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Associations between participation in the ESL class and in the community by Japanese learners with language… Ellis, James Gordon 1989

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ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICIPATION IN THE ESL CLASS AND IN THE COMMUNITY BY JAPANESE LEARNERS WITH LANGUAGE ACHIEVEMENT, GENERAL ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE, AND GENDER by JAMES GORDON ELLIS B.A., L'Universite Laval, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Language Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1989 © JAMES GORDON ELLIS, 1989 In presenting this thesis in part ia l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The Unive r s i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia^ I agree that the L i b r a r y shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes m a y be granted by the Head of m y Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shal l not be allowed without m y wri t ten permission. (Department of Language Education) The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver , Canada V 6 T 1W5 Date: October, 1989 ABSTRACT Participation in class and in the community by second language learners has been studied as an important factor in the development of a second language. Some studies suggest that there is a positive association between classroom participation and language contact. The relation of this to second language achievement, however, has not been demonstrated as of yet. This study relates participation in both class and community to academic performance both in language specifically and in subject matter courses. Firstly, the study shows a positive relation between participation in the community and the classroom. Secondly, there exists a positive relation between both of these factors and measures of language achievement. The previous research did riot consider sex as a variable but this study demonstrates that sex must be taken into consideration. Moreover, this study contains evidence that measures of participation in class and in the community relate not only to language achievement specifically but to academic achievement more generally. The use of a standard multiple regression has made it possible to consider the effect of all of these factors together. Examination of the data suggested that there was a correlation between high participation in class and community and high academic achievement in language and academic subject matter. Converse results were illustrated between low participation in class and community and low academic achievement in language and academic subject matter. A qualitative examination was conducted of high participants and achievers versus low participants and achievers. The case studies reinforced the quantitative findings and shed light onto possible reasons for gender differences. There were ii also indications that low participants and achievers were undergoing problems and possibly culture shock. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS viii Chapter. I. INTRODUCTION 1 A. Background of the Study 1 B. Identification of the Problem 2 C Purpose of the Study 4 D. Research Questions 5 E. Definition of Terms 5 1. Conceptual Terms 5 a. Participation 5 b. Culture Shock 7 c. Social Networks 13 2. Operational Definitions 16 F. Outline of Paper 17 Chapter II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 18 A. Introduction 18 B. Factors Affecting Participation 18 C. Summary 24 Chapter III. METHODOLOGY 25 A. Purpose 25 B. Subjects 25 C. Instrumentation 27 1. Observation 27 a. Classroom Contact 27 b. Social Contact 28 2. Language Contact Profile 28 a. The Questionnaire 28 b. Administration of LCP 29 3. Informed Consent 29 4. Teacher Ranking 30 5. Language Achievement 30 6. General Academic Performance 30 D. Analysis 30 1. Correlation Analysis 31 2. Multiple Regression Analysis 31 Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32 A. Quantitative Results 32 1. Correlational Analysis 32 2. Multiple Regression Analysis 33 iv 3. Discussion of Quantitative Results 36 4. Explanation of Charts and Graphs 39 B. Qualitative Results 44 1. Case Study of Two Top Students 44 a. Students S and H 44 2. Case Study of Two Middle Students 47 a. Student T 47 b. Student Y 48 3. Case Study of Two Lower Students 49 a. Student K 50 b. Student M 51 C. Summary 52 Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH 56 A. Conclusions 56 B. Limitations of the Study 58 C. Implications of the Research 60 FOOTNOTES 65 REFERENCES 66 APPENDIX A: CONSENT FORM 70 APPENDIX B: LANGUAGE CONTACT PROFILE 72 APPENDIX C: COMPARISONS OF LCP SCORES, TOEFL, GPA, PARTICIPATION, AND PARTICIPATON RANKINGS 75 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Correlation of Language Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom With Language Achievement 33 Table 2: Multiple Regression of Language Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom on Language Achievement 34 Table 3: Contribution of Individual Variables to the Multiple Regression of Language Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom on Language Achievement 35 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Comparison of Language Contact Profile Scores (LCP1 versus LCP2) 40 Figure 2: Comparison of Participation for Increased Language Contact Profile Scores 41 Figure 3: Comparison of Participation for Decreased Language Contact Profile Scores 43 vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Expressions of w a r m appreciation and thanks are due to many people who have helped make the completion of this thesis possible: to D r . Margare t E a r l y , who for the past two years has been a continual inspirat ion to me - her expert supportive cr i t ic ism challenging me to strive higher; to D r . Bernard M o h a n and D r . John Howes, committee members, whose insightful comments have made this a better thesis; to M y a M c K a y , who saw the applicabili ty of this project and permitted me to use the students from her program as subjects; to J a y Gregory for his invaluable technical assistance wi th the various computer applications; and to m y family for their unt i r ing support and confidence in m y abilities, I extend m y sincere appreciation. v i i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY This study grew out of an ongoing interest in the concept of language interaction in class and in the community. Part icipat ion in both of these areas has been studied as an important factor in the development of a second language. W i t h this in mind, the researcher examined the literature to find that other studies indicate the existence of a positive association between classroom participation and language contact. Moreover, the studies suggest that language contact is related to language proficiency but they make no reference to language achievement. The literature states that participation i n and out of class, is an important part of developing language proficiency. This paper goes beyond that conclusion to examine the relationship of participation and language achievement. Part icipat ion in class and in the community by second language learners can be affected by a number of variables. One significant variable found to inhibit participation i n classes of strictly Japanese learners is gender. The previous research in this area did not consider sex as a variable but this study demonstrates that sex must be taken into consideration. Fur thermore, in-class participation m a y have been affected by culture shock as the qualitative analysis found some students who were low participants seemed to be experiencing a number of adjustment problems. Culture shock also appears to have an effect on participation in the community and the social networks of the learners seem to play an important role in assisting i n the adjustment process. Th is study looks closely at social 1 2 networks outside of the classroom as they can ease individuals through the negative feelings often experienced when in a new culture. Moreover, as other studies have shown, the social networks of language learners are clearly the ma in source of language use outside of the classroom. A mono-cultural group of Japanese college students was chosen because the cul tural traits of the Japanese would provide an interesting additional element to the participation factor - in and out of the language classroom. The researcher believed that a significant amount of the data collected would be affected by various cultural characteristics. One prominent example of this as Skipper (1988) notes is the Japanese aversion for explicit verbalization. H e points out that this dislike also reflects the tradit ional Japanese group orientation and hierarchical consciousness expressed through an elaborate system of honorific speech. Moreover, i t is felt wi th in the Japanese culture that the direct expression of views can lead to disharmony among group members or even isoaltion from one's group. This cultural component of Japanese learners presents numerous difficulties to E S L / E F L instructors who m a y t ry in va in to produce spontaneous participation i n their classrooms. B. IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM A large amount of research has been done in the area of participation and language learning. Yet , there st i l l exists a large void in the various studies; that concerning the relation between participation in class and the community and second language achievement. In addition, the specific cul tura l traits of students and how those characteristics m a y affect participation has not been closely examined. This study looks at the kinds of language contacts Japanese learners 3 make outside of the classroom and how those contacts affect their participation within the classroom, their language achievement and their general academic performance. Moreover, language achievement and general academic performance have not been studied in correlation with outside of classroom contact or participation using a large mono-cultural sample. Seliger (1977) performed a study in which he utlilized a small multi-cultural group of subjects while Day (1984) used a large group consisting of Japanese and other mainly Asian subjects. Neither of the studies take into consideration the cultural background of the learners. The Japanese culture is perhaps one of the richest and most complicated in the world. The ancient Confuscian values of Japan remain indoctrinated in the minds of many of Japan's younger generation who have chosen to study English here in Canada. For this reason it is important to look at how these students perform in the classroom and correlate that with what they do linguistically outside of the classroom. It is also important to realize that Japanese students are more passive in the language classroom than their North American counterparts. Therefore, participation is closely examined in this study in order to determine whether there is any relation between what happens linguistically outside of the classroom and what happens within. The types of contacts the students make outside of the classroom vary greatly. A lot of it has to do with the student's internal desire to learn and to meet native speakers in the host community. One problem with this is that for Japanese students, going out to meet Canadians is not an easy task. Years of national isolation make it somewhat understandable as to why the Japanese 4 prefer their mono-cultural networks. Japan remained cut off from the western world for nearly one thousand years from the middle of the Heian period to the end of the Tokugawa era. This severance being due to Japan's geographical isolation more than anything else. As Brownell (1967) remarks, the Japanese lived in self-imposed, virtually mono-lingual isolation, content with their early acquisition of Chinese culture and writing. The mono-cultural bonds of the students outside of the classroom are important and should not be discouraged as they may act as a buffer against culture shock. These networks, however, should eventually open up to allow other non-Japanese individuals to enter the group. If this does not happen the mono-cultural groups will isolate themselves, deprived of any native speaker input. C. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is any correlation between the language contacts students utilize outside of the classroom (e.g.: English or Japanese) and their participation, language achievement and general academic performance. This study looks not only at classroom learning as being significant but considers what happens outside of the classroom walls as being equally important. Other studies fail to recognize the cultural backgrounds of the language learners and the influence those norms have on making contacts outside of the classroom and participation within. This presents an important issue as all learners are in many ways controlled by ingrained habits that they have difficulty in changing or even recognizing. 5 D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS In qualitative research it is not appropriate to form set hypotheses beforehand. A more suitable method is to prepare possible research questions: 1. To what extent is there association between participation in the community, participation in class, language achievement, general academic achievement and gender? 2. To what extent do the learners increase/decrease their English language contact throughout the term? 3. To what extent do those students with an increase/decrease in target language contact participate in the classroom? E. DEFINITION OF TERMS Throughout this paper the terms participation, culture shock and social networks appear quite frequently. This section attempts to clarify the terminology and how it relates to the present study. 