Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

ESL university students' coping strategies : a qualitative study of academic reading Yuen, Susie 1988

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1988_A8 Y83.pdf [ 5.4MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302144.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302144-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302144-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302144-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302144-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302144-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302144-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302144-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302144.ris

Full Text

ESL  UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' COPING STRATEGIES:  A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF ACADEMIC READING  By Susie Yuen B.A., The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 19 7 7  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Language Education  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) September 1988 Susie Yuen, 1988  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Columbia,  I  agree  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  study.  scholarly  or  her  for  of  L a n g u a g e *  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1Y3 Date  financial  nF.fin/ft-n  Kr1np.at-.1on  Columbia  September 6.  further  purposes  1988  gain  that  agree  may  be  It  is  representatives.  permission.  Department  I  requirements  shall  not  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall for  the that  without  head  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  The second  ability  language  progress. academic level,  to read  o f t e n determines  Recent reading  often  and w r i t e  related of ESL  academic  an ESL student's  research  university  a t the single  focused  students  at  or multi-paragraph  C a r r e l l , 1985,1987), a n d h a s l o o k e d  were  general This  students credit  study  cope  the  with  how  level  year  demands  Literature  the context and the  the  the  text  (Block,  at categories  first  reading  English  within  instruction,  the  on  that  areas.  explores  courses,  Psychology,  subject  in a  scholastic  has  1986;  across  discourse  university of  and  specific  Introductory  of the course  nature  two  ESL  requirements,  of the academic  discipline  itself. The with  research  ten  Canadian  students  method from  instructors,  researcher's  extensive  Analysis  of  focused  various  field  and  reading  in  the  in  on  nature  of  discipline,  meeting  their  o b s e r v a t i o n s , a n d on t h e  three  background  reliance  comprehension  strategies  c o u n t r i e s and  the findings identified  experience,  interest  interviews  diary.  self-management,  The  Asian  on c l a s s r o o m  strategies:  disciplines.  on e t h n o g r a p h i c  appear specific  the the and  to  major  knowledge  instructors genre,  their  the  and  in  the  students'  perseverance  influence their academic  coping  in  choice  objectives.  of  These  strategies contributed  t o the  of the  t h a t the  at  academic t a s k s  academic  required  tasks  to  complete  students'  approaching the text level  academic  the  rather  l e v e l , and  the  context  requirements isolation.  at  was  of the  agenda,  involved the  whole  required  requirements  primary r e a l i t y  with p r e v i o u s  than  generic  importance of  what  rather Thus,  t h e o r e t i c a l model i n t o an  course  tasks  what  research,  of g e n r e - s p e c i f i c reading  text l e v e l  the  a c t i o n component or  of  was  Essentially,  tasks. Reading-to-learn  context  what  of  to the  s t u d e n t s was  to  adequate l e v e l of academic p r o f i c i e n c y .  In c o n t r a s t importance  c o n c e r n t o do  g e n r e - s p e c i f i c reading  fulfil  d e m o n s t r a t e an  the  assignments.  d i r e c t e d the  p a r t i c u l a r genre. The  the  course  within the  successfully  students face. Their e f f o r t s  were guided by  c o u r s e assignments of the  background knowledge component  the  findings i n d i c a t e d  tasks  reading  at  the  of r e l a t i n g coping was  than  required the  findings  (Mohan, 1986)  a c t i o n component and  study were  a t the  paragraph  s t r a t e g i e s to  to  fulfil  of  strategies  consistent  analyzing  whole-  academic  a knowledge component.  course  with  in a  tasks  i v  TABLE I.  II.  Scope  and Focus  A.  Background  B.  Rationale  Review  CONTENTS  of the Study  1  of the Problem  1  f o r the Research  of Related  Question  2  Literature  9  A.  Introduction  B.  Scope  C.  Definitions  10.  D.  Text  12  E.  Problems a  F.  9  of L i t e r a t u r e  Review  9.  Structure with  Second  Research  Recall  in 15  between  Background  Knowledge  Text  17  G.  A Theoretical  H.  An A l t e r n a t i v e Academic  Model:  Strategies  J.  Use o f S t u d e n t  K.  Implications  L.  Summary  for Actual  19  to Research i n 22  University  Assignments  Informants  f o r Classroom  24 26  Instruction  Review  27  and Need f o r  Research  Design  Framework  Strategies  of L i t e r a t u r e  Further  the Knowledge  Approach  Reading  I.  Research  involving  Language  Interaction and  III.  OF  29  and P r o c e s s  33  A.  Introduction  33  B.  Setting  34  C.  Access  D.  Documents  40  E.  Participants  41  and R e c o n n a i s s a n c e  Phase  37  V  F. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T h r o u g h  Participant  Observation  43  G. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T h r o u g h  Interviews  44  H. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T h r o u g h  the F i e l d  47  Diary  I . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y  49  J . Summary  51  IV. A n a l y s i s o f Data  52  A. I n t r o d u c t i o n  52  B. S e n s i t i z i n g  55  C. C o d i n g  58  D. M o d e l  - Building  78  E. T r i a n g u l a t i o n  83  F. T h e o r y L i n k a g e  .90  G. Summary  95  V. C o n c l u s i o n A. C o m p a r i s o n  98 w i t h Recent R e l a t e d Research  B. The P r e s e n t S t u d y  98 98  C. T h e o r e t i c a l  Implications  100  D. E d u c a t i o n a l  Implications  102  E. L i m i t a t i o n s  of the Study  106  F. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h G. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks - a F i n a l  Word f r o m t h e  R e s e a r c h e r and P a r t i c i p a n t s Bibliography  107  110 I l l  Appendix  A - Subject consent  form  117  Appendix  B - S u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n form  118  Appendix  C - Interview Questions  119  vi  Appendix  D - Reading Schedule  Appendix  E - Course O u t l i n e  f o r P s y c h o l o g y 110  forEnglish  .......121  Literature  110..122  vii  List  of F i g u r e s  1. O b s e r v a t i o n c h a r t 2. S t u d e n t s '  Coping  3. M o d e l o f C o p i n g  Strategies  strategies  60  Strategies  4. M o d e l o f C o n t e x t s 5. T r i a n g u l a t i o n  44  f o r Coping  80 Strategies  i n ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' i n reading  6. A p p l i c a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e  81 coping 84  framework  to data  102  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Drs. Mohan, Early and Fisher, who consented to form my thesis committee, are acknowledged for their invaluable guidance and feedback in the development and completion of this thesis. Thank you to my advisor, Bernard Mohan, for sharing his insights in academic reading and the contentlanguage relationship; to Margaret Early for facilitating the l i t e r a t u r e review and for constant encouragement during this year of graduate studies; and to Donald Fisher whose expertise in the ethnographic process enabled me to understand qualitative research design and reflexivity in analysis. Appreciation i s also extended to the ESL university students whose willingness to participate in this study provided the essential data. The administration of Columbia College is to be thanked, for providing me with a year's a s s i s t e d study leave to complete my Master program. I also thank my teaching colleagues a t Columbia College and my fellow graduate students at UBC for their interest and input. Finally, my gratitude is expressed to my family who are also UBC alumnae/students: my husband, Gordon, and our children, Colleen, Sandra and Adena, whose support, humor and patience enabled me to complete this thesis.  1  CHAPTER ONE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE PROBLEM A. Background of the Problem During the t e a c h i n g and  past decade  the r e l a t i o n  content t e a c h i n g has been r e c e i v i n g  emphasis i n  academic i n s t i t u t i o n s .  r i s i n g development  has been  the  English for  S p e c i f i c Purposes,  the content  areas  the language  approaches  study s k i l l s and r e a d i n g i n  1979).  two  The s p e c i f i c problems of  perspectives:  textbooks  research  that  i n t o Language  Across the  into  viewpoint  Curriculum  whereby  i s necessary f o r general academic development  f o c u s . More  particularly,  recent r e s e a r c h  needs  of  English  in  has as  a  accordance  paid  with  attention  second  the  to the  language  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students who are i n postsecondary i n North  of  p e r t i n e n t to a s p e c i f i c content area i s taught,  l a t t e r view, reading  the  f o r Science, E n g l i s h f o r Mathematics) whereby  and r e s e a r c h  i s the  unifying  from the E n g l i s h f o r S p e c i f i c Purposes  (e.g. E n g l i s h  language  from  this  education,  students i n understanding academic  addressed  instruction  of  (Mohan,  increasing with  i n postsecondary  f o c u s i n g on  u n i v e r s i t y ESL  problem  Concurrent  language  the re-examination of language  t e a c h i n g f o r content l e a r n i n g  has been  between  (ESL)  institutions  America.  A number  of questions  can be  raised:  What  are the  2  reading  needs .  university such  of  level?  students  being  done  What  kinds  of  Recent  text  tasks  approach  are  research  structure in  quantitative qualitative  studies;  that  with  English  Literature  The  ability  textbooks for  and  successful  faculty  survey  skills,  reading  speakers'  been  reading  how  the  year  The  on t h e  tasks.  use  on  through  placed  make  credit  the  readings at  and l i s t e n i n g , in  has  first  for  ESL This  coping of  when  university  courses.  Question  by Johns(1981)  success  in  understand  achievement  by r e a d e r s .  explore  students  and P s y c h o l o g y  supplementary  strategies  in exploring  will  assignments  to  reading  has focused  has been  academic  study,  f o r the Research  level  of texts  approach  with  their  tasks?  comprehension  research  international  reading  B. R a t i o n a l e  deal  of  What i s  reading  coping  reading  emphasis  ethnographic  qualitative  the  tasks?  ESL  this  less  study,  faced  reading  of  students  strategies  the students'  at the postsecondary  much  at  tasks?  in their  facilitate  and the p r o c e s s i n g  or  reading  students  in  university a  their  will  academic  purposes  students  a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g i e s  these  What  with  international  approaching  to assist  faced  academic  What  when  comprehension? when  ESL  the  content is a  university  prime  university  determined were  of  that  critical work.  academic requisite  level.  A  the receptive for  non-native  Proficiency  in  3  independent course  reading  content,  completing  examinations.  At  students  are  they  expected  is  are  for  first  include that it  a  is  be  first  chapter weeks  well  to  year  taught  or  as  known  time.  this  Faced and  with  college  preparatory  freshmen textbooks,  hoping  understand  or  their reading  to  to  psychology Depending  concept on  their  1984),  the  to  inferencing  use  use of  level  learning  of  a  what  skills  usually  begins  them  ensuring  in reading  et  made  quality  their  ESL some  read  vill  a  the  say  to in  particular literature.  their  (Bialystok,  (O'Malley  the  out-of-class  of  proficiency,  by  also  educational experience  reading  i f the  knowledge  delay  piece  novels  for,  to  teaching  particular  strategies  than  instructors may  may  term;  whose  background  the  or  assigned  immediately some  list  the  tasks  prepared  students  previous their  reading  begin  instructor or  are  If i t  include  in  readings  have  acquire  Other the  covered  year.  the  may  term, which  dramas,  during  of  list  reading  considerably greater  supplement  classes. until  may  the  list  requirements  classes  students  academic  weeks  be  daunting  usually  the  of  writing  university  reading  the  to  and  a  poems,  supplementary  course  each  Literature,  stories,  topics  these  q u a n t i t y are  during  i n scheduled  the  The  of with  psychology,  instructor. at  utilize  understanding  assignments,  presented  short  year  of  student  beginning  English  of  numbers  as  the  usually  list  will  facilitates  (Cummins, ability  1983),their  a l , 1985;  Reid,  4  1987),  their  reading  interest  task  approach  (Mohan,  their  trepidation,  the  students  curriculum)  taught  at  familiarity this  concepts,  subjects  with  case,  such  psychological  would as  entered  their  from  ESL  non-credit  possible  that  language  acquisition  writing  language have  Social  disciplines,  Sciences.  university learning  to  courses,  the  In  been  they  may  have  some  of these some  content  or  On  theme;  or  hand, i f  courses  directly i t is  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on g e n e r a l  i n other that  such  as  English  this  i n s t a n c e , when faced  various  being  words,  language  are  speaking,  attention  with  paid  areas  certain or  the  for their  the double  content  to  may n o t  to  Literature reading  second reading  they  is specific  of  cognition,  courses,  in listening,  In  literary  the other  preparatory  or  areas.  of  management,  university  particular  language.of  literature  inkling  disorders.  skills  the  have  academic  they  of  and  the curriculum;  exposed  meaning  level  as s t r e s s  been  across  school  college  have  without  across  been  academic  they  (language  to  studied  character,  such  task:  have  have  or p e r s o n a l i t y  have  will  confidence,  double  the  English,  plot,  terms,  they  and  in  a  areas  learn  the language  they  perceptions,  they  the secondary  these  students  with  with  content  as t o  If  of the  enthusiasm.  of v a r i o u s  itself.  psychology  readings  are faced  as well  and t h e n a t u r e  the ESL u n i v e r s i t y  assigned  the language  content  1986),  r e l u c t a n c e or  ESL learn  i n the subject,  task well  of as  5  l e a r n i n g the meaning of the content  Research i n f o c u s i n g more examining  E n g l i s h as  and  what  classroom  more is  on the  actually  ( S e l i g e r and  the u n i v e r s i t y  l e v e l has  v a r i a b l e s have  text  working  reading  structure Carrell,  1983,  use  tasks  question  of  year u n i v e r s i t y courses. The  the  language  r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h at  quantitative  studies  reader  (Carrell,  1983).  Meyer,  Brandt  the 1982;  Literature  &  on  on t e x t  Bluth,  1980;  text structure in r e l a t i o n  (Mohan, 1979,1986), l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s informants  a  vhat  (Block,1986;  Bialystok,1983;  coping  for  an ESL  i n examining  ESL  university  r e a d i n g tasks i n f i r s t and  Psychology  t h i s approach  understanding  university level,  examine vhat  strategies  English Literature  fuller  what motivates  fieldwork approach  of vhen approaching  rationale  strategies that at the  classroom,  purposes has concentrated  takes the  students make use  acquire  in  been  Rubin, 1987).  T h i s study the  on ESL  & Eisterhold,  1985;  of student  Wenden and  the  1984,1986, 1987),  to g r a p h i c s and and  going  the  has  been c o n s i d e r e d : manipulating  f o r academic (Meyer,  Language  'black box',  centred on  with  Johnson,1982; C a r r e l l ESL  Second  Long, 1983).  where two or  a  itself.  of  credit  i s the d e s i r e to  the  attitudes  and  student b r i n g s to the r e a d i n g tasks to gain  such students  additional  insights  into  i n t h e i r r e a d i n g t a s k s , and  i t i s that enables  such students who  to  appear to  6  lack some as  an  of the e s s e n t i a l components of good readers  extensive  cultural  vocabulary,  background  s t r a t e g i e s ) to  integrative  knowledge,  succeed  in  and  courses  skills,  socio-  efficient  that  (such  reading  have high  reading  demands.  Why  is  t h i s study  L i t e r a t u r e and necessary  to  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on r e a d i n g  the S o c i a l  Sciences?  d e f i n e boundaries  First  i n the  in English  of a l l ,  scope  of  i t was  language  across the  c u r r i c u l u m i n order to keep the study manageable  w i t h i n the  c o n s t r a i n t s of  both  interviewees and  time and  researcher.  into  study to two  a "foreign"  the r e s e a r c h e r  to compare  and  coping  i n a second language,  country.  d i s c i p l i n e s enables  the p a r t of  These students are  with f u l l academic loads, s t u d y i n g settling  energy on  Secondly,  the student contrast  limiting  the  interviewee  and  s t r a t e g i e s used i n  the two  disciplines -  each and  what i s common. T h i r d l y , w i t h i n the chosen s e t t i n g ,  there e x i s t s between  for the The tell  a c o - o p e r a t i v e and  teaching  enhancing the  to d i s c o v e r  and  colleagues  p o t e n t i a l for  b e n e f i t of  what i s  distinctive  interdependent of  the  to  relationship  two  disciplines,  f a m i l i a r i t y and  collaboration  the s t u d e n t s ' progress  and  achievement.  f a c t they were c o l l a b o r a t o r s meant they would be able to the  researcher more  about t h e i r  s t u d e n t s . F o u r t h l y , the academic and of the  researcher  Education  in  herself  experiential  (English  Secondary E n g l i s h  and  s t r a t e g i e s and  background  Literature, E n g l i s h as  their  Language a  Second  7 Language) i s  conducive  of  Literature  English  to  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the and  researcher's professional an i n s t r u c t o r  experience  and  short-term experience students  summer a s s i s t a n t a d d i t i o n , she  as a  i n ENED 478  who  The  f a c t t h a t she  the ethnographic  are s t u d y i n g i n Canada.  study, thus  For example, forthright expediency  and  during  Whether one  a prime  be what  more  so  students who have i n v e s t e d them, and  the  agrees with  to  who  speaks  i s of a v i s i b l e m i n o r i t y  i n q u i r y with students In a d d i t i o n , her  f a c i l i t a t i n g access  in  have been  currently  factor this  case  have t r a v e l l e d  relationship. candid  many  modus v i v e n d i  and  students,  of  international  long d i s t a n c e s ,  functioning  or  not,  it  s t u d e n t s . T h i s seems to be  c o n s i d e r a b l e hopes and are  that  i n t h e i r approach to s t u d i e s .  d r i v e s many the  For  changed  data  extremely  interviews.  from  researcher  to  i n a student-teacher  the students  is  origin,  student, r a t h e r than a teacher, has  might be l e s s forthcoming  even  institutions,  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t and  d u r i n g the  appears  of Chinese  In  E n g l i s h as a n a t i v e language i n both  some Cantonese.  being a graduate  and as a  ( I n t r o d . to Teaching ESL).  university  facilitated  t u t o r to n a t i v e and  Canadian-born person  have  students,  i n E n g l i s h 100 at UBC  and  the tone  i n c l u d e s nine years as  composition  p u b l i c secondary  A s i a who  This  u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s f o r ESL  enrolled  is a  has c h i l d r e n  has  Sciences.  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t s p e c i a l i z e s  in s e n i o r secondary  non-native  Social  disciplines  in  university  whose parents  f i n a n c i a l resources an  unfamiliar  on  socio-  8  c u l t u r a l environment in order  to o b t a i n  these numerous germane to  a university  components i n  understanding  approach to t h e i r  c o n s i s t s of  the r a t i o n a l e  reading in  task of  the ESL  area as  w e l l as  factors  are  the  them  several aspects.  primacy of  degree. . R e c o g n i t i o n international  and  the  nature  student i s of  their  for t h i s ethnographic Significant  study  f a c t o r s are  u n i v e r s i t y coursework  and  the  student to master the language of a content the meaning  the  paucity  of  of the content ethnographic  itself.  Other  research  that  the a c t u a l coping s t r a t e g i e s of such students i n  of  acquiring  s t r a t e g i e s through and  the dual  d e a l i n g with academic reading demands i n c r e d i t courses, potential  of  learning tasks.  In summary,  focuses on  for extended p e r i o d s ; they do a l l t h i s  additional  insights  fieldwork r e s e a r c h , and  p e r s o n a l background of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  into  the such  the p r o f e s s i o n a l researcher.  9  CHAPTER  TWO  REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s ESL  literature  students  followed.  a t the Firstly,  review  of  university  t h e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of level,  f o u r s t e p s have b e e n  some o f t h e e v i d e n c e  for instruction in  r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t may be a p p l i c a b l e t o s e c o n d learners at Meyer,  the u n i v e r s i t y  Brandt  &  Bluth(1980);  Carrell,1982,1983, 1983;  l e v e l a r e examined  19 84,19 85,19 87;  Mohan,1979,198G). S e c o n d l y ,  researching the the second  Meyer  Carrell  (Meyer,1985; Freedle,1984;  &  Eisterhold,  an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o  reading strategies  language student  &  language  o f ESL  students  - what  i s a c t u a l l y do i n g i n a t t e m p t i n g  t o make m e a n i n g o u t o f t h e r e a d i n g o f a c a d e m i c t e x t s ( B l o c k , 1986;  Bialystok,  Thirdly, a  1983; O ' M a l l e y  study of  what  assigned  to  students  Fourthly,  the  use of  1987)  is  classroom  examined,  university  is student  and  e t a l , 1985) i s d i s c u s s e d .  looked  tasks at  informants  fifthly,  application to f a c i l i t a t e  some  are  actually  (Horowitz,  1985).  (Wenden and R u b i n , implications for  academic r e a d i n g  f o r ESL  s t u d e n t s , b a s e d on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , i s s u m m a r i z e d .  B. Scope o f L i t e r a t u r e The  broadness  deliberate.  Review  of t h e scope of t h e l i t e r a t u r e  D u b i n and O l s h t a i n ( 1 9 8 6 )  state that:  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the s k i l l of the designer must s y n t h e s i z e  reading, various  review i s  10  e l e m e n t s ; t h u s , ^ t h e o r y becomes embodied in the materials for instruction; ( a ) t h e o r i e s about the n a t u r e of r e a d i n g itself, specifically models of mature reading; (b)the characteristics of r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s , or t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s ; and (c)the specific characteristics and needs of second language readerl e a r n e r s . (Dubin & Olshtain,1986).  C.Definitions Schema  theory  interactive knowledge the  holds  process  and  ability  the to  to  relate  the  knowledge, earlier  the  Efficient the  text  from  materials  which  own  often  information  based  mode,  thinking  the  processing  "Bottom-up"  processing  the  involves  more  has  modes:  on  processing  linguistic is  from  two  own  reader acquired or  than  input  from  specific  is  from one's  to  more  data  is  that  occurs  • when  reader  knowledge  make  predictions  "conceptually  about  driven"  schemata  to  various  the  the  uses data  procedure text;  possible  in  information text;  processing  the  information  the  where  i t helps  "bottom-up  the  "Top-down"  among  one's  experiences  schemata.  from  to  knowledge.  "top-down".  general  an  requires  previously  life  is  background  What  include  one's  text  comprehension  textual  would  a  reader's  Eisterhold,1983).  instruction  This and  &  whether  linguistic  comprehending  between  text.  knowledge.(Carrell brings  that  of  the  the  world is  moves  reader  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  general  It  reader  this  processing  text.  the  in  the  to  to a  from  select  incoming  11 data.(Carrell & mental o u t l i n e  Eisterhold,  1983).  which guides  text d u r i n g the process  of  Schemata can  the reader  provide a  in organizing  encoding.  S u c c e s s f u l reading comprehension r e q u i r e s both and  bottom-up  focused  p r o c e s s i n g . Considerable  on  the  knowledge to modes  of  top-down  the t e x t . processing  researchers  The  term  mode,  The is  (Silberstein,  the  bringing  need f o r a balance an  used to  emerging  "genre"  as  used  s t o r i e s , essays,  English  of  has  prior  between both  consensus  among  1987).  classify different  Psychology,  top-down  recent r e s e a r c h  in  English  d i s t i n g u i s h e s d i f f e r e n t kinds of l i t e r a t u r e , drama, s h o r t  the  or n o v e l s .  Literature  such as  T h i s term i s a l s o  academic d i s c i p l i n e s ,  L i t e r a t u r e , or  poetry,  Biology.  such  The  as  latter  usage a p p l i e s here.  In  this  thesis,  interchangeably indicate a on  the  with  the the  term term  "ethnography" "qualitative  is  used  study"  to  method of r e s e a r c h that examines phemenona based principle  of  reflexivity  observation.  Recognition  researcher  part  is  explored and  Wilcox  of  described.  (1982)  is  the  through  given to social  the f a c t  world  that  (Hammersley & Atkinson,  s t a t e s that  i t is  participant that is  the being  1983).  commonly assumed  and  12 agreed that  schools  academic s k i l l s ; what has  been  have  how  what goes on  the  claims  the  as  the  in  i n classrooms  "how  the  implicitly is curriculum".  exploring  and  r e f l e c t s the  wider  nature of the wider s o c i e t y  process."  (Wilcox,1982,p.464).  that the ethnography of s c h o o l i n g  "traditional  formulation  problems."(Wilcox,1982,p.477), t e c h n o c r a t i c approaches  by  to education,  examining the  of  has  educational  pointing  out  such as the  p o s t t e s t approach to s o l v i n g e d u c a t i o n a l inadequate i n  content - a body of  "hidden  interested  educational  Wilcox f u r t h e r challenged  to  been  society, particularly constrains  curriculum  however, what i s o f t e n taught referred  Ethnographers analyzing  transmit  that  pretest-  problems, have been  complexity of  the  educational  process.  Ethnography's o r i e n t a t i o n  to context,  d e t a i l e d e m p i r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n and are making  D. Text  i t s fine-grained  significant contributions  the e d u c a t i o n a l  i t s attempt  towards  at  analysis  demystifying  process.  Structure  Meyer(1985) material.  