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ESL university students' coping strategies : a qualitative study of academic reading Yuen, Susie 1988

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ESL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' COPING STRATEGIES: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF ACADEMIC READING By Susie Yuen B.A., The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 19 7 7 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Language Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (c) September 1988 Susie Yuen, 1988 In p r e s e n t i n g this thesis in part ia l f u l f i lmen t o f t h e requ i remen ts fo r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at t h e Univers i ty o f Bri t ish C o l u m b i a , I agree that t h e Library shall m a k e it f ree ly avai lable fo r re ference a n d s tudy . I f u r the r agree that permiss ion f o r ex tens ive c o p y i n g o f th is thesis fo r scholar ly p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d by the h e a d o f m y d e p a r t m e n t o r b y his o r her representa t ives . It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r pub l i ca t i on o f th is thesis f o r f inanc ia l gain shall no t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n pe rm iss ion . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a n g u a g e * K r 1 n p . a t - . 1 o n T h e Univers i ty o f Brit ish C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver , Canada V 6 T 1Y3 Date September 6. 1988 nF.f in/ f t -n ABSTRACT The a b i l i t y t o r e a d and w r i t e academic d i s c o u r s e i n a second language o f t e n determines an ESL student's s c h o l a s t i c p r o g r e s s . Recent r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h has f o c u s e d on the academic r e a d i n g of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a t the t e x t l e v e l , o f t e n a t the s i n g l e or m u l t i - p a r a g r a p h l e v e l (Block, 1986; C a r r e l l , 1985,1987), and has loo k e d a t c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were g e n e r a l a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s . This s t u d y e x p l o r e s how f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y ESL s t u d e n t s cope with the r e a d i n g demands of two s p e c i f i c c r e d i t c o u r s e s , E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y , within the c o n t e x t of the c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , the i n s t r u c t i o n , and the n a t u r e of the academic d i s c i p l i n e i t s e l f . The r e s e a r c h method f o c u s e d on e t h n o g r a p h i c i n t e r v i e w s with t e n s t u d e n t s from v a r i o u s A s i a n c o u n t r i e s and t h e i r Canadian i n s t r u c t o r s , on c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , and on the r e s e a r c h e r ' s e x t e n s i v e f i e l d d i a r y . A n a l y s i s of the find i n g s i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e major coping s t r a t e g i e s : self-management, background knowledge and experie n c e , and r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r s i n the d i s c i p l i n e s . The n a t u r e of the genre, the s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i n the d i s c i p l i n e , and t h e i r p e r s e v e r a n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension appear t o i n f l u e n c e t h e i r choice of s t r a t e g i e s i n meeting s p e c i f i c academic o b j e c t i v e s . These s t r a t e g i e s contributed to the background knowledge component of the academic tasks that the students face. Their e f f o r t s at academic tasks were guided by the concern to do what was required to complete course assignments. Essentially, course assignments directed the action component or agenda, of the students' academic tasks. Reading-to-learn involved approaching the genre-specific reading tasks at the whole text l e v e l within the context of what was required to succe s s f u l l y f u l f i l the course requirements of the par t i c u l a r genre. The primary r e a l i t y of the students was to demonstrate an adequate l e v e l of academic proficiency. In contrast with previous research, findings indicated the importance of genre-specific reading tasks at the whole-text l e v e l rather than generic reading at the paragraph l e v e l , and the importance of relating coping s t r a t e g i e s to the context of what was required to f u l f i l course requirements rather than the study of s t r a t e g i e s in isolation. Thus, the findings were consistent with a t h e o r e t i c a l model (Mohan, 1986) analyzing academic tasks into an action component and a knowledge component. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS I . Scope and F o c u s o f t h e S t u d y 1 A. B a c k g r o u n d o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 B. R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 I I . Review o f R e l a t e d L i t e r a t u r e 9 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 B. Scope o f L i t e r a t u r e R e view 9. C. D e f i n i t i o n s 10. D. T e x t S t r u c t u r e 12 E. P r o b l e m s w i t h R e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g R e c a l l i n a Second Language 15 F. I n t e r a c t i o n between B a c k g r o u n d Knowledge and T e x t 17 G. A T h e o r e t i c a l M o d e l : t h e Knowledge Framework 19 H. An A l t e r n a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o R e s e a r c h i n Aca d e m i c R e a d i n g S t r a t e g i e s 22 I . S t r a t e g i e s f o r A c t u a l U n i v e r s i t y A s s i g n m e n t s 24 J . Use o f S t u d e n t I n f o r m a n t s 26 K. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n 27 L. Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review and Need f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 29 I I I . R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and P r o c e s s 33 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 33 B. S e t t i n g 3 4 C. A c c e s s and R e c o n n a i s s a n c e Phase 37 D. Documents 40 E. P a r t i c i p a n t s 41 V F. Data C o l l e c t i o n Through P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n 43 G. Data C o l l e c t i o n Through I n t e r v i e w s 44 H. Data C o l l e c t i o n Through the F i e l d D i a r y 47 I . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 49 J . Summary 51 IV. A n a l y s i s of Data 52 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 52 B. S e n s i t i z i n g 55 C. Coding 58 D. Model - B u i l d i n g 78 E. T r i a n g u l a t i o n 83 F. Theory L i n k a g e .90 G. Summary 9 5 V. C o n c l u s i o n 98 A. Comparison w i t h Recent R e l a t e d R e s e a r c h 98 B. The P r e s e n t Study 98 C. T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 100 D. E d u c a t i o n a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 102 E. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study 106 F. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Research 107 G. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks - a F i n a l Word from the Res e a r c h e r and P a r t i c i p a n t s 110 B i b l i o g r a p h y I l l Appendix A - S u b j e c t consent form 117 Appendix B - S u b j e c t i n f o r m a t i o n form 118 Appendix C - I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s 119 v i Appendix D - Reading Schedule f o r P s y c h o l o g y 110 .......121 Appendix E - Course O u t l i n e f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 110..122 v i i L i s t of F i g u r e s 1. O b s e r v a t i o n c h a r t 44 2. S t u d e n t s ' Coping S t r a t e g i e s 60 3. Model of Coping S t r a t e g i e s 80 4. Model of C o n t e x t s f o r Coping S t r a t e g i e s 81 5. T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n r e a d i n g 84 6. A p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge framework to d a t a 102 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Drs. Mohan, Early and Fisher, who consented to form my thesis committee, are acknowledged for their invaluable guidance and feedback in the development and completion of this thesis. Thank you to my advisor, Bernard Mohan, for sharing his insights in academic reading and the content-language relationship; to Margaret Early for facilitating the literature review and for constant encouragement during this year of graduate studies; and to Donald Fisher whose expertise in the ethnographic process enabled me to understand qualitative research design and reflexivity in analysis. Appreciation is also extended to the ESL university students whose willingness to participate in this study provided the essential data. The administration of Columbia College is to be thanked, for providing me with a year's assisted study leave to complete my Master program. I also thank my teaching colleagues at Columbia College and my fellow graduate students at UBC for their interest and input. Finally, my gratitude is expressed to my family who are also UBC alumnae/students: my husband, Gordon, and our children, Colleen, Sandra and Adena, whose support, humor and patience enabled me to complete this thesis. 1 CHAPTER ONE SCOPE AND FOCUS OF THE PROBLEM A. Background of the Problem During the past decade the r e l a t i o n between language teaching and content teaching has been receiving increasing emphasis in academic i n s t i t u t i o n s . Concurrent with t h i s r i s i n g development has been the re-examination of language teaching for content learning in postsecondary education, focusing on the problem of unifying the approaches of English for Sp e c i f i c Purposes, study s k i l l s and reading in the content areas (Mohan, 1979). The s p e c i f i c problems of university ESL students in understanding academic textbooks has been addressed from two perspectives: research into instruction from the English for Sp e c i f i c Purposes viewpoint (e.g. English for Science, English for Mathematics) whereby the language pertinent to a s p e c i f i c content area is taught, and research into Language Across the Curriculum whereby language that is necessary for general academic development is the focus. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , in accordance with the l a t t e r view, recent research has paid attention to the reading needs of English as a second language (ESL) international students who are in postsecondary i n s t i t u t i o n s in North America. A number of questions can be raised: What are the 2 r e a d i n g needs . o f ESL i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ? What a r e t h e o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g i e s o f s u c h s t u d e n t s when a p p r o a c h i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g t a s k s ? What i s b e i n g done t o a s s i s t t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r r e a d i n g t a s k s ? What k i n d s o f t a s k s w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n ? What a r e t h e s t u d e n t s ' c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s when f a c e d w i t h a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g t a s k s ? R e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n ESL r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n f o r a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s a t t h e p o s t s e c o n d a r y l e v e l has f o c u s e d on t e x t s t r u c t u r e and t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t e x t s by r e a d e r s . The a p p r o a c h i n much o f t h i s r e s e a r c h has been t h r o u g h q u a n t i t a t i v e s t u d i e s ; l e s s e m p h a s i s has been p l a c e d on t h e q u a l i t a t i v e or e t h n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h i n e x p l o r i n g how ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s d e a l w i t h a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g t a s k s . T h i s s t u d y , a q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y , w i l l e x p l o r e t h e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s make use of when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s i n f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y c r e d i t c o u r s e s . B. R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n The a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n t e n t of a c a d e m i c t e x t b o o k s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g s i s a p r i m e r e q u i s i t e f o r s u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . A f a c u l t y s u r v e y by J o h n s ( 1 9 8 1 ) d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e r e c e p t i v e s k i l l s , r e a d i n g and l i s t e n i n g , were c r i t i c a l f o r n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s ' s u c c e s s i n u n i v e r s i t y work. P r o f i c i e n c y i n 3 i n d e p e n d e n t r e a d i n g f a c i l i t a t e s s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c o u r s e c o n t e n t , c o m p l e t i n g of a s s i g n m e n t s , and w r i t i n g of e x a m i n a t i o n s . A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f e a c h u n i v e r s i t y t e r m , s t u d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y p r e s e n t e d w i t h a r e a d i n g l i s t w h i c h t h e y a r e e x p e c t e d t o u t i l i z e d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r . I f i t i s f o r f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e a d i n g l i s t may i n c l u d e a l i s t o f s h o r t s t o r i e s , poems, dramas, or n o v e l s t h a t w i l l be t a u g h t i n s c h e d u l e d weeks d u r i n g t h e t e r m ; i f i t i s f i r s t y e a r p s y c h o l o g y , t h e l i s t may i n c l u d e t h e c h a p t e r numbers or t o p i c s t o be c o v e r e d i n t h e e n s u r i n g weeks as w e l l as t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g s a s s i g n e d by t h e i n s t r u c t o r . The c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e u s u a l l y a l s o made known a t t h i s t i m e . F a c e d w i t h t h e s e d a u n t i n g r e a d i n g t a s k s whose q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i r ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c l a s s e s have p r e p a r e d them f o r , some f r e s h m e n s t u d e n t s may b e g i n i m m e d i a t e l y t o r e a d t h e t e x t b o o k s , h o p i n g t o a c q u i r e some b a c k g r o u n d knowledge t o u n d e r s t a n d or t o s u p p l e m e n t what t h e i n s t r u c t o r s v i l l s a y i n t h e i r c l a s s e s . O t h e r s t u d e n t s may d e l a y o u t - o f - c l a s s r e a d i n g u n t i l t h e i n s t r u c t o r b e g i n s t e a c h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g y c o n c e p t or a p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e o f l i t e r a t u r e . D e p e n d i n g on t h e i r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e (Cummins, 1984), t h e l e v e l of t h e i r r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y , t h e i r a b i l i t y t o use i n f e r e n c i n g s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g ( B i a l y s t o k , 1 9 8 3 ) , t h e i r use o f l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s ( O ' M a l l e y e t a l , 1985; R e i d , 4 1987), t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e a d i n g t a s k (Mohan, 1986), t h e ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w i l l a p p r o a c h t h e i r a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s w i t h c o n f i d e n c e , t r e p i d a t i o n , r e l u c t a n c e or e n t h u s i a s m . ESL s t u d e n t s a r e f a c e d w i t h a d o u b l e t a s k : t o l e a r n t h e l a n g u a g e of v a r i o u s c o n t e n t a r e a s ( l a n g u a g e a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m ) as w e l l as t o l e a r n t h e meaning o f t h e c o n t e n t i t s e l f . I f t h e y have s t u d i e d l i t e r a t u r e or p s y c h o l o g y a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l and have been t a u g h t t h e s e s u b j e c t s i n E n g l i s h , t h e y may have some f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e l a n g u a g e of t h e s e c o n t e n t a r e a s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e y would have some i n k l i n g of l i t e r a r y c o n c e p t s , s u c h as p l o t , c h a r a c t e r , or theme; or o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e r m s , s u c h as s t r e s s management, c o g n i t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n s , or p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i f t h e y have e n t e r e d t h e i r a c a d e m i c u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s d i r e c t l y from ESL n o n - c r e d i t c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y have been c o n c e n t r a t i n g on g e n e r a l s e c o n d l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n s k i l l s i n l i s t e n i n g , s p e a k i n g , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g w i t h o u t p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n b e i n g p a i d t o l a n g u a g e a c r o s s t h e c u r r i c u l u m ; i n o t h e r words, t h e y may n o t have been e x p o s e d t o l a n g u a g e t h a t i s s p e c i f i c t o c e r t a i n a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s , s u c h as E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e or t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , when r e a d i n g f o r t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s , t h e y a r e f a c e d w i t h t h e d o u b l e t a s k o f l e a r n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e . o f v a r i o u s c o n t e n t a r e a s w e l l as 5 learning the meaning of the content i t s e l f . Research in English as a Second Language has been focusing more and more on the 'black box', the classroom, examining what is a c t u a l l y going on in the language classroom (Seliger and Long, 1983). ESL reading research at the univ e r s i t y l e v e l has centred on quantitative studies where two variables have been considered: manipulating the text or working with the reader ( C a r r e l l , 1982; Johnson,1982; C a r r e l l & Eisterhold, 1983). Literature on ESL reading for academic purposes has concentrated on text structure (Meyer, 1985; Meyer, Brandt & Bluth, 1980; C a r r e l l , 1983, 1984,1986, 1987), text structure in r e l a t i o n to graphics and tasks (Mohan, 1979,1986), learner strategies and use of student informants (Block,1986; Bialystok,1983; Wenden and Rubin, 1987). This study takes the fieldwork approach in examining the question of vhat coping strategies ESL univ e r s i t y students make use of vhen approaching reading tasks in f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y English Literature and Psychology c r e d i t courses. The rationale for t h i s approach is the desire to acquire a f u l l e r understanding of the attitudes and strategies that an ESL student brings to the reading tasks at the univ e r s i t y l e v e l , to gain additional insights into what motivates such students in their reading tasks, and to examine vhat i t is that enables such students who appear to 6 lack some of the essential components of good readers (such as an extensive vocabulary, integrative s k i l l s , socio-c u l t u r a l background knowledge, and e f f i c i e n t reading strategies) to succeed in courses that have high reading demands. Why is t h i s study concentrating on reading in English Literature and the Social Sciences? F i r s t of a l l , i t was necessary to define boundaries in the scope of language across the curriculum in order to keep the study manageable within the constraints of time and energy on the part of both interviewees and researcher. These students are coping with f u l l academic loads, studying in a second language, and s e t t l i n g into a "foreign" country. Secondly, l i m i t i n g the study to two d i s c i p l i n e s enables the student interviewee and the researcher to compare and contrast strategies used in the two d i s c i p l i n e s - to discover what is d i s t i n c t i v e to each and what is common. Thirdly, within the chosen setting, there exists a co-operative and interdependent rel a t i o n s h i p between teaching colleagues of the two d i s c i p l i n e s , enhancing the potential for f a m i l i a r i t y and collaboration for the benefit of the students' progress and achievement. The fact they were collaborators meant they would be able to t e l l the researcher more about their strategies and their students. Fourthly, the academic and experiential background of the researcher herself (English Literature, Language Education in Secondary English and English as a Second 7 Language) is conducive to concentrating on the d i s c i p l i n e s of English Literature and Social Sciences. This researcher's professional experience includes nine years as an instructor in an educational i n s t i t u t i o n that s p e c i a l i z e s in senior secondary and university studies for ESL students, short-term experience as a composition tutor to native and non-native students enrolled in English 100 at UBC and as a summer assistant in ENED 478 (Introd. to Teaching ESL). In addition, she is a Canadian-born person of Chinese o r i g i n , has children who have English as a native language in both public secondary and university i n s t i t u t i o n s , and speaks some Cantonese. The fact that she is of a v i s i b l e minority has f a c i l i t a t e d the ethnographic inquiry with students from Asia who are studying in Canada. In addition, her currently being a graduate student, rather than a teacher, has changed the tone of the rel a t i o n s h i p between subject and researcher during the study, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g access to data that might be less forthcoming in a student-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p . For example, the students have been extremely candid and forthright during the interviews. For many students, expediency is a prime factor in their approach to studies. Whether one agrees with t h i s modus vivendi or not, i t appears to be what drives many students. This seems to be even more so in the case of international university students who have t r a v e l l e d long distances, whose parents have invested considerable hopes and f i n a n c i a l resources on them, and who are functioning in an unfamiliar socio-8 c u l t u r a l environment for extended periods; they do a l l t h i s in order to obtain a univ e r s i t y degree. . Recognition of these numerous components in the international student is germane to understanding them and the nature of their approach to their learning tasks. In summary, the rationale for t h i s ethnographic study consists of several aspects. S i g n i f i c a n t factors are the primacy of reading in univ e r s i t y coursework and the dual task of the ESL student to master the language of a content area as well as the meaning of the content i t s e l f . Other factors are the paucity of ethnographic research that focuses on the actual coping strategies of such students in dealing with academic reading demands in cre d i t courses, the potential of acquiring additional insights into such strategies through fieldwork research, and the professional and personal background of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r researcher. 9 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. I n t r o d u c t i o n In t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w of the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL s t u d e n t s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , f o u r s t e p s have been f o l l o w e d . F i r s t l y , some of the ev i d e n c e f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t may be a p p l i c a b l e t o second language l e a r n e r s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l a r e examined (Meyer,1985; Meyer, Brandt & B l u t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) ; Meyer & F r e e d l e , 1 9 8 4 ; C a r r e l l , 1 9 8 2 , 1 9 8 3 , 19 84,19 85,19 87; C a r r e l l & E i s t e r h o l d , 1983; Mohan,1979,198G). S e c o n d l y , an a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o r e s e a r c h i n g the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL s t u d e n t s - what the second language s t u d e n t i s a c t u a l l y do i n g i n a t t e m p t i n g t o make meaning out of the r e a d i n g of academic t e x t s ( B l o c k , 1986; B i a l y s t o k , 1983; O'Malley e t a l , 1985) i s d i s c u s s e d . T h i r d l y , a s t u d y of what u n i v e r s i t y t a s k s a r e a c t u a l l y a s s i g n e d t o s t u d e n t s i s l o o k e d a t ( H o r o w i t z , 1985). F o u r t h l y , the use of s t u d e n t i n f o r m a n t s (Wenden and R u b i n , 1987) i s examined, and f i f t h l y , some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m a p p l i c a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e academic r e a d i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s , based on c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h , i s summarized. B. Scope of L i t e r a t u r e Review The broadness of the scope of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i s d e l i b e r a t e . Dubin and O l s h t a i n ( 1 9 8 6 ) s t a t e t h a t : i n d e a l i n g w i t h the s k i l l of r e a d i n g , the d e s i g n e r must s y n t h e s i z e v a r i o u s 1 0 e l e m e n t s ; t h u s , ^ t h e o r y becomes embodied i n t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n ; ( a ) t h e o r i e s a b o u t th e n a t u r e of r e a d i n g i t s e l f , s p e c i f i c a l l y models o f mature r e a d i n g ; ( b ) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e a d i n g s e l e c t i o n s , or t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s ; and ( c ) t h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs o f s e c o n d l a n g u a g e r e a d e r -l e a r n e r s . ( D u b i n & O l s h t a i n , 1 9 8 6 ) . C . D e f i n i t i o n s Schema t h e o r y h o l d s t h a t c o m p r e h e n d i n g a t e x t i s an i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s between t h e r e a d e r ' s b a c k g r o u n d knowledge and t h e t e x t . E f f i c i e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n r e q u i r e s t h e a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e t h e t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s t o one's own k n o w l e d g e . ( C a r r e l l & E i s t e r h o l d , 1 9 8 3 ) . What t h e r e a d e r b r i n g s t o t h e t e x t would i n c l u d e p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d k nowledge, whether from one's own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s or from e a r l i e r i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h o f t e n i n v o l v e s more t h a n one's l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e dge. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g has two modes: "bottom-up and "top-down". "Bottom-up" p r o c e s s i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g b a s e d on l i n g u i s t i c i n p u t f r o m t h e t e x t ; i n t h i s mode, t h e t h i n k i n g i s f r o m s p e c i f i c d a t a t o more g e n e r a l s c h e m a t a . "Top-down" p r o c e s s i n g i s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g t h a t o c c u r s • when t h e r e a d e r u s e s knowledge o f t h e w o r l d t o make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e d a t a i n t h e t e x t . I t i s a " c o n c e p t u a l l y d r i v e n " p r o c e d u r e where t h e r e a d e r moves f r o m g e n e r a l s c h e m a t a t o t h e t e x t ; i t h e l p s t h e r e a d e r t o s e l e c t from among v a r i o u s p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e i n c o m i n g 11 data.(Carrell & Eisterhold, 1983). Schemata can provide a mental outline which guides the reader in organizing the text during the process of encoding. Successful reading comprehension requires both top-down and bottom-up processing. Considerable recent research has focused on the top-down mode, the bringing of prior knowledge to the text. The need for a balance between both modes of processing is an emerging consensus among researchers ( S i l b e r s t e i n , 1987). The term "genre" as used in English Literature distinguishes d i f f e r e n t kinds of l i t e r a t u r e , such as poetry, drama, short s t o r i e s , essays, or novels. This term is also used to c l a s s i f y d i f f e r e n t academic d i s c i p l i n e s , such as Psychology, English Literature, or Biology. The l a t t e r usage applies here. In t h i s thesis, the term "ethnography" is used interchangeably with the term " q u a l i t a t i v e study" to indicate a method of research that examines phemenona based on the p r i n c i p l e of r e f l e x i v i t y through participant observation. Recognition is given to the fact that the researcher is part of the s o c i a l world that is being explored and described. (Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983). Wilcox (1982) states that i t is commonly assumed and 12 agreed that schools transmit curriculum content - a body of academic s k i l l s ; however, what is often taught i m p l i c i t l y is what has been referred to as the "hidden curriculum". Ethnographers have been interested in exploring and analyzing how what goes on in classrooms r e f l e c t s the wider society, p a r t i c u l a r l y "how the nature of the wider society constrains the educational process." (Wilcox,1982,p.464). Wilcox further claims that the ethnography of schooling has challenged the " t r a d i t i o n a l formulation of educational problems."