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Student attitudes toward teacher behaviour and program content within physical education Cope, Lorne 1990

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STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD TEACHER BEHAVIOUR AND PROGRAM CONTENT WITHIN PHYSICAL EDUCATION by Lome D. Cope B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Center f o r the Study of Cu r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1990 c Lome David Cope, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o assess student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grades 3, 7, and 10. P r i o r t o examining the data, f i v e hypotheses were generated. I t was hypothesized t h a t : 1. Student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 2. Student a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 3. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each grade l e v e l . 4. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each grade l e v e l . 5. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 6. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program content from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . A t h i r t y statement q u e s t i o n n a i r e was developed f o r use i n the study. F i f t e e n statements p e r t a i n e d t o t e a c h e r behaviour, f o u r t e e n statements p e r t a i n e d t o program content, and one statement asked students whether they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . F i v e grade 3 c l a s s e s , f i v e grade 7 c l a s s e s , and f i v e grade 10 c l a s s e s were randomly s e l e c t e d t o partake i n the study. The data i n v o l v i n g grades were analyzed u s i n g a one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e . The data i n v o l v i n g gender and p r e f e r e n c e f o r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s were analyzed u s i n g a t - t e s t . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e e x i s t e d toward te a c h e r behaviour and program content by males and females i n each of the grades. However, i t was found t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content i n grades 3, 7, and 10. Furthermore, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour i n grade 3 or grade 10, although, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n male and female a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour i n grade 7. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n males' and females' a t t i t u d e s towards program content i n grade 3, 7, and 10. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s f o r both teacher behaviour and program content. Recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h suggest t h a t the survey instrument be l i m i t e d t o statements on e i t h e r t e a c h e r behaviour or program content. I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t a l a r g e r sample s i z e be used and t h a t students of both p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s and n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s be compared. I t appears t h a t more r e s e a r c h i s a l s o needed t o determine why grade 7 student a t t i t u d e s are not as p o s i t i v e as those of grade 3 or grade 10 s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d look a t p h y s i c a l l y f i t and/or h i g h l y s k i l l e d students i n r e l a t i o n t o p o o r l y f i t and/or low s k i l l e d students t o determine the e f f e c t these f a c t o r s may have on student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . V LIST OF TABLES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . x Chapter 1. THE PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . 1 Background . 3 Statement of Problem . . . 5 Purpose 7 Assumptions 8 Statement of Hypotheses . . 9 S i g n i f i c a n c e 10 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms . . . . 11 Scope 12 Nature of Study 13 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Overview 15 Previous S t u d i e s 16 Summary 33 3. METHODOLOGY Overview 35 D e s c r i p t i o n of Methodology 35 Research Design 3 6 METHODOLOGY continued . . . P i l o t Study . 39 S e l e c t i o n of Subjec t s . . . 41 Procedures . 41 Instrumentation 44 Data C o l l e c t i o n . . . . . . 47 Data A n a l y s i s . 48 L i m i t a t i o n s 49 Summary 50 4. RESULTS Overview 52 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Grade and Gender . . . 55 Sample S i z e by Student Preference 56 Student Responses by Grade: Teacher Behaviour . . 57 Student Responses by Grade: Program Content . . . . 67 Student Responses by Grade and Gender: Teacher Behaviour . . . 78 Student Responses by Grade and Gender: Program Content . . . 103 RESULTS continued . . . Student Responses t o Teacher Behaviour by Pre f e r e n c e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s e s : 125 Student Responses t o Program -Content by Pre f e r e n c e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s e s : 134 Summary . 142 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Summary 147 Conclusions . . . . . . . . 158 Recommendations 166 REFERENCES 172 APPENDICES A. MEMO TO DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT 177 B. MEMO TO ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS 17 8 C. MEMO TO SCHOOLS INVOLVED IN THE SURVEY 179 D. TEACHER'S LETTER OF CONSENT 180 D. QUESTIONNAIRE STATEMENTS 181 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Grade L e v e l and Gender . . . . 55 2. Sample S i z e by Student Preference 56 3. Student Responses by Grade: Teacher Behaviour . . . . 58 4. Summary t a b l e 65 5. Student Responses by Grade: Program Content 68 6. Summary t a b l e 76 7. Student Responses: Teacher Behaviour Grade 3 79 8. Summary t a b l e 85 9. Student Responses: Teacher Behaviour Grade 7 87 10. Summary t a b l e 9 3 11. Student Responses: Teacher Behaviour Grade 10 95 12. Summary t a b l e 101 i x 13. Student Responses: Program Content Grade 3 104 14. Summary t a b l e 109 15. Student Responses: Program Content Grade 7 I l l 16. Summary t a b l e 116 17. Student Responses: Program Content i Grade 10 118 18. Summary t a b l e 12 3 19. Student Responses by A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s e s : Teacher Behaviour . . 126 20. Summary t a b l e 132 21. Student Responses by A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s e s : Program Content . . . 136 22. Summary t a b l e 141 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o express my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o those people who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the completion of t h i s t h e s i s . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o my s e n i o r a d v i s o r , Dr. Moira Luke f o r her a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended t o t h e s i s committee members, Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a t i s t i c s , and Dr Gary S i n c l a i r f o r h i s suggestions on the survey instrument. I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge Irene Hoogstra f o r her he l p i n e d i t i n g and p r o o f r e a d i n g . A s p e c i a l thank-you must a l s o be extended t o a l l those people who encouraged me over the y e a r s . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge my parents f o r t h e i r support and encouragement. 1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM 1.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n Although research and medical opinion s t r o n g l y support the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of e x e r c i s e , recent s t u d i e s continue to show a decrease i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by students from the time they enter school u n t i l they graduate. Surveys such as the Canadian Health A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour Survey (King & Warren, 1985) i l l u s t r a t e t h a t students become l e s s a c t i v e as they get ol d e r . This i s c l e a r l y shown i n the survey question which focuses on the p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l e v e l s of students i n grades 4, 7, and 10. In grade 4, 70.7% of the students i n t h i s study c l a s s i f i e d themselves as being h i g h l y a c t i v e . In grade 7, the percentage had f a l l e n t o 67.7%, and by the time students reached grade 10, i t had dropped t o 51.2%. This i s a drop of 19.5%, over a 6 year p e r i o d . What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g about t h i s d e c l i n e i s t h a t i t occurs at a time when p h y s i c a l education i s mandatory i n schools and p h y s i c a l education teachers are teaching students about the b e n e f i t s of being p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e . The media have a l s o become aware of t h i s s i t u a t i o n and newspaper a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n about the l a c k of e x e r c i s e among students. In an a r t i c l e i n the 2 Vancouver Sun (Tuesday, November 29, 1988), i t was r e p o r t e d t h a t only 1 Canadian school-aged c h i l d i n 18 e x e r c i s e s s u f f i c i e n t l y t o r e c e i v e any c a r d i o r e s p i r a t o r y b e n e f i t s . I t was f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t fewer than one-quarter of Canadian teenagers (aged 13 to 18) take p h y s i c a l education as p a r t of t h e i r s c h o o l program. I t would appear t h a t although most p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s are p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y s u p p o r t i v e of p r o v i d i n g students with the knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y throughout t h e i r l i v e s , t h i s g o a l i s not being achieved. Other r e c e n t s t u d i e s ( E a r l and Stennett, 1987; F i g l e y , 1985; R i c e , 1988; S c h u l t z , Smoll, Carre, & Mosher, 1985; Wilcox, 1987), a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a dramatic drop i n f i t n e s s l e v e l and i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v i t y d u r i n g adolescence. The Royal Commission on Education ( S u l l i v a n , 1988, p. 32), s t a t e d t h a t " P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n should a l s o be a core component, as i t develops understanding of p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h concepts as w e l l as forming p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . " As a r e s u l t of these s t u d i e s and the Royal Commission on E d u c a t i o n statement, i t would be u s e f u l i f p h y s i c a l educators c o u l d i d e n t i f y those f a c t o r s which may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a decrease i n s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and thus 3 . p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Rice (1988) s t a t e d " i t i s important to determine t h a t high school students enjoy t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s i f we as educators are t o encourage continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t y throughout l i f e "(p.98). I f there i s t o be a r e t u r n to the f o u r t h " r " i n education, t h a t i s , r e c r e a t i o n , i n the form of q u a l i t y d a i l y p h y s i c a l education, then f u r t h e r s t u d i e s are needed i n order t o help understand what can be done to enhance p h y s i c a l education programs so t h a t students choose to remain i n v o l v e d i n phys-i c a l a c t i v i t y throughout t h e i r l i v e s . 1.1 Background Although s e v e r a l s t u d i e s ( F i g l e y , 1985; Kenyon, 1968; Rice, 1988; Schutz & Smoll, 1981; Simon & Smoll, 1974; Smoll & Schutz, 1980; Wear, 1951), have been conducted t o assess students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education, there has been l i t t l e success i n determining why programs are so s u c c e s s f u l f o r students i n elementary school, and yet f a i l i n many respects f o r these same students when they reach secondary school. I t would appear from the most recent s t u d i e s ( E a r l and Stennett, 1987; F i g l e y , 1985; R i c e , 1988; Schutz et al.1985; Wilcox, 1987;) th a t many students are s t i l l not happy wit h t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s at the secondary l e v e l 4 and are e l e c t i n g not t o take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n when i t i s no long e r compulsory. In f a c t , the Canadian H e a l t h A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour Survey (King e t a l . 1985) found, " n e a r l y a q u a r t e r of grade 10 students d i d not take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t a l l " (p. 35). I f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s going t o p r o v i d e a p o s i t i v e experience f o r students throughout t h e i r e d u c a t i o n so t h a t when they leave school they wish t o continue b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n some type of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , then i d e n t i f y i n g those f a c t o r s t h a t are causing n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and recommending changes i s an extremely important undertaking. Furthermore, i f i n the f u t u r e , the p r o v i n c i a l government decides t o r e t u r n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as a r e q u i r e d course i n grade 11, or grades 11 and 12, b e f o r e the f a c t o r s which are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a decrease i n student i n t e r e s t are i d e n t i f i e d and d e a l t with, then t h e r e i s the chance of students d e v e l o p i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f o r an a d d i t i o n a l two ye a r s . T h i s c o u l d l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e i n the number of people e l e c t i n g a sedentary l i f e s t y l e , which c o u l d r e s u l t i n s e r i o u s problems f o r the h e a l t h c a re system. Todd (1988), i n an a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g some of the problems with p r e s e n t day p h y s i c a l h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n programs, a s s e r t e d : "Today, i n s c h o o l s r i g h t a c r o s s Canada, thousands of c h i l d r e n are l e a r n i n g a l e s s o n t h a t c o u l d r u i n the r e s t of t h e i r l i v e s . They are l e a r n i n g t h a t f i t n e s s i s o p t i o n a l , and t h e y ' r e t a k i n g the message to heart, l i t e r a l l y " (p.145). I t i s of paramount importance t h a t students have a p o s i t i v e experience i n p h y s i c a l education, thus i n c r e a s i n g the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t they w i l l become i n v o l v e d i n some s o r t of r e g u l a r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a d u l t s , which w i l l l e a d t o optimum h e a l t h and a more wholesome l i f e s t y l e . I f a study of student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education can h e l p determine those f a c t o r s t h a t are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the decrease i n student i n t e r e s t toward p h y s i c a l education, then steps can be taken t o h e l p r e c t i f y t h i s problem. 1.2 Statement of problem At present, p h y s i c a l education i s compulsory i n B r i t i s h Columbia from k i n d e r g a r t e n through t o and i n c l u d i n g grade 10. I n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l education and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , however appears t o decrease from grade 3 t o grade 10. Carre, Mosher, & Schutz (1979) found t h i s when they surveyed students i n grades 3, 1, and 10 on how they f e l t about p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n T h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t p h y s i c a l education i s the most po p u l a r s u b j e c t f o r both males and females, i n grades 3 and 7 w i t h a median response of 3.8 and 3.7 r e s p e c t i v e l y , on a f o u r p o i n t s c a l e ( i . e . , never l i k e i t , sometimes l i k e i t , o f t e n 6 l i k e i t , or always l i k e i t ) . Enjoyment of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n dropped a t grade 11 t o 3.2 (Carre e t a l . , p.107). King e t a l . (1985) r e p o r t e d t h a t by grade 10, almost 25% of Canadian students do not take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and over 3 0% are not i n v o l v e d i n enough p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y t o maintain o r improve t h e i r p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . Owing t o the importance p l a c e d on p h y s i c a l education by the B r i t i s h Columbia Royal Commission on Education, i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y important t o determine what can be done t o make p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e f o r students i n a l l grades. T h i s study seeks t o analyze student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t o determine those f a c t o r s which may be c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a d e c l i n e i n i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l education and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y from grade 3 t o grade 10. Both t e a c h e r behaviour and program content have shown t o be two of the most important f a c t o r s i n determining student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I f f a c t o r s can be i d e n t i f i e d , r e l a t e d t o teacher behaviour and/or program content, t h a t are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a decrease i n student i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l education, then i t may be p o s s i b l e t o modify or r e v i s e programs i n order t o make p h y s i c a l education a more p o s i t i v e experience. T h i s , then, would h e l p t o encourage students t o remain i n v o l v e d i n 7 p h y s i c a l education a f t e r grade 10 and, thus, i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y becoming a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s . 1.3 Purpose The purpose of t h i s study was t o assess s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. Students i n grades 3, 7, and 10 were surveyed i n order t o determine i f t h e r e were a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s among grades. Male and female responses were a l s o compared, i n order t o a s c e r t a i n whether a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e e x i s t e d between genders. A t o m p a r i s i o n of students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s was conducted as w e l l , t o see what d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between these groups. P h y s i c a l Education t e a c h e r s i n the D e l t a School D i s t r i c t have i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t i n order t o h e l p assess t h e i r program. 8 1.4 Assumptions 1. Students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are important, and should be c o n s i d e r e d when d e v e l o p i n g or r e v i s i n g a program. 2. An a t t i t u d e r a t i n g s c a l e i s a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e methodology f o r c o l l e c t i n g data. 3. Students can provide p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r s with important i n f o r m a t i o n f o r improving or r e v i s i n g programs. 4. Students' i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t e r i f teacher behaviour and program content are c o n s i d e r e d . 5. There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between st u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t e a c h e r behaviour. 6. There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o program content. 9 1.5 Statement of hypotheses 1. Students' a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 2. Students' a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t i n grades 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 3. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r at each grade l e v e l . 4. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation are d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each grade l e v e l . 5. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour than those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . 6. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program content than those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . 10 1.6 S i g n i f i c a n c e Although t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n the area of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education, many r e s e a r c h problems and questions, remain unanswered. . I f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t o be a p o s i t i v e experience which lea d s t o continued p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , then f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary. Although c o n s i d e r a b l e progress has been made i n the development of p h y s i c a l education assessment t o o l s s i n c e Kenyon's (1968) a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (ATPA) survey and Simon and Smoll's (1974) c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y (CATPA) survey, c o n t i n u e d m o d i f i c a t i o n and improvement of assessment t o o l s are needed. I f i n f o r m a t i o n from these s t u d i e s i s t o be used t o recommend changes t o our pr e s e n t p h y s i c a l education programs, then i t i s important t h a t these s t u d i e s p r o v i d e us wit h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s both c l e a r and r e l i a b l e . In order t o accomplish t h i s , a study i s needed which w i l l assess s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s a t s e l e c t e d grades i n order t o determine i f t h e r e are any s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s . V a r i a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e s between males and females should a l s o be analyzed a t t h i s time t o a s c e r t a i n i f th e r e are any d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the sexes and i f so, t h e i r nature. There i s a need f o r a b e t t e r understanding of st u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i f we are t o comprehend why i t s p o p u l a r i t y d e c l i n e s as students get o l d e r (Carre et a l 1980). I f student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content were a c c u r a t e l y assessed, and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were shown t o e x i s t , then we w i l l have taken the f i r s t step toward p r o v i d i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s with worthwhile i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be used t o enhance present p h y s i c a l education programs or develop new ones. 1.7 D e f i n i t i o n of terms  Behaviour P i e r o n (1990) ... "the mental ( c o g n i t i v e ) and p h y s i c a l (psychomotor) f u n c t i o n i n g of mankind i s d e s c r i b e d as behaviour" (p.7) C u r r i c u l u m Year 2000: A Framework f o r Learning (1990) "... c u r r i c u l u m r e f e r s t o both the intended l e a r n i n g outcomes and planned l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of an e d u c a t i o n a l program" (p.8). A t t i t u d e Kenyon (1968) "... a l a t e n t or non-observable, complex, but r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , b e h a v i o u r i a l d i s p o s i t i o n r e f l e c t i n g both d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y of f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t , whether i t be c o n c r e t e or a b s t r a c t " (p.567). 