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A study of the acquisition of connotative meaning by Japanese speakers of English Marshall, Richard Joseph 1989

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A STUDY OF THE ACQUISITION OF CONNOTATIVE MEANING BY JAPANESE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH by RICHARD JOSEPH MARSHALL  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y . App. L i n g . ,  of B r i t i s h  The U n i v e r s i t y  Columbia,  of B r i t i s h  1975  Columbia,  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  ( D e p a r t m e n t o f Language E d u c a t i o n )  We a c c e p t t h i s  t h e s i s as conforming  to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1989 ©  RICHARD JOSEPH MARSHALL,1989  19  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  partial  fulfilment  British Columbia, and study.  of  his  or  her  requirements  I agree  that the  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  representatives.  may be It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  is  that  for  £.fr/tf6 V A 6  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  advanced  Library shall make it  permission for extensive  granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  permission.  Department of  an  £P[J^fi T^&Jt/  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT A Study  of the Acquisition Japanese  of Connotative  Speakers  Meaning  by  of English  by Richard The adult  purpose  Japanese  connotative colour  of this  speakers  meanings  study  Marshall  w a s t o d i s c o v e r how  well  of E n g l i s h had acquired t h e  o f 39 s e l e c t e d E n g l i s h a n i m a l ,  bird  and  terms.  Seventy  subjects  Japan were g i v e n  from  three  On o n e i n s t r u m e n t  each subject  meanings  instruments  the subjects  which best  Iwate P r e f e c t u r e  elicitation  connotative  choice  Joseph  i n northern  -instruments  t o complete.  s t a t e d what t h e y  of t h e terms  are.  believed the  On t h e o t h e r  s e l e c t e d from t h e choices  conveyed the connotative  two  given the  meanings  of the  terms.  Among t h e more n o t e w o r t h y subjects  had acquired  39 t e r m s .  had acquired  subjects  and those  were  who  meanings.  4.  country  Male  inconclusive indications meanings  field.  from  of the  3.  subjects  meanings.  Older  or had  had acquired  and female  that  The  meanings  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h longer  t h e same n u m b e r o f c o n n o t a t i v e  connotative  1.  meanings t h e  v a r i e d with'semantic  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  connotative acquired  few c o n n o t a t i v e  2. T h e n u m b e r o f c o n n o t a t i v e  subjects  resided  very  findings are:  more had 5.  There  the subjects transferred  Japanese t o E n g l i s h and t h a t  context  helped  meanings  the subjects to select  o f t h e s e l e c t e d terms.  The  major  Japanese  implication  speakers  i s little  many c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s .  concluded speakers  of the findings i s that  of English are e x p l i c i t l y  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings t h e r e acquire  the connotative  that efforts  m u s t b e made t o t e a c h  of English connotative  taught  likelihood Therefore  meanings.  unless  they  i t was Japanese  will  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  ii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  iv  TABLE o f LIST of  CONTENTS  v  TABLES  vii  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Statement of Problem The Need f o r t h e S t u d y An O u t l i n e o f t h e S t u d y R a t i o n a l e and H y p o t h e s e s D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study  1 1 1 2 2 4 8  CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE P r e l i m i n a r y Remarks C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning T h e o r y on t h e T e a c h i n g o f V o c a b u l a r y C o n n o t a t i v e M e a n i n g a n d S e c o n d Language Textbooks Second language A c q u i s i t i o n F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n C o n n o t a t i v e M e a n i n g o f C o l o u r , B i r d and A n i m a l Terms Metaphor A c q u i s i t i o n of Metaphor Linguistic Interference... C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning Summary CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The S u b j e c t s S e l e c t i o n of Subjects The S t i m u l i C o n s t r a i n t s on t h e S t i m u l i The I n s t r u m e n t s C o n n o t a t i v e M e a n i n g o f t h e S t i m u l u s Terms The M e t h o d o l o g y Scoring Procedures A c c e p t a b i l i t y of Responses The H y p o t h e s i s Data A n a l y s i s Summary CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Japanese Speakers of E n g l i s h R e s u l t s of the Cloze Reading Test R e l i a b i l i t y of the Instruments I n s t r u m e n t s C o m p l e t t e d by t h e NSs  10 10 11 16 27 34 39 41 44 50 52 54 58 59 59 61 62 ..63 63 68 69 74 75 76 78 80 82 82 84 85  of  JVL.  Japanese and E n g l i s h Comparison of C o n n o t a t i v e Meanings Analysis of the Hypothesis H y p o t h e s i s #1 H y p o t h e s i s #2 H y p o t h e s i s #3 H y p o t h e s i s #4 H y p o t h e s i s #5 H y p o t h e s i s #6 H y p o t h e s i s #7 H y p o t h e s i s #8 H y p o t h e s i s #9 H y p o t h e s i s #10 H y p o t h e s i s #11 H y p o t h e s i s #12a H y p o t h e s i s #12b Discussion S c o r e s o f t h e J S E s S u b j e c t s on t h e E l i c i t a t i o n Instruments The C l o z e R e a d i n g T e s t H y p o t h e s i s #1 H y p o t h e s i s #2 H y p o t h e s i s #3 H y p o t h e s i s #4 Age a n d Gender H y p o t h e s e s Experience Hypotheses H y p o t h e s i s #12a a n d 12b Variable Interaction Summary  86 92 94 ....94 96 98 105 I l l 113 115 117 118 120 122 124 125 125 125 126 128 129 130 131 ...133 135 138 140 140  CHAPTER F I V E : SUMMARY DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS Rationale Hypotheses I n t e r f e r e n c e Hypotheses Instrument, Context and Semantic F i e l d Hypotheses Age and Gender H y p o t h e s e s Experience Hypotheses M i s c e l l a n e o u s Hypotheses Discussion Conclusions Implications Suggestions f o r Future Research  143 143 145 145  BIBLIOGRAPHY  165  146 148 149 151 152 158 160 162  APPENDIX ANIMALS INSTRUMENTS  177  CLOZE READING TEST  184  L I S T OF CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS  187  vi L I S T OF TABLES TABLE #1  Elicitation  TABLE #2  Reading Test  TABLE #3  E n g l i s h NS  TABLE #4  J a p a n e s e NS  TABLE #5  Instruments Results  97  TABLE #6  Instruments:  98  TABLE #7  Animals Free,  TABLE #8  Animals: Ancova R e s u l t s  100  TABLE #9  B i r d s Free,  101  TABLE #10  B i r d s : Ancova R e s u l t s  102  TABLE #11  Colours  103  TABLE #12  C o l o u r s : Ancova R e s u l t s  TABLE #13 A n i m a l s , TABLE #14  Free  Instrument R e s u l t s Results  8-4  Instrument  86  Instrument  TABLE #18  Word and S e n t e n c e R e s u l t s  Word and S e n t e n c e R e s u l t s  Free,  Word a n d S e n t e n c e R e s u l t s  Results  Ancova R e s u l t s  B i r d s and C o l o u r s  Sentence Choice:  0  4  106 107  Word R e s u l t s  Ancova R e s u l t s  B i r d s and C o l o u r s  99  1  B i r d s and'Colours Free  TABLE #16 Word C h o i c e : TABLE #17 A n i m a l s ,  89  Ancova R e s u l t s  Choice:  TABLE #15 A n i m a l s ,  82  108 109  S e n t e n c e R e s u l t s . . . . 110  Ancova R e s u l t s  I l l  TABLE #19 Age R e s u l t s  112  TABLE #20 Age: A n c o v a R e s u l t s  113  TABLE #21  Gender R e s u l t s  114  TABLE #22  Gender: Ancova R e s u l t s  115  TABLE #23  Level Results  TABLE #24  L e v e l : Ancova R e s u l t s  116  TABLE #25 E n g l i s h S t u d y R e s u l t s  117  TABLE #26 E n g l i s h S t u d y : A n c o v a R e s u l t s  118  ...116  vii  TABLE #27  L i v e d Abroad R e s u l t s  TABLE #28  L i v e d Abraod: Ancova  119 Results  TABLE #29 F r e q u e n c y R e s u l t s TABLE #30  Frequency: Ancova  121 Results.  TABLE #31 E d u c a t i o n R e s u l t s TABLE #32  Education:  Ancova  120  121 123  Results  124  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The  r e s e a r c h e r would  acknowledge  the  like  invaluable  was  w o r k i n g on t h e  for  her help i n t r a n s l a t i n g  tabulating Professor  the results. Hashimoto  instructions the  answers  Hashimoto classes Ross  the been  He w o u l d  received.  as subjects.  Gunderson  he r e c e i v e d  like  also  t o thank  like  University  his  wife  and i n  t o thank  for translating  He w o u l d  also  like  himt o usethe Thanks must a l s o o f Commerce.  t o thank  the  be extended Without  t o Steve  h i s help,i t  t o complete t h e  A n d t h a n k s must be e x t e n d e d  seemed a t t i m e s t o be a most o b t u s e help o f a l lthese people, t h i s  Professor  s t u d e n t s i none o f h i s  f o r h i s advice andpatience with  completed.  w h i l e he  a n d f o r h i s c o m m e n t s o n some o f  h a v e b e e n much more d i f f i u l t analyses.  opportunity t o  some o f t h e a n s w e r s  He w o u l d  anddirections  for allowing  statistical  have  assistence  o f Iwate  o f Kobe U n i v e r s i t y  would  Lee  study.  t o take this  what  student.  study would  t o Dr. must Without  never  have  1 CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION THE  PROBLEM:  Second  language  learners  connotative  meanings  d i f f i c u l t to understand.  speakers  (NS), however,  understanding meanings. to  (SLL)  experience l i t t l e  possess l e x i c a l  knowledge  p r o c e s s words which a r e used  able  t o u n d e r s t a n d words used  they  often  do  difficulty  words  This  difficulty  w h i c h e n a b l e s them  problem  extensively  Thus NSs SLLs,  lexical  u n d e r s t a n d i n g words  connotatively  connotative  connotatively.  i s a serious  with  Native  connotatively.  not possess the r e q u i s i t e  connotatively. use  words used  w o r d s when t h e y a r e u s e d w i t h  NSs  experience  find  are  since  knowledge,  used f o r SLLs  i n normal  as  NSs  everyday  conversation.  THE  NEED FOR  THE  Virtually  STUDY:  no  research  connotative  meaning  conducted.  Hence v e r y  of English  SLLs b e g i n t o a c q u i r e which they acquire  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  little  words by i s known,  connotative  connotative  meanings  i t w o u l d be  know;  how  of knowledge  can  about  cause  they  would  SLLs problems  or about  know t h e c o n n o t a t i v e  second they  lack  language teachers  knew t h e s e t h i n g s ,  been  f o r them  in  items of  I t w o u l d be  to  meanings which  useful  t o know t h e s e t h i n g s .  they would possess knowledge  e n a b l e them t o p r e p a r e t h e i r  when  which  of connotative the l e x i c a l  on  on t h e o r d e r  about  most u s e f u l  meanings. (SLT)  has  the  f o r example,  meanings;  meanings;  connotative  SLLs  of  for  If which  s t u d e n t s more a d e q u a t e l y  2  for  life  i n t h e English speaking  world.  AN OUTLINE OF THE STUDY: This adult  study  Japanese  connotative terms. sets  speakers  meanings  of elicitation  divided  prompts. into  subjects  were  connotative  subjects  were  t h e terms.  required  above were.  from  one o f t h r e e  to select  sectionthe  o f t h e one word from  one o f t h e  conveyed t h e connotative  In thethird  was  believed the  I n t h e second which  were  sectionthe  a c c o m p a n i e d t h e 13 t e r m s fields  one o f t h r e e  instruments  In the f i r s t  required to select  two semantic  and colour  i n w h i c h t h e 39 t e r m s  o f t h e 13 t e r m s  noted  which  bird  setof elicitation  sections.  meanings  fields  other  instruments  t o which  (JSE) h a d a c q u i r e d t h e  r e q u i r e d t o s t a t e what t h e y  semantic  definitions  of English  were r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e  Each  three  t o reveal t h e extent  o f 39 E n g l i s h a n i m a l ,  The s u b j e c t s  stimulus  of  was d e s i g n e d  section the subjects  meanings  were  which  of the explanatory  sentences  a c c o m p a n i e d t h e 13 t e r m s  from t h e remaining  semantic  conveyed t h e connotative  meanings  which field  o f t h e terms.  RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESES: Researchers  i n education  number o f v a r i a b l e s . amount Gall,  of education, 1983 c h . 1 3 ) .  researchers length the  often  o f time  frequency  Among t h e s e variations  analyse  data  across  a  v a r i a b l e s a r e age, gender,  i n the task  etc.  (Borg and  Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n (SLA) analyse  they they  often  spent  data  on SLLs  i n formal  use t h e second  on t h e b a s i s  second  language,  language  of the study,  the length of  3 time and  they spent Selinker,  this are  speaking environment  1983;L i t t l e w o o d ,  1984).  study a r e f o r m u l a t e d i n terms also  based  phonology to  i n a native  on t h e f a c t  language  INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: J S E s meanings  from Japanese  scores  language  forms  1986 p . 2 7 ) .  shall  shall  shall  not transfer  connotative  be no d i f f e r e n c e s  be no d i f f e r e n c e s  i n JSE  i n JSE  due t o c o n t e x t .  SEMANTIC F I E L D HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e s c o r e s due t o s e m a n t i c  AGE, GENDER HYPOTHESES: scores  shall  be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n  field.  There  shall  be no d i f f e r e n c e s  i n JSE  due t o age o r gender.  EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: scores  There  due t o t h e l e n g t h  speaking countries,  studied  English,  of fluency  shall  be no d i f f e r e n c e s  o f time JSEs  English  level  regard t o  due t o t y p e o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t .  CONTEXT HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e  JSE  with  They  to English.  INSTRUMENT HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e scores  o f such v a r i a b l e s .  SLLs, p a r t i c u l a r l y  (Klein,  (Gass  The h y p o t h e s e s i n  a n d v o c a b u l a r y , may t r a n s f e r n a t i v e  t h e second  etc.  the length  t h e frequency JSEs  have  spent  spent i n  o f time JSEs  use English,  o r t h e amount o f f o r m a l  i n JSE  have  t h e JSEs'  e d u c a t i o n JSEs  have  received. MISCELLANEOUS HYPOTHESES: N a t i v e and  native  connotative  speakers of English meanings  i ntheir  s p e a k e r s o f J a p a n e s e (NSJ)  (NSE) s h a l l respective'  agree  on t h e  languages.  4 DEFINITION  OF TERMS:  CONNOTATIVE MEANING: 1. 2. 3.  D o c t o r Smith i s a butcher. Steven i sa cold person. S a l l y i s shallow.  4. T h e c o m p a n y These  four  sentences,  make much s e n s e , are  taken  Taken  t o mean D o c t o r  butcher  shop a n d sentence  touch.  Both  interpretations  literal  Smith  I t i simpossible  being true.  they  i sc o l d  No s u c h  o f shallowness o r f o ra  aremeaningful  a r ealso  When l o o k e d a t i n t h i s  #3 a n d #4 a r e n o t i f i t i s assumed  mean t h e company  i sp r o f i t a b l e .  who l o s e s  operate  unnecessarily  sympathy,  sentence  a n d #4 t o  I n t h e same way N S E ' s  more t h a n h i s s h a r e  i sp r o b a b l y a  of patients  a n d may  ( F r o m k i n a n d R o d m a n , '1983 p . 1 7 1 ) a n d  #2 t o m e a n S t e v e n remorse,  who i s s u p e r f i c i a l  #1 t o m e a n D r . S m i t h  surgeon  sentence  i fm e t a p h o r i c a l meanings  manner NSE's i n t e r p r e t  i sa person  sentence  And sentences  assumed.  #3 t o m e a n S a l l y  interpret  plausible  t o possess t h e  But sentences  #1 a n d #2 b e c o m e m o r e m e a n i n g f u l B U T C H E R a n d COLD  to the  No N S E w o u l d  SHALLOW a n d B L A C K h a v e m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s .  for  i na  #3 a n d #4, h o w e v e r , a r e  characteristics  Indeed,  #1 c o u l d b e  i s a d o c t o r who w o r k s  f o ra person  company t o b e i n a c o l o u r . meaningless.  sentence  interpretations.  of their  do n o t  SHALLOW a n d B L A C K  #2 t o mean S t e v e n  o f sentences  physical  contexts,  COLD,  literally  are plausible  deny t h ep o s s i b i l i t y  possible.  i nmost normal  i f a n y , i f BUTCHER,  literally.  interpreted  i si nt h e black.  lacks  t h e human e m o t i o n s o f  compassion e t c .  I ti s non-literal  5  meanings  like  connotative To  these,  which  i nt h i s  summarise  abstractly  meaning.  2. A t y p e one must  metaphors.  any  access  adjectives,  prenominal 4. A t y p e  decode  of  t h eexpressions i nwhich  o r d e r i v e from  LANGUAGE L E A R N E R r e f e r s  the  is  t o both  learning  on what  of  i nt h i s  a language.  o f language.  ACQUISITION ACQUISITION.  SLLs This  learn  i nthis  In this  SECOND  learnt  or are  n a t i v e language.  Of  denotes  study  refers  acquisition study  i s used  t h e emphasis  to refer  to the  o r acquire t h esemantic  synonymous w i t h  a r etwo reasons  and t h e  came t o know i t .  i sd e s p i t e t h e f a c t  i sv i r t u a l l y There  examination  i n some r e s p e c t s ,  S L L s k n o w ; n o t o n how t h e y  by which  study  who h a v e  t h eunconscious  L E X I C A L ACQUISITION: T h i s t e r m process  and l i t e r a l  difficult  s t u d y more a c c u r a t e l y .  ACQUISITION: A C Q U I S I T I O N a s u s e d  conscious  o f meaning  i s nottheir  F O R E I G N LANGUAGE L E A R N E R ,  indiscriminately  and objects o f  i t occurs.  t o people  which  subjects of this  dead  o f meaning as a r b i t r a r y as  a logical  SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER: A s u s e d  course,  meaning  true for  adjectives  5. A t y p e  o f meaning.  a language  i so f t e n t h etype o f  is particularly  to  learning  of non-literal  o f meaning o n l y p r e d i c a t e nouns,  possess.  other type  i n the  i n o r d e r t o comprehend the  This  3. A t y p e  prepositions  i s : 1. A t y p e  o f meaning which  common m e t a p h o r s .  predicate  b e known a s  t h eideas expressed  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  of  shall  meanings.  examples,  meaning  study,  content  VOCABULARY LEXICAL  why t h i s  was done.  6 F i r s t , . L E X I C A L ACQUISITION i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e terminology  employed  a more a c c u r a t e  term  word e x p r e s s i o n s expressions only  i nsemantics.  —  than  WORD i n t h a t  phrasal verbs,  as complete  lexical  There  ITEM i s  i t encompasses  multi-word  multi-  idiomatic  i nr e a l i t y can  correctly  i f they a r e  units.  METAPHOR: METAPHOR a s u s e d concept.  LEXICAL  a n d t w o w o r d c o m p o u n d s -- w h i c h  be i n t e r p r e t e d o r understood  viewed  Second,  i n this  a r e numerous  study  lexical  items  i s a very  simple  i n English  which  w h e n s u b s t i t u t e d f o r 'X' i n : "He/She i s (a/an)  ^X'." o r f o r  *Y'  o r f o r Z'  i n "(determiner)  "preposition resultant derives y  Y'  NOMINAL" n o u n p h r a s e s  (determiner)  sentences  Z" p r e p o s i t i o n a l  t o become a m b i g u o u s .  from t h e fact  the lexical  o r Z' h a v e t w o d i s t i n c t  types  y  meaning based  and a metaphorical  on t h e normal  substituted is  * Y'  based  inferred Rodman,  X  y  on semantic or provide  substituted f o r a  The l i t e r a l  The m e t a p h o r i c a l  y  meaning i s  A  y  Inthis  study  are considered  i n this  study  (Fromkin and  metaphorical and t o be synonymous.  i s an e x p r e s s i o n  which i s  attributable  t o t h e c o n n o t a t i v e meaning o f one o f t h e  which  appears  i nt h e e x p r e s s i o n . only  items  meaning  ambiguous a n d which  items  X',  literal  semantically  lexical  A  p r o p e r t i e s o f X ' , *Y' o r Z' w h i c h a r e  1983 p.171).  A metaphor  The a m b i g u i t y  some k i n d o f r e s e m b l a n c e  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings  cause t h e  properties of the lexical  o r Z'.  r  phrases  o f meanings:  meaning.  semantic  f o r X', Y  items  i n  X  some o f t h e a m b i g u i t y i s  I t i sa l s o an e x p r e s s i o n  i nt h e s y n t a c t i c  structures noted  above.  7  DEAD METAPHOR: T h e r e a r e t w o e s s e n t i a l original  metaphors  Original original. Great  poets  nature,  c r e a t e new a n d f r e s h  remain fresh they  images  They  and o r i g i n a l .  metaphor  LADY.  When f i r s t  or associations.  cannot, by t h e i r  I f they  become d e a d m e t a p h o r s .  recent  original.  a r e m e t a p h o r s w h i c h a r e new a n d  t r y t o c r e a t e them.  frequently,  o fmetaphors:  and dead metaphors.  metaphors  They  types  are used too  An example  which has ceased t o be o r i g i n a l applied  t o Margaret Thatcher,  Now i t i s s i m p l y  a dead metaphor  m e t a p h o r s , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r  however,  are not t h e focus  Dead metaphors and  stale.  w i t h them.  dead metaphors  are the metaphorical  the  o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning.  definition  certain LEG  s e t o fdead metaphors  this  meanings  study.  similar  meanings,  They  expressions  are o l d  discussed i n  The m e a n i n g s  are t h e focus  They  expressions  o ft h i s  of a study.  a r e n o t dead  meanings  semantic  properties  practice  this  meanings  their  just the  o f L E G a n d HEAD. meaning  i s t h e normal  which a l e x i c a l item possesses.  usually  o f when t h e y  metaphors  a r e n o t dead metaphors because  DENOTATIVE MEANING: D e n o t a t i v e  The  know.  Examples o f  can be l o g i c a l l y deduced by knowing  denotative  think  i t was  i n THE L E G OF THE T A B L E a n d HEAD i n THE HEAD OF THE  COUNTRY a n d o t h e r in  i s IRON  study.  a r e n o t new a n d o r i g i n a l .  A l l NSs a r e f a m i l i a r  of a  a l l NSEs  Original  o ft h i s  very  means:  1. T h e m e a n i n g s  are asked t o define  In  most NSs f i r s t  l e x i c a l items.  g i v e n most p r o m i n e n c e i n d i c t i o n a r i e s .  2.  8 The  denotative  discussed BUTCHER:  meanings  i nt h e d e f i n i t i o n a dealer  subnormal  i n meat.  temperature.  BLACK: t h e c o l o u r  neither  transmit  which  or reflect  a s a synonym  meaning a r e :  especiallyof  characterizes objects  light. study  study  items  low or decidedly  which  1 NON-LITERAL MEANING  a s a s y n o n y m f o r CONNOTATIVE  L I T E R A L MEANING: I n t h i s regarded  of connotative COLD: h a v i n g  NON-LITERAL MEANING: I n t h i s regarded  lexical  SHALLOW: n o t d e e p ,  water.  be  of the four  shall  MEANING.  L I T E R A L MEANING  s h a l l be  f o r DENOTATIVE MEANING.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: This  study  acquisition, has  i n v e s t i g a t e s an aspect  t h ea c q u i s i t i o n  been v i r t u a l l y  is  described  be  regarded  here  ignored.  of connotative Consequently,  i se x p l o r a t o r y .  Hence,  is  i s examined  The or  faculty  sample  meaning,  which  t h estudy  which  t h er e s u l t s  should  have  study.  o r steps  of connotative Hence,  no attempt  involved i nlearning  meaning.  majority  addition, the  i nt h e present  made t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o c e s s  connotative  language  as i n c o n c l u s i v e o r t e n t a t i v e .  Only t h e knowledge t h e s u b j e c t s meaning  o f second  of thesubjects  at a small t h esubjects  i nt h estudy  u n i v e r s i t y i nnorthern were n o t randomly  selected i s representative  were  Japan.  selected.  o f only  students In Hence  the subjects  1. T h e d e f i n i t i o n s a r e b a s e d o n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h e 1974 e d i t i o n o f t h e Merriam-Webster Pocket D i c t i o n a r y .  9  who  participated  JSEs  should The  colour  be  made w i t h g r e a t  connotative  t e r m s were  Generalisations meanings A  meanings  relatively  competency. ability  meanings. subjects  care.  e d u c a t e d NSEs  The  of the  which  they an  them.  the subjects' underlying receptive  rather than t h e i r  to actually  a productive  meanings  was  representative of those  does  productive  not examine  use terms w i t h  I t i s p o s s i b l e , however, have  and  connotative  b e made w i t h  n o t be  Hence t h e study  ability  bird  study.  of the  i n English.  study  i s examined  animal,  what t h e c o n n o t a t i v e meanings  would a s c r i b e t o  In the present competency  39  s m a l l number o f w e l l  t o t h e t e r m s may  other  care. of only  terms should  i n v e s t i g a t e d have  a v e r a g e NS  generalisations to  investigated in this  to establish  ascribed  Any  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  of other  employed terms  i n the study.  that  competency.  the subjects'  connotative  some o f t h e  10 CHAPTER A  TWO  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  PRELIMINARY REMARKS: Very  little  research  meaning by SLLs e x i s t s .  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  Hence t h e amount o f l i t e r a t u r e  immediately  r e l e v a n t t o t h e study  connotative  meaning by SLLs  of theacquisition of  i slimited.  been w r i t t e n on i t ,  however,  conducting  a review  of the literature.  in  fields  related  Among t h e s e  teaching  of vocabulary,  language teaching,  bird  in  linguistic  metaphor,  such  a review,  difficult. review. fields  field,  writing  One c a n n o t  like  meaning and second acquisition,  of a review  another.  of animal,  review  simply  differences  o f an e x t e n s i v e  c o n s i s t s o f an  i n several related  t h e review  like  linguistic  Concepts  first  meanings  problems  fields.  i n conducting  i n t h e normal  conduct  a routine  metaphor have  fashion i s historical  a long h i s t o r y and  i n t e r f e r e n c e have a r e l a t i v e l y  N o r c a n one conduct t h e r e v i e w  approach.  an adequate  the acquisition of  this  a r e no i n t r i n s i c  Some f i e l d s  history.  Instead  literature  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning, t h e  language  of theliterature  there  Extensive  i n t e r f e r e n c e and c u l t u r a l  i na single  While  are:  the connotative  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning.  overview  l i t t l e has  i s n o t an o b s t a c l e t o  connotative  second  and c o l o u r terms,  literature  in  fields  acquisition,  metaphor,  That  makes i t p o s s i b l e t o c o n d u c t  review.  language  of connotative  important  To o v e r c o m e  such  from  i n one f i e l d difficulties,  a  short  conceptual  are not important t h e review has  11  been d i v i d e d i n t o literature  several sections.  i n one j u s t  Each  section  one o f t h e aforementioned  CONNOTATIVE  reviews fields.  MEANING  J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR INCLUSION: Connotative concisely.  meaning  Despite  NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r , connotative The  meaning  precisely. to  clarify  meaning  This  being  THE  with  of opinion  Scholars  i t i nvarious  who u s e s  define  i t cannot  define  This  of theliterature review  of connotative  will  meaning  studied i nt h epresent  most  on what ways.  i t c l e a r l y and  i s an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n .  i sreviewed.  which  I n order  on  connotative  broaden t h e readers'  and help  clarify  what  study.  REVIEW: It  i s common t o h e a r p h r a s e s  'connotations' ..."  People  expressions meaning,  like:  have  little  mean.  difficulty  connotative distinct types  like the  understanding  clear  1977 p . 1 7 6 ) .  meaning  phenomena.  of connotative  as a cover In effect, meaning.  of these  connotative  what e x a c t l y i s b e i n g  As John Lyons notes:  (Lyons,  what  B u t when s e m a n t i c i s t s d i s c u s s  "The r e a d e r  guard whenever he meets t h e term  semantics"  " I don't  of that." or " I t has t h e 'connotations'  i t i sn o t always  discussed. his  i s .  i t i sa concept  i s no consensus  things, a l i t t l e  understanding is  thefact there  average person  i sn o t easy t o d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y and  should  be on  'connotation' i n  Semanticists use term  for several  there  quite  areseveral  different  12 The  most  philosophical this  type  convey items  familiar  type  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  d e s i r a b l e or undesirable emotive desirable connotations  motherhood,  freedom  undesirable  connotations  as  This  type  fighter  Since  lexical  items  themselves.  if  items  lexical  expressions  are:  there  Lexical  are coined  which  INCREASES b e c a m e REVENUE  positive  o f most  CHURCH whether of  a n d CHAPEL do  do.  t o use  countries say they spinsters.  And  do n o t e x i s t ,  GIRLS;  FREEDOM  a n d TAX  ENHANCEMENTS.  or negative  Some w o r d s p o s s e s s meanings. (Lyons,  both  Their  negative and  As Lyons notes,  1981 p . 1 5 0 ) .  o f England  Similarly,  connotative  i n Britain  I t depends  C H A S T I T Y , COP, G o v e r n m e n t e t c . p o s s e s s meanings.  accepted  Thus REBELS became  o n e i s a member o f t h e C h u r c h  connotative  be r e f e r r e d t o  to refer to  connotations  a dissenting protestant sect.  like  rebel  f o rpeople  admit t o being  a l l words have o n l y p o s i t i v e  connotative  Lexical  with  above have  connotations  with positive  meanings.  items  spinster,  i s a tendency  F I G H T E R S ; P R O S T I T U T E S b e c a m e WORKING  connotative  items  shall  t h e ones  the leaders  a n d f e w women  items  lexical  In  democracy,  despotism,  like  with positive Hence,  democrats  Not  1977 p . 1 7 6 ) .  meaning.  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings, lexical  etc.  i snon-  features.  are:  o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  TYPE 1 c o n n o t a t i v e  are  (Lyons,  meaning  o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning p a r t i c u l a r  with  etc.  of connotative  on  o r a member  lexical  items  contradictory  meanings depend on  13 whether  one v i e w s t h e t h i n g s t h e y  negatively This however,  (Gairns popular  a n d Redman, conception  have.  concept  in  1843 (Lyons,  1977 p . 1 7 5 ) .  of  connotative core  would  of connotative  first  While  (Lyons,  Geoffrey  there  1977 p . 1 7 6 ) .  Leech's  definition  o f what  i t refers  conceptual  content"  definition  i s confusing,  knowledge  female  human.  much more.  (Leech,  o f semantics,  On t h e p u r e l y  t o , over  at least,  this  type  scholars  an e x p r e s s i o n  has by  i t s purely  While  f o r those  level,  Mill  of connotative  this  with  little  clarifies  a woman i s s i m p l y  On t h e c o n n o t a t i v e  As Leech  Most  t h e example he g i v e s  denotative  meaning i s  i s agreement on  and above  1974 p . 1 5 ) .  most  Stuart  scholars view  m e a n i n g a s t h e "... c o m m u n i c a t i v e v a l u e virtue  meaning  d i s c u s s e d by John  meaning d i f f e r e n t l y ,  properties  accept  meaning,  For semanticists, connotative  a philosophical  its  1986 p . 1 8 - 1 9 ) .  of connotative  i s not the conception  semanticists  denote p o s i t i v e l y o r  i t .1  an a d u l t ,  however,  a woman i s  notes:  ... t h e r e i s a m u l t i t u d e o f a d d i t i o n a l , n o n c r i t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t we h a v e l e a r n t t o e x p e c t a r e f e r e n t o f woman t o p o s s e s s . They i n c l u d e n o t only p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ('biped', 'having a womb'), b u t a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l p r o p e r t i e s ('gregarious', 'subject t o maternal i n s t i n c t ' ) , a n d may e x t e n d t o f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e merely t y p i c a l rather than i n v a r i a b l e concomitants o f womanhood ( ' c a p a b l e o f s p e e c h ' , ' e x p e r i e n c e d i n cookery', ' s k i r t o r d r e s s w e a r i n g ' ) (Leech, 1974 p.14).  1. T h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s h a l l h e r e a f t e r b e r e f e r r e d t o a s TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g .  14 In  addition,  other  subsumed under being  frail,  irrational,  (Leech,  list  i t i s not  agreement.  of.the  1974  to  culture,  individual  connotative  (Hammerly, particular  1982  lexical  Canada v a r y associated  SEX  will  particular speaking  agree  persuasion"  Neither is  the  focus  meaning which  of these  America  of  the  i s the  present focus  to  and  Latin  which  America  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings Canada for  positive i s no  meaning  minds  of  modern  example,  guarantee  h a v e many  1974  and  of  connotations  Leech notes:  i n the  types  extent  MILK  connotative  (Leech,  experience  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings which  WOMAN w i l l  present  the  vary  from  there  As  both  cultures i s evident  Victorians,  item.  misogynist not  the  and  obtain universal  The  in Victorian  And  on  lexical  associations feminist  The  'woman' i s  p e r i o d and  between  w i t h much l e s s do.  sensitive  for connotations  p.15).  North  considerably.  modern Canadians people  1974  of the  items  of  which would  historical  p.456).  include  emotional,  compassionate,  satisfactory  i n E n g l i s h speaking  also  Such a t t r i b u t e s  connotations  differ  Hammerly's comparison has  of  (Leech,  meanings  women a r e  p.14).  a list  I t i s not  of  cowardly,  inconstant, gentle,  Leech's  extensive,  according  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning.  prone to tears,  hard-working While  assumed a t t r i b u t e s  of  any  of  "...  two  any to  an  English  uncom-plimentary speakers  of  a  more  p.14).  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning,  study. while  than  The  i t has  type not  of  however,  connotative  attracted  the  15 scholarly  attention  significant J.J.A.  of the other  Mooij  notes  a way o f l o o k i n g lexical  type  o f meaning which extends  they  possess.  Lexical  metaphorically  meaning  shall  meaning  (T3C0).  refer  When u s e d w i t h denotes  meaning  study.  with  the in  present  (Mooij,  meaning which  study.  When  The above  i s t h e focus  a lexical  the conception  which  item  f o r MONKEY.  used  This  i s the type  of the present  Mooij  views  of denotative  entity  meaning  as h a s been done i n  example and t h e examples  indicate,  between Mooij's  shall  t o a boy, i t has  1976 p . 8 8 ) .  as an e x t e n s i o n  chapter  connotative  o r d e n o t a t i v e meaning i t  group.  distinct  I t i s  sense.  quotes,  i t s T3C0 a n d a p p l i e d  a separate  the previous  difference and  i n a general  literal  which  of connotative  'connotative meaning'  I t i s t h e same d e s p i t e t h e f a c t  than  secondary  'connotative  t o a s TYPE 3  whom M o o i j  i t snormal  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning rather  type  t o as  a T3C0 i s AAP, t h e D u t c h w o r d  o f RASCAL  connotative  refers  This  a member o f a p r i m a t e  metaphorically  of  Reichling,  a  extended meaning.  be r e f e r r e d  Henceforth  possess  cannot be used  this  t o c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  which possesses  items  which  1976 c h . 7 ) .  hereafter  According  the  items  do n o t p o s s e s s  (Mooij,  a t metaphors i s t o  t h e d e n o t a t i v e meanings  extended meaning which Mooij  meaning'  has- a t t r a c t e d  attention.  assume m e t a p h o r i c a l l y u s e d  this  types,  there  i s no  used  essential  conception  of connotative  meaning  i s t h e focus  of the present  study.  16  While existence examples  other of this  Tanzania  deal  discuss that David  (Black,  these  from t h e  T3C0 i s t h e t y p e  Sapir notes  shows a c r u e l  1978 p . 2 2 ) .  do n o t a d m i t t h e  i t i sclear  use EEL t o d e s c r i b e devious  (Tourangeau,  of  o f meaning,  with.  Tourangeau  LIONS  type  which they  which they  Roger  s c h o l a r s o f metaphor  t h e Haya o f  men  (Sapir,  and rapacious  Max B l a c k  o f meaning  notes  1977 p . 7 ) .  man i s a WOLF  brave  mean a r e  1962 p . 3 6 ) . T h e m e a n i n g e x e m p l i f i e d i n e a c h  examples  i sclearly  T3C0.  THEORY ON THE TEACHING OF  VOCABULARY  J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR INCLUSION: In most in  previous  studies. present  study.  data  rationale  several types  theliterature  teaching  this  particular.  This  their i n the  on t h e  Thus  therationale  another  c a n be used  one d i s c o v e r s what  t o provide  develop  By  language  o f T3C0 i n  a rationale  a  i s to  on t h e t e a c h i n g o f  and t h e teaching  helps  type  f o r t h e present  ways t o o b t a i n t h e d a t a  have w r i t t e n  i n general  it.  collected  on language t e a c h i n g t h e o r y .  literature  theorists  vocabulary  for  c o u l d n o t be done  of data  one o f t h e soundest  reviewing  a rationale  o f T3C0 b y S L L s p r e v e n t s  While  use data  The p a u c i t y o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a  was n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e  study.  review  studies t o provide  Unfortunately, this  acquisition of  s t u d i e s o f SLA r e s e a r c h e r s  f o r t h e study.  17  THE  REVIEW: The  began  modern e r a  sometime d u r i n g the  century. for  During  granted  division on  i n the  oral  were  fifty  first  proposed.  language  work  i n the  into early  approach to the  language  l e a r n i n g i s an  activity  (Howatt,  teaching ideas to  has  about  those  with  second  evolved second  to  similar  to  those  Theorists and  number o f vocabulary of the  These  are  of  language  be  view  second  century,  This  the  be  primarily  should  3. be  a  an  belief  language  Many their  modern similar  to  nineteenth repeatedly  remarkedly  believed: on  the  2.  foster  the  taught  m a j o r i t y of t h e o r i s t s  1988).  1.  type  taught;  just  true  modern  McCarthy,  placed  should  emphasis  passive  some  are  century  pronunciation; items  an  the  learning,  McCarthy  teaching  be  are  is particularly  ( C a r t e r and  should  take  remarkably  i t much as  C a r t e r and  taught  a  of vocabulary.  which  ideas  o f grammar and  past  nineteenth  items  lexical  beliefs  of  While  the  past  nineteenth  modern SLTs  rather than  vocabulary  limits  grammar and  meanings  ideas  teaching  did.  i n the  should  stages  teaching  of the  lexical  the  languages  Among t h e s e  much e a r l i e r .  on  severe  of  language teaching are  the  ideas  second  four basic s k i l l s ;  ch.13).  over  predecessors  show m o d e r n  the  of  half  years  active  language t h e o r i s t s  century  strict  1984  expressed  regard  latter  these  of  inductive  teaching  and  learning  denotative (Howatt,  1984).  have h e l d  since.  18 In t h e Mastery System  of language teaching  Thomas P e n d e r g a s t t h e t e a c h i n g subordinate controlled taught to  to the teaching with  regard  and t h e k i n d s  the denotative  lexical felt  items  advocating  o f grammar.  of meanings  meanings  strictly  a much s m a l l e r  adjectives  1984  SLLs  s h o u l d be  3,000 w o r d s s h o u l d be 160).  And  clearly 1899  while  p.145).  idiomatic  wrote  gave  T3CO.  there  century  Vietor,  felt  teachers  the need  idiomatic  d i d not.  o f T3CO.  and  They, should  of  about meanings 1899  b u t ' he  does  a type  But based  like  clearly  of on  the  d i d not of the  late of  d i d not  Pendergast, Gouin  concentrate  not  (Sweet,  advocate the teaching  Berlitz  p.  including  Other t h e o r i s t s  d i d not  believed  meanings  T3CO a s  large  had  (Sweet,  of  also  and  believed  dictionaries,  he  of a  He  i s r e a s o n t o assume he  also  it.  also  of  Gouin  Sweet  vocabulary  He  considered  Klinghardt  advocate teaching Sweet,  he  perhaps  advocate the teaching nineteenth  about  i n learner  Perhaps  Henry  exposed  He  meanings  easy t o understand  what he means by  meaning; he  and  Francois  of vocabulary.  p.160).  items  number  number o f nouns  to a limited  1899  he  meanings  define  examples  exposed  simple  was  were  controlled.  p.161-167).  on t h e t e a c h i n g  (Sweet,  kept  idiomatic  limited  e x p o s i n g SLLs t o t h e l i t e r a l  views  SLLs  p.156-161).  number o f v e r b s and  similar  clearly  Vocabulary  taught.  