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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Amor DeCosmos : a British Columbia reformer Ross, Margaret 1931

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AMOR  DEOOSMOS,  A BRITISH  COLUMBIA  by Margaret  Ross  REFORMER  AMOR  DECOSMOS.A  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  Margaret Ross  REFORMER  (% . (L .  A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t Requirements  f o r the Degree of MASTER OP ARTS In the Department of HISTORY  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h Columbia  A p r i l , 1931.  for the  J  I U . B . C . LIBRARY f I  CAT ^ei  av  -fafa  I ACC. NO. 7sGi£>  |  CONTENTS.  Chapter '. . I.  Chapter  II.  E a r l y L i f e and T r a i n i n g .  The C r e a t i o n of P u b l i c Opinion,  Chapter I I I .  DeCosmos i n the Assembly.  Chapter  IV.  The Struggle  Chapter  V.  Chapter  VI.  Appendix  A.  Bibliography.  f o r Confederation,  DeCosmos i n the House of Commons.  An Estimate of DeCosmos's C h a r a c t e r and Work.  L i s t s of the Members of the L e g i s l a t i v e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1867-1871.  Council  - Chapter I E a r l y L i f e and T r a i n i n g .  The h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia has been w r i t t e n so o f t e n on the theory t h a t a l l t h a t i s good i n the p r o v i n c e i s a l e g a c y from the men who came out i n the i n t e r e s t s o f the Hudson's Bay Company t h a t t h i s f a l l a c y has become the b e l i e f o f most people.  S t r a n g e l y enough l i t t l e  c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been  g i v e n to the g r e a t f i e l d o f the i n f l u e n c e  o f the E a s t e r n B r i -  t i s h North American p r o v i n c e s upon the West.  B r i t i s h Columbi-  ans have ignored the f a c t t h a t the g r e a t s t o r y o f a l l B r i t i s h p r o v i n c e s has been the f i g h t f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government, and t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d do n o t d i f f e r from the remainder o f Canada i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  Since they have i g -  nored t h i s f a c t i t i s only n a t u r a l t h a t they should a l s o have ignored the men who fought f o r these  principles.  Where would these men come from who fought t i c a l freedom i n the most western o f the provinces?  for p o l i I t i s not  to be expected t h a t the Great Monopoly would p r o v i d e them,  in-  t e r e s t e d as i t was, o n l y i n p r o f i t s ; nor the s e t t l e r s who came from England, r a r e l y unattached but r a t h e r servants o f the Hudson's Bay Company. California,  Nor would they be expected to come from  among the mixed group who were a t t r a c t e d by g o l d ,  and who stayed i n many cases Eastern provinces Maritimes;  to trade.  Instead i t was from the  t h a t they came, from the Canadas and the  the p r o v i n c e s where r e s p o n s i b l e government had been  2  contended f o r d u r i n g h a l f a c e n t u r y . to  The f i r s t o f these  men  f i g h t f o r B r i t i s h p r i v i l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia came from  Nova S c o t i a , the f i r s t p r o v i n c e to win r e s p o n s i b l e government, and to win i t by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means.  I t i s p o s s i b l e then to  t r a c e the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f i g h t o f B r i t i s h Columbia to the i n f l u e n c e o f Nova S c o t i a and Joseph Howe on t h i s man,  Amor DeCos-  mos. Nova S c o t i a from 1830 l i v e d i n a t u r m o i l of p o l i t i c a l events, a l l c e n t r i n g around t h a t great p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e , Howe.  As a newspaper man,  an e a r l y age, and i n 1835  he was  Joseph  i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c s from  e n t e r e d i n t o them a c t i v e l y .  f i r s t p u b l i c appearance, however, was  His  connected w i t h the famous  l i b e l case, where he upheld the freedom o f the p r e s s as he l a t e r to uphold the freedom of the people.  Prom 1835  was  until  1848 Howe was never i d l e i n the f i g h t f o r r e s p o n s i b l e government and, through h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and magnetism, a l l Nova Scot i a became v i t a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n .  A g r e a t d e a l of  t h i s i n t e r e s t was due, o f course, to the a b l e opponents who  upheld the o l d o r d e r .  Such men  o f Howe  as Johnston and such gover-  nors as F a l k l a n d c o u l d not f a i l to a t t r a c t a people n a t u r a l l y politically-minded. Imagine,  t h e r e f o r e , t h i s atmosphere  of I n t e r e s t i n  p o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s - - w l t h s t i r r i n g events and great speeches t o win the a t t e n t i o n of a l l Nova S c o t i a .  A c h i l d born i n a fami-  l y which took any i n t e r e s t at a l l i n p o l i t i c s ,  and brought up  near the scene of Howe's l a b o u r s would undoubtedly hear much of  t h i s great f i g u r e and h i s able opponents,  and the p r i n c i p l e s  ?3 f o r which he was f i g h t i n g . Such was the background o f W i l l i a m Alexander Smith, or as he was l a t e r known, Amor DeCosmos.  H i s f a m i l y was o f  o l d P u r i t a n stock who had fought w i t h Cromwell i n the days o f the C i v i l War, had l e f t D e r b y s h i r e f o r the American C o l o n i e s , 1 and a f t e r the War o f Independence had s e t t l e d i n Nova S c o t i a . H i s o r i g i n s a r e almost a r e p l i c a of Howe's, h i s p a r e n t s probab l y h e l d the same b e l i e f s as Howe and t h e r e f o r e he would be brought up i n an atmosphere f a v o u r a b l e t o r e s p o n s i b l e government . Born i n 1825, he attended Windsor Academy, a p r i v a t e school, u n t i l 1840, when he entered the employ o f a f i r m o f wholesale merchants, C h a r l e s Whitman Company, i n H a l i f a x . Consequently he was i n H a l i f a x , a t the c e n t r e o f the p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e i n the most c r u c i a l years o f Howe's p o l i t i c a l  career.  Moreover he was a member o f the Dalhousie Debating Club which a c t i v e l y d i s c u s s e d the p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n s o f the day. L i k e Howe he l e f t  s c h o o l e a r l y , b u t he attended the  n i g h t s c h o o l of John S. Thompson while working i n H a l i f a x . He, l i k e Howe,'must have read much i n h i s spare time, s i n c e i n h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g he showed a good knowledge.of  literature.  T h i s f a c t was remarked on by a man who knew him l a t e r . "He was wide-minded, y e t m e t h o d i c a l l y l a b o r i o u s , and a master o f 1.  Boggs, Beaumont - What I remember o f Hon. Amor DeCosmos. B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Report, 1929. IP. &f. B. C. A r c h i v e s  - L i b r a r y o f L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, No. 3, 1910. Some j o t t i n g s supposedly w r i t t e n by DeCosmos's b r o t h e r .  4  d e t a i l s ; a great reader,  c h i e f l y hut not  l i n e s of H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s . t i o n of what he knew.  Only by  e x c l u s i v e l y , i n the  He made no parade i n conversa-* some I n c i d e n t a l a l l u s i o n would  you become aware of h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Shakespeare 1  and  Scott." It i s d i f f i c u l t ence of one man  of course to t r a c e the d i r e c t  influ-  on another when there i s no evidence o f any d i -  r e c t c o n t a c t between them and when t h e i r work i s c a r r i e d on i n p l a c e s many m i l e s d i s t a n t from each o t h e r . an i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c u l a t i o n and  Nevertheless i t i s  i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the  case of Howe's i n f l u e n c e on DeCosmos a f t e r he l e f t Nova S c o t i a . I t i s easy to show by a comparison of t h e i r two  c a r e e r s many  p o i n t s of s i m i l a r i t y - - s o many t h a t i t seems obvious that the • o l d e r man  i n f l u e n c e d the younger.  prove by d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s a l i z e d the one  It i s d i f f i c u l t ,  however, to  of DeCosmos t h a t he c o n s c i o u s l y  i n f l u e n c e o f Howe though i n many of h i s  re-  editorials  recognizes.marked resemblances between the i d e a s and  lan-  guage of b o t h . I t i s f a r e a s i e r to f i n d r e f e r e n c e s f l u e n c e of Nova S c o t i a . an E x e c u t i v e •  etc."  On  occasion,  he  speaks of the l a c k of  C o u n c i l " s i m i l a r to those o f Nova S c o t i a , Canada,  2.  Nova S c o t i a Is put f i r s t not Canada.  an a r t i c l e from the Globe, S t . John, New 1859,  t h a t show the i n -  A g a i n he  quotes  Brunswick, of J u l y ,  which remarks on the C o l o n i s t ' s f i g h t a g a i n s t Douglas  and which compares the  s i t u a t i o n there to t h a t i n the  1.  Sproat, G i l b e r t M.  2.  B r i t i s h Colonist  eastern  - Amor DeCosmos, A S i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia'Politics. Victoria D a i l y Times, Jan. 19, 1906. — Feb. 5, 1859.  5  province  before responsible  government.  1  Here a g a i n  there  seems t o be a c l o s e l i n k between the colony on the P a c i f i c and those on the A t l a n t i c . The most d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e a governor f o r the i s l a n d .  t o Howe i s i n the matter o f  Grant says that he attempted to get  the governorship o f the P a c i f i c c o l o n y on one o f h i s v i s i t s to 2 England. " There e v i d e n t l y was some t r u t h i n the s t o r y the rumour reached Vancouver I s l a n d . the C o l o n i s t , saying '3 place."  since  DeCosmos mentions i t i n  "he would be the r i g h t man i n the r i g h t  To the former Nova S c o t i a n , no man c o u l d be a b e t t e r  governor o f the young c o l o n y which was s t r u g g l i n g towards r e s ponsible  government than the man who had done most to win i t i n  h i s own p r o v i n c e . Both the papers i n V i c t o r i a ,  i n w r i t i n g about DeCos-  mos a f t e r h i s death mentioned t h i s i n f l u e n c e o f Howe. Colonist declared  The  "the h i s t o r y o f t h i s rugged and courageous  p i o n e e r shows t h a t he brought from h i s Nova S c o t i a b i r t h p l a c e a great  d e a l o f the same k i n d o f f i r e t h a t burned i n the b r e a s t • 4 of Joseph Howe." The Times d e f i n i t e l y s a i d that d u r i n g h i s e a r l y l i f e i n Nova S c o t i a he chose Joseph Howe f o r h i s p o l i t i '5 c a l mentor. 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Aug. 26, 1859. 2.  Grant, W. L .  - The Tribune o f Nova S c o t i a . Chronic l e s o f Canada S e r i e s , V o l . 26. Toronto, Glasgow, Brook and Company, 1922. <P. •  3.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Oct.  4.  Daily Colonist  - J u l y 6, 1897,  5.  D a i l y Times  - J u l y 5, 1897-.  5, 1859..  6 DeCosmos many a n o t h e r cided  that  country tical of  ambitious  there  where  work.  peak  for  adventure—the he  route  started  across  Lake  and  City  dation  their  He,  the  the  on  the  almost t o be  Indians, He  Nevada  alone,  i n June,  he  although  reached  difficult  went b y  way  of  caravan.  the  finally  in  company  reached  being  Salt  there  of  there  supposed  the  not,  seems  he  left  Mountains.  and  that  Salt  Leaving  Placerville,  days.  ever  Lake  had  decided  i n those  men  foun-  later  to have  feat  few  little  did.  City  his  in  1853  party  Eldorado  County,  1853, California,  gold mining  daguerrotype to  of  had  Therefore  joined a  Mormons  was  reached  reached  intention  poli-  inducement  the, more i  part  up  winter.  one or  added  Y o r k he  where he  j o i n e d the  Sierra  Having  his  spent  story i s true  pushing  been  New  impossible  and  and  from  Louis  an  chose  new  spectator  rush  fortune.  city--an  the  camera  He  provisions lost.  is said  any  a  He  crossed  California,  would be  a mere  de-  in a  to b u i l d  gold  like  probably  talents  t o be  great  Brigham Young.  and  attempted  St.  i t , t h a t he  however,  Whether  to  than  of making  but  p e r i o d he  for his  the  there  starting  1851,  opportunity  time  story i s told,  with  leave  the  attacked by  where he  for  trouble to  and  the  scope  for California.  was  The  and  of  rather  this  chance  land  caravan  killed,  at  in California  Missouri River  This  more  would be  Just  its  the  y o u n g man  w o u l d be  there  in Halifax until  organization himself,  such  1851  remained  go  at  stock into  first. and this  he  does  He  had  i t seems business  not  seem  brought that from  to  with  i t must the  have him  a  have  beginning.  At  any rate,  far  more  from and  profitable  i n h i s choice and probably  an u n d e r t a k i n g than m i n i n g .  one end o f C a l i f o r n i a their  finally  claims,  settled  trading,  the  h e was w i s e  to another,  and c h a r g i n g twenty  i n Orville,  and s p e c u l a t i o n .  Bute  taking dollars  County,  H e was a l s o 1  travelled  pictures  o f miners  a picture. up  He  mining,  t o be prominent  i n  Councils o f the Vigilantes. It  w a s w h i l e h e was i n C a l i f o r n i a  name  changed b y an a c t o f the C a l i f o r n i a  tion  on h i s p a r t  every gest the  reason that  that  has been  the cause  he supposedly Others  h e h a d t o do w i t h  safer  t o change  on a f a l l a c y - - t h a t  tect.  I t seems more  quence  o f some p a s t m i s d e e d  William name would  Alexander  t o Amor DeCosmos? attract The  1.  2.  Smith.  attention more  had with  h i s name.  sug-  t h e Mormons made  Both  these  and  feared  under.the  b y i t sv e r y  felt  reasons  would be easy  a n y s u c h man  A name w h i c h  Some  Committees  f o r a m a n who  would  This ac-  h e was i n c r i m i n a t e d i n  Smith  t o remain  Why  seem  t o de-  the conse-  common name o f change h i s strangeness  t o i t s owner?  logical  e x p l a n a t i o n a n d t h e one w h i c h  B a n c r o f t , H e r b e r t H. - P o p u l a r  Bogg's, B e a u m o n t  o f name.  the Vigilantes 2  sensible  he h a d h i s  o f much c o n t r o v e r s y a n d  say that  t h e name  that  legislature.  g i v e n f o r t h e change  necessary.  i t was  rest  has been  the trouble  change  something  to  He  and took  said  found i t  Tribunals.  Vols.  seems  36, 37.  B a n c r o f t ' s Works. San F r a n c i s c o , 1887. These books d e a l i n d e t a i l w i t h t h e C o u n c i l s b u t t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f DeCosmos. - Op. C i t . I n t h i s w o r k . he g i v e s t h e f i r s t r e a s o n . In c o n v e r s a t i o n he suggested t h e other reason.  8 the  most  mail  authentic,  and decided  ous  thing  chose.  about  as  than  sible.  He  should  have  on  peoples'  same n a m e .  his  fellowmen  ate—"Lover to  What  a man  with  could  The  as i n d i v i d u a l .  ordinary  to accomplish  help  to impress  be a b e t t e r man  he would  o n t h e man's  of exceptionally  t h e most  no o t h e r  Therefore,  to get h i s 1  trouble.  commentary  which would  I t was o r i g i n a l ,  the  t o save  h e was d e s t i n e d  a name  minds.  was  blessed  that  i tdifficult  curi-  i s n o t why h e d i d i t b u t t h e name  be a f i n e r Here  felt,  felt  he  Cosmos?  could this.  he p r o b a b l y  he found  t o c h a n g e h i s name the matter  Nothing  character  i s that  stand  o f the World"--a  fitting  struggle i n the interests "2  title  ability,  name much  t h a n Amor  out from  i t was  freedom  De-  have  the rest  of  appropri-  f o r t h e man  of the p o l i t i c a l  posand t h a t  conceivably  A t t h e same t i m e  whole  h i s character  choice  would  he  who  was  o fh i s  countrymen. The were to  very  which  name and  m e c h a n i c a l m e a n s b y w h i c h h i s name  simple.  The r e a s o n s  the Senate  declared having  "that  good  were n o t g i v e n  referred the b i l l they  have  and s u f f i c i e n t  under  t h e change o f consideration  t o s a t i s f y them ' 3 o f t h e j u s t n e s s o f t h e p r o p o s e d c h a n g e o f name," r e c o m m e n d e d 1. British Colonist - A u g . 11, 1860. : ,  Sproat,  Gilbert,  2.  C f . Sage,  3.  California  Walter  M. N.  Statutes  reasons  changed  but the delegation  regarding  the subject  was  adduced  - Op. C i t . •-- S i r J a m e s D o u g l a s a n d B r i t i s h C o lumbia. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 3 0 . P. 2 0 9 . -- 1 8 5 4 . P . 1 7 6 . Q u o t e d i n a l e t t e r from the Sacremento L i b r a r y . Mr. Ferguson, S t a t e L i b r a r i a n t o Mr. ' Boggs. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , B. C.  9 that  of  the  the  h i l l  be  In  1858,  gold  instead settle  of  rush  he to  there  for at  and  This  left  the  leaving  t h e r e , . H©  interests of  passed.  was  California  Fraser the  once  done,  returned  again  for  River.  mainland,  reached  February the  He he  to  north  reached  decided  the  in  1854.  on  the  he  but  would  s o l d out  the  news  Victoria,  that  soiith,  Victoria  16,  his  latter  part  June. DeCosmos had  "been o n  American  soil  for  seven  years \  and to  he  had  been  embrace  British  Slave  them b u t  ideas  American  Vancouver  sibly  and  beliefs  Case.  British  considerably  A  soil.  of  'catch  as  a  the  fugitive  may  negro from  'subjects'  reigns',  and  to  aspired  use  But  men 1.  the  of  to  would  equal,• 1 only."  British  a l l men  Colonist  our  his  -  Oct.  and  reached  since  said,  attacked  with  and  over ere  would  not,  of  subjects,  4,  a  writ  this  i t is  pre-  into  'sove-  sovereigns, i f they  were—  negroes?'  modern are  interpreborn  p a r a d o x i c a l l y meaning  1860.  "pos-  Sound  even  ' a l l men  on  Puget  as  the  was  to  contemporary—'dandy from  he  DeCosmos  we  somewhat  the  h i s master  towed  that  of  Fugitive  been metamorphosed  doctrine  some  the  freedom  and  were p r e s e r v e d  republican  the  have  possession of  from  to  on  destiny:'  knows w h e t h e r the  editorial  ideas—not  closely  f e e l i n g s about  have been  worshippers,' 'manifest  an  American  even more  protested.  a l l would  e n o u g h we  the  in  claimed  Americans  him  Hie  escaped  he  vernacular  luckily  tation and  who  bind  shown  boy  and  s u m e d we  have  be  where  The  island  to  institutions.  negro  Island  the  rather  i n f l u e n c e d by  free  white  As weaned him tion ia,  has  from  his  of B r i t i s h he  ation,  loyalty  these  years  to  or  h i s understanding  As  soon  institutions.  as  absence  he  and  no  i n b e g i n n i n g -his c a r e e r  whether  can  d i s c o v e r no  caused  him  to  had  Nevertheless  had  he  proprietor of  political  f a r one  that he  time  the  previous  take  up  newspaper  experience commenced  and  and  British  Colonist  w h i c h he  was  to begin  Hudson's  Bay  Company m o n o p o l y ,  on  and  December  and  admira-  in  Victor-  of  reform. the  work,  or  as  type  of  work.  of  11,  on  and  privilege his  fight  into  w h i c h he 1858,  as  was  the  a p p e a r e d - - t h e medium  his attack  situ-  to  in this a paper  not  economic  i n f o r m a t i o n as  immediately editor,  had  settled  with  wasted  the  of  himself  fluences  number  said,  acquainted  So  both  been  first  through  shown  in  the  for British  insti-  tutions. This Island.  As  started the  by  fort  nature There  not as  the  first  paper  June,  1858,  the  California may  in i t .  couver velle  early  one  were  was  be  sure  This  other  publishers.  paper  papers  Island Gazette Caledonie,  that  but  lasted  and  a  French  neither of  i t was  published  was  a  l i t t l e the  paper,  of  a  middle  sporadic  them  Vancouver  Gazette  until  which had  on  Victoria  As  there  published  La  lasted  had  been  within  political  of  1859.  e x i s t e n c e , the C o u r i e r de much more  l a  than  VanNoua  1 year. nist,  I t can  said,  DeCosmos h a d  tinuous 1.  be  journal  Forsyth,  e s t a b l i s h e d the  on J.  therefore, that with  the -  The  northern Pioneer  first  Pacific Press  the  British  independent coast.  of B r i t i s h  As  had  con-  been  Columbia.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l a t i o n R e p o r t , 1923. T . a2~J*f. p  and  Colo-  Associ-  shown the  so  many  establishment  cussion nalism  and  an  founding colony  of  was  Colonist,  called play  In  two  the  an  a  has  that  with  begins  free  dis-  always  of  to  men  and  also  In  a  word  preceded  and  there  jourcreated  the  and  of  the  a  Toronto,  newspaper " *  Bay  Company  before  the  founding  on  Begg,  i t shows  in  that  Alexander  British  road  to  Colonist  an  16,  recognized  - History  destined  Bay  same  Company."  time  the  of  men  work  Columbia  at  of  the  solution.  In  the  the  the  of.the  that  British  in  Company,  the  remarks  was  of  on Hud-  written  DeCosmos  importance  N o r t h West.  H u n t e r , Rose and V o l . 1, P. 325. O c t . 13, 1859.  the  rate,  because  article  fact  from  similarity  i n w h i c h he colony  the case  any  James Ross  this  the  was  each  River  River  It  in  of  the  Like  Company,  1859,  Nor'Wester,  Red  i t "was  the  unaware  Though  of  Provinces—two  Hudson's  about  article  the Red 2  he  -  the  a  the  Ontario.  Colonist,  British not  July  the  from  at  was  two  Eastern  through  In  opposition. of  weeks.  Hudson's Bay  east.  year  every  opposing began  a  in  the  the  within  newspaper  Caldwell  in  DeCosmos m e n t i o n s  of  from  like  i t s newspaper  Journal,  remarks  the  that  first  newspaper begun  son's  2.  show a g a i n ,  institutions.  published  part  against  problems  lack  be  and,  colonies  colonies  editor  1.  to  press  note  the  begun by  important  by  Colonist,  to  Nor'Wester  struggle  Halton  Colonist,  Buckingham  young  the  i n t e r e s t i n g to  i t was  sponsored  the  now  enlightened  North America  started,  the  to  the  was  interest in free  is  journalists,  older  an  he  opinion. It  same  of  in British  public  of  times before,  of  an  out-  Toronto, 1894.  let  for public  opinion  i n both  colonies.  The  In mos' s w o r k  Creation  order  to  social,  economic,  and  British  Columbia  Vancouver  to  to  the  The  years  time  Company  of  (after  land  Bay  at  a  deducting  military  and  for public  It  the  fair  right  become  ten  per  to  a  to  colony  that  of  DeCos-  understand  the  to.do  cent  grant  grant  Island  so,  on  the  improvements.  I t was  money  war-time)of also  to  the  set  island  of  ex-  to  thus  the  the  upkeep  Company  for i t s services)for during  settle-  payment the  made  five  license  i t for  the  Crown  was  in  recover  settlement  to use  the  encourage  Company's  expended by  and  The  It could  the  with  they  revoke  encourage  expenses(except  scope  of Vancouver  i n 1849.  i t cared  price  and  history  settlement.  to  nature  i s necessary  Company  If  Opinion.  time.  money a c t u a l l y order  the  understanding  i n 1859,  and  this  -  Public  expiration of  In  II  political  I s l a n d had  the  the  the  colony. sell  at  were no  of  trade  to  and  Crown had  clusive  the  on  i f there  the  Columbia  Hudson's  Company  ment.  at  the  of  appreciate  in British  the  grant  Chapter  the  pf was  received civil  government,  aside  a  re-  1 serve  of  land On  terms  of  colony pany 1.  the  in a  for the  civil face  grant few  did little  of  there  years. or  G o s n e l l , R.  establishments things, was As  nothing E.  -  a  fair  might to  i f the  be  and  a naval  Company  prospect expected,  encourage  station.  followed  for a  flourishing  however,  settlement.  the  In  the  Com-  the  C o l o n i a l H i s t o r y , 1849-1871. Canada I t s P r o v i n c e s , V o l . 21. P. 80.  and  first  place  every  one  out  five  that  men  or  the  dependent  the  of  On produce  by  Any  the  to  of  the  attempt  at  he  With  a l l these  a  Gosnell,  2.  Ibid  - P.  Report  -  E.  Por  to  bring  stipulations  meant  the  had  colony  settlement  at  as  an  even  within  the  place  the  only  Company  in-  more  a l l land  monopoly  to  the  ten where  store  p r i c e s were  settler  accept  what  came the  t r a d i n g was and  their  disabilities  consequence,  R.  when  had  w h i c h makes up  Gosnell,  he  acre.  and  three  to  sell  Company  quickly  ability  to  his  would  smothered accept  end.  1.  3.  an  world.  surprising  R... E .  the 2  Monopoly "3  their  not  to  set aside 1 use. Again  independent  the  two  come  s u p p l i e s was  hand  gain  As  citizen  of  pound  bought  These to  a  carefully  outside  that  at  independent  i t s own  other  set  settler  able  make  their  found  i t was  Island.  To  for  the  strength  losses  trade  he  a  $ Governor Blan^hard  to  those  that  was  Company  buy  l a n d was  settlers.  richest  could  according  pay.  three  of V i c t o r i a  settlers  of  acres  settler.  difficult,  times  price  hundred  only  miles  the  -  Op.  that the  the  few  against  immigrated  colony  was  backbone  Cit.  P.  settlement  of  to  Vancouver  lacking in any  and  the  frontier  type  settle-  81.  91.  Provincial  Archives  Department,  B.C.,  1913. Cooper grumbled about p r i c e p a i d f o r s h e e p . " D o u g l a s t o T o l m i e , M a r c h 27, 1852. - Op. C i t . P. 8 3 . Cooper attempted t r a d i n g i n c r a n b e r r i e s w i t h I n d i a n s on m a i n l a n d f o r s a l e i n San F r a n c i s c o . The H.. B. Co. p r e v e n t e d b y b u y i n g t h e s e products from the Indians at e x o r b i t a n t prices.  ment--the merchant  independent or trader.  were b r o u g h t  What  f u r trade  ry  o f the f u r trade.  or  from  there  should the  tocratic  there  had  there been  ica. the  east,  the  rule  already  was  i t .  I t may  make  laws  special  Governor  whether  ruled  as a  the colony  which  a voice  a  with  only  corolla-  from  council  t h e Company.  i n a new  country  i n the lawmaking  i n f l u e n c e and of interest  provinces  n o t on  of aris-  position.  i n lawmaking  of British  r e s p o n s i b l e government  and advised  council except  was  this  was  tacitly  situation  when  the  would  an assembly,  founded  purpose,  convey  by Enslishmen,  t o any l e g i s l a t u r e  colony  have  Douglas  could  he  o f Hud-  Secretary had not  to call  Amer-  accepting  entirely  and he l e f t  as  won i n  by a council,  composed  f o r Cooper that  were  North  i f the Colonial  i n a settlement  soci-  f o r representative institutions,  t h e Crown l e g a l l y  and temporary  they  interested  except  connected  lack  aided  be presumed  indefinitely  instructed  "doubted  w h i c h was  Island the people  This  s o n ' s B a y C o m p a n y men,  continued  this  a s 1856, when  o f a governor,  1856.  on t h e i s l a n d  an o l i g a r c h y , based  In the other  on Vancouver  to call  and have  and  It,  of citizens  no a g i t a t i o n  the case  who  b u t on Company  obvious  was  As l a t e  chose  was  traditions So  that  body  i n a n y number  t o ..work o n i t s f a r m s  i n some w a y  an i n t e r e s t  colony,  were  h a d grown up  T h e men  o f an a c t i v e take  the middle-class  and n o t a t a l l i n settlement,  t h e b e n c h were  Instead  ly  there  overshadowed by a g r e a t Monopoly  in  in  settlers  tnMchtsh-tiue.^c<sc( ' Vy  Consequently ety  and secondly,  o u t b y t h e Company  feetutdly  were  farmer  since  directhe  authority to even  for a  not elected,  1 wholly  or In part  Douglas  attempted  covered  that  an  assembly  Nanaimo, sembly could  there  was  Such  tinued It  i s obvious,  every  came  instances  discouraged  o f t h e Company  ernments  and r u l e r s .  attempts  at criticism,  press and to  lacking  In the as-  Assembly  of the  time the  since  second  who  Company.  the w i l l  A t t h e same  neither  he  con-  chamber.  or Council  would have  attempt  was  given--an  impossible  a criterion This  does  but such  R.  rep-  was  that  criticism  The h a n d  criticism,  i f such  P.  could that  of the  conduct  by future  there  had been  o f an a r t i s t  111.  created  their  of expression  the barriers  t h e name  any q u e s t i o n i n g  In fact  n o t mean  b y o n e Com-  so t h a t  t o be f o l l o w e d  provided.  E . - Opi C i t .  much  atmosphere  <©•£ t h e f a m i l y .  t o b i r e a k down  Gosnell,  was m o n o p o l i z e d  one f a m i l y — s o  as i t d i d any organ  constructive  1.  voters.  Bay  by the Governor  of l i f e  i f n o t made  t o be c o n s i d e r e d  feeble,  of  two members  express  i t became a  that  branch  Family-Company-Compact  actions  i t when  only  o f the Hudson's merely  dis-  to constitute  the dearth  were  Governor  i t was  a n d one member.  there  could  influenced  therefore,  a n d i n many  which  was  h a d one v o t e formed  settlers  i n the Governor.  over  When  the people. When  pany  more o b v i o u s  an Assembly  to preside  enough  as independent  directly  themselves."  out h i s instructions,  barely  finally  as embodied was  resented  were  f o r instance,  be r e g a r d e d  Council  to carry  and s t i l l  which  C.i©mt>any,  by the s e t t l e r s  gov-  had been spasmodic  such  as a  no and fr@@  at destructive  be f o u n d , had been Despatch,  was  needed  raised  by  February  28,  1856. fiabouchere to Douglas. The d e t a i l s were l e f t p u r p o s e l y vague since with the expiration of the exclusive l i c e n s e o f trade, the Crown.received back the Island.  a  monopoly  ever, that  the  w h i c h was poison  not  even  eradicated in  Victoria,  erence  a  which  efforts  to  had  the  i t .  Even  the  upon  the  Victoria,  from  being  the  sprang  gold  teeming  a  consequence  in  the  the  city,  field  miraculously people gold  who  cans,  The and  government able  to  greater  carry than  that  and  coming for  to  of  island  and  of  place and  the  and  of  were n o t  the as  make m o n e y  So  these  Maritimers—men  who  had  outplace  As  every  sat-  kind  were,  The  less  attractive  and  nationali-  however,  permanent  long  broken  appeared  country.  the  to  finally  business  in;comparative  Americans  few  perpetually.  interested in  government.  1858.  into  a l l races  more  a  in  transformed  the  from  or  definitely  stepping-off  of  rev-  monopoly.  with  of  of  circles  criticism  commenced  going  merchants  provide  to  C o m p a n y was  needs  island  family--a  was  was  places  were  the  the  i n C a l i f o r n i a ) t h e y were  with  the  How-  completely  historical  supplies  growing  strong  on., a n d  Along Canadians  part  were  in a  as  came p r i n c i p a l l y  T h e s e men as  at  the  in certain  and  Fraser  .the  trade,  California  these  still,  the  the  colony.  have  fur-trading post  monopoly  in  could  Company  of  to  need  the  the  for opposition  life  small  general  greater  population.  basis  people  to meet  of  attempt  rush  was  The  poured  fields  ties.  there  of  is  any  Overnight  with  miner.  there  of  s o c i e t y of  reformers  i n t o prominence  fields.  a  isfy  a  the  the  the  gold  growth  for  tranquil  when  farms,  of  to-day  understand  the  permeated  reverence  shattered  for  so  greatest  frowns  But  lying  retarding  part  Ameriof  the  representative  as  they  were  security(far  content.  came, h o w e v e r , been used  to  a a  number voice  in  of  18 the  government  this  voice,  struggling who  were  or  at  Island  oneers  of  United  States,  who  least  the  spirit  of  British  North  America,  of  were p u s h i n g them,  not  from  government  closest in tradition  der  the  not  tolerate  influences the  bility—and  like  way  the  across  republican  at  to  such  leading  the  New  same  institutions of  the  an  total  lack  of  any  In  men Van-  the  pi-  of  the  the  British came  Amor  to  the  colony  which  man  brought  and  win  up  traditions  was  un-  could  oligarchical  governor  true  the  continent,  but  even more  aristocratic  :  colony  Company,'the  families—an  were  t h e s e men  time A  were  the  first  England.  win  pioneers  ideals,  the  Scotia,  to  progress  These  Nova  r u l e by  the  and  Among  monopoly  Company's than  of  T h e s e men  Columbia. who,  helped  i n communities  government.  and  the  up  freedom  their  the  responsible  responsible  situation  government.  British  with  cases  been brought  later  pioneer  the  i n many  and  DeCosmos--a  of  had  responsible  provide  couver  tradition  home,  had  for  to  carrying  at  rule  humiliating of  English  representative  no-  institu-  tions. The tack  on  the  /Governor. wrote  ly  a  for  most The  the  time  This  dispatch  colony's  8.  that  was 1858.  was  DeCosmos d i d  figure  in  particularly  attempting 1  Company,  the  May  thing  important  dispatch,  ruin  1.  first  an,},  chances  to  keep  as  a  of  becoming  nullified  by  the  for  British  he a  to  colony,  ripe  result,  the  was  attack.  done h i s  thriving  an  Douglas,  Columbia  had  Colonial  begin  at-  the  Douglas a  monopo-  best  to  "nation".  Secretary.  Never-  theless •colony and  issued a proclamation  w h i c h h a d no p o s s i b i l i t y  making V i c t o r i a  stead ally for to  he  o f some p l a c e the sole  a l l acts  ruler done  the port  Douglas  of becoming  of entry 1  of the colony  there,  a  tariff  Since  a n d was,  DeCosmos f e l t  Columbia, i n -  Douglas  alone  was  virtu-  responsible  t h a t he n e e d  "Unfortunately f o r these  was n o t e q u a l  for a  self-sufficient,  forBritish  on t h e m a i n l a n d .  attack him d i r e c t l y .  Governor  establishing  to the occasion.  not hesitat  colonies, He  .r  wanted t o  2 serve the In  h i s country  grasping trying  man.  interests  to serve  honour;  a n d a t t h e same  times  views  two m a s t e r s  h e was u n s u c c e s s f u l  o f government  and to the f o r m a t i o n was  time  o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company  H i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was n e v e r  comprehensive  did,  with  marked b y those which  of a great  e x c l u s i v e and a n t i ^ B r i t i s h ,  preserve  inviolate. as a broad  were n e c e s s a r y  colony.  statesand  to the  I t appeared  and belonged  to a  sor-  past  3 age."  Although  DeCosmos d e d i c a t e d h i s f i r s t  Proclamations  - British 1858.  2.  Minutes  - House o f Assembly, Vancouver I s l a n d , 1856-1858. Memoir I I I . Conference of Douglas w i t h Assembly and C o u n c i l , J u n e 18, 1858. P. 5 9 . " D o u g l a s , hims e l f , says " t h a t he h a d been a c t u a t e d b y m o t i v e s , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t o do e v e r y j u s t i c e t o t h e H.B.Co., a n d , secondly, t o promote b y every legitimate means t h e w e l f a r e a n d p r o s p e r i t y of t h e c o l o n y . " Consequently DeCosmos i s g i v i n g D o u g l a s t h e b e n e f i t o f the doubt b y p u t t i n g h i s concern f o r his country first.  3.  British  - D e c . 11, 1858.  1858-1865.  to  1.  Colonist  Columbia,  editorial  D e c . 3,  20 conditions couver  in British  Island,  and  criticize  there.  mediately  to  of  the  Company  lative, tion  and  coal  he He  had  and  crux of  being  judge  w i t h no  with  legal  i n words  which  and  thinking  esty  and  competency--the  mark  could of  of  they bly  offices  of  that  1. 2.  removal  of  a far better  could were,  be  acting  British Ibid.  on  be  renegade a  remedy  then Governor,  and  that  the people  solution  than  either  even  though  executive 2 i t s advice. - Dec.  18,  hon-  with  the  with with  Yankees."  temporary  an  Colonist  compounded 1  reforms  effective  would  and  the  indepen=.  colony f i l l e d  incompetency,  the  council(the  the  and  saw  fame  officials,--  and  i n the  and  of B r i t i s h  illegitimacy,  Englishmen,  to  "Loyalty,  a s k i n g — a r e branded  legislative  which  felt.  the  f o r the  consanguinity,  s i t on  claim  e x p r e s s e d what  strength  a  DeCosmos d e s c r i b e d  the p o p u l a t i o n triad  Though DeCosmos  gued  have  of  Company)to  h i s sole  governor.  must  independent  had  white-washed  ation  the  legis-  connec-  the management  the Hudson's Bay  im-  influence  late  been  toadyism,  have  part  from  two  to  came  executive,  i n Douglas's  with only  much  but  the u n h e a l t h y  o f government,  taken  l a y i n Van-  i n discovering  e x p e r i e n c e , and  to  dent  which  situation,  was  interest  i n unessentials  illustrated  who  his relationship  situation  time  an Assembly  company(connected bench,  no  the  as  his real  difficulty  i n every branch  Company; a  no  wasted  judicial;  w i t h the  members;  the  the  Columbia,  of  for this  i n an  1858.  elective  a s k e d ) ; he these  other things  council,  situ-  sitting  and  one  remained i n the  ar-  as  Assem-  In the  an, e d i t o r i a l ,  remedy.  stitution those make  of  "In  lies  the  as  can  British  ground  that the  he  that  was  fees  of  lowering we  we  not  of at  ever  the  found  court  to  object  has  people  the  situation i n our  council,  Without  the  fault was  for his He the  to  i t we  for  own  •A mos  saw  with  the  their  that  great  living,  on  for  not  that  of  bur  of  use  patronage  is  of  while  rages, have 1. 2.  fault use  for  this  can  firm  and  case  of  in  birth-  that  only  also  salary,  but  on  had  the  effect  enterprises;  that the  Douglas's  of  patronage.  on  the  the  of  judge  a  merchant the  posi-  the  judge,  Colonist  Since  the  are more  i t is  2  peculation,  through  1859. 1859.  as  DeCos-  were for  shoulders.  mistakes,--and  colonies 5, 19,  there  whole blame  corruption,  - Feb. - Feb.  of  "but  that  administration,  Governor's  obstructions, these  on  but  see  of  not  entirely disinterested."  of  a l l the  e n t a i l e d on  British Ibid  be  government,  rested  depopulation,  been  should  responsible  responsible  and  ignorant a  business  anyone  i n the  better,  he  his  traces  to  policy  courts,  and  sphere  for  law  incompetent  i n a mercantile  the  i t , was  con-  never  ' indispensable  and  similar  can  p r i v i l e g e s of  declared  this,  a l l synonymous, he  to  defect  executive  etc.  enjoy 1  judge  court.  a partner  interest  great  the  subjects."  the  the  the  an  Canada,  dependent  decidedly  tion  of  rulers responsible  DeCosmos the  colonies want  Scotia,  measures--nor  right  in  Nova  our  these  DeCosmos d e s c r i b e d  no  the  mis-  "He  alone  wrongs, losses,  corrupt  and  outwhich  unfit  1 officials." ment  to  when  the  The  the  elective  first  ized  members the  do  after of  a  Assembly  Kennedy that  and  the  wards  members.  pointees:  present  election reared, was  was  educated  nominated  fication  was  Company,  by  could  by  and  holding  the  one  is  owing  Barnston lives  in  and  John  Douglas  do  done  the 4  it."  A due  what  a  the  so  timec  lack  appoint  land  only  a  of  2.  Ibid  -  Feb.  12,  3.  Ibid  - Dec.  27,  1858.  4.  Ibid  -  29,  1859.  5.  Ibid  - Mar.  19,  1859.  6.  Ibid  -  1,  The  few more 5  Kennedy,  lawyer, of  the  elector.  belonging  acres  12,  of  atmosphere the  a  new  ap-  easily."  death  Victoria,  the  to  the  dare  short to  the  author-  nation  Douglas might  British  June  imformed  Company  has  business  1.  Jan.  to  objections  to of  They  Hudson's Bay  swallowed  twenty-five  C o l o n i s t - Mar.  Governor Douglas  constitution i s nothing.  Stuart,  holding  1856  that  the  appoint In  a u t h o r i t y of  not  i n the  f o r Nanaimo.  consent  h a v e no  Captain  through  of  shown  f o r Nanaimo.  Governor  1859,  held.  member  "Here  violation  I n May,  summoned,  tacitly  was  a member  suggested  certainly  this  of  Assembly  members w o u l d  the  of  Legislative  DeCosmos  "The  of  grant  Assembly  the  quorum.  3  and  was  as  the  appointment.  Supreme E x e c u t i v e not  example  Assembly 2  Work a p p o i n t e d other  worst  his  to  the  own  a  new  "born,  bred,  Company", His  quali-  Hudson's  land  at  Bay  Nanai-  1859. 1859.  1859.  Formerly  Letter  Chief  from  an  Factor.  elector  a t Nanaimo to the E d i t o r o f the B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t , d e s c r i b i n g the e l e c tion there.  mo,  and  colm,  mo,  by  an  and  seat,  owning  assistant in  who  was  since  he  At mos'  s  property the  at  Victoria.  Hudson's Bay 1  a non-elector. knew  this  criticism,  the  the  Mr.  e l e c t i o n was  Assembly,  asked  for  The  was  Mal-  Company  store  at  Barnston  never  took  Nanai-  his  unconstitutional.  possibly  a new  seconder  writ  spurred  f o r an  on  by  DeCos-  election in  Na-  '2 naimo.  The  son's Bay  result  s a i d he  naimo,  but  tively  ridiculous.  was  of  elected  one,  of  and  The  he  "not  was to  them,  the  the  the  captain  absent,  by  represent  to  render  historian will  one,  that  e l e c t i o n of  while  to misrepresent  constituency  tive  the  Company b o a t ,  Cosmos  the  was  majority  write of  e l e c t i o n was  by  a  people  farce  the  Hud-  voter.  De-  of  country  the  one,  won  one  the  the  of  Na-  superladown  as  representa-  Governor  Douglas's  3 able  administration." Due  of  getting  franchise the  a  to  quorum  b i l l ,  and  at  was  suggested  the  same  i n the  giving time  but  a  British  2.  Correspondence  3.  British  lowering  Colonist Book  Colonist  R.  E.  Assembly,  wider  i t would  1.  Gosnell,  s i t u a t i o n i n Nanaimo,  and the  have - May  and  DeCosmos  more  equal  the  advocated  27,  no  a  new  representation  qualifications.  afforded  difficulty  remedy  A  new  for  b i l l Nanaimo,  1859.  - House of Assembly, Vancouver I s l a n d . 1856-1859. J u n e 6, 1 8 5 9 . P. 108. - J u l y 1, 1 8 5 9 . S w a n s o h , t h e member for N a n a i m o was away on h i s b o a t , and n e v e r r e t u r n e d t o s i t i n the House. - - B r i t i s h Columbia, Y e a r Book. Vict o r i a , B.C., 1897. P. 112. I n t h e l i s t o f members f o r t h e ;f:ir.s± a s s e m b l y f o r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , 1 8 5 6 - 1 8 5 9 , t h e r e i s no ment i o n o f a member f o r N a n a i m o .  and  It  land,  gave  outside  quarters form  of  bill  strict  polize  overwhelming of V i c t o r i a ,  the  not  the  the  the  government  statute of ' 2  which to  were  tionary  them.  period  from at  tested The  but  the  This  law,  I t was  sum  which  people they  of  independent  members  of  his  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Macdonald,  to  action.  he  the  G.  -  only or  to  that  this  They  required  they  were  to  1859.  9,  1859.  a  won a  of  a  of  hundred of the  strong  They  voiced  act  editor  public  the  the  reac-  raise  a minority  26,  to  guarantee  bonds.  also  in  eight  called  be-  declared  case  already  individ-  those  the  a  mono-  also  that  as  re-  obsolete  bound by  f o r DeCosmos had  an  re  and  Douglas,  applied  required  to  their  definitely  been  Assembly  - Feb.  F.  act  them  for  a r b i t r a r y methods the  three-  proposed  "an  applied  presumably  - April D.  press,  which had  Since  Colonist  enable  declared  them  Victoria.  the  but  Is-  over  the  offended  were  impossible  against  of  the  publish,  strongly  approval  to  of money(in  subscribed  bill  have  English history, a  had  that  longer ' 1 expense."  colonies  f o r t u n a t e l y f o r him the  as  warning,  applicable  could  behaviour.  mount,  ing  he  no  Vancouver  latter  years  restricting  deposit  pounds)before  port  of  public  to  Family-Company-Compact, so  the  the  reform  the  three  with  directly  to  to  a  seats  declared  sarcasm must  reality,  paper must  good  called  for  his  England,  In  apply  of  at  Governor,  colony.  be  of  although  elective franchise  aggrandizement  cause  number  DeCosmos  representation  Some  a  voters.  should  the  contract  ual  an  a-  sup-  meetalso  pro 3  Governor. their of  dis-  two,  B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver land, London,1862. P. 278.  Is-  their  action  clearly a  that  public  had  little  the  Assembly  meeting  approval  of  the  the  effect. did  people  Governor's  The  not  had  vote  on  represent  the  unanimously  action,  while  t h i s motion people;  voiced  in  the  showed for  at  their  dis-  Assembly  only  ' i two  members  disapproved.  To about all fact gag they  this  make D o u g l a s ' s  time  a new  r e s t r i c t i o n s to in  the  of  probably  forced  by  in  necessary  this  to  arbitrary  render  follower of Joseph the p r e s s but a l s o Legislature,  ing  to  prevent the  ticized  as  member how  J e w s was  being  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Aliens  4.  British  words.  edicts  they  deem  in  a  a  by  were  act 2  of  to  this  obsolete  this  revived  just  remove  long  Excellency,  special  this  as  to  referred  " i f these  abolished,  showed h i m s e l f  time  Governor and  en-  Parliament  colony."  