12 P h y s i c a l education B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education (1980)...."the p o r t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l process which u t i l i z e s p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a primary means f o r s t i m u l a t i n g mental-i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l , and p h y s i c a l growth and development" ( p . l ) . P h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y Kenyon (1968) "Organized, ( s t r u c t u r e d ) , ...gross human movement, u s u a l l y manifested i n a c t i v e games, s p o r t s , and dance" (p.97). 1.8 Scope T h i s study w i l l assess the a t t i t u d e s o f grade 3, 7, and TO students. These grades were s e l e c t e d because grade 3 students are i n t h e i r l a s t year o f primary, grade 7 students are i n t h e i r l a s t year of in t e r m e d i a t e , and grade 10 students are i n t h e i r l a s t year of j u n i o r secondary and the mandatory B r i t i s h Columbia p h y s i c a l education program. These t h r e e grades a l s o r e p r e s e n t the group of students which has been a t each of the th r e e l e v e l s (primary, i n t e r m e d i a t e , and j u n i o r secondary) f o r the l o n g e s t p e r i o d of time. The study d i d not f o l l o w the same students from grade 3 t o grade 7 t o grade 10 i n order t o measure the a t t i t u d i n a l changes i n the same s t u d e n t s . Although t h i s might p r o v i d e the u l t i m a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , i t was not p o s s i b l e given the time t h a t would be r e q u i r e d t o complete the study, t h a t i s , seven years. Past s t u d i e s have found t h a t the teacher and the c u r r i c u l u m are two of the most important determinants of p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e ducation. F i g l e y (1985) r e p o r t e d t h a t "a rank order of the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of determinants r e v e a l e d t h a t the teacher and the c u r r i c u l u m p l a c e d i n the top two ranks as determinants of both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , accounting f o r approximately 7 0% of a l l responses" (p.231). For t h i s reason, the q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements i n t h i s study focused s p e c i f i c a l l y on s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In doing so, the study w i l l focus on two f a c t o r s which have shown t o be extremely important i n a f f e c t i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 1.9 Nature of the Study The study used the methodology of d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h . Students' a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were assessed i n grades 3, 7, and 10, by u s i n g a L i k e r t s c a l e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e focused on those aspects of the program t h a t r e l a t e t o t e a c h e r behaviour and program content. The responses of students determined those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both t e a c h e r behaviour and program content t h a t i n f l u e n c e d s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s i n p h y s i c a l education. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l i m i t e d t o the statements s e l e c t e d f o r the student q u e s t i o n n a i r e which o r i g i n a t e d from the purpose of the study. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2.0 Overview From a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i t i s apparent t h a t many st u d i e s have been conducted which have assessed students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education or p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, none of these s t u d i e s have s p e c i f i c a l l y focused on teacher behaviour or program content. Furthermore, few s t u d i e s have compared students' a t t i t u d e s i n d i f f e r e n t grade In order t o provide an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of what has been done i n t h i s area to date, a review of the previous s t u d i e s t h a t have assessed a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education w i l l be discussed i n t h i s chapter. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the e a r l y s t u d i e s t h a t pioneered a t t i t u d i n a l research i n p h y s i c a l education and those examining teacher behaviour and program content w i l l be focused on. F i r s t , the Thurstone technique and the researchers who u t i l i z e d i t w i l l be di s c u s s e d . Then the Wear procedure and those who employed i t w i l l be described. Subsequently, Kenyon's model and the researchers who a p p l i e d i t w i l l be examined. Next, Simons and Smoll's s c a l e and those who went on t o f u r t h e r develop i t w i l l be reviewed. F i n a l l y , the work of researchers who developed t h e i r own instruments w i l l be examined. Following t h i s , a b r i e f summary of the chapter w i l l be given. In doing so, the need for the proposed study w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d and the l i k e l i h o o d that meaningful, relevant, and s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s can be obtained from t h i s study w i l l be shown. 2.1 Previous studies Assessing students' attitude toward physical education has been seen as a meaningful pursuit for several decades. Some of the early pioneers i n t h i s area (Stalnaker, 1933, Moore, 1941, and Carr, 1945) examined students' attitudes toward a t h l e t i c s and a c t i v i t y using the Thurstone technique (1929). These early studies u t i l i z e d an attitude rating scale to determine students' i n t e r e s t toward a t h l e t i c s and physical education. In a l l three studies, the use of a rating scale to determine students' attitude was found to be r e l i a b l e and v a l i d . Carr (1945) stated that "from the analysis of data c o l l e c t e d from 335 high school freshmen g i r l s who were asked to check an a t t i t u d e - r a t i n g scale related to physical education, we can conclude that the attitudes held by entering freshmen g i r l s do influence t h e i r success in physical education" (p. 187). Early studies such as these demonstrated that an accurate measurement of student attitudes could be obtained by using a r a t i n g s c a l e . Other researchers r e f i n e d e x i s t i n g r a t i n g s c a l e s or developed innovative instruments of t h e i r own. Richardson (1960) employing modified Thurstone techniques, developed two equivalent forms of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e around the t o p i c " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and e x e r c i s e " . The purpose of developing two forms of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e was t o provide a l o g i c a l means of a p p r a i s i n g a t t i t u d e s of c o l l e g e students toward p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and ex e r c i s e p r i o r t o i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n . Richardson (1960) found "the t e s t , r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between scores was .83 + .06, high enough t o p r e d i c t a s a t i s f a c t o r y measurement co n s i s t e n c y " (p.642) . Adams (1963) conducted a study of the two p r i n c i p a l methods f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g s c a l e s t o measure a t t i t u d e - Thurstone and Chave (1929) and L i k e r t (1932), using 40 statements about p h y s i c a l education. The Thurstone and Chave r a t i n g s c a l e required students to respond to statements by e i t h e r agreeing or disagreeing, while the L i k e r t r a t i n g s c a l e had students i n d i c a t e to what extent they agreed or disagreed w i t h i n a seven poin t range (very s t r o n g l y agree, s t r o n g l y agree, agree, n e i t h e r agree or disagree, disagree, s t r o n g l y disagree, very s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e ) . Adams (1963) found th a t "... w i t h i n the 18 l i m i t a t i o n s of a t t i t u d e t e s t i n g the s c a l e s are of s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y ( i . e . , they measure what they s e t out to measure and they measure i t c o n s i s t e n t l y " ) p.92. I t was determined t h a t both s c a l e s had t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and t h a t the d e c i s i o n as t o which one t o use would r e s t on p r o c e d u r a l f a c t o r s . Wear (1951) was one of the f i r s t r e s e a r c h e r s t o develop an instrument which was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r p h y s i c a l e ducation and which p e r m i t t e d a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d assessment of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s . Wear's procedure i n v o l v e d p r e s e n t i n g statements t o s u b j e c t s i n the manner d e s c r i b e d by L i k e r t (1932). S u b j e c t s were asked t o respond t o a s e r i e s of statements by s e l e c t i n g one of f i v e c h o i c e s : s t r o n g l y agree, agree, undecided, d i s a g r e e , s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . A l i s t of 289 statements was developed and a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e t e s t i n g , 120 were s e l e c t e d f o r the Wear A t t i t u d e Inventory. The i n v e n t o r y was f u r t h e r reduced t o a l i s t o f 40 items which was known as the Short Form of the Inventory. The s p l i t - h a l v e s ' r e l i a b i l i t y of the 40 items on the Short Form was 0.94. f o r 272 cases. A f t e r completing the study u s i n g the Wear A t t i t u d e Inventory, Wear (1951) concluded t h a t "through response t o r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of statements r e l a t e d t o outcomes sought by means of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o secure a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d e v a l u a t i o n of a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education" (p.123). Wear (1955) went on t o f u r t h e r develop h i s A t t i t u d e Inventory i n t o two forms c o n t a i n i n g 30 statements each and r e f e r r e d t o as Form A and Form B. Both Form A and Form B were shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e with a r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.94 and 0.96 r e s p e c t i v e l y . In each of the two forms the t h i r t y statements are d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : p h y s i c a l , emotional, s o c i a l , and g e n e r a l . When d i s c u s s i n g the employment of the two forms, Wear (1955) a s s e r t e d "they should be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l i n deter m i n i n g a t t i t u d e changes r e s u l t i n g from such b r i e f e x p e r i e n c e s as l i s t e n i n g t o a t a l k , watching a demonstration, v i e w i n g a f i l m , or t a k i n g p a r t i n some a c t i v i t y " (p.117). The Wear A t t i t u d e Inventory continued t o be used by Keogh (1962), Brumbach (1965), and Campbell (1968). U s i n g the Wear Inventory P h y s i c a l Education A t t i t u d e Inventory (Form A), Keogh (1962) s t u d i e d 136 men and 130 women t o determine whether or not t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the general b e n e f i t s or value s of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and i f men and women d i f f e r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . R e s u l t s of t h i s study found t h a t men and women were not d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r s t a t e d a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Keogh (19 62) found "none of the male-female d i f f e r e n c e s reached a 20 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .05 " (p.241). However, he d i d f i n d t h a t both males and females endorsed the s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and emotional v a l u e s of p h y s i c a l education, although they c o n f l i c t e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i v e v a l u e of a p h y s i c a l education program i n the sc h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . Keogh (1962) determined t h a t 11 t h i r t e e n of the 20 statements r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l (S) , p h y s i c a l (P), and emotional (E) outcomes of p h y s i c a l education had 80 percent or more response agreement" (p.242). S t u d i e s such as t h i s a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h of s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s of the above s t u d i e s have been l a r g e l y supported by a number of other s t u d i e s t h a t have employed e s s e n t i a l l y the same approach. Brumbach (1965) and Campbell (1968) a l s o used the Wear P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A t t i t u d e Inventory, (Short Form A) t o e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . In both of these s t u d i e s students were found t o have a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Brumbach's, (1965) study of 938 s t u d e n t s e n t e r i n g the U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon a l s o concluded " a t h l e t e s have b e t t e r a t t i t u d e s than n o n - a t h l e t e s , the more years of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a student has had i n h i g h s c h o o l the b e t t e r h i s a t t i t u d e i s l i k e l y t o be, and students who attended s m a l l e r s c h o o l s have b e t t e r a t t i t u d e s than those from l a r g e r s c h o o l s " (p. 10). In Campbell's (1968) study of 199 c o l l e g e males no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e was found concerning p h y s i c a l education a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e of s c h o o l attended. However, he d i d f i n d a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s c o r e s between the responses t o the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of items i n the i n v e n t o r y ( i . e . p h y s i c a l , emotional, s o c i a l , and g e n e r a l ) . L i k e Keogh and Brumbach, Campbell found t h a t s t udents' a t t i t u d e c o u l d be measured by the Wear p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y . Kenyon (1968) developed a model which c h a r a c t e r i z e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as a s o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l phenomenon. H i s work was based on the assumption t h a t p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y c o u l d be reduced t o more s p e c i f i c components. Kenyon f e l t t h a t d i f f e r e n t types of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e d d i f f e r e n t types of s a t i s f a c t i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e t e s t i n g a model was developed comprising of s i x subdomains, namely: 1 . S o c i a l e xperience, 2.Health and f i t n e s s , 3 . P u r s u i t of v e r t i g o , 4 . A e s t h e t i c experience, 5 . C a t h a r s i s , 6 . A s c e t i c experience. Seven a l t e r n a t i v e , L i k e r t - t y p e a t t i t u d e statements which r e p r e s e n t e d each of the s i x dimensions were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o two separate forms, one f o r men and one f o r women. Both forms proved t o be r e l i a b l e and v a l i d i n a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e except f o r the dimension " c a t h a r s i s " . Kenyon (1968b) r e p o r t e d "With the exce p t i o n of ' p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y as c a t h a r s i s , ' a moderately r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g of a r e l a t i v e l y small number of items was developed f o r each subdomain" (p.573). Because of i t s a b i l i t y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h i s s c a l e saw e x t e n s i v e use f o r a number of years. Many people went on t o use or modify Kenyon's s c a l e t o assess students' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Zaichkowsky (1975) was one of the many t o use Kenyon's m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e t o measure s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Zaichkowsky used Kenyon's A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y Inventory (ATPAI) a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l between two d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m s t o determine the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l education s e r v i c e programs. One of the more important f i n d i n g s made by Zaichkowsky (1975) was t h a t "these s t u d i e s showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses of men and women i n the ATPAI" (p.367). T h i s l e d him t o i n f e r t h a t men and women were d i f f e r e n t i n the way they p e r c e i v e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and t h a t the type o f program one p a r t i c i p a t e d i n may have an e f f e c t on one's behaviour toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . S e v e r a l other r e s e a r c h e r s went on t o modify and/or adapt Kenyon's ATPA s c a l e t o meet t h e i r needs. Simon and Smoll (1974) c o n s t r u c t e d a m u l t i i d m e n t i o n a l semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e based on Kenyon's conceptual model f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . T h e i r purpose was t o develop an instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s (grades 4-6) toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (CATPA). Based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s , the instrument was deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e s t i n g c h i l d r e n i n grades f o u r through s i x . Simon and Smoll (1974) s t a t e d t h a t "the r e s u l t s of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t the m u l t i d i m e n t i o n a l semantic CATPA instrument i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r group t e s t i n g with 4th through 6th grade c h i l d r e n " (p. 413). T h i s instrument was used and f u r t h e r developed i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s . Smoll and Schutz (198 0) u t i l i z e d the CATPA i n v e n t o r y t o assess the a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y of 58 boys and 56 g i r l s i n grades 4, 5, and 6. L i k e Kenyon (1968b) and Simon et a l . (1974), the r e s u l t s of the CATPA scores i n Smoll and Schutz's study r e f l e c t e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e by both males and females. However, although c o n s i s t e n t with the Simon's study i n l a c k of d i f f e r e n c e between the grades on most subdomains, the between gender comparisons on the subdomains f a i l e d t o r e p l i c a t e Simon's f i n d i n g s . T h i s l e d Smoll and Schutz t o r a i s e s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about the s t a b i l i t y o f the CATPA. Smoll e t a l . (1980) s t a t e d "the c o r r e l a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s from t h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t CATPA i s not a s t a b l e a t t r i b u t e a c r o s s Grades 4 t o 6" (p.145). However, the CATPA was seen as an u s e f u l instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g the s t a t u s of s p e c i f i c groups. As a r e s u l t of the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned problems with the CATPA inventory, Schutz, Smoll, and Wood (1981) d i d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the in v e n t o r y and made recommendations f o r i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e t e s t i n g and r e t e s t i n g , f i v e m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made: (1) The semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s were reduced from e i g h t t o f i v e b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e p a i r s . (2) The seven-point continuum f o r each a d j e c t i v e was reduced t o a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e . (3) The S o c i a l subdomain was s p l i t i n t o two dimensions "Taking p a r t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which g i v e you a chance t o meet new people" and "Taking p a r t i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s which g i v e you a chance t o be with your f r i e n d s " . (4) An "I do not understand t h i s i d e a " response category was added t o each subdomain t o reduce ambiguity of i n t e r p r e t i n g a midpoint response on the 5-point s c a l e . 