for her northern t r i p Kendrick explained i t as necessary "to get pipe and barrel staves."  Kendrick had  his two sons on board the "Columbia", John, an officer, and Solomon a sailor before the mast.  John Kendrick now adopted  the Roman Catholic faith and entered Spanish service on the "Prinoesa", where he was welcomed because he was a good pilot and well educated. The "Washington" reached 55° 43* of northern latitude " v  but was f i n a l l y caught i n so severe a storm that Gray judged i t wiser to return to Nootka for repairs before the "Columbia" left.  Gray was much struck by the l i p ornaments worn by the  women i n these parts, and also i n the Queen Charlotte Islands,-4 which they visited on the return voyage.  Gray named them  after his ship "Washington's Island", and did a tremendous trade i n furs.  In one instance two hundred sea otter skins  were traded for a single chisel - a curious record i n a log which rates Meares so severely i n i t s earlier pages for not giving the Indians f a i r value for their furs.  By the time the  Americans l e f t the Indians were practically stripped of their pelts.  The "Washington" arrived at Nootka i n July 1789, with  a very profitable cargo.  The Spaniards had been busy i n his  absence, and Gray was much surprised to find Hog Island fortified.  Haswell comments briefly on the seizure of Captain  Douglas* ships "on what pretence we know not." (1)  Ho skins  recorded such severe measures were adopted "on account of some indignities offered the Spanish flag." (2) (01) Haswell, "A Voyage Round the World 1787-9", Transcript, Page66. (2) Ho skins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America 179093. Transcript, Page 5.  Page 147.  Kendriok ordered the "Columbia" and the "Washington" to Clayoquot, and on their arrival changed ships, rand sent Gray with the collected skins to China to make sure of an early market. Randal.  The cargo was consigned to Messieurs Shaw and  It is unknown why this exchange was made -  i t might  have been a whim, for according to Haswell, Kendriok "scarcely 1knew his own mind and was always thinking of changes."  (1)  Kendrick, having l a i n inert at Nootka for the past ten months, now set off in the "Washington", revisited the Queen Charlotte Islands, and then made for the Sandwich Islands en route for Macao.  He had a good eye for the possibilities of trade, and  while at the l a t t e r islands was so much struck by the sandalwood that he left three men to collect i t against his return, as well as any pearls which might come their way.  The  "Washington" reached Macao i n the middle of January 1790, and here Kendriok was seized with such a violent fever that he was unable to return at once to the north west coast.  Gray  wrote to Joseph Barrell from Canton on December 18th. 1789, giving a statement of his cargo:700 skins 300 pieoes Sold i n January 1790 - #21,400. He was preparing to take on teas for Boston, and admitted that the results of the voyage would be below the company's 2 expectations. The sa^e of the "Columbians furs was completed in January 1790 for $21,400 - but over ten thousand of this i l ) ff.W. Howay, "Captains Gray and Kendriok - The Barrell Letters", Washington Historical Quarterly, October 1921, Page 260. (2) Letter of Robert Gray to Joseph Barrell, Esquire, and Company. Written at Canton, December 18, 1789. Appendix: Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript.  Page 148.  was absorbed by commission and the harbour charges of Macao. Gray l e f t immediately for Boston, entirely disregarding Kendriok, s instructions to v i s i t him f i r s t and receive his 1  final orders.  The "Columbia" fired the federal salute of  thirteen guns i n  Boston harbour on the 9th. of August, 1790,  as the f i r s t American ship to circumnavigate the world. Kendrick wrote from Macao on "February 6th. 1790, asking for instructions, and enquiring whether he was to s e l l the "Washington", load her with tea for America, or go baok to the north west coast.  During his short v i s i t to the  Queen Charlotte Islands he had seoured a remarkable cargo, which he quoted as:-  (1)  3S0 skins 60 garments 150 pieces Kendrick f i n a l l y sold the furs, and prepared the "Washington" for another t r i p to the regions of the sea otter.  The officers  of the "Columbia" blamed his dilatory conduct very much, the length of time- he took to round the Horn, his oversight i n not cruising the coast and letting excellent opportunities s l i p of making large fortunes both for himself and his owners. Concerning the time Kendrick took to arrive, Gray wrote from Nootka Sound, July 13th. 1789: i *»—I had the good luck to part company the first day of April — - • which enabled me to make the best of my way along, and I made the coast six weeks sooner by being alone. " (2)  Kendrick was even accused of  planning to cheat the owners out of everything.  Hoskins thought  (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript. Appendix: Letter to lohn Kendrick to Messers Gray and Howe. Written at Macao, February 6th. 1790. (2) Ibid. Appendix: Letter of Robert Gray, written at Nootka Sound, July 13,1789.  Page 149.  this l a t t e r judgment rather severe as no evidenoe of knavery had ever been exposed, and added "the man was by no means oalculated for the charge of such an expedition, hut a better man might have done worse." (1)  As a commander of the vent-  ure Kendrick had proved a failure, hut he did much better when captaining the small schooner.  He was a man of l i t t l e  education, kind hearted, but whimsical and vacillating, dictatorial and jealous of his authority.  It was his un-  certain actions and leisurely movements which prevented him from making a success of his undertaking as he should. Simon Metcalfe with the "Eleanore" and the newly purchased "Fair American", a twenty six ton schooner owned hy a trading company i n New York, commanded by his son Thomas Humphrey Metcalfe, returned to the coast i n 1789, but their exact movements are not known.  The "Fair American"  l e f t Macao on June 5th. 1789, and reaohed Unalaska on July 17th.  Such aoourate details are not available for the  "Eleanore", but i n a l l probability she also sailed early i n June.  She was seen f i r s t i n the neighbourhood of the Queen  Charlotte Islands i n September, and the following month Martinez sighted her off Nootka, but Metcalfe very wisely refused to come within hailing distance.  The "Fair American"  was not so fortunate, possibly due to the Inexperience of her commander - then only eighteen - and the size of her crew which numbered five i n a l l .  The ship had originally  been a pleasure boat, lengthened at China, and her gunwhale (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 6.  Page 150  was not a foot higher than: the double canoes of the Sandwich Island natives.  She presented a striking contrast  to the "Eleanore" which mounted ten guns, and supported a crew of f i f t y five - ten Amerioans and forty five Chinese. The "Pair American" sailed south and reached Hootka i n distress, where she was detained for a short time by Martinez. Martinez seized the ship, and sent her to San Bias for the Governor to deal with.  Revilla-Glgedo freed her, because the Americans  had caused no inconvenience to Spain, nor interfered with Spanish settlements.  The expense of detaining the crew  seemed unnecessary under such circumstances, so the Governor finally allowed the "Pair American" to proceed.  When releas-  ed she made for the Sandwich Islands, wintering i n the v i c i n i t y of the  "Eleanore" and i n so doing final disaster  overtook the "Pair American". Captain George Vancouver recorded the incident, as described to him by John Young, boatswain of the "Eleanore", who had been forceably detained by the natives for fear he would spread news of the massacre and bring punishment on them, and Isaac Davis the mate of the "Pair American", sole survivor of the disaster.  Young was a middle aged man of  forty four, coming from Liverpool, while Davis, a native of Milford, was eight years younger. The trouble between the Amerioans and the Hawaiians began i n February 1790, when a boat was stolon from the "Eleanore" with one of the crow in i t .  Mot calf o offored a  reward for their return, but tinly learnt that the former had  Page 151.  "bean destroyed and the l a t t e r k i l l e d .  He then demanded the  hones of the man, which were f i n a l l y surrendered along with the stem and stern of the hoat.  Trade continued, and the  natives, believing peace was restored demanded the reward. Metcalfe promised they should have i t , and loaded the "Eleanore"'s guns with musket balls and n a i l s .  One side of  the ship was then "tabooed" - in order to collect a l l the canoes on the starboard side next the shore - the ports were l i f t e d , and the guns let loose on the native craft.  Consider-  able slaughter resulted, particularly from the guns between decks which were nearly on a level with the canoes,  TYoung  estimated that about a hundred were k i l l e d and many wounded. After this - as  Metcalfe considered i t - adequate revenge,  he sailed for Owhyhee, where he had previously anchored. On the 17th. of  March 1790 Young received per-  mission to spend a night on shore, on the understanding that he return next day.  