of a very  1984  s h o u l d be  (Howatt,  was  t o b o t h t h e number o f l e x i c a l  (Howatt,  vocabulary  of vocabulary  d e v e l o p e d by  on t e a c h i n g  and simple  19 denotative (Howatt,  meanings t o a l i m i t e d  he  was  interested  wrote  the  him  lexical  For  The  him  its  As  Scientific  lexical  S t u d y and  on  life  Teaching of  many which  (Howatt,  state  clear  he  i t e m s and  meaning.  concerned with term  d o e s he  T3C0.  on  what he word  p.21).  (Palmer, was  used,  He  referred  1921  d i d not  meaning. he  however,  make  t o as he  was  not  aware o f o t h e r t y p e s o f  lexical  give  examples  p.114).  the  the use  and  If  certainly  While  explicitly  a  d e n o t a t i v e meaning.  i t i s clear  does not any  he  lexical  is basically  types of l e x i c a l  synonymous w i t h  of each  'peculiarities' .  definition 1917  a  e n c a p s u l a t e d by  examples  s u g g e s t s he he  is/are  A  did.  remarks  'peculiarities'  meaning,  lexical  d e n o t a t i v e meaning,  The  detailed what  T3C0 f r o m  m e a n i n g was  E v e n when he  A  and  discussed  (Palmer,  among d i f f e r e n t  distinguished  provided a  a simple concept.  or d e f i n i t i o n s . item  Languages  He  a meaning or meanings which  differentiate  not  he  semantics.  m e a n i n g was  synonym o f a l e x i c a l  this  on  Howatt mentions, i t  throughout h i s professional  definition  did  extensively  o f t h e a s p e c t s on  component.  i s , morphological aspects of  i t e m has  Nor  One  P r i n c i p l e s o f Language S t u d i e s ,  word  it  lectured  teaching.  summary o f h i s t h o u g h t s  he  and  p.231).  In the  Palmer  of language  wrote  1984  items  1984).  Harold aspects  number o f l e x i c a l  precisely  o f words w i t h  define i t .  these  of  20 While  i t i s u n c l e a r how  influenced  o t h e r ESL  contemporaries James Tharp  theorists,  were not  in their  Palmer's  views  the views  dissimilar  on v o c a b u l a r y  of h i s  to his.  Robert  Cole  Modern F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s and  Teaching e x p r e s s e d views  very similar  and  Their  to those of  Palmer.  They b e l i e v e d  a l l a t e a c h e r needs t o t e a c h i s d e n o t a t i v e  meaning  and  A  (Cole quarter  vocabulary  Nelson Brooks  (Huebener,  believed  SLLs  also  ESL  theorists  m e a n i n g much as P a l m e r  Palmer's  They  1937).  century later  and  Huebener and  Tharp,  1959  s h o u l d be  believed  espoused  ch.5  and  taught  s t i l l  did.  views  Brooks  thought  of  Theodore similar  1964  to  ch.13).  simple denotative  They  meanings.  t h e amount o f v o c a b u l a r y s h o u l d  be  limited.  Not  a l ltheorists  demonstrated and with  an  an  shared these views.  awareness  vocabulary  (Lado,  which  he  1955  felt  and  was  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  Lado,  was  kind  of c o n n o t a t i v e meaning which  SLLs the  meaning.  have w i t h native  language,  He  was  "...words t h a t  language or v i c e  but  versa"  which  1957).  particularly  SLLs  connotative  50s  Lado  of the complexity of vocabulary  understanding of the d i f f i c u l t i e s  vocabulary  In the  (Lado, he  1955 had  the  of  for  But  i n m i n d was  or taboo  1957  aspect  p.37-39).  are harmless  (Lado,  One  have  troublesome  concerned with  offensive  SLLs  the  TYPE  2  difficulty  i n connotation i n i n the  p.86-87).  foreign  21  During  t h e 50s and 60s most ESL t h e o r i s t s  about t h e t e a c h i n g to  making  of vocabulary.  a few remarks  book e d i t e d by A l l e n articles  (Lado's)  Campbell,  In the other  treatment  of vocabulary  is  importance typical.  awareness  R. L o r d  of the nature  passing  lip-service  1974).  A few t h e o r i s t s  function  of  Gerald teachers  vocabulary i s  i s used t o teach  i n second  While  of vocabulary.  this  understanding  language  ESL t h e o r i s t s  to the teaching  Fleming  apparently Hence,  of  learning, i t lack  they  of vocabulary  an  give (Lord,  were more aware o f t h e n a t u r e  i n a 1966 a r t i c l e  make t h e i r 1966).  SLLs w i l l  probably  consequences  students  not learn  i fteachers  and  offended,  give  offense  Fleming's  definition  i ti s imperative  insult,  or just  feel  types  insulted,  not understand  what  c a n be  feel i s said.  however,  of connotative  T3CO f o r h e d i s c u s s e s t h e a s p e c t s  The  on t h e  o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning,  encompasses two d i f f e r e n t  this,  meanings.  c o n n o t a t i v e meanings Depending  meanings  do n o t do  many c o n n o t a t i v e  communication problems. one c a n g i v e  notes  aware o f c o n n o t a t i v e  He b e l i e v e d  of not learning  circumstances  is  (Allen and  vocabulary.  (Fleming,  serious  articles  shows a s u p e r f i c i a l  notes  In the  o n e o f t h e 44  (Lee, 1957).  of vocabulary  themselves  i n any d e t a i l  as something which  and p r o n u n c i a t i o n  the  only  vocabulary  structure  limited  little  d e n o t a t i v e meaning.  and Campbell  treats  1972 ) .  viewed p r i m a r i l y  about  They  said  of lexical  meaning.  One  meaning  that  22 permit is  lexical  similar In  items  t o Lado's  conception  t h e 70s a n d 80s i d e a s  began t o change. the  t o be u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y .  nature  discuss  teaching  S L L s more t y p e s  teaching  denotative  is  1973).  present  D.A. other  clearly  of lexical s t i l l  SLLs,  w h i l e he n e v e r he f e e l s  did  t o comprehend them  of lexical  meaning  meaning.  (Twaddell, t h e need  d e n o t a t i v e meaning,  (Wilkins,  clearly  f o r example,  primarily  a matter  p.340-341).  idioms of  p.75).  Language  Wilkins,  however,  o f T3C0.  more t h a n  just  i n t h e work o f W i l k i n s ,  views the teaching  Edward A l l e n  with  the teaching of  1974 p . 2 2 ) .  evident  of teaching  which  f o r teaching  i n t h e w o r k o f many o f h i s p e e r s .  Chastain,  1976  T3C0  discusses  1973  I n h i s Second  r e c o g n i t i o n o f a need t o teach  not present  just  a teach  explicitly  not discuss or mention the teaching  The  is  advocated  The  t o have an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  L e a r n i n g and T e a c h i n g h e a d v o c a t e s collocative  meaning.  one o f t h e p r o b l e m s  Wilkins also recognised  types  vocabulary  They began t o  recognises  i t i s often necessary  T3C0 i n o r d e r  of  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the problems  i t i s obvious  that  meaning.  meaning.  Freeman Twaddell (Twaddell,  however,  other  have become more aware o f  and f u n c t i o n o f vocabulary.  of theorists,  T3C0,  on t h e t e a c h i n g  Some t h e o r i s t s  majority  idioms  of connotative  The  Kenneth  of vocabulary  d e n o t a t i v e meaning  as  (Chastain,  and Rebecca V a l e t t e a l s o  view  23 the  teaching of vocabulary  Valette, ch.5). to  1977  Vazulik  to teach  teaching Hastrup  a n d V a z u l i k , 1983).  students  and H i l l ,  ch.5).  1985  items  items  ( R i c h a r d s , 1976  be  taught  is  not clear  teaching  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  emotional 1976  thus  what R i c h a r d s  p.88).  as a c q u a i n t i n g items  Wilkins'  a matter  of  of a limited  2.  SLLs  number  need  p.88).  'connotative He  says:  i n v o l v e s s h o w i n g how a w o r d i n a particular  to  Buti t  meaning'.  "Vocabulary  can take  context"  Unfortunately i ti s d i f f i c u l t  aspects  3. S L L s n e e d t o  ( R i c h a r d s , 1976  means b y  He  number o f  and c u l t u r a l  p.85-87);  book  clearly i s  a much l a r g e r  d e f i n e t h e term.  connotation  and  ( R i c h a r d s , 1976).  social  ( R i c h a r d s , 1976  He d o e s n o t c l e a r l y  Lewis  Richards  p.84);  i n the grammatical, items  as j u s t  n e e d t o be t a u g h t  lexical  lexical  discuss  (Faerch,  of lexical  t h e d e n o t a t i v e meanings  1. S L L s n e e d t o b e t a u g h t  of  items  et. a l . just  following  Jack  notes:  instruction  how  Johannes  of lexical  Michael  i n the years  d e n o t a t i v e meanings.  lexical  on  p.98-104).  the teaching of vocabulary  more t h a n  1978  on d e s c r i b i n g  the teaching of vocabulary  a l l theorists  teaching  suggestions  meanings.  w i t h t h e d e n o t a t i v e meanings  Not  of  view  1984  and  (Haycraft,  1979).  Faerch  d e n o t a t i v e and c o l l o c a t i v e  Jimmie H i l l  viewed  (Howlett,  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  and P h i l l i p s o n ,  (Allen  provides  and James Fox a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e  1983  (Lewis  manner  John H a y c r a f t  merely  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  techniques  aware  So d o e s  Frederick Howlett  teach  (Fox,  ch.7).  i n this  on  (Richards, understand  24 what R i c h a r d s  means b y t h i s  something  similar  meaning.  He may  t o Lado's  teach She  Robinett  more t h a n  connotations  example, family  should  lexical  items  by other  1978 p . 1 1 3 ) .  "...may  friend  have  teaching that DOG  T3C0s.  i s something which  Wilga meaning'  Hammerly  Hammerly  differences views  (Robinett,  should  SLLs  lexical  community  b e made a w a r e DOG, f o r  she taught  dirty, While  advocating would  learn  h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f UGLY G I R L o r t h a t i s difficult  to  (Rivers,  teaching views  items  sell.  'socio-cultural  1981 p . 3 1 9 - 3 2 0 ) . connotative While  connotative  both  arouse  Hector  meaning R i v e r s and  meaning t h e r e a r e  o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning.  may  a  1978 p.202-203) o r  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning as those  particular  ch.3).  individuals  speech  i t i s n o t t h e same a s  1979 a n d 1982 c h . 1 8 ) .  i n their  1978  ( R o b i n e t t , 1978 p . 1 1 3 ) .  also stresses teaching  advocate  must  f o rp a r t i c u l a r  (Rivers and Temperley,  (Hammerly,  teachers  vocabulary  Rivers also discusses teaching  ' c o n n o t a t i v e meaning'  He  a n d ... a m i s c h i e v o u s ,  I f i t were,  f o r m o s t N S E s DOG  t o T3C0.  a l o v a b l e , happy, a f f e c t i o n a t e  t o one p e r s o n  i s useful,  similar  members o f t h e i r  d a n g e r o u s enemy t o a n o t h e r " knowing t h i s  of connotative  b e made a w a r e t h e s p e c i a l  SLLs  connote  mean  different.  d e n o t a t i v e meaning  may n o t b e s h a r e d (Robinett,  completely  also realises  states students  He may  conception  a l s o mean s o m e t h i n g  may a l s o m e a n s o m e t h i n g  Betty  statement.  emotional (RIVERS,  Rivers  overtones  which  1981 p . 3 1 9 ) .  25 She  notes  from  N S E s may c o n c e i v e  other  p.203).  o f LUNCH i n w a y s w h i c h  c u l t u r e s do n o t ( R i v e r s and T e m p e r l e y ,  Hector  Hammerly, however,  conceives  meaning as c o n s i s t i n g o f two d i s t i n c t is  virtually  connotative part, and to  identical meaning  as h i s l i s t i n g  Spanish  people  Azevedo  The f i r s t  conception  1982 p . 4 5 0 ) .  (Hammerly,  recognises  The  second  connotations  1980  terms  p.222).  meaning'.  i s similar  1982 p . 4 5 6 ) .  that:  "Even b e f o r e  not  clear  Ruth  Unfortunately,  ..."  (Azevedo, 'connotative  Thus  They,  however,  John Crow d i s c u s s e s meaning can e f f e c t While  he a d m i t s  savor  the literary  areas  such  understanding  how k n o w l e d g e  flavor  of a text  (Crow,  knowledge helps  of prose  register  And  both  TYPE  a n d Redman 198 6  o f TYPE  comprehension  "Connotative  as d i c t i o n ,  (Gairns  do n o t d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g  reading  i t i s  advocate teaching.  a n d S t u a r t Redman d i s c u s s t h e t e a c h i n g meanings  an  properties of  any examples.  he w o u l d  a n d TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e  p.18-19).  he h a s  develop  he does n o t d e f i n e  does he g i v e  which types(s)  Gairns  and connotative  and i d i o m a t i c expressions,  Neither  English  r u l e s o f grammar, t h e l e a r n e r  of the denotative  individual  part  of  a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e must w r e s t l e w i t h meaning,  awareness  1978  connotative  a s s o c i a t e w i t h MILK,  m a s t e r e d t h e most e l e m e n t a r y  1  of  parts.  of the different  speaking  Milton  t o Robinett's  (Hammerly,  Rivers' conception  of  people  o r make  1  T3COs.  connotative 1986 p . 2 4 3 ) .  the reader  judgements i n  e t c ..." h e b e l i e v e s a b a s i c  i s possible without  a knowledge o f  26  connotative advocate  the  meaning. Ronald  meaning  (Crow,  explicit  And  he  Carter,  connotative  meaning,  connotative  meaning.  a  T3C0 o f  teaching  says  while  PURE o r  nothing he  advocate teaching there  advocates teaching Cowrie  they  i t is difficult  possess  p.130). lexical  He  the  notes  knowledge  means and  or  to  theorists  like  Redman and  others  some s t i l l  types  of  lexical  while  i t i s evident  lexical  Rinvolucri,  and  motivated  a  first  not  step  discuss  inadequately  they do  not  1986).  They  learning to (Morgan and  in a clear  discuss just  occur  or  mention  p.137).  and  the  various  Rinvolucri,  different them  that  coherent  1986 manner  types  (Morgan  for  effective  ' d i c t i o n a r y meaning'  Rinvolucri,  and  define  the  lexical  Mario  are  1988 this  Gairns  differentiate  aware t h e r e  WOLF  unless  with  1988  of  and  of  (Cowrie,  students  types  John Morgan are  them  provide  i t (Cowrie,  with  1988).  interpret  their  he  Cowrie  meanings  knowledge  different  that  edited  McCarthy,  Carter, McCarthy,  meaning.  meaning,  and  acquire  discuss  meaning,  b o o k he  has  teaching  however,  must e i t h e r  else provide  opportunity  While  of  teachers  of  teaching  about  non-literal  lexical  types  i n w h i c h A.P.  f o r SLLs t o  requisite  then  the  And  f o r e x a m p l e WHITE  In the  ( C a r t e r and  i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  stresses  various  nothing  article  not  T3C0s.  advocates  notes,  T3C0s.  T3C0s  the  does  connotative  It is likely,  i s an  he  about t e a c h i n g  says  p.21).  So  TYPE 1  explicitly  CLEAN, he  would  McCarthy  of  W h i l e he  ( C a r t e r , 1987  p.243).  i s aware of  never  T3C0s  Michael  1986  p.6).  But  just  what  is  only  they comes  do  27  after  dictionary  meaning.  N o r do t h e y  define  'dictionary  meaning'. This several little  review  on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y  things:  1. m o s t  interest  meaning;  language  connotative teaching  meanings.  theorists  classrooms, language  of connotative  i t i sprudent  learn  language  d i s c u s s TYPE 1 a n d TYPE 2  what happens  of  language  i n second  have v e r y  little  knowledge  instruction  instruction  o f T3C0.  t o possess  But  i n p l a c e s where t h e t o know  t h e Japanese  little  knowledge  and animal  CONNOTATIVE MEANING AND  Of  i n t h e host  c a n be expected  one c a n e x p e c t  basic colour, bird  language  t o a s s u m e S L L s who r e c e i v e f o r m a l  i sn o t used,  study  who  some T 3 C 0 s o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m .  Hence,  the present  3. t h o s e  i f thebeliefs  S L L s who r e c e i v e t h e i r  T3C0s.  which  just  Hence,  S L L s who r e c e i v e t h e i r  few  d i s c u s s T3C0;  influence  instruction  environment  target  have  2. t h e f e w who d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g c o n n o t a t i v e  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  course,  teaching theorists  i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f any t y p e  meaning do n o t e x p l i c i t l y discuss  has revealed  subjects of o f t h e T3C0s  terms have  SECOND LANGUAGE  very  i n English.  TEXTBOOKS  J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR INCLUSION: SLLs using of  learn  language  both.  different theorists.  language  i nthereal  What t h e y from  through  learn  what t h e y  Thus  world  formal  o r through  i nthese would  i t i suseful  study  i n school, by  some  environments  learn  i f they  combination c a n be  were t a u g h t by  t o know s o m e t h i n g  about  SLLs'  28 encounters  w i t h T3C0 i n e a c h o f t h e s e  environments. encounters to  Unfortunately, there  with  T3C0s i n t h e  l e a r n something  classroom.  THE  One  about  simply  real  SLLs'  language l e a r n i n g  are  no  world.  But  encounters  examines the  data  on  SLLs'  i t is possible  with  textbooks  T3C0s they  in  the  use.  REVIEW:  Authors extensive  of  i n t r o d u c t i o n s i n which they  philosophical provide  language teaching textbooks  and  teaching  theoretical  language teaching textbooks, teaching  of vocabulary.  comments. students used  L.G.  i n the  O'neill  text  et.  the  meaning  of words they  and  Yeadon,  1971).  number o f  topics  1986).  precise  and  Val  i n the  that  meanings  Other less.  students  J i l l  authors  active and  do  be  not  Black  be  notes  dictionaries (Gore,  of  1979  note  a l l the  1975  words  p.11). be guess  (O'neill,  at  Kingsbury  mention  the  i n d i s c u s s i o n s on  Malderez  and  a  Parker,  some w o r d s h a v e m u l t i p l e  should  be  used to  obtain  more  p.vi).  language t e a c h i n g textbooks  H a d f i e l d says  of  the  merely  should  used  and  authors  encouraged to  know  books  cursory  command o f  et. a l . just  t e x t can  simply  a few  Kingsbury,  should  their  i f any,  Kingsbury  (Black, McNorton,  L e s l e y Gore  meanings  R.H.  of  write  the  w r i t e much on  state vocabulary  and  used  an  (Alexander  challenging  vocabulary  few,  however,  and  acquire  a l . simply  Very  M o s t make o n l y  Alexander  need not  outline  foundations  suggestions.  commonly  absolutely nothing  about  say  even  29 vocabulary Tomlinson  also  Tomlinson, discuss  (Hadfield,  1984 a n d 1 9 8 7 ) .  say n o t h i n g about  1987).  Robert  Challenge t o Think Bernard  Seal and  nothing  about  Castanon,  vocabulary  O'neill  vocabulary at a l l .  Rod E l l i s  (Ellis  and Roger  Scott  and do n o t  N e i t h e r do t h e a u t h o r s o f  (Frank, R i n v o l u c r i Megan W e b s t e r  vocabulary  and Brain  (Seal,  and Berger,  1982).  and Libby Castanon  also say  1980 a n d W e b s t e r a n d  1980).  Even t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e few v o c a b u l a r y t e x t b o o k s on t h e market how  generally  t o teach i t .  explaining 1982).  L.A. H i l l  1983).  Builder  P e t e r Watcyn-Jones  notes Bernard  Putseys  notes  That discuss  "lexical  (Hill,  sets"  1982a,  1982b,  t o Vocabulary reasons f o r  (Seal,  1988).  more awareness  ofthe  o f language,  are only  (Rudzka,  Channell,  1985).  component  not  mean t h e y h a v e n o v i e w s  how  i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t  explicitly  meaning  t h e authors o f language  the lexical  of vocabulary  t h e r e a r e good  component  collocative  and Ostyn,  (Watcyn-Jones,  Seal i n his introduction  of the lexical with  h i s comments t o  s h o u l d be done  Rudzka e t . a l . ,w h i l e they e x h i b i t  concerned  limits  words have meanings  vocabulary through  complexity  o f vocabulary and  i n h i s Word Power s e r i e s  1 and 2 m e r e l y  studying  on t h e n a t u r e  how t h e e x e r c i s e s  books merely and  say l i t t l e  share t h e i r  o f language  on t h e n a t u r e  t o SLLs. views  t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s do n o t  with  I t just  i n any depth,  does  o f vocabulary and means t h e y do n o t  the users of their  30 textbooks.  Since they  examine t h e i r One  way  include  which  in their  authors  lexical  meanings  and like  with  a limited  1973).  schools  understood  provide  authors  usually  glossary i n their i n English,  English.  information.  written include a  items  The  1974  p.31).  textbooks  the glossed l e x i c a l  used  in  bilingual Instead of  of these  e q u i v a l e n t s i n Japanese. just  entry  i t i s used  textbooks.  give  simple  however,  the authors  equivalents generally  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  do,  provide  for lexical  and S c o t t ,  i n Japan  Scott  i n Viewpoints  the learner  (O'Neill  provide translation  translation  They  of the specially  t h e meanings  f o r the  use h i s Kernel  Their glossaries  some a d d i t i o n a l  and u n i v e r s i t i e s  reveals  and Roger  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  with children  English-Japanese giving  O'Neill  i n m u c h t h e same m a n n e r  NAUGHTY, f o r e x a m p l e , t e l l s  Most  textbooks  number o f d e n o t a t i v e  Robert  1974).  views  glossaries.  p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t s who  W I T N E S S , GAMUT o r S E N I L E .  primarily  the  include i n their  just  must  i s t o examine t h e  Such an e x a m i n a t i o n  and S c o t t ,  easily  views  one  their  textbooks.  they  glossaries  occasionally for  i n order t o determine  o f a few language  (O'Neill,  (O'Neill  views,  the authors  O'Neill  Lessons Plus  their  only p r o v i d e d e n o t a t i v e meanings  items  Robert  use  textbooks  of determining their  glossaries  these  do n o t s h a r e  a  books The  translation  items  have i n  31 New H o r i z o n  The gloss  every  using  the glosses  only or  word  or expression  used  SLLs c a n o b t a i n  one o r two o f t h e d e n o t a t i v e  expression  and  series o f junior high  has i n English.  a limited  refer  Butthey  t o o r denote,  And  they  a l s o cannot  and  that  liberals  government  learn that  learn that  does n o td i f f e r  noticeably  Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n  the  denotative  Japanese SLLs  meanings  equivalents  on o t h e r  types  Takanashi  The  textbooks provide not  i t i s  SLLs t o  meaning o f t h e E n g l i s h d o n o t e x p l a i n how  The t e x t b o o k s  o f meaning t h e g l o s s e d  do n o t i n s t r u c t words  possess  e t . a l . , 1983, Shimizu  et.  a l . ,  e t . a l . , 1983a n d Kamiyama e t . a l . , 1982).  are similar  i n Japanese  SLLs w i t h  provide  The  o f t h e E n g l i s h words a n d t h e i r  differ.  i nJapan  used  role of  used i n  t o enable  g l o s s a r i e s i n the English textbooks  universities  GIRL  The g l o s s a r i e s  The t e x t b o o k s  (Ogawa e t . a l . , 1 9 8 3 , H i r a n o 1983,  textbooks  equivalents  o f the denotative  i n the texts.  cannot  table.  1986).  from t h e manner  provide  words used  strewn  (Ota, I t o andKusakabe,  i n t h e New H o r i z o n t e x t b o o k s .  a little  respectively i n  view the proper  handled  learn  D E S K , DOG  DESK i n E n g l i s h  i nother  of  word  DOG c a n c o n n o t e A N UGLY  and conservatives  i s handled  each  canlearn that  a s TSUKUE c a n , a p a p e r  differently  manner v o c a b u l a r y Japan  cannot  By  understanding  meanings which  They  textbooks  i n the textbooks.  GOVERNMENT a r e T S U K U E , I N U a n d S E I F U  Japanese.  school  junior high  denotative  SLLs w i t h  t o t h e ones  meaning  information  used i n i n the  schools.  equivalents.  about  other  They They do  types o f  32  meaning which  the  1987,  Kuzumi,  1986  and  S L L s who  rely  solely  textbooks very  types  understand  types  the  authors  glossaries,  the  in their  glossaries difficult  --  and  lexical  denotative Seldom  of  With  of  items  students, standable.  1979  acquire  teaching textbooks easy  authors  overwhelming  enough t o give the who  do  by  other type  of  elementary  and  the  always just  the  texts.  meaning low  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  intermediate is  under-  l e a r n e r s must  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  p.569).  i t is  t o examine  to understand  language  provide  majority —  of  which  teach.  not  almost  on  use  lexical  teaching textbooks  used  other  who  to determine  texts.  Hammerly n o t e s ,  (Hammerly,  not  a  They  include in their  become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e items  With  o f any  emphasis  acquire  fluently.  is sufficient  In texts  As  items  i n c o n t e x t s where knowledge  meanings  this  T h e y do  them i t i s n e c e s s a r y  language  their  meanings.  of meaning they  dialogues they  in  lexical  consider important  are the  (Burleigh,  enough t o h e l p them t o  language  types  they  of  i t is relatively  i s a knowledge  necessary.  items  have  glossaries  of t h e i r  i s not  glossaries.  task.  Authors use  This  lexical  only notes  stories  the  understanding  of meaning they  items  on  items 1987).  the meaning(s)  of meanings.  provide  Posener,  o n l y d e n o t a t i v e meanings.  For  One  learn  inadequate  acquire  and  to  glossed lexical  of  first  lexical  33 Hence like:  i ti s n o t unexpected  C r o s s t a l k Book 1,  Lessons Intermediate Mainline Progress A Through P i c t u r e s the  texts  able of  used  (Webster  (O'Neill,  i n high  and Castanon,  Kingsbury  (Alexander,  (Heaton,  t o understand  to discover that for  1973),  1975),  Beginning  s c h o o l s i n Japan  the stories  d e n o t a t i v e meaning.  1980),  and Yeadon,  Activities  should not expect t o  designed  for high  i n t e r m e d i a t e and advanced  knowledge  o f d e n o t a t i v e meaning.  knowledge  of other types  C r o s s t a l k S t u d e n t s ' Book 3  Rinvolucri  S t u d e n t s ' Book  in  and Berer,  (Alexander  (Alexander  universities  i n Japan  necessary.  designed  expressions  no d i f f e r e n c e  only type  designed  197 6 a ) ,  I T h i n k You  and t h e t e x t s  used  students  and a b s t r a c t l e x i c a l designed  o f meaning authors  students  i sthe greater  items  f o r advanced  teaching textbooks  between t h e  f o radvanced  w i t h r e g a r d t o meaning,  o f language  Castanon,  Mainline S k i l l s B  197 6 b ) ,  f o r elementary  i n those  texts  C h a l l e n g e To T h i n k  The o n l y m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e  number o f t e c h n i c a l  the  some  i s a g r e a t e r knowledge o f  o f most t e x t b o o k s  those  1982),  and Kingsbury,  vocabulary  levels  texts  and  1979),  and Kingsbury,  meaning.  is  students i s  s h o u l d be  (Webster  (White,  denotative  and  texts  one d i s c o v e r s a l l one needs t o u n d e r s t a n d  (Frank,  Think  In these  o f meaning  Functional English  1980) a n d  and d i a l o g u e s i s a knowledge  One, h o w e v e r ,  1980d),  1971),  a l l one needs t o be  that a l l that i s required t o understand  like:  Kernel  Composition  (Seal,  discover  Instead,  texts  and idiomatic  students.  however.  There  For a l l  d e n o t a t i v e meaning i s  expect  s t u d e n t s t o know.  34 SLLs whose s o l e e x p o s u r e lexical  component  entries  i ntheir  knowledge  o r acquaintance  o f t h eE n g l i s h language textbooks  acquire  o f t h eE n g l i s h l e x i c a l  which they  u s e do n o t p r o v i d e  which they  need t o use l e x i c a l  particular  they  meanings which  items  a r en o t presented  certainly  area  of lexical  i nt h e f i e l d  an aspect  T3C0 b y  The t e x t b o o k s  In  They c a n n o t  i ntheir  acquire  textbooks.  ACQUISITION  acquisition  meaning,  on SLA i n o r d e r  SLA r e s e a r c h e r s  i sc e r t a i n l y  a  o f SLA a n d T3C0 i s most  of lexical  examine t h e l i t e r a t u r e anything,  and narrow  INCLUSION:  t h estudy  legitimate  limited  fluently.  T3C0s.  SECOND LANGUAGE  Since  system.  i st h e l e x i c a l  them w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n  cannotacquire  J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR  a very  with the  i ti sn a t u r a l t o t o d i s c o v e r what, i f  have w r i t t e n on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f  SLLs.  THE REVIEW: Ten the  or fifteen  manner  last  i nwhich  decade  exponential are  s t i l l  known.  years second  ago v e r y  little  languages  was known  areacquired.  o r two, however,  t h e study  growth.  a l l t h egrowth,  areas  Despite  o f SLA about which  Unfortunately,  lexical  about Over t h e  o f SLA has undergone however,  comparatively  acquisition  there  little i s  i sone o f these  areas. It books  i s a common p r a c t i c e  on t h et e a c h i n g  f o r t h eauthors  o f ESL t o d i s c u s s SLA.  of introductory They  summarise  35 and  comment on  acquisition 1981  and  the results  of phonology,  Krashen,  factors  which  between  learner  Stern,  1983)  h a v e on little  SLA  influence  with  on  lexical  t h e y do  (Brown,  the effect  with  very deeply or thoroughly.  book  1982).  Very  lexical  o f T3C0.  the primary  of  lexical  acquisition  has  not  acquisition  (Corder, 1981).  Nor  does  William  Littlewood  Rod  (Ellis,  1984  lexical  also  says  Ellis and  acquisition  about  been  in  also  neglects  lexical  1986).  Stephen  Krashen  also  Dulay  et. a l .  (Krashen, 1981).  (Dulay, B u r t and little  The  exclusively  lexical  1984).  and  gender  with  say n o t h i n g  Klein  and  deal  acquisition  also  And  1981  not  (Littlewood,  ignores  relationship  with  almost  the acquisition  studied  his  age  et.al.,  1983).  more t h o r o u g h l y i s l e x i c a l  C o r d e r does  the  deals  deals  (Rivers,  not d i s c u s s  on  (Rivers,  situational  the acquisition  meaning  Pit  the  (Hammerly,  like  Krashen  acquisition  meaning  SLA  variables and  and  1980);  and  they report  None d e a l s  denotative  reason  SLA  ( K r a s h e n , 1981  acquisition.  on  s y n t a x and morphology  characteristics  and  research  1981); the a f f e c t i v e  of the research  research  o f SLA  Krashen,  lexical  1982).  acquisition  Wolfgang (Klein,  1986) . While lexical  these writers  acquisition,  handle the l e x i c a l make l e x i c a l  errors  say  t h e y do  component (Klein,  little  specifically  make a f e w  c o m m e n t s o n how  of language. 1986  p.27,  about  Klein  145).  notes  Krashen  SLLs SLLs  notes  36  that  without  learning the  can  some v o c a b u l a r y  knowledge not  occur  1981  acquisition  'instrument' techniques Their  SLLs use  can was  an  examination  of  exists.  only  to  say  on  some o f t h e reveals  little  i n the  these  books.  Richards'  Hatch  edited  by  In  Lexical  p.104).  related  to  knowledge  because  have done.  on  Gingras  these  primary  acquisition,  at best,  on  The  contains  i n the  on  acquisition  single  article  book e d i t e d  little  1974).  An  lexical  1974).  on  by  lexical  This  neglect  book  compiled  i t i s evident  i s there i s on  lexical  a  (Gingras,  books  emphasis  And  articles  contain  Stenson,  1978).  on  If  lexical  of  articles  i s also evident  (Hatch,  none o f  which the  Stenson  (Schumann and  Rosario  few  (Richards,  Nancy  acquisition  Evelyn  research  book does not  acquisition  Schumann and  lexical  1986  acquisition  researchers  research  acquisition  acquisition  few  (Ellis,  numerous books  are  John  and  w o u l d have t r e a t e d i t i n more d e t a i l .  there  lexical  discusses  a  tangentially  lexical  amount o f  least,  on  'agent'  as  never discuss the  At  Jack  such  also mentions  d i s c u s s what o t h e r  they  Ellis  meaning.  extensive  however,  are  f o r they  little  acquisition  SLA,  He  language  p.80).  learn vocabulary  however,  lexical  only  roles  1984). to  acquisition  They have  there  semantic  (Ellis,  SLLs have of  they  of  comments,  lexical  (Krashen,  much  i n the  of by  book  1978). e v e n one  lexical  rates only  article  in  acquisition. a  few  comments  in  37  the  occasional article.  articles, of  f o r example,  vocabulary  p.90).  Gingras,  merely notes that  which deal  acquisition  only  collocative  meaning  any  of the acquisition  articles  lexical  Long,  f o r example,  deal  with  and  Long,  and  Elliot  one  e d i t e d by Susan  book  1982). Judd  on  with  few a r t i c l e s  Bernhard Kettemann no a r t i c l e s  on  meaning  on l e x i c a l  Michael  Long  by C h a r l e s  Scarella, Wolfson does t h e  (Gass a n d  and Robert  St C l a i r ' s  with the  (Kettemann  are like  and S t .  this.  A few  acquisition.  (Bailey,  Studies e d i t e d by  Kathleen  Peck  article  Long  James, however,  the acquisition  and  that  Neither  Madden  by SLLs  And Sabrina  acquisition  Scarella  (Krashen,  1983).  which deal  Not a l l c o l l e c t i o n s  articles  Robin  no a r t i c l e s  Gass and C a r o l y n  of lexical  1980).  lexical  article  of  t o t h e ones  t h e book e d i t e d by Nessa  S e c o n d Language A c q u i s i t i o n Bailey,  i s there  similar  acquisition  (Wolfson and Judd,  1985).  acquisition  contain  and/or  And c o l l e c t i o n s  Krashen,  contains  lexical  Nor does  also contains  Clair,  They c o n t a i n  1978  lexical  I n no a r t i c l e  o f T3CO.  book e d i t e d by Stephen  explicitly  Madden,  with  i n t h e 1980s a r e v e r y  i n t h e 1970's.  (Gingras,  of denotative  i s discussed.  knowledge  acquisition.  The Michael  the acquisition  published  published  without  n o t much l e a r n i n g c a n o c c u r  And i n t h e a r t i c l e s  mention  i n o n e o f h i s own  of denotative  contains and Peck,  i s concerned meaning  one  1980).  This  exclusively  (James,  1983).  38 The  same  i s also true  extensively Jacquelyn 1983).  with  Schachter's  articles rare.  recent  articles  Articles effect  acquisition  lexical  Duskova,  t o occur,  how t e a c h e r s  similar  which  t o those  collections.  rare.  And a r t i c l e s  s t i l l .  acquisition  exclusively  This  with  may  change  research  on l e x i c a l  articles  i n t h e June  1987  Language A c q u i s i t i o n , acquisition. acquisition  While  neglect  of  i t i s i n journals are  Tesol  are  of  exceedingly  o f T3C0 a r e r a r e r  one a r t i c l e  which  deals  o f T3C0.  In the last  i s coming  few  o f age.  years  A l l the  i s s u e o f S t u d i e s i n Second  f o r example,  the articles  of connotative  variables  of journals like  by SLLs  i n the future. acquisition  s t i l l  e t c . reveals accounts  has not found  the acquisition  are  While t h i s  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  The r e s e a r c h e r  contain  included i n their  The t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s  on l e x i c a l  1983).  can i n f l u e n c e  published  ELT,  denotative  necessary f o r  e d i t o r s have  Language L e a r n i n g ,  SLA  articles  cannot be condoned,  The a r t i c l e s  with  of syntax,  and  Schachter.  and Stenson,  such  of input  understandable.  research  1983  deal  Robinett  and  exclusively  e t c . a r e more numerous.  acquisition  Quarterly,  (Robinett  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  which  i n Betty  of articles  acquisition,  SLA, t h e t y p e  acquisition,  deal  collections  on l e x i c a l  articles  acquisition  anthology  ( P r a t o r , 1983,  While  which  lexical  A l l three  meaning  of the three  were on  lexical  d i d not deal  meaning,  that they  with the were  published  39 indicates And  John  t h e study of l e x i c a l Crow comes c l o s e  connotative  meaning  acquisition  to actually  i sacquired  much t o e x p e c t r e s e a r c h  i s significant.  e x a m i n i n g how T Y P E 1  (Crow,  1986).  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  Is i t too  o f T3C0 t o  follow?  That  i s for the future.  assertions The  and Levenston a r e b a s i c a l l y  study of l e x i c a l  neglected addition has  o f Meara  (Meara,  At the present time the  acquisition  by SLLs  research  on l e x i c a l  been v e r y n a r r o w l y c o n c e i v e d .  denotative study  meaning  has received  of the acquisition  meaning  has been  1982 p.100 a n d L e v e n s t o n ,  the little  severely  1979 p.147).  acquisition  by  In  SLLs  The a c q u i s i t i o n o f  t h e most a t t e n t i o n .  of the other types of  has been bypassed  correct.  The  lexical  or overlooked.  F I R S T LANGUAGE ACQUISITION J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR A  INCLUSION:  r e v i e w o f some o f t h e w o r k o n f i r s t  acquisition clarify language occur.  i suseful  a t what p o i n t  i n several  development.  development,  language  development.  researchers  also  occurs early occur early  I f , on t h e o t h e r hand,  language  of a  help  second  o f T3COs c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o  I f such a c q u i s i t i o n i t might  1. I t c o u l d  i n t h e development  the acquisition  development,  ways.  language  i t could  also  2. I t c o u l d  i n first  i n second  language language  i t occurs late occur late  help  second  i n first  i n second language  determine t h e order i n which t h e various  types  40  of  connotative  second  language  acquisition THE  meaning  researchers  the  determine whether  o f T3COs v a r i e s w i t h  study  language  acquisition  of the acquisition  their  second  there  i s an e x t e n s i v e  first  language  does  semantic  help  the  field.  language  researchers  o f T3C0  colleagues.  —  learners. 2  John article articles  Hayes,  he e d i t e d .  D a v i d Ingram  did  not select  acquisition  peers  Their  interest Their  language  d i d not select  1970).  and Ingram,  (Lee, 1979).  Neither 1976).  Brown does  the acquisition  even  primary —  one  did Philip  mention,  i teither  on t h e  Seiler  and  1979).  on f i r s t  (Brown,  Dale  Lee a l s o  i s nothing  language  the acquisition  n o t even  o f T3CO  i n t h e 1970s d i s c u s s  just  researchers  Victor  And t h e r e  ( S e i l e r and Wannenmacher,  have n o t d e a l t w i t h  Roger  by  meaning.  a u t h o r s o f extended works  acquisition  discuss  one  acquisition  o f T3CO i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f  (Hayes,  (Dale  as  i s despite the fact  o f T3CO i n t h e b o o k e d i t e d b y T h . B.  Wannenmacher  either.  f o r example,  on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  and  The  of denotative  neglected  as c o m p l e t e l y  o f T3CO.  as i t i s f o r second  the acquisition  have  l i t e r a t u r e on l e x i c a l  acquisition  just  just  This  not extend t o the acquisition  interest  W.  3. I t m i g h t  REVIEW: First  is  are acquired.  l e t alone  1973).  (Moerk,  o f T3CO  None o f h i s  1977; de  2. T h e d e V i l l i e r s p r o v i d e a n e x c e l l e n t , c o n c i s e s u m m a r y o f t h e r e s e a r c h on f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e i r E a r l y Language (de V i l l i e r s a n d de V i l l i e r s , 1979).  41  Villiers first  a n d de V i l l i e r s ,  language  ignore  1978 a n d 1979; C l a r k ;  acquisition  o r overlook  researchers  have  continued t o  i t so f a r i nt h e 1980's.  ( E l l i o t , 1981;  Beck,  1982; A n i s f e l d ,  1984) None o f them s a y s  about  t h ea c q u i s i t i o n  o f T3CO.  First the  language  acquisition  acquisition  o f T3CO j u s t  colleagues  have.  since  are primarily  they  development study  the acquisition  acquiring the  Their neglect  o f language  denotative  T3COs o f l e x i c a l  research meaning  should i nolder  researchers  as t h e i r  anything  have  second  of i ti s  1978) . A n d  neglected  language  understandable  interested i nstudying the i nt h e very  young.  o f T3CO w h e n t h e i r meanings. items  They  cannot  subjects  B u t i f , a s seems  a r ea c q u i r e d  are s t i l l logical,  relatively  be done on t h e development  late  more  of lexical  c h i l d r e n and adolescents.  CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF COLOUR, BIRD AND ANIMAL TERMS J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR INCLUSION: Since  the present  acquisition Japanese  study  o f t h e T3COs o f c o l o u r ,  speakers o f English  know t h e T3COs t h e t e r m s would permit items  have  acquisition the  i s concerned with t h e  (JSE),  have  t h ecompiling  of their  1. a l i s t  have  terms by  and English.  I t  o f t h e T3COs t h e  which t o measure t h e  T3COs b y a d u l t  T3COs w h i c h t h e t e r m s  andb i r d  i t would be u s e f u l t o  i nJapanese  of:  i nE n g l i s h a g a i n s t  animal  Japanese;  i nJapanese  2. a l i s t o f  against  which t o  42 measure t h edegree have THE  adult  J S E s t r a n s f e r t h e T3COs t h e t e r m s  i n Japanese t o t h eE n g l i s h  equivalents.  REVIEW: A perusal  vocabulary  of theliterature  teaching,  which has received  etc.quickly  little  on s e m a n t i c s , metaphor, reveals  attention.  Only  isolated  comments  however,  does n o t i n d i c a t e no r e s e a r c h  research,  this  occasional  on t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s  h a s b e e n done  i s something  exist.  This,  h a s been done.  