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The honourable estate : marital advice in England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Parker, Shannon Kathleen 1987

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THE HONOURABLE ESTATE: MARITAL ADVICE IN ENGLAND DURING THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES By SHANNON KATHLEEN PARKER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 M.Ed. f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS MASTER PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of H i s t o r y We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1987 © S h a n n o n Kathleen Parker, 1987 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of History The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1 Y 3 Date Oct. 7, 1987 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s paper i s t o analyze advice about marriage w r i t t e n i n England d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . The f i r s t chapter focuses on m a r i t a l counsel contained i n l e t t e r s , the second on advic e o f f e r e d by P r o t e s t a n t clergymen, and the t h i r d on v a r i o u s kinds of popular l i t e r a t u r e which d i s c u s s e d marriage and women. The contents of the works are d e s c r i b e d , as i s the h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y context i n which they were w r i t t e n . Although the form, purpose, and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the m a r i t a l counsel v a r i e s , the advice i t s e l f i s remarkably c o n s i s t e n t . The c e n t r a l concern of the authors i s how a man can s e l e c t a good w i f e and how the woman should comport h e r s e l f a f t e r marriage; o n l y the works w r i t t e n by c l e r i c s d e s c r i b e the husband's m a r i t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l marriage would r e s u l t i f the man chose h i s wife w i s e l y and i f , once chosen, the woman conformed t o h i s and s o c i e t y ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s . However, advice t e l l s us onl y what people were s a y i n g , not what they were doing; i t i s p r e s c r i p t i v e , not d e s c r i p t i v e . Moreover, when examining works which d e a l t with wedlock, one becomes aware of the e s s e n t i a l l y l i t e r a r y nature of much of the counsel—many authors simply repeated or expanded on c l i c h e s . T h e i r words do not provide us with i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own thoughts or matrimonial r e l a t i o n s , but inform us as to the accepted, c o n v e n t i o n a l mode of d i s c u s s i n g marriage d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v INTRODUCTION i : CHAPTER I LETTERS OF ADVICE 3 II THE PROTESTANT VIEW OF MARRIAGE 32 I I I WOMEN AND MARRIAGE 61 CONCLUSION 104 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Pa r t A Primary Sources I l l Pa r t B Secondary Sources 120 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank P r o f e s s o r Murray Tolmie f o r h i s advice and p a t i e n c e ; and express my g r a t i t u d e to my husband, mother and s i s t e r f o r t h e i r u n f a i l i n g support, c o n f i d e n c e , and a s s i s t a n c e . 1 INTRODUCTION The E a r l y Modern Era was a d i d a c t i c age i n England: works of advice on e v e r y t h i n g from animal-husbandry to e d u c a t i o n to p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n p r o l i f e r a t e d . In such a complex time, the reasons f o r t h i s phenomenon were undoubtedly complex: t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , and economic realms may have engendered an i n s e c u r e populace who sought c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e i r newly-emerging v a l u e s ; the r i s e i n l i t e r a c y and the e x p l o s i o n of the p u b l i s h i n g i n d u s t r y gave many access t o books which they may have hoped would h e l p them improve t h e i r l o t ; o r , the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y i t s e l f may have c r e a t e d a vogue f o r a d v i s o r y l i t e r a t u r e . Many works of t h i s type contained counsel on marriage. H i s t o r i a n s have suggested t h a t t h i s concern with matrimony was unique to P r o t e s t a n t c o u n t r i e s , t h a t the new f a i t h p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis on c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s and domestic l i f e than had the o l d , and t h a t the E n g l i s h were p a r t i c u l a r l y absorbed i n t h i s s u b j e c t . The purpose of t h i s study i s t o examine and analyze a d v i c e concerning marriage which was w r i t t e n i n England d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . Although l i t e r a r y evidence of t h i s k i nd has o f t e n been used by s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n s t o i l l u s t r a t e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , i t has been employed i n a random f a s h i o n and has not been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e d or c a t e g o r i z e d . Most h i s t o r i a n s simply c i t e a few of the better-known examples of t h i s type of w r i t i n g without s t u d y i n g 2 s i g n i f i c a n t numbers or a t t e m p t i n g t o e v a l u a t e i n d i v i d u a l works w i t h i n t h e i r own c o n t e x t . T h i s work w i l l s u r v e y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s o u r c e s which c o n t a i n e d m a r i t a l c o u n s e l , s p e c i f i c a l l y l e t t e r s o f a d v i c e , m a r r i a g e manuals, and s e v e r a l genres of l i t e r a t u r e w hich d i s c u s s e d women and m a r r i a g e , i n o r d e r not o n l y t o determine t h e c o n t e n t s of such works, but t o p l a c e them i n a h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y c o n t e x t . 3 CHAPTER I LETTERS OF ADVICE When i t shall please God to bring thee to man's estate, use great providence and circumspection in the choice of thy wife, for from thence may spring a l l thy future good or i l l ; and i t is an action like a stratagem in war where man can err but once. Lord Burghley Letters of advice from age to youth, f a i r l y rare in England during the sixteenth century, became, with the rise in literacy and the expansion of the publishing trade, increasingly common in the seventeenth. Usually written by a father to his son, these epistles contained counsel on a variety of topics: education, religion, finances, deportment, po l i t i c s , and personal relations, the most important of which was, of course, marriage.''' While these letters are a valuable resource in ascertaining assumptions and values about matrimony, the scholar must be wary of taking what is only a very small part of the picture for the whole. Advice about marriage existed in many forms; letters are simply one among the many, not necessarily more significant or representative. To assume that "Contemporary attitudes about the purposes of 2 marriage are best revealed in the 'Letter of advice to a son'" is to overlook the limitations of literary sources such as these. The letters described in this chapter differ in kind: some are epistles that appear to have been written for a specific 4 i n d i v i d u a l which were subsequently p u b l i s h e d , and others are works which use the form of a p r i v a t e l e t t e r , but were o b v i o u s l y intended f o r wider c i r c u l a t i o n . Thus, the authors' i n t e n t i o n s d i f f e r e d and comparison of the works i s d i f f i c u l t . Secondly, many of the i d i v i d u a l s whose l e t t e r s have come down to us were e x c e p t i o n a l ; t o assume t h a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s were t y p i c a l when t h e i r l i v e s were not, i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y . That a s p e c i f i c work was popular does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t those who read i t shared the w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n s . Readers may have s t u d i e d the works of the famous out of c u r i o s i t y or to gain i n s i g h t i n t o the authors' c h a r a c t e r s . Moreover, s i n c e the a d v i s o r s were a f f e c t i n g a p a r e n t a l r o l e , the l e t t e r s i n d i c a t e o n l y what age thought i t f i t to say to youth. To assume t h a t these sources d e s c r i b e what men sought i n marriage i s to miss the p o i n t ; they t e l l o n l y what o l d men thought young men should seek. F i n a l l y , the m a j o r i t y of these l e t t e r s were w r i t t e n by men of the gentry or n o b i l i t y f o r youths of the same c l a s s e s ; what are expressed are the views of an e l i t e , masculine m i n o r i t y . S i x t e e n t h century examples of m a r i t a l advice i n e p i s t o l a r y form are few. One of the most charming and o r i g i n a l came from the pen of S i r Thomas More who, i n L a t i n v e r s e , c o u n s e l l e d a f r i e n d on the q u a l i t i e s t o look f o r i n a w i f e . He cautioned a g a i n s t wedding f o r money or beauty, both of which would l e a d to d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , and advised (somewhat s u r p r i s i n g l y s i n c e some h i s t o r i a n s would have us b e l i e v e t h a t i t p l a y e d no p a r t i n 5 the marriages of the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s ) ^ to marry f o r l o v e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he i n s t r u c t e d h i s correspondent t o observe h i s intended's parents, e s p e c i a l l y the mother, to f i n d out about her c h a r a c t e r , and a l s o to e v a l u a t e the maid's own p e r s o n a l i t y , making sure she was calm, modest, and mild-mannered. More's advice d i f f e r e d from other counsel and r e f l e c t e d h i s Humanist val u e s i n t h a t he s t r o n g l y advocated marrying an educated woman. "Happy i s the woman whose educa t i o n permits her to d e r i v e from the best of a n c i e n t works the p r i n c i p l e s which confer a b l e s s i n g on l i f e , " he wrote. "Armed with t h i s l e a r n i n g , she would not y i e l d t o p r i d e i n 4 p r o s p e r i t y , nor to g r i e f i n d i s t r e s s . " She would be a b l e to teach c h i l d r e n and her i n t e l l i g e n t c o n v e r s a t i o n would be a comfort and joy to her husband. The importance of l o v e i n marriage was a l s o emphasized by S i r Thomas Wyatt and Thomas Howard, f o u r t h Duke of N o r f o l k . Moreover, although the poet spoke of the husband ' r u l i n g ' h i s w i f e and household, h i s words imply a more e q u i t a b l e r e l a t i o n -s h i p than i s u s u a l l y thought to have e x i s t e d between spouses d u r i n g the p e r i o d : Love w e l l , and agree with your w i f e ; f o r where i s n o i s e and debate i n the house there i s unquiet d w e l l i n g ; and much more, where i t i s i n one bed. Frame w e l l y o u r s e l f to l o v e and r u l e w e l l and h o n e s t l y your wife as your f e l l o w , and she s h a l l l o v e and reverence you as her head. Such as you are unto her, such s h a l l she be unto y o u . 5 N o r f o l k ' s i s one of the many ' p r i s o n ' l e t t e r s r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s chapter. Although i t seems to have been a common 6 prac t i ce for those awaiting execution to write a f i n a l l e t t e r of advice to the i r ch i l d ren , the ep i s t l e s themselves vary great ly in tone and content. The Duke's was extremely personal; he referred to each of h is ch i ldren i nd i v i dua l l y and obviously intended i t for the i r eyes alone. His e ldest son, already married, was advised to love and cher ish his wi fe, for her strength and resolve would be a great comfort in the troubled times ahead. "Where love i s not between the husband and the w i fe , " wrote the pr i soner, "there God doth not prosper." Writ ing to h is second son, who would become a ward of the Court upon h is f a the r ' s execution, the Duke expressed the hope that he would be able to buy his own wardship (which would allow him to make his own match) and would marry the heiress Mary Dacres. However, the father did not urge h is son to go against h is own i n c l i n a t i o n , but merely pointed out the advantage of having a wealthy br ide : I w i l l not advise you otherways than yourse l f when you are of f i t years sha l l think good, but th i s assure yourse l f , i t w i l l be good augmentation to your small l i v i n g , considering how changeable the world groweth to be.g More, Wyatt, and Norfolk expressed pos i t i ve views about women and marriage; Henry Percy, ninth Ear l of Northumberland, on the other hand, despised women and detested matrimony. The f i r s t part of h i s lengthy ep i s t l e to h is son was composed in 1595 or 1596, the second in 1609 when the author was imprisoned g for h i s involvement in the Gunpowder P lot . The E a r l ' s major 7 concern was t h a t h i s son not allow h i s w i f e to impoverish the e s t a t e . "Never," he wrote, " s u f f e r your w i f e to have power i n the manage of your a f f a i r s . " 1 0 What f o l l o w e d was a b i t t e r d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t women i n general and h i s own wife i n p a r t i c u l a r . Although warning of the tedium and ag g r a v a t i o n of marriage, Northumberland o b v i o u s l y d i d not consider the s i n g l e l i f e a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e to one of h i s son's s t a t u s , but advi s e d him to marry a woman f a i r i n mind and body who c o u l d be maintained at her own expense and had eminent connections which would b e n e f i t husband and c h i l d r e n . 1 1 The e f f i c a c y of these i n s t r u c t i o n s must have seemed q u e s t i o n a b l e to the h e i r , s i n c e t h i s was p r e c i s e l y the path the E a r l h i m s e l f had taken with 12 d i s a s t r o u s r e s u l t s . Northumberland r e i t e r a t e d t h a t h i s son allo w h i s wif e no say i n f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s s i n c e women were, by 13 nature, l a z y , d e c e i t f u l , s l y s p e n d t h r i f t s . Personal l e t t e r s such as these would have had an impact only on the r e c i p i e n t and, perhaps, a small c i r c l e of f r i e n d s . An a d v i s o r y e p i s t l e by Lord Burghley to h i s son Robert C e c i l , however, may have been intended from the f i r s t f o r a l a r g e r audience. Thought to be composed i n 1586, i t was c i r c u l a t e d w i d e l y i n manuscript form b e f o r e i t was p u b l i s h e d i n 1617 under the t i t l e C e r t a i n e p r e c e p t s or d i r e c t i o n s f o r the w e l l o r d e r i n g  of a man's l i f e . 1 4 L a t e r e d i t i o n s were i s s u e d i n 1618, 1636, and 1637. Worldly and c y n i c a l as most of Burghley's advice was, h i s counsel on marriage was f a i r l y p e d e s t r i a n . Matrimony was of 8 paramount importance, he t o l d h i s son, f o r from the choice of a wi f e would s p r i n g " a l l thy f u t u r e good or i l l ; and i t i s an a c t i o n l i k e a stratagem i n war where man can e r r but o n c e . " 1 5 Robert was advised not to s a c r i f i c e wealth f o r g e n t i l i t y , but n e i t h e r to wed a "base and uncomely c r e a t u r e a l t o g e t h e r f o r w e a l t h . " 1 6 He was to i n q u i r e i n t o the d i s p o s i t i o n of the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e and assess the c h a r a c t e r of her f a m i l y . 1 7 Burghley's Precepts was an i n f l u e n t i a l work; not only d i d other w r i t e r s i m i t a t e or r e f e r to i t , some l i f t e d i t i n i t s 18 e n t i r e t y and claimed i t as t h e i r own. T h i s i n d i c a t e s a change i n the nature of a d v i c e - g i v i n g : what f o r m e r l y had been a p r i v a t e , p e r s o n a l exchange was becoming a p u b l i c , c o n v e n t i o n a l one. More l e t t e r s of advice were p u b l i s h e d ; even those which were not, r e f l e c t e d the i n f l u e n c e of p r i n t e d works and contained l i t t l e o r i g i n a l c o u n s e l . I t seems t o have become t r a d i t i o n a l f o r gentlemen t o o f f e r 'words of wisdom' t o youths. The l e t t e r of advice was e v o l v i n g i n t o a l i t e r a r y genre, an e v o l u t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by the p o p u l a r i t y of the l e t t e r s of 19 Burghley and S i r Henry Sidney and e s p e c i a l l y The B a s i l i k o n Doron of King James. The B a s i l i k o n Doron, addressed t o the King's h e i r P r i n c e Henry, was composed i n 1598. Supposedly, the work was not intended f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , but i n 1599 seven c o p i e s were p r i n t e d and given to t r u s t e d s e r v a n t s . F a l s e c o p i e s were c i r c u l a t e d , 20 so James allowed h i s t r e a t i s e to be made p u b l i c i n 1603. T h i s may w e l l be t r u e ; however, many authors of t h i s time adopted a s i m i l a r ' r e l u c t a n t ' pose. Whatever the case, the 9 K i n g ' s consent t o t h e p u b l i c a t i o n came a t an opportune t i m e . S i x e d i t i o n s were p u b l i s h e d i n t h e year of James' a c c e s s i o n , two t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . The p o p u l a r i t y of t h e work was p r o b a b l y due as much t o t h e c u r i o s i t y which t h e E n g l i s h f e l t about t h e i r new monarch as t o i t s i n t r i n s i c m e r i t s . The K i n g ' s book resembled t h e m e d i e v a l l o o k i n g - g l a s s f o r p r i n c e s and c o n t a i n e d a p o r t r a i t of a v i r t u o u s r u l e r , c o u n s e l about g o v e r n i n g , and d e s c r i p t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s , as w e l l as a d v i c e about m a r r i a g e . A g o d l y and v i r t u o u s w i f e , James w r o t e , was one of l i f e ' s c h i e f b l e s s i n g s , " f o r she must be n e a r e r unto you, t h a n any o t h e r company, b e i n g 21 f l e s h of your f l e s h , and bone of your bone." He admonished h i s son t o keep h i m s e l f " c l e a n and u n p o l l u t e d " b e f o r e m a r r i a g e and d w e l t , a t c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h , on t h e e v i l s o f 22 f o r n i c a t i o n . James' reasons f o r t h i s s t a n c e were r e l i g i o u s and p r a c t i c a l : t o obey God's commandment and t o f o r e s t a l l d i s a s t e r s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e which had b e f a l l e n h i s g r a n d f a t h e r i n punishment f o r h i s i n c o n s t a n c y . M a r r i a g e was o r d a i n e d f o r t h r e e p u r p o s e s : t h e " s t a y i n g of l u s t [ t h e ] p r o c r e a t i o n of c h i l d r e n , and t h a t man s h o u l d by h i s w i f e get a h e l p e r l i k e 23 h i m s e l f . " T h e r e f o r e , a man s h o u l d marry young t o quench t h e l u s t of y o u t h and s h o u l d , as f a r as p o s s i b l e , a s c e r t a i n t h a t h i s b r i d e was c a p a b l e of b e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . James d e s c r i b e d t h r e e a s s e t s o f a w i f e w h i c h , a l t h o u g h not t h e p r i n c i p a l reasons t o wed, would h e l p ensure a happy u n i o n : b e a u t y , r i c h e s , and p o w e r f u l a l l i a n c e s . The f i r s t would i n c r e a s e a husband's l o v e , 2 ^ and t h e o t h e r s ensure t h a t t h e p r i n c e ' s w i f e be a h e l p to h im. The k ing wished h i s son t o marry w i t h i n h i s r e l i g i o n , a l though he r e c o g n i z e d the d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s , s i n c e few monarchs at the t ime were P r o t e s t a n t . J He a l s o advocated mar ry ing one of h i gh rank, and, i n what seemed an obv ious c a u t i o n but one seldom s t a t e d , t ha t the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e not be s u s c e p t i b l e to h e r e d i t a r y i l l n e s s e s , e i t h e r p h y s i c a l or m e n t a l : That she [should] be of a whole and c l e a n r a c e , not s u b j e c t t o the h e r e d i t a r y s i c k n e s s e s , whether of the sou l or the body. For i f a man w i l l be c a r e f u l to breed horses and dogs of good k i n d s ; how much more c a r e f u l , shou ld he be, f o r the breed of h i s own l o i n s ? / D The K i n g ' s a d v i c e about marr iage a l s o i n c l u d e d i deas about the husband ' s d u t i e s . R e f e r r i n g t o the S c r i p t u r e s , he reminded h i s son t h a t i t was the man's p a r t to command, the woman's t o obey i n a l l t h i n g s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t a l l o w i n g women to meddle i n p o l i t i c s and a d v i s e d h i s son to choose h i s w i f e ' s companions c a r e f u l l y . And f i n a l l y , he admonished t h a t husband and w i f e shou ld never be angry at the same t i m e , but the man shou ld c o n t r o l h i s p a s s i o n u n t i l reason 27 and good sense r e t u r n e d . Many subsequent ly p u b l i s h e d books of adv i ce r e f l e c t e d the tone and i dea s of The B a s i l i k o n Doron. W. Lee U s t i c k found d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s or paraphrases from the K i n g ' s book i n f i f t e e n s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y books which d e s c r i b e d the i d e a l s of 2 8 the gent leman. Two works d i r e c t l y based on The B a s i l i k o n were A p r i n c e s l o o k i n g g l a s s e (1603) and The f a t h e r s b l e s s i n g (1616). The former con ta i ned e x c e r p t s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o L a t i n and 11 E n g l i s h v e r s e . The author f a i t h f u l l y t r a n s c r i b e d the ideas of the o r i g i n a l , y e t , because of the doggerel verse, A p r i n c e s  l o o k i n g g l a s s e l o s e s the s e r i o u s n e s s of James* work and appears, to a modern reader at l e a s t , r a t h e r comic. On p r e - m a r i t a l c h a s t i t y , the author wrote: To marriage t h a t you may prepare a r i g h t , From f l e s h l y l u s t s a b s t a i n with a l l your might, Your body l e t no whoredom f o u l deflower, U n t i l your l o v i n g w i f e t h e r e o f have power, A l l burning l u s t s warely you must expel And c h a s t i t y see t h a t t h e r e i n do d w e l l . ^ The f u l l t i t l e of the l a t t e r work was The f a t h e r ' s b l e s s i n g : or second c o u n c e l l to h i s sonne; a p p r o p r i a t e d t o the g e n e r a l l from t h a t p e r t i c u l a r example His M a j e s t i e composed f o r the P r i n c e h i s son. Although P o l l a r d and Redgrave a t t r i b u t e i t to James, i t appears, to t h i s reader, t o have come from the pen of some minor hack and bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to The B a s i l i k o n Doron. On the choice of a w i f e , the author s t a t e d the commonplace idea t h a t marriage was of the h i g h e s t consequence and t h a t a w i f e may be e i t h e r a curse or a b l e s s i n g . He recommended prayer to ensure the l a t t e r . He advocated y o u t h f u l marriages and, i n an excess of s i m p l i c i t y , c o u n s e l l e d a 30 husband, "That thou mayest be l o v e d , be amiable." While King James had i n d i c a t e d t h a t r i c h e s were d e s i r a b l e i n a w i f e , he had o b v i o u s l y not been o v e r l y concerned with the economic aspect of matrimony. Other c o u n s e l l o r s were more p r a c t i c a l and emphasized t h a t marriage must be based on sound f i n a n c i a l arrangements. At t h i s time, the marriage settlement 12 or dowry which the bride's father paid to the groom's father or, in some cases, directly to the groom, was commonly called her 'portion'. In return, she received her keep and the promise of a 'jointure* or pension to be paid annually should her husband predecease her. 3 1 A large bridal portion could make a great difference to the fortunes of a family; however i f they were obliged to pay out a sizeable jointure, i t could mean ruin. While few advisors advocated marrying solely for money, almost a l l of them believed that i t was f o l l y to marry without 32 adequate means. In a long letter of advice to his son Thomas, the future Earl of Strafford, Sir William Wentworth discussed religion, personal relationships, the management of an estate, and marriage. The focus of the marital counsel was almost entirely f i s c a l . The qualities the father recommended in a bride were few: "let her be well born and brought up but not too highly, of a healthful body, of a good complexion, humble and virtuous, O A some few years younger than yourself and not of simple wit." Wentworth then proceeded to give very specific counsel concerning the bride's jointure. His concerns were that, should Thomas predecease his wife, the heirs would be impoverished i f the widow's jointure was too large, and that a 35 second husband would enjoy unearned benefits. Thus, he advised that the bride be promised only a small pension which could be increased after several children were born, but which would cease should she remarry. Similarly, the marital counsel of Sir William Higford was 13 i n c l u d e d w i t h general f i n a n c i a l a d v i c e . He was b l u n t as t o the purpose of matrimony: "...an e s p e c i a l means to preserve your e s t a t e i s your choice of a w i f e . . .which.. .by: your c a r e , w i l l add unto you both an increment of e s t a t e , and s t r e n g t h , and a l l i a n c e of f r i e n d s . " 3 6 A l e t t e r of advice concerning marriage (1676), addressed s p e c i f i c a l l y to the gentry, gave d i f f e r e n t a dvice depending on the c o n d i t i o n of a man's e s t a t e . Anyone i n f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t y was c o u n s e l l e d not to marry at a l l , or to marry a f o r t u n e ; however, the author warned t h a t "there i s no 37 v i l l a i n a g e to the apron-tenure," and t h a t b r i n g i n g wealth to a marriage would make the b r i d e arrogant and d i s o b e d i e n t . I f a man possessed an adequate and unencumbered e s t a t e , he c o u l d a f f o r d t o seek other q u a l i t i e s i n a w i f e : " l o v e l y f e a t u r e and shape, g r a c e f u l motion, sound c o n s t i t u t i o n , gayety of humour, 3 8 quickness of w i t , d i s c r e e t behaviour, approved housewifery." Wealth was, i n the view of many c o u n s e l l o r s , o n l y one of the d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t i e s t o be sought i n a w i f e . A r c h i b a l d Campbell, e i g h t h E a r l and f i r s t Marquis of A r g y l e , advised h i s son t o marry h i s equal i n years and rank, one who possessed 39 v i r t u e , beauty, and r i c h e s . John Norden wrote: Let thy wife be e i t h e r v i r t u o u s , noble, r i c h , or f a i r , f o r without these or one of these, t h e r e can be no l o v e . N o b i l i t y and r i c h e s may be a means to advance p o s t e r i t y , v i r t u e and beauty w i l l add to thy s e l f p l e a s u r e and content, but never marry f o r beauty o n l y , l e s t time or f i c k l e n e s s show thee thy f o l l y . 