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The collected poetry of Malcolm Lowry : a critical edition with a commentary Scherf, Kathleen Dorothy 1988

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THE COLLECTED  POETRY OF MALCOLM LOWRY:  A CRITICAL EDITION WITH A COMMENTARY By KATHLEEN DOROTHY SCHERF B.A., M.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of  of  Toronto,  1982  B r i t i s h Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (English)  We a c c e p t to  this  the  thesis  required  THE UNIVERSITY  as  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September ©Kathleen  1984  1988  Dorothy  Scherf,  1988  In  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of  this  department  or  publication  thesis for by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted by the her  Department of  English  The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  DE-6f 3/811  It  is  understood  that  my  copying  or  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written  permission.  Date  representatives.  head of  11 October  1988  ii  Abstract  Although h i s  l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n r e s t s p r i m a r i l y on h i s  novels,  Malcolm Lowry (1909-1957) c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f a p o e t , and he composed an extensive p o e t i c exists;  canon. No r e l i a b l e e d i t i o n of Lowry's poetry  increasing c r i t i c a l interest  i n a l l aspects of Lowry's  and work prompted the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s poetry,  i n which the poems are l o c a t e d ,  collated, textual  annotated,  his a r t i s t i c  development,  The opening s e c t i o n — L o w r y ' s p o e t i c  Storm, h i s  identified,  collection  of p o e t r y ,  c h a r a c t e r s Peter Gaunt and V i g i l  group of u n c o l l e c t e d Mexican poems. t e x t — " D o l l a r t o n 1940-54: S e l e c t e d  The Lighthouse I n v i t e s  a sequence of  in this  deep e f f e c t  the D o l l a r t o n t e x t s ,  of,  and the t e x t u a l  four hundred and s i x t y - f i v e 1957.  of  and r e c o r d the experience  This e d i t i o n p r o v i d e s Lowryans with ready access to the  i n date from 1925 to  the  Poems 1947" and " D o l l a r t o n  c o n t a i n s e c t i o n s of song l y r i c s and undated  the canon's  of  e d i t i o n i s a small  group of love poems w r i t t e n between  and Lowry's death i n 1957 follows  the  related  the adventures  Lowry's sojourn on the lower mainland, and i t s  determinable a u t h o r i a l v e r s i o n s  fascination  The next two s e c t i o n s of  1940-54: U n c o l l e c t e d Poems"—reflect  for,  his  F o r g e t . Lowry composed most  the Lighthouse i n Mexico; f o l l o w i n g i t  A remarkably coherent  and  and are preceded by  juvenilia—reflects  s e m i - a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l poems, which d e p i c t s  appendices  dated, a r r a n g e d ,  i s s u e s r a i s e d by those poems.  as does the ensuing s e c t i o n ,  first  his  The s e c t i o n s of Lowry's t e x t are c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  short essays d e s c r i b i n g the s p e c i f i c  for the sea,  e d i t i o n of  and e x p l i c a t e d i n b i o g r a p h i c a l , c r i t i c a l ,  introductions.  arranged to r e f l e c t  complete  life  of  on him. 1949  and the fragments. latest  histories  poems, which range  111 Contents  Preliminaries Acknowledgements  iv  Abbreviations  v  Introductory M a l c o l m Lowry and h i s Texts  and C o n t e x t s : to  A Note on t h e  Poetry  2  A Critical  Approach  Lowry's Poetry  14  Text  32 The  Apprenticeship:  Poetic  The L i g h t h o u s e  Invites  Uncollected  Essays  Text  Juvenilia the  Storm:  1925-33 1934-39  Poems 1933-38  48 61 129  Dollarton  1940-54:  S e l e c t e d Poems 1947  141  Dollarton  1940-54:  Uncollected  187  Poems  Love Poems 1949-57  264 Appendices  A p p e n d i x A : Song L y r i c s  296  Appendix B: Fragments  305  A p p e n d i x C : The A n n o t a t i o n  of  Lowry's  A Prolegomenon  Poetry: 319  A p p e n d i x D: P a p e r Use C h a r t  331  Bibliography  337  Indices  351  iv  Acknowledgements  The e d i t o r  gratefully  contributions  Prof.  parts  Chris Ackerley,  Bowker, Case,  to  George  Prof.  Charles  F.  Forbes,  Loik,  Prof.  Herbert  Thomas,  Ian  of  Dr.  this  Prof.  Brandak,  Victor  Diane  acknowledges the  Doyen,  Foster,  Rosengarten,  generous  their  Adrienne Emond,  Ian  Case,  Cynthia  Ralph  Fairclough,  Peter Matson, Sugars,  Dr.  Gordon  Hilda  Joseph Harry  Thomas,  Jones,  Porter, Philip  Willison.  gratefully  information,  throughout  Dr. E a r l e Birney,  Sidney H u t t n e r ,  D. L o m e M a c d o n a l d ,  Special  The e d i t o r  Brown,  Elizabeth  Jocelyn  for  dissertation:  F. Asals,  Sally  following people  this  Acknowledgements  acknowledges the advice,  dissertation  Susanna B l a c k b u r n ,  Prof.  Sherrill  E . Grace,  Robert  Woolfan,  Anne  and  following people  support  t h e y have  for  the  provided  process:  W i l l i a m E . Fredeman, George  Scherf,  F.R.S.C.,  Ian W e i r ,  Prof.  Priscilla  Yandle.  K.S.  Abbreviations  1  Books - a l l e d i t i o n s  are l i s t e d  unless otherwise  i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y  noted.  Dark as the Grave:  Dark As the Grave Wherein My F r i e n d Is  Hear us 0 Lord  Hear us 0 Lord from heaven Thy d w e l l i n g  October F e r r y :  October F e r r y to  Gabriola  OF:  October F e r r y to  Gabriola  SL:  Selected Letters  of Malcolm Lowry  Volcano  Under the Volcano (page r e f s .  Penguin)  UV:  Under the Volcano (page r e f s .  Penguin)  2  Poetic  place  Volumes The  Lighthouse: 3  Laid  Lighthouse I n v i t e s the Storm  Authors  A c k e r l e y and C l i p p e r  A Companion to Under the Volcano  Bowker  Malcolm Lowry Remembered  Day  Malcolm Lowry: A Biography  Sal1oum  Malcolm Lowry: Vancouver Days  4  Primary  Sources  DM  David Markson Papers,  WTP  W i l l i a m Templeton Papers, U . B . C  N.B•  U.B.C.  A l l l o c a t i o n r e f e r e n c e s to the Malcolm Lowry Papers i n the  Special Collections round b r a c k e t s .  D i v i s i o n of the U . B . C .  The f i r s t  L i b r a r y appear i n  numeral i d e n t i f i e s  numeral f o l l o w i n g the dash i n d i c a t e s  the  the box number;  f o l d e r w i t h i n the  the  box.  1  INTRODUCTORY ESSAYS  2  MALCOLM LOWRY AND HIS POETRY A l t h o u g h M a l c o l m Lowry primarily  as  a poet,  exclusively  on h i s  adult  and h i s  for  life,  his  poetry.  his  (1909-1957)  himself  l i t e r a r y fame and r e p u t a t i o n  fiction.  He composed p o e t r y  correspondence  In 1937,  considered  reveals  a depressed  rest  d u r i n g most  a consistent  of  his  concern  and p a r a n o i d Lowry w r o t e  his  Mexican f r i e n d Juan Fernando Marquez: The E n g l i s h a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y s t u p i d b u t t h e s t u p i d i t y and h y p o c r i s y o f y o u r d e t e c t i v e s and t h e m o t i v e s w h i c h a r e b e h i n d t h e i r little eternal spying—their activities—completely t r a n s c e n d any c r i m i n a l i t y and s t u p i d i t y I have e v e r e n c o u n t e r e d anywhere i n t h e w o r l d . Have t h e s e guys n o t h i n g b e t t e r t o do t h a n t o watch a man who m e r e l y wants t o w r i t e p o e t r y ? As i f I had not enough t r o u b l e s on my m i n d i (SL 13-14) Almost  a decade  later,  J o n a t h a n Cape h i s structure the  reference novel,  well-known  and s t y l e  importance to  i n J a n u a r y 1946,  of  the  and w i d e l y - q u o t e d  Under t h e  of p o e t r y problems  in his the  Lowry s u g g e s t e d t h a t  when Lowry p o s t e d  V o l c a n o , he a g a i n creative  situation  reader was  later,  England to 1958  i n the  last  Ralph Gustafson,  P e n g u i n Book o f  year  of  his  life,  who i n c l u d e d two  Canadian  the  With  found i n  the  "irremediable:"  It i s t h a t the a u t h o r ' s equipment, such as i t i s , i s s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n o b j e c t i v e , a b e t t e r equipment, i n s h o r t , f o r a c e r t a i n k i n d of poet than a n o v e l i s t . A decade  of  highlighted  imagination.  publisher's  the  defense  to  (SL 59)  Lowry w r o t e of  his  from  poems i n  Verse:  Sometimes I t h i n k I ' v e n e v e r been a b l e f u l l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e most e l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f s c a n s i o n , s t r e s s , i n t e r i o r rhyme and t h e l i k e w i t h t h e r e s u l t , by o v e r c o m p e n s a t i o n , t h a t my poems s u c h as t h e y a r e l o o k as t h o u g h t h e y had a k i n d o f wooden monotonous c l a s s i c a l f r a m e . . . . A l l t h i s i s v e r y s a d and c o m p l i c a t e d  the  3 t o me b e c a u s e I t h i n k of p r a c t i c a l l y n o t h i n g e l s e b u t p o e t r y when I ' m not t h i n k i n g a b o u t my o l d s h a c k on B u r r a r d I n l e t . (SJL 408) Many c r i t i c s however,  the  position  poetry  no doubt  agree  with Lowry's  number o f poems he composed and t h e held  in his  consciousness  g i v i n g more c r i t i c a l and s c h o l a r l y This for  edition the  seeks  first  Lowry's  time,  complete  to  Birney's  the  poetic  in  the  too,  of  i n the  1960s.  has  laudable;  of  intended  is  to  basis  revise  this  of  the  there  are  not  Invites  the  Lowry a l l  any o f  of D r .  magazines.  In  collected  between t h e  editor  Birney's  intentions  problems  volume  structure  vision  Storm.  Birney's  into  life to  with  contains  Lowry's.  particular structure  the  over  from e v e r y  his  Earle.  he p l a c e d  serious  on f o r c i n g them a l l that  That  number o f p o e m s — t h e  Birney's,  on  Lowry.  Lowry's  incompleteness—the total  have  rely  efforts  and l i t t l e  encompasses poems w h i c h d a t e  on t h e  the  disagreements  however,  reflects  he i n s i s t s  for  they  must  of Malcolm  remained u n p u b l i s h e d .  Beyond i t s  one-sixth  yet,  structure  Poems  Single-handedly,  textual  L o w r y ' s volume The L i g h t h o u s e  period;  unless  Library,  he p r e p a r e d an e d i t i o n  the.collection  selection  poetry,  U.B.C.  Selected  available  owing t o  Poems.  than  in his  poems i n j o u r n a l s  and M a r g e r i e L o w r y ,  fewer  of  early  by p r o v i d i n g ,  histories  owing t o  one h u n d r e d o f  Selected  such a t t e n t i o n and t e x t u a l  for  Lowry's poetry.  has been  d u r i n g the  were c l e a r l y  to  L i g h t s Books.  Birney  which,  strongly  San F r a n c i s c o by C i t y  texts  poems,  interested  edition  poetic  those years,  texts  significant  canon.  manuscripts  1962  published  accurate  argue  attention  t o make p o s s i b l e  Lowry c r i t i c s access  self-assessment;  of  compositional the  Lighthouse  apparently include  his  4  poetic  canon,  evidence clearly as  for  Birney's  evident  a discrete  Lighthouse omitting  is  poem,  that  true  authorial  that  of  include  silently  Fortnightly; eight in  the  Fortnightly.  years  i n the  texts  at  the  novelist  Conrad Aiken  apprenticeship  wrote  the  1930.  years  the  issued  the  poems.  Poems.  apprenticeship, of  his  the  novel  to  for  first  study  1929, Aiken.  his  songs,  two  of  which,  Shanghai,"  had p r i n t e d by a  Five years  Cambridge  and  with  S a i d Goodbye t o  1927.  Theatre,  Virginia  summer o f  partner Ronald H i l l  for  which  first  American poet  and i n t h e  in  The  f u r t h e r poems i n The L e y s  by L e o n a r d a n d  M i c e " and " I ' v e  songs  the  Cambridge F e s t i v a l  lyrics  While  readers  newspaper,  Lowry p r o d u c e d d u r i n g  a number o f  two  Birney's  for  school  mentor,  sheet-music p u b l i s h e r for  while  H i s poems were among t h e  Cambridge m u s i c a l  lyrics  original  in Selected  Cambridge, Massachussetts  t o poems,  is  publication  (1889-1973),  " T h r e e L i t t l e Dog-gone  London v a n i t y  the  Lowry showed h i s  to  his  literary  programme f o r  efforts  he and h i s  to  of  is  improve a p a r t i c u l a r  published  published thirteen  literary  In a d d i t i o n  as  issue  Hogarth P r e s s .  Lowry t r a v e l l e d  often  the  headings  so many of  it  The L i g h t h o u s e  r e c o r d e d poem a p p e a r e d u n d e r  prior  and i n C a m b r i d g e P o e t r y Woolf  section  c r i t i c a l problems  and d u r i n g h i s  1933,  contrary,  and t r e a t e d  emending  serious  pseudonym "Camel" i n a 1925  Ultramarine  four  Birney's revisions  only with  spans t h e  of  on t h e  ones.''" F a r more s e r i o u s  Malcolm Lowry's f i r s t  Leys  exists;  contextual  F u r t h e r m o r e , B i r n e y expands to  they a l s o pose  familiar  hypothesis  volume.  policy  no b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l or  Lowry t h o u g h t  structure  two  editorial it  even t h o u g h  later,  Footlights  he  5 Dramatic  Society's  1932  w h i c h he a p p e a r e d . of which are Not P e a c e ,  He a l s o  L a u g h i n g at  is  the p u t a t i v e  sailor's  Lowry's  Love,  experimented with j a z z  included in Charlotte Haldane's  and he  traditional  p r o d u c t i o n of  author  1932  lyrics,  several  novel  Bring  attention  was  not  focussed  on poems and songs  The L e y s F o r t n i g h t l y , and worked from 1927  Aiken's (1924;  U l t r a m a r i n e . which i s  B l u e Voyage trans.  (1927)  1927).  Cambridge examiners  France,  of  when he s t a r t e d lost  taste  remained with fascination persona of  his  hand t o  it  to  the  graduation in  1932  w r i t i n g began  and t h e  novella  for popular music, his  life.  to  at Cambridge  convince of  in  all  composition  of  jazz  The wooden  i n New Y o r k to  the  his  his English  England,  evident  tunes  which  ukulele  and  his  sea-faring features  Lowry t u r n e d  his  ukulele  superficial  due t o  was  juvenilia,  characteristic  "with  and somewhat  u n d i s c i p l i n e d and u n d i r e c t e d  1934-36,  together with his the  his  Lunar C a u s t i c .  in his  s u r p r i s i n g that  probably equally  in  White Sea,  now known as  His b a t t e r e d  alcohol,  on  marked t h e  Bohemian p e r i o d s p e n t  at  poems i s  Lowry s t u d i e d  U l t r a m a r i n e as p a r t  not  accompaniment."  1933  on C o n r a d  He managed t o  compose. In B a l l a s t  devotion is  to  G r i e g ' s The S h i p S a i l s On  1932,  f o r American j a z z were,  youth; the  to  short  H i s n e x t p e r i o d — p e r h a p s more a c c u r a t e l y ,  him a l l  and h i s  juvenilia  and h i s  in a f i r e ,  Lowry's  accept  serious to  modelled c l o s e l y  diligence.  a two-year  and S p a i n .  period—of  later  to  requirements,  commencement  first  of  He a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d  and N o r d a h l  From 1929  with v a r y i n g degrees  tripos  period.  only  stories  novel  to  songs.  apprenticeship  his  I  o f bawdy v a r i a n t s  during his to  in  his  literary  tone  of  his  inexperience  and  enthusiasms  of  his  6  youth. must  The f o u r t e e n  represent  and 1933. 1933  only  undoubtedly After  a p p e a r as  residences,  of  the  included in this  poems composed between  and a d d i t i o n a l  1934,  In 1935  Lowry and h i s  and more a p a r t  they d e c i d e d  and L o w r y ,  desperately  to  desperation  was  his  alcoholism.  In J u n e o f  wife,  Jan  than t o g e t h e r ,  in  separate  set  a r u n - d o w n basement r o o m . L a r g e l y t o blame  will  available.  first  maintain  unhappy,  1925  single  juvenilia  more p r i m a r y m a t e r i a l becomes  Europe i n  edition  composed more t h a n t h e  preserves,  were l i v i n g u n h a p p i l y ,  New Y o r k C i t y .  in  juvenilia  certainly  edition  leaving  of  a fraction  Lowry a l m o s t  poem t h i s  Gabrial,  items  up  for  1935,  housekeeping Lowry's  Lowry,  2 "incoherent, Psychiatric material  shaking, Wing o f  for  Lunar  L i k e most strongly  release  period, the  Bellevue  is  reflected  1,2;  WTP 1-25)  his  the  first  . A l l of  the  p a p e r were i n c l u d e d i n t h e most p r e v a l e n t sea-faring  appearances  and j a z z , Forget  atmosphere  novella,  poetic  to  he g a t h e r e d  the  the  of  d u r i n g the  collection  the  of  of  appear  and P e t e r  on p a p e r d a t a b l e  to  collection.  form,  on t h e  same (15-  Several  of  the  imagery  recurring  G a u n t , make t h e i r  the  Invites  on New Y o r k  including  and t h e  after  New Y o r k  Lunar C a u s t i c  Lighthouse.  sonnet  New Y o r k  The L i g h t h o u s e  e x t a n t poems composed Lighthouse  his  is  on w h i c h he worked  project  typed draft  unifying motifs  Vigil  admitted  Lunar C a u s t i c  A t some p o i n t  Some poems from t h i s  o f p a p e r as  characters  and t h e  i n the  from B e l l e v u e .  type  of  H o s p i t a l , where  Lowry's l i t e r a r y work,  Lowry c o n c e i v e d  Storm.  was  Caustic.  autobiographical,  experience his  of  and h a l l u c i n a t i n g , "  New Y o r k p e r i o d .  first Relatively  few New Y o r k poems a r e the  preservation  fact  that  of p a p e r s  i n New Y o r k ,  concerned—first then  extant;  Lowry's u n s e t t l e d  difficult,  Lowry was—as  preoccupied with  L u n a r C a u s t i c . so  that  but  also  f a r as  life-style  significant  writing  In B a l l a s t  to  he had r e l a t i v e l y  the  is  the  is W h i t e Sea and  little  1  made  time  for  poetry . In t h e  fall  Los A n g e l e s , Mexico.  of  After  1938.  accounts  Lowry and J a n G a b r i a l  and by December t h e y a dismal year,  -tirtve i n December of  1936,  1937;  Lowry's p o e t i c  emotional  novel  which dates  Under t h e from t h e  of p o e t r y ,  many m a n u s c r i p t s , very  little  the  in various  Lighthouse;  all  he s e n t  the  evident  1940,  informed Conrad Aiken  in his  Lighthouse typescript unsure  of  ambulatory" t y p e s c r i p t ,  during  the  was  After  of  least  correspondence;  in  late  A year  location  wrote  Whit  his  of  later, the  agent,  one 1939  Burnett,  L i p p i n c o t t ' s , was  (SL 2 4 ) . the  that  his for  the first  for  1940  finished  at  at  his  Storm,  Lighthouse to  an e d i t o r  of  which Lowry  i n 1939,  f a i r copy m a n u s c r i p t t y p e d  house i s  Lowry,  summer  known m a n u s c r i p t  exist. it  draft  completed  Invites  states,  That  1941,  the  last  a blossoming  first  However,  substantially  The L i g h t h o u s e  work on t h e  become  entire  Dollarton period.  Angeles.  recently  f o r the  a l t h o u g h by  l e d to  non-extant  Volcano, the  he p r o b a b l y had a t r i p l i c a t e  he  Lowry  work.  M e x i c a n p e r i o d Lowry a l s o volume  experience,  for  i n Cuernavaca,  left  Mexican s o j o u r n ,  In M e x i c o , Lowry w r o t e great  Jan G a b r i a l  New Y o r k  Lowry r e m a i n e d i n M e x i c o u n t i l  The n i n e t e e n - m o n t h a wretched  had s e t t l e d  left  publishing or  holding  "hapless  when  i n Los  early  who had  i n the  did  the  s p r i n g of and  Harold Matson,  for  8  information in  selling  as  to  its  whereabouts  The L i g h t h o u s e ,  and,  (SL 4 0 ) .  to  make m a t t e r s  friend,  Irish writer  and t r a n s l a t o r  similar  f a i l u r e with  " E i g h t Poems  S t o r m . " w h i c h Lowry had s e n t S t e r n w o u l d be a b l e have been perhaps  a result  work on i t .  later of  of  Only t h r e e  its of  in  1947,  after  settling  it  Stern,  Esguire  (1-64).  success,  eighty-three  In 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 ,  Lowry's  the  after  Invites  hope  This  the  that  appears  collection,  to  and,  he d i d l i t t l e  further  L i g h t h o u s e poems were  u n p u b l i s h e d volume of  success  reported a  i n the  t o promote t h e  l a c k of the  worse,  from The L i g h t h o u s e  to  and o n l y t e n  1940.  James  him i n May 1940  attempt  i n Lowry's second  assembled revised  sell  Lowry's f i n a l  as  included  to  M a t s o n had no  of p o e t r y ,  which  he  L i g h t h o u s e poems were arriving  i n D o l l a r t o n , Lowry began  i n V a n c o u v e r and  an e n t i r e l y  new  series  poems. The L i g h t h o u s e  biographically,  Invites  the  and t h e r e f o r e  conjunction with  the  for  the  certain  aspects  belongs  to  wrote  it  the  textually,  and c r i t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Mexican p e r i o d s ,  properly,  Storm i s  of  c a n be most  New Y o r k v e r s i o n  p e r i o d 1934-36, Under t h e  first  titled  V o l c a n o , the  Dollarton period,  between 1940  of  In 1940, Dollarton, travels  the  and,  Lowrys moved t o  except  from 1945  to  for their  1949  New Y o r k and studied  Lunar C a u s t i c  The L a s t A d d r e s s ) final version  extant  Invites  a shack  in  (more and  of  d u r i n g w h i c h Lowry  and 1944 . The o n l y  ones f o r The L i g h t h o u s e  the  profitably  manuscripts which are r e l i a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r i o d are the  of  which re-  literary  of  Lowry's Mexican  the  on t h e  Storm.  beach  at  e x t e n s i v e American and European  and a few w i n t e r s  spent  in  rented  9 apartments final  i n Vancouver, they  d e p a r t u r e i n 1954.  tenure,  Lowry r e - w r o t e  to  he w r o t e most  1954  remained at  During the  first  poetic  to  of  his  Gabriola.  canon d u r i n g the  h u n d r e d and s i x t y - f i v e approximately Dollarton. greater:  v o l u m e of  from 1949  collected  it  in  until  the  to  in this  i n 1957,  T h e s e poems,  of  assigned  output  to  the  unwieldy  of  his  four  Lowry composed many  overlap Lowry's same t y p e s  that to  of  edition  second  of p a p e r ,  how many o f  the  so  the  and how many  notes surrounding  bringing his  them  total  some two h u n d r e d and t h i r t y poems: poetry  are  Dollarton  a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d of  Dollarton,  to  is probably  which i n t h i s  contents  0  edition,  output  determine p r e c i s e l y  indicates  L o w r y ' s most p r o l i f i c  clearly  period.  In t h e m i d d l e of t h e i r  extensive  travels,  the  eight-month r e t u r n to  Dollarton  i n 1947,  when Lowry had  brief  Margerie type authorially Unlike  the  out  some  selected  sixty  poems,  L i g h t h o u s e . which i s  he r e g a r d e d as  Lowrys made a  of w h i c h f i f t y - f o u r  and o r d e r e d i n t o  s t r u c t u r e d work, Lowry's what  death  section,  An a n a l y s i s  safely  Dollarton  Hear us  Of t h e  l o v e poems were composed i n D o l l a r t o n  l o v e poems  c o u l d be  his  and a p p e a r on t h e  difficult  England.  from 194 9  In a d d i t i o n , Lowry w r o t e h a l f  Dollarton poetic  in a discrete  ninety-seven  Dollarton  Volcano; stories  their  and w r e s t l e d w i t h t h e  poems c o l l e c t e d  for Margerie.  is  his  1940-54 D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d .  the  and E n g l a n d p e r i o d s that  short  of  until  two h u n d r e d c a n be a s s i g n e d by p a p e r a n a l y s i s  However,  l o v e poems  part  and f i n i s h e d Under t h e  L o r d from h e a v e n Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e , October F e r r y  Dollarton  a second volume of  were poetry.  an i n t e g r a t e d and h i g h l y  1947 v o l u m e r e p r e s e n t s  t h e most p r o m i s i n g poems  a selection  from t h e  first  of  10  Dollarton pei-iod. is  The s e l e c t i o n  autobiographically  three  titled  and "Poems  Canal,  Lowry s e n t  the  collection  bears  poems,  In l i g h t  of  nothing  that  ever  left  his  terrible  is  divided  "Poems  beloved  ever  1954,  New Y o r k ,  the  day  then  the  c o n s u m p t i o n were e v i d e n t  his  American  attached  a  note,  polished  pencilled  comments  suggestions,  forty-six the  of  revised  suggests  selection  to  the  Italy,  ravages in his  That  he may have  a publisher,  but  1951  he  had  there  sojourn that and,  finally,  f o r the of  his  would take  last  extreme  appearance  to  is  time.  him  England, He was  Lowry in a  alcohol  and c o n d u c t .  David  "Malcolm Lowry: A Reminiscence"  paints  L o w r y ' s two-week s t a y  of  the  fifty-four  Markson's w i d e l y - p u b l i s h e d a vivid portrait  on  between  selection.  that  Erskine  so.  on a f i n a l to  to  Panama  with his  came o f  did  Erskine,  in his  into  the  papers.  D o l l a r t o n beach  condition;  to Albert  it  from M e x i c o , "  i n Lowry's p o e t i c  t h e s e poems,  he  On 11 A u g u s t to  Sea,"  Erskine's editorial  s u b m i t t i n g the  no e v i d e n c e  first  the  resemblance  Lowry f u r t h e r r e v i s e d  but  for  a closer  typescript  continued r e v i s i n g plans  of  self-deprecating  than anything e l s e  r e t u r n e d the  and 1954,  The t y p e s c r i p t  typescript  A l t h o u g h he was  sheets.  Lowryan i n t h a t  V a n c o u v e r by s h i p bound f o r E u r o p e v i a t h e  typescript  later  "Poems  typically  from V a n c o u v e r . " On 7 November 1947,  left  this  organized.  sections:  Lowrys  editor.  is  3  i n New Y o r k :  The man c o u l d not s h a v e h i m s e l f . . . . M o r n i n g s , he n e e d e d two o r t h r e e ounces o f g i n i n h i s o r a n g e j u i c e i f he was t o s t e a d y h i s hand t o eat t h e b r e a k f a s t t h a t w o u l d v e r y l i k e l y p r o v e h i s o n l y meal o f t h e d a y . T h e r e a f t e r a d i m i n i s h i n g y e l l o w t i n t i n the g l a s s might b e l i e the f a c t that, now he was d r i n k i n g t h e g i n n e a t , w h i c h he d i d f o r as many h o u r s as i t t o o k him t o . U l t i m a t e l y  11 he w o u l d c o l l a p s e — s o m e t i m e s s e n s i b l e enough o f h i s c o n d i t i o n t o l u r c h t o w a r d a b e d , t h o u g h more o f t e n he w o u l d c r a s h down i n t o a c h a i r , and once i t was a c r o s s my p h o n o g r a p h . Then he w o u l d h a c k and s p u t t e r t h r o u g h t h e n i g h t l i k e some g r e a t defective machine b r e a k i n g a p a r t . It  was  in this  admitted to after  condition—perhaps  Brook G e n e r a l H o s p i t a l  spending a year  and i n November 1955 for p s y c h i a t r i c the  Sussex.  a g a i n at  discharge  just  In J u n e ,  for  he  Despite  of  his  last  He c o n t i n u e d t o  release  home,  and A u g u s t  From t h e  i n February  the  of  fall time  for a tour  year,  illness, the  I Protest,"  love  Lowry engaged  White C o t t a g e .  he d e v o t e d  of  and 1957  poem t h a t  these  final  Lowrys  lived  the of  the  Atlantic  Lake  1956, in was  District  in  some l i t e r a r y work  were a l m o s t  in  death  a copious  of  to  his  essay  to  The poems  a continuation  of  second  "ditties"  Dollarton period. to  his  wife  the  entitled  w r i t i n g time  Gabriola.  all  revising  written the  he had commenced d i s t r i b u t i n g a r o u n d t h e  little  hospitalization On h i s  Lowry  Lowry's  A l t h o u g h he was  most  and O c t o b e r F e r r y  for M a r g e r i e d u r i n g the many of  drink,  M a r g e r i e was  and c o m p o s i n g a p h i l o s o p h i c a l / p o l i t i c a l  1956  of  White C o t t a g e ,  that  on 27 J u n e 1957,  d e p a r t i n g only  his  correspondence during  their  death  1955,  died.  l i v i n g at  "Halt!  and L o n d o n .  