1. Conceptual Terms a. Participation The question of whether language participation in the community affects participation in the classroom and language achievement will be addressed in the corpus of this paper. The meaning of participation itself, however, shall now be examined as there is great debate in the area of language education as to what exactly constitutes participation and the role it plays in language acquisition. The issue is very much a complex one with various researchers expressing extremely 6 different views in regards to learner interaction in the classroom. The term participation is an extremely ambiguous one as i t means different things to different people. Mos t dictionary definitions classify i t as taking part or shar ing something in common wi th others. In this case, a l l learners in the classroom could be participants as they are a l l taking part in the language lesson s imply by being there. However , for most language instructors, the physical presence of a learner does not a lways constitute participation. More often than not, language teachers feel students are only part icipating i f they volunteer by call ing out responses or by ra is ing their hands. Seliger (1977) refers to learners who interact intensively as H i g h Input Generators (HIGs). These learners participate overtly whereas at the other extreme are the covert participants. They are called L o w Input Generators (LIGs) and they play a relatively passive. role in the language classroom. This is characterized by the fact that they do little in the classroom to get input directed at them as opposed to the H I G s who grasp every opportunity for directed input. The L I G s in Seliger's (1977) study mostly l imited . their interactions to responses to the teacher during dr i l l sessions and demonstrated little language interaction in the target language outside of this. In language classes such learners sometimes sit on the periphery of the group and prefer to be left alone. This , nevertheless, does not designate a poor language learner. A s Reiss (1985) explains, the good language learner is an active part icipant i n the conscious learning process. The word "active" is of great significance because the successful language learner is constantly processing information whether called upon or not. E v e n when silent he is active mental ly and then becomes a silent speaker. Therefore, the successful language learner 7 need not necessarily be an extrovert. Un l ike the overt participant, the covert learner m a y not volunteer nor take chances on errors aloud but this does not stop h i m from practicing silently. This is, of course, difficult for teachers to actually see but Reiss (1985) states that by active mental participation, the good language learner obtains the necessary exposure to internalize the information. A l lwr igh t (1988) further supports the fact that a simple approach to the notion of active participation w i l l no longer suffice in current research. More recently, the te rm "involvement" has perhaps seemed more appropriate. Fur thermore, an interesting point is brought up in Al lwr igh t ' s research and that is the fact that learners are not entirely under the control of the teacher when it comes to the nature and extent of their participation i n class. He states that learners m a y actually choose to participate or not in either a covert or overt manner. This , as A l l w r i g h t (1988) remarks , puts the learners in a form of "bargaining position." b. Culture Shock When you are in Rome, live in the Roman style: when you are elsewhere, l ive as they live elsewhere. 1 - St. Ambrose to St. August ine, late fourth century. Unbeknownst to most individuals, the above quote is directly related to the conflict and confrontation that can result when people from different cultures must function together. If language learners are not Roman, for example, they w i l l undoubtedly have a few problems in adjusting to the host culture. The term culture shock, although nonexistent in the fourth century, is now very much a part of everyday speech, yet most people do not understand its exact meaning. 8 For such a popular and loosely utilized expression, its ramifications are extremely far reaching. Unfortunately, some of them are negative and for language learners this can seriously affect the amount and type of discourse they produce in and out of a classroom situation. Originally used by Oberg (1960) in his work with Foreign Service Officers, the term cul ture shock describes the extreme anxiety experienced by everyone who must move from the familiar to the unfamiliar. One gets into a situation which is so alien, that even doing basic things become difficult. Oberg refers to the loss of all the known signs and symbols of social interaction as the cause for this condition: These signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situations of daily life: when to shake hands . and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not... Now these cues which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs or norms are required by all of us...2 Oberg (1960) was also the first to describe the problem of culture shock in terms of a number of stages. The first of these being the honeymoon stage. An appropriate term since it refers to an initial reaction of enchantment, fascination, enthusiasm and cordial, superficial relationships with the hosts. This is followed by the cr is is stage in which the initial differences in language concepts, values, familiar signs and symbols lead to feelings of inadequacy, frustration, anxiety and even anger. At this point many learners may feel a strong desire to return to their native country and Schumann (1975) states that such a mental set may block the commitment to the host country which is necessary for successful second language acquisition. However, this low point on 9 the adjustment scale is common and does eventually pass, paving the way to a more open and receptive attitude towards the host culture. Brown (1986) states that it is exceedingly important that teachers allow the learners to proceed into and through the second stage. He feels teachers should not expect them to deny the anger, the frustration, the helplessness and loneliness they feel. To smother those feelings may delay and actually prevent eventual movement into the third stage of adjustment. For the ESL student, culture shock is almost unavoidable but as Brown (1986) adds further: ...teachers can play a therapeutic role in helping learners move through stages of acculturation. If the learner is aided in this process by sensitive and perceptive teachers, he can perhaps more smoothly pass through the second stage and into the third stage of culture learning, and thereby increase his chances for succeeding in both second language learning and second culture learning.3 Teachers should note, however, that students' difficulties in learning a second language often stem, not so much from their inability to handle stressful situations, nor from ' their negative attitudes or lack of motivation, but rather, from their lack of understanding of the social context of the language. (Clarke, 1976). Gardner (1969), on the other hand, feels that an ethnocentric attitude which often occurs during the crisis stage of culture shock also adversely affects L2 learning. In addition, Schumann (1976) maintains that factors such as culture shock will create psychological and social distance from the target language. If learners feel hostile towards the host culture they will use language simply for denotative referential communication in situations where contact with speakers of the target language is either absolutely necessary or unavoidable. The recovery stage is usually the third to occur and this is when the 10 individual can breathe a sigh of relief as the crisis period usually resolves itself. One indication of this "recuperation" is that the person often ends up learning the language and culture of the host country. For language teachers this may appear to be the optimum period for language learning and ideally it should be, yet many students tend to be afraid of becoming overly acculturated and experience anomie (Lambert, 1967) - the concept of feeling social uncertainty and dissatisfaction. Lambert's theory relates to the concept of social networks and language learning in the following manner: ... the more proficient one becomes in a second language the more he may find that his place in his original membership group is modified at the same time as the other linguistic - cultural group becomes something more than a reference group for him. It may, in fact, become a second membership group for him. Depending upon the compatibility of the two cultures, he may experience feelings of chagrin or regret as he loses ties in one group, mixed with the fearful anticipation of entering a relatively new group." Lambert also mentions that when advanced students become so skilled in the target language and begin to think and feel like a host national, they then become so annoyed with feelings of anomie that they are prompted to develop strategies to minimize or control the annoyance and reverting to their LI is such a strategy. Finally, the last stage which is referred to by Oberg is that of adjustment. At this point, the sojourner begins to work in and enjoy the new culture, manifesting acceptance of the culture and more self-confidence in negotiating cross-cultural encounters. In ideal circumstances, individuals can move back and forth between cultures without any apparent internal or observable discomfort or conflict. In addition, they can switch linguistic and cultural systems almost at will; all of which indicate a multicultural orientation. Other writers have also contributed their versions of the expression culture shock. Smalley (1963) uses the term language shock - the role of language differences which contribute to cross cultural conflict. He asserts that language shock is one of the basic ingredients of culture shock. This is simply because language is the principal form of communication in human society and it is the area where the largest number of cues to interpersonal relationships lie. Often, many sojourners who begin to learn the language of the host culture end up by rejecting it. The pattern of rejection could be less studying by the individual and more contacts with compatriots or others who speak the same language rather than making contacts with host nationals or other foreign students. Language shock can also result in genuine physical illness and even animosity towards teachers. Brown (1973) also mentions that the self-knowledge, self-esteem, and self-confidence of language learners is linked to language learning. Moreover, students are forced to take on a new identity if they are to become competent in a second language and this can be highly traumatic for some. As Brown (1973) states: The very definition of communication implies a process of revealing one's self to another. Breakdowns in communication often result from a person's unwillingness to be "honest" in revealing this self...5 Byrnes (1966) mentions role shock which refers to the unsuccessful relationships between foreign students and host nationals of equal or higher status. Many individuals who enjoy a certain status in their home country fmd themselves more or less "demoted" in the host country. This change in roles contributes in many ways to the affliction of culture shock. Foreign students from Japan, -for example, are often surprised by the degree of familiarity used 12 when addressing professors and instructors here in Canada. In addition to this, as LaForge (1974) states, Japanese culture maintains a hierarchy system in which younger students learn from older ones and show them the utmost respect. Clarke (1976) compares the psychological and social stresses of second language learning as being similar to those suffered by victims of schizophrenia. For individuals in a strange culture, social encounters become inherently threatening and defense mechanisms are employed to reduce the trauma. Here, the similarities between the schizophrenics and the behaviour of individuals in the crisis stage of culture shock are striking. Bateson (1972) describes the alternatives commonly adopted by schizophrenics to defend themselves: 1. He might...assume that behind every statement there is a concealed meaning which is detrimental to his welfare...If he chooses this alternative, he will be continually searching for meanings behind what people say and behind chance occurences in the environment, and he will be characteristically suspicious and defiant. 2. He might...tend to accept literally everything people say to him; when their tone or gesture or context contradicted what they said he might establish a pattern of laughing off these metacommunicative signals. 3. If he didn't become suspicious of metacommunicative messages or attempt to laugh them off, he might choose to ignore them. Then he would find it necessary to see and hear less and less of what went on around him, and do his utmost to avoid provoking a response from his environment.6 Culture shock, however, is not an entirely negative experience. Adler (1975) sees culture shock as a transitional experience taking one from a state of low self and cultural awareness to a state of high self and cultural awareness. He refers to five stages of culture shock: contact, disintegration, reintegration, autonomy and independence. As Church (1982) explains, these five levels involve encompassing and progressive changes in identity and experiential learning. 13 Adler's stages show a strong resemblance to Oberg's conceptualization but the final step is quite different and is very self-actualizing in nature. It implies that the individual who has reached the final stage should be better prepared for a future cross-cultural experience. c. Social Networks Participation in the community can be either assisted or impeded by the type and amount of social networking the students are involved in. The literature on social networks and social support suggests that social support buffers stress by providing individuals with emotional support and guidance (Cobb 1976). In a culture shock situation, the students will need support to help make the cultural adjustment a smooth process and to assist in forming social networks within the community. According to Cobb, social support provides people with three sorts of information: that they are cared for and loved; esteemed and. valued; and that they belong to a network of communication and mutual obligation. Thus, it may be just to predict that foreign students with a strong supportive friendship network would be happier and better adjusted that those without such a network. Also, students experiencing the stress and trauma of culture shock will undoubtedly find comfort if they belong to a viable social support group. In a study of foreign students in Hawaii, Bochner et al. (1977) developed a functional model of overseas students' network patterns, stating that sojourners belong to three distinct social networks. These are: 1. A p r i m a r y , m o n o c u l t u r a l network consisting of close friendships with other sojourning compatriots. The main function of the co-national network is to provide a setting in which ethnic and cultural values can be rehearsed and expressed. 2. A s e c o n d a r y , b i c u l t u r a l network, consisting of bonds between 14 sojourners and significant host nationals such as academics, students, advisors and government officials. The main function of this network is to instrumentally facilitate the academic and professional aspirations of the sojourner. 