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The collected poetry of Malcolm Lowry : a critical edition with a commentary Scherf, Kathleen Dorothy 1988

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THE COLLECTED POETRY OF MALCOLM LOWRY: A CRITICAL EDITION WITH A COMMENTARY By KATHLEEN DOROTHY SCHERF B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o , 1982 M . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( E n g l i s h ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1988 © K a t h l e e n Dorothy S c h e r f , 1988 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E n g l i s h The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 11 October 1988 DE-6f 3/811 i i A b s t r a c t Although his l i t e r a r y reputation rests p r i m a r i l y on his novels , Malcolm Lowry (1909-1957) considered himself a poet, and he composed an extensive poetic canon. No r e l i a b l e ed i t ion of Lowry's poetry ex is ts ; increas ing c r i t i c a l interes t in a l l aspects of Lowry's l i f e and work prompted the preparation of th i s complete edi t ion of his poetry, in which the poems are located, i d e n t i f i e d , dated, arranged, c o l l a t e d , annotated, and expl icated in b i o g r a p h i c a l , c r i t i c a l , and textual in troduct ions . The sections of Lowry's text are chrono log ica l ly arranged to r e f l e c t his a r t i s t i c development, and are preceded by short essays descr ib ing the spec i f i c issues ra i sed by those poems. The opening section—Lowry's poetic j u v e n i l i a — r e f l e c t s his fasc inat ion for the sea, as does the ensuing sect ion , The Lighthouse Invites the  Storm, his f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n of poetry, a sequence of re la ted semi-autobiographical poems, which depicts the adventures of the characters Peter Gaunt and V i g i l Forget. Lowry composed most of the Lighthouse in Mexico; fo l lowing i t in th i s ed i t ion is a small group of uncol lected Mexican poems. The next two sections of text—"Dollarton 1940-54: Selected Poems 1947" and "Dollarton 1940-54: Uncol lected Poems"—reflect and record the experience of Lowry's sojourn on the lower mainland, and i t s deep effect on him. A remarkably coherent group of love poems writ ten between 1949 and Lowry's death in 1957 follows the Dol larton texts , and the appendices contain sections of song l y r i c s and undated fragments. This ed i t ion provides Lowryans with ready access to the la tes t determinable author ia l versions of, and the textual h i s t o r i e s for , the canon's four hundred and s i x t y - f i v e poems, which range in date from 1925 to 1957. Contents 111 P r e l i m i n a r i e s Acknowledgements i v A b b r e v i a t i o n s v I n t r o d u c t o r y Essays Malco lm Lowry and h i s P o e t r y 2 Texts and C o n t e x t s : A C r i t i c a l Approach to Lowry's P o e t r y 14 A Note on the Text 32 The Text A p p r e n t i c e s h i p : P o e t i c J u v e n i l i a 1925-33 48 The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm: 1934-39 61 U n c o l l e c t e d Poems 1933-38 129 D o l l a r t o n 1940-54: S e l e c t e d Poems 1947 141 D o l l a r t o n 1940-54: U n c o l l e c t e d Poems 187 Love Poems 1949-57 264 Appendices Appendix A : Song L y r i c s 296 Appendix B: Fragments 305 Appendix C: The A n n o t a t i o n of Lowry ' s P o e t r y : A Prolegomenon 319 Appendix D: Paper Use Chart 331 B i b l i o g r a p h y 337 I n d i c e s 351 i v Acknowledgements The e d i t o r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the f o l l o w i n g peop le f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to p a r t s of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n : P r o f . C h r i s A c k e r l e y , P r o f . F . A s a l s , D r . E a r l e B i r n e y , Gordon Bowker, George Brandak, S a l l y Brown, A d r i e n n e Case , D r . Ra lph Case , P r o f . V i c t o r Doyen, E l i z a b e t h Emond, Ian F a i r c l o u g h , C h a r l e s F . F o r b e s , J o c e l y n F o s t e r , Sidney H u t t n e r , Joseph J o n e s , Diane L o i k , D r . D. L o m e Macdona ld , P e t e r Matson , Harry P o r t e r , P r o f . Herber t R o s e n g a r t e n , C y n t h i a Sugars , H i l d a Thomas, P h i l i p Thomas, Ian W i l l i s o n . S p e c i a l Acknowledgements The e d i t o r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e f o r the generous i n f o r m a t i o n , a d v i c e , and support they have p r o v i d e d throughout t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n p r o c e s s : Susanna B l a c k b u r n , P r o f . W i l l i a m E . Fredeman, F . R . S . C . , P r o f . S h e r r i l l E . G r a c e , Robert George S c h e r f , Ian W e i r , P r i s c i l l a Wool fan , Anne Y a n d l e . K . S . A b b r e v i a t i o n s 1 Books - a l l edit ions are l i s t e d in the Bibl iography unless otherwise noted. Dark as the Grave: Dark As the Grave Wherein My Fr iend Is L a i d Hear us 0 Lord from heaven Thy dwell ing place  October Ferry to Gabriola  October Ferry to Gabriola  Selected Letters of Malcolm Lowry  Under the Volcano (page r e f s . Penguin) UV: Under the Volcano (page r e f s . Penguin) Hear us 0 Lord  October Ferry: OF: SL: Volcano 2 Poetic Volumes Lighthouse: The Lighthouse Invites the Storm 3 Authors Ackerley and Cl ipper Bowker Day Sal1oum A Companion to Under the Volcano  Malcolm Lowry Remembered  Malcolm Lowry: A Biography  Malcolm Lowry: Vancouver Days 4 Primary Sources DM WTP David Markson Papers, U . B . C . Wil l iam Templeton Papers, U.B.C N.B• A l l locat ion references to the Malcolm Lowry Papers in the Special Co l l ec t ions D iv i s ion of the U . B . C . L ibrary appear in round brackets . The f i r s t numeral i d e n t i f i e s the box number; the numeral fo l lowing the dash indicates the folder within the box. 1 INTRODUCTORY ESSAYS 2 MALCOLM LOWRY AND HIS POETRY A l t h o u g h Malco lm Lowry (1909-1957) c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f p r i m a r i l y as a p o e t , h i s l i t e r a r y fame and r e p u t a t i o n r e s t e x c l u s i v e l y on h i s f i c t i o n . He composed p o e t r y d u r i n g most of h i s a d u l t l i f e , and h i s correspondence r e v e a l s a c o n s i s t e n t concern f o r h i s p o e t r y . In 1937, a depres sed and p a r a n o i d Lowry wrote h i s Mexican f r i e n d Juan Fernando Marquez: The E n g l i s h are s u f f i c i e n t l y s t u p i d but the s t u p i d i t y and h y p o c r i s y of your d e t e c t i v e s and the mot ives which are b e h i n d t h e i r l i t t l e e t e r n a l s p y i n g — t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s — c o m p l e t e l y t r a n s c e n d any c r i m i n a l i t y and s t u p i d i t y I have ever encountered anywhere i n the w o r l d . Have these guys n o t h i n g b e t t e r to do than to watch a man who merely wants to w r i t e p o e t r y ? As i f I had not enough t r o u b l e s on my mindi (SL 13-14) Almost a decade l a t e r , i n January 1946, when Lowry p o s t e d to Jonathan Cape h i s wel l -known and w i d e l y - q u o t e d defense of the s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e of Under the V o l c a n o , he a g a i n h i g h l i g h t e d the importance of p o e t r y i n h i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . With r e f e r e n c e to the problems the p u b l i s h e r ' s r e a d e r found i n the n o v e l , Lowry sugges ted tha t the s i t u a t i o n was " i r r e m e d i a b l e : " I t i s t h a t the a u t h o r ' s equipment, such as i t i s , i s s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e , a b e t t e r equipment, i n s h o r t , f o r a c e r t a i n k i n d of poet than a n o v e l i s t . (SL 59) A decade l a t e r , i n the l a s t y e a r of h i s l i f e , Lowry wrote from Eng land to Ra lph G u s t a f s o n , who i n c l u d e d two of h i s poems i n the 1958 Penguin Book of Canadian V e r s e : Sometimes I t h i n k I ' v e never been a b l e f u l l y t o unders tand the most e lementary p r i n c i p l e s of s c a n s i o n , s t r e s s , i n t e r i o r rhyme and the l i k e w i t h the r e s u l t , by overcompensat ion , tha t my poems such as they are l o o k as though they had a k i n d of wooden monotonous c l a s s i c a l f r a m e . . . . A l l t h i s i s v e r y sad and c o m p l i c a t e d 3 to me because I t h i n k of p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g e l s e but p o e t r y when I'm not t h i n k i n g about my o l d shack on B u r r a r d I n l e t . (SJL 408) Many c r i t i c s no doubt agree w i t h Lowry ' s s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t ; however, the number of poems he composed and the s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n p o e t r y h e l d i n h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s argue s t r o n g l y f o r g i v i n g more c r i t i c a l and s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n to Lowry ' s p o e t r y . T h i s e d i t i o n seeks to make p o s s i b l e such a t t e n t i o n by p r o v i d i n g , f o r the f i r s t t i m e , a c c u r a t e t e x t s and t e x t u a l h i s t o r i e s f o r Lowry's complete p o e t i c canon. Lowry c r i t i c s i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s p o e t r y , u n l e s s they have access to the m a n u s c r i p t s i n the U . B . C . L i b r a r y , must r e l y on E a r l e . B i r n e y ' s 1962 e d i t i o n of S e l e c t e d Poems of Malco lm Lowry. p u b l i s h e d i n San F r a n c i s c o by C i t y L i g h t s Books . That any of the p o e t i c t e x t s has been a v a i l a b l e i s owing to the e f f o r t s of D r . B i r n e y d u r i n g the e a r l y 1960s. S i n g l e - h a n d e d l y , he p l a c e d over one hundred of the poems i n j o u r n a l s and l i t t l e magaz ines . In those y e a r s , t o o , he p r e p a r e d an e d i t i o n of Lowry ' s c o l l e c t e d poems, w h i c h , owing to t e x t u a l d isagreements between the e d i t o r and M a r g e r i e Lowry, has remained u n p u b l i s h e d . B i r n e y ' s i n t e n t i o n s were c l e a r l y l a u d a b l e ; however, t h e r e are s e r i o u s problems w i t h S e l e c t e d Poems. Beyond i t s i n c o m p l e t e n e s s — t h e volume c o n t a i n s fewer than o n e - s i x t h of the t o t a l number of poems—the s t r u c t u r e of t h e . c o l l e c t i o n r e f l e c t s B i r n e y ' s , not L o w r y ' s . v i s i o n of Lowry ' s volume The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm. B i r n e y ' s s e l e c t i o n encompasses poems which date from every c o m p o s i t i o n a l p e r i o d ; y e t , he i n s i s t s on f o r c i n g them a l l i n t o the L i g h t h o u s e s t r u c t u r e on the b a s i s tha t Lowry a l l h i s l i f e a p p a r e n t l y i n t e n d e d to r e v i s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e to i n c l u d e h i s 4 p o e t i c canon , even though no b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l or c o n t e x t u a l ev idence f o r B i r n e y ' s h y p o t h e s i s e x i s t s ; on the c o n t r a r y , i t i s c l e a r l y ev ident t h a t Lowry thought of and t r e a t e d The L i g h t h o u s e as a d i s c r e t e volume. F u r t h e r m o r e , B i r n e y expands the o r i g i n a l L i g h t h o u s e s t r u c t u r e to i n c l u d e f o u r s e c t i o n headings w h i l e o m i t t i n g two a u t h o r i a l ones.''" F a r more s e r i o u s i s B i r n e y ' s e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y of s i l e n t l y emending so many of the poems. Whi le i t i s t r u e tha t B i r n e y ' s r e v i s i o n s o f t en improve a p a r t i c u l a r poem, they a l s o pose s e r i o u s c r i t i c a l problems f o r r e a d e r s f a m i l i a r on ly w i t h the t e x t s as p u b l i s h e d i n S e l e c t e d Poems. Malco lm Lowry ' s f i r s t r e c o r d e d poem appeared under the pseudonym "Camel" i n a 1925 i s s u e of h i s s c h o o l newspaper, The  Leys F o r t n i g h t l y ; and d u r i n g h i s l i t e r a r y a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , which spans the e i g h t y e a r s p r i o r to the p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s f i r s t n o v e l U l t r a m a r i n e i n 1933, p u b l i s h e d t h i r t e e n f u r t h e r poems i n The Leys  F o r t n i g h t l y . i n the programme f o r the Cambridge F e s t i v a l T h e a t r e , and i n Cambridge P o e t r y 1930. i s s u e d by Leonard and V i r g i n i a Woolf at the Hogarth P r e s s . H i s poems were among the f i r s t l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s Lowry showed h i s mentor, American poet and n o v e l i s t Conrad A i k e n (1889-1973), and i n the summer of 1929, Lowry t r a v e l l e d to Cambridge , Massachusse t t s to study w i t h A i k e n . In a d d i t i o n to poems, Lowry produced d u r i n g h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p y e a r s a number of l y r i c s f o r songs , two of w h i c h , "Three L i t t l e Dog-gone Mice" and "I 've S a i d Goodbye to S h a n g h a i , " he and h i s Cambridge m u s i c a l p a r t n e r R o n a l d H i l l had p r i n t e d by a London v a n i t y shee t -mus ic p u b l i s h e r i n 1927. F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , he wrote the l y r i c s f o r two songs f o r the Cambridge F o o t l i g h t s 5 Dramat ic S o c i e t y ' s 1932 p r o d u c t i o n of Laughing at L o v e , i n which he appeared . He a l s o exper imented w i t h j a z z l y r i c s , s e v e r a l of which are i n c l u d e d i n C h a r l o t t e H a l d a n e ' s 1932 n o v e l I B r i n g  Not Peace , and he i s the p u t a t i v e author of bawdy v a r i a n t s to t r a d i t i o n a l s a i l o r ' s songs . Lowry ' s a t t e n t i o n was not f o c u s s e d on ly on poems and songs d u r i n g h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p e r i o d . He a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d short s t o r i e s to The Leys F o r t n i g h t l y , and worked from 1927 to 1933 on h i s n o v e l U l t r a m a r i n e . which i s m o d e l l e d c l o s e l y on Conrad A i k e n ' s B lue Voyage (1927) and Nordahl G r i e g ' s The Ship S a i l s On (1924; t r a n s . 1927) . From 1929 to 1932, Lowry s t u d i e d at Cambridge w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of d i l i g e n c e . He managed to c o n v i n c e h i s Cambridge examiners to accept U l t r a m a r i n e as p a r t of h i s E n g l i s h t r i p o s r e q u i r e m e n t s , and h i s g r a d u a t i o n i n 1932 marked the commencement of a two-year Bohemian p e r i o d spent i n E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , and S p a i n . Hi s next p e r i o d — p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y , h i s f i r s t p e r i o d — o f s e r i o u s w r i t i n g began i n New York i n 1934-36, when he s t a r t e d to compose. In B a l l a s t to the White Sea, which was l a t e r l o s t i n a f i r e , and the n o v e l l a now known as Lunar C a u s t i c . Lowry ' s t a s t e f o r p o p u l a r m u s i c , ev ident i n h i s j u v e n i l i a , remained w i t h him a l l h i s l i f e . Hi s b a t t e r e d u k u l e l e and h i s f a s c i n a t i o n f o r American j a z z were, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s s e a - f a r i n g persona and h i s d e v o t i o n to a l c o h o l , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s of h i s y o u t h ; i t i s not at a l l s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Lowry t u r n e d h i s hand to the c o m p o s i t i o n of j a z z tunes "with u k u l e l e accompaniment." The wooden and somewhat s u p e r f i c i a l tone of h i s j u v e n i l i a poems i s p r o b a b l y e q u a l l y due to h i s i n e x p e r i e n c e and to the u n d i s c i p l i n e d and u n d i r e c t e d l i t e r a r y enthusiasms of h i s 6 y o u t h . The f o u r t e e n items of j u v e n i l i a i n c l u d e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n must r e p r e s e n t on ly a f r a c t i o n of the poems composed between 1925 and 1933. Lowry almost c e r t a i n l y composed more than the s i n g l e 1933 poem t h i s e d i t i o n p r e s e r v e s , and a d d i t i o n a l j u v e n i l i a w i l l undoubtedly appear as more p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l becomes a v a i l a b l e . A f t e r l e a v i n g Europe i n 1934, Lowry and h i s f i r s t w i f e , Jan G a b r i a l , were l i v i n g u n h a p p i l y , and more a p a r t than t o g e t h e r , i n New York C i t y . In 1935 they d e c i d e d to m a i n t a i n s epara te r e s i d e n c e s , and Lowry, d e s p e r a t e l y unhappy, set up housekeeping i n a run-down basement room. L a r g e l y to blame f o r Lowry ' s d e s p e r a t i o n was h i s a l c o h o l i s m . In June of 1935, Lowry, 2 " i n c o h e r e n t , s h a k i n g , and h a l l u c i n a t i n g , " was a d m i t t e d to the P s y c h i a t r i c Wing of B e l l e v u e H o s p i t a l , where he g a t h e r e d the m a t e r i a l f o r Lunar C a u s t i c . L i k e most of Lowry ' s l i t e r a r y work, Lunar C a u s t i c i s s t r o n g l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , and the atmosphere of h i s New York e x p e r i e n c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n the n o v e l l a , on which he worked a f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from B e l l e v u e . At some p o i n t d u r i n g the New York p e r i o d , Lowry c o n c e i v e d h i s p o e t i c p r o j e c t The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s  the Storm. Some poems from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n appear on the same type of paper as the f i r s t t y p e d d r a f t of Lunar C a u s t i c (15-1,2; WTP 1-25) . A l l of the extant poems composed on New York paper were i n c l u d e d i n the L i g h t h o u s e c o l l e c t i o n . S e v e r a l of the most p r e v a l e n t u n i f y i n g m o t i f s of L i g h t h o u s e . i n c l u d i n g imagery of s e a - f a r i n g and j a z z , the sonnet form, and the r e c u r r i n g c h a r a c t e r s V i g i l Forge t and P e t e r Gaunt , make t h e i r f i r s t appearances on paper d a t a b l e to the New York p e r i o d . R e l a t i v e l y few New York poems are e x t a n t ; Lowry ' s u n s e t t l e d l i f e - s t y l e made the p r e s e r v a t i o n of papers d i f f i c u l t , but a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i s the f a c t tha t i n New Y o r k , Lowry was—as f a r as w r i t i n g i s c o n c e r n e d — f i r s t p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h In B a l l a s t t o the White Sea and then Lunar C a u s t i c . so tha t he1 had r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t ime f o r p o e t r y . In the f a l l of 1936, Lowry and Jan G a b r i a l l e f t New York f o r Los A n g e l e s , and by December they had s e t t l e d i n Cuernavaca , M e x i c o . A f t e r a d i s m a l y e a r , Jan G a b r i a l l e f t Lowry f o r the l a s t -tirtve i n December 1937; Lowry remained i n Mexico u n t i l the summer of 1938. The n ineteen-month Mexican s o j o u r n , a l t h o u g h by a l l accounts a wretched emot iona l e x p e r i e n c e , l e d to a b l o s s o m i n g of Lowry ' s p o e t i c work. In M e x i c o , Lowry wrote the non-extant f i r s t d r a f t of h i s g r e a t n o v e l Under the V o l c a n o , the e n t i r e known manuscr ip t f o r which dates from the D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . However, d u r i n g the Mexican p e r i o d Lowry a l s o s u b s t a n t i a l l y completed h i s f i r s t volume of p o e t r y , The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm, f o r which many m a n u s c r i p t s , i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s , e x i s t . A f t e r 1940 Lowry d i d v e r y l i t t l e work on the L i g h t h o u s e ; i t was f i n i s h e d i n 1939, when he p r o b a b l y had a t r i p l i c a t e f a i r copy manuscr ip t t y p e d i n Los A n g e l e s . That he sent the L i g h t h o u s e to at l e a s t one p u b l i s h i n g house i s ev ident i n h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; i n l a t e 1939 or e a r l y 1940, he in formed Conrad A i k e n that Whit B u r n e t t , who had r e c e n t l y become an e d i t o r at L i p p i n c o t t ' s , was h o l d i n g the L i g h t h o u s e t y p e s c r i p t (SL 24 ) . A year l a t e r , i n the s p r i n g of 1941, Lowry, unsure of the l o c a t i o n of the "hapless and ambulatory" t y p e s c r i p t , wrote h i s agent , H a r o l d Matson , f o r 8 i n f o r m a t i o n as to i t s whereabouts (SL 40 ) . Matson had no success i n s e l l i n g The L i g h t h o u s e , and , to make mat ters worse , Lowry ' s f r i e n d , I r i s h w r i t e r and t r a n s l a t o r James S t e r n , r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r f a i l u r e w i t h "Eight Poems from The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the  S torm ." which Lowry had sent him i n May 1940 i n the hope tha t S t e r n would be a b l e to s e l l i t t o E s g u i r e (1 -64) . T h i s appears to have been Lowry ' s f i n a l attempt to promote the c o l l e c t i o n , and , perhaps as a r e s u l t of i t s l a c k of s u c c e s s , he d i d l i t t l e f u r t h e r work on i t . Only t h r e e of the e i g h t y - t h r e e L i g h t h o u s e poems were i n c l u d e d i n Lowry ' s second u n p u b l i s h e d volume of p o e t r y , which he assembled i n 1947, and on ly t en of the L i g h t h o u s e poems were r e v i s e d a f t e r 1940. In 1939-40, a f t e r a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver and l a t e r s e t t l i n g i n D o l l a r t o n , Lowry began an e n t i r e l y new s e r i e s of poems. The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm i s t e x t u a l l y , b i o g r a p h i c a l l y , and c r i t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the New York and Mexican p e r i o d s , and t h e r e f o r e can be most p r o f i t a b l y s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the New York v e r s i o n of Lunar C a u s t i c (more p r o p e r l y , f o r the p e r i o d 1934-36, t i t l e d The L a s t Address ) and c e r t a i n a spec t s of Under the V o l c a n o , the f i n a l v e r s i o n of which be longs to the f i r s t D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d , d u r i n g which Lowry r e -wrote i t between 1940 and 1944 . The on ly extant l i t e r a r y m a n u s c r i p t s which are r e l i a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Lowry ' s Mexican p e r i o d are the ones f o r The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm. In 1940, the Lowrys moved t o a shack on the beach at D o l l a r t o n , and , except f o r t h e i r e x t e n s i v e American and European t r a v e l s from 1945 to 1949 and a few w i n t e r s spent i n r e n t e d 9 apartments i n Vancouver , they remained at D o l l a r t o n u n t i l t h e i r f i n a l d e p a r t u r e i n 1954. D u r i n g the f i r s t p a r t of h i s D o l l a r t o n t e n u r e , Lowry r e - w r o t e and f i n i s h e d Under the V o l c a n o ; from 194 9 to 1954 he wrote most of h i s volume of shor t s t o r i e s Hear us 0  L o r d from heaven Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e , and w r e s t l e d w i t h the unwieldy October F e r r y to G a b r i o l a . In a d d i t i o n , Lowry wrote h a l f of h i s p o e t i c canon d u r i n g the 1940-54 D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . Of the four hundred and s i x t y - f i v e poems c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s e d i t i o n , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred can be a s s i g n e d by paper a n a l y s i s t o D o l l a r t o n . However, the D o l l a r t o n p o e t i c output i s p r o b a b l y g r e a t e r : from 1949 u n t i l h i s death i n 1957, Lowry composed many l o v e poems f o r M a r g e r i e . These poems, which i n t h i s e d i t i o n are c o l l e c t e d i n a d i s c r e t e s e c t i o n , o v e r l a p Lowry ' s second D o l l a r t o n and Eng land p e r i o d s and appear on the same types of p a p e r , so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine p r e c i s e l y how many of the n i n e t y - s e v e n l o v e poems were composed i n D o l l a r t o n and how many i n E n g l a n d . An a n a l y s i s of the content s of the notes s u r r o u n d i n g the l o v e poems i n d i c a t e s tha t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of them c o u l d be s a f e l y a s s i g n e d to D o l l a r t o n , b r i n g i n g h i s t o t a l D o l l a r t o n output to some two hundred and t h i r t y poems: c l e a r l y Lowry ' s most p r o l i f i c p o e t r y p e r i o d . In the m i d d l e of t h e i r e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l s , the Lowrys made a b r i e f e ight -month r e t u r n to D o l l a r t o n i n 1947, when Lowry had M a r g e r i e type out some s i x t y poems, of which f i f t y - f o u r were a u t h o r i a l l y s e l e c t e d and o r d e r e d i n t o a second volume of p o e t r y . U n l i k e the L i g h t h o u s e . which i s an i n t e g r a t e d and h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d work, Lowry ' s 1947 volume r e p r e s e n t s a s e l e c t i o n of what he r e g a r d e d as the most p r o m i s i n g poems from the f i r s t 10 D o l l a r t o n p e i - i o d . The s e l e c t i o n i s t y p i c a l l y Lowryan i n tha t i t i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d . The t y p e s c r i p t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e t i t l e d s e c t i o n s : "Poems of the Sea ," "Poems from M e x i c o , " and "Poems from V a n c o u v e r . " On 7 November 1947, the day the Lowrys l e f t Vancouver by s h i p bound f o r Europe v i a the Panama C a n a l , Lowry sent the t y p e s c r i p t to A l b e r t E r s k i n e , h i s American e d i t o r . A l t h o u g h he was s e l f - d e p r e c a t i n g i n h i s a t t a c h e d n o t e , t h i s t y p e s c r i p t bears a c l o s e r resemblance to a p o l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n than a n y t h i n g e l s e i n Lowry ' s p o e t i c p a p e r s . E r s k i n e l a t e r r e t u r n e d the t y p e s c r i p t w i t h h i s comments p e n c i l l e d on the s h e e t s . In l i g h t of E r s k i n e ' s e d i t o r i a l s u g g e s t i o n s , between 1951 and 1954, Lowry f u r t h e r r e v i s e d f o r t y - s i x of the f i f t y - f o u r poems, but n o t h i n g ever came of the r e v i s e d s e l e c t i o n . That he c o n t i n u e d r e v i s i n g these poems, suggests t h a t he may have had p l a n s f o r s u b m i t t i n g the s e l e c t i o n t o a p u b l i s h e r , but t h e r e i s no ev idence t h a t he ever d i d so . On 11 August 1954, on a f i n a l s o j o u r n tha t would take him f i r s t to New Y o r k , then to I t a l y , and , f i n a l l y , t o E n g l a n d , Lowry l e f t h i s b e l o v e d D o l l a r t o n beach f o r the l a s t t i m e . He was i n a t e r r i b l e c o n d i t i o n ; the ravages of h i s extreme a l c o h o l consumption were ev ident i n h i s appearance and c o n d u c t . D a v i d 3 Markson ' s w i d e l y - p u b l i s h e d "Malcolm Lowry: A Reminiscence" p a i n t s a v i v i d p o r t r a i t of Lowry ' s two-week s tay i n New Y o r k : The man c o u l d not shave h i m s e l f . . . . M o r n i n g s , he needed two or t h r e e ounces of g i n i n h i s orange j u i c e i f he was to s teady h i s hand to eat the b r e a k f a s t tha t would v e r y l i k e l y prove h i s on ly meal of the day . T h e r e a f t e r a d i m i n i s h i n g y e l l o w t i n t i n the g l a s s might b e l i e the f a c t that, now he was d r i n k i n g the g i n n e a t , which he d i d f o r as many hours as i t took him t o . U l t i m a t e l y 11 he would c o l l a p s e — s o m e t i m e s s e n s i b l e enough of h i s c o n d i t i o n to l u r c h toward a b e d , though more o f t en he would c r a s h down i n t o a c h a i r , and once i t was a c r o s s my phonograph. Then he would hack and s p u t t e r through the n i g h t l i k e some grea t d e f e c t i v e machine b r e a k i n g a p a r t . I t was i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n — p e r h a p s even worse—that Lowry was a d m i t t e d to Brook G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l