(Wilcox,1982,p.477), by pointing out that technocratic approaches to education, such as the pretest-posttest approach to solving educational problems, have been inadequate in examining the complexity of the educational process. Ethnography's orientation to context, i t s attempt at detailed empirical description and i t s fine-grained analysis are making s i g n i f i c a n t contributions towards demystifying the educational process. D. Text Structure Meyer(1985) examined text structure in content material. She advocated f i r s t examining text for i t s top-l e v e l structure - the r h e t o r i c a l relationships that connect the greatest amount of text. In a "top-down" fashion, the movement is from the most inclusive relationship to the next most inclusive r e l a t i o n s h i p u n t i l one reaches the grammar 1 3 level of analysis. She grouped r h e t o r i c a l or l o g i c a l r e l ations into five d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r i e s : c o l l e c t i o n , causation, response, comparison, and description. Under these fiv e categories, discourse could be c l a s s i f i e d at the top-level structure as predominantly of one type. For example, in history discourse, a time-order plan exemplifies the c o l l e c t i o n relationship; s c i e n t i f i c discourse(problem-solution; cause-effect) usually adheres to the response category. Meyer claims that these r h e t o r i c a l relationships in texts match up with patterns or ways of thinking in the mind of the writer and the mind of the reader. She suggests that i f readers can i d e n t i f y the schemata patterns used by a writer in a s p e c i f i c discourse, they can comprehend the text. Her research with graduate and secondary students who had English as a Native Language indicated that certain r h e t o r i c a l patterns, the more highly i n t e r r e l a t e d ones, such as comparison, causation and response, f a c i l i t a t e d better r e c a l l than c o l l e c t i o n s of descriptions (Meyer & Freedle, 1984). In addition, the l e v e l of r e c a l l was dependent on whether the students possessed and activated the appropriate formal schemata. Do ESL readers possess the appropriate formal schemata for processing text structure? Is there a difference in how certain r h e t o r i c a l structures impact on ESL readers of varying l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l backgrounds? W i l l e x p l i c i t teaching of text structure f a c i l i t a t e ESL reading? W i l l 14 weak ESL readers p r o f i t from instruction in i d e n t i f y i n g the r h e t o r i c a l patterns in text? C a r r e l l ' s empirical research (1985) posits that ESL learners can be taught text structure to f a c i l i t a t e reading comprehension. In a t r a i n i n g study with intermediate l e v e l u niversity preparatory ESL students, two discourse types were tested: comparison and c o l l e c t i o n of description. While the experimental group was receiving t h i s t r a i n i n g , a control group was receiving the usual instructions in an ESL reading curriculum: l i n g u i s t i c operations with the text, such as grammar exercises, sentence combining, sentence analysis, vocabulary and discourse connectors; content a c q u i s i t i o n procedures, such as questions, discussions and writing. The only t r a i n i n g the control group did not receive was instruction and practise on using top-level r h e t o r i c a l organization. C a r r e l l found that the students who received e x p l i c i t t r a i n i n g in using top-level r h e t o r i c a l organization of texts were more p r o f i c i e n t in reading comprehension and r e c a l l . In another study, C a r r e l l (1984) examined the effects of r h e t o r i c a l organization of d i f f e r e n t types of expository prose on ESL readers of d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds. Adapting passages of a text used by Meyer (Meyer and Freedle,1984), she tested d i f f e r e n t prose selections in a study with intensive l e v e l ESL subjects from Spanish, 15 Oriental and Arabic language groups. As in Meyer's study, C a r r e l l ' s research showed that r e c a l l was better for the more tig h t l y - s t r u c t u r e d texts. C a r r e l l also found that there was a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of immediate r e c a l l versus delayed r e c a l l . The quantity of r e c a l l of the d i f f e r e n t discourse types was also s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t for readers of d i f f e r e n t native language backgrounds. " In this study, C a r r e l l extended the work of Meyer in textual analysis by •applying i t to ESL readers of varying l i n g u i s t i c (and therefore also c u l t u r a l and perhaps r h e t o r i c a l ) background. ( C a r r e l l , 1984) What are the classroom implications? C a r r e l l found that most of the ESL subjects f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y the r h e t o r i c a l organization of the text; the few who did possess and u t i l i z e the appropriate formal schemata were able to retrieve more data. The implication is that teaching ESL students to i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t discourse structures may be e f f e c t i v e in enabling them to improve their reading comprehension, retention and r e c a l l . E. Problems with Research Involving Recall in a Second  Language A question can be raised regarding the findings of research that e n t a i l s r e c a l l in a second language. How accurate and how complete is the r e c a l l that is recorded in English by students who have ESL and that is subsequently used as data for analysis and generalizing? It is very possible that such students may r e c a l l more about their 16 reading than they can express in English. Another factor that may skew the findings of some of the current s t a t i s t i c a l studies on the reading comprehension of ESL students is the matter of individual differences: S t a t i s t i c s for groups of students too often can mask what is a c t u a l l y happening to individuals as they succeed or f a i l in learning English or - what is more important from the perspective of thi s researcher - in learning through  English (Saville-Troike, 1984, p.215). The extent of individual differences was Saville-Troike's main finding in her study with students from seven d i f f e r e n t language backgrounds; even though the subjects she used were ESL students who had been matched for English proficiency, i n i t i a l l i t e r a c y in native language, and socio-economic status, there were considerably differences in their levels of academic achievement. While i t is true that her subjects were younger children, the matter of individual differences would l i k e l y hold even more true in international u n i v e r s i t y students who have been educated in their own languages in extremely diverse educational systems. When r e c a l l is written in the target language, data may also be skewed i f the teacher-researchers are "distracted by grammatical mistakes and are thus rendered incapable of focusing on the actual comprehension of students." (Bernhardt, 1986, p.109). In l i k e manner, ESL students, when writing in their second or t h i r d language, may be focusing on grammar, vocabulary choice or s p e l l i n g rather 17 than on comprehension, thereby d e c r e a s i n g the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of r e c a l l . A f o u r t h f a c t o r to c o n s i d e r i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between r e c a l l and comprehension. Comprehension tasks i n v o l v e conceptual understanding of d i s c o u r s e and r e q u i r e d i f f e e n t s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . (Doyle, 1983). At the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , academic tasks o f t e n i n v o l v e a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n , thus demanding s k i l l s beyond r e c a l l . F. I n t e r a c t i o n Between Background Knowledge and Text Research i n schema theory i n d i c a t e s that readers i n t e r a c t with the t e x t i n attempting to comprehend r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s (Meyer, 1975; C a r r e l l & E i s t e r h o l d , 1983) The meaning a reader a c q u i r e s from a t e x t r e s i d e s not so much from the t e x t as from the schematic or background knowledge of the reader. Thus, the a b i l i t y of a reader to understand the t e x t would be dependent on the c o m p a t i b i l i t y or c o n s i s t e n c y between the reader's background knowledge and the t e x t . C a r r e l l (1987) f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s between "fo r m a l " schemata which she d e f i n e s as background knowledge of the formal r h e t o r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s found i n d i f f e r e n t types of t e x t s and "content" schemata which r e f e r s to background knowledge i n the content area. Readers' lack of the a p p r o p r i a t e schemata or t h e i r f a i l u r e to a c t i v a t e i t w i l l hinder, t h e i r comprehension as they w i l l be unable to process the t e x t a c c u r a t e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y . In t h i s 13 regard, i f the material requires or presupposes a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l schemata, foreign students may encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s since their c u l t u r a l backgrounds may . lead to d i f f e r e n t interpretations of the c u l t u r a l - s p e c i f i c text. Carrell(1987) found this to be so in her study with Muslim and Catholic ESL univer s i t y students when investigating the effects on ESL reading comprehension of both culture-s p e c i f i c content schemata and formal schemata. Using adapted versions of texts which were based c u l t u r a l l y on r e l i g i o n and which represented familiar and unfamiliar r h e t o r i c a l organization, she found that: content is generally more important than structure when both content and r h e t o r i c a l form are factors; when both content and form are famil i a r , the reading is r e l a t i v e l y easy, and conversely, when both content and form are unfamiliar, the reading is r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t ; when either content or form is unfamiliar, unfamiliar content was more d i f f i c u l t for the ESL reader than unfamiliar form. What are the classroom implications? In the academic ESL reading classroom, content is very important. How well the content is comprehended is influenced by the vbackground knowledge the reader brings to the text ( C a r r e l l , 1983). Instructors can f a c i l i t a t e student awareness of appropriate c u l t u r a l content background knowledge to enable ESL learners to understand new content in reading materials. The use of advance organizers, oral discussion, v i s u a l presentation, hypothesis-testing (Brock, 1986), or 19 meaningful analogies may serve this bridging function. Another major concern is overload and i t s ef f e c t on comprehension. If students have to cope with unfamiliar text structures as well as unfamiliar content simultaneously, they may find the material incomprehensible; however i f one factor is. held constant while the new data is presented, the students are aided considerably in their learning. This has implications for the sequencing of instruction and curriculum not only in language classes but also in content classes. (Mohan, 1986) G. A Theoretical Model: the Knowledge Framework Language teachers and researchers have recognized the importance of co-ordinating language learning and subject matter(content), but an appropriate t h e o r e t i c a l framework to connect language, thinking and content has been lacking. Mohan (1986) provides a rationale to explain the problems of academically-oriented ESL students in making the t r a n s i t i o n from the language classroom to the subject classroom; he addresses in d e t a i l their d i f f i c u l t i e s in reading subject textbooks: Lacking an organizing framework, students are forced to integrate the work in their language classes and content classes on their own, without any guidance. What for teachers is simply d i f f i c u l t , may prove impossible for students.(Mohan, 1986,p.18). Mohan's model for integrating language and content is 20 a knowledge framework that w i l l help ESL students to connect work in the language class and the content c l a s s . His knowledge structure organizes discourse into two major areas: the s p e c i f i c and the p r a c t i c a l (the action s i t u a t i o n ) , which consists of description, sequence and choice; and the general and the t h e o r e t i c a l (background knowledge), which consists of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , p r i n c i p l e s and evaluation. This conceptual framework gives a structure for analyzing reading materials as well as for developing or adapting curriculum to make content materials more comprehensible to ESL students who struggle for academic success in North American u n i v e r s i t i e s . It provides these students with a cognitive structure to integrate language and content. By being taught thinking s k i l l s across the curriculum, together with content material, they w i l l learn concept formation, decision making and problem solving. Mohan's emphasis on graphics to f a c i l i t a t e understanding of discourse is a useful aid to university readers, p a r t i c u l a r l y to the ESL student, as they may be able to conceptualize more e a s i l y ideas that are v i s u a l l y presented to them. With the use of graphics as a center for organizing information, students can be aided in developing thinking and language s k i l l s appropriate for academic endeavours. In reading-to-learn, they can gather and express information graphically, thus gaining access to t h e o r e t i c a l academic knowledge. In learning-to-read, they 21 can be taught how the graphics can give them information in a more manageable way; for some students, perceptions gained •from visuals may help them to make cognitive links that they are unable to perceive through l i n g u i s t i c means alone. The context-reduced, field-independent and abstract l e v e l of academic language is often a hindrance in the t r a n s i t i o n from ESL classroom reading a c t i v i t i e s to actual content reading assignments. Brown and Yule define the discourse model which is constructed during the comprehension process as "a mental representation of discourse; references [in comprehension] are made to the mental representation rather than to the o r i g i n a l verbal representation in the text." (Brown & Yule,1984,p. 200 ) . For ESL u n i v e r s i t y students, a prime objective is to manage academic learning tasks in an independent fashion. Their a b i l i t y to cope with academic reading can be enhanced through using the knowledge framework as a way of analyzing tasks (the knowing and the doing). Mohan's knowledge structure model, incorporating discourse analysis, graphics and tasks, goes beyond the text structure research of Meyer and C a r r e l l . Its significance is in f a c i l i t a t i n g the mainstreaming of ESL students into content classes, whether at the elementary, secondary or t e r t i a r y l e v e l . 22 H. An Alternative Approach to Research in Academic Reading  Strategies Reading comprehension is seen as a complex information-processing s k i l l in which the reader and text interact. Meyer(1985), Carrell(1983,1984,1985,1987), and Mohan(1979,1986) provide organizing strategies to f a c i l i t a t e reading comprehension. The question a r i s e s : vhat strategies do second language learners employ in reading academic discourse? Block (1985) examined the strategies of native and nonnative students in deciphering c o l l e g e - l e v e l textbooks. Through the use of "think-aloud protocols", a type of verbal reporting in which reader-learners state their thoughts and behaviours while in the. actual process of reading, she researched the cognitive reading strategies of nine nonproficient readers (3 Spanish ESL students, 3 Chinese ESL students and 3 native speakers) who were enrolled in remedial reading courses. Block's study broke new ground in applying think-alouds to ESL reading as previous use of think-alouds with ESL students had been limited to the study of the composing process. To ensure that ESL students could verbalize their cognitive processes in the midst of reading, she conducted two p i l o t studies with ESL students at various language p r o f i c i e n c i e s to s a t i s f y herself as to the appropriateness of t h i s method with such students. In the actual study, the 23 subjects who verbalized t h e i r comprehension strategies while reading selections from an introductory psychology text were tested for r e c a l l and comprehension. Block used tr a n s c r i p t s from the p i l o t studies to test the r e l i a b i l i t y of the coding scheme and of the people performing the coding. This matter of accurate coding was very important in c o l l e c t i o n of data, for the detailed description of general reading strategies into ten types and of l o c a l reading strategies into fi v e types required an extremely close judgment of the students' think-aloud statements. Three questions can be raised about th i s experimental study: can such exact and accurate categorizing be made? Is i t possible that the subjects.' l e v e l of verbal fluency may af f e c t the way they express themselves, thereby confounding the coding in the a n a l y t i c a l phase? Perhaps more study needs to be made of the appropriateness of the coding scheme. Another consideration i s the determining of the categories: since students are not responding in their f i r s t language, their strategies may not be accurately or f u l l y disclosed. Block's results indicated that ESL readers appear to use strategies similar to native readers, suggesting that : strategy use i s a stable phenomenon which i s not t i e d to s p e c i f i c language features...[second language readers] bring with them their knowledge of the reading process and of approaches to tasks and then apply these to s p e c i f i c language features in the text. Thus, the development of strategy use, p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t is applied to informative text, does not seem to depend on language-specific features. (Block, 1985, p.485) . Her findings indicate a connection between strategy use and the a b i l i t y to learn. The students who do well are the ones who are able to integrate previous knowledge of language strategies (e.g. text-based strategies, prediction, interpretation) and information in the discourse at hand. Block's process-oriented research serves to remind teachers to examine c l o s e l y what ESL students can do before decisions on instruction are made. I. Strategies for Actual University Assignments Horowitz(1985) looked into what academic tasks university professors a c t u a l l y require of'their students. His findings have implications for increasing the relevance, meaningfulness and t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of classroom tasks for ESL u n i v e r s i t y students in ESL college preparatory courses. His survey of academic writing focused on what kinds of academic writing tasks are t y p i c a l . He found that most of the assigned writing was of a very controlled nature and that, in fact, a majority , of the tasks entailed very s p e c i f i c instructions for organizing content or required a p a r t i c u l a r thesis statement approach. This study of actual 25 u n i v e r s i t y tasks that are t y p i c a l l y assigned by u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s p o i n t s out the importance of an academic context i n s t r u c t u r i n g tasks i n order to ensure maximum t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of s k i l l s . His s t r e s s on the need to give ESL students models and p r a c t i s e s e s s i o n s i n performing p e r t i n e n t academic s k i l l s a p p l i e s to the c r u c i a l r e f l e c t i v e s k i l l of independent r e a d i n g comprehension f o r u n i v e r s i t y stud i e s . Horowitz's study can provide i n s i g h t i n t o r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h with ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . Hov t r a n s f e r a b l e are the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s such as u t i l i z i n g r h e t o r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t vere t e s t e d i n the experimental s t u d i e s (Meyer & F r e e d l e , 1984; C a r r e l l , 1984,1985)? And do these kinds of students h a b i t u a l l y use r h e t o r i c a l cues i n reading? Horowitz's examination of a c t u a l academic tasks has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r teachers who are p r e p a r i n g ESL students f o r rea d i n g requirements at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . How c l o s e l y a l i g n e d are t h e i r ESL re a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s to the a c t u a l r e a d i n g demands of u n i v e r s i t y courses? Another q u e s t i o n i s the matter of content and formal schemata i n ESL re a d i n g . Assumptions are o f t e n made about the content and formal schemata of these students with inadequate c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t the students who are accepted i n t o u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t coursevork have an academic p r o f i c i e n c y from previous e d u c a t i o n a l experience and have developed 26 i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n order to have a t t a i n e d the l e v e l of achievement t h a t allows admission i n t o u n i v e r s i t y . studies.(Cummins,1984). Are there s o c i o - c u l t u r a l and academic connections t h a t can be made th a t would f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g comprehension at the postsecondary academic l e v e l f o r ESL students? As noted by Cummins, c o n s i d e r a t i o n needs to be given to l i t e r a c y r e l a t e d s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i n the common u n d e r l y i n g p r o f i c i e n c y : Conceptual knowledge... s u b j e c t matter knowledge, h i g h e r - o r d e r t h i n k i n g s k i l l s , r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s , w r i t i n g composition s k i l l s , e t c . , developed through the medium of LI t r a n s f e r or become a v a i l a b l e to L2 given s u f f i c i e n t exposure and m o t i v a t i o n . (Cummins, 1984,p.144) In the context of expediency, what do ESL u n i v e r s i t y students i n academic c r e d i t courses pay a t t e n t i o n to when they are r e a d i n g assigned s e c t i o n s of textbooks or supplementary readings? Is t h e i r r e a d i n g a t the minute c a r e f u l and c r i t i c a l l e v e l ? Or are they scanning l a r g e r p o r t i o n s of d i s c o u r s e , l o o k i n g f o r main ideas and r e a d i n g fo r meaning? J . Use of Student Informants Research i n t o the s t r a t e g i e s of second language readers p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t f o r language teachers who are p r e p a r i n g students f o r academic s t u d i e s i n which s u c c e s s f u l independent r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t . "Students can be v a l u a b l e sources of i n f o r m a t i o n 27 on the language l e a r n i n g , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and academic p r e p a r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e . " ( C h r i s t i s o n & Krahnke, 1986,p.77) The ESL student at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l i s an a c t i v e and t a s k - o r i e n t e d l e a r n e r . (Wenden & Rubin, 1987). Paying a t t e n t i o n to the conscious e f f o r t s t h a t l e a r n e r s themselves make i n mastering a course i n a new or l e s s f a m i l i a r language can f o s t e r t h e i r s e l f - r e l i a n c e and i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . K. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Classroom I n s t r u c t i o n Since ESL readers at u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l come to t h e i r tasks with v a r i e d background knowledge, c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c v a l u e s , and d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s , what can be done in the classroom to f a c i l i t a t e or maximize r e a d i n g comprehension? C a r r e l l &• E i s t e r h o l d (1983) suggest two v a r i a b l e s to focus on: the t e x t and the reader. The s t u d i e s by Meyer (1985), Meyer & F r e e d l e (1984), and Meyer, Brandt & B l u t h (1980) i n d i c a t e students who are taught to use top-l e v e l s t r u c t u r e s can i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension s k i l l s . C a r r e l l ' s work ((1984,1985) i n d i c a t e s t h a t ESL l e a r n e r s who r e c e i v e e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n i n i d e n t i f y i n g and using t o p - l e v e l r h e t o r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t e x t s w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y . In a d d i t i o n , when faced with c u l t u r a l - s p e c i f i c t e x t s , students may need advance i n s t r u c t i o n i n a p p r o p r i a t e c u l t u r a l content background to f u l l y understand the d i s c o u r s e . Teachers of both content and ESL c l a s s e s who u t i l i z e Mohan's conceptual knowledge 28 framework, together with a p p r o p r i a t e g r a p h i c s and a c t i v i t y -tasks may f u r t h e r f a c i l i t a t e student r e a d i n g comprehension. An a d d i t i o n a l s u g g e s t i o n i s to l i s t e n c a r e f u l l y to what students say about t h e i r r e a d i n g - student feedback about t h e i r attempts to comprehend d i s c o u r s e w i l l provide v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o the nature of t h e i r background knowledge or i n t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n that they b r i n g to the t e x t . Block's f i n d i n g (1986) t h a t l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s are not t i e d to s p e c i f i c language f e a t u r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the more teachers can l e a r n about the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e i r students are a l r e a d y u t i l i z i n g , the more they can f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' academic prog r e s s . The use of open-ended q u e s t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e f e r e n t i a l questions (Brock, 1986) w i l l a i d i n e l i c i t i n g more student feedback. Probing f o r i n f o r m a t i o n from the t e x t , r e q u e s t i n g j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r responses, and a s s i g n i n g summarizing tasks (both o r a l and w r i t t e n ) w i l l help t e a c h e r -r e s e a r c h e r s to d i s c e r n s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . Horowitz's examination of a c t u a l u n i v e r s i t y tasks (1985) t h a t w i l l be demanded of u n i v e r s i t y students i n d i c a t e s t h a t tasks i n the ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c l a s s e s need to be based on a p p r o p r i a t e models and need to provide the necessary p r a c t i s e i n t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s ; thus, 29 learning-to-read becomes readlng-to-learn. The implications of Cummins' vork on common cognitive academic proficiency in b i l i n g u a l students (1984) is that teachers need to understand and to c a p i t a l i z e on the learning strategies that their students are familiar with and to help them expand their repertoire of learning strategies. F a m i l i a r i t y with academic instruction the students have received in their f i r s t language can f a c i l i t a t e instruction in the second language in the areas of subject matter knowledge, cognitive thinking s k i l l s , reading and writing strate g i e s . ESL teachers also need to dist i n g u i s h between the conversational and academic aspects of language, proficiency in planning instruction in EAP classes. Using student informants, who are the p r i n c i p a l s in the learning process, w i l l give insight into the psychology and attitude of the ESL univer s i t y learner (Wenden & Rubin, 1987). The teacher also needs to be aware that genre-specific knowledge has an eff e c t on learning and problem solving within a content area. Without th i s domain-specific knowledge, students w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y doing academic work; they w i l l be unable to make key inferences or to know when to use what they do know in f u l f i l l i n g their course assignments. (Doyle, 1983). L.Summary of Literature Review and Need for Further Research 30 In researching the problems of ESL university students in academic reading, the work of Meyer(1975, 1985) and C a r r e l l (19 83,19 8 4,1985,19 87) in textual analysis has been explored. Meyer's work with f i r s t language readers categorized discourse into five d i s t i n c t categories ( c o l l e c t i o n , causation, response, comparison and description) while C a r r e l l ' s studies extended Meyer's work by examining second language readers and including the so c i o - c u l t u r a l issues. The implications of their e f f o r t s are that instruction in analyzing discourse w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the reading process. C a r r e l l and Eisterhold's research (1983) in schema theory also provides evidence of the importance of appropriate background knowledge in reading comprehension. A need exists for more empirical and ethnographic research to sort out the ef f e c t s of textual or formal schemata from the effects of content schemata. The use of naturally occurring texts rather than texts constructed for experiments would be a further advance. Such usage would require additional study on the nature of various types of texts. ( C a r r e l l , 1983). Reading is seen as an interactive process ( S i l b e r s t e i n , 1987) between the reader and the text. Mohan's knowledge framework (1986), along with his focus on graphics and tasks, provides a the o r e t i c a l model for l i n k i n g the cognitive process, v i s u a l s , and p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y to 31 i n t e g r a t e language and c o n t e n t . H i s model, h a v i n g c l a s s r o o m i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r language development a c r o s s the c u r r i c u l u m , may f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g f o r ESL s t u d e n t s , not o n l y i n the ESL academic p r e p a r a t o r y c l a s s r o o m , but even more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the c o n t e n t c l a s s r o o m . Mohan's work goes beyond the t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s of Meyer and C a r r e l l . The a r e a of second language r e a d i n g i n which more r e s e a r c h needs t o be done i s i n examining what ESL s t u d e n t s are a c t u a l l y d o i n g when t h e y are r e a d i n g academic d i s c o u r s e . B l o c k ( 1 9 8 6 ) e x p l o r e s t h r o u g h " t h i n k - a l o u d s " what c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f i r s t and second language r e a d e r s a c t u a l l y u t i l i z e d u r i n g the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s . More r e s e a r c h needs t o be done i n t h i s a r e a and a l s o i n what such l e a r n e r s p e r c e i v e as t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n academic r e a d i n g . I s i t a l a c k of c o n t e n t schemata or f o r m a l schemata t h a t p r o v i d e s the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y ? Or i s i t both? And i n what p r o p o r t i o n s can t h e y be t o l e r a t e d ? I s i t the "top-down" or "bottom-up" p r o c e s s i n g t h a t such l e a r n e r s are u t i l i z i n g ? Or i s i t both and i n what p r o p o r t i o n s ? B l o c k ' s s t u d y (1986) i s a s t e p i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n but much more r e s e a r c h i s s t i l l needed i n t h a t a r e a . Perhaps more e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s i n the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s w i l l p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s . Such s t u d e n t s possess academic p r o f i c i e n c i e s (Cummins, 1984) and s t r a t e g i e s i n t h e i r f i r s t language t h a t t h e y b r i n g t o the new l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r second language. P r o v i d i n g s y s t e m a t i c t r a i n i n g i n how t o l e a r n 32 (Wendon & Rubin, 1987) w i l l enable these students to " l e a r n smarter" r a t h e r than " l e a r n harder". Information on the a c t u a l tasks that u n i v e r s i t i e s demand of students p o i n t s out the importance of t r a n s f e r a b l e s k i l l s i n p r e p a r i n g ESL students f o r t e r t i a r y education (Horowitz, 1985) A q u a l i t a t i v e study i n t o the s t r a t e g i e s of ESL academic readers i n a c t u a l u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t courses i s an a p p r o p r i a t e type of r e s e a r c h i n the c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t to expand understanding i n the u n f i n i s h e d puzzle of second language a c q u i s i t i o n . 