25 (5) The phrase "Taking p a r t i n " was added t o the begin n i n g of each a t t i t u d e subdomain statement i n order t o in c r e a s e the congruence between the a t t i t u d e o b j e c t ( i . e . , p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y ) and any b e h a v i o u r a l measures which might be taken ( i . e . , degree of involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s ) . With these m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n p l a c e , the r e v i s e d CATPA was then compared t o the o r i g i n a l CATPA. Schutz e t a l . (1981) pro c l a i m e d "Comparison of the r e s u l t s f o r the o r i g i n a l and recorded data r e v e a l e d t h a t modifying the s c a l e n e i t h e r changed the nature or s t r e n g t h of a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o u r r e l a t i o n s h i p s nor d i d t h i s a f f e c t i n t r a i n d i v i d u a l s t a b i l i t y of CATPA measures over time" (p.340). I t was, t h e r e f o r e , concluded t h a t w i t h r e s p e c t t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the r e v i s e d CATPA in v e n t o r y was p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound and t i m e - e f f i c i e n t . Schutz, Smoll, Carre, and Mosher (1985) made f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n t o the CATPA i n v e n t o r y , i n t r o d u c e d a new CATPA i n v e n t o r y designed f o r grade 3 c h i l d r e n , and p r o v i d e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the i n v e n t o r i e s . R e v i s i o n t o the CATPA i n c l u d e d the Schutz, Smoll, and Wood's, (1981) m o d i f i c a t i o n s , as w e l l as the s p l i t t i n g o f the Hea l t h and F i t n e s s subdomain f o r s c o r i n g purposes. The new grade 3 CATPA in v e n t o r y i n v o l v e d three b a s i c changes: F i r s t , "happy f a c e s " r e p l a c e d the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s . Second, the C a t h a r s i s and A s c e t i c subdomains were d e l e t e d from the i n v e n t o r y . T h i r d , the subdomain d e s c r i p t i o n s were presented i n q u e s t i o n form r a t h e r than statements. The i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g of the i n v e n t o r i e s were the r e s u l t of c o n s i d e r a b l e experience i n the a d m i n i s t e r i n g of the CATPA inv e n t o r y . As a r e s u l t of these m o d i f i c a t i o n s , the CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s were thought t o h o l d h i g h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y and s t r o n g f a c t o r v a l i d i t y . Schutz e t a l . (1985) concluded "...the CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s presented here have shown t o possess high i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , reasonably s t r o n g convergent v a l i d i t y , and a c c e p t a b l e face v a l i d i t y " (p.263). However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and m o d i f i c a t i o n s and improvements were encouraged. Researchers such as E a r l and Stennett(1987), F i g l e y (1985), Martens (1979), Mowatt (1988), and R i c e (1988) developed t h e i r own instruments f o r e v a l u a t i n g student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education. The statements used i n the Martens' s c a l e (1979) were obtained from the c h i l d r e n themselves i n a two phase procedure, which f i r s t had students generate statements e x p r e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and s u b m i t t i n g the statements t o "judges" and secondly determining s c a l e and 27 Q v a l u e s of judged statements and then s e l e c t i n g statements to be administered t o a broad sample of the intended p o p u l a t i o n . Martens found the s c a l e to be a v a l i d instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g elementary c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Martens (1979) s t a t e d " a t t i t u d e s of upper (intermediate) c h i l d r e n towards p h y s i c a l education can be v a l i d l y a ssessed by the use of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e " (p.244). Martens was not the o n l y r e s e a r c h e r t o develop h i s own method of a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education. F i g l e y (1985) u t i l i z e d the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t r e p o r t form (Flanagan, 1954) as an instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g a t t i t u d e s towards p h y s i c a l education. S u b j e c t s i n the study were asked t o r e f l e c t on t h e i r K-12 p h y s i c a l education experience and then d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l the p l a c e , persons, c o n d i t i o n s , or a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward p h y s i c a l education. Data c o l l e c t e d were then c l a s s i f i e d and c a t e g o r i e s were d e f i n e d . F i v e major c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d as a r e s u l t of t h i s p r o c e s s : (a) t e a c h e r , (b) c u r r i c u l u m , (c) peer behaviour, (d) atmosphere i n gymnasium, (e) student p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f . Of these f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , the most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned by c o l l e g e students i n r e l a t i o n t o both p o s i t i v e and negative a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d t o the t e a c h e r and the c u r r i c u l u m . F i g l e y (1985) s t a t e d "A rank 28 order of the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of determinants r e v e a l e d t h a t the teacher and the c u r r i c u l u m p l a c e d i n the top two ranks as determinants of both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , a c counting f o r approximately 70% of a l l responses" (p.231). W i t h i n these two c a t e g o r i e s , s e v e r a l s u b c a t e g o r i e s were i d e n t i f i e d which helped t o c l a r i f y s u b j e c t responses. V a r i e t y and c h o i c e were the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of c u r r i c u l u m most l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d with a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e whereas n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s were g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h c u r r i c u l u m content. Reinforcement, or l a c k of i t , ranked f i r s t i n the t e a c h e r category a c c o u n t i n g f o r approximately one t h i r d of a l l i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s as a determinant of p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e . As F i g l e y so e x p l i c i t l y p o i n t e d out i n her summary, each of these determinants i s c o n t r o l l a b l e i f p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r s so choose. F i g l e y (1985) s t a t e s t h a t " i f one r e f l e c t s back on the e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n of s p e c i f i c determinants, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the t e a c h e r indeed has the power t o c o n t r o l the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m , teacher, and l e a r n i n g atmosphere" (p.239). T h i s p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n toward d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and r e d u c i n g n e g a t i v e ones, and the t e a c h e r p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n t h i s p r o c e s s . E a r l and S t e n n e t t (1987) a l s o developed t h e i r own instrument f o r e v a l u a t i n g student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e i r instrument i n v o l v e d two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . One q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r students c u r r e n t l y t a k i n g p h y s i c a l education and the o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r students not t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Students p r e s e n t l y t a k i n g p h y s i c a l education were asked t o r a t e the importance of v a r i o u s reasons f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o take p h y s i c a l education, while students not t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were asked t o r a t e the importance of v a r i o u s reasons i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n not t o take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Students t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were a l s o asked t o r a t e the emphasis c u r r e n t l y g i v e n t o v a r i o u s aspects of the program. Both groups were then asked t o i n d i c a t e how much emphasis they thought should be p l a c e d on these same a s p e c t s . The students s t i l l t a k i n g p h y s i c a l education were a l s o asked questions about t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of c u r r e n t emphasis and p r e f e r r e d emphasis i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h education programs. The r e s u l t s of the two surveys i d e n t i f i e d a number of i n t e r e s t i n g responses and unearthed s e v e r a l i s s u e s t h a t warrant f u r t h e r study. The reasons f o r students d e c i d i n g t o take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g examples of s t u d e n t s ' responses. E a r l et a l . (1987) found "the f i v e reasons r a t e d as important by the most students were: l i k i n g 30 a c t i v i t y , keeping f i t , l i k i n g s p o r t s , having fun i n c l a s s e s and l e a r n i n g new s k i l l s " (p.7). The reasons f o r students d e c i d i n g not to take p h y s i c a l education were a l s o i n s i g h t f u l . E a r l e t a l . (1987) pronounced "the f i v e reasons r a t e d as important by the most students were: other s u b j e c t s were more important, not l i k i n g some p a r t s of the program, having t r o u b l e f i t t i n g i t i n t o the time t a b l e , g e t t i n g enough e x e r c i s e o u t s i d e school and not l i k i n g g e t t i n g sweaty and then go t o another c l a s s " (p.7). The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study suggest t h a t changes t o the c u r r i c u l u m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are necessary and t h a t students can be an important source of i n f o r m a t i o n i n h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r t a s k of c u r r i c u l u m renewal. Another study which developed a c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e t o a s c e r t a i n students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was conducted by Rice (1988). R i c e ' s study was done t o determine high school students' a t t i t u d e s about p e r s o n a l h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c u r r i c u l u m , and p h y s i c a l education teachers. P a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t e d f o r the study c o n s i s t e d of 602 h i g h school students. S u b j e c t s were asked t o complete a 73 item q u e s t i o n n a i r e by way of a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t • s c a l e . Ten questions explored p e r s o n a l h e a l t h and f i t n e s s , 13 examined the p h y s i c a l education programs o f f e r e d , 21 i n v e s t i g a t e d s t u dents' l i k e s and d i s l i k e s about the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program, and 24 s c r u t i n i z e d s t u d e n t s ' l i k e s and d i s l i k e s concerning t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r . T h i s study a l s o p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . For i n s t a n c e , team s p o r t s were p r e f e r r e d over i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s by 73% o f the females and 78% of the males. T h i s f i n d i n g , however, c o n f l i c t s with the f i n d i n g s of s e v e r a l o t h e r s t u d i e s which have i n d i c a t e d t h a t females p r e f e r i n d i v i d u a l a c t i v i t i e s over team games. One of the more p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s of the study was the s t u d e n t s ' response t o t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and t e a c h e r s . R i c e (1988) r e p o r t e d " a t t i t u d i n a l responses toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e 85% o f a l l students enjoy t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and 73% of a l l students c o n s i d e r t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s as good r o l e models" (p.96). Although R i c e admits t h a t the study i s not without p o s s i b l e e r r o r s due t o the nature of s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , she sees student q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as an important source f o r a s s e s s i n g student needs and e v a l u a t i n g s c h o o l programs. One f i n a l example of a survey instrument t h a t was developed f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose, was the one produced by Mowatt, DePauw, and Hulac (1988). T h i s survey instrument was developed f o r a study designed t o assess the a t t i t u d e s of c o l l e g e students toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . The survey instrument c o n s i s t e d of 2 0 statements which were t o be r a t e d by c o l l e g e students u s i n g a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e . The twenty statements were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s (one's p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g or a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ) , p h y s i c a l education (how one saw p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n as an o f f e r i n g i n the c u r r i c u l u m ) , and s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s (how one assessed the s c i e n t i f i c b e n e f i t s of e x e r c i s e ) . The data were analyzed a c c o r d i n g t o the above c a t e g o r i e s . Some of the s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of the study were t h a t students b e l i e v e d p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was of v a l u e , t h a t i t was important t o be f i t , and t h a t females e x h i b i t e d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y than males. Mowatt et a l (1988) found the f o l l o w i n g : " C o l l e g e students e x h i b i t e d g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h e r e i s a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s f o r the v a l u e of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Most c o l l e g e students i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was important t o be f i t , and t h a t p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was important and worth the e f f o r t . On the average, females e x h i b i t e d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y than d i d males" (p.108). Although t h i s study demonstrated t h a t s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d 33 by the use of a m i n i - l e c t u r e , i t d i d show t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s such as gender, years i n s c h o o l , a c t i v i t y c l a s s , and the passage of time can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on student a t t i t u d e s . 2.2 Summary T h i s review of l i t e r a t u r e has sought t o e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r understanding of what a l r e a d y has been accomplished i n the assessment of students' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education. Furthermore, i t has attempted t o i l l u s t r a t e the v a l u e of the proposed study and the meaningful, r e l e v a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s t h a t t h i s study c o u l d o b t a i n . Although numerous s t u d i e s have been conducted over the years t o assess s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education, no study t o date has c o n c e n t r a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y on f a c e t s of teacher behaviour and c u r r i c u l u m content over three grades. Many s t u d i e s have, however, emphasized the v a l u e and importance of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be o b t a i n e d through the assessment of student a t t i t u d e s . T h i s study attempts t o f u r t h e r t h i s work by f o c u s i n g on two f a c t o r s found by F i g l e y (1985) and R i c e (1988) t o be extremely important i n a f f e c t i n g student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , namely teacher behaviour and program content. In a d d i t i o n , by a s s e s s i n g student a t t i t u d e s i n t h r e e grades (grade 3, 7, and 10) i t hopes t o immediately p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used t o improve the D e l t a P h y s i c a l Education program and i l l u m i n a t e the need f o r the p u r s u i t of subsequent r e s e a r c h i n t h i s area i n the f u t u r e . 3 5 Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 3.0 Overview In order t o f u l f i l the purpose of the study, i t was necessary t o develop a survey which s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l t w i t h teacher behaviour and program content and c o u l d be administered t o students i n grades 3, 7, and 10. Furthermore, owing t o the f a c t t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s were d e s i r e d , a L i k e r t s c a l e was s e l e c t e d t o f u r n i s h the r e q u i r e d data. A committee o f t e a c h e r s was e s t a b l i s h e d t o h e l p develop the survey statements, and then a p i l o t survey was conducted f o r t e s t i n g p r i o r t o conducting the a c t u a l survey. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o the survey, c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d , the surveys were administered, and the data c o l l e c t e d and recorded. 3.1 D e s c r i p t i o n of methodology A q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z i n g a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e f o r i n d i v i d u a l items was used i n t h i s study t o assess s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e ducation. Students were asked t o respond t o t h i r t y f i v e statements by s e l e c t i n g the answer which b e s t represented how they f e l t about each statement. Students could s e l e c t : SA-strongly agree, A-agree, U-undecided, D-disagree, or SD-strongly d i s a g r e e . Choices were scored f o r each statement a c c o r d i n g t o the f o l l o w i n g scheme: (SA +2, A +1, U 0, D -1, SD - 2 ) . A statement w i t h a score i n the p l u s range would d e p i c t a l e v e l of agreement, while statements with a score i n the minus range would i n d i c a t e a l e v e l of disagreement. Statements with a score i n the zero range would s i g n i f y a degree of u n c e r t a i n t y . Scores f o r each statement were c a l c u l a t e d by grade and gender r e s u l t i n g i n a f i g u r e somewhere between p l u s and minus two. Responses t o statements could then be analyzed and d i f f e r e n c e s between grades and genders examined. 3.2 Research design In t h i s study teacher behaviour and program content were viewed as the independent v a r i a b l e s . Students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education were viewed as the dependent v a r i a b l e because they should vary i n r e l a t i o n t o the two independent v a r i a b l e s (teacher behaviour and program c o n t e n t ) . S k i l l l e v e l and f i t n e s s l e v e l of the students were viewed as i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . Both the s k i l l l e v e l and the f i t n e s s l e v e l of the students were c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s because they c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the independent v a r i a b l e s (teacher behaviour and program c o n t e n t ) , and the dependent v a r i a b l e (student a t t i t u d e s ) . They would " i n t e r v e n e " i f a p o s i t i v e or n e gative r e l a t i o n s h i p between s k i l l l e v e l and/or f i t n e s s l e v e l and s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s were t o e x i s t . Both of these v a r i a b l e s were c o n t r o l l e d by s e l e c t i n g c l a s s e s randomly. Another i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s study was teacher e x p e r t i s e . T h i s v a r i a b l e c o u l d a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n determining the way the independent v a r i a b l e s a c t upon the dependent v a r i a b l e and, t h e r e f o r e , f u r t h e r s e r v e as a i d s i n understanding the primary r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s v a r i a b l e was a l s o c o n t r o l l e d by random s e l e c t i o n of c l a s s e s , f o r t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a random s e l e c t i o n of t e a c h e r s . Parents' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y were a l s o judged t o be an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e which c o u l d have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on how the independent v a r i a b l e r e l a t e d t o the dependent v a r i a b l e . Again, the random sampling of c l a s s e s was used t o help c o n t r o l t h i s v a r i a b l e . Any other i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s present were s i m i l a r l y c o n t r o l l e d by u s i n g a random s e l e c t i o n of c l a s s e s . 3 8 S t a t i s t i c a l Hypotheses There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean score of st u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n among students i n grade 3, 7, and 10. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean score of students' a t t i t u d e toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n among students i n grade 3, 7, and 10. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean score of male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grades 3, 7, and 10. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n mean score of male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grades 3, 7, and 10. 39 5 . There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n mean score r e l a t i n g to teacher behaviour of students who indicated that they l i k e d t h e i r physical education classes and students who indicated that they did not l i k e t h e i r physical education classes. 6. There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in mean score r e l a t i n g to program content of students who indicated that they l i k e d t h e i r physical education classes and students who indicated they did not l i k e t h e i r physical education classes. 3 .3 P i l o t study Prior to conducting a p i l o t survey, a committee of six teachers (two grade 3 teachers, two grade 7 teachers, and two grade 10 teachers) were chosen i n order to review the proposed student survey and recommend changes where necessary. As a re s u l t of several meetings with these teachers, numerous changes were made to the survey to improve the r e a d a b i l i t y and reduce ambiguity. Once the committee was s a t i s f i e d that the survey statements were clear, concise, and dealt e x p l i c i t l y with teacher behaviour and program content, the p i l o t survey 40 was ready t o be conducted. The p i l o t survey was administered p r i o r t o p r e p a r i n g the f i n a l form of the survey i n order t o f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e the v a l i d i t y of the survey. Two methods were, u t i l i z e d i n conducting the p i l o t survey. F i r s t , a sm a l l number of students, three t o f i v e , were s e l e c t e d i n each grade. The survey was administered t o these students u s i n g the same method planned f o r the f i n a l form of the survey. However, on completion of the p i l o t survey, the students were asked questions about each of the statements. T h i s was done t o assure t h a t what the students thought the statements meant was, i n f a c t , what was intended. Students were a l s o encouraged t o comment on any aspect of the survey they wished, such as survey i n s t r u c t i o n s , format, or wording. Comments made by the students were recorded and then shared w i t h committee members. Consequently, a v a r i e t y o f changes were made t o enhance the survey b e f o r e conducting the next stage. In the second stage, a c l a s s of students from each of the three grades, namely grades 3, 7, and 10, was s e l e c t e d as a p i l o t study group. Once again, the survey was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the same way as intended f o r the f i n a l form. On the b a s i s of the p i l o t study r e s u l t s , f i n a l r e v i s i o n s were made t o the a t t i t u d e survey instrument. 41 3.4 S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s The p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study i n c l u d e d a l l grade 3, 7, and 10 p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s i n the D e l t a School D i s t r i c t , D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia. From t h i s group, a study sample of 15 c l a s s e s was chosen. F i v e grade 3 c l a s s e s , f i v e grade 7 c l a s s e s , and f i v e grade 10 c l a s s e s were t o be randomly s e l e c t e d u s i n g a t a b l e of random numbers t o r e p r e s e n t the p o p u l a t i o n being s t u d i e d . 