She  level structure the g r e a t e s t  examined advocated  text first  structure  in  content  examining t e x t f o r i t s top-  - the r h e t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s that connect  amount of  text.  In a "top-down" f a s h i o n ,  movement i s from the most i n c l u s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the most i n c l u s i v e  relationship  u n t i l one  reaches the  the next  grammar  1 3  l e v e l of  analysis.  relations  into  causation,  She five  response,  these f i v e  grouped distinct  top-level structure  discourse  category. Meyer in texts  of  claims  match up  that  one  in  t e x t . Her had  exemplifies  adheres  to  the  with p a t t e r n s  a specific research  English  as a  or ways of t h i n k i n g  r e c a l l than 1984).  discourse,  they  can  i n the  She suggests used by a  comprehend  the  with graduate and secondary students who Native Language  r h e t o r i c a l patterns, as comparison,  response  these r h e t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s  i f readers can i d e n t i f y the schemata p a t t e r n s  writer  For  discourse(problem-  mind of the w r i t e r and the mind of the reader. that  at the  type.  a time-order plan  usually  Under  be c l a s s i f i e d  relationship; scientific  solution; cause-effect)  logical  description.  could  as predominantly  example, i n h i s t o r y d i s c o u r s e ,  or  categories:collection,  comparison, and  categories,  the c o l l e c t i o n  rhetorical  indicated  that  certain  the more h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d ones, such  causation  and  c o l l e c t i o n s of  In a d d i t i o n ,  response, f a c i l i t a t e d  descriptions  the l e v e l  (Meyer  better  & Freedle,  of r e c a l l was dependent on  whether the students possessed and a c t i v a t e d the a p p r o p r i a t e formal schemata.  Do ESL  readers possess the a p p r o p r i a t e  for p r o c e s s i n g  text structure?  certain rhetorical  structures  varying  and c u l t u r a l  teaching  linguistic of  text structure  Is there impact  formal schemata  a difference on  ESL  i n how  readers  of  backgrounds? W i l l e x p l i c i t  f a c i l i t a t e ESL  reading?  Will  14 weak ESL  readers p r o f i t  from  instruction  in identifying  the  r h e t o r i c a l patterns in text?  Carrell's empirical l e a r n e r s can  were t e s t e d :  ESL students,  comparison  grammar  analysis,  exercises, and  a c q u i s i t i o n procedures, The  r e c e i v e was  only  of  texts  comprehension and  prose on  Carrell  study, C a r r e l l  control on  text,  sentence content  group  not  top-level  the students  in using t o p - l e v e l more  did  using  found t h a t  proficient  rhetorical in  (1984) examined the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t  ESL readers  Freedle,1984), she with  ESL  reading  recall.  Adapting passages  study  the  connectors;  practise  were  with  i n an  q u e s t i o n s , d i s c u s s i o n s and  the  training  types  description.  combining,  discourse  i n s t r u c t i o n and  In another  of  operations  sentence  training  received e x p l i c i t  of r h e t o r i c a l  ESL  receiving this training, a  such as  rhetorical organization.  organization  discourse  collection  linguistic  vocabulary  writing.  two  r e c e i v i n g the usual i n s t r u c t i o n s  reading c u r r i c u l u m :  who  and  experimental group was  c o n t r o l group was  such as  that  In a t r a i n i n g study with intermediate l e v e l  u n i v e r s i t y preparatory  the  posits  be taught t e x t s t r u c t u r e to f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g  comprehension.  While  r e s e a r c h (1985)  of  of a  different text  used  tested d i f f e r e n t  intensive  level  ESL  types of e x p o s i t o r y  language by  effects  backgrounds.  Meyer  (Meyer  prose s e l e c t i o n s subjects  from  and in a  Spanish,  15 O r i e n t a l and  Arabic  C a r r e l l ' s research  language showed that  more t i g h t l y - s t r u c t u r e d there was  discourse  The  types was  of d i f f e r e n t  •applying  it  therefore  ESL  also  (Carrell,  Carrell  e f f e c t of  better also  recall  of  language  the d i f f e r e n t  readers  of  study,  in textual analysis  varying  linguistic  by  (and  perhaps r h e t o r i c a l ) background.  1984)  organization the  the t e x t ;  data.  The  the  formal  enabling  E. Problems Language  research  that  accurate  and  can  data f o r  that  and  able  to  i s that t e a c h i n g  ESL  s t r u c t u r e s may  improve  their  be  reading  recall. Recall  raised regarding in a  have ESL  a n a l y s i s and  such students  possess were  in the  may  a  Second  f i n d i n g s of  second language.  complete i s the r e c a l l t h a t  students who  p o s s i b l e that  to  entails recall how  schemata  Involving  be  did  discourse  them  with Research  A question  who  implication  comprehension, r e t e n t i o n and  E n g l i s h by  few  identify different in  found  f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y the r h e t o r i c a l  appropriate  students to effective  subjects  of  r e t r i e v e more  used as  that versus  backgrounds. " In t h i s  of Meyer  c u l t u r a l and  the ESL  utilize  the  found  What are the classroom i m p l i c a t i o n s ? C a r r e l l most of  for  immediate r e c a l l  q u a n t i t y of  the work  to  i n Meyer's study,  a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f o r readers  native  C a r r e l l extended  As  r e c a l l was  texts.  a significant  delayed r e c a l l .  groups.  and  that  i s recorded  in  i s subsequently  generalizing? recall  How  more  It is about  very their  16 r e a d i n g than they can express i n E n g l i s h . Another  f a c t o r t h a t may skew the f i n d i n g s of some of  the c u r r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l  s t u d i e s on the r e a d i n g comprehension  of ESL students i s the matter of i n d i v i d u a l  differences:  Statistics f o r groups of students too often can mask what is actually happening to i n d i v i d u a l s as they succeed or f a i l i n l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h or - what i s more important from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s researcher - i n learning through E n g l i s h ( S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , 1984, p.215). The  extent of  main f i n d i n g  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s was  i n her study with students from seven d i f f e r e n t  language backgrounds; ESL students initial  of academic were younger would  even though the s u b j e c t s she used were  who had  literacy  s t a t u s , there  Saville-Troike's  in  been matched f o r E n g l i s h native  language,  and  socio-economic  were c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n c e s achievement. While  proficiency,  in their  i t i s true t h a t her s u b j e c t s  c h i l d r e n , the matter of i n d i v i d u a l  l i k e l y hold even more true i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  students who  have been  educated i n  extremely d i v e r s e e d u c a t i o n a l When r e c a l l  levels  their  differences university  own languages i n  systems.  i s w r i t t e n i n the t a r g e t  language, data may  a l s o be skewed i f the t e a c h e r - r e s e a r c h e r s are " d i s t r a c t e d by grammatical mistakes focusing  on  the  (Bernhardt, 1986, when w r i t i n g f o c u s i n g on  and are actual  p.109).  in their  thus  rendered  comprehension In l i k e  second or  grammar, v o c a b u l a r y  incapable of  students."  manner, ESL  third  students,  language,  c h o i c e or  of  spelling  may  be  rather  17 than  on  comprehension,  quantity  A  of  decreasing  the  quality  and  recall.  fourth  recall  thereby  f a c t o r to  and  consider  comprehension.  conceptual  understanding  strategies  for  the  university  and  synthesis  of  distinction  Comprehension  of d i s c o u r s e  processing level,  i s the  and  information.  academic tasks  information,  tasks  involve  require  diffeent  (Doyle,  often  between  1983).  involve  At  analysis  t h u s demanding s k i l l s  beyond  recall.  F.  I n t e r a c t i o n Between B a c k g r o u n d Knowledge and Research  interact  with  materials  of  the  the  the  (Meyer,  meaning a from the  in  schema t h e o r y text  in attempting  1975;  Carrell  reader acquires t e x t as  reader.  text  from t h e  be  dependent  between  the  the  Carrell  (1987)  "formal" of  the  schemata formal  different  of  the  will  process  the  or  texts  and  not  background to  so  as  understand  content  s c h e m a t a or  their  background structures  their  comprehension  text  accurately  and  as  area.  failure they  or  knowledge  and  between knowledge found  " c o n t e n t " schemata which  i n the  much  knowledge  distinguishes  defines  The  compatibility  background  further  reading  1983)  resides  the  readers  comprehend  of a r e a d e r on  reader's  w h i c h she  knowledge  appropriate  hinder,  text  rhetorical organizational  t y p e s of  to background  ability  to  that  Eisterhold,  schematic  consistency text.  &  from a  Thus, t h e  would  indicates  Text  in  refers  Readers'  lack  to a c t i v a t e i t  will  efficiently.  be  unable In  to  this  13 regard,  i f the m a t e r i a l  cultural  schemata,  difficulties different  since  foreign  interpretations  Catholic  effects  students  their cultural  C a r r e l l ( 1 9 8 7 ) found and  r e q u i r e s or presupposes  of  this to  a specific  may  encounter  backgrounds may . lead to  the  cultural-specific  be so i n her study with Muslim  ESL u n i v e r s i t y students when i n v e s t i g a t i n g the  on  ESL  reading  comprehension  of  both  culture-  s p e c i f i c content schemata and formal schemata. Using v e r s i o n s of and which  t e x t s which  were based  represented f a m i l i a r  organization,  she  found  important  than  form are  f a c t o r s ; when  content and  form are  content  rhetorical  i s g e n e r a l l y more  both content  and r h e t o r i c a l  easy, and  c o n v e r s e l y , when both  u n f a m i l i a r , the r e a d i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y  either  u n f a m i l i a r content  unfamiliar  both content and form a r e f a m i l i a r ,  is relatively  when  adapted  c u l t u r a l l y on r e l i g i o n  and  that:  s t r u c t u r e when  the r e a d i n g  difficult;  text.  content  was more  or  form  difficult  is  unfamiliar,  f o r the ESL  reader  than u n f a m i l i a r form.  What academic ESL How w e l l  are  the  classroom  r e a d i n g classroom,  the content  implications?  content  i s comprehended  i s very  I n s t r u c t o r s can  appropriate c u l t u r a l  l e a r n e r s to understand  The  use  presentation,  advance  student  (Carrell,  awareness  of  content background knowledge to enable  ESL  of  facilitate  important.  i s i n f l u e n c e d by the  vbackground knowledge the reader b r i n g s to the t e x t 1983).  In the  new content  organizers,  hypothesis-testing  oral  i n reading materials. discussion,  (Brock,  1986),  visual or  19 meaningful  a n a l o g i e s may serve t h i s b r i d g i n g f u n c t i o n . Another major  on comprehension. text  concern  I f students  structures  as  well  is  overload and i t s e f f e c t  have to cope with u n f a m i l i a r as  unfamiliar  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , they may f i n d the m a t e r i a l however i f one f a c t o r presented, learning.  the  i n s t r u c t i o n and  incomprehensible;  is. held constant while the new data i s  students are  This has  content  aided  implications  considerably f o r the  in  their  sequencing  of  c u r r i c u l u m not only i n language c l a s s e s but  a l s o i n content c l a s s e s . (Mohan, 1986) G. A T h e o r e t i c a l Model: the Knowledge Framework Language teachers importance of  and r e s e a r c h e r s  c o - o r d i n a t i n g language  have recognized the l e a r n i n g and  m a t t e r ( c o n t e n t ) , but an a p p r o p r i a t e t h e o r e t i c a l connect  language,  t h i n k i n g and  content has  subject  framework to  been  lacking.  Mohan (1986) provides a r a t i o n a l e to e x p l a i n the problems of a c a d e m i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d ESL  students  from the  language classroom  addresses  in  detail their  i n making the t r a n s i t i o n  to the  s u b j e c t classroom;  difficulties  in  he  reading subject  textbooks: Lacking an organizing framework, students are f o r c e d to i n t e g r a t e the work in their language c l a s s e s and content c l a s s e s on t h e i r own, without any guidance. What f o r teachers i s simply d i f f i c u l t , may prove impossible for students.(Mohan, 1986,p.18).  Mohan's model f o r i n t e g r a t i n g language and content i s  20  a knowledge framework that w i l l work i n  the language  knowledge areas:  c l a s s and  structure  the  c h o i c e ; and  and  the general  discourse  the  consists  of  and  students  the content  organizes  specific  s i t u a t i o n ) , which  help ESL  connect  class.  into  practical  His  two  (the  description, the  to  major action  sequence  theoretical  and  (background  knowledge), which c o n s i s t s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s evaluation.  T h i s conceptual  analyzing reading adapting  comprehensible success  in  and  to  to  ESL  content.  By being  concept  understanding  able to  organizing  on  to the  endeavours.  language In  t h e o r e t i c a l academic  i n t e g r a t e language skills  across  problem  learn  solving.  facilitate  a useful  a i d to  university  ESL  student,  easily  as they  ideas t h a t are  skills  graphically,  may  be  visually  of g r a p h i c s as a center f o r  students can be aided  knowledge.  the  to  appropriate  reading-to-learn,  information  these  graphics  With the use  information, and  academic  I t provides  s t r u c t u r e to  discourse i s  to them.  for  or more  with content m a t e r i a l , they w i l l  c o n c e p t u a l i z e more  presented  express  universities.  emphasis of  materials  struggle  taught t h i n k i n g  readers, p a r t i c u l a r l y  thinking  who  formation, d e c i s i o n making and  Mohan's  for d e v e l o p i n g  content  students  a cognitive  c u r r i c u l u m , together  w e l l as  make  North American  students with  framework g i v e s a s t r u c t u r e f o r  m a t e r i a l s as  curriculum  and  they  thus  in developing for  can  gaining  academic  gather access  and to  In l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d , they  21 can be  taught  how  the g r a p h i c s  a more manageable way; •from v i s u a l s may are unable  perceptions  gained they  to p e r c e i v e through l i n g u i s t i c means alone.  The  field-independent  academic language  reading  f o r some students,  help them to make c o g n i t i v e l i n k s that  context-reduced,  from ESL  can give them i n f o r m a t i o n i n  and  abstract  i s often  a hindrance  reading  activities  classroom  i n the to  level  of  transition  actual  content  assignments.  Brown and constructed  Yule d e f i n e  during  the d i s c o u r s e  the comprehension  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  model  process  discourse; references  are made  to the  mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  original  verbal  representation  in  as  which  is  "a mental  [ i n comprehension] r a t h e r than  the  text."  to the  (Brown  &  Yule,1984,p. 200 ) .  For  ESL  university  manage academic  students,  l e a r n i n g tasks  a prime o b j e c t i v e i s to  i n an  independent  fashion.  Their a b i l i t y  to cope with academic reading can be enhanced  through using  the knowledge framework as a way  tasks  (the  knowing  s t r u c t u r e model, and and  tasks,  and  the  doing).  of a n a l y z i n g  Mohan's  knowledge  incorporating discourse a n a l y s i s , graphics  goes beyond the t e x t s t r u c t u r e r e s e a r c h of Meyer  Carrell.  mainstreaming of  Its ESL  significance students  is  in  facilitating  i n t o content  at the elementary, secondary or t e r t i a r y  the  c l a s s e s , whether  level.  22  H. An  A l t e r n a t i v e Approach  to Research  i n Academic Reading  Strategies Reading comprehension i s seen as a complex i n f o r m a t i o n processing s k i l l  i n which  Meyer(1985),  the reader  and  text  interact.  Carrell(1983,1984,1985,1987),  and  Mohan(1979,1986) provide o r g a n i z i n g s t r a t e g i e s to  facilitate  reading comprehension.  strategies  do second  language  The  q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : vhat  learners  employ  in  reading  academic  discourse? Block nonnative  (1985)  examined the  students  strategies  in deciphering  of  native  college-level  and  textbooks.  Through the use of " t h i n k - a l o u d p r o t o c o l s " , a type of v e r b a l reporting in  which r e a d e r - l e a r n e r s s t a t e t h e i r thoughts  behaviours while  i n the. a c t u a l  researched  cognitive  the  n o n p r o f i c i e n t readers students  and  3  process  reading  of  reading,  strategies  she  of  nine  (3 Spanish ESL s t u d e n t s , 3 Chinese  native  speakers)  who  were  and  enrolled  ESL in  remedial r e a d i n g c o u r s e s .  Block's study broke new to ESL  r e a d i n g as  students had process.  previous use  been l i m i t e d  To ensure  c o g n i t i v e processes two  pilot  to the  that ESL i n the  s t u d i e s with  p r o f i c i e n c i e s to  ground i n a p p l y i n g t h i n k - a l o u d s  ESL  of t h i n k - a l o u d s study of  the  with  composing  students could v e r b a l i z e midst of r e a d i n g , she students  satisfy herself  at  various  ESL  their  conducted language  as to the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  of t h i s method with such s t u d e n t s . In the  a c t u a l study,  the  23  s u b j e c t s who v e r b a l i z e d t h e i r comprehension s t r a t e g i e s reading s e l e c t i o n s tested  from an i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology  while  t e x t were  f o r r e c a l l and comprehension.  Block used t r a n s c r i p t s from the p i l o t s t u d i e s to t e s t the r e l i a b i l i t y  of the  coding scheme  performing the  coding.  T h i s matter  very important  in collection  of  and  reading s t r a t e g i e s  extremely  close  judgment  data,  into f i v e of  the  the  people  of a c c u r a t e coding was for  d e s c r i p t i o n of general r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of l o c a l  of  the  detailed  i n t o ten types and types  required  an  students'  think-aloud  Three questions can be r a i s e d about t h i s  experimental  statements.  study: can  such exact and a c c u r a t e c a t e g o r i z i n g be made? Is  i t possible  t h a t the  subjects.' l e v e l of v e r b a l f l u e n c y may  a f f e c t the  way they express themselves,  the coding  i n the  a n a l y t i c a l phase?  needs t o  be made  of  the  scheme.  Another c o n s i d e r a t i o n  thereby Perhaps  appropriateness i s the  their  strategies  more the  study coding  determining of  c a t e g o r i e s : s i n c e students are not responding language,  of  confounding  in their  the first  may not be a c c u r a t e l y or f u l l y  disclosed.  Block's r e s u l t s  i n d i c a t e d that ESL readers appear to  use s t r a t e g i e s s i m i l a r t o n a t i v e r e a d e r s , suggesting t h a t : strategy which i s  use i s a s t a b l e phenomenon not t i e d to s p e c i f i c language  features...[second language readers] b r i n g with them t h e i r knowledge of the reading process and of approaches to tasks and then apply these to s p e c i f i c language f e a t u r e s i n the text. Thus, the development of strategy use, particularly as i t is applied to informative text, does not seem to depend on l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s . (Block, 1985, p.485) . Her  findings  i n d i c a t e a connection between s t r a t e g y use  the a b i l i t y to l e a r n . who  are  able to  strategies  The  students who  integrate previous  (e.g.  text-based  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) and  do w e l l are the ones  knowledge of  strategies,  language  prediction,  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the d i s c o u r s e at hand.  Block's p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d teachers to  and  r e s e a r c h serves  examine c l o s e l y what ESL  to remind  students can do  before  d e c i s i o n s on i n s t r u c t i o n are made.  I. S t r a t e g i e s f o r A c t u a l U n i v e r s i t y Assignments Horowitz(1985) looked university professors  into  what  a c t u a l l y require  academic  of'their  tasks  students.  His f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g the r e l e v a n c e , meaningfulness and ESL  university  His survey  students  of academic  academic w r i t i n g the assigned that,  in  specific  t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of  tasks are  a  particular thesis  typical. of a  m a j o r i t y , of  instructions  tasks  college preparatory  w r i t i n g focused  w r i t i n g was  fact,  i n ESL  classroom  on what  He  found  for o r g a n i z i n g  statement approach.  tasks  courses. kinds  of  t h a t most of  very c o n t r o l l e d the  for  nature  entailed  and very  content or r e q u i r e d a T h i s study of a c t u a l  25  university  tasks  professors  points  in  students  tasks of  in  skills.  models and  pertinent  academic  skill  independent  of  typically  out the importance  structuring  transferability ESL  that are  His  by u n i v e r s i t y  o f an a c a d e m i c  order  to  stress  practise  skills  assigned  on  context  ensure  maximum  t h e need  to give  in  performing  a p p l i e s to the c r u c i a l  reflective  reading  sessions  comprehension  for  university  stud i e s .  Horowitz's  study  can  research with  ESL u n i v e r s i t y  the  strategies  reading  organization (Meyer & kinds  that  vere  Freedle,  of students  Horowitz's implications  f o r teachers  aligned  are  reading  demands  matter  their  Assumptions a r e schemata the  fact  credit previous  of  studies  And do t h e s e  cues  academic  courses?  have  about with  level.  activities  and f o r m a l  that the students  educational  rhetorical  experimental  university  reading  students  coursevork  Hov t r a n s f e r a b l e a r e  1984,1985)?  of a c t u a l  reading  i n reading?  tasks  has  who a r e p r e p a r i n g ESL s t u d e n t s f o r  o f t e n made  these  into  utilizing  i n the  of u n i v e r s i t y  of c o n t e n t  insight  use r h e t o r i c a l  a t the  ESL  as  Carrell,  examination  requirements  the  such  habitually  reading  students.  tested  1984;  provide  to  Another  schemata the  academic  experience  and  the  actual  question i s  and  formal  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  who a r e a c c e p t e d an  closely  i n ESL r e a d i n g .  content  inadequate  How  into  university  proficiency have  from  developed  26 individual level  of  learning strategies achievement  that  allows  studies.(Cummins,1984). academic connections reading  comprehension  for  students?  to  ESL be  given  to  common u n d e r l y i n g  in order  Are  t h a t can  As  noted  literacy  admission there  be  a t the  t o have a t t a i n e d into  by  university.  socio-cultural  made t h a t would  postsecondary  the  and  facilitate  academic  level  Cummins, c o n s i d e r a t i o n  needs  related  skills  involved  in  the  proficiency:  C o n c e p t u a l knowledge... subject matter knowledge, h i g h e r - o r d e r t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , reading strategies, w r i t i n g composition skills, etc., developed through the medium of LI transfer or become available to L2 given sufficient exposure and motivation. (Cummins, 1984,p.144) In t h e students they  context  in  of  expediency,  academic c r e d i t  are  reading  careful  and  portions for  J.  critical  of  Is  their  level?  Or  do  pay  sections  discourse, looking  university  a t t e n t i o n t o when of  textbooks  reading  are  ESL  they  f o r main  at  or  the  minute  scanning  larger  i d e a s and  reading  meaning?  Use  of Student Research  readers are  courses  assigned  supplementary readings?  what  provides  preparing  Informants into  the  valuable students  successful  independent  pertinent.  "Students  strategies insight for  reading can  be  of  second  f o r language  academic  teachers  studies  proficiency  valuable sources  is of  language  in  who  which  particularly information  27 on  the  language  preparation The and  learning,  experience."  ESL  student  task-oriented  attention make i n  to  at  l a n g u a g e can  the  university  (Wenden  conscious  mastering a  & Rubin,  in  their  a  academic  1986,p.77)  level  e f f o r t s that  course  foster  and  ( C h r i s t i s o n & Krahnke,  learner.  the  socialization,  i s an  active  1987).  Paying  learners  new  or  self-reliance  themselves  less and  familiar  intelligent  participation.  K.  Implications  for Classroom  S i n c e ESL tasks with values, in  varied  and  the  Meyer  to  focus  on:  level  structures  indicate can  who  receive  top-level  increase  and  in  understand  ESL  classes  (1983)  the  are  done  reading  The  two  studies  taught  to  use  comprehension  indicates  organization  texts,  In  cultural  discourse.  may  content  Teachers  Mohan's  of  addition,  students  &  top-  that  ESL  instruction in identifying  proficiency.  utilize  be  Meyer, B r a n d t  their reading  ((1984,1985)  their  suggest  reader.  who  appropriate  who  and  maximize  students  rhetorical  the  or  what can  ( 1 9 8 4 ) , and  explicit  with c u l t u r a l - s p e c i f i c instruction  text  increase  t h e i r reading  abilities,  Eisterhold  come t o  culture-specific  & Freedle  C a r r e l l ' s work  learners  fully  &•  level  knowledge,  facilitate  the  ( 1 9 8 5 ) , Meyer  (1980)  skills.  to  Carrell  Bluth  using  background  classroom  variables  university  different cognitive  comprehension?  by  readers at  Instruction  texts  will  when  faced  need  advance  background of  both  conceptual  and  to  content  knowledge  28 framework, t o g e t h e r tasks  may  with  appropriate  further  g r a p h i c s and  activity-  student  reading  facilitate  comprehension. An  additional  what s t u d e n t s about  their  s a y about attempts  valuable  insights  knowledge  or  that  they  into  strategies  features  indicates  the  more  to  the  bring to  strategies  their  the  reading  nature  the t e x t . are  c a r e f u l l y to  - student  of  tied  facilitate  will  provide  background  cultural  orientation  finding  (1986) t h a t  to  specific  more t e a c h e r s  students  feedback  their  Block's  not  t h a t the  can  to l i s t e n  differences in  that their  they  is  comprehend d i s c o u r s e  into  learner  the  suggestion  are  their  language  can l e a r n  already  about  utilizing,  students'  academic  progress.  The referential  of  open-ended  questions  more s t u d e n t text,  use  (Brock,  feedback.  requesting  1986)  Probing  justification (both  summarizing  tasks  researchers  to discern students'  Horowitz's (1985)  that  indicates need t o the  that  necessary  be  tasks  will  for  particularly  aid  in eliciting  i n f o r m a t i o n from  f o r responses,  and w r i t t e n ) w i l l  examination  will  be b a s e d  oral  questions,  and a s s i g n i n g help  teacher-  reading  difficulties.  