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Student attitudes toward teacher behaviour and program content within physical education Cope, Lorne 1990

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STUDENT ATTITUDES TOWARD TEACHER BEHAVIOUR AND PROGRAM CONTENT WITHIN PHYSICAL EDUCATION  by Lome  D. Cope  B.P.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Center  STUDIES  f o r t h e Study o f C u r r i c u l u m We a c c e p t to  this  t h e s i s as  the required  and I n s t r u c t i o n )  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1990 c  Lome  David  Cope, 1990  In  presenting  degree  this thesis  in partial fulfilment of  at the University of  of this thesis for scholarly  department  or  by  his  or  requirements  for  an  her  I further agree that permission for  purposes  representatives.  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  extensive  may be granted by the head of It  is  understood  that  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without  DE-6 (2/88)  advanced  British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. copying  the  copying  my or  my written  ii  ABSTRACT  The toward  p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was  to assess student  attitudes  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t w i t h i n  education  i n g r a d e s 3,  7,  and  physical  10.  P r i o r t o e x a m i n i n g t h e d a t a , f i v e h y p o t h e s e s were g e n e r a t e d . I t was 1.  hypothesized that: Student a t t i t u d e s physical grade  2.  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade  within 3, g r a d e 7,  and  10.  Student a t t i t u d e s  toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade  3, g r a d e 7,  and  physical grade  10. 3.  M a l e and  female a t t i t u d e s  physical  e d u c a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each  grade 4.  within  level.  M a l e and  female a t t i t u d e s  physical  e d u c a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each  grade 5.  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  toward program c o n t e n t  within  level.  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who  like  have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t h o s e s t u d e n t s who classes.  their physical toward  do n o t l i k e  education classes  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r from t h e i r physical education  6.  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who have d i f f e r e n t those  like  their physical  attitudes  s t u d e n t s who  do  education  classes  toward program c o n t e n t  not  like their physical  from  education  classes. A thirty study.  statement  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  F i f t e e n statements  f o u r t e e n statements statement  asked  and  f i v e g r a d e 10  the  study.  way  analysis  The  pertained to teacher  f o r use  Five  grade 3 c l a s s e s ,  classes  data  liked  of v a r i a n c e .  preference for physical  The  data  and  their  one  physical  f i v e grade 7  were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d  i n v o l v i n g grades  i n the  behaviour,  p e r t a i n e d t o program c o n t e n t ,  s t u d e n t s whether they  education classes.  developed  classes,  to partake  in  were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a  i n v o l v i n g gender  education classes  one  and  were a n a l y z e d u s i n g a  t-test. Results  indicated  teacher behaviour  and  each of the grades. significant behaviour  a positive attitude  However, i t was i n student  and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t no s i g n i f i c a n t  found  i n grades  difference  although,  t h e r e was  attitudes  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r was  program content  found  a significant  i n m a l e s ' and  i n g r a d e 3,  7,  and  that  attitudes 3,  and  found  females  in a  teacher 10.  i n male  and  i n grade 3 o r grade  difference  i n m a l e and  i n g r a d e 7. females' 10.  toward  t h e r e was  toward 7,  was  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour  difference  existed  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t by m a l e s and  difference  Furthermore, female  that  No  10,  female  significant  attitudes  A significant  towards difference  was  found  between s t u d e n t s who  c l a s s e s and classes  t h o s e who  f o r both  d i d not  liked like  their physical  their physical  teacher behaviour  and  program  Recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t instrument  be  limited  o r program c o n t e n t . s i z e be  used  specialists  and and  t o statements  on  students.  n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s be  as p o s i t i v e  Finally,  skilled  h a v e on  physical  compared.  as t h o s e  students  survey behaviour  why  sample  education  I t appears grade 7  that  student  of grade 3 or grade  in relation  students t o determine  student  t h a t the  10  future research could look at p h y s i c a l l y f i t  and/or h i g h l y s k i l l e d low  content.  I t i s a l s o recommended t h a t a l a r g e r  t h a t students of both  are not  education  either teacher  more r e s e a r c h i s a l s o n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e attitudes  education  t o p o o r l y f i t and/or  the e f f e c t  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  these  factors  education.  may  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  . . . .  V  L I S T OF TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii .  x  Chapter 1. THE PROBLEM Introduction Background  . . . . . . . .  1 3  Statement o f Problem  . . .  5  Purpose  7  Assumptions  8  Statement o f Hypotheses  . .  Significance Definition  9 10  o f Terms  . . . .  11  Scope  12  Nature o f Study  13  2. REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  Overview Previous  15 Studies  Summary  16 33  3. METHODOLOGY Overview  35  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Methodology  35  Research Design  36  METHODOLOGY c o n t i n u e d Pilot  . . .  Study .  39  Selection of Subjects  . . .  41  .  41  Procedures Instrumentation Data C o l l e c t i o n Data A n a l y s i s  44 . . . . . .  .  47 48  Limitations  49  Summary  50  4. RESULTS Overview Distribution  52 o f Respondents by  G r a d e and G e n d e r  . . .  55  Sample S i z e by S t u d e n t Preference  56  S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by G r a d e : Teacher Behaviour  . .  57  S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by G r a d e : Program C o n t e n t . . . .  67  S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by G r a d e and  Gender: Teacher Behaviour . . .  78  S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by G r a d e and  Gender: Program C o n t e n t  . . .  103  RESULTS c o n t i n u e d  . . .  Student Responses t o Teacher B e h a v i o u r by P r e f e r e n c e Toward P h y s i c a l  Education  Classes:  125  S t u d e n t Responses t o Program C o n t e n t by P r e f e r e n c e Toward P h y s i c a l  Education  Classes: Summary  134  .  142  5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS,  RECOMMENDATIONS  Summary Conclusions  147 . . . . . . . .  Recommendations  158 166  REFERENCES  172  APPENDICES A. MEMO TO DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENT  177  B. MEMO TO ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS C. MEMO TO SCHOOLS  17 8 INVOLVED  IN THE SURVEY  179  D. TEACHER'S LETTER OF CONSENT D. QUESTIONNAIRE STATEMENTS  180 181  viii L I S T OF TABLES  Table 1.  Page D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s by Grade L e v e l and G e n d e r . . . .  55  2.  Sample S i z e by S t u d e n t P r e f e r e n c e  56  3.  Student Responses  by  Grade:  Teacher Behaviour 4. 5.  6. 7.  Summary t a b l e Student Responses  Student  Responses: Behaviour 3  79  Summary t a b l e Student  Behaviour 7  87  Summary t a b l e Student  85  Responses:  93  Responses:  Teacher  Behaviour  G r a d e 10 12.  Grade:  76  Grade  11.  by  Summary t a b l e  Teacher  10.  65  68  Grade  9.  58  Program C o n t e n t  Teacher  8.  . . . .  Summary t a b l e  95 101  ix  13.  Student Responses: Program Grade  Content 3  104  14.  Summary t a b l e  15.  Student Responses: Program  109  Content  Grade 7  I l l  16.  Summary t a b l e  17.  Student Responses: Program  116  Content i  Grade 18. 19.  10  118  Summary t a b l e  12 3  S t u d e n t Responses by A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Classes:  20. 21.  Teacher Behaviour  . .  Summary t a b l e  126 132  S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by A t t i t u d e Toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n Classes:  22.  Program C o n t e n t  Summary t a b l e  . . .  136 141  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e contributed grateful  t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h o s e p e o p l e  t o the completion  statistics,  t h a n k - y o u must a l s o be e x t e n d e d me o v e r t h e y e a r s .  to thesis  committee  f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s on t h e  I would a l s o l i k e  f o r her help i n editing  encouraged  particularly  f o r h i s assistance with respect to  and Dr G a r y S i n c l a i r  instrument.  I am  Luke f o r h e r a d v i c e and  A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended  members, Dr. H a r o l d R a t z l a f f  Hoogstra  thesis.  t o my s e n i o r a d v i s o r , Dr. M o i r a  direction.  survey  of this  who  t o acknowledge  and p r o o f r e a d i n g . t o a l l those people  Finally,  a c k n o w l e d g e my p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r  support  Irene A  special  who  I would l i k e t o and e n c o u r a g e m e n t .  1  Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM  1.0  Introduction A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h and m e d i c a l o p i n i o n s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t  the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of e x e r c i s e , recent s t u d i e s continue t o show a decrease i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y by s t u d e n t s from t h e time t h e y e n t e r s c h o o l u n t i l they graduate.  Surveys such as t h e  Canadian H e a l t h A t t i t u d e s and Behaviour Survey 1985) older.  ( K i n g & Warren,  i l l u s t r a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s become l e s s a c t i v e as t h e y g e t T h i s i s c l e a r l y shown i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n which  f o c u s e s on t h e p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y l e v e l s o f s t u d e n t s i n grades 4, 7, and 10.  I n grade 4, 70.7% o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s  c l a s s i f i e d themselves  as b e i n g h i g h l y a c t i v e .  percentage had f a l l e n t o 67.7%, and by t h e t i m e reached grade 10, i t had dropped t o 51.2%. 19.5%, over a 6 y e a r p e r i o d .  study  I n grade 7, t h e students  T h i s i s a drop o f  What i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  disturbing  about t h i s d e c l i n e i s t h a t i t o c c u r s a t a t i m e when p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s mandatory i n s c h o o l s and p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s a r e t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s about t h e b e n e f i t s o f b e i n g physically active.  The media have a l s o become aware o f t h i s  s i t u a t i o n and newspaper a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n about t h e l a c k o f e x e r c i s e among s t u d e n t s .  I n an a r t i c l e i n t h e  2  V a n c o u v e r Sun that  o n l y 1 Canadian  sufficiently was  (Tuesday,  further  teenagers their  required  stated  (aged  that  Rice, 1987),  i n 18 e x e r c i s e s  than one-quarter  take p h y s i c a l  I t would a p p e a r  of  to maintain physical  activity  It  Canadian  e d u c a t i o n as p a r t that  of  a l t h o u g h most s u p p o r t i v e of  s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e knowledge, a t t i t u d e s ,  recent studies  1988; also and  Schultz,  and  throughout  "Physical  (Earl  and  S t e n n e t t , 1987;  S m o l l , C a r r e , & Mosher,  skills  their  lives,  Figley,  1985;  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a dramatic drop  interest  in activity  C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n  during adolescence.  (Sullivan,  E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be  develops understanding of physical as  reported  cardiorespiratory benefits.  fewer  13 t o 18)  child  i t was  g o a l i s not being achieved.  Other  level  t o r e c e i v e any  1988),  education teachers are p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y  providing  this  school-aged  s c h o o l program.  physical  November 29,  forming p o s i t i v e  1988,  p.  1985;  Wilcox, in  fitness  The  Royal  32), s t a t e d  that  a c o r e component, as i t and  a t t i t u d e s toward  health  health  concepts  and  as  well  physical  fitness." As  a result  Education could  statement,  identify  decrease  o f t h e s e s t u d i e s and  those  the Royal  i t w o u l d be u s e f u l f a c t o r s w h i c h may  i n students' interest  Commission  i f physical  educators  be c o n t r i b u t i n g  in physical  on  to a  e d u c a t i o n and  thus  3 .  physical activity. determine  R i c e (1988) s t a t e d " i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o  t h a t h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s enjoy t h e i r p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s i f we as e d u c a t o r s a r e t o encourage c o n t i n u e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t y throughout  life  "(p.98).  I f t h e r e i s t o be a r e t u r n t o t h e f o u r t h " r " i n e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i s , r e c r e a t i o n , i n t h e form o f q u a l i t y d a i l y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , then f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed i n o r d e r t o h e l p understand  what can be done t o enhance p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  programs so t h a t s t u d e n t s choose t o remain i n v o l v e d i n physi c a l a c t i v i t y throughout  their  lives.  1.1 Background A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l s t u d i e s ( F i g l e y , 1985; Kenyon, 1968; R i c e , 1988; Schutz & S m o l l , 1981; Simon & S m o l l , 1974; S m o l l & S c h u t z , 1980; Wear, 1951), have been conducted  t o assess  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e has been l i t t l e s u c c e s s i n d e t e r m i n i n g why programs a r e so s u c c e s s f u l for  s t u d e n t s i n elementary  s c h o o l , and y e t f a i l  r e s p e c t s f o r t h e s e same s t u d e n t s when t h e y r e a c h school.  i n many secondary  I t would appear from t h e most r e c e n t s t u d i e s  (Earl  and S t e n n e t t , 1987; F i g l e y , 1985; R i c e , 1988; Schutz e t a l . 1 9 8 5 ; W i l c o x , 1987;) t h a t many s t u d e n t s a r e s t i l l  n o t happy  w i t h t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a t t h e secondary  level  4  and  are electing  not t o take p h y s i c a l  l o n g e r compulsory. Behaviour  Survey  In f a c t ,  e d u c a t i o n when i t i s no  t h e C a n a d i a n H e a l t h A t t i t u d e s and  ( K i n g e t a l . 1985) f o u n d ,  "nearly a quarter  o f g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t s d i d n o t t a k e p h y s i c a l (p. 3 5 ) .  I f physical  experience  education  leave school they wish  some t y p e  of physical  that and  activity,  are causing negative  their  Furthermore,  then  feelings  identifying  identified  education as a r e q u i r e d  i n student  f o r an a d d i t i o n a l  increase  i n t h e number o f p e o p l e  two y e a r s .  which c o u l d r e s u l t Todd  i n t e r e s t are  then t h e r e i s t h e chance o f  activity  h e a l t h c a r e system.  education  important  s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward  lifestyle,  factors  11 and 12, b e f o r e t h e f a c t o r s  t o a decrease  and d e a l t w i t h ,  involved i n  i f i n the future, the p r o v i n c i a l  i n g r a d e 11, o r g r a d e s  which a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g  so t h a t  those  toward p h y s i c a l  government d e c i d e s t o r e t u r n p h y s i c a l course  education  t o continue being  recommending c h a n g e s i s an e x t r e m e l y  undertaking.  at a l l "  i s going t o provide a p o s i t i v e  f o r students throughout  when t h e y  education  This could lead  electing  a  t o an  sedentary  i n s e r i o u s problems f o r t h e  (1988),  i n an a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g  some o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h p r e s e n t d a y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s , a s s e r t e d : "Today, Canada, t h o u s a n d s o f c h i l d r e n  physical  health  i n schools right  are learning  across  a lesson that could  r u i n the is  r e s t of  optional,  literally"  and  their  lives.  They a r e  they're taking  (p.145).  the  learning  message t o  I t i s o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e in physical  thus increasing  the  they w i l l  in  regular  will If  lead  likelihood  physical  t o optimum h e a l t h  a study of  that  and  student attitudes  activity  s t e p s can  1.2  be  At  education  from k i n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h t o  Interest  in physical  e d u c a t i o n and  and  Their  10  on  results indicated  popular subject  how  scale  they  that  felt  physical  f o r b o t h m a l e s and  w i t h a median r e s p o n s e o f point  the then  (i.e.,  3.8  never l i k e  and  British  activity,  surveyed  Carre, students  about p h y s i c a l education  females, 3.7  in  i n c l u d i n g grade  physical  (1979) f o u n d t h i s when t h e y and  can  problem.  a p p e a r s t o d e c r e a s e f r o m g r a d e 3 t o g r a d e 10.  1,  to  education,  i s compulsory  Columbia  g r a d e s 3,  education  problem  present, physical  & Schutz  which  lifestyle.  contributing  this  involved  adults,  i n t e r e s t toward p h y s i c a l  taken to help r e c t i f y  Statement of  become  toward p h y s i c a l are  that  education,  a more wholesome  help determine those f a c t o r s that decrease i n student  as  fitness  heart,  s t u d e n t s have a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e  some s o r t o f  that  10.  however Mosher, in  education  i s the  most  i n g r a d e s 3 and  respectively,  i t , sometimes l i k e  on  a  7  four  i t , often  6 like  i t , o r always l i k e  it).  d r o p p e d a t g r a d e 11 t o 3.2 (1985) r e p o r t e d t h a t  Enjoyment o f p h y s i c a l  (Carre e t a l . , p.107).  by g r a d e 10, a l m o s t  s t u d e n t s do n o t t a k e p h y s i c a l involved  i n enough p h y s i c a l  their physical physical  health.  Education,  i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y  c a n be done t o make p h y s i c a l f o r students  important  p l a c e d on C o m m i s s i o n on  t o determine  education a p o s i t i v e  seeks  t o analyze  student  and program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  determine  those  attitudes  physical  attitudes  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ,  program c o n t e n t ,  that  to a  factors i n  education.  r e l a t e d t o teacher behaviour  interest i n physical  education,  from  and program  toward p h y s i c a l  are contributing  decline  activity  c o n t e n t h a v e shown t o be two o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t student  teacher  e d u c a t i o n and t o  e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l  g r a d e 3 t o g r a d e 10. B o t h t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  student  what  experience  toward  f a c t o r s w h i c h may be c o n t r i b u t i n g  interest i n physical  factors  are not  o r improve  Columbia Royal  behaviour  determining  et a l .  i n a l l grades.  This study  in  3 0%  t o maintain  Owing t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e  e d u c a t i o n by t h e B r i t i s h  King  25% o f C a n a d i a n  e d u c a t i o n and o v e r  activity  education  If and/or  t o a decrease i n then  i t may be  possible  t o modify  o r r e v i s e p r o g r a m s i n o r d e r t o make  physical  e d u c a t i o n a more p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e .  This,  then,  would h e l p t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o remain i n v o l v e d i n  7 physical  education a f t e r grade  likelihood their  1.3  of p h y s i c a l  10  activity  and,  thus,  i n c r e a s e the  becoming a s i g n i f i c a n t  p a r t of  lives.  Purpose The  purpose of t h i s  s t u d y was  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r physical  education.  Students  surveyed  i n order t o determine  a t t i t u d e s among g r a d e s . compared, attitude liked  did  not  well,  subject  program c o n t e n t 3,  7,  and  10  female  responses  their physical  A tomparision of  e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and  Education teachers a strong interest  within  were  were  i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n whether a d i f f e r e n c e  students  program.  who as  groups.  District  i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on  i n order to help assess t h e i r  also  conducted  e x i s t e d between t h e s e  i n the Delta School  in  in  students  e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s was  t o s e e what d i f f e r e n c e s  indicated  students'  i f t h e r e were a d i f f e r e n c e  M a l e and  like their physical  Physical  and  i n grades  e x i s t e d between g e n d e r s .  who  to assess  have this  8  1.4  Assumptions 1.  Students'  attitudes  important, revising 2.  An  and  toward p h y s i c a l  s h o u l d be  education  are  c o n s i d e r e d when d e v e l o p i n g  or  a program.  attitude rating scale  is a valid  and r e l i a b l e  methodology f o r c o l l e c t i n g data. 3.  Students  can  important  provide physical  education  information f o r improving  or  teachers  with  revising  programs. 4.  Students' greater  interest in physical  i f teacher behaviour  education w i l l  and  be  program c o n t e n t  are  considered. 5.  T h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s ' toward p h y s i c a l teacher  6.  education  and  their perception  of  behaviour.  T h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s ' toward p h y s i c a l content.  attitudes  education  and  attitudes  their reaction  to  program  9  1.5  Statement 1.  of hypotheses  Students' attitudes physical  M a l e and  female a t t i t u d e s  a t each grade  grade  toward  e d u c a t i o n are d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r  level.  physical  e d u c a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t  toward program  like their physical education  have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s  b e h a v i o u r t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who physical Those  toward t e a c h e r do n o t l i k e  their  education classes.  s t u d e n t s who  classes  content within  level.  s t u d e n t s who  classes  7,  teacher behaviour  female a t t i t u d e s  each grade  6.  content within  M a l e and  Those  7,  10.  within physical  5.  toward program  e d u c a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t i n g r a d e s 3,  and g r a d e  4.  3, g r a d e  10.  Students' attitudes physical  3.  teacher behaviour within  education are d i f f e r e n t i n grade  and g r a d e 2.  toward  like  their physical education  have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s  t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who education  classes.  toward  do n o t l i k e  program  their  content  physical  10  1.6  Significance Although  of  t h e r e h a s been c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a  students' attitudes  toward p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n , many  r e s e a r c h problems and q u e s t i o n s , remain unanswered. . I f physical to  education  i s t o be a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h  continued physical  necessary.  Although  activity,  survey  (1968) a t t i t u d e s  modification If  activity  toward p h y s i c a l  (1974) c h i l d r e n ' s  (CATPA) s u r v e y ,  these  studies  changes t o o u r p r e s e n t p h y s i c a l  is  both  study  that  these  studies  c l e a r and r e l i a b l e .  i s needed which w i l l  selected  grades  significant females  activity  (ATPA)  attitudes  continued  i s t o be u s e d  p r o v i d e us w i t h  should also  this,  i t is that a  assess students' a t t i t u d e s a t  Variation be a n a l y z e d  i f t h e r e a r e any  i n attitudes  b e t w e e n m a l e s and  at this  to ascertain i f  T h e r e i s a need f o r a b e t t e r  students' attitudes  information  In order t o accomplish  i n order t o determine  factors.  t o recommend  e d u c a t i o n programs, then  time  t h e r e a r e any d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e s e x e s nature.  since  a n d improvement o f a s s e s s m e n t t o o l s a r e n e e d e d .  i n f o r m a t i o n from  important  research i s  education assessment t o o l s  a n d Simon a n d S m o l l ' s  toward p h y s i c a l  further  c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s h a s b e e n made i n  the development o f p h y s i c a l Kenyon's  then  leads  toward p h y s i c a l  and i f s o , t h e i r  understanding of  education  i f we a r e t o  comprehend why (Carre  i t s popularity declines  e t a l 1980).  