When he wished to So so he was refused  a canoe, and told they were a l l "taboo".  That evening he  learnt that the "Fair American" had been captured, and young Metcalfe and the crew murdered.  The native king, Tomaahmaah,  was afraid to let Young go back to the "Eleanore" for fear he would take the news, and consequently Metcalfe's wrath would be vented on the local inhabitants.  At the same time  Tomaahmaah took the law into his own hands, and made the offending chieftain, Tamaahmbotoo, surrender the captured ship, which he kept i n case Owhyhee.  Metcalfe ever returned to  Tamaahmaah heard the mate, Isaac Davis, was s t i l l  Page 152  alive, and took him to his own quarters, where he was treated with a l l possible kindness.  Davis then gave his account  of the capture of the schooner. Tamaahmootoo and his followers came to the "Pair American" when i t was nearly becalmed, made presents to young Metcalfe, and gained his confidence sufficiently to be allow© ed to board the vessel.  The numbers made Davis uneasy, but  Thomas Metcalfe would take no warning.  The natives told him  the "Eleanore" was only a l i t t l e to the westward, and that he would see his father before night.  A few minutes later  Tamaahmootoo seized and threw the youthful commander overhoard, and he was seen no more.  Davis snatched a pistol and  tried to shoot the chief, but i t missed fire and he also was flung into the sea.  Being a strong swimmer Davis escaped  for a short time, i n spite of the murderous blows aimed at him by the natives  1  paddles, but finally, weak from loss of  blood, he was dragged into a large double canoe.  There was  no available weapon with which to k i l l him, so the Hawaiians held Davis with his throat across the rafter that united the two canoes, and jumped on his neck and shoulders, intending to end his l i f e i n that fashion.  In spite of such treatment  Davis continued to l i v e , until one of the islanders began to pity him, and later took him under his care when the boat reached shore.  Davis returned with Tamaahmootoo under his  special protection, but neither Davis nor Young had since been allowed to leave the island for fear that retribution would follow.  Even when "Vancouver arrived he was only  Page 163  permitted to see one at a time, while the other was held as hostage for his return. Vancouver considered Metcalfe senior guilty of great negligence i n allowing a craft of such inexperienced leadership and minature crew near the natives, to whom i t would appear an easy and valuable prize.  A s p i r i t of rest-  lessness was abroad among the Hawaiian chiefs - Tianna was among the most unruly.  He made one plan to seize the  "Princess Royal", arguing that i f the Spaniards had taken her from the English he did not see why he should not take her from the Spaniards.  Tianna also contemplated capturing  the "Eleanore", making the seizure at the time when her sails were being furled.  According to his scheme sufficient of the  crew would be spared to navigate her, and she would prove a valuable aid i n achieving his ambition - the conquest of the rest of the islands.  Tamaahaah heard of the plan, and he  forbad i t entirely, even turning Hanna s men off the 1  "Eleanore" when they arrived to put i t into execution.  (1)  The last ship to appear on the north west coast i n 1789 was the British  "Mercury" of London, a hundred and f i f t y  two ton snow, owned and commanded hy John Henry Cox. The ship stopped at Unalaska for a fortnight during October and November of that year, on her way to China, but does not seem to have traded.  Soon after reaohing the Pacific she changed  her name to "Gustav^us III", and sailed under Swedish colours. The "Eleanore" was known to have returned to the coast i n 1790, and the unsupported testimony of John Meares (1) George Vancouver, "A Voyage of Disoovery", Edwards, London, 1798, II, 135-145.  Page 154.  indicated that the British  "Mercury" - now definitely  "Gustavus III" - paid a second v i s i t .  Two new American  vessels arrived, the "Grace ", an eighty five ton schooner, under William Douglas, formerly of the "Iphigenla". Douglas was both owner and master, although curiously enough a second schooner, the "Polly" was also recorded as having Douglas for commander.  It is possible Douglas may have been merely  the owner, not the captain, or else that the two ships were the same under different names.  (1)  The f i r s t voyage of the "Columbia" had, like many pioneering enterprises, been a financial failure, hut the men gave such stirring accounts of the easy fortunes to be acquired i n furs that the owners were induced to refit the ship once more under Captain Gray.  Hoskins, the author of  one log of the "Columbia", was more partial to Kendrick than Gray in his comments, and observed on the reappointment of the l a t t e r "I must do the credit to say, although Gray cruised the coast more and appeared to he more persevering to obtain skins, yet his principles were no better, his a b i l i t i e s less, and his knowledge of the coast from his former voyage, circumscribed within very narrow limits." (£)  On her second  voyage the "Columbia " carried the frame of a f i f t y ton vessel which was to be built on the coast.  New faces were  seen among her owners, Joseph Barrell, Samuel Brown and Crowell Hatch remained, but Charles Bulfinch, John Derby and (1) F.W. Howay, "Trading vessels i n the Maritime Fur Trade, 1785-1794", Page 1E0. (2) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 7.  Page 155.  John M. Pintard had gone, and there appeared instead Thomas Bulfinoh, Robert Gray (now a captain owner), Davenport, and McLean.  The "Columbia" sailed from Boston on the 27th. of  September 1790.  She experienced such violent storms while  rounding the Horn that she was nearly wrecked, but in spite of these oonditions, i t was the 20th. of May 1791 before scurvy made its appearance.  At that date there was only one  outbreak, although six more followed i n the next eight days. By the 16th. of June the "Columbia" was at the entrance of Clayoquot Sound, where fresh supplies were easily obtainable. Gray learnt from the natives that Kendriok had not yet revisited the coast.  Page 156  Chapter VII.  "THE CHANGING TIMES." (1791)  In the fur trade i t s e l f great changes were taking place.  Competitors doubled and trebled, and crossed and re-  crossed each other so often that they assumed almost a k a l eidoscopic aspect, making i t impossible to keep track of them. Many of the traders now sailed from their native lands, England, France and the United States, collected their furs in one or two seasons, sold them i n China, and returned with freight or oriental cargo.  Some s t i l l operated from China,  and a very few from Calcutta and Bengal.  Nootka was very  much the rendez vous of the captains and presented an animated scene, but/the fur trade was no longer a matter of trinkets and scrap iron, and variety and articles of real value were demanded.  The natives were hard to satisfy.  They rejected  copper sheets as being too thick or too thin, and refused to look at goods which had entranced them on a former v i s i t . From 1791 on the traders began to winter on the coast, instead of sailing for the Sandwich Islands.  Nootka Sound or  Clayoquot Sound were usually selected for this purpose, and no ships sheltered i n the Columbia before 1794.  The price demand-  ed by the Indians for their furs was rising rapidly7 Kendriok commented on i t , and by 1793 Roberts had to pay forty toes for a prime skin* which Dixon and Gray had formerly secured for  Page 157.  toe each.  The source of supply for the individual trader  was more uncertain than ever, from the many rivals i n the field, and the Indians* increasing antagonism. Captain Gray, returned to the coast i n June 1791, and made an early stop at Clayoquot to enable the sick to recover their health.  Wiokananish and many of the Indians  oame aboard, some of them wearing as many as four sea otter skins.  The Americans were delighted and immediately showed  the natives their articles of trade, but the l a t t e r seemed indifferent, expecting to receive them as presents.  Members  of the crew went on shore gathering large quantities of nettles, hogweed and other greens which proved excellent antiscorbutics, and were "eaten with avidity by a l l hands." The general health of the crew was somewhat impaired by the long voyage, seven of whom were i n an advanced state of scurvy. Hoskins attributed their condition to "our scanty supply of antisoorbutics, to an improper use of what we had, and to the small attention paid by the commander to the preservation of the health of his people." (1)  Gray was blamed for refusing  to stop at islands in both the southern and northern tropics where the necessary fresh supplies could have been obtained. It i s quite possible that Gray went to the opposite extreme to Kendrick and was inclined to he too much on the go, yet i n justice to him i t must he remembered that the outbreak was not nearly as serious as had taken place on other ships during a period - such as any of Meares, where the commander insisted every health precaution had been taken. (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the Transcript, Page £ 8 .  