of a c t u a l  university  demanded  of  the  university  tasks  students  i n t h e ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c l a s s e s  on a p p r o p r i a t e models and need practise  in  transferable  to provide  skills;  thus,  29 l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d becomes r e a d l n g - t o - l e a r n .  The  implications  academic p r o f i c i e n c y teachers  need  learning and  to  to  in bilingual understand  strategies help  strategies. students  of Cummins' vork on common  them  that  have  facilitate of s u b j e c t  matter  r e a d i n g and distinguish  their  with  received  instruction  and  between  i s that  capitalize  on the  repertoire  academic  in  their  i n the  of  learning  instruction  the  language  can  first  second language i n the areas  knowledge,  writing  to  (1984)  t h e i r students are f a m i l i a r with  expand  Familiarity  students  cognitive  cognitive  strategies.  thinking  skills,  ESL teachers a l s o  need to  the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and academic aspects  of language, p r o f i c i e n c y  in  classes.  informants, who are the p r i n c i p a l s  in  Using student  the  learning  psychology  and  process,  attitude  planning  will  of  the  instruction  give  insight  ESL  university  i n EAP  into  the  learner  (Wenden & Rubin, 1987). The  teacher  knowledge has within  a  also  an e f f e c t  content  knowledge, students work; they when t o  needs to be aware that on l e a r n i n g  area. will  Without have  and this  difficulty  genre-specific  problem  solving  domain-specific doing  academic  w i l l be unable t o make key i n f e r e n c e s or to know  use what  they do  know i n  fulfilling  t h e i r course  assignments. (Doyle, 1983).  L.Summary of L i t e r a t u r e  Review and Need f o r Further Research  30  students and  In  researching  in  academic r e a d i n g , the work of Meyer(1975, 1985)  Carrell  problems  (19 83,19 8 4,1985,19 87)  been e x p l o r e d . categorized  Meyer's  into  causation,  d e s c r i p t i o n ) while by examining socio-cultural  issues.  instruction  the reading  schema  importance  of  university  language  distinct  response,  The  extended and  theory  also  and  Meyer's work  their  a p p r o p r i a t e background  the  efforts  facilitate  Eisterhold's  provides  and  including  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  Carrell  readers  comparison  readers  has  categories  i n analyzing discourse w i l l  process.  (1983) i n  first  five  language  ESL  textual analysis  Carrell's studies  second  of  in  work with  discourse  (collection,  are t h a t  the  research  evidence  of  knowledge i n  the  reading  comprehension. A need r e s e a r c h to  e x i s t s f o r more e m p i r i c a l  s o r t out  schemata from  the e f f e c t s  naturally occurring experiments  would  (Carrell,  Reading (Silberstein,  be a  of  textual  or  of content schemata.  f u r t h e r advance.  study on  formal  The use of  Such usage would  the nature of v a r i o u s types of  1983).  is  1987)  Mohan's knowledge  effects  t e x t s r a t h e r than t e x t s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r  require additional texts.  the  and ethnographic  seen  as  between  an the  interactive reader  and  process the  text.  framework (1986), along with h i s focus on  g r a p h i c s and t a s k s , provides a t h e o r e t i c a l model f o r l i n k i n g the c o g n i t i v e  process, v i s u a l s ,  and p r a c t i c a l  a c t i v i t y to  31 integrate  l a n g u a g e and  implications may  content.  His model, having  f o r language development a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m ,  facilitate  reading  f o r ESL  s t u d e n t s , not  academic p r e p a r a t o r y classroom, in  the  content  classroom.  area  r e s e a r c h needs  but  e v e n more  Mohan's  t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f Meyer and  The  classroom  of second  o n l y i n the  ESL  significantly,  work g o e s  beyond  the  Carrell.  language r e a d i n g  t o be done i s i n e x a m i n i n g  i n w h i c h more  what ESL  students  a r e a c t u a l l y d o i n g when t h e y a r e r e a d i n g a c a d e m i c d i s c o u r s e . Block(1986)  explores  strategies  first  utilize  during  through and  second  difficulties  content  schemata  they  be  tolerated?  processing that and  in  Or  such  b u t much  i s i t b o t h ? And  Block's study more r e s e a r c h  P e r h a p s more e t h n o g r a p h i c  strategies  of  additional  insights.  proficiencies  university  that  (Cummins,  Such 1984)  and  the  Or  "bottom-up" i s i t both  (1986) i s a s t e p i n is s t i l l  needed i n  s t u d i e s i n the  students  Providing systematic  provides  i n what p r o p o r t i o n s  students  reading  will possess  strategies  l a n g u a g e t h a t t h e y b r i n g t o t h e new language.  I s i t a l a c k of  "top-down" or  that area.  ESL  learners perceive  l e a r n e r s are u t i l i z i n g ?  what p r o p o r t i o n s ?  that d i r e c t i o n  schemata  I s i t the  actually  More r e s e a r c h n e e d s t o  a l s o i n what s u c h  formal  what c o g n i t i v e  readers  i n academic r e a d i n g .  or  greatest d i f f i c u l t y ? can  language  the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s .  be done i n t h i s a r e a and as t h e i r  "think-alouds"  provide academic  in their  learning in their  training  in  how  to  first second learn  32  (Wendon & smarter"  Rubin,  1987) w i l l  r a t h e r than  "learn  I n f o r m a t i o n on demand o f s t u d e n t s skills  in  students  tasks that  p o i n t s out the importance  to " l e a r n  students  universities  of t r a n s f e r a b l e  for  tertiary  education  the  strategies  1985)  A qualitative  study  academic r e a d e r s  in actual  appropriate  of r e s e a r c h  type  expand u n d e r s t a n d i n g language  these  harder".  the a c t u a l  p r e p a r i n g ESL  (Horowitz,  enable  acquisition.  i n the  into  university i n the  credit  of  courses  ESL i s an  continuing effort  unfinished  puzzle  of  to  second  33  CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCESS A.Introduct i on The of  objectives  international  tasks  in  Psychology  of t h i s  students  first  year  d e a l i n g with academic reading  university  English  Literature  and  determine what the reading demands are  d i s c i p l i n e s of  the f i r s t  in  strategies  were : 1) t o  in the  study on the coping  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and Psychology a t  year u n i v e r s i t y  level;  2) to observe Literature  and  relationship  Social  exists  classes in Sciences  between  first  to  reading  year  English  determine  demands  what  and  course  requirements; 3) to i n t e r v i e w i n t e r n a t i o n a l students who are enrolled  in  these courses about t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s i n d e a l i n g  with r e a d i n g demands f o r these  A two-week setting.  p i l o t study  courses.  was  Through  preliminary  research question  was r e f i n e d ,  was r e v i s e d , obtained.  The  i n d i c a t e d the  and experience literature n e c e s s i t y of  conducted collection  in  the  of  data,  ethnographical  to  facilitate  between p a r t i c i p a n t s  work was  interviewing  u s i n g open-ended questions t h a t  would s t i m u l a t e the flow of data and of spending field  the  the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e  in qualitative . field on  field  trust  time and  i n the  relationships  of  rapport  and r e s e a r c h e r  (Wood, 1986); the p i l o t  34 study served to i n i t i a t e these  The methodology to  the  in this  students  120; from  collecting the  followup  interviews  relevant list  f i e l d diary;  and  through one  necessary;  courses;  i n E n g l i s h 110  documents;  students f o r where  i n s t r u c t o r s of the two reflexive  of c l a s s e s  class  interviewing individual  B.  study i n c l u d e d g a i n i n g access  setting; observation  Psychology  procedures.  hour  and  selecting referrals; and  doing  interviewing  the  m a i n t a i n i n g a comprehensive  and a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d  data.  Setting. The  setting, a private college  area, committed  to the  university, offers programs, as  w e l l as  Its  an  intensive  Enrolment  English  Canadian  families;  i t s easy  the S k y t r a i n  Rapid T r a n s i t System enables the  students  participate  thereby enhancing English-speaking  in  extra-curricular  their socio-cultural environment.  Second from 15%  language.  . i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area f a c i l i t a t e s  accommodations with  to  A  of which approximately  students with E n g l i s h as a n a t i v e  location  As  transfer  i n c l u d e s 400-500 students  different countries,  are Canadian  p r e p a r i n g young a d u l t s f o r  s e n i o r secondary and u n i v e r s i t y  Language program. over f o r t y  task of  i n the Greater Vancouver  student  access to  international activities,  orientation  to  an  35  The academic  needs of  the students are w e l l served by  three modern s c i e n c e l a b o r a t o r i e s ,  a new computer centre and  a library  14,000  housing  periodicals, resource  as  approximately  w e l l as  an  materials.  institutional  In  E n g l i s h through  are a l s o  computers,  assistance  i n t h e i r academic  To f u r t h e r students,  meet the  the  of  ESL  both  and  faculty  C e n t r e , students may l e a r n  use  review classroom p r e s e n t a t i o n s  100  audio-visual  a v a i l a b l e to  the L e a r n i n g  and  collection  Reference,  services  and s t u d e n t s .  extensive  volumes  TOEFL  practice  by v i d e o ,  materials,  or r e c e i v e  tutorial  courses.  special  counselling  needs  office  of  international  provides  new  student  o r i e n t a t i o n and accommodation s e r v i c e s ,  the a s s i s t a n c e of an  experienced.and  c o - o r d i n a t o r as  as a  nurse,  well-travelled  help  l e t t e r s that  may be  v i t h Canadian  look  recommendations  on  the  officials  to  the  the s t a t u s country  Experienced r e g i s t r a t i o n transferability countries. homesick  or  To  of  extension  letters  and  r e q u i r e d by students i n t h e i r  government  authorities  re-entering  vith visa  student  further  college  and  at  accommodate in  visa  advise  courses  inexperienced  for  other  dealings  immigration advice  and  of students on d e p a r t i n g and  officers  the  (Canadian  well  taken  reneval students in  students  on  their vho  c o o k i n g , the c a f e t e r i a  e t h n i c as v e i l as Canadian menus.  time). the home  may  be  offers  36  Concern f o r expressed  in  the nature  the c o l l e g e ' s  normal budget  items of  institutional,  the  for meeting  in  language  staffing  proficiency,  May,  or  who  September  on t h e  The s e t t i n g  professional  and  the  centre to a s s i s t as  in  English  development  of  instructors  to  to  o f s t u d e n t s who  y e a r may  end  come f r o m  i n December o r i n  i n s t i t u t i o n s and w i s h t o s p e n d a  w i t h J a n u a r y , May,  and  periods.  i s representative  c o u r s e s as  w e l l as  of a p a r t i c u l a r  t h a t o f f e r s ESL c o l l e g e  academic c o l l e g e  i n ways  comparable  i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r s . gained  students:  library  well  semester system,  institution  the c r e d i t s  as  budget  a t the c o l l e g e , the c o l l e g e operates  educational  colleges  the  i n E.S.L.  public  being entry  are conducted  areas  the s c h o o l  semester  the  the t u t o r i a l  the schedules  attend  spring-summer year round  in  in  encouragement  complete M a s t e r s programs  c o u n t r i e s where  Beyond  needs o f ESL a c a d e m i c  and  particular  To f a c i l i t a t e  also  i n c l u d e s a generous  materials  a l l academic  faculty with  planning.  is  the usual postsecondary educational  college also  reading  t u t o r i a l centre, students  financial  the s p e c i a l i z e d  ESL a c a d e m i c  of i t s s t u d e n t body  in  preparatory  courses. those  The of  As w i t h t h e o t h e r  the two-year  transferable to university  to  programs.  academic  type of  classes community  colleges,  program  are  37 C. A c c e s s and R e c o n n a i s s a n c e The  reconnaissance  relevant  literature  o r i e n t i n g phase,  Phase  p h a s e has two a s p e c t s :  and t o  the chosen  the l i t e r a t u r e  on  i trefers to  setting.  research  At  in  the  academic  r e a d i n g o f ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s  was e x a m i n e d t o d e t e r m i n e  the  in  relevant  and  and r e c e n t  learning  strategies  academic programs. 1985;  Carrell,  (Mohan, 1 9 8 6 ) , and  the  ESL  (Horowitz, think-aloud  Rubin,  the  1987)  reading  research  of  1985),  year  in  R e a d i n g and  courses  t h e knowledge  protocols  to  coping  f r a m e w o r k and  entering  the  in  reading  setting.  orienting A  question  informants oneself  further refined  strategies  do  ESL  demands o f f i r s t  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and  some  1982),  (Block,  Sensitizing  the reading  t h i n k i n g about the process  a mental  in  framework  and u s e o f s t u d e n t  "What  apply  students  1985,1987; J o h n s o n ,  relevant literature  question  comprehension  i n t e x t s t r u c t u r e (Meyer,  were e x a m i n e d .  u n i v e r s i t y students credit  reading  university  Thus, s t u d i e s  learner strategies  (Wenden & through  of  1 9 8 2 , 1 9 8 3 , 1984,  u n i v e r s i t y tasks  1986)  research  Psychology?"  gave t h i s  researcher  hunches  prior  regarding  to  broader  c a t e g o r i e s of l e a r n e r s ' s t r a t e g i e s r a i s e d by t h e e t h n o g r a p h y professor during this significant emergent  aspect  meaningful  The  later  initial  during of  phase o f t h e s t u d y  the  qualitative  during the a n a l y t i c a l  second  research  phase o f  became more  procedure.  research  became  This more  phase.  reconnaissance  involved following  38 up h u n c h e s  on t h e  setting.Informal resulted  in  research question  interviews  a clearer  r e s e a r c h t a s k and Hammersley & developing  about p o s s i b l e Atkinson  access  department  Science;  with  heads  instructors  secondary E n g l i s h Social  Science  s t a f f were function the  courses,  interviewed.  of  in  developing  the  ESL  individual  the  at  different  study  1982).  students  ESL,  facilitate  one's  university  and  and  Social courses,  English and a  secondary  instructors  out  also  coping  up  ( H a m m e r s l e y and in  data  expertise, social the  working  of  input  the  conversations  halls  and  library  receive  ferret  Atkinson(1983)  c l o t h i n g comprise  researcher.  to  Informal  set  progress  r e s e a r c h e r ' s demeanor,  of  data with  helped  in  s t r a t e g i e s of  in dealing with reading tasks  to  i n t e r v i e w s . H a m m e r l s e y and  students.  and  r a p p o r t w i t h them p r i o r  students  levels:  and  counselling  s t r a t e g i e s to  management"  of  These s e s s i o n s s e r v e d  this  "impression  importance  the  &  the  cafeteria  in developing  the  cite  a s e n s e of t h e a t t i t u d e s and  the academic  of  college preparatory  and  and  the  personnel  the nature  instructors  English  i n t h e ESL  sought.(Spindler,  even  of  i n providing o p p o r t u n i t i e s to inform  students  and  (1983) people  of  regarding appropriate  w e l l as  variety  in  difficulties.  board,  courses;  commencement  being  a  people  p e r s p e c t i v e about  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , academic The  with  with  to  as  approaching  appointments state that  quality  Atkinson,p.78) collection. skills, identity  for  can The  language, of  the  39  Access permission require  to  students  of  and  international  origin  students,  factor  and  hope  helpful  between  informants.  Since  previous discuss  semesters with  reading  the  some  researcher  was  responses  The access  i n the  was  i n the  researcher  of t h e i r to  and  gain their  between Asian  interaction.  The  in this  study was  an  would  another  evident  and  in  the  the  student  instructor  students might  inquire  assignments.  future  of  was  they  the  Assurance  and  students  the  to  for  students  When  for  experience  for  freely  interviews.  facilitated.  of b e i n g  how  rapport.  vouched  researcher  researcher  relations  t o how  study  shared  setting,  gaining  and  as  R e c i p r o c i t y was  this this  able  this  international  comprehension  completing  of  participation  access.  interaction  trust  i n the  environment  future  opening  talk  the  researcher the  of  researcher  and  than field  concerned  access  that their  to  in  would  usefulness  enhanced  expressed  was  this  confidentiality,  participants  be  students  more  Positive  relationships  researcher  the  legitimacy  involves  i n t e r v i e w them.  this  openly  former  of  students  developing  Initially, and  to  as In  felt  free  improve to  ways  and  to  their  return,  co-operation  in  of this  candid  interviews.  following  entry  i n the  field  diary illustrates  phase: I s a i d ' h e l l o ' between c l a s s e s t o H. -we know e a c h o t h e r now from h a v i n g lunch  the  40  together l a s t Friday. Just being able to chat easily with someone in class h e l p s me to feel more a t e a s e . The other students are of course noticing this; maybe this will help when I a p p r o a c h o t h e r s . ( F i e l d D i a r y #2:18.)  Another e n t r y  illustrates  b e t w e e n p a r t i c i p a n t and  the openness of the d i a l o g u e  researcher:  The f i e l d w o r k has g i v e n me a l o t of insight into students' perceptions and s t r a t e g i e s f o r coping i n academic course work. They t o l d me t h i n g s that they w o u l d n ' t have t o l d me i f I was their teacher. As a r e s e a r c h e r , a fellows t u d e n t , and a n A s i a n , I was someone they felt- free t o t a l k openly t o . ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:17).  This researcher's  visible  weekly  over  a two-month p e r i o d d e v e l o p e d  that  is  a necessary that  years  the c o l l e g e ,  deadlines,  researcher,  and  research.  a teacher  was now,  assignments  in  the  setting  t h e c o n t i n u i n g open  p a r t of f i e l d  intrigued at  this  presence  like  them,  anxieties  access  Students  were  f o r almost  ten  a student  with  over  personal  capabilities.  P.. Documents During and  the  pilot  study,  assistance  with  class  assignments,  and  r e l e v a n t documents Deans o f  the i n s t r u c t o r s ' lists,  reading concerns  course  outlines  gave a c c e s s  w h i c h were n e c e s s a r y  English Literature  co-operation  for this  and  t o numerous study.  and E S L , and o f S o c i a l  The  Science  41 were p a r t i c u l a r l y g e n e r o u s and attention  The  to t h i s  school  calendar, description course  readings,  lists,  class  handouts, examinations list  or  focus  t h e y were useful  the  chapter  Each  into  comprised  as t o  coping  how  it  strategies  examined f o r  the body  for triangulation.  examined  the student  examined  the s t u d e n t s '  d o c u m e n t s were  "Analysis").  researcher  was  assignment  tasks.  incorporated  on  and  supplementary  assignments  t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and  criteria  time  offerings,  records,  completed  i m p i n g e d on  Initially, further  students'  and  in dealing with reading  of c o u r s e  outlines, textbooks,  of documents.  facilitated  in giving  researcher.  school timetable,  the  supportive  To  develop  the documents  as w e l l as the  clues  methodology;  to  later,  of c o l l e c t e d d a t a  (see  section  E  as  under  a r e f l e x i v e mindset,  the  from the p e r s p e c t i v e s  of  teacher.  E. P a r t i c i p a n t s The  participants  numerous c u l t u r a l year  university  studies.  univesity  either  secondary  preparatory  i n t e r n a t i o n a l students  b a c k g r o u n d s who  secondary s t u d i e s Canadian  were t e n  Each in  school;  courses composition  (non-credit) course  were e n r o l l e d  in  of  completed  them  t h e i r home some  from  had  had  country taken  and/or  (credit).  or  ESL English  As  first  in  a  college 101  experienced  42  students, they have developed  their  i n d i v i d u a l s t r a t e g i e s of  coping and s u r v i v i n g w i t h i n a new e d u c a t i o n a l environment.  The  p r o j e c t was e x p l a i n e d by the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and  Psychology The  instructors  to potential  student  participants.  r e s e a r c h e r was introduced and an i n v i t a t i o n was  for  volunteer  student  participants.  The  extended  criteria  for  s e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s was t h a t they were r e g i s t e r e d  in f i r s t  year  courses.  English  Literature  Canadian students excluded  to  individual  class  t h e i r home  The  which  were  i n the  cross-checked registrar's  i n Canada  of  students  p r i o r to  ten participants  Singaporean  admission to  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n to provide a from  different  included:  student, four  students.  c o l l e g e from  educational  two Japanese students,  Hong Kong students, and three  Of the ten, s i x of them came d i r e c t l y t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s i n A s i a while the  other four had attended v a r i o u s p r i v a t e and p u b l i c schools and college. obtain  i n both  experiences.  one Vietnamese  to  with  office.  the s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l background  was a l s o taken  cross-section background  S e l e c t i o n was v e r i f i e d by  records  c o u n t r i e s and  this college  credit  E n g l i s h as a F i r s t Language were  lists  student  Information on  the  who had  Psychology  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  referral  to  and  c o l l e g e s i n Canada p r i o r to attendance  secondary at this  The academic t a r g e t of the m a j o r i t y (nine) i s a  university  degree  (business  administration,  43 criminology, French, a diploma  In  p s y c h o l o g y ) w h i l e one w i s h e s t o p u r s u e  i n tourism.  terms  of  conversational  S i n g a p o r e a n s ) seemed t h r e e were  almost comparable  near-native,  f l u e n t were  fluency,  a t above  the  to native  remaining  advanced  three  four  level.  (the  speakers,  though  A l l ten  less  subjects  appeared a t ease d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w s .  Two s t u d e n t s were r e j e c t e d records  who v o l u n t e e r e d  as t h i s  researcher  t h a t t h e y were n o t l i k e l y  check of s t u d e n t  t o be s t u d e n t  records  noted  informants  from t h e i r  student  t o complete the course.  a t t h e end o f t h e s e m e s t e r  A  verified  this . F. D a t a C o l l e c t i o n T h r o u g h P a r t i c i p a n t Observation 120 d u r i n g  a two-month  a t t e n t i o n was the  reading  how t h e course  was c o n d u c t e d  i n E n g l i s h 110 and  period,  (see f i g u r e  Psychology  1).  Particular  p a i d t o what r e a d i n g t a s k s were a s s i g n e d ,  tasks related  instructor dealt requirements  actual readings  Observation  t o what o c c u r r e d with the  vere.  a s t h e y were  Time  Place  Winter  Rm.  303  This  i n the  r e a d i n g , and researcher  classroom, what  the  perused  the  assigned.  People  E n g l i s h 110 c l a s s ,  how  sec. 1  44  Semester  Winter  Rm.  303  E n g l i s h 110 c l a s s ,  Winter  Rm.  102  P s y c h o l o g y 110, s e c . 1  Winter  Rm.  102  P s y c h o l o g y 110, s e c . 2  Winter  Rm.  102  P s c h o l o g y 120, s e c . 1  sec. 2  F i g u r e 1: O b s e r v a t i o n C h a r t  One v e r y  interesting  r e s e a r c h e r ' s own course content these c l a s s  unexpected  personal mental  phenomenon  involvement  was  this  i n the a c t u a l  and e n j o y m e n t o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g  observations. A diary entry indicates  this:  I find I am so i n t e r e s t e d i n what t h e pro. i s teaching. Today I l e a r n e d so much about Faulkner's "A Rose f o r E m i l y " . The i n s t r u c t o r o b v i o u s l y enjoys teaching i t . Am I spending t o o much time i n c l a s s e s ? Should I z e r o i n more on my s u b j e c t s ? Must remember t h a t I'm here t o observe, not t o enjoy! (Field D i a r y #2:18.)  G. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH INTERVIEWS In p r e p a r i n g useful to  b e g i n by  a questionnaire asking oneself  for  interviews,  " J u s t what  about  i t is this  45 thing  is  puzzling  Spradley,  1979).  ways o f  coping  readings,  rae?"  Hence, with  in  the  experience with  the  P s y c h o l o g y , and  p r o c e s s i n the l o g i c a l and  two  reading and  two  (Lofland  categories  the  differences  reading  and  to  tasks,  and  suggestions The  appendix  for  student  in  approach  the  ESL  information  the  reading  i n language students.  sheet  to  Literature  were a r r a n g e d  phrased  the  educational  for f a c i l i t a t i n g  by  included:  f o r m of E n g l i s h  and  1984;  p u r p o s e s of  previous  questions  o r d e r l y sequence,  e a s i l y understood  the  difficulties  content  w o u l d be  Lofland,  of q u e s t i o n s  disciplines,  genres.  &  and  in a that (See  interview  questionnaire).  Each s t u d e n t research their  and  the  comfort  researcher existing  was  fully  purpose  l e v e l and  took  time  circumstances  i n f o r m e d of  the  of the  interview.  to e l i c i t  candid  to  establish  n a t u r e of To  increase  responses,  the  common  between i n t e r v i e w e e  and  the  bond  the of  interviewer:  b o t h were  s t u d e n t s engaged  i n a c a d e m i c p u r s u i t s where t i m e  was  insufficient  for  the  taping  the  was  often  requested  a n o n y m i t y was  for  open-ended  task.  interviews;  Permission  assurance  of  promised.  S t u d e n t s were usually lasted  academic  interviewed  singly.  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one  questions  that  hour.  dealt  The  first  interview  S t u d e n t s were a s k e d  with  their  academic  b a c k g r o u n d , t h e i r E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e and  education,  46  their  background  psychology, specific  and  reading  assigned  k n o w l e d g e and  experience  in literature  their  strategies  in dealing  assignments.  chapters  readings  for  during  the  keeping  with  in  interviews.  text,  Throughout  i n s i g h t s might  information  was  was  by  the  interviewed  tapes  again  were  where  a m b i g u o u s or  incomplete  they  with  dealt  useful  interviews,  by  to in  probes  a d d i t i o n a l data  the  if it  Another  comment  researcher  whereby making  a  questions.  transcribed,  necessary  in  students  order  to  reading  a n a l y t i c a l and  were  clarify  d a t a , or t o q u e s t i o n them as  additional  i n the  readings,or  forthcoming.  