3. A third, multicultural network of friends and acquaintances. The main function of this network is to provide companionship for recreational, non-culture and non-task-oriented activities.7 Bochners findings were not interpreted within a social-network framework, however, and other researchers have found that the degree of social interaction between the host national and the sojourner is related to the latter's adjustment. For example, Antler (1970), in a study of 170 foreign postgraduate medical students found that those who reported more frequent personal contacts with their American hosts were least distant from them culturally and socio-economically. Selltiz and Cook (1962) found that sojourners who. had at least one close host national friend experienced fewer problems than sojourners with no close host-national friends. The social-support hypothesis, however, places emphasis on the quality and quantity of support rather than the nature or source of that support. Thus, it is the amount of social support that is seen by some as crucial as opposed to who provides it. Others (Bochner 1982), place more emphasis on the source of support and its function. This means help from a host-national network is important because through it foreign students can learn the social skills of their culture of sojourn. Help from the co-national network is equally important as it enables foreign students to maintain their culture of origin. In addition to this, they can speak their native language which is vital in times of cultural and language stress. 15 Bochner's theory predicts that the well-being of foreign students depends on them having access to both types of networks. Nevertheless, the evidence suggests that most foreign students do not belong to a viable host-national network. The numerous studies done in cross cultural psychology can be related directly to ESL students and those who teach them. Specifically, the importance of mono-cultural bonds among foreign students is stressed as language learners from the same cultural background are often criticized for maintaining strong mono-cultural networks. Bochner et al. (1977) state that these bonds should not be interfered with, regulated against or obstructed: On the contrary, such bonds should be encouraged and, if possible, shaped to become more open to bi- and multi-cultural influences. In particular, mediating individuals who function as links between different cultural networks, should be identified and supported. Bi-cultural (foreign student/host-national) bonds should be expanded to reach beyond their initial task-oriented function. This often happens spontaneously, and ways and means should be found to capitalize on this tendency. Multi-cultural associations...could likewise be expanded beyond their recreation-oriented function towards the nonsuperficial learning of each other's cultures.8 The concept of social networks and support groups is linked to sociolinguistics and the various forms of discourse that take place within the networks. For example, according to Milroy (1980), there exist o p e n and c l o s e d networks. To relate this to Bochner's network patterns, the c l o s e d network is similar to the monocultural group in which speakers interact mostly within a defined territory and a given person's contacts will nearly all know each other. The o p e n networks are linked to the bi- and multi-cultural groups. This means the individuals move outside territorial or cultural boundaries and develop their own contacts, none of whom know each other. 16 The importance of social networks for L 2 learners is beneficial as a positive social network amongst the students m a y create a more relaxed environment for language learning. A s K r a s h e n (1987) remarks , one of the affective variables related to success in second language learning is anxiety; the lower the level of anxiety, the better the language acquisition. 2. Operational Definitions When referring to the individuals under study the researcher utlizes the terms "learners, students, and subjects" interchangeably. The pronoun "they" is used to refer to the students as a whole. In the case studies presented in chapter 4, however, the personal pronouns "he" and "she" are used accordingly. This study also uses abbreviations to refer to a number of terms as opposed to the longer formats. This study looks at learners who practice by ini t ia t ing interactions, and thereby cause a concomitant input from others. A s previously mentioned, these learners wi l l be called high input generators (Seliger, 1977) and referred to as H I G s in this study. A t the other extreme are the learners who play a passive role in language interaction. Such learners are referred to as low input generators and are termed L I G s . The questionnaire the subjects filled out is called the Language Contact Profile and is abbreviated by the term L C P . Other reductions include: L C R for Language Class Risk tak ing , L C D for Language Class Discomfort, and L C S for Language Class Sociabili ty. A distinction between the subjects' first and second languages is made in this study by the use of LI for 'mother tongue' or 'native language' and L2 for 'second language' or 'foreign language. ' 17 F. OUTLINE OF PAPER The corpus of this paper looks at the associations between use of the target language (TL) outside of the classroom in the host community with participation in the classroom, language achievement as measured by the learner's language scores (GPAL), general academic performance, and gender. In the second chapter the study examines the complex issue of participation and the varying opinions on the subject. Perhaps the most significant shortcoming of other studies on participation is the failure to mention how the relation between participation in class and in the community by second language learners is indeed related to second language achievement and academic performance more generally. Previous research did not consider sex as a variable and this study shows that sex is an important factor in the results. In addition to those factors, other studies of a similar theme fail to mention how culture shock and social networks may affect language practice in and out of the classroom. Moreover, the cultural background of Japanese learners has not been stressed previously. This study attempts to fill those gaps. The paper will also describe the methodology behind the research in chapter three. Specifically, the background of the subjects will be provided as well as information pertaining to the instrumentation of the study, data collection and analysis. In chapter four the findings are presented both in quantitative and qualitative form. In Chapter five the paper concludes with a summary of findings and a few cautious statements concerning their implications for the ESL classroom. CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A. INTRODUCTION As mentioned in the previous chapter, this study examines the associations between participation in the community, participation in class, language achievement, general academic performance and gender. Numerous variables exist which can seriously impede participation in the ESL classroom and this review will look at the issue of participation and how it relates to the present study. There are numerous factors which can affect participation and most studies do address the issues excellently. There exists, however, a gap in the research pertaining specifically to the association between participation in class and the community with language achievement. Other studies have mentioned the association of the above with language proficiency only. In addition to this, the cultural background of the students acts as a significant variable. In particular, there is a void in the research in regards to Japanese learners and how the cultural characteristics which have been ingrained into them affects classroom participation. B. FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION The purpose of this review is to determine what has and has not been discussed pertaining to the complex issue of participation and to indicate how this study will fill the gaps in the previous research. The question of what in fact makes the learners interact in the classroom is a difficult one to answer and Gliksman et al. (1982) state that the research in the area of second language acquisition has traditionally focused on the effects of aptitude, attitudes and 18 19 motivation on second language achievement. One reason for this, as Gardner (1985) states, is that attitudes and motivation are important because they reflect an active involvement on the part of the student in the entire process of learning a second language. More specifically, it has been suggested that an integrative motivation facilitates second-language acquisition more than an instrumental one. "Integrative" motivation according to Brown (1980) is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of that society. An "instrumental" motive refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals: furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth. Moreover, many studies, including that of Gliksman et al. (1982), clearly indicate that students who are integratively motivated are more likely to participate overtly and do well in acquiring a second language than are students less highly integratively motivated, regardless of language aptitude. Another study which obtained similar results is that of Naiman et al. (1978). Their study clearly establishes a relation between attitudinal/motivational variables and behaviour in the classroom. They state that most of the studies that have related attitude to success in second language learning have found that students possessing an integrative motivation are more likely to participate and succeed than students with an instrumental motivation. However, the results of their study are not so simple. Many of their results indicate certain attitudinal measures to be more predictive of success than were either integrative or instrumental motivation. Other variables aside from motivation have been looked at in a study by 20 Ely (1985). In his study, Ely explores three constructs hypothesized to be predictors of second language learning in a classroom situation. The constructs are: Language Class Risktaking (LCR), Language Class Sociability (LCS), and Langauge Class Discomfort (LCD). The first two constructs, LCR and LCS are related to extraversion - introversion which is an important affective variable in second language acquisition (SLA). In the study by Ely (1985) it was generally assumed that extraversion was an aid in L2 proficiency. In a study by Busch (1982), however, the hypothesis that extraverts are more proficient in English was not supported. In fact, her study revealed that extraversion had a significant negative correlation with pronunciation. In addition, introverts tended to have higher scores on the reading and grammar components of the standardized English test which was administered to them. Moreover, Busch (1982) brings up an interesting point and that is the fact that introversion - extroversion along with other personality factors must be examined in the context of the situation under which the foreign language is learned. Busch's study took place in Japan and it was hypothesized that in an EFL (English as a Foreign Language) situation, extraverted students would attain a higher proficiency in English because they may take advantage of the few available opportunities to receive input in English and practice with native speakers. Busch elaborates by stating that whether a student is introverted or extroverted may be specific to a given setting. For students who rely mostly on formal instruction (i.e. the classroom) to learn a foreign language, the situation may be a crucial factor. In Japan, for example, where Busch carried out her study, role behaviour is conditioned to a strong degree. So much in fact that the 21 classroom situation requires that students exhibit introverted behaviour out of respect for the teacher. In Ely's (1985) study, LCD is also examined and it is concerned with the degree of anxiety, self-consciousness, or embarrassment felt when speaking the L2 in the classroom. This in turn was felt to discourage students from taking risks with the target language. Ely set up a model which hypothesized that LCR and LCS would increase participation. His study also set out to determine whether LCD reduces classroom participation directly. In the end, LCR was found to be a positive predictor of students' voluntary Classroom Participation and LCD influenced Classroom Participation only indirectly, through its negative effect on LCR. In summary, there are numerous factors which actually cause the student to participate in the language classroom. An integrative motivation seems to be the common variable in an ESL stiuation but even that fact is disputable as was stated in the study by Naiman et al. (1978) in which certain attitudinal variables were more influential than motivational factors. Moreover, Busch's study presents an interesting hypothesis - that being whether there is a difference in the individual learner variables which affect participation in ESL and EFL situations. Although there is no clear answer for this, Busch does infer that the context of learning in which the language is taught plays an important role. The relationship between language acquisition and participation is a complex but highly interesting one. Much of the literature states that overt participants in the language classroom will become more proficient speakers of the language but how much of that language have the learners acquired and is it reflected in any form of language achievement analysis? In a summary by 22 Seliger (1983) of his previous studies, he states that using the target language as a tool for social interaction affects the rate of second language acquisition and the quality of acquisition as well. Seliger (1977) discovered that HIGs progress at a faster rate than LIGs. Furthermore, he states that the L2 production of HIGs showed a lower percentage of errors that could be traced to transfer from the learner's first language. In contrast, Seliger also found that with the LIGs there was a higher percentage of errors traceable to the LI. Seliger fails to consider, however, the association between using the target language as a tool for social interaction outside of the classroom with language achievement. In addition to this, factors such as gender, culture shock and cultural background are not taken into consideration in his results. Contrary to Seliger's (1977) findings, Day (1984) performed a similar study to explore the relationship between participation in the ESL classroom with proficiency in English, use of the target language outside of the classroom, and field sensitivity. Similar to Seliger, however, Day fails to utilize any form of standardized language test to measure association with language achievement. He also neglects to consider gender, culture shock and the cultural background of his subjects in the results of his study. His study indicates that there was no significant relationship between classroom participation and the use of the target language away from the classroom. Seliger, on the other hand, found that learners who interact intensively, who seek out opportunities to use L2 and who cause others to direct language at them do indeed participate to a high degree in the classroom. This present study duplicates both Seliger and Day's study but looks at a mono-cultural