UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the acquisition of connotative meaning by Japanese speakers of English Marshall, Richard Joseph 1989

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A STUDY OF THE ACQUISITION OF CONNOTATIVE MEANING BY JAPANESE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH by RICHARD JOSEPH MARSHALL B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 . App. L i n g . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1989 © RICHARD JOSEPH MARSHALL,1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of £. fr/tf 6 V A 6 £P[J^fi T^&Jt/ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T A S t u d y o f t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f C o n n o t a t i v e M e a n i n g b y J a p a n e s e S p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h by R i c h a r d J o s e p h M a r s h a l l The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d i s c o v e r how w e l l a d u l t J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h h a d a c q u i r e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f 39 s e l e c t e d E n g l i s h a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s . S e v e n t y s u b j e c t s f r o m I w a t e P r e f e c t u r e i n n o r t h e r n J a p a n w e re g i v e n t h r e e e l i c i t a t i o n - i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o m p l e t e . On one i n s t r u m e n t e a c h s u b j e c t s t a t e d what t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m s a r e . On t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e c h o i c e s g i v e n t h e c h o i c e w h i c h b e s t c o n v e y e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m s . Among t h e more n o t e w o r t h y f i n d i n g s a r e : 1. The s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d v e r y f ew c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e 39 t e r m s . 2. The number o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d v a r i e d w i t h ' s e m a n t i c f i e l d . 3. O l d e r s u b j e c t s a n d t h o s e who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h l o n g e r o r h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y h a d a c q u i r e d more c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . 4. M a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e same number o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . 5. T h e r e w e re i n c o n c l u s i v e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s t r a n s f e r r e d c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h a n d t h a t c o n t e x t h e l p e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o s e l e c t t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s . The m a j o r i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e f i n d i n g s i s t h a t u n l e s s J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h a r e e x p l i c i t l y t a u g h t c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s t h e r e i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h e y w i l l a c q u i r e many c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . T h e r e f o r e i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t e f f o r t s must be made t o t e a c h J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v TABLE of CONTENTS v LIST o f TABLES v i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 Statement o f Problem 1 The Need f o r the Study 1 An O u t l i n e o f the Study 2 R a t i o n a l e and Hypotheses 2 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study 8 CHAPTER TWO: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 10 P r e l i m i n a r y Remarks 10 C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning 11 Theory on the T e a c h i n g o f V o c a b u l a r y 16 C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning and Second Language Textbooks 27 Second language A c q u i s i t i o n 34 F i r s t Language A c q u i s i t i o n 39 C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning o f C o l o u r , B i r d and A n i m a l Terms 41 Metaphor 44 A c q u i s i t i o n o f Metaphor 50 L i n g u i s t i c I n t e r f e r e n c e . . . 52 C u l t u r a l D i f f e r e n c e s i n C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning 54 Summary 58 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 59 The S u b j e c t s 59 S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s 61 The S t i m u l i 62 C o n s t r a i n t s on the S t i m u l i . . 6 3 The Ins truments 63 C o n n o t a t i v e Meaning o f the S t i m u l u s Terms 68 The Methodology 69 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 74 A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f Responses 75 The H y p o t h e s i s 7 6 Data A n a l y s i s 78 Summary 80 CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 82 Japanese Speakers o f E n g l i s h 82 R e s u l t s o f the C l o z e Reading Tes t 84 R e l i a b i l i t y o f the Instruments 85 Ins truments C o m p l e t t e d by the NSs o f JVL. Japanese and E n g l i s h 86 Comparison of Connotative Meanings 92 A n a l y s i s of the Hypothesis 94 Hypothesis #1 ....94 Hypothesis #2 96 Hypothesis #3 98 Hypothesis #4 105 Hypothesis #5 I l l Hypothesis #6 113 Hypothesis #7 115 Hypothesis #8 117 Hypothesis #9 118 Hypothesis #10 120 Hypothesis #11 122 Hypothesis #12a 124 Hypothesis #12b 125 D i s c u s s i o n 125 Scores of the JSEs S u b j e c t s on the E l i c i t a t i o n Instruments 125 The Cloze Reading T e s t 126 Hypothesis #1 128 Hypothesis #2 129 Hypothesis #3 130 Hypothesis #4 131 Age and Gender Hypotheses ...133 Experience Hypotheses 135 Hypothesis #12a and 12b 138 V a r i a b l e I n t e r a c t i o n 140 Summary 140 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 143 R a t i o n a l e 143 Hypotheses 145 I n t e r f e r e n c e Hypotheses 145 Instrument, Context and Semantic F i e l d Hypotheses 146 Age and Gender Hypotheses 148 Experience Hypotheses 149 M i s c e l l a n e o u s Hypotheses 151 D i s c u s s i o n 152 Con c l u s i o n s 158 I m p l i c a t i o n s 160 Suggestions f o r Future Research 162 BIBLIOGRAPHY 165 APPENDIX ANIMALS INSTRUMENTS 177 CLOZE READING TEST 184 LIST OF CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS 187 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE #1 E l i c i t a t i o n Instrument R e s u l t s 82 TABLE #2 Reading Test R e s u l t s 8-4 TABLE #3 E n g l i s h NS Instrument 86 TABLE #4 Japanese NS Instrument 8 9 TABLE #5 Instruments R e s u l t s 97 TABLE #6 Instruments: Ancova R e s u l t s 98 TABLE #7 Animals Free, Word and Sentence R e s u l t s 99 TABLE #8 Animals: Ancova R e s u l t s 100 TABLE #9 B i r d s Free, Word and Sentence R e s u l t s 101 TABLE #10 B i r d s : Ancova R e s u l t s 102 TABLE #11 Colours Free, Word and Sentence R e s u l t s 103 TABLE #12 C o l o u r s : Ancova R e s u l t s 1 0 4 TABLE #13 Animals, B i r d s and'Colours Free R e s u l t s 106 TABLE #14 Free Choice: Ancova R e s u l t s 107 TABLE #15 Animals, B i r d s and Colours Word R e s u l t s 108 TABLE #16 Word Choice: Ancova R e s u l t s 109 TABLE #17 Animals, B i r d s and Co l o u r s Sentence R e s u l t s . . . . 110 TABLE #18 Sentence Choice: Ancova R e s u l t s I l l TABLE #19 Age R e s u l t s 112 TABLE #20 Age: Ancova R e s u l t s 113 TABLE #21 Gender R e s u l t s 114 TABLE #22 Gender: Ancova R e s u l t s 115 TABLE #23 L e v e l R e s u l t s ...116 TABLE #24 L e v e l : Ancova R e s u l t s 116 TABLE #25 E n g l i s h Study R e s u l t s 117 TABLE #26 E n g l i s h Study: Ancova R e s u l t s 118 v i i TABLE #27 L i v e d Abroad R e s u l t s 119 TABLE #28 L i v e d Abraod: Ancova R e s u l t s 120 TABLE #29 Frequency R e s u l t s 121 TABLE #30 Frequency: Ancova R e s u l t s . 121 TABLE #31 Ed u c a t i o n R e s u l t s 123 TABLE #32 E d u c a t i o n : Ancova R e s u l t s 124 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t e n c e he r e c e i v e d w h i l e he was w o r k i n g on t h e s t u d y . He w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k h i s w i f e f o r h e r h e l p i n t r a n s l a t i n g some o f t h e a n s w e r s a n d i n t a b u l a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . He w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r H a s h i m o t o o f I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y f o r t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s a n d f o r h i s comments on some o f t h e a n s w e r s r e c e i v e d . He w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r H a s h i m o t o f o r a l l o w i n g h i m t o u s e t h e s t u d e n t s i n one o f h i s c l a s s e s a s s u b j e c t s . T h a n k s must a l s o be e x t e n d e d t o S t e v e R o s s o f Kobe U n i v e r s i t y o f Commerce. W i t h o u t h i s h e l p , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n much more d i f f i u l t t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . A n d t h a n k s must be e x t e n d e d t o D r . Le e G u n d e r s o n f o r h i s a d v i c e a n d p a t i e n c e w i t h what must h a v e seemed a t t i m e s t o be a most o b t u s e s t u d e n t . W i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f a l l t h e s e p e o p l e , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . 1 C H A P T E R ONE INTRODUCTION T H E P R O B L E M : S e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s (SLL) f i n d w o r d s u s e d w i t h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d . N a t i v e s p e a k e r s ( N S ) , h o w e v e r , e x p e r i e n c e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g w o r d s when t h e y a r e u s e d w i t h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . NSs p o s s e s s l e x i c a l k n o w l e d g e w h i c h e n a b l e s them t o p r o c e s s w o r d s w h i c h a r e u s e d c o n n o t a t i v e l y . Thus NSs a r e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d w o r d s u s e d c o n n o t a t i v e l y . S L L s , s i n c e t h e y o f t e n do n o t p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e l e x i c a l k n o w l e d g e , e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g w o r d s u s e d c o n n o t a t i v e l y . T h i s i s a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m f o r S L L s a s NSs u s e w o r d s c o n n o t a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e l y i n n o r m a l e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n . T H E NEED FOR T H E S T U D Y : V i r t u a l l y no r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g o f E n g l i s h w o r d s b y S L L s h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d . Hence v e r y l i t t l e i s known, f o r e x a m p l e , on when S L L s b e g i n t o a c q u i r e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ; on t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y a c q u i r e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ; a b o u t w h i c h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s i t w o u l d be most u s e f u l f o r t h e m t o know; a b o u t how l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s c a n c a u s e S L L s p r o b l e m s o r a b o u t t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s o f w h i c h t h e y know t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . I t w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s (SLT) t o know t h e s e t h i n g s . I f t h e y knew t h e s e t h i n g s , t h e y w o u l d p o s s e s s k n o w l e d g e w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e t h e m t o p r e p a r e t h e i r s t u d e n t s more a d e q u a t e l y 2 f o r l i f e i n t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r l d . AN OUTLINE OF THE STUDY: T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a d u l t J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h (JSE) h a d a c q u i r e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f 39 E n g l i s h a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s . The s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e one o f t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e 39 t e r m s were s t i m u l u s p r o m p t s . E a c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o s t a t e what t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e 13 t e r m s f r o m one o f t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s n o t e d a b o v e w e r e . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s w e re r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t w h i c h o f t h e one w o r d d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e 13 t e r m s f r o m one o f t h e o t h e r two s e m a n t i c f i e l d s c o n v e y e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m s . I n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s w e re r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t w h i c h o f t h e e x p l a n a t o r y s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e 13 t e r m s f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g s e m a n t i c f i e l d c o n v e y e d t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m s . RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESES: R e s e a r c h e r s i n e d u c a t i o n o f t e n a n a l y s e d a t a a c r o s s a number o f v a r i a b l e s . Among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e a g e , g e n d e r , amount o f e d u c a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e t a s k e t c . ( B o r g a n d G a l l , 1983 c h . 1 3 ) . S e c o n d L a n g u a g e A c q u i s i t i o n (SLA) r e s e a r c h e r s o f t e n a n a l y s e d a t a on S L L s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e y s p e n t i n f o r m a l s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s t u d y , t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , t h e l e n g t h o f 3 t i m e t h e y s p e n t i n a n a t i v e s p e a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t e t c . (Gass a n d S e l i n k e r , 1 9 83; L i t t l e w o o d , 1 9 8 4 ) . The h y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e f o r m u l a t e d i n t e r m s o f s u c h v a r i a b l e s . They a r e a l s o b a s e d on t h e f a c t S L L s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o p h o n o l o g y a n d v o c a b u l a r y , may t r a n s f e r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e f o r m s t o t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e ( K l e i n , 1986 p . 2 7 ) . INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: J S E s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h . INSTRUMENT HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e s h a l l be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n J S E s c o r e s due t o t y p e o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . CONTEXT HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e s h a l l be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n J S E s c o r e s due t o c o n t e x t . SEMANTIC FIELD HYPOTHESIS: T h e r e s h a l l be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n J S E s c o r e s due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . AGE, GENDER HYPOTHESES: T h e r e s h a l l be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n J S E s c o r e s due t o age o r g e n d e r . EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: T h e r e s h a l l be no d i f f e r e n c e s i n J S E s c o r e s due t o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e J S E s h a v e s p e n t s p e n t i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e J S E s h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h , t h e f r e q u e n c y J S E s u s e E n g l i s h , t h e J S E s ' l e v e l o f f l u e n c y o r t h e amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n J S E s h a v e r e c e i v e d . MISCELLANEOUS HYPOTHESES: N a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f J a p a n e s e (NSJ) a n d n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h (NSE) s h a l l a g r e e on t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e ' l a n g u a g e s . 4 DEFINITION OF TERMS: CONNOTATIVE MEANING: 1. D o c t o r S m i t h i s a butcher. 2. S t e v e n i s a c o l d p e r s o n . 3. S a l l y i s shallow. 4. The company i s i n t h e b l a c k . T h e s e f o u r s e n t e n c e s , i n most n o r m a l c o n t e x t s , do n o t make much s e n s e , i f any, i f BUTCHER, COLD, SHALLOW a n d BLACK a r e t a k e n l i t e r a l l y . T a k e n l i t e r a l l y s e n t e n c e #1 c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean D o c t o r S m i t h i s a d o c t o r who w o r k s i n a b u t c h e r s h o p a n d s e n t e n c e #2 t o mean S t e v e n i s c o l d t o t h e t o u c h . B o t h a r e p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . No NSE w o u l d d e n y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r b e i n g t r u e . No s u c h p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s e n t e n c e s #3 a n d #4, h o w e v e r , a r e p o s s i b l e . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r a p e r s o n t o p o s s e s s t h e l i t e r a l p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s h a l l o w n e s s o r f o r a company t o be i n a c o l o u r . B u t s e n t e n c e s #3 a n d #4 a r e n o t m e a n i n g l e s s . I n d e e d , t h e y a r e m e a n i n g f u l i f i t i s assumed SHALLOW a n d BLACK h a v e m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s . A n d s e n t e n c e s #1 a n d #2 become more m e a n i n g f u l i f m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s f o r BUTCHER a n d COLD a r e a l s o assumed. When l o o k e d a t i n t h i s manner NSE's i n t e r p r e t s e n t e n c e #3 t o mean S a l l y i s a p e r s o n who i s s u p e r f i c i a l a n d #4 t o mean t h e company i s p r o f i t a b l e . I n t h e same way NSE's i n t e r p r e t s e n t e n c e #1 t o mean D r . S m i t h i s p r o b a b l y a s u r g e o n who l o s e s more t h a n h i s s h a r e o f p a t i e n t s a n d may o p e r a t e u n n e c e s s a r i l y ( F r o m k i n a n d Rodman, '1983 p.171) a n d s e n t e n c e #2 t o mean S t e v e n l a c k s t h e human e m o t i o n s o f s y m p a t h y , r e m o r s e , c o m p a s s i o n e t c . I t i s n o n - l i t e r a l 5 m e a n i n g s l i k e t h e s e , w h i c h i n t h i s s t u d y , s h a l l be known a s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . To s u m m a r i s e a b s t r a c t l y t h e i d e a s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e e x a m p l e s , c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s : 1. A t y p e o f n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g . 2. A t y p e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h i s o f t e n t h e t y p e o f m e a n i n g one must a c c e s s i n o r d e r t o c o m p r e h e n d t h e m e a n i n g o f common m e t a p h o r s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r d e a d m e t a p h o r s . 3. A t y p e o f m e a n i n g o n l y p r e d i c a t e n o u n s , p r e d i c a t e a d j e c t i v e s , p r e n o m i n a l a d j e c t i v e s a n d o b j e c t s o f p r e p o s i t i o n s p o s s e s s . 4. A t y p e o f m e a n i n g a s a r b i t r a r y as any o t h e r t y p e o f m e a n i n g . 5 . A t y p e o f m e a n i n g d i f f i c u l t t o d e c o d e o r d e r i v e f r o m a l o g i c a l a n d l i t e r a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n s i n w h i c h i t o c c u r s . SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER: A s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNER r e f e r s t o p e o p l e who h a v e l e a r n t o r a r e l e a r n i n g a l a n g u a g e w h i c h i s n o t t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . Of c o u r s e , FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNER, i n some r e s p e c t s , d e n o t e s t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y more a c c u r a t e l y . ACQUISITION: ACQUISITION as u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y r e f e r s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y t o b o t h t h e u n c o n s c i o u s a c q u i s i t i o n a n d t h e c o n s c i o u s l e a r n i n g o f l a n g u a g e . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e e m p h a s i s i s on what S L L s know; n o t on how t h e y came t o know i t . LEXICAL ACQUISITION: T h i s t e r m i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h e p r o c e s s b y w h i c h S L L s l e a r n o r a c q u i r e t h e s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t o f a l a n g u a g e . T h i s i s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t VOCABULARY ACQUISITION i s v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h L E X I C A L A C QUISITION. T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s why t h i s was done. 6 F i r s t , . L E X I C A L ACQUISITION i s more c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t e r m i n o l o g y e m p l o y e d i n s e m a n t i c s . S e c o n d , L E X I C A L ITEM i s a more a c c u r a t e t e r m t h a n WORD i n t h a t i t e n c o m p a s s e s m u l t i -w o r d e x p r e s s i o n s — p h r a s a l v e r b s , m u l t i - w o r d i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s a n d two w o r d compounds -- w h i c h i n r e a l i t y c a n o n l y be i n t e r p r e t e d o r u n d e r s t o o d c o r r e c t l y i f t h e y a r e v i e w e d a s c o m p l e t e l e x i c a l u n i t s . METAPHOR: METAPHOR as u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s a v e r y s i m p l e c o n c e p t . T h e r e a r e numerous l e x i c a l i t e m s i n E n g l i s h w h i c h when s u b s t i t u t e d f o r 'X' i n : "He/She i s (a/an) ^X'." o r f o r *Y' i n "(determiner) * Y' NOMINAL" noun p h r a s e s o r f o r X Z ' i n " p r e p o s i t i o n (determiner) Z" p r e p o s i t i o n a l p h r a s e s c a u s e t h e r e s u l t a n t s e n t e n c e s t o become a m b i g u o u s . The a m b i g u i t y d e r i v e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r AX', yY' o r yZ' h a v e two d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f m e a n i n g s : a l i t e r a l m e a n i n g a n d a m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g . The l i t e r a l m e a n i n g i s b a s e d on t h e n o r m a l s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s s u b s t i t u t e d f o r XX', yYr o r yZ'. The m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g i s b a s e d on s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f AX', *Y' o r yZ' w h i c h a r e i n f e r r e d o r p r o v i d e some k i n d o f r e s e m b l a n c e ( F r o m k i n a n d Rodman, 1983 p . 1 7 1 ) . I n t h i s s t u d y m e t a p h o r i c a l a n d c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be synonymous. A m e t a p h o r i n t h i s s t u d y i s an e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h i s s e m a n t i c a l l y a m b i g u o u s a n d w h i c h some o f t h e a m b i g u i t y i s a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g o f one o f t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h a p p e a r s o n l y i n t h e s y n t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e s n o t e d a b o v e . 7 DEAD METAPHOR: T h e r e a r e two e s s e n t i a l t y p e s o f m e t a p h o r s : o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s a n d d e a d m e t a p h o r s . O r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s a r e m e t a p h o r s w h i c h a r e new a n d o r i g i n a l . They c r e a t e new a n d f r e s h i m a g e s o r a s s o c i a t i o n s . G r e a t p o e t s t r y t o c r e a t e them. They c a n n o t , b y t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , r e m a i n f r e s h a n d o r i g i n a l . I f t h e y a r e u s e d t o o f r e q u e n t l y , t h e y become d e a d m e t a p h o r s . An e x a m p l e o f a r e c e n t m e t a p h o r w h i c h h a s c e a s e d t o be o r i g i n a l i s IRON LADY. When f i r s t a p p l i e d t o M a r g a r e t T h a t c h e r , i t was o r i g i n a l . Now i t i s s i m p l y a d e a d m e t a p h o r a l l NSEs know. O r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i r m e a n i n g s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . Dead m e t a p h o r s a r e n o t new a n d o r i g i n a l . They a r e o l d an d s t a l e . A l l NSs a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h them. E x a m p l e s o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s a r e t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . The m e a n i n g s o f a c e r t a i n s e t o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . LEG i n THE LEG OF THE TABLE a n d HEAD i n THE HEAD OF THE COUNTRY a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r e x p r e s s i o n s a r e n o t d e a d m e t a p h o r s i n t h i s s t u d y . They a r e n o t d e a d m e t a p h o r s b e c a u s e t h e i r m e a n i n g s c a n be l o g i c a l l y d e d u c e d b y k n o w i n g j u s t t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f LEG a n d HEAD. DENOTATIVE MEANING: D e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s t h e n o r m a l s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a l e x i c a l i t e m p o s s e s s e s . I n p r a c t i c e t h i s u s u a l l y means: 1. The m e a n i n g s most NSs f i r s t t h i n k o f when t h e y a r e a s k e d t o d e f i n e l e x i c a l i t e m s . 2. The m e a n i n g s g i v e n most p r o m i n e n c e i n d i c t i o n a r i e s . 8 The d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e f o u r l e x i c a l i t e m s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a r e : BUTCHER: a d e a l e r i n meat. COLD: h a v i n g l o w o r d e c i d e d l y s u b n o r m a l t e m p e r a t u r e . SHALLOW: n o t de e p , e s p e c i a l l y o f w a t e r . BLACK: t h e c o l o u r w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s o b j e c t s w h i c h n e i t h e r t r a n s m i t o r r e f l e c t l i g h t . 1 NON-LITERAL MEANING: I n t h i s s t u d y NON-LITERAL MEANING s h a l l be r e g a r d e d as a synonym f o r CONNOTATIVE MEANING. LITERAL MEANING: I n t h i s s t u d y L I T E R A L MEANING s h a l l be r e g a r d e d a s a synonym f o r DENOTATIVE MEANING. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e s an a s p e c t o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , w h i c h h a s b e e n v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s t u d y w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d h e r e i s e x p l o r a t o r y . Hence, t h e r e s u l t s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as i n c o n c l u s i v e o r t e n t a t i v e . O n l y t h e k n o w l e d g e t h e s u b j e c t s h a v e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s e x a m i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . H e nce, no a t t e m p t i s made t o e x a m i n e t h e p r o c e s s o r s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y w e r e s t u d e n t s o r f a c u l t y a t a s m a l l u n i v e r s i t y i n n o r t h e r n J a p a n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s w e re n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d . Hence t h e s a m p l e s e l e c t e d i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o n l y t h e s u b j e c t s 1. The d e f i n i t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e d e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n t h e 1974 e d i t i o n o f t h e Merriam-Webster Pocket D i c t i o n a r y . 9 who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . Any g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s t o o t h e r J S E s s h o u l d be made w i t h g r e a t c a r e . The c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f o n l y 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s were i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . G e n e r a l i s a t i o n s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f o t h e r t e r m s s h o u l d be made w i t h c a r e . A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f w e l l e d u c a t e d NSEs was e m p l o y e d t o e s t a b l i s h what t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e t e r m s i n v e s t i g a t e d h a v e i n E n g l i s h . The m e a n i n g s w h i c h t h e y a s c r i b e d t o t h e t e r m s may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h o s e an a v e r a g e NS w o u l d a s c r i b e t o them. I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h e s u b j e c t s ' u n d e r l y i n g r e c e p t i v e c o m p e t e n c y i s e x a m i n e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p r o d u c t i v e c o m p e t e n c y . Hence t h e s t u d y d o e s n o t e x a m i n e t h e s u b j e c t s ' a b i l i t y a b i l i t y t o a c t u a l l y u s e t e r m s w i t h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a v e a p r o d u c t i v e c o m p e t e n c y . 10 CHAPTER TWO A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE PRELIMINARY REMARKS: V e r y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g b y S L L s e x i s t s . Hence t h e amount o f l i t e r a t u r e i m m e d i a t e l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g b y S L L s i s l i m i t e d . T h a t l i t t l e h a s b e e n w r i t t e n on i t , h o w e v e r , i s n o t an o b s t a c l e t o c o n d u c t i n g a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . E x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s makes i t p o s s i b l e t o c o n d u c t an a d e q u a t e r e v i e w . Among t h e s e f i e l d s a r e : c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y , c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , f i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s , m e t a p h o r , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r , l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e a n d c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . I n s t e a d o f a r e v i e w o f an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e i n a s i n g l e f i e l d , t h i s r e v i e w c o n s i s t s o f an o v e r v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n s e v e r a l r e l a t e d f i e l d s . W h i l e t h e r e a r e no i n t r i n s i c p r o b l e m s i n c o n d u c t i n g s u c h a r e v i e w , w r i t i n g t h e r e v i e w i n t h e n o r m a l f a s h i o n i s d i f f i c u l t . One c a n n o t s i m p l y c o n d u c t a r o u t i n e h i s t o r i c a l r e v i e w . Some f i e l d s l i k e m e t a p h o r h a v e a l o n g h i s t o r y a n d f i e l d s l i k e l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e h a v e a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t h i s t o r y . N o r c a n one c o n d u c t t h e r e v i e w f r o m a c o n c e p t u a l a p p r o a c h . C o n c e p t s i m p o r t a n t i n one f i e l d a r e n o t i m p o r t a n t i n a n o t h e r . To o v e r c o m e s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h e r e v i e w h a s 11 b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s . E a c h s e c t i o n r e v i e w s l i t e r a t u r e i n one j u s t one o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d f i e l d s . CONNOTATIVE MEANING JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: C o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s n o t e a s y t o d e f i n e p r e c i s e l y a n d c o n c i s e l y . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t i t i s a c o n c e p t w i t h w h i c h most NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r , t h e r e i s no c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n on what c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s . S c h o l a r s d e f i n e i t i n v a r i o u s ways. The a v e r a g e p e r s o n who u s e s i t c a n n o t d e f i n e i t c l e a r l y a n d p r e c i s e l y . T h i s i s an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s i t u a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h i n g s , a l i t t l e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s r e v i e w e d . T h i s r e v i e w w i l l b r o a d e n t h e r e a d e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a n d h e l p c l a r i f y what i s b e i n g s t u d i e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . THE REVIEW: I t i s common t o h e a r p h r a s e s l i k e : " I d o n ' t l i k e t h e ' c o n n o t a t i o n s ' o f t h a t . " o r " I t h a s t h e ' c o n n o t a t i o n s ' o f ..." P e o p l e h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g what t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s mean. B u t when s e m a n t i c i s t s d i s c u s s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , i t i s n o t a l w a y s c l e a r what e x a c t l y i s b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . A s J o h n L y o n s n o t e s : "The r e a d e r s h o u l d be on h i s g u a r d w h e n e v e r he m e e t s t h e t e r m ' c o n n o t a t i o n ' i n s e m a n t i c s " ( L y o n s , 1977 p . 1 7 6 ) . S e m a n t i c i s t s u s e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g as a c o v e r t e r m f o r s e v e r a l q u i t e d i s t i n c t phenomena. I n e f f e c t , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 12 The most f a m i l i a r t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s n o n -p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( L y o n s , 1977 p . 1 7 6 ) . I n t h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m s c o n v e y d e s i r a b l e o r u n d e s i r a b l e e m o t i v e f e a t u r e s . L e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h d e s i r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e : d e m o c r a c y , m o t h e r h o o d , f r e e d o m f i g h t e r e t c . L e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h u n d e s i r a b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e : d e s p o t i s m , s p i n s t e r , r e b e l e t c . T h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s h a l l be r e f e r r e d t o as TYPE 1 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . S i n c e l e x i c a l i t e m s l i k e t h e o n e s a b o v e h a v e a c c e p t e d c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s , t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r p e o p l e t o u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s t o r e f e r t o t h e m s e l v e s . H ence, t h e l e a d e r s o f most c o u n t r i e s s a y t h e y a r e d e m o c r a t s a n d few women a d m i t t o b e i n g s p i n s t e r s . A n d i f l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s do n o t e x i s t , e x p r e s s i o n s a r e c o i n e d w h i c h do. Thus REBELS became FREEDOM FIGHTERS; PROSTITUTES became WORKING G I R L S ; a n d TAX INCREASES became REVENUE ENHANCEMENTS. N o t a l l w o r d s h a v e o n l y p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . Some w o r d s p o s s e s s b o t h n e g a t i v e a n d p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . A s L y o n s n o t e s , i n B r i t a i n CHURCH a n d CHAPEL do ( L y o n s , 1981 p . 1 5 0 ) . I t d e p e n d s on w h e t h e r one i s a member o f t h e C h u r c h o f E n g l a n d o r a member o f a d i s s e n t i n g p r o t e s t a n t s e c t . S i m i l a r l y , l e x i c a l i t e m s l i k e CHASTITY, COP, G o v e r n m e n t e t c . p o s s e s s c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . T h e i r c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s d e p e n d on 13 w h e t h e r one v i e w s t h e t h i n g s t h e y d e n o t e p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y ( G a i r n s a n d Redman, 1986 p . 1 8 - 1 9 ) . T h i s p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r , i s n o t t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g most s e m a n t i c i s t s h a v e . F o r s e m a n t i c i s t s , c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t f i r s t d i s c u s s e d b y J o h n S t u a r t M i l l i n 1843 ( L y o n s , 1977 p . 1 7 5 ) . W h i l e s c h o l a r s v i e w t h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g d i f f e r e n t l y , t h e r e i s a g r e e m e n t on i t s c o r e p r o p e r t i e s ( L y o n s , 1977 p . 1 7 6 ) . M o s t s c h o l a r s w o u l d a c c e p t G e o f f r e y L e e c h ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a s t h e "... c o m m u n i c a t i v e v a l u e an e x p r e s s i o n h a s b y v i r t u e o f what i t r e f e r s t o , o v e r a n d a b o v e i t s p u r e l y c o n c e p t u a l c o n t e n t " ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 5 ) . W h i l e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s c o n f u s i n g , a t l e a s t , f o r t h o s e w i t h l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f s e m a n t i c s , t h e e x a m p l e he g i v e s c l a r i f i e s i t . 1 On t h e p u r e l y d e n o t a t i v e a woman i s s i m p l y an a d u l t , f e m a l e human. On t h e c o n n o t a t i v e l e v e l , h o w e v e r , a woman i s much more. As L e e c h n o t e s : ... t h e r e i s a m u l t i t u d e o f a d d i t i o n a l , n o n -c r i t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s t h a t we h a v e l e a r n t t o e x p e c t a r e f e r e n t o f woman t o p o s s e s s . They i n c l u d e n o t o n l y p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( ' b i p e d ' , ' h a v i n g a womb'), b u t a l s o p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i a l p r o p e r t i e s ( ' g r e g a r i o u s ' , ' s u b j e c t t o m a t e r n a l i n s t i n c t ' ) , a n d may e x t e n d t o f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e m e r e l y t y p i c a l r a t h e r t h a n i n v a r i a b l e c o n c o m i t a n t s o f womanhood ( ' c a p a b l e o f s p e e c h ' , ' e x p e r i e n c e d i n c o o k e r y ' , ' s k i r t o r d r e s s w e a r i n g ' ) ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 4 ) . 1. T h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s h a l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o a s TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 14 I n a d d i t i o n , o t h e r assumed a t t r i b u t e s o f women a r e a l s o subsumed u n d e r c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . S u c h a t t r i b u t e s i n c l u d e b e i n g f r a i l , p r o n e t o t e a r s , c o w a r d l y , e m o t i o n a l , i r r a t i o n a l , i n c o n s t a n t , g e n t l e , c o m p a s s i o n a t e , s e n s i t i v e a n d h a r d - w o r k i n g ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 4 ) . W h i l e L e e c h ' s l i s t o f c o n n o t a t i o n s o f 'woman' i s b o t h e x t e n s i v e , i t i s n o t a l i s t w h i c h w o u l d o b t a i n u n i v e r s a l a g r e e m e n t . I t i s n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r c o n n o t a t i o n s v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o c u l t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f . t h e i n d i v i d u a l ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 5 ) . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s d i f f e r b e t w e e n c u l t u r e s i s e v i d e n t f r o m H a mmerly's c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s w h i c h MILK h a s i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d L a t i n A m e r i c a (Hammerly, 1982 p . 4 5 6 ) . The c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m s i n V i c t o r i a n C a n a d a a n d modern C a n a d a v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . V i c t o r i a n s , f o r e x a m p l e , a s s o c i a t e d SEX w i t h much l e s s p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s t h a n modern C a n a d i a n s do. A n d t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e any two p e o p l e w i l l a g r e e on t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g o f any p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m . As L e e c h n o t e s : "... t o an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g m i s o g y n i s t WOMAN w i l l h a v e many u n c o m - p l i m e n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e m i n d s o f s p e a k e r s o f a more f e m i n i s t p e r s u a s i o n " ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 4 ) . N e i t h e r o f t h e s e t y p e s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r , i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s w h i l e i t h a s n o t a t t r a c t e d t h e 15 s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n o f t h e o t h e r t y p e s , has- a t t r a c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t a t t e n t i o n . J . J . A . M o o i j n o t e s a way o f l o o k i n g a t m e t a p h o r s i s t o assume m e t a p h o r i c a l l y u s e d l e x i c a l i t e m s p o s s e s s a s e c o n d a r y t y p e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h e x t e n d s t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s w h i c h t h e y p o s s e s s . L e x i c a l i t e m s w h i c h c a n n o t be u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y do n o t p o s s e s s t h i s e x t e n d e d m e a n i n g . I t i s t h i s e x t e n d e d m e a n i n g w h i c h M o o i j r e f e r s t o as ' c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ' ( M o o i j , 1976 c h . 7 ) . T h i s t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s h a l l h e r e a f t e r be r e f e r r e d t o as TYPE 3 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( T 3 C 0 ) . H e n c e f o r t h ' c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ' s h a l l r e f e r t o c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i n a g e n e r a l s e n s e . A c c o r d i n g R e i c h l i n g , whom M o o i j q u o t e s , a l e x i c a l i t e m w h i c h p o s s e s s e s a T3C0 i s AAP, t h e D u t c h w o r d f o r MONKEY. When u s e d w i t h i t s n o r m a l l i t e r a l o r d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i t d e n o t e s a member o f a p r i m a t e g r o u p . When u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y w i t h i t s T3C0 a n d a p p l i e d t o a b o y , i t h a s t h e m e a n i n g o f RASCAL ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 8 8 ) . T h i s i s t h e t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I t i s t h e same d e s p i t e t h e f a c t M o o i j v i e w s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g as an e x t e n s i o n o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g r a t h e r t h a n a s e p a r a t e d i s t i n c t e n t i t y as h a s b e e n done i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The abo v e e x a m p l e a n d t h e e x a m p l e s u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e , t h e r e i s no e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n M o o i j ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a n d t h e c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h i s t h e f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 16 W h i l e o t h e r s c h o l a r s o f m e t a p h o r do n o t a d m i t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f m e a n i n g , i t i s c l e a r f r o m t h e e x a m p l e s w h i c h t h e y d i s c u s s t h a t T3C0 i s t h e t y p e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h t h e y d e a l w i t h . D a v i d S a p i r n o t e s t h e Haya o f T a n z a n i a u s e EEL t o d e s c r i b e d e v i o u s men ( S a p i r , 1977 p . 7 ) . R o g e r T o u r a n g e a u shows a c r u e l a n d r a p a c i o u s man i s a WOLF ( T o u r a n g e a u , 1978 p . 2 2 ) . Max B l a c k n o t e s b r a v e mean a r e LIONS ( B l a c k , 1962 p. 3 6 ) . The m e a n i n g e x e m p l i f i e d i n e a c h o f t h e s e e x a m p l e s i s c l e a r l y T3C0. THEORY ON THE TEACHING OF VOCABULARY JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: I n most s t u d i e s o f SLA r e s e a r c h e r s u s e d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e i r s t u d i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s c o u l d n o t be done i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The p a u c i t y o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s p r e v e n t s i t . Thus a n o t h e r t y p e o f d a t a was n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . W h i l e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f d a t a c a n be u s e d t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e one o f t h e s o u n d e s t ways t o o b t a i n t h e d a t a i s t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e on l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t h e o r y . By r e v i e w i n g t h i s l i t e r a t u r e one d i s c o v e r s what l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t h e o r i s t s h a v e w r i t t e n on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y i n g e n e r a l a n d t h e t e a c h i n g o f T3C0 i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h i s h e l p s d e v e l o p a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y . 17 THE REVIEW: The modern e r a i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s b e g a n s o m e t i m e d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g t h e s e f i f t y y e a r s i d e a s modern SLTs t a k e f o r g r a n t e d w e re f i r s t p r o p o s e d . Among t h e s e i d e a s a r e t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a n g u a g e i n t o t h e f o u r b a s i c s k i l l s ; an e m p h a s i s on o r a l w ork i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , an i n d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f grammar a n d a b e l i e f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g i s an a c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a p a s s i v e a c t i v i t y ( H o w a t t , 1984 c h . 1 3 ) . W h i l e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g h a s e v o l v e d o v e r t h e p a s t c e n t u r y , some modern i d e a s a b o u t s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g a r e r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e e x p r e s s e d much e a r l i e r . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y . Many modern s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t h e o r i s t s v i e w i t much as t h e i r n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r e d e c e s s o r s d i d . C a r t e r a n d M c C a r t h y r e p e a t e d l y show modern i d e a s on v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g a r e r e m a r k e d l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e p a s t ( C a r t e r a n d M c C a r t h y , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e o r i s t s i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e l i e v e d : 1. s t r i c t a n d s e v e r e l i m i t s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e t y p e a n d number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s w h i c h s h o u l d be t a u g h t ; 2. v o c a b u l a r y s h o u l d be t a u g h t p r i m a r i l y t o f o s t e r t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e grammar a n d p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; 3. j u s t d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s s h o u l d be t a u g h t ( H o w a t t , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e s e a r e b e l i e f s t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o r i s t s h a v e h e l d s i n c e . 18 I n t h e M a s t e r y S y s t e m o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g d e v e l o p e d by Thomas P e n d e r g a s t t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y was c l e a r l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f grammar. V o c a b u l a r y was c o n t r o l l e d w i t h r e g a r d t o b o t h t h e number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s t a u g h t a n d t h e k i n d s o f m e a n i n g s t a u g h t . S L L s w ere e x p o s e d t o t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( H o w a t t , 1984 p . 1 5 6 - 1 6 1 ) . F r a n c o i s G o u i n a l s o f e l t v o c a b u l a r y s h o u l d be s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d . He a d v o c a t i n g e x p o s i n g S L L s t o t h e l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s o f a l a r g e number o f v e r b s a n d a much s m a l l e r number o f n o u n s a n d a d j e c t i v e s ( H o w a t t , 1984 p . 1 6 1 - 1 6 7 ) . H e n r y Sweet h a d s i m i l a r v i e w s on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y . He b e l i e v e d S L L s s h o u l d be e x p o s e d t o a l i m i t e d v o c a b u l a r y o f a b o u t 3,000 w o r d s (Sweet, 1899 p . 1 6 0 ) . He a l s o b e l i e v e d m e a n i n g s s h o u l d be k e p t s i m p l e a n d e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d ( S w e e t , 1899 p. 1 6 0 ) . A n d w h i l e he w r o t e a b o u t t h e n e e d o f i n c l u d i n g i d i o m a t i c m e a n i n g s i n l e a r n e r d i c t i o n a r i e s , b u t ' he d o e s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e what he means by i d i o m a t i c m e a n i n g s (Sweet, 1899 p . 1 4 5 ) . P e r h a p s he c o n s i d e r e d T3CO a s a t y p e o f i d i o m a t i c m e a n i n g ; p e r h a p s he d i d n o t . B u t b a s e d on t h e e x a m p l e s he g a v e t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o assume he d i d n o t a d v o c a t e t h e t e a c h i n g o f T3CO. O t h e r t h e o r i s t s o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a l s o d i d n o t a d v o c a t e t h e t e a c h i n g o f T3CO. V i e t o r , K l i n g h a r d t a n d B e r l i t z c l e a r l y d i d n o t a d v o c a t e t e a c h i n g i t . They, l i k e P e n d e r g a s t , G o u i n a n d Sweet, f e l t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t e a c h i n g s i m p l e 19 d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s t o a l i m i t e d number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( H o w a t t , 1 9 8 4 ) . H a r o l d P a l m e r w r o t e a n d l e c t u r e d e x t e n s i v e l y on many a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . One o f t h e a s p e c t s on w h i c h he w r o t e was t h e l e x i c a l c o m p onent. A s H o w a t t m e n t i o n s , i t i n t e r e s t e d h i m t h r o u g h o u t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e ( H o w a t t , 1984 p . 2 3 1 ) . I n The S c i e n t i f i c Study and Teaching o f Languages a n d t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f Language S t u d i e s , he p r o v i d e d a d e t a i l e d summary o f h i s t h o u g h t s on s e m a n t i c s . He d i s c u s s e d what a w o r d i s , m o r p h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s a n d m e a n i n g . F o r h i m l e x i c a l m e a n i n g was a s i m p l e c o n c e p t . A l e x i c a l i t e m h a s a m e a n i n g o r m e a n i n g s w h i c h i s / a r e e n c a p s u l a t e d by i t s d e f i n i t i o n o r d e f i n i t i o n s . A d e f i n i t i o n i s b a s i c a l l y a synonym o f a l e x i c a l i t e m ( P a l m e r , 1917 p . 2 1 ) . He d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e among d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . I f he d i s t i n g u i s h e d T3C0 f r o m d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , he c e r t a i n l y d i d n o t s t a t e he d i d . The e x a m p l e s he u s e d , h o w e v e r , make i t c l e a r m e a n i n g was synonymous w i t h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . E v e n when he r e m a r k s on what he r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e ' p e c u l i a r i t i e s ' o f e a c h w o r d i t i s c l e a r he was n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h T3C0. ( P a l m e r , 1921 p . 1 1 4 ) . W h i l e t h e u s e o f t h i s t e r m s u g g e s t s he was aware o f o t h e r t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g , he d o e s n o t e x p l i c i t l y a n d p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e i t . N o r d o e s he g i v e any e x a m p l e s o f w o r d s w i t h t h e s e ' p e c u l i a r i t i e s ' . 20 W h i l e i t i s u n c l e a r how P a l m e r ' s v i e w s on v o c a b u l a r y i n f l u e n c e d o t h e r ESL t h e o r i s t s , t h e v i e w s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w e re n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o h i s . R o b e r t C o l e a n d James T h a r p i n t h e i r Modern F o r e i g n Languages and T h e i r Teaching e x p r e s s e d v i e w s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f P a l m e r . They b e l i e v e d a l l a t e a c h e r n e e d s t o t e a c h i s d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( C o l e a n d T h a r p , 1 9 3 7 ) . A q u a r t e r c e n t u r y l a t e r ESL t h e o r i s t s s t i l l t h o u g h t o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d m e a n i n g much a s P a l m e r d i d . T h e o d o r e H u e b e n e r a n d N e l s o n B r o o k s e s p o u s e d v i e w s s i m i l a r t o P a l m e r ' s ( H u e b e n e r , 1959 c h . 5 a n d B r o o k s 1964 c h . 1 3 ) . They b e l i e v e d S L L s s h o u l d be t a u g h t s i m p l e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . They a l s o b e l i e v e d t h e amount o f v o c a b u l a r y s h o u l d be l i m i t e d . N o t a l l t h e o r i s t s s h a r e d t h e s e v i e w s . I n t h e 50s L a d o d e m o n s t r a t e d an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h S L L s h a v e w i t h v o c a b u l a r y ( L a d o , 1955 a n d L a d o , 1 9 5 7 ) . One a s p e c t o f v o c a b u l a r y w h i c h he f e l t was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r o u b l e s o m e f o r S L L s was c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( L a d o , 1955 p . 3 7 - 3 9 ) . B u t t h e k i n d o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g w h i c h he h a d i n m i n d was TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . He was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t y S L L s h a v e w i t h " ...words t h a t a r e h a r m l e s s i n c o n n o t a t i o n i n t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e b u t o f f e n s i v e o r t a b o o i n t h e f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e , o r v i c e v e r s a " ( L a d o , 1957 p . 8 6 - 8 7 ) . 21 D u r i n g t h e 50s and 60s most ESL t h e o r i s t s s a i d l i t t l e a b o u t t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y . They l i m i t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o m a k i n g a few r e m a r k s a b o u t d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . I n t h e b o o k e d i t e d b y A l l e n a n d C a m p b e l l o n l y one o f t h e 44 a r t i c l e s ( L a d o ' s ) t r e a t s v o c a b u l a r y i n any d e t a i l ( A l l e n a n d C a m p b e l l , 1972 ) . I n t h e o t h e r a r t i c l e s v o c a b u l a r y i s v i e w e d p r i m a r i l y as s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s u s e d t o t e a c h s t r u c t u r e a n d p r o n u n c i a t i o n ( L e e , 1 9 5 7 ) . W h i l e t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f v o c a b u l a r y shows a s u p e r f i c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f v o c a b u l a r y i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , i t i s t y p i c a l . R. L o r d n o t e s ESL t h e o r i s t s a p p a r e n t l y l a c k an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y . H ence, t h e y g i v e p a s s i n g l i p - s e r v i c e t o t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y ( L o r d , 1 9 7 4 ) . A few t h e o r i s t s were more aware o f t h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y . G e r a l d F l e m i n g i n a 1966 a r t i c l e n o t e s i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t e a c h e r s make t h e i r s t u d e n t s aware o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ( F l e m i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) . He b e l i e v e d i f t e a c h e r s do n o t do t h i s , S L L s w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t l e a r n many c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f n o t l e a r n i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s c a n be s e r i o u s c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m s . D e p e n d i n g on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s one c a n g i v e i n s u l t , f e e l i n s u l t e d , f e e l o f f e n d e d , g i v e o f f e n s e o r j u s t n o t u n d e r s t a n d what i s s a i d . F l e m i n g ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r , e n c o m p a s s e s two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . One i s T3CO f o r he d i s c u s s e s t h e a s p e c t s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g t h a t 22 p e r m i t l e x i c a l i t e m s t o be u s e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y . The o t h e r i s s i m i l a r t o L a d o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . I n t h e 70s a n d 80s i d e a s on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y b e g a n t o c h a n g e . Some t h e o r i s t s h a v e become more a w a r e o f t h e n a t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n o f v o c a b u l a r y . They b e g a n t o d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g S L L s more t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e o r i s t s , h o w e v e r , s t i l l a d v o c a t e d j u s t t e a c h i n g d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . F r e e m a n T w a d d e l l c l e a r l y r e c o g n i s e s a t e a c h T3C0 ( T w a d d e l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . I n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h i d i o m s p r e s e n t S L L s , w h i l e he n e v e r e x p l i c i t l y d i s c u s s e s T3C0, i t i s o b v i o u s he f e e l s one o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h i d i o m s i s t h a t i t i s o f t e n n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f T3C0 i n o r d e r t o c o m p r e h e n d t hem ( T w a d d e l l , 1973 p . 7 5 ) . D.A. W i l k i n s a l s o r e c o g n i s e d t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h i n g o t h e r t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . I n h i s Second Language L e a r n i n g and Teaching he a d v o c a t e s t h e t e a c h i n g o f c o l l o c a t i v e m e a n i n g ( W i l k i n s , 1974 p . 2 2 ) . W i l k i n s , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t d i s c u s s o r m e n t i o n t h e t e a c h i n g o f T3C0. The r e c o g n i t i o n o f a n e e d t o t e a c h more t h a n j u s t d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n t h e work o f W i l k i n s , i s n o t p r e s e n t i n t h e work o f many o f h i s p e e r s . K e n n e t h C h a s t a i n , f o r e x a m p l e , v i e w s t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y as p r i m a r i l y a m a t t e r o f t e a c h i n g d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( C h a s t a i n , 1976 p . 3 4 0 - 3 4 1 ) . E d w a r d A l l e n a n d R e b e c c a V a l e t t e a l s o v i e w 23 t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y i n t h i s manner ( A l l e n a n d V a l e t t e , 1977 c h . 7 ) . So d o e s J o h n H a y c r a f t ( H a y c r a f t , 1978 c h . 5 ) . F r e d e r i c k H o w l e t t m e r e l y p r o v i d e s s u g g e s t i o n s on how t o t e a c h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ( H o w l e t t , 1979). J o h a n n e s V a z u l i k a n d James F o x a l s o c o n c e n t r a t e on d e s c r i b i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o t e a c h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( F o x , 1983 a n d V a z u l i k , 1983). F a e r c h e t . a l . j u s t d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g d e n o t a t i v e a n d c o l l o c a t i v e m e a n i n g s . ( F a e r c h , H a s t r u p a n d P h i l l i p s o n , 1984 c h . 5 ) . M i c h a e l L e w i s a n d J i m m i e H i l l v i e w t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y as a c q u a i n t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( L e w i s a n d H i l l , 1985 p.98-104). N o t a l l t h e o r i s t s i n t h e y e a r s f o l l o w i n g W i l k i n s ' b o ok v i e w e d t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y a s j u s t a m a t t e r o f t e a c h i n g d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . J a c k R i c h a r d s c l e a r l y i s aw a r e more t h a n t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f a l i m i t e d number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s n e e d t o be t a u g h t ( R i c h a r d s , 1976). He n o t e s : 1. S L L s n e e d t o be t a u g h t a much l a r g e r number o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( R i c h a r d s , 1976 p.84); 2. S L L s n e e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e g r a m m a t i c a l , s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s ( R i c h a r d s , 1976 p.85-87); 3. S L L s n e e d t o be t a u g h t c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( R i c h a r d s , 1976 p.88). B u t i t i s n o t c l e a r what R i c h a r d s means by ' c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ' . He d o e s n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e t e r m . He s a y s : " V o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g t h u s i n v o l v e s s h o w i n g how a w o r d c a n t a k e on e m o t i o n a l c o n n o t a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t " ( R i c h a r d s , 1976 p.88). U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d 24 what R i c h a r d s means by t h i s s t a t e m e n t . He may mean s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r t o L a d o ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . He may a l s o mean s o m e t h i n g s i m i l a r t o T3C0. He may a l s o mean s o m e t h i n g c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t . B e t t y R o b i n e t t a l s o r e a l i s e s v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h e r s must t e a c h more t h a n d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( R o b i n e t t , 1978 c h . 3 ) . She s t a t e s s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be made aware t h e s p e c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s l e x i c a l i t e m s h a v e f o r p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s may n o t be s h a r e d b y o t h e r members o f t h e i r s p e e c h c o m m u n i t y ( R o b i n e t t , 1978 p . 1 1 3 ) . S L L s s h o u l d be made aw a r e DOG, f o r e x a m p l e , "...may c o n n o t e a l o v a b l e , h a p p y , a f f e c t i o n a t e f a m i l y f r i e n d t o one p e r s o n a n d ... a m i s c h i e v o u s , d i r t y , d a n g e r o u s enemy t o a n o t h e r " ( R o b i n e t t , 1978 p . 1 1 3 ) . W h i l e k n o w i n g t h i s i s u s e f u l , i t i s n o t t h e same a s a d v o c a t i n g t e a c h i n g T 3 C0s. I f i t w e r e , S L L s s h e t a u g h t w o u l d l e a r n t h a t f o r most NSEs DOG h a s t h e T3C0 o f UGLY GIRL o r t h a t a DOG i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e l l . W i l g a R i v e r s a l s o d i s c u s s e s t e a c h i n g ' s o c i o - c u l t u r a l m e a n i n g ' ( R i v e r s a n d T e m p e r l e y , 1978 p.202-203) o r ' c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ' ( R i v e r s , 1981 p . 3 1 9 - 3 2 0 ) . H e c t o r Hammerly a l s o s t r e s s e s t e a c h i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g (Hammerly, 1979 a n d 1982 c h . 1 8 ) . W h i l e b o t h R i v e r s a n d Hammerly a d v o c a t e t e a c h i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r v i e w s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . R i v e r s v i e w s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g as t h o s e e m o t i o n a l o v e r t o n e s w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m s may a r o u s e (RIVERS, 1981 p . 3 1 9 ) . 25 She n o t e s NSEs may c o n c e i v e o f LUNCH i n ways w h i c h p e o p l e f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r e s do n o t ( R i v e r s a n d T e m p e r l e y , 1978 p . 2 0 3 ) . H e c t o r Hammerly, h o w e v e r , c o n c e i v e s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a s c o n s i s t i n g o f two d i s t i n c t p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t i s v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o R o b i n e t t ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g (Hammerly, 1982 p . 4 5 0 ) . The s e c o n d p a r t , as h i s l i s t i n g o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o n n o t a t i o n s E n g l i s h a n d S p a n i s h s p e a k i n g p e o p l e a s s o c i a t e w i t h MILK, i s s i m i l a r t o R i v e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n (Hammerly, 1982 p . 4 5 6 ) . M i l t o n A z e v e d o r e c o g n i s e s t h a t : " E ven b e f o r e he h a s m a s t e r e d t h e most e l e m e n t a r y r u l e s o f grammar, t h e l e a r n e r o f a f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e must w r e s t l e w i t h m e a n i n g , d e v e l o p an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d e n o t a t i v e a n d c o n n o t a t i v e p r o p e r t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l t e r m s a n d i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , ..." ( A z e v e d o , 1980 p . 2 2 2 ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he d o e s n o t d e f i n e ' c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ' . N e i t h e r d o e s he g i v e any e x a m p l e s . Thus i t i s n o t c l e a r w h i c h t y p e s ( s ) he w o u l d a d v o c a t e t e a c h i n g . A n d R u t h G a i r n s a n d S t u a r t Redman d i s c u s s t h e t e a c h i n g b o t h TYPE 1 a n d TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ( G a i r n s a n d Redman 198 6 p . 1 8 - 1 9 ) . They, h o w e v e r , do n o t d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g T3COs. J o h n Crow d i s c u s s e s how k n o w l e d g e o f TYPE 1 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g c a n e f f e c t r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n (Crow, 1986 p . 2 4 3 ) . W h i l e he a d m i t s " C o n n o t a t i v e k n o w l e d g e h e l p s t h e r e a d e r s a v o r t h e l i t e r a r y f l a v o r o f p r o s e o r make j u d g e m e n t s i n a r e a s s u c h as d i c t i o n , r e g i s t e r e t c ..." he b e l i e v e s a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t e x t i s p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a k n o w l e d g e o f 2 6 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g (Crow, 1986 p . 2 4 3 ) . So he d o e s n o t a d v o c a t e t h e e x p l i c i t t e a c h i n g o f TYPE 1 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . A n d he s a y s n o t h i n g a b o u t t e a c h i n g T 3 C0s. A n d R o n a l d C a r t e r , w h i l e he i s a ware o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , n e v e r e x p l i c i t l y a d v o c a t e s t e a c h i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . W h i l e he n o t e s , f o r e x a m p l e WHITE h a s a T3C0 o f PURE o r CLEAN, he s a y s n o t h i n g a b o u t t e a c h i n g T3C0s ( C a r t e r , 1987 p . 2 1 ) . I t i s l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , t h a t he w o u l d a d v o c a t e t e a c h i n g T3C0s. I n t h e b o o k he e d i t e d w i t h M i c h a e l M c C a r t h y t h e r e i s an a r t i c l e i n w h i c h A.P. C o w r i e a d v o c a t e s t e a c h i n g T3C0s ( C a r t e r a n d M c C a r t h y , 1 9 8 8 ) . C o w r i e i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s o f WOLF s t r e s s e s i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r S L L s t o i n t e r p r e t them u n l e s s t h e y p o s s e s s t h e r e q u i s i t e l e x i c a l k n o w l e d g e ( C o w r i e , 1988 p . 1 3 0 ) . He t h e n n o t e s t e a c h e r s must e i t h e r p r o v i d e t h i s l e x i c a l k n o w l e d g e o r e l s e p r o v i d e t h e i r s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e means a n d o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e i t ( C o w r i e , 1988 p . 1 3 7 ) . W h i l e t h e o r i s t s l i k e C a r t e r , M c C a r t h y , G a i r n s a n d Redman a n d o t h e r s d i s c u s s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g , some s t i l l i n a d e q u a t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . J o h n M o r g a n a n d M a r i o R i n v o l u c r i , w h i l e i t i s e v i d e n t t h e y a r e aware t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g , do n o t d i s c u s s o r d e f i n e them (Morgan a n d R i n v o l u c r i , 1 9 8 6 ) . They j u s t m e n t i o n t h a t f o r e f f e c t i v e a n d m o t i v a t e d l e a r n i n g t o o c c u r ' d i c t i o n a r y m e a n i n g ' i s o n l y a f i r s t s t e p (Morgan a n d R i n v o l u c r i , 1986 p . 6 ) . B u t t h e y do n o t d i s c u s s i n a c l e a r a n d c o h e r e n t manner j u s t what comes 27 a f t e r d i c t i o n a r y m e a n i n g . N o r do t h e y d e f i n e ' d i c t i o n a r y m e a n i n g ' . T h i s r e v i e w on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y h a s r e v e a l e d s e v e r a l t h i n g s : 1. most l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t h e o r i s t s h a v e l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f any t y p e o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ; 2. t h e few who d i s c u s s t e a c h i n g c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g do n o t e x p l i c i t l y d i s c u s s T3C0; 3. t h o s e who d i s c u s s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g j u s t d i s c u s s TYPE 1 a n d TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . Hence, i f t h e b e l i e f s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t h e o r i s t s i n f l u e n c e what h a p p e n s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m s , i t i s p r u d e n t t o assume S L L s who r e c e i v e f o r m a l l a n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n h a v e v e r y l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f T3C0. Of c o u r s e , S L L s who r e c e i v e t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e h o s t e n v i r o n m e n t l e a r n some T3C0s o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m . B u t S L L s who r e c e i v e t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n p l a c e s w h e r e t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e i s n o t u s e d , c a n be e x p e c t e d t o know v e r y few T 3 C 0 s . Hence, one c a n e x p e c t t h e J a p a n e s e s u b j e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o p o s s e s s l i t t l e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s w h i c h b a s i c c o l o u r , b i r d a n d a n i m a l t e r m s h a v e i n E n g l i s h . CONNOTATIVE MEANING AND SECOND LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: S L L s l e a r n l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h f o r m a l s t u d y i n s c h o o l , b y u s i n g l a n g u a g e i n t h e r e a l w o r l d o r t h r o u g h some c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h . What t h e y l e a r n i n t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t s c a n be d i f f e r e n t f r o m what t h e y w o u l d l e a r n i f t h e y w e re t a u g h t b y t h e o r i s t s . Thus i t i s u s e f u l t o know s o m e t h i n g a b o u t S L L s ' 28 e n c o u n t e r s w i t h T3C0 i n e a c h o f t h e s e l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e a r e no d a t a on S L L s ' e n c o u n t e r s w i t h T3C0s i n t h e r e a l w o r l d . B u t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t S L L s ' e n c o u n t e r s w i t h T3C0s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . One s i m p l y e x a m i n e s t h e t e x t b o o k s t h e y u s e . THE REVIEW: A u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s commonly w r i t e e x t e n s i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e y o u t l i n e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e i r b o o k s a n d p r o v i d e t e a c h i n g s u g g e s t i o n s . V e r y few, i f any, a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s , h o w e v e r , w r i t e much on t h e t e a c h i n g o f v o c a b u l a r y . M o s t make o n l y a few c u r s o r y comments. L.G. A l e x a n d e r a n d R.H. K i n g s b u r y m e r e l y n o t e s t u d e n t s n e e d n o t a c q u i r e an a c t i v e command o f a l l t h e w o r d s u s e d i n t h e t e x t ( A l e x a n d e r a n d K i n g s b u r y , 1975 p . 1 1 ) . O ' n e i l l e t . a l . s i m p l y s t a t e v o c a b u l a r y s h o u l d be c h a l l e n g i n g a n d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d t o g u e s s a t t h e m e a n i n g o f w o r d s t h e y do n o t know ( O ' n e i l l , K i n g s b u r y a n d Y e a d o n , 1 9 7 1 ) . V a l B l a c k e t . a l . j u s t m e n t i o n t h e v o c a b u l a r y u s e d i n t h e t e x t c a n be u s e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s on a number o f t o p i c s ( B l a c k , M c N o r t o n , M a l d e r e z a n d P a r k e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . L e s l e y G o r e s i m p l y n o t e s some w o r d s h a v e m u l t i p l e m e a n i n g s a n d t h a t d i c t i o n a r i e s s h o u l d be u s e d t o o b t a i n more p r e c i s e m e a n i n g s ( G o r e , 1979 p . v i ) . O t h e r a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s s a y e v e n l e s s . J i l l H a d f i e l d s a y s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g a b o u t 29 v o c a b u l a r y ( H a d f i e l d , 1984 a n d 1 9 8 7 ) . Rod E l l i s a n d B r a i n T o m l i n s o n a l s o s a y n o t h i n g a b o u t v o c a b u l a r y ( E l l i s a n d T o m l i n s o n , 1 9 8 7 ) . R o b e r t O ' n e i l l a n d R o g e r S c o t t do n o t d i s c u s s v o c a b u l a r y a t a l l . N e i t h e r do t h e a u t h o r s o f Challenge t o Think ( F r a n k , R i n v o l u c r i a n d B e r g e r , 1 9 8 2 ) . B e r n a r d S e a l a n d Megan W e b s t e r a n d L i b b y C a s t a n o n a l s o s a y n o t h i n g a b o u t v o c a b u l a r y ( S e a l , 1980 a n d W e b s t e r a n d C a s t a n o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . E v e n t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e few v o c a b u l a r y t e x t b o o k s on t h e m a r k e t g e n e r a l l y s a y l i t t l e on t h e n a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d how t o t e a c h i t . P e t e r W a t c y n - J o n e s l i m i t s h i s comments t o e x p l a i n i n g how t h e e x e r c i s e s s h o u l d be done ( W a t c y n - J o n e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . L.A. H i l l i n h i s Word Power s e r i e s o f v o c a b u l a r y b o o k s m e r e l y n o t e s w o r d s h a v e m e a n i n g s ( H i l l , 1 9 8 2 a , 1982b, a n d 1 9 8 3 ) . B e r n a r d S e a l i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o V o c a b u l a r y B u i l d e r 1 and 2 m e r e l y n o t e s t h e r e a r e g o o d r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g v o c a b u l a r y t h r o u g h " l e x i c a l s e t s " ( S e a l , 1 9 8 8 ) . R u d z k a e t . a l . , w h i l e t h e y e x h i b i t more a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e l e x i c a l component o f l a n g u a g e , a r e o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o l l o c a t i v e m e a n i n g ( R u d z k a , C h a n n e l l , P u t s e y s a n d O s t y n , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s do n o t d i s c u s s t h e l e x i c a l component o f l a n g u a g e i n any d e p t h , d o e s n o t mean t h e y h a v e no v i e w s on t h e n a t u r e o f v o c a b u l a r y a n d how i t s h o u l d be t a u g h t t o S L L s . I t j u s t means t h e y do n o t e x p l i c i t l y s h a r e t h e i r v i e w s w i t h t h e u s e r s o f t h e i r 30 t e x t b o o k s . S i n c e t h e y do n o t s h a r e t h e i r v i e w s , one must e x a m i n e t h e i r t e x t b o o k s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r v i e w s One way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r v i e w s i s t o e x a m i n e t h e g l o s s a r i e s w h i c h t h e a u t h o r s o f a few l a n g u a g e t e x t b o o k s i n c l u d e i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . S u c h an e x a m i n a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e s e a u t h o r s o n l y p r o v i d e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s f o r t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s t h e y i n c l u d e i n t h e i r g l o s s a r i e s . R o b e r t O ' N e i l l p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t s who u s e h i s K e r n e l Lessons P l u s w i t h j u s t a l i m i t e d number o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ( O ' N e i l l , 1 9 7 3 ) . R o b e r t O ' N e i l l a n d R o g e r S c o t t u s e g l o s s a r i e s i n much t h e same manner i n Viewpoints ( O ' N e i l l a n d S c o t t , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h e i r g l o s s a r i e s p r o v i d e s i m p l e a n d e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s f o r l e x i c a l i t e m s l i k e WITNESS, GAMUT o r S E N I L E . They do, h o w e v e r , o c c a s i o n a l l y p r o v i d e some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The e n t r y f o r NAUGHTY, f o r e x a m p l e , t e l l s t h e l e a r n e r i t i s u s e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h c h i l d r e n ( O ' N e i l l a n d S c o t t , 1974 p . 3 1 ) . M o s t a u t h o r s o f t h e s p e c i a l l y w r i t t e n t e x t b o o k s u s e d i n s c h o o l s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s i n J a p a n i n c l u d e a b i l i n g u a l E n g l i s h - J a p a n e s e g l o s s a r y i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . I n s t e a d o f g i v i n g t h e m e a n i n g s i n E n g l i s h , t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e s e b o o k s u s u a l l y p r o v i d e t r a n s l a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t s i n J a p a n e s e . The t r a n s l a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t s g e n e r a l l y g i v e j u s t a t r a n s l a t i o n t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s t h e g l o s s e d l e x i c a l i t e m s h a v e i n E n g l i s h . 31 The New Horizon s e r i e s o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s g l o s s e v e r y w o r d o r e x p r e s s i o n u s e d i n t h e t e x t b o o k s . By u s i n g t h e g l o s s e s S L L s c a n o b t a i n a l i m i t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o n l y one o r two o f t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s w h i c h e a c h w o r d o r e x p r e s s i o n h a s i n E n g l i s h . They c a n l e a r n t h a t DESK, DOG an d GOVERNMENT a r e TSUKUE, INU a n d S E I F U r e s p e c t i v e l y i n J a p a n e s e . B u t t h e y c a n n o t l e a r n t h a t DESK i n E n g l i s h c a n n o t r e f e r t o o r d e n o t e , a s TSUKUE c a n , a p a p e r s t r e w n t a b l e . A n d t h e y a l s o c a n n o t l e a r n t h a t DOG c a n c o n n o t e AN UGLY GIRL an d t h a t l i b e r a l s a n d c o n s e r v a t i v e s v i e w t h e p r o p e r r o l e o f g o v e r n m e n t d i f f e r e n t l y ( O t a , I t o a n d K u s a k a b e , 1 9 8 6 ) . The manner v o c a b u l a r y i s h a n d l e d i n o t h e r t e x t b o o k s u s e d i n J a p a n d o e s n o t d i f f e r n o t i c e a b l y f r o m t h e manner i t i s h a n d l e d i n t h e New Horizon t e x t b o o k s . The g l o s s a r i e s p r o v i d e J a p a n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n e q u i v a l e n t s t o e n a b l e S L L s t o l e a r n a l i t t l e o f t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h w o r d s u s e d i n t h e t e x t s . The t e x t b o o k s do n o t e x p l a i n how t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f t h e E n g l i s h w o r d s a n d t h e i r J a p a n e s e e q u i v a l e n t s d i f f e r . The t e x t b o o k s do n o t i n s t r u c t S L L s on o t h e r t y p e s o f m e a n i n g t h e g l o s s e d w o r d s p o s s e s s (Ogawa e t . a l . , 1983, H i r a n o e t . a l . , 1983, S h i m i z u e t . a l . , 1983, T a k a n a s h i e t . a l . , 1983 a n d Kamiyama e t . a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . The g l o s s a r i e s i n t h e E n g l i s h t e x t b o o k s u s e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n J a p a n a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e s i n t h e t e x t b o o k s u s e d i n J a p a n e s e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s . They p r o v i d e S L L s w i t h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g e q u i v a l e n t s . They do n o t p r o v i d e S L L s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t o t h e r t y p e s o f 32 m e a n i n g w h i c h t h e g l o s s e d l e x i c a l i t e m s h a v e ( B u r l e i g h , 1987, K u z u m i , 1986 a n d P o s e n e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . S L L s who r e l y s o l e l y on t h e g l o s s a r i e s i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s t o l e a r n t h e m e a n i n g ( s ) o f l e x i c a l i t e m s a c q u i r e a v e r y i n a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r m e a n i n g s . They a c q u i r e o n l y d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . They do n o t a c q u i r e o t h e r t y p e s o f m e a n i n g s . T h i s i s n o t e n o u g h t o h e l p them t o u s e a n d u n d e r s t a n d l e x i c a l i t e m s f l u e n t l y . F o r t h e a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s who p r o v i d e g l o s s a r i e s , i t i s r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h t y p e s o f m e a n i n g t h e y c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h t o t e a c h . One o n l y n o t e s t h e t y p e s o f m e a n i n g t h e y g i v e t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e i r g l o s s a r i e s . W i t h a u t h o r s who do n o t p r o v i d e g l o s s a r i e s -- t h e y a r e t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y — i t i s d i f f i c u l t t a s k . W i t h them i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e t h e s t o r i e s a n d d i a l o g u e s t h e y i n c l u d e i n t h e i r t e x t s . A u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s a l m o s t a l w a y s u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s i n c o n t e x t s w here k n o w l e d g e o f j u s t d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s i s s u f f i c i e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t e x t s . S e l d o m i s a k n o w l e d g e o f any o t h e r t y p e o f m e a n i n g n e c e s s a r y . I n t e x t s u s e d by e l e m e n t a r y a n d l o w i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s , t h i s e m p h a s i s on d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s i s u n d e r -s t a n d a b l e . As Hammerly n o t e s , l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s must f i r s t become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s (Hammerly, 1979 p . 5 6 9 ) . 33 H ence i t i s n o t u n e x p e c t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t f o r t e x t s l i k e : C r o s s t a l k Book 1, ( W e b s t e r a n d C a s t a n o n , 1 9 8 0 ) , K e r n e l Lessons Intermediate ( O ' N e i l l , K i n g s b u r y a n d Y e a d o n , 1 9 7 1 ) , M a i n l i n e P r o gress A ( A l e x a n d e r , 1 9 7 3 ) , B e g i n n i n g Composition Through P i c t u r e s ( H e a t o n , 1 9 7 5 ) , A c t i v i t i e s ( S e a l , 1980) a n d t h e t e x t s u s e d i n h i g h s c h o o l s i n J a p a n a l l one n e e d s t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s t o r i e s a n d d i a l o g u e s i s a k n o w l e d g e o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . One, h o w e v e r , s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t t o d i s c o v e r t h a t a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t e x t s d e s i g n e d f o r h i g h i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s i s k n o w l e d g e o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . I n t h e s e t e x t s some k n o w l e d g e o f o t h e r t y p e s o f m e a n i n g s h o u l d be n e c e s s a r y . I n s t e a d , one d i s c o v e r s a l l one n e e d s t o u n d e r s t a n d t e x t s l i k e : C r o s s t a l k Students' Book 3 ( W e b s t e r a n d C a s t a n o n , 1 9 8 0 d ) , F u n c t i o n a l E n g l i s h ( W h i t e , 1 9 7 9 ) , C h a l l e n g e To Think ( F r a n k , R i n v o l u c r i a n d B e r e r , 1 9 8 2 ) , M a i n l i n e S k i l l s B Students' Book ( A l e x a n d e r a n d K i n g s b u r y , 197 6 a ) , I Think You Think ( A l e x a n d e r a n d K i n g s b u r y , 197 6 b ) , a n d t h e t e x t s u s e d i n u n i v e r s i t i e s i n J a p a n i s a g r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . The o n l y m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f most t e x t b o o k s d e s i g n e d f o r a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s a n d t h o s e d e s i g n e d f o r e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s i s t h e g r e a t e r number o f t e c h n i c a l a n d a b s t r a c t l e x i c a l i t e m s a n d i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s i n t h o s e d e s i g n e d f o r a d v a n c e d s t u d e n t s . T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r . F o r a l l l e v e l s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s t h e o n l y t y p e o f m e a n i n g a u t h o r s e x p e c t s t u d e n t s t o know. 34 S L L s whose s o l e e x p o s u r e o r a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e l e x i c a l component o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e i s t h e l e x i c a l e n t r i e s i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s a c q u i r e a v e r y l i m i t e d a n d n a r r o w k n o w l e d g e o f t h e E n g l i s h l e x i c a l s y s t e m . The t e x t b o o k s w h i c h t h e y u s e do n o t p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y n e e d t o u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s f l u e n t l y . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h e y c a n n o t a c q u i r e T 3 C0s. They c a n n o t a c q u i r e m e a n i n g s w h i c h a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: S i n c e t h e s t u d y o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y a l e g i t i m a t e a r e a i n t h e f i e l d o f SLA a n d T3C0 i s most c e r t a i n l y an a s p e c t o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g , i t i s n a t u r a l t o e x a m i n e t h e l i t e r a t u r e on SLA i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r what, i f a n y t h i n g , SLA r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e w r i t t e n on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s . THE REVIEW: Ten o r f i f t e e n y e a r s ago v e r y l i t t l e was known a b o u t t h e manner i n w h i c h s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s a r e a c q u i r e d . O v e r t h e l a s t d e c a d e o r t w o , h o w e v e r , t h e s t u d y o f SLA h a s u n d e r g o n e e x p o n e n t i a l g r o w t h . D e s p i t e a l l t h e g r o w t h , h o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s t i l l a r e a s o f SLA a b o u t w h i c h c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e i s known. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s one o f t h e s e a r e a s . I t i s a common p r a c t i c e f o r t h e a u t h o r s o f i n t r o d u c t o r y b o o k s on t h e t e a c h i n g o f ESL t o d i s c u s s SLA. They s u m m a r i s e 35 a n d comment on t h e r e s u l t s o f SLA r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p h o n o l o g y , s y n t a x a n d m o r p h o l o g y ( R i v e r s , 1981 a n d K r a s h e n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; t h e a f f e c t i v e a n d s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e SLA (Brown, 1 9 8 0 ) ; t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d SLA (Hammerly, 1981 a n d S t e r n , 1983) a n d t h e e f f e c t v a r i a b l e s l i k e age a n d g e n d e r h a v e on SLA ( K r a s h e n , 1981 a n d K r a s h e n e t . a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . V e r y l i t t l e o f t h e r e s e a r c h t h e y r e p o r t on d e a l s w i t h l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . None d e a l s w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0. The r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n d e a l s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( R i v e r s , 1 9 8 3 ) . A n d t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n t h e y do n o t d i s c u s s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g more t h o r o u g h l y i s l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n h a s n o t b e e n s t u d i e d v e r y d e e p l y o r t h o r o u g h l y . P i t C o r d e r d o e s n o t d e a l w i t h l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n h i s b o o k ( C o r d e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . N o r d o e s W i l l i a m L i t t l e w o o d ( L i t t l e w o o d , 1 9 8 4 ) . Rod E l l i s a l s o n e g l e c t s l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( E l l i s , 1984 a n d 1 9 8 6 ) . S t e p h e n K r a s h e n a l s o i g n o r e s l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( K r a s h e n , 1 9 8 1 ) . D u l a y e t . a l . a l s o s a y n o t h i n g ( D u l a y , B u r t a n d K r a s h e n , 1 9 8 2 ) . W o l f g a n g K l e i n a l s o s a y s l i t t l e a b o u t l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( K l e i n , 1986) . W h i l e t h e s e w r i t e r s s a y l i t t l e s p e c i f i c a l l y a b o u t l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e y do make a few comments on how S L L s h a n d l e t h e l e x i c a l component o f l a n g u a g e . K l e i n n o t e s S L L s make l e x i c a l e r r o r s ( K l e i n , 1986 p.27, 1 4 5 ) . K r a s h e n n o t e s 36 t h a t w i t h o u t some v o c a b u l a r y k n o w l e d g e n o t much l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g c a n o c c u r ( K r a s h e n , 1981 p . 8 0 ) . E l l i s d i s c u s s e s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s e m a n t i c r o l e s s u c h a s ' a g e n t ' a n d ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ( E l l i s , 1 9 8 4 ) . He a l s o m e n t i o n s a few t e c h n i q u e s S L L s u s e t o l e a r n v o c a b u l a r y ( E l l i s , 1986 p . 1 0 4 ) . T h e i r comments, h o w e v e r , a r e o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n f o r t h e y n e v e r d i s c u s s t h e k n o w l e d g e S L L s h a v e o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . They h a v e l i t t l e t o s a y on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y c a n o n l y d i s c u s s what o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e done. I f t h e r e was an e x t e n s i v e amount o f r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n t h e y w o u l d h a v e t r e a t e d i t i n more d e t a i l . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f some o f t h e numerous b o o k s o f a r t i c l e s on SLA, h o w e v e r , r e v e a l s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n e x i s t s . A t l e a s t , t h e r e a r e few a r t i c l e s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e t h e s e b o o k s . J a c k R i c h a r d s ' b o ok d o e s n o t c o n t a i n a s i n g l e a r t i c l e on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( R i c h a r d s , 1 9 7 4 ) . The b o o k e d i t e d by J o h n Schumann a n d N a n c y S t e n s o n c o n t a i n s l i t t l e on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n (Schumann a n d S t e n s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . T h i s n e g l e c t o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e b o o k c o m p i l e d by E v e l y n H a t c h ( H a t c h , 1 9 7 8 ) . A n d i t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e b o o k e d i t e d by R o s a r i o G i n g r a s ( G i n g r a s , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n none o f t h e s e b o o k s i s t h e r e e v e n one a r t i c l e i n w h i c h t h e p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s i s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . L e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n , a t b e s t , r a t e s o n l y a few comments i n 37 t h e o c c a s i o n a l a r t i c l e . G i n g r a s , i n one o f h i s own a r t i c l e s , f o r e x a m p l e , m e r e l y n o t e s t h a t w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e o f v o c a b u l a r y n o t much l e a r n i n g c a n o c c u r ( G i n g r a s , 1978 p . 9 0 ) . A n d i n t h e a r t i c l e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n o n l y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e n o t a t i v e a n d / o r c o l l o c a t i v e m e a n i n g i s d i s c u s s e d . I n no a r t i c l e i s t h e r e any m e n t i o n o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO. A n d c o l l e c t i o n s o f a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 1980s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . They c o n t a i n f ew a r t i c l e s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . The b o o k e d i t e d b y S t e p h e n K r a s h e n , R o b i n S c a r e l l a a n d M i c h a e l L o n g , f o r e x a m p l e , c o n t a i n s no a r t i c l e s t h a t e x p l i c i t l y d e a l w i t h l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( K r a s h e n , S c a r e l l a , a n d L o n g , 1 9 8 2 ) . N o r d o e s t h e book e d i t e d b y N e s s a W o l f s o n a n d E l l i o t J u d d ( W o l f s o n a n d J u d d , 1 9 8 3 ) . N e i t h e r d o e s t h e one e d i t e d b y S u s a n G a s s a n d C a r o l y n Madden (Gass a n d Madden, 1 9 8 5 ) . B e r n h a r d K e t t e m a n n a n d R o b e r t S t C l a i r ' s b o o k a l s o c o n t a i n s no a r t i c l e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g b y S L L s ( K e t t e m a n n a n d S t . C l a i r , 1 9 8 0 ) . N o t a l l c o l l e c t i o n s a r e l i k e t h i s . A few c o n t a i n a r t i c l e s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n S t u d i e s e d i t e d b y K a t h l e e n B a i l e y , M i c h a e l L o n g A n d S a b r i n a P e c k c o n t a i n s one a r t i c l e on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n ( B a i l e y , L o n g a n d P e c k , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s a r t i c l e b y C h a r l e s James, h o w e v e r , i s c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g (James, 1 9 8 3 ) . 38 The same i s a l s o t r u e o f t h e t h r e e a r t i c l e s w h i c h d e a l e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n B e t t y R o b i n e t t a n d J a c q u e l y n S c h a c h t e r ' s a n t h o l o g y ( R o b i n e t t a n d S c h a c h t e r . 1983). A l l t h r e e a r t i c l e s d e a l e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( P r a t o r , 1983, D u s k o v a , 1983 a n d S t e n s o n , 1983). W h i l e r e c e n t c o l l e c t i o n s o f a r t i c l e s SLA c o n t a i n a r t i c l e s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n , s u c h a r t i c l e s a r e s t i l l r a r e . A r t i c l e s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s y n t a x , v a r i a b l e s w h i c h e f f e c t SLA, t h e t y p e o f i n p u t n e c e s s a r y f o r a c q u i s i t i o n t o o c c u r , how t e a c h e r s c a n i n f l u e n c e a c q u i s i t i o n , e t c . a r e more num e r o u s . W h i l e t h i s n e g l e c t o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n c a n n o t be c o n d o n e d , i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . The a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d i n j o u r n a l s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e w h i c h e d i t o r s h a v e i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s . The t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s o f j o u r n a l s l i k e T e s o l Q u a r t e r l y , Language Learning, ELT, e t c . r e v e a l s a c c o u n t s o f r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n b y S L L s a r e e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e . A n d a r t i c l e s on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 a r e r a r e r s t i l l . The r e s e a r c h e r h a s n o t f o u n d one a r t i c l e w h i c h d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0. T h i s may c h a n g e i n t h e f u t u r e . I n t h e l a s t few y e a r s r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s c o m i n g o f a g e . A l l t h e a r t i c l e s i n t h e J u n e 1987 i s s u e o f S t u d i e s i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , were on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n . W h i l e t h e a r t i c l e s d i d n o t d e a l w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , t h a t t h e y were p u b l i s h e d 39 i n d i c a t e s t h e s t u d y o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t . A n d J o h n Crow comes c l o s e t o a c t u a l l y e x a m i n i n g how TYPE 1 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g i s a c q u i r e d (Crow, 1 9 8 6 ) . I s i t t o o much t o e x p e c t r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 t o f o l l o w ? T h a t i s f o r t h e f u t u r e . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e a s s e r t i o n s o f M e a r a a n d L e v e n s t o n a r e b a s i c a l l y c o r r e c t . The s t u d y o f l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n b y S L L s h a s b e e n s e v e r e l y n e g l e c t e d ( M e a r a , 1982 p.100 a n d L e v e n s t o n , 1979 p . 1 4 7 ) . I n a d d i t i o n t h e l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n b y S L L s h a s b e e n v e r y n a r r o w l y c o n c e i v e d . The a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g h a s r e c e i v e d t h e most a t t e n t i o n . The s t u d y o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g h a s b e e n b y p a s s e d o r o v e r l o o k e d . FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: A r e v i e w o f some o f t h e work on f i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n i s u s e f u l i n s e v e r a l ways. 1. I t c o u l d h e l p c l a r i f y a t what p o i n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3COs c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r . I f s u c h a c q u i s i t i o n o c c u r s e a r l y i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , i t m i g h t a l s o o c c u r e a r l y i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t o c c u r s l a t e i n f i r s t l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t , i t c o u l d a l s o o c c u r l a t e i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . 2. I t c o u l d h e l p s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h e r s d e t e r m i n e t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s 40 o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g a r e a c q u i r e d . 3. I t m i g h t h e l p s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h e r s d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3COs v a r i e s w i t h s e m a n t i c f i e l d . THE REVIEW: F i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e n e g l e c t e d t h e s t u d y o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 j u s t a s c o m p l e t e l y a s t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c o l l e a g u e s . T h i s i s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h e r e i s an e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n b y f i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n l e a r n e r s . 2 T h e i r i n t e r e s t j u s t d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO. T h e i r p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t — j u s t a s i t i s f o r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e s e a r c h e r s — i s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . J o h n H a y e s , f o r e x a m p l e , d i d n o t s e l e c t e v e n one a r t i c l e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a r t i c l e s he e d i t e d . ( H a y e s , 1 9 7 0 ) . N e i t h e r d i d P h i l i p D a l e a n d D a v i d I n g r a m ( D a l e a n d I n g r a m , 1 9 7 6 ) . V i c t o r L e e a l s o d i d n o t s e l e c t one ( L e e , 1 9 7 9 ) . A nd t h e r e i s n o t h i n g on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO i n t h e book e d i t e d b y Th. B. S e i l e r a n d W. Wannenmacher ( S e i l e r a n d Wannenmacher, 1 9 7 9 ) . The a u t h o r s o f e x t e n d e d w o r k s on f i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n h a v e n o t d e a l t w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO e i t h e r . R o g e r Brown d o e s n o t e v e n m e n t i o n , l e t a l o n e d i s c u s s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO (Brown, 1 9 7 3 ) . None o f h i s p e e r s i n t h e 1970s d i s c u s s i t e i t h e r (Moerk, 1977; de 2. The de V i l l i e r s p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t , c o n c i s e summary o f t h e r e s e a r c h on f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n i n t h e i r E a r l y Language (de V i l l i e r s a n d de V i l l i e r s , 1 9 7 9 ) . 41 V i l l i e r s a n d de V i l l i e r s , 1978 a n d 1979; C l a r k ; 1978) . A n d f i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n t i n u e d t o i g n o r e o r o v e r l o o k i t s o f a r i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . ( E l l i o t , 1 9 8 1 ; B e c k , 1982; A n i s f e l d , 1984) None o f them s a y s a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO. F i r s t l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e n e g l e c t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO j u s t a s t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c o l l e a g u e s h a v e . T h e i r n e g l e c t o f i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e s i n c e t h e y a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e v e r y y o u n g . They c a n n o t s t u d y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO when t h e i r s u b j e c t s a r e s t i l l a c q u i r i n g d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s . B u t i f , a s seems l o g i c a l , t h e T3COs o f l e x i c a l i t e m s a r e a c q u i r e d r e l a t i v e l y l a t e more r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n a n d a d o l e s c e n t s . CONNOTATIVE MEANING OF COLOUR, BIRD AND ANIMAL TERMS JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e T3COs o f c o l o u r , a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s b y J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h ( J S E ) , i t w o u l d be u s e f u l t o know t h e T3COs t h e t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h . I t w o u l d p e r m i t t h e c o m p i l i n g o f : 1. a l i s t o f t h e T3COs t h e i t e m s h a v e i n E n g l i s h a g a i n s t w h i c h t o m e a s u r e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e i r T3COs b y a d u l t J a p a n e s e ; 2. a l i s t o f t h e T3COs w h i c h t h e t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e a g a i n s t w h i c h t o 42 m e a s u r e t h e d e g r e e a d u l t J S E s t r a n s f e r t h e T3COs t h e t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e t o t h e E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t s . THE REVIEW: A p e r u s a l o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s e m a n t i c s , m e t a p h o r , v o c a b u l a r y t e a c h i n g , e t c . q u i c k l y r e v e a l s t h i s i s s o m e t h i n g w h i c h h a s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . O n l y o c c a s i o n a l i s o l a t e d comments on t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s e x i s t . T h i s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e no r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d o n e . Some r e s e a r c h , h a s b e e n done f o r s u c h m e a n i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d i n d i c t i o n a r i e s . The Merriam-Webster D i c t i o n a r y l i s t s T3C0s f o r a number o f c o l o u r , a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s . BLUE i s l i s t e d a s h a v i n g t h e T3C0s o f DEPRESSING, PURITANICAL a n d INDECENT, a n d t h e T3C0, A STUPID PERSON i s a s c r i b e d t o ASS a n d i t i s n o t e d t h a t a s u p p o r t e r o f a w a r l i k e p o l i c y i s a HAWK. A n d The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y h a s GREEN w i t h t h e T3C0s o f INEXPERIENCED, JEALOUS, a n d S I C K L Y ; LION w i t h t h a t o f COURAGEOUS PERSON a n d GOOSE w i t h t h a t o f SIMPLETON. Some T3C0s l i s t e d i n d i c t i o n a r i e s , h o w e v e r , a r e o u t o f d a t e . The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y , f o r example, l i s t s JEALOUS as a T3CO f o r YELLOW and POMPOUS PERSON as a T3CO f o r TURKEY. These are not meanings many modern NSEs p r e s e n t l y a s c r i b e t o YELLOW and TURKEY. I n a d d i t i o n , n u merous common T3C0s a r e n o t l i s t e d i n e i t h e r o f t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s . The Concise Oxford, f o r e x a m p l e , d o e s n o t i n c l u d e NAIVE o r SIMPLETON as T3C0s o f TURKEY. The Merriam-43 Webster D i c t i o n a r y d o e s n o t n o t e t h a t BEAVER h a s t h e T3C0 o f HARD WORKER. E v e n t h e Longman D i c t i o n a r y o f E n g l i s h Idioms d o e s n o t l i s t t h e T3C0s o f t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s e x a m i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I n f a c t , i t d o e s n o t n o t e any T3C0s. L a r g e r a n d more c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i c t i o n a r i e s l i k e t h e S h o r t e r O x f o r d do p r o v i d e more c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g s o f T3C0s. T h e i r more c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g s o f T3C0s, h o w e v e r , w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o v i d e t h e t y p e o f d a t a n e e d e d . D i c t i o n a r i e s , e v e n p o c k e t o n e s , c o n t a i n e n t r i e s o r d e f i n i t i o n s w i t h w h i c h few p e o p l e a r e f a m i l i a r . T h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h e T3C0s l i s t e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y a r e m e a n i n g s known e v e n t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t NSEs. B u t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h e r e a r e T3COs o f c o l o u r , a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s a l l a d u l t NSEs know. A n d t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e t h e T3C0s l i s t e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y a r e up t o d a t e . I t i s p o s s i b l e r e c e n t T3C0s w o u l d n o t be l i s t e d i n a d i c t i o n a r y . T h i s i s a s e r i o u s i n a d e q u a c y f o r l e x i c a l i t e m s a c q u i r e new T3C0s q u i t e q u i c k l y . I t was n o t l o n g ago, f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t TURKEY d i d n o t p o s s e s s i t s p r e s e n t T3C0. D i c t i o n a r i e s do n o t p r o v i d e c o m p l e t e a n d a c c u r a t e l i s t i n g s o f t h e T3C0s w i t h w h i c h a d u l t NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r . A n d t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e i s v e r y s i m i l a r . T h e r e i s no a c c u r a t e l i s t i n g o f t h e T3C0s w h i c h c o l o u r , a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e . As i n E n g l i s h l i t t l e r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n done i n t h i s a r e a . A n d J a p a n e s e d i c t i o n a r i e s a r e n o t b e t t e r a t 44 n o t i n g t h e T3COs w h i c h a d u l t N S J s know. A t l e a s t , b i l i n g u a l J a p a n e s e - E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r i e s do n o t n o t e T 3 C 0 s . Hence t h e o n l y way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e t e r m s i n e i t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y E n g l i s h o r J a p a n e s e o r i s t o p o l l a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t number o f a d u l t NSEs a n d N S J s . T h i s i s t h e s i m p l e s t a n d most p r a c t i c a l way t o d e t e r m i n e t h e E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e T3C0s o f t h e s e l e c t e d c o l o u r , b i r d a n d a n i m a l t e r m s e x a m i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . METAPHOR JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: T3C0 i s t h e t y p e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h d e a d m e t a p h o r s p o s s e s s . B u t what a r e t h e q u a l i t i e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s ? What d i s t i n g u i s h e s d e a d m e t a p h o r s f r o m o t h e r m e t a p h o r s ? What i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n T3C0 a n d d e a d m e t a p h o r s ? What m e a n i n g s do d e a d m e t a p h o r s h a v e ? Where c a n a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s be f o u n d ? One p l a c e t h e y c o u l d be f o u n d i s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m e t a p h o r . THE REVIEW: Q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e a b o v e a r e n o t d e a l t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m e t a p h o r . M o s t s c h o l a r s o f m e t a p h o r b a r e l y t o u c h on q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e s e . I n s t e a d t h e y c o n s t r u c t t h e o r i e s o f m e t a p h o r o r e l s e a t t e m p t t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e g e n e s i s a n d f u n c t i o n i n g o f l i t e r a r y m e t a p h o r s . V e r y few h a v e much t o s a y on d e a d m e t a p h o r s a n d T3C0. 45 I.A. R i c h a r d s d e v o t e s a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n o f h i s l e c t u r e s on m e t a p h o r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k t o e x p l a i n how m e t a p h o r s f u n c t i o n ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 c h . 5 & 6 ) . Hence he d o e s n o t d i s c u s s t h e t y p e o f m e a n i n g s l e x i c a l i t e m s must p o s s e s s i n o r d e r f o r them t o h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be e m p l o y e d m e t a p h o r i c a l l y v e r y t h o r o u g h l y . He s i m p l y n o t e s l e x i c a l i t e m s h a v e l i t e r a l a n d m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p.119). Nowhere d o e s he c l a r i f y what t h e q u a l i t i e s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e i t h e r l i t e r a l o r m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s a r e . H i s comment t h a t DUCK c a n h a v e t h e m e a n i n g o f a CHARMING o r DELIGHTFUL OBJECT i n d i c a t e s one a s p e c t o f h i s m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o T3C0 ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p . 1 1 7 ) . I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m T3C0, f o r he assumes one c a n a r r i v e a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n by a l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g p r o c e s s . B u t i t i s an a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t T3C0s a r e a r b i t r a r y . As s u c h t h e r e i s no g u a r a n t e e one w i l l l o g i c a l l y d e c i p h e r t h e T3C0 o f a l e x i c a l i t e m . I f i t w e re p o s s i b l e , S L L s w o u l d n o t h a v e p r o b l e m s c o p i n g w i t h T 3 C 0 s . R i c h a r d s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f M e a d m e t a p h o r ' i s a l s o n o t c l e a r . W h i l e he u s e s t h e t e r m a n d e x a m i n e s a c o u p l e d e a d m e t a p h o r s ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p . 1 0 1 - 1 0 2 , p . 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 ) , he d o e s n o t d e f i n e t h e t e r m . H i s e x a m p l e s , h o w e v e r , make c l e a r h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f d e a d m e t a p h o r d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e one u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . F o r h i m STRONG i n STRONG LIGHT a n d LEG i n THE LEG OF A CHAIR a r e e x a m p l e s o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p.101 a n d p . 1 1 7 ) . B u t , a s was made c l e a r i n C h a p t e r One, s u c h e x p r e s s i o n s a r e n o t d e a d m e t a p h o r s , One o f t h e p o i n t s R i c h a r d s i t e r a t e s i s most i n t e r e s t i n g . He s t a t e s t h a t " . . . m e t a p h o r i s t h e o m n i p r e s e n t p r i n c i p l e o f l a n g u a g e ..." ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p . 9 2 ) . He c l a i m s m e t a p h o r i s s o p e r v a s i v e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d s h o r t p a s s a g e s w h i c h do n o t c o n t a i n m e t a p h o r s ( R i c h a r d s , 1936 p . 9 2 ) . I f he i s r i g h t , t h e r e i s no d o u b t o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . R i c h a r d s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e o r y i s a l s o s h a r e d by Max B l a c k . I n h i s two famous e s s a y s , as R i c h a r d s d i d , he e s t a b l i s h e s a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k t o i m p r o v e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f m e t a p h o r ( B L A C K , 1962 a n d 1 9 7 9 ) . B l a c k , h o w e v e r , p l a c e s more e m p h a s i s on m e a n i n g t h a n R i c h a r d s . He n o t e s i n o r d e r f o r m e t a p h o r s t o s u c c e e d , t h e y must t r i g g e r m e a n i n g f u l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e r e c e i v e r s o f t h e m e t a p h o r s ( B l a c k 1977 p . 2 8 - 2 9 ) . T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e s i m i l a r t o T3C0. He n o t e s t h a t a m e t a p h o r l i k e MAN I S A WOLF d e p e n d s upon a s s o c i a t i n g t h e f i e r c e n e s s o f w o l v e s w i t h man ( B l a c k , 1962 p . 4 0 ) . B l a c k , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t v i e w t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a s b e i n g p e r m a n e n t l y r e c o r d e d i n t h e l e x i c o n , as i t i s a ssumed i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t h a t T3COs a r e . I n s t e a d , he v i e w s them as t h i n g s w h i c h r e a d e r s o r l i s t e n e r s must f a s h i o n a f r e s h e a c h t i m e t h e y e n c o u n t e r a m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . (BLACK, 1962 p t . 5 ) . As s u c h , he h a s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n T3COs a n d d e a d m e t a p h o r s . I n f a c t , 47 he s t a t e s d e a d m e t a p h o r s a r e n o t r e a l l y m e t a p h o r s a t a l l ( B l a c k , 1977 p . 2 6 ) . P e r h a p s t h e y a r e n o t r e a l l y m e t a p h o r s s i n c e t h e i r m e a n i n g s a r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e l e x i c o n . The c o n c e r n s o f R i c h a r d s a n d B l a c k w i t h t h e o r y a r e a l s o s h a r e d b y most modern s c h o l a r s o f m e t a p h o r . Owen Thomas c o n s t r u c t s a v e r y p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r y o f m e t a p h o r (Thomas, 1 9 6 9 ) . R o g e r T o u r a n g e a u i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n s t r u c t i n g a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y t o e x p l a i n how m e t a p h o r s a r e u n d e r s t o o d ( T o u r a n g e a u , 1 9 7 8 ) . F.C.T. Moore, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a t t e m p t s t o r e f u t e some t r a d i t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t m e t a p h o r (Moore, 1 9 8 2 ) . D a v i d S a p i r d i s c u s s e s a n d o u t l i n e s some modern a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f m e t a p h o r ( S a p i r , 1 9 7 7 ) . C h r i s t o p h e r C r o c k e r w r i t e s a b o u t t h e s o c i a l r o l e m e t a p h o r o f t e n p l a y s ( C r o c k e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . O t h e r s c h o l a r s t a k e l e s s g e n e r a l a p p r o a c h e s . J o h a n V a n p a r y s a l o n g w i t h G e o r g e L a k o f f a n d M. J o h n s o n e x a m i n e t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f some common E n g l i s h i d i o m s ( V a n p a r y s , 1984 a n d L a k o f f a n d J o h n s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . J o n a t h a n Cohen e x a m i n e s t h e r o l e s e m a n t i c f e a t u r e s p l a y i n m e t a p h o r (Cohen, 197 9 ) . Samuel L e v i n a l s o e x a m i n e s m e t a p h o r f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a s e m a n t i c i s t ( L e v i n , 1 9 7 7 ) . P e t e r Dwyer d e a l s w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a n i m a l m e t a p h o r s a n d t o t e m i s m (Dwyer, 1 9 8 0 ) . C e c i l Brown a n d S t a n l e y W i t k o w s k i e x a m i n e a n d e x p l a i n b o d y m e t a p h o r s (Brown a n d W i t k o w s k i , 1 9 8 1 ) . None d i s c u s s e s T3CO a n d i t s r o l e i n d e a d m e t a p h o r s . 48 A few s c h o l a r s , h o w e v e r , v i e w m e t a p h o r d i f f e r e n t l y . They a t t r i b u t e t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l n e s s o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s t o T3C0. J o h n Condon, f o r i n s t a n c e , n o t e s t h a t : "Dead m e t a p h o r s t h a t were o n c e f r e s h a n d b r i g h t become l e g i t i m a t e w o r d s i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y w i t h o u t a t h o u g h t t o t h e i r m e t a p h o r i c a l q u a l i t i e s " (Condon, 1966 p . 4 6 ) . A n d G l u c k s b u r g e t . a l . s u g g e s t s some m e t a p h o r i c ' v e h i c l e s ' a r e ' s t o c k p h r a s e s ' w h i c h a r e more l e x i c a l t h a n t h e y a r e m e t a p h o r i c ( G l u c k s b u r g , G i l d e a a n d B o o k i n , 1982 p . 9 5 ) . A n d R o l a n d B a r t e l n o t e s c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f many m e t a p h o r s . ( B a r t e l , 1 9 8 3 ) . None o f t h e s e s c h o l a r s r e g a r d s T3C0 as a c e n t r a l p a r t o f m e t a p h o r . J . J . A . M o o i j , h o w e v e r , d o e s . I n h i s A Study o f Metaphor he c l e a r l y a n d c o n c i s e l y r e v i e w s c o n n o t a t i o n t h e o r i e s o f m e t a p h o r d e v e l o p e d b y Monroe B e a r d s l e y , J e a n C o h en a n d A n t o n R e i c h l i n g ( M o o i j , 1 9 7 6 ) . He s t a t e s c o n n o t a t i o n t h e o r i e s " . . . e x p l a i n t h e m e a n i n g o f m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f p a r t o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s e w o r d s i n l i t e r a l u s e " ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 3 5 ) . A n d t h i s ' p a r t o f t h e m e a n i n g ' i s c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 8 1 ) . T3C0 a n d M o o i j ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y T3C0 i s a d i s t i n c t t y p e o f m e a n i n g w h i c h i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f o t h e r t y p e s o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . C o n n o t a t i o n t h e o r i s t s on t h e o t h e r h a n d , v i e w c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g as a s u b - t y p e o f l i t e r a l m e a n i n g ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 8 5 ) . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i t i s as s u m e d o n l y l e x i c a l i t e m s u s e d i n d e a d m e t a p h o r s p o s s e s s T 3C0s. F o r 49 c o n n o t a t i o n t h e o r i s t s , h o w e v e r , m e t a p h o r i c a l w o r d s i n f r e s h a n d n o v e l m e t a p h o r s a r e a l s o p o s s e s s o r s o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s ( M o o i j , 1976 p . 8 3 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n T3C0 a n d M o o i j ' s c o n c e p t o f c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . T h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s r e v e a l e d : 1. most s c h o l a r s a r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e o r i e s ; 2. most assume one c a n a r r i v e a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m e t a p h o r s t h r o u g h some l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . 3. most d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f T3C0. 4. w h i l e most t h e o r i s t s r e c o g n i s e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s , t h e y s a y l i t t l e a b o u t them. 5. t h e r e i s no c o n s e n s u s on how m e t a p h o r s w ork. 6. c o n n o t a t i o n t h e o r i s t s v i e w c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g much a s i t i s v i e w e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . 7. t h e l i t e r a t u r e on m e t a p h o r i s n o t t h e p l a c e t o l o o k f o r a l i s t o f T3C0s. E v e n M o o i j , d e s p i t e h i s i n t e r e s t i n c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g o n l y n o t e s FOX a n d WOLF h a v e t h e T3C0s o f SLY a n d CRUEL r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s r e v i e w h a s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e a r e s o u n d r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 by S L L s . I f l a n g u a g e i s r e a l l y a s m e t a p h o r i c a l as R i c h a r d s c l a i m e d , a s t u d y on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 i s a g o o d way d i s c o v e r t o how w e l l S L L s h a n d l e t h e v e r y e x t e n s i v e m e t a p h o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f E n g l i s h . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e , i f t h e most numerous a n d f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g m e t a p h o r s i n E n g l i s h a r e d e a d m e t a p h o r s . W h i l e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , i t i s t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s b e l i e f most l a n g u a g e 50 c r e a t e i n f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s . S t u d y i n t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0s c o u l d a l s o be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e S L L s ' l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . I f l a n g u a g e i s s o m e t a p h o r i c a l , one c a n n o t be f l u e n t w i t h o u t a g o o d command o f m e t a p h o r . ACQUISITION OF METAPHOR JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: S i n c e t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n T3C0, i t i s u s e f u l t o r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r . 3 S u c h a r e v i e w c o u l d r e v e a l s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s a n d t h u s i n d i r e c t l y s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0. I t c o u l d e v e n r e v e a l s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e c o l o u r , a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s e x a m i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . THE REVIEW: The l i t e r a t u r e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r c o n t a i n s l i t t l e on t h e t o p i c o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The a s p e c t s o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r i n w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s most i n t e r e s t e d , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s a n d t h e T3C0s l e x i c a l i t e m s i n d e a d m e t a p h o r s p o s s e s s h a v e n o t b e e n s t u d i e d . I n s t e a d , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e a n d i n t e r p r e t o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s h a s b e e n s t u d i e d . E l l e n W i n n e r e t . a l . s t u d i e d how t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d a n d i n t e r p r e t c o m p l e x o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s d e v e l o p s 3. A l l o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d d e a l s w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r b y f i r s t l a n g u a g e l e a r n e r s . T h e r e h a s b e e n no r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r b y S L L s . 51 ( W i n n e r , R o s e n s t i e l a n d G a r d n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . A few y e a r s l a t e r G a r d n e r a n d E l l e n t r a c e d b o t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t c o m p l e x o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e t h e m ( G a r d n e r a n d W i n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . V o s n i a d o u e t . a l . a l s o s t u d i e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s ( V o s n i a d o u , O r t o n y , R e y n o l d s a n d W o l f s o n , 1 9 8 4 ) . None o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s i n t e r e s t i n t r a c i n g how c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p o r a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p r e h e n d d e a d m e t a p h o r s . T h i s l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n d e a d m e t a p h o r s i s n o t e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d . I t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d d e a d m e t a p h o r s a p p e a r s b e f o r e t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d o r i g i n a l o n e s . A l l one n e e d s t o a c q u i r e i s an e x t e n d e d a s p e c t o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . S u r e l y i t i s much e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e an e x t e n d e d a s p e c t o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g t h a n i t i s t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t a n d g e n e r a t e o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s . One o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i s q u i t e r e l e v a n t t o t h e t o p i c o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d c o m p l e x o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s d o e s n o t d e v e l o p c o m p l e t e l y u n t i l w e l l i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e ( G a r d n e r a n d W i n n e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . Hence S L L s s h o u l d be a b l e t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s u s e d i n d e a d m e t a p h o r s some t i m e b e f o r e t h e y o b t a i n n e a r n a t i v e s p e a k e r f l u e n c y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r t h e T3C0s o f t h e l e x i c a l i t e m s o f c o n c e r n i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f o r t h e y a r e among t h e most common o f d e a d m e t a p h o r s . The o n l y p r o b l e m i s t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e j u s t when S L L s a r e c a p a b l e o f a c q u i r i n g t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e 52 t e r m s . P e r h a p s t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f a c q u i r i n g t h e m q u i t e e a r l y i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . P e r h a p s t h e y a r e n o t c a p a b l e o f a c q u i r i n g t h e m u n t i l t h e y a r e r e l a t i v e l y f l u e n t . LINGUISTIC INTERFERENCE JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: O v e r t h e l a s t few d e c a d e s a p e r v a s i v e a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g h a s b e e n t h a t t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e o f t h e l e a r n e r i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e l e a r n e r ' s a c q u i s i t i o n o f a new l a n g u a g e . T h a t i s , a c e r t a i n p o r t i o n o f t h e e r r o r s S L L s make i n t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e t r a n s f e r o f c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e s y n t a x , m o r p h o l o g y , p h o n o l o g y o r s e m a n t i c s o f t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e t o t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . Hence, a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e c o u l d r e v e a l w h e t h e r S L L s t r a n s f e r t h e T3C0s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e t o e q u i v a l e n t l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . THE REVIEW: U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e t o p i c o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s f o r t h i s . 1. s c h o l a r s h a v e b e g u n t o b e l i e v e o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e e r r o r s S L L s make c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e . K r a s h e n e t . a l . n o t e most g r a m m a t i c a l e r r o r s a n d a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f p h o n o l o g i c a l e r r o r s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o i n t e r f e r e n c e ( K r a s h e n , D u l a y a n d B u r t , 1982 p . 9 7 - 9 8 ) . Hence, l e s s r e s e a r c h on l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e h a s b e e n done i n r e c e n t y e a r s . 2. a n e g l i g i b l e amount o f 53 t h e r e s e a r c h on l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e h a s f o c u s e d on t h e l e x i c a l c omponent o f l a n g u a g e . I n f a c t , s o l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on l e x i c a l i n t e r f e r e n c e h a s b e e n done t h a t K r a s h e n e t . a l . do n o t m e n t i o n i t . M o s t r e s e a r c h h a s f o c u s e d on t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t s i n s t e a d ( K r a s h e n , D u l a y a n d B u r t , 1982 c h . 5 ) . S.N. S r i d h a r i n a 1981 a r t i c l e r e v i e w s t h e t y p e s o f r e s e a r c h on i n t e r f e r e n c e w h i c h h a v e b e e n done ( S r i d h a r , 1 9 8 1 ) . A n d as he p u t s i t : "The a r e a o f v o c a b u l a r y h a s h a r d l y b e e n t o u c h e d a t a l l " ( S r i d h a r , 1981 p . 2 1 7 ) . One s t u d y he c i t e s , h o w e v e r , i s most i n t e r e s t i n g . O s g o o d a n d H o f s t a t t e r , t h e a u t h o r s o f t h i s a r t i c l e c o n c l u d e : " . . . i n t e r f e r e n c e s a r e l i k e l y on t h e n o n - d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g l e v e l o f t h e s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . . . " ( S r i d h a r , 1981 p . 2 1 8 ) . S u c h a c o n c l u s i o n c l e a r l y s u g g e s t s t h e r e i s m e r i t i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . The few o t h e r a r t i c l e s on l e x i c a l a c q u i s i t i o n a l l d e a l w i t h d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . C l i f f o r d P r a t o r c o m p a r e s a d j e c t i v e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h w i t h t h o s e i n s e v e r a l o t h e r l a n g u a g e s ( P r a t o r , 1 9 8 3 ) . C h r i s t i a n A d j e m i a n e x a m i n e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s e l e c t i o n a l r e s t r i c t i o n s e n c o d e d i n t h e l e x i c o n a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e ( A d j e m i a n , 1 9 8 3 ) . J o s h A r d a n d Taco Homburg d i s c o v e r e d t h a t some S L L s t r a n s f e r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s t o t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e ( A r d a n d Homburg, 1 9 8 1 ) . 54 The meagre amount o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a , makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o make c l a i m s a b o u t t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f l e x i c a l p r o p e r t i e s w i t h o u t q u a l i f y i n g t h e m i n some manner. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e a r t i c l e b y Osgo o d a n d H o f s t a t t e r i n d i c a t e s t h e r e a r e g o o d r e a s o n s f o r a s s u m i n g many l e a r n e r s t r a n s f e r t h e T3C0s o f t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e t o t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e . O s g o o d a n d H o f s t a t t e r s t u d i e d t h e t r a n s f e r w h i c h o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n German a n d S w e d i s h . I f s u c h t r a n s f e r o c c u r s b e t w e e n German a n d S w e d i s h , two v e r y s i m i l a r l a n g u a g e s , i s i t n o t p r o b a b l e s u c h t r a n s f e r w i l l a l s o o c c u r b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e , two v e r y d i s s i m i l a r l a n g u a g e s ? CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN CONNOTATIVE MEANING JUSTIFICATION FOR INCLUSION: S i n c e one o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o d i s c o v e r t h e e x t e n t J a p a n e s e p e o p l e t r a n s f e r T3C0s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h , i t i s n a t u r a l t o r e v i e w t h i s t y p e o f l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s a g o o d way t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t J a p a n e s e p e o p l e t o t r a n s f e r T3C0s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h ? I f T3C0s v a r y g r e a t l y f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e , t r a n s f e r a n d i t s r e s u l t i n g m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a r e p o s s i b l e . B u t i f T3C0s v a r y l i t t l e f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e , t r a n s f e r i s l e s s l i k e l y t o be a p r o b l e m . THE REVIEW: Max B l a c k n o t e s p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s may n o t u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r ' s m e t a p h o r s . The r e a s o n -- a l t h o u g h he d o e s n o t u s e t h e t e r m — i s t h a t t h e T3C0s o f l e x i c a l 55 i t e m s may d i f f e r f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e ( B l a c k , 1962 p.40). W h i l e he d o e s n o t g i v e any e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t h i s s t a t e m e n t , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o d o u b t i t s v a l i d i t y . The r e s e a r c h o f H a i - L i L i a n d K e i t h B a s s o c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t i t . L i n o t e s s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3CO b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d C h i n e s e ( L i , 1982). BATS h a v e a v e r y n e g a t i v e T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . I n C h i n e s e , h o w e v e r , t h e y h a v e a p o s i t i v e T3CO. I n - f a c t , t h e y a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g o o d f o r t u n e ( L i , 1982 p.93). CAT, w h i c h i n E n g l i s h h a s no T3CO, i s u s e d b y C h i n e s e p e o p l e t o r e f e r t o c h i l d r e n who a r e l a z y ( L i , 1982 p.93). RUNNING DOGS i s u s e d t o r e f e r t o t h o s e who t r y t o c u r r y f a v o u r w i t h t h e p o w e r f u l ( L i , 1982 p.93). A n d WHITE c o n n o t e s s a d n e s s ( L i , 1982.p.95). A l l o f t h e s e m e a n i n g s , as any NSE knows, a r e c o m p l e t e l y f o r e i g n t o E n g l i s h . How many E n g l i s h p e o p l e h a v e h e a r d o r r e a d t h e t e r m , RUNNING DOGS, an d d i d n o t know what i t r e a l l y m eant? B a s s o i n a p a p e r on t h e m e t a p h o r s o f t h e W e s t e r n A p a c h e v e r y c l e a r l y a n d p r e c i s e l y d e m o n s t r a t e s v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3CO do e x i s t a c r o s s c u l t u r e s ( B a s s o , 1976) . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3COs b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d W e s t e r n A p a c h e a r e so g r e a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y any NSE w o u l d come up w i t h t h e T3COs w h i c h l e x i c a l i t e m s h a v e i n W e s t e r n A p a c h e . RAVEN i n W e s t e r n A p a c h e , f o r e x a m p l e , h a s t h e T3CO o f WIDOW ( B a s s o , 1976 p.249). DOGS a n d BUTTERFLIES h a v e t h e T3COs o f CHILDREN a n d GIRLS r e s p e c t i v e l y ( B a s s o , 1976 p.249). I t i s 56 d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e NSEs who w o u l d n o t h a v e d i f f i c u l t y d e c i p h e r i n g t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e t e r m s . L i a n d B a s s o e x a m i n e d j u s t a few m e t a p h o r s i n two v e r y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e T3C0s i n E n g l i s h , C h i n e s e a n d W e s t e r n A p a c h e d i f f e r g r e a t l y . B u t i s t h a t a l l t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s ? Can i t be assumed t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3C0 t h e y o b s e r v e d a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l c u l t u r e s ? W h i l e i t i s an e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n t o t a k e , t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e w h i c h s u g g e s t s i t i s n o t s u c h an e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n . I t i s w i d e l y known, o r a t l e a s t w i d e l y b e l i e v e d , TYPE 2 T3C0s d i f f e r g r e a t l y f r o m one c u l t u r e t o a n o t h e r . G e o f f r e y L e e c h , f o r e x a m p l e , n o t e s n o t o n l y do c o n n o t a t i o n s (TYPE 2) v a r y f r o m s o c i e t y t o s o c i e t y , t h e y a l s o v a r y f r o m one h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d t o a n o t h e r ( L e e c h , 1974 p . 