b e h a v i o u r and significant taken the teachers  I f student  as  students get  a t t i t u d e s toward  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were a c c u r a t e l y  teacher  assessed,  d i f f e r e n c e s were shown t o e x i s t , t h e n we  first  step  toward p r o v i d i n g  with worthwhile information  enhance p r e s e n t  p h y s i c a l education  physical that  older  can  and  will  have  education be  used  to  programs o r d e v e l o p  new  ones.  1.7  D e f i n i t i o n of  terms  Behaviour Pieron  (1990)  ...  "the  mental  (psychomotor) f u n c t i o n i n g behaviour"  (cognitive)  and  physical  o f mankind i s d e s c r i b e d  as  (p.7)  Curriculum Y e a r 2000: A Framework f o r L e a r n i n g r e f e r s to both the learning  activities  intended o f an  (1990) "...  curriculum  l e a r n i n g outcomes and  educational  program"  planned  (p.8).  Attitude Kenyon  (1968) "...  relatively direction object,  a l a t e n t or non-observable,  stable, behaviourial and  i n t e n s i t y of  w h e t h e r i t be  complex,  disposition reflecting  f e e l i n g toward a p a r t i c u l a r  concrete  or a b s t r a c t "  (p.567).  but both  12 Physical  education  British  Columbia M i n i s t r y  portion  o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s which u t i l i z e s  activity  as a p r i m a r y  intellectual, development" Physical Kenyon  of Education  means f o r s t i m u l a t i n g  social-emotional,  1.8  mental-  and p h y s i c a l  growth and  activity  (1968) " O r g a n i z e d ,  (structured),  ...gross  human  i n a c t i v e games, s p o r t s ,  and  (p.97).  Scope This  study w i l l  TO s t u d e n t s .  a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f g r a d e 3, 7, and  These grades  students are i n t h e i r  last  were s e l e c t e d  because grade 3  year o f primary,  grade 7  are  in their  last  year  o f i n t e r m e d i a t e , and g r a d e  are  in their  last  year  o f j u n i o r secondary  British grades  Columbia p h y s i c a l  students  10  students  and t h e m a n d a t o r y  e d u c a t i o n program.  These  three  a l s o r e p r e s e n t t h e group o f s t u d e n t s which has been a t  each o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s secondary)  (primary,  f o r the longest  f o l l o w t h e same s t u d e n t s in  physical  (p.l).  movement, u s u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d dance"  (1980)...."the  period  from  i n t e r m e d i a t e , and j u n i o r o f time.  The s t u d y  d i d not  g r a d e 3 t o g r a d e 7 t o g r a d e 10  o r d e r t o measure t h e a t t i t u d i n a l  c h a n g e s i n t h e same  students.  Although  investigation, be  t h i s might p r o v i d e the u l t i m a t e  i t was  not p o s s i b l e g i v e n the time  r e q u i r e d t o complete the  s t u d i e s have found  that  determinants placed  determinants  toward p h y s i c a l  "a r a n k  of p o s i t i v e  education.  and  negative  all  responses"  attitudes, (p.231).  in this  study  accounting For t h i s focused  education.  reason,  1.9  The  and  7 0%  of  students'  program c o n t e n t  in  f o c u s on  important  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour  10,  on t h o s e  on  two  in  education.  the methodology of d e s c r i p t i v e  content within physical 7,  positive  Study  study used  Students'  of  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  Nature of the  negative  of both  specifically  extremely  two  (1985) r e p o r t e d  In d o i n g so, the study w i l l  f a c t o r s w h i c h h a v e shown t o be affecting  or  f o r approximately  and  Past  the c u r r i c u l u m  as d e t e r m i n a n t s  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour physical  Figley  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r and ranks  years.  the curriculum are  order of the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n t h e t o p two  statements  t h a t i s , seven  t h a t t h e t e a c h e r and  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t attitudes  study,  t h a t would  and  e d u c a t i o n were a s s e s s e d  by u s i n g a L i k e r t  scale.  The  research.  program i n grades  questionnaire  a s p e c t s o f t h e program t h a t r e l a t e t o  teacher  3,  focused  behaviour  and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t .  determined  The  responses  of  students  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of both t e a c h e r behaviour  program content t h a t  influenced  physical  T h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l i m i t e d t o  education.  students' attitudes  statements  selected  originated  from t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e  in  f o r the student q u e s t i o n n a i r e which study.  and  the  Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  2.0 Overview From a review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i t i s apparent s t u d i e s have been conducted  which have a s s e s s e d  t h a t many students'  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o r p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . However, none o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r o r program c o n t e n t .  Furthermore,  few  s t u d i e s have compared s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s i n d i f f e r e n t grade In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f what has been done i n t h i s area t o date, a review of the previous s t u d i e s t h a t have a s s e s s e d a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i l l discussed i n t h i s chapter.  be  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e e a r l y  s t u d i e s t h a t pioneered a t t i t u d i n a l research i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and those examining c o n t e n t w i l l be f o c u s e d on.  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r and program F i r s t , t h e Thurstone  technique  and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s who u t i l i z e d i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . t h e Wear procedure described.  and t h o s e who employed i t w i l l  Subsequently,  be  Kenyon's model and t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  who a p p l i e d i t w i l l be examined.  Next, Simons and S m o l l ' s  s c a l e and those who went on t o f u r t h e r d e v e l o p reviewed.  Then  F i n a l l y , t h e work o f r e s e a r c h e r s who  i twill  be  developed  t h e i r own  instruments w i l l be examined.  Following  b r i e f summary of the chapter w i l l be g i v e n . need f o r the proposed study w i l l be  this,  In doing so,  i l l u s t r a t e d and  l i k e l i h o o d t h a t meaningful, r e l e v a n t ,  and  a the  the  significant results  can be obtained from t h i s study w i l l be shown.  2.1  Previous  studies  A s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n been seen as a meaningful p u r s u i t f o r s e v e r a l decades. of the e a r l y p i o n e e r s i n t h i s area 1941,  and  Carr,  a t h l e t i c s and  1945)  (Stalnaker,  1933,  a c t i v i t y using  the Thurstone technique  determine s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t toward a t h l e t i c s and In a l l t h r e e s t u d i e s , the use  determine s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e was valid.  Carr (1945) s t a t e d t h a t  c o l l e c t e d from 335  high school  to  to  found t o be r e l i a b l e and "from the a n a l y s i s of data  freshmen g i r l s who  were asked  physical  conclude t h a t the a t t i t u d e s h e l d by  freshmen g i r l s do  i n f l u e n c e t h e i r success i n p h y s i c a l  (p. 187).  (1929).  physical  can  education"  Moore,  of a r a t i n g s c a l e  t o check an a t t i t u d e - r a t i n g s c a l e r e l a t e d t o education, we  Some  examined s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward  These e a r l y s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d an a t t i t u d e r a t i n g s c a l e  education.  has  entering  E a r l y s t u d i e s such as these demonstrated  t h a t an accurate measurement of student a t t i t u d e s could  be  obtained  by u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e .  Other r e s e a r c h e r s developed i n n o v a t i v e  refined existing rating scales or i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e i r own.  (1960) employing m o d i f i e d equivalent  Thurstone t e c h n i q u e s , d e v e l o p e d two  forms o f an a t t i t u d e s c a l e around t h e t o p i c  " p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and e x e r c i s e " . two  Richardson  The purpose o f d e v e l o p i n g  forms o f an a t t i t u d e s c a l e was t o p r o v i d e  a l o g i c a l means  of a p p r a i s i n g a t t i t u d e s o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s toward p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and e x e r c i s e p r i o r t o i n s t r u c t i o n as w e l l as a f t e r instruction.  R i c h a r d s o n (1960) found " t h e t e s t , r e t e s t  c o e f f i c i e n t o f c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s was .83 + .06, h i g h enough t o p r e d i c t a s a t i s f a c t o r y measurement  consistency"  (p.642) . Adams (1963) conducted a study o f t h e two p r i n c i p a l methods f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g s c a l e s t o measure a t t i t u d e - T h u r s t o n e and Chave (1929) and L i k e r t (1932), u s i n g 40 s t a t e m e n t s about p h y s i c a l education.  The Thurstone and Chave r a t i n g s c a l e  r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o respond t o statements by e i t h e r a g r e e i n g or d i s a g r e e i n g ,  w h i l e t h e L i k e r t r a t i n g s c a l e had s t u d e n t s  i n d i c a t e t o what e x t e n t t h e y agreed o r d i s a g r e e d  within a  seven p o i n t range (very s t r o n g l y agree, s t r o n g l y agree, agree, n e i t h e r agree o r d i s a g r e e , strongly disagree).  disagree,  strongly disagree,  very  Adams (1963) found t h a t "... w i t h i n t h e  18 limitations  of attitude  reliability  and v a l i d i t y  to  testing (i.e.,  the s c a l e s  are of  t h e y measure what t h e y s e t o u t  measure and t h e y measure i t c o n s i s t e n t l y " )  determined decision  that both  s c a l e s had  as t o w h i c h one  satisfactory  their  p.92.  It  s t r e n g t h s and  t o use would r e s t  was  that  the  on p r o c e d u r a l  factors. Wear  (1951) was  one  i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h was  of the f i r s t  specifically  researchers to develop designed  e d u c a t i o n and w h i c h p e r m i t t e d a r e l i a b l e of  students' attitudes.  for physical  and v a l i d  Wear's p r o c e d u r e  assessment  involved presenting  s t a t e m e n t s t o s u b j e c t s i n t h e manner d e s c r i b e d by (1932).  S u b j e c t s were a s k e d  s t a t e m e n t s by  selecting  agree, undecided, s t a t e m e n t s was were s e l e c t e d  one  t o respond of f i v e  d e v e l o p e d and  after  further  reduced t o a l i s t  the  S h o r t Form o f t h e I n v e n t o r y .  reliability  o f t h e 40  272  After  cases.  I n v e n t o r y , Wear relatively  of  strongly  disagree.  agree,  A list  of  considerable testing,  f o r t h e Wear A t t i t u d e  was  Likert  to a series  choices:  disagree, strongly  o f 40  Inventory.  289 120  The i n v e n t o r y  i t e m s w h i c h was  The  an  known as  split-halves'  i t e m s on t h e S h o r t Form was  0.94.  for  c o m p l e t i n g t h e s t u d y u s i n g t h e Wear A t t i t u d e  (1951) c o n c l u d e d t h a t  s m a l l number o f s t a t e m e n t s  s o u g h t by means o f p h y s i c a l  "through related  response  to  t o outcomes  education a c t i v i t i e s  i t is  possible  t o secure a r e l i a b l e  toward p h y s i c a l  education"  f u r t h e r develop  h i s Attitude  containing Form B.  30 s t a t e m e n t s  and v a l i d  (p.123).  Wear  Inventory  (1955) went on t o  i n t o two f o r m s  B o t h Form A and Form B were shown t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y o f 0.94 a n d 0.96 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  e a c h o f t h e two forms t h e t h i r t y categories:  When d i s c u s s i n g  physical,  statements  emotional,  t h e employment  are divided  social,  " t h e y s h o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l  attitude  c h a n g e s r e s u l t i n g from  listening  t o a t a l k , watching  or t a k i n g  part  Brumbach  Inventory Keogh  Inventory  (1965),  Physical  and C a m p b e l l  viewing  t o be u s e d  (1968).  found  b y Keogh  Using  Inventory  t h e Wear  (Form A ) ,  i n their  attitudes  or values of physical  i f men and women d i f f e r e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t . study  a film,  136 men and 130 women t o d e t e r m i n e  toward t h e g e n e r a l b e n e f i t s  this  (1955)  b r i e f experiences as  continued  w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e  and  Wear  (p.117).  Education Attitude  (1962) s t u d i e d  into  i n determining  a demonstration,  i n some a c t i v i t y "  The Wear A t t i t u d e  such  In  and g e n e r a l .  o f t h e two f o r m s ,  asserted  (1962),  of attitude  e a c h and r e f e r r e d t o a s Form A a n d  r e l i a b l e with a r e l i a b i l i t y  four  evaluation  education  Results of  t h a t men a n d women were n o t d i f f e r e n t i n  their  stated  a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l  education.  found  "none o f t h e m a l e - f e m a l e d i f f e r e n c e s  reached  Keogh a  (19 62)  20  significance  level  o f .05  " (p.241).  t h a t b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s emotional  values  conflicted physical  in their  (1962) d e t e r m i n e d  physical  he d i d f i n d  the s o c i a l ,  physical,  although  program i n t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . that  11  thirteen  education  had 80 p e r c e n t  S t u d i e s such  as t h i s  research of students'  and  they  opinions regarding the r e l a t i v e value  of a  Keogh  o f t h e 20 s t a t e m e n t s  (S) , p h y s i c a l ( P ) , and e m o t i o n a l  (p.242). further  endorsed  of p h y s i c a l education,  education  to social  However,  related  (E) o u t c o m e s o f  o r more r e s p o n s e  agreement"  a l s o e x e m p l i f i e d t h e need f o r a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l  education. The f i n d i n g s o f t h e above s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n supported  largely  by a number o f o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e  essentially  t h e same a p p r o a c h .  Brumbach  employed  (1965) and  Campbell  (1968) a l s o u s e d t h e Wear P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n A t t i t u d e Inventory,  ( S h o r t Form A) t o e v a l u a t e  toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . were  found  education.  In both  students'  of these  Brumbach's,  a t t i t u d e s than  attitude  studies  students  t o have a f a v o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s p h y s i c a l (1965) s t u d y  o f 938  t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon a l s o c o n c l u d e d  education  attitude  non-athletes,  a student i s likely  entering  " a t h l e t e s have b e t t e r  t h e more y e a r s  has had i n h i g h  students  of physical  school the better h i s  t o be, and s t u d e n t s  who  attended  smaller  s c h o o l s have b e t t e r (p.  10).  attitudes  In Campbell's  t h a n t h o s e from l a r g e r  (1968) s t u d y o f  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n a t t i t u d e was physical  education according to  However, he the  find  responses t o the  (i.e. and  did  physical,  four  m e a s u r e d by Kenyon  the  social,  found t h a t  Wear p h y s i c a l  as  b a s e d on  the  and  assumption t h a t  types of p h y s i c a l  satisfaction.  developed  school  attended. scores  between  items i n the general).  inventory  Like  education attitude  a sociopsychological  phenomenon.  physical  After  comprising  experience,  of  considerable  Keogh  could  activity  Seven a l t e r n a t i v e , L i k e r t - t y p e  physical  work  could  Kenyon f e l t  was  be  that  provided d i f f e r e n t types t e s t i n g a model  f i t n e s s , 3.Pursuit of 5.Catharsis,  be  inventory.  His  s i x s u b d o m a i n s , namely:  2 . H e a l t h and  4.Aesthetic experience,  activity  no  concerning  students' attitude  r e d u c e d t o more s p e c i f i c components.  of  of  males  (1968) d e v e l o p e d a model w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d  activity  different  college  in attitude  categories  emotional,  Brumbach, C a m p b e l l  found  s i z e of  a difference  199  schools"  6.Ascetic  attitude  was  1.Social vertigo, experience.  statements which  r e p r e s e n t e d each o f t h e  s i x d i m e n s i o n s were i n c o r p o r a t e d  into  two  f o r men  forms  s e p a r a t e f o r m s , one  p r o v e d t o be attitude  r e l i a b l e and  except f o r the  valid  and  one  f o r women.  in assessing  dimension  Both  students'  "catharsis".  Kenyon  (1968b)  reported  "With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f ' p h y s i c a l  catharsis,'  a m o d e r a t e l y r e l i a b l e and v a l i d  of a r e l a t i v e l y subdomain" physical of  a c t i v i t y as  small  (p.573).  activity,  scale  consisting  number o f i t e m s was d e v e l o p e d Because o f i t s a b i l i t y  this scale  f o r each  to characterize  saw e x t e n s i v e u s e f o r a number  years. Many p e o p l e went on t o u s e o r m o d i f y Kenyon's s c a l e t o  a s s e s s s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l Zaichkowsky  education.  (1975) was one o f t h e many t o u s e K e n y o n ' s  multidimensional  scale  t o measure s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e  physical  activity.  Physical  A c t i v i t y Inventory  toward  Z a i c h k o w s k y u s e d Kenyon's A t t i t u d e (ATPAI) a t t h e c o l l e g e  Toward  level  between two d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i f f e r e n c e in attitude required  physical  important studies  toward p h y s i c a l  findings  education  activity service  after participation i n programs.  made by Z a i c h k o w s k y  showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (1975) was t h a t  t o i n f e r that  perceived  physical  participated physical  (p.367).  This l e d  men and women were d i f f e r e n t i n t h e way t h e y activity  and t h a t  t h e t y p e o f p r o g r a m one  i n may have an e f f e c t on o n e ' s b e h a v i o u r  activity.  "these  significant differences i n  r e s p o n s e s o f men and women i n t h e A T P A I " him  One o f t h e more  Several  toward  o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s went on t o  m o d i f y a n d / o r a d a p t Kenyon's ATPA s c a l e  t o meet t h e i r n e e d s .  Simon and semantic for  Smoll  differential  physical  instrument toward the  s c a l e based  activity.  physical  T h e i r purpose  education  f o u r through  "the r e s u l t s  (CATPA).  six.  Simon and  semantic  following Smoll  al.  used  Schutz  i n grades  (1974),  females. in  (grades  Based on t h e i r  4-6)  findings, children  in  (1974) s t a t e d  that  investigation  indicate that  the  and  6th grade  i s appropriate for  children"  f u r t h e r developed  (198 0) u t i l i z e d  (p.  413).  i n the  4,  5,  and  the r e s u l t s  study r e f l e c t e d  physical 6.  t h e CATPA i n v e n t o r y t o activity  L i k e Kenyon  o f 58 b o y s and  (1968b) and  o f t h e CATPA s c o r e s i n S m o l l a positive  However, a l t h o u g h  and  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e Simon's  t h e between g e n d e r c o m p a r i s o n s Simon's f i n d i n g s .  on most  raise  s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s about  Smoll  e t a l . (1980) s t a t e d  the s t a b i l i t y  and  and  study  subdomains,  on t h e s u b d o m a i n s f a i l e d  T h i s l e d Smoll  56  Simon e t  a t t i t u d e by b o t h m a l e s  l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g r a d e s  replicate  an  years.  and  Schutz's  attitudes  CATPA i n s t r u m e n t  a s s e s s the a t t i t u d e toward girls  to develop  Smoll  group t e s t i n g with 4th through i n s t r u m e n t was  was  deemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t e s t i n g  of the present  multidimentional  This  on Kenyon's c o n c e p t u a l model  for assessing children's  i n s t r u m e n t was  grades  (1974) c o n s t r u c t e d a m u l t i i d m e n t i o n a l  Schutz  to to  o f t h e CATPA.  "the c o r r e l a t i o n a l  statistics  from  this  longitudinal  stable  study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e that  a t t r i b u t e a c r o s s G r a d e s 4 t o 6" ( p . 1 4 5 ) .  CATPA was s e e n a s an u s e f u l status As  a result of the previously  research  modifications  After  (1981) d i d f u r t h e r  a n d made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i t s  considerable  The s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l to five bipolar  t e s t i n g and r e t e s t i n g ,  scales  were  adjective  pairs.  dimensions "Taking p a r t  i n t o two  i n physical  activities  which  y o u a c h a n c e t o meet new p e o p l e " and " T a k i n g  in physical w i t h your  a c t i v i t i e s which g i v e  part  y o u a c h a n c e t o be  friends".  An " I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h i s i d e a " was  was  scale.  The S o c i a l subdomain was s p l i t  give  five  reduced  The s e v e n - p o i n t c o n t i n u u m f o r e a c h a d j e c t i v e reduced t o a f i v e p o i n t  (4)  and Wood  were made:  from e i g h t  (3)  f o rassessing the  mentioned problems w i t h t h e  Schutz, Smoll,  on t h e i n v e n t o r y  modification.  (2)  instrument  However, t h e  of s p e c i f i c groups.  CATPA i n v e n t o r y ,  (1)  CATPA i s n o t a  response  category  added t o e a c h s u b d o m a i n t o r e d u c e a m b i g u i t y o f  interpreting  a midpoint  r e s p o n s e on t h e 5 - p o i n t  scale.  25  (5)  The p h r a s e  "Taking  part  i n " was added t o t h e  o f e a c h a t t i t u d e subdomain s t a t e m e n t increase  activity)  w h i c h m i g h t be t a k e n physical  (i.e.,  data  revealed  CATPA.  CATPA m e a s u r e s o v e r t i m e " concluded that with inventory  Schutz, Smoll,  of  designed  instructions  a n d Mosher  t o t h e CATPA i n c l u d e d as w e l l  of  the revised  s o u n d and t i m e - e f f i c i e n t . (1985) made f u r t h e r  introduced  for the administration  stability  therefore,  a new  f o r g r a d e 3 c h i l d r e n , and  (1981) m o d i f i c a t i o n s , and  I t was,  to administration,  was p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y Carre,  neither  intraindividual  (p.340).  respect  the scale  attitude-behaviour  affect  r e v i s i o n t o t h e CATPA i n v e n t o r y ,  Revision  was  S c h u t z e t a l . (1981)  that modifying  r e l a t i o n s h i p s nor d i d t h i s  inventory  t h e r e v i s e d CATPA  " C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e o r i g i n a l and  changed t h e nature o r s t r e n g t h  CATPA  measures  degree o f involvement i n  i n place,  t h e n compared t o t h e o r i g i n a l  recorded  and any b e h a v i o u r a l  object  activities).  With these m o d i f i c a t i o n s  proclaimed  i n order t o  t h e c o n g r u e n c e between t h e a t t i t u d e  (i.e.,physical  beginning  CATPA  provided  of the inventories.  the Schutz,  Smoll,  as t h e s p l i t t i n g  F i t n e s s subdomain f o r s c o r i n g p u r p o s e s .  a n d Wood's,  of the Health The new g r a d e 3  CATPA i n v e n t o r y i n v o l v e d  three basic  changes:  f a c e s " r e p l a c e d the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l C a t h a r s i s and A s c e t i c inventory. in  Third,  result  scales.  subdomains were d e l e t e d  from  "happy  Second, the  and  The  instructions for  s c o r i n g o f t h e i n v e n t o r i e s were t h e  of c o n s i d e r a b l e experience i n the administering  CATPA i n v e n t o r y .  As  a result  of these modifications,  CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s were t h o u g h t  to hold high  c o n s i s t e n c y and s t r o n g f a c t o r v a l i d i t y . concluded  of the the  internal  Schutz  e t a l . (1985)  " . . . t h e CATPA i n v e n t o r i e s p r e s e n t e d h e r e h a v e shown  to possess high i n t e r n a l  consistency, reasonably strong  convergent v a l i d i t y ,  acceptable face v a l i d i t y "  and  However, f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and m o d i f i c a t i o n s and were  (p.263).  improvements  encouraged.  R e s e a r c h e r s s u c h as E a r l Martens their  the  t h e subdomain d e s c r i p t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d  q u e s t i o n form r a t h e r t h a n s t a t e m e n t s .  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  First,  (1979), Mowatt  own  physical  and  Stennett(1987), Figley  (1988),  and R i c e  instruments f o r evaluating education.  The  (1988)  developed  student a t t i t u d e s  statements used  expressing  first  a t t i t u d e s toward  had  students generate  physical  t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o " j u d g e s " and  toward  i n the Martens'  (1979) were o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s phase procedure, which  (1985),  in a  scale  two  statements  e d u c a t i o n and s u b m i t t i n g  secondly determining scale  and  27 Q values be  o f judged  administered  Martens found elementary Martens  statements  t o a broad  the  and  then  sample o f t h e  s c a l e t o be  a valid  statements  intended  instrument  to  population. for assessing  c h i l d r e n ' s a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  (1979) s t a t e d " a t t i t u d e s o f u p p e r  c h i l d r e n towards p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n the use  selecting  o f an a t t i t u d e  scale"  only researcher to develop  can  be v a l i d l y  (p.244).  