true  son  of  Nova  Scotia  and  Howe, n o t o n l y i n u p h o l d i n g t h e f r e e d o m o f i n his plea for tolerance for a l l r e l i g i o n s . Douglas  as  the  moving  force,  was  attempts  from  becoming n a t u r a l i z e d . T h i s f e e l i n g a3 c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t o an a c t w h i c h DeCosmos c r i 4  against  unfortunate  1.  DeCosmos  i f His  will  ludicrous,  i n England  wonder  them n u l l  with  Jews  and  s h o u l d be  country,  The  press,  we  even more  suggested  sarcastic  have been,  whose  was  free  England  DeCosmos  gainst  a  following  statutes  Douglas,  law  position  Colonist  Act Colonist  the  i t is  British for  - April -  May  7,  -  March  practice.  this,  16,  a  young  "Let colony  him  re-  of  Eng~  1859.  1859. 14,  1859.  - May 20, 1 8 5 9 . He m e n t i o n s t h e admission of Baron Rothschild to the Brit i s h H o u s e of-. Commons.  land,  destined  to  be  the  emporium  of  nations,  to  have  the .  of  religious  bigotry  and  persecution  fastened  upon  stain  x  it."  This 2  disability  against  Jews  DeCosmos also  an  evil  feared  almost  as  colony--the  system  Canada.  He  declared  religion  ought  should  be  frowned  escape mixing ly  to  Indians, willing ly  and to  opposed  natorial to  not  which had that  look  for  down b y  the  only  with  our  to  accept  parliamentary  to  appointment  the  religion  for  the  Indians,  l e t the  in  one  hand  the  1.  British  2.  Oaths A c t  one  of  much  aid  British  Cf.  church trouble  - May  20,  - May  19,  Colonist  Begg, A l e x a n d e r  -  source  Upper to  which  assistance  who  wishes  country  the  He  was  religion  this  opinion. but  we  gubernatorial If  the  given  are  distinctguber-  intends  holding the  the  "We  and  government  In  on  are  God  without  to  particular-  state  thirty-nine articles  Colonist  in  young  government  appointment,  a i d be  in a  but  and  express  a  act.  persecution  i s the  a  blan-  other.i.  Let  1859. 1859.  t y of swearing Christian. 5.  and  politics."  Indians.  the  and  so  forcing a  hesitate  another  established  support, every  by  bigotry  caused  p o l i c y of  d i d not  removed  "voluntary  aid  ket  soon  great-»an  religion  r e s e n t f u l of  was  Removed on  the  the oath  necessiof  a  J u n e 22, 1869. The r e a s o n f o r t h i s e d i t o r i a l was a r e m a r k t h a t was made i n the "Canadian C h r i s t i a n Guardian" t h a t the Governor p r o m i s e d a s s i s t a n c e to the church.  - H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toront o , W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1894. Pp. 330332. He q u o t e s f r o m a l e t t e r t o t h e C o l o n i s t t o show t h a t t h e new bishop was i n c l u d e d among t h e a p p o i n t e e s o f the government and t h a t a c l e r g y r e s e r v e was already set aside i n Victoria.  religion ciple,  the  w o r k i t s way  as i t does  among  the Indians  among u s .  sanction of the church  Let missionary 1  not the  the  i n t h e c o l o n i e s on D o u g l a s  people  f o r their  ton,  the Colonial  tate  t o warn  tolerate bly  sent  Legislature  to-day the  t o themselves  much  i n these  that  nursed  ever  nies,  on coming  words.  o f the measures  at  with  the  of Douglas  British  2.  Ibid Ibid  be  was m e r e l y  1.  3.  might  also  colony  night,  would n o t  criticized  Colonist  t h e Asem-  business  day."  He  i n Great  potent  And to  summed  call  i s as  up  t h e whole  conservative  Britain  or the colosimply i n  of the administration being of the country, 3  with  T r u l y the pre-  a Legislature,  "The g r e a t e s t o l d f o g y  the interests  ordinary principles It  the colony  with  d i d not hesi-  i s f o r c e d t o become a r a d i c a l ,  consequence variance  He  sit-  Bulwer L y t -  and 'Thorough'.  antiquated usages here  and w i t h  fault  The p r e r o g a t i v e i s a s  of Stafford  as t o c a l l  situation  b u t found  to the country...  of this  f o r the  t o do t h e p u b l i c  i s b u t o n e man.  department  a misnomer  He  "either  or credit  as i n the days  lawmaking  that  f o r ever.  f o r i t s incompetence,  honour  alone,  f o rhis policy.  t h e home g o v e r n m e n t  the situation  e n t e r p r i s e s have  a l l t h e blame  l a c k o f enthusiasm,  Secretary,  prin-  state."  DeCosmos b y no means l a i d uation  of the voluntary  so much  and averse  to  o f government."  thought petty,  t h a t much and w i t h o u t  o f DeCosmos's grounds.  criticism  Two; e x a m p l e s  - Sept.. 1 4 , 1 8 6 0 . The m i n i s t e r i n charge of an I n d i a n s c h o o l had been a p p o i n t e d by the bishop as m i s s i o n a r y to the Ind i a n s a n d t h i s a p p o i n t m e n t was s a n c tioned by the Governor. - Sept. - July  2, 1 8 5 9 . 1,  1859  can  be  knew The  quoted,  of  the  bridge  built  for  of  nor  of  this  nor  take  show how  be  removed  connect  directly  privilege.  Governor's  to  the  their  and  town.  please  The  second  bay,  r e f u s a l and,  on  unconstitutional  said,  execute  the  of and  home g o v e r n m e n t , raise  duty  laws,  prerogatives  and  Assembly  "his  the  and  not a  as  in  price  and  a  Gover-  t o make  involve  own  censured  the  despot,  a the  his  action  was  gov-  Nevertheless  the  the  son-in-law  the  the  The  the  his 2  that  proposal.  i s to  directly  across  really  government.  his  DeCosmos  upon h i m s e l f  Governor  request  buildings  against  the  representative  them w i t h  declaring 1  colony  the  little  a l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l principles.,  colony, to  refused  c a r r i e d out  this,  breach  fiance  to  went  initiative, him  had  offices  Governor  to  E n g l i s h p r i n c i p l e s of  Assembly  ernment  however,  them,--  set  at  de-  indirectly  the  unnecessary"debts of  his  own  private  property."  b i l l . and  i t was  held. this 1.  2.  The  The was  Council  instance  and  suggested Governor  the  that  Correspondence  British  Book  Colonist  i n the  Assembly a  declared  unconstitutional  was  could  conference his  since  of  matter  - House  of  three  the  not  agree  the  two  i n t e n t i o n to the  of  be  the  chambers present,  branches  Assembly,  on  franchise  of  the  Vancouver  terms be but Legis-  Island.  1856-1859. Speaker to Governor, May 4, 1859. - May 16, 1 8 5 9 . DeCosmos d e c l a r e d that Douglas's asserted generosity t h a t t h e C o m p a n y was p a y i n g f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s was a blind, since the money w o u l d be p a i d b a c k t o them when t h e c l a i m s were s e t t l e d . DeCosmos s a i d t h a t i f i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e n e c e s s a r y , he s h o u l d h a v e d i s s o l v e d the A s s e m b l y and c a l l e d a new one t o d i s c u s s t h e m a t t e r .  lature the  could  n o t meet  Governor  Moreover  sitting ry  out  he  had had  as  been  incident  the  island. About  financial of  Bay  the  expenditure  the  land, It  t i l l  1.  2. 3.  as  be  he that  condition  Governor  the  criticism  the  civil  affairs  list,  Yates,  one  f o r not  owing  the  giving 2  promised.  fact  that  i t was  that  to Governor  would one  get  of  Douglas  or  the -  on  from  seven  the  Hud-  of  ad-  members,  cri-  of revenue  this  debts from  accepted  demand  and  re-  against the  pub-  i n Eng-  investigation."  stipulations t o May,  the  accounts,  explained  them  Jan.  on  i t s years  "large  certainly  affairs  every  to hide here  Company  aroused,  touched  returns  t h e r e were  car-  on  independent the  by  discussion  public  to  DeCosmos  desirable  the people  Colonist  of  d i d not  f o r the next  the  voice  rejection.  of l e g i s l a t i v e  began  only  incessantly  The  i n a l l i t s features Island's  the  assent or  f o r i t s expenditure during  remembered  .British  to  t h e r e ...was m o n e y  had  and  constitution • 1  the Assembly  the Hudson's Bay  Letters  Ibid  Mr.  which  for fear  will  time  Governor  through  colony,  lic,  the  lands,  Company  the  of  Council.  i n the  whether  ministration.  fusal  this  one  p r o b a b l y due  shows  crown  finally  ticized  the  q u e s t i o n which  years--the  son's  of  importance  was  violating  his intention,  the  and  i n lawmaking  chairman  but  point  t o g e t h e r t o make l a w s ,  i n the  1863.  grant  Newcas-  t l e to Douglas, A p r i l 14. Instructions to separate C o u n c i l i n t o E x e c u t i v e and Legislative. A f t e r t h i s the ;-Governor o f c o u r s e d i d n o t p r e s i d e i n the Leg. C o u n c i l . - N o v . 4, 1859. -  Nov.  16,  1859.  30 was  that  colony  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company  and then  use the revenue,  the  civil  ial  government  Bay  Company  f o r a l l expenses  the  colony,  over  then  before  tenths it  and m i l i t a r y  members  was  i t was  to defray  When  to repay  of the  the imper-  the Hudson's  incurred i n the administration of revenue.  on t h e c o l o n y  be handed  over  w h i c h must  of the Assembly  defeated,  the land  ten per cent,  " d i d t h e Company  the nine-tenths  independent proposal  now  sell  of the colony.  the land  revenue  should  less  the grant  the Assembly,  which  than  hack  and above  of the land  back  more  took  expenses  should  The q u e s t i o n  spend  a l l this  or has i t kept to us?  and t h e Governor  some o f  Since the  i n a minority, was  nine-  Or d i d i t spend  be refunded?" were  was  able  Yates'  t o keep t h e 1  information  from  Very solved vised they and port  soon  after  the people found  what  no  office  no  men  there  interests holders,  servants who  Columbia, 1. 2.  were  were,  issued.  know  no  interest  who  connected. those  an absentee Colonist  supported They  offered  - Nov. 16, 1 8 5 9 . - S e p t . 16, 1 8 6 9 .  until them,  should  sup-  Columbia,  " i n s h o r t we  want  welfare, 2  seek  country."  t h e new A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  official,  dis-  DeCosmos a d -  of B r i t i s h  but the public  o f the whole  was  any c a n d i d a t e s  o f t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company,  t h e r e f o r e , when  British Ibid  t h e men  particularly  g a i n b u t t h e common g o o d  disgusted,  were  of endorsing  they  session.  d i s c u s s i o n the Assembly  election  t o be wary  o u t e x a c t l y who  with  f o r another  this  a n d w r i t s f o r a new  and  no  the colony  himself  as a  He  who  was  of British candidate  31 for to  Victoria. do  "He who  so b y a n o t h e r ;  a n d we  t o one c o u n t r y  a r e much m i s t a k e n  c o n s t i t u e n c y , i f any e l e c t o r  c a n be gound  esty  a n d so r e g a r d l e s s  interests  as h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  country  to serve."  most  bitter  Mr.  who  t o which by every 1  lone  editorials  rule  were  so v o i d  of right  t o be d i r e c t e d  any  h i s duty  he i s j u s t l y  few y e a r s ,  o f hon-  as t o t r u s t  has n o t performed  F o r the next  to the  bound  a-  some o f D e C o s m o s s 1  against  this  man,.  Cary. DeCosmos  -ia C i t y ,  T h e c r y was  change  o f name  argument, lishmen,  h e was o p p o s e d  raised  was  and as such, rebuked  the absurdity  c&lonists  subject,  1.  British  2.  Ibid  that  that  as a candidate f o r Victor*-• b y t h e Family-Company-Com-  h e was  an American  i n what Colonist  h e was  a Nova  not f i tf o r election the government  against  ever p a r t - Sept.  each  and that h i s  Their  Scotian,  most  i n a British  colony.  "We  o f an attempt  other.  futile  n o t an Eng-  party f o r this.  and i l l - a d v i s e d n e s s  and Englishmen  tish  the f i e l d  w a s d u e t o some p a s t m i s d e e d .  however,  scathingly  exposed  entered  and a t once  pact.  He  o f h i s own  i s likely  i n the elements.of  this  man  /  deals unfairly  have  to put  Any and every  of Her Majesty's  tic-minions  Brirhis  19, 1859.  - S e p t . 14, 1 8 6 6 . A n o b i t u a r y n o t i c e o f Cary. H e was a y o u n g I r i s h m a n , a s t u dent o f C a i r n s i n England. Was a p p o i n ted Attorney-General o f Vancouver I s l a n d i n 1860 and r e s i g n e d t h a t office In B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1861. Remained i n o f f i c e u n t i l 1864, when f o r c e d t o r e s i g n due t o i l l - h e a l t h . B u i l t the famous C a r y C a s t l e , c a l l e d C a r y ' s F o l l y , w h i c h ' l a t e r became t h e G o v e r n o r ' s residence. He seems t o h a v e made many e n emies, due t o an u n f o r t u n a t e d i s p o s i tion. He w a s h a n d i n g l o v e w i t h t h e Governor. D i e d i n E n g l a n d i n 1866.  birthplace  of  this  ters  may b e , i s e n t i t l e d 1  colony."  from  England  to  England,  It  i s inspired  ples so may  direct.  True  recent  them  nearer. farce  On n o m i n a t i o n  some The  matter  ticularly  Since fore  Great  opposition action  and rowdy,  one e l s e second  Cary,  a little  they  were  citizens  legal  these 2  decency  B r i t a i n - and, as such,  princisovereign The  future and  from mere  verbal  that  t r i e d t o make  said,  a time  " i f the to play the  would d i c t a t e ' 3  o f t h e government  The government the colored might  be  of the United  they might  entitled  grew  that i t  Printer."  actions  quibbling,  state,  of i t .  principles  The l a t t e r  itself.  not citizens  o f no  maintains.  quar-  confined  our gracious  one a t s u c h  common  had the idea  i s not  f o r those  developed  than Queen's  of the election  i n certain  as the day o f e l e c t i o n  some  of these  privileges  a monopoly  day, t h e Queen's P r i n t e r  have  and  Englishmen."  o f DeCosmos's n o m i n a t i o n .  be  through  understand  a s some  decisive  p a r t y must  which  a n d so f a i t h f u l l y  government  of buffoon  should  government,  as well  into  government part  British feeling  a r r i v a l s hence  some c o l o n i s t s  just  criticism  t o mean  b y an i n t e l l i g e n t p r e f e r e n c e  represents  The  the  i s beginning  n o r have  show t h a t  love  a  "Loyalty  of constitutional  worthily  to a l l the rights  be  B r i t i s h Colonist  - J a n . 3, 1 8 6 0 .  2. 4. 3.  Ibid Ibid Ibid  - D e c . 24, 1 8 5 9 . - A p r i l 7, 1 8 6 0 . - J a n . 7, 1 8 6 0 .  t o have  States,  and  a  part"- . a vote.  there-  t o be c i t i z e n s o f  to v o t e — a  1.  party,  population,  said  said 4  was i n  very  convenient  33 doctrine, every  to  an  tion. ing  i f carried  person,,not  titled took  which  the  oath  the  through  ly  voted  the  any  as  as  he  soon  were  candidate  a British  stepped  on any  other  registered,  by  since they  were  the  government  party,  of  their  them  votes  supported were;just  make  subject,  British  and,  thirty  and  state,  illegally  a s s i s t a n c e of Some  c o n c l u s i o n would  regardless of  allegiance,  for i t .  government  of  allegiance,  of  i t s logical  citizen  negroes  oath  so  vote, of  These  a  to  soil  en-  and  qualificamerely  enabled they  takto  do  natural-  Franklin,  the  sufficient  to  1 swing  the  election  a g a i n s t DeCosmos.  D e C o s m o s was ted  the  very  actions of  favourable  o r e d men  gave  form  a  was  those  rations it  was  "the  gogues,  will  of  casting  books,  who,  us.'"  He  English  at  stake  that,  find  i f he  that  The  first  r e f u s e d and  son  f o r the  not  be  1. 2.  British Ibid  the  these  but  created These  a col-  "'Re-  supported  in their  arguments  a Yankee  i n the  ope-  saying  principle—  hands  hands -  of  Jan. Jan.  he  excuse  to  of  dema-  to  examine  illegalities obtain access  again  wrote  asking  that  these  books  a private 10, 14,  allowed  were  Governor,  s i n c e the  Colonist  They  principles  were  there  to  i n the  resen-  votes."  therefore applied  placed  theml"  criticized  and  refusal,  had  good b e h a v i o u r . •  ignorant foreigners 2  was  then,  and  f o r voting against reform.  principle  would  government  until  their  sustain 2  illegal  request  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n ' to  suspected he  negroes  reasons  best  English  He poll  their  principle  against  impression by  affecting no  the  secondary  "'who  bitter  I860; 1860.  individual,  in  the them,  to  them.  the could  prior  to  rea-  being  sent  to  the  House  existed,  guaranteeing  fusal  his  to  corded  legal  that  advisers, but  t o me  Excellency,  of Assembly,  by  noon,  that  I  right.  declared:  to-morrow,  to  refused  force  books.  The  d e c i s i o n then  the  Governor  was  under  her  the  the  the  r e s t e d on  sufficiently  mandamus  was  w h i c h he  no  rested 4  on  his  able  as own  r e f u s e d by poorly  to  see  direct  the  to  the  judge  the  him  proof,  do  owing  the  poll  use  those  to  of  a  see  the  whether or  what to  whetwas  the  law  Attorney-Gene-  books,  and  your  applied for  to  ac-  enjoyment  question  master  re-  i s not  ordinary people,  d r a w n wo b y  to  statute  acquaint  allow  the  a  Douglas's  liberty  DeCosmos  Governor  same l a w  c o n c e r n i n g i t , b e i n g so '3 ral. S i n c e h e was n o t  was  the  petition  thrown  out  by  there  was  an  committee. It  attempt 1.  again,  as  claim  to  t o me  poll  the  leave  s p e e d i l y secure  o f mandamus,  made  I beg  I  will  writ  The  " i f what  at  When D o u g l a s ' 2  right.  attributed  consider myself  that 1 the' p r i v i l e g e s . "  was  He  erroneous  shall  measures  judge  was  to  B.  was  not  control  C.  only  i n DeCosmos<'s  elections.  Archives  In  the  - DeCosmos P a p e r s ,  Colonist  Jan.  23,  Feb.  1860.  '  3.  Ibid  --Feb.  4.  Ibid  -  D.  -  Douglas, British  Macdonald,  that  Esquimalt,  2.  Cf.  case  G.  F.-  H,, 16,  naval  officers  DeCosmos  to  1860.  1860.  J u l y 26, 1860. The c o m m i t t e e r e f u s e d t o a l l o w t h e l i s t s t o be opened. The c o l o r e d v o t e r s were . ' f i n a l l y s t r u c k from the l i s t f o r not being B r i t i s h subjects, Mar. 1861. F r a n k l i n , t h e r e f o r e was illegally elected. Op.  C i t . Pp.  268-269.  35 combined form  the  Hudson s- Bay  to  against prove  Spring  Island  given,  and  register  tration  was  to  many  did the  no  of  not  the  for  government  to  County "The  go  to  election,  ground  the  the  time  Hudson's Bay  was  quiet  policy the port  was  opening  was  a  would  the a  favoured  be  to  the  run  the  was  and  the  the  colony  and  second Assembly,  passed.  Instead  Colonist  -  Jan.  10,  by in  had  the  blown  i t was  a b i l l as  was  regis-  the  sup-  Victoria  was  used.  officers  of  government." over  the  colo-  Proclamation.  This  expected regarding  a  dis-  fradulent act, his official In  the  Port  i t came  Salt  i t was  the  intimidation  tools  Free  the  a  and  government  election.  excitement  time u n t i l  were  patrolled  their  as  there  When  reformer,  who  that  Company,  In  assisted in this and he n e g l e c t e d '4  declared  election  by  few  re-  come .-to' V i c t o r i a ' t o 2  candidate select  a  registration  there.  poll  Company  for  of  the  of  get  a  Cooper,  returned  to  had  the  to  DeCosmos  around  When ny  Island  to  party.  notice  voters  3 porters. The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l while admitting i t s i l l e g a l i t y , work  defeat  G o r d o n was  proper  have  popular  reopened  the  to  obnoxious  1857.)  election,  they that  in  credit  since  covered  particularly 1  them  no  Company  r  candidate(and  witness was  with  that,  with  the  free  proclamation  from  1.  British  1860.  2.  Ibid  -  Jan. 19, 1860. Nov. 20, n o t i c e of r e g i s t r a t i o n , Nov. 23, b o o k s c l o s e d .  3.  Ibid  -  J a n . 5, 1 8 6 0 . Nov. 30, t h e r e were 8 o r 9 names r e g i s t e r e d for Salt Spring I s l a n d , Dec. 21, t h e r e w e r e 21 n a m e s .  4.  Ibid  -  Jan.  19,  1860.  5.  Ibid  -  Jan.  14,  1860.  1 the  Governor,  on  the  though  the  colony  cedure  was  resented.  and  our  very  exalted idea  be  the  of  made  an  the  mous f o r tives.  the In  thoroughly mation  of  emigration our  and  present  when  established, that  i s now  done  by  to  this  an  item  on  the  to  convey  banks  s t a t u t e s and  what  may  legislation,  we  have  hardly f i t  of  the  yet  become f a -  dormant  take  was It  done as  and  Thames  preroga-  self-government  formerly  pro-  a  legislation  I s l a n d may  colonial  of  despatches  colony,  of  a l -  method  official  calculated  This  obsolete day  the  and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are  dried  export.  of  not  important  cut  revival  the  home g o v e r n m e n t ;  i t s inauguration,  that  so  be  article  the  letters,  conclusion,  i t must  of  "Possibly certain  entrusted with  therefore and  favoured  correspondents'  induced to  advice  by  no  is  so  procla-  compliment,  2 that  this  colony An  las, the to  a  five  colony pay  called  even more  was  up  but  i t the  of  s t u d i e d "the  the  whole we  take  Public  2.  British  3.  Ibid  a  to  exception."  In  The  people  the  every  British  not  lack of locality -  had  such  tyrant,  dfco r e p e l  Statutes  Colonist  an  tax  demented  mode  i s , that General  made  certainly  best  difficulty  1.  load  i n arms.  .f'ror r o a d s , act  be  disagreeable proclamation  pound mule  las  tion  should  Golumbia. wanted  a heavy and  came f r o m  a.samll one..  declared 3  population."  He  self-government. where  ten  or  At  Doug-  once tax  DeGosmos that  Doug-  traced "The  twenty  posiBritish  Colony of Vancouver I s l a n d . Free Port Proclamation. " I , Go Governor Douglas, 'have b e e n i n s t r u c t e d by her•Majesty's p r i n c i p a l . S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e to proclaim V i c t o r i a a free port of e n t r y ;and c l e a r a n c e f o r s h i p s . ' "  - Feb.  7,  1860.  — F e b .  9,  1860.  subjects  can  district. equally  be  The  mustered, principle  applicable  is  i t that  a  can  be  self-governed t o make  hundreds  and  hear  dissonant  the  lumbia's quently tax. the  organized  of  resentative tee  to  mong  out  do  the by  something  tax,  and  breaking  then  ruler  of  that  own  estimation British  2.  Macdonald,  against  this  sister  the 2  I  and  to  enact'?""''  and  Co-  conse-  the  also  mule against  Columbia.  gaining  colony.  resolutions  a  British  against  tax  in  colony,  do  theirs,  of  people  doomed  that  in British  the  the  enough  are  protest  is  many.  British  felt  for  of  or  are  a  l i n k e d .with to  few  therefore,  Island  electoral  States,  in  question  spirit  be  freemen  'now,  existing  On was  The  more the  rep-  commit-  DeCosmos,  a-  reformers.  the  opposition mule  merely law*  Colonist G-.  P.  tax.  ordered  aroused, He  was  c o u n t r y must when  -  San.  -  Op.  convinced 17,  Douglas too  felt  petty  to  i t s non-collection,  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  misgoverned  D.  while  an  representation  there  the  considerably,  1.  that  with  a l l the  own  by  United  Intelligent  passed  dealt  instead  ous  time  closely  were  about  his  the  the  public meeting  the  to  of  Vancouver  was  prominent Due  to  a  of  constituted  inhabitants  announcement,  institutions  carry  other  of  government  resolutions  the  town m e e t i n g ,  people  Resolutions  final  a  prosperity  form  from  be  government  territory  thousands  The  of  whether  How  settlement  in  should  that feel that  "the  remove there-  imperi-  lowered he  forced  dare  in  his  not  ex-  1860.  C i t . P.  262ff.  He  also  tells  the humourous s t o r y of Governor Douglas m e e t i n g the mule which was used to a d v e r t i s e the meeting, and suggests t h a t t h i s had a g r e a t deal t o do w i t h r e n o u n c i n g t h e tax.  ecute  t h e mule  stand  when h e r e s o r t s t o t h e u n s t a t e s m a n l i k e  the  ukase;  non-execution  b u t as a  statesman  of h i s edict.  How  stood  h a d h e e x h i b i t e d some d e g r e e  licly  repealed  characterized  that  as  which  the of  Poster's  whether  This  there  was  was  a debt  refused  b y t h e government,  the Independent  tion.  mendment  people  supporter,  DeCosmos  said,  of Cary,  l e tl i g h t  investigation  agitate  the In  cussed  Up  was  about  has  t h e same  into they  were  before  now  will 2  to  approving  arousing  question  i n the colony. to prevent  entered  Even  now  the passage  a wedge w h i c h  a dark settle  place. forever  had been  s u s p i c i o n i n the minds Cary,  t h e a-  ministers of  i fdriven  By p e r s i s t i n g these  as the  o f t h e mo-  " t h e o p p o s i t i o n - - i n v o t i n g down  many  num-  able  the accounts  and d e f e a t i n g the i r r e s p o n s i b l e  home i n this  questions  that  people." connection  the position  Ibid  of the colony  a l l accounts  t i l l  thus  with  this  of Cary--the  Governor. As Attorney-General 1. British Colonist - April 2.  have  t o t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company o r  tried  Governor Douglas--have will  he  and pub-  a return to the eyer-present  i t owed t h e c o l o n y .  government  of condescension,  there  to consider  whether  of  he  of ordering  would  as o b s t r u c t i v e s , and t h e former  motion  estimates.  does  infamous."  of reformers  pass  lower  shift  much h i g h e r  the united voice 1  When t h e A s s e m b l y m e t ber  how m u c h  - April  investigation, irresponsible  of Vancouver 3, 1 8 6 0 . 28, 1 8 6 0 .  DeCosmos  minister  dis-  of the  Island, without  a  salary, had  he  been  had  been  given  a  elected  salary.  to  the  Assembly,  According  to  the  but  law  since  of  then  the  he  colony,  1 he  should  resign  to  escape  in  and  seek  some d e g r e e  re-election. the  estimates  and  general  'Governor  can  do  no  wrong',  catspaw  to  do  ter  as  a  was  without  sembly bring on  to  vindicate  both  the  sacred  rights  so  he  used 2  the  " w h a t now  principles  and of  of  subordinate the  Assembly  idea  juvenile  this  that  the  constitution  and  account  by  an  the  office-hun-  for  to  the  appointment  i s simply  our  wanted  recommending  the  Since  remains  Excellency  of  inaugurate  his bidding."  the  principal  responsibility  p o l i c y , ' and  precedent,  "His  for  As-  encroaching  appointment  of  an  2 irresponsible 3 ment  policy,  Governor  to  minister."  and  s e e k new  Cary, colony meant this  should that,  money  not)there  DeCosmos  declared  a d v i s e r s or  the  Hudson's Bay colony,(and  would be  a  sum  the  home g o v e r n m e n t  would  free  the  colonists  timates 1.  2. 3.  said and  of  that  the  Assembly  saddle  the  country  the  the  land  Company h a d  of  people coming any  taxes should with An  an  the  now  up  debt  not  for a  the  that  the  spent sure  the to  to  receipts.  were to  govern-  House.  admitted  a l l of  they  colony,  the  refuse  had which  Company  to pass  -  British Ibid  ry a f t e r e l e c t i o n to must r e s i g n and seek - M a y 3, 1860. - M a y 5, 1860.  on  receiving  and time.  the  exorbitant c i v i l  officer  This  considerable  Franchise Act  Colonist  1859.  of  most  any  i t was  Governor,  o f money  free  that  deserted  dissolve  receive nine-tenths  would  DeCosmos  however,  i n d e s e r t i n g the  i f the on  Cary,  es-  list a  sala-  the Assembly, re-election.  1 until  the matter  was f i n a l l y  settled.  D e C o s m o s was, t h e r e f o r e , t h o r o u g h l y the Assembly ker,  were  gained 2 try.  when  able  the obstructives,  to vote  the salaries  any i n f o r m a t i o n about However,  suspended  payment  were  transferred  continued  ditions  their  t o desire,  of the country  first  against  The  climax  the Assembly  the  Whole  came w h e n  was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  sent  and they  timates. not 1.  would  session. there  be able  As a consequence,  consider British  before  they  o f the counone  t h e Crown  thing, Lands  the estimates, Colonist  the reformers  o f the f i n a n c i a l  the information.  was s i t t i n g  as a Committee o f  and on r i s i n g  When  i t was d e -  t h e House met a t n i g h t ,  was a m a j o r i t y o f r e f o r m e r s t o do what the Speaker since,  con-  o f the Governor and  to withhold  to consider the estimates a night  failure  the wishes  attempted  it  until  some k n o w l e d g e  o b s t r u c t i v e s who  to hold  o f the Spea-  to accomplish  list  with  to the colony.  the  cided  condition  able  of the c i v i l 3  Notwithstanding still  were  the help  f o r the year,  the f i s c a l  the reformers  they  with  disgixsted  they  wanted  said  i n rising,  - M a r . 3, 1 8 6 0 .  with  t h e House  prethees-  could  the committee  The Governor's  speech  at the opening o f the Assembly dec l a r e d t h a t t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company' was n o l o n g e r d e f r a y i n g t h e e x p e n s e s , a n d t h a t i t was u p t o t h e c o l o n y t o pass a permanent c i v i l l i s t . When t h i s was d o n e , t h e G o v e r n o r w o u l d r e commend t h a t t h e C r o w n L a n d s b e h a n d e d over. 2.  Ibid  - June  7, 1 8 6 0 .  3.  Ibid  - June  9, 1 8 6 0 .  1 had  not  signified  did  not  hesitate  tial he  i t s i n t e n t i o n to to  criticize  Speaker,  the  son-in-law  would bend  the  House  leave  the  mentary the  chair,  usage,  House.  shifts such  according  Such  he  and  his  to  to  to  conduct policy  of  his  according  dishonest  as  to  this  s i t that  night.  action.  "So  the  Governor,  policy,  adjournment,  the  entail, any  he,  who  he  and  imparthat  refusing  according  to  and  to  parlia-  order  of  i s , what d i s g r a c e f u l  how  moral  the  boasted  I t by  d i g n i t y , decorum  shows w h a t  exert  tries  DeCosmos  impossible  influence  i t is  i n an  for  intelli-  2 gent  country." On  called fence ting  before he  of  g a v e me that  the  p u b l i c a t i o n of  the  declared  was  but  "I  called  the  account  Speaker,  for  i t .  No  but  your i n the  r e m a r k s made  colony t o me  libelllous  be."  however,  the  House,  libel.  lication  of  He  consequently  an  article  1.  British  2. 3.  Ibid. Ibid  himself  present  In at  If  I have  been maligned,  less  this  that  declared,  "I  I believed 28,  -  July  5,  1860.  1860.  I  desit-  and  he From  done am  wrong,  sorry  v i n d i c t i v e n e s s than  even  declared  June  his  that  Waddington,  several honourable  Colonist -  was  furnished" the House.  has  than  which  DeCosmos  privilege.  article.  has by  of  u p o n Mr.  the  character  more b i t i n g - - m o r e 3 The  not  already  I published  and man  I have  editorial,  a breach  he  House,  Mr.  for  that  the  information  have;  House  this  he  article  must  is  said  apologize  apologize t o be  members  based  for  the  upon  I were to  for pub-  cor-  1 rect  information."  that  some  had,  in  of  the  DeCosmos, ready had  to  were n o t to  been  of  angered  anger,  their  editorial. to  agree  l e t DeCosmos the  at  to  with  as  matter  the  the  truth,  the  the  placed  his and  second  action ever  thoughts,  remarks,  editorial, true  before  he  obstructives,  on  whether  to  action,  criticized  scathing  for  seems  Speaker's  reformers,  given,  and  the  criticize  apologize  accepted  the  severely  The  information  hastily  of  explanation  opportunity  ready  that  too  an  this  so  grounds  heat  accepting seize  explanation  reformers,  first  written  ferred  the  The  the  and  on  or  pre-  the  not,  had  public  without  "2 due  thought  to  the  effect.  DeCosmos, a  very  fine  in his  editorial  on  Vancouver  or  wherever  an  essential ingredient,  gress, as  they  the it  and  Island.  on  that  do.  majority a majority  Both  are  position  the  stagnant,  the  1.  British  2.  ibid  has  i s simply  to  rule.  No  rulers  as  a  would  liberties  and  the  people  J u l y 5,  - Mr.  as  majority;  was soil  to  their  i t so the  ever  to  the  pro-  right  carries  the  be  well of with  opposition  prosperity  other.  corrupt,  i t  i t appears  and  wrote  parent  understand  progress,  too  and  liberty,  government  the  people,  the  principle  c h e c k con  become  of  Colonist -  be  on  their  people  elective  freedom  act  to  government by  The  the  transplanted,  a minority--the  Each  educate  i t should  necessary  It  and  as  been  prosperity.  e s s e n t i a l to  contentment.  party,  to  "Among A n g l o - S a x o n s ,  stock  their  efforts  Without  and an  government  endangered,their  interest  1860.  Crease,  one  of  those  op-  who  criti-  c i z e d the Speaker, o b j e c t e d to w i t n e s s e s b e i n g c a l l e d to prove DeCosmos' s evidence.  43 neglected, on  p u b l i c burdens  pampered  vative,  t o be  grounded make no  a  favorites.  party  better  of  than 1  any  faction.  He  couver  Island.  "Party  ties  i n our  service and  the  to  Assembly  reform  obstructives  No  have  have  the  this  time  his  have too  country.  the  likes  Liberal  or  has  i s very  of  well-  cannot  S u c h would,  men,  that  party  to  on  Van-  communi-  render  but the  the  Par-  much  reformers  masses;  c a s t i n g vote  be  the  unproductive.  exists  sympathy  Conseron  benefited other  question  the  or  dislikes  not  balanced  by  squandered  based  strength.  evenly  power,  be  a t t e n t i o n to  here  the  revenue  should  is principles  government  are  principles  state  effective  turned  we  and  whether  personal  It  next  specimen  the  the  durable  want."  but  to  Mere  people  ties,  Opposition,  beneficial  principles.  increased,  of  and  the  the  Spea-  " 2 ker." At ted  Treasurer,  entered  the  and  field  he  Gordon, resigned  member to  a g a i n s t him.  As  re-election.  usual  there  ty  declared  that  he  must  run  as  William Alexander  Smith.  discussion,  he  decided  William Alexander  monly  as  Amor D e C o s m o s .  man, to  in voting repeat  The 1. 2.  the  sheriff  Ibid.  to  f o r him, little  refused  British  was  no  run  name a n d  such  person  as  The  and  l e t him  Colonist -  July  the as  To  merely  1860.  appoin-  DeCosmos a  great  government  save  trouble Smith,  verbal  and  apparently  voted  correct himself 7,  was  deal par-  Amor DeCosmos  v o t i n g was  i n h i s nervousness,  formula to  of  was  d i s c u s s i o n about  there  change  seek  of  known  his  f o r Esquimalt,  for and  and  and comone  forgot  DeCosmos. the  vote  44  stood as  eleven  f o r Gordon,  DeCosmos,  a  t i evote,  a n d one v o t e but instead  onl$t one o f many had  agreed  pacities sible gain  himself,  should  for  1860, b u t t h a t  the  Registration  The  sheriff  and  the harbourmaster's  of Voters'  refused  DeCosmos after It  four  list  longer  f o r 1859(which  the s h e r i f f  t o use)was  i t was  against  registered although 1 list.  gave  inapplicable  pos-  of  Avoters  declared  since  by  alone. 1859,  he h a d no  finally,  i t s decision.  on t h e ground  the Colonial  was  sheriff  t h e e l e c t i o n and  and v o i d  This  t o 1859,  accepted on t h e  been  i t was  on t h e l i s t  the e l e c t i o n committee  the e l e c t i o n n u l l  of voters  dered  no  was  petitioned  months,  declared  vote  have  corrected.  applicable  any v o t e r s  known  i n both ca-  a clerk  although  A c t t o be  to accept  a n d was  used,  The  acted  have been  have been based  o f 1 8 5 9 was  should  DeCosmos.  had been  would  Smith,  elected.  but instead  i f there  mistake  There  declared  to defeat  clerk,  whereas  the e l e c t i o n  qualification  G o r d o n was  a poll  the voter's  Alexander  f o r DeCosmos.  subtrefuges  to have  that  ten f o r William  Secretary  that  the  had or-  t o an e l e c t i o n i n  2 1860.  Cary  ground  that  legal,  since  clared  that  could 1.  tried  t o throw  i t w o u l d make  Gordon's the report  n o t be British  thrown  vote  out the committee's  the proceedings  w o u l d b e no  Colonist  f o r the session '3  good.  o f an e l e c t i o n committee  o u t on any a c c o u n t . - A u g . 14,  1860.  2.  Ibid  - Nov.  22,  I860.  3.  Ibid  - Nov.  24,  1860.  decision  Waddington was  The S p e a k e r  final said  on t h e i l -  deand that  45 it  had reported  on something  clause,  declaring  licable  t o 1860--and  election report,  gainst vent  was n u l l  with  h i s own  elected  gone  He,  The  ment  Immediately again  he would  re-elected.  of this  whole  government  his  gratitude  discovered,  gave  an attempt  ber,  b u t had been  with the  and had been '4  a n o t h e r man. indictment  land  a-  pre-  damning  that  he  was  resign, to a  fore-  ex-  anywhere b y t h e g o v e r n i n the House, He 3  funds.  then  showed  I t was  then  to ascertain h i s assets,  qualification b y no l e s s  incriminated  To p u t a f i n i s h i n g  t o r u n a s a mem-  a person  1.  British  - Nov. 27, 1 8 6 0 .  2. 4.  Ibid Ibid  - D e c . 6, 1 8 6 0 . - J a n . 31, 1862.  3.  Ibid  - J a n . 30, 1862.  than  i n a shady  touch  the At-  land  t o t h e whole  drawn up b y t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l Colonist  to  have been  of treasurer.  was m a d e  he h a d n o t h a d s u f f i c i e n t  torney-General,  from  out the  a n d i t was 2  might  some g o v e r n m e n t  that  loaned  affair  the  voting  any more  and, f o r h i s v o t e  him the o f f i c e  by embezzling  when  up  used  inap-  that  resigned  he would  again  be  threw  he b e l i e v e d  o f 1859 was  to run i n Esquimalt  the  that  said  Tolmie,  Gordon  ill-feeling  Gordon had been p i c k e d  party,  have  and making  said  b u t t o save  sequel  merely  special  o f 1 8 5 9 was  The o b s t r u c t i v e s  of course,  that  list  o f t h e committee,  sitting  The l i s t  conclusi6n  pected.  i t should  decision.  legally,  again.  that  and v o i d .  the committee  i t s power—the  the R e g i s t r a t i o n  the chairman 1  disclosures.  run  that  outside  deal  story,  h a d s o m a n y ':  46  loopholes,  the  that  expense  of  Like Island  had  cil  made  der  by  the  right  tion  of  to  every  other  colony  tax  the  r i d the  House  lower they  possessed 3  all  money b i l l s . "  all  the  amendments has  English  back  the  thumb  2. 3. 4.  the  pluck  down a n d of  the  an  license  b i l l .  to  i n the  expressed  tax  about  and  counter  right  that  to  they  people,  forever."  Council to  force  the  The  this  such  too  question. and  amend  to  up  is a  with  much They  British Ibid  bia. L o n d o n , Longman, P. 398. - O c t . 24, 1860. - J a n . 18, 1861.  spark  attempts  Council  - Vancouver  Ibid.  or  irresponsible  ' C f . '.Ma-cf i e , " M a t t h e w  Colonist  an  that  entitled  "an  give  Island  and  originate  i f there  t h e A s s e m b l y ' s m a j o r i t y was  combina-  assertion,  said  i t should  a  Mother  assertion  were  and  the  the  council  They backed  DeCosmos  Assembly, once  a  surren-  "Taxation  such  the  Coun-  indigna-  editorial.  bring  House.  the  the  o l d c o l o n i e s from  with  The  privilege,  irresponsible  said  Vancouver  involved a  important  indefeasible  also  with a l l  Assembly.  C o u n c i l answered tax  free,  America,  which  i n an  i t may  lower  to-day,  most  the  the  attempted  quietus,  not  1.  to  an  of  bill  DeCosmos  of  could  They  privileges  council  The  alone  i n North  the Assembly  here,  Gordon 1  C o u n c i l and  their  country 2  the  set  through.  liquor  people.  I f attempted  Governor."  their  a  of  and  arbitrary  of  to  House  people  a s may  "that  go  representation severed  Country. tion  trial  lower to  to  a new  amendment  the  without  necessary  i t s s t r u g g l e between  an  sole  i t was  would under  got  British Greem,  out Colum1865.  of  the d i f f i c u l t y  leges,  by a l i t t l e  the Council  explaining that  vileges.  The q u e s t i o n 2  lature  prorogued.  was  The had  session ation with  has been  of offices each  questions taining  great  fact  promote  try;  other  had been  spent  f o r favoured on m a t t e r s  of personal  of parliamentary  They that  usage,  dignity,  seemed their  mission  the interests  nity  the appearance  of the Assembly  was  partizans,  to the c r e -  wrangling  difference,  debating  their  country's  oblivious to devise  the resources meetings  of main-  o f the  to legislate,  and  "the entire  and the importance  and develop  reduced  a year  a view  become u t t e r l y  of a stall been  with  pri-  the Legis-  said,  to the neglect  t o have  b u t i n s t e a d o f so doing,  sented  A s DeCosmos  political  when  f o rnearly  i n d e v i s i n g means  privi-  had d e f i n i t e  settled  sitting  nothing.  the word  each House  was n o t f i n a l l y  almost  the Speaker's  interests.  to  Assembly  accomplished  q u i b b l i n g about  to the means  o f the coun-  too f r e q u e n t l y  i n Billingsgate; to the l e v e l  pre-  and the d i g -  of a bear  gars-  i  den." DeCosmos ners  to settle  criticized  on t h e l a n d ,  British  institutions,  tyranny  keeping  and  a t t h e same  1. , 2. 3.  British  fearing  their  s u b j e c t s who  refusing to give  evil  C o l o n i s t - F e b . 8, 1 8 6 1 .  foreig-  i n f l u e n c e on  were u s e d  representative  C o l o n i s t - J a n . 23, 1861.  F e b . 7, 1 8 6 1 . British  f o r dissuading  and y e t by h i s unstatesmanlike  away B r i t i s h time  Douglas  policy  and  to freedom; institu-  tions  to  small. it  British " I f by  appear,  dom or  to  any the  in British In  ing  a  the  'British  objected  ality  as  bf  Vancouverians the  local  or  of  adoption—the  our  the  same  soon  question  as  of  to  the  idea  to  and  our  of  the  to  l e t us  want  act  and  who  and  in  a  parcel  serfhome  obtainthe  DeCos-  one  nation-  no  local  speak  have  take  a p a r t and ' 2  at  colony."  "we  make  that  justify 1  classifying  as  dropped  greater of  the  and land  Colonies."  L e g i s l a t u r e began  to  succeed  too  can  liberty  that  said,  birthplace,  Pacific  people,  powerful  in  was  Douglas  civil  C o l u m b i a n s - - a s men  considered  came  British  possibly  b i r t h p l a c e ; but  i n being  As  the  may  a l l others,  prejudices  pride  he  element  Governor  institutions  British  juster  of  sufficiently  strenuously  on  British  i s preferable  Provinces,  to  the  reasoning,  satisfaction  liberal  based  because  of  element'  superior  jealousies  rule  Columbia  Eastern  establishment mos  Columbia  the  fore  again,  i t s second the  public  session, accounts  and, along w i t h i t , the c i v i l l i s t . As u s u a l the government was successful i n keeping o f f a l l investigation--although there was  an  lie  accounts  tant,  almost  since  "year was nor.  successful '4 yearly.  a  the  knowledge only  DeCosmos,  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  June  4.  British  26,  check  attempt  This of  Colonist  have  question how  which  remarking  to  on  the the the  was  submittal  particularly  m o n e y was Assembly  - MarV 5 .  1861.  - Mar.  1,  1861.  - Aug.  10,  1861.  spent  had  government's  1861. Colonist  a  on  of  policy,  pubs  impor-  in a the  the  current  the  Gover-  said,  "whenever put it  any independent  p u b l i c matters i s an a t t a c k  prehend can  have  nothing upon one If  what  on a p r o p e r  f o r opposing such  there  neglect  urer,  Gordon,  confidence  larly  able  not only  financial  objected  Executive  nue  without  everyone,  would  'something  t o com-  I f there  opposition to a healthy lead  was  check  almost  any-  r o t t e n i n Denmark.'  on t h e p u b l i c a c c o u n t s ,  away w i t h  even  however,  i n h i s policy.  1.  British  2.  Vide  4.  BIrbii td i. s h C o l o n i s t  P.  Much  funds. h a d no  resolu-  u n b u s i n e s s l i k e and 3 They  particu-  DeCosmos  said,  17, 1 8 6 1 .  45.  - J a n . 11, 1862.  the public  reve-  to the surprise of  or rather  the Council,  C o l o n i s t - Sept.  Treas2  and u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h a b i t of  o f law."  against  the  who  the Council passed  and expending ' 4  the Assembly,  of the  and the p r e s s  of the Executive."  i n anticipating  the sanction  some  "the irresponsible,  to the " i r r e g u l a r  Supra,  us  that  o f the government  of the kind.  the people  policy  the Executive  confidence  3.  t o make  i n the Governor;  the  ported  was  checks  protesting against  dangerous  any admirer  puzzles  to  ' r o t t e n ' , why  proper  was  was  the c r y i s r a i s e d  It really  and expenditure  there  undertakes  oppose the v e n t i l a t i o n o f the 1 of the country?" As a consequence of t h i s  affairs  It  tions  that  t o have  reason  continuous  i s nothing  financial  footing,  any measure  the p u b l i c revenue to imagine  o f the Assembly  on t h e E x e c u t i v e .  