33 CHAPTER THREE  RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCESS A.Introduct i on The objectives of th i s study on the coping strategies of international students in dealing with academic reading tasks in f i r s t year univ e r s i t y English Literature and Psychology were : 1) to determine what the reading demands are in the d i s c i p l i n e s of English Literature and Psychology at the f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ; 2) to observe classes in f i r s t year English Literature and Social Sciences to determine what relati o n s h i p exists between reading demands and course requirements; 3) to interview international students who are enrolled in these courses about their strategies in dealing with reading demands for these courses. A two-week p i l o t study was conducted in the f i e l d s e t t i n g . Through preliminary c o l l e c t i o n of data, the research question was refined, the interview questionnaire was revised, and experience in q u a l i t a t i v e . f i e l d work was obtained. The l i t e r a t u r e on ethnographical interviewing indicated the necessity of using open-ended questions that would stimulate the flow of data and of spending time in the f i e l d to f a c i l i t a t e relationships of trust and rapport between participants and researcher (Wood, 1986); the p i l o t 34 study served to i n i t i a t e these procedures. The methodology in t h i s study included gaining access to the setting; observation of classes in English 110 and Psychology 120; c o l l e c t i n g relevant documents; sel e c t i n g students from the class l i s t and through r e f e r r a l s ; interviewing individual students for one hour and doing followup interviews where necessary; interviewing the instructors of the two courses; maintaining a comprehensive ref l e x i v e f i e l d diary; and analyzing the collected data. B. Setting. The setting, a private college in the Greater Vancouver area, committed to the task of preparing young adults for university, offers senior secondary and u n i v e r s i t y transfer programs, as well as an intensive English As A Second Language program. Enrolment includes 400-500 students from over fo r t y d i f f e r e n t countries, of which approximately 15% are Canadian students with English as a native language. Its location . in a r e s i d e n t i a l area f a c i l i t a t e s student accommodations with Canadian families; i t s easy access to the Skytrain Rapid Transit System enables the international students to part i c i p a t e in extra-curricular a c t i v i t i e s , thereby enhancing their s o c i o - c u l t u r a l orientation to an English-speaking environment. 35 The academic needs of the students are well served by three modern science l a b o r a t o r i e s , a new computer centre and a l i b r a r y housing approximately 14,000 volumes and 100 p e r i o d i c a l s , as well as an extensive c o l l e c t i o n of ESL resource mater ia l s . Reference, aud io -v i sua l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l services are also ava i lab le to both facu l ty and students. In the Learning Centre, students may learn Engl i sh through computers, use TOEFL pract ice mater ia l s , review classroom presentations by video, or receive t u t o r i a l assistance in the i r academic courses. To further meet the spec ia l needs of in ternat iona l students, the counse l l ing o f f i ce provides new student or i enta t ion and accommodation serv ices , the assistance of an experienced.and w e l l - t r a v e l l e d student co-ordinator as well as a nurse, help v i t h v i sa extension l e t t e r s and other l e t t e r s that may be required by students in t h e i r dealings v i t h Canadian government o f f i c i a l s (Canadian immigration a u t h o r i t i e s look to the col lege for advice and recommendations on the status of students on departing and re -enter ing the country and at v i sa reneval t ime) . Experienced r e g i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e r s advise students on the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of the courses taken in the i r home countr ies . To further accommodate students vho may be homesick or inexperienced in cooking, the c a f e t e r i a offers ethnic as v e i l as Canadian menus. 36 Concern f o r the n a t u r e of i t s s t u d e n t body i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n the c o l l e g e ' s f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . Beyond the normal budget items of the u s u a l p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l , the c o l l e g e a l s o i n c l u d e s a generous budget f o r meeting the s p e c i a l i z e d needs of ESL academic s t u d e n t s : ESL academic r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the l i b r a r y and the t u t o r i a l c e n t r e , s t a f f i n g i n the t u t o r i a l c e n t r e to a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n a l l academic a r e a s as w e l l as i n E n g l i s h language p r o f i c i e n c y , and p r o f e s s i o n a l development of f a c u l t y w i t h p a r t i c u l a r encouragement t o i n s t r u c t o r s t o complete M a s t e r s programs i n E.S.L. To f a c i l i t a t e the s c h e d u l e s of s t u d e n t s who come from c o u n t r i e s where the s c h o o l y e a r may end i n December or i n May, or who a t t e n d p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s and w i s h t o spend a spring-summer semester a t the c o l l e g e , the c o l l e g e o p e r a t e s year round on the semester system, w i t h J a n u a r y , May, and September b e i n g e n t r y p e r i o d s . The s e t t i n g i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a r t i c u l a r type of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t o f f e r s ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s as w e l l as academic c o l l e g e c o u r s e s . The c l a s s e s a r e conducted i n ways comparable t o t h o s e of community c o l l e g e s i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r s . As w i t h the o t h e r c o l l e g e s , the c r e d i t s g a i n e d i n the two-year academic program are t r a n s f e r a b l e t o u n i v e r s i t y programs. 37 C. Access and Reconnaissance Phase The r e c o n n a i s s a n c e phase has two a s p e c t s : i t r e f e r s t o r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and t o the chosen s e t t i n g . At the o r i e n t i n g phase, the l i t e r a t u r e on r e s e a r c h i n academic r e a d i n g of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s was examined t o det e r m i n e the r e l e v a n t and r e c e n t r e s e a r c h i n r e a d i n g comprehension and l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s i n academic programs. Thus, s t u d i e s i n t e x t s t r u c t u r e (Meyer, 1985; C a r r e l l , 1982,1983, 1984, 1985,1987; Johnson, 1982), u n i v e r s i t y t a s k s ( H o r o w i t z , 1985), the knowledge framework (Mohan, 1986), t h i n k - a l o u d p r o t o c o l s i n r e a d i n g ( B l o c k , 1986) and l e a r n e r s t r a t e g i e s and use of s t u d e n t i n f o r m a n t s (Wenden & R u b i n , 1987) were examined. S e n s i t i z i n g o n e s e l f through the r e a d i n g of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r r e f i n e d the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n "What c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s do ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a p p l y t o the r e a d i n g demands of f i r s t y ear c r e d i t c o u r s e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y ? " Reading and t h i n k i n g about the p r o c e s s gave t h i s r e s e a r c h e r a mental framework and some o r i e n t i n g hunches p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g the s e t t i n g . A q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g broader c a t e g o r i e s of l e a r n e r s ' s t r a t e g i e s r a i s e d by the ethnography p r o f e s s o r d u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l phase of the s t u d y became more s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e r d u r i n g the r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e . T h i s emergent a s p e c t of q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h became more m e a n i n g f u l d u r i n g the a n a l y t i c a l phase. The second phase of r e c o n n a i s s a n c e i n v o l v e d f o l l o w i n g 38 up hunches on the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w i t h people i n the s e t t i n g . I n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a v a r i e t y of p e r s o n n e l r e s u l t e d i n a c l e a r e r p e r s p e c t i v e about the n a t u r e of the r e s e a r c h t a s k and about p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s . Hammersley & A t k i n s o n (1983) c i t e the importance of d e v e l o p i n g a c c e s s w i t h people a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , academic b o a r d , i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s . The department heads of E n g l i s h & ESL, and of S o c i a l S c i e n c e ; i n s t r u c t o r s i n the ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s , s e c o n d a r y E n g l i s h c o u r s e s , and the u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S c i e n c e c o u r s e s ; and the c o u n s e l l i n g and l i b r a r y s t a f f were i n t e r v i e w e d . These s e s s i o n s s e r v e d a s e c o n d a r y f u n c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n f o r m i n s t r u c t o r s of the commencement of t h i s s t u d y and to r e c e i v e i n p u t r e g a r d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s t o f e r r e t out the d a t a b e i n g s o u g h t . ( S p i n d l e r , 1982). I n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h s t u d e n t s i n the c a f e t e r i a and h a l l s a l s o h e l p e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a sense of the a t t i t u d e s and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s of the academic ESL s t u d e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h r e a d i n g t a s k s as w e l l as i n d e v e l o p i n g r a p p o r t w i t h them p r i o r t o a p p r o a c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o s e t up appointments f o r i n t e r v i e w s . H a m m e r l s e y and A t k i n s o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) s t a t e t h a t q u a l i t y " i m p r e s s i o n management" (Hammersley and A t k i n s o n , p . 7 8 ) can f a c i l i t a t e one's p r o g r e s s i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r ' s demeanor, e x p e r t i s e , s o c i a l s k i l l s , language, and even c l o t h i n g comprise the w o r k i n g i d e n t i t y of the r e s e a r c h e r . 39 Access to students i n v o l v e s more than g a i n i n g p e r m i s s i o n to i n t e r v i e w them. P o s i t i v e f i e l d r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e d e v e l o p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t r u s t and r a p p o r t . I n i t i a l l y , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was concerned as to how f r e e l y and openly the students would t a l k i n the i n t e r v i e w s . When former students of t h i s r e s e a r c h e r vouched f o r the l e g i t i m a c y and u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s study f o r f u t u r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l students, access was f a c i l i t a t e d . Assurance of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , and the shared experience between p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e s e a r c h e r of being students and of A s i a n o r i g i n enhanced the environment f o r i n t e r a c t i o n . The expressed hope t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s study would be h e l p f u l to f u t u r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l students was another f a c t o r i n opening a c c e s s . R e c i p r o c i t y was e v i d e n t i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between t h i s r e s e a r c h e r and the student informants. Since t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was an i n s t r u c t o r i n previous semesters i n the s e t t i n g , the students f e l t f r e e to d i s c u s s with the r e s e a r c h e r how they might improve t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension and to i n q u i r e as to ways of completing some of t h e i r assignments. In r e t u r n , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was able to g a i n t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and candid responses i n the i n t e r v i e w s . The f o l l o w i n g e n t r y i n the f i e l d d i a r y i l l u s t r a t e s the access phase: I s a i d ' h e l l o ' between c l a s s e s to H. -we know each other now from having lunch 40 t o g e t h e r l a s t F r i d a y . J u s t b e i n g a b l e t o c h a t e a s i l y w i t h someone i n c l a s s h e l p s me t o f e e l more a t ease. The o t h e r s t u d e n t s a r e of cou r s e n o t i c i n g t h i s ; maybe t h i s w i l l h e l p when I approach o t h e r s . ( F i e l d D i a r y #2:18.) Another e n t r y i l l u s t r a t e s the openness of the d i a l o g u e between p a r t i c i p a n t and r e s e a r c h e r : The f i e l d w o r k has g i v e n me a l o t of i n s i g h t i n t o s t u d e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s and s t r a t e g i e s f o r c o p i n g i n academic c o u r s e work. They t o l d me t h i n g s t h a t t h e y wouldn't have t o l d me i f I was t h e i r t e a c h e r . As a r e s e a r c h e r , a f e l l o w -s t u d e n t , and an A s i a n , I was someone t h e y f e l t - f r e e t o t a l k o p e n l y t o . ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:17). T h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s v i s i b l e weekly presence i n the s e t t i n g over a two-month p e r i o d d e v e l o p e d the c o n t i n u i n g open a c c e s s t h a t i s a n e c e s s a r y p a r t of f i e l d r e s e a r c h . S t u d e n t s were i n t r i g u e d t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r , a t e a c h e r f o r almost t e n y e a r s a t the c o l l e g e , was now, l i k e them, a s t u d e n t w i t h d e a d l i n e s , assignments and a n x i e t i e s over p e r s o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . P.. Documents D u r i n g the p i l o t s t u d y , the i n s t r u c t o r s ' c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h c l a s s l i s t s , c o u r s e o u t l i n e s and a s s i g n m e n t s , and r e a d i n g c o ncerns gave a c c e s s t o numerous r e l e v a n t documents which were n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s s t u d y . The Deans of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and ESL, and of S o c i a l S c i e n c e 41 were p a r t i c u l a r l y generous and s u p p o r t i v e i n g i v i n g time and a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r . The s c h o o l c a l e n d a r , d e s c r i p t i o n of c o u r s e o f f e r i n g s , s c h o o l t i m e t a b l e , c o u r s e o u t l i n e s , t e x t b o o k s , s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g s , c l a s s l i s t s , s t u d e n t s ' r e c o r d s , assignment handouts, e x a m i n a t i o n s and completed assignments comprised the l i s t of documents. Each was examined as t o how i t f a c i l i t a t e d or impinged on the s t u d e n t s ' c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h r e a d i n g t a s k s . I n i t i a l l y , the documents were examined f o r c l u e s t o f u r t h e r f o c u s the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n and methodology; l a t e r , t h e y were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the body of c o l l e c t e d d a t a as u s e f u l c r i t e r i a f o r t r i a n g u l a t i o n . (see s e c t i o n E under c h a p t e r on " A n a l y s i s " ) . To d e v e l o p a r e f l e x i v e m i n d s e t , the r e s e a r c h e r examined the documents from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the s t u d e n t as w e l l as the t e a c h e r . E. P a r t i c i p a n t s The p a r t i c i p a n t s were t e n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s from numerous c u l t u r a l backgrounds who were e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d i e s . Each of them had completed s e c o n d a r y s t u d i e s e i t h e r i n t h e i r home c o u n t r y or i n a Canadian s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ; some had t a k e n ESL c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s ( n o n - c r e d i t ) and/or E n g l i s h 101 u n i v e s i t y c o m p o s i t i o n c o u r s e ( c r e d i t ) . As e x p e r i e n c e d 42 students, they have developed their individual strategies of coping and surviving within a new educational environment. The project was explained by the English Literature and Psychology instructors to potential student participants. The researcher was introduced and an i n v i t a t i o n was extended for volunteer student participants. The c r i t e r i a for selection of subjects was that they were registered in f i r s t year English Literature and Psychology cre d i t courses. Canadian students who had English as a F i r s t Language were excluded from p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Selection was v e r i f i e d by r e f e r r a l to class l i s t s which were cross-checked with individual student records in the re g i s t r a r ' s o f f i c e . Information on the students' educational background in both their home countries and in Canada prior to admission to this college was also taken into consideration to provide a cross-section of students from d i f f e r e n t educational background experiences. The ten participants included: two Japanese students, one Vietnamese student, four Hong Kong students, and three Singaporean students. Of the ten, six of them came d i r e c t l y to the college from their home countries in Asia while the other four had attended various private and public secondary schools and colleges in Canada prior to attendance at thi s college. The academic target of the majority (nine) is to obtain a university degree (business administration, 43 c r i m i n o l o g y , F r e n c h , p s y c h o l o g y ) w h i l e one wishes to pursue a d i p l o m a i n t o u r i s m . In terms of c o n v e r s a t i o n a l f l u e n c y , t h r e e (the Sing a p o r e a n s ) seemed al m o s t comparable t o n a t i v e s p e a k e r s , t h r e e were n e a r - n a t i v e , the r e m a i n i n g f o u r though l e s s f l u e n t were a t above advanced l e v e l . A l l t e n s u b j e c t s appeared a t ease d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Two s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t e e r e d t o be s t u d e n t i n f o r m a n t s were r e j e c t e d as t h i s r e s e a r c h e r noted from t h e i r s t u d e n t r e c o r d s t h a t t h e y were not l i k e l y t o complete the c o u r s e . A check of s t u d e n t r e c o r d s a t the end of the semester v e r i f i e d t h i s . F. Data C o l l e c t i o n Through P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n O b s e r v a t i o n was conducted i n E n g l i s h 110 and P s y c h o l o g y 120 d u r i n g a two-month p e r i o d , (see f i g u r e 1 ) . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was p a i d t o what r e a d i n g t a s k s were a s s i g n e d , how the r e a d i n g t a s k s r e l a t e d t o what o c c u r r e d i n the c l a s s r o o m , how the i n s t r u c t o r d e a l t w i t h the r e a d i n g , and what the co u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s v e r e . T h i s r e s e a r c h e r perused the a c t u a l r e a d i n g s as t h e y were a s s i g n e d . Time P l a c e P e o p l e W i n t e r Rm. 303 E n g l i s h 110 c l a s s , s e c . 1 4 4 Semester Winter Rm. 303 E n g l i s h 110 c l a s s , s e c . 2 Wint e r Rm. 102 P s y c h o l o g y 110, s e c . 1 Winter Rm. 102 P s y c h o l o g y 110, s e c . 2 Wint e r Rm. 102 P s c h o l o g y 120, s e c . 1 F i g u r e 1: O b s e r v a t i o n C h a r t One v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g unexpected phenomenon was t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s own p e r s o n a l mental i n v o l v e m e n t i n the a c t u a l c o u r s e c o n t e n t and enjoyment of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s d u r i n g these c l a s s o b s e r v a t i o n s . A d i a r y e n t r y i n d i c a t e s t h i s : I f i n d I am so i n t e r e s t e d i n what the p r o . i s t e a c h i n g . Today I l e a r n e d so much about F a u l k n e r ' s "A Rose f o r E m i l y " . The i n s t r u c t o r o b v i o u s l y e n j o y s t e a c h i n g i t . Am I s p e n d i n g t o o much time i n c l a s s e s ? Should I z e r o i n more on my s u b j e c t s ? Must remember t h a t I'm here t o o b s e r v e , not t o e n j o y ! ( F i e l d D i a r y #2:18.) G. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH INTERVIEWS In p r e p a r i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r i n t e r v i e w s , i t i s u s e f u l t o b e g i n by a s k i n g o n e s e l f " J u s t what about t h i s 45 t h i n g i s p u z z l i n g t o rae?" ( L o f l a n d & L o f l a n d , 1984; S p r a d l e y , 1979). Hence, c a t e g o r i e s of q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d : ways of c o p i n g w i t h the r e a d i n g t a s k s , the purposes of the r e a d i n g s , d i f f e r e n c e s and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n approach t o r e a d i n g i n the two d i s c i p l i n e s , p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the c o n t e n t and form of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g the r e a d i n g p r o c e s s i n the two g e n r e s . The q u e s t i o n s were a r r a n g e d i n a l o g i c a l and o r d e r l y sequence, and phrased i n language t h a t would be e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d by the ESL s t u d e n t s . (See appendix f o r s t u d e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s h eet and i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . Each s t u d e n t was f u l l y i nformed of the n a t u r e of the r e s e a r c h and the purpose of the i n t e r v i e w . To i n c r e a s e t h e i r c o m f o r t l e v e l and t o e l i c i t c a n d i d r e s p o n s e s , the r e s e a r c h e r took time t o e s t a b l i s h the common bond of e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s between i n t e r v i e w e e and i n t e r v i e w e r : both were s t u d e n t s engaged i n academic p u r s u i t s where time was o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the academic t a s k . P e r m i s s i o n was r e q u e s t e d f o r t a p i n g the i n t e r v i e w s ; a s s u r a n c e of anonymity was p romised. S t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d s i n g l y . The f i r s t i n t e r v i e w u s u a l l y l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y one hour. S t u d e n t s were asked open-ended q u e s t i o n s t h a t d e a l t w i t h t h e i r academic background, t h e i r E n g l i s h language e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n , 46 t h e i r background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e and p s y c h o l o g y , and t h e i r c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . A c t u a l r e a d i n g s , whether a s s i g n e d c h a p t e r s i n a t e x t , s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g s , o r r e a d i n g s f o r r e s e a r c h i n g a c o u r s e p r o j e c t , were r e f e r r e d t o d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w s . Throughout th e s e i n t e r v i e w s , i n k e e p i n g w i t h the open-ended n a t u r e of the q u e s t i o n s , probes where a p p r o p r i a t e were used t o e l i c i t a d d i t i o n a l d a t a i f i t appeared f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s might be f o r t h c o m i n g . Another u s e f u l p r o c e d u r e was i n t e r v i e w i n g by comment whereby i n f o r m a t i o n was e l i c i t e d by the r e s e a r c h e r making a statement i n s t e a d of a s k i n g d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s . A f t e r the tapes were t r a n s c r i b e d , s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d a g a i n where n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y ambiguous or i n c o m p l e t e d a t a , or t o q u e s t i o n them as t o how t h e y d e a l t w i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . These subsequent s h o r t e r i n t e r v i e w s e l i c i t e d a d d i t i o n a l d a t a which proved u s e f u l i n the a n a l y t i c a l and r e f l e x i v e phase of the s t u d y . The s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s proved t o be the h i g h p o i n t s of t h i s f i e l d r e s e a r c h p r o c e s s . The s t u d e n t s were g l a d t o share t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and s t r u g g l e s w i t h r e a d i n g f o r t h e i r coursework and e x p r e s s e d the hope t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n would be h e l p f u l i n t h i s s t u d y and t o f u t u r e s t u d e n t s . In f a c t , r a p p o r t was so s t r o n g i n one i n t e r v i e w 47 t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was o f f e r e d a summer p o s i t i o n as p r i v a t e t u t o r t o two s t u d e n t s : one p a r t i c i p a n t c o n f i d e d t h a t a c e r t a i n f o u r t h year u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t was " d e s p e r a t e t o pass the E n g l i s h C o m p o s i t i o n T e s t so he can g r a d u a t e i n 1989". I n s t r u c t o r s of the c o u r s e s were i n t e r v i e w e d as t o a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s t u d e n t s . They were a l s o q u e s t i o n e d as t o how r e a d i n g assignments were p r e s e n t e d and what, i f any, c l a s s t i m e was g i v e n t o a c t u a l l y h e l p i n g the s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r r e a d i n g t a s k s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the r e a d i n g s t o the c o u r s e s was a n o t h e r query. These i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s became p a r t of the c o l l e c t e d d a t a t h a t was used i n t r i a n g u l a t i o n i n the a n a l y t i c a l phase. (See Chapter Four on " A n a l y s i s " ) . H. DATA COLLECTION THROUGH THE FIELD DIARY To a s s i s t i n c o l l e c t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g d a t a , and t o promote the r e f l e x i v i t y t h a t i s so n e c e s s a r y i n a n a l y s i s of d a t a i n a q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y , a d e t a i l e d f i e l d d i a r y was kept t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y . T h i s a s s i s t e d i n f o c u s i n g the d i r e c t i o n of the r e s e a r c h , p o i n t i n g out a r e a s t h a t needed r e f i n i n g or f i l l i n g o u t , and documenting the c o g n i t i v e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l changes w i t h i n the r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g the s t u d y . The e x t e n s i v e e n t r i e s i n t h i s expanded l o g over the two months of the f i e l d s t u d y d e s c r i b e d the d a t a c o l l e c t i n g 48 p r o c e s s , i n d i c a t e d the mental d i a l o g u e i n r e c o n c i l i n g r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e on the r e s e a r c h t o p i c and the d a t a t h a t was emerging, and expanded on the f i e l d notes g a t h e r e d t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n and i n the taped i n t e r v i e w s . The f o l l o w i n g f i e l d d i a r y e n t r y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s p o n d e r i n g of the a p p r o p r i a t e f i e l d s t r a t e g y : Reread the l i t e r a t u r e on t h i n k - a l o u d p r o t o c o l s f o r examining ESL's s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I'm s t i l l not c o n v i n c e d t h a t ' s the way t o go - i t seems so a r t i f i c i a l a procedure t o me; i s i t u n n a t u r a l t o me because r e a d i n g i s such an a u t o m a t i c ( l o o k i n g f o r main i d e a s , c l u e s ) c o n c e n t r a t e d a c t i v i t y t h a t I don't " t h i n k - a l o u d " or even t h i n k s i l e n t l y about the p r o c e s s as I am r e a d i n g ? Do l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d r e a d e r s do i t ? I'm d i s t u r b e d about t h i s r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y because e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h does not m a n i p u l a t e the environment or d i s t u r b i t . ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:14.) A subsequent e n t r y i n d i c a t e s the s h i f t i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n t h a t i s emerging from the taped d a t a : The t r a n s c r i p t s from the ta p e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y look f o r c e r t a i n i n f o . when t h e y read l i t e r a t u r e . They are r e a d i n g f o r meaning, l o o k i n g f o r c e r t a i n elements i n the s t o r i e s , elements s p e c i f i c t o the genre of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . The d a t a I'm c o l l e c t i n g i s so r i c h ! ( F i e l d D i a r y #3:19_ A s k i n g "how do l e a r n e r s go about s o l v i n g problems i n r e a d i n g ? " may y i e l d more f r u i t f u l f i n d i n g s t h a n a s k i n g "what i s p r o b l e m a t i c i n r e a d i n g t e x t s i n a f o r e i g n language?". Cohen c l a i m s the former q u e s t i o n can p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o t e a c h f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of meaning whereas the l a t t e r q u e s t i o n y i e l d s f i n d i n g s as t o forms t o 49 t e a c h . (Cohen e t a l , 1979, p.563). I . R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y R e l i a b i l i t y i s concerned w i t h the r e p l i c a b i 1 i t y of both the r e s e a r c h methodology and the f i n d i n g s whereas v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . E t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h aims a t o b t a i n i n g a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the phenomena under s t u d y ; t h u s , i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y can be b u i l t i n t o the p r o c e s s t h r o u g h agreement between two or more o b s e r v e r s on what was seen and how i t was i n t e r p r e t e d . The use of good methodology and a comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology p l a y c r u c i a l r o l e s h e r e : The r e s e a r c h must c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y and f u l l y d i s c u s s d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s e s and p r o v i d e r e t r o s p e c t i v e a c c o u n t s of how d a t a were examined and s y n t h e s i z e d . Because r e l i a b i l i t y depends on the p o t e n t i a l f o r subsequent r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e c o n s t r u c t o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s s t r a t e g i e s , o n l y those e t h n o g r a p h i c a c c o u n t s t h a t s p e c i f y t h e s e i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l a r e r e p l i c a b l e . (Goetz & Le Compte, 1984, p.217). A r e s e a r c h s t u d y may have i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y y e t l a c k v a l i d i t y . For example, two or more o b s e r v e r s may agree on c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s and y e t the c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be e r r o n e o u s . The q u e s t i o n of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o c g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the e t h n o g r a p h i c s t u d y w h i l e the the 50 q u e s t i o n of i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y r e f e r s t o the genuineness of what i s d i s c o v e r e d . Woods (1986) sees two d i f f e r e n t approaches t o t h i s i s s u e : one approach c l a i m s t h a t ethnography's e x c l u s i v e i d i o g r a p h i c n a t u r e , i t s d e s c r i p t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t s , l e a d s t o g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what i s s t u d i e d but i s not e a s i l y a s s e s s e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y ; a n o t h e r approach says t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o ta k e an n o m o t h e t i c approach, t o g e n e r a l i z e t h r o u g h ethnography (by expanding an i n t e n s i v e s t u d y t o a wider sample, by d o i n g m u l t i - s i t e s t u d i e s ) . « Woods does not see the ' i d i o g r a p h i c ' and 'nomothetic' approaches as m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ; he c l a i m s t h a t both i n t e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i o n and g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y a r e p o s s i b l e -the more ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' the sample, the g r e a t e r the chances of e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of r e s u l t s . (Woods, 1986, p.50) I n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y can be ensured t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of methods t o c r o s s - c h e c k a c c o u n t s . One of the most f a m i l i a r forms i s t r i a n g u l a t i o n whereby m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s or methods are used t o v a l i d a t e a c c o u n t s and t o check on r e l i a b i l i t y of i n f o r m a n t s ; s t u d y i n g of documents and r e p o r t s a l s o i n c r e a s e the chances of a c c u r a c y . Woods ad v o c a t e s c o l l o b o r a t i o n as an a i d t o c h e c k i n g v a l i d i t y . Through a s s o c i a t i o n or a l l i a n c e v i t h c o - r e s e a r c h e r s , the s t r e n g t h of d a t a f o r dr a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and the s t r e n g t h of t h e o r y f o r the a v a i l a b l e 51 d a t a can be t e s t e d . In s h o r t , r e p u t a b l e and r e s p o n s i b l e e t h n o g r a p h e r s can use a v a r i e t y of s t r a t e g i e s t o reduce t h r e a t s t o r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . J.Summary In t h i s s t u d y , methodology c o n s i s t e d of n i n e s t e p s : (a) g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o the s e t t i n g ; (b) o b s e r v i n g E n g l i s h 110 and P s y c h o l o g y 120 c l a s s e s ; (c) c o l l e c t i n g r e l e v a n t documents; (d) s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s ; (e) i n t e r v i e w i n g the s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s ; ( f ) i n t e r v i e w i n g the r e s p e c t i v e i n s t r u c t o r s ; (g) m a i n t a i n i n g a comprehensive r e f l e x i v e f i e l d d i a r y ; and (h) a n a l y z i n g the c o l l e c t e d d a t a . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y was t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h r o u g h the use of m u l t i p l e d a t a s o u r c e s and m u l t i p l e methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . 52 ANALYSIS OF DATA A. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y examines the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s when f a c e d w i t h the r e a d i n g demands of f i r s t year E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y c r e d i t c o u r s e s . T h e i r s t r a t e g i e s a r e examined w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the cou r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s as d e s i g n e d by the r e s p e c t i v e i n s t r u c t o r s of th e s e two academic d i s c i p l i n e s . I n q u a l i t a t i v e f i e l d w o r k , a n a l y s i s and r e f l e c t i o n goes on s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . ( V a n Maanen, 1983; Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983) I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , t h r o u g h the f i e l d d i a r y , t h i s p r o c e s s of a n a l y s i s and r e f l e x i v i t y was o c c u r r i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of c o l l e c t i n g d a t a i n the s e t t i n g . P r e l i m i n a r y s t e p s i n a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e c a r e f u l r e a d i n g and r e - r e a d i n g of the d a t a p e r i o d i c a l l y t o s e n s i t i z e o n e s e l f t o p a t t e r n s or c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e emerging from the d a t a . ( B u r g e s s , 1984). P r o t o c o l s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s a r e coded and examined f o r i d e a s t h a t r e l a t e t o the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n , and the d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h d i a r y i s a n a l y z e d f o r f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s as t o what the s t u d e n t s a r e a c t u a l l y d o i n g when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g t a s k s . S e n s i t i z i n g e n e i e l f to p a t t e r n s er eoneepts are p a r t of th© f u n n e l l i n g 5 3 p r o c e s s , a p r o g r e s s i v e f o c u s i n g which o c c u r s over time t h r o u g h d e v e l o p i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g the problem, c l a r i f y i n g and d e l i m i t i n g i t s scope, and e x p l o r i n g i t s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . I t was d u r i n g t h i s c o n t i n u a l a n a l y s i s and r e - r e a d i n g of the data, t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n began t o emerge. What was emerging was t h a t i n comprehending r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s , the s t u d e n t s were not u s i n g the k i n d of minute d e t a i l e d c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s a t the s h o r t t e x t u a l (or paragraph) l e v e l t h a t has been the f o c u s of r e c e n t academic r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ; r a t h e r , what emerged from the d a t a was t h a t t h e y were u s i n g more g e n e r a l r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s , such as skimming and s c a n n i n g f o r main i d e a s and s u p p o r t i n g d e t a i l s , p a y i n g s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o c e r t a i n elements i n h e r e n t i n the g e n r e - s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g s . T h e i r use of r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c t o the genre i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In r e a d i n g f o r the meanings t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t i n the d i s c i p l i n e , s t u d e n t s had t o d e a l w i t h much l a r g e r chunks of d i s c o u r s e t h a n the s e n t e n c e or paragraph l e v e l i n t h e i r a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g t a s k s . They were r e a d i n g a t the w h o l e - t e x t l e v e l . For example, i n the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e , r e a d i n g f o r meaning i n v o l v e d a h o l i s t i c approach t o the l a r g e r d i s c o u r s e as u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the genre demanded t h i s more comprehensive r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y . Thus, when r e a d i n g i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t h e y l o o k e d f o r c o n c e p t s or elements s p e c i f i c t o t h a t genre. 54 Hence, depending on the s t u d e n t ' s l e v e l of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , the s t u d e n t would read s e l e c t i v e l y f o r p l o t development, c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s i s , e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , symbolism, or theme. Another example of u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s s p e c i f i c t o the genre i s when the s t u d e n t s were r e a d i n g i n p s y c h o l o g y : s i n c e the r e a d i n g s i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e i n t h a t d i s c i p l i n e f o c u s e d on t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s the co n c e p t s b a s i c t o p s y c h o l o g y , t h e y l o o k e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d e f i n i t i o n s , d e s c r i p t i o n s and examples. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y made c o n s i d e r a b l e use of the p s y c h o l o g y s t u d y guide t o a i d t h e i r r e a d i n g i n o r d e r t o pass the p e r i o d i c q u i z z e s t h a t were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the c o u r s e . O v e r a l l , what emerged was the v a r i e t y of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s were u t i l i z i n g t o enable them to d e a l e x p e d i e n t l y w i t h the r e a d i n g t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f u l f i l l i n g the cour s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , whether i t was co m p a r a t i v e e s s a y s , r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s , or e x a m i n a t i o n s . T h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y of s t r a t e g i e s was the hunch t h a t the ethnography p r o f e s s o r had mentioned t o t h i s r e s e a r c h e r a t the b e g i n n i n g of the f i e l d s t u d y . Cummins(1984) speaks of the common u n d e r l y i n g academic p r o f i c i e n c y t h a t b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s p o s s e s s ; the emerging d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s were a p p l y i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t had worked for them in the i r previous educational experience t© th§i£ e u s f i n t i t u d i t s ( a l t e i i t In a §§eenej i a n g u a f i ) . 55 Another f i n d i n g t h a t emerged from the c o l l e c t e d d a t a was t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s have been r e a d i n g academic d i s c o u r s e i n t h e i r f i r s t language and have t r a n s f e r r e d and adapted some of the c o p i n g s k i l l s t h a t t h e y were f a m i l i a r w i t h t o the c o n t e n t i n t h e i r second language. What a l s o emerged was t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s , l i k e many o t h e r s , were d o i n g whatever was e x p e d i e n t t o handle the r e a d i n g demands i n o r d e r t o succeed i n t h e i r academic c r e d i t c o u r s e s . Subsequent t o the p i l o t s t u d y , the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n changed from "What r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s do ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a p p l y t o r e a d i n g i n f i r s t year E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y ? " t o "What a r e the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s of f i r s t y ear u n i v e r s i t y ESL s t u d e n t s when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands i n the s p e c i f i c genres of f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y ? " In q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s , a n a l y s i s u s u a l l y has f i v e phases: s e n s i t i z i n g , c o d i n g , m o d e l - b u i l d i n g , t r i a n g u l a t i o n , and t h e o r y l i n k a g e (Hammersley & A t k i n s o n , 1983; Woods, 1986). These f i v e phases of a n a l y s i s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g segments of t h i s c h a p t e r . B. S e n s i t i z i n g "Making the f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e " i s o f t e n t i m e s the o b j e c t i v e i n e t h n o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h . ( S p i n d l e r , 1982). Read i n g , a common and r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y of s t u d e n t s seems so 56 "familiar" - how to make i t "strange"? Field researchers need to free themselves from their preconceptions of the research topic in order to better observe and understand the setting and the participants, and to be open to how the persons under study are dealing with the problem (it may or may not be what previous related studies have discovered). The exploratory nature of fi e l d research includes approaching the setting with some hunches, rather than with specific hypotheses to be tested or verified. Some of the steps involved in the sensitizing process included: reviewing the literature, focusing on the research question and refining i t , removing preconceptions, and using reflexivity. It was through this process that changes in the research question emerged. The literature review included clarifying what the process of reading involves, examining recent research on textual analysis and the university ESL reader, and exploring related literature on learner strategies. The research topic focused on these concerns: what are ESL university readers doing when they face academic reading tasks? Do ESL students use different strategies for reading in different disciplines? What drives this type of reader? Whit p u r p e i i i de th©y pereelve in the reading tasks? What i§ th© r e l a t i o n s h i p b i t v i t n student reading s t r a t e g i c s t s 57 coursework, t o c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n , or t o academic achievement? A f t e r a c q u i r i n g some f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h c u r r e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g of academic r e a d i n g s k i l l s t o second language u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ( B l o c k , 1 9 8 6 , - C a r r e l l , 1983, 1984,1985,1987; Johnson, 1982 ), t h i s r e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n e d whether s u f f i c i e n t a t t e n t i o n had been p a i d t o what the ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were a c t u a l l y d o i n g when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h academic r e a d i n g demands w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of g e n r e - s p e c i f i c c r e d i t c o u r s e s when away from the p r o t e c t e d ESL c l a s s r o o m environment. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e y have a c h i e v e d a c e r t a i n academic l e v e l p r i o r t o a c c e p t a n c e i n t o f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s . I t seemed i m p o r t a n t t o a c q u i r e some i n t i m a c y w i t h the s i t u a t i o n b e f o r e making c o n j e c t u r e s or c l a i m s about t h e i r c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s , or making recommendations f o r c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . S i n c e the emphasis i n t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the phenomenon under s t u d y from the p e r s p e c t i v e of those b e i n g s t u d i e d , the d a t a a n a l y s i s c o n c e n t r a t e s on i n f o r m a t i o n from the s t u d e n t t h e m s e l v e s : how t h e y coped w i t h the academic r e a d i n g demands. R e f l e x i v i t y p l a y s a major r o l e i n the s e n s i t i z i n g phase of a n a l y s i s . ( D e n z i n , 1978; W i l c o x , 1982; L o f l a n d & L o f l a n d , 1984). D u r i n g d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , the r e s e a r c h e r c o n t i n u a l l y a n a l y z e s and r e f l e c t s on the p r o t o c o l s , r e m a i n i n g open t o a 58 p o s s i b l e r e s h a p i n g of the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . D i s c u s s i n g the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w i t h people o u t s i d e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h a s s i s t e d i n t h i s r e f l e x i v e p r o c e s s ; making l i n k s between i d e a s and r e t h i n k i n g on v a r i o u s k i n d s of l i n k a g e s added f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s . Thousands of ESL s t u d e n t s from ov e r s e a s have succeeded i n a c q u i r i n g degrees from u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . How d i d t h e y do i t ? Do b i l i n g u a l s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e o t h e r t y p e s of s t r a t e g i e s i n m a s t e r i n g t h i s e s s e n t i a l academic s k i l l , moving from the l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d emphasis i n the p r o t e c t e d ESL c l a s s r o o m i n t o r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n i n academic coursework? C.Coding I d e n t i f y i n g of c a t e g o r i e s and a l l o c a t i n g of c o l l e c t e d d a t a t o c a t e g o r i e s a re c e n t r a l a s p e c t s of the a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s . ( S p r a d l e y , 1980). T h i s d e v e l o p i n g of t y p o l o g i e s and sub t y p e s of more g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s f a c i l i t a t e s s y s t e m a t i c and a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the t y p e s of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t the f i r s t year ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a r e u t i l i z i n g t o handle the r e a d i n g demands i n the genres of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y . As was p r e v a l e n t t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y , r e f l e x i v i t y was a c o n t i n u i n g c o n c e r n . (Hammersley and A t k i n s o n , 1983). The a c t u a l c o d i n g p r o c e s s was a means of o r d e r i n g the c o l l e c t e d d a t a i n an i n t e g r a t e d , l o g i c a l and s u c c i n c t way. P u l l i n g out s i g n i f i c a n t r e c u r r i n g comments from the 59 i n t e r v i e w s , the f i e l d d i a r y , and the classroom o b s e r v a t i o n s gave a focus f o r c a t e g o r i z i n g and s u b c a t e g o r i z i n g the data; through continuous a n a l y s i s and r e f l e x i v i t y , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r was a b l e to " s l i c e " out the s i g n i f i c a n t ideas and to make e x p l i c i t c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s and themes. In determining a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i c a t o r s , f a c t o r s to be c o n s i d e r e d are frequency, d i s t r i b u t i o n and t y p i c a l i t y . Thus, c o u n t i n g the number of times a p a r t i c u l a r coping s t r a t e g y cropped up i n the c o l l e c t e d data vas a necessary procedure, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s t r a t e g y over the v a r i o u s p r o t o c o l s vas a l s o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T y p i c a l i t y , v h i c h emerges from the frequency and the d i s t r i b u t i o n , i s r e l a t e d to the o v e r a l l sense of the s e t t i n g ; t h i s g i v e s a sense of the inner s t r u c t u r e of the s e t t i n g and of the adequacy of the c a t e g o r i e s . During the process of c o l l e c t i n g data i n the s e t t i n g , p a t t e r n s began to emerge. These determined students vere u t i l i z i n g a number of s t r a t e g i e s to cope v i t h the r e a d i n g demands t h a t vere p l a c e d upon them. Recognizing t h e i r u n f a m i l i a r i t y v i t h the North American e d u c a t i o n a l context and c u l t u r e as v e i l as the c o n s t r a i n t s of time and energy, they had developed coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t enabled them to overcome t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e a d i n g comprehension; i t appeared t h a t vhatever means vere expedient vere c a l l e d upon. The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the t y p o l o g i e s i s governed by how f i r m l y the d a t a can be accommodated w i t h i n c a t e g o r i e s . As i s o f t e n the c a s e , i t appears t h a t the c a t e g o r i e s a r e not c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u s i v e , but a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t t o some degree. F o r example, one c o p i n g s t r a t e g y t o a i d r e a d i n g comprehension i s a heavy r e l i a n c e by s t u d e n t s on the e x p e r t i s e of the i n s t r u c t o r ; t h u s , the emphasis t h a t the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n s t r u c t o r p l a c e s on l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t the s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t h a t the s t u d e n t s pay t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the r e a d i n g when t h e y s t u d y f o r e x a m i n a t i o n s or p r e p a r e notes from r e a d i n g s f o r w r i t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . A n a l y s i s of the c o l l e c t e d d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s * c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands can be r e l i a b l y c l a s s i f i e d I n t o the t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s of self-management, background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r . ( S e e F i g u r e 2 . ) I n the subsequent s e c t i o n s , t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d and a m p l i f i e d by s e l e c t e d q u o t a t i o n s from t h e p r o t o c o l s . I.Self-management A. Study s k i l l s i n r e a d i n g t a s k s 1. s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n 2. n o t e - t a k i n g and u n d e r l i n i n g 3. g r a p h i c s and imagery 4. r e p e t i t i o n 5. memorizing B. Resourcing 1. other texts 2 . other students II . Background knowledge and experience A. Academic reading experience B. Personal experience I I I . Reliance on instructor A. Genre of English Literature 1 . L i t e r a l comprehension 2 . L i t e r a r y interpretation B. Genre of Psychology 1 . Concept formation 2 . Quiz preparation Figure 2 : ESL u n i v e r s i t y students' coping strategies in reading comprehension. At the postsecondary l e v e l , the a b i l i t y to make progress in academic studies is often l e f t to the student's own i n i t i a t i v e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The ESL student who is unfamiliar with the North American educational learning environment or culture is l e f t to sink or swim in un i v e r s i t y c r e d i t coursework. Whether these students are able to survive in the univ e r s i t y environment or not is often dependent on th e i r self-management s k i l l s in t h e i r approach to reading. Their self-management s k i l l s can be 62 d i v i d e d i n t o two s u b c a t e g o r i e s : study s k i l l s and r e s o u r c i n g . They begin to see the s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e a d i n g i n r e l a t i o n to coursework: Yeah, I must say, coming here, I've le a r n e d to be more c o n s i s t e n t i n my r e a d i n g cuz I found t h a t i f you don't read, i t ' s p r e t t y hard to c a t c h up i n c l a s s . You don't know what's happening. Whereas back home, i t ' s more l i k e spoon-f e e d i n g , whereas here you have to make your own notes, take your own notes. So i t ' s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n t h a t way. (LE 5-26) Students who are determined to master the academic r e a d i n g w i l l go so f a r as to i s o l a t e themselves from students whom they would normally have a n a t u r a l and comfortable r a p p o r t with: In the f i r s t two weeks, I look q u i c k l y around and see who's good i n E n g l i s h . I s t i c k with them. I never speak Japanese i n s c h o o l . Observe f i r s t , make a c o n t a c t and ask the students who are good than me i n E n g l i s h . I was r e a l l u c k y - most people are ready to help me i f I can't understand the r e a d i n g or the assignment. (HI 3-27) Another r e a d i n g s t r a t e g y i n study s k i l l s was s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . T h i s was used by the m a j o r i t y of the informants, p a r t i c u l a r l y when d e a l i n g with the s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . In r e a d i n g E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e at the whole t e x t l e v e l , they would pay a t t e n t i o n to c e r t a i n elements: I get the main c h a r a c t e r s , who the main c h a r a c t e r s a r e , vhat they do. C e r t a i n l i n e s , I might see symbolism or i r o n y or vhit§vi£, the§© things. (CA 1=4) Our i n s t r u c t o r t a u g h t us t o l o o k out f o r the main c h a r a c t e r - you know, l i k e the p r o t a g o n i s t , the p o i n t of view and a l l t h a t . So when I'm r e a d i n g t h r o u g h i t -I t r y t o look out f o r i t . (VA 1-4) I t r y t o i d e n t i f y the theme, the c o n f l i c t and the v a r i o u s a s p e c t s . The theme, i t t a k e s a w h i l e sometimes. (LE 1-1) As the term p r o g r e s s e d , most of the i n f o r m a n t s began u t i l i z i n g t h i s s t r a t e g y more o f t e n , c o n s c i o u s l y l o o k i n g f o r l i t e r a r y elements as t h e y r e a d the s t o r i e s a t the whole-t e x t l e v e l . When asked how she knows when the a u t h o r i s s a y i n g something s p e c i a l t o the r e a d e r , one i n f o r m a n t responded: I don't know, but I j u s t t h i n k t h a t i f the a u t h o r t r y t o i m p l y something or t r y t o use o t h e r t h i n g s t o s y m b o l i z e the o t h e r way - t h e y w i l l g i v e us some odd way t o w r i t e t h a t event or o b j e c t - so whenever you d i s c o v e r t h e y use a s p e c i a l way t o w r i t e i t , t h e n you w i l l remember - the a u t h o r must be g i v e some s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n ... maybe sometime he won't but most of the time i t work. (AM 3-10) Most of the i n f o r m a n t s r e a d the complete d i s c o u r s e from b e g i n n i n g t o end w h i l e p a y i n g s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o l i t e r a r y s t y l e . However, one i n f o r m a n t had d e v e l o p e d h i s own scheme f o r r e a d i n g E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : What I do i s r e a d a t the b e g i n n i n g - the b e g i n n i n g f o r about a page t o see a l l the main c h a r a c t e r s f i r s t . Then I go r e a d the end, I see what i t ' s a l l coming t o i n the end. So I see what's a l l coming out a t the end of the s t o r y which i s about a page or s o , and t h e n I go and r e a d the m i d d l e , then s t a r t over a g a i n from the b e g i n n i n g and t h e n r e a d the m i d d l e , see what's d e v e l o p i n g , why and 64 see what happened a t the m i d d l e have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h the end. So I u n d e r s t a n d b e t t e r . I t h i n k i t ' s r e a l l y good, I u n d e r s t o o d i t much b e t t e r . (JA 5-46) H i s p r o c e d u r e , which may go a g a i n s t the g r a i n of t h o s e who v a l u e l i t e r a t u r e as a r t , had been d e v i s e d by him as a s t r a t e g y t o h e l p h i m s e l f a c q u i r e a mental s t r u c t u r e of the l i t e r a t u r e ; he had found from e x p e r i e n c e a t the s e c o n d a r y E n g l i s h l e v e l t h a t he o f t e n d i d not u n d e r s t a n d what was o c c u r r i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e on a l i t e r a l l e v e l , l e t a l o n e on a l i t e r a r y l e v e l . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , h i s b a c k - a n d - f o r t h p r o c e d u r e , which seems an u n u s u a l approach t o E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , was f o l l o w e d by o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n r e a d i n g f o r p s y c h o l o g y : F i r s t I read the l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e i n the s t u d y g u i d e , t h e n I r e a d the summary i n the t e x t b o o k , then the c h a p t e r , then I ' l l come back t o the q u e s t i o n s i n the s t u d y g u i d e , t h e n I ' l l do the s e l f - q u i z . T h i s i s how I u s u a l l y do i t f o r e v e r y c h a p t e r . (CA 3-17) I n f o r m a n t s were asked how t h e y knew which were the i m p o r t a n t i d e a s i n a c h a p t e r . H a l f of them r e p o r t e d u s i n g advance o r g a n i z e r s and u n d e r l i n i n g : On r e a d i n g t h e s e t h i n g s I tend t o f o r g e t what i t was, so I go back, always h o l d i n g t h i s page: the c h a p t e r l i s t i n g of h e a d i n g s . I t e n d t o wander away so I always come back t o t h i s , the t i t l e s , t o keep my f o c u s . Always remember what's the f o c u s , don't go out of the f o c u s , don't go too wide. (HI 7-47) Sometimes t h e y have words i n i t a l i c s and u s u a l l y I i i g u r e t h a t ' s th§ m a j o r = you know, something which t h e y ' r e t r y i n g t o 65 put a c r o s s to you, and u s u a l l y I take more notes, pay more a t t e n t i o n to t h a t and u s u a l l y I w r i t e i t down i n my f i l e . (LE 3-13) Some informants r e p o r t e d paying a t t e n t i o n to the graphs when the academic language posed a d i f f i c u l t y : Sometimes I ' l l read the c h a r t s , j u s t depends i f important f o r me. Sometimes you don't r e a l l y understand what the textbook say and you need to read something - the c h a r t s or the examples or something l i k e t h a t . (AM 4-16) I might look a t i t and then sometimes I might j u s t throw i t around, you know, j u s t to see what p a r t s go where. (CA 3-15) Other informants not o n l y found g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t e x t s u s e f u l i n r e a d i n g comprehension but a l s o c a r r i e d over the idea of imagery i n t o c r e a t i n g t h e i r own mental concepts. Again, the whole t e x t i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i s r e l e v a n t here, as the c h a r a c t e r development occurs w i t h i n the context of the complete r e a d i n g : When I read, I draw a p i c t u r e of contents i n my b r a i n - to make connections i n my b r a i n . What i s t h i s t h i n g ? "A Rose f o r E m i l y " not easy to understand, E m i l y changes, v e r y d i f f i c u l t to hold i t i n me because the p i c t u r e ' s not r i g h t . S i n c l a i r Ross' "A Lamp at Noon", I don't know p r a i r i e s . I don't see symbol of dust, cause of baby's death i s strange.(HI 1-2) When I'm r e a d i n g through i t , f i r s t , I get - you know - I have a mental p i c t u r e of the c h a r a c t e r . You t r y to imagine who the main c h a r a c t e r i s - what he's l i k e . (VA 1-3) One informant s t a t e d t h a t i f she was unable to c r e a t e a mental image, she found i t d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d what she was r e a d i n g : When I c a n ' t see i t , I don't u n d e r s t a n d i t . Some r e a d i n g s - l i k e a i r - way up i n the a i r - i t ' s l i k e a b s t r a c t , you c a n ' t s o r t of get h o l d of i t . (TA 3-10) A s t u d y s t r a t e g y i n r e a d i n g comprehension t h a t was c i t e d by e v e r y member of the group i n t e r v i e w e d was r e p e t i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o n t e n t : You knov - i f I don't u n d e r s t a n d , I w i l l r e a d i t a g a i n and a g a i n and a g a i n . Cuz I have t o u n d e r s t a n d i t , I know. (MO 10-55) I n i t i a l l y I j u s t r e a d i t once t h r o u g h but l a t e r I found you r e a l l y had t o r e a d i t more than t h a t t o r e a l l y f i n d out more about the s t o r y . So a f t e r t h a t I u s u a l l y read i t a few more t i m e s . For E n g l i s h 110 I found t h a t I was r e a d i n g i t more than i n E n g l i s h 12. In E n g l i s h 12, I read t h r o u g h , j u s t maybe once, t h a t ' s a l l . Now i n E n g l i s h 110, I r e a d i t more, maybe two t i m e s or more. Sometimes the i n s t r u c t o r t e l l s us something - I mean I don't even r e a l i z e i t , I don't even see i t but i t h e l p s , l i k e when I go back, I read i t a g a i n and I can see i t . (LE 9-46) Oh, i t r e a l l y h e l p - you know, the f i r s t t ime you r e a d i t , you j u s t r o u g h l y t o r e a d i t and the second time you r e a d i t you w i l l become a c o n s i d e r i n g , sometime you w i l l meet one p o i n t - the a u t h o r t r y t o o f f e r you some i n f o r m a t i o n on t h a t p o i n t . You w i l l t r y t o c o n s i d e r t h a t . (AM 2-9) For many students i n academic s t u d i e s , r e a d i n g i s not an end i n i t s e l f ; i t i s done f o r s p e c i f i c purposes: t o understand the course content, to f o l l o w the l e c t u r e r , to do the assignment or t o w r i t e the e x a m i n a t i o n s . One means of a c h i e v i n g the l a t t e r g o a l , p a s s i n g e x a m i n a t i o n s , i s t o re a d f o r the purpose of memorizing. For s e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s , a s t u d y s k i l l used e x t e n s i v e l y when r e a d i n g i n p s y c h o l o g y was t o memorize the d e f i n i t i o n s of the c o n c e p t s : These t h i n g s [ the b o l d p r i n t ] , I make su r e - a r e the t h i n g s I have t o memorize. I t a k e notes when I r e a d , t h e n I memorize. (HI 7-47) E v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h memorizing w i l l be f i n e . (WI 1-3) T h i s type of s t r a t e g y i s not a d i f f i c u l t one f o r the A s i a n s t u d e n t s as m e m o r i z a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a prominent s t u d y a c t i v i t y under t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l systems. The o t h e r s u b c a t e g o r y i n self-management i s r e s o u r c i n g . To enable themselves t o cope w i t h the r e a d i n g , the s t u d e n t s o f t e n r e l i e d on o t h e r t e x t s and on o t h e r s t u d e n t s : A f t e r I've re a d - some t h i n g s I am not s u r e - so I go t o the l i b r a r y and lo o k the o t h e r books, o t h e r p s y c h o l o g y books, d i f f e r e n t way of e x p l a n a t i o n , so t r y t o gr a s p what's r e a l l y i s the i d e a . (HI 7-49) The d i f f i c u l t y i s j u s t a d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e , a d i f f e r e n t approach so I p r o b a b l y w i l l t r y t o re a d something r e l a t e d t o the custom or something l i k e t h a t . (HI12-70) I f I r e a d a n o t h e r t e x t b e s i d e the one we use i n s c h o o l , t h e n I w i l l not have any problems. I j u s t check from t h i s l i b r a r y and t h e y got a c o u p l e , d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s but much c l e a r e r . (IV 6-16) D u r i n g c l a s s , we have t o read Shakespeare, a p l a y . I was j u s t t o t a l l y l o s t . And the n we t r y t o f i n d those notes - what do you c a l l i t ? thos e C o l e s n o t e s . I t g i v e me a g e n e r a l i d e a . (WI 4-21) I would t e s t m y s e l f u s i n g t h a t book b e f o r e the q u i z . To me, the s t u d y guide i s a l s o somewhat l i k e a summary so I f i n d i t ' s p r e t t y h e l p f u l and t h e r e ' s m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t o o and a s e l f - q u i z . B e f o r e the q u i z , I do i t . I t h e l p s me t o r e c a l l what I r e a d , t o pr e p a r e m y s e l f f o r t he t e s t . (LE 6-29) "What do you do when you have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h your a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s ? " was one of the i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . U s i n g peers as r e s o u r c e s i n r e a d i n g comprehension was a common r e s p o n s e : I f I don't u n d e r s t a n d , maybe I w i l l ask my b o y f r i e n d or w a i t u n t i l next c l a s s . Sometimes I ask my b o y f r i e n d and he read f o r me and t e l l me what t h e y t a l k i n g a bout. He go UBC, grad s t u d e n t , B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ( T A 3-12) I f t h e r e ' s some f a n c y word I don't know, I can ask my s i s t e r , she took the co u r s e b e f o r e t o o . (WI 1-1) Ask my f r i e n d s f i r s t and l e t them e x p l a i n i t t o me - my f r i e n d s who took i t b e f o r e . And i f t h e y c a n ' t , t h e n I w i l l ask my t e a c h e r . (AM 9-42) C o n s u l t i n g peers appeared t o be a more c o m f o r t a b l e p r o c e d u r e t h a n c o n s u l t i n g the i n s t r u c t o r : J u s t once, I went t o see the i n s t r u c t o r . . . I ' m a b i t s c a r e d of h i m . I p r e f e r to ask ray f r i e n d i f my f r i e n d can do t h i s f o r me. (MO 10-54) The second major c a t e g o r y i n c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i s background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e (Cummins, 1984). ESL s t u d e n t s i n f i r s t year u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s possess l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h p r e v i o u s academic e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s and/or i n t h e Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l system. A number have a l s o had work e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r t o r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o l a s t i c p u r s u i t s . S e v e r a l i n f o r m a n t s d i s c u s s e d how t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s , e d u c a t i o n a l and o t h e r w i s e , were h e l p i n g them i n t h e i r p r e s e n t r e a d i n g . T h i s s t u d e n t had l e a r n e d the s t r a t e g y of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t h r o u g h p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e : I l e a r n e d i t [ u s i n g h e a d i n g s ] from s c h o o l . Other c o u r s e s - l i k e geography-I took geography i n s e t 4, t h e y t a u g h t me t h i s method: i f t h e y s a y something t o do w i t h d r a i n a g e , then a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h d r a i n a g e or wa t e r , you got t o make a p o i n t of i t . (CA 3-13). The f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l s i l l u s t r a t e how the s t u d e n t s ' p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s e n a b l e them t o make a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t h e l p them cope w i t h r e a d i n g s i n c u r r e n t coursework: B a s i c a l l y the aim [ u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o e t r y ] q u i t e s i m i l a r , so i f you remember the s t u f f of poems i n C h i n e s e , I t h i n k you are easy t o c a t c h up the s t u f f of poems i n E n g l i s h , but the words, t h e i r way of w r i t i n g poems i s a l i t t l e b i t d i f f e r e n t . (AM 1-14) I f you read a l o t , even i n your c o u n t r y ' s language, i t h e l p you c r e a t e the a b i l i t y f o r comprehension. So a f t e r t h a t , even though you re a d the o t h e r language, i t do have some h e l p . You know, most of t h e book, t h e r e a r e not so many s t u f f o f f e r t h e a u t h o r t o w r i t e , so the s t u f f the a u t h o r s w r i t e i s q u i t e . s i m i l a r . Sometimes when you're r e a d i n g E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , sometimes you can a s s o c i a t e some s t u f f r e l a t e d t o the 70 Chinese L i t e r a t u r e too - a l l the a u t h o r s seem t o have s i m i l a r t h i n k i n g sometimes t h e y d e p i c t the c h a r a c t e r such as t h i s f e a t u r e i n E n g l i s h - sometimes you can remember the same f e a t u r e i n the Chinese L i t e r a t u r e , so you can a s s o c i a t e i t and i t h e l p s you t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 7-28) . The f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l i n d i c a t e s how p r e v i o u s Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s e r v e d t o d e v e l o p the c o p i n g s t r a t e g y of n o t e - t a k i n g : A c t u a l l y i t was q u i t e easy f o r me t h i s semester cuz I took Grade 12 E n g l i s h l a s t s e mester, so i t ' s s o r t of about the same t h i n g . L a s t semester I had d i f f i c u l t y because I'd never done i t b e f o r e . . . I n o t i c e t h a t most of my f r i e n d s - t h e y don't b o t h e r t o t a k e n o t e s i n c l a s s f o r E n g l i s h . Maybe because I took E n g l i s h 12 and I u n d e r s t o o d the importance of t a k i n g n otes whereas most of them never took E n g l i s h 12 b e f o r e . So t o them i t ' s something r e a l new. They never come a c r o s s such t h i n g s b e f o r e . (LE 7-34) P r e v i o u s r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s have de v e l o p e d t h e i r a b i l i t i e s : Oh,yes, I l o v e r e a d i n g - when I was younger, a l m o s t e v e r y week me and my s i s t e r , we would get books - you knov-the Red Book of S t o r i e s , the Green Book of S t o r i e s - s h o r t s t o r i e s , the s e r i e s -books from E n g l a n d . We used t o read Nancy Drew s e r i e s , the Hardy Boy s e r i e s - wow, Hardy Boy s t o r i e s ! - we c o u l d n ' t put them down. We exchange w i t h s e v e r a l c o u s i n s . I t ' s even b e t t e r cuz my dad l i k e s to read a l s o - so i f he buys the b e s t s e l l e r s , h e ' l l j u s t pass i t t o us and w e ' l l pass i t around. Sometimes a t the dinner t a b l e , ve can t a l k about i t , t h i s and t h a t . (VA 5-21) Self-management p l a y e d a prominent r o l e i n t h i s s t u d e n t ' s background e x p e r i e n c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension: In Japan I r e a d a l o t of E n g l i s h newspapers. I t a p e d E n g l i s h and F r e n c h movies, I p l a y e d them a g a i n and a g a i n . In E n g l i s h movies, have Japanese s u b t i t l e s . So I r e a d the book, I see the movie, I tape the movie. At home I p l a y i t and I r e a d i t a g a i n . . . l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge about w o r l d h e l p me a l o t . I n Japan I read Japanese Time magazine i n E n g l i s h and Japanese. (HI 1-3) The f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l h i g h l i g h t s the p l a c e of background l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s i n comprehending r e a d i n g s i n p s y c h o l o g y : I t h i n k e x p e r i e n c e , i f you have e x p e r i e n c e , i t ' s easy t o r e a d because what i t says i s v e r y s i m i l a r or what you e x p e c t - or what you r e a l l y f e e l i n g about p e o p l e . L i f e e x p e r i e n c e r e a l l y h e l p s t o u n d e r s t a n d p s y c h o l o g y . I f you have e x p e r i e n c e , t h e n you can r e l a t e t o them - t h e n you have more r e a l i d e a about y o u r s e l f and o t h e r p e o p l e , then you can break i t or c o n t i n u e i t . You can do something about i t , but i f you have n o t h i n g t o b u i l d , I t h i n k p s y c h o l o g y i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o b u i l d up. A n y t h i n g I read - I t r y t o r e l a t e w i t h what I know - the d a i l y l i f e r e l a t e t o my e x p e r i e n c e . (HI 8-54) T h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d d i a r y e n t r i e s noted how a twenty-f i v e year o l d i n f o r m a n t w i t h p r e v i o u s work e x p e r i e n c e was a b l e t o d e a l w i t h the r e a d i n g demands: I n t e r v i e w e d A, my n i n t h i n f o r m a n t , she's had w o r k i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n s a l e s i n Hong Kong w i t h Chinese and E n g l i s h f i r m s , so i s a more mature s t u d e n t i n approach and a t t i t u d e . She's found t h a t her background g i v e s her a s s i s t a n c e i n p s y c h o l o g y . Her own l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l background e n a b l e s her t o d e a l w i t h E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . She seems t o u n d e r s t a n d the i n f e r e n c e s b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s t u d e n t s . She doesn't seem t o o v e r w o r r y about her academic s t u d i e s . (F.D. 50) The t h i r d major c a t e g o r y i n c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands i s a heavy r e l i a n c e on the e x p e r t i s e of the i n s t r u c t o r w i t h i n a s p e i c i f c academic d i s c i p l i n e . T h i s seemed t o be p a r t l y a c a r r y o v e r from the A s i a n l e a r n i n g environment where c l a s s r o o m s were h e a v i l y t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d and p a r t l y a r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r own l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n a l s t y l e of Canadian s c h o o l s . The more i n f o r m a l and d e m o c r a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t o r s and s t u d e n t s was n o t e d : I f e e l p e r s o n a l l y the t e a c h e r s here a r e l e s s i n t i m i d a t i n g t h a n t h o s e back home. You know, i n S i n g a p o r e , the t e a c h e r s ask you a q u e s t i o n and t h e y s t a r e a t you. I f you don't know the answer, t h e y s t a r e a t you. And d o i n g t h a t f r i g h t e n s the s t u d e n t s even more. (LE 8-44) The s t u d e n t s were accustomed i n t h e i r p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g t o r e a d i n g s h o r t s t o r i e s f o r l i t e r a l comprehension but not f o r l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s : I n Hong Kong, we read s h o r t s t o r i e s i n c l a s s , no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . L i k e , who i s the main c h a r a c t e r ? J u s t s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n and answer. No t h i n k i n g . (MO 9-48) Back home we don't l e a r n t h i n g s l i k e c o n f l i c t , theme and a l l t h a t , so I don't r e a l l y r ead i t i n t h a t way. Back home what I do i s Just read and I t r y to u n d e r s t a n d what the s t o r y i s about j u s t the p l o t , not so much i n a n a l y z i n g , e t c . You d i d n ' t have to know t h i n g s l i k e c o n f l i c t , symbols, and i r o n y . ( L E 8-37) Having r e a d the s h o r t s t o r i e s , the s t u d e n t s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the p l o t and the main c h a r a c t e r s ; t h e y l o o k t o the i n s t r u c t o r t o a m p l i f y , e x p l a i n and i n t e r p r e t the deeper l i t e r a r y and t h e m a t i c i d e a s embedded i n the s p e c i f i c p i e c e s of l i t e r a t u r e under s t u d y . An e x a m i n a t i o n of the p r o t o c o l s i n d i c a t e s a h i g h r e l i a n c e by s t u d e n t s on the t e a c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s as f a r as the d i s c i p l i n e of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i s co n c e r n e d . Hence, the E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t o r was r e l i e d on as the a u t h o r i t y f o r b o t h l i t e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and l i t e r a r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : I f I don't u n d e r s t a n d i t , I come back t o c l a s s and the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l e x p l a i n i t . . . f o r a l l t h o s e s h o r t s t o r i e s , the i n s t r u c t o r gave us a p r e t t y good i d e a what the s t o r i e s a l l about. He doesn't say e v e r y s i n g l e word i n d e t a i l . I t h i n k we un d e r s t a n d enough t o handle the c o u r s e . (WI 3-13) I don't r e a l l y worry much about t h a t -what I don't u n d e r s t a n d . U s u a l l y the t e a c h e r would t e a c h and by the n u s u a l l y I know what i t ' s about, because, you know, the t e a c h e r would have c l a r i f i e d whatever I don't know. (LE 4-21) He e x p l a i n s what i s s e t t i n g , how t o d e r i v e a t the s e t t i n g , t h e t i m e , and then the c o n f l i c t , theme. He goes more i n t o d e t a i l about i t . He t e l l s more tha n what I know. So from t h e r e I b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d , and when t h e r e ' s a s t o r y I don't u n d e r s t a n d , he w i l l e x p l a i n more th o r o u g h i n c l a s s . (CA 2-8) For t h e s e s t u d e n t s , the i n s t r u c t o r was the e x p e r t who p r o v i d e d the l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t f o r the r e a d i n g s : When B. t e a c h e s i n c l a s s , I o f t e n l i k e t o t a k e notes because I f e e l i t ' s i m p o r t a n t . L a t e r on, when you go back, i t ' s e a s i e r t o do your r e v i e w and a l l t h a t . When you go back [ t o the b o o k ] , 7 4 y o u ' l l be a b l e t o see how you can i d e n t i f y the p r o t a g o n i s t , the c o n f l i c t , e t c . (LE 7-34) I t h i n k I need somebody t o e x p l a i n t o me. I t h i n k i t ' s beyond my a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d . I need somebody t o t e l l me the symbols. ( I V 4-16) The t e a c h e r t a l k e d about i t a f t e r I read i t . I know what I t h i n k about i t and the t e a c h e r s a y something about i t . I mean, 1/2 of what I t h i n k i s what he says and 1/2 was a l i t t l e more th a n what I t h i n k . . . t h a t 1 s why the t e a c h e r i s supposed t o be t h e r e , so I can l e a r n a l i t t l e more ...sometimes I don't agree w i t h the t e a c h e r but he's r i g h t , I know he's r i g h t . He's the t e a c h e r , he's supposed t o be r i g h t . But sometimes I don't agree w i t h him. Once i n a w h i l e , I ' l l argue w i t h him. But i f h i s argument i s t o o s t r o n g f o r me, I ' l l keep my mouth s h u t ! I t ' s fun t o argue w i t h him! (TR 4-40) S t u d e n t s found t h a t the r e a d i n g i n p s y c h o l o g y was f a c i l i t a t e d by the p s y c h o l o g y i n s t r u c t o r ' s l e c t u r e s : A f t e r he t a l k s about i t f o r about one or two days, t h e n I s t a r t r e a d i n g about i t . (MO 6-30) Now I r e a l i z e t h a t T's l e c t u r e i s p e r f e c t . T's l e c t u r e i s the way i t ' s w r i t t e n i n the p s y c h o l o g y book. I t ' s w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , I n o t i c e t h a t now. I must say h i s l e c t u r e must be r e a l l y good, because q u i t e r e c e n t l y I n o t i c e d , s i n c e I r e a l i z e d t h a t the way he t e a c h e s i s r e a l l y j u s t l i k e the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book. But a t the same time - t h e n a f t e r the l e c t u r e , I have a q u e s t i o n -how? why? or something l i k e t h a t - then f o l l o w i n g day I come to the c o n c l u s i o n , my own c o n c l u s i o n . Then next day T. t e a c h e s what I was t h i n k i n g , I t h i n k t h a t ' s the d i r e c t i o n he's l e a d i n g , so I must say he's r e a l l y good. (HI 3-21) I get a b e t t e r p i c t u r e a f t e r he's taught 75 i t . He w i l l put a p o i n t a c r o s s and t h e n I t h i n k about i t , and I l o o k a t the book, and, you know, i t ' s q u i t e t r u e . (LE 5-23) Sometimes not a l l the s t u f f you can u n d e r s t a n d the f i r s t t i m e , so a f t e r t h a t d u r i n g the c l a s s , the t e a c h e r w i l l e x p l a i n a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n from the book, then you w i l l c a t c h the i d e a . Then a f t e r t h a t , you r e a d one more time f o r the t e s t , t h e n you can be c l e a r e r , more easy t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 7-30) T h i s c o n c l u d e s the c o d i n g of the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s when f a c e d w i t h r e a d i n g demands i n f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s . S e l f -management, background knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r a r e the t h r e e major c a t e g o r i e s . Readings a r e done a t the w h o l e - t e x t l e v e l , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of what the i n s t r u c t o r r e q u i r e d of the s t u d e n t s t o s u c c e s s f u l l y complete the c o u r s e , whether i t was a s s i g n m e n t s , c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , or e x a m i n a t i o n s . For t h e s e s t u d e n t s , r e a d i n g was c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d as a means t o an end and t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s seemed t o r e f l e c t t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e . At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e two o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h , though t h e y a r e not c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s , do i n f l u e n c e the s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g performance. These two f a c t o r s a r e t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r p e r s e v e r a n c e i n a d h e r i n g t o the r e a d i n g t a s k . I n t e r e s t and p e r s e v e r a n c e can be seen as the h i d d e n agenda which m o t i v a t e s the s t u d e n t s and e n a b l e s them t o c o n t i n u e r e a d i n g d e s p i t e c u l t u r a l or l i n g u i s t i c d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n p s y c h o l o g y where much of the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l seems t o be t e s t e d i n an o b j e c t i v e manner, r a t h e r t h a n r e l y i n g on i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s k i l l s