4 Q While some of the l e t t e r s s t r e s s e d the importance of the f i n a n c i a l aspect of matrimony, others emphasized, as had The B a s i l i k o n Doron/ the n e c e s s i t y of r e l i g i o u s c o m p a t i b i l i t y between spouses. Quaker W i l l i a m Penn was i n s i s t e n t t h a t h i s c h i l d r e n marry w i t h i n the s e c t . 4 1 S i r John Strode wrote, "Be advised by thy wisest f r i e n d s 4 2 and take a w i f e of the same r e l i g i o n and f a i t h which thou p r o f e s s e t h . " 4 3 He advocated marrying a younger woman, not too b e a u t i f u l , whose p o r t i o n would pr o v i d e f o r her expenses. A f t e r marriage, the husband was to be "ever f a i t h f u l and l o v i n g . . . p a t i e n t . . . and m i l d , not t a k i n g o f f e n c e at every unkind word, nor r e t u r n i n g d i s t a s t e f u l answers upon any l i g h t o c c a s i o n . " ^ W i l l i a m T i p p i n g c o u n s e l l e d : Now when you have c o n s u l t e d God, be i n d u s t r i o u s l y i n q u i s i t i v e i n t o the d i s p o s i t i o n , i n c l i n a t i o n , stock, but e s p e c i a l l y the r e l i g i o n of the p a r t y commended t o your c h o i c e . . . . R e l i g i o n i s the sweetest and s t r o n g e s t t i e and those t h a t are so c o n j o i n e d , nothing but death, nay, i n t r u t h , n e i t h e r l i f e nor death can p a r t them. 4 5 Two extremely popular works which expressed very c y n i c a l views of marriage were S i r Walter R a l e i g h ' s " I n s t r u c t i o n s t o His Son and To P o s t e r i t y " and F r a n c i s Osborne's "Advice t o a Son". R a l e i g h ' s " I n s t r u c t i o n s " were w r i t t e n sometime between 1603 and 1617 while he was i n the Tower a w a i t i n g e x e c u t i o n (along w i t h Northumberland). Although o b v i o u s l y intended f o r p u b l i c consumption, they were not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l 1632. The work was r e p r i n t e d f i v e times w i t h i n the next four y e a r s , i t s p o p u l a r i t y due, no doubt, as much to i n t e r e s t i n the author h i m s e l f as i n i t s w o r l d l y , b i t t e r c ontents. R a l e i g h advised h i s son t h a t i f he was bewitched by a great beauty, he should make her, not his wife, but his mistress: Though thou canst not forbear to love, yet forbear to l i n k , and after a while thou shalt f i n d an a l t e r a t i o n in t h y s e l f , and see another far more pleasing than the f i r s t , second, or t h i r d love. He did not d i r e c t l y advocate marrying for money, but made the point that either husband or wife must have a great estate, for love would not l a s t i f the income were small. He wished his son "beloved of thy wife rather than besotted on h e r . " 4 6 According to the knight, t h i r t y was the perfect age for matrimony; before that a man was not f i t to govern a wife. However, i f he waited too long, he would probably not l i v e to see his children grow up and would undoubtedly be betrayed by his young bride. Moreover, he would have spent the prime of his l i f e with harlots, destroyed his health, impoverished his 47 estate, and endangered his l i f e . Whether the son's l i f e would be threatened by disease or by jealous husbands and lovers i s not clear. 4 8 Francis Osborne's "Advice to a Son" was f i r s t published at Oxford i n 1656 and within two years had passed through six editions. Pepys noted that i t was one of the three most 49 popular works of the day. Osborne's advice, cynical and pessimistic, was f u l l of b i t t e r observations of the treachery and d u p l i c i t y of the world. The t r e a t i s e was divided into sections on studies, t r a v e l , government, and r e l i g i o n , but the section on love and marriage revealed Osborne at his most acrimonious. 16 The author began h i s t i r a d e a g a i n s t matrimony and the female sex with a condemnation of lov e which was, i n h i s o p i n i o n , j u s t a p r e t t i f i e d word f o r l u s t ; i t de p r i v e d man of reason and caused "madness i n some, f o l l y i n a l l . " 5 0 Should h i s son be so smitten, h i s f a t h e r advised making the woman h i s m i s t r e s s r a t h e r than h i s w i f e , f o r h i s d e s i r e f o r her would soon be s a t i a t e d . Marriage, on the other hand, would undoubtedly l e a d t o p e r p e t u a l misery and d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t . The only p o s s i b l e excuse f o r marriage, i n Osborne's view, was t o a c q u i r e a great e s t a t e : T h e r e f o r e the yoke of marriage had need be l i n e d w i t h the r i c h e s t s t u f f , and s o f t e s t outward conveniences, e l s e i t w i l l g a l l your neck and h e a r t , so, as you s h a l l take l i t t l e comfort i n the v i r t u e , beauty, b i r t h , e t c . of her to whom you are c o u p l e d . ^ The author cautioned a g a i n s t marrying a beauty, Unless you are ambitious of re n d e r i n g your house as populous as a c o n f e c t i o n e r ' s shop t o which the gaudy wasps, no l e s s than the l i q u o r i s h f l i e s , make i t t h e i r b usiness t o r e s o r t , i n hope of o b t a i n i n g a l i c k at your honey-pot.^^ Such a wif e would, without doubt, c u c k o l d her husband and make 53 him r i d i c u l o u s i n the eyes of the world. Osborne's work was one of the very few which r e f e r r e d t o sexual matters; h i s b e l i e f t h a t females had stronger d e s i r e s than m a l e s 5 ^ was shared by Thomas, f o u r t h Baron F a i r f a x , author of Advice to a young l o r d (1691) . He cautioned t h a t "a man ought t o approach h i s wif e i n f e a r , l e s t too wantonly provoking her d e s i r e s , the p l e a s u r e t h e r e o f make her exceed the bounds of reason," and added t h a t "too hot and too frequent an i t e r a t i o n of t h a t p l e a s u r e h i n d e r s g e n e r a t i o n . " ^ John Evelyn's i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s newly married son r e g a r d i n g sex were even more d e t a i l e d . In a p r i v a t e l e t t e r he a d v i s e d "temperance" and "moderation" i n sexual r e l a t i o n s so t h a t the husband's h e a l t h would not be impaired and so t h a t the b r i d e would not have u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s : Be none of those who brag how f r e q u e n t l y they can be b r u t e s i n one n i g h t , f o r t h a t intemperance w i l l exhaust you, and p o s s i b l e c r e a t e importunate e x p e c t a t i o n s , when your i n c l i n a t i o n s are not so f i e r c e . Moreover, c o i t u s was f o r b i d d e n d u r i n g the w i f e ' s menstrual 57 p e r i o d , d u r i n g the day-time, on a f u l l stomach, and i n e x c e s s i v e l y hot or c o l d weather. The f a t h e r warned, "Too much frequency of embraces d u l l s the s i g h t , decays the memory, induces the gout, p a l s i e s , enervates and renders e f f e m i n a t e the 5 8 whole body and shortens l i f e . " He concluded, however, t h a t he r e a l i z e d t h a t the young couple would probably ignore h i s admonitions. Although Evelyn's warnings were extreme, both medical and c l e r i c a l a d v i s o r s seem to have countenanced on l y a 59 'moderate* degree of sexual a c t i v i t y i n marriage. An i n d i c a t i o n of the p o p u l a r i t y of the a d v i c e - g i v i n g genre and a s i g n t h a t i t was becoming an i n c r e a s i n g l y l i t e r a r y form of e x p r e s s i o n was the p u b l i c a t i o n of works of f i c t i o n w r i t t e n i n the s t y l e of l e t t e r s of a d v i c e . Two such works were J o s i a h Dare's C o u n s e l l o r Manners, h i s l a s t legacy to h i s son (1673) 18 which was printed three times before the end of the century and Caleb Trenchf ield's A cap of gray hairs (1671) which went through five editions. In Dare's work the Counsellor sternly warned against the sins of the flesh and advised avoiding the company of handsome women. He was not enthusiastic about the married state, but reluctantly agreed with St. Paul that i t was better to marry than to burn. "Be sure," he added, "to choose a wife as may bring with her such advantages to thee, as may at least counter-balance a l l the inconveniences of married l i f e . " 6 0 In choosing a wife, the four *P's' were to be considered: piety, parentage, proportion, and portion. Manners* definition of piety, however, referred not as much to religious observance as to having a modest, unsophisticated character; indeed, he wished his son to avoid those who were too "precise" about religion and would "nibble thine estate worse than the rats w i l l thy...cheese, by stealing out of i t large contributions to the Bartholomew Martyrs." 6 1 The bride was to come from a good and honest family. By proportion, the Counsellor meant appearance, and advocated marrying a woman who was physically attractive, since "love ever f i r s t enters in at the eye, and to keep i t warm and alive, i t is f i t that member should be 62 pleased." Although portion was mentioned last, i t was of paramount importance, since without an adequate estate, a l l else was meaningless. From the type of domestic advice i t contained, i t is apparent that Dare's work was aimed at the middle classes; Trenchf ield's book, the f u l l t i t l e of which was A cap of gray 19 h a i r s f o r a green head, or The f a t h e r s counsel to h i s son, an ap p r e n t i c e i n London, was addressed t o those of an even lower order. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the q u a l i t i e s d e s i r e d i n a wife were, with the ex c e p t i o n of a st r o n g emphasis on good h e a l t h , almost i d e n t i c a l to those mentioned i n the other works: good r e p u t a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r , beauty, p i e t y , and wealth, not n e c e s s a r i l y i n t h a t order. Beauty was important because, not only d i d i t please i n i t s e l f , but a f a i r woman would be more l i k e l y t o have f a i r daughters who would be easy to marry o f f . Good h e a l t h was necessary so t h a t the w i f e would not pass on h e r e d i t a r y d e f o r m i t i e s or d i s e a s e s , but a l s o because l i v i n g w i t h a s i c k l y woman was tiresome and expensive. The b r i d e ' s p o r t i o n was c r u c i a l , s i n c e "a f a i r w i f e without a p o r t i o n i s l i k e a brave house without f u r n i t u r e , where a man may please h i m s e l f with the pr o s p e c t , but th e r e i s nothin g w i t h i n t o keep 6 3 him warm." The r e c i p i e n t of the advice was reminded t h a t he coul d r a i s e h i s s t a t u s by marrying a woman with wealth or powerful f r i e n d s . T r e n c h f i e l d a l s o gave d i r e c t i o n s f o r governing the w i f e . In a c y n i c a l v e i n , he advocated promoting the woman's p i e t y , not f o r s p i r i t u a l reasons, but f o r expediency - a pious w i f e 64 would be b e t t e r behaved and more t r a c t a b l e . He recommended k i n d l y treatment so t h a t she would obey her husband w i l l i n g l y , r a t h e r than g r u d g i n g l y : For whatever i s compelled, waits f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y to be denied; and they t h a t r u l e over the u n w i l l i n g , f i n d the t r o u b l e as great to keep i n obedience, as the p l e a s u r e t o be o b e y e d . 6 5 20 Rather s t a r t i n g l y , T r e n c h f i e l d a dvised t h a t husband and wife should share i n f i n a n c i a l d e c i s i o n s : "The bed and the purse being two t h i n g , wherein a mutual s h a r i n g breeds kindness and c o n f i d e n c e . " 6 6 One of the most f a s c i n a t i n g l e t t e r s of advice i s The  Lady's New Year's G i f t ; or Advice to a D a u g h t e r 6 7 w r i t t e n i n 1688 by Lord H a l i f a x t o h i s f i f t e e n y e a r - o l d daughter c o E l i z a b e t h . 0 0 I t i s unusual, not simply because so few examples of a d v i s o r y l e t t e r s t o g i r l s or women s u r v i v e , 6 ^ but a l s o because the s e n s i t i v i t y and acumen of the author are r e v e a l e d i n the prose as i s the p e r s o n a l a f f e c t i o n which he f e l t f o r h i s c h i l d . The work became extremely popular when i t f i r s t appeared and, by the middle of the ei g h t e e n t h century, had been r e p r i n t e d over a dozen times. H a l i f a x o b v i o u s l y respected h i s daughter and valued her t a l e n t s , y e t , h i s te a c h i n g s on marriage are so c y n i c a l and bleak t h a t they make one doubt even the p o s s i b i l i t y of happiness f o r a woman i n the upper reaches of l a t e seventeenth-century s o c i e t y . R e f e r r i n g t o t h i s work, Ada Wallas noted, But the strange t h i n g about t h i s book i s t h a t on the su b j e c t of marriage, on which h i s f e a r s and d e s i r e t o h e l p are o b v i o u s l y g r e a t e s t , Lord H a l i f a x had nothing t o say which i s e n l i g h t e n e d , and much which i s simply poisonous.7 Q H a l i f a x e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d the c o n d i t i o n s under which women of the day were married: 2 1 I t i s one of the disadvantages b e l o n g i n g t o your sex f t h a t young women are seldom p e r m i t t e d t o make t h e i r own c h o i c e ; t h e i r f r i e n d s ' care and experience are thought s a f e r guides t o them than t h e i r own f a n c i e s , and t h e i r modesty o f t e n f o r b i d d e t h them to r e f u s e when t h e i r parents recommend, though t h e i r inward consent may not e n t i r e l y go along with i t . In t h i s case t h e r e remaineth nothing f o r them to do but to endeavour to make t h a t easy which f a l l e t h to t h e i r l o t , and by wise use of e v e r y t h i n g they may d i s l i k e i n a husband, t u r n t h a t by degrees t o be very s u p p o r t a b l e , which, i f ne g l e c t e d , might i n time beget an a v e r s i o n . The f a t h e r proceeded t o e x p l a i n t o h i s daughter how to make the best of a bad ba r g a i n , how to t u r n her husband's weaknesses t o her advantage. Should her husband prove c h r o n i c a l l y u n f a i t h f u l , she should not complain, indeed should pretend ignorance; her pa t i e n c e i n t h i s would make him y i e l d t o her i n other t h i n g s . Should he prove a drunkard, he would be l e s s c r i t i c a l of h i s wi f e ' s f a i l i n g s ; a l s o , she had an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r e a t e r power and c o n t r o l w i t h i n her household i f he was c o n t i n u a l l y b e s o t t e d . A bad-tempered husband should be f l a t t e r e d and c a j o l e d , h i s rage d i r e c t e d elsewhere. An a v a r i c i o u s , c l o s e - f i s t e d man should be p l i e d w i t h wine t o make him more generous. And, should E l i z a b e t h be matched with a f o o l , she co u l d console h e r s e l f with the knowledge t h a t , i n comparison with her spouse, she would appear more worthy i n the eyes of the world. Moreover, i f he was a d o l t , she c o u l d r u l e him as she w i l l e d : "Therefore be sure, i f you have such an i d i o t , t h a t none, except y o u r s e l f , may have the b e n e f i t of the for f e i t u r e . . . . W h e n your husband s h a l l r e s o l v e to be an 22 ass...take care he may be your a s s . " 7 2 H a l i f a x concluded t h a t E l i z a b e t h was, of course, t o pray f o r a kind and wise husband; a f t e r h i s catalogue of b r u t e s , she probably d i d n ' t h o l d out much hope. The idea t h a t marriage was of great consequence was r e i t e r a t e d throughout the l e t t e r s of a d v i c e ; y e t they were almost e x c l u s i v e l y concerned with the i s s u e of ch o i c e of the b r i d e . There was l i t t l e d i s c u s s i o n of what happened a f t e r the choice was made; those who d e s c r i b e d the d u t i e s of husband and wife d i d so i n a cu r s o r y manner. The assumption seemed t o be t h a t a happy and s u c c e s s f u l marriage depended almost e n t i r e l y upon the man making the proper s e l e c t i o n . The i s s u e s which the c o u n s e l l o r s c o n s i d e r e d i n s e l e c t i n g the b r i d e were f a m i l y , r e l i g i o n , f i n a n c e s , and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For the most p a r t , the woman's f a m i l y was important only i n t h a t they be r e s p e c t a b l e and of approximately 73 the same s o c i a l s t a n d i n g as the man's. L i t t l e mention was made of a l l y i n g with powerful houses i n order to extend one's 74 i n f l u e n c e . On the r e l i g i o u s i s s u e , the advice was d i v i d e d . Many d i d not mention i t at a l l or d i d so i n a p e r f u n c t o r y way. However, those who d i d , d i s c u s s e d i t a t l e n g t h and u s u a l l y made r e l i g i o u s agreement between spouses a high p r i o r i t y . To those with s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s i t was a c r u c i a l matter; t o those with few, i t was not p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t . While few a d v i s o r s advocated marrying only f o r money, most 23 agreed t h a t i t was an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The s i z e of the b r i d e ' s marriage p o r t i o n made a marked d i f f e r e n c e to the f a m i l y ' s f u t u r e and onl y the very r i c h or very poor c o u l d a f f o r d t o ignore the f i n a n c i a l s i d e of a match. The e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s aspect of marriage d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t a mercenary a t t i t u d e as much as a r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e a l i t i e s of the time. Many of the f a t h e r s wished t h e i r sons t o be w e l l - o f f , but not a t the p r i c e of p e r s o n a l happiness. However, there was a d i f f e r e n c e i n the emphasis p l a c e d on wealth, and, g e n e r a l l y , the more negative the a d v i s o r ' s view of matrimony and women, the higher the premium he p l a c e d on marrying f o r g a i n . Concerning the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s of the b r i d e , her ch a r a c t e r and appearance r e c e i v e d the most a t t e n t i o n . In view of the f a c t t h a t b e a r i n g c h i l d r e n was one of the prime f u n c t i o n s of a w i f e , s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e mention was made of her h e a l t h or p o s s i b l e f e r t i l i t y . With the e x c e p t i o n of More, none of the l e t t e r w r i t e r s seemed t o have even remotely c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t e d u c a t i o n or i n t e l l i g e n c e i n a wi f e c o u l d be an a s s e t . On the i s s u e of beauty they were, as has been noted, d i v i d e d : some co n s i d e r e d i t a p o s i t i v e f a c t o r i n t h a t i t would i n c r e a s e the husband's lo v e f o r h i s w i f e ; o t h e r s thought t h a t , as a b e a u t i f u l woman would be i n c l i n e d t o p r i d e , d i s o b e d i e n c e , and a d u l t e r y , the disadvantages outweighed the advantages. Although most of the a d v i s o r s s t r e s s e d t h a t the woman's ch a r a c t e r was an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n , they were u s u a l l y vague as t o what c o n s t i t u t e d good c h a r a c t e r i n a 24 female. Beyond the gen e r a l and r a t h e r f u z z y n o t i o n of ' v i r t u e 1 , few s p e c i f i c s were given. The idea t h a t sexual a t t r a c t i o n should e x i s t between p o t e n t i a l marriage p a r t n e r s was not mentioned or even h i n t e d a t i n any of the l e t t e r s of a d v i c e . Indeed, sexual a c t i v i t y , both i n and out of marriage, was viewed i n r a t h e r a negative l i g h t ; f o r n i c a t i o n and a d u l t e r y were s t e r n l y condemned and married r e l a t i o n s were to be 'temperate*. Even those c y n i c s who advocated t a k i n g a m i s t r e s s viewed i t as a remedy t o cure i n f a t u a t i o n . Of course, i t must be remembered t h a t these are the l e t t e r s of o l d men to young, and r e f l e c t the views of the w r i t e r s , not n e c e s s a r i l y the r e c i p i e n t s . Opinions about l o v e i n marriage were d i v e r s e . Few were as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as Thomas More or W i l l i a m Penn who d i r e c t l y advocated marrying f o r l o v e . On the other extreme were the s k e p t i c s who denied even the p o s s i b i l i t y of lov e between husband and w i f e . G e n e r a l l y , however, most of the a d v i s o r s seemed t o b e l i e v e t h a t l o v e would come a f t e r the wedding, had a wise choice been made. The emphasis on the choice of a b r i d e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n theory, the f a t h e r s or f a t h e r - f i g u r e s who wrote the l e t t e r s granted youths the r i g h t to make t h e i r own matches. Presumably, the c o u n s e l l o r s would not have expended so much ink i n d e s c r i b i n g how to make the c o r r e c t s e l e c t i o n i f marriages were arranged by f a m i l i e s and f r i e n d s . In l i g h t of the i m p l i c a t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n these l e t t e r s concerning the man's freedom of choice of a marriage p a r t n e r , h i s t o r i a n s may have t o 25 modify t h e i r views on the prevalence of arranged marriages and e n t e r t a i n the idea t h a t young men of the e l i t e c l a s s had a gre a t e r r o l e i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i r spouses than has been p r e v i o u s l y thought. However, theory and p r a c t i c e o f t e n bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o each other and advice i s not d i r e c t evidence. During t h i s p e r i o d , the a d v i s o r y l e t t e r evolved i n t o a l i t e r a r y genre; c o u n s e l l o r s assumed a t r a d i t i o n a l pose - wise age c o u n s e l l i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d youth. The advice they gave, which became more and more c o n v e n t i o n a l , may have had l i t t l e or nothing t o do with what they a c t u a l l y b e l i e v e d or what they a c t u a l l y d i d . Indeed, i f one examines s p e c i f i c cases, one suspects t h a t , f o r many of the l e t t e r - w r i t e r s , a d v i c e - g i v i n g was nothin g more than a l i t e r a r y e x e r c i s e . From what i s known about the p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n r o y a l marriages, f o r example, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t P r i n c e Henry would have had very much to say about whom he wed. Or th a t Lord Burghley, who arranged the marriages of h i s wards t o h i s own f i n a n c i a l advantage, would have allowed Robert, f o r whom he had such h i g h ambitions, to choose h i s own b r i d e . Or t h a t the many who simply repeated the words of others when g i v i n g advice were doing anything other than mouthing c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a t i t u d e s , p l a t i t u d e s which i n some ways, d i d not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the m a r i t a l advice o f f e r e d by the c l e r g y or popular w r i t e r s . 