1 4 ) . Thus TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s i n J a p a n e s e c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o d i f f e r f r o m t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n E n g l i s h n o t o n l y b e c a u s e o f c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e i n some ways J a p a n e s e p e o p l e a n d E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e o p l e l i v e i n d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . I n J a p a n women o c c u p y a much more t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e t h a n t h e y do i n most E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . I n E n g l a n d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , women become p r i m e m i n i s t e r s . A n d t h i s i s u n l i k e l y t o h a p p e n i n J a p a n i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . Hence, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h e TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f WOMAN d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y b e t w e e n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d J a p a n . No d o u b t t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f o t h e r l e x i c a l i t e m s a l s o d i f f e r . I n d e e d t h e y do. E v e n a c a s u a l a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h J a p a n e s e 57 a n d t h i n g s J a p a n e s e r e v e a l s HOUSE a n d DEMOCRACY, f o r e x a m p l e , do n o t h a v e t h e same TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s as t h e y h a v e i n E n g l i s h . HOUSE f o r J a p a n e s e p e o p l e c o n n o t e s t a t a m i f l o o r s , no c e n t r a l h e a t i n g , f a m i l y a l t a r s a n d numerous o t h e r t h i n g s a n d one o f t h e TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f DEMOCRACY i n J a p a n e s e i s t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n must c o n s e n t t o a l l l e g i s l a t i o n b e f o r e i t c a n b e p a s s e d . The l i t e r a t u r e on t h e manner i n w h i c h TYPE 2 a n d TYPE 3 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s d i f f e r f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e i s n o t s u b s t a n t i a l . A l l t h a t i s n e e d e d i s e n o u g h t o i n d i c a t e i t i s p l a u s i b l e t o assume t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3C0s b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e . A nd t h e r e i s e n o u g h t o i n d i c a t e t h i s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3C0s do e x i s t b e t w e e n C h i n e s e a n d E n g l i s h a n d b e t w e e n W e s t e r n A p a c h e an d E n g l i s h . W h i l e t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s do n o t p r o v e s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t b e t w e e n E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n n o t t o e x p e c t them t o e x i s t . I f TYPE 2 c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s d i f f e r b e t w e e n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h , i s i t n o t r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3C0s t o e x i s t ? I f t h e y do n o t e x i s t , i t w o u l d be most s u r p r i s i n g f o r J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h a r e d i f f e r e n t i n a l o t o f o t h e r ways B u t w h i l e i t may be l o g i c a l t o assume d i f f e r e n c e s i n T3C0s e x i s t b e t w e e n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h , i s i t l o g i c a l t o assume t h e T3C0s o f c o l o u r , b i r d a n d a n i m a l t e r m s d i f f e r ? I t i s , b u t t h e r e i s no way o f k n o w i n g u n t i l some r e s e a r c h i s done. 58 SUMMARY: T h i s r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s r e v e a l e d T3C0 h a s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . L a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t h e o r i s t s h a v e c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d i t . The a u t h o r s o f ESL t e x t b o o k s h a v e n o t a l l o c a t e d s p a c e f o r i t i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s . F i r s t a n d s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d i t . S c h o l a r s o f m e t a p h o r r e g a r d i t t o be o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t . S c h o l a r s who h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f m e t a p h o r h a v e i g n o r e d i t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e v i e w h a s r e v e a l e d : 1. T3C0 i s an i m p o r t a n t t y p e o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g . 2. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f l u e n c y . 4. S L L s a r e u n l i k e l y t o a c q u i r e many T3C0s i n f o r m a l l a n g u a g e s t u d y . 5. T3C0 v a r i e s f r o m c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e . 6. T3C0 p o s e s p r o b l e m s f o r S L L s . 7. No a c c u r a t e l i s t o f T3C0s e x i s t s f o r E n g l i s h o r J a p a n e s e . 8. L i t t l e on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0s by S L L s i s known. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The pre s e n t study was designed t o p r o v i d e some data on the a c q u i s i t i o n of T3C0s by a d u l t Japanese speakers of E n g l i s h . I t was conducted at Iwate U n i v e r s i t y , a n a t i o n a l u n i v e r s i t y i n no r t h e r n Japan. Three d i f f e r e n t s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments were designed and g i v e n t o the s u b j e c t s t o complete i n order t o p r o v i d e data on the a c q u i s i t i o n of the TYPE 3 c o n n o t a t i v e meanings (T3C0s) of 39 common E n g l i s h animal, b i r d and c o l o u r terms by JSEs. While the t h r e e s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments were d i f f e r e n t , they d i f f e r e d only i n the amount of context which accompanied each i n d i v i d u a l s timulus item. Each set of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments r e q u i r e d the s u b j e c t s t o s t a t e what they b e l i e v e d the T3C0s of the 39 terms used i n the study were. THE SUBJECTS: N i n e t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s were asked t o complete the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments. Eleven of the s u b j e c t s were p r o f e s s o r s of E n g l i s h at Iwate U n i v e r s i t y . Three of them were p r o f e s s o r s of a g r i c u l t u r e at Iwate U n i v e r s i t y who use E n g l i s h e x t e n s i v e l y . E l e v e n were j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who belonged t o the Japan A s s o c i a t i o n of Language Teachers (JALT). S i x t y - e i g h t were second, t h i r d and f o u r t h year E n g l i s h students at Iwate U n i v e r s i t y . Only 70 of the s u b j e c t s a c t u a l l y completed the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments, however. And as the s u b j e c t s were 60 n o t a s k e d t o s t a t e t h e i r name o r t o p r o v i d e any o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o know w i t h a b s o l u t e c e r t a i n t y who d i d a n d who d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . A l l t h a t c a n be s a i d i s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s d i d d i f f e r i n v a r i o u s ways. T h i r t y - t w o w e re m a l e a n d 38 were f e m a l e . S e v e n t e e n h a d l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y a n d 53 h a d n o t . S i x t e e n h a d more t h a n s i x t e e n y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , 53 h a d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s a n d one c l a i m e d t o h a v e h a d f e w e r t h a n 12 y e a r s . T w e n t y - f i v e h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s a n d 45 f o r b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s . T h r e e were u n d e r 20 y e a r s o f age, 51 were b e t w e e n t w e n t y a n d 30 y e a r s o f age a n d 16 were more t h a n 30 y e a r s o f a g e . T h i r t y - n i n e u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week a n d 29 u s e d i t l e s s o f t e n . S i x t e e n t h o u g h t t h e i r E n g l i s h s k i l l s w ere a d v a n c e d a n d 50 t h o u g h t t h e y w e re i n t e r m e d i a t e . 1 I n a d d i t i o n 14 NSEs a n d 28 N S J s r e s p e c t i v e l y were e m p l o y e d t o e s t a b l i s h o r d e t e r m i n e what t h e T3COs o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e i n b o t h J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h . The NSEs were a l l a d u l t s . E i g h t w e re m a l e a n d s i x were f e m a l e . F o u r were f r o m C anada a n d t e n were f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . E l e v e n h a d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . To d e t e r m i n e t h e m e a n i n g s i n J a p a n e s e , 28 f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s a t I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y were e m p l o y e d . E i g h t e e n were 1. A more c o m p l e t e b r e a k d o w n o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i s g i v e n i n t h e a p p e n d i x . 61 m a l e a n d t e n were f e m a l e . They were a l l a b o u t 20 y e a r s o f age a n d a l l w e re f r o m t h e Tohoku a r e a o f n o r t h e r n J a p a n . S E L E C T I O N OF THE S U B J E C T S : The p o o l o f s u b j e c t s a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r was l i m i t e d i n s i z e . O n l y 100 t o 150 p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s w e re a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e s t u d e n t s he t a u g h t , t h e E n g l i s h p r o f e s s o r s w i t h whom he w o r k e d , t h e s m a l l number o f E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s whom he h a d met t h r o u g h J A L T a n d a few o t h e r p e o p l e he h a d met who s p o k e E n g l i s h q u i t e f l u e n t l y . The r e s e a r c h e r was t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d t o u s e t h e s e p e o p l e as s u b j e c t s . A n d s i n c e t h e p o o l o f s u b j e c t s was so s m a l l i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r a n d o m l y s e l e c t t h e s u b j e c t s . He t h e r e f o r e s e l e c t e d as s u b j e c t s t h o s e who were most c o n v e n i e n t l y a c c e s s i b l e . To s u m m a r i s e , t h e s u b j e c t s were a l l a t l e a s t 18 y e a r s o f a g e . They were a l l n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f J a p a n e s e . They a l l p o s s e s s e d a t l e a s t a l o w - i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . A g e n e r a l t e r m l i k e ' l o w - i n t e r m e d i a t e ' h a s b e e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e f l u e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t s e v e n t h o u g h i t i s n o t v e r y r e l i a b l e . W h i l e t h e r e i s w i d e d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r what a t e r m l i k e l o w - i n t e r m e d i a t e means, t h e u s e o f s u c h t e r m s was u n a v o i d a b l e . The u s e o f a s t a n d a r d i s e d t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f l u e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t s was t o d e x p e n s i v e a n d t h e l i s t i n g o f e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a f o r e a c h g e n e r a l l e v e l w o u l d h a v e b e e n t o o cumbersome a n d c o n f u s i n g f o r t h e s u b j e c t s . 62 THE STIMULI: T h i r t e e n a n i m a l , 13 b i r d a n d 13 c o l o u r t e r m s were e m p l o y e d as s t i m u l i i n t h i s s t u d y . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a w e r e u s e d t o s e l e c t them: 1. t h e t e r m s a r e o n e s w i t h w h i c h i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h a r e f a m i l i a r ; 2. a l a r g e number o f t h e t e r m s h a v e T3C0s; 3. n o t a l l o f t h e t e r m s h a v e T 3 C 0 s ; 4. p l a u s i b l e T3C0s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h o s e t e r m s w h i c h do n o t h a v e T3C0s; 5. p l a u s i b l e s e n t e n c e s w i t h i m a g i n a r y T3C0s c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h o s e t e r m s w h i c h do n o t h a v e T3C0s; 6. t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s; 7. t h e t e r m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s a r e u s e d w i t h t h e i r T3C0s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n n o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s i n E n g l i s h . The 13 a n i m a l t e r m s w e r e : b u f f a l o , cow, s n a k e , e l e p h a n t , f o x , monkey, b e a v e r , d e e r , w o l f , h o r s e , dog, b e a r , a n d t i g e r . The 13 b i r d t e r m s w e r e : c h i c k e n , s w a l l o w , g o o s e , c r a n e , e a g l e , swan, t u r k e y , p i g e o n , hawk, s p a r r o w , o w l , d u c k a n d c r o w . The 13 c o l o u r t e r m s w e r e : r e d , p u r p l e o r v i o l e t , p i n k , o r a n g e , b l u e , g o l d , g r e e n , w h i t e , b r o w n , s i l v e r , g r e y , b l a c k a n d y e l l o w . O n l y 13 a n i m a l , b i r d o r c o l o u r t e r m s w ere u s e d s i n c e t h e 11 b a s i c E n g l i s h c o l o u r t e r m s p l u s S I L V E R a n d GOLD t o t a l 13. The 11 b a s i c E n g l i s h c o l o u r t e r m s a c c o r d i n g t o B r e n t B e r l i n a n d P a u l Kay a r e w h i t e , b l a c k , b r o w n , g r e e n , y e l l o w , b l u e , r e d , o r a n g e , g r e y , p u r p l e a n d p i n k ( B e r l i n a n d Kay, 1 9 6 9 ) . 63 CONSTRAINTS ON THE STIMULI: I n t h i s s t u d y o n l y t h e T3C0s w h i c h t h e t e r m s h a v e i f t h e y c a n be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t h e w o r d i n p a r e n t h e s e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d . - J o h n i s a ( w o l f ) . - J o h n i s ( w o l f ) . - J o h n i s a ( w o l f ) < s o m e t h i n g > . - J o h n / i t i s < p r e p o s i t i o n > t h e ( w o l f ) . - J o h n h a s a ( w o l f ) < s o m e t h i n g > . WOLF i s u s e d h e r e o n l y as an e x a m p l e . I t i s n o t meant t o i m p l y a l l o f t h e s e s e n t e n c e s a r e m e a n i n g f u l . I n d e e d , o n l y t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e i s m e a n i n g f u l . By d o i n g t h i n g s i n t h i s manner, e x p r e s s i o n s l i k e t h e f o l l o w i n g w e r e e l i m i n a t e d f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n . - J o h n i s as w i s e as an o w l . - J o h n h a s t h e memory o f an e l e p h a n t . - J o h n moves l i k e a b u l l i n a c h i n a s h o p . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e abo v e g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , t h e a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s i n two w o r d c o m b i n a t i o n s l i k e : w h i t e k n i g h t , g r e e n thumb, b l a c k m a i l , l o n e w o l f , n i g h t o w l e t c . w e r e deemed n o t t o p o s s e s s T3COs. I n s t e a d t h e y w e re v i e w e d a s n o t h a v i n g any m e a n i n g i n t h e i r own r i g h t , b u t t o o n l y h a v e m e a n i n g when c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e no u n s w h i c h t h e y m o d i f y o r w i t h t h e a d j e c t i v e s w h i c h m o d i f y them. Thus s u c h t e r m s w ere n o t e x a m i n e d o r o f i n t e r e s t i n t h i s s t u d y . THE INSTRUMENTS: I n t h i s s t u d y s e v e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n s t r u m e n t s were e m p l o y e d . ( C o p i e s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a p p e n d i x . ) The f i r s t o f t h e s e was a s e t o f t h r e e 64 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h was e m p l o y e d t o g a t h e r some r e l e v a n t b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on e a c h o f t h e s u b j e c t s . The s e c o n d t y p e was a c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . T h e r e w ere a l s o t h r e e t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h t h e J S E s h a d t o c o m p l e t e . E a c h o f t h e s e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e a n d / o r f r e e r e s p o n s e s t o s t i m u l u s p r o m p t s , was e m p l o y e d t o e l i c i t t h e s u b j e c t s ' k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s . A n d i n a d d i t i o n t h e NSEs a n d N S J s e a c h h a d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o c o m p l e t e . The b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were q u i t e t y p i c a l o f t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n s u r v e y s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e . They s i m p l y r e q u e s t e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o p r o v i d e t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h some p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e J S E s , were a s k e d q u e s t i o n s on t h e i r age, g e n d e r , a r e a o f J a p a n w h i c h t h e y w e re f r o m , y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , y e a r s o f f o r m a l E n g l i s h s t u d y , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r l e v e l o f f l u e n c y , l e n g t h o f t i m e s p e n t i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h t h e y u s e d E n g l i s h f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The NSEs were a s k e d v e r y s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n s . The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e y w e re n o t a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e i r s t u d y a n d u s e o f E n g l i s h . I n s t e a d t h e y were a s k e d w h i c h t y p e o f E n g l i s h t h e y were a n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f . 65 The N S J s were a s k e d q u e s t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e s t h e NSEs were a s k e d . They were a s k e d a b o u t t h e i r age, g e n d e r , y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e p a r t o f J a p a n t h e y w e re f r o m . The c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was g i v e n o n l y t o t h e J S E s . The t e s t was g i v e n so t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m i t c o u l d s e r v e a s t h e ' c o v a r i a t e ' i n ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The t e s t c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s w h i c h h a d e v e r y s i x t h o r s e v e n t h w o r d d e l e t e d . 2 The d e l e t e d w o r d s w e r e l i s t e d on a s e p a r a t e p age i n random o r d e r . The s u b j e c t s w e re r e q u i r e d t o p u t t h e d e l e t e d w o r d s b a c k i n t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e i n t h e p a s s a g e s . The t h r e e t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h t h e J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h h a d t o c o m p l e t e w e re a l s o q u i t e t y p i c a l . I n s t r u m e n t s s i m i l a r t o them, a s B o r g a n d G a l l n o t e , h a v e b e e n e m p l o y e d e x t e n s i v e l y i n s u r v e y r e s e a r c h ( B o r g a n d G a l l , 1983 c h . l l ) . T h e r e was a c o m p l e t e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . E a c h s e t c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The f i r s t t y p e i n e a c h s e t s i m p l y r e q u i r e d t h e s u b j e c t s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e t e r m s b e i n g s t u d i e d i n t h i s s t u d y p o s s e s s e d T3C0s. A n d f o r e a c h t e r m w h i c h t h e y d e c i d e d h a d a T3C0, t h e y w e re r e q u i r e d t o s t a t e what t h e y t h o u g h t 2. The p a s s a g e s were t a k e n f r o m American S t r e a m l i n e : Departures by B e r n h a r d H a r t l e y a n d P e t e r V i n e y ; Headway: Intermediate by J o h n & L i z S o a r s a n d Speaking Elementary by Rob N o l a s c o . 66 i t s T 3 C 0 ( s ) i s / a r e . The s e c o n d t y p e c o n s i s t e d o f t h e same 13 s i n g l e w o r d s t i m u l i . B u t i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o s t a t e what t h e T 3 C 0 ( s ) o f e a c h t e r m i s / a r e , t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o s e l e c t w h i c h o f t h e f i v e r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e d b e s t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s w h i c h e a c h t e r m h a s . The f i r s t t h r e e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n were s i n g l e w o r d s w h i c h w e re p o s s i b l e T3C0s. I f t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e t e r m h a d one o f t h e s e m e a n i n g s , t h e y were t o s e l e c t i t . I f t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e t e r m h a d no T3C0, t h e y w e re t o s e l e c t t h e f o u r t h r e s p o n s e . A n d i f t h e y w e re u n s u r e , t h e y w e re t o s e l e c t t h e f i f t h r e s p o n s e . The t h i r d t y p e o f e a c h s e t a l s o c o n s i s t e d o f t h e same 13 s i n g l e w o r d s t i m u l i . T h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a s i n g l e w o r d r e s p o n s e o r t o s e l e c t t h e most s u i t a b l e s i n g l e w o r d r e s p o n s e , t h e s u b j e c t s w e re c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t a s k . A s i n t h e s e c o n d p a r t , t h e y w e re g i v e n f i v e p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s . The f i r s t t h r e e r e s p o n s e s w e re s e n t e n c e s i n w h i c h t h e t e r m was u s e d w i t h p o s s i b l e T 3 C0s. I f t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e t e r m h a d one o f t h e s e m e a n i n g s t h e y w e r e t o s e l e c t i t . I f t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e t e r m h a d no T3C0 o r t h e y w e re n o t s u r e i t h a d a T3C0, t h e y w e re t o s e l e c t t h e f o u r t h o r f i f t h r e s p o n s e r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n b o t h t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d t y p e s i f a t e r m h a d a T3C0, one o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e r e s p o n s e s c o n t a i n e d i t . I f a t e r m h a d more t h a n one T3C0, o n l y one was u s e d . 67 The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h t h e N S J s a n d NSEs h a d t o c o m p l e t e w ere d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e t h e J S E s h a d t o c o m p l e t e . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e y h a d t o c o m p l e t e o n l y one t y p e . I n e f f e c t t h e N S J s a n d NSEs were r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e an e x p a n d e d v e r s i o n o f t h e f i r s t t y p e o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h t h e J S E s h a d t o c o m p l e t e . They were s i m p l y g i v e n a l i s t o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d , a n d c o l o u r t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a n d r e q u i r e d t o do two t h i n g s . F i r s t , t h e y h a d t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r e a c h o f t h e t e r m s h a d o r d i d n o t h a v e a T3C0 i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e . They were a l s o g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f s t a t i n g t h e y w e re u n s u r e w h e t h e r t h e t e r m s h a d T3C0s. I f t h e y d e c i d e d a t e r m h a d a T3C0, t h e y h a d t o w r i t e down what t h e y t h o u g h t i t s T 3 C 0 ( s ) w a s / w e r e . A l l o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w ere a c c o m p a n i e d by d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s e x p l a i n e d i n c l e a r , s i m p l e t e r m s w h i c h a n o n - s p e c i a l i s t c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d what T3C0 i s . S e v e r a l l e x i c a l i t e m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s were u s e d as e x a m p l e s i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . The d i r e c t i o n s e x p l a i n e d how t o c o m p l e t e t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The d i r e c t i o n s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n i n t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s . The NSEs were g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h . The N S J s a n d t h e J S E s w ere g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s w r i t t e n 68 i n J a p a n e s e . The J a p a n e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s w e r e t r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d d i r e c t i o n s . The i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h t h e J S E s r e c e i v e d , a s i d e f r o m b e i n g i n J a p a n e s e , were i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e t h e NSEs r e c e i v e d . The i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h t h e N S J s r e c e i v e d , h o w e v e r , were a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t . I n s t e a d o f u s i n g t h e e x a m p l e s t a k e n f r o m E n g l i s h , e x a m p l e s t a k e n f r o m J a p a n e s e were u s e d . A n d b e c a u s e J a p a n e s e grammar d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m E n g l i s h grammar, t h e g r a m m a t i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e t e r m s a p p e a r i n J a p a n e s e do n o t c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o t h e E n g l i s h e n v i r o n m e n t s . The d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d e a c h e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t , h o w e v e r , were b a s i c a l l y t h e same. The J S E s , s i n c e t h e y were t h e o n l y s u b j e c t s t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s d i d r e c e i v e d i r e c t i o n s w h i c h t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s d i d n o t r e c e i v e . The d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e s e two t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , h o w e v e r , were f i r s t w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h a n d t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o J a p a n e s e . The N S J s were p e r m i t t e d t o w r i t e t h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n J a p a n e s e . They were t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h b y a n a t i v e s p e a k e r o f J a p a n e s e . THE CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF THE STIMULUS TERMS: I n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t t h e two d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f m u l t i p l e c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e 39 t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y h a v e T 3 C 0 s . Then he h a d t o d e c i d e f o r t h e t e r m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s 69 j u s t what t h e i r T3COs a r e . I n t h e c a s e o f t e r m s w h i c h h a v e more t h a n one T3C0 he a l s o h a d t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e i r v a r i o u s T3C0s t o u s e . A n d i t was n o t a l w a y s e a s y t o make t h e s e d e c i s i o n s s i n c e r e s e a r c h on t h e s e a s p e c t s o f T3C0, a s was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , i s e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d . The r e s e a r c h e r r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on h i s own j u d g e m e n t i n d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t h e t e r m s h a v e o r do n o t h a v e T3C0s. He a l s o u s e d h i s own j u d g e m e n t i n d e c i d i n g what T3C0s t h e t e r m s h a v e . When he h a d any d o u b t s , he d i s c u s s e d t h e m w i t h c o l l e a g u e s who were n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h . He made h i s f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s . Some t e r m s h a v e m u l t i p l e T 3 C0s. Y e t o n l y one T3C0 c o u l d b e u s e d on t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s . When d e c i d i n g w h i c h o f t h e s e T3C0s t o s e l e c t , he s e l e c t e d t h e T3C0S he b e l i e v e d a r e t h e most w i d e l y u s e d i n modern E n g l i s h . He r e l i e d on h i s own j u d g e m e n t t o make t h e s e d e c i s i o n s . THE METHODOLOGY: The m e t h o d o l o g y c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f h a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s p r o v i d e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s t o s t i m u l i . The s t i m u l i w e r e t h e 39 t e r m s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d . The r e s p o n s e s t h e y made were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s . A s s u c h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y p r o v i d e d , i t i s h o p e d , a r e l a t i v e l y a c c u r a t e p r o f i l e o f t h e s u b j e c t s ' c o n s c i o u s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s ' T3C0s r a t h e r t h a n a p r o f i l e o f t h e p e r h a p s more v a l i d , r e l e v a n t a n d i m p o r t a n t u n c o n s c i o u s a n d s p o n t a n e o u s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u b j e c t s . 70 The f i r s t s t e p was t o r e q u e s t a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t o c o m p l e t e one o f t h e t h r e e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . One q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r t h e NSEs. The s e c o n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r t h e N S J s . A n d t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r t h e J S E s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e s t a p l e d t o t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . Hence t h e s u b j e c t s w e re g i v e n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t ( s ) a t t h e same t i m e . The n e x t s t e p d e p e n d e d on w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t s were NSEs o r N S J s o r w h e t h e r t h e y were J S E s . I f t h e y w e re NSEs o r N S J s t h e y p r o c e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . I f t h e y w e re J S E s t h e y p r o c e e d e d t o do t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . The NSEs a n d N S J s h a d t o c o m p l e t e o n l y one e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . The N S J s were a l l s t u d e n t s i n a f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c l a s s a t I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y . A n d as t h e i r p r o f e s s o r was most c o o p e r a t i v e , t h e y were a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t d u r i n g c l a s s t i m e . They were g i v e n t h e i n s t r u m e n t a n d a s k e d t o r e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s . I n a d d i t i o n t h e y w e re g i v e n an e x p l a n a t i o n i n J a p a n e s e . A n d i f t h e y d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d s o m e t h i n g , t h e y were e n c o u r a g e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . They were g i v e n as much t i m e as t h e y n e e d e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t . A n d when t h e y were f i n i s h e d , t h e y h a n d e d t h em i n t o t h e i r p r o f e s s o r who i n t u r n h a n d e d them t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . 71 The p r o c e d u r e w i t h t h e NSEs was s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t . S i n c e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g a t h e r t h e m a l l i n one p l a c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r e i t h e r m a i l e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o them o r h a n d e d i t t o them p e r s o n a l l y . I n e i t h e r c a s e t h e y w e re a l l o w e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t home a t t h e i r l e i s u r e . When t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t , t h e y w e re g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f h a n d i n g them b a c k t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y o r m a i l i n g t h e m t o h i m . W h i l e t h e N S J s a n d NSEs h a d o n l y one e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o c o m p l e t e , t h e J S E s h a d t o c o m p l e t e a s e t o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . They were r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t f i r s t . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was u s e d w i t h t h o s e s u b j e c t s whom i t was p o s s i b l e t o s u p e r v i s e . M o s t were s t u d e n t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r a t I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y ; a few, h o w e v e r , w e r e s t u d e n t s o f a n o t h e r t e a c h e r a t I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y . The c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was h a n d e d o u t t o them. They were g i v e n a few m i n u t e s t o r e a d t h e d i r e c t i o n s a n d t o f a m i l i a r i s e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h what was r e q u i r e d o f them. Then t h e y w e re g i v e n 15 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h e t e s t . A t t h e e n d o f 15 m i n u t e s t h e t e s t s w e r e h a n d e d i n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . B u t b e f o r e t h e y h a n d e d t h em i n t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e a f o u r d i g i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number o f t h e i r c h o i c e on t h e t o p r i g h t c o r n e r o f t h e t e s t . They were a l s o i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e t h e same number on t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . H a v i n g t h e 72 s u b j e c t s i d e n t i f y t h e i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h i s way, made i t p o s s i b l e t o m a t c h up t h e r e a d i n g t e s t s a n d t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d them. F o r some o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s , t h o s e who were m a i l e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s a n d p r o f e s s o r s a n d a few o t h e r s , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o s u p e r v i s e t h e r e a d i n g t e s t . W i t h t h e m i t was l e f t t o t h e i r i n t e g r i t y a n d h o n o u r t o t a k e o n l y 15 m i n u t e s . By g i v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s o n l y 15 m i n u t e s t o do t h e t e s t , i t was f e l t t h a t most o f t h e s u b j e c t s w o u l d be u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e i t . Thus i t was f e l t t h e r e w o u l d be more v a r i a t i o n i n how w e l l t h e t e s t was done. I t was f e l t a t e s t w h i c h p r o d u c e d l a r g e r amounts o f v a r i a t i o n i n r e s u l t s w o u l d f u n c t i o n b e t t e r as a c o v a r i a t e t h a n a t e s t w h i c h d i d n o t . W h i l e t h e r e a r e n i n e d i f f e r e n t e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , n one o f t h e s u b j e c t s was r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e a l l n i n e o f them. I n s t e a d , e a c h s u b j e c t h a d t o c o m p l e t e o n l y a s e t w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e o f t h e n i n e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r h a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e o n l y t h r e e o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i s q u i t e s i m p l e . H a v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e o n l y t h r e e o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was t h e o n l y way o f e n s u r i n g e a c h s u b j e c t c o m p l e t e d b o t h one o f e a c h t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t a n d one f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s . The t h r e e 73 p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e : 1. A n i m a l s - f r e e w o r d c h o i c e . C o l o u r s - s e n t e n c e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . B i r d s - w o r d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . 2. A n i m a l s - w o r d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . C o l o u r s - f r e e w o r d c h o i c e . B i r d s - s e n t e n c e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . 3. A n i m a l s - s e n t e n c e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . C o l o u r s - w o r d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e . B i r d s - f r e e w o r d c h o i c e . T h e r e were a l s o s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s t o d o i n g t h i n g s i n t h i s manner. F i r s t , i t g r e a t l y r e d u c e d t h e amount o f t i m e t h e s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . S e c o n d , i t e l i m i n a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s u s i n g k n o w l e d g e t h e y g a i n e d f r o m d o i n g one i n s t r u m e n t t o h e l p them c o m p l e t e one o f t h e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i r d , i t p e r m i t t e d a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f h y p o t h e s e s t o be d e v e l o p e d . F o u r t h , i t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e d u c e d t h e number o f s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t u d y . F i f t h , i t p e r m i t t e d a more c o m p l e x a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s t o be c o n d u c t e d . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t s . Hence w h i c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d was e n t i r e l y a m a t t e r o f c h a n c e . The s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d t o t a k e t h e i r t i m e i n c o m p l e t i n g t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . They were a l l o w e d t o t a k e t h e m home -- o f c o u r s e t h o s e who were m a i l e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s r e c e i v e d them a t home -- i f t h e y w i s h e d . They c o u l d t h e n m a i l them i n t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r h a n d them i n p e r s o n a l l y . I t was t h e i r c h o i c e . 74 The i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s w e re g i v e n e m p h a s i s e d t h r e e p o i n t s . 1. I t was e m p h a s i s e d a l l t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d be k e p t s t r i c t l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . I n f a c t , i t was e x p l a i n e d t o them t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e s e a r c h was t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e y knew a s a g r o u p a n d n o t what t h e y knew as i n d i v i d u a l s . 2. I t was e m p h a s i s e d t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re n o t t e s t s . I t was e m p h a s i s e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s w e re o n l y d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e y knew. Hence, t h e y were i n s t r u c t e d n o t t o g u e s s a t any o f t h e a n s w e r s . 3. I t was e m p h a s i s e d t h e y s h o u l d n o t c h e c k t h e i r a n s w e r s i n any way o r d i s c u s s them w i t h a n y o n e . SCORING PROCEDURE FOR THE CLOZE READING TEST: An a n s w e r was deemed t o be c o r r e c t i f t h e w o r d i n s e r t e d i n any b l a n k was t h e e x a c t same w o r d w h i c h t h e a u t h o r o f t h e p a s s a g e h a d u s e d . SCORING PROCEDURE FOR THE ELICITATION INSTRUMENTS: F o r t h e f r e e w o r d c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e J S E s , an a n s w e r f o r any o f t h e 39 t e r m s was deemed t o be c o r r e c t i f t h e a n s w e r g i v e n met e i t h e r o f t h e two f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : - t h e a n s w e r g i v e n was one w h i c h a t l e a s t f o u r o f t h e 14 NSEs h a d g i v e n . T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e c o g n i s e s t h e f a c t t h e NSEs d i d n o t l i s t a l l o f t h e p o s s i b l e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s w h i c h p o s s e s s m u l t i p l e T 3 C0s. - t h e a n s w e r g i v e n was one w h i c h , e v e n i f f e w e r t h a n f o u r n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h h a d g i v e n i t , 75 t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d t o i n g o o d c o n s c i e n c e a c c e p t a s a l e g i t i m a t e T3C0. T h i s c r i t e r i o n r e c o g n i s e s t h e f a c t t h e NSEs s o m e t i m e s o v e r l o o k e d o r f o r g o t l e g i t i m a t e T3C0s. F o r t h e w o r d m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e a n d t h e s e n t e n c e m u l t i p l e -c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s an a n s w e r was deemed t o be c o r r e c t i f t h e a n s w e r s e l e c t e d was t h e one w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d d e c i d e d was c o r r e c t . The d e c i s i o n s on w h i c h a n s w e r s w o u l d be a c c e p t e d as c o r r e c t w e re made b e f o r e g i v i n g t h e s u b j e c t s t h e e l i c i t a t i o n s i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o m p l e t e . ACCEPTABILITY OF RESPONSES BY THE NSs OF ENGLISH: A r e s p o n s e g i v e n b y a NSE was deemed a c c e p t a b l e i f i t s a t i s f i e d t h e g r a m m a t i c a l a n d c o l l o c a t i o n a l r e s t r a i n t s o u t l i n e d on pa g e 95. I f a r e s p o n s e , i n t h e j u d g e m e n t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , d i d n o t s a t i s f y t h e s e r e s t r a i n t s , i t was d i s r e g a r d e d . ACCEPTABILITY OF RESPONSES BY THE NSs OF JAPANESE: A l l o f t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by t h e N S J s were d i s c u s s e d w i t h a J a p a n e s e p r o f e s s o r o f l i n g u i s t i c s f r o m I w a t e U n i v e r s i t y . W h i l e t h e r e a r e some T3C0s t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d w h i c h he r e g a r d e d as d o u b t f u l , i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m t o c a t e g o r i c a l l y deny t h e y were n o t a c c e p t a b l e T3C0s. Hence i t was d e c i d e d t o r e g a r d a l l t h e T3C0s t h e s u b j e c t s g a v e a s a c c e p t a b l e T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d , h o w e v e r , t h a t some o f t h e T3C0s t h e s u b j e c t s g a v e a r e u n l i k e l y t o be T3C0s w i t h w h i c h a l l N S J s a r e f a m i l i a r . B e s i d e s t h e p u r p o s e 76 o f h a v i n g t h e N S J s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t was s i m p l y t o e s t a b l i s h a l i s t o f T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e w h i c h c o u l d be u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e f r e e c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e . A n d t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e were e s t a b l i s h e d so t h a t a few a n o m a l o u s T3C0s c o u l d n o t s i g n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e . THE HYPOTHESES: T h e r e a r e 12 h y p o t h e s e s . Ten o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s a r e s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s p e r m i t t h e s c o r e s t h e J S E s o b t a i n e d on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t o be c o m p a r e d a g a i n s t a number o f v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a b l e s a r e : s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , s e m a n t i c f i e l d , amount o f c o n t e x t , g e n d e r , age, y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , y e a r s o f E n g l i s h s t u d y , l e v e l o f . E n g l i s h f l u e n c y a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y E n g l i s h i s u s e d . Two o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s p e r m i t s t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e J S E s g a v e on t h e f r e e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s t o be c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e N S J s g a v e on t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . The o t h e r p e r m i t s t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e NSEs on t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o be c o m p a r e d a n d t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e N S J s on t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o be c o m p a r e d . INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: HYPOTHESIS #1 The J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r T3C0s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h . 77 E L I C I T A T I O N INSTRUMENT H Y P O T H E S I S : H Y P O T H E S I S #2 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t . CONTEXT H Y P O T H E S I S : H Y P O T H E S I S #3 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . S E M A N T I C F I E L D H Y P O T H E S I S : H Y P O T H E S I S #4 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n . i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . A G E H Y P O T H E S I S : H Y P O T H E S I S #5 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o age. GENDER H Y P O T H E S I S : H Y P O T H E S I S #6 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o g e n d e r . E X P E R I E N C E H Y P O T H E S E S : H Y P O T H E S I S #7 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . H Y P O T H E S I S #8 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l s t u d y o f E n g l i s h . H Y P O T H E S I S #9 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o r e s i d e n c y i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . H Y P O T H E S I S #10 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e E n g l i s h . H Y P O T H E S I S #11 The J S E s u b j e c t s ' e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . 78 MISCELLANEOUS HYPOTHESES: HYPOTHESIS #12 a The NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e i n E n g l i s h . HYPOTHESIS #12 b The N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3COs o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y a r e i n J a p a n e s e . DATA ANALYSIS: The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d b y t h e J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h t h e y h a d t o c o m p l e t e a n d t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t s t u d y w e re a n a l y s e d b y A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o r ANCOVA. The u s e o f ANCOVA e n a b l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e v a r i a b l e s a l l o w e d f o r i n t h e s t u d y ( t y p e o f i n s t r u m e n t , c o n t e x t , s e m a n t i c f i e l d , g e n d e r , age, y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , y e a r s o f E n g l i s h s t u d y , t i m e s p e n t i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s , l e v e l o f E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , a n d t h e f r e q u e n c y one u s e s E n g l i s h ) were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A t o t a l o f 14 d i f f e r e n t c o m p a r i s o n s w e re made. T h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d c o m p a r i s o n s w e r e made. A n d t h r e e c o n t e x t c o m p a r i s o n s w e re made. J u s t one c o m p a r i s o n was made f o r e a c h o f t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s . A l l o f t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s were t w o - t a i l e d . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a l l t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s was s e t a t .05. ANCOVA was u s e d t o a n a l y s e a l l o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s e x c e p t f o r t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e a n d t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s h y p o t h e s e s . 79 I n o r d e r t o do t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e l e t e r a n d o m l y t h e s c o r e s o f some o f t h e s u b j e c t s . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t i n t h e a n a l y s e s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d e q u a l l y . I f t h i s h a d n o t b e e n done some u n i n t e n d e d b i a s c o u l d h a v e s k e w e d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were u s e d t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e h y p o t h e s i s . 1. I n t e r f e r e n c e was d e f i n e d as t h e t r a n s f e r e n c e o f a J a p a n e s e T3C0 f o r one o f t h e t e r m s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e r m i n E n g l i s h . 2. I n t e r f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t o c c u r i f t h e T3C0 i n E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e w ere t h e same. Thus s i n c e BLACK h a s t h e T3C0 o f E V I L i n b o t h E n g l i s h a n d J a p a n e s e , no t r a n s f e r e n c e was p o s s i b l e f o r t h i s t e r m . 3. F o r a t l e a s t t e n o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y , 2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s h a d t o be due t o i n t e r f e r e n c e . 4. I f l e s s i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . 5. I f t h i s much o r more i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . O n l y t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e x a m i n e d f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e . The r e s p o n s e s on t h e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d . On t h e MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s no a t t e m p t was made t o e n s u r e t h a t a t l e a s t one o f t h e p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s f o r e a c h t e r m was a J a p a n e s e T3C0. 80 I n o r d e r f o r t h e n u l l f o r m s o f t h e c o n t e x t a n d s e m a n t i c f i e l d h y p o t h e s e s t o be r e j e c t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were u s e d t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e m i s c e l l a n e o u s h y p o t h e s e s : 1. I f f o r a t l e a s t 30 o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e NS s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d a t l e a s t 7 5 % a g r e e m e n t on what t h e T3COs o f t h e t e r m s a r e , t h e h y p o t h e s e s w ere a c c e p t e d . 2. I f l e s s a g r e e m e n t was e x h i b i t e d t h e h y p o t h e s e s w ere r e j e c t e d . SUMMARY: The 70 J S E s u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y w e re g i v e n one o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o m p l e t e . E a c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l how w e l l t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f 39 f r e q u e n t l y u s e d E n g l i s h a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t , d i d t e s t t h e same t h i n g . I t i s j u s t t h a t t h e amount c o n t e x t w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e t e r m s f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s v a r i e d . F o r e x a m p l e , on one s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h e a n i m a l t e r m s were a c c o m p a n i e d b y no c o n t e x t . On one o f t h e o t h e r two s e t s o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y were a c c o m p a n i e d b y a w o r d o f c o n t e x t . A n d on t h e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t t h e y were a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s e n t e n c e o f c o n t e x t : The s u b j e c t were a l l a d u l t n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f J a p a n e s e . They were e i t h e r s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h a t u n i v e r s i t y o r e l s e t e a c h e r s o r p r o f e s s o r s o f E n g l i s h . NSs o f J a p a n e s e a n d 81 E n g l i s h w e r e e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i n c e t h e s u b j e c t s were n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d , a c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was u s e d t o a c t a s t h e c o v a r i a t e i n ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e u s e d was .05. The h y p o t h e s e s were d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d , s e m a n t i c f i e l d o r c o n t e x t . They were a l s o d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l w h e t h e r t h e s u b j e c t s ' s c o r e s v a r i e d due t o age, g e n d e r , l e v e l o f E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , y e a r s o f E n g l i s h s t u d y , y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y E n g l i s h i s u s e d o r r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . 82 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e J S E s u b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d f i r s t . N e x t , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t c o m p l e t e d b y t h e J S E s u b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . Then, a b r i e f summary o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . Then, t h e T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h a r e co m p a r e d . E a c h h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e n a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y . The c h a p t e r c l o s e s w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . JAPANESE SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH TABLE #1 ELICITATION INSTRUMENT RESULTS N T o t a l MEAN S .D. RANGE CORR SS 70 598.00 8.54 4 .59 1-22 0.28 1455.37 A b r i e f g l a n c e a t t h e a b o v e t a b l e q u i c k l y r e v e a l s t h e J S E s , t h e p r i m a r y s u b j e c t s o f t h e s t u d y , h a v e a c q u i r e d r e l a t i v e l y few o f t h e T3C0S o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . The mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was o n l y 8.54. T a k e n a s a g r o u p t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f f e w e r t h a n 2 5 % o f t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . E v e n t h e b e s t o f them h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0S o f o n l y s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f o f t h e t e r m s . O n l y f o u r h a d o f t h e 70 s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f 4 0 % o f t h e t e r m s . J u s t 28 h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f t e n o f t h e t e r m s . F i f t e e n 83 h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0 o f f i v e o r f e w e r t e r m s . The w o r s t h a d a c q u i r e d a T3C0 o f o n l y one o f t h e t e r m s . T h i s l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e was n o t e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . T h e r e w e re a few t e r m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o l o u r t e r m s , f o r w h i c h a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s. F o r t y - e i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d , f o r e x a m p l e , MELANCHOLY o r SAD as a T3C0 o f BLUE. T w e n t y - t h r e e h a d A c q u i r e d B a d o r E v i l a s a T3C0 o f BLACK. E i g h t e e n h a d a c q u i r e d WAR-LIKE a s a T3C0 o f HAWK a n d 21 h a d a c q u i r e d INDUSTRIOUS a s a T3C0 o f BEAVER. O t h e r t e r m s w h i c h a t l e a s t 15 o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d a t l e a s t one T3C0 a r e CHICKEN, YELLOW, GREY, WHITE, RED, SNAKE, MONKEY a n d TIGER. T h e r e w e re o t h e r t e r m s , h o w e v e r , f o r w h i c h v e r y f ew o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s. O n l y s i x o f t h e s u b j e c t s , f o r e x a m p l e , h a d a c q u i r e d FAT a n d UGLY a s a T3C0 o f COW. O n l y t h r e e o f them h a d a c q u i r e d OBSCENE as a T3C0 o f PURPLE. J u s t f o u r h a d a c q u i r e d NAIVE, SIMPLE, STUPID e t c . a s a T3C0 o f TURKEY. A n d o n l y s e v e n h a d a c q u i r e d UGLY as a T3C0 o f DOG. O t h e r t e r m s f e w e r t h a n t e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d one T3C0 a r e : WOLF a n d PIGEON. I n t h e p r e v i o u s two p a r a g r a p h s o n l y t e r m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s were e x a m i n e d . S e v e r a l o f t h e t e r m s , as was n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , do n o t h a v e T3C0s. I f a n y t h i n g , i t was more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s u b j e c t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e t e r m s w h i c h do n o t h a v e T3C0s t h a n i t was t o d e c i d e what t h e T3C0s o f t e r m s w h i c h h a v e T3C0s a r e . Of t h e 15 t e r m s w h i c h do n o t h a v e 84 T3COs, t h e s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y o n l y one o f them r e a s o n a b l y w e l l . T w e n t y - t h r e e o f t h e s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y n o t e d ORANGE d o e s n o t h a v e a T3C0. None o f t h e o t h e r 14 t e r m s w h i c h do n o t h a v e T3C0s were c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d b y e v e n 20 s u b j e c t s . O n l y 18, f o r e x a m p l e n o t e d Brown h a s no T3CO. J u s t f i v e , f o u r a n d t h r e e r e s p e c t i v e l y w e r e a w a r e SWALLOW, SPARROW a n d OWL do n o t h a v e T3COs. S e v e n t e e n , f i f t e e n a n d e l e v e n r e s p e c t i v e l y n o t e d DEER, HORSE, a n d BUFFALO h a v e no T3COs. One o f t h e more n o t e w o r t h y r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i s t h e number o f NOT SURE a n s w e r s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s g a v e . F u l l y 1369 o f t h e a n s w e r s g i v e n were NOT SUREs. F o r some i t e m s t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f NOT SUREs g r e a t l y e x c e e d e d 50%. O v e r 7 0 % o f t h e a n s w e r s g i v e n f o r CRANE, CROW a n d SPARROW were NOT SUREs. B e t w e e n 60% a n d 70% o f t h e a n s w e r s f o r TURKEY, SWALLOW, GOOSE, PIGEON, DUCK PURPLE ORANGE BROWN a n d BEAR were NOT SUREs. A n d a t l e a s t 5 0 % o f t h e a n s w e r s f o r an a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t t e r m s were NOT SUREs. F i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e a n s w e r s f o r 20 o f t h e 39 t e r m s i n t h e s t u d y w e re NOT SUREs. RESULTS OF THE CLOZE READING TEST TABLE #2 READING TEST RESULTS N T o t a l MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 70 1739.00 24.84 8.44 6-40 0.28 4915.27 The a b o v e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e s u b j e c t s f o u n d t h e c l o s e r e a d i n g t e s t r e l a t i v e l y e a s y . S e v e r a l o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d 85 v e r y w e l l on i t . I n f a c t , 31,4% o r 22 o f t h e s u b j e c t s f i l l e d i n a t l e a s t 75% o f t h e b l a n k s c o r r e c t l y . Two e v e n o b t a i n e d a p e r f e c t s c o r e . O n l y s e v e n o f t h e s e v e n t y s u b j e c t s f i l l e d i n f e w e r t h a n 40% o f t h e b l a n k s c o r r e c t l y . A n d o n l y two f i l l e d i n f e w e r t h a n 25% o f t h e b l a n k s c o r r e c t l y . When t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t a r e e x a m i n e d w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r a n d w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d , d i f f e r e n c e a r e e v i d e n t . The w o r s t r e s u l t , a mean o f 20.85, was b y t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, BIRDS a n d ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . The b e s t r e s u l t , a mean o f 29.10, was by t h e m a l e s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS, ANIMALS a n d COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . The f o u r o t h e r g e n d e r a n d i n s t r u m e n t means w e r e : 22.09, 23.92, 27.50 a n d 24.85. T h e s e means a r e much c l o s e r t o t h e g r a n d mean o f 24.84. RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS To d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t t h e K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n 21 f o r m u l a was u s e d . The R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was 0.70. The R e l i a b i l i t y C o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was 0.89. The S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f M e a s u r e m e n t f o r t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was 2.51. The S t a n d a r d E r r o r o f M e a s u r e m e n t f o r t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was 2.80. 86 INSTRUMENTS COMPLETED BY NSs o f JAPANESE AND ENGLISH TABLE #3 ENGLISH NS INSTRUMENT * N=14 TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE YES: 273.00 19.50 4.69 11-28 NO: 231.00 16.50 5.69 7-28 NOT SURE: 42.00 3.00 3.26 0-10 * The unacceptable YES responses have been converted to NOs on t h i s chart. As i s evident from the above table, the NSE subjects did not agree unanimously on what the T3COs of the 39 animal, b i r d and colour terms used i n the study are. One of the subjects thought 28 of the terms have T3C0s. Another subject, however, thought 28 of the terms do not have T3C0s. And s t i l l another subject was unsure whether ten of the terms have or do not have T3C0s. Despite t h i s o v e r a l l lack of agreement, however, the subjects did exhibit some agreement on what the T3COs of a number of the terms were. A l l the subjects, for example, noted CHICKEN has the T3C0 of COWARD or AFRAID; BLUE has the T3CO of MELANCHOLY, DEPRESSED or SAD and that one of the T3COs of FOX i s SLY, CUNNING or CRAFTY. For other terms, while the subjects did not exhibit unanimous agreement, they did exhibit substantial agreement. A l l but one of the subjects f e l t YELLOW has the T3C0 of COWARD or AFRAID. A l l but one of the subjects f e l t CRANE and ORANGE do not possess T3C0s and SNAKE, WOLF and RED do possess T3C0s, although there was some disagreement on what t h e i r meanings are. And a l l but two stated SWALLOW and SPARROW do not possess T3C0s. And 87 t e n o f t h e 14 s u b j e c t s n o t e d GREEN h a s t h e T3C0 o f INEXPERIENCE. A n d n i n e o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d BLACK h a s t h e T3C0 o f BAD o r E V I L . F o r o t h e r t e r m s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e was w i d e d i s a g r e e m e n t . W h i l e some s t a t e d a t e r m h a s no T3C0, o t h e r s w e re u n s u r e w h e t h e r i t h a s a T3C0. A n d o t h e r s , w h i l e c o n v i n c e d i t h a s a T3C0, d i s a g r e e d on j u s t what i t was. E i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t s , f o r e x a m p l e , f e l t CROW h a s no T3C0; two were n o t s u r e a n d f o u r f e l t i t h a s t h e T3C0 o f SLY, SMART, OLD, HARPING o r SH R I L L . (Some o f t h e T3C0s o f CROW a n d t h e o t h e r t e r m s n o t e d i n t h i s p a r a g r a p h were n o t a c c e p t e d as T3C0s b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r . ) F o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t P INK h a s t h e T3C0 o f HEALTHY; two f e l t i t h a s t h e T3C0 o f HOMOSEXUAL. O t h e r s t h o u g h t i t h a s COMMUNIST, HAPPY, DELIGHTED o r FEMININE f o r T3COs. T h r e e t h o u g h t i t h a s no T3C0 a n d two more w e r e n o t s u r e . The s u b j e c t s a l s o g a v e d i v e r s e m e a n i n g s f o r MONKEY. Two t h o u g h t i t h a s no T3C0. The o t h e r s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h e T3C0S Of MISCHIEVOUS, S I L L Y , WILY, ACROBATIC, FOOLISH o r t h e L I F E OF THE PARTY. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s T3C0s w h i c h d i d n o t o c c u r t o most o f t h e NSE s u b j e c t s . M o s t NSEs a c c e p t BLUE h a s t h e T3C0 o f PORNOGRAPHIC. I n d e e d , a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f NSEs h a v e p r o b a b l y a t v a r i o u s t i m e s i n t h e i r l i v e s e i t h e r u s e d o r h a v e h e a r d o t h e r p e o p l e u s e BLUE w i t h t h i s m e a n i n g . Y e t o n l y f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d BLUE h a s t h i s T3C0. A n d d e s p i t e t h e f a c t J o h n Tower d u r i n g h i s S e c r e t a r y o f D e f e n s e 88 c o n f i r m a t i o n h e a r i n g s i n J a n u a r y 1989, e x p r e s s l y r e f e r r e d t o h i m s e l f a s a HAWK, f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e 14 s u b j e c t s n o t e d an a r d e n t s u p p o r t e r o f t h e m i l i t a r y i s o f t e n c a l l e d a HAWK. An d s u r p r i s i n g l y , o n l y one n o t e d GREEN h a s r e c e n t l y a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0: ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS o r CONCERNED. Y e t t h i s i s a m e a n i n g w i t h w h i c h most NSEs a r e f a m i l i a r . C o t t o n T i m b e r l a k e i n an a r t i c l e i n t h e M a r c h 1 1989 i s s u e o f The J a p a n T i m e s u s e d GREEN w i t h t h i s m e a n i n g s e v e r a l t i m e s . He o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d h i s r e a d e r s knew what A GREEN CONSUMER, A GREEN BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY, The GREEN MOVEMENT a n d A GREEN PRODUCT a r e a s he assumed t h e y knew ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS i s a T3C0 o f GREEN. A n d o n l y s e v e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d COMMUNIST i s a T3C0 o f RED; INDUSTRIOUS i s a T3C0 o f BEAVER a n d o n l y s i x n o t e d G U L L I B L E i s a T3C0 o f PIGEON. A n d j u s t one s u b j e c t n o t e d PURPLE h a s t h e T3C0 o f OBSCENE. B u t t h e s e T3C0s a r e T3C0s w h i c h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e most NSEs w o u l d n o t u n d e r s t a n d i f t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d t h e s e t e r m s u s e d w i t h them. One o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t i s t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d w i d e l y on what t h e T3C0s o f a few o f t h e i t e m s a r e . F o u r o f t h e s i x f e m a l e s u b j e c t s a n d o n l y two o f t h e e i g h t m a l e s u b j e c t s , f o r e x a m p l e , f e l t ELEPHANT d o e s n o t h a v e a T3C0. S i x o f t h e m a l e s a n d o n l y one o f t h e f e m a l e s f e l t DOG h a s t h e T3C0 o f UGLY WOMAN. F o u r o f t h e m a l e s a n d none o f t h e f e m a l e s f e l t SWAN d o e s n o t h a v e a T3C0 a n d t h a t HAWK h a s t h e T3C0 o f WAR-LIKE. A n d f o u r m a l e s a n d o n l y one f e m a l e f e l t S I L V E R d o e s n o t h a v e a T3C0. I t s h o u l d , 89 h o w e v e r , be p o i n t e d o u t t h e mean number o f t e r m s w h i c h t h e NSEs t h o u g h t h a v e T3C0s d i d n o t v a r y much w i t h g e n d e r . The mean f o r t h e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 19.75 a n d t h e mean f o r t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 19.17. TABLE #4 * JAPANESE NS INSTRUMENT N=28 TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE YES: 370.00 13.21 8.63 1-35 NO: 276.00 9.85 10.45 0-37 NOT SURE: 437.00 15.61 10.06 0-37 * S i n c e f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t p r o v i d e a r e s p o n s e f o r e v e r y i t e m , t h e t o t a l number o f r e s p o n s e s i s n i n e f e w e r t h a n t h e 1092 t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n i f e v e r y i t e m h a d r e c e i v e d a r e s p o n s e . T a b l e #4 c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e N S J s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d much l e s s a g r e e m e n t , on what t h e T3COs o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e t h a n t h e NSE S u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d f o r t h e t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . The NSE s u b j e c t s were r e l a t i v e l y c o n f i d e n t a b o u t t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . They were n o t s u r e w h e t h e r a t e r m h a d a T3C0 o n l y 7.7% o f t h e t i m e . The N S J s u b j e c t s , i n c o n t r a s t , w e r e n o t s u r e j u s t o v e r 4 0 % o f t h e t i m e . They were n o t s u r e more o f t e n t h a n t h e y w e re s u r e a t e r m h a d a T3C0 o r t h a n t h e y w e re s u r e i t d i d n o t h a v e a T3C0. A n d t h e r a n g e o f YES a n d NO a n s w e r s g i v e n b y t h e NSE s u b j e c t s , w h i l e l a r g e , was n o t n e a r l y a s l a r g e as t h e r a n g e o f s c o r e s g i v e n b y t h e N S J s u b j e c t s . Some s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d o n l y a few o f t h e t e r m s h a v e T3C0s. O t h e r s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e d most o f t h e t e r m s h a v e T 3 C 0 s . Whereas t h e NSE s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e T3C0s o f s e v e r a l o f t h e t e r m s , t h e N S J s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e 90 m e a n i n g s o f r e l a t i v e l y few o f t h e t e r m s . The l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t a l s o d i d n o t a p p r o a c h t h e l e v e l o f a g r e e m e n t t h e NSE s u b j e c t s d i s p l a y e d . E i g h t e e n o r 64% o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d BLACK h a s t h e T3CO o f E V I L o r CRIMINAL. Twenty o r 71% o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d WHITE h a s t h e T3CO o f PURITY, INNOCENCE o r GOOD. S e v e n t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t FOX h a s t h e T3CO o f SLY, TRICKY, CUNNING e t c . F o u r t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d PIGEON h a s t h e T3CO o f PEACEFUL o r GENTLE. T h e s e a r e t h e o n l y t e r m s w h i c h a t l e a s t 50% o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e T3COs. A t l e a s t 25% o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s w e re i n a g r e e m e n t on what t h e T3COs o f a number o f o t h e r t e r m s a r e . E i g h t s u b j e c t s b e l i e v e d YELLOW h a s t h e T3CO o f SH R I L L , HIGH PITCHED, NOISY o r a LOUD METALLIC VOICE. N i n e t h o u g h t LOYAL o r FAITHFUL i s t h e T3CO o f DOG a n d DANGEROUS o r VIOLENT i s t h e T3CO o f WOLF. Ten t h o u g h t SWANS a r e BEAUTIFUL o r ELEGANT. S e v e n n o t e d a COMMUNIST i s a RED. E i g h t t h o u g h t BLUE h a s t h e T3CO o f INEXPERIENCED o r YOUNG. T h e r e was more a g r e e m e n t on w h i c h t e r m s do n o t h a v e T3COs t h a n t h e r e was on w h i c h t e r m s h a v e T3COs. T h e r e a r e e i g h t e e n t e r m s w h i c h a t l e a s t 25% o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t do n o t h a v e T3COs. T h e r e were f o u r t e r m s w h i c h h a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s f e l t do n o t h a v e T3COs. T h e s e 18 t e r m s a r e BUFFALO, ELEPHANT, BEAVER, DEER, BEAR, CHICKEN, SWALLOW, 91 GOOSE, CRANE, TURKEY, SPARROW, OWL, DUCK, PURPLE/VIOLET, PINK, ORANGE, BROWN an d S ILVER. U n c e r t a i n t y was more common t h a n c e r t a i n t y . -There a r e 18 t e r m s w h i c h a t l e a s t 2 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re n o t s u r e w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e T3COs. Of t h e s e 35 t e r m s , t h e r e w e r e 11 w h i c h a t l e a s t 5 0 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s were n o t s u r e h a v e T3COs. T h e s e 11 t e r m s a r e : ELEPHANT, MONKEY, DEER, TURKEY, SPARROW, OWL, DUCK, PURPLE/VIOLET, GOLD, GREEN, a n d S I L V E R . The f o u r t e r m s f o r w h i c h a t l e a s t 2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s w e re n o t NOT SUREs a r e : FOX, BEAVER, WOLF an d SWALLOW T h e r e w ere a l s o n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s . T h r e e o f t h e t e n f e m a l e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t DOG h a s t h e T3CO o f SUBMISSIVE. None o f t h e 18 m a l e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . E l e v e n o f t h e m a l e s t h o u g h t PIGEON h a s t h e T3CO o f PEACEFUL o r GENTLE. O n l y t h r e e o f t h e f e m a l e s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . And s i x o f t h e m a l e s a n d none o f t h e f e m a l e s t h o u g h t EAGLE h a s t h e T3CO o f SHARP. F o u r o f t h e m a l e s a n d none o f t h e f e m a l e s n o t e d BLUE h a s t h e T3CO o f MELANCHOLY. N i n e m a l e s , b u t o n l y one f e m a l e , were u n s u r e w h e t h e r RED h a s a T3CO. A n d e l e v e n o f t h e m a l e s , b u t o n l y two o f t h e f e m a l e s were u n s u r e w h e t h e r PINK a n d YELLOW h a v e T3COs. A n d f o u r f e m a l e s , b u t o n l y one m a l e , t h o u g h t HORSE d o e s n o t h a v e a T3CO. As w i t h t h e NSE s u b j e c t s , t h e mean number o f t e r m s w h i c h t h e N S J s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t h a v e T3COs d i d n o t v a r y much w i t h g e n d e r . The mean f o r t h e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 13.78 a n d 92 t h e mean f o r t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 12.20. So on a v e r a g e t h e m a l e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t one a n d a h a l f more t e r m s h a s a T3CO t h a n t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s d i d . J u s t a s t h e NSE s u b j e c t s f o r g o t t o " n o t e some T3COs, t h e N S J s a l s o f o r g o t some. L e a r n e r s o f J a p a n e s e v e r y s o o n a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l i n J a p a n l e a r n PINK h a s t h e T3CO o f PORNOGRAPHIC i n J a p a n e s e . Y e t o n l y s i x o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s n o t e d P INK h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . S e v e r a l J a p a n e s e p e o p l e h a v e n o t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t BLUE c a n mean SAD i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y t h r e e o f t h e s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r , n o t e d i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . S e v e r a l o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s , a f t e r t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e t h e i r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n f o r m e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r SWALLOW h a s a T3CO o f YOUNG LOVER i n J a p a n e s e . J u s t t h r e e , a n d p e r h a p s f o u r , o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s , n o t e d i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . A n d o n l y s e v e n n o t e d RED h a s COMMUNIST as a T3CO. A n d one o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s s t u d e n t s r e c e n t l y t o l d h i m a p e r s o n who l i k e s s h i n y t h i n g s i s a CROW i n J a p a n e s e . None o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r , n o t e d CROW h a s t h i s m e a n i n g . COMPARISON OF CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS: The d a t a c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s r e v e a l s f ew o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y h a v e s i m i l a r T3COs i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h . Among t h o s e w h i c h h a v e a t l e a s t one m e a n i n g i n common a r e : FOX, SNAKE, RED, WHITE a n d BLACK. T h e r e a r e a few o t h e r t e r m s w h i c h , b a s e d 93 on t h e d a t a , may h a v e a m e a n i n g i n common. T h e s e a r e t e r m s t o w h i c h o n l y a few o f e i t h e r t h e NSE o r N S J s u b j e c t s a t t r i b u t e d a m e a n i n g w h i c h t h e t e r m s d e f i n i t e l y h a v e i n t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e . Among t h e s e t e r m s a r e : BLUE, TIGER, MONKEY, WOLF, BEAR, HAWK, GOLD, a n d GREY. A number o f t e r m s i n b o t h J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h do n o t h a v e T3C0s. F o r most o f t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s do n o t h a v e T3C0s: BUFFALO, DEER, SPARROW, DUCK, ORANGE, BROWN an d S I L V E R . T h e r e a r e a l s o some t e r m s w h i c h p r o b a b l y do n o t h a v e T3COs i n e i t h e r E n g l i s h o r J a p a n e s e . W h i l e some o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t e d t h e s e t e r m s h a v e T3COs, no c o n s e n s u s was e s t a b l i s h e d . O n l y a few o f t h e NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s n o t e d t h e y h a v e T3C0s. Among t h e s e t e r m s a r e : ELEPHANT, HORSE, EAGLE a n d CRANE. O t h e r t e r m s p o s s e s s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h . Among t h e s e t e r m s a r e : CHICKEN, YELLOW, DOG, PIGEON, BLUE a n d GREEN. S t i l l o t h e r t e r m s p o s s e s s T3C0s i n one l a n g u a g e , b u t n o t i n t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e . Among t h e s e a r e : BEAVER, GOOSE, SWALLOW, SWAN, TURKEY, CROW. A most i n t e r e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t i n J a p a n e s e i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a t e r m t o p o s s e s s a l a r g e number o f q u i t e d i f f e r e n t T3COs. CHICKEN, f o r e x a m p l e , was n o t e d by a t l e a s t one a n d s o m e t i m e s two N S J s u b j e c t s a s h a v i n g a t l e a s t 94 one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g T3C0s: FORGETFUL, SLOW, EARLY RISER, NOISY, RESTLESS AND FOOLISH. GREY was n o t e d a s h a v i n g t h e T3COS O f MELANCHOLY, SUSPICIOUS, E V I L , OPAQUE, HOPELESS, WALL, DULL/DARK, FADED, NOT FUN, SPOTTED, CLOUDY, MUDDY a n d BURDENSOME b y b e t w e e n one a n d t h r e e s u b j e c t s e a c h . COW was t h o u g h t t o h a v e t h e T3C0s o f SLOW, FAT, PRODIGAL, QUIET AND STUPID. Terms were n o t a t t r i b u t e d s u c h a r a n g e o f T3COs t h e NSE s u b j e c t s . W h i l e some t e r m s l i k e FOX a n d WOLF, f o r e x a m p l e , d i d g a r n e r a number o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e NSE s u b j e c t s , most o f t h e r e s p o n s e s were s y n o n y m s . ANALYSIS OF THE HYPOTHESES: HYPOTHESIS #1: The J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . The f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a were u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t r a n s f e r h a d o c c u r r e d : 1. A t l e a s t 2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r a t e r m h a d t o be due t o t r a n s f e r . 2. T w e n t y -f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r t e n o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y h a d t o be due t o t r a n s f e r . O n l y t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e x a m i n e d . Hence o n l y t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e 24 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS FREE i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e 23 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e BIRDS FREE a n d COLOURS FREE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e x a m i n e d . When t h e t e r m s f o r w h i c h t r a n s f e r i s n o t p o s s i b l e ( t h o s e w i t h t h e same T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h a n d t h o s e 95 w h i c h do n o t h a v e T3C0s i n e i t h e r J a p a n e s e o r E n g l i s h ) a r e e l i m i n a t e d o n l y 19 t e r m s r e m a i n . COW h a s t h e T3C0 o f SLOW i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y two o f t h e 24 J S E s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , h o w e v e r , t h o u g h t COW h a s t h i s m e a n i n g i n E n g l i s h . BEAVER h a s no T3C0 i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y f o u r s u b j e c t s s a i d i t h a s no T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . A DOG i s LOYAL o r SUBMISSIVE i n J a p a n e s e . None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t a DOG i s LOYAL o r SUBMISSIVE i n E n g l i s h . I n J a p a n e s e a WOLF i s DANGEROUS. None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g i n g i n E n g l i s h . A CHICKEN c a n be many t h i n g s i n J a p a n e s e . None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t was any o f them i n E n g l i s h . They a l s o d i d n o t t h i n k a SWALLOW i s a WOMAN'S LOVER i n E n g l i s h . O n l y t h r e e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t a SWAN i s BEAUTIFUL a n d a PIGEON i s PEACEFUL i n E n g l i s h . TURKEY h a s no T3C0 i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y s i x s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t TURKEY h a s no T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . HAWK h a s t h e T3CO o f SHARP i n J a p a n e s e . None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h i s T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . I n J a p a n e s e EAGLE i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m a n l y v i r t u e s o f BRAVERY, STRENGTH o r STURDINESS. O n l y t h r e e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s any o f t h e s e m e a n i n g s i n E n g l i s h . The N S J s u b j e c t s s a i d a CROW i s E V I L , SLY, ILL-TEMPERED i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y two t h o u g h t CROW h a s t h e s e m e a n i n g s i n E n g l i s h . A n d j u s t two t h o u g h t GOOSE h a s no T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . A n d no s u b j e c t t r a n s f e r r e d t h e T3C0 f o r PURPLE i n J a p a n e s e . PINK h a s T3C0s o f SEXUAL o r LOVELY i n J a p a n e s e . F e w e r t h a n s i x s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s s i m i l a r m e a n i n g s i n E n g l i s h . GREY, 96 as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , h a s a number o f T3C0s i n J a p a n e s e . None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s any o f them i n E n g l i s h . One o f t h e T3C0s o f BLUE i n J a p a n e s e i s YOUNG o r INEXPERIENCED. None o f t h e s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s t h i s m e a n i n g i n E n g l i s h . GREEN h a s NATURE a s a T3C0 i n J a p a n e s e . O n l y two s u b j e c t s t h o u g h t i t h a s s i m i l a r m e a n i n g s i n E n g l i s h . A n d none t h o u g h t YELLOW h a s SHRILL o r HIGH PITCHED as a T3C0 i n E n g l i s h . F o r none o f t h e 19 t e r m s f o r w h i c h t r a n s f e r was p o s s i b l e was t h e r e much i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e J S E s u b j e c t s t r a n s f e r r e d J a p a n e s e T3C0s t o e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . S i n c e t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e a r e n o t s a t i s f i e d , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . The J S E s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t t r a n s f e r t h e T3C0s t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e t o t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . HYPOTHESIS #2: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o w h i c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e COLOURS, BIRDS, a n d ANIMALS s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s ; t h e ANIMALS, COLOURS a n d BIRDS s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e BIRDS, ANIMALS a n d COLOURS s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s were c o m p a r e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d w i t h t h e s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . 97 TABLE #5 INSTRUMENTS RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S .D. RANGE CORR SS COLOURS, BIRDS and ANIMALS 23 209.00 9.09 4 INSTRUMENTS .52 3-21 0.48 449 .83 ANIMALS, COLOURS and BIRDS 23 184.00 8.00 4 INSTRUMENTS .15 2-20 0.24 378 .00 BIRDS, ANIMALS and COLOURS 23 202.00 8.74 5 INSTRUMENTS .14 1-22 0.35 581 .91 TOTALS 69 595.00 8.62 4 .58 1-22 0.32 1424 .20 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e ANIMALS, COLOURS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s . The a b o v e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s d i d n o t v a r y much. The h i g h e s t mean was 9.09 a n d t h e l o w e s t mean was 8.00. T h i s i s n o t a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e . I t shows t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, BIRDS a n d ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3CO o f j u s t one more t e r m t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS, COLOURS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t mean t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s d i d n o t v a r y . The h i g h e r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d sum o f s q u a r e s i n d i c a t e t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS, ANIMALS a n d COLOURS INSTRUMENTS v a r i e d more t h a n t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e o t h e r two s e t s o f i n s t r u m e n t s . A number o f s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h i s s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s h a d a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . A number o f o t h e r s u b j e c t s h a d r e l a t i v e l y few c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . V e r y few s u b j e c t s w e re c l u s t e r e d a b o u t t h e mean. On t h e o t h e r 98 two s e t s of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments t h e r e were fewer h i g h and low s c o r e s . A l a r g e r number of s u b j e c t s were c l u s t e r e d about the mean. TABLE #6 INSTRUMENTS: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 2 279.70 139.85 9.11 WITHIN 65 998.66 15.36 TOTAL 67 1278.36 .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 p<.001 An ANCOVA with 2 and 65 degrees of freedom was run on the data. The scores of the s u b j e c t s on the c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was the c o v a r i a t e . An F - r a t i o of 9.11 was obtained. T h i s i s almost t h r e e times the F - r a t i o needed t o i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The scores of the s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o the set of e l i c i t a t i o n instruments they completed. The a d j u s t e d means and the Standard E r r o r s of Estimate are 9.87 and 0.84 f o r the COLOURS, BIRDS and ANIMALS instruments, 7.84 and 0.82 f o r the ANIMALS, COLOURS and BIRDS instruments and 8.16 and 0.84 f o r the BIRDS, ANIMALS and COLOURS instruments. The 0.90CI f o r each of the r e s p e c t i v e groups i s 9.87 as 1.45, 7.84 ae 1.41 and 8.16 ae 1.45. HYPOTHESIS #3: The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due t o context. Three d i f f e r e n t comparisons were made t o determine whether the scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n 99 i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o c o n t e x t . I n e a c h c o m p a r i s o n t h e amount o f c o n t e x t v a r i e d w h i l e t h e s e m a n t i c f i e l d was k e p t c o n s t a n t . I n t h e f i r s t c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e ANIMALS FREE CHOICE, ANIMALS WORD MULTIPLE WORD CHOICE a n d ANIMALS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s were c o m p a r e d . I n t h e s e c o n d c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE, BIRDS WORD MULTIPLE ChOICE a n d BIRDS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re c o m p a r e d . I n t h e t h i r d c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE, COLOURS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE a n d COLOURS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re c o m p a r e d . F I R S T C O M P A R I S O N : A N I M A L S F R E E , T A B L E #7 WORD a n d S E N T E N C E R E S U L T S N T O T A L MEAN S . D . RANGE CORR SS 23 39.00 1.70 1.77 0-5 -0.18 68.87 23 74.00 3.22 2.66 0-9 0.39 155.91 23 76.00 3.30 1.61 1-6 0.38 56.87 T O T A L S 69 189.00 2.74 2.17 0-9 0.14 319.30 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e ANIMALS FREE i n s t r u m e n t . The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . The more c o n t e x t , t h e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h e y h a d . The mean f o r t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t was o n l y 1.70. On t h e WORD a n d t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s t h e means were 3.22 a n d 3.33 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t h a d o n l y 2 0 . 6 4 % o f 100 t h e 189 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t h a d 3 9 . 1 5 % a n d 4 0 . 2 1 % o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . S u c h r e s u l t s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e i t was much more d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t t o a r r i v e a t a c o r r e c t a n s w e r t h a n i t was f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s . T h i s d o e s n o t mean i t was e a s y f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s t o s e l e c t t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . I n d e e d , i t was n o t e a s y . O n l y 76 o r 2 5 . 4 2 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , w ere c o r r e c t . T A B L E #8 A N I M A L S : ANCOVA R E S U L T S SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F R A T I O BETWEEN 2 40. 62 20.31 4 .85 W I T H I N 65 272. 42 4.19 T O T A L 67 313. 04 .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 pX.025 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . The s c o r e s t h e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was t h e c o v a r i a t e . An F - r a t i o o f 4.85 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e ANIMALS e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d w i t h t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 1.66 a n d 0.43 f o r t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 3.14 a n d 0.44 f o r t h e WORD 101 MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 3.42 a n d 0.44 f o r t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUMENT. The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 1.66 ae 0.75, 3.14 ae 0.75 a n d 3.42 ae 0.76. SECOND COMPARISON: BIRDS FREE, TABLE WORD and #9 SENTENCE RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 23 22.00 0.96 1.30 0-4 0.21 36.96 23 46.00 2.00 2.30 0-90 0.48 116.00 23 34.00 1.48 1.56 0-7 0.44 54.74 TOTALS 69 102.00 1.48 1.80 0-9 0.30 219.22 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t . The d a t a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f many o f t h e b i r d t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . They g a v e s u b s t a n t i a l l y f e w e r c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e t h r e e BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e y d i d on t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s 87 f e w e r c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w e re g i v e n . O n l y 102 o r 11 . 3 7 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s w e r e c o r r e c t . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e 2 1 . 0 7 % w h i c h w e re c o r r e c t on t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , t h e mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was l e s s t h a n o n e. On t h e WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , t h e mean was e x a c t l y 2.00. A n d on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , t h e mean number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was 1.48. T h i s i s i n t e r e s t i n g f o r i t i s t h e r e v e r s e o f what h a p p e n e d 102 on t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . The a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t d i d n o t r e s u l t i n a l a r g e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . TABLE #10 BIRDS: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 2 20.96 10.48 4. 11 WITHIN 65 178.53 2.55 TOTAL 67 199.49 .05 F 2,65 = 3. 15 JX.025 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was : r u n on t h e d a t a . The s c o r e s t h e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was t h e c o v a r i a t e . An F - r a t i o o f 4.11 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e BIRDS e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 0.81 and 0.34 f o r BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 2.17 a n d 0.34 f o r t h e BIRDS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUMENT a n d 1.41 f o r t h e BIRDS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 0.81 as 0.59, 2.17 as 0.59 an d 1.41 as 0.58. 103 THIRD COMPARISON: COLOURS FREE, TABLE #11 WORD and SENTENCE RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 23 87.00 3.78 2.09 0-9 0.21 95.91 23 109.00 4.74 2.40 1-10 0.12 126.43 23 106.00 4.61 2.71 1-11 0.18 161.48 TOTALS 69 302.00 4.38 2.41 0-11 0.19 396.20 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t . The s u b j e c t s g a v e a g r e a t e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e y g a v e on e i t h e r t h e BIRDS o r ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s . I n f a c t , o v e r 5 0 % o f a l l t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s g i v e n were on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s 87 o r 5 8 . 