Moreover, the last  North West Coast of America",  Page 158.  voyage had been a financial failure, and one can easily understand that he might he anxious to cut down on time with an idea of curtailing expense.  On the whole, Hoskins' judgment  is perhaps rather prejudiced. For two days the Indians refused to trade their skins, and then could only he persuaded to part with twenty two.  Gray sent a present consisting of potatoes, onions and  seeds, to Tootoocheettieus,  a brother of Wichananish, and the  chief was greatly pleased hy the novelty.  The Americans  bought two deer to make soup for the invalids, and while engaged with these and other occupations, the Sandwich Island boy, Ottoo, ran away with the Indians. not without d i f f i c u l t y .  He was reclaimed hut  Gray had by this time collected a l l  the available furs in the neighbourhood, amounting to a hundred and twelve sea otter skins, twenty five pieces, and thirty seven t a i l s - hut the sum was far short of Hoskins expectat1  ions.  The Indians of Clayoquot would hardly accept iron even  as a gift, and asked chiefly for copper and clothing.  A sheet  of copper was purchased for four skins, and clothing i n similar ratio.  Small articles such as knives, buttons, fish hooks  and gimlets only brought sea otter t a i l s , or fish and vegetables. Gray next went to Hope Bay i n Chiokleset Sound, and then sailed from place to place trading whenever possible. He was reoeived with much hospitality at Opswis village, where the natives roasted clams i n his honour, and welcomed him with the refain: "Wak ush Tiyee awinna" - "Welcome, Travelling Chief".  Yet while this was going on, some of the crew noticed  Page 159.  other Indians at the hack of the house arming, and sharpening daggers and spears,  The Amerioans wished to avoid a rupture  i f i t were possible, and immediately returned to the ship, preparing to seize their weapons at any moment i f required. The occasion fortunately did not arise.  Hoskins commented on  the multitude of dogs of the fox breed which abounded at these villages. Glayoquot.  Iron was more valued in Ghickleset Sound than at The "Columbians next ports of c a l l were Company's  Bay and Hittenat, where at the l a t t e r centre Gray made the acquaintance of the chief Cassaoan and secured valuable furs. Prom here he went to Tootoooh's Island on the eastern side of the entrance to the Straits of Juan de Pucar,. and turning north again made a second c a l l at Mttenat.  It was not as success-  ful as the f i r s t , for Cassaoan exasperated Gray hy suddenly deciding he did not wish to s e l l the skins, and carried them off, although offered considerably more than he had originally asked. The first news of Captain Kendrick was obtained at the Queen Charlotte Islands, where the natives reported that he had called, first: i n a ship of one mast, later i n one with two.  Prom this i t was concluded that Kendriok had achieved  his ambition and altered the rigging of the "Washington" to make her a brig.  Kendrick's f i r s t v i s i t of 1789 had not been  a peaceful one, for serious trouble broke out between the Americans and a chief, Koyah, while the former were anchored in Houston Stewart Channel.  Kendrick had been much troubled  by the thieving of the Haidas, and the climax oame when the  Page 160.  natives stole some personal clothing he had left out to dry. He determined to teach them a lesson, and seizing Koyah and another chief, he mounted a gun, and placed a leg of each chief i n i t , threatening to blow them to pieces unless the linens were at once restored.  In due course some were return-  ed and Kendriok extracted payment in skins for the rest. Then before freeing the two chiefs he made the Indians bring a l l their remaining furs, and took them paying the price which had formerly been asked for them. Revenge was s t i l l uppermost i n Koyah s mind when 1  Kendriok returned i n 1791, although two years had elapsed between the oalls.  It was natural enough, since following  his punishment Koyah had no longer been regarded as a head chief.  Koyah watched his opportunity, and on one occasion  when the HaIdas were on board i n large numbers they managed to get the keys of the arms chest, and capture the "Washington" for about an hour before being finally driven off with considerable slaughter.  The Americans hastened the retreat hy  chasing them i n armed boats, k i l l i n g a l l who came within range. In spite of his relations with Kendrick, Koyah showed no hesitation i n coming on board the "Columbia" when she appeared a few weeks l a t e r .  Gray was disappointed i n  finding no furs and although Koyah promised that more would be collected, did not stay long.  Hoskins described the l a t t e r  as ' ' l i t t l e , dimunitive and savage looking a fellow as ever trod."  The "Columbia" continued northward, and on the 23rd.  Page 161.  of July 1791 met the "Hope" of Boston, under Captain Ingraham, an ocoasion celebrated by much mutual oheering. Gray made a lucky find at his next port of c a l l , the village of Tooschcondolth, obtaining forty nine sea otter skins, twenty four pieces of sea otter and thirteen sea otter t a i l s for a pile of chisels.  On reaching the north o f the Island,  Gray determined to go no further for one season, and turned west along the north shore.  In this v i c i n i t y Caswell, the;  second mate, and a small party were ambushed when they went on shore to fish.  In latitude 55*18* north and longitude  132*20* west Gray named Brown Sound, and while exploring its arms encountered another of his countrymen, Captain Crowell, with the "Hancock" of Boston.  The "Hancock" was a hundred  and f i f t y seven ton brig, owned by Crowell and Creighton. She l e f t Boston during November 1790, but did not come direct, stopping at Staten Island on the way to k i l l seals, and later, after a stormy passage round Cape Horn, at the Sandwich Islands, where the Hawaiians made an unsuccessful attempt to capture her.  While at the Islands Crowell obtain-  ed some forty sea-otter skins, which the natives said Captain Metoalfe.*s sailors had stolen and sold to them.  The  "Hancock" reached the north west coast on the 14th. of July 1791, and when they arrived set up the frame of a long boat and sloop and rigged i t .  The new ship was not launched with-  out a struggle, as the natives chose to oppose i t , and several of them were k i l l e d i n the resulting skirmish.  The ship -  its name is unknown - was then sent to cruise the north end  Page 162.  of the Queen Charlotte Islands under a Mr. Anderson,  Between  them Crowell and Gray soon drained Brown's Sound of furs, and began to consider t h e i r next moves.  The French captain  Marchand anchored outside Cloak Bay at the north of the Islands with his ship "La Solide" from August 21-27 1791, and saw a brig between a hundred and f i f t y and two hundred tons with a twelve ton tender i n the offing, hut did not communicate.  There is l i t t l e doubt they were the "Hancock"  and her newly completed assistant.  Nothing is known about  this latter vessel beyond these casual notes. It had only recently been brought to Hoskins*; attention that the "Washington Islands" of the Americans, so named by Captain Gray i n 1789, were previously discovered and oalled the Queen Charlotte Islands by Captain George Dixon i n 1787.  He commented whimsically:  "It is therefore  my most sincere wish and hope that the amiable Queen of the one country and the illustrious President of the other may long l i v e to enjoy these small honours which is i n the power of the subjects of the one and the citizens of the other to bestow." (1) On the 28th. of August 1791 Gray passed Nootka, hut did not enter, being bound for Clayoquot where he had determined to winter, and i n which locality the Indians reported Kendrick was already anchored.  The information proved correct,  and Kendrick visited then that evening - to Hoskins* great joy - "nothing can equal the pleasure I received on meeting with my old friend, or our mutual professions of happiness." (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 83.  Page 163.  Kendriok had missed the l a s t  season h a v i n g been  d e t a i n e d i n China hy t h e s a l e o f h i s f u r s .  A s e r i e s o f mis-  f o r t u n e s f o l l o w e d , and he e x p e r i e n c e d g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y i n r e f i t t i n g and r e p r o v i s i o n i n g the "Washington", due to the u n f r i e n d l i n e s s o f the Portuguese Governor. when the "Washington" f i n a l l y l e f t , Captain William  Douglas  I t was March  s a i l i n g i n dompany w i t h  i n t h e "Grace" o f Hew  spent the p r e v i o u s season on the c o a s t .  York, who  had  The s h i p s p a r t e d  company n e a r Japan, each c a p t a i n s e l e c t i n g h i s own f o r the r e s t o f the voyage.  1791  course  Douglas d i e d the f o l l o w i n g  autumn as the "Grace" r e t u r n e d t o China, and was  succeeded  hy R. D. C o o l i d g e , f o r m e r l y master o f the " G e r t r u d i s " (the "North West America" under Spanish c o l o u r s ) .  