substantial  wrong,  member  a part  o f i t , sup-  and passed " i t looks  a vote as  of  though  Government while  was  "basking  very  weak—so  i n the  With  the  fond  smiles  opening  of  s e s s i o n , t h e g o v e r n m e n t was •2 ply. T h i s meant a v o t e o f have did  resigned, finally  mates by of  the  since  absent, After mers  and  this and  lected  only last  said,  the  the  Legislature on  he  was  go  i n i t and  to  When  reformers  be  not  with  voted  farce,  DeCosmos  lost  third  into Gary the  the  collected  to  secure  showing  the  supshould  House  a  a  House, without recommit-  combined  government,  against faith  unmitigated Assembly  dissolve  able  actually  our  i t s  to  d i d not.  three  perhaps  for  a vote  could not  Some v o t e d  a l l the  Lower  Governor  year  only exist ' 1 House."  defeated the esti3 assessors. T h e o n l y way out  Governor  by  the  i t can  reformers  two  the  "of  together  the  for  attack.  the  course  f o r the  estimates,  of  that  no-confidence  was  the  so  defeated  supply,  Instead  against  of  to pay  revenue  the  front  into  difficulty the  of  go  refusing  assessors. al  although  much  the  even  muffs  were 4  recommittal.  i n the  t h a t were  i s the most  some  reforever  perfect  col-  that  5 ever  existed." The  if  the  site  G o v e r n o r made no  question  c l a i m had  of been  attempt  the Hudson's Bay decided  Colonist  -  yet.  Jan.  to  l e t the  Company  Since  24,  1862.  25,  1862.  3,  1862.  debt  these  Assembly or  the  questions  know  town could  1.  British  2.  Ibid  - Mar.  3.  Ibid  - April  4.  Ibid  5.  Ibid  - A p r i l 11, 1862. R i n g , T r i m b l e and McDonald v o t e d a g a i n s t the r e c o m m i t t a l . - May 3, 1862.  51 not  separated  this  ffom  d e l a y meant  list'question Assembly ker  that  of  of  lack  fusal  of  between  to  find  out  about  forward  clerical  aouthorized  him  to  vassalage. when  show  the  such  The  the. A s s e m b l y  the b u r d e n — t h e  and  asks  taxes  hold  Governor answer he  i t  sent  the 1  latter  cavalier t o be  had  had  BeCosmes  bootblacks  because  a direct  correspondence  a meaner  the  the  four  the  for information with on  When  for  and  told  civil  to  finally  Governor's  heaped  the  Spea-  the Assembly.  been  decide  Lands,  the  the  a message—such  c o l o n y has  Crown  question, f i r s t  could not  said  i t to  subservient nor  to  the  first  He  the  self-supporting.  home g o v e r n m e n t  the Assemblymen  made m o r e  at  of  could not  address  assistance,  information. the  submitting  the  Governor  and  be  the Assembly colony  him  "were  transfer  the  the  the  the  make  neglected to then  of  and  tried  months,  that  they  re-  b e ©no  not  said, could  occupation  than  not by  treatment--such self-supporting; a view  country—are  to  and  lessen  told--'Mind  2 your  own  business,  fellows!'" 3  The  Assembly  was  prorogued  immediately  after  this,  to  be c a l l e d a g a i n as s o o n as p o s s i b l e , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e ' 4 year. DeCosmos e x p l a i n e d t h i s , as he u n d e r s t o o d I t . "The 1.  2.  British  Colonist  Ibid.  3.  Dec.  22,  4.  Jan.  2,  1862. 1863.  - D e c . 9, 1 8 6 2 . As the m a t t e r t r e a t e d o f b y t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ' i s one exclus i v e l y between Her M a j e s t y ' s Government a n d t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company, a n d a s many a c c o u n t s n o t s e t t l e d and as ar» rangements not submitted f o r o p i n i o n of l o c a l government, e t c .  52 early our  session—the  local  business the  politics,  is  to be.  If  they  form.  grievances The  can The  would cept  elect  that  that men  answers  were  After  government were  His  on  Crown L a n d s Company the  and ty  I t was  platform  departmental—a  lumbia,  to  wanted,  Assembly  i s s u e d . DeCosmos  toria. not  this  to  claims  trade  union  with  regard  measures  between  British  2.  Feb.  28,  Colonist 1863.  the  vote,  to  the  Rump  had  the  to  granted 2  field of  a l l and and  for  '63  re-  i t .  honestly  supplies,  It  cast, ex-  British  the  of  a  redress  supplies  for  an  into  the  for  Vic-  government— British  Hudson s 1  from  non-sectarian; States;  Co-  the  f r e e . gi°ant  immigration  the  election  candidate  and  pub-  that  ^transfer of  site;  1863.  for  commemorial  Island  United  that  passed.  whistle  and  writs  the  redress  i s against  the  as  the  of  Assembly,  responsible  town  promote  23,  new  pass  for  to both;  the  for  may  with  petition  colonies Jan.  to use  i f purely  investigation to  public  country  consent  in  the  supplies  country  the  system  to  free  the  get  of Vancouver  colony;  education  1.  a  satisfactory  the  settlers;  Canada; of  terms  of  d i s s o l v e d , and  entered was  but  a l l wonders  see  the  never  their  to  hands  i n accordance  to  of  means  that  popular  desire  year:  to  done,  feels  a  wonder  powerful  the  want  would  returned 1 grievance."  lie  to  take of  job  the  who  reasonable  custom  out  Government  persuaded  to  Government  get  not  e a r l y i n the  misrepresentatives public  session—the  i s due  despatched  of  is  extra  of  Bay land  England reciproci-  new  elec-  toral the As  districts,  free  port  usual  this polls  increased  system;  h e was  time  with  a n d many  opposed  h e was m o r e  representation; other  less  maintenance  important  policies.  b y t h e Family-Company-Compact, b u t  successful  a n d was  elected  second  five  years'  residence  i n Victoria,  DeCosmos h a d  entered  t h e L e g i s l a t u r e as t h e r e c o g n i z e d  leader  party.  j t might  the length  But in  be  he h a d b e e n i t must  said  n o t be f o r g o t t e n  do a g a i n s t  Company,  and the type  place  subservient  status  Vancouver  What  could  of settler  added  f o r business  manently,  Island  a n y man,  forces  to^this reasons  of settler,  alone,  desired  who  a strong  up a s t r o n g  time,  i t may  be  opinion  feeling  said  that  was d e t e r m i n e d 1  much  unique  In the  accom-  first  any o f i t s  that  came o u t  the admirer  the American  government  o f the  came  to stay would  perpre-  time t o  Nevertheless,  at  i n the colony, reform.  that  who  DeCosmos t o o k  he h a d a c c o m p l i s h e d  to secure  much.  however  d i d not intend  f o r reform.  had appeared  time  a r i s t o c r a c y o f t h e Company.-  i t i s not surprising that  build  Public  type  of  was  to lose  of Englishman  and very  reform  o f t h e Hudson's Bay  i t encouraged?  by the p r i v i l e g e d  a n d who  unrest,  the type  t o t h e Company  quo--rule  When wag  ance  that  the accumulated  and secondly  of the  he h a d n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d  t h e H u d s o n ' s B a y Company d i d n o t want  authority,  vent  considering  i n Victoria,  plished,  in  that  the h i s t o r y of colonies.  was  a t the  i n Victoria. After  that  of  this  very  and under  this thing.-  h i s guid-  -  Chapter  DeCosmos  The cult. tion of  There or  the  ing  task before was  reform  exceptions Governor  As their  been  well  he  which must  be  were u n i o n  with  the  colony.  said, in  "the  the  the  depends union up  and  to  two  with  the  dealt  1.  Papers  2.  British  to  initiate  into  with,  the  which  as  the  Assembly  i t were, a  understand-  with  other  two  and  but of  few  the  on  an  Columbia,  the 2 better."  should  on  our  our  early sooner  of  he  and  negotiate  respecting  the  of  legislation  question on  these  and  Assembly,  decision  Moreover  both,  of union, 1  financial  the  of  condition  a u t h o r i t y i t may  as  of  matters  financial  Speaking  con-  machinery  important  importance  devolves  and  most  the  the  Legislative  Governor,  they  g r e a t many v i t a l  editorial.  now  how  p r o v i d i n g the  The  Columbia  step  leader  Company.  consider  i n an  diffi-  legisla-  recognized  an A s s e m b l y  appreciated  the  was  enlightened  practically  g r e a t measure  British  of  the  quickly.  initiatory  legislator,  as  teaching  British  of  a  p l a y t h i n g , the mere m o u t h p i e c e  and,  had  the  in a  with  as  decided  absence  terms  the  DeCosmos  interrelated  as  He,  Hudson's Bay  affairs  legislation,  had  him.  institutions  the  Assembly.  DeCosmos,  behind  party,  had  and  i n the  -  consistent history  legislators  of B r i t i s h  duct  no  III  is  a  taken  question  of  - R e l a t i v e to the Proposed Union of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Newcastle to Douglas, J u n e 15, 1863. Colonist  -  Sept.  8,  1863.  55 the  civil  ernment get  list,  f o r the  a new  colony ponds  we  Governor  fear  too  expensive;  not  d i s p o s e d to  ted  change  for  both  the  must  not  of  the  of Douglas. lack  plored  by  moment  of DeCosmos s  union,  i n the  any  could  received  to  union  formed  from  adopted  of  Colonist  to  the  Columbia  and  in  Governors  the  the  he  o n l y means b y  institutions.  'free  and  will  Sept.  8,  be  a  up  a House  representatives  of  1863.  time  dethe  advocated  without and  offi-  From  which  of both? long  of  British  "Despatches  institutions  Columbians  colonies,  had  under  was  administration. island,  expec-  colonies  Columbia,  two  are not  -  both  of  as  appeared  due  of B r i t i s h  the  the  time,  policies  British.Columbia  British  just  i n the  on  i s  important."  c o n s i d e r e d by  effective  considera-  i t makes 1  sets  free  two  the u n i t e d  been  the  f o r both.  office  i n two  establish  the  be  o f money  place  Why  will  waste  arrival  obtain  Columbia.  cating  1.  first  had  appearance  of  rate  extent,  to  thousand  time  u n i o n had  this  in British  of u n i t y  1  Columbians  is  colony at  The  admirer  that  three  Colonial  gov-  cannot  long  the  more  i f we  a  very great  still  t h e home  transferred  Governor  that  that  by  "and  to wait  at  thought  Union  the  British  be  asked  lands  the  have  t o any  i n the  cials,  been  shall  i n government  t h e moment  crown  votes  of union  colonies.  rule  the  presuming  recede  a possibility  from  and  salary  f a r too h i g h ,  i f i t costs  consideration It  we  the  was  or have  government  bly  as  that  the L e g i s l a t u r e  a year  early  felt  Governor  t i l l  Separate  he  have  delay' i n  doing,--advoAssembly Except without  union free  56 1 institutions." with be  British  declared  the be  free less  Even  at  Columbia,  that  from  i m p r a c t i c a b l e even  port.  He  saw  the  two  that  though  the  DeCosmos  standpoint,  won  and  i n 1861,  DeCosmos  of  union  would  s i n k f o r e v e r out  of  two  or  three  petty  c o l o n i e s on  coast,  the  weight  but  what  other  ry  governmental  g i a n t ' s armour, different  was  have  i s found as  vested  no  petuate  each  industrial  almost  the  petty provinces,  inhabitants  prey  by  legislation  ther  doomed  to  p o p u l a t i o n , rand fitted in  each  grapple shut  a  free was  not up  port  free  would  trade  policy where other; a  with  f o r i t s expansion  of  by  each  Again  the  subordinate  and  elevation,  common e x c e p t a c e w m o n n a t i o n a l i t y . 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - F e b . 5, 1859. 2.  Ibid  -  Feb.  12,  1859.  3.  Ibid  - Dec.  18,  1861.  down  with  encased each  with  connecting  link  other's  he  institute  or  intellects  shut  is  up  boundaries leaving  little  We  no  have  pertheir  doomed  s t i l l  with  from  "we  of  mind  position,  each  territo-  declared,  colonial  petty politics, provincial  of  e a c h 'estranged"'"from  sharpened  where  "The  prospect  laws;  any  t h a t would  the  the  striplings  without  for  expense.  domestic  chain;  union  e a c h bowed  like  different each  of  sight  monarchs."  to  out  saving  sovereignty 3  in different  on  this  national  the  a  machinery,  with  i n the  with  and  policy;  though  sympathy  Imperial  union  should  advocated  act  a  a united policy  again  purpose  in  of  there  the  of  that  i t w o u l d mean g i v i n g  advantages  was  saw  colonies.  Later, of  date  Victoria's  inrDortant once u n i o n 2  between  early  a or  a  fursmall  field nothing  sympathy  with  •  clashing pital  tariffs  checking  of a f i e l d  the  spirit  row  our models  f o r investment  o f our age. from these  seen  that  may  In  one p a r t i c u l a r  tion  speech  'free  port  ion,  but rather  a union  It important One  was  of these,  to discuss  merely  give  said.'  that  Such  a proposal  be  proposal  do n o  this  time,  appointed,  picked  from  vote  be  some  1.  British  C o l o n i s t - A u g . 13,  2.  Ibid  - July  3.  Ibid  - Sept.  12,  un-  i n favour  of  As  out as  who  a l l t h a t he  a consequence  1862. 1863. 1863.  needing He not  f o r a l l that  to those  that  an  considered.  a new  of the hangers-on  14,  o f the  i t with  o f thanks  the f e a r  shortly  i n h i s elec-  by paragraph,  wrong and t h a t  with  views  due t o  the Governor.  sacrilege  received with reverence. 3 was d e f e a t e d . About  would  could  seemed  probably  h e was  had been  paragraph  a blanket  policy."  d i s c u s s i o n o f such  DeCosmos  address,  the Governor  the Governor  should  this  bor  colonies.  details  that  with  one f o r h i m .  connect  saying  the r e p l y to the address  wanted  he  by  to both  minor  should  of the maintenance  not possible to begin until  we  declared  d i d not directly  a loophole,  go  o f DeCosmos's  n o t a new  He  We  Colonial  h i s opinions,  an advocate  b u t he  question  was  was  i n the c i t y .  satisfactory  of the f i r s t  reform,  shown  wgrnout  expressions  the question  left  on terms  and almost  different  t h a t h e was  system,  and d e p r i v i n g ca-  i n manufactures.  he had m o d i f i e d  strong f e e l i n g  trade  I t i s n o t an age i n which  a past  Prom it  the  be  intercolonial  thought said  DeCosmos's  Governor and mere -  puppets the be  of  Duke  the  p r e s e n t Governor,  of Newcastle,  re-appointed.  proposal, terests  has  sumption rybody  ever  that  who  to  two  say  would  errors,  r e g a r d him  nobe  cry against  an  Governor  real  the  i n due  defects  mark-  On  of h i s  a h i g h honour  that  the  course,  and  pre eve-  adminis-  i n h i s r e t i r e m e n t as  colonies,  in-  Douglas--  least...  retire  he  this  administration  the  the  i n the  overshoot  over  to  asking that  rather  usually  to gloss  the  but  a  wellwisher of  Douglas  to bury  of  raised  unfortunate to  Governor  sent a memorial  Secretary,  spite,  real  attempted  preferring  founder  once  petty  "No  singularly  desired  tration, tual  from mere  at  over-zealous people  have  been  Colonial  DeCosmos  of Douglas.  none b u t would  not  the  Douglas,  the  a  ac-  lasting  1 monument." up  Since Douglas  old quarrels,  sought  as DeCosmos  re-appointment.  considered  the  tie  i n the  campaign  How  well  how  little  is  known  he  final  kept  mos  was  however,  carrying  a  one  1.  paper,  but  British  DeCosmos be  on  be  two  h i s work  imagined giving  m o s t men  Colonist  mistakes  -  of  Sept.  done  and  against  noble  one and  He the  that  the  c h o i c e must  his politics,  a m b i t i o n , he  bat  considers how  soon  or  1863.  last  Legislature,  work.  be  much  colonies.  one  16,  rake  i f he  the  that  up  to  Douglas.  when  to-day  i n the  h i s newspaper  between like  fought  of  need  o f DeCosmos's m i g h t  appreciated  founder  no  be  S i r James D o u g l a s  d o i n g b o t h meant  I t can  difficult  the  continuing  that  on  of Douglas's  of Douglas,  also  editorial  h i s w o r d may  neglected.  his  word  t h e r e was  t h r e a t e n e d would  This  which  i s known  While  did retire  DeCos-  found,  o t h e r must  and  chose  have  be been  giving to  up  remain  in  politics. choice the he  later,  DhlSi  for  regret  regret  some  is  the  connection to  prietor from  has  shown  occasions  paper  been,  a  that and  over-application  to  turn  union. the  As  he  session 2  ted,"  and,  discussion from  lated policy  as  said,  but  duties  that  editorial.  "So  friends  of in  the  and  regret  I  public  as  a  laborious  free  of  other  entirely  "much o f  the  to  the  vital  legislation  of  of  dissolve  and  pro-  arising  profession,  the  the  logical  thing  to  and  At  In  the  political the that  city was  f o r Vancouver thus  House,  reasons.  Island  from  combin© —  to a  to  large  Sept.  6, 28,  was  of  1863. 1863.  to  for  be  trea-  begin  union  for  on  the  indefinitely,  to  great  with  faliso-  connections. unite  par-  Van-  entirely showed  the  union  arguments,  He  mainland  follow,  country  Oct.  prosper  of  advocated  depended  Its prosperity.  any  Island  of  was  colony  will  was  first  time  expecting  Colonist  His  advantages  the  do  DeCosmos  economic  interests for  small  Ibid  marked  question  therefore,  2.  time.  i n t e r e s t s , DeCosmos  question  British  now  editor  union  1.  that  patrons  delicate health of  t  a l l p r o b a b i l i t y never  the  and  work d u r i n g  at  the  paper  this  however,  way  Victoria  Columbia,  the  pang  with  the 1  attention  stressed  any  evident,  the  Island.  of  is  on  commercial  lacy  mind  depends  economic  couver  newspaper  farewell,  Nothing  immediately.  ticularly,  its  his  a  regretted  retire."  With h i s able  of  ever  to  from  support  them  to  he  valedictory  connection  to  It  i t i s with  bid  that  return  himself  the  newspaper.  i n d u c e d me  did  in his  has  r e n e w my of  likely  Confederation.  separating  the  again  seem  a l t h o u g h he  struggle did  on  I t does not  The British  agricultural  and  60 industrial the  possibilities,to'"-the-'- great;, c o m m e r c i a l  I s l a n d had developed.  such  a policy  England's shores  as w i l l  civilization;  i n progress,  c o l o n i e s were  couver cial  a free  matter  to a vote  bined  prove tain  port  the broad  of  o n t h e ...  the mother 1  happiness."  been  that  once t h e  on V i c t o r i a ' s  so much  he would  leave  members  trade  country;  t i l l  commer-  whether V i c t o r i a r e -  had d e f i n i t e  o f a n y new  establish  and the p r o s p e r i t y o f Van-  to free  restriction  a t which  to have  which  standard  found  and i n  of the i s l a n d  i n regard  will  v i e with  Consequently  He, h i m s e l f ,  of a gradual  as w i l l  entirely  not matter  "we  to the high  will  seems  of a majority  at the outset  pont,  who  no l o n g e r  or not.  "His opinion  necessary  a policy  joined together,  legislature.  trade.  such  argument  i t would  mained  that  our country  a people  I s l a n d depended  standing,  declared  i n enlightenment,  DeCosmos's two  raise  of the P a c i f i c  country  He  centre  ideas was  i n a  com-  about  free  that  he would  this  i t was then  ap-  industry had a t t a i n e d a  principles  of free  trade  cer-  might  be  ' ' 2 adopted." As tive  union,  a counter Helmcken  proposal  suggested  t o DeCosmos's a federal  idea  union  of  under  legisla-  one g o v -  3 ernor.  The p r o b a b l e  attempt to  to defeat  reason  t h e whole  t h e i m p e r i a l government,  sidered,  since  1.  British  2. 3.  Ibid Ibid  f o r the Speaker's  suggestion  aim o f the reformers a proposal  i t had already  worked  which  so b a d l y  C o l o n i s t - O c t . 6, 1 8 6 3 . - O c t . 10, 1863. - O c t . 13, 1863.  and send  would with  never  was  an  back be  Douglas.  con-  D e C o s m o s was ment  of  fair  proposal  point  the  absolutely  he  whole  money power, control  the  he  gations  a  no  tried  ation  be  to  also  The to  gain  Council  the  of  the next  the  preferred  a  to  such  constituents  wish  allow  to  and  the  the  only  meeting  with  the  i t so  to  the  and  Excellency  way 1  to  responsible  are  then  reporting  Victoria.  trade  and  the  that  ',  dele-  back  to  there Hel-  mode  representatives. 2  of  tax-  With  defeated.  DeCosmos  British  2.  Colonist  members  through  in  small  He to  discussed  was  suggested  that  admit—with  an  at-  since  safety  o f f i c e r o f the Crown 3 h o l d i n g a p l a c e o f emolument or p r o f i t , " the s o l u t i o n would a ^ m i n i s t e r i a l c o u n c i l , "composed o f u n - o f f i c i a l , unsalaried 4 members." He m o v e d r e s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s e f f e c t ; f i r s t , that 1.  their  DeCosmos moved,  arranged,  the  sole  voice  of  were  too  a  un-  in  the  port  government.  Assembly  gain  an  great  voice  Insure  free  that  a  to  respective  question  was  postpone-  "The  union  free  that  resolutions  people—among  be  having  House.  for his  Legislatures—the  amend  and  s i x months  opinion  colonies  left  and  a L e g i s l a t i v e union."  tampering  amendment  tempt  not  this,  L e g i s l a t i v e union  both  respective  mcken  "the  is  for  the  gain  did  that  from  w o u l d be  this  as  o f money m a t t e r s ,  therefore,  to  to  money power  their  question  given  wished  against  20,  any  be  -  Oct.  1863.  Ibid  -  F o r , DeCosmos, R i d g e , Duncan, Dennes, A g a i n s t , Helmcken, Trimble, Bayley, Young. The c a s t i n g v o t e o f t h e c h a i r man, Burnaby, defeated i t .  3.  Ibid  -  July  18,  1863.  4.  Ibid  -  Jan.  16,  1864.  62 there  should  Legislative the  heads  lonial  Council  such  as the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ,  this  none  be  the right  Council  to conduct  lony  which  Lands  revived.  this  a majority  similar  should  This  of supply  list,  w o u l d mean  i n the Legis-  be no p a i d  was  list  1.  British  2.  Ibid  - F e b . 9,  3.  Papers  - Relative  and  Council 2.  that  should  up f o r con-  and t h e Crown  had offered  i n return 3  the co-  f o r a civil  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  the revenue  a loss  officials,  Council,  was b r o u g h t  exorbitant.  that 1"  passed.  of the c i v i l  with  when .  circumstances."  of the Executive  Assembly.  thought  con-  of the country, i t  The C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y  civil  so s m a l l ,  under  o f t h e Crown Lands  the Assembly  accept  members  the whole m a t t e r  and  by the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l usages  there  the question  the control  responsible  Justice, i n the Legislative  of the e x - o f f i c i o  Co-  be ex-  and f o u r t h l y , " t h a t  the business  i n England  siiggested that  sideration,  the sole  command  i n v a r i a b l y guided  the Chief  was  be  cannot  should  that  t o speak b u t n o t t o v o t e ; . t h i r d -  of the Governor;  i n the L e g i s l a t i v e  Lands  should  Council  When  to  with  the ministry he  secondly,  T r e a s t i r e r and Surveyor-General,  advisers  t o be  except  from the  of the departments,  Assembly  Lastly,  two members  the Assembly;  such Executive  govern  with  from  stitutional  lative  Council,  and three  members  that  ought  an. E x e c u t i v e  Secretary,  officio ly,  be  from  t h e Crown  to the colony.  The o n l y  list  that  rem-  C o l o n i s t - J a n . 27, 1864. 1864. • to the Proposed  Union  of B r i -  v t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d , . N e w c a s t l e t o D o u g l a s , June 15, 1863.  edy  as  could one  he be  saw  i t , - was  brought  Governor  union  J  about,  and  one  Island paying  cials,  the  at  lutions  were  rate  until  an  stead,  to  a n s w e r was  when  the  Instructions  from  Secretary  of  the  civil  make  appropriations  At  once  the  House,  for  l e d by  a  from  until  received  If  the  was  Governor  needed  the  a  this  of  residence  regarding the  the  were b a s e d  for  the  posed  House  of,  the  refusing  meeting 1. 2.  of  up  a  good  the  British Ibid  grant people  residence.  the  for  civil  Crown  resolutions  subject  i n the  discourteous to  a  violating  people  Kennedy w i t h  gainst in  take  without The  ceive  to  a  on  the  I t was  which  rules  colony,  of  who  had  the  protesting  C o l o n i s t - F e b . 2, 9, 1864. - A p r i l 8, 1864.  brought the  out  Assembly  secretary.  refused these l i s t  to  purposes question. could  sent  the  to  British not  Sec-  competent dis-  to  incensed they  the  rea-  thought)  residence.  against  be  Columbia  disposed  were  Assembly(as  Governor's  in-  revenue  been  of  held  but,  House."  action  was  shelved  the  cordiality,  the  reso-  a l r e a d y been ' 2  of  for  These  had  deal  money  offi-  a private  the  State  included  ordering  revenue  retary  which  be  the  have been  DeCosmos,  "the  List  of  Columbia. 1  and  and  general  this  as p r a c t i c a b l e ,  a r r i v e d , he  declared,  Civil  far  salaries  State,  residence,  House  should  there  communication,  DeCosmos by  that  should  applied. of  Until  State.  list  Helmcken  make a p p r o p r i a t i o n s answer  of  Columbia.  as  the  Kennedy,  Secretary  to  an  to  Governor, the  of  in British  received  new  suggested  one-third  the  matter  British  establishment  prevalent  sent  The  i t was  civil  Vancouver  with  A  .  Assembly's  action,  at  w h i c h DeCosmos,  attempted first to  to  explain  the  i n the  reason  that  the  whole  further  the  p r o s p e r i t y of  had  refused  value  of  accept tish How  the  the  civil  could  offer,  up  to  the  the Duke the  w a n t e d was  to  tion  not  nor  could  so,  and  payers  by  the of  was  brought  a house the  money  the  the  up  of  comes  colony  left  a  were n o t  in  doing,  i t  exceeded  pay  one-third  of  joint  staff  of  had  to  the  simply to  the  Duke,  commercial  as  do  Crown upon  left  the  a l l the The The  the  colony.  so,  and  t&t p a y  Bri-  February  capital.  revenue,  to  position  prorogation.  to  the  the  officials.  resolution in  regard  called  and  desire  refused  In  the  so  •  explained  House had  consulting  of  He  Assembly's  and  House  Newcastle  out  the  opposition,  "The  the  without  without  Duke  to  The  Newcastle.  serious  exorbitant  have  now?  matter  be  was  passing  keep f i i c t o r i a  take  authorized  and  on  colony,  offered  after  of  the  of  i t s action.  revenue.  had  matter  for  rested  which  list,  House,  residence  could  and  civil  the  take  matter  l i s t  Crown L a n d s '  Columbia  last,  the  a  question  face  he  House ques-  GoverHe  was  had  and  of  done  the  one  cent  amount  to  taxto-  1 wards i t . " The thing for  seious;  within  There  was  a  nor, year  much  the  Governor  ing  a new  1.  opposition in  the  they  had  granted  applied but  Colonist  the  long  opposition,  residence,  British  of  run, the  however,  the to  people  money buying  - April  12,  did not  did money when  that for  of the  i t was  the  any-  Assembly,  residence. discovered  appropriated,  not  Cary  DeCosmos  1864.  Castle.  to  that  build-  65 voiced  this  o p p o s i t i o n when h e  appropriation derstanding  others  the  i n the  committee  violently  mos  i t should 1  Crown L a n d s which  had drawn up. with  t h e Crown  colony  civil  should  list  mediately  spent  question  had been  among  and throwing  regard  n o t be  should  this  report,  money,  so t h a t  settled.  the motion.  the monopoly,  a change  o f t h e members  civil cal he  Secretary  list.  He  also  the r e s t  dealt with  were  at this  i n regard  authorized  Colonial Secretary's left  was  declared  he moved  that the i t was  the question  free  up  of the of the  and Helmcken im-  two o l d o f f i c i a l s from  the influence  i n the Assembly,  and  f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n and i t passed.  time,  received  to i t s refusal  the Governor  an answer  t o pay h i s and the l o -  unprovided  question--his  the m a t t e r to await the views o f b o t h 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - M a y 9, 1 8 6 5 .  from the  to pay the proposed  s a l a r y o u t o f t h e Crown  of the o f f i c e r s the union  DeCos-  the finances  These  of  but there  due t o  therefore,  Tolmie  become  Colonial  un-  and  which  t o t h e Crown b u t t h a t  t h e Company h a d n o t f i n a l l y  House,  He  i n j u r e d , and so t h a t '3  with  again,  out the report  of  The  the mechanics  revived  to the question.  be q u i c k l y  disagreed  a majority  a distinct  to investigate the question,  of this  owed m o n e y  to obtain  was  chosen  I n plaece  H u d o s n ' s B a y Company to  be  so w i t h  f o rthe  city."  disagreeing 2  resolutions  " i ng i v i n g h i s vote  o f t h e money he h a d done  that  The  said,  for.  His  despatch  being to leave 4 Governors. The Assembly  2.  Ibid  - June  11, 1864.  3.  Ibid  - June  17, 1864.  4.  Ibid  - June  28;,. 1 8 6 4 .  policy  revenue, b u t  did  not  they  had  list, It  consider only  and  was,  acted  i t could  pay  from  any  there  be  paid  the  other  Colonial Secretary's 2  for  the  remainder.  question  had  part.  He  been  until  Due  to  called the  received,  the-question  River the  that  the and  of  requisite Papers  2.  British  3.  Ibid  number  they  them when he  they  was  civil  revenue. received  not  authorized  that had  they  must  already  not  settled  To  reconsider,  when no  be  vacillation  on  House draw 3  '64 and  caused  a h u r r i e d meeting  1.  would the  Sooke,  excitement  Crown  the  the  should from  the  indemnify  the  conthe  proper Assembly's  the  Crown L a n d s '  Goverrevenue,  settled.  summer at  of  to  declared  since  might  was  voting  since)  those s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n 1 despatch, and the House must p r o v i d e  session.  amounts he  In ichan  the  out  about,  i n not  declaring that  DeCosmos  suggested  f o r any  usual  to worry  than  salaries,  early in  answer  nor  the  custom  surprise  Governor  salaries,  voting  a  anything  to  as  rather  the  sider  was  according  therefore,  a message to  that  of  of  gold  was  discovered  there  was  a  and the  days  the  fear  Assembly,  between  the  small of but  on  gold  the rush.  disorder,  Kennedy  neglected  summoning  of  Cow-  to  the  wait Assem-  - R e l a t i v e to the Proposed U n i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Cardwell to Kennedy. " I t w i l l of course r e s t w i t h t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o make p r o v i s i o n f o r the r e m u n e r a t i o n of the other o f f i c e r s employed u n d e r the Government i n a n y way and f r o m any s o u r c e which may seem m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t o them." T h i s despatch does not d e f i n i t e l y say t h a t t h e y may n o t a p p l y the Crown r e v enue, i f t h e y f i n d t h a t the most f i t t i n g . Colonist -  July  1,  1864.  -  July  2,  1864.  1 bly  and  that  opening had  of  been  unimportant matter  the  the Governor's  ancient  custom  and  had  the  national  had  ever been  British  had  carefully  colonial  alienable  the House  sanction  right  The  upset  exceeded  declared,  the f o r c e  copied  and  to l e g i s l a t e  of  our  a  this  comparain  call-  feeling  custom law--a  jealously  A s s e m b l y — i t became  over  felt  " i n accordance  o f Commons--a  lent  Assembly  his rights  DeCosmos v o i c e d  a d d r e s s , he  of  session.  unnecessarily  them u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y .  after an  actual  the Governor  tively ing  the  to  duty  which  by  the  that  every  to assert  independently of  with  custom  guarded  when,  our i n -  special  cause  2 ' of  summons  to  bring  equal that  the'Crown,  before  rights  other  the  with English  the  b i l l  Governor  bills.  Governor  Having  illegality  of  lution  the House  transact  law."  This  session  The-  one  passed,  He  passed it,  of  be  of  objected  last  that  assembled  although there  lawyers the by  independence DeCosmos  and  proposed  both  he  of  moved not  the  the  referred  a  acts  reso-  expedient  i n accordance an  to  Whatever  i t was  was  fact  h i s assent  the Assembly.  invalid,  he  to  session  i n giving  opinion  i t was  which  colonial  the next meeting  would  "was  b i l l  giving  the Assembly's  at  business t i l l motion  been  the meeting  that  that  was  ignored  shown  in legislation,  day."  barristers.  had  had  were p a s s e d  to  this  the Assembly  although this  Houses,  to  of  attempt  with to  3 postpone  i t s action  sembly's  action,  1.  Called  2.  British  3. 4.  Ibid Ibid  on  s i x months.  the L e g i s l a t u r e four  days'  Colonist  notice  - Aug.  22,  As  was  a  consequence 4  of  the  prorogued.  instead  of  fotxrteen.  1864.  - A u g . 24, 1864. - Council also declared  i t  illegal.  As-  The  some to  House  quarrelling  was  over  called  the reply  the regular business.  was  the union  anxious nance, to  f o runion  a n d DeCosmos  same  ment,  language,  just  therefore, proposed  ber  from  colony  t h e mode  union.  means  were We  t h e same l a w s ,  He,  termine  The i m p e r i a l  "there  why  a legislative  t h e members  from  liabilities  of the colonies remaining  legislsture  saw f i t t o d o  table,  he  then  suggested  lature  o f two h o u s e s  lature  o f one chamber i n favour  tendency  o f d i s u n i o n was  of Vancouver  commercial lumbia? be  I t would be  united 2. 1. 3.  and l e s s  maritime a direct  to Vancouver  BI rb ii dt i s h Ibid.  He  colony,  Colonist  Island  would  were  be  with  race  govern2  separated"  an equal  the r i g h t  num-  t o de-  a majority vote  proposal  union,  to destroy  should  unchanged  of h i s resolutions,  Island.  o f t h e same  the o l d laws,  I f this  a federal  f o r each  interests  with  and one e x e c u t i v e .  Speaking  merce  so.  colonial  but with  and w i t h  was  and f i -  union,  to remain  colony,  importance  government  people  we  after  g o t down  p r o t e c t e d b y t h e same  i n the Assembly,  each  of  and  of defence  also  were  reason  of taxation  they  the question  of easier  said,  a n d t h e r e , was mo  each  As u s u a l  because  w i t h i n a month, 1  to the address,  of the colonies.  be c o n s u l t e d i n t h i s  the  again,  with There  usages  until was  and  t h e new  not  accep-  a federal would  of  legis-  be a  legis 3  to determine  taxation.  he d e c l a r e d ,  " t h e whole  sixty  percent  o f t h e com-  ask would V i c t o r i a  she u n i t e d w i t h  advantage  to B r i t i s h  with her free  - O 68 46 .4 . S ecptt.. 4, 1 51 ,8 1  port;  be  British  less Co-  Columbia  to  i f the free  69 port  was c h e a p  should in  keep  these  this  days  prosperity;  new  t h e House  their  free  tile  to our free  gain  a majority a n d we  British two  tariffs.  the  future  tish our  trade  free  with  trade ' 2  union." garding was  Governor be  after  would.be  as they  such  and impose  separate  for. a u n i o n  ourselves  a party  colonies, our trade  than  we  were  even  with  to preserve  free  t h e a c t i o n o f t h e House, union  were  a g r e a t many  struck  C o u n c i l , New The l o c a l  and the f r e e  trade  with  Bri-  loss  of  and have  no  the resolutionsr e -  out.  amendments.  into  to protect  a probable trade  through  looking  our trade  were  with  by passing  only  hos-  should  i f such  I t was f a r b e t t e r  colony  party i n  districts,  a tariff;  a n d t o make  trade.  as the c a p i t a l . were  made  a fear of  soon be a s t r o n g  greatly complicated  and a L e g i s l a t i v e  specified  main  remained  a legislative  trade  through  Suppose  principles  passed,  union  would  policy.  the s i s t e r  Through  Domestic  trade  a domestic  trade  and p o p u l a t i o n and  increasing rural  to protect  Columbia  against  "there  In asking  free  else."  i n t h e House,  Columbia  of wealth  by the rapidly  still  The House  was d o m e s t i c  d i d n o t do i t . 1  voted  port,  t o them.  i n v i e w — i t  the source  and n o t h i n g  House backed  done,  fact  foreign trade  If  the  great  t h a t was  countries  losing  t o us i t would he cheap  The f e d e r a l  There  was  Westminster legislatures  question  was  union  t o be a  was n o t t o were  t o be  t or e -  exclu-  '3 ded. The 1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Ibid.  Irrepressible  Question,  as the C o l o n i s t c a l l e d i t ,  C o l o n i s t - O c t . 7, 1 8 6 4 . - O c t . 11, 1864.  came u u  before  Colonial in  the  having  the of  they  anteeing 15, to  the  and  a  anteed was  civil and  was  for  that  list  no  list  m o n e y was  residence, finally,  was  land  the  the  was  the out  and  given  Crown,  salary of  the to  of  the  not  yet  could  of  Governor,  received  ac-  of  the any  the  moved opinion  in  guar-  despatch  of  the  colony  Company, to  from not  the  pay  the the  guar-  sum  an  the  June title  returned  with  should  to  that  i s of  Cr'own h a d  along  they  not  colony's  time  be  the  the  matter  of  aspect  i t ; thirdly,  them  and  the  the  struck  Hudson's Bay  to  colony  the  given  because  much w o u l d  and  note  DeCosmos  the  first,  a l l proportions  House had  and  i n the  receive  fourthly,  the  was  from  colony  present  a r r e a r s due  would  year,  the  " T h i s House  at  sold,  The  This  Assembly,  vested  i t had  colony  to  was  Company.  o f how  were  to  c o n d i t i o n s of  still  there  revenues;  fifthly,  the  despatch 1  prejudice  f o l l o w i n g reasons;"  i f this  left  not  justified on  effect  question.  assurance  the the  the  a  assurance  would  to  the  be  $60,000 a  casual  delay;  not  secondly,  about  list  through  Crown L a n d s .  and  Hudson's Bay  Crown L a n d s  Company,  settled,  regarding  civil  the  injurious  appeal  f o r the  there  Crown;  the  would  1863,  the  civil  did not  resolutions that  was  the  again,  regarding  question  against  question  Assembly  Secretary  despatch  ceptance claims  the  due  ample  territorial  acquiring  this  obtain  without  with  i t  his  size  of  answer  to  official the  colony;  i t s  des-  2 patch  regarding  declared, 1. 2.  "he  BI rb ii td i s h  one  looked  Governor on  Colonist -  this N ov v. . No  for  the  affair 7, 16,  two as  1 816846.4 .  colonies.  a bargain,  DeCosmos and  what  we  wanted what  we  grant the  t o know f r o m were n o t .  t i l l  dispute  and they  House found  i t s inability  shall  considerable  be workable  under  t o g e t and  list  we  a n d we list  institutions  to take  avoid.  must  to accept  "that  this  t h e Crown Lands and nature  shelved  which had been  part  wants  f o r us t o have  Ibid Ibid  t h i n k i n g was  this  House r e -  and grant of said ,.2  sought  was  t o make  He  felt  The p a r t i c u l a r  colony  o f Con-  which  had been  we  shaped  of the colony, i t  a n d s o i t was  t o o u r wants  tih® L e g i s l a t i v e  - D e c . 6, 1 8 6 4 . - N o v . 22, 1 8 6 4 .  cir-  our l o c a l  Confederation  C o l o n i s t - Nov. 19, 1864.  that  f o r i t so t h a t i t  and circumstances  i t adapted  Crown  him f o r a  and arrange  of this  i n the past,  a  f o r t h e moment,  the p o s s i b i l i t y  ourselves  i n the great  stitutional  3. 2.  a constitution  prepare  t o o u r wants  British  t i l l  to  the resolu-  troubling  any circumstances.  was a d a p t e d  1.  said  t o the House.  question  The c o n s t i t u t i o n  the peculiar  t h a t he  would  t o go so f a r a s DeCos-  Young,  over  list  o f w h i c h h e was "We  remedy  the c i v i l  and submitted  to formulate  federation.  suit  civil  were  t i m e — r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Council.  would  to  we  settled,  taste  the extent  a question  was n e e d  cannot  until  the c i v i l  there  cumstances  was  enough  Secretary,  be determined  raised  what  not pass  to their  to take  List,  With DeCosmos  would 1  I t more  grets  Lands  question  was n o t b o l d  of the Colonial  Civil  not tell  lands  settled."  tions  specific  could  t h a t we  was  The mos  We  t h e Crown Lands  government  land  t h e C r o w n was w h a t  auite con3 now."  The  Council  elec-  tive. bend  As  I t was  i t to  his  Council in  the  to  to  the  deal.  duced, t h e  of  since  responsible  regarding  experience  and  and  Governor  left our  the  and  narrow-minded, would have  other  topic  Assemblymen  of  lower  help  to  of  House,  of  i t .  or  to  debate.  six years  in  The  To  the  into  that  he  past  whom  have on  sit  Colonist  from  with  resolution purely future  could  felt  known men  to  Executive they  and  have  short-sighted  a  Council  Confederation  been more p o l i t i c  for  five  might  the  the  control  matter  " f o r he  Legislative Council the  members  the  the  change  Legislative Council  position,  It  could  the  to  DeCosmos b r i n g i n g  injured his  had  the  Legislative Council  question  had  will,  were n o t  objected a  then  he  intro-  libs  merits,  talk  future  to is  many like  1 speaking  of  another  At ning  to  the  feel  artificial  a  prosperity  The  and  country  fairs  on  gold  lead  which had  Victoria's  business.  the  free  port  the  in  the The  Vancouver  was  the  colony  alone,  having  a  coming  settling  but  that  was  1865,  which  city of  rush  which would  perity  one  was  of  which  advantages  doors. the  beginning  depression  then—depending commercial  century."  the  and  down  had  experienced  that  end  city  the  not  as  6,  1864.  Island  on  Columbia,  permanent  began  p r o f i t a b l e as  the  at its:  state  greatly  the  until  gold  in British  to more  begin-  living  producing  e f f e c t of  of  was  r e s u l t of  a more n a t u r a l  run  immediate  p o l i c y was  an  to  long  people  natural  country to  Island  of  af-  pros-  depressing to  i t had  feel been.  1.  British  Colonist  -  Dec.  2.  Macfie,  Matthew  -  Op. Cit. Pp. 90-130. The a u t h o r i s an a d v o c a t e of r e t a i n i n g the f r e e p o r t , b e l i e v i n g t h a t i t i s the basis of the Colony's p r o s p e r i t y .  2  There keep  was out  great  beginning the  fear  colony,  was,  however,  Victoria  and  With  the  feeling  felt  that  others, to  and  make  tions; the  two  the  supplies.  coming  at  the  be  and  pleased  trade,  to  cause foster  different  taken  is firmly  to  observe  matter  with  DeCosmos basis  had  the  only  way  these  was  to  resolu-  into consideration convinced  as  that  strictest  the  union  i t is  economy  efficiency of  the  Her  i n future,  industry, develop  to  before a l l  our  of  the  colony  with  Majesty's  gov-  i s the means b e s t  depression  separate  to V i c t o r i a ,  the  constitution  grant,  of  a  The  hostile  change,  this  immediate  such  to  a  to  channels.  t h e r e f o r e , moved  compatible the  other  Columbia  having  time  Columbia  declared that  British He,  on  desired  countries.  would be  to  place  He  colony  that  under  permanent  stimulate  the  present  Columbia,  e r n m e n t may prevent  of  which  beginning  to  after  expenditure  service:  British  from  the House,  other  British  consider union  voting  public  public  Island  the House  state  of  turn i t s gold  c o l o n i e s one.  "that  present  to  with  a policy  got  gold  expedient in  he  even  the  time  the  p o p u l a t i o n which  products  initiate  of  rural  that  which would  the  ensure  a  agricultural  i t might  arrived,  t o be  adapted  as  well  to  as  resources,  to  aug1  ment  our  p o p u l a t i o n and  this  House  pledges  shall  grant  ments  i f required."  1. 2.  such  British Ibid  Insure  itself,  union, 2  Colonist  to  These -  our  i n case ratify  permanent Her the  Majesty's same b y  resolutions  Jan. Jan.  25, 26,  prosperity.  1865. 1865.  passed  government  Legislative  by  And  a vote  enact-  of  1 eight  to  four. At  had  once  prospered  by  there the  was  free  of  the  ken  C.  B.  Young,  member  cussion,  and  to  decide  the  DeCosmos  resigned  by  men  ran  and  such  fiscal  the  other  for  Along  with  supporter the  free  the  DeCosmos r a n of  union.  port  Street"behind';.'them. The its  opinion  supporter a  on  of  u n i o n man,  free  port  2  paper  to  It to  partner,  were  1.  Papers  2.  British  3.  Ibid  is out  also  support  chants  question  his  sell  is  Daily  free  It  be  the  The  intimidating  and that  them. that  them.  editor  of  At  the  power  was  quiet once  the  and  Columbia,  one  was and  of  rate,  he  porters declared  a with  Wharf  a  in  rabid  owners,  was  editor,  v/ere  party  forced  did  bought that  force  as  indefinite  the  port  free  of  became  the  to  both,  bitter,  money  which  employees  two  Colonist,  the  free  for a l l ,  the  British  Higgins,  any  a l l dis-  and  and  ta-  unconditionally.  changed  Colonist  their  cry  particularly  MacMillan,  Long,  This  s a t i s f a c t o r y to  port  Chronicle  sugested to  free  the  repre-  To  with  who  not  Young,  found  suddenly  port.  said 3  Colonist  of  having  the  men.  MacMillan Long.  the  for union  men  was  question,  e l e c t i o n was  candidates  House  w i t h Mr.  M'Clure,  The  commercial  people.  port  should  retention  the  the  along  again—one  p o l i c y as  the  for Victoria.  