After  July  was  London's Atkinson M o r l e y ' s H o s p i t a l  exhaustion.  in Ripe,  stories  entered  into  u n t i l his  before  while  Italy  Lowry  i n London i n September  A t k i n s o n M o r l e y ' s , and i n t h e  hospitalized  quietly  in  treatment.  Lowrys s e t t l e d  Ripe,  even w o r s e — t h a t  He s e n t  a  type shack great  d u r i n g her  London. in  1957,  Lowry l e f t  on b o t h  number o f m a n u s c r i p t s  sides  in various  of  the  states  of  12 disarray.  He n e v e r  he c o n c e i v e d  had t h e  for his  Ends"—because  his  opportunity to  exclusively,  1960,  when E a r l e  Lowry's papers posthumous the  own v o y a g e  on h i s  ended much t o o  1947  novel  and p u b l i s h i n g , the  from heaven  Lunar C a u s t i c  (1963),  Selected  W h e r e i n my F r i e n d  Is  (1970),  and o t h e r  miscellaneous  Selected  Letters  editions  have been  emphasis  that  the  quality  nevertheless poems,  especially  Volcano.  Letters  (1965),  D a r k as  works,  of  the  these  over  and s c h o l a r s  Lord  (1962) , the  Grave  Gabriola of  posthumous  While i t  beside that  0  include  exceptions  an e d i t o r i a l  Lowry composed  which c r i t i c s  to  With the  all  Since  to  i n Hear us Poems  t o be m i s l e a d i n g .  that  extended  Selected  works.  not  collecting  (1961) ,  Poems.  poetry p a l l s  i n view  stories  if  Day and H a r v e y B r e i t ,  (1968) , O c t o b e r F e r r y  of prose  his  true  a fact  Laid  and S e l e c t e d  tends  of  Under t h e  Lowry canon has been  Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e  Never  rests primarily,  w i t h Douglas  U l t r a m a r i n e (1962) , t h e  grand plan  soon.  B i r n e y and M a r g e r i e Lowry began  editions,  revised  the  l i t e r a r y c a n o n — " T h e Voyage T h a t  Malcolm Lowry's l i t e r a r y r e p u t a t i o n quite  complete  and c r i t i c a l is  of  arguable  his  prose,  that it  f o u r h u n d r e d and  cannot  is fifty  ignore,  i m p o r t a n c e Lowry a t t a c h e d  to  his  poetry. In t h i s  edition,  chronologically  to  Lowry's poetic  reflect  accurately  development.  His poetry  composition:  apprenticeship  Los A n g e l e s ,  and V a n c o u v e r 1 9 3 6 - 3 9 ;  1955-57. in  The p o e t i c  separate  falls  into  with  each  Lowry's  the  1925-33;  texts belonging  sections,  material  is  organized  artistic  f o l l o w i n g major p e r i o d s  of  New Y o r k 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 ; M e x i c o , D o l l a r t o n 1940-54;  England  to  presented  section  each p e r i o d a r e  p r e c e d e d by a s h o r t  essay  13  discussing  the s p e c i f i c  m a t e r i a l and h i s t o r y , relevant  1947  dating,  and  selection—are  emendations  preserved,  collections  c r i t i c a l discussion  Storm and  and these c o l l e c t i o n s  sequence.  either  appear  Such an arrangement  to be as e d i t o r i a l l y unobtrusive as p o s s i b l e ,  facilitate  manuscript  l i f e t i m e — T h e Lighthouse I n v i t e s the  i n t h e i r proper c h r o n o l o g i c a l designed  arrangement,  to that p e r i o d . The d i s c r e t e n e s s of the two  Lowry made i n h i s the  i s s u e s of b i o g r a p h y , c o n t e x t ,  is  and to  i n a b i o g r a p h i c a l continuum  or i n r e l a t i o n to the prose t e x t s on which Lowry was simultaneously  working.  NOTES ^ B i r n e y adds "Thunder Beyond P o p o c a t e p e t l , "  "Venus," "Songs  from the Beach: E r i d a n u s , " and "The Language of Man's Woe"; he omits  "Songs f o r Second Childhood" and "The Moon i n S c a n d i n a v i a . " 2  3 CCII 16  Day,  196.  David Markson,  "Malcolm Lowry: A Reminiscence,"  (7 Feb 1966): 164-67.  Nation  14  TEXTS AND CONTEXTS: A CRITICAL APPROACH TO LOWRY'S POETRY The s i m p l e W o r d s w o r t h , . . . Who, b o t h by p r e c e p t and e x a m p l e , shows T h a t p r o s e i s v e r s e , and v e r s e i s m e r e l y p r o s e ( L o r d B y r o n , E n g l i s h B a r d s and S c o t c h R e v i e w e r s ) A p p l i e d to Malcolm Lowry, stricture  w o u l d be h y p e r b o l i c ; b u t  nevertheless, specialists  does u n d e r s c o r e  face  in attempting  sizeable  poetic  creative  "equipment" as  corpus.  b e h i n d an enormous form, his  but  often  occasional  place  poetic  technical  alone,  but,  more i m p o r t a n t l y ,  illuminating  serves  the  the  as  mental  employed i n a d a p t i n g , impulses  into  With t y p i c a l complaint strikes  at  a discomfort type  with  of v i s i o n  "scansion,  it  stress,  is  poetry  the  most  as  of  it'in  a convenient and e m o t i o n a l  his  forms  requires.  L o w r y ' s 1957  quoted  poetic  i n the  was  not  that  so  prose,  Lowry poetic  fiction.  epistolary  introductory  essay, reflect  with the p a r t i c u l a r  Lowry's d i f f i c u l t y  i n t e r i o r rhyme and t h e  in  biographically—  on t h e  for  ignored;  p r o b l e m . H i s comments  of p o e t r y , It  be  to  of  fiction  and t r a n s f i g u r i n g suitable  to  unable  i n terms  especially,  processes  left  owing  he was  the  commentary  Lowry  manuscript  extensive to  and,  essential  which  a poet,  complements  and s t r a t e g i e s  of  his  fictional,  testifies,  too  topically,  self-perception,  heart  critically  who r e g a r d e d h i s  edition  canon  to Ralph Gustafson, the  dilemma Lowryan  r a t h e r than  translating,  language  formulation,  evaluate  deficiencies  Lowry's poetic  often  to  satirical  f o r completed volumes,  As t h i s  many w a y s — t h e m a t i c a l l y , it  a central  of p o e t r y ,  in drafts  for publication.  Byron's  A novelist,  amount  size  that  Byron's wicked,  with  l i k e , " and not  a  15  problem with p o e t i c "wooden at. t h e  conception,  f r a m e . " Norman Newton, Lowry  In a 1986  shack d u r i n g the  letter,  he  which r e s u l t e d  in his  a Vancouver w r i t e r ,  poetry's  was  second D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d  a  vistor  (1949-54) .  remembers:  M a l c o l m had an i n t e n s e l y m u s i c a l m i n d — h i s w r i t i n g uses r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n the s t y l e o f an a c c o m p l i s h e d c o m p o s e r — b u t he had none o f t h e p h y s i c a l endowments of t h e m u s i c i a n . . . . A l l o f t h i s , o f c o u r s e , went t o feed h i s h a t r e d of h i s body. It s i m p l y d i d not r e s p o n d f i n e l y enough. I f e e l t h a t h i s l a c k o f p h y s i c a l f i n e s s e had s o m e t h i n g t o do with h i s f a i l u r e to master the c r a f t of v e r s e . The images a r e m a r v e l l o u s , b u t t h e e a r i s c o a r s e so f a r as r h y t h m i c d e t a i l i s c o n c e r n e d . He n e e d e d t h e l a r g e r and l o o s e r s w i n g o f p r o s e . ( S a l l o u m 88) Lowry's discomfort year  after  with regulated  he had c o m p l e t e d h i s  Lighthouse  Invites  the  Storm.  form i s  first  marked:  volume  i n 1940,  of p o e t r y ,  a  The  Conrad Aiken a d v i s e d him:  I t h i n k i t ' s good t h a t y o u ' r e w r i t i n g p o e t r y — b u t do t r y t o keep y o u r numbers and q u a n t i t i e s s t r a i g h t — 1 Freedom comes a f t e r m a s t e r y not b e f o r e — t h e s o n n e t c o n s i s t s o f 14 l i n e s o f f i v e b e a t i a m b i c s , rhymed a b a b c d c d e f e f g g or a b b a a b b a c d e c d e : i t c a n ' t j u s t be a n y t h i n g I (1-2) As h i s  correspondence  inadequate  and f r u s t r a t e d by h i s  achieving poetic Lowryans t h a t , complete,  his  discipline.  because  he n e v e r  This  poems  is  true  forms.  of  rigours  indicates,  general is  l a c k of  Lowry  c o n s i d e r e d any p i e c e send a " f i n a l " but  the  returned is of v e r s e ,  felt  success  a t r a d i t i o n a l view  the p r o s e ,  t o w h i c h Lowry n e v e r  f r u s t r a t i o n with the  prose  It  he had t o be c o a x e d t o  publisher. draft  with Gustafson  in  among o f work  v e r s i o n to  number o f high,  and h i s  his  first  revealing preference  both for  16 Lowry f e l t  more c o m f o r t a b l e  a multi-layered, the  piece.  According to  such a form: vehemently  encyclopaedic  in his  for  its  in  it,  n a r r a t i v e determine  Lowry,  1946  with prose;  Under t h e  letter  to  he c o u l d the  he  essentially  just  argued  c a r e f u l l y - p l a n n e d "churrigueresque  (SL 61) , a s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i s  form o f  Volcano d i s p l a y s  Jonathan Cape,  let  structure"  poetical :  . . . 1 c l a i m t h a t j u s t as a t a i l o r w i l l t r y t o c o n c e a l t h e d e f o r m i t i e s of h i s c l i e n t , so I have t r i e d , aware o f t h i s d e f e c t [ h i s p o e t i c m e n t a l i t y ] , to c o n c e a l i n the Volcano as w e l l as p o s s i b l e t h e d e f o r m i t i e s o f my own m i n d , t a k i n g h e a r t f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t s i n c e t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e whole t h i n g was e s s e n t i a l l y p o e t i c a l , perhaps these d e f o r m i t i e s d o n ' t m a t t e r so v e r y much a f t e r a l l , even when t h e y show! But poems o f t e n have t o be r e a d s e v e r a l t i m e s b e f o r e t h e i r f u l l meaning w i l l r e v e a l i t s e l f , explode i n the mind, and i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s p o e t i c a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e whole t h a t I s u g g e s t has b e e n , i f u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , m i s s e d . (SL 59) Lowry c l e a r l y v i e w e d regardless his  mentors.  University Master's Aiken's works was  of  generic  thesis  writing,  student  on t h e  about  who i n  with associative  David Markson, 1951  was  A study  prose  is  of  images,  his  his  of  of  Conrad On as  sense of  o f what  language.  language  o f meanings  only g r a d u a l l y "explodes"  i n the  For  example,  Cape's reader W i l l i a m Plomer's  poetics interit  In h i s  densely  and r e v e r b e r a t i o n s ,  set  to  his  poems and t h e i r  and use  with  a Columbia  completing  i n v a l u a b l e because  t o weave a n e t  ideas,  view  G r i e g ' s The S h i p S a i l s  Lowry's conception  Lowry s t r o v e  to  shared t h i s  an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  verse.  with his  and he  poetical,  V o l c a n o . Lowry d e s c r i b e d b o t h  (SL 2 6 5 ) ,  l i m i t e d to  relationship reveals  letter  B l u e Voyage and N o r d a h l  of p o e t s  not  a p p r o a c h t o w r i t i n g as  conventions,  In a l e n g t h y  graduate  his  whose  best  meshed full  reader's,mind.  objection  about  17  the  vagueness  of  the  Volcano's characters,  Lowry  responded:  T h i s i s a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m . But I have not e x a c t l y a t t e m p t e d t o draw c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o r m a l s e n s e — t h o u g h s ' w e l p me bob i t ' s only A r i s t o t l e who t h o u g h t c h a r a c t e r c o u n t e d l e a s t . . . . The t r u t h i s t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r d r a w i n g i s not o n l y weak b u t v i r t u a l l y nonexistent, save w i t h c e r t a i n minor c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f o u r main c h a r a c t e r s b e i n g i n t e n d e d , i n one o f t h e b o o k ' s m e a n i n g s , t o be a s p e c t s of t h e same man, o r o f t h e human s p i r i t , and two of them, Hugh and t h e C o n s u l , more o b v i o u s l y a r e . I s u g g e s t t h a t h e r e and t h e r e what may l o o k l i k e u n s u c c e s f u l a t t e m p t s a t c h a r a c t e r d r a w i n g may o n l y be t h e c o n c r e t e b a s e s t o t h e c r e a t u r e ' s l i v e s w i t h o u t w h i c h a g a i n t h e book c o u l d not be r e a d a t a l 1 . (SL 60) Lowry hoped t o amalgamation  evoke  of  all  a vision  essay  "Poetics  .literary  amplification, novel  of  evocative assumes,  Tzvetan Todorov's statement  in  but  operates  any o f impact  on t h e  his  merits  of  its  1946  appreciation  of  resonant,  work was  Prose  of  as  Lowry'  of  the  and  the  on t h e  basis  Cape's  reader  of  To L o w r y ,  of  it  and themes.  Lowry s u g g e s t e d t h a t nature  whos  embedding,  effects,  characters,  readings.  41).  conception  evaluated  organic  poetical."  of  of  and n o t ,  plot,  letter  and t h i r d  "essentially  sum t o t a l  reader,  i n the  depend upon s e c o n d  reader's  not  significations  principles  works must be  Accordingly,  the  the  upon i t s  upon t h e  of  (The P o e t i c s  on t h e  the  "The l i t e r a r y work does  a structure  and r e s o n a n c e ;  or poem depends  success  on  must be a p p r e h e n d e d " language  "human s p i r i t " t h r o u g h an H i s comments  and C r i t i c i s m " :  have a form and a c o n t e n t relations  the  f o u r main c h a r a c t e r s .  characterization prefigure 1966  of  the  the  vettor'  book w o u l d  such a  literary  18 Lowry's In t h e  c o m p o s i t i o n a l method c o m b i n e d h i s  collection  dwelling place,  of  for  short  stories  example,  the  Estate Lowry  of  and p r o s e .  Hear us 0 L o r d from heaven Thy  Dollarton  " P i n e s w r i t e a C h i n e s e poem upon t h e composed on t h e  verse  u n c o l l e c t e d poem  white-gold  holograph m a n u s c r i p t of  P o m p e i i . " P r e c e d i n g t h e poem,  the at  sun"  story the  [271]  was  "The P r e s e n t  top  of  the  sheet,  wrote: A l s o , i n I I , when Downey r e f l e c t s a t t h e t o p of the Wilderness s t e p s , while they are swimming, I w r i t e t h i s i n p o e t r y , w h i c h i t i s : p o s s i b l y i t i s a f r a g m e n t o f "our p l a y , " p o s s i b l y some of i t b e l o n g s h e r e , or i n E r i d a n u s , o r even G i n and G o l d e n r o d : b u t I think, i f a long story, i t s substance s h o u l d be h e r e . (22-23)  The t w o - p a g e  poem f o l l o w s ,  Though t h e poem does not an i n t e g r a l p a r t Thirteen  of  the  manuscripts. t h e s e poems frequently i n what also  of  the  survive story's  Dollarton  Though t h e y  after  it  was  c o m p o s i t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t . derive  from  a r e n o t p o l i s h e d examples significant  as  of  evidence  conceptual process  he c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p o e t i c  exists  continues.  i n the p u b l i s h e d s t o r y ,  u n c o l l e c t e d poems  are nonetheless f o r Lowry t h e  which the prose  vision.  for his This  of  prose  verse, how  prose  began  relationship  between t h e p o e t r y v o l u m e The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s  Storm and t h e  novel  Under t h e  Volcano.  According to  Earle  the  Birney:  . . . [ L o w r y ] was t o o s e l f - c e n t e r e d , t o o i n e x p e r i e n c e d a b o u t o t h e r s , t o be c o n t e n t e d w i t h p r o s e f i c t i o n a l o n e ; when he f e l t most d e e p l y he t u r n e d t o v e r s e , e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r he came u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e of C o n r a d A i k e n . I n d e e d some o f t h e most p o w e r f u l p a s s a g e s i n Under t h e V o l c a n o were f i r s t w r i t t e n as v e r s e . By t h e t i m e he came t o D o l l a r t o n he had t h e h a b i t o f r e c o r d i n g w h a t e v e r d a y - t o - d a y  19 e x p e r i e n c e s most moved him i n p o e t i c f o r m , s e e i n g an e a g l e , f i n d i n g a s t r a n g e f l o w e r . And l a t e r he w o u l d r e - w o r k some o f t h e s e poems i n t o t h e p r o s e o f h i s V o l c a n o and h i s l a t e r n o v e l s . ( S a l l o u m 69) Some o f  these  poems i n t h e sixth  initial  Lighthouse  chapter  Laruelle's  Volcano v e r s i o n s  of  the  house  Invites  the  V o l c a n o . the  a r e p r e s e r v e d as p a r t s  Storm. For example,  Consul  in  stands musing i n  of  the Jacques  i n Quauhnahuac:  S u d d e n l y he f e l t s o m e t h i n g n e v e r f e l t b e f o r e w i t h s u c h s h o c k i n g c e r t a i n t y . I t was t h a t he was i n h e l l h i m s e l f . A t t h e same t i m e he became p o s s e s s e d o f a c u r i o u s c a l m . The i n n e r f e r m e n t w i t h i n h i m , t h e s q u a l l s and e d d i e s o f n e r v o u s n e s s , were h e l d a g a i n i n c h e c k . He c o u l d h e a r J a c q u e s m o v i n g d o w n s t a i r s and soon he w o u l d have a n o t h e r d r i n k . T h a t w o u l d h e l p , b u t i t was not the thought which calmed him. P a r i a n — t h e F a r o l i t o i he s a i d t o h i m s e l f . The L i g h t h o u s e , t h e l i g h t h o u s e t h a t i n v i t e s t h e s t o r m , and lights i t i CUV 199-200) In t h i s poetry  case the volume  opening  itself,  line  and,  Ackerley the  at  the  lighthouse  lighthouse the at  the  from i t s appears  and t h e  use  observation:  i n the  it."  of  the  [87],  Volcano.  offer  the  the prose.  Day o f  which  the  As invites  self-  i n the  In t h e  line  the  the  a lighthouse  composed  of  into  of  murdered t h e r e .  Consul's  first  title  throughout  appears  The r e s t  lines  poetry  poem "The  i n New Y o r k between  p u r p o s e and e f f e c t  i n the  only  final  and t h e  he i s  (278),  first  storm"  Consul  day,  out  i n which i t s  s t o r m and l i g h t s sea,  that  The image  invites  and 1936,  different  the  a s t r i k i n g image  destructiveness.  1934  end of  and C l i p p e r p o i n t  storm i s  a poem,  has moved from t h e  The F a r o l i t o c a n t i n a b e c k o n s Dead,  of  is  markedly  poem,  the  "The l i g h t h o u s e piece  a sonnet-like  describes  invites a  storm  philosophical  20  And what s h a l l we, what s h a l l we n o t , t o l e r a t e Today from c h a o s , what? — by t h e u n s h o t a l b a t r o s s Icarus' c i r c u s plunge?  and  (13-15) The e f f e c t  of the  lighthouse  appearance;  after  disappears.  The image o f t h e  Volcano;  is  it  i n t r o d u c i n g the  a perfect  i n t h e poem,  Lowry's  f a i l u r e t o weave i t  Volcano.  lighting  and i n v i t i n g h i s  all  as  conception  of the  the  invites  sailing not  give  sea,  as  experience his  Consul's  good l i n e  he does  novel's  of  The the  and h e l l the  sea  two p i e c e s  experience  Consul  signals  in his  Lowry aged he was  share h i s  is  the  w o r k . He less  seafaring past.  storm" r e v e a l  insis  His  emphasis.  certainly less  the  The s e a , vital  and a l l  to  the  Consul  its  the  a n d Lowry  dominant, u n f o r g e t t a b l e  figure,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : his  to  to  the  express  alcoholic  than  have h a d  t o be u s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o it  his  Volcano  c h a r a c t e r who s h a r e s  U l t r a m a r i n e ' s Dana H i l l i o t , Hugh,  such  something about  i n t h e poem; r a t h e r , he g i v e s  essential  d i m i n i s h e d by text.  reader that  i n the  b u t as  the  Hugh i s  to  Consul,  s h a d i n g of a f a v o u r i t e good l i n e  new w o r k ' s  experiences,  the  death,  L i g h t h o u s e . A l t h o u g h b o t h Hugh a n d t h e  nautical  the  lighthouse  is  of  the  own s t o r m .  sea m o t i f ,  Lowryan c o n n o t a t i o n s , to  with a l c o h o l ,  remind the  and r e v i s e d t o n a l  "The l i g h t h o u s e  fabric  is  in  mentioned f r e q u e n t l y throughout  h i s male p r o t a g o n i s t s  placement  more r e s o n a n t  c o r r e l a t i v e f o r the  the  importance of Lowry's  n e v e r abandons t h e  is  single  lighthouse  though s t r i k i n g ,  into  associations  The image o f t h e  that  image,  and e f f e c t i v e l y  diminishing  lighthouse  lighthouse—is  and i t s  reverberate  the  weakened by i t s  storm, the  objective  whereas  Farolito—the  image i s  self-  does  the  Consul, the  21  d e s t r u c t i o n , and a l l that Lowry b e l i e v e s i t s i g n i f i e s about the human c o n d i t i o n . M o t i f s which appear i n embryonic form i n the Lighthouse often come t o f r u i t i o n  i n the Volcano. For example, i n "Another  than Wordsworth dropped h i s l i v e work" [45], Lowry mentions the Ohio. a s h i p which s i t s "smoking" o f f San F r a n c i s c o . In the margin of the sheet, beside t h i s l i n e , the words "Dark a s " appear i n h i s hand. In Dark as the Grave (6-7), the s h i p reappears as the Pennsylvania. the same s h i p which brought G a b r i a l t o Acapulco  Lowry and Jan  i n September 1936. In chapter two of the  Volcano. the Consul's  estranged w i f e Yvonne a r r i v e s at Acapulco  on the P e n n s y l v a n i a . Throughout that chapter, repeated r e f e r e n c e s to the s h i p occur. Although harbour  Yvonne remembers s a i l i n g i n t o a  a l i v e with swarms of b e a u t i f u l b u t t e r f l i e s , the undertone  of the Pennsylvania r e f e r e n c e s i s very dark, hopeless l o v e Yvonne and the Consul r e p r e s e n t s the Consul's  l i k e the  share: through  Yvonne, Lowry  d i r e s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e n e s s i n terms of the  s h i p . A few moments a f t e r Yvonne has d i s c o v e r e d the Consul  i n the  bar, he informs her that " I t ' s r e a l l y the shakes that make t h i s k i n d of l i f e i n s u p p o r t a b l e . But they w i l l stop: I was only d r i n k i n g enough so they would. Just the necessary, the t h e r a p e u t i c d r i n k . " Yvonne looked back at him. " — b u t the shakes are the worst, of c o u r s e , " he was going on. "You get t o l i k e the other a f t e r a while, and I'm r e a l l y doing very w e l l , I'm much b e t t e r than I was s i x months ago, very much b e t t e r than I was, say, i n O a x a c a " — n o t i n g a c u r i o u s f a m i l i a r g l a r e i n h i s eyes that always f r i g h t e n e d her, a g l a r e turned inward now l i k e one of those sombrely b r i l l i a n t c l u s t e r - l a m p s down the hatches of the Pennsylvania on the  22  work o f u n l o a d i n g , o n l y t h i s was a work o f s p o l i a t i o n : and she f e l t a sudden d r e a d l e s t t h i s g l a r e , as o f o l d , s h o u l d s w i n g o u t w a r d , t u r n upon her . CUV 54) The t o n a l  quality  of  this  passage  is  heavily  " A n o t h e r t h a n Wordsworth d r o p p e d h i s lines  live  o f w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e  reminiscent  work," the depiction  of  last  of  three  the  Consul's morning: Such i s t h e n a t u r e o f T h a t l i k e some i n f a n t A e o l u s Dowson i n t e m p e s t ' s He c l a p s f o r b e t t e r t h u n d e r , w i l d e r t y p h o o n . The theme o f also  i n f o r m s much o f  section,  the  and a l c o h o l , Lighthouse.  "The C a n t i n a s . " In c h a p t e r  Consul,  during his  asks h i m s e l f the  taverns  unsuccessful  essentially  the  essential  p a r t i c u l a r l y the three  attempt  of  the  Volcano.  third  Volcano.  t o make l o v e t o  same q u e s t i o n  poem " D o c t o r y Usquebaugh"  i n the  posed  at  h i s doom tavern,  the  the  his  wife,  end  of  [28]:  . . . S o w e l l m i g h t we i n q u i r e , c o n t e n t t o r o t , What do y o u o f f e r , l o v e , w h i c h d r i n k does n o t ? (17-18) In f a c t , bottle  when he r e a l i z e s  of  alcohol:  he c a n r e c i t e  the  bottles  (UV 9 5 ) .  a Bang"  (Story  impossible  he c a n n o t slogan  XXIX  impotent,  tell  on t h e  (1946)  the  Yvonne t h a t  labels  121:55-61),  Mexican s i t u a t i o n the  Usquebaugh."  In t h e  drink  is  of  she  mood and t o n e  trumps  Lighthouse. sex.  the  i n the  he  loves  short  her,  story  a depiction  shared with  of  Consul v i s u a l i z e s  a  but  Johnnie Walker whisky  Jan G a b r i a l ' s b i o g r a p h i c a l  corroborates  life,  he  final  Lowry, couplet  of  "Not  the  echoes in  with  and  "Doctor  V o l c a n o . and i n L o w r y ' s  23 The e x p r e s s i o n of M e x i c o i s clear  to  of L o w r y ' s p e r s o n a l  an i m p o r t a n t component  J o n a t h a n Cape i n  of  conception the  of  the  V o l c a n o . as  essence  he makes  1946:  I f e e l the f i r s t c h a p t e r f o r example, such as i t s t a n d s , i s n e c e s s a r y s i n c e i t s e t s , even w i t h o u t t h e r e a d e r ' s k n o w l e d g e , t h e mood and t o n e o f t h e b o o k as w e l l as t h e s l o w m e l a n c h o l y t r a g i c r h y t h m of M e x i c o itself—its s a d n e s s — a n d above a l l e s t a b l i s h e s the t e r r a i n . . . (SL 58) A s i m i l a r concern f o r the and t h e posthumous ability  to  explicit  find  novel  the  land exists October Ferry  of  Canadian  October F e r r y .  It  is  of  the  i n the  to  the  the  i n the  Pacific  of  roughly "Poems share  the  1947  two-thirds  from the  pattern  Lowry composed  Northwest"  and  [241],  the  which  changes  i n the  Vancouver neighbourhood .  a r o u n d Denman and D a v i e S t r e e t s ,  on t h e  manuscripts  Ferry. Certain the  "progressive"  F o r example,  an  D o l l a r t o n poems  sections  The D o l l a r t o n m a n u s c r i p t s  Mexican p a p e r s .  Lowry's  articulate  and t h a t  are contained  u n c o l l e c t e d poem "Lament i n t h e mourns t h e  Gabriola.  links  worth n o t i n g that  poems  Vancouver" s e c t i o n . manifest  location  are geographically grouped,  selection's  to  a p p r o p r i a t e language  sense  selection  i n Lowry's D o l l a r t o n poetry  and a v e r s i o n descriptive  o f t h e poem c l o s e s passages  chapter  i n October Ferry  for October  twenty-five.  are reminiscent  D o l l a r t o n poems: F o r one f i n e m o r n i n g n e a r h i g h t i d e t h e y w o u l d r i s e t o see a g r e e t wheel o f c a r v e d c u r l i n g t u r q u o i s e w i t h f l a s h i n g s l e e k e d s p o k e s s h a r p as a f i n t h r e e m i l e s l o n g s w e e p i n g a r o u n d t h e b a y : c r a s h , boom: t h e wash o f a s t e a m e r c o m i n g i n u n d e r t h e m i s t — p a r a d i s a l r e s u l t and d i s p l a c e m e n t o f t h a t f a r d i s t a n t and most m a l o d o r o u s c a u s e , a d i r t y o i l tanker which, with a l l i t s flags strung diagonally a l o f t above i t s b r i d g e s and c a t w a l k s , l o o k e d l i k e a huge f l o a t i n g p r o m e n a d e . (OF 8 0 8 1 )  of  24  A g a i n , Lowry's d e s c r i p t i v e method i n t h i s passage i s p o e t i c a l "churrigueresque:" i t s conception  depends upon the r e a d e r ' s  of the whole." His c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  providing strings  of m u l t i p l e m o d i f i e r s  c u r l i n g turquoise") imagery,  effect  technique  ("great wheel  or  "poetical of  of carved  evokes the poem's sense of p l a c e through  so that the reader i s  r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e l y i n the poem "Happiness"  f o r c e d to i n t e r a c t  with Lowry's landscape,  subjectively  as he does a l s o  [148]:  Blue mountains with snow and blue c o l d rough water A w i l d sky f u l l of s t a r s at r i s i n g And Venus and the gibbous moon at s u n r i s e . G u l l s f o l l o w i n g a motor boat against the wind, Trees with branches r o o t e d i n a i r ; S i t t i n g i n the sun at noon With the f u r i o u s l y smoking shadow of the shack chimney, Eagles d r i v e downwind i n one, Terns blow backward Ben Maartman, a shack-dweller d u r i n g the 1950s, remembers Lowry's characteristic poetic  method of  speech:  When h e ' d get drunk Malcolm would speak with a flow of thoughts and imagery. He would look at something l i k e the l o c a l g r a v e l p i t and t e l l you a l l the shades of h i s t o r y , and c l a s s i c s down through the times, and out of i t would come a k e r n e l of why we were a l l i n t h i s moment i n t i m e . His knowledge, a s s o c i a t i o n s , and d e s c r i p t i o n s were phenomenal. He was a p o e t : we c o u l d a l l have the same experience, but he was the only one who c o u l d capture i t . (Salloum 96) Lowry's method of speech i s of h i s p o e t r y .  