subsequent s h o r t e r i n t e r v i e w s e l i c i t e d proved  whether  of the q u e s t i o n s ,  be  i n s t e a d of a s k i n g d i r e c t  After  these  interviewing  elicited  with  p r o j e c t , were r e f e r r e d  were u s e d t o e l i c i t  procedure  readings,  supplementary  the open-ended n a t u r e  appeared f u r t h e r  statement  a  Actual  r e s e a r c h i n g a course  where a p p r o p r i a t e  useful  coping  and  to  how  assignments.  These  a d d i t i o n a l data  which  reflexive  phase of  the  study.  The this share  student  field their  for t h e i r  i n t e r v i e w s proved  research process.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n would students.  The  personal experiences c o u r s e w o r k and  In f a c t ,  be  t o be  and  expressed  helpful  r a p p o r t was  the h i g h p o i n t s of  students  were  glad  struggles with the  in this  hope  that  to  reading their  s t u d y and  to future  so s t r o n g i n one  interview  47  that t h i s private  researcher  t u t o r t o two  a certain  was  students:  f o u r t h year  pass the  offered one  a  summer  participant confided  u n i v e r s i t y student  E n g l i s h Composition  position  Test  so  he  as that  was  "desperate  to  can  graduate  in  1989".  I n s t r u c t o r s of assigned  readings  the and  courses  their  They were a l s o q u e s t i o n e d presented helping  and  students  r e l a t i o n s h i p of query.  analytical  data  phase.  promote the data  reading  readings  to the  courses  (See  was  direction refining  of or  psychological study.  The  months  study,  out,  changes  extensive of the  tasks. was  The  another of  i n the  organizing  a detailed  field  assisted  p o i n t i n g out and  within entries  field  F I E L D DIARY and  This  research,  filling  actually  in triangulation  t h a t i s so n e c e s s a r y  study.  the  students.  C h a p t e r F o u r on " A n a l y s i s " ) .  reflexivity  the  to  i n s t r u c t o r s became p a r t  used  in collecting  in a qualitative  throughout  two  their  that  the  given to  with  DATA COLLECTION THROUGH THE To a s s i s t  of  as  r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s were  c l a s s t i m e was  These i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the  the c o l l e c t e d  H.  the  interviewed  expectations  as t o how  what, i f any,  the  were  d a t a , and  to  i n a n a l y s i s of d i a r y was  in  focusing  areas  kept the  t h a t needed  d o c u m e n t i n g t h e c o g n i t i v e and the  researcher  during  i n t h i s expanded l o g over  study d e s c r i b e d the data  the the  collecting  48 process,  i n d i c a t e d the mental dialogue  literature  on  emerging, classroom The  the research  t o p i c and  and e x p a n d e d on t h e f i e l d  researcher's  field  pondering  diary  the  data  notes  o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t h e taped following  i n reconciling  recent  that  gathered  was  through  interviews.  entry  of the a p p r o p r i a t e  illustrates field  this  strategy:  Reread the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i n k - a l o u d p r o t o c o l s f o r e x a m i n i n g ESL's students reading strategies. I'm still not convinced that's t h e way t o go - i t seems s o a r t i f i c i a l a p r o c e d u r e t o me; i s i t u n n a t u r a l t o me b e c a u s e r e a d i n g i s such an automatic(looking for main ideas, clues) concentrated a c t i v i t y that I don't " t h i n k - a l o u d " or even think silently about the process a s I am reading? Do l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d r e a d e r s do it? I'm d i s t u r b e d about t h i s r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y because ethnographic research does not m a n i p u l a t e t h e environment or d i s t u r b i t . ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:14.) A  subsequent e n t r y  question that  i n d i c a t e s the s h i f t  i s emerging from the taped  i n the research  data:  The t r a n s c r i p t s from t h e tapes i n d i c a t e that they look f o r c e r t a i n i n f o . when they read l i t e r a t u r e . They a r e r e a d i n g for meaning, looking for certain elements in the stories, elements specific to t h e genre of English literature. The d a t a I'm c o l l e c t i n g i s so r i c h ! ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:19_ Asking  "how  do  learners  go  about  r e a d i n g ? " may y i e l d more f r u i t f u l is problematic Cohen c l a i m s  i n reading the former  cognitive strategies whereas t h e  latter  solving  f i n d i n g s than  texts in  a foreign  q u e s t i o n can provide  to teach  question  for acquisition yields  problems asking  in  "what  language?". insights of  into  meaning  f i n d i n g s as t o forms t o  49  teach.  (Cohen e t a l , 1979,  I . R e l i a b i l i t y and Reliability the r e s e a r c h  Validity i s concerned  the  results.  Ethnographic  descriptions  interpretation  of  o r more  interpreted.  comprehensive roles  and  research  be b u i l t  description  of  the  aims a t o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e under s t u d y ;  o b s e r v e r s on use  both  validity  generalizability  thus,  i n t o the process through  The  of  the f i n d i n g s whereas  t h e phenomena  can  b e t w e e n two was  w i t h the r e p l i c a b i 1 i t y  m e t h o d o l o g y and  refers to  reliability  p.563).  what was  of  good  of the  internal agreement  s e e n and  methodology  methodology p l a y  how  it  and  a  crucial  here: The r e s e a r c h must c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y and f u l l y discuss data analysis processes and p r o v i d e retrospective accounts of how d a t a were e x a m i n e d and s y n t h e s i z e d . Because reliability depends on the p o t e n t i a l f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s to reconstruct original analysis strategies, only those ethnographic accounts that specify these in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l are r e p l i c a b l e . (Goetz & Le Compte, 1984, p.217).  A  research  reliability  yet  o b s e r v e r s may  study  have  lack v a l i d i t y . agree  c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be  The  may  question  generalizability  on  and  e x a m p l e , two  conclusions  and  external or more yet  the  validity refers to c ethnographic study while  the  erroneous.  of of  certain  For  internal  external the  the  50  q u e s t i o n of what  internal validity  i s discovered.  approaches  to  Woods  this  greater  take  an  through ethnography  in  sees  two  approach nature,  different  claims  i s studied  says that  approach,  (by expanding  leads to  but i s not e a s i l y  another approach nomothetic  that  i t s description  p a r t i c u l a r contexts,  o f what  assessed s t a t i s t i c a l l y ; to  one  idiographic  situations  understanding  possible  (1986)  issue:  ethnography's e x c l u s i v e of p a r t i c u l a r  r e f e r s t o the genuineness of  to  i t is  generalize  an i n t e n s i v e  study to a  w i d e r sample, by d o i n g m u l t i - s i t e s t u d i e s ) . «  Woods d o e s approaches intensive the  as  not see mutually  description  more  the 'idiographic' exclusive;  and  external  claims  that  both  generalizabi1ity are possible  'representative'  chances of  he  and ' n o m o t h e t i c '  the  validity  sample,  the  of r e s u l t s .  greater (Woods,  -  the 1986,  p.50)  Internal validity methods t o forms i s are  ensured through a v a r i e t y of  cross-check accounts.  t r i a n g u l a t i o n whereby  One o f t h e most f a m i l i a r multiple  s o u r c e s o r methods  u s e d t o v a l i d a t e a c c o u n t s a n d t o c h e c k on r e l i a b i l i t y o f  informants; studying the an  c a n be  chances  of documents and r e p o r t s  of accuracy.  co-researchers,  conclusions  and  the  increase  Woods a d v o c a t e s c o l l o b o r a t i o n a s  a i d to checking v a l i d i t y .  vith  also  Through a s s o c i a t i o n strength  the strength  of  of theory  data  or a l l i a n c e for  f o r the  drawing  available  51 d a t a can  be  tested.  e t h n o g r a p h e r s can threats  use  to r e l i a b i l i t y  In a and  short,  reputable  v a r i e t y of  and  responsible  strategies  to  reduce  validity.  J.Summary In t h i s (a) g a i n i n g and  study,  a c c e s s to the  Psychology  documents;  (d)  interviewing  the  respective reflexive  of  120  field  selecting  (c)  of n i n e  observing  English  collecting  student  steps: 110  relevant  participants;  (e)  student p a r t i c i p a n t s ; (f) interviewing  d i a r y ; and  (g)  maintaining  (h) a n a l y z i n g  v a l i d i t y was  m u l t i p l e data  collection.  s e t t i n g ; (b)  classes;  instructors;  R e l i a b i l i t y and use  methodology c o n s i s t e d  a the  the  comprehensive collected  data.  taken i n t o account through  s o u r c e s and  m u l t i p l e methods o f  the data  52  ANALYSIS OF DATA A. I n t r o d u c t i o n This q u a l i t a t i v e  s t u d y examines  of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s demands o f  f i r s t year  c r e d i t courses. context  of  respective  In  t h e course  qualitative  with data  field  r e f l e x i v i t y was  interviews are  this  disciplines.  goes  process  particular  study,  o f a n a l y s i s and and  continuously  i n the s e t t i n g .  oneself  that are  Protocols acquired  emerging from  the data.  through o b s e r v a t i o n and  coded and examined f o r i d e a s t h a t r e l a t e t o  further insights  to  by t h e  periodically tosensitize  analyzed  eneielf  designed  reading  q u e s t i o n , and  a c t u a l l y doing  within the  include careful  the r e s e a r c h for  Inthis  i n analysis  or concepts  1984).  Psychology  c o l l e c t i o n . ( V a n Maanen, 1 9 8 3 ;  of c o l l e c t i n g data  re-reading of the data  (Burgess,  as  two academic  1983)  diary,  P r e l i m i n a r y steps  patterns  and  a r e examined  occurring simultaneously  during the process  the reading  f i e l d w o r k , a n a l y s i s and r e f l e c t i o n  Atkinson,  through the  with  Literature  requirements  i n s t r u c t o r s of these  Hammersley &  to  English  faced  Their s t r a t e g i e s  on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  and  when  the coping s t r a t e g i e s  when f a c e d  patterns  er  the d e t a i l e d  with  research d i a r y i s  a s t o what t h e s t u d e n t s a r e reading  eoneepts are part  tasks.Sens i t i z i n g of  th© f u n n e l l i n g  5 3  process, through and  a  progressive  developing  delimiting  focusing  and its  which  transforming scope,  and  occurs  the  over  problem,  exploring  time  clarifying  its  internal  structure.  I t was the data, began  d u r i n g t h i s c o n t i n u a l a n a l y s i s and  that a  to  significant  emerge.  What  shift  i n the  was  emerging  research  kind  of minute  short textual of r e c e n t  detailed  (or paragraph)  academic r e a d i n g  students;  cognitive  rather,  level research  what emerged  strategies  with  reading strategies,  and  i d e a s and  f o r main  selective attention  to c e r t a i n  genre-specific readings. specific  to  to  t h a t are  deal with  much l a r g e r  s e n t e n c e or p a r a g r a p h l e v e l They were  reading at  the E n g l i s h a holistic of  the  use  of r e a d i n g  approach to the demanded  strategy.  T h u s , when  looked  concepts  or  reading  in  reading  more in  for  students  reading For  the  strategies  In r e a d i n g  the  tasks.  example, i n  f o r meaning i n v o l v e d  l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e as this  paying  chunks of d i s c o u r s e t h a n  level.  they  skimming  inherent  i n t h e i r assigned  course,  that  i n the d i s c i p l i n e ,  the whole-text  Literature  genre  for  elements  the focus  supporting d e t a i l s ,  Their  inherent  at  university  s u c h as  the genre i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  the meanings had  ESL  in  using  been the  f r o m t h e d a t a was  were u s i n g more g e n e r a l scanning  that  were n o t  t h a t has  of  question  was  comprehending r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , the s t u d e n t s the  re-reading  understanding  comprehensive  reading  English Literature,  elements s p e c i f i c  to  that  they  genre.  54  Hence, d e p e n d i n g English  on t h e s t u d e n t ' s  literature,  the student  p l o t development, conflict,  symbolism,  o r theme.  in  to the  psychology:  i n t r o d u c t o r y course students the  for  Furthermore,  they  study guide  to a i d their  Another  since  the  to  definitions,  descriptions  made c o n s i d e r a b l e  what  reading  emerged  s t r a t e g i e s t h a t these to  deal  focused  psychology,  use of in  p e r i o d i c q u i z z e s t h a t were a n i n t e g r a l  Overall,  example of  readings  discipline  basic  specifically  e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l  was  and  examples.  the psychology to  pass  the  part of the course.  the  variety  of  coping  t o enable  them  the reading tasks associated with  comparative  essays, r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s , or e x a m i n a t i o n s .  requirements,  strategies  ethnography professor  the  looked  the  of  were  on t e a c h i n g  fulfilling  multiplicity  course  in  they  order  s t u d e n t s were u t i l i z i n g  expediently with  using  g e n r e i s when t h e s t u d e n t s  i n that  concepts  of understanding of  would read s e l e c t i v e l y f o r  character analysis,  strategies specific reading  level  was  had mentioned  the b e g i n n i n g of t h e f i e l d  the  whether  hunch  to this  i t  that  was This the  researcher a t  study.  C u m m i n s ( 1 9 8 4 ) s p e a k s o f t h e common u n d e r l y i n g a c a d e m i c proficiency that data had  indicated  bilingual  students  that students  worked f o r them i n t h e i r  t© th§i£  eusfint i t u d i t s  possess;  the  emerging  were a p p l y i n g s t r a t e g i e s previous e d u c a t i o n a l  (alteiit In a §§eenej  that  experience  ianguafi).  55  Another f i n d i n g that these their  t h a t emerged  students  first  of t h e  coping s k i l l s  content  in  that these  succeed  t o handle  in their  changed from  in  What a l s o  the reading  academic c r e d i t  t o the p i l o t  some  emerged was  demands i n  whatever order  to  courses.  study,  the research  strategies in first  year  do  ESL  question  university  English Literature  t o "What a r e t h e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  u n i v e r s i t y ESL s t u d e n t s  the  was  with t o the  many o t h e r s , were d o i n g  to reading  Psychology?"  were f a m i l i a r  language.  "What r e a d i n g  students apply  year  that they  second  Subsequent  and  have t r a n s f e r r e d a n d a d a p t e d  students, l i k e  was e x p e d i e n t  c o l l e c t e d data  have b e e n r e a d i n g a c a d e m i c d i s c o u r s e i n  language and  their  from t h e  of f i r s t  when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands  s p e c i f i c genres of f i r s t  year  E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and  Psychology?"  In  qualitative  phases: s e n s i t i z i n g , and  theory  1986). the  B.  studies,  analysis  coding, model-building,  l i n k a g e (Hammersley  These f i v e  usually  &  Atkinson,  phases of a n a l y s i s w i l l  f o l l o w i n g segments o f t h i s  has  five  triangulation, 1983;  Woods,  be p r e s e n t e d i n  chapter.  Sensitizing "Making  objective Reading,  the  in a  familiar  ethnographic  strange" research.  is  oftentimes  (Spindler,  common and r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y o f s t u d e n t s  the  1982).  seems s o  56 " f a m i l i a r " - how to make i t "strange"? need to  free themselves  from their  Field  researchers  preconceptions of the  research topic i n order to better observe and understand the setting and  the participants,  persons under may not The  and to  be open  to how the  study are dealing with the problem ( i t may or  be what  previous related studies have discovered).  exploratory  nature  of  field  research  includes  approaching the setting with some hunches, rather than with s p e c i f i c hypotheses  to be tested or v e r i f i e d .  Some of the steps involved in the s e n s i t i z i n g process included: reviewing the l i t e r a t u r e , focusing on the research question and r e f i n i n g i t , removing preconceptions, and using r e f l e x i v i t y . It was through this process that changes in the research question emerged.  The l i t e r a t u r e process of textual  review  included  reading involves,  analysis  and  the  clarifying  examining  recent  university  ESL  what the research on  reader,  and  exploring related l i t e r a t u r e on learner strategies.  The research  topic focused on these concerns: what are  ESL university readers doing when they face academic reading tasks?  Do ESL students use d i f f e r e n t strategies for reading  in d i f f e r e n t  Whit p u r p e i i i  disciplines?  de th©y  What drives this type of reader?  pereelve i n  the  reading  i§ th© r e l a t i o n s h i p b i t v i t n student reading  tasks?  What  strategics t s  57  coursework,  to  classroom  instruction,  or  to  academic  with  current  achievement?  After  acquiring  some  familiarity  e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g o f a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g  skills  to  Block,  second  language  1 9 8 6 , - C a r r e l l , 1983,  1984,1985,1987;  researcher questioned p a i d t o what t h e ESL when c o n f r o n t e d c o n t e x t of  Johnson,  w i t h academic  r e a d i n g demands  environment.  academic l e v e l  intimacy  with  c l a i m s about  the  s t u d i e d , the the student  s t u d y from  coping  how  within  the  to  the they  acceptance  study  before  strategies,  the p e r s p e c t i v e of those  or  Since  i s to understand  t h e y coped  to  making  instruction.  d a t a a n a l y s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on themselves:  doing  I t seemed i m p o r t a n t  situation  their  in this qualitative  phenomenon u n d e r  been  when away f r o m  prior  m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r c u r r i c u l u m and the emphasis  this  I t i s l i k e l y that  year u n i v e r s i t y courses.  c o n j e c t u r e s or  1982 ),  u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l l y  a certain  a c q u i r e some  (  w h e t h e r s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n had  classroom  have a c h i e v e d first  students  g e n r e - s p e c i f i c c r e d i t courses  p r o t e c t e d ESL  into  university  the being  i n f o r m a t i o n from  w i t h the  academic  r e a d i n g demands.  R e f l e x i v i t y p l a y s a major r o l e of  analysis.(Denzin,  1984).  During data  a n a l y z e s and  reflects  1978;  i n the s e n s i t i z i n g  W i l c o x , 1982;  collection,  phase  Lofland & Lofland,  the researcher  continually  on t h e p r o t o c o l s , r e m a i n i n g  open t o a  58  possible reshaping  of t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n .  research question  w i t h people  of e d u c a t i o n a l making l i n k s  students  added f u r t h e r  from overseas  from u n i v e r s i t i e s t h e y do  it?  strategies  ESL  insights.  process;  students this  essential  ESL degrees  States.  utilize  kinds  of  in acquiring  i n Canada a n d t h e U n i t e d  the learning-to-read  classroom  Thousands  have s u c c e e d e d  mastering  area  and r e t h i n k i n g on v a r i o u s  Do b i l i n g u a l  in  moving from  outside this particular  research assisted i n this reflexive between i d e a s  of l i n k a g e s  Discussing the  How d i d  other  types of  academic  skill,  emphasis i n the p r o t e c t e d  i n t o r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n i n academic  coursework?  C.Coding I d e n t i f y i n g of data  to  categories are  process.(Spradley, subtypes of and  c a t e g o r i e s and  1980).  more g e n e r a l  accurate  to  of the a n a l y t i c a l  This developing  of t y p o l o g i e s and  categories f a c i l i t a t e s  the f i r s t  handle the  English Literature throughout the  and  study,  (Hammersley and  of  year  the  types  and  r e a d i n g demands Psychology  Pulling  out  of  i n the  1983).  coping  .  As  was  genres of prevalent  r e f l e x i v i t y was a c o n t i n u i n g  Atkinson,  succinct  systematic  ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a r e  concern.  The a c t u a l c o d i n g  was a means o f o r d e r i n g t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a logical  of c o l l e c t e d  aspects  classification  strategies that utilizing  central  allocating  process  i n an i n t e g r a t e d ,  way.  significant  recurring  comments  from  the  59  interviews,  the  field  gave a  focus  through  continuous  was  able  certain  appropriate  analysis out  patterns  frequency,  distribution  number o f  times  the c o l l e c t e d  also a  data of  of  structure  of  the  be  a  necessary  t o make  determining  considered  and  are  Thus, c o u n t i n g  procedure,  vhich  the  up  and  in the  emerges from  is related  gives  setting  researcher  t h e v a r i o u s p r o t o c o l s vas  Typicality,  this  data;  coping s t r a t e g y cropped  the s t r a t e g y over  setting;  In  typicality.  the d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  the  to  this  i d e a s and  themes.  factors  vas  observations  s u b c a t e g o r i z i n g the  reflexivity,  and  and  classroom  significant  particular  consideration.  f r e q u e n c y and sense  a  the  and  and  the  indicators,  distribution  and  for categorizing  to " s l i c e "  explicit  diary,  a  t o the  sense  of  the  of  the  overall  the  adequacy  inner of  the  categories.  During patterns utilizing demands  the  began a that  culture  t h e y had  vere vith as v e i l  developed  overcome t h e i r appeared upon.  that  of  collecting  t o emerge.  number of  unfamiliarity and  process  These  strategies  placed  upon  the North as  the  coping  to  them.  strategies  means  setting,  students  cope v i t h  American  in  i n the  determined  the  of t i m e  that  their context  and  energy,  enabled  them t o  r e a d i n g comprehension; vere  vere  reading  Recognizing educational  constraints  difficulties vhatever  data  expedient  vere  it  called  The  appropriateness  how f i r m l y As  the data  of the  typologies i s  c a n be accommodated w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s .  i s o f t e n the case,  i t appears t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s a r e not  completely e x c l u s i v e , but are interdependent For  example,  comprehension e x p e r t i s e of English  one  coping  is a  heavy  Literature  students pay  t o some d e g r e e .  to  by  thus, the  aid  reading  students  on  the  emphasis t h a t  the  places  on  literary  a f f e c t the s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n that the  to certain  aspects or  of  prepare  the reading  notes  when  they  from r e a d i n g s f o r  assignments.  A n a l y s i s of students* coping c a n be  reliance  instructor  study f o r examinations writing  strategy  the instructor;  interpretation will  governed by  reliably  the collected  data  indicated  that  these  s t r a t e g i e s when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands classified  I n t o t h e t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s  of self-management, background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and r e l i a n c e on t h e i n s t r u c t o r . ( S e e F i g u r e 2 . ) I n t h e s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s , these  categories w i l l  be d e s c r i b e d a n d a m p l i f i e d  by s e l e c t e d q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e p r o t o c o l s .  I.Self-management A. S t u d y s k i l l s  i n reading  1.  selective attention  2.  note-taking  3.  g r a p h i c s and  4.  repetition  and  tasks  underlining  imagery  5. B.  memorizing  Resourcing 1.  other t e x t s  2.  other  students  I I . Background knowledge and  experience  A. Academic r e a d i n g experience B. P e r s o n a l I I I . R e l i a n c e on  experience instructor  A. Genre of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 1.  Literal  comprehension  2.  Literary  interpretation  B. Genre of  Psychology  1.  Concept  2.  Quiz p r e p a r a t i o n  formation  F i g u r e 2 : ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' coping strategies  At progress own  the in  i n r e a d i n g comprehension.  postsecondary  responsibility.  u n f a m i l i a r with  the  environment  culture  or  university credit  o f t e n dependent  North  ability  is  left  on t h e i r  reading. Their  to the  make  student's  educational  to  sink  Whether these  the u n i v e r s i t y  to  The ESL student who  American  coursework.  survive in  approach to  the  academic s t u d i e s i s o f t e n l e f t  i n i t i a t i v e and  able to  level,  or  learning swim  in  students are  environment or  self-management s k i l l s self-management  is  not in  is  their  s k i l l s can  be  62  divided  into  two  subcategories: study s k i l l s  They b e g i n t o see  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  and r e s o u r c i n g .  of r e a d i n g  in relation  to  coursework: Yeah, I must say, coming here, I've learned to be more consistent in my r e a d i n g cuz I found t h a t i f you d o n ' t read, i t ' s p r e t t y hard to catch up i n c l a s s . You d o n ' t know what's h a p p e n i n g . Whereas back home, i t ' s more l i k e s p o o n f e e d i n g , whereas h e r e you have t o make y o u r own n o t e s , t a k e y o u r own n o t e s . So it's quite different in t h a t way. (LE 5-26)  Students  who  will  so  go  t h e y would  are determined far  as t o  to master  isolate  n o r m a l l y have  the academic  themselves  a natural  and  from  reading  s t u d e n t s whom  comfortable  rapport  with: In t h e f i r s t two weeks, I l o o k q u i c k l y a r o u n d and see who's good i n E n g l i s h . I s t i c k w i t h them. I n e v e r speak J a p a n e s e in school. Observe first, make a c o n t a c t and ask t h e students who are good t h a n me i n E n g l i s h . I was real l u c k y - most p e o p l e a r e r e a d y t o h e l p me i f I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a d i n g or t h e assignment. (HI 3-27) Another attention.  T h i s was  particularly English  reading  when  Literature.  whole t e x t  level,  s t r a t e g y in study s k i l l s used  by t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e  d e a l i n g with In they  was  the  specific  reading English would  pay  selective informants,  discipline  Literature  attention  to  elements: I get the main c h a r a c t e r s , who the main characters are, vhat they do. Certain l i n e s , I m i g h t see s y m b o l i s m or i r o n y or  vhit§vi£, the§© t h i n g s .  (CA 1=4)  at  of the  certain  Our i n s t r u c t o r t a u g h t us t o l o o k o u t f o r t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r - y o u know, l i k e t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , the p o i n t of v i e w and a l l that. So when I'm r e a d i n g t h r o u g h i t I t r y t o look out f o r i t . (VA 1-4) I t r y to identify the theme, c o n f l i c t and the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s . theme, i t t a k e s a w h i l e sometimes. 1-1) As  the  term  utilizing  progressed,  this  saying  of  the  informants  began  s t r a t e g y more o f t e n , c o n s c i o u s l y l o o k i n g f o r  l i t e r a r y elements text level.  