free  seat  from  that  f e e l i n g of  his  in Victoria  cry  port,  sentative up  real  a  sell  out  to  another the  them  merto  vote  -  R e l a t i v e to the P r o p o s e d U n i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Kennedy to Cardwell, Enclosure 4. Ayes T o l m i e , D i c k s o n , P o w e l l , Duncan, Dennes C a r s w e l l , B a y l e y , DeCosmos. Noes, Burnaby, Young, F r a n k l i n , S o u t h g a t e .  -  Feb.  10,  1865.  - Feb'.  13,  1865.  for  the  using  free  port  bribes  candidates 1 get votes.  to  DeCosmos he  was  i n favour  secure  union  t h e r more felt The  than  policy  of  the  power  of  Columbia rests line 1.  British  Cf.  British  up  Ibid  have  those  Wharf  British  interests  Columbia  was  a l l the  up—to  would  create  "should  of  one  be  and  country  could  to  fur-  and  he  fiscal  to  of  Street, but  for a  line  - British  10,  party  had a l l and  in-  counterbalance  country—not  9,  the  inte-  of h i s  trade  with  officials,  from  one  w h i c h we  domestic  that  solution.  the  policy  whole  Colonist  colony  foster  the  Scholefield  they  the  Ifv.united  set  Feb.  held  seeking  change  The  country  republic.  only  was  i n the  we  policy  larger  a united  meetings  were  t a x a t i o n e q u a l l y over  others.  a  he  would  Columbia—a  Colonist  Howay and 2.  of  neighbouring  w o u l d be like  British  decided  to b u i l d  the we  commercial  merchants  port unless  but  present  to b u i l d and  Columbia,  our  to u n i t e w i t h  dustry,  free 2  retain  injury  worked  the  foreign  different  distribute  rest was  the  and  or  the  that  country  population, to  British  with  t o be  at  retaining  mere  that union question  explained  of  with  and  British  whose  for a  Victoria  the  inte-  single to  Cariboo,  2,  P.  1865.  Columbia,  Vol.  217.  Feb. S 1865. I f a separate tari f f ware p u t on h e r e , i t w o u l d be the r u i n of the country. y  F e b . 8, 1 8 6 5 . I f we d i d n o t obo l b t a i n u n i o n now the country d i s t r i c t s w o u l d s o o n c o m p e l u s t o impose a t a r i f f without union, and we w o u l d b e l e f t w i t h o n l y o u r d o m e s t i c t r a d e t o depend on. He f i r s t t e l l s t h e m t h a t a s e p a r a t e t a r i f f w o u l d r u i n them, and then d e c l a r e s i t i n e v i t a b l e i f union i s not secured.  from and  Vancouver M'Clure  Victoria  Island  were  had  the  mount  matter asked  the  a  of  estimates  instead  they  raise latter  tables  was  cultivated held  by  ment  for  pel  of  while  and  a  union  the  estimates.  $50,000 f o r about  of  the  To  trades' of  also  passed.  his  lands. man  an  the  "He  than  address to  to  put  proposal 4  was  accepted  could the  their  the  motion  a  number  of  the  members  they  force  no  to  to  the  speak  House  same  and  of  some  on  tax  on  defeat for  to  a  a  tax  stock. vege-  on  un-  be  moved  an  amend-  steps  to  com-  DeCosmos by  the  interest,  should  he  was  suggested  more  land  time  and  duty a  a-  There  a  take  to  rate  import  debated  wanted  the 2  the  suggested  lands.  being  threatened  could  an  c u l t i v a t e , " and  Governor  of  time u n t i l  that  turn  expected  a high  also  could  DeCosmos  and  DeCosmos  that  reduce  at  revenue  at  given  residence.  licenses  improve  two  while  deficit,  money  believed  he  able  Governor's  this  favour  The  to  this  in  mediately.  I t was  the  DeCosmos  port. House  $140,000,  make up  borrowing  free  was  s e t t l e d the  $60,000 between  part  any  her  was  over  Both  d e f i n i t e answer  befor  question  something  pre-emptors  were  elected  voted.  that  The  Rocky Mountains."  this  bv  including deficit  the  placed  Once to  to  and  M'Clure  larger  House,  the  motion  im-  long  period  of  l e t the  motion  wait 5  for  a  larger  1.  British  2.  Ibid  represntation.  Their  Colonist  - Feb.  13,  1865.  --Feb.  24,  1865.  8,  9,  threat  proved  efficacious.  3.  Ibid  - Mar.  4.  Ibid  4.  Ibid  - Mar. 17, 1865. These import d u t i e s w e r e n o t go.ing a g a i n s t t h e f r e e p o r t , t h e y were m e r e l y p r o t e c t i n g f a r m e r s . - Mar. 22, 1865.  1865.  77 Notwithstanding  that  economy,  had passed  Colonial  S e c r e t a r y brought 1  to  $80,000.  cials had  Part  which  were  refused  the estimates  of this  i n the i n t e r e s t s  at a greatly  i n supplemental  referred  i n the proposed  reduced  estimates  to the s a l a r i e s  civil  list  t h e Crown  revenue.  to  pay  salaries  these  The House  felt  that  since the despatch  d i d not say d e f i n i t e l y  that  i t was  from  these  rate,  of the  the  offi-  the House  to pay out  not  necessary  the C o l o n i a l  salaries  of  amounting  and which  t o pay, b u t had a u t h o r i z e d t h e G o v e r n o r  of  retary  t h e House,  Sec-  c o u l d n o t be  2 paid  from  were  now  gold  had augmented  these  At  better  salaries  continue good  t h e Crown able  them.  Moreover the cost  DeCosmos  them u n t i l  of the Governor  was  a t the next,  necessary, question  he  was  when h e  then.  He  i f they  paid  tlement  i t would be '4 settled.  sent  as a d e l e g a t e  1.  British  2.  Vide  3. 5.  British Ibid  4.  Ibid  Tolmie  to England  C o l o n i s t ' - Mar.  Supra,  P.  was  against  paying  and t h e Governor  said  that  these  was  he  feared the  salaries  i n favour t h e House  could  of felt  now. union union  the c i v i l  list  continued .opposition to the accvised him  to settle 17,  66, F o o t n o t e ,  Colonist  revenues  the d i s c o v e r y of  impossible unless  o f DeCosmos's  of the question,  he  discovered that  said  Because  said  he  t h e Crown  since  s o neary3  one moment h e h a d d e c l a r e d t h a t  and  '  to bear  since union  to pay  faith  revenues.  the matter  1865. No.  of wanting  1.  - April - April  8, 1 8 6 5 . 22, 1865.  - April  14,  1865.  set-  t o be 5  there(M'Clure  1 had  moved  that  one  have been  that  DeCosmos  sent).  The  feared,  truth  and  of the matter  rightly  vents  showed,  that  i f the colony  accepted  would  forever  give  up  against  pany.  civil  The  only  list  was The  resolutions until v  he  time union  date, be  power  amendment have mos  be  that  their  since  finally  list  and  This  that  should  settlement  to have  on  be  t h e Crown that  was  Lands, that  to have Bay  and  Finally  the  by  made  the question  had  already  out  been  DeCos-  as  voted  an way  i n no ' 3  t h e r e s o l u t i o n s on u n i o n . thrown  that  people  Tolmie  should  any  Company.  not granted  of the question  the r e s o l u t i o n s  Com-  Powell'  before  not  granted  list.  they  Bay  by Dr.  the Hudson's  i f union  e-  accept the •~ 2  settled  accept  on  to  government.  a c t i o n was  claims  the c i v i l  effect  would  the expectation  government  the  d i d h i s best  stitutional  on  to lower  a derogatory  was  list,  the Hudson's  f o r w h i c h he  granted.  amendment  responsible  given  1866--on  e;ffe©t an  question  as l a t e r  the c i v i l  of responsible  the c i v i l  31,  would  M ' C l u r e made  a grant  whole  to pay  detrimental  claims  consideration  with  December  any  feared  seems  unconon  that  4 session. to  have  thought saddling time  He been  was  seizing  would  was  no  an  of factious opposition,  any p r e t e x t  i n the long  i t with  there  accused  to defeat  r u n be  exorbitant  likelihood  of  1.  British  Colonist - April  2.  Ibid  - April  4. 3.  Ibid Ibid.  - May  2,  a measure  detrimental  civil  list;  the claims 5, 26,  1865. 1865.  1865.  b u t he  seems  which  he  to the colony,  while on  at the  by  same  the Hudson's  Bay  Company  and  ever  "being  settled.  the r e s o l u t i o n s passed The  Assembly  with  the Council  B i l l  so as t o change  that  this  This  small  with  the Governor  was  own b i l l s money  to  i n this  the  b i l l  the  House  revenue."  should  " i t was  '  DeCosmos  by  got a  that the  t o t h e Crown  settled  that  h a d no  these payable  right  i n the f i r s t  to the Governor.  to place  Secondly,  i n a n d i t was t h e  o f the House  one o f t h e p r i v i l e g e s  t o be drawn up 4  to order i t s  veryrsevere^setback  t o be b r o u g h t  officer  the struggle  the fund  the Assembly  sent  declared 2  of the House.  belonged  making  them.  License  had declared  should  declared  the b i l l  executive  I t s own b i l l s  t o have the  o f the House  and he would n o t abate  to a jot  privileges." The  was  that  DeCosmos  had ordered  drawn up.  ness  the colony  n o t have been  b i l l  these  licenses  however 1  entanglement  o f the Assembly  The House  declared  b i l l .  of the chief  of  marriage  against  the Trades'  however,  The Governor  "thought  an  of the p r i v i l e g e  the r i g h t up.  into  of taxation.  by bringing i n a b i l l ' 3  duty  order  over  useless,  voting  t o amend  over-shadowed,  through  the Governor  bring  t h e mode  was  DeCosmos  the general  when  which had t r i e d  dispute  itself,  DeCosmos  got i t s e l f  an i n f r i n g e m e n t  collected  matters  with  soon  t o be b r o u g h t  revenue.  H i s o p p o s i t i o n was  again  i n t e r f e r e n c e of the Governor felt  when  the Treasurer  1.  British  C o l o n i s t - May  3, 1 8 6 5 .  2. 4.  Ibid Ibid  - June - June  13, 1865. 23, 1 8 6 5 .  3.  Ibid  June  17, 1865.  i n the House's  refused  to send  busi-  down p a -  pers  that  a  committee  of  vestigation  regarding  the  fusal  on  ernor, them  the  and  the  the  House had and  fact  his relations  to  bring  a  give  and  the  blanket  whereby  and  to  the  f o r i n an i n -  consent  of  committee  i n the most  clause  i n to  imperial  the  his  the  and  greatest  re-  Gov-  through  unhandsome  assurance be  manner  discredit  at present.) of  has  constitution would  given  those  House  fail  British  the  at  been  union  that  least  January,  as  Colonist  -  members  of  the  Assembly  little  ratify  hasty  of  arrange  of  the  June  28,  people 1865.  as  would  1865,  i t de-  rider,  be  ensue i f  r e s p o n s i b l e gov-  expected  institutions  of  putting  January,  union  that  them  G o v e r n m e n t may  in  i t s arrangements.  i t s willingness  the  and  Crown  t h e r e f o r e , moved  to  depart-  the  liberal  with  of  right  as  resolutions  to  i n the  in obtaining  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and  shown  i n i t s duty  heads  trouble  such  difficulties  but  Majesty's  the  a  could  promised  M'Clure,  already  'Her  reform  had  so much  interfering  allow  g i v e n ( a l t h o u g h none  joyed  dorsing  be  they  caused  questions  the  a p p r e c i a t e the  would  had  i n his delay  government  Assembly  to no  to  important  perhaps  not  1.  the  reflected  i n refusing  would  it  the  the Assembly--in  union—caused  the  was  ernment  this  asked  Treasurer based  have  that  treated that  The  that^the Governor  that  the  Th'ey.b©gan there  been  i n f o r m a t i o n , and  answers  realize  sired  d i d not  considered  with  in bills,  to  giving  to  coroner.  he  i n a way 1  in  Lands  Assembly had  Executive." The  ments  that  "DeCosmos  imaginable  on  fact  the  that  as  they  resolutions "that to  en-  en-  although  accept  pleased  this  they  whatever to  colony,  grant' as  well  as  to  Her  Majesty,  constitution lonies would the of  that give  w o u l d be did  the  amount  of  speech  work  of  of  land  felt on  the  so  of  that  m a n y who  and  of  to  of  people  were 1866  which  land  sold  the  of was  for  lead  these  returns  might  to  24,  wish  well  a  heads colony."  began the  famous  in reality  returns  April  co-  DeCosmos.  members  since  and  mode a s  united  to  c•  that  the by  no  these  official  the  the  of  the  DeCosmos b u t  asked  of  of  that  government  endorsed one  taxes  non-publication  wants  determine  a t t r i b u t e d to member  growing  w o u l d make  the  a guestion  This  had  the  i t s conviction  representative  M'Clure's  often  had  to  that to  for municipal  the  a  express  right  beginning  M'Clure. sold  the  responsible  consideration  long  embrace  taxation,  resolutions At  the  not  i t not adapted  people  departments  These  did  of  to  a l l  1865,  worked  the lots  since  he  hardship  redeem  i t  be-  2 fore  April  inquiry the  of  was  However,  brought  final  time  DeCosmos  unnecessary  public.  gain  1866.  up  for  for  another  the  government  in  the  the  year  for  had  the  returns,  der  the  b i l l  of  the  '•I.  2.  get  standing  orders.  Colonist  the  the  passed.  to  the  This  time  he  not  The  question  few  days  the  that  land  was  sold  suffer.  for  opposed  a  in In  not or-  suspension by  Dr.  R e l a t i v e to the Proposed union. nedy to Cardwell, Dec. 16, 1 8 6 5 , c l o s u r e No. 1.  -  Jan.  1866.  the  since  -  4,  a-  asked  provisions  might  the  benefit  before  same m e m b e r ,  asked  p o l i c y was  then  would  a l l the  many p e o p l e in  a  redeem  with  opinion  returns  Cochrane,  complied and  of  of A p r i l ,  people  passed  Papers  British  middle  the  not  that  motion  redemption.  publishing to  and  was  Ash KenEn-  who the  thought land  i t would  work  f o r legitimate  breaking  a definite  chasers.  Both  a hardship  purposes.  contract  these  on those  DeCosmos  between  o b j e c t i o n s were  who  also  had bought  objected to  the government  and the pur  o v e r r u l e d and the motion 1  was p a s s e d This to  bill  make  already back  to give was  s e n t up  redeemed,  a l l i thad c o l l e c t e d  eminent.  passed  a n d make  could buy back exceeding  whether  the vote  already  been  h e was  British  2. 3.  o f Dennes  people  accused  of being  formally  Colonist  amended  were  a bill  suffering  f o r the defrom  t h e gov  raised  a  these  should-not  There  i n t h e House  b u t as y e t t h i s  before  to pay  ornot. '3  was d e f e a t e d .  sitting  was  by I n i t i a t i n g  DeCosmos  bankrupt,  proved  lands  i t s rights 2  such  i t so a s  of the land, not  an agent  their  that  the b i l l  o b j e c t i o n s t o Dennes  had n o t been  1.  innocent  f o r redemption.  The government itself  o b j e c t i o n s and s a i d  Through  tion  year.  to pay delinquent taxpayers.  constitutional  since  who  T h e C o u n c i l was  money b i l l  months  pay f o r the redemption  f o r another  taxpayers,  twelve  t o the C o u n c i l and they  t h e government  faulting  be  an a d d i t i o n a l  t h e House  at  had all,  accusa-  and he  still  - April  7, 1 8 6 6 .  Ibid  - April  20, 1866.  Ibid  - A g a i n s t b i l l a s amended, Toibmie, M ' C l u r e , Dennes, DeCosmos, A s h . F o r , Cochrane, Powell, Dickson, C a r s w e l l . Trimble had been voted i n t o the c h a i r by the s u p p o r t e r s o f the b i l l because t h e y thought t h e y were s t r o n g enough to p a s s t h e b i l l , b u t t h e y n e g l e c t e d to take into account the f a c t that Dennes might a r r i v e l a t e and throw t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n s o u t . He h a d b e e n very intermittent i n h i s attendance at t h i s session.  1 was  legally  entitled  however,  the  declared  vacant,  the  had  bill  moved, t h a t  last  to  be  to  authorize  passed  Sheriff's policy  sales be  according  were  allowed  ders  were  proceeding  only was  once the  mined  law,  and  land.  t i l  six  the  one  that  was  DeCosmos, four  from  be  had  but Ash  o'clock accepted  time  had  two  in  to  the  the  2.  Dr.  Ash  warm  on  -  paired the  listening  alone  b i l l  orto  The  afternoon  each  next  on  had  afternoon  men  a l l  third  deter-  twenty-six April  from  23  six  defeat  un-  until  and  ad-  T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f E n g l a n d . New Y o r k , the M a c M i l l a n Go., 1926. V o l . 1. P. 240. B a n k r u p t c y and liumacy m u s t h a v e continued s i x m o n t h s , b e f o r e a member f o r f e i t s h i s seat. R o g e r s , I I . , 43, 44. , o f f with  subject, to  the  these  m o r n i n g , and DeCosmos c o n t i n u e d 2 • ' afternoon. Then the m a j o r i t y a d m i t t e d  Lowell, A . L .  say  standing  M'Clure  and  this  unprecedented  next  1.'  that  final  in vain.  on  the  heirs  take  b i l l  Governor  under  the  expired—in the  the  his  and  that  the  declared  absolutely  protested,  could  that  an  fact  was  Cochrane  due  and  refused  seat  the  asked  amounts  owner  April,  enable  Nevertheless  House  t i l l  b i l l  purchaser  the  This  to  to  DeCosmos  original  Up  spoke  the  the  speak.  M'Clure  pay  the  and  speak u n t i l  The  since  the  Due  suspended  1865.  minority  t h a t money  be  of  Dennes's  member's v o t e ,  day.  to  on  to  this  24,  whole.  the  hours.  to  next  insisted  time  to  by  orders  April  redeem  the  and  was  bankruptcy.  the  suspended  committee'.of  his  useless  to  twenty-third  to  Treasurer  to  the  f o r redemption,  defeated  of  On  one  standing  the  and,  vote.  hut  owing  before  would  reading  day  been  the  to  and  Dr..  Tolmie  presumably  twenty-six  hours  of  who  was  rather  preferred speeches.  to  lukego  home  journed.  As  the  House  the  the  government  book, and  to  to  just  the  disgrace of  devote 1  the  south, hour  and  fact  died  in  that the  that  the he  money  the  he  made  the  belief  at  the  tax  they  opposed  turns  world.  of  the  It  some  was  the  less  a  break  "spared  the  laws  I t had  in  illegal  an  the  resolution  which  he  for  tax  a  records  that  on  of  asked  the  starbut-e  •.solemnly: e n t e r e d ,  :  manner  for  an  un-  i f the  and  but  Colonist  -  1.  British  2.  Gosnell,  3.  Government  R.  who  E. Gazette  purposes,  that  - April  24,  Victoria  - Vancouver of by  he  On the  there  land  has  they  25, Daily  up  grown  heavily that  Consequently  one  the  cannot  M'Clure  bought It  refind  bought  for  seems  them  more  1866. Times,  Island,  description Sheriff for  the  grown  feared  examining  prob.aible.  the  credit  also  and  was  and  has  bought  or  of  bothered  had  land,  one  the  never  went  sixteen  death  passed.  e i t h e r DeCosmos  i t i s not  -  was "2  bought  as  tradition  time  purposes.  possible  party,  same  b i l l  famous  and a  this  DeCosmos,  p o s s i b l y M'Clure  that  course  than  particular-  s i x months,  to M'Clure's  latter,  the  are  e f f e c t s of  consequence  selfish  sales  the  s p e e c h became  speculative land  speech  island within  from  the  At  and  prove  i s of  the  long  probably  to  as  this  well-known  speech.  i t for  third  Due  and  the  to  this  given  that  lose  evidence 3  land.  far  sale,  would  left  in California  story  they  e f f e c t s of  M'Clure  was  up  by  to  into  Eventually  speech  deny  any  containing  colony  public  after  speech.  longest  to  of  t h e s e men  end."  interesting.  for  the  said  v i o l a t e compacts  The ly  Colonist  1866.  of Real taxes.  Dec.  14,  1929.  Publication Estate  sold  85 correct, motives  therefore,  of  public At  with  the  The  quarrel  the  as  proposed  Assembly  them  arose  and  to  provements  and  less  would  have  i n many  alter  others.  objection the  other the  of  to  House. colonies  a  system  the  the  official to  money the  and  so  which  as  began  was  to  salaries.  so  by  Dickson,  Speaker,  and  a motion  to  that  this  was  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  that  and  by  right  given  surrendered  a deadlock might  the  occur,  "He  and  felt  im-  they and  to  against  effect the  was  the passed  practice  admitted  of  until  that  responsible  by  cut to  Colonial Office  i t .  Assem-  to  some m o n e y g r a n t s  asserted  a  were  doing  was  until  esti-  more money In  struggle  the  determined  give  a  The  government,  to  "by  last  through  grants.  they  initiate  actuated  gain.  Assembly  estimates  by  high,  were  private  Council  House  them  men  right  Legislature itself  such  the  two  than  initiate  too  cases  This the  to  change  the  1866  over  the  far  down,  of  later  to  t o be  that rather  beginning  asserting i t s right  mates,  by  say  interest  G o v e r n o r amd  union. bly  the  to  under  govern-  1 ment  was  the  instances grant  tive.  of  a  where  supplies  tions. There  only  This was The  no  House  With  .2.,  Ibid  the  E n g l i s h h i s t o r y was  had to  Crown had  the  link  of  in  between precedent  on the  the  the  agreed  same r i g h t  trench  difficulty  this  "Why  representatives  desire  connecting  British  the until  real  1.  remedy."  the  as  people  certain  the  Commons  whole m a t t e r  and  the  i n mind,  the  House  Jan.  17,  1866.  -  Jan.  27,  1866.  of  was  House  Colonist -  refused  to  prerogative  full  of to  stipulain the  the  England. Execuabsence ' 2  Executive." proceeded  to  advocate  a  $80,000  the  quite was  fifty  was  thousand fund,  paying  retrenchment.  by  t o be  pounds t o be  off  for civil  voted  raised  $100,000  sinking in  sum  t o be  of  of  estimates  large  not  (one  system  the  used  paid  other  works  taxes,  but  for public  be  cut  down b y  establishments.  for public  direct  to  They  borrowed  and by  at  a  and  the  lower  of  two  another rate,  and  balance  a  improvements,  and  o f f i n twenty years loan  Although  loans  works  some''  to  sorts of  with  be  i t  a  expended  appropriated for 1  public  works.  accepted  by  This  the  the  that  this  would be  salary. them ner.  colony  be  view  of  that  erned  as  the  had  those  estimates uniting  was  uprooting  British  2.  Ibid  DeCosmos  and  Colonist  of  cause.  race  had  had  "the  clear  one  of  but  was  the  and  rather a the  22,  the  office  without  cause  definite.  that former's  of  coro-  or p r e l i m i n a r y  The  coroner  that  the  fundamental  laws  t h a t has  years. to  the  1866. 1866.  of  invaded.  considered  thousand  to  constitution  The  could  course  House  Honourable 1  - Feb.  coroner  surprise  graciously received. ' 8,  of  B r i t a i n . h a d been  according  - Feb.  establish-  decided  reduced  fundamental  and He  office  i t was  removed  Great  for a  been  for civil  the  i t was  removed  estimates,  estimates  1.  that that  without  the  action,  been  Anglo-Saxon  transmitted  by  instead they  Governor  as  E n g l i s h law  was  and  their  the  well  removed  pursued  ker  considered  impossible,  officer  notice.  the  stipendiary magistrate,  find  public  not  had  down  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  this A  of  In  to  cutting  House  with  suggested  Assembly.  While ments,  s c h e m e was 2  The  govhad Spea-  ques-  tion the  demanded  Executive  intimidate 1 duty."  no  by  to  ing  was  made  for  the  estimates  since  Governor  to  was  on  pensation He  were  was  considerations,  to  the  was  brought  do  of  DeCosmos,  so  near. which  they  They had  cut  amalgamation was  saying  the  moved  them  but  they  had  added  down  of  with  officials  gave  office  to  of  bethe  police  government. coroner's  Finally  right 2  bills  were  the  the  impossible.  that  away  had  Moreover  providing for municipal the  a  House  to  declared  money  their  to  or  reductions,  The  the  He  acts  of  carried.  backing  union  i n the  that  in  of  the  the  Assembly  money b i l l s . w a s u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l .  DeCosmos,  in  the  should  a  d i s c u s s i o n , sugested  one  that  month's  i n the  new  party  was  working  the  House  could  British Ibid  salary  instead of  appearing  1. 2.  with  remove  action  declaring that  message.  of magistrate  was  that  the  the  discharge  question  the  p u b l i c good.  mistaken  of  thought  with  feeling  decided  i n the  change money b i l l s  i n to  they  that  initiate  carrying  or  f o r p u b l i c works.  House had with  House  whole  permanency  party  was  office  the  M'Clure,  brought no  the  considered  investigation  dealing with  estimates  The  for  days  initiate  expect  were b e i n g  of  he  for paltry  Governor's message  offices.  not  There  few  "as  attempt,  members  a  the  resolutions could  direct  This motion  right  public  a  the  In crisis  investigation,  the  colony,  there put  out  of  regretting  should  be  rejoicing  interests  of  the  the  C o l o n i s t - Feb. - Feb.  those  Governor  he  i n the ignore  for  that  3, 8,  Governor's 1866. 1866.  com  office.  that  a  that  people.  tactics  be  party the  He  because  said he  1 had he  t o come  moved  to  that  dismissal 2 sed.  of  the coroner  consideration,  on  had  thrown  had  no money  dit  no  was  ernment The  1.  must  right  since  out,  at the  out  which  without  on,  had  had  been  thrown  Scrap  Colonist  neither  out,  i n the  - B.  9,  C.  Coun-  he  any  that to  was  He  was cre-  more  the  gov-  borrow.  estimates,  the Assembly  - Feb. Books  said  as-  Governor and  borrow  the Governor had  them  the  the colony's  DeCosmos  him  fori t s  the Assembly. when  1  pas-  casting  the government  given  Colonist  DeCosmos's  British  consequently  time  the  could 4  bills.  same 3  of  was  the Council  f o r the year, on  Governor  this  Since  the consent  and he  and  session,  the  policy.  to the Assembly,  good  to borrow  British  to carry  the colony's go  financial  t h e money b i l l  t o come  the C o u n c i l  Cf.  2.  i t threw  longer  money n o r p a y  to  sent  them  i n the  to disallow  were  to borrow, forced  petitioned  the estimates  with  finally  Later  as u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  the Assembly's  cil  forced  f o r supply.  t h e Queen be  When  persions  the House  must  but now  1866.  Archives.  Through  n e w s p a p e r . - c l i p p i n g s , one g e t s an a c c o u n t o f t h e sests i o n , a s s e e n b y a n enemy paper, the C h r o n i c l e . - M a r . 3, 1866.  Ibid  - A u g . 4, 1 8 6 6 . The r e p l y o f the C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y was that the Governor had a r i g h t t o remove the c o r o n e r , s i n c e i t was n o t a p e r m a n e n t appointment.  3.  Ibid  - May  7,  4.  Ibid  - May  31,  1866. 1866.  1 authorize mos  was  but  he  many  his  criticized said  that  things,  ter.  The  cial  loan,  he  and by  allow  some  although could  of he  not  was  to  the  other  settled,  borrow  disagreed  feel  a u t h o r i z a t i o n was  situation  him  that  some m o r e .  members with  he  was  for his  the at  DeCosstand,  Governor  fault  in  given  the  Governor,  and  until  the  reconsideration  in  this  the  mat-  finan-  of  the  consider  the  estimates. The  Assembly  state  of  the  colony  dress  to  the  Governor  Crown L a n d s . less  the  House  information was  would  They the  secret  Colonial  the  to  that  the  cial  salaries  1.  British  2. 3. 4.  due  the to  Secretary. 4 The  the  the  the  The  reason  sent  have  ad-  the  manner--unfinally  declared  they  this  an  regarding  question  House why  asked  that for  information 3  the  i t  the  in-  disclosed.  unanimously.  Governor,  Instead  the  settle 2  r e s o l u t i o n s which  the  for  r e s o l u t i o n s asked and  to  these  v e r y <^n±acif.ui  reasons  Executive  sent  in a  to  with  to  information  given.  give  their  the  for  refused  be  sessions  connection  disposed  sessions  Council.  in  secret  asking  not  i t was  condemned  and  was  was  :unnecessary  formation,  They  This  began  Governor  be  Governor  this  for a  to  action  great  wished  were  the  sent  Colonist -  June  6,  1866.  Ibid  -  June  19,  1866.  II bb ii dd .  -  June  20,  1866.  direct  transmitted  seems  reduction them  result  to  be  to in  of  to them  have  the to  been  the  defeated  offiby  the  Council's  the  Governor's  of  salaried officials.  the- c o l o n y  action, had been  out  r e f e r r i n g them  was  inexpedient  the Council,  ried  officials,  ner  after  colonies pense  were  were  representative ance  of  influence  House  the refusal  ked  f o ra constitution  ting two  o f the Governor that  to the country's thousand  pounds  1.  British  2.  Cf.-Papers  detriment.  - June  the reso-  t o each  on t h e l a c k o f  Island;  the preponderthe bad e f f e c t 2 House  information. the people  offered  man-  o f b o t h .the  inimical  the o f f i c i a l  They  sala-  and t h e ex-  Columbia;  enable  f o r the Governor,  Colonist  evils  a l l the lower  and expenditure, and prevent  be-  i n a detailed  the evils  to give  would  were  t o send 1  separation,  i n Vancouver  which n u l l i f i e d  and  taxation  blamed  that i t  resolutions  and o f l e g i s l a t i o n  also  with-  government.  The v a r i e d  continued  officials  government declared  published  institutions i n British  of o f f i c i a l  an upper  also  on t h e s t a t e  o f i t s members  the Speaker  transmitted.  The r e s o l u t i o n s  The House  t o t h e home  were  due t o t h e i r  resolutions  to l a y these  ordered  direct  was n o p r e c e d e n t f o r  t o t h e home  five-eighths  and they  of separate  other.  since  resolutions  they  direct  to the Council.  by telegraph The  sent  the last  f o r the Governor  fore  lutions  since  There  They a s to control  element ac-  a civil  and a t o t a l  did;  list  of  o f seven  21, 1866.  - R e l a t i v e t o t h e P r o p o s e d Union." Kenn e d y t o C a r d w e l l , M a r . 2 1 , 1 8 6 5 . He i s a g a i n s t an e l e c t i v e assembly a f t e r union. T h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l was o c c u p i e d i n c o r r e c t i n g mistakes?}! a n d undoing the crude l e g i s l a t i o n o f the A s s e m b l y , w h i c h was g r e a t l y a t f a u l t in financial subjects.  thousand.  The  the  t h a t had  system  Governor must  be  grown up,  one  and  who  he  was  must  not  have  interested had  in  experience  1 in  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government. With  bly  returned  message  that  this  to  matter  the  the  disposed  estimates  officials'  of  after  for a  the  salaries  time,  Governor  must  be  the  sent  paid  or  Assemdown  he  a  would  2 have  to  c l o s e down  were  finally  reformers tending He,  passed,  had  that  along  the  and  offices.  by  made.  with  Assembly, 4  the 3  cutting  DeCosmos  Assembly  PIdwell, they  were  Consequently  had  out  a l l the  opposed  this  a  to  right  was  the  only  the  only  the  estimates  proposals  policy,  Initiate  that  still  con-  money  bills.  consistent reformer  ones  who  voted  the  against  in  the  the  es-  timates. When  these  they  were  to  declaration  a  say  accepted  about  House bills.  tive b i l l .  that  attempted  When  cision,  i n whole  the manner  also  the  estimates  the  I t merely  1.  British  2.  lower  no had  in detail.  This  House  should  have  establish  i t s right  to  refused  to  to  to  reject  Victoria  amend or  amounted to  The  initiate  the  declaring  originate,  right  and  accept  House,  nothing  applied.  resolutions  the  Upper  m o n e y was  right  Colonist  not  the  the  Assembly  DeCosmos moved  C o u n c i l had  but  i n which to  went b e f o r e  upper  money  Council's  that  the  or  alter  accept.  de-  Legislaa  He  supply said,  Chronicle -  June  25,  1866.  Ibid  -  July  7,  3.  Ibid  -  July  16,  1866.  4. 5.  II bb ii dd  - Affuly ug.  1 7, , 29  1 66 6. . 18 86  1866.  "This  House  supplies time  the  t o be  as  such  revenue  i n the  public  passed. assert  again  thrown  out  grant  will  f o r each to  and  and  exclusive  i n every h i l l  of  DfeCosmos h a d  of  right  to  grant  supply  to  limit  made,  t o name  the  amount  of  and  every  service  chargeable  in  the House  seconded finally  c o n d i t i o n s to i s right,  these  resolutions  persuaded  the  services  the  Governor  gratuitously:  and  they  for  they to  supply  refused to  consequently  and  Assembly The  :  and  every  proper,  i t s r i g h t - to: i n i t i a t e 'money b i l l s . year,  the  be  a t t a c h such  M'Clure  f o r the  officials'  sole  and  judgment 1  good."  Thus  the  Grown,  expended  general  grant  the  to  f o r which  money the  possesses  was  accept were  the  a l l r "  dismissed. The Governor effect ing  regarding his  a vote  the  though  of  want  discussion  of  began  fortunate fortune strongly  Both and  of  to  the  the  i t was  present  against a  of Douglas  be  towards  confidence.  of  them,  There  an  address  which  was  was  some  to  talk  dur-  retirement of Douglas,  was  of v i r t u e ,  and  a model  M'Clure  fallacious  Governor.  suggestion embodied  the  word  a l l the  Again  these  protested  the  request  i n the  two  f o r the  non-confidence  as  with  attribute  that  to  compared  o b j e c t e d to  the  in •  unfortunate  DeCosmos  said  consideration  attitude  his administration 2  Kennedy's.  ment  Assembly  un-  mis-  reappoint  resolutions. 3  These The  protests  want  of  were  effective,  confidence motion  1. 2.  British Ibid  3.  Ibid  Colonist  and  and was  the  s u g g e s t i o n was  passed,  Victoria  but  defeated.  DeCosmos  Chronicle -  asked  g e p t . 1, J u l y 19,  1866. 1866.  July  1866.  26,  that  i t be h e l d  u n t i l they had d i s c u s s e d the question of 1 a ministerial council. A m o t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e l a t t e r was 2 3 lost, and the non-confidence motion sent to the Governor. It was  i n a  with  can be  serious  be  worse, b i l l  thought  fore,  by M'Clure,  tions  of early  bly  accept  tle in  no  to give  trade.  the only  even  attempt  t o any e f f e c t  this  say that  they  given,  would would  than  they  government port,  a partially  giving  had feared.  elected  a t flew W e s t m i n s t e r ;  by placing  a ten per cent  Colonist  become  that  on  even  a n d was  there-  resolu-  and s a i d with  accept  he  no Assemunion i f  suicidal.  He,  how-  motion.  union  was m a d e  I t took  public,  away w h a t  I s l a n d enjoyed  a n d I t d i d away w i t h  and V i c t o r i a  go-  representa-  Council; i tplaced  tariff  any  the union  was m a d e ,  action  only be  one a g a i n s t M ' G l a r e ' s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e government Vancouver i t sstead  It  to spread  An  opposed  the proclamation  worse  i n the Governor.  any circumstances,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was  was  and  the unconditional union  regard  DeCosmos under  began  Island  f o r the year,  r e s p o n s i b l e government 4  free  1865, w i t h 5  To  of Vancouver  estimates  confidence  to withdraw  union  When was  no  the colony  conditions could not possibly  with  o f any k i n d .  popular  it  that  institutions.  ever,  with  having  not going  to interfere  would  that  b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s rumours  was  tive  seen  state,  the Assembly  might  ing  over  on goods.  l i t -  and put  the seat of the  Union  free was t;0  1.  British  C h r o n i c l e - -July 28, 1 8 6 6 .  2.  Ibid  - A u g . 1,  1866.  3.  Ibid  - A u g . 8,  1866.  4.  Ibid  - A u g . 3,  1866.  5.  Ibid  - Aug. 29, 1866.  94  become law was  given  on  the p r o c l a m a t i o n  Governor, 1 to Vancouver I s l a n d to r e f u s e i t . M'Clure disgusted 2  nexation  cry.  of  at  the  the p r o p o s e d union,  DeCosmos w h e t h e r d i s g u s t e d  sible  had  that,  looked  up  till  feeling  forward  then,  t h a t h i s own  to a c o n t i n u e d  ment i n a w i d e r f i e l d . regretted  the  n e v e r one  had  a great  come i n t o  forward  Columbia  f o r h i s province  institutions  than  cry.  however much he he  of h i s entrance  to l o o k  government f o r B r i t i s h a place  little  i n the  had  I t i s posgood,  p a s s e d and to i n the and  i n the  fight  and for  greater  Confederation  govern-  of h i s  legislative gone,  he  must have  accomplished  into  an-  must  i n the  and  struggled for responsible  t o r e g r e t what was  deal  join  option  he  powers were s t i l l  Therefore,  comparatively  aims a t t h e b e g i n n i n g was  d i d not  no  b e g a n an  or not,  h a v e r e g r e t t e d a r e t u r n t o even more a r c h a i c t h e y had  and  life, he  he  still  responsible  struggle for  w h i c h was  soon  to  existence.  1.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t and  2.  Ibid  Victoria  Chronicle -iSept* - Get.  25, 1,  1866. 1866.  95  -  Union expense  of her  loss  of her  most  prominent  Island,  -  Struggle  f o r Confederation.  had  been  f o r Vancouver  capital. place  not  IV  The  won  representative  f o r the  C o s m o s was  Chapter  The  slow  institutions  recovery of  i n the p l a t f o r m  so-called  Esquimalt  and  Victoria,  and  forefront  of h i s e l e c t i o n  reduction  of  as  he  and  of  any  but  the  t h e s e was  Legislature  to appear  Island  at  the  temporary  to  take  the  candidate f o r the  a t New  Westminster.  De-  candidate f o r the D i s t r i c t  put  these  promises  two  objectives  of  i n the  along with retrenchment  and  British  taxation. He, o f c o u r s e , won n o s u p p o r t f r o m t h e '1 Colonist, which warned i t s r e a d e r s a g a i n s t "electing  men  brought  who  change  the  this  form  of  u n i o n unon  government  us  and  i f they  now  are  about  the  claptrap  o f P e o p l e ' s R i g h t s and  ment,  and  reminded  the  piished 1.  i n the  In  1866,  joined  Por to 2. 3.  were a  time  can  elected."  It  Responsible  Govern-  these  free  port  the paper  Colonist  and M ' C l u r e  H i g g i n s and  the B r i t i s h  British Ibid  the B r i t i s h  together,  editorship. They  what  they 2  cries  had  spoke  accom-  Assembly.  June,  had  electorate 3  think  men had  Long and  edited  - Dec. - Dec.  and  b o t h names b u t  10, 1866. 7, 1866.  the  retired  antagonistic  Colonist.  Colonist  had  and  Victoria from  owned to  the  the paper.  DeCosmos.  i t soon  returned  Nevertheless fellow make for  member,  the Mr.  he  of  has  profited  the  dress  was  replied the that  that  the  will  meet  the with  comodation was the  volved  to  to  well-regulated The  before 2. 1. 3.  was  the  the  Governor  the  of  city to  a  was  In  order  which  the  of,  of  the  and  there  the  that  for  the  one  majority  how-  be-  the  pub-  public  ad-  and  he  question  of  to  the  was  the  latter  capital,  made b y  a  Pinlay-  l o c a t e d where i t  Burnaby's  broad  that  show  afford  that  o-  colo-  even  matter,  inhabitants  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  r e s o l u t i o n was  be  the  up  A  the  to  motion  should  r e s o l u t i o n of  community,  leave  to  hatchet.  brought  this  a  "As  I t would,  mainland.  regarding  as  i n our  has  members h e a r d  the  government  majority  nor 1  the  were unanimous  concurrence  by  bury  grace. that  achievements." to  Helmcken  C o l o n i s t had  say  them,  i m p a r t i a l and  at  The  only  of  capital  removed  held  can  proud  the  with  i t with, p o o r  the  of  greatest  the  that  "the  colony."  principle  acknowledged  should  ac' 2  Victoria  in  inevery 3  prevail!"  until  the  Governor's message  - Jan. C o l o n i s t - Dec.  8, 14,  1867. 1866.  Council.  Ibid British Ibid.  be  seat  matter' r e s t e d  we  Legislature.  place.  i n the  did  advice  of V i c t o r i a  followed best  of  w o u l d be  the  but  t o be  when  the  the  people  "that  was  he  meeting  to  to  district.  acts,  Helmcken's  elected,  the  legislative  question  sent  son,  This  his  were  capital  public  former  C o u n c i l met,  offices  job,  reason  Dr.  The  lic  a bad  no  by  ever, .accept  fore  represent  DeCosmos's  pinion  ny  best  to  D e C o s m o s was  was  put  The her  people  grievance  cil,  instead  of Victoria  i n having  only  of the eight  felt  seven  promised  that  they  had s t i l l  representatives by  the union.  anot-  i n t h e CounThis  then  was  the  f i r s t q u e s t i o n a s k e d b y H e l m c k e n w h e n t h e C o u n c i l was o1 pened. Crease, the Attorney-General, r e p l i e d t h a t i t was u p 2 t o t h e G o v e r n o r t o a p p o i n t whom h e w i s h e d . The f i r s t question asked  b y DeCosmos  was  that  the c o l l e c t i o n  of duties  on  goods 3  from  Vancouver  decided from  to leave  the Governor When  Cosmos, ticize  the speech  consideration had been  of this  to the Governor's  matters  1.  J a n . 24, 1 8 6 7 .  2.  British  3.  Journals  Colonist  until  speech  the address  point  of the question  - F e b . 2, 1 8 6 7 . Walkem o b j e c t .  up,  There  glad was n o  De-  to  o f a new  " I f there  he would be  i t out.  came  d i d not hesitate  of importance.  i n the speech  would  matter  I t was  discussed.  f o r i t s neglect  and other  gentleman  be d i s c o n t i n u e d .  on t h e whole m o d e r a t e ,  statesmanlike  ourable  to the mainland  the reply  although  stitution thing  Island  was  i f some  cricon-  anyhon-  industrial  Helmcken, DeCosmos and R o b s o n d o e s n o t s e e why.  - L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. The C u s t o m s O r d n a n c e o f 1 8 6 5 made I t l e g a l to c o l l e c t d u t i e s on goods coming f r o m Vancouver I s l a n d , as w e l l as o t h e r places. T h i s was t e r m i n a t e d b y t h e proclamation of the Union Act, Section 5. T h i s d e c l a r e d t h a t the laws o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e g a r d i n g customs app l i e d to Vancouver Island. Consequentl y t h e two p l a c e s w e r e u n d e r t h e same; system o f c o l l e c t i n g d u t i e s . Nevert h e l e s s t h e government continued t o c o l l e c t d u t i e s on goods from Vancouv e r , a l t h o u g h i t was i l l e g a l .  policy,  sorb  no  attempt  labour,  what  The collecting minster, ted  question  that  on goods  introduced  legalization  duties  d i d t h e Government  duties  was  t o add t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,  illegal  from  again  from  was  past  b u t would n o t perpetuate more,  had  h a d a s much  one  of the great  not  t o have  He  also  to  t h e do^^ble  Crease  admitted  pass  imported the '  i  as those  members  reading  made  from  Governor ; British  the past  the Island, to decide. Colonist  gave  of  that  f o rthe  creating  sec-  about  as anyone,  and  sectionalism,  and  union  d i not exist  a t another."  officers  i n relation 3  of  banditti.  but said  i t was e x -  to this,  that  and the government When  the vote  The b i l l , collection  but the future He  wan-  He  i t amounted  wished. 4  who  of trade.  of the a c t i o n  that  West-  the freedom  o f so many  i t passed.  legal  indemnity " I t was  of  collection  o f the government  were u s e l e s s , they  vote  which  the actions  declared  t o New  DeCosmos d e c l a r e d  t o do away w i t h  a t one p o r t  any a c t that  form,  with  bringing  was  Island  the wrong.  the i l l e g a l i t y  Helmcken  the f i r s t  final  objects  duties  representative  for  t o do w i t h  up, t h a t  and the p r o s p e c t i v e  he would  and ab1  NothingI"  by the Attorney-General  i t interfered  characterized  pedient.  could  and u n j u s t ;  a tariff  Vancouver  the Island.  this  tionalism,  t o do?  DeCosmos h a d b r o u g h t  f o r the past  on t h e goods  propose  or to find  orders  when p a s s e d  of duties  collection that  was  no  the  members taken  i n i t s  o f goods was  further  left  to  duties  - F e b . 2, 1 8 6 7 .  2.  Ibid  - F e b . 11, 1867.  3.  Ibid  - Mar. 19, 1867.  4.  Ibid  - F e b . 4, Cosmos,  1867. McDonald, Helmcken, Pemberton, against.  De-  1 be  levied  after When  although  they  March the  30,  estimates  were  works,  while  most  terest  on  debt,  and  ted  deficit  timates and  of  about  should  revenue  discussion  not  of at  the  be  the  decided  time  until been  ask  i t was  at  the  for  was  returns  In  In-  anticipa-  that  of  of  and  an  the  es-  expenditure  Finally  f o r revenue  that,  expense  declared  given.  seen  salaries  there  DeCosmos  had  to  i t was  same  considered years  up,  m o n e y was  $200,000.^  f o r other i t was  were b r o u g h t  g r e a t l y reduced,  public  the  1867.  after  detail  much  and  ap-  2 proximate  expenditure.  "ffalkem a t t e m p t e d  to  get  a  general 3  resolution After  the  again, the  and  the  pealed  moved  Crown  but  i t was  and  call  act.  had  the  the 1.  estimates Journals  no  have  passed,  to  and  vote  the  of  the  on  the  Governor  Birch, power He  the  the  said  he  executive  their  matter  him  to  up  reduce  Secretary, i t must  be  re-  disinterested  officers  Therefore  at he  the  beck  declined  salaries."  36,  during  of  Mar.  British  19,  1867.  3.  Ibid  -  22,  1867.  4.  Ibid  - F e b . 27, 1867. nard, McDonald. mos, Southgate, kem.  the  offices  Council,  2.  Feb.  act;  failed.  The  of-  passed.  Legislative  C o l o n i s t - Feb.  this ask  was  masters' 4  question  s a g e Wo.  this  Colonial that  amalgamation -  to  over  resolution the  but  Walkem b r o u g h t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e members.  servants  withdrew  to  DeCosmos r a i s e d of  to  home g o v e r n m e n t .  dangerous  of  "allow  that  Act  passed,  address  Governor  the  Salaries  were  an  under  the  by  ficials  the  estimates  salaries  said  to  on  25,  In  consideration the  Post  1864-1869.  Of-  Mes-  1867.  