sample and takes language achievement, general academic 23 performance, gender, culture shock and ethnic background of the subjects into consideration. E l l i s (1984) posits in contrast to Seliger's findings that perhaps i t is not active participation in practice, but listening to the attempts of other pupils that aids development. In addition, E l l i s explains that i t is not production but comprehension that aids development and i n his study the low interactors had the chance to learn by attending to interactions involving the high interactors. S imi l a r ly , A l lwr igh t (1988) puts forward the hypothesis that high interactors m a y not in fact be benefiting from using the language. Their low interacting classmates, however, m a y benefit by being active listeners. This of course depends on the quality of the disourse as well since a poor language model would be of questionable value to the low interactors. Some students, as A l lwr igh t (1988) points out, are good at communicat ing while others are wi l l ing but not good and have to engage in lengthy repairs. This research contradicts Seliger's (1977) findings of H I G s being more proficient in the target language. Furthermore, A l lwr igh t ' s study also shows one student part icipating most but not making noteworthy progress and another learner participating very little but mak ing the most progress. Part icipat ion now means much more than overt involvement in the language classroom. Recent studies have shown that the covert participants can also be seen as active, perhaps not vis ibly so but silently processing information as opposed to cal l ing out answers or ra is ing their hands. Moreover, most of the research indicates that motivation is one of the key factors in promoting student participation. M o s t studies report that an integrative motive is most l ikely to induce participation. However, those studies deal ma in ly wi th E S L situations and 24 do not apply to EFL situations where instrumental motives are. much more likely. C. SUMMARY Clearly participation is a debatable issue. Perhaps the most confounding point is whether participation leads to acquisition or whether acquisition leads to participation. Both hypotheses have their followers and the dichotomy is an interesting one. There exists in the research a definite gap which needs to be filled. The previous research makes no mention of how participation in class and in the community is related to language achievement. Language proficiency is discussed in past studies but not actual achievement. Other areas not mentioned in other research but discussed in this paper are: gender and the role it plays in affecting participation; the cultural characteristics of the learners, particularly, the specific traits of Japanese learners; and the concept of culture shock which can often go overlooked in the language classroom. The side effects of culture shock may result in rather unfortunate circumstances for the language learner — seriously affecting the language learning process by interfering with participation in class and in the community. To assist as a defense against culture shock, the social networks students form outside of the classroom are extremely important and are seriously considered in this study. Within those networks there will be either the LI spoken or the L2 and large amounts of informal language learning may take place in the case of the latter. This study shows the positive association between language contact, classroom participation and language achievement. CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. PURPOSE The p r imary purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a l ink between the amount and kind of language Japanese college students use outside of the E S L classroom, their level of overt participation (hand-raising, cal l ing out, volunteering) in class, and their language achievement which is measured by their scores in language specific courses. In addition, participation in the community has been correlated wi th the subjects' gender, and their general academic performance (GPA) to ascertain whether there exists a relationship there as wel l . This study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. To begin wi th , the researcher observed the students in class to determine their various levels of participation. Outside of the classroom, however, it was impossible for the researcher to monitor the actions of the subjects continuously so a questionnaire (see appendices) was distributed at the beginning and at the end of the term. B. SUBJECTS The subjects for this study were foreign students from J a p a n who came to study in an intensive program sponsored by a large post secondary institution i n the Vancouver area. The language and content based curr icu lum included the following courses: Pronunciation, O r a l Communicat ion, Express ive Communicat ion, Reading and Composition, Business Engl ish , Nor th Amer ican Studies, and Current Topics. The students, who ranged from nineteen to twenty-four years of age, 25 26 arrived in Canada in mid-August 1988 and returned to Japan seven months later at the end of March 1989. All of the subjects came from a large Japanese university, located in one of the country's major centres. There were two classes of 16 making a total of 32 students, 19 males and 13 females. 21 of the students were English majors, 8 were Foreign Trade majors, 2 were Business Administration majors and 1 was an Economics major. Their level of English ranged from lower intermediate to advanced. All of the students had studied English for eight years in junior and senior high school in addition to their English study at their university in Japan. The English majors naturally receiving more English instruction than their peers from the other departments. The screening process for this program is extremely rigid and lengthy as it is in fact a scholarship with the university paying all the tuition fees. To begin with, the students must write the TOEFL test and submit their score with their application for the program. Depending on the number of applicants, the university chooses the top 60 - 70 students. These students must write a short essay (in Japanese) stating why they want to study abroad. Then, from that group, students are interviewed by a panel of 4 - 5 professors. For the candidate to succeed, there must be agreement of at least three of the people conducting the interviews. After this, the selection committee checks the family background of the applicants, their ability to get along with others and their medical history. Finally, there is an orientation session where the candidates meet once a week for six weeks and if a particular candidate does not seem suitable during this period, he/she is replaced. 27 C. INSTRUMENTATION 1. Observation To determine whether the students were High Input Generators (HIGs) or Low Input Generators (LIGs) the researcher prepared an overt participation sheet in order to monitor the amount of input the students contributed to the class. This sheet includes areas of overt participation only such as: calling out, handraising, volunteering, and initiating conversations with the instructor or with other students. The researcher put a check beside a student's name if he or she participated once and two checks if the amount of participation exceeded that in any way. Therefore, the students who participated overtly to an extremely high degree received two checks for the class observed, those who participated only once received one check and those who failed to participate unless nominated by the instructor received nil. a. Classroom Contact The researcher observed the students in their classroom setting on 6 separate occasions, making a total of 12 hours observed. The researcher received permission from the program coordinator to go ahead with the study. The students were informed that they were part of a study but were not aware of what the study was about. 28 b. Social Contact In addition to the classroom contact that the researcher had with the students, he also participated in extra curricular activities such as skating, volleyball and dining out with the subjects. This enabled him to conduct unstructured interviews with some of the subjects and "verify" whether what they said on their questionnaires corresponded with what they told him. The students were not interrogated by the researcher as the relevant information was obtained within the context of social dialogue. 2. L a n g u a g e C o n t a c t P r o f i l e a. The Questionnaire Seliger's study (1977) of interaction patterns and L2 competence provided the researcher with a Language Contact Profile (LCP) with which to administer to the students (see appendices). It is a self-report questionnaire which quantifies the learner's motivation and the extent of contact with the second language (potential practice opportunities) outside of the regular classes. While numerical values are. obtained in response to the variously weighted questions, the LCP in fact provides only approximate measures and they should be intepreted as such. The students, however, received LCPs without the scoring system. This was done to avoid any contamination of the results. 29 b. Administration of LCP The questionnaire was distributed twice during the term, once at the beginning of September (LCP-1) and again at the end of the term in December (LCP-2). The students were told by the researcher that they were part of his study but they were not given any specifics for fear of falsified data. The subjects were informed, however, that an abstract of the completed study would be sent to their university in Japan. Some of the vocabulary on the questionnaire needed explanation and this was done when LCP-1 was distributed. The format of the two questionnaries remained basically the same excepting for an additional question on the second LCP. It asked the students for their personal opinion as to the best method for improving their oral/aural communication skills. The students were to complete the questionnaires in their own time. In this manner, the subjects' class time would not be intruded upon. Most of the LCPs came back to the researcher within seven days. 3. Informed Consent Any research involving human beings should always be accompanied by some safeguards and Informed Consent is one of them. The researcher asked the students to complete a form (see appendices) which indicated their agreement to participate in the study. It also informed them that their identity would remain anonymous. Furthermore, the researcher received approval of the study from the Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee of the University of British Columbia. 30 4. T e a c h e r R a n k i n g In order to determine how the instructors viewed the subjects' participation they were asked to complete an overt participation rank ing sheet. The instructors ranked the students on a 1 to 5 scale according to the level of participation exhibited by each student. These results were compared wi th the researcher's observation results. A percentage calculation i l lustrated that there was 88% agreement between the observer and instructors on the subjects' levels of participation. 5. L a n g u a g e A c h i e v e m e n t The language achievement scores were derived from the G P A of the following language courses: Pronunciation; O r a l Communications; Expressive Communications; and Reading and Wr i t ing . 6. G e n e r a l A c a d e m i c P e r f o r m a n c e The participation and L C P scores were also correlated wi th the students' overall academic performance. To do this the program co-ordinator granted the researcher access to the students' first t e rm Grade Point Averages (GPAs) . This score included language and content courses together. D. A N A L Y S I S This study is both quantitative and qualitative in nature and utilizes some statistics to support the descriptive findings. The quantitative analysis employs statistics and charts to il lustrate the results. The statistical package used is the S P S S : X program. This program is often used when correlation and regression 31 analyses are performed to illustrate the strength of the linear relationship between different variables. The qualitative section uses a case study approach to describe the two top, middle and bottom students. The students are described according to their behaviour in and out of the classroom. In particular, anything that may assist in understanding their various levels of participation is discussed. 1. Correlation Analysis Correlations are always between -1 and 1, but can take any value in between. A positive correlation means that as one variable increases, so does the other. A negative correlation means as " one variable increases, the other decreases. Therefore, the closer the correlation is to 1 the more positive the association. It must be emphasized that correlation measures association and that association is not the same as causation (Freedman, Pisani & Purves, 1978). 2. Multiple Regression Analysis The process of finding the least squares prediction equation, testing the adequacy of the model, and conducting tests about and estimating the values of the model parameters is called a multiple regression analysis (Mendenhall, 1983). The regression method estimates the average value of the dependent variable for each value of the independent variable. The use of a standard multiple regression makes it possible to consider the effect of all of the factors in the study such as: participation in class and in community, language achievement, gender, and general academic performance. CHAPTER IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A. QUANTITATIVE RESULTS To provide support to the descriptive analysis later in this chapter, a quantitative analysis has been carried out to assist in the clarification of the results. The use of a standard multiple regression and correlation analysis has enabled the researcher to consider the effect of all the factors considered in this study; they are: participation in class and community; language achievement; gender; and general academic performance. 1. Correlational Analysis The first research question is answered in this and the following section: 1. To what extent is there association between participation in the community, participation in class, language achievement, general academic achievement and gender? The correlation analysis shown in Table 1 illustrates how all of the independent variables (LCP 1/2, Participation, TOEFL, GPA, and Gender) relate to the dependent variable, language achievement (GPAL), as well as how they relate to one another. The results show a positive and fairly strong correlation between LCP2 and GPAL at .62 (p<.001). This indicates the higher the LCP2 score, the higher the GPAL score. In addition, positive correlations are revealed between language achievement and GPA at .91 (p<.001), LCP1 at .54 (p<.001), TOEFL at .64 (p<.001), and Participation at .51 (p<.001). A negative correlation (r = -.50, p<.005), however, was found between participation and gender (male designated by 0, female by 1). In fact, this measure of association is the point-32 33 serial correlation. This indicates that the male subjects tended to participate in the classroom more often than did their female peers. Table 1 Correlat ion of Language Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom W i t h Language Achievement G P A G P A L L C P 1 L C P 2 T O E F L Part icipat ion G P A L L C P 1 .57*** .54** L C P 2 .64*** .62*** g * * * T O E F L .64*** .38* .34* Part icipat ion .58*** .51** .44** .34* .32* Gender -.04 .09 -.26 -.11 .00 - .50** * p s . 