as i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , the s t u d e n t s ' background e x p e r i e n c e and h i g h e r i n t e r e s t l e v e l f a c i l i t a t e s the r e a d i n g t a s k : One t h i n g t h a t can r e a l l y h e l p me t o re a d something - I mean I can f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d - i s my i n t e r e s t . I c a n ' t r e a d something w i t h o u t my i n t e r s t . L i k e economics, r i g h t now, i n economics, I f i n d my i n t e r e s t i s not i n economics, so I spend a l o t of time t o r e a d j u s t one c h a p t e r - compared t o my r e a d i n g p s y c h o l o g y . P s y c h o l o g y i s my i n t e r e s t . . . the r e a d i n g , j u s t l i k e I have a l o t of fun r e a d i n g i t - t o d r i v e me t o read i t . I f e e l l i k e i t [ p s y c h o l o g y r e a d i n g ] i s more c l o s e t o m y s e l f because I have my f e e l i n g when I r e a d i t - t h i s i s t r u e t o m y s e l f or I don't know - i t ' s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . (IV 2-11) I l i k e p s y c h o l o g y , i t ' s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . Back home i n Si n g a p o r e when I was w o r k i n g , the company gave me time o f f t o s t u d y . I took one c o u r s e - human r e s o u r c e management. I t ' s r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g . I r e a l l y e n j o y i t , so from t h e r e I s t a r t e d l i k i n g s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . (CA 2-10) Sometimes something i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g - i t w i l l tempt you t o r e a d more ... whenever you t h i n k something i n t e r e s t s you, you pay more a t t e n t i o n and c o n e n t r a t e on t h a t and you t h i n k maybe i t ' s easy t o u d n e r s t a n d . . . i f you f e e l something i s b o r i n g , you don't pay more a t t e n t i o n on t h a t , then you f e e l t h a t i t ' s hard t o u n d e r s t a n d ... maybe "The C o l o n e l ' s Lady" d e a l w i t h r e a l l i f e , so you can easy to a s s o c i a t e , and i t ' s i n t e r e s t i n g . Maybe because t h e y g i v e a a d u l t wondering why - maybe I'm int@£§§t@d iQt vhat'§ going on ait§£ h§* husband d i s c o v e r the a f f a i r . (AM 2-5) I f I l i k e s o mething, I can read and a p p r e c i a t e - I can do i t . I can produce i d e a s from r e a d i n g the d i f f i c u l t i d e a s . (HI 2-5) The a b i l i t y t o p e r s e v e r e when f a c e d w i t h the c h a l l e n g e of r e a d i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of u n f a m i l i a r c o u r s e m a t e r i a l i s a s t r o n g f a c t o r i n the academic p r o g r e s s of t h e s e s t u d e n t s . Numerous i n f o r m a n t s made comments on how e s s e n t i a l i t was t o want t o master the m a t e r i a l and t o p e r s i s t i n the t a s k : I f you r e a l l y want t o do i t , you w i l l f i n d out i t ' s not so hard t o u n d e r s t a n d . I f you don't want t o r e a d i t , your mind w i l l r e f u s e t o u n d e r s t a n d . (AM 6-21) I r e a d a l o t because I want t o get p r a c t i s e on - I mean, t o p r e p a r e m y s e l f f o r u n i v e r s i t y ; o t h e r w i s e , I c a n ' t s u r v i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y . (IV 6-34) Whatever I r e a d - sometime i t ' s r e a l l y f a r away from my e x p e r i e n c e and i t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d but once I s t a r t - I have t o f i n i s h i t so I keep d o i n g i t . I r ead i t because you s t a r t i t , i t ' s a waste of time i f you l e a v e i t . I don't t h i n k i t ' s good f o r you once you s t a r t i t - t o l e a v e i t . When I f i n d i t d f f i c u l t t o r e a d - d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d - why d i f f i c u l t ? I t h i n k f i r s t . Then keep i t i n my mind, t h e n what does i t mean? Then t h i n k about i t . Then few days l a t e r something come up -so i f you s a y i t ' s d i f f i c u l t , you're g o i n g t o c l o s e y o u r - m i n d - t o - u n d e r s t a n d -d o o r . Then, okay, i t ' s d i f f i c u l t - read i t and read i t . I t a k e i t t h i s way: the way i t ' s w r i t t e n make i t h a r d , i t ' s not me. (HI 5-33) The f o l l o w i n g two p r o t o c o l s a r e i n d i c a t i v e not o n l y of t h e s e c s t u d e n t s ' p e r s e v e r a n c e but a l s o of t h e i r s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 78 f o r t h e i r own pr o g r e s s : I've l e a r n t to be more c o n s i s t e n t here i n the way I study. Back home I d i d n ' t r e a l l y bother much. I mean, maybe because when I came here, I r e a l i z e my parents are spending so much and I have to do something about i t . (LE 8-43) Back home, i f I l i k e a s u b j e c t , I would probably put more e f f o r t i n t o i t . But not l i k e here, whether I l i k e i t or not, I f o r c e myself to do i t , because i t ' s the money - so I f e e l t h a t I have to understand i t . (LE 9-45) D. M o d e l - B u i l d i n g Emerging data i n d i c a t e s t h a t these s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s cannot be examined i n i s o l a t i o n ; when i t came to s u r v i v i n g i n the u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t c ourses, these students u t i l i z e d a number of coping s t r a t e g i e s to help themselves i n re a d i n g comprehension. The model developed by t h i s r e s e a r c h e r has three major c a t e g o r i e s and four t i e r s (see f i g u r e 3). As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the c a t e g o r i e s are not completely e x c l u s i v e but are interdependent to some degree. Since the c a t e g o r i e s have been analyzed i n the previous s e c t i o n on coding, f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n s w i l l not be provided at t h i s p o i n t . When the students read, they focus on comprehending the m a t e r i a l s as a means to an end, namely, to understand the readings s u f f i c i e n t l y to do the assignment or pass the examination. Thus, t h e i r use e i s t r a t e g i e s are within the context of the p a r t i c u l a r genre they are concentrating en. 79 (See f i g u r e 4). In I n t r o d u c t o r y Psychology, they are aiming towards s u c c e s s f u l completion of the academic requirements: the q u i z z e s and the c l a s s p r o j e c t s . They achieved t h i s by mastering the contents of the b a s i c t e x t and the study guide under the d i r e c t i o n of the i n s t r u c t o r . In E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t h e i r o b j e c t i v e was s u c c e s s f u l completion of the essays, r e s e a r c h paper and f i n a l . To do t h i s , they r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e input from the i n s t r u c t o r on r e a d i n g comprehension a t both the l i t e r a l and l i t e r a r y l e v e l . 80 05 c ro o 3 Ml O 0. Ml (B M •1 CD O r r i-h *< M n> • cu cn * r-w • 3 09 C H- 9 0) < 3" » H f - go D) 0) r r r r c c « o. to ni s D) r r 3 CO Cu -M O 3 O r r "Q « H. O 3 Cu 00 c o en rr r r O « H (U r r (D *v oo 0) H-ro o co sr o < O r r 00 3 " o ro H 01 ro cu Cu r * 3 r r 00 O Cu O (1) C S il CD co 3 fl> Cu (0 CO selective attention note-taking & underlining graphics & imagery repetition memorization other texts peers LI context L2 content personal interest work experience literal comprehension literary interpretation concept formation quiz preparation to to TT r r H> C I - 1 Cu CO P8 ffi 10 O c n n H-3 00 M > *0 X fi il •s ei it CD Cu < M- B o n> c 3 r> u n ro x ro •O I"1 M m >*• to •I i-n O i — ro 3 ro cu 3 H -n ro co f M O H* 3 It r r 00 3 ro i—1 >-i >i H - ro a> co r r ST O C Ml H ro 13 O co ro v: 3 s" ro o r-> O O Ml oo ro i B CD 3 0) 00 ro a ro 3 r r 3 O c H re cd Cu o> oo o ro ?r oo cu M s o Cu c 3 m a. x •o ro H H-ro 3 n ro o 3 ' v s ro co M r r - H . M fit C 3 r> r> r r ro •o H CO CO ro « PJ 3 00 CO 3" w to r1 c 3 < ro « CO H-r r c Cu ro 3 n o •o H* 3 00 f r r H- M. CO ro ii 0) ro oo ro 0) c >i ro « r r T3 3* CO s : ID 3" B) O Cu ro o 3 00 v: n ro u Cu H-3 oo 81 CONTEXT of English Literature Academic Coursework Students' coping strategies with academic reading Text - .genre-—specific content material literal comprehension literary interpretation essays, exams research paper' input from instructors input from instructors CONTEXT of Introductory Psychology Academic Coursework Students' coping strategies' with academic reading Text - genre: —specific content material Study guide - generic-specific Concept formation Practical Application 4 Quizzes Projects input;from instructors input' from instructors Figure -4; Model of Contexts for coping strategies'in reading in the academic disciplines of English Literature and Introductory Psychology • 82 To demonstrate the significance of the context within which the reading demands a r i s e , examples of two psychology multiple-choice quiz questions are presented here to i l l u s t r a t e the students' use of coping strategies: (1) What does PQRST stand for? A. Prepare, Query, Read, Study, Text B. Protest Quietly, Rowdiness Stops Thinking C. Preview, Question, Read, S e l f - r e c i t a t i o n , Text D. Preview, Question, Recall, Study, Time (2) " B i l l a c c i d e n t a l l y bumped May; she f e l l and cut her knee badly. Joe wanted May's toy: he h i t her and made her cry." A 3-year-old would say: A. B i l l i s naughtier because May's cut was bad. B. Joe is naughtier because you shouldn't h i t people. C. Joe is naughtier because children should t r y to respect others. D. B i l l is naughtier because i t was an accident. The students would l i k e l y be able to answer question one i f they have used the strategy of memorization of factual information in the readings. However, to answer question two c o r r e c t l y , students may need to go beyond memorizing. They may have learned from their reading what l e v e l of m o r a l i t y c h i l d r e n of t h a t age vould be capable of and then they would have te apply that knevltdgt in erdtr te decide which of the four c h o i c e s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t norm.. T h i s 83 a p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge may have been a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n or i n s t r u c t o r - a r r a n g e d c l a s s p r o j e c t s . Thus, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o see how the s t r a t e g i e s a r e used w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of academic work. The s t u d e n t s were p r i m a r i l y concerned t o f u l f i l c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s s u c c e s s f u l l y and t h e i r use of the s t r a t e g i e s a r o s e out of t h i s . The type of c o p i n g s t r a t e g y t h e y used would v a r y w i t h the c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t . One can use the knowledge framework (Mohan, 1986) as a s i m p l i f i e d model of c o n t e x t l i n k i n g a c t i o n and knowledge. Thus, t h i s framework e n a b l e s us t o put s t r a t e g y use w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the c o u r s e . E . T r i a n g u l a t i o n T r i a n g u l a t i o n i s q u a l i t a t i v e c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n whereby a s e a r c h i s made f o r convergence among m u l t i p l e d a t a s o u r c e s or m u l t i p l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Thus, a comparison can be made of d a t a r e l a t i n g t o the same phenomenon but d e r i v e d from d i f f e r e n t phases of the f i e l d w o r k , a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s over t i m e , or from the a c c o u n t s of d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s . In t h i s s t u d y , two forms of c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n were made t o v e r i f y the s u f f i c i e n c y of the d a t a . ( S e e F i g u r e 5 ) . (A) T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g m u l t i p l e d a t a s o u r c e s documents A informants f i e l d d i a r y (B) T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g m u l t i p l e data c o l l e c t i o n F i g u r e 5: T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ' coping s t r a t e g i e s i n r e a d i n g . The t r i a n g u l a t i o n i n v o l v i n g m u l t i p l e data sources compared documents, informants, and the f i e l d d i a r y . The r e a d i n g demands as i n d i c a t e d by the documents ( the course o u t l i n e of r e q u i r e d readings i n both E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and Psychology, assignment sheets, q u i z z e s and examinations) were compared with what the students and i n s t r u c t o r s p e r c e i v e d as the r e a d i n g demands and what was noted i n the f i e l d d i a r y c o n cerning the p l a c e of r e a d i n g i n the courses. An examination of the document, the Reading Schedule, provided by the Psychology i n s t r u c t o r , i l l u s t r a t e s the primacy of r e a d i n g comprehension i n t h i s genre as w e l l as the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the readings to the bi-monthly q u i z z e s . (See appendix D). T h i s i s v e r i f i e d by the i n s t r u c t o r i n the f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l : procedures: o b s e r v i n g classrooms i n t e r v i e w i n g students r e v i e w i n g documents What I do i s I g i v e the s t u d e n t s a r e a d i n g o u t l i n e with the dates f o r the t t i t i , It d o t i n ' t g i v t a n i n t r o d u c t i o n to the course because I do t h a t i n 85 c l a s s . And the reason I do i t t h i s way now i s because what I found i n the past when I had a more d e t a i l e d course o u t l i n e i s t h a t they ended up l o s i n g these important dates - when they were to do the r e a d i n g and when the t e s t s were scheduled and t h a t s o r t of t h i n g . . . w e l l , I expect them to read the chapters i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l t h a t they know the m a t e r i a l . I do expect t h a t they would do the r e a d i n g and t h a t they w i l l understand i t . . . t h e way I s e t i t up i s t h a t the b a s i c m a t e r i a l i n the course i s a l l i n the t e x t , so t h a t they a l l have i t . I f they o n l y read the textbook and they l e a r n e d the m a t e r i a l i n t h e r e , t h a t would be about 80% of the m a t e r i a l s i n the course. There's about an a d d i t i o n a l 20% t h a t comes o n l y i n classroom form but most of i t i s i n w r i t t e n form ...so the bulk of the m a t e r i a l i s i n the r e a d i n g . (BT #3 ,4,6) A p r o t o c o l from the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d d i a r y r e i n f o r c e s the c o n n e c t i o n between r e a d i n g and course requirements: The students spend a l o t of time r e a d i n g and memorizing the m a t e r i a l i n the t e x t and the study guide to prepare f o r the bi-monthly q u i z z e s . Although they can s u c c e s s f u l l y complete the course by r e a d i n g alone, i t seems to me t h a t the i n - c l a s s p r o j e c t s where they have d i s c u s s i o n , r o l e - p l a y , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , or summarizing of a p a r t i c u l a r p s y s c h o l o g i c a l concept would serve the f u n c t i o n s of r e i n f o r c i n g or c l a r i f y i n g what they have read. These i n - c l a s s p r o j e c t s are not compulsory i n terms of grades but do serve as reinforcement of new l e a r n i n g . When I observed t h e i r i n -c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , I can see they r e a l l y enjoy these assignments. T h i s must s t i m u l a t e them i n t h e i r readings -t h a t they know t h e y ' l l get to t r y them out or understand them at a deeper l e v e l . (F.D. #52). The i n s t r u c t o r uses these i n - c l a s s assignments as a l e a r n i n g t o o l i n a p p l i c a t i o n of concepts and as exposure to c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g . H i s o f f e r i n g bonus p o i n t s t o s t u d e n t s who complete t h e s e p r o j e c t s i s a m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r : They get i n - c l a s s asignments p e r i o d i c a l l y and t h e n t h e y o n l y have t o w r i t e a summary of i t , and i f t h e y don't do i t a t a l l , i t doesn't a f f e c t t h e i r marks. I f t h e y do the a s s i g n m e n t s , what t h e y ' r e used f o r a r e bonus marks ... al m o s t a l l of them do the a s s i g n m e n t s . (BT #6,#10) The f a c t t h a t t h e s e i n - c l a s s a s s i g n m e n t s s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e and a m p l i f y the r e a d i n g s i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l , an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p s y c h o l o g y i n s t r u c t o r . Note the r e f e r e n c e t o c r o s s - c u l t u r e , a f a c t o r t h a t would be of i n t e r e s t t o t h e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s : There are 7 p o s s i b l e a s s i g n m e n t s f o r about 20 bonus marks, and t h e y ' r e w r i t t e n summaries of d i s c u s s i o n s or a c t i v i t i e s t h a t happen i n c l a s s . The f i r s t one was an emotion and what t h a t was i s - t h e y were g i v e n a - t h e y had t o look a t emotion i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways. They had t o t h i n k about an emotion, a c o u p l e of emotions t h a t t h e y f e l t and t h e y had t o t a l k about how t h e i r body responded t o i t , the s i t u a t i o n t h a t ' s l i k e l y t o produce t h a t emotion and the b e h a v i o r t h e y ' r e l i k e l y t o do when t h e y f e e l t h a t way, l o o k i n g a t emotion as a m o t i v a t o r . And the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e y were coming t o i s t h a t t h e i r b o d i e s o n l y become e i t h e r more aro u s e d or l e s s a r o u s e d but t h e y don't d i f f e r e n t i a t e between emotions v e r y w e l l . The s i t u a t i o n s a r e q u i t e common t h a t the same s i t u a t i o n produces a c r o s s c u l t u r e s - produces the same emotion but the b e h a v i o r t h a t happens i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . (BT #11) The i n s t r u c t o r was q u i t e i n v e n t i v e i n h e l p i n g the s t u d e n t s to m i k e H n k § laefev§§n feheery l e a r n t d tehzeugh r e a d i n g and p r a c t i s e r e i n f e r e e d t h r o u g h i n = e l a § § a e t i v i f e i e s , F a r 87 example, on the u n i t on abnormal behavior, he showed a videotape of s c h i z o p h r e n i c behavior which the students had to analyze and c a t e g o r i z e . In the u n i t on sex r o l e s , h i s i n - c l a s s assignment i n v o l v e d the students making statements from the p o i n t of view of the opposite sex. Within the s a m l l groups, the female students would take the male r o l e s while the male students took on the feminine p e r s p e c t i v e . The follow-up summarizing task would r e i n f o r c e the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . Subsequent r e a d i n g assignments on moral development and the l e a r n i n g of m o r a l i t y would be s i m i l a r l y r e i n f o r c e d and capped o f f by q u i z z e s . These examples i l l u s t r a t e the i n s t r u c t o r ' s i n t e g r a t i o n of readings with other components of h i s course d e s i g n . The above-mentioned t r i a n g u l a t i o n of data from documents, i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r v i e w s and f i e l d d i a r y e n t r i e s shows convergence i n the i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s of course requirements, classroom a c t i v i t i e s and r e a d i n g assignments. In other words, s t r a t e g i e s occurred w i t h i n the context of the whole course: the r e a d i n g s , the q u i z z e s , and the classroom assignments. Another t r i a n g u l a t i o n i n v o l v e d m u l t i p l e data c o l l e c t i o n procedures compared o b s e r v i n g classrooms, i n t e r v i e w i n g student informants and reviewing documents. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , comprehension s t r a t e g i e s p a r t i c u l a r to the genre of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e were examined: how the classroom interaction assisted in l i t e r a r y comprehension, how the students r e a l i z e d their need for c u l t u r a l orientation or l i t e r a r y interpretation s k i l l s , and how successful completion of the examinations required l i t e r a r y understanding. The following f i e l d diary entries amplify t h i s : By s i t t i n g in c l a s s , I get more of a sense of the place reading has in the course and i t s r e l a t i o n to lectures, assignments, and t e s t s . (F.D.25) Students appear to cope with comprehension d i f f i c u l t i e s by r e l y i n g highly on teacher interpretation in the classroom; they know they don't have the background knowledge or c u l t u r a l orientation or l i t e r a r y interpretative s k i l l s , so they look to the teacher. This seems to be what enables them to understand and to succeed in course assignments when they write about their readings. (F.D. 52) A protocol from an informal observation of an English Literature class i l l u s t r a t e s that the instructor a s s i s t s the students in expanding th e i r comprehension of the readings by making c u l t u r a l connection and giving l i t e r a r y hints: The teacher is quite relaxed and c o r d i a l with the students ... he backtracks and c l a r i f i e s some basic givens on Colonel Sartoris - " t r a d i t i o n of Old South is important here, the edict re the negro woman to always wear domestic clothing in public is to keep them in their slave class ... inte r e s t i n g business of the narrator not quite t e l l i n g everything" ... a question i s raised by 2 students re the time references in the sotyr because Faulkner Is not t e l l i n g thestory in chronomogical order. B. raises a r h e t o r i c a l question for students to think about ... B. also elaborates on the idea of suicide; makes a h i s t o r i c a l 89 r e f e r e n c e t o noble i d e a of s u i c i d e , Roman view. He a l s o r e f e r s t o o t h e r c u l t u r e s . . . (1.0. #1-37) T h i s r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r of a genre t o c l a r i f y and a m p l i f y t e x t i s v e r i f i e d t h r o u g h the use of d i f f e r e n t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s : o b s e r v i n g c l a s s e s , i n t e r v i e w i n g the s t u d e n t s , and r e f l e c t i n g t h r o u g h the f i e l d d i a r y . The p r o t o c o l s converge h e a v i l y on the t h i r d major c a t e g o r y of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s used by ESL s t u d e n t s i n f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e : a s t r o n g r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r t o a s s i s t them i n r e a d i n g comprehension, i n terms of a n a l y z i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l . The i n s t r u c t o r s appear t o see t h i s as t h e i r t a s k - t h u s , more i n s t r u c t i o n a l time i s spe n t on c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t t o p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r ESL s t u d e n t s as most of the l i t e r a t u r e c o v e r e d i n t h e c o u r s e i s European and/or Canadian; t h e y a l s o f o c u s on the a u t h o r s ' l i t e r a r y s t y l e , which i s a l s o new t o some of the s e s t u d e n t s . A comparison of documents, such as c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , assignment handouts, completed s t u d e n t a s s i g n m e n t s , w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n , and the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d d i a r y v e r i f i e s the p r i m a c y of the i n s t r u c t o r as a r e s o u r c e i n r e a d i n g comprehension i n t h i s d i s c i p l i n e Over t i m e , as t h i s r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d more s t u d e n t s 90 and observed more classes, i t became even clearer that the English Literature instructor was perceived by the students as an es s e n t i a l resource in comprehending what they were reading, whereas in Psychology, independent reading of the text and use of the study guide was the predominate mode for successful achievement in that course. This l a t t e r point was v e r i f i e d by the pychology inst r u c t o r : . . If they only read the textbook and they learned the material in there, that would be about 80% of the materials in the course... so the bulk of the . . material is in the reading. (BT #4) The above-mentioned triangulations of multiple-data sources and multiple-data c o l l e c t i n g procedures indicate that to deal with the reading demands, ESL students use coping strategies that are genre-specific and that they do so within the context of the whole-text and the course requirements. At t h i s time i t is noted that the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of t r i a n g u l a t i o n is that not a l l data-sources are able to speak to the content of each category that was coded. F.Theory Linkage The connection between theory and method is aptly explained by Denzin: Theories serve as c r i t i c a l guides to future thought, research, and conceptualization. This of course i m p l i e s a c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p v i t h the r e s e a r c h method and the research finding. Theories set problems for research, stake out new o b j e c t s for examination, and d i r e c t empirical 9 1 i n q u i r y . In t u r n , methods and r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s suggest new problems f o r t h e o r y (e.g . the n e g a t i v e c a s e ) , i n v i t e new t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s , and l e a d t o the u l t i m a t e r e f i n e m e n t and v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e o r i e s t h e m s e l v e s . Theory, c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and e m p i r i c a l a c t i v i t y a r e i n t e r w o v e n i n a c o n t e x t u a l o p e r a t i o n such t h a t t h e o r y g u i d e s r e s e a r c h w h i l e r e s e a r c h g u i d e s t h e o r y . ( D e n z i n , 1978, p.73) In t h i s s t u d y , t h e o r y l i n k a g e i s a t the m i c r o -s u b s t a n t i v e l e v e l . (Hammersley and A t k i n s o n , 1983). I t c o n c e r n s a s p e c i f i c type of s t u d e n t , ESL s t u d e n t s , who a r e e n r o l l e d i n p a r t i c u l a r academic c o u r s e s , f i r s t year E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y c r e d i t c o u r s e s , i n a p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , a c o l l e g e . I n i t i a l l y , when b e g i n n i n g t h i s s t u d y , t h i s r e s e a r c h e r had assumed t h a t the f i n d i n g s of p r e v i o u s ESL r e s e a r c h e r s r e g a r d i n g t e x t s t r u c t u r e and r e a d e r ' s schema ( C a r r e l l & E i s t e r h o l d , 1983; C a r r e l l , 1983, 1984,1985,1987) would form the f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e o r y on s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s upon which t h i s s t u d y would b u i l d ; however, as t h i s f i e l d s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d , more and more the n o t i o n emerged t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s , e x p e r i e n c e d i n academic s t u d i e s , had d e v e l o p e d - t h r o u g h t h e i r own r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , i n t e l l e c t u a l toughness and s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e - the type of compensatory c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s n e c e s s a r y t o handle the r e a d i n g demands. Through s y s t e m a t i c s h i f t i n g and comparison of the d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s of d a t a , some c o n c e p t s have emerged. I t appears t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s who a r e e n r o l l e d i n u n i v e r s i t y c r e d i t c o u r s e s w i l l do whatever i s e x p e d i e n t t o a c h i e v e 92 success i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . When faced with the re a d i n g demands of f i r s t year E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and Psychology courses, they tend to employ three major coping s t r a t e g i e s : self-management, background knowledge and experi e n c e , and r e l i a n c e on t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s . T h e i r perseverance i n adhering to the academic task, i n which r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n i s a dominant a c t i v i t y , enables them to a c h i e v e . (The student p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s study were s u c c e s s f u l i n completing t h e i r E n g l i s h and Psychology courses. ) A d d i t i o n a l comments need to be made concerning the r o l e of the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e i n s t r u c t o r . Students who have had prev i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l experience i n a North American s e t t i n g and who have E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language are more l i k e l y to have had experience i n l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s i n Canadian secondary E n g l i s h courses and l i k e l y r e q u i r e l e s s c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i n order to understand the European and Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . On the other hand, these i n t e r n a t i o n a l ESL students who were predominantly from A s i a r e q u i r e d c o n s i d e r a b l e input from the E n g l i s h i n s t r u c t o r i n order to understand the i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s , h i s t o r i c a l a l l u s i o n s , and the c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i v e s embedded i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Beyond these nuances, the meaning of the d i s c o u r s e as a whole needed to be comprehended by these students i n order to handle the course requirements: Comprehension, the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of rea d i n g , a l s o f a c i l i t a t e s the process of re a d i n g ... immediate meaning 93 i d e n t i f i c a t i o n makes u n n e c e s s a r y the p r i o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l words, and comprehension of a passage as a whole f a c i l i t a t e s the comprehension and, i f n e c e s s a r y , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l words. ( S m i t h , 1986,p.164) In p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , the f o c u s has been w i t h s h o r t d i s c o u r s e s , o f t e n a s i n g l e or m u l t i p l e p a r a g r a p h t e x t and w i t h c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were g e n e r a l a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s . In t h i s s t u d y , the academic r e a d i n g of ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s has been examined a t the w h o l e - t e x t l e v e l , w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the c o u r s e demands, such as the a s s i g n m e n t s and exams a r r a n g e d by the i n s t r u c t o r s . Three examples w i l l s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s w h o l e - t e x t c o n t e x t u a l approach. A major assignment i n the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e was a r e s e a r c h paper which i n v o l v e d comparing f i v e t e x t s . T h i s comparison r e q u i r e d the s t u d e n t t o read s e v e r a l whole t e x t s , pay s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o c h a r a c t e r development, s e t t i n g or theme, and compare s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t s . The assignment was: "Most modern f i c t i o n w r i t e r s d e p i c t human b e i n g s as v i c t i m s -- of h e r e d i t y , of e n v i r o n m e n t , of a h o s t i l e u n i v e r s e . " In an e s s a y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 words, agree or d i s a g r e e w i t h the f o r e g o i n g s t a t e m e n t , t h a t i s , argue whether or not you t h i n k most modern w r i t e r s a r e as the s t a t e m e n t d e s c r i b e s them. Make r e f e r e n c e t o a t l e a s t f i v e d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s i n the c o u r s e of your d i s c u s s i o n . (Doc. #3) Another assignment p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e of the need f o r ESL s t u d e n t s t o approach r e a d i n g a t the w h o l e - t e x t 9 4 l e v e l . The s t u d e n t s had t o a n a l y z e the h e r o i n e s of 3 d i f f e r e n t s t o r i e s . To complete t h i s a s s i g n m e n t , s t u d e n t s would need t o read the t e x t s f o r c h a r a c t e r or t h e m a t i c development , c o n s u l t t h e i r l e c t u r e n o t e s , and s y n t h e s i z e t h e i r f i n d i n g s w i t h t h e i r own r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e s e h e r o i n e s . Deal w i t h one of the f o l l o w i n g i n an es s a y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 500 words... Who would you r a t h e r be, E v i e P e r e g r i n e , Eve Anderson or Daphne? Why? Why not e i t h e r of the o t h e r s ? (Doc.