h i s own  (intermediate) assessed  M a r t e n s was  method o f  not  by  the  assessing  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Figley  (1985) u t i l i z e d  (Flanagan,  1954)  a s an  the c r i t i c a l  instrument  towards p h y s i c a l education. to r e f l e c t then  on t h e i r K-12  describe in detail  activities  and  (b)  (c) p e e r  categories, in  (e) s t u d e n t  t h e t e a c h e r and  the  experience  and  feelings  then  F i v e major c a t e g o r i e s  of t h i s process:  behaviour,  asked  c o n d i t i o n s , or  D a t a c o l l e c t e d were  (a)  teacher,  (d) a t m o s p h e r e i n  p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f .  Of  t h e most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d by  r e l a t i o n to both  form  s t u d y were  negative  c a t e g o r i e s were d e f i n e d . as a r e s u l t  gymnasium,  i n the  i n p o s i t i v e and  were i d e n t i f i e d curriculum,  Subjects  the p l a c e , persons,  that resulted  report  for assessing attitudes  p h y s i c a l education  toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . classified  incident  p o s i t i v e and  negative  curriculum.  Figley  these  college  five students  attitudes related  (1985) s t a t e d "A  to  rank  28 order  of the v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  that the teacher ranks  the  as d e t e r m i n a n t s  accounting Within  which h e l p e d  t o be  negative  that  has  category  accounting  a positive  attitude  attitude.  As  education  Figley  and  that there  so e x p l i c i t l y  i s a need  whereas curriculum i n the  third  p o i n t e d out  Figley  of a l l or  i n her  earlier  (1985) s t a t e s  d i s c u s s i o n of  i t i s evident t h a t the teacher the v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d  l e a r n i n g atmosphere"  Variety  i s controllable i f  so choose.  r e f l e c t s b a c k on t h e  were  of p o s i t i v e  (p.239).  to  f o r g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n toward  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  and  negative  ones, and  role  the teacher plays a v i t a l  indeed  curriculum,  This points  positive  process.  (p.231).  first one  as a d e t e r m i n a n t  determinants  teachers  determinants,  with  f o r approximately  to teachers  attitudes,  o f c u r r i c u l u m most  o r l a c k o f i t , ranked  t h e power t o c o n t r o l  teacher,  negative  two  subject responses.  characteristics  Reinforcement,  " i f one  specific  and  of a l l responses"  to c l a r i f y  two  summary, e a c h o f t h e s e physical  70%  associated with  incidents related negative  positive  a t t i t u d e s were g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d  content. teacher  of both  revealed  i n the top  categories, several subcategories  c h o i c e were t h e  likely  curriculum placed  f o r approximately  t h e s e two  identified and  and  of determinants  out  developing reducing in this  Earl  and  Stennett  (1987) a l s o d e v e l o p e d  for evaluating student Their  instrument  i n v o l v e d two  questionnaires.  f o r students  education  o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  the  taking physical education. e d u c a t i o n were a s k e d for their  own  instrument  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was and  their  One  currently taking physical  Students  t o r a t e the  f o r students  not  presently taking physical  importance of v a r i o u s  d e c i s i o n to take p h y s i c a l education,  n o t t a k i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were a s k e d  while  to rate  reasons  students  the  importance of v a r i o u s reasons  in their  physical  taking physical education  education.  a l s o asked aspects  t o r a t e the  B o t h g r o u p s were t h e n  much e m p h a s i s t h e y  same a s p e c t s .  The  e m p h a s i s and  education  programs.  a number o f that warrant  thought  students  e d u c a t i o n were a l s o a s k e d current  still  questions  should  The  results  about t h e i r  o f t h e two  responses  f u r t h e r study.  be  to  placed  on  perception  The  and  surveys  unearthed  reasons  of  students'  e t a l . (1987) f o u n d  Earl  important  by  identified  several issues  f o r students  provide  r a t e d as  asked  taking physical  to take p h y s i c a l education  reasons  were  p r e f e r r e d emphasis i n p h y s i c a l h e a l t h  interesting  responses.  take  emphasis c u r r e n t l y g i v e n t o v a r i o u s  o f t h e program.  i n d i c a t e how these  Students  d e c i s i o n not t o  interesting  t h e most s t u d e n t s  deciding  examples "the  of  five  were:  liking  30  activity, and  keeping  l e a r n i n g new  fit,  liking  skills"  sports, having  (p.7).  The  fun  reasons  in classes  for  students  d e c i d i n g n o t t o t a k e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n were a l s o Earl  e t a l . (1987) p r o n o u n c e d  important  not  liking  reasons  fitting  go t o a n o t h e r  i t i n t o the time  class"  rated  (p.7).  not  table, liking  The  as  s u b j e c t s were more  some p a r t s o f t h e p r o g r a m ,  e x e r c i s e o u t s i d e s c h o o l and  suggest  five  by t h e most s t u d e n t s were: o t h e r  important, trouble  "the  insightful.  having  g e t t i n g enough g e t t i n g s w e a t y and  f i n d i n g s of t h i s  then  study  t h a t changes t o t h e c u r r i c u l u m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  are necessary information  and  that students  in helping teachers  can  be  an  important  source  of  i n t h e i r task of curriculum  renewal. Another study which developed  a collection  device  to  ascertain  s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  conducted  by R i c e  (1988).  Rice's study  was  done t o  determine  h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s about p e r s o n a l h e a l t h fitness,  t h e i r physical education  education  teachers.  consisted  o f 602  c o m p l e t e a 73 scale.  Ten  Participants  s e l e c t e d f o r the  i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e by way  study  S u b j e c t s were a s k e d  to  of a f i v e p o i n t L i k e r t •  e x p l o r e d p e r s o n a l h e a l t h and  examined t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  and  c u r r i c u l u m , and p h y s i c a l  high school students.  questions  was  programs o f f e r e d ,  fitness, 21  13  investigated  students' l i k e s  e d u c a t i o n program, and dislikes study  scrutinized  also provided several  females  and  78%  o v e r team games.  interesting  One  teachers.  females  Rice  not without  important school One  she  source  prefer  Although  This  For  other studies  individual  to their  s p o r t s by  finding,  results  activities of  physical  the  education  "attitudinal 85%  education classes  of a l l and  73%  e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s as  R i c e admits  p o s s i b l e e r r o r s due  questionnaires,  This  education indicate  students consider t h e i r physical  and  individual  (1988) r e p o r t e d  students enjoy t h e i r p h y s i c a l  (p.96).  over  o f t h e more p o s i t i v e  toward p h y s i c a l  r o l e models"  results.  findings of several  the students' response  c l a s s e s and responses  that  physical  students' l i k e s  of the males.  however, c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e w h i c h have i n d i c a t e d  about the  education teacher.  team s p o r t s were p r e f e r r e d  of the  s t u d y was  dislikes  concerning t h e i r p h y s i c a l  instance, 73%  24  and  that  of a l l good  the study i s  t o the nature of  self-report  sees s t u d e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as  an  f o r a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t n e e d s and e v a l u a t i n g  programs. final  example o f a s u r v e y  f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose, DePauw, and developed  Hulac  was  (1988).  instrument  t h e one  produced  T h i s survey  f o r a study designed  t h a t was by  developed  Mowatt,  instrument  was  to assess the a t t i t u d e s  of  college  students toward p h y s i c a l  instrument consisted by  college  of  students using  a  (one's p e r s o n a l  education), as  an  one  physical  o f f e r i n g i n the  a s s e s s e d the  five-point Likert  education  r e s u l t s of the  a c t i v i t y was  fit,  that  and  physical  (how  one and  saw  physical  above c a t e g o r i e s .  of value,  that  physical education (how  The  data  Some o f  students  i t was  general  basis  exercise).  s t u d y were t h a t  than males.  The  toward  scientific  of  rated  scale.  attitudes  benefits  females e x h i b i t e d  activity  or  curriculum),  scientific  physical  survey  into three categories:  feeling  were a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e significant  The  2 0 s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h were t o be  t w e n t y s t a t e m e n t s were d i v i d e d attitudes  activity.  believed  important to  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s Mowatt e t a l  be toward  (1988) f o u n d  following: "College there  is a scientific  physical that  students exhibited  activity.  i t was  basis  important  and  f o r the  value  activity  f i t , and  activity  was  physical  effort.  not  students'  significantly  On  the  attitudes  than d i d males"  Although t h i s study demonstrated that toward p h y s i c a l  indicated  that  more p o s i t i v e  that  of  students  worth the  average, females e x h i b i t e d towards p h y s i c a l  agreement  Most c o l l e g e  i m p o r t a n t t o be  a c t i v i t y was  general  the  (p.108). attitudes influenced  the  33  by t h e use  of a mini-lecture,  f a c t o r s s u c h as g e n d e r , and  the passage  student  2.2  i t d i d show t h a t  other  years i n school, a c t i v i t y  o f t i m e c a n have a s i g n i f i c a n t  class,  effect  on  attitudes.  Summary T h i s r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e has  sought  to establish  c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what a l r e a d y has b e e n i n the assessment education.  of students' a t t i t u d e  Furthermore,  i t has  the value of the proposed r e l e v a n t and  significant  s t u d y and t h e  accomplished  toward  attempted  to  a  physical illustrate  meaningful,  results that this  study could  obtain. A l t h o u g h numerous s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d y e a r s t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward education, on  no  s t u d y t o d a t e has  facets of teacher behaviour  over three  grades.  of i n f o r m a t i o n that  the assessment  c a n be  of student a t t i t u d e s .  t o f u r t h e r t h i s work by Figley  specifically  curriculum content  Many s t u d i e s h a v e , however, e m p h a s i z e d importance  the  physical  concentrated and  over  (1985) and  Rice  focusing  obtained  factors  extremely  and  through  T h i s study  on two  (1988) t o be  the value  attempts found  by  important  in  affecting  student  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  namely t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  and  program c o n t e n t .  a d d i t i o n , by a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t (grade  3,  7,  and  10)  P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m and  future.  In  i n three  i t hopes t o immediately  i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c a n be u s e d  the p u r s u i t  attitudes  education,  t o improve t h e  grades  provide Delta  i l l u m i n a t e t h e need f o r  of subsequent r e s e a r c h i n t h i s  area  i n the  3 5  Chapter 3  METHODOLOGY  3.0  Overview In o r d e r t o f u l f i l  necessary t o develop teacher behaviour  t h e purpose  a survey which s p e c i f i c a l l y  Likert  that  i n grades  Furthermore,  t o furnish the required data.  and t h e n  a pilot  s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d f o r survey.  m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e s u r v e y ,  Following  classes  selected,  t h e s u r v e y s were a d m i n i s t e r e d , and t h e d a t a  collected  and r e c o r d e d .  i t e m s was u s e d  a t t i t u d e toward respond  were  o f methodology  A questionnaire u t i l i z i n g individual  A  t o help develop the  t e s t i n g p r i o r t o conducting the actual  3.1 D e s c r i p t i o n  with  r e s u l t s were d e s i r e d , a  c o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s was e s t a b l i s h e d  this,  dealt  3, 7, a n d 10.  quantitative  s c a l e was s e l e c t e d  survey statements,  i t was  and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t a n d c o u l d b e  administered t o students owing t o t h e f a c t  o f t h e study,  physical  to thirty  five  a five-point  i n this  study t o assess  education.  statements  Likert  Students  by s e l e c t i n g  scale f o r students'  were a s k e d t o t h e answer  w h i c h b e s t r e p r e s e n t e d how Students  could select:  undecided, scored  D-disagree,  A +1,  U 0,  felt  or SD-strongly  D -1,  SD  -2).  level  with a score  of disagreement.  range would s i g n i f y statement figure  c o u l d t h e n be  grades  genders examined.  In  this  analyzed  a score  study  toward p h y s i c a l  teacher behaviour  and  variables.  i n the Scores  a  zero f o r each  Responses  in a to  between  program c o n t e n t  Students'  e d u c a t i o n were v i e w e d as t h e should vary  independent  variables  (teacher behaviour  Skill  and  fitness  intervening variables. of the  while indicate  differences  v a r i a b l e because they  level  a score i n  gender r e s u l t i n g  m i n u s two. and  were  design  v i e w e d as t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  level  with  a degree of u n c e r t a i n t y .  somewhere between p l u s and  Research  Choices  o f agreement,  by g r a d e and  U-  f o l l o w i n g scheme:  A statement  Statements with  statements  3.2  disagree.  i n t h e minus range would  were c a l c u l a t e d  and  statement.  A-agree,  according t o the  t h e p l u s range would d e p i c t a l e v e l statements  about each  SA-strongly agree,  f o r each s t a t e m e n t  (SA +2,  they  level  in relation and  attitudes  dependent t o the  two  program c o n t e n t ) .  o f t h e s t u d e n t s were v i e w e d  Both the s k i l l  level  were  and  the  as  fitness  s t u d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s  because they could  influence  independent v a r i a b l e s and  the  the  (teacher  dependent v a r i a b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  b e h a v i o u r and  program  (student a t t i t u d e s ) .  i f a p o s i t i v e or negative r e l a t i o n s h i p  skill  and/or f i t n e s s l e v e l  to  exist.  Both o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s  selecting  classes  s t u d y was  the  dependent v a r i a b l e  i n understanding the c o n t r o l l e d by  resulted  could  This the  were a l s o  were  by  using  considered  variable  therefore,  was  could  in this also  further  an  influence  for  a  upon  aids  variable  was  this  e d u c a t i o n and  intervening on  how  the  used t o h e l p c o n t r o l  this  a random s e l e c t i o n o f  which  independent Again,  p r e s e n t were  physical  variable  dependent v a r i a b l e .  variables  act  s e r v e as  This  classes,  play  teachers.  toward p h y s i c a l  j u d g e d t o be  other intervening by  t o be  random s e l e c t i o n o f  r e l a t e d t o the  controlled  were c o n t r o l l e d  independent v a r i a b l e s  i n a random s e l e c t i o n o f  sampling of c l a s s e s Any  between  students' attitudes  primary r e l a t i o n s h i p .  have c o n s i d e r a b l e  variable  way and,  Parents' attitudes activity  variable  teacher expertise.  i n d e t e r m i n i n g the  also  would  randomly.  Another intervening  role  and  content),  They  "intervene" level  the  the  variable.  similarly  classes.  random  3 8  Statistical  There w i l l  Hypotheses  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  score of students' a t t i t u d e s behaviour within p h y s i c a l i n grade  i n mean  toward t e a c h e r  e d u c a t i o n among s t u d e n t s  3, 7, and 10.  There w i l l  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  score of students' attitude within physical 3,  difference  difference  i n mean  toward program c o n t e n t  e d u c a t i o n among s t u d e n t s i n g r a d e  7, and 10.  There w i l l  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  s c o r e o f male and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s behaviour within p h y s i c a l  i n mean  toward t e a c h e r  e d u c a t i o n i n g r a d e s 3,  7, and 10. There w i l l  be no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  s c o r e o f male and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s content within p h y s i c a l and 10.  i n mean  toward  program  e d u c a t i o n i n g r a d e s 3, 7,  39  5.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n mean  score r e l a t i n g t o teacher behaviour o f students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and students who i n d i c a t e d they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l  that  education  classes. 6.  There w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  i n mean  score r e l a t i n g t o program content o f students who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s and students who i n d i c a t e d they d i d not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s .  3 .3 P i l o t  study  P r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g a p i l o t survey, a committee of s i x teachers  (two grade 3 t e a c h e r s , two grade 7 t e a c h e r s , and two  grade 10 teachers) were chosen  i n order t o review t h e proposed  student survey and recommend changes where necessary.  As a  r e s u l t o f s e v e r a l meetings with these t e a c h e r s , numerous changes were made t o t h e survey t o improve t h e r e a d a b i l i t y and reduce ambiguity.  Once t h e committee was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e  survey statements were c l e a r , c o n c i s e , and d e a l t  explicitly  w i t h t e a c h e r behaviour and program content, t h e p i l o t  survey  40 was r e a d y The final  t o be pilot  form  validity  conducted. s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d p r i o r t o p r e p a r i n g t h e  of the survey  of the survey.  conducting the p i l o t  i n order to further  increase the  Two methods were, u t i l i z e d i n  survey.  students, three t o f i v e ,  First,  a s m a l l number o f  were s e l e c t e d  i n each  grade.  The  s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e s e s t u d e n t s u s i n g t h e same method p l a n n e d completion  f o r the f i n a l  of the p i l o t  q u e s t i o n s about  each  form  survey,  of the survey.  t h e s t u d e n t s were  of the statements.  a s s u r e t h a t what t h e s t u d e n t s t h o u g h t was,  i n fact,  encouraged  what was  However, on  intended.  asked  T h i s was done t o  the statements  Students  were  meant  also  t o comment on any a s p e c t o f t h e s u r v e y t h e y  such as survey  instructions,  format,  or wording.  wished,  Comments  made by t h e s t u d e n t s were r e c o r d e d and t h e n  shared  c o m m i t t e e members.  o f c h a n g e s were  Consequently,  a variety  with  made t o enhance t h e s u r v e y b e f o r e c o n d u c t i n g t h e n e x t In  t h e second  three grades, pilot  stage,  a class  namely g r a d e s  study group.  of students  attitude  of the as a  Once a g a i n , t h e s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n  study r e s u l t s , survey  each  3, 7, and 10, was s e l e c t e d  t h e same way as i n t e n d e d f o r t h e f i n a l the p i l o t  from  stage.  final  instrument.  form.  On t h e b a s i s o f  r e v i s i o n s were made t o t h e  41  3.4  Selection The  p o p u l a t i o n f o r the study  10 p h y s i c a l Delta, 15  of subjects  education classes  British  c l a s s e s was  Columbia. chosen.  classes,  and  selected  using a table  i n c l u d e d a l l grade  i n the Delta School  From t h i s g r o u p , F i v e grade  f i v e grade  10  five  c l a s s e s were t o be  7,  and  District,  a study  3 classes,  3,  sample grade  of 7  randomly  o f random numbers t o r e p r e s e n t t h e  population being studied.  3.5  Procedures In  order t o conduct  obtained  from  this  the Delta D i s t r i c t  Upon r e v i e w i n g t h e s u r v e y , in  the statements  b e l i e v e " be  board  p e r m i s s i o n was  Superintendent office  I t was  felt  student responses  necessary  to  were o n l y a r e f l e c t i o n  of  t h a t t h i s was  not n e c e s s a r i l y  felt  this  i n any  and  so  i t was  added t o t h e s t a t e m e n t s  way  fact.  impair the  concerning  and A).  that "I  s t u d e n t b e l i e v e d , and a d d i t i o n d i d not  (Appendix  t h e stem  what e a c h that  sought  p e r s o n n e l asked  concerning teacher behaviour  added.  emphasize t h a t  study,  It  was  survey  teacher  behaviour. Once S c h o o l memo was  Board  s e n t t o a l l 24  O f f i c e p e r m i s s i o n had elementary  i n f o r m i n g them o f t h e s t u d y ,  and  been o b t a i n e d ,  8 secondary  a  principals  p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a c o p y o f  the  42  survey, school  and r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n t o s u r v e y i f t h e y were s e l e c t e d .  identify grades  school  i n f o r m a t i o n had b e e n o b t a i n e d from classes  from  each  To  B).  When  the principals,  o f t h e three grades  requesting t h e i r  class,  consent  were r a n d o m l y  increase the l i k e l i h o o d  (Appendix  o f teacher consent,  would be m a i n t a i n e d A n o n y m i t y was f e l t  and t h a t through  confidentiality  C, D, & E ) . i t was s t a t e d  teacher behaviour behaviour,  since the  t o statements  regarding  Inasmuch a s t h e s t u d y was e x a m i n i n g i n g e n e r a l and n o t i n d i v i d u a l  t h i s r e q u e s t was a c c e p t e d .  teacher  A copy o f t h e  sent t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of British  E t h i c s Committee and a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o c o n d u c t t h e  r e s e a r c h was o b t a i n e d . British  o f the data  by t e a c h e r s t o be i m p o r t a n t  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n Columbia  20  a l l stages o f t h e study.  s u r v e y was a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o r e s p o n d teacher behaviour.  selection,  t h esurvey i n  i n t h e memo t h a t t h e s u r v e y w o u l d t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y m i n u t e s t o complete,  selected.  the teachers of  t o conduct  and a c o p y o f t h e s u r v e y  this  five  c l a s s were s e n t a memo i n f o r m i n g them o f t h e i r  a letter their  education i n  (Appendix  When t h e 15 c l a s s e s h a d b e e n s e l e c t e d , each  i n their  P r i n c i p a l s were a l s o a s k e d t o  t h o s e t e a c h e r s who t a u g h t p h y s i c a l  3, 7, o r 10 i n t h e i r  students  Columbia,  W i t h p e r m i s s i o n from  t h e School Board,  the University of  s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s , and  43 teachers, the survey The suggested  conducted.  two g r a d e 3 t e a c h e r s  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  that the q u e s t i o n n a i r e statements  students  be r e a d  i n grade 3 i n order t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r  I t was d e c i d e d not  c o u l d be  have t h e statements  t o those  students  who  r e a d t o them, s o t h e g r a d e  by t h e e l e m e n t a r y  coordinator.  t o the  understanding.  t h a t i t w o u l d be b e t t e r i f t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d  administer the survey  administered  committee  The e l e m e n t a r y  physical  physical  were g o i n g t o 3 surveys  education  education  were  district  district  c o o r d i n a t o r was c h o s e n b e c a u s e s h e h a d b e e n a member o f t h e t e a c h e r committee s t r u c k t o h e l p d e v e l o p statements; and  she h a d good u n d e r s t a n d i n g  procedures  T h i s arrangement proved  the p i l o t  study.  not  t o be t o o d i f f i c u l t ,  statements effective.  The v o c a b u l a r y  to students  was  b e l i e v e d t o be more  the to  used  teaching  t o work w e l l i n  i n the statements  and t h e r e a d i n g  shown t o be b o t h  was  of the  efficient  H a v i n g someone r e a d t h e s t a t e m e n t s  chosen over u s i n g a tape  The  of the questionnaire  t o be f o l l o w e d ; and s h e h a d e x p e r i e n c e  grade three students.  found  questionnaire  and  t o students  r e c o r d e r , because t h e former  was  practical.  g r a d e 7 and 10 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  researcher. the students  was  Since the statements  d i d n o t h a v e t o be  i n g r a d e s 7 and 10 t h e r e was no c h a n c e o f  by read  influencing  student responses.  After a brief  introduction to  e x p l a i n t h e purpose  of t h e study,  of the i n s t r u c t i o n s  (Appendix  complete  The e x p l a n a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n s , and  the survey.  