i n London i n September 1955, a f t e r spend ing a year i n I t a l y and London. He c o n t i n u e d to d r i n k , and i n November 1955 e n t e r e d London's A t k i n s o n M o r l e y ' s H o s p i t a l f o r p s y c h i a t r i c t r e a t m e n t . A f t e r h i s r e l e a s e i n F e b r u a r y of 1956, the Lowrys s e t t l e d i n t o t h e i r l a s t home, the White C o t t a g e , i n R i p e , Sussex . In June , J u l y and August of t h a t y e a r , Lowry was a g a i n at A t k i n s o n M o r l e y ' s , and i n the f a l l M a r g e r i e was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r e x h a u s t i o n . From the t ime of Lowry ' s f i n a l d i s c h a r g e u n t i l h i s death on 27 June 1957, the Lowrys l i v e d q u i e t l y i n R i p e , d e p a r t i n g on ly f o r a t o u r of the Lake D i s t r i c t j u s t b e f o r e he d i e d . D e s p i t e h i s i l l n e s s , Lowry engaged i n some l i t e r a r y work w h i l e l i v i n g at the White C o t t a g e . A l t h o u g h he was r e v i s i n g the s t o r i e s and composing a p h i l o s o p h i c a l / p o l i t i c a l essay e n t i t l e d " H a l t ! I P r o t e s t , " he devoted most of h i s w r i t i n g t ime to correspondence and October F e r r y to G a b r i o l a . The poems w r i t t e n d u r i n g 1956 and 1957 were almost a l l a c o n t i n u a t i o n of the type of l ove poem tha t he had commenced d i s t r i b u t i n g around the shack f o r M a r g e r i e d u r i n g the second D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . He sent a grea t many of these l i t t l e " d i t t i e s " to h i s w i f e d u r i n g her h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n London. On h i s death i n 1957, Lowry l e f t on both s i d e s of the A t l a n t i c a cop ious number of m a n u s c r i p t s i n v a r i o u s s t a t e s of 12 d i s a r r a y . He never had the o p p o r t u n i t y to complete the grand p l a n he c o n c e i v e d f o r h i s l i t e r a r y canon—"The Voyage That Never Ends"—because h i s own voyage ended much too soon. Malco lm Lowry ' s l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n r e s t s p r i m a r i l y , i f not q u i t e e x c l u s i v e l y , on h i s 1947 n o v e l Under the V o l c a n o . S ince 1960, when E a r l e B i r n e y and M a r g e r i e Lowry began c o l l e c t i n g Lowry ' s papers and p u b l i s h i n g , w i t h Douglas Day and Harvey B r e i t , posthumous e d i t i o n s , the Lowry canon has been extended to i n c l u d e the r e v i s e d U l t r a m a r i n e (1962) , the s t o r i e s i n Hear us 0 L o r d  from heaven Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e (1961) , S e l e c t e d Poems (1962) , Lunar C a u s t i c (1963), S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s (1965), Dark as the Grave  Wherein my F r i e n d Is L a i d (1968) , October F e r r y to G a b r i o l a (1970), and o ther m i s c e l l a n e o u s works . With the excep t ions of S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s and S e l e c t e d Poems. a l l these posthumous e d i t i o n s have been of p r o s e works , an e d i t o r i a l and c r i t i c a l emphasis t h a t tends to be m i s l e a d i n g . Whi l e i t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t the q u a l i t y of h i s p o e t r y p a l l s b e s i d e t h a t of h i s p r o s e , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s t r u e t h a t Lowry composed over f o u r hundred and f i f t y poems, a f a c t which c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s cannot i g n o r e , e s p e c i a l l y i n view of the importance Lowry a t t a c h e d to h i s p o e t r y . In t h i s e d i t i o n , Lowry ' s p o e t i c m a t e r i a l i s o r g a n i z e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y to r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y Lowry ' s a r t i s t i c development . H i s p o e t r y f a l l s i n t o the f o l l o w i n g major p e r i o d s of c o m p o s i t i o n : a p p r e n t i c e s h i p 1925-33; New York 1934-36; M e x i c o , Los A n g e l e s , and Vancouver 1936-39; D o l l a r t o n 1940-54; E n g l a n d 1955-57. The p o e t i c t e x t s b e l o n g i n g to each p e r i o d are p r e s e n t e d i n s eparate s e c t i o n s , w i t h each s e c t i o n preceded by a s h o r t essay 13 d iscuss ing the spec i f i c issues of biography, context, manuscript material and h i s t o r y , dat ing, arrangement, and emendations relevant to that per iod . The discreteness of the two c o l l e c t i o n s Lowry made in his l i fet ime—The Lighthouse Invites the Storm and the 1947 se lect ion—are preserved, and these c o l l e c t i o n s appear in t h e i r proper chronological sequence. Such an arrangement i s designed to be as e d i t o r i a l l y unobtrusive as poss ib l e , and to f a c i l i t a t e c r i t i c a l d iscuss ion e i ther in a b iographica l continuum or in r e l a t i o n to the prose texts on which Lowry was simultaneously working. NOTES ^ Birney adds "Thunder Beyond Popocatepetl ," "Venus," "Songs from the Beach: Eridanus ," and "The Language of Man's Woe"; he omits "Songs for Second Childhood" and "The Moon in Scandinavia." 2 Day, 196. 3 David Markson, "Malcolm Lowry: A Reminiscence," Nation CCII 16 (7 Feb 1966): 164-67. 14 TEXTS AND CONTEXTS: A CRITICAL APPROACH TO LOWRY'S POETRY The s imple W o r d s w o r t h , . . . Who, both by p r e c e p t and example, shows That p r o s e i s v e r s e , and v e r s e i s merely p r o s e (Lord B y r o n , E n g l i s h Bards and Scotch Reviewers) A p p l i e d to Malco lm Lowry, B y r o n ' s w i c k e d , s a t i r i c a l s t r i c t u r e would be h y p e r b o l i c ; but B y r o n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , does underscore a c e n t r a l dilemma Lowryan s p e c i a l i s t s face i n a t t e m p t i n g to e v a l u a t e c r i t i c a l l y h i s s i z e a b l e p o e t i c c o r p u s . A n o v e l i s t , who r e g a r d e d h i s e s s e n t i a l c r e a t i v e "equipment" as p o e t i c r a t h e r than f i c t i o n a l , Lowry l e f t b e h i n d an enormous amount of p o e t r y , most of i t ' i n manuscr ip t form, but o f t en i n d r a f t s f o r completed vo lumes , which owing to h i s o c c a s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s as a p o e t , he was unable to p l a c e f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . As t h i s e d i t i o n t e s t i f i e s , i n terms of s i z e a l o n e , Lowry ' s p o e t i c canon i s too e x t e n s i v e to be i g n o r e d ; b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , the p o e t r y complements the f i c t i o n i n so many w a y s — t h e m a t i c a l l y , t o p i c a l l y , and , e s p e c i a l l y , b i o g r a p h i c a l l y — t h a t i t o f t en serves as a conven ien t commentary on the p r o s e , i l l u m i n a t i n g the mental and emot iona l p r o c e s s e s tha t Lowry employed i n a d a p t i n g , t r a n s l a t i n g , and t r a n s f i g u r i n g p o e t i c impulses i n t o language and s t r a t e g i e s s u i t a b l e f o r f i c t i o n . With t y p i c a l s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n , Lowry ' s 1957 e p i s t o l a r y c o m p l a i n t to R a l p h G u s t a f s o n , quoted i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y essay , s t r i k e s at the hear t of h i s p o e t i c p r o b l e m . His comments r e f l e c t a d i s c o m f o r t w i t h the forms of p o e t r y , not w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r type of v i s i o n i t r e q u i r e s . I t was Lowry ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h " s c a n s i o n , s t r e s s , i n t e r i o r rhyme and the l i k e , " and not a 15 problem w i t h p o e t i c c o n c e p t i o n , which r e s u l t e d i n h i s p o e t r y ' s "wooden frame ." Norman Newton, a Vancouver w r i t e r , was a v i s t o r at. the Lowry shack d u r i n g the second D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d (1949-54) . In a 1986 l e t t e r , he remembers: Malco lm had an i n t e n s e l y m u s i c a l m i n d — h i s w r i t i n g uses r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n the s t y l e of an a c c o m p l i s h e d composer—but he had none of the p h y s i c a l endowments of the m u s i c i a n . . . . A l l of t h i s , of c o u r s e , went to feed h i s h a t r e d of h i s body . I t s i m p l y d i d not re spond f i n e l y enough. I f e e l t h a t h i s l a c k of p h y s i c a l f i n e s s e had something to do w i t h h i s f a i l u r e to master the c r a f t of v e r s e . The images are m a r v e l l o u s , but the ear i s c o a r s e so f a r as rhythmic d e t a i l i s c o n c e r n e d . He needed the l a r g e r and l o o s e r swing of p r o s e . (Sal loum 88) Lowry ' s d i s c o m f o r t w i t h r e g u l a t e d form i s marked: i n 1940, a year a f t e r he had completed h i s f i r s t volume of p o e t r y , The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm. Conrad A i k e n a d v i s e d him: I t h i n k i t ' s good tha t y o u ' r e w r i t i n g p o e t r y — but do t r y to keep your numbers and q u a n t i t i e s s t r a i g h t — 1 Freedom comes a f t e r mastery not b e f o r e — t h e sonnet c o n s i s t s of 14 l i n e s of f i v e -beat i a m b i c s , rhymed ababcdcdefe fgg or abbaabbacdecde: i t c a n ' t j u s t be anythingI (1-2) As h i s correspondence w i t h Gus ta f son i n d i c a t e s , Lowry f e l t inadequate and f r u s t r a t e d by h i s g e n e r a l l a c k of success i n a c h i e v i n g p o e t i c d i s c i p l i n e . I t i s a t r a d i t i o n a l view among Lowryans t h a t , because he never c o n s i d e r e d any p i e c e of work comple te , he had to be coaxed to send a " f i n a l " v e r s i o n to h i s p u b l i s h e r . T h i s i s t r u e of the p r o s e , but the number of f i r s t d r a f t poems to which Lowry never r e t u r n e d i s h i g h , r e v e a l i n g both h i s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the r i g o u r s of v e r s e , and h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r p r o s e forms. 16 Lowry f e l t more c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h p r o s e ; i n i t , he c o u l d l e t a m u l t i - l a y e r e d , e n c y c l o p a e d i c n a r r a t i v e determine the form of the p i e c e . A c c o r d i n g to Lowry, Under the Volcano d i s p l a y s j u s t such a form: i n h i s 1946 l e t t e r to Jonathan Cape, he argued vehemently f o r i t s c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d " c h u r r i g u e r e s q u e s t r u c t u r e " (SL 61) , a s t r u c t u r e which i s e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c a l : . . . 1 c l a i m that j u s t as a t a i l o r w i l l t r y to c o n c e a l the d e f o r m i t i e s of h i s c l i e n t , so I have t r i e d , aware of t h i s d e f e c t [h i s p o e t i c m e n t a l i t y ] , to c o n c e a l i n the Volcano as w e l l as p o s s i b l e the d e f o r m i t i e s of my own mind , t a k i n g h e a r t from the f a c t t h a t s i n c e the c o n c e p t i o n of the whole t h i n g was e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c a l , perhaps these d e f o r m i t i e s d o n ' t mat ter so v e r y much a f t e r a l l , even when they show! But poems o f t en have to be r e a d s e v e r a l t imes b e f o r e t h e i r f u l l meaning w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f , explode i n the mind , and i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s p o e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n of the whole t h a t I suggest has been , i f u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , m i s s e d . (SL 59) Lowry c l e a r l y v iewed h i s approach to w r i t i n g as p o e t i c a l , r e g a r d l e s s of g e n e r i c c o n v e n t i o n s , and he shared t h i s view w i t h h i s mentors . In a l engthy l e t t e r to D a v i d Markson , a Columbia U n i v e r s i t y graduate s tudent who i n 1951 was c o m p l e t i n g h i s M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s on the V o l c a n o . Lowry d e s c r i b e d both Conrad A i k e n ' s B lue Voyage and Nordahl G r i e g ' s The Ship S a i l s On as works of poets (SL 265) , an i n d i c a t i o n tha t h i s sense of p o e t i c s was not l i m i t e d to v e r s e . A study of h i s poems and t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p r o s e i s i n v a l u a b l e because of what i t r e v e a l s about Lowry ' s c o n c e p t i o n and use of language . In h i s bes t w r i t i n g , Lowry s t r o v e to weave a net of language dense ly meshed w i t h a s s o c i a t i v e i d e a s , images, and r e v e r b e r a t i o n s , whose f u l l set of meanings on ly g r a d u a l l y "explodes" i n the r e a d e r ' s , m i n d . F o r example, to Cape ' s r e a d e r W i l l i a m P l o m e r ' s o b j e c t i o n about 17 the vagueness of the V o l c a n o ' s c h a r a c t e r s , Lowry responded: T h i s i s a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m . But I have not e x a c t l y at tempted to draw c h a r a c t e r s i n the normal sense—though s 'welp me bob i t ' s on ly A r i s t o t l e who thought c h a r a c t e r counted l e a s t . . . . The t r u t h i s t h a t the c h a r a c t e r drawing i s not only weak but v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t e n t , save w i t h c e r t a i n minor c h a r a c t e r s , the f o u r main c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g i n t e n d e d , i n one of the book ' s meanings , to be a spec t s of the same man, or of the human s p i r i t , and two of them, Hugh and the C o n s u l , more o b v i o u s l y a r e . I suggest t h a t here and t h e r e what may l o o k l i k e u n s u c c e s f u l at tempts at c h a r a c t e r drawing may on ly be the c o n c r e t e bases to the c r e a t u r e ' s l i v e s wi thout which a g a i n the book c o u l d not be r e a d at a l 1 . (SL 60) Lowry hoped to evoke a v i s i o n of the "human s p i r i t " through an amalgamation of a l l f o u r main c h a r a c t e r s . Hi s comments on c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n p r e f i g u r e Tzve tan T o d o r o v ' s statement i n the 1966 essay " P o e t i c s and C r i t i c i s m " : "The l i t e r a r y work does not have a form and a content but a s t r u c t u r e of s i g n i f i c a t i o n s whos r e l a t i o n s must be apprehended" (The P o e t i c s of Prose 41 ) . Lowry' . l i t e r a r y language operates on the p r i n c i p l e s of embedding, a m p l i f i c a t i o n , and resonance ; the r e a d e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n of the n o v e l or poem depends upon i t s sum t o t a l of e f f e c t s , and the success of any of h i s works must be e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of i t e v o c a t i v e impact upon the r e a d e r , and n o t , as Cape ' s r e a d e r assumes, on the m e r i t s of i t s p l o t , c h a r a c t e r s , and themes. A c c o r d i n g l y , i n the 1946 l e t t e r Lowry suggested t h a t the v e t t o r ' a p p r e c i a t i o n of the r e s o n a n t , o r g a n i c na ture of the book would depend upon second and t h i r d r e a d i n g s . To Lowry, such a l i t e r a r y work was " e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c a l . " 18 Lowry ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l method combined h i s v e r s e and p r o s e . In the c o l l e c t i o n of shor t s t o r i e s Hear us 0 L o r d from heaven Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e , f o r example, the D o l l a r t o n u n c o l l e c t e d poem "Pines w r i t e a Ch inese poem upon the w h i t e - g o l d sun" [271] was composed on the ho lograph manuscr ip t of the s t o r y "The Present E s t a t e of P o m p e i i . " P r e c e d i n g the poem, at the top of the shee t , Lowry wrote : A l s o , i n I I , when Downey r e f l e c t s at the top of the W i l d e r n e s s s t e p s , w h i l e they are swimming, I w r i t e t h i s i n p o e t r y , which i t i s : p o s s i b l y i t i s a fragment of "our p l a y , " p o s s i b l y some of i t be longs h e r e , or i n E r i d a n u s , or even G i n and G o l d e n r o d : but I t h i n k , i f a l o n g s t o r y , i t s substance s h o u l d be h e r e . (22-23) The two-page poem f o l l o w s , a f t e r which the p r o s e c o n t i n u e s . Though the poem does not s u r v i v e i n the p u b l i s h e d s t o r y , i t was an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the s t o r y ' s c o m p o s i t i o n and development . T h i r t e e n of the D o l l a r t o n u n c o l l e c t e d poems d e r i v e from p r o s e m a n u s c r i p t s . Though they are not p o l i s h e d examples of v e r s e , these poems are none the l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t as ev idence of how f r e q u e n t l y f o r Lowry the c o n c e p t u a l p r o c e s s f o r h i s p r o s e began i n what he c o n s i d e r e d to be a p o e t i c v i s i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o e x i s t s between the p o e t r y volume The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm and the n o v e l Under the V o l c a n o . A c c o r d i n g to E a r l e B i r n e y : . . . [ L o w r y ] was too s e l f - c e n t e r e d , too i n e x p e r i e n c e d about o t h e r s , t o be c o n t e n t e d w i t h p r o s e f i c t i o n a l o n e ; when he f e l t most deep ly he t u r n e d to v e r s e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r he came under the i n f l u e n c e of Conrad A i k e n . Indeed some of the most powerfu l passages i n Under the Vo lcano were f i r s t w r i t t e n as v e r s e . By the t ime he came to D o l l a r t o n he had the h a b i t of r e c o r d i n g whatever d a y - t o - d a y 19 e x p e r i e n c e s most moved him i n p o e t i c form, s e e i n g an e a g l e , f i n d i n g a s t r a n g e f l o w e r . And l a t e r he would re -work some of these poems i n t o the p r o s e of h i s Vo lcano and h i s l a t e r n o v e l s . (Sal loum 69) Some of these i n i t i a l Vo lcano v e r s i o n s are p r e s e r v e d as p a r t s of poems i n the L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm. For example, i n the s i x t h c h a p t e r o f the V o l c a n o . the Consu l s tands musing i n Jacques L a r u e l l e ' s house i n Quauhnahuac: Suddenly he f e l t something never f e l t b e f o r e w i t h such s h o c k i n g c e r t a i n t y . I t was t h a t he was i n h e l l h i m s e l f . At the same t ime he became pos se s sed of a c u r i o u s c a l m . The i n n e r ferment w i t h i n h im, the s q u a l l s and eddies of n e r v o u s n e s s , were h e l d a g a i n i n check . He c o u l d hear Jacques moving downs ta i r s and soon he would have another d r i n k . That would h e l p , but i t was not the thought which calmed h im. P a r i a n — t h e F a r o l i t o i he s a i d to h i m s e l f . The L i g h t h o u s e , the l i g h t h o u s e t h a t i n v i t e s the s torm, and l i g h t s i t i CUV 199-200) In t h i s case the opening l i n e of a poem, and the t i t l e of the p o e t r y volume i t s e l f , has moved from the p o e t r y i n t o the p r o s e . The F a r o l i t o c a n t i n a beckons the Consu l throughout the Day of the Dead, and , at the end of t h a t day, he i s murdered t h e r e . As A c k e r l e y and C l i p p e r p o i n t out (278), a l i g h t h o u s e which i n v i t e s the storm i s a s t r i k i n g image of the C o n s u l ' s s e l f -d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s . The image f i r s t appears i n the poem "The l i g h t h o u s e i n v i t e s the storm" [87] , composed i n New York between 1934 and 1936, i n which i t s purpose and e f f e c t i s markedly d i f f e r e n t from i t s use i n the V o l c a n o . In the poem, the l i g h t h o u s e appears on ly i n the f i r s t l i n e "The l i g h t h o u s e i n v i t e s the storm and l i g h t s i t . " The r e s t of the p i e c e d e s c r i b e s a storm at s ea , and the f i n a l l i n e s o f f e r a s o n n e t - l i k e p h i l o s o p h i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n : 20 And what s h a l l we, what s h a l l we n o t , t o l e r a t e Today from chaos , what? — by the unshot a l b a t r o s s and I c a r u s ' c i r c u s p lunge? (13-15) The e f f e c t of the l i g h t h o u s e image i s weakened by i t s s i n g l e appearance; a f t e r i n t r o d u c i n g the s torm, the l i g h t h o u s e d i s a p p e a r s . The image of the l i g h t h o u s e i s more resonant i n the V o l c a n o ; i t i s a p e r f e c t o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e f o r the C o n s u l , whereas i n the poem, the image, though s t r i k i n g , i s d i m i n i s h e d by Lowry ' s f a i l u r e to weave i t i n t o the f a b r i c of the t e x t . The F a r o l i t o — t h e l i g h t h o u s e — i s ment ioned f r e q u e n t l y throughout the V o l c a n o . and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a l c o h o l , d e a t h , and h e l l r e v e r b e r a t e and e f f e c t i v e l y remind the r e a d e r t h a t the Consu l i s l i g h t i n g and i n v i t i n g h i s own s torm. The image of the l i g h t h o u s e i n the two p i e c e s s i g n a l s the d i m i n i s h i n g importance of Lowry ' s sea e x p e r i e n c e i n h i s work. He never abandons the sea m o t i f , but as Lowry aged he was l e s s i n s i s tha t a l l h i s male p r o t a g o n i s t s share h i s s e a f a r i n g p a s t . His placement and r e v i s e d t o n a l shad ing of a f a v o u r i t e good l i n e such as "The l i g h t h o u s e i n v i t e s the storm" r e v e a l something about h i s c o n c e p t i o n of the new work's emphasis . The sea , and a l l i t s Lowryan c o n n o t a t i o n s , i s c e r t a i n l y l e s s v i t a l to the Volcano than to the L i g h t h o u s e . A l t h o u g h both Hugh and the C o n s u l have had n a u t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s , Hugh i s the c h a r a c t e r who shares the s a i l i n g e x p e r i e n c e of U l t r a m a r i n e ' s Dana H i l l i o t , and Lowry does not g i v e h i s good l i n e to Hugh, to be used i n r e l a t i o n to the s ea , as he does i n the poem; r a t h e r , he g i v e s i t t o the C o n s u l , the n o v e l ' s dominant , u n f o r g e t t a b l e f i g u r e , to express the C o n s u l ' s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : h i s a l c o h o l i c s e l f -21 destruction, and a l l that Lowry believes i t s i g n i f i e s about the human condition. Motifs which appear in embryonic form in the Lighthouse often come to f r u i t i o n in the Volcano. For example, in "Another than Wordsworth dropped his l i v e work" [45], Lowry mentions the Ohio. a ship which s i t s "smoking" off San Francisco. In the margin of the sheet, beside this l i n e , the words "Dark as" appear in his hand. In Dark as the Grave (6-7), the ship reappears as the Pennsylvania. the same ship which brought Lowry and Jan Gabrial to Acapulco in September 1936. In chapter two of the Volcano. the Consul's estranged wife Yvonne arrives at Acapulco on the Pennsylvania. Throughout that chapter, repeated references to the ship occur. Although Yvonne remembers s a i l i n g into a harbour a l i v e with swarms of beautiful b u t t e r f l i e s , the undertone of the Pennsylvania references i s very dark, l i k e the hopeless love Yvonne and the Consul share: through Yvonne, Lowry represents the Consul's dire self-destructiveness in terms of the ship. A few moments after Yvonne has discovered the Consul in the bar, he informs her that "It's r e a l l y the shakes that make t h i s kind of l i f e insupportable. But they w i l l stop: I was only drinking enough so they would. Just the necessary, the therapeutic drink." Yvonne looked back at him. "—b u t the shakes are the worst, of course," he was going on. "You get to l i k e the other afte r a while, and I'm r e a l l y doing very well, I'm much better than I was six months ago, very much better than I was, say, in Oaxaca"—noting a curious f a m i l i a r glare in his eyes that always frightened her, a glare turned inward now l i k e one of those sombrely b r i l l i a n t cluster-lamps down the hatches of the Pennsylvania on the 22 work of u n l o a d i n g , on ly t h i s was a work of s p o l i a t i o n : and she f e l t a sudden d r e a d l e s t t h i s g l a r e , as of o l d , s h o u l d swing outward, t u r n upon her . CUV 54) The t o n a l q u a l i t y of t h i s passage i s h e a v i l y r e m i n i s c e n t of "Another than Wordsworth dropped h i s l i v e work ," the l a s t t h r e e l i n e s of which c o u l d p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e d e p i c t i o n of the C o n s u l ' s morn ing: Such i s the n a t u r e of h i s doom That l i k e some i n f a n t Aeo lus Dowson i n t empes t ' s t a v e r n , He c l a p s f o r b e t t e r t h u n d e r , w i l d e r typhoon . The theme of t a v e r n s and a l c o h o l , e s s e n t i a l i n the V o l c a n o . a l s o informs much of the L i g h t h o u s e . p a r t i c u l a r l y the t h i r d s e c t i o n , "The C a n t i n a s . " In c h a p t e r t h r e e of the V o l c a n o . the C o n s u l , d u r i n g h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt to make l o v e to h i s w i f e , asks h i m s e l f e s s e n t i a l l y the same q u e s t i o n posed at the end of the poem "Doctory Usquebaugh" [28]: . . . S o w e l l might we i n q u i r e , content to r o t , What do you o f f e r , l o v e , which d r i n k does not? (17-18) In f a c t , when he r e a l i z e s he i s impotent , the Consu l v i s u a l i z e s a b o t t l e of a l c o h o l : he cannot t e l l Yvonne tha t he loves h e r , but he can r e c i t e the s logan on the l a b e l s of Johnn ie Walker whisky b o t t l e s (UV 95) . Jan G a b r i a l ' s b i o g r a p h i c a l shor t s t o r y "Not w i t h a Bang" (Story XXIX (1946) 121:55-61) , a d e p i c t i o n of the i m p o s s i b l e Mexican s i t u a t i o n she shared w i t h Lowry, echoes and c o r r o b o r a t e s the mood and tone of the f i n a l c o u p l e t i n "Doctor Usquebaugh." In the L i g h t h o u s e . i n the V o l c a n o . and i n Lowry ' s l i f e , d r i n k trumps sex. 23 The e x p r e s s i o n of Lowry ' s p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t i o n of the essence of Mexico i s an important component of the V o l c a n o . as he makes c l e a r to Jonathan Cape i n 1946: I f e e l the f i r s t c h a p t e r f o r example, such as i t s t a n d s , i s neces sary s i n c e i t s e t s , even wi thout the r e a d e r ' s knowledge, the mood and tone of the book as w e l l as the slow melancholy t r a g i c rhythm of Mexico i t s e l f — i t s sadness—and above a l l e s t a b l i s h e s the t e r r a i n . . . (SL 58) A s i m i l a r concern f o r the l a n d e x i s t s i n Lowry ' s D o l l a r t o n p o e t r y and the posthumous n o v e l October F e r r y to G a b r i o l a . Lowry ' s a b i l i t y t o f i n d the a p p r o p r i a t e language to a r t i c u l a t e an e x p l i c i t sense of Canadian l o c a t i o n l i n k s the D o l l a r t o n poems and October F e r r y . I t i s worth n o t i n g t h a t the s e c t i o n s of the 1947 s e l e c t i o n are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y grouped , and tha t r o u g h l y t w o - t h i r d s of the s e l e c t i o n ' s poems are c o n t a i n e d i n the "Poems from Vancouver" s e c t i o n . The D o l l a r t o n m a n u s c r i p t s share the p a t t e r n man i f e s t i n the Mexican p a p e r s . F o r example, Lowry composed the u n c o l l e c t e d poem "Lament i n the P a c i f i c Northwest" [241] , which mourns the " p r o g r e s s i v e " changes i n the Vancouver ne ighbourhood . around Denman and Davie S t r e e t s , on the m a n u s c r i p t s f o r October F e r r y . and a v e r s i o n of the poem c l o s e s c h a p t e r t w e n t y - f i v e . C e r t a i n d e s c r i p t i v e passages i n October F e r r y are r e m i n i s c e n t of the D o l l a r t o n poems: For one f i n e morning near h i g h t i d e they would r i s e t o see a gree t wheel of c a r v e d c u r l i n g t u r q u o i s e w i t h f l a s h i n g s l e e k e d spokes sharp as a f i n t h r e e m i l e s l o n g sweeping around the bay: c r a s h , boom: the wash of a steamer coming