not the only b i o g r a p h i c a l aspect  His c u r r e n t b i o g r a p h e r , Gordon Bowker,  "that Lowry was a c t a l l y a b e t t e r poet than S e l e c t e d suggests he was.  Poems  There were some very good ones i n the  but there are many more j u s t  comments  selection,  as good i n ' t h e whole b o l u s ' . . . .  am coming to the c o n c l u s i o n that  the poetry i s  of  greater  I  25 biographical K.S.,  25 A p r i l  manifest of  value  the  1988).  the  I had p r e v i o u s l y  thought"  Most Lowyrans a g r e e  that  a s t r o n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l component.  poems a l l o w s  mind—both h i s Because  than  critics  immediate  to  a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of  poetry  is  The l y r i c a l access  and more i n t i m a t e  Lowry c r i t i c i s m i s  an i n v a l u a b l e and e s e n t i a l l y  to  L o w r y ' s works  g a i n more d i r e c t  thoughts  (letter  nature  to  Lowry's  concerns.  biographical,  unworked mine  of  information. L i k e most  of  autobiographical.  L o w r y ' s l i t e r a r y work, In i t ,  i n c l u d i n g Conrad A i k e n , marked.  his  the that  desertion  poem " D e l i r i u m  Ushant.  Lowry's devotion Nordahl  Drinking,  collection,  i n Vera Cruz" alcoholism,  for his  comfortable,  did  on h i s  own 1927  his  own l i f e  the  Consul provides  that  "Most n a u s e o u s perhaps  its  of  voyage,  he b e g i n s  feels  is  not  to vent  d r i n k s , what lyrical  to  Jan in  and d e s c r i b e d by A i k e n  in  also play  large  the  is  guilt.  guilt,  your s p e l l ? "  in  true rough  Lowry  Mexican p e r i o d  alcoholic this  roles  among t h e  b a c k g r o u n d , as  until  of  is  expressed  some g u i l t  his  is  is  authors,  "The C a n t i n a s . " W h i l e i t  a vivid portrait  all  clearest  [27],  desolation,  middle-class it  to v a r i o u s  include references  and g u i l t  p a r t i c u l a r l y in  Lighthouse  and Herman M e l v i l l e  and L o w r y ' s e n s u i n g  U l t r a m a r i n e ' s Dana H i l l i o t  sailors  Grieg,  Other b i o g r a p h i c a l motifs  Gabrial's  the  in  Although  L o w r y ' s poem [23]  is  statement:  Most n a u s e o u s o f a l l d r i n k s , what i s y o u r s p e l l ? You a r e cheap," y o u a r e t h e whore o f p o t i o n s ; You a r e i m p a l a t a b l e , y o u a r e t h e way t o h e l l ; You a r e i n s a t i a b l e o f r a v a g e m e n t , y o u Are the worst of l i b a t i o n s 1  26 Under y o u r a c i d s p e l l , q u i t e w a n t i n g o n l y y o u , L o v i n g o n l y y o u , we w a i t o n l y our b a l m F o r the h e a r t ' s next r e c e s s i o n t o i t s f a l s e c a l m . — But w o u l d y o u were o n l y f r i e n d , not m i s t r e s s t o o i ( 1 - 5 , 16-19) Specific poetry  allusions  of  example, in  the  the  to  other b i o g r a p h i c a l events continue  Dollarton period.  Lowry m e n t i o n s  the  same two  V o l c a n o ' s H o t e l Canada  Cornada  i n D a r k as  break with Gabrial  the  In " X o c x i t e p e c "  (92).  Grave,  was  i n December  [129],  s h r i e k i n g fawns This  the  hotel,  scene of  into  for  that  appear  w h i c h becomes Lowry's  final  1937.  In D o l l a r t o n , Lowry r e a c h e d a l i t e r a r y m a t u r i t y he d i d possess  in  1937;  more and more o f  of b e i n g a w r i t e r . frustration  with  his  poems a d d r e s s  In " J o s e p h C o n r a d "  the  rigours  the  [118],  of p o e t i c  the  not  problems  Lowry e x p r e s s e d  his  form:  T h i s w r e s t l i n g , as o f seamen w i t h a s t o r m Which f l i e s t o l e e w a r d - w h i l e t h e y , u n i t e d I n t h a t c h a o s , t u r n , each on h i s n i g h t e d Bunk t o dream o f c h a o s a g a i n , or home The p o e t h i m s e l f , s t r u g g l i n g w i t h t h e form Of h i s c o i l e d w o r k , k n o w s . . . (1-6) In a n o t h e r  D o l l a r t o n poem,  [181],  storm m o t i f  the  " B r i g h t as  again depicts  the his  Pleiades  Upon t h e  difficulty:  W r e s t l i n g w i t h i a m b i c s i n t h e s t o r m y wood I l o s t t h e j o y t h a t w i n d i t s e l f may b r i n g : And y e t t h e wood must s t r u g g l e w i t h t h e form o f As p o e t s s h o u l d w i t h words from what q u a r t e r Of t h e p l a i n s o f s e n s e Bent by i t s f u r y The g a l e i s The wood composed The f r e q u e n c y  o f poems about  third  of  [144],  section  the  Lowry employs  struggle:  1947  i n peace  once more t h e  w r i t i n g and w r i t e r s  selection.  a rugby c o n c e i t  In " F o u l , to  Soul"  express  the  poem.  increases  in  Or T w e n t y - F i v e " the  gale  writer's  the  27  Gloomy i s t h i s weary scrimmage Of my t h o u g h t s t o h e e l some image Out t o where t h e scrum h a l f - d a n c i n g Of my w i l l t o w r i t e e n t r a n c i n g Poems w a i t s t o f l i n g t h e f a t e d Thing, that w i l l a r r i v e deflated On t h e t r y l i n e o f a b o r t i o n . (1-7) Lowry r e g a r d e d a l m o s t while  any i d e a  he and M a r g e r i e a w a i t e d m a i l  Margerie's  novel  eventually  p u b l i s h e d by t h a t  final  chapter,  records  his  The L a s t  the  Knife,  i n 1946,  Lowry composed " S c r i b n e r ' s Sons"  r e a c t i o n to  this  as  an u n d a t e d d i a r y ,  and v a r i e d e v e n t s . Interviews  l a c k of m a i l .  responding to a lot  that  didn't  he was  miss  collect  the  Fourth  able  and n o t e b i t s  methodology  into  Series,  one  to  The poems  1977),  statement  He was a b o r n of  eclectic  o r more o f  and f o r h i s  the  beliefs,  "familiars")  all  fears,  Conrad  wide  his  Aiken,  "[Lowry] l i v e d t h r o u g h commented,  literary efforts. encyclopaedic  range of p o e t i c  "oh,  to  his  topics.  and e x t e n d i n g b e y o n d  about  Lowry's  trace  and e x p l a i n t h e m u l t i - l a y e r e d c o m p l e x i t i e s  (or understand  t h e more t h e y w i l l of  it,  his  and i n t e r n a l v o i c e s  w r i t i n g . The more c r i t i c s  imaginative universe,  This  n a t u r e of  imaginative universe:  theories,  inform his  P a r i s Review  i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h were  f o r the  documentation of Lowry's  reading,  are  o b s e r v e r . " Lowry l o v e d  Related to b i o g r a p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m , is  which  Lowry u s e d them  use v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y , "  i n part accounts  prose works,  [147],  its  r e c o r d i n g and commenting on numerous  interviewer's  a trick.  incorporated  without  In an i n t e r v i e w p u b l i s h e d i n t h e  (London:  fodder:  w h i c h was  albeit  r e v e a l i n g a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l p o r t r a i t s because almost  as p o e t i c a l  from S c r i b n e r ' s Sons r e g a r d i n g  Twist of firm  or e v e n t  his  be a b l e  to  w o r k . And  he  28 a study array  of  of  the  the  In t h e  Volcano's If  this  discursive, 1946  letter  conception  is  to  accurate, of  Lighthouse  the  Invites  to  his  references Poe,  Rimbaud,  the  to  some o f  the  Spanish C i v i l  other  George O r w e l l ,  f o r whom t h e  moral i s s u e ,  as  it  sake and f o r mine"  [73].  used t o  universe  that  created  thorough  study  his  for  Under t h e  of  prose  an  allusions  Under t h e  Volcano.  In t h e  and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e .  Ibsen,  events, event  Lowry  in  "For C h r i s t ' s  Press,  nature  1984),  novel, of  the  imaginative, same way,  i n documenting as  Both  ideological  in that  encyclopaedic  w h i c h a r e not  Aiken,  A c k e r l e y and  (U.B.C.  same  universe  on t h i s  book such as  useful  indirect  E r n e s t Hemingway and  from t h e  is  and  may s t u d y  stems  Lowry's poetry  imaginative  better-known  all,  the  similarity  Donne,  war was  Volcano  63).  lost  Shelley,  Lowry i n a poem l i k e  A reference  illuminate  after  his  Spanish C i v i l  the  and p o l i t i c a l  e r a s u c h as  Lowry's multitudinous  which,  of  was  A Companion t o  w h i c h documents  poetry,  Direct  L o w r y ' s emphasis  his  the  and g e o g r a p h y .  i n which c r i t i c s  of  the  do b i b l i c a l and  jazz  same h i s t o r i c a l war.  writers  as  of  the  Shakespeare,  to  of  to  w r i t i n g The for  two w o r k s .  and r e f e r e n c e s  help  i n C u e r n a v a c a (SL  Volcano while  i n the  eclectic  Lowry d a t e s  composed p a r t s  abound i n b o t h t e x t s ,  to  a l s o be  will  B r o o k e , Bunyan, Chekhov, D o s t o i e v s k i ,  relation  can  contain,  residence  of M e l v i l l e ,  a c r i t i c a l context  Clipper's  poems and t h e  Storm, which accounts  provides  and  they  have  Under t h e  works  allusions,  refer  such as  the  and Y e a t s  classical texts  to  the  Jonathan Cape, 1937  i n f o r m a t i o n and a l l u s i o n  Grieg,  of  "churrigueresque" features  Lowry must  Mexican manuscript  of  nature  i n f o r m a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e s  illuminate prose.  encyclopaedic  clearly  a aspects  revealed  F o r example,  the  in  29  marginal deeper the  text  i n Lowry's story  resonance  when v i e w e d  technological  "Through the  i n the  and s y m b o l i c  light  Panama" a c q u i r e s  of  a  Lowry's i n t e r e s t  accomplishment  of  the  in  Panama  Canal: A l l i n a l l t h o u g h , g e n t l e m e n , what I w o u l d l i k e t o say a b o u t t h e Panama C a n a l i s t h a t f i n a l l y i t i s a work of g e n i u s — I would say, l i k e a work of c h i l d ' s genius—something l i k e a n o v e l — i n f a c t j u s t such a n o v e l as I , S i g b j / 6 r n W i l d e r n e s s , i f I may say s o , m i g h t have w r i t t e n myself— (Hear us  0 Lord  Lowryans u n f a m i l i a r w i t h The L i g h t h o u s e realize  that  its  w h i c h commences introduces volume's builder romantic  the  first with  poem,  the  theme o f  "Peter  name o f the  to  r e c u r r i n g character Peter of  canals,  the  journey the  Aside  canal's  prose  there  i n the  Gaunt,  of  of  highly  representative  of  Lowry as p o e t .  especially  the  "Poems  selection,  a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y good examples  ability  capture  this  accuracy the group p l a c e  regionalist  poetry.  as  of  Lesseps, the  and  contexts  successful  anthologize  in  an a d v e n t u r e r  their biographical  to  poignant  De  represents.  or because  canon a c o r e  the  not  C a n a l s " [15] ,  L o w r y ' s work t h r o u g h  one m i g h t w i s h  to  S t o r m may  c h a r a c t e r whose m y t h o l o g i z e d b i o g r a p h y and  Lighthouse  works,  the  builder,  f r o m t h o s e poems i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e  with the is  Invites  Gaunt and t h e  the  canal  62)  among t h e  best  or  of  of  squatter  life  Lowry f i r m l y  most  on t h e  i n the  " I n d i a n Arm" [ 1 6 4 ] ,  the  Lowry's  l a n d and s e a s c a p e s a n d t o beach.  relevance,  poems—works  The D o l l a r t o n g r o u p ,  from V a n c o u v e r " s e c t i o n  shared  and 1947 descriptive  depict  with  The b e s t  poems  t r a d i t i o n of  Canadian  for  presents  example,  a  30  vivid,  natural picture  The l a n g u a g e general  is  lyrical  occasionally  of  the beach  on a l a t e  marked by a c o n t r o l q u a l i t y that  of  indicates  November  imagery,  afternoon.  syntax,  a potential  and  only  realized:  M i l l - w h e e l r e f l e c t i o n s o f sun on w a t e r And t h e s p o k e s o f l i g h t w h e e l i n g on t h e s h a c k s , Such f r e s h n e s s of w i n d i n a s p r i n g q u a r t e r Such r a d i a n c e f o r November! W h i l e o i l t r a c k s Make a g a t e p a t t e r n s , a t a n k e r p a s s e s - sudden s l e e k e d l e a d b o i l s on t h e b e a c h , a t t a c k s B o a t s u n d e r h o u s e s , t h e bowed b a n d g r a s s e s , R e f l e c t i o n s a r e s h i v e r e d , w i l d spokes u n r e e l The day booms a song o f f o a m i n g b a s s e s . . . . S o f t l y renews t h e r o u n d o f t h e m i l l - w h e e l Sun r e f l e c t i o n s w i n d i n g l o n g e r shadows T u r n p i n e bough i n t o g r e e n c h e n i l l e . A f t e r t h e m o o n l i g h t w a l k s o v e r windrows M i l l - w h e e l r e f l e c t i o n s of m o o n l i g h t l a t e r On w a t e r e m b r o i d e r w a v i n g w i n d o w s . . . What d i s t i n g u i s h e s uncollected  D o l l a r t o n poems,  " P o r t Moody"  [165],  the  sense.of  land-sea  Lowry d e s c r i b e s  the  sun"  [271],  of  the  poetry. hardness  collected  "The W i l d C h e r r y "  [269],  descriptions,  the wildness  Canadian r e g i o n a l i s t  s u c h as  "A P i c t u r e "  poem upon t h e w h i t e - g o l d infuses  " I n d i a n Arm" and o t h e r  and " P i n e s  is  and [152],  write  the p o e t i c  vision  Land" /  echo  landscape  that  inspires  In " P i n e s w r i t e , " and s h a r p n e s s  (1936),  against  the  s i m i l a r sentiments  of  in A.J.M.  i n w h i c h "Cedar and j a g g e d gray /  that  c a p t u r i n g i n the process  for the  the  and c l o u d - p i l e d sky"  /  but  real  "The L o n e l y  uplift  (1-4)j  best  land:  Smith's  fir  that  instance,  G i g a n t i c , t h e p i n e s a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e sun I l l u m i n e d and embodied by l i g h t , t h e p i n e s a r e T h a t were b r o k e n b o t t l e s g u a r d i n g t h e h i l l . (3-5) The l i n e s  a Chinese  sharp barbs whereas  31  Smith and  seems  the  Lowry's more  to  brevity  expansive, in  characterizes both  striving,  of  his  perspective,  subjective,  for  be  its  fascination.  and  a word, much  lines,  with as  of  successes  in  its  both for  and  more  its  poetry,  of  line  length,  quality,  and  also  effect,  is  more  accounting,  failures,  sparseness  imagist  lyrical,  romantic—a  Lowry's  descriptive  a kind  longer  a result more  his  softened  personal  finally,  and  and  that  paradoxically, for  its  32  A NOTE ON THE TEXT Most  o f M a l c o l m Lowry's p o e t i c  the  M a l c o l m Lowry P a p e r s  the  University  is  extensive,  of  i n the  British  manuscripts  Special  Columbia  s i x t y boxes  manuscripts,  typescripts,  published  memoribilia,  as  full  works on  Lowry. The  h u n d r e d and few  Any  given  located  alphabetically  two  filed  s i x , the  inventory  The  of  the  poetic  for  each poem. of  organization  poetic  has  i s the  Lighthouse  Invites  seven.  papers  of  f o r the  fact that  not  the  typescripts,  filing,  one  Far  is  logical  more s e r i o u s  i n t e g r i t y of  only  separated  cluster-dating  restore  Earle  poem, t h e r e b y  Lowry's m a n u s c r i p t  impossible to affects  and  facilitate  composed more t h a n evidence  is chaotic.  been v i o l a t e d . W h i l e c o l l e c t i n g and  manuscripts  Lowry, t o  arrangement  of  Birney  sheets  the  and  of than  poetic  arranging  Lowry's  Margerie  w h i c h Lowry  had  invaluable  r e l a t e d poems. By  disbinding  n o t e b o o k s , B i r n e y made i t v i r t u a l l y  Lowry's c o m p o s i t i o n a l  dating,  on  destroying  a  authorial  c o l l e c t i o n i n box  arrangement  which  typed d r a f t s  unpublished  separately—  1947  or  two  with  seven,  arranged,  f o r the  and  f o r the  are,  through  poem, e x c e p t which are  Lowry c o l l e c t i o n  l o c a t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r poem; f r o m a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l p o i n t  archive  five  inventory  i n boxes f o u r  of  critical  typescripts  manuscripts  v i e w , however, t h e the  of  a l l the  Storm i n box The  complement  the  in  correspondence,  f i l e contains  collections,  for  poems on  individual files,  particular  the  a  of  Division  works, p h o t o s ,  m a n u s c r i p t s and  ninety-six  exceptions,  contain  as  preserved  Collections  Library.''" The  containing  well  are  but  also  critical  sequence, a analysis.  In  loss  that  addition,  33 Birney  scribbled—often,  manuscripts  and t y p e s c r i p t s .  markedly d i f f e r e n t emendations difficult  inexplicably,  are  to  determine  whether  Editorially,  with  cuts  irksome his  is  to  inclusion  papers  complicates  The f a c t  whether  chronological manuscripts of  of p r o s e ,  master-list  poetic  compilation consulting included  in  from heaven multiple  of  poems.  he t y p i c a l l y  of  that  in  even  copy-text  and t h e chaotic  state  of  his  nature  of  the  a sheet  compounds  the  task  L o w r y ' s poems.  of  of  compiling a  That  these  collection  vitiates  Because  Lowry a l s o  tended  his of  prose manuscripts, his  poems  F o r example,  the  the  to  the  necessitated three  poems  P a n a m a , " p u b l i s h e d i n Hear us 0  Lord  must be t r a c e d b a c k t h r o u g h The poems i n  at  from a  i n the  listing  story.  to  the  b a c k of  of  order  used,  or l e s s e n ,  or perhaps  of  presence  menu o r t h e  Thy d w e l l i n g p l a c e ,  drafts  Their  on any p a p e r  these manuscripts. "Through the  Equally  compose  margins  a complete  irritating  to  inventory.  compose poems i n t h e  punctuation  or s l a s h e s .  the  papers  composition  c a n a p p e a r anywhere  the  very  revisions.  he t e n d e d  a restaurant  discarded draft  value  the  f u r t h e r the  that  is  in B i r n e y ' s correspondence  on B i r n e y ' s u n a u t h o r i z e d  collection. hand,  of  authority,  . L o w r y ' s own method o f poetic  versions  identify  textual  it  especially  them from L o w r y ' s and t o p r e c l u d e ,  of bestowing  status,  to  substantive  However,  problem i s  is  i n many i n d i v i d u a l poem f i l e s  examining papers  generate a chart  risk  his  h a n d w r i t t e n marks o f  this  own unmarked t y p e s c r i p t  distinguish  B i r n e y ' s hand  i n d i c a t e d through l i n e s  Birney's  necessitated  so t h a t  distinguishable.  are a u t h o r i a l . regard to  Fortunately,  from L o w r y ' s ,  easily  i n i n k — o n many o f L o w r y ' s  the  " T h r o u g h t h e Panama"  34  as p u b l i s h e d t e x t s p o s e no e d i t o r i a l p r o b l e m ; l e s s discover, a draft  however,  version  Lowry's poetry  consistent ten  to  of  compositional drafts,  exist  practice  is  editor  typescript.  assumes t h a t  There i s  also  Margerie Lowry's r o l e responsible  Some poems example,  i n the  rather delicate composition  collation  reveals  between a h o l o g r a p h d r a f t instances,  the  question  Should the  editor thereby  following  F r e d s o n Bowers' wifely  occasional  textual  assume t h a t  variants,  typewriter  the  variants  of  if  precedes  a  of was  Lowry's holograph  substantive  status  the  M r s . Lowry  In  variants  these  Lowrys d i s c u s s e d  treatment as  simple  p r i o r i t y must be  conferring authorial  yet  of  question  and a t y p e d v e r s i o n .  of  line  process.  in  jotted  are missing—and  a Lowry m a n u s c r i p t a l w a y s  the  of  are  may be  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l  f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g on t h e  A close  the  lines  pattern  Some poems e x i s t  f o r c e r t a i n poems c a n be d e c e p t i v e l y  naively  drafts.  for  his  of  apparent  evident.  i n one.  rhyme scheme,  in multiple drafts.  margin of  work.  i n which l i t t l e  some o n l y  sonnet  to  c o m p o s i n g and r e v i s i n g  a poem i n w h i c h d e s i g n a t e d  development  view  of  i n the  a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l l y bewildering array  incomplete—the  still  methods  and t y p e s c r i p t s  fifteen  beside  a published prose  eclectic  creates  manuscripts  a r e u n p u b l i s h e d poems j o t t e d  easy  resolved. these  on them? O r ,  Hawthorne's  text,  n o n - a u t h o r i a l and d i s r e g a r d  simply their  2 textual  relevance?  variants authority  are  likely  on t h e  even n e e d e d ,  Or s h o u l d t h e  editor  n o n - a u t h o r i a l , but  assumption  that  Margerie's l i t e r a r y  acknowledge  still  grant  Lowry h i m s e l f imput? D e s p i t e  that  their  welcomed, the  the  perhaps  possibility  35 of M r s . Lowry's e d i t i n g ,  the  authority  that  unless  on t h e  grounds  final  sometimes w e r e ,  Mrs.  Lowry s i l e n t l y  that  were made on t h e s e  he a p p r o v e d t h e m .  emended t h e  to prove without  case,  number o f poems w h i c h do not  holograph draft that is  do,  not  to  so t h a t  vital  to  the  the  typescript  issue  the  a few  r a i s e d by L o w r y ' s p o e t i c is  possible.  individually editorial  within  policy,  This  canon,  r e c o r d of  The p r e p a r a t i o n o f  editorial  originally  stages:  and c o l l a t i o n . category  is  problems  based  the  the  the  authorial  final text  canon:  two h u n d r e d and n i n e t y - s i x  treated  schools  over-all  a reliable  of latest  providing for  each  variants  edition  in  and has  has p r o v e d more  involved five  the  edition  U.B.C.  inventory  against  major  arrangement, i n the  some one h u n d r e d and f i f t y  titles  text  on t h e  transcription, dating,  the  derived  of  substantive  for this  envisioned  of  global  copy-text.  The main c o n t r i b u t i o n o f addition  those  emendations  principles  poems,  is  questions  copy-texts based  of  that  final  than  on a c o n s i s t e n t  to present  with  the  location,  L o w r y ' s known p o e t i c  and  as  In any  t o w h i c h no s i n g l e ,  scientific  aims  every v e r s i o n p r e c e d i n g the  than  the  authorial versions  poem a c o m p l e t e  onerous  of  and t h e  edition  poetic  from the greater  text.  combining methodological  bibliography.  determinable  is  the  guidelines  humanist  entire  change  of  manuscripts,  sheets,  survives.  A c c o r d i n g l y , each poem i s  from b o t h t h e  Lowry's  than  version  and,  retyping  of M r s . L o w r y ' s p o s s i b l e  integrity  These a r e a r e j u s t  solution  more e v i d e n c e  assigned  The h y p o t h e s i s  poems d u r i n g t h e i r  difficult the  have been  Lowry p r o b a b l y saw t h e m ,  further holograph r e v i s i o n s  they  typescripts  first  poems  includes  f o u r h u n d r e d and  to  only sixty-  36  five  i n the  complete  verification,  edition.  F o l l o w i n g the  and t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f  t o make a t h o r o u g h p a p e r a n a l y s i s  identification,  each poem, to  the  next  step  determine a terminus a QUO  and a d quern f o r a l l m a n u s c r i p t and t y p e s c r i p t v a r i a n t s title. least  Once t h e  dates  of  satisfactorily,  according to Lowry's  their  artistic  chronological  g r o u p of poems. volumes  t h e poems were  compositional periods  development.  sections  of  each poem had been d e f i n i t e l y ,  established,  F o r example,  has been p r e s e r v e d ,  to  on t h e  the while  n a t u r e of  or  the  justify  edition  that  particular  of  the a u t h o r i a l  sections  of  uncollected  the m u l t i p l e v e r s i o n s detailed history In t h e instead  of  for  of c o n j e c t u r i n g about or t r y i n g  job  editor,  a textual  editorial restricted ignored  emendations. to  initial  in drafts  Once t h e  of c l o s e  to  this  Silent line  poems precise  o r d e r of  collation  of  i n order to p r o v i d e a  text.  o f p r o v i d i n g what Lowry a c t u a l l y  unascertainable, of  task  each poem began  t h e poem's  interest  the  of  the  integrity  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement.  had been d e t e r m i n e d ,  at  some i d e a  have been a r r a n g e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y e x c e p t where d a t i n g i s enough t o  each  grouped  convey  Arrangement w i t h i n  depends  was  his  final  f i n i s h his  intentions, poems,  edition contains emendation of  wrote,  w h i c h a r e now  which i s no  used i n h i s  accidentals  final  the  substantive  c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , w h i c h Lowry  but g e n e r a l l y  not  is sometimes  typescript  v e r s i ons . The s p e c i f i c g r o u p o f poems D contains  b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l and t e x t u a l  are discussed  a chart  of  i n the  the papers  sectional  details  of  headnotesj  u s e d by Lowry i n h i s  each Appendix  outgoing  37 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e p r e s e r v e d at dating Lowry's poetry. the  general  details  w h i c h have been  The f o l l o w i n g  introductions  on t h e  U.B.C.,  groupings  to of  each  survey,  section,  L o w r y ' s poems  Juvenilia/Apprenticeship No m a n u s c r i p t s have fourteen contain  items  of  either  section  in this  Conrad Aiken other  Papers  evidence.,  by A i k e n  or t h e  d a t e d 1929,  The L i g h t h o u s e  edition.  for ten  of  the  from p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s  i n the  Huntington  textual  1925-33  Copy-texts  are  The f o u r  Huntington L i b r a r y the  in  supplements  provides  non-authorial, compositional variants.  from t h e lack  in this  surfaced.  which  invaluable  date  and may  poems are,  ascribed to  for  them  librarians.  I n v i t e s t h e Storm:  New Y o r k / M e x i c o / L o s A n g e l e s / V a n c o u v e r 1934-39 The  textual  Lighthouse U.B.C.  Invites  g r o u p of  arrangement  made i n t h e  intended earlier  order.  of  Lowry's f i r s t  Storm, its  is  typescripts  papers. it  draft  the  reflects  editorial  The  The  copy." Lowry's  modifications  to  reconstruct  the  copy c o n t a i n s  seven k i n d s  of  typescript  are contained  draft,  complicated.  accurately  possible  A l s o p r e s e r v e d i n the  i n c l u d e d i n the  o f poems,  F o r t u n a t e l y , Lowry numbered t h e  is  The d r a f t  in this  extremely  uncertain given  so,  volume  manuscript "Lowry's d r a f t  and l a t e r v e r s i o n s — b o t h  t h e poems  not  is  poetic  L i g h t h o u s e poems;  files.  the  i n v e n t o r y terms  Whether t h i s final  history  paper;  and m a n u s c r i p t — o f  i n the  individual  volume's  files  individual  poetry  a r e poems w h i c h  b u t w h i c h a p p e a r numbered on one  or  are  38  more o f  the  Lighthouse papers.  whether  the  omissions  the  of  in  and t h e  f o r most  from t h e entire  of  of  the  poems.  A combination  results  lengthy  sojourn  network  i n the  period.  the  half  of  poetry  Vancouver a r e a are  is  holdings  in  paper-dating  during  for this  largely  of  c o n s i d e r i n g Lowry's unsettled  the  large  period. wide  for  Lowry's  literary  the  for  lifestyle,  the  Dollarton  D o l l a r t o n i n 1954,  Lowry's papers,  date  his  responsible  of m a n u s c r i p t s  B i r n e y , most  stemmatic  a correspondingly  Lowrys l e f t  tracing  1938-39.  