most  the The (LE  as t h e y  When a s k e d  something  how  special  read the she to  stories at  knows when the  the  whole-  the author  reader,  one  is  informant  responded: I don't know, b u t I just think that i f the a u t h o r t r y t o i m p l y something or t r y t o use other things to symbolize the o t h e r way - they w i l l g i v e us some odd way t o w r i t e t h a t e v e n t o r o b j e c t - so w h e n e v e r y o u d i s c o v e r t h e y use a s p e c i a l way t o w r i t e i t , t h e n y o u w i l l remember - the a u t h o r must be g i v e some s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n ... maybe s o m e t i m e he won't b u t most of the time i t work. (AM 310) Most of beginning  the  informants  to  literary style. own  end  read the  while  However,  paying one  complete  discourse  selective  informant  had  from  attention  to  developed  his  scheme f o r r e a d i n g E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : What I do i s r e a d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g - t h e b e g i n n i n g f o r about a page t o see a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s f i r s t . Then I go r e a d t h e e n d , I s e e what i t ' s a l l c o m i n g t o i n t h e end. So I see what's a l l c o m i n g o u t a t t h e end o f t h e s t o r y w h i c h i s a b o u t a page o r s o , and t h e n I go and read the middle, then s t a r t over a g a i n from the b e g i n n i n g and then read the m i d d l e , see what's d e v e l o p i n g , why and  64  see what h a p p e n e d a t the middle have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h the end. So I understand b e t t e r . I think i t ' s really g o o d , I u n d e r s t o o d i t much b e t t e r . ( J A 5-46) His  procedure,  which  value l i t e r a t u r e strategy to literature; English  a  go a g a i n s t t h e g r a i n o f t h o s e  as a r t ,  had  help himself he  level  occurring  may  had  found  t h a t he  procedure,  which  Literature,  was  him  from e x p e r i e n c e  at the  d i d not  understand  on a l i t e r a l  Interestingly,  seems  by  structure  often  level.  devised  a c q u i r e a mental  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  literary  been  an  unusual  f o l l o w e d by o t h e r  level, his  approach students  as of  who a the  secondary what  l e t alone  was on  back-and-forth to  English  in reading for  psychology: F i r s t I read the learning objective in t h e s t u d y g u i d e , t h e n I r e a d t h e summary in the textbook, then the c h a p t e r , then I ' l l come back t o the q u e s t i o n s i n the s t u d y g u i d e , t h e n I ' l l do t h e self-quiz. T h i s i s how I u s u a l l y do i t for every c h a p t e r . (CA 3-17) Informants ideas i n  were a s k e d a chapter.  o r g a n i z e r s and  how  t h e y knew w h i c h  Half  o f them  were t h e  important  r e p o r t e d u s i n g advance  underlining:  On r e a d i n g t h e s e t h i n g s I t e n d t o f o r g e t what i t was, so I go back, always holding this page: the chapter listing of h e a d i n g s . I t e n d t o wander away s o I a l w a y s come b a c k t o t h i s , t h e t i t l e s , t o k e e p my focus. A l w a y s remember w h a t ' s t h e f o c u s , d o n ' t go out of the f o c u s , d o n ' t go t o o w i d e . (HI 7-47) Sometimes t h e y have w o r d s i n i t a l i c s and usually I i i g u r e t h a t ' s th§ m a j o r = you know, s o m e t h i n g which they're t r y i n g to  65 put a c r o s s t o you, and u s u a l l y I take more n o t e s , pay more a t t e n t i o n to that and u s u a l l y I w r i t e i t down i n my file. (LE 3-13) Some i n f o r m a n t s when t h e a c a d e m i c  reported paying  language posed a  attention  t o the  graphs  difficulty:  Sometimes I ' l l read the charts, just d e p e n d s i f i m p o r t a n t f o r me. Sometimes you d o n ' t really understand what the textbook say and you need to read something the c h a r t s or t h e e x a m p l e s or s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t . (AM 4-16) I might l o o k a t i t and t h e n sometimes I might j u s t t h r o w i t a r o u n d , you know, just to see what p a r t s go where. (CA 315) Other  informants  texts  useful  the  i d e a of  Again, here, of  the  the as  not  only  found  graphic  i n r e a d i n g comprehension imagery  into  whole t e x t  the  creating in English  c h a r a c t e r development  complete  their  presentations  but  also  own  mental  Literature occurs  carried  in over  concepts.  is  w i t h i n the  relevant context  reading:  When I read, I draw a picture of contents in my brain to make c o n n e c t i o n s i n my b r a i n . What i s t h i s thing? "A Rose f o r E m i l y " not easy t o understand, Emily changes, very d i f f i c u l t to h o l d i t i n me b e c a u s e t h e p i c t u r e ' s not right. S i n c l a i r R o s s ' "A Lamp a t Noon", I d o n ' t know p r a i r i e s . I don't see symbol of dust, cause of baby's death i s s t r a n g e . ( H I 1-2) When I'm reading through i t , first, I g e t - you know - I have a m e n t a l p i c t u r e of the character. You t r y t o i m a g i n e who t h e main c h a r a c t e r is what he's l i k e . (VA 1-3) One  informant  stated that  i f she  was  unable  to create  a  mental was  image,  she  found  i t difficult  to understand  what  she  reading: When I c a n ' t s e e i t , I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d i t . Some r e a d i n g s - l i k e a i r - way up i n the a i r - i t ' s l i k e a b s t r a c t , you c a n ' t s o r t of get h o l d of i t . (TA 3-10) A study  cited  strategy in  by  every  repetition,  reading  member  of  comprehension  the  group  that  was  interviewed  was  e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d  understanding  the  difficulties  in  content:  You k n o v - i f I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , I w i l l r e a d i t a g a i n and a g a i n and a g a i n . Cuz I have t o u n d e r s t a n d i t , I know. (MO 1055) I n i t i a l l y I j u s t read i t once through b u t l a t e r I f o u n d y o u r e a l l y had t o r e a d i t more t h a n t h a t t o r e a l l y find out more a b o u t the s t o r y . So a f t e r t h a t I u s u a l l y read i t a few more t i m e s . For E n g l i s h 110 I found t h a t I was r e a d i n g i t more t h a n i n E n g l i s h 12. In E n g l i s h 12, I r e a d t h r o u g h , just maybe once, that's a l l . Now i n E n g l i s h 110, I r e a d it more, maybe two times or more. Sometimes the instructor tells us something I mean I d o n ' t e v e n r e a l i z e i t , I don't even see i t but i t h e l p s , l i k e when I go b a c k , I r e a d i t a g a i n and I can see i t . (LE 9-46) Oh, i t r e a l l y h e l p - you t i m e you r e a d i t , you r e a d i t and t h e s e c o n d you will become sometime you w i l l meet a u t h o r t r y t o o f f e r you on t h a t p o i n t . You w i l l t h a t . (AM 2-9) For an  end  many s t u d e n t s in  understand  itself; the  i n academic s t u d i e s ,  i t is  course  know, t h e f i r s t just roughly to t i m e you r e a d i t a considering, one p o i n t - t h e some i n f o r m a t i o n t r y to consider  done  content,  for to  specific  follow  the  reading  is  not  purposes:  to  lecturer,  to  do  the assignment achieving the for the  or t o  One means o f  l a t t e r goal, passing examinations,  purpose of  study s k i l l  w r i t e the examinations.  memorizing.  i s t o read  For several informants,  u s e d e x t e n s i v e l y when r e a d i n g i n p s y c h o l o g y  t o memorize t h e d e f i n i t i o n s  a was  of the concepts:  These t h i n g s [the bold p r i n t ] , I make sure - are the things I have t o memorize. I take n o t e s when I read, then I memorize. (HI 7-47) E v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h m e m o r i z i n g w i l l f i n e . (WI 1-3) This type Asian students prominent The To  enable  of s t r a t e g y  i s not  as memorization  has  a difficult  themselves  one f o r t h e  traditionally  s t u d y a c t i v i t y under t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l other subcategory  be  been  a  systems.  i n self-management i s r e s o u r c i n g .  t o cope w i t h t h e r e a d i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s  o f t e n r e l i e d on o t h e r t e x t s a n d on o t h e r  students:  A f t e r I ' v e r e a d - some t h i n g s I am n o t s u r e - s o I go t o t h e l i b r a r y a n d l o o k the other books, other psychology books, d i f f e r e n t way o f e x p l a n a t i o n , s o t r y t o g r a s p what's r e a l l y i s t h e i d e a . (HI 749) The difficulty i s just a different culture, a different approach so I probably will t r y t o read something r e l a t e d t o the custom or something like t h a t . (HI12-70) I f I r e a d a n o t h e r t e x t b e s i d e t h e one we use i n s c h o o l , t h e n I w i l l n o t have a n y problems. I just check from this library and they got a couple , d i f f e r e n t authors b u t much c l e a r e r . ( I V 6-16) During class, we have to read Shakespeare, a p l a y . I was j u s t t o t a l l y  lost. And t h e n we t r y t o f i n d those notes - what do y o u c a l l i t ? those Coles notes. I t g i v e me a g e n e r a l i d e a . (WI 4-21) I would test myself using that book b e f o r e t h e q u i z . To me, t h e s t u d y g u i d e i s a l s o somewhat l i k e a summary so I find i t ' s pretty helpful and t h e r e ' s multiple-choice t o o and a self-quiz. B e f o r e t h e q u i z , I do i t . I t h e l p s me t o r e c a l l what I read, t o prepare myself f o r t h e t e s t . ( L E 6-29) "What do  y o u do  assigned readings?" Using peers common  when y o u  was one  as resources  have d i f f i c u l t y  of  the  with  interview  i n reading  your  questions.  comprehension  was  a  response: I f I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , maybe I w i l l a s k my b o y f r i e n d o r w a i t u n t i l next c l a s s . Sometimes I a s k my b o y f r i e n d a n d he r e a d f o r me a n d t e l l me what they talking about. He go UBC, g r a d student, B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( T A 3-12) I f t h e r e ' s some f a n c y word I d o n ' t know, I c a n a s k my s i s t e r , s h e t o o k t h e c o u r s e b e f o r e t o o . (WI 1-1) Ask my friends first a n d l e t them e x p l a i n i t t o me - my f r i e n d s who t o o k i t before. And i f t h e y can't, then I w i l l a s k my t e a c h e r . (AM 9-42)  Consulting procedure  peers  appeared  to  be  more  comfortable  than c o n s u l t i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r : J u s t once, ...I'm  a bit  I went t o s e e t h e i n s t r u c t o r scared  of  him.  a s k ray f r i e n d i f my f r i e n d f o r me. (MO 10-54) The  a  second  major  b a c k g r o u n d knowledge  category  in  and e x p e r i e n c e  I prefer  to  c a n do t h i s  coping  strategies  (Cummins, 1 9 8 4 ) .  is ESL  students  in  first  year  strategies acquired their  home  system.  u n i v e r s i t y courses  through  returning  to  discussed  how  their  o t h e r w i s e , were  in  have a l s o  scholastic  the  Canadian  had work  previous  Several  experiences,  h e l p i n g them i n t h e i r  had  learned the  strategy  through  previous educational  educational  experience  pursuits.  student  learning  p r e v i o u s academic experience i n  c o u n t r i e s and/or A number  possess  informants  educational  present  of  prior to  reading.  selective  and This  attention  experience:  I learned i t [using headings] from school. Other courses - l i k e geographyI took g e o g r a p h y i n s e t 4, t h e y t a u g h t me t h i s method: i f they say something t o do w i t h d r a i n a g e , t h e n a n y t h i n g t o do with drainage o r w a t e r , y o u g o t t o make a p o i n t o f i t . (CA 3 - 1 3 ) . The  following  previous  protocols  educational  associations that  illustrate  experiences  help  how enable  the  students'  them  them c o p e w i t h r e a d i n g s  to  make  i n current  coursework: B a s i c a l l y the aim [understanding poetry] quite similar, s o i f y o u remember t h e s t u f f o f poems i n C h i n e s e , I t h i n k y o u a r e e a s y t o c a t c h up t h e s t u f f o f poems i n E n g l i s h , b u t t h e w o r d s , t h e i r way o f w r i t i n g poems i s a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t . (AM 1-14) If you read a l o t , even i n your country's language, i thelp you c r e a t e the a b i l i t y f o r comprehension. So a f t e r t h a t , even though you read the other l a n g u a g e , i t do have some h e l p . You know, most o f t h e b o o k , t h e r e a r e n o t s o many s t u f f o f f e r t h e a u t h o r t o w r i t e , s o the s t u f f the authors write i s quite . similar. S o m e t i m e s when y o u ' r e r e a d i n g English Literature, sometimes you can associate some s t u f f related t o the  70  Chinese L i t e r a t u r e too - a l l the a u t h o r s seem t o have similar thinking sometimes t h e y d e p i c t the c h a r a c t e r such as t h i s f e a t u r e i n E n g l i s h - sometimes y o u c a n remember t h e same f e a t u r e i n t h e C h i n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , so y o u c a n a s s o c i a t e i t and i t h e l p s y o u t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 7-28) . The  following  protocol  indicates  how  previous  e d u c a t i o n a l experience served t o develop the coping  Canadian strategy  of n o t e - t a k i n g : A c t u a l l y i t was q u i t e e a s y f o r me t h i s semester cuz I took Grade 12 English l a s t s e m e s t e r , so i t ' s s o r t of about the same t h i n g . Last semester I had d i f f i c u l t y because I'd never done i t before... I notice that most of my f r i e n d s - they don't bother to take notes in class for English. Maybe because I took English 12 and I understood the importance of taking notes whereas most o f them n e v e r took E n g l i s h 12 before. So t o them i t ' s something r e a l new. They never come a c r o s s s u c h t h i n g s b e f o r e . ( L E 7-34) Previous reading developed  their  experiences i n  their  home  countries  have  abilities:  O h , y e s , I l o v e r e a d i n g - when I was younger, almost e v e r y week me and my s i s t e r , we would get books - you knovt h e Red Book o f S t o r i e s , t h e G r e e n Book of S t o r i e s - s h o r t s t o r i e s , the s e r i e s books from England. We u s e d to read N a n c y Drew s e r i e s , t h e H a r d y Boy s e r i e s - wow, H a r d y Boy s t o r i e s ! - we c o u l d n ' t p u t them down. We e x c h a n g e w i t h s e v e r a l cousins. I t ' s even b e t t e r cuz my dad likes  to  read  also  bestsellers, he'll and w e ' l l pass i t the  dinner  t h i s and  table,  that.  Self-management p l a y e d  (VA  - so  i f he  buys  the  j u s t pass i t to us a r o u n d . Sometimes a t ve  can  5-21)  a prominent  talk  role  about i t ,  in  this  student's  background experience  i n reading  comprehension:  In Japan I read a l o t of E n g l i s h newspapers. I t a p e d E n g l i s h and F r e n c h m o v i e s , I p l a y e d them a g a i n and a g a i n . In English movies, have Japanese subtitles. So I r e a d t h e book, I see the movie, I tape t h e m o v i e . A t home I p l a y i t and I r e a d i t again... life experience and knowledge about world h e l p me a l o t . I n J a p a n I r e a d J a p a n e s e Time m a g a z i n e i n E n g l i s h and Japanese. (HI 1-3) The life  following  protocol highlights  experiences  the p l a c e  i n comprehending readings  in  of  background  psychology:  I think experience, if you have e x p e r i e n c e , i t ' s easy t o read because what i t s a y s i s v e r y s i m i l a r o r what y o u e x p e c t - or what you really feeling about people. Life experience really helps to understand psychology. I f you have e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n you can r e l a t e t o them - t h e n y o u have more r e a l idea a b o u t y o u r s e l f and o t h e r people, then you can break i t or c o n t i n u e i t . You c a n do something about i t , but i f you have nothing to build, I think psychology i s very d i f f i c u l t to build up. Anything I read - I t r y to r e l a t e w i t h what I know - t h e daily life r e l a t e t o my e x p e r i e n c e . (HI 8-54) This researcher's f i v e year  field  o l d informant  diary  e n t r i e s noted  with previous  how  a  twenty-  work e x p e r i e n c e  a b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e r e a d i n g demands: I n t e r v i e w e d A, my n i n t h i n f o r m a n t , s h e ' s had w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n s a l e s i n Hong Kong w i t h C h i n e s e and E n g l i s h f i r m s , s o i s a more m a t u r e s t u d e n t i n a p p r o a c h and attitude. She's found that her background gives her assistance in psychology. Her own life experiences and e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d e n a b l e s her to d e a l w i t h E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . She seems t o understand the inferences b e t t e r than other students. She d o e s n ' t  was  seem t o studies. The  third  faced with expertise  major c a t e g o r y  r e a d i n g demands of  discipline. Asian  overworry about (F.D. 50)  the This  learning  seemed t o  a  heavy  and  of  w i t h the  familiarity  partly a  schools.  a  partly  e n v i r o n m e n t where  teacher-centred  Canadian  coping  within be  strategies reliance speicifc  classrooms  the  were  the  heavily own  lack  educational style  informal  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r s and  on  from  r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r  more  when  academic  a carryover  c u l t u r e and  The  academic  in  is  instructor  her  and  students  of  democratic  was  noted:  I feel p e r s o n a l l y the teachers here are l e s s i n t i m i d a t i n g t h a n t h o s e back home. You know, i n S i n g a p o r e , t h e t e a c h e r s a s k you a q u e s t i o n and they stare a t you. I f y o u d o n ' t know t h e a n s w e r , t h e y s t a r e a t you. And d o i n g that frightens the s t u d e n t s e v e n more. (LE 8-44) The  students  reading  short  were a c c u s t o m e d stories  in their  for l i t e r a l  previous  schooling  comprehension but  literary analysis: I n Hong K o n g , we read s h o r t s t o r i e s i n c l a s s , no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L i k e , who i s the main character? Just straightforward question and answer. No thinking. (MO 9-48) Back home we d o n ' t learn things like c o n f l i c t , theme and a l l t h a t , so I d o n ' t r e a l l y read i t i n t h a t way. Back home what I  do  is  Just  read  and  I  try  to  u n d e r s t a n d what the s t o r y i s about j u s t t h e p l o t , n o t so much i n a n a l y z i n g ,  etc. like  37)  You d i d n ' t have t o c o n f l i c t , s y m b o l s , and  know things i r o n y . ( L E 8-  not  to for  Having familiar the  read  the  short  stories,  the  students  are  w i t h t h e p l o t and t h e main c h a r a c t e r s ; t h e y l o o k t o  instructor  l i t e r a r y and  t h e m a t i c i d e a s embedded i n t h e s p e c i f i c  of l i t e r a t u r e indicates a  t o a m p l i f y , e x p l a i n and i n t e r p r e t t h e deeper  under s t u d y . high reliance  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of discipline  of  the  pieces  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o t o c o l s by  students  assigned  readings  English Literature  English  instructor  was r e l i e d  literal  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l i t e r a r y  on  the  as  teacher's  f a r as the  i s concerned.  Hence, t h e  on a s t h e a u t h o r i t y  f o r both  interpretation:  I f I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d i t , I come b a c k t o c l a s s and t h e i n s t r u c t o r will explain i t . . . f o r a l l those short s t o r i e s , the i n s t r u c t o r gave us a p r e t t y good idea what t h e s t o r i e s a l l a b o u t . He d o e s n ' t s a y e v e r y s i n g l e word i n d e t a i l . I t h i n k we u n d e r s t a n d enough t o h a n d l e t h e c o u r s e . (WI 3-13) I don't r e a l l y worry much a b o u t t h a t what I d o n ' t understand. Usually the t e a c h e r would t e a c h and by t h e n u s u a l l y I know what i t ' s a b o u t , because, you know, t h e t e a c h e r w o u l d have c l a r i f i e d w h a t e v e r I d o n ' t know. ( L E 4-21) He e x p l a i n s what i ssetting, how t o derive a t the setting, t h e t i m e , and t h e n t h e c o n f l i c t , theme. He g o e s more into d e t a i l about i t . He t e l l s more t h a n what I know. So f r o m t h e r e I b e g i n to understand, a n d when t h e r e ' s a s t o r y I d o n ' t u n d e r s t a n d , he w i l l e x p l a i n more t h o r o u g h i n c l a s s . (CA 2-8) For these  students,  the  instructor  p r o v i d e d t h e l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l  was  the  expert  who  context f o rthe readings:  When B. t e a c h e s i n c l a s s , I o f t e n l i k e to take notes because I feel i t ' s important. L a t e r o n , when y o u go b a c k , i t ' s easier t o do y o u r r e v i e w a n d a l l that. When y o u go back [ t o t h e b o o k ] ,  7 4  you'll be able to see i d e n t i f y the protagonist, etc. (LE 7-34)  how the  you can conflict,  I think I need somebody t o explain me. I think i t ' s b e y o n d my a b i l i t y understand. I need somebody t o t e l l the symbols. ( I V 4-16)  to to me  The t e a c h e r t a l k e d a b o u t i t a f t e r I r e a d it. I know what I t h i n k a b o u t i t and the teacher say something about i t . I mean, 1/2 o f what I think i s what he s a y s and 1/2 was a l i t t l e more t h a n what I think... that s why the teacher is supposed to be t h e r e , so I c a n l e a r n a l i t t l e more ...sometimes I don't agree w i t h the t e a c h e r b u t he's r i g h t , I know he's r i g h t . He's the teacher, he's supposed to be r i g h t . But sometimes I d o n ' t a g r e e w i t h him. Once i n a w h i l e , I'll argue with him. But i f his a r g u m e n t i s t o o s t r o n g f o r me, I ' l l k e e p my mouth s h u t ! I t ' s f u n t o argue w i t h him! (TR 4-40) 1  Students found facilitated  by t h e  that  the  reading  in  psychology  psychology i n s t r u c t o r ' s l e c t u r e s :  A f t e r he t a l k s a b o u t i t f o r a b o u t one o r two d a y s , t h e n I s t a r t r e a d i n g a b o u t i t . (MO 6-30) Now I realize that T's lecture is p e r f e c t . T's l e c t u r e i s the way it's w r i t t e n i n the psychology book. It's well-organized, I notice that now. I must s a y his lecture must be really good, because quite recently I noticed, s i n c e I r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e way he t e a c h e s is r e a l l y j u s t l i k e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book. But a t t h e same t i m e - t h e n a f t e r the l e c t u r e , I have a q u e s t i o n how? why? o r s o m e t h i n g l i k e t h a t - t h e n following  day  I come t o  my own conclusion. t e a c h e s what I was  the  conclusion,  Then n e x t day T. thinking, I think  t h a t ' s the d i r e c t i o n he's l e a d i n g , so must s a y he's r e a l l y g o o d . (HI 3-21)  I  get  a  better  picture  after  he's  I  taught  was  75  it. He w i l l p u t a p o i n t a c r o s s and t h e n I t h i n k a b o u t i t , and I l o o k at the book, and, y o u know, i t ' squite true. (LE 5-23) Sometimes not a l l the stuff you can u n d e r s t a n d t h e f i r s t t i m e , so a f t e r t h a t during the class, the teacher will e x p l a i n a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n from the book, then you will catch the idea. Then a f t e r t h a t , y o u r e a d one more t i m e for the t e s t , then y o u c a n be c l e a r e r , more e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 7-30)  This concludes ESL  university  first  the coding  s t u d e n t s when  background  reliance  the  on  Readings are c o n t e x t of  done  at  what t h e  successfully assignments,  the  and  their  and  level,  within  the  r e q u i r e d of the s t u d e n t s course,  participation, was  Self-  experience,  whole-text  instructor  these students,reading end  and  courses.  are the t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s .  the  complete class  Psychology  knowledge  instructor  of  f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands i n  y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and  management,  an  of the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s  or  whether  was  examinations.  c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d as  strategies  i t  seemed  to  to  For  a means t o  reflect  that  perspective. At t h i s  point, i t  f a c t o r s which,  though they  i n f l u e n c e the f a c t o r s are their  which  are not  students' reading their  perseverance  I n t e r e s t and  i s necessary  interest in  perseverance  motivates  other do  These  two  reading  materials  and  to  reading  task.  be s e e n as t h e h i d d e n  agenda  adhering  the s t u d e n t s  two  coping s t r a t e g i e s ,  performance.  i n the  can  to include  and  the  enables  them t o  continue  reading despite  cultural  p s y c h o l o g y where tested  in  an  interpretative  much o f  objective skills  s t u d e n t s ' background facilitates  or  linguistic  the reading manner,  as  in  English  than  relying  Literature,  higher interest  the reading task:  One t h i n g t h a t c a n r e a l l y h e l p me t o read something - I mean I can fully u n d e r s t a n d - i s my interest. I can't r e a d s o m e t h i n g w i t h o u t my i n t e r s t . Like economics, r i g h t now, i n e c o n o m i c s , I f i n d my i n t e r e s t i s n o t i n e c o n o m i c s , s o I spend a l o t o f t i m e t o r e a d j u s t one chapter compared t o my reading p s y c h o l o g y . P s y c h o l o g y i s my i n t e r e s t . . . the r e a d i n g , j u s t l i k e I have a l o t o f f u n r e a d i n g i t - t o d r i v e me t o r e a d i t . I feel l i k e i t [psychology reading] i s more c l o s e t o myself b e c a u s e I have my f e e l i n g when I r e a d i t - t h i s i s t r u e t o myself or I don't know - i t ' s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . ( I V 2-11) I like psychology, i t ' s very i n t e r e s t i n g . Back home i n S i n g a p o r e when I was w o r k i n g , t h e company gave me t i m e off to study. I t o o k one c o u r s e - human resource management. It's really interesting. I r e a l l y e n j o y i t , so from there I started l i k i n g s o c i a l sciences. (CA 2-10) Sometimes s o m e t h i n g i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g - i t w i l l tempt y o u t o r e a d more ... whenever you t h i n k s o m e t h i n g interests you, you pay more attention and c o n e n t r a t e on t h a t and y o u t h i n k maybe i t ' s easy to udnerstand... i f you f e e l s o m e t h i n g i s b o r i n g , y o u d o n ' t p a y more attention  on  that,  easy  to  then  you  feel  that  and  it's  i t ' s hard t o u n d e r s t a n d ... maybe "The C o l o n e l ' s Lady" d e a l w i t h r e a l l i f e , so  you c a n  associate,  interesting. Maybe b e c a u s e t h e y g i v e a adult wondering why maybe I'm  int@£§§t@d iQt vhat'§ going on ait§£ h§*  husband d i s c o v e r t h e a f f a i r .  In  m a t e r i a l seems t o be  rather  e x p e r i e n c e and  difficulties.  (AM 2-5)  on the  level  If I l i k e something, I can read and a p p r e c i a t e - I c a n do i t . I c a n p r o d u c e i d e a s from r e a d i n g the d i f f i c u l t ideas. (HI 2-5) The of  ability  reading  material  is  a  t o p e r s e v e r e when f a c e d w i t h t h e c h a l l e n g e considerable  a strong  factor  these students.  Numerous  essential  to  persist  i t  was  amount in  of  unfamiliar  the academic  i n f o r m a n t s made  want t o  master  the  course  progress  of  comments on  how  material  and  to  i n the t a s k : I f you r e a l l y want t o do i t , you w i l l f i n d o u t i t ' s n o t so h a r d t o u n d e r s t a n d . I f you d o n ' t want t o r e a d i t , y o u r mind w i l l r e f u s e t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 6-21) I read a l o t because I want t o get p r a c t i s e on - I mean, t o p r e p a r e m y s e l f for university; otherwise, I can't s u r v i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y . ( I V 6-34) Whatever I r e a d - sometime i t ' s r e a l l y f a r away f r o m my e x p e r i e n c e and i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d b u t once I s t a r t - I have t o f i n i s h i t so I keep d o i n g it. I read i t because you s t a r t i t , i t ' s a waste of t i m e i f you l e a v e i t . I don't t h i n k i t ' s good f o r y o u once y o u s t a r t i t - t o l e a v e i t . When I f i n d i t dfficult to read difficult to u n d e r s t a n d - why d i f f i c u l t ? I think first. Then k e e p i t i n my m i n d , t h e n what d o e s i t mean? Then t h i n k a b o u t i t . Then few d a y s l a t e r s o m e t h i n g come up s o i f you s a y it's difficult, you're going to close your-mind-to-understanddoor. Then, okay, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t - r e a d i t and r e a d i t . I t a k e i t t h i s way: t h e way i t ' s w r i t t e n make i t h a r d , i t ' s n o t me. (HI 5-33)  The  f o l l o w i n g two  p r o t o c o l s are  students' perseverance  i n d i c a t i v e not o n l y of these c but a l s o of t h e i r s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  78 for  their  own  progress:  I've l e a r n t t o be more c o n s i s t e n t h e r e i n t h e way I s t u d y . Back home I d i d n ' t really bother much. I mean, maybe b e c a u s e when I came h e r e , I r e a l i z e my p a r e n t s a r e s p e n d i n g so much and I have t o do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t . ( L E 8-43) Back home, i f I l i k e a s u b j e c t , I would p r o b a b l y p u t more e f f o r t i n t o i t . But n o t l i k e h e r e , whether I l i k e i t o r n o t , I force m y s e l f t o do i t , b e c a u s e i t ' s t h e money - so I f e e l t h a t I have t o u n d e r s t a n d i t . ( L E 9-45)  D.  Model-Building Emerging data  strategies  cannot  surviving  in  indicates  that  be examined  the u n i v e r s i t y  these  in isolation; credit  a number o f c o p i n g  strategies  reading  comprehension.  The  figure  has  3).  t h r e e major  As n o t e d  completely  exclusive  Since  c a t e g o r i e s have  the  section  on c o d i n g ,  at  point.  this  materials readings  as  a means  sufficiently  examination.  focus  students  by  in this  four t i e r s (see are  t o some  in  explanations w i l l  they  these  categories  been a n a l y z e d  read,  i t came t o  developed  but a r e interdependent  further  When t h e s t u d e n t s  model  the  reading  t o help themselves  c a t e g o r i e s and  previously,  when  courses,  utilized  researcher  students'  the  not  degree. previous  n o t be p r o v i d e d  on c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h e  t o an end, namely, t o understand  the  t o do  the  Thus, t h e i r  context of the p a r t i c u l a r  the  assignment  or  pass  use e i s t r a t e g i e s are w i t h i n the genre they are c o n c e n t r a t i n g en.  79  (See  figure  4 ) . In I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y ,  towards s u c c e s s f u l the  quizzes  mastering under  the  class  of the academic  projects.  the c o n t e n t s of the b a s i c  the  Literature, essays,  and  completion  direction their  of  the  objective  r e s e a r c h paper  and  considerable  input  from  comprehension  a t both  the  they are  was  text  and  successful  the literal  To do  the  study In  this,  literary  by  guide  English  completion  instructor and  requirements:  They a c h i e v e d t h i s  instructor.  final.  aiming  of  the  they  required  on  reading  level.  80 selective attention  to to  note-taking & underlining  TT  c ro  o 3 Ml O  B  CD 3 0) 00  repetition memorization  ro a ro  r  P8 ffi 10 O  other texts  3  <  ro «  H00  peers  3  CO Hrr  CO  3  f-  LI context  go  D) rr  0) rr  D) 3  rr  L2 content  o rr  en rr  O « H (U  M > *0 X fi il •s ei it CD Cu < M-  n>  3  n  c c « to nio. s CO Cu M O 3 O r r "Q « H. O 3 Cu 00 c  1  c  c n n  n> • c u cn * rw•  09 C H- 9 0) < 3" » H  w to  3 rr  0.  Ml (B M •1 CD O r r i-h *< M  i  1  graphics & imagery 05  ro  rr  H> C I - Cu CO  ro  personal interest work experience  rr (D  *v oo 0) H-  o c r> u  B  x  ro  •O I" M m >*• to •I i-n O i — ro 3 1  ro cu 3 Hn r o co  c Cu  3  O  c H  re cd Cu o > oo o ro ?r oo cu M s o Cu c 3 m a. x •o ro H H-  ro  3 n  ro 3ro « PJ n o 3 00 •o CO 3" f  H-  ro  rr  M. CO  ro oo >crio ro 0) ii 0)  «  T3  CO  ro  H* 3 00  s:  3"  O  rr 3* ID  B) Cu  ro o 3  ro o co sr o <  00  v:  n  rr 3"  r uo  o ro H 01 ro cu  oo  O 00  Cu r* rr  3  00 O Cu O (1) C S il CD co 3 fl> Cu (0 CO  Cu H3  literal comprehension  f H* rr  It  O  H-  ro  3 ro i—1 >-i  o  a> rr  v  >i literary interpretation  M 3  00  C H  co  ST O  Ml  ro  3  s roM co rr  r> rr  quiz preparation  -H.  M fit C 3  •o concept formation  '  13  O  co r o3 v: s" ro o  r-> O O Ml  oo  H CO  r>  ro  81 CONTEXT of English Literature Academic Coursework Text -  .genre-—specific content material  literal comprehension literary interpretation Students' coping strategies with academic reading  essays, exams research paper'  input from instructors input from instructors  CONTEXT of Introductory Psychology Academic Coursework Text - genre: —specific content material Study guide -  generic-specific  Concept formation Practical Application Students' coping strategies' with academic reading  Quizzes  4 Projects  input;from instructors input' from instructors  Figure -4; Model of Contexts for coping strategies'in reading in the academic disciplines of English Literature and Introductory Psychology •  82  To demonstrate which the  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  r e a d i n g demands a r i s e , examples of two  multiple-choice  quiz  questions  i l l u s t r a t e the s t u d e n t s ' use (1)  of the context w i t h i n  are  presented  of coping  strategies:  What does PQRST stand A. Prepare,  psychology here  for?  Query, Read, Study, Text  B. P r o t e s t Q u i e t l y , Rowdiness Stops  Thinking  C. Preview, Question, Read, S e l f - r e c i t a t i o n , D. Preview, Question, R e c a l l , Study, (2)  to  Text  Time  " B i l l a c c i d e n t a l l y bumped May; she f e l l and cut her knee badly. Joe wanted May's toy: he h i t her and made her c r y . " A 3 - y e a r - o l d would say: A. B i l l B. Joe  i s naughtier because May's cut was  bad.  i s naughtier because you shouldn't h i t  people. C. Joe  i s naughtier because c h i l d r e n should t r y to  respect others. D. B i l l  The one  if  i s naughtier because i t was  students they have  factual  information  would l i k e l y used  the  i n the  strategy  c o r r e c t l y , students  memorizing.  They may  and  of  morality children  which  of t h e  four  memorization  However, to  may  need  to  go  of  answer beyond  have l e a r n e d from t h e i r r e a d i n g what  t h e n t h e y would have te  decide  to answer q u e s t i o n of  readings.  q u e s t i o n two  level  be able  an a c c i d e n t .  of t h a t age  apply  that  v o u l d be c a p a b l e of  knevltdgt i n erdtr  choices i l l u s t r a t e that  te  norm.. T h i s  83  application class  of  k n o w l e d g e may  have  been  i n s t r u c t i o n or i n s t r u c t o r - a r r a n g e d Thus, i t i s i m p o r t a n t  t o see  class  how t h e  used w i t h i n  t h e c o n t e x t o f academic work.  primarily  concerned  successfully this.  and  to  fulfil  t h e i r use  of the  The t y p e o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g y  the course requirement. (Mohan, 1 9 8 6 ) action  and  as a  simplified  use w i t h i n  strategies are  The s t u d e n t s were  course  requirements  strategies  arose out of  t h e y used  model  Thus, t h i s  through  projects.  would  vary  One c a n u s e t h e k n o w l e d g e  knowledge.  put s t r a t e g y  acquired  of  with  framework  context  linking  f r a m e w o r k e n a b l e s us t o  the context of the course.  E.Triangulation Triangulation search  i s qualitative cross-validation  i s made f o r c o n v e r g e n c e  or m u l t i p l e  among m u l t i p l e  data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. data r e l a t i n g  made o f  derived  from d i f f e r e n t phases of t h e f i e l d w o r k ,  points  over  time,  or  from  to the  the  data  Thus, a  c a n be  whereby a sources  comparison  same phenomenon  accounts  but  at different of  different  of c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n  were made  participants. In t h i s  s t u d y , two f o r m s  to v e r i f y the s u f f i c i e n c y of the data.(See Figure 5 ) .  (A)  Triangulation  involving multiple documents  A  data  sources  informants  field  (B) T r i a n g u l a t i o n  involving  diary  multiple  data  collection  procedures: observing  interviewing  Figure  classrooms  students  reviewing  5: T r i a n g u l a t i o n  i n ESL  coping s t r a t e g i e s  The  triangulation  compared d o c u m e n t s , r e a d i n g demands outline  of  were  perceived field  as  with  the r e a d i n g  examination  provided primacy  by of  the  quizzes  and  students  demands and  appendix  following  in this  of the r e a d i n g s to the  D).  ( the  This i s v e r i f i e d  noted  i n the  do  reading  outline  t t i t i ,  to  the  It  is  I  give  w i t h the  dotin't  course  the  genre  courses.  givt  because  dates an  I  a  f o r the that  the  as w e l l as  introduction  do  Schedule,  quizzes.  instructor  students  and  i n the  illustrates  protocol:  What I  course  instructors  bi-monthly  by t h e  The  examinations)  and  what was  instructor,  r e a d i n g comprehension  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  diary.  document, t h e R e a d i n g  Psychology  sources  i n both E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e  the  of t h e  data  field  by t h e documents  sheets, what  the  d i a r y c o n c e r n i n g t h e p l a c e of r e a d i n g An  (See  indicated  assignment  compared  multiple  i n f o r m a n t s , and  as  students'  in reading.  involving  required readings  Psychology,  university  documents  in  i n the  85  class. And t h e r e a s o n I do i t t h i s way now i s b e c a u s e what I f o u n d i n t h e p a s t when I had a more detailed course o u t l i n e i s that they ended up losing these important dates when t h e y were t o do the r e a d i n g and when the tests were s c h e d u l e d and t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g . . . w e l l , I e x p e c t them t o r e a d t h e c h a p t e r s in s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t h a t t h e y know t h e m a t e r i a l . I do e x p e c t t h a t t h e y would do the reading and that they will understand i t . . . t h e way I s e t i t up i s t h a t the b a s i c m a t e r i a l i n the course i s a l l i n the t e x t , so t h a t t h e y a l l have it. I f t h e y o n l y r e a d t h e t e x t b o o k and they l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l i n t h e r e , t h a t would be a b o u t 80% of the m a t e r i a l s i n the c o u r s e . T h e r e ' s a b o u t an a d d i t i o n a l 20% t h a t comes o n l y i n classroom form b u t most o f i t i s i n w r i t t e n form ...so the bulk of the material is in the reading. (BT # 3 , 4 , 6 )  A protocol  from  the  researcher's f i e l d  t h e c o n n e c t i o n between r e a d i n g and  course  diary  reinforces  requirements:  The s t u d e n t s s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e r e a d i n g and m e m o r i z i n g the m a t e r i a l i n the t e x t and t h e study guide to prepare f o r the bi-monthly quizzes. Although t h e y can successfully complete the course by reading alone, i t seems t o me t h a t t h e in-class projects where they have discussion, role-play, problem-solving, or summarizing of a particular p s y s c h o l o g i c a l concept would s e r v e the f u n c t i o n s of r e i n f o r c i n g or clarifying what t h e y have r e a d . These in-class p r o j e c t s are not compulsory i n terms of grades but do s e r v e as r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f new l e a r n i n g . When I o b s e r v e d t h e i r i n class participation, I can see they r e a l l y enjoy these assignments. This must s t i m u l a t e them i n t h e i r r e a d i n g s that they know t h e y ' l l g e t t o t r y them out or understand them at a deeper l e v e l . (F.D. #52).  The tool  instructor in  uses  application  these  in-class  of c o n c e p t s  assignments  and  as  as a  exposure  to  learning clinical  training.  His  offering  complete these p r o j e c t s  bonus  points  i s a motivating  to  students  who  factor:  They get in-class asignments p e r i o d i c a l l y and t h e n t h e y o n l y have t o w r i t e a summary o f i t , a n d i f t h e y d o n ' t do i t a t a l l , i t d o e s n ' t affect their marks. I f t h e y do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s , what t h e y ' r e used f o r a r e bonus marks ... a l m o s t a l l o f them do t h e a s s i g n m e n t s . (BT #6,#10) The  fact  that these  and  amplify  i n - c l a s s assignments serve t o r e i n f o r c e  the readings  is  p r o t o c o l , an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the  reference  indicated  the  following  the psychology i n s t r u c t o r .  to cross-culture,  i n t e r e s t t o these  in  international  a factor  Note  t h a t w o u l d be o f  students:  There are 7 p o s s i b l e assignments f o r about 20 bonus m a r k s , and they're written summaries of d i s c u s s i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s that happen i n c l a s s . The f i r s t one was a n e m o t i o n and what t h a t was i s - t h e y were g i v e n a - t h e y had t o l o o k a t e m o t i o n i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways. T h e y had t o t h i n k about an e m o t i o n , a couple of emotions t h a t they f e l t and t h e y had t o t a l k a b o u t how t h e i r b o d y responded t o i t , the s i t u a t i o n that's l i k e l y t o produce t h a t emotion and t h e behavior they're l i k e l y t o do when t h e y feel that way, l o o k i n g a t emotion as a motivator. And t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e y were c o m i n g t o i s t h a t t h e i r b o d i e s o n l y become e i t h e r more a r o u s e d or l e s s aroused but they don't d i f f e r e n t i a t e between emotions very well. The situations are quite common t h a t t h e same s i t u a t i o n p r o d u c e s a c r o s s c u l t u r e s - produces t h e same e m o t i o n but the behavior that happens is quite different. (BT #11) The  instructor  to m i k e practise  Hnk§  was q u i t e laefev§§n  reinfereed  inventive  feheery through  i n helping  learntd in=ela§§  tehzeugh  the students reading  aetivifeies,  and Far  87  example,  on  videotape  the  of  to analyze in-class from  and  s a m l l groups,  The  categorize.  the  view of female  male s t u d e n t s  follow-up  Subsequent  d e v e l o p m e n t and  the  the  task  illustrate  the  instructor's  convergence  In o t h e r  classroom  course:  the  Within  the  male  the  assignments  quizzes.  integration  the  roles  on  moral similarly  These of  reading  examples  readings  with  design.  of  field  data diary  inter-relatedness  activities  words, s t r a t e g i e s  whole  and  reading  occurred within  readings,  the  from entries  of  course  assignments.  the  quizzes,  context and  of the  assignments.  Another procedures student  classroom  his  statements  sex. take  had  roles,  making  triangulation  the  sex  reinforce  i n t e r v i e w s and in  students  a  feminine p e r s p e c t i v e .  would  by  above-mentioned  requirements,  the  off  on  showed  of m o r a l i t y would be  components of h i s c o u r s e  shows  opposite  reading  learning  instructor  students  the  capped  documents,  unit  took  and  The  the  on  he  which the  would  reinforced  other  behavior,  students  summarizing  material.  In  i n v o l v e d the  p o i n t of  the  on a b n o r m a l  schizophrenic behavior  assignment  the  while  unit  triangulation compared  informants  instance, of E n g l i s h  observing and  comprehension Literature  involved m u l t i p l e data classrooms,  reviewing strategies  were  interviewing  documents. particular  examined:  how  collection  In  this  to the  genre  the  classroom  interaction assisted students r e a l i z e d literary  in  t h e i r need  interpretation  completion  of  understanding.  literary  the The  comprehension,  for c u l t u r a l  skills, examinations  following  and  orientation how  the or  successful  required  f i e l d diary  how  literary  entries amplify  this: By s i t t i n g in class, I get more of a sense of the p l a c e r e a d i n g has i n the course and i t s relation to lectures, assignments, and t e s t s . (F.D.25) Students appear to cope with comprehension d i f f i c u l t i e s by relying h i g h l y on teacher i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the classroom; they know they don't have the background knowledge or cultural o r i e n t a t i o n or literary interpretative s k i l l s , so they look to the teacher. T h i s seems to be what enables them to understand and to succeed i n course assignments when they w r i t e about t h e i r readings. (F.D. 52) A protocol Literature class students  from an  i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n of an E n g l i s h  i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the i n s t r u c t o r a s s i s t s  i n expanding  t h e i r comprehension of the readings  making c u l t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n and  giving l i t e r a r y  hints:  The teacher i s q u i t e r e l a x e d and c o r d i a l with the students ... he backtracks and c l a r i f i e s some b a s i c givens on C o l o n e l S a r t o r i s - " t r a d i t i o n of Old South i s important here, the e d i c t re the negro woman to always wear domestic c l o t h i n g i n p u b l i c i s to keep them i n t h e i r s l a v e c l a s s ... i n t e r e s t i n g business of the n a r r a t o r not quite t e l l i n g everything" ... a q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d by 2 students re the time references i n the s o t y r because Faulkner Is not t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y i n chronomogical order. B. raises a rhetorical question f o r students to think about ... B. a l s o e l a b o r a t e s on the idea of s u i c i d e ; makes a h i s t o r i c a l  the by  89 reference t o noble idea of suicide, Roman v i e w . He a l s o r e f e r s to other c u l t u r e s . . . ( 1 . 0 . #1-37) This reliance  on t h e  amplify text  instructor  i s verified  c o l l e c t i o n procedures:  protocols  category of  through  a genre t o c l a r i f y and  t h e use of d i f f e r e n t  observing classes,  s t u d e n t s , and r e f l e c t i n g  The  of  through  i n t e r v i e w i n g the  the f i e l d  converge h e a v i l y  diary.  on t h e  them i n  a n a l y z i n g and  reading  i n t e r p r e t i n g the t o see  instructional  i s spent  literature Canadian; which  time  information covered they  t h i s as  the  a l s o focus  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n s t r u c t o r as  field  as  is  most  a resource  of  European  the  and/or style,  students.  student  interaction  diary  of The  on t h e a u t h o r s ' l i t e r a r y  completed  classroom  terms  context to provide  of documents, such as course  assignment handouts, observation of  in  t a s k - t h u s , more  students  i s a l s o new t o some o f t h e s e  A comparison  their  course  in first  material.  on c u l t u r a l  f o r ESL in  reading  major  on t h e i n s t r u c t o r  comprehension,  i n s t r u c t o r s appear  background  third  c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s u s e d b y ESL s t u d e n t s  year E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : a s t r o n g r e l i a n c e to a s s i s t  data  verifies  i n reading  descriptions,  assignments,  and i n s t r u c t i o n , the  primacy  of  with and the  comprehension i n t h i s  discipline  Over t i m e , a s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r  i n t e r v i e w e d more  students  90 and  observed  more c l a s s e s ,  English Literature as an  i n s t r u c t o r was  e s s e n t i a l resource  r e a d i n g , whereas  i t became even c l e a r e r t h a t the p e r c e i v e d by the students  i n comprehending  i n Psychology,  independent  t e x t and use of the study guide was s u c c e s s f u l achievement was  verified  in that  by the pychology  what they  r e a d i n g of the  the predominate  course.  were  mode f o r  This l a t t e r point  instructor:. .  If they o n l y read the textbook and they learned the m a t e r i a l i n t h e r e , that would be about 80% of the m a t e r i a l s i n the course... so the bulk of the . . m a t e r i a l i s i n the r e a d i n g . (BT #4) The  above-mentioned t r i a n g u l a t i o n s  sources and that to  multiple-data  d e a l with  the r e a d i n g  coping s t r a t e g i e s so w i t h i n  collecting  that are  the context  of  multiple-data  procedures  demands, ESL  indicate  students  use  g e n r e - s p e c i f i c and that they do  of the  whole-text  and  the  course  requirements. At t h i s time of t r i a n g u l a t i o n  i t i s noted that the p r a c t i c a l i s that  limitations  not a l l data-sources are able to  speak to the content of each c a t e g o r y that was  coded.  F.Theory Linkage The c o n n e c t i o n e x p l a i n e d by  between  theory  method  Denzin:  T h e o r i e s serve as future thought, conceptualization. implies a vith the  research,  examination,  critical guides to research, and T h i s of course  close working relationship research method and the  research f i n d i n g . for  and  T h e o r i e s s e t problems  stake  and  out  new  direct  o b j e c t s for  empirical  is  aptly  91 inquiry. I n t u r n , methods and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t new p r o b l e m s f o r t h e o r y (e.g. the negative case), invite new t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , and lead to t h e u l t i m a t e r e f i n e m e n t and v e r i f i c a t i o n of theories themselves. Theory, c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l a c t i v i t y are interwoven i n a c o n t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n such t h a t t h e o r y guides research while research guides theory. (Denzin, 1978, p.73) In  this  substantive concerns  a  enrolled  in  study, level.  specific  linkage  (Hammersley  and  type  t h i s study, t h i s ESL  credit  researchers  r e a d e r ' s schema  (Carrell  1984,1985,1987) would students' reading however,  the  field  are  f i r s t year E n g l i s h in  a  when b e g i n n i n g findings  structure  1983;  Carrell,  which  study  particular  text  foundation  s t r a t e g i e s upon as t h i s  s t u d e n t s , who  assumed t h a t t h e  regarding  microIt  Initially,  & Eisterhold,  form  the  1983).  courses,  a college.  r e s e a r c h e r had  at  Atkinson,  o f s t u d e n t , ESL  Psychology  educational setting,  build;  is  p a r t i c u l a r academic courses,  L i t e r a t u r e and  previous  theory  for  this  and 1983,  theory study  of  on  would  p r o g r e s s e d , more  and  more t h e  n o t i o n emerged t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s , e x p e r i e n c e d  in  academic  studies,  own  resourcefulness, of  had  developed  intellectual  - the  type  handle  t h e r e a d i n g demands.  Through different  systematic  c r e d i t courses  ESL  shifting  of d a t a , students  will  do  through  t o u g h n e s s and  compensatory coping  sources  appears t h a t  -  and  are  whatever  self-initiative  s t r a t e g i e s necessary  comparison  some c o n c e p t s who  their  is  of  have e m e r g e d .  enrolled  in  expedient  to  the It  university to  achieve  92 success  in  their  studies.  demands o f  first  year  courses,  they  tend  When  English  adhering  on  their  to  a dominant  their  enables  this  study  have E n g l i s h a s a f i r s t  secondary  English  orientation  considerable understand and  input  the  whole needed handle  likely  hand,  the  completing  Students  these  distinctives  the r o l e  who have had  American  setting  analysis  in  Canadian  require less  cultural  t h e E u r o p e a n and C a n a d i a n these  predominantly from  in  from  international Asia  English instructor  embedded  ESL  required i n order t o  idiomatic expressions, h i s t o r i c a l  the c u l t u r a l  Beyond  to  were  other  (The s t u d e n t  l a n g u a g e a r e more l i k e l y t o  literary and  in  )  i n a North  to understand  On t h e  who  in  courses  i n order  Literature. students  experience  experience  and  i n which r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n i s  instructor.  and  had  strategies:  t o be made c o n c e r n i n g  educational  have  Psychology  perseverance  them t o a c h i e v e .  previous  reading  experience,  Their  courses.  comments need  the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e  who  the  and  were s u c c e s s f u l  E n g l i s h and P s y c h o l o g y  Additional of  instructors.  activity, in  Literature  knowledge and  the academic t a s k ,  participants  with  t o employ t h r e e major c o p i n g  self-management, background reliance  faced  allusions,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  n u a n c e s , t h e meaning o f t h e d i s c o u r s e a s a  t o be  the course  comprehended  by t h e s e  students  requirements:  Comprehension, the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of r e a d i n g , a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s the process of reading ... immediate meaning  i n order  93  identification makes unnecessary the prior identification of individual w o r d s , and c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f a p a s s a g e as a whole facilitates the comprehension and, i f n e c e s s a r y , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l words. ( S m i t h , 1986,p.164) In p r e v i o u s discourses,  often  with categories this study, has b e e n  r e s e a r c h , the a single  t h a t were g e n e r a l a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s .  In  at  exams a r r a n g e d by t h e examples  contextual  r e a d i n g o f ESL  the  the course  Three  short and  examined  or m u l t i p l e  been w i t h  paragraph text  the academic  c o n t e x t of  f o c u s has  whole-text  u n i v e r s i t y students level,  within  the  demands, s u c h as t h e a s s i g n m e n t s  and  instructors.  will  serve to i l l u s t r a t e  t h i s whole-text  approach.  