0 5 ** p< .01 *** p< .001 The above shows a strong relationship between the independent variables mentioned ( L C P 1/2, Gender, Part icipation, T O E F L , and G P A ) and the dependent variable ( G P A L ) , a l l of which were highly significant. 2 . M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s The multiple regression as shown in Table 2 indicates how a l l the independent variables correlate wi th G P A L when shown together. Standard multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive power of the 34 independent variables with respect to the dependent variable. In a standard multiple regression all the independent variables are entered into the regression equation simultaneously. This form of regression allows one to assess the combined predictive power of the independent variables found to be significant as well as their relative contributions in the form of standardized beta weights. Table 2 Multiple Regression of Language Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom on Language Achievement Variable B SE B Beta T Sig. T Gender .369100 .120483 .370088 3.064 .0050 TOEFL .005761 .001930 .342828 2.985 .0061 LCP2 .021884 .008510 .332478 2.571 .0162 Participation .416038 .129961 .420448 3.201 .0036 LCP1 .008417 .009798 .117805 0.859 .3982 (Constant) -.750455 .741409 -1.012 .3208 Equation F = 14.40521; Significance of F = .0000; df = 5,26 Multiple R = .85718; R Square = .73476; Adjusted R Square — .68376 The overall regression equation produced an F-value (14.41; df=5,26) which was significant at the p<.0001 level. (This indicates that the R2 was significantly different from zero). Multiple R was found to be .86. This indicates a combined correlation of all of the independent variables with the dependent variable. The R Squared value (.7348), however, indicates the proportion of variance accounted for by a linear combination of the independent variables. This value is lower due to the fact that LCP1 had little predictive power which was 35 distinct from LCP2 and, therefore did not remain in the regression equation. The Adjusted R Square stands at .68376 which indicates that Gender, TOEFL, LCP2 and Participation predicted 68% of the variance in GPAL with 32% of the variance remaining unaccounted for. The range of standardized beta weights for the independent variables in the regression equation was relatively small. The descending order of significant beta weights from highest to lowest is as follows: Participation (.4204); Gender (.3700); TOEFL (.3428); and LCP2 (.3325). All of these were found significant to the p<.05 level. Although LCP2 is fourth in the list, the fact that the range was not large indicates that the predictive power of LCP2 was roughly the same as the other variables. The figures of the R squared change indicate to what extent the independent variables contribute to the prediction of the dependent variable (GPAL) over and above the values of TOEFL. Thus, it is possible to determine which independent variables exist as separate entities from TOEFL (see Table 3). Table 3 Contribution of Individual Variables to the Multiple Regression of Language  Contact Inside and Outside of Classroom on Language Achievement Variable R Squared Change P TOEFL .40623 .0001 LCP2 .18396 .0011 Participation .04715 .0667 Gender .08990 .0060 LCP1 .00753 .3982 36 TOEFL had a significant R squared change of .40623 (p<.0001). LCP2 showed a highly significant R squared change of .18396 (p<.0001) while participation had a non-significant R squared change of 3.64 (p>.05). When TOEFL was excluded from the regression analysis, both LCP2 and participation, when regressed individually against GPAL, made significant contributions to the regression equation (R square change = .38398 (p<.001) and .25853 (p<.01), respectively). These results indicate that, with TOEFL, gender, and LCP1 excluded from the regression equation, LCP2 and participation could be useful as predictors of GPAL. 3. Discussion of Quantitative Results The correlation and regression analyses indicate that there is a postive relationship between the second questionnaire (LCP2) and student language achievement (GPAL). Therefore, higher scores on LCP2 which was distributed at the end of the term, tended to be related to the higher GPAL scores. There are a number of possible factors which may have affected the students' performance in the language classroom. Gender, degree of culture shock, existence of social networks, age, and peer pressure seem to have had some effect on deterring participation and affecting overall performance. There exists a strongly indoctrinated principle in Japanese society called the "sempai - kohai" relationship. As Koike (1978) remarks, it is the hierarchy of age and social position which helps perpetuate group harmony with the ideas of socially "lower" or younger persons often being ignored while "equals" confer and, in turn, submit to the will of their "superiors." In a language classroom made up of solely Japanese students this can have serious consequences. The 37 younger students can often be intimidated by those older than them. As a result, they w i l l avoid part icipating for fear of offending their "superiors." Strongly related to the effect age has in regards to participation in the classroom is peer pressure used by the Japanese to extract conformity. There is an old Japanese proverb which states that the protruding na i l gets hammered down. This facet of the Japanese culture is an extremely difficult one for E S L instructors to change as they are running against deeply ingrained Japanese cul tural characteristics. A s a result, L I G s who m a y play a "superior" role in the classroom m a y force H I G s to lessen their input. In addition to age and peer pressure, the gender of the students appears to have played a role in affecting the degree of participation in the classroom. Gender does not, however, relate to any of the other independent variables — only participation. Quite typical ly , it is common for Japanese males to be more aggressive in the classroom. In Confuscian societies, females are socialized to be introverted and this leads to lack of participation in the classroom. Busch (1982) performed a study of introversion-extraversion and the E F L proficiency of Japanese students. In it she found that the male role m a y permit men to exhibit ext ra verted behaviour in the classroom or elsewhere. Therefore, extraverted behaviour m a y be instrumental in assisting Japanese males to learn to speak a foreign language. Women, Busch (1982) suggests, m a y have to find other ways of learning to speak a language wi th in the confines of the female role. Ext raver ted behaviour m a y not be a salient factor for women i n learning to speak a foreign language because of cul tural ly determined roles in Japan . In an E S L situation, however, as opposed to an E F L setting, even the introverted students find themselves in 38 situations in which they must use the target language. In relation to the effect of gender on participation are the attitudes toward the members of the opposite sex. The reason this may affect participation is that many students appear to be influenced by their group of friends. If that group consists of several boisterous young men or rather quiet young women then you behave accordingly. In Japan (Doi, 1973) it is common for emotional links between members of the same sex to take preference over those with the opposite sex. This was evident in the classes under study as the males and females continually sat in their segregated groups. Also, when socializing, the students spent most of their free time with members of the same sex. Finally, the degree of culture shock the learners are experiencing and the existence of social networks and support groups seems to have influenced not only participation but language contact outside of the classroom and academic performance more generally. Students who experienced extreme culture shock underwent serious emotional upheaval which had direct effects in and out of the classroom. Adversely, those subjects who had no difficulty in adapting to Canadian life fared much better in all cases. The existence of social networks and support groups had obvious effects as well. Those learners who were content socially seemed to be in a more positive state of well being as opposed to the students who had no form of social networks. A sense of identity and belonging creates feelings of security which can lead to a positive attitude towards learning English. 39 4. Exp lanat ion of Charts and Graphs Analysis of the data has presented a number of interesting patterns which are visually represented in the charts found in the appendices. The second and third research questions are answered in this section: 2. To what extent do the learners increase/decrease their English language contact throughout the term? 3. To what extent do those students with an increase/decrease in Target Language contact participate in the classroom? Figure One illustrates the comparison of the scores of the Language Contact Profiles (LCP) which the students completed at the beginning of their four month term and again at the end. According to the questionnaire results, 63% of all the students increased their English language contact during the semester, 28% decreased and 9% showed no change whatsoever. These figures show encouraging results as the majority of students may have learned throughout the term how to increase their English contacts and make use of them. In addition to this, the researcher distributed the first questionnaire at the beginning of the term. This was only a few weeks after the students had arrived in Canada and their contacts with the host community would have been limited. By the end of the term, however, the majority of students had shown greater English language contact outside of the classroom. Figure Two shows that 60% of the students who increased their LCP scores were High Input Generators (HIGs) who interacted intensively in the classroom. The remaining 40% were Low Input Generators (LIGs) and played a relatively passive role in the classroom. These results suggest that those learners who are extraverted in the classroom may also be extraverted outside of the 40 Figure 1 Comparison of Language Contact Profile Scores (LCP1 versus LCP2) 41 Figure 2 Comparison of Participation for Increased Language Contact Profile Scores 42 classroom. There are also the learners who appear to be more extraverted outside of the classroom than in. Those 40% may be affected by the group situation of the classroom or perhaps by one or more of the cultural variables which can affect the performance of Japanese students. In the case of this study many of the LIGs appeared to be afraid of making mistakes in front of their peers. Moreover, the female subjects would usually permit the males in the class to respond rather than doing so themselves. Figure Three indicates that the majority of the students who received a lower LCP score on the second distribution at the end of the term were LIGs (56%). The remaining 44% who received a lower score were HIGs. These results may be due to certain cultural characteristics or other variables such as the degree of culture shock the learners were experiencing. As mentioned in Chapter 1 of this paper, many individuals go through various phases of culture shock which can have implications in the classroom. The LIGs who decreased have demonstrated that they are not only introverted in the classroom but outside of the classroom as well. The HIGs who decreased on their LCP score may have done so due to various extraneous variables such as those mentioned above. In conclusion, the majority of the students increased their English language contact throughout the term. Of those learners, most were HIGs in the classroom. This suggests that their extraverted behaviour inside the classroom may have been carried out into the host community as well or vice versa. Perhaps the main reason for the increase in English language contact during the research period has to do with the fact that the longer the subjects were in the English speaking environment, the more opportunity they were presented with to develop and utilize their language skills. 43 44 This does not hold true, however, for the students who decreased their amount of English contact during the term. Most of those students were LIGs in the classroom and their low scores on the second LCP reflect an intraversion outside of the classroom as well. B. QUALITATIVE RESULTS In order to understand fully the various factors which can affect participation a short case study will provide an appropriate analysis of the qualitative results. Through this approach, a detailed look at some of the subjects under study can provide descriptive support to the quantitative results. To this end, the researcher has chosen to look at two of each of the top, middle and bottom students, This may provide insight into what kinds of learners participated more than others in the classroom, performed well or poorly on their language achievement test, established a large number of English contacts outside of the ESL classroom and succeeded academically. In order to maintain the anonymity of the subjects the researcher utilizes letters as a means of identification. In addition to this, the personal pronouns he and she will be used accordingly. 