statements  given t o students  as t h o s e g i v e n t o s t u d e n t s t h e s e t h r e e grades  read t o the students, while  completed survey  7 and 10 were t h e same  3.  i n grade  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i n  3, t h e s t a t e m e n t s  i n grades  f o r themselves.  had completed  were  7 and 10 t h e s t u d e n t s When s t u d e n t s h a d  f a c e down and s i t q u i e t l y u n t i l  collected  3.6  i n grade  t h e s u r v e y t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d  Once e v e r y o n e  time  F ) , s t u d e n t s were a s k e d t o  i n grade  was t h a t  read the statements  f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n  to place  everyone  the survey,  had  the surveys  and t h e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r were t h a n k e d  their finished. were for their  and h e l p .  Instrumentation In order t o t e s t  utilizing  a Likert  the hypotheses,  s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d  3, 7, and 10, t o a s s e s s t h e i r behaviour  a survey  f o r students  a t t i t u d e s toward  and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t w i t h i n p h y s i c a l  same s u r v e y was g i v e n t o e a c h asked  t o respond  t o each  scale  r a n g i n g from  grade  level.  o f the statements  "strongly  agree"  instrument i n grades  teacher education.  The  S u b j e c t s were using a 5-point  to "strongly disagree".  Twenty n i n e  statements  were employed t o e v a l u a t e  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h behaviour  and  obtain other  curriculum content. i n f o r m a t i o n such  was  felt  five  statements  was  as g r a d e ,  achieve worthwhile r e s u l t s , 3 students.  The  behaviour,  14  statements  t o be  survey  used f o r grouping provided  gender,  and  level,  Because the  established survey one.  survey  for this  and  study  found,  education  i t was  teacher  six  as  grade,  specifically  f o r w h i c h no necessary  teacher  and  the  1985;  on  well-  to develop a  a  standardized  in acquiring information  t h a t w o u l d n o t have b e e n r e v e a l e d u s i n g a s t a n d a r d (Figley,  f o r grade  information that Delta physical  t e a c h e r s were i n t e r e s t e d  Recent s t u d i e s  to  f o r comparison.  as o p p o s e d t o u t i l i z i n g  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was  for i t  level.  program c o n t e n t  was  on  and  students  r e s e a r c h e r wished t o focus  teacher behaviour  long  statements  i n f o r m a t i o n such  fitness  comprised  study,  too  and  c u r r i c u l u m t o be  Rice,  1988)  extremely  had  to  opinion  information  on p r o g r a m c o n t e n t ,  These s i x statements skill  15  were u s e d  A survey  not b e i n g  contained  statements  class.  sufficient  while  teacher  g e n d e r , and  s e l e c t e d f o r the  t h a t t h i s would p r o v i d e  to  S i x statements  about s t u d e n t s ' p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n of t h i r t y  regard  students'  survey. found  important  the  with  r e s p e c t t o s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  and  the  r e s e a r c h e r w a n t e d t o examine t h e s e  Furthermore, the Physical  Education  r e s u l t s on b o t h assess,  and  program. through  study  would p r o v i d e  t e a c h e r s who  are  teacher behaviour  i f necessary,  a s y n t h e s i s of statements  at aspects  of teacher  interested  and  survey  behaviour  i n more  information to  r e v i s e the  Statements f o r the  areas  program c o n t e n t  instrument  were  and  program c o n t e n t  1985;  from the D e l t a and  secondary the  as w e l l as  Physical Education  survey  of the  that portrayed  F o r example, t h e p o s t e r had  big  five  literature  and  i n the  survey  good i n s t r u m e n t  a poster  "happy f a c e " d r a w i n g s . a p o i n t on t h e  end,  and  the p i l o t  study  was Each  Likert  scale.  a b i g smile  to  a "happy f a c e " w i t h  s t r o n g l y disagree at the  from which they  r e s u l t s a l s o helped  1979;  department heads i n  other  confirmed  u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g grade three students responses  (e.g.  from i n p u t r e c e i v e d  a "happy f a c e " w i t h  s t r o n g l y a g r e e a t one  frown t o r e p r e s e n t  Both the was  five  "happy f a c e s " r e p r e s e n t e d  represent  looked  committee.  For the grade t h r e e students constructed  help  developed  i n s t u d i e s t h a t had  Figley,  1988)  to  Delta p h y s i c a l education  Columbia Assessment o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Rice,  Delta  i n obtaining  British  and  depth.  end.  that  this  conceptualize  c o u l d choose.  The  pilot  to confirm t h a t the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  f o r assessing students'  a t t i t u d e s toward  the study a  a  47 teacher behaviour  3.7 D a t a The the  and p r o g r a m  collection s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d  first  week o f J u n e 1989.  experience  almost  a full  the grade l e v e l being To the of  content.  determine t e s t  reliability  This allowed  school year  assessed  The L e r t a p t e s t  produced a Hoyt  These r e s u l t s  All  was 0.86.  physical education  coordinator.  internal validity Also,  on t h e  indicated that the  reliable.  i t ensured  Using  by t h e  c o o r d i n a t o r and a l l g r a d e 7 and  10 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d education  of r e l i a b i l i t y  g r a d e 3 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d  elementary  estimate  o f 0.87 on t h e t e a c h e r v a r i a b l e s and 0.59 on  total  was  the survey.  a L e r t a p 2.0 t e s t was r u n on  A Hoyt e s t i m a t e  survey  students t o  completing  the program v a r i a b l e s . survey  week o f May and  of physical education at  before  reliability,  complete survey.  i n the l a s t  by t h e s e c o n d a r y  o n l y two p e o p l e  physical  increased the  of the administration of the questionnaire. that the introduction, instructions,  and t i m e  g i v e n t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d be t h e same f o r a l l students. envelope completed  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were c o l l e c t e d a f t e r a l l the students  were f i n i s h e d .  s u r v e y s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y .  and p l a c e d  i n an  A l l o f t h e 386 Once a l l  48 c l a s s e s had  been s u r v e y e d ,  d a t a was  started.  3.8  analysis  Data The  data c o l l e c t e d  percentages.  Given  q u a n t i t a t i v e ) , the forcefully be and  used  are presented  the nature results  gender.  The  the  of the  of response  i n mean s c o r e s and  on  In hypotheses  1 and  standard  differences  a t-test.  liked  their  not  like  and  by  (SPSSX).  of variance  H y p o t h e s e s 3 and  Hypothesis  5 and  level  The each  gender.  The  Package f o r t h e The  hypotheses  techniques:  2, w h i c h l o o k a t d i f f e r e n c e s  physical  physical  grade  d e v i a t i o n on  i n grade  (ANOVA) was  used  4 which look at  f o r gender a t each grade l e v e l ,  using  by  to  each q u e s t i o n i s  f o r a l l grades  following analysis  a one-way a n a l y s i s  analyze the data.  graphs are  i n a l l three grades.  Sciences - Extended V e r s i o n  are t e s t e d using the  Bar  survey  d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e S t a t i s t i c a l  levels,  (i.e.,  a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e l y and  females  question are also presented  the  u s i n g bar graphs i n  of the data  results  frequency  f o r m a l e s and  difference  Social  of processing  d i s p l a y e d i n t h i s g r a p h i c form.  to display  presented  the procedure  analyzed  to  the the  data  6 w h i c h compare s t u d e n t s  education c l a s s e s with  s t u d e n t s who  who  do  e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a l s o employed a t - t e s t  to  49  analyze in  the data.  Results  a n a l y s i s a r e examined  o r d e r t o make r e f e r e n c e s and draw c o n c l u s i o n s .  3.9  Limitations There a r e i n h e r e n t  with  beliefs  attitude  favourable  students  difficult,  deals  both  evaluation  A t t i t u d e s r e f e r t o a person's  evaluation of a subject,  while  t h e i n f o r m a t i o n one h a s a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . their beliefs  i n order  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  b u t h a s b e e n done s u c c e s s f u l l y b e f o r e  1980; S c h u t z e t a l . , 1985).  designed  of the t o t a l  i n grade 3 t o evaluate  t o determine t h e i r  that  about a s u b j e c t , and t h e i r  their beliefs.  b e l i e f s represent  al.,  beliefs  or unfavourable  t o any s t u d y  Most i n d i v i d u a l s h a v e  i s viewed as a r e f l e c t i o n  associated with  Asking  limitations  and a t t i t u d e s .  p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e  the  of the data  t h a t were a p p r o p r i a t e  Questions  will  (Carre e t  h a d t o be  f o r grade 3 students,  but a t  same t i m e were s u i t a b l e f o r g r a d e 7 and 10 s t u d e n t s .  grade 3 questionnaire u t i l i z e d limited  reading a b i l i t y  been s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i z e d  The  "happy f a c e s " b e c a u s e o f t h e  o f grade t h r e e  "happy f a c e s " r a t h e r t h a n  be  children.  semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l by many r e s e a r c h e r s .  The u s e o f s c a l e s has Schutz e t a l  (1985) s t a t e d : Nonverbal s c a l e s o f t h i s  nature  a r e recommended  f o r use  50  w i t h young c h i l d r e n to  1 9 8 1 ) , and  i n elementary  Martinek,  Zaichkowsky,  Zaichkowsky, Zaichkowsky .97  school children  1975).  i n grade 1 - 6 .  scaling  Crum  "learning effect"  technique  (1988),  used  and  college  a number  (1981),  living  to  practicum  scale to  education  Lumpkin  in  assess  secondary  (1987) a p p l i e d a  scale ranging  from  Koslow 1-9  to  the  academic c r e d i b i l i t y  a s s o c i a t e d with the d i s c i p l i n e  physical  These are j u s t  a few  5-  education  students' opinions concerning  education.  of  utilized  c o n s i d e r e d most i m p o r t a n t .  implemented a L i k e r t  determine  semantic  s c a l e t o a p p r a i s e which p h y s i c a l  students  93  environmental  a 5-point  within physical Avery  with  t o measure t h e d e g r e e  i n an e n v i r o n m e n t a l  (1984),  school students.  objectives  employed  Warden  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the development of  Likert  Cheffers,  (p.260).  P e r d u e and  which p a r t i c i p a t i o n  point  Mancini,  s c a l e s t o assess a t t i t u d e toward  subjects or t o p i c s .  attitudes.  Zaichkowsky, and  (1976) o b t a i n e d a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y  Many s t u d i e s have s u c c e s s f u l l y differential  (e.g.,  & C h e f f e r s , 1977;  & Martinek,  used  education  u s i n g a 3 p i c t u r e happy f a c e f o r m a t  children  the L i k e r t  have been  measure a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s p h y s i c a l  activities  of  (Cozby,  of  o f t h e many  s t u d i e s w h i c h have u s e d differential Therefore,  some form  s c a l e t o measure s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s .  a l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some i n h e r e n t  when d e a l i n g w i t h b e l i e f s utilized other  of semantic  procedures  and a t t i t u d e s ,  limitations  this  study has  which have been s u c c e s s f u l  i n many  studies.  3.10 Summary The  outline  provide  insight  conduct  this  an a c c o u n t end.  o f t h e methodology has endeavoured t o i n t o the procedures  study.  Moreover,  t h a t were f o l l o w e d t o  i t has attempted  o f t h e s t e p s t h a t were t a k e n  From t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  t o render  from b e g i n n i n g t o  o f t h e methodology and  r e s e a r c h d e s i g n t o t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s and l i m i t a t i o n s , effort  h a s been made t o i l l u s t r a t e  followed  i n order t o conduct  the process that  a credible  study.  an  was  52  Chapter 4  RESULTS  4.0  Overview The  toward  purpose  o f t h i s s t u d y was  to assess student  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r and p r o g r a m  education. g r a d e s 3,  This study u t i l i z e d 7,  and  content within  content.  physical  a s t u d e n t s u r v e y method i n  10 t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e  b e h a v i o u r and p r o g r a m  attitude  I t s p u r p o s e was  toward t e a c h e r to establish  whether: 1. S t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s questionnaire within  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i n g r a d e  and g r a d e  2. S t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s physical and g r a d e 3. M a l e and within  as r e f l e c t e d by  responses) toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  physical  g r a d e 7,  (i.e.,  10. toward program  content  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i n g r a d e  within 3, g r a d e  10. female a t t i t u d e s  physical  toward  teacher behaviour  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t f r o m  o t h e r a t each grade  3,  level.  each  7,  53  4.  M a l e and  female  physical  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t  each grade  5.  attitudes  liked  c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t from  physical 6.  those  education  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who  those  education  each o t h e r  their physical  s t u d e n t s who  teacher  d i d not  like  the  386  liked  their physical  education  a t t i t u d e s toward program  s t u d e n t s who  d i d not  like  their  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t were c o m p l e t e d .  physical  of the  study.  S e c t i o n 4.2  grade l o o k i n g a t t e a c h e r behaviour.  r e p o r t s t h e d a t a by  g r a d e and  S e c t i o n 4.5  students classes  liking  and  not  gender l o o k i n g a t  r e p o r t s t h e d a t a by  l o o k i n g a t program c o n t e n t .  S e c t i o n 4.6  liking  4.1  reports  Section  4.3  Section  4.4  teacher  g r a d e and  gender  r e p o r t s the data  their physical  looking at teacher behaviour.  obtained  Section  r e p o r t s d a t a by g r a d e l o o k i n g a t p r o g r a m c o n t e n t .  behaviour.  content  classes.  r e p o r t s on t h e sample s i z e t h e d a t a by  their  classes.  This chapter d e t a i l s the analysis of the data from  at  education  a t t i t u d e s toward  c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t from  from  level.  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who  behaviour  toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  of  education  S e c t i o n 4.7  r e p o r t s the  data of students l i k i n g education classes  and  not  content For  this  from  4 t o 32.  The  i n c l u d e a l l t h e odd reason,  their  survey.  The  statements  i n c l u d e a l l t h e even  statements  related  numbered s t a t e m e n t s  s t a t e m e n t s were g r o u p e d  numbered  t o program from  as e i t h e r  b e h a v i o u r o r p r o g r a m c o n t e n t when d i s p l a y i n g the  physical  l o o k i n g a t program c o n t e n t .  p e r t a i n i n g to teacher behaviour statements  liking  5 to  31.  teacher  the r e s u l t s  of  4.1  Sample S i z e  Table level  1 shows t h e breakdown  o f t h e sample  s i z e by g r a d e  and g e n d e r . Table Distribution  1:  o f R e s p o n d e n t s by G r a d e L e v e l and  Grades  Classes  Gender  n  %  3  5  Males  66  17  Females  49  13  Total  115  30  Males  72  19  Females  65  17  Total  137  35  Males  71  18.5  Females  63  16.5  7  10  5  5  Total  134  35  Total  386  100  Gender  56  Table liked  their  not  like  who  were  2 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n physical  of those  education classes,  their physical  those  education classes,  students  s t u d e n t s who d i d  and t h o s e  undecided. Table 2  Sample S i z e by S t u d e n t Grade 3  Preference  Attitude  n  %  Liked  102  89  3  2  10  9  Total  115  100  Liked  95  69  Disliked  19  14  Undecided  24  17  Total  138  100  Liked  109  83  14  11  8  6  Disliked Undecided  7  10  Disliked Undecided  who  Total  131  100  Total  386  100  students  57  4.2 S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by Teacher  The  first  question this  Grade  Behaviour  study undertook  t o answer  was  whether: 1.  S t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward physical 7,  The  teacher behaviour  education are d i f f e r e n t  and g r a d e  (in tables  3 and  assessing  S t r o n g l y Agree  2, A g r e e  D i s a g r e e -1, S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e -2.  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e was  used  f o r each  o f t h e 15  d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was ( probability  =  and  4) t o o b t a i n t h e a n s w e r f o r t h i s  following numerical values: 0,  grade  10.  q u e s t i o n . The mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by  different  3,  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u r v e y were a n a l y z e d  displayed  Undecided  i n grade  within  .05)  from t h a t  the 1,  A one  way  statements  to  significantly  e x p e c t e d by  chance.  Table 3 Student  R e s p o n s e s by Grade - T e a c h e r Grade 3 Grade 7 Grade 1 0  Graph r e s p o n s e s  Behaviour  ES eg  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1. 68  .63  Grade 7  . 82  1.16  1.31  .82  Grade 10  Sfl  * A l l grades I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good a t sports. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.30  .97  Grade 7  .54  1.29  Grade 10  .91  1.08  * A l l grades  Sfi  R  8.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r t h e c l a s s by t h e way h e / s h e behaves. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1. 56  .70  Grade 7  .74  1.20  1.09  .86  Grade 10  Sfl  * G r a d e s 3 and 7 * G r a d e s 7 and 10 10.  I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .64  1.31  Grade 7  .48  1.28  Grade 10  .73  1.16  A l l g r a d e s no difference  significant  Sfl  60  12.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me s u p p o r t and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.18  Grade 7  . 52  1.22  G r a d e 10  .88  .90  . 98  Sfl  * G r a d e s 3 and 7 * G r a d e s 3 and 10 14.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h a s good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s . Mean  * G r a d e s 7 and 10  S.D.  SD  16.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher demonstrates s k i l l s well, Mean  S. D.  Grade 3  1.19  1. 11  Grade 7  . 68  1. 00  Grade 10  1.24  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and 18.  • 64  Sfi  7 10  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r e a t s a l lthe students in the c l a s s f a i r l y . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.28  1. 09  Grade 7  .26  1.35  Grade 10  .81  . 95 Sfl  * A l l grades 20.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r c a r e s a b o u t how I f e e l . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1. 01  1. 09  Grade 7  . 04  1.25  Grade 10  . 57  1. 01  * A l l grades  SR  62  22.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about physical education. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1. 64  .65  Grade 7  1. 03  1.07  G r a d e 10  1.49  .64  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and  7 10  Sfl  A  Sfl  ft  U  D  SD  D  SD  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l educa" t e a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o .  26.  Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .96  1.15  Grade 7  •17  1.26  Grade 10  .87  .99  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and  7 10  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r m o t i v a t e s me t o do my best. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.3 0  1. 01  Grade 7  .99  1. 01  Grade 10  . 84  * G r a d e s 3 and 10  U  58  .90 SR  SD  63  28.  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t from my p h y s i c a l education teacher are fair. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.03  1.22  Grade 7  .81  1.11  G r a d e 10  .77  .98  A l l g r a d e s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference 30.  sa  fi  Sfl  fi  U  D  SD  D  SD -  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l .  Grade 3  Mean  S. D.  1.15  1. 16  Grade 7  . 56  G r a d e 10  .92  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and  7 10  1. 25 • 89  U  64  32.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a p r o b l e m l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l .  * G r a d e s 3 and 10  Table  4 g i v e s a summary o f s t u d e n t  statements concerning teacher  r e s p o n s e s t o a l l 15  behaviour.  65  Table 4 Summary o f S t u d e n t Item  R e s p o n s e s by G r a d e - T e a c h e r  G r a d e Means 3 7 10  F-value  (p)  Behaviour  Significant Difference(s)  4  1.68  0.82  1.31  <.001  3-7,  3-10,  6  1.30  0.54  0.91  <. 001  3-7,  3-10,  7-10  8  1.56  0.74  1. 09  <. 001  3-7,  3-10,  7-10  10  0.64  0.48  0.73  .450  12  1.18  0.52  0.88  <.001  3-7,  3-10  14  0.93  0.42  1.18  <. 001  3-7,  7-10  16  1.19  0.68  1.24  <.001  3-7,  7/10  18  1.28  0.2 6  0.81  <. 001  3-7,  3-10,  7-10  20  1.01  0. 04  0. 57  <.001  3-7,  3-10,  7-10  22  1.64  1.03  1.49  <.001  3-7,  24  0.96  0.17  0.89  <.001  26  1.30  0. 99  0. 84  <.004  28  1. 03  0.81  0.77  .303  30  1.15  0.56  0.92  <• 001  3-7,  32  1.20  0. 44  1. 02  <. 001  3-7,  Tables difference  3 and 4 i n d i c a t e t h a t i n student  attitudes  .7-10  7-10 7-10 3-10  7-10 3-10  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  toward t e a c h e r  behaviour  within physical Five all  e d u c a t i o n i n grade  o f the statements three grades.  significant two.  7, and g r a d e 1 0 .  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  Seven o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s  difference  among  showed a  between one o f t h e g r a d e s  One o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s  between two g r a d e s .  3, g r a d e  and t h e o t h e r  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  O n l y two o f t h e f i f t e e n  statements  showed  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . An a n a l y s i s First,  of tables  student a t t i t u d e s  positive  3 and 4 i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e t r e n d s . toward  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r were  i n each o f t h e grades, w i t h a l l f i f t e e n  r e g i s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e mean s c o r e s . i n grade score  score  student  attitudes  3 were t h e most p o s i t i v e , r e g i s t e r i n g t h e h i g h e s t  i n 12 o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s .  i n grade  Second,  statements  Lastly,  student  attitudes  7 were t h e l e a s t p o s i t i v e , r e g i s t e r i n g t h e l o w e s t  i n 14 o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s .  67  4.3  Students  R e s p o n s e s by  7  Program  The  second  Grade  Content  question that this  study undertook  t o answer  was  whether: 2.  S t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward physical 7,  The  program c o n t e n t  education are d i f f e r e n t  and g r a d e  i n grade  within 3,  10.  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u r v e y were a n a l y z e d  displayed  (in tables  5 and  following  numerical values:  Undecided  0,  assessing  S t r o n g l y Agree  2, A g r e e  D i s a g r e e -1, S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e -2.  o f v a r i a n c e was  used  f o r each  o f t h e 14  determine  w h e t h e r t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was  different  ( probability  =  and  6) t o o b t a i n t h e answer f o r t h i s  q u e s t i o n . The mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by  analysis  grade  .05)  from t h a t  the 1,  A one  way  statements  to  significantly  e x p e c t e d by  chance.  Table 5 S t u d e n t R e s p o n s e s by Grade - Program  Grade 3 • Grade 7 W Grade 10 f£S3 Graph r e s p o n s e s i n p e r c e n t * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) that are taught. Mean Grade 3  1.57  Grade 7  .78  Grade  .91  10  * G r a d e s 3 and 7 * G r a d e s 3 and 10  sa  Content  69  In my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) we t a k e are w e l l organized.  Grade 3 Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  1.20  .94  . 69  Grade 10  1. 06  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and  7 10  .99 .72  Sfl  SD  Sfl  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I w o u l d l i k e t o a l w a y s be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.31  1.21  Grade 7  .84  1.16  G r a d e 10  .98  1. 08  * G r a d e s 3 and  7  11.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l s each year (e.g. throwing, hitting, serving).  Grade 3  S. D.  1.16  1. 07  Grade 7  . 62  1. 22  Grade 10  .46  1. 11  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 7 and 13.  Mean  7 10  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . soccer, s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . track & f i e l d , tennis, badminton). Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.11  1.30  Grade 7  1.00  1.20  Grade 10  .82  1.24  A l l g r a d e s : no difference  significant  15.  