26 NOTES For d i s c u s s i o n s of the genre, see the f o l l o w i n g : John E. Mason, G e n t l e f o l k i n the Making ( P h i l i d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1935) , 23-87; W. Lee U s t i c k , "Advice to a Son: A Type of Seventeenth Century Conduct Book," St u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y 29 (1932): 409-441; Lawrence Stone, The  C r i s i s of the A r i s t o c r a c y (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1965), 612-617; L o u i s B. Wright, ed., Advice to a Son (Ithaca, New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1962), i x - x x v i . Stone, C r i s i s , 612. J S e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , C a r r o l l Camden, The E l i z a b e t h a n Woman (Mamoroneck, New York: Paul P. Appel, P u b l i s h e r , 1975), 61-75; C h r i s t i n a Hole, E n g l i s h Home-Life, 1500-1800 (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1947), 55-65. 4 Thomas More, The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, ed. Clarence H. M i l l e r et a l . , (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963 — ) , v o l . 3, P a r t I I , 187. 5 S i r Thomas Wyatt, P o e t i c a l Works of Surrey and Wyatt, v o l . 1; as p r i n t e d i n J.N. Larned, ed. , A M u l t i t u d e of  C o u n s e l l o r s (Boston: Houghten, M i f f l i n , and Co. , 1901) , 233. g N o r f o l k was imprisoned f o r h i s c o m p l i c i t y i n the R i d o l f i P l o t and was executed i n 1572. Others who wrote l e t t e r s of advice from p r i s o n were Henry Percy, n i n t h E a r l of Northumberland; S i r Walter R a l e i g h ; A r c h i b a l d Campbell, e i g h t h E a r l and f i r s t Marquis of A r g y l e ; and James S t a n l e y , seventh E a r l of Derby. 7 N e v i l l e W i l l i a m s , Thomas Howard: Fourth Duke of N o r f o l k (London: B a r r i e and R o c k l i f f , 1964) , 239. O i I b i d . , 243. T h i s son d i d , i n f a c t , marry the s p e c i f i e d h e i r e s s . g The E a r l was imprisoned i n the Tower from 1606 u n t i l 1621 when he was r e l e a s e d . He d i e d on November 5, 1632. 1 0 Henry Percy, n i n t h E a r l of Northumberland, Advice to His Son, ed. G.B. H a r r i s o n (London: Ernest Benn L i m i t e d , 1930) , 75. x ± I b i d . , 94. 1 2 Northumberland had made a p o l i t i c a l marriage to Dorothy Devereux, s i s t e r of the E a r l of Essex who was the Queen's f a v o u r i t e a t the time. The two e a r l s q u a r r e l l e d and Dorothy, who had a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y and a b i t t e r tongue, s i d e d with her b r o t h e r . G.B. H a r r i s o n , the e d i t o r of Northumberland's l e t t e r s , notes, " R e l a t i o n s between the two were a p e r p e t u a l joke to the Court." I b i d . , 13. 27 1 3 Northumberland's m i s o g y n i s t ideas and c y n i c a l view of matrimony app a r e n t l y had l i t t l e e f f e c t on h i s son Algernon. In 1628, he s e c r e t l y c o n t r a c t e d a l o v e match with Lady Anne C e c i l , the grand-daughter of h i s f a t h e r ' s b i t t e r e s t enemy. Northumberland's enraged response to the engagement i s d e s c r i b e d by Antonia Fraser i n The Weaker V e s s e l (London: Methuen, 1984), 28-9. 1 4 Most s c h o l a r s accept t h a t t h i s work was, i n f a c t , composed by Burghley. See, f o r example, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Advice to a Son e d i t e d by Louis B. Wright and U s t i c k ' s a r t i c l e . Jacob Z e i t l i n , on the other hand, argues t h a t the s t y l e and contents are a t odds with other known l e t t e r s of Burghley. See "Commonplaces i n E l i z a b e t h a n L i f e and L e t t e r s , " The J o u r n a l of  E n g l i s h and German P h i l o l o g y 19 (1920): 47-65. The t i t l e s of works c i t e d i n t h i s paper are s p e l l e d as they appear i n A S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue of Books P r i n t e d i n England,  S c o t l a n d , and I r e l a n d , 1475-1640 compiled by A.W. P o l l a r d and G.R. Redgrave and S h o r t - T i t l e Catalogue of Books P r i n t e d i n  England, S c o t l a n d , I r e l a n d , Wales and B r i t i s h America,  1641-1700 compiled by Donald Wing; the s p e l l i n g i n q u o t a t i o n s has been modernized. 15 Wright, Advice, 9. 16 I b i d . , 10. Robert was a l s o i n s t r u c t e d not to marry a dwarf l e s t he beget a race of pygmies, advice not, perhaps, as fatuous as i t seems, s i n c e Robert s u f f e r e d from a crooked spine and was extremely s h o r t . 1 7 I b i d . , 11. 18 In 1612, S i r John Oglander wrote I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r my son  George which i s almost i d e n t i c a l to Burghley's work. T h i s confirms t h a t the Precepts was i n c i r c u l a t i o n b e f o r e i t was p u b l i s h e d . C e c i l Aspxnall-Oglander, Nunwell Symphony (London: Hogarth Press, 1945), 47-49. Years l a t e r , Lord Derby a l s o copied the P r e c e p t s . "Lord Derby's Second L e t t e r to His Son C h a r l e s Lord Strange," Remains H i s t o r i c a l and L i t e r a r y  Connected with the P a l a t i n e Counties of Lancaster and Chester (Chetham S o c i e t y , 1887), v o l . 70, 42-47. 1 q Copies of S i r Henry Sidney's l e t t e r of advice to young P h i l i p were c i r c u l a t e d a f t e r the poet's death had made him a n a t i o n a l hero. 20 21 See Mason, G e n t l e f o l k , 32. King James, The B a s i l i c o n Doron of King James VI, ed. James C r a i g i e (Edinburgh: W i l l i a m Blackwood and Sons L t d . , 1944), v o l . I,.Book 2, 121. 28 2 2 W. Lee U s t i c k maintained t h a t James' p a r e n t a l advice was unique i n i t s advocacy of male c h a s t i t y b e f o r e marriage: "But male c h a s t i t y before marriage seems h a r d l y to have been thought of save as a measure of s a f e t y , or perhaps by a few emasculated P u r i t a n s who are as widely removed as p o s s i b l e from the p o l i t e t r a d i t i o n . " W. Lee U s t i c k , "Advice," 412. However, U s t i c k o v e r s t a t e d the case. Many authors warned of the dangers of l u s t and s p e c i f i c a l l y advised s i n g l e men t o be chaste. See, fo r i n s t a n c e , W i l l i a m Martyn, Youths i n s t r u c t i o n (1612), 57-59; Anthony S t a f f o r d , The guide of honour (1634) , 33-39; R i c h a r d L i n g a r d , A l e t t e r of advice to a young gentleman l e a v i n g the  u n i v e r s i t y (1670), 21-23; and A l e t t e r of advice to a young  gentleman (1688), 41-43. 2 3 The E l i z a b e t h a n Prayer Book of 1559 mentioned p r o c r e a t i o n f i r s t and avoidance of f o r n i c a t i o n second. For a d i s c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t views on the purposes of marriage, see Chapter Two of t h i s paper. 24 The q u e s t i o n of whether or not a man should marry a b e a u t i f u l woman was a co n t e n t i o u s one. Some a d v i s o r s , such as A r c h i b a l d Campbell and John Norden viewed beauty i n a wife p o s i t i v e l y ; o t hers such as More, Wentworth, Osborne, and R a l e i g h , thought i t a snare which would b l i n d a man to a woman's tr u e nature and, u l t i m a t e l y , cease to p l e a s e . A l s o , a b e a u t i f u l wife would l i k e l y c uckold her husband. A r c h i b a l d Campbell, e i g h t h E a r l and f i r s t Marquis of A r g y l e , I n s t r u c t i o n s  to a son, 3rd ed. (1689), 40; John Norden, The Fathers l e g a c i e (1625), s i g . A g; More, Works, v o l . 3, 183; S i r W i l l i a m Wentworth, "Advice to h i s Son," Wentworth Papers, 1597-1628 Camden Fourth S e r i e s , v o l . 12 (1973) , TTj F r a n c i s Osborne, "Advice to a Son," The Works of F r a n c i s Osborne, 7th ed. (1673), 36-38; S i r Walter R a l e i g h , " S i r Walter R a l e i g h ' s I n s t r u c t i o n s t o His Son and to P o s t e r i t y , " The Works of S i r  Walter R a l e i g h (Oxford: The U n i v e r s i t y Press"]! 1829) , v o l . 87 25 James c l e a r l y saw the dangers i n v o l v e d i n a 'mixed' marriage: " . . . c o n s i d e r upon these doubts how you and your wi f e can be of one f l e s h and keep u n i t y betwixt you, being members of two op p o s i t e churches; disagreement i n r e l i g i o n b r i n g e t h ever with i t , disagreement i n manners; and the d i s s e n s i o n betwixt your preachers and hers, w i l l breed and f o s t e r a d i s s e n t i o n among your s u b j e c t s , t a k i n g t h e i r example from your f a m i l y ; b e s i d e s the p e r i l of e v i l e ducation of your c h i l d r e n . " King James, B a s i l i c o n , 131. On t h i s t o p i c , James spoke from exp e r i e n c e : h i s w i f e , Queen Anne, was h o s t i l e toward C a l v i n i s m and rumoured t o be a s e c r e t C a t h o l i c . Moreover, h i s words foreshadow the d i s s e n s i o n c r e a t e d by the open C a t h o l i c i s m of Henr iet t a - M a r i a . King James, B a s i l i c o n , 129. 2 7 I b i d . , 135. 2 8 U s t i c k , "Advice," 410. 29 2 9 James I, A p r i n c e s l o o k i n g g l a s s e , excerpted out of  B a s i l i k o n Doron and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o L a t i n and E n g l i s h verse by W. Willymot (Cambridge: 1603) , s i g . H 9. 30 James I, The f a t h e r s b l e s s i n g : or second c o u n c e l l to h i s sonne; a p p r o p r i a t e d to the g e n e r a l ! from t h a t p e r t i c u l a r  example His M a j e s t i e composed f o r the P r i n c e h i s son, (1616) , 29. For d i s c u s s i o n s of the f i n a n c i a l arrangements which preceded a marriage, see the f o l l o w i n g : Ralph A. Houlbrooke, The E n g l i s h Family, 1450-1700 (London: Langman Group L t d . , 1984), 83-85; Maurice Ashley, L i f e i n S t u a r t England (London: B.T. B a t s f o r d L t d . , 1964), 76; Lawrence Stone, "Marriage Among the E n g l i s h N o b i l i t y i n the S i x t e e n t h and Seventeenth C e n t u r i e s , " Comparative S t u d i e s i n S o c i e t y and H i s t o r y 3 (1960-61), 187-191. A r g y l e d e s c r i b e d money as "the sinew of love...you can do nothing h a p p i l y i n wedlock without i t . " A r g y l e , I n s t r u c t i o n s , 40. 33 S e v e r a l c o u n s e l l o r s warned a g a i n s t marrying a w i f e of higher s t a t u s f o r f e a r she would be arrogant and d i s o b e d i e n t . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Osborne, Advice, 45. 34 Wentworth, "Advice," 20. 35 The f e a r t h a t a second husband, a " s t r a n g e r 1 , would g a i n f i n a n c i a l l y a f t e r the f i r s t husband's death was commonly expressed. See, f o r example, R a l e i g h , " I n s t r u c t i o n s , " 560. 3 6 W i l l i a m H i g f o r d , The I n s t i t u t i o n of a gentleman (1660), p r i n t e d i n The H a r l e i a n M i s c e l l a n y (London: White and Cochrane, 1812), v o l . 9, 586. 37 38 39 A.B., A l e t t e r of advice concerning marriage (1676), 4. I b i d . , 1. A r g y l e , I n s t r u c t i o n s , 43-47. A r g y l e composed t h i s l e t t e r i n 1661 when he was imprisoned i n Edinburgh f o r h i s r o l e i n the r e g i c i d e . 40 Norden, The f a t h e r s l e g a c i e , s i g . A g. 41 W i l l i a m Penn, "Advice to His C h i l d r e n , " (1699) as p r i n t e d i n Larned, A M u l t i t u d e , 335. 42 . . Miriam S l a t e r d i s c u s s e s the way i n which the word ' f r i e n d ' was used at t h i s time: "In the usage of the p e r i o d , the word ' f r i e n d ' meant something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what i t u s u a l l y does today. In the correspondence, ' f r i e n d ' i s r e p e a t e d l y and almost e x c l u s i v e l y used to r e f e r to someone who can be h e l p f u l i n advancing one's career or p r o s p e c t s , and i s never used to d e s c r i b e someone f r e e l y chosen on the b a s i s of 30 mutual p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r a c t i o n . A f r i e n d was a person who was important to one's i n t e r e s t s ; he was not n e c e s s a r i l y l i k e a b l e or p e r s o n a l l y a t t r a c t i v e , though he was o f t e n r e l a t e d by blood or marriage." Miriam S l a t e r , Family L i f e i n the Seventeenth  Century (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1984) , 35-36. 4 3 A s p i n a l l - O g l a n d e r , Nunwell, 52. 4 4 I b i d . 4 5 W i l l i a m T i p p i n g , The Fathers C o u n s e l l (1643) as p r i n t e d i n The H a r l e i a n M i s c e l l a n y 9 (1812), 193. 4 6 R a l e i g h , " I n s t r u c t i o n s , " 559. 4 7 I b i d . , 561. 4 8 F r a n c i s Osborne was the uncle of Dorothy Osborne whose lo v e l e t t e r s t o S i r W i l l i a m Temple provide a dramatic c o n t r a s t to her u n c l e ' s t r e a t i s e . 49 See Mason, G e n t l e f o l k , 69; and Sidney P e e l , "A Seventeenth Century C h e s t e r f i e l d , " The Nineteenth Century 40 (July-December 1896): 945. 50 51 52 53 Osborne, "Advice," 33. I b i d . , 44. I b i d . , 36. Osborne's m i s o g y n i s t viewpoint was a t t a c k e d by John Heydon i n Advice to a daughter (1658), an u n o r i g i n a l panegyric to the beauty, c h a r a c t e r , and v i r t u e of womankind. Heydon was h i m s e l f r e v i l e d i n Thomas Pecke's Advice to Balaam's ass (1658). Both works on l y served to heighten i n t e r e s t i n Osborne's book. 5 4 Osborne, "Advice," 38. 55 Thomas F a i r f a x , f o u r t h Baron F a i r f a x , Advice to a young  l o r d (1691) , 55-56. Except f o r the r e f e r e n c e to sexual r e l a t i o n s , t h i s work i s almost an exact copy of A r g y l e ' s l e t t e r . W.G. Hisock, John Evelyn and h i s Family C i r c l e (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1955) , 122. 57 Evelyn b e l i e v e d t h a t conception c o u l d occur d u r i n g t h i s time and t h a t the o f f s p r i n g would be a l e p e r . I b i d . , 123. 5 8 I b i d . 59 See Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage i n  England 1500-1800, abr. and rev. ecT (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books L t d . , 1979), 311-315. 31 J o s i a h Dare, C o u n s e l l o r Manners, h i s l a s t legacy to h i s son (1673), 86. ~ — ~ 6 1 I b i d . , 88. 6 2 I b i d . , 89. 6 3 Caleb T r e n c h f i e l d , A cap of gray h a i r s f o r a green head,  or The f a t h e r s counsel to h i s son, an a p p r e n t i c e i n London, 4th ed. (1688) , 154. 6 4 I b i d . , 162. 6 5 I b i d . , 163. 6 6 I b i d . , 166. T h i s probably r e f l e c t e d the v a l u e s of the lower c l a s s e s i n which women had more f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and independence than d i d e l i t e women. 67 For d i s c u s s i o n s of t h i s work, see Ada Wallas, Before the  B l u e s t o c k i n g (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1929), 55-72; and D o r i s Mary Stenton, The E n g l i s h Woman i n H i s t o r y (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1957), 203-204. 6 8 E l i z a b e t h was the mother of P h i l i p Stanhope, Lord C h e s t e r f i e l d , whose l e t t e r s t o h i s son are the most famous examples of the genre. 69 Another example of a f a t h e r ' s a d v i c e to h i s daughter was w r i t t e n by O l i v e r Heywood, a clergyman, and p u b l i s h e d i n 1693. E n t i r e l y m o r a l i s t i c and r e l i g i o u s i n tone, i t contained l i t t l e m a r i t a l advice beyond recommending " f r e e and c h e e r f u l submission and obedience to your husband." O l i v e r Heywood, Advice to an on l y c h i l d (1693) , 81. 70 71 Wallas, B l u e s t o c k i n g , 56. S i r George S a v i l l e , Marquis of H a l i f a x , "The Lady's New Year's G i f t ; or Advice to a Daughter," P r a c t i c a l Wisdom, ed. Arthur L. Humphreys (London: 1907), 86. 72 73 I b i d . , 109. Houlbrooke w r i t e s " I f the wi f e were higher i n s o c i a l s t a t u s than her husband, she might come i n time to d e s p i s e him and seek t o command him,...while a man who chooses a wi f e markedly h i s s o c i a l i n f e r i o r might seek to p l a c e her under e x c e s s i v e s u b j e c t i o n . Among the upper c l a s s e s the aim of s o c i a l endogamy might be waived i n the choice of a w i f e , but much more r a r e l y i n t h a t of a husband." Houlbrooke, E n g l i s h  Family, 75. 7 4 Houlbrooke e x p l a i n s t h a t , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the importance of " p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a l l i a n c e and good l o r d s h i p " were d e c l i n i n g . I b i d . , 74. 32 CHAPTER II THE PROTESTANT VIEW OF MARRIAGE There be some men which by r e l i g i o n c l a i m a u t h o r i t y over women and they prove t h e i r tyranny by hol y s c r i p t u r e . H e i n r i c h C o r n e l i u s Agrippa The marriage manual was e s t a b l i s h e d as a d i s t i n c t i v e genre i n England i n 1543 with the p u b l i c a t i o n of M i l e s Coverdale's t r a n s l a t i o n of H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r ' s The c h r i s t e n s t a t e of matrimonye. 1 In r e a c t i o n t o C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n s who had g e n e r a l l y viewed the c o n j u g a l s t a t e as i n f e r i o r t o v i r g i n i t y , the e a r l y reformers sought t o e l e v a t e marriage. B u l l i n g e r ' s i n t e n t was to d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r l y P r o t e s t a n t form of matrimony based on S c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y . He and h i s many i m i t a t o r s c i t e d Genesis f o r the o r i g i n and s a n c t i t y of marriage, used the saga of Abraham as an example of a st r o n g , p a t r i a r c h a l f a m i l y , and r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the Pa u l i n e e p i s t l e s 2 f o r advice about how to l i v e i n wedlock. The 'new' P r o t e s t a n t f a m i l y was co n s i d e r e d a microcosm of the l a r g e r worlds of 3 church and s t a t e ; based on a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e with the f a t h e r at the top, i t was t o be a model of order and obedience. B u l l i n g e r ' s t r e a t i s e was extremely popular and was r e p r i n t e d e i g h t times b e f o r e Mary's a c c e s s i o n and again when E l i z a b e t h came to the throne. L a t e r P r o t e s t a n t authors i m i t a t e d the reformer's o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n , borrowed h i s metaphors, and, i n some cases, l i f t e d e n t i r e passages and claimed them as t h e i r 4 own. The l i t e r a r y form e s t a b l i s h e d by B u l l i n g e r and subsequently widely copied was a combination of theory and p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e ; works of t h i s type d e s c r i b e d the o r i g i n and purpose of matrimony, how a good mate (wife) was t o be s e l e c t e d , the r o l e of parents and c h i l d r e n i n consenting t o the match, how domestic r e l a t i o n s should be conducted, as w e l l as d i s c u s s i o n s of the l e g a l and ceremonial aspects of the wedding. Most of these t r e a t i s e s were extremely lengthy, h i g h l y r e p e t i t i o u s , and c o n t a i n e d f o r m u l i s t i c a d v i c e . Popular s i x t e e n t h works i n the B u l l i n g e r mode were Henry Smith's A p r e p a r a t i v e to marriage (1591) and A godly form of 5 household government (1598) b y Robert Cleaver and John Dod. Marriage manuals p r o l i f e r a t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t h a l f of the seventeenth century as a great number of preachers p u b l i s h e d t h e i r views on the wedded s t a t e : W i l l i a m P e r k i n s ' C h r i s t i a n  oeconomie: o r , a s h o r t , survey of the r i g h t manner of order a  f a m i l i e (1609), W i l l i a m Whately's A bride-bush (1619) and The  c a r e - c l o t h (1624), John Wing's The crown c o n j u g a l l (1620), Thomas Gataker's Marriage d u t i e s (1620) and A good w i f e God's  g i f t (1623), W i l l i a m Gouge's Of d o m e s t i c a l ! d u t i e s (1622), Matthew G r i f f i t h ' s B e t h e l : or a forme f o r f a m i l i e s (1633), and D a n i e l Rogers' Matrimonial honour (1642) appeared d u r i n g t h i s t i m e . 6 During the l a t t e r h a l f of the century, C o n s i d e r a t i o n s  concerning marriage (1657) by Edward Reyner, C h r i s t i a n and  c o n j u g a l l c o u n s e l l (1661) by W i l l i a m Thomas, and A g o l d c h a i n  of d i r e c t i o n s (1669) by Immanuel Bourne were p u b l i s h e d . In a d d i t i o n , preachers o f t e n wrote t r a c t s about s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , such as John Stockwood's A Bartholemew f a i r i n g (1589) which was e n t i r e l y devoted to the t h e s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n should not marry without p a r e n t a l consent, or W i l l i a m Heale's An a p o l o g i e f o r women; or, An o p p o s i t i o n t o A.G. h i s a s s e r t i o n . . . t h a t i t was l a w f u l l f o r husbands to beate t h e i r wives (1609) whose t i t l e i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . Others, n o t a b l y Samuel Hieron, p u b l i s h e d wedding sermons or commentaries on B i b l i c a l t e x t s concerning matrimony. 7 Counsel about marriage was a l s o c o n tained i n general r e l i g i o u s works such as Jeremy T a y l o r ' s The r u l e and e x e r c i s e s of holy l i v i n g and of holy dying (1650), Richard A l l e s t r e e ' s The whole duty of man (1658), Thomas Gouge's C h r i s t i a n d i r e c t i o n s (1661), and R i c h a r d Baxter's A p C h r i s t i a n d i r e c t o r y (1673) . These books, more wi d e l y read than the s p e c i f i c works, c o n s i s t e d of recommendations on a l l aspects of C h r i s t i a n l i f e , i n c l u d i n g d u t i e s of husbands and wives. Despite the enormous s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s changes which oc c u r r e d throughout t h i s p e r i o d , the m a r i t a l advice was e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t ; the reader would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e , f o r example, between the counsel of B u l l i n g e r and t h a t of A l l e s t r e e who wrote over a century l a t e r . The author of these works were, i n every case, m i n i s t e r s of the g o s p e l , u s u a l l y well-known f o r t h e i r p r e a c h i n g ; they h e l d f o r t h from the p u l p i t as w e l l as i n p r i n t . Some s c h o l a r s have termed many of them ' P u r i t a n ' and c l a i m t h a t they 9 d e s c r i b e d unique views of l o v e , marriage, and f a m i l y l i f e . However, those who do so u s u a l l y study only the works of those 35 authors who were w r i t i n g between 1590 and 1630. Thus, they miss the threads of c o n t i n u i t y which extend back t o the e a r l y days of the E n g l i s h Reformation and forward t o the p o s t - R e s t o r a t i o n p e r i o d . 1 0 Moreover, while some of the m i n i s t e r s may have d i f f e r e d from the e s t a b l i s h e d church i n matters of theology and o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r view of marriage and f a m i l y was consonant with t h a t of the A n g l i c a n h i e r a r c h y . The marriage s e r v i c e i n The Prayer Book and the homily on matrimony which was read i n churches expressed ideas e n t i r e l y i n keeping w i t h those of the ' P u r i t a n ' preachers; marriage was not a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e . 