3.5 Procedures In o r d e r t o conduct t h i s study, p e r m i s s i o n was sought and obtained from the D e l t a D i s t r i c t Superintendent (Appendix A). Upon r e v i e w i n g the survey, board o f f i c e p ersonnel asked t h a t i n the statements concerning t e a c h e r behaviour the stem "I b e l i e v e " be added. I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s was necessary t o emphasize t h a t student responses were only a r e f l e c t i o n of what each student b e l i e v e d , and not n e c e s s a r i l y f a c t . I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s a d d i t i o n d i d not i n any way impair the survey and so i t was added t o the statements concerning t e a c h e r behaviour. Once School Board O f f i c e p e r m i s s i o n had been obtained, a memo was sent t o a l l 24 elementary and 8 secondary p r i n c i p a l s i n f o r m i n g them of the study, p r o v i d i n g them wi t h a copy of the 42 survey, and req u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o survey students i n t h e i r s c h o o l i f they were s e l e c t e d . P r i n c i p a l s were a l s o asked t o i d e n t i f y those t e a c h e r s who taught p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grades 3, 7, or 10 i n t h e i r s c h o o l (Appendix B). When t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n had been obtained from the p r i n c i p a l s , f i v e c l a s s e s from each of the three grades were randomly s e l e c t e d . When the 15 c l a s s e s had been s e l e c t e d , the t e a c h e r s of each c l a s s were sent a memo in f o r m i n g them of t h e i r s e l e c t i o n , a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g t h e i r consent t o conduct the survey i n t h e i r c l a s s , and a copy of the survey (Appendix C, D, & E ) . To i n c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d of teacher consent, i t was s t a t e d i n the memo that the survey would take approximately 2 0 minutes t o complete, and t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the data would be maintained through a l l stages of the study. Anonymity was f e l t by teachers t o be important s i n c e the survey was asking students t o respond t o statements r e g a r d i n g t e a c h e r behaviour. Inasmuch as the study was examining t e a c h e r behaviour i n general and not i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r behaviour, t h i s request was accepted. A copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was then sent t o the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia E t h i c s Committee and a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o conduct the re s e a r c h was obtained. With p e r m i s s i o n from the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the School Board, school p r i n c i p a l s , and 43 teachers, the survey c o u l d be conducted. The two grade 3 t e a c h e r s on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e committee suggested t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements be read t o the students i n grade 3 i n order t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r understanding. I t was decided t h a t i t would be b e t t e r i f the r e s e a r c h e r d i d not administer the survey t o those students who were going t o have the statements read t o them, so the grade 3 surveys were administered by the elementary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r . The elementary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n d i s t r i c t c o o r d i n a t o r was chosen because she had been a member of the te a c h e r committee s t r u c k t o h e l p develop q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements; she had good understanding of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and procedures t o be f o l l o w e d ; and she had ex p e r i e n c e t e a c h i n g grade three students. T h i s arrangement proved t o work w e l l i n the p i l o t study. The vocabulary used i n the statements was not found t o be too d i f f i c u l t , and the r e a d i n g of the statements t o students was shown t o be both e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e . Having someone read the statements t o students was chosen over u s i n g a tape r e c o r d e r , because the former was b e l i e v e d t o be more p r a c t i c a l . The grade 7 and 10 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by the r e s e a r c h e r . Since the statements d i d not have t o be read t o the students i n grades 7 and 10 t h e r e was no chance of i n f l u e n c i n g student responses. A f t e r a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o e x p l a i n the purpose of the study, followed by an e x p l a n a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t i o n s (Appendix F ) , students were asked t o complete the survey. The e x p l a n a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and statements given t o students i n grade 7 and 10 were the same as those given t o students i n grade 3. The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i n these three grades was t h a t i n grade 3, the statements were read t o the students, while i n grades 7 and 10 the students read the statements f o r themselves. When students had completed the survey they were i n s t r u c t e d t o p l a c e t h e i r survey face down and s i t q u i e t l y u n t i l everyone had f i n i s h e d . Once everyone had completed the survey, the surveys were c o l l e c t e d and the students and teacher were thanked f o r t h e i r time and he l p . 3.6 Instrumentation In order t o t e s t the hypotheses, a survey instrument u t i l i z i n g a L i k e r t s c a l e was developed f o r students i n grades 3, 7, and 10, to assess t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The same survey was given t o each grade l e v e l . S u b j e c t s were asked t o respond t o each of the statements u s i n g a 5-point s c a l e ranging from " s t r o n g l y agree" t o " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " . Twenty nine statements were employed t o e v a l u a t e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education with regard t o t e a c h e r behaviour and c u r r i c u l u m content. S i x statements were used t o o b t a i n o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n such as grade, gender, and o p i n i o n about s t u d e n t s ' p h y s i c a l education c l a s s . A survey comprised of t h i r t y f i v e statements was s e l e c t e d f o r the study, f o r i t was f e l t t h a t t h i s would p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o achieve worthwhile r e s u l t s , w h ile not being too l o n g f o r grade 3 students. The survey contained 15 statements on t e a c h e r behaviour, 14 statements on program content, and s i x statements t o be used f o r grouping students f o r comparison. These s i x statements p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n such as grade, gender, s k i l l l e v e l , and f i t n e s s l e v e l . Because the r e s e a r c h e r wished t o focus s p e c i f i c a l l y on teacher behaviour and program content f o r which no w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d survey was found, i t was necessary t o develop a survey f o r t h i s study as opposed t o u t i l i z i n g a s t a n d a r d i z e d one. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t D e l t a p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r s were i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would not have been r e v e a l e d u s i n g a standard survey. Recent s t u d i e s ( F i g l e y , 1985; and R i c e , 1988) had found the t e a c h e r and the c u r r i c u l u m t o be extremely important with r e s p e c t t o s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and the r e s e a r c h e r wanted t o examine these areas i n more depth. Furthermore, the study would p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t o D e l t a P h y s i c a l Education t e a c h e r s who are i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g r e s u l t s on both t e a c h e r behaviour and program content to help assess, and i f necessary, r e v i s e the D e l t a p h y s i c a l education program. Statements f o r the survey instrument were developed through a s y n t h e s i s of statements i n s t u d i e s t h a t had looked a t aspects of t e a c h e r behaviour and program content (e.g. B r i t i s h Columbia Assessment of P h y s i c a l Education, 1979; F i g l e y , 1985; and R i c e , 1988) as w e l l as from i n p u t r e c e i v e d from the secondary P h y s i c a l Education department heads i n D e l t a and the survey committee. For the grade t h r e e students i n the survey a p o s t e r was c o n s t r u c t e d t h a t p o r t r a y e d f i v e "happy f a c e " drawings. Each of the "happy f a c e s " represented a p o i n t on the L i k e r t s c a l e . For example, the p o s t e r had a "happy f a c e " with a b i g s m i l e to r e p r e s e n t s t r o n g l y agree a t one end, and a "happy f a c e " with a b i g frown t o r e p r e s e n t s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e a t the o t h e r end. Both the l i t e r a t u r e and the p i l o t study confirmed t h a t t h i s was u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g grade t h r e e students c o n c e p t u a l i z e the f i v e responses from which they c o u l d choose. The p i l o t study r e s u l t s a l s o helped t o c o n f i r m t h a t the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a good instrument f o r a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward 47 t e a c h e r behaviour and program content. 3.7 Data c o l l e c t i o n The survey was administered i n the l a s t week of May and the f i r s t week of June 1989. T h i s allowed students t o experience almost a f u l l s c hool year of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n at the grade l e v e l being assessed b e f o r e completing the survey. To determine t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y , a Le r t a p 2.0 t e s t was run on the complete survey. The Lertap t e s t produced a Hoyt estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.87 on the tea c h e r v a r i a b l e s and 0.59 on the program v a r i a b l e s . A Hoyt estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y on the t o t a l survey was 0.86. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the survey was r e l i a b l e . A l l grade 3 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were admi n i s t e r e d by the elementary p h y s i c a l education c o o r d i n a t o r and a l l grade 7 and 10 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were administered by the secondary p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r . Using o n l y two people i n c r e a s e d the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l s o , i t ensured t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and time g i v e n t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be the same f o r a l l students. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d and p l a c e d i n an envelope a f t e r a l l the students were f i n i s h e d . A l l of the 386 completed surveys were i n c l u d e d i n the study. Once a l l 48 c l a s s e s had been surveyed, the procedure of p r o c e s s i n g the data was s t a r t e d . 3.8 Data a n a l y s i s The data c o l l e c t e d are presented u s i n g bar graphs i n percentages. Given the nature of the data ( i . e . , q u a n t i t a t i v e ) , the r e s u l t s are most a p p r o p r i a t e l y and f o r c e f u l l y d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s g r a p h i c form. Bar graphs are t o be used t o d i s p l a y the r e s u l t s of the survey by grade l e v e l and gender. The frequency of response on each q u e s t i o n i s presented f o r males and females i n a l l t h r e e grades. The d i f f e r e n c e i n mean sco r e s and standard d e v i a t i o n on each q u e s t i o n are a l s o presented f o r a l l grades and by gender. The data were analyzed u s i n g the S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l Sciences - Extended V e r s i o n (SPSSX). The hypotheses are t e s t e d using the f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s : In hypotheses 1 and 2, which lo o k a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n grade l e v e l s , a one-way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was used t o analyze the data. Hypotheses 3 and 4 which look a t the d i f f e r e n c e s f o r gender a t each grade l e v e l , analyzed the data u s i n g a t - t e s t . Hypothesis 5 and 6 which compare students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s with students who do not l i k e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a l s o employed a t - t e s t t o 49 analyze the data. R e s u l t s of the data a n a l y s i s are examined i n order t o make r e f e r e n c e s and draw c o n c l u s i o n s . 3.9 L i m i t a t i o n s There are in h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s t o any study t h a t d e a l s w i t h b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s . Most i n d i v i d u a l s have both p o s i t i v e and negative b e l i e f s about a s u b j e c t , and t h e i r a t t i t u d e i s viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n of the t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with t h e i r b e l i e f s . A t t i t u d e s r e f e r t o a person's favourable or unfavourable e v a l u a t i o n of a s u b j e c t , w h i l e b e l i e f s represent the i n f o r m a t i o n one has about the s u b j e c t . A s k i n g students i n grade 3 t o ev a l u a t e t h e i r b e l i e f s i n order t o determine t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l be d i f f i c u l t , but has been done s u c c e s s f u l l y b e f o r e (Carre e t a l . , 1980; Schutz e t a l . , 1985). Questions had t o be designed t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e f o r grade 3 students, but a t the same time were s u i t a b l e f o r grade 7 and 10 stud e n t s . The grade 3 q u e s t i o n n a i r e u t i l i z e d "happy f a c e s " because of the l i m i t e d reading a b i l i t y of grade t h r e e c h i l d r e n . The use of "happy f a c e s " r a t h e r than semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s has been s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s . Schutz et a l (1985) s t a t e d : Nonverbal s c a l e s of t h i s nature are recommended f o r use 50 with young c h i l d r e n (Cozby, 1981), and have been used to measure a t t i t u d e s towards p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n elementary s c h o o l c h i l d r e n (e.g., Martinek, Zaichkowsky, & C h e f f e r s , 1977; Zaichkowsky, Zaichkowsky, & Martinek, 1975). M a n c i n i , C h e f f e r s , and Zaichkowsky (1976) obtained a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of .97 u s i n g a 3 p i c t u r e happy f a c e format w i t h 93 c h i l d r e n i n grade 1 - 6 . (p.260). Many s t u d i e s have s u c c e s s f u l l y employed semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e s t o assess a t t i t u d e toward a number of s u b j e c t s or t o p i c s . Perdue and Warden (1981), u t i l i z e d the L i k e r t s c a l i n g technique t o measure the degree t o which p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an environmental l i v i n g p r a c t i c u m c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of environmental a t t i t u d e s . Crum (1984), used a 5-point s c a l e t o a s s e s s " l e a r n i n g e f f e c t " w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n secondary s c h o o l students. Avery and Lumpkin (1987) a p p l i e d a 5-p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e t o a p p r a i s e which p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s students c o n s i d e r e d most important. Koslow (1988), implemented a L i k e r t s c a l e r a n g i n g from 1-9 t o determine c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the academic c r e d i b i l i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i s c i p l i n e of p h y s i c a l education. These are j u s t a few of the many s t u d i e s which have used some form of semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e t o measure s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , although t h e r e are some in h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s when d e a l i n g with b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s , t h i s study has u t i l i z e d procedures which have been s u c c e s s f u l i n many ot h e r s t u d i e s . 3.10 Summary The o u t l i n e of the methodology has endeavoured t o p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o the procedures t h a t were f o l l o w e d t o conduct t h i s study. Moreover, i t has attempted t o render an account of the steps t h a t were taken from b e g i n n i n g t o end. From the d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology and r e s e a r c h design t o the data a n a l y s i s and l i m i t a t i o n s , an e f f o r t has been made t o i l l u s t r a t e the process t h a t was f o l l o w e d i n order t o conduct a c r e d i b l e study. 52 Chapter 4 RESULTS 4.0 Overview The purpose of t h i s study was t o assess student a t t i t u d e toward teacher behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d ucation. T h i s study u t i l i z e d a student survey method i n grades 3, 7, and 10 t o assess student a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content. I t s purpose was t o e s t a b l i s h whether: 1. Students' a t t i t u d e s ( i . e . , as r e f l e c t e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e responses) toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation were d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 2. Students' a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation were d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 3. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation were d i f f e r e n t from each other at each grade l e v e l . 53 4. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t from each other at each grade l e v e l . 5. Those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour from those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 6. Those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program content from those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . T h i s chapter d e t a i l s the a n a l y s i s of the data obtained from the 386 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were completed. S e c t i o n 4.1 r e p o r t s on the sample s i z e of the study. S e c t i o n 4.2 r e p o r t s the data by grade l o o k i n g a t t e a c h e r behaviour. S e c t i o n 4.3 r e p o r t s data by grade l o o k i n g a t program content. S e c t i o n 4.4 r e p o r t s the data by grade and gender l o o k i n g a t t e a c h e r behaviour. S e c t i o n 4.5 r e p o r t s the data by grade and gender l o o k i n g a t program content. S e c t i o n 4.6 r e p o r t s the data of students l i k i n g and not l i k i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s l o o k i n g a t t e a c h e r behaviour. S e c t i o n 4.7 r e p o r t s the data of students l i k i n g and not l i k i n g t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s l o o k i n g a t program content. The statements p e r t a i n i n g t o t e a c h e r behaviour i n c l u d e a l l the even numbered statements from 4 t o 32. The statements r e l a t e d t o program content i n c l u d e a l l the odd numbered statements from 5 t o 31. For t h i s reason, statements were grouped as e i t h e r t e a c h e r behaviour or program content when d i s p l a y i n g the r e s u l t s of the survey. 4.1 Sample S i z e Table 1 shows the breakdown of the sample s i z e by grade l e v e l and gender. Table 1: D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Grade L e v e l and Gender Grades C l a s s e s Gender n % 3 5 Males 66 17 Females 49 13 T o t a l 115 30 7 5 Males 72 19 Females 65 17 T o t a l 137 35 10 5 Males 71 18.5 Females 63 16.5 T o t a l 134 35 T o t a l 386 100 56 Table 2 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , and those students who were undecided. Table 2 Sample S i z e by Student Preference Grade A t t i t u d e n % 3 L i k e d 102 89 D i s l i k e d 3 2 Undecided 10 9 T o t a l 115 100 7 L i k e d 95 69 D i s l i k e d 19 14 Undecided 24 17 T o t a l 138 100 10 L i k e d 109 83 D i s l i k e d 14 11 Undecided 8 6 T o t a l 131 100 T o t a l 386 100 57 4.2 Student Responses by Grade  Teacher Behaviour The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h i s study undertook t o answer was whether: 1. Students' a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. The responses t o the s t u d e n t s ' survey were an a l y z e d and d i s p l a y e d ( i n t a b l e s 3 and 4) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean scores were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g the f o l l o w i n g numerical v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, S t r o n g l y Disagree -2. A one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was used f o r each of the 15 statements t o determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. Table 3 Student Responses by Grade - Teacher Behaviour Grade 3 ES Grade 7 eg Grade 10 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 * A l l grades Mean 1. 68 . 82 1.31 S.D. .63 1.16 .82 Sfl R I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s understanding t o students who are not very good a t sp o r t s . Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 * A l l grades Mean 1.30 .54 .91 S.D. .97 1.29 1.08 Sfi 8. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher s e t s a good example f o r the c l a s s behaves. by the way he/she Mean S.D. Grade 3 1. 56 .70 Grade 7 .74 1.20 Grade 10 1.09 .86 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 Sfl 10. I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean S.D. Grade 3 .64 1.31 Grade 7 .48 1.28 Grade 10 .73 1.16 A l l grades no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 60 12. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher g i v e s me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.18 . 98 Grade 7 . 52 1.22 Grade 10 .88 .90 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 3 and 10 Sfl SD 14. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r has good c o n t r o l over the students i n my c l a s s . Mean S.D. * Grades 7 and 10 16. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l , Mean S. D. Grade 3 1.19 1. 11 Grade 7 . 68 1. 00 Grade 10 1.24 • 64 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 Sfi 18. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 * A l l grades Mean 1.28 .26 .81 S.D. 1. 09 1.35 . 95 Sfl 20. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher cares about how I f e e l . Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 * A l l grades Mean 1. 01 . 04 . 57 S.D. 1. 09 1.25 1. 