On r e a c h i n g the  coast K e n d r i c k made s t r a i g h t f o r the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , where Koyah n e a r l y oaptured t h e "Washington", and from t h e r e t o Nootka. passed the  sailed  K e n d r i c k went lip the Sound to Mawinna,  Spanish settlement and e x p l o r e d the  Tashees  R i v e r , and A h a l e s e t Sound, which l a y between C h i c k l e s e t Nootka Sounds.  K e n d r i c k o b t a i n e d many s k i n s and a l s o  and  purchas-  ed a c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a o f l a n d a t Nootka Sound f o r muskets, i r o n , oopper and c l o t h i n g , equipping the  (l)  He then spent about a month  "Washington" f o r China, and she s a i l e d on the  25th. o f September  1791.  The "Columbia"  v i s i t e d the s o u t h e r n p a r t s o f the  I s l a n d d u r i n g the e a r l i e r days o f September, but f i n d i n g t h e weather v e r y had d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n to Clayoquot Sound and w i n t e r i n C f i i c k s e l e o u t s e e Cove.  She anchored t h e r e on the  (1) Hoskins, "Voyage to the North West Coast o f America", T r a n s c r i p t , Page 95.  Page 164.  20th. of September, and immediately sent men ashore to clear land where the frame oftithe new ship carried by the "Columbia" could be set up.  The crew out trees to build a fort, and i n  nine days a house thirty six feet by eighteen was erected. In the lower story the logs were piled horizontally with their ends l e t into each other, and their seams f i l l e d with a mortar of clay and burnt shell,  The upper part was framed  and covered with boards obtained from the Indians.  On a l l  sides were loopholes for musketry, and two ports were l e f t in front for cannon.  Inside was a brick fireplace built i n  sufficient proportions to serve both for cooking and warmth, and a forge, where daily work might be done for the new ship, fhen completed the house was named "Port Defiance" and put i n charge of Haswell with twenty men under him.  A plentiful  supply of ammunition was provided, and the fort was stocked with four cannon, forty muskets, several blunderbusses, pistols,  and a quantity of powder.  The new ship, to be known  as the "Adventurer" was well under way. The Indians made one unsuccessful attempt to seize Gray - thought to be due to Tootiscposettie wishing to avenge the threats and personal abduction which Gray had practised on him earlier, to enforce the return of Ottoo, the Sandwich Island hoy who had taken refuge with his tribe.  Otherwise  the winter passed without a r i f t , and relations between the two peoples were apparently of the most friendly nature. L i t t l e trading was done, hut i t was a slack time. The Americans celebrated Christmas day i n royal  Page 165  fashion.  They decorated the Port, the "Columbia", and the  vessel i n the stocks with spruce bows, interspersed with the various flowers, of the season, and held a big dinner on board, consisting of geese, ducks and teals i n large quantities, with a double allowance of grog.  The Indian chiefs and their  ladies were invited, but the women refused to come on hoard, and remaining i n their canoes were fed there.  The f i r s t of  January 1792 was also celebrated i n appropriate style. The natives began to collect in larger numbers, and would take l i t t l e but muskets and ammunition for their furs, even when offered copper and clothing. increasingly amicable.  Relations became  The Amerioans were called i n to doctor  Yeklan, a son of Wiokananish, and Hoskins even spent a few days with Wiokananish at the village of Dpitsitah.  Despite  this friendly guise, the Indians were hatching a great conspiracy which involved the capture of the "Columbia" and the murder of a l l the traders.  The savages tried to maintain  the best possible terms with Gray until the last minute, explaining the warlike atmosphere as preparations for an expedition against some neighbouring tribe.  The plot was  discovered through the savages sudden and suspicious friendship for Ottoo.  Gray made Ottoo confess what was i n the  wind, and he admitted the natives had questioned him regarding the watch, and tried to bribe him to wet the priming of the Amerioans guns. 1  If the plot succeeded, they said he  should be given plenty of skins and made a great chief. Gray thought i t best to finish graving the ship as  Page 166,  soon as possible, and then ship and fort eould cooperate i n their defence.  Ammunition was given to a l l , and the ship  hauled on shore,  jHoskins gives an excellent description of  the evening's work.  "It was a most beautiful starry night.  We had got the bottom of the ship scraped and nearly burnt whan the natives gave a most dismal whoop. one and two of clock i n the morning.  This was between  The people who belonged  to the fort flew to their arms, and those who belonged to the ship were by no means behind them.  In less than five  minutes every man was to his quarters with arms and ammunition ready for action.  Never did men keep a sharper look out,  or appeared more determined to be conquered by death alone. We continued to hear the most dreadful shrieks or whoops t i l l day began to dawn.  They appeared to be i n two parties, the  one sounded from towards the bank where the ship had l a i d , the other i n the gap opposite the Port.  I suppose those  shrieks or whoops must have been the order for retreat.  The  Chiefs were frequently called to by name, t e l l i n g them we were ready for them and to come on, but were always answered by a dismal whoop.  Ho doubt with me i t has been long i n  agitation with them to take us, and the fetching of the sick chief aboard waa a manoeuvre to see what lookout we kept of nights." (1) The "Columbia" was graved and launched by nine o'clock and everything of value taken on board.  A few Indians  appeared, fearfully offering fish for sale, which Hoskins diagnosed as an attempt to ascertain the exact positions of (1) Hoskins, "A Voyage to the Horth West Coast of America", Transcript, Pages 131-132.  Page 167.  the fort and ship.  A barricade of, trees was thrown up round  the house, which was l e f t with that sole protection, while a l l the men boarded the ship.  The fort was unmolested, and  next morning two chiefs oame to try and make peace - but Gray would not listen, and ordered them away on pain of death.  This behaviour outraged Hoskins* business instincts,  since i t cut off further possibilities of trade, which after a l l was the purpose for which the ship had come. The "Adventure" was launched on the 23rd. of February 1792.  Gray commemorated the event by rechristening  Chicksclecutsee "Adventure Cove".  Clayoquot Sound offered  a surprising varietyt of skins - bears, wolves, foxes, rein, fallow and moose deers, land otters,  racoons, brown minks,  martins, beavers, wild cats, gray rabbits, and large gray and small brown squirrels. (1)  Gray had secured a f a i r cargo,  and the ships left on the 25th. of March 1792 - hut the Indians were not forgiven.  Gray was furious over their  attempt to capture the ships, and promised the natives "powder and shot" when he reached the village.  John Boit records  his revenge in his private log of the "Columbia",  setting  the date as two days later - the 27-th. of March.  Gray order-  ed Boit to take three well manned and well armed boats, and completely destroy the village of Opitsatah.  "It was a  command I was i n no way tenacious of, and am grieved to think Captain Gray should let his passions go so far.  This village  was about half a mile i n diameter, and contained upwards of two hundred houses, generally well built for Indians.  Every  (1) Hoskins, "Toyage &o the North West Coast of America", Transcript, Page 142.  Page  168.  dooa? that you entered was. i n resemblance to a human o r beast's head, the passage being through the mouth, b e s i d e s whieh t h e r e was  much more rude carved work about the d w e l l i n g s which  by no means i n e l e g a n t . was  was  T h i s f i n e v i l l a g e , the work o f ages,  i n a s h o r t time t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d . "  (1)  The number o f t r a d i n g s h i p s on the n o r t h west coast was  i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y , and many v i s i t e d i n 1791  whom r e c o r d s are o f the s c a n t i e s t .  The  concerning  "Eleanore"  and  C a p t a i n M e t c a l f e r e t u r n e d f o r the t h i r d season running,  and  the Indians o f S k i n c u t t l e I n l e t Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , showed C a p t a i n Ingraham o f the  "Hope" b u c k l e s on the 26th. o f  J u l y engraved " E l e a n o r M e t c a l f e " , which they s a i d had been l e f t behind.  (2)  represented.  W i l l i a m Douglas and h i s i n t e r e s t s were w e l l  The  been mentioned.  "Grace", commanded by h i m s e l f has  already  He a l s o bought the " F a i r y " a B r i t i s h snow o f  C a l c u t t a , d e s c r i b e d as "a f a s t s a i l i n g v e s s e l , w i t h p a r t o f the proceeds o f the f i r s t cargo o f the "Grace", and gave h e r command to W i l l i a m Rogers.  