1 1 L e v i n L. Schucking made a comparison between R i c h a r d Baxter who was ' s i l e n c e d ' a t the R e s t o r a t i o n and Jeremy T a y l o r who was awarded a b i s h o p r i c : However f a r apart such people were i n t h e i r dogmatics and t h e i r views on Church government, they were t o an a s t o n i s h i n g degree i n agreement i n t h e i r ideas concerning p r a c t i c a l conduct, i n such matters f o r i n s t a n c e as f a m i l y d u t i e s . . . . [ W l e are made to see q u i t e p l a i n l y t h a t the main t r e n d of p r a c t i c a l p i e t y does not f o l l o w the l i n e t h a t d i v i d e s A n g l i c a n s from S e c t a r i e s , but r a t h e r one which separates the pious or ' s a i n t s ' from the c h i l d r e n of the world. The denominational l a b e l has no longer any s i g n i f i c a n c e so f a r as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p i e t i s t i c s e l f - r e f o r m i n g E n g l i s h p i e t y i s c o n c e r n e d . 1 2 T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n c o u l d apply t o almost any of the authors d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a pter: i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward marriage, W i l l i a m Gouge, member of the Westminister Assembly, would have been i n e n t i r e agreement with R i c h a r d A l l e s t r e e , C h a p l a i n t o Cha r l e s I. The intended r e c i p i e n t s of a l l t h i s m a r i t a l counsel were the m i d d l e - c l a s s e s . - L J The d e s c r i p t i o n of the domestic d u t i e s of the married couple and the frequent mention of serv a n t s imply "personal c o n t r o l of a s m a l l , comfortably o f f household, not a great a r i s t o c r a t i c e s t a t e . " 1 4 W i l l i a m and M a l l e v i l l e H a l l e r t h e o r i z e t h a t books of t h i s s o r t were probably bought p r i m a r i l y by other preachers and used as a b a s i s f o r sermons, 1^ a p r a c t i c e which would h e l p e x p l a i n t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y i n s t y l e , content, and language. H a l l e r and H a l l e r a l s o note t h a t the works were w r i t t e n from a masculine viewpoint and u s u a l l y d i r e c t e d t o men. Although the authors addressed themselves to women when d e s c r i b i n g the d u t i e s of a w i f e , they d i d not "look very much i n t o the h e a r t s of women," but "wrote from a man's p o i n t of view, and from t h a t p o i n t of view l a i d down the law to women." 1 6 P r o t e s t a n t t r e a t i s e s on matrimony u s u a l l y began with a paean t o the wedded s t a t e , an e x p l a n a t i o n of i t s sacred o r i g i n , and a d i s c u s s i o n of i t s ends or purposes. The extravagant p r a i s e of marriage and the i n s i s t e n c e on i t as a d i v i n e i n s t i t u t i o n were, of course, responses t o the C a t h o l i c Church's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c e l i b a c y was p r e f e r a b l e to marriage. The opening words of the wedding s e r v i c e i n Archbishop Thomas Cranmer's The Book of Common Prayer i n t r o d u c e d the themes and S c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s which l a t e r w r i t e r s would r e f e r t o again and a g a i n : t h a t marriage was i n s t i t u t e d by God i n pa r a d i s e (Genesis 2) and symbolized the m y s t i c a l union of C h r i s t and the Church (Ephesians 5 ) ; t h a t C h r i s t had s a n c t i f i e d i t by performing h i s f i r s t m i r a c l e at the wedding at Cana (John 2) ; and t h a t St. Paul had commended matrimony (I C o r i n t h i a n s 7 ) . The Prayer Book l i s t e d the purposes of marriage as p r o c r e a t i o n , as a remedy a g a i n s t f o r n i c a t i o n , and f o r mutual s o c i e t y , help, and comfort. T h i s order of p r i o r i t i e s was i d e n t i c a l to t h a t given by B u l l i n g e r and was f o l l o w e d by many subsequent w r i t e r s . 1 7 However, o t h e r s , such as Gataker and Cl e a v e r , s t r e s s e d the primacy of companionship i n marriage: Wedlock or matrimony i s . . . a yoking and j o i n i n g together of one man and one woman, with the good consent of them both, t o the end t h a t they may dwell together i n f r i e n d s h i p and honesty, one h e l p i n g and com f o r t i n g the other, eschewing whoredom, and a l l uncleannesss, b r i n g i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the f e a r of God.-j^g P r o f e s s o r James T. Johnson has argued t h a t the emphasis on f e l l o w s h i p i n marriage was a d i s t i n c t l y ' P u r i t a n ' develop-19 ment; however, a l l the P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n s s t r e s s e d the importance of a f f e c t i v e bonds i n marriage and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o see any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the o p i n i o n s of those Johnson c a l l s ' P u r i t a n * , such as W i l l i a m P e r k i n s and Ric h a r d Baxter, and mainstream A n g l i c a n s , such as Ri c h a r d A l l e s t r e e and Jeremy T a y l o r . Although the authors used such words as 'mutual' and 'companionship', t h e i r unspoken assumption was t h a t i t was the woman who would be a helper and companion t o the man as d e s c r i b e d i n the second chapter of Genesis: And the Lord God s a i d , I t i s not good t h a t man should be alone; I w i l l make him an he l p meet f o r him. (2. 18) 38 ...And the Lord God caused a deep s l e e p t o f a l l upon Adam, and he s l e p t : and he took one of h i s r i b s , and c l o s e d the f l e s h i n s t e a d t h e r e o f ; (2. 21) And the r i b , which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. (2. 22) Thus, while seeming t o d e s c r i b e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between equals, they were, i n f a c t , emphasizing male primacy. Woman was cr e a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the purpose of assuaging man's l o n e l i n e s s and h e l p i n g him i n the business of l i f e . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t i t was t h i s v e r s i o n of the c r e a t i o n t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t s drew upon, the i n i t i a l c r e a t i o n of man, and woman being formed from h i s r i b , r a t h e r t h a t the v e r s i o n i n the f i r s t chapter of Genesis i n which man and woman were c r e a t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y : So God c r e a t e d man i n h i s own image, i n the image of God c r e a t e d he him; male and female c r e a t e d he them. (1. 27) One of the i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o marriage f r e q u e n t l y d i s c u s s e d i n the P r o t e s t a n t marriage manuals was the q u e s t i o n of consent. The authors b e l i e v e d t h a t the couple must enter i n t o matrimony f r e e l y and w i l l i n g l y , and they s t r o n g l y condemned f o r c e d marriages. A l l e s t r e e c a s t i g a t e d parents who "out of an eagerness of bestowing them wealthy" f o r c e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n "to 20 marry u t t e r l y a g a i n s t t h e i r own i n c l i n a t i o n s . " Presumably daughters, over whom parents exerted g r e a t e r c o n t r o l , were more o f t e n married a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l s than were sons. The o f f i c e  of C h r i s t i a n parents d e s c r i b e d the grim consequences of such a match: Some examples we have of these w o r l d l y minded men f t h a t upon a greedy d e s i r e t o p r e f e r t h e i r daughters unto the g l o r i o u s palace of wicked mammon, have by c o n s t r a i n t married them, where e i t h e r i n e q u a l i t y of y e a r s , deformity of body, want of w i t , or l a c k of honesty and sober l i v i n g , . . . h a v e so wounded the daughter's h e a r t , t h a t her marriage hath been her b u r i a l . Some have consumed and waxed l i k e ghosts, some have l i v e d t o see t h e i r husbands to spend a l l , and some have l e a r n e d such mariners, as i t had been b e t t e r f o r them e i t h e r never to have been born, or not t o have had such wooden s o t s to t h e i r parents.,-. Bishop T a y l o r b e l i e v e d t h a t young people c o u l d be induced to marry where the parents wished, but ought not be compelled: "Let them [the c h i l d r e n ] be persuaded with reasonable inducements t o make them w i l l i n g and t o choose a c c o r d i n g t o the parents' wish, but a t no hand l e t them be f o r c e d . B e t t e r to s i t up a l l n i g h t , than t o go t o bed with a dragon. 9~ If the consent of the b r i d e and groom was e s s e n t i a l , so too was the consent of both s e t s of p a r e n t s . C i t i n g the f i f t h commandment and other S c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e s concerning obedience, the m i n i s t e r s unanimously deplored those who married 23 without the expressed b l e s s i n g of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Henry Smith d e s c r i b e d the sacred o r i g i n of p a r e n t a l consent: . . . t l l n the f i r s t i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage, when t h e r e was no f a t h e r to g i v e consent, then our heavenly Father gave h i s consent: God s u p p l i e d the p l a c e of the f a t h e r , and brought h i s daughter unto her husband, and ever s i n c e , the f a t h e r a f t e r the same manner, hath o f f e r e d h i s daughter unto her husband.24 40 E x p r e s s i n g a more m e r c a n t i l e p o i n t of view, A l l e s t r e e contended, C h i l d r e n are so much the goods, the po s s e s s i o n s of t h e i r p a r e n t s , t h a t they cannot, without a kind of t h e f t , g i v e away themselves without the allowance of those t h a t have the r i g h t i n t h e m . ^ Ric h a r d Baxter f l a t l y d e c l a r e d t h a t parents* commandments to c h i l d r e n were analagous t o God's t o man and not to obey them was a grievous s i n . 2 6 Although the P r o t e s t a n t authors were a l i k e i n t h e i r advocacy of p a r e n t a l consent, they d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r views as t o the extent of f a m i l y involvement: some b e l i e v e d t h a t parents should p l a y the paramount p a r t i n s e l e c t i n g a p r o s p e c t i v e 27 2ft spouse, o t h e r s saw the p a r e n t a l r o l e as p r i m a r i l y a d v i s o r y , while a few seemed t o f e e l i t adequate f o r parents t o assent t o 29 an a p p r o p r i a t e match which the young people d e s i r e d . Those w r i t e r s who c o u n s e l l e d parents t o be a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t i o n process i n v a r i a b l y c i t e d the s c r i p t u r a l example of 30 Abraham choosing a wif e f o r h i s son Isaac. Gataker, however, r e a l i z e d t h a t the b e s t - i n t e n t i o n e d parents would not always be s u c c e s s f u l i n a r r a n g i n g the marriages of t h e i r o f f s p r i n g : There are s e c r e t l i n k s of a f f e c t i o n t h a t no reason can be rendered o f : as the r e are i n b r e d d i s l i k e s t h a t can n e i t h e r be r e s o l v e d , nor r e c o n c i l e d . When parents have a long time beaten the bush, another o f t , as we say, c a t c h e t h the b i r d : a f f e c t i o n s are set some other way, and cannot be removed.^ T h i s i s the only i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e c o u l d be some d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c o n c i l i n g the m a r i t a l d e s i r e s of the d i f f e r e n t g e n e r a t i o n s . Most of the w r i t e r s assumed t h a t a l l p a r t i e s would h a p p i l y assent to a s u i t a b l e match, and d i d not d e a l with the i s s u e of i n t r a c t a b l e parents or c h i l d r e n . Nor d i d they advocate any r o l e f o r themselves as clergymen i n r e s o l v i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h i s or any other kind of m a r i t a l c r i s i s . The s t e r n d e n u n c i a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n who married without t h e i r parents' assent can be t r a c e d to two causes. F i r s t l y , i t was, i n f a c t , remarkably easy f o r young people to espouse themselves without r e f e r e n c e to f a m i l y or church. U n t i l Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act of 1753, the laws i n England governing 32 espousals and marriages were i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a r r a y . Henry Swinburne, a l e a d i n g l e g a l expert d u r i n g the e a r l y decades of the seventeenth century, d e s c r i b e d the s i t u a t i o n i n A t r e a t i s e of spousals or matrimonial c o n t r a c t s . A f t e r the age of consent (twelve f o r g i r l s , f o u r t e e n f o r b o y s ) , a couple c o u l d b i n d themselves together i n one of two ways: by a promise to wed i n the f u t u r e (de f u t u r o ) or by an immediate commitment (de p r a e s e n t i ) . Both c o n t r a c t s c o n s i s t e d s o l e l y of mutually spoken vows: i n the f i r s t case, they were given i n the f u t u r e tense ("I w i l l take you f o r my w i f e " ) ; i n the second, the present (I 33 do take you, e t c . " ) . The former type of espousal was not b i n d i n g ; the l a t t e r , however, was. But t h a t woman and t h a t man, which have c o n t r a c t e d s p o u s a l s de p r a e s e n t i . . . cannot by any agreement d i s s o l v e those spousals, but are reputed f o r very husband and w i f e i n r e s p e c t of the substance, and i n d i s s o l u b l e knot of matrimony.3 4 Moreover, n e i t h e r witnesses nor consummation was e s s e n t i a l : 42 Swinburne s t a t e d i t was mutual consent, not " p u b l i c s o l e m n i z a t i o n nor c a r n a l c o p u l a t i o n " which e f f e c t e d matrimony and he was supported by canon and c i v i l law. To what extent young people a v a i l e d themselves of t h i s p r i v i l e g e i s unknown. John R. G i l l i s observes t h a t c l a n d e s t i n e marriages and espousals were more common among lower c l a s s e s s i n c e couples were not eco n o m i c a l l y dependent on t h e i r p a r e n t s . 0 0 However, the f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y case of Margery Paston, who s e c r e t l y b e t r o t h e d h e r s e l f to the f a m i l y ' s b a i l i f f and withstood enormous pressure from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and 37 c l e r g y who sought to break the c o n t r a c t , makes one wonder how many other such examples, u n f o r t u n a t e l y undocumented, e x i s t e d . In any case, the i n s i s t e n c e on the n e c e s s i t y of p a r e n t a l advice and consent i n match-making seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the authors of marriage manuals were aware of the enormous l a t i t u d e of the marriage laws of England and were g r i m l y determined t h a t young people not a v a i l themselves of i t . A l s o , a son or daughter who married without p a r e n t a l consent threatened the p a t r i a r c h a l a u t h o r i t y which the Pr o t e s t a n t w r i t e r s b e l i e v e d so sacred. For a c h i l d t o go a g a i n s t the wishes of h i s or her f a t h e r was an a c t of r e b e l l i o n which threatened a l l a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s ; hence, the condemnatory language reserved f o r d i s o b e d i e n t c h i l d r e n o f t e n resembled t h a t used f o r t r a i t o r s or h e r e t i c s . Stockwood d e s c r i b e d c h i l d r e n who married without consent as r e b e l s a g a i n s t God, t r a n s g r e s s o r s of the laws of Nature, breakers of the common r u l e and custom of a l l well-governed c h i l d r e n , and such...as would b r i n g i n a l l c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r d e r i n a l t e r i n g and changing God's own course t o set up and e s t a b l i s h t h e i r own u n b r i d l e d l u s t and l a w l e s s a f f e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , the emphasis which the authors of m a r i t a l advice p l a c e d on p a r e n t a l consent may be seen as an e f f o r t t o c o n s o l i d a t e power: as m i n i s t e r s of the g o s p e l , they sought t o b r i n g marriage under church dominion; as f a t h e r s they sought to c o n t r o l t h e i r c h i l d r e n . Another i s s u e which g r e a t l y concerned the m a r i t a l a d v i s o r s was the choice of the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e . S i n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o St. P a u l , the man's primary duty i n marriage was to l o v e h i s w i f e , i t was imperative t h a t he marry one th a t he e i t h e r d i d or co u l d l o v e . However, love was co n s i d e r e d a r a t i o n a l matter i n v o l v i n g c h o i c e , not p a s s i o n . Over and over again the c o u n s e l l o r s advised how to "choose your l o v e and lov e your 39 c h o i c e . " Since not l o v e , but s u b j e c t i o n was the woman's main duty i n marriage, presumably the choice of a spouse was not so important f o r her. As i n other i s s u e s , B u l l i n g e r * s counsel concerning c h o i c e 40 was d e f i n i t i v e , and was copied or adapted by l a t e r authors. He i n s t r u c t e d the p r o s p e c t i v e groom to pay more a t t e n t i o n t o the " r i c h e s of the mind and body" of h i s intended than t o "temporal substances" such as n o b i l i t y , wealth, and f a m i l y connections. Q u a l i t i e s sought i n a wife were g o d l i n e s s , v i r t u e , honesty, and h e a l t h ; these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were t o be determined by c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n of the woman's speech, 41 manners, c l o t h e s , and behavior. As expected, the P r o t e s t a n t authors s t o n g l y emphasized the importance of marrying a "godly" woman of s i m i l a r r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s . Smith wrote, " We are taught to marry i n the Lord, then we must choose i n the Lord t oo," and added, "Our spouse must be l i k e C h r i s t ' s spouse, t h a t i s , graced with g i f t s and embroidered with v i r t u e s as i f we d i d marry h o l i n e s s i t s e l f . " 4 2 He continued, "As we should not be yoked with I n f i d e l s , so we should not be yoked with P a p i s t s , and so we should not be yoked with A t h e i s t s . " 4 3 Cleaver and Dod c o u n s e l l e d , " R e l i g i o n and f a i t h must be co n s i d e r e d l e s t he [the man] make d i v o r c e of the tr u e f a i t h or b r i n g i t i n t o p e r i l . " I f the husband had been "snared" by a wife "poisoned w i t h s u p e r s t i t i o n and Popery" he must " c a l l upon God, and l i v e i n h i s f e a r , i n f a i t h f u l n e s s , i n p a t i e n c e , i n d i s c r e t i o n and godly counsel l a b o u r i n g t o win her from the same." 4 4 Rogers lamented the d i f f i c u l t y of f i n d i n g a t r u l y pious woman i n such a s i n f u l w orld: ... [Tlhere are so few to be found, i n t h i s woeful b a r r e n world, of such as be r e l i g i o u s , and those who are merely c i v i l are counted p u r i t a n s , and those p r e c i s e whose manners are not debauched.^ Prayer was adv i s e d t o ensure a wise choice was made. Although the authors condemned those who married f o r w o r l d l y g a i n and emphasized the s p i r i t u a l aspect of matrimony, they were, i n Lawrence Stone's words, "as r e s p e c t f u l as ever of the need f o r s o c i a l e q u a l i t y and economic s e c u r i t y i n mate s e l e c t i o n . " They j u s t i f i e d t h e i r concern f o r the p r a c t i c a l 45 aspect of wedlock by quoting Paul's words, "Be ye not unequally yoked wi t h u n b e l i e v e r s , " (2 C o r i n t h i a n s 6.14), arguing t h a t the a p o s t l e advocated e q u a l i t y not only i n r e l i g i o n , but i n age, e s t a t e , and s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . Samuel Hieron wrote, I t i s not denied t h a t outward t h i n g s i n matters of wedlock be looked t o . I t i s f i t t h a t , as f o r y e a r s , so f o r e s t a t e and means, th e r e should be p r o p o r t i o n , f o r God i s not the author of c o n f u s i o n . 4 7 W i l l i a m Perkins s t a t e d t h a t spouses should be of s i m i l a r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n : Thus i t i s a seemly and commendable p r a c t i c e , t h a t , the P r i n c e , the noble-man, the freeman, the gentleman, the yeoman, e t c . should be j o i n e d i n s o c i e t y with them, t h a t are of the same or l i k e c o n d i t i o n with themselves and not o t h e r w i s e . . n 48 D e s p i t e t h e i r concern with s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , the clergymen d i d not t u r n a b l i n d eye to the t h i n g s of the world. The P r o t e s t a n t marriage manuals contained e x t e n s i v e a d v i c e concerning the separate d u t i e s of husbands and wives and t h e i r common d u t i e s . The husband's primary duty, as has been s t a t e d , was t o l o v e h i s w i f e as commanded by St. Paul. T h i s meant t h a t he was to p r o t e c t and p r o v i d e f o r her. I t was h i s duty to i n s t r u c t , govern, and admonish h i s w i f e as w e l l as h i s c h i l d r e n and s e r v a n t s , but he was t o do so w i t h kindness and p a t i e n c e : [A] Man must e n t r e a t h i s w i f e with g e n t l e n e s s and s o f t n e s s ; not e x p e c t i n g t h a t wisdom, nor t h a t f a i t h , nor t h a t p a t i e n c e , nor t h a t s t r e n g t h i n the weaker v e s s e l , which should be i n the s t r o n g e r . 4 9 The authors c r i t i c i z e d husbands who used f o r c e to a s s e r t 46 t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . P e r k i n s s t a t e d , "But [the husband] may not c h a s t i s e . . . [ h i s wife] e i t h e r with s t r i p e s , or s t r o k e s . " 5 0 The anonymous author of The anathomie of sinne c o u n s e l l e d t h a t a wife was t o be admonished o f t e n , reprehended seldom, and s t r u c k never. 5 1 W i l l i a m Heale wrote a t h i r t y - f i v e page t r a c t i n which he c i t e d examples from the c l a s s i c s and nature as w e l l as, of course, S c r i p t u r e , t o prove t h a t w i f e - b e a t i n g was unacceptable. That so many of the preachers s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o t h i s i n t h e i r works seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was a s e r i o u s problem among t h e i r p a r i s h i o n e r s and reade r s . The w i f e ' s f i r s t duty, as ordered by Peter and Paul was t o be s u b j e c t t o her husband and obey him a b s o l u t e l y . Thomas Gouge wrote: . . . [ s u b j e c t i o n ] i s not only a duty, but the ground of a l l other d u t i e s whatsoever; f o r t i l l the wife be f u l l y s a t i s f i e d about the s u p e r i o r i t y of her husband, no duty w i l l be performed as i t ought. One of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the P r o t e s t a n t t r e a t i s e s on marriage was the i n s i s t e n t emphasis on male s u p e r i o r i t y . The i n f e r i o r nature of woman was i m p l i c i t i n the C r e a t i o n i n t h a t man had been formed i n God's image, woman i n man's image, and she had been make f o r him, not v i c e - v e r s a . Moreover, Eve had been the f i r s t t o t r a n s g r e s s , i l l u s t r a t i n g her weaker nature. T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e God h i m s e l f had ordained the i n f e r i o r s t a t u s of the female, the only way f o r a woman to o b t a i n s a l v a t i o n was to submit c h e e r f u l l y and w i l l i n g l y to her husband and obey h i s commandments as she would the Lord's. 47 The w i f e ' s obedience to her husband's wishes was u n c o n d i t i o n a l and not dependent upon the man's s u p e r i o r c h a r a c t e r . Gataker b e l i e v e d t h a t even i f a woman was "of gre a t e r s p i r i t , and i n some respe c t of b e t t e r p a r t s " than her spouse, she must "acknowledge her husband, as God hath appointed him, to be her s u p e r i o r as he i s her husband and her h e a d . " 5 4 W i l l i a m Gouge admonished, I f they [wives] note any d e f e c t of nature, and deform i t y of body, or any enormous and n o t o r i o u s v i c e s i n t h e i r husband, then ought they to t u r n t h e i r eyes and thoughts from h i s person t o h i s p l a c e , and from h i s v i c i o u s q u a l i t i e s t o h i s honourable o f f i c e (which i s t o be an husband).55 Even should a godly woman be married t o a profane man, she was to obey him i n a l l t h i n g s not d i r e c t l y c o n t r a r y t o the word of God, f o r , s p i r i t u a l b l i n d n e s s d i s a b l e t h not from c i v i l government. Indeed nothing t h a t such a man doeth i s acc e p t a b l e t o God, or a v a i l a b l e to h i s own s a l v a t i o n ; but y e t i t may be p r o f i t a b l e t o man: a wicked man may be p r o v i d e n t enough f o r w i f e , c h i l d r e n , and whole f a m i l y i n outward temporal t h i n g s . There i s evidence t h a t the i d e a l s t a t e of w i f e l y submission was not always a t t a i n e d . A l l e s t r e e condemned "the peevi s h stubborness of many wives who r e s i s t the l a w f u l commands of t h e i r husbands, only because they are impatient of 57 t h i s duty of s u b j e c t i o n , which God r e q u i r e s of them." Gouge s t r o n g l y r e f u t e d "the o p i n i o n of many wives, who t h i n k themselves every way as good as t h e i r husbands, and no way i n f e r i o r to them." The authors' c o n t i n u a l i n s i s t e n c e on 48 female s u b o r d i n a t i o n may i n d i c a t e t h a t the reverse was o f t e n the case; as W i l l i a m and M a l l e v i l l e H a l l e r noted, " I t i s not commonly necessary t o preach submission t o the meek." 5^ The views expressed by these authors on the woman's r o l e were e n t i r e l y c o n s i s t e n t ; t h e i r views on woman's nature were not. Some, such as Gataker and Wing, were extravagant i n t h e i r p r a i s e of 'the good w i f e ' : No e a r t h l y favour a p p e r t a i n i n g t o our present temporary s t a t e , which we may p o s s i b l y have, w h i l e we l i v e here, i s beyond, or equal t o her: none i s b e t t e r or g r e a t e r , nay, none i s so good, or so g r e a t ; y i e l d i n g such honour, j o y , advantage, and contentment, as a worthy wife doth. Among t r a n s i t o r y kindnesses, she i s the most t r a n s c e n d e n t . c n Cleaver and Dod took a more s e n s i b l e a t t i t u d e , a d m i t t i n g t h a t women were, l i k e men, n e i t h e r e n t i r e l y good nor bad: Most t r u e i t i s t h a t women are as men are, reasonable c r e a t u r e s , and have f l e x i b l e w i t s , both to good and e v i l , the which with use, d i s c r e t i o n and good c o u n s e l , may be a l t e r e d and turned. And although t h e r e be some e v i l and lewd women, yet t h a t doth no more prove the malice of t h e i r natures, than of men.