Some  f o r such meanings a r e i n c l u d e d i n  dictionaries. The Merriam-Webster D i c t i o n a r y of  colour,  the  animal  and b i r d  T3C0s o f DEPRESSING,  T3C0, A STUPID that  terms.  BLUE  of a warlike  JEALOUS,  policy  date.  i sl i s t e d  i s a HAWK.  as having and t h e  that  that of  o f SIMPLETON.  i ndictionaries,  The Concise Oxford Dictionary,  A n d The  t h e T3C0s o f  a n d SICKLY; LION w i t h  COURAGEOUS P E R S O N a n d GOOSE w i t h  Some T 3 C 0 s l i s t e d  f o r a number  t o ASS a n d i t i s n o t e d  C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y h a s GREEN w i t h INEXPERIENCED,  T3C0s  P U R I T A N I C A L a n d INDECENT,  PERSON i s a s c r i b e d  a supporter  lists  however, a r eo u t o f  f o r example,  lists  JEALOUS a s a T3CO f o r YELLOW a n d POMPOUS PERSON a s a T3CO for  TURKEY.  presently  T h e s e a r e n o t m e a n i n g s many modern NSEs  a s c r i b e t o YELLOW a n d TURKEY.  n u m e r o u s common T 3 C 0 s a r e n o t l i s t e d dictionaries. include  NAIVE  The Concise Oxford, o r SIMPLETON  In addition,  i neither of t h e  f o r example,  a s T 3 C 0 s o f TURKEY.  does n o t The Merriam-  43 Webster D i c t i o n a r y  does  HARD WORKER.  Even  t h e Longman D i c t i o n a r y  does  t h e T3C0s o f t h e l e x i c a l  not l i s t  present  study.  Larger Shorter Their  In fact,  i t does  O x f o r d do p r o v i d e  more c o m p l e t e provide  p o c k e t ones,  listings  contain  i na dictionary  based  terms  guarantee It  dictionary.  a l ladult  recent  This  that  Dictionaries  Japanese the  this  Dictionaries, with  which  But t h e present study  a r e T3COs o f c o l o u r ,  NSEs know.  And there  i na dictionary  animal  i sno  a r e up t o d a t e .  n o t be l i s t e d  i na  inadequacy f o r l e x i c a l  quickly.  do n o t p r o v i d e  i svery  I t was n o t l o n g  complete and accurate  which adult  with  similar.  T3C0s w h i c h c o l o u r ,  area.  would not  known e v e n t h e  NSEs.  i sa serious  the situation  Japanese.  however,  o f T3C0s.  items  ago,  f o r  TURKEY d i d n o t p o s s e s s i t s p r e s e n t T 3 C 0 .  t h e T3C0s w i t h  And  listings  i s no g u a r a n t e e t h e T3C0s  T3C0s w o u l d  new T 3 C 0 s q u i t e  example,  of  of adult  i n the  like the  or definitions  a r e meanings  t h e T3C0s l i s t e d  i spossible  acquire  There  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h e r e  and b i r d  dictionaries  o f T3C0s,  entries  Idioms  any T3C0s.  t h e t y p e o f d a t a needed.  overwhelming majority is  of English  items examined  more c o m p l e t e  few p e o p l e a r e f a m i l i a r . listed  BEAVER h a s t h e T3C0 o f  not note  a n d more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  necessarily even  not note that  As i n E n g l i s h And Japanese  listings  NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r .  regard There  to their  i s no a c c u r a t e  animal and b i r d little  T3C0s i n  research  dictionaries  terms  listing of  have i n  has been  done i n  arenot better at  44 noting  t h e T3COs w h i c h a d u l t  Japanese-English  dictionaries  Hence t h e o n l y terms poll  i n either  way  This  of determining  i s the simplest  bird  At  do n o t n o t e  significant  determine the English colour,  know.  contemporary E n g l i s h  a statistically  NSJs.  NSJs  least,  T3C0s.  t h e T3C0s o f  these  or Japanese or i s t o  number o f a d u l t  and most p r a c t i c a l  terms examined  NSEs  way  and J a p a n e s e T3C0s o f t h e  and animal  bilingual  and  to  selected  i n the present  study.  METAPHOR J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR  INCLUSION:  T3C0 i s t h e t y p e possess.  What d i s t i n g u i s h e s  other metaphors? dead metaphors?  could  be  What m e a n i n g s to these  do  metaphors  characteristics  dead metaphors between  dead metaphors  q u e s t i o n s be  found?  found i s i n the l i t e r a t u r e  on  of  from T3C0  and  have? One  place  metaphor.  REVIEW: Questions  literature touch  like  genesis  t h e above  on metaphor.  on q u e s t i o n s  theories  have  and  What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  Where c a n a n s w e r s  THE  which dead  B u t what a r e t h e q u a l i t i e s  dead metaphors?  they  of meaning  like  o f metaphor and  Most  scholars  these.  or else  functioning  are not dealt  Instead  with  i n the  of metaphor they  barely  construct  attempt to account f o r the  of l i t e r a r y  much t o s a y on d e a d m e t a p h o r s  metaphors. and  T3C0.  Very  few  45 I.A. lectures to  Richards on  metaphor t o  e x p l a i n how  H e n c e he  devotes  must p o s s e s s  function  discuss the  i n order  items  (Richards, qualities  1936 or  p.119).  meanings  meaning of  aspect  from  f o r he  T3C0,  arbitrary. decipher  As  the  While  metaphors the  T3C0 o f  used  LIGHT and metaphors  items  to  simply  clarify  literal  be  notes  what  the  or  c o m m e n t t h a t DUCK c a n  meaning  i s very  similar  can  of the  a  arrive logical  present  i s no  a lexical  at  have  study  guarantee item.  His  1936  term  and  i n THE  (Richards,  study.  LEG 1936  with  OF  A  p.101  For  T3C0s  will  are  logically  i s also a couple  him  he  make c l e a r  significantly  CHAIR a r e and  process.  T3C0s.  examines  however,  dead metaphor d i f f e r s present  understanding  p.101-102, p.117-118),  examples,  T3C0  I f i t were p o s s i b l e ,  M e a d metaphor'  uses the  one  different  that  one  conception  of  an  to  reasoning  coping  he  i n the LEG  lexical  meanings  have problems  term. of  either  ch.5&6).  It i s also significantly  there  (Richards,  conception one  His  e x p r e s s i o n by  such  Richards' clear.  of  a s s u m e s one  assumption  SLLs would not  define  are.  p.117).  a metaphorical i t i s an  metaphorical  Nowhere d o e s he  of h i s metaphorical 1936  But  and  framework  potential He  his  a CHARMING o r D E L I G H T F U L O B J E C T i n d i c a t e s  (Richards,  of  literal  1936  of meanings  thoroughly.  characteristics  metaphorical the  have  (Richards,  type  p o r t i o n of  a theoretical  f o r them t o have t h e  employed m e t a p h o r i c a l l y very lexical  substantial  establishing  metaphors  does not  a very  not dead does his  from  the  STRONG i n STRONG examples  p.117).  But,  of as  not  dead was  made c l e a r  i n Chapter  One,  such  expressions  are  not  dead  metaphors, One  of the  interesting. principle metaphor  He  of  the  I f he  do  MAN  notes  to  He  claims  find  (Richards,  doubt  of the  short  1936  value  of  view  the  lexicon,  metaphorical  improve  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the ( B l a c k 1977  t o T3C0.  He  as  a s s o c i a t i o n s as  being  i t i s assumed i n the  must  he  views  them as  interest  (BLACK,  i n T3COs a n d  1962  he  and  meaning  succeed, of  p.28-29). that  than they  the  These a  metaphor  the f i e r c e n e s s  Black,  however,  permanently present  study  they  pt.5).  As  dead metaphors.  does  recorded  t h i n g s which  f a s h i o n a f r e s h each time  expression.  1962  minds  notes  p.40).  did,  by  the  on  f o r metaphors t o  ( B l a c k , 1962  Instead,  listeners  Richards  WOLF d e p e n d s u p o n a s s o c i a t i n g  these  T3COs a r e .  as  i s also shared  p l a c e s more e m p h a s i s  i n order  similar  w i t h man  not  with theory  framework t o  metaphors  are  IS A  little  omnipresent  p.92).  d i s c u s s i o n of metaphor(BLACK,  however,  of the  wolves  i s no  famous e s s a y s ,  meaningful  associations  has  and  He  receivers  there  preoccupation  Black,  must t r i g g e r  or  i s the  ( R i c h a r d s , 1936  a theoretical  understanding  of  "...metaphor  c o n t a i n metaphors  I n h i s two  establishes  like  i s most  study.  Black.  Richards.  not  i s right,  Richards'  1979).  ..."  iterates  i s so p e r v a s i v e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t  present  Max  states that  language  passages which p.92).  points Richards  in  that readers  encounter such, In  he fact,  a  47 he  states  (Black, since  dead metaphors  1977 p . 2 6 ) .  their The  meanings  are not r e a l l y  Perhaps they  are not r e a l l y  are recorded  i n the lexicon.  concerns of Richards  and B l a c k  s h a r e d by most modern s c h o l a r s constructs 1969).  a very  (Tourangeau, attempts metaphor  theory 1978).  to refute  theory  David  Christopher  Sapir  metaphor  often  Other Vanparys  scholars  along  metaphorical (Vanparys,  plays  with  aspects  Crocker writes (Crocker,  take  George  1984 a n d L a k o f f  197 9 ) .  perspective deals  with  totemism  Samuel  (Dwyer,  discusses  1980).  examine  and e x p l a i n  1981).  None d i s c u s s e s  and  outlines  (Sapir,  about t h e s o c i a l  approaches.  a n d M.  role  idioms  play  Jonathan i n metaphor  examines metaphor  (Levin, between  1977). animal  Peter  from the Dwyer  metaphors and  Brown and S t a n l e y  metaphors  Johan  Johnson examine t h e  features  also  Cecil  body  hand,  o f metaphor  general  semantic  the relationship  a  are understood  and Johnson, 1980).  of a semanticist  (Thomas,  1977).  Lakoff  Levin  Thomas  constructing  o f some common E n g l i s h  Cohen examines t h e r o l e (Cohen,  less  are also  assumptions about  some m o d e r n a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y 1977).  Owen  on t h e o t h e r  some t r a d i t i o n a l  metaphors  theory  how m e t a p h o r s  F.C.T. M o o r e ,  at a l l  o f metaphor  i s concerned with  to explain  (Moore, 1 9 8 2 ) .  with  o f metaphor.  philosophical  Roger Tourangeau  psychological  metaphors  Witkowski  (Brown a n d W i t k o w s k i ,  T3CO a n d i t s r o l e  i n dead  metaphors.  48 A They  few s c h o l a r s ,  attribute  T3C0.  metaphors t h a t were  et.  once  qualities"  a l . suggests  phrases'  which  metaphor  fresh  a thought  (Condon,  some m e t a p h o r i c  a r e more l e x i c a l  than  they  Bartel  connotations are essential  (Bartel,  T3C0 as a c e n t r a l  J.J.A.  to  their And  are  metaphoric  And  aspects  M o o i j , however,  and c o n c i s e l y  reviews  theories "...explain  t h e meaning  expressions  on t h e b a s i s o f p a r t o f t h e meaning  are type  view  He  u s e " ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 3 5 ) .  i s c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  Jean  states of metaphorical of these  And t h i s  ( M o o i j , 1976  'part of  p.81).  c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e meaning,  not identical.  In the present  o f meaning which  lexical  of  by Monroe B e a r d s l e y ,  connotation  T3C0 a n d M o o i j ' s  regards  connotation  1976).  the meaning'  o f many  I n h i s A Study  does.  o f metaphor developed  i n literal  Roland  scholars  Cohen and Anton R e i c h l i n g ( M o o i j ,  words  Glucksburg  are 'stock  1982 p . 9 5 ) .  None o f t h e s e  legitimate  p a r t o f metaphor.  Metaphor he c l e a r l y theories  1983).  become  'vehicles'  G i l d e a and Bookin,  metaphors.  "Dead  1966 p . 4 6 ) .  (Glucksburg, notes  that:  and b r i g h t  without  differently.  o f dead metaphors t o  f o r instance, notes  i n the vocabulary  metaphorical  view  the metaphoricalness  J o h n Condon,  words  however,  meaning.  i s independent  Connotation  c o n n o t a t i v e meaning  (Mooij,  1976 p . 8 5 ) .  lexical  items  used  study  distinct  of other types  theorists  as a sub-type  In the present  T3C0 i s a  however,  on t h e o t h e r of l i t e r a l  study  of hand,  meaning  i t i s assumed  i n dead metaphors possess  T3C0s.  For  only  49 connotation and  novel  meanings  theorists,  metaphors  however,  are also possessors  ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 8 3 ) .  similarities  metaphorical  i n fresh  of connotative  Nevertheless  b e t w e e n T3C0 a n d M o o i j ' s  words  there are  concept  of connotative  meaning. This scholars 2. m o s t  review  of the literature  are primarily  interested  assume one c a n a r r i v e  metaphors through  some  o f T3C0.  existence  o f dead metaphors,  there  theorists the  present  place  studying really  as m e t a p h o r i c a l  handle  on m e t a p h o r  Even M o o i j , notes  there  FOX  a r e sound  o f T3C0 b y S L L s .  as R i c h a r d s  i s not the  despite h i s a n d WOLF  reasons f o r  a study  aspects  on t h e  well  o c c u r r i n g metaphors  i n E n g l i s h a r e dead  metaphors.  While  i s no e v i d e n c e  assumption,  i t i s the researcher's belief  t o support most  SLLs  of English.  t r u e , i f t h e most numerous and  there  have  I f language i s  claimed,  extensive metaphorical  i s particularly  5.  connotation  o f T 3 C 0 i s a g o o d way d i s c o v e r t o how  the very  frequently  6.  them.  respectively.  has i n d i c a t e d  the acquisition  acquisition  This  o f T3C0s.  T 3 C 0 s o f SLY a n d CRUEL  review  about  m e a n i n g much a s i t i s v i e w e d i n  i n c o n n o t a t i v e meaning only  This  recognise the  say l i t t l e  7. t h e l i t e r a t u r e  fora list  of  3. m o s t d e n y t h e  o n how m e t a p h o r s w o r k .  connotative  study.  t o look  interest the  view  process.  they  most  i n constructing theories;  4. w h i l e m o s t t h e o r i s t s  i s no c o n s e n s u s  1.  a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  logical  existence  has revealed:  this  language  50 create the  infrequently  acquisition  SLLs'  create  o f T3C0s  level of fluency.  cannot be f l u e n t  o r i g i n a l metaphors.  could  also  Study  into  be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e  I f language i s so m e t a p h o r i c a l ,  without  a good  one  command o f m e t a p h o r .  ACQUISITION OF METAPHOR JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: Since T3C0,  the present  i ti s useful  acquisition something  study  i s concerned the acquisition  t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e  o f metaphor.  3  Such a r e v i e w  about t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  reveal  o f dead metaphors  indirectly  something about t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  could  even  reveal  T3C0s  of the colour,  present  could  o f T3C0.  something about t h e a c q u i s i t i o n animal  and b i r d  and thus I t  of the  terms examined i nt h e  study.  THE REVIEW: The little the  l i t e r a t u r e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  on t h e t o p i c  acquisition  interested, lexical  generate  o f metaphor  the acquisition  items  studied.  of the present  The a s p e c t s o f  i n which the researcher o f dead metaphors  the acquisition  and i n t e r p r e t  comprehend  study.  contains  i s most  a n d t h e T3C0s  i n dead metaphors p o s s e s s have n o t been  Instead,  Ellen  o f metaphor  of the ability  to  o r i g i n a l metaphors has been  Winner e t . a l . s t u d i e d and i n t e r p r e t  how t h e a b i l i t y  studied. to  complex o r i g i n a l metaphors  develops  3. A l l o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d d e a l s w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n metaphor by f i r s t language l e a r n e r s . T h e r e h a s b e e n no r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f metaphor by S L L s .  of  51 (Winner, Gardner to  Rosenstiel and E l l e n  interpret  generate also  studied  1984).  traced both  complex  them  original  and Gardner,  metaphors  i n tracing  T3C0s n e c e s s a r y interest  of these  how c h i l d r e n  i n dead metaphors  appears  before the a b i l i t y  of lexical  and generate  One o f t h e f i n d i n g s to  the topic  of the present  comprehend complex completely  of this  indicates  until  well  into  This lack  t o understand.  of  of  I ti s  metaphors  original  aspect  ones.  A l l  lexical  t o a c q u i r e an  extended to  metaphors.  research i s quite  study.  original  a l .  and Wolfson,  i ti s the ability  original  et.  or acquire the  t o comprehend  meaning than  to  interpret  t o comprehend dead  S u r e l y i t i s much e a s i e r  interpret  to  Reynolds  develop  needs t o a c q u i r e i s an extended  aspect  Vosniadou  studies  i s not easy  t o assume t h e a b i l i t y  meaning.  of the ability  t o comprehend dead metaphors.  logical  one  1979).  Ortony,  later  and t h e a b i l i t y  of the ability  (Vosniadou,  None o f t h e a u t h o r s  interest  metaphors  and Winner,  t h e development  A few years  t h e development  original  (Gardner  1976).  The a b i l i t y  relevant  to  metaphors does n o t develop adolescence  (Gardner  and Winner,  1979).  Hence SLLs  s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f  lexical  items  i n dead metaphors  some t i m e  speaker  This  obtain true  near  native  fluency.  f o r t h e T3C0s o f t h e l e x i c a l  present  study  metaphors. just  used  f o r they  are capable  i nthe  common o f d e a d  i s there i s nothing to  of acquiring  they  i s particularly  of concern  a r e among t h e m o s t  The o n l y p r o b l e m  when S L L s  items  before  indicate  t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e  52  terms. early  Perhaps they i ntheir  acquiring  are capable  studies.  them u n t i l  Perhaps they  they  language  of  the learner  a  new l a n g u a g e .  interferes with That  Hence,  interference lexical items  items  i ntheir  o f t h e syntax,  language  acquisition of of the errors  morphology,  language t o t h e target  of the literature whether  native  about  c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t ot h e  of the native  reveal  i n the target  the native  the learner's  language  a review  could  assumption  i s , a certain portion  or semantics  language.  a pervasive  l e a r n i n g has been t h a t  of c e r t a i n aspects  phonology  fluent.  INTERFERENCE  few decades  S L L s make i n t h e t a r g e t transfer  quite  INCLUSION:  Over t h e l a s t second  them  are not capable of  are relatively  LINGUISTIC J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR  of acquiring  on  linguistic  SLLs t r a n s f e r t h e T3C0s o f  language t o equivalent  lexical  language.  THE REVIEW: Unfortunately, topic  of the present  1.  scholars  the  errors  study.  There  have begun t o b e l i e v e  Krashen  i nthe literature a r e two reasons only  a small  on t h e  for this.  portion of  e t . a l . n o t e most g r a m m a t i c a l  a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f p h o n o l o g i c a l  attributed  to interference  p.97-98).  Hence,  has  i slittle  S L L s make c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o l i n g u i s t i c  interference. and  there  been done  (Krashen,  less research  i n recent  years.  errors  Dulay  cannot be  and Burt,  on l i n g u i s t i c  errors  1982  interference  2. a n e g l i g i b l e a m o u n t o f  53 the  r e s e a r c h on  lexical  component  on  lexical  do  not  phonological, (Krashen, S.N. research 1981).  study  it.  as he  cites,  a conclusion  The  "The  (Sridhar,  (Prator,  are transferred  1983).  Josh Ard  and  transfer  native  language  (Ard and  (Sridhar, has  p.217).  interesting. article  on  on  One  Osgood  and  conclude:  the n o n - d e n o t a t i v e meaning (Sridhar,  lexical  Clifford  1981  p.218).  1983).  acquisition  Prator  i n English  selectional  lexicon  1981  of  study.  of temperature  extent to which  instead  suggests there i s merit i n  other articles  languages  the  area of vocabulary  language..."  clearly  et. a l .  reviews the types  have been done  i s most  d e n o t a t i v e meaning.  other the  which  at a l l "  the present  few  adjectives  article  are l i k e l y  second  research  Krashen  f o c u s e d on  the  ch.5).  the authors of t h i s  of the  conducting  1982  it:  little  m o r p h o l o g i c a l components  1981  however,  "...interferences  with  puts  been touched  Hofstatter,  Such  in a  f o c u s e d on  so  been done t h a t  and  Burt,  has  In fact,  r e s e a r c h has  interference  And  he  level  Most  and  Sridhar on  has  syntactic  Dulay  interference  of language.  interference  mention  hardly  linguistic  with  Christian  compares those  several  encoded  language  Taco Homburg d i s c o v e r e d  language  in  Adjemian  restrictions  to the target  a l l deal  1981).  i n the  (Adjemian,  that  some  d e n o t a t i v e meanings t o the  Homburg,  examines  SLLs  target  54 The  meagre amount o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , makes i t  difficult lexical  t o make c l a i m s  properties  Nevertheless, there the  about  w i t h o u t q u a l i f y i n g t h e m i n some m a n n e r .  thearticle  a r e good reasons  Osgood a n d H o f s t a t t e r  by Osgood a n d H o f s t a t t e r  f o r assuming  T3C0s o f t h e i r n a t i v e  language  studied  b e t w e e n German a n d S w e d i s h . German a n d S w e d i s h , probable  will  language.  which occurred  I f such t r a n s f e r  two v e r y d i s s i m i l a r  transfer  t o thetarget  thetransfer  also  indicates  many l e a r n e r s  occurs  two very s i m i l a r languages,  such t r a n s f e r  Japanese,  thetransferability of  between  i si t not  occur between E n g l i s h and  languages?  CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CONNOTATIVE MEANING J U S T I F I C A T I O N FOR INCLUSION: Since  one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s  discover  t h e extent Japanese  Japanese  t o English,  literature. reasonable  t o expect  t o English?  culture,  transfer  transfer  people transfer  i t i sn a t u r a l  Japanese  whether  people t o transfer  I f T3C0s v a r y g r e a t l y  from  from  i t i s  T3C0s  from  culture t o  and i t s r e s u l t i n g misunderstandings a r e  B u t i f T3C0s v a r y l i t t l e i sless  T3C0s  t o review t h i s type o f  I t i s a g o o d way t o d e t e r m i n e  Japanese  possible.  o f t h epresent study i s t o  likely  from  culture  t o culture,  t o be a problem.  THE REVIEW: Max B l a c k n o t e s p e o p l e understand he  each  from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s  o t h e r ' s metaphors.  does n o t u s e t h e term  —  i sthat  may n o t  T h e r e a s o n -- a l t h o u g h t h e T3C0s o f l e x i c a l  55 items  may d i f f e r  While  he does n o t g i v e any e v i d e n c e  statement, research Li and  there  notes  English.  culture  ( L i , 1982).  In Chinese,  however,  are associated  CAT, w h i c h  Chinese  people  p.93).  R U N N I N G DOGS i s u s e d  any  English and  people  Basso very  are completely have heard  differences so the in  great  h a s n o T3CO,  i s used  i t really  i t i sextremely lexical  Western Apache,  1976 p . 2 4 9 ) .  How many  meant?  (Basso,  have  f o r example,  meanings, as  R U N N I N G DOGS,  o f t h e Western vast 1976) .  Apache  differences i n The  and Western Apache a r e  u n l i k e l y a n y NSE w o u l d items  A n d WHITE  to English.  on t h e metaphors  cultures  who t r y t o  A l l of these  o r read t h e term,  by ( L i , 1982  ( L i , 1982 p . 9 3 ) .  foreign  T3CO.  ( L i , 1982  t o r e f e r t o those  i n T3COs b e t w e e n E n g l i s h  T3COs w h i c h  (Basso,  fortune  and p r e c i s e l y demonstrates  T3CO d o e x i s t a c r o s s  English  have a p o s i t i v e  good  ( L i , 1982.p.95).  i n a paper  clearly  they  the powerful  d i d n o t know what  The  c e r t a i n l y support i t .  t o r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n who a r e l a z y  sadness  NSE knows,  i t s validity.  i n T3CO b e t w e e n  with  i nEnglish  favour with  connotes  1962 p . 4 0 ) .  B A T S h a v e a v e r y n e g a t i v e T3C0 i n  p.93).  curry  Basso  differences  (Black,  t o support h i s  t o doubt  L i and K e i t h  several  they  to culture  i s no r e a s o n  of Hai-Li  Chinese  In-fact,  from  come u p  i n Western Apache.  with RAVEN  h a s t h e T3CO o f WIDOW  DOGS a n d B U T T E R F L I E S h a v e t h e T3COs o f  CHILDREN a n d GIRLS r e s p e c t i v e l y  (Basso,  1976 p . 2 4 9 ) .  I t i s  56  difficult  t o imagine  deciphering Li  T3C0s  t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e  and Basso  different  examined  cultures.  i n English,  But  i s that  the  differences  all  cultures?  there  N S E s who w o u l d  a l ltheir  just  While  position.  vary  p.14). be  from  because  different  historical  countries.  become p r i m e Japan  period  their  and E n g l i s h  periods.  role  ministers.  t o another  i n the foreseeable future.  between E n g l i s h  meanings  Indeed  do.  they  i n Japanese  but also  because i n  do i n most  Hence,  live  women o c c u p y  i sunlikely  a  English women  t o happen i n  i ti s p o s s i b l e t h e substantially  and Japan.  of other l e x i c a l  Even a c a s u a l  could  speaking people  o f WOMAN d i f f e r  speaking countries  connotative  they  ( L e e c h , 1974  on t h e o t h e r hand,  And t h i s  TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s  t o society,  I n Japan  than they  In England,  n o t o n l y do  counterparts i n English not  differences,  people  much more t r a d i t i o n a l speaking  from  of cultural  some w a y s J a p a n e s e in  society  widely  one c u l t u r e t o  notes  Thus TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s  expected t o d i f f e r  only  from  f o r example,  one h i s t o r i c a l  t o take,  or at least  greatly  ( T Y P E 2) v a r y f r o m  greatly.  i ti s n o t such an  I t i s w i d e l y known,  G e o f f r e y Leech,  indicate  Can i t be assumed  position  suggests  another.  also  research  are characteristic of  i ti s an extreme  TYPE 2 T3C0s d i f f e r  i n two v e r y  Apache d i f f e r  observed  believed,  connotations  of their  research indicates?  i s some e v i d e n c e w h i c h  extreme  a few metaphors  and Western  i n T3C0 t h e y  difficulty  terms.  The r e s u l t s  Chinese  n o t have  items  No d o u b t t h e  also  acquaintance with  differ. Japanese  57 and  things  example, they  reveals  HOUSE a n d DEMOCRACY, f o r  d o n o t h a v e t h e same T Y P E 2 c o n n o t a t i v e  have  tatami  Japanese  i n English.  floors,  HOUSE f o r J a p a n e s e p e o p l e  no c e n t r a l h e a t i n g ,  numerous  other  meanings  o f DEMOCRACY i n J a p a n e s e  must  consent The  connotative  plausible  The  exist and  and Japanese.  between Chinese  reason  meanings  differ  reasonable they  while  exist  culture  and E n g l i s h  these  Japanese  T3C0s o f c o l o u r ,  but  there  i s not  i n T3C0s  i t i s  between  do n o t p r o v e  and Japanese, I f TYPE 2  and English,  similar differences  Apache  such  there  i s no  connotative i s i t not  i n T3C0s t o e x i s t ?  surprisingf o r  are different i n a l o t of other t o assume d i f f e r e n c e s  and E n g l i s h ,  this.  i n T3C0s do  and between Western  them t o e x i s t .  Japanese  the  to culture  i s enough t o i n d i c a t e  differences  i t may b e l o g i c a l  between  TYPE 2 a n d TYPE 3  i s enough t o i n d i c a t e  do n o t e x i s t , i t w o u l d be most  Japanese But  and E n g l i s h  between  t o expect  the opposition  cultural differences  e x i s t between E n g l i s h  not t o expect  connotative  i tcan be passed.  are differences  And there  indicates  While  from  i s needed  t o assume t h e r e  differences  If  A l l that  English.  i sthat  before  connotes  a l t a r s and  on t h e manner i n w h i c h  meanings d i f f e r  literature  family  a n d one o f t h e TYPE 2  to a l l legislation  substantial.  English  things  literature  meanings as  i s i tl o g i c a l  ways  i n T3C0s t o assume  b i r d and animal  terms d i f f e r ?  I ti s ,  i s n o way o f k n o w i n g u n t i l  some r e s e a r c h  i s done.  58  SUMMARY: This received  review little  completely not  of the l i t e r a t u r e attention.  ignored  The  authors  language a c q u i s i t i o n  investigated little  of metaphor  interest.  Scholars  who  o f metaphor have  important  type  fluency.  formal  6.  o f T3C0s  has  meaning.  SLLs are u n l i k e l y  language study.  culture. list  4.  5.  have  acquisition  by  First  and  i t t o be  of  investigated the  revealed: 2.  1.  T3C0 i s an  It i s characteristic  to acquire  many T 3 C 0 s  in  T3C0 v a r i e s f r o m c u l t u r e t o 7. No  f o r E n g l i s h or Japanese.  o f T3C0s  have  not  regard  T3C0 p o s e s p r o b l e m s f o r S L L s . exists  have  ignored i t .  the review  of l e x i c a l  has  theorists  textbooks.  researchers  have  T3C0  o f ESL t e x t b o o k s  Scholars  Nevertheless,  revealed  teaching  it.  acquisition  the  Language  a l l o c a t e d space f o r i t i n t h e i r  second  of  it.  has  S L L s i s known.  8.  accurate Little  on  CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The the  present  acquisition  English.  s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e some d a t a on o f T3C0s by a d u l t  I t was c o n d u c t e d  university  subjects  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y ,  i n n o r t h e r n Japan.  elicitation  instruments  t o complete  acquisition  Three  were d e s i g n e d  differed  animal,  bird  individual  instruments  they b e l i e v e d  sets of  and g i v e n t o t h e  (T3C0s) o f 39  a n d c o l o u r t e r m s by J S E s . instruments  o n l y i n t h e amount  accompanied each  a national  i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e d a t a on t h e  the three sets o f e l i c i t a t i o n  elicitation  different  o f t h e TYPE 3 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s  common E n g l i s h  they  Japanese speakers o f  were  of context  stimulus item.  While  different,  which Each s e t o f  required the subjects t o state  t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s u s e d  what  i n t h e study  were.  THE  SUBJECTS: Ninety-three  elicitation professors  s u b j e c t s were a s k e d  instruments. of English  E l e v e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s were  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y .  were p r o f e s s o r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e English  extensively.  and  fourth  Only  (JALT).  year E n g l i s h  junior  instruments,  o f them who u s e  and s e n i o r h i g h  t o t h e Japan A s s o c i a t i o n o f  Sixty-eight  students  however.  were s e c o n d ,  a t Iwate  70 o f t h e s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y  elicitation  Three  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y  E l e v e n were  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who b e l o n g e d Language T e a c h e r s  t o complete t h e  third  University.  completed t h e  A n d as t h e s u b j e c t s were  60 not  asked  to state their  information, certainty All  that  d i d a n d who  c a n be s a i d  d i d not complete  did differ  i n v a r i o u s ways.  female.  speaking  a n d 53 h a d n o t .  years  country years  for of  of formal  a n d one c l a i m e d  Twenty-five  Seventeen had l i v e d  more t h a n thought they  o n c e a week  their  were  In  30 y e a r s  United  i t less  Four were  States.  To d e t e r m i n e students  Eleven  a n d 45 years  o f a g e a n d 16  often.  English Sixteen  w e r e a d v a n c e d a n d 50  thought  1  study  what  from  Eight  were male and s i x  16 y e a r s  t h e meanings i n Japanese,  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y  Japanese and  Canada and t e n were  h a d more t h a n  of  28 f i r s t  were employed.  1. A m o r e c o m p l e t e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s e the appendix.  were  t h e T3COs o f t h e  are i n both  The NSEs w e r e a l l a d u l t s .  female.  than  years.  T h i r t y - n i n e used  or determine  employed i n t h i s  English. were  12  a d d i t i o n 14 N S E s a n d 28 N S J s r e s p e c t i v e l y  employed t o e s t a b l i s h terms  i n an E n g l i s h  t e n years  a n d 30 y e a r s  a n d 29 u s e d  intermediate.  were  T h r e e w e r e u n d e r 20  o f age.  English skills  completed the  5 3 h a d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16  t o have had fewer than  and t e n years.  instruments.  S i x t e e n h a d more  education,  a g e , 51 w e r e b e t w e e n t w e n t y  were more t h a n  the  Thirty-two  h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n  between f i v e  absolute  i s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who  m a l e a n d 38 w e r e  sixteen  any o c c u p a t i o n a l  i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o know w i t h  who  instruments  name o r t o p r o v i d e  from t h e education. year  Eighteen  statistics  English were  i s given i n  61  male age  and t e n were and a l l were  female.  They were a l l about  from t h e Tohoku a r e a  20 y e a r s o f  of northern  Japan.  S E L E C T I O N OF THE S U B J E C T S :  The limited  pool  i n size.  available taught, small  of subjects Only  These  the English professors  fluently.  these  subjects  people  subjects.  included the students  through  h e h a d m e t who s p o k e  English  as s u b j e c t s .  was s o s m a l l  were  whom h e h a d m e t  The r e s e a r c h e r  people  subjects  was  was t h e r e f o r e  required to  And since t h e pool o f  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r a n d o m l y  He t h e r e f o r e  he  w i t h whom h e w o r k e d , t h e  number o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s  quite  the  100 t o 150 p o t e n t i a l  t o the researcher.  JALT and a few o t h e r  use  accessible t o the researcher  select  s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s those  who  were most c o n v e n i e n t l y a c c e s s i b l e .  To of  summarise,  age.  all  They were a l l n a t i v e  possessed A  general  describe  reliable.  term  like  term  fluency  were a l l a t l e a s t  speakers  like  level  'low-intermediate'  of the subjects  While there  years They  of fluency.  has been used t o  even though  i s wide disagreement  i t i s not over  what a  means, t h e u s e o f s u c h t e r m s was  The u s e o f a s t a n d a r d i s e d  test  o f t h e s u b j e c t s was t o d e x p e n s i v e  of explicit  18  o f Japanese.  a low-intermediate  low-intermediate  unavoidable.  listing  at least  the fluency  very  the  the subjects  criteria  f o r each general  have been t o o cumbersome a n d c o n f u s i n g  t o determine and t h e level  would  for the subjects.  62 THE  S T I M U L I : Thirteen  employed  as  animal,  stimuli  were used t o  select  intermediate  level  large  number o f  those  sentences those  the  7.  4.  black  and  not  i n normal  animal  13  bird  terms were:  colour  blue,  pigeon,  wolf,  green,  plausible  vast  hawk, red,  white,  for  majority  used with  have  their  exchanges  cow,  dog,  bear,  swallow,  sparrow, purple  brown,  in  snake,  horse,  chicken,  terms were:  gold,  constructed  conversational  deer,  a  the  terms which  terms were: b u f f a l o ,  swan, t u r k e y , 13  be  the  2.  a l l of  constructed  the  which  familiar;  5.  6.  T3C0s o f  criteria  goose,  owl,  or  duck  violet,  silver,  grey,  yellow.  Only  1969).  the  were  ones w i t h  T3C0s c o u l d  T3C0s;  monkey, b e a v e r ,  The  orange,  blue,  13  eagle,  pink,  Berlin  3.  have T3C0s;  have  with  are  t e r m s w h i c h have T3C0s a r e  The  crow.  not  frequently  tiger.  13  basic  The  terms  of E n g l i s h are  plausible  imaginary  the  fox,  13.  the  terms  following  terms have T3C0s;  familiar  elephant,  11  1.  The  T3C0s c o u l d be  The  the  study.  colour  with  English.  crane,  13  not  T3C0s q u i t e  and  them:  and  t e r m s w h i c h do  o f NSEs a r e  and  in this  t e r m s w h i c h do  T3C0s;  bird  students  terms have T3C0s; for  13  11  and red,  animal,  bird  or  English colour basic  Paul  are grey,  terms were used  terms plus  English colour  Kay  orange,  colour  white, purple  terms  black, and  SILVER and according brown,  pink  GOLD to  green,  (Berlin  since  and  total  Brent yellow, Kay,  63 CONSTRAINTS ON THE STIMULI: In they  this  study  c a n be s u b s t i t u t e d  following  sentences -  imply  only  doing  following  animal, white etc.  o n l y as an example. sentences  i n the  sentence  I t i s n o t meant  aremeaningful.  Indeed,  i s meaningful.  things i nthis  manner, e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e t h e consideration.  John i s as wise as an o w l . J o h n h a s t h e memory o f a n e l e p h a n t . J o h n moves l i k e a b u l l i n a c h i n a s h o p .  addition bird  t o t h e above g r a m m a t i c a l  and c o l o u r terms  thumb, b l a c k m a i l ,  as not having  constraints, the  i n two word combinations  were deemed n o t t o p o s s e s s  only  lone wolf,  T3COs.  any meaning  Instead they  i ntheir  terms  or with the adjectives  which  own r i g h t ,  modify  were n o t examined o r o f i n t e r e s t  them.  i nthis  like:  night owl  h a v e m e a n i n g when c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e n o u n s w h i c h  modify  THE  here  knight, green  viewed  i nparentheses  investigated.  were e l i m i n a t e d from -  In  were  a l l of these  the first  By  f o r t h e word  t h e terms have i f  John i s a (wolf). John i s (wolf). John i s a (wolf) <something>. John/it i s<preposition> the (wolf). John has a (wolf) <something>.  WOLF i s u s e d to  o n l y t h e T3C0s w h i c h  were but t o they  Thus  such  study.  INSTRUMENTS: In  this  employed. appendix.)  study  (Copies  seven  different  types  of the instruments  The f i r s t  of these  of instruments  were  are included i n the  was a s e t o f t h r e e  64 questionnaires background type of  was  w h i c h was  i n f o r m a t i o n on  of these  different stimulus  instruments elicitation  type  addition  of the the  elicitation  The  was  those  with  some p e r s o n a l  data  obtained  they  English length  of  time  frequency The  type  of  of  use  the  age,  to  And  in  respective  were  study,  researcher  a n a l y s i s of  JSEs,  were  of  Japan  which  area  education, their  similar  asked  the  type.  the  years  level  of  the  of  fluency,  questions  about  were asked  were a n a t i v e speaker  the  communication.  questions.  Instead they  formal  c o u n t r i e s and  used E n g l i s h f o r very  quite  instruments.  gender,  formal  were not  E n g l i s h they  a  subjects'  facilitate  i n E n g l i s h speaking  English.  c o n s i s t e d of  subjects to provide  spent  of  complete.  studies of t h i s  p e r c e p t i o n of  i s they  types  f r e e responses  their  their  NSEs were a s k e d  and  which  elicit  i n survey  subjects of the  years  second  complete.  elicitation  their  The  to  s e l e c t e d terms.  information to  with which they  difference study  on  from,  study,  the  from the  principal  were  JSEs had  information instruments  requested  questions  to  employed  simply  The  subjects.  instruments,  NSJs each had  instrument  some r e l e v a n t  There were a l s o t h r e e  employed to  NSEs and  They  asked  of the  which the  T3C0s o f t h e  background of  gather  of m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e and/or  prompts,  knowledge  typical  each  a cloze reading test.  elicitation  Each  employed to  of.  The  only  their which  65  The N S J s w e r e a s k e d NSEs were a s k e d . years  test as  They were a s k e d  of education  and t h e p a r t  The  cloze reading test  was  given  the  was  so t h e r e s u l t s  similar  t o t h e ones t h e  about t h e i r  age,  gender,  of Japan they  were  from.  given  only t o t h e JSEs.  obtained  from  i t could  ' c o v a r i a t e ' i n ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s .  consisted seventh  of three  reading passages  word d e l e t e d . 2  separate to  questions  page  i n random  The  which  The  order.  put t h e d e l e t e d words back  The  serve  test  had every  d e l e t e d words were  The  sixth  l i s t e d on  or a  s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d  in their  proper  place  i n the  passages.  The t h r e e t y p e s Japanese typical. note,  speakers  of E n g l i s h had t o complete  Instruments  and G a l l , T h e r e was  1983  t o them,  study.  Each  instruments.  as Borg  subjects  possessed  a T3C0,  fields  investigated  set consisted of three types first  to decide  they  and  Gall  research  set of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments f o r  semantic  The  the  ch.ll).  a complete  each of the three  had  similar  which  were a l s o q u i t e  have been employed e x t e n s i v e l y i n survey  (Borg  study  of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments  type  i n each  T3C0s.  