17.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s t o o much s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g . Mean  S. D.  Grade 3  .70  1. 32  Grade 7  -.12  1. 24  G r a d e 10  -.27  1. 20  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 3 and  7 10  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .87  1.37  Grade 7  .36  1.30  -.41  1.25  G r a d e 10 * A l l grades  19.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) s h o u l d s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . , how t o g e t along with other people) not competition ( i . e . , winning) Mean  S. D.  Grade 3  1.22  1.26  Grade 7  1. 04  1. 01  . 90  1. 08  Grade 10 A l l grades: difference 21.  no  significant  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r ( e . g . gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , g o l f ) . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  1.10  1. 08  Grade 7  .24  1.25  Grade 10  . 18  1.20  * G r a d e s 3 and 7 * G r a d e s 3 and 10  73  3.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s e s , more t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s l e v e l . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .75  1.31  Grade 7  .22  1.20  -.06  1.11  G r a d e 10  Sfl  * G r a d e s 3 and 7 * G r a d e s 3 and 10 5.  40  fi  U  D  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough t i m e t o p r a c t i c e t h e s k i l l s I am t a u g h t . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .36  1.47  Grade 7  . 04  1.29  G r a d e 10  .61  1. 01  * G r a d e s 7 and 10  Sfl  SD  74  27.  29.  I n my p h y s i c a l edu c a t i o n c l a s s e s , the l e v e l o f s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l i s f a i r . Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .66  1.17  Grade 7  .54  1.04  G r a d e 10  . 61  .97  A l l g r a d e s : no difference  significant  I n my p h y s i c a l edu c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . , my e f f o r t a n d b e h a v i o u r ) s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f my mark. Mean  S.D.  Grade 3  .98  1. 37  Grade 7  1. 00  1.20  G r a d e 10  1.35  1. 01  A l l g r a d e s : no difference  significant  Sfi  SD  75  31.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l d r i l l s each y e a r . Mean  S. D.  Grade 3  .78  1. 13  Grade 7  . 09  1. 13  Grade 10  .33  1. 04  * G r a d e s 3 and * G r a d e s 3 and  Table  46  7 10  6 g i v e s an summary o f s t u d e n t r e s p o n s e s t o a l l 14  statements p e r t a i n i n g  t o program  content.  7 6  Table 6 Summary o f Student Responses by Grade - Program Content Item  3  Grade Means 7 10  F-value (p)  Significant Difference  5  1.57  0.78  0.91  <.001  3-7,  3-10  7  1.20  0.69  1.06  <.001  3-7,  9  1.31  0.84  0.98  <.006  3-7  11  1.16  0.62  0.46  <.001  3-7,  13  1.11  1.00  0.82  .283  15  0.70 -0.12 -0.27  <.001  3-7,  3-10  17  0.87  0.36 -0.41  <.001  3-7,  3-10,  19  1.22  1.04  0.90  .152  21  1.10  0.24  0.18  <.001  3-7,  3-10  23  0.75  0.22 -0.06  <.001  3-7,  3-10  25  0.36  0.04  0.61  <.004  27  0.66  0.54  0.61  .814  29  0.98  1.00  1.35  .055  31  0.78  0.09  0.33  <.001  7-10  7-10  7-10  7-10  3-7,  3-10  77  T a b l e s 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a difference physical  i n s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e toward  e d u c a t i o n i n grade  the statements grades.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  Seven o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n one g r a d e statements Only  3, g r a d e  significant  program c o n t e n t 7, and g r a d e  10.  One o f  d i f f e r e n c e among a l l t h r e e  showed a  significant  and t h e o t h e r two.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  within  Two o f t h e  d i f f e r e n c e between two g r a d e s .  four o f t h e f o u r t e e n statements  showed no  significant  difference. An a n a l y s i s o f t a b l e s trends.  First,  positive  i n each  5 and 6 i d e n t i f i e d  s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s toward grade,  a t t i t u d e s toward three grades.  highest least  scores.  the trend evident.  grade  T h i s t r e n d was n o t a s d i s t i n c t  3 students'  Lastly,  of the  a s i t was w i t h  on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r , b u t i n t h e k e y  on p r o g r a m c o n t e n t g r a d e  positive.  Second,  statements  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were t h e most p o s i t i v e  the previous statements statements  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were  w i t h 11 o f t h e 14  r e g i s t e r i n g p o s i t i v e mean s c o r e s .  the following  3 students registered the  student attitudes  i n grade  7. were t h e  Once a g a i n t h i s t r e n d was n o t a s o b v i o u s a s  i n t h e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s t a t e m e n t s , b u t i t was  78  4 .4  Student Responses by Grade and Gender Teacher B e h a v i o u r  The t h i r d q u e s t i o n t h a t t h i s s t u d y undertook t o answer  was  whether: 3.  Male and female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r a t each grade l e v e l .  The responses t o t h e s t u d e n t s u r v e y s were a n a l y z e d and d i s p l a y e d (grade 3, i n t a b l e s 7 and 8; grade 7, i n t a b l e s 9 and 10; and grade 10, i n t a b l e s 11 and 12) t o o b t a i n t h e answer f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n .  The mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by  a s s e s s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y Agree 2, Agree 1, Undecided 0, D i s a g r e e - 1 , S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e -2.  A t-  t e s t was used f o r each o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e frequency o f response was s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( p r o b a b i l i t y = .05) from t h a t e x p e c t e d by chance.  different  79  Table 7 Grade 3 S t u d e n t  Responses - Teacher  Female  Behaviour  Male  Grade 3  Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 0.05  4.  level  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o learn.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.76  .48  Female  1.62  .71  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  Sfl  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good a t sports.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.41  .75  Female  1.23  1.10  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  2 -ESL.  fl  u  SD  5758  1615  Sfl  Bps  3  5  U  D  SD  8.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r sets a good example f o r the c l a s s by the way he/she behaves.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.54  .68  Female  1.58  .72  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 0.  difference  I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l education teacher take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n class.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D  .52  1.38 Female  .73  1.24 Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  2. I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l education t e a c h e r g i v e s me support and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean Grade 3  1.39 1.03  No s i g n i f i c a n t  55  S.D. .75 Female 1.10 Male difference  Sfl  81  14.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r has good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s .  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  .98  1.06 Female  .89  1.22 M a l e  No s i g n i f i c a n t 16.  difference  SD  Sfl  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r demonstrates s k i l l s w e l l  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.45  .76  1.00  Female  1.28 M a l e  * Significant difference 18.  3941  SR  62  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher treats a l lthe students in the class f a i r l y .  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.25  1.01 Female  1.30  1.14 M a l e  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  SD  1 0  SR  5  »5 SD  20.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r c a r e s a b o u t how I f e e l . Mean Grade 3  1.24 .83  S.D. .85 F e m a l e 1.21 M a l e  * Significant difference 22.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about physical education. Mean Grade 3  1.69  .65 F e m a l e  1.60  .65 M a l e  No s i g n i f i c a n t 24.  S.D.  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o . Mean Grade 3  1.10 .85  No s i g n i f i c a n t  S.D. .97 Feamle 1.25 M a l e difference  26.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r m o t i v a t e s me t o do my best. Mean Grade 3  1.45 1.20  S.D. .90 Female 1.06 M a l e  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 28.  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t f r o m my physical education teacher are fair.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1-18  1.21 Female  .91  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do something w e l l , Kean Grade 3  1.39 .97  5 9  1.22 M a l e  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 30.  3fl  SR  57  S.D. .80 Female 1.35 M a l e  * Significant difference  SR  8 4  32.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a problem l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l . Mean Grade 3  1.40 1.05  No s i g n i f i c a n t  S.D.  27 27  .89 Female 1.12 Male difference  SR  Table 8 g i v e s a summary o f grade 3 s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s 15 statements  concerning teacher  behaviour.  to a l l  85  Table 8 Summary  o f Grade 3 Responses - T e a c h e r B e h a v i o u r  :  :  :  Gender  2 - Tail  t-test  Female  Male  (p)  4  1.76  1.62  0.188  6  1.41  1.23  0.199  8  1.54  1.58  0.646  10  0.52  0.73  0.492  12  1.39  1.03  0.075  14  0.98  0.89  0.571  16  1.45  1.00  0.011 *  18  1.25  1.30  0.929  20  1.24  0.83  0.030 *  22  1.69  1.60  0.657  24  1.10  0.85  0.261  26  1.45  1.20  0.130  28  1.18  0.91  0.463  30  1.39  0.97  0.040 *  32  1.40  1.05  0.060  * p < .05  :  Item  86  T a b l e s 7 a n d 8 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between male and female a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d behaviour w i t h i n p h y s i c a l education. f i f t e e n statements males and f e m a l e s .  teacher  Only t h r e e o f t h e  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I n twelve of the statements  between  t h e r e was no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between males and f e m a l e s . An a n a l y s i s o f t a b l e s 7 a n d 8 i d e n t i f i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g trends.  First,  b o t h f e m a l e and m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d  b e h a v i o u r w e r e p o s i t i v e , w i t h a l l 15 s t a t e m e n t s positive score.  teacher  registering a  S e c o n d , f e m a l e s d i s p l a y e d a more p o s i t i v e  a t t i t u d e than males toward  teacher behaviour, with  s c o r i n g h i g h e r on 12 o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s .  females  F i n a l l y , males d i d  n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d a s much s u p p o r t o r a t t e n t i o n a s d i d females, which  resulted  two o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s .  i n the s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n  87  Table 9 Grade 7 S t u d e n t s '  Responses - Teacher  Female Grade 7  Behaviour  . Male  —  Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .80  1.10  Female  .84  1.21  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  42 1 4  SO  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good at sports.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .60  1.27  .49  1.30  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  Sfl  R  U  D  SD  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r t h e c l a s s by t h e way h e / s h e behaves.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .92  1.07  Female  .58  1.28  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take part i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean Grade 7  S.D  .77  1.10  Female  .23  1.37  Male  * Significant difference I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me s u p p o r t and encouragement i n c l a s s .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .75  1.02  Female  .31  1.34  Male  * Significant difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r has good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .57  1.32  Female  .29  1.35  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher demonstrates s k i l l s well.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .80  1.04  .56  .95  No s i g n i f i c a n t  Female Male  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r e a t s a l lthe students in the class f a i r l y .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .59  1.23  Female  1.37  Male  -.03  * Significant difference  20.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r c a r e s a b o u t how I f e e l .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .38  1.18  Female  -.26  1.22  Male  * Significant difference 22.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about physical education. Mean  S.D.  Grade 7 1.14  1.07  Female  .93  1.07  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 24.  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .43  1.24  Female  -.05  1.24  Male  * Significant difference  26.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r m o t i v a t e s me t o do my best. Mean  S.D.  Grade 7 1.14  .82  .85  1.13  Female Male  * Significant difference 28.  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t f r o m my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r are f a i r .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .77  1.08  Female  .85  1.14  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 30.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do s o m e t h i n g w e l l .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .75  1.09  Female  .40  1,3 5  Male  * Significant difference  92  32.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a p r o b l e m l e a r n i n g a new skill.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .60  1.13  Female  .29  1.23  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  Table 15  difference  Sfl  fl  10 g i v e s a summary o f g r a d e 7 s t u d e n t s '  statements  pertaining  t o teacher  behaviour.  U  responses  D  SD  toa l l  Table Summary Item  10  o f Grade 7 Responses - T e a c h e r B e h a v i o u r  Gender Female Male  2 -. T a i l  t-test  4  0.80  0.84  0.817  6  0.60  0.49  0.588  8  0.92  0.58  0.080  10  0.77  0.23  0.016 *  12  0.75  0.23  0.029 *  14  0.57  0.29  0.315  16  0.80  1.04  0.120  18  0.59  -.03  0.008 **  20  0.38  -.26  0.001 **  22  1.14  0.93  0.326  24  0.43  -.05  0.021 *  26  1.14  0.85  0.037 *  28  0.77  0.85  0.939  30  0.75  0.40  0.037 *  32  0.60  0.29  0.108  * p < .05  ** p < .01  94  T a b l e s 9 and difference  10  between m a l e and  behaviour within statements and  indicate that  physical  indicated  females.  While  between m a l e s and  t h e r e was  female  An  a significant difference t h e r e was  females  of tables  First,  both  no  i n eight  9 and  of the statements,  females s c o r i n g  Finally, and  h i g h e r on  males d i d not f e e l  attention  10  i d e n t i f i e d the  Second,  13  that  following  toward  females d i s p l a y e d  a  teacher behaviour, statements.  they received resulted  a s much s u p p o r t  i n three  r e c e i v i n g n e g a t i v e s c o r e s by m a l e s and s i x  statements  showing  males.  teacher  statements  o f t h e 15  as d i d f e m a l e s , w h i c h  was  does e x i s t .  statements  and  the  a significant difference  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t h a n m a l e s t o w a r d with  fifteen  between m a l e s  f e m a l e and m a l e a t t i t u d e s  a positive score.  teacher  significant difference  b e h a v i o u r were p o s i t i v e , w i t h 12 o f t h e 15 registering  toward  Seven o f t h e  enough t o s u g g e s t a d i f f e r e n c e  analysis  trends.  attitudes  education.  number o f s t a t e m e n t s d i s p l a y i n g substantial  a significant  a significant difference  between  females  Table Grade 10 S t u d e n t s '  11  Responses - Teacher  Female  Behaviour  Male  Grade 10 Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t t h e 0.05  level  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o learn.  G r a d e 10  Mean  S.D.  1.26  .92  Female  1. 34  .71  Male Sfl  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good at sports.  G r a d e 10  Mean  S.D.  .69  1.09  Female  1.10  1.03  Male  * Significant difference  Sfl  fl  U  D  96  8.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r t h e c l a s s by t h e way h e / s h e behaves. Mean G r a d e 10  S.D.  .88  .90  Female  1.27  .79  Male  * Significant difference 10.  SD  Sfl  SD  I b e l i e v e i t i s important that my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take part i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s .  G r a d e 10  Mean  S.D  .97  1.10  Female  .53  1.17  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  12.  Sfl  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me s u p p o r t and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean G r a d e 10  .90 .86  No s i g n i f i c a n t  4950  S.D. .86 .94 difference  Sfl  SD  97  14.  I b e l i e v e my physical'education t e a c h e r h a s good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s . Mean Grade 10  1.20 1.16  No s i g n i f i c a n t 16.  difference  Sfl  fi  SD  U  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher demonstrates s k i l l s well. Mean G r a d e 10  1.33 •1.16  No s i g n i f i c a n t 18.  difference  SD  Sfl  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r e a t s a l l the students in the c l a s s f a i r l y . Mean Grade 10  S . D.  . 66  . 87  .94  1. 00  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  15 3  ffli  SR  SD  98  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r c a r e s a b o u t how I f e e l .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .50  1.02  .63  .99  No s i g n i f i c a n t  Female Male S8  difference  SD  fl  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about physical education.  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  1.53  .62  1.46  . 65  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference 54  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .73  1. 04  .99  .92  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  44||  27  21fl33 Female  H i  20  | 9  ? «  53  Male Sfl  SD  26.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r m o t i v a t e s me t o do my best.  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .68  .99  Female  .97  .79  Male Sfl  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  28.  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t f r o m my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r are f a i r . Mean Grade 10  5?  151  S.D.  .77  .94  .77  1.02  Female Male SR  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 30.  R  R  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do s o m e t h i n g w e l l .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .90  .90  Female  .94  .88  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  53  146  23.27  J555  Sfl  100  32.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a p r o b l e m l e a r n i n g a new skill.  Grade 10  No s i g n i f i c a n t Table 15  difference  12 g i v e s a summary o f g r a d e 10 s t u d e n t  statements  concerning  teacher  behaviour.  responses  toa l l  Table  12  Summary o f Grade 10 R e s p o n s e s - T e a c h e r B e h a v i o u r  Item  Gender Female Male  2 - Tail  t-test (P)  4  1.26 .  1.34  0.495  6  0.69  1.10  0.043 *  8  0.88  1.27  0.026 *  10  0.97  0.53  0.064  12  0.90  0.86  0.817  14  1.20  1.16  0.965  16  1.33  1.16  0.213  18  0.66  0.94  0.153  20  0.50  0.63  0.562  22  1.53  1.46  0.959  24  0.73  0.99  0.113  26  0.68  0.97  0.113  28  0.77  0.77  0.629  30  0.90  0.94  0.590  32  1.13  0.93  0.483  * p < .05  102  Tables  11 and  significant  12  indicate that  difference  b e t w e e n male and  toward t e a c h e r behaviour of  the  fifteen  t h e r e was and  no  within  statements  b e t w e e n m a l e s and  t h e r e was  not  female  physical  a  attitudes  education.  Only  two  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  females,  while  i n t h i r t e e n of the  significant difference  displayed  statements  between m a l e s  females. An  analysis  trends:  First,  behaviour  of tables both  11 and  female  and  12  male a t t i t u d e s  were p o s i t i v e , w i t h a l l f i f t e e n  registering  a p o s i t i v e score.  fifteen  w i t h one  toward  being a t i e .  teacher  statements  females  r e g i s t e r i n g a h i g h e r s c o r e on  statements,  following  Second, males e x h i b i t e d  s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t h a n behaviour,  i d e n t i f i e d the  toward  eight  out  a  teacher of  the  103  4.5  S t u d e n t s ' Responses Program  The  fourth question t h i s  by Grade  and  Gender  Content  s t u d y u n d e r t o o k t o answer  was  whether: 4.  Male  and  female a t t i t u d e s toward program  within physical  education are d i f f e r e n t  other a t each grade  The  this  (grade 3 i n t a b l e s  16; g r a d e 10 i n t a b l e s question.  Undecided  14; g r a d e 7 i n t a b l e s  18)  S t r o n g l y Agree  2, A g r e e  0, D i s a g r e e -1, S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e -2.  significantly different  from t h a t e x p e c t e d by  chance.  the  1,  A t-test  f o r e a c h o f t h e 14 s t a t e m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r  .05)  15  t o o b t a i n t h e answer f o r  The mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by a s s e s s i n g  f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was =  each  level.  13 and  17 and  following numerical values:  used  from  r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s t u d e n t s ' s u r v e y s were a n a l y z e d and  displayed and  content  was  the  (probability  .104  , T a b l e 13 Grade 3 S t u d e n t s  7  R e s p o n s e s - Program  Female  Content  Male  Grade 3 Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l  5.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t a r e t a u g h t .  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.78  .51  Female  1.42  .85  Male  * Significant  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) we t a k e a r e w e l l o r g a n i z e d Mean  S.D.  G r a d e 3 1. 35  .89  1.09  .97  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  SR  SD  57  sa  SD  105  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o a l w a y s be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I t a k e .  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.29  1.21  Female  1.33  1.21  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 11.  Mean  S.D.  1.21  1.04  Female  1.12  1.09  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  13.  14  Sfl  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l s each y e a r ( e . g . t h r o w i n g , hitting, serving).  Grade 3  10 9  SD  5149  SD  SR  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton).  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  .08  1.3 6  Female  1.35  1.20  Male  * Significant  difference  R  U  D  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s t o o much s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g .  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  .88  1.27  Female  .58  1.34  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  .82  1.32  Female  .91  1.41  Male  55  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s cooperation ( i . e . how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r people) not competition ( i . e . winning).  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.63  .75  .91  1.45  * Significant  difference  74  Female Male  Sfl  107  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r (e.g. g y m n a s t i c s , v o l l e y b a l l , golf) . Mean Grade 3  S. D.  25 2?  .96  1. 12  Female  is:  1.20  1. 03  Male  i ml Sfl  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  22 -14 6 5  4 3  JBS3U  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s level.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  . 88  1.30  Female  . 65  1.31  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  Sfl  SD  Sfl  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough t i m e t o p r a c t i c e t h e s k i l l s i am taught.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  . 04  1.38  .59  1.49  * Significant  difference  27.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n classes, the l e v e l of s k i l l n e c e s s a r y t o do w e l l i s f a i r .  Grade 3  Mean  S D.  . 54  1.15  Female  .74  1.17  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 29.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and b e h a v i o u r ) s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f my mark.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  1.31  1.11  Female  .74  1.49  Male  * Significant 31.  Sfl  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year.  Grade 3  Mean  S.D.  .78  1. 05  Female  .79  1.19  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  Table  Sfl  difference  difference  Sfl  14 g i v e s a summary o f g r a d e 3 s t u d e n t s '  14 s t a t e m e n t s  pertaining  t o program  content.  