some D o l l a r t o n and V a n c o u v e r f r i e n d s ,  and E a r l e  Lowry  1940-54  his  the  i n which  r e t y p i n g of  l o w e r m a i n l a n d and h i s  M o r e o v e r , when t h e to  of  since  Lighthouse papers  latest  and t y p e s c r i p t s  i n the  U.B.C.'s  entrusted  and,  in a clear  Years:  D o l l a r t o n , and t h e r e  number o f m a n u s c r i p t s  of  determine  Caustic  volume p r o b a b l y o c c u r r e d i n L o s A n g e l e s  at  to  seven s e c t i o n s ,  The e a r l i e s t  1934-36 New Y o r k p e r i o d ;  residence  to  the  eventually  Lowry composed a l m o s t  Burt  or e d i t o r i a l ,  New Y o r k L u n a r  The D o l l a r t o n  extent  now d i f f i c u l t  and d e t e r m i n i n g v e r s i o n p r i o r i t y t h r o u g h t h e  authorial variants,  line  each  o m i t t e d poems b e l o n g .  from c o r r e s p o n d e n c e typescripts,  is  are a u t h o r i a l  n u m b e r i n g recommences sections  It  they  n o t a b l y Harvey  a decision  p r o v e d most  which,  beneficial  scholars.  The e x t e n t  of  the  D o l l a r t o n manuscripts  documentation  available  precise  Lowry's compositional  about  t h a n about generally  any o t h e r composed  on t h e  p e r i o d of  in pencil  typescripts,  his  and t h e made i t  practices life.  amount easier  during this  of to  be  period  A t D o l l a r t o n , Lowry  on c h e a p brown 8 1/2  x 11"  newsprint  39  sheets,  w h i c h a r e now f a d e d and d i f f i c u l t  first  year  of  7 x 9  1/4"  notebooks,  throughout notebook sheets.  the  After  and she  Dollarton tenure,  rest  papers  completed,  three  his  of  drops  one  the  five  of  it  out,  these  were t y p e d  listed i n the  The f a c t  makes  it  that  this to  Dollarton period,  as  characteristic  the  Lowry's original  of  are  as  l e t t e r - s i z e brown a poem were  outgoing  his  second their  type  becomes v i t a l  on t h e  severed.  same  The poems after  or the  bond  bond paper  from t h e  not  correspondence  paper  that  (1949-54)  it  is  occurs typed  late  as  in elite  copy-texts  8 x 10" e l i t e - t y p e the  in England, light  of  in  Dollarton period.  significance  but  The v a r i a n t s  watermark of  the  dating  of  the type  Because is  letters  and b e c a u s e Lowry a l s o u s e d  i n the  often  holograph r e v i s i o n ,  this  fact  correspondence,  choice,  Very  appear  not been  absent  that  does t h e  not v i s i b l e ,  copy-texts.  of  poems w h i c h a p p e a r on i t .  There are photocopied  is  the of  of  c r e a m - c o l o u r e d 8 x 10" V o u c h e r  paper i s  date  late,  paper typed i n e l i t e versions  is  of  frequency  i n d i v i d u a l l y on brown s h e e t s  correspondence  difficult  versions  sheets  types  the  draft  drafts  the  infrequently  on brown s h e e t s .  round of  V o u c h e r poems s u g g e s t  obvious.  of  During  used v a r i o u s  i n Appendix D. A f r e q u e n t l y - u s e d  Bond.  the  again  had t h e  which they  the  favour  read.  appear  i n 1941  intermediate  undergo another  in  period,  they  Lowry w o u l d l e a v e M a r g e r i e t h e  would then  present  although  sharply in  s h e e t — o r would have,  papers  he a l s o  o r more h o l o g r a p h d r a f t s  would type  to  and,  to  in  the 8 x  10"  these  their possible  importance  40 Paper m a n u f a c t u r e r s '  catalogues  reveal  that  V o u c h e r Bond  p a p e r was m a n u f a c t u r e d i n N o r t h /America d u r i n g t h e  1950s.  However,  of  to  Lowry c o u l d p r e s u m a b l y have t a k e n  E n g l a n d i n 1954,  versions not  is  appear  certainly the  not  outgoing  post-dates  of  the  Because  because there  is  on any p o e t r y  certainly  falls  of  of  these t h i r t e e n  Voucher Bond, 54.  so  that  to  poems,  plus  does  This  paper  the  and 1954.  to  1949,  on and  Lowry w o r k e d  V o u c h e r Bond d a t e In 1951  Lowry  s e l e c t e d poems on V i c t o r y  Voucher date  poetry,  and r e - t y p e d  f r o m 1947  that  of  nineteen  poems were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d the  these  1954-57.  s e c o n d volume  suggest  in England,  fifty-four  his  Lowrys t r a v e l l e d  between 1949  the  for  were f u r t h e r r e v i s e d  no e v i d e n c e  seriously  ten  fifty-four  the  for  paper  when Lowry s e l e c t e d and had r e - t y p e d  D o l l a r t o n poems,  Voucher Bond.  thirteen  correspondence  1947,  this  even t h o u g h V o u c h e r Bond p a p e r  poems w h i c h c o m p r i s e  forty-six  additional  an E n g l i s h p e r i o d d a t e  impossible,  in his  fifty-four  because  so t h a t  a store  almost  revised Bond p a p e r ;  on s h e e t s  c a n be n a r r o w e d t o  of 1952-  3  Love Poems 1949-57 In December Lowry and h e r Priscilla  1987  sister,  the  UBC L i b r a r y  a c q u i r e d from M a r g e r i e  the  conservator  of  W o o l f a n , and t h e i r  the  Lowry  estate,  f r i e n d D r . E l i z a b e t h Moss,  a new  lot  4 of  Lowry p a p e r s w h i c h t h e y  content  analysis  third  date  3 1/4  x 4 3/4"  blue  ink.  of  date  from t h e  these papers  reveals  from D o l l a r t o n . F o r t h e  Lowry  coloured newsprint filled  most sheets  England p e r i o d . that part,  A  approximately this  lot  comprises  inscribed in pencil  a p p r o x i m a t e l y two h u n d r e d s h e e t s  one-  with  and  41  handwritten personal M a r g e r i e Lowry, expect  to  edition  Only other of  "ditties"  publish.  is  four  of  one  An e x p l a n a t i o n  the  than U . B . C . ' s  single of  the  probably  the  most r e c e n t  Just  under h a l f  period.  the  lyrics for  sources:  textual  of  written  but at  third  "Ballad" is  like  i n the  come  one  of  [422],  [354],  the  Bond p a p e r , It  is  from v a r i o u s  of  of  apprenticeship taken  the  a recreation poem—a k i n d  Two o f  the  i n Lowry's outgoing  manuscripts  sources.  f o r w h i c h no m a n u s c r i p t  a transcription  manuscripts.  interesting  t h e s e have been  three  it  are  by of  has  song  great  lyrics  correspondence;  and p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n  P a n a m a . " The r e m a i n i n g l y r i c s  acquired  sources  1957,  from L o w r y ' s  no a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y .  appears  from  an E l i z a b e t h a n prompt b o o k ,  D o l l a r t o n appear  "Through the recently  but  section.  The most  to  this  [ A p p e n d i x A]  section date  in  that  on P l a n t a g e n e t  Lowry's v e r b a l r e c i t a t i o n  paraphrase,  interest  all  come  not  wrote.  1927-57  in this  i n Lowry's hand,  Margerie  the  of  The c o p y - t e x t s  from p u b l i s h e d exists  items  he d i d  a Fortune T e l l e r "  f o r m a l poem Lowry  Song L y r i c s  essay to  datable  for  inclusion  section  poem w h i c h a p p e a r s  last  their  acquisition.  Lowry u s e d ,  lyrics  certainly  introductory  poems i n t h i s  papers  The f i f t e e n  and s o n g  for  "Lusty A d v i c e of  draft last  poems,  which almost  p r o v i d e d i n the  t h e s e poems i s  only  messages,  of  from U . B . C . ' s  most  42  A Key t o t h e E d i t o r i a l Apparatus The c l e a r e s t provide  way t o  a specific  explain  the  editorial  apparatus  is  to  example:  1937  [19.2]  III  MEMORY OF THE HOSPITALITY OF AMERICAN BARMEN We r e s e r v e t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o a n y o n e , Y e a h , and t h a t means y o u , f o u r e y e s , w i t h  D o n ' t t e l l me y o u ' r e a diamond and p u t I t on t h e s l a t e , o r t h a t y o u r h e a r t i s fat, Or t h a t y o u r l a n d l o r d c a n ' t w a i t t o b r e a k i t . What's t h a t ? I t ' s broken a l r e a d y ? W e l l , t h a t ' s t h a t . A spade'11 p i c k your grave i f grave you m e r i t ; A s p a d e ' s a s p a d e , t h a t ' s what t h e y c a l l i t h e r e . We t e a c h 'em b u l l y t h e c a b b a g e , n e v e r y o u f e a r ; I n God we t r u s t — b u t o n l y on t h e n i c k e l . W e l l , i f y o u had a b u c k t o o b a d y o u s p e n t h e r , — But a l l who a s k f o r t r u s t d i s t r u s t i n h e r i t , And even God i s f i c k l e .  5  10  T 1 6 13  19.1: 19.1: It's]  [missing] ( - we r e s e r v e i t s {19.1}  19.1:  In t h e  sample,  head l i n e .  the If  rot  date  the  of  date  means,  The e d i t i o n is  placed  The f i g u r e  in  ) third  section  of  r e c o r d e d on t h e  the left  of  the  tentative,  it  is  it  the  title  edition  The c e n t r e  head l i n e  appears  head l i n e  number o f  the  poem,  the  of  each poem.  the  square b r a c k e t s  f o r any r e a s o n  Many poems i n t h e  both,  following  pal.  or i f  or number o f  lacks  anyone,  determined through non-  the  it  to  has been  of y e a r s .  and i f  -  i n the  only w i t h i n a range  a number and t i t l e ,  refuse  t h e poem i s  i n square b r a c k e t s .  authorial t i t l e  to  fickle.  which appears  bibliographical placed  the  and even god i s  Lig-hthouse.  is  pal. the wheels, [and h e l l !  on t h e  If  the  records  poem has  remains b l a n k i n t h i s  area.  decimal point  is  side  line  both  text,  right  next  dated  of  by w h i c h i t  on t h e  the  are  cross-referenced, of  indicates  the the  head  line.  number of  43  extant v e r s i o n s  for that  in  round b r a c k e t s  is  always  the  following  latest  numbered by f i v e s poetic  text  a question  of which the  of  c o u n t e d as  immediately  follow  emendations sigla,  as  version  number o f  the  variant  line  line  six  and i s  example,  i n the  of  for the  editorial  If  the  change,  version  there for  of  the  in pointed brackets  is  is  square-bracketed  of  the  the  indicated  left.  next  placed of  variant  is  occurs,  and  not  brackets such  the  number  line  the  as  single  for  the i n an  r e c o r d e d and a p p e a r s reading.  and any  manuscripts,  as  of  changes,  are t i t l e  Ampersands  intended such as  and c r o s s i n g s - o u t ,  sigla,  case  represents  i n square  reference  copy-text  expanded,  interlineations,  and  In t h e  figure  editorial  location  on t h e  and  (or r e c o r d o f  copy-text)  reading follows  the  silently  and p r o p e r l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e  history  an a u t h o r i a l a p p e a r a n c e its  bracket  Any words w h i c h a r e  a justifying  following  authorial  square  The s i g l a  preceding the  case  with  suggested word.  The t e x t u a l  emended word f o l l o w s  poem,  are  or added l i n e s ,  the  poem.  colon.  example  and a b b r e v i a t i o n s changes  Any word i n  number on t h e  In t h e  sample,  the  page.  the  each poem a r e c o m b i n e d and  "missing"—are  edition.  are  poem i n w h i c h t h e the  copy-text text  letter  lines.  u n d e r l i n e d . The c o p y - t e x t  square b r a c k e t .  earlier  the  follows  of  the  figure  of  unsure  from e m e n d a t i o n s ,  the  the  is  emendations text  n o t e d by a  The l i n e s  a r e marked by a s i n g l e  a r e k e y e d by l i n e  Lowry's—for  side  first  in versions  distinct,  throughout  left  separate  the  variants  otherwise  number o f v e r s i o n s ,  editor  breaks  editorial  authorial  the  mark p r e c e d i n g t h e  and a r e not  Unless  authorial version.  down t h e  Unauthorized l i n e  record  poem.  are  changes.  deleted followed If  the  44 copy-text restored variant  lacks  from t h e versions  impossible for  a title  its  to  which appears  latest  titled  o f a poem a r e  collate,  sorrow"  as  authorial version. so d i f f e r e n t  occurs  that  the  it  is  Occasionally  they  i n "A c h i l d may f i n d  [185] j i n s u c h c a s e s  reproduced separately  in earlier drafts,  are no words  parallel version  and f o l l o w s  the  sigla  published during Lowry's l i f e t i m e  are  i n c l u d e d i n the  stemmatic  in this  is  line;  posthumous A list  in  of  poems a r e  the  notation.  is  Poems  not.  abbreviations  used  edition  provided  the p r e l i m i n a r i e s .  NOTES  ^ For a l i s t manuscript the. most Library see  of  collections,  interesting at  Note  other  the  l i b r a r i e s with  see  the  accession  significant  Lowry  B i b l i o g r a p h y . For Lowry's poetry, outside  U n i v e r s i t y of  Tulsa.  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  the  U.B.C.  is  i n the  For a further  McFarlin  explanation,  3.  2 In h i s  American Authors'  Centenary E d i t i o n  State University Press, history his  of  American 1968  for  text.  excising  This  all  The F r u i t s  The M a r b l e Faun  F r e d s o n Bowers p r o v i d e s  on t h e of  the  Books  traces  a  MLA.  Editing  h e r work from  of American  o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n the  September  and 10 O c t o b e r  1968).  textual  as w e l l  as  her  i n c l u d i n g Edmund W i l s o n ' s  Centre f o r the  (26  of  of  (Ohio  i n t r o d u c t i o n sparked a controversy  s c h o l a r l y community,  attack  Review of  1968),  of  Editing  Sophia Hawthorne's manuscript emendations,  rationale  husband's  Centre for the  in  the  famous  Authors,  The New Y o r k  45  The M c F a r l i n a collection  of  in black e l i t e paper. the of  sixty-five type  In r e s p o n s e  provenance Special  Library  of  the  U n i v e r s i t y of  typescript  on t h e to  at  requesting  these t y p e s c r i p t s , at  poems by L o w r y ,  possesses typewritten  8 x 10" c r e a m - c o l o u r e d V o u c h e r Bond  a letter  Collections  Tulsa  the  information regarding  Sidney F . H u t t n e r ,  McFarlin Library  Curator  replied:  As I m e n t i o n e d , our p r o v e n a n c e r e c o r d s a r e not a l w a y s as c o m p l e t e as one d e s i r e s , b u t r e v i e w i n g them I am now r e a s o n a b l y c o n v i n c e d t h i s g r o u p o f poems was a c q u i r e d i n e a r l y December 1976 a t a S o t h e b y ' s (London) a u c t i o n w i t h J . Howard Woolmer a c t i n g as our a g e n t . (6 O c t o b e r 1987) That  sale,  Colbeck U.B.C.  located  librarian Library,  17 December Lowry's 63),  into  of  Special  h e l d at  Catalogue 7  sixty-eight  "Sea Poems,"  Davenport  d a t e d between 1961 lot  " S t a n t o n " may have McFarlin  has  title-pages of  the  Lowry's located.  At t h e  to  " C a n a d i a n Poems," some o t h e r  1963.  The p r i c e  is  sale,  Margerie,  but  who was  heavily  of  indicates 1100.  because  the  without  into  possession  in Margerie  t h e s e have  pages  John  poems  probably revealed  was  and  items  for h  How J o h n D a v e n p o r t came  him i n t h e  time,  typescript  lot  title  list  lot,  of  (1910-  Included in this  f r o m M a r g e r i e Lowry t o to  Friday,  l i t e r a r y estate  poems d i v i d e d by s e p a r a t e  sixty-five  selection  on  the  John Davenport  s u b d i v i d e d and s o l d h i s  or l e t t e r s .  letters  the  was p u r c h a s e d by " S t a n t o n "  only t h e i r  typescript  (1976-77).  also contained  including letters  entire  and c r i t i c  the  D i v i s i o n of  Chancery Lane,  L o t 612,  " M e x i c a n Poems,"  Lowryana,  the  of- C . F . F o r b e s ,  Collections  Sotheby's  English writer  " M i s c e l l a n e o u s . " The l o t  that  assistance  and a p p e a r e d as  i n Sotheby's  a typescript  i n the  was  1976,  friend,  with the  not  engaged  been with  46  Earle  B i r n e y i n a r r a n g i n g and o r g a n i z i n g L o w r y ' s poems,  sent  Davenport the  with  a British  poems h o p i n g he w o u l d be a b l e  publisher.  L o w r y ' s poems i n t h e certainly Lowry's that  has  1947  the  i n the of  authorial  the  strongly  a third  revised version the  fact  1947  until  Voucher s h e e t s .  of  that  the  letters,  conjectural,  and,  t e x t s because  of  follows  suggests  1947  forty-six  that  the  selection, of  the  were r e v i s e d  more d e f i n i t i v e  edition  same t y p e w r i t e r ,  authorial collection,  selection  Davenport  stemrna,  with  comes t o although their  that  late  i n the  only  those  one w h i c h i s  fifty-four  light, the  The  this  1947  the  sheets  a later  further  and  supported in  However,  Margerie Lowry/John  theory  is  only  a r e u s e d as  o r d e r of  selection  one  poems i n c l u d e d  Voucher sheets  date,  fact  i n Lowry's  V o u c h e r Bond  the  almost  a n d a r e d i v i d e d by  a theory  s u c h as  them  since  on V o u c h e r Bond s h e e t s .  evidence,  have  retyped  V o u c h e r Bond p a p e r  which bear a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y to  selection,  represent  the  1960s,  on s e v e r a l  p r o b a b l y from t h e  title-pages  by  early  t h e s e poems a p p e a r on one b r a n d o f p a p e r ,  typeface,  place  A l t h o u g h M a r g e r i e and B i r n e y  a r i g h t f u l place  hand a p p e a r s  to  may  the  copy-  poems i n  p r e s e r v e d at  this  U.B.C.  4 Because  Priscilla  W o o l f a n has  agreed to p r o t e c t  f o r t h c o m i n g academic  work by D r . Moss on t h e  generally  from use  1988. U.B.C.  restricted  I wish  to  Library  acknowledge Special  procuring permission restricted  material.  by o t h e r  the  new m a t e r i a l ,  scholars  until  August  and t h a n k Anne Y a n d l e , Head of  Collections  Division,  for  from M r s . W o o l f a n f o r me t o  her h e l p use  it  the  the in  is  47  THE TEXT  48  APPRENTICESHIP: POETIC JUVENILIA 1925-33 Lowry's publication fourteen  first of  major l i t e r a r y  his  novel  poems h e r e  the  Leys  "Camel"  School  stories,  hockey  newspaper, School  to  efforts.  S.S.  Pyrrhus. After  United  States  year for  in  entered  St.  his  1933,  The f i r s t issues them [5]  of  is  dated  undated,  i n May 1932.  e i g h t e e n months  importance  left  the  "Yellow Sea,  but,  new-found  he  like  interest in his  East  Weber's  Coast  of  the  He r e m a i n e d  Cambridge, where,  section  he  that  except  remained  appeared i n  Leys  School: 1927"; the  and 1928,  "The G l o r y  the  of  i n the  and foreshadow  in  two  seven three  of  others  l i t e r a r y works.  its  The f o u r  are  i n c l u d e d i n the  correspondence  Huntington L i b r a r y .  the  of Sea"  are  Sea," they r e f l e c t  1 1 ] — d a t e d by A i k e n — i n the  Far East  and i n O c t o b e r o f  "The G l o r y  later  Leys  later.  August  sea  the  i n Bonn a t  Conrad A i k e n .  1929,  school  U l t r a m a r i n e was p u b l i s h e d  s e v e n poems i n t h i s  after  the  the  The L e y s F o r t n i g h t l y between 1925  [5-7]  the  Norway t o meet N o r d a h l G r i e g ,  graduation  November  September  Catharine's College,  a summer t r i p t o  until  to  with  to  pseudonym  contributing  Lowry l e f t  for  attended  under the  poems t o  1928  Lowry's  Lowry  he began  sailing  spending  study  1927  1925,  In 1927,  Lowry d e p a r t e d  order to  from A p r i l  in  and o c c a s i o n a l  summer a n d f a l l  o f Modern German,  1933  represent  to  "C.M.L."),  The L e y s F o r t n i g h t l y .  School  with Aiken  juvenilia  From 1923  initials  reviews,  spend the  aboard the  as  i n Cambridge, where,  ( b a s e d on h i s  the  U l t r a m a r i n e by J o n a t h a n C a p e . The  classified  known p r e - 1 9 3 3 p o e t i c  s u c c e s s was  Lowry's  thematic 1929  poems  [8-  Lowry/Aiken Lowry s e n t A i k e n  these  49 typescript The l a s t  poems b e f o r e  three  two men met  poems i n t h i s  w i t h A i k e n and a n o t h e r Grieg.  the  "For Nordahl  section  express  Lowryan muse:  Grieg  Ship's  i n the  s p r i n g of  Lowry's  [12]  was  Lowry's Cambridge f r i e n d John Davenport i n h i s anthology [13] the  Cambridge P o e t r y  and "Those Cokes t o programme f o r  respectively.  the  1930.  Blues"  Cambridge F e s t i v a l  The l a t t e r  is  signed  as  Hogarth  [14]  Press  Conrad Aiken"  both appeared  Theatre in  a joint  Nordahl  i n c l u d e d by  "In Cape Cod w i t h  Newcastle  infatuation  Norwegian w r i t e r  Fireman"  1929.  1930  effort  and  by A i k e n  in 1931 and  Lowry. Since texts,  the  authority  all  poems i n t h i s  problem of of  uncertain.  the  the  accidentals  The p a u c i t y  Lowry's  c a r e e r makes  surface  i n the  p r o j e c t i n g any fourteen  copy-text  poems,  it  future,  does not  i n the  likely but  that  there  is  extension  datable,  survive arise,  only  no b a s i s of  is,  from t h i s  additions  his  the  of  course,  p e r i o d of  to at  in printed  though  printed text  o f poems d a t i n g  substantial all  section  the  j u v e n i l i a may  present  early  canon.  for The  are arranged c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y .  DER TAG  1925  [1.13  (In which the author, having, as he endeavours to show, bats in the b e l f r y ,  disregards any attempt to write correct poetry.)  On e v e r y F r i d a y a f t e r n o o n ,  5  10  15  20  25  30  35  B e f o r e t h e s k y i s t i n g e d w i t h moon And s t a r s w h i z z r o u n d t h e h o r - i z - o o n , One w r i t e s f r o m P o s t g a t e t h i s a n d t h a t Of s i b i , a n d o f c a p ! a t And a l l t h e o t h e r v e r b s i n a t ; Of i i y u s , a n d o f c a r b a s u s And a l l t h e o t h e r n o u n s i n - u s ; In R u t h e r f o r d , o f d e a r o l d Z e u s ( I o f t e n wonder w h a t ' s t h e u s e ) — My k i n g d o m f o r a S a n - e x c u s e ! Then m i g h t I w i l l i n g l y r e f u s e To s t a t e my v i e w s upon t h e Muse, B a d l y t o w a i t my g r a p h i c f a t e , R e c e i v e my w e e k l y e v e n i n g h a t e , G i v e i n my i m p o s i t i o n l a t e , O b t a i n t h r e e r a p s upon t h e p a t e , R e w r i t e a g a i n on p a p e r g r e e n s (Ne;:t a f t e r n o o n may I be s e e n P a r t a k i n g n o t o f P o r k a n d Bean B u t w r i t i n g P o s t g a t e — b y t h e ream!) With t w i t c h i n g f a c e and d o d d e r i n g l i m b I t e n t a t i v e l y hand i t i n : "Won't d o ! " s a y s H e — " O m i s s i o n s . . . s i n ! " Then l i k e some B a g d a d a n i a n djinn He w a f t s my e f f o r t s t o w a r d s t h e b i n : Again I t r y , again I f a i l — A g a i n a t a l l t h e words I q u a i l . . . . U n t i l a t l a s t w i t h mouth a f o a m I g o , q u i t e d i p p y i n t h e dome, I n t o my n a r r o w p a d d e d room, Where C o l n e y w a r d e r s g l i b l y boom A t l i t t l e me.... Ah! me p u t e s Amentem, q u i t e ! C T i s c r u e l , v e r y , Thus t o abuse a dromedary).  HOMOEOPATHIC BLUES IN J .  .1.926 Jones And  5  took t h e l i t t l e d a i l y dose Of K r u s c h e n i n h i s t e a , c l e a n e d h i s t e e t h w i t h Pepsodent, That f i l m l e s s t h e y might be.  And when J . went t o b e d a t n i g h t He l e f t h i 5 w i n d o w s w i d e , And s l e p t n o t on h i s b a c k , f o r J . P r e f e r r e d t o on h i s s i d e .  [2.13  51  A g a i n , J . ' d t a k e a d o s e of s a l t s On r i s i n g -from h i s b e d , And i f h e ' d n o t a s i x p e n n y b i t Six pennies served i n s t e a d . J.  had a l i t t l e b r e a d - a n d - m i l k , Some L i v e r O i l and m a l t , And f i n i s h e d o f f h i s b r e a k f a s t w i t h An " A n d r e w s ' L i v e r S a l t . " C o n c e r n i n g J . had I t h e a r t , I might f o r ever s i n g , If o n l y J . ' d not j u s t succumbed To s e p t i c p o i s o n i n g .  THE OLD WOMAN WHO BURIED CATS  [3.1]  T h e r e was an o l d woman who l i v e d i n a n i c e L i t t l e h o u s e t h a t was b a d l y i n f e s t e d w i t h m i c e : " A h , h a I" s a i d t h e woman, " I ' l l h a v e t o s t o p t h a t ? " So s h e s q u a n d e r e d some money i n b u y i n g a c a t . From t h a t c a t n o t a mouse, n o r a s p a r r o w c o u l d h i d e , U n t i l at l o n g l a s t the poor cat i t s e l f died. The woman d o n n e d b l a c k , a s was p r o p e r and f i t t i n g . And w e a r i l y , d r e a r i l y , wept i n h e r k n i t t i n g . As t h a t c a t had b e h a v e d a s a c a t s h o u l d b e h a v e , I t b e h o v e d h e r t o f i n d i t an h o n o u r a b l e g r a v e . " ' T i s a d i f f i c u l t j o b , f a r a l a s ! " so thought she, "There's n o t h i n g near here l i k e a c a t s ' cemetree." "I c a n ' t d r o p , I w o n ' t d r o p , my. c a t down a w e l l . . . " In t h e m e a n t i m e t h e c a t was b e g i n n i n g t o s h r i n k "Aw! wheel i t a w a y , " s a i d t h e c o o k , " i n a b a r r e r . ' " W h a 1 t '1 I d o ? " w a i l e d t h e woman, j u s t l i k e HISS W 5E N FARRAR. 1  She a t t e m p t e d t o b u r y t h e c o r p s e i n t h e P a r k , Q u i t e l a t e on a n i g h t w h i c h was r e a s o n a b l y d a r k ; But was s c a r e d by a R o b e r t , who, n o t i n g t h e t i m e , Had ( n a t u r a l l y r a t h e r ) s u s p e c t e d a c r i m e . ' At. l a s t i n a f r e n z y s h e r a n g up a f r i e n d , And a s k e d h e r p o l i t e l y i f o h ! c o u l d s h e s e n d Her a d e a d p u s s y - c a t ; and t h e f r i e n d r e p l i e d , " R i g h t , But y o u must come y o u r s e l f , d e a r ; i n f a c t , come t o - n i g h t . " The t r a i n i t was c r o w d e d ; i n d e e d ' t w a s a f e a t F o r o u r h e r o i n e e ' e n t o g e t h o l d of a s e a t . She had p a c k e d t h e p o o r c a t i n h e r d e a d h u s b a n d ' s c a s e , And mem'ry b r o u g h t t e a r s w i t h t h e s w e a t down h e r f a c e .  52  30  35  Her f r i e n d a t t h e s t a t i o n a s k e d , "Is t h i s t h e b a g ? My d e a r , y o u l o o k t i r e d , f o r t h e s e t r a i n s a r e a f a g . W e ' l l j u s t h a v e some t e a and be h a p p y and m e r r y : The c a t — ( o h , d o n ' t w o r r y ) — t h e g a r d ' n e r w i l l b u r y . T h e g a r d e n e r o p e n e d t h e s u i t c a s e and s a i d . . . " I ' m d a s h e d ! " and t h e m y s t i f i e d man s c r a t c h e d F o r l y i n g i n s i d e , s t a r k , i m m a c u l a t e , mute, Was -  -  a perfectly  pressed  P o p e and B r a d l e y  THE RAIN FELL HEAVILY  1926  Among t h e wet A lonely  and s o d d e n g r a s s l i t t l e graveyard  his  head;  dress-suit.  C4.13  stood  W i t h i n t h e p r e c i n c t s o f a wood Where men a r e s e l d o m known t o p a s s . 5  10  T h e wood was g a u n t . I saw t h e w r e a t h — The m o u r n e r s m u r m u r i n g s i l e n c e k e p t : F o r l o r n t h e naked w i l l o w s wept; A toad sat c o r p u l e n t beneath. T h e m o u r n e r s s l o w l y c r e p t away And l e f t me t o my s o l i t u d e . I r e a d t h e l e g e n d on t h e nude Small gravestone i n the blackened hay. When I am d e a d B r i n g me n o t r o s e s w h i t e , Nor a u s t e r e l i l i e s g r i m l y b r i g h t ; B u t b r i n g me f r o m t h e g a r d e n r o s e s r e d , Roses r e d , wind-blown, s u n - k i s s e d ; T h e r o s e s t h a t my l i f e h a t h m i s s e d — When I am d e a d .  15  20  Bring  Each  1927  5  r o s e s r e d ! T h e r e was no s u n To s h i n e . The g r e y and y e l l o w s k y Wept i n t h e month o f F e b r u a r y ; pine—a dripping skeleton.  