And  of e l i c i t a t i o n  set simply  whether the terms being f o r each term  were r e q u i r e d t o s t a t e  in this  required the  studied i n this which  they  what t h e y  decided  thought  2. T h e p a s s a g e s w e r e t a k e n f r o m A m e r i c a n S t r e a m l i n e : D e p a r t u r e s b y B e r n h a r d H a r t l e y a n d P e t e r V i n e y ; Headway: Intermediate by John & L i z S o a r s and Speaking Elementary by Rob N o l a s c o .  66  its  T3C0(s) i s / a r e .  13 s i n g l e state  The  word s t i m u l i .  what t h e T3C0(s) o f each  reflected  their  has.  The  first  which  were p o s s i b l e  one o f t h e s e believed  response.  select  the f i f t h  c o n s i s t e d o f t h e same of being is/are,  of the five  T3C0s.  And  the subjects  responses  they  instead  of being  response  or to select  The t h i r d  i t .  type  t h e s u b j e c t s were c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a  different  task.  possible sentences If  they  responses.  The  i n which  the term  b e l i e v e d the term  were t o s e l e c t they  or f i f t h  In T3C0, term  i t .  were n o t sure  fourth  first  both  used  one o f t h e f i r s t  were t o set also  slightly were g i v e n  five  were T3C0s.  meanings  b e l i e v e d the term  word  word  with possible  they  time,  a single  three responses  i t h a d a T3C0,  t h e second  they  h a d one o f t h e s e  I f they  response  h a d more t h a n  was  part,  had  the  This  single  response,  i n t h e second  words  of each  word s t i m u l i .  suitable  term  I f they  they  required to provide  t h e most  each  were t o s e l e c t  were unsure,  o f t h e same 13 s i n g l e  single  provided  b e l i e v e d the term  were t o s e l e c t  i f they  response.  however,  g i v e n were  I f they  h a d no T3C0,  As  required to  k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s w h i c h  meanings, they  fourth  consisted  which  term  three responses  the term  type  But i n s t e a d  were r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t best  second  they  h a d no T3C0 o r  were t o s e l e c t  the  respectively.  and t h i r d  types  three responses  one T3C0,  i f a term  had  contained i t .  o n l y o n e was  used.  a If a  67 The to  elicitation  complete  complete.  were d i f f e r e n t Instead  different  types of e l i c i t a t i o n only  required  t o complete  one t y p e .  elicitation  They were colour  had  In effect  an expanded  given  used  First,  instruments,  a list  whether T3C0,  given  they had t o w r i t e  t o do each  native  of stating  had T3C0s.  type  had t o complete.  they had t o decide whether  the terms  were  of the f i r s t  i n t h e study and r e q u i r e d  the option  they had t o  o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d ,  o r d i d n o t h a v e a T3C0 i n t h e i r  were a l s o  three  t h e NSJs and NSEs  version  had  had t o  t o complete  i n s t r u m e n t which t h e JSEs  simply  terms  things.  from those t h e JSEs  of being required  complete  of  i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h t h e NSJs and NSEs  and  two  of the  language.  t h e y were  terms They  unsure  I f they d e c i d e d a term had a  down w h a t t h e y t h o u g h t  i t s T3C0(s)  was/were.  All detailed  of the e l i c i t a t i o n instructions  explained could have  i n clear,  directions  explained  and d i r e c t i o n s .  simple terms  u n d e r s t a n d what T3C0s were u s e d  i n s t r u m e n t s were accompanied  T3C0 i s . as examples how  The  which  a  Several  instructions  non-specialist lexical  items  which  i n the instructions.  t o complete  the  by  The  elicitation  instruments. The d i r e c t i o n s native  language  and i n s t r u c t i o n s  of the subjects.  instructions  and d i r e c t i o n s  and  were g i v e n  t h e JSEs  were g i v e n  The NSEs w e r e  written  instructions  i n English.  i n the given The  and d i r e c t i o n s  NSJs written  68 in  Japanese.  translated The in The  The Japanese  from t h e E n g l i s h  instructions Japanese,  which  were  instructions  little  which  because  Japanese  t h e JSEs with  received,  t h e NSJs r e c e i v e d ,  taken from  grammar d i f f e r s  i n Japanese  environments. elicitation The  JSEs,  second  The  instruments, translated  The  THE  into  taken  from  And  from  English  t h e terms  each t h e same.  t o complete t h e  instruments d i d  theother subjects  did not receive.  f o r these two types o f e l i c i t a t i o n  however,  were  first  written  i nEnglish  and then  Japanese.  They were t h e n t r a n s l a t e d  speaker  their into  responses i n  English  by a  o f Japanese.  CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF THE STIMULUS TERMS: In  multiple to  which  NSJs were p e r m i t t e d t o w r i t e  Japanese. native  types of e l i c i t a t i o n  directions  directions  accompanied  subjects  were a  to the English  were b a s i c a l l y  t h e y were t h e o n l y  and t h i r d  receive  which  i n s t r u m e n t , however,  since  i n which  being  received.  were used.  do n o t c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y  The d i r e c t i o n s  from  however,  significantly  grammar, t h e g r a m m a t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s appear  aside  t h e examples  Japanese  were  and d i r e c t i o n s .  t h o s e t h e NSEs  Instead of using  examples  and d i r e c t i o n s  instructions  identical  different.  English,  instructions  order t o construct choice e l i c i t a t i o n  decide which  T3C0s.  t h e two d i f f e r e n t  types of  instruments, t h e researcherhad  o f t h e 39 t e r m s  used  i nt h e study  Then he h a d t o d e c i d e f o r t h e t e r m s  which  have have  T3C0s  69 just  what t h e i r  more t h a n various these was  T3C0s t o u s e .  decisions  The  since  decisions  the multiple  T3C0s.  o f T3C0, a s  of these  choice  instruments.  T3C0s t o s e l e c t ,  he s e l e c t e d  own  j u d g e m e n t t o make t h e s e  THE  METHODOLOGY: The  used  methodology  subjects  provide  what  primarily  knowledge  unconscious  of having the stimuli  i t i s hoped,  T3C0s r a t h e r  relevant  The  a  conscious than  a  profile  and important  knowledge  made  o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e  of the subjects'  terms'  and spontaneous  onh i s  The r e s p o n s e s t h e y  As such t h e methodology provided,  t h e p e r h a p s more v a l i d ,  which of  He r e l i e d  responses t o s t i m u l i .  of the selected  be used  t h e T3C0S he b e l i e v e d a r e  were used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r  knowledge  Some  decisions.  consisted  profile  He made h i s  When d e c i d i n g  noted.  accurate  with  one T3C0 c o u l d  w e r e t h e 39 t e r m s p r e v i o u s l y  relatively  them  discussions.  i n modern E n g l i s h .  written  He  T3C0s t h e t e r m s  of English.  Yet only  most w i d e l y  of  t o make  o n h i s own j u d g e m e n t i n  he d i s c u s s e d  speakers  the  terms.  aspects  i n deciding  on t h e b a s i s  terms have m u l t i p l e  these  easy  limited.  relied primarily  who w e r e n a t i v e  have  of their  w h e t h e r t h e t e r m s have o r do n o t have T3C0s.  colleagues  on  on t h e s e  i s extremely  When h e h a d a n y d o u b t s ,  final  which  A n d i t was n o t a l w a y s  u s e d h i s own j u d g e m e n t  have.  o f terms which  had t o decide  research  noted,  researcher  deciding  I n t h e case  one T3C0 he a l s o  previously  also  T3COs a r e .  of the subjects.  70 The complete  first  third were  was  t o request  one o f t h e t h r e e  information NSEs.  step  The  slightly  questionnaires.  One  were g i v e n  instrument(s)  step  elicitation  The  were  JSEs.  t o complete  instrument.  I f they  was  most  cooperative,  instrument  and asked  not  were g i v e n understand  questions. complete  the  they  class  were a b l e  time.  to read  only  something,  researcher.  And  their  one  to  elicitation  as t h e i r  year  professor  t o complete the  They were g i v e n  the  the instructions.  In  they  They were g i v e n  into  NSEs  proceeded  i n a first  an e x p l a n a t i o n i n J a p a n e s e .  the instrument.  handed them  were  test.  at Iwate U n i v e r s i t y .  during  were  respective  were JSEs t h e y  The N S J s w e r e a l l s t u d e n t s  instrument  they  elicitation  I f they  their  The NSEs a n d N S J s h a d t o c o m p l e t e  class  Hence t h e  d e p e n d e d on w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t s  do t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g  English  And t h e  questionnaires  instruments.  proceeded  instrument.  f o r the  time.  NSEs o r NSJs o r w h e t h e r t h e y or NSJs they  f o r the NSJs.  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e i r  a t t h e same  next  personal  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  f o r the JSEs.  stapled to the e l i c i t a t i o n  The  different  s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  subjects  a l l the subjects to  And  addition  i f they d i d  were e n c o u r a g e d t o ask  as much t i m e  A n d when t h e y  p r o f e s s o r who  as t h e y were  needed t o  finished,  they  i n t u r n handed them t o  71 The p r o c e d u r e Since the  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r  researcher  handed  t o complete  When t h e y option  the instrument In either  the instrument  different test.  reading  test  The  elicitation  leisure.  were g i v e n t h e personally or  instruments  procedure  teacher  the directions  t o complete  the test.  a few, however,  identification  were  of the test.  same n u m b e r o n t h e i r  a few  themselves  were g i v e n  15  A t t h e e n d o f 15 m i n u t e s t h e  instructed  number o f t h e i r  The c l o z e  and t o f a m i l i a r i s e Then t h e y  of  were  They were g i v e n  were handed i n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . i n they  subjects  students  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y .  was r e q u i r e d o f t h e m .  handed them  a s e to f  and t h e c l o z e  Most were  was h a n d e d o u t t o them.  minutes t o read what  elicitation  was u s e d w i t h t h o s e  a t Iwate U n i v e r s i t y ;  o f another test  one  first.  following  students  corner  were  They were r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e c l o z e  researcher  tests  they  t h e JSEs had t o complete  i t was p o s s i b l e t o s u p e r v i s e .  minutes  they  them back t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r  t o complete,  reading  with  case  a t home a t t h e i r  t h e NSJs a n d NSEs h a d o n l y  instrument  reading  t o them o r  them t o him.  While  the  mailed  different.  them a l l i n one p l a c e ,  had completed t h e instrument,  o f handing  mailing  three  either  i t t o them p e r s o n a l l y .  allowed  whom  w i t h t h e NSEs was s l i g h t l y  But before  t o write a four  choice  they digit  on t h e t o p r i g h t  They were a l s o i n s t r u c t e d  to write the  elicitation  Having t h e  instruments.  72 subjects  identify  the instruments  they  completed t h i s  made i t p o s s i b l e t o m a t c h u p t h e r e a d i n g elicitation  instruments  tests  w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s who  way,  and t h e completed  them.  For  some o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s , t h o s e  instruments, others,  i t was  W i t h them only  the English teachers  15  left  to their  was  felt  complete in  how  integrity  t h a t most  i t .  Thus  was  felt  there  done.  function  b e t t e r as a c o v a r i a t e t h a n  While  there  are nine  Instead,  each  different  subject  consisted of three  complete  only  three  simple.  Having the subjects  subject from  a test  completed both  a test  take  was  complete  semantic  which  instruments,  a l l nine only  of  a set  the  subjects  instruments only  way  one o f e a c h t y p e  of the three  variation  elicitation  f o r having  the only  to  which d i d not.  had t o complete  reason  test,  would  elicitation  of the e l i c i t a t i o n  instruments  each  felt  i n results  of the nine  The p r i m a r y  elicitation  t o do t h e  required t o complete  instruments.  one  and honour t o  w o u l d be more  of variation  o f t h e s u b j e c t s was  which  few  test.  w o u l d be u n a b l e  I t was  l a r g e r amounts  them.  the reading  15 m i n u t e s  of the subjects  i t was  well the test  only  produced  none  and a  the  minutes.  By g i v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s it  were m a i l e d  and p r o f e s s o r s  not p o s s i b l e t o supervise  i t was  who  three  i s quite  of the  of ensuring of instrument  fields.  The  three  each and  73 possible  combinations a r e : 1. A n i m a l s Colours Birds  - f r e e word c h o i c e . - sentence m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . - word m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e .  2. A n i m a l s Colours Birds  - word m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . - f r e e word c h o i c e . - sentence m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e .  3. A n i m a l s Colours Birds  - sentence m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . - word m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . - f r e e word c h o i c e .  There were things of  i n this  time  Second,  also several additional manner.  First,  i te l i m i n a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  complete  gained  from doing  one o f t h e o t h e r  a greater variety significantly  reduced  analysis  of the results  The  elicitation  the subjects.  a subject  could  Fifth,  personally.  Third,  i t permitted  t o be  Hence w h i c h  allowed  the elicitation  t o help  them  them  i t permitted Fourth, i t  a more c o m p l e x  were randomly d i s t r i b u t e d  set of elicitation a matter t o take  those  their  choice.  time i n  They were  allowed  who w e r e m a i l e d t h e  i n t o the researcher  I t was t h e i r  instruments  o f chance.  r e c e i v e d t h e m a t home -- i f t h e y mail  using  conducted.  instruments.  t h e m home -- o f c o u r s e  then  one i n s t r u m e n t  instruments  s u b j e c t s were  instruments  of the subjects  instruments.  r e c e i v e d was e n t i r e l y  completing take  t h e amount  t h e number o f s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d t o  t h e study.  to  reduced  o f h y p o t h e s e s t o be developed.  complete  The  i tg r e a t l y  t o doing  t h e subjects required t o complete t h e instruments.  knowledge they  to  advantages  wished.  They  o r hand them i n  74  The  instructions  which t h e s u b j e c t s were  emphasised three p o i n t s . results was  would be kept  as  1. I t w a s e m p h a s i s e d  strictly confidential.  e x p l a i n e d t o them t h e p u r p o s e  determine  what t h e y  individuals.  instruments  were o n l y  Hence,  were  answers  in  a n d n o t what t h e y  t o determine  n o t t o guess  what t h e y  knew.  n o t check  their  anyone.  FOR THE CLOZE READING TEST:  a n s w e r was deemed t o b e c o r r e c t i f t h e w o r d was t h e e x a c t  inserted  same w o r d w h i c h t h e a u t h o r  of the  had used. FOR THE E L I C I T A T I O N  t h e f r e e word c h o i c e  completed by t h e JSEs,  INSTRUMENTS:  elicitation  an answer  following  instruments  f o r a n y o f t h e 39 t e r m s was  deemed t o b e c o r r e c t i f t h e answer g i v e n two  knew  a t any o f t h e  should  i n a n y way o r d i s c u s s t h e m w i t h  SCORING PROCEDURE For  designed  3. I t w a s e m p h a s i s e d t h e y  any blank  passage  was t o  I t was e m p h a s i s e d t h e  instructed  SCORING PROCEDURE An  In fact, i t  2. I t w a s e m p h a s i s e d t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  were n o t t e s t s .  answers.  a l l the  of theresearch  knew a s a g r o u p  instruments  they  given  met e i t h e r  criteria:  - t h e answer g i v e n  was o n e w h i c h  the  14 N S E s h a d g i v e n .  the  fact  This  t h e NSEs d i d n o t l i s t  - t h e answer g i v e n  four of  recognises  a l l of thepossible  was o n e w h i c h ,  four n a t i v e speakers  at least  criterion  T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s w h i c h p o s s e s s  than  of the  m u l t i p l e T3C0s. even  i f fewer  of English had given i t ,  75 the a  researcher  l e g i t i m a t e T3C0.  fact  choice  as  recognises the or forgot  T3C0s.  instruments  i f t h e answer  researcher  multiple-  a n a n s w e r was deemed t o b e  s e l e c t e d was t h e o n e w h i c h t h e  had decided  was c o r r e c t .  answers would be accepted the  criterion  accept  t h e word m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e and t h e sentence  elicitation  correct  This  t h e NSEs s o m e t i m e s o v e r l o o k e d  legitimate  For  h a d t o i n good c o n s c i e n c e  The d e c i s i o n s on w h i c h  a s c o r r e c t w e r e made b e f o r e  subjects theelicitations  instruments  to  giving  complete.  A C C E P T A B I L I T Y OF RESPONSES BY THE NSs OF ENGLISH: A  response  satisfied outlined  g i v e n b y a NSE was deemed a c c e p t a b l e  t h egrammatical on page  researcher,  95.  and c o l l o c a t i o n a l  I f a response,  did not satisfy  these  i f i t  restraints  i n t h e judgement  restraints,  of the  i t was  disregarded. A C C E P T A B I L I T Y OF RESPONSES BY THE NSs OF JAPANESE: All with  o f t h e responses  by t h e NSJs were  a Japanese professor o f l i n g u i s t i c s  University.  While  which he regarded categorically was  given  decided  acceptable that T3C0s  there  t o regard  were  the subjects  not acceptable  a l l t h e T3C0s  i n Japanese.  some o f t h e T 3 C 0 s with which  Iwate  a s d o u b t f u l , i t was d i f f i c u l t  deny t h e y  T3C0s  a r e some T 3 C 0 s  from  noted  f o r him t o  T3C0s.  Hence i t  t h e s u b j e c t s gave as  I t i sunderstood,  t h e s u b j e c t s gave  a l l NSJs  discussed  arefamiliar.  however,  areunlikely Besides  t o be  t h e purpose  76 of  having  t h e NSJ s u b j e c t s complete  instrument  whether t h e  were e s t a b l i s h e d  a r e 12 h y p o t h e s e s . hypotheses.  gender, speaking  English  fluency  hypotheses  these  These hypotheses  instruments,  age, years country,  free  choice  for  T3C0s  permits  elicitation  NSJs on t h e i r  t o be are:  amount o f  English  study,  l e v e l of.  i s used.  Two o f  hypotheses.  The f i r s t o f  t h e JSEs gave on  t o be compared w i t h t h e  t h e responses  instrument  t h e scores  r e s i d e n c y i n an  t h e responses  t h e NSJs gave on t h e i r  other permits  field,  of English  arenot s t a t i s t i c a l  are  The v a r i a b l e s  of education,  years  instruments  permit  instruments  semantic  and t h e frequency  two hypotheses  responses  the  a few anomalous  Ten o f t h e hypotheses  on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  of elicitation  English  The  And t h e c r i t e r i a  a g a i n s t a number o f v a r i a b l e s .  context,  the  elicitation  interference.  JSEs obtained  compared  the  so t h a t  choice  HYPOTHESES:  statistical  set  c o u l d be used t o determine  not signal  There  the  o f T3C0s i n  were due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e .  interference  THE  to establish a list  o f t h e JSE s u b j e c t s on t h e f r e e  instruments  could  elicitation  was s i m p l y  Japanese which responses  their  elicitation  instrument.  o f t h e NSEs on t h e i r  t o be compared and t h e responses  elicitation  instrument  of  t o be compared.  INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: HYPOTHESIS #1 The J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l to English.  not transfer  T3C0s from  Japanese  77  ELICITATION HYPOTHESIS  The not CONTEXT  INSTRUMENT #2  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n instrument v a r y due t o t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t .  scores  shall  instrument  scores  shall  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n . instrument v a r y due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d .  scores  shall  instrument  scores  shall  instrument  scores  shall  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n instrument v a r y due t o l e v e l o f f l u e n c y .  scores  shall  HYPOTHESIS:  HYPOTHESIS  The not  #3  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n v a r y due t o c o n t e x t .  SEMANTIC F I E L D HYPOTHESIS  The not AGE  HYPOTHESIS:  HYPOTHESIS:  #4  HYPOTHESIS:  HYPOTHESIS  The not GENDER  #5  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n v a r y due t o age.  HYPOTHESIS:  HYPOTHESIS  The not  #6  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n v a r y due t o gender.  EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: HYPOTHESIS  The not  HYPOTHESIS  #7  #8  The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s shall n o t v a r y due t o t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l s t u d y o f English. HYPOTHESIS  #9  The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s n o t v a r y due t o r e s i d e n c y i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g countries. HYPOTHESIS  The not  #10  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n v a r y due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y  instrument scores they use E n g l i s h .  shall  JSE subjects' e l i c i t a t i o n instrument scores v a r y due t o amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n .  shall  HYPOTHESIS  The not  shall  #11  78 MISCELLANEOUS  HYPOTHESES:  HYPOTHESIS #12 a The NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e l e c t e d terms used i n t h e study a r e i n E n g l i s h . HYPOTHESIS #12 b The N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3COs o f t h e s e l e c t e d terms used i n t h e study a r e i n Japanese. DATA  ANALYSIS: The  English  r e s u l t s obtained by t h e Japanese on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  instruments  complete  and t h e cloze  reading test  Analysis  of Covariance  o r ANCOVA.  the  researcher t o determine  for  i n t h e study  field,  gender,  study,  time  English  spent  ability,  statistically  w e r e made.  w e r e made.  And three  one c o m p a r i s o n  speaking  and t h e frequency A total  Three context  years  enabled  allowed  semantic of English  countries,  level of  one u s e s E n g l i s h )  were  o f 14 d i f f e r e n t  semantic  field  comparisons  comparisons  w e r e made.  w a s made f o r e a c h o f t h e o t h e r  o f t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s w e r e  The  level  Just  variables.  two-tailed.  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l t h e ANCOVA  was s e t a t .05.  ANCOVA was u s e d t o a n a l y s e for  hadt o  were a n a l y s e d by  context,  All  calculations  of  T h e u s e o f ANCOVA  of education,  significant.  they  whether t h e v a r i a b l e s  i nEnglish  comparisons  which  study  (type o f instrument,  age, years  speakers  the interference  a l l o f t h e hypotheses  and t h e miscellaneous  hypotheses.  except  79 In to  order  to  do  d e l e t e randomly  was  necessary  subjects  who  the  i n order completed  were r e p r e s e n t e d unintended  the  bias  ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s scores to  of  ensure  each  equally.  set  necessary  some o f t h e  subjects.  that  analyses  of  i n the  elicitation  If this  c o u l d have  i t was  had  skewed the  not  the  instruments  been done  results  This  of the  some ANCOVA  calculations. The  following  criteria  were u s e d t o  the  interference hypothesis.  the  t r a n s f e r e n c e of  a Japanese  the  e q u i v a l e n t term  in English.  did  not  same. and 3.  i f the  For  at  least  of the  less  ten  of the had  rejected.  Only the  on  was  to  the  other  at  least  a Japanese  of  were examined instruments  M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s  ensure that term  i n both  possible for this  one T3C0.  of the  no  as to  i n the  was  the  the  English term.  interference.  hypothesis  responses  terms  Japanese were  terms employed  the  defined  I n t e r f e r e n c e , however,  T3C0 o f E V I L  due  reject  of the  much o r more i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d  FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s  the  39  t o be  interference occurred  responses  2.  t r a n s f e r e n c e was  responses  If this  was  no  T3C0 f o r one  the  or  I n t e r f e r e n c e was  T3C0 i n E n g l i s h and  Thus s i n c e BLACK has  Japanese,  25%  5.  occur  1.  accept  study, 4.  If  accepted. the  hypothesis  s u b j e c t s on  the  for interference.  were not attempt  considered. was  made  possible choices  for  to each  The On  80 In field  order  The  39  forms  of the context  and  h y p o t h e s e s t o b e r e j e c t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y  of the three  the  f o rthe null  c o m p a r i s o n s t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y  following  miscellaneous terms  least  criteria  employed  t h e NS  reject 30 o f t h e  subjects exhibited at  on what t h e T3COs o f t h e t e r m s  h y p o t h e s e s were accepted. exhibited  or  1. I f f o r a t l e a s t  i n the study,  75% agreement  f o r each  significant.  were used t o a c c e p t  hypotheses:  2. I f l e s s  semantic  agreement  are,the  was  t h e hypotheses were r e j e c t e d .  SUMMARY: The three Each  70 J S E s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y  different  sets of e l i c i t a t i o n  set of elicitation  how w e l l  used E n g l i s h animal,  elicitation  instruments,  I t i s just  the  terms  For  example,  while  bird  complete.  to reveal  on  the other  of  context:  and c o l o u r terms.  different,  from each o f t h e three  instruments  semantic  on one s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s  they  d i dtest which  accompanied  fields  varied.  the animal  On o n e o f t h e o t h e r  they  terms  studying English at university  or professors of English.  were  two s e t s o f  were accompanied by a  s u b j e c t were a l l a d u l t n a t i v e speakers  The  t h e same  were accompanied by a word o f c o n t e x t .  instrument  They were e i t h e r teachers  to  was d e s i g n e d  t h a t t h e amount c o n t e x t  a c c o m p a n i e d by no c o n t e x t .  The  instruments  one o f  t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f 39  frequently  thing.  instruments  were g i v e n  And  sentence  of Japanese. or else  NSs o f J a p a n e s e a n d  81 English terms  were employed t o determine  are i n Japanese Since  reading  the subjects  test  was  calculations.  The  elicitation  were n o t randomly  level  instrument  set of instruments  scores they  context.  They were a l s o  subjects'  scores  ability, frequency speaking  years  varied  country.  completed,  due t o age, g e n d e r ,  i s used  study,  years  .05.  varied field  due t o or  whether t h e level  of  of education,  o r r e s i d e n c y i n an  cloze  whether the  semantic  to reveal  a  i n ANCOVA  t o determine  of the subjects  designed  of English  English  selected,  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s e d was  were d e s i g n e d  o f t h e 39  respectively.  used t o a c t as t h e c o v a r i a t e  The h y p o t h e s e s  the  and E n g l i s h  what t h e T3C0s  English  English  82 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS AND The A brief  results  o f t h e study  examination  instruments first.  completed  i nt h i s  of the elicitation  of the cloze reading  by t h e JSE subjects are presented. obtained  instruments  completed  presented.  Then,  compared.  chapter.  by t h e JSE subjects a r e presented  t h eresults  summary o f t h e d a t a  chapter  are presented  of the results  completed  Next,  DISCUSSION  from  test Then,  a brief  the elicitation  b y t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s a r e  t h e T3C0s  Each hypothesis  i nJapanese i s then  a n d E n g l i s ha r e  analysed  separately.  The  closes with a discussion of the results.  JAPANESE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH TABLE #1 E L I C I T A T I O N INSTRUMENT RESULTS N  Total  MEAN  S .D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  70  598.00  8.54  4 .59  1-22  0.28  1455.37  quickly  revealst h e  A JSEs,  brief  the primary  relatively colour  acquired  only the Just  a t t h e above t a b l e  have  acquired  f e w o f t h e T3C0S o f t h e 39 a n i m a l ,  b i r d and  terms used  responses  the  glance  was o n l y  subjects o f t h e study,  i nt h e study. 8.54.  Taken as a group t h e s u b j e c t s h a d  t h e T3C0s o f fewer  study.  Even t h e best  slightly  more t h a n  T h e mean n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t  than  25% o f t h e terms used i n  o f them h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0S o f  half  o f t h e terms.  Only  four had of  70 s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T 3 C 0 s o f 4 0 % o f t h e t e r m s . 28 h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T 3 C 0 s o f t e n o f t h e t e r m s .  Fifteen  83 had  acquired  acquired  a T3C0 o f o n l y  This There a  t h e T3C0 o f f i v e  lack  T3C0s.  Bad o r E v i l  CHICKEN,  WAR-LIKE  a s a T3C0 o f BEAVER.  were o t h e r  subjects  subjects, COW.  of  PURPLE.  had acquired  Only  three  Just  Other  had acquired  which  at least  one T3C0 a r e  however,  f o r which  t h e T3C0s.  Only  OBSCENE  NAIVE, SIMPLE,  fewer  seven  few o f  s i xof the  F A T a n d UGLY  And only terms  very  a s a T3C0 a s a T3C0 STUPID  had acquired  UGLY  t h a n t e n o ft h e  o n e T 3 C 0 a r e : WOLF a n d P I G E O N .  two paragraphs  T3C0s were examined.  Several  do n o t have T3C0s.  only  I f anything,  i t was t o d e c i d e  have T3C0s a r e .  terms  o f t h e terms,  f o r the subjects t o identify  have T3C0s t h a n  which  RED, S N A K E , MONKEY a n d T I G E R .  o f them had a c q u i r e d  In t h e previous  difficult  terms  at least  four had acquired  a T 3 C 0 o f DOG.  previously,  Other  had acquired  a s a T3C0 o f TURKEY.  subjects  not  WHITE, terms,  f o r example,  of  Eighteen had  a s a T 3 C 0 o f HAWK a n d 2 1 h a d a c q u i r e d  YELLOW, GREY,  There  etc.  f o r which  Twenty-three  a s a T3C0 o f BLACK.  o f t h e subjects had acquired  the  colour terms,  M E L A N C H O L Y o r SAD a s a T 3 C 0 o f B L U E .  INDUSTRIOUS  as  particularly  distributed.  l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e  Acquired  acquired  15  o f k n o w l e d g e was n o t e v e n l y  Forty-eight of the subjects had acquired, f o r  example, had  The w o r s t h a d  one o f t h e t e r m s .  were a few terms,  relatively  o r fewer terms.  which  have  a s was n o t e d i t was more  t h e terms  w h i c h do  what t h e T3C0s o f terms  O f t h e 15 t e r m s  which  do n o t have  84 T3COs,  t h esubjects  reasonably noted  well.  were a b l e  to identify  Twenty-three  only  of the subjects  ORANGE d o e s n o t h a v e a T 3 C 0 .  20 s u b j e c t s .  T3CO.  Just  SWALLOW, fifteen  Only  five,  four  i d e n t i f i e d by  18, f o r example n o t e d andthree  respectively  respectively  Brown were  SPARROW a n d OWL d o n o t h a v e T 3 C O s . and eleven  correctly  N o n e o f t h e o t h e r 14  t e r m s w h i c h do n o t have T3C0s were c o r r e c t l y even  one o f them  h a sno aware  Seventeen,  n o t e d DEER, HORSE, a n d  BUFFALO h a v e n o T3COs.  One number 1369 the of  o f t h e more n o t e w o r t h y  results  o f t h e study  o f NOT SURE a n s w e r s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s  o f t h e answers given percentage  o f NOT S U R E s g r e a t l y  t h e answers given  SUREs.  Between  SWALLOW,  Fully  F o r some  exceeded 50%.  items Over 70%  6 0 % a n d 7 0 % o f t h e a n s w e r s f o r TURKEY,  w e r e NOT S U R E s .  answers  gave.  f o r CRANE, CROW a n d SPARROW w e r e NOT  GOOSE, P I G E O N ,  additional  w e r e NOT S U R E s .  i s the  DUCK P U R P L E ORANGE BROWN a n d B E A R  And a t least  eight  50% o f t h e answers f o r an  t e r m s w e r e NOT S U R E s .  Fifty  f o r 20 o f t h e 39 t e r m s i n t h e s t u d y  percent w e r e NOT  of the SUREs.  RESULTS OF THE CLOZE READING TEST TABLE #2 READING TEST RESULTS N  Total  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  70  1739.00  24.84  8.44  6-40  0.28  4915.27  The reading  above t a b l e test  indicates  r e l a t i v e l y easy.  the  subjects  Several  found the  close  of the subjects d i d  85 very in  well  on i t . I n f a c t ,  at least  75% o f t h e b l a n k s  a perfect score. in  fewer than  filled  with  Only  Two e v e n  o f t h e seventy correctly.  25% o f t h e b l a n k s  correctly.  regard  and which  instruments  evident.  The w o r s t  subjects  of thethree  a r e examined  sets of  t h e s u b j e c t s completed, result,  filled  And only two  of thecloze reading test  t o gender  filled  obtained  subjects  When t h e r e s u l t s  female  difference  a m e a n o f 20.85, w a s b y t h e  who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, B I R D S a n d  ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . by  seven  correctly.  40% o f t h e b l a n k s  i n fewer than  elicitation are  31,4% o r 22 o f t h e s u b j e c t s  The b e s t  result,  a m e a n o f 29.10, w a s  t h e m a l e s who c o m p l e t e d t h e B I R D S , A N I M A L S a n d COLOURS  instruments. were:  22.09,  closer  The f o u r o t h e r 23.92,  t o t h e grand  gender  and instrument  27.50 a n d 24.85.  means  T h e s e means a r e much  m e a n o f 24.84.  R E L I A B I L I T Y OF THE INSTRUMENTS To  determine  instruments 21 f o r m u l a  thereliability  and t h e cloze reading was u s e d .  of the elicitation test  The R e l i a b i l i t y  elicitation  instruments  Coefficient  f o rt h e c l o z e reading t e s t  Standard  E r r o r o f Measurement  instruments the  w a s 0.70.  w a s 2.51.  cloze reading test  the  Kuder-Richardson  Coefficient  for the  The R e l i a b i l i t y w a s 0.89.  The  f o rt h e e l i c i t a t i o n  The S t a n d a r d w a s 2.80.  E r r o r o f Measurement f o r  86 INSTRUMENTS COMPLETED BY NSs  o f JAPANESE AND  ENGLISH  TABLE #3 ENGLISH NS INSTRUMENT * N=14  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  YES: NO: NOT SURE:  273.00 231.00 42.00  19.50 16.50 3.00  4.69 5.69 3.26  11-28 7-28 0-10  * The unacceptable YES responses have been c o n v e r t e d t o NOs on t h i s c h a r t . As i s e v i d e n t from the above t a b l e , the NSE did  subjects  not agree unanimously on what the T3COs of the 39  animal, b i r d and c o l o u r terms used i n the study a r e . the  s u b j e c t s thought 28 of the terms have T3C0s.  One of  Another  s u b j e c t , however, thought 28 of the terms do not have T3C0s. And s t i l l  another s u b j e c t was unsure whether t e n of the  terms have or do not have T3C0s. of  Despite t h i s o v e r a l l  lack  agreement, however, the s u b j e c t s d i d e x h i b i t some  agreement on what the T3COs of a number of the terms were. A l l the s u b j e c t s , f o r example, noted CHICKEN has the T3C0 of COWARD or AFRAID; BLUE has the T3CO of MELANCHOLY, DEPRESSED or SAD and t h a t one of the T3COs of FOX i s SLY, CUNNING or CRAFTY. not  For other terms, while the s u b j e c t s d i d  e x h i b i t unanimous agreement, they d i d e x h i b i t  s u b s t a n t i a l agreement.  A l l but one of the s u b j e c t s  YELLOW has the T3C0 of COWARD or AFRAID. subjects f e l t  felt  A l l but one of the  CRANE and ORANGE do not possess T3C0s and  SNAKE, WOLF and RED do possess T3C0s, although t h e r e some disagreement on what t h e i r meanings a r e .  was  And a l l but  two s t a t e d SWALLOW and SPARROW do not possess T3C0s.  And  87 ten  o f t h e 14 s u b j e c t s  INEXPERIENCE.  n o t e d GREEN h a s t h e T3C0 o f  And nine o f the subjects  noted  BLACK h a s t h e  T 3 C 0 o f BAD o r E V I L . For While  some  whether T3C0, for  other terms, stated  a term  i t h a s a T3C0.  felt  SHRILL. noted  felt  t h e r e was w i d e  while convinced i thas a  what i t was.  Eight  researcher.)  CROW h a s n o T 3 C 0 ; t w o w e r e n o t s u r e a n d  paragraph Four  two f e l t  of the subjects  felt  PINK h a s t h e T3C0 o f  i t h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f HOMOSEXUAL.  i t h a s COMMUNIST, H A P P Y , D E L I G H T E D  T3COs.  Three  thought  The s u b j e c t s  thought  LIFE  gave d i v e r s e  i t h a s no T3C0. SILLY,  meanings  f o r MONKEY.  The o t h e r s t h o u g h t  i thas t h e  WILY, ACROBATIC, F O O L I S H o r t h e  addition  t h e r e a r eobvious  most o f t h e NSE s u b j e c t s .  T3C0 o f PORNOGRAPHIC.  Indeed,  have p r o b a b l y a t v a r i o u s times have heard only  o r FEMININE f o r  OF THE P A R T Y .  In to  Others  i t h a s no T3C0 a n d t w o more w e r e n o t  also  T3C0S Of MISCHIEVOUS,  terms  were n o t a c c e p t e d as T3C0s b y t h e  thought  Two  of the subjects,  (Some o f t h e T 3 C 0 s o f CROW a n d t h e o t h e r  HEALTHY;  unsure  i t h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f S L Y , SMART, OLD, H A R P I N G o r  i nt h i s  sure.  disagreement.  h a s no T3C0, o t h e r s were And others,  d i s a g r e e d on j u s t  example,  four  however,  four  despite  other people  John  Most NSEs a c c e p t a large  d i d not occur BLUE h a s t h e  percentage  i nt h e i r  u s e BLUE w i t h  of the subjects  the fact  T3C0s w h i c h  lives  this  o f NSEs  either  meaning.  n o t e d BLUE h a s t h i s  T3C0.  used o r Yet And  Tower d u r i n g h i s S e c r e t a r y o f Defense  88 confirmation himself an  hearings  i n January  a s a HAWK, f e w e r t h a n h a l f  ardent  supporter  surprisingly,  the  T3C0: ENVIRONMENTALLY a meaning w i t h  Timberlake Japan  only  one n o t e d  o r CONCERNED.  i n t h e March this  believed h i s readers  GREEN B U S I N E S S OPPORTUNITY,  meaning  And only  i s a T3C0 o f GREEN.  PIGEON.  And j u s t  OBSCENE. believe these  subjects  the  eight  Four  male  have  a T3C0.  felt  DOG  widely  result  INDUSTRIOUS  i s a  i s a T3C0 o f  i ti s difficult  i fthey  subjects,  i s t h e male  subjects  f o r example,  S i x o f t h e males  felt  felt  and only  h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f UGLY WOMAN.  felt  of the  to  encountered  and female  on what t h e T3C0s o f a few o f t h e and only  two o f  ELEPHANT d o e s n o t  one o f t h e f e m a l e s  Four  o f t h e males and  SWAN d o e s n o t h a v e a T 3 C 0 a n d t h a t  HAWK h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f W A R - L I K E . female  GREEN  n o t e d PURPLE h a s t h e T3C0 o f  of the s i x female  none o f t h e females  CONSUMER, A  them.  interesting  differed  are.  seven  GULLIBLE  most NSEs w o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d  One o t h e r  He  ENVIRONMENTALLY  T3C0s a r e T3C0s w h i c h  terms used with  items  s i xnoted  one s u b j e c t  But these  o f The  several times.  COMMUNIST i s a T 3 C 0 o f RED;  T3C0 o f BEAVER a n d o n l y  acquired  T h e G R E E N MOVEMENT a n d A  CONSCIOUS  noted  a HAWK.  Cotton  knew w h a t A GREEN  knew  noted  Yet t h i s  1 1989 i s s u e  PRODUCT a r e a s h e a s s u m e d t h e y  subjects  called  GREEN h a s r e c e n t l y  CONSCIOUS  T i m e s u s e d GREEN w i t h  obviously  i s often  w h i c h most NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r .  i n an a r t i c l e  referred to  o f t h e 14 s u b j e c t s  of the military  And  is  1989, e x p r e s s l y  And four males  SILVER does n o t have a T3C0.  and only  I t should,  one  89  however,  be pointed  NSEs t h o u g h t  have T3C0s d i d n o t v a r y  mean f o r t h e m a l e female  o u t t h e mean number o f t e r m s w h i c h t h e  subjects  subjects  much w i t h  gender.  The  was 1 9 . 7 5 a n d t h e mean f o r t h e  was 19.17. TABLE #4 * JAPANESE NS INSTRUMENT TOTAL  N=28  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  13.21 YES: 370.00 8.63 1-35 276.00 9.85 0-37 NO: 10.45 NOT SURE: 437.00 15.61 0-37 10.06 * Since four o f t h e subjects d i d not provide a response f o r e v e r y i t e m , t h et o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s i s n i n e f e w e r t h a n t h e 1092 t h e r e w o u l d have been i f e v e r y i t e m h a d r e c e i v e d a response. Table much l e s s in  #4 c l e a r l y agreement,  Japanese than  English. their  The NSE s u b j e c t s  knowledge  time.  whether  40% o f t h e time.  they  were  did  n o t have  i ncontrast,  a t e r m h a d a T3C0 o r t h a n  a T3C0.  large  as t h erange  o f scores  believed only  subjects,  while  however,  7.7% o f  were n o t sure more o f t e n they  were  answers  by t h e NSJ subjects.  