The  " F a i r y " spent the season  c o l l e c t i n g f u r s , and r e t u r n e d to Canton on the 11th. December 1791,  from whence she was  of  charted with teas f o r  Boston hy Ingraham, Rogers and C o o l i d g e f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e companies.  The  the 4 t h . o f May  " F e l i c e " was 1791  r e p o r t e d to have l e f t Macao on  f o r the n o r t h west coast, hut h e r movements  are unknown, u n t i l s i g h t e d a g a i n i n 1792.  H i s t o r i a n s have  reason to lament the absence o f Meares as a p u b l i c i t y agent (1) F.W. Howay, "John B o i t ' s Log o f the "Columbia" 1790-93", Q u a r t e r l y o f . t h e Oregon H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , December 1921, Page 303. (2) Joseph Ingraham, "Voyage o f the B r i g a n t i n e Hope 1790-92", T r a n s c r i p t i o n i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B.C., Page  58.  Page  for  the s h i p s o f h i s company.  The  B r i t i s h snow "Mercury"  r e t u r n e d f o r the t h i r d time under Swedish o o l o u r s as III",  still  Barnett.  owned hy John Henry Cox,  "Gustavus  and commanded hy Thomas  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the "Venus", a hmndred and  t o n b r i g o f London, under W i l l i a m Hervey, was p a r t s , hut the evidence  ten  a l s o i n these  r e s t s s o l e l y upon an ambiguous s t a t e -  mant i n Ingraham s J o u r n a l . 1  The  169.  (1)  Napoleonic wars stopped French endeavours to  e n t e r the f u r trade, and  secure l a n d on the western coast  make up f o r l o s s on t h e e a s t e r n .  to  Only f o u r French t r a d e r s  v i s i t e d the coast d u r i n g the whole e r a o f the sea o t t e r , and the f i r s t  o f these, Btienne Marchand and  i n 1791.  French e n t e r p r i s e had a l s o been checked hy l a c k o f  d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  "La S o l i d e " , a r r i v e d  the t r a d e i n the y e a r s f o l l o w -  ing  the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Cook's T h i r d Voyage.  his  e x p e d i t i o n had disappeared,  L a Perouse  (2) w h i l e the E t c h e s  and  Brothers  kept s i l e n t r e g a r d i n g the f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n s o f t h e i r s h i p s . C a p t a i n Marchand met  P o r t l o c k by chance i n 1790  o f S t . Helena when he waa  i n the Road  r e t u r n i n g from Bengal, and  Portlock  r e a d i l y gave him a l l the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the otter industry.  sea  Marchand r e t u r n e d to M a r s a i l l e s where he  i n t e r v i e w e d the House o f Baux, who the p o s s i b i l i t y o f developing  a new  were much i n t e r e s t e d i n channel o f trade and  nav-  i g a t i o n , and b u i l t and equipped the " S o l i d e " a s h i p o f t h r e e hundred t o n s .  She  c a r r i e d a crew o f f i f t y ,  o f f i c e r s and t h i r t y mine men.  composed o f  eleven  P i e r r e Masse and P r o s p e r  Chanel  (1) Howay, "Trading V e s s e l s i n the Maritime F u r Trade 1785-94" l o o . c i t . , Pages 120-123. (2) Supra, p. 65.  Page 170.  were t h e second c a p t a i n s .  The s h i p was w e l l armed, being  equipped w i t h four; f o u r pound guns, two nine pound h o w i l z e r s and f o u r s w i v e l s , as w e l l as numerous s m a l l arms.  A l l was  ready by June 1790, but t h e d i s p u t e o v e r Nootka Sound caused the s a i l i n g t o he postponed u n t i l t h e f o l l o w i n g December. The  " S o l i d e " reached t h e northowest coast  eight  months l a t e r - 7th. o f August 1791, and anchored a t S i t k a , having one  s e t a remarkable h e a l t h r e c o r d .  There had been o n l y  s l i g h t a t t a c k o f scurvy on hoard, and t h i s was so m i l d  t h a t the man had never been o f f duty, due to the scrupulous c l e a n l i n e s s observed and t h e p l e n t i f u l supply o f a n t i s c o r b utics oarried.  The l a t t e r c o n s i s t e d o f cab/bages, c a r r o t s ,  turnips, celery, s o r r e l , p i c k l e d o r preserved  i n vinegar.  Water was always a v a i l a b l e f o r d r i n k i n g as w e l l as any o t h e r beverage and a s p e c i a l l i q u i d was g i v e n out almost d a i l y , made o f fermented wort and sugar, which had proved a v a l u a b l e  anti-  s c o r b u t i c i n the times o f Oook and L a Perouse. The n a t i v e s o f S i t k a were not allowed on board t h e " S o l i d e " , hut were made to t r a d e from t h e i r canoes. k n i v e s and c o l o u r e d beads they h a r d l y accepted, and d e s i r e d European c l o t h e s above a l l .  even as g i f t s ,  F i r s t q u a l i t y sea  o t t e r s k i n s c o u l d o n l y be o b t a i n e d f o r t h e l a t t e r . o f o t h e r s k i n s were exchanged f o r b a s i n s t i n pans, i r o n pots, Marchand concluded  Small  A number  ( p r e f e r a b l y copper),  daggers, l a n c e s , h a l h e r t s , p i k e s ,  t h a t t h e Americans must have v i s i t e d  nails. fairly  r e c e n t l y , as the Indians had numerous European a r t i c l e s and one man wore a p a i r o f Massachusetts coppers as e a r r i n g s .  Page 171.  A l t o g e t h e r he secured ahout two hundred s k i n s , mostly sea o t t e r and hear. to c o l l e c t  In the i n t e r v a l s the S i t k a Indians went i n l a n d  f u r s from o t h e r t r i b e s by exchanging European  goods - Marchand oommented - "no doubt making the s t r a n g e r s pay d e a r l y f o r brokerage and commission", b a r g a i n i n g "the modern  f o r i n the a r t o f  Hebrew c o u l d t e a c h them l i t t l e " .  " S o l i d e " c a r r i e d s p e c i a l f u r r i e r s , who were employed ing a l l  The  i n examin-  s k i n s , h e a t i n g them f r e e from dust and vermin, and  d r e s s i n g them w h i l e they were s t i l l  f r e s h , to secure t h e i r  p r e s e r v a t i o n u n t i l the s h i p ' s a r r i v a l i n C h i n a .  In t h e i r  o p i n i o n t h e sea o t t e r f u r was best when the animal was i n March, A p r i l o r  killed  May.  Marchand l e f t  S i t k a on t h e 2 1 s t . o f August, h a v i n g  been h e l d up hy c o n t r a r y winds, and made f o r the Queen Charlottes I s l a n d s a n c h o r i n g near Cloak Bay.  The n a t i v e s brought a few  f u r s , hut b e t t e r t r a d e r e s u l t e d when the l o n g boat was Cox's Channel.  sent to  The Haidas wanted muskets and powder, hut  Chanel p e r e m p t o r i l y r e f u s e d , and the savages f i n a l l y accepted j a c k e t s , t r o u s e r s , k e t t l e s , b a s i n s , daggers.  By the 27 o f the  months t h e f u r supply was exhausted, and t h e " S o l i d e " moved on. A few days b e f o r e l e a v i n g Marchand s i g h t e d the "Hancock" and h e r twelve t o n tender, but made no e f f o r t to get i n t o touch w i t h them.  The " S o l i d e " f o l l o w e d the west  coast o f t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , passed Hippa I s l a n d , and e n t e r e d Rennel's S t r a i t .  Trade was not good - Marchand blamed  the E n g l i s h f o r h a v i n g preceded him - hut t h e Americans were the r e a l c u l p r i t s .  He d e c i d e d i t was not worth w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g  Page 172.  to ing  Cape- S t . James, and. made i n s t e a d f o r B a r k l e y Sound, a r r i v on t h e 7th. o f September.  the French concluded exhausted.  Ho b e t t e r suocess f o l l o w e d , and  t h a t t h e f u r supply was everywhere  They l e f t  f o r t h e Sandwich I s l a n d s l a t e r i n  September, and a f t e r a s h o r t pause made Macao on t h e 25th. o f November. The l e a d i n g merchants o f Boston were not slow t o r e a l i z e t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e n o r t h west t r a d e .  Men l i k e  Thomas Handasyd P e r k i n s were no amateurs i n the merohantlle business.  In P e r k i n s  1  case h i s grandfather,  Thomas Handasyd  Peck, had been t h e l e a d i n g f u r e x p o r t e r o f t h e d i s t r i c t , at  while  h i s f a t h e r ' s death h i s mother had c a r r i e d on the f u r  b u s i n e s s so s u c c e s s f u l l y t h a t f o r e i g n l e t t e r s were o f t e n addressed " E l i z a b e t h P e r k i n s , E s q u i r e " .  R a i s e d i n t h i s atmosphere  and w i t h such a h e r e d i t y i t was not s u r p r i s i n g that young P e r k i n s should be a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s e a o t t e r  traffic.  In 1790 P e r k i n s and h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w C a p t a i n James Magee bought t h e "Hope", a seventy t o n b r i g , and sent h e r to the n o r t h west coast under Joseph Ingraham, t h e former mate o f the "Columbia" on h e r f i r s t voyage. on the 1 7 t h . o f September 1790, Hawaiian I s l a n d s reached 29th. o f June 1791.  The "Hope" l e f t  Boston  and a f t e r c a l l i n g a t t h e  t h e Ojueen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s on t h e  Ingraham anchored i n a sound on the  n o r t h e r n coast, which he c a l l e d Magee Sound a f t e r one o f h i s owners, and named i t s second arm P o r t P e r k i n s .  