1. Case Study of Two Top Students a. Students S and H Both of the top students were so similar in terms of participation, language achievement, out of class contact and academic performance that the researcher has chosen to describe them together rather than with separate 45 descriptions. Students S and H were both males in their early twenties. Student S had previously lived in the United States on an exchange program but Student H, had not. Both were obvious leaders within the group. Their language achievement scores were significantly higher than most of the class (3.60/4.00 and 3.20/4.00 respectively) and their overall GPAs were very high as well (3.80/4.00 and 3.40/4.00 respectively). Upon entering the classroom, the instructor was always greeted by these two students who had no difficulty initiating conversation. It was evident that they both seized every available opportunity in the classroom to practice the target language with each other, their peers and with the instructor. Upon observation, it became evident that during pair and group work activities, these students continually initiated conversation and acted as leaders throughout the various tasks. The instructor always paired Students S and H with LIGs for peer tutoring purposes. In addition to their strength in the initiating of conversations, both S and H asked a lot of questions in the classroom. They did not seem to hesitate at all and showed no fear of making mistakes. Their spoken English was excellent in comparison with their peers. It is possible, nevertheless, that they were aware of this fact and took advantage of the situation to maximize their practice opportunities. Neither S nor H behaved in an intimidating manner. Moreover, they never monopolized class time and never inhibited other students from participating as well. When paired with a LIG whose communicative skills were not as good as their own, both S and H made the individual feel comfortable and showed no signs of displeasure or impatience with their partner. In fact, the two top subjects were so astute that they would try do draw conversation out of 46 their partners by asking them questions or by getting them to present their findings to the class. H on one occasion encouraged his LIG partner to answer one of the questions posed by the instructor. He then sincerely praised his partner afterwards for responding. This showed amazing sensitivity to one's peers and was certainly appreciated by all the students. Academically, S and H performed very well on all tests and assignments and H showed obvious disappointment if his homework or test results were not up to his high standards. S did not appear to be as concerned about his marks as he almost always did well. Moreover, he stated to the instructor that his main concern was improving his listening and speaking skills so he was not terribly concerned if he received a mark that was not as high as usual. Outside of the classroom both S and H were very good friends. They did a lot of socializing together and travelled a great deal while in Canada. They both had Native Speaker friends arid spent time going out with them — always using the target language. In addition, the researcher overheard both H and S speaking together outside of the classroom in English. This was an indicator of their strong desire to maximize their English usage while many LIGs spoke Japanese outside of the classroom. The positive outlook that H and S had on their experience in Canada reflected itself in and out of the classroom. In addition to this, their scholastic performance was excellent and their outgoing personalities certainly acted as an impetus for their high level of English contact. 47 2. Case Study of Two Middle Students a. Student T Student T, a female, could very much have been one of the top students had she not succumbed to the pressure of other females in the class. T had the second highest language achievement score in the entire group of subjects (3.70/4.00) and her general academic performance score was high as well (3.40/4.00). A bright and pleasant person, T participated to a high degree at the beginning of the term but appeared to have been forced to lessen her level of input. T spoke excellent English and did very well academically. Some of her female peers did not seem to appreciate this and one student (N) would in fact noticeably glare at T when she spoke up in class. These two women rarely spoke to each other unless forced to do so in the context of learning and always sat in separate areas of the classroom. From the researcher's point of view, N appeared to be jealous of T's outgoing personality and facility with the English language. T also had the experience of living abroad in an English-speaking country for a year which only enhanced the feelings of jealousy towards her. As a result, T eventually stopped participating in the classroom unless nominated by the instructor. She did this in order to conform to the group (of female students). N, who was a LIG appeared to have exerted pressure on T to lessen her input in the classroom. Edamatsu (1978) states that in Japanese culture individual autonomy is suppressed, and loyalty to the group is emphasized, for solidarity is of paramount importance to the survival of the group. Furthermore, as Moloney (1954) notes, individualism is seen as an evil that breeds conflict 48 and hence is inimical to group harmony. Removed from the classroom environment the researcher found T to be animated and more than willing to initiate conversation - a stark contrast from her in-class personality. She did not appear to be experiencing any adverse reactions to cultural adjustment nor was she intimidated by the instructor. Having a male instructor may cause some Japanese females to be more intimidated than with a female instructor. With Japanese learners a male instructor is often more effective in forming bonds with the males than with the females. b. Student Y Student Y, a male in his early twenties was an above average student academically with an amazing desire to improve his English and made every effort to do so outside of the classroom. Y received an average score on the language achievement GPA (2.60/4.00) and an above average overall GPA score (2.80/4.00). Inside of the classroom Y would rarely participate unless nominated by the instructor. He performed his tasks with great enthusiasm but was never too keen on speaking up in class. Y appeared to be a leader when it came to social events and was in fact a senior member of his University's student council in Japan. In the program in Canada, however, he appeared to be somewhat intimidated by the older male students who had a better grasp of the target language. Y loved to socialize with Native Speakers and went to great lengths to meet Canadians. He was not terribly concerned about his marks. He appeared to 49 thrive outside of the classroom - continually creating opportunities to partake in extended disourse with Native Speakers. It was obvious that he appeared more at ease outside of the classroom where the pressure to perform was not as strong. Y's relationship with the instructor was a very positive one. He would readily initiate conversation with the instructor before and after the class. He would also ask questions while all the class was working on task - a period when most students were concerned about completing the assigned work rather than listening to someone else's question. Y never appeared to have undergone any negative effects of culture shock and his host family situation was a positive one. He was very much an experiential language learner and spent most of his free time socializing with Canadians rather than doing homework. His dynamic personality certainly helped him in forming many bonds with Native Speakers but like the female student T, he was much quieter in the classroom than outside of it. It may have been very frustrating for him to have held an important leadership role at his university in Japan and then to come to Canada to find himself at a loss in the classroom. This must have caused him great pain, damaging his pride. That may explain his extremely extraverted behaviour outside of class. 3. Case Study of Two Lower Students The two lower students who performed poorly academically were LIGs and had minimal English contact outside of the ESL classroom. Student K, a female and Student M, a male were both in their early twenties at the time of the study. K received an average language achievement score (2.60/4.00) and an 50 average GPA score (2.30/4.00). M received a below average score on his language achievement GPA (2.30/4.00) and a below average score on his overall GPA (2.00/4.00). a. Student K Student K was an extremely introverted person and provided no input in the classroom whatsoever. Even when nominated by the instructor she always responded with an "I don't know" or an "I have no idea" response. The sex of the instructor may have caused her to become more intimidated than with a female instructor. Student K also chose a seating position away from the front of the class. This may have been done to avoid drawing attention to herself so as not to be called upon by the teacher. K struggled throughout the various lessons and displayed no interest at all in learning the subject matter. It became evident after only a short period of time that K was undergoing severe culture shock which she would never completely recover from. On one occasion K had placed her head on her desk and the instructor inquired whether anything was wrong. K's friend sitting next to her responded with "Everything is wrong." Through discussions with some of her instructors, the researcher discovered that K was a very unhappy person with almost no social bonds outside of the classroom. The bonds she did have were minimal and the language of communication was strictly Japanese. One instructor who utilized a journal activity in his classroom provided important insight into her desperate situation: through the journal he discovered that she preferred to be alone and even when her host family was there she spent a large portion of her time in her room. 51 Moreover, her weekends were often spent alone or partaking in limited social functions. K also made very little effort to use English in the classroom. The instructor constantly reminded her not to use Japanese in class but the unceasing reprimands had no effect. Even while working on task K would resort to her LI. Not only did the instructor find this behaviour frustrating but her peers did as well. Her negative attitude towards learning English and her constant use of Japanese in class could explain why so many of her classmates did not seem to enjoy working with her. K's behaviour indicated the more serious consequences of culture shock. Her antagonistic behaviour in and out of the classroom were clear symptoms of the disorder. On a couple of occasions, however, the researcher managed to talk with K outside of the classroom and found her shy but willing to talk. In a one on one situation outside of the classroom and away from her peers, K appeared to open up. Similar to other students, K seemed to feel more at ease outside of the classroom than within. The fear of making mistakes in front of one's peers seems to be a recurring factor with the Japanese learners. b. Student M According to the various instructors, M underwent a serious metamorphosis throughout the program. He exhibited a strong desire to learn at the beginning of the program and appeared to be very outgoing. As time progressed, however, M's behaviour in and out of the classroom began to change. His eagerness dissipated and he retreated physically and emotionally in the classroom. M never initiated conversation with the instructor and would only do so 52 wi th his peers i n Japanese. He spoke a lot of Japanese in and out of the classroom and this m a y have been an indicator of culture shock. A s his performance in the E S L classroom was very poor he appeared to have no desire to speak Eng l i sh outside of class. A very pleasant young man, M found the content mater ia l too difficult to follow. A s a result, instead of asking questions or approaching the instructor after the lesson for clarification on certain points he would let himself get further and further behind. H i s academic performance was abysmal and this m a y have led to his silence in the classroom as wel l . H i s peers demonstrated great patience wi th h im , realizing his weakness wi th the Eng l i sh language. One of his closest friends, however, was one of the top students i n the class. This association m a y have created some self-comparison leading M to feel even more isolated. Outside of the classroom M participated in some of the activities but never took on any significant roles wi th in the program. M ' s host family situation was a very negative one which m a y explain his unhappiness at school. He had complained about his host family circumstances and did i n fact request to be moved. H i s unfortunate home situation, combined wi th a poor performance in the classroom undoubtedly created a serious case of culture shock that he would have difficulty recovering from. C. SUMMARY F r o m analysis of the qualitative results, further support is given to the quantitative findings and light is shed onto possible reasons for gender differences. There were also indications that low participants and achievers were undergoing problems and possibly culture shock. It became evident after looking 53 at how the top, middle and lower students performed that the quantitative information can indeed be applied to the classroom situation. Students S and H , for example, had a high degree of Engl i sh contact outside of the classroom, were high language achievers, performed very wel l academically and were H I G s as wel l . Their outgoing personalities were also carr ied out into the community which enabled them to establish a number of contacts wi th Nat ive Speakers. The two middle students, T and Y , were put into that category for different reasons. T performed well in the classroom and on her language achievement test but she would probably have done much better had there been no pressure put upon her by her peers. T did not want to stand out too much and clearly lessened her input in the classroom because of certain individuals int imidat ing her. There were no negative reports about her host family environment and she did not appear to have undergone severe culture shock. H e r previous cross cul tural experience would have indeed helped her adjust in Canada. Al though a L I G in the classroom, T did wel l academically and had a high level of Engl i sh contact outside of the classroom. T may also have felt the need to conform to the typical female role and remained quiet throughout her lessons. S imi la r to T but for different reasons, Y was a L I G in the classroom, received a below average score on his language achievement test, an above average G P A but had an extremely high level of Eng l i sh language contact outside of the classroom. A very social person, Y appeared to be more comfortable outside of the classroom. H i s loss of status due to his lower level of Eng l i sh m a y have caused h i m to lose face to a certain degree and this could be one of the reasons for his low input i n the classroom. A t the lower end of the scale are K and M who both were extremely 54 introverted, had above and below average achievement scores, spoke a lot of Japanese in and out of the classroom, had difficult home stay situations, did poorly academically and had limited social networks. The quantitative results show a relation between the students with the low levels of English contact outside of the classroom with low achievement scores. If the situation for K and M were different perhaps their experience in Canada would have been a more positive one. If they had a positive and supportive host family environment would things have changed positively in the classroom? If they had a strong and supportive social network would that have helped? If