b e l i e v e d most o f t h e t e r m s  several  o f t h e terms,  than  sure i t  a few o f t h e terms have  W h e r e a s t h e NSE s u b j e c t s  just  l a r g e , was n o t n e a r l y a s  given  T3C0s.  about  i nt h e study.  A n d t h e r a n g e o f Y E S a n d NO  b y t h e NSE s u b j e c t s ,  Some s u b j e c t s  confident  a t e r m h a d a T3C0 o n l y  They were n o t s u r e  given  Other  were r e l a t i v e l y  The N S J s u b j e c t s ,  sure  e x h i b i t e d f o r t h e terms i n  o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s u s e d  over  exhibited  o n what t h e T3COs o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e  t h e NSE S u b j e c t s  They were n o t s u r e the  indicates the NSJ subjects  agreed  the NSJ subjects  T3C0s. have  on t h e T3C0s o f agreed  on t h e  90 meanings  of relatively  agreement NSE  few o f t h e terms.  also d i d not approach  subjects  the level  T3CO o f E V I L  o r 64% o f t h e s u b j e c t s o r CRIMINAL.  Twenty  n o t e d BLACK h a s t h e  o r 71% o f t h e s u b j e c t s  a g r e e d W H I T E h a s t h e T3CO o f P U R I T Y ,  TRICKY, has  of the subjects  CUNNING e t c .  felt  I N N O C E N C E o r GOOD.  F O X h a s t h e T3CO o f S L Y ,  Fourteen of t h e subjects  t h e T3CO o f P E A C E F U L o r G E N T L E .  terms  which  o f agreement t h e  displayed.  Eighteen  Seventeen  The l e v e l o f  at least  These  50% o f t h e s u b j e c t s  noted  PIGEON  aret h e only  agreed  ont h e  T3COs. At  least  25% o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s  w h a t t h e T3COs o f a n u m b e r o f o t h e r subjects  were  terms  the  are.  Eight  b e l i e v e d YELLOW h a s t h e T3CO o f S H R I L L ,  P I T C H E D , N O I S Y o r a LOUD M E T A L L I C V O I C E . or  i n agreement on  F A I T H F U L i s t h e T3CO o f DOG a n d T3CO o f WOLF.  ELEGANT.  Seven  Ten thought  Nine  HIGH  thought  LOYAL  DANGEROUS o r V I O L E N T i s  SWANS a r e B E A U T I F U L o r  n o t e d a COMMUNIST i s a R E D .  Eight  thought  B L U E h a s t h e T3CO o f I N E X P E R I E N C E D o r YOUNG.  There  was more a g r e e m e n t  T3COs t h a n t h e r e eighteen not  terms  which  h a v e T3COs.  subjects  felt  was on w h i c h at least  There  on w h i c h terms  do n o t h a v e  h a v e T3COs.  There a r e  25% o f t h e s u b j e c t s  were f o u r  do n o t have  terms  T3COs.  terms These  which  half  t h o u g h t do of the  18 t e r m s a r e  B U F F A L O , E L E P H A N T , B E A V E R , DEER, B E A R , C H I C K E N ,  SWALLOW,  91 GOOSE, C R A N E , T U R K E Y , SPARROW, OWL, PINK,  ORANGE, BROWN a n d Uncertainty  18  terms  whether  which  was  DUCK,  PURPLE/VIOLET,  SILVER.  m o r e common t h a n c e r t a i n t y .  at least  25%  t h e y h a v e T3COs.  Of  these  were not  35 t e r m s ,  at least  50%  These  11  a r e : E L E P H A N T , MONKEY, DEER, T U R K E Y ,  OWL,  DUCK, P U R P L E / V I O L E T ,  terms  f o r which  at least  S U R E s a r e : FOX, There  were a l s o  the  18  thought  male  the males Only  DOG  thought  PIGEON has  of the males  and  the  T3CO o f S H A R P .  n o t e d BLUE has  only  And  e l e v e n of the males, whether  females, T3CO. which with  female,  As  but  with  the NSJ gender.  one  t h e NSE subjects The  i t has  i n the  of the ten  this  only  i t has  None  this  and  whether  Eleven  two  of the  thought  a  T3CO.  HORSE d o e s n o t  h a v e T3COs d i d n o t subjects  was  were  four have  t h e mean n u m b e r o f  mean f o r t h e m a l e  has  males,  females And  And  the  Nine  has  of  GENTLE.  EAGLE  none o f  RED  of  meaning.  females thought  thought  subjects,  NOT  female  meaning.  YELLOW h a v e T 3 C O s .  male,  four  responses  t h e T3CO o f P E A C E F U L o r  were unsure  PINK and  only  Three  of the males  but  The  were not  t h e T3CO o f M E L A N C H O L Y .  but  unsure  one  differences  none o f t h e Four  T3COs.  SWALLOW  females thought  six  11  SPARROW,  SILVER.  t h e T3CO o f S U B M I S S I V E .  thought  sure  sure have  of the responses  subjects.  has  subjects  t h r e e of the  females  25%  noticeable  female  were not  GOLD, G R E E N , a n d  B E A V E R , WOLF a n d  of t h e male and subjects  subjects  are  t h e r e were  which  terms  of the  of the subjects  -There  a  terms  vary 13.78  much and  92  the  mean f o r t h e f e m a l e  the  male  subjects  T3CO t h a n  forgot  arrival  PORNOGRAPHIC  noted Only  i nJapan  meaning.  researcher Just has a  T3CO.  him  some T 3 C O s , t h e  o f Japanese very  soon  after  Yetonly  meaning.  s i xo f the NSJ subjects  Several  that  Japanese people  have  B L U E c a n m e a n SAD i n J a p a n e s e . however,  noted  i thas this  after  e l i c i t a t i o n instruments  they had informed t h e  SWALLOW h a s a T3CO o f YOUNG L O V E R i n J a p a n e s e .  three, this  to" n o t e  o f the JSE subjects,  completed the t h e i r  more t e r m s h a s a  l e a r n P I N K h a s t h e T3CO o f  of the subjects, Several  forgot  Learners  i nJapanese.  t o t h eresearcher three  So o n a v e r a g e  subjects d i d .  some.  n o t e d PINK h a s t h i s  was 12.20.  one and a h a l f  a s t h e NSE s u b j e c t s  NSJs a l s o their  thought  the female  Just  subjects  and perhaps  meaning.  four,  And only  of the NSJ subjects,  seven noted  And one o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s  a person  who l i k e s  shiny  None o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s ,  things  however,  noted i t  RED h a s COMMUNIST a s  students  recently  told  i s a CROW i n J a p a n e s e . noted  CROW h a s t h i s  meaning.  COMPARISON OF CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS: The  data  compiled  from t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  c o m p l e t e d b y t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s animal,  bird  similar  T3COs i n J a p a n e s e  have WHITE  at least  and colour  terms employed  one meaning  a n d BLACK.  There  reveals  and English. i n common  instruments f e w o f t h e 39  i nt h e study Among t h o s e  have which  a r e : FOX, SNAKE, RED,  a r ea few other  terms which,  based  93 on t h e d a t a , to  may  which only  attributed other  have  a few  of either  a meaning  language.  a meaning  Among t h e s e t e r m s  A number o f t e r m s T3C0s.  following  F o r most  terms  do  w h i c h p r o b a b l y do  not have  and NSJ are:  consensus  subjects  English.  SILVER.  Still  other  i n the other  and  have  i n the  TIGER,  MONKEY,  are also  established.  possess quite  do  not  the  B U F F A L O , DEER,  There  n o t e d t h e y have  English  subjects  T3COs i n e i t h e r  Among t h e s e t e r m s  PIGEON, BLUE and  not  a r e : BLUE,  and NSJ  T3C0s:  E L E P H A N T , HORSE, E A G L E a n d  Other terms and  was  terms  subjects  definitely  W h i l e some o f t h e s u b j e c t s  T3COs, no  are  GREY.  o f t h e NSE  not have  These  or NSJ  i n both Japanese  DUCK, ORANGE, BROWN a n d  Japanese.  t h e NSE  which the terms  WOLF, B E A R , HAWK, GOLD, a n d  have  i n common.  SPARROW,  some  English  terms  or  noted these terms  have  Only  NSE  T3C0s.  a few  of the  Among t h e s e  terms  CRANE.  different  T3C0s i n  a r e : CHICKEN,  Japanese  YELLOW,  DOG,  GREEN. t e r m s p o s s e s s T3C0s i n one language.  language,  Among t h e s e a r e : BEAVER,  but GOOSE,  SWALLOW, SWAN, T U R K E Y , CROW. A most terms  interesting  employed  possible  in this  i n t h e T3C0s o f t h e  study i s that  i n Japanese  f o r a term to possess a large  different  T3COs.  least  and  one  difference  CHICKEN,  sometimes  two  number o f  f o r example, NSJ  subjects  was  39  i t i s quite  n o t e d by  as h a v i n g a t  at least  94 one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g NOISY,  RESTLESS  AND  T 3 C 0 s : FORGETFUL, FOOLISH.  GREY was  SLOW, E A R L Y noted  RISER,  as h a v i n g t h e  T3COS O f M E L A N C H O L Y , S U S P I C I O U S ,  EVIL,  WALL, D U L L / D A R K , F A D E D , NOT  S P O T T E D , CLOUDY, MUDDY a n d  FUN,  OPAQUE,  BURDENSOME b y b e t w e e n o n e a n d t h r e e s u b j e c t s thought  t o have t h e T3C0s  STUPID. NSE  o f SLOW, F A T ,  Terms were n o t a t t r i b u t e d  subjects.  example,  While  some t e r m s  d i d g a r n e r a number  subjects,  most  ANALYSIS OF  THE  a range  FOX  were  COW  was AND  o f T3COs t h e  a n d WOLF, f o r  of responses  of the responses  each.  PRODIGAL, QUIET  such  like  HOPELESS,  from t h e  NSE  synonyms.  HYPOTHESES:  HYPOTHESIS #1: T h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r t h e c o n n o t a t i v e meanings which p a r t i c u l a r terms have i n Japanese to the e q u i v a l e n t terms i n E n g l i s h . The whether  following transfer  responses five  had occurred:  f o r a term  to  1. A t l e a s t  determine 25% of t h e 2.  f o r t e n o f t h e 39  on t h e FREE  only  the response  ANIMALS FREE  each  were  o f t h e BIRDS  subjects  FREE  who  Only  the  examined. completed  o f t h e 23  a n d COLOURS  the  subjects  FREE  examined.  When t h e t e r m s (those with  o f t h e 24  i n s t r u m e n t and t h e responses  completed  instruments  CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e  Twenty-  terms  i n t h e s t u d y h a d t o be due t o t r a n s f e r .  responses Hence  were used  h a d t o be due t o t r a n s f e r .  percent of the responses  employed  who  two c r i t e r i a  f o r which  t h e same T 3 C 0 s  transfer  i n Japanese  i s not  possible  and E n g l i s h  and  those  95  which  do n o t have  eliminated  only  T3C0s i n e i t h e r  19 t e r m s  Japanese  or English) are  remain.  COW h a s t h e T 3 C 0 o f SLOW i n J a p a n e s e . 24 J S E s u b j e c t s instrument, English.  however,  thought  t h e ANIMALS FREE COW h a s t h i s  said  SUBMISSIVE  DANGEROUS. ing  None o f t h e s u b j e c t s  i nEnglish.  also  English. and  d i d not think Only  three  English.  Only  subjects  s i x subjects  thought  thought  thought  i t has t h i s  Japanese  EAGLE  BRAVERY,  STRENGTH o r S T U R D I N E S S .  thought subjects  a SWAN i s B E A U T I F U L  i sassociated  a CROW i s E V I L ,  TURKEY TURKEY  h a s no T3C0 i n h a s no T3C0 i n  i n Japanese.  T3C0 i n E n g l i s h .  with  t h e manly Only  i t has any o f these meanings said  i n Japanese.  a SWALLOW i s a WOMAN'S L O V E R i n  HAWK h a s t h e T3CO o f SHARP  subjects  three  i nEnglish.  just  two thought  GOOSE h a s n o T 3 C 0 i n E n g l i s h .  thought  i nEnglish.  i n Japanese.  i thas s i m i l a r  meanings  And  A n d no  t h e T3C0 f o r PURPLE i n J a p a n e s e .  T3C0s o f SEXUAL o r LOVELY  subjects  The N S J  SLY, ILL-TEMPERED i n J a p a n e s e .  CROW h a s t h e s e m e a n i n g s  has  In  subjects  two thought  transferred  None o f  virtues of  Only  subject  meaning  i t was a n y o f t h e m i n E n g l i s h .  a PIGEON i s PEACEFUL i n E n g l i s h .  Japanese.  the  thought  a DOG  a WOLF i s  i t has t h i s  A C H I C K E N c a n b e many t h i n g s  None o f t h e s u b j e c t s They  thought  I n Japanese  thought  four  A DOG i s L O Y A L o r  None o f t h e s u b j e c t s  LOYAL o r SUBMISSIVE i n E n g l i s h .  CHOICE  Only  i t h a s no T3C0 i n E n g l i s h .  i n Japanese.  two o f t h e  meaning i n  BEAVER h a s no T3C0 i n J a p a n e s e .  subjects  is  who c o m p l e t e d  Only  PINK  Fewer t h a n s i x  i nEnglish.  GREY,  96  as  noted  None One  p r e v i o u s l y , h a s a number  of the subjects thought o f t h e T3C0s o f BLUE  INEXPERIENCED. meaning Only  None  i n English.  i t has s i m i l a r  as  i n English.  transferred Since  the c r i t e r i a  null  hypothesis  did  not t r a n s f e r  i n Japanese.  meanings i n  f o r which t r a n s f e r  t h e r e much i n d i c a t i o n Japanese  this  YELLOW h a s S H R I L L o r H I G H  n o n e o f t h e 19 t e r m s was  i t has  G R E E N h a s NATURE a s a T 3 C 0  And none t h o u g h t  possible  i s YOUNG o r  of the subjects thought  English.  For  i n Japanese.  i t has any o f them i n E n g l i s h .  i n Japanese  two s u b j e c t s thought  a T3C0  o f T3C0s  t h a t t h e JSE  T3C0s t o e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s  PITCHED  was subjects  i n English.  f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e are not s a t i s f i e d ,  i s accepted.  The J S E s u b j e c t s i n t h i s  t h e T 3 C 0 s t h e 39 a n i m a l ,  terms have i n Japanese t o t h e i r  bird  and  e q u i v a l e n t terms  the study  colour  i n English.  HYPOTHESIS #2: T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o w h i c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n instruments they completed. The and  ANIMALS  BIRDS set  scores  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e COLOURS,  set of instruments;  set of instruments  of instruments  t h e ANIMALS,  BIRDS,  COLOURS a n d  a n d t h e BIRDS, ANIMALS  a n d COLOURS  were compared t o determine  whether the  scores  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  instruments  varied  with the set of instruments  they  completed.  97 TABLE #5 INSTRUMENTS RESULTS N  TOTAL  S .D.  MEAN  RANGE  CORR  SS  COLOURS, BIRDS a n d ANIMALS INSTRUMENTS 23 209.00 9.09 4 .52 3-21  0.48  449 .83  ANIMALS, COLOURS a n d BIRDS INSTRUMENTS 23 184.00 8.00 4 .15 2-20  0.24  378 .00  BIRDS, ANIMALS a n d COLOURS INSTRUMENTS 23 202.00 8.74 5 .14 1-22  0.35  581 .91  TOTALS 69 595.00 8.62 4 .58 1-22 0.32 1424 .20 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e A N I M A L S , COLOURS a n d B I R D S i n s t r u m e n t s . The  above t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f c o r r e c t  responses the It  lowest  much.  mean was 8 . 0 0 .  term  instruments  than BIRDS This,  responses  This  i sn o t a l a r g e  difference.  h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3CO o f j u s t  t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e A N I M A L S ,  however,  other  d i d not vary. indicate  t h e responses  two s e t s  completed this relatively other  COLOURS  d o e s n o t mean t h e n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t The h i g h e r  standard  t h e responses  c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS, ANIMALS more t h a n  one more  instruments.  sum o f s q u a r e s  few  T h e h i g h e s t m e a n w a s 9.09 a n d  s h o w s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, B I R D S a n d  ANIMALS  and  d i d not vary  d e v i a t i o n and  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who  a n d COLOURS I N S T R U M E N T S v a r i e d  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e  of instruments.  A n u m b e r o f s u b j e c t s who  s e to f e l i c i t a t i o n  instruments  l a r g e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .  subjects had relatively  had a A number o f  few c o r r e c t responses.  s u b j e c t s were c l u s t e r e d about  t h e mean.  Very  On t h e o t h e r  98 two  sets of e l i c i t a t i o n  and  low s c o r e s .  instruments  A larger  t h e r e were f e w e r  high  number o f s u b j e c t s were c l u s t e r e d  a b o u t t h e mean. TABLE #6 INSTRUMENTS: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE  df  SUM o f SQUARES  MEAN SQUARE  F RATIO  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 65 67  279.70 998.66 1278.36  139.85 15.36  9.11  .05  F 2,65 = 3.15 p<.001 An  the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  2 and 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on  The s c o r e s  o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e c l o z e  test  was t h e c o v a r i a t e .  This  i s almost  significance the  null  varied  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  of significance.  instruments  a r e 9.87 and 0.84 f o r t h e COLOURS,  a n d COLOURS  respective  Therefore  of the subjects  The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d  instruments,  obtained.  needed t o i n d i c a t e  i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s  they Errors of  BIRDS a n d  7.84 and 0.82 f o r t h e ANIMALS,  BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s  ANIMALS  o f 9.11 was  the F-ratio  due t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n  Estimate  and  three times  hypothesis  completed.  ANIMALS  An F - r a t i o  reading  COLOURS  and 8.16 a n d 0.84 f o r t h e BIRDS,  instruments.  The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e  g r o u p s i s 9.87 as 1.45, 7.84 ae 1.41 a n d 8.16 ae  1.45. HYPOTHESIS #3: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . Three d i f f e r e n t whether t h e s c o r e s  c o m p a r i s o n s were made t o d e t e r m i n e  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  99 instruments  varied  amount o f c o n t e x t constant.  due t o c o n t e x t . varied  second  while t h e semantic  I n t h e f i r s t comparison  FREE CHOICE, ANIMALS SENTENCE  I n each  the scores  instruments  the scores  o n t h e ANIMALS  were compared.  a n d ANIMALS  were compared.  In the  o n t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE,  WORD M U L T I P L E C h O I C E a n d B I R D S S E N T E N C E instruments  the  f i e l d was k e p t  WORD M U L T I P L E WORD C H O I C E  M U L T I P L E CHOICE  comparison  comparison  MULTIPLE  Inthe third  scores  o n t h e COLOURS F R E E C H O I C E ,  CHOICE  a n d COLOURS S E N T E N C E  BIRDS  CHOICE  comparison  the  COLOURS WORD M U L T I P L E  MULTIPLE CHOICE  instruments  were  compared.  F I R S T COMPARISON: T A B L E #7 A N I M A L S F R E E , WORD a n d S E N T E N C E R E S U L T S N  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  39.00  1.70  1.77  0-5  -0.18  68.87  23  74.00  3.22  2.66  0-9  0.39  155.91  23  76.00  3.30  1.61  1-6  0.38  56.87  TOTALS 2.74 69 189.00 2.17 0-9 0.14 319.30 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d from t h e ANIMALS FREE i n s t r u m e n t . The with  data  indicate  t h e scores  t h e amount o f c o n t e x t .  correct  responses  instrument  they  was o n l y  M U L T I P L E CHOICE respectively.  The more c o n t e x t ,  had.  1.70.  instruments  of the subjects  varied  t h e more  T h e mean f o r t h e FREE  CHOICE  On t h e WORD a n d t h e S E N T E N C E t h e means  The FREE CHOICE  w e r e 3.22 a n d 3.33  instrument  hadonly  20.64% o f  100 the  189 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .  instrument  T h e WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  a n d t h e SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t h a d  39.15% a n d 40.21% o f t h e c o r r e c t responses Such r e s u l t s the  clearly  i t was much more d i f f i c u l t f o r  s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e F R E E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t t o  arrive  a t a c o r r e c t answer than  completed the other was e a s y  i t w a s f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who  two instruments.  This  d o e s n o t mean i t  f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e o t h e r t w o  instruments not  indicate  respectively.  easy.  t o select Only  t h e c o r r e c t response.  76 o r 2 5 . 4 2 %  Indeed,  o f t h e responses  SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t ,  i t was  on t h e  f o r example,  were  correct. ANIMALS:  SOURCE  df  SUM o f  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 65 67  40. 62 272. 42 313. 04  T A B L E #8 ANCOVA  SQUARES  RESULTS  MEAN  SQUARE  20.31 4.19  F  RATIO  4 .85  .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 pX.025 An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  reading  The s c o r e s  test  obtained.  This  scores  instruments  i s significant Therefore  An F - r a t i o  on t h e c l o z e o f 4.85 was  a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f  the null  hypothesis  i srejected.  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e ANIMALS v a r i e d w i t h t h e amount o f c o n t e x t .  means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d for  o f f r e e d o m was r u n o n  the subjects obtained  was t h e c o v a r i a t e .  significance. The  2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s  Errors o f Estimate  t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t ,  elicitation The a d j u s t e d  a r e 1.66 a n d 0.43  3 . 1 4 a n d 0.44 f o r t h e WORD  101 MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t  a n d 3 . 4 2 a n d 0.44 f o r t h e  SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE INSTRUMENT. the  r e s p e c t i v e groups  The 0.90CI  f o r each o f  i s 1.66 ae 0 . 7 5 , 3.14 ae 0 . 7 5 a n d 3 . 4 2 ae  0.76. SECOND COMPARISON: TABLE #9 BIRDS FREE, WORD a n d SENTENCE RESULTS N  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  22.00  0.96  1.30  0-4  0.21  36.96  23  46.00  2.00  2.30  0-90  0.48  116.00  23  34.00  1.48  1.56  0-7  0.44  54.74  TOTALS 69 102.00 1.48 1.80 0-9 219.22 0.30 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o n e N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t . The the  data  clearly  T 3 C 0 s o f many  They gave  of thebird  substantially  BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s instruments. responses were  CHOICE less  were g i v e n . This  they  terms employed  Only  instrument,  than  one.  instrument,  i nt h i s  c o r r e c t responses  87 f e w e r  study.  on t h e t h r e e  d i d on t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  ANIMALS  correct  102 o r 1 1 . 3 7 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s  compares w i t h t h e 21.07% which  o n t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s .  mean was e x a c t l y  This  than  fewer  the subjects had not acquired  On t h e B I R D S i n s t r u m e n t s  correct.  correct  indicate  were  On t h e B I R D S F R E E  t h e mean n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  was  On t h e WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t , t h e 2.00.  A n d o n t h e SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE  t h e mean n u m b e r o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  i si n t e r e s t i n g  f o r i t i st h ereverse  was 1.48.  o f what happened  102  on  t h eANIMALS  SENTENCE larger  instruments.  M U L T I P L E CHOICE  number o f c o r r e c t BIRDS: df  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL .05 F 2,65 =  2 20.96 65 178.53 67 199.49 3. 15 JX.025  A n ANCOVA w i t h data.  reading  The  test  obtained.  This  scores  instruments  d i d notresult  F RATIO  10.48 2.55  4. 11  o f f r e e d o m w a s: r u n o n  i ssignificant  o n t h ec l o z e  An F - r a t i o  o f 4.11 was  a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f  t h en u l l  hypothesis  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e BIRDS  i s rejected. elicitation  v a r i e d due t o t h e amount o f c o n t e x t .  a d j u s t e d means  i na  MEAN SQUARE  t h esubjects obtained  Therefore  on t h e  TABLE #10 ANCOVA RESULTS  2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s  scores  context  responses.  was t h e c o v a r i a t e .  significance. The  instrument  SUM o f SQUARES  SOURCE  the  The a d d i t i o n a l  and t h e Standard Errors o f Estimate  The a r e 0.81  and  0.34 f o r B I R D S F R E E C H O I C E  instrument,  the  B I R D S WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  INSTRUMENT a n d 1.41 f o r t h e  BIRDS SENTENCE each and  M U L T I P L E CHOICE  o f t h er e s p e c t i v e groups 1 . 4 1 as 0 . 5 8 .  instrument.  2 . 1 7 a n d 0.34 f o r  The 0.90CI f o r  i s 0 . 8 1 as 0 . 5 9 , 2 . 1 7 as 0 . 5 9  103 THIRD COMPARISON: TABLE #11 COLOURS FREE, WORD a n d SENTENCE RESULTS N  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  87.00  3.78  2.09  0-9  0.21  95.91  23  109.00  4.74  2.40  1-10  0.12  126.43  23  106.00  4.61  2.71  1-11  0.18  161.48  TOTALS 2.41 69 302.00 4.38 0-11 0.19 396.20 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t . The on  s u b j e c t s gave a g r e a t e r number o f c o r r e c t  t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s  BIRDS o r ANIMALS correct the  responses and  percentages acquired  clear  given  they  In fact,  50% o f a l l t h e  87 o r 5 8 . 8 % o f t h e c o r r e c t  instruments  were 47.6% and 49.1%.  animal  over  o n t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t .  M U L T I P L E CHOICE  t h e T3COs  gave on e i t h e r t h e  w e r e o n t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . On  instruments  were g i v e n  SENTENCE  either  instruments.  responses  FREE CHOICE  than  terms.  Clearly  While  this  On t h e WORD  the respective the subjects had  o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n  orbird  responses  they  i strue,  had of i ti s a l s o  t h e J S E s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T 3 c o s d f many  colour  terms.  Only  COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s On t h e A N I M A L S correct subjects  responses  3 3 . 7% o f t h e i r were  on t h e t h r e e  correct.  a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s  was n o t d i s t r i b u t e  gave c o r r e c t responses  instruments.  response  T h e y g a v e a much  t h e number o f  evenly.  on t h e FREE larger  Few o f t h e CHOICE  number o f c o r r e c t  104 responses  o n t h e WORD a n d S E N T E N C E M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  instruments.  On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s ,  correct  r e s p o n s e were d i s t r i b u t e d  correct  responses  the  The varied  clustered  deviations  a n d sum o f s q u a r e d  i n an approximately  correlation  coefficients  BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s  equal  manner.  d i dn o t vary  these  much.  statistics  deviations  The s c o r e s  t h e means o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e  instruments  and  28.8% were on  a n d 3 5 . 1 % w e r e o n t h e SENTENCE  o n t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s .  about  Of t h e  instrument.  standard  little  evenly.  o n t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s  FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t  MULTIPLE CHOICE  quite  however, t h e  were  COLOURS And t h e  On t h e A N I M A L S  v a r i e d much more.  TABLE #12 COLOURS: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  df 2 65 67  SUM o f SQUARES 8.21 373.69 381.90  MEAN SQUARE 4.11 5.75  F RATIO 0. 72  .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 f K . 2 5 An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  reading  The s c o r e s  test  obtained.  of The  o f f r e e d o m was r u n on  thesubjects obtained  was t h e c o v a r i a t e .  This  significance. rejected.  2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s  An F - r a t i o  i s not significant Therefore  t h en u l l  o f 0.72 w a s  a t t h e .05 o f l e v e l o f  hypothesis  On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s  t h eJSE subjects d i d notvary  on t h e c l o z e  with  i s not  t h ee l i c i t a t i o n  scores  regard t o context.  a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s  o f Estimate are  3 . 9 1 a n d 0.52 f o r t h e F R E E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t ,  4.70 a n d 0.51  105 for  t h e WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t  for  t h e SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t .  each o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e and  groups  a n d 4.52 a n d 0.51 The 0.90CI f o r  i s 3 . 9 1 ae 0 . 8 9 , 4 . 7 0 ae 0.87  4 . 5 2 ae 0 . 8 8 .  SUMMARY: The  null  comparisons. the  scores  Variation  hypothesis Therefore  i t cannot  on two o f t h e t h r e e  be u n e q u i v o c a t e l y  o f the JSEsubjects varied i n the scores  was d u e t o c o n t e x t . did  was r e j e c t e d  not vary  COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s ,  due t o c o n t e x t .  on t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS  On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s  due t o c o n t e x t .  And as they  the null  stated  hypothesis  varied  instruments the scores on t h e  was a c c e p t e d .  HYPOTHESIS #4: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due t o semantic field. Three determine to  different  whether t h e scores  semantic  was v a r i e d In  field.  instruments  w e r e made i n o r d e r t o  o f t h e JSE s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due  I n each comparison  w h i l e t h e amount o f c o n t e x t  the first  scores  comparisons  comparison  the scores  were compared.  t h e semantic was k e p t  constant.  o n t h e t h r e e FREE CHOICE  I n t h e second  comparison  o n t h e t h r e e WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t s  compared.  Inthe third  comparison  field  the scores  SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s  were  on t h e  compared.  the were  106 F I R S T COMPARISON: F R E E C H O I C E  TABLE #13 BIRDS a n d COLOURS FREE RESULTS  ANIMALS, N  TOTAL  RESPONSES  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  39.00  1.70  1.77  0-5  -0.18  68. 87  23  22.00  0.96  1.30  0-4  0.21  36. 96  23  87.00  3.78  2.09  0-9  0.21  95. 91  TOTALS 2.14 2.10 69 148.00 0-9 -0.08 300. 55 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e ANIMALS FREE i n s t r u m e n t . The  above t a b l e  acquired terms.  t h e T3COs In fact,  responses  indicates  o f more c o l o u r  terms than animal o r b i r d  were g i v e n by t h e s u b j e c t s  the  ANIMALS  22%  of the correct  the  subjects  instrument  instrument.  responses  who c o m p l e t e d  gave n e a r l y  approximately  half  respectively.  responses  divided If  equally  among  acquisition  then t h e subjects instrument subjects  who c o m p l e t e d  who c o m p l e t e d  fluent  as would  have  h a d been  of fluency,  t h e COLOURS F R E E  command o f E n g l i s h  t h e ANIMAL  instrument  fields.  o f T3C0 i s a n i n d i c a t i o n  h a d a more  responses and  responses  t h e three semantic  words,  CHOICE  t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE  been e x p e c t e d i f t h e number o f c o r r e c t  3 9% a n d  In other  t h e COLOURS F R E E  a s many c o r r e c t  CHOICE  who c o m p l e t e d  i n s t r u m e n t s gave  t w i c e a s many c o r r e c t  who c o m p l e t e d  FREE  who c o m p l e t e d t h e  The s u b j e c t s  a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE  subjects  t h esubjects had  87 o r 5 8 . 8 % o f t h e 1 4 8 c o r r e c t  COLOURS F R E E C H O I C E  the  clearly  a n d BIRDS FREE  CHOICE than t h e CHOICE  107  instruments.  The d a t a ,  conjecture. on  however,  score  this  T h e COLOURS F R E E C H O I C E s u b j e c t s d i d l e s s  the cloze reading test  mean  do n o t s u p p o r t  than t h e other  on t h e c l o z e was 2 2 . 0 9 .  This  subjects.  well  Their  compares w i t h t h e  means o f 25.17 a n d 26.70. b y t h e ANIMAL a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE  subjects respectively.  Based  on t h e s e  results,  BIRDS  FREE CHOICE s u b j e c t s o u g h t t o h a v e h a d t h e m o s t c o r r e c t responses.  Instead,  they  had t h e fewest.  TABLE #14 FREE CHOICE: ANCOVA SOURCE  df  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 65 67  SUM  o f SQUARES  99.91 200.72 298.63  RESULTS  MEAN SQUARE  F  48.96 3.09  15.85  RATIO  .01 F 2,65 = 3.15 p<.001 An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  The s c o r e s  reading test obtained.  This  rejected. JSE  0.38 for  i s significant I t i s five  significance.  times  subjects varied with  o f 1 5 . 8 5 was  a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f greater than  Therefore  regard  on t h e c l o z e  An F - r a t i o  the null  On t h e F R E E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t s  a d j u s t e d means and  o f f r e e d o m was r u n o n  the subjects obtained  was t h e c o v a r i a t e .  significance. indicate  2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s  t h a t needed t o  hypothesis i s the scores  t o semantic  field.  and t h e Standard E r r o r s o f Estimate  0.37 f o r t h e A N I M A L S F R E E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t , f o r t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t t h e COLOURS F R E E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t .  ofthe The  a r e 1.69  0.93 a n d  a n d 3.82 a n d 0.38 The 0.90CI  f o r each  108 of  the respective  groups  i s 1.69 ae 0.64, 0.93 ae 0.65 a n d  3.82 ae 0.65. SECOND COMPARISON: WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E ANIMALS, N  TOTAL  RESPONSES  TABLE #15 BIRDS a n d COLOURS WORD RESULTS  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  74.00  3.22  2.22  0-9  0.39  155. 91  23  46.00  2.00  2.30  0-9  0.48  116. 00  23  114.00  4.87  2.32  1-10  0.22  118. 61  TOTALS 2.67 3.36 0-10 69 232.00 0.36 485. 94 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o n e N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t . The who  data i n the table  completed  instrument completed  the Only  indicates  responses  elicitation  t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who  t h e A N I M A L S a n d B I R D S WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E instruments.  responses  Slightly  more t h a n  were g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s  COLOURS WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E e l i c i t a t i o n 19.8% o f t h e c o r r e c t  subjects  the subjects  t h e COLOURS WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  gave more c o r r e c t  elicitation correct  clearly  who c o m p l e t e d  elicitation  response  instrument.  were g i v e n b y t h e  These r e s u l t s  obtained  o n t h e FREE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n  subjects  who c o m p l e t e d  instruments.  who c o m p l e t e d  t h e B I R D S WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  instrument.  than t h e subjects  49% o f t h e  mirror  the results  instruments.  The  t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t d i d b e t t e r  who c o m p l e t e d  And the subjects  t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS who c o m p l e t e d  t h e ANIMALS  109  instrument BIRDS  d i d b e t t e r than  t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e  instrument. TABLE #16 WORD CHOICE: ANCOVA RESULTS  SOURCE  df  SUM o f SQUARES  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 65 67  77.58 345.38 422.96  .05  F  MEAN SQUARE  38.79 5.31  data.  The r e s u l t s  are similar  comparison.  The F - r a t i o  large  as the ratio  needed t o i n d i c a t e  significance null  regard  hypothesis  t o semantic  Standard ANIMALS  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  ofsignificance.  WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  instrument,  B I R D S WORD M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  for  t h e COLOURS M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  each o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e groups 4 . 8 2 ae 0 . 8 4 .  The s c o r e s  Therefore  varied  with  and t h e  a r e 3 . 0 1 a n d 0.49 f o r t h e  the  and  twice as  statistical  The a d j u s t e d means  Errors o fEstimate  for the  o f 7.30 i s m o r e t h a n  i s rejected. field.  o f f r e e d o m was r u n on  t othe results  first  the  7.31  2,65 = 3.15 p<.01  A n ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s the  F RATIO  instrument  2 . 2 6 a n d 0.50 f o r a n d 4.82 a n d 0 . 4 9  instrument.  The 0.90CI f o r  i s 3 . 0 1 ae 0 . 8 5 , 2 . 2 6 ae 0 . 8 5 ,  110 THIRD COMPARISON: S E N T E N C E M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  RESPONSES  TABLE #17 ANIMALS, BIRDS a n d COLOURS SENTENCE N  TOTAL  RESULTS  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  23  76.00  3.30  1.61  1-6  0.38  56.87  23  33.00  1.43  1.59  0-7  0.47  55.65  23  106.00  4.61  2.71  1-11  0.18  161.48  TOTALS 3.12 69 215.00 2.40 0-11 0.27 391.07 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o n e N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t . The  above  completed than  table  clearly  indicates  t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t  t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d  instruments.  In fact,  they  h a d a c q u i r e d more  correct  responses.  instrument subjects of  had acquired almost  gave  similar  comparisons,  statistically  gave  10 6 o r 4 9 . 3 % o f t h e  35.4% o f t h e c o r r e c t responses  who c o m p l e t e d  a r e very  They  t h e BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t Such r e s u l t s ,  t o the results  inevitably  significant.  suggest  a s many  t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS  T h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d  t h e c o r r e c t responses.  they two  d i d combined.  T3COs  t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS  T 3 C O s a s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d instruments  t h e s u b j e c t s who  and t h e  gave  just 15.4%  especially  obtained  they  t h e ANIMALS  since  i nt h e f i r s t  should be  TABLE #18 SENTENCE CHOICE: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE  df  SUM o f SQUARES  MEAN SQUARE  F RATIO  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  2 65 67  113.55 249.01 362.56  56.78 3.83  14.83  = 3.15  p<.001  .05  F 2,65  An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s  The r e s u l t s  a r es i m i l a r  first  two comparisons.  times  as large as t h e r a t i o  significance the  null  the  effect  Standard  t o theresults  The F - r a t i o  o f semantic  field.  Errors o f Estimate  The s c o r e s  Therefore  v a r i e d due t o  The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e  a r e 3.51 a n d 0.42 f o r t h e  ANIMALS SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t ,  1.3 9 a n d 0 . 4 1  for  t h e BIRDS SENTENCE M U L T I P L E CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t  and  0 . 4 2 f o r t h e COLOURS S E N T E N C E M U L T I P L E C H O I C E  instrument. 3.51  f o r each  o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e groups i s  o f t h ethree  comparisons  indicate  t h e JSE s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t  field. vary  a n d 4.44  ae 0 . 7 2 , 1.39 ae 0 . 7 1 a n d 4.44 ae 0 . 7 2 .  SUMMARY: E a c h of  The 0.90CI  five  statistical  of significance.  i sr e j e c t e d .  for the  o f 14.83i s almost  needed t o i n d i c a t e  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  hypothesis  o f f r e e d o m was r u n o n  Hence t h e h y p o t h e s i s  due t o t h e e f f e c t  o f semantic  HYPOTHESIS #5: T h e s c o r e s vary due t o age. The who w e r e  elicitation 30 y e a r s  has been  t h e scores  o f semantic  rejected.  Scores  do  field.  o f t h eJSE subjects shall not  instrument  scores  of theJSE subjects  o f age o r o l d e r were compared w i t h t h e  112 elicitation  instrument  scores  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who w e r e  under  30 y e a r s  o f age.  Seventeen  least  30 y e a r s  o f age.  Fifty-three  under  30 y e a r s  o f age.  However,  subjects  who c o m p l e t e d  instruments of  t h e s u b j e c t s were used  years  instrument  o l d o r over  were  of the subjects  i n order  of the three  were e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d ,  elicitation  age  each  o f t h e s u b j e c t s were a t  randomly  were  t o ensure t h e sets of  elicitation  only the scores  o f 30  i n t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s .  scores  The  o f t w o o f t h e s u b j e c t s 30  and two o f t h e s u b j e c t s under  30 y e a r s o f  deleted. T A B L E #19 A G E R E S U L T S  N  T O T A L  M E A N  S . D .  R A N G E  C O R R  S S  12.24 5.41  3-22  0.09 469.06  7.36  1-14  0.03 680.19  T H I R T Y A N D O V E R 17  208.00  U N D E R T H I R T Y 53 390.00 The  data  acquired study. the  clearly  The mean s c o r e  employed  the older subjects had  gave  i n the  o f t h e o l d e r subjects i s almost  o f t h e younger  accounting  subjects, suggest  indicate  t h e T3COs o f m o r e o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d  mean s c o r e  despite  3.62  subjects.  for slightly  less  The o l d e r s u b j e c t s ,  than  aq u a r t e r o ft h e  34.8% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .  the acquisition  o f t h e T3COs o f t h e 39  i n t h e study  process  i s aslow  twice  which  Such  results  terms occurs  over a  number o f y e a r s . There  i s one anomaly t o t h e s e  coefficients  are extremely  low.  results.  The c o r r e l a t i o n  F o r t h e s u b j e c t s as a whole  113 the  correlation  divided  according  coefficients between on  coefficient  t o age, however,  a r e 0.03 a n d 0.09.  t h escores  When t h e s u b j e c t s a r e  the correlation  There  i s no r e l a t i o n  on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g  t h ee l i c i t a t i o n  according  w a s 0.28.  