8 % o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w e re g i v e n on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t . On t h e WORD an d SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s t h e r e s p e c t i v e p e r c e n t a g e s w e re 4 7 . 6 % a n d 4 9 . 1 % . C l e a r l y t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n t h e y h a d o f e i t h e r a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . W h i l e t h i s i s t r u e , i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h e J S E s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T 3 c o s d f many c o l o u r t e r m s . O n l y 33. 7% o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e on t h e t h r e e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s were c o r r e c t . On t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was n o t d i s t r i b u t e e v e n l y . Few o f t h e s u b j e c t s g a v e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . They g a v e a much l a r g e r number o f c o r r e c t 104 r e s p o n s e s on t h e WORD a n d SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s , h o w e v e r , t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e w e re d i s t r i b u t e d q u i t e e v e n l y . Of t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s 2 8 . 8 % were on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 3 5 . 1 % were on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a n d sum o f s q u a r e d d e v i a t i o n s v a r i e d l i t t l e on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . The s c o r e s w e re c l u s t e r e d a b o u t t h e means o f e a c h o f t h e t h r e e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s i n an a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l manner. A n d t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s d i d n o t v a r y much. On t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s v a r i e d much more. TABLE #12 COLOURS: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 2 8.21 4.11 0. 72 WITHIN 65 373.69 5.75 TOTAL 67 381.90 .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 fK.25 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . The s c o r e s t h e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was t h e c o v a r i a t e . An F - r a t i o o f 0.72 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 o f l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t r e j e c t e d . On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e e l i c i t a t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h r e g a r d t o c o n t e x t . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 3.91 a n d 0.52 f o r t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 4.70 a n d 0.51 105 f o r t h e WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 4.52 a n d 0.51 f o r t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 3.91 ae 0.89, 4.70 ae 0.87 an d 4.52 ae 0.88. SUMMARY: The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d on two o f t h e t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s . T h e r e f o r e i t c a n n o t be u n e q u i v o c a t e l y s t a t e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o c o n t e x t . V a r i a t i o n i n t h e s c o r e s on t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s was due t o c o n t e x t . On t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . A n d as t h e y v a r i e d on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . HYPOTHESIS #4: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . T h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o m p a r i s o n s were made i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . I n e a c h c o m p a r i s o n t h e s e m a n t i c f i e l d was v a r i e d w h i l e t h e amount o f c o n t e x t was k e p t c o n s t a n t . I n t h e f i r s t c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e t h r e e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e c o m p a r e d . I n t h e s e c o n d c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e t h r e e WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s were c o m p a r e d . I n t h e t h i r d c o m p a r i s o n t h e s c o r e s on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re c o m p a r e d . 106 FIRST COMPARISON: FREE CHOICE RESPONSES ANIMALS, BIRDS TABLE #13 and COLOURS FREE RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 23 39.00 1.70 1.77 0-5 -0.18 68. 87 23 22.00 0.96 1.30 0-4 0.21 36. 96 23 87.00 3.78 2.09 0-9 0.21 95. 91 TOTALS 69 148.00 2.14 2.10 0-9 -0.08 300. 55 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e ANIMALS FREE i n s t r u m e n t . The a b o v e t a b l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . I n f a c t , 87 o r 5 8 . 8 % o f t h e 148 c o r r e c t FREE CHOICE r e s p o n s e s w e re g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s g a v e 3 9% a n d 2 2 % o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t g a v e n e a r l y t w i c e as many c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s a n d t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f as many c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s a s w o u l d h a v e b e e n e x p e c t e d i f t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s h a d b e e n d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s . I f a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f f l u e n c y , t h e n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t h a d a more f l u e n t command o f E n g l i s h t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMAL a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE 107 i n s t r u m e n t s . The d a t a , h o w e v e r , do n o t s u p p o r t t h i s c o n j e c t u r e . The COLOURS FREE CHOICE s u b j e c t s d i d l e s s w e l l on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t t h a n t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s . T h e i r mean s c o r e on t h e c l o z e was 22. 0 9 . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e means o f 25.17 a n d 26.7 0 . b y t h e ANIMAL a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE s u b j e c t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . B a s e d on t h e s e r e s u l t s , BIRDS FREE CHOICE s u b j e c t s o u g h t t o h a v e h a d t h e most c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . I n s t e a d , t h e y h a d t h e f e w e s t . TABLE #14 FREE CHOICE: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 2 99.91 48.96 15.85 WITHIN 65 200.72 3.09 TOTAL 67 298.63 .01 F 2,65 = 3.15 p<.001 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . The s c o r e s t h e s u b j e c t s o b t a i n e d on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was t h e c o v a r i a t e . An F - r a t i o o f 15.85 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s f i v e t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . On t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 1.69 a n d 0.37 f o r t h e ANIMALS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 0.93 a n d 0.38 f o r t h e BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 3.82 a n d 0.38 f o r t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h 108 o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 1.69 ae 0.64, 0.93 ae 0.65 a n d 3.82 ae 0.65. SECOND COMPARISON: WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE RESPONSES ANIMALS, BIRDS TABLE #15 and COLOURS WORD RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 23 74.00 3.22 2.22 0-9 0.39 155. 91 23 46.00 2.00 2.30 0-9 0.48 116. 00 23 114.00 4.87 2.32 1-10 0.22 118. 61 TOTALS 69 232.00 3.36 2.67 0-10 0.36 485. 94 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t . The d a t a i n t h e t a b l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t g a v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . S l i g h t l y more t h a n 49% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s were g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . O n l y 19.8% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e were g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s m i r r o r t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on t h e FREE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . The s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s . A n d t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS 109 i n s t r u m e n t d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t . TABLE #16 WORD CHOICE: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 2 77.58 38.79 7.31 WITHIN 65 345.38 5.31 TOTAL 67 422.96 .05 F 2,65 = 3.15 p<.01 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e f i r s t c o m p a r i s o n . The F - r a t i o o f 7.30 i s more t h a n t w i c e a s l a r g e a s t h e r a t i o n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 3.01 a n d 0.49 f o r t h e ANIMALS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 2.26 a n d 0.50 f o r t h e BIRDS WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 4.82 a n d 0.49 f o r t h e COLOURS MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 3.01 ae 0.85, 2.26 ae 0.85, an d 4.82 ae 0.84. 110 THIRD COMPARISON: SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE RESPONSES TABLE #17 ANIMALS, BIRDS and COLOURS SENTENCE RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 23 76.00 3.30 1.61 1-6 0.38 56.87 23 33.00 1.43 1.59 0-7 0.47 55.65 23 106.00 4.61 2.71 1-11 0.18 161.48 TOTALS 69 215.00 3.12 2.40 0-11 0.27 391.07 * To e n s u r e e q u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f r o m e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s one N was r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d f r o m t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t . The a b o v e t a b l e c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t h a d a c q u i r e d more T3COs t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s . I n f a c t , t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d a l m o s t a s many T3COs a s t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s d i d c o m b i n e d . They g a v e 10 6 o r 4 9.3% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t g a v e 3 5 .4% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s a n d t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t g a v e j u s t 1 5 . 4% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . S u c h r e s u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y a r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t wo c o m p a r i s o n s , i n e v i t a b l y s u g g e s t t h e y s h o u l d be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . TABLE #18 SENTENCE CHOICE: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM of SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN WITHIN TOTAL 2 65 67 1 1 3 . 5 5 2 4 9 . 0 1 3 6 2 . 5 6 5 6 . 7 8 3 . 8 3 1 4 . 8 3 . 0 5 F 2 , 6 5 = 3 . 1 5 p < . 0 0 1 An ANCOVA w i t h 2 a n d 65 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e f i r s t t wo c o m p a r i s o n s . The F - r a t i o o f 14.83 i s a l m o s t f i v e t i m e s a s l a r g e a s t h e r a t i o n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t o f s e m a n t i c f i e l d . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 3.51 a n d 0.42 f o r t h e ANIMALS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t , 1.3 9 a n d 0.41 f o r t h e BIRDS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d 4.44 an d 0.42 f o r t h e COLOURS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s i s 3.51 ae 0.72, 1.39 ae 0.71 a n d 4.44 ae 0.72. SUMMARY: E a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s i n d i c a t e t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t o f s e m a n t i c f i e l d . H ence t h e h y p o t h e s i s h a s b e e n r e j e c t e d . S c o r e s do v a r y due t o t h e e f f e c t o f s e m a n t i c f i e l d . HYPOTHESIS #5: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o age. The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who w e r e 30 y e a r s o f age o r o l d e r w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e 112 e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who were u n d e r 30 y e a r s o f age. S e v e n t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re a t l e a s t 30 y e a r s o f a g e . F i f t y - t h r e e o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re u n d e r 30 y e a r s o f a g e . However, i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , o n l y t h e s c o r e s o f 30 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re u s e d i n t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f two o f t h e s u b j e c t s 30 y e a r s o l d o r o v e r a n d two o f t h e s u b j e c t s u n d e r 30 y e a r s o f age w e re r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d . TABLE #19 AGE RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS THIRTY AND OVER 17 208.00 12.24 5.41 3-22 0.09 469.06 UNDER THIRTY 53 390.00 7.36 3.62 1-14 0.03 680.19 The d a t a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f more o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . The mean s c o r e o f t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s i s a l m o s t t w i c e t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . The o l d e r s u b j e c t s , d e s p i t e a c c o u n t i n g f o r s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n a q u a r t e r o f t h e s u b j e c t s , g a v e 34.8% o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . S u c h r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e T3COs o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y i s a s l o w p r o c e s s w h i c h o c c u r s o v e r a number o f y e a r s . T h e r e i s one a n o m a l y t o t h e s e r e s u l t s . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e e x t r e m e l y l o w . F o r t h e s u b j e c t s a s a w h o l e 113 t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was 0.28. When t h e s u b j e c t s a r e d i v i d e d a c c o r d i n g t o age, h o w e v e r , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e 0.03 a n d 0.09. T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s c o r e s on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t a n d t h e s c o r e s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s when t h e s u b j e c t s a r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o a g e . TABLE #20 AGE: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 177.46 177.46 10 .28 WITHIN 63 1087.24 17.26 TOTAL 64 1264.70 .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p<.01 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 10.28 was o b t a i n e d . An F - r a t i o t h i s l a r g e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t o f a g e . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 11.55 a n d 3.93 f o r t h e 30 a n d o l d e r s u b j e c t s a n d 7.87 a n d 1.98 f o r t h e u n d e r 30 s u b j e c t s . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h age g r o u p i s 11.55 ae 6.96 a n d 7.87 ae 3.33. HYPOTHESIS #6: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o g e n d e r . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e f e m a l e J S E s u b j e c t s w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e m a l e J S E s u b j e c t s . T h i r t y - e i g h t o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re m a l e a n d 32 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re f e m a l e . 114 However, t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , o n l y t h e s c o r e s o f 66 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re u s e d i n t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The s c o r e s o f two f e m a l e s u b j e c t s a n d two m a l e s u b j e c t s were d e l e t e d . TABLE #21 GENDER RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS FEMALE 38 304.00 8.00 4.14 1-22 0.25 634.00 MALE 32 294.00 9.09 5.07 2-21 0.28 796.88 The b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s on t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y much. The mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n a n d c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r t h e m a l e s u b j e c t s w e r e s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e y w e re f o r t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s . t h e r a n g e s o f t h e s c o r e s were a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l . The m a l e s u b j e c t s , h o w e v e r , h a d a mean o f 26.81 on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . The f e m a l e s u b j e c t s h a d a mean o f 23.18. The s c o r e s o f t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s , w h i l e n o t i d e n t i c a l , w e r e n o t d i s s i m i l a r e i t h e r . W h i l e t h e i r s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y , t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e y g a v e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t i m u l u s i t e m s d i d o c c a s i o n a l l y v a r y . T h r e e o f t h e f e m a l e s on t h e ANIMALS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , n o t e d t h a t WOLF h a s t h e T3CO o f SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE. None o f t h e m a l e s d i d . On t h e BIRDS FREE i n s t r u m e n t f o u r o f t h e m a l e s t h o u g h t CROW h a s a T3CO. None o f t h e f e m a l e s d i d . A n d on t h e COLOURS WORD i n s t r u m e n t f i v e 115 o f t h e m a l e s b u t o n l y one o f t h e f e m a l e s t h o u g h t t h e T3C0 o f PINK i s HEALTHY. A n d t h e r e a r e a number o f o t h e r t e r m s on e a c h o f t h e v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s f o r w h i c h s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e e v i d e n t . TABLE #22 GENDER: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 1.82 1.82 0.10 WITHIN 63 1134.56 18.01 TOTAL 64 1136.38 .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p>.25 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 0.10 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . The e l i c i t a t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o t h e e f f e c t o f g e n d e r . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 8.77 an d 0.23 f o r t h e FEMALE s u b j e c t s a n d 8.45 a n d 0.25 f o r t h e MALE s u b j e c t s . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h g e n d e r i s 8.77 ae 0.39 an d 8.45 ae 0.43. HYPOTHESIS #7: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o l e v e l o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o h a v e an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f f l u e n c y w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s t o h a v e an a d v a n c e d l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . S i x t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s s a i d t h e y w e re a d v a n c e d a n d 50 s a i d t h e y w e re i n t e r m e d i a t e . F o u r 116 o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r l e v e l . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s were e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , o n l y t h e s c o r e s o f 63 o f t h e s u b j e c t s w e re u s e d i n t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The s c o r e s o f two i n t e r m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s a n d one a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t were r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d . TABLE #23 LEVEL RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS INTERMEDIATE 50 393.00 7.86 4.11 1-20 0.22 828.02 ADVANCED 16 177.00 11.06 5.60 3-22 0.22 470.94 The a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f more o f t h e 39 t e r m s t h a n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s . The a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s ' mean s c o r e was 11.06. The mean o f t h e i n t e r -m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s was 7.86. I f t h e r e h a d b e e n an e q u a l number o f i n t e r m e d i a t e a n d a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s , t h e a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s w o u l d h a v e p r o v i d e d 5 8 . 5 % o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . On t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t t h e a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s h a d a mean s c o r e o f 30.25 a n d t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s a mean o f 23. 2 8 . C l e a r l y t h e a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d a g r e a t e r number o f T3C0s a n d h a d a b e t t e r command o f E n g l i s h . TABLE #24 LEVEL: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 64.34 64.34 3.17 WITHIN 60 1217.17 20.29 TOTAL 61 1281.51 .05 F 1,61 = 4.00 p<.10 117 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 60 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 3.17 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s m a l l e r t h a n t h e r a t i o n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o t h e l e v e l o f E n g l i s h a b i l i t y . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 7.95 a n d 1.18 f o r t h e INTERMEDIATE s u b j e c t s a n d 10.44 a n d 2.16 f o r t h e ADVANCED s u b j e c t s . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h l e v e l i s 7.95 ae 1.96 a n d 10.44 ae 3.82. HYPOTHESIS #8: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s . F o r t y - f i v e o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s a n d 25 more t h a n t e n y e a r s . F o r t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , t h e s c o r e s o f 22 o f t h e s u b j e c t s were r a n d o m l y d e l e t e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d . TABLE #25 ENGLISH STUDY RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS 5-10 YEARS 45 341.00 7.56 3.69 1-14 0.06 598.98 118 MORE THAN 10 YEARS 25 257.00 10.28 5.55 3-22 0.33 739.04 A g a i n one g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d more T3COs o f t h e 39 t e r m s t h a n t h e o t h e r g r o u p . The s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f a l m o s t t h r e e more t e r m s t h a n t h e g r o u p who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s . S i x o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f a t l e a s t 14 t e r m s . T h i r t e e n h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f a t l e a s t t e n t e r m s . T h i r t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s h a d a l s o a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f a t l e a s t t e n t e r m s . However, o n l y 25 o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s . F o r t y -f i v e h a d s t u d i e d i t b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s . A n d t h o s e who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s h a d a mean o f 32.50 on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e mean o f 22.25 w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s h a d . TABLE #26 ENGLISH STUDY: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 143. .08 143 .08 7. .80 WITHIN 45 825. .10 18 .34 TOTAL 46 968. .18 .05 F 1,45 = 4.08 p<.01 HYBOTHE6ISo#9esifflaBC¥CffineanoEngMsHSEpeab3Bgt60Hhfe±$.not The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y w e r e c o m p a r e d 119 w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . S e v e n t e e n h a d l i v e d a b r o a d a n d 53 h a d n o t l i v e d a b r o a d . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r a n d o m l y d e l e t e t h e s c o r e s o f f o u r o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . TABLE #27 LIVED ABROAD RESULTS BIVEfflMBBOAD 1HEAB7 8 .BO 1A8SE OORR SSO .24 NOT LIVED ABROAD 53 386.00 7.28 3 .92 1-21 0.28 798 .75 A g a i n t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o g r o u p s . The mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d l i v e d a b r o a d was a l m o s t t w i c e t h e mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t l i v e d a b r o a d . T w e l v e o f t h e 17 s u b j e c t s who h a d l i v e d a b r o a d h a d a t l e a s t t e n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . O n l y 16 o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t l i v e d a b r o a d h a d a t l e a s t t e n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The mean o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d l i v e d a b r o a d on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was 31. 5 3 . The s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t l i v e d a b r o a d h a d a mean o f o n l y 2 2 . 7 0 . C l e a r l y t h e s u b j e c t s who ha d l i v e d a b r o a d were more f l u e n t a n d h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f more t e r m s . 120 TABLE #28 LIVED ABROAD: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 285.86 285.86 19.16 WITHIN 63 940.04 14.92 TOTAL 64 1225.90 .05 F 1,63 = 4.00 p.<.001 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 63 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 19.16 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s a l m o s t f i v e t i m e s as l a r g e a s t h e r a t i o n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 12.54 a n d 4.71 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who h a v e l i v e d a b r o a d a n d 7.08 a n d 2.42 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who h a v e n o t l i v e d a b r o a d . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h g r o u p i s 12.54 ae 8.34 a n d 7.08 as 4.07. HYPOTHESIS #10: The s c o r e s o f J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e E n g l i s h . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week. T h i r t y - n i n e o f t h e s u b j e c t s u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week. T w e n t y - n i n e o f t h e s u b j e c t s u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week. Two s u b j e c t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e how o f t e n t h e y u s e d E n g l i s h . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e 121 t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r a n d o m l y d e l e t e t h e s c o r e s o f 17 o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . TABLE #29 FREQUENCY RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S.D. RANGE CORR SS MORE THAN ONCE A WEEK 39 350.00 8.97 4.66 2-22 0.30 824.97 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK 29 233.00 8.03 4.52 1-20 0.30 572.97 The b a s i c s t a t i s t i c s on t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week a n d t h o s e who u s e d i t l e s s t h a n o n c e a week do n o t v a r y much. T h e r e i s o n l y a 0.94 d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r means. The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a n d r a n g e s a r e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e i d e n t i c a l . T h e i r means on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t w e r e 24.82 a n d 2 4 . 7 2 . Of t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week 3 8 . 5 % h a d t e n o r more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week was 4 1 . 3 % . By t h e s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e s , t h e s e s u b j e c t s do n o t d i f f e r v e r y much. TABLE #30 FREQUENCY: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE d f SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 2. 20 2.20 O.10 WITHIN 48 1062. 73 22.14 TOTAL 49 1064. 93 .05 F 1,48 = 4.08 p>0.25 122 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 4 8 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 0.10 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s F - r a t i o i s l e s s t h a n t h e r a t i o n e e d e d t o i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e s u b j e c t s u s e d E n g l i s h . The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 9.12 a n d 0.07 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week a n d 8.69 a n d 0.11 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week. The 0.90CI f o r e a c h g r o u p i s 9.12 as 0.13, a n d 8.69 as 0.18. HYPOTHESIS #11: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d . The e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d 12 t o 16 y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . S i x t e e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . F i f t y - t h r e e h a d r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . One c l a i m e d t o h a v e r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n 12 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . S i n c e a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a t t e n d e d u n i v e r s i t y , a l l o f t h e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d h a v e r e c e i v e d more t h a n 12 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n any c a s e , f o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s , t h i s s u b j e c t h a s b e e n g r o u p e d w i t h t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re e q u a l l y 123 r e p r e s e n t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r a n d o m l y d e l e t e t h e s c o r e s o f t e n o f t h e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . TABLE #31 EDUCATION RESULTS N TOTAL MEAN S .D. RANGE CORR SS 12-16 YEARS 54 403.00 7.46 3 .56 1-14 0.02 673.43 MORE THAN 16 YEARS 16 195.00 12.19 5 .81 3-22 0.46 506.48 A g l a n c e a t t h e abo v e two t a b l e s r e v e a l s t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f s e v e r a l more o f t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . E l e v e n o r 6 8 . 8 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d a t l e a s t t e n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h b e t w e e n 12 an d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n was 31 . 5 % . The s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d a mean o f 29.50 on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e mean o f 23.4 6 w h i c h t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t s h a d . The s u b j e c t s w i t h more e d u c a t i o n c l e a r l y a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n . They h a v e a c q u i r e d more T3C0s a n d t h e y p r o b a b l y a r e more f l u e n t . E i g h t o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n b e l i e v e d t h e i r E n g l i s h was a d v a n c e d . H a l f o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o n s i d e r e d t h e m s e l v e s a d v a n c e d h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . 124 TABLE #32 EDUCATION: ANCOVA RESULTS SOURCE df SUM o f SQUARES MEAN SQUARE F RATIO BETWEEN 1 363.09 363.09 23 .50 WITHIN 57 880.58 15.45 TOTAL 58 1243.67 .05 F 1,57 = 4.08 {X.001 An ANCOVA w i t h 1 a n d 57 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m was r u n on t h e d a t a . An F - r a t i o o f 23.50 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s r a t i o i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . T H e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o t h e amount o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t s h a d r e c e i v e d The a d j u s t e d means a n d t h e S t a n d a r d E r r o r s o f E s t i m a t e a r e 7.53 a n d 2.69 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n a n d 14.76 a n d 6.62 f o r t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . The 0.90CI f o r e a c h g r o u p i s 7.53 as 4.52 a n d 14.76 ae 12.58. HYPOTHESIS #12a: The NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3COs o f t h e t h i r t y - n i n e t e r m s a r e i n E n g l i s h . I n o r d e r f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t o be a c c e p t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r 7 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o a g r e e on t h e T3COs o f 30 o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t s e i t h e r h a d t o a g r e e on what one o f t h e T3COs o f a t e r m was o r a g r e e t h a t t h e t e r m d i d n o t h a v e a T3C0. E l e v e n o r 7 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e T3COs o f o n l y t e n o f t h e t e r m s . T h e r e f o r e t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s 125 r e j e c t e d . The NSE s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a g r e e on what t h e T3COs o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n E n g l i s h . HYPOTHESIS #12b: The N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e t h i r t y - n i n e t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e . I n o r d e r f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t o be a c c e p t e d , t h e same c o n d i t i o n h a d t o be s a t i s f i e d . T h e r e was n o t e v e n one t e r m w h i c h 7 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on what i t s T3C0 i s . No more t h a n 7 1 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e T3C0 o f any one t e r m . T h e r e f o r e t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s r e j e c t e d . The N S J s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e . DISCUSSION SCORES OF THE JSE SUBJECTS ON THE ELICITATION INSTRUMENTS: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w e re l o w . E v e n t h e s u b j e c t w i t h t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e d i d n o t do v e r y w e l l . She h a d o n l y 22 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The s u b j e c t w i t h t h e l o w e s t s c o r e h a d o n l y one c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . The a v e r a g e s u b j e c t h a d o n l y 8.54 c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . C l e a r l y t h e s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f many o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . S u c h r e s u l t s , h o w e v e r , a r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g . I n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i t was n o t e d t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e t e x t b o o k s u s e d t o t e a c h E n g l i s h i n s c h o o l s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s i n J a p a n p l a c e l i t t l e , i f any, e m p h a s i s on t h e t e a c h i n g o f e v e n t h e most common a n d e l e m e n t a r y T 3 C0s. S t u d e n t s who s t u d y E n g l i s h f r o m t h e s e t e x t b o o k s c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o 126 a c q u i r e many T3COs. When one s t u d i e s E n g l i s h i n a p l a c e w h ere i t i s n o t u s e d , t h e t e x t b o o k one u s e s becomes t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f E n g l i s h . A n d one c a n n o t l e a r n s o m e t h i n g w h i c h i s n o t i n t h e t e x t b o o k . Hence s t u d e n t s who s t u d y E n g l i s h i n J a p a n c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n many T3C0s. Hence i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y h a v e n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f many o f t h e a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . They were n o t t a u g h t T3C0s. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n what one i s n o t t a u g h t . W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n what one i s n o t t a u g h t , i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e . The a v e r a g e s u b j e c t h a d a c q u i r e d 8.54 T3C0s. How d i d t h e y a c q u i r e them? P e r h a p s t h e y a c q u i r e d t h e m f r o m r e a d i n g E n g l i s h n o v e l s . The a v e r a g e E n g l i s h s t u d e n t i n J a p a n , h o w e v e r , h a s r e a d v e r y few b o o k s i n E n g l i s h . P e r h a p s t h e y a c q u i r e d them f r o m w a t c h i n g E n g l i s h m o v i e s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , i s u n l i k e l y as t h e E n g l i s h s t u d e n t i n J a p a n d o e s n o t h a v e t h e r e q u i s i t e l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s t o u n d e r s t a n d a m o v i e . The r e s e a r c h e r d o e s n o t know how t h e y a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d . He w o u l d l i k e t o f i n d o u t , h o w e v e r . T H E C L O Z E R E A D I N G T E S T : The s c o r e s on t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t i n d i c a t e t h e s u b j e c t s h a v e a g o o d k n o w l e d g e o f E n g l i s h grammar, v o c a b u l a r y a n d d i s c o u r s e s t r a t e g i e s . I f t h e y d i d n , t , t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e done a s w e l l as t h e y d i d . A n d a s e x t e n s i v e 127 k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s e t h i n g s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r f l u e n c y , i t c a n be a s s u m e d most o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a v e a r e a s o n a b l y g o o d command o f E n g l i s h . S c o r e s on c l o z e t e s t s c o r r e l a t e q u i t e h i g h l y w i t h t h e s c o r e s o b t a i n e d on s t a n d a r d i s e d t e s t s l i k e t h e TOEFL t e s t ( W o r d e l l , 1989 p . 2 4 ) . Thus s c o r e s on a c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t s h o u l d c o r r e l a t e q u i t e h i g h l y w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d , f o r e x a m p l e , on i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h m e a s u r e t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e d g e . B u t t h e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , 0.28, b e t w e e n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e s a t l e a s t , n o t a l l a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t s . I f a l l a s p e c t s o f l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y w i t h r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d on c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t s , a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t ( p e r h a p s 0.50) s h o u l d h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I s n ' t k n o w l e d g e o f T3CO an a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y ? B u t i f S L L s a c q u i r e few T3COs u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . T h i s w o u l d mean t h a t S L L s w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s o f f l u e n c y c o u l d a c q u i r e an a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l number o f T3COs as S L L s somewhat more f l u e n t . T h i s , a t l e a s t , w o u l d e x p l a i n t h e l o w c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . 128 H Y P O T H E S I S #1: The J S E s u b j e c t s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r t h e c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r t e r m s h a v e i n J a p a n e s e t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d a s t h e c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t r a n s f e r were n o t met. The d a t a , h o w e v e r , do n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o v e t h a t t r a n s f e r d o e s n o t o c c u r . I t j u s t p r o v e s t h a t t h e J S E s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t t r a n s f e r J a p a n e s e T3C0s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t E n g l i s h t e r m s when s i m p l y a s k e d t o s t a t e what t h e T3C0s o f some E n g l i s h t e r m s a r e . They were a s k e d t o c o n s c i o u s l y d r e d g e up t h e E n g l i s h T3COs. I f t h e t a s k w h i c h h a d c o n f r o n t e d t h e s u b j e c t s h a d b e e n more r e c e p t i v e i n n a t u r e , t h e r e s u l t s m i g h t h a v e b e e n d i f f e r e n t . I f t h e y h a d b e e n a s k e d f r o m a l i s t o f m e a n i n g s w h i c h i n c l u d e d a l l p o s s i b l e J a p a n e s e T3C0s, a l l p o s s i b l e E n g l i s h T3C0s a n d some d i s t r a c t o r T3C0s, t h e s u b j e c t s m i g h t h a v e t r a n s f e r r e d more J a p a n e s e T3COs. On t h e BIRDS WORD a n d SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s one o f t h e p o s s i b l e T3C0s l i s t e d f o r SWAN was ELEGANT. T h i s i s one o f t h e T3COs w h i c h SWAN ha s i n J a p a n e s e . T w e n t y - t w o o f t h e 47 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s s a i d t h e E n g l i s h T3CO o f SWAN i s ELEGANT. On t h e ANIMALS WORD a n d SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s one o f t h e T3C0s l i s t e d f o r DOG was F AITHFUL. F i f t e e n o f t h e 46 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s s a i d F AITHFUL was t h e E n g l i s h T3C0 o f DOG. FAITHFUL i s a T3C0 DOG h a s i n J a p a n e s e . S u c h l i m i t e d d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t g i v e n t h e r i g h t s t i m u l u s J S E s m i g h t t r a n s f e r T3C0s f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h . 129 F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h n e e d s t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r J S E s a c t u a l l y do t r a n s f e r T3C0s. HYPOTHESIS #2: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o w h i c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a s t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s p r o d u c e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o . T h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y , h o w e v e r , a Type I I e r r o r h a s b e e n made. T h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o was o b t a i n e d d o e s n o t i n d i c a t e t h e r e was some i n h e r e n t f l a w o r b i a s b u i l t i n t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . I f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f an a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l number o f a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s , an F - r a t i o w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n o b t a i n e d . The p r o b l e m i s t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n a n i m a l t e r m s a n d more a n i m a l t e r m s t h a n b i r d t e r m s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t h a d 4 8 a n d 65 more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s A n d w h i l e t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, BIRDS a n d ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t d i d l e s s w e l l on t h e MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e two o t h e r s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , i t d i d n o t c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g s u p e r i o r i t y t h e y h a d on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . A n d t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUMENT d i d v e r y p o o r l y . Hence 130 t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t F - r a t i o may r e f l e c t t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d i s t r a c t o r s u s e d on t h e d i f f e r e n t m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s were n o t e q u a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s . Some may h a v e b e e n more s a l i e n t t h a n o t h e r s . A n d i f t h e d e g r e e o f s a l i e n c y v a r i e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t , t h i s c o u l d p a r t i a l l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e s c o r e s on t h e d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f i n s t r u m e n t s . H Y P O T H E S I S #3: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . The ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s c o n f i r m t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o c o n t e x t f o r two o f t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The s c o r e s v a r i e d f o r t h e a n i m a l a n d b i r d t e r m s . They d i d n o t v a r y f o r t h e c o l o u r t e r m s . T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t f o r i t i s n o t e a s y t o e x p l a i n . A c o n s t a n t i n ESL i s t h a t a d d i t i o n a l c o n t e x t makes t h i n g s e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . B u t i f t h i s i s t r u e , t h e most c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n on t h e SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e f e w e s t c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d h a v e b e e n on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . O n l y on t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s , h o w e v e r , were t h e most c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e f e w e s t on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e SENTENCE CHOICE 131 i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n on t h e WORD CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . I n s t e a d , on t h e BIRDS a n d COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e r e w e re more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e WORD CHOICE t h a n on t h e SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . A n d on t h e ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s t h e r e w e r e o n l y t w o more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t t h a n on t h e WORD CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t . A n d t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e COLOURS FREE i n s t r u m e n t was o n l y s l i g h t l y f e w e r t h a n t h e number on t h e o t h e r two COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . Why t h e c o n t e x t r e s u l t s a r e a m b i g u o u s i s n o t c l e a r . I t may be t h a t s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amounts o f c o n t e x t a r e n o t l a r g e e n o u g h t o make a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s c o r e s o f J S E s u b j e c t s on e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s l i k e t h e o n e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P e r h a p s i f t h e t h r e e amounts o f c o n t e x t h a d b e e n : no c o n t e x t , a l i t t l e c o n t e x t — p e r h a p s a w o r d o r e x p l a n a t o r y s e n t e n c e -- a n d l a r g e amounts o f c o n t e x t — a s h o r t d i a l o g u e o r a b r i e f p a r a g r a p h — , g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s c o r e s w o u l d h a v e r e s u l t e d . I t may a l s o be t h a t s i n c e c o l o u r s a r e more a b s t r a c t t h a n e i t h e r a n i m a l s o r b i r d s , t h e a d d i t i o n a l amounts o f c o n t e x t d i d n o t h e l p t h e s u b j e c t s a r r i v e a t more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e COLOURS WORD a n d SENTENCE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e y d i d . H Y P O T H E S I S #4: The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . The ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s c o n f i r m t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . F o r e a c h o f t h e 132 t y p e s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e s c o r e s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . They v a r i e d on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . They v a r i e d on t h e WORD MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . They v a r i e d on t h e SENTENCE MULTIPLE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s . T h a t ANCOVA c o n f i r m s t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . The s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s h a d s o many more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t a ny o t h e r r e s u l t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s u p r i s i n g . • One s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , n o t a t t r i b u t e t o o much t o t h e s e r e s u l t s . W h i l e t h e s u b j e c t s d i d b e t t e r on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t h a n t h e y d i d on t h e e i t h e r t h e ANIMALS o r BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e y d i d n o t do w e l l on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e COLOURS FREE i n s t r u m e n t o n l y 2 9 . 