01 SR 6 2 22. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. Mean S.D. Grade 3 1. 64 .65 Grade 7 1. 03 1.07 Grade 10 1.49 .64 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l educa" te a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o . Mean S.D. Grade 3 .96 1.15 Grade 7 •17 1.26 Grade 10 .87 .99 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 Sfl A U D SD Sfl ft U D SD 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher motivates me t o do my bes t . Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 Mean 1.3 0 .99 . 84 S.D. 1. 01 1. 01 .90 58 * Grades 3 and 10 SR SD 63 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my p h y s i c a l education teacher are f a i r . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.03 1.22 Grade 7 .81 1.11 Grade 10 .77 .98 A l l grades no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r gives me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l . Mean S. D. Grade 3 1.15 1. 16 Grade 7 . 56 1. 25 Grade 10 .92 • 89 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 sa fi U D SD Sfl fi U D SD -64 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher helps me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . * Grades 3 and 10 Table 4 g i v e s a summary of student responses t o a l l 15 statements concerning t e a c h e r behaviour. 65 Table 4 Summary of Student Responses by Grade - Teacher Behaviour Item Grade Means F-value (p) S i g n i f i c a n t 3 7 10 D i f f e r e n c e ( s ) 4 1.68 0.82 1.31 <.001 3-7, 3-10, .7-10 6 1.30 0.54 0.91 <. 001 3-7, 3-10, 7-10 8 1.56 0.74 1. 09 <. 001 3-7, 3-10, 7-10 10 0.64 0.48 0.73 .450 12 1.18 0.52 0.88 <.001 3-7, 3-10 14 0.93 0.42 1.18 <. 001 3-7, 7-10 16 1.19 0.68 1.24 <.001 3-7, 7/10 18 1.28 0.2 6 0.81 <. 001 3-7, 3-10, 7-10 20 1.01 0. 04 0. 57 <.001 3-7, 3-10, 7-10 22 1.64 1.03 1.49 <.001 3-7, 7-10 24 0.96 0.17 0.89 <.001 7-10 26 1.30 0. 99 0. 84 <.004 3-10 28 1. 03 0.81 0.77 .303 30 1.15 0.56 0.92 <• 001 3-7, 7-10 32 1.20 0. 44 1. 02 <. 001 3-7, 3-10 Tables 3 and 4 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. F i v e of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among a l l t h r e e grades. Seven of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between one of the grades and the other two. One of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between two grades. Only two of the f i f t e e n statements showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 3 and 4 i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e t r e n d s . F i r s t , student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour were p o s i t i v e i n each of the grades, with a l l f i f t e e n statements r e g i s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e mean s c o r e s . Second, student a t t i t u d e s i n grade 3 were the most p o s i t i v e , r e g i s t e r i n g the h i g h e s t sco r e i n 12 of the 15 statements. L a s t l y , student a t t i t u d e s i n grade 7 were the l e a s t p o s i t i v e , r e g i s t e r i n g the lowest sco r e i n 14 of the 15 statements. 67 4.3 S t u d e n t s 7 Responses by Grade Program Content The second q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s study undertook t o answer was whether: 2. Students' a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. The responses t o the students' survey were analyzed and d i s p l a y e d ( i n t a b l e s 5 and 6) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean sc o r e s were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g the f o l l o w i n g numerical v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, S t r o n g l y Disagree -2. A one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was used f o r each of the 14 statements to determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. Table 5 Student Responses by Grade - Program Content Grade 3 • Grade 7 W Grade 10 f£S3 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at 0.05 l e v e l In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 10 Mean 1.57 .78 .91 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 3 and 10 sa 69 In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) we take are w e l l organized. Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.20 .94 Grade 7 . 69 .99 Grade 10 1. 06 .72 * Grades 3 * Grades 7 and 7 and 10 Sfl SD In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be ab l e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.31 1.21 Grade 7 .84 1.16 Grade 10 .98 1. 08 * Grades 3 and 7 Sfl SD 11. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . Mean S. D. Grade 3 1.16 1. 07 Grade 7 . 62 1. 22 Grade 10 .46 1. 11 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 7 and 10 13. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. soccer, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.11 1.30 Grade 7 1.00 1.20 Grade 10 .82 1.24 A l l grades: no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 15. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s students too much s t r e s s on winning. by Mean S. D. Grade 3 .70 1. 32 Grade 7 -.12 1. 24 Grade 10 -.27 1. 20 * Grades 3 * Grades 3 and 7 and 10 17. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o h e l p determine my mark. Mean S.D. Grade 3 .87 1.37 Grade 7 .36 1.30 Grade 10 -.41 1.25 * A l l grades 19. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s cooperation ( i . e . , how t o get along with other people) not competition ( i . e . , winning) Mean S. D. Grade 3 1.22 1.26 Grade 7 1. 04 1. 01 Grade 10 . 90 1. 08 A l l grades: no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 21. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.10 1. 08 Grade 7 .24 1.25 Grade 10 . 18 1.20 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 3 and 10 73 3. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Mean S.D. Grade 3 .75 1.31 Grade 7 .22 1.20 Grade 10 -.06 1.11 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 3 and 10 es, 40 Sfl fi U D SD 5. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I am given enough time t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s I am taught. Mean S.D. Grade 3 .36 1.47 Grade 7 . 04 1.29 Grade 10 .61 1. 01 * Grades 7 and 10 Sfl SD 74 27. In my p h y s i c a l edu the l e v e l of s k i l l do w e l l i s f a i r . c a t i o n c l a s s e s , necessary t o Mean S.D. Grade 3 .66 1.17 Grade 7 .54 1.04 Grade 10 . 61 .97 A l l grades: d i f f e r e n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t 29. In my p h y s i c a l edu my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . , behaviour) should p a r t o f my mark. c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my e f f o r t and be i n c l u d e d as Mean S.D. Grade 3 .98 1. 37 Grade 7 1. 00 1.20 Grade 10 1.35 1. 01 Sfi SD A l l grades: no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 75 31. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year. Mean S. D. Grade 3 .78 1. 13 Grade 7 . 09 1. 13 Grade 10 .33 1. 04 * Grades 3 and 7 * Grades 3 and 10 46 T a b l e 6 g i v e s an summary of student responses t o a l l 14 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o program content. 7 6 Table 6 Summary of Student Responses by Grade - Program Content Item Grade Means F-value (p) S i g n i f i c a n t 3 7 10 Difference 5 1.57 0.78 0.91 <.001 3-7, 3-10 7 1.20 0.69 1.06 <.001 3-7, 7-10 9 1.31 0.84 0.98 <.006 3-7 11 1.16 0.62 0.46 <.001 3-7, 7-10 13 1.11 1.00 0.82 .283 15 0.70 -0.12 -0.27 <.001 3-7, 3-10 17 0.87 0.36 -0.41 <.001 3-7, 3-10, 7-10 19 1.22 1.04 0.90 .152 21 1.10 0.24 0.18 <.001 3-7, 3-10 23 0.75 0.22 -0.06 <.001 3-7, 3-10 25 0.36 0.04 0.61 <.004 7-10 27 0.66 0.54 0.61 .814 29 0.98 1.00 1.35 .055 31 0.78 0.09 0.33 <.001 3-7, 3-10 77 Tables 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. One of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among a l l t h r e e grades. Seven of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between one grade and the other two. Two of the statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between two grades. Only f o u r of the f o u r t e e n statements showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . An a n a l y s i s o f t a b l e s 5 and 6 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . F i r s t , student a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e i n each grade, with 11 of the 14 statements r e g i s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e mean s c o r e s . Second, grade 3 students' a t t i t u d e s toward program content were the most p o s i t i v e of the t h r e e grades. T h i s t r e n d was not as d i s t i n c t as i t was with the p r e v i o u s statements on teacher behaviour, but i n the key statements on program content grade 3 students r e g i s t e r e d the h i g h e s t s c o r e s . L a s t l y , student a t t i t u d e s i n grade 7. were the l e a s t p o s i t i v e . Once again t h i s t r e n d was not as obvious as the t r e n d i n the t e a c h e r behaviour statements, but i t was e v i d e n t . 78 4 .4 Student Responses by Grade and Gender Teacher Behaviour The t h i r d question t h a t t h i s study undertook t o answer was whether: 3. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t from each other at each grade l e v e l . The responses t o the student surveys were analyzed and d i s p l a y e d (grade 3, i n t a b l e s 7 and 8; grade 7, i n t a b l e s 9 and 10; and grade 10, i n t a b l e s 11 and 12) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s question. The mean scores were de r i v e d by assessing the f o l l o w i n g numerical values: Strongly Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, Strongly Disagree -2. A t -t e s t was used f o r each of the 15 statements t o determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. 79 Table 7 Grade 3 Student Responses - Teacher Behaviour Female Male Grade 3 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the 0.05 l e v e l 4. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Mean Grade 3 1.76 1.62 S.D. .48 Female .71 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl u 2 -ESL. SD I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s understanding t o students who are not very good a t s p o r t s . Grade 3 Mean 1.41 1.23 S.D. .75 1.10 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 5758 Sfl 1615 Bps 3 5 U D SD 8. I believe my physical education teacher sets a good example for the class by the way he/she behaves. Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.54 .68 Female 1.58 .72 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t difference 0. I believe i t i s important that my physical education teacher take part i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n cla s s . Mean S.D Grade 3 .52 1.38 Female .73 1.24 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t difference 2. I believe my physical education teacher gives me support and encouragement i n class. Mean Grade 3 1.39 S.D. .75 Female 55 1.03 1.10 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t difference Sfl 81 14. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher has good c o n t r o l over the students i n my c l a s s . Grade 3 Mean .98 .89 S.D. 1.06 Female 1.22 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 3941 Sfl SD 16. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l Mean Grade 3 1.45 1.00 S.D. .76 Female 1.28 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR SD 18. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . Mean Grade 3 1.25 1.30 S.D. 1.01 Female 1.14 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 62 SR 1 0 5 » 5 SD 20. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher cares about how I f e e l . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.24 .85 Female .83 1.21 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 22. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.69 .65 Female 1.60 .65 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 24. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s easy t o t a l k t o . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.10 .97 Feamle .85 1.25 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher motivates me t o do my best. Mean Grade 3 1.45 1.20 S.D. .90 Female 1.06 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 3fl 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my 5 9 p h y s i c a l education teacher are f a i r . Grade 3 Mean 1-18 .91 S.D. 1.21 Female 1.22 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher gives me c r e d i t when I do 57 something w e l l , Kean Grade 3 1.39 .97 S.D. .80 Female 1.35 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR 8 4 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher helps me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . Grade 3 Mean 1.40 1.05 S.D. .89 Female 1.12 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR 27 27 Table 8 gives a summary of grade 3 students' responses t o a l l 15 statements concerning teacher behaviour. 85 Table 8 Summary of Grade 3 Responses - Teacher Behaviour : : : : Item Gender 2 - T a i l t - t e s t Female Male (p) 4 1.76 1.62 0.188 6 1.41 1.23 0.199 8 1.54 1.58 0.646 10 0.52 0.73 0.492 12 1.39 1.03 0.075 14 0.98 0.89 0.571 16 1.45 1.00 0.011 * 18 1.25 1.30 0.929 20 1.24 0.83 0.030 * 22 1.69 1.60 0.657 24 1.10 0.85 0.261 26 1.45 1.20 0.130 28 1.18 0.91 0.463 30 1.39 0.97 0.040 * 32 1.40 1.05 0.060 * p < .05 86 T a b l e s 7 and 8 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s t oward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Only t h r e e o f t h e f i f t e e n s t a t e m e n t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and f e m a l e s . I n t w e l v e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between males and f e m a l e s . An a n a l y s i s o f t a b l e s 7 and 8 i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . F i r s t , b o t h female and male a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r were p o s i t i v e , w i t h a l l 15 s t a t e m e n t s r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, females d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t h a n males toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r , w i t h females s c o r i n g h i g h e r on 12 o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s . F i n a l l y , males d i d no t f e e l t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d as much s u p p o r t o r a t t e n t i o n as d i d f e m a l e s , which r e s u l t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n two o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s . 87 Table 9 Grade 7 Students' Responses - Teacher Behaviour Female . Male Grade 7 —  Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 0.05 l e v e l I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .80 1.10 .84 1.21 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 4241 SO I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s understanding t o students who are not very good at s p o r t s . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .60 1.27 .49 1.30 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl R U D SD I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r sets a good example f o r the c l a s s by the way he/she behaves. Mean S.D. Grade 7 .92 1.07 Female .58 1.28 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean S.D Grade 7 .77 1.10 Female .23 1.37 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r gives me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .75 1.02 Female .31 1.34 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher has good c o n t r o l over the students i n my c l a s s . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .57 1.32 Female .29 1.35 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .80 1.04 .56 .95 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .59 1.23 Female Female Male -.03 1.37 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 20. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher cares about how I f e e l . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .38 1.18 Female -.26 1.22 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 22. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. Mean S.D. Grade 7 1.14 1.07 Female . 9 3 1.07 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 24. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s easy t o t a l k t o . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .43 1.24 Female -.05 1.24 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher motivates me t o do my best. Mean S.D. Grade 7 1.14 .82 Female .85 1.13 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my p h y s i c a l education teacher are f a i r . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .77 1.08 Female .85 1.14 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .75 1.09 Female .40 1,3 5 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 92 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .60 1.13 Female .29 1.23 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D SD Table 10 g i v e s a summary of grade 7 s t u d e n t s ' responses t o a l l 15 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o te a c h e r behaviour. Table 10 Summary of Grade 7 Responses - Teacher Behaviour Item Gender 2 -. T a i l t - t e s t Female Male 4 0.80 0.84 0.817 6 0.60 0.49 0.588 8 0.92 0.58 0.080 10 0.77 0.23 0.016 * 12 0.75 0.23 0.029 * 14 0.57 0.29 0.315 16 0.80 1.04 0.120 18 0.59 -.03 0.008 ** 20 0.38 -.26 0.001 ** 22 1.14 0.93 0.326 24 0.43 -.05 0.021 * 26 1.14 0.85 0.037 * 28 0.77 0.85 0.939 30 0.75 0.40 0.037 * 32 0.60 0.29 0.108 * p < .05 ** p < .01 94 Tables 9 and 10 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Seven of the f i f t e e n statements i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. While t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females i n e i g h t of the statements, the number of statements d i s p l a y i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o suggest a d i f f e r e n c e does e x i s t . An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 9 and 10 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . F i r s t , both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour were p o s i t i v e , w i t h 12 of the 15 statements r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, females d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e than males toward t e a c h e r behaviour, with females s c o r i n g h i g h e r on 13 of the 15 statements. F i n a l l y , males d i d not f e e l t h a t they r e c e i v e d as much support and a t t e n t i o n as d i d females, which r e s u l t e d i n t h r e e statements r e c e i v i n g n e g ative s c o r e s by males and s i x statements showing a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between females and males. Table 11 Grade 10 Students' Responses - Teacher Behaviour Female Male Grade 10 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the 0.05 l e v e l I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Grade 10 Mean 1.26 1. 34 S.D. . 9 2 .71 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r i s understanding t o students who are not very good a t s p o r t s . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .69 1.09 Female 1.10 1.03 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D 96 8. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher s e t s a good example f o r the c l a s s by the way he/she behaves. Grade 10 Mean .88 1.27 S.D. .90 .79 Female Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 10. I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l education teacher take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Grade 10 Mean .97 .53 S.D 1.10 1.17 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 12. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher g i v e s me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . Grade 10 Mean .90 .86 S.D. .86 .94 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 4950 Sfl SD 97 1 4 . I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l ' e d u c a t i o n teacher has good c o n t r o l over the students i n my c l a s s . Mean Grade 10 1.20 1.16 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fi U SD 16. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l . Mean Grade 10 1.33 •1.16 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 18. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . Grade 10 Mean . 66 .94 S . D . . 87 1. 00 15 3 ffli No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR SD 98 I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher cares about how I f e e l . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .50 1.02 Female .63 .99 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e S8 fl SD I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. Grade 10 Mean 1.53 1.46 S.D. .62 . 65 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s easy t o t a l k t o . Grade 10 Mean .73 .99 S.D. 1. 04 .92 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 54 44|| 27 H i 21fl33 20 | 9 ? « 5 3 SD 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher motivates me t o do my best. Mean S.D. Grade 10 .68 .99 Female .97 .79 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl R 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my p h y s i c a l education teacher are f a i r . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .77 .94 Female .77 1.02 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 5? 151 SR R 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .90 .90 Female .94 .88 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 23. 27 J555 Sfl 53 146 100 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher helps me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . Grade 10 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Table 12 g i v e s a summary of grade 10 student responses t o a l l 15 statements concerning teacher behaviour. Table 12 Summary of Grade 10 Responses - Teacher Behaviour Item Gender 2 - T a i l t - t e s t Female Male (P) 4 1.26 . 1.34 0.495 6 0.69 1.10 0.043 * 8 0.88 1.27 0.026 * 10 0.97 0.53 0.064 12 0.90 0.86 0.817 14 1.20 1.16 0.965 16 1.33 1.16 0.213 18 0.66 0.94 0.153 20 0.50 0.63 0.562 22 1.53 1.46 0.959 24 0.73 0.99 0.113 26 0.68 0.97 0.113 28 0.77 0.77 0.629 30 0.90 0.94 0.590 32 1.13 0.93 0.483 * p < .05 102 T a b l e s 11 and 12 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. Only two of the f i f t e e n statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females, w h i l e i n t h i r t e e n of the statements t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between males and females. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 11 and 12 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i r s t , both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour were p o s i t i v e , w i t h a l l f i f t e e n statements r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, males e x h i b i t e d a s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e than females toward t e a c h e r behaviour, r e g i s t e r i n g a h i g h e r score on e i g h t out of the f i f t e e n statements, with one being a t i e . 103 4.5 Students' Responses by Grade and Gender Program Content The f o u r t h question t h i s study undertook t o answer was whether: 4. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t from each other a t each grade l e v e l . The responses t o the s t u d e n t s ' surveys were analyzed and d i s p l a y e d (grade 3 i n t a b l e s 13 and 14; grade 7 i n t a b l e s 15 and 16; grade 10 i n t a b l e s 17 and 18) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean scores were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g the f o l l o w i n g numerical v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, S t r o n g l y Disagree -2. A t - t e s t was used f o r each of the 14 statements t o determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. .104 , Table 13 Grade 3 Stude n t s 7 Responses - Program Content Female Male Grade 3 5. Graph responses i n per c e n t * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. Grade 3 Mean 1.78 1.42 S.D. .51 .85 Female Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR SD In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) 57 we take are w e l l organized Mean S.D. Grade 3 1. 35 .89 1.09 .97 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e sa SD 105 In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be able to choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Grade 3 Mean 1.29 1.33 S.D. 1.21 1.21 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 10 9 14 SD 11. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.21 1.04 Female 1.12 1.09 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 5149 SR SD 13. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. soccer, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean S.D. Grade 3 .08 1.3 6 Female 1.35 1.20 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e R U D SD In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , there i s too much s t r e s s by students on winning. Mean S.D. Grade 3 .88 1.27 Female .58 1.34 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o help determine my mark. 55 Mean S.D. Grade 3 .82 1.32 Female .91 1.41 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . how t o get along with other people) not competition ( i . e . winning). 74 Mean S.D. Grade 3 1.63 .75 Female .91 1.45 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 107 In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Mean S. D. Grade 3 .96 1. 12 Female 1.20 1. 03 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 25 2? 22 is: m -14 i l U 6 5 4 3 JBS3-SD In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Grade 3 Mean . 88 . 65 S.D. 1.30 1.31 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough time t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s i am taught. Grade 3 Mean . 04 .59 S.D. 1.38 1.49 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 27. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the l e v e l of s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l i s f a i r . Grade 3 Mean . 54 .74 S D. 1.15 1.17 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 29. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and behaviour) should be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of my mark. Grade 3 Mean 1.31 .74 S.D. 1.11 1.49 Female Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 31. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year. Grade 3 Mean .78 .79 S.D. 1. 05 1.19 Female Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl Table 14 g i v e s a summary of grade 3 s t u d e n t s ' respon 14 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o program content. Table 14 Summary of Grade 3 Responses - Program Content Item Gender 2 - T a i l t - t e s t Female Male (p) 5 1.78 1.42 0.018 * 7 1.35 1.09 0.260 9 1.29 1.33 0.833 11 1.21 1.12 0.939 13 0.08 1.35 0.028 * 15 0.88 0.58 0.239 17 0.82 0.91 0.825 19 1.63 0.91 0.002 ** 21 0.96 1.20 0.312 23 0.88 0.65 0.377 25 0.04 0.59 0.044 * 27 0.54 0.74 0.247 29 1.31 0.74 0.037 * 31 0.78 0.79 0.783 * p < .05 * * p < . 0 1 110 Tables 13 and 14 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. Only f i v e of the f o u r t e e n statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. In nine of the statements, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between males and females. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 13 and 14 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i r s t , both females', and males' a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e , with 12 of the 14 statements r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, males i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r team games and c o m p e t i t i o n , while females i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c t i v i t i e s s t r e s s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , females showed more support than males f o r having t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e i r mark. I l l Table 15 Grade 7 Students' Responses - Program Content Female Male Grade 7 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l 5. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. Grade 7 Mean S.D. .80 .96 Female .75 1.20 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 48 47 Sfl fl U SD 7. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) we take are w e l l organized. Grade 7 Mean .72 .67 S.D. .94 1. 04 Female Male 49 51 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 9. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be able t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Mean S.D. Grade 7 .56 1.27 Female 1.08 1.00 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 11. In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . Mean S.D. Grade 7 .75 1.18 Female .51 1.15 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 13. In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. soccer, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean S.D. Grade 7 1.05 1.16 Female .96 1.24 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 15. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s too much s t r e s s by students on winning. Mean S.D. Grade 7 -.19 1.24 Female -.05 1.25 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 17. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o help determine my mark. Mean S.D. Grade 7 .37 1.25 Female .35 1.35 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 19. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . how t o get along with other people) not competition ( i . e . winning). Mean S.D. Grade 7 1.32 .88 Female .79 1.05 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 21. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Grade 7 Mean • .15 .32 S.D. 1.27 1.23 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Female Male 1514 Sfl 23. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Grade 7 Mean .11 .32 S.D. 1. 08 1.29 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Female Male 22 Sfl 25. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I am given enough time to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s I am taught. Grade 7 Mean .28 -.18 S.D. 1.34 Female 1.20 Male 22 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 7. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the l e v e l of s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l i s f a i r . Mean S D. Grade 7 .56 1.04 Female .53 1.04 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 9. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and behaviour) should be in c l u d e d as p a r t o f my mark. Mean S.D. Grade 7 1.32 .98 Female .71 1.31 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 1. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year. Mean S.D. Grade 7 .08 1.05 Female .11 1.20 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Male 116 Table 16 giv e s a summary of grade 7 students' responses to a l l 14 statements concerning program content. Table 16 Summary of Grade 7 Responses - Program Content Item Gender 2 - T a i l t - t e s t Female Male (P) 5 0.80 0.75 0,916 7 0.72 0. 67 0.724 9 0. 56 1. 08 0. 006 ** 11 0.75 0.51 0.258 13 1.05 0. 96 0. 954 15 -.19 -.05 0.539 17 0.37 0.35 0.988 19 1.32 0. 79 0. 002 ** 21 0.15 0. 32 0. 696 23 0.11 0.32 0.238 25 0.28 -.18 0.030 * 27 0.56 0.53 0.478 29 1.32 0.71 0. 002 ** 31 0.08 0.11 0.817 * p < . 05 ** p < .01 117 Tables 15. and 16 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. Only f o u r of the f o u r t e e n statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. In ten of the statements t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 15 and 16 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i r s t , both females' and males' a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e , with 12 of the 14 statements r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, males i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r d e s i r e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s they take than d i d females, although females d i d i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c t i v i t i e s s t r e s s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n as opposed t o com p e t i t i o n . F i n a l l y , females showed more support than males f o r having t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e i r l e t t e r grade. Table 17 Grade 10 Students' Responses - Program Content Female Male Grade 10 Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at 0.05 l e v e l 5. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. Mean Grade 10 .93 .89 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 49 49 Sfl R U D 7. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) we take are w e l l organized. Mean Grade 10 1.10 1.03 S.D. . 67 .76 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 9. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be able t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Mean S.D. Grade 10 .89 1.10 Female 1.06 1.05 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 11. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .55 1.12 Female .39 1.10 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 13. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. soccer, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean S.D. Grade 10 .66 1.28 Female .97 1.19 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 15. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s too much s t r e s s by students on winning. Mean S.D. Grade 10 -.39 1.23 Female -.16 1.17 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 17. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o help determine my mark. Mean S.D. Grade 10 - . 5 9 1.21 Female -.26 1.26 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 19. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . how t o get along with other people) not competition ( i . e . winning). Mean S.D. Grade 10 .92 1.08 Female .88 1.08 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 21. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Mean S.D. Grade 10 .30 1.23 Female .09 1.17 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 23. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Mean S.D. Grade 10 -.11 1.17 Femaie -.01 1.17 Male No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 25. In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am given enough time to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s I am taught. Mean S.D. Grade 10 .46 1.06 Female .74 .94 Male * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 122 T a b l e 18 g i v e s a summary of grade 10 students' responses t o a l l 14 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o program content. Table 18 Summary of Grade 10 Responses - Program Content Item Gender 2 - T a i l t - t e s t Female Male (p) 5 0.93 0.89 0.982 7 1.10 1.03 0.574 9 0.89 1.06 0.145 11 0.55 0.39 0.365 13 0.66 0.97 0.12 6 15 -.39 -.16 0.220 17 -.59 -.26 0.099 19 0.92 0.88 0.980 21 0.30 0.09 0.208 23 -.11 -.01 0.711 25 0.46 0.74 0.025 * 27 0.31 0.87 0.001 ** 29 1.38 1.31 0.858 31 0.31 0.36 0.680 * p < . 05 ** p < .01 124 Tables 17 and 18 i n d i c a t e t h a t there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Only two of the f o u r t e e n statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. In twelve of the statements t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between males and females. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 17 and 18 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i r s t , both males' and females' a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e , with 10 of the 14 statements r e g i s t e r i n g a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Second, males i n d i c a t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree than females t h a t t h a t they were g i v e n enough time t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s they were taught. F i n a l l y , males i n d i c a t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree than females t h a t the l e v e l of s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l was f a i r . 125 4.6 Student Responses to Teacher Behaviour by Preference toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C l a s s e s The f i f t h q u e s t i o n t h i s study undertook to answer was whether: 5. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . The responses t o students' surveys were analyzed and d i s p l a y e d ( i n t a b l e s 19 and 20) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean scores were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g the f o l l o w i n g numerical v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, S t r o n g l y Disagree -2. A t - t e s t was used f o r each of the 15 statements t o determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. Table 19 Student Responses t o Teacher Behaviour  by Preference toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  C l a s s e s B + L i k e P.E. c l a s s e s - Don't l i k e P.E. c l a s s e s Graph responses i n p e r c e n t * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . 56 + Mean 1.43 .31 . 7 8 . 7 8 S.D. S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl R U I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o students who are not very good at s p o r t s . 42 Mean S.D. + 1.08 1.07 .17 1.3 4 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r the c l a s s by the way he/she behaves. 49 Mean S.D. + 1.25 .91 .31 1.27 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean S.D. + .55 1.26 .92 1.26 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 128 12. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r g i v e s me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean S . D . + 1.04 .98 .00 1.15 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl A U D SD 14. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r has good c o n t r o l over the students i n my c l a s s . Mean S.D. + .97 1.07 .34 1.53 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl SD 16. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l . Mean 1.12 .8.1 S.D. .93 . 88 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 4544 SD 18. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . Mean .95 -.28 S.D. 1.10 1.26 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 36 SR 20. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher cares about how I f e e l . Mean .73 -.69 S.D. 1.08 1.17 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 26 Sfl 22. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. + Mean 1.49 . 94 S.D. .74 1. 05 59 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 130 24. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s easy t o t a l k t o . Mean S.D. + .82 1.11 -.17 1.17 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher motivates me t o do my best. Mean S.D. + 1.12 .93 .78 1.16 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my p h y s i c a l education teacher are f a i r . Mean S.D. + .97 1.08 .42 1.19 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 42 Sfl ft U 0 SD Sfl ft U D SD 131 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l . Mean .98 .44 S.D. 1. 07 1.21 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U SD 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r helps me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Table 2 0 g i v e s a summary of the responses of students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . a n d those who i n d i c a t e d they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s s e s t o a l l 15 statements concerning t e a c h e r behaviour. Table 2 0 Summary of Student Responses t o Teacher  Behaviour by Preference toward P h y s i c a l  Education c l a s e s Item 2 - T a i l t - t e s t p o s i t i v e negative (p) 4 1.43 0.31 0.001 ** 6 1.08 0.17 0.001 ** 8 1.25 0.31 0.001 ** 10 0.55 0.92 0.089 12 1.04 0.00 0.001 ** 14 0.97 0.34 0.002 ** 16 1.12 0.81 0.098 18 0.95 -.28 0.001 ** 20 0.73 -.69 0.001 ** 22 1.49 0.94 0.001 ** 24 0.82 -.17 0.001 ** 26 1.12 0.78 0.038 28 0.97 0.42 0.016 * 30 0.98 0.44 0.013 * 32 1.00 0.37 0.001 ** * p < . 05 ** p < .01 133 Tables 19 and 20 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . T h i r t e e n of the f i f t e e n statements showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . Only i n two statements was t h e r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between the two groups. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 19 and 20 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s : F i r s t , students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour than students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . Second, both groups agreed t h a t i t was important t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s . F i n a l l y , both groups agreed t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r demonstrated s k i l l s w e l l . 134 4.7 Student Responses t o Program Content by Preference toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s The s i x t h q u e s t i o n t h i s study undertook t o answer was whether: 6. Those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program content from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . The responses t o students' surveys were analyzed and d i s p l a y e d (Tables 21 and 22) t o o b t a i n the answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n . The mean scores were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g the f o l l o w i n g numerical v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, Disagree -1, S t r o n g l y Disagree -2. A t - t e s t was used f o r each of the 14 statements t o determine whether the frequency of response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t expected by chance. 135 Table 21 Student Responses t o Program Content  by Preference toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  C l a s s e s • f - + L i k e P.E. c l a s s e s E3 - Don't l i k e P.E. c l a s s e s Graph responses i n percent * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l 5. In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. 45 41 •31 + Mean -.19 1.27 S.D. 1.10 .82 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e SR R u D SD 136 In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) we take are w e l l organized. Mean 1.06 .61 S.D. .89 .86 Sfl SD * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be able t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Mean 1.02 1.08 S.D. 1.16 1.32 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fi SD 11. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . Mean S.D. + .87 1.08 .00 1.35 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D SD 3. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. soccer, S o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean 1. 08 S.D. 1.21 54 I 33 .50 1.50 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl 5. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s too much s t r e s s by students on winning. Mean . 10 -.14 S.D. 1.32 1.18 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 21 114 Sfl In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o help determine my mark. + Mean .29 . 08 S.D. 1.42 1.48 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 26 22 Sfl 1 3 3 19. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . how t o get along with other people) not com p e t i t i o n ( i . e . winning). Mean 1.08 S.D. 1. 07 .67 1.31 S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D SD 20. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Mean S.D. + .57 1.21 .00 1.31 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D SD 23. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Mean .30 .06 S.D. 1.25 1. 37 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e Sfl fl U D SD 139 25. In my physical education classes, I am given enough time to practice the s k i l l s I am taught. Mean .48 -.03 S.D. 1.27 1.14 * S i g n i f i c a n t difference 23 37 36 28 141 I I M i a mm mm mm mm mm Sfl R U D SD 27. In my physical education classes, the l e v e l of s k i l l necessary to do well i s f a i r . Mean S.D. + .66 1.05 .20 1.04 * S i g n i f i c a n t difference Sfl fi U D SD 29. In my physical education classes, my attitude ( i . e . my e f f o r t and behaviour) should be included as part of my mark. Mean + 1.24 S.D. 1.14 .67 1.37 * S i g n i f i c a n t difference Sfl SD 140 31. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year. + Mean . 00 .51 S.D. 1.25 1. 08 * S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 5 0 " u u b U Table 22 gi v e s a summary of the responses of students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those who i n d i c a t e d they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s f o r a l l 14 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o program content. Table 22 Summary of Student Responses t o Program  Content by Preference toward P h y s i c a l  Education C l a s s e s Item 2 - T a i l t - t e s t p o s i t i v e negative (p) 5 1.27 -.19 0.001 ** 7 1.06 0.61 0.003 ** 9 1.02 1.08 0.635 11 0.87 0.00 0.001 ** 13 1.08 0.50 0.011 * 15 0.10 -.14 0.302 17 0.29 0.08 0.374 19 1.08 0.67 0.005 21 0.57 0.00 0.008 ** 23 0.30 0.06 0.302 25 0.48 -.03 0.013 * 27 0.66 0.20 0.030 * 29 1.24 0.67 0.027 * 31 0.51 0.00 0.012 * * p < .05 ** p < .01 T a b l e s 21 and 22 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . Ten of the f o u r t e e n statements show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . In f o u r of the statements t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between the two groups. An a n a l y s i s of t a b l e s 21 and 22 i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g t r e n d s . F i r s t , students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward program content than those students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . Second, both groups wanted t o be a b l e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s they take. F i n a l l y , both groups s i g n i f i e d t h a t t h e r e was not too much s t r e s s on winning by s t u d e n t s . 4.8 Summary Tab l e s 3 and 4 showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n students' a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. However, student a t t i t u d e s were p o s i t i v e i n each grade, w i t h grade 3 students r e g i s t e r i n g the h i g h e s t s c o r e s and grade 7 students r e g i s t e r i n g the lowest s c o r e s . Tables 5 and 6 showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. However, student a t t i t u d e s were once again p o s i t i v e i n a l l t h r e e grades, with grade 3 students r e g i s t e r i n g the h i g h e s t scores and grade 7 students r e g i s t e r i n g t h e lowest s c o r e s . Tables. 