instruments  test  and t h e scores  when t h e s u b j e c t s a r e g r o u p e d  t o age.  AGE: SOURCE  df  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 63 64  TABLE #20 ANCOVA RESULTS  SUM o f SQUARES 177.46 1087.24 1264.70  MEAN SQUARE  F RATIO  177.46 17.26  10 .28  .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p<.01 An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  this  An F - r a t i o  t h en u l l  instrument age.  Estimate and each  scores  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  hypothesis  Errors of  30 s u b j e c t s .  subjects  T h e 0.90CI f o r  i s 11.55 ae 6.96 a n d 7.87 ae 3.33.  elicitation  were male  of t h eJSE subjects shall not  instrument  were compared  o f t h emale  subjects  The e l i c i t a t i o n  a r e 11.55 a n d 3.93 f o r t h e 30 a n d o l d e r  HYPOTHESIS #6: The s c o r e s v a r y due t o gender.  scores  An F - r a t i o  o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t  The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d  age group  subjects  was r u n on  of significance.  i srejected.  7.87 a n d 1.98 f o r t h e u n d e r  The  o f freedom  o f 10.28 w a s o b t a i n e d .  large i ssignificant  Therefore  of  1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s  scores  o f t h efemale JSE  with the e l i c i t a t i o n  JSE subjects.  instrument  Thirty-eight of the  a n d 32 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e  female.  114 However, the  t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d  three  sets o f e l i c i t a t i o n instruments  represented, in  only  the scores  t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s .  subjects  were  each o f  equally  o f 66 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e The s c o r e s  a n d two male s u b j e c t s were  used  o f two female  deleted.  TABLE #21 GENDER RESULTS N  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  304.00  8.00  4.14  1-22  0.25  634.00  294.00  9.09  5.07  2-21  0.28  796.88  FEMALE 38 MALE 32  The b a s i c did  not vary  s t a t i s t i c s on t h e male a n d female  much.  T h e mean,  correlation  coefficient  higher  they  of  than  t h e scores  however, female and  While  f o r t h e female  almost  identical.  t h e ranges subjects,  o f 26.81 on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g o f 23.18. The s c o r e s  their  scores  noted  d i d not vary,  stimulus  items  test.  The  o f t h e male  were n o t  did.  they  d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y vary.  t h a t WOLF h a s t h e T3CO  four o f t h e males thought  t h e females  t h eresponses  o n t h e ANIMALS SENTENCE  AGGRESSIVE. None o f t h e m a l e s d i d .  of  The male  slightly  either.  o f t h e females  instrument  subjects.  subjects, while notidentical,  f o r individual  example,  deviationand  f o r t h e male s u b j e c t s were  s u b j e c t s h a d a mean  dissimilar  Three  were  h a d a mean  female  gave  were  standard  subjects  instrument, f o r  o f SEXUALLY  On t h e B I R D S F R E E CROW h a s a T3CO.  A n d o n t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t  None five  115 of t h emales b u t only PINK  i s HEALTHY.  each  o f t h ev a r i o u s  differences  one o f t h e females  And there  thought  t h e T3C0 o f  a r e a number o f o t h e r  instruments  f o r which  terms on  similar  are evident. GENDER:  TABLE #22 ANCOVA RESULTS  SOURCE  df  SUM o f SQUARES  MEAN SQUARE  F RATIO  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 63 64  1.82 1134.56 1136.38  1.82 18.01  0.10  .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p>.25 An the  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  An F - r a t i o  significant null JSE  1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s  o f 0.10 w a s o b t a i n e d .  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  hypothesis  This  of significance.  i saccepted.  subjects d i d not vary  The e l i c i t a t i o n  due t o t h ee f f e c t  a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d and  o f f r e e d o m was r u n on i s not  Therefore t h e scores  of the  o f gender.  Errors o f Estimate  The  a r e 8.77  0.23 f o r t h e FEMALE s u b j e c t s a n d 8.45 a n d 0.25 f o r t h e  MALE s u b j e c t s . and  The 0.90CI  f o r each gender  i s 8.77 ae 0 . 3 9  8 . 4 5 ae 0 . 4 3 .  HYPOTHESIS #7: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o l e v e l o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . The who  considered  fluency of  elicitation  instrument  themselves  scores  t o have  an i n t e r m e d i a t e  were compared w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d  advanced they  o f t h eJSE subjects  were  level  of fluency.  advanced  level of  instrument  themselves  t o have an  Sixteen of thesubjects  a n d 50 s a i d  they  were  scores  said  intermediate.  Four  116 of  thesubjects  ensure  that  d i d not indicate their  t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h  sets  of elicitation  only  t h escores  instruments  I n order t o  of the three  were e q u a l l y  represented,  o f 63 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e u s e d i n t h e  ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . subjects  level.  The s c o r e s  a n d one advanced  o f two intermediate  subject  were randomly  deleted.  TABLE #23 L E V E L RESULTS N  TOTAL  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  INTERMEDIATE 50  393.00  7.86  4.11  1-20  0.22  828.02  ADVANCED 16  177.00 The  the  11.06  advanced  39 t e r m s t h a n  subjects' mediate  5.60  On  theintermediate  mean s c o r e  was 11.06.  s u b j e c t s was 7.86.  would have  thecloze reading  score  test  Clearly  The advanced  h a d been  an equal  s u b j e c t s , t h e advanced  58.5%o f t h e c o r r e c t  t h eadvanced  t h eadvanced  t h e T3C0s o f more o f  subjects.  I fthere  and advanced  provided  470.94  T h e mean o f t h e i n t e r -  o f 30.25 a n d t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e  23.28.  0.22  subjects had acquired  number o f i n t e r m e d i a t e subjects  3-22  responses.  s u b j e c t s h a d a mean  subjects  a mean o f  subjects had acquired  a greater  n u m b e r o f T 3 C 0 s a n d h a d a b e t t e r command o f E n g l i s h . TABLE #24 LEVEL: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  df 1 60 61  SUM o f SQUARES 64.34 1217.17 1281.51  .05 F 1,61 = 4.00 p<.10  MEAN SQUARE  F RATIO  64.34 20.29  3.17  117 A n ANCOVA w i t h the  data.  An F - r a t i o  than t h e r a t i o at  hypothesis  the  Standard  cannot be r e j e c t e d .  Errors o f Estimate  subjects.  This  statistical Therefore  The s c o r e s  instruments  of English ability.  INTERMEDIATE  10.44  of significance.  on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  level  o f f r e e d o m was r u n on  o f 3.17 w a s o b t a i n e d .  needed t o i n d i c a t e  t h e .05 l e v e l  subjects  1 a n d 60 d e g r e e s  i ssmaller  significance the null  o f the JSE  d i dn o t vary  due t o  The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e  a r e 7 . 9 5 a n d 1.18 f o r t h e  s u b j e c t s a n d 1 0 . 4 4 a n d 2 . 1 6 f o r t h e ADVANCED  The 0.90CI  f o reach  level  i s 7 . 9 5 ae 1 . 9 6 a n d  ae 3 . 8 2 .  HYPOTHESIS #8: T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y d u e t o t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y have s t u d i e d E n g l i s h . The  elicitation  instrument  who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n compared w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n subjects  andt e n years  instrument  scores  were  o f the JSE  t e n years.  o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h between  t e n years  calculations, randomly  five  o f the JSE subjects  who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h m o r e t h a n  Forty-five and  scores  a n d 25 more t h a n however,  t h es c o r e s  d e l e t e d t o ensure  each  of the three  were  equally  t e n years.  different  five  F o r t h e ANCOVA  o f 22 o f t h e s u b j e c t s  were  t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d sets of e l i c i t a t i o n  instruments  represented. TABLE #25 ENGLISH STUDY RESULTS  N  TOTAL  5-10 YEARS 45 341.00  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  7.56  3.69  1-14  0.06  598.98  118 MORE THAN 10 YEARS 25  257.00  10.28  Again the  English  almost  English had  three  at least  studied the  five  five who  English  English  14 t e r m s .  had studied  of thesubjects  t e n terms. English  English  However,  five  only  who h a d  test.  t e n years This  acquired  25 o f t h e  and t e n years.  FortyAnd those  h a d a mean o f  compares w i t h t h e  who h a d s t u d i e d  English  and t e n years had. TABLE #26 ENGLISH STUDY: ANCOVA  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  who  t h e T3C0s  more t h a n t e n y e a r s .  more t h a n  reading  had acquired  and t e n years had also  mean o f 2 2 . 2 5 w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s  SOURCE  t h e T3COs  S i xo f t h e subjects  Thirteen  five  i t between  32.50 on t h e c l o z e  five  who h a d  t h e g r o u p who h a d s t u d i e d  Thirteen  between  had studied  between  more T3COs o f  more t h a n t e n y e a r s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e  t e n terms.  had studied  739.04  The s u b j e c t s  and t e n years.  T3C0s o f a t l e a s t  subjects  had acquired  group.  more t e r m s t h a n  between  studied  0.33  more t h a n t e n y e a r s h a d a c q u i r e d  T3COs o f a t l e a s t of  3-22  one group o f s u b j e c t s  39 t e r m s t h a n t h e o t h e r  studied of  5.55  df 1 45 46  SUM o f  SQUARES  143. .08 825. .10 968. .18  RESULTS  MEAN SQUARE 143 .08 18 .34  F  RATIO  7..80  .05 F 1,45 = 4.08 p<.01  HYBOTHE6ISo#9esifflaBC¥CffineanoEngMsHSEpeab3Bgt60Hhfe±$.not The who  elicitation  had resided  instrument  i n an E n g l i s h  scores  speaking  of t h eJSE subjects country  were  compared  119 with  the e l i c i t a t i o n instrument  scores  o f the JSE subjects  who h a d n o t r e s i d e d  i n an E n g l i s h speaking  Seventeen had l i v e d  abroad  order  t o ensure that  three  sets  of  four  a n d 53 h a d n o t l i v e d  the subjects  i t was n e c e s s a r y  o f the subjects  abroad.  who c o m p l e t e d e a c h  o f e l i c i t a t i o n instruments  represented,  country.  were  t o randomly  f o r t h e ANCOVA  In  of the  equally delete  the scores  calculations.  TABLE #27 LIVED ABROAD RESULTS BIVEfflMBBOAD 1HEAB7 NOT LIVED ABROAD 53 386.00 7.28 Again groups. almost  there  8 .BO  1A8SE  OORR  SSO .24  3 .92  1-21  0.28  798 .75  a r e obvious d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two  T h e mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s twice  t h e mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s  abroad.  Twelve  at  t e n c o r r e c t responses.  least  o f t h e 17 s u b j e c t s  had  not lived  The  mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s  reading  test  abroad had a t least  was 31.53.  a b r o a d h a d a mean o f o n l y had  lived  o f more  who h a d l i v e d  terms.  Only  lived  abroad had  1 6 o f t h e s u b j e c t s who  ten correct  The s u b j e c t s  a b r o a d were more f l u e n t  who h a d n o t  who h a d l i v e d  who h a d l i v e d  22.70.  a b r o a d was  abroad  responses. on t h e c l o z e  who h a d n o t  Clearly  lived  t h e s u b j e c t s who  andhadacquired  t h e T3COs  120 TABLE #28 LIVED ABROAD: ANCOVA SOURCE  SUM o f SQUARES  df  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 63 64  285.86 940.04 1225.90  RESULTS  MEAN SQUARE  F  285.86 14.92  19.16  RATIO  .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p.<.001 A n ANCOVA w i t h the  data.  five  An F - r a t i o  times  the to  significance  the null  o f f r e e d o m was r u n on  o f 1 9 . 1 6 was o b t a i n e d .  as l a r g e as t h e r a t i o  statistical Therefore  1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s  of significance.  i srejected.  The s c o r e s o f  J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s residency  i n an E n g l i s h speaking  means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d  t h e s u b j e c t s who h a v e  the  s u b j e c t s who h a v e n o t l i v e d  group  country.  Errors of Estimate  for  lived  i s almost  needed t o i n d i c a t e  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  hypothesis  This  abroad  v a r i e d due  The a d j u s t e d  a r e 1 2 . 5 4 a n d 4.71  a n d 7.08 a n d 2 . 4 2 f o r  abroad.  The 0.90CI  i s 1 2 . 5 4 ae 8.34 a n d 7.08 as 4 . 0 7 .  HYPOTHESIS #10: T h e s c o r e s o f J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e E n g l i s h . The  e l i c i t a t i o n instrument  scores  not vary  of t h e JSE subjects  who  u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n  o n c e a week w e r e c o m p a r e d  the  e l i c i t a t i o n instrument  scores  used E n g l i s h less subjects the  than  u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n  subjects  d i d not indicate  t o ensure  with  of t h e JSE subjects  once a week.  subjects used E n g l i s h less  order  f o r each  Thirty-nine ofthe  once a week. than  who  Twenty-nine o f  o n c e a week.  how o f t e n t h e y  Two  used E n g l i s h .  t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d  In  each o ft h e  121 three  sets of e l i c i t a t i o n  represented, of  instruments  i t was n e c e s s a r y  were  t o randomly  17 o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e A N C O V A  equally delete t h e scores  calculations.  TABLE #29 FREQUENCY RESULTS N  TOTAL  MORE THAN ONCE 39 350.00 LESS THAN ONCE 29 233.00 The  MEAN  S.D.  RANGE  CORR  SS  A WEEK 8.97 A WEEK 8.03  4.66  2-22  0.30  824.97  4.52  1-20  0.30  572.97  basic  more t h a n  statistics  o n c e a week a n d t h o s e  week do n o t v a r y their  means.  virtually  o n t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h  much.  There  The s t a n d a r d  identical.  who u s e d  i sonly  i t less  than  a 0.94 d i f f e r e n c e i n  d e v i a t i o n s and ranges a r e  The c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients are  identical.  T h e i r means  and  O f t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h m o r e t h a n  a  24.72.  week  less  than  these  on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g  test  3 8 . 5 % h a d t e n o r more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .  corresponding  percentage  s u b j e c t s do n o t d i f f e r  very  SUM o f  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 48 49  2. 20 1062. 73 1064. 93  .05 F 1,48 = 4.08 p>0.25  SQUARES  24.82 once  The  By t h e s t a n d a r d  English measures,  much.  TABLE #30 FREQUENCY: ANCOVA df  were  f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d  o n c e a week was 4 1 . 3 % .  SOURCE  once a  RESULTS MEAN SQUARE 2.20 22.14  F  RATIO O.10  122 A n ANCOVA w i t h the  data.  less  An F - r a t i o  than  the ratio  significance the  null  This  The s c o r e s  due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y  a n d 0.07  Therefore  o f t h e JSE the subjects  f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who  o n c e a w e e k a n d 8.69  used E n g l i s h l e s s  than  a n d 0.11  o n c e a week.  f o r the subjects  The 0.90CI  elicitation  instrument  h a d r e c e i v e d 12 t o 16 y e a r s  compared w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n subjects Sixteen  who  f o r each  Fifty-three  of education.  university,  instrument  education scores  16 y e a r s  had r e c e i v e d between  claimed Since  of  this  have  I n any case,  were  education. 16 y e a r s  12 a n d 16 than  a l l of the subjects had  of education.  not  o f t h e JSE  t o have r e c e i v e d l e s s  a l l of the subjects should  12 y e a r s  purposes, who  One  shall have  o f t h e JSE s u b j e c t s  of formal  h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n  education.  than  scores  o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n  education.  years  who  i s 9.12 as 0 . 1 3 , a n d 8.69 as 0 . 1 8 .  The  of  Errors of  used E n g l i s h  H Y P O T H E S I S #11: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r y due t o t h e amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y received.  who  F-ratio i s  The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d  a r e 9.12  r u n on  statistical  of significance.  i s accepted.  not vary  used E n g l i s h .  more t h a n  was o b t a i n e d .  a t t h e .05 l e v e l  did  Estimate  o f 0.10  o f f r e e d o m was  needed t o i n d i c a t e  hypothesis  subjects  group  1 and 48 degrees  of years  12  attended  r e c e i v e d more  for statistical  s u b j e c t has been grouped w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s  had r e c e i v e d between  12 a n d 16 y e a r s  of education.  order  t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who  completed  three  sets of e l i c i t a t i o n  were  instruments  In  each of the  equally  123 represented,  i t was n e c e s s a r y  t o randomly  o f t e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e ANCOVA  delete t h e scores  calculations.  TABLE #31 EDUCATION RESULTS N  TOTAL  MEAN  12-16 YEARS 54 403.00 7.46 MORE THAN 16 YEARS 16 195.00 12.19 A glance  CORR  SS  3 .56  1-14  0.02  673.43  5 .81  3-22  0.46  506.48  16 y e a r s  tables  o f education  s e v e r a l more o f t h e t e r m s u s e d  subjects or  RANGE  a t t h ea b o v e t w o  w i t h more t h a n of  S .D.  w i t h between  reveals t h e subjects h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs  i nt h e study  12 a n d 1 6 y e a r s  of education.  6 8 . 8 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n  education  hada t least  corresponding and  16 y e a r s  than  reading test. the  other  clearly  are  more  years Half  are different  fluent.  The s u b j e c t s w i t h more  from those  subjects with  Eight  education less probably  o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h m o r e t h a n 16  believed their  E n g l i s h was a d v a n c e d .  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d more t h a n  more  h a d a mean o f 2 9 . 5 0 o n t h e c l o z e  They have a c q u i r e d more T3C0s a n d t h e y  o f education  received  The s u b j e c t s w i t h  c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e mean o f 23.4 6 w h i c h  subjects had.  education.  was 31.5%.  o f education This  The  f o r t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h b e t w e e n 12  of education  16 y e a r s  Eleven  16 y e a r s o f  t e n correct responses.  percentage  than t h e  16 y e a r s  themselves  of education.  advanced had  124 TABLE #32 EDUCATION: ANCOVA SOURCE  df  BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL  1 57 58  .05 F 1,57 An the  THerefore  to  1 a n d 57 d e g r e e s  significant  the null  o f f r e e d o m was r u n o n  o f 23.50 was o b t a i n e d . a t t h e .05 l e v e l  hypothesis  education  This  ratio i s  of significance.  i s rejected.  J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n t h e amount o f f o r m a l  The  23 .50  363.09 15.45  {X.001  An F - r a t i o  statistically  the  363.09 880.58 1243.67  ANCOVA w i t h  data.  F RATIO  MEAN SQUARE  SUM o f SQUARES  = 4.08  RESULTS  The s c o r e s o f  instruments  v a r i e d due  the subjects had received  a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d  Errors of Estimate are  7 . 5 3 a n d 2 . 6 9 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n and  16 y e a r s  subjects The  of education  a n d 1 4 . 7 6 a n d 6.62 f o r t h e  who h a d r e c e i v e d m o r e t h a n  0.90CI  f o r each group  12  16 y e a r s  of education.  i s 7 . 5 3 as 4.52 a n d 1 4 . 7 6 ae 1 2 . 5 8 .  HYPOTHESIS #12a: The NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e o n w h a t t h e T3COs o f t h e t h i r t y - n i n e t e r m s a r e i n E n g l i s h . In  order  necessary 30  the  of  hypothesis  only  i n t h e study.  of the subjects either  T3COs o f a t e r m  T3C0.  t o be a c c e p t e d ,  f o r75% o f t h e subjects t o agree  o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d  percent  a  forthis  Eleven  had t o agree  on t h e T3COs o f Seventy-five on what one o f  was o r a g r e e t h a t t h e t e r m  o r 75% o f t h e subjects agreed  t e n o f t h e terms.  Therefore  i t was  d i d n o t have on t h e T3COs  the hypothesis i s  125  rejected.  The NSE s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a g r e e  o f t h e 39 t e r m s  o n w h a t t h e T3COs  a r e i nE n g l i s h .  HYPOTHESIS #12b: The N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e t h i r t y - n i n e t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e . In  order  condition which  hypothesis  had t o be s a t i s f i e d .  term.  on what  71% o f t h e subjects agreed  Therefore  subjects  t o be accepted,  thehypothesis  d i d n o t agree  t h e same  T h e r e was n o t e v e n one t e r m  75% o f t h e subjects agreed  more t h a n  in  for this  i t s T 3 C 0 i s . No  on t h e T3C0 o f a n y one  i srejected.  The N S J  o n what t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e  Japanese. DISCUSSION  SCORES OF THE J S E SUBJECTS ON THE E L I C I T A T I O N The  scores  instruments score  o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  were  low.  d i d n o t do v e r y  responses. correct  Even t h e s u b j e c t w i t h t h e h i g h e s t well.  She h a d o n l y  The s u b j e c t w i t h t h e l o w e s t  response.  responses.  Clearly  The a v e r a g e  Such r e s u l t s ,  in  however,  of theliterature  textbooks  used t o teach  Japan place  score  h a d o n l y one  subject had only  8.54 c o r r e c t  little,  i nt h e study.  arenot surprising.  i t was n o t e d  t h e authors  English i n schools i f any,  emphasis  e v e n t h e m o s t common a n d e l e m e n t a r y study  22 c o r r e c t  t h e s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s  o f many o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d  review  INSTRUMENTS:  E n g l i s h from these  textbooks  In the of the  and u n i v e r s i t i e s  on t h e t e a c h i n g o f  T3C0s.  Students  who  cannot be expected t o  126 acquire where  many T3COs.  i t i s not  primary which  source  i s not  English Hence  i n the  the the  it  student  surprising  in this to  impossible.  How  d i d they  English.  however,  Perhaps they  in  does not  understand  out,  THE  learn  average  the  subjects study  have  and  colour  taught  one  read  requisite  acquired  few  8.54  acquired  the  books  watching  He  in English  English  listening  acquired.  taught,  average E n g l i s h  very  as  not  T3C0s.  i s not  Perhaps they The  who  taught.  r e s e a r c h e r does not had  T3C0s.  s u b j e c t had  is unlikely  The  T3C0s t h e y  has  many  bird  a c q u i r e d them from  have the  a movie.  what  a c q u i r e them?  T h i s , however,  acquired  to  i s not  something study  in this  animal,  the  who  JSE  They were not  what one  The  movies. Japan  instruments  reading English novels.  i n Japan,  learn  to discover the  study.  learn  learn  Hence s t u d e n t s to  place  uses becomes  cannot  expected  i t is difficult  i s not  them from  be  one  one  T 3 C 0 s o f many o f t h e  is difficult  T3C0s.  And  textbook.  cannot  studies English i n a  textbook  elicitation  terms employed  While  the  of E n g l i s h .  i t i s not  acquired  It  used,  i n Japan  completed  When o n e  student  skills  to  k n o w how  would  like  they to  find  however.  CLOZE READING  The subjects  scores  the  cloze reading test  have a good knowledge  vocabulary would not  on  TEST:  and  well  as  the  o f E n g l i s h grammar,  discourse strategies.  have done as  indicate  they  I f they did.  And  didn,t, as  they  extensive  127 knowledge be  of these  things  assumed most o f t h e  i s necessary  for fluency, i t  s u b j e c t s have a r e a s o n a b l y  can  good  command o f E n g l i s h .  Scores scores  cloze tests  obtained  (Wordell, should  on  1989  on  example,  on  particular  Thus s c o r e s  of  linguistic  coefficient,  instruments  and  the  0.28,  I f a l l aspects  of  relatively correlation  an  on  coefficient.  at  the  equal  0.50)  i f SLLs  acquisition i s not  levels  number o f  should  have  least,  of  T3CO a n  few  T3COs  the  would e x p l a i n the  low  been aspect until  low  This  SLLs  highly  higher  would  fluency could  T3COs as  reading  correlate  process,  of  study  cloze  a  surprising.  a  ability  tests,  acquire  of  low  in this  on  ability  I s n ' t knowledge  intermediate  approximately This,  language  for  elicitation  obtained  cloze reading  But  i n the  results  (perhaps  coefficient  SLLs w i t h  fluent.  of  study.  ability? late  But  between the  of  test  acquisition  knowledge.  a l l aspects  coefficient  language  that  obtained  in this  obtained,  language  h i g h l y with the  obtained  scores  the  test  a cloze reading  not  correlate  correlation  TOEFL  used  at  results  the  cloze reading test  indicates  with  least,  like  which measure the  correlation  tests.  on  quite highly with  instruments type  quite highly with  standardised tests  p.24).  correlate  correlate  mean  acquire  somewhat  more  correlation  128 H Y P O T H E S I S #1: The J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r t h e c o n n o t a t i v e meanings which p a r t i c u l a r terms have i n Japanese to t h e equivalent terms i n E n g l i s h . This  hypothesis  established do  proves  transfer simply are.  as t h e c r i t e r i a  f o r t r a n s f e r were n o t met.  not conclusively  just  was a c c e p t e d  that  prove that  transfer  the JSEsubjects  Japanese  i nthis  i nnature,  different.  h a dbeen asked  I fthey  included  English  a l l possible  terms  terms  the subjects had  t h e r e s u l t s might from  Japanese  more J a p a n e s e  a list  T3C0s,  T3COs.  have  a l l possible  the subjects  for  SWAN w a s E L E G A N T .  i s o n e o f t h e T3COs w h i c h  has  i nJapanese.  English  T w e n t y - t w o o f t h e 47 s u b j e c t s  one o r t h e other  o f these  T3CO o f SWAN i s E L E G A N T .  SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s was or  FAITHFUL. the other  English  T 3 C 0 o f DOG.  Japanese. stimulus  instruments  one o f t h e T3C0s  Such  instruments  listed SWAN  who said the  listed  f o r DOG  who c o m p l e t e d o n e  s a i d FAITHFUL was t h e  F A I T H F U L i s a T 3 C 0 DOG h a s i n  l i m i t e d data  JSEs might  T3C0s  On t h e A N I M A L S WORD a n d  F i f t e e n o f t h e 46 s u b j e c t s o f these  might  On t h e B I R D S WORD a n d  one o f t h e p o s s i b l e  completed  been  o f meanings  SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s This  when  dredge up t h e E n g l i s h  T 3 C 0 s a n d some d i s t r a c t o r T 3 C 0 s ,  have t r a n s f e r r e d  I t  did not  English  which hadconfronted  b e e n more r e c e p t i v e  which  study  w h a t t h e T 3 C 0 s o f some E n g l i s h  They were a s k e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y I fthetask  however,  does n o t occur.  T3C0s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t  asked t o state  T3COs.  The d a t a ,  transfer  indicate that T3C0s f r o m  given  the right  Japanese t o E n g l i s h .  129 Further  r e s e a r c h needs t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e  actually  do t r a n s f e r  whether  JSEs  T3C0s.  HYPOTHESIS #2: T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o which s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n instruments they completed. The  null  calculations There  hypothesis produced  was  rejected  a s t h e ANCOVA  a statistically  i s a possibility,  however,  significant  F-ratio.  a Type I I e r r o r  has been  made. That indicate  a significant there  was  F-ratio  some  was  obtained  does n o t  inherent flaw or bias b u i l t  into the  instruments.  I f t h e s u b j e c t s had a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f an  approximately  equal  an  F-ratio  which  obtained.  number o f a n i m a l ,  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t  The p r o b l e m  completed  bird  terms.  ANIMALS subjects  instrument than  In addition,  than  completed  d i d less  elicitation  been  and more  the subjects  instrument  instruments  animal  who  h a d 4 8 a n d 65 completed  the  And w h i l e t h e  on t h e MULTIPLE CHOICE  completed  instruments,  t h e two o t h e r  superiority  instrument.  A n d t h e s u b j e c t s who  M U L T I P L E CHOICE  they  h a d on t h e FREE completed  INSTRUMENT d i d v e r y  instruments  sets of  i t d i d not compensate  overwhelming  SENTENCE  terms,  t h e COLOURS, B I R D S a n d A N I M A L S  well  t h e s u b j e c t s who  terms  t h e s u b j e c t s who  a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE who  would have  animal  t h e COLOURS F R E E C H O I C E  more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  and c o l o u r  i s t h e s u b j e c t s had a c q u i r e d t h e  T3C0s o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n terms than  bird  f o rthe CHOICE  t h e BIRDS poorly.  Hence  130 the  statistical  scores due  t o semantic  may r e f l e c t  instruments  were  on t h e  than  i n a l l  others.  of saliency varied with the instrument,  could p a r t i a l l y different  used  not equal  Some may h a v e b e e n m o r e s a l i e n t  t h e degree  varied  field.  multiple choice  respects.  that the  instruments  i s also possible that the distractors  different  the  F-ratio  o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n  It  if  significant  account  And  this  f o r the difference of the scores  on  sets of instruments.  H Y P O T H E S I S #3: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . T h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s subjects  confirm the scores  v a r i e d due t o c o n t e x t  fields  analysed  i n this  study.  animal  and b i r d  terms.  They  o f t h e JSE  f o r two o f t h e t h r e e The s c o r e s  d i dnot vary  semantic  varied f o r the f o r the colour  terms. This explain. things  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g A constant  responses  instruments  should  o n t h e FREE CHOICE  SENTENCE  however,  CHOICE  instrument. significantly  additional  But i f t h i s  have been  and t h e fewest  instruments,  f o ri ti s not easy t o  i n ESL i s t h a t  e a s i e r t o understand.  correct  been  result  c o r r e c t responses  instrument  In addition,  t h e most  Only  there  should  more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  CHOICE  should  have  on t h e ANIMALS  c o r r e c t responses  and t h e fewest  makes  i s t r u e , t h e most  o n t h e SENTENCE  instruments.  were  context  on t h e FREE  have  on t h e CHOICE  been  o n t h e SENTENCE  CHOICE  131 instruments  than  o n t h e WORD C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t s .  o n t h e B I R D S a n d COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s responses  o n t h e WORD C H O I C E t h a n  instruments.  than  t h e r e were more c o r r e c t  o n t h e SENTENCE  A n d o n t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s  two more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  o n t h e SENTENCE  o n t h e WORD C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t .  correct  responses  slightly  CHOICE  t h e r e were  CHOICE  only  instrument  A n d t h e number o f  o n t h e COLOURS F R E E i n s t r u m e n t  fewer than  Instead,  was o n l y  t h e n u m b e r o n t h e o t h e r t w o COLOURS  instruments. Why t h e c o n t e x t may b e t h a t not  this  on e l i c i t a t i o n  study.  been:  Perhaps  no c o n t e x t ,  explanatory short  the scores  a difference instruments  i fthe three  a little  sentence  dialogue  since  a r e ambiguous i s n o t c l e a r .  s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amounts  l a r g e e n o u g h t o make  subjects  in  results  t h e ones used i n  amounts  o f context had  context  —  paragraph  would have r e s u l t e d .  the additional  subjects  arrive  amounts  o f JSE  like  c o l o u r s a r e more a b s t r a c t t h a n  birds,  o f context are  i n the scores  perhaps  -- a n d l a r g e a m o u n t s  or a brief  I t  o f context  —  a  — , greater differences I t may a l s o b e t h a t either  o f context  animals o r  d i dnot help t h e  a t more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  WORD a n d S E N T E N C E C H O I C E i n s t r u m e n t s  a word o r  than  o n t h e COLOURS they d i d .  H Y P O T H E S I S #4: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l n o t vary due t o semantic field. The ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s subjects  varied  confirm the scores  due t o semantic  field.  F o r each  o f the JSE of the  132 types  ofelicitation  scores  varied  instruments  due t o semantic  FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . CHOICE  field.  They v a r i e d  due t o semantic  the  field  who c o m p l e t e d t h e  more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  have been  results.  While  instruments  SENTENCE  i s not  the  MULTIPLE  JSE subjects  surprising.  the  The h a d s o many  s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d  that any other  result  they  they  d i d on the  d i d not  do w e l l  the  were c o r r e c t .  responses  SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t s 35.5%.  the  would  instruments.  On t h e  the  the  on the  On t h e  ANIMALS o r BIRDS  COLOURS only  responses  While  i t i s true the  were  results  a c q u i r e d many c o l o u r t e r m significant.  figures  low,  were  a r e much  on the  38.1% higher  other for  example,  correct.  indicate  T3COs, t h e  They  29.1% o f  COLOURS WORD a n d  corresponding while  COLOURS  BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t ,  o f the  the  either  o f c o r r e c t answers  11.0%  nevertheless,  much t o t h e s e  COLOURS F R E E i n s t r u m e n t  These p e r c e n t a g e s ,  percentages  too  s u b j e c t s d i d b e t t e r on the  On t h e  the  o f the  n o ta t t r i b u t e  instruments.  acquire  WORD M U L T I P L E  COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s  than  however,  than  instruments,  not  on the  suprising.  • One s h o u l d ,  only  on the  on the  scores  ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s  than  study, t h e  instruments.  subjects  and  i n the  They v a r i e d  They v a r i e d  T h a t ANCOVA c o n f i r m s varied  employed  indicate  the  subjectshad  results  are,  i t is easiert o  T 3 C O s o f some c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n  i t i s t o acquire  133 the  T3COs o f  are  four  e v e n one  ways t o  assume t h e r e  i s to  than  than  that  acquire  terms or  researcher, which  more c o l o u r  are  colour  are  T3C0s.  subjects or  bird  A G E AND GENDER H Y P O T H E S E S : The s c o r e s the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not gender.  due  to  age  however,  and  that  needs to  interpret  that  the  they  d i d not  be  wary  scores  frequently  is  more to often  i t i s easier  simply  words  for  i s to  assume  because  the  SLLs  are  taught.  combination  a c q u i r i n g the  of  T3COs  of  o f t h e JSE s u b j e c t s v a r y due t o age or  on  terms.  of  vary  Another  way  a n o t h e r way  i t is a  to  terms  T3C0s more  Therefore  first  animal  is  SLLs have  Another  among t h e  believes  way  u s e d more  Therefore  Still  There  T3C0s e a s i e r .  acquire  r e s u l t e d i n the  ANCOVA r e v e a l s  of  easier to  however,  terms than  nature  employed w i t h  T3C0s.  T3C0s a r e  One  terms  terms.  T3C0s.  results.  terms.  are  or b i r d  their  their  bird  their  for colours  things  bird  acquire  colour  colour  words The  to  colour  or  e i t h e r animal  SLLs t o  i n the  a c q u i s i t i o n of  e i t h e r animal  opportunities  animal  interpret these  assume t h a t  assume t h a t  two  i s something  w h i c h makes t h e way  or  the due  subjects to  varied  gender.  i n i n t e r p r e t i n g these  One,  results.  t h e m c o r r e c t l y c e r t a i n f a c t o r s m u s t be  taken  To  into  consideration. While  i t i s true  improve with  age,  improve because which permit  that  they  older  them t o  do  the not  language  improve because  SLLs have had improve.  skills  the  kinds  Because they  of of of  are  adult age.  SLLs They  experiences older,  they  134  have h a d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s t u d y where t h e language use  i s spoken,  more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n . i n this  study  In short they  That  o l d e r subjects had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h longer.  the  17 s u b j e c t s o v e r  for  more t h a n  speaking It  country.  i s undoubtedly  years  Eleven  had l i v e d  subjects over  the  younger  the  o l d e r s u b j e c t s h a d on a v e r a g e  12.24  The  the  many  figures.  a n d 7.50  high  This  I t was a b l e  than  however, of only i n the  and t h e  These,  clearly  t o detect  o f t h e o l d e r male  however,  by t h e  o f age.  s u b j e c t s over a r e 7.00  If 30  f o rthe  And f o r t h e s u b j e c t s  a r e 12.39 f o r t h e m a l e s  subjects d i d not vary  scores  9.19  inflated  30 y e a r s  t h e means  f o r the females.  the females.  female  8.00.  o f t h e 13 m a l e a n d 4 f e m a l e  males  ANCOVA.  s u b j e c t s was  were over  o f age a r e n o t counted,  for  experience,  do n o t r e s u l t  They have been  o f a g e t h e means  resulted i n  T3COs.  years  30 y e a r s  which  education.  a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs  s u b j e c t s was  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who  scores  a l l this  o f t h e male  o f t h e female  misleading  scores  Despite  of a great  of  o f a g e a c q u i r i n g more T3COs  Even age and e x p e r i e n c e  mean s c o r e  mean s c o r e are  subjects.  terms.  acquisition  30 y e a r s  Sixteen of  i n an E n g l i s h  16 y e a r s  kind of experience  the  subjects.  o f age h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h  Ten h a d more t h a n this  to  have had  t h e younger  The  10 y e a r s .  live  i s n o d o u b t why t h e o l d e r  d i d b e t t e r than  thirty  to  t o become b e t t e r e d u c a t e d ,  t h e l a n g u a g e more f r e q u e n t l y .  subjects  t h e language,  a n d 12.25  shows t h e r o b u s t n e s s the scores  over  of  o f t h e male  and  due t o g e n d e r even t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s skewed t h e  results.  135 EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due l e v e l o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h , t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y have s t u d i e d E n g l i s h , r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y use E n g l i s h o r t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y have r e c e i v e d . One  must  be c a r e f u l  experience  hypotheses.  hypotheses  were  i n interpreting While  rejected,  three of the five  the differences  detected  may b e m i s l e a d i n g .  While  who h a v e  lived  speaking  i n an E n g l i s h  16 y e a r s  o f e d u c a t i o n o r have  than  10 y e a r s  a c q u i r e more T3COs t h a n  for  i n an E n g l i s h  fewer than  speaking  10 y e a r s  experience ANCOVA  country,  have  studied English  country,  o r have  which  ofthe  i t may b e t r u e t h a t  than  lived  the results  SLLs  more f o r more  S L L s who h a v e n o t have  studied English  fewer than  16 y e a r s o f  education,  i t may n o t b e t r u e .  study  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d m o r e e d u c a t i o n , h a d l i v e d  in  most  an E n g l i s h  subjects. detecting  speaking  Thus  country  i ti s possible  The p r o b l e m  e t c . were  i s that i n this  the older,  t h a t ANCOVA w a s  really  age and s e x d i f f e r e n c e s .  O f t h e 2 5 s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h than  t e n years,  male. 30  subjects, And  15 w e r e  the  30 y e a r s  o f a g e a n d 10 w e r e m a l e . 11 w e r e  over  30 y e a r s  30 y e a r s  o f a g e a n d 16 w e r e abroad,  over  16 y e a r s  o f a g e a n d 10 w e r e  30 y e a r s  12 w e r e  o f a g e a n d 12 w e r e  4 5 % o f t h e 70 J S E s u b j e c t s w e r e m a l e s u b j e c t s were  f o r more  over  O f t h e 17 a d v a n c e d  o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h m o r e t h a n  10 w e r e m o r e t h a n Just  over  O f t h e 17 s u b j e c t s who h a d l i v e d  years  male  o f age.  male.  of education, male.  and only 24% o f Y e t o n l y when t h e  136 subjects  were examined  percentage  of males  approximate  the  were examined males  ranged  those  over  (41.0)  over  between  subjects  did  over  the  30  (30.7)  When t h e  subjects  other v a r i a b l e s , the percentage 62.5%  ranged  over  and  of use,  a l lpercentages.  