THE 6LDRY OF THE SEA The t r a m p s a i l e d g r i m l y on h e r t r a c k ; A s i c k l y haze shut out the sky; The a i r was g r e e n , t h e s u n was b l a c k ; The s e a was c a l m l i k e m o l t e n l e a d . An e n g i n e e r came s t a g g e r i n g b y : " A n o t h e r C h i n k g o n e w e s t ! " he s a i d . " A n o t h e r C h i n k ! " The p u r s e r ' s Were d e l i c a t e . He l o a t h e d t h e  tastes sight  C5.1]  Of b a r e - b a c k e d s t o k e r s , s w e a t y w a i s t s . "By c r i m e s , s i r , d o n ' t i t make y o u t h i n k , T h a t d e a t h s h o u l d t o u c h an A n n a m i t e ? T h a t Bod s h o u l d s t o o p t o k i l l a C h i n k ? " "You p e n - p u s h c l e r k ! y o u p u r s i n g t h i n g ! " T h e c h i e f s p a t o u t s "you d o g - e a r e d c l u m p ! You g o a t - s k i n r o t t e n i n T i n - S i n g ! I ' d l i k e t o t h r o w y o u down t h e h o l e ; I ' d s e e them f i r e m e n made y o u j u m p , To s w e a t y o u r l i f e b l o o d i n t h e c o a l . " I ' d l i k e t o s e e y o u d o s s on s t r a w , And l i v e on samshaw, f l e a s a n d r i c e , Or s u c k t h e l i n g f i s h f r o m t h e f l o o r , Qr d r i n k t h e f l y - b e j o s t l e d muck They get f o r t e a w i t h f o c ' s l e lice.... P e r h a p s y o u r s o u l w o u l d come u n s t u c k . " The cook s t o o d a t t h e g a l l e y door To s u p t h e c a l m n e s s o f t h e n i g h t ; H i s l i p s w e r e p a r c h e d , h i s b a c k was With bending o ' e r the g a l l e y s t o v e . He l o o k e d f o r Chang t h e A n n a m i t e , A l a d whom he had l e a r n e d t o l o v e .  sore  " W h e r e ' 5 Chang t o - n i g h t ? " he a s k e d t h e T h i r d ; " I t ' s p a s t t h e t i m e he came o f f w a t c h : H a l f - h o u r ago e i g h t b e l l s I h e a r d ; I ' v e g o t a c a k e o f Kobe t r o u t , T i n n e d , by c r i m e s ! I bed y o u ' d s c o t c h — " "Chang? C h a n g ' s d e a d : h i s h e a r t came o u t . " The p a n t i n g sun d r o p p p e d i n t h e s e a ; A l l h a n d s b u t f i v e s t o o d on t h e p o o p ; T h e c o o k s a n k q u i e t l y on h i s k n e e , H i s shadow c a s t upon a w i n c h . I t was a m e l a n c h o l y g r o u p ; And no man b r e a t h e d o r moved an i n c h . $  $  %  $  The o w n e r s l o l l e d i n o f f i c e state;. T h e t y p i s t t o o k h e r f i l e s away. "Good b u s i n e s s , E p h r a i m ! How I h a t e T h e s e r a i n y summers h e r e , I g u e s s ! " "My w i f e a n d I a t B i a r r i t z stay.... A c o f f e e ? Thanks, you've s a i d i t . Yes."  54  1928  THE COOK IN THE BALLEY He knows t h e s h i p , The u p w a r d t h r u s t , Into the infinite; When p a n s  5  10  and d i s h e s  And w h i p s He knows,  10  15  and  slide,  cook has mad s h i p  overside turns the  chops;  s e r v e d t e n t h o u s a n d chows; trembles, f a l t e r s , drops...  He comes o u t s i d e when w e a t h e r ' s f i n e To h a n g h i s s i n g l e t s on t h e l i n e , And t h e n r e t u r n s — h e n e e d s no b e l l — The s c o u s e , o r S u n d a y ' s d u f f t o s h a r e ; The s t o k e r ' s t a b n a b s n e e d h i s c a r e ; The s e a s o u n d s f a r away i n t h e r e , S s s s s s s s h , l i k e t h e hush i n a c o n c h - s h e l l .  NUMBER 8 FIREMAN B l a c k e n e d and f i r e s c a r r e d , Up f r o m t h e stokehole, Supping the wind— C o l d c l e a n s c o u r g e of t h e o c e a n — S t o o d N o . 8. F i r e m a n . . "Jesus i n heaven C o u n t s s a n d s on t h e seashore; The g u l l s t h a t w h e e l , Klio, And mew r o u n d t h e f u n n e l ; T h e s h a r k s and t h e d o l p h i n s ; Red s p o n g e s , f i d d l e r c r a b s , Snouted s q u i d s umbrella-winged S q u e e z i n g and b u z z i n g , C o i l i n g and h e a v i n g ; Stars that are r e e l i n g ; And a l l o f h i s c h i l d r e n He c o u n t s f o r H i s F a t h e r . But  20  crash  his dishcloth and, r e e l i n g ,  1928  5  dizzy flight, s i n k i n g plunge  When g r e e n s e a s c r a s h t h r o u g h m i l k - w h i t e d o o r s , And s t e w a r d s s a l o o n w a r d s s t a g g e r i n g wide, K n e e - d e e p i n w a t e r , s p l a s h l i k e cows; When w i n d r e v e r b e r a t i n g r o a r s  The The  15  its the  [6.13  I have  no  father;  The f i r e i s my m o t h e r , And r o a r i n g s h e b o r e me; She washed me i n c o a l d u s t , And f e d me on c i n d e r s ; She p a r c h e d me, t h e n maimed me; And I am h e r s t o k e r .  [7.13  55  25  "As God c a n n o t c o u n t me, The B o a r d o f T r a d e c o u n t me, L i k e w i n c h e s and d e r r i c k s Or b o i l e r s ; l i k e p i s t o n s R e v o l v i n g and g l e a m i n g ;  30  L i k e b r a s s - s i l l e d white Windily creaking."  31  ...creaking."3  C1929]  cabin-doors  ...creaking".  ALCOHOLIC  [8.1]  I d i e d s o many t i m e s when d r u n k T h a t s o b e r I became L i k e w a t e r where a s h i p was s u n k T h a t n e v e r knew i t s name. 5  10  15  [1929]  O l d b a r n a c l e s upon my s i d e s R i n g e d r o u n d w i t h p i t c h and t o s s Were g i v e n me by mermaid b r i d e s , I m m a c u l a t e a s moss. H e r e now, w i t h n e i t h e r k i n n o r q u e s t , I am s o f u l l o f s e a T h a t w h a l e s may make o f me a n e s t And go t o s l e e p i n me. (Those a n g e l 5 of t h e upper a i r Who s i p o f t h e d i v i n e May f i n d a h a v e n h o l i e r But l e s s g o o d b y e t h a n m i n e . )  DARK PATH By no s p e c i f i c d a r t o f g o l d , No s i n g l e s i n g i n g h a v e I f o u n d T h i s p a t h . I t t r a v e l s , d a r k and c o l d , Through dead v o l c a n o e s u n d e r g r o u n d .  5  10  . Here f l i c k e r yet the sulphurous C h a r r e d e n d s o f f i r e s l o n g s i n c e I knew. Long s i n c e , I t h i n k , and t h i n k i n g t h u s , I g n i t e , d a e m o n i c a l l y ; anew. Yet, burning, burning, burning Lord, Know how t h i s p a t h must l i k e w i s e come Through m u l t i t u d i n o u s d i s c o r d The a w f u l and t h e l o n g way home.  [9.1]  56  SONNET  [19293  5  10  [10.13  T h i s r u i n now, where m o o n l i g h t w a l k s a l o n e u n c o v e r i n g t h e cobweb and t h e r o s e , I have been h e r e b e f o r e ; l o v e d each dim s t o n e ; I t t h e r e w e r e s h a d o w s I was o n e o f t h o s e . There l i s t e n i n g , as i n a s h e l l , I heard T h r o u g h some i n v i s i b l e , u n l e t t e r e d w h o l e One t r u e , i-f n o t a t a l l e t e r n a l , word Wrung f r o m t h e w e i r d m u t a t i o n s o f t h e s o u l ; P a l a c e or h o v e l , r u i n w i l l at l a s t Make p e a c e o f what i s w a s t e ; t a k e f o r a t i m e T h e h u n g r y f u t u r e and t h e b l o o d y p a s t I n t o h e r n i g h t . O n l y t h e moon w i l l c l i m b Up b r o k e n s t a i r s t o t o w e r d m i g h t h a v e b e e n And r e s t a l i t t l e , l i k e some p o o r , b l i n d q u e e n .  SPIDERWEB  [19293  [11.13  T h e moment h a n g s f r o m H e a v e n l i k e a webbed Bridge to that i n v i s i b l e wherein N e c e s s i t y ' s d i m e n s i o n s sometimes win H a r b o r s of a i r , from which t h e s t o r m has ebbed. 5  10  B u t we a r e s p i d e r s . And w i t h w a i t i n g e y e s We s e e s a i l b y , b e y o n d o l d r e a c h and h o p e , Doomed w i n g s o f d i s t a n c e , s m a l l a s p e r i s c o p e , W h i l e d i n i n g on a d i e t o f d e a d f l i e s ; The b l a c k a n d g o l d , t h e g r o s s and g u l l i b l e , We a r e t h o s e s p i d e r s who o f t h e m s e l v e s h a v e N e t s o f s a d t i m e t o sway a g a i n s t Broken by s e c r e t s t i m e can n e v e r  FOR NORDAHL GRIEG SHIP'S FIREMAN  1930  5  [12.13  Two N o r w e g i a n f i r e m e n , f r i e n d s i n t h e same w a t c h , s t a n d l o o k i n g up a t t h e s h i p , And what do t h e y s e e ? T h e y s e e an i r o n m o l o c h S e c u r e l y w a i t i n g t o swallow t h e l i v e s of m e n . . . . But t h i s s h i p a l s o v i s i t s l a n d s of s t r a n g e b e a u t y Where b r o a d  10  spun  the sun— tell.  leaves  struggle  against  the  sun.  T h e h a w s e r s d r o p and g r o a n , W h i l e the s h i p b a c k s out of h a r b o u r . She s w i n g s r o u n d and s t e a m s f o r t h e o p e n What a r e t h e s e l a n d s o f s t r a n g e b e a u t y ? They  are there s u r e l y , they o f t h e two f i r e m e n ,  are seen,  but  sea. a r e not  part  57  15  O n l y t h e p o r t w i t h i t s c r a n e s i s p a r t of them, B e c k o n i n g w i t h t h e i r b r o n z e arms a t n i g h t ; The g i r l s l a u g h i n g i n l i n k e d q u i n t e t s i n t h e l a m p l i g h t ; A swarm o f spirochaetes, Maggots h a t c h i n g  20  25  30  the  very  pulse  of  love.  O f t e n t h e s e two f i r e m e n remember Norway As t h e y g a z e f r o m t h e poop a t t h e g a l l o p i n g c l o u d s above; They t h i n k of t h e s o u n d l e s s b l a c k d e p t h s of f j o r d s ; S p r i n g p l a n t s s t a r i n g at t h e sun i n Trondjhem; B a r e arms among t h e s t o r m - t o s s e d w a s h i n g i n T v e d e strand A s I p h i g e n i a remembered H e l l a s , s o do t h e y remember Norway. When t h e y remember t h i s t h e s h i p i s a m o l o c h An i r o n m o n s t e r t h a t c r u s h e s seamen and f i r e m e n In i t s j a w s ; s o m e t h i n g o b s c e n e l y neuter With i t s s i d e s f o u l e d with f i l t h , t h a t swallows 1 i ves Or maims t h e m .  35  in  There i s  no b e a u t y  about  the  their  ship.  T h e n o n e n i g h t t h e two f i r e m e n b l a c k e n e d w i t h c o a l And f i r e s c a r r e d , up f r o m t h e stokehole, P a u s i n g a m i d s h i p s i n t h e i r s h u d d e r i n g f l i m s i e s t o sup the wind, Happen t o be s t a n d i n g by t h e s h i p ' s hen-coop As t h e c o l d c l e a n s c o u r g e o f w i n d w h i p s t h e m . " L o o k , " one s a y s , "why one o f t h e h e n s h a s g o t  40  chickens!" As t h e y s t a n d and w a t c h t h e t i n y y e l l o w b a l l s T u m b l i n g i n t h e m o o n l i g h t , s o s o f t and p a t h e t i c W i t h t h e i r l i t t l e c r i e s , t h e y wonder How i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them t o be s o a l i v e  45  So t e n d e r and h e l p l e s s , How t h e s e c o u l d emerge f r o m t h e c r u e l n a k e d i r o n and t h r i ve, And t h e y f o r g e t t h e m u r d e r i n g s t r e n g t h o f t h e s h i p . How i t s l a y s l i k e a l i o n .  50  Nor do t h e y How s h o r t l y  t h i n k of the l i f e of t h e warm f l u f f y b a l l  naked And p e r h a p s Or i s u g l y , T h e y do n o t  dies, a continual h a r l o t , a scraggy concubine; t h i n k o f e g g s b e a t e n i n N o r w e g i a n egg  55  the chicken, becomes h i d e o u s l y  cups.  60  Lo. A l l i s innocence. F o r t h e moment t h e s h i p i s no l o n g e r a m o l o c h No l o n g e r n e u t e r ; t h e h e l p l e s s warm c h i c k e n s B r i n g b a c k t o t h e f i r e m e n a w h i t e dream o f a g i r l ' s One r e m e m b e r s w a l k i n g t h r o u g h g r e y f i e l d s , That time they watched the steam r i s i n g at  night  face:  58  From t h e d a r k N o r w e g i a n e a r t h ; And a c e r t a i n s t r e e t b u i l t on an i n c l i n e , O r a n g e s q u a r e s t h a t w e r e windows i n t h e e v e n i n g . . . .  65  The One It  ship  staggers  thinks that agony, i s as though  and w a l l o w s  the  poor  the  very ship  in  lonely  the ship  itself  sea. is has  still  in  given  IN CAPE COD WITH CONRAD AIKEN  1930  its  birth-  birth.  [13.11  Two p h i l o s o p h e r s a t h o u s a n d y e a r s f r o m now met i n a g r o t t o secretly Where b a y o n e t s o f i c e d r i p e d a b o u t them and t h e one s t a r s h o n e in a f o u n t a i n . . . . And t h e f i r s t s a i d , " F r i e n d I h a v e d i s c o v e r e d a l a n g u a g e , b u t s o c o m p l e x and d i f f i c u l t That i t would t a k e a thousand y e a r s t o s y n t h e s i s e a s i n g l e w o r d . " The o t h e r s m i l e d i n r e p l y . "I a l s o h a v e d i s c o v e r e d a l a n g u a g e , " he s a i d ,  5  "But  i n my l a n g u a g e one word i s t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f s i x t e e n t h o u s a n d years." They s a t l o n g t h u s i n c o v e r s a t i o n , t h e i r hands palm-downward  10  on t h e i r k n e e s , W h i l e i c e m e l t e d l o u d l y about them; And t h e h o u r s f o l d e d t h e i r w i n g s b e n e a t h 15  the  sky.  I t e l l y o u t h i s y o u n g man So t h a t y o u r o u t l o o k may p e r h a p s be b r o a d e n e d . I who h a v e s e e n s n o r i n g v o l c a n o e s And d i s m a l i s l a n d s s h a w l e d i n s n o w . . . .  T  Aiken]  7  ...a  1931  Aitken  language,"1  [omits  end q u o t a t i o n  mark]  THOSE COKES TO NEWCASTLE BLUES  [14.1]  P r o f e s s o r J . L . M o r i s o n , P r o f e s s o r of' Modern H i s t o r y a t A r m s t r o n g C o l l e g e , N e w c a s t l e , has r e s i g n e d h i s membership of t h e N e w c a s t l e L i t e r a r y and P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y b e c a u s e t h e s o c i e t y has a r r a n g e d l e c t u r e s d e a l i n g w i t h c e r t a i n modern a u t h o r s whose w o r k s he s a y s may n o t u n j u s t i f i a b l y be c a l l e d " i n d e c e n t . " In an i n t e r v i e w t h e P r o f e s s o r s a i d ; "I o b j e c t t o t h e f i r s t t h r e e names i n t h e l i s t of l e c t u r e s . They a r e D . H . L a w r e n c e , A l d o u s H u x l e y , and J a m e s J o y c e . T h o s e t h r e e a r e , t o my m i n d , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r some o f t h e most i n d e c e n t w r i t i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t d a y . James J o y c e ' s book " U l y s s e s " h a s b e e n b a n n e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , where i t c a n n o t be s o l d ; L a w r e n c e was a man whose w o r k s were h o p e l e s s l y o v e r s e x e d . A l d o u s H u x l e y i s what I c a l l a w r i t e r o f d i r t y - m i n d e d m a t t e r . I c a n n o t i m a g i n e a y o u n g man o r woman r e a d i n g A l d o u s  59  H u x l e y - s books ordinary  without  Christian  being  man,  the  I will  worse  fight  for  reading them.,..  against  indecency  in  A s an every  form. I have a p p e a l e d t o t h e B i s h o p . T h i s i s not a storm i n a t e a c u p , b u t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a f i g h t f o r d e c e n c y a n d p u r i t y , and I s h a l l f i g h t to the l a s t d i t c h . I appeal to the Press, to the p e o p l e of N e w c a s t l e , t o see t h a t t h e minds of t h e s e young p e o p l e a r e n o t p o l l u t e d by t h e s e a u t h o r s . " — f r o m a r e c e n t SundayTimes. Let Let  5  P a r i s read Joyce! F l o r e n c e read Lawrence!  As f o r me I r e g a r d them w i t h p r o p e r a b h o r r e n c e — Let Frankfort read F l a h e r t y ! M u n i c h r e a d Mann! But N e w c a s t l e ' s a l w a y s t h e n i c e g e n t l e m a n . On t h e  b a n k s of  the  Tyne,  10  On t h e b a n k s o f t h e T y n e , To t h e good i s no e v i l And no G e r t r u d e S t e i n ;  15  To t h e p u r e a r e no s e x e s , Nor n a u g h t y c o m p l e x e s B e w i l d e r t h e minds Of t h e p e o p l e o f T y n e , Of t h e p e o p l e o f T y n e . . . ,  20  25  30  35  40  I appeal to the Bishop, The Navy, t h e P r e s s , To h e l p me; L o r d h e l p me t o F o r no m a t t e r how c l e v e r Crome Y e l l o w may b e , Ci-ome Y e l l o w , I p o i n t o u t Means s a f f r o n t o me.  clean  up t h e  mess,  On t h e b a n k s o f t h e T y n e , On t h e b a n k s o f t h e T y n e , T o t h e good i s no e v i l And no G e r t r u d e S t e i n ; To t h e p u r e a r e no s e x e s No n a u g h t y c o m p l e x e s ; The p u r i t a n f i n d s No s u b - c o n s c i o u s n e s s vexes The g r e y - f a c e d b o l l - w e e v i l T h a t l i v e s by t h e T y n e , The w h e y - f a c e d b o l l - w e e v i l That l i v e s i n the minds Of t h e p e o p l e o f T y n e , Of t h e p e o p l e o f T y n e ! An a p p e a l t o t h e c l e r g y w o u l d Some f i l t h f r o m t h e l e c h e r o u s And one t o t h e P r e s s , s a y t h e Might r e s u l t i n a campaign t o  c e r t a i n l y f i s h up mind o f a b i s h o p ; Daily Express, c l e a n up t h e m e s s ;  And a l o n g p e r o r a t i o n m i g h t f o l l o w t o t r y u s From D o u g l a s t h e d i m p l e d , t h e p i m p l e d , t h e p r y o u s . That t i n f o i l best t i n s e l l e r , p r i d e of the p i o u s , And p r i d e o f t h e n a t i o n , s i r , p r i d e o f t h e n a t i o n . .  60  45  For whatever  50  To r i p o u t t h e g r e y t h i n g s t h e g r e y o n e s h a v e s a i d , W h a t e v e r t h e c o u r a g e o r p r i c e he h a s p a i d , S h a l l n o t s e v e r t h e s t r i n g s of t h e s t a y s of t h e s t a i d , The N o r t h u m b e r l a n d s t r i n g s of t h e s t a y s of t h e s t a i d , Nor c a n h a r d l y be o t h e r t h a n v i c i o u s , I'm s u r e , To h e a r t s  endeavour  that  this  Lawrence has  a r e u p r i g h t and m i n d s t h a t Cwith  made  are  pure.  Conrad  ftiken]  61 THE LIGHTHOUSE INVITES THE STORM; POEMS 1934-1939 The L i g h t h o u s e I n v i t e s unpublished c o l l e c t i o n conceived but  he  Grieg the  a group of  first  39,  mentioned the  of  Forget—are f i r s t and 1936.  and i n t h a t  typist  It  l i n k e d poems  unified structure  between 1934  Storm i s  o f poems.  the  the  round of  Vancouver  collection  Most o f  That  some v e r s i o n  originals  of  the  of  to  the  ask whether  in  Matson i s  on whom Gaunt and datable  copy  poems  used f o r  1938-  professional of  the  underwent  a  C a r e y ' s house  in  outgoing  Lighthouse text—perhaps copy t r i p l i c a t e — w a s  t h r o u g h New Y o r k p u b l i s h i n g h o u s e s  to  fair  the  Nordahl  c o m p l e t e d by  have h a d a  many of  sequence,  2  1938-39 f a i r  Lowry's correspondence:  leaves  and were r e t y p e d a t  year.  to  rests—Peter  prepare a t r i p l i c a t e  in that  sonnet  letter  t h e poems were  on p a p e r w h i c h Lowry a l s o  correspondence  c l e a r when Lowry  i n t r o d u c e d on d r a f t  revisions  first  recurring characters  L i g h t h o u s e m a n u s c r i p t . ^ In 1939, further  not  i n a 1938  y e a r Lowry a p p e a r s  i n Los Angeles  is  Lowry's  or a p o s s i b l e  volume  (SL. 15-16) . However,  Vigil  the  1941  still  in  1940-41 i s  he w r i t e s  his  h o l d i n g "the  the  circulating  clear  agent  hapless  from  H a r o l d Matson and  3 ambulatory" L i g h t h o u s e . d u r i n g the left  the  that  he  1940,  last  fifteen  A l t h o u g h he t o y e d w i t h years  Lighthouse largely intended t h i s  only ten  bear t r a c e s  of  of  the  of  his  intact  life,  after  further revisions;  1940.  It  seems  i n c l u d e d with Lowry's second p o e t r y  these ten, collection  to  at  1947.  after  U.B.C.  only three in  have  clear  collection:  L i g h t h o u s e poems of  periodically  Lowry a p p e a r s  volume t o be a d i s c r e t e eighty-three  it  were  These  two  62 facts  undermine the  intended  to  widely  work a l l  his  h e l d view  poetry  that  into  the  all  his  life  Lowry  Lighthouse  structure.^  copy  No  finally  of  the  heavy  volume,  editing  Unfortunately, copy-texts has been  to  this  draft  is  the  p r e s e r v e d at reliable  because  files  is  the  The l a t e s t  final  1936," which appears  of  Lowry's death.  manuscripts  eighty-three  poems.  Given the  the  survive  at  Lowry's l i f e  of  the  between h i s  relatively  flight  for  sigla  d r o p s h a r p l y between s t a t e s  the  draft  of  been  to  Lowry's s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  for  only  nature  it  finally  determined.  of  after  fourteen  the  two  of  the  1938  i n which the several  of  the  beginning that  the  the  Volcano.  suggests texts  of  years  and s u f f e r e d  i n which the  F o r example,  the  are  seems l i k e l y  draft  but  in  North  from 1957,  from M e x i c o and t h e  the  established  later  work Lowry d i d on  U.B.C.  m i s s i n g Mexican f i r s t  one  dates  on p a p e r s  Lighthouse papers  as,  is  editors.  t e n poems c o n t a i n  calm D o l l a r t o n p e r i o d ,  Lighthouse  structure  by p r e v i o u s  appearance  in-  (6-51) .  " L e t t e r from Oaxaca t o  same f a t e  the  of  establishing  authorial  m a n u s c r i p t s were i n c l u d e d w i t h , the  some  of p a p e r r a n g i n g i n  tempestuous and u n s e t t l e d  of  missing poetic  of  for  on p a p e r w h i c h d a t e s  Most o f  typescripts;  not  its  traceable  version  U.B.C.  only  annotated  seven t y p e s draft  Lowry's draft  and i n d i c a t i o n s  w h i c h c a n be d a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r  Lighthouse  year  copy  exists.  some d u p l i c a t e poems,  is  i n d i v i d u a l poems,  1940;  Lighthouse  and comments,  and r e o r d e r i n g ,  correspondence.^  Africa  the  which i n c l u d e s  copy c o n t a i n s  from 1934 papers  of  of  r e o r g a n i z e d and h e a v i l y  draft  the  copy  authorial revisions  process  The  revised  That  that  were o r d e r had the  poems  63  have  L o w r y ' s "out"  This  data c o u l d i n d i c a t e  fewer  than the  Lighthouse. d i d not poem,  that  eighty-three  However,  always  using  scrawled across  He c o u l d e a s i l y  or t i t l e  whichever  inclusion  the  latest  s t a t e was  i n the  draft  authorially  or e d i t o r i a l l y  seems p r u d e n t current  unusually  i n as many as  complicated.  appearances  outgoing this  letters. edition  In t h r e e poems,  the  the  that  any  he  given  him a t  the  time.  "out" poems,  thus  Alternatively,  the  editors.  t h e s e poems were  re-introduced into  include a l l  for  d r a f t by o t h e r  whether  the  poems—and t h e  some poems i n L o w r y ' s d r a f t  state—others  in  included  draft  copy,  titles—in  it  the  edition.  Because  their  to  of  the  copy.  determine  to  state  m i n d about  Since  impossible  typescripts.  reveals  handy t o  r e p l a c e d i n the  is  the  poems o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n a t e d  "out" poems may have been it  of  a f a i r copy w o u l d have  have c h a n g e d h i s  explaining their  heads  t r a c i n g Lowry's r e v i s i o n s  revise  instead  the  cases,  the  The s t a t e s  in  problem of  for  only  The s t a t e s were t h e n  chronologically  latest  earlier  state  i n Lowry's  serves  as  states provide copy-texts;  later  final  authorial  version  states  of  is  the  is  each poem were d a t e d by appear  the  one  copy-text  on p a p e r s w h i c h a l s o  i n which the  collection,  nine—the  exist  versions  arranged;  copy-text.  for  included with a  datable  these  further  Lowry had a p p r o v e d 7  by 1940  were u s e d as  Some poems, the  copy-texts  f o r the  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "The C o m e d i a n , " e x i s t  Grimes t r i p l i c a t e  fair  copy  state.  have been b r a c k e t e d i n t h i s , e d i t i o n , that  this  L i c r h t h o u s e.  s t a t e does not  represent  The d a t e s  because  the  first  it  of is  only  in  t h e s e poems fairly  version  of  certain  any  64 L i g h t h o u s e poem. does not poem.  In a few c a s e s  match t h e  geographical  F o r example,  "Delirium  on Champion Bond p a p e r , had not not  been  written  to  earlier  appearance  drinks,  what  is  Lowry d i d n o t  before year.  your s p e l l ? "  1936,  It  New Y o r k f o r M e x i c o v i a L o s A n g e l e s  is  not  authorial  geographical whether  or a r e s u l t  of  L i g h t h o u s e poems a t systems appear  on most  which comprise  separate  sheets,  are  for  the  i n c l u d i n g the  inscribed  in pencil  of  has  indicates the of  disorder  that  the  one v e r s i o n  of  three  most  times:  for  each  of  Grimes f a i r c o p i e s ;  to  There i s ,  Gabrial cases is  Lighthouse  the  the  the  numbering  seven a u t h o r i a l the  top  numerals  The 1939  a list  of  the  are  characteristic  on t h i s  paper,  paper  revisions, post-date  i n M a r g e r i e ' s hand  order which,  does n o t  work o f  order of  along with c e r t a i n  however,  Lighthouse  the  draft  T h e s e roman n u m e r a l s ,  Lowry's  typescripts.  foliation,  drink  assume  i n such  separate  p a r t handwritten at  s t a t e s which appear  with the  to  a  on New Y o r k p a p e r  i n the  three  typescripts.  and/or black ink,  the  all  tequila,  1960-61 c o l l a b o r a t i v e  t y p e d numerals w h i c h ,  Grimes s t a t e s .  consistent  the  series  method o f m a k i n g r e v i s i o n s however,  of  makes  content.  the  the  Lowry  poem was p r o b a b l y  i n 1936j  B i r n e y . Lowry r e v i s e d  least  the  appears  o f p a p e r w i t h him when he and J a n  M a r g e r i e Lowry and E a r l e  sections,  the  or M e x i c a n poem w h i c h a p p e a r s  clear  first  seems r e a s o n a b l e  left  dated according to  of  The same New Y o r k p a p e r  Lowry t o o k a s t o c k  is  so  [ 2 3 ] — a poem a b o u t  1936.  appears  from New Y o r k 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 .  that  It  [46]  M e x i c a n poem "Most n a u s e o u s  pursue u n t i l  any West C o a s t  on w h i c h a poem  i n Los A n g e l e s "  than that i n the  paper  or b i o g r a p h i c a l c o n t e n t  which dates  Los Angeles  another  the  always  though agree  nearly w i t h any  one  65  set  of  not, the  holograph numeration  however,  inconsistencies  order,  affect  of  no o t h e r  similar by t h e  the  missing  generates numeral,  provides  serves  the  the  as  to  collection  Margerie's l i s t .  Margerie  list  found the  certainly  not  likely  draft  a list  of  h e r and h e r c o - e d i t o r , the  of  dealt  w i t h by r e f e r e n c e  had not  is  at  before  and b e c a u s e i t work c o m p l e t e d , order  copy.  least his is  foliation  case  is  a  of  multiple  of  reliable.  single  position  o r d e r was  then  not  since  it  is  format  current  created  as  its  Because  were  authorial Lowry  order for  himself  Lighthouse.  t o know how he w o u l d have wanted aims by t h e  to  re-establish  time  explanatory  of  his  the  latest  death.  Lowry's Poetry: A  annotation  to  by  disordered  o r d e r i n g problems  determined a f i n a l  edition  of  determined  o r d e r i n which  match t h e  " A p p e n d i x C : The A n n o t a t i o n o f  Prolegomenon" f o r the  the  to Margerie's l i s t ,  Lowry had e s t a b l i s h e d See  it  especially  numeral pages  The r e s u l t i n g  A l l unsolvable  impossible  this  single  Lighthouse.  reasonably  death  In t h e  expanded L i g h t h o u s e  n o r does  state  proximity  draft  the  sets  Although obviously  of  the  interesting  poems,  Wherever t h e r e  represents  copy  the  an a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e  checked against  for  a r e numbered i n a  three  by t h e  m u l t i p l e numerals.  this  of  do  collapse  o r d e r has been  order-determinant.  from among t h e  definitive,  the  problems.  selecting  collection,  only to  unwritten)  existence  order established  a guide  the  in foliation  T h e s e gaps do r a i s e  edition,  some u n r e s o l v a b l e it  numerals,  but  it.  U.B.C.  For t h i s  foliation;  order of  (or p e r h a p s  poems i n t h e  fashion.  the  Alterations  p r o d u c e gaps w h i c h s e r v e  r a t h e r t h a n change  question as  seriously  (6-52).  