A major a research  assignment paper which  comparison required  i n the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v e d comparing  five  course  texts.  the s t u d e n t t o r e a d s e v e r a l whole  pay s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t , theme, and compare s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s .  The  was This  texts,  setting  assignment  or  was:  "Most modern fiction writers depict human b e i n g s a s v i c t i m s -- o f h e r e d i t y , of e n v i r o n m e n t , of a h o s t i l e u n i v e r s e . " In an essay of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 words, agree or d i s a g r e e with the foregoing statement, that i s , argue whether or not you think most modern w r i t e r s a r e as the statement describes them. Make r e f e r e n c e t o a t l e a s t f i v e different stories i n the c o u r s e of your d i s c u s s i o n . (Doc. #3) Another assignment need  for  ESL  p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l evidence of the  students t o approach r e a d i n g a t the whole-text  9 4  level.  The s t u d e n t s  different  stories.  To  would need  t o read  development  ,  their  had t o  analyze  the  complete t h i s  the texts  consult their  findings with their  heroines  assignment,  f o r character lecture  notes,  own r e f l e c t i o n s  of  3  students  or  thematic  and s y n t h e s i z e  on t h e s e  heroines.  Deal w i t h one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n an e s s a y o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 w o r d s . . . Who would you r a t h e r be, E v i e P e r e g r i n e , Eve A n d e r s o n o r Daphne? Why? Why n o t e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r s ? (Doc.#3) The  third  example  of  this  whole-text  contextual  approach i s the t r i a n g u l a t i o n  of m u l t i p l e - d a t a sources  was  s e c t i o n of t h i s  discussed i n the preceding  interview with t h e document  the psychology (the reading  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s text as  field  assignments  or  chapter.  the  The  a n a l y s i s of  s c h e d u l e ) , and t h e r e f l e c t i o n i n  diary  i s looked a t w i t h i n  instructor,  that  converged  on  this  the context of course  projects,  class  point: the  demands,  participation  such and  examinations. The primary  above t h r e e examples a l s o s e r v e  reality  of these  ESL u n i v e r s i t y  they experience  the task  before  research, the  f o c u s has  been on  comprehension; however, f o r these quite  the  within wa§  same. T h e s e  the  context of  functional  acquire  the  t o emphasize t h e students.  them?  In  improving  §§§n a i  Information necessary  reading  general  reading  the reading  academic coursework. vis  ESL  students, the focus  students perceive  fee f i n d i n g  How do  Their  a m©an§  t o complete  i s not task  approach  t e an § n d :  the  te  course  95  requirements;  thus,  their strategies  were a l s o  very g o a l -  oriented .  These f i n d i n g s research  of  ESL  appropriate context of  indicate that a s h i f t students  to move  and  from  in perspective in  academic  reading  skills  per  se  academic  coursework.  Wilcox  academic environment  a f f e c t s the  acquisition  may  towards  claims  that  of  be the the  learning  strategies: The acquisition of p a r t i c u l a r skills depends not so much on individual characteristics as on the types of s k i l l s demanded by the environment. The tasks and activities one engages i n shape the kind of s k i l l s that are developed. (Wilcox, 1982, p.467).  G.Summary In the steps were  data a n a l y s i s followed:  t r i a n g u l a t i o n , and  A n a l y s i s and these ESL.  of t h i s  q u a l i t a t i v e study,  sensitizing,  coding,  model-bulding,  theory l i n k a g e .  r e f l e c t i o n of the p r o t o c o l s i n d i c a t e d t h a t  u n i v e r s i t y students  utilized  three  main  coping  s t r a t e g i e s when faced with the r e a d i n g demands of f i r s t English Literature  and Psychology  management through  the study s k i l l s  note-taking  underlining,  r e p e t i t i o n and  and  five  c r e d i t courses:  (a)  year self-  of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n ,  graphics  and  imagery,  memorization, and through the r e s o u r c i n g of c other t e x t s and of t h e i r peers; (b) background knowledge and  96  experience and  of  (c) r e l i a n c e  Literature in  both  the  for  genre  academic  on  the  both of  and  personal  instructors,  literal  and  Psychology  life  i n the  literary  for  concept  experiences;  genre  of E n g l i s h  comprehension formation  and  and  quiz  preparation.  Students compensated well  as  for their  adapting  experience. skills  from  applying  linguistic  strategies  academic  in  a second  reading  academic  educational  they  management  in  language.  persevere  whatever  their  constraints  of time  new with  factors:  (a)  the  students  involved  and  was  approaching  course  determination  been  familiar  and  self-  approach appeared and  to  whatever  within  the  utilized.  from  the  data  of t h e s e  o f a c a d e m i c work  ESL  a t the i n these  were  two  university whole-text first  year  of g e n r e - s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g ;  demands  to  language;  in a less  discourse  r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n occurs the  have  first  content  first  taught  level  expedient  emerging  t h a t type  their  comprehension  energy  proficiency  t h a t was  their  reading strategies  standard  required  was  reading  More s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  fulfilling  in  in  at t h i s  reading-to-learn. Their  functional,  their  Students  discourse  facilitated  (b)  experience  academic content  when f a c e d w i t h  language,  courses  as  their  cope w i t h  the  limitations  T h e y were u t i l i z i n g  them  as  cultural  that  previous educational  to  level  and  strategies  their  their  consequently,  coping  from  language  be  were  vithin  the  and.  context  of d e f i n e d d i s c i p l i n e s  of  whose  academic content  required  g e n r e - s p e c i f i c coping s t r a t e g i e s .  98  CHAPTER F I V E CONCLUSION A. C o m p a r i s o n v i t h  Recent R e l a t e d  Reading s t r a t e g i e s , related and  formal  cultural  schemata  by ESL r e s e a r c h e r s , 1985), such as  1987; C a r r e l l  organization (Carrell, knovledge  content  & Eisterhold,  1984), and s o c i o -  (Johnson,  1982;  Carrell,  M o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s seemed t o : ( 1 ) i n v o l v e  are  classes,  enrolled (2)  (3)  in  ESL  feature short  multi-paragraph  areas.  (Carrell,  background  1983).  and  as understood  to textual analysis (Carrell,  1983), r h e t o r i c a l  vho  Research  format  college-preparatory discourses  ( B l o c k , 1986;  look a t c a t e g o r i e s t h a t vere  The e m p h a s i s i n t h e s e  i.e.  students language  the single  Carrelll,  or  1985,1987),  general across  subject  s t u d i e s appeared t o concentrate  on l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d . B. The P r e s e n t  Study  This study vithin  the  focused  context  on d i s c o u r s e a t t h e v h o l e - t e x t of  explored  hov  ESL s t u d e n t s  context  of  particular  accompanying course periodic r e a d i n g as  cope  a means  ,  categories.  reading  disciplines  It  vithin  the  vith  their  demands s u c h a s e x p l i c i t a s s i g n m e n t s a n d  to  cope v i t h or  vith  academic  examinations.  themselves t o Literature  genre-specific  level  to  Academic an  end,  the essay pass  the  students  f o r example,  usually to  use  enable  assignments  in  English  bi-monthly  quizzes  in  99  Psychology. the an  r e c e p t i v e and end  -  for  may  be  an  This  present  what may  reading  is a  comprehension  differ  from  1986).  or  coping  their  what One  certain  years  of  At  times  students they  lecture what  to ESL  need  actually of when  this the  context.  is required  contexts, are  that  means  example  in a  strategies  early  a  competence  in determining  within  was  language  communicative  step  reveals  environment.  second  Krahnke, on  of  study  and  what  by  ESL  used  university  academic  ies.  In enrolled  this  qualitative  in  Psychology were  study  in  skill  the  function effectively  tactics  students  of  and  from  academic  proficiency  i s to  reading  stud  i n the  overemphasis  need  survival  functional  (Christison  real  in  emerging  idealization  academic need  data  survival  teachers'  do  The  first were  using  to  year  study,  ESL  students  English Literature  interviewed cope  ten  with  to  the  determine reading  and  the  who  were  Introductory  strategies  demands  in these  they two  courses.  The of  data  findings from  were  classroom  document  analysis  and  analysis  consisted  of  student  The  i n t e r v i e w s and  findings  strategies,  their  cross-validated observations, an  through  instructor  extensive  field  s y n t h e s i z i n g the the  other  indicated background  data  that  triangulation interviews,  diary.  information  from  The the  sources.  their  knowledge  and  self-management experience,  and  100 their  reliance  on  instructors  disciplines  comprised  utilized  reading comprehension.  in  in passing and  these  their  the  in  courses.  perseverance  appeared to  be  in  strategies  interest  adhering  in their  their  context  to  was  of the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e  These  students  s t r a t e g i e s to necessary  elicit  to  monthly quizzes Coping  essay  course,  in their  strategies  tasks  was  needed  to  fulfil  or P s y c h o l o g y  do  or  r e s e a r c h paper to perform  coping  Introductory  not e x i s t  for  well  in  Psychology  in isolation;  to  course.  generic-specific  or  was  the  f r o m t h e r e a d i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n  w r i t e an  English Literature  subjects  Their reading  i n order  utilized  they  reading  what  requirements ESL  that  i n the  the  success.  reading materials  academic  E a c h o f them s u c c e e d e d  Their  factors  g o a l - o r i e n t e d as comprehend t h e  coping  specific  was their  the b i course.  t h e y were u s e d  i n an a c t i o n c o n t e x t .  C.  Theoretical implications Horowitz's  disciplines w r i t i n g has  survey  l i m i t a t i o n s as writing  Similarly,  i t  to focus  c o n t e x t and discipline.  tasks  c a n be  t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , as tends  academic  (1985) c l a i m s t h a t t h e  realistic  it  of  writing  different  "process" approach i n  ESL  i t i s o f t e n t o o removed f r o m  the  of  claimed  actual here  university  t h a t the  i n l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d , has on  in  general  short  g e n e r i c - s p e c i f i c demands  texts,  classes.  "process"  of  limitations  as  without  the  o f an a c t u a l a c a d e m i c  101  The  results  s t u d e n t s use  qualitative  coping s t r a t e g i e s  r e a d i n g t a s k s and text  of t h i s  level.  English Literature  the r e a d i n g will  differ  Introductory Psychology, language but  to handle  t h a t they approach  Thus,  s t r a t e g i e s they from  those  of a  r e a d i n g demands to  their  own  the coping implicit  cultural as a  background  first  subject  and  study  enabling  within  In  in  of  the  skill  for  need t o  coping s t r a t e g i e s are used. The  student  They  we  their  the  previous  the  socio-  speak E n g l i s h  dependent  that reading  and  the  progress.  i s an  content  on  integral i t occurs  and  course  s t u d e n t s h a v e t o do a  r e q u i r e d t o do understand  i n the  c o n t e x t of  are not  adequately  f o r m s an  the  series  r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e a component  k n o w l e d g e and this,  genre  apply to  Lacking  highly  course  other words,  t a s k s i n a c o u r s e , and  "technical"  academic a c h i e v e m e n t as  of  of  account  are  also indicates  context  requirements.  and  f o r academic understanding  activity  the  skills  knowledge.  they  for  students at  k n o w l e d g e o f s t u d e n t s who  language,  instructor  The  and  required  a g e n r e seem t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g  self-management  background experience  for  specific  s t r a t e g i e s they  in  whole-  need  because of  the nature  that  generic-specific  demands d i f f e r e n t c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . F o r ESL university level,  indicates  d i s c o u r s e at the  not s o l e l y  a l s o because  study  agenda of  these the  tasks.  To  reading  and  a c t i o n s i n which  they  analyzed  academic  in  tasks  isolation. from  the  102 course  requirements  skills  and  coping  component u s e d  which the strategies  t o do  instructor  sets  contributed to  t h i s work. S t u d e n t s  up. R e a d i n g the knowledge  do t a s k s and d r a w  on b a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e t o do s o . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e a c t i o n situation  of  a c a d e m i c work  component i s (Mohan, (See  1986)  figure  which provides Further  to tasks  manage t o agenda  consistent with  6).  t h i s model  and  Mohan's  co-ordinate their  model  framework of c o n t e x t .  i s required i n applying  to illuminate  how  knowledge r e s o u r c e s academic  knowledge  knowledge  a simplified  research  i n order  to demonstrate t h e i r  i t s background  students and a c t i o n  competence.  B a c k g r o u n d k n o w l e d g e - what t h e s t u d e n t s know t o be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e c o u r s e  need t o  requirements.  COPING STRATEGIES  Action situation to  - what t a s k s t h e s t u d e n t s  have  do. COURSE REQUIREMENTS  Figure  6: A p p l i c a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e  framework  to data  D. E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ESL t e a c h e r s  who  desire to f a c i l i t a t e  academic  reading  103 for u n i v e r s i t y who  have  had  students at  s t u d e n t s can experience  t h a t the  ESL  students and  approach  of  i s equipped  to select  a r e r e l e v a n t t o an  ESL  teachers in  programs can  specific  course  The  from  student  formal  oral  assignments. assigned  requirements  is  students done  content  ESL  s t u d e n t who  in genre-specific a source  This with  for  i n order such  as  develops reading  or s o u r c e s  which  i n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y language c l a s s e s into  "real"  of academic coursework,  activities  familiarize  t h e i r ESL  reading  c o u r s e s ; t h e more t h e  t e a c h e r can s u c c e s s i v e l y approximate  learning.  so  assignment.  impatient to get  activities  is  c l a s s assignments  a c h i e v e m e n t ; ESL  reading:  data  can  connections  (EAP)  or e s s a y s .  ESL  the  of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n  is often  and  of  They  s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of assighnments,  research reports the s k i l l  academic  understanding  to f a c i l i t a t e  The  level.  w i t h the c o n t e x t s w i t h i n which "real"  purposes  ESL  academic  instructors  l a r g e numbers  c a n more c l e a r l y s e e  f o r Academic Purposes  themselves  content  or u n i v e r s i t y  reading a c t i v i t i e s  between r e a d i n g s English  in teaching  the c o l l e g e  structure their  l e a r n from  seems explicit  presentations  to  r e a d i n g demands  and  t h e more t r a n s f e r a b l e  the  involve  follow-up or  the  objectives,  defined  T h i s s i m u l a t i o n of " r e a l " within  assigning  context  academic  courses of  such  as  written  where r e a d i n g  fulfilling  g i v e s focus t o the r e a d i n g t a s k s .  reading  course  104  One s u c c e s s f u l an  instructor  English for  i n the  course.  students  readings.  He  to  chose  explore  created  t h e ESL s t u d e n t s .  of such  composition  thesis  extremely  The r e a d i n g s  statements.  design.  relationship  between  interest  formed  through  provision  between  following  ESL  on t h e p a r t o f  teachers  around in  demonstrating  tasks  of  the  are underchallenging their  ESL  and  type the  classes  intellectually can  academic  narrow the  r e a d i n g . The  possibility EAP  EAP  language  of content  teachers  actual  illustrates  academic  towards s i m u l a t i n g t h i s  stimulating  activities,  Marriage"  tasks b u i l t  requirements  p r e - a c a d e m i c and  protocol  instructors  o f more  year  the b a s i s of s p i r i t e d  explicitly  and t h e u s u a l c o u r s e  gap  high  the academic  by  a socio-anthropological  P e r h a p s ESL  By  classes  demanding r e a d i n g  of a f i r s t  cross-cultural  w h i c h had  programs c a n e x e r t more e f f o r t s course  was o f f e r e d  t h e theme o f "Love and  d i s c u s s i o n s and c h a l l e n g i n g w r i t i n g  explicit  of  a course  component  through  This course,  perspective,  class  example  that  ESL  students:  I don't t h i n k i t ' s t o o much r e a d i n g f o r ' a u n i v e r s i t y course. I don't t h i n k i t ' s t o o much work. I g o t some f r i e n d s a t SFU and t h e y come back and t o l d me t h a t our s t u d i e s h e r e i s l i k e a honeymoon f o r the s t u d e n t s . (IL # 3 5 ) .  The  more f a m i l i a r  of t h e i r they  ESL s t u d e n t s ,  can  students  teachers  be  in  already  become w i t h  the coping  t h e more k n o w l e d g e a b l e and  eliciting possess  from  the  useful  strategies efficient  strategies  p r e v i o u s academic  these  experience  105 and  in  equipping  them  with  additional  appropriate  strategies.  In  educational  c o n t e n t and  ESL  s i t u a t i o n s where  t e a c h e r s e x i s t s and  c h o i c e o f t e x t s , ESL  teachers  i n EAP  collaboration  where o p t i o n s e x i s t programs can  reading comprehension  f o r ESL  on t e x t s  aids that contain higher  The  or l e a r n i n g  f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l i s an  between for  facilitate  s t u d e n t s by s h a r i n g  insights  readability.  example:  The n e x t t e x t has a b e t t e r w r i t e r . I t ' s w r i t t e n by a psychology w r i t e r who's a j o u r n a l i s t -who d o e s a l l t h e e d i t i n g f o r i t and changes the language so i t ' s better written than t h i s textbook... a s t u d y g u i d e s comes w i t h i t . . . i t a l s o has a computer study guide, so t h e y could s e n d away f o r $14 and buy a d i s c t o p u t on t h e i r A p p l e o r IBM and do i t t h a t way too... they're s t i l l reading, i t just seems l e s s p a i n f u l t o them. (BT#25,26)  Increased c o l l a b o r a t i o n  b e t w e e n ESL  teachers  t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y c o n t e n t t e a c h e r s who working  with  ESL  academic  students,  l e a r n i n g environment f o r such  ESL  academic  structuring their can see academic  reading  achievement.  assignments t a s k s , which  to  instructors  often  For  the  are experienced  in  enhance  the  consider students  between r e a d i n g s  example, when  format  might  so t h a t t h e i r  the connection  written discourse is  content  students.  reading a c t i v i t i e s  more c l e a r l y  may  and  of  relating  and  reading  assigning  academic  academic  courses,  106 e n a b l e s them the  to u t i l i z e  fulfilling  content  coping  strategies within a  of academic r e q u i r e m e n t s .  at the  whole-text  level  The  as t h e  use  of  b a s i s of  w r i t i n g academic t a s k s , r a t h e r than s h o r t g e n e r i c may  "real"  reading-  discourse,  a l s o be u s e f u l .  The  s h e e r q u a n t i t y of  through classroom  chose  academic t a s k .  ESL  o r i e n t e d as are  to  what  they s t r u g g l e  1983).  motivation students'  to  attend  accomplish  the  on what t h e e s s e n t i a l s  in  of  academic  their  coursework.  perspective  i n s t r u c t o r s to f a c i l i t a t e  and their  educational objectives. Study  increase v a l i d i t y ,  and  methods  was  built  was  the  fully  analysis process,  and  Nevertheless,  study  identifying  clearly and  Reliability  describing  discussing  the  the  data the  synthesized.  there are  w i t h i n the  t i m e framework  itself,  was  not  by  accounts.  sources  p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s o f how  were e x a m i n e d and  i t  t r i a n g u l a t i o n of m u l t i p l e  used t o c r o s s - c h e c k  into  methodology ,  data  to focus  enable t h e i r  to  receive  o f t e n become i n c r e a s i n g l y g o a l -  Awareness  may  students  needed  competence  L i m i t a t i o n s of the To  is  students  demonstrate  (Doyle,  information that students  i n s t r u c t i o n s compels  s e l e c t i v e l y to  E.  context,  limitations with this and  possible to  the use  nature a  of  larger  study:(1) the  study  number  of  107 subjects  and  to  contexts  of  a  subjects  who  were  consequently, students that a  wider  number  informants of  limitations  might  to  sample  providing  F.  access  Suggestions More  context  registered that  ESL  specific, coping  the such  the  As since are This we  ESL  be  reading as  may  have  by  ESI  3)the  fact  resulted as  being These  expanding  multi-site  in  the  study  study  have  fully  cognizant  of  with are  regarding that  level.  Since  academic explore  sciences of  ESL  the  ESL  in  academic  students  reading  how  or  the  strategies are  genre-  students  other  are  academic  i n commerce,  their  are  respective  and  to  reading  requirements.  instructors  teachers  groups;  studies.  demands  i n the  course  done  in  relationship  began  countries;  themselves  disciplines  useful to  ourselves  ESL  to  use  we  study  a  The  Research  university  be  demands  to  the  i t would  the  overcome doing  different  will  determine  language  saw  (2)  g e n e r a l i z a b l e to  academic  by  needs  students  disciplines,  be  Asian  the  is possible.  in at  with  or  who  for Further  the  a l l from  not  within  disciplines;  volunteers  been  and  question  academic were  in  have  research  of  were  students  successful  wider  of  cultural  reasonably  a  research  f i n d i n g s may  other  sampling  the  interviewed  the  from  student  explore  i n EAP  completed  what  is  "making not  programs,  as  may  undergraduate  involved the  we  assume  studies,  in academic  familiar  knowledgeable  strange", as  we  that we  reading. perhaps  assume  about  108 the r e a d i n g  strategies that  study explored t h i s topic who  were  involved in  students  are using.  from the v i e w p o i n t  actual subject  primary  t h e a c a d e m i c t a s k s t h a t were embedded i n t h e  clear  on  what  content.  these  s t r a t e g i e s necessary the  shift  in  reinforcement  (Doyle, 1983).  tasks  were,  they  t o a c q u i r e the  of  emphasis  focus  context  When t h e y would  were  practise  i n f o r m a t i o n demanded  by  reading  to  l i n e can  programs  to  research with  ESL  students  think  perspective skills  they  on are  students specific?  have  classes.  university  t h e y have  t o do  students  learning  facilitate  to  what a r e  Useful  questions  what i s have  themselves?  the c o n t e n t  in  what do  the  the  performance  do  the  of  real  i n which they  k n o w l e d g e demands?  to  teacher's  t o do?  are  from  coursework  i s the academic c o n t e x t  handle  l a n g u a g e demands?  students  i n academic  proficiency?  what  on  this  f o r ESL  l e a r n e r s w o u l d be:  what t h e s e  academic t a s k s ?  appropriate  More r e s e a r c h a l o n g  the t r a n s i t i o n  content  demonstrate academic  be an  se  t o more g l o b a l l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s  p i e c e s of d i s c o u r s e .  o n l y improve  may  per  f r o m e m p h a s i s on r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s  the s h o r t - d i s c o u r s e l e v e l with larger  from  academic coursework  move as w o u l d a s h i f t  the  work. T h e i r  task.  A  EAP  academic  The  was  course  was  courses.  This  students  for  of p a r t i c u l a r  students  o f ESL  reality on  these  ESL  the  genrewhat a r e  109 Further  research  what s t u d e n t s students'  do and  tasks  in  d o c u m e n t i n g what process  of  c o u l d improve what t h e y  have t o  greazter  detail.  students  do  as  understanding do  Another  area  i n f o r m a n t s who  studies,  i t  d a t a on  other kinds  went  be e x p l o r e d  the  facilitate  that in  another  type  at the These  graduate  of  fulfilling  guest  i s noted  normally  the  orientation prior  of academic  study.  There i s  several  point  for  universities level.  months  in  t o e n t e r i n g programs  a growing  to a s s i s t these students  w r i t i n g demands  that  arranged  undergraduate  spend  cultural  r e a d i n g and  course  at t h i s  i n Canadian  l a n g u a g e and  r e s e a r c h on how  engage  Development Agency  g o v e r n m e n t has  at  peers  home c o n t e x t s  International  scholars to study w e l l as  do  For  strategies?  perspective, i t  scholars  of  sampling,  academic  community or  our n a t i o n a l  as  of  o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s m i g h t emerge.  the Canadian  numerous f o r e i g n  use  in research  are there  (CIDA) p r o g r a m ,  the  volunteer to p a r t i c i p a t e  other kinds of coping  that through  assignment  i t i s often  purposes  a broader  the  are not v o l u n t e e r s . Since  is possible  requirements?  On  example,  through  is  e x a m p l e , what k i n d s o f n e g o t i a t i n g b e h a v i o u r for  looking at  For  they  of  study.  t h a t might  t h e b e t t e r s t u d e n t s who  in  by  a l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h paper f o r a course  w o u l d be an a p p r o p r i a t e c a s e  student  our  need f o r  further  i n dealing with  a t the u n i v e r s i t y  level  the  within  110 the  constraints  Further research  of  government-imposed  i n these  a r e a s may  time  serve to  t r a u m a f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who o f t e n floundering gap  between  in  budget  lessen  find  the  themselves  e x t r e m e s t r e s s when a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i d g e t h e  pre-academic  the " r e a l " academic w o r l d , and  limitations.  preparatory  language  classes  a n d t o do s o w i t h i n t i m e ,  and  energy  constraints.  F. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  -A f i n a l  word f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h e r :  It's not really reading that's so prominent after a l l . For these students, i t ' s a means-to-an-end, t o s u r v i v e , t o g e t a g r a d e , and u l t i m a t e l y , to get a degree ... I have such administration for these students. Which one o f us w o u l d be a b l e t o duplicate this effort in another c o u n t r y , i n a n o t h e r language? (F.D.#79). Final words participants:  from  two  student  I f y o u r e a l l y want t o do i t , you w i l l f i n d o u t i t ' s n o t so hard t o u n d e r s t a n d . I f y o u d o n ' t want t o r e a d i t , y o u r mind w i l l r e f u s e t o understand.