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s w e re c o r r e c t . On t h e COLOURS WORD a n d SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s w e r e 3 8 . 1 % a n d 3 5 . 5 % . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s , w h i l e l o w , a r e much h i g h e r t h a n t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c o r r e c t a n s w e r s on t h e o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , o n l y 1 1 . 0 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s were c o r r e c t . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e s u b j e c t s h a d n o t a c q u i r e d many c o l o u r t e r m T3COs, t h e r e s u l t s a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s i g n i f i c a n t . They i n d i c a t e i t i s e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e t h e T3COs o f some c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n i t i s t o a c q u i r e 133 t h e T3COs o f e v e n one o r two a n i m a l o r b i r d T 3 C0s. T h e r e a r e f o u r ways t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s e r e s u l t s . One way i s t o assume t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n t h e n a t u r e o f c o l o u r t e r m s w h i c h makes t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e i r T3C0s e a s i e r . A n o t h e r way i s t o assume t h a t c o l o u r t e r m s a r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e i t h e r a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . T h e r e f o r e S L L s h a v e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c q u i r e t h e i r T3C0s. A n o t h e r way i s t o assume t h a t c o l o u r t e r m s a r e e m p l o y e d w i t h T3C0s more o f t e n t h a n e i t h e r a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s e a s i e r f o r S L L s t o a c q u i r e t h e i r T 3 C0s. S t i l l a n o t h e r way i s t o assume t h a t c o l o u r T3C0s a r e e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e w o r d s f o r c o l o u r s a r e among t h e f i r s t w o r d s S L L s a r e t a u g h t . The r e s e a r c h e r , h o w e v e r , b e l i e v e s i t i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h i n g s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t s a c q u i r i n g t h e T3COs o f more c o l o u r t e r m s t h a n a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . A G E AND GENDER H Y P O T H E S E S : The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o age o r g e n d e r . ANCOVA r e v e a l s t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o age a n d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t v a r y due t o g e n d e r . One, h o w e v e r , n e e d s t o be w a r y i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s . To i n t e r p r e t t h e m c o r r e c t l y c e r t a i n f a c t o r s must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e s k i l l s o f a d u l t S L L s i m p r o v e w i t h a g e , t h e y do n o t i m p r o v e b e c a u s e o f a g e . They i m p r o v e b e c a u s e o l d e r S L L s h a v e h a d t h e k i n d s o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h p e r m i t t h e m t o i m p r o v e . B e c a u s e t h e y a r e o l d e r , t h e y 134 h a v e h a d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s t u d y t h e l a n g u a g e , t o l i v e w h e re t h e l a n g u a g e i s s p o k e n , t o become b e t t e r e d u c a t e d , t o u s e t h e l a n g u a g e more f r e q u e n t l y . I n s h o r t t h e y h a v e h a d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n . T h a t i s no d o u b t why t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y d i d b e t t e r t h a n t h e y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . The o l d e r s u b j e c t s h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h l o n g e r . S i x t e e n o f t h e 17 s u b j e c t s o v e r t h i r t y y e a r s o f age h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n 10 y e a r s . E l e v e n h a d l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . Ten h a d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h i s k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t s o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age a c q u i r i n g more T3COs t h a n t h e y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s h a d on a v e r a g e a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f o n l y 12.24 t e r m s . E v e n age a n d e x p e r i e n c e do n o t r e s u l t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a g r e a t many T3COs. The mean s c o r e o f t h e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 9.19 a n d t h e mean s c o r e o f t h e f e m a l e s u b j e c t s was 8.00. T h e s e , h o w e v e r , a r e m i s l e a d i n g f i g u r e s . They h a v e b e e n i n f l a t e d b y t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who were o v e r 30 y e a r s o f a g e . I f t h e s c o r e s o f t h e 13 m a l e a n d 4 f e m a l e s u b j e c t s o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age a r e n o t c o u n t e d , t h e means a r e 7.00 f o r t h e m a l e s a n d 7.50 f o r t h e f e m a l e s . A n d f o r t h e s u b j e c t s o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age t h e means a r e 12.39 f o r t h e m a l e s a n d 12.25 f o r t h e f e m a l e s . T h i s c l e a r l y shows t h e r o b u s t n e s s o f ANCOVA. I t was a b l e t o d e t e c t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o g e n d e r e v e n t h o u g h t h e h i g h s c o r e s o f t h e o l d e r m a l e s u b j e c t s s k e w e d t h e r e s u l t s . 135 E X P E R I E N C E H Y P O T H E S E S : The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due l e v e l o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h , t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h , r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e E n g l i s h o r t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a v e r e c e i v e d . One must be c a r e f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e h y p o t h e s e s . W h i l e t h r e e o f t h e f i v e e x p e r i e n c e h y p o t h e s e s w ere r e j e c t e d , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h ANCOVA d e t e c t e d may be m i s l e a d i n g . W h i l e i t may be t r u e t h a t S L L s who h a v e l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , h a v e more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n o r h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n 10 y e a r s a c q u i r e more T3COs t h a n S L L s who h a v e n o t l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r f e w e r t h a n 10 y e a r s o r h a v e f e w e r t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , i t may n o t be t r u e . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y most o f t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d more e d u c a t i o n , h a d l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y e t c . w e r e t h e o l d e r , m a l e s u b j e c t s . Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t ANCOVA was r e a l l y d e t e c t i n g age a n d s e x d i f f e r e n c e s . Of t h e 25 s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s , 15 were o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age a n d 16 were m a l e . Of t h e 17 s u b j e c t s who h a d l i v e d a b r o a d , 12 were o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age a n d 10 were m a l e . Of t h e 17 a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s , 11 were o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age a n d 12 were m a l e . A n d o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , 10 w e r e more t h a n 30 y e a r s o f age a n d 10 were m a l e . J u s t 4 5 % o f t h e 70 J S E s u b j e c t s were m a l e a n d o n l y 2 4 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s were o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age. Y e t o n l y when t h e 136 s u b j e c t s w e r e e x a m i n e d f o r f r e q u e n c y o f u s e , d i d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a l e s (41.0) a n d s u b j e c t s o v e r 30 (30.7) a p p r o x i m a t e t h e o v e r a l l p e r c e n t a g e s . When t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e e x a m i n e d f o r t h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a l e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n 6 2 . 5 % a n d 7 0 . 5 % a n d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h o s e o v e r 30 r a n g e d b e t w e e n 5 8 . 8 % a n d 7 0 . 5 % . C l e a r l y m a l e s a n d t h o s e o v e r t h i r t y a r e o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d . A n d s i n c e t h e y a r e o v e r r e p r e s e n t e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s n e e d t o be q u e s t i o n e d . W h i l e i t i s l o g i c a l t o assume t h a t p e o p l e who h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n 10 y e a r s o r h a v e l i v e d i n E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s h a v e a l s o h a v e a c q u i r e d more T3COs t h a n p e o p l e who h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r f e w e r t h a n 10 y e a r s o r h a v e n o t l i v e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y do n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o v e t h e y do. To p r o v e i t , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a s t u d y w here t h e a g e s a n d g e n d e r s o f t h e s u b j e c t s were more e v e n l y m a t c h e d . To d e t e r m i n e , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e t h e r l i v i n g i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3COs, one c o u l d compare two g r o u p s o f J S E s who v a r i e d o n l y on one v a r i a b l e , t h a t o f h a v i n g r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . I t i s n a t u r a l t o assume t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h a d v a n c e d l e v e l s o f f l u e n c y w o u l d h a v e a c q u i r e d more T3C0s t h a n t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f f l u e n c y . I n d e e d , i t p r o b a b l y i s t r u e . The p r o b l e m i n t h i s , s t u d y , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e 137 s u b j e c t s w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o a s s e s s t h e i r l e v e l o f f l u e n c y t h e m s e l v e s . Some o f t h e s u b j e c t s may h a v e o v e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i r l e v e l o f f l u e n c y ; o t h e r s may h a v e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d i t . Of c o u r s e , i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e number o f T3C0s one h a s a c q u i r e d d o e s n o t v a r y w i t h o n e ' s l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i t d o e s , i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a means o f more r e l i a b l y a n d a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g t h e f l u e n c y o f t h e s u b j e c t s . A n d w i t h r e g a r d t o e d u c a t i o n t h e r e i s no a p r i o r i r e a s o n why J a p a n e s e p e o p l e w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d a c q u i r e more E n g l i s h T3C0s t h a n J a p a n e s e p e o p l e w i t h f e w e r t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . I t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e t o become v e r y w e l l e d u c a t e d w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g a g r e a t many E n g l i s h T3C0s. Someone who s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e s h o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a g r e a t many E n g l i s h T3C0s. B u t i f someone h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h a t t h e g r a d u a t e l e v e l , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t p e r s o n t o h a v e a c q u i r e d more E n g l i s h T3C0s t h a n someone w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n . Hence i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t 15 o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d a l s o s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s . The s u b j e c t s w i t h more e d u c a t i o n d i d n o t h a v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e b e t t e r e d u c a t e d . They h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s b e c a u s e t h e y h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h l o n g e r . 138 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f u s e h y p o t h e s i s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g i t was r e j e c t e d . I n I w a t e J S E s h a v e few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e E n g l i s h . M o s t o f t h e s u b j e c t s , s i n c e t h e y w e re p r i m a r i l y t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h , u s e d E n g l i s h o u t s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m v e r y s e l d o m . Hence i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e d E n g l i s h . They u s e d E n g l i s h r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t l y a n d when t h e y d i d u s e i t , i t was i n a t e a c h i n g o r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . A n d a s t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e made c l e a r , t h e c l a s s r o o m i s n o t a p l a c e w here one i s g o i n g t o a c q u i r e a g r e a t number o f T3C0s. HYPOTHESES 12a and 12b: One o f t h e p r e m i s e s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t a d u l t NSs o f a l a n g u a g e a r e a l l v e r y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e T3C0s commonly u s e d i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e . I t was a ssumed t h e y know w h i c h t e r m s h a v e T3C0s a n d what t h e i r T3C0s a r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y , h o w e v e r , b e l i e t h a t p r e m i s e . The NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t e x h i b i t t h e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e s e l e c t e d t e r m s e x a m i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t h a t h a d b e e n e x p e c t e d . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s why t h e y d i d n o t e x h i b i t more a g r e e m e n t . NSs when a s k e d t o do what t h e NS s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e a s k e d t o do, may f i n d t h i s d i f f i c u l t t o do. They may s i m p l y n o t r e c a l l a l l t h e T3C0s t h e y know. K n o w l e d g e o f 139 T3COs may d i f f e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m one n a t i v e s p e a k e r t o a n o t h e r . T3C0s w h i c h one NS knows may n o t be known b y a n o t h e r NS. Some NSs may s i m p l y n o t h a v e a c q u i r e d some o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P e r h a p s t h e r e a r e g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n k n o w l e d g e o f T 3C0s. Young p e o p l e , f o r e x a m p l e , may h a v e a c q u i r e d T3C0s w h i c h o l d e r p e o p l e h a v e n o t . I t may be d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e T3C0s w h i c h a l l NSs know f r o m m e t a p h o r i c a l m e a n i n g s w h i c h a l l NSs c a n r e a d i l y g r a s p a n d u n d e r s t a n d . T h i s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t on what t h e T3C0 o f ELEPHANT o r o t h e r t e r m s i s . Some NSs may h a v e a more a c c u r a t e k n o w l e d g e o f w h i c h t e r m s do n o t p o s s e s s T3C0. The p l a c i n g o f g r a m m a t i c a l r e s t r i c t i o n s may make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r some NSs t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a t e r m h a s a T3C0. I n a d d i t i o n , a s t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e , t h e r e may be g e n d e r d i f f e r e n c e s i n k n o w l e d g e o f T3C0. M a l e s may a c q u i r e T3C0s w h i c h f e m a l e s a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o a c q u i r e . A n d f e m a l e s may a c q u i r e T3C0s w h i c h m a l e s may be l e s s l i k e l y t o a c q u i r e . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t e x h i b i t e d b y t h e N S J s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . I n J a p a n e s e i t c e r t a i n l y i s p o s s i b l e t o s a y : 'X' i s (a) *Y'. The J a p a n e s e t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s s e n t e n c e i s : 'X' wa *Y' d e s u . A s i n E n g l i s h t h e yY' c a n h a v e e i t h e r a l i t e r a l o r a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g . I n J a p a n e s e , h o w e v e r , t h e 'Y' i s l e s s l i k e l y t o h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g t h a n i t i s i n E n g l i s h . When 'Y' h a s a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g 'X' wa 'Y' d e s u . i s n o t a v e r y p r o d u c t i v e s t r u c t u r e . 140 I n J a p a n e s e a much more p r o d u c t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s : yX' wa ' Y' no yo d a . The E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i s : 'X' i s l i k e (a) XY'. I n J a p a n e s e t h i s s t r u c t u r e i s o f t e n e m p l o y e d f o r d e a d m e t a p h o r s . The s t r u c t u r e , h o w e v e r , c a n a l s o be e m p l o y e d f o r o r i g i n a l m e t a p h o r s . Hence i t may be d i f f i c u l t f o r N S J s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r a t e r m h a s a T3CO. VARIABLE INTERACTION: One o f t h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f ANCOVA i s t h a t t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s o f t h e v a r i a b l e s b e i n g c o m p a r e d a r e p a r a l l e l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t s o m e t i m e s h a p p e n s t h a t t h e r e g r e s s i o n s l i n e s a r e n o t p a r a l l e l . A n d t h a t i s what h a p p e n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . F o r some o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e were i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e c o v a r i a t e a n d t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . P e r h a p s t h i s i s due t o t h e f a c t t h e v a r i o u s c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g e d f r o m a l o w o f -0.18 t o a h i g h o f 0.48. W h i l e t h i s i s t o be r e g r e t t e d , i t i s n o t a d i s a s t e r . G l a s s a n d H o p k i n s n o t e t h a t ANCOVA i s n o r m a l l y r o b u s t e n o u g h t o o v e r c o m e s u c h i n t e r a c t i o n s . They s t a t e t h a t t h e F - r a t i o s i n s u c h i n s t a n c e s a r e u s u a l l y r e l i a b l e . The a d j u s t e d means, h o w e v e r , may be c l o u d y . Too much r e l i a n c e s h o u l d n o t be p l a c e d on them ( G l a s s a n d H o p k i n s , 1984 p . 5 0 4 ) . SUMMARY: The r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y r e v e a l s e v e r a l t h i n g s a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO b y J S E s . F i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t , i t h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e J S E s u b j e c t s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y 141 h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f many o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . The mean s c o r e o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s was o n l y 8.54. E v e n t h e b e s t s u b j e c t h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f o n l y 22 o f t h e t e r m s . The w o r s t s u b j e c t h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3Co o f o n l y one o f t h e t e r m s . E v e n when t h e s u b j e c t s w e re g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o age, g e n d e r , e d u c a t i o n , y e a r s o f E n g l i s h s t u d y , r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y e t c . , i t was a l s w a y s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f t h e 39 e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . The g r o u p t h a t h a d a c q u i r e d t h e most T3C0s was t h e g r o u p who h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . A n d e v e n t h e y h a d a c q u i r e d j u s t 12 47 T3C0s. E v e n t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f few o f t h e t e r m s , v a r i o u s t h i n g s w e re d i s c o v e r e d . The e l i c i t a t i o n s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d , s e m a n t i c f i e l d , a g e , r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y , amount o f e d u c a t i o n a n d y e a r s o f E n g l i s h s t u d y . The s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r , l e v e l o f E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , f r e q u e n c y o f u s e a n d t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . T h e r e a r e r e a s o n s , h o w e v e r , t o be s c e p t i c a l o f some o f t h e f i n d i n g s . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e J S E s d i d n o t e x h i b i t much t e n d e n c y t o t r a n s f e r J a p a n e s e T3C0s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t E n g l i s h t e r m s . T h e r e was e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t h e r i g h t c i r c u m s t a n c e s J S E s m i g h t t r a n s f e r T3C0s. 142 A n d i t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e N S J a n d NSE s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a g r e e on t h e T3C0s o f many o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . A n d one o f t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s i s t h a t f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c a l i t e m s t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e J S E , N S J a n d NSE s u b j e c t s d i s a g r e e d w i d e l y on what t h e i r T3C0s a r e . The m a l e s w o u l d n o t e t h a t a t e r m h a s a T3C0 a n d t h e f e m a l e s w o u l d s a y t h a t i t d o e s n o t h a v e a T3C0. Or t h e m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s w o u l d a s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t T3C0s t o t h e same t e r m . 143 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS S L L s h a v e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e x i c a l i t e m s when t h e y a r e u s e d w i t h T3C0s NSEs know t h a t someone who i s a CHICKEN i s AFRAID o r t h a t someone who i s BLUE i s SAD. S L L s , h o w e v e r , may n o t u n d e r s t a n d when l e x i c a l i t e m s a r e u s e d w i t h t h e i r T3COs. A few w i l l u n d e r s t a n d ; most w i l l n o t . Y e t w h i l e NSEs u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h T3C0s o f t e n i n n o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s , v i r t u a l l y no r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d . Hence ESL t e a c h e r s a r e u n a b l e t o l e a r n much a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s . B u t t h e y n e e d t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s i n o r d e r t o t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s T3C0s e f f e c t i v e l y a n d e f f i c i e n t l y . W i t h t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a s t e p t o w a r d s r e c t i f y i n g t h e n e g l e c t o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 i n SLA r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n t a k e n . T h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f some r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e T3C0s o f 39 E n g l i s h a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s by 70 a d u l t J S E s . RATIONALE: P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s may h a v e n e g l e c t e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3CO b e c a u s e t h e e m p h a s i s i n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g o v e r t h e l a s t f ew d e c a d e s h a s b e e n on t e a c h i n g s t r u c t u r e a n d f u n c t i o n s a n d n o t i o n s . They may h a v e n e g l e c t e d i t s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y d i d n o t b e l i e v e i t was w o r t h s t u d y i n g . They may h a v e n e g l e c t e d i t f o r a number o f o t h e r r e a s o n s . W h a t e v e r t h e r e a s o n o r r e a s o n s i t h a s b e e n n e g l e c t e d , t h e 144 n e g l e c t h a s n o t b e e n j u s t i f i e d . T3C0 i s an e s s e n t i a l a n d i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f l e x i c a l m e a n i n g i n E n g l i s h . One c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be t r u l y f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h u n l e s s one h a s a f i r m command o f T3C0. I f one d o e s n o t h a v e a f i r m command o f T3C0, one w i l l h a v e d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e d i a l o g u e i n m o v i e s a n d t e l e v i s i o n d r a m a s ; t h e c o n t e n t o f a modern n o v e l ; t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o f f r i e n d s o v e r a b e e r i n a pub o r e v e n t h e r e m a r k s o f o n e ' s s u p e r i o r s o r c o l l e a g u e s a t w o r k. SLA r e s e a r c h e r s a n d t h e a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s , h o w e v e r , h a v e n o t a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f T3C0. I f one t e a c h e s o n l y what SLA r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e r e s e a r c h e d a n d t h e a u t h o r s o f l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g t e x t b o o k s h a v e i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r t e x t b o o k s , o n e ' s s t u d e n t s w i l l emerge f r o m t h e i r c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s ( a s s u m i n g s t u d e n t s l e a r n o n l y what t h e i r t e a c h e r s t e a c h them) w i t h a l i f e l e s s a n d s t e r i l e E n g l i s h . They w i l l be a b l e t o c o n j u g a t e t h e i r v e r b s ; p r o n o u n c e t h e i r v o w e l s ; w r i t e a b u s i n e s s l e t t e r o r r e s e r v e a h o t e l room on t h e t e l e p h o n e . B u t t h e y w i l l n o t h a v e l e a r n t what a GREY AREA i s . A n d t h e y s h o u l d know what one i s . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h e T3C0s o f GREY a n d o t h e r l e x i c a l i t e m s . To do t h i s w e l l , h o w e v e r , t h e y must know s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0 b y S L L s . S u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o m p t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n d u c t t h e r e s e a r c h on t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f T3C0s by a d u l t J a p a n e s e s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h w h i c h i s r e p o r t e d h e r e . 145 The 70 J S E s u b j e c t s were g i v e n one o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t o c o m p l e t e . They c o m p l e t e d t h e A n i m a l s : FREE WORD c h o i c e , C o l o u r s : SENTENCE MULTIPLE c h o i c e , B i r d s : WORD MULTIPLE c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s o r t h e A n i m a l s : WORD MULTIPLE c h o i c e , C o l o u r s : FREE WORD c h o i c e , B i r d s : SENTENCE MULTIPLE c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s o r t h e A n i m a l s : SENTENCE MULTIPLE c h o i c e , C o l o u r s : WORD MULTIPLE c h o i c e , B i r d s : FREE WORD c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s . On t h e f r e e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s t h e s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e down t h e T3COs o f e a c h o f t h e t e r m s . On t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y s e l e c t e d t h e c o r r e c t T3COs o f t h e t e r m s . On e a c h i n s t r u m e n t t h e s u b j e c t s were a l s o p e r m i t t e d t o s t a t e a t e r m d o e s n o t h a v e a T3CO o r t h a t t h e y w e re n o t s u r e i t d o e s . The s c o r e s on t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s w e re u s e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s . The J S E s u b j e c t s a l s o c o m p l e t e d a c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t . The s c o r e s on i t s e r v e d a s t h e c o v a r i a t e i n t h e ANCOVA c a l c u l a t i o n s . The 14 NSE s u b j e c t s a n d t h e 28 N S J s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d FREE c h o i c e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e m t o n o t e t h e T3COs o f e a c h o f t h e 39 t e r m s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l a n g u a g e s . HYPOTHESES INTERFERENCE HYPOTHESIS: R e s e a r c h h a s a f f i r m e d S L L s s o m e t i m e s t r a n s f e r some o f t h e s e m a n t i c p r o p e r t i e s o f l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t l e x i c a l i t e m s i n t h e i r s e c o n d l a n g u a g e . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h 146 t r a n s f e r i s p o s s i b l e . 1. J S E s s h a l l n o t t r a n s f e r J a p a n e s e T3C0s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s i n E n g l i s h . The e x i s t e n c e o f t r a n s f e r w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n f i r m e d i f a t l e a s t 2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s on t h e FREE CHOICE e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s f o r a t l e a s t 10 o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y w e re a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t r a n s f e r . When t h e t e r m s w h i c h h a v e a common T3CO i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h o r do n o t h a v e a T3CO i n e i t h e r J a p a n e s e o r E n g l i s h w e re e l i m i n a t e d , o n l y 19 t e r m s r e m a i n e d . F e w e r t h a n 2 5 % o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e 19 t e r m s were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t r a n s f e r . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d . INSTRUMENT, CONTEXT AND SEMANTIC FIELD HYPOTHESES: I t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s on s i m i l a r v e r s i o n s o f t h e same t e s t o r e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t c a n v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s r e f l e c t s t h i s f a c t . I n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g i t i s w i d e l y known t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n amount o f c o n t e x t a n d c o m p r e -h e n s i b i l i t y . The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s r e f l e c t s t h i s f a c t . The l e x i c a l o r s e m a n t i c k n o w l e d g e w h i c h p e o p l e p o s s e s s c a n v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . A c o m p u t e r b u f f , f o r e x a m p l e , w i l l h a v e a c q u i r e d a number o f c o m p u t e r t e r m s w h i c h a p e r s o n who i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m p u t e r s may n o t h a v e a c q u i r e d . The f o u r t h h y p o t h e s i s i s b a s e d on t h i s f a c t . 2. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o w h i c h s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e . 3. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . 147 4. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . A n ANCOVA was r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e 23 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS, BIRDS a n d ANIMALS i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e s c o r e s o f 23 o f t h e 24 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS, COLOURS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e 23 s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS, a n i m a l a n d COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e c o m p a r e d . The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e s e t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . T h r e e d i f f e r e n t ANCOVAs were r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o amount o f c o n t e x t . The f i r s t ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS FREE, t h e ANIMALS WORD a n d t h e ANIMALS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t s . The s e c o n d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e BIRDS FREE, t h e BIRDS WORD an d t h e BIRDS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t s . The t h i r d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE, t h e COLOURS WORD a n d t h e COLOURS SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t s . The r e s u l t s show t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS a n d BIRDS i n s t r u m e n t s v a r i e d due t o t h e amount o f c o n t e x t . The r e s u l t s a l s o show t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o c o n t e x t . T h e r e f o r e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 148 c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o amount o f c o n t e x t . T h r e e d i f f e r e n t ANCOVAs were r u n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . The f i r s t ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS, BIRDS a n d COLOURS FREE c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s . The s e c o n d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS, BIRDS a n d COLOURS WORD c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s . The t h i r d ANCOVA c o m p a r e d t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e ANIMALS, BIRDS a n d COLOURS SENTENCE c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s . The r e s u l t s show t h a t f o r e a c h o f t h e t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e e f f e c t o f s e m a n t i c f i e l d . A G E AND GENDER H Y P O T H E S E S : I t i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i s e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e o r a b i l i t y o f t e n v a r i e s w i t h age o r g e n d e r . O l d e r p e o p l e , f o r e x a m p l e , know t h i n g s w h i c h y o u n g e r p e o p l e do n o t . M a l e s , f o r e x a m p l e , c a n do t h i n g s w h i c h f e m a l e s c a n n o t . T h e s e two h y p o t h e s e s r e f l e c t t h e s e f a c t s . 5. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o a g e . 6. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s on t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s s h a l l n o t v a r y due t o g e n d e r . ANCOVA was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h age o r g e n d e r . The s c o r e s o f 51 s u b j e c t s u n d e r 30 y e a r s o f age were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s 149 of 15 s u b j e c t s 30 years or o l d e r . The r e s u l t s show the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s can be r e j e c t e d . The scores v a r i e d w i t h age. The s u b j e c t s 30 years of age or o l d e r had more c o r r e c t responses than the s u b j e c t s under 30 years of age. The scores of 30 male s u b j e c t s were compared with the scores of 36 female s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s show the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s cannot be r e j e c t e d . The scores of the s u b j e c t s d i d not vary w i t h gender. EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESES: The experience or the background one has can g r e a t l y e f f e c t what one l e a r n s or how w e l l one does t h i n g s . With the r i g h t experience or background one w i l l l e a r n a l o t or do t h i n g s w e l l . Without the r i g h t experience or background one w i l l l e a r n much l e s s or do t h i n g s l e s s w e l l . These f i v e hypotheses t e s t whether T3CO i s one of those t h i n g s which v a r i e s with experience or background. 7. The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due t o t h e i r l e v e l of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h . 8. The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due t o the number of years they have s t u d i e d E n g l i s h . 9. The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due to r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h speaking country. 10. The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due to the frequency they use E n g l i s h . 11. The scores of the JSE s u b j e c t s on the e l i c i t a t i o n instruments s h a l l not vary due to the number of years of formal e d u c a t i o n they have r e c e i v e d . 150 ANCOVA was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e i r l e v e l o f f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h ; t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h ; r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y ; t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e E n g l i s h a n d t h e number o f y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d . The s c o r e s o f 48 i n t e r m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f 15 a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s n o t v a r y due t o l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . The a d v a n c e d s u b j e c t s d i d n o t h a v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s u b j e c t s . The s c o r e s o f 36 s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f 12 s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s . The r e s u l t s show t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h . The s c o r e s o f 30 s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f 21 s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week. The r e s u l t s show t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h t h e f r e q u e n c y t h e y u s e d E n g l i s h . The s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more t h a n o n c e a week d i d n o t h a v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h l e s s t h a n o n c e a week. The s c o r e s o f 15 s u b j e c t s who h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y were c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f 51 s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 151 c a n be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o r e s i d e n c y i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . The s u b j e c t s who h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d n o t . The s c o r e s o f 51 s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n w e re c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s c o r e s o f n i n e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e c e i v e d more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s show t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n be r e j e c t e d . The s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e number o f y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d . The s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n . MISCELLANEOUS HYPOTHESIS: NSs o p e r a t e on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o t h e r NSs h a v e as g o o d a command o f t h e l a n g u a g e as t h e y do. They s i m p l y assume o t h e r NSs know what t h e y know. The l a s t two h y p o t h e s e s a r e b a s e d on t h i s a s s u m p t i o n . 12a. The NSE s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n E n g l i s h 12b. The N S J s u b j e c t s s h a l l a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 t e r m s a r e i n J a p a n e s e I n o r d e r f o r t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s t o be a c c e p t e d 7 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d t o a g r e e on t h e T3C0s o f 30 o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e NSE s u b j e c t s a g r e e d on t h e T3COs o f o n l y t e n t e r m s . S e v e n t y -f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e N S J s u b j e c t s d i d n o t n o t e v e n a g r e e on t h e T3CO o f e v e n one t e r m . T h e r e f o r e t h e h y p o t h e s e s w ere 152 r e j e c t e d . The NSE a n d N S J s u b j e c t s d i d n o t a g r e e on what t h e T3COs o f t h e t e r m s a r e . DISCUSSION: One o f t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m s w i t h t h i s s t u d y i s t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o w c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s b e t w e e n t h e c o v a r i a t e a n d t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s o f 0.10, 0.20 o r 0.30 i n d i c a t e l e s s t h a n 10% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i s a c c o u n t e d f o r . C o r r e l a t i o n s t h i s l o w i n d i c a t e t h e c o v a r i a t e c a n n o t do t h e j o b i t i s s u p p o s e d t o . I t w i l l n o t be a b l e t o a d j u s t , c o m p e n s a t e f o r o r r e d u c e b i a s o r u n p r e d i c t a b l e v a r i a n c e . I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e i s an i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e c o v a r i a t e a n d t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e f o r some o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . W h i l e t h i s may c a u s e t h e a d j u s t e d means t o be a l i t t l e f u z z y , i t s h o u l d n o t s e r i o u s l y c o m p r o m i s e t h e ANCOVA r e s u l t s . G l a s s a n d H o p k i n s r e p o r t : " V i o l a t i o n o f t h e p a r a l l e l r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s a p p e a r s t o be i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l .... f o r a w i d e v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s . " ( G l a s s a n d H o p k i n s , 1984 p . 5 0 4 ) . I f a c l o z e r e a d i n g t e s t was n o t a g o o d c o v a r i a t e , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s k what w o u l d h a v e b e e n a g o o d c o v a r i a t e . B u t t h i s i s n o t an e a s y q u e s t i o n t o a n s w e r . T h e r e may h a v e b e e n a g o o d c o v a r i a t e , b u t t h e r e i s no p r a c t i c a l way o f f i n d i n g i t . When one u s e s ANCOVA, one b a s i c a l l y t a k e s o n e ' s c h a n c e s a n d h o p e s f o r t h e b e s t . One may be l u c k y a n d s e l e c t a p e r f e c t o r i d e a l c o v a r i a t e . More l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , i s t h e o p p o s i t e . The c o v a r i a t e w i l l p r o b a b l y be u n s u i t a b l e i n one 153 way o r a n o t h e r . I t i s e n t i r e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t w h a t e v e r was u s e d a s t h e c o v a r i a t e i n t h i s s t u d y w o u l d h a v e h a d some f a i l i n g s . Be t h a t as i t may, t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o assume t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d be q u e s t i o n e d . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s were s o g r e a t t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c e i v e them n o t b e i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . H y p o t h e s i s #1 was r e j e c t e d a s t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were n o t s a t i s f i e d . T h a t t h e y w e re n o t s a t i s f i e d , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o o f t h a t t r a n s f e r d o e s n o t o c c u r . A l l i t p r o v e s i s t h a t t h e J S E s u b j e c t s d i d n o t t r a n s f e r T3C0s when s i m p l y a s k e d t o s t a t e what t h e T3C0s o f some t e r m s a r e . I f t h e t a s k h a d b e e n d i f f e r e n t , t h e y m i g h t h a v e . On t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e i n s t r u m e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , some s i g n s o f t r a n s f e r w e r e n o t e d . More t h a n 2 5 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s t r a n s f e r r e d t h e T3COs f o r SWAN an d DOG. ANCOVA r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d due t o t h e s e t o f e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s t h e y c o m p l e t e d . The s c o r e s , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t v a r y b e c a u s e o f any b i a s o r u n i n t e n d e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s . They v a r i e d s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s w e re a b l e t o g i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e COLOURS FREE i n s t r u m e n t t h a n on t h e ANIMALS o r BIRDS FREE i n s t r u m e n t s . I n f a c t , 5 8 . 