respon  T a b l e 14 Summary  Item  o f Grade 3 Responses - Program  Gender Female Male  2 - Tail (p)  t-test  5  1.78  1.42  0.018 *  7  1.35  1.09  0.260  9  1.29  1.33  0.833  11  1.21  1.12  0.939  13  0.08  1.35  0.028 *  15  0.88  0.58  0.239  17  0.82  0.91  0.825  19  1.63  0.91  0.002 **  21  0.96  1.20  0.312  23  0.88  0.65  0.377  25  0.04  0.59  0.044 *  27  0.54  0.74  0.247  29  1.31  0.74  0.037 *  31  0.78  0.79  0.783  * p < .05  **p<.01  Content  110  Tables  13  and  14  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e and content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l statements females.  female  Only  In nine of the statements,  a n a l y s i s o f t a b l e s 13  trends:  First,  both  and  significant  five  program  of the  fourteen  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between m a l e s and An  a  a t t i t u d e s toward  education.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  not  14  females', and  no  significant  females.  identified  the f o l l o w i n g  males' a t t i t u d e s  with  registering  Second, males i n d i c a t e d  score.  g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r team games and females  indicated  cooperation. f o r having  of the  females  their attitude  statements  competition,  a preference for a c t i v i t i e s  Finally,  14  toward  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were p o s i t i v e , a positive  12  and  a  while  stressing  showed more s u p p o r t  i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e i r  than  males  mark.  Ill  Table Grade 7 S t u d e n t s '  15  R e s p o n s e s - Program  Female  Content  Male  Grade 7 Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l  5.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t a r e t a u g h t . Mean  Grade 7  7.  S.D.  .80  .96  .75  1.20  No s i g n i f i c a n t  48 47  Female Male  Sfl  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) we t a k e a r e w e l l o r g a n i z e d .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .72  .94  .67  1. 04  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  fl  U  SD  49 51  Female Male  Sfl  SD  9.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o a l w a y s be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I t a k e .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .56  1.27  Female  1.08  1.00  Male  * Significant 11.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l s each y e a r ( e . g . t h r o w i n g , hitting, serving).  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .75  1.18  Female  .51  1.15  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 13.  difference  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean  S.D.  1.05  1.16  Female  .96  1.24  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  Grade 7  15.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s t o o much s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g .  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  -.19  1.24  Female  -.05  1.25  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 17.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .37  1.25  Female  .35  1.35  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 19.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s cooperation ( i . e . how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r people) not competition ( i . e . winning).  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  1.32  .88  .79  1.05  * Significant  difference  Female Male  21.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , golf).  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  • .15  1.27  Female  .32  1.23  Male Sfl  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 23.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s level.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .11  1. 08  Female  .32  1.29  Male  22  Sfl  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 25.  1514  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough t i m e t o p r a c t i c e t h e s k i l l s I am taught.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .28  1.34  Female  -.18  1.20  Male  * Significant  difference  22  Sfl  7.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n classes, the l e v e l of s k i l l n e c e s s a r y t o do w e l l i s f a i r . Mean  S D.  .56  1.04  Female  .53  1.04  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  Grade 7  9.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and b e h a v i o u r ) s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f my mark.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  1.32  .98  .71  1.31  * Significant 1.  Female Male  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l d r i l l s each year.  Grade 7  Mean  S.D.  .08  1.05  Female  .11  1.20  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  116  Table  16 g i v e s a summary o f g r a d e 7 s t u d e n t s ' r e s p o n s e s t o a l l  14 s t a t e m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g p r o g r a m  content.  T a b l e 16 Summary o f Grade 7 R e s p o n s e s - Program C o n t e n t Item  Gende Female Mr ale  2 - Tail t-test (P)  5  0.80  0.75  0,916  7  0.72  0. 67  0.724  9  0. 56  1. 08  0. 006 **  11  0.75  0.51  0.258  13  1.05  0. 96  0. 954  15  -.19  -.05  0.539  17  0.37  0.35  0.988  19  1.32  0. 79  0. 002 **  21  0.15  0. 32  0. 696  23  0.11  0.32  0.238  25  0.28  -.18  0.030 *  27  0.56  0.53  0.478  29  1.32  0.71  0. 002 **  31  0.08  0.11  0.817  * p < . 05  ** p < .01  117  T a b l e s 15. and  16  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e and content w i t h i n p h y s i c a l statements females.  female  An  a n a l y s i s of tables  trends:  Only  First,  both  significant program  four of the  fourteen  d i f f e r e n c e between males  In ten of the statements  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s and  a  a t t i t u d e s toward  education.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  not  t h e r e was  no  significant  females.  15 and  16  f e m a l e s ' and  identified  the  following  males' a t t i t u d e s  with  registering  Second, males i n d i c a t e d  score.  12  g r e a t e r d e s i r e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s females,  although  for activities competition.  stressing Finally,  f o r having t h e i r grade.  females  14  statements a  they take than d i d  did indicate a greater preference c o o p e r a t i o n as o p p o s e d  females  attitude  of the  toward  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were p o s i t i v e , a positive  and  to  showed more s u p p o r t t h a n  i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f t h e i r  males  letter  Table G r a d e 10 S t u d e n t s '  17  R e s p o n s e s - Program  Content  Male  Female Grade 10 Graph r e s p o n s e s  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 l e v e l  5.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t a r e t a u g h t .  49 49  Mean G r a d e 10  .93 .89  No s i g n i f i c a n t 7.  difference  Sfl  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) we t a k e a r e w e l l o r g a n i z e d .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  1.10  . 67  1.03  .76  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  Sfl  R  U  D  9.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o always be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I t a k e . Mean  S.D.  .89  1.10  Female  1.06  1.05  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  Grade 10  11.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l s each y e a r (e.g. t h r o w i n g , hitting, serving). Mean  G r a d e 10  .55  1.12  Female  .39  1.10  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t 13.  S.D.  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean  S.D.  .66  1.28  Female  .97  1.19  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  G r a d e 10  15.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s t o o much s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  -.39  1.23  Female  -.16  1.17  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 17.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark.  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  -.59  1.21  Female  -.26  1.26  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 19.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should s t r e s s cooperation ( i . e . how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r people) not competition ( i . e . winning).  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .92  1.08  Female  .88  1.08  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  21.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , golf) .  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .30  1.23  Female  .09  1.17  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 23.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s level.  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  -.11  1.17  Femaie  -.01  1.17  Male  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 25.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n enough t i m e t o p r a c t i c e t h e s k i l l s I am taught.  Grade 10  Mean  S.D.  .46  1.06  .74  .94  * Significant  difference  Female Male  122  Table all  14  18  g i v e s a summary o f g r a d e 10  statements  students' responses  p e r t a i n i n g t o program  content.  to  Table  18  Summary o f G r a d e 10 R e s p o n s e s - P r o g r a m  Item  Gender Female Male  2 - Tail t-test (p)  5  0.93  0.89  0.982  7  1.10  1.03  0.574  9  0.89  1.06  0.145  11  0.55  0.39  0.365  13  0.66  0.97  0.12 6  15  -.39  -.16  0.220  17  -.59  -.26  0.099  19  0.92  0.88  0.980  21  0.30  0.09  0.208  23  -.11  -.01  0.711  25  0.46  0.74  0.025 *  27  0.31  0.87  0.001 **  29  1.38  1.31  0.858  31  0.31  0.36  0.680  * p < . 05  ** p < .01  Content  124  Tables  17 and  18  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e and content within physical statements females.  education.  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  O n l y two  trends:  First,  17  both males'  and and  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s  18  no  identified  the  significant  following  females' a t t i t u d e s w i t h 10 o f t h e 14  registering  Second,  score.  and  females.  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were p o s i t i v e , a positive  program  of the fourteen  I n t w e l v e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h e r e was  analysis of tables  significant  female a t t i t u d e s toward  d i f f e r e n c e d i s p l a y e d between m a l e s and An  not a  toward  statements  males i n d i c a t e d  to a  g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n f e m a l e s t h a t t h a t t h e y were g i v e n enough time t o p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s indicated skill  t h e y were t a u g h t .  t o a g r e a t e r degree  n e c e s s a r y t o do w e l l was  than females t h a t fair.  Finally,  males  the l e v e l  of  125  4.6  Student  Responses t o Teacher  by P r e f e r e n c e t o w a r d  The  fifth  question t h i s  Physical  study undertook  Behaviour Education Classes  t o answer  was  whether: 5.  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who  like  c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t behaviour  from  responses  displayed question.  a t t i t u d e s toward  teacher  education  do  not  19 and  20)  used  0,  f o r each  mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by  a s s e s s i n g the  D i s a g r e e -1, S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e -2. o f t h e 15 s t a t e m e n t s  f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e was =  .05)  from t h a t  t o determine  chance.  1,  A t-test whether  significantly different  e x p e c t e d by  and  t o o b t a i n t h e answer f o r t h i s  f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y A g r e e 2, A g r e e Undecided  like  classes.  t o s t u d e n t s ' s u r v e y s were a n a l y z e d  (in tables The  education  t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  their physical The  their physical  was  the  (probability  Table  19  Student Responses t o Teacher by  P r e f e r e n c e toward P h y s i c a l  Behaviour Education  Classes  B  + Like  P.E.  - Don't l i k e  classes P.E.  classes  Graph r e s p o n s e s i n p e r c e n t * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 level I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we are t o l e a r n . Mean  +  S.D.  1.43  .78  .31  .78  Significant  56  difference  Sfl  R  U  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher i s understanding t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good at sports. Mean +  S.D.  1.08  1.07  .17  1.3 4  Significant  difference  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r t h e c l a s s by t h e way h e / s h e behaves. Mean +  S.D.  1.25  .91  .31  1.27  Significant  difference  I b e l i e v e i t i s important t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r take part i n the a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n c l a s s . Mean +  S.D.  .55  1.26  .92  1.26  significant  42  difference  Sfl  49  128  12.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me s u p p o r t and encouragement i n c l a s s . Mean +  S.D.  1.04  .98  .00  1.15  * Significant difference 14.  A  U  D  SD  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h a s good c o n t r o l o v e r t h e s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s .  +  Mean  S.D.  .97  1.07  .34  1.53  * Significant difference 16.  Sfl  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher demonstrates s k i l l s well. Mean  S.D.  1.12  .93  .8.1  SD  Sfl  4544  . 88  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  Sfl  SD  18.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n teacher t r e a t s a l l the students in the class f a i r l y . Mean  S.D.  .95  1.10  -.28  1.26  * Significant difference 20.  SR  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r c a r e s a b o u t how I f e e l . Mean  S.D.  .73  1.08  -.69  1.17  * Significant difference 22.  36  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about physical education.  +  Mean  S.D.  1.49  .74  . 94  26  Sfl  59  1. 05  * Significant difference  Sfl  130  24.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s easy t o t a l k t o .  +  Mean  S.D.  .82  1.11  -.17  1.17  42  * Significant difference 26.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r m o t i v a t e s me t o do my best.  +  Mean  S.D.  1.12  .93  .78  1.16  * Significant difference 28.  Sfl  ft  U  0  SD  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t from my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r are f a i r .  +  Mean  S.D.  .97  1.08  .42  1.19  * Significant difference  Sfl  ft  U  D  SD  131  30.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s me c r e d i t when I do s o m e t h i n g w e l l . Mean  S.D.  .98  1. 07  .44  1.21 Sfl  * Significant difference 32.  fl  U  SD  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a p r o b l e m l e a r n i n g a new  * Significant difference  Table  2 0 g i v e s a summary o f t h e r e s p o n s e s  indicated  that  t h o s e who  i n d i c a t e d they d i d not l i k e  classses  they  liked  their physical  t o a l l 15 s t a t e m e n t s  of students education  classes.and  their physical  concerning  teacher  who  education  behaviour.  Table Summary o f S t u d e n t  20  Responses t o Teacher  Behaviour  by P r e f e r e n c e toward  Education  clases  Item positive  negative  Physical  2 -Tail t-test (p)  4  1.43  0.31  0.001 **  6  1.08  0.17  0.001 **  8  1.25  0.31  0.001 **  10  0.55  0.92  0.089  12  1.04  0.00  0.001 **  14  0.97  0.34  0.002 **  16  1.12  0.81  0.098  18  0.95  -.28  0.001 **  20  0.73  -.69  0.001 **  22  1.49  0.94  0.001 **  24  0.82  -.17  0.001 **  26  1.12  0.78  0.038  28  0.97  0.42  0.016 *  30  0.98  0.44  0.013 *  32  1.00  0.37  0.001 **  * p < . 05  ** p < .01  133  Tables  19 and 20 i n d i c a t e t h a t  difference physical  i n attitudes  education classes. significant  and t h o s e who Thirteen  difference  education classes  physical  education classes.  An a n a l y s i s  difference of tables  liked  of the f i f t e e n  Only  education classes  that  i t was  Finally,  their  the  there  groups.  following  they l i k e d  indicated  their  their  their  attitude that  Second,  well.  their  physical  they  both  physical  i n the a c t i v i t i e s i n class.  both groups agreed t h a t  teacher demonstrated s k i l l s  showed  d i d not l i k e  education classes.  important that  education teacher take part  liked  a more p o s i t i v e  t o w a r d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r t h a n s t u d e n t s who  groups agreed t h a t  physical  between t h e two  indicated  displayed  physical  physical  statements  19 and 20 i d e n t i f i e d  physical  not l i k e t h e i r  their  i n two s t a t e m e n t s was  displayed  F i r s t , s t u d e n t s who  within  d i d not l i k e t h e i r  and s t u d e n t s who  trends:  did  significant  between s t u d e n t s who  physical  no s i g n i f i c a n t  a  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  e d u c a t i o n between s t u d e n t s who  education classes  a  t h e r e was  education  134  4.7  Student by  The  sixth  R e s p o n s e s t o Program  Content  Preference toward P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s  question t h i s  s t u d y u n d e r t o o k t o answer  was  whether: 6.  T h o s e s t u d e n t s who  like  c l a s s e s have d i f f e r e n t content physical  The  responses  displayed  The  those  education  education  a t t i t u d e s toward  program  s t u d e n t s who  do  and  22)  used  Disagree  .05)  of response  from  -1, 14  Strongly Disagree  statements  was  t h a t expected  and  assessing the Agree  -2.  t o determine  chance.  1,  A t-test whether  significantly different by  their  t o o b t a i n t h e answer f o r t h i s  mean s c o r e s were d e r i v e d by  f o r each of the  frequency =  0,  like  classes.  f o l l o w i n g n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s : S t r o n g l y A g r e e 2, Undecided  not  t o s t u d e n t s ' s u r v e y s were a n a l y z e d  ( T a b l e s 21  question.  from  their physical  was  the  (probability  135  Table Student by  21  R e s p o n s e s t o Program  P r e f e r e n c e toward P h y s i c a l  Content Education  Classes  •f-  + Like  E3  - Don't l i k e  P.E.  classes P.E.  Graph responses  classes  i n percent  * denotes a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t 0.05 level  5.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I enjoy the a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t a r e t a u g h t . Mean  +  45  S.D.  1.27  .82  -.19  1.10  * Significant difference  SR  41 •31  R  u  D  SD  136  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) we t a k e a r e w e l l o r g a n i z e d . Mean  S.D.  1.06  .89  .61  .86 SD  Sfl  * Significant  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I would l i k e t o a l w a y s be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I t a k e . Mean  S.D.  1.02  1.16  1.08  1.32  No s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  11.  Sfl  fi  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l s each y e a r (e.g. throwing, hitting, serving).  +  Mean  S.D.  .87  1.08  .00  1.35  * Significant  difference  Sfl  fl  U  D  SD  3.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . s o c c e r , S o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). Mean  S.D.  1. 08  1.21  .50  1.50  * Significant 5.  difference  54  I  33  Sfl  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , t h e r e i s t o o much s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g . Mean  S.D.  . 10  1.32  21  -.14  114  1.18  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  Sfl  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s l e v e l s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark.  +  Mean  S.D.  .29  1.42  . 08  1.48  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  26  Sfl  22  1 3 3  19.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) should stress cooperation ( i . how t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o t h e r people) not competition ( i . e . winning). Mean  S.D.  1.08  1. 07  .67  1.31  Significant 20.  difference  fl  U  D  SD  Sfl  fl  U  D  SD  Sfl  fl  U  D  SD  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r (e.g. gymnastics, v o l l e y b a l l , golf) .  +  Mean  S.D.  .57  1.21  .00  1.31  * Significant 23.  Sfl  difference  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more t i m e s h o u l d be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s level. Mean  S.D.  .30  1.25  .06  1. 37  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  139  25.  In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , I am given enough time to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s I am taught. Mean  S.D.  .48  1.27  -.03  1.14  * Significant difference 27.  28  23  II M i a mm  Sfl  141  mm R  mm U  mm  mm  D  SD  D  SD  In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , the l e v e l o f s k i l l necessary t o do w e l l i s f a i r .  +  Mean  S.D.  .66  1.05  .20  1.04  * Significant difference 29.  37 36  Sfl  fi  U  In my p h y s i c a l education c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . my e f f o r t and behaviour) should be i n c l u d e d as p a r t of my mark.  +  Mean  S.D.  1.24  1.14  .67  1.37  * Significant difference  Sfl  SD  140  31.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new s k i l l d r i l l s each y e a r .  +  Mean  S.D.  .51  1. 08  . 00  1.25  * Significant difference  5 0  "  u  u  b U  T a b l e 22 g i v e s a summary o f t h e responses o f s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and t h o s e who i n d i c a t e d t h e y d i d n o t l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l  education  c l a s s e s f o r a l l 14 statements p e r t a i n i n g t o program c o n t e n t .  Table Summary  of Student  R e s p o n s e s t o Program  C o n t e n t by P r e f e r e n c e t o w a r d Education  22  Physical  Classes  Item  2 -Tail t-test (p)  positive  negative  5  1.27  -.19  0.001 **  7  1.06  0.61  0.003 **  9  1.02  1.08  0.635  11  0.87  0.00  0.001 **  13  1.08  0.50  0.011 *  15  0.10  -.14  0.302  17  0.29  0.08  0.374  19  1.08  0.67  0.005  21  0.57  0.00  0.008 **  23  0.30  0.06  0.302  25  0.48  -.03  0.013 *  27  0.66  0.20  0.030 *  29  1.24  0.67  0.027 *  31  0.51  0.00  0.012 *  * p < .05  ** p < .01  Tables  21  difference  and  22  indicate that  and  classes.  of the  d i d not  analysis  d i d not  of tables  21  significant  physical  education classes  d i d not  like their  both  g r o u p s wanted t o be  much s t r e s s  both  their  physical  by  education  education  significant  physical  physical  identified that  education  education  no  significant  the  they  following liked  a more p o s i t i v e  s t u d e n t s who  their  attitude  indicated  education classes.  that  Second,  a b l e t o choose the a c t i v i t i e s  groups s i g n i f i e d t h a t  on w i n n i n g  physical  groups.  indicated  those  physical  t h e r e was  displayed  toward program c o n t e n t than they  22  physical  show a  like their  and  F i r s t , s t u d e n t s who  Finally,  liked  between t h e two  trends.  4.8  like their  of the statements  displayed  their  fourteen statements  t h o s e who  In four  difference  take.  liked  between s t u d e n t s who  and  classes.  An  t h o s e who  Ten  difference classes  a  i n a t t i t u d e toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  e d u c a t i o n between s t u d e n t s who classes  t h e r e was  t h e r e was  they  not  too  students.  Summary Tables  difference within  3 and  4 showed t h a t  t h e r e was  i n students' attitudes  physical  However, s t u d e n t  education  a  significant  toward t e a c h e r  i n g r a d e 3,  g r a d e 7,  behaviour  and  grade  a t t i t u d e s were p o s i t i v e i n e a c h g r a d e ,  10. with  grade 3 students students  registering  registering  t h a t t h e r e was  the  and  lowest  a significant  toward program c o n t e n t g r a d e 7,  t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s and  However, s t u d e n t  r e g i s t e r i n g t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s and  t h e r e was and  not  lowest  5 and  scores.  a significant  i n grade  with grade 3 grade 7  8 showed t h a t  d i f f e r e n c e between g r a d e 3 m a l e However,  a positive  signified  t h a t they  attention  from t h e i r t e a c h e r .  f e m a l e and  behaviour registered they  f e m a l e and  were p o s i t i v e .  I n t a b l e s 11  Once a g a i n , however,  and  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  behaviour.  male a t t i t u d e s toward  r e c e i v e enough s u p p o r t  no  12,  teacher  females  males i n d i c a t e d  o r a t t e n t i o n from  g r a d e 10  significant  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour.  10  d i f f e r e n c e between g r a d e 7  h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n m a l e s , and  d i d not  teacher.  both  or  I n c o n t r a s t , t a b l e s 9 and  male a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t e a c h e r  Nevertheless,  males  r e c e i v e enough s u p p o r t  a significant  both  score.  Females d i s p l a y e d h i g h e r s c o r e s than males w h i l e  showed t h a t t h e r e was  students  students  T a b l e s . 7 and  male a t t i t u d e s r e g i s t e r e d  d i d not  3,  a t t i t u d e s were o n c e  female a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour.  f e m a l e and  6 showed  difference i n students' attitudes  i n a l l three grades,  registering the  Tables  within p h y s i c a l education  g r a d e 10.  again p o s i t i v e  scores.  grade 7  females  and  that  their  males  difference in their  Here a g a i n ,  both  female  • 144 and m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d Males  positive.  