• • • Ric h a r d Baxter was the only o v e r t m i s o g y n i s t i n the group, but Baxter, u n l i k e the other authors, had a negative view of marriage. Attempting t o dissuade young men from matrimony, he warned, And i t i s no smal l p a t i e n c e which the n a t u r a l i m b e c i l i t y of the female sex r e q u i r e t h you t o prepare. Except i t be a very few th a t are p a t i e n t and manlike, women are commonly of potent f a n t a s i e s , and tender p a s s i o n a t e impatient s p i r i t s , e a s i l y c a s t i n t o anger, or j e a l o u s y , or d i s c o n t e n t : and of weak understanding, and t h e r e f o r e unable to reform t h e m s e l v e s . g 2 49 F u r t h e r d u t i e s of a wife were to be meek, humble, sober, and s i l e n t . Perhaps the best summation of the woman's r o l e i n marriage was w r i t t e n i n the form of a prayer of a young w i f e : I most e n t i r e l y beseech thee, t o walk worthy of my v o c a t i o n , to knowledge my husband t o be my head, t o be s u b j e c t unto him, to l e a r n thy b l e s s e d word of him, t o reverence him, to obey him, to ple a s e him, to be r u l e d by him, peaceably and q u i e t l y to l i v e with him, to wear such apparel as i s meet f o r my degree, and by no means t o d e l i g h t i n c o s t l y jewels, and proud g a l l a n t v e s t u r e s ( ? ) ; but always t o use (?) such c l o t h i n g , as becometh a sober, c h a s t e , and C h r i s t i a n woman, c i r c u m s p e c t l y and w a r i l y to look t o my household, t h a t nothing p e r i s h through my neg l i g e n c e ; and always have a d i l i g e n t eye, t h a t no dis h o n e s t y , no wickedness, no ungodliness be committed i n my house....,.. Mutual d u t i e s i n c l u d e d sexual f i d e l i t y and the maintenance of r e g u l a r sexual r e l a t i o n s . Some P r o t e s t a n t t h e o l o g i a n s r e c o g n i z e d the importance of the p h y s i c a l s i d e of matrimony. R e f e r r i n g , as always, to S c r i p t u r e , they c i t e d the f i f t h chapter of Proverbs and the t w e n t y - s i x t h of Genesis t o prove t h a t God countenanced r e g u l a r c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , they were i n s i s t e n t t h a t a married couple c o h a b i t and r e f r a i n from i n t e r c o u r s e only by mutual consent. B u l l i n g e r s t r e s s e d the importance of mutually s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e a r l y days of wedlock: I f two bodies a t the f i r s t be not w e l l j o i n e d one to the other, they never are fa s t e n e d r i g h t a f t e r w a r d . But i f the f i r s t c o u p l i n g and j o i n i n g together be good, then can the r e a f t e r w a r d no v i o l e n c e d r i v e the bonds asunder....They t h e r e f o r e t h a t are married must apply t h e i r s p e c i a l d i l i g e n c e t h a t t h e i r f i r s t c o h a b i t a t i o n and d w e l l i n g together be l o v i n g and f r i e n d l y . 6 4 The author of The o f f i c e of C h r i s t i a n parents wrote t h a t the married couple may j o y f u l l y g i v e due benevolence one to the other; as two musical instruments r i g h t l y f i t t e d , do make a most p l e a s a n t and sweet harmony i n a w e l l tuned c o n c e r t . c c 65 Gataker emphasized t h a t "the Holy Ghost d i d allow some such p r i v a t e d a l l i a n c e and behaviour to married persons between themselves as t o others might seem d o t a g e . " 6 7 P e r k i n s , on the other hand, viewed sexual s a t i s f a c t i o n as more the man's pro v i n c e than the woman's: "This r e j o i c i n g and d e l i g h t i s more perm i t t e d t o the man, than t o the woman; and to them both, more 67 i n t h e i r young y e a r s , than i n t h e i r o l d age." However, the h i s t o r i a n should be wary of over-emphasizing t h i s aspect of P r o t e s t a n t m a r i t a l a d v i c e . Most w r i t e r s avoided the i s s u e of p h y s i c a l r e l a t i o n s i n marriage and s t r e s s e d the s p i r i t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between husband and w i f e . Schucking's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t ' P u r i t a n ' authors d i s p l a y e d "a complete l a c k of i n h i b i t i o n i n . . . [ t h e i r ] r e a d i n e s s t o t h e o r i z e on the e r o t i c g o s i d e of marriage" i s an overstatement and one which he must use M i l t o n ' s poetry to support. S i m i l a r l y , Roland Frye's c o n t e n t i o n t h a t 'Puritan* t e a c h i n g advocated "ardent p h y s i c a l go l o v e " i s supported by q u o t a t i o n s from the few w r i t e r s who d i d dea l with t h i s i s s u e ; he overlooks the many who d i d not. Other mutual d u t i e s f o r a married couple i n c l u d e d a t t e n d i n g t o each other's s p i r i t u a l w e l f a r e , l i v i n g together w i t h p a t i e n c e and forbearance, r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n f e a r of the Lord, and performing a p p r o p r i a t e domestic occ u p a t i o n s . Again and a g a i n the readers were reminded t h a t an o r d e r l y , p e a c e f u l household was p l e a s i n g t o God; a f r a c t i o u s , tumultuous one, anathema. Thus, the P r o t e s t a n t authors of m a r i t a l advice attempted t o impose r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s on domestic l i f e . At a time when the S t a t e was e x e r t i n g more c o n t r o l over the p u b l i c l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l , the Church was endeavouring t o r e s t r i c t p r i v a t e behaviour and i n f l u e n c e a t t i t u d e s ; i t i s not a c c i d e n t a l t h a t the two movements c o i n c i d e d . The preachers* i n s i s t e n c e on order and obedience w i t h i n the f a m i l y was extended t o i n c l u d e order i n the p u b l i c realm and obedience to a l l a u t h o r i t y . In the p r e f a c e to h i s work B e t h e l : or a forme f o r f a m i l i e s , Matthew G r i f f i t h d e s c r i b e d h i s purpose i n w r i t i n g , which was t o ensure t h a t the reader be "both a good servant to God, and a 70 good s u b j e c t to the King." In P r o t e s t a n t terms, the 'good' husband and f a t h e r was n e c e s s a r i l y a good s u b j e c t because h i s f a m i l y represented the l a r g e r world of the commonwealth or kingdom. Few h i s t o r i a n s have p o i n t e d out t h a t by e l e v a t i n g the s t a t e of matrimony and by p r e s c r i b i n g the behaviour and a t t i t u d e s which husband, w i f e , and c h i l d r e n were to f o l l o w and h o l d , the authors of marriage manuals were a c t i n g as agents of the Church and S t a t e t o e x e r t s o c i a l c o n t r o l over the 71 populace. Moreover, the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of women was an important aspect of t h i s p r o c e s s . The growth of the a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e and the a u t h o r i t a r i a n f a m i l y were p a r a l l e l developments. T h i s 52 i s not t o argue t h a t wives had not always been s u b j e c t to t h e i r husbands; what was unique about the P r o t e s t a n t view was the connection make between the woman's s p i r i t u a l s a l v a t i o n and the performance of her w i f e l y d u t i e s ; once wed, the wife had to submit, w i l l i n g l y and c h e e r f u l l y , t o her husband's commands, not as a s o c i a l duty, but as a r e l i g i o u s one. Thus, p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n was equated with w i f e l y submission. Furthermore, under P r o t e s t a n t i s m , marriage became the only o p t i o n f o r a woman. Those who had p r e v i o u s l y gained a degree of autonomy and, i n some cases, power, by embracing the r e l i g i o u s l i f e were no longer able t o do so. Linda T. F i t z observes, The e x a l t a t i o n of marriage might be seen as a high p r i c e t o pay f o r making wives r e s p e c t a b l e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t along with i t went the a n n i h i l a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s t o marriage....There i s much evidence to suggest t h a t the monastic l i f e o f f e r e d a genuine a l t e r n a t i v e to the woman who wished t o escape male domination - an a l t e r n a t i v e which P r o t e s t a n t i s m a b o l i s h e d . ^ 2 Not only was the c l o i s t e r a b o l i s h e d , but so, too, were r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s which had pe r m i t t e d women to take 73 a c t i v e r o l e s i n c i v i c l i f e . The f a m i l y , r a t h e r than the Church, became the s p i r i t u a l c e n t r e of s o c i e t y , and i t was t o her husband, r a t h e r than t o her p r i e s t , t h a t the woman was to look f o r s p i r i t u a l guidance. In t h e i r attempt to p o r t r a y the P r o t e s t a n t s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of marriage and f a m i l y as a p o s i t i v e development, some modern s c h o l a r s seem determined to m i s i n t e r p r e t what the marriage manuals s a i d about the p o s i t i o n of women. Paul S i e g a l s t a t e s , r a t h e r c o n f u s i n g l y , t h a t "The Pu r i t a n s , . . . b y emphasizing the i n f e r i o r s t a t u s a l l o t t e d t o woman i n the B i b l e , gave her a new fr e e d o m . " 7 4 On the other hand, James Johnson b e l i e v e s t h a t the female p o s i t i o n was enhanced by "the heightened co n c e p t i o n of woman which i s i m p l i c i t i n the a s s e r t i o n of companionship." 7 5 Wright contends t h a t the t r e a t i s e s on marriage showed a gradual improvement i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward the p o s i t i o n of women, 7 6 an undocumented a s s e r t i o n of which t h i s reader has found no evidence. Lawrence Stone i s one of the few who equates the e l e v a t i o n of matrimony with the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of women: . . . t i l t ' c o u l d be argued t h a t the P r o t e s t a n t s a n c t i f i c a t i o n of marriage and the demand f o r married l o v e i t s e l f f a c i l i t a t e d the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of wives. Women were now expected t o l o v e and c h e r i s h t h e i r husbands a f t e r marriage and were taught t h a t i t was t h e i r sacred duty to do s o . 7 7 I t i s impossibe to know the extent of the i n f l u e n c e of the marriage manuals. We do know th a t they were p u b l i s h e d f r e q u e n t l y and many went i n t o s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s , but whether t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they were wi d e l y read or t h a t a small segment of the populace read a number of such books i s imp o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n . Presumably, on l y those w i t h s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s would have read such extended t r e a t i s e s ; H a l l e r and H a l l e r may be c o r r e c t i n t h e i r a s s e r t i o n t h a t the marriage manuals were s t u d i e d p r i m a r i l y by other clergymen. While there i s no evidence t h a t any shortened v e r s i o n s intended f o r a wider audience were ever i s s u e d , some of the ideas 54 c o n t a i n e d i n these works were borrowed and adapted by the au thor s of more popu lar forms o f a d v i s o r y l i t e r a t u r e . 55 NOTES C.L. Powell noted of B u l l i n g e r ' s work, " I t seems f a i r t o say t h a t the f u l l form and content of the t y p i c a l f a m i l y book was here f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d . " C.L. Powell, E n g l i s h Domestic  R e l a t i o n s , 1487-1653 (New York: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1972), 115. Powell's work was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1917. 9 W i l l i a m and M a l l e v i l l e H a l l e r observed, "The t r a n s l a t i o n of B u l l i n g e r ' s work served as a textbook on the key p l a c e s i n s c r i p t u r e r e l a t i n g t o marriage and as a model f o r l a t e r books on the same s u b j e c t . " W i l l i a m and M a l l e v i l l e H a l l e r , "The P u r i t a n A r t of Love," Huntington L i b r a r y Q u a r t e r l y 5 (1941-42): 240. 3 W i l l i a m Gouge s t a t e d , "For the f a m i l y i s a seminary of the Church and Commonwealth....Whence i t f o l l o w e t h , t h a t a co n s c i o n a b l e performance of dome s t i c a l and household d u t i e s , tend t o the good o r d e r i n g of Church and Commonwealth ." W i l l i a m Gouge, Of d o m e s t i c a l ! d u t i e s (1622), 16. D a n i e l Rogers claimed, "Marriage i s the p r e s e r v a t i v e of c h a s t i t y , the seminary of the commonwealth, seed - p l o t of the Church, p i l l a r (under God) of the world, r i g h t hand of providence, supporter of laws, s t a t e s , o r d e r s , o f f i c e s , g i f t s and s e r v i c e s . . . . " D a n i e l Rogers, Matrimonial honour (1642), 7. W. and M. H a l l e r noted of the f a m i l y , "The preachers d e s c r i b e d i t again and again as a l i t t l e church and a l i t t l e s t a t e i n which the f a t h e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g both f o r r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n , p r a y e r , and readi n g of s c r i p t u r e , and f o r the employment of each member ac c o r d i n g t o h i s or her a b i l i t y , i n some u s e f u l o c c u p a t i o n . " H a l l e r and H a l l e r , " P u r i t a n A r t , " 247:. For d i s c u s s i o n s on B u l l i n g e r ' s i n f l u e n c e on l a t e r authors, see the f o l l o w i n g : L o u i s B. Wright, M i d d l e - C l a s s  C u l t u r e i n E l i z a b e t h a n England (Ithaca: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1958) 205-206; L e v i n L. Schiicking, The P u r i t a n Family, t r a n s . B r i a n Battershaw (New York: Scholcker Books, 1970) , 18. T h i s work was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n German i n 1929. 5 Cleaver and Dod's work was extremely popular and was i s s u e d seven times w i t h i n t h i r t y y e a r s . 6 Most of these t r e a t i s e s went through at l e a s t two e d i t i o n s . Whately's Bride-bush was i s s u e d t h r e e times d u r i n g the seventeenth century and again i n the ei g h t e e n t h and n i n e t e e n t h ; Wing's work was p r i n t e d twice; Gataker's D u t i e s twice and A good w i f e t h r e e times; Of d o m e s t i c a l ! d u t i e s by W i l l i a m Gouge had th r e e e d i t i o n s ; G r i f f i t h ' s B e t h e l f o u r ; and Rogers' Matrimonial Honour was i s s u e d t w i c e . 56 For example, Richard Bernard p u b l i s h e d a commentary on the Book of Ruth (1628) which d i s c u s s e d marriage; a work e n t i t l e d Oeconomia s a c r a (1685) was a d i s c o u r s e on the marriage of Isaac and Rebecca, a f a v o u r i t e theme with many of the authors. p T a y l o r ' s work was p u b l i s h e d e i g h t e e n times by the t u r n of the century; A l l e s t r e e ' s , a b e s t - s e l l e r was r e p r i n t e d t h i r t y - e i g h t times i n l e s s than f i f t y y e a r s ; Gouge's went through e i g h t e d i t i o n s . Q See f o r example the f o l l o w i n g : Roland M. Frye, "The Teachings of C l a s s i c a l P u r i t a n i s m on Conjugal Love," S t u d i e s i n  the Renaissance 11 (1955): 148-159; James T. Johnson, " E n g l i s h P u r i t a n Thought on the Ends of Marriage," Church H i s t o r y 38 (1969): 429-436; H a l l e r and H a l l e r , " P u r i t a n A r t , " 235-272. When d e s c r i b i n g t h i s u n i q u e l y 'Puritan* view of lov e and marriage, s c h o l a r s tend t o r e l y h e a v i l y on M i l t o n ' s p o e t i c works. 1 0 Kathleen M. Davis contends t h a t the 'Pur i t a n * authors -Smith, Whately, Dod, Gouge, Cleaver and Snawsel - wrote nothing about marriage which cannot be found i n the works of pre-Reformation w r i t e r s such as V i v e s , Erasmus, and W i l l i a m H a r r i n g t o n . However, the e a r l i e r authors d i d not present a complete d o c t r i n e of marriage and f a m i l y l i f e as d i d the P r o t e s t a n t s who f o l l o w e d B u l l i n g e r ' s l e a d . A l s o , the r i s e i n l i t e r a c y and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of books i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , as w e l l as the f a c t t h a t the 'P u r i t a n s ' were preachers i n a d d i t i o n t o being authors, meant t h a t t h e i r views were more widely disseminated. Kathleen M. Davis, "The sacred c o n d i t i o n of e q u a l i t y - how o r i g i n a l were P u r i t a n d o c t r i n e s of marriage?" S o c i a l H i s t o r y 5 (May, 1977): 563-581. 1 1 M.M. Knappen s t a t e d t h a t w hile marriage was not a c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e between f a c t i o n s i n the Church of England, d i v o r c e was. M.M. Knappen, Tudor P u r i t a n i s m : A Chapter i n the  H i s t o r y of Ide a l i s m (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1939) , 456. For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s i s s u e , see Powell, "The P u r i t a n - A n g l i c a n Contoversy on D i v o r c e , " E n g l i s h Domestic  R e l a t i o n s , 70-83. Schucking, P u r i t a n Family, x i i i . 13 See Wright, " I n s t r u c t i o n i n Domestic R e l a t i o n s , " M i d d l e - C l a s s C u l t u r e , 201-227. 14 Davis, "Sacred C o n d i t i o n , " 577. 1 5 H a l l e r and H a l l e r , " P u r i t a n A r t , " 240. 1 6 I b i d . , 253. 1 7 Smith, P e r k i n s , and Gouge f o l l o w t h i s o r d e r . I p Robert Cleaver and John Dod, A godly form of household  government (1603), 98. 1 Q Johnson, " E n g l i s h P u r i t a n Thought," 429-436. 2 0 R i c h a r d A l l e s t r e e , The whole duty of man (1700) , 276. 2 1 The o f f i c e of C h r i s t i a n parents (Cambridge: 1616), 141. Jeremy T a y l o r , The r u l e and e x e r c i s e s of holy l i v i n g and  of h o l y dying (Oxford: John Henry Parker, 1855), 154. 9 "5 See, f o r example, W i l l i a m P e r k i n s , C h r i s t i a n oeconomie:  or, a s h o r t survey of the r i g h t manner of o r d e r i n g a f a m i l y  a c c o r d i n g t o the S c r i p t u r e s (1609), 68-69; Cleaver and Dod, A godly form, 152. B u l l i n g e r contended t h a t only P a p i s t s denied the need f o r p a r e n t a l consent i n marriage. O A Henry Smith, A p r e p a r a t i v e t o marriage (1591), 43. 2 5 A l l e s t r e e , The whole duty, 264. 9 fi R i c h a r d Baxter, A C h r i s t i a n d i r e c t o r y (1673), 476. 27 See, f o r i n s t a n c e , T a y l o r , The r u l e and e x e r c i s e s , 154; and John Stockwood, A Bartholomew f a i r i n g f o r parentes (1589) , 51. 2 8 For example, Cleaver and Dod, A godly form, 133; and Smith, A p r e p a r a t i v e , 47. 29 See, f o r example, D a n i e l Rogers, Matrimonial honour (1642) , 87. 3 0 Thomas Gataker's A mariage p r a i e r , or s u c c i n c t  m e d i t a t i o n s (1624) i s e n t i r e l y devoted t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the twenty-fourth chapter of Genesis which d e s c r i b e s the marriage of Isaac and Rebecca. 31 Thomas Gataker, A good w i f e Gods g i f t (1623) , 11. 32 For d i s c u s s i o n s of the marriage laws see the f o l l o w i n g : Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage i n England,  1500-1800 abr. ancT rev. ecu (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books Lt"~d. , 1979), 28-36; Ralph A. Houlbrooke, The E n g l i s h  Family, 1450-1700 (London: Longman Group L t d . , 1984), 78-80; John R. G i l l i s , For B e t t e r , For Worse: B r i t i s h Marriages, 1600 to the present (Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1985), 17-21, 43-50, 84-105. The A n g l i c a n wedding s e r v i c e i n c o r p o r a t e s both types of promise. 58 3 4 Henry Swinburne, A t r e a t i s e of spousals or matrimonial  c o n t r a c t s (1686), 13. T h i s work i s thought to have been w r i t t e n i n the 1620s. 3 5 I b i d . Stone contends t h a t the c o n t r a c t de f u t u r o was b i n d i n g i f f o l l o w e d by consummation, and a c o n t r a c t de  p r a e s e n t i had to be given before witnesses. However, Swinburne d i d not i n d i c a t e t h a t witnesses were necessary. Stone, The  Family, 30-31. 3 6 G i l l i s , For B e t t e r , 84-105. 3 7 H.S. Bennett, The Pastons and t h e i r England (Cambridge: At the U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1922) , 42-46. 3 8 Stockwood, A Bartholomew f a i r i n g , 45. He a l s o claimed t h a t the "plague was God's punishment f o r the widespread disobedience on the p a r t of marriageable o f f s p r i n g . " As c i t e d by Linda T. F i t z , "What Says the Married Woman?: Marriage Theory and Feminism i n the E n g l i s h Renaissance," Mosaic 13/2 (1980) , 10. 3 9 Many of the authors used t h i s phrase. For s p e c i f i c examples, see Samuel Hieron, The bridegroome (1613), 8; Smith, A p r e p a r a t i v e , 63. 4 0 Cleaver and Dod and G r i f f i t h use almost the i d e n t i c a l words of B u l l i n g e r . 4 1 H e i n r i c h B u l l i n g e r , The c h r i s t e n s t a t e of matrimonye (1543?), 53. 4 2 Smith, A p r e p a r a t i v e , 28-29. 4 3 I b i d . , 48. 44 ! Cleaver and Dod, A godly form, 101-102. 45 Rogers, Matrimonial honour, 30. 46 Stone, The Family, 101. 47 Hieron, The bridegroome, 10. 48 P e r k i n s , C h r i s t i a n oeconomie, 64. 49 Smith, A p r e p a r a t i v e , 68. 50 P e r k i n s , C h r i s t i a n oeconomie, 127. 51 The anathomie of sinne (1603), no p a g i n a t i o n . 52 W i l l i a m Heale, An a p o l o g i e f o r women (1609), e n t i r e work. 53 Thomas Gouge, C h r i s t i a n d i r e c t i o n s (1661), 139. 59 CA Gataker, A good w i f e , 10. 5 5 Gouge, Of d o m e s t i c a l ! d u t i e s , 278. 5 6 I b i d . , 290. 5 7 A l l e s t r e e , The whole duty, 283. 5 8 Gouge, Of d o m e s t i c a l ! d u t i e s , 273. 5 9 H a l l e r and H a l l e r , " P u r i t a n A r t , " 249. 6 0 John Wing, The crowne c o n j u g a l l or the spouse r o y a l l (Middleburgh: 1620) ,~~2T. 6 1 Cleaver and Dod, A godly form, 160. Baxter, A C h r i s t i a n d i r e c t o r y , 480. In the f i r s t p a r t of h i s work, Baxter attempted to dissuade young men from marrying. However, he conceded t h a t most would probably wed anyway, and, i n the second p a r t , he gave the standard a d v i c e . fi 3 Thomas B e n t l e y , The monument of matrones (1582) , 68. 