f o r the  30  f o r frequency  and  between  thirty  are  70.5%  58.8%  and  those  are  overrepresented the v a l i d i t y  and  and  the percentage  70.5%.  overrepresented. of the  of of  Clearly  And  since  males they  r e s u l t s need t o  be  questioned. While studied  English  speaking people  who  it  have  lived  study  would  genders  do  be  determine, speaking of  on  speaking  levels  acquired  f o r fewer  could  lived  a  in  than  10  speaking country the they  have  do.  To  living  significant  compare two  variable, that  i n an  e f f e c t on  groups  of having  or  results  of  prove i t ,  ages  and  To  English the a c q u i s i t i o n  of JSEs  resided  than  years  were more e v e n l y m a t c h e d . whether  English  more T3COs  t o have a s t u d y where t h e  subjects  who  who  i n an  varied English  country.  of  true.  have  people  or have  c o n c l u s i v e l y prove  i s natural  subjects is  one  years  English  English  f o r example,  one  It  i n an  c o u n t r y has  T3COs,  only  studied  not  10  have a l s o  necessary  of the  t o assume t h a t  more t h a n  countries  have not this  i t is logical  fluency with The  t o assume t h a t would  lower  have a c q u i r e d  l e v e l s of  problem  the  in this,  fluency. study,  subjects  with  advanced  more T3C0s t h a n Indeed, however,  those  i t probably i s that  the  137 subjects  were p e r m i t t e d  themselves. their Of  level  of fluency; others  may  level  have  of fluency  overestimated  have u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i t .  i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e number o f T3C0s one  a c q u i r e d does n o t v a r y  determine  their  Some o f t h e s u b j e c t s may  course,  has  t o assess  whether  means o f more  i t does,  reliably  with  one's  level  of fluency.  i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y  t o have  To a  and a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g t h e f l u e n c y  of the subjects. And reason  with  why  education people  regard  to education  Japanese people should  with  fewer than  16 y e a r s  of education.  acquiring  a great  great  English  well  many E n g l i s h T 3 C 0 s .  literature  should  many E n g l i s h T 3 C 0 s . at t h e graduate  level,  less  that  15 o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h m o r e t h a n  they  studied acquired  to  expect  t o h a v e a c q u i r e d more E n g l i s h T3C0s t h a n  education.  Hence i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g  longer.  ten years.  because they  They h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h  of  d i d n o t have more c o r r e c t  on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s  educated.  someone  to discover  16 y e a r s  h a d a l s o s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n  s u b j e c t s w i t h more e d u c a t i o n  better  t o have  i t i s reasonable  with  responses  without  B u t i f someone h a d s t u d i e d  person  The  Iti s  S o m e o n e who  n o t be e x p e c t e d  of  Japanese  educated  that  education  16 y e a r s  a c q u i r e more E n g l i s h T3C0s t h a n  p o s s i b l e t o become v e r y  a  i s no a p r i o r i  w i t h more t h a n  certainly  Japanese  there  were  because  138 With not  regard to the  surprising  opportunities they  t o use  were p r i m a r i l y  outside  the  surprising  used  d i d use And  are  review  a l l very  i t is  s u b j e c t s on  vary with the relatively  of the  not  the frequency  they  infrequently  i n a teaching or  of t h i s familiar  language.  on  I t was  what t h e i r  however,  agreement  English  and  learning  literature  made  i s going  to  clear,  acquire  a  12b:  employed  belie  in this  what t h e  in this  several  of the  few  subjects, since  used  Hence  a p l a c e w h e r e one  T3C0s and  study,  examined  of English,  have  T3C0s.  and  are  in their  subjects of  the  JSEs  of the  seldom.  i t was  hypothesis, i t i s  Iwate  Most  English  of the premises  terms have this  as  number o f  language  used  it,  i s not  HYPOTHESES 12a  a  scores  They used  classroom  One  very  of use In  instruments d i d not  situation.  great  English. teachers  that the  English.  when t h e y  rejected.  classroom  elicitation  the  i t was  frequency  study  possible  study  with the  T3C0s  assumed t h e y T3C0s a r e .  that premise. study  d i d not  T3C0s o f t h e  are  i s t h a t a d u l t NSs  t h a t had  reasons  why  commonly  know The  The  which  results  NSE  exhibit  selected  and the  d i d not  of  NSJ degree  terms  been expected.  they  of  There  exhibit  more  agreement. NSs  when a s k e d  t o do  were asked  t o do,  may  simply  recall  a l l the  not  find  what t h e this  NS  subjects i n this  difficult  T3C0s t h e y  know.  t o do.  They  Knowledge  study may of  139 T 3 C O s may  differ  another.  T3C0s w h i c h  a n o t h e r NS.  substantially  Some N S s  the  T3C0s o f t h e terms  are  generational  people, people which  have not. a l l NSs  readily  the  disagreement  do  whether  T3C0.  acquire.  be  less  meaning.  has  have a c q u i r e d study.  i n knowledge  difficult  has  T3C0.  The  a T3C0.  by some  o f T3C0s.  Young older  to separate the  be  gender  f e m a l e s may  Y'  placing  of  for  T3C0s w h i c h acquire  of  terms  which  grammatical to  as t h e  decide  data  i n knowledge  females  are less  T3C0s w h i c h  of likely  males  may  acquire.  lack  of agreement  exhibited  there i s another explanation.  can  t o say:  sentence  'X'  however,  meaning than meaning  structure.  'X'  i s  i s : 'X'  have e i t h e r  In Japanese,  a non-literal  T3C0s  a l l NSs  account  f o r some N S s  differences  of  there  T3C0s w h i c h  In a d d i t i o n ,  And to  to  Perhaps  This could  make i t d i f f i c u l t  a non-literal  productive  be  known  have a more a c c u r a t e knowledge  of t h i s y  n o t be  speaker  what t h e T3C0 o f ELEPHANT o r o t h e r  i s possible  the  in this  understand.  regard to the  translation  k n o w s may  have a c q u i r e d  acquire  however,  certainly  used  may  likely  With  have  may  Males  English  on  t h e r e may  to  NSJs,  and  may  a term  indicate,  simply not  may  not possess  restrictions  may  I t may  grasp  Some N S s  terms  NS  native  know f r o m m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s w h i c h  can  is.  one  one  differences  f o r example,  from  wa  (a) wa  a literal the  'Y'  The  Japanese  desu.  or a i s less  As  desu.  in  non-literal likely  i t i s i n English. 'Y'  the  In Japanese i t  *Y'. *Y'  by  i s not  to  When a  very  'Y'  140 In ' Y' X  Japanese  no yo d a .  Y'.  a much more p r o d u c t i v e  The E n g l i s h  I n Japanese  metaphors. original decide  this  metaphors.  whether  VARIABLE  Hence  a term  parallel.  Unfortunately,  regressions happened  lines  variable.  Glass  compared a r e  i tsometimes happens t h a t t h e And that  adjusted  Perhaps  and Hopkins  i n such  such  this  i s due t o t h e f a c t t h e  n o t be p l a c e d  from  a l o w o f -0.18  i s t o be r e g r e t t e d , note that  They  are usually  may b e c l o u d y . on them  i ti s not  ANCOVA i s n o r m a l l y  interactions.  instances  means, however,  should  i s what  F o r some o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t  While t h i s  enough t o overcome  the F-ratios  1984  f o r NSJs t o  were i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e c o v a r i a t e and  o f 0.48.  a disaster.  reliance  f o r dead  o f ANCOVA i s t h a t t h e  c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged  a high  The  (a)  be employed f o r  i t may b e d i f f i c u l t  are not p a r a l l e l . study.  there  dependent  that  employed  can also  of the variables being  i n this  variables,  robust  however,  assumptions  lines  to  i s often  wa  h a s a T3CO.  regression  various  y  INTERACTION:  One o f t h e b a s i c  the  i s : X'  t r a n s l a t i o n i s : 'X' i s l i k e  structure  The s t r u c t u r e ,  structure  (Glass  state  reliable.  Too much and Hopkins,  p.504).  SUMMARY:  The about it  r e s u l t s of the present study reveal  t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO b y J S E s .  has revealed  that  t h e JSE subjects  several  First employed  things  and foremost, i n this  study  141 had  not  and  c o l o u r terms employed  the  JSE  8.54. 22  acquired the  s u b j e c t s on Even the  of the  only  one  according  to  residency  i n an  the  best  terms. of the  T3COs o f many o f t h e  terms.  English speaking  limited  number o f t h e  resided acquired  just  12  terms,  elicitation set  of  field,  47  of  scores  vary  and  frequency  of use  and  however,  that  terms.  i n the  And  gender, the  t o be  they  a  The  very group  had  even they  had  T3C0s o f  English speaking  level  of  amount o f sceptical  T h e r e was  English  context. of  Japanese evidence,  circumstances  The  regard  country, scores  the  T3C0s t o t h e  JSEs might  the  amount did  not  ability, are  findings.  JSEs d i d not  however,  to  semantic  There  some o f  few  The  completed,  of E n g l i s h study.  to transfer  right  study,  was  g r o u p who  acquired the  also discovered that the  much t e n d e n c y English  i n an  years to  was  the  study.  of  grouped  T3C0s o f  subjects varied with  instruments  regard  It  i n the  country.  s u b j e c t s had  of the  with  reasons,  T3Co  English  etc., i t  only  T3C0s.  residency  education  of  acquired the  m o s t T 3 C 0 s was  T3C0s o f  acquired the  years  of  only  s u b j e c t s were  country  employed  was  v a r i o u s t h i n g s were d i s c o v e r e d .  elicitation age,  had  English speaking  Even though the of the  39  acquired the i n an  s u b j e c t had  bird  mean s c o r e  acquired the  education,  that they  The  animal,  instruments  E v e n when t h e  gender,  evident  had  elicitation  worst  alsways  that  study.  s u b j e c t had  The  age,  i n the  39  exhibit  equivalent  which  transfer  indicated T3C0s.  142 And  i t was  not  agree  the  study. And  also on  NSE  the NSJ 39  and  NSE  terms  o f t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s  lexical  subjects  i t e m s t h e male and  disagreed  males  would  would  say t h a t  females  that  t h e T 3 C 0 s o f many o f t h e  one  individual  discovered  note  would  that  widely  employed  i s that JSE,  NSJ  on  what t h e i r  T3C0s a r e .  a term has  a T3C0 and  the  i t does not ascribe  female  subjects  have a T3C0.  Or  d i f f e r e n t T3C0s t o t h e  did in  for and The  females  the males same  and  term.  143 CHAPTER F I V E SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND  they  SLLs have d i f f i c u l t y  understanding  a r e used with  NSEs know t h a t  CHICKEN  T3C0s  i s AFRAID o r t h a t  their  T3COs.  A few w i l l  while  NSEs u s e l e x i c a l  conversational acquisition teachers  o f T3C0 b y S L L s  i nthis  a step  of the acquisition  taken.  This  study  acquisition  i n normal on t h e  conducted.  Hence ESL  the acquisition of  t o teach With  towards  about t h e  their  students  the research  rectifying the  o f T3C0 i n S L A r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n  r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f some  r e s e a r c h on  o f t h e T 3 C 0 s o f 39 E n g l i s h a n i m a l ,  t e r m s b y 70 a d u l t  with  not. Yet  no r e s e a r c h  about  SLLs,  a r e used  most w i l l  i n order  and e f f i c i e n t l y . study,  items  T3C0s o f t e n  virtually  when  i s SAD.  need t o l e a r n something  neglect  colour  with  t o l e a r n much  But they  T3C0s e f f e c t i v e l y reported  items  items  s o m e o n e who i s a  lexical  o f T3C0 b y S L L s h a s b e e n  T3C0 b y S L L s . acquisition  when  understand;  exchanges,  a r e unable  lexical  s o m e o n e who i s B L U E  h o w e v e r , may n o t u n d e r s t a n d  the  IMPLICATIONS  b i r d and  JSEs.  RATIONALE: Previous of  may h a v e n e g l e c t e d  T3CO b e c a u s e t h e e m p h a s i s  last  and notions.  because they  Whatever t h e reason  T h e y may h a v e n e g l e c t e d  i t simply  studying.  i t f o r a number o f o t h e r o r reasons  over t h e  s t r u c t u r e and  d i d n o t b e l i e v e i t was w o r t h  have n e g l e c t e d  the acquisition  i n language t e a c h i n g  few decades h a s been on t e a c h i n g  functions  may  researchers  They  reasons.  i t has been n e g l e c t e d , t h e  144 neglect  has  important be  not  aspect  considered  firm  been  T3C0,  in  movies  novel;  one  even the SLA  the  course  what t h e i r  teachers They w i l l  pronounce t h e i r hotel  room on  must  only  teach be  other  lexical  of  them) w i t h to  research  speakers  of  on  the  a  And teach  about  they  should  their To the  do  and  E n g l i s h which  of  know what  well,  sterile  or  reserve  have  of  T3C0s o f  T3C0 by  researcher  here.  learnt  one i s .  however,  T3C0s by  i s reported  not  the  only  verbs;  letter  will  acquisition  acquisition  emerge  lifeless  students this  will learn  their  of  textbooks  students  write a business they  teaching  students  conjugate  But  work.  have  language t e a c h i n g  (assuming  at  or  importance  researchers  one's  dialogue  i n a pub  language  a  modern  colleagues  of  Such c o n s i d e r a t i o n s prompted the the  a beer  a  has  command  the  of  appreciated the  what SLA  able  items.  know s o m e t h i n g  over  authors  telephone.  should  content  cannot  one  a firm  understanding  textbooks,  vowels;  the  the  studies  a GREY A R E A i s . Teachers  and  of  have  superiors or  have not  included in their  English.  does not  and  One  i n English unless  friends  authors  from t h e i r  what  and  teaches  and  of  essential  in English.  dramas; the  one's  however,  researched have  of  researchers  I f one  fluent  have d i f f i c u l t y  television  remarks  T3C0 i s an  meaning  I f one  conversation  textbooks, T3C0.  truly  T3C0.  will  and  the  lexical  t o be  command o f  of  of  justified.  adult  to  GREY  they SLLs. conduct  Japanese  a  145 The sets the  70 J S E s u b j e c t s w e r e g i v e n  ofelicitation Animals:  choice,  Birds:  F R E E WORD c h o i c e ,  Birds:  Animals:  WORD M U L T I P L E  WORD M U L T I P L E  Birds:  FREE  WORD c h o i c e  instruments  Colours:  instruments  instruments FREE  instruments  instruments.  or the  WORD c h o i c e , o r t h e Animals: choice,  On t h e f r e e  o f t h e terms.  they  On t h e m u l t i p l e  choice  instrument  t h e s u b j e c t s were a l s o p e r m i t t e d  does.  The s c o r e s  hypotheses.  on these  instruments  on i t s e r v e d  ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s .  were used t o t e s t t h e a cloze  reading  as t h e covariate i n t h e  T h e 14 N S E s u b j e c t s a n d t h e 2 8 N S J  subjects  c o m p l e t e d FREE  required  them t o note  respective  t o state  were n o t sure i t  The J S E s u b j e c t s a l s o c o m p l e t e d  The s c o r e s  choice  s e l e c t e d t h e c o r r e c t T3COs o f t h e t e r m s .  d o e s n o t h a v e a T3CO o r t h a t t h e y  their  completed  MULTIPLE  WORD M U L T I P L E  a term  test.  They  SENTENCE  Colours:  Colours:  different  t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e down t h e  T3COs o f e a c h  each  choice  choice,  t o complete.  choice  choice,  SENTENCE M U L T I P L E  SENTENCE M U L T I P L E  On  instruments  one o f t h r e e  choice  elicitation  t h e T3COs o f e a c h  instruments  which  o f t h e 39 t e r m s i n  languages.  HYPOTHESES INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: Research the  semantic  language language.  h a s a f f i r m e d SLLs  sometimes t r a n s f e r  properties of lexical  t o theequivalent The f i r s t  items  i ntheir  native  items  i ntheir  second  reflects  the fact  that  lexical  hypothesis  some o f  such  146 transfer 1.  i s possible. JSEs s h a l l equivalent  The at  existence of transfer  least  have  for at least  were a t t r i b u t a b l e  Japanese  terms  remained.  these  19 t e r m s  INSTRUMENT,  of  t o transfer.  hensibility.  was  i n the which a  to transfer.  Therefore t h e  accepted. SEMANTIC F I E L D HYPOTHESES:  or elicitation  between  on s i m i l a r  instrument  The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s  The t h i r d  hypothesis  known t h e r e  this  fact.  i sa  a n d compre-  reflects  this  fact.  The  which people possess can vary  according  t o semantic f i e l d .  will  a c q u i r e d a number o f computer  A computer  who  i snot interested  i n computers  The  fourth  i sbased  hypothesis  versions  can vary  reflects  amount o f c o n t e x t  o r semantic knowledge  have  employed  o r E n g l i s h w e r e e l i m i n a t e d , o n l y 19  language teaching i t i swidely  relationship  elicitation  When t h e t e r m s  i srecognised that the results  t h e same t e s t  lexical  confirmed i f  a n d E n g l i s h o r do n o t have  were a t t r i b u t a b l e  CONTEXT AND  significantly. In  been  Fewer t h a n 25% o f t h e responses f o r each o f  hypothesis  It  have  10 o f t h e 3 9 t e r m s  a common T3CO i n J a p a n e s e  T3CO i n e i t h e r  null  would  T3C0s t o t h e  2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e FREE CHOICE  instruments study  n o t t r a n s f e r Japanese terms i n E n g l i s h .  buff, terms  for  which a person  may n o t h a v e  on t h i s  example,  acquired.  fact.  2.  The s c o r e s o f t h e JSEs s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o w h i c h set o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e .  3.  The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e amount o f context.  147 4. T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l n o t vary due t o semantic field. A n ANCOVA w a s r u n t o d e t e r m i n e the  subjects varied  instruments  they  whether t h e scores o f  due t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n  completed.  The s c o r e s  o f t h e 23 s u b j e c t s  who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, B I R D S a n d A N I M A L S the  scores  ANIMALS, 23  o f 2 3 o f t h e 24 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e  COLOURS a n d B I R D S  instruments  varied  were compared.  The r e s u l t s  can be r e j e c t e d .  The s c o r e s  due t o t h e s e t o f instruments  Three d i f f e r e n t the  instruments  andt h e scores  s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e B I R D S , a n i m a l  hypothesis  scores  The f i r s t  of the subjects varied  show t h a t  instruments.  the null  of the subjects  they  completed.  d u e t o amount  ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s  of the  a n d COLOURS  ANCOVAs w e r e r u n t o d e t e r m i n e  c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS SENTENCE  instruments,  whether  of context.  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who  FREE, t h e ANIMALS  WORD a n d t h e A N I M A L S  T h e s e c o n d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e B I R D S F R E E , t h e B I R D S WORD and  t h e BIRDS  SENTENCE  compared t h e scores  instruments.  The t h i r d  ANCOVA  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e  COLOURS F R E E , t h e COLOURS WORD a n d t h e COLOURS instruments.  The r e s u l t s  who c o m p l e t e d t h e A N I M A L S  show t h e s c o r e s a n d BIRDS  t h e amount o f c o n t e x t .  of  t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS  not  vary  due t o context.  The r e s u l t s  Therefore  of the subjects  instruments  to  SENTENCE  also  v a r i e d due  show t h e s c o r e s  instruments d i d  the null  hypothesis  148 cannot due  be r e j e c t e d .  t o amount Three  the  ANCOVAs w e r e r u n t o d e t e r m i n e  of the subjects varied  instruments.  choice the  due t o s e m a n t i c  ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s  c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS,  subjects  o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i dn o t vary  of context.  different  scores  The f i r s t  The s c o r e s  instruments.  The t h i r d  SENTENCE c h o i c e of t h e three  instruments.  comparisons  The s c o r e s  of semantic  who  choice  T h e s e c o n d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s  ofthe  B I R D S a n d COLOURS WORD  ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f  s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e A N I M A L S ,  effect  field.  of the subjects  B I R D S a n d COLOURS F R E E  who c o m p l e t e d t h e A N I M A L S ,  rejected.  whether  B I R D S a n d COLOURS  The r e s u l t s  the null  show t h a t  hypothesis  of the subjects varied  f o r each  c a n be due t o t h e  field.  A G E AND GENDER H Y P O T H E S E S : It  i s widely  varies  with  things  which  age o r gender. younger  do t h i n g s w h i c h reflect  recognised  these  that  knowledge  or a b i l i t y  often  O l d e r p e o p l e , f o rexample,  p e o p l e do n o t .  females cannot.  Males,  These  f o rexample,  know can  two hypotheses  facts.  5. T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o age. 6. T h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s o n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o gender. ANCOVA w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r subjects  varied  subjects  under  with  age o r gender.  the scores  The s c o r e s  ofthe  o f 51  30 y e a r s o f a g e w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s  149  of  15 s u b j e c t s 30 y e a r s  hypothesis The  c a n be r e j e c t e d .  s u b j e c t s 30 y e a r s  responses than scores 36  The r e s u l t s  show t h e n u l l  The s c o r e s v a r i e d w i t h a g e .  o f age o r o l d e r h a d more  t h e s u b j e c t s u n d e r 30 y e a r s  correct  o f age.  The  o f 30 male s u b j e c t s were compared w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f  female s u b j e c t s .  c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . with  or older.  The r e s u l t s  show t h e n u l l  hypothesis  The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y  gender.  EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: The effect the do one  experience  what one l e a r n s o r how w e l l one does t h i n g s .  right  experience  things well. will  o r b a c k g r o u n d one w i l l  Without  l e a r n much l e s s  hypotheses t e s t varies  o r t h e b a c k g r o u n d one h a s c a n g r e a t l y  with  the right  learn  experience  o r do t h i n g s l e s s  experience  a l o t or  or background  well.  w h e t h e r T3CO i s one o f t h o s e  With  These  things  five  which  or background.  7. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e i r l e v e l o f fluency i n English. 8. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y have s t u d i e d E n g l i s h . 9. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h speaking country. 10.  The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y they use E n g l i s h .  11.  The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y have r e c e i v e d .  150 ANCOVA was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e subjects the  v a r i e d due t o t h e i r  number o f y e a r s  an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g and  they  received.  have  The s c o r e s  indicate  of fluency i n English;  the frequency  they  education  o f 48 i n t e r m e d i a t e  the null  were  o f 15 a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s .  The  hypothesis  a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s d i d n o t have more c o r r e c t  English  with the scores more t h a n  hypothesis varied  scores  English  ten years.  The s c o r e s  who  o n c e a week.  than  o n c e a week.  speaking  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h .  The r e s u l t s  once  o f 2 1 s u b j e c t s who  they  The s c o r e s  o f 5 1 s u b j e c t s who  country.  of the subjects  o n c e a week  The  d i d n o t have  used E n g l i s h  o f 15 s u b j e c t s who were  used  of the subjects  used E n g l i s h .  country  a  show t h e n u l l  t h e s u b j e c t s who  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  scores  show t h e n u l l  The s c o r e s  u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n  less  were  had s t u d i e d  The r e s u l t s  with the frequency  c o r r e c t responses than  resided  they  with the scores  more  subjects  u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n  c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d .  not vary  subjects  than  responses  and t e n years  The r e s u l t s  o f 30 s u b j e c t s who  less  hypothesis  the  five  of fluency.  o f 36  o f 12 s u b j e c t s who  c a n be r e j e c t e d .  compared  due t o l e v e l  The s c o r e s  due t o t h e number o f y e a r s  week w e r e  did  subjects.  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h between  compared  The  of the subjects not vary  c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d .  The  who  had  subjects  scores  the intermediate  use E n g l i s h  they  The  than  of the  studied English; residency i n  of formal  compared w i t h t h e scores results  level  country;  t h e number o f y e a r s  whether t h e scores  compared  had with  had n o t r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h indicate  the null  hypothesis  151 can  be  rejected.  residency had  i n an  The  than  subjects  who  education had  the  had  s u b j e c t s who  show t h e  null  subjects  v a r i e d due  hypothesis  received.  education between  The  had  12  16  years can  to the  be  country  had  r e c e i v e d between  were compared w i t h the  s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due  country.  English speaking  r e c e i v e d more t h a n  had  of the  E n g l i s h speaking  r e s i d e d i n an  responses  scores  not.  12  scores of  16  subjects  had  more c o r r e c t  16  scores  years  of nine  education.  rejected.  number o f  subjects  scores  of  education  s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n  16  years  years  of  the  who  results  of  than  51  of  The  The  who  of  years  more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  and  The  The  and  to  the they  of  subjects  with  education.  M I S C E L L A N E O U S H Y P O T H E S I S : NSs  operate  command o f other  NSs  based  on  the  on  the  language  as  know what t h e y this  they  know.  other  do. The  NSs  They last  have  simply two  as  good a  assume  hypotheses  are  assumption.  12a.  The the  NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e 39 t e r m s a r e i n E n g l i s h  on  what t h e  T3C0s  of  12b.  The the  N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on 39 t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e  what t h e  T3C0s  of  In  order  f o r these  subjects  had  employed  i n the  study.  subjects  agreed  on  five the  assumption  percent T3CO o f  to  agree  on  the  of the e v e n one  h y p o t h e s e s t o be  NSJ  the  T3C0s o f  30  accepted of the  Seventy-five percent T3COs o f  only  ten  s u b j e c t s d i d not  term.  Therefore  the  of  terms. not  75%  39  of  the  terms  the  NSE  Seventy-  even agree  hypotheses  on  were  152 rejected. the  T h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s  d i d n o t a g r e e on what  T3COs o f t h e t e r m s a r e .  DISCUSSION: One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h relatively covariate 0.10,  and t h e dependent v a r i a b l e s .  accounted  for.  less than  Correlations  compensate  variance.  this  there  variables.  means t o b e a l i t t l e  While t h i s  fuzzy,  t h e ANCOVA r e s u l t s .  "Violation  of the parallel  (Glass  a cloze  reasonable But been  this  a good c o v a r i a t e ,  chances  and hopes  opposite.  may c a u s e t h e  regression  test  adjusted  not seriously and Hopkins slopes of  was n o t a g o o d  t o a s k what w o u l d have been  i t .  unpredictable  report:  a p p e a r s t o be conditions."  1984 p . 5 0 4 ) .  reading  finding  n o t be able t o  f o r some o f t h e  Glass  i s n o t an easy q u e s t i o n  a perfect  or  .... f o r a w i d e v a r i e t y  and Hopkins,  If  I twill  i tshould  compromise  inconsequential  of  i s an i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e  and t h e dependent v a r i a b l e  independent  Correlations  low i n d i c a t e t h e covariate  f o ro r reduce b i a s  In addition  covariate  i s the  10% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i s  do t h e j o b i t i s s u p p o s e d t o .  adjust,  study  low c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s between t h e  0.20 o r 0.30 i n d i c a t e  cannot  this  but there  covariate,  a good  t o answer.  covariate. T h e r e may  or ideal covariate. The c o v a r i a t e  will  have  i s no p r a c t i c a l way o f  When o n e u s e s ANCOVA, o n e b a s i c a l l y t a k e s f o r the best.  i t i s  One may b e l u c k y More l i k e l y ,  probably  one's  and s e l e c t  however,  be u n s u i t a b l e  i s the i n one  153 way  o r another.  used  as t h e c o v a r i a t e i n t h i s  failings. the  I t i sentirely  study  differences  of this  study  that whatever  i s no r e a s o n  t o assume  s h o u l d be q u e s t i o n e d .  The  i n t h e v a r i o u s groups were so g r e a t  that  t o conceive  was  w o u l d h a v e h a d some  B e t h a t a s i t may, t h e r e  results  difficult  probable  i t i s  them n o t b e i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y  significant. Hypothesis interference they  used  that transfer  study  as t h e c r i t e r i af o r were n o t s a t i s f i e d .  however,  does n o t occur.  instruments, More t h a n  they  might  f o rexample,  have.  A l l i t proves  are.  I f the task had  some s i g n s o f t r a n s f e r  25% of the subjects t r a n s f e r r e d  were  noted.  t h e T 3 C O s f o r SWAN  DOG.  varied  o f t h e JSE subjects  due t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s  completed.  The s c o r e s , however,  or unintended  instruments. able  asked t o  On t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e  ANCOVA r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s  bias  i s that  T3C0s when s i m p l y  w h a t t h e T 3 C 0 s o f some t e r m s  been d i f f e r e n t ,  That  does n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y  JSE subjects d i dnot t r a n s f e r  state  and  i n this  were n o t s a t i s f i e d ,  proof the  #1 w a s r e j e c t e d  t o give  because  o f any  differences i n theelicitation  They v a r i e d significantly  COLOURS F R E E i n s t r u m e n t instruments.  d i dnot vary  they  In fact,  FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s  simply because t h e subjects more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  than  were  on t h e  on t h e ANIMALS o r BIRDS  FREE  58.8% o f t h e c o r r e c t responses w e r e g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s who  on t h e  154 c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS F R E E i n s t r u m e n t . acquired  more c o l o u r T3COs t h a n  Hypothesis instruments finding,  animal  #3 w a s a c c e p t e d  d i dnot vary  however,  is  amounts o f c o n t e x t  different, COLOURS  instrument provided there  had been  each  instrument  scores  semantic  field.  that they  might  item  with  a paragraph  t o assume t h e s c o r e s  which  of context,  o n t h e COLOURS  o f t h e JSE subjects v a r i e d with One s h o u l d  not attribute  v a r i e d , however.  fields  may s h o w t h e r e  than  i n other  regard t o  t o o much t o t h e  Just because they  i s something  i s something  intrinsic  about  of terms  semantic  intrinsic  fields. about  varied  T3C0  which  i n certain Instead, i t  semantic  fields  i te a s i e r t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f t e r m s i n  certain  semantic  fields.  I t just  frequently  had been  I f t h e SENTENCE  an i n s t r u m e n t  makes i te a s i e r t o a c q u i r e t h e - T 3 C 0 s  w h i c h makes  study  o n t h e COLOURS  a l s o have v a r i e d .  replaced with  reason  d o e s n o t mean t h e r e  semantic  i nthis  w o u l d have v a r i e d more.  The  fact  that the  o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e  stimulus  i s every  employed  This  A l l i t shows  I f t h e amounts o f c o n t e x t  the scores  instruments  factor.  t o cause t h e scores  t o vary.  o n t h e COLOURS  to indicate  i s not a significant  instruments  T3C0s.  due t o amount o f c o n t e x t .  must n o t be t a k e n  were n o t s u f f i c i e n t  or bird  as t h e scores  amount o f c o n t e x t that the three  The s u b j e c t s h a d  than  fields  than  may b e t h a t animal  o f terms  i n other  c o l o u r term  or bird  term  semantic  T3C0s a r e u s e d  T3C0s.  more  I t may b e t h a t  155 colour  term  T3C0s a r e  easier to  acquire because  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  of  c o l o u r terms  d e n o t a t i v e meanings  of  animal  is  of the  clear  the  semantic of the  scores  field.  terms  But  variation  in their  Variation  should  acquired  fewer  That the age  and  had  which  They v a r i e d  the  study  intrinsic varied did  male and  vary  to  average  T3C0s  less  subject  to  gender  with is  has  scores  the  much w i t h  f e m a l e NS  the  d i d not  the  T3C0s o f  subjects.  scores  gender. regard  of  to  had  The  scores  gender.  studied and  acquire  because  of  had  to  age.  more  terms  employed  And  there  is  subjects  scores  t o gender.  of the  who  the  the  s u b j e c t s were v e r y the  and  background  vary  to  subjects  older subjects simply  younger  to  country  regard  not  have p e r m i t t e d them t o  acquire  regard  regard  regard  They had  should  the  surprising  with  to  detected.  subjects varied  E n g l i s h speaking  r e a s o n why  vary  fields,  o l d e r s u b j e c t s were a l s o the  because the  than  with  not  not  with  Thus t h e  opportunities  is  vary  The  more T3C0s.  case i t  a c q u i r e d more  would have been  of the  f o r more y e a r s .  experience  any  according  semantic  g r e a t e r when t h e  scores  r e s i d e d i n an  English  three  In  the  T3C0s.  d i d not  surprising.  be  terms.  s u b j e c t s had  the  scores  or b i r d  acquired before  subjects varied  i f the  i n each of  are  the  of  the  The  similar.  JSE  in  no  should NS  have  subjects  means o f  the  Therefore  subjects did  not  i t  156 It English  i s not s u r p r i s i n g more  than  speaking  country  subjects  who  and  ten years h a d more  than  they  i s that they had.  With  a g r e a t many y e a r s not r e s u l t  k n o w l e d g e NSEs great  obvious.  not  d i d n o t have more  their  It, level  was. level.  correct  What i s responses  and background  living  Even s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h f o r  Why  like  country  to learn  what  one  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g T3C0s  instinctively  interactions  w i t h JSEs.  had t o without  however, i s s u r p r i s i n g Perhaps they  the  i n t h e m a c q u i r i n g many  a c q u i r i n g more  t o do what t h e y  country d i d difficult  a v o i d the use of Perhaps t h e JSEs need o f T3C0s.  the scores  d i d not vary  d i d not vary  have o v e r e s t i m a t e d  level  of fluency  or underestimated  of fluency.  have t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e  More  with  because the  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f T3C0 with level  T3C0s  i s not  i s more  were p e r m i t t e d t o s a y what t h e i r  does n o t v a r y  they  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  d i d not r e s u l t  P e r h a p s NSEs  Some may  country.  studying English f o r a  of fluency.  subjects  and l i v i n g  and t e n years  h a v e o f T3C0.  i n their  i n their  managed  T3C0s.  It i s difficult  explain.  T3C0s  experience  the  of anything  B u t why  result  than  i n the acquisition  many y e a r s  taught.  to  c o r r e c t responses  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h between f i v e  s h o u l d h a v e a c q u i r e d more  did  had s t u d i e d  and had r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h  had n o t r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  surprising  is  t h e s u b j e c t s who  research  what t h e s i t u a t i o n i s .  their really will  157 While  t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n  16 y e a r s  had  more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  than  and  16 y e a r s  i t i s important  that  education  t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h between to  cannot  attributed  t o t h e number o f y e a r s  they  received.  They h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  the  16 s u b j e c t s w i t h m o r e t h a n  studied priori  E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n reason  more T3C0s. has  It  In order  was  instrument  scores  not  came f r o m  English  who very  Second,  either  teachers  that the  review the  acquire  with  Iwate  elicitation  frequency  a n d was a s n o t e d  of use.  First,  There  the  earlier  Using  there are Even t h e  E n g l i s h a few t i m e s  to allow the subjects to acquire  the vast  majority of the subjects  or students  of English.  Hence,  many m o r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e E n g l i s h i n s i d e  in  should  t o make a d i f f e r e n c e , i t  i t i s not surprising.  frequently.  T3C0s.  outside  had  u s e d E n g l i s h more f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t u s e  not s u f f i c i e n t  than  of  i s no a  many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e E n g l i s h i n I w a t e .  subjects  had  kind of education.  d i d not vary  why  Fifteen  There  w i t h more e d u c a t i o n  f o r education  had  of education  ten years.  be  because they  ten years.  16 y e a r s  also not surprising  two reasons  subjects  is  why p e o p l e  t o be t h e r i g h t  are  of education  s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n  12  understand  g r e a t e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  also  their  of education,  of  of the literature, classroom.  week  many were  they  the  i t . A n d a s was a m p l y d e m o n s t r a t e d  a  had  classroom  i n the  T3C0s a r e u s e d v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y  158 It was  s u r p r i s i n g the NSE  and NSJ s u b j e c t s d i d not  e x h i b i t more agreement on the T3COs of the 39 terms employed i n t h i s study. But perhaps  NSs  assume other NSs  know what they know.  t h e r e are g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n NS  than most NSs  assume.  competency  Perhaps a d i f f e r e n t k i n d of  elicitation  instrument would have produced g r e a t e r  agreement.  Perhaps a f r e e c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n  does not permit NSs  instrument  t o d i s p l a y t h e i r t r u e competency.  CONCLUSIONS: The major and most important very c l e a r .  f i n d i n g of t h i s study i s  I f JSEs are t o a c q u i r e a l a r g e number of T3C0s,  they are going t o have t o be taught them.  The  r e s u l t s of  t h i s study c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t without i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l not a c q u i r e many T3C0s.  The  JSEs  s u b j e c t s i n t h i s study  a c q u i r e d only a few of the T3C0s of the 39 animal, b i r d c o l o u r terms employed i n the study.  had and  And while the s u b j e c t s  were not asked whether they had s t u d i e d T3C0s or been taught T3C0s, i t i s c l e a r from c o n v e r s a t i o n s with some of the s u b j e c t s t h a t they had never been taught T3C0s. i n s t r u c t i o n the average  Without  s u b j e c t had a c q u i r e d the T3C0s of  fewer than 25% of the 39 terms employed i n the study. the s u b j e c t s who  Even  had s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more than 10 years or  had l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h speaking country had a c q u i r e d on average the T3C0s of fewer than 15 of the 39 terms. i n s t r u c t i o n JSEs f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t many terms.  Without  t o a c q u i r e the T3COs of  159 While for  them  JSEs w i l l  n o t a c q u i r e many T 3 C 0 s ,  t o a c q u i r e a few w i t h o u t  instruction.  