A g a i n s t , Robson, BarF o r , Helmcken, DeCosStamp, P e m b e r t o n , W a l -  100 flee, lone  Young to  but  that  apportion  i t could not  should  be  and  and  the  prerogative  House  coxild m e r e l y  increase  taxes  or  He  DeCosmos  propose 1  i t was the  spent.  timates. to  said  of  even  denied  declared the  that  insert  the  legislature  to  the  vote  to  the  Crown  or  in a bill  right  i t was  of  not  duty  pronounce  of  pro  vote,  where  decrease  a-  money  the  the or  es-  Crown  con  or  decrease. The the  three  C o u n c i l were  d e f i n i t e , 'the tion  t o make  the  proclaim  importance  question  of  the  question  of  unanimously. to  of  the  the  question  questions  of  a  change  l a t t e r more  The  Governor  his policy  i n the  which  in his  with  capital  liberal,  Confederation  which  was  to  came  which  form  of  was  was  left  the  and  capital  in-  constituand  approved  speech had  the  before  defeated,  debated  opening  regard  which  neglected  and  i t  was  2 not  u n t i l he  The  purport  the  agitation  Queen  to  sent of  h i s message about  place The  as  the  and  the  petitions.on  .2. 4. 3.  was  to  question  capital at  of  once  threaten ceased  took  of  he  There the  at  the  Victoria would  New  was  was  known.  that  advise  unless the 3  Westminster.  Governor's message  of  members  the  much who  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t — - P e h . . 2 8 , .1867';'. Mar; 28, 1867. - MA aprr.i l 2 91, BI rb ii dt i s h C o l o n i s t ,  policy  that Victoria  the m a j o r i t y 4  subject. Many  that his  permanently  Helmcken moved  wish  the  mcken' s m o t i o n . . 1".  the  Cotuicil  consideration capital  down h i s m e s s a g e  1 18 86 67 7. .  be  people  chosen  opposed "  as  shown b y  d i s c u s s i o n on  were  into  to  the the  HelVic-  101 toria  said  choose  that  the capital,  mos r e p l i e d  that  prerogatives everywhere cordance  in  the Council  and d e s p o t i c  DeCosmos  were  i n regard  time  that  raised  to trench  councillors,  on t h e  Englishmen exercised  were i n acand n o t  Helmcken's  by t h i r t e e n votes  advisers  voting  members  question  two-thirds  to  for i t . 2  divided.  by moving  to the constitution of the Council.  t o be twenty-four  DeCos-  of the people,  the o f f i c i a l  the second  alone.  Eventually  passed  o f the Governor's  was t h e f i r s t  lution  wishes 1  manner."  to the Governor  majority  say, that  to see the p r e r o g a t i v e  the well-understood  recommendation  This  " w h i l s t h e was n o t d i s p o s e d  accustomed  an a r b i t r a r y  t o ask the Governor to  i t was h i s p r e r o g a t i v e  o f t h e Crown he w o u l d  with  eight--a  since  h a d no r i g h t  a  reso-  There  t o be  represen-  3 tatives their  o f the people.  seats  for  three  any  time  an  was v e r y  was m e r e l y 1.  British  2.  3. 4.  When  governed  o f t h e Crown,  a n d t h e Crown  and order  indemnity.  better it  at the pleasure  years;  opposition  T h e n o m i n a t e d members  a new  election.  the debate bitter.  without  popular  came u p o n t h i s  f&voxxv.  said  members  the Assembly a t  A l l members  members.  to hold  the elected  dissolve  Some m e m b e r s  a b i d f o rpopular Colonist  could 4  were  should  receive  resolution, the the country  Robson DeCosmos  declared  was that  said "the  - April  5, 1 8 6 7 .  Ibid  - April  1, 1 8 6 7 .  Ibid  n o m i n a t e d , a n d s i x e l e c t e d members voted f o rthe motion. F i v e government, a n d t h r e e e l e c t e d a g a i n s t . - Feb. 2 8, 88 66 77 .. 1 ,1 1  S i x government,  one  principle  contained  c o n t i n u e to. public  or  been  other  advocate  of  the  and  government  the had  The  ere  under  as  ages,  up  drew  would the  on© the  had  and  principle  British  conflict  he  principle  for  the  the  given  r e s o l u t i o n was  long  people  expended  colony  tutions  so  in private.  struggles had  i n the  w h i c h he  breath  life,  been hallowed  much b l o o d  was  of  would  and  by  Every  Crown had  representative  not  until  idea  of  governing  Her the  the  treasure  established.  cease  in  insti-  Majesty's country  from  1 Downing 2  Street."  The  r e s o l u t i o n v/as  defeated  also  in  fourteen  to  three. D e C o s m o s was federation sider  the  the  when he  advisability  province  logical  Wales,  take  in his he  by  "we  of  policy  the  to  put  monarchies  so  there  there  as  will  be  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Feb.  i s no  few  want  or  end  union  1867.  to  to  he  of  - April  of  the  see  10,  DeCosmos, it.  was  to  conof  only  proposing visit  a  of  initiate  interest  the  Prince  object  statesmen British  provinces.  or  ad-  Con-  practical  what  you  North American  common  Con-  admission  provincial  to  of  consistently  was  disjointed  the  whole  This  the  republics,  of  the  some g r e a t  visit  petty  for 3  1860,  see  Prince's  of  Canada.  speaking to  question  DeCosmos h a d  ¥sfe w a n t  an  steps  of  that  In  the  committee  September,  27,  mover  taking  subjects  Colonist  a  Dominion  visit.  them p e t t y long  of  paper.  said, the  for  policy  e a r l y as  advantage  American  the  i n the  As  federation  attained  into  step  vocated.  of  asked  the  North Call  please,  Provinces,  to b i n d  them  to-  1867. Helmcken,  and  Smith  were  for  gether.  They  will  Colonial  Office.  of  intellect.  their  lead  They  which u n i t e d B r i t i s h the  people  will  provinces. tical  tion  be  will  will  North  America  confined  Again federation.  commercially,  can s c a r c e l y  politics  of disjointed,  Politics  will  vinces,  take  instead of being  would have  to deal  millions.  Their public  position, at  before  present  from  England  united, colonies when  would  no  into  admitted  revenue, portion  with  which  later,  be  racked  could  and would  be  enjoy  of a confederacy  Provinces  purposes,  British  2.  Ibid  Colonist  - Sept. - June  6,  referred  politically, The  will  be made  Pro-  questions,  can expect  t o admit  national politics no a i d were  the P a c i f i c  of population,  and  of the general  of being  four millions  14, 1 8 6 1 .  and  disappear.  The U n i t e d  to our share  1860.  to  petty  but i f the Provinces  tants."^ 1.  he  of colonial  a l l the advantages numbering  atten-  a population of four  on t h e b a s i s  entitled  poli-  no more 1  a s p i r e t o an almost  We  of petty the  at present.  prize  and  at present."  station.  contemptible.  p r o v i s i o n s would  would  hence  attract  affecting  the highest  appear  years  by p e t t y p o l i t i c a l  subjects men  polities  i n h i s paper  estimated  around  The p r e s s  o f a F e d e r a l Union,  the Confederacy, we  fifty  of the  expansion  points  gather.  i t does  elevated  f o r any l o c a l  doubt  than  f o r the  rallying  may  disconnected  a more  field  Island will  a year  "The advantages  no  be no  any union,  provinces  about  as s u b o r d i n a t e s  to the f r i v o l o u s  o f Vancouver  i n the sister  life  possess  There  And without  movements  a humdrum  of  an  integral  inhabi-  104 Again, constitution  In  for  1865,  the  Council 1  federation  up  selves  Confederation,  for  with  in discussing  i t .  He  of  Vancouver  said  by  the  that  question  Island,  they must  changing  their  of  he  a  linked  prepare  local  new Con-  them-  institutions  2 to  suit  the  wider  With sing  that  now  needs.  a l l these  Confederation  Provinces  that  cil.  r e s o l u t i o n put  The  Governor of  the  the by  telegraph  scheme,  greed tant  DeCosmos  Canadas  the  so  upon."  to  seemed  should  a  bring  before  Her  behind  the  Majesty's  "the  desire  that  p r o v i s i o n might  Imperial 3  in  actions  Act,  of  the  him,  the  the  in  matter  Council  Government  colonists be  DeCosmos  said  there  was  "no  present  and  future  framers  of  British  interests  in British  North America,  purpose  of  policy  advancement,  for  one grand  mutual any  now  under  and  i n view,  attempts  at  aggression  Helmcken  supported  on  to  not  but the  the  Governor in  admission  as  The  was  Coun-  that  may  be  more  condition  consideration.  scheme h a d  the  included  question  than  stirpriEastern  the  our  terms  country  selves  the  be  for  and  the  and  to  made  equitable  up  requested  fair  on  not  certainty for  on  i t s bearing  this  i t was  a-  imporof  object  this the  consolidate only  to  for  prepare  part  of  the them-  their  4 neighbours." romantic thing  idea  was  about  belonging  immigration  1.  Vide  Supra,  2.  British  4. 3.  Ibid Ibid  P.  and  to  since  DeCosmos, a  big  nation.  British  71.  Colonist  -  Dec.  - Mar. - Mar.  although  6,  1864.  12, 9,  1867. 1867.  Columbia  The  he  had  no  important  would  never  be  settled, from fore  union  union fore  the sea immigration  must  they  would  he would The  ered  that  cluded a new  come  with  satisfied  situation  immediate  that  entrance  come  Canada  from  form  o f the other Act.  "such  should  the North  States.  With  American  there1 British.  than  when  Worth American  into  There-  o f government,  t o be Canadian  measures  Canada.  or United  changed, however,  f o r admission  i n the B r i t i s h resolution  either  g e t a more l i b e r a l  be more  plans  must  i t was  discov-  c o l o n i e s had been i n DeCosmos be  introduced  taken  f o rthe  Confederation  as had  been  provided by this B i l l already c a r r i e d through the Imperial 2 Parliament." Many o f t h e members o b j e c t e d t o i m m e d i a t e u n i o n without  any mention  certainly at  h a d no  the head  terms. They It  intention  expressed  of course  i s our interest  and  as dangerous.  of throwing  of the Confederacy.  I t only  would  o f terms  not wait  to enter  f o r Canada t o  Eventually "that  this  fairs  i n British  said  o r anybody expressed  afterwards.  as soon  as  resolution  passed  unanimously,  east  at this  juncture of af-  o f the Rocky Mountains,  very  a d v i s a b l e t h a t '.His E x c e l l e n c y b e r e s p e c t f u l l y  to  take  such  to Insure  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Ibid.  delay  the admission  Colonist  possible  invite us."  is  advisable  no  c o n s i d e r the terms  the Confederacy 3  America  without  else  government.  Council i s of opinion that  steps  "he  of the l o c a l  Pemberton's  North  himself  The r e s o l u t i o n  the action  naturally  DeCosmos  a s may  - M a r . 25, 1867.  requested  be deemed b y h i m most  of British  - M a r . 12, 1 8 6 7 .  i t  Columbia  into  the  Confederation confident  views  on  that  fair  and  in advising this  of  the  colonists  informed  the  Council  the  with  with  S i r Edmund Head,  Governor  Meanwhile at  which  Columbia's  entry  pointed  wait  wards  to  this  Canada,  of  upon  the  are  expressing  In  few  days  Helmcken,  a  the  being the  Governor  in  communica-  the  Secretary  of  State  the  Hudson's  meeting passed  Confederation Governor  Council  himself  r e s o l u t i o n s were the  This  thev  placed  Confederation  into  end.  of  had  Governor  a  step 1  generally."  t h a t he  tion  Victoria  equitable terms.  and  had  Company.  been  i n favour  and  to urge  DeCosmos  Bay  held of  delegates  him  Dr.  to  and 2  take  Powell  in  British were  ap-  steps  were  on  tothis  3 committee. Just revived.  to  be  the  The  this  time  the  C o l o n i s t remarked  question  federation rimental  annexation  versus  issue  in British  Columbia,  was  accomplished.  The  i t would to  seaboard  be  the  to  the  United  which  was  new  i t and  was  of  annexed  Pacific  agitation  upon  successful i f Confederation  clear-cut  were  about  not  f o r annexation said  to  had  out  federation i f British  vital  I t w o u l d mean  i f a new  Thus  become  disappear  Colonist pointed  States.  likely  consummated.  Confederation not  i t was 4  a  until how  Condet-  Columbia  losing  n a t i o n were  was  to  the be  5 formed. 1. B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t - Mar. 19, 1867. 2. Journals - Legislative Council, s a g e No. 3.  British  4. 5.  Ibid Ibid  C o l o n i s t - Mar.  19,  34,  Mar.  1867.  - A p r i l 25, 1867. - May 21, 1867.  22,  1864-1869. 1867.  Mes-  About  this  Seymour  regarding  British  Columbia  Canadian to  call  thing  Confederation  the Council  and secure  favourable  success  the  Governor  was  felt  delayed,  came b e f o r e  when  the Canadian  The Governor  popular  choice  h e was  Secretary.  reform.  spoke  governors  years 1. 2.  however, It  entry  represented  the Colonial  a t the Canadian  on C o n f e d e r a t i o n Columbia  i thad s u f f e r e d through  contending  remote  which  Englishmen  inherit,  ought  to enjoy.  Having  against  combinations,  against  BI rb ii td i s h  Colonist - M 31 , , 11 88 67 Oacyt .2 1 6.7..  and  f o r Confed-  conservatism.  country,  f o r these  battled  the Governor2  to the Eastern  present  speech  Confederation,  o f t h e scheme.  a visit  1 8 6 7 , h e was  and governments,  we  to  i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h  i t i s to struggle, i n that  Americans,  t o be  of the Council,  i n British  and p r i v i l e g e s  British  opposed  o f the desire  what  Waddington o f  Columbia's  she ought  a  "I  from  Every-  i n the question.  w h e r e h e made  and o f the e v i l s  rights  member  and i n August,  He  the Governor  As u s u a l ,  of British  DeCosmos h a d p a i d  eration know  interest  definitely  d i d h i s best  Convention  the  on t h e m a t t e r .  news 1  t o show h i m t h e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y  Provinces,  before  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , b u t h e was n o t a  a n d h e was  Meanwhile  Reform  no  Parliament  sent  an o f f i c i a l He  f o r admission  i t s voice  to Governor  the opportunity f o r  railway route.  showing  came  The C o l o n i s t u r g e d  the question  there.  gave  a t the t i m e — e v e n  of the overland  that  despatches  which  to put her request i n August.  was  General  important  Parliament  the  since  time  with  inalienable and which  f o r nine  as  long  incorporated  com-  108 panles  such  merica,  and  as  have  held  against  i n chains  governments,  a  vast  often  p o r t i o n of  standing  British  almost  A-  alone  - '.  1 with  few  then  spoke of  and  of  he  He  and  ward  having  spoke  of  the  prising, the  cean, same  the  "and  ask,  daring  than  United  States  can  whv  cannot 2 thing?"  Columbia  home h e ready  I  the  had  just  his  tour  people  when  she  was  had  a  of  as  of  of  the  the  with  cousins? on  Columbia, by  i t ,  Canadi-  If the  she  less the  however her  enterpeople  do  0the  DeCos  accepting  When h e  not  en-  Pacific  Provinces, of  for-  should  Americans  enter.  frustrated  the  Americans  importance  won  Confedera-  f a r away when  Eastern  He  i n t e n t i o n s to  British  to  of  distance  territory  willing  been  having  great  American  that B r i t i s h  and  good  British  four millions  the  been,  the  are  govern  upon  discovered  she  our  are."  i n favour  in his  that was  things  communicating  faith  said  less  impressed  tish  had  California  States;  these  resolution  Governor  He  Throughout mos  i n the  evidently s t i l l  obstacle.  tered  I.know what  struggled f o r union,  brought  Confederation.  an  of  sympathize,  having  tion. ans  to  Bri-  returned  willing  Governor,  and who 3  had  not  communicated  by  telegram  with  t h a t he  had.  the  Canadian  government,  4 although  he  had  1.  British  2.  Ibid.  3.  Ibid  4.  Vide  declared  C o l o n i s t - Aug. 16, 1 8 6 7 . Q u o t e d f r o m an paper. The T o r o n t o Leader.  Eastern  J a n . 31, 1868. T i l l e y to Seelye, Jan. 22, 1 8 6 8 . "The C a n a d i a n G o v e r n m e n t h a s no p r o p o s i t i o n b e f o r e i t f r o m e i t h e r the government or the people of B r i t i s h Columbia." Supra,  P.  106.  109 At after  the  meeting fifty that He  was  called  people. the  no  while is  on  Tilley's  matter,  the  out  peared the  other  office that ly  side  holders  these  Legislative  by  that  by  British  2.  Ibid  this  voice  colony  This  request  some  necessary.  Government and  of  declaring  meeting  there  i f British  suffer  In  months  i t  Co-  either,  legislation.  " i t  w i t h i n two years 1 Dominion." A telegram of  the  great  the  Dominion  meeting  the  resolution,  would not  the  shall  Government's  proceeded  to  opinion  of  pass r e s o l u t i o n s  overwhelming m a j o r i t y  manifestations last the  year.  exerted the  was  the  a  great of  deal  the  send  a  -  of  Jan.  Tilley  of  telegram  31, to  the  people  i t , which had neglect  to  apshow  annexationists  and  they  who  to  had  out  particularshown  Ottawa.  official,  and  pointed  influence;  Governor  predominantly  Colonist -  of  also d i d not group  of  resolutions pointed  Confederation,  power  r e f u s i n g to  the  i n favour  They  picture,  opposed  Council  1.  at  Dominion  f o r Confederation,  who  people  when b a c k e d  opposition  this  resolution.  government  no  twelve  views.  were  of  she  that  the  the  first  i n the  had  then  different  Trimble,  the  people  show  show  within  that  to  their  in Victoria,  G o v e r n o r made  parcel of  and  colony  the  Mayor,  irresponsible  the  read  held  i t s unanimous  Confederation  and  To of  fact  destiny'  was 2  expressing  the  the  as  present  become p a r t  the  of  thing  'manifest  passed  hy  the  entered at  was  DeCosmos moved  inaction  such  lumbia  a meeting  C o u n c i l had  remarked  was  once  his  Since  i t could not  the be  1868. Seelye,  Jan.  8,  1868.  "I  t h i n k the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t w i l l be r e a d y t o c o n s i d e r any p r o p o s i t i o n f r o m B r i t i s h Columbia at once. See A c t o f Union.  relied ly  upon  popular  resented most the  to  further  institution,  the  views  populous  and  initiative,  steps  to  Confederation,  of  the  a  city  b r i n g the  council  large majority  influential  "and  section  i t asked  colony  the  into  the  government  to  The  t h e y .asked  were D o m i n i o n  debt  of  $1,500,000;  them  i n the  They  asked  expenses  for a  of  be  reserved  be  given.  road  to  be  to  lye.  They  wanted  Imperial take  educated  to  the 1. 2.  w i t h i n two DeCosmos,  and  take by  Powers  of  years.  a  immediately." public by  with  action  placing  pensions.  subsidy  for  t a x a t i o n were was  resolutions  Pindlay, Wallace  w i t h i n a month  The  Her  the to to  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l wagon  These  i t had  the  take  asking  f o r the  a  "rep-  immediate  officials  and  tru-  of  must  r e s p o n s i b l e government  that  Government.  waiting public  really  British Ibid  union  to  capita  Powell,  answer  colony"  p r o v i d i n g them  per  which  population  Seymour  f o r the  only  that  opened  answer to pass  and  the  See-  Canadian  communications  suggested an  were'  address  that  the  to Her  Ma-  union.  the  Colonist  by  and  the  liability  c o n d i t i o n was  immediate 2  requesting  federation  province  of  the  Governor  government.  essential  While mos  subsidy  r e c e i v e d an  Legislature  jesty  the  or  of  Confederation  liability  service  local  Trimble,  Government  also  fixed  finished  by  the  the  The  signed 1  with  federal  instruct  the  of V i c t o r i a  Dominion  Majesty's terms  consequently  f o r the i n the  entailed,  during  Colonist  the  by  Council next means  month  of  few of  to  be  weeks a  summoned, as  to  what  Con-  series  of  able  letters  February,  - Mar. 27, 1868. - T i l l e y to Seelye,  DeCos-  Mar.  1868. 25,  1868.  The had  delayed  tions the  of  Council  as  long  as  importance  change  i n the The  finally  question Memorials  and  meetings  had  the  Governor  by  been  i t certain  question.  He  left  members  were  by  vote  fourteen  moved  ient  When t h e were  reduced  education, size  and  while  age  of  to to  and  the  speak five an  still  at  an  the  DeCosmos.  These  was  a l l proportion  1.  those  Columbia.  ded  ulation.  expense  out A  of  rule  British  had  declared  been  laid  Colonist - April  that to  3,  bear  Govern-  the  the  decided be  re-  New  i t was  Westinexped-  although  of  a  colony  and  twice  estimates,  and  Secretary  For,  they  the  t h e r e f o r e moved  expenditure  the  the offi-  p u b l i c works  the  on  neglect and  i t s resources  1868.  to  in  citizens  of  the  down b y  neglected  should  down,  ques-  capital,  I t was  that  Pemberton  resolutions protesting against  the  Home  reimburse  amendment  were  the  Council  were b r o u g h t  of  colony  brought  capital  to  same  been  opinion.  the  The  Confederation.  could not  the  Governor  prominent  l e d by  their  attempt  salaries  British  of  that  after  by  the  of  and  not  pressure  Governor  series by  had  presented  vote  estimates  i t was  capital  the  removal  retrenchment  The  the  after  landholders 1 remove.  to  i t , the  been  that  after  possible.  manifestations,  free  to V i c t o r i a ,  minster  had  i t to  cial  the  held.  these  ment, made  of  i n March  legally  constitution,  recess.  of  i t was  were b e f o r e  the  a  met  Trutch,  of  seconthe  small of  a  pop-  State  O'Reilly,  Cox, P e m b e r t o n , D e C o s m o s , H e l m c k e n , M a c D o n a l d , Wood, K e r , E l w y n , Spaulding, Smith. A g a i n s t , Crease, Hamley, Barnard, Robson, B a l l .  1 for  the  qual the  Colonies  revenue,  that  calculated  last  two  years.  had  not  been  this  vision  expenditure  By  done  for public  on  the  actual  figures with  works,  for a  the  these  average  estimates.  showed  There  a  done by  the  Executive  and  by  the  Legislative  protest  was  signed by  several of  the  popular  timates  passed The  before  a  cil  an  meet  be  question  the  of  a  change  of nine  requested  ordinance  not  was  and  this  no  pro-  be  coxxld o n l y Council. 2  members.  be This  The  es-  usual.  small house  Governor  officials,  e-  that  r e d u c t i o n s must  through  as  the  should  expendittire of  resolutions  t h e r e f o r e the  curtailment of  current year  to  making  i n the  members.  cause  t o be  two-thirds  generally expressed  DeCosmos moved Introduced  of  wishes  constitution  the  of  into  came that  the  up the  Coun-  Council elective,  the  colony.  The  to  motion 3  was  carried  by  The that for  the a  few  were  of  vote  of  almost  sion  of  the  federation  opposed  question In  unanimous  to  Despatch  2.  British  3.  Ibid  No.  23,  Colonist  the  There  papers,  the  opposing  supporting  1.  i t .  i n the  letters  letters,  ; © e C o s m o s was  to  the  chairman,  Confederation  annexationists, while  actively  these  casting  question  people  were  to  the  had  Governor a  with  Colonist.  April  Some w e r e 30,  -  April  28,  -  April  30,  of  and  great  this  stage,  i t , except  the deal  officials of  discus-  DeCosmos u p h o l d i n g There  Confederation  i t .  reached  i n favour  was  Young.  were  some  principally  afraid  of  Con  replies  because  Confederation  1866. 1868. 1868.  Helmcken and Hamley, Ker,  Por,  DeCosmos,  Smith. Against, Spalding.  Elwyn,  Cox,  bscause, 1  i f . i t came  ernor. "they ify to  In  the  sacrifice  spleen  s k i n and  alongside, 2 there." The  because  Canada  expressing  of  the  which  population  of  secured four  to  at  this  the  of  already  time  California of  lieutenant-gov  Colonist  the  rather  colony they  than  grat-  would  stick  go  into a  that 3  the  by  moved  Columbia  province  the  seat  encouraged  L e g i s l a t u r e who British  said, to  occupies  were  a  with  should  be  States.  Anti-Confederation one  made  oppbnent,  wreck  opinion  United The  petition  the  connection  the  be  interests  DeCosmos  the  the  writer  a political  Mr.  of  opposing  property  best  annexationists  resolution  the  one  down w i t h  a c t i o n of Mizner  and  the  against go  boat  the  DeCosmos m i g h t  discussing this,  would  their  about,  hundred  thousand  and  people  sixty  in Victoria.  circulated  signatures  in  Governor  said  The  a  a he  .•V  would  forward  ments. a  He  road  i t to  said,  made  in British  and  immigration  est  way  from  tition be  the  i t out  as  are  must  settling  the  the  the  British the  had  with  desire  He  had  done  Colonist -  Oct.  11,  1867.  1.  British  2.  Ibid  -  Feb.  12,  1868.  4. 3 .  II bb ii dd  - M F ae rb ..  9,8 , 1  1 81 68 86 .8 .  r e s p e c t f u l comus  a l l to  continent  Columbia  In  definitely not  of  practical 4  considerable."  Governor  Confederation.  State,  across  into  country,  very  of  be  territory  mother  for delay,  against  Secretary  "great  ca,  carrying  the  by  of  see  Ameri-  the  near-  difficulties  forwarding  the  shown h i m s e l f  what  the  Council  of  peto had  114 asked ded  him  the  even  to  do  with  petition  said  "that  of  regard an  to  their  resolution,  unrepresentative  Confederation  body  of  yet  he  forwar-  Victoria.  i s s e i z e d unon by  a  He  disheartened  1 community  longing In  all  the  into  the  Governor nite  the  for a  change 2  Council  correspondence The  refused  give  impression  t h a t no  any  kind."  DeCosmos moved  relating  Dominion. to  of  motion the  to was  the  for  production  admission  seconded  correspondence  official  the  by  of  the  colony  Helmcken.  and  gave  correspondence  had  frustrated  he  of  the been  The deficarried  3 on. D e C o s m o s was dress  to  the  Queen,  the  provisions of  the  entrance  ilar  to  Wood, vote but  the  they of  the  gered  The at  motion,  voted  on  the  North  declare  that  without of  Council the  The  of  advocating President  I t was  1.  British  C o l o n i s t - Mar.  2. 3.  M a r . 30, 1868. British Colonist - April  delay  said  carried  by  by  An  the  moved was  asked  general  admit could  Ball. and  that  a vote  23,  1868.  7,  1868.  of  of  ad-  of for  were  sim-  member, the  principle and  their  enter  to  experidefining  advantage-  DeCosmos  wanted  the  one  confirmed  information  to  an  required  official  Council  Columbia  seconded  Act  terms he  the  Confederation  was  this  American  sufficient  which B r i t i s h  and  since  i n January.  session i n favour  amendment  first.  Stamp,  Columbia.  meeting  to  s t i l l  but  be  British  British  working  the  to  seconded by  the  this  last  were the  of  terms under  ously.  his  those  amended of  ence  of  not  was  an-  withdraw  amendment m u s t twelve  members  be to  1 four.  Helmcken's  "What h a d  England  forced  carry  to  selves?  Such  towards  nothing  hut  there  could 2  a no  ever  out  a  tempted  speech  done  her  course the  on  the for  of  country,  procedure  There  longer  this  p a r t i c u l a r views  Canadian  flag.  resolution is  be  any  the  would  never  of  we  the  on  must to  have  England  writing  doubt  that  in relation  Government.  was  noteworthy.  of  at-  given  wall,  destiny  our-  been  had  the  he  us  and  British  Co-  lumhia." Meanwhile came u p layed  for  the  General,  ask  the  on  of  the  however,  commending  the  the  sent  home  a  there  to  to  Dominion,  on  to  without  wished  obtain  responsible 1.  the  terms  Journals  of  could  be  the  and  further  no  admission  equitable  The  steps  and  began of  to  Governor-  the  to  matter. time,  organize  a  Columbia They  the  in-  also  institutions of  re-  Seymour  for  expedient.  a member  deFurther  i n the  British  representative  D e C o s m o s was  this  Secretary  Governor  legislation but  territory  Columbia. 3  Colonial  instruct  -  Colonist  house  British  to  idle,  delay  intervening  necessary.  take  immediate  government.  British  to  were not  league  to  the  Dominion  was  despatch  Legislative Council  secure  of  admission  government  Gonfederationist  the  i n the  territories  Although the  question  consideration  matter  legislation  the  with  committee  L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , 1864-1869. April 24, 1 8 6 8 . Pp. 25-27. - A p r i l 27, 1 8 6 8 . A g a i n s t t h e amendment, R o b s o n , Walkem, Stamp, and DeCosmos.  2.  Ibid  -  May  1,  1868.  3.  Ibid  - May  20,  1868.  4.  Ibid  - May  23,  1868.  of  this  league  in Victoria.  The  intention  was  also  to  extend  1 this  league  over  The at Yale ing  to  the  Confederation  d i s c u s s the  government.  When i t m e t , It  adop.ted  in  the  terms  Legislative  c o n d i t i o n of  cil  was  the  only  of  placed  free  and  on  At  p o r t was-  the  and  consent  t h a t does  was  also  nor  i n the  is a  form  just not  exist 2  by  despotism."  attacked. of  Victoria  committee t h a t had  meeting  "that  The  These  the  the  free  signed  the  was  were by  exist-  DeCosmos.  on  business.  been  advocated  i n January,  but  Legislative  and  Coun-  advocated  governed  Wallace,  to  that  the  consent  civil  given  as  should  and  just  extravagant  resolutions  a memorial  convention  a l l governments  of  The  a  and  r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t ; was said  governed  the  a<|ded.  DeCosmos  the  from  the  remedy.  Government  to h o l d  Confederation  for Confederation  and  free  decided  delegates  Council  a  denounced  by  the  D e C o s m o s was the  League  question  Among  the  exist  colony.  of  service  the  Gover-  DeCosmos  and  5 others. his  The  Governor  characteristic  tions  would  be  put  letters. before  Confederation  d i d not  did  not  clear  was  likely  the  Council.  question  see  a  that  of  He  i n forwarding said  some  of  Council but  that  the  with  d i d not  extravagance  be say he  - May  London  that  the  towards  i t would  Colonist  the  rest  way  He  i t to  so-called  wrote  one  their  resolu-  matter  brought t h a t he had  not  22,  up  at  the  next  would b r i n g i n c u r r e d the  He  but  i t  session  i t up. debt,  of  On nor  1.  British  2.  Ibid  -  Sept.  3.  Papers  -  On t h e U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Canada. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1869.  18,  of  convention.  r e s p o n s i b l e government  of  the had  1868. 1868. with P. 17.  117 he  ever  were  appointed  free  dition"  from  was  debt  the  In  any  official  our  gem  at  coming more p o w e r f u l , peared, This  dents  by  was  Helmcken.  expressing  congratulated 3 their  Yale  sition and  members  elections  Convention,  to  the  Powell.  and  as  candidates  against  to  ticable  keep at  in a  " i f we  flourishing  con-  the  a n n e x a t i o n i s t s were  Convention  also  the  the  city  sections of  one 2 sentiments. of  and  Yale  from The  the  the  be-  ap-  delegates. people,  foreign  resi-  C o l o n i s t , however,  Convention  on  having  done  the  the as  and  Council  anti-Confederates a political  Drake  out  Helmcken  and  of  the  his  the  f o l l o w e r s knew  as not  that  Ibid  Ibid  Colonist  -  Pp.  26,  27.  -  Sept.  21,  1868.  -  Sept.  25,  1868.  British  ran  and  Powell  not  prac-  opened  their  ne-  only  Howay,  W.  of  Davie,  Canada. C o l o n i a l O f f i c e , 1869. P. 17. - B . G.'s Entry-into-Confederation. Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Annual Report, 1927.  P.  Union  Dr.  District,  election, had  oppo-  DeCosmos.  and  DeCosmos  government  the  their  against City  after  -  Judge  On  while  shortly  used  in Victoria  Confederation,  since  cry  in Victoria  Anti-Confederate,  moment,  v/ere h e l d  Papers  British 3.  be  constable,  a n t i - C o n f e d e r a t i o n document  was  Confederation  the  gotiations.  2.  and  Helmcken  Englishman  1.  time,  various  for  Convention  an  tried  same  would 1  a  duty. New  the  by  There  the  the  an  Yale  signed  than  letter. this  and  r e p u d i a t i n g the  document  headed  finances  of h i s  Victoria,  higher  Columbia  with  hope ing  to as  a  seemed  it  came  definitely  to  nominee  be  to  interests  found  s t r a y upon  him  of  and to  He  colony  accusing  this  phrase  He  an was  issue  his  sentative  institutions,  ment.  was  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Ibid.  4.  not  and  purchased.  contested  favourable  when  was  run-  Victoria  him  speeches,  said  that  people  send  to  t i l l of  to  Confederation  "being  of  whereas 2 children."  eighty of  cents  being  the  could 6  meaning not  oh  be  "was  that  one  three  of  precipitate  would  l e t the  Nov.  3,  1868.  Nov.  2,  1868.  Ibid  Oct.  24,  1868.  5.  Ibid  Feb.  22,  1869.  6.  Ibid  Feb.  24,  1869.  bachelor,  he  had  to  dead  at  and  Bay  the  great  Domideal  and  this the  policies,  bur-  elecNorth-  repre-  retrench-  Confederation,  question  g i -  Hudson's  until  r e s p o n i s b l e government,  but  Colonist -  as  election  i n favour  terms,  Confederation  a  Helmcken 3 per head.  i t was b e t t e r t o s e l l t h e c o u n t r y . 4 Company. D e C o s m o s came i n f o r a  explained  territory  at  him  that  not  t h a t he  horizon  shape  said  West  out  the  the  DeCosmos,  political  the  by  of  accused  when he  i t was  He  Drake  the  selling  the  tion  a moment  his p@litical  h a c k Mr.  society In  said  criticism 5  led."  the  old political 1 c o m f o r t him."  than  at  of  to  insisting  against i t .  DeCosmos r e t a l i a t e d  of  candidate  i n one  and  accused  through  Burnaby,  hostages  nion  was  the  waif  ven  DeCosmos  Confederation  "would  grass  a  defeat  rest  with-  until  the  territories Meanwhile qual  to  ground  pliant  lect  men  coats,  purchased,  ensure with  tools  represent  the  were  of  the to  Canada,  feeling  represent  of  a  dinner 2  arise  States.  tish  manhood, ment,  so  of  two  Executive  t-ions,  we  ing  act  to  pealing  we  a  to  foe  part  the  been m i s l e d  i n the  that higher  indeed  mis  should  se-  nor  of  of  their  i n the  to  our  Majesty the  and  advised  by  their  of  selection  her  respecInstitiu4*  and  and  reason  and  misrepre-  Representative  right,  for Bri  sense  by  by  of  neighbour-  induced  dictated  that  to s e l f - g o v e r n -  t h a t Her  of  at  personal  lack  or  farce  turn-  disgust  in repudiating entirely  solemn  law  right  withhold  the  to  humiliating position  convinced  justified  selected  allurement  freedom  fully  e-  prevent  people  compared  inalienable  to  being  feeling  our  aided  "to  on  neither purchasable  the  degrading  Governors,  to n e g o t i a t e  "The  they  " i t i s a most  not  Canada.  n e i t h e r trimmers,  the  when  with  reform  from 1  by  on  with  Coxmcillors,  would  have  are  silenced  minds  to  able  vacillating,  occupy--so  contrary  be  country."  remarked  a d v i s e r s have  sentation tive  to  negotiate  rulers  who  nor  nor  He  said  t h a t were  Imperial  the  institutions  He  subjects  they must  them  i n peoples'  representative ing  of  then  would  irresponsible  aggrandizement." must  tJhat t h e y  neither factious  cost  and  in  refusap-  and  jus-  would  have  3 tice." It gone 1. 2. 3.  with  a  i s impossible fair  British Ibid. Ibid.  vote  Colonist  to  say  how  s i n c e Helmcken -  Oct.  20,  the and  1868.  election his  official  friends  1 were the  able  to  persuade  sheriff  to  alter  malt  districts.  must  he  British  franchise  was  the the  to  issue  franchise  in  the  Instead  of  the  subjects  of  a  extended  the  Governor  to  old  was  no  result  was  obvious.  DeCosmos  his  and  platform,  against After  gan  to  be  Seymour his  place.  admire  thce.Ir own  the  to  Seymour's  the  of  goodj  ernment  i t was  that  not  was  When  the  absent  since  The  1.  Oct.  2.  Sage,  3:.  British  4.  Ibid  17,  and  "much o f  Sir  said the is  over  that odium  a  thai  natural the  voting,  a  petition  have  be-  Governor  he  take did  attaches  not  to < of  administration  of  The  removal  Governor  governor  the  consequence  of  of  to  and  Confederation 3 defeated.  although  commission  change 4  at  James D o u g l a s  and  of  the  excuse  Indians  Americans  easily was  the  but  Seymour a  change  would of  do  gov-  needed.  D e C o s m o s was 1863.  a  an  have  administration  ommission 4 James D o u g l a s . "  Sir no  objected  Seymour,  Governor  to  oaths  on  voters  property,  and  no  for  Esqui-  that  the  run  excitement  and  except  were  provided  of  a l l the  to  wishes,  England! and  DeCosmos  Governor  acts  which  With  forced  election  circulated  return  registration  colleagues,  Victoria  amount  a l l residents  There  proclamation  qualifications  certain  Chinese. 2 polls. The  a  C o i u i c i l met from  in  the  legislative  Governor's  speech  latter work f o r  showed  part the  of  December,  first  definitely  time  that  he  1868.  Walter  N.  -  A n n e x a t i o n i s t Movement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Transactions of the R o y a l Soc i e t y o f Canada, T h i r d S e r i e s , V o l . XXI,'Section II, 1927.  Colonist  -  Nov.  4,  -  Nov.  14,  1868. 1868.  was  opposed  marks ly  to  about  promised  The  members  advantage tion  to to  about  way  loss  of  ever  and  representative  opposed the  of  avowed  debate  saying  that under  the  Their  d e c i s i v e steps  blasted the  passed lost  by  a  candidates The  bate  on  the  recent  minority  i n the  until  d i d not  1.  British  2.  Ibid  3.  Vide  4.  British  the  since  Colonist -  present  Supra,  P.  cause  called a caiise by 4  on  It  roundfor  how-  the  con-  Confederation  the  eleven  "a  with  towards  of  of  useless,  Imperial  vote  take resolu-  dislike  impressed  to  is  Government consummation 2  five.  The  Col-  the  ridiculous 3 convention, and t o one o f t h e Confedera-  election. Council protested i t had  been  territory  public opinion Feb.  their  the  Worth-West  represent  merely  urges  Confederation  Confederation,  Impossible Council  at  be  circumstances,  demonstration at Yale, absurdly the shameful abandonment o f the tion  showing  a  i n favour  o p p o s i t i o n was  i f practicable,  a union,"  i t would  Council,  existing  institutions;  h e s i t a t e to  minority  re-  condescending-  o p p o s i t i o n t o move  since  "this  d i d not  The  o f f i c i a l members 1  a motion  any  onist  this  salaries."  not  such  Confederation  Confederation.  the  their  to  towards more  Governor's  prevent  even  of  change  he  slurring  some  of  take  a l s o made r a t h e r However,  undesirable to  He  r e s p o n s i b l e government.  consider  tried  viction  Confederation.  6,  against  conceded was since  that  the i t  purchased. a l l the  dewas  The mainland  1869.  F e b . 19, 1869. A g a i n s t , Walkem, Havel o c k , Robson, C a r r a l l and Humphreys.  117.  C o l o n i s t - Feb.  19,  1869.  and  a  vour  large minority of  right  Confederation,  time.  Helmcken.  The They  cuss  what  tion  fought  on  question  the  change  ment  the  obstacle  first  step  to  to  Seymour  and  the  the  had  first  a  i t was  at  the  protest,  led  right  dis-  meeting  Governor  therefore  the  of  1869,  part  of 1  the  died. be  certainty.  Governor  Council  the  and  to  after  had  an  to  by  elec-  brought  necessary  n e w s was  thus  At  the  once  up show  said  The  that  two  Intervening  Seymour had  place  was  greatest  replaced  by  now  an  Con-  favour  taken  had  by  become  to  part  The  of  in  immediately  was  the  entry.  writing  obstacles  the  Govern-  i n favour  Confederation  territory  been  Dominion  one was  that  removing  Columbia's  Macdonald  His  received  Canada,  Governor by  S i r J o h n A.  i t might  removed,  was  middle  replace  of Musgrave,  been  This  the  terms,  against  in furthering British  While  practicable  equitable  Confederation.  active  and  that  become  federation.  Musgrave,  and  in fa-  Council.  to  was  I s l a n d were unanimous  protested  speech,  the  were  became  fair  Confederation,  Before territories  on  declared  in his  in  Vancouver  majority  i t pleased.  the  breat  of  i t of  advocate  a  had Canada,  of  Con-  federation. The  other  attitude  of  over  officials  the  the  positions  when  them  the  that  ernment 1.  officials, i t was  magistrates that  the  were only  Confederation  s e r v i c e and  British  obstacles,  still  C o l o n i s t - May  to  a matter  be of  came a b o u t .  would the  annexation  be  placed  officials 26,  1869.  movement  overcome. assuring  Musgrave in  would  the be  and  the  To  them  win their  promised  Dominion pensioned.  govAf-  123 ter  that  there 1  was  no  danger  that  they  would  vote  against  Con-  federation. The was  a  strong  hut  with  a  party  not  S u c h men  be  some f i f t y was  circulated  dent  and  of  with  I t was also  ing  province  London  would  not  were  to  ation  of  there.  eign  declared  since  r e s o l u t i o n was 4  but  Por  i t was  definitely outside  that  the the  for  swan  of  Confederation I t was  Judge  P.  C.'s  Walter  N.  Howay,  2.  Sage,  3.  British  4.  Sage  Colonist  W.  - B.  of  the  States  the  American  Jan.  -  Op.  28, Cit.  the  of  lived Por-  hand  The  majority  i n B.  in  main-  of  the  the  Confederation.  Movement  1870.  annex-  on  upper  a matter  into  i f  citizens  the  merely  the  Committee  had  from  the  and  -  ced-  Government  movement.  Annexationist  Collyer.  quoting  the  -  Co-  claims.  one  Entry  Presi-  considering 2  many A m e r i c a n  song  the  Vincent  joining  annexation  peti-  British  resolution favouring so  received  This  Imperial  Again  r e f e r r e d to  time  which  Colonist,  the  very  Helmcken  i t to  by  was  the  were  acquire  Grant  from  Victoria.  1.  of  to  impossible.  Columbia  to  Alabama  Columbia 3  a  sending  England  the  Dr.  British.  steps  President  letters  British  Relations.  island,  wrote  proved  British This  was  of  Corbitt, introduced  Victoria, land  purpose  that  and  There  Americans,  who  circulated  were  extinguish  which  prevent  Senators,  to  was  take  of  Englishmen  which  to  circtilated  Times,  Confederation  him  presented  Pemberton the  the  of  difficult.  largely  Pemberton  petition of  more  composed  J . D.  ten  requesting  Rumours  the  A  signatures,  was  sprinkling as  ignored.  tion  lumbia.  question  in Victoria,  considerable  influential. could  annexation  C.  Gov-  124 ernor  palling  the  Council  Meanwhile toria  District,  due  tered  the  as  tural  district  field  DeCosmos, enstire ing  farm  would were  ways  it had  have  the  his  w h i c h he  had  helped  Colonist on  The  the ruin  the  the  same  bring  argument  was  but  as  DeCosmos  produce.  that  he  tariff, about,  or  he  Confederation turncoat  reciprocity ,  w h i c h he  that  of  would  protect-  had  a l -  reciprocity  i t is possible  that  en-  outside  for his  yet  Vic-  agricul-  American and  for  i n an  i f  him  of  farmer  type  and  Columbia to  in a l l articles  of  of  Dominion's  question  Council  supporters  criticized  Colonist's  trade  been  the  b e f o r e ..them.  running  competition  promised  than  the  Davis,  was  British  Eastern  that  Canada  been. Notwithstanding  people  of  the  favour  of  him.  this to  He  terms  in  Dr.  the  would  advocated.  of  of  The  i f secured  the  vacancy  death 1  feared  particularly  would  a  candidate.  some o t h e r  would meam f r e e  was  platform,  produce,  secured.  which  a  putting  the  continuation  secure  policy,  to  which  in his  the  there  and  country,  watch  tions try  over  likely  into  the  island  the  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s were  "DeCosmos, ought the  to  criticism  to  be  from and  i n t e r e s t s of  take  his  i n our this  place,  Canadian  pending 3 Dominion." one  long  of  of  the  the  enthusiastically  in  political  in  opinion country the  Colonist,  i s , well during  admission  The  campaign  was  1.  British  Colonist  - Nov.  3,  2.  Ibid  -  Nov.  14,  3.  Ibid  -  Nov. 17, 1869. A Island d i s t r i c t .  career  qualified  the of  negotia-  this  p e r s o n a l i t i e s between  coun-  the  Co-  1869. 1869. voter  in Salt  Spring.  125 lonist  and  cusing  DeCosmos  clever, own  but  vertise ment  never  keeping  always  going  wrong  paper,  which  the  Colonist  that  ticisms  any  and  give,  him.  In  i n making  responsible  nally  in  took  this  cil  had  great  all 1.  the  of  to  hear  for  to  or  the  in  of  that  his  Colonist  him  quarrel.  i f a  a  to  ad-  state-  -  he  i t was,  Dec.  speech  to He  the  was  he 1  won  the  had  Gon-  the  leading  was  not  in  people  how  favour  decide f i -  It  responsible  political them  he  Counwas  a  government,  "complicated  upon  of  be  surprising that  that  cri-  on  session  weak G o v e r n o r . of  be  willing  the  divergent  1869.  his  badly  practically 3,  of  not  for i t .  was  considering  advocates  can  candidate  Colonist  i s not  a  some  opened  letting  undoubtedly  It  strong  the As  in  strongly  under  and  al.though  rash  that  It  i n t e r e s t s and  Colonist  the  that  opening  consideration,  British  force  ac-  being  of  the  expensive,  too  Confederation.  