r e g i s t e r e d h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n f e m a l e s , however,  broke with the trend 14,  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r were  t h e r e was  s e t i n grades  no s i g n i f i c a n t  difference  f e m a l e and male a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d Furthermore,  both  competition, while  a preference f o r a c t i v i t i e s  T a b l e s 15  and  significant  program c o n t e n t .  male a t t i t u d e s toward  f o r choosing the a c t i v i t i e s  7 m a l e and  female  Here a g a i n , b o t h  t h e y t o o k , and  same t i m e ,  f e m a l e s showed more s u p p o r t f o r h a v i n g  similarly  showed t h a t t h e r e was  between grade content.  as p a r t o f t h e i r mark.  10 male and  competition.  females  not a s i g n i f i c a n t  At  the  their  T a b l e s 17  female a t t i t u d e s toward  and  18  difference program  Once a g a i n , b o t h f e m a l e and male a t t i t u d e s  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were p o s i t i v e .  and  a greater  for activities  included  stressed  female  positive.  a g r e a t e r d e s i r e than  that  a greater  no  preference  attitude  program  stressing cooperation.  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were  N e v e r t h e l e s s , males i n d i c a t e d  3  females  showed t h a t t h e r e was  d i f f e r e n c e between g r a d e  a t t i t u d e s toward  and  program c o n t e n t .  indicated  likewise,  13  f o u n d between g r a d e  In a d d i t i o n , males i n d i c a t e d  f o r team games and  16,  In t a b l e s  f e m a l e and male a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d  c o n t e n t were p o s i t i v e . preference  3 and 7.  which  toward  However, m a l e s i n d i c a t e d  g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n f e m a l e s t h a t t h e y were g i v e n enough  to a time  145 to p r a c t i c e skill that  the s k i l l s  necessary  t h e y were t a u g h t  t o do w e l l  was  t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  who  liked  their  physical  who  d i d not l i k e t h e i r  fair.  physical  19 and 20 showed  and t h o s e  education classes  that  liked  physical  Students  who  education classes  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r s t u d e n t s who  indicated  education classes. important  that  that  physical  the a c t i v i t i e s i n c l a s s , physical tables  they  However, b o t h  their  between t h o s e  education classes physical content. physical  education classes Students  who  t h e r e was a  s t u d e n t s who  and t h o s e  in their  both  groups i n d i c a t e d  physical  that  a  those physical  that  i t was  that  their  well.  their  Finally,  physical  d i d not l i k e  attitudes  that  displayed  toward program c o n t e n t than those they d i d not l i k e t h e i r  displayed  significant  liked  s t u d e n t s who  indicated  education classes  indicated  education teacher take part i n  education teacher demonstrated s k i l l s  difference  in their  d i d not l i k e t h e i r groups agreed  students students  than  and b o t h g r o u p s a g r e e d  21 and 22 showed t h a t  the l e v e l of  between t h o s e  education classes  toward t e a c h e r behaviour. their  Tables  difference  attitudes they  and t h a t  they  toward  liked  program  their  a more p o s i t i v e  s t u d e n t s who  their  attitude  indicated  education classes.  that  However,  t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o  choose t h e a c t i v i t i e s they take.  Furthermore,  both  groups  146  signified  that  t h e r e was  not  too  much s t r e s s  on  winning.  147  Chapter 5  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS  5.1  Summary In t h i s  District  s t u d y , d a t a was o b t a i n e d from 386 D e l t a S c h o o l  s t u d e n t s i n o r d e r t o examine s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s  t o w a r d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r and p r o g r a m c o n t e n t w i t h i n education  i n g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e  10.  physical  T h i s d a t a was  used t o determine whether: 1. S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n physical  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t  i n grade  3, g r a d e 7,  and g r a d e 1 0 . 2. S t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p r o g r a m c o n t e n t w i t h i n physical  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t  i n grade  3, g r a d e 7,  and g r a d e 1 0 . 3. M a l e and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d within physical  teacher behaviour  education.were d i f f e r e n t  o t h e r a t each grade  from  each  level.  4. M a l e and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p r o g r a m c o n t e n t within physical  e d u c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t  o t h e r a t each grade  level.  from  each  148  5. Those s t u d e n t s who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s had d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward  teacher  b e h a v i o u r from t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e  their  physical education classes. 6 . Those s t u d e n t s who l i k e d t h e i r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s had d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s toward program c o n t e n t from t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l education classes.  The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e d on t h e a r e a o f s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y .  A  h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e r e v e a l e d t h a t a number o f s t u d i e s had been conducted  i n order t o assess student a t t i t u d e s  toward  p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t h a t depending on t h e purpose, a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u m e n t s had been u t i l i z e d .  Most  s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d some t y p e o f r a t i n g s c a l e , such as t h e L i k e r t r a t i n g scale, i n order t o assess student a t t i t u d e s .  The  l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s demonstrated t h a t an a c c u r a t e measurement o f s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g a r a t i n g s c a l e .  Furthermore,  these s t u d i e s  demonstrated t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t s a s s e s s i n g s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s can be e x t r e m e l y  149  beneficial  i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h can be  enhance p h y s i c a l recent  studies,  such  t h e t e a c h e r and most i m p o r t a n t toward that  as F i g l e y  determinants education.  i n s t r u m e n t had  assessing  and  survey  (1985) and  10.  (1988), of  the  confirmed  the review  f o r the purpose  teacher behaviour  education f o r grade  reason,  instrument with statements  s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s toward  two  both  In a d d i t i o n ,  not been developed  For t h i s  o f t h e more  attitudes  s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s toward  grade  Rice  to  of p o s i t i v e or negative  program c o n t e n t w i t h i n p h y s i c a l 7,  In s e v e r a l  t h e c u r r i c u l u m were f o u n d t o be  physical  an  e d u c a t i o n programs.  used  i t was  of  and 3,  grade  decided t o develop  focusing s p e c i f i c a l l y  teacher behaviour  and  a  on  program  content. In order t o t e s t i n s t r u m e n t was behaviour, statement physical  14  the study's  designed with statements  a s k i n g whether s t u d e n t s l i k e d education classes.  (SA), Agree  their  statements  (A), Undecided  (SD).  grade  A Likert  responses  gender.  A detailed  process  survey  f o c u s i n g on  or d i d not  s c a l e was  teacher and  like  used  one  their  f o r the  being: S t r o n g l y Agree  (U), D i s a g r e e  In a d d i t i o n ,  and  a  f o c u s i n g on p r o g r a m c o n t e n t ,  survey with the a v a i l a b l e  Disagree  15  s i x hypotheses,  (D), and  s t u d e n t s were a s k e d  f o r refinement  of the  Strongly to  survey  indicate  150  i n s t r u m e n t was c o n d u c t e d i n v o l v i n g pilot  group  of four or f i v e  pilot  c l a s s o f each grade.  i n s t r u m e n t was c o m p l e t e d , g r a d e s were r a n d o m l y  a t e a c h e r committee,  s t u d e n t s i n each grade, When t h e f i n a l  five classes  selected  a  and a  form o f t h e s u r v e y  from each o f t h e t h r e e  from t h e D e l t a  School  District  and t h e s u r v e y was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The a n a l y s i s one way a n a l y s i s  of data consisted of variance  of three parts.  First,  a  (ANOVA) was p e r f o r m e d t o  d e t e r m i n e i f t h e mean r e s p o n s e s o f t h e t h r e e g r a d e s were significantly administered  different  from each o t h e r .  Third,  different  from  each  t h e i r physical education  c l a s s e s and t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  The  level  o f 0.05 was u s e d  their  different.  physical A  statistical  f o r each o f t h e t e s t s .  f i n d i n g s of the study revealed the f o l l o w i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n about  student a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour  and program c o n t e n t w i t h i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n : 1.  was  a t - t e s t was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e mean  r e s p o n s e s o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who l i k e d  significance  a t-test  t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e mean s c o r e s o f t h e m a l e s and  f e m a l e s i n e a c h g r a d e were s i g n i f i c a n t l y other.  Second,  There  i s a significant  difference  i n student attitudes  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n p h y s i c a l g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e 10.  education i n  There  i s a significant  toward program  difference  content within  3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e  education There  attitudes  toward  education  i n grade  difference  physical  b e t w e e n m a l e and  b e t w e e n m a l e and  content within  difference  physical  b e t w e e n m a l e and  content within  physical  7. difference  toward program  i n grade  physical  3.  There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t  education  difference  toward program  i n grade  female a t t i t u d e s  difference  toward program  i n grade  female  10.  There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t  education  b e t w e e n m a l e and  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n  i n grade  female a t t i t u d e s  physical  7.  There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t  education  b e t w e e n m a l e and  teacher behaviour within  There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t  female a t t i t u d e s  difference  3.  i s a significant  education  e d u c a t i o n i n grade  toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n  i n grade  female a t t i t u d e s  physical  attitudes  10.  There i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t female a t t i t u d e s  i n student  10.  b e t w e e n male and  content within  physical  152  9.  There  i s a significant  liked  their  physical  education classes  who d i d n o t l i k e t h e i r teacher behaviour 10.  physical  within  There  i s a significant  liked  their  physical  who d i d n o t l i k e  d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s and t h o s e  students  education classes  physical  d i f f e r e n c e between s t u d e n t s  education classes  and t h o s e  education classes  program content w i t h i n  physical  education.  a significant  who  students  physical  study,  toward  education.  their  In t h i s  who  d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d  toward  among  g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e 10 i n t h i r t e e n o f t h e f i f t e e n statements  concerning teacher behaviour.  appear t h a t  hypothesis  1, w h i c h s t a t e d  toward t e a c h e r behaviour different  found  existed  in this  student  study,  that  a  accepted.  significant  hypothesis  content.  2, w h i c h  a t t i t u d e s toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  accepted.  attitudes  education are  c o n c e r n i n g program  i t would a p p e a r t h a t  education are different be  physical  student  i t would  among g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, a n d g r a d e 10 i n t e n  of t h e f o u r t e e n statements Therefore,  that  i n g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e 10, may be  I t was a l s o difference  within  Therefore,  stated  physical  i n g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e 10, may  153 In the l i t e r a t u r e , which both 1 and  2.  p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has  s u p p o r t s and Research  (1980) c o n t r a d i c t  been  c o n t r a d i c t s the f i n d i n g s  activity. wording,  the r e s u l t s  from t h i s  study.  Although  substantial  t e s t i n g w i t h 4th-6th grade found the r e s u l t s  t h e Simon and  f o u n d t o be children.  studies  difference.  included  5,  and  6 level.  children's  education.  a t t i t u d e s toward  (1980)  also  However,  found  neither 3 or  n e i t h e r one  teacher behaviour Both  studies  s i x subdomains o f  of  found t h a t  assessed  physical  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r were p o s i t i v e  student a t t i t u d e s i n each  of the  the  o r program  activity. T h i s study a l s o  the  confined to subjects at  Furthermore,  s t u d i e s a s s e s s e d a t t i t u d e s toward content within physical  et a l  s u b j e c t s i n grades  r e s e a r c h i n b o t h s t u d i e s was 4,  same  (1974) C h i l d r e n ' s A t t i t u d e s  grade  t h e Simon n o r S m o l l  the  Smoll  absence  of a s i g n i f i c a n t  group  Simon e t a l . (1974)  of the s u b j e c t s . Smoll's  the  appropriate for  (CATPA) i n v e n t o r y and  the grade  differential  c h a n g e s were made t o  Toward P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t y  The  et a l  Simon e t a l .  f o r s u b j e c t s were e s s e n t i a l l y  r e g a r d l e s s o f the grade  10.  Smoll  on Kenyon's c o n c e p t u a l model f o r p h y s i c a l  t h e i n s t r u m e n t was  utilized  of hypothesis  done by Simon e t a l . (1974) and  (1974) c o n s t r u c t e d a m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l s e m a n t i c s c a l e based  identified  toward  grades,  indicating grades,  that  although  they are s t i l l  of several  a t t i t u d e s may  positive.  be d i f f e r e n t  T h i s supported  p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s (Brumbach,  Mowatt e t a l . , 1988; reported that  R i c e , 1988;  s t u d e n t s had  1965;  between  the  findings  Campbell,  1968;  Smoll e t al.,1980) which .  positive  a t t i t u d e s toward  physical  education. It  i s interesting  behaviour  and  that  student a t t i t u d e s toward  program c o n t e n t w i t h i n p h y s i c a l  found  t o be t h e most p o s i t i v e  grade  7.  Looking  i n grade  i n grade  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e may and  be  3 and  due  how  In t h i s between grade statements  they  study,  felt  no  about  physical  and  However, i n g r a d e  10,  10.  behaviour  3,  7,  study,  and  10  education i n general.  males i n twelve  s h o w i n g no  and m a l e s d r o p p e d  i n grade  d i f f e r e n c e was  concerning teacher behaviour.  number o f s t a t e m e n t s females  in  would  looked at i n t h i s  students i n grade  significant  3 females  student a t t i t u d e s  t o the f a c t that t e a c h e r  i n the Carre study,  were a s k e d  least positive  least positive  p r o g r a m c o n t e n t were s p e c i f i c a l l y  whereas,  e d u c a t i o n were  a t p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , C a r r e e t a l . , (1979),  t h e e x p e c t a t i o n w o u l d h a v e been t h a t be most p o s i t i v e  3 and  teacher  of the  In grade  significant  found fifteen 7,  difference  t o eight of the f i f t e e n  t h e number o f s t a t e m e n t s  the between  statements.  showing  no  155  significant  d i f f e r e n c e between f e m a l e s and m a l e s r o s e t o Therefore, the data refutes hypothesis 3,  thirteen.  which  s t a t e d male and f e m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d  teacher behaviour  within physical  from each  each grade The females  education are different  level.  degree i n grade  of significant 7 requires  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s and  t o a l a r g e degree,  between m a l e s and f e m a l e s they received  did  not  i n the study.  This  f o r the greater difference  i n grade  7.  Males  a s much s u p p o r t o r a t t e n t i o n  as d i d t h e females.  Grade 7 boys  f u r t h e r comment.  were f o u n d t o be t h e most n e g a t i v e g r o u p accounted,  other a t  Grade 7 males a l s o  t h i n k a l l s t u d e n t s were t r e a t e d  d i d not f e e l  from t h e i r  teacher  indicated that fairly  t e a c h e r d i d n o t c a r e a b o u t how t h e y f e l t .  from t h e d a t a t h a t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r i n grade males a r e not r e c e i v i n g t h e r e q u i r e d degree  they  and t h a t  I t would  that  their  appear  7 i s such  that  of positive  reinforcement. In content  n i n e o f t h e f o u r t e e n statements c o n c e r n i n g program i t was a l s o  f o u n d t h a t t h e r e was no  d i f f e r e n c e between g r a d e  3 f e m a l e s and m a l e s .  t h e r e were t e n s t a t e m e n t s t h a t d i s p l a y e d no d i f f e r e n c e between f e m a l e s and m a l e s , of  significant 7,  In grade significant  and i n g r a d e  t w e l v e s t a t e m e n t s d i s p l a y e d no s i g n i f i c a n t  10,  a total  difference  156 between f e m a l e s hypothesis  and m a l e s .  4, w h i c h s t a t e d  Therefore, the data that  male a n d f e m a l e  toward program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  physical  from  level.  each o t h e r a t each grade The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study  opposition findings  f o r hypothesis  o f Keogh  different  Simons e t a l . (1974) a l s o and  females  are different  s u p p o r t and  3 and 4 i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . that  attitudes  education.  the results However,  She f o u n d  f o r males  Zaichkowsky  a significant  o f men a n d women.  between men a n d women i n t h e Z a i c h k o w s k y  the general b e n e f i t s activity,  of activities  The  findings  they p r e f e r r e d  or values of physical  a s was t h e c a s e  The  men a n d women were n o t  toward p h y s i c a l  reported that  this finding.  were l i m i t e d t o t h e t y p e s  physical  both  d i d e x i s t i n t h e responses  differences  attitudes  education  were e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same.  (1975) c o n t r a d i c t s difference  find  (1962) i n d i c a t e d  i n t h e i r stated  refutes  and n o t  education or  i n t h e Keogh a n d Simon  studies. In t h i s study,  thirteen of the f i f t e e n  indicate a significant difference behaviour classes  i n attitudes  b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s who l i k e d  and t h o s e  5, w h i c h s t a t e d  that  Therefore, those  toward  their physical  s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e  education classes.  statements  their  their  education  physical  i t would appear t h a t  s t u d e n t s who l i k e  teacher  hypothesis physical  157 education classes behaviour  from  have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s  those  education classes, I t was a l s o  toward  s t u d e n t s who do n o t l i k e  may be  found  their  that  i n ten of the fourteen  a significant difference  s t u d e n t s who l i k e d  their physical  s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e  i t would appear t h a t  that  s t u d e n t s who l i k e  statements  existed  between  education classes  their physical  Therefore,  education  hypothesis  and t h o s e classes.  6, w h i c h  their physical  stated  education  have d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s  towards program c o n t e n t  s t u d e n t s who do n o t l i k e  their physical  be  physical  accepted.  on p r o g r a m c o n t e n t  those  teacher  classes  from  those  education classes,  may  accepted. The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s study  find  some s u p p o r t  r e s e a r c h o f E a r l e t a l (1987) who f o u n d differences physical  between s e n i o r  secondary  e d u c a t i o n and s e n i o r  n o t t o t a k e any more p h y s i c a l taking  physical  activities, teacher(s). education  education  the classes Students  indicated  program, t h e c l a s s e s disliked  that  Students they  were f u n , and t h e y  taking  elected  who were  liked the  liked  not t o take  they d i d not l i k e  were n o t v e r y  the teacher(s).  s t u d e n t s who  education.  indicated  t h e r e were  s t u d e n t s who were  secondary  who e l e c t e d  that  that  i nthe  their  physical  some p a r t s o f t h e  i n t e r e s t i n g , and t h e y  There appears  t o be a p o s i t i v e  158 r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t s who education classes  and  like  s t u d e n t s who  and  s t u d e n t s who  d i d not  and  s t u d e n t s who  chose not t o take  education.  Students  classes  s t u d e n t s who  and  and  t h e i r teacher(s),  take  any  not  like  5.2  Conclusions  survey.  classes.  possible.  education  were  s t u d e n t s who  education both disliked  the  that  education  the  d i d not  Although  they  s t u d e n t s who  a r e drawn completed  t h e r e s e a r c h e r , and  the cautious g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  T h e y may  did  from the  one  the  of the  a l s o have p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e  w i t h d e v e l o p i n g and/or r e s t r u c t u r i n g  the  Delta findings  i n other school d i s t r i c t s  e d u c a t i o n programs i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s  to  teacher(s).  t h e d a t a were drawn f r o m  education classes  like  chose not  indicated that  i n t h i s study  386  both  taught  administered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o each of  District,  to physical  charged  who  and  classes  physical  w h e r e a s , s t u d e n t s who  D a t a were c o l l e c t e d by  assistant,  School  from  more  the a c t i v i t i e s  conclusions presented  the data gathered  any  education,  education  their physical  education classes  t h e p r o g r a m and  The  15  enjoyed  more p h y s i c a l  take p h y s i c a l  chose t o take p h y s i c a l  that  their physical  physical  their physical  liked  indicated liked  they  who  like  their  to  may  be  those  physical  or i n d i v i d u a l schools.  1. The  data  indicates  a significant difference  student a t t i t u d e s  toward  7,  I n a l l b u t two  and  grade  10.  teacher behaviour  significant  difference  statements,  student attitudes  grade and  appears  10 t h a n In  fifteen  between g r a d e s . toward  However, s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s i n grade addition,  education. within  these  findings  statements  a  On  the  teacher behaviour  10.  they required teacher  having  Notably,  that  in  i n grades  students'  7  grade  students' responses  Furthermore,  and  A t t h e same t i m e ,  require  t e a c h e r s who  indicated from  fairly.  in that  their  students' responses  signified  h e l p e d them when t h e y  students' responses  areas  observed  were something  showed t h a t  a r e easy t o t a l k t o , u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  a l l the students  they and  Whether t h e s e t h i n g s a r e  student responses  room f o r improvement.  These  g a v e them c r e d i t when t h e y d i d  right.  or not,  some a r e a s  enhanced.  encouragement  attitudes  physical  7, b u t c o u l d a l s o be  f a v o u r e d t e a c h e r s who  a problem  happening,  show t h a t  c o u l d be  more s u p p o r t and  in class.  they  most o f  a r e more p o s i t i v e i n  However, t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  3 and  grade  teacher behaviour  teacher behaviour within  were more e v i d e n t i n g r a d e grade  3,  7.  are p o s i t i v e toward  treat  i n grade  3 a r e more p o s i t i v e t h a n s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s  10.  that  of the  exists in  indicated  that  there i s  160  2.  The  attitudes  toward  10.  grade  data  grades.  a significant  program c o n t e n t  In t h i s  statements  case,  t h e r e appeared  Student  i n a l l but  10  than  these  However, l i k e  areas within  practice displayed  a l l grades  signified the s k i l l s  grade  showed t h a t  teacher behaviour, could  indicated  about  was  be  that  student physical  t h e r e were some improved.  t h e y would l i k e  they take.  whether the  fair.  they preferred  they p r e f e r r e d  Furthermore,  10.  some  Furthermore,  Each o f the grades  In grade  level 3,  of  to also  skill  student  responses  team games t o i n d i v i d u a l games.  expressed  s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g .  that  7 and  t h e y were t a u g h t .  