7 and 8 showed t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grade 3 male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour. However, both female and male a t t i t u d e s r e g i s t e r e d a p o s i t i v e s c o r e . Females d i s p l a y e d h i g h e r scores than males w h i l e males s i g n i f i e d t h a t they d i d not r e c e i v e enough support or a t t e n t i o n from t h e i r t e a c h e r . In c o n t r a s t , t a b l e s 9 and 10 showed t h a t there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grade 7 female and male a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour. N e v e r t h e l e s s , both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour were p o s i t i v e . Once again, however, females r e g i s t e r e d higher s c o r e s than males, and males i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not r e c e i v e enough support or a t t e n t i o n from t h e i r t e a c h e r . In t a b l e s 11 and 12, grade 10 females and males i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour. Here again, both female • 144 and male a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour were p o s i t i v e . Males r e g i s t e r e d h i g h e r scores than females, however, which broke with the t r e n d s e t i n grades 3 and 7. In t a b l e s 13 and 14, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e found between grade 3 female and male a t t i t u d e s toward program content. Furthermore, both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward program co n t e n t were p o s i t i v e . In a d d i t i o n , males i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r team games and competition, w h i l e females i n d i c a t e d a p r e ference f o r a c t i v i t i e s s t r e s s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . T a b l e s 15 and 16, l i k e w i s e , showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grade 7 male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content. Here again, both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , males i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r d e s i r e than females f o r choosing the a c t i v i t i e s they took, and a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t s t r e s s e d c o m p e t i t i o n . At the same time, females showed more support f o r having t h e i r a t t i t u d e i n c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e i r mark. T a b l e s 17 and 18 s i m i l a r l y showed t h a t there was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grade 10 male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program con t e n t . Once again, both female and male a t t i t u d e s toward program content were p o s i t i v e . However, males i n d i c a t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree than females t h a t they were g i v e n enough time 145 t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s they were taught and t h a t the l e v e l of s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l was f a i r . Tables 19 and 20 showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those s t u d e n t s who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour. Students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour than those students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . However, both groups agreed t h a t i t was important t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s , and both groups agreed t h a t t h e i r p h y s i c a l education teacher demonstrated s k i l l s w e l l . F i n a l l y , t a b l e s 21 and 22 showed t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward program content. Students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward program content than those students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . However, both groups i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e t o be ab l e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s they take. Furthermore, both groups 146 s i g n i f i e d t h a t t h e r e was not too much s t r e s s on winning. 147 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Summary In t h i s study, data was obtained from 386 D e l t a School D i s t r i c t students i n order t o examine students' a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. T h i s data was used t o determine whether: 1. Student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 2. Student a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education were d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. 3. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education.were d i f f e r e n t from each other a t each grade l e v e l . 4. Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education were d i f f e r e n t from each other a t each grade l e v e l . 148 5. Those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s had d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour from those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . 6 . Those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s had d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program content from those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . The review of l i t e r a t u r e focused on the area of students' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . A h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e revealed t h a t a number of s t u d i e s had been conducted i n order t o assess student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education and t h a t depending on the purpose, a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t instruments had been u t i l i z e d . Most st u d i e s u t i l i z e d some type of r a t i n g s c a l e , such as the L i k e r t r a t i n g s c a l e , i n order t o assess student a t t i t u d e s . The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed revealed t h a t these s t u d i e s demonstrated t h a t an accurate measurement of student a t t i t u d e s could be obtained by using a r a t i n g s c a l e . Furthermore, these s t u d i e s demonstrated t h a t the inform a t i o n obtained from survey instruments a s s e s s i n g student a t t i t u d e s can be extremely 149 b e n e f i c i a l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used t o enhance p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs. In s e v e r a l of the more r e c e n t s t u d i e s , such as F i g l e y (1985) and R i c e (1988), both the t e a c h e r and the c u r r i c u l u m were found t o be two of the most important determinants of p o s i t i v e or negative a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e ducation. In a d d i t i o n , the review confirmed t h a t an instrument had not been developed f o r the purpose of a s s e s s i n g student a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education f o r grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. For t h i s reason, i t was decided t o develop a survey instrument w i t h statements f o c u s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content. In o r d e r t o t e s t the study's s i x hypotheses, a survey instrument was designed w i t h 15 statements f o c u s i n g on teacher behaviour, 14 statements f o c u s i n g on program content, and one statement a s k i n g whether students l i k e d or d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . A L i k e r t s c a l e was used f o r the survey w i t h the a v a i l a b l e responses being: S t r o n g l y Agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), and S t r o n g l y Disagree (SD). In a d d i t i o n , students were asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r grade and gender. A d e t a i l e d process f o r refinement of the survey 150 instrument was conducted i n v o l v i n g a t e a c h e r committee, a p i l o t group of fou r or f i v e students i n each grade, and a p i l o t c l a s s of each grade. When the f i n a l form of the survey instrument was completed, f i v e c l a s s e s from each of the t h r e e grades were randomly s e l e c t e d from the D e l t a School D i s t r i c t and the survey was administered. The a n a l y s i s of data c o n s i s t e d of t h r e e p a r t s . F i r s t , a one way a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) was performed t o determine i f the mean responses of the t h r e e grades were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r . Second, a t - t e s t was administered t o determine i f the mean sco r e s of the males and females i n each grade were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from each other. T h i r d , a t - t e s t was conducted t o determine i f the mean responses o f those students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e ducation c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . A s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of 0.05 was used f o r each of the t e s t s . The f i n d i n g s of the study r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : 1. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation i n grade 7. There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 10. There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 3. There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n grade 7. There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e ducation i n grade 10. 152 9. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. 10. There i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. In t h i s study, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found among grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10 i n t h i r t e e n of the f i f t e e n statements concerning teacher behaviour. T h e r e f o r e , i t would appear t h a t hypothesis 1, which s t a t e d t h a t student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10, may be accepted. I t was a l s o found i n t h i s study, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d among grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10 i n ten of the f o u r t e e n statements concerning program content. T h e r e f o r e , i t would appear t h a t hypothesis 2, which s t a t e d student a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10, may be accepted. 153 In the l i t e r a t u r e , p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has been i d e n t i f i e d which both supports and c o n t r a d i c t s the f i n d i n g s of h y p o t h e s i s 1 and 2. Research done by Simon e t a l . (1974) and Smoll e t a l (1980) c o n t r a d i c t the r e s u l t s from t h i s study. Simon e t a l . (1974) c o n s t r u c t e d a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l s c a l e based on Kenyon's conceptual model f o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . Although s u b s t a n t i a l changes were made t o the wording, the instrument was found t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r group t e s t i n g with 4th-6th grade c h i l d r e n . Simon e t a l . (1974) found the r e s u l t s f o r s u b j e c t s were e s s e n t i a l l y the same r e g a r d l e s s of the grade of the s u b j e c t s . Smoll e t a l (1980) u t i l i z e d the Simon and Smoll's (1974) C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e s Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y (CATPA) i n v e n t o r y and a l s o found the absence of a s i g n i f i c a n t grade d i f f e r e n c e . However, n e i t h e r the Simon nor Smoll s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d s u b j e c t s i n grades 3 or 10. The r e s e a r c h i n both s t u d i e s was c o n f i n e d t o s u b j e c t s a t the grade 4, 5, and 6 l e v e l . Furthermore, n e i t h e r one of the s t u d i e s assessed a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour or program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Both s t u d i e s a s s e s s e d c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward s i x subdomains of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . T h i s study a l s o found t h a t student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour were p o s i t i v e i n each of the grades, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t although a t t i t u d e s may be d i f f e r e n t between grades, they are s t i l l p o s i t i v e . T h i s supported the f i n d i n g s of s e v e r a l p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Brumbach, 1965; Campbell, 1968; Mowatt e t a l . , 1988; R i c e , 1988; Smoll e t al.,1980) which . r e p o r t e d t h a t students had p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t student a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour and program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were found t o be the most p o s i t i v e i n grade 3 and l e a s t p o s i t i v e i n grade 7. Looking at p r e v i o u s research, Carre e t a l . , (1979), the e x p e c t a t i o n would have been t h a t student a t t i t u d e s would be most p o s i t i v e i n grade 3 and l e a s t p o s i t i v e i n grade 10. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may be due t o the f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r behaviour and program content were s p e c i f i c a l l y looked a t i n t h i s study, whereas, i n the Carre study, students i n grade 3, 7, and 10 were asked how they f e l t about p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . In t h i s study, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between grade 3 females and males i n twelve of the f i f t e e n statements concerning t e a c h e r behaviour. In grade 7, the number of statements showing no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between females and males dropped t o e i g h t of the f i f t e e n statements. However, i n grade 10, the number of statements showing no 1 5 5 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between females and males rose t o t h i r t e e n . Therefore, the data r e f u t e s h y p o t h e s i s 3 , which s t a t e d male and female a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education are d i f f e r e n t from each other a t each grade l e v e l . The degree of s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females i n grade 7 r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r comment. Grade 7 boys were found t o be the most negative group i n the study. T h i s accounted, t o a l a r g e degree, f o r the g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e between males and females i n grade 7 . Males d i d not f e e l t h a t they r e c e i v e d as much support or a t t e n t i o n from t h e i r t e a c h e r as d i d the females. Grade 7 males a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not t h i n k a l l students were t r e a t e d f a i r l y and t h a t t h e i r t e a c h e r d i d not care about how they f e l t . I t would appear from the data t h a t t e a c h e r behaviour i n grade 7 i s such t h a t males are not r e c e i v i n g the r e q u i r e d degree o f p o s i t i v e r einforcement. In nine of the f o u r t e e n statements concerning program content i t was a l s o found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grade 3 females and males. In grade 7 , t h e r e were ten statements t h a t d i s p l a y e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between females and males, and i n grade 1 0 , a t o t a l of twelve statements d i s p l a y e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 156 between females and males. Th e r e f o r e , the data r e f u t e s h ypothesis 4, which s t a t e d t h a t male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t from each other a t each grade l e v e l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study f i n d both support and o p p o s i t i o n f o r h y p o t h e s i s 3 and 4 i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . The f i n d i n g s of Keogh (1962) i n d i c a t e d t h a t men and women were not d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r s t a t e d a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education. Simons e t a l . (1974) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e s u l t s f o r males and females were e s s e n t i a l l y the same. However, Zaichkowsky (1975) c o n t r a d i c t s t h i s f i n d i n g . She found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i d e x i s t i n the responses o f men and women. The d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women i n the Zaichkowsky f i n d i n g s were l i m i t e d t o the types o f a c t i v i t i e s they p r e f e r r e d and not the g e n e r a l b e n e f i t s or v a l u e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n or p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , as was the case i n the Keogh and Simon s t u d i e s . In t h i s study, t h i r t e e n of the f i f t e e n statements i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e ducation c l a s s e s . T h e r e f o r e , i t would appear t h a t h y p othesis 5, which s t a t e d t h a t those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l 157 education c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , may be accepted. I t was a l s o found t h a t i n ten of the f o u r t e e n statements on program content a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . T h erefore, i t would appear t h a t hypothesis 6, which s t a t e d t h a t those students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s towards program content from those students who do not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , may be accepted. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s study f i n d some support i n the re s e a r c h of E a r l e t a l (1987) who found t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s between s e n i o r secondary students who were t a k i n g p h y s i c a l education and s e n i o r secondary students who e l e c t e d not t o take any more p h y s i c a l education. Students who were t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d the a c t i v i t i e s , the c l a s s e s were fun, and they l i k e d t h e i r t e a c h e r ( s ) . Students who e l e c t e d not t o take p h y s i c a l e ducation i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e some p a r t s of the program, the c l a s s e s were not very i n t e r e s t i n g , and they d i s l i k e d the t e a c h e r ( s ) . There appears t o be a p o s i t i v e 158 r e l a t i o n s h i p between students who l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e ducation c l a s s e s and students who take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who chose not to take any more p h y s i c a l e ducation. Students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who chose t o take p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n both i n d i c a t e d t h a t they enjoyed the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t were taught and l i k e d t h e i r t e a c h e r ( s ) , whereas, students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who chose not t o take any more p h y s i c a l education both i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e the program and d i s l i k e d the t e a c h e r ( s ) . 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s The c o n c l u s i o n s presented i n t h i s study are drawn from the data gathered from the 386 students who completed the survey. Data were c o l l e c t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r , and one a s s i s t a n t , who administered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o each of the 15 c l a s s e s . Although the data were drawn from the D e l t a School D i s t r i c t , the c a u t i o u s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s t o p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i n other s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s may be p o s s i b l e . They may a l s o have p a r t i c u l a r importance t o those charged w i t h d e v e l o p i n g and/or r e s t r u c t u r i n g p h y s i c a l e ducation programs i n school d i s t r i c t s or i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s . 1. The data i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s i n student a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. In a l l but two of the f i f t e e n statements a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appears between grades. On most of the statements, student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour i n grade 3 are more p o s i t i v e than student a t t i t u d e s i n grades 7 and 10. However, student a t t i t u d e s are more p o s i t i v e i n grade 10 than i n grade 7. In a d d i t i o n , these f i n d i n g s show t h a t s t u dents' a t t i t u d e s are p o s i t i v e toward teacher behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . However, t h e r e would appear t o be some areas w i t h i n t e a c h e r behaviour t h a t c o u l d be enhanced. These areas were more e v i d e n t i n grade 7, but c o u l d a l s o be observed i n grade 3 and 10. Notably, students' responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t they r e q u i r e d more support and encouragement from t h e i r t e a c h e r i n c l a s s . Furthermore, students' responses s i g n i f i e d t h a t they favoured t e a c h e r s who helped them when they were having a problem and gave them c r e d i t when they d i d something r i g h t . At the same time, students' responses showed t h a t they r e q u i r e t e a c h e r s who are easy t o t a l k t o , understanding, and t r e a t a l l the students f a i r l y . Whether these t h i n g s are happening, or not, student responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s room f o r improvement. 160 2. The data i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student a t t i t u d e s toward program content i n grades 3, grade 7, and grade 10. In t h i s case, i n a l l but f o u r of the f o u r t e e n statements t h e r e appeared a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between grades. Once again, student a t t i t u d e s i n grade 3 are more p o s i t i v e than students' a t t i t u d e s i n grades 7 and 10. Student a t t i t u d e s continued, however, t o be more p o s i t i v e i n grade 10 than i n grade 7. At the same time, these f i n d i n g s showed t h a t student a t t i t u d e s were p o s i t i v e toward program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . However, l i k e t e a c h e r behaviour, t h e r e were some areas w i t h i n program content t h a t c o u l d be improved. Responses from a l l grades i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would l i k e some c h o i c e i n s e l e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s they take. Furthermore, responses s i g n i f i e d t h a t more time was needed f o r students t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s they were taught. Each of the grades a l s o d i s p l a y e d some concern about whether the l e v e l of s k i l l n ecessary t o do w e l l was f a i r . In grade 3, student responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d team games t o i n d i v i d u a l games. Grade 3 students a l s o expressed t h a t t h e r e was too much s t r e s s by students on winning. In grade 7, students a l s o s i g n i f i e d t h a t they p r e f e r r e d team games t o i n d i v i d u a l games. Furthermore, grade 7 students i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were not many new a c t i v i t i e s or s k i l l d r i l l s taught each year. In grade 10, students i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were not i n favour of spending more time improving t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l , or having t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l t e s t e d t o h e l p determine t h e i r l e t t e r grade. In a d d i t i o n , students i n grade 10 i n d i c a t e d t h a t very few new a c t i v i t i e s , new s k i l l s , o r new s k i l l d r i l l s were i n t r o d u c e d . 