i n under the m i s t — p a r a d i s a l r e s u l t and d i sp lacement of tha t f a r d i s t a n t and most malodorous cause , a d i r t y o i l t a n k e r w h i c h , w i t h a l l i t s f l a g s s t r u n g d i a g o n a l l y a l o f t above i t s b r i d g e s and c a t w a l k s , l ooked l i k e a huge f l o a t i n g promenade. (OF 80-81) 24 Again, Lowry's descr ip t ive method in th i s passage i s p o e t i c a l or "churrigueresque:" i t s effect depends upon the reader's "poet ical conception of the whole." His c h a r a c t e r i s t i c technique of prov id ing s tr ings of mult ip le modifiers ("great wheel of carved c u r l i n g turquoise") evokes the poem's sense of place through imagery, so that the reader i s forced to in teract subject ive ly rather than objec t ive ly with Lowry's landscape, as he does also in the poem "Happiness" [148]: Blue mountains with snow and blue co ld rough water -A wi ld sky f u l l of stars at r i s i n g And Venus and the gibbous moon at sunrise . Gul l s fo l lowing a motor boat against the wind, Trees with branches rooted in a i r ; S i t t i n g in the sun at noon With the fur ious ly smoking shadow of the shack chimney, Eagles dr ive downwind in one, Terns blow backward Ben Maartman, a shack-dweller during the 1950s, remembers Lowry's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c poet ic method of speech: When he'd get drunk Malcolm would speak with a flow of thoughts and imagery. He would look at something l i k e the l o c a l gravel p i t and t e l l you a l l the shades of h i s t o r y , and c l a s s i c s down through the times, and out of i t would come a kernel of why we were a l l in th i s moment in time. His knowledge, assoc ia t ions , and descr ipt ions were phenomenal. He was a poet: we could a l l have the same experience, but he was the only one who could capture i t . (Salloum 96) Lowry's method of speech i s not the only b iographica l aspect of his poetry. His current biographer, Gordon Bowker, comments "that Lowry was a c t a l l y a bet ter poet than Selected Poems suggests he was. There were some very good ones in the s e l ec t i on , but there are many more just as good in 'the whole b o l u s ' . . . . I am coming to the conclusion that the poetry i s of greater 25 b i o g r a p h i c a l v a l u e than I had p r e v i o u s l y thought" ( l e t t e r to K . S . , 25 A p r i l 1988) . Most Lowyrans agree t h a t Lowry ' s works m a n i f e s t a s t r o n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l component. The l y r i c a l n a t u r e of the poems a l l o w s c r i t i c s to g a i n more d i r e c t access to Lowry's mind—both h i s immediate thoughts and more i n t i m a t e c o n c e r n s . Because a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of Lowry c r i t i c i s m i s b i o g r a p h i c a l , the p o e t r y i s an i n v a l u a b l e and e s e n t i a l l y unworked mine of i n f o r m a t i o n . L i k e most of Lowry ' s l i t e r a r y work, the L i g h t h o u s e i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . In i t , Lowry ' s d e v o t i o n to v a r i o u s a u t h o r s , i n c l u d i n g Conrad A i k e n , Nordahl G r i e g , and Herman M e l v i l l e i s marked. Other b i o g r a p h i c a l m o t i f s i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s to Jan G a b r i a l ' s d e s e r t i o n and Lowry ' s ensu ing d e s o l a t i o n , expressed i n h i s poem " D e l i r i u m i n Vera C r u z " [27] , and d e s c r i b e d by A i k e n i n Ushant . D r i n k i n g , a l c o h o l i s m , and g u i l t a l s o p l a y l a r g e r o l e s i n the c o l l e c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "The C a n t i n a s . " Whi l e i t i s t r u e t h a t U l t r a m a r i n e ' s Dana H i l l i o t f e e l s some g u i l t among the rough s a i l o r s f o r h i s c o m f o r t a b l e , m i d d l e - c l a s s background , as Lowry d i d on h i s own 1927 voyage , i t i s not u n t i l the Mexican p e r i o d i n h i s own l i f e t h a t he beg ins to vent h i s a l c o h o l i c g u i l t . A l t h o u g h the Consu l p r o v i d e s a v i v i d p o r t r a i t of t h i s g u i l t , Lowry ' s poem "Most nauseous of a l l d r i n k s , what i s your s p e l l ? " [23] i s perhaps i t s c l e a r e s t l y r i c a l s ta tement: Most nauseous of a l l d r i n k s , what i s your s p e l l ? You a r e cheap," you are the whore of p o t i o n s ; You are i m p a l a t a b l e , you are the way to h e l l ; You are i n s a t i a b l e of ravagement, you Are the worst of l i b a t i o n s 1 26 Under your a c i d s p e l l , q u i t e want ing only y o u , L o v i n g on ly y o u , we wai t on ly our balm F o r the h e a r t ' s next r e c e s s i o n to i t s f a l s e c a l m . — But would you were on ly f r i e n d , not m i s t r e s s t o o i (1-5 , 16-19) S p e c i f i c a l l u s i o n s to o ther b i o g r a p h i c a l events c o n t i n u e i n t o p o e t r y of the D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . In "Xocx i tepec" [129] , f o r example, Lowry mentions the same two s h r i e k i n g fawns tha t appear i n the V o l c a n o ' s H o t e l Canada (92) . T h i s h o t e l , which becomes the Cornada i n Dark as the G r a v e , was the scene of Lowry ' s f i n a l b r e a k w i t h G a b r i a l i n December 1937. In D o l l a r t o n , Lowry r e a c h e d a l i t e r a r y m a t u r i t y he d i d not possess i n 1937; more and more of h i s poems address the problems of b e i n g a w r i t e r . In "Joseph Conrad" [118] , Lowry expressed h i s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h the r i g o u r s of p o e t i c form: T h i s w r e s t l i n g , as of seamen w i t h a storm Which f l i e s to l eeward - w h i l e t h e y , u n i t e d In t h a t chaos , t u r n , each on h i s n i g h t e d Bunk to dream of chaos a g a i n , or home -The poet h i m s e l f , s t r u g g l i n g w i t h the form Of h i s c o i l e d work, k n o w s . . . (1-6) In another D o l l a r t o n poem, " B r i g h t as the P l e i a d e s Upon the S o u l " [181], the storm m o t i f aga in d e p i c t s h i s d i f f i c u l t y : W r e s t l i n g w i t h iambics i n the stormy wood I l o s t the joy t h a t wind i t s e l f may b r i n g : And ye t the wood must s t r u g g l e w i t h the form of the g a l e As poets s h o u l d w i t h words from what q u a r t e r Of the p l a i n s of sense Bent by i t s f u r y The g a l e i s The wood composed i n peace once more the poem. The frequency of poems about w r i t i n g and w r i t e r s i n c r e a s e s i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the 1947 s e l e c t i o n . In " F o u l , Or T w e n t y - F i v e " [144] , Lowry employs a rugby c o n c e i t t o express the w r i t e r ' s s t r u g g l e : 27 Gloomy i s t h i s weary scrimmage Of my thoughts to h e e l some image Out to where the scrum h a l f - d a n c i n g Of my w i l l to w r i t e e n t r a n c i n g Poems w a i t s to f l i n g the f a t e d T h i n g , t h a t w i l l a r r i v e d e f l a t e d On the t r y l i n e of a b o r t i o n . (1-7) Lowry r e g a r d e d almost any i d e a or event as p o e t i c a l f o d d e r : w h i l e he and M a r g e r i e awai ted m a i l from S c r i b n e r ' s Sons r e g a r d i n g M a r g e r i e ' s n o v e l The L a s t Twis t of the K n i f e , which was e v e n t u a l l y p u b l i s h e d by tha t f i r m i n 1946, a l b e i t wi thout i t s f i n a l c h a p t e r , Lowry composed " S c r i b n e r ' s Sons" [147] , which r e c o r d s h i s r e a c t i o n to t h i s l a c k of m a i l . The poems are r e v e a l i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p o r t r a i t s because Lowry used them almost as an undated d i a r y , r e c o r d i n g and commenting on numerous and v a r i e d e v e n t s . In an i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d i n the P a r i s Review  I n t e r v i e w s (London: F o u r t h S e r i e s , 1977), Conrad A i k e n , r e s p o n d i n g to the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s statement "[Lowry] l i v e d through a l o t tha t he was a b l e to use v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y , " commented, "oh, he d i d n ' t miss a t r i c k . He was a born o b s e r v e r . " Lowry l o v e d to c o l l e c t and note b i t s of e c l e c t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , which were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o one or more of h i s l i t e r a r y e f f o r t s . T h i s methodology i n p a r t accounts f o r the e n c y c l o p a e d i c na ture of h i s p r o s e works , and f o r h i s wide range of p o e t i c t o p i c s . R e l a t e d to b i o g r a p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m , and e x t e n d i n g beyond i t , i s the documentat ion of Lowry ' s i m a g i n a t i v e u n i v e r s e : h i s r e a d i n g , b e l i e f s , f e a r s , t h e o r i e s , and i n t e r n a l v o i c e s (or " f a m i l i a r s " ) a l l i n f o r m h i s w r i t i n g . The more c r i t i c s u n d ers tan d about Lowry ' s i m a g i n a t i v e u n i v e r s e , the more they w i l l be a b l e to t r a c e and e x p l a i n the m u l t i - l a y e r e d c o m p l e x i t i e s of h i s work. And 28 a s tudy of the e n c y c l o p a e d i c n a t u r e of the poems and the e c l e c t i c a r r a y of i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e s they c o n t a i n , w i l l h e l p to i l l u m i n a t e the d i s c u r s i v e , " c h u r r i g u e r e s q u e " f e a t u r e s of the p r o s e . In the 1946 l e t t e r to Jonathan Cape, Lowry dates the V o l c a n o ' s c o n c e p t i o n to h i s 1937 r e s i d e n c e i n Cuernavaca (SL 63) . I f t h i s i s a c c u r a t e , Lowry must have composed p a r t s of the l o s t Mexican m a n u s c r i p t of Under the Volcano w h i l e w r i t i n g The  L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm, which accounts f o r the s i m i l a r i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n and a l l u s i o n i n the two works . D i r e c t and i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the works of M e l v i l l e , Shakespeare , S h e l l e y , A i k e n , G r i e g , Poe, B r o o k e , Bunyan, Chekhov, D o s t o i e v s k i , Donne, Ibsen , Rimbaud, and Yeats abound i n b o t h t e x t s , as do b i b l i c a l and c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s , and r e f e r e n c e s to j a z z and geography. Both t e x t s r e f e r to some of the same h i s t o r i c a l and p o l i t i c a l even t s , such as the Spanish C i v i l war. Lowry ' s emphasis on t h i s event p r o v i d e s a c r i t i c a l contex t i n which c r i t i c s may study Lowry i n r e l a t i o n to o ther w r i t e r s of h i s era such as E r n e s t Hemingway and George O r w e l l , f o r whom the Spanish C i v i l war was an i d e o l o g i c a l and moral i s s u e , as i t was f o r Lowry i n a poem l i k e "For C h r i s t ' s sake and f o r mine" [73] . A r e f e r e n c e book such as A c k e r l e y and C l i p p e r ' s A Companion to Under the Vo lcano ( U . B . C . P r e s s , 1984), which documents Lowry ' s m u l t i t u d i n o u s a l l u s i o n s i n t h a t n o v e l , can a l s o be used to i l l u m i n a t e the e n c y c l o p a e d i c n a t u r e of the p o e t r y , w h i c h , a f t e r a l l , stems from the same i m a g i n a t i v e , u n i v e r s e t h a t c r e a t e d Under the V o l c a n o . In the same way, a thorough s tudy of Lowry ' s p o e t r y i s u s e f u l i n documenting aspec t s of h i s i m a g i n a t i v e u n i v e r s e which are not as c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d i n h i s be t t er -known p r o s e and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . F o r example, the 29 m a r g i n a l t e x t i n Lowry ' s s t o r y "Through the Panama" a c q u i r e s a deeper resonance when viewed i n the l i g h t of Lowry ' s i n t e r e s t i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l and symbol ic accomplishment of the Panama C a n a l : A l l i n a l l though, gent lemen, what I would l i k e to say about the Panama C a n a l i s tha t f i n a l l y i t i s a work of g e n i u s — I would say , l i k e a work of c h i l d ' s g e n i u s — s o m e t h i n g l i k e a n o v e l — i n f a c t j u s t such a n o v e l as I , Sigbj/6rn W i l d e r n e s s , i f I may say so , might have w r i t t e n myse l f— (Hear us 0 L o r d 62) Lowryans u n f a m i l i a r w i t h The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm may not r e a l i z e t h a t i t s f i r s t poem, "Peter Gaunt and the C a n a l s " [15] , which commences w i t h the name of the c a n a l ' s b u i l d e r , De L e s s e p s , i n t r o d u c e s the theme of the c a n a l to Lowry's work through the vo lume's r e c u r r i n g c h a r a c t e r P e t e r Gaunt , an a d v e n t u r e r and b u i l d e r of c a n a l s , the c h a r a c t e r whose m y t h o l o g i z e d b i o g r a p h y and romant ic j o u r n e y the L i g h t h o u s e r e p r e s e n t s . A s i d e from those poems important because of c o n t e x t s shared w i t h the p r o s e works , or because of t h e i r b i o g r a p h i c a l r e l e v a n c e , t h e r e i s i n the canon a c o r e of h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l poems—works one might wish to a n t h o l o g i z e as among the bes t or most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Lowry as p o e t . The D o l l a r t o n g r o u p , and e s p e c i a l l y the "Poems from Vancouver" s e c t i o n of the 1947 s e l e c t i o n , are p a r t i c u l a r l y good examples of Lowry ' s d e s c r i p t i v e a b i l i t y to c a p t u r e the l a n d and seascapes and to d e p i c t w i t h po ignant a c c u r a c y the s q u a t t e r l i f e on the b e a c h . The bes t poems i n t h i s group p l a c e Lowry f i r m l y i n the t r a d i t i o n of Canadian r e g i o n a l i s t p o e t r y . "Ind ian Arm" [164] , f o r example, p r e s e n t s a 30 v i v i d , n a t u r a l p i c t u r e of the beach on a l a t e November a f t e r n o o n . The language i s marked by a c o n t r o l of imagery , s y n t a x , and g e n e r a l l y r i c a l q u a l i t y t h a t i n d i c a t e s a p o t e n t i a l on ly o c c a s i o n a l l y r e a l i z e d : M i l l - w h e e l r e f l e c t i o n s of sun on water And the spokes of l i g h t w h e e l i n g on the shacks , Such f re shnes s of wind i n a s p r i n g q u a r t e r Such r a d i a n c e f o r November! Whi l e o i l t r a c k s Make agate p a t t e r n s , a t a n k e r passes - sudden s l e e k e d l e a d b o i l s on the b e a c h , a t t a c k s Boats under houses , the bowed band g r a s s e s , R e f l e c t i o n s are s h i v e r e d , w i l d spokes u n r e e l The day booms a song of foaming b a s s e s . . . . S o f t l y renews the round of the m i l l - w h e e l Sun r e f l e c t i o n s w i n d i n g l o n g e r shadows Turn p i n e bough i n t o green c h e n i l l e . A f t e r the moonl ight walks over windrows M i l l - w h e e l r e f l e c t i o n s of moonl ight l a t e r On water embroider waving w i n d o w s . . . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s "Ind ian Arm" and o ther c o l l e c t e d and u n c o l l e c t e d D o l l a r t o n poems, such as "The W i l d C h e r r y " [152] , "Port Moody" [165] , "A P i c t u r e " [269] , and "Pines w r i t e a Chinese poem upon the w h i t e - g o l d sun" [271] , i s the p o e t i c v i s i o n t h a t i n f u s e s the l a n d - s e a d e s c r i p t i o n s , c a p t u r i n g i n the p r o c e s s t h a t s e n s e . o f the w i l d n e s s of the landscape tha t i n s p i r e s the bes t Canadian r e g i o n a l i s t p o e t r y . In "Pines w r i t e , " f o r i n s t a n c e , Lowry d e s c r i b e s the hardness and sharpness of the l a n d : G i g a n t i c , the p i n e s a g a i n s t the Chinese sun I l l u m i n e d and embodied by l i g h t , the p i n e s are r e a l That were broken b o t t l e s g u a r d i n g the h i l l . (3-5) The l i n e s echo s i m i l a r sent iments i n A . J . M . S m i t h ' s "The L o n e l y Land" (1936), i n which "Cedar and jagged f i r / u p l i f t sharp barbs / a g a i n s t the gray / and c l o u d - p i l e d sky" (1-4) j but whereas 31 S m i t h seems t o b e s t r i v i n g , i n b o t h h i s d e s c r i p t i v e s p a r s e n e s s a n d t h e b r e v i t y o f h i s l i n e s , f o r a k i n d o f i m a g i s t e f f e c t , L o w r y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , w i t h i t s l o n g e r l i n e l e n g t h , i s s o f t e n e d a n d more e x p a n s i v e , a n d a s a r e s u l t more l y r i c a l , more p e r s o n a l a n d s u b j e c t i v e , i n a w o r d , more r o m a n t i c — a q u a l i t y , f i n a l l y , t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s much o f L o w r y ' s p o e t r y , a c c o u n t i n g , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , f o r b o t h i t s s u c c e s s e s a n d i t s f a i l u r e s , a n d a l s o f o r i t s f a s c i n a t i o n . 32 A NOTE ON THE TEXT Most of Malcolm Lowry's p o e t i c manuscripts are p r e s e r v e d i n the Malcolm Lowry Papers i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Library.''" The Lowry c o l l e c t i o n i s e x t e n s i v e , c o n t a i n i n g s i x t y boxes of correspondence, manuscripts, t y p e s c r i p t s , p u b l i s h e d works, photos, and m e m o r i b i l i a , as w e l l as a f u l l complement of c r i t i c a l works on Lowry. The manuscripts and t y p e s c r i p t s f o r the two hundred and n i n e t y - s i x poems on the i n v e n t o r y are, with few e x c e p t i o n s , l o c a t e d i n boxes four through seven, which c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l f i l e s , a l p h a b e t i c a l l y arranged, f o r each poem. Any given f i l e c o n t a i n s a l l the manuscripts or typed d r a f t s of a p a r t i c u l a r poem, except f o r the two unpublished a u t h o r i a l c o l l e c t i o n s , which are f i l e d s e p a r a t e l y — The Lighthouse I n v i t e s  the Storm i n box s i x , the 1947 c o l l e c t i o n i n box seven. The i n v e n t o r y arrangement of the p o e t i c papers i s l o g i c a l f o r l o c a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r poem; from a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l p o i n t of view, however, the arrangement i s c h a o t i c . Far more s e r i o u s than the o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the f a c t t h a t the i n t e g r i t y of the p o e t i c a r c h i v e has been v i o l a t e d . While c o l l e c t i n g and a r r a n g i n g Lowry's p o e t i c manuscripts and t y p e s c r i p t s , E a r l e Birney and Margerie Lowry, t o f a c i l i t a t e f i l i n g , separated sheets on which Lowry had composed more than one poem, thereby d e s t r o y i n g i n v a l u a b l e evidence f o r the c l u s t e r - d a t i n g of r e l a t e d poems. By d i s b i n d i n g f i v e of Lowry's manuscript notebooks, Birney made i t v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to r e s t o r e Lowry's c o m p o s i t i o n a l sequence, a l o s s that a f f e c t s not only d a t i n g , but a l s o c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s . In a d d i t i o n , 33 B i r n e y s c r i b b l e d — o f t e n , i n e x p l i c a b l y , i n i n k — o n many of Lowry ' s m a n u s c r i p t s and t y p e s c r i p t s . F o r t u n a t e l y , B i r n e y ' s hand i s markedly d i f f e r e n t from L o w r y ' s , so t h a t h i s s u b s t a n t i v e emendations are e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . However, i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether h a n d w r i t t e n marks of p u n c t u a t i o n are a u t h o r i a l . E d i t o r i a l l y , t h i s problem i s e s p e c i a l l y i r r i t a t i n g w i t h r e g a r d to c u t s i n d i c a t e d through l i n e s or s l a s h e s . E q u a l l y irksome i s B i r n e y ' s i n c l u s i o n i n many i n d i v i d u a l poem f i l e s of h i s own unmarked t y p e s c r i p t v e r s i o n s of the poems. T h e i r presence n e c e s s i t a t e d examining papers i n B i r n e y ' s correspondence i n o r d e r to generate a c h a r t to i d e n t i f y the papers he t y p i c a l l y used , t o d i s t i n g u i s h them from Lowry ' s and to p r e c l u d e , or l e s s e n , the r i s k of bes towing t e x t u a l a u t h o r i t y , or perhaps even c o p y - t e x t s t a t u s , on B i r n e y ' s u n a u t h o r i z e d r e v i s i o n s . . Lowry ' s own method of c o m p o s i t i o n and the s t a t e of h i s p o e t i c papers c o m p l i c a t e s f u r t h e r the c h a o t i c n a t u r e of the c o l l e c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t he tended to compose on any paper at hand, whether a r e s t a u r a n t menu or the back of a sheet from a d i s c a r d e d d r a f t of p r o s e , compounds the t a s k of c o m p i l i n g a c h r o n o l o g i c a l m a s t e r - l i s t of Lowry ' s poems. That these m a n u s c r i p t s can appear anywhere i n the c o l l e c t i o n v i t i a t e s the v a l u e of the p o e t i c i n v e n t o r y . Because Lowry a l s o tended to compose poems i n the margins of h i s prose m a n u s c r i p t s , the c o m p i l a t i o n of a complete l i s t i n g of h i s poems n e c e s s i t a t e d c o n s u l t i n g these m a n u s c r i p t s . For example, the t h r e e poems i n c l u d e d i n "Through the Panama," p u b l i s h e d i n Hear us 0 L o r d  from heaven Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e , must be t r a c e d back through the m u l t i p l e d r a f t s of t h a t s t o r y . The poems i n "Through the Panama" 34 as p u b l i s h e d t e x t s pose no e d i t o r i a l prob lem; l e s s easy to d i s c o v e r , however, are u n p u b l i s h e d poems j o t t e d i n the margin of a d r a f t v e r s i o n of a p u b l i s h e d p r o s e work. Lowry ' s e c l e c t i c methods of composing and r e v i s i n g h i s p o e t r y c r e a t e s a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l l y b e w i l d e r i n g a r r a y of m a n u s c r i p t s and t y p e s c r i p t s i n which l i t t l e apparent p a t t e r n of c o n s i s t e n t c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i s e v i d e n t . Some poems e x i s t i n ten to f i f t e e n d r a f t s , some on ly i n one. Some poems are i n c o m p l e t e — t h e sonnet rhyme scheme, f o r example, may be j o t t e d b e s i d e a poem i n which d e s i g n a t e d l i n e s are m i s s i n g — a n d ye t s t i l l e x i s t i n m u l t i p l e d r a f t s . The c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i n e of development f o r c e r t a i n poems can be d e c e p t i v e l y s imple i f the e d i t o r n a i v e l y assumes t h a t a Lowry manuscr ip t always precedes a t y p e s c r i p t . There i s a l s o the r a t h e r d e l i c a t e q u e s t i o n of M a r g e r i e L o w r y ' s r o l e i n the c o m p o s i t i o n p r o c e s s . M r s . Lowry was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g on the t y p e w r i t e r Lowry ' s h o l o g r a p h d r a f t s . A c l o s e c o l l a t i o n r e v e a l s o c c a s i o n a l s u b s t a n t i v e v a r i a n t s between a h o l o g r a p h d r a f t and a t y p e d v e r s i o n . In these i n s t a n c e s , the q u e s t i o n of t e x t u a l p r i o r i t y must be r e s o l v e d . Should the e d i t o r assume t h a t the Lowrys d i s c u s s e d these v a r i a n t s , thereby c o n f e r r i n g a u t h o r i a l s t a t u s on them? O r , f o l l o w i n g Fredson Bowers' treatment of Hawthorne's t e x t , s i m p l y view the w i f e l y v a r i a n t s as n o n - a u t h o r i a l and d i s r e g a r d t h e i r 2 t e x t u a l r e l e v a n c e ? Or s h o u l d the e d i t o r acknowledge t h a t the v a r i a n t s are l i k e l y n o n - a u t h o r i a l , but s t i l l grant t h e i r a u t h o r i t y on the assumption tha t Lowry h i m s e l f welcomed, perhaps even needed, M a r g e r i e ' s l i t e r a r y imput? D e s p i t e the p o s s i b i l i t y 35 of M r s . L o w r y ' s e d i t i n g , the f i n a l t y p e s c r i p t s have been a s s i g n e d a u t h o r i t y on the grounds tha t Lowry p r o b a b l y saw them, and , u n l e s s f u r t h e r ho lograph r e v i s i o n s were made on these s h e e t s , as they sometimes were, t h a t he approved them. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t M r s . Lowry s i l e n t l y emended the poems d u r i n g t h e i r r e t y p i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to prove wi thout more ev idence than s u r v i v e s . In any c a s e , the number of poems which do not change from the f i n a l h o l o g r a p h d r a f t t o the t y p e s c r i p t v e r s i o n i s g r e a t e r than those t h a t do , so t h a t the i s s u e of M r s . Lowry ' s p o s s i b l e emendations i s not v i t a l t o the i n t e g r i t y of the t e x t . These are are j u s t a few of the problems and q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by Lowry ' s p o e t i c m a n u s c r i p t s , to which no s i n g l e , g l o b a l s o l u t i o n i s p o s s i b l e . A c c o r d i n g l y , each poem i s t r e a t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h i n g u i d e l i n e s based on a c o n s i s t e n t o v e r - a l l e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y , combin ing m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s d e r i v e d from both the humanist and the s c i e n t i f i c s c h o o l s of b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h i s e d i t i o n aims to p r e s e n t a r e l i a b l e t e x t of Lowry ' s e n t i r e p o e t i c canon, w i t h c o p y - t e x t s based on the l a t e s t d e t e r m i n a b l e a u t h o r i a l v e r s i o n s of the poems, p r o v i d i n g f o r each poem a complete r e c o r d of the a u t h o r i a l s u b s t a n t i v e v a r i a n t s i n every v e r s i o n p r e c e d i n g the f i n a l c o p y - t e x t . The p r e p a r a t i o n of the t e x t f o r t h i s e d i t i o n has p r o v e d more onerous than o r i g i n a l l y e n v i s i o n e d and has i n v o l v e d f i v e major e d i t o r i a l s tages : l o c a t i o n , t r a n s c r i p t i o n , d a t i n g , arrangement , and c o l l a t i o n . The main c o n t r i b u t i o n of the e d i t i o n i n the f i r s t c a t e g o r y i s the a d d i t i o n of some one hundred and f i f t y poems to Lowry ' s known p o e t i c canon: the U . B . C . i n v e n t o r y i n c l u d e s on ly two hundred and n i n e t y - s i x t i t l e s a g a i n s t four hundred and s i x t y -36 f i v e i n the complete e d i t i o n . F o l l o w i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , v e r i f i c a t i o n , and t r a n s c r i p t i o n of each poem, the next s tep was to make a thorough paper a n a l y s i s t o determine a terminus a QUO and ad quern f o r a l l manuscr ip t and t y p e s c r i p t v a r i a n t s of each t i t l e . Once the dates of each poem had been d e f i n i t e l y , or at l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , e s t a b l i s h e d , the poems were grouped a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n a l p e r i o d s to convey some i d e a of Lowry ' s a r t i s t i c development . Arrangement w i t h i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e c t i o n s depends on the n a t u r e of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r group of poems. F o r example, the i n t e g r i t y of the a u t h o r i a l volumes has been p r e s e r v e d , w h i l e s e c t i o n s of u n c o l l e c t e d poems have been a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y except where d a t i n g i s p r e c i s e enough to j u s t i f y a c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement . Once the order of the e d i t i o n had been d e t e r m i n e d , the t a s k of c l o s e c o l l a t i o n of the m u l t i p l e v e r s i o n s f o r each poem began i n o r d e r to p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y of the poem's t e x t . In the i n t e r e s t of p r o v i d i n g what Lowry a c t u a l l y wrote , i n s t e a d of c o n j e c t u r i n g about h i s f i n a l i n t e n t i o n s , which are now u n a s c e r t a i n a b l e , or t r y i n g to f i n i s h h i s poems, which i s not the job of a t e x t u a l e d i t o r , t h i s e d i t i o n c o n t a i n s no s u b s t a n t i v e e d i t o r i a l emendat ions . S i l e n t emendation of a c c i d e n t a l s i s r e s t r i c t e d to i n i t i a l l i n e c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , which Lowry sometimes i g n o r e d i n d r a f t s but g e n e r a l l y used i n h i s f i n a l t y p e s c r i p t v e r s i ons . The s p e c i f i c b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and t e x t u a l d e t a i l s of each group of poems are d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n a l headnotesj Appendix D c o n t a i n s a c h a r t of the papers used by Lowry i n h i s ou tgo ing 37 correspondence p r e s e r v e d at U . B . C . , which have been i n v a l u a b l e i n d a t i n g Lowry ' s p o e t r y . The f o l l o w i n g s u r v e y , which supplements the g e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n s to each s e c t i o n , p r o v i d e s t e x t u a l d e t a i l s on the groupings of Lowry ' s poems i n t h i s e d i t i o n . J u v e n i l i a / A p p r e n t i c e s h i p 1925-33 No m a n u s c r i p t s have s u r f a c e d . C o p y - t e x t s f o r ten of the f o u r t e e n items i n t h i s s e c t i o n are from p u b l i s h e d sources and may c o n t a i n n o n - a u t h o r i a l , c o m p o s i t i o n a l v a r i a n t s . The four poems from the Conrad A i k e n Papers i n the Hunt ing ton L i b r a r y a r e , f o r l a c k of o ther evidence. , da ted 1929, the date a s c r i b e d t o them e i t h e r by A i k e n or the H u n t i n g t o n l i b r a r i a n s . The Lighthouse I n v i t e s the Storm: New York/Mexico/Los Angeles/Vancouver 1934-39 The t e x t u a l h i s t o r y of Lowry ' s f i r s t volume of poems, The  L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm, i s extremely c o m p l i c a t e d . The U . B . C . i n v e n t o r y terms i t s manuscr ip t "Lowry's d r a f t c o p y . " Whether t h i s group of t y p e s c r i p t s a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s Lowry ' s f i n a l arrangement i s u n c e r t a i n g i v e n the e d i t o r i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s made i n the p o e t i c p a p e r s . F o r t u n a t e l y , Lowry numbered the L i g h t h o u s e poems; so , i t i s p o s s i b l e to r e c o n s t r u c t the vo lume's i n t e n d e d o r d e r . The d r a f t copy c o n t a i n s seven k i n d s of p a p e r ; e a r l i e r and l a t e r v e r s i o n s — b o t h t y p e s c r i p t and m a n u s c r i p t — o f the poems i n t h i s d r a f t are c o n t a i n e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l p o e t r y f i l e s . A l s o p r e s e r v e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l f i l e s are poems which are not i n c l u d e d i n the d r a f t , but which appear numbered on one or 38 more of the L i g h t h o u s e p a p e r s . I t i s now d i f f i c u l t t o de termine whether the omiss ions are a u t h o r i a l or e d i t o r i a l , and , s i n c e the numbering recommences i n each of the seven s e c t i o n s , i n which s e c t i o n s the omi t t ed poems b e l o n g . A combinat ion of p a p e r - d a t i n g from correspondence and the New York Lunar C a u s t i c t y p e s c r i p t s , and d e t e r m i n i n g v e r s i o n p r i o r i t y through the t r a c i n g of a u t h o r i a l v a r i a n t s , e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t s i n a c l e a r stemmatic l i n e f o r most of the poems. The e a r l i e s t L i g h t h o u s e papers date from the 1934-36 New York p e r i o d ; the l a t e s t r e t y p i n g of the e n t i r e volume p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n Los Angeles i n 1938-39. The D o l l a r t o n Years: 1940-54 Lowry composed almost h a l f of h i s p o e t r y d u r i n g h i s r e s i d e n c e at D o l l a r t o n , and t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l a r g e number of m a n u s c r i p t s and t y p e s c r i p t s f o r t h i s p e r i o d . Lowry ' s l eng thy s o j o u r n i n the lower m a i n l a n d and h i s wide l i t e r a r y network i n the Vancouver a r e a are l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the extent of U . B . C . ' s h o l d i n g s of m a n u s c r i p t s f o r the D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . Moreover , when the Lowrys l e f t D o l l a r t o n i n 1954, they e n t r u s t e d to some D o l l a r t o n and Vancouver f r i e n d s , n o t a b l y Harvey Burt and E a r l e B i r n e y , most of Lowry ' s p a p e r s , a d e c i s i o n w h i c h , c o n s i d e r i n g Lowry ' s u n s e t t l e d l i f e s t y l e , p r o v e d most b e n e f i c i a l t o Lowry s c h o l a r s . The extent of the D o l l a r t o n m a n u s c r i p t s and the amount of documentat ion a v a i l a b l e on the t y p e s c r i p t s , made i t e a s i e r to be p r e c i s e about Lowry ' s c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d than about any o ther p e r i o d of h i s l i f e . At D o l l a r t o n , Lowry g e n e r a l l y composed i n p e n c i l on cheap brown 8 1/2 x 11" newspr int 39 s h e e t s , which are now faded and d i f f i c u l t t o r e a d . D u r i n g the f i r s t year of h i s D o l l a r t o n t e n u r e , he a l s o used v a r i o u s types of 7 x 9 1/4" notebooks , and , a l t h o u g h they appear i n f r e q u e n t l y throughout the r e s t of the p e r i o d , i n 1941 the f requency of notebook papers drops s h a r p l y i n favour of the l e t t e r - s i z e brown s h e e t s . A f t e r one or more h o l o g r a p h d r a f t s of a poem were comple ted , Lowry would l eave M a r g e r i e the d r a f t of h i s c h o i c e , and she would type i t out , a g a i n on brown s h e e t s . Very o f t en t h r e e t o f i v e of these i n t e r m e d i a t e d r a f t s appear on the same s h e e t — o r would have , had the sheets not been s e v e r e d . The poems would then undergo another round of h o l o g r a p h r e v i s i o n , a f t e r which they were t y p e d i n d i v i d u a l l y on brown sheets or the bond papers l i s t e d i n Appendix D. A f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d bond paper not p r e s e n t i n the correspondence i s c r e a m - c o l o u r e d 8 x 10" Voucher Bond. The f a c t t h a t t h i s paper i s absent from the correspondence makes i t d i f f i c u l t to date poems which appear on i t . The v a r i a n t s i n the Voucher poems suggest t h a t t h i s paper occurs l a t e i n the D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d , as does the f a c t t h a t i t i s t y p e d i n e l i t e type c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the second (1949-54) D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d . Because the v e r s i o n s are l a t e , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as c o p y - t e x t s i s o b v i o u s . There are p h o t o c o p i e d 8 x 10" e l i t e - t y p e l e t t e r s i n Lowry ' s o u t g o i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , but the watermark of the o r i g i n a l i s not v i s i b l e , and because Lowry a l s o used 8 x 10" paper typed i n e l i t e type i n E n g l a n d , the d a t i n g of these v e r s i o n s becomes v i t a l i n the l i g h t of t h e i r p o s s i b l e importance as c o p y - t e x t s . 40 Paper m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' c a t a l o g u e s r e v e a l t h a t Voucher Bond paper was manufactured i n North /America d u r i n g the 1950s. However, Lowry c o u l d presumably have taken a s t o r e of t h i s paper t o E n g l a n d i n 1954, so t h a t an E n g l i s h p e r i o d date f o r these v e r s i o n s i s not i m p o s s i b l e , even though Voucher Bond paper does not appear i n h i s ou tgo ing correspondence f o r 1954-57. T h i s paper c e r t a i n l y p o s t - d a t e s 1947, when Lowry s e l e c t e d and had r e - t y p e d the f i f t y - f o u r poems which comprise h i s second volume of p o e t r y , because f o r t y - s i x of the f i f t y - f o u r poems, p l u s n i n e t e e n a d d i t i o n a l D o l l a r t o n poems, were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d and r e - t y p e d on Voucher Bond. Because the Lowrys t r a v e l l e d from 1947 to 1949, and because t h e r e i s no ev idence to suggest t h a t Lowry worked s e r i o u s l y on any p o e t r y i n E n g l a n d , the Voucher Bond date almost c e r t a i n l y f a l l s between 1949 and 1954. In 1951 Lowry r e v i s e d t h i r t e e n of the f i f t y - f o u r s e l e c t e d poems on V i c t o r y Bond p a p e r ; t en of these t h i r t e e n poems were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d on sheets of Voucher Bond, so t h a t the Voucher date can be narrowed to 1952-5 4 . 3 Love Poems 1949-57 In December 1987 the UBC L i b r a r y a c q u i r e d from M a r g e r i e Lowry and her s i s t e r , the c o n s e r v a t o r of the Lowry e s t a t e , P r i s c i l l a Woo l fan , and t h e i r f r i e n d D r . E l i z a b e t h Moss , a new l o t 4 of Lowry papers which they date from the E n g l a n d p e r i o d . A content a n a l y s i s of these papers r e v e a l s t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y one-t h i r d date from D o l l a r t o n . F o r the most p a r t , t h i s l o t comprises 3 1/4 x 4 3/4" c o l o u r e d newspr int sheets i n s c r i b e d i n p e n c i l and b l u e i n k . Lowry f i l l e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred sheets w i t h 41 h a n d w r i t t e n p e r s o n a l messages, poems, and song l y r i c s f o r M a r g e r i e Lowry, " d i t t i e s " which almost c e r t a i n l y he d i d not expect to p u b l i s h . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s e d i t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y essay to t h a t s e c t i o n . Only f o u r of the poems i n t h i s s e c t i o n come from sources o ther than U . B . C . ' s most r e c e n t a c q u i s i t i o n . The most i n t e r e s t i n g of these poems i s "Lusty A d v i c e of a F o r t u n e T e l l e r " [354] , the on ly s i n g l e d r a f t poem which appears on P l a n t a g e n e t Bond p a p e r , one of the l a s t papers Lowry used , d a t a b l e to 1957, I t i s p r o b a b l y the l a s t formal poem Lowry wrote . Song L y r i c s 1927-57 [Appendix A] The f i f t e e n items i n t h i s s e c t i o n come from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . J u s t under h a l f of the l y r i c s date from Lowry ' s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p p e r i o d . The c o p y - t e x t s f o r a l l but one of these have been taken from p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s : " B a l l a d " [422] , f o r which no manuscr ip t e x i s t s i n L o w r y ' s hand, i s a t r a n s c r i p t i o n of a r e c r e a t i o n by M a r g e r i e of Lowry ' s v e r b a l r e c i t a t i o n of the poem—a k i n d of t e x t u a l p a r a p h r a s e , l i k e an E l i z a b e t h a n prompt book, i t has grea t i n t e r e s t but no a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y . Two of the t h r e e song l y r i c s w r i t t e n at D o l l a r t o n appear i n Lowry ' s o u t g o i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ; the t h i r d appears i n the m a n u s c r i p t s and p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of "Through the Panama." The r e m a i n i n g l y r i c s are from U . B . C . ' s most r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d m a n u s c r i p t s . 42 A Key to the E d i t o r i a l Apparatus The c l e a r e s t way to e x p l a i n the e d i t o r i a l apparatus i s t o p r o v i d e a s p e c i f i c example: 1937 III [19.2] MEMORY OF THE HOSPITALITY OF AMERICAN BARMEN We r e s e r v e the r i g h t to r e f u s e to anyone, p a l . Yeah, and t h a t means y o u , f o u r eyes , w i t h the whee l s , [and h e l l ! Don' t t e l l me y o u ' r e a diamond and put I t on the s l a t e , or t h a t your hear t i s f a t , 5 Or t h a t your l a n d l o r d c a n ' t wai t to b r e a k i t . What's t h a t ? I t ' s broken a l r e a d y ? W e l l , t h a t ' s t h a t . A spade'11 p i c k your grave i f grave you m e r i t ; A spade ' s a spade, t h a t ' s what they c a l l i t h e r e . We t e a c h 'em b u l l y the cabbage, never you f e a r ; 10 In God we t r u s t — but on ly on the n i c k e l . W e l l , i f you had a buck too bad you spent h e r , — But a l l who ask f o r t r u s t d i s t r u s t i n h e r i t , And even God i s f i c k l e . T 19 .1 : [miss ing] 1 19 .1 : ( - we r e s e r v e the r o t to r e f u s e to anyone, p a l . 6 I t ' s ] i t s {19.1} 13 19 .1 : and even god i s f i c k l e . - ) In the sample, which appears i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n of the Lig-hthouse. the date of the poem i s r e c o r d e d on the l e f t of the head l i n e . I f the date has been de termined through n o n -b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l means, or i f i t i s f o r any reason t e n t a t i v e , i t i s p l a c e d i n square b r a c k e t s . Many poems i n the e d i t i o n are da ted on ly w i t h i n a range of y e a r s . The c e n t r e of the head l i n e r e c o r d s the a u t h o r i a l t i t l e or number of each poem. I f the poem has both a number and t i t l e , the t i t l e appears on the next l i n e of t e x t , and i f i t l a c k s b o t h , the head l i n e remains b l a n k i n t h i s a r e a . The e d i t i o n number of the poem, by which i t i s c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d , i s p l a c e d i n square b r a c k e t s on the r i g h t s i d e of the head l i n e . The f i g u r e f o l l o w i n g the dec ima l p o i n t i n d i c a t e s the number of 43 extant v e r s i o n s f o r tha t poem. Unless o therwise noted by a f i g u r e i n round b r a c k e t s f o l l o w i n g the number of v e r s i o n s , the c o p y - t e x t i s always the l a t e s t a u t h o r i a l v e r s i o n . The l i n e s of the t e x t are numbered by f i v e s down the l e f t s i d e of the page . Any word i n the p o e t i c t e x t of which the e d i t o r i s unsure i s s q u a r e - b r a c k e t e d wi th a q u e s t i o n mark p r e c e d i n g the f i r s t l e t t e r of the suggested word. U n a u t h o r i z e d l i n e breaks are marked by a s i n g l e square b r a c k e t and are not counted as s e p a r a t e l i n e s . The t e x t u a l h i s t o r y and r e c o r d of e d i t o r i a l emendations f o r each poem are combined and immediate ly f o l l o w the t e x t of the poem. The s i g l a (or r e c o r d of a u t h o r i a l v a r i a n t s i n v e r s i o n s p r e c e d i n g the c o p y - t e x t ) and emendations are keyed by l i n e number on the l e f t . In the case of s i g l a , as d i s t i n c t , from emendat ions , the next f i g u r e r e p r e s e n t s the v e r s i o n number of the poem i n which the v a r i a n t o c c u r s , and the v a r i a n t l i n e f o l l o w s the c o l o n . Any words which are not L o w r y ' s — f o r example, " m i s s i n g " — a r e p l a c e d i n square b r a c k e t s throughout the e d i t i o n . In the case of e d i t o r i a l changes , such as l i n e s i x i n the sample , the emended word f o l l o w s the l i n e number and i s u n d e r l i n e d . The c o p y - t e x t r e a d i n g f o l l o w s the s i n g l e square b r a c k e t . I f t h e r e i s a j u s t i f y i n g r e f e r e n c e f o r the e d i t o r i a l change, f o r example an a u t h o r i a l appearance i n an e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of the poem, i t s l o c a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d and appears i n p o i n t e d b r a c k e t s f o l l o w i n g the c o p y - t e x t r e a d i n g . Ampersands and a b b r e v i a t i o n s are s i l e n t l y expanded, and any i n t e n d e d a u t h o r i a l changes i n d i c a t e d on the m a n u s c r i p t s , such as d e l e t e d or added l i n e s , i n t e r l i n e a t i o n s , and c r o s s i n g s - o u t , are f o l l o w e d and p r o p e r l y r e c o r d e d i n the s i g l a , as are t i t l e changes . I f the 44 c o p y - t e x t l a c k s a t i t l e which appears i n e a r l i e r d r a f t s , i t i s r e s t o r e d from the l a t e s t t i t l e d a u t h o r i a l v e r s i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y v a r i a n t v e r s i o n s of a poem are so d i f f e r e n t t h a t they are i m p o s s i b l e to c o l l a t e , as occurs i n "A c h i l d may f i n d no words f o r i t s sorrow" [185] j i n such cases the p a r a l l e l v e r s i o n i s r e p r o d u c e d s e p a r a t e l y and f o l l o w s the s i g l a n o t a t i o n . Poems p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g Lowry ' s l i f e t i m e are i n c l u d e d i n the stemmatic l i n e ; posthumous poems are n o t . A l i s t of the a b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n t h i s e d i t i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n the p r e l i m i n a r i e s . N O T E S ^ For a l i s t of o ther l i b r a r i e s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t Lowry m a n u s c r i p t c o l l e c t i o n s , see the B i b l i o g r a p h y . F o r Lowry ' s p o e t r y , the. most i n t e r e s t i n g a c c e s s i o n o u t s i d e U . B . C . i s i n the M c F a r l i n L i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of T u l s a . F o r a f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n , see Note 3. 2 In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to the C e n t r e f o r the E d i t i n g of American A u t h o r s ' Centenary E d i t i o n of The M a r b l e Faun (Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), Fredson Bowers p r o v i d e s a t e x t u a l h i s t o r y of Sophia Hawthorne's manuscr ip t emendat ions , as w e l l as h i s r a t i o n a l e f o r e x c i s i n g a l l t r a c e s of her work from her husband's t e x t . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n sparked a c o n t r o v e r s y i n the American s c h o l a r l y community, i n c l u d i n g Edmund W i l s o n ' s famous 1968 a t t a c k on the C e n t r e f o r the E d i t i n g of American A u t h o r s , The F r u i t s of the MLA. o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n the The New York  Review of Books (26 September and 10 October 1968). 45 The M c F a r l i n L i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of T u l s a possesses a c o l l e c t i o n of s i x t y - f i v e t y p e s c r i p t poems by Lowry, t y p e w r i t t e n i n b l a c k e l i t e type on the 8 x 10" c r e a m - c o l o u r e d Voucher Bond p a p e r . In response to a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the provenance of these t y p e s c r i p t s , S idney F . H u t t n e r , C u r a t o r of S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s at the M c F a r l i n L i b r a r y r e p l i e d : As I ment ioned , our provenance r e c o r d s are not always as complete as one d e s i r e s , but r e v i e w i n g them I am now r e a s o n a b l y c o n v i n c e d t h i s group of poems was a c q u i r e d i n e a r l y December 1976 at a So theby ' s (London) a u c t i o n w i t h J . Howard Woolmer a c t i n g as our agent . (6 October 1987) That s a l e , l o c a t e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of- C . F . F o r b e s , the C o l b e c k l i b r a r i a n i n the S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the U . B . C . L i b r a r y , was h e l d at Sotheby ' s Chancery Lane , on F r i d a y , 17 December 1976, and appeared as Lot 612, the l i t e r a r y e s t a t e of Lowry ' s f r i e n d , E n g l i s h w r i t e r and c r i t i c John Davenport (1910-63) , i n So theby ' s Cata logue 7 (1976-77) . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s l o t was a t y p e s c r i p t of s i x t y - e i g h t poems d i v i d e d by s e p a r a t e t i t l e pages i n t o "Sea Poems," "Mexican Poems," "Canadian Poems," and " M i s c e l l a n e o u s . " The l o t a l s o c o n t a i n e d some o ther items of Lowryana, i n c l u d i n g l e t t e r s from M a r g e r i e Lowry to John Davenport da ted between 1961 to 1963. The p r i c e l i s t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e n t i r e l o t was p u r c h a s e d by "Stanton" f o r h 1100. "Stanton" may have s u b d i v i d e d and s o l d h i s l o t , because the M c F a r l i n has on ly t h e i r s i x t y - f i v e t y p e s c r i p t poems wi thout t i t l e - p a g e s or l e t t e r s . How John Davenport came i n t o p o s s e s s i o n of the t y p e s c r i p t s e l e c t i o n i s p r o b a b l y r e v e a l e d i n M a r g e r i e Lowry ' s l e t t e r s to him i n the s a l e , but these have not been l o c a t e d . At the t i m e , M a r g e r i e , who was h e a v i l y engaged w i t h 46 E a r l e B i r n e y i n a r r a n g i n g and o r g a n i z i n g Lowry ' s poems, may have sent Davenport the poems hop ing he would be a b l e to p l a c e them w i t h a B r i t i s h p u b l i s h e r . A l t h o u g h M a r g e r i e and B i r n e y r e t y p e d Lowry ' s poems i n the e a r l y 1960s, the Voucher Bond paper almost c e r t a i n l y has a r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n the a u t h o r i a l stemrna, s i n c e Lowry ' s hand appears on s e v e r a l of the Voucher s h e e t s . The f a c t t h a t these poems appear on one b r a n d of p a p e r , w i t h only one t y p e f a c e , p r o b a b l y from the same t y p e w r i t e r , and are d i v i d e d by t i t l e - p a g e s which bear a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y t o those i n Lowry ' s 1947 s e l e c t i o n , s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t the Voucher Bond sheets r e p r e s e n t a t h i r d a u t h o r i a l c o l l e c t i o n , one which i s a l a t e r and r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the 1947 s e l e c t i o n , a t h e o r y f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by the f a c t t h a t f o r t y - s i x of the f i f t y - f o u r poems i n c l u d e d i n the 1947 s e l e c t i o n were r e v i s e d on Voucher Bond s h e e t s . However, u n t i l more d e f i n i t i v e e v i d e n c e , such as the M a r g e r i e Lowry /John Davenport l e t t e r s , comes to l i g h t , t h i s t h e o r y i s on ly c o n j e c t u r a l , and , a l t h o u g h the Voucher sheets are used as c o p y -t e x t s because of t h e i r l a t e d a t e , the order of the poems i n t h i s e d i t i o n f o l l o w s t h a t i n the 1947 s e l e c t i o n p r e s e r v e d at U . B . C . 4 Because P r i s c i l l a Woolfan has agreed to p r o t e c t the f o r t h c o m i n g academic work by D r . Moss on the new m a t e r i a l , i t i s g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d from use by o ther s c h o l a r s u n t i l August 1988. I wish to acknowledge and thank Anne Y a n d l e , Head of the U . B . C . L i b r a r y S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n , f o r her he lp i n p r o c u r i n g p e r m i s s i o n from M r s . Woolfan f o r me to use the r e s t r i c t e d m a t e r i a l . 47 THE TEXT 48 APPRENTICESHIP: POETIC JUVENILIA 1925-33 Lowry' s f i r s t major l i t e r a r y success was the 1933 p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s n o v e l U l t r a m a r i n e by Jonathan Cape. The f o u r t e e n poems here c l a s s i f i e d as j u v e n i l i a r e p r e s e n t Lowry ' s known pre-1933 p o e t i c e f f o r t s . From 1923 to 1927 Lowry a t t e n d e d the Leys School i n Cambridge , where, i n 1925, under the pseudonym "Camel" (based on h i s i n i t i a l s " C . M . L . " ) , he began c o n t r i b u t i n g s t o r i e s , hockey r e v i e w s , and o c c a s i o n a l poems to the s c h o o l newspaper, The Leys F o r t n i g h t l y . In 1927, Lowry l e f t the Leys School to spend the summer and f a l l s a i l i n g to the F a r Eas t aboard the S . S . P y r r h u s . A f t e r spending 1928 i n Bonn at Weber's School of Modern German, Lowry d e p a r t e d f o r the E a s t Coast of the U n i t e d S ta te s i n order to s tudy wi th Conrad A i k e n . He remained w i t h A i k e n from A p r i l to September 1929, and i n October of t h a t year e n t e r e d S t . C a t h a r i n e ' s C o l l e g e , Cambridge , where, except f o r a summer t r i p to Norway to meet Nordahl G r i e g , he remained u n t i l h i s g r a d u a t i o n i n May 1932. U l t r a m a r i n e was p u b l i s h e d i n November 1933, e igh teen months l a t e r . The f i r s t seven poems i n t h i s s e c t i o n appeared i n seven i s s u e s of The Leys F o r t n i g h t l y between 1925 and 1928, t h r e e of them [5-7] a f t e r he l e f t the Leys S c h o o l : "The G l o r y of the Sea" [5] i s d a t e d "Yel low Sea, August 1927"; the two o thers are undated , b u t , l i k e "The G l o r y of the S e a , " they r e f l e c t Lowry ' s new-found i n t e r e s t i n the sea and foreshadow i t s themat ic importance i n h i s l a t e r l i t e r a r y works . The f o u r 1929 poems [8-11]—dated by A i k e n — are i n c l u d e d i n the L o w r y / A i k e n correspondence i n the H u n t i n g t o n L i b r a r y . Lowry sent A i k e n these 49 t y p e s c r i p t poems b e f o r e the two men met i n the s p r i n g of 1929. The l a s t t h r e e poems i n t h i s s e c t i o n express Lowry ' s i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h A i k e n and another Lowryan muse: Norwegian w r i t e r Nordahl G r i e g . "For Nordah l G r i e g S h i p ' s F ireman" [12] was i n c l u d e d by Lowry ' s Cambridge f r i e n d John Davenport i n h i s Hogarth Pres s a n t h o l o g y Cambridge P o e t r y 1930. "In Cape Cod w i t h Conrad A i k e n " [13] and "Those Cokes to Newcast le B lues" [14] both appeared i n the programme f o r the Cambridge F e s t i v a l T h e a t r e i n 1930 and 1931 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l a t t e r i s s i g n e d as a j o i n t e f f o r t by A i k e n and Lowry. S ince a l l the poems i n t h i s s e c t i o n s u r v i v e on ly i n p r i n t e d t e x t s , the problem of c o p y - t e x t does not a r i s e , though the a u t h o r i t y of the a c c i d e n t a l s i n the p r i n t e d t e x t i s , of c o u r s e , u n c e r t a i n . The p a u c i t y of poems d a t i n g from t h i s p e r i o d of Lowry ' s c a r e e r makes i t l i k e l y t h a t a d d i t i o n s to the j u v e n i l i a may s u r f a c e i n the f u t u r e , but t h e r e i s no b a s i s at p r e s e n t f o r p r o j e c t i n g any s u b s t a n t i a l e x t e n s i o n of h i s e a r l y canon. The f o u r t e e n poems, a l l d a t a b l e , are a r r a n g e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . 1925 DER TAG [1.13 (In which the author, having, as he endeavours to show, bats in the belfry, disregards any attempt to write correct poetry.) On e v e r y F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n , B e f o r e t h e s k y i s t i n g e d w i t h moon And s t a r s whizz round t h e h o r - i z - o o n , One w r i t e s from P o s t g a t e t h i s and t h a t 5 Of s i b i , and of c a p ! a t And a l l t h e o t h e r v e r b s i n a t ; Of i i y u s , and of c a r b a s u s And a l l t h e o t h e r nouns i n - u s ; In R u t h e r f o r d , of dear o l d Zeus 10 (I o f t e n wonder what's t h e u s e ) — My kingdom f o r a San-excuse! Then might I w i l l i n g l y r e f u s e To s t a t e my v i e w s upon t h e Muse, B a d l y t o w a i t my g r a p h i c f a t e , 15 R e c e i v e my weekly e v e n i n g h a t e , G i v e i n my i m p o s i t i o n l a t e , O b t a i n t h r e e r a p s upon t h e p a t e , R e w r i t e a g a i n on paper greens (Ne;:t a f t e r n o o n may I be seen 20 P a r t a k i n g not of Pork and Bean But w r i t i n g P o s t g a t e — b y t h e ream!) With t w i t c h i n g f a c e and d o d d e r i n g l i m b I t e n t a t i v e l y hand i t i n : "Won't do!" s a y s H e — " O m i s s i o n s . . . s i n ! " 25 Then l i k e some Bagdadanian d j i n n He w a f t s my e f f o r t s t o w a r d s t h e b i n : A g a i n I t r y , a g a i n I f a i l — Ag a i n a t a l l t h e words I q u a i l . . . . U n t i l a t l a s t w i t h mouth afoam 30 I go, q u i t e d i p p y i n t h e dome, I n t o my narrow padded room, Where C o l n e y w a r d e r s g l i b l y boom At l i t t l e me.... Ah! me p u t e s Amentem, q u i t e ! C T i s c r u e l , v e r y , 35 Thus t o abuse a dromedary). .1.926 HOMOEOPATHIC BLUES IN J . [2.13 J o n e s took t h e l i t t l e d a i l y dose Of Kruschen i n h i s t e a , And c l e a n e d h i s t e e t h w i t h Pepsodent, That f i l m l e s s t h e y might be. 5 And when J . went t o bed a t n i g h t He l e f t h i 5 windows wide, And s l e p t not on h i s back, f o r J . P r e f e r r e d t o on h i s s i d e . 