this  section.  the  66  NOTES Lowry a r r i v e d i n Los A n g e l e s 1938. his  A f t e r he met M a r g e r i e Bonner i n June 1939,  manuscripts.  During the  letters  to  Los A n g e l e s . recognizable  cigarette  b u r n s and a l c o h o l  are  on "Grimes B u s i n e s s  a much h i g h e r from M e x i c o . sheets;  it  quality  by t h e  there  therefore  shared  t r a c e d to  on t h e  Unless  that  paper.  passionate  The  their  typist—because  Vancouver i n  its  late  the  extremely they are  round of  which which  r a r e on  is  of  date  these  from M e x i c o  Lighthouse  high q u a l i t y , next  are  triplicates  paper,  Margerie typed the  i n Los A n g e l e s ,  typed  corrections,  Bond" c o r r o s i b l e  unlikely  by someone e l s e — f r o m  professional  stains  clumsy  of  before  and d u r a b i l i t y t h a n any p a p e r s  Lowry t y p e d t h e m .  month t h e y  errors,  Typographical errors are  is  his  she  L o w r y ' s own M e x i c a n t y p e s c r i p t s  instantly  typed  Lowry handwrote  summer  only  month t h e y were a p a r t ,  Margerie a r r i v e d i n Vancouver,  that  from M e x i c o i n t h e  or  poems d u r i n g had t o  be  the  typed  probably a revisions  can  be  1939.  2 A second p a p e r , Licrhthouse house.  Invites  this  the  This selection  S t e r n a s k i n g him t o endeavour.  "Delirium  which c o n t a i n s Storm"  place  The e i g h t  the  "There i s  a Metallurgy"  Darkness"  [97],  poems.  poems a r e :  [27],  a Gentleman"  "Lull"  also  dates  a c c o m p a n i e d a May 1940  i n Vera Cruz"  "The D e v i l was  (6-55)  " E i g h t Poems  [80],  "In t h e  to  unsuccessful  the  Wheel"  " D o c t o r Usquebaugh"  "The R o a r o f  James  Oaxaca T r a i n "  "Quartermaster at [40],  from C a r e y ' s  letter  S t e r n was  from The  the  Sea and  in [101], [79],  [28], the  [72].  3 Malcolm Lowry,  letter  to  H a r o l d M a t s o n , 4 March 1941  (1-80).  67 4  As  expressed,  for  instance,  in Earle  Birney,  "The Unknown  Poetry  of Malcolm L o w r y , " B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y  (1961)  33-40.  ^ T h e s e poems a r e : [16],  "At t h e  Man i n t h e adrift" of  Bar" [26],  D6me"  [85],  [29],  [93],  "Lull"  Cruz"  [27],  the  poor  where i s  Madrid,  the  [36],  "He w r o t e  for  [37],  [41],  "Pigling,  pigling,  the  one man t o  grey  morning"  [27],  [95],  1936"  "The L a s t  one man t o  Anytime"  [91],  a  ship  "A Poem  "The R o a r of  the  [88],  dead,  but  burning bland"  a ship  of  for  a child's  adrift"  [85],  "Song a b o u t  dreadful  the  night"  "Delirium in  [29],  of  the  "The sun rain  is  "- -  the  dead"  For C h r i s t ' s  god gone" "The s h i p  "As  shines:  in  ubiquitous  [48],  Madrid,  Vera  "Curse" [33],  [35],  "The g e n t l e n e s s  sake and f o r mine and l a s t likened  Dome"  dead day drew n e a r "  lyric?"  wind"  Useful  i n C u a u t l a " [25],  "The L a s t Man i n t h e each  "We l i k e n e d  "I have known a c i t y  F i v e Mescals  end o f  North A f r i c a  [97] .  T h e s e poems a r e : "Thirty  [72],  "On R e a d i n g R . L . S . "  Darkness"  [24],  from Oaxaca t o  " D e l i r i u m i n Vera Cruz"  "Song about  God's Mercy"  Sea a n d t h e  "Letter  24.4  [73],  "We  of war s a i l s  Useful  Anytime"  in  [91].  7 The t h r e e poems a r e : appears  as  [131]  i n the  1947  " D e l i r i u m i n Vera Cruz" selection,  i n an O l d P o r t "  of  [97],  Ocean"  Sea and t h e [117].  Darkness"  which  "On R e a d i n g R . L . S . "  w h i c h becomes " O l d F r e i g h t e r the  [27],  [114],  w h i c h becomes  [95],  and "The R o a r  "The W e s t e r n  THE LIGHTHOUSE INVITES THE STORM  69  -June, emember;  too  soon;  October,  July, all  stand  by:  August,  you must;  September  over. Mariner's proverb.  I PETER GAUNT AND THE CANALS  71  PETER GAUNT AND THE CANALS  1934-36  C11  I De  10  Lesseps,  he  said,  was  not  the  only  one,  Peer S y n t , t o o , climbed a world of money-bags — t h e y h a p p e n e d t o be d u n e s i n t h e d e s e r t — W e a r i n g r i n g s and a w a t c h o r two and s o f o r t h , And s a i d i t was h a r d , i n d e e d i t was c e r t a i n l y Hard i n d e e d , i n t h i s p e c u l i a r p l a c e , Hard t o see t h e A l m i g h t y ' s p u r p o s e Where t h e r e was n o t h i n g l i f e - g i v i n g , nothing B u t a b u r n t - u p w a s t e p r o f i t i n g no g r o w t h , An o l d c o r p s e w h i c h n e v e r o n c e s a i d t h a n k y o u S i n c e i t was s h a p e d . Why was i t made a t a l l ?  II The  extravagance  of  nature  took  his  mind;  Was t h a t t h e s e a , o r m i r a g e , i n t h e e a s t ? W h a t e v e r i t was g l i t t e r e d l i k e d i a m o n d s . No. S e a was t o t h e west where l i k e a dam S a n d h i l l s p r o t e c t e d desert from i t s life. A dam, t h o u g h t S y n t , f r o m N o r w a y , h i l l s a r e s m a l l : A dam; why n o t a c u t t i n g , a c a n a l Through which the wise ocean, warping s l o w l y At f i r s t , w o u l d f i l l t h e p l a i n i t s e l f w i t h f l o o d ? And a l l t h a t d e s o l a t e g r a v e become a l a k e .  Ill A l a k e , a s e a i t s e l f , whose g e n t l e c r a s h Of waves w o u l d show c r y s t a l a g a i n s t islands; To t h e n o r t h , f o r e v e r a new l a n d f a l l ; To t h e s o u t h , snowy p l u m a g e o f frigates; While above, below, around, white h a r b i n g e r s , — Since g u l l s are incident in s a l t y projects — And t h i s i s f i r s t t h e d r e a m o f a c a n a l Whose g r e e n b a n k s r o a r w i t h t o w n s a s b u s y t r a d e Steams from t h e l a n d of Habes t o t h e N i l e , Where, p i l e d a g a i n s t a Cape, Peeropolis S t a g g e r s , t h e c a p i t a l c i t y of s e l f .  IV Peeropolis;  another  Petersburg!  35  But p e o p l e d w i t h Norsemen, T h a n Norsemen s a t i s f y P e e r  for nothing else Gynt; Nordic  40  Men f o r t h e new b o r n l a n d whose f o u n d e r And d o u b t l e s s s i n g s i n t o some k h e d i v e ' s A l l we n e e d i s c a p i t a l ! C a p i t a l ! C a p i t a l ! A l l we n e e d i s c a p i t a l ! Ab e s s e ad p o s s e s s ! C a p i t a l I s a l l we n e e d ! N o r d i c men! A l l we n e e d ' s some c a p i t a l , Indeed  . . .  And s o  on,  to  the  signs ear:  Capital! some c a p i t a l , "Hall  of  the  Mountain K i n g . "  V  45  The j i g , l i k e N o a h ' s donkey — What was t h a t A r k i f n o t  i n t h e Ark a dream l i k e  50  I t s voyage back i n h e a r t from water t o sand? — N o a h ' s donkey i n t h e A r k , i n the A r k , In t h e A r k , b r a y s i t s m e s s a g e — a s i n i n e ! — To e a s t , w e s t , n o r t h , and s o u t h . T h u s good I b s e n , And l a t e r G r i e g , and l a t e r s t i l l t h e s i x  Peer's,  Brown b r o t h e r s , h o t f o r e r u n n e r s o f t h e r i f f s . L e t t h i s pun p a s s , r e m e m b e r i n g P e t e r G i n k ; And s o make way f o r M r . P e t e r G a u n t .  VI  55  60  (What was t h a t s t o r y o f an o l d e r dream B u t some v i s i o n o f w i l d e r n e s s o f w a t e r And a s e t t l i n g o f l o u d r o d e n t s i n a d r y w o r l d Washed w h i t e ? No d o u b t i t was a N o r d i c w o r l d . ) But t h e r e g o e s M r . P e t e r G a u n t , M. A . , P . H . D . , and s o on — n o t P . H . D . ? — Or b e t t e r s t i l l , p l a i n P e t e r ; o r b e t t e r still, P l a i n P e t e . H e l l , a r e you M r . Gaunt a t Whether or not you l i k e i t , whether or You t h i n k my r e a s o n f o r i t i s v a l i d , Y o u r name i s P e t e r G a u n t . I t i s s o l i d .  all? not  VII P e t e r Gaunt, as Gynt t h e n , c l i m b s a dune, L o o k s on a d e a d w o r l d t h a t seems t o him b a d , — Though d u n e ' s but a s t o o l i n t h e "Automat," S p e l l i n g t h i s b a c k w a r d s makes T a m o t u a , Pacific island in titanic surf, G l u t t i n g t e n t h o u s a n d t a v e r n s i n t h e town; I t was t h e s u r f o f t r a f f i c r o u n d h i s f e e t Washed h i m t o t h i s e s c a p e , h i s o a s i s In t h e d e s e r t o f C h i c a g o , L o n d o n , Rheims,  and a b l e s t  island  for  lovers,  too  VIII And l i g h t s a c i g a r e t t e , n o t i n g , f a r o f f , The o s t r i c h ; t h e c i g a r e t t e ' s a c a m e l , And o s t r i c h b u t a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i m s e l f Wondering at the A l m i g h t y ' s p u r p o s e ; G a u n t , b e c a u s e he s t a r v e s ; P e t e r , b e c a u s e h a r d , P e t e r i s a s t a r v e d r o c k t h a t t h i n k s and s m o k e s , Though b o t h a r e d i s c o u r a g e d h e r e , w o n d e r i n g How man s h o u l d be b o t h s t o n e and b i r d a t o n c e : And when he e a t s , s h o u l d e a t w i t h s a n d f i l l e d e y e s ; How p a u p e r l i p s may s t r a n g e l y c r a m w i t h d e s s e r t And p a p e r c u p s b r i m o v e r w i t h s w e e t w i n e .  IX S e e s he t h e new c i t y , t h e r e a l l y b e t t e r land, Or w i l l s he t h e f l o o d on a l l o f u s But t o d e s t r o y , not s l a k e , not f r u c t i f y , Under t h e b l e a k n o r t h s t a r o f h i s self-mistrust He h a s r e a d o r n o t r e a d a b o u t i n M y e r s ? U n d e r t h e m a n i a c a l lamp o f t h e cafeteria Lurks there the strange, the bird-haunted v i s i o n Of t h e c a n a l t h a t l i v e s i n m a n k i n d ' s d r e a m , P l o u g h e d t h r o u g h p a s t ' s s a n d , no b i t t e r l a k e s b e y o n d From C a s i n o - P a l a c e t o B a b - e l - M a n d e b , Or C a r i b e e s t o T e h u a n t e p e c , L i v e r p o o l t o Canaan v i a M a n c h e s t e r ?  74  Liverpool Archangel  to to  Manchester v i a Runcorn K a t t e g a t and S o u n d !  100  A d r e a m s t i l l l i v i n g . i n t h e m i n d o f man Has many c o l o u r e d m e a n i n g s : i f G a u n t s e e s S a n d h i l l s o b s t r u c t i n g d e s e r t f r o m new l i f e . T h i n k s o f dams, why now t h e h i l l s a r e l o w , F e e l s the wise ocean warping s l o w l y  105  To f i l l t h e p l a i n i t s e l f w i t h s a l t s w e e t f l o w ; I f , r e m e m b e r i n g Panama, he s a y s M e r s e y , G y n t , G a u n t , a r e t h e y t h e same? I f t h e W h i t e S e a Was n e a r e r G a u n t ' s dream i n b o t h b e a u t i f u l l y , I t h i n k t h e r e i s no p r e d o m i n a n c e o f w h i t e .  XI 110  A f t e r a l l , t h e v i s i o n was l i k e b u t s u b t l y sea-changed, W h e t h e r g r a v e became a l a k e s w e e t o r s o u r The c a n a l changed d i r e c t i o n e v e r y h o u r ; W h a t e v e r G a u n t saw, w h a t e v e r s l o p i n g c i t y Was b u i l t by f r e e men f o r t h e f r e e t o l i v e i n ,  115  C r e a t e d t h r o u g h men f o r m a n k i n d by m a n k i n d ; Say at. v e r y l e a s t G a u n t t h o u g h t l e s s o f s e l f Than t h o u g h t G y n t ? B u t i s i t s t r i c t l y t r u e ? T r u t h L i e s b e t w e e n o l d f a c t s a s swamps b e t w e e n s e a s , Or i f n o t f a c t s t h e y ' r e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s .  120  The s i l t e d t r u t h i s a l s o d r e d g e a b l e , I t i s t h i s m a n ' s empowered t o r e c l a i m F o r man. I t i s a c a n a l i n m i n d . And i t  is  for  himself.  XII  125  L e t u s g i v e h i m t h e b e n e f i t o f some d o u b t s ; T h a t G a u n t was k i n d e r t o h i s S o l v e i g and A a s e ; Must h a v e known t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o , S c a r c e l y w o u l d h a v e s e t h i s m o t h e r on r o o f ; Hoped, a t l e a s t , l o v e w i t h o u t l o v e of mankind Was i t s own s e p u l c h r e . P e r h a p s P e t e r G a u n t Died f o r Madrid under machine-gun f i r e .  130  P e r h a p s n o t . B u t no m a t t e r w h e r e he d i e d , Or e v e n w h e r e he l i v e d , he was P e t e r G a u n t , And he was y o u , who may h a v e n e e d e d c a p i t a l To t h e same t u n e and S o l v e i g t h r i c e a n i g h t , But at l e a s t d i d not f i l l h i s s t a r w i t h Norsemen,  135  And, i f  with  abstractions,  not  with  the  four  horsemen.  75  XIII So when f l e s h f e e l s s l i g h t e d by t h e p r e s e n t . And s p i r i t b y t h e f u t u r e , t h i n k o f G a u n t Who l o v e s h i s w i f e and h a s no h e a r t t o d i e , 140  145  Y e t masked a s J o n e s may r u n B i l b a o ' s g a u n t l e t , C u t t i n g h i s own . c a n a l t h r o u g h b r a c k i s h d e a t h And b r i n g i n g l i f e t o l i f e , t o o weak t o s t a n d ; When d e a t h w a r d t h e mind makes s u p e r c e s s i o n , C o n s i d e r G a u n t , who b u i l t a l o y a l i s t c o l u m n T h a t G a u n t , o u r s e l f , m i g h t l i v e on s e a and l a n d , Free to f e e l s l i g h t e d , f r e e f o r j a y or peace; Free to laugh, l o v e , r u n , walk, see, or'be From L o r b r u l g r u d t o L e n i n g r a d v i a N i c e ; From I t h a c a , New Y o r k , t o I t h a c a , G r e e c e ;  150  36 40 64 65  66 74 76 78 79 81 123 124 149  In G e o r g i a , i n t h e d e e p s o u t h , And i n t h a t d e e p e r s o u t h b e l o w From A l d e b e r a n t o A b e r d e e n .  and i n t h e Cape H o r n ,  blind,  far  east,  1 5 . 1 , 2 s men f o r t h e new b o r n l a n d whose f o u n d e r s i n g s 1 5 . 1 , 2 ; Ab e s s e ad p o s s e s . C a p i t a l 1 5 . 2 : y o u r name i s P e t e r G a u n t , s i r , i t i s s o l i d , 1 5 . 1 : , . , P e t e r G a u n t l i k e w i s e c l i m b s on a d u n e , 1 5 , 2 ; P e t e r G a u n t , t h e n , a l s o c l i m b s on a d u n e , 15.3s P e t e r G a u n t , a s t h e o t h e r s , c l i m b s on a d u n e , 15,2s l o o k s on a d e a d w o r l d w h i c h seems t o h i m b a d , 1 5 . 1 : C a d d s n e x t l i n e : ] a h , r a t s l i v e on no e v i l e v i l s t a r — 1 5 , 2 ; t h e o s t r i c h . The c i g a r e t t e ' s a C a m e l , 15.1: wondering at the a l m i g h t y ' s purpose, C l i n e r e p e a t s once! 1 5 . 1 : G a u n t b e c a u s e he s t a r v e s P e t e r b e c a u s e h a r d , 15,2: - though both a r e d i s c o u r a g e d h e r e , - wondering too 15.1s L e t u s g i v e h i m t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e d o u b t ; 15.1s S a y G a u n t was k i n d e r t o h i s S o l v e i g and A a s e ; 15,2s i n G e o r g i a i n t h e deep S o u t h i f n o t t h e f a r E a s t , —  II LETTER FROM OAXACA TO NORTH AFRICA  77  1936  LETTER FROM OAXACA TO NORTH AFRICA 1936  [16.3]  Martin I cannot say t o you, o l d f r i e n d , D e a r e s t o f a l l my f r i e n d s , t h a t I c a n s e e  5  You s o f t l y b o r n e o v e r a wayward s e a To t h i s a l c o h o l i c o r s a r d o n i c e n d , Or t h a t c o l i c s h o r e . . . I wish I c o u l d  10  Your image s t u d d e d . s o m e w h e r e i n t h e v o i d , Or u n d e r some s h i n i n g , o c e a n - s t o r m e d w a t e r p r o o f Or s h o o t i n g t h e g r e a t e r h o r n e d w h i f f e n p o o f . . . S e l a h . I s no "gnus good g n u s ? " Not a t a l l ! ( - A l l t h i s I f i n d upon an o b s c e n e w a l l ,  :  Written  by o n e ,  And s c r a w l e d Some s a y h i s  a spy,  Vigil  find  Forget,  i n b l o o d and u r i n e and h i s own s w e a t name was P e t e r G y n t o r G a u n t ,  15  He w r o t e t h e s e Nyasaland with  20  R e m e m b e r i n g o t h e r f r i e n d s and s o n s o f f i e n d s , And how much e l s e w h i c h d a r k and g o o d n e s s h o l d s , And h o p e w h i c h d i e s and y i e l d s , b u t n e v e r e n d s , O r , when i t d o e s , i t s b l e e d i n g p a s t defends...  Spain!  But h e r e  l i n e s and t h e n was p r o m p t l y s h o t . ) d e l i r i u m t r e m e n s and stamp a l b u m g i r a f f e s ? I h o l d my o b v e r s e  laughs,  - W e l l - what t h e h e l l - y e s , w h a t ! t h e g i r a f f e And t o o much l o n g i t u d e , by a l l T e h u a n t e p e c ,  25  30  35  40  45  50  -  has  a long  And i n f i n i t e t h e r a p e u t i c and a t e c h n i q u e , Demanding r e c i p r o c a l e x a c t i t u d e i n l o v e ' s a r i t h m e t i c . A h , y o u must be t h e N u b i a n t h r e e - h o r n e d To d e a l w i t h one s o f o r e a r m e d . Be f o r w a r n e d . . . S i n c e r e l y , I suggest she i s not toothsome, T o o much b e i n g a s k e d t o s a t i a t e h e r l o a t h s o m e , Her t h o u g h t s jump l i k e b e a n s when y o u s a y T i m b u c t o o , Her b o d y ' s s t r i p e d l i k e b o y s a t b l e a k H a r r o w , Or v i s i o n s o f t h e A l d e r s h o t t a t o o . Or, simply l i k e another g i r a f f e , i n another z o o . . . O a x a c a ? S i , O a x a c a , O a x . , Mex! Where i s O a x a c a , V i g i l , y o u a s k , what a n n e x , N i c h e , p i t c h , i s t h i s ? What a g e i s i t ? What s e x ? M e x i c o ? Is i t not t h e p l a c e of t h e lost? G o a l o f a l l A m e r i c a n s who want t o be d i v o r c e d : Of a l l Norsemen who want t o be u n n o r s e d : Of a l l h o r s e m e n , a l r e a d y u n h o r s e d : L i c e n c e s by L a w r e n c e , by p o u n c i n g s e r p e n t s e n d o r s e d . - Chingarn chingarn chingarn chingarn chingarn, In O a x a c a I s t r u m my bawdy t u n e , Which s a y s , l e t t h e r e be h a p p i n e s s f o r y o u , B u t d e l i v e r y , my f r i e n d , f r o m a n c i e n t h e a v e n , F o r God must know i t i s t o o b a d g e r y , And r e t r o s p e c t w i t h h a r p s and h a r p i e s t o o , A i l b o t c h e d and b u n g l e d w i t h c e l e s t i a l grind... Hush h u s h I h e a r t h e s o u n d o f l a s t , n o - t r u m p s ( T h a t s t r u m p e t s b i d b e f o r e t h e y go t o bawd Warmed by t h e b l o o d s t r e a m o f Wasserman t u r n i p s ? . . . ) Which a r e t h e m i l i t a r y p o l i c e . - How l o n g s i n c e I was l a s t i n h e l l , oh L o r d ? S i n c e t h e l a s t h e a r t b r e a k of a b r o k e n r e c o r d ?  neck  73  55  60  65  70  T h e l a s t memory o f a l o v e l y l a u g h i n g f a c e ? A l l l o s t i n m i s t r e s s t i m e and v i r g i n s p a c e . A h , g h o u l s a r e n u r s l i n g t o t h i s bosom. My h e a r t a widowed s p i d e r t r a p p i n g g r i e f , I t s s t r i n g s a r e wrung w i t h a g o n y o f E d L a n g , From f l o r i b u n d i a t o r o s e o f g a l l a n d l u n g , I t knows t h e d u n g e o n a n d must know t h e g u n . A h , M a r t i n , w o u l d I were i n B i r m i n g h a m , W i t h o l d c o m p l a i n t s and d u n s upon my p e n ! I l o v e t h e sun y e t I would t r a d e t h e sun F o r "In a M i s t " b y B e i d e r b e c k e ' s g h o s t , A break from " S i n g i n g t h e B l u e s " , a phrase from Bach, " W a l k i n g t h e Dog" i n 1 9 2 9 ; L i v e r p o o l ; F r a n k i e T r u m b a u e r ' s " I m a g i n a t i o n " , a n d good G o g o l ; For B i r m i n g h a m - e r r a t u m - e d g b a s t o n . . . I n v e r t e d we h a v e b e e n f r o m G r a n t c h e s t e r ! ...Strange,  I shall  know d e a t h  tomorrow,  which  siesta,  May t u r n o u t s i m p l y j u s t o n e more f i e s t a . . . ) And t h e n i g h t e d s t o r m g l i s t e n i n g on t h e wet f r u i t , And R a l p h a n d Bob and M a r g a r e t t o g r e e t , Quietly again, in rainy G i llot S t r e e t . . .  T from] to { 1 6 . 2 } T 1 7 . 2 : CIn L o w r y ' s h a n d a t t o p o f s h e e t : " D e d i c a t i o n t o M a r t i n & R a l p h " - two o f t h e C a s e b r o t h e r s . ] 14 16.2: [adds next l i n e : ] A r e you i n S p a i n , h e l l f i r e , L i b e r i a 42 45 70  m¥.] by { 1 6 . 2 } t o o ] t o {16.2} 16.1: . . . S t r a n g e ,  I shall  greet  death  to-morrow,  which  siesta  gruesome?  79  III THE GANTINAS  80  1934-36  [17,23  I How d i d  all  this  begin,  and why am I  here  A t t h i s a r c o f B a r w i t h i t s c r a c k e d brown Papegaai, Mezcal, Hennessey, C e r v e z a ,  Two s l i m e d s p i t t o o n s , no company b u t f e a r ; F e a r of l i g h t , of t h e S p r i n g , of t h e c o m p l a i n t Of b i r d s , a n d b u s e s f l y i n g t o f a r p l a c e s , And t h e s t u d e n t s g o i n g t o t h e r a c e s , Of g i r l s s k i p p i n g w i t h t h e w i n d i n t h e i r f a c e s ; B u t no c o m p a n y , no company b u t f e a r :  5  10  Fear  of  the  blowing  fountain,  T h a t know t h e s u n a r e These, dead, hours?  2 3 5  171 .: 171 .: 171 .:  and a l l  flowers  my e n e m i e s ,  a t t h i s a r c o f b a r w i t h i t s c r a c k e d brown p a i n t , papegaai, mezcal, hennessey, c e r v e z a , f e a r of l i g h t , of t h e s p r i n g , of t h e c o m p l a i n t  1937  [18.23  II  Above a l l , a b s e n t y o u r s e l f from t h a t a f f a i r , S w e d e n b o r g had s u c h h a l f w i s d o m ; t h o u g h t a h e a d . But Lawrence t h o u g h t b a c k w a r d ; w h i l e even S h a k e s p e a r e Shook i n t h e d a r k abysm p a s t t i m e ' s m a i d e n h e a d . D i d y o u know M a i d e n h e a d ? The R i c h m o n d G i r l s f a r e b e t t e r i n Mai da V a l e ; i n B a k e r S t r e e t T a k e S h e r l o c k home, v i s i t Madame T w o s o r e s , t h e wax d e a d . From t h e s e I e x p e c t l i t t l e , l e a s t of a l l , p l e a s u r e ; Three beers i n C h a r l o t t e S t r e e t , a Star at six o'clock,  5  10  7  paint?  And s i x p e n c e s t w o , one b r i g h t brown s h o e , and doom; And f o u r bad b o o k s and t h e t h o u g h t o f V e r m o n t , The s e a w o u l d be good t o h a v e , t o o , b u t a s h o c k To r e c e i v e . Thank y o u ; and s i m p l y t o c o u n t No money, i n s p e c t no h o t e l r o a m .  18.1;  take  Sherlock  home,  visit  Madame T w o s o r e s ;  & the  wax  dead,  III  1937  r 1 c oi  MEMORY OF THE HOSPITALITY OF AMERICAN BARMEN We r e s e r v e t h e r i g h t t o r e f u s e t o a n y o n e , Y e a h , and t h a t means y o u , f o u r e y e s , w i t h D o n ' t t e l l me y o u ' r e a d i a m o n d and p u t  I t on t h e s l a t e , or t h a t your h e a r t i s f a t , Or t h a t y o u r l a n d l o r d c a n ' t w a i t t o b r e a k i t . What's t h a t ? I t ' s broken a l r e a d y ? W e l l , t h a t ' s t h a t . A spade'11 p i c k your g r a v e i f g r a v e you m e r i t ; A s p a d e ' s a s p a d e , t h a t ' s what t h e y c a l l i t h e r e . We t e a c h 'em b u l l y t h e c a b b a g e , n e v e r y o u f e a r ; In God we t r u s t — b u t o n l y on t h e n i c k e l . W e l l , i f y o u had a b u c k t o o bad y o u s p e n t h e r , — B u t a l l who a s k f o r t r u s t d i s t r u s t i n h e r i t , And e v e n God i s f i c k l e .  5  10  T 1 6 13  pal. the wheels,  19.1; Cmissing] 19.1: ( - we r e s e r v e t h e r o t t o r e f u s e It's] i t s -C19.1} 1 9 . 1 : and e v e n god i s f i c k l e . - )  to  anyone,  IV  1937  pal.  C20.2]  When y o u were s t a r v i n g , y o u w a i t e d — how l o n g ? Two h o u r s ? B u t F e r n a n d e z P a s s a l i q u e , At. t h e c o r n e r o f M a i n , w a i t e d two y e a r s f o r a b r e a k . Perhaps t h i s i s not a s u b j e c t f o r a song, 5  But. now he i s s t a r v i n g a g a i n . I t i s a t r i c k To p a s s i n h i b i t o r y t i m e away? W e l l , t h e r a c k I s s t i l l u s e d i n T r u j i l l o . So be i t . R i n g Out, you b l e e d i n g b e l l s , over our t i m e ' s demise; Ring i n t h i s bad'Kentucky s t r a i g h t Bourbon.  10  M i n t S p r i n g s one p i n t and n i n e t y p r o o f o f w h a t ! R i n g i n , t o o , my c o r n k i n g a s s a s s i n , y o u d i s t i l l e r i e s , And c h u r c h e s , and by T o r t u r e , T o r t u , t h e S o r b o n n e , And S a n D o m i n g o , l e t u s brew one a l c o h o l i c t h o u g h t !  13  20.1,2:  and San D o m i n g o ,  let  u s brew an a l c o h o l i c  thought!  and  hell!  32  E21.23  v Shakespeare should H e r e he w o u l d h a v e He who l e a v e s a l l , ( T h e r e i s no rhyme  h a v e come t o A c a p u l c o ; -found a t i m e l e s s h e l l , Dean Donne s a i d , d o t h a s -for f o u l A c a p u l c o ,  well  —  Nor r e a s o n , e x p l e t i v e , save — Acapulco!) — As he who e a t s , d e v o u r s . He w o u l d s c a r c e l y h a v e l e f t F r u i t s here i n t h i s "seascape i n a b o t t l e ! " — (Or e s c a p e i n t o a m i l l i o n ! ) — q u o t e s : W e l l s F a r g o . P a r a i s o de C a l e t a , s e d u c e h i m t o y o u r b e d ! S u p p o s e i t . He w o u l d h a v e h e l d no h o r s e s , W r i t t e n no p l a y s . What c r e d i t o r w a n t s v e r s e s ? — G l o b e ? No G l o b e h e r e , n o t a s c e n i c a l s o u n d . A l l t h a t c o u l d h a v e b e e n s a i d i s what M a r s t o n s a i d : R i c h h a p p i n e s s t h a t such a son i s crowned.  VI But n e v e r f a l l f r o m f e a l t y t o l i g h t , You s a i d , M e l v i l l e ? Now, by G o d , s i r , why n o t ? The p a l l i s c o m f o r t a b l e enough; as soon r o t T h e r e a s a n o t h e r p l a c e ; o n c e b e i n g w e l l met The b e a u t y o f t h e d a r k i s . t h e r e ' s no s i g h t Of t h a t l i g h t y o u s p e a k o f ! What l a m p s a r e l i t S a v e no f a l l i n g f r o m f e a l t y t o i t When o n c e a c c e p t e d w h o l l y by t h e n i g h t . It i s a t r e a c h e r y t o t h e powers of h e l l To r e f r a i n a s y o u s u g g e s t , i s a t r e a s o n A g a i n s t t h e i n f e r n o whose j u d g e m e n t s w e l l F i t . t h e c r i m e ; whose m e r c y i s t e m p e r e d With f i r e — l i g h t enough f o r t h o s e unhampered By d a y . And t r u e t o u n r e a s o n .  E22.23  all  Most n a u s e o u s o f a l l d r i n k s , what i s y o u r s p e l l ? You a r e c h e a p , y o u a r e t h e whore o f p o t i o n s ; You a r e i m p a l a t a b l e , y o u a r e t h e way t o h e l l ; You a r e i n s a t i a b l e o f r a v a g e m e n t , y o u Are t h e worst of l i b a t i o n s ! T e q u i l a o f J a l i s c o , o f maguey, - ( i m a g e o f man T o r t u r e d , and t o s s i n g g a n g r e n e d h a n d s i n t h e s u n , H a l f - b u r i e d in the c r e p i t a n t desert sand!);How i s i t , p r e c i s e l y , we c a l l y o u o u r f r i e n d , When y o u r s a l t y j e s t i s t o c a l m o u r n e r v e s And t h e n t o s t o r m what p a s s e s f o r o u r homes? C h i n g a r n ! A s j e s t s go p e r h a p s t h i s i s a good j e s t To make a Bod o f man f i r s t , t h e n a f i e n d , So t h a t he f o r g e t s e v e n t h o s e he l o v e s , And w h i t h e r he c o m e s .  —  Under y o u r a c i d s p e l l , q u i t e w a n t i n g o n l y y o u , L o v i n g o n l y y o u , we w a i t o n l y o u r b a l m For the h e a r t ' s next r e c e s s i o n to i t s f a l s e calm. — B u t w o u l d y o u were o n l y f r i e n d , n o t m i s t r e s s t o o !  VI11  '  E24.2]  I h a v e known a c i t y o f d r e a d f u l n i g h t , D r e a d f u l l e r f a r t h a n K i p l i n g knew, o r Thomson . . . T h i s i s t h e n i g h t when h o p e ' s l a s t s e e d i s f l o w n From t h e e v a n e s c e n t mind o f w i n t e r ' s g r a n d s o n . In t h e d u n g e o n s h i v e r s t h e a l c o h o l i c c h i l d , C o m f o r t e d by t h e m u r d e r e r , s i n c e c o m p a s s i o n i s The n o i s e s of t h e n i g h t a r e c r i e s f o r h e l p From t h e town and f r o m t h e g a r d e n w h i c h e v i c t s  here those  too; who  destr  The p o l i c e m a n ' s shadow s w i n g s a g a i n s t h e w a l l , T h e l a n t e r n ' s shadow i s d a r k n e s s a g a i n s t t h e w a l l ; And on t h e c a t h e d r a l ' s c o a s t s l o w l y s w a y s t h e c r o s s W h i c h a r e w i r e s and t h e t a l l p o l e m o v i n g i n t h e w i n d And  I c r u c i f i e d between  two  continents.  