question  i n the  conflicting  demand  showed  Confederation  disappointment  accused  elected,  was  themselves.  the  only  was  Governor Musgrave  terms  thought  of  to  defeated.  wnich  speech  matter  view  was  backing  government,  managed  however, tions,  district  His  faith,  letters  unnecessarily  have been  February,  Council.  spirit of  a  said  better  the  ;  he  letters  disproved.  the  w ith  political  DeCosmos  Quite p o s s i b l e  would  in  hand  DeCosmos  out  i t is  he  federation  came  p r i n t i n g many  because  w h i c h he  rate  his  accusatory  D e C o s m o s was  against  the  other  the  denied  to  the  in  Colonist  run  On  p r i n t i n g these  At the  Colonist  of  ambitions.  of m e r e l y  w i t h the  DeCosmos,  ques-  opinions i n many  res-  1 pects  the  d e c i s i o n must He  o u t l i n e d the  Canada  should  should  be  actual  debt  assume  paid and  that  terms  were  loan  for  a  drydock.  once  and  building  built  a  year  steam bia  a  A  debt  other  on  and the  the  payment  survey  for  the  begin i t .  The of  with  Meanwhile  Federal  San  of  a l l the  immunities  Before  calling  the  the  with  million  a  made  should  should  '.There  the  on be  Finally  that  finan-  should  w a g o n x-aad  Columbia.  enjoy  interest  other  interest  government  Francisco.  speech.  percent  The  years a  i n .h i s  d i f f e r e n c e between i t s  railway  i n three  British  five  provinces.  and  on  officials  Oonfederation  Columbia  the  should  years.  of  colony's  subsidy  communication  should  of  spent  i n three  the ^present  the  mine." terms  to B r i t i s h  cial  dollars  be  off-  be  British  other  be  pension  shovild  at  Colum-  provinces  en-  2 joyed.  mcken  and  official  Carrall members  appointment  of  and  in a  yet  tion.  sat  to of  the  Executive  s i n c e he  Council which declared  federation  since  the  able  came f r o m  Council  Legislature.  Helmcken  Helmcken  terms  the  C o u n c i l Musgrave  was  was  t h a t he  terms  opposed  still  he  said  on  objected  to  paper. be  Hel-  the to  unthe  Confederation,  terms  free  i t might  appointed  represent  DeCosmos  were m e r e l y  Canada,  to  fostering  was  had  to  of  Confedera-  oppose If  his  Con-  unfavourduty  to  re-  3 sign. DeCosmos 1.  British  2.  Ibid.  3.  Ibid  objected  to  C o l o n i s t - Feb.  -  Feb.  the  Governor's  16,  1870.  20,  1870.  speech because  of  its of  o p p o s i t i o n to Responsible this  ment. to  a s p i r e d to  I t would be  cram  not  country  a  a  down  government  furtherance  of  this  and  had  difficult  Confederation  t o be  Government  by  matter  the the  belief,  the  and  said  "the  people  capacity for self-govern£OT  throats of people  he  and  the  government  the  people  try  i f i t were 1 people." In  f o r the  DeCosmos moved  to  for a  committee  to  2 outline  a  view  of  the  apparent  view  of  the  paramount  tion  on  the  part  ment  of  Canada  in  case  in  the  constitution  of  conded by  to  and  was  on  report  framed, the  powerless and  suggested  Governor  1.  British  2. 3.  Ibid Ibid  of  the  colony  he  moved  an  a  and  cordial  r e p e a l i n g the Colonist.--  was  union  to  committee  other  be  popular  declared  once could  Salaries  Feb.  20,  1870.  - Feb. - Feb.  19, 24,  1870. 1870.  governDominion changes  injury  the  Act.  was  seCon-  i t was  dan3  government. to a  reduce  resolution  that  the  estimates  o n l y be  of  after  members moved  i n v."  appointed  said  responsible  reductions  Crown  the  until  DeCosmos  things  reductions  the  the  "in  co-opera-  This motion  postponed  without the  of  and  avoiding  discussion Barnard  among  such  a  though  made b y  with  of  constitution.  even  effect  object  that  said,  Canada,  colony  after  He  with  institutions  the  matter  much  this  the  with  was  which to  of union  and  The  After  retrenchment, was  out  Confederation  attempt  estimates.  cil  people  discussed,  secure An  the  of  Humphreys.  federation  gerous  the  questions;"  consider  government.  necessity for loyal  union,  constitution  local  prominence  i n working  such  industrial to  of  f o r the  were  effected  DeCosmos  Coun  by  moved  128 an  amendment  bers,  which  declared  not  the  Council,  defeated,  and  he  was  also  not  supporting  defeated.  consistent mos  was  then  introduced  He  was  known  to  were  powerless.  against  support 1  soon  Attorney-General These  as  the  brought  were  i n the  seconded by was  and  at  the  United  States  rate  suggestion  might  as  well  moved  an  amendment  was,  that  annex h e r s e l f that  the  to  the  question  the  question  "..of C o n f e d e r a t i o n  cil,  instead of  tion  being  Executive.  and  He  was  giving 2 annexation. The  next  the  C o u n c i l was  had  been  British  2.  Ibid  an  open  also the  day  engaged  occupied  1.  Robson  out  asked  one,  asked  was  which  action in  the  said,  most  co  "DeCos-  good—unless  be how  he  - Mar.  1, 10,  opposed  British now  when he  them  to  as  later.  Drake  1870.  was  a  motion,  Coun-  Gonfedera-  with  i n the  Coun-  member  Executive  the  task  complain  Executive  roads,  politics 1870.  the  an  Cana-  s i x months  two  a  as  Columbia  himself as  the  Confedera-  c o u l d Helmcken  i n n a t i o n making,  C o l o n i s t - Mar.  for  postponed  between  entered  Crease,  i t s despondency,  came f r o m  spoke  of,  e v e n t u a l l y absorb  whether,  choice  DeCosmos  s i n c e he  of  States  that  he  of  terms  consequently  i t .  cillor,  one  disposed  would  seconded  the  resolution  Helmcken  coming  Ring  of  amendment  Someone  were  Trutbh.  colony  and  been  government  The  The  had  then.  estimates  opportune.  da.  His  anything--however  not  any  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e mem-  criticized for his  when he  i t until  the  Barnard's  severely  retrenchment of  i t was  i t himself." As  tion.  voted  supporters  never  that  that  saying which  colony.  that he He  129 objected though true for  to  the  official  they  had  always  history  of  were "if  the  that  officials  assured  been  them.  Confederation  i t was had He  speaking  i n favour  Confederation  i t , showing  while  members  i n the  the  been  against  Confederation  i t .  colony  people  completed  d i d not  of  of  who  He  and had  i t until  his  speech  p r o t e c t the  described of  the  fought their  by  as the  agitation for i t  positions  declaring  interests  of  financial  terms  that  farmers,  he  1 would  oppose  it."  DeCosmos committee ever A  on  looked  great  at  deal  Responsible whether  basis  hundred of  that  the  time  to  then  made  ;  has  He  "With  respect  of  said  about  that  pro  an  perfect  an  amendment  the  rata  when  of  that  must  political to  be  the  forty  a money  every  system  financial thousand  per  head  the  of  $150,000 p e r  population  question  exceeded regarding  warranted  British-Colonist  -'-Mar• •'II, • 1 8 7 0 .  2.  Daily  -  3.  British  Standard Colonist  June  - Mar.  on  20,  1870.  15,  1870.  one  terms  the lofty •  withthat  $80,000  one  instead  population million,  annum b e  forty  It is  instead of  eighty cents  reached  have  government,  t o move  be  numbers  J  value.  have money.  subsidy  the  the  government--about  the  f o r honesty  the  have  form  this:  in  Confederation,  that  subsidy  appeal of  should  until  the  the  say  thousand;  temporary  time  I  to  i t must  irresponsible,  population twenty  the  point;  most  moved  importance 1.  on  one  been  f o r the  and  increased  '  i t from  again  Government—but  $35,000;  The  terms.  r e s p o n s i b l e or  impossible 2 out i t . " the  the  spoke  reduced 3  thousand.  financial sentiments  be  and from  He terms. and  1 an"accurate ment  and g e n u i n e p o l i t i c a l s t a n d a r d . " 2 lost, b u t D r a k e ! si t h a t t h e s u b s i d y  was  On Dominion felt  for  to  tion  railway  He  of  a railway  from  terms,  since  not  Lake  the  practical  to have  a  communication  from be  a  initial  an  railway  s e c t i o n s on  a  asking  the  interior  terms,  the  passed.  of  "that the  of  He The  continent, British  the  Co-  construc-  Praser  instead of  seaboard  the  railway.  across  n a v i g a t i o n on  i n the  amend-  impossibility.  without  i n the  $75,000  against  recommendation  steamboat  inserted  be  D e C o s m o s was  i t would be  was  t h e r e f o r e moved  Kamloops  ing  so much,  t h i n g was,  have  lumbia.  to  railway  that material union  important but  the  DeCosmos's  River  commenc-  British  Colum-  3 bia."  This On  moved  that  mitted  was  lost.  the  question  i t be  into  the  of Responsible  inaugurated  Dominion  or  Into 4  the  not.  Government,  colony  DeCosmos  whether  favoured  Humphreys i t was  this  ad-  reso-  l u t i o n r a t h e r than Robson's which asked f o r self-government simultaneously w i t h the p r o v i n c e ' s e n t r y i n t o Confederation. 5 Both  the  amendments On  mendment eign 1.  that  produce  question  British and  defeated. of  manufactures  Drake,  Confederation  4.  British  5.  Ibid  the  Columbia's  D a i l y Standard  2. ~;Ye:as, 3.  the  were  -  Humphreys, Debates  Colonist  -  tariff, tariff  whether June  20,  Wood a n d  DeCosmos moved be  the  kept  as  Canadian  high  an  a-  on  for-  customs  re-  1870. DeCosmos.  Legislative  Oouncil,  R e p r i n t from the V i c t o r i a , King's - Mar. 19, 1870.  Mar.  1870.  Govt. Gazette. Printer, 1912.  - Mar. 20, 1870. For f i r s t , Drake, R i n g , DeCosmos, Humphreys. For n e x t , Robson, B a r n a r d and former.  131 quired  this  or not.  horticultural but  and d a i r y i n g  the proposal  terests  also  Helmcken's motion  o f DeCosmos 1  was  n o t be  should  be  gainst  i t .  colony  o r some  in  the terms.  right  portion  to pass  expediency  ment  was  Robson  accused  not  propose  the  Yale  said the  amended  i thimself  he h a d always  colony. Yale  at  New  He  port  He  British  2. 4. 3.  Ibid Ibid Ibid.  Colonist  DeCosmos  t o admit  articles f o r this  Columbia,  and s a i d  against  h e was  been  into  for protection  since  h a d no  objection  of union,  t o go over  - Mar.  24, 1 8 7 0 .  - Mar. - Mar.  25, 1 8 7 0 . 26, 1 8 7 0 .  after  ad-  declaring amend3  against'it. he d i d since  at  DeCosmos he  into  came the  to terms  the Assay  to the free  b u t he  included  Robosn's  i t because  feelings  the  any time  port.  injured  a-  i n the terms the  inconsistent 4  port  Canada  voting  being  a free  the free  of  not produced i n  and Humphreys v o t i n g  a s one o f t h e t e r m s  1.  with  on t h e P a c i f i c .  of voting  Robson's  Westminster.  included  p a s s e d , *.  the r a i l r o a d  to the Governor-General,  had allowed  t o soothe  the t a r i f f  to include  of British  DeCosmos  DeCosmos  this  Convention he h a d advocated  that  at  lost  provision  an address  with  was  of i t certain  of a free  lost,  was  the manufacturing i n -  until  a resolution  or the colony, Robson  that  the colony  and t h i s  of the Legislature  mission, the  over  DeCosmos moved  Dominion  be p r o t e c t e d  to consider  a resolution  extended  completed, 2  the  the a g r i c u l t u r a l ,  defeated.  Robson moved should  interests  that  port  Office being  d i d n o t want t o  132 1 see  i t ptit  i n the  way  Robson  DeCosmos moved tory  of Alaska,  have  a  to  the  near would buy  territory  South.  Alaska The  probably  an to  left  out •3  to  was  United  sell  extended  also  that  "Canada  i f possible."  compact  to her.  had.  the  on  In  final  north  similar  i t cheap.  i n c l u d e Maine i n the  DeCosmos  States  frontier  Nov/  the  tired was  Pacific  of  that  the  the  her  the  time 2 Coast;.  These  must  States  Columbia  of  Terri-  Canada  United  British  purchase.  passing  purchase  felt  as  to  was  the  the  shall  and  was  bargain for  had  and  Canada  to  Robs;o>n m o v e d  r e s o l u t i o n s were  complete  terms,  March  25,  1870. On tion  of  chosen cent  Trutch,  converts  sent  to  as  this  Carrall,  that  was  not  to  be  confidence  the a  of  and  latter sine  i n the  qua  a  into  committee  the  ques-  to  Ottawa.  Helmcken—two  of  these  were  still  an  Helmcken  a people's  was  delegation 4  should  Those re-  op-  also  representative. held  to  regarding  this  further responsible  r e s p o n s i b l e government should non  be  of  delayed.  1.  Confederation  -  Op.  Cit.  2.  Ibid  - P. 1 5 4 .  3.  Ibid  -  P.  157.  4.  Ibid  -  P.  159.  P.  question  was  The  DeCosmos 145.  of  government. granted  Responsible  Confederation.  government delegates. Debates  on  delegation  while  was  Ottawa  that unless  Confederation  no  expenses  felt  one  delegates  should  House went  public meeting  B e a v e n moved  ment  the  Confederation  DeCosmos  A popular  6,  p r o v i d i n g the were  ponent.  be  April  with  Govern-  people spoke  had in  133 favour ing  of  that  this he  notorious  resolution also.  had  no  speech  libellious  which  language.  an  infamous  to  break  in  government,  at  present  arrangement--and  he  would  also  and  suspen s i o n from  "Council  attacked  the  land  i t , declarhe  the  made  House  his for  constituted  do  a l l he  office  and  was  could  the  of-  general.  improper  and  was  questioned to  his  supported  as  He  Walkem,  language  i n the  caused The  rascally 1  i t up."  ficials  as  confidence  Humphreys  the  Council,  slanderous.  intemperate,,  in  question  in  the  the  matter  DeCosmos  i t was  Hoxise.  He  but  criticized  not  said  that,  the  right  consider  speech  although  sufficiently  admitted  d i d not  Humphreys's  his  serious  of  the  to  be  Council  i t politic  to  con-  2 sider  contempt  suspended was  by  outside  the  Seelye  as  peoples's the  terms  and  the  most  the  Imperial the  special  secure  terms  was and  taken  were at  eighty  1.  British  2. 3.  Ibid Ibid  of  on  the  cents  delegates! the  The  terms  the  seventh  The  thousand head  Colonist - April -  of  Legislative  per  Majesty's  responsible  different. sixty  Spril April  Humphreys  was 3  r.  pleasure.  He  Ottawa  Mr.  Government.  correspondent  to  those  Her  government  Colonist notified  financial  $35,000  with  Eventually  waiting  Confederation.  respects  lumbia  the  (delegate of  House.  Governor,  r e i n s t a t e d by Along  the  Colonist  were of  the  They  except  subsidy  14, 26,  1870. 1870.  Message  were that  was  No.  of  finally  British  up  the  one  July.  a population 1870.  as upon  of  went as  agreed  Council,  12,  and  government  population  and on  to  to  to  the Co-  be  four  19.  in  134 hundred minion a  thousand.  To  government  was  grant  of  land  year.  Moreover  terms,  to  of  law  State  stitution  of  the  of  the  Columbia  editor  to  the  and  Evening  was  critical  deal mer  and of  of  spent and  by  were  being  Musgrave sist  an  a  the  two  his  or  was  of  other  the  a majority  of  keeping 1  the  newspaper  conof option  the  Bri-  circles,  Standard,  the  policy  supporting 2  of  to  the  of  came  Colonist.  apostacy,  successor  people.  the  when  Con-  He  railway,  how-  in for  great  The  in criticizing  of  the  existing  given  question  the  i t , and  term  completed.  practicableness this  a  invthe  was  for  a  entire  each  sum-  other's  other  matters  lacking. d i d not "Though  is practically of  Daily  $100,000  the  that  re-entered  editors  each  amend  satisfactory  from Robson  despot.  abuse  the  Do-  a u t h o r i t y under  once  railway  the  government  included  province  at  declared  the  to  of  desired  given  The  the  were  was  providing  tariff  d i s c u s s i o n of  DeCosmos of  of  accusing  interest  He  terms  criticism  was  policy  in his  was  DeCosmos h a d  News.  rate  inhabitants  elected.  until  Columbia  the  Colonies,  p r o p r i e t o r of  i f the  ever,  the  at  government  the  Dominion  tariff  d i f f e r e n c e i n money British  L e g i s l a t u r e , by  federation rather  the  Oolumbia  for  Meanwhile as  the  railway  when  s h o u l d " be  accenting  tish  the  British  of  members  pay  responsible  Secretary  the  to  along  become  government  make up  his  Journals  -  2.  Daily  -  to  accuse  theoretically master.  despotic  1.  Standard  the  hesitate  sway  The i s the  the only  Governor  Musgrave  servant,  Governor  local  press  Legislative Council, 4 f f . J u n e 20, 1870.  1871.  and  power public Jan.  5.  to  re-  opiiiP". ,  ion.  We  a r e one s t e p  civilized number tion  government—a  on the o f f i c i a l  t o do  grave  so.  Now  however, He  "Everybody shall  system  we  i n order  will  to bring  t h e Government  ment  o f the day as t h e i r feel  that  are  the property  object,9we pinion, tions, of  they  broad  belong  direction,  party weight  may  a party  with  this  that  i n accord  >.  the govern-  the people  much  political  political large  the capacity  and i n f l u e n c e  '  of the  desired  o f a l l shades  or present  this  t h e government  To e f f e c t  possessing  change  and n o t t h a t  the chaotic  On  One o b j e c t  cherish  men  Mus-  i n h i s paper.  and t h a t  to act with  to order  inten-  lives."  of the people  to the people,  and to c r e a t e  principles--a  vigour,  government,  of  Governor  an immediate  the majority  o f '.did i s s u e s  so a s t o r e d u c e  of our  government.  the majority  be prepared  irrespective  t o redeem  government  be t o urge  so t h a t  h a s no  be C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 1  a year  o f the government.  shall  the country,  i twill  responsible  with  may  hope  form  Has he redticed t h e  And a p p a r e n t l y  o f the present  i n view  the lowest  i s anything  he has wasted  i s tired  above  Despotism.  No I  i f there  advocated  have  military Roll?  from mediocrity  question,  we  and one o n l y ,  views  o f o-  rela-  elements based  to give  to a popular,--a  on  force, peo-  2 pie's  Government."  ernment ronage. stance  Robson  criticized  DeCosmos's  as p a r t y  government  and the seeking  He h o p e d free  from  1.  Daily  2. 3.  Ibid. British  that  i t would  party.  Standard  Colonist  be worked  I t seemed  - -  June  - Sept.  idea  t o be  20, 1 8 7 0 .  8, 1 8 7 0 .  of responsible  gov-  for office  pat-  and  out In the f i r s t the misfortune  i n -  of B r i -  tish  Columbia  could of  not  see  that  her  that  party  responsible  at  Council "What  was  can  and not  be  possess  Is  i t anthing  ing  and  was  to  of  few  exceptions,  a necessary  Confederation  agitate  for  the  when r u m o u r s b e g a n to  the  to  w i t h .but  government  terms  once began  constitution  men,  requisite  government.  When t h e Cosmos  public  be  wholly  grounds  refusing  or  for  to  less  refusing  than  restore  proclamation gain  e l e c t i v e , he  a Legislative Council more  to  w e r e made p u b l i c ,  t<&  to  that the  the  ground  blamed the  shall  the  that  the  the  people be  new  Governor. the  right  entirely elective?  possessors people  of  De-  of  their  power  retain-  rightful  share  1 of  power  i n the  Government  DeCosmos only  British  that  aliens  He  also  five  feared  ral  house,  terminus  Robson, so  than  1. 2.  illiberal  the  next  in  to  get  that  this  of  country  DeCosmos  Dominion Columbia  the  Standard  the  railway  proposal,  sectionalism  inconsistency.  - July - Aug.  be  cry. appeared  short 15, 13,  time  to  government, would  but  1870. 1870.  suggested 2 a  the for  vote.  nev/ the  that  Counfede-  practi-  disfranchised.  be  much  The  letting  in Victoria  to  of  He  given  franchise  the  a  be  liberal  the  for  should  a more  time  of  election.  elected  British  regretted  franchise,  members  transcontinental  continued  Daily Ibid  the  country?"  the  DeCosmos b a c k e d who  at  unless  About the  vote  years  of  accused  question  the  whole  of  qtiimalt.  criticized  that  wereipledged  the  the  subjects  cil  cally  of  the  for  the  at  Es-  situated  to  the  disgust  p o l i c y and  controversy  eventually  at  who  over a  of althe  public  meeting the  i t was  opinion  decided  of  this  by  a  resolution  meeting  a  railway  between V i c t o r i a 1  and  Nanaimo,  as  a  Railway."  was  seconded  by  Dr.  joining  This  this  engineers  railway  who  could  About hed  and  Council.  that  had  and  that  been  al  has  will  berty now  the  not  District turned  by  of  those  where he  water  the  of  thanks  the  Imperial  such  a  of  that  the  taken  agents  they  of  was  the  that  to  by  was  act.  be  Dr.  publis-  new  Six  liberty  constitution  We  look  to  be  gran-  Our  l i -  restoration  one  whit  the  fullest  ran and  and  the  s p a n i e l s to  DeCosmos Tolmie,  he  to  country.  not  Imperi-  Both  about  to  upon  the  granted  power  by  Governor  i t s partial  are  them."  nominated  new  i s now  arbitrary  Columbia 2  kicked  the  offer  i n the  and  of  Canadian  partial  to  exercised despotism  British  who  to  justification.  away, of  the  C o n s t i t u t i o n to  ought  liberty  question  route.  C o u n c i l l o r s f o r the by  "in  constructed  constitution  no  g r a t i t u d e anywhere  when  people  in he  more exlick  Victoria was  re-  acclamation. The  1. 2.  no  to  "We  power  modicum  make  than  The  hands  the  full  was  left  that  Transcontinental  The  resented  have  be  the  for elections  incapable  unjustifiably  respected tent.  the  produce  was  will  being  to  Tolmie.  best  October,  i n recommending as  the  of  bitterly  foreshadovzed  withhold and  on  DeCosmos's  ought  part  mainland  w e r e made  his Executive  conduct  people; ted  time,  granted.  Government  they  this  DeCosmos  been  Musgrave  the  decide  preparations  Nine  their  to  of  Governor  D a i l y Standard Ibid  -  opened Oct. Oct.  the  27, 14,  House 1870. 1870.  on  the  fifth  of  January,  and to  in his Her  the  opening  Majesty  terms  speech  praying  proposed.  introduce  a b i l l  recommended  for  He  admission  then  the Into  declared  g i v i n g a more  passage the  that  of  an  address  Confederation  he  was  representative  on  prepared  body.  The  to speech  1 also  r e f e r r e d to The  the  time  tariff,  of  the  taxation  Hotise  was  mates  so  that  the  question  of  until  January  21,  when  Council,  passed  an  address  to Her 2  Dominion  of  vide  connecting  for  way.  This  Canada.  was on  the  was  great  deal  Cosmos basis only  January  the of  as  was  thing  the  British  for  that  the  to  their  give to  the  with  and  1.  Journals  -  Legislative  2. 4.  Ibid Ibid  -  Jan. Feb.  23. 6.  the  power  suit  the  3.  Ibid  -  Feb..  10.  P.  manhood were  28.  the  on  into  1871.  of  to  govern4  on  a is  was  in  a De-  money the of  its  measuring honour,  indissolubly 5.  In  voters.  though  Jan.  Rail  6.  conservatism  as  pro-  alter  voters  stupidity  the  Pacific  February  for  up  whole,  responsible  question  silly  esti-  brought  constitution, there  political  P. 17. P. 25.  the 3  two.  qualification  Council,  of  to  a mere money b a s i s ,  intelligence  not  the  r e s o l u t i o n to  qualification  the  to  admission  passed  placing  t h a t marks  r i g h t s on  to  finally  "The  betrays  eight  Columbia  altering  done. Bill  of  \?as  a  Esquimalt  b i l l  I t was  allotted  for  t h e n moved  vote  strenuously  i n the  political  patriotism,  a  estimates.  i n committee  asking  and  d i s c u s s i o n over  being  and  by  31,  b i l l  objected  framers; out  carried  introduced.  considering  Majesty  Victoria  first  the  Confederation  Helmcken  c o n s t i t u t i o n of  ment  the  and  P.  allied 3.  1 with  dollars."  take  a mushroom  when  the  any  whole  progress  "Our  parvenu  aristocracy,  for a  coat  arms,  history  of  that  the  of the  ape  country  countrv  has  most  political  i s an  ever  of  whom  superiority,  undoubted  made, h a s  might  proof  been  in  that  opnosi-  2 tion  to  this  depreciating class."  The one  question which  caused  the  vil  w h i c h DeCosmos o p p o s e d most s t r o n g l y 3 List Bill. DeCosmos s a i d " t h e b i l l  two  classes  the  people  In  country,  distrusted  Nelson,  moved  all  the  but  the  an  on  heads  of  discussion  was  the  virtually  o f f i c i a l s on 4 other." DeCosmos,  to  alter  departments'  the  b i l l  salaries,  so  and  permanent  secured  the  amendment  most  side,  seconded  but  Ci-  perpetuates  one  as  the  to  this  and by  exclud® was  defeat-  5 ed. A meeting  test  against  the  of  Bill  Standard  the  at which  1.  Daily  2.  Ibid  3.  Laws  4.  Daily  5.  Journals  -  6.  Daily  - Mar..  . of  B.  C.  Standard  Standard  people  - Feb.  22,  - Mar.  1,  -  of  Victoria  DeCosmos  was 6  spoke.  held  "The  to  Civil  pro-  List  1871. 1871.  1 8 7 1 , No. 1 6 0 . An A c t to P r o v i d e f o r a Permanent C i v i l L i s t . Mar. 27, 1871. 1. P a y a b l e e v e r y y e a r out o f the gene r a l revemte, n o t e x c e e d i n g $78,346.25 to d e f r a y e x p e n s e s o f v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s enumerated. 2. Payable f o r each w h i l e the incumb e n t s , a t t h e t i m e t h e a c t comes i n t o operation, remain i n o f f i c e . T h e r e w e r e 57 i t e m s a n d 61 p e r s o n s . It was r e p e a l e d A p r i l 1 1 , 1872.  - Mar.  15,  1871.  Legislative 31,  Council,  1871.  1871.  P.  46.  Act  i s a deliberate  fifty-odd a  a t t e m p t on  officials  the part  independent of the people.  great  principle  of the B r i t i s h  namely,  the r i g h t  of the people  Instead  of violating  tional  principles  would have sions  W h a t we  want  to  of  Constitution 'it© c o n t r o l  the o l d e s t  of the nation  to have  that  salaries  i s government  will  execute  m i g h t be  respect  servants.  Such  but not  a government  or might  purse.  t h e few, i t  subordinate  pen  f o r a l lof  be  removed.  will--a  i t s officials  colony  violated  constitu-  of the colony,  t o be  this  been  this  act to provide  the popular  and m a i n t a i n  i t s decrees,  has  soundest  an  c u t down,  b a s e d on  In doing  to benefit  passed  t o make  the p u b l i c  and  i n order  or compensations a t the expense whose  ment  one  b e e n more m a n l y  ficials  of our r u l e r s  as  govern-  i t s agents  to i t s p a i d  can never have  t i l l 1  the  Permanent  Civil  List  Meanwhile moved  t h e House  mission sed  the House  ate  by  British  committee  Columbia.  o f Commons b y  a majority  of  Confederation circles  July  1871,  mos in  20,  had been 1868  the 1.  he  been  h a d become  active  as  Standard  On  July  a fact.  the twentieth  31,  first 22,  of  been  1866,  f o r the  of  1871.  pas-  the  July,  put forward b y DeCosmos, time  i n favour  attended  ad-  they  and  of the p r o j e c t .  he  Cartier  Sen1871  Canada.  Throughout that  resolutions  o f 1868  - Mar.  of eighteen  of the Dominion  i n h i s support  In the f a l l  S i r George  some d i s c u s s i o n ,  a majority  which had  early  repealed."  the r e s o l u t i o n s  After  had brought forward  Council. Daily  as  on  seventeen.  C o l u m b i a became p a r t  islative  have  i n the Dominion House,  into  of B r i t i s h  Act shall  in leg now DeCos-  I n 1867  and  of i t i n  the Y a l e  Conven-  tion  which  year  he  of  his  was  to  versed  the  the  favour  mend  defeated  support  lected  in  advocated  so  of  terms  of  province  of  he  the  would was  be  moved  i n favour  might  of  as  the  most  Moreover  was  the  due  tion  of  the  task  of  of  the  self-government  at  last  ambitious i n the  i n the British  British  was  passed  attempted  the  the  province. endorsed  Queen,  DeCosmos had now  saw  British  his North  Columbia  colony,  statesman  great  he  because  and  ereterms to  a-  F i the defi-  government.  l i f e — h e  link  that  of Musgrave  i n 1870  to  to  i n 1871,  his  every  1869  Council which  responsible  westerly  Federation.  was  address  of  great  rightful  an  aims  two  i n late  and  of  Victoria  w h i c h DeCosmos  the  that,  of  guidance  of  said  can  It  Again the  elections  vote  favourable  be  the  the  session,  more  a member  In  foreign  previous  delegates,  decided  plished  the  Confederation.  they  i n 1871  It  the  Confederation--terms  that  the  by  C o u n c i l which under  vote  nally  nitely  of  Confederation.  to  had  accomadopted Ameriwon  what  self-government. work  Confederation.  the  institu-  142  DeCosmos  At Governor, returned tions  House  son  Trutch, from  who h a d b e e n  England,  a t once  o f Commons.  after  Legislative  issued writs  Lieutenanta t Ottawa, f o r the elec-  Assembly  of British  Columbia.  h i s intention  of running  f o r the  District,  He was n o m i n a t e d  to serve  one o f t h e d e l e g a t e s  and soon  announced  f o r Victoria  1869.  i n t h e House  V -  t h e e n d o f t h e summer o f 1 8 7 1 t h e new  f o r the f i r s t  DeCosmos  Chapter  which he had r e p r e s e n t e d  by Dr. Tolmie  i n the Assembly  since  as a " f i t  they  since  and proper  w e r e now  t o have  per-  an op-  1 portunity nearly out  themselves."  fourteen years  seeking  ambition,  the  to govern  to secure  f o roffice,  but simply 2  country."  without  from  a  "He h a d l a b o u r e d the reforms  remuneration,  strong  He was e l e c t e d  we now  sense  hard f o r enjoy,  with-  and without  of doing  a s s e n i o r member  any  h i s dutv  f o rthis  to  dis-  trict. He toria "He  District.  wished  heaped drive been  also  ran f o r the federal On e l e c t i o n  t o s a y , t h a t were  House  d a y h e made  the customary  i t n o t f o r t h e amount  upon him, and the o p p o s i t i o n , o f f e r e d him into  retirement,  a candidate  1.  Daily  2.  Ibid  to-day.  Standard  a s member  - O c t . 16, 1 8 7 1 . - O c t . 23, 1 8 7 1 .  speech.  o f abuse  i n attempting  i n a l l probability He h a d n o a m b i t i o n  f o r Vic-  he would  to  n o t have  t o go t o C a n a d a , - -  not he  i n the should  rests his if  of  look  there,  the He  be  to  to  ment  i f the  bargain,  "and  would be  a  in  the  of he  not  should  and  to  in public 2  of  at  bound  to  to go  serve there  his  support  opinion here,  also  that  admission. do  in  abide no  i n the  to  the.govern-  would to  as  next  felt  province's  arise,  serve  duties  He  he  inte-  Columbian  first  willing  D e C o s m o s was  to  large."  what  If  the  the  to  issues  pocket.  Province, 1  the  itself  political  to  the  secure as  in his  a British  one  of  duty  a pledge  new  much  Dominion  was  dime  endeavour  as  o p p o s i t i o n showed  the  by  doubt  the there  same way  e l e c t e d to  as  the  House. can  principles  or  he  the  entered  be  seen  colony.  He  public opinion.  islature  which  responsible  f o r the  was  act  part  to  From  He  represent  of  the  the  first  n e g l e c t i n g any or  taken  up  a  paper  and  running  a member  time was  not  advocated  s t i l l  was  the  great  M c C1. r e i gDhati l ay s S P tr ae nm di ae rr d. Ibid.  He  was  had  was  first  government.  where he a  t h a t he  d u t i e s w h i c h he  moulding  2.  the  a  intend  interests  Provinces."  It  as  d i d not  so much  division  other  Federal  was  put to  himself  the  done  he  country;  Columbian  however,  future  i n the  interests  which had  This,  he  considered  a British  never  i t would  advance  the  would  Province,  were b o r n  would  as  go  own. he  l e a s t — i t  was  the  attempting  a member  Province  of  of  the  of  the  since thus  Provincial to  work  under  Dominion  House  in i t s first  attempt  federation.  DeCosmos  opposed  Trutch* s  e ,u t e n1 a NT oh ve . L i2 5 8 7n 1t.- G o v e r n o r  Leg  had  choice  of  appointed  to  M c C r e i g h t as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l i n A u g u s t , 1871, 1 ston. M c C r e i g h t r a n i n V i c t o r i a C i t y a n d was November  14,  1871,  that  i f McCreight  tion  then  there  '3  the was  was  He  felt,  ney-General  however,  until  the  should have  ciple  of  a l l o w i n g the  s i t i n the  people  as  sign  under ent  of weakness 4  strange  ground  and  that  that  i t was  "to  after the  year  time  resign  of  and  said,  McCreight  1.  Government  2.  Ibid  3.  Laws  4.  Daily  o f B.  round  the  seek  elec-  re-elec-  Gazette  C.  Standard  To  has of  If this  was  chosen  the  as  re-election  always  for British  of  the  26,  the  question  been  Columbia  Premier  an  on  oppon-  the  small population. cry  battles  - Aug.  constitu-  first  to  the  Liberals  o l d l e a d e r s — t h e men  take  prin-  non-resigna-  avoided  aspect  had  was  officers  a well-known  legal  Attor-  constitutional  view  the  a  acting  executive  "we  s i n c e he  their  their  cause,  what  a violation  of  formed.  broad  He  issued a battle  fought  popular  the say  u n s u i t a b l e to  rally  was  to  r e s p o n s i b l e government  Province  serted  the  been merely  i n w h i c h he  Outside  DeCosmos  year  way  r e s p o n s i b l e government  of  to  had  ministry  Assembly.  principle."  he  r e s i g n e d on  of McCreight--the  seems  that  new  tion  it  f o r him  at  -  he  tional  need  elected. Then, 2 formed. DeCosmos s a i d  was  Attorney-General  no  true,  a  ministry  replace A l -  '  tion.  should  new  to  and  any  have  other  1871.  P.  i n no course  who  of  the  have  instance i s to  de-  con-  2.  Nov. 14, 1 8 7 1 . P. 1. Appointments of C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and Commission e r o f Lands and Works. Good, t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e£, h a d been C o l o n i a l Secretary u n t i l then. 1871. No. 1 4 7 . A n A c t t o amend a n d a l t e r the C o n s t i t u t i o n of t h i s Colony. F e b . 13, 1 8 7 1 . Victoria, 34. Nov.  17,  1871.  vict  themselves  party, sible the  that  year  of  treason  by  year,  Government,  Dominion.  nominees  of  alliance  with  It  ted  to  gain  meeting he  of  called  i s no  treason, 1  the  the  people  an  for  outlined for  the  progress  could the  not,  matured one he  to  and  presented  had He  Governor  government.  the  the  urged  to  Respon-  ignore  party  with the  t o make  to  McCreight  Instead  authorize  ridicule for  him  the  of  no  an  for  free  attem-  calling  his  committee,  and  m i n i s t r y i t s due  a  proceedings, action  which  substituting  opinion  the  of  the  programme  congratulated  the  for public  respect  from making  them b y  they  In  s e s s i o n and  forbear  himself  have  the  one  measures  other  appropriated,--would thief  i n the 3  fine  as  a  gentleman,  dressclothes of  on  opinion.  thrust.  that  them  be  "To  ask  men  have  like  simply a  He  asking because  citizen  from  them."  d i d not  for their  to  purposes 2  a notorious  stolen  Liberal  Confederation  p u b l i c wrong  begged  election  coming  judge  which  receive  whom h e  the  i t showed  to  He  and  the  Columbia.  however,  country  the  election  DeCosmos gave it  no  to  have  o p p o s i t i o n aroused,  opportunity  British  years  Provinces,  of V i c t o r i a  of  treason  government.  for his  a meeting  of  the  Trutch."  of  support  committee  people  of  McCreight's  gave DeCosmos a  for fourteen  Union  Governor  Because  t o manhood,  h e s i t a t e to  choice  1.  D a i l y Standard  3. 2.  Ibid Ibid  of  criticize  Senators  - Nov.  21,  1871.  - Jan. - - Nov.  16, 23,  1872. 1871.  the  f o r the  m i n i s t r y and Dominion. " At  the pre-  146 sent on  we  the  side  people I  may  to  say  of  people,—not  the  t h a t we  his political  laboured  your  justly  f o r and  won  Ottawa  cabinet,  the  latter  must  f o r yon,  be  sition  to  the  because  the  he  secure  had  British ber in  of  and  The  those  sake,but  Columbia,  the  one  and  say,  there  and  1  accept  reward.  The  single  who  can  are the  and  senator point  the  the  measures  senatorship  result  Trutch 1  to  i s due  as  not  to  his ministry,  Colonist  him  the  a l l governments  and  Union  Confederation i f any  t h a t he  man  was  can  opposed  f o r the  the  first  Doug-  for  to op-  people—to Island  Canada--and have  Chame-  i t failed  of Vancouver with  oppo-  Governor  "but  were n o t  self-government  for his  Political  from  replied,  Governments  get  measures  the  i t called  Government, and  by  Standard  other measures—and  seeing  a  single  Governor  opposed  that  Responsible  have  a  criticized  government  fact,  position' s  to  not  held responsible."  las' s to McCreight's. tell  a s my  but  D e C o s m o s was  leon  record  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and  the  will  any  a  with  vast  num-  satisfaction  i n the  Province  to  2 advocate,  then As  mos  turned  members, "We  Mr.  the  1.  Daily  2.-  Ibid  opening  his pleading  begging  cannot  DeCosmos h a s  think  of  Standard  to  the  support  political  satisfaction."  Legislature  away f r o m  them n o t that  the  that  people  approached, toward  McCreight's  m o r a l i t y has  yet  the  DeCoselected  government. sunk  so  low,  - D e c . 6, 1 8 7 1 . The S e n a t o r s were C a r r a l l , who s u p p o r t e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n b u t was ag a i n s t r e s p o n s i b l e government, Cornwall, a n d M a c d o n a l d , a t one t i m e M a y o r o f V i c t o r i a a n d a p p o i n t e d a member o f t h e L e g islative Council in 1867. -  Jan.  18,  1872.  nor  t h a t members  support  a r e so l o s t  a ministry created  Government—and  fensible  existing  political  He  was  tical  time,  he  defeated  serious of  ty,  that  The  thereby ponsible  be  h a d made  as more  2. 3.  Ibid Ibid  inde-  the McCreight  i s a man  also  of parts,  important this  gave  W h a t e v e r may  opponent  acquainted  principal•question  Standard  come  be  with  - Feb* 2:6,, 1 8 7 2 . - F e b . 17, 1872.  to  wor-  stay  have be  be  a  said  of h i spar2  f o r leaving before  f o r Ot-  the Dominion  interest,  early  i t was  at h i s post,  a l l their  a t Ottawa  - J a n . 22., 1 8 7 2 .  cri-  of the m i n i s t r y . "  h a s a deep  should  and more  doubtless  the main  will  province  at a  of h i s career.  will  h i s reasons  matters  House.-  government might  " H i s absence  formidable  of the As-  I t i s possible that i f  to discharge 3 d u t i e s d e v o l v i n g upon him."  Daily  an  w h i c h h e was  important  the b e t t e r prepared  1.  by  province  the decision  to the opposition.  thoroughly  The  form  as t o  Responsible  the Dominion  the remainder  always  t h a t Mr. DeCosmos  make h i m s e l f  to attend  the narrower..  really  i n which  moment  of  a few days  d e s e r t i n g h i s own  session.  Standard  "As v e r y  Parliament great  than  he  f o r only  f o r Ottawa  field  disadvantage  and the o n l y  tawa.  present  i n Victoria  his politics,  i n i t s present  throughout  the larger  of h i s efforts  been  only 1  b u t DeCosmos  had stayed  contrary to the s p i r i t  f o r thus  consistently  chose  thy  was  left  criticized  follow He  he  o f "independence,  trick."  DeCosmos sembly b e f o r e  t o a sense  details,  the h i g h  which  to and  and r e s -  vitally  inte-  of  rested^the 1871, fic  P r o v i n c e was  the terminus side,  of this 2 Ottawa.  that  comments  definite  a t Ottawa  o n a new m e m b e r .  "Mr. DeCosmos h a s e v e r y  force,  acerbity  those  o f manner,  excellent As  qualities  t o become  member  on h i s f i r s t  ent he  matters  active  affecting  given  British  I t had adopted  "Mr. D e C o s m o s  standing  that  protection  young, 1.  Daily  2. 3. 4.  Press  nursing,  Standard  the remarked  intellectual any of  that  causes  time,  although  tariff  i t s own u n t i l  the Canadian  De-  he  - April  30, 1 8 7 2 .  Ibid Ibid  - A p r i l 27, 1872. - May 15, 1872.  tariff, of the  although  i t was  Columbia,  was notwith-  Tariff,•••was i n f a v o u r  f o r i t sfarmers  Ibid  differ-  situation  and a g r i c u l t u r e .  26, 1 8 7 1 .  the  the r a i l w a y  British  - April  about  Regarding  out the p e c u l i a r  f o r manufactures  suddenly  regarding the Geological  Columbia.  explained that  i t had adopted  i t required  so  f o r the f i r s t  attention,  the Canadian  the option of keeping  built..  much  speech  April  noxious."  i n a s k i n g many q u e s t i o n s  d i d not neglect to point  province.  of  was  of high  a t Ottawa,  was  as  there, were o f c o u r s e  of character, without  d i d not attract  He  left  The Ottawa F r e e  Cosmos n a t u r a l l y  Survey.  DeCosmos  o r unreasonable: doggedness which 3  a private  complimented 4  early  on t h e P a c i 1 decided. I t was  had been  appearance  and o f g r e a t f i r m n e s s  As  as Esquimalt  railway question that  On h i s a r r i v a l usual  of the railway.  had been mentioned  although nothing  because for  that  May  The c o l o n y  were poor, 12, 1 8 7 1 .  and  was  their  country  was  rugged  the  agriculturists  ted  was  their  t o grow  money  came u p the  bout  vital  asked  that  what 2  o f h i s speech,  stances nect any  the railway  Hanaimo case  will  be  i f the railway  be  was  company  ple  of B r i t i s h  building  of stock  management  declared  were  a s i t was  get control  feared  He  criticized  the opposition  he  heard  the opposite  from  1.  Daily  2.  Ibid  3. 4.  Ibid Ibid  Standard  —  that  In the  i n any  circum-  Langevin  i n his reply  said  to Burrard  he  of the was  He  stand  Inlet  also  felt  side  only  - May  16,  1872.  - May  28,  1872.  J u n e 21, 1 8 7 2 . - MJ au in le . 2 9 , 1 8 7 2 .  conin  "a f e r r y 3  a few  Quoted Quoted  " t h e peo-  a vote  a-  i n the  individuals 4  subscribers."  for their confirmed  than  sufficient  them  out the smallest severely  that  o f more  that  unless  to give  otherwise  to  railway."  i n favour  aloof  t o them that  and f r e e z e  t h e Domin-  Island  would  allotted  were p r a c t i c a b l e  to Vancouver  that  a-  Works, r e -  extended  as p a r t  of  of Public  advocated  the railway.  Columbia  keep  t o do  as t h e t e r m i n u s .  carried  wan-  Railway  Government i n t e n d e d  to use that  carried to Esquimalt  one  might  must  and  Pacific  with  they  i n the course  the M i n i s t e r  DeCosmos  What  country,  DeCosmos  to Esquimalt  and V i c t o r i a .  DeCosmos  mount  i n May.  Langevin,  i f the route  own  of the Canadian  the Dominion  Government intended  course  i n their 1 pockets."  question  t o compete  republic.  produce own  the terminus.  plied ion  their  f o r consideration  debate  were n o t a b l e  of the neighbouring  i n their  The  and they  stand. a belief  from the Ibid.  "What that  he  Toronto  had  begun  took  to form  party  that honourable  f o rpatriotism or else  gentlemen were  mode o f c o n s t r u c t i n g r a i l w a y s  on t h i s  it  not only  h i s interest  but  and h i s duty,  as a Canadian,  vote  f o r i tf i r s t ,  the regular  DeCosmos had  was  last  absence  his  i nVictoria,  still  absent  i n order  o f Mr. DeCosmos  supporters however  should  deserving  well-earned from  this  you,  o r one more 2  DeCosmos." s h o w e d how  they  acter  being  made  that h i s supporters  The f a c t  h i sre-election.  and mot  then  spoke  that  " i n the  that h i s f r i e n d s and allow  other  favour,  to the trust  before He  gentlemen,  t o take  o f h i s work  from him  you can se-  competent  confided  the practice  return  the people  emphasized  mentioned  ing  t o se3?ve  i n him than  Mr.  i n Ottawa and  the dollar  the t a r i f f  arbitration  the a r b i t r a t i o n  1.  D a i l y Standard  - June  22, 1872.  2.  Ibid  - July  1, 1 8 7 2 .  i n late  a resume  Treaty,  between  August,  he  of the past  and cent  question,  on t h e W a s h i n g t o n  of peaceful than  and t o  him t o be r e - e l e c t e d .  S i rJohn A. M a c d o n a l d  rather  Columbian  i n Ottawa meant  upon DeCosmos's  session.  of the union,  races  considered  House.  a g e n t l e m a n more  entitled  to place  were  I t i s not possible that  ted  on  as a B r i t i s h  of the  time."  may b e o f y o u r  faithful  Immediately  parliamentary  He  mis-  to the Dominion  be v i g i l a n t ,  The S t a n d a r d  a meeting  continent.  i t i s necessary  community  that  greatly ignorant  preparations  to ensure  laurels.  lect  held  and a l l t h e  elections  t o be a c t i v e  side  t o s u s t a i n t h e Government measure, 1  Meanwhile for  on t h a t  char-  congratulaestablish-  the Anglo-Sax-  o f t h e sword.  He  declared  his  full  faith  i n the  freedom  from  tion  declared  he  resign  one.  course  that  most  other  corruption.  of  a  settled  beyond  that  he  fought  tended have  for  of  well,  but  this  duty  In  to  place on  Western  terminus Works  terminus. lieved  the  the  It  would  ferry  Burrard  He  make  the  believed  way  of  1.  from  Daily  with  terminus  secured  Inlet  If to  he  Standard  point  the  23,  to  was  railway  line." 1872.  