3. The r e s u l t s s i g n i f y t h a t t h e r e i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour i n grade 3 or grade 10. Of the f i f t e e n statements on t e a c h e r behaviour o n l y t h r e e statements i n grade 3 and two statements i n grade 10 show a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. However, i n grade 7, a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour was found on seven of the f i f t e e n statements. The d i f f e r e n c e between males' and females' a t t i t u d e s i n grades 3 o c c u r r e d because females' responses t o t e a c h e r behaviour were more p o s i t i v e than males' responses t o teacher behaviour. T h i s t r e n d continued i n grade 7. In grade 10, however, t h i s t r e n d r e v e r s e d , with males' responses t o teacher behaviour b e i n g more p o s i t i v e than females' responses t o t e a c h e r behaviour. In each of these grades, these f i n d i n g s showed t h a t t h e r e 162 was very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. However, the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n grade 7 appears t o have r e s u l t e d from the grade 7 males' p e r c e i v e d l a c k of support and encouragement from t h e i r t e a c h e r . T h i s would suggest t h a t grade 7 males are not r e c e i v i n g the amount of p o s i t i v e r e inforcement from t h e i r t e a c h e r s t h a t they r e q u i r e . 4. The r e s u l t s s i g n i f y t h a t t h e r e was not a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s toward program content i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10. For t e n of the f o u r t e e n statements no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e appeared between males and females. For the statements where a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i d occur, t h e r e was no r e a l p a t t e r n t o the d i f f e r e n c e between males and females. These f i n d i n g s showed t h a t grade 3 and grade 7 males p r e f e r r e d games t h a t s t r e s s e d c o mpetition w hile females p r e f e r r e d games t h a t s t r e s s e d c o o p e r a t i o n . In grade 10 both males and females p r e f e r r e d games s t r e s s i n g c o o p e r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , a l l three grades r e p o r t e d a problem w i t h the amount of time students were g i v e n t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s they were taught. T h i s statement on p r a c t i c e time accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between males and females i n each of the grades. In grade 3 and grade 10 males d i s p l a y e d more 163 p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s than females i n d i c a t i n g t h a t they f e l t enough p r a c t i c e time was g i v e n . However, i n grade 7 , females d i s p l a y e d more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s than males, s i g n i f y i n g t h a t females, more than males, f e l t t h a t enough p r a c t i c e time was p r o v i d e d . F i n a l l y , grade 3 and grade 7 females d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e r approval than males f o r i n c l u d i n g a t t i t u d e as p a r t of t h e i r l e t t e r grade. In grade 10, however, both males and females approved the i n c l u s i o n of a t t i t u d e as p a r t of t h e i r mark. 5. The f i n d i n g s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e toward t e a c h e r behaviour between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . For t h i r t e e n of the f i f t e e n statements there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups. C l e a r l y , the d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups was t h a t the students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s saw t e a c h e r behaviour i n a much more p o s i t i v e l i g h t than d i d those students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . These f i n d i n g s a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e were o n l y two statements t h a t students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s agreed on. They both agreed t h a t i t was m i l d l y important t h a t t h e i r t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s , and they agreed t h a t t h e i r t eacher demonstrated s k i l l s w e l l . For a l l of the other statements which d e a l t with items such as support, p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s , i n s t r u c t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y , and f a i r n e s s , the students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a much more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour than students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . T h i s would suggest t h a t t e a c h e r behaviour p l a y s a major r o l e i n determining whether students are going t o l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s or not. 6. The f i n d i n g s a l s o e x h i b i t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e toward program content between students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . However, they were not as s i g n i f i c a n t as those concerning teacher behaviour. For e i g h t of the f o u r t e e n statements t h e r e appeared a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups. Once again, the d i f f e r e n c e between these two groups was t h a t the students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s were more p o s i t i v e about program content than those students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . These f i n d i n g s a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e were f o u r statements t h a t students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s agreed on. F i r s t , they both agreed t h a t they would l i k e t o be ab l e t o choose t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Second, both groups were undecided as t o whether t h e r e was too much s t r e s s by students on winning. T h i r d , each group was undecided as t o whether t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o h e l p determine t h e i r mark. F i n a l l y , both groups were undecided as t o whether more time should be spent improving t h e i r f i t n e s s l e v e l . For the remaining t e n statements which d e a l t w i t h items on program content, sequence, and o r g a n i z a t i o n , students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e than students who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . T h i s would suggest t h a t program content a l s o p l a y s an important r o l e i n determining whether or not students l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . Summary Students* a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content i n grade 3, grade 7, and grade 10 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . In a d d i t i o n , male and female a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour i n grade 7 d i s p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . F i n a l l y , students who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l 166 e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and those who d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s e x h i b i t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r , a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content. T h i s study concludes t h a t t e a c h e r behaviour and program content may have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Some of the f a c t o r s i n t e a c h e r behaviour such as support, encouragement, s e n s i t i v i t y and f a i r n e s s appear t o be the most important, and f a c t o r s i n program content such as content, sequence, and c o m p e t i t i o n a l s o tend t o have an important i n f l u e n c e on student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 5.3 Recommendations In f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , i t i s recommended t h a t the survey instrument be l i m i t e d t o statements on e i t h e r t e a c h e r behaviour or program content i n order t o focus s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n on j u s t one area and o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t area. U t i l i z i n g a survey instrument t h a t c o n t a i n s more than f o u r t e e n or f i f t e e n statements on a g i v e n area would be d e s i r a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e of approximately t h i r t y statements s p e c i f i c a l l y on t e a c h e r behaviour or program content i s suggested. I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t a l a r g e r sample s i z e be used 167 t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e , or r e f u t e the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study. Although 386 students were u t i l i z e d , when l o o k i n g a t grade 3 females, the number of s u b j e c t s from whom data was being obtained dropped to f o r t y n ine. Another area t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d examine i s whether students' s k i l l l e v e l and/or f i t n e s s l e v e l has any e f f e c t on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward teacher behaviour or program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s should not be devoted to the "good a t h l e t e s " . A c t i v i t i e s should be o r g a n i z e d such t h a t s k i l l l e v e l , f i t n e s s l e v e l , and c o m p e t i t i o n do not dominate t o the p o i n t of n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t i n g the program. Determining the a t t i t u d e s of students w i t h h i g h s k i l l and/or f i t n e s s l e v e l s and students w i t h low s k i l l and/or f i t n e s s l e v e l toward t e a c h e r behaviour and program content i s advised. I t would a l s o appear t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d be conducted t o see i f p h y s i c a l education s p e c i a l i s t s and non-s p e c i a l i s t s have a d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t on student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour or program content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . I f teacher behaviour i s a f f e c t i n g student a t t i t u d e s , then i t may be important t o determine whether the t e a c h e r s are s p e c i a l i s t s or n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s i n order t o assess the d i f f e r e n c e . S e l e c t i n g t e a c h e r s t h a t are p h y s i c a l 168 e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s and teachers who are not p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s f o r the c l a s s e s surveyed i s suggested. F i n a l l y , i t would appear t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s needed to determine t o what extent student a t t i t u d e s are c o r r e c t l y p e r c e i v e d by t h e i r t e a c h e r s . I f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s c l a s s i s t h a t the students' a t t i t u d e s are p o s i t i v e , when i n f a c t they are not, then nothing i s l i k e l y t o be done t o improve the s i t u a t i o n . In order t o determine both s t u d e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , each would have t o be a s s e s s e d . T h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d be conducted by d e v e l o p i n g a companion survey f o r t e a c h e r s which would be used t o compare t e a c h e r and student responses. As a r e s u l t , the r e s e a r c h e r would be a b l e t o determine t o what degree what the students t h i n k and what the t e a c h e r p e r c e i v e s the students t o t h i n k are the same. As a consequence of a study t h a t measures student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education, p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r people concerned about the d e c l i n e of student i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l e ducation. Measures can then be taken t o r e s t r u c t u r e or r e v i s e programs t o encourage students t o s t a y i n v o l v e d i n p h y s i c a l e ducation. C e r t a i n l y , the d i s s a t i s f i e d or a p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e of a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of students with p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs can be m i t i g a t e d by a study of those 169 f a c t o r s which are p r e s e n t l y causing negative a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education. From a school d i s t r i c t or sc h o o l p o i n t of view, a study of t h i s nature w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r those wishing t o improve or enhance t h e i r p h y s i c a l education program. E s t a b l i s h i n g the importance of te a c h e r behaviour and program content i n determining student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s very e n l i g h t e n i n g . T h i s study w i l i p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r the development of programs which may generate more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education by the stud e n t s i n v o l v e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study w i l l undoubtedly s t i m u l a t e f u t u r e s t u d i e s t h a t w i l l u t i l i z e student a t t i t u d e s as an i n f o r m a t i o n a l source f o r program development or r e v i s i o n . By showing t h a t measuring student a t t i t u d e s can p l a y a u s e f u l r o l e i n program development and d e l i v e r y , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s are bound t o occur. The use of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l l e a d t o the development of programs t h a t w i l l have a more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on students t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e ducation. Furthermore, e v a l u a t i n g student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l h e l p i d e n t i f y the te a c h e r behaviour and program content t h a t are e i t h e r s t i m u l a t i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g student i n t e r e s t i n p h y s i c a l education. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can then be 170 used not only to develop or improve p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs, but a l s o t o enhance t e a c h i n g by examining t e a c h e r behaviour i n l i g h t of the l i t e r a t u r e on e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . As f o r students, the use of a survey instrument which assesses t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n an attempt t o c o n t i n u a l l y improve the program, w i l l no doubt send them a message t h a t t h e i r o p i n i o n s are v a l u e d . Moreover, the p r e s e n t program w i l l be seen by students as a r e f l e c t i o n of what pr e v i o u s students have suggested. The goal of improving p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n by e v a l u a t i n g i t f r e q u e n t l y i s a very worthwhile endeavour. Research and medical o p i n i o n have c l e a r l y shown the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of e x e r c i s e . However, i t would appear from the most r e c e n t s t u d i e s of student a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t p r e s e n t programs are not doing a v e r y good job of promoting involvement i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and, furthermore, r e s u l t i n g i n a s u b s t a n t i a l number of students having n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . One r e s u l t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g number of people are e l e c t i n g a sedentary l i f e s t y l e . The r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s t r e n d f o r h e a l t h care c o s t s , not t o mention the q u a l i t y of l i f e of i n d i v i d u a l s , i s f r i g h t e n i n g . I f t h i s t r e n d i s t o be r e v e r s e d , then i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t something be done i n the s c h o o l system t o 171 prevent the development of negative a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y and t o f o s t e r p o s i t i v e ones. I f p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g the years spent i n s c h o o l , then i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t people w i l l remain i n v o l v e d i n some type of p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y f o r the remainder o f t h e i r l i v e s . The i n t e n t o f t h i s study i s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s p r o c e s s , which w i l l u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o people having a more a c t i v e l i f e s t y l e . 172 REFERENCES Adams. R.S. (1963). Two s c a l e s f o r measuring a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l education. Research Q u a r t e r l y . 34., 91-94. 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(1951) .The e v a l u a t i o n of a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l education as an a c t i v i t y course. Reasarch  Q u a r t e r l y . 22. (1) 111-127. Wear, C L . (1955) . C o n s t r u c t i o n of e q u i v a l e n t forms of an a t t i t u d e s c a l e . Reasarch Q u a r t e r l y . 26., (1) 113-119. Wilcox, R.C. (1987). Dropouts: the f a i l i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l p h y s i c a l education. J o u r n a l od P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n and Dance. 58(6), 21-25. Zaichkowsky, L.B. (1975). A t t i t u d i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n two types of p h y s i c a l education programs. Research  Q u a r t e r l y . 46(3), 364-370. 180 Appendix D DELTA SCHOOL DISTRICT TEACHER'S LETTER OF INFORMED CONSENT I . here by g i v e consent f o r Lorne Cope to a d m i n i s t e r the attached q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o my grade c l a s s a t a convenient time between May 29 and June 9. I understand the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l take approximately 2 0 minutes f o r the students t o complete and t h a t c o n f i d e n t i a l l y of the data w i l l be maintained through a l l stages t o the study. I would would not be i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n g a summary of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study on i t s completion. Appendix E Student Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Please put an "M" f o r male, or a "F" f o r female and your grade, on the FRONT of the computer sheet where i t says SHEET # (eg. SHEET # F _ 7 ) . The f o l l o w i n g are statements about p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . On the computer sheet provided, f i l l i n the l e t t e r t h a t best d e s c r i b e s your o p i n i o n about each statement (see example on the front of the computer sheet). Refer t o the f o l l o w i n g codes t o respond t o a l l statements. I f you do not understand a statement, then do not f i l l i n a l e t t e r f o r t h a t statement. a = S t r o n g l y Agree b = Agree c = Undecided (Do not agree or disagree) d = Disagree e = S t r o n g l y Disagree 1. I l i k e my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s . 2. My o v e r a l l s k i l l l e v e l i s h i g h . 3. My o v e r a l l f i t n e s s l e v e l i s hi g h . 4. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . 5. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t are taught. 6. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s understanding t o students who are not ve r y good a t s p o r t s . 182 In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , the a c t i v i t i e s (games) we take are w e l l organized. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher s e t s a good example f o r the c l a s s by the way he/she behaves. In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be a b l e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, h i t t i n g , s e r v i n g ) . I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher g i v e s me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy p l a y i n g team games (e.g. s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more\ than i n d i v i d u a l games (e.g. t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher has good c o n t r o l over the s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s . In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s too much s t r e s s by students on winning. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l . In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l should be t e s t e d t o h e l p determine my mark. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r t r e a t s a l l the students i n the c l a s s f a i r l y . In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . how t o get along with o t h e r people) not c o m p e t i t i o n ( i . e . winning). 183 20. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher c a r e s about how I f e e l . 21. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) each year (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . 22. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l education. 23. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , more time should be spent improving my f i t n e s s l e v e l . 24. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher i s easy t o t a l k t o . 25. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough time t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s I am taught. 26. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r motivates me t o do my best. 27. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the l e v e l of s k i l l n ecessary t o do w e l l i s f a i r . 28. I b e l i e v e the marks I get from my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r are f a i r . 29. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and behaviour) should be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of my mark. 30. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l . 31. In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , we are taught some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year. 32. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education teacher h e l p s me when I am having a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . 

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