#3) The t h i r d example of t h i s w h o l e - t e x t c o n t e x t u a l approach i s the t r i a n g u l a t i o n of m u l t i p l e - d a t a s o u r c e s t h a t was d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The i n t e r v i e w w i t h the p s y c h o l o g y i n s t r u c t o r , t he a n a l y s i s of the document (the r e a d i n g s c h e d u l e ) , and the r e f l e c t i o n i n the r e s e a r c h e r ' s f i e l d d i a r y converged on t h i s p o i n t : the t e x t i s l o o k e d a t w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of co u r s e demands, such as a s s i g n m e n t s or p r o j e c t s , c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x a m i n a t i o n s . The above t h r e e examples a l s o s e r v e t o emphasize the p r i m a r y r e a l i t y of the s e ESL u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . How do t h e y e x p e r i e n c e the t a s k b e f o r e them? In ESL r e a d i n g r e s e a r c h , the f o c u s has been on i m p r o v i n g g e n e r a l r e a d i n g comprehension; however, f o r thes e s t u d e n t s , the f o c u s i s not q u i t e the same. These s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e the r e a d i n g t a s k w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of academic coursework. T h e i r approach wa§ f u n c t i o n a l f e e f i n d i n g v i s § § § n a i a m©an§ t e an § n d : t e a c q u i r e the I n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o complete the co u r s e 95 requirements; thus, t h e i r strategies were also very goal-oriented . These findings indicate that a s h i f t in perspective in research of ESL students and academic s k i l l s may be appropriate - to move from reading per se towards the context of academic coursework. Wilcox claims that the academic environment a f f e c t s the a c q u i s i t i o n of learning strategies: The a c q u i s i t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s depends not so much on individual c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as on the types of s k i l l s demanded by the environment. The tasks and a c t i v i t i e s one engages in shape the kind of s k i l l s that are developed. (Wilcox, 1982, p.467). G.Summary In the data analysis of t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e study, fiv e steps were followed: s e n s i t i z i n g , coding, model-bulding, tri a n g u l a t i o n , and theory linkage. Analysis and r e f l e c t i o n of the protocols indicated that these ESL. univ e r s i t y students u t i l i z e d three main coping strategies when faced with the reading demands of f i r s t year English Literature and Psychology c r e d i t courses: (a) s e l f -management through the study s k i l l s of sel e c t i v e attention, note-taking and underlining, graphics and imagery, r e p e t i t i o n and memorization, and through the resourcing of c other texts and of their peers; (b) background knowledge and 96 experience of both academic and p e r s o n a l l i f e e x p eriences; and (c) r e l i a n c e on the i n s t r u c t o r s , i n the genre of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e f o r both l i t e r a l and l i t e r a r y comprehension and i n the genre of Psychology f o r concept formation and q u i z p r e p a r a t i o n . Students were a p p l y i n g coping s t r a t e g i e s t h a t compensated f o r t h e i r l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s as w e l l as adapting s t r a t e g i e s from t h e i r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l experience. They were u t i l i z i n g t h e i r academic p r o f i c i e n c y s k i l l s from t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l experience i n t h e i r f i r s t language to cope with academic content t h a t was taught to them i n a second language. Students at t h i s l e v e l have been readi n g academic d i s c o u r s e i n t h e i r f i r s t language; consequently, when faced with new content i n a l e s s f a m i l i a r language, they persevere with d e t e r m i n a t i o n and s e l f -management i n r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n . T h e i r approach appeared to be f u n c t i o n a l , whatever was expedient and whatever f a c i l i t a t e d t h e i r r e a d i n g comprehension w i t h i n the c o n s t r a i n t s of time and energy was u t i l i z e d . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , emerging from the data were two f a c t o r s : (a) the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s of these ESL u n i v e r s i t y students i n v o l v e d approaching d i s c o u r s e at the whole-text l e v e l as the standard of academic work i n these f i r s t year courses r e q u i r e d t h a t type of g e n r e - s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g ; and. (b) t h e i r r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n occurs v i t h i n the context of f u l f i l l i n g the course demands of d e f i n e d d i s c i p l i n e s whose academic content required genre-specific coping strategies. 98 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION A. Comparison v i t h Recent R e l a t e d R esearch Reading s t r a t e g i e s , as un d e r s t o o d by ESL r e s e a r c h e r s , r e l a t e d t o t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s ( C a r r e l l , 1985), such as c o n t e n t and f o r m a l schemata ( C a r r e l l , 1987; C a r r e l l & E i s t e r h o l d , 1983), r h e t o r i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( C a r r e l l , 1984), and s o c i o -c u l t u r a l background knovledge (Johnson, 1982; C a r r e l l , 1983). Most of the s t u d i e s seemed t o : (1) i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s vho a r e e n r o l l e d i n ESL c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y language c l a s s e s , (2) f e a t u r e s h o r t d i s c o u r s e s i . e . the s i n g l e or m u l t i - p a r a g r a p h format ( B l o c k , 1986; C a r r e l l l , 1985,1987), and (3) loo k a t c a t e g o r i e s t h a t vere g e n e r a l a c r o s s s u b j e c t a r e a s . The emphasis i n t h e s e s t u d i e s appeared t o c o n c e n t r a t e on l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d . B. The P r e s e n t Study T h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on d i s c o u r s e a t t h e v h o l e - t e x t l e v e l v i t h i n the c o n t e x t of g e n r e - s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s . I t e x p l o r e d hov ESL s t u d e n t s cope v i t h r e a d i n g v i t h i n the c o n t e x t of p a r t i c u l a r academic d i s c i p l i n e s v i t h t h e i r accompanying c o u r s e demands such as e x p l i c i t a s s ignments and p e r i o d i c e x a m i n a t i o n s . Academic s t u d e n t s u s u a l l y use r e a d i n g as a means t o an end, f o r example, t o enable t hemselves t o cope v i t h the e s s a y a ssignments i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , or t o pass the b i - m o n t h l y q u i z z e s i n 99 P s y c h o l o g y . The d a t a e m e r g i n g from t h e s t u d y r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e c e p t i v e and f u n c t i o n a l s k i l l o f r e a d i n g was a means t o an end - s u r v i v a l i n t h e a c a d e m i c e n v i r o n m e n t . At t i m e s ESL t e a c h e r s ' i d e a l i z a t i o n o f what s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s t u d e n t s need f o r a c a d e m i c p r o f i c i e n c y may d i f f e r f r o m what t h e y a c t u a l l y do need ( C h r i s t i s o n and K r a h n k e , 1 9 8 6 ) . One example of t h i s may be an o v e r e m p h a s i s on c o m m u n i c a t i v e competence when t h e r e a l need i s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a l e c t u r e c o n t e x t . T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a s t e p i n d e t e r m i n i n g what i s r e q u i r e d i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n w i t h i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , and what s u r v i v a l t a c t i c s or c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e used by ESL s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s o f u n i v e r s i t y a c a d e m i c s t u d i e s . In t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y , t e n ESL s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d i n f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y were i n t e r v i e w e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s t r a t e g i e s t h e y were u s i n g t o cope w i t h t h e r e a d i n g demands i n t h e s e two c o u r s e s . The f i n d i n g s were c r o s s - v a l i d a t e d t h r o u g h t r i a n g u l a t i o n o f d a t a from c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s , i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r v i e w s , document a n a l y s i s and an e x t e n s i v e f i e l d d i a r y . The a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t e d of s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s t u d e n t i n t e r v i e w s and t h e o t h e r d a t a s o u r c e s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r s e l f - m a n a g e m e n t s t r a t e g i e s , t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , and 100 t h e i r r e l i a n c e on i n s t r u c t o r s i n s p e c i f i c academic d i s c i p l i n e s comprised the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t t h e y u t i l i z e d i n r e a d i n g comprehension. Each of them succeeded i n p a s s i n g t h e s e c o u r s e s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t s and t h e i r p e r s e v e r a n c e i n a d h e r i n g t o the r e a d i n g t a s k s appeared t o be f a c t o r s i n t h e i r s u c c e s s . T h e i r r e a d i n g was g o a l - o r i e n t e d as t h e i r c o n t e x t was what was needed to comprehend the r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e or P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e . These ESL s t u d e n t s u t i l i z e d g e n e r i c - s p e c i f i c c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o e l i c i t from the r e a d i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n was n e c e s s a r y t o w r i t e an e s s a y or r e s e a r c h paper f o r t h e i r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e , or t o p e r f o r m w e l l i n the b i -monthly q u i z z e s i n t h e i r I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e . Coping s t r a t e g i e s do not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n ; t h e y were used i n an a c t i o n c o n t e x t . C. T h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s H o r o w i t z ' s s u r v e y of academic w r i t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s (1985) c l a i m s t h a t the " p r o c e s s " approach i n ESL w r i t i n g has l i m i t a t i o n s as i t i s o f t e n t o o removed from the r e a l i s t i c w r i t i n g t a s k s of a c t u a l u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s e s . S i m i l a r l y , i t can be c l a i m e d here t h a t the " p r o c e s s " of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g , as i n l e a r n i n g - t o - r e a d , has l i m i t a t i o n s as i t t ends t o f o c u s on g e n e r a l s h o r t t e x t s , w i t h o u t the c o n t e x t and g e n e r i c - s p e c i f i c demands of an a c t u a l academic d i s c i p l i n e . 101 The r e s u l t s of t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t u d e n t s use c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t o handle g e n e r i c - s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g t a s k s and t h a t t h e y approach d i s c o u r s e a t the whole-t e x t l e v e l . Thus, the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h e y need f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e w i l l d i f f e r from t h o s e r e q u i r e d f o r I n t r o d u c t o r y P s y c h o l o g y , not s o l e l y because of " t e c h n i c a l " language but a l s o because the n a t u r e of a s p e c i f i c genre demands d i f f e r e n t c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . For ESL s t u d e n t s a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , the c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h e y a p p l y t o the r e a d i n g demands i m p l i c i t i n a genre seem t o v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r own self-management s k i l l s and t h e i r p r e v i o u s background e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge. L a c k i n g the s o c i o -c u l t u r a l background knowledge of s t u d e n t s who speak E n g l i s h as a f i r s t language, t h e y a r e h i g h l y dependent on the s u b j e c t i n s t r u c t o r f o r academic u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r o g r e s s . The s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t r e a d i n g i s an i n t e g r a l and e n a b l i n g a c t i v i t y i n academic achievement as i t o c c u r s w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of c o u r s e c o n t e n t and c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . In o t h e r words, s t u d e n t s have t o do a s e r i e s of t a s k s i n a c o u r s e , and r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e a component of the knowledge and s k i l l r e q u i r e d t o do t h e s e t a s k s . To a c c o u n t f o r t h i s , we need t o u n d e r s t a n d the r e a d i n g and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n the c o n t e x t of a c t i o n s i n which t h e y are used. They a r e not a d e q u a t e l y a n a l y z e d i n i s o l a t i o n . The s t u d e n t forms an agenda of academic t a s k s from the 102 co u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s which the i n s t r u c t o r s e t s up. Reading s k i l l s and c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the knowledge component used t o do t h i s work. S t u d e n t s do t a s k s and draw on background knowledge t o do so. The a n a l y s i s of the a c t i o n s i t u a t i o n of academic work and i t s background knowledge component i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h Mohan's knowledge framework (Mohan, 1986) which p r o v i d e s a s i m p l i f i e d model of c o n t e x t . (See f i g u r e 6 ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d i n a p p l y i n g t h i s model t o t a s k s i n o r d e r t o i l l u m i n a t e how s t u d e n t s manage t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e i r knowledge r e s o u r c e s and a c t i o n agenda t o demonstrate t h e i r academic competence. Background knowledge- what the s t u d e n t s need t o know t o be a b l e t o complete c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . COPING STRATEGIES A c t i o n s i t u a t i o n - what t a s k s the s t u d e n t s have t o do. COURSE REQUIREMENTS F i g u r e 6: A p p l i c a t i o n of knowledge framework t o d a t a D. E d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ESL t e a c h e r s who d e s i r e t o f a c i l i t a t e academic r e a d i n g 103 f o r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s can l e a r n from c o n t e n t i n s t r u c t o r s who have had e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g l a r g e numbers of ESL s t u d e n t s a t the c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . They can s t r u c t u r e t h e i r r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c l a s s a ssignments so t h a t the ESL s t u d e n t s can more c l e a r l y see the c o n n e c t i o n s between r e a d i n g s and academic achievement; ESL t e a c h e r s i n E n g l i s h f o r Academic Purposes (EAP) programs can f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the c o n t e x t s w i t h i n which t h e i r ESL s t u d e n t s approach " r e a l " academic r e a d i n g : r e a d i n g i s done f o r purposes of u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p e c i f i c c o u r s e c o n t e n t i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of a s s i g h n m e n t s , such as r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s or e s s a y s . The ESL s t u d e n t who d e v e l o p s the s k i l l of s e l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n i n g e n r e - s p e c i f i c r e a d i n g i s equipped t o s e l e c t d a t a from a s o u r c e or s o u r c e s which are r e l e v a n t t o an assignment. The ESL s t u d e n t i n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y language c l a s s e s i s o f t e n i m p a t i e n t t o get i n t o " r e a l " c o u r s e s ; the more the ESL t e a c h e r can s u c c e s s i v e l y approximate r e a d i n g demands and a c t i v i t i e s of academic coursework, the more t r a n s f e r a b l e the l e a r n i n g . T h i s seems t o i n v o l v e a s s i g n i n g r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h e x p l i c i t f o l l o w - u p o b j e c t i v e s , such as f o r m a l o r a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s or d e f i n e d academic w r i t t e n a s s i g n m e n t s . T h i s s i m u l a t i o n of " r e a l " c o u r s e s where r e a d i n g i s a s s i g n e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of f u l f i l l i n g c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s g i v e s f o c u s t o the r e a d i n g t a s k s . 1 0 4 One s u c c e s s f u l example of such a course was o f f e r e d by an i n s t r u c t o r i n the composition component of a f i r s t year E n g l i s h course. He chose the theme of "Love and Marriage" f o r students to explore through c r o s s - c u l t u r a l academic r e a d i n g s . T h i s course, which had a s o c i o - a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , c r e a t e d extremely high i n t e r e s t on the p a r t of the ESL st u d e n t s . The readings formed the b a s i s of s p i r i t e d c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n s and c h a l l e n g i n g w r i t i n g tasks b u i l t around e x p l i c i t t h e s i s statements. Perhaps ESL teachers i n EAP programs can e x e r t more e f f o r t s towards s i m u l a t i n g t h i s type of course d e s i g n . By e x p l i c i t l y demonstrating the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the academic tasks of ESL language c l a s s e s and the usual course requirements of content c l a s s e s through p r o v i s i o n of more s t i m u l a t i n g and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s , ESL teachers can narrow the gap between pre-academic and a c t u a l academic r e a d i n g . The f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t ESL i n s t r u c t o r s are u n d e r c h a l l e n g i n g t h e i r EAP st u d e n t s : I don't t h i n k i t ' s too much r e a d i n g f o r ' a u n i v e r s i t y course. I don't t h i n k i t ' s too much work. I got some f r i e n d s at SFU and they come back and t o l d me t h a t our s t u d i e s here i s l i k e a honeymoon f o r the s t u d e n t s . (IL # 3 5 ) . The more f a m i l i a r teachers become with the coping s t r a t e g i e s of t h e i r ESL stude n t s , the more knowledgeable and e f f i c i e n t they can be i n e l i c i t i n g the u s e f u l s t r a t e g i e s these students a l r e a d y possess from p r e v i o u s academic experience 105 and i n e q u i p p i n g them w i t h a d d i t i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s . In e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s where c o l l a b o r a t i o n between c o n t e n t and ESL t e a c h e r s e x i s t s and where o p t i o n s e x i s t f o r c h o i c e of t e x t s , ESL t e a c h e r s i n EAP programs can f a c i l i t a t e r e a d i n g comprehension f o r ESL s t u d e n t s by s h a r i n g i n s i g h t s on t e x t s or l e a r n i n g a i d s t h a t c o n t a i n h i g h e r r e a d a b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l i s an example: The next t e x t has a b e t t e r w r i t e r . I t ' s w r i t t e n by a p s y c h o l o g y w r i t e r who's a j o u r n a l i s t -who does a l l the e d i t i n g f o r i t and changes the language so i t ' s b e t t e r w r i t t e n t h a n t h i s t e x t b o o k . . . a s t u d y g u i d e s comes w i t h i t . . . i t a l s o has a computer s t u d y g u i d e , so t h e y c o u l d send away f o r $14 and buy a d i s c t o put on t h e i r Apple or IBM and do i t t h a t way t o o . . . t h e y ' r e s t i l l r e a d i n g , i t j u s t seems l e s s p a i n f u l t o them. (BT#25,26) I n c r e a s e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n between ESL t e a c h e r s and c o n t e n t t e a c h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y c o n t e n t t e a c h e r s who a r e e x p e r i e n c e d i n w o r k i n g w i t h ESL academic s t u d e n t s , may enhance the l e a r n i n g environment f o r such s t u d e n t s . ESL academic r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t o r s might c o n s i d e r s t r u c t u r i n g t h e i r r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s so t h a t t h e i r s t u d e n t s can see more c l e a r l y the c o n n e c t i o n between r e a d i n g s and academic achievement. For example, r e l a t i n g r e a d i n g assignments t o w r i t t e n d i s c o u r s e when a s s i g n i n g academic t a s k s , which i s o f t e n the format of academic c o u r s e s , 106 e n a b l e s them t o u t i l i z e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n a c o n t e x t , the f u l f i l l i n g of academic r e q u i r e m e n t s . The use of " r e a l " c o n t e n t a t the w h o l e - t e x t l e v e l as the b a s i s of r e a d i n g -w r i t i n g academic t a s k s , r a t h e r t h a n s h o r t g e n e r i c d i s c o u r s e , may a l s o be u s e f u l . The sheer q u a n t i t y of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e t h r o u g h c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n s compels s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d s e l e c t i v e l y t o chose what i s needed t o a c c o m p l i s h the academic t a s k . ESL s t u d e n t s o f t e n become i n c r e a s i n g l y g o a l -o r i e n t e d as t h e y s t r u g g l e t o f o c u s on what the e s s e n t i a l s a r e t o demonstrate competence i n academic coursework. ( D o y l e , 1983). Awareness of t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n may enable t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r s t u d e n t s ' e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . E. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study To i n c r e a s e v a l i d i t y , t r i a n g u l a t i o n of m u l t i p l e s o u r c e s and methods was used t o c r o s s - c h e c k a c c o u n t s . R e l i a b i l i t y was b u i l t i n t o the s t u d y by c l e a r l y d e s c r i b i n g the methodology , f u l l y i d e n t i f y i n g and d i s c u s s i n g the d a t a a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s , and p r o v i d i n g d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s of how the d a t a were examined and s y n t h e s i z e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h t h i s s t u d y : ( 1 ) w i t h i n the time framework and the n a t u r e of the s t u d y i t s e l f , i t was not p o s s i b l e t o use a l a r g e r number of 107 s u b j e c t s and t o e x p l o r e t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t s o f a w i d e r number o f a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s ; (2) The s u b j e c t s who were i n t e r v i e w e d were a l l from A s i a n c o u n t r i e s ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f i n d i n g s may n o t be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o E S I s t u d e n t s f r o m o t h e r c u l t u r a l or l a n g u a g e g r o u p s ; 3 ) t h e f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t i n f o r m a n t s were v o l u n t e e r s may have r e s u l t e d i n a s a m p l i n g o f s t u d e n t s who saw t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g r e a s o n a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a c a d e m i c s t u d i e s . T h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s m i g h t have been overcome by e x p a n d i n g t h e s t u d y t o a w i d e r sample and by d o i n g a m u l t i - s i t e s t u d y p r o v i d i n g a c c e s s i s p o s s i b l e . F. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h More r e s e a r c h needs t o be done r e g a r d i n g t h e a c a d e m i c c o n t e x t of t h e d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s a r e r e g i s t e r e d i n a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . S i n c e t h e s t r a t e g i e s t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s w i l l use i n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g a r e g e n r e -s p e c i f i c , i t would be u s e f u l t o e x p l o r e how ESL s t u d e n t s a r e c o p i n g w i t h t h e r e a d i n g demands i n o t h e r a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s , s u c h as i n t h e s c i e n c e s or i n commerce, and t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e a d i n g demands t o t h e c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s . As ESL i n s t r u c t o r s i n EAP p r o g r a m s , we may assume t h a t s i n c e we o u r s e l v e s have c o m p l e t e d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s , we a r e f u l l y c o g n i z a n t o f what i s i n v o l v e d i n a c a d e m i c r e a d i n g . T h i s s t u d y began w i t h "making t h e f a m i l i a r s t r a n g e " , p e r h a p s we ESL t e a c h e r s a r e n o t a s k n o w l e d g e a b l e as we assume a b o u t 108 the r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t ESL s t u d e n t s a r e u s i n g . T h i s s t u d y e x p l o r e d t h i s t o p i c from the v i e w p o i n t of ESL s t u d e n t s who were i n v o l v e d i n a c t u a l s u b j e c t c o u r s e s . The p r i m a r y r e a l i t y f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s was academic work. T h e i r f o c u s was on the academic t a s k s t h a t were embedded i n the c o n t e x t of p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e c o n t e n t . ( D o y l e , 1983). When t h e y were c l e a r on what these t a s k s were, t h e y would p r a c t i s e s t r a t e g i e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c q u i r e the i n f o r m a t i o n demanded by the t a s k . A s h i f t i n emphasis from r e a d i n g per se t o r e i n f o r c e m e n t of academic coursework may be an a p p r o p r i a t e move as would a s h i f t from emphasis on r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s on the s h o r t - d i s c o u r s e l e v e l t o more g l o b a l l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s w i t h l a r g e r p i e c e s of d i s c o u r s e . More r e s e a r c h a l o n g t h i s l i n e can o n l y improve the t r a n s i t i o n f o r ESL s t u d e n t s from EAP programs t o c o n t e n t c l a s s e s . U s e f u l q u e s t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h w i t h ESL u n i v e r s i t y l e a r n e r s would be: what do the s t u d e n t s t h i n k t h e y have t o do i n academic coursework t o demonstrate academic p r o f i c i e n c y ? what i s the t e a c h e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e on what t h e s e s t u d e n t s have t o do? do the s k i l l s t h e y are l e a r n i n g f a c i l i t a t e performance of r e a l academic t a s k s ? what i s the academic c o n t e x t i n which the s t u d e n t s have t o handle t h e m s e l v e s ? are t h e y genre-s p e c i f i c ? what are the c o n t e n t knowledge demands? what are the language demands? 109 F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d improve our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what s t u d e n t s do and what t h e y have t o do by l o o k i n g a t s t u d e n t s ' t a s k s i n g r e a z t e r d e t a i l . For example, documenting what s t u d e n t s do as t h e y went t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of a l i b r a r y r e s e a r c h paper f o r a c o u r s e assignment would be an a p p r o p r i a t e case s t u d y . Another a r e a t h a t might be e x p l o r e d i s the use of s t u d e n t i n f o r m a n t s who a r e not v o l u n t e e r s . S i n c e i t i s o f t e n the b e t t e r s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t e e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n a n o t h e r type of s a m p l i n g , d a t a on o t h e r k i n d s of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s might emerge. For example, what k i n d s of n e g o t i a t i n g b e h a v i o u r do peers engage i n f o r the purposes of f u l f i l l i n g academic c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s ? a r e t h e r e community or home c o n t e x t s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e o t h e r k i n d s of c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s ? On a broader p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s noted a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h r o u g h the Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Agency (CIDA) program, our n a t i o n a l government has a r r a n g e d f o r numerous f o r e i g n s c h o l a r s t o s t u d y i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s a t the graduate as w e l l as a t the undergraduate l e v e l . These guest s c h o l a r s n o r m a l l y spend s e v e r a l months i n language and c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g programs of academic s t u d y . There i s a growing need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on how t o a s s i s t t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g demands a t the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l w i t h i n 110 the c o n s t r a i n t s of government-imposed time l i m i t a t i o n s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h e s e a r e a s may s e r v e t o l e s s e n the trauma f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s who o f t e n f i n d t h emselves f l o u n d e r i n g i n extreme s t r e s s when a t t e m p t i n g t o b r i d g e the gap between pre-academic p r e p a r a t o r y language c l a s s e s and the " r e a l " academic w o r l d , and t o do so w i t h i n t i m e , energy and budget c o n s t r a i n t s . F. C o n c l u d i n g Remarks -A f i n a l word from the r e s e a r c h e r : I t ' s not r e a l l y r e a d i n g t h a t ' s so prominent a f t e r a l l . For the s e s t u d e n t s , i t ' s a means-to-an-end, t o s u r v i v e , t o g e t a grade, and u l t i m a t e l y , t o get a degree ... I have such a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e s e s t u d e n t s . Which one of us would be a b l e t o d u p l i c a t e t h i s e f f o r t i n another c o u n t r y , i n a n o t h e r language? (F.D.#79). F i n a l words from two s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s : I f you r e a l l y want t o do i t , you w i l l f i n d out i t ' s not so hard t o u n d e r s t a n d . I f you don't want t o r e a d i t , your mind w i l l r e f u s e t o understand.(AM #6,21) I have t o do i t - I want t o get more p r a c t i s e on i t - I mean, t o p r e p a r e m y s e l f f o r u n i v e r s i t y ; o t h e r w i s e , I c a n ' t s u r v i v e i n u n i v e r s i t y . . . t h a t ' s why I r e a d a l l the time ... e v e r y t i m e I tak e a bus or go home, I w i l l r e a d a book or magazine ... i f I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d what the t e a c h e r gave us t o r e a d , I r e a d a n o t h e r t e x t b e s i d e the one we use i n s c h o o l , then I w i l l not have any problems... I j u s t check from t h i s l i b r a r y and t h e y got a c o u p l e d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s . . . I have t o do i t , get t h r o u g h u n i v e r s i t y . 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I s s u e s i n Second Language :  Theory As P r a c t i c e , P r a c t i c e as Theory. Norwood: A l b e x . B i a l y s t o k , E. (1978) A T h e o r e t i c a l Model of Second Language L e a r n i n g . Language L e a r n i n g . 28 ( 1 ) , 69 - 83. B i a l y s t o k , E. (1979). The R o l e of C o n s c i o u s S t r a t e g i e s i n Second Language P r o f i c i e n c y . Canadian Modern Language  Review. 35, 372 - 394. B i a l y s t o k , E. (1983) I n f e r e n c i n g : T e s t i n g the " H y p o t h e s i s -t e s t i n g " . In H.W.Seliger and M.H.Long ( E d s . ) . C l a s s r o o m  O r i e n t e d R e s e a r c h i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . B l o c k , E. (1986). The Comprehension S t r a t e g i e s of Second Language Readers. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 0 ( 3 ) , 463 - 493. Blumer, H. (1956). S o c i o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s and the V a r i a b l e . American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. 21, 68 3 - 6 9 0 . Bro c k , C. (1986). The E f f e c t s of R e f e r e n t i a l Q u e s t i o n s on ESL C l a s s r o o m D i s c o u r s e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 0 ( 1 ) , 47 - 58. Brown, G. & Y u l e , G. (1984). D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v . B u r g e s s , R.G. (1984). In the F i e l d : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o F i e l d  R e s e a r c h . London: George A l l e n and I r w i n . B u r m e i s t e r , L.E. (1976) Reading S t r a t e g i e s f o r Secondary  S c h o o l T e a c h e r s . Don M i l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley 112 P u b l i s h i n g Co. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1982). C o h e s i o n i s not Coherence. TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y . 1£( 4 ) , 479 - 488 . C a r r e l l , P.L. (1983). Background Knowledge i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Language , L e a r n i n g and Communication,2(1), 25 - 34. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1984). The E f f e c t s of R h e t o r i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n on ESL Readers. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 8 ( 3 ) 441- 469. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1985). F a c i l i t a t i n g ESL Reading by T e a c h i n g Text S t r u c t u r e . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 19.(4) 727 - 749. C a r r e l l , P.L. (1987). Content and Formal Schemata i n ESL Reading. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( 3 ) , 461 - 481. C a r r e l l , P.L. & E i s t e r h o l d , J.P. (1983). Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 17.(4), 553 - 572. Chamot, A.U. & O'Malley, J.M. (1987). The C o g n i t i v e Academic Language L e a r n i n g Approach: A B r i d g e t o the Mainstream. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2_1 ( 2 ) , 227 - 249. C h r i s t i s o n , M.A. & Krahnke, K . J . (1986). Student P e r c e p t i o n s of Academic Language STudy. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 20.(1), 61 - 81. Cohen, A.; Glasman,H.; Rosen-baum-Cohen, P.; F e r r a r a , J . & F i n e , J . (1979). Reading E n g l i s h f o r S p e c i a l i z e d P u r p o s e s : D i s c o u r s e A n a l y s i s and the Use of Student I n f o r m a n t s . TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y . 1 3 ( 4 ) , 551 - 564. C o r n i s h , J . (1982). An Academic P r e p a r a t i o n Course f o r ESL A d u l t s . TESL T a l k . .13 (1) 13. Cummins, J . (1983). Language P r o f i c i e n c y and Academic Achievement. I n J . O i l e r ( E d . ) , I s s u e s i n Language T e s t i n g  R e s e a r c h . Rowley, MA.: Newbury House. Cummins, J . (1984). B i l i n g u a l i s m and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n :  I s s u e s i n Assessment and Pedagogy. C l e v e d o n : M u l t i l i n g u a l M a t t e r s L t d . Do y l e , W. (1983). Academic Work. Review of E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , 53 ( 2 ) , 159 - 199. D e n z i n , N.K. (1978). The R e s e a r c h A c t : A T h e o r e t i c a l  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i o l o g i c a l Methods. T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co. , Dubin, F. and O l s h t a i n , E. (1981). Reading By A l l Means. O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley(Canada) L t d . 113 Dubin, F. and O l s h t a i n , E. (1986). Course D e s i g n . London: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . E b l e n , C. (1983). W r i t i n g A c r o s s - t h e - C u r r i c u l u m : A Survey of A U n i v e r s i t y F a c u l t y ' s Views and Cl a s s r o o m P r a c t i c e s . R e s e a r c h i n the Tea c h i n g of E n g l i s h . 17 ( 4 ) , 343 - 345. E l l e n , R.F. (1984). E t h n o g r a p h i c R e s e a r c h : A Guide t o  G e n e r a l Conduct. T o r o n t o : Academic P r e s s . F l i c k , W.C. & Anderson, J . I . (1980). R h e t o r i c a l D i f f i c u l t y i n S c i e n t i f i c E n g l i s h : A Study i n Reading Comprehension. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 14 ( 3 ) , 345 - 351. F r y , M. (1985). D e v e l o p i n g M e a n i n g f u l Comprehension M a t e r i a l s Through H i s t o r y C o n t e n t . U n p u b l i s h e d Paper. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of Language E d u c a t i o n . Ghadessy, M. (1983). Comments on P a t r i c i a C a r r e l l ' s "Cohesion i s not Coherence". TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 17.(4). 685 -687 Goetz, J.P. & Le Compte, M.D. (1984). Ethnography and  Q u a l i t a t i v e D e s i g n i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New York: Academic P r e s s . Hammersley, M. & A t k i n s o n , P. (1983). Ethnography:  P r i n c i p l e s i n P r a c t i c e . London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s . H i l l , S.S., S o p p e l s a , B.F., & West, G.K. (1982). T e a c h i n g ESL S t u d e n t s t o Read and W r i t e E x p e r i m e n t a l - R e s e a r c h Paper. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 16 ( 3 ) , 333 - 347. H o s e n f e l d , C. (1976). 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The Canadian J o u r n a l of  R e a d i n g , Reading - Canada - L e c t u r e , 4. ( 1 ) , 32 - 37. Meyer, B.J.F. (1975). The O r g a n i z a t i o n of Pros e and I t s E f f e c t on R e c a l l . N o r t h - H o l l a n d S t u d i e s i n T h e o r e t i c a l  P o e t i c s : V o l . 1 . New York: American E l s e v i e r . Meyer, B.J.F. (1985). P r o s e A n a l y s i s : P u r p o s e s , P r o c e d u r e s and Problems. In B . B r i t t o n & J . B l o c k ( E d s ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g  E x p o s i t o r y T e x t . 269 - 285. New J e r s e y : Erlbaum. Meyer, B.J.F., B r a n d t , D.M., & B l u t h , G.J. (1980). The Use of T o p - l e v e l S t r u c t u r e i n T e x t : Key f o r Reading Comprehension of Nint h - G r a d e S t u d e n t s . Reading R e s e a r c h  Q u a r t e r l y . 1 6 ( 1 ) , 72 - 103 Meyer, B.J.F. & F r e e d l e , R.O. (1984). E f f e c t s of D i s c o u r s e Type on R e c a l l . American E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h J o u r n a l f 2 1 ( 1 ) , 121 - 143. Mohan B. (1979). R e l a t i n g Language Teqching and Content T e a c h i n g . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 1 3 ( 2 ) , 171 - 182. Mohan, B. (1986). Language and C o n t e n t . Mass.: A d d i s o n Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co. Moore, J . e t a l (1980). Reading and T h i n k i n g i n E n g l i s h ( V o l s . 1 - 4 ) . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . M o s e n t h a l , J.H. & T i e r n e y , R.J. (1983). C o h e s i o n : Problems w i t h T a l k i n g about T e x t . Reading R e s e a r c h Q u a r t e r l y , 19., 240 -244. M u n s e l l , P. & Clo u g h , M. (1984). & Prartir-ai fiuide f o r Advanced W r i t e r s i n E n g l i s h as a Second Language. New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. 115 O'Malley,J.M., Chamot, A.U. e t a l (1985). L e a r n i n g S t r a t e g y A p p l i c a t i o n s w i t h S t u d e n t s of E n g l i s h As a Second Language. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( l ) 87 - 111. P a u l s t o n , C.B. & B r u d e r , M.N. (1976). T e a c h i n g E n g l i s h As A  Second Language: Techniques and P r o c e d u r e s . Mass.: Winthrop P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . P e r r y , W.(1987).Review of Language and C o n t e n t . TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y , 2 1 ( 1 ) 137 - 143. R a p h a e l , C.B. & Newman, E.G. (1983). A R h e t o r i c a l Reader  f o r ESL W r i t e r s . New York: M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co., I n c . R e i d , J.M. (1987) The L e a r n i n g S t y l e P r e f e r e n c e s of ESL s t u d e n t s . TESOL Q u a r t e r l v , 2 1 ( 1 ) 87 - 111. R o s e n t h a l , L. & Rowland, S.B. (1986). Academic Reading and  Study S k i l l s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . R o d r i g u e s , R.J. (1982) Review of Reading By A l l Means. J o u r n a l of Reading.25 816 - 817. Q a z i , C. (1981). Review of Reading By A l l Means. TESOL  Q u a r t e r l y , 15, 340 - 342. S a v i l l e - T r o i k e , M. (1984). What R e a l l y M a t t e r s i n Second Language L e a r n i n g f o r Academic Achievement. TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 18.(2) 199 - 219. S e l i g e r , H.W. and Long, M.H. ( E d s . ) . C l a s s r o o m O r i e n t e d  R e s e a r c h i n Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n . Mass.: Newbury House P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . S i l b e r s t e i n , S.(1987, O c t o b e r ) . What you always thought you  s h o u l d know about r e a d i n g . P l e n a r y a d d r e s s , p r e s e n t e d a t 1987 T r i - T e s o l C o n v e n t i o n , S e a t t l e , Wash. Smi t h , F. (1986). U n d e r s t a n d i n g R e a d i n g . ( 3 r d ed.) New J e r s e y : L a u r e n c e , Erlbaum Assn. S p i n d l e r , G. (Ed.) (1982). Doing the Ethnography of  S c h o o l i n g . . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. S p r a d l e y , J.P. (1979). The E t h n o g r a p h i c I n t e r v i e w . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. S p r a d l e y , J.P. (1980). P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. S t e f f e n s e n , M.S., Joag-dw.C, & Anderson, R.C. (1979). A C r o s s - C u l t u r a l P e r s p e c t i v e on Reading Comprehension. Reading  Research Q u a r t e r l y . 15 ( 7 ) , 10 - 29. 116 S t e r n , H.H. (1983) Fundamental Concepts of Language  T e a c h i n g . O x f o r d : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S w a l e s , J . (1985). E p i s o d e s i n ESP. A s o u r c e and r e f e r e n c e book on the development of E n g l i s h f o r S c i e n c e and Technology. O x f o r d : Pergamon P r e s s L t d . T h o n i s , E.W. (1977). T e a c h i n g Reading t o N o n - E n g l i s h  S p e a k e r s . New York: C o l l i e r M a c M i l l a n I n t e n a t i o n a l , I n c . Van Maanen, J . (ed.) (1983). Q u a l i t a t i v e Methodology. London: Sage & J o s s e y Bass. Wenden.A.and R u b i n , J . (1987). L e a r n e r S t r a t e g i e s i n  Language L e a r n i n g . T o r o n t o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n t e r n a t i o n a l Whyte, W. (1955). S t r e e t Corner S o c i e t y . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s . Wiersma, W. (1986). R e s e a r c h Methods i n E d u c a t i o n : An  I n t r o d u c t i o n ( 4 t h Ed.) T o r o n t o : A l l y n & Bacon, I n c . W i l c o x , K. (1982). Ethnography as a Methodology and I t s A p p l i c a t i o n t o the Study of S c h o o l i n g : A Review. In G . S p i n d l e r (Ed.) Doing the Ethnography of S c h o o l i n g . S p i n d l e r , G. ( E d . ) . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston. Woods,P. (1986). I n s i d e S c h o o l s : Ethnography i n E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h . London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l . Yuen S. (1985 - 1988). I n t e r v i e w s w i t h f a c u l t y a t Columbia C o l l e g e , Burnaby, B.C. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h s e c o n d a r y and u n i v e r s i t y ESL s t u d e n t s a t Columbia C o l l e g e . APPENDIX B  STUDENT INFORMATION FORM Name: Date: Phone no.: Age: Student no. Date r e g i s t e r e d a t t h i s c o l l e g e : Home c o u n t r y : Languages spoken: L e v e l of e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n e d i n home c o u n t r y : Academic s t a n d i n g i n home c o u n t r y : P r e v i o u s E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g : _ TOEFL S c o r e s : , d a t e : , d a t e : • d a t e : E.S.L. c l a s s e s a t t h i s c o l l e g e : Courses l a s t s e m ester: Grade p o i n t average l a s t s e m e s t e r : Courses t h i s s e m e s t e r : Grade p o i n t average t h i s s e m e s t e r : Comments: 1 1 9 APPENDIX C  INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  A. C u r r e n t r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s : 1. What vas the l a t e s t r e a d i n g assignment i n your E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e c o u r s e ? P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e ? How d i d you go about r e a d i n g i t ? How s i m i l a r i s t h i s t o how you u s u a l l y read t h i s t y pe of assignment? B. Norm and purpose: 2,.What do you u s u a l l y do when you have a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g t o do? 3. What purposes do you see i n the c o u r s e r e a d i n g s f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e ? f o r P s y c h o l o g y ? C. D i f f i c u l t r e a d i n g s : 4 . Have you r e a d something l a t e l y i n t h e s e c o u r s e s t h a t was d i f f i c u l t f o r you? What was d i f f i c u l t about i t ? What d i d you do about i t ? I s t h a t what you u s u a l l y do or not? D. Genre 5. Here a r e samples of some of the c o u r s e r e a d i n g s . P l e a s e e x p l a i n hov you went about r e a d i n g these s h o r t s t o r i e s f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . P l e a s e e x p l a i n how you u s u a l l y went about r e a d i n g t h i s P s y c h o l o g y t e x t b o o k / s t u d y g u i d e . 6. When you re a d f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y , what do you do t h a t ' s d i f f e r e n t from your r e a d i n g f o r the o t h e r c o u r s e ? 7 . P l e a s e e x p l a i n how the way the c o u r s e i s t a u g h t i s h e l p f u l or not h e l p f u l t o you i n your r e a d i n g . Which c o u r s e i s more d i f f i c u l t f o r you t o read? Why? What k i n d of r e a d i n g have you done f o r the c o u r s e a s s i g n m e n t s ? How d i d you go about i t ? Hov d i d you pr e p a r e f o r the mid-term exam? E. P r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e : 8 . Have you s t u d i e d E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y b e f o r e ? i n your f i r s t or your second language? i n your home c o u n t r y or i n Canada? P l e a s e t e l l me about i t ? 9. What k i n d of r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s d i d you have? Hov d i d 120 you go about those r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s ? Was t h a t u s u a l or u n u s u a l ? 10. What o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s i n your p a s t have been h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e a d i n g you do now f o r t h e s e c o u r s e s ? 11. In what ways do any of your p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s h e l p you now w i t h the r e a d i n g f o r your E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e and P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e s . F. Change i n s t r a t e g i e s : 12. P l e a s e e x p l a i n how you u s u a l l y read academic m a t e r i a l i n your s c h o o l i n g i n your home c o u n t r y . 13. What k i n d of changes d i d you make i n your r e a d i n g when you s t a r t e d s t u d y i n g i n Canada? 14. Sometimes s t u d e n t s change the way t h e y approach r e a d i n g f o r c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s . What changes have you n o t i c e d i n the way you r e a d f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y as compared t o b e f o r e ? G. F u t u r e : 1-5. Can you s u g g e s t some ways t h a t the r e a d i n g demands c o u l d have been made e a s i e r f o r you i n your E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e / P s y c h o l o g y c o u r s e ? 16. J u s t s u p p o s i n g you were the i n s t r u c t o r of t h e s e c o u r s e s i f you were d e s i g n i n g t h e c o u r s e , what would you i n c l u d e i n i t t h a t would h e l p ESL s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e i r r e a d i n g ? 17. Are t h e r e any o t h e r comments you would l i k e t o make about r e a d i n g ? APPENDIX D PSYCHOLOGY 110 - READING SCHEDULE Textbooks: A t k i n s o n e t a l . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P s y c h o l o g y ( 9 t h E d i t i o n ) and the accompanying Study Guide. I n s t r u c t o r : ( ) • G r a d i n g : In t h i s c o u r s e t h e r e w i l l be 6 q u i z z e s , each worth 12.5% f o r a t o t a l of 75%, and a f i n a l exam worth 25%. There w i l l a l s o be a make-up t e s t s c h e d u l e d d u r i n g the l a s t week of c l a s s e s . T h i s t e s t can be used t o r e p l a c e a m i s s i n g s c o r e or can be used i n p l a c e of your l o w e s t q u i z s c o r e . No o t h e r make-up or r e - w r i t e o p t i o n s a re a v a i l a b l e . L e t t e r grades w i l l be a s s i g n e d as f o l l o w s : A+ 95 - 100 . A 89 - 94 A- 86 - 88 B+ 82 - 85 B 77 - 81 B- 73 - 76 C+ 67 - 72 C 60 - 66 C- 56 - 59 D 50 - 55 F 49 or l e s s I mportant Dates: J a n . 11 b e g i n r e a d i n g Appendix I Ja n . 14 b e g i n r e a d i n g Appendix I I J a n . 19 Q u i z #1 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 1 J a n . 26 b e g i n r e a d i n g Appendices I I I Feb. 2 Quiz #2 Feb. 4 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 2 Feb. 16 Q u i z #3 Feb. 18 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 3 Mar. 1 Q u i z #4 Mar. 3 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 4 Mar. 7 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 5 Mar . 10 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch .6 Mar. 15 Q u i z ft5 Mar. 17 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch .7 Mar . 22 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch. 8 Mar. 24 b e g i n r e a d i n g Ch .9 Mar. 29 Quiz ft6 Apr. 5 Make-up T e s t Apr. 12 - 15 F i n a l Exam Week 122 APPENDIX E Course O u t l i n e f o r E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e 110 1. Course t i t l e and number E n g l i s h 110 T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y L i t e r a t u r e : p o e t r y and s h o r t f i c t i o n 2. L e n g t h of c o u r s e 1 semester (14 weeks) 3. Number of c l a s s r o o m hours per week. 4 c l a s s r o o m hours per week (3 h r s . l e c t u r e ; 1 h r . w r i t i n g workshop) 4. Number of u n i t s of c r e d i t 3 c r e d i t s 5. P r e - r e g u i s i t e s E n g l i s h 12 or e q u i v a l e n t 6. C a l e n d a r d e s c r i p t i o n of c o u r s e E n g l i s h 110 (3 c r e d i t s ) The s t u d y of t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y p o e t r y and s h o r t f i c t i o n and of the p r i n c i p l e s of e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n . P r e - r e q u i s i t e : E n g l i s h 12, 099 or e q u i v a l e n t . 7. D e s c r i p t i o n of c o u r s e P u r p o s e : Goal 1 To expand s t u d e n t s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the major themes and t e c h n i q u e s of major E n g l i s h , American and Canadian w r i t e r s of the modern e r a ; Goal 2 To improve the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t and e x p l a i n p o e t r y and s h o r t f i c t i o n ; G oal 3 To i n t r o d u c e s t u d e n t s t o the p r i n c i p l e s of e f f e c t i v e e x p o s i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h o s e p r i n c i p l e s which a p p l y t o w r i t i n g about l i t e r a t u r e ; G oal 4 To encourage s t u d e n t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e a d i n g of i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e ; 123 Goal 5 To i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t s ' awareness of the l i v i n g h e r i t a g e of the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n i n the E n g l i s h language; Goal 6 To improve the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r r e a c t i o n s , e m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l , t o the poems and s t o r i e s of major a u t h o r s ; Goal 7 t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and s p e a k i n g about l i t e r a t u r e and the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . Content o r g a n i z a t i o n : The judgement of the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r i s t o be e x e r c i s e d i n d e c i d i n g upon the arrangement and the s e l e c t i o n of poems and s t o r i e s t o be s t u d i e d . However, c e r t a i n broad g u i d e l i n e s a r e t o be f o l l o w e d : . 1. A minimum of 10 major a u t h o r s ' works are t o be s t u d i e d ; 2. E q u a l time d u r i n g c l a s s r o o m hours i s t o be devoted t o d i s c u s s i o n of p o e t r y and p r o s e ; 3. Emphasis i s t o be p l a c e d p r i m a r i l y upon c l o s e a n a l y s i s of i n d i v i d u a l t e x t s r a t h e r than upon h i s t o r i c a l or l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t s : " p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m " r a t h e r t h a n h i s t o r i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l or t h e o r e t i c a l approaches i s t o be the c h i e f approach t o the t e x t s . 8. L e c t u r e s 3 hours of c l a s s r o o m time per week w i l l be conducted i n e i t h e r l e c t u r e or seminar s t y l e s . 1 hour per week w i l l be devoted t o a more p e r s o n a l i z e d workshop -t u t o r i a l f o r m a t . 9. Seminar groups See above 10. W r i t t e n a s signments N a t u r e : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of works s t u d i e d Number and l e n g t h : 4 - 500 word themes 1 - 1,000-1,500 word r e s e a r c h paper 11. B a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g s t u d e n t performance e s s a y s and a s s i g n m e n t s 50% 124 r e s e a r c h paper f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n 20% 20% 10% 12. Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c o u r s e o c c a s i o n a l f i l m s or t a p e s of d r a m a t i z a t i o n s or e x p l a n a t i o n s of t e x t s s t u d i e d 13. Reading l i s t R e q u i r e d t e x t s : Gary Geddes, ed., 20th C e n t u r y P o e t r y & P o e t i c s , 3rd e d i t i o n ( T o r o n t o : O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1985) R o b e r t Penn Warren and A l b e r t E r s k i n e , eds., S h o r t  S t o r y M a s t e r p i e c e s (New York: D e l l Pub. Co., 1983) 14. Number of books and j o u r n a l s which l i b r a r y h o l d s i n s u p p o r t of t h i s c o u r s e A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 books and s e v e r a l j o u r n a l s . See a t t a c h e d r e s o u r c e and s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e s o u r c e s l i s t . 

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