8 % o f t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e FREE CHOICE i n s t r u m e n t s w e re g i v e n b y t h e s u b j e c t s who 154 c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS FREE i n s t r u m e n t . The s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d more c o l o u r T3COs t h a n a n i m a l o r b i r d T 3 C 0 s . H y p o t h e s i s #3 was a c c e p t e d a s t h e s c o r e s on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s d i d n o t v a r y due t o amount o f c o n t e x t . T h i s f i n d i n g , h o w e v e r , must n o t be t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e amount o f c o n t e x t i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r . A l l i t shows i s t h a t t h e t h r e e amounts o f c o n t e x t e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o c a u s e t h e s c o r e s on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s t o v a r y . I f t h e amounts o f c o n t e x t h a d b e e n d i f f e r e n t , t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t s m i g h t a l s o h a v e v a r i e d . I f t h e SENTENCE i n s t r u m e n t h a d b e e n r e p l a c e d w i t h an i n s t r u m e n t w h i c h p r o v i d e d e a c h s t i m u l u s i t e m w i t h a p a r a g r a p h o f c o n t e x t , t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o assume t h e s c o r e s on t h e COLOURS i n s t r u m e n t w o u l d h a v e v a r i e d more. The s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . One s h o u l d n o t a t t r i b u t e t o o much t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y v a r i e d , h o w e v e r . J u s t b e c a u s e t h e y v a r i e d d o e s n o t mean t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n t r i n s i c a b o u t T3C0 w h i c h makes i t e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e t h e - T 3 C 0 s o f t e r m s i n c e r t a i n s e m a n t i c f i e l d s t h a n i n o t h e r s e m a n t i c f i e l d s . I n s t e a d , i t may show t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g i n t r i n s i c a b o u t s e m a n t i c f i e l d s w h i c h makes i t e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f t e r m s i n c e r t a i n s e m a n t i c f i e l d s t h a n o f t e r m s i n o t h e r s e m a n t i c f i e l d s . I t j u s t may be t h a t c o l o u r t e r m T3C0s a r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m T3C0s. I t may be t h a t 155 c o l o u r t e r m T3C0s a r e e a s i e r t o a c q u i r e b e c a u s e t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f c o l o u r t e r m s a r e a c q u i r e d b e f o r e t h e d e n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g s o f a n i m a l o r b i r d t e r m s . I n any c a s e i t i s c l e a r t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e m a n t i c f i e l d . B u t i f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d more T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e s e m a n t i c f i e l d s , l e s s v a r i a t i o n i n t h e i r s c o r e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e t e c t e d . V a r i a t i o n s h o u l d be g r e a t e r when t h e a v e r a g e s u b j e c t h a s a c q u i r e d f e w e r T3C0s. T h a t t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o age a n d d i d n o t v a r y w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . The o l d e r s u b j e c t s w e re a l s o t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y a n d h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more y e a r s . They h a d t h e b a c k g r o u n d a n d e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e p e r m i t t e d t h e m t o a c q u i r e t o more T3C0s. Thus t h e s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y b e c a u s e o f a g e . They v a r i e d b e c a u s e t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s s i m p l y h a d more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f t h e t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y t h a n t h e y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . A n d t h e r e i s no i n t r i n s i c r e a s o n why t h e s c o r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s s h o u l d h a v e v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r . The s c o r e s o f t h e NS s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y much w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r . The means o f t h e m a l e a n d f e m a l e NS s u b j e c t s were v e r y s i m i l a r . T h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e s c o r e s o f t h e J S E s u b j e c t s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h r e g a r d t o g e n d e r . 156 I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h more t h a n t e n y e a r s a n d h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h b e t w e e n f i v e a n d t e n y e a r s a n d h a d n o t r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y . What i s s u r p r i s i n g i s t h a t t h e y d i d n o t h a v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e y h a d . W i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d b a c k g r o u n d t h e y s h o u l d h a v e a c q u i r e d more T3C0s. E v e n s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h f o r a g r e a t many y e a r s a n d l i v i n g i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y d i d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e k n o w l e d g e NSEs h a v e o f T3C0. Why s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h f o r a g r e a t many y e a r s d i d n o t r e s u l t i n them a c q u i r i n g many T3C0s i s o b v i o u s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n what one i s n o t t a u g h t . B u t why l i v i n g i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y d i d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e i r a c q u i r i n g more T3C0s i s more d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . P e r h a p s NSEs i n s t i n c t i v e l y a v o i d t h e u s e o f T3C0s i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h J S E s . P e r h a p s t h e J S E s managed t o do what t h e y h a d t o w i t h o u t n e e d o f T3C0s. I t , h o w e v e r , i s s u r p r i s i n g t h e s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . P e r h a p s t h e y d i d n o t v a r y b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e p e r m i t t e d t o s a y what t h e i r l e v e l o f f l u e n c y was. Some may h a v e o v e r e s t i m a t e d o r u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e i r l e v e l . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f T3C0 r e a l l y d o e s n o t v a r y w i t h l e v e l o f f l u e n c y . More r e s e a r c h w i l l h a v e t o be done t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e s i t u a t i o n i s . 157 W h i l e t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h b e t w e e n 12 a n d 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e i r g r e a t e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s c a n n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e number o f y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n t h e y h a d r e c e i v e d . They h a d more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s b e c a u s e t h e y h a d a l s o s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s . F i f t e e n o f t h e 16 s u b j e c t s w i t h more t h a n 16 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n t e n y e a r s . T h e r e i s no a p r i o r i r e a s o n why p e o p l e w i t h more e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d a c q u i r e more T3C0s. I n o r d e r f o r e d u c a t i o n t o make a d i f f e r e n c e , i t h a s t o be t h e r i g h t k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n . I t was a l s o n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s c o r e s d i d n o t v a r y w i t h f r e q u e n c y o f u s e . T h e r e a r e two r e a s o n s why i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g . F i r s t , t h e s u b j e c t s came f r o m I w a t e a n d was as n o t e d e a r l i e r t h e r e a r e n o t many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e E n g l i s h i n I w a t e . E v e n t h e s u b j e c t s who u s e d E n g l i s h more f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t u s e E n g l i s h v e r y f r e q u e n t l y . U s i n g E n g l i s h a few t i m e s a week i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w t h e s u b j e c t s t o a c q u i r e many T3 C 0 s . S e c o n d , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t s were e i t h e r t e a c h e r s o r s t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h . H ence, t h e y h a d many more o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o u s e E n g l i s h i n s i d e t h e c l a s s r o o m t h a n o u t s i d e i t . A n d as was a m p l y d e m o n s t r a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , T3C0s a r e u s e d v e r y i n f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 158 It was surprising the NSE and NSJ subjects did not exhibit more agreement on the T3COs of the 39 terms employed in t h i s study. NSs assume other NSs know what they know. But perhaps there are greater differences i n NS competency than most NSs assume. Perhaps a d i f f e r e n t kind of e l i c i t a t i o n instrument would have produced greater agreement. Perhaps a free choice e l i c i t a t i o n instrument does not permit NSs to display t h e i r true competency. CONCLUSIONS: The major and most important finding of t h i s study i s very c l e a r . If JSEs are to acquire a large number of T3C0s, they are going to have to be taught them. The re s u l t s of t h i s study c l e a r l y indicate that without i n s t r u c t i o n JSEs w i l l not acquire many T3C0s. The subjects i n t h i s study had acquired only a few of the T3C0s of the 39 animal, b i r d and colour terms employed in the study. And while the subjects were not asked whether they had studied T3C0s or been taught T3C0s, i t i s clear from conversations with some of the subjects that they had never been taught T3C0s. Without i n s t r u c t i o n the average subject had acquired the T3C0s of fewer than 25% of the 39 terms employed i n the study. Even the subjects who had studied English more than 10 years or had l i v e d i n an English speaking country had acquired on average the T3C0s of fewer than 15 of the 39 terms. Without i n s t r u c t i o n JSEs f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to acquire the T3COs of many terms. 159 W h i l e J S E s w i l l n o t a c q u i r e many T3C0s, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e m t o a c q u i r e a few w i t h o u t i n s t r u c t i o n . The a v e r a g e s u b j e c t i n t h i s s t u d y h a d a c q u i r e d 8.54 T3C0s. The s u b j e c t s who h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h f o r more t h a n 16 y e a r s o r h a d r e s i d e d i n an E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y h a d a c q u i r e d more t h a n 12 T3C0s. Of c o u r s e , t h e T3C0s w h i c h one J S E a c q u i r e s d i f f e r f o r m t h o s e a n o t h e r J S E a c q u i r e s . A n d J S E s a r e more l i k e l y t o a c q u i r e t h e T3C0s o f t e r m s i n one s e m a n t i c f i e l d t h a n o f t e r m s i n a n o t h e r s e m a n t i c f i e l d . T e a c h e r s o f a d u l t J S E s o f i n t e r m e d i a t e o r h i g h e r l e v e l s o f f l u e n c y s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d many T3C0s. They w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y h a v e a c q u i r e d a few, b u t t h e o n e s t h e y h a v e a c q u i r e d w i l l d i f f e r f r o m s t u d e n t t o s t u d e n t . So t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e same T3C0s. They c a n , h o w e v e r , e x p e c t some s t u d e n t s ( t h o s e who h a v e l i v e d a b r o a d ) t o h a v e a c q u i r e d a few more T3C0s t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s . An o c c a s i o n a l s t u d e n t w i l l h a v e a c q u i r e d q u i t e a few T3C0s. They c a n a l s o e x p e c t t h e number o f T3C0s t h e i r s t u d e n t s h a v e a c q u i r e d t o v a r y f r o m s e m a n t i c f i e l d t o s e m a n t i c . T h e i r s t u d e n t s w i l l , on a v e r a g e , h a v e a c q u i r e d t h r e e o r f o u r t i m e s more c o l o u r T3C0s t h a n b i r d T3C0s. A n d t h e y c a n e x p e c t g r e a t e r amounts o f c o n t e x t t o s o m e t i m e s h e l p t h e i r s t u d e n t s t o g r a s p o r c o m p r e h e n d T3C0s. A n d t h e y c a n e x p e c t some o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s , a t l e a s t , t o o c c a s i o n a l l y t r a n s f e r J a p a n e s e T3C0s t o E n g l i s h t e r m s . 160 I M P L I C A T I O N S : A s h a s b e e n a m p l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e J S E s u b j e c t s who c o m p l e t e d t h e e l i c i t a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y c l e a r l y h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h e T3COs o f many o f t h e 39 t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s i s l a m e n t a b l e . P e o p l e who h a v e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h t h e number o f y e a r s t h e y h a v e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o g i v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e p r o f e s s o r s o f E n g l i s h , t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h a n d s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g t o become t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h . They a r e t h e p e o p l e who t e a c h o r a r e g o i n g t o t e a c h J a p a n e s e p e o p l e E n g l i s h . Hence t h e i r command o f E n g l i s h s h o u l d be as g o o d o r b e t t e r t h a n t h e m a j o r i t y o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . Y e t t h e y w e re u n a b l e t o g i v e more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e y d i d . T h i s i s an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . S o m e t h i n g must be done t o e n s u r e t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e p e o p l e who h a v e p u t as much t i m e a n d e f f o r t i n t o l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h a s t h e J S E s who w e re t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y h a v e c o m p l e t e d t h e i r s t u d i e s w i t h t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f more T3COs t h a n t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h i s s t u d y h a v e . F i r s t , t h e a u t h o r s o f t e x t b o o k s w h i c h a r e u s e d i n t h e s c h o o l s i n J a p a n must w r i t e t e x t b o o k s i n w h i c h l e x i c a l i t e m s a r e u s e d w i t h T3COs. S e c o n d , t e a c h e r s must t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s T3COs. T h i r d , a way must be f o u n d t o t e a c h t h e t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h i n J a p a n t h e T3COs w h i c h t h e y w i l l i n t u r n t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s . T h i s w i l l n o t be e a s y t o do, b u t i t c a n be d one. 161 I n J a p a n , s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 600 h o u r s o f E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t i o n i n j u n i o r a n d s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . S t u d e n t s who s t u d y E n g l i s h a t u n i v e r s i t y , o f c o u r s e , r e c e i v e s e v e r a l h u n d r e d a d d i t i o n a l h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e t h i s i s n o t e n o u g h t i m e t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s e v e r y t h i n g t h e y n e e d t o a c q u i r e i n o r d e r t o become f l u e n t s p e a k e r s o f E n g l i s h , s u r e l y some o f i t c o u l d be d e v o t e d t o t e a c h i n g T3COs. I f o n l y one T3CO were t a u g h t a week, a s t u d e n t who g r a d u a t e d f r o m u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a d e g r e e i n E n g l i s h w o u l d h a v e h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e b e t w e e n 200 a n d 300 T3COs. I f o n l y one were t a u g h t a month, a h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e up t o 50 T3COs. I f t h i s w e r e done, i n a v e r y few y e a r s l a r g e numbers o f J S E s w o u l d h a v e a g o o d command o f T3CO. They w o u l d know t h a t a FOX i s a SEXY GIRL, t h a t a CHICKEN i s a c o w a r d a n d t h a t a GREEN i s an e c o l o g i c a l l y a ware p e r s o n . I f E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s i n J a p a n r e c e i v e t h i s k i n d o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e y w i l l be b e t t e r e q u i p p e d f o r l i f e i n t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r l d . As I.A. R i c h a r d s a s s e r t s , l a n g u a g e i s v e r y m e t a p h o r i c . T h e r e f o r e i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e m e a n i n g s o f some o f t h e more common d e a d m e t a p h o r s c a n o n l y be b e n e f i c i a l . J S E s who h a v e b e e n t a u g h t some T3COs w i l l be more c a p a b l e o f ' r e a d i n g a modern n o v e l , o f c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h e d i a l o g u e i n a m o v i e o r t e l e v i s i o n drama, o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h o s e comments b y a f r i e n d o v e r a b e e r i n a pub o r o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e m a r k s o f a c o l l e a g u e o r s u p e r i o r a t 162 w o r k . W i t h o u t s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n , d o i n g t h e s e t h i n g s w i l l r e m a i n t r o u b l e s o m e f o r most J S E s . I t s h o u l d , h o w e v e r , be s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t e x p l i c i t l y t e a c h i n g S L L s T3COs w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e S L L s a c t u a l l y a c q u i r i n g o r l e a r n i n g t h e T3C0s t h e y a r e t a u g h t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h a t d o e s n o t mean one s h o u l d n o t t e a c h T3C0s. W h i l e S L L s may n o t a c q u i r e T3C0s w h i c h a r e t a u g h t them, t h e y c e r t a i n l y a r e n o t g o i n g t o a c q u i r e many i f t h e y a r e n o t t a u g h t them. T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o be l o s t b y t e a c h i n g them. A n d p e r h a p s t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g t o be g a i n e d . SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h e J S E s u b j e c t s h a d a c q u i r e d v e r y few o f t h e T3C0s o f t h e 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s e m p l o y e d i n t h e s t u d y . S u c h r e s u l t s c o u l d be a n o m a l o u s . O t h e r J S E s may h a v e a c q u i r e d more o f t h e s e T3C0s. R e s e a r c h w i t h o t h e r J S E s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d t o c o n f i r m t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e T3C0s o f o n l y 39 a n i m a l , b i r d a n d c o l o u r t e r m s . O t h e r l e x i c a l i t e m s f r o m o t h e r s e m a n t i c f i e l d s h a v e T3COs i n E n g l i s h . Some r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done t o d i s c o v e r how w e l l J S E s h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e T3C0s o f some o f t h e s e l e x i c a l i t e m s . P e r h a p s t h e y h a v e a c q u i r e d more o f t h e s e T3C0s. 163 The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h T3COs a r e u s e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n some s i t u a t i o n s t h a n i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . No r e s e a r c h , h o w e v e r , h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d t o d i s c o v e r t h e s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h NSEs a r e a p t t o u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h T 3 C0s. Some r e s e a r c h on t h i s s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d . K n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h i s c o u l d be i n v a l u a b l e t o ESL t e a c h e r s . I t c o u l d h e l p them d e c i d e w h i c h T3C0s t h e y s h o u l d t e a c h t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o b e l i e v e s some NSEs u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h T3C0s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n o t h e r NSEs. He b e l i e v e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t y o u n g e r NSEs u s e l e x i c a l i t e m s w i t h T3C0s much more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e l d e r l y p e o p l e . No r e s e a r c h on t h i s e x i s t s , h o w e v e r . Some r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d f o r ESL t e a c h e r s n e e d t o know what t h e i r s t u d e n t s n e e d t o know i n o r d e r t o f u n c t i o n w e l l i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t h e y w i l l f i n d t h e m s e l v e s i n . P e r h a p s b u s i n e s s m e n a n d u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be t a u g h t d i f f e r e n t T 3 C0s. T h i s s t u d y h a s r e v e a l e d t h a t NSEs may n o t a g r e e on what t h e T3C0s o f p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m s a r e . T h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t ESL t e a c h e r s c a n n o t r e l y on t h e i r i n s t i n c t s o r i n t u i t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e what t h e T3C0 o f any p a r t i c u l a r l e x i c a l i t e m i s . They n e e d a d i c t i o n a r y o f T3C0s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y c a n c h e c k t h e i r i n t u i t i o n . No s u c h d i c t i o n a r y e x i s t s , h o w e v e r . An e f f o r t s h o u l d be made t o c o m p i l e one. No ESL t e a c h e r s h o u l d be w i t h o u t one. 164 T h i s s t u d y h a s i n d i c a t e d J S E s may t r a n s f e r T3COs f r o m J a p a n e s e t o E n g l i s h . 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WILKINS, D.A. 1974. Second-Language L e a r n i n g and Teaching. L o n d o n : E d w a r d A r n o l d ( P u b l i s h e r s ) L t d . WINICK, CHARLES. 19 63. "Taboo a n d D i s a p p r o v e d C o l o r s a n d S y m b o l s i n V a r i o u s F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s " . The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l Psychology V o l . 59, 3 6 1 - 3 6 8 . WINNER, E L L E N ; ROSENSTIEL, ANNE K. a n d GARDNER, HOWARD. 1976. "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f M e t a p h o r i c U n d e r s t a n d i n g " . Developmental Psychology V o l . 1 2 , No.4, 2 8 9 - 2 9 7 . 176 WOLFSON, NESSA a n d JUDD, EL L I O T ( e d s . ) 1 983. S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s and Language A c q u i s i t i o n . R o w l e y , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . WORDELL, CHARLES B. 1989. "The S e c o n d I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a n g u a g e T e s t i n g C o n f e r e n c e " . The Language Teacher V o l . 1 3 , No.7, 2 3 - 2 5 . 177 APPENDIX ANIMALS-FREE L i s t e d below a r e t h i r t e e n v e r y f r e q u e n t l y used E n g l i s h a n i m a l terms. You a r e r e q u e s t e d t o : 1. D e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e s e a n i m a l terms have and w h i c h do not have t h e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d on t h e f i r s t t h r e e pages o f y o u r b o o k l e t . F o r each a n i m a l term w h i c h has a t l e a s t one o f t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e CIRCLE th e 'YES' w h i c h accompanies each term. F o r each term w h i c h does not have one of t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e CIRCLE th e 'NO' w h i c h a l s o accompanies each term. And i f you a r e n o t s u r e whether a term has a n o n - l i t e r a l meaning o r n o t , p l e a s e CIRCLE t h e 'NOT SURE' w h i c h a l s o accompanies each term. e.g. WOLF: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) 2. F o r t h o s e a n i m a l terms w h i c h you d e c i d e have t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e s t a t e i n a few words what you b e l i e v e t h e i r n o n - l i t e r a l meanings a r e . F o r t h o s e terms w h i c h you d e c i d e do not have t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, p l e a s e do n o t w r i t e a n y t h i n g . P l e a s e w r i t e y o u r answers f o r t h o s e terms w h i c h you d e c i d e have n o n - l i t e r a l meanings i n t h e manner i n d i c a t e d i n t h e example. e.g. WOLF: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) -- s t u p i d , s i l l y N.B. The n o n - l i t e r a l meanings g i v e n h e r e a r e o n l y examples. They a r e n o t t h e a c t u a l n o n - l i t e r a l meanings of ' w o l f . I n f a c t , ' w o l f may not have any n o n - l i t e r a l meanings. *** Some o f t h e s e terms may have more t h a n one n o n - l i t e r a l meaning. Some may have none. *** I f a term has more t h a n one n o n - l i t e r a l meaning, p l e a s e l i s t a l l of them. *** I f i t i s p o s s i b l e , use a s i n g l e word f o r each n o n - l i t e r a l meaning. *** I f you do n o t know t h e E n g l i s h word o r words f o r t h e i d e a w h i c h you want t o e x p r e s s , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o g i v e y o u r answers i n Japanese. *** REMEMBER t h a t i f the term does have one of these n o n - l i t e r a l meanings, i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t f o r the word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one of the f o l l o w i n g sentences. John i s a ( w o l f ) . John i s ( w o l f ) . John i s a (wolf) <something>. 178 J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> the ( w o l f ) . John has a (wolf) <something>. PLEASE DO NOT GUESS AT ANY OF THE ANSWERS. I f y o u a r e n o t a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n a b o u t t h e t h e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g o f a t e r m , p l e a s e c i r c l e t h e xNOT SURE' o p t i o n . Remember t h i s i s n o t a t e s t , s o t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s o p t i o n . BUFFALO: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) COW: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) SNAKE: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) ELEPHANT: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) FOX: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) MONKEY: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) BEAVER: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) DEER: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) WOLF: (YES) (NO) HORSE: (YES) (NO) DOG: (YES) (NO) BEAR: (YES) (NO) TIGER: (YES) (NO) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) (NOT SURE) ANIMALS-WORD L i s t e d b e l o w a r e t h i r t e e n v e r y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d E n g l i s h a n i m a l t e r m s . Y o u r t a s k i s t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e f i v e o p t i o n s w h i c h accompany e a c h t e r m most a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s y o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s o f t h e s e t e r m s . T h r e e o f t h e o p t i o n s a r e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s o f t h e t y p e w h i c h w ere e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e p a g e s o f y o u r b o o k l e t . I f y o u d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m h a s one o f t h e t h r e e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s l i s t e d , p l e a s e C I R C L E t h e number o f t h a t m e a n i n g . You may, h o w e v e r , d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g o f t h e t y p e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e p a g e s o f y o u r b o o k l e t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , p l e a s e C IRCLE o p t i o n number M'. 179 T h i s o p t i o n h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e n o t a l l o f t h e t h i r t e e n t e r m s h a v e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s . So when y o u a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t a t e r m h a s no n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g , p l e a s e s e l e c t t h i s o p t i o n . The f i r s t f o u r o p t i o n s a r e f o r when y o u a r e c e r t a i n t h a t t h e t e r m h a s o r d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g . T h e r e may be t i m e s , h o w e v e r , when y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n . So i f y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r a t e r m h a s o r d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g , p l e a s e C I R C L E o p t i o n number '5'. Remember t h i s i s n o t a t e s t , so t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s o p t i o n . *** I F A TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING, IT WILL BE I N ONE OF THE F I R S T THREE OPTIONS. *** I F A TERM HAS MORE THAN ONE NON-LITERAL MEANING, ONLY ONE HAS BEEN USED. *** REMEMBER t h a t i f the term does have one o f these non-l i t e r a l meanings, i t should be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t f o r the word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one o f the f o l l o w i n g sentences. John i s a ( w o l f ) . John i s ( w o l f ) . John i s a (wolf) <something>. J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> the ( w o l f ) . John has a (wolf) <something>. BUFFALO: 1. STUPID 2. UNPREDICTABLE 3. STRONG 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. COW: 1. LAZY 2. STUPID 3. FAT a n d UGLY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. SNAKE: 1. UNFRIENDLY 2. E V I L 3. UNPREDICTABLE 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. ELEPHANT: 1. STRONG 2. INTELLIGENT 3. HAS A GOOD MEMORY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING FOX: 1. LAZY 2. INTELLIGENT 3. SEXY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING MONKEY: 1. UNRELIABLE 2. MISCHIEVOUS 3. SENSIBLE 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING BEAVER: 1. INDEPENDENT 2. INTELLIGENT 3. HARD WORKING 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING DEER: 1. MEEK 2. BEAUTIFUL 3. FRIENDLY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING WOLF: 1. INDEPENDENT 2. SEXUALLY AGGRESSIVE 3. INTELLIGENT 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING HORSE: 1. FAITHFUL 2. STRONG 3. FRIENDLY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING 181 DOG: 1. UGLY o r UNATTRACTIVE 2. FAITHFUL 3. FRIENDLY 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. BEAR: 1. UNPREDICTABLE 2. DANGEROUS 3. B I G a n d POWERFUL 4. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. TIGER: 1. BEAUTIFUL 2. AGGRESSIVE 3. DANGEROUS 4. THERE I S NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. ANIMALS-SENTENCE L i s t e d b e l o w a r e t h i r t e e n v e r y f r e q u e n t l y u s e d E n g l i s h a n i m a l t e r m s . Y o u r t a s k i s t o d e c i d e w h i c h o f t h e f i v e o p t i o n s w h i c h accompany e a c h t e r m most a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s y o u r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s o f t h e s e t e r m s . T h r e e o f t h e o p t i o n s a r e s e n t e n c e s where t h e t e r m h a s b e e n u s e d w i t h a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g o f t h e t y p e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e p a g e s o f y o u r b o o k l e t . I f y o u d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m h a s one o f t h e s e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s , p l e a s e C I R C L E t h e number o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t e n c e You may, h o w e v e r , d e c i d e t h a t t h e t e r m d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - i t e r a l m e a n i n g o f t h e t y p e e x p l a i n e d i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e p a g e s o f y o u r b o o k l e t . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , p l e a s e C IRCLE o p t i o n number M'. T h i s o p t i o n h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d b e c a u s e n o t a l l o f t h e t h i r t e e n t e r m s h a v e n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g s . So when y o u a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n h a t a t e r m h a s no n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g , p l e a s e s e l e c t t h i s o p t i o n . The f i r s t f o u r o p t i o n s a r e f o r when y o u a r e c e r t a i n t h a t t h e t e r m h a s o r d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g . T h e r e may be t i m e s , h o w e v e r , when y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n . So i f y o u a r e n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r a t e r m h a s o r d o e s n o t h a v e a n o n - l i t e r a l m e a n i n g , p l e a s e C IRCLE o p t i o n number x5'. Remember t h i s i s n o t a t e s t , so t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s o p t i o n . *** I F A TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING, IT WILL BE I N ONE OF THE F I R S T THREE OPTIONS. 182 *** I F A TERM HAS MORE THAN ONE NO-LITERAL MEANING, ONLY ONE HAS BEEN USED. *** REMEMBER t h a t i f the term does have one o f th e s e non-l i t e r a l meanings, i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s u b s t i t u t e i t f o r the word i n b r a c k e t s ( ) i n a t l e a s t one o f the f o l l o w i n g sentences. John i s a ( w o l f ) . John i s ( w o l f ) . John i s a (wolf) <something>. J o h n / i t i s <PREPOSITION> the ( w o l f ) . John has a (wolf) <something> BUFFALO: 1. STUPID PEOPLE ARE BUFFALOES. 2. AN UNPREDICTABLE PERSON IS A BUFFALO. 3. A STRONG MAN IS A BUFFALO. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. COW: 1. A LAZY WORKER IS A COW. 2. STUPID PEOPLE ARE COWS. 3. FAT AND UGLY WOMEN ARE COWS. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. SNAKE: 1. UNFRIENDLY PEOPLE ARE SNAKES. 2. AN E V I L PERSON IS A SNAKE. 3. COMPLETELY UNPREDICTABLE PEOPLE ARE SNAKES. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. ELEPHANT: 1. A STRONG MAN IS AN ELEPHANT. 2. INTELLIGENT PEOPLE ARE ELEPHANTS. 3. PEOPLE WITH GOOD MEMORIES ARE ELEPHANTS. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. FOX: 1. LAZY PEOPLE ARE FOXES. 2. INTELLIGENT GIRLS ARE FOXES. 3. SEXY GIRLS ARE FOXES. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. MONKEY: 1. PEOPLE YOU CAN NEVER RELY ON ARE MONKEYS. 2. CHILDREN WHO ALWAYS GET INTO MISCHIEF ARE MONKEYS. 3. SENSIBLE PEOPLE ARE MONKEYS. 4 . THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. 5. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. 183 BEAVER: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DEER: 1 . 2. 3. 4 . 5. WOLF: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HORSE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DOG: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. BEAR: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TIGER: 1. 2. 3. 4 . 5. THE INDEPENDENT PERSON IS A BEAVER. INTELLIGENT PEOPLE ARE BEAVERS. PEOPLE WHO WORK HARD ARE BEAVERS. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. PEOPLE WHO ARE MEEK ARE DEERS. BEAUTIFUL WOMEN ARE DEERS. FRIENDLY PEOPLE ARE DEERS. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. INDEPENDENT PEOPLE ARE WOLVES. MEN WHO ALWAYS CHASE WOMEN ARE WOLVES. VERY INTELLIGENT PEOPLE ARE WOLVES. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. PEOPLE WHO ARE FAITHFUL ARE HORSES. A STRONG MAN IS A HORSE. VERY FRIENDLY PEOPLE ARE HORSES. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. UGLY WOMEN ARE DOGS. A FAITHFUL HUSBAND IS A DOG. A FRIENDLY PERSON IS A DOG. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. AN UNPREDICTABLE MAN IS A BEAR. PEOPLE WHO ARE DANGEROUS ARE BEARS. BIG AND STRONG MEN ARE BEARS. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. BEAUTIFUL GIRLS ARE TIGERS. AN AGRESSIVE FIGHTER IS A TIGER. A VERY DANGEROUS MAN IS A TIGER. THERE IS NO NON-LITERAL MEANING FOR THIS TERM. I AM NOT SURE THIS TERM HAS A NON-LITERAL MEANING. 184 CODE: READING TEST T h e r e a r e t h r e e s h o r t r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s g i v e n b e l o w . The f i r s t o f t h e r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s i s n o t so d i f f i c u l t . The s e c o n d p a s s a g e i s a l i t t l e more d i f f i c u l t . The t h i r d p a s s a g e i s s t i l l more d i f f i c u l t . A n d i n e a c h o f t h e p a s s a g e s , a s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t , t h e r e a r e some b l a n k s . The b l a n k s a r e i n d i c a t e d b y : ( ) . A b l a n k i s u s e d t o show t h a t a w o r d f r o m t h e p a s s a g e h a s b e e n d e l e t e d . Y o u r t a s k i s t o p u t any w o r d w h i c h h a s b e e n d e l e t e d b a c k i n . You must t r y t o p u t b a c k i n t h e same w o r d w h i c h t h e w r i t e r o f t h e p a s s a g e u s e d . The w o r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e l e t e d f r o m t h e t h r e e p a s s a g e s a r e l i s t e d a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e t h i r d p a s s a g e . You may u s e t h i s l i s t t o h e l p y o u p u t t h e w o r d s w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e l e t e d b a c k i n . E a c h w o r d may be u s e d o n l y o n c e . O n l y t h e EXACT SAME WORD w h i c h t h e w r i t e r s o f t h e p a s s a g e s u s e d w i l l be c o u n t e d as c o r r e c t . You h a v e 15 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s . You may n o t u s e a d i c t i o n a r y . CODE: u s e t h e same f o u r d i g i t number w h i c h y o u u s e d on t h e o t h e r e x e r c i s e . THE FIRST PASSAGE: J e a n A n d e r s o n i s t h i r t y - e i g h t . ( ) i s a v e r y t a l e n t e d c o m p u t e r ( ) s p e c i a l i s t who s t a r t e d h e r own ( ) a t t h e age o f t w e n t y - ( ) . The company was s u c c e s s f u l , b u t ( ) h e r e a r l y t h i r t i e s J e a n met ( ) m a r r i e d a r i c h a n d s u c c e s s f u l ( ) a n d s h e g a v e up h e r ( ) t o h a v e a c h i l d . P r o b l e m s ( ) i n h e r m a r r i a g e a n d s h e ( ) d i v o r c e d when t h e c h i l d was ( ) y e a r s o l d . She h a d t o ( ) b a c k t o work t o s u p p o r t ( ) a n d h e r d a u g h t e r . 185 THE SECOND PASSAGE: L a s t w e e k e n d I went on a ( ) t o M e r i d a , a l o v e l y c i t y on ( ) Y u c a t a n P e n i n s u l a . I went w i t h some ( ) i n my c l a s s . F i r s t we v i s i t e d ( ) , an o l d Mayan c i t y a b o u t f i f t y ( ) s o u t h o f M e r i d a . Then we c l i m b e d ( ) o l d P y r a m i d o f t h e m a g i c i a n . I t ( ) v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . 118 s t e p s t o t h e ( ) o f t h e p y r a m i d . We saw t h e ( ) P a l a c e a n d t h e House o f P i g e o n s . ( ) l u n c h we s a t i n t h e s u n ( ) o v e r an h o u r a n d w a l k e d a r o u n d . ( ) met a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g M e x i c a n t h e r e . ( ) d i d n ' t p r a c t i c e my S p a n i s h b e c a u s e he ( ) E n g l i s h a l l t h e t i m e . THE THIRD PASSAGE: L a s t n i g h t t h i e v e s s t o l e a p a i n t i n g ( ) t h e home o f L o r d B o n n i f o r d . The ( ) , a s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a s t e r p i e c e b y H o l b e i n , ( ) s a i d t o be p r i c e l e s s . L o r d B o n n i f o r d ( ) he c o u l d h e a r n o i s e s i n t h e ( ) o f t h e n i g h t , b u t be he ( ) no a t t e n t i o n . He t h o u g h t i t was ( ) n o i s e f r o m t h e w i n d o r t h e ( ) . The s e c u r i t y g u a r d , Mr. C h a r l e s P o t t s , ( ) phone t h e p o l i c e b e c a u s e he was ( ) h a n d a n d f o o t . The t h i e v e s managed ( ) g e t i n a n d e s c a p e w i t h o u t s e t t i n g ( ) t h e s e c u r i t y a l a r m b y c u t t i n g o f f ( ) e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y . THE LIST OF DELETED WORDS: s o l i c i t o r Uxmal m i d d l e h e r s e l f t h e t r i p c a r e e r a f t e r s o f t w a r e s p o k e s a i d s t u d e n t s f r o m d e v e l o p e d i n t i e d t o p t h e c o u l d n ' t s h e go c a t a n d p a i d t h e I n i n e was j u s t i s f o r o f f I g o t m i l e s t o p a i n t i n g f o u r company G o v e r n o r ' s THE FIRST PASSAGE: J e a n A n d e r s o n i s t h i r t y - e i g h t . She i s a v e r y t a l e n t e d c o m p u t e r s o f t w a r e s p e c i a l i s t who s t a r t e d h e r own company a t t h e age o f t w e n t y - n i n e . The company was s u c c e s s f u l , b u t i n h e r e a r l y t h i r t i e s J e a n met a n d m a r r i e d a r i c h a n d s u c c e s s f u l s o l i c i t o r a n d she g a v e up h e r c a r e e r t o h a v e a c h i l d . P r o b l e m s d e v e l o p e d i n h e r m a r r i a g e a n d s h e g o t d i v o r c e d when t h e c h i l d was f o u r y e a r s o l d . She h a d t o go b a c k t o work t o s u p p o r t h e r s e l f a n d h e r d a u g h t e r ( N o l a s c o , 1987 p . 4 8 ) . 186 THE SECOND P A S S A G E : L a s t w e e k e n d I went on a t r i p t o M e r i d a , a l o v e l y c i t y on t h e Y u c a t a n P e n i n s u l a . I went w i t h some s t u d e n t s i n my c l a s s . F i r s t we v i s i t e d U x m a l , an o l d Mayan c i t y a b o u t f i f t y m i l e s s o u t h o f M e r i d a . Then we c l i m b e d t h e o l d P y r a m i d o f t h e m a g i c i a n . I t was v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . 118 s t e p s t o t h e t o p o f t h e p y r a m i d . We saw t h e G o v e r n o r ' s P a l a c e a n d t h e House o f P i g e o n s . A f t e r l u n c h we s a t i n t h e s u n f o r o v e r an h o u r a n d w a l k e d a r o u n d . I met a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g M e x i c a n t h e r e . I d i d n ' t p r a c t i c e my S p a n i s h b e c a u s e he s p o k e E n g l i s h a l l t h e t i m e ( H a r t l e y a n d V i n e y , 1984 l e s s o n 6 0 ) . THE THIRD P A S S A G E : L a s t n i g h t t h i e v e s s t o l e a p a i n t i n g f r o m t h e home o f L o r d B o n n i f o r d . The p a i n t i n g , a s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y m a s t e r p i e c e b y H o l b e i n , i s s a i d t o be p r i c e l e s s . L o r d B o n n i f o r d s a i d he c o u l d h e a r n o i s e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t , b u t be he p a i d no a t t e n t i o n . He t h o u g h t i t was j u s t n o i s e f r o m t h e w i n d o r t h e c a t . The s e c u r i t y g u a r d , Mr. C h a r l e s P o t t s , c o u l d n ' t p hone t h e p o l i c e b e c a u s e he was t i e d h a n d a n d f o o t . The t h i e v e s managed t o g e t i n a n d e s c a p e w i t h o u t s e t t i n g o f f t h e s e c u r i t y a l a r m b y c u t t i n g o f f t h e e l e c t r i c i t y s u p p l y ( S o a r s , J o h n a n d L i z , 1986 p . 5 4 ) . 187 A LIST OF THE CONNOTATIVE MEANINGS OF THE ANIMAL, BIRD AND COLOUR TERMS USED IN THIS STUDY ANIMALS: BEAR: 1 2 BEAVER: 1: a b i g , s t r o n g man. J o h n i s a b e a r , a p e r s o n who b e l i v e s a f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t i s g o i n g t o go down o r a f i n a n c i a l m a r k e t w h i c h i s g o i n g down. The BEARS made money l a s t y e a r . h a r d w o r k i n g , i n d u s t r i o u s . J o h n i s a r e a l BEAVER, f e m a l e as a s e x o b j e c t . T h e r e a r e some c u t e BEAVER i n t h a t b a r . BUFFALO: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . COW: 1: f a t a n d u g l y woman. Mary i s a r e a l COW. 2: d o c i l e . J o h n i s a cow. DEER: DOG: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 1: u g l y u n a t t r a c t i v e woman. M a r y was a DOG. 2: w o r t h l e s s o r u s e l e s s . 3: work h a r d . ELEPHANT: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 2: HUGE? FOX: 1: s e x y g i r l . M a r y i s a FOX. 2: s l y o r t r i c k y p e r s o n . J o h n i s a FOX. HORSE: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 188' MONKEY: 1: m i s c h i e v o u s , e s p e c i a l l y a c h i l d . M a r y was a r e a l MONKEY when s h e was a c h i l d . SNAKE: 1: d e v i o u s o r s n e a k y . J o h n i s a SNAKE. 2: u n t r u s t w o r t h y . J o h n i s a SNAKE. 3: e v i l . J o h n i s a SNAKE. TIGER: 1: f i e r c e o r s t r o n g . J o h n i s a TIGER. WOLF: 1: man who c h a s e s women. J o h n i s a WOLF. BIRDS: CHICKEN: 1: a f r a i d o r a c o w a r d . J o h n i s (a) CHICKEN. CRANE 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . CROW: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . DUCK: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . EAGLE: 1: GOOSE: 1: s i l l y M a ry i s a GOOSE. HAWK: 1: w a r - l i k e o r a g g r e s s i v e . M o s t s o l d i e r s a r e HAWKS. OWL: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . 2: w i s e ? J o h n i s an OWL. 189 PIGEON: 1: some one e a s i l y f o o l e d o r t a k e n i n . J o h n was an e a s y PIGEON. SPARROW: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . SWALLOW: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . SWAN: 1: (GRACEFUL?) T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . M a r y i s a SWAN. TURKEY: 1: j e r k o r i d i o t . J o h n i s a TURKEY. C O L O U R S : BLACK: 1: N e g r o i d . J o h n i s BLACK. 2: e v i l o r b a d . I t was a BLACK day when he became p r e s i d e n t . 3: m a k i n g a p r o f i t . IBM f i n i s h e s e v e r y y e a r i n t h e BLACK. BLUE: 1: d e p r e s s e d . J o h n i s BLUE t o d a y . 2: p o r n o g r a p h i c . The m o v i e was a l i t t l e BLUE, BROWN: 1 T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g . (BROWN NOSER?) GOLD: v a l u a b l e 2: o f f i r s t r a t e q u a l i t y . GREEN: 1: j e a l o u s l y o r e n v y . JOHN i s a l i t t l e GREEN. 2: i n e x p e r i e n c e d . JOHN i s GREEN. 3: n a u s e a . JOHN i s GREEN. 4 . e c o l o g y . J o h n i s a GREEN. 5. money. J o h n h a s t h e g r e e n . GREY: 1: i n d i s t i n c t n e s s o r v a g u e n e s s T h a t i s a GREY a r e a . ORANGE: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g PINK: 1: h e a l t h y o r i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n . J o h n i s i n t h e PINK. PURPLE/VIOLET: 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g RED: 1: c o m m u n i s t o r l e f t w i n g . J o h n i s a RED. 2: l o s i n g money. JNR was a l w a y s i n t h e RED. 3: a n g r y J o h n i s RED. SIL V E R : 1: T h i s t e r m h a s no c o n n o t a t i v e m e a n i n g WHITE: 1: p u r e o r v i r t u o u s . J o h n i s l i l y WHITE. 2: C a u c a s i a n . J o h n i s WHITE. YELLOW: 1: c o w a r d . J o h n i s YELLOW. 

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