Grade 3 s t u d e n t s a l s o by  3 a r e more  needed f o r s t u d e n t s  some c o n c e r n  that  i n grade  between  t h a t more t i m e was  n e c e s s a r y t o do w e l l indicated  difference  program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  i n s e l e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s  responses  and  of the fourteen  i n grades  findings  program c o n t e n t t h a t  R e s p o n s e s from  7,  grade  7.  i n grade  a t t i t u d e s were p o s i t i v e t o w a r d education.  3,  i n student  c o n t i n u e d , however, t o be more p o s i t i v e i n  A t t h e same t i m e ,  choice  four  a significant  students' attitudes  attitudes  difference  i n grades  Once a g a i n , s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s  p o s i t i v e than  grade  indicated  that  In grade  7,  t h e r e was  t o o much  students also  stress  signified  team games t o i n d i v i d u a l games. 7 students indicated  that  t h e r e were  not  many new grade  activities  or s k i l l  drills  10, s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d  s p e n d i n g more t i m e their  fitness  tested  grade.  In a d d i t i o n ,  few new  activities,  fitness  level,  t o help determine  students i n grade new  In  t h a t t h e y were n o t i n f a v o u r o f  improving t h e i r  level  t a u g h t each y e a r .  skills,  o r new  or having  their  letter  10 i n d i c a t e d  that  skill  were  drills  very  introduced. 3. The r e s u l t s  signify  that there i s not a  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n male and f e m a l e behaviour  i n grade  3 or grade  statements  i n grade  m a l e s and f e m a l e s .  a t t i t u d e s toward  10.  on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r o n l y t h r e e  Of t h e f i f t e e n statements  10 show a s i g n i f i c a n t However,  i n grade  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n male and f e m a l e b e h a v i o u r was  f o u n d on s e v e n  significant teacher statements  i n grade  difference  7, a  between  significant  a t t i t u d e s toward  of the f i f t e e n  3 and two  teacher  statements.  The  d i f f e r e n c e between males'  and f e m a l e s ' a t t i t u d e s  o c c u r r e d because  females'  responses  t o teacher behaviour  than males'  responses  t o teacher behaviour.  more p o s i t i v e  T h i s t r e n d continued i n grade trend  r e v e r s e d , w i t h males'  b e i n g more p o s i t i v e  than  7.  In grade  responses  females'  10, however,  t o teacher  responses  i n grades  3  were  this  behaviour  to teacher  behaviour. In  each  of these grades,  t h e s e f i n d i n g s showed t h a t  there  162 was  very l i t t l e  toward the  d i f f e r e n c e between male and  teacher behaviour within physical  significant  difference  female  education.  teacher.  from t h e i r  grade 7 males  a r e n o t r e c e i v i n g t h e amount o f  reinforcement  from t h e i r  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e and content  t h a t t h e r e was  i n g r a d e 3, g r a d e 7, and g r a d e 10.  and  females.  d i f f e r e n c e d i d o c c u r , t h e r e was  These  findings  and  that  positive  require. not a  significant program  For ten of the  d i f f e r e n c e appeared  F o r t h e s t a t e m e n t s where a  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s  suggest  female a t t i t u d e s toward  f o u r t e e n s t a t e m e n t s no s i g n i f i c a n t males  T h i s would  teachers that they  signify  resulted  l a c k o f s u p p o r t and  encouragement  results  However,  i n grade 7 appears t o have  from the grade 7 males' p e r c e i v e d  4. The  attitudes  no r e a l  significant  pattern t o the  females.  showed t h a t g r a d e 3 and g r a d e 7  males  p r e f e r r e d games t h a t  stressed  competition while females  preferred  games t h a t  stressed  cooperation.  males  females p r e f e r r e d  and  addition, of  In grade  10  both  cooperation.  In  a l l t h r e e g r a d e s r e p o r t e d a p r o b l e m w i t h t h e amount the s k i l l s  t h e y were  T h i s s t a t e m e n t on p r a c t i c e t i m e a c c o u n t e d f o r a  significant the  games s t r e s s i n g  t i m e s t u d e n t s were g i v e n t o p r a c t i c e  taught.  between  grades.  d i f f e r e n c e between m a l e s  and  females i n each of  I n g r a d e 3 and g r a d e 10 m a l e s  displayed  more  163  positive  attitudes  than  females  enough p r a c t i c e t i m e was displayed  indicating that  given.  than males,  f e m a l e s , more t h a n m a l e s ,  felt  that  provided.  3 and g r a d e  their  l e t t e r grade.  females approved  In grade  females  signifying  enough p r a c t i c e 7 females  g r e a t e r a p p r o v a l than males f o r i n c l u d i n g  felt  7,  However, i n g r a d e  more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  F i n a l l y , grade  they  time  was  displayed  attitude  as p a r t  1 0 , however, b o t h m a l e s  the i n c l u s i o n of a t t i t u d e  that  as p a r t  of  and  of t h e i r  mark. 5. The  findings  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r b e t w e e n s t u d e n t s who education classes physical  and  groups. that  did  light  saw  indicated  also  and  s t u d e n t s who  classes  a g r e e d on.  education  showed t h a t  s t u d e n t s who  classes  groups  their  two was  physical  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r i n a much more  not l i k e t h e i r p h y s i c a l  statements that  between t h e  they l i k e d  t h a n d i d t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  These f i n d i n g s  their  fifteen  between t h e s e two that  physical  d i d not l i k e  For t h i r t e e n of the  Clearly, the d i f f e r e n c e  education classes  their  a significant difference  t h e s t u d e n t s who  positive  t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  education classes.  s t a t e m e n t s t h e r e was  liked  toward  liked  indicated  they  classes. t h e r e were o n l y  their physical  d i d not l i k e  that  education  their physical  They b o t h a g r e e d t h a t  i t was  two  education  mildly  important  that  t h e i r teacher take part  class,  and  well.  For a l l of the other statements  such  they  agreed  as s u p p o r t ,  sensitivity, physical  that  t h e i r teacher demonstrated  and  like  their physical  that  teacher behaviour  whether s t u d e n t s  6.  displayed  than  education classes.  findings  also  their physical significant  as t h o s e  positive indicated classes.  not  suggest  i n determining education  a significant difference  b e t w e e n t h e two  liked  their  s t u d e n t s who  d i d not  However, t h e y were n o t  t h e r e appeared groups.  g r o u p s was  that  their physical  about program c o n t e n t that  those  liked  concerning teacher behaviour.  fourteen statements  they  and  education classes.  b e t w e e n t h e s e two that  did  T h i s would  their physical  exhibited  education classes  difference  their  s t u d e n t s who  p l a y s a major r o l e  are going to l i k e  liked  a much more p o s i t i v e  t o w a r d p r o g r a m c o n t e n t between s t u d e n t s who  of the  items  not.  The  physical  skills  which d e a l t w i t h  f a i r n e s s , t h e s t u d e n t s who  education classes  or  in  personal attributes, instruction,  a t t i t u d e toward t e a c h e r behaviour  classes  i n the a c t i v i t i e s  they d i d not  t h e s t u d e n t s who  education classes  like  as  eight  a significant  Once a g a i n , t h e  than those  For  like  indicated  were more  students  their physical  difference  who  education  These f i n d i n g s statements  that  also  showed t h a t  s t u d e n t s who  t h e r e were  liked their  four  physical  education  classes  and s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t l i k e t h e i r  physical  classes  agreed  that  like  on.  F i r s t , they both  t o be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e i r  g r o u p s were u n d e c i d e d by  t h e i r mark. more t i m e  fitness Finally,  Third,  level  Second,  s h o u l d be t e s t e d  improving  t e n statements  to help  their  fitness  which d e a l t w i t h  items  physical  education classes  a more p o s i t i v e  an  important  their  displayed  d i d not l i k e t h e i r  would suggest  that  physical  as t o  determine  For  on p r o g r a m  s t u d e n t s who  This  stress  level.  s e q u e n c e , and o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  classes.  both  as t o whether  content,  t h a n s t u d e n t s who  would  e a c h g r o u p was u n d e c i d e d  b o t h g r o u p s were u n d e c i d e d  s h o u l d be s p e n t  the remaining  activities.  they  a s t o w h e t h e r t h e r e was t o o much  s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g .  whether t h e i r  agreed  education  liked  their  attitude  education  program c o n t e n t a l s o  plays  r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether o r not s t u d e n t s  physical  education  classes.  attitudes  toward  like  Summary Students*  content i n grade different.  In a d d i t i o n ,  teacher behaviour difference.  3, g r a d e  7, and g r a d e  10 were  m a l e and f e m a l e  i n grade  Finally,  teacher behaviour  7 displayed  s t u d e n t s who  a  liked  and program  significantly  attitudes  toward  significant their  physical  166  e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s and  t h o s e who  d i d not  like  education classes exhibited a s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r behaviour This  study  c o n t e n t may  concludes  fairness  such  education. as s u p p o r t ,  a p p e a r t o be  program c o n t e n t also tend  program  content.  student  and  factors  i n teacher  t h e most i m p o r t a n t ,  important  and  factors  s e q u e n c e , and  i n f l u e n c e on  in  competition  student  attitudes  education.  be  limited  t o statements  behaviour  o r program c o n t e n t  attention  on  just  Utilizing  one  desirable. statements is  on e i t h e r  students'  o b t a i n more i n f o r m a t i o n on  instrument  statements  survey  teacher  i n order to focus  a r e a and  a survey  fourteen or f i f t e e n  It  and  Recommendations  instrument  content  program  attitudes  I n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e  area.  in their,  encouragement, s e n s i t i v i t y  as c o n t e n t ,  t o h a v e an  toward p h y s i c a l  5.3  such  Some o f t h e  physical  difference  t h a t teacher behaviour  h a v e a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on  toward p h y s i c a l behaviour  and  their  on  t h a t c o n t a i n s more  a g i v e n a r e a would  on t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  or  than  be  Therefore, a questionnaire of approximately specifically  that  thirty  program  suggested.  i s a l s o recommended t h a t a l a r g e r  sample s i z e be  used  167  to  further  study.  s u b s t a n t i a t e , or r e f u t e the  Although  grade 3 females,  386  findings  s t u d e n t s were u t i l i z e d ,  this  when l o o k i n g a t  t h e number o f s u b j e c t s from  b e i n g o b t a i n e d dropped t o f o r t y  from  whom d a t a  was  nine.  A n o t h e r a r e a t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d examine i s whether s t u d e n t s ' s k i l l effect  on t h e i r  level  s h o u l d be  devoted  affecting  to the  t h e program.  or  program c o n t e n t  Determining  level,  fitness  level,  the a t t i t u d e s  l e v e l s and  of  t o see  i f physical  education s p e c i a l i s t s effect  i t may  be  teachers are s p e c i a l i s t s the d i f f e r e n c e .  on  student  and  i s affecting  important  S e l e c t i n g teachers t h a t are  and  non-  physical  student  t o determine  or n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s  be  attitudes  or program c o n t e n t w i t h i n  I f teacher behaviour then  low  i s advised.  toward t e a c h e r behaviour  attitudes,  and  students  students with  l e v e l toward t e a c h e r behaviour  s p e c i a l i s t s have a d i f f e r e n t  education.  program  Activities  would a l s o appear t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o u l d  conducted  any  Physical education classes  "good a t h l e t e s " .  and/or f i t n e s s  and/or f i t n e s s  It  has  not dominate t o t h e p o i n t o f n e g a t i v e l y  with high s k i l l skill  education.  o r g a n i z e d such t h a t s k i l l  c o m p e t i t i o n do  level  a t t i t u d e s toward t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r  content w i t h i n physical s h o u l d n o t be  and/or f i t n e s s  whether  i n order to physical  the assess  168  education  specialists  and  education  specialists  f o r the c l a s s e s surveyed  Finally, to  determine  p e r c e i v e d by class fact  and  t o what e x t e n t s t u d e n t their teachers.  physical is  situation.  are  is likely  t o be  In o r d e r t o determine  conducted  by  responses.  determine  As  a result,  the  when i n  done t o  both  developing a  f o r t e a c h e r s w h i c h w o u l d be u s e d  student  correctly  are p o s i t i v e ,  t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , e a c h w o u l d h a v e t o be  survey  suggested.  I f a teacher's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s  then nothing  T h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d be  to  attitudes  students' attitudes  are not,  improve t h e  are not  i t would appear t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i s needed  i s t h a t the they  t e a c h e r s who  students'  assessed. companion  t o compare t e a c h e r  r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d be  t o what d e g r e e what t h e s t u d e n t s  t h i n k and  the teacher perceives the students to think are the As  a consequence o f a study t h a t measures  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l will  be  student taken to  available interest  education,  f o r people in physical  Certainly,  able what  same.  student  pertinent information  concerned education.  about t h e d e c l i n e o f Measures can  t o r e s t r u c t u r e o r r e v i s e programs t o encourage  stay involved i n physical  and  then  be  students  education.  the d i s s a t i s f i e d  or a p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e  c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s t u d e n t s w i t h p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s c a n be m i t i g a t e d by  physical  a study  of  those  of  a  169  f a c t o r s which a r e p r e s e n t l y c a u s i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s physical  education.  From a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t of  this  nature w i l l  o r s c h o o l p o i n t o f view, a  Establishing  t h e importance  i n determining  education  education  program.  of teacher behaviour  student  a t t i t u d e s toward  i s very enlightening.  suggestions  and p r o g r a m physical  T h i s study w i l i  provide  f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o g r a m s w h i c h may  more p o s i t i v e  study  provide information f o r those wishing t o  i m p r o v e o r enhance t h e i r p h y s i c a l  content  toward  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  generate  e d u c a t i o n by t h e  students involved. In  addition,  studies that w i l l informational  this  study w i l l  utilize  source  f o r program development o r r e v i s i o n .  The u s e o f t h i s  development o f programs t h a t w i l l on  students taking physical  Furthermore,  content interest  further studies are  information w i l l  help identify  that are either i n physical  lead to the  h a v e a more p o s i t i v e  effect  education.  e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s toward  education w i l l  By  a t t i t u d e s can p l a y a u s e f u l  i n p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t and d e l i v e r y ,  bound t o o c c u r .  stimulate future  s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s a s an  showing t h a t measuring student role  undoubtedly  physical  the teacher behaviour  stimulating or decreasing  education.  and p r o g r a m student  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can then  be  170  used  not only to develop  o r improve p h y s i c a l  p r o g r a m s , b u t a l s o t o enhance t e a c h i n g by behaviour As  in light  of the l i t e r a t u r e  f o r s t u d e n t s , the use  assesses t h e i r attempt  be  seen  goal of improving  frequently medical  by  instruction.  education  i n an  no  physical  endeavour.  shown t h e b e n e f i c i a l  toward p h y s i c a l t h a t an  and,  t h e most  One  result  education  The  ramifications  of l i f e  I f t h i s t r e n d i s t o be  e s s e n t i a l t h a t s o m e t h i n g be  resulting feelings  a  is  sedentary  of t h i s trend f o r h e a l t h care  not t o mention the q u a l i t y  frightening.  that  situation  are e l e c t i n g  of  promoting  negative  of t h i s  and  recent  furthermore,  number o f s t u d e n t s h a v i n g  i n c r e a s i n g number o f p e o p l e  lifestyle. costs,  activity  activity.  of  effects  p r e s e n t programs a r e not d o i n g a v e r y good j o b o f  a substantial  the  evaluating i t  Research  s t u d i e s o f s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  in  send  Moreover,  e d u c a t i o n by  However, i t w o u l d a p p e a r from  in physical  doubt  s t u d e n t s as a r e f l e c t i o n  i s a very worthwhile  involvement  which  suggested.  o p i n i o n have c l e a r l y  exercise.  teacher  instrument  opinions are valued.  what p r e v i o u s s t u d e n t s have The  of a survey  improve t h e p r o g r a m , w i l l  them a message t h a t t h e i r p r e s e n t program w i l l  examining  on e f f e c t i v e  a t t i t u d e s toward p h y s i c a l  to continually  education  of i n d i v i d u a l s ,  reversed, then  done i n t h e  i t is  s c h o o l system  to  is  171 p r e v e n t t h e development o f n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s e d u c a t i o n and p h y s i c a l If positive attitudes  activity toward  established  during  likely  people w i l l  that  physical  activity  intent of this ultimately  the years spent  activity  i n school,  involved  f o r t h e remainder  study  physical  and t o f o s t e r p o s i t i v e  physical  remain  toward  c a n be then  i t i s more  i n some t y p e o f  of their  i s to facilitate  ones.  lives.  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R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on E d u c a t i o n : A l e g a c y f o r l e a r n e r s : Summary o f f i n d i n g s ( R e p o r t No. ISBN 0-7726-0847-4). C a n a d i a n C a t a l o g u i n g i n P u b l i c a t i o n Data. Taylor, C E . & Taylor, C E . c l a s s r o o m . The C a n a d i a n 33 & 34.  (1989). F i t n e s s i n t h e School Executive. February,  T h u r s t o n e , L. (1929). T h e o r y o f a t t i t u d e measurement. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 36, 222-241. Todd, P. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . Out o f a c t i o n : why s c h o o l p h y s . ed. p r o g r a m s a r e f a i l i n g o u r k i d s . HomeMaker s. O c t . , 144-156. 1  Wear, C L . (1951) .The e v a l u a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a s an a c t i v i t y c o u r s e . R e a s a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 22. (1) 111-127. Wear, C L . (1955) . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f e q u i v a l e n t f o r m s o f an a t t i t u d e s c a l e . R e a s a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 26., (1) 113-119. W i l c o x , R.C. (1987). D r o p o u t s : t h e f a i l i n g o f h i g h s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l od P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . R e c r e a t i o n and Dance. 5 8 ( 6 ) , 21-25. Z a i c h k o w s k y , L.B. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A t t i t u d i n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t y p e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programs. R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 4 6 ( 3 ) , 364-370.  two  180  Appendix D  DELTA SCHOOL DISTRICT TEACHER'S LETTER OF INFORMED CONSENT  I to  .  Cope  a t a c o n v e n i e n t t i m e between May 29 a n d J u n e 9.  understand  the questionnaire w i l l  take approximately  minutes f o r t h e students t o complete of  f o r Lorne  a d m i n i s t e r t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o my g r a d e  class  I  h e r e by g i v e c o n s e n t  the data w i l l  be m a i n t a i n e d  through  and t h a t  20  confidentially  a l l stages t o the  study.  I would  would n o t  be i n t e r e s t e d  summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  i n receiving a  s t u d y on i t s c o m p l e t i o n .  Appendix E Student  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n  P l e a s e p u t an "M" f o r male, o r a "F" f o r f e m a l e and y o u r g r a d e , on t h e FRONT o f t h e c o m p u t e r s h e e t where i t s a y s SHEET # ( e g . SHEET # F _ 7 ) . The f o l l o w i n g a r e s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . On t h e c o m p u t e r s h e e t p r o v i d e d , f i l l i n t h e l e t t e r t h a t b e s t d e s c r i b e s y o u r o p i n i o n a b o u t e a c h s t a t e m e n t (see  example on the f r o n t o f the computer s h e e t ) .  R e f e r t o t h e f o l l o w i n g codes t o respond t o a l l statements. I f y o u do n o t u n d e r s t a n d a s t a t e m e n t , do n o t f i l l i n a l e t t e r f o r t h a t s t a t e m e n t . a b c d e  = = = = =  S t r o n g l y Agree Agree Undecided (Do n o t a g r e e Disagree Strongly Disagree  then  or disagree)  1.  I l i k e my p h y s i c a l  2.  My o v e r a l l  skill  3.  My o v e r a l l  fitness  4.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r e x p l a i n s c l e a r l y what we a r e t o l e a r n .  5.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) t h a t a r e t a u g h t .  6.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t v e r y good a t sports.  education  level  classes.  i s high.  level  i s high.  182  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n (games) we t a k e a r e w e l l  c l a s s e s , the organized.  activities  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s e t s a good example f o r t h e c l a s s by t h e way h e / s h e b e h a v e s . I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I w o u l d l i k e t o a l w a y s be a b l e t o c h o o s e t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) I take. I b e l i e v e i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r t a k e p a r t i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s (games) i n class. I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we new s k i l l s e a c h y e a r ( e . g . t h r o w i n g , serving).  are taught hitting,  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n c l a s s .  some  me  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I e n j o y p l a y i n g team games ( e . g . s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l ) more\ t h a n i n d i v i d u a l games ( e . g . t r a c k & f i e l d , t e n n i s , badminton). I b e l i e v e my c o n t r o l over  physical education t h e s t u d e n t s i n my  t e a c h e r has class.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , s t r e s s by s t u d e n t s on w i n n i n g . I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l s k i l l s well.  education  there  teacher  i s t o o much demonstrates  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , my f i t n e s s s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e my mark. I b e l i e v e my the students  good  level  physical education teacher t r e a t s a l l i n the c l a s s f a i r l y .  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , a c t i v i t i e s (games) s h o u l d s t r e s s c o o p e r a t i o n ( i . e . how t o g e t a l o n g with other people) not competition ( i . e . winning).  183  20.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l how I f e e l .  education  21.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , we a r e t a u g h t some new a c t i v i t i e s (games) e a c h y e a r ( e . g . g y m n a s t i c s , volleyball, golf).  22.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i s knowledgeable about p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  23.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , more t i m e be s p e n t i m p r o v i n g my f i t n e s s l e v e l .  24.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l talk to.  25.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , I am g i v e n t i m e t o p r a c t i c e t h e s k i l l s I am t a u g h t .  26.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l t o do my b e s t .  27.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , n e c e s s a r y t o do w e l l i s f a i r .  28.  I b e l i e v e t h e marks I g e t f r o m my p h y s i c a l teacher are f a i r .  29.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n my e f f o r t and b e h a v i o u r ) o f my mark.  30.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r g i v e s c r e d i t when I do s o m e t h i n g w e l l .  31.  I n my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , new s k i l l d r i l l s e a c h y e a r .  32.  I b e l i e v e my p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r h e l p s me when I am h a v i n g a p r o b l e m l e a r n i n g a new s k i l l .  education  education  teacher cares  teacher  about  should  i s easy t o enough  teacher motivates the level  me  of s k i l l education  c l a s s e s , my a t t i t u d e ( i . e . s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d a s p a r t me  we a r e t a u g h t  some  

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