The "Hope"  c a r r i e d a few domestic animals w i t h which t o stock p o i n t s , and l e f t  convenient  two sows and a boar, as w e l l as l e t t e r s s e a l e d  PORT I N W U M YOOWO\ F R E D e R  ^ /  cut-in PORT  wh.«uAft's HARBOUR.  PORT noNTG,<>nP*< /{ PORT vicftH PORT  HOP  STORO>»T-  X>i*«PPo&Tn*V  OF  mthftftHftM  \N -V\rtE WftVfrftfrmNE. "HOPE" Of QtLTQW  nqO'lTia.  Page  173  up i n a b o t t l e and f a s t e n e d to t h e bough o f a t r e e , g i v i n g a n account o f the "Hope's" a r r i v a l and the naming o f the sound. Ingraham s a i l e d a l o n g the i s l a n d , but met u n t i l the 10th. o f J u l y 1791.  The  no n a t i v e s  Indians i n v i t e d them to  v i s i t t h e i r v i l l a g e , but on the "Hope's" approaohing o n l y produced two  s k i n s , f o r which t h e y asked e x h o r b i t a n t  Ingraham d i s p l a y e d h i s a r t i c l e s , but made l i t t l e  prices.  impression,  f o r the savages s a i d they had had p l e n t y o f such goods from Captains Douglas and B a r r e t t .  The l a t t e r name i s probable  a  c o r r u p t i o n o f Barnett, master o f the B r i t i s h snow "Gustavus III".  These t r a d e r s had a l r e a d y s u p p l i e d the savages w i t h  blue j a c k e t s and t r o u s e r s , compared w i t h which Ingraham*s s i m i l i a r o f f e r i n g s seemed i n s i g n i f i c a n t ,  and he o n l y secured about  twenty s k i n s a t a v e r y h i g h p r i c e . Ingraham s Yankee i n g e n u i t y came to the rescue, 1  he d e v i s e d the n o v e l i d e a o f making the Indians i r o n The  f o r g e was  and  collars.  s e t up i n J u l y 12th., and the s m i t h o i n s t r u c t e d  to make the c o l l a r s o f t h r e e t w i s t e d $ron rods about the t h i c k n e s s o f a man's f i n g e r . necklace  They were p a t t e r n e d on a clumsy  Ingraham had seen one o f the women wearing, and  tb;e savages* fancy tremendously.  took  When f i n i s h e d they weighed  between f i v e and seven pounds, but the Indians e a g e r l y bought them f o r t h r e e o f t h e i r b e s t s k i n s , and p r e f e r r e d the to anything e l s e on board.  shackles  Ingraham e n l a r g e d on the scheme,  and completed h i s j e w e l r y s e t s w i t h heavy d r o n r i n g s and b r a c e l e t s weighing about a pound, which proved much more p o p u l a r than the p o l i s h e d copper ones p r e v i o u s l y o f f e r e d .  Pag©  Kowe, the c h i e f o f the d i s t r i c t , and h i s t r i h e  174.  lived  i n a h i g h l y f o r t i f i e d p a l i s a d e , which, l i k e o t h e r s found a t the Queen C h a r l o t t e  I s l a n d s , bora s t r o n g resemblance t o the  Hew  Hew  Zealand Hippas.  Indians soon appeared, whom Kowe  warned Ingraham were "bad"  •- simply - i t appeared, because  they d i d not belong to h i s t r i b e .  These savages, knowing noth-  i n g o f the c o l l a r s , r e a d i l y accepted b l u e j a c k e t s and t r o u s e r s f o r t h e i r f u r s , u n t i l a t the l a s t minute the o h i e f e s p i e d one, and would take n o t h i n g e l s e f o r h i s l a s t t h r e e s k i n s . r e p e a t e d l y urged  Kowe  Ingraham to s e i z e the f u r s and d r i v e the  v i s i t o r s away, but such c o u n s e l s were i g n o r e d . On the 15th. o f J u l y the Indians r e p o r t e d t h a t a strange s h i p was  i n the o f f i n g , and the "Hope" prepared to f l y  i n case i t s h o u l d prove  to be a S p a n i a r d .  The happenings a t  Hootka o f the p r e v i o u s season had c r e a t e d a nervous atmosphere. The s h i p passed by, but two  days l a t e r Ingraham encountered  f e l l o w B o s t o n i a n - C a p t a i n C r o w e l l o f the "Hancock", mnd week a f t e r t h a t the "Columbia".  a  a  Considerable r i v a l r y existed  between the Boston merchants, and Haswell o f the "Columbia" brought l e t t e r s f o r the "Hope" s t r i c t l y a g a i n s t h i s owners* orders.  (1) Ingraham s a i l e d s l o w l y down the east c o a s t ,  w h i l e c a l l i n g a t Ucah's visit.  and  Harbour r e c e i v e d the news o f M e t c a l f e ' s  The s h i p i t s e l f was  a centre o f industry.  The  smith  worked hard a t i r o n c o l l a r s , w h i l e o t h e r s made blue  cloth  garments and decorated them w i t h c u r i o u s l y arranged  buttons.  By the beginning o f August p l a n s f o r w i n t e r i n g were being (1) Ingraham, "Voyage o f the B r i g a n t i n e "Hope" 1790-1792", T r a n s c r i p t , Page 55.  Page  175  s e r i o u s l y considered, and the i d e a o f p a s s i n g i t on the coast was  not r e c e i v e d w i t h f a v o u r .  The  "Hope" made a s h o r t v i s i t  to K o y a h s I n l e t i n the south east, hut r e t u r n e d l a t e at n i g h t 1  to the o l d anchorage a t Dean's v i l l a g e .  The cove a t n i g h t  made a tremendous i m p r e s s i o n on Ingraham, and although h i s d e s c r i p t i o n errs r a t h e r i n the p a t h e t i c f a l l a c y i t h e l p s to g i v e the background o f the sea o t t e r t r a f f i c . something sublime the n i g h t .  "There  was  i n e n t e r i n g t h i s d r e a r y p o r t a t t h i s hour of  The surrounding h i g h mountains threw an a d d i t -  i o n a l gloom o v e r the f a c e o f t h e deep whose vast s i l e n c e  was  at times i n t e r r u p t e d by the h o l l o w surge o f the sea on the surrounding rocky shores o r the gamboling o f immense whales."(1) The demand f o r i r o n c o l l a r s continued, but s i n c e they took a c o n s i d e r a b l e time to make - f i v e was work f o r the smith - the p r i c e was Ingraham f e l t w i t h a man  f i x e d a t t h r e e good s k i n s .  i t must be maintained,  and woman who  c o n s i d e r e d a good day's  and when a canoe a r r i v e d  had one good said two  small and i n -  d i f f e r e n t f u r s , he gave them "a saucepan o f more i n t r i n s i c value than t h r e e c o l l a r s " r a t h e r than lower the  standard.  Ingraham upheld Marchand i n h i s views o f the bargaining a b i l i t i e s ,  and s a i d t h a t on some o c c a s i o n s Ucah  even undertook the s a l e o f the v i s i t i n g Indians' f u r s , some o f them a t l e a s t ,  Indians'  or  f o r "they l e a v e no means u n t r i e d to  o b t a i n the best p r i c e f o r t h e i r goods."  Another c h i e f ,  Cummashawaa, would not a l l o w h i s v i l l a g e to t r a d e u n t i l Ingraham had made him a present, and would accept n o t h i n g l e s s than a c o l l a r .  H i s people were l i t t l e behind him,  (1) Ingraham, "Voyage o f the T r a n s c r i p t , Page 65.  and  Ingraham  B r i g a n t i n e "Hope" 1790-1792",  Page 176  d e s c r i b e d them as having t h e most m e r c a n t i l e  s p i r i t o f any-  encountered o n t h e I s l a n d , as they r e f u s e d to p a r t w i t h a s i n g l e s k i n u n t i l convinced t h a t the maximum p r i c e had been offered. and  The "Hope" secured an e x c e l l e n t cargo o f a hundred  seventy s i x s k i n s , which was remarkable as s e v e r a l  s h i p s had a l r e a d y v i s i t e d t h a t season. district  other  The Indians o f t h e  seemed much subdued, w h i l e Koyah had a newly made  s c a r from a musket b a l l , and r e f u s e d to s a y how he had r e c e i v e d it.  Ingraham c o r r e o t l y concluded t h a t they had been d i s c i p l -  i n e d hy some s h i p , but d i d not h e a r t h e d e t a i l s o f Kendriok's massacre, u n t i l some time l a t e r .  The n a t i v e s seldom admitted  t h e y s o l d t h e i r f u r s , but a f t e r t r y i n g t o d r i v e  impossible  b a r g a i n s would throw them o n t h e deck, w i t h t h e word " I m g l i i s h tong" - " I ' l l g i v e i t t o you". the dearest  Such s k i n s i n v a r i a b l y proved  by t h e time the r e t u r n present  was made.  Among o t h e r a r t i c l e s the "Hope" c a r r i e d some f e a t h e r ed caps and c l o a k s - o r i g i n a l l y presents At f i r s t  from t h e Hawaiians.  t h e n a t i v e s seemed " v a s t l y enamoured" and a cap and  two  c l o a k s were s o l d f o r f i v e e x c e l l e n t s k i n s - but o n r e f l e c t -  ion  repented o f the b a r g a i n and wished t o revoke t h e agreement.  The t r a d e r s would have none o f i t though, on the grounds t h a t i t would b e g i n a bad p o l i c y .  By t h e 15th.  o f August the  "Hope" had e i g h t hundred and f i f t y s k i n s on board, which made it  q u i t e unnecessary t o w i n t e r on t h e c o a s t .  Americans planned t o c o l l e c t f u r s t i l l  Instead t h e  t h e end o f t h e season,  and t h e n make s t r a i g h t f o r t h e Sandwich I s l a n d s and China. T h e i r t r a d i n g a r t i c l e s needed r e p l e n i s h i n g ,  particularly  Page 177  c l o t h i n g and c l o t h , now o f the. f i r s t  importance.  