B u t no m e s s a g e w h i n e s t h r o u g h f o r me h e r e , oh m u l t i t u d i n o u s , T o me h e r e , - ( w h e r e t h e y c u r e s y p h i l i s w i t h s l o a n s l i n e a m e n t , And c l a p , w i t h a n o t h e r d o s e . )  More d r e a d u l  far  than K i p l i n g  knew,  o r Thomson  84  IX  1937  C25.4]  THIRTY FIVE MESCALS IN CUAUTLA This  5  10  is  most  t e r r i b l e of  all.  You h e a r t h e s o u n d I mean on s h i p s and t r a i n s . You h e a r i t e v e r y w h e r e f o r i t i s doom; The t i c k o f r e a l d e a t h , n o t t h e t i c k o f t i m e , The t e r m i t e at t h e r o t t e n w a i n s c o t t i m b e r of t h e w o r l d , And i t i s d e a t h t o y o u t h o u g h w e l l y o u know The h e a r t ' s s i l e n t t i c k f a i l i n g a g a i n s t t h e c l o c k , I t s b e a t u b i q u i t o u s and s t i l l more s l o w , But s t i l l n o t t h e t i c k , t h e t i c k o f r e a l d e a t h , O n l y t h e t i c k of t i m e — s t i l l o n l y t h e h e a r t ' s chime When b o d y ' s a l a r m wakes w h i r r i n g t o t e r r o r . In t h e c a n t i n a t h r o b s t h e r e f r i g e r a t o r , While  15  ticking  against  the  street  the  gaunt  station  hums.  What c a n y o u s a y f a i r l y o f a b r o a d l i e u t e n a n t , With b l o o d y hand b e h i n d h i m , a c i g a r r o i n i t , But t h a t he b l o c k s a s q u a r e o f b r o k e n s u n l i g h t Where s c r a p s o f f r e e d o m s t r e a m a g a i n s t t h e g a l e  20  25  30  35  40  And l i g h t n i n g s c r a p e s b l u e s h o v e l s a g a i n s t c o a l ? The t h u n d e r b a t t e r s t h e S o t h i c m o u n t a i n s ; B u t why must y o u h e a r , h e a r and n o t know t h i s s t o r m , Seeing i t o n l y under the door, V i s i b l e i n synecdoches of wheels And k h a k i w a t e r s o u s i n g down t h e g u t t e r ? In r i p p l e s l i k e c l a w s t e a r i n g t h e w a t e r b a c k ? T h e w h e e l s smash a wake u n d e r t h e j a l o u s i e . The l i e u t e n a n t moves, b u t t h e d o o r s w i n g s t o . . . What o f a l l t h i s l i f e o u t s i d e , u n s e e n by y o u . Passed by, escaped from, or excluded By a p o s t u r e i n a d e s o l a t e b a r ? . . . No n e e d s t o s p e a k , c o n s e r v e a l a s t m i s t a k e ; Perhaps r e a l death's i n s i d e , don't l e t i t loose. The l i e u t e n a n t c a r r i e d i t i n t o t h e b a c k room? The u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s may mean i t , s o may t h e g l a s s . The g i r l r e f i l l s i t , p o u r s a g l a s s o f r e a l d e a t h , And i f t h e r e ' s d e a t h i n h e r t h e r e i s i n me. On t h e p i c t u r e d c a l e n d a r , s e t t o t h e f u t u r e , The two r e i n d e e r b a t t l e t o d e a t h , w h i l e man, The t i c k o f r e a l d e a t h , n o t t h e t i c k o f t i m e , H e a r i n g , t h r u s t s h i s c a n o e i n t o a moon, R i s e n t o b r i n g us m a d n e s s none t o o s o o n .  N o t e : Soma was m y s t i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e moon, who c o n t r o l s ?< whose c u p i s e v e r f i l l i n g & e m p t y i n g , a s he waxes & w a n e s .  vegetation  85  T  1 2 3-4 5  6 7 8 9-10 10 11 13 14 15  16-18 19-30 19  2023 24 25 26 31 32 33 34 36-  25.1: 25.2:  Prelude to Mescal  another  Mescal:  an empty b a r  in  drink in  Cuautla  In an empty b a r r o o m T h e end The C a l e n d a r 25.3: Twenty n i n e T e q u i l a s 2 5 . 1 : T h i s t i c k i n g i s t h e most t e r r i b l e o f a l l 2 5 . 1 : You h e a r t h i s s o u n d on s h i p s , y o u h e a r i t on t r a i n s 25.1: [missing] 2 5 . 1 : It i s the death-watch b e e t l e at the r o t t e n timber of 2 5 . 2 : t h e death watch b e e t l e at t h e t i m b e r of t h e w o r l d ; 25,3: t h e d e a t h watch b e e t l e at t h e w o r l d ' s t i m b e r , 25.4: 25,1: 25.2:  the death And i t i s and i t i s  watch death death  b e e t l e at t h e r o t t e n t i m b e r of t o y o u t o o ; f o r w e l l y o u know t o y o u f o r w e l l y o u know  25,1: 25.2:  That the h e a r t ' s t i c k i s f a i l i n g a l l the w h i l e the h e a r t s s i l e n t t i c k i s f a i l i n g against the c l o c k  world,  2 5 . 1 : A l w a y s u b i q u i t o u s & s t i l l more s l o w , 2 5 , 2 : a l w a y s u b i q u i t o u s and s t i l l more s l o w 25.1: [missing] 2 5 , 2 : not t i c k of t i m e , 25.1,2: [missing] 2 5 , 1 : And a g a i n s t t h e s t r e e t t h e g a u n t s t a t i o n hums, 2 5 , 1 : What c a n y o u s a y f a i r l y o f a f a t man 2 5 . 1 ; W i t h a b e n t hand b e h i n d h i m & a c i g a r e t t e i n i t ? 2 5 . 2 ; w i t h a b r o k e n hand b e h i n d him and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? w i t h a c r u e l hand b e h i n d h i m and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? w i t h a m e c h a n i c hand b e h i n d h i m and a c i g a r r o i n i t ? 25.1,2: [missing] 25.1: [missing] 2 5 . 2 : o r of t h e t h u n d e r i n t h e G o t h i c mountains [adds next l i n e s ] the C u a u t l a towers c r a s h i n g a g a i n s t thunder the Cuautla towers plunging against thunder -22 2 5 . 2s [missing] 2 5 , 2s o f k h a k i w a t e r s o u s i n g down t h e g u t t e r 25. o , r i p p l e s l i k e claws t e a r i n g the water back, B c a t s s m a s h i n g wake u n d e r t h e j a l o u s i e , JI- v— a 1  T h e w h e e l s smash wake u n d e r t h e j a l o u s i e . [mi s s i n g ] Yet. d e a t h i s i n t h e r o o m , t h e r e i s d e a t h e v e r y w h e r e : r e a l d e a t h ' s i n s i d e no n e e d t o l e t i t l o o s e T h a t man c a r r i e s i t t h o u g h I c a n n o t s e e h i s f a c e : the l i e u t e n a n t c a r r i e s i t though I c a n ' t see h i s f a c e •i-i-J n r> ii 1: The u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s mean i t , i t i s i n t h e g l a s s , 2 5 , o» t h e u p t u r n e d s p i t t o o n s mean i t s o d o e s t h e g l a s s 2 5 , l 2 s t h e g i r l who r e - f i l l s i t p o u r s a g l a s s o-f d e a t h 1: [ c o n t a i n s only:] -40 On t h e c a l e n d a r , s e t t o t h e f u t u r e , t h e two s t a g s b a t t l e 25. 25. 2 5 . 1; 25, 2 5 . 1;  ?  To d e a t h s man p a d d l e s h i s c o r a c l e Which, seen a l s o i n the l i g h t , i s  36 39  the  the  25, 25.  Note]  1  n  On t h e c a l e n d a r , hearing, thrusts  [missing]  {25,3}  set his  to as  t h e moon divisible  to the future, canoe i n t o the  moon,  as'death.  86  E26.43  1936  AT THE BAR D r u n k a r d s of  salt  water,  thirsty  for  disaster,  D e r e l i c t s do n o t dream o f b e i n g s h i p s : N e v e r d o e s c a l a m i t y f o r s a k e them F o r t h e h u s h o f t h e s w i f t and t h e l o o k - o u t ' s N e u r o t i c i n A t l a n t i c of a d e a t h . Bereaved  but  avid  of  another's  all's  well:  breath,  Swimming w i t h b l a c k g e n i u s u n d e r b l a c k w a t e r s , And b u r i e d s t a n d i n g up l i k e Ben J o n s o n , Though e i g h t e e n p e n c e i s h e r e a t o t a l loss; 10  T  And T a r q u i n c e r t a i n o f While o t h e r s grope the  26.1:  Only  god  a r a v i s h a b l e prey; r a i l s , r i g i d with gazing  down.  knows how  XI  1937  [27.7(5)3  [1313  DELIRIUM IN VERA CRUZ Where h a s t e n d e r n e s s g o n e , he a s k e d t h e m i r r o r Of t h e B i l t m o r e H o t e l , c u a r t o 2 1 6 . Alas, Can i t s r e f l e c t i o n l e a n a g a i n s t t h e g l a s s Too, w o n d e r i n g where I h a v e g o n e , i n t o what h o r r o r ?  10  7 9  10 13 14  I s t h a t it. s t a r i n g a t me now w i t h t e r r o r Behind your f r a i l t i l t e d b a r r i e r ? Tenderness Was h e r e , i n t h i s v e r y r e t r e a t , i n t h i s P l a c e , i t s f o r m s e e n , c r i e s h e a r d , by y o u . What e r r o r I s h e r e ? Am I t h a t f o r k e d r a s h e d i m a g e ? Is t h i s t h e g h o s t of l o v e w h i c h you r e f l e c t e d ? Now w i t h a b a c k g r o u n d o f t e q u i l a , s t u b s , d i r t y c o l l a r s , S o d i u m p e r b o r a t e , and a s c r a w l e d p a g e To t h e d e a d , t e l e p h o n e disconnected? ...He smashed a l l t h e g l a s s i n t h e r o o m . ( B i l l : $50.)  2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : Was h e r e , i n t h i s v e r y b e d r o o m , i n t h i s 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : I s h e r e ? Am I t h a t r a s h e d i m a g e ? 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : Is t h i s t h e ghost of t h e l o v e you r e f l e c t e d ? 2 7 . 1 , 2 , 3 : To t h e d e a d , t e l e p h o n e o f f t h e h o o k ? In r a g e He  smashed  all  the  glass  in  the  room.  (Bill:  $50.)  87  XII  1936  5  [28.3]  DOCTOR USQUEBAUGH The doom o-f e a c h , s a i d D o c t o r U s q u e b a u g h , Q u i t e c l e a r l y b i d s our l o u t i s h bones t o s t a r e . T r u e , d r i n k ' s u n f r u i t f u l on a l a r g e r s c a l e ; I t s m u s i c i s an e q u i n o c t i a l gale; S t i l l , unembarrassing: and, pro-founder, O u t w i n d s t h e r a n g e of C u p i d ' s o r g a n g r i n d e r . I f worms a r e s a b b a t i c a l i n a d r u n k a r d ' s dream No f o u l e r ' s t h i s t h a n l o v e ' s n o c t u r n a l game, S i n c e dream of l o v e i t i s , l o v e of t h e p i t  10  F o r i t s own s a k e , t h e v i r g i n i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t , Whose a b y s s i s a womb s h a l l n o t d e n y A wintry plunge to nescient ecstacy, Unsheathed entrance to the s p i r i t ' s T a r q u i n , But f e a t h e r l e s s and f r e e f r o m o v e r t d i n ,  15  Extending a p l a t t e r e d Lucrece with ferment, Yet d e e p e r t h a n s h e , and r i c h w i t h m o i s t consent. . . . S o w e l l m i g h t we i n q u i r e , c o n t e n t t o r o t , What do y o u o f f e r , l o v e , w h i c h d r i n k d o e s n o t ?  1937  XIII  [29.7]  THE LAST MAN IN THE DOME  5  10  Where i s t h e f i n e l y d r u n k ? I s t h e g r e a t d r u n k a r d ? T h i s imponderable small mystery P e r p l e x e s me a t m i d n i g h t c o n s t a n t l y ; - Where i s he g o n e and t a k i n g whence h i s t a n k a r d ? Where a r e t h e y a l l g o n e , my f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ? T h e y moan no more a t b a r s , n o n e p u t t o s e a ; A s h a k e o f t h e w i l l and t h e y dream most easily, L i v e r s at l a s t of l i v e s f o r which t h e y hankered E n d l e s s c o r r i d o r s of b o o t s t o l i c k , Or a t t h e e n d o f them a l l t h e P o p e ' s toe. Where a r e y o u r f r i e n d s , y o u f o o l ? y o u h a v e b u t And t h a t a f r i e n d who a l s o makes y o u s i c k I f much l e s s s i c k t h a n t h e y ; and t h i s I know, S i n c e I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d : I d r i n k a l o n e .  T] [ m i s s i n g ] C25.4; i n L o w r y ' s hand "The l a s t c a l l e d T h e l a s t man i n t h e Dome."} T 29.1: Prelude to another drink 2 9 . 2 : T h e man who h a d n o t h e a r d o f t h e war The l a s t man a t t h e Dome 2 9 . 5 , 6 : The L a s t Drunkard  drunkard  one,  should  be  83  1 3 5  2 9 . 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 6 : Where i s t h e - f i n e l y d r u n k ? Where i s t h e g r e a t d r u n k a r d ? 2 9 . 5 , 6 s c o n - f o u n d s an e x - g o b w o r s e t h a n h i s t o r y . 29.3: Where a r e a l l g o n e , my - f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ? 2 9 . 5 , 6 : Where a r e a l l my f r i e n d s , t h e g r e a t u n a n c h o r e d ?  6  2 9 . 1 : T h e y d r i n k no more: t h e y go t o bed a t t h r e e 2 9 . 5 , 6 : T h e y moan no more a t b a r s : t h o u g h t h i s s t o r y  7  29.1: In t h e a f t e r n o o n y e t d r e a m more e a s i l y 2 9 . 5 , 6 : F a i l s to t e l l i f they q u i t the Battery 2 9 . 5 , 6 : To l i v e t h a t d r e a m f o r w h i c h t h e i r s o u l s h a n k e r e d 2 9 . 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 : Of e n d l e s s c o r r i d o r s o f b o o t s t o l i c k , 2 9 . 5 , 6 : Or a t t h e end o f them a l l t h e M a t e ' s t o e . 2 9 . 5 , 6 : I f much l e s s s i c k t h a n t h e y . I r a i s e my g l a s s 2 9 . 1 : S i n c e I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d . And I d r i n k a l o n e . 2 9 , 5 , 6 s I am t h e l a s t d r u n k a r d . I d r i n k a l o n e .  8 9 10 13 14  IV SONBS FDR SECOND CHILDHOOD  90  1934-36  I  C30.33  L e a d w e r e t h e i r - f e e t , and l e a d t h e i r h e a r t and b o n e , T h e i r d r e a m e d - o f p o r t was l e a d b u t t h e i r s h i p s were s t o n e ; T h e i r h o u s e s a l l w i t h l e a d e n s h a p e s o f doom, Were h a u n t e d i n t h e l e a d e n W e s l e y a n g l o o m . 5  T h e i r c h i l d h o o d ' s s c r i b b l e p e n c i l e d out t h e i r p a i n , But s e r v e d n o t o b s o l e s c e n c e t i m e n o r g a i n ; T h e i r s h i p s were s t o n e b e c a u s e t h e i r C h u r c h was r o c k . L e t G r e e k meet G r e e k , r o c k r o c k , now f i n d t h e w r e c k ! T h e i r l i p s were c r a c k e d and m o u l d e d h a l f t o p r a y To g e n i u s f o u n d e r e d on t h e i d i o t way; Were t h e y l o s t t o o ? None c l a i m e d t h e m , were t h e y d r o w n e d ; T h e y w e r e n o t l o s t , b u t n e i t h e r were t h e y f o u n d .  10  T h e y were n o t f o u n d ! No t r a c e of them b e t r a y s T h a t t h r o u g h a s l e e k e d and m o l t e n s e a o f l i e s They sank, u n c a r e d p r o d i g i e s of t h e dead, W e i g h e d down by an e t e r n i t y o f l e a d .  15  4 4  Wesleyan] 30.1,2,3:  Weslyan were h a u n t e d  in  1937  the  precise  Weslyan  II  gloom.  [31.2]  The t o r t u r e s o f h e l l a r e s t e r n , t h e i r f i r e s b u r n f i e r c e l y , Y e t v u l t u r e s t u r n a g a i n s t t h e a i r more b e a u t i f u l l y Than s e a g u l l s f l o a t downwind i n c o o l s u n l i g h t , Qr f a n s i n a s y l u m s s p i n a loom o f f a t e F o r h o p e w h i c h n e v e r v e n t u r e d up s o h i g h  5  As  life's  1937  deception,  astride  the  vulture's  III The And The And  Is  [32.2]  d e a d man s a t i n t h e s u n mourned what he had d o n e ; l i v e man s a t on t h e g r a v e , t h a n k e d God he had b e e n b r a v e .  L i v e and d e a d men b o t h E x c h a n g e i m p a r t i a l dooms In t h e d a n c e o f s u n l i g h t on In t h e d a n c e o f s u n l i g h t on  and t h a n k e d  god he had been  flight.  earth, tombs.  brave.  91  1938  [33.5]  IV CURSE  T e n d e r meat w e r e y o u t o s n o u t e d b o y s —Oh l i t t l e Wesleyan p a y i n g the savage p i p e r — G a s p i n g i n t h e d a r k by t h e t e n n i s c o u r t J e e r e d a t -for y o u r - f r a i l t y o r y o u r se;:, 5  By b a d g e d  boy  scouts  with  notched  totems f o r  sadism:  I d i o t be p r e p a r e d b u t n o t f o r t h i s Ambush o f a n g u i s h r e v e a l e d b y t h e p a t r o l s n e e r Of t i g e r , w o l f , l i o n , s t o a t , and t h e d o v e Q u i t e l o s t whether of peace or war, 10  The w h i r r i n g of t h e c h a p e l b e l l ' s amaze, S t o p p e d t h e h e a r t a s n e v e r mouth s t o p p e d w i t h k i s s . L i f t i n g your uncracked v o i c e i n broken p r a i s e , Your s e l f s t r u g g l i n g i n t h e f r o z e n h e a r t ' s fissure,— T h e l a d d e r s r u n g e d a g a i n s t i t were woman's h a n d s  15  That  numbed i n  curious  rings  before  they  touched—  Or p r a y i n g i n i c y s i l e n c e f o r c o m p a s s i o n , Through b u r s t b l a i n e d f i n g e r s s q u i n t i n g i n i c y s i l e n c e A t s o m e t h i n g h a l f a f a c e and h a l f a bum, You r e m e m b e r e d t h e o a t h : a g a i n s t y o u r s my w o r s t 20  P a t h f i n d e r o f moons i n c h a p e l o r a s y l u m ! — And s n a r l e d l i k e Adams t o no human b e a s t .  T] Cmissing] {33.4} T 33,2,3,5: [missing] I 3 3 , 4 , 5 : T e n d e r meat y o u were t o s n o u t e d b o y s 5 3 3 , 2 : by b a d g e d b o y s c o u t s - w i t h t o t e m s f o r s a d i s m 7 3 3 , 2 : ambush o f a n g u i s h a d v a n c i n g w i t h f o u l cries 8 3 3 , 2 : of t i g e r s t o a t l i o n wolf & p u r r i n g dove II 3 3 . 2 : s t o p p e d h e a r t a s n e v e r y o u r mouth was s t o p p e d w i t h 13 33.2: your s e l f s t r u g g l i n g i n the f r o z e n h e a r t s fissure 15-21 33.2: [missing] 20 21  33,4: 33.4:  kiss  Pathfinder [missing]  T h e s t o n e must be r o l l e d away f r o m s e l f ' s p a i n , Or y o u , my d e a r J o n e s , w e l l t h o u g h y o u h a v e s u n g , W i l l become, as i t were, a s o r t of p e l i c a n , Who, p l u n g i n g h e r beak i n h e r b r e a s t , y e t f e e d s no y o u n g And a l l t h i s on some s e a - m a r g i n s h e knows b a r r e n Of -food, t h o u g h d i v e s and w h e e l s a n d w h e e l s and d i v e s a g a i n .  C35.23  VI As t h e  p o o r end of  He t r i e d t o c o u n t No R u p e r t B r o o k e , Remembered l i t t l e H i s s o u l had n e v e r And he w o u l d s e l l  each  d e a d d a y drew  near,  t h e t h i n g s w h i c h he h e l d d e a r ; and no g r e a t l o v e r , he of s i m p l i c i t y . b e e n empty o f f e a r , i t t h r i c e now f o r a t a n k a r d o f  beer  He seemed t o h a v e known no l o v e , t o h a v e v a l u e d d r e a d A b o v e a l l human f e e l i n g s . He l i k e d t h e d e a d ; T h e g r a s s was n o t g r e e n , n o t e v e n g r a s s t o h i m ; Nor was s u n , s u n ; r o s e , r o s e ; s m o k e , smoke; l i m b , limb.  and he  would s e l l  it  thrice  now f o r  a tarot  of  beer  [36.21  VII T h e s u n s h i n e s ; where i s t h e l y r i c ? Moon, s t a r s , e t c . p r o d u c e no p a n e g y r i c .  Now we h a v e t h e s u n i t ' s t h e l a s t t h i n g we w a n t ; I f O s w a l d , ( " G h o s t s " ) , h a d i t , he w o u l d r e s e n t I t ; w o u l d g i v e i t away t o a n o t h e r g h o s t . Somewhere, p e o p l e m a r c h i n g . . . T h e w o r l d w i l l content. I t s e l f with i t s e l f again, t h i n k i n g i t s e l f excellent.  if If  Oswald Oswald  ( G h o s t s ) , had i t , he w o u l d r e s e n t ( i n G h o s t s ) , had i t , he w o u l d r e s e n t  [37.2]  VIII  The g e n t l e n e s s o f r a i n i s i n t h e w i n d , S h e l l e y ' s e l i d e d fragment s t a r s the mind; T o g e t h e r w i t h K a f k a ' s by any o t h e r r o u t e , He w o u l d h a v e r e a c h e d t h e C a s t l e . A s w e l l a s Some d i s p u t e d s m i t h e r e e n s by S h a k e s p e a r e A m b i g u o u s s o u v e n i r s o f James o r J o n e s , C a s t up by a b o u n d e d o c e a n o f t h o u g h t Dn b l a n k s h o r e s where t h e s o u l seems b o u n d l e s s , L i k e man, t h e e x t r a v a g a n c e o f c r e a t i o n . Phrases rejected for a trochee's sake B o b b i n g l i k e c o r k s on m a r g i n s o f v o l u m e s , May mark d e p t h s w h e r e t h e c a u g h t i a m b i c g l i t t e r s ; Or one f l y i n g l i n e among s u c h f r a g m e n t s S o a r on f o r e v e r l i k e t h e B i r d o f P a r a d i s e . It  is  my j o y  to  core  the  world  as  such  93  A rounded phrase i n God's black Remembered, b u t a b a n d o n e d t o r a As s u c h , Yet  12 IS  37.2: 37.1:  mankind's  claimed  by u s ,  alternative  manuscript fairer, of  God,  and t h o u g h t f u l l y  May mark d e p t h s where t h e i a m b i c as such mankind's a l t e r n a t i v e of  conserved.  glitters; god,  IX  1937  C38,23  THE SAILORS — Thou p r o m o n t o r y Show u s t h e t r a c k ; Tell Tell 5  dreadfuller  u s , t h e sea-doomed t o a s t u f f e d us t h e t r i c k . T i e r r a del Fuego.  — H e r e i s t h e c u r v e when B e a u t i f u l and c l e a r ; This 10  15  20  30  too  Tell  us,  mattress,  young,  before — The b o s u n . — E i g h t b e l l s , where a r e we, men? T i e r r a del Fuego. — Y o u r s h i p makes h e r v e r o n i c a and In F u e g o t h i s c h i l l y b u l l bows. Farewell —  35  is  Hatteras,  often sung. The s a i l o r s , — T h i s r a t h e r we w o u l d know b e f o r e w e ' r e g o n e ; Which i s t h e c a p e and w h i c h t h e h o r n ? T i e r r a del Fuego. — T h e t r i c k when l i f e i s d o n e ? Then c a p e a n d h o r n a r e o n e ; I s t h a t what y o u mean? The s a i l o r s . — No! Tierra- del Fuego. — No t i m e ! T h e r e i s y o u r c a p e f u l l - b e l l i e d ; S t r i d e t h o u now f o r New Y o r k ; The w a t c h e s a r e r a l l i e d , And t h e c r o w d a t w o r k . The s a i l o r s . —  25  than  But  till  the next time! The s a i l o r s .  —  T i e r r a del Fuego. — W a i t f o r no p l a u d i t s r i n g i n g ! S t r i d e o n , t h o u g h f a r be t h e l a n d i n g F o r y o u , and t h e b u n t i n g w a v i n g Where a t t h e b e n d i n g - of t h e b a y Your l o v e i s standing; Where e n d s t h e c u r v e ,  goes,  94  40  Begins  new s h i p ' s wave. The b o s u n . — Y e s , and when t h e c u r v e ' s s q u e e z e d Where t h e n ' s y o u r h o r n , and w h i c h t h e  23  sailors.]  the  X  C39.2]  He p l a y s t h e p i a n o w i t h a r a z o r , The c o n c e r t i n a w i t h a p a i r of scissors; A rigadoon for a l l h i s customers, He i s t h e Sweeney Todd o f i m p r o v i s e r s ! T h o u g h a l l men f e a r t h i s p o o r r e l a t i o n ,  5  H i s keener music g i v e s a s t r a n g e sensation; Defying a l l anatomization, Beckoning l i k e ambiguous sounds, H e a r d by t h o s e who d w e l t w i t h C y c l o p s and f i e n d s , And d i e d on p e r f u m e d s e a s w i t h s t i n k i n g w o u n d s . . . Under t h e r a z o r , under t h e b r o k e n l i g h t Of t h i s g i b b e r i n g w o r l d we s h a l l fall Thus e n t i c e d , i n t o t h e s w i n g i n g c h a i r t o w a i t ; Read m a d n e s s ; w a t c h s e l f ; a c c e p t n o t h i n g ; a c c e p t a l l  10  T o d d ] Tod  1937  XI  T H E  D E V L I W A S  E40.3]  A G E N T L E M A N  The d e v i l was a g e n t l e m a n , He t r i e d t o r a i s e h i s h a t , B u t it. g o t c a u g h t upon o n e He h a d n ' t t h o u g h t o f t h a t . 5  shape,  sailors  1934-36  4  out of cape?  horn,  The d e v i l was a g e n t l e m a n , T h o u g h most a n o n y m o u s , D a n t e s q u e l y l o v e d a woman, She p r o v e d a s c o l d a s i c e .  10  S t i l l , t h e d e v i l was So c o u l d n o t keep i t  15  Grotesquely tugging, broke the And t h e l a d y had g o n e . And now he was a d e v i l To make t h e w h o l e w o r l d s m i l e ; No more s t a l k e d s u b t l e e v i l , Under  the  infernal  a gentleman, on;  tile.  crown  -  95  Bowing b e f o r e a m i r r o r , To o b s e r v e h i s g e h e n n a e d b e a r d ; He s t a r t e d b a c k w i t h t e r r o r , T h i s was w o r s e t h a n t h e o l d f i e n d  20  feared.  He knew t h a t he h a d r u i n e d H i s h a t , s o b r u i s e d and t o r n , B u t Oh my G o d , t o have, p r o f a n e d Not o n l y h a t , b u t h o r n ! 25  T  So a h a t l e s s , o n e - h o r n e d demon L i m p e d s o u r l y among men; W h i l e t h e rumor s l o w l y d i e d q u i t e He h a d b e e n a g e n t l e m a n .  40.1:  [missing]  21 22  40.1,2: 40.1,2:  He knew w e l l he h a d r u i n e d t h e p o o r h a t he h a d worn  23  40.1,2:  but not that  1937-38  down,  he h a d s o  profaned  XII  [41.3]  He w r o t e f o r t h e d e a d , b u t t h e u b i q u i t o u s d e a d L i k e d t h e i r own w i s d o m , a n d p r e f e r r e d t h e i r b e d ; He w r o t e f o r t h e b l i n d , y e t t h e p o l y g o n o u s b l i n d Had r i c h e r , t h i c k e r t h i n g s j u s t t h e n i n m i n d ; 5  He w r o t e f o r t h e dumb, b u t t h e g o l d e n - v o i c e d dumb Were s i n g i n g t h e i r own s o n g s a n d c o u l d n o t come; So he w r o t e f o r t h e u n b o r n , s i n c e s u r e l y , A t l e a s t t h e y ' r e n e i t h e r dumb, n o r b l i n d ,  1937  XIII  it is said, nor dead.  [42.2]  Oh, p y r e o f B i e r c e and s p r i n g b o a r d o f H a r t C r a n e ! I w i l l n o t d i e h e r e ! He p r a y e d f o r h i s i l l l i f e . T h i s i s f a r f r o m home, by C h r i s t ! t o d i e s o , Too f a r from l o v e , l a n e , s a n i t y , wife. 5  He t r e m b l e d . B u t h i s h u r d l i n g O l y m p i c b r a i n R a c e d w i t h t h e i m p o n d e r a b l e a t h l e t e doom, To be o f l i f e o n c e more t h e b r i d e g r o o m , And r a n d e a t h down a n d r a n h i m t o d e f e a t . . . "But n o t d e f e a t o f s u c h d o l e f u l w r e a t h i n g , "  10  Grinned death, (a s a r d o n i c l o s e r ) , "Of f a c e s And E n g l i s h s t o n e s , w i t h s m i l e s a n d f l o w e r s , a s g r a c e s My s l o w p r i z e d a y a t home f o r s t o p p i n g b r e a t h i n g , S u c h a s a l l who h a v e b e e n b u r i e d u n d e r t h e f o r g e t - m e - n o t . W i l l t e l l you of j o v i a l l y ; and w e l l t h e y s h o u l d know."  96  1934-36  XIV  ' C43.3]  Time e n t e r e d t h e s t u f f e d c o u r t , s l o w l y s w e a r i n g : - - I h a v e , he a d d e d , d r i p p e d my s o f t snow Too l o n g f o r t h o s e who f i n d o u r l i f e p a s t b e a r i n g , T r e a d i n g down i n t h e y e a r ' s d r i f t s t h e i r b l a c k woes 5  And l o n g e n o u g h h a v e t u r n e d t h e d a y t o d o l l a r F o r s o l d i e r s p e n d t h r i f t r o g u e and b a t t e r e d s c h o l a r , Been s p e l l e d , by t h e e c h o i n g b e l l , i n t h e s h i p ' s p i t c h , T o l l e d agony t o f a r s c h o o l m a t e s i n g r e e n v e t c h , F o r a l l t h a t I am a f a k e h e a l e r o f c r a c k e d h e a r t s ,  10  V a m p i r e d and c o u n t e r w h o r e d b y a f a l s e name Most m e r d u r i n o u s s and s o t h e f a t e s C o n t r i v e d , f o r a poor dream, a famous c r i m e ; T h o u g h l o v e ' s w r e n c h e d h o u g h s my c a t a p l a s m s h a v e Now t h a t I l o v e , my L o r d , I must be s l a i n .  1934-36  known,  C44.23  XV  L o a t h i n g i s as b e a u t i f u l as t h e s c o u r g e Of w i n d on f r e i g h t e r s a t dawn, b u t more s t r a n g e . D e c e n c y ' s l a n d l o r d i n v e i g h s against, f o r c e , W h i l e we d e t e s t most what we w o u l d e m b r a c e ; 5  Seek, though eschewing i n advance, a d v i c e . . . Y e t now p e n t a m e t r e s h a l l s c a n o u r h a t e F o r t h o s e whose s o b e r and p i a t o n i c l i p s , Dryer than broken t r u m p e t s i n pawnshops. C o n f i r m o u r e a s e among t h e s t r i d e n t w o r s t ;  10  S u c h l i p s w e r e n e v e r made f o r l o v e t o b i t e That o f f e r ashes t o immedicable t h i r s t , U n c a l l e d f o r s e r v i c e b o t h t o l i f e and d e a t h ; B e t t e r t o be s a l v a g e d by t h e a c c u r s e d And s u c c o u r e d by t h e f o u l n e s s o f t h e i r b r e a t h .  