51 A g a i n , J . ' d t a k e a dose of s a l t s On r i s i n g -from h i s b e d , And i f h e ' d not a s i x p e n n y b i t S i x p e n n i e s s e r v e d i n s t e a d . J . had a l i t t l e b r e a d - a n d - m i l k , Some L i v e r O i l and m a l t , And f i n i s h e d o f f h i s b r e a k f a s t w i t h An "Andrews' L i v e r S a l t . " C o n c e r n i n g J . had I t h e a r t , I might f o r ever s i n g , I f o n l y J . ' d not j u s t succumbed To s e p t i c p o i s o n i n g . THE OLD WOMAN WHO BURIED CATS [3 .1 ] T h e r e was an o l d woman who l i v e d i n a n i c e L i t t l e house t h a t was b a d l y i n f e s t e d w i t h m i c e : "Ah, ha I" s a i d t h e woman, " I ' l l have t o s t o p t h a t ? " So she s q u a n d e r e d some money i n b u y i n g a c a t . From t h a t c a t not a mouse, nor a sparrow c o u l d h i d e , U n t i l a t l o n g l a s t t h e poor c a t i t s e l f d i e d . The woman donned b l a c k , as was p r o p e r and f i t t i n g . And w e a r i l y , d r e a r i l y , wept i n her k n i t t i n g . As t h a t c a t had behaved as a c a t s h o u l d behave , I t behoved her t o f i n d i t an h o n o u r a b l e g r a v e . " ' T i s a d i f f i c u l t j o b , f a r a l a s ! " so thought she , " T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g near h e r e l i k e a c a t s ' c e m e t r e e . " "I c a n ' t d r o p , I won't d r o p , my. c a t down a w e l l . . . " In t h e meantime t h e c a t was b e g i n n i n g t o s h r i n k "Aw! wheel i t away," s a i d t h e cook , " i n a b a r r e r . 1 ' "What'11 I do?" w a i l e d t h e woman, j u s t l i k e HISS 5WEN FARRAR. She a t t e m p t e d t o b u r y t h e c o r p s e i n t h e P a r k , Q u i t e l a t e on a n i g h t which was r e a s o n a b l y d a r k ; But was s c a r e d by a R o b e r t , who, n o t i n g t h e t i m e , Had ( n a t u r a l l y r a t h e r ) s u s p e c t e d a c r i m e . ' At. l a s t i n a f r e n z y she r a n g up a f r i e n d , And asked her p o l i t e l y i f oh ! c o u l d she send Her a dead p u s s y - c a t ; and t h e f r i e n d r e p l i e d , " R i g h t , -But you must come y o u r s e l f , d e a r ; i n f a c t , come t o - n i g h t . " The t r a i n i t was crowded; i n d e e d ' twas a f e a t F o r our h e r o i n e e ' e n t o get h o l d of a s e a t . She had packed t h e poor c a t i n her dead h u s b a n d ' s c a s e , And mem'ry b r o u g h t t e a r s w i t h t h e sweat down her f a c e . 52 Her f r i e n d a t t h e s t a t i o n a s k e d , "Is t h i s t h e bag? 30 My d e a r , you l ook t i r e d , f o r t h e s e t r a i n s a r e a f a g . W e ' l l j u s t have some t e a and be happy and m e r r y : The c a t — ( o h , d o n ' t w o r r y ) — t h e g a r d ' n e r w i l l b u r y . The g a r d e n e r opened t h e s u i t c a s e and s a i d . . . "I'm d a s h e d ! " and t h e m y s t i f i e d man s c r a t c h e d h i s head; 35 F o r l y i n g i n s i d e , s t a r k , i m m a c u l a t e , mute, Was - - a p e r f e c t l y p r e s s e d Pope and B r a d l e y d r e s s - s u i t . 1926 THE RAIN FELL HEAVILY C4.13 Among t h e wet and sodden g r a s s A l o n e l y l i t t l e g r a v e y a r d s t o o d W i t h i n t h e p r e c i n c t s of a wood Where men a r e se ldom known t o p a s s . 5 The wood was g a u n t . I saw t h e w r e a t h — The mourners murmuring s i l e n c e k e p t : F o r l o r n t h e naked w i l l o w s wept; A t o a d s a t c o r p u l e n t b e n e a t h . The mourners s l o w l y c r e p t away 10 And l e f t me t o my s o l i t u d e . I r e a d t h e l e g e n d on t h e nude Smal l g r a v e s t o n e i n t h e b l a c k e n e d hay . When I am dead  B r i n g me not r o s e s w h i t e , 15 Nor a u s t e r e l i l i e s g r i m l y b r i g h t ; But b r i n g me from t h e g a r d e n r o s e s r e d ,  Roses r e d , w i n d - b l o w n , s u n - k i s s e d ; The r o s e s t h a t my l i f e h a t h m i s s e d — When I am d e a d . 20 B r i n g r o s e s r e d ! T h e r e was no sun To s h i n e . The g r e y and y e l l o w sky Wept i n t h e month of F e b r u a r y ; Each p i n e — a d r i p p i n g s k e l e t o n . 1927 THE 6LDRY OF THE SEA C 5 . 1 ] The tramp s a i l e d g r i m l y on her t r a c k ; A s i c k l y haze s h u t out t h e s k y ; The a i r was g r e e n , t h e sun was b l a c k ; The s e a was ca lm l i k e mol ten l e a d . 5 An e n g i n e e r came s t a g g e r i n g by: "Another C h i n k gone west !" he s a i d . "Another C h i n k ! " The p u r s e r ' s t a s t e s Were d e l i c a t e . He l o a t h e d t h e s i g h t Of b a r e - b a c k e d s t o k e r s , sweaty w a i s t s . "By c r i m e s , s i r , d o n ' t i t make you t h i n k , T h a t d e a t h s h o u l d t o u c h an Annami te? T h a t Bod s h o u l d s toop t o k i l l a C h i n k ? " "You p e n - p u s h c l e r k ! you p u r s i n g t h i n g ! " The c h i e f s p a t outs "you d o g - e a r e d c lump! You g o a t - s k i n r o t t e n i n T i n - S i n g ! I ' d l i k e t o throw you down t h e h o l e ; I ' d see them f i r e m e n made you jump, To sweat y o u r l i f e b l o o d i n t h e c o a l . " I ' d l i k e t o see you doss on s t r a w , And l i v e on samshaw, f l e a s and r i c e , Or suck t h e l i n g f i s h from t h e f l o o r , Qr d r i n k t h e f l y - b e j o s t l e d muck They get f o r t e a w i t h f o c ' s l e l i c e . . . . P e r h a p s your s o u l would come u n s t u c k . " The cook s t o o d at t h e g a l l e y door To sup t h e c a l m n e s s of t h e n i g h t ; H i s l i p s were p a r c h e d , h i s back was s o r e With b e n d i n g o ' e r t h e g a l l e y s t o v e . He l o o k e d f o r Chang t h e A n n a m i t e , A l a d whom he had l e a r n e d t o l o v e . "Where'5 Chang t o - n i g h t ? " he asked t h e T h i r d ; " I t ' s p a s t t h e t i m e he came o f f watch: H a l f - h o u r ago e i g h t b e l l s I h e a r d ; I ' v e got a cake of Kobe t r o u t , T i n n e d , by c r i m e s ! I bed y o u ' d s c o t c h — " "Chang? C h a n g ' s dead: h i s h e a r t came o u t . " The p a n t i n g sun droppped i n t h e s ea ; A l l hands but f i v e s t o o d on t h e poop; The cook sank q u i e t l y on h i s knee , H i s shadow c a s t upon a w i n c h . I t was a m e l a n c h o l y g r o u p ; And no man b r e a t h e d or moved an i n c h . $ $ % $ The owners l o l l e d i n o f f i c e s t a t e ; . The t y p i s t took her f i l e s away. "Good b u s i n e s s , E p h r a i m ! How I h a t e These r a i n y summers h e r e , I g u e s s ! " "My w i f e and I a t B i a r r i t z s t a y . . . . A c o f f e e ? T h a n k s , y o u ' v e s a i d i t . Y e s . " 54 1928 THE COOK IN THE BALLEY [6.13 He knows t h e s h i p , i t s d i z z y f l i g h t , The upward t h r u s t , t h e s i n k i n g p l u n g e I n t o t h e i n f i n i t e ; When pans and d i s h e s c r a s h and s l i d e , 5 When green s eas c r a s h t h r o u g h m i l k - w h i t e d o o r s , And s t e w a r d s s a l o o n w a r d s s t a g g e r i n g wide , Knee-deep i n w a t e r , s p l a s h l i k e cows; When wind r e v e r b e r a t i n g r o a r s And whips h i s d i s h c l o t h o v e r s i d e 10 He knows, a n d , r e e l i n g , t u r n s t h e c h o p s ; The cook has s e r v e d t en t h o u s a n d chows; The mad s h i p t r e m b l e s , f a l t e r s , d r o p s . . . He comes o u t s i d e when w e a t h e r ' s f i n e To hang h i s s i n g l e t s on t h e l i n e , 15 And t h e n r e t u r n s — h e needs no b e l l — The s c o u s e , or S u n d a y ' s d u f f t o s h a r e ; The s t o k e r ' s t a b n a b s need h i s c a r e ; The s e a sounds f a r away i n t h e r e , S s s s s s s s h , l i k e t h e hush i n a c o n c h - s h e l l . 1928 NUMBER 8 FIREMAN [7 .13 B l a c k e n e d and f i r e s c a r r e d , Up from t h e s t o k e h o l e , S u p p i n g t h e w i n d — C o l d c l e a n s c o u r g e of t h e o c e a n — 5 S tood No. 8. F i r e m a n . . "Jesus i n heaven C o u n t s s a n d s on t h e s e a s h o r e ; The g u l l s t h a t whee l , K l i o , And mew round t h e f u n n e l ; 10 The s h a r k s and t h e d o l p h i n s ; Red s p o n g e s , f i d d l e r c r a b s , Snouted s q u i d s u m b r e l l a - w i n g e d S q u e e z i n g and b u z z i n g , C o i l i n g and h e a v i n g ; 15 S t a r s t h a t a r e r e e l i n g ; And a l l of h i s c h i l d r e n He c o u n t s f o r H i s F a t h e r . But I have no f a t h e r ; The f i r e i s my mother , 20 And r o a r i n g she b o r e me; She washed me i n c o a l d u s t , And f e d me on c i n d e r s ; She p a r c h e d me, then maimed me; And I am her s t o k e r . 55 25 "As God cannot count me, The Board of T r a d e count me, L i k e w inches and d e r r i c k s Or b o i l e r s ; l i k e p i s t o n s R e v o l v i n g and g l e a m i n g ; 30 L i k e b r a s s - s i l l e d w h i t e c a b i n - d o o r s W i n d i l y c r e a k i n g . " 31 . . . c r e a k i n g . " 3 . . . c r e a k i n g " . C1929] ALCOHOLIC [ 8 . 1 ] I d i e d so many t i m e s when drunk That s o b e r I became L i k e water where a s h i p was sunk T h a t never knew i t s name. 5 O l d b a r n a c l e s upon my s i d e s R i n g e d round w i t h p i t c h and t o s s Were g i v e n me by mermaid b r i d e s , Immaculate as moss. Here now, w i t h n e i t h e r k i n nor q u e s t , 10 I am so f u l l of s ea That whales may make of me a n e s t And go t o s l e e p i n me. (Those a n g e l 5 of t h e upper a i r Who s i p of t h e d i v i n e 15 May f i n d a haven h o l i e r But l e s s goodbye t h a n m i n e . ) [1929] DARK PATH [ 9 . 1 ] By no s p e c i f i c d a r t of g o l d , No s i n g l e s i n g i n g have I found T h i s p a t h . I t t r a v e l s , dark and c o l d , Through dead v o l c a n o e s u n d e r g r o u n d . 5 . Here f l i c k e r ye t t h e s u l p h u r o u s C h a r r e d ends of f i r e s l o n g s i n c e I knew. Long s i n c e , I t h i n k , and t h i n k i n g t h u s , I g n i t e , d a e m o n i c a l l y ; anew. Y e t , b u r n i n g , b u r n i n g , b u r n i n g L o r d , 10 Know how t h i s p a t h must l i k e w i s e come Through m u l t i t u d i n o u s d i s c o r d The awful and t h e l o n g way home. 56 [19293 SONNET [10 .13 T h i s r u i n now, where m o o n l i g h t walks a l o n e u n c o v e r i n g t h e cobweb and t h e r o s e , I have been h e r e b e f o r e ; l o v e d each dim s t o n e ; It t h e r e were shadows I was one of t h o s e . 5 T h e r e l i s t e n i n g , as i n a s h e l l , I h e a r d Through some i n v i s i b l e , u n l e t t e r e d whole One t r u e , i-f not a t a l l e t e r n a l , word Wrung from t h e w e i r d m u t a t i o n s of t h e s o u l ; P a l a c e or h o v e l , r u i n w i l l a t l a s t 10 Make peace of what i s waste; t a k e f o r a t i m e The hungry f u t u r e and t h e b l o o d y p a s t I n t o her n i g h t . O n l y t h e moon w i l l c l i m b Up b r o k e n s t a i r s t o towerd might have been And r e s t a l i t t l e , l i k e some p o o r , b l i n d queen . [19293 SPIDERWEB [11 .13 The moment hangs from Heaven l i k e a webbed B r i d g e t o t h a t i n v i s i b l e w h e r e i n N e c e s s i t y ' s d i m e n s i o n s somet imes win H a r b o r s of a i r , f rom which t h e s t o r m has e b b e d . 5 But we a r e s p i d e r s . And w i t h w a i t i n g eyes We see s a i l b y , beyond o l d r e a c h and hope, Doomed wings of d i s t a n c e , s m a l l as p e r i s c o p e , W h i l e d i n i n g on a d i e t of dead f l i e s ; The b l a c k and g o l d , t h e g r o s s and g u l l i b l e , 10 We a r e t h o s e s p i d e r s who of t h e m s e l v e s have spun N e t s of sad t i m e t o sway a g a i n s t t h e s u n — Broken by s e c r e t s t i m e can never t e l l . 1930 FOR NORDAHL GRIEG SHIP'S FIREMAN [12 .13 Two Norwegian f i r e m e n , f r i e n d s i n t h e same w a t c h , s t a n d l o o k i n g up a t t h e s h i p , And what do t h e y s ee? They see an i r o n moloch S e c u r e l y w a i t i n g t o swal low t h e l i v e s of m e n . . . . 5 But t h i s s h i p a l s o v i s i t s l a n d s of s t r a n g e b e a u t y Where b r o a d l e a v e s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e s u n . The hawsers drop and g r o a n , W h i l e t h e s h i p b a c k s out of h a r b o u r . She s w i n g s round and steams f o r t h e open s e a . 10 What a r e t h e s e l a n d s of s t r a n g e b e a u t y ? They a r e t h e r e s u r e l y , t h e y a r e s e e n , but a r e not p a r t of t h e two f i r e m e n , 57 O n l y t h e p o r t w i t h i t s c r a n e s i s p a r t of them, B e c k o n i n g w i t h t h e i r b r o n z e arms a t n i g h t ; 15 The g i r l s l a u g h i n g i n l i n k e d q u i n t e t s i n t h e l a m p l i g h t ; A swarm of s p i r o c h a e t e s , Maggots h a t c h i n g i n t h e v e r y p u l s e of l o v e . O f t e n t h e s e two f i r e m e n remember Norway As t h e y gaze from t h e poop a t t h e g a l l o p i n g c l o u d s 20 above; They t h i n k of t h e s o u n d l e s s b l a c k d e p t h s of f j o r d s ; S p r i n g p l a n t s s t a r i n g at t h e sun i n T r o n d j h e m ; B a r e arms among t h e s t o r m - t o s s e d washing i n T v e d e -s t r a n d 25 As I p h i g e n i a remembered H e l l a s , so do t h e y remember Norway. When t h e y remember t h i s t h e s h i p i s a moloch An i r o n monster t h a t c r u s h e s seamen and f i r e m e n In i t s jaws; someth ing o b s c e n e l y n e u t e r 30 With i t s s i d e s f o u l e d w i t h f i l t h , t h a t s w a l l o w s t h e i r 1 i ves Or maims them. T h e r e i s no b e a u t y about t h e s h i p . Then one n i g h t t h e two f i r e m e n b l a c k e n e d w i t h c o a l And f i r e s c a r r e d , up from t h e s t o k e h o l e , 35 P a u s i n g a m i d s h i p s i n t h e i r s h u d d e r i n g f l i m s i e s t o sup t h e w i n d , Happen t o be s t a n d i n g by t h e s h i p ' s hen-coop As t h e c o l d c l e a n s c o u r g e of wind whips them. " L o o k , " one s a y s , "why one of t h e hens has got 40 c h i c k e n s ! " As t h e y s t a n d and watch t h e t i n y y e l l o w b a l l s T u m b l i n g i n t h e m o o n l i g h t , so s o f t and p a t h e t i c With t h e i r l i t t l e c r i e s , t h e y wonder How i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o be so a l i v e 45 So t e n d e r and h e l p l e s s , How t h e s e c o u l d emerge f rom t h e c r u e l naked i r o n and t h r i ve , And t h e y f o r g e t t h e m u r d e r i n g s t r e n g t h of t h e s h i p . How i t s l a y s l i k e a l i o n . 50 Nor do t h e y t h i n k of t h e l i f e of t h e c h i c k e n , How s h o r t l y t h e warm f l u f f y b a l l becomes h i d e o u s l y naked And p e r h a p s d i e s , Or i s u g l y , a c o n t i n u a l h a r l o t , a s c r a g g y c o n c u b i n e ; 55 They do not t h i n k of eggs bea ten i n Norwegian egg c u p s . L o . A l l i s i n n o c e n c e . F o r t h e moment t h e s h i p i s no l o n g e r a moloch No l o n g e r n e u t e r ; t h e h e l p l e s s warm c h i c k e n s 60 B r i n g back t o t h e f i r e m e n a w h i t e dream of a g i r l ' s f a c e : One remembers w a l k i n g t h r o u g h g r e y f i e l d s , That t i m e t h e y watched t h e s team r i s i n g at n i g h t 58 From t h e dark Norwegian e a r t h ; And a c e r t a i n s t r e e t b u i l t on an i n c l i n e , 65 Orange s q u a r e s t h a t were windows i n t h e e v e n i n g . . . . The s h i p s t a g g e r s and wal lows i n t h e s e a . One t h i n k s t h a t t h e poor l o n e l y s h i p i s s t i l l i n i t s b i r t h -agony , I t i s as though t h e v e r y s h i p i t s e l f has g i v e n b i r t h . 1930 IN CAPE COD WITH CONRAD AIKEN [13 .11 Two p h i l o s o p h e r s a t h o u s a n d y e a r s from now met i n a g r o t t o s e c r e t l y Where b a y o n e t s of i c e d r i p e d about them and t h e one s t a r shone i n a f o u n t a i n . . . . And t h e f i r s t s a i d , " F r i e n d I have d i s c o v e r e d a l a n g u a g e , but so 5 complex and d i f f i c u l t That i t would t a k e a t h o u s a n d y e a r s t o s y n t h e s i s e a s i n g l e w o r d . " The o t h e r s m i l e d i n r e p l y . "I a l s o have d i s c o v e r e d a l a n g u a g e , " he s a i d , "But i n my l a n g u a g e one word i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t of s i x t e e n thousand 10 y e a r s . " They s a t l o n g t h u s i n c o v e r s a t i o n , t h e i r hands palm-downward on t h e i r knees , W h i l e i c e m e l t e d l o u d l y about them; And t h e h o u r s f o l d e d t h e i r wings beneath t h e s k y . 15 I t e l l you t h i s young man So t h a t your o u t l o o k may p e r h a p s be b r o a d e n e d . I who have seen s n o r i n g v o l c a n o e s And d i s m a l i s l a n d s shawled i n s n o w . . . . T A i k e n ] A i t k e n 7 . . . a l anguage ,"1 [ o m i t s end q u o t a t i o n mark] 1931 THOSE COKES TO NEWCASTLE BLUES [ 1 4 . 1 ] P r o f e s s o r J . L . M o r i s o n , P r o f e s s o r of' Modern H i s t o r y a t A r m s t r o n g  C o l l e g e , N e w c a s t l e , has r e s i g n e d h i s membership of t h e N e w c a s t l e L i t e r a r y and P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y because t h e s o c i e t y has a r r a n g e d l e c t u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h c e r t a i n modern a u t h o r s whose works  he s a y s may not u n j u s t i f i a b l y be c a l l e d " i n d e c e n t . " In an i n t e r v i e w t h e P r o f e s s o r s a i d ; "I o b j e c t t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e names i n t h e l i s t of l e c t u r e s . They a r e D . H . Lawrence , A l d o u s H u x l e y , and James J o y c e . Those t h r e e a r e , t o my m i n d , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some of t h e most i n d e c e n t w r i t i n g of t h e p r e s e n t day . James J o y c e ' s book " U l y s s e s " has been banned i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , where i t cannot be s o l d ; Lawrence was a man whose works were h o p e l e s s l y o v e r s e x e d . A l d o u s H u x l e y i s what I c a l l a w r i t e r of d i r t y - m i n d e d m a t t e r . I cannot i m a g i n e a young man or woman r e a d i n g A l d o u s 59 H u x l e y - s books w i t h o u t b e i n g t h e worse f o r r e a d i n g t h e m . , . . As an o r d i n a r y C h r i s t i a n man, I w i l l f i g h t a g a i n s t i n d e c e n c y i n e v e r y f o r m . I have a p p e a l e d t o t h e B i s h o p . T h i s i s not a s t o r m i n a t e a c u p , but t h e b e g i n n i n g of a f i g h t f o r d e c e n c y a n d p u r i t y , and I s h a l l f i g h t t o t h e l a s t d i t c h . I a p p e a l t o t h e P r e s s , t o t h e p e o p l e of N e w c a s t l e , t o see t h a t t h e minds of t h e s e young p e o p l e a r e not p o l l u t e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s . " — from a r e c e n t Sunday-T i m e s . L e t P a r i s r e a d J o y c e ! L e t F l o r e n c e r e a d Lawrence ! As f o r me I r e g a r d them w i t h p r o p e r a b h o r r e n c e — L e t F r a n k f o r t r e a d F l a h e r t y ! 5 Munich r e a d Mann! But N e w c a s t l e ' s a l w a y s t h e n i c e g e n t l e m a n . On t h e banks of t h e T y n e , On t h e banks of t h e T y n e , To t h e good i s no e v i l 10 And no G e r t r u d e S t e i n ; To t h e p u r e a r e no s e x e s , Nor naughty complexes B e w i l d e r t h e minds Of t h e p e o p l e of T y n e , 15 Of t h e p e o p l e of T y n e . . . , I a p p e a l t o t h e B i s h o p , The Navy, t h e P r e s s , To h e l p me; L o r d h e l p me t o c l e a n up t h e mess, F o r no m a t t e r how c l e v e r 20 Crome Y e l l o w may be , Ci-ome Y e l l o w , I p o i n t out Means s a f f r o n t o me. On t h e banks of t h e T y n e , On t h e banks of t h e T y n e , 25 To t h e good i s no e v i l And no G e r t r u d e S t e i n ; To t h e p u r e a r e no s e x e s No naughty complexes ; The p u r i t a n f i n d s 30 No s u b - c o n s c i o u s n e s s vexes The g r e y - f a c e d b o l l - w e e v i l That l i v e s by t h e T y n e , The w h e y - f a c e d b o l l - w e e v i l That l i v e s i n t h e minds 35 Of t h e p e o p l e of T y n e , Of t h e p e o p l e of T y n e ! An a p p e a l t o t h e c l e r g y would c e r t a i n l y f i s h up Some f i l t h from t h e l e c h e r o u s mind of a b i s h o p ; And one t o t h e P r e s s , say t h e D a i l y E x p r e s s , 40 Might r e s u l t i n a campaign t o c l e a n up t h e mess; And a l o n g p e r o r a t i o n might f o l l o w t o t r y us From D o u g l a s t h e d i m p l e d , t h e p i m p l e d , t h e p r y o u s . That t i n f o i l b e s t t i n s e l l e r , p r i d e of t h e p i o u s , And p r i d e of t h e n a t i o n , s i r , p r i d e of t h e n a t i o n . . 60 45 F o r whatever endeavour t h i s Lawrence has made To r i p out t h e g r e y t h i n g s t h e g r e y ones have s a i d , Whatever t h e c o u r a g e or p r i c e he has p a i d , S h a l l not s e v e r t h e s t r i n g s of t h e s t a y s of t h e s t a i d , The N o r t h u m b e r l a n d s t r i n g s of t h e s t a y s of t h e s t a i d , 50 Nor can h a r d l y be o t h e r t h a n v i c i o u s , I'm s u r e , To h e a r t s t h a t a r e u p r i g h t and minds t h a t a r e p u r e . Cwith Conrad ftiken] 61 THE LIGHTHOUSE INVITES THE STORM; POEMS 1934-1939 The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s the Storm i s Lowry ' s f i r s t u n p u b l i s h e d c o l l e c t i o n of poems. I t i s not c l e a r when Lowry c o n c e i v e d a group of l i n k e d poems or a p o s s i b l e sonnet sequence, but he f i r s t ment ioned the volume i n a 1938 l e t t e r to Nordahl G r i e g (SL. 15-16) . However, the r e c u r r i n g c h a r a c t e r s on whom the u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e of the c o l l e c t i o n r e s t s — P e t e r Gaunt and V i g i l F o r g e t — a r e f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d on d r a f t l eaves d a t a b l e between 1934 and 1936. Most of the poems were completed by 1938-39, and i n t h a t y e a r Lowry appears to have had a p r o f e s s i o n a l t y p i s t i n Los Ange les p r e p a r e a t r i p l i c a t e f a i r copy of the L i g h t h o u s e m a n u s c r i p t . ^ In 1939, many of the poems underwent a f u r t h e r round of r e v i s i o n s and were r e t y p e d at C a r e y ' s house i n Vancouver on paper which Lowry a l s o used f o r o u t g o i n g correspondence i n t h a t y e a r . 2 That some v e r s i o n of the L i g h t h o u s e t e x t — p e r h a p s the o r i g i n a l s of the 1938-39 f a i r copy t r i p l i c a t e — w a s c i r c u l a t i n g through New York p u b l i s h i n g houses i n 1940-41 i s c l e a r from Lowry ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e : i n 1941 he w r i t e s h i s agent H a r o l d Matson to ask whether Matson i s s t i l l h o l d i n g "the h a p l e s s and 3 ambulatory" L i g h t h o u s e . A l t h o u g h he toyed w i t h i t p e r i o d i c a l l y d u r i n g the l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s of h i s l i f e , Lowry appears to have l e f t the L i g h t h o u s e l a r g e l y i n t a c t a f t e r 1940. I t seems c l e a r t h a t he i n t e n d e d t h i s volume to be a d i s c r e t e c o l l e c t i o n : a f t e r 1940, on ly ten of the e i g h t y - t h r e e L i g h t h o u s e poems at U . B . C . bear t r a c e s of f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s ; of these t e n , on ly t h r e e were i n c l u d e d w i t h Lowry ' s second p o e t r y c o l l e c t i o n i n 1947. These two 62 f a c t s undermine the w i d e l y h e l d view tha t a l l h i s l i f e Lowry i n t e n d e d to work a l l h i s p o e t r y i n t o the L i g h t h o u s e s t r u c t u r e . ^ No f i n a l l y r e v i s e d copy of the L i g h t h o u s e e x i s t s . Lowry ' s d r a f t copy of the volume, which i n c l u d e s some d u p l i c a t e poems, some heavy a u t h o r i a l r e v i s i o n s and comments, and i n d i c a t i o n s of i n -p r o c e s s e d i t i n g and r e o r d e r i n g , i s p r e s e r v e d at U . B . C . (6-51) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s d r a f t copy i s r e l i a b l e on ly f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c o p y - t e x t s of i n d i v i d u a l poems, because i t s a u t h o r i a l s t r u c t u r e has been r e o r g a n i z e d and h e a v i l y annota ted by p r e v i o u s e d i t o r s . The d r a f t copy c o n t a i n s seven types of paper r a n g i n g i n dates from 1934 to 1940; the d r a f t f i l e s f o r ten poems c o n t a i n l a t e r papers which can be da ted through t h e i r appearance on papers i n the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . ^ The l a t e s t t r a c e a b l e work Lowry d i d on L i g h t h o u s e i s the f i n a l v e r s i o n of " L e t t e r from Oaxaca to North A f r i c a 1936," which appears on paper which dates from 1957, the year of Lowry ' s d e a t h . Most of the L i g h t h o u s e papers are t y p e s c r i p t s ; m a n u s c r i p t s s u r v i v e at U . B . C . f o r only f o u r t e e n of the e i g h t y - t h r e e poems. Given the tempestuous and u n s e t t l e d n a t u r e of the two y e a r s of Lowry ' s l i f e between h i s f l i g h t from Mexico and the b e g i n n i n g of the r e l a t i v e l y calm D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d , i t seems l i k e l y t h a t the m i s s i n g p o e t i c m a n u s c r i p t s were i n c l u d e d w i t h , and s u f f e r e d the same f a t e a s , the m i s s i n g Mexican f i r s t d r a f t of the V o l c a n o . That the s i g l a drop s h a r p l y between s t a t e s a f t e r 1938 suggests t h a t the d r a f t of the L i g h t h o u s e i s one i n which the t e x t s were e s t a b l i s h e d to Lowry ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n , but i n which the order had not been f i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d . For example, s e v e r a l of the poems 63 have Lowry ' s "out" s c r a w l e d a c r o s s the heads of the t y p e s c r i p t s . T h i s data c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t a f a i r copy would have i n c l u d e d fewer than the e i g h t y - t h r e e poems o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d f o r the L i g h t h o u s e . However, t r a c i n g Lowry ' s r e v i s i o n s r e v e a l s t h a t he d i d not always r e v i s e or t i t l e the l a t e s t s t a t e of any g i v e n poem, u s i n g i n s t e a d whichever s t a t e was handy to him at the t i m e . He c o u l d e a s i l y have changed h i s mind about the "out" poems, thus e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n the d r a f t copy . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the "out" poems may have been r e p l a c e d i n the d r a f t by o ther e d i t o r s . S i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to determine whether these poems were a u t h o r i a l l y or e d i t o r i a l l y r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the d r a f t copy , i t seems prudent to i n c l u d e a l l the poems—and the t i t l e s — i n the c u r r e n t e d i t i o n . Because some poems i n Lowry ' s d r a f t e x i s t i n on ly one s t a t e — o t h e r s i n as many as n i n e — t h e problem of c o p y - t e x t i s u n u s u a l l y c o m p l i c a t e d . The s t a t e s f o r each poem were da ted by t h e i r appearances on papers which a l s o appear i n Lowry ' s d a t a b l e o u t g o i n g l e t t e r s . The s t a t e s were then c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y a r r a n g e d ; i n t h i s e d i t i o n the l a t e s t a u t h o r i a l s t a t e serves as c o p y - t e x t . In t h r e e c a s e s , e a r l i e r s t a t e s p r o v i d e c o p y - t e x t s ; f o r these poems, i n which the l a t e r v e r s i o n i s i n c l u d e d w i t h a f u r t h e r c o l l e c t i o n , the f i n a l s t a t e s of the v e r s i o n s Lowry had approved 7 by 1940 were used as c o p y - t e x t s f o r the Licrhthous e. Some poems, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "The Comedian ," e x i s t only i n the Grimes t r i p l i c a t e f a i r copy s t a t e . The dates of these poems have been b r a c k e t e d i n t h i s , e d i t i o n , because i t i s f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s s t a t e does not r e p r e s e n t the f i r s t v e r s i o n of any 64 L i g h t h o u s e poem. In a few cases the paper on which a poem appears does not match the g e o g r a p h i c a l or b i o g r a p h i c a l content of the poem. F o r example, " D e l i r i u m i n Los Ange le s" [46] f i r s t appears on Champion Bond p a p e r , which dates from New York 1934-36. Lowry had not been t o Los Ange les b e f o r e 1936, so the poem was p r o b a b l y not w r i t t e n e a r l i e r than t h a t y e a r . The same New York paper makes another appearance i n the Mexican poem "Most nauseous of a l l d r i n k s , what i s your s p e l l ? " [23]—a poem about t e q u i l a , a d r i n k Lowry d i d not pursue u n t i l 1936. I t seems r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t Lowry took a s t o c k of paper w i t h him when he and Jan G a b r i a l l e f t New York f o r Mexico v i a Los Ange les i n 1936j i n such cases any West Coast or Mexican poem which appears on New York paper i s da ted a c c o r d i n g to g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e n t . I t i s not c l e a r whether the d i s o r d e r i n the L i g h t h o u s e d r a f t i s a u t h o r i a l or a r e s u l t of the 1960-61 c o l l a b o r a t i v e work of M a r g e r i e Lowry and E a r l e B i r n e y . Lowry r e v i s e d the order of the L i g h t h o u s e poems at l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s : t h r e e s e p a r a t e numbering systems appear on most of the t y p e s c r i p t s . These roman numera l s , which comprise s e p a r a t e s e r i e s f o r each of the seven a u t h o r i a l s e c t i o n s , are f o r the most p a r t h a n d w r i t t e n at the top of the s h e e t s , i n c l u d i n g the Grimes f a i r c o p i e s ; the numerals are i n s c r i b e d i n p e n c i l a n d / o r b l a c k i n k , Lowry ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c method of making r e v i s i o n s to t y p e s c r i p t s . The 1939 p a p e r , however, has t y p e d numerals w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h c e r t a i n r e v i s i o n s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s t a t e s which appear on t h i s paper p o s t - d a t e the Grimes s t a t e s . There i s , however, a l i s t i n M a r g e r i e ' s hand of one v e r s i o n of the L i g h t h o u s e order w h i c h , though n e a r l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f o l i a t i o n , does not always agree w i t h any one 65 set of h o l o g r a p h numerat ion (6 -52) . A l t e r a t i o n s i n f o l i a t i o n do n o t , however, s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the order of the c o l l e c t i o n , f o r the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s produce gaps which serve on ly to c o l l a p s e the o r d e r , r a t h e r than change i t . These gaps do r a i s e the i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n of the m i s s i n g (or perhaps unwr i t t en ) poems, e s p e c i a l l y as no o ther poems i n the U . B . C . c o l l e c t i o n are numbered i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . For t h i s e d i t i o n , the order has been de termined by the f o l i a t i o n ; but the e x i s t e n c e of t h r e e s e t s of f o l i a t i o n generates some u n r e s o l v a b l e p r o b l e m s . Wherever t h e r e i s a s i n g l e numera l , i t serves as o r d e r - d e t e r m i n a n t . In the case of m u l t i p l e numera l s , the order e s t a b l i s h e d by the s i n g l e numeral pages p r o v i d e s a gu ide to s e l e c t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e of p o s i t i o n from among the m u l t i p l e n u m e r a l s . The r e s u l t i n g o r d e r was then checked a g a i n s t M a r g e r i e ' s l i s t . A l t h o u g h o b v i o u s l y not d e f i n i t i v e , t h i s l i s t l i k e l y r e p r e s e n t s the o r d e r i n which M a r g e r i e found the d r a f t copy of L i g h t h o u s e . s i n c e i t i s c e r t a i n l y not a l i s t of the expanded L i g h t h o u s e format c r e a t e d by her and her c o - e d i t o r , nor does i t match the c u r r e n t d i s o r d e r e d s t a t e of the d r a f t copy . A l l u n s o l v a b l e o r d e r i n g problems were d e a l t w i t h by r e f e r e n c e to M a r g e r i e ' s l i s t , as i t s a u t h o r i a l p r o x i m i t y i s at l e a s t r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e . Because Lowry h i m s e l f had not b e f o r e h i s death de termined a f i n a l order f o r L i g h t h o u s e . and because i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know how he would have wanted the work comple ted , t h i s e d i t i o n aims to r e - e s t a b l i s h the l a t e s t order Lowry had e s t a b l i s h e d by the t ime of h i s d e a t h . See "Appendix C: The A n n o t a t i o n of Lowry ' s P o e t r y : A Prolegomenon" f o r the e x p l a n a t o r y a n n o t a t i o n to t h i s s e c t i o n . 66 NOTES Lowry a r r i v e d i n Los Ange les from Mexico i n the summer of 1938. A f t e r he met M a r g e r i e Bonner i n June 1939, on ly she t y p e d h i s m a n u s c r i p t s . D u r i n g the month they were a p a r t , b e f o r e M a r g e r i e a r r i v e d i n Vancouver , Lowry handwrote h i s p a s s i o n a t e l e t t e r s to Los A n g e l e s . Lowry ' s own Mexican t y p e s c r i p t s are i n s t a n t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e by the e r r o r s , clumsy c o r r e c t i o n s , c i g a r e t t e burns and a l c o h o l s t a i n s on the p a p e r . The t r i p l i c a t e s are t y p e d on "Grimes Bus ines s Bond" c o r r o s i b l e p a p e r , which i s of a much h i g h e r q u a l i t y and d u r a b i l i t y than any papers which date from M e x i c o . T y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r s are extremely r a r e on these shee t s ; i t i s t h e r e f o r e u n l i k e l y tha t they are from Mexico or t h a t Lowry t y p e d them. Unless M a r g e r i e typed the poems d u r i n g the month they shared i n Los A n g e l e s , the L i g h t h o u s e had to be t y p e d t h e r e by someone e l s e — f r o m t h e i r h i g h q u a l i t y , p r o b a b l y a p r o f e s s i o n a l t y p i s t — b e c a u s e i t s next round of r e v i s i o n s can be t r a c e d to Vancouver i n l a t e 1939. 2 A second p a p e r , which c o n t a i n s "Eight Poems from The Licrhthouse I n v i t e s the Storm" (6-55) a l s o dates from C a r e y ' s house . T h i s s e l e c t i o n accompanied a May 1940 l e t t e r to James S t e r n a s k i n g him to p l a c e the poems. S t e r n was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s endeavour. The e igh t poems a r e : "In the Oaxaca T r a i n " [101] , " D e l i r i u m i n Vera C r u z " [27] , "Quartermaster at the Wheel" [79] , "The D e v i l was a Gentleman" [40] , "Doctor Usquebaugh" [28] , "There i s a M e t a l l u r g y " [80] , "The Roar of the Sea and the Darkness" [97] , " L u l l " [72] . 3 Malco lm Lowry, l e t t e r to H a r o l d Matson , 4 March 1941 (1 -80) . 67 4 As e x p r e s s e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n E a r l e B i r n e y , "The Unknown P o e t r y of Malco lm L o w r y , " B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 24.4 (1961) 33-40. ^ These poems a r e : " L e t t e r from Oaxaca to North A f r i c a 1936" [16] , "At the Bar" [26] , " D e l i r i u m i n Vera C r u z " [27] , "The L a s t Man i n the D6me" [29] , " L u l l " [72] , "We l i k e n e d one man to a s h i p a d r i f t " [85] , "Song about M a d r i d , U s e f u l Anyt ime" [91] , "A Poem of God's Mercy" [93] , "On Read ing R . L . S . " [95] , "The Roar of the Sea and the Darkness" [97] . These poems a r e : "I have known a c i t y of d r e a d f u l n i g h t " [24] , " T h i r t y F i v e Mesca l s i n C u a u t l a " [25] , " D e l i r i u m i n Vera C r u z " [27] , "The L a s t Man i n the Dome" [29] , "Curse" [33] , "As the poor end of each dead day drew near" [35] , "The sun s h i n e s : where i s the l y r i c ? " [36] , "The g e n t l e n e s s of r a i n i s i n the wind" [37] , "He wrote f o r the dead, but the u b i q u i t o u s dead" [41] , " P i g l i n g , p i g l i n g , b u r n i n g b l a n d " [48] , " - - For C h r i s t ' s sake and f o r mine and l a s t f o r a c h i l d ' s god gone" [73] , "We l i k e n e d one man to a s h i p a d r i f t " [85] , "The s h i p of war s a i l s i n the grey morning" [88] , "Song about M a d r i d , U s e f u l Anyt ime" [91] . 7 The t h r e e poems a r e : " D e l i r i u m i n Vera C r u z " [27] , which appears as [131] i n the 1947 s e l e c t i o n , "On Reading R . L . S . " [95] , which becomes " O l d F r e i g h t e r i n an O l d P o r t " [114] , and "The Roar of the Sea and the Darkness" [97] , which becomes "The Western Ocean" [117] . THE LIGHTHOUSE INVITES THE STORM 69 - J u n e , t o o s o o n ; J u l y , s t a n d by: A u g u s t , you must; September emember; O c t o b e r , a l l o v e r . M a r i n e r ' s p r o v e r b . I PETER GAUNT AND THE CANALS 71 1934-36 PETER GAUNT AND THE CANALS C11 I 10 De L e s s e p s , he s a i d , was not t h e o n l y one , Peer S y n t , t o o , c l i m b e d a w o r l d of money-bags — t h e y happened t o be dunes i n t h e d e s e r t — Wear ing r i n g s and a watch or two and so f o r t h , And s a i d i t was h a r d , i n d e e d i t was c e r t a i n l y Hard i n d e e d , i n t h i s p e c u l i a r p l a c e , Hard t o see t h e A l m i g h t y ' s p u r p o s e Where t h e r e was n o t h i n g l i f e - g i v i n g , n o t h i n g But a b u r n t - u p waste p r o f i t i n g no g r o w t h , An o l d c o r p s e which n e v e r once s a i d thank you S i n c e i t was s h a p e d . Why was i t made at a l l ? II The e x t r a v a g a n c e of n a t u r e took h i s mind; Was t h a t t h e s e a , or m i r a g e , i n t h e e a s t ? Whatever i t was g l i t t e r e d l i k e d iamonds . No. Sea was t o t h e west where l i k e a dam S a n d h i l l s p r o t e c t e d d e s e r t f rom i t s l i f e . A dam, t h o u g h t S y n t , f rom Norway, h i l l s a r e s m a l l : A dam; why not a c u t t i n g , a c a n a l Through which t h e wi se o c e a n , warp ing s l o w l y At f i r s t , would f i l l t h e p l a i n i t s e l f w i t h f l o o d ? And a l l t h a t d e s o l a t e g r a v e become a l a k e . I l l A l a k e , a s e a i t s e l f , whose g e n t l e c r a s h Of waves would show c r y s t a l a g a i n s t i s l a n d s ; To t h e n o r t h , f o r e v e r a new l a n d f a l l ; To t h e s o u t h , snowy plumage of f r i g a t e s ; W h i l e above , be low, a r o u n d , w h i t e h a r b i n g e r s , — S i n c e g u l l s a r e i n c i d e n t i n s a l t y p r o j e c t s — And t h i s i s f i r s t t h e dream of a c a n a l Whose g r e e n banks r o a r w i t h towns as busy t r a d e Steams from t h e l a n d of Habes t o t h e N i l e , Where, p i l e d a g a i n s t a Cape , P e e r o p o l i s S t a g g e r s , t h e c a p i t a l c i t y of s e l f . IV P e e r o p o l i s ; a n o t h e r P e t e r s b u r g ! But p e o p l e d w i t h Norsemen, f o r n o t h i n g e l s e 35 Than Norsemen s a t i s f y Peer G y n t ; N o r d i c Men f o r t h e new bo rn l a n d whose f o u n d e r s i g n s And d o u b t l e s s s i n g s i n t o some k h e d i v e ' s e a r : A l l we need i s c a p i t a l ! C a p i t a l ! C a p i t a l ! A l l we need i s c a p i t a l ! 40 Ab e s s e ad p o s s e s s ! C a p i t a l Is a l l we need! N o r d i c men! C a p i t a l ! A l l we n e e d ' s some c a p i t a l , some c a p i t a l , Indeed . . . And so o n , t o t h e " H a l l of t h e M o u n t a i n K i n g . " V The j i g , l i k e N o a h ' s donkey i n t h e Ark 45 — What was t h a t Ark i f not a dream l i k e P e e r ' s , I t s voyage back i n h e a r t from water t o sand? — N o a h ' s donkey i n t h e A r k , i n t h e A r k , In t h e A r k , b r a y s i t s message — a s i n i n e ! — To e a s t , west , n o r t h , and s o u t h . Thus good I b s e n , 50 And l a t e r G r i e g , and l a t e r s t i l l t h e s i x Brown b r o t h e r s , hot f o r e r u n n e r s of t h e r i f f s . L e t t h i s pun p a s s , remembering P e t e r G i n k ; And so make way f o r Mr. P e t e r G a u n t . VI (What was t h a t s t o r y of an o l d e r dream 55 But some v i s i o n of w i l d e r n e s s of water And a s e t t l i n g of l o u d r o d e n t s i n a d r y w o r l d Washed w h i t e ? No doubt i t was a N o r d i c w o r l d . ) But t h e r e goes M r . P e t e r G a u n t , M. A . , P . H . D . , and so on — not P . H . D . ? — 60 Or b e t t e r s t i l l , p l a i n P e t e r ; or b e t t e r s t i l l , P l a i n P e t e . H e l l , a r e you M r . Gaunt a t a l l ? Whether or not you l i k e i t , whether or not You t h i n k my r e a s o n f o r i t i s v a l i d , Your name i s P e t e r G a u n t . I t i s s o l i d . VII P e t e r G a u n t , as Gynt t h e n , c l i m b s a dune, L o o k s on a dead w o r l d t h a t seems t o him b a d , — Though d u n e ' s but a s t o o l i n t h e "Automat ," S p e l l i n g t h i s backwards makes Tamotua, P a c i f i c i s l a n d i n t i t a n i c s u r f , G l u t t i n g t e n t h o u s a n d t a v e r n s i n t h e town; I t was t h e s u r f of t r a f f i c r o u n d h i s f e e t Washed him t o t h i s e s c a p e , h i s o a s i s In t h e d e s e r t of C h i c a g o , L o n d o n , Rheims , and a b l e s t i s l a n d f o r l o v e r s , t o o V I I I And l i g h t s a c i g a r e t t e , n o t i n g , f a r o f f , The o s t r i c h ; t h e c i g a r e t t e ' s a c a m e l , And o s t r i c h but a r e f l e c t i o n of h i m s e l f Wondering a t t h e A l m i g h t y ' s p u r p o s e ; G a u n t , b e c a u s e he s t a r v e s ; P e t e r , because h a r d , P e t e r i s a s t a r v e d r o c k t h a t t h i n k s and smokes, Though bo th a r e d i s c o u r a g e d h e r e , wonder ing How man s h o u l d be bo th s t o n e and b i r d a t once : And when he e a t s , s h o u l d ea t w i t h s a n d f i l l e d e y e s ; How pauper l i p s may s t r a n g e l y cram w i t h d e s s e r t And paper cups b r i m o v e r w i t h sweet wine . IX Sees he t h e new c i t y , t h e r e a l l y b e t t e r l a n d , Or w i l l s he t h e f l o o d on a l l of us But t o d e s t r o y , not s l a k e , not f r u c t i f y , Under t h e b l e a k n o r t h s t a r of h i s s e l f - m i s t r u s t He has r e a d or not r e a d about i n Myers? Under t h e m a n i a c a l lamp of t h e c a f e t e r i a L u r k s t h e r e t h e s t r a n g e , t h e b i r d - h a u n t e d v i s i o n Of t h e c a n a l t h a t l i v e s i n m a n k i n d ' s dream, P l o u g h e d t h r o u g h p a s t ' s s a n d , no b i t t e r l a k e s beyond From C a s i n o - P a l a c e t o B a b - e l - M a n d e b , Or C a r i b e e s t o T e h u a n t e p e c , L i v e r p o o l t o Canaan v i a M a n c h e s t e r ? 74 L i v e r p o o l t o M a n c h e s t e r v i a Runcorn A r c h a n g e l t o K a t t e g a t and Sound! 100 A dream s t i l l l i v i n g . i n t h e mind of man Has many c o l o u r e d meanings: i f Gaunt s e e s S a n d h i l l s o b s t r u c t i n g d e s e r t f rom new l i f e . T h i n k s of dams, why now t h e h i l l s a r e low, F e e l s t h e wi se ocean w a r p i n g s l o w l y 105 To f i l l t h e p l a i n i t s e l f w i t h s a l t sweet f l o w ; I f , remembering Panama, he s a y s M e r s e y , G y n t , G a u n t , a r e t h e y t h e same? If t h e Whi te Sea Was n e a r e r G a u n t ' s dream i n bo th b e a u t i f u l l y , I t h i n k t h e r e i s no predominance of w h i t e . XI 110 A f t e r a l l , t h e v i s i o n was l i k e but s u b t l y s e a - c h a n g e d , Whether g r a v e became a l a k e sweet or s o u r The c a n a l changed d i r e c t i o n e v e r y h o u r ; Whatever Gaunt saw, whatever s l o p i n g c i t y Was b u i l t by f r e e men f o r t h e f r e e t o l i v e i n , 115 C r e a t e d t h r o u g h men f o r mankind by mankind; Say at. v e r y l e a s t Gaunt t h o u g h t l e s s of s e l f Than t h o u g h t G y n t ? But i s i t s t r i c t l y t r u e ? T r u t h L i e s between o l d f a c t s as swamps between s e a s , Or i f not f a c t s t h e y ' r e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . 120 The s i l t e d t r u t h i s a l s o d r e d g e a b l e , I t i s t h i s man's empowered t o r e c l a i m F o r man. I t i s a c a n a l i n m i n d . And i t i s f o r h i m s e l f . XII L e t us g i v e him t h e b e n e f i t o f some d o u b t s ; That Gaunt was k i n d e r t o h i s S o l v e i g and Aase ; 125 Must have known t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two, S c a r c e l y would have s e t h i s mother on r o o f ; Hoped, a t l e a s t , l o v e w i t h o u t l o v e of mankind Was i t s own s e p u l c h r e . P e r h a p s P e t e r Gaunt D i e d f o r M a d r i d under mach ine -gun f i r e . 130 P e r h a p s n o t . But no m a t t e r where he d i e d , Or even where he l i v e d , he was P e t e r G a u n t , And he was y o u , who may have needed c a p i t a l To t h e same tune and S o l v e i g t h r i c e a n i g h t , But a t l e a s t d i d not f i l l h i s s t a r w i t h Norsemen, 135 A n d , i f w i t h a b s t r a c t i o n s , not w i t h t h e f o u r horsemen. 75 X I I I 145 140 150 So when f l e s h f e e l s s l i g h t e d by t h e p r e s e n t . And s p i r i t by t h e f u t u r e , t h i n k of Gaunt Who l o v e s h i s w i f e and has no h e a r t t o d i e , Yet masked as J o n e s may r u n B i l b a o ' s g a u n t l e t , C u t t i n g h i s own . cana l t h r o u g h b r a c k i s h d e a t h And b r i n g i n g l i f e t o l i f e , t o o weak t o s t a n d ; When deathward t h e mind makes s u p e r c e s s i o n , C o n s i d e r Gaunt , who b u i l t a l o y a l i s t column That G a u n t , o u r s e l f , might l i v e on s e a and l a n d , F r e e t o f e e l s l i g h t e d , f r e e f o r j a y or peace ; F r e e t o l a u g h , l o v e , r u n , wa lk , s e e , o r ' b e b l i n d , From L o r b r u l g r u d t o L e n i n g r a d v i a N i c e ; From I t h a c a , New Y o r k , t o I t h a c a , G r e e c e ; In G e o r g i a , i n t h e deep s o u t h , and i n t h e f a r e a s t , And i n t h a t deeper s o u t h below Cape H o r n , From A l d e b e r a n t o A b e r d e e n . 36 15 .1 ,2s men f o r t h e new bo rn l a n d whose f o u n d e r s i n g s 40 1 5 . 1 , 2 ; Ab e s s e ad p o s s e s . C a p i t a l 64 15 .2 : your name i s P e t e r Gaunt , s i r , i t i s s o l i d , 65 1 5 . 1 : , . , P e t e r Gaunt l i k e w i s e c l i m b s on a dune , 15 ,2 ; P e t e r G a u n t , t h e n , a l s o c l i m b s on a dune, 15.3s P e t e r G a u n t , as t h e o t h e r s , c l i m b s on a dune, 66 15,2s l o o k s on a dead w o r l d which seems t o him b a d , 74 1 5 . 1 : Cadds nex t l i n e : ] a h , r a t s l i v e on no e v i l e v i l s t a r — 76 15 ,2 ; t h e o s t r i c h . The c i g a r e t t e ' s a Camel , 78 1 5 . 1 : wonder ing a t t h e a l m i g h t y ' s p u r p o s e , C l i n e r e p e a t s o n c e ! 79 1 5 . 1 : Gaunt b e c a u s e he s t a r v e s P e t e r because h a r d , 81 15 ,2 : - though b o t h a r e d i s c o u r a g e d h e r e , - wonder ing t o o 123 15.1s L e t us g i v e him t h e b e n e f i t of t h e d o u b t ; 124 15.1s Say Gaunt was k i n d e r t o h i s S o l v e i g and Aase ; 149 15,2s i n G e o r g i a i n t h e deep South i f not t h e f a r E a s t , — II LETTER FROM OAXACA TO NORTH AFRICA 77 1936 LETTER FROM OAXACA TO NORTH AFRICA 1936 [ 1 6 . 3 ] M a r t i n I cannot say t o y o u , o l d f r i e n d , D e a r e s t of a l l my f r i e n d s , t h a t I can see You s o f t l y b o r n e over a wayward sea : To t h i s a l c o h o l i c or s a r d o n i c e n d , 5 Or t h a t c o l i c s h o r e . . . I wish I c o u l d f i n d Your image s tudded . somewhere i n t h e v o i d , Or under some s h i n i n g , o c e a n - s t o r m e d w a t e r p r o o f Or s h o o t i n g t h e g r e a t e r horned w h i f f e n p o o f . . . S e l a h . Is no "gnus good gnus?" Not a t a l l ! 10 ( - A l l t h i s I f i n d upon an obscene w a l l , W r i t t e n by one , a s p y , V i g i l F o r g e t , And s c r a w l e d i n b l o o d and u r i n e and h i s own sweat -Some say h i s name was P e t e r Gynt or G a u n t , He wrote t h e s e l i n e s and then was p r o m p t l y s h o t . ) 15 N y a s a l a n d w i t h d e l i r i u m tremens and stamp album g i r a f f e s ? S p a i n ! But h e r e I h o l d my o b v e r s e l a u g h s , Remembering o t h e r f r i e n d s and sons of f i e n d s , And how much e l s e which dark and goodness h o l d s , And hope which d i e s and y i e l d s , but never e n d s , 20 O r , when i t d o e s , i t s b l e e d i n g p a s t d e f e n d s . . . - We l l - what t h e h e l l - y e s , what! t h e g i r a f f e has a l o n g neck And t o o much l o n g i t u d e , by a l l T e h u a n t e p e c , And i n f i n i t e t h e r a p e u t i c and a t e c h n i q u e , Demanding r e c i p r o c a l e x a c t i t u d e i n l o v e ' s a r i t h m e t i c . 25 A h , you must be t h e Nubian t h r e e - h o r n e d To d e a l w i t h one so f o r e a r m e d . Be f o r w a r n e d . . . S i n c e r e l y , I s u g g e s t she i s not too thsome , Too much b e i n g asked t o s a t i a t e her l o a t h s o m e , Her t h o u g h t s jump l i k e beans when you say T i m b u c t o o , 30 Her b o d y ' s s t r i p e d l i k e boys a t b l e a k Harrow, Or v i s i o n s of t h e A l d e r s h o t t a t o o . O r , s i m p l y l i k e a n o t h e r g i r a f f e , i n a n o t h e r z o o . . . - Oaxaca? S i , O a x a c a , O a x . , Mex! Where i s O a x a c a , V i g i l , you a s k , what annex, 35 N i c h e , p i t c h , i s t h i s ? What age i s i t ? What s e x ? M e x i c o ? Is i t not t h e p l a c e of t h e l o s t ? Goal of a l l A m e r i c a n s who want t o be d i v o r c e d : Of a l l Norsemen who want t o be u n n o r s e d : Of a l l horsemen, a l r e a d y u n h o r s e d : 40 L i c e n c e s by Lawrence , by p o u n c i n g s e r p e n t s e n d o r s e d . - C h i n g a r n c h i n g a r n c h i n g a r n c h i n g a r n c h i n g a r n , In Oaxaca I s t r u m my bawdy t u n e , Which s a y s , l e t t h e r e be h a p p i n e s s f o r y o u , But d e l i v e r y , my f r i e n d , from a n c i e n t h e ave n , 45 F o r God must know i t i s t o o b a d g e r y , And r e t r o s p e c t w i t h h a r p s and h a r p i e s t o o , A i l b o t c h e d and b u n g l e d w i t h c e l e s t i a l g r i n d . . . Hush hush I hear t h e sound of las t , n o - t r u m p s -(That s t r u m p e t s b i d b e f o r e t h e y go t o bawd 50 Warmed by t h e b l o o d s t r e a m of Wasserman t u r n i p s ? . . . ) Which a r e t h e m i l i t a r y p o l i c e . - How l o n g s i n c e I was l a s t i n h e l l , oh L o r d ? S i n c e t h e l a s t h e a r t b r e a k of a b r o k e n r e c o r d ? 73 The l a s t memory of a l o v e l y l a u g h i n g f a c e ? 55 A l l l o s t i n m i s t r e s s t i m e and v i r g i n s p a c e . A h , g h o u l s a r e n u r s l i n g t o t h i s bosom. My h e a r t a widowed s p i d e r t r a p p i n g g r i e f , I t s s t r i n g s a r e wrung w i t h agony of Ed L a n g , From f l o r i b u n d i a t o r o s e of g a l l and l u n g , 60 I t knows t h e dungeon and must know t h e gun. A h , M a r t i n , would I were i n B i r m i n g h a m , With o l d c o m p l a i n t s and duns upon my pen! I l o v e t h e sun y e t I would t r a d e t h e sun F o r "In a M i s t " by B e i d e r b e c k e ' s g h o s t , 65 A b r e a k from " S i n g i n g t h e B l u e s " , a p h r a s e f rom B a c h , "Walk ing t h e Dog" i n 1929; L i v e r p o o l ; F r a n k i e T r u m b a u e r ' s " I m a g i n a t i o n " , and good G o g o l ; F o r B i r m i n g h a m - e r r a t u m - e d g b a s t o n . . . I n v e r t e d we have been f rom G r a n t c h e s t e r ! 70 . . . S t r a n g e , I s h a l l know d e a t h tomorrow, which s i e s t a , May t u r n out s i m p l y j u s t one more f i e s t a . . . ) And t h e n i g h t e d s torm g l i s t e n i n g on t h e wet f r u i t , And R a l p h and Bob and M a r g a r e t t o g r e e t , Q u i e t l y a g a i n , i n r a i n y G i l l o t S t r e e t . . . T from] to {16.2} T 17 .2 : CIn L o w r y ' s hand at top of s h e e t : " D e d i c a t i o n t o M a r t i n & R a l p h " - two of t h e Case b r o t h e r s . ] 14 16 .2 : [adds nex t l i n e : ] A r e you i n S p a i n , h e l l f i r e , L i b e r i a gruesome? 42 m¥.] by {16.2} 45 t o o ] t o {16.2} 70 1 6 . 1 : . . . S t r a n g e , I s h a l l g r e e t d e a t h t o - m o r r o w , which s i e s t a 79 III THE GANTINAS 80 1934-36 I [17 ,23 How d i d a l l t h i s b e g i n , and why am I h e r e At t h i s a r c of Bar w i t h i t s c r a c k e d brown p a i n t ? P a p e g a a i , M e z c a l , Hennessey , C e r v e z a , Two s l i m e d s p i t t o o n s , no company but f e a r ; 5 F e a r of l i g h t , of t h e S p r i n g , of t h e c o m p l a i n t Of b i r d s , and buses f l y i n g t o f a r p l a c e s , And t h e s t u d e n t s g o i n g t o t h e r a c e s , Of g i r l s s k i p p i n g w i t h t h e wind i n t h e i r f a c e s ; But no company, no company but f e a r : 10 F e a r of t h e b l o w i n g f o u n t a i n , and a l l f l o w e r s T h a t know t h e sun a r e my enemies , T h e s e , dead , h o u r s ? 2 17.1: a t t h i s a r c of bar w i t h i t s c r a c k e d brown p a i n t , 3 17.1: p a p e g a a i , m e z c a l , hennessey , c e r v e z a , 5 17.1: f e a r of l i g h t , of t h e s p r i n g , of t h e c o m p l a i n t 1937 II [18 .23 Above a l l , a b s e n t y o u r s e l f f rom t h a t a f f a i r , Swedenborg had such h a l f wisdom; t h o u g h t ahead . But Lawrence t h o u g h t ba ckward; w h i l e even S h a k e s p e a r e Shook i n t h e dark abysm p a s t t i m e ' s maidenhead . 5 D i d you know Maidenhead? The Richmond G i r l s f a r e b e t t e r i n Mai da V a l e ; i n Baker S t r e e t Take S h e r l o c k home, v i s i t Madame T w o s o r e s , t h e wax d e a d . From t h e s e I e x p e c t l i t t l e , l e a s t of a l l , p l e a s u r e ; T h r e e b e e r s i n C h a r l o t t e S t r e e t , a S t a r a t s i x o ' c l o c k , 10 And s i x p e n c e s two, one b r i g h t brown shoe , and doom; And f o u r bad books and t h e t h o u g h t of Vermont , The s e a would be good t o have , t o o , but a shock To r e c e i v e . Thank y o u ; and s i m p l y t o count No money, i n s p e c t no h o t e l roam. 7 18 .1 ; t a k e S h e r l o c k home, v i s i t Madame Twosores ; & t h e wax dead , 1937 III r 1 c o i MEMORY OF THE HOSPITALITY OF AMERICAN BARMEN We r e s e r v e t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o anyone , p a l . Yeah , and t h a t means y o u , f o u r e y e s , w i t h t h e w h e e l s , and h e l l ! D o n ' t t e l l me y o u ' r e a diamond and put I t on t h e s l a t e , or t h a t your h e a r t i s f a t , 5 Or t h a t your l a n d l o r d c a n ' t w a i t t o break i t . W h a t ' s t h a t ? I t ' s b r o k e n a l r e a d y ? W e l l , t h a t ' s t h a t . A spade '11 p i c k your g r a v e i f g r a v e you m e r i t ; A s p a d e ' s a s p a d e , t h a t ' s what t h e y c a l l i t h e r e . We t e a c h 'em b u l l y t h e cabbage , never you f e a r ; 10 In God we t r u s t — but o n l y on t h e n i c k e l . W e l l , i f you had a buck t o o bad you s p e n t h e r , — But a l l who ask f o r t r u s t d i s t r u s t i n h e r i t , And even God i s f i c k l e . T 19 .1 ; C m i s s i n g ] 1 1 9 . 1 : ( - we r e s e r v e t h e r o t t o r e f u s e t o anyone , p a l . 6 I t ' s ] i t s -C19.1} 13 1 9 . 1 : and even god i s f i c k l e . - ) 1937 IV C20.2] When you were s t a r v i n g , you w a i t e d — how l o n g ? Two h o u r s ? But F e r n a n d e z P a s s a l i q u e , At. t h e c o r n e r of M a i n , w a i t e d two y e a r s f o r a b r e a k . P e r h a p s t h i s i s not a s u b j e c t f o r a s o n g , 5 But. now he i s s t a r v i n g a g a i n . I t i s a t r i c k To p a s s i n h i b i t o r y t i m e away? W e l l , t h e r a c k Is s t i l l used i n T r u j i l l o . So be i t . R i n g O u t , you b l e e d i n g b e l l s , o v e r our t i m e ' s demise ; R i n g i n t h i s b a d ' K e n t u c k y s t r a i g h t B o u r b o n . 