Provisions  were a l s o running s h o r t , a l t h o u g h the crew v a r i e d t h e i r  salt  "beef o c c a s i o n a l l y hy h e a r and geese o b t a i n e d from the I n d i a n s . Trade was hastened, and f o r t y two o f the l a s t simply f o r unwrought for  each.  f u r s were bought  i r o n , a l l o w i n g the l e n g t h o f the s k i n  The i r o n wrought would have brought double the  amount o f f u r s , but Ingraham wished to l e a v e the coast as soon as  possible.  H a l a t i o n s w i t h t h e Indians were becoming more  s t r a i n e d , and a t the end o f August when the t r a d e r s were packing  f u r s , and f i l l i n g up wijrh wood and water, s e v e r a l attempts  were made to s u r p r i s e them i n t h e n i g h t . anchor a t 4 A.M.  The "Hope" weighed  on t h 29th. of August 1791, and f i r e d a gun  as  she l e f t .  to  do l a s t minute b u s i n e s s , a f t e r which they s a i d good bye f o r  the  A canoe came o f f w i t h a few o f the c h i e f s anxious  season, and requested t h a t Ingraham b r i n g many i r o n  c o l l a r s when he r e t u r n e d . The "Hope" had done much b e t t e r t h a n the "Columbia" on h e r f i r s t  voyage, who  had o n l y e i g h t hundred s k i n s and  was away from Boston twenty f i v e months. away a year, and had a cargo o f : -  Ingraham had not been  (1)  1400 sea o t t e r s k i n s 300 s a b l e s beavers and w o l v e r i n e . He had f a r surpassed most o f the; s h i p s on t h e coast i n 1791. The "Columbia" when l a s t  seen had o n l y s i x hundred - some o f  them poor specimens.  The "Hancockr c o u l d o n l y muster betweem  f i v e and s i x hundred.  These s h i p s had spent most o f t h e i r  time c r u i s i n g about, as had the "Hope" a t f i r s t . (1)  Ingraham  soon  Ingraham, "A Voyage o f the B r i g a n t i n e JHope* 1790-1792", - T r a n s c r i p t , Page 155.  Page 178  abandoned this method, finding he did a much better trade bystaying i n one plaoey as so much time was lost between ports while cruising.  Cummashawa Inlet was very well adapted for  this purpose, since i t lay within easy reach of three tribes, and not a day went by without trade.  The Indians preferred  trading with a stationary ship, since i t permitted them to take longer over their bargaining.  Ingraham reported that  many edible weeds were found i n the Queen Charlotte Islands, dook, wild celery, wild peas, lambs quarter and samphire. 1  The samphire they pickled i n vinegar and found very good. Ingraham himself was quite a naturalist, and collected the seeds of new and interesting plants which he sent to Boston. The "Hope"breached Macao on the S9th. of November 1791, where she met the "Solide", and Ingraham heard for the f i r s t time of the calamity which had befallen the Canton fur market. Shortly afterwards he met R. D. Coolidge of the "Grace" who had the same tale. The Chinese had placed au unexpected check on the trade in 1791, when they forbade a l l introduction of furs into the southern ports of the empire, particularly that of sea otter.  China was at war with Russia at the time, and thought  that by closing the market they would injure that nation, for they seemed to have the idea that a l l fur ships were i n some way connected with the Russians.  Marchand of the "Solide" was  one of the f i r s t to encounter this obstacle i n the autumn of 1791.  The embargo prevented him from trading at Canton, and  he could not go to the port of Whampoa where manipulation  Page 179  might have been p o s s i b l e , s i n c e h i s v e s s e l , a l t h o u g h onlyt h r e e hundred tons, would have been charged a thousand in duties. was  dollars  I t was an e x h o r b i t a n t f i g u r e because the t r a d e  s m a l l , and Marchand remarks  "The Chinese Government  still  seem to be ignorant t h a t t h e augmentation o f d u t i e s does not promote the i n c r e a s e o f produce."  (1)  A c c o r d i n g to h i s own  account he gave up a l l idea o f s e l l i n g o r smuggling the f u r s , and l e f t  f o r the I s l e o f Prance.  Ingraham says he was i n -  formed t h a t t h i s was not the case, and t h a t they were f i n a l l y smuggled ashore through the i n t e r e s t s o f the p a d r e s . By the b e g i n n i n g o f December 1791,  the sea o t t e r  was a g l u t on the market, and the p r i c e f e l l a l a r m i n g l y . The "Grace" ( C a p t a i n C o o l i d g e ), the "Hancock ( C a p t a i n C r o w e l l ) , the  "Gustavus  I I I ( C a p t a i n B a r n e t t ) and the "Hope" ( C a p t a i n  Ingraham) were a l l a t L a r k ' s Bay  (otherwise known as D i r t y  B u t t e r Bay) t r y i n g t o c l e a r t h e i r c a r g o e s . t h a t w i t h what Marchand had l e f t , sea  They estimated  t h e r e must be e l e v e n thousand  o t t e r on the market a t t h e moment, and the v a l u e dropped  i n proportion.  A few days l a t e r Captains K e n d r i c k and Bogeias  a r r i v e d to s w e l l the g a t h e r i n g . f u r s f i r s t through a Mr. Mc  Ingraham t r i e d to s e l l h i s  I n t i r e o f Macao, but soon d i s -  covered t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t s were b e i n g p l a c e d v e r y much second to  those o f the "Grace", s i n c e Mc  I n t i r e was the agent and  a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the e s t a t e o f the l a t e C a p t a i n Douglas. Both o f Douglas  1  s h i p s , the "Grace" and the "aSairy" had a r r i v e d  w i t h handsome cargoes, but the u n s e t t l e d s i t u a t i o n o f h i s a f f a i r s a t t h e time o f h i s death prevented h i s f r i e n d s from (1) Marchand,  "A V<byage Bound the World", Page 71.  Page 180.  r e a p i n g much o f the p r o f i t .  E f f o r t s were made to smuggle  s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s o f f u r s to Whiampoa.  The f i r s t  cargo, a  hundred and f i f t y s k i n s o f C a p t a i n C o o l i d g e , s o l d s u c c e s s f u l l y , so  fairly  Ingraham and C o o l i d g e j o i n e d f o r a second  venture, bought a boat, and sent m hundred s k i n s each i n charge o f the person who  had d i s p o s e d o f them b e f o r e .  The  ruse was u n s u c c e s s f u l and the f u r s b a r e l y escaped s e i z u r e by the  Chinese mandarins,  so the venture was abandoned as too  risky. C o n d i t i o n s had not improved by the f o l l o w i n g year, and Gray o f the "Columbia" wrote to h i s owners i n Boston, August, 1792, are  "We  have a t o l e r a b l e cargo o f f u r s aboard, and  i n hopes to get a few more.  C a p t a i n Ingraham o f the "Hope"  informs us f u r s are p r o h i b i t e d i n China under v e r y severe p e n a l t i e s : t h a t a l t h o u g h we may  smuggle the s k i n s , they w i l l  f e t c h o n l y from f i f t e e n t o twenty f i v e d o l l a r s . " f u r t h e r l e t t e r from Whampoa, December 22, 1792, the  s i t u a t i o n had not been exaggerated.  low - —  "  (1)  A  i n d i c a t e d that  Skins a r e v e r y  no s e l l i n g them f o r cash, indeed we c o u l d not get the  s h i p seoured u n l e s s we would agree to take goods i n pay. At  t h i s time i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t o say the amount our s k i n s w i l l  f e t c h , but I don't expect they w i l l exceed f o r t y thousand dollars.  T h i s i s a small p r i c e f o r our q u a l i t y o f f u r s , but  there are a g r e a t many at market and many more expected, the v e r y best s k i n s a t r e t a i l w i l l not f e t c h more than t h i r t y d o l l a r s , and a t wholesale from s i x to twenty f i v e d o l l a r s .  —  (1) Hoskins, "The N a r r a t i v e o f a Voyage to the N o r t h West Coast - o f Amerioa 1790-3 ", T r a n s c r i p t , Appendix: L e t t e r to Joseph B a r r e l l from s h i p "Columbia" from Hoskins and Gray, August 12, 1792.  Page 181  We  expect to s a i l f o r Boston i n about a month." (1)  i n f o r m a t i o n ceases, and i t i s even u n c e r t a i n how Chinese embargo l a s t e d .  Here i n f o r  l o n g the  A p p a r e n t l y i t was p o s s i b l e f o r the  East I n d i a Company to s e l l sea o t t e r i n the summer o f  1796,  as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i s p o s e d o f the "Ruby's" cargo, but o n l y a t a low p r i c e , and a f t e r t h r e e month's s t a l l i n g .  The  d e l a y cost the "Ruby" ££83 16s. i n food and wages, and h e r c a p t a i n , worrying o v e r the l o s s t o h i s owners, s a v a g e l y r e c o r d e d he was  s i c k o f b e i n g put o f f " t i l l  tomorrow! damnation! "  tomorrow, tomorrow!  (£)  (1) Hoskins, "The N a r r a t i v e o f a Voyage t o the North West Coast o f America 1790-3", T r a n s c r i p t , Appendix: L e t t e r from "Columbia" a t Whampoa ££ December 179E to Joseph Barrell. (£) C h a r l e s Bishop, "Voyage o f the "Ruby to the Coast o f America, 1794-6 ", O r i g i n a l i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , V i c t o r i a , B. C , Page £73. 1  Page  Chapter V I I I .  "THE  SPANIARDS  182.  AND  CAPTAIN GEORGE VANCOUVER." (1792-1795)  The second Spanish s e t t l e m e n t c o n t i n u e d a f t e r the Nootka Sound Convention o f 1790, in t h e i r right  hut the Spanish c o n f i d e n c e  o f o c c u p a t i o n had gone.  