only 1  he  took years  believed i t  a  he  terdid  wished  question the  to  be but  should  will  be  of  yes!  railway? brought  i t can  of the  he  by  means  a n s w e r was the  the  be  and  brought by  of  Par-  Minister  obtained,  way  the  discussion in  of  of  would  members  upon;  Esquimalt  the  position,  secure  the  the  not,  har-  seven  he  of  agri-  two  so,  For  to  say  was  a part  i t i s the  American  was  ' I f i t can  line  much  more, V i c t o r i a  mouth  that  was "Like  has  because  raised the  not  being  decided  Nanaimo,  knew  - Aug.  that  i t could  Island  Straits,  the  the  violated.  yes!  what  he  from  but  and  there  confession,  Vancouver  Johnston's  successfully  as  be  Straits,  you  and  time,  Johnston's from  centre,  has  i t s  would  fully  geographical  fight  prepared been  open  never  supremacy;  he  terminus.  supremacy.  one  not  and  took  good  seats  i t ; she  Provinces,  said  was  the  and  representai  most  Victoria  her  the  two  around  a  cabinet  dual  discussed  had  Eastern  the  and  he  He  terminus  liament  Public  the  railway.  the  of  of  f i l l  is artificial,  1867  get  not  country,  to maintain  Union  Ottawa  particularly  population,  this.  the  could  resources  industry  the  question  w h i c h he  the  natural  the  fight  minus  see  her  their  to  to  or  of  of  the  i f he  railway,  sections  bours,  On  question  the  land  t o be  that  The  cultural  it  liberality  bethe a  Would Yes!' by  compete  the  In Ottawa, tion,  ran  election  i n the  the  a British  Victoria  Nanaimo  on  importance  Columbia  nomination  day  representation, both  than  who  had  been  junior  election  was  able  to  close  "it  second  made no  poll,  as  take  away  gain  be  with  riding.  and  the  the  will  not  who  the to  to  or  put  be  aroused  his  elec  day.  He  because  i n the  DeCosmos  he  The was  of  running  Standard  at  But  the  when he  of  the  him  said,  head  strength spared head  Na-  last  of  i n a man's h e a d ,  any.  the  in  h i s m a j o r i t y and  less.  brains  at  at  h i s absence  district  with  has  ensure  nomination  lower  not  Cabinet  cabinet minister repre-  f o r the  i f he  would  on  a  i f h i s h e a l t h and  out  order  feeling  polls  whether  of  Nevertheless  member  a man's b r a i n s ,  found  of having 1  only four votes  four votes  would be  In  to Nanaimo  helped  lead  difference  i n Ottawa,  a member  riding.  dual  a  HIncks,  DeCosmos h i m s e l f went  appreciated  sent  the  the  noi?  would him,  poll  a-  i t  on  the  2 floor  of  the  House  The begun able the  of  carry  adoption  had  second  i n December. to  road  of  tolls, never  on of  and  been  i t s refusal  session of Although  through the  through accepted to  the  Island  ments  to  the  Cabinet.  Daily Ibid  Standard  Legislative  the McCreight  tariff  a desire  to  and  versiis  prevent  sessional  the Mainland  It i s possible - A u g . 28, - S e p t . 4,  had  the  by  1872. 1872.  Assembly  government  they  wholeheartedly  i n c r e a s e the  of  the  the measures  Canadian  vival  1. 2.  Commons."  a new  indemnity,  that  through i f a  been  such of  as  the  election,  t h e members  cry  had  passed,  abolition  was  i t  because  and  i t s re-  i t s appoint  strong leader  1  153 had  been  have  at  been  managed second  the  head  of  overthrown  to  last  the  i n the  through  o p p o s i t i o n , the  Government  first  They had,  i t , but  s e s s i o n Humphreys moved  session.  almost a vote  at of  the  might however,  beginning  want  of  of  the  confidence  1 which  passed '2  by  a majority  of  one.  In  a  few  days McCreight  re-  signed. DeCosmos formed  a  coalition  McCreight t h e man Mr.  the  break  we  i s one  do  porter of  not  The  himself,  with  Mr.  out  of  Walkem,  of a  the  late  for joining  office.  selecting  DeCosmos  view  of  want  the  forming  would  have  "The  another  which  weak  Cabinet,  majority and  and  Standard  of  an  member hands  i s t o be  actual  a  desire  have  minority  takes  exclusively  but  To  the  with  congratulated  situation..  and  of  Colonist  the m i n i s t r y  everybody  of  to  upon  selected the  mem-  and  Beaven  chosen,  Armstrong.  i s agreed, 3  i t is  government."  DeCosmos had  i t was  i n the  Province  i n s u r e d i t s speedy d e s t r u c t i o n .  h i s Cabinet,  Ash  Premier  majority--united in nothing  o f DeCosmos,  Ibid Daily  put  f o r not  clique  form  as  criticized  o p i n i o n upon  Confederation 1. Journals  2. 3.  to  of McCreight's  Creight. side,  a  House,  To member  task  was  a broader  from  the  there  that  to  taken  of  helped  a ministry.  cabinet  bers If  had  He  accidental  up  having a  he  him  government  Cabinet.  DeCosmos  from  succeeded  chosen  who  Legislative  19,  1872.  - Dec. - Jan.  23, 3,  1872. 1873.  for  from  always  Council,  R e s p o n s i b l e Government. - L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Dec.  voted  however,  Walkem h a d  Walkem,  on  Mcthe  been  the  a  other a  sup-  questions  He was a l s o p r o S e s s i o n 1872-1873.  154 bably  the most  Influential  vince.  Beaven  must  represented  be  Cosmos, strong  from was  was  member  a member  1866,  i n the  Cabinet.  the  famous  for  the  lower  represented.  How  temporary  of  was  may  was  formed  joined  with  examples looked with  the  by  to  DeCosmos  to  a  be  opening hoped  speech.  t o be  to  introduce  as  will  ment. be  announced far  accept  the  as  such  but  in not  to  of  supported  was  made.  which must on  the  that  of  the  that  and  they  Robson  now are  been  over-  through  his  strength  i n o p p o s i t i o n , was  be  i n the  his policy  at  liberal  staff  the  the  the  chosen,  Assembly  concerned,  same  time  while-  felt  progress  1  hoped  measures  and  of  an  they  advance-  public officers  efficiency  in  they  progressive  of  enmity  Cabinet.  the  was  and  van of  impair  to  policy  loyal,  want Cabinet  to have  to  be  Robson  had  been  De-  Arm-  also  vote  once  Humphreys  pro-  course  expected  i n the  the  long  the  against McCreight  felt  their  and  Province  Retrenchment  introduced, 1  of  of  which  speech  fact  voted  hotheaded  conservative  place  the  DeCosmos.  tower  "As  and  had  have  had  mainland  of m i n i s t e r s , but  too  DeCosmos  Ash long  interior  City  alignment  probably  could not  though  DeCosmos  who  They  choice  the  seen by  oppose  this.  i n the  Humphreys,  same men  him  of  be  the  for Victoria  when  a member  confidence  from  the  would public  service." The for  the  system for 1.  definite  payment  programme  of m a g i s t r a t e s  f o r p u b l i c works,  the  'disposal of  D a i l y Standard  the -  by  mineral railway  Jan.  7,  included the and  system land  lands. 1873.  a measure of  laws,  There  to  fees, and  was  to  provide a  contract  provision be  an  en-  155 couragement cock.  An  of  immigration  and  an  additional portfolio  was  expense,  and  indemnity  was  road  act  was  extended  tax  ballot  bill,  discussion  a  on  to  be  wild the  land  nor  of  declared  were  that  positions  tion,  while  was  fore was  the not  present  retrenchment cials way that  being  liberal with  was  the 1.  the  Daily  DeCosmos  of  disobeying  because  and  he  the  session  the  Government became p a r t  Council  to -  the  act  responsible of  British  give  had  his  30,  passed  I t might government  Columbia been  advice  1873.  thirty  was  c a r r i e d out.  Jan.  session  c a r r i e d out, ballot  Dominion  at V i c t o r i a . of  at  his or  DeCosmos  Ottawa  in  of  offi-  in.every  its  be  Until to  said  fullest then  s i t in  ministers. was  be-  he  policy  indeed  life.  the  House,  forty  and  for  re-elec-  Although  accustomed to  DeCosmos  seek '1  the  remainder  were  to  for  session  Walkem  r e c e i v i n g money  a l s o member for  and  princi-  re-election.  portfolio.  the  the  nor  his  leave  election  the  changed  to  The  introduced.  neither  seeking  extra  system  be  merely  faithfully  Standard  school  required  of  An  to  Lieutenant-Governor,  Executive  public  therefore  measures  this  a  graving  members.  mainland.  were n o t  dismissed,  significance, Trutch,  for  the  the  without  the  were  f o r him  completion  to  for  Armstrong  D e C o s m o s was  necessary  created  nor  Walkem had  As it  and  be  build  were  resigning he  to  to  provided  act,  government  neither  their  be  court  accused  responsible  Armstrong  tax  supreme  Humphre7/s ples  to  attempt  As  President  of the C o u n c i l , without s a l a r y , while A r m s t r o n g was m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o u n t i l l a t ' e r , when he became M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e and A g r i c u l t u r e , when he resigned and s o u g h t r © r © l e c t i o n . W a l k e m was now Attorney-General.  most  of  the  men  experienced  i t i s quite  nevertheless Trutch of  was  prise no  the  that  they  business  possible  at  the  get  was  down  until  he  been  helpful  Columbia  was  politically  tices  the  Mother fact  government  tion  change  the  Francisco clar©d  and  that  C o s m o s was dence to  of  push  as  "the  as  the  to  or  Whether from  a  can  and  Cabinet  met  minutes  manner,  imagine  that  in-  useful,  few  abrupt  One told  was new  quite  usual  firmly  not,  there  sug-  his  sur  would  be  his  presence  in  this  incident  British  self-governing, 1  government  far  m a n  When t h e  business.  in British  east  to  people,  aside  in his  but  advice  after  DeCosmos had  more r e f o r m the  g r a n d move  of  his  impractical  according  to  the  the  prac-  Country. that  ponsible  and  withdrew.-  had  The  to  politely  meetings  of  he  that  were  wrong.-  time,  conversation,  when he  cabinet  p r i n c i p l e was  present  desultory  gested  i n McCreight's  as  was  finally  established  Columbia  is  shown b y  attracted  as  far  Ottawa. needed  do  i t .  "He  and  this  is  A  San  a  power  south  that  entire  will  San  letter  Columbia  the  atten-  as  Francisco  in British possesses  the  res-  and  de De-  confi-  enable  a l l petty  a  the  known  DeCosmos, 3  p o l i t i c i a n s and g i v e t h e c o u n t r y 2 front." I n O t t a w a t h e g o v e r n m e n t was  him  or  as  i t i s more  commonly  called,  the  'People  Government.'" In Ottawa tion 1.  of  the  railway  Gosnell,  2.  Daily  3.  Ibid  R.  E.  Standard  DeCosmos  returned  terminus. -  He  asked  Sixty Years  Victoria, 1913. P. - A p r i l 9, - May 12, Press.  to  of  the  ever-pressing  Sir-John  Progress,  B . C. H i s t o r i c a l 15, F o o t n o t e No. 1873.  1873.  Quoted  from  A.  ques  Macdonald  Vancouver  and  Association, 1.  Ottawa  Free  157 about that  this  and r e c e i v e d  E s q u i m a l t s h o u l d be  Railroad,  would  treatment  lated  of Indians there.  mos  the question  mote He  abhorred  and i n t e g r i t y  the idea  and c l a s s e s  and d i e Canadians.'  he t r u s t e d  Empire.  feeling  o f young  Empire,  and f a i l i n g  commented  upon  da  with  the United  an  independent Daily  2.  Ibid  3.  Ibid  a speech  He  reminiscent subject  of this,  o f Howe.  to pro-  inheritance. ofa l l  o f the Dominion  was t o  was b u t a m u n i c i p a l i t y  within  s o f a r a s h e knew, t h e  In favour of a consolidation a position  of the  o f independence,  as t h e term  of your  some n o t o r i e t y  Standard - A p r i l  DeCos-  c o u n t r y and the unani-  implied  Canada 2  to England herself."  and s o v e r e i g n  of the  massacre  saw t h e p e o p l e  i n this  he d e s p i s e d ,  Kingdom,  of  States.  o f so m a g n i f i c e n t an  I n Ottawa.""One  acquiring  Pacific  on i m m i g r a t i o n , a n d he r e -  In Confederated B r i t a i n  mos—is  1.  i n this,  only  pledge  the question  of every l o y a l  Canada  In face  f o r that  second  up  of the fear  o f the people  C a n a d a was  inferiority.  position  made  prospering  live  annexation,  have  of annexation.  desire,  British  brought  to annexation to the United  mous  the  of the Canadian 1  spoke  i t would  i t t o be t h e duty  the unity  callings  of  He  i n speaking to the motion  "He b e l i e v e d  "Mr. L a n g e v i n ' s  carried out."  from Manitoba  of the bad effects  that  the terminus  be r i g i d l y  A member  and  i n answer  city  a  not of position  should take  This  speech  a  was  m e m b e r s — M r . DeCos-  by h i s speech  on u n i t i n g  or f a i l i n g i n that, 3  t o make  Cana-  Canada  nation." 29, 1 8 7 3 .  House  o f Commons,  April  - A p r i l 22, 1 8 7 3 . Q u o t e d f r o m M o n t r e a l H e r a l d , which quoted from M a n i t o b a (Globe. - M a y 3, 1 8 7 3 . O t t a w a L e t t e r , A p r i l 1 1 .  4.  158 Even his  old plea  call of  before  i n t h e Dominion House  f o r the freedom  read  its  i s libellious,  members,  of  this  House  terances  diet  with  will  of the p r o v i n c i a l  the  members  tained fore  turned  choice,  they  some  o n some o f  i t t o be u n d e s i r a b l e and t h a t  was  DeOosmos b r o u g h t  forBritish members  down  the proposal.  Knowing  down  that  that  and accepted,  turned  Columbia  to consider  the jealousy  o f DeCosmos.  the Cabinet  reflecting  deem  on  "the a r t i c l e i n  to  the d i g n i t y  by leaving  r e f e r e n c e - to i t s members  a t Ottawa,  representation  the reason  y e t we  article  theu t -  to the v e r -  opinion."  ing  that  to-day,  of the press,  with 1  a resolution to  that  be g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r u p h e l d  of the press  While  On  a n amendment  House  the freedom  of public  cabinet  i n this  d i d not neglect  of a libellious  DeCosmos moved  the-Freeman,  interfere  of the press.  the bar the w r i t e r  t h e members,  DeOosmos  up  the question  and c a l l e d  i t .  From  The S t a n d a r d the other  i f this  DeCosmos would be  the proposal  rather  a meet-  a l l accounts suggests  members  proposal  of  enter-  were  p u t be-  the l o g i c a l  than  see him  secure  '2 the  prize. Before  telegraph sued  h i s return  to the Standard  i n June  t o adopt  to Victoria,  that  an o r d e r - i n - c o m n e i l  the route  and  Seymour Narrows  a t once.  and  a strip  twanfcy m i l e s  1.  Daily  2.  Ibid  of land Standard  D e C o s m o s was  of the railway  Esquimalt wide  was  was  to  to be  able  to  had been i s -  between  Victoria  be'rthe--terminus, conveyed  - K a y 10, 1873.' W a l l a c e s e c o n d e d . 10, N o e s , 1 4 6 . - J u n e 1 9 , 1 8 7 3 . July..;. 8, 1873.-  to Ayes,  1 Canada under  the Union  On tracting ing  anteed tion  of  such  sum,  ing  terms  works,  at  the  rate  one  f o r the 2  the  of  more  was  five  the per  that  of  decided  of  Government  guar-  of  the  per  pounds  comple-  annum,  i n 1873  grav-  byithe  ask  On  sterling,  firstclass  advisable to  at-  grav-  centum  a  was  the  date  thousand  construction  be  question that  Dominion  from  hundred  I t was  i t would  the  interest  f o r ten years  at Esquimalt." that  of  of Union  exceeding  required  house  grant  the  interest  not  be  dock  cial  provin-  for a  direct  b o t h the D o m i n i o n and I m p e r i a l p a r l i a m e n t s to b u i l d 3 drydock. C o n s e q u e n t l y D e C o s m o s was a p p o i n t e d a s p e c i a l  the  from  agent He  the  to V i c t o r i a ,  g r e a t e s t amount  In  "the  a s may  his return  the  dock.  Act.  and  was  other  delegate  also  to  of  p u b l i c , works.  He  special  session  Sir  John  Macdonald  forced  to  an  submit  A.  wait  Province  c o n s i d e r the matter 4  the  ally  the  was  reached  a measure  1.  Daily  Standard  - June  2.  Begg,  Alexander  -  3.  Journals  4.  Sessional  to 12,  the  i n October  funds.  the  England.  for  at  certain  the  charges  time  against  DeCosmos  of Finance,  Dominion  give  and  ftuids  to deal with  the M i n i s t e r  made w i t h  Canada  raising  r e g a r d i n g campaign  was  to Parliament  of  Ottawa  being held  for Tilley,  arrangement  to both  but  was  eventu-  Government  province f i f t y  to  ;"  thou-  1873.  The H i s t o r y 396.  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  P.  - L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, S e s s i o n 1872-1873. F e b . 4, 1 8 7 3 . R e s o l u t i o n o f DeCosmos. P. 57. Papers  - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1872-1873. S e p t . 22, 1873. Lieutenant-Governor to Secretary of State. A p p o i n t m e n t o f DeCosmos. P. 1.  sand  pounds  union. would out  As  a  in lieu  f o r other loan  of  sinking fund.  and  refund  a bonus  well,  advance  any  tual  as  allowed  this  at  The immediately Standard, kenzie's  any  the  guarantee  p u b l i c works,  about This  debt  of  the  $1,000,000  was  the  of B r i t i s h 1  at  i n the  Dominion five  terms  Government  percent  d i f f e r e n c e between  Columbia.  The  of  with-  the  ac-  province  might  resign  almost  time.  Macdonald  afterwards  DeCosmos's  government on  a  vote  paper,  o p p o s i t i o n to  the  was  of  want  supported railway  forced of  to  confidence.  Macdonald,  terms  and  The  because  i t seems  of  Mac-  that a l l  2 the  British  Columbia  The DeOosmos h a d should that  Mackenzie made w i t h  put  this  there the  be  would be  Province, or  the  Government ships  before  to  Parliament  He  asked  the  Province  would be  there,  authorized  dock and  when  DeCosmos  for  the  f o r M a c d o n a l d . .•  Macdonald but  $250,000  build  dock  voted  government  done,  i n December.  terest  members  i t was  With  Imperial  willing  to  at  Provincial  four  l e t the  allow  other  they  promise  reaching  Government  years  that  the  f o r London,  i f i t would the  arrangements  necessary  I t met.  left  twenty-one  the  to  loan  percent  in-  Imperial than  Government  navy  would  give  3 fifty  thousand  over  the  in  letter  a  lief  that  pounds  d e c i s i o n and to  the  the  towards DeCosmos  Provincial  Imperial  the  cost.  was  forced  Government  Government  There  would  to he  leave  some  some  delay  f o r home  expressed  grant  the  aid,  but  bealthough  1.  Sessional Papers  - British  2.  D a i l y Standard  - Nov.  S e s s i o n a l Papers  Westminster GuardiamPresent representatives a l l side with corruptionists. - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1873-^1874.  3.  17,  Columbia,  was  1873.  1873-1874.  Telegram  to  the  New  1 not  as much  tually  as they  promised  had asked.  a grant  The I m p e r i a l  of t h i r t y  thousand  Government  pounds,  even-  payable  upon  2 completion. Meanwhile in  December,  that  he h a d p r o t e s t e d regarding  years  the Dominion  way.  A l lthat  farce  of sending  there,  then  action  charges done  protest  of Mackenzie  Novemiher 1.  '  2. 3.  4. 5.  stopped.  Smith  A  Then  that  the session  that  referred  declared  session  Gbviously  to h i s speech  511.  the  would  be  Government  without  I t was  to receive  at  a  ther e -  Sarnia,  h i s i n t e n t i o n t o endeavour  Papers  - British  to ac-  nothing  - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1873-1874. mos' s l e t t e r . P. 5 1 . D a i l y Standard - A p r i l 24, 1 8 7 4 . S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h Columbia, 1873-1874. ant-Governor to Secretary of J u l y 26, 1 8 7 3 . P. 3 . Ibid - N o v . 24, 1 8 7 3 . . ibid  the sod 3  regarding  prorogued  than  Rail-  sent.  except  the P r o v i n c i a l  effect  two  out t h e solemn  to break  of the railway.  them  within  had been  had been  of the  the P a c i f i c  Government,  the extra  other  that  to carry  protest  nevertheless  and h a d no 5  said  was  declared  o f t h e terms  to Esquimalt  formal  f o r construction  speech  commence  i?as h e l d .  Macdonald  23, 1873, w h i c h  Sessional  would  by the Dominion  the railway, 4  provision  The terms  however,  out Marcus  taken  against  foolish  ply  i t h a d done,  protested,  making  the breach  Government  the protest.  about  again  against  the railway.  work  was  knowledge  of the P r o v i n c i a l Legislature  1873, t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r ' s  union  No  on t h e o p e n i n g  Columbia,  1875.  to  DeCos-  LiieratenState,  Dec. 22.  P.  1 secure  a m o d i f i c a t i o n of DeCosmos  the  House,  being  the  Government  Government During way  clare of  the  that  the  terms  Esquimalt  the  not  by  who  of  i f i t expected  had  was  to  made  Nanaimo  Canada  to  reserve  should  be  left  D e C o s m o s was of  January  and  the m i s s i o n troduce of  to  a b i l l  union,  on  the  Canada  alone.  present third  and  these  being  the  ones  for  head  open  policy. rail-  settlement.  This  i t to  c a r r y out  de-  i t s part  i t s ,,tlierefore  the  report  leave  twelve the  2 carried.  twenty-sixth his  asked  dealing with  the  the  presented  and  of  of  conducting  amended  to  Walkem two  the  DeCosm&s.^s;  House by  February 3  respecting Articles  opening  ' amended m o t i o n  The  England.  at  c a r r y out  i n the  of  the  throw  province  1 the  at  Robertson  the  terms.  been  out  and  the  place  carrying  Robson.  duty  of  present His  Walkem  attempt  suggested  i t was  by  beginning,  s e s s i o n an  was  was  eleven  i n London.  taken  r e s e r v e between  proposal  course  absent  was  from  this  of  article  of  debt  on  to i n -  the of  terms British  4 Columbia moved ent  and  that  or  the  graving  " i n the  wise  to  dock.  opinion  alter  the  of  Humphreys this  terms  of  House union  seconded  by  i t i s neither without  a  McCreight expedi-  direct  refer-  4 ence  to  the  people."  Meanwhile alter  the  same n i g h t  terms a  of  the union  rumour had  large meeting  that  been  was  the  government  carried  held  to  the  in Victoria,  1.  Journals  -  2. 3.  Ibid Ibid  -  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1873-1874. P. 19. P. 2 2 , F o r , 20, A g a i n s t , 3. P. 35.  4.  Ibid  -  P.  37.  intended  people  and  attended Jan.  13,  to the  by 1874.  some  eight  hundred  men  as Dr.  and  many o t h e r s .  meeting  Helmcken,  deems  capitalizing Dominion  people, Dr.  The  the  And  further,  meeting  the Dry  Dock  relaxation that  of  the  ing  to  new  the  same  any  terms  shall  have been  This of  the  en m a s s e  their  i n , causing  the  of  tioners  were p a r t i c u l a r l y  traitor  and  this  that was  course  sed  and  a  tell  the  of  The a  long  down-trodden their 2  crime."  The  lifetime  taskmasters  Findlay,  1.  Sessional  2.  Gosnell,  the  Papers R.  E.  are  Chairman  scene  In!their  to remain  - British -  "a  of  leave that  ques-  forced  his the  chair peti-  calling  to  few  see—an  strength  the meeting  him de-  day,,and  which  longer  Columbia,  the  s e c u r e d i t was  privileged  rising  that  of  until  they  presented another  spoke  agree-  immediately  DeCosmos,  w h e n o r d e r was  or  f o r adoption."  where  reported  the  Provincial  moment,  to  for  known.  Government  that  against  this  Ministry  made  Terms,  chamber  Colonist  s h o u l d be  people  the  eventually  angered  Colonist  the  b e f o r e the House,  Speaker  Finally  petition  done.  the  to  disorder.  tyrant.  at  the L e g i s l a t i v e  because  cided  the  to  was  "that  money f r o m  sShall be to  Drake  negotiations  the people  that,  Mr.  the Mackenzie  with  submitted to  terms  adjourned  of  the Mackenzie  meeti;ng,, h e a r i n g  altering  way  by  any  opposed  i n any manner  offered  influential  to borrow  of Union  i t is distinctly  interfering  into  or  scheme  Terms  such  a resolution  enter  guarantee the  were  Senator Macdonald,  passed  I t unadvisable to  Government  tion  Tolmie,  Government u n t i l  for  among w h i c h  men  oppres-  and  silent  wrath  would  blamed  in  be  DeCos-  1873-1874.  P.  S i x t y Years of Progress. P. Quoting from the C o l o n i s t .  29.  83.  xnos f o r t h e  outbreak  The that  the  the  since  the  reason  Bill  given  of  the  House,if resign  he  British  Solumbia  ary  1873.'  21,  nominated  as  Creight, the  by  Canada  Canada,  said  vince." these to  the  had  and  Mr.  words  should  people  Sun t h e  i s of  be  be  for their  D a i l y Standard  - Feb.  2.  G o s n e l l , R.  -  3.  Costigan  4.  D a i l y Standard  Act  of  Sixty  the  the  Years  18,  The  for  a member  the  of  Dominion  must  House.  Bill  i n the was  new  on  Febru-  "that,  The  of  1874.  Progress.  of  be-  carried  out  of  been  motion  Mc-  of Union  as  in  this  by DeCosmos,  same h a s  by  i n view  alteration  Government  was  elections.  presented  Terms  a  Dominion  so  P.  the Prothat  submitted amended  1874.  1872. - Feb.  years.  faithfully  seconded  "until  10,  the  t h a t no  endorsation."  1.  E.  by  temporary,  Representation  that  moved,  being  opinion  this,  added  people  Cla-tars® o f  permitted  amended  the  the  r e s i g n a t i o n DeCosmos  seconded by  House  only  Representation  his  Columbia  said  of  Representation,  D o m i n i o n House  Railway  was  Dual  run  for  the  British  Duck  a Dual  the  the  petition, of  the  should  resigned because  Dual  nominated  after  DeOosmos,  of weakening, and " 2 resignation." This article  to  allow  cleared.  evidence  required  intended  passed  t o be  g r e a t many more  which  d i d not  for  the  of  this  clause  also  c o u l d be  Robertson,  importance  tween  who  member  for a  House,  Immediately  After  his  House  criticize  r e s i g n a t i o n was 3  province  before  of  the  a b i t t e r n e s s which  lasted  Dominion  his  since given  people,  legislature  to  t h a t DeCosmos h a d  Government  the  ordered  ready  notice  f o r DeOosmos's  of  local  has  has  impression  antagonism  he  C o l o n i s t , ever  "Government  •the P r e m i e r gave  because  29.  1 was  carried. McCreight  presented  p e t i t i o n s from  same p u r p o r t . since with ing  the the  the  General  embodied  Beaven  other  clause  parts  passed and  graving  dock  and  Dominion  the  petition of  i n a motion,  the  amended M c C r e i g h t * s  Government had railway  the  a  since  clause  must  province  and  of  the  motion  to  show  r e s o l u t i o n not  to  interfere  the be  proposed  assented  Government b e f o r e  policy  to by  of  the  becoming  that  chang-  Governor-  law,  there' 2  • fore ter  the a  Government's  great  twelve  of  deal  the  of  proposed  change  discussion  Union  terms,  to  also  the  should  Act  allow  to  money  be  endorsed.  Af-  amend A r t i c l e s  two  to  from  be  obtained  and  3 the  Dominion  ted  that  f o r e the '4 ed.  A  sing  would  have  assent petition  the  of  was  prevented the  was  Government  On  the  An  Act  e l e c t o r s was  received policy  February  20,  from  since  1874,  r e s o l u t i o n which brought  He  passed.  amendment  from  taking  received, a  great  i t would  but  many not  was  attemp-  effect  be-  i t was  defeat-  electors  effect  endor-  the  rail-  ' 5 terms.  way  a  Government  declared  pers and 1.  that  "connecting of  the  seconded  light  the  Texada  c e r t a i n statements  had  appeared  the  present  names  to  Robson moved  of  government  Journals  -  Ibid  -  3. 4.  Ibid Ibid  -  5.  Sessional  Papers  with  1874.  Pp.:40,  P. P. for - Bri  of  the  proceedings  Legislative 13,  2.  members  by  Island  late of  in  the  Smithe,  scandal. newspa-  government, a  question-  Assembly,'1873-1874. P-.  Feb.  .38.,  41.  51. 47.' M a r a , R o b s o n , M c C r e i g h t , i t . t i s h Columbia, 1873-1874. P.  Smithe 89.  able  character in relation  Georgia, place  interest"  i t .  that he  He  there  was  was  Is  asked  t o he  of  the matter, The examining  ducted  the  declared  more  and  of  a l l the  the  that  "although  1873,  yet,  in their  those  circumstances, any  himself,  member or-in  other  person,  or  any  of  the  has  the i n t e r e s t of 1. Journals  2.  Ibid  3.  Sessional  Cf.  ,Howay a n d  of  and  were  i s no  or  or  some o f  to  in-  to 1  believe,  down.  When  His  seconded  motion  by  to  Beaven,  inquire  in-  October,  a l l the  i n Texada  a  thorough  sufficient  present  who  witnesses  circumstances  1874,  af-  con-  he  desired  apparently  Island  In  August  examination grounds  Government,  to  of  believe  either  combination  acquire possession of  by  with the  any whole  Texada  the  I s l a n d , i n a manner p r e j u d i c i a l to 3 public." - L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, 1873-1874.  —  P.  45.  P.  46.  Papers  - British  Columbia,  Scholefield  -  British  Columbia.  -  Sixty 30.  R.  inquire  them."  Sommission 2  dishonourable  attempted  the  a l l o w i n g Robson,  examine  late  to  reason  Commission,  pre-emption  there  good  backed  taken  prejudicial to  of  carried.  o p i n i o n , upon  unlawful  part  Gosnell,  of  to  or  he  Royal  there  a t t e n d i n g the  have  Straits  to have  Sommission  for a  \vitnesses  investigation  alleged  Walkem moved,  motion  i n the  a nature  and  Government,  Report  of  explicit  their  are  charges,  immediately the  Island,  f o r a Royal  i n the  suspicious  that  Island,  asked  truth  defeated hut  ter  transactions said  he  Texada  declared "I believe,  b o t h members  to  whereas  i n respect to  public to  and  to  E.  Years  of  1875.  P.  V o l . 2,  Progress.  186. P.  Pp.  337. 29,  The March, ther  1874.  f o r the Dominion  House  There  a  certain  amount  of discussion  Columbia  members  would  the B r i t i s h  Mackenzie. pany, for  elections  was  as  one  The  of  Macdonald  reminding people  tionist. of  Helmcken, supporting  this,  tion  was  S t a n d a r d came  the Macdonald  of  the and  the days  out  and  of  in Allan's  Standard when h e  definitely  government  in  of com-  criticized was  against  an  v  whe-  support Macdonald  directors the  were h e l d  him  annexa-  the  a l t h o u g h DeCosmos  corrupran  as  an  i n d e p e n d e n t i t may b e a s s u m e d t h a t h e s h a p e d t h e p o l i c y o f 1 h i s p a p e r . • M a c d o n a l d t r i e d t o keep B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on h i s side  and  secede  of h i s speeches  since Mackenzie  success tion  i n one  at  that  the  polls  British  had  was  said  repudiated  welcomed  Columbia  that  once  by  the  the  province 2  terms.  many p e o p l e  a g a i n was  saved  ought  to  DeCosmos's as  an  from  indica-  annexation  3 under  Helmcken. The  very the  Dominion  indefinite provincial  hands  Edgar  modified  terms.  ernment Dominion fused 1.  instructions, government.  with regard  railway.  Government  t  1  was  not  decided to f i n d Government,  and  out  out  to d i s c u s s  The  latter  [to m o d i f i c a t i o n  negotiated  sent  with  of  the  until i f he  the  had  the  an  agent, railway  of  course  terms  was  while waiting  that an  and  Ibid  - Mar. Feb.  21, 1874. 27.  the  provincial  accredited  to discover  3.  Ibid  - Mar.  14,  1874.  Quoted  with  tied i t s  offered  agent this  the terms. Edgar t h e n l e f t and the p r o v i n c i a l D a i l y S t a n d a r d - F e b . 19, 20, 1874.  2.  terms  with  concerning the  government  then  Edgar,  from  It govof  the  they re-  government,  Toronto  Globe,  168 regretting  their refusal,  ment t o a s k i f i t was p l y was  telegraphed to the Dominion  willing  Govern-  to accept Edgar's terms.  a w i t h d r a w a l of the o f f e r ,  while f o r the f i r s t  D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t d e f i n i t e l y d e c l a r e d t h a t E d g a r was  The r e time the their  1  a c c r e d i t e d agent.  T h e r e seems t o h a v e h e e n a m y s t e r y on e v e r y  s i d e about the m a t t e r .  Dewdney, one o f t h e B r i t i s h  members, a s k e d i n t h e House o f Commons, A p r i l  Columbia  1, f o r any  pondence  r e g a r d i n g the r e l a x a t i o n of terms between  ernments  and M a c k e n z i e s a i d t h e r e was n o n e , y e t , t h i s was  corres-  t h e two  govat the  2  time of the Edgar  proposal.  DeCosmos was n o t i d l e i n t h i s Parliament.  s e s s i o n of the Dominion  As u s u a l h i s demands h a d t o do w i t h t h e r a i l w a y . 3  He p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e n o n - c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r a i l w a y . E a s t e r n p a p e r commenting  on h i m s a i d " t h i s now  famous  C o l u m b i a n i s w i d e - a w a k e and r e a d y f o r work, n o t a t a l l  An  British timid i n  h i s demands, and a p p a r e n t l y h a v i n g t h e s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s o f h i s 4 nature i n a state of f u l l  development."  i n g an a g e n t o f M a c k e n z i e ' s g o v e r n m e n t  He was  a c c u s e d o f be-  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  and  of h a v i n g had correspondence w i t h him r e g a r d i n g r e l a x a t i o n of t h e t e r m s . He d e n i e d t h i s , b u t i t c a n be s e e n t h a t he m u s t h a v e been showing a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h a t s i d e o f t h e House a t t h a t 5 time. When t h e r e was some d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g S i r G e o r g e C a r 1. S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1875. Walkem's Rep o r t , M a c k e n z i e t o T r u t c h , J u n e 8, 1874. P. 5 1 8 . 2.  D a i l y Standard  - April  3.  Ibid  - May  4. 5.  II bb ii dd  4. - May A p r i l1 5 ,22,1 8 71874.  7,  3,  1874.  1874.  169 t i e r ' s r e s o l u t i o n t h a t the creasing not  be  r a i l w a y would, be  b u i l t without i n -  t a x a t i o n , DeCosmos s a i d t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  bound by  that  b e f o r e the p r o v i n c e 1  since  i t was  entered  could  p a s s e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n House  union,  w i t h o u t i t s knowledge or  con-  sent. A f t e r the f i a s c o of the Edgar p r o p o s a l s d e a d l o c k between the seemed i n c l i n e d  two  governments.  The  there  was  a  D o m i n i o n Government  t o l e t m a t t e r s r e m a i n i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n bia'jfc t h e  P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t d r e w up the h i s t o r y of the a delegate  a m e m o r i a l , J u n e , 1874, o u t l i n i n g 2 railway controversy. Walkem was a p p o i n t e d '3  to p r e s e n t t h i s memorial t o the  Carnarvon, the  Colonial Secretary,  o f f e r e d h i s s e r v i c e s as m e d i a t o r . fer with reservations, t e r gave t h e i r  Imperial  Government.  heard of t h i s m i s s i o n The  province  accepted the  t h e D o m i n i o n Government g l a d l y .  s i d e of the  question,  t e r m s were u n p o p u l a r i n C a n a d a and  been r e f u s e d by  They a l s o p o i n t e d i n the  question  out  the  liberality  of the g r a v i n g  o f f e r no  come t o w i t h r e g a r d  1. 2.  D a i l y -..Standard,-H S e s s i o n a l Papers  3. 4.  Ibid Howay, J u d g e P.  —  W.  more  Walkem's 4"  exigencies."  o f the D o m i n i o n Government  dock.  Walkem d e p a r t e d f o r L o n d o n and ment was  lat-  railway  '  Government, m e r e l y because of " l o c a l p o l i t i c a l  of-  The  d e c l a r i n g t h a t the  that they could  t h a n the E d g a r p r o p o s a l s — w h i c h had  and  to terms.  eventually The  some a g r e e -  a g r e e m e n t was  known  May 2 1 , 1874.. - '. '-..: - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1875. Walkem's Report. P. 487. - J u n e 1 1 , 1874. P. 490. - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. Canada and I t s P r o v i n c e s , V o l . 2 1 . P. 192.  as t h e C a r n a r v o n  Terms.  "They a r e i m p o r t a n t , n o t b e c a u s e  they  were c a r r i e d o u t , f o r t h e y were n o t , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e , f o r the e n s u i n g seven  or e i g h t y e a r s , c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d to i n the  d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e r a i l w a y and  they a l s o formed the b a s i s 1  of a g r e a t d e a l of the i s l a n d r a i l w a y d i s p u t e . " The  t e r m s were f o r t h e commencement o f t h e  Esquimalt  and Nanaimo r a i l w a y immediately,'..the c a r r y i n g on as s o o n as s i b l e of the m a i n l a n d and  telegraph line,  railway,  an a n n u a l  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a ¥/agon r o a d e x p e n d i t u r e o f two m i l l i o n  dol-  l a r s a year, the c o m p l e t i o n of the r a i l w a y to the western o f L a k e S u p e r i o r b y 1890.  Bothethe  Canadian 2  governments a c c e n t e d the compromise. w i t h o t h e r unpopular measures, caused government i n the n e x t  and  the  along  t h e d o w n f a l l o f Walkem's  election. understand  DeCosmos's p o s i t i o n i n t h e D o m i n i o n H o u s e f o r t h e n e x t On  brought  In a b i l l ,  build  the opening  o f t h e House i n 1875,  i n accordance  terms,  to  as a g o v e r n m e n t r o a d ,  t o become p a r t o f t h e m a i n l i n e i f E s q u i m a l t a b l e f o r the t e r m i n u s .  five  t h e Government  w i t h the Carnarvon  t h e E s q u i m a l t and Nanairno r a i l w a y ,  should prove  suit-  DeCosmos, i n s p e a k i n g t o t h e m o t i o n  j e c t e d s t r o n g l y t o t h e r e m a r k t h a t t h i s r o a d was compensation  end  Provincial  This acceptance  A knowledge of these terms i s n e c e s s a r y t o  years.  pos-  t o be b u i l t  f o r the n o n - f u l f i l m e n t of the terms of u n i o n .  d e c l a r e d t h a t f r o m 1871  on,  obas He  the q u e s t i o n of the terminus at Es-  1.  Howay, J u d g e P. W.  - P o l i t i c a l -ffistory, 1871-1913.  2.  S e s s i o n a l Papers  - B r i t i s h Columbia, 540.  1875.  P.  J a n . 13.  193. P.  171 animalt by  an  had  been d i s c u s s e d  order-in-Council  Moreover the A c t way  should  mote t h e the  end  had  i t s e l f had  at the p o r t  shipping  o n l y p o r t was  and  and  i n 1873  d e f i n i t e l y placed s a i d t h a t the on  the P a c i f i c  the  Government  I t at  Esquimalt.  Canadian'Pacific  Rail-  that should  pro-  best  commercial i n t e r e s t of the Dominion  Esquimalt.  t h a t the road should  finally  DeCosmos a l s o a d v o c a t e d  he b u i l t b y  the  government, not  strongly by  e n t e r p r i s e , p r i n c i p a l l y to prevent A s i a t i c  labour  As  f e a r of cheap  e a r l y as 1875, 1  DeGosmos was  v o i c i n g the  and  being  private used. labour  from A s i a . The jority, the  but  Bill  was  p a s s e d t h e H o u s e o f Commons b y  defeated  i n the  a large  Senate, "owing, i t i s s a i d  S p e e c h e s o f members o f t h e Walkem m i n i s t r y ! t h e n  h a v i n g a r r i v e d i n the  mato  i n power)  i n t e r v a l , whereby i t appeared t h a t i t  was  t h e i r I n t e n t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o r e q u i r e Canada t o f u l f i l the 2 o r i g i n a l terms." S e n a t o r D i c k y q u o t e d f r o m B e a v e n t o show t h a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s a i d t h a t t h e r e was t o be no a b a t e m e n t 3 of the terms. The 000  D o m i n i o n Government o f f e r e d c o m p e n s a t i o n of  f o r the l o s s of the  immediate c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  $750,  Island 4  r a i l w a y but  the P r o v i n c i a l Government r e f u s e d  this offer.  1.  I s l a n d R a i l w a y P a p e r s - C o m p i l e d b y Amor DeGosmos. 12-26.  2.  Howav, J u d g e P.  3.  Debates  - C a n a d i a n S e n a t e , 1875. 1875. P. 742.  April  4.  Sessional Papers  - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1876. to S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . 1875. P. 568..  Trutch Dec. 6,  W.  Pp.  - P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y , 1871-1913. 197.  P. 6,  They  continued  trust  of  which  felt  tion  of  the  to  Dominion  i t was  no  the  dissatisfaction into  committee  1871  the  of of  honour  1874  Dominion  of  the  terms.  particularly  exploited.  In  moved  January i n the  begin  of  within  on  the  1876  a  The  dis-  Island resolu-  L e g i s l a t u r e but  the  House  the  for  was  felt  year  on  the  been  a  the  of  pledged  itself  to  opinion  t h a t DeCosmos since  with  that  and  the  i t had  regard  to  intense  motion  railway  pledged  Government,  that  had  years  had  voiced  i n amendment,  Canada two  Everyone  of  i t s policy  moved  Government  now.  censorious  he  faith  terms,  DeCosmos  c o n s t i t u e n t s when  supply  commence  Carnarvon  lic  growing,  actually  his  and  to  ly  variation  Dominion House,  Columbia  should  being  no  seconder.  In  the  on  was  s e p a r a t i o n was 1  received  the  insist  to  in  British  again carry  was  the  go  since  that  not  to  in out  the  work  unnecessariy e t made p\ib-  railway.  Gon' 2  sequently  the  The  majority  the  estimates  amendment vote  British  Columbia.  Victoria  made  An  arch  put  was  seccesslon  this up  address  The  Debates  -  right for  the  large when  majority.  i t was  seen  I s l a n d and  the  of  prepared,  the  occasion  to  Terms be  that  railway.  people  "Carnarvon  Canadian  a  Governor-General  men to the v i s i t o r . By t a c t 1. Journals - Legislative 2.  by  D u f f e r i n , the  visit  with was  t o be  $2,810,000  summer L o r d  ly  defeated  proved  Included  That ted  was  was  visi-  particular-  of  a  demonstration.  or  Separation"  presented  by  and  a  influential  and d i p l o m a c y , Lord Dufferin avoiA s s e m b l y , 1876. J a n . 19. P. 9.  House  of  Commons,  1876.  Mar.  28.  173 ded  any t r o u b l e  principal Columbia railway minion  a n d was  reason  In this  question,  showing  Government  and  dissatisfaction.  large,  fervently  heart, the  there  that  province  frankly  whose  you that  province  not  injustice  roic sed  energy, influence  desert ment of  of English  plains  of savage  of her prestige,  h e r commerce  the  planted  Government  1.  Leggo,  2.  Ibid  W.  a l l the h i s t o r y  that  more  people  earnestly  y o u a r e one w i t h  appealed  of the  them i n  to the people  of the province.  of  " I may  a glorious  should  be p r o u d  to possess,  she ought  He  of their with  bands,  numerical  unquailing  the laws  to regard  declared  that  that  or the statesmen  who,  and rocks  owes  renown, because  they  should " I ti s  and the b l e s and  the enhance-  the d i f f u s i o n o f h e r tongue,  and h e r ever-widening  and  f o r t i t u d e and he-  the wilds England  pro-  as the  weakness.  and l i b e r t i e s ,  among  at  o r more  Columbia  homes  - History  of the  the f e e l i n g of  you, on t h e p a r t  desire  of federation."  have  British  of the Canadian  the Dominion 2  who,  h i s "Great  British  Canada  yourselves,  The  f o r t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Do-  t h e wonders  because  feelings.  t o overcome  He  I think  with  triumph  like  they  and f e e l 1  which  probably  assure  and f e e l i n g . "  crowning  t o men  then  better  into  desire  i s nothing  association  fear  went  and oh the p a r t  by p r a i s i n g  tell  vince—a  their  t o know  thought,  he  was  the reason  " L e t me  Government  that  to create  f o r h i s success  Speech."  Canadian  able  the  a n d woe  increase betide  i t sinhabitants  of the Administration  of Earl  are  Duffer-  i n i n Canada. Montreal,'Lovell P r i n t i n g and P u b l4i5s7h.i n g Company, 1 8 7 8 . P. 4 5 9 . - P.  few  i n number  and  the  wishes  c a r e l e s s l y dismiss  bluff,  tant  or  boisterous, 1  or  of  small the  downright,  of  account,  should  representations,  disregard however  the  f e e b l e s t of  our  was  enhanced  a  dis-  colonies." The  from  the  mong  other  garding  of  politically  effect  this  things,  the  declared  to  that  until  and  determined  to  declare  a more  Government  t h a n mere  given  the  Government  ment  by  be  city  open the  realizing of  the  peoples  of  the  Pacific  Northwest  not  realizing  a mid-year  Leggo,  2. 3.  Ibid Debates  active  i n May  that  a  British  W.  than  had  people  protests.  The  the and  despatch  despatch  difficulties advocated  a  are-  spirit  1878,  on  the to  but  of  as  to of  the  i t would  appreciated  The Cit.  Walkem  speech  -  Op.  P.  -  483. C a n a d i a n House  from  be the  the  unless  other  States.  Dominion  would  were  feeling  that  no  with  Dominion  this  United  Victoria for .' 3 would a r i s e .  Columbia,  the  railway  mistook  greater  Columbia  declared  the  Pacific  reaching He  British  when h e  build  the  accomplished  expression  shortsightedness that  been  opposition  An  to  of  annexation  Pacific.  election.  1.  the  country,  the  In  the  1878  c l e a r e d up  were p r e p a r e d  against  i n not  great  DeCosmos  could  by  arrived nothing  railway  was  Carnarvon.  by  then.  the  protested  Lord  r a i l w a y ^would be 2  When 1 8 7 8  course  speech  Colonial Secretary,  compromise  regard  of  Govern-  created  was  again  the  throne  Commons,  i n power  1878.  of  of  great-city,  after  definitely  470. of  the  millions  importance the  He  May  8.  175 f o r e s h a d o w e d a more d e c i s i v e o p i n i o n on t h e M a c k e n z i e G o v e r n ment d e l a y .  