64 B u l l i n g e r , The C h r i s t e n s t a t e , 62. The o f f i c e of C h r i s t i a n parents (1616), 140. 6 6 Gataker, A good w i f e Gods g i f t and A w i f e indeed (1620), 43. 67 P e r k i n s , C h r i s t i a n oeconomie, 122. 68 *• Schuking, P u r i t a n Family, 38. 6 9 Frye, "The Teachings of C l a s s i c a l P u r i t a n i s m , " 159. 70 As c i t e d by Wright, M i d d l e - C l a s s C u l t u r e , 223. 71 Stone i s an e x c e p t i o n ; see The Family, 136-146. 7 2 F i t z , "'What Says the Married woman?1," 8. 73 A l i c e C l a r k contended, "Any a s s o c i a t i o n or combination of women o u t s i d e the l i m i t s of t h e i r own f a m i l i e s was discouraged, and the b e n e f i t s which had been extended t o them i n t h i s r e s p e c t by the C a t h o l i c R e l i g i o n were s p e c i a l l y d e p r e c i a t e d . " A l i c e C l a r k , Working L i f e of Women i n the  Seventeenth Century (New York: Augustus M. K e l l e y , 1968), 303. T h i s work was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1919. 7 4 Paul N. S i e g a l , " M i l t o n and the Humanist A t t i t u d e Toward Women," J o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas 11 (1950), 43. 7 5 Johnson, " E n g l i s h P u r i t a n Thought 7 6 Wright, M i d d l e - C l a s s C u l t u r e , 227 7 7 Stone, The Family, 141 . 61 CHAPTER I I I WOMEN AND MARRIAGE Wife and Servant are the same, But only d i f f e r i n the Name: Lady Mary Chudleigh Advice about marriage took many forms. Much of i t was d i r e c t : s u c c e s s i v e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s a d v i s e d the younger on how to s e l e c t and l i v e with a w i f e ; m i n i s t e r s of the gospel expressed t h e i r v i s i o n of "holy matrimony" from the p u l p i t and i n p r i n t ; c o u r t e s y books o f t e n contained chapters devoted t o the c h o i c e of a spouse and m a r i t a l d u t i e s and monographs were p r i n t e d on the same s u b j e c t s . 1 The c o u n s e l l o r s were men and t h e i r recommendations were, f o r the most p a r t , aimed at a male audience. However, m a r i t a l advice was a l s o g i v e n i n d i r e c t l y . Works w r i t t e n about women u s u a l l y c o n t a i n e d a d i s c u s s i o n of matrimony; authors d i d not separate 'woman' from her r o l e i n s o c i e t y , which was, of course, 'wife'. What purported t o be o b j e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n s concerning the nature of woman were a c t u a l l y p r e s c r i p t i v e t r e a t i s e s which d e f i n e d the female's p l a c e and d e p i c t e d those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were a c c e p t a b l e and those which were not. Advice concerning marriage w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r women merely complemented the views expressed i n other works. Though much was w r i t t e n about women and f o r women, the female v o i c e was r a r e l y heard, u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f of the 62 seventeenth century when, r e a c t i n g to s o c i a l change and a new i n t e l l e c t u a l c l i m a t e , women authors began t o express t h e i r own ide a s about marriage, ideas which, i n some cases, presented a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t view of matrimony. During the s i x t e e n t h century i n England, the medieval debate concerning the nature of the female sex was v i g o u r o u s l y renewed. 2 D i s c o u r s e s on t h i s t o p i c by c e l e b r a t e d c o n t i n e n t a l s c h o l a r s appeared i n t r a n s l a t i o n , 3 and n a t i v e authors added t h e i r own v o i c e s t o the c o n t r o v e r s y . 4 For the most p a r t , t h i s p o l e m i c a l l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i s t e d of a t t a c k s on or defenses of women. The a n t i - f e m i n i s t s based t h e i r theory of woman's i n f e r i o r i t y p r i m a r i l y on the mode of her c r e a t i o n and her r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the F a l l ; t o support t h e i r argument they c i t e d examples of wicked or weak females from S c r i p t u r e , c l a s s i c a l p h i l o s o p h y and l i t e r a t u r e , h i s t o r y , and the n a t u r a l world. A p o l o g i s t s f o r women used the same t h e o r e t i c a l base t o defend the opposite p o s i t i o n and drew t h e i r i l l u s t r a t i v e cases from i d e n t i c a l sources. The d i a l e c t i c was, i n f a c t , not a genuine debate, but an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e , a l i t e r a r y c onvention, a "formal c o n t r o v e r s y " , whose p a r t i c i p a n t s were 5 p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h " l i t e r a r y f i n e s s e . " The authors i n v o l v e d i n t h i s debate presented s t e r e o t y p i c a l views of woman which had l i t t l e to do with her 'true nature', much to do with her pl a c e i n s o c i e t y . P r o f e s s o r L i n d a Woodbridge charges, A t t a c k s and defenses d i s a g r e e , or pretend t o d i s a g r e e , about whether there are more bad than good 63 women i n the world; but t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of female goodness and badness are i d e n t i c a l . . In these d i s c o u r s e s , the 'good woman', l i k e the v i r t u o u s one whose p r i c e was above r u b i e s , turned out to be, not good 'woman' at a l l , but good ' w i f e 1 , r e p l e t e with w i f e l y v i r t u e s -obedience, p i e t y , submissiveness, c h a s t i t y , and s k i l l i n housekeeping t a s k s . 8 C o n t r a s t e d with t h i s paragon was e i t h e r the 'bad* wife - shrewish, extravagant, l a z y , d i s o b e d i e n t - or the whore. S i r Thomas E l y o t , one of the f i r s t Englishmen t o enter the debate w i t h The defence of good woman (1545), had a female c h a r a c t e r d e s c r i b e the prime duty of wives which was t o "honour our husbands a f t e r God; which honour r e s t e t h i n t r u e obedience," a sentiment with which the P r o t e s t a n t preachers would have h e a r t i l y concurred. She continued, But i n a woman, no v i r t u e i s equal to temperence, whereby i n her words and deeds she always shows a j u s t moderation, knowing when time i s t o speak, and when t o keep s i l e n c e , when t o be occupied, and when to be merry. And i f she measure i t to the w i l l of her husband, she doeth the more w i s e l y . g 'Good' women were a l s o p r a i s e d f o r t h e i r domestic s k i l l s . Edward G o s y n h i l l ' s defense emphasized the many d u t i e s which f e l l t o women i n the management of an e s t a t e . 1 0 A c h a r a c t e r i n Edmund T i l n e y ' s The Flower of F r i e n d s h i p p e (3rd ed., 1577) advised the w i f e t o look w e l l to her housewifery and not only to see t h a t a l l be done, but t h a t a l l be w e l l done, t o the co n t e n t a c i o n (?) of her husband, even i n t h i n g s of l e a s t importance, and to occupy h e r s e l f a c c o r d i n g l y , not t o s i t always i d l e , but t o spend her time i n some p r o f i t a b l e e x e r c i s e , as with her n e e d l e . . . . I t i s a l s o 6 4 a great want i n a woman, i f she be u n s k i l l f u l i n d r e s s i n g of meat. For i t i s the c h i e f e s t p o i n t of a housewife to c h e r i s h her husband, who being s i c k , w i l l have the best a p p e t i t e to the meat of h i s w i f e ' s d r e s s i n g , and i f she c h e r i s h him w e l l , he w i l l love her b e t t e r ever a f t e r . ^ While seeming t o d i s c u s s the nature of woman, most p a r t i c i p a n t s were, i n f a c t , simply p r e s c r i b i n g her r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The 'controversy' continued d u r i n g the succeeding century; some works merely catalogued 'good' and 'bad* women, others d i r e c t l y d i s c u s s e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 'good' wives and o f f e r e d advice about how to choose and t r e a t them. One of the most popular works of the e a r l y decades was a v i o l e n t harangue a g a i n s t the female sex d e l i v e r e d by Joseph Swetnam and pu b l i s h e d under the f u l l t i t l e The arraignment of lewd, i d l e froward, and unconstant women; Or the v a n i t i e of them chuse you whether. With a commendation of the wise, vertuous, and honest 12 woman - (1615). A c t u a l l y Swetnam, dubbed "The Woman Hater" i n h i s own time, made l i t t l e e f f o r t to commend or d e s c r i b e the "wise, vertuous and honest woman"; the gre a t e r p a r t of t h i s abusive t r e a t i s e was giv e n over to i n s u l t s and i n v e c t i v e s which 13 seem to be a p p l i e d t o every female. Swetnam's work was a c o r r u p t i o n of the ' c o n t r o v e r s i a l * 14 genre. Whereas pr e v i o u s works were formal i n s t r u c t u r e and s a t i r i c a l i n tone, The arraignment was rambling and r e p e t i t i v e , v i t u p e r a t i v e and b i t t e r . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o understand i t s p o p u l a r i t y . Perhaps, because of the misogyni s t a t t i t u d e s of King James and the homosexual f l a v o u r of the c o u r t , to express s t r o n g l y a n t i - f e m i n i s t sentiments had become f a s h i o n a b l e . Or, the e n t h u s i a s t i c acceptance of Swetnam's p i e c e may be an 6 5 i n d i c a t i o n of h o s t i l i t y toward c i t y women who were behaving i n u n t r a d i t i o n a l ways: women who, as P r o f e s s o r Woodbridge d e s c r i b e s them, were appearing more f r e q u e n t l y i n p u b l i c p l a c e s , sometimes i n masculine a t t i r e ! 1 5 The arraignment of...women was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e main cha p t e r s , the f i r s t of which, i n a d i s o r g a n i z e d and r e p e t i t i o u s manner, d e s c r i b e d the f a u l t s of the female sex and warned men a g a i n s t marriage. Women were "angry, proud, and b o l d " and a curse t o mankind. The author asked, "what wise man then w i l l change g o l d f o r dr o s s , p l e a s u r e f o r p a i n , a q u i e t l i f e f o r wrangling brawls, from which the married men are never f r e e ? " 1 6 Swetnam warned a g a i n s t marrying f o r l o v e which would not l a s t and c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t being ensnared by a b e a u t i f u l f a c e ; because, i n the dark, he noted, a l l women were the same. 1 7 The second chapter continued i n the same manner, but focused more s p e c i f i c a l l y on the lewd and l u s t f u l nature of the • f a i r sex' and the means by which they trapped and ensnared the 18 male. The author's language became more and more extreme: Then who can but say, t h a t women sprang from the D e v i l , whose heads, h e a r t s , minds and s o u l s are e v i l ? 1 9 Eagles eat not men t i l l they are dead, but women devour them a l i v e : f o r a woman w i l l p i c k thy pocket, and empty thy purse, laugh i n thy f a c e , and cut thy t h r o a t : they are u n g r a t e f u l , p e r j u r e d , f u l l of f r a u d , f l a u n t i n g , and d e c e i t , unconstant, waspish, t o y i s h , l i g h t , s u l l e n , proud, d i s c o u r t e o u s , and c r u e l . . . . 2 Q A f a i r l y complete catalogue of f a u l t s ! The Woman Hater's a d v i c e concerning marriage was t o a v o i d 66 i t i f at a l l poss ib le ; he ins t ructed men to keep busy, " for so long as thy mind or thy body i s i n labour, the love of a woman i s not remembered, nor lus t ever thought u p o n . " 2 1 After th i s enjoinder, Swetnam gave s p e c i f i c counsel about the choice of a wi fe, counsel which was commonplace and r e l i e d heavi ly on other published works. The prospective husband was to look at the woman's personal q u a l i t i e s and the characters of her parents, and not be dazzled by beauty. Although the author warned against marrying so le l y for money, he conceded that a happy union was impossible without adequate means - considering h is opinion of women, that Swetnam could even conceive of a "happy union" i s rather astonishing! The tone of the work changed dramatica l ly when the author described the duties of husband and wi fe. Indeed,.one suspects that th i s sect ion may have been cribbed from another source. The good husband was to s a t i s f y the phys ica l demands of h i s wife so that "neither necess i ty , nor super f lu i ty be the 22 occasion to work her dishonour;" he was to be f a i t h f u l , lov ing , and honest, l i s t e n to h is w i fe ' s counsel and chast ise her only in p r i va te . A wife was to be sober and chaste in appearance, de fe ren t i a l and pat ient i n behavior. Swetnam*s work not only combined separate genres, the discourse on women and the domestic conduct book, but a l so , in a sch izo id manner, two e n t i r e l y disparate views of the female sex: woman as v i c i ou s , l u s t f u l schemer and woman as pat ient , lov ing wi fe. Swetnam's attack insp i red other authors to take up the pen in defense of women. These works, righteous and indignant in 67 tone, J ex to l led feminine v i r tues and c i t ed the usual i l l u s t r a t i o n s from Scr ipture and the c l a s s i c s . Daniel T u v i l ' s response, for instance, e n t i t l e d Asylum vener i s , or A sanctuary  for l ad ies j u s t l y protect ing them, t h e i r v i r tue s , and  s u f f i c i e n c i e s from the foule aspersions and forged imputations  of traducing s p i r i t s (1616), contained chapters devoted to the female v i r tues - cha s t i t y , humi l i ty , modesty, s i l e n c e , and Constance. In the epilogue, the author gave p r a c t i c a l advice about mar i ta l re l a t i ons . He confessed that , despite his glowing t r i bu te s , women "are not a l l of them sa in t s . . .but such O A as have the i r imperfections and defects , as wel l as we." It was the husband's duty to correct h i s w i fe ' s f au l t s by set t ing a good example and with lov ing and pr ivate admonitions. "If," he counsel led, "we would have women without spots, l e t us keep 25 our selves without s t a in s . " Several female authors, whose works w i l l be examined l a te r in t h i s chapter, also rep l i ed to Swetnam's charges; none of the responses, however, attained the popular i ty of the Woman Hater ' s harangue. A re lated genre which contained advice about marriage as wel l as descr ipt ions of women was the c o l l e c t i o n of po r t r a i t s or character sketches. Written in both prose and verse, these works ranged from the serious to the s a t i r i c a l and invar iab ly included a p r o f i l e of ' the good w i f e ' , often with companion pieces on the maid and widow as wel l as on less admirable women. Many co l l e c t i on s depicted male as wel l as female characters ; whereas the men were categorized according to the i r funct ion i n soc iety - s o l d i e r , magistrate, nobleman, etc . - the 68 women were defined s o l e l y according to th e i r relationship with men - maid, wife, widow, or whore. Some of these works were extremely conventional, both i n the i r advice about marriage and descriptions of good wives. Others, however, contained such hyperbolic excesses, both i n the praise and dispraise of women, that the reader must conclude that the authors were more concerned with extravagant l i t e r a r y expression than with a serious consideration of marriage or women. Thomas F u l l e r ' s work f a l l s into the f i r s t category. Not content simply to describe the good wife, he l a i d down s t r i c t rules for her to follow. She was to obey her husband; never cross him i n anger or betray his secrets; stay home rather than gad abroad; wear f i t t i n g , frugal garments; appear, as well as be, chaste and modest; control and teach her children; order her servants well; and, rather s u r p r i s i n g l y , 27 not express excessive g r i e f at her husband's i l l n e s s . The poet Nicholas Breton wrote several works i n which he contrasted a good and bad wife. His good wife we have encountered before: meek, quiet, constant, devout, t h r i f t y , 2 8 patient, and modest. His greatest condemnation and most col o u r f u l prose he expended on the "unquiet" wife, the shrew: An unquiet woman i s the misery of man, whose demeanor i s not to be described but i n extremities. Her voice i s the screeching of an owl, her eye the poison of a cockatrice, her hand the claw of a crocadile and her heart a cabinet of horror. She i s the gr i e f of nature, the wound of wit, the trouble of reason, and the abuse of time....She i s the seed of trouble, the f r u i t of t r a v a i l , the taste of bitterness, and the digestion of death.29 69 Equally as extravagant was Richard Graham's praise of the virtuous wife, a saintly creature who was the mainstay, not only of her family, but of the commonwealth and society at large: This f a i r creature is a portion of her self; 'tis she who fastens a blessing to a l l her husband's undertakings; 'tis she who though she brings not riches, yet gathers them; 'tis she who presents him with f a i r and chaste children to adorn his table, and support his age; 'tis she who giveth her king loyal subjects, and her country good and just patriots; 'tis she who in her beloved's absence shuts her gates to a l l foreigners, and at his return recreates, and caresses him with chaste embraces and heals him with balmy kisses; 'tis she who by prudence f i l l s his granaries within, whilst he supplies her from without; ' t i s she who feeds the poor and clothes the naked; 'tis she who loves his friends and hates not, but prays for the conversion of his enemies; 'tis her breast which receives his cares, and her lips give him words of joy.™ A bleak picture of wives, husbands, and marriage in general was drawn by John Taylor in A juniper lecture. With  the description of a l l sorts of women, good, and bad: From the modest to the maddest, from the most c i v i l , to the scold  rampant, their praise and dispraise compendiously related (1639). Taylor's many characters "lectured" in separate chapters; despite the t i t l e , most of the women portrayed were lus t f u l , vicious scolds, their husbands, brutal, impotent sots. The language was colourful, i f crude. A wife complained of her husband, But I am married to a grumbling maulthead, a boor, a dung-hill, a cullion , a common town-bull: (out upon thee varlet) I defy thee, I spit at thee, and I may curse the time that ever I saw thee: thou keep'st me like a drudge, there's not a bawd, queen punke, ti b , trash, t r u l l , or trully-bub, oyster-wife, or kitchen stuff slut, but lives a merrier l i f e than I do. 3 1 In one of Taylor's more explicit passages, a young g i r l explained what she required in a husband: ... I w i l l have a husband that shall be always provided like a soldier, never not with standing, but in a sentinel posture, with his match lighted, and cocked bolt upright, and ready to do execution: not like a door-mouse, always sleeping; or like a drone in the hive, live idly: but I w i l l have a man active and nimble, and l i v e l y like the spring, that can come off and on bravely, without a word of command, and not be forced by art to do what nature hath taught him.22 Such works were obviously intended more for entertainment than for edification; the most popular and influential example of this genre, however, was pedestrian, dull, and sanctimonious in tone. Sir Thomas Overbury's "A Wife",. f i r s t published in 1613, had gone through nine editions by 1616; ten more reprints were subsequently made. The poem was accompanied by several character sketches including "A good wife" which was directly analagous to the poem, "A very woman" which condemned worldly vanity, and "A virtuous widow" which decried second marriages. The merits of Overbury's work are few; whereas the very banality of the poem may have contributed to i t s wide acceptance, the main reason for i t s popularity was due, no doubt, to the fact that the author was the victim in one of the 33 most celebrated murder cases of the period. The contrast between the moralistic tone of the piece and the lascivious and criminal goings-on of the author and his court circ l e must have provided amusement for many readers. Overbury's "Wife" was written completely from a man's 71 point-of-view; indeed, woman (Eve) was created by God s p e c i f i c a l l y for the purpose of becoming a wife. Marriage was designed so that the male would avoid f o r n i c a t i o n , obtain comfort, and continue his l i n e : God to each Man a private Woman gave, That i n that Center his desires might s t i n t , That he a comfort l i k e himself might have, And that on her his l i k e he might i m p r i n t . 3 4 On the choice of a wife, Overbury affirmed that neither beauty, b i r t h , nor portion should be the decisive f a c t o r s ; man should choose his wife for her virtue and piety. However, when goodness was combined with the more worldly at t r i b u t e s , the best possible condition was attained. The author also desired that his wife be understanding and have some conversation, but l i t t l e education: A passive understanding to conceive, And judgement to discern, I wish to f i n d : Beyond that, a l l hazardous I leave; Learning, and pregnant wit i n Woman-Kind, What i t finds malleable, maketh f r a i l , And doth not add more b a l l a s t , but more s a i l . 3 5 In addition, the good wife should be continually concerned with her domestic duties i n order to avoid l e i s u r e time which was dangerous for the female sex. She would be discreet i n behaviour so as to avoid gossip, and appear, as well as be, chaste. Overbury's "Wife" was not only widely read, but also imitated by other poets, some of whom were obviously attempting to p r o f i t from the success of the work and take advantage of 72 t h e s c a n d a l s and rumours o c c a s i o n e d by t h e a u t h o r ' s m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h . In 1614, an unknown auth o r undertook t o p r o v i d e a new husband worthy o f Overbury's 'widow', 3 6 as d i d John D a v i e s o f H e r e f o r d i n 1616. A l t h o u g h D a v i e s ' A s e l e c t second husband f o r  S i r T. O v e r b u r i e s w i f , now a m a t c h l e s s widow p u r p o r t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e q u a l i t i e s o f an i d e a l husband, a c t u a l l y i t c o n t a i n e d a d v i c e about how t o manage and c o n t r o l a w i f e . Women were by n a t u r e weak, f r a i l , and f u l l of f a u l t s , t h e poem contended, and i t was t h e husband's dut y t o p r o v i d e an example of u p r i g h t conduct and g e n t l y l e a d h i s spouse t o c o r r e c t b e h a v i o u r : The r i b o f man, whereof h i s w i f e was made Was c r o o k e d : s o , though w i v e s be such by k i n d ; Y et man, o f God, i n wisdom, l e a r n ' d t h e t r a d e To bow them s t r a i g h t : t h e n g e n t l y them t o b i n d W i t h c o r d s o f l o v e from s t a r t i n g back a g a i n , T i l l w i t h o u t s t u b b o r n e s s , t h e y s t r a i g h t remain.^ - j U n l i k e most a u t h o r s , D a v i e s d w e l t a t c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h on t h e p h y s i c a l s i d e of matrimony. The husband was c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t l y i n g w i t h h i s w i f e a l l n i g h t , e v e r y n i g h t , f o r t h a t would make l o v e s t a l e . However, i t was h i s duty t o s a t i s f y her s e x u a l l y whenever she w i s h e d : . . . f o r thou must (So she be t r u e t o t h e e ) as o f t e n p r o v e As she d e s i r e s t h e s p o r t , though but of l u s t : • • • And though i t be a torment t o a man, ( C o l d i n t h i s k i n d ) t o f o r c e f i r e out of i c e : Y e t i f she would, he s h o u l d , though i l l he can; S i t h s i n i t i s not t h e n t o p l e a s u r e v i c e . 