They f e l t t h a t i t was  o n l y a q u e s t i o n o f time b e f o r e they would he f o r c e d to vacate,  and began to send v a l u a b l e a r t i c l e s back to  Re v i l l a Gigedo, the v i c e r o y o f New  California.  Spain, was much  interest-  ed i n the survey o f the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca begun by Manuel Quimper i n 1790,  s i n c e i t had caused c o n s i d e r a b l e  comment from geographers.  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r he  instructed  E l i s a t o f i n i s h the work, and a c c o r d i n g l y on the 5 t h . o f 1791  E l i s a l e f t Nootka i n command o f the packet "San  accomanied  by Jose M a r i a  Narvaez w i t h the schooner  S a t u r n i n a " o r " H o r c a s i t a s " . The o r i g i n a l p l a n was  May  Carlos", "Santa  t o examine  the coast from 60" , south to the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, e n t e r and c o m p l e t e l y survey i t .  C o n t r a r y winds prevented the s h i p s  from g o i n g n o r t h , so the s u r v e y was  begun i n s t e a d a t 4 8 ° , and  the v e s s e l s entered the S t r a i t on the 27th. o f May.  The  f i r s t work c e n t r e d about Haro S t r a i t and the G u l f o f Georgia, and o c c u p i e d them u n t i l t h e 7 t h . o f August,  when s c u r v y and  f a i l i n g p r o v i s i o n s n e c e s s i t a t e d r e t u r n i n g to Nootka.  Elisa  dad c o n s i d e r a b l e work on R o s a r i o S t r a i t , and mapped the coast  Page 183  l i n e o f the mainland from B e l l i n g h a m Bay to Boundary Bay,  (1)  A t t e n t i o n was not c o n f i n e d to one s i d e o f the G u l f , and the c o a s t l i n e o f Vancouver I s l a n d was t r a c e d from Cape Lazo to Kanaimo.  The work between Qualioum Beach and Nanaimo was  w i t h much a c c u r a c y ,  done  E l i s a had d i s c o v e r e d the i n l a n d waterway  running n o r t h from the S t r a i t o f Juan de Fuca, but had not been a b l e to e x p l o r e i t ,  and the c o n n e c t i n g arm between the  S t r a i t o f Georgia and Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound remained u n c h a r t e d u n t i l the advent o f George Vancouver.  E l i s a had accomplished  a voyage o f g r e a t h i s t o r i c a l importance, but due to the d e f i c i e n c y o f i t s r e c o r d s has not r e c e i v e d adequate On h i s r e t u r n to  recognition.  Nootka E l i s a wrote to t h e V i c e r o y  r e p o r t i n g h i s d i s c o v e r i e s " A s s u r i n g yo$rr E x c e l l e n c y that i f the passage to the ocean e x i s t s , which f o r e i g n n a t i o n s are so e a g e r l y s e e k i n g on t h i s coast, i t seems ibb me t h a t i t cannot be anywhere e l s e than through t h i s great c h a n n e l . " (2)  The  V i c e r o y o r d e r e d that t h i s r e g i o n be immediately surveyed, and p r e p a r a t i o n s began to f i t two schooners f o r the purpose. I n 1789  S p a i n equipped two c o r v e t t e s " D e s o u b i e r t a "  (Discovery) and " A t r e v i d a " (Audacious) f o r a " p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i f i c " e x p e d i t i o n under Don A l e j a n d r o M a l e s p i n a . " A t r e v i d a " was  and The  commended by Don Jose Bustamente y Guera,  an"  I t a l i a n o f distinguished family i n the services o f Spain. was (1) (2)  It  the Spanish e q u i v a l e n t to Cook's T h i r d Voyage, and the F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n c f . , W. N. Sage, "Spanish E x p l o r e r s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Coast, Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, X I I , 395-397. "The Voyage Made by the Schooners ' S u t i l and Mexicana i n the year 1792." P r i n t e d by o r d e r o f t h e K i n g , R o y a l P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Madrid, 1802. T r a n s l a t e d by G.F. Barwich. October 1911, I I , 2. 1  Page 184.  e n t e r p r i s e o f L a Perouse, aiming a t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e n o r t h west passage l e g e n d .  The s h i p s  s a i l e d from C a d i z on J u l y 30th. 1789 and f o l l o w e d the u s u a l r o u t e round Cape Horn. 1791,  They l e f t Acapulco on t h e 1 s t . o f May  and made s t r a i g h t f o r t h e A l a s k a n c o a s t , s u r v e y i n g from  P o r t Mulgrave  to Prince  W i l l i a m Sound.  The s e a r c h f o r the  S t r a i t o f A n i a n was thorough, hut n e c e s s a r i l y v a i n .  Bad  storms damaged the mast o f the "Desouhierta", so a f t e r  setting  up an o b s e r v a t o r y on l a n d , and making some notes on t h e n a t i v e s , the e x p e d i t i o n headed south f o r Nootka, a r r i v i n g on the 13th.. o f August.  Here they c h a r t e d t h e p o r t and made another obser-  v a t o r y , l e a v i n g f o r Mexico i n t h e end o f the month, " f i n i s h i n g a n e x p e d i t i o n which e s t a b l i s h e d the b e a r i n g s o f the n o r t h e r n coast o f New Spain w i t h g r e a t e r exactness t h a n a l l p r e v i o u s voyages combined." (1) Bevilla  Gigedo was determined to l e a v e no stone  unturned i n d i s p e l l i n g t h e legends concerning the n o r t h west coast and t o show i t s t r u e o u t l i n e .  He next o r d e r e d a survey  from P o r t B u c a r e l i to Nootka to " v e r i f y the potentous c o v e r i e s o f Admiral Fonte."  dis-  L i e u t e n a n t J a c i n t o Caamano was  s e l e c t e d f o r the task, and l e f t  San B i a s on the £0th. o f March  1792 w i t h t h e f r i g a t e "Aranzazu".  He reached Nootka on the  1 4 t h . o f May, and a f t e r r e f i t t i n g the s h i p made a t once f o r B u c a r e l i , examining  the coast as he went.  I t was the 12th. o f  June when Caamano came to B u c a r e l i , where the most important p a r t o f h i s work began.  He made a v e r y d e t a i l e d map o f t h e  sound, much o f which was based on the e x p l o r a t i o n s o f two (1) Sage, "Spanish E x p l o r e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia - l o c . c i t . , Page 398.  Coast",  Page  pilots.  185.  These were sent w i t h a l a u n c h and boat " w e l l armed  and w i t h twenty days p r o v i s i o n s to examine the i n n e r channels which c o u l d not be e x p l o r e d i n 1779."(1) and capes, s h o a l s , i s l e t s and roadsteads were a c c u r a t e l y c h a r t e d .  The t a s k  f i n i s h e d by the 11th. o f June, and the "Aranzazu"  sailed  s u r v e y i n g and e x p l o r i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t i t u d e  54°50'.  Oaameno condemned  was south,  C o l n e t t s maps o f c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the 1  coast as b e i n g " i n a c c u r a t e ,  and no f r i e n d to humanity."  On August 1, the Spaniards l a n d e d i n the  (2)  vicinity  o f Bank's I s l a n d , and claimed t h e country w i t h t h e i r u s u a l ceremonies,  and b u r i e d a r e c o r d i n g document n e a r the  The Indians d i d not wish them to e x p l o r e the i s l a n d  anchorage. channels  and t r i e d to d e t e r them w i t h t a l e s o f huge monsters,  which  l i f t i n g t h e i r whole bodies out o f the water, a t t a c k e d and ate craws.  The n a t i v e s captured two o f the Spanish, but  through  the i n t e r e s t o f a f r i e n d l y o h i e f and h i s son, they were r e s t o r ed.  By the f i r s t o f the f o l l o w i n g month the s h i p had  reached  the S c o t t I s l a n d s , and s i x days l a t e r anchored a t Nootka. Caamano had o b t a i n e d a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e map b u t h i s s h i p was  o f the shore l i n e ,  too l a r g e to p e n e t r a t e the i n t r i c a t e  d i f f i c u l t passages  to any e x t e n t .  Much had happened a t Nootka d u r i n g t h e i r The two  and  absence.  schooners - the " S u t i l " and "Mexicana" - s e l e c t e d t o  e x p l o r e t h e channel between Vancouver I s l a n d and the  mainland,  a r r i v e d a t Nootka on May 13th., having l e f t Acapulco e a r l y i n (1) "A Voyage made by the Schooners ' S u t i l and Mexicana' i n . the F e a r 1792," Page CXXIII. (2) I b i d , Page CXXVII.  Page  March.  They were p u r p o s e l y s m a l l to a l l o w them to n a v i g a t e  shallow waterways, and t h a "Mexicana" had a t the Department o f San quate,  186.  Bias.  j u s t been completed  They were t h e o r e t i c a l l y ade-  hut i n r e a l i t y t o t a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the  start.  The s h i p s measured f i f t y f e e t t h r e e inohes i n l e n g t h and t h i r t e e n f e e t t e n inches broad, and each c a r r i e d a crew o f seventeen,  armed w i t h one  three pound s w i v e l gun,  four falcons,  e i g h t e e n muskets, twenty f o u r p i s t o l s and e i g h t e e n s a b r e s .  (1)  They were d e f e c t i v e l y made, being too narrow and hence u n s t a b l e , and had i n s u f f i c i e n t room to c a r r y proper s u p p l i e s o f wood a n ! water.  The  " S u t i l " was  commanded by D i o n i s i o Galiano,  with  one l i e u t e n a n t Seoundino Salamanca, w h i l e Cayetano Valdes, w i t h Juan Vernaei as s o l e l i e u t e n a n t , d i r e c t e d t