The  r a i l w a y q u e s t i o n was  the important  t h e H o u s e , and Walkem, a f t e r o u t l i n i n g and  to the f i n a l  again  The  to e x c l u s i v e -  and  s h o u l d be  e n t i t l e d to  to with'1  compensation.  s e c o n d e d b y B e a v e n , a n o t h e r member o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t .  o p p o s i t i o n attempted  the House v o t e d by a v o t e  amendments t o p r e v e n t  them down and p a s s e d  of f o u r t e e n to n i n e .  a l G o v e r n m e n t b y way elections. it  1878,  r e t a i n h e r C u s t o m s and E x c i s e d u t i e s and  draw f r o m the U n i o n , " T h i s was  neglec-  s e t t l e m e n t of Carnarvon f o r  " B r i t i s h Columbia s h a l l h e r e a f t e r have the r i g h t l y c o l l e c t and  before  the h i s t o r y of p r o t e s t s  d e l a y s d e c l a r e d t h a t , s i n c e the Dominion had  t e d t o l i v e up  one  Due  forwarded  t h e r e , i t was  but  resolution  to the  of Ottawa j u s t at the time of the  ImperiDominion  m i s l a i d and  London, b e t t e r f e e l i n g s had  t h e r e t u r n o f S i r J o h n A. Before  the s e c e s s i o n  I t was  to the excitement  e v e n t u a l l y reached  secession  a r i s e n , due  ing chosen.  to  Macdonald.  the d e f e a t o f the M a c k e n z i e Government, a  n i t e c h o i c e f o r t h e r o u t e t o t h e P a c i f i c h a d b e e n made and q u i m a l t was  when  d r o p p e d as t h e t e r m i n u s , T h i s d e c i s i o n was  defiEs-  the F r a s e r V a l l e y r o u t e  not accepted  by Macdonald  be-  until  2  f u r t h e r s u r v e y s w e r e made. At the b e g i n n i n g  o f 1879  DeCosmos, t o show i n what  an  u n f o r t u n a t e p o s i t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d b e e n p l a c e d , moved f o r an a c t t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e p e a c e f u l s e p a r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h bia. 1. 2.  T h e r e was  no  s e c o n d e r and DeCosmos s a i d he  was  y , 1878. 1879. Aug. DJ eo bu ar tn ea sl s - LC ea gn ia sd li aa tn i vH eo u As se s eo mf b lCommons,  Colum-  g l a d that  30. May  10.  t h o s e men Columbia and  who  not  dare  who  had  for had  second  of  the  prosperity  of  despondency to  substantiate  lustrated rent  his  i n which  the  as  people  they  session  of  construction,  not  a  has  been  rail  cartful  of  built,  about  been  told here 2 survey."  the  DeCosmos made to  show how  province.  by  s t o r i e s he  apt  her  railway.  not  of  has a  the  been  shovel  earth  or  a bridge  a  has large  criticized  the  1.  Debates  -  Canadian  2.  Ibid  -  1880.  there  struck of  has  in  done  the  earth  a  little  speech was  a  of  the  Commons,  had  the  ever  was  three  that in  been  Yet  into,  Prothe  way  lifted, a  culvert  not we  a  have  expended  opposition  i l -  recur-  entered  in  been  1879.  c  he  whatever.  leader  the  After  tie laid,  money has  the  figures  c a r r i e d , not  not  on  numerous  ground has  sum', o f  of  as  have been  Railway  been  erected, been  to  arrangement  full  House  Pp. way pp.  turned  Pacific  stone  gave  prosperity.  the  had  unfounded  He  "Though  since  Columbia 1  other."  of  pick  that  in  1880  this  stretched—nothing  He  of  British  claims  the  not  had  of  Columbia  construction a  a  position  existence  not  the  unfortunate  to  yet  draw  the  in  vince,  to  did  to  governments commence  wished  her,  the  his  of  merely  r i d of  i n which  point  question  get  nothing  position  British  felt  "He  to  for  unfortunate  The  the  wished  something  the  stood.  In  gain  British  to  Government  side  they  to  at  House also  one  v i o l e n t aspersions  his motion.  stood;  in  most  attempting  that  opposition  faith  the  supposedly declared  to  attention  cast  for  on  croak-  April  1491-1819. Quoted i n I s l a n d R a i l Papers. C o m p i l e d b y Amor DeCosmos. 12*ff.  177 ing  that  the  Government  did  not  go  they  plaining  of  fast  the  went  too  fast  when he  enough.  He  also  criticized  amount  spent  in British  should  have  him  Columbia,  for  when  said com-  i t  was 1  "the  great  struction  milch-cow  of  Ontario"  that  Eventually  In  1880  Government  of  the  was  determined  nals  on  would the  the  to  mouth  build of  not  recognize  Island  railway  donald was  railway  Government,  entirely  change h i s  and  built.  ent of  to  of  the  the  to  Canadian  ov'er  a  build  however,  Walkem  as  Macdonald  to  i t s  termi-  Government  determined  since Macdonald  Pacific  from  to  the  island  side  of  Debates  -  d e c i s i o n to  Queen  to  get  would  After the  not  to  2.  s e s s i o n a l Papers  3.  Howay,  J u d g e P.  Sessional  Papers  - British W.  -  of  History,  Columbia,  it--of  and  a  Commons,  1882.  Secre-  with-  1880.  Papers.  P.  1871-1913. 1882,  the  light  extension  Island Railway  Columbia,  Political  - British  the  ag-  refusal  this  of  au-  as  Colonial  construction  House  Quoted i n P. 15.  called  the  give  higher  "the  considering  Esquimalt,  Canadian  the  not  appointed  they  question, "the  would  regarding  section—as 3  suggested  Nanaimo  Government  D e C o s m o s was  Railway."  settlement,  railway  provincial  Therefore  the  a  1.  The  just  Dominion's  petition  tary,  of  the  the  Crown.  Government's  line  railway  con-  -place i t s v i e w s b e f o r e t h e Mac" 2 i t a p p o i n t e d DeCosmos a s p e c i a l a g e n t . He  Dominion as  was  the  views.  present  Canada  and  did begin  money.  enterprise.  mainland  River.  a l l the  To  unsuccessful,  appealed  thority  the  Fraser  defeat  Nevertheless in  through p r i v a t e only  the  the  absorbed  P.  330. P. 329.  205.  178 out  delay  of  the  compensation in  the  term  ion." clear the  ten  of  out  Esquimalt This  entered paign and  more  too  great  able.  odds  The  saw  that. New  British  and  railway  i t seems  of  had  for  in  the  however, which  the  the  see  was  terms  the  except  railway  during  but He  his  had  been  neglected  by  Victoria  the  of  but defeat  election  this  have been  the  the as  in  to  the  possibility  practic-  the  of  inagainst  Island  Island  fear  cam-  Columbia  fighting  been brought  however, saw  way  part  the  . > .  controversy  his  work  would never  have  un-  i t s  not  by  with-  of  binding  i n 1875, 2  inhabitanits of  were b l i n d e d ,  and  work  B i l l .  that  that  They  the  consistently for British  never  that  reasonable  conditions  said  Carnarvon  fruitless. ends  of  d i d not  they  defeated  time  fought  Westminster. Columbia  specified  affairs,  could  strange  They  complete  been  last  grant  to  for Victoria,  practically  and  ry  the  the  failure  were  had  and  Nanaimo R a i l w a y  particularly  was  as  Nor  and  He  the  settlement  i n t o DeCosmos's  i n 1882.  stance  a  which  was  Moody,  Government,  union.  suggestions  the  Port  years  Dominion  carry  terms  mere  of  to  to  i n money f o r of  The  line  never  the  great  rival-  city  of a-  of  a  greater  also  a  consistent  of  the  rising. In advocate from  of  the  British  labourers tion  the  of  1.  Howay,  2.  Ibid.  expulsion  Columbia.  and  the  Dominion House  as  and  He  e a r l y as  railway  as  J u d g e P.  W.  -  the  feared 1875  the  DeCosmos  had  was  restriction their  competition  advocated  o n l y means Political 205.  of  as  cheap  government  preventing  History,  Chinese  the  1871-1913.  construcuse  of P.  1 Asiatics.  In  1878  moving  no  man  who  that  wore h i s h a i r  motion  was  not  more  taken  and  that  ,m.crs a t t a c k e d t h e  race  but  he  prevent  Interest  of  from  becoming  last  is interesting  and  working  '4  year.  1.  Vide  2.  Debates  3.  Ibid  4.  Chisolm,  and  to  on  compare  one  P.  of  the  on  He  o f money  the  said  and  and  there  racial  c o u l d be  these  sent  people  paramount  His  plea  no  menout  question i n  Government  railway, from  of  DeCos-  He  d i d not  1879  fifteen  railway.  the  buying  to land,  attract  much  done.  that  question of i t with  in  were pagan.  Canadian  speech  The  immigration  economic  asked on  Again  the  the  reasons  speech  D e C o s m o s made Canada's  that  last  in  the  Independence.  political  speech  was  for his retirement i n  to have  the  same  results  the for  162. -  <J. A.,  of  the moral,  people  long.  so much p e r t u r b a t i o n among h i s c o l l e a g u e s  DeCosmos's Supra,  the  inches  in  railway •2  Shakespeare  employed  the  the  defeated.  Noah  n o t h i n g was  important  caused  was  next  He  on  " T h i s was  naturalized.  Commons was  Ottawa  be  these  year. "3  i n the House  o f Howe's w h i c h at  from  amount  Province."  The  It  was  same p o l i c y  work  a half  economic.  that  the  every  Chinese  from  the  and  country  Pacific  Chinese  stressed  of  House  to  and  and  question from  particularly  and  five  a petition  tioned  the  than  seriously  no  assimilation  the  f o l l o w e d the  labourers, asking f o r r e s t r i c t i o n  Chinese,  sides,  had  s h o u l d he..allowed  DeCosmos p r e s e n t e d hundred  Bunster  ed.  -  Canadian Mar. 18.  H o u s e o f Commons, P. 1207.  -  1879.  -  Speeches and P u b l i c L e t t e r s o f J o s e p h Howe, H a l i f a x , ' T h e C h r o n i c l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., L t d . , 1909. V o l . 2. Pp. 639, 640.  April  16.;  P •  1878.  1258.  180 him.  I t was  the p o l l s cial  one  i n 1882.  treaties.  She  The  speech arose  DeOosmos f e l t  to n e g o t i a t e her be  of the most p o w e r f u l  own.  He  independent, although must f i r s t  out  spoke o f the he  o f a d e b a t e on  territories.  He  e l e c t i o n s o f 1882,  l y w i t h anyone and seems e v i d e n t thereby It  probably  of doing 1  called  it.  years  was  ents. man  nothing.  It  quarrelsome  n e u t r a l i z e d a c e r t a i n amount o f h i s  and  usefulness. Colum-  same s i t u a t i o n , h o w e v e r e v e n - t e m p e r e d ,  gone d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f h i s c o n s t i t u -  H i s o p p o n e n t s were r i g h t , h o w e v e r , i n r e a l i z i n g w o u l d be b e t t e r s u i t e d t o t h e c o u n t r y now  were l e s s s t r a i n e d between the  the p r o v i n c e  and  DeCosmos r a n h i s e l e c t i o n on  the  same q u e s t i o n s  controversy  but  one  and  the Chinese,  can  the l i f e  that  the  dominion.  of the  railway  Imagine t h a t the  o f t h e D o m i n i o n as a w h o l e .  a  that feelings  p l e of V i c t o r i a were r e a d y t o f o r g e t l o c a l q u e s t i o n s more i n t o  They  congenial2  seems p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t any member f r o m B r i t i s h  u n l e s s he h a d  the  t h e o p p o n e n t s o f DeCosmos  as a c o n s e q u e n c e a c c o m p l i s h i n g  b i a would have been i n the  new  definitely  h a r s h l y f o r h i s i n a b i l i t y t o work  t h a t DeCosmos i n t h e s e  come.  1882.  made much o f t h i s I n d e p e n d e n c e s p e e c h , as t h e y a l s o c r i t i c i z e d him  not yet  even  - incapable  of Canada--an advanced s t a t e m e n t i n I n the  right  t i m e when Canada w o u l d  s a i d t h a t the t i m e had  round out her  at  commer-  t h a t Canada s h o u l d have a  s a i d t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l G o v e r n m e n t was business  reasons f o r h i s defeat  and  I t Is not  peoenter sur-  p r i s i n g t h a t he was b e a t e n t h e n , n o r i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he 1. Debates - C a n a d i a n House o f Commons, 1882. P. 1084. 2. D a i l y C o l o n i s t - J u l y 20, 21, 1882.  181 felt  very  betrayed ever  bitterly him since  since  said  Sproat,  h a s made  that  h i s reasonable  party,  or the o f f i c i a l  not prove  be  political reached  that  himself  Hence sphere  by long  failure,  representative,  of  Charles  his'brother's a  considerable  the 1.  local  Sproat,  " I tcannot  be  qualified  recognition  i nthe  To s a y t h e l e a s t  party  man,  notable  was, f r o m  and he  personage,  he  lacked  degree,  h i s career h i s length  retired  Smith,  who  qualities,  throughout, of service i t may b e  about  must  i nthe  Gilbert  on Y a t e s  of property.  M.  said  that  as an e l e c t e d that  any g r e a t e r  mem-  and i t i s d i f f i c u l t  lived  with  h i s brother,  the Standard,  Street,  Twice  seaboard  o f him truly,  life  He  a  achievements  no P a c i f i c  to the capital  him.  o f view,  colony.  e d i t e d h i s paper,  one d e c l a r i n g  and b y  a t Ottawa  into private  s o n i n h i s home amount  h i s own p o i n t  i n the P a c i f i c  and I t h i n k  House,  a s a member a t  i n i t s highest  of this  by great  any information  McKay  f o r ten years,  was e v e r  a t Ottawa.  so f a rh a s n o t sent 1 parliament."  gather  V i c t o r i a had  o f a c t i o n w h i c h he h a d p r e - v i s i o n e d , and  DeGosmos to  ambition  q u a l i t y , which,  recognized  man h a s e q u a l l e d  ber  councils  the career  "Taking  province  up h i s c a r e e r  thought--adequate  journeyings,  fully  the  the city  t o be a p a t i e n t  though marked  were  that  the Dominion.  a n d .just  friends  the diplomatic  inborn.  thinking  a few I n t e r e s t i n g statements.  h i s western  also  entered  i n summing  by--as  did  h i s defeat,  he h a d r e p r e s e n t e d  the Province Mr.  Ottawa  about  where he  he sent  t h e amendment  and owned  petitions to of the c i t y  - A s i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia Politics. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. J a n . 19, 1906.  map w o u l d i n t e r f e r e plaining  with the rights  o f c i t y l a n d o w n e r s a n d com-  t h a t he h a d n o t b e e n i n f o r m e d o f t h e p r o p o s e d amend-  1 ment.  The s e c o n d one was a b o u t t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e Mount  T o l m i e P a r k a n d C o r d o v a B a y R a i l w a y Company. was i n j u r i o u s had  to h i s interests  n o t been a b l e  to find  He f e l t  as a n owner o f r e a l  the plans  the  show c l e a r l y  effects  t h a t DeCosmos was a l r e a d y  of the disease  years of h i s l i f e .  Suspicion of conspiracy  Once..again h e e n t e r e d  these  experiencing  a g a i n s t h i m was  evi-  h i s death.  the p o l i t i c a l  f o rV i c t o r i a ,  Many o f t h e o l d t i m e r s  Both  o f t h e d i s a b i l i t y f r o m w h i c h he  suffered i n the l a s t years before  r a n as c a n d i d a t e  He  f r o m w h i c h he s u f f e r e d i n t h e l a s t  d e n t l y one o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  he  estate.  o f t h e Company a n d com-  p l a i n e d t h a t they had been suppressed p u r p o s e l y . petitions  that i t  i nVictoria  f i e l d when i n 1895  or rather attempted tor u n . came o u t t o g i v e h i m t h e i r  s u p p o r t b u t h i s h e a l t h w o u l d n o t e n a b l e h i m .to c a r r y on a campaign  a n d he h a d t o s u r r e n d e r  the f i e l d  t o y o u n g e r men.  l i v e d f o r two y e a r s l o n g e r b u t d i e d i n 1 8 9 7 .  No more  He  fitting  c o m m e n t a r y on h i s work c a n b e made t h a n t h a t o f M r . B o g g s . DeCosmos d i e d t w e n t y y e a r s e a r l i e r he w o u l d h a v e b e e n  "Had  looked  u p o n a s one o f t h e f o r e m o s t s t a t e s m e n o f t h e W e s t ; b u t h e  lived  t o o l o n g , he l e f t no d e s c e n d a n t s t o k e e p h i s name b e f o r e p ^ o s "p"erity,  and b e i n g  so t o s p e a k , o u t s i d e  w h i c h he so p e r s i s t e n t l y cord h i s work."^ 1. Journals 2.  t h e P o r t , t h e G r e a t Com£&w^  f o u g h t would h a r d l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e -  - Legislative  Assembly, 1893.  Feb. 22.  B o g g s , Beaumont - What I remember o f Amor DeCosmos. H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1929.  B.C.  183  An DeCosmos's  In preme  some m e n ' s  achievement  remembered. winning the  of  As  leading  of  Vancouver his  for cept  union  then  ask  ment  of  eight even  the his  in  simple  this  Joseph  to  pick  achievement Howe  out  that  the  the  i s remembered  S i r J o h n A.  DeCosmos, exponent  British the  and  without  to  is  Work.  su-  man  for  is  the  Macdonald,  as  however, of  Legislature.  was  i t union  w h i c h he  was  through He  announced  representative  i s faced  responsible  Columbia,  then  one  government the  was  willing  to  to  fight  willingness  Institutions.  that  columns  continued  his  the  with  to  One  supreme  sacrifice  ac-  might achieve-  a l l  causes?  comparatively his  and  years  life,  to  first  question,  One  to  the  and  -  Confederation.  turns  Island  newspaper  i t for  other  is  It  government,  in  one  He  lives  example,  figure  problem.  for  an  VI  Estimate of Character and  i t i s by  responsible  When a  and  Chapter  old  discovers, short  fight  however,"that  period,  for  DeCosmos  responsible  was  engaged  in  the  greater  not  compromise  and  attempted,  responsible  government  terms.  i s puzzled,  One  the on  the  turned  ugain  government.  struggle  for  although  sine  once u n i o n  qua  non  smaller  This  was  won,  in  a  immediately time  when  he  Confederation,  he  would  unsuccessfully,  to  make  of  the  question  Confederation of  the  union  of  184 the  two  colonies  responsible ation ble  before  him,  once b u t it and or  w h i c h more was  for  w h i c h he  Or  to is  remembered  tangible factor His  result  c r e a t i o n of of  but  one  be  a  autocrat, in  late  the  DeCosmos the  bered  on that  member  of  the  love,  yet  the  but  than  and  colony  that  channels.  reached  of  government  roused  right  attack  opinion  or  for  Columbia,  are  a  other of  he  struggle?.  results  life  '  winning;  which  final  any  was  everything,  rather  the  to  less single province?  public interest'in-the  through  great  abandoned  in British  these  i n the  life?  the  columns  achievement  by  of  which  he  remembered. • When D e C o s m o s  hand  in  of  d i d more  change  likely  responsi-  w h i c h he  and  achievement,  the  even  'Confeder-  his  responsible  years,  none  of  sacrificed  government that  the  of  secure  renewed  initiated  four  which  to  with  was  w h i c h he  public  i s more  government  e l s e he  supreme  importance  newspaper  will  his  problem  achievement  have  i t possible  anything,  accept i t .  again  during  t o make p o s s i b l e  questions his  anyone  sacrifice  great  would  responsible  as  the  supreme  he  to  c o n t i n u a l l y to  would  returned  contended  second  with  responsible  which  than  Yet  he  i t Confederation,  placed  be  of  to  willing  i s the  w h i c h he  union  was  struggled  then  winning  to  union,  he  before  Which i t the  he  government.  government,  Was  that  a  great  and  took  interest,  latter  had  no  as  Island  i t was  monopoly. little  or  moulded  Many p e o p l e  S i r James D o u g l a s the  the  have  of  no  people  interest  i t , and  but  i t must  government  had  an no  in i t .  directed  regretted his  a ruler,  idea  The  r u l e d by  i t in  virulent be  remem-  according  to  185  the w e l l - u n d e r s t o o d  wishes of the people  and DeCosmos as a  from the E a s t e r n P r o v i n c e s n a t u r a l l y would d e s i r e to what he  c o n s i d e r e d the r i g h t of every B r i t i s h He  b e g a n h i s c a r e e r i n t h e West and  w o r k i n t h i s way,  b u t he was  a place i n national p o l i t i c s ,  for No  To  i t was  w o u l d d e n y t h a t DeCosmos was  the a m b i t i o n of the o f f i c i a l s t h e i r own  h i s ambition  of paramount  view i n p o l i t i c s ,  of success  and  and  wished  dom  and  importance by  winning  a place i n Confederation. ambitious but  i t was  t h e Company men  was  an  amwhile  directed  economics, i n s o c i a l o u t l o o k .  opposed him  was  of course  willing  t o h i s own  He  had  to l e a v e h i s chance efforts,  whereas  f e a r e d the f r e e c h o i c e of the  people  t h e s e c u r i t y o f p o s i t i o n w h i c h comes t h r o u g h  official-  monopoly. DeCosmos a t t a c k e d a l l t h i s , p o s s i b l y t o o  and  to g a i n  to educate the c o l o n i s t s to a  c h o i c e and  t o them, and  who  than  o r t h e Company's g a i n .  f a i t h i n the people's  t h e men  did his greatest  advantageous to the people,  H i s p u r p o s e , t h e n , was broader  subject.  should f u r t h e r the i n t e r e s t s of the people  b i t i o n t h a t i n i t s r e s u l t s was  to  fulfil  them r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t and one  procure  ambitious f o r g r e a t e r honours  the p r i z e s of c o l o n i a l o f f i c e .  t h a t he  man  w i t h too l i t t l e  regard f o r other people's  a t t a c k i n g a s y s t e m w h i c h was  dislodge i t .  I t was  s a i d what t h e y f e l t opponents.  Sproat  v i e w s ; b u t he  s e c u r e l y entrenched  needed the f o r c e of a v i g o u r o u s  pen  and  vehemently  and  which  a fearless criticism  a t i m e when w o r d s w e r e n o t m i n c e d and o p e n l y , b u t b o r e no  was  grudge a g a i n s t  s a i d o f DeCosmos, " t h e r e was  to men  their  no m a l i c e  in  the  impoliteness,  one,  at dinner,  understood.  f o r he w o u l d h a v e e n t e r t a i n e d  t h e same d a y , h u t t h i s was n o t t h e n  generally  I n t h e e v e n i n g o f a d a y t h a t comes b a c k t o my mem-  o r y , m a r k e d b y an i s s u e o f h i s n e w s p a p e r , w i t h ticles  the s c a r i f i e d  s i x separate a r -  on m y s e l f , o f a n u n c o m p l i m e n t a r y c h a r a c t e r ,  he a n d I c o -  operated i n drawing the contents of a couple of b o t t l e s of the Napoleonic Chambertin, served  i n h i s best style with P a r i s i a n  g r a c e , b y Mr. S o s t h e n e s D r i a r d .  The a r t i c l e s w e r e no more c o n -  s i d e r e d by u s t h a n were t h e c o r k s  i n the Chambertin b o t t l e s ,  t h o u g h p r o b a b l y s i m i l a r a r t i c l e s f o r t h e morrow, were t h e n p a s s 1  ing  through the press of the temporarily  absent p r o p r i e t o r . "  I f DeCosmos s u f f e r e d more t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y  newspaper  man s u f f e r e d b e c a u s e o f h i s v i r u l e n t w r i t i n g s i t was n o t b e c a u s e he  was more v i r u l e n t b u t b e c a u s e he was a d i f f i c u l t man t o know  intimately.  The f e w s u c h a s S p r o a t who d i d know h i m c o u l d  appre  c i a t e the e s s e n t i a l k i n d l i n e s s of h i s nature behind a l l t h i s c u s t o m a r y p o l i t i c a l vehemence.  T h o s e — a n d t h e y were t h e m a j o r i -  t y — w h o n e v e r g o t t o know t h i s " S i n g u l a r F i g u r e " public l i f e  a n d knew n o t h i n g  saw o n l y h i s  of h i s private character.  I t has  o f t e n b e e n s a i d t h a t p u b l i c men c a n h a v e no p r i v a t e l i f e , the  f a c t t h a t DeCosmos k e p t h i s p r i v a t e l i f e  had  a n y ) m e a n t t h a t he became a c u r i o u s  t i t y and t h e p u b l i c does n o t l i k e stand.  and  t o h i m s e l f ( i f he  f i g u r e , a n unknown q u a n -  anything  i t can n o t under-  A s a c o n s e q u e n c e DeCosmos a l w a y s s u f f e r e d t h e f a t e o f  t h e e c c e n t r i c , b e c a u s e o f h i s name, b e c a u s e o f h i s h a b i t o f 1. S p r o a t , G i l b e r t M. - A S i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i t i c s . V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. J a n . 19, 1906.  of  life.  He was  r i d i c u l e d , and i f t h a t was  not successful,  he  y e a r s o f DeCosmos's l i f e  in  was s l a n d e r e d . It Vancouver  i s then i n the f i r s t  I s l a n d t h a t were p l a n t e d t h e s e e d s o f h i s l a t e r  c e s s and f a i l u r e . c e s s , and t o h i m  As a n e w s p a p e r man the c o l o n y w i l l  he was  a l w a y s owe  suc-  u n d o u b t e d l y a suca debt of g r a t i t u d e  f o r h i s i n i t i a t i o n of f r e e o p i n i o n i n t o the young c o l o n y . is  It  t o t h e s e y e a r s he owes h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f B r i t i s h Colum-  b i a ' s n e e d s and h i s a b i l i t y He.fought  to remain i n p u b l i c l i f e  o n l y f o r t h o s e t h i n g s w h i c h he h a d w r i t t e n  so  long.  about,  a r g u e d a b o u t , and c r e a t e d an i n t e l l i g e n t o p i n i o n a b o u t , b e f o r e he  turned to a c t i v e  s t r u g g l e f o r them.  I t i s to these  y e a r s a l s o t h a t he owes h i s f a i l u r e  t o become t h e r e a l  of  He  the people of B r i t i s h Columbia.  but never t h e i r  love.  He  was  gained t h e i r admiration  o f Nova S c o t i a , y e t h i s c a r e e r ,  i s as much a p a r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s  t o r y as Howe's v/as o f N o v a S c o t i a ' s . bia  are w r i t i n g of that  his-  P e o p l e i n B r i t i s h Colum-  do n o t remember DeCosmos, e x c e p t f o r a few who  t h o s e who  exponent  never the popular hero of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a t h a t J o s e p h Howe was I n many r e s p e c t s ,  early  knew h i m  or  period.  S i n c e he n e v e r g a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g w h i c h i s so nec e s s a r y t o w i n a man  fame b e f o r e and a f t e r h i s d e a t h , one i s  n o t s u r p r i s e d t h a t he f a i l e d t o g a i n t h a t p o s i t i o n i n D o m i n i o n p o l i t i c s w h i c h he h a d a n t i c i p a t e d . w e l l w i t h o t h e r men. habits. own  A man  judgment,  who  T h i s may  Moreover  a l s o be b l a m e d  he d i d n o t w o r k on h i s s e c l u d e d -  l i v e s by h i m s e l f always w i l l  of n e c e s s i t y .  d e p e n d on h i s  When he e n t e r s p u b l i c l i f e h i s  habit  of mind  judgment ing  to  ing  a  as  i s already  better  succeed leader  fully  with  premier said  his  of  was  to have  leadership  and  bordinates. London, he  seems  out  a  expressing  One  leader, i t , and  s u c c e s s f u l as It and  ready  seems  choose  held  the  i t or  years.  Instead  possibility  finally  being  of  remain  the  he a  ambition,  him  t o make  an  time  of  any  under  to  along  Of  but  own  a man as  try-  exact-  out  missions  negotiate to  the  or  i t may  against  faithfully  other  to  to  was  extremely  his  Yet  both  t h a t he  su-  and  compromise  conclusion  there  Canada  not.  be  his  by  in creating public opinion he  success-  successful  course  chafing  out  two  very  nevertheless  carried  s u c c e s s f u l , the  times  withwas  or  successful.  esIn  He  was  subordinate.  strange field  the  t h a t he of  of  premier  the  d i d not  provincial  leader  chose  ever  his  such  extremely  the  carried  such  get  of  with  gaining  last  decision.  Dominion  politics every  the  field the  indication  of  always  good there  the  was  controversy  hope  a l -  many  which  mind"  him-  of  importance.  a noble had  a  province  of  this  where he  where  railway  a position  infirmity He  recognize  in opposition for  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , from  "that  the  could  years.  was  whether  a  in a party  two  indication  able  regards  imagine  for  i s drawn  as  can  was  i n opposition until  settled,  was  He  most  position  keeping  always  he  to have been  sentially  self  no  eminently  difficulty.  never  Columbia  his policy  Again  one  l e a d e r DeGosmos  absent  been  One  still  Macdonald.  subordinates.  British  t h a t he  seems  a  he  politics  S i r J o h n A.  as  and  others.  i n Dominion  as  Yet  than  formed  which  t h a t he  no  would was It led would  secure r e c o g n i t i o n there. One u n d e r s t a n d s h i m b u t one r e g r e t s t h a t t h e w i d e r f i e l d has always  a t t r a c t e d a l l t h e p u b l i c men o f f i r s t  t h e d e t r i m e n t o f t h e i r own p r o v i n c e . h a d more r e a s o n t o r e g r e t t h i s  rank, to  P r o b a b l y no p r o v i n c e h a s  than B r i t i s h Columbia.  He m u s t  a l s o be b l a m e d t h e r e f o r e f o r a d o p t i n g t h i s c o u r s e w h i c h h a s h a d such i l l  e f f e c t s on h i s a d o p t e d p r o v i n c e .  T h i s c o u l d be  ven i f he had a c c o m p l i s h e d any g r e a t purpose  i n Ottawa,  o t h e r man c o u l d h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d a s much o r a s l i t t l e . possible,  forgib u t any I ti s  on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t i f DeCosmos h a d s t a y e d a t t h e  head o f h i s government i n B r i t i s h Golumbia  he w o u l d h a v e b e e n  a b l e t o i n i t i a t e p a r t y government i n i t s t r u e form i n t o t h e Legislature.  He h a d a l w a y s  advocated  i t a n d more t h a n a n y o t h e r  man i n t h e p r o v i n c e u n d e r s t o o d i t .  He h a d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e  L e g i s l a t u r e and t h e p e o p l e t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h r o u g h t h e l i b e r a l measures w h i c h h i s government had i n i t i a t e d . ble,  therefore,  lature  t h a t g r a d u a l l y he w o u l d h a v e e d u c a t e d  the Legis-  t o a c c e p t p a r t y g o v e r n m e n t a s t h e c o r r e c t way t o w o r k  r e s p o n s i b l e government. Columbia  half  I n s t e a d he l e f t h i s t a s k i n B r i t i s h  done.  T h i s c r i t i c i s m must be b r o u g h t than once.  a g a i n s t DeCosmos more  He commenced many t h i n g s b u t he f i n i s h e d o n l y a f e w .  O n l y t o o o f t e n was i t l e f t touches  I t i s poss5>  to h i s efforts.  t o someone e l s e t o p u t t h e f i n i s h i n g  This Is not e n t i r e l y h i s f a u l t but  more o f t e n i t was t h e r e s u l t ' of-"" f a c t o r s o u t s i d e h i s c o n t r o l . I n t h e c a s e o f r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t , i t was h i s f a i t h home g o v e r n m e n t which:mad<3 h i m s e e m i n g l y a b a n d o n i t .  i n the  I t was  t h e d u p l i c i t y o f t h e a d v i s e r s o f t h e home g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h vented h i s b e l i e f  i n i t s fairness being upheld.  U n i o n he d i d  c a r r y through to a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n but o n l y a t the o f many o f h i s m o s t c h e r i s h e d b e l i e f s and b y of  his popularity.  Y e t u n i o n was  g r e a t e r u n i o n w h i c h he a l s o was to  the s t r e n g t h , of o f f i c i a l d o m ,  to i n i t i a t e .  H e r e he was  not  touches, because of  of Englishmen.  of  c o n d i t i o n s a r o s e w i t h a s t r o n g g o v e r n o r who  to  h i s own  h a n d s , DeGosmos was who  step i n the  the supineness of a governor  the s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n o f a group  t h e v e r y men  expens  t h e l o s s o f much  o n l y the f i r s t  have the honour of p u t t i n g the f i n i s h i n g  pre  and  When a new  set  took matters i n -  l e f t o u t o f t h e management a n d  h a d m o s t s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n were  g i v e n the c r e d i t f o r f i n a l l y Such a reward t e n e d t h e o r d i n a r y man dinary perseverance  winning i t .  for faithful  s e r v i c e w o u l d h a v e d i s h e ~.r  b u t DeCosmos seemed t o h a v e an  and b u o y a n c y .  He  extraor-  c o n t i n u e d i n the c a r e e r  t h a t he h a d mapped o u t f o r h i m s e l f , and a l t h o u g h , as h a s  been  p o i n t e d o u t , he n e v e r r e a c h e d t h e h e i g h t s t o w h i c h he h a d  as-  p i r e d , he r e c e i v e d more r e c o g n i t i o n 'than h a d b e e n h i s l o t b e fore.  The  rewards  he r e c e i v e d were n o t t o be  as t h o s e g i v e n t o a man  of l e s s e r  lightly  set aside  importance—premier  of a pro-  v i n c e , member o f t h e D o m i n i o n H o u s e , e d i t o r and p r o p r i e t o r ©:f a paper. his  S p r o a t says t h a t t h e s e were the most n o t a b l e y e a r s  career.  It is difficult  to agree w i t h him.  more i n t e r e s t i n g , h i s w o r k seems more i n s p i r i n g , when he  struggled,  but always  sometimes s u c c e s s f u l l y ,  c o u r a g e o u s l y , f o r t h e a i m s he  DeCosmos  of was  i n the years  often mistakenly,  always had b e f o r e  him.  191  Compared t o h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s l o o m s l a r g e as a f i g u r e , b o t h d i s t i n c t i v e more i m p o r t a n t , a s a man and  o r i g i n a l i t y , which  i n B r i t i s h . Columbia and c o l o r f u l ;  w i t h the understanding,  d w a r f t h e p e t t y s q u a b b l i n g s and  k e p t h i s aims b e f o r e h i m — a l t h o u g h  t e n t because of l o c a l  c o n d i t i o n s — a f r e e p r e s s , and  h e l p t o work t h e f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e p r o v i n c e ; and h a v i n g won  He  seemingly  ened p u b l i c w h i c h w o u l d t a k e an i n t e l l i g e n t  and  forethought,  t h e o r i e s o f many o f h i s f e l l o w B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s . tently  childish consis-  inconsisan  enlight-  i n t e r e s t i n and  w h i c h he h o p e d t o w i n f o r  these t h i n g s , h i s f i n a l  a i m was  h e l p t o f o r m a new  n a t i o n o f C a n a d i a n s as d i s t i n c t i v e  in a friendly  v i e i n g w i t h the Americans to the south,  way,  he  remaining under B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  traditions.  from  to and,  while  I APPENDIX  A.  L i s t s o f Members o f : t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l - o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1867-1871.  1.  Session  1867.  E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . A r t h u r N. B i r c h , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member. H e n r y P. P. C r e a s e , A t t o r n e y - G e n e ral. W i l l i a m A. Y o u n g , A c t i n g T r e a s u r e r . J o s e p h W. T r u t c h , C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s and W o r k s . Wymond 0. H a m l e y , C o l l e c t o r o f C u s t o m s . Thomas L e t t Wood, A c t i n g S o l i c i t o r General. Magistrates. H e n r y M. B a l l , C a r i b o o W e s t . C h a r l e s B r e w , New W e s t m i n s t e r . G e o r g e W. C o x , ' C a r i b o o E a s t . William H. P r a n k l y n , N a n a i m o . W i l l i a m J . M a c d o n a l d , V i c t o r i a . P e t e r O ' R e i l l y , K o o t e n a y . E d w a r d H. S a n d e r s , Y a l e and Lytton. S e l e c t e d Members. Amor DeCosmos, V i c t o r i a C i t y . . J o h n S. Helmcken, V i c t o r i a C i t y . J o s e p h D. P e m b e r t o n , V i c t o r i a District. J o h n R o b s o n , New W e s t m i n s t e r . R o b e r t T. S m i t h , C o l u m b i a R i v e r and K o o t e n a y . J o s e p h S o u t h g a t e , N a n a i m o . E d w a r d Stamp, L i l l o o e t . G e o r g e A. Walkem, C a r i b o o . Franc i s J . B a r n a r d , Y a l e and L y t t o n . 2.  •y  3.  Session  1868.  Executive Council. The- same members, e x c e p t t h a t Y o u n g was A c t i n g C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member, i n p l a c e of B i r c h . R o b e r t K e r was A c t i n g T r e a s u r e r , and Wood was no l o n g e r a member. M a g i s t r a t e s . - H e n r y M. B a l l , New W e s t m i n s t e r . G e o r g e W. Cox, C o l u m b i a and K o o t e n a y . Thomas E l w y n , a c t i n g f o r C a r iboo. W i l l i a m J . Macdonald, V i c t o r i a . Peter O'Reilly, Y a l e and L y t t o n . W a r n e r A. S p a l d i n g , N a n a i m o . Thomas L e t t Wood, V i c t o r i a . S e l e c t e d Members. The same e x c e p t t h a t S o u t h g a t e , N a n a i mo, h a s r e s i g n e d . Session  1868-1869.  E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The same e x c e p t , A r t h u r B u s h b y , A c t ing Postmaster-General, and K e r i s no l o n g e r a member. J u s t i c e s o f P e a c e . E d w a r d G. A l s t o n . H e n r y M. B a l l . Henry Holbrook. P e t e r O ' R e i l l y . A. F. P e m b e r t o n . Edward Sanders. G e o r g e A. Walkem. Thomas L e t t Wood. S e l e c t e d Members. R o b e r t W. W. C a r r a l l , C a r i b o o . John G. D a v i e , V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . M. W. T. D r a k e , V i c t o r i a  City. Henry Havelock, Y a l e . J o h n S. H e l m c k e n , V i c t o r i a City. Thomas B. H u m p h r e y s , L i l l o o e t . D a v i d B. R i n g , Nan a i m o . J o h n R o b s o n , New W e s t m i n s t e r . e s s i o n 1870. • E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l . The same e x c e p t , P h i l i p J . H a n k i n , C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y and P r e s i d i n g Member i n p l a c e o f Y o u n g H e l r a c k e n a n d C a r r a l l , u n o f f i c i a l members. . J u s t i c e s o f Peace. The same. S e l e c t e d Members. The same e x c e p t , Amor DeCosmos i n p l a c of Davie, V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t , F r a n c i s J . Barnard i n p l a c e o f H e n r y H a v e l o c k , Y a l e . A new member, E d g a r Dewdney, Kootenay. e s s i o n 1871. Executive C o u n c i l . P h i l i p J . Hankin, C o l o n i a l Secretary and S p e a k e r . G e o r g e P h i l l i p p o , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l . Joseph T r u t c h , Chi©"f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s a n d W o r k s , r e p l a c e d by P e t e r O ' R e i l l y l a t e r . Wymond 0. H a m l e y , C o l l e c t o r o f Customs. " . " .. Appointed along w i t h these. ^. F . P e m b e r t o n a n d E d w a r d G. A l s t o n , J u s t i c e s o f P e a c e . Elected. H e n r y N a t h a n , V i c t o r i a G i t y . J o h n S. H e l m c k e n , Victoria City. Amor DeCosmos, V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t . Arthur B u n s t e r , N a n a i m o . Hugh N e l s o n , New W e s t m i n s t e r . ' C l e m e n t F. C o r n w a l l , Hope a n d Y a l e a n d L y t t o n . Thomas B. Humphreys, L i l l o o e t and C l i n t o n . R o b e r t W. W. C a r r a l l , C a r iboo. Robert J . Skinner, Kootenay.  I  BIBLIOGRAPHY.  1.  Source  Material.  B r i t i s h C o l o n i s t or D a i l y C o l o n i s t . I n d e t a i l f r o m 1858 From t h e n o n l y s e p a r a t e numbers a r e r e f e r r e d t o .  to  1871.  The g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s u n t i l 1871 i s b a s e d on t h e f i l e s o f t h i s p a p e r . The f i r s t y e a r s , f r o m 1858 u n t i l 1863 a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l , s i n c e t h e e d i t o r i a l s w r i t t e n b y DeCosmos a r e p r a c t i c a l l y t h e o n l y s o u r c e from which'one can g a t h e r any i n f o r m a t i o n ; . a b o u t DeCosmos's v i e w s o r b e l i e f s . B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . L e t t e r o f S t a t e L i b r a r i a n o f Sacremento Beaumont B o g g s .  L i b r a r y t o Mr. •  T h i s g i v e s t h e l e g a l means b y w h i c h DeCosmos h i s name.  changed  C a l i f o r n i a S c r a p Book. San F r a n c i s c o , H. H. B a n c r o f t and Co., 1869. P. 4 9 5 . The G r e a t O r a t o r i c a l F e a t . Q u o t e d f r o m San F r a n c i s c o E x a m i n e r . An a c c o u n t o f t h e famous l o n g s p e e c h , as s e e n b y American observer. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e Book o f House o f A s s e m b l y . 1856-1859. D a i l y S t a n d a r d . I n d e t a i l f r o m 1870 s e p a r a t e numbers a r e u s e d .  Vancouver  t o 1874.  an  Island,  From t h e n o n l y  T h i s p a p e r a l s o c o n t a i n s many o f DeCosmos's v i e w s , as shown i n h i s e d i t o r i a l s . I t Is interesting to compare t h e s e e d i t o r i a l s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e C o l o n i s t . Debates  o f t h e C a n a d i a n H o u s e o f Gomraons;.  F r o m 1872  to  1882.  A f i r s t h a n d a c c o u n t o f DeCosmos's w o r k i n t h e Canadian Parliament. Debates  of the Senate.  1875.  Shows t h e f e e l i n g t h e r e on t h e E s q u i m a l t a n d N a n a i mo R a i l w a y B i l l , w h i c h was d e f e a t e d .  D e b a t e on t h e S u b j e c t o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n w i t h C a n a d a . Reprint f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t G a z e t t e E x t r a o r d i n a r y o f M a r c h , 1870. Victoria, King s Printer,,1912. 1  A l l the speeches i n " d e t a i l Legislative Council. DeCosmos P a p e r s .  I n the B r i t i s h  There are l e t t e r s DeCosmos's S c r a p B o o k s .  o f t h e members o f  Columbia  Archives.  o f DeCosmos's t o v a r i o u s  In the B r i t i s h  the  Columbia  people.  Archives.  P r i n c i p a l l y newspapers' c l i p p i n g s , d u r i n g the y e a r s t h a t he was i n t h e A s s e m b l y , 1 8 6 3 - 1 8 6 6 . They a r e t a k e n f r o m b o t h f r i e n d l y and r i v a l p a p e r s and t h e c o n t r a s t o f t h e i r o p i n i o n s o f DeCosmos i s e n l i g h t ening. Ermatinger Papers. Copy o f t h e P h o t o s t a t Copy o f T r a n s c r i p t O r g i n a l s i n the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. R a t h e r c r i t i c a l o f D o u g l a s and Tod t a t e to p o i n t out h i s weaknesses. Government G a z e t t e  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1871.  Government G a z e t t e  of Vancouver I s l a n d ,  1866.  Island Railway  Papers.  of  does not h e s i -  C o m p i l e d b y Amor DeCosmos.  A c o l l e c t i o n of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y E s q u i m a l t and Nanaimo R a i l w a y .  d e b a t e s on  the  J o u r n a l s . o f the L e g i s l a t i v e .Assembly of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Prom 1872 t o 1882 i n d e t a i l . A few s c a t t e r e d ones a f t e r . A great, d e a l o f the l a t e r s e d on t h e s e j o u r n a l s .  p a r t of the  J o u r n a l s of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of B r i t i s h 1869. Laws o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  t h e s i s i s ba-  Columbia,  1864-  1871.  L e t t e r s t o G o v e r n o r D o u g l a s , J a n u a r y t o May, 1863. Colonial Secretary. In the B r i t i s h Columbia  Prom the Archives.  L i b r a r y o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y . T-n. 3, 1910. Jottings s u p p o s e d l y w r i t t e n b y DeCosmos's b r o t h e r . I n the B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . o f t h e House o f A s s e m b l y , V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . Memoir I I I .  Minutes  1856-1858.  Papers  on t h e U n i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A r c h i v e s .  w i t h Canada.  1869.  In  M o s t l y l e t t e r s o f G o v e r n o r Seymour t o t h e C o l o n i a l Secretary. I t include® r e p o r t s of the meetings i n V i c t o r i a and o f t h e Y a l e C o n v e n t i o n . Papers  Relative Vancouver  to the Proposed Union o f B r i t i s h Island. In the B r i t i s h Columbia  L e t t e r s o f t h e two g o v e r n o r s a n d b a t e s i n t h e A s s e m b l y on u n i o n . Proclamations of B r i t i s h Columbia, Columbia A r c h i v e s . Public  General Statutes of the B r i t i s h Columbia This  Report  from 1857.  the S e l e c t  Used Report  collection  f o r Cooper's  of the P r o v i n c i a l 1913.  Sessional  contains  Committee  on  General  the Free  the  de-  British  Island.  In  Port Proclamation.  the Hudson's  Bay  Company,  Department,  Columbia.  From  British  1871  to  Columbia,  1882.  DeCosmos's d e a t h . on t h e l o n g s p e e c h .  History.  B a n c r o f t , H e r b e r t H., c r o f t ' s Works.  Popular Tribunals. Vols. San F r a n c i s c o , 1887.  36,  U s e d t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r D e C o s m o s was V i g i l a n t e s Committees. No m e n t i o n o n volumes. Begg,  the  of Vancouver  V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. • u l y 5, 1 8 9 7 . On D e c e m b e r 28, 1 9 2 9 . L e t t e r of Evans  2.  In  of  evidence.  Archives  Papers,of B r i t i s h  reports  1858-1865.  the Colony Archives.  Columbia with Archives.  Alexander, History Briggs, 1894.  of B r i t i s h  Used p a r t i c u l a r l y reserves.  Columbia.  f o r the  question  37.  Ban-  a c t i v e i n the him i n these  Toronto,. 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" C a n a d i a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w . V o l . 3, 1922.  VII Sage,  W a l t e r H., Historical  The G o l d C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Review. V o l . 2, 1 9 2 1 .  Columbia.  Canadian  S p r o a t , G i l b e r t M., A m o r D e C o s m o s , A S i n g u l a r F i g u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia P o l i t i c s . • V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times. J a n u a r y 19, 1906. A n a c c o u n t o f D e C o s m o s b y a man who k n e w h i m p o s s i b l y a s w e l l a s a n y o n e knew h i m . There i s a v e r y human t o u c h t o i t .  

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