3 R W h i l e Overbury a t t r i b u t e d l u s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e male, D a v i e s 73 o b v i o u s l y b e l i e v e d t h a t women had stronger sexual d e s i r e s . Another work i n the Overbury mode was The d e s c r i p t i o n of a good w i f e ; Or A r a r e one amongst women (1619) by Richard Brathwaite, who l a t e r wrote two very popular handbooks, The E n g l i s h gentleman and The E n g l i s h gentlewoman. Brathwaite*s poem took the form of a dream i n which a deceased f a t h e r appeared to h i s son and o f f e r e d him i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to choose a w i f e and, i n c i d e n t a l l y , on h i s husbandly d u t i e s . The q u a l i t i e s t o be looked f o r i n a w i f e were e n t i r e l y p r e d i c t a b l e : modesty, c h a s t i t y , obedience, v i r t u e , c h a r i t y . The son was warned not to marry one of higher s t a t u s (a common admonition) and t o a s c e r t a i n the c h a r a c t e r s of the g i r l ' s parents to make sure t h a t she had not i n h e r i t e d u n d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s . As f o r the m a t e r i a l s i d e of matrimony, Brathwaite's shade took a middle p o s i t i o n : a s i z a b l e p o r t i o n was very welcome, yet "dear's the 39 p o r t i o n i f thy w i f e be i l l . " He a l s o a d v i s e d h i s son t o have an eye on what kind of a mother h i s p r o s p e c t i v e w i f e would be, advice which seems obvious and s e n s i b l e , but was not u s u a l l y s t a t e d . Above a l l , the young man, w h ile heeding good c o u n s e l , should p l e a s e h i m s e l f , f o r . . . i n marriage thou t h y s e l f must p l e a s e , Or every day w i l l be an argument Of thy succeeding sorrow, then be wise, Carve f o r thy s e l f , y e t hear thy f r i e n d s * a d v i c e . 4 Q The f a t h e r ' s idea of husbandly d u t i e s was s u c c i n c t : command, but don't t y r a n n i z e ; show your a f f e c t i o n o n l y i n p r i v a t e ; don't keep your w i f e too s h o r t of money or meddle i n 74 domestic a f f a i r s ; and when you d i e , don't l e a v e your w i f e the e n t i r e e s t a t e , but only a p o r t i o n . He a l s o recommended t h a t the boy marry one who had f r e e l y chosen him, implying t h a t marriage was s o l e l y the concern of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d and not t o be arranged by parents or ' f r i e n d s * . Another type of l i t e r a t u r e which was an o f f s h o o t of the •controversy* over women was the d i s c u s s i o n of matrimony i t s e l f - whether the married or s i n g l e l i f e was p r e f e r a b l e . As with the works p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e v a r i e d i n tone and form. Those who inv e i g h e d a g a i n s t the wedded s t a t e u s u a l l y repeated the charges a g a i n s t women invoked by the a n t i - f e m i n i s t s ; those who recommended i t used the arguments of the c l e r g y or viewed marriage as a means of advancement. Works which defended matrimony came from the pens of noted Humanists H e i n r i c h C o r n e l i u s Agrippa and D e s i d e r i u s Erasmus. Agrippa's work, The commendation of matrimony, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n E n g l i s h i n 1534, was a paean t o the married s t a t e , s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t the author advocated an unusual degree of e q u a l i t y between spouses. He i n s t r u c t e d husbands t o ...take thy w i f e , committed and g i v e n t o thee f o r e v e r by the hand of god f o r thy c o n t i n u a l f e l l o w s h i p , not to s e r v i c e and bondage, whom thou oughtest t o r u l e w i t h thy wisdom, with a l l favour and reverence. And l e t not her be s u b j e c t unto thee, but l e t her be with thee i n a l l t r u s t and c o u n s e l , and l e t her be i n thy house, not as a drudge, but as m i s t r e s s of the h o u s e . ^ In two sh o r t and e n t e r t a i n i n g works, Erasmus argued f o r marriage as opposed t o the c e l i b a t e l i f e which he termed 75 "barren and u n n a t u r a l . " 4 2 Yet h i s words i n d i c a t e t h a t h i s view of matrimony d i d not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from the c h a s t i t y he d e r i d e d : a l o v e r a d d r e s s i n g h i s p r o s p e c t i v e spouse s t a t e d , As f o r our marriage i t s h a l l r a t h e r be a marriage of our minds, than our bodies;...how l i t t l e s h a l l t h i s matrimony d i f f e r from v i r g i n i t y . 4 3 Other l e s s noteworthy works which advocated the married l i f e over the s i n g l e were W i l l i a m Vaughan's The golden-grove (1600), Leonard Wright's A d i s p l a y of d u t i e (1589), and R i c h a r d Ames' The P l e a s u r e s of Love and Marriage (1691). Some authors, while r e c o g n i z i n g the advantages of matrimony, s t i l l found i t d i f f i c u l t to g i v e i t a whole-hearted endorsement. For example, Edward Waterhouse 4 4 and W i l l i a m de B r i t a i n e 4 5 advocated marriage p r i m a r i l y as a means to advance the f o r t u n e s of g r e a t f a m i l i e s . Samuel B u f f o r d r e f l e c t e d , " T i s t r u e indeed t h a t not w i t h s t a n d i n g a l l . . . [ t h e ] b l e s s i n g s of a married l i f e , y e t a s i n g l e one i s much more to be p r e f e r r e d and esteemed beyond t h a t , by reason of the many and v a s t advantages belonging t o i t . " 4 6 In a charming work which d e a l t with the economics of running an e s t a t e , F r a n c i s Dudley, Baron North, rather s t a r t i n g l y advocated a s i n g l e l i f e f o r women: A s i n g l e l i f e i s the best p a r t , g i v i n g a c a p a b i l i t y of b e ginning the heavenly joys here on E a r t h , by an u n i n t e r r u p t e d contemplation of the d i v i n e e x c e l l e n c i e s . " 4 7 F r a n c i s Bacon b e l i e v e d t h a t churchmen should be unmarried i n order to d i r e c t a l l t h e i r c h a r i t a b l e impulses t o t h e i r f l o c k , but s o l d i e r s with wives and c h i l d r e n would be l e s s l i k e l y t o d e s e r t . Unmarried men, he s t a t e d , made "the best f r i e n d s , best masters, best s e r v a n t s , " but not the best s u b j e c t s . 4 8 In a s i m i l a r v e i n , the anonymous author of Marriage  promoted. In a d i s c o u r s e of i t s a n c i e n t and modern p r a c t i c e (1690) d e s c r i b e d the advantages t o the commonwealth of a married p o p u l a t i o n . He b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l men should be o b l i g e d to marry at age twenty-one f o r t h i s would strengthen the kingdom, i n c r e a s e and promote a r t s and i n d u s t r y , augment the t r e a s u r y , l e s s e n taxes, prevent d i s e a s e and promote h e a l t h , ensure a sober, w e l l - o r d e r e d populace, and b r i n g the country i n t o conformity with God's laws. Moreover, the n e g l e c t of marriage ( i f not t i m e l y prevented) ...[threatened] the d e s t r u c t i o n o f . . . n a t i o n s ; i n s t a n c e d i n the decay of the Roman Empire on t h i s a c count. 4 g A humourous p i e c e with a s i m i l a r p o i n t of view was p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e The l e v e l l e r s : a di a l o g u e between two young l a d i e s , concerning matrimony; proposing an Act f o r E n f o r c i n g Marriage f o r the E q u a l i t y of Matches, and Taxing S i n g l e 50 Persons; w i t h the Danger of C e l i b a c y t o a Na t i o n . T h i s work was d e d i c a t e d t o a Member of Parliament. The guardian's i n s t r u c t i o n (1688), although not an an t i - m a r r i a g e t r a c t , l i s t e d reasons why marriage was despised by many: the i n f l u e n c e of the d e v i l which caused w i l d l i b e r t i n i s m i n men; contemporary examples of lewd behavior; the id e a t h a t matrimony was a s l a v i s h confinement; t h a t women were 77 governing t h e i r husbands; t h a t the a n c i e n t and modern w r i t e r s i n v e i g h e d a g a i n s t marriage; t h a t c h i l d r e n were f o r c e d i n t o wedlock without t h e i r consent with d i s a s t r o u s consequences; t h a t mothers-in-law t a l k e d too much and wives r a i l e d ; and "the easy cure of the French compliment." 5 1 Works condemning marriage used the arguments about woman's e v i l nature supported by the o f t - c i t e d examples from S c r i p t u r e and the c l a s s i c s . A d i s c o u r s e of the married and s i n g l e L i f e (1621) concluded w i t h a chapter on women who had murdered t h e i r 52 husbands; B u f f o r d noted t h a t some women, i n order to "ease the dear sweet husbands of t h e i r many ca r e s and t r o u b l e s of t h i s present world, do sometimes g i v e them a g e n t l e push i n t o 53 the next." Thomas Heywood's A c u r t a i n e l e c t u r e (1637) con t a i n e d d i a l o g u e s between husbands and wives of v a r i o u s s o c i a l c l a s s e s ; a l l r e f l e c t e d d i s c o r d a n t m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s . A l e t t e r by a Mr. S t r a t t f o r d p r i n t e d i n a work e n t i t l e d The c h a l l e n g e . • . o r the female war (1697) presented an e x c e p t i o n a l l y bleak view of married l i f e . The author accused women of p r e s e n t i n g themselves i n an a t t r a c t i v e l i g h t only u n t i l the knot was t i e d , a f t e r which they l e t t h e i r t r ue natures show: In s h o r t , a l l the care you took to d i s g u i s e your minds and bodies, a l l your i n t e l l e c t u a l toppings and washes, as w e l l as the gayety and judgement, wit and good humour of your outward dress have p e r f e c t l y vanished. We have you i n your n a t i v e homeliness, though not innocence: i f you have not too c o n t r a c t e d some a d d i t i o n a l countercharms, and add s l u t t i s h n e s s t o your other accomplishments, to make you more completely o d i o u s . 5 4 78 His d e s c r i p t i o n of the married e x i s t e n c e of the poorer c l a s s e s was e s p e c i a l l y s q u a l i d : And when once want comes i n a t one window, out creeps l o v e i n f a l l i b l y at another, e s p e c i a l l y when the b r a t s begin t o sprawl and s t i n k about i n every corner, y e l p i n g f o r the dug, with scarce c l o t h e s enough to hide t h e i r n a s t i n e s s . C [-Works of the ' c o n t r o v e r s i a l ' s o r t were w r i t t e n by men; with t h e i r e x c e s s i v e commendations or e n e r g e t i c d e n u n c i a t i o n s of women and marriage, t h e i r p o r t r a i t s of the s a i n t l y w i f e or b i t t e r shrew, they seem to have been intended p r i m a r i l y f o r a male audience. However, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e were works w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r women. These t r e a t i s e s , f a i r l y r a r e i n the Tudor p e r i o d , but i n c r e a s i n g l y common d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r y , d i f f e r e d from the cou r t e s y l i t e r a t u r e or advice books d i r e c t e d t o men. Ruth Kelso sums up the d i f f e r e n c e : Occupations which f i l l e d books e s p e c i a l l y addressed to gentlemen encompassed government, war, the l e a r n e d p r o f e s s i o n s , a g r i c u l t u r e , and commerce; but f o r women only one occu p a t i o n was recommended - housewifery. Education f o r the gentleman was a wi d e - f l u n g s u b j e c t , i n v o l v i n g a l l t h a t was c a l l e d l i b e r a l and drawing on the best p e d a l o g i c a l advice of the time. Education f o r the lady looked t o her p r o f i c i e n c y i n domestic a f f a i r s and what i n moral and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g would keep her s a f e l y concerned only with t hem. 5 6 The most popular work addressed t o women d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h century was by Joannes V i v e s . The L a t i n v e r s i o n was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1523 under the t i t l e De I n s t i t u t i o n e 79 Foeminae C h r i s t i a n a e ; an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , I n s t r u c t i o n s of a C h r i s t i a n Woman, appeared i n 1540 and was r e p r i n t e d more than seven times before the t u r n of the century. ' I n s t r u c t i o n s ' i n t h i s case was not used i n the e d u c a t i o n a l sense; the female was t o be i n s t r u c t e d i n becoming simply a good C h r i s t i a n w i f e . V i v e s used the t h r e e - p a r t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - maid, w i f e , widow - to d e f i n e a woman's l i f e . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the choice of a husband should be e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the g i r l ' s p a r e n t s , who were to s e l e c t him on the b a s i s of c h a r a c t e r , not r i c h e s , b i r t h or l o o k s . However, the match was t o be arranged a t the man's i n s t i g a t i o n ; t h a t i s , he was a c t i v e l y t o seek h i s b r i d e . Her parents were not to o f f e r her around nor compel 57 her to marry a g a i n s t her wishes. Vives* w r i t i n g s r e f l e c t e d a ra t h e r c u r i o u s double standard concerning the r o l e of lov e i n marriage. The man was t o " d e s i r e [the woman] with a l l h i s 5 8 h e a r t , " y e t she was not t o l o v e b e f o r e marriage, as t h a t would i n d i c a t e a l i g h t and un s t a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y . A f t e r the wedding, however, the w i f e was expected t o f e e l and d i s p l a y great l o v e toward her spouse, as w e l l , of course, as obey him i n a l l t h i n g s . V i v e s b e l i e v e d t h a t c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s were only f o r the purpose of p r o c r e a t i o n and the man's p l e a s u r e ; a chaste w i f e would, h e r s e l f , d e r i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n o n l y from her husband's enjoyment. Other w i f e l y d u t i e s i n c l u d e d keeping a w e l l - r e g u l a t e d home, r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , and t e l l i n g t a l e s which 59 ^ would " r e f r e s h her husband and make him merry" a l a Scheherazade. Advice books d i r e c t e d toward women became i n c r e a s i n g l y 80 popular d u r i n g the seventeenth century, and, although most of them d i s c u s s e d marriage, they d i f f e r e d i n emphasis and i n t h e i r t a r g e t audience. Gervase Markham's The E n g l i s h house-wife was aimed a t the m i d d l e - c l a s s woman. F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1611 and i n t o i t s el e v e n t h e d i t i o n by 1675, i t presented a ra t h e r daunting p o r t r a i t of i t s t i t l e c h a r a c t e r ("of chaste thoughts, staunch courage, p a t i e n t , u n t i r e d , w a t c h f u l , d i l i g e n t , w i t t y , p l e a s a n t , constant i n f r i e n d s h i p , f u l l of good Neighbour-hood, wise i n d i s c o u r s e , but not frequent t h e r e i n " ) 6 0 as w e l l as an even more impressive l i s t of her s k i l l s : As her s k i l l i n Ph y s i c , C h i r u r g u r y , Cookery, E x t r a c t i o n of O i l s , Banqueting S t u f f , Ordering of grea t f e a s t s , P r e s e r v i n g of a l l s o r t of Wines, c o n c e i t e d s e c r e t s , D i s t i l l a t i o n s , Perfumes, Ordering of Wool, Hemp, F l a x : Making C l o t h and Dying; the Knowledge of D a i r i e s ; O f f i c e of M a l t i n g ; of Oats... Of Brewing, Baking, and a l l other t h i n g s belonging t o a Household. c. Markhan's most severe condemation was of the w i f e who co u l d n ' t cook: The f i r s t and most p r i n c i p a l t h i n g i s a p e r f e c t s k i l l and knowledge of cookery... and she t h a t i s u t t e r l y i g norant t h e r e i n may not by laws of s t r i c t j u s t i c e c h a l l e n g e the freedom of marriage, because indeed she can then but perform h a l f her vow: f o r she may l i v e and obey but she cannot c h e r i s h , serve and keep with t h a t t r u e duty which i s ever e x p e c t e d . g 2 R i c h a r d Brathwaite, on the other hand, o b v i o u s l y appealed t o a reader of higher s t a t u s ; h i s work, The E n g l i s h gentlewoman (1631) , 6 3 covered such t o p i c s as a p p a r e l , behaviour, decency, g e n t i l i t y , honour, and fancy. As d i d many other authors, he 81 adamantly a s s e r t e d the n e c e s s i t y of s i m i l a r i t y of c o n d i t i o n , wealth, and age between husband and w i f e : D i s p a r i t y i n descent, f o r t u n e s , f r i e n d s , with other l i k e r e s p e c t s many times beget d i s t r a c t i o n of mind... which e f f e c t s are u s u a l l y produced, when e i t h e r d i s p a r i t y of years breed d i s l i k e ; or o b s c u r i t y of descent begets contempt; or i n e q u a l i t y of f o r t u n e s , d i s c o n t e n t . 6 4 As had V i v e s , Brathwaite c o u n s e l l e d the woman not to l o v e her husband u n t i l a f t e r marriage, but h i s advice about what he termed "fancy" i s ra t h e r c o n f u s i n g . He b e l i e v e d t h a t the "weaker sex" was more prone to concupiscence, what he termed "wanton fancy" or "wandering f r e n z y " , . a n d advocated " i n c e s s a n t d e v o t i o n " t o cure t h i s "desperate malady."*' 5 These appear to be the words of a man convinced t h a t the female had a v o r a c i o u s sexual a p p e t i t e ; y e t , a few pages l a t e r , he condemned those who were too " c o o l " t o t h e i r intended husbands and i n s t r u c t e d them i n how to i n c r e a s e t h e i r a r d o u r . ^ Poet and c o u r t i e r P a t r i c k Hannay a l s o d i r e c t e d m a r i t a l advice t o upper c l a s s women i n a work w r i t t e n i n the Overbury mode e n t i t l e d A happy husband; Or d i r e c t i o n s f o r a maide to 67 choose her mate which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1619. Since most unmarried women of rank had a very l i m i t e d v o i c e i n choosing t h e i r husbands, one wonders whether t h i s advice was intended t o be p r a c t i c a l , or whether i t s composition was simply an i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i s e . Hannay*s f i r s t admonition t o the husband-hunting female was to choose a man of equal b i r t h i n 6 8 order to mai n t a i n the s t a t u s t o which she was born. She was 82 t o c o n s i d e r the c h a r a c t e r s of h i s pa ren t s f o r , "From po i soned s p r i n g no wholesome waters f l o w . " The author s t r o n g l y warned a g a i n s t mar ry ing a deformed p e r s o n , s i n c e an outward b lemish was i n d i c a t i v e of an inward f l a w : "For she [Nature] doth b u i l d e r - l i k e a mansion f r a m e , / F i t f o r the gues t , shou ld harbour i n the s a m e . " 6 9 The p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e was t o look f o r a man of e s t a b l i s h e d and w e l l - d e s e r v e d r e p u t a t i o n some yea r s o l d e r than h e r s e l f . She was warned a g a i n s t men who gambled or drank h e a v i l y and those who were l i c e n t i o u s , f a i t h l e s s , and j e a l o u s . The i d e a l husband was one who f e a r e d God and d i s p l a y e d the v i r t u e s of p rudence, courage , j u s t i c e , and temperance. A f t e r l i s t i n g the q u a l i t i e s which a woman was t o look f o r i n a mate, Hannay d e s c r i b e d how the good w i f e shou ld behave a f t e r mar r i a ge . The w i f e ' s p r imary duty was obed ience to her husband ' s w i shes . T h i s a d v i c e was, of c o u r s e , f a r from un ique , but the a u t h o r ' s r a t i o n a l e f o r obedience d i f f e r e d from t h a t of most o ther c o u n s e l l o r s . A w i f e was t o bow to her husband ' s w i l l because he was the s u p e r i o r i n the p a r t n e r s h i p , but a l s o because, i n so do ing , she was more l i k e l y to a t t a i n her own d e s i r e s . Hannay t o l d the w i f e " t o win him w i t h m i l d n e s s " and used the metaphor of a r i d e r w i th an u n c o n t r o l l e d h o r s e : "The whip and l a s h the angry horse e n r a g e s , / M i l d v o i c e and g e n t l e s t r o k e h i s i r e a s suages . " I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the w i f e was equated w i t h the r i d e r , the one who was i n c o n t r o l , and the husband w i th the beast t h a t was t o be dominated. The P r o t e s t a n t p reacher s used the same metaphor, 83 but with the p o s i t i o n s r e v e r s e d . The w i f e was f u r t h e r admonished not to be too fond of her husband; the i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p was one of a f f e c t i o n and " s t a i d r e s p e c t . " She must maintain a c h e e r f u l face even i f i l l f o r t u n e b e f e l l them, not be too c u r i o u s or s u s p i c i o u s about her spouse's doings, take charge of a l l domestic a f f a i r s , and not indulge i n g o s s i p or l o o s e c o n v e r s a t i o n . A l s o i n s p i r e d by Overbury's work was a c o l l e c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s c a l l e d P i c t u r a e loquentes by Wye S a l t o n s t a l l which was p u b l i s h e d i n 1631 and again i n 1635. I t con t a i n e d a poem e n t i t l e d "A Mayde" which f o l l o w e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n of the "wife" and i n c l u d e d a d v i c e t o the young woman about how to choose her spouse. She was not to l e t l o v e or wealth induce her t o match with an aged l o v e r or an underage h e i r , but t o pi c k a husband j u s t a few years o l d e r than she, " . . . f o r t i s ever/ Observ'd t h a t they do always best agree,/ Who have spent 70 t h e i r youth and age t o g e t h e r . " The author spoke a g a i n s t f o r c e d marriages and b e l i e v e d t h a t sympathetic natures and mutual l i k i n g p r o v i d e d a sound b a s i s f o r matrimony. A popular work which r e f l e c t e d a r e l i g i o u s viewpoint was 71 The l a d i e s c a l l i n g (1673) by Richard A l l e s t r e e . A f t e r l i s t i n g the q u a l i t i e s of a good C h r i s t i a n woman (modesty, meekness, compassion, a f f a b i l i t y , p i e t y ) A l l e s t r e e c a t e g o r i z e d the d u t i e s of a wife under three headings: those due to the husband's person, h i s r e p u t a t i o n , and h i s f o r t u n e . Under the f i r s t heading the w i f e owed her spouse l o v e , f i d e l i t y , and obedience. She was t o p r o t e c t h i s r e p u t a t i o n by not 8 4 b r o a d c a s t i n g h i s f a u l t s or behaving i n such a manner as t o r e f l e c t badly on him, and t o p r o t e c t h i s f o r t u n e by being f r u g a l and not spending h i s money on l u x u r i o u s a p p a r e l . What i s unusual i n A l l e s t r e e 1 s work i s h i s unabashed support of the 'double s t a n d a r d ' . 7 2 A f t e r warning wives a g a i n s t j e a l o u s y he observed: But perhaps i t may be s a i d t h a t some are not l e f t t o t h e i r j e a l o u s y and c o n j e c t u r e s ; but have more demonstrative p r o o f s . In t h i s age ' t i s indeed no strange t h i n g f o r men to p u b l i s h t h e i r s i n . . . a n d the o f f e n d e r does sometimes not d i s c o v e r but boast h i s crime. In t h i s case I confess ' t w i l l be scarce p o s s i b l e t o d i s b e l i e v e him; but even here a w i f e has t h i s advantage, t h a t she i s out of the p a i n of suspense; she knows the utmost, and t h e r e f o r e i s now at l e i s u r e to convert a l l t h a t i n d u s t r y which she would have used f o r the d i s c o v e r y , to f o r t i f y her s e l f a g a i n s t a known c a l a m i t y ; which sure she may as w e l l do i n t h i s as i n any o t h e r ; a p a t i e n t submission being the one C a t h o l i c o n (?) i n a l l d i s t r e s s e s ; ...they are t h e r e f o r e f a r i n the wrong who i n case of t h i s i n j u r y pursue t h e i r husbands with v i r u l e n c i e s and r e p r o a c h e s . 