subject  in this  who  s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n  had  resided than  study  h a d a c q u i r e d 8.54  i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  12 T 3 C 0 s .  Of  form  likely  t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s  of terms i n another  Teachers of  of a d u l t JSEs  the  They  ones t h e y  student. have  have  their  undoubtedly  a c q u i r e d t h e same T 3 C 0 s .  acquired  or  had  one  And  JSE  JSEs  more acquires  a r e more  semantic  field  students have  t o have  a c q u i r e d a few,  d i f f e r from  They  student  their  can, however,  have  a few more T3C0s  than  other  students.  An  acquired  to vary  students  will,  have  t h e number o f T3C0s  from  semantic  on a v e r a g e ,  more c o l o u r T3C0s amounts  than  students,  T3C0s  to English  field  their  And  they  t o sometimes h e l p And  they  can their  transfer  have  Their  or four  can expect  to occasionally  T3C0s.  students  t o semantic.  acquired three  T3C0s.  T3C0s.  at least, terms.  have  bird  of context  o r comprehend  their  a c q u i r e d q u i t e a few  to  expect  abroad) t o  will  but  to  students  lived  student  levels  acquired  have  can a l s o expect  grasp  subjects  who  occasional  greater  The  field.  should not expect  ( those  average  of intermediate or higher  acquired w i l l  So t e a c h e r s  some s t u d e n t s  They  will  which  o f t e r m s i n one  semantic  The  had a c q u i r e d  JSE a c q u i r e s .  fluency should not expect  many T 3 C 0 s .  to  another  T3C0s.  16 y e a r s  country  t h e T3C0s  differ  than  those  course,  i t i s possible  times  expect students some o f Japanese  160 IMPLICATIONS:  As  has  completed had in  not this  English to  the  demonstrated  elicitation  study.  i s lamentable.  the  This  number o f y e a r s  they  teach  or  Hence t h e i r the  are  going  must be put  as  ensure  much t i m e  and  were the  that  effort  of t h i s  First, schools  the  than  i n the into  Second,  teachers  of E n g l i s h i n Japan the  it  can  of  be  done.  studied able study  students the  people  English.  good or b e t t e r they  were  unable  did. affairs.  learning study  Something who  have  E n g l i s h as have  the  completed  o f more T3COs t h a n  which  T h i r d , a way  teachers  T3COs.  their  as  Yet  i n J a p a n must w r i t e t e x t b o o k s  teach  have  future people  of textbooks  students  turn  employed  the  have.  authors  u s e d w i t h T3COs.  who  They a r e  they  state  acquisition  study  terms  Japanese people  subjects of t h i s  studies with the  subjects  are  unsatisfactory  clearly  o f E n g l i s h and  Japanese people.  done t o  J S E s who their  i s an  study  subjects i n this  of E n g l i s h .  g i v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s  who  should have been  command o f E n g l i s h s h o u l d be  m a j o r i t y of  This  have The  to teach  39  People  teachers  t o become t e a c h e r s  subjects  in this  T 3 C O s o f many o f t h e  studying  than  JSE  acquired the  p r o f e s s o r s of English,  who  the  instruments  g i v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s .  are  to  been amply  students.  must be  are  i n which  found  not  be  in  the  lexical  must t e a c h  T3COs w h i c h  This w i l l  used  items  their  to teach  the  they  will  in  easy  t o do,  but  161 In  Japan,  English  instruction  Students several is  not  students  who  study  hundred  surely  one  from  university to  were t a u g h t  had  the  a month,  i n a very  few  g o o d command o f  a week,  aware  they  will  speaking  is  very  metaphoric.  of  some o f t h e  a student  and  to  50  who  If  graduated  T3COs.  an  If  only  would  have  If this  were  JSEs would have is a  t h a t a GREEN i s  i n Japan  be  world.  receive this  b e t t e r equipped As  I.A.  Therefore  Richards  a  SEXY  an  o f ' r e a d i n g a modern n o v e l ,  i n a movie  have been taught  or t e l e v i s i o n  a friend remarks  over of  of in  asserts,  language  on can  the only  the  meanings be  s o m e T3COs w i l l of  drama,  a beer  kind  for life  instruction  more c a p a b l e  the  to  English,  T3COs.  l a r g e numbers of  J S E s who  understanding  300  m o r e common d e a d m e t a p h o r s  comments by  need  t o t e a c h i n g T3COs.  beneficial.  those  of  this  person.  English  dialogue  While  T h e y w o u l d k n o w t h a t a FOX  E n g l i s h students  instruction,  receive  everything they  school graduate  a c q u i r e up  T3CO.  course,  i n E n g l i s h would have had  a high  years  of  school.  of  speakers  devoted  hours  instruction.  a CHICKEN i s a c o w a r d and  ecologically  If  t o become f l u e n t  opportunity to  that  of  students  w i t h a degree  600  senior high  a c q u i r e b e t w e e n 200  one  GIRL,  to teach  T3CO w e r e t a u g h t  opportunity  and  hours  i t c o u l d be  only  done,  additional  i n order some o f  in junior  E n g l i s h at u n i v e r s i t y ,  enough time  acquire  receive approximately  of  comprehending understanding  i n a pub  a colleague or  be  or  of  superior at  the  162 work.  Without  such  remain troublesome  It  should,  evidence will  T3C0s t h e y  which  however,  are taught  explicitly  many i f t h e y  is  nothing  is  something t o be  While they  will  i sno  SLLs  T3COs  acquiring or learning the t h a t d o e s n o t mean o n e  S L L s may n o t a c q u i r e  certainly  are not taught  t o be l o s t  things  teaching  Nevertheless,  T3C0s. them,  these  be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e r e  that  are taught.  doing  JSEs.  i n t h e SLLs a c t u a l l y  not teach  acquire  f o r most  t o indicate  result  should  instruction,  T3C0s  are not going t o  them.  b y t e a c h i n g them.  Therefore  there  And perhaps  there  gained.  SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: The  results  subjects animal,  reported  had acquired very bird  Such r e s u l t s  study  only  39 a n i m a l ,  from  other  T3C0s.  Other  Research  examined t h e a c q u i s i t i o n bird  semantic  and c o l o u r terms. fields  t h e JSE  i n t h e study.  J S E s may h a v e with  t o confirm the findings  other  should  acquired  t h e T 3 C 0 s o f some o f t h e s e  Other  lexical  T3C0s.  study.  o f t h e T3C0s o f  b e d o n e t o d i s c o v e r how w e l l  have a c q u i r e d more o f t h e s e  JSEs  of this  lexical  h a v e T3COs i n E n g l i s h .  research  they  indicate  f e w o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39  c o u l d be anomalous.  be conducted  This  study  and and c o l o u r terms employed  a c q u i r e d more o f t h e s e should  i nthis  JSEs items.  items  Some have Perhaps  163 The are  researcher  believes that  No  discover  situations  items  the  with  items  believes, with  Some r e s e a r c h  this  f o r ESL  however.  teachers  know i n o r d e r  English  speaking  to  exists, ESL  be ESL  should  and  they  university  lexical  NSEs.  He  lexical  elderly  people.  Some r e s e a r c h  i n the find  students  No  should  know what t h e i r  will  items  be  students  particular  themselves  in.  should  taught  be  T3C0s.  study  has  t h a t ESL  intuition item  which they  to lexical  T3C0s t h e y  other  function well  r e v e a l e d t h a t N S E s may  T3C0s o f p a r t i c u l a r  lexical  need to  environment  Perhaps businessmen  indicates  other  invaluable to  t h a t y o u n g e r NSEs use  exists,  need t o  This  should  which  T3C0s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n  on  different  in  t o use  a l s o b e l i e v e s some N S E s u s e  f o r example,  conducted  apt  c o u l d be  them d e c i d e  than  T3COs  been conducted  this  T3C0s much more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n  research  No  on  with  students.  researcher  with  has  i n w h i c h NSEs a r e  I t could help  their  The  however,  Knowledge about t h i s  teachers. teach  research,  T3C0s.  conducted.  or  items  u s e d m o r e f r e q u e n t l y i n some s i t u a t i o n s  situations.  the  lexical  to  An  should  their effort be  items  cannot  what t h e  They need  check  however. teacher  teachers  determine  i s .  can  lexical  are.  rely  without  their  T3C0 o f  intuition. be one.  No  agree  This  on  a dictionary  should  not  any  of  made t o  what  finding instincts  particular  T3C0s  such  on  against  dictionary compile  one.  164 This Japanese clusive. whether  indicated  to English.  The  JSEs  results,  More r e s e a r c h must be JSEs  English. reveal  s t u d y has  And  which  may  transfer  however,  conducted to  are  T3COs  from  incon-  determine  a c t u a l l y do  transfer  T3C0s f o r m  Japanese  i f t h e y do  transfer  T3C0s,  r e s e a r c h must  ones are  transferred.  the  to  16" 5  BIBLIOGRAPHY A D J E M I A N , C H R I S T I A N . 1 9 8 3 . "The T r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f L e x i c a l P r o p e r t i e s " i n Language T r a n s f e r i n Language L e a r n i n g e d i t e d b y S u s a n M. G a s s a n d L a r r y S e l i n k e r . R o w l e y , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . ALEXANDER, L.G. 1 9 7 3 . M a i n l i n e P r o g r e s s L o n d o n : Longman Group L i m i t e d .  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A n n A r b o r : The University of Michigan Press. RUDSKA, B.; C H A N N E L L , J . ; OTSYN, P. a n d P U T S E Y S , T. Words You Need. L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n .  1 9 8 2 The  RUDSKA, B.; C H A N N E L L , J . ; OTSYN, P. a n d P U T S E Y S , T. 1 9 8 5 More Words You Need. L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n . S A C K S , SHELDON ( e d . ) . of Chicago Press.  1 9 7 8 . On M e t a p h o r . C h i c a g o :  University  S A P I R , J . D A V I D a n d CROCKER, J . C H R I S T O P H E R ( e d s . ) . 1 9 7 7 . The S o c i a l Use o f M e t a p h o r : E s s a y s on t h e A n t h r o p o l o g y o f R h e t o r i c . The U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Pennsylvania Press. SCHUMANN, JOHN H. a n d STENSON, NANCY ( e d s . ) . 1 9 7 5 . New F r o n t i e r s i n S e c o n d Language L e a r n i n g . R o w l e y , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . S E A L . BERNARD. 1 9 8 0 a . A c t i v i t i e s : E n g l i s h Teacher's Notes. London: Longman Group  f o r Short Limited.  Courses:  S E A L , BERNARD. 1 9 8 0 b . A c t i v i t i e s : E n g l i s h f o r S h o r t S t u d e n t ' s Book. L o n d o n : L o n g m a n G r o u p L i m i t e d .  Courses:  S E A L , BERNARD. 1 9 8 7 . V o c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r L o n g m a n G r o u p UK L i m i t e d .  1. E s s e x ,  S E A L , B E R N A R D . 1 9 8 8 . V o c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 2. L o n g m a n G r o u p UK L i m i t e d .  Essex,  England: England:  S E I L E R , TH. B. a n d WANNENMACHER, W. ( e d s . ) 1 9 8 3 . C o n c e p t D e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f Word M e a n i n g . B e r l i n : Springer-Verlag.  174  S H I M I Z U , T E I S U K E ; HIRUKAWA, H I S A Y A S U ; M I U R A , MASAMI a n d YOSHIZAWA, T A D A S H I . 1 9 8 4 . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n g l i s h Reading IIB. Tokyo: K a i t a k u s h a . S i n c l a i r , J o h n McH. a n d R e n o u f , A n t o i n e t t e . 1 9 8 8 . "A L e x i c a l S y l l a b u s f o r L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g . " I n V o c a b u l a r y and Language T e a c h i n g e d i t e d b y R o n a l d C a r t e r a n d M i c h a e l M c C a r t h y . L o n d o n : L o n g m a n G r o u p UK L i m i t e d . SOARS, JOHN a n d SOARS, L I Z . 1 8 8 6 . Headway Intermediate: S t u d e n t ' s Book. O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S R I D H A R S.N. 1 9 8 1 . " C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s , E r r o r A n a l y s i s a n d I n t e r l a n g u a g e : T h r e e P h a s e s o f one G o a l " i n C o n t r a s t i v e L i n g u i s t i c s and t h e L a n g u a g e T e a c h e r e d i t e d b y J a c e k F i s i a k . O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s . STENSON, NANCY. 1 9 8 3 . " I n d u c e d E r r o r s " . I n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g : C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s , E r r o r A n a l y s i s and Related Aspects e d i t e d by B e t t y W a l l a c e R o b i n e t t and J a c q u e l y n S c h a c h t e r . Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n Press. S T R E N E C K Y , BERNARD J . 1 9 8 0 . "A S t u d y o f t h e R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Reading Achievement, V o c a b u l a r y Development and Psycholinguistic A b i l i t i e s i n Beginning F i r s t Graders". I n New A p p r o a c h e s t o L a n g u a g e A c q u i s i t i o n e d i t e d b y B e r n h a r d Kettemann and R o b e r t S t . C l a i r . Stuttgart: Gunter Narr Verlag Tubingen. S U Z U K I , TAKAO, 1 9 7 8 , J a p a n e s e and t h e J a p a n e s e . T r a n s l a t e d by A k i r a M i u r a . Tokyo: Kodansha I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . SWEET, HENRY. 18 9 9 . The P r a c t i c a l S t u d y o f L a n g u a g e s : G u i d e f o r T e a c h e r s and L e a r n e r s . L o n d o n : O x f o r d University Press.  A  T A K A N A S H I , K E N K I C H I ; S U G A I , T A K E T O S H I ; OKADA, A K I T A D A a n d I S H I I , TOSHIHIKO. 1984. P r a c t i c a l E n g l i s h Reading IIB. Tokyo: Ikeda Shoten. THOMAS, OWEN. 1 9 6 9 . M e t a p h o r a n d Random H o u s e .  Related  Subjects.  New  T I M B E R L A K E , COTTON. 1 9 8 9 . " ' G r e e n C o n s u m e r ' M o v e m e n t F l o w e r i n g i n E u r o p e . " . J a p a n Times <Tokyo> 1 M a r c h . e d i t i o n : p. 13. TOURANGEAU, ROGER. 1 9 7 8 . " M e t a p h o r a n d C o g n i t i v e I n M e t a p h o r : P r o b l e m s and P e r s p e c t i v e s e d i t e d M i a l . New J e r s e y : H u m a n i t i e s P r e s s .  York:  1st  Structure". b y D a v i d S.  T w a d d e l l , Freeman. 1973. " V o c a b u l a r y E x p a n s i o n i n t h e C l a s s r o o m " . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y V o l . 7 , N o . l , 6 1 - 7 8 .  TESOL  175 VANPARYS, JOHAN. 1 9 8 4 . " S o u r c e M e t a p h o r s i n E n g l i s h " . Journal of Pragmatics V o l . 8 , 395-410. V A Z U L I K , J O A N N E S W. 1983. P o s t S e c o n d a r y E S L I n t e n s i v e C o u r s e M o d e l . E R I C : ED 2 3 2 4 69.  Methods i n 19p.  an  V O S N I A D O U , S T E L L A ; ORTONY, ANDREW; R E Y N O L D S , R A L P H E . a n d W I L S O N , P A U L T. 1 9 8 4 . " S o u r c e s o f D i f f i c u l t y i n t h e Y o u n g C h i l d ' s Understanding of M e t a p h o r i c a l Language". Child Development V o l . 5 5 , 1 5 8 8 - 1 6 0 6 . WATCYN-JONES, PETER. 1 9 8 2 . S t a r t T e s t i n g Your M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d .  Vocabulary.  WATCYN-JONES, P E T E R . 1 9 8 5 a . T e s t Your V o c a b u l a r y M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d .  1.  WATCYN-JONES, P E T E R . 1 9 8 5 b . T e s t Your V o c a b u l a r y M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d .  2.  WATCYN-JONES, P E T E R . 1 9 8 5 c . T e s t Your V o c a b u l a r y M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d .  3.  WATCYN-JONES, P E T E R . 1 9 8 5 d . T e s t Your V o c a b u l a r y M i d d l e s e x , England: Penguin Books L t d .  4.  WEBSTER, MEGAN a n d CASTANON, L I B B Y . 1 9 8 0 a . C r o s s t a l k T e a c h e r ' s Book. O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . WEBSTER, MEGAN a n d CASTANON, L I B B Y . S t u d e n t s ' Book 1. O x f o r d : O x f o r d  1980b. C r o s s t a l k University Press.  WEBSTER, MEGAN a n d CASTANON, L I B B Y . 1 9 8 0 c . C r o s s t a l k S t u d e n t s ' Book 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. WEBSTER, MEGAN a n d CASTANON, L I B B Y . 1 9 8 0 d . C r o s s t a l k S t u d e n t s ' Book 3. O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . W H I T E , RONALD V. 1 9 7 9 . F u n c t i o n a l E n g l i s h 2: M i d d l e s e x : Thomas N e l s o n a n d Sons L t d . W I L K I N S , D.A. 1 9 7 4 . Second-Language L e a r n i n g London: Edward A r n o l d ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . W I N I C K , C H A R L E S . 19 6 3 . " T a b o o a n d D i s a p p r o v e d S y m b o l s i n V a r i o u s F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s " . The S o c i a l Psychology V o l . 59, 361-368.  Exploitation. and  Teaching.  C o l o r s and Journal of  WINNER, E L L E N ; R O S E N S T I E L , ANNE K. a n d GARDNER, HOWARD. 1 9 7 6 . "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f M e t a p h o r i c U n d e r s t a n d i n g " . Developmental Psychology V o l . 1 2 , No.4, 289-297.  176 WOLFSON, N E S S A a n d JUDD, E L L I O T ( e d s . ) 1 9 8 3 . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s a n d Language A c q u i s i t i o n . R o w l e y , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . WORDELL, C H A R L E S B. 1 9 8 9 . " T h e S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a n g u a g e T e s t i n g C o n f e r e n c e " . The Language T e a c h e r V o l . 1 3 , N o . 7 , 23-25.  177 APPENDIX ANIMALS-FREE  L i s t e d below a r e t h i r t e e n v e r y a n i m a l terms. You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o :  frequently  used  English  1. D e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e s e a n i m a l t e r m s h a v e a n d w h i c h d o n o t have t h e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d on t h e f i r s t t h r e e pages o f your b o o k l e t . F o r each animal term which h a s a t l e a s t one o f t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s , p l e a s e C I R C L E the 'YES' w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e s e a c h t e r m . F o r each term which d o e s n o t h a v e one o f t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s , p l e a s e C I R C L E t h e 'NO' w h i c h a l s o a c c o m p a n i e s e a c h t e r m . And i f y o u a r e n o t s u r e whether a term has a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning o r n o t , p l e a s e C I R C L E t h e 'NOT SURE' w h i c h a l s o a c c o m p a n i e s e a c h t e r m . e.g.  WOLF:  (YES)  (NO)  (NOT SURE)  2. F o r t h o s e a n i m a l t e r m s which you d e c i d e have these n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e s t a t e i n a few words what y o u b e l i e v e t h e i r n o n - l i t e r a l meanings a r e . F o r t h o s e terms w h i c h you d e c i d e do n o t have t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e do n o t w r i t e a n y t h i n g . P l e a s e w r i t e your answers f o r t h o s e terms w h i c h y o u d e c i d e h a v e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s i n t h e manner i n d i c a t e d i n t h e example. e.g. silly  WOLF:  (YES)  (NO)  (NOT  SURE)  --  stupid,  N.B. The n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s g i v e n h e r e a r e o n l y e x a m p l e s . They a r e n o t t h e a c t u a l n o n - l i t e r a l meanings o f ' w o l f . In f a c t , ' w o l f may n o t h a v e a n y n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s . *** Some o f t h e s e t e r m s may h a v e meaning. Some may h a v e n o n e . *** I f a t e r m h a s more t h a n l i s t a l l o f them.  more  than  one n o n - l i t e r a l  one  non-literal  meaning, p l e a s e  *** I f i t i s p o s s i b l e , u s e a s i n g l e w o r d f o r e a c h meaning.  non-literal  *** I f y o u d o n o t know t h e E n g l i s h w o r d o r w o r d s f o r t h e i d e a w h i c h y o u want t o e x p r e s s , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o g i v e y o u r answers i n Japanese. *** REMEMBER that i f the term does have one of these n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t for t h e word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e following sentences. John i s a (wolf). John i s ( w o l f ) . J o h n i s a ( w o l f ) <something>.  178  J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> t h e ( w o l f ) . J o h n h a s a ( w o l f ) <something>. P L E A S E DO not a b s o l u t e l y a term, p l e a s e is nota test, option. BUFFALO: COW:  x  (YES)  (YES)  SNAKE:  (NO)  (NO)  (YES)  ELEPHANT: FOX:  NOT GUESS A T A N Y OF THE ANSWERS. I fy o u a r e c e r t a i n about t h e t h e n o n - l i t e r a l meaning o f c i r c l e t h e NOT SURE' o p t i o n . Remember t h i s s o t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s  (YES)  (NOT SURE)  (NO)  (YES)  (NOT SURE)  (NOT SURE)  (NO)  (NO)  (NOT SURE)  (NOT SURE)  MONKEY:  (YES)  (NO)  (NOT SURE)  BEAVER:  (YES)  (NO)  (NOT SURE)  DEER:  (YES)  WOLF:  (YES)  HORSE: DOG: BEAR: TIGER:  (NO) (NO)  (YES) (YES)  (NO)  (NO)  (YES) (YES)  (NO) (NO)  (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) ANIMALS-WORD  L i s t e d below a r et h i r t e e n very f r e q u e n t l y used E n g l i s h animal terms. Your task i st o decide which o f t h e f i v e o p t i o n s w h i c h accompany each t e r m most a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s your knowledge o f t h e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings o f these terms. Three o f t h e o p t i o n s a r e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings o f t h e t y p e which were e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e pages o f your booklet. I f y o u decide t h a t t h e term h a s one o f t h e t h r e e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings l i s t e d , p l e a s e CIRCLE t h e number o f t h a t meaning. You may, h o w e v e r , d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning o f t h e type e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e pages o f your b o o k l e t . I f t h i s i st h e case, p l e a s e CIRCLE o p t i o n number M'.  179 This o p t i o n has been i n c l u d e d because n o t a l l o f t h e t h i r t e e n terms have n o n - l i t e r a l meanings. So when y o u a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t a t e r m h a s no n o n - l i t e r a l meaning, please select this option. The f i r s t f o u r o p t i o n s a r e f o r w h e n y o u a r e c e r t a i n t h a t t h e term h a s o r does n o t have a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning. T h e r e may b e t i m e s , h o w e v e r , w h e n y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n . So i f y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n whether a term has o r does n o t have a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning, p l e a s e CIRCLE o p t i o n number '5'. Remember t h i s i s n o t a t e s t , s o t h e r e i s n o p e n a l t y f o r selecting this option. *** I F A TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G , OF THE F I R S T T H R E E O P T I O N S .  I T W I L L B E I N ONE  *** I F A TERM HAS MORE THAN ONE N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G , ONE HAS B E E N USED.  ONLY  *** REMEMBER t h a t i f t h e t e r m d o e s h a v e one o f t h e s e n o n l i t e r a l meanings, i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t f o r the word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e following sentences. John i s a ( w o l f ) . John i s ( w o l f ) . J o h n i s a ( w o l f ) <something>. J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> t h e ( w o l f ) . J o h n h a s a ( w o l f ) <something>. BUFFALO: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  STUPID UNPREDICTABLE STRONG T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G .  COW: 1. L A Z Y 2. S T U P I D 3. F A T a n d UGLY 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G . SNAKE: 1. U N F R I E N D L Y 2. E V I L 3. U N P R E D I C T A B L E 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G .  ELEPHANT: 1. STRONG 2. I N T E L L I G E N T 3. HAS A GOOD MEMORY 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOX: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  LAZY INTELLIGENT SEXY THERE I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  MONKEY: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  UNRELIABLE MISCHIEVOUS SENSIBLE T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  BEAVER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  INDEPENDENT INTELLIGENT HARD WORKING THERE I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  DEER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  MEEK BEAUTIFUL FRIENDLY T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  INDEPENDENT SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE INTELLIGENT T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  HORSE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  FAITHFUL STRONG FRIENDLY T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G  WOLF:  181 DOG: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  UGLY o r UNATTRACTIVE FAITHFUL FRIENDLY T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G .  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  UNPREDICTABLE DANGEROUS B I G a n d POWERFUL T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G .  BEAR:  TIGER: 1. B E A U T I F U L 2. A G G R E S S I V E 3. DANGEROUS 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G FOR T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L M E A N I N G . ANIMALS-SENTENCE  L i s t e d below are t h i r t e e n very frequently used E n g l i s h animal terms. Your t a s k i s t o decide which o f t h e f i v e o p t i o n s w h i c h accompany e a c h t e r m most a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s your knowledge o f t h e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings o f these terms. Three o f t h e o p t i o n s a r e s e n t e n c e s where t h e t e r m has been used w i t h a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning o f t h e type e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e pages o f your b o o k l e t . I f you decide t h a t t h e t e r m h a s one o f t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s , p l e a s e CIRCLE t h e number o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t e n c e Y o u may, h o w e v e r , d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - i t e r a l meaning o f t h e type e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t three pages o f your b o o k l e t . I f t h i s i s t h e case, p l e a s e CIRCLE o p t i o n number M'. T h i s o p t i o n has been i n c l u d e d because n o t a l l o f t h e t h i r t e e n terms have n o n - l i t e r a l meanings. So when y o u a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n h a t a t e r m h a s no n o n - l i t e r a l meaning, please select this option. The f i r s t f o u r o p t i o n s a r e f o r when y o u a r e c e r t a i n t h a t t h e term has o r does n o t have a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning. T h e r e may b e t i m e s , h o w e v e r , w h e n y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n . So i f you a r e n o t c e r t a i n whether a term has o r does n o t have a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning, p l e a s e CIRCLE o p t i o n number 5'. Remember t h i s i s n o t a t e s t , s o t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y f o r selecting this option. x  *** I F A TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L OF THE F I R S T THREE O P T I O N S .  MEANING,  IT WILL  BE  IN  ONE  182  *** HAS  IF A BEEN  TERM HAS USED.  MORE THAN  ONE  N O - L I T E R A L MEANING,  ONLY  ONE  * * * REMEMBER t h a t i f t h e t e r m d o e s h a v e one o f t h e s e n o n l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t f o r t h e word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g sentences. John i s a ( w o l f ) . John i s ( w o l f ) . John i s a (wolf) <something>. J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> t h e ( w o l f ) . John has a (wolf) <something> BUFFALO: 1. S T U P I D P E O P L E A R E B U F F A L O E S . 2. AN U N P R E D I C T A B L E PERSON I S A B U F F A L O . 3. A STRONG MAN I S A B U F F A L O . 4 . T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. COW: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  A L A Z Y WORKER I S A COW. S T U P I D P E O P L E A R E COWS. F A T AND UGLY WOMEN A R E COWS. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  SNAKE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  UNFRIENDLY P E O P L E ARE SNAKES. AN E V I L PERSON I S A SNAKE. COMPLETELY UNPREDICTABLE P E O P L E ARE SNAKES. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  ELEPHANT: 1. A STRONG MAN I S AN E L E P H A N T . 2. I N T E L L I G E N T P E O P L E A R E E L E P H A N T S . 3. P E O P L E WITH GOOD MEMORIES A R E E L E P H A N T S . 4 . T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. FOX: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  LAZY PEOPLE ARE FOXES. I N T E L L I G E N T G I R L S ARE FOXES. SEXY G I R L S ARE FOXES. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  MONKEY: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  P E O P L E YOU CAN N E V E R R E L Y ON A R E MONKEYS. C H I L D R E N WHO ALWAYS GET I N T O M I S C H I E F A R E MONKEYS. S E N S I B L E P E O P L E A R E MONKEYS. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING FOR T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  183  BEAVER: 1. THE I N D E P E N D E N T P E R S O N I S A B E A V E R . 2. I N T E L L I G E N T P E O P L E A R E B E A V E R S . 3. P E O P L E WHO WORK HARD A R E B E A V E R S . 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. DEER: 1 . 2. 3. 4 . 5.  P E O P L E WHO A R E MEEK A R E D E E R S . B E A U T I F U L WOMEN A R E D E E R S . FRIENDLY PEOPLE ARE DEERS. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  WOLF: 1. I N D E P E N D E N T P E O P L E A R E WOLVES. 2. MEN WHO ALWAYS C H A S E WOMEN A R E WOLVES. 3. V E R Y I N T E L L I G E N T P E O P L E A R E WOLVES. 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. HORSE: 1. P E O P L E WHO A R E F A I T H F U L A R E HORSES. 2. A STRONG MAN I S A HORSE. 3. V E R Y F R I E N D L Y P E O P L E A R E HORSES. 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. DOG: 1. UGLY WOMEN A R E DOGS. 2. A F A I T H F U L HUSBAND I S A DOG. 3. A F R I E N D L Y PERSON I S A DOG. 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. BEAR: 1. AN U N P R E D I C T A B L E MAN I S A BEAR. 2. P E O P L E WHO A R E DANGEROUS A R E B E A R S . 3. B I G AND STRONG MEN A R E B E A R S . 4. T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING. TIGER: 1. 2. 3. 4 . 5.  BEAUTIFUL GIRLS ARE TIGERS. AN A G R E S S I V E F I G H T E R I S A T I G E R . A V E R Y DANGEROUS MAN I S A T I G E R . T H E R E I S NO N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING F O R T H I S TERM. I AM NOT SURE T H I S TERM HAS A N O N - L I T E R A L MEANING.  184  CODE: READING TEST There a r ethree short r e a d i n g passages g i v e n below. The f i r s t o f t h e r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s i s n o t s o d i f f i c u l t . The s e c o n d p a s s a g e i s a l i t t l e more d i f f i c u l t . The t h i r d p a s s a g e i s s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t . And i n each o f t h e p a s s a g e s , a s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t , t h e r e a r e some b l a n k s . The blanks a r e i n d i c a t e d by: ( ). A blank i sused t o show t h a t a w o r d f r o m t h e p a s s a g e h a s b e e n d e l e t e d . Your t a s k i st o p u t any word which h a s been d e l e t e d back i n . You m u s t t r y t o p u t b a c k i n t h e same w o r d w h i c h t h e w r i t e r o f the passage used. The w o r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h e t h r e e passages a r e l i s t e d a t t h ebottom o f t h et h i r d passage. You may u s e t h i s l i s t t o h e l p y o u p u t t h e w o r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e l e t e d b a c k i n . E a c h w o r d may b e u s e d o n l y o n c e . O n l y t h e E X A C T SAME WORD w h i c h t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e passages used w i l l be counted as c o r r e c t . You  have  15 m i n u t e s  You  may n o t u s e a  t o complete  t h eexercises.  dictionary.  CODE: u s e t h e same f o u r d i g i t other exercise.  number w h i c h y o u u s e d  on t h e  THE F I R S T PASSAGE: Jean Anderson i st h i r t y - e i g h t . ( ) i sa very t a l e n t e d computer ( ) s p e c i a l i s t who s t a r t e d h e r own ( ) a t t h e age o f t w e n t y - ( ) . The company was s u c c e s s f u l , b u t ( ) herearly thirties J e a n met ( ) married a r i c h and s u c c e s s f u l ( ) a n d s h e gave up h e r ( ) t o have a child. Problems ( ) i nh e rmarriage and she ( ) d i v o r c e d when t h e c h i l d was ( ) years old. She h a d t o ( ) back t o work t o s u p p o r t ( ) and h e r daughter.  185 THE SECOND PASSAGE: L a s t weekend I went on a ( ) t o Merida, a lovely c i t y on ( ) Yucatan Peninsula. I w e n t w i t h some ( ) i n my c l a s s . F i r s t we v i s i t e d ( ), an o l d Mayan c i t y about f i f t y ( ) south o f Merida. T h e n we c l i m b e d ( ) o l d Pyramid o f t h e magician. It ( ) very interesting. 118 s t e p s t o t h e ( ) o f t h e pyramid. We s a w t h e ( ) Palace and t h e House o f P i g e o n s . ( ) l u n c h we s a t i n t h e sun ( ) over an hour and walked around. ( ) met a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g M e x i c a n t h e r e . ( ) d i d n ' t p r a c t i c e my S p a n i s h b e c a u s e h e ( ) E n g l i s h a l l t h e time. THE THIRD PASSAGE: Last night thieves stole a painting ( ) t h e home o f Lord Bonniford. The ( ), a s i x t e e n t h century masterpiece by Holbein, ( ) s a i d t o be p r i c e l e s s . Lord Bonniford ( ) he c o u l d h e a r n o i s e s i n t h e ( ) o f t h e n i g h t , b u t be he ( ) no attention. He t h o u g h t i t w a s ( ) noise from t h e wind o r t h e ( ) . The s e c u r i t y g u a r d , Mr. C h a r l e s Potts, ( ) phone t h e p o l i c e b e c a u s e he was ( ) hand and f o o t . The t h i e v e s m a n a g e d ( ) g e t i n and escape without setting ( ) t h e s e c u r i t y alarm by c u t t i n g o f f ( ) e l e c t r i c i t y supply. THE L I S T OF DELETED WORDS: solicitor Uxmal middle herself career after software spoke students from developed i n t the couldn't she go cat the I nine was just i s I got miles to painting Governor's  the trip said ied top and paid f o r o f f four company  THE F I R S T PASSAGE: Jean Anderson i st h i r t y - e i g h t . She i s a v e r y t a l e n t e d c o m p u t e r s o f t w a r e s p e c i a l i s t who s t a r t e d h e r own c o m p a n y a t the age o f twenty-nine. The company was s u c c e s s f u l , b u t i n h e r e a r l y t h i r t i e s J e a n met a n d m a r r i e d a r i c h a n d s u c c e s s f u l s o l i c i t o r a n d she gave up h e r c a r e e r t o have a child. Problems developed i n h e r marriage and she got d i v o r c e d when t h e c h i l d was f o u r y e a r s o l d . She h a d t o go back t o work t o support h e r s e l f and h e r d a u g h t e r (Nolasco, 1987 p.48).  186 THE  SECOND  PASSAGE:  L a s t weekend I went on a t r i p t o M e r i d a , a l o v e l y c i t y on the Yucatan Peninsula. I w e n t w i t h some s t u d e n t s i n my class. F i r s t we v i s i t e d U x m a l , a n o l d M a y a n c i t y a b o u t f i f t y miles south of Merida. T h e n we c l i m b e d t h e o l d Pyramid of the magician. I t was very i n t e r e s t i n g . 118 steps t o the top of the pyramid. We s a w t h e G o v e r n o r ' s P a l a c e and t h e House o f P i g e o n s . A f t e r l u n c h we s a t i n t h e sun f o r o v e r an h o u r and w a l k e d a r o u n d . I met a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g Mexican there. I d i d n ' t p r a c t i c e my Spanish b e c a u s e he spoke E n g l i s h a l l t h e t i m e ( H a r t l e y and V i n e y , 1984 l e s s o n 6 0 ) . THE  THIRD  PASSAGE:  L a s t n i g h t t h i e v e s s t o l e a p a i n t i n g f r o m t h e home o f L o r d Bonniford. The p a i n t i n g , a s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a s t e r p i e c e by H o l b e i n , i s s a i d t o be p r i c e l e s s . L o r d B o n n i f o r d s a i d he c o u l d h e a r n o i s e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t , b u t be he p a i d no a t t e n t i o n . He t h o u g h t i t was j u s t n o i s e f r o m t h e w i n d o r t h e c a t . The s e c u r i t y g u a r d , Mr. C h a r l e s P o t t s , c o u l d n ' t p h o n e t h e p o l i c e b e c a u s e h e was t i e d h a n d a n d f o o t . The t h i e v e s managed t o g e t i n a n d e s c a p e w i t h o u t s e t t i n g o f f the s e c u r i t y alarm by c u t t i n g o f f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y supply ( S o a r s , J o h n a n d L i z , 1986 p . 5 4 ) .  187 A L I S T OF THE CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF THE ANIMAL, BIRD AND COLOUR TERMS USED I N THIS STUDY ANIMALS: BEAR: 1 2  BEAVER: 1:  a b i g , s t r o n g man. John i sa bear, a p e r s o n who b e l i v e s a f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t i s g o i n g t o g o down o r a f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t w h i c h i s g o i n g down. T h e B E A R S made m o n e y l a s t y e a r . hard working, i n d u s t r i o u s . J o h n i s a r e a l BEAVER, female as a sex o b j e c t . T h e r e a r e some c u t e B E A V E R  BUFFALO: 1: T h i s  term  h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  i nthat bar. meaning.  COW: 1:  f a t a n d u g l y woman. M a r y i s a r e a l COW. 2: d o c i l e . J o h n i s a cow. DEER: 1:  This  term  h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  DOG: 1:  u g l y u n a t t r a c t i v e woman. M a r y w a s a DOG. 2: w o r t h l e s s o r u s e l e s s . 3: w o r k  hard.  ELEPHANT: 1:  This  2:  HUGE?  term  h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  sexy girl. M a r y i s a FOX. 2: s l y o r t r i c k y person. J o h n i s a FOX. HORSE: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s n o c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  FOX: 1:  188' MONKEY: 1: m i s c h i e v o u s , e s p e c i a l l y a c h i l d . M a r y w a s a r e a l MONKEY w h e n s h e w a s a c h i l d . SNAKE: 1: d e v i o u s o r s n e a k y . J o h n i s a SNAKE. 2: u n t r u s t w o r t h y . J o h n i s a SNAKE. 3: e v i l . J o h n i s a SNAKE. TIGER: 1:  fierce John  or strong. i s a TIGER.  WOLF: 1: man who c h a s e s women. J o h n i s a WOLF. BIRDS: CHICKEN: 1: a f r a i d John  o r a coward. i s (a) CHICKEN.  CRANE 1:  This  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  1:  This  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  1:  This  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  CROW: DUCK: EAGLE: 1: GOOSE: 1:  silly Mary  i s a GOOSE.  HAWK: 1: w a r - l i k e o r a g g r e s s i v e . M o s t s o l d i e r s a r e HAWKS. OWL: 1:  This  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  2:  wise? John  i s a n OWL.  meaning.  189  PIGEON: 1: some o n e e a s i l y f o o l e d o r t a k e n i n . J o h n was a n e a s y PIGEON. SPARROW: 1: T h i s  term  h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning.  SWALLOW: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s n o c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . SWAN: 1: ( G R A C E F U L ? ) T h i s t e r m h a s n o c o n n o t a t i v e meaning. M a r y i s a SWAN. TURKEY: 1:  jerk or idiot. J o h n i s a TURKEY.  COLOURS: BLACK: 1:  Negroid. J o h n i s BLACK. 2: e v i l o r b a d . I t was a BLACK d a y when 3: m a k i n g a p r o f i t . IBM f i n i s h e s e v e r y y e a r  he became p r e s i d e n t . i n t h e BLACK.  BLUE: 1: 2:  depressed. J o h n i s BLUE t o d a y . pornographic. The m o v i e was a l i t t l e  BROWN: 1 This NOSER?)  term  h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  GOLD: valuable 2: o f f i r s t  BLUE,  rate  quality.  meaning.  (BROWN  GREEN: 1:  j e a l o u s l y o r envy. JOHN i s a l i t t l e G R E E N . 2: i n e x p e r i e n c e d . JOHN i s G R E E N . 3: n a u s e a . JOHN i s GREEN. 4. ecology. J o h n i s a GREEN. 5. m o n e y . John has t h e green.  GREY: 1:  i n d i s t i n c t n e s s o r vagueness T h a t i s a GREY a r e a .  ORANGE: 1: T h i s  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning  PINK: 1:  h e a l t h y o r i n good condition. John i s i n t h e PINK.  PURPLE/VIOLET: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s n o c o n n o t a t i v e  meaning  RED: 1: 2: 3: SILVER: 1:  communist o r l e f t wing. J o h n i s a RED. l o s i n g money. J N R w a s a l w a y s i n t h e RED. angry J o h n i s RED. This  t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e  WHITE: 1: p u r e o r v i r t u o u s . J o h n i s l i l y WHITE. 2: C a u c a s i a n . J o h n i s WHITE. YELLOW: 1:  coward. J o h n i s YELLOW.  meaning  

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