they had a number of Native Speaker friends would that have perhaps assisted them in performing better in the classroom and enjoying their time in Canada? Those questions are difficult to answer because each of the students has a unique personality and they may or may not behave differently in altered situations. In relation to other studies, the findings of this research are highly similar to Seliger's (1977) study but they contradict Day's (1984) results. The similarities with their studies stop at the association of participation in class and in the community. This study has gone beyond previous research to find a positive association between participation in both class and community to academic performance both in language specifically and in subject matter courses. With the exception of the two middle students who fall into both categories, the top two and bottom two were ideal examples of HIGs and LIGs respectively. H and S were active learners who utilized all language environments for practice, both formal and natural, by interacting and getting others to use the target language with them. In addition to this they were each high language 55 achievers while the LIGs who were much more passive in the classroom did not. The LIGs also avoided practice opportunities by often retreating from interaction and intensive contact with the target language. Students S and H at the top of the scale both had positive experiences in Canada. Would things have been different for them if they were in different living and social situations? Probably not. Their strong and outgoing personalities would most likely see them through. The students at the lower end of the scale did not have such a positive outlook which might have helped them through the more difficult times. Not everyone possesses that sort of personality, however, and those who do not must find other ways to survive in and out of the classroom. The theory of the social networks functioning as a buffer against culture shock and other problems is an interesting one because it simply gives the learners the opportunity to talk about their problems which is therapy in itself. This feeling of belonging helps the language learner feel more comfortable in the foreign surroundings which creates a more positive learning environment in and out of the classroom. CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH A. CONCLUSIONS This study examined to wha t extent there is an association between outside of classroom language contact in the form of intensity of verbal interaction between the learners and their language environment and the effects of this contact on their language achievement, gender, classroom participation, and academic performance both in language specifically and subject matter courses. The quantitative results of the study focused on subjects who were at either end of what Seliger (1977) calls an "interaction continuum." This was done in an attempt to determine i f being on the high end — a high input generator — would result in more target language contact outside of the classroom and a higher G P A as opposed to being on the low end of the continuum — a low input generator. The existence of such a continuum was reinforced in this study as the students could indeed be labelled H I G s and L I G s on the basis of their responses to the instructor 's general solicits and their self-initiated turns in class. Moreover, the research has shown a positive association between the second questionnaire, language achievement and general academic performance. This indicated that the students wi th high scores on their pro-term language proficiency tests would most l ikely have a high degree of language contact outside of the classroom and would also perform wel l in language and subject matter courses. A high score on L C P 2 denotes that the learners seized more opportunities to practice the L 2 than those who received a low score. This desire to employ the target language as much as possible outside of the classroom manifested 56 57 itself in class as well. The regression analysis showed that there was a correlation between high participation in class and community with language achievement. Converse results were illustrated between low participation in class and community and low language achievement. In other words, all of the independent variables in the study such as LCP1 and 2, TOEFL, participation, GPA, and gender had a positive effect on the dependent variable GPAL (language achievement). Specifically, those students who had high scores on their TOEFL test, LCP2 and were HIGs all had high GPALs. Negative association was found between gender and participation — this refers to the fact that the female subjects of this study participated less in class than the males. Previous studies by Seliger (1977) and Day (1984) failed to employ any form of language measure as this study has done. Moreover, their studies did not utilize any form of standardized English proficiency test such as TOEFL which functions as a predictor of success. In the case of this study, the TOEFL showed what levels of proficiency the students went into the study with and the language achievement GPA showed what they left with. In addition, neither Seliger (1977) nor Day (1984) mentioned gender, culture shock, cultural background or social networks as having importance. This study has gone beyond their work and has closely investigated the relevance of those variables. The significance of this research reaches beyond simply understanding associations between external and internal language behaviour and achievement, it encompasses an extremely wide range of cultural variables which have affected the results in different ways. For the most part, it has always been seen as a negative factor for ESL students to constantly associate in mono-cultural groups. 58 This attitude, however, is indeed changing as i t becomes more acceptable for learners to mix wi th students from the same cul tural background. Research has shown that belonging to a viable social network assists in leading the learners to a more positive state of well-being. In addition, the support students receive from their mono-cultural groups m a y work as a buffer against the difficulties of culture shock which has direct reflections in the language classroom. W i t h the Japanese learners there are of course other factors aside from culture shock and the existence of social bonds which can affect language behaviour outside and inside of the classroom. A s mentioned i n the preceeding chapter, many cul tural characteristics exist which are deeply ingrained into the learners ' psyches. This study has shown that factors such as: peer pressure to conform, int imidation from other students, a negative host family situation, role shock, and sex of the instructor can have a negative effect on participation wi th in the classroom wal ls . E a c h learner, of course, possesses a unique personality and some are natura l ly more extraverted than others. A s a result, they are the ones who make more of an effort to utilize the target language outside of the classroom. E v e n though extraverted, some students m a y hold back wi th in the classroom for various reasons, not want ing to stand out more than necessary. B. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Before closing, some limitations of the study should be mentioned. F i r s t , the classroom observation focused only on the quantitative use of the target language and not on qualitative usage. Simple utterances received the same score as longer, more complex ones. Specifically, i t was the quantity and not the 59 quality of the utterances which was recorded. Future research could perhaps analyze the length, complexity and quality of utterances before correlating them with LCP and language achievement scores, gender, and overall GPA. Second, the results of this study may not be generalizable to other classrooms in which English is being taught as the target language. The subjects for this study were young adults learning in an intensive ESL setting. Not only were they immersed in the target language at school but in their homestay situations as well. Moreover, the subjects were foreign students in Canada for a temporary period of time only and this may have had an effect on the study. Finally, there may be some objections to the use of self-report data, as were obtained by the LCP. The LCP quantifies the learner's motivation and the extent of contact with the second language (potential practice opportunities) outside of the regular language class. Numerical values are obtained in response to variously weighted questions and these are' only approximate measures and should be interpeted as such. Ideally, we should observe second language learners continuously as they interact outside of the classroom, and not rely solely on how they report they interact. The researcher did, however, conduct unstructured interviews with the subjects to verify the data from the self-report questionnaires. One reason for this was to determine if the learners were experiencing culture shock at the time they filled out the forms and simply to see how the subjects were coping with living in a foreign environment. Moreover, the range of LCP scores was not taken into consideration in the analysis. For example, a student who went from 25 on LCP1 to 26 on LCP2 was considered to have increased his English language contact as was a student who went from 24 to 35. Future research could consider the range of 60 increased Eng l i sh language contact as wel l when correlating wi th other variables. A l l of the above factors do, however, l imi t the power of analysis to some degree. C. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESEARCH Bear ing in mind the limitations stated above, certain tentative conclusions m a y be d rawn. This research has shown that there exists a positive association between the use of the target language outside and inside of the classroom wi th high academic achievement i n language and academic subject matter. Moreover, the opposite was also il lustrated wi th low participation in class and community and low academic achievement in language and academic subject matter. A qualitative examinat ion was conducted of . h igh participants and achievers versus low participants and achievers. The case studies reinforced the quantitative findings and il lustrated possible reasons for gender differences. There were also indications that low participants and achievers were undergoing problems and possibly culture shock. The questions that may be raised at this point would natural ly be concerned wi th how this research has an effect on E S L classes. W i t h this in mind a few cautious statements w i l l be made concerning the implications of this study for the E S L classroom. Since the high exploitation of practice opportunities outside of the classroom appears to be the key to success in this study it becomes essential for educators to assist the learners in doing this. Not only is it helpful for the language learners to be told about how to utilize the target language outside of the classroom, it is perhaps more helpful i f they are in fact shown how to do 61 this. Instructors should try to promote outside of classroom language contact as a means of enriching their students' sojourns in the host country. As the formation of bonds takes time, the ESL teacher must be patient and let the students form the bonds naturally and spontaneously. To help the process, many college and university campuses operate peer programmes or something similar which match foreign students with host nationals who have similar likes and interests. Quite often the counterparts form close and longlasting friendships. In addition, these bonds usually introduce foreign students to an entirely new network of host-nationals. Thus, expanding their networks even further. Other institutions offer homestays and volunteer work placements for students as a means of getting the learners out into the community. As this study shows, exposure to the target language outside of class assists student performance in the classroom. Most foreign students who have come here to learn English will undoubtedly go through an adjustment period of some sort depending' on the length of the sojourn. It is quite natural for students to want to associate with others who have the same background, dialect, sense of humour and other cultural similarities and this should not be discouraged. Those networks should, however, be broadened to a bi- or multi-cultural network to enable the students to form English speaking contacts outside of their mono-cultural groups. As this research has shown, those students with a more extensive English language network outside of the classroom were also the ones who performed better in language and academic subject matter evaluation and had received a high score on their pro-term language proficiency assessment. If there is significant contact with a host national network there will 62 assuredly be a large amount of informal language learning taking place. D'Anglejan (1978) states, however, that there is reason to believe that simply rubbing shoulders with native speakers is not sufficient — learners must receive an input of the target language directed to them by concerned native speakers. This input must also be embedded in a context of social interaction. Therefore, the formation of bonds with native speakers will indeed provide more than strictly utilitarian based discourse. This study has focused on a mono-cultural group of subjects and throughout it became apparent that many of the cultural norms of the Japanese learners were affecting the results in various ways. For those ESL instructors uninitiated to the complexities of the Japanese culture, an entire group of Japanese learners may prove to be a challenge. To this end, it would be beneficial for teachers if they possess some background knowledge of the culture or cultures they are teaching. It must also be emphasized that social networks and support groups are not enough to help students through the stages of acculturation, increased language learning, and achievement. In addition, teachers may want to incorporate cross-cultural material into their lessons to help ease the adjustment process. The inclusion of lessons on cross-cultural encounters would allow students to understand what they are experiencing. The role of the ESL instructor amongst all of this cultural upheaval is an extremely diversified one. For many students their ESL instructor is often their first and only contact with the majority host culture. Therefore, it is essential the instructor take on the role of cultural mediator in order to ease the students into the host culture and to enable them to adapt to their classroom 63 and community situations. This will hopefully broaden their networks which may be reflected positively in the classroom. The task of the cultural mediator is principally to form a link between cultures. In particular, Bochner (1981) states that mediating persons bridge cultural gaps by introducing, translating, representing and reconciling the respective groups to each other. In doing this, the ESL teacher, for example, can create opportunities for bi- and multi-cultural exchanges. Also, if students and teachers develop a multicultural orientation they can act as guides and counsellors for the new sojourners. As Furnham (1982) explains, the quality of learning a new culture is dependent on the experiences a person has in it, especially at the beginning of the visit. If sojourners are carefully introduced into a new society by sympathetic individuals, the evidence indicates that they may encounter fewer problems than if they are left to fend for themselves. (Selltiz and Cook, 1962). Not all students, however, will need assistance. Taft (1981) states that large individual differences exist in the ability of people to cope with new environments. Demographic and personality variables such as age, sex, cognitive ability, socioeconomic class, and education may all be relevant. Therefore, ESL instructors must not expect ail of their students to experience the same problems. All students possess unique personalities and will each react differently to their new environment, making varying amounts of language contact outside of the classroom. Contact between culturally diverse individuals has an ancient tradition and many individuals tend to forget that cross-cultural interchange is as old as recorded history. Now more than ever before there is a surge in the number of 64 foreign students coming to Canada to study English. As a result of this influx, ESL teachers need to be aware of the positive association between participation in the community and the classroom in order to best assist their students. Moreover, instructors should be cognizant of the positive relation between both of these factors and measures of language achievement. In addition, this study has shown that sex must be considered as a variable in regards to participation in class, specifically with Japanese learners. There is also evidence in this study that measures of participation in class and in the community relate not only to language achievement but to academic achievement more generally. Finally, as the research indicates, a positive relationship exists between the use " of English in the community with participation and language achievement. Therefore, learners must be made aware of this in order to receive the maximum benefit from their language study. Language instructors should promote participation in the community and encourage their students to make a strong effort to develop an English language network outside of the classroom. As this research has proven, the existence of extensive bi- or multi-cultural networks offers many rewards for language learners within and outside of the ESL classroom. FOOTNOTES 1. Sullivan, M.W. (1981). "The Mutual Adaptation of Cultural Outsiders and Insiders," The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Cultures, (Edited by Bochner, S.) 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Applications of Psycholinguistic Research to the Classroom, Methodology in TESOL: A Book Readings, (edited by Long, M. and Richards, J.), Newbury House, New York. 68 Koike, I. (1978). English Language Teaching Policies in Japan: Past, Present, and Future in I. Koike et al. (Eds.), The Teaching of English in Japan, pp. 3-14, Eichosa, Tokyo. LaForge, P. (1974). Community Language Learning: Findings based on three  years of research in Japan (1971-1974), U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, D.C. Lambert, W. (1972). A Social Psychology of Bilingualism, Language, Psychology  and Culture, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. Levine, D. and M. Adelman (1982). Beyond Language: Intercultural  Communication for English as a Second Language, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliff's, New Jersey. Mendenhall, W. (1983). Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Duxbury Press, Boston, Mass. Milroy, L. (1980). Language and Social Networks, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Mizutani, O. (1981). Japanese: The Spoken Language in Japanese Life, The Japan Times Ltd., Tokyo. Moloney, J. (1954). Understanding the Japanese Mind, Charles E. Tuttle, Tokyo. Naiman et al. (1978). The Good Language Learner, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Oberg, K. " (1960). Culture Shock: adjustment to new cultural environments, Practical Anthropology, _7, 177-82. Reischauer, E. (1977). The Japanese, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Reiss, M. (1985). The good language learner: another look, The Canadian Modern  Language Review, 41, 3, 511-23. Rubin, J. (1975). What the "Good Language Learner" can teach us, TESOL  Quarterly, _9, 1, 41-51. Schumann, J. (1975). Affective Factors and the Problem of Age in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning, 25, 2, 209-235. Schumann, J. (1976). Second Language Acquisition and the Pidginization Hypotheses, Language Learning, 26, 2, 391-408. Schumann, J. (1976). Social Distance as a Factor in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning, 26, 1, 135-143. 69 Schumann, J. (1978). Social and psychological factors in second language acquisition, in Richards, J. (ed.), Understanding Second and Foreign  Language Learning: Issues and Approaches, Newbury House. Seliger, H. (1977). Does practice make perfect?: a study of interaction patterns and L2 competence, Language Learning, 27, 2, 263-278. Seliger, H. (1983). Learner interaction in the classroom and its effect on language acquisition, in Seliger, H. and Long, M. (eds.), Classroom  Oriented Research in Second Language Acquisition, Newbury House. Selltiz, C. and S. Cook (1962). Factors influencing attitudes of foreign students towards the host country, Journal of Social Issues, 18, 1, 7-23. Skipper, W. (1988). The context of English language education in Japan and  some strategies for native speakers teaching "false beginners" and  "communicatively incompetent intermediates," Unpublished major paper, The Universtiy of British Columbia. Smalley, W. (1963). Culture Shock, language shock, and the shock of self-discovery, Practical Anthropology, 10, 49-56. Sullivan, M. (1981). The Mutual Adaptation of Cultural Outsiders and Insiders, The Mediating Person: Bridges Between Cultures, (edited by Bochner, S.) Schenkman, Cambridge, Mass. Taft, R. (1981). The role and personality of the mediator, Ibid. APPENDIX A CONSENT FORM 70 71 INFORMED CONSENT I, , agree to participate i n the study conducted by James E l l i s . I understand that this w i l l include completing the Language Contact Questionnaire which w i l l take up about twenty minutes of m y own time. I a m aware that m y identity w i l l remain confidential at a l l times as the researcher w i l l not use any names in his study. In addition, I am assured that no one, aside from the researcher, w i l l have access to the questionnaire. I m a y refuse to participate or wi thdraw from the study at any time. I a m aware that such an action w i l l not influence m y class standing as all data is kept confidential. The researcher has informed me that he w i l l make a photocopy of this consent form for himself and wi l l return the original to me wi th the questionnaire. signature date APPENDIX B LANGUAGE CONTACT PROFILE 72 LANGUAGE CONTACT PROFILE 73 Name . About how much time do you spend speaking English outside of class every day? (circle one) a. none = 0 b. very little (directions, shopping, etc.) = 1 c. occasionally (with friends, host family, etc.) = 2 d. most of the time = 3 How well do you think you speak English now? a. poorly b. fair c. good d. very good e. excellent (Evaluator, do you agree of disagree with student's evaluation?) When you have homework in English do you a. do it as soon as you can = 4 b. do it if you find the time = 3 c. do it at the last possible moment = 2 d. do it but turn it in late = 1 e. none of these During English classes do you a. have a tendency to daydream about your country = 0 b. have to force yourself to listen to the lesson = 0 c. listen at all times, even when it's not your turn = 4 d. listen when it's your turn but do other things when it's not = 2 Do you watch television programmes in English? a. as often as you can = 3 b. once in awhile = 2 c. not very often = 1 d. never = 0 e. prefer watching programmes in your native language. Otherwise you do not watch television at all = 0 If you have a choice between listening to a radio programme in your native language or in English you a. prefer English = 3 b. sometimes listen to the English programmes and sometimes to those in your language = 2 c. would not listen to the English programmes = 0 74 8. List your three closest friends in Vancouver. name of friend language usually spoken with friend a. • : : : b. : • -(Score: 3 points for each friend with whom English is used, 0 points for language other than English) List the three English speaking Canadians that you speak English with the most. In what capacity do you know them? (e.g., teacher, busdriver, friend, neighbor, host-mother/father etc., storeclerk, etc.) name of Canadian relationship a. — ;  b. (Score: friend = 2 points, host-family = 2 points, teacher = 1 point, other formal relationships such as busdriver, dentist, clerk, etc. = 1) 10. Do you spend time trying to improve your English outside of class? How? (list all activities, e.g., watching t.v., reading, writing, speaking with friends, going to movies, etc.) About how much time each day for each activity? a. one hour = 1 b. two hours — 2 c. three hours = 3 (Score: 4 points for each active or productive activity, 2 points for each passive or receptive activity. Multiply each of these by the amount of time .spent in this activity per day; add up.) 11. In your opinion, what is the best way to improve your English speaking skills? What do you do to achieve this? APPENDIX C COMPARISONS OF LCP SCORES, TOEFL, GPA, PARTICIPATION, AND PARTICIPATON RANKINGS 75 76 Comparison of Language Contact Profile Scores Student L C P 1 L C P 2 Change 1 25 26 + 2 32 37 + 3 20 20 0 4 35 32 — 5 29 29 0 6 30 38 + 7 24 23 — 8 29 31 + 9 23 20 — 10 32 35 + 11 23 22 — 12 19 26 + 13 36 35 — 14 23 33 + 15 11 14 + 16 21 19 — 17 24 35 + 18 30 22 — -19 24 27 + 20 20 23 + 21 32 36 + 22 37 15 — 23 29 37 + 24 31 33 + 25 15 30 + 26 32 33 + 27 11 13 + 28 17 18 + 29 18 13 — 30 15 25 + 31 21 24 + 32 23 23 0 Results: + = 20 - = 9 0 = 3 According to the questionnaire results, 63% of the students increased their Engl i sh language contact dur ing the te rm, 28% decreased and 9% showed no change whatsoever. 77 Comparison of TOEFL and LCP (Average) Scores Student TOEFL LCP 1 410 25.5 2 457 34.5 3 423 20.0 4 397 33.5 5 430 29.0 6 390 34.0 7 373 23.5 8 440 30.0 9 407 21.5 10 487 33.5 11 390 22.5 12 383 22.5 13 470 35.5 14 393 28.0 15 400 12.5 16 433 20.0 17 390 29.5 18 390 26.0 19 480 25.5 20 397 21.5 21 450 34.0 22 420 26.0 23 413 33.0 24 440 32.0 25 427 22.5 26 447 32.5 27 - 420 12.0 28 393 17.5 29 407 15.5 30 397 20.0 31 450 22.5 32 387 23.0 RESULTS: - 63% of all the students received a score of 400 or above on the TOEFL exam in July 1988. 60% of those same students obtained 25 - 40 as their average LCP score and 40% received an LCP score of 0 - 24.5. - 37% of all the students received a score of 0 - 399 on the TOEFL exam. 42% of that group obtained a score of 25 - 40 on their LCP and 58% received an LCP score of 0 - 24.5. 78 - TOTALS: - 37% of all the students received a score of 400 or above on the TOEFL and a score of 25 or above on their combined LCPs. - 25% of all the students received a score of 400 or above on the TOEFL and a score below 25 on their LCP. - 16% of all the students received a score below 400 on the TOEFL and a score of 25 or above on the LCP. - 22% of all the students received a score below 400 on the TOEFL and a score below 25 on the LCP. - most of the students who have a high LCP score did well (above 400) on their TOEFL exam 79 Comparison of LCP and Grade Point Average (GPA) Student LCP GPA 1 25.5 3.00 2 34.5 3.80 3 20.0 3.00 4 33.5 3.60 5 29.0 3.30 6 34.0 2.90 7 23.5 2.60 8 30.0 2.40 9 21.5 2.80 10 33.5 3.70 11 22.5 2.80 12 22.5 2.00 13 35.5 3.40 14 28.0 2.80 15 12.5 2.60 16 20.0 2.30 17 29.5 3.40 18 26.0 3.10 19 25.5 3.70 20 21.5 2.90 21 34.0 3.70 22 26.0 2.50 23 33.0 3.00 24 32.0 3.20 25 22.5 3.00 26 32.5 3.40 27 12.0 2.40 28 17.5 2.00 29 15.5 2.40 30 20.0 2.50 31 22.5 3.40 32 23.0 2.60 RESULTS: - 53% (17) of the students received an average score of 25-40 on their LCPs. 76% (13) of those students received a GPA of 3.00 - 4.00. 24% (4) received a GPA of 0 - 2.99. - 47% (15) of the students received an average LCP score of 0 24.5. 20% (3) of those students received a GPA of 3.00 4.00. 80% (12) received a GPA of 0 - 2.99. * It appears from the data that students with a higher LCP average score did better academically than those with a lower LCP score. 80 Comparison of LCP and Participation Student LCP Participation (high or low) 1 25.5 H 2 34.5 H 3 20.0 L 4 33.5 H 5 29.0 L 6 34.0 H 7 23.5 L 8 30.0 L 9 21.5 L 10 33.5 H 11 22.5 L 12 22.5 L 13 35.5 H 14 28.0 H 15 12.5 L 16 20.0 L 17 29.5 H 18 26.0 H 19 25.5 H 20 21.5 H 21 34.0 H 22 26.0 H 23 33.0 L 24 32.0 L 25 22.5 L 26 32.5 H 27 12.0 H 28 17.5 L 29 15.5 L 30 20.0 L 31 22.5 H 32 23.0 L RESULTS: - 53% (17) of all the students received an LCP score of 25 40. 76% of those students were HIGs in the classroom, 24% (4) were LIGs. - 47% (15) of all the students received an LCP score of 0 24.5. 20% (3) of those students were HIGs and 80% (12) were LIGs. 81 - In total 41% of the students received a high LCP score and were HIGs. 12.5% received a high LCP and were LIGs. 9% received a low LCP score and were HIGs. 37.5% received a low LCP score and were LIGs. - The emergent pattern illustrates that the majority of students received a high LCP score and that majority also participated the most in the classroom. 82 Comparison of TOEFL Score and Participation Student TOEFL Participation (high or low) 1 410 H 2 457 H 3 423 L 4 397 H 5 430 L 6 390 H 7 373 L 8 440 L 9 407 L 10 487 H 11 390 L 12 383 L 13 470 H 14 393 H 15 400 L 16 433 L 17 390 H 18 390 H 19 480 H 20 397 H 21 450 H 22 420 H 23 413 L 24 440 L 25 427 L 26 447 H 27 420 H 28 393 L 29 407 L 30 397 L 31 450 H 32 387 L RESULTS: TOEFL: 400 + H = 10 (31%) L = 10 (31%) -400 H = 6 (19%) L = 6 (19%) - There is categories. no significant pattern present here. The data is split evenly in all 83 Comparison of Observer's and Instructor's Participation Rankings Participation Rankings Instructor's Student Observer's High Low 1 H 2 3 2 H 5 0 3 L 0 5 4 H 5 0 5 L 2 3 6 H 5 0 7 L 1 4 8 L 0 5 9 L 1 4 10 H 5 0 11 L 0 5 12 L 1 4 13 H 1 4 14 H 3. 2 15 L 0 5 16 L 0 5 17 H 5 0 18 H 5 0 19 H 2 3 20 H 3 2 21 H 5 0 22 H 4 1 23 L 0 5 24 L 2 3 25 L 1 4 26 H 4 1 27 H 2 3 28 L 0 5 29 L 0 5 30 L 0 5 31 H 5 0 32 L 2 3 A percentage agreement shows 88% agreement amongst the raters. 


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