11  44.1:  [adds  next  line:]  unwelcome  service  this  to  life  and  death,  XVI  1936  [45.23  A n o t h e r t h a n W o r d s w o r t h d r o p p e d h i s l i v e work To l i s t e n t o t h e w i n d ' s s h r i e k o f u p r o o t e d t r e e s , And v e s s e l s ' smashed b a c k s u n d e r p o r t e n t o u s s e a s S c r a b b l i n g with s h a r k s as Rydal h i v e s with bees, 5  The O h i o smoking  10  Of r o c k , l i g h t n i n g a l e a s h s n a r l e d by f o r c e A t t h e b o u n d i n g n e c k o f S o d ' s mad d o g , t h e d a r k ; The u n i v e r s e s n a p p i n g l i k e h o u n d s a t some d r e a d g r o o m . I b e l i e v e t h a t Wordsworth thought of t h e c a l m . . . B u t t o a n o t h e r b l e s s i n g c h a o s , s i n c e i t must h o r r i d l y drown  15  In h u r l e d g u l e s o f c o n f l i c t ' s f l e s h , h i s own s t r i k e Of t h e h o u r , h i s own g r i e f , no p e a c e f u l lake L i g h t s by s t o r m ' s f l a s h . S u c h i s t h e n a t u r e o f h i s doom T h a t l i k e some i n f a n t A e o l u s Dowson i n t e m p e s t ' s t a v e r n , He c l a p s f o r b e t t e r t h u n d e r , w i l d e r t y p h o o n .  3 9  i n F r i s c o on a s h a r p  vessels'3 vessel's 45.1; I t h i n k t h a t Wordsworth thought  of  the  XVII  1936  pen  calm...  [46.23  DELIRIUM IN LOS ANGELES  5  " I n f o r m a l " ( d a n c i n g on t h e z e b r a f l o o r ) Seemed f i r s t , — i t was an e l e c t r i c sign—"infernal": T h e n , t h e n e x t s t r e e t t o t h e b a r , came " V i g i l " , Which r e a l l y was " V i r g i l " by V e r m o n t . S t . V i t u s of t h e C i t y of A n g l e s ! . . . W u r l i t z e r t u r n e d "howitzer", from i t s bung, B l a s t e d a b o i s t e r o u s bomb a t t h e b a r . At t h e b l u e c l o c k w i t h v e r m i l i o n p e n d u l e Hangs man's " p u b l i c i n q u i r y of t h e h o u r , "  10  The g o o s e b l u e c l o a k s w i n g s h i g h a g a i n s t t h e d o o r . . . In t h e t r a v e l a g e n t ' s window, " q u e s t f o r b e a u t y " I n d i s t i n c t , one t h i n k s how two s a b l e s t e e d s Were l o s t i n a c i r c l e unkown t o D a n t e ; • But d e l i r i u m ' s on t h e m a r c h , we a r e wrong  15  Nevertheless  these  three  dark  words  proved  right.  T 46.1: [missing3 9-10 4 6 . 2 : Hung m a n ' s " p u b l i c i n q u i r y o f t h e h o u r . " The g o o s e b l u e c o a t swung h i g h a g a i n s t t h e 11 agent's3 11-13 46.2:  agents On t h a t And one through  door,.,  t r a v e l a g e n t s window, i n d i s t i n c t , "Quest f o r b e a u t y " t h i n k s how two s a b l e s t e e d s were l o s t g a p s i n b r o k e n h e a r t s u n v o y a g e d t h r o u g h by D a n t e .  98  XVIII  1934-36  C47.3]  - - Where do y o u come -from? T h e l a n d o f E p i g r a m , Or C o n n e c t i c u t ? I am f r o m H i n n o m : E d u c a t e d , N a n t u c k e t and B e l l e v u e ; A t C a p e Cod c o m m i t t e d my f i r s t m u r d e r , In a w i n d m i l l . Of c o u r s e , I m u r d e r e d y o u I What, i s i t l i k e t o be d e a d ? H a v e y o u a p l a n c h e t t e l A raspai.1 i n heaven or a b a l musette?  5  - - I f I am d e a d , y o u n g J u d a s , I ' v e b e e n d e a d e r In y o u r b e d r a g g l e d , i n s e c t u o u s , c o u n t r y . . .  10  Further,  I dwell  on t h a t  declivity  of  life  Where w e e p i n g ( H e r f o r d ' s ) w i l l o w s r o c k and l a u g h , And l a z a r e n e h y e n a s s o f t l y weep U n d e r t h e m , e v e n a s y o u , on H e b e p h r e n e ' s s t e e p .  10  1937  47.1:  in  your bed-wraggled  insectuous  country...  XIX P i g l i n g , p i g l i n g , burning bland, On A r a b i a ' s c o r a l s t r a n d ; What i m m o r t a l s t a t i o n p i e , Dare frame thy f r i g h t f u l p i g g e r y ?  [48.21  99  THE COMEDIAN  I  [49.23  You w e r e i n h e l l - f i r e ? had b e e n a l l y o u r l i f e ? And t h o u g h t t h a t n o t h i n g had b e e n f o r g e d t h e r e ? I s e e a weapon m o u l d e d f r o m t h a t f i r e S t r o n g e r t h a n a n y swords t h a t d e a d l i e r k n i f e Of k e e n wisdom w h i c h f l a y e d y o u r s o u l strife With flame i n the p i t c o u l d not w h o l l y t i r e . T a k e t h a t s o u l and s t r i p i t down t o t h e c o r e W i t h new s t e e l a s o t h e r s who b u r n t b e f o r e For t h e i r knowledge or o u r s , our g a i n , or T h e r e i s a f e l l o w s h i p some p i l g r i m s t h i n k Between a l l i n d i s a s t r o u s f i g h t , y e t few Know t h e i r t r u e s t g u a r d i a n s i n d a r k n e s s .  loss...  Get. o u t t o y o u r t a v e r n , d r i n k y o u r n a u s e o u s d r i n k . And r e a d t h e s e l i n e s , t h e n p r a y t o t h o s e l i k e y o u .  know t h e i r  real  guardians  from  darkness.  II  [50.13  DELIRIUM IN URUAPAN — I met a man who s u f f e r e d more t h a n I At a s t r e e t c o r n e r . Then a n o t h e r . Y e t one m o r e . After, I found a b l a c k e n e d s t r e e t of poor F i e n d s who h a d s u f f e r e d an e t e r n i t y . I a s k e d t h e f i r s t man f o r h i s company B u t he r e f u s e d ; s o w o n d e r i n g why I t h o u g h t t o a s k t h e s e c o n d man, whose s t a r e Of p e r f e c t c o n t e m p t h e l d s u c h f r i g i d i t y I climbed the blackened s t r e e t in haste to t e l l T h o s e who s u f f e r e d m o s t , t o a s k what had b e e n d o n e To d e s e r v e t h i s . B u t t h e r e was a c u r s e i n t h e i r l a u g h . Then I r e m e m b e r e d t h a t I was i n h e l l . Y e s — what had I d o n e t o e a r n e v e n t h e d a m n e d ' s s c o r n . . . And t u r n e d b a c k down t h e b l a c k e r s t r e e t o f s e l f , knowing  well  enough.  101  C1938-39]  [51.1]  III  L o v e w h i c h comes t o o l a t e i s l i k e t h a t b l a c k s t o r m T h a t b r e a k s o u t o f i t s s e a s o n , when y o u s t a n d H u d d l e d y e t w i t h u p t u r n e d t e n t a t i v e hand To t h e s t r a n g e r a i n . Y e t s a d l y no s a n e c a l m 5  S u c c e e d s i t a s when a l l t h e s u r p r i s e d f o r m Of n a t u r e i s r e s t o r e d t o a s u r p r i s e d l a n d , Or t h e p o o r f l o w e r s t h i r s t a g a i n and t h e s a n d S i f t s d r i l y o n c e more; and t h e a b n o r m a l norm Of a p a r c h e d w o r l d w h o l l y r e t u r n s . B u t s a y It i s l i k e a n y t h i n g e l s e : f o r l e t t h i s l o v e s t r i k e  10  You b l i n d , dumb, mad, d e a d , y o u r g r o t e s q u e f a t e W i l l n o t be a l t e r e d by y o u r s i m i l e . I t s l a k e s no t h i r s t t o s a y what l o v e i s l i k e Which comes t o o l a t e , my G o d , a l a s , t o o late.  11  51.1s  You b l i n d ,  14  51.1:  Which  [1938-39]  dumb,  comes t o o  mad, late,  dead,  your  my G o d , t o o  IV  untimely  fate  late.  [52.2]  B u t I s h a l l l i v e when y o u a r e d e a d and damned Did you say C h a t t e r t o n t o C h e s t e r f i e l d ? - Oh, C h a t t e r t o n , C h a t t e r t o n , w i e l d In y o u r i n f e r n o o r e v e n i n g l a n d  -  5  Some s w o r d f o r me, s t e a l s o m e t h i n g t o d e f e n d My p o o r s p i r i t : and i f no s w o r d , a s h i e l d Does as w e l l . I wish t h a t s p i r i t h e a l e d Which i s y o u r s , t h o u g h m u t i l a t e d , and My l o v e i s d e a d t o o , g o n e t o h e r d e a t h bed  10  A l l under the w i l l o w t r e e : Oh, C h a t t e r t o n , I c r y T h a t y o u h a v e p i t y on my s e l f pity, My l a c k o f g e n i u s and what I w r i t e i n d o u b t : L e t u s meet i n y o u r d a r k m e t r i c c i t y , B e f o r e I am dumb; and damned; a n d d e a d .  -  out  V  C1938-39]  [53.2]  A DRIED UP RIVER IS LIKE THE SOUL A d r i e d up r i v e r i s l i k e t h e s o u l Of a p o e t who c a n ' t w r i t e , y e t perceives W i t h i m p e r f e c t c l a r i t y h i s theme and g r i e v e s To p a r c h e d d e a t h o v e r t h e d r o u g h t . B u t h i s g o a l 5  Once a wholesome s e a of c l e a r e s t c h r y s t a i R e c e d e s , grows g r e y i n h a r t s e y e , l i k e o l d l o v e l e a v e s , L e a v e s t h e mind a l t o g e t h e r . He c o n c e i v e s Nothing to r e p l a c e i t . only at the pole • f memory f l i c k e r s some s e n s e l e s s c o m p a s s . So t h e r i v e r , by h e r g r e y p i t y i n g t r e e s , I s an a g o n y o f s t o n e s , h o r r o r s w h i c h s a n k B u t a r e now d e c l a r e d , b l e a c h e d . F o r i t i s t h e s e , T h e s e s t o n e s and n o t h i n g n e s s e s w h i c h p o s s e s s When r i v e r i s a r o a d and mind a b l a n k .  10  T] 6  [ m i s s i n g ] {53.1} grows] grow's  [1938-39]  5  10  VI  [54.2]  T h e r e i s a t i d e i n t h e a f f a i r s o f men Which t a k e n a t t h e f l o o d l e a d s on t o f o r t u n e . So h i s b r o t h e r l o v e d , t o q u o t e and i m p o r t u n e A c r a p u l o u s s a d d i s h whose t e n F e e t o r n o t by f o u r t e e n o f u n s o l d l i n e Was n o t q u i t e e v e n c o n s i d e r e d o u t o f t u n e W i t h h i s t i m e , and whose d r u n k a r d ' s r i g a d o o n D i s g r a c e d f a t h e r , m o t h e r , s i s t e r , and t h e n W i f e , c h i l d , home, c o u n t r y ; and y e t , and y e t , C o s t l y t h o u g h he p r o v e d , I h a v e met w o r s e men Who t o o k no t i d e , i f a n y , a t t h e f l o o d . . . . T h e r e i s a s t o r y of a g r e a t poet Who t o l d a b i s h o p h i s l i n e was b l a n k v e r s e . They l a u g h e d ; t h e poet l a u g h s s t i l l , i n t e a r s of  6 5 4 . 1 , 2 ; Was d i s a s t r o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d o u t o f 7 whose] who's 10 5 4 . 1 : C o s t l y t h o u g h he p r o v e d , I h a v e met 5 4 . 2 : C o s t l y t h o u g h he p r o v e d , I h a v e met  tune f a r w o r s e men d u l l e r men  blood.  103  VII  [1938-393  [55,13  A poem a b o u t a poem t h a t c a n ' t be w r i t t e n Is l i k e t r u e l o v e the h e a r t has f o r e g o n e But not l o s t ; say both a r e s m i t t e n . The r e a l poem, and t h e r i g h t l o v e , frozen, 5  B o t h must  wander  never  quite  forgotten  By t h e i r g h o s t o v e r t h e i r o n , woebegone W a s t e , g r a v e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s and h e a r t w h e r e s t o n e I s f o l i a g e and b u i l d s no c r o s s o r s h r i n e , Where no g r o a n ' s h e a r d f r o m d r e a m , l o v e , o r n i g h t m a r e , 10  Where d e a t h ' s a g i f t a t C h r i s t m a s o r a t And b i r t h a j e s t o f v a s c u l a r e n d e a v o r , And moon a n d s u n a m a n i a c a l g l a r e . S u c h r a v a g e m e n t h a v e we known: S u c h e x p e d i t i o n , and s u c h d e s p a i r ; —  15  Yet t h i s i s not us h e r e , N e v e r c o u l d t h i s be u s , s a y  it is  is not  Easter,  not, us  say  VIII  [193S-393  that  this  here. [56.13  Darkness has i t s compensations, both S u p e r s e n s u a l and e x t r a m u n d a n e : B u t o f t h e s e n o t t o be c o u n t e d i s t h e p a i n F o r g e t f e l t t h e n i n t h e shadow o f d e a t h . 5  L i f e was n o t d e a r t o h i m , y e t h i s l a s t B r e a t h he f e a r e d , a n d h i s t u m u l t u o u s b r a i n F o u g h t w i t h good l i g h t a g a i n s t t h e t h o u g h t o f doom And c o n q u e r e d i t , t h u s a v o i d i n g t h e w r e a t h F o u r r e l a t i v e s m i g h t h a v e g i v e n , and t h e b u r i a l  10  In t h e town on t h e h i l l where a l l he l o v e d Was t h e r a i n , one t r e e , and a g i r l Whose l o s s he h a d l o n g s i n c e mourned And s h a l l mourn t i l l he d i e s , k n o w i n g t o o w e l l He l i v e s a g a i n b u t l i v e s i n d a r k n e s s s t i l l . IX  [1938-393  [57.13  Resurgent sorrow i s a sea i n the cave Of t h e m i n d — j u s t a s i n t h e poem I t g l u t s i t — t h o u g h no nymphs w i l l q u i r e a hymn; Abandon i t ! . . . Take a t r i p t o t h e upper s h o r e . L a v e 5  10  15  Y o u r s e l f i n sand; gather poppies; brave The f r i n g e of t h i n g s , d e n y i n g t h a t i n n e r chasm. Why, t h e h u s h o f t h e s e a ' s i n t h e s e a s h e l l ; i n the limb Of t h e smashed s h i p , i t s t e m p e s t ; and y o u r g r a v e The s a n d i t s e l f i f y o u ' d have i t s o . Yet g l a r e T h r o u g h a s k y o f l o v e a l l day s t i l l must y o u r e c e i v e In t h e c a v e t h e s p e c i a l a n g u i s h o f y o u r l i f e ; W i t h t h e s k u l l o f t h e s e a g u l l and t h e wreck y o u may f a r e Well enough but w i l l not e s c a p e t h e o t h e r s u r f R e m o r s e , y o u r h o s t , who h a u n t s t h a t w h i r l p o o l w h e r e The p a s t ' s  not  But  in  whirls  washed its  gulf  up d e a d . a n d forever,  to  black no  and d r y  relief.  104  X  C1938-393  You g a v e y o u r s e l f t o d e a t h b u t n e v e r t o me. M a r v e l 1 m i g h t h a v e l a u g h e d . I c a n n o t weep. S h a k e s p e a r e m i g h t h a v e q u i t e c a l m l y u r g e d ; Keep A l l m e t a p h y s i c s f r o m t h o s e who a r e m o r t a l l y Wounded. B u t e n v y t h e d e a d . A f i g f o r t h a t v i r g i n  5  My t h i r d  best  b e d was  in the  And  left  a tragedy  here,  if  Dante.  cemetery.  So y o u a r e d e a d who i n s u l t e d my s o u l . B e i n g b u r i e d , who were n o t e v e n my f r i e n d , Buried without heather or w i l d rose In t h e b l e a k w e a t h e r a s t h e g r e a t w i n d b l o w s O v e r t h e s h i n i n g p a v e m e n t s , t h e wet m a g a z i n e s , T h e f u r s c e n t e d g i r l s , and t h e g r a s s g r e e n w i t h  10  you can  the  new  rains,  call  What h u r r i e s b e y o n d t r a g e d y , a t r a g e d y , F o r t h e s e s h o u l d h a v e a b e g i n n i n g and an e n d .  15  10  C58.1]  58=1;  In t h e  w i l d w i l d weather  In t h e  bleak  dark  weather  C1938-393  as as  the  east  the  wind  east  blows  wind  XI  blows  C59.13  T h i s i s t h e end b u t s i n c e i t i s t h e e n d , You a r e h a p p y a t l e a s t i n t h i s one c e r t a i n t y , As y o u were i n t h e e t e r n i t y Of c h i l d h o o d ' s b l u e summer w i t h 5  When God was g o o d ; l o v e , t r u e ; Yet dare not t o base immunity  seagull sea,  sea;  From b a s e n e s s on t h i s t r i v i a l i t y ! The m u r d e r e r o n c e g a t h e r e d s e a p o p p i e s To be s c a r l e t e r , t o be And l e s s a m o r o u s h e a r t  10  and y a c h t land,  with  15  15  Some s w e e t  joy  to  land.  pressed to the blacker of d e a t h . . . Oh, C h r i s t ,  here without d i s a s t e r . t r y s t with the past;  Some s w e e t j o y t o g a t h e r t h e r e Though c h i l d r e n were b e t r a y e d ,  59,1;  friend?.  a hand  Wash up some b o n e c l e a r memory on t h i s b i t t e r e s t Where i s no w r e c k d e a d beak n o r f e a t h e r Though none v e n t u r e One h a l f p a s s i o n a t e  for  gather  to  Give  coast  at  the  last  t o my s a l t g r e y b r e a s t and money was k i s s e d f i r s t .  my s a l t  grey  breast  XII  1936 A wounded v o i c e " C a l l me l a t e r ,  5  10  15  20  1936  5  10  C60.1]  over the telephone: I am j u s t t i r e d . "  — T h e n , t h e b e l l s h r i e k i n g i n t h e u n s e e n room F i l l i n g i t w i t h t h e - f e r o c i t y o-f doom. "But what s h a l l I d o , my own, my l o s t o n e , L a t c h e d b a c k i n t o d e e p e r n i g h t -from t h e d a r k ' s d r o n e They have c a l l e d back t h e l a s t , t h e s l o w e s t of a l l to the asylum Whose o n l y t h o u g h t i s t i m e , now t h e r e i s n o n e , Now a l l i s g o n e , a l l , a l l , s a v e c o m p a s s i o n , And a l l i s d o u b l y gone w i t h y o u g o n e , d e a r . " — T h e b e l l s t i l l b e a t s a b o u t t h a t t r a g i c room L i k e a t r a p p e d b i r d , p r e c u r s e r of g r e a t e r f e a r , Where I i m a g i n e e v e r y book we s h a r e d , Touched, yes, Out. o f G o g o l :  t o u c h e d , s m e l l , out of t h e pages of a o r y o u r h e a r t f l u t t e r i n g i n my hand  But n e v e r h e l d y o u r h e a r t back from d e n i a l , Nor t e e t h , f r o m my own h e a r t s n e c k . . . — The s t a r s l i k e s i l v e r r i f l e s i n t h e v o i d L o o k down t h e i r s i g h t s t o t h e i r s p e c i a l a i m . T h e y do n o t r a n g e t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f o u r p a i n . No w o r l d w i l l p l u n g e f o r t e a r s we n e v e r saw f a l l , F o r s o r r o w that, was n e v e r s h a r e d a t a l l , That I might comfort the dead, c l a s p s t o n e s i n t h e  XIII  book,  stream.  [61.2]  Searching i n a ravaged heart for anguish You f o u n d o n l y a d e a d g r i e f ? No s o r r o w C o u l d be a s bad a s t h a t w h i c h q u i t e g o e s b y , A h , n o , no s o r r o w . . . S t i l l , t o d i s t i n g u i s h It from o t h e r s o r r o w s , extinguish T h e h e a r t f i r s t . Then c a l l t o - m o r r o w , Today: t o d a y , to-morrow; r i g h t , wrong: then l a n g u i s h W i t h t h e s e i n c o r p o r a t e e r r o r s — and t h e l i v e d e a d Is t h e o m i s s i o n h e r e , o m i n o u s l y — U n t i l y o u l i v e a g a i n what d i e s u n r e a d : Then remember what t h e S t r a u s s s o n g s a i d : J u s t once a y e a r t h e dead l i v e f o r one d a y . . . — O h , come t o me a g a i n a s o n c e i n May.  61.2 [ L o w r y ' s t y p i s t m i s t a k e n l y appends t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s poem. T h e y h a v e  t h e l a s t two been o m i t t e d  lines here.  o f 60 {61.1}]  VI THE MOON IN SCANDINAVIA  107  : 62.23  1936  LIKE IN PAWNSHOP A u k e l e l e o n c e i n pawn I saw: H i k o p a l e , h i k o p a l e , h i l o w a i , oh: O o l a k i , walawalaki, waikapona. Oh, mokuaweoweo! Hikapale,  13  [missing3  hikapale,  hilowai,  ah,  {62.1}  II  1937 God  help  those  and o t h e r s  [63.23 who  Have o n l y t h o u g h t o f s e l f , To whom no s i m p l e t r u t h was t r u e , No s w i f t c l e a r l i f e was l i f e : And God h e l p t h o s e who f e e l no p a i n Y e t l i v e b y i t no l e s s , Since they invest i t soundly i n Our s t o c k o f h a p p i n e s s .  8  63.1:  1936  our  share  of  happiness.  III  [64.23  PRAYER G i v e way, y o u f i e n d s , and g i v e t h a t man some h a p p i n e s s Who k n e l t i n W e s i e y a n p r a y e r t o b e g e t a f i e n d ; B u i l d e r of a g a b l e d house w i t h d a f f o d i l s F l a t t e n e d by t h e webbed f o o t o f f a l s e A p r i l F a t h e r of f o u r gaunt s o n s minus one, Who, h e a r i n g t h e g r e a t g u n s , f a l t e r e d n o t a t a l l , In c h u r c h h i s r o c k , i n home h i s M o r r o C a s t l e , In g o l f h i s c h e s s , i n p o e t r y c a p i t a l , (And i n t h e g u l f h i s y o u n g e s t a b o r t i v e b e a u t y , )  10  F o r h i m and f o r t h e woman o f h i s c h o i c e R e p l a c e t h e l o v e w h i c h t h e s e most d i s p l a c e d  bore  me:  108  And f r o m t h e w i l d c h o i r o v e r t h e f r e e z i n g e s t u a r y B e a r h i m one h u m b l e p h r a s e o f l o v e a t last. Some c h i l d h o o d s u p p l i c a t i o n n e v e r t o be l o s t As I am l o s t whose l i p s had f o r m e d i t s shape...  15  5 64.2s F a t h e r of f i v e s t e e l gaunt sons minus one, 13 6 4 . 1 : b e a r h i m a g a i n one h u m b l e p h r a s e o f l o v e a t l o n g l a s t 16-18 6 4 . 1 : l e s t h i s f i e r c e s o u l be a b a n d o n e d t o t h e g a l e and q u i c k a s t h e s n a k e , t h e c l o c k , [ ? ] a s d e a t h s t r i k e s , out of t h e n a m e l e s s t r e e s t h e n a m e l e s s s p e a k .  [1938-39]  IV  [65.23  ON READING REDBURN  5  C h i l d r e n b r a v e by d a y h a v e s t r a n g e f e a r s a t n i g h t B u t when t h e y wake i n t h e m o r n i n g l i g h t , T h e i r f e a r s d i s s o l v e i n s u n b e t w e e n warm s h e e t s , O r , f r e e z i n g i n w i n t e r , become i c y t h o u g h t s , — T h e c o m p u l s o r y game i n f r o s t , — t h e i m p o s s i b l e b o a s t , The G e o m e t r y l e s s o n , t h e p r i m e r s t o l e n o r l o s t . . . — Ah how o f t e n , R e d b u r n , must l o v e r s wake i n n i g h t m a r e B e d d e d w i t h what, seems h a t r e d and d e s p a i r ,  10  15  T 7 14  O n l y t o t u r n t o e c s t a s y l i k e de M a u p a s s a n t , To f i n d y e t one more m o r n i n g i s t r i u m p h a n t ! — T h e r e i s no c o n s t a n t h e r e , s u c h i s o u r c o n d i t i o n , In d a r k t o know c o n q u e s t t o o , and i n l i g h t no h o p e , A t dawn t h e g i r l , a t m i d n i g h t t h e h o r n e d o w l . — B u t what o f t h e w a k i n g o f t h e b r a v e r a c e o f A f t e r t h e u n v i n t a g e a b l e t e r r o r s of i t s s l e e p , To f i n d t h e m i l d e w s t i l l upon i t s s o u l ?  man  6 5 . 1 : On r e a d i n g M e l v i l l e ' s R e d b u r n 6 5 . 1 , 2 s — How o f t e n , R e d b u r n , l o v e r s wake i n n i g h t m a r e 6 5 . 1 , 2 s — B u t what o f a w a k i n g o f t h e b r a v e r a c e o f man  109  1936-38  V A fig For And  for  [66.23  6-par-T-pak ginger  contest winners N . B . C . network,  ale!...  every Friday night too, coast to coast  contest!...  T i p i - t i p i - t i n o u t o f a d e a d c o i n and h e l l I s y o u r s e v e n i f i n God y o u do t r u s t Or p i d d l e d e e o r l i f e ' s r o t f r o m c o s t t o c o s t . . . W r e c k e r o f g a r d e n s , no n i c k e l o r Y a l e y e l l W i l l r i n g v i c t o r y now, n o r s p e e c h w i t h E v e r e s t , Ixtaccihuatl, Popocatapetl, Quetzalcoatl, j a i l , Xicotancatl,  5  10  Nor w h a l e s h i p ' s b l u b b e r y e d u c a t i o n , Soothe your r a s h e d b r e a s t . See, t h e y have The names t o o . O a x a c a ; X a n a d u ; B e l a w a n ; S a i g o n . And t h e s u n . You w o u l d h a v e l i k e d  1934-36  VI  all  gone,  Saigon.  [67.23  BLEPHARIPAPPUS GLANDULOSUS OR WHITE TIDY-TIPS  5  I p r a y e d t o s a y a word a s s i m p l e As t h e d a i s y . I h a v e s o u g h t s o l o n g To s p e a k t h i s f l o w e r g o o d n e s s c r e a t e d , Or recreate t h e d a i s y i n song . . . A l a s , my s o n g ' s a g a i n t o o a m p l e , So,  T3  [missing3  again,  I am  defeated.  {67.1}  1936  VII  [68.33  ON READING EDMUND WILSON'S REMARKS ABOUT RIMBAUD  5  Formen o f q u a r r i e s i n C y p r u s , The g r a n a r i e s o f g e n i u s r o l l e d down t h e r i v e r , S t e v e d o r e of M a r s e i l l e s , f r i e n d To s o a p m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n t h e w h u l i n g C y c l a d e s , No s o n t o e n g i n e e r a d r e a m e d - o f b r i d g e , C a r l i s t , c o m m u n i s t , d u t c h s o l d i e r , and D a v i d t o no G o l i a t h i n b l a c k f o r e s t , L i v i d s l e e p e r a c r o s s r e a l t r a c k s at noonday, A b s i n t h e manque a t t h e Y o r k s h i r e G r e y  10  S e l l e r of k e y - r i n g s , s h o e - l a c e s , s e l f , t r u n k s , T r a v e l l e r with "Springboart & Tumplingakt", Dreamer of r a i l w a y s t o A d d i s Abbaba, Ahab o f t h e A b y s s i n i a n r a i n , No Onan s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e s u n ,  15  But f a l s e  enough  to  betray  the  moonlight,  no And f i e n d o f t h e f a m i l y o f V e r l a i n e , W i t h b a l l s b e t w e e n y o u r s h o u l d e r s and C o v e r up t h e l e p r o s i e s o f o l d w a l l s , Of t h e s o u l ' s c l i m b w i t h H a r r a r ' s l a t e r  elsewhere, wisdom,  20  Of d o l e f u l t r a f f i c k i n g w i t h p r e p o s t e r o u s chiefs And m o n s t r o u s w i v e s f r o m O b a n g u i - T c h a r i - T c h a d , S a i l e d b y c a m e l s who c o u l d c l i m b S t , P a u l ' s , From S o k o t r a o r t h e i s l a n d s o f t h e damned, As y o u may; o r b u i l d , n o t s e n s e , c a n a l s ,  25  P o e t r y snapped t o the waist with a snake b e l t Studded with p o l i t e l i e s p r e c i o u s as s t o n e s . S t i l l w i l l l i f e c l o s e with I s a b e l l e i n a dream, D y i n g f a r f r o m home a t h a r v e s t t i m e .  T3 C m i s s i n g ] [68.1} 4 6 8 . 1 , 2 ; t o soap m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n w h u l i n g C y c l a d e s , 14 6 8 . 1 : not s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e of t h e s u n , n o t Onan s p i l l i n g f a l s e s u b s t a n c e o f s u n , 19 6 8 , 1 : o f t h e s o u l ' s c l i m b w i t h H a r r a r ' s l a t e r wisdom 24 6 8 . 1 : a s y o u may; a n d b u i l d , n o t s e n s i n g canals 25 6 8 . 1 : p o e t r y snapped t o the waist with a snake s k i n 27 6 8 . 1 : s t i l l may l i f e c l o s e w i t h I s a b e l l e i n a d r e a m ,  [1938-393  VIII  C69.23  5  T h e e x i l e i s t h e l u c k i e s t o f men, L e t m i l l i o n f l i n t s t o n e s incommode h i s f e e t , Be u n s t r u n g h a r p s i n h i s e a r s , i t i s s w e e t To d w e l l i n Hinnom and s t r i d e H e l l a g a i n : Or l e t i t be U p p e r S l a u g h t e r , A b e r d e e n ,  10  X o c h i m i l c o , Bodo, C h e s t e r - l e - S t r e e t , Worms, New B r i g h t o n , o r M o r o c c o , You g r e e t y o u r s p i r i t e a c h t e m p e s t u o u s n i g h t t o f r i g h t e n Remembered l o v e i n t o y o u r l o v e d o n e ' s t e a r s , Where d r o w n i n g ' s i n c i d e n t now, y o u p e w t e r T i m o n ! A h , L e a n d e r , b r e a t h o f w i n t e r , t h r o n g e d arms o f n i g h t m a r e s ! L u s t r e of sea t h e g l e a m i n g A r c t i c wears! B e t t e r be h u g g e d t h e r e , where g r a v e P o l a r b e a r s Invite the soul with B o r e a l i a n a i r s .  6 Xochimi ico3 X o l c h i m i l c o 9 6 9 . 1 : An i m a g e d L o v e i n t o y o u r l o v e d o n e ' s 12 69.1: L u s t r e of the sea the gleaming a r c h  tears wears!  ill  1937  IX  E70.2]  W o l f , w o l f , c r i e d t h e boy i n t h e f a b l e , Who p l a g u e d t h e s h e p h e r d s and t h e s h e e p a l i k e , To r e t u r n , l a u g h i n g s o f t l y , to the stable, And f o l d away t h e h o u r s w i t h r e e d o r f i d d l e , 5  B l e a t i n g i n music f o r d e c e i v e d s h e p h e r d ' s sake. T h e r e was no w o l f t h e n . B u t a t n i g h t one s t r u c k , L o n g f a m i s h e d i n i r o n h i l l s s h e saw h e r t a b l e S p r e a d w h i t e l y on t h e g r e e n p l a i n s o f T o r t u . W o l f , c r i e d t h e b o y . B u t now no h e r d s m e n came. Wolf, wolf, r e t u r n e d the wolf, her i c y heart aflame... So w o l f and c h i l d were w e l l m e t . B u t I s a y t o y o u T h a t s l e p t t h e y o n c e on n e v e r s o p r o u d an A l p , — I t i s t h e p o o r w o l f now who c r i e s f o r h e l p .  10  11  1936  70.1:  So w o l f  a n d c h i l d were w e l l  met.  X  B u t some s t i l l  say  [71.3]  ONLY GOD KNOWS HOW K i n g L e a r b l i n d e d O e d i p u s i n a dream And g a v e h i m S o p h o c l e s i n b r a i l l e t o r e a d W h i l e r o b i n s and C o r d e l i a d r a n k h i s b l o o d . The f a t e d m o n a r c h l i k e a b i r d p i c k e d t h r o u g h 5  H i s s c a r l e t s t o r y , c r o u c h i n g where feverfew And a g a t h a i n an a s y l u m g a r d e n g r e w . H e r e no p a l e s h e p h e r d s f o u n d h i m f o r a P r i a m E a t i n g f u r r e d peaches, counting every stone, Each hour a t i n k e r with the r o y a l bone,  10  S t r o k i n g t h e c a r e l e s s waves t o k i n g d o m come When s a i l o r s t o o d . J o c a s t a came t o h i m H i s p u l p e