(AM #6,21) I have t o do i t - I want t o g e t more p r a c t i s e on i t - I mean, t o p r e p a r e myself for university; otherwise, I can't survive i n university... that's why I r e a d a l l t h e t i m e ... e v e r y t i m e I t a k e a bus o r go home, I will read a book or magazine ... i f I can't u n d e r s t a n d what the teacher gave us t o r e a d , I r e a d a n o t h e r t e x t b e s i d e t h e one we u s e i n s c h o o l , t h e n I w i l l n o t have any problems... I just check from t h i s l i b r a r y and t h e y g o t a c o u p l e d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s . . . I have t o do i t , g e t t h r o u g h university. ( I L #27,29)  Ill  BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, R.(1980). A Learning-To-Learn Perspective R e a d i n g i n a F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e . S y s t e m . 8, 113 - 119. A r n o t t , M . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . M e d i a t i n g B e t w e e n ESL S t u d e n t s and M a t e r i a l s . U n p u b l i s h e d master's paper. U n i v e r s i t y of Columbia, F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n .  on  Content British  Baker, S., L e d b e t t e r , K. & Gamache, L.B. (1987). The C a n a d i a n P r a c t i c a l S t y l i s t w i t h R e a d i n g s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row. Bernhardt, E.B.(1984). Toward an Information Processing P e r s p e c t i v e i n F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e R e a d i n g . The M o d e r n L a n g u a g e J o u r n a l , 6 8 ( 4 ) , 322 - 3 3 1 . B e r n h a r d t , E.B (in press). A Model of Second Language T e x t R e c o n s t r u c t i o n : The R e c a l l o f L i t e r a r y T e x t by L e a r n e r s o f German. I n A n g e l a L a b a r c a (Ed.) I s s u e s i n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e : T h e o r y As P r a c t i c e , P r a c t i c e as T h e o r y . Norwood: A l b e x . B i a l y s t o k , E. (1978) A T h e o r e t i c a l M o d e l o f S e c o n d L e a r n i n g . L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g . 28 ( 1 ) , 69 - 83.  Language  B i a l y s t o k , E. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The Role of Conscious S t r a t e g i e s i n Second Language Proficiency. Canadian Modern Language R e v i e w . 35, 372 - 394. B i a l y s t o k , E. (1983) I n f e r e n c i n g : T e s t i n g the "Hypothesist e s t i n g " . In H.W.Seliger and M.H.Long (Eds.). Classroom Oriented Research i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Rowley, M a s s . : Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . B l o c k , E. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The Comprehension S t r a t e g i e s of L a n g u a g e R e a d e r s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 0 ( 3 ) , 463 - 493. B l u m e r , H. ( 1 9 5 6 ) . S o c i o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s and A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . 2 1 , 68 3 - 6 9 0 .  the  Second  Variable.  B r o c k , C. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The E f f e c t s of R e f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s ESL C l a s s r o o m D i s c o u r s e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 0 ( 1 ) , 47 - 58. B r o w n , G. Cambridge  & Y u l e , G. Univ.  (1984). Discourse A n a l y s i s .  Cambridge:  B u r g e s s , R.G. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I n t h e F i e l d : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o R e s e a r c h . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n and I r w i n . B u r m e i s t e r , L.E. (1976) R e a d i n g School Teachers. Don Mils,  Strategies Ontario:  on  Field  for Secondary Addison-Wesley  112 P u b l i s h i n g Co. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1982). Cohesion Q u a r t e r l y . 1£( 4 ) , 479 - 488 .  is  not  Coherence.  TESOL  Carrell, P.L. (1983). Background Knowledge in Language Acquisition. Language , Learning Communication,2(1), 25 - 34.  Second and  C a r r e l l , P.L. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The E f f e c t s o f R h e t o r i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n on ESL R e a d e r s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 8 ( 3 ) 4 4 1 - 469. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1985). F a c i l i t a t i n g ESL R e a d i n g by T e a c h i n g Text S t r u c t u r e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 19.(4) 727 - 749. Carrell, Reading.  P.L. (1987). Content and F o r m a l TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( 3 ) , 461 - 4 8 1 .  Schemata i n  ESL  C a r r e l l , P.L. & E i s t e r h o l d , J . P . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . Schema T h e o r y and ESL R e a d i n g P e d a g o g y . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 17.(4), 553 - 572. Chamot, A.U. & O ' M a l l e y , J.M. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . The C o g n i t i v e A c a d e m i c Language L e a r n i n g Approach: A B r i d g e to the Mainstream. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2_1 ( 2 ) , 227 - 249. C h r i s t i s o n , M.A. & K r a h n k e , K . J . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . S t u d e n t P e r c e p t i o n s of A c a d e m i c L a n g u a g e STudy. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 20.(1), 61 - 8 1 . C o h e n , A.; G l a s m a n , H . ; Rosen-baum-Cohen, P.; F e r r a r a , J . & F i n e , J . (1979). Reading E n g l i s h f o r S p e c i a l i z e d Purposes: D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s a n d t h e Use o f S t u d e n t I n f o r m a n t s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y . 1 3 ( 4 ) , 551 - 564. C o r n i s h , J . ( 1 9 8 2 ) . An A c a d e m i c P r e p a r a t i o n C o u r s e A d u l t s . TESL T a l k . .13 ( 1 ) 1 3 .  f o r ESL  Cummins, J . (1983). Language Proficiency and A c a d e m i c Achievement. I n J . O i l e r ( E d . ) , I s s u e s i n Language T e s t i n g Research. R o w l e y , MA.: Newbury House. Cummins, J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . B i l i n g u a l i s m and S p e c i a l Education: I s s u e s i n A s s e s s m e n t and P e d a g o g y . Clevedon: M u l t i l i n g u a l Matters L t d . D o y l e , W. Research,  (1983). Academic 53 ( 2 ) , 159 - 1 9 9 .  Work.  of  Educational  D e n z i n , N.K. (1978). The R e s e a r c h Act : A I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods. Toronto: Book Co.  Theoretical McGraw-Hill ,  D u b i n , F. a n d O l s h t a i n , E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . Ontario: Addison-Wesley(Canada) L t d .  Review  Reading  By  A l l Means.  113 D u b i n , F. a n d O l s h t a i n , E. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Course  Design.  London:  E b l e n , C. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . W r i t i n g A c r o s s - t h e - C u r r i c u l u m : A S u r v e y o f A University F a c u l t y ' s Views and C l a s s r o o m Practices. R e s e a r c h i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h . 17 ( 4 ) , 343 - 3 4 5 . E l l e n , R.F. (1984). Ethnographic Research General Conduct. Toronto: Academic P r e s s .  :  A  Guide  to  F l i c k , W.C. & Anderson, J . I . (1980). R h e t o r i c a l D i f f i c u l t y in S c i e n t i f i c E n g l i s h : A Study i n Reading Comprehension. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 14 ( 3 ) , 345 - 3 5 1 . Fry, M. (1985). Developing Meaningful Comprehension Materials Through History Content. Unpublished Paper. University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Language Education. Ghadessy, M. (1983). Comments on P a t r i c i a Carrell's "Cohesion i s not Coherence". TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 17.(4). 685 687 G o e t z , J . P . & Le Compte, M.D. (1984). Ethnography and Qualitative Design i n E d u c a t i o n a l Research. New York: Academic P r e s s . H a m m e r s l e y , M. & Atkinson, P. (1983). Ethnography: P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . H i l l , S.S., S o p p e l s a , B.F., & W e s t , G.K. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e a c h i n g ESL S t u d e n t s t o Read a n d W r i t e E x p e r i m e n t a l - R e s e a r c h P a p e r . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 16 ( 3 ) , 333 - 347. H o s e n f e l d , C. (1976). L e a r n i n g About L e a r n i n g : D i s c o v e r i n g our S t u d e n t s ' S t r a t e g i e s . F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e A n n a l s , 9_, 117 129. Horowitz, D.M.(1985). What P r o f e s s o r s Academic Tasks f o r t h e ESL C l a s s r o o m . 20.(3), 445 - 463 . J o h n s , A.M. (1981). Necessary English: A TESOL Q u a r t e r l y . 1 5 ( 1 ) , 51 - 57. Johnston, P.(1982). B u i l d i n g Background 516.  Actually Require: TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , Faculty  Survey.  Effects on R e a d i n g Comprehension of K n o w l e d g e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 6 ( 4 ) , 503 -  Jones, E.E. ( 1 9 7 7 ) The E f f e c t s of Advance Organizers Prepared f o r S p e c i f i c A b i l i t y L e v e l s . School S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 7 7 , 38 5 - 3 9 1 . J u n k e r , B.  H.  (1960).  Field  Work:  An I n t r o d u c t i o n  t o the  114 Social  S c i e n c e s . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s .  K a n t o r , K . J . , K i r b y , D.R. & G o e t z , J . P . (1981) R e s e a r c h i n Context: Ethnographic Studies i n E n g l i s h Education. Research i n t h e T e a c h i n g o f E n g l i s h , 15 ( 4 ) , 293 - 309. Kirk, J. & Miller, M.L. (1986) R e l i a b i l i t y a n d V a l i d i t y i n Q u a l i t a t i v e Research. L o n d o n : SAGE P u b l i c a t i o n s . K l e m p , G. (1986). Reading Reading S k i l l s t o Reading 2, 7 - 1 2 .  Across the Curriculum: Matching M a t e r i a l s . Support For L e a r n i n g ,  Lofland, J. & Lofland, L.H. (1984). A n a l y z i n g S o c i a l S e t t i n g s : A G u i d e t o Q u a l i t a t i v e O b s e r v a t i o n and A n a l y s i s . (2nd ed.) C a l i f : W a d s w o r t h P u b l i c a t i o n Co. M a c L e a n , M. (1986). Second Language R e a d i n g Research: Pathways Through the L a b y r i n t h . The C a n a d i a n Journal of R e a d i n g , R e a d i n g - Canada - L e c t u r e , 4. ( 1 ) , 32 - 37. Meyer, B.J.F. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Effect on R e c a l l . North-Holland Studies P o e t i c s : V o l . 1 . New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n E l s e v i e r .  Prose and I t s i n Theoretical  Meyer, B.J.F. (1985). Prose A n a l y s i s : Purposes, Procedures and P r o b l e m s . In B.Britton & J . Block (Eds). Understanding E x p o s i t o r y T e x t . 269 - 2 8 5 . New J e r s e y : E r l b a u m . Meyer, B.J.F., B r a n d t , D.M., & B l u t h , G . J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The Use of Top-level Structure in Text: Key for Reading Comprehension of Ninth-Grade Students. Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y . 1 6 ( 1 ) , 72 - 103 Meyer, B.J.F. & F r e e d l e , R.O. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . E f f e c t s o f D i s c o u r s e Type on R e c a l l . A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l 2 1 ( 1 ) , 121 - 1 4 3 . f  Mohan B. (1979). R e l a t i n g Language Teqching T e a c h i n g . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 3 ( 2 ) , 171 - 1 8 2 . Mohan, B. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . Language W e s l e y P u b l i s h i n g Co.  and C o n t e n t .  and  Mass.:  Moore, J . e t a l (1980). R e a d i n g and T h i n k i n g (Vols. 1 - 4 ) . Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press.  Content  Addison in  English  M o s e n t h a l , J.H. & T i e r n e y , R . J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o h e s i o n : P r o b l e m s w i t h T a l k i n g a b o u t T e x t . R e a d i n g R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 19., 240 -244. M u n s e l l , P. & Clough, M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . & Prartir-ai fiuide for A d v a n c e d W r i t e r s i n E n g l i s h a s a Second L a n g u a g e . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co.  115 O ' M a l l e y , J . M . , Chamot, A.U. e t a l ( 1 9 8 5 ) . L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g y Applications with S t u d e n t s o f E n g l i s h As a Second L a n g u a g e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( l ) 87 - 1 1 1 . P a u l s t o n , C.B. & B r u d e r , M.N. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h As A Second Language: T e c h n i q u e s and P r o c e d u r e s . M a s s . : W i n t h r o p Publishers, Inc. Perry, W.(1987).Review of Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( 1 ) 137 - 1 4 3 .  Language  and  Content.  TESOL  R a p h a e l , C.B. & Newman, E.G. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . A R h e t o r i c a l Reader f o r ESL W r i t e r s . New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . R e i d , J.M. (1987) The L e a r n i n g S t y l e P r e f e r e n c e s s t u d e n t s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l v , 2 1 ( 1 ) 87 - 1 1 1 .  o f ESL  R o s e n t h a l , L. & R o w l a n d , S.B. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A c a d e m i c R e a d i n g and Study Skills for International S t u d e n t s . New J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall, Inc. R o d r i g u e s , R . J . (1982) R e v i e w of J o u r n a l o f R e a d i n g . 2 5 816 - 817.  Reading  Q a z i , C. (1981). Review of Reading Q u a r t e r l y , 1 5 , 340 - 3 4 2 .  By  By  A l l Means.  A l l Means.  TESOL  S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . What R e a l l y M a t t e r s i n S e c o n d L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g f o r A c a d e m i c A c h i e v e m e n t . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 18.(2) 199 - 2 1 9 . S e l i g e r , H.W. and Long, M.H. R e s e a r c h i n Second Language House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c .  (Eds.). Classroom Oriented Acquisition. Mass.: Newbury  S i l b e r s t e i n , S.(1987, O c t o b e r ) . What y o u a l w a y s t h o u g h t y o u s h o u l d know a b o u t r e a d i n g . P l e n a r y a d d r e s s , p r e s e n t e d a t 1987 T r i - T e s o l C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , Wash. S m i t h , F. (1986). Understanding J e r s e y : Laurence, Erlbaum Assn.  Reading.  ( 3 r d ed.)  New  Spindler, G. (Ed.) (1982). Doing the Ethnography Schooling.. Toronto: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston.  of  S p r a d l e y , J . P . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . The E t h n o g r a p h i c York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. Spradley, J.P. (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston.  Interview.  O b s e r v a t i o n . New  New York:  S t e f f e n s e n , M.S., Joag-dw.C, & A n d e r s o n , R.C. (1979). A C r o s s - C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e on R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n . Reading R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y . 15 ( 7 ) , 10 - 29.  116  Stern, H.H. (1983) F u n d a m e n t a l Concepts Teaching. Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  of  Language  Swales,J. (1985). E p i s o d e s i n ESP. A s o u r c e and r e f e r e n c e book on the development of English for Science and T e c h n o l o g y . O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s L t d . Thonis, E.W. S p e a k e r s . New  (1977). Teaching Reading to Non-English York: C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n I n t e n a t i o n a l , I n c .  Van Maanen, J. (ed.) (1983). L o n d o n : Sage & J o s s e y B a s s .  Qualitative  Methodology.  Wenden.A.and Rubin, J. (1987). Learner Strategies Language L e a r n i n g . T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Whyte, W. ( 1 9 5 5 ) . S t r e e t C o r n e r of C h i c a g o P r e s s .  Society. Chicago:  W i e r s m a , W. Introduction  Methods i n Education: A l l y n & Bacon, I n c .  (1986). ( 4 t h Ed.)  Research Toronto:  in  University An  W i l c o x , K. (1982). Ethnography a s a M e t h o d o l o g y and Its Application to the Study of S c h o o l i n g : A Review. In G.Spindler (Ed.) Doing the Ethnography of Schooling. S p i n d l e r , G. ( E d . ) . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. Woods,P. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . I n s i d e Schools: Ethnography R e s e a r c h . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l .  in Educational  Yuen S. (1985 1988). I n t e r v i e w s w i t h f a c u l t y a t Columbia College, Burnaby, B.C. Interviews with secondary and university ESL students at Columbia College.  APPENDIX B STUDENT INFORMATION  FORM  Name: Date: Phone n o . :  Age:  Student no.  Date r e g i s t e r e d a t t h i s c o l l e g e :  Home c o u n t r y :  Languages  spoken:  L e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d i n home c o u n t r y : A c a d e m i c s t a n d i n g i n home c o u n t r y : P r e v i o u s E n g l i s h language TOEFL S c o r e s : •  training:_  , date: , date: date:  E.S.L. c l a s s e s a t t h i s  college:  Courses l a s t semester:  Grade p o i n t average  last  semester:  this  semester:  Courses t h i s semester:  Grade p o i n t a v e r a g e Comments:  119  APPENDIX C INTERVIEW QUESTIONS A. C u r r e n t r e a d i n g  assignments:  1. What vas t h e l a t e s t r e a d i n g assignment i n your E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e course? Psychology course? How d i d y o u go a b o u t reading i t ? How s i m i l a r i s t h i s t o how y o u u s u a l l y r e a d t h i s type of assignment? B. Norm and 2,.What do?  do  purpose: y o u u s u a l l y do when y o u have a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g t o  3. What p u r p o s e s do y o u s e e i n t h e English L i t e r a t u r e ? f o r Psychology? C. D i f f i c u l t  course  readings  for  readings:  4 . Have y o u r e a d s o m e t h i n g l a t e l y i n t h e s e c o u r s e s t h a t was d i f f i c u l t f o r you? What was d i f f i c u l t a b o u t i t ? What d i d y o u do a b o u t i t ? I s t h a t what y o u u s u a l l y do o r n o t ? D. G e n r e 5. Here a r e s a m p l e s o f some o f t h e c o u r s e r e a d i n g s . Please e x p l a i n h o v y o u went a b o u t r e a d i n g t h e s e s h o r t s t o r i e s f o r English Literature. Please e x p l a i n how you u s u a l l y went about r e a d i n g t h i s P s y c h o l o g y t e x t b o o k / s t u d y guide. 6. When y o u r e a d f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y , what do y o u do t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t from your reading f o r the other course? 7. P l e a s e e x p l a i n how t h e way t h e c o u r s e i s taught i s h e l p f u l or n o t h e l p f u l t o you i n your r e a d i n g . Which c o u r s e i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r y o u t o r e a d ? Why? What kind of r e a d i n g have y o u done f o r the course assignments? How d i d y o u go a b o u t i t ? Hov d i d y o u p r e p a r e f o r t h e m i d - t e r m exam? E. P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e : 8 . Have y o u s t u d i e d E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y b e f o r e ? i n your f i r s t or your second language? i n y o u r home c o u n t r y o r i n C a n a d a ? P l e a s e t e l l me a b o u t i t ? 9. What  kind  of  reading assignments  d i d y o u h a v e ? Hov d i d  120 you go about those unusual?  reading assignments?  Was  that usual  or  10. What o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n y o u r p a s t have been h e l p f u l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e a d i n g y o u do now f o r t h e s e c o u r s e s ?  in  11. I n what ways do a n y of your p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s h e l p you now w i t h the r e a d i n g f o r y o u r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and Psychology courses. F. Change i n s t r a t e g i e s : 12. P l e a s e e x p l a i n how your s c h o o l i n g i n your  you u s u a l l y r e a d academic m a t e r i a l i n home c o u n t r y .  13. What k i n d o f changes d i d you you s t a r t e d s t u d y i n g i n Canada?  make i n y o u r  r e a d i n g when  14. S o m e t i m e s s t u d e n t s c h a n g e t h e way t h e y a p p r o a c h r e a d i n g for c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . What c h a n g e s have y o u n o t i c e d i n t h e way y o u r e a d f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y as compared to before? G.  Future:  1-5. Can y o u s u g g e s t some ways t h a t t h e r e a d i n g demands c o u l d have been made easier for you in your English L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y course? 16. in  J u s t s u p p o s i n g you were t h e i n s t r u c t o r o f t h e s e c o u r s e s i f y o u were d e s i g n i n g t h e c o u r s e , what w o u l d y o u i n c l u d e i t t h a t w o u l d h e l p ESL s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r r e a d i n g ?  17. A r e t h e r e any about reading?  o t h e r comments  you would  like  to  make  APPENDIX D PSYCHOLOGY 110  - READING  SCHEDULE  Textbooks: Atkinson et a l . I n t r o d u c t i o n to Psychology ( 9 t h E d i t i o n ) and t h e accompanying S t u d y G u i d e . Instructor:  (  )•  G r a d i n g : I n t h i s c o u r s e t h e r e w i l l be 6 q u i z z e s , e a c h w o r t h 12.5% f o r a t o t a l o f 75%, a n d a f i n a l exam w o r t h 25%. There w i l l also be a make-up t e s t s c h e d u l e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t week of c l a s s e s . This t e s t c a n be u s e d to replace a missing s c o r e o r c a n be u s e d i n p l a c e o f y o u r l o w e s t q u i z s c o r e . No o t h e r make-up o r r e - w r i t e options are a v a i l a b l e . Letter g r a d e s w i l l be a s s i g n e d a s f o l l o w s : A+  B+  C+ D  95 82 67 50  100 85 72 55  -  . A  B  C F  89 77 60 49  -  or  94 81 66  less  A-  B-  C-  Important Dates: Jan. Jan. Jan.  11 14 19  Jan.  26  begin reading begin reading Q u i z #1 begin reading begin reading  Feb. Feb. Feb. Feb.  2 4 16 18  Q u i z #2 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 2 Q u i z #3 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 3  Mar. Mar. Mar. Mar . Mar. Mar. Mar . Mar. Mar.  1 3 7 10 15 17 22 24 29  Q u i z #4 begin reading begin reading begin reading Q u i z ft5 begin reading begin reading begin reading Q u i z ft6  Apr. 5 A p r . 12  -  15  Appendix I Appendix I I Ch. 1 Appendices I I I  Ch. 4 Ch. 5 Ch.6 Ch.7 Ch. 8 Ch.9  Make-up T e s t F i n a l Exam Week  86 73 56  - 88 - 76 - 59  122 APPENDIX E Course O u t l i n e 1. C o u r s e t i t l e English  f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 110  and number  110  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y L i t e r a t u r e : p o e t r y and s h o r t  fiction  2. L e n g t h o f c o u r s e 1 semester  (14 w e e k s )  3. Number o f c l a s s r o o m h o u r s p e r week. 4 c l a s s r o o m h o u r s p e r week (3 h r s . l e c t u r e ; 1 h r . w r i t i n g workshop) 4. Number  of u n i t s of c r e d i t  3 credits 5. P r e - r e g u i s i t e s English  12 o r  equivalent  6. C a l e n d a r d e s c r i p t i o n o f c o u r s e English  110 (3 c r e d i t s )  The s t u d y o f t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p o e t r y and s h o r t f i c t i o n and o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n . Pre-requisite: 7. D e s c r i p t i o n  English  12, 099 o r  equivalent.  of course  Purpose: Goal 1 To e x p a n d s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a j o r themes and t e c h n i q u e s o f m a j o r E n g l i s h , A m e r i c a n and C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s o f t h e modern e r a ; Goal 2 To i m p r o v e t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t and e x p l a i n p o e t r y a n d s h o r t f i c t i o n ; Goal 3 To i n t r o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e f f e c t i v e e x p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t o those p r i n c i p l e s which a p p l y t o w r i t i n g about l i t e r a t u r e ; Goal 4 reading  To e n c o u r a g e s t u d e n t s t o i n c r e a s e of imaginative literature;  their  123  Goal 5 To i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l i v i n g h e r i t a g e of t h e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n t h e E n g l i s h language; Goal 6 To i m p r o v e t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r r e a c t i o n s , e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , t o t h e poems and s t o r i e s o f m a j o r a u t h o r s ; Goal 7 to develop students' confidence i n reading, w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g a b o u t l i t e r a t u r e and t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Content  organization:  The j u d g e m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r i s to be e x e r c i s e d i n d e c i d i n g upon t h e a r r a n g e m e n t and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f poems and s t o r i e s t o be s t u d i e d . However, c e r t a i n b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s a r e t o be f o l l o w e d : . 1. A minimum o f 10 studied;  major a u t h o r s '  works are  to  2. E q u a l t i m e d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m h o u r s i s t o be t o d i s c u s s i o n o f p o e t r y and p r o s e ;  be devoted  3. E m p h a s i s i s t o be p l a c e d p r i m a r i l y upon c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s r a t h e r t h a n upon h i s t o r i c a l or l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t s : " p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m " r a t h e r t h a n h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l or t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h e s i s t o be t h e c h i e f a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e x t s . 8.  Lectures 3 h o u r s o f c l a s s r o o m t i m e p e r week w i l l be c o n d u c t e d i n e i t h e r l e c t u r e or seminar s t y l e s . 1 h o u r p e r week w i l l be d e v o t e d t o a more p e r s o n a l i z e d w o r k s h o p t u t o r i a l format.  9.  Seminar See  10.  groups  above  Written  assignments  N a t u r e : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of w o r k s Number and 11.  Basis  length:  for evaluating  e s s a y s and  studied  4 - 500 word themes 1 - 1,000-1,500 word r e s e a r c h student  assignments  50%  performance  paper  124 r e s e a r c h paper f i n a l examination class participation 12. O t h e r  activities  20% 20% 10%  i n course  o c c a s i o n a l f i l m s or t a p e s of d r a m a t i z a t i o n s or e x p l a n a t i o n s of t e x t s s t u d i e d 13. R e a d i n g  list  Required t e x t s : Gary Geddes, ed., 20th C e n t u r y P o e t r y & P o e t i c s , 3 r d e d i t i o n ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1985) R o b e r t Penn W a r r e n and A l b e r t E r s k i n e , e d s . , S t o r y M a s t e r p i e c e s (New Y o r k : D e l l Pub. Co., 14. Number o f b o o k s and s u p p o r t of t h i s c o u r s e A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 See  j o u r n a l s which b o o k s and  a t t a c h e d r e s o u r c e and  Short 1983)  l i b r a r y holds i n  several  supplementary  journals. resources  list.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302144/manifest

Comment

Related Items