10 M i n t S p r i n g s one p i n t and n i n e t y p r o o f of what! R i n g i n , t o o , my c o r n k i n g a s s a s s i n , you d i s t i l l e r i e s , And c h u r c h e s , and by T o r t u r e , T o r t u , t h e S o r b o n n e , And San Domingo, l e t us brew one a l c o h o l i c t h o u g h t ! 13 2 0 . 1 , 2 : and San Domingo, l e t us brew an a l c o h o l i c t h o u g h t ! 32 v E21.23 S h a k e s p e a r e s h o u l d have come t o A c a p u l c o ; Here he would have -found a t i m e l e s s h e l l , He who l e a v e s a l l , Dean Donne s a i d , do th as w e l l — (There i s no rhyme -for f o u l A c a p u l c o , Nor r e a s o n , e x p l e t i v e , save — A c a p u l c o ! ) — As he who e a t s , d e v o u r s . He would s c a r c e l y have l e f t a l l F r u i t s h e r e i n t h i s "seascape i n a b o t t l e ! " — (Or e s c a p e i n t o a m i l l i o n ! ) — q u o t e s : W e l l s F a r g o . P a r a i s o de C a l e t a , s educe him t o your bed! Suppose i t . He would have h e l d no h o r s e s , W r i t t e n no p l a y s . What c r e d i t o r wants v e r s e s ? — G l o b e ? No G l o b e h e r e , not a s c e n i c a l s o u n d . A l l t h a t c o u l d have been s a i d i s what M a r s t o n s a i d : R i c h h a p p i n e s s t h a t such a son i s crowned . VI E22.23 But n e v e r f a l l f rom f e a l t y t o l i g h t , You s a i d , M e l v i l l e ? Now, by God, s i r , why n o t ? The p a l l i s c o m f o r t a b l e enough; as soon r o t T h e r e as a n o t h e r p l a c e ; once b e i n g w e l l met The b e a u t y of t h e dark i s . t h e r e ' s no s i g h t Of t h a t l i g h t you speak o f ! What lamps a r e l i t Save no f a l l i n g from f e a l t y t o i t When once a c c e p t e d w h o l l y by t h e n i g h t . I t i s a t r e a c h e r y t o t h e powers of h e l l To r e f r a i n as you s u g g e s t , i s a t r e a s o n A g a i n s t t h e i n f e r n o whose judgements w e l l F i t . t h e c r i m e ; whose mercy i s tempered With f i r e — l i g h t enough f o r t h o s e unhampered By day . And t r u e t o u n r e a s o n . Most nauseous of a l l d r i n k s , what i s your s p e l l ? You a r e c h e a p , you a r e t h e whore of p o t i o n s ; You a r e i m p a l a t a b l e , you a r e t h e way t o h e l l ; You a r e i n s a t i a b l e of ravagement , you A r e t h e wors t of l i b a t i o n s ! T e q u i l a of J a l i s c o , of maguey, - ( i m a g e of man T o r t u r e d , and t o s s i n g gangrened hands i n t h e s u n , H a l f - b u r i e d i n t h e c r e p i t a n t d e s e r t s a n d ! ) ; -How i s i t , p r e c i s e l y , we c a l l you our f r i e n d , When your s a l t y j e s t i s t o ca lm our n e r v e s And t h e n t o s t o r m what p a s s e s f o r our homes? C h i n g a r n ! As j e s t s go p e r h a p s t h i s i s a good j e s t — To make a Bod of man f i r s t , then a f i e n d , So t h a t he f o r g e t s even t h o s e he l o v e s , And w h i t h e r he comes. Under your a c i d s p e l l , q u i t e want ing o n l y y o u , L o v i n g o n l y y o u , we w a i t o n l y our balm F o r t h e h e a r t ' s next r e c e s s i o n t o i t s f a l s e c a l m . — But would you were o n l y f r i e n d , not m i s t r e s s t o o ! VI11 ' E24.2] I have known a c i t y of d r e a d f u l n i g h t , D r e a d f u l l e r f a r t h a n K i p l i n g knew, or Thomson . . . T h i s i s t h e n i g h t when h o p e ' s l a s t seed i s f l own From t h e e v a n e s c e n t mind of w i n t e r ' s g r a n d s o n . In t h e dungeon s h i v e r s t h e a l c o h o l i c c h i l d , C o m f o r t e d by t h e m u r d e r e r , s i n c e compass ion i s h e r e t o o ; The n o i s e s of t h e n i g h t a r e c r i e s f o r h e l p From t h e town and from t h e g a r d e n which e v i c t s t h o s e who d e s t r The p o l i c e m a n ' s shadow swings a g a i n s t h e w a l l , The l a n t e r n ' s shadow i s d a r k n e s s a g a i n s t t h e w a l l ; And on t h e c a t h e d r a l ' s c o a s t s l o w l y sways t h e c r o s s Which a r e w i r e s and t h e t a l l p o l e moving i n t h e wind And I c r u c i f i e d between two c o n t i n e n t s . But no message whines t h r o u g h f o r me h e r e , oh m u l t i t u d i n o u s , To me h e r e , - ( w h e r e t h e y c u r e s y p h i l i s w i t h s l o a n s l i n e a m e n t , And c l a p , w i t h a n o t h e r d o s e . ) More d r e a d u l f a r t h a n K i p l i n g knew, or Thomson 84 1937 IX C 2 5 . 4 ] THIRTY FIVE MESCALS IN CUAUTLA T h i s t i c k i n g i s most t e r r i b l e of a l l . You hear t h e sound I mean on s h i p s and t r a i n s . You hear i t e v e r y w h e r e f o r i t i s doom; The t i c k of r e a l d e a t h , not t h e t i c k of t i m e , 5 The t e r m i t e a t t h e r o t t e n w a i n s c o t t i m b e r of t h e w o r l d , And i t i s d e a t h t o you though w e l l you know The h e a r t ' s s i l e n t t i c k f a i l i n g a g a i n s t t h e c l o c k , I t s beat u b i q u i t o u s and s t i l l more s low, But s t i l l not t h e t i c k , t h e t i c k of r e a l d e a t h , 10 O n l y t h e t i c k of t i m e — s t i l l o n l y t h e h e a r t ' s chime When b o d y ' s a l a r m wakes w h i r r i n g t o t e r r o r . In t h e c a n t i n a t h r o b s t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r , W h i l e a g a i n s t t h e s t r e e t t h e gaunt s t a t i o n hums. What can you say f a i r l y of a b r o a d l i e u t e n a n t , 15 With b l o o d y hand b e h i n d h im, a c i g a r r o i n i t , But t h a t he b l o c k s a s q u a r e of b r o k e n s u n l i g h t Where s c r a p s of freedom s t r e a m a g a i n s t t h e g a l e And l i g h t n i n g s c r a p e s b l u e s h o v e l s a g a i n s t c o a l ? The t h u n d e r b a t t e r s t h e S o t h i c m o u n t a i n s ; 20 But why must you h e a r , hear and not know t h i s s t o r m , S e e i n g i t o n l y under t h e d o o r , V i s i b l e i n s y n e c d o c h e s of whee ls And k h a k i water s o u s i n g down t h e g u t t e r ? In r i p p l e s l i k e c l a w s t e a r i n g t h e water b a c k ? 25 The whee ls smash a wake under t h e j a l o u s i e . The l i e u t e n a n t moves, but t h e door swings t o . . . What of a l l t h i s l i f e o u t s i d e , unseen by y o u . Passed b y , e scaped f r o m , or e x c l u d e d By a p o s t u r e i n a d e s o l a t e b a r ? . . . 30 No needs t o speak , c o n s e r v e a l a s t m i s t a k e ; P e r h a p s r e a l d e a t h ' s i n s i d e , d o n ' t l e t i t l o o s e . The l i e u t e n a n t c a r r i e d i t i n t o t h e back room? The u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s may mean i t , so may t h e g l a s s . The g i r l r e f i l l s i t , p o u r s a g l a s s of r e a l d e a t h , 35 And i f t h e r e ' s d e a t h i n her t h e r e i s i n me. On t h e p i c t u r e d c a l e n d a r , s e t t o t h e f u t u r e , The two r e i n d e e r b a t t l e t o d e a t h , w h i l e man, The t i c k of r e a l d e a t h , not t h e t i c k of t i m e , H e a r i n g , t h r u s t s h i s canoe i n t o a moon, 40 R i s e n t o b r i n g us madness none t o o s o o n . Note : Soma was m y s t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e moon, who c o n t r o l s v e g e t a t i o n ?< whose cup i s e v e r f i l l i n g & e m p t y i n g , as he waxes & wanes. 85 T 2 5 . 1 : P r e l u d e t o a n o t h e r d r i n k 2 5 . 2 : Mesca l M e s c a l : i n an empty bar i n C u a u t l a In an empty barroom The end The C a l e n d a r 25.3: Twenty n i n e T e q u i l a s 1 2 5 . 1 : T h i s t i c k i n g i s t h e most t e r r i b l e of a l l 2 2 5 . 1 : You hear t h i s sound on s h i p s , you hear i t on t r a i n s 3-4 2 5 . 1 : [ m i s s i n g ] 5 2 5 . 1 : I t i s t h e d e a t h - w a t c h b e e t l e a t t h e r o t t e n t i m b e r of t h e 2 5 . 2 : t h e d e a t h watch b e e t l e a t t h e t i m b e r of t h e w o r l d ; 25,3: t h e d e a t h watch b e e t l e a t t h e w o r l d ' s t i m b e r , 2 5 . 4 : t h e d e a t h watch b e e t l e a t t h e r o t t e n t i m b e r of t h e w o r l d , 6 2 5 , 1 : And i t i s d e a t h t o you t o o ; f o r w e l l you know 2 5 . 2 : and i t i s d e a t h t o you f o r w e l l you know 7 2 5 , 1 : That t h e h e a r t ' s t i c k i s f a i l i n g a l l t h e w h i l e 2 5 . 2 : t h e h e a r t s s i l e n t t i c k i s f a i l i n g a g a i n s t t h e c l o c k 8 2 5 . 1 : A lways u b i q u i t o u s & s t i l l more s l o w , 2 5 , 2 : a l w a y s u b i q u i t o u s and s t i l l more s low 9-10 2 5 . 1 : [ m i s s i n g ] 10 2 5 , 2 : not t i c k of t i m e , 1  2 5 . 1 , 2 : [ m i s s i n g ] 13 2 5 , 1 : And a g a i n s t t h e s t r e e t t h e gaunt s t a t i o n hums, 14 2 5 , 1 : What can you say f a i r l y o f a f a t man 15 2 5 . 1 ; With a bent hand b e h i n d him & a c i g a r e t t e i n i t ? 2 5 . 2 ; w i t h a b r o k e n hand b e h i n d him and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? w i t h a c r u e l hand b e h i n d him and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? w i t h a mechanic hand b e h i n d him and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? 16-18 2 5 . 1 , 2 : [ m i s s i n g ] 19-30 2 5 . 1 : [ m i s s i n g ] 19 2 5 . 2 : o r of t h e t h u n d e r i n t h e G o t h i c mounta ins [adds next l i n e s ] t h e C u a u t l a t o w e r s c r a s h i n g a g a i n s t t h u n d e r t h e C u a u t l a t o w e r s p l u n g i n g a g a i n s t t h u n d e r 20- -22 25. 2s [ m i s s i n g ] 23 25, 2s o f k h a k i water s o u s i n g down t h e g u t t e r 24 25. o , r i p p l e s l i k e c l a w s t e a r i n g t h e water b a c k , 25 JI- v—1 a B c a t s smash ing wake under t h e j a l o u s i e , 25 . The whee l s smash wake under t h e j a l o u s i e . 26 25. [mi s s i ng] 31 25. 1; Yet. d e a t h i s i n t h e room, t h e r e i s d e a t h e v e r y w h e r e : 25, r e a l d e a t h ' s i n s i d e no need t o l e t i t l o o s e 32 25. 1; That man c a r r i e s i t though I cannot see h i s f a c e : •i-i-J n r> ii t h e l i e u t e n a n t c a r r i e s i t though I c a n ' t see h i s f a c e 3  1: The u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s mean i t , i t i s i n t h e g l a s s , 25, o» t h e u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s mean i t so does t h e g l a s s 34 25, l ? 2 s t h e g i r l who r e - f i l l s i t p o u r s a g l a s s o-f d e a t h 36- -40 1: [ c o n t a i n s o n l y : ] On t h e c a l e n d a r , s e t t o t h e f u t u r e , t h e two s t a g s b a t t l e To deaths man p a d d l e s h i s c o r a c l e t o t h e moon Which , seen a l s o i n t h e l i g h t , i s as d i v i s i b l e a s ' d e a t h . 36 25, On t h e c a l e n d a r , s e t t o t h e f u t u r e , 39 25 . 1 n h e a r i n g , t h r u s t s h i s canoe i n t o t h e moon, Note] [ m i s s i n g ] {25,3} 86 1936 E26.43 AT THE BAR 10 D r u n k a r d s of s a l t w a t e r , t h i r s t y f o r d i s a s t e r , D e r e l i c t s do not dream of b e i n g s h i p s : Never does c a l a m i t y f o r s a k e them F o r t h e hush of t h e s w i f t and t h e l o o k - o u t ' s a l l ' s w e l l : N e u r o t i c i n A t l a n t i c of a d e a t h . B e r e a v e d but a v i d of a n o t h e r ' s b r e a t h , Swimming w i t h b l a c k g e n i u s under b l a c k w a t e r s , And b u r i e d s t a n d i n g up l i k e Ben J o n s o n , Though e i g h t e e n p e n c e i s h e r e a t o t a l l o s s ; And T a r q u i n c e r t a i n of a r a v i s h a b l e p r e y ; W h i l e o t h e r s grope t h e r a i l s , r i g i d w i t h g a z i n g down. T 2 6 . 1 : O n l y god knows how 1937 XI [ 2 7 . 7 ( 5 ) 3 [1313 DELIRIUM IN VERA CRUZ 10 Where has t e n d e r n e s s gone, he asked t h e m i r r o r Of t h e B i l t m o r e H o t e l , c u a r t o 216. A l a s , Can i t s r e f l e c t i o n l e a n a g a i n s t t h e g l a s s T o o , wonder ing where I have gone , i n t o what h o r r o r ? Is t h a t it. s t a r i n g at me now w i t h t e r r o r B e h i n d your f r a i l t i l t e d b a r r i e r ? T e n d e r n e s s Was h e r e , i n t h i s v e r y r e t r e a t , i n t h i s P l a c e , i t s form s e e n , c r i e s h e a r d , by y o u . What e r r o r Is h e r e ? Am I t h a t f o r k e d r a s h e d image? Is t h i s t h e ghos t of l o v e which you r e f l e c t e d ? Now w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d of t e q u i l a , s t u b s , d i r t y c o l l a r s , Sodium p e r b o r a t e , and a s c r a w l e d page To t h e d e a d , t e l e p h o n e d i s c o n n e c t e d ? . . . H e smashed a l l t h e g l a s s i n t h e room. ( B i l l : $50 . ) 7 9 10 13 14 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : Was h e r e , i n t h i s v e r y bedroom, i n t h i s 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : Is h e r e ? Am I t h a t r a s h e d image? 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : I s t h i s t h e ghos t of t h e l o v e you r e f l e c t e d ? 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : To t h e d e a d , t e l e p h o n e o f f t h e hook? In r a g e He smashed a l l t h e g l a s s i n t h e room. ( B i l l : $50 . ) 87 XII [ 2 8 . 3 ] 1936 DOCTOR USQUEBAUGH The doom o-f e a c h , s a i d D o c t o r Usquebaugh, Q u i t e c l e a r l y b i d s our l o u t i s h bones t o s t a r e . T r u e , d r i n k ' s u n f r u i t f u l on a l a r g e r s c a l e ; I t s music i s an e q u i n o c t i a l g a l e ; 5 S t i l l , u n e m b a r r a s s i n g : a n d , pro- founder , Outwinds t h e r a n g e of C u p i d ' s o r g a n g r i n d e r . I f worms a r e s a b b a t i c a l i n a d r u n k a r d ' s dream No f o u l e r ' s t h i s t h a n l o v e ' s n o c t u r n a l game, S i n c e dream of l o v e i t i s , l o v e of t h e p i t 10 F o r i t s own s a k e , t h e v i r g i n i t y of t h e p r e s e n t , Whose a b y s s i s a womb s h a l l not deny A w i n t r y p l u n g e t o n e s c i e n t e c s t a c y , Unsheathed e n t r a n c e t o t h e s p i r i t ' s T a r q u i n , But f e a t h e r l e s s and f r e e from o v e r t d i n , 15 E x t e n d i n g a p l a t t e r e d L u c r e c e w i t h f e r m e n t , Yet deeper t h a n s h e , and r i c h w i t h m o i s t c o n s e n t . . . . S o w e l l might we i n q u i r e , c o n t e n t t o r o t , What do you o f f e r , l o v e , which d r i n k does n o t ? 1937 XIII [ 2 9 . 7 ] THE LAST MAN IN THE DOME Where i s t h e f i n e l y d r u n k ? Is t h e g r e a t d r u n k a r d ? T h i s i m p o n d e r a b l e s m a l l m y s t e r y P e r p l e x e s me a t m i d n i g h t c o n s t a n t l y ; - Where i s he gone and t a k i n g whence h i s t a n k a r d ? 5 Where a r e t h e y a l l gone, my f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ? They moan no more at b a r s , none put t o s e a ; A shake of t h e w i l l and t h e y dream most e a s i l y , L i v e r s a t l a s t of l i v e s f o r which t h e y hankered -E n d l e s s c o r r i d o r s of b o o t s t o l i c k , 10 Or a t t h e end of them a l l t h e P o p e ' s t o e . Where a r e your f r i e n d s , you f o o l ? you have but one , And t h a t a f r i e n d who a l s o makes you s i c k -If much l e s s s i c k than t h e y ; and t h i s I know, S i n c e I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d : I d r i n k a l o n e . T] [ m i s s i n g ] C25.4; i n L o w r y ' s hand "The l a s t d r u n k a r d s h o u l d be c a l l e d The l a s t man i n t h e Dome."} T 2 9 . 1 : P r e l u d e t o a n o t h e r d r i n k 2 9 . 2 : The man who had not h e a r d of t h e war The l a s t man at t h e Dome 2 9 . 5 , 6 : The L a s t D r u n k a r d 83 1 2 9 . 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 : Where i s t h e - f i n e l y d r u n k ? Where i s t h e g r e a t d r u n k a r d ? 3 2 9 . 5 , 6 s con-founds an ex-gob worse t h a n h i s t o r y . 5 2 9 . 3 : Where a r e a l l gone, my - f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ? 2 9 . 5 , 6 : Where a r e a l l my f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ? 6 2 9 . 1 : They d r i n k no more: t h e y go t o bed at t h r e e 2 9 . 5 , 6 : They moan no more at b a r s : though t h i s s t o r y 7 2 9 . 1 : In t h e a f t e r n o o n y e t dream more e a s i l y -2 9 . 5 , 6 : F a i l s t o t e l l i f t h e y q u i t t h e B a t t e r y 8 2 9 . 5 , 6 : To l i v e t h a t dream f o r which t h e i r s o u l s hankered 9 2 9 . 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 : Of e n d l e s s c o r r i d o r s of b o o t s t o l i c k , 10 2 9 . 5 , 6 : Or at t h e end of them a l l t h e M a t e ' s t o e . 13 2 9 . 5 , 6 : I f much l e s s s i c k than t h e y . I r a i s e my g l a s s -14 2 9 . 1 : S i n c e I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d . And I d r i n k a l o n e . 2 9 , 5 , 6 s I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d . I d r i n k a l o n e . IV SONBS FDR SECOND CHILDHOOD 9 0 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 I C 3 0 . 3 3 L e a d were t h e i r -feet, and l e a d t h e i r h e a r t and bone , T h e i r dreamed-of p o r t was l e a d but t h e i r s h i p s were s t o n e ; T h e i r houses a l l w i t h l e a d e n shapes of doom, Were haunted i n t h e l e a d e n Wesleyan g loom. 5 T h e i r c h i l d h o o d ' s s c r i b b l e p e n c i l e d out t h e i r p a i n , But s e r v e d not o b s o l e s c e n c e t i m e nor g a i n ; T h e i r s h i p s were s t o n e b e c a u s e t h e i r C h u r c h was r o c k . L e t Greek meet G r e e k , r o c k r o c k , now f i n d t h e wreck! T h e i r l i p s were c r a c k e d and moulded h a l f t o p r a y 10 To g e n i u s f o u n d e r e d on t h e i d i o t way; Were t h e y l o s t t o o ? None c l a i m e d them, were t h e y drowned; They were not l o s t , but n e i t h e r were t h e y f o u n d . They were not f o u n d ! No t r a c e of them b e t r a y s That t h r o u g h a s l e e k e d and mol t en s e a of l i e s 15 They s a n k , u n c a r e d p r o d i g i e s of t h e dead , Weighed down by an e t e r n i t y of l e a d . 4 Wes leyan] Weslyan 4 3 0 . 1 , 2 , 3 : were haunted i n t h e p r e c i s e Weslyan g loom. 1937 I I [ 3 1 . 2 ] The t o r t u r e s o f h e l l a r e s t e r n , t h e i r f i r e s b u r n f i e r c e l y , Yet v u l t u r e s t u r n a g a i n s t t h e a i r more b e a u t i f u l l y Than s e a g u l l s f l o a t downwind i n c o o l s u n l i g h t , Qr f a n s i n a s y l u m s s p i n a loom of f a t e 5 F o r hope which never v e n t u r e d up so h i g h As l i f e ' s d e c e p t i o n , a s t r i d e t h e v u l t u r e ' s f l i g h t . 1937 I I I [ 3 2 . 2 ] The dead man s a t i n t h e sun And mourned what he had done; The l i v e man s a t on t h e g r a v e , And t h a n k e d God he had been b r a v e . L i v e and dead men both Exchange i m p a r t i a l dooms In t h e dance of s u n l i g h t on e a r t h , In t h e dance of s u n l i g h t on tombs . Is and t h a n k e d god he had been b r a v e . 91 1938 IV [ 3 3 . 5 ] C U R S E Tender meat were you t o s n o u t e d boys — O h l i t t l e Wesleyan p a y i n g t h e savage p i p e r — G a s p i n g i n t h e dark by t h e t e n n i s c o u r t J e e r e d at -for your - f r a i l t y or your se;:, 5 By badged boy s c o u t s w i t h n o t c h e d to tems f o r s a d i s m : I d i o t be p r e p a r e d but not f o r t h i s Ambush of a n g u i s h r e v e a l e d by t h e p a t r o l sneer Of t i g e r , w o l f , l i o n , s t o a t , and t h e dove Q u i t e l o s t whether of peace or war, 10 The w h i r r i n g of t h e c h a p e l b e l l ' s amaze, S topped t h e h e a r t as never mouth s t o p p e d w i t h k i s s . L i f t i n g your u n c r a c k e d v o i c e i n b r o k e n p r a i s e , Your s e l f s t r u g g l i n g i n t h e f r o z e n h e a r t ' s f i s s u r e , -— T h e l a d d e r s runged a g a i n s t i t were woman's hands 15 T h a t numbed i n c u r i o u s r i n g s b e f o r e t h e y t o u c h e d — Or p r a y i n g i n i c y s i l e n c e f o r c o m p a s s i o n , Through b u r s t b l a i n e d f i n g e r s s q u i n t i n g i n i c y s i l e n c e At s o m e t h i n g h a l f a f a c e and h a l f a bum, You remembered t h e o a t h : a g a i n s t y o u r s my wors t 20 P a t h f i n d e r of moons i n c h a p e l or a s y l u m ! — And s n a r l e d l i k e Adams t o no human b e a s t . T] C m i s s i n g ] {33.4} T 3 3 , 2 , 3 , 5 : [ m i s s i n g ] I 3 3 , 4 , 5 : Tender meat you were t o s n o u t e d boys 5 3 3 , 2 : by badged boy scouts - w i t h to tems f o r s a d i s m 7 3 3 , 2 : ambush of a n g u i s h a d v a n c i n g w i t h f o u l c r i e s 8 3 3 , 2 : of t i g e r s t o a t l i o n wolf & p u r r i n g dove II 3 3 . 2 : s t o p p e d h e a r t as never your mouth was s t o p p e d w i t h k i s s 13 3 3 . 2 : your s e l f s t r u g g l i n g i n t h e f r o z e n h e a r t s f i s s u r e 15-21 3 3 . 2 : [ m i s s i n g ] 20 3 3 , 4 : P a t h f i n d e r 21 3 3 . 4 : [ m i s s i n g ] The s t o n e must be r o l l e d away from s e l f ' s p a i n , Or y o u , my dear J o n e s , w e l l though you have s u n g , W i l l become, as i t were, a s o r t o f p e l i c a n , Who, p l u n g i n g her beak i n her b r e a s t , y e t f e e d s no young And a l l t h i s on some s e a - m a r g i n she knows b a r r e n Of -food, though d i v e s and whee l s and wheels and d i v e s a g a i n . VI C35.23 As t h e poor end of each dead day drew n e a r , He t r i e d t o count t h e t h i n g s which he h e l d d e a r ; No R u p e r t B r o o k e , and no g r e a t l o v e r , he Remembered l i t t l e of s i m p l i c i t y . H i s s o u l had never been empty of f e a r , And he would s e l l i t t h r i c e now f o r a t a n k a r d of beer He seemed t o have known no l o v e , t o have v a l u e d d r e a d Above a l l human f e e l i n g s . He l i k e d t h e dead; The g r a s s was not g r e e n , not even g r a s s t o h im; Nor was s u n , s u n ; r o s e , r o s e ; smoke, smoke; l i m b , l i m b . and he would s e l l i t t h r i c e now f o r a t a r o t of beer The sun s h i n e s ; where i s t h e l y r i c ? Moon, s t a r s , e t c . p r o d u c e no p a n e g y r i c . Now we have t h e sun i t ' s t h e l a s t t h i n g we want; I f O s w a l d , ( " G h o s t s " ) , had i t , he would r e s e n t I t ; would g i v e i t away t o a n o t h e r g h o s t . Somewhere, p e o p l e m a r c h i n g . . . The w o r l d w i l l content . I t s e l f w i t h i t s e l f a g a i n , t h i n k i n g i t s e l f e x c e l l e n t . i f Oswald ( G h o s t s ) , had i t , he would r e s e n t I f Oswald ( i n G h o s t s ) , had i t , he would r e s e n t The g e n t l e n e s s of r a i n i s i n t h e w i n d , S h e l l e y ' s e l i d e d f ragment s t a r s t h e mind; T o g e t h e r w i t h K a f k a ' s by any o t h e r r o u t e , He would have r e a c h e d t h e C a s t l e . As w e l l as Some d i s p u t e d s m i t h e r e e n s by S h a k e s p e a r e Ambiguous s o u v e n i r s of James or J o n e s , C a s t up by a bounded ocean of thought Dn b l a n k s h o r e s where t h e s o u l seems b o u n d l e s s , L i k e man, t h e e x t r a v a g a n c e of c r e a t i o n . P h r a s e s r e j e c t e d f o r a t r o c h e e ' s sake B o b b i n g l i k e c o r k s on m a r g i n s of vo lumes , May mark d e p t h s where t h e caught i a m b i c g l i t t e r s ; Or one f l y i n g l i n e among such f r a g m e n t s Soar on f o r e v e r l i k e t h e B i r d of P a r a d i s e . I t i s my j o y t o c o r e t h e w o r l d as such VII [36.21 V I I I [37.2] 93 A r o u n d e d p h r a s e i n G o d ' s b l a c k m a n u s c r i p t Remembered, but abandoned t o r a f a i r e r , As s u c h , m a n k i n d ' s a l t e r n a t i v e of God, Yet c l a i m e d by u s , and t h o u g h t f u l l y c o n s e r v e d . 12 3 7 . 2 : May mark d e p t h s where t h e i a m b i c g l i t t e r s ; IS 3 7 . 1 : a s such m a n k i n d ' s a l t e r n a t i v e of god , 1937 IX C38,23 THE SAILORS — Thou p r o m o n t o r y d r e a d f u l l e r t h a n H a t t e r a s , Show us t h e t r a c k ; T e l l u s , t h e sea-doomed t o a s t u f f e d m a t t r e s s , T e l l us t h e t r i c k . 5 T i e r r a d e l F u e g o . — H e r e i s t h e c u r v e when young , B e a u t i f u l and c l e a r ; T h i s i s t o o o f t e n s u n g . The s a i l o r s , 10 — T h i s r a t h e r we would know b e f o r e w e ' r e gone; Which i s t h e cape and which t h e h o r n ? T i e r r a d e l Fuego . — The t r i c k when l i f e i s done? Then cape and horn a r e one; 15 Is t h a t what you mean? The s a i l o r s . — No! T i e r r a - d e l F u e g o . — No t i m e ! T h e r e i s your cape f u l l - b e l l i e d ; 20 S t r i d e t h o u now f o r New Y o r k ; The watches a r e r a l l i e d , And t h e crowd at work. The s a i l o r s . — T e l l u s , b e f o r e — 25 The b o s u n . — E i g h t b e l l s , where a r e we, men? T i e r r a d e l Fuego . — Your s h i p makes her v e r o n i c a and goes , In Fuego t h i s c h i l l y b u l l bows. 30 F a r e w e l l t i l l t h e next t i m e ! The s a i l o r s . — But — T i e r r a d e l F u e g o . — Wait f o r no p l a u d i t s r i n g i n g ! 35 S t r i d e o n , though f a r be t h e l a n d i n g F o r y o u , and t h e b u n t i n g waving Where at t h e bending- of t h e bay Your l o v e i s s t a n d i n g ; Where ends t h e c u r v e , 94 40 B e g i n s t h e new s h i p ' s wave. The b o s u n . — Y e s , and when t h e c u r v e ' s squeezed out of s h a p e , Where t h e n ' s your h o r n , and which t h e cape? 23 s a i l o r s . ] s a i l o r s 1934-36 X C39 .2 ] He p l a y s t h e p i a n o w i t h a r a z o r , The c o n c e r t i n a w i t h a p a i r of s c i s s o r s ; A r i g a d o o n f o r a l l h i s c u s t o m e r s , He i s t h e Sweeney Todd of i m p r o v i s e r s ! 5 Though a l l men f e a r t h i s poor r e l a t i o n , H i s keener music g i v e s a s t r a n g e s e n s a t i o n ; D e f y i n g a l l a n a t o m i z a t i o n , B e c k o n i n g l i k e ambiguous s o u n d s , Heard by t h o s e who dwe l t w i t h C y c l o p s and f i e n d s , 10 And d i e d on perfumed s e a s w i t h s t i n k i n g w o u n d s . . . Under t h e r a z o r , under t h e b r o k e n l i g h t Of t h i s g i b b e r i n g w o r l d we s h a l l f a l l Thus e n t i c e d , i n t o t h e s w i n g i n g c h a i r t o w a i t ; Read madness; watch s e l f ; a c c e p t n o t h i n g ; a c c e p t a l l 4 Todd] Tod 1937 XI E 4 0 . 3 ] THE DEVIL WAS A GENTLEMAN The d e v i l was a g e n t l e m a n , He t r i e d t o r a i s e h i s h a t , But it. go t caught upon one h o r n , He h a d n ' t t h o u g h t of t h a t . 5 The d e v i l was a g e n t l e m a n , Though most anonymous, D a n t e s q u e l y l o v e d a woman, She p r o v e d as c o l d as i c e . S t i l l , t h e d e v i l was a g e n t l e m a n , 10 So c o u l d not keep i t on; G r o t e s q u e l y t u g g i n g , b r o k e t h e crown -And t h e l a d y had gone. And now he was a d e v i l To make t h e whole w o r l d s m i l e ; 15 No more s t a l k e d s u b t l e e v i l , Under t h e i n f e r n a l t i l e . 95 Bowing b e f o r e a m i r r o r , To o b s e r v e h i s gehennaed b e a r d ; He s t a r t e d back w i t h t e r r o r , 20 T h i s was worse t h a n t h e o l d f i e n d f e a r e d . He knew t h a t he had r u i n e d H i s h a t , so b r u i s e d and t o r n , But Oh my God, t o have, p r o f a n e d Not o n l y h a t , but h o r n ! 25 So a h a t l e s s , o n e - h o r n e d demon Limped s o u r l y among men; W h i l e t h e rumor s l o w l y d i e d q u i t e down, He had been a g e n t l e m a n . T 4 0 . 1 : [ m i s s i n g ] 21 4 0 . 1 , 2 : He knew w e l l he had r u i n e d 22 4 0 . 1 , 2 : t h e poor hat he had worn 23 4 0 . 1 , 2 : but not t h a t he had so p r o f a n e d 1937-38 XII [ 4 1 . 3 ] He wrote f o r t h e d e a d , but t h e u b i q u i t o u s dead L i k e d t h e i r own wisdom, and p r e f e r r e d t h e i r bed; He wrote f o r t h e b l i n d , ye t t h e p o l y g o n o u s b l i n d Had r i c h e r , t h i c k e r t h i n g s j u s t t h e n i n mind; 5 He wrote f o r t h e dumb, but t h e g o l d e n - v o i c e d dumb Were s i n g i n g t h e i r own songs and c o u l d not come; So he wrote f o r t h e u n b o r n , s i n c e s u r e l y , i t i s s a i d , At l e a s t t h e y ' r e n e i t h e r dumb, nor b l i n d , nor d e a d . 1937 XIII [ 4 2 . 2 ] Oh, p y r e of B i e r c e and s p r i n g b o a r d of H a r t C r a n e ! I w i l l not d i e h e r e ! He p r a y e d f o r h i s i l l l i f e . T h i s i s f a r from home, by C h r i s t ! t o d i e s o , Too f a r f rom l o v e , l a n e , s a n i t y , w i f e . 5 He t r e m b l e d . But h i s h u r d l i n g O l y m p i c b r a i n Raced w i t h t h e i m p o n d e r a b l e a t h l e t e doom, To be of l i f e once more t h e b r i d e g r o o m , And r a n d e a t h down and r a n him t o d e f e a t . . . "But not d e f e a t of such d o l e f u l w r e a t h i n g , " 10 G r i n n e d d e a t h , (a s a r d o n i c l o s e r ) , "Of f a c e s And E n g l i s h s t o n e s , w i t h s m i l e s and f l o w e r s , as g r a c e s My s low p r i z e day a t home f o r s t o p p i n g b r e a t h i n g , Such as a l l who have been b u r i e d under t h e f o r g e t - m e - n o t . W i l l t e l l you of j o v i a l l y ; and w e l l t h e y s h o u l d know." 96 1934-36 XIV ' C43 .3 ] Time e n t e r e d t h e s t u f f e d c o u r t , s l o w l y s w e a r i n g : - - I h a v e , he added , d r i p p e d my s o f t snow Too l o n g f o r t h o s e who f i n d our l i f e p a s t b e a r i n g , T r e a d i n g down i n t h e y e a r ' s d r i f t s t h e i r b l a c k woes 5 And l o n g enough have t u r n e d t h e day t o d o l l a r F o r s o l d i e r s p e n d t h r i f t rogue and b a t t e r e d s c h o l a r , Been s p e l l e d , by t h e e c h o i n g b e l l , i n t h e s h i p ' s p i t c h , T o l l e d agony t o f a r s c h o o l m a t e s i n green v e t c h , F o r a l l t h a t I am a f a k e h e a l e r of c r a c k e d h e a r t s , 10 Vampired and c o u n t e r w h o r e d by a f a l s e name Most merdur inouss and so t h e f a t e s C o n t r i v e d , f o r a poor dream, a famous c r i m e ; Though l o v e ' s wrenched houghs my c a t a p l a s m s have known, Now t h a t I l o v e , my L o r d , I must be s l a i n . 1934-36 XV C44.23 L o a t h i n g i s as b e a u t i f u l as t h e s c o u r g e Of wind on f r e i g h t e r s a t dawn, but more s t r a n g e . D e c e n c y ' s l a n d l o r d i n v e i g h s against , f o r c e , W h i l e we d e t e s t most what we would embrace; 5 Seek, though eschewing i n a d v a n c e , a d v i c e . . . Yet now p e n t a m e t r e s h a l l s c a n our h a t e F o r t h o s e whose s o b e r and p i a t o n i c l i p s , D r y e r t h a n b r o k e n t r u m p e t s i n pawnshops. C o n f i r m our ease among t h e s t r i d e n t w o r s t ; 10 Such l i p s were never made f o r l o v e t o b i t e That o f f e r ashes t o i m m e d i c a b l e t h i r s t , U n c a l l e d f o r s e r v i c e bo th t o l i f e and d e a t h ; B e t t e r t o be s a l v a g e d by t h e a c c u r s e d And s u c c o u r e d by t h e f o u l n e s s of t h e i r b r e a t h . 11 4 4 . 1 : [adds next l i n e : ] unwelcome s e r v i c e t h i s t o l i f e and d e a t h , 1936 XVI [45 .23 A n o t h e r t h a n Wordsworth dropped h i s l i v e work To l i s t e n t o t h e w i n d ' s s h r i e k of u p r o o t e d t r e e s , And v e s s e l s ' smashed b a c k s under p o r t e n t o u s s eas S c r a b b l i n g w i t h s h a r k s as R y d a l h i v e s w i t h b e e s , 5 The O h i o smoking i n F r i s c o on a s h a r p pen Of r o c k , l i g h t n i n g a l e a s h s n a r l e d by f o r c e At t h e b o u n d i n g neck of S o d ' s mad dog , t h e d a r k ; The u n i v e r s e s n a p p i n g l i k e hounds a t some d r e a d groom. I b e l i e v e t h a t Wordsworth t h o u g h t of t h e c a l m . . . 10 But t o a n o t h e r b l e s s i n g c h a o s , s i n c e i t must h o r r i d l y drown In h u r l e d g u l e s of c o n f l i c t ' s f l e s h , h i s own s t r i k e Of t h e h o u r , h i s own g r i e f , no p e a c e f u l l a k e L i g h t s by s t o r m ' s f l a s h . Such i s t h e n a t u r e of h i s doom T h a t l i k e some i n f a n t A e o l u s Dowson i n t e m p e s t ' s t a v e r n , 15 He c l a p s f o r b e t t e r t h u n d e r , w i l d e r t y p h o o n . 3 v e s s e l s ' 3 v e s s e l ' s 9 4 5 . 1 ; I t h i n k t h a t Wordsworth t h o u g h t of t h e c a l m . . . 1936 XVII [46 .23 DELIRIUM IN LOS ANGELES " I n f o r m a l " ( d a n c i n g on t h e z e b r a f l o o r ) Seemed f i r s t , — i t was an e l e c t r i c s i g n — " i n f e r n a l " : T h e n , t h e nex t s t r e e t t o t h e b a r , came " V i g i l " , Which r e a l l y was " V i r g i l " by Vermont . 5 S t . V i t u s of t h e C i t y of A n g l e s ! . . . W u r l i t z e r t u r n e d " h o w i t z e r " , f rom i t s bung, B l a s t e d a b o i s t e r o u s bomb a t t h e b a r . At t h e b l u e c l o c k w i t h v e r m i l i o n p e n d u l e Hangs man's " p u b l i c i n q u i r y of t h e h o u r , " 10 The goose b l u e c l o a k swings h i g h a g a i n s t t h e d o o r . . . In t h e t r a v e l a g e n t ' s window, "quest f o r beauty" -I n d i s t i n c t , one t h i n k s how two s a b l e s t e e d s Were l o s t i n a c i r c l e unkown t o Dante ; • But d e l i r i u m ' s on t h e march , we a r e wrong 15 N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e t h r e e dark words p r o v e d r i g h t . T 4 6 . 1 : [ m i s s i n g 3 9-10 4 6 . 2 : Hung man's " p u b l i c i n q u i r y of t h e h o u r . " The goose b l u e c o a t swung h i g h a g a i n s t t h e d o o r , . , 11 a g e n t ' s 3 a g e n t s 11-13 4 6 . 2 : On t h a t t r a v e l a g e n t s window, i n d i s t i n c t , "Quest f o r beauty" And one t h i n k s how two s a b l e s t e e d s were l o s t t h r o u g h gaps i n b r o k e n h e a r t s unvoyaged t h r o u g h by Dante . 98 1934-36 XVIII C47.3] - - Where do you come -from? The l a n d of E p i g r a m , Or C o n n e c t i c u t ? I am from Hinnom: E d u c a t e d , N a n t u c k e t and B e l l e v u e ; At Cape Cod commit ted my f i r s t murder , 5 In a w i n d m i l l . Of c o u r s e , I murdered you I What, i s i t l i k e t o be dead? Have you a p l a n c h e t t e l A raspai .1 i n heaven or a b a l muse t t e? - - I f I am d e a d , young J u d a s , I ' v e been deader 10 In your b e d r a g g l e d , i n s e c t u o u s , c o u n t r y . . . F u r t h e r , I d w e l l on t h a t d e c l i v i t y of l i f e Where weeping ( H e r f o r d ' s ) w i l l o w s r o c k and l a u g h , And l a z a r e n e hyenas s o f t l y weep Under them, even as y o u , on H e b e p h r e n e ' s s t e e p . 10 4 7 . 1 : i n your b e d - w r a g g l e d i n s e c t u o u s c o u n t r y . . . 1937 XIX [48 .21 P i g l i n g , p i g l i n g , b u r n i n g b l a n d , On A r a b i a ' s c o r a l s t r a n d ; What immorta l s t a t i o n p i e , Dare frame t h y f r i g h t f u l p i g g e r y ? 99 THE COMEDIAN I [49 .23 You were i n h e l l - f i r e ? had been a l l your l i f e ? And t h o u g h t t h a t n o t h i n g had been f o r g e d t h e r e ? I s ee a weapon moulded from t h a t f i r e S t r o n g e r t h a n any swords t h a t d e a d l i e r k n i f e Of keen wisdom which f l a y e d your s o u l s t r i f e With f l a m e i n t h e p i t c o u l d not w h o l l y t i r e . Take t h a t s o u l and s t r i p i t down t o t h e c o r e With new s t e e l a s o t h e r s who b u r n t b e f o r e F o r t h e i r knowledge or o u r s , our g a i n , or l o s s . . . T h e r e i s a f e l l o w s h i p some p i l g r i m s t h i n k Between a l l i n d i s a s t r o u s f i g h t , y e t few Know t h e i r t r u e s t g u a r d i a n s i n d a r k n e s s . Get. out t o your t a v e r n , d r i n k your nauseous d r i n k . And r e a d t h e s e l i n e s , t h e n p r a y t o t h o s e l i k e y o u . know t h e i r r e a l g u a r d i a n s from d a r k n e s s . II [50 .13 DELIRIUM IN URUAPAN — I met a man who s u f f e r e d more t h a n I At a s t r e e t c o r n e r . Then a n o t h e r . Yet one more. A f t e r , I f ound a b l a c k e n e d s t r e e t of poor F i e n d s who had s u f f e r e d an e t e r n i t y . I asked t h e f i r s t man f o r h i s company But he r e f u s e d ; so wonder ing why I t h o u g h t t o ask t h e second man, whose s t a r e Of p e r f e c t contempt h e l d such f r i g i d i t y I c l i m b e d t h e b l a c k e n e d s t r e e t i n h a s t e t o t e l l Those who s u f f e r e d most , t o ask what had been done To d e s e r v e t h i s . But t h e r e was a c u r s e i n t h e i r l a u g h . Then I remembered t h a t I was i n h e l l . Yes — what had I done t o e a r n even t h e damned's s c o r n . . . And t u r n e d back down t h e b l a c k e r s t r e e t of s e l f , knowing w e l l enough. 101 C1938-39] III [51.1] L o v e which comes t o o l a t e i s l i k e t h a t b l a c k s t o r m T h a t b r e a k s out of i t s s e a s o n , when you s t a n d H u d d l e d y e t w i t h u p t u r n e d t e n t a t i v e hand To t h e s t r a n g e r a i n . Yet s a d l y no sane c a l m 5 S u c c e e d s i t as when a l l t h e s u r p r i s e d form Of n a t u r e i s r e s t o r e d t o a s u r p r i s e d l a n d , Or t h e poor f l o w e r s t h i r s t a g a i n and t h e sand S i f t s d r i l y once more; and t h e abnormal norm Of a p a r c h e d w o r l d w h o l l y r e t u r n s . But say 10 I t i s l i k e a n y t h i n g e l s e : f o r l e t t h i s l o v e s t r i k e You b l i n d , dumb, mad, dead , your g r o t e s q u e f a t e W i l l not be a l t e r e d by your s i m i l e . I t s l a k e s no t h i r s t t o say what l o v e i s l i k e Which comes t o o l a t e , my God, a l a s , t o o l a t e . 11 51.1s You b l i n d , dumb, mad, d e a d , your u n t i m e l y f a t e 14 5 1 . 1 : Which comes t o o l a t e , my God , t o o l a t e . [1938-39] IV [ 5 2 . 2 ] But I s h a l l l i v e when you a r e dead and damned - -D i d you say C h a t t e r t o n t o C h e s t e r f i e l d ? - -Oh, C h a t t e r t o n , C h a t t e r t o n , w i e l d In your i n f e r n o or e v e n i n g l a n d 5 Some sword f o r me, s t e a l s o m e t h i n g t o de fend My poor s p i r i t : and i f no sword , a s h i e l d Does as w e l l . I wish t h a t s p i r i t h e a l e d Which i s y o u r s , though m u t i l a t e d , and My l o v e i s dead t o o , gone t o her dea th bed 10 A l l under t h e w i l l o w t r e e : Oh, C h a t t e r t o n , I c r y out T h a t you have p i t y on my s e l f p i t y , My l a c k of g e n i u s and what I w r i t e i n d o u b t : L e t us meet i n your dark m e t r i c c i t y , B e f o r e I am dumb; and damned; and d e a d . C1938-39] V [ 5 3 . 2 ] A DRIED UP RIVER IS LIKE THE SOUL A d r i e d up r i v e r i s l i k e t h e s o u l Of a poet who c a n ' t w r i t e , y e t p e r c e i v e s With i m p e r f e c t c l a r i t y h i s theme and g r i e v e s To p a r c h e d d e a t h o v e r t h e d r o u g h t . But h i s g o a l 5 Once a wholesome sea of c l e a r e s t c h r y s t a i R e c e d e s , grows g r e y i n h a r t s e y e , l i k e o l d l o v e l e a v e s , L e a v e s t h e mind a l t o g e t h e r . He c o n c e i v e s N o t h i n g t o r e p l a c e i t . o n l y a t t h e p o l e • f memory f l i c k e r s some s e n s e l e s s compass . 10 So t h e r i v e r , by her g r e y p i t y i n g t r e e s , Is an agony of s t o n e s , h o r r o r s which sank But a r e now d e c l a r e d , b l e a c h e d . F o r i t i s t h e s e , These s t o n e s and n o t h i n g n e s s e s which p o s s e s s When r i v e r i s a r o a d and mind a b l a n k . T ] [ m i s s i n g ] {53.1} 6 grows] g r o w ' s [1938-39] VI [ 5 4 . 2 ] T h e r e i s a t i d e i n t h e a f f a i r s of men Which t a k e n a t t h e f l o o d l e a d s on t o f o r t u n e . So h i s b r o t h e r l o v e d ,to q u o t e and i m p o r t u n e A c r a p u l o u s sad d i s h whose t e n 5 F e e t or not by f o u r t e e n of u n s o l d l i n e Was not q u i t e even c o n s i d e r e d out of t u n e With h i s t i m e , and whose d r u n k a r d ' s r i g a d o o n D i s g r a c e d f a t h e r , mother , s i s t e r , and then W i f e , c h i l d , home, c o u n t r y ; and y e t , and y e t , 10 C o s t l y though he p r o v e d , I have met worse men Who took no t i d e , i f any , a t t h e f l o o d . . . . T h e r e i s a s t o r y of a g r e a t poe t Who t o l d a b i s h o p h i s l i n e was b l a n k v e r s e . They l a u g h e d ; t h e poet l a u g h s s t i l l , i n t e a r s of b l o o d . 6 5 4 . 1 , 2 ; Was d i s a s t r o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d out of t u n e 7 whose] who's 10 5 4 . 1 : C o s t l y though he p r o v e d , I have met f a r worse men 5 4 . 2 : C o s t l y though he p r o v e d , I have met d u l l e r men 103 [1938-393 VII [55 ,13 A poem about a poem t h a t c a n ' t be w r i t t e n I s l i k e t r u e l o v e t h e h e a r t has f o r e g o n e But not l o s t ; say bo th a r e s m i t t e n . The r e a l poem, and t h e r i g h t l o v e , f r o z e n , 5 Both must wander never q u i t e f o r g o t t e n By t h e i r ghos t o v e r t h e i r o n , woebegone Waste , g r a v e of c o n s c i o u s n e s s and h e a r t where s t o n e Is f o l i a g e and b u i l d s no c r o s s or s h r i n e , Where no g r o a n ' s h e a r d f rom dream, l o v e , or n i g h t m a r e , 10 Where d e a t h ' s a g i f t a t C h r i s t m a s or a t E a s t e r , And b i r t h a j e s t of v a s c u l a r e n d e a v o r , And moon and sun a m a n i a c a l g l a r e . Such ravagement have we known: Such e x p e d i t i o n , and such d e s p a i r ; — 15 Yet t h i s i s not us h e r e , Never c o u l d t h i s be u s , say i t i s n o t , say t h a t t h i s i s not us h e r e . [193S-393 VIII [56 .13 D a r k n e s s has i t s c o m p e n s a t i o n s , bo th S u p e r s e n s u a l and extramundane: But of t h e s e not t o be c o u n t e d i s t h e p a i n F o r g e t f e l t then i n t h e shadow of d e a t h . 5 L i f e was not dear t o h i m , y e t h i s l a s t B r e a t h he f e a r e d , and h i s t u m u l t u o u s b r a i n Fought w i t h good l i g h t a g a i n s t t h e thought of doom And c o n q u e r e d i t , t h u s a v o i d i n g t h e wreath F o u r r e l a t i v e s might have g i v e n , and t h e b u r i a l 10 In t h e town on t h e h i l l where a l l he l o v e d Was t h e r a i n , one t r e e , and a g i r l Whose l o s s he had l o n g s i n c e mourned And s h a l l mourn t i l l he d i e s , knowing t o o w e l l He l i v e s a g a i n but l i v e s i n d a r k n e s s s t i l l . [1938-393 IX [57 .13 R e s u r g e n t s o r r o w i s a s e a i n t h e cave Of t h e m i n d — j u s t as i n t h e poem It g l u t s i t — t h o u g h no nymphs w i l l q u i r e a hymn; Abandon i t ! . . . Take a t r i p t o t h e upper s h o r e . L a v e 5 Y o u r s e l f i n s a n d ; g a t h e r p o p p i e s ; b r a v e The f r i n g e of t h i n g s , d e n y i n g t h a t i n n e r chasm. Why, t h e hush of t h e s e a ' s i n t h e s e a s h e l l ; i n t h e l i m b Of t h e smashed s h i p , i t s t e m p e s t ; and your g r a v e The sand i t s e l f i f y o u ' d have i t s o . Yet g l a r e 10 Through a sky of l o v e a l l day s t i l l must you r e c e i v e In t h e cave t h e s p e c i a l a n g u i s h of your l i f e ; Wi th t h e s k u l l of t h e s e a g u l l and t h e wreck you may f a r e Wel l enough but w i l l not e s c a p e t h e o t h e r s u r f Remorse, y o u r h o s t , who h a u n t s t h a t w h i r l p o o l where 15 The p a s t ' s not washed up d e a d . a n d b l a c k and d r y But w h i r l s i n i t s g u l f f o r e v e r , t o no r e l i e f . 104 C1938-393 X C58.1] You gave y o u r s e l f t o d e a t h but never t o me. M a r v e l 1 might have l a u g h e d . I cannot weep. S h a k e s p e a r e might have q u i t e c a l m l y u r g e d ; Keep A l l m e t a p h y s i c s from t h o s e who a r e m o r t a l l y 5 Wounded. But envy t h e d e a d . A f i g f o r t h a t v i r g i n D a n t e . My t h i r d b e s t bed was i n t h e c e m e t e r y . So you a r e dead who i n s u l t e d my s o u l . B e i n g b u r i e d , who were not even my f r i e n d , B u r i e d w i t h o u t h e a t h e r or w i l d r o s e 10 In t h e b l e a k weather as t h e g r e a t wind b lows Over t h e s h i n i n g pavements , t h e wet m a g a z i n e s , The f u r s c e n t e d g i r l s , and t h e g r a s s g r e e n w i t h t h e new r a i n s , And l e f t a t r a g e d y h e r e , i f you can c a l l What h u r r i e s beyond t r a g e d y , a t r a g e d y , 15 F o r t h e s e s h o u l d have a b e g i n n i n g and an end . 10 58=1; In t h e w i l d w i l d weather as t h e e a s t wind b lows In t h e b l e a k d a r k weather as t h e e a s t wind b lows C1938-393 XI C59.13 T h i s i s t h e end but s i n c e i t i s t h e end , You a r e happy a t l e a s t i n t h i s one c e r t a i n t y , As you were i n t h e e t e r n i t y Of c h i l d h o o d ' s b l u e summer w i t h s e a g u l l and y a c h t f o r f r i end? . 5 When God was good; l o v e , t r u e ; s e a , s e a ; l a n d , l a n d . Yet d a r e not t o base immunity From b a s e n e s s on t h i s t r i v i a l i t y ! The m u r d e r e r once g a t h e r e d s e a p o p p i e s w i t h a hand To be s c a r l e t e r , t o be p r e s s e d t o t h e b l a c k e r 10 And l e s s amorous h e a r t of d e a t h . . . Oh, C h r i s t , Wash up some bone c l e a r memory on t h i s b i t t e r e s t c o a s t Where i s no wreck dead beak nor f e a t h e r Though none v e n t u r e h e r e w i t h o u t d i s a s t e r . G i v e a t t h e l a s t One h a l f p a s s i o n a t e t r y s t w i t h t h e p a s t ; 15 Some sweet j o y t o g a t h e r t h e r e t o my s a l t g r e y b r e a s t Though c h i l d r e n were b e t r a y e d , and money was k i s s e d f i r s t . 15 5 9 , 1 ; Some sweet j o y t o g a t h e r t o my s a l t g r e y b r e a s t 1936 XII C60 .1 ] A wounded v o i c e o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e : " C a l l me l a t e r , I am j u s t t i r e d . " — T h e n , t h e b e l l s h r i e k i n g i n t h e unseen room F i l l i n g i t w i t h t h e - f e r o c i t y o-f doom. 5 "But what s h a l l I do , my own, my l o s t one, L a t c h e d back i n t o deeper n i g h t -from t h e d a r k ' s d r o n e They have c a l l e d back t h e l a s t , t h e s l o w e s t of a l l t o t h e a sy lum Whose o n l y t h o u g h t i s t i m e , now t h e r e i s none, Now a l l i s gone, a l l , a l l , save c o m p a s s i o n , 10 And a l l i s d o u b l y gone w i t h you gone, d e a r . " — The b e l l s t i l l b e a t s about t h a t t r a g i c room L i k e a t r a p p e d b i r d , p r e c u r s e r of g r e a t e r f e a r , Where I i m a g i n e e v e r y book we s h a r e d , T o u c h e d , y e s , t o u c h e d , s m e l l , out of t h e pages of a book, 15 Out. of G o g o l : or your h e a r t f l u t t e r i n g i n my hand But never h e l d your h e a r t back from d e n i a l , Nor t e e t h , f rom my own h e a r t s n e c k . . . — The s t a r s l i k e s i l v e r r i f l e s i n t h e v o i d Look down t h e i r s i g h t s t o t h e i r s p e c i a l a i m . 20 They do not r a n g e t h e c a t e g o r i e s of our p a i n . No w o r l d w i l l p l u n g e f o r t e a r s we never saw f a l l , F o r s o r r o w that, was n e v e r s h a r e d at a l l , T h a t I might c o m f o r t t h e d e a d , c l a s p s t o n e s i n t h e s t r e a m . 1936 XIII [ 6 1 . 2 ] S e a r c h i n g i n a r a v a g e d h e a r t f o r a n g u i s h You found o n l y a dead g r i e f ? No s o r r o w C o u l d be as bad as t h a t which q u i t e goes b y , A h , no , no s o r r o w . . . S t i l l , t o d i s t i n g u i s h 5 I t f rom o t h e r s o r r o w s , e x t i n g u i s h The h e a r t f i r s t . Then c a l l t o - m o r r o w , Today: t o d a y , t o - m o r r o w ; r i g h t , wrong: then l a n g u i s h With t h e s e i n c o r p o r a t e e r r o r s — and t h e l i v e dead Is t h e o m i s s i o n h e r e , o m i n o u s l y — 10 U n t i l you l i v e a g a i n what d i e s u n r e a d : Then remember what t h e S t r a u s s song s a i d : J u s t once a year t h e dead l i v e f o r one d a y . . . — Oh, come t o me a g a i n as once i n May. 61.2 [ L o w r y ' s t y p i s t m i s t a k e n l y appends t h e l a s t two l i n e s o f 60 t o t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h i s poem. They have been o m i t t e d h e r e . {61.1}] VI THE MOON IN SCANDINAVIA 107 1936 : 62.23 LIKE IN PAWNSHOP A u k e l e l e once i n pawn I saw: H i k o p a l e , h i k o p a l e , h i l o w a i , oh: O o l a k i , w a l a w a l a k i , w a i k a p o n a . Oh, mokuaweoweo! H i k a p a l e , h i k a p a l e , h i l o w a i , ah , 13 [ m i s s i n g 3 {62.1} 1937 II [63.23 God h e l p t h o s e and o t h e r s who Have o n l y t h o u g h t of s e l f , To whom no s i m p l e t r u t h was t r u e , No s w i f t c l e a r l i f e was l i f e : And God h e l p t h o s e who f e e l no p a i n Yet l i v e by i t no l e s s , S i n c e t h e y i n v e s t i t s o u n d l y i n Our s t o c k of h a p p i n e s s . 8 6 3 . 1 : our s h a r e of h a p p i n e s s . 1936 III [64.23 PRAYER 10 G i v e way, you f i e n d s , and g i v e t h a t man some h a p p i n e s s Who k n e l t i n Wesieyan p r a y e r t o beget a f i e n d ; B u i l d e r of a g a b l e d house w i t h d a f f o d i l s F l a t t e n e d by t h e webbed f o o t of f a l s e A p r i l F a t h e r of f o u r gaunt sons minus one , Who, h e a r i n g t h e g r e a t guns , f a l t e r e d not a t a l l , In c h u r c h h i s r o c k , i n home h i s Morro C a s t l e , In g o l f h i s c h e s s , i n p o e t r y c a p i t a l , (And i n t h e g u l f h i s younges t a b o r t i v e b e a u t y , ) F o r him and f o r t h e woman of h i s c h o i c e R e p l a c e t h e l o v e which t h e s e most d i s p l a c e d b o r e me: 108 And f rom t h e w i l d c h o i r o v e r t h e f r e e z i n g e s t u a r y Bear him one humble p h r a s e of l o v e a t l a s t . Some c h i l d h o o d s u p p l i c a t i o n never t o be l o s t 15 As I am l o s t whose l i p s had formed i t s s h a p e . . . 5 64.2s F a t h e r of f i v e s t e e l gaunt sons minus one, 13 6 4 . 1 : b e a r him a g a i n one humble p h r a s e of l o v e at l o n g l a s t 16-18 6 4 . 1 : l e s t h i s f i e r c e s o u l be abandoned t o t h e g a l e and q u i c k as t h e s n a k e , t h e c l o c k , [ ? ] as d e a t h s t r i k e s , out of t h e nameless t r e e s t h e nameless s p e a k . [1938-39] IV [65 .23 ON READING REDBURN C h i l d r e n b r a v e by day have s t r a n g e f e a r s a t n i g h t But when t h e y wake i n t h e morning l i g h t , T h e i r f e a r s d i s s o l v e i n sun between warm s h e e t s , O r , f r e e z i n g i n w i n t e r , become i c y t h o u g h t s , — 5 The c o m p u l s o r y game i n f r o s t , — t h e i m p o s s i b l e b o a s t , The Geometry l e s s o n , t h e p r i m e r s t o l e n or l o s t . . . — Ah how o f t e n , R e d b u r n , must l o v e r s wake i n n i g h t m a r e Bedded w i t h what, seems h a t r e d and d e s p a i r , O n l y t o t u r n t o e c s t a s y l i k e de M a u p a s s a n t , 10 To f i n d y e t one more morning i s t r i u m p h a n t ! — T h e r e i s no c o n s t a n t h e r e , such i s our c o n d i t i o n , In d a r k t o know c o n q u e s t t o o , and i n l i g h t no hope , At dawn t h e g i r l , a t m i d n i g h t t h e horned o w l . — But what of t h e waking of t h e b r a v e r a c e of man 15 A f t e r t h e u n v i n t a g e a b l e t e r r o r s of i t s s l e e p , To f i n d t h e mildew s t i l l upon i t s s o u l ? T 6 5 . 1 : On r e a d i n g M e l v i l l e ' s Redburn 7 6 5 . 1 , 2 s — How o f t e n , R e d b u r n , l o v e r s wake i n n i g h t m a r e 14 6 5 . 1 , 2 s — But what of a waking of t h e b r a v e r a c e of man 109 1936-38 V [66 .23 A f i g f o r 6 - p a r - T - p a k g i n g e r a l e ! . . . F o r c o n t e s t w i n n e r s e v e r y F r i d a y n i g h t And N . B . C . ne twork , t o o , c o a s t t o c o a s t c o n t e s t ! . . . T i p i - t i p i - t i n out of a dead c o i n and h e l l 5 Is y o u r s even i f i n God you do t r u s t Or p i d d l e d e e or l i f e ' s r o t from c o s t t o c o s t . . . Wrecker of g a r d e n s , no n i c k e l or Y a l e y e l l W i l l r i n g v i c t o r y now, nor speech w i t h E v e r e s t , I x t a c c i h u a t l , P o p o c a t a p e t l , 10 Q u e t z a l c o a t l , j a i l , X i c o t a n c a t l , Nor w h a l e s h i p ' s b l u b b e r y e d u c a t i o n , Soothe your r a s h e d b r e a s t . See , t h e y have a l l gone, The names t o o . Oaxaca; Xanadu; Be lawan; S a i g o n . And t h e s u n . You would have l i k e d S a i g o n . 1934-36 VI [67.23 BLEPHARIPAPPUS GLANDULOSUS OR WHITE TIDY-TIPS I p r a y e d t o s a y a word as s i m p l e As t h e d a i s y . I have sought so l o n g To speak t h i s f l o w e r goodness c r e a t e d , Or recreate t h e d a i s y i n song . . . 5 A l a s , my s o n g ' s a g a i n t o o ample , So , a g a i n , I am d e f e a t e d . T3 [ m i s s i n g 3 {67.1} 1936 VII [68.33 ON READING EDMUND WILSON'S REMARKS ABOUT RIMBAUD Formen of q u a r r i e s i n C y p r u s , The g r a n a r i e s of g e n i u s r o l l e d down t h e r i v e r , S t e v e d o r e of M a r s e i l l e s , f r i e n d To soap m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t h e w h u l i n g C y c l a d e s , 5 No son t o e n g i n e e r a dreamed-o f b r i d g e , C a r l i s t , communis t , d u t c h s o l d i e r , and D a v i d t o no G o l i a t h i n b l a c k f o r e s t , L i v i d s l e e p e r a c r o s s r e a l t r a c k s a t noonday, A b s i n t h e manque a t t h e Y o r k s h i r e Grey 10 S e l l e r o f k e y - r i n g s , s h o e - l a c e s , s e l f , t r u n k s , T r a v e l l e r w i t h " S p r i n g b o a r t & T u m p l i n g a k t " , Dreamer of r a i l w a y s t o A d d i s Abbaba , Ahab of t h e A b y s s i n i a n r a i n , No Onan s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e of t h e s u n , 15 But f a l s e enough t o b e t r a y t h e m o o n l i g h t , no And f i e n d of t h e f a m i l y of V e r l a i n e , With b a l l s between your s h o u l d e r s and e l s e w h e r e , Cover up t h e l e p r o s i e s of o l d w a l l s , Of t h e s o u l ' s c l i m b w i t h H a r r a r ' s l a t e r wisdom, 20 Of d o l e f u l t r a f f i c k i n g w i t h p r e p o s t e r o u s c h i e f s And m o n s t r o u s w ives from O b a n g u i - T c h a r i - T c h a d , S a i l e d by came l s who c o u l d c l i m b S t , P a u l ' s , From S o k o t r a or t h e i s l a n d s of t h e damned, As you may; or b u i l d , not s e n s e , c a n a l s , 25 P o e t r y snapped t o t h e w a i s t w i t h a snake b e l t S tudded w i t h p o l i t e l i e s p r e c i o u s as s t o n e s . S t i l l w i l l l i f e c l o s e w i t h I s a b e l l e i n a dream, D y i n g f a r from home at h a r v e s t t i m e . T3 C m i s s i n g ] [68.1} 4 6 8 . 1 , 2 ; t o soap m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n w h u l i n g C y c l a d e s , 14 6 8 . 1 : not s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e of t h e s u n , not Onan s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e of s u n , 19 6 8 , 1 : of t h e s o u l ' s c l i m b w i t h H a r r a r ' s l a t e r wisdom 24 6 8 . 1 : as you may; and b u i l d , not s e n s i n g c a n a l s 25 6 8 . 1 : p o e t r y snapped t o t h e w a i s t w i t h a snake s k i n 27 6 8 . 1 : s t i l l may l i f e c l o s e w i t h I s a b e l l e i n a dream, [1938-393 VIII C69.23 The e x i l e i s t h e l u c k i e s t of men, L e t m i l l i o n f l i n t s t o n e s incommode h i s f e e t , Be u n s t r u n g h a r p s i n h i s e a r s , i t i s sweet To d w e l l i n Hinnom and s t r i d e H e l l a g a i n : 5 Or l e t i t be Upper S l a u g h t e r , A b e r d e e n , X o c h i m i l c o , Bodo, C h e s t e r - l e - S t r e e t , Worms, New B r i g h t o n , or M o r o c c o , You g r e e t your s p i r i t each t empes tuous n i g h t t o f r i g h t e n Remembered l o v e i n t o your l o v e d o n e ' s t e a r s , 10 Where d r o w n i n g ' s i n c i d e n t now, you pewter T imon! A h , L e a n d e r , b r e a t h of w i n t e r , t h r o n g e d arms of n i g h t m a r e s ! L u s t r e of s e a t h e g l e a m i n g A r c t i c wears! B e t t e r be hugged t h e r e , where g r a v e P o l a r b e a r s I n v i t e t h e s o u l w i t h B o r e a l i a n a i r s .