7 3 However, when he d i s c u s s e d a w i f e ' s p o s s i b l e i n f i d e l i t y he f l a t l y s t a t e d , " A d u l t e r y was by God's own award punished w i t h death among the Jews,...and I know no reason,... t h a t should any where g i v e i t a m i l d e r s e n t e n c e . " 7 4 E a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s works had almost unanimously condemned a d u l t e r y i n e i t h e r sex; A l l e s t r e e ' s o p i n i o n s may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the l o o s e r moral standards of the R e s t o r a t i o n p e r i o d . Some authors seemed to use the advice book p r i m a r i l y as a means t o denounce women who behaved i n unacceptable ways. Robert Codrington o f f e r e d c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom about obedience and p a t i e n c e i n marriage as w e l l as a " s c a t h i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n " 85 of i d l e wives who wasted t h e i r husbands' goods, spent t h e i r time i n i d l e d i v e r s i o n s , and adorned themselves with p a i n t , 7 5 patches, and t i g h t c l o t h i n g . The anonymous author of S e v e r a l  d i s c o u r s e s and c h a r a c t e r s address'd t o the l a d i e s of the age (1689?) r a i l e d a g a i n s t wives who attempted t o govern t h e i r husbands as w e l l as those who in d u l g e d i n scandalous g o s s i p and "the f r i v o l i t y of French f r i p p e r y . " 7 6 The l a d i e s d i c t i o n a r y (1694), a lengthy work which contained advice about a p p a r e l , behaviour, and cooking as w e l l as matrimony, p r a i s e d the 'good' wif e w h i l e c a s t i g a t i n g the greedy, wicked one: [she] w i l l do but what p l e a s e s her even i n h i s prosperous days; and when a c l o u d over-shadows, she lea v e s him c o m f o r t l e s s , i n darkness and misery; she sucks him indeed w h i l e s t he has any blood of substance l e f t , l i k e a h o r s e - l e e c h , always c r a v i n g , but never s a t i s f i e d , d i s p l e a s e d a t every t h i n g he does, i f he grants not a l l her d e s i r e s , and they very unreasonable ones;...she regards not h i s growing r u i n or m i s e r i e s , but r a t h e r pushes him i n t o them.... 7 7. While male authors were 'debating' the m e r i t s of women and marriage or a d v i s i n g them on how to become good wives - at the same time d e p l o r i n g those who d i d not conform to the i d e a l - a few e x c e p t i o n a l females were themselves s e t t i n g down t h e i r 7 8 thoughts about marriage and woman's r o l e i n s o c i e t y . As P a t r i c i a Crawford notes, "women were aware of the bonds of 79 marriage i n a way they knew men were not...." While some of these works expressed c o n v e n t i o n a l , a c c e p t a b l e o p i n i o n s , o t hers d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y i n tone and viewpoint from those w r i t t e n by men. 86 Two t r e a t i s e s which contained u n e x c e p t i o n a l advice concerning marriage were The mothers b l e s s i n g (1616) by Dorothy Leigh and The gentlewoman's companion (1673) by Hannah Wolley. Leigh's work enjoyed g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y 8 0 d u r i n g the seventeenth century, which i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e i t i s so commonplace. The m a r i t a l advice she gave to her sons was to wed godly, v i r t u o u s women whom they l o v e d . She a l s o emphasized t h a t a w i f e was not to be t r e a t e d as a servant and a drudge, but r a t h e r as a " f e l l o w . " 8 1 Hannah Wolley, one of the better-known female authors of the seventeenth century, wrote a t l e a s t s i x books which t r e a t e d 82 ft *3 domestic matters. In The gentlewoman's companion she expressed her views on how a woman c o u l d marry w e l l and main t a i n a happy union. Her advice i n t i m a t e d t h a t a woman had a degree of choice of her p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t n e r ; indeed, her emphasis on c a u t i o n , d i s c r e t i o n , and judgement before d e c i d i n g on a mate seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t young women were making hasty 84 marriages based on "misguided fancy." Look w e l l b e f o r e you l i k e ; l o v e conceived a t f i r s t s i g h t seldom l a s t s l o n g , t h e r e f o r e d e l i b e r a t e with your l o v e , l e s t your l o v e be misguided; f o r to lov e a t f i r s t look makes a house of m i s r u l e . R 5 N e i t h e r p o r t i o n nor p r o p o r t i o n was t o be the main c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; the b r i d e was t o choose one whom she cou l d esteem f o r h i s v i r t u e s . As d i d male a d v i s o r s , Wolley argued t h a t i n e q u a l i t y i n age, s o c i a l s t a n d i n g , or f o r t u n e boded i l l f o r the union. Above a l l , she admonished her readers, 87 Whatever you do, be not induced to marry i f you have e i t h e r abhorrency or l o a t h i n g t o ; f o r i t i s n e i t h e r a f f l u e n c e of e s t a t e , potency of f r i e n d s , nor highness of descent can a l l a y the i n s u f f e r a b l e g r i e f of a l o a t h e d b e d . Q , The author's statements concerning wives' d u t i e s echoed those expressed from the p u l p i t but without the r e l i g i o u s c o n text. "Undoubtedly," she wrote, " the husband hath power over the w i f e , and the w i f e ought to be s u b j e c t to the husband 87 i n a l l t h i n g s . " 0 ' F u r t h e r , the good w i f e would ho l d her husband i n the h i g h e s t esteem; be q u i e t , p l e a s a n t , and peaceable with him; keep h i s house i n good o r d e r ; show resp e c t and kindness t o h i s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i o n s ; not l i s t e n t o " d i s t r a c t i n g " s t o r i e s about him; educate " h i s " c h i l d r e n and pp teach them to obey him; and manage money c a r e f u l l y . As b e f i t s one who was famous f o r her cookbooks, Wolley emphasized the importance of keeping a man w e l l and promptly f e d : Let him not wait f o r h i s meals, l e s t by so s t a y i n g h i s a f f a i r s be d i s o r d e r ' d and impeded. And l e t what you p r o v i d e be so n e a t l y and c l e a n l y d r e s t , t h a t h i s f a r e , though o r d i n a r y , may engage h i s a p p e t i t e , and disengage h i s fancy from t a v e r n s , which many are compell'd to make use of by reason of the c o n t i n u a l and d a i l y d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s they f i n d a t home. 8 g Many of the works w r i t t e n by women which expressed views on matrimony were responses to the ' c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s t s ' who defamed women. Two such p i e c e s were answers to Swetnam's Arraignment. E s t e r hath hang'd Haman (1617) c o n t a i n e d an i n t r o d u c t o r y l e t t e r to the youths of London which ca u t i o n e d , 88 "There can be no l o v e betwixt man and w i f e , but where there i s a r e s p e c t i v e estimate the one towards the o t h e r . " F u r t h e r , the author h e l d men r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most problems i n a marriage and i n d i c t e d them f o r being "drunkards, l e c h e r s , and p r o d i g a l s p e n d t h r i f t s . " 9 0 The author of A mouzell f o r Melastomus (1617) condemned Swetnam 1s work as a " p a l p a b l e blasphemy, w r e s t i n g and p e r v e r t i n g every p l a c e of S c r i p t u r e , " and defended women and marriage with words and examples from the Old and New Testaments. A w i f e was not her husband's v a s s a l , she wrote, but h i s " c o l l a t e r a l companion"; however, s i n c e the husband was o b v i o u s l y the dominant p a r t n e r , i t was h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to s e t the woman on the r i g h t path through "mild p e r s u a s i o n s " i f 91 she happened t o " t r e a d awry." A work e n t i t l e d The women's sharpe revenge; or an answer to S i r Seldome Sober was p u b l i s h e d i n 1640 i n response to John T a y l o r ' s J u n i p e r and Crabtree l e c t u r e s . The authors c a l l e d themselves Mary T a t t l e w e l l and Joan Hit-him-home. T h i s lengthy work (over 200 pages) was s h a r p l y and c l e v e r l y w r i t t e n and used both B i b l i c a l and c l a s s i c a l examples to defend the worth of women. The authors' view of marriage was, on the whole, r a t h e r n e g a t i v e ; they s t a t e d t h a t the d e s i r e f o r c h i l d r e n was the only 92 reason t h a t most women had anything t o do with men. T h e i r defence of wives i n c l u d e d a r o u s i n g d e n u n c i a t i o n of husbands: Some do accuse us t o be much giv e n t o l y i n g ; indeed I must confess i t to be f a u l t i n the most of the best wives: y e t I would have our d e t r a c t o r to know t h a t every excuse i s not a l i e , or i f i t be, then are most husbands beholding to t h e i r wives f o r excusing them 89 too o f t e n t o save t h e i r c r e d i t s : f o r a l a s (poor wretches) we are f a i n t o hide and cover t h e i r f a u l t s and i m p e r f e c t i o n s with our poor excuses, as f o r example; i f one of them be c r u e l , crabbed, and c u r i s h , t h a t he w i l l snap, s n a r l , and b i t e with dogged language and c o n d i t i o n s , then the poor woman ( l i k e a f o o l ) r e p o r t s him to be a kind, l o v i n g , and a f f e c t i o n a t e husband, ergo she l i e s ; another knows her husband t o be a wicked whore-hunter and t h a t he doth ( i n a manner) keep a t r u l l or two under her nose; y e t she w i l l say her husband i s a very honest man: ergo she l i e s t oo. A t h i r d spends most of h i s time i n d r i n k i n g or gaming and h i s poor w i f e i s so kind, as t o acknowledge him f o r a good, p a i n f u l , sober and c i v i l husband, and I am sure she l i e s abominable ( s i c ) . I c o u l d i n s i s t f u r t h e r i n t o such p a r t i c u l a r s , but these are s u f f i c i e n t t o show th a t the most p a r t of women being l i a r s , i s onl y out of t h e i r goodness t o cover the f a u l t s and abuses of wicked men.--, Other women a l s o expressed d i s t a s t e f o r marriage: poet QA Jane Barker p r e f e r r e d the s i n g l e l i f e , as d i d the author of The female advocate ( 1 6 8 6 ) ; J Jane Owen enjoyed widowhood when "your s t a t e s are i n your own d i s p o s a l " ; 9 6 Damaris Masham expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t worthy women who were married t o wicked men should not " f o o l i s h l y s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l i v e s , or the comforts of them...to those who w i l l not s a c r i f i c e the l e a s t 97 i n c l i n a t i o n t o t h e i r reasonable s a t i s f a c t i o n , " but should t u r n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s toward t h e i r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s t u d i e s ; and Anne, Countess of W i n c h i l s e a , wrote: Free as Nature's f i r s t i n t e n t i o n Was t o make us, I ' l l be found Nor by s u b t l e Man's i n v e n t i o n Y i e l d t o be i n f e t t e r s bound By one t h a t walks a f r e e r round. Marriage does but s l i g h t l y t i e Men W h i l s ' t c l o s e P r i s ' n e r s we remain. One of the most reasoned and a r t i c u l a t e , a l b e i t b i t t e r , 90 r e f u t a t i o n s of a d i a t r i b e a g a i n s t women was Lady Mary Chudleigh's The female preacher (1699?) w r i t t e n i n response t o a sermon by John S p r i n t . Lady Chudleigh used p o l i t i c a l arguments and language i n her defense, a p p e a l i n g t o " l i b e r t y , reason, and common-sense."" To the m i n i s t e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t women must not only be s u b j e c t t o t h e i r husbands, but must be so c h e e r f u l l y and w i l l i n g l y , she responded, T h i s i s tyranny, I t h i n k , t h a t extends f a r t h e r than the most a b s o l u t e monarchs of the world; f o r i f they can but f i l l t h e i r g a l l e y s with s l a v e s and c h a i n them f a s t to t h e i r oar, they seldom have so l a r g e a conscience to expect they should take any great p l e a s u r e i n t h e i r present c o n d i t i o n , and t h a t the very d e s i r e s of t h e i r h e a r t s should s t r i k e an harmony with the c l a t t e r i n g music of t h e i r f e t t e r s . - ^Q Q She c r i t i c i z e d the idea t h a t a woman's s a l v a t i o n was e n t i r e l y dependent on submission with the statement, ...there needs no f u r t h e r torment f o r a woman, than o n l y being o b l i g e d , on p a i n of damnation, t o b r i n g under her very d e s i r e s t o the unaccountable humours of a w i l d and giddy fop, who becomes more i n s o l e n t by submission, and grows more i n t o l e r a b l e by being born w i t h . 1 Q 1 She added t h a t she d i d not wish t o q u a r r e l with church d o c t r i n e , but noted t h a t the compilers of the l i t u r g y were men and "by consequence would not obmit ( s i c ) the b i n d i n g of our 102 sex as f a s t as p o s s i b l e . " The most acrimonious d e n u n c i a t i o n s of woman's l o t i n 103 marriage were w r i t t e n by Mary A s t e l l . The f i r s t proponent of 104 higher education f o r women, A s t e l l expressed her views on matrimony i n two works - S i x f a m i l i a r essays (1696) and Some 91 r e f l e c t i o n s upon marriage ( 1 7 0 0 ) . 1 0 5 A devout High Church A n g l i c a n , she attempted, u n s u c c e s s f u l l y , t o r e c o n c i l e her own b i t t e r n e s s and repugnance a t the i n f e r i o r s t a t u s accorded t o women i n marriage with the teachings of the Church which countenanced t h i s s u b j u g a t i o n . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of S i x f a m i l i a r essays was w r i t t e n i n the form of a l e t t e r from one woman to another on the o c c a s i o n of the r e c i p i e n t ' s m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . A s t e l l (or the l e t t e r - w r i t e r ) c o u n s e l l e d her f r i e n d t h a t she must put up with her husband's i n f i d e l i t i e s s i n c e "...we take them f o r b e t t e r or worse; and experience shows us, t h a t the odds are on the worse s i d e . " 1 0 6 She continued: ...he [God] has t o l d us t h a t s u f f i c i e n t t o the day i s e v i l t h e r e o f , and r e a l l y I b e l i e v e very few married women, f i n d any one day without e v i l enough, to e x e r c i s e t h e i r p a t i e n c e w i t h , f o r as soon as honeymoon i s over the blades begin t o show us, t h a t though they have d e i f i e d us h i t h e r t o , y e t they thought us no b e t t e r than poor s i l l y mortals a l l the wh i l e , whom they f l a t t e r only to oppress us.-^7 In Some r e f l e c t i o n s upon marriage, A s t e l l c a s t i g a t e d those men who married f o r f o r t u n e , beauty, w i t , or l o v e , which she regarded as being extravagant and temporal. F r i e n d s h i p , she 108 claimed, was the only b a s i s on which t o choose one's b r i d e . Of the woman's r o l e i n s e l e c t i n g a husband, she wrote, "A woman indeed can't p r o p e r l y be s a i d t o choose, a l l t h a t i s allow'd 109 her, i s t o r e f u s e or accept what i s o f f e r e d . " A s i m i l a r statement was made by the author of An essay i n defense of the female sex (1696): "Thus are we debarred the l i b e r t y of 92 choosing f o r our s e l v e s and c o n f i n e d t o please our s e l v e s out of the number t h a t l i k e and address u s . " 1 1 0 Marriage, a c c o r d i n g t o A s t e l l , was a t o t a l d i s a s t e r f o r women. Men d i d not want t r u e companionship, but r a t h e r an e f f i c i e n t housekeeper, a good breeder, and a d u t i f u l helper who would sooth h i s p r i d e and f l a t t e r h i s v a n i t y . . . conclude him i n the r i g h t , when o t h e r s are so i g n o r a n t , or so rude as t o deny i t . . . . I n a word, one whom he can e n t i r e l y govern, and consequently may form her to h i s w i l l and l i k i n g , who must be h i s of l i f e , and t h e r e f o r e cannot q u i t h i s s e r v i c e l e t him t r e a t her how he w i l l . - Q j As had the preachers, A s t e l l used p o l i t i c a l metaphors t o d e s c r i b e matrimony; y e t r a t h e r than a "we l l - o r d e r e d commonwealth," marriage was, i n her view, a " p r i v a t e tyranny" 112 i n which women were " s l a v e s . " In the p r e f a c e to the e d i t i o n of 1700, she s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o contemporary p o l i t i c a l debates by posing the q u e s t i o n s , " I f a l l men are born f r e e , how i s i t a l l women are born s l a v e s ? as they must be i f the being s u b j e c t e d t o the unconstant, u n c e r t a i n , unknown, a r b i t r a r y w i l l of men, be the p e r f e c t c o n d i t i o n of s l a v e r y ? " and " I f a b s o l u t e s o v e r e i g n i t y be not necessary i n a s t a t e , how comes i t to be so i n a f a m i l y ? " 1 1 3 The n e g a t i v e , indeed h o s t i l e , view which many of these educated, a r t i c u l a t e women expressed concerning marriage was summed up by Lady Chudleigh: Wife and Servant are the same, But only d i f f e r i n the Name: For when t h a t f a t a l Knot i s t i e d , Which nothing, nothing can d i v i d e : 93 When she the word obey has s a i d , And Man by Law supreme has made, Then a l l t h a t ' s k i n d i s l a i d a s i d e , And n o t h i n g l e f t but St a t e and P r i d e : F i e r c e as an E a s t e r n P r i n c e he grows, And a l l h i s innate Rigor shows: Then but to look, t o laugh, or speak, W i l l the N u p t i a l Contract break. L i k e Mutes she Signs alone must make, And never any Freedom take: But s t i l l be govern'd by a Nod, And f e a r her Husband as her God: Him s t i l l must serve, Him s t i l l obey, And n o t h i n g a c t , and nothin g say, But what her haughty Lord t h i n k s f i t , Who with the Pow'r, has a l l the Wit. Then shun, oh! shun t h a t wretched S t a t e , And a l l the fawning F l a t t ' r e r s hate: Value y o u r s e l v e s , and Men d e s p i s e , You must be proud, i f y o u ' l l be wise.,,. Even from t h i s b r i e f survey of very s p e c i f i c types of l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t views about women and marriage were changing d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . The debates about woman, which, i n e a r l y Tudor times, had been charming and w i t t y i n t e l l e c t u a l e x e r c i e s among c o u r t i e r s and s c h o l a r s , became, i n the succeeding c e n t u r y , acrimonious c o n t e s t s i n which men b i t t e r l y r a i l e d a g a i n s t women who, with equal b i t t e r n e s s but, i n most cases, more l o g i c , defended themselves and turned the t a b l e s on t h e i r a t t a c k e r s . The q u e s t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of marriage came under d i s c u s s i o n , not only f o r men, f o r whom a s i n g l e l i f e was a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e , but f o r women, f o r whom, i n most cases, i t was not. And poets and e s s a y i s t s e n d l e s s l y e x t o l l e d the 'good wife* i n verse and prose. T h i s 'good w i f e ' was, of course, i d e n t i c a l t o the one i n the P r o t e s t a n t marriage manuals; the q u a l i t i e s which the 94 p r e a c h e r s had p r a i s e d i n a r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t were t a k e n up by-p o p u l a r w r i t e r s . Any female whose b e h a v i o r d e v i a t e d from the i d e a l was condemned or r i d i c u l e d : she was p o r t r a y e d as a shrew, a h a r l o t , or a "mannish woman." The s t e r e o t y p i c a l view of women which runs so c o n s i s t e n t l y t h r o u g h s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e seems t o be an attempt t o p r e s c r i b e a v e r y l i m i t e d s o c i a l r o l e f o r women; t h e y were not t o be i n v o l v e d i n m a t t e r s o f p u b l i c i m p o r t a n c e , but t o c o n f i n e t h e m s e l v e s e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e p r i v a t e , d o m e s t i c s p h e r e . Indeed, as i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e y s c a r c e l y e x i s t e d a t a l l ; t h e i r i d e n t i t y c o n s i s t e d i n b e i n g U S w i v e s , mothers, and " p a s s i v e exemplars o f v i r t u e . " I t was a g a i n s t t h i s r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n o f woman t h a t t h e f e m i n i s t a u t h o r s r e a c t e d so b i t t e r l y : a man was, a f t e r a l l , a man and c o u l d be many o t h e r t h i n g s b e s i d e s ; a woman, however, was o n l y a w i f e . 95 NOTES Examples of cou r t e s y books which co n t a i n e d m a r i t a l advice a r e : The E n g l i s h gentleman by Ric h a r d Brathwaite, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1630 and again i n 1633 and 1641; E n c h i r i d i o n  miscellaneum by F r a n c i s Quarles and A. Warwick, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1640 and at l e a s t f o u r t e e n times subsequently; The  gentlemans companion: or A c h a r a c t e r of tr u e n o b i l i t y and  g e n t i l i t y by W i l l i a m Ramesay, p u b l i s h e d i n 1672 and 1676; A di s c o u r s e of c i v i l l l i f e by Lodowick B r y s k e t t , p r i n t e d twice i n 1606; and The gentlemans monitor by Edward Waterhouse, p u b l i s h e d i n 1665. Some Monographs on marriage a r e : A d i s c o u r s e of marriage and  wiving by Alexander N i c c h o l e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1615 and 1620; Conjugium conjurium: or Some s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on marriage by W i l l i a m Ramesay, f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1673 and again i n 1674, 1675 and 1684; The co u r t of good c o u n s e l l (1607); and The  b a t c h e l o r 1 s d i r e c t o r y which was p r i n t e d i n 1694 and 1696. The m a r i t a l advice contained i n these works was, on the whole, very c o n v e n t i o n a l and s i m i l a r to t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n the prev i o u s c h a p t e r s . 2 For d i s c u s s i o n s of the co n t r o v e r s y concerning women, see the f o l l o w i n g : L i n d a Woodbridge, Women and the E n g l i s h Renaissance: L i t e r a t u r e and the Nature of Womankind 1540-1620 (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r ess, 1986), 13-136; L o u i s B. Wright, "The Popular Controversy Over Woman," M i d d l e - C l a s s  C u l t u r e i n E l i z a b e t h a n England (Ithaca, N.YT: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958), 465-507; Ruth K e l s o , D o c t r i n e f o r the  Lady of the Renaissance (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1956), 5-37; C L . Powell, E n g l i s h Domestic R e l a t i o n s , 1487-1653 (N.Y.: R u s s e l l and R u s s e l l , 1972) , 160-169; H i l d a L. Smith, Reason's D i s c i p l e s : Seventeenth-Century E n g l i s h F e m i n i s t s (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r ess, 1982), 48-53; F r a n c i s Lee U t l e y , The Crooked R i b : An A n a l y t i c a l Index t o the Argument  about Women i n E n g l i s h and Scots L i t e r a t u r e t o the end of the  Year 1568 (Columbus: The Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1944), I n t r o d u c t i o n . Two of the more i n f l u e n t i a l works by f o r e i g n e r s were A t r e a t i s e of the n o b i l i t y of woman kynde by H e i n r i c h C o r n e l i u s Agrippa which appeared i n t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1542 and Bal d a s s a r e C a s t i g l i o n e 1 s The Cour t y e r , t r a n s l a t e d by S i r Thomas Hoby and p u b l i s h e d i n 1561, the t h i r d book of which argued the case f o r and a g a i n s t female i n f e r i o r i t y . 4 U t l e y ' s index l i s t s 403 works by n a t i v e authors which were p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1569. 5 Woodbridge, Women and the E n g l i s h Renaissance, 44. The no t i o n t h a t the 'controversy' was ii l i t e r a r y e x e r c i s e i s 96 confirmed by the f a c t t h a t s e v e r a l authors wrote both a t t a c k s and defenses. For example, Edward G o s y n h i l l condemned women i n The Scole house of women (1542) and acclaimed them i n The a l l women, c a l l e d M u l i e r Rich i n F a u l t e s f a u l t e s , and prayse of Barnaby i n The e x c e l l e n c y pean, (1542?), nothing e l s e but as d i d f a u l t e s (1606) and contained both A dyalogue defensyve of good women (1613) . Some works s i d e s of the argument, such as Robert Vaughan 1 s f o r women, agaynst malycyous d e t r a c t o u r s (1542) and E r c o l e Tasso's Of marTage arid" w i v i n g 6 (1599) Woodbridge, Women and the E n g l i s h Renaissance, 133 woman d e s c r i b e d i n the to whom the defenders of T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s t o the t h i r t y - f i r s t chapter of Proverbs, women almost always a l l u d e d . Ruth Kelso, with great i n s i g h t , p o i n t s out t h a t the q u a l i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o women du r i n g t h i s p e r i o d - c h a s t i t y , h u m i l i t y , p i e t y , p a t i e n c e - were e s s e n t i a l l y C h r i s t i a n ; those a t t r i b u t e d to men - j u s t i c e , prudence, c o u r t e s y , l i b e r a l i t y , temperance, courage - pagan. Ruth K e l s o , D o c t r i n e f o r the  Lady, 36. 9 * S i r s i g . D i i i . 10 Thomas E l y o t , The defence of good women (1545), Edward G o s y n h i l l , The prayse of a l l women, c a l l e d  M u l i e r u pean (1542?), s i g . E m . 1 1 Ralph Glassgow Johnson (ed.), The C r i t i c a l 3rd E d i t i o n  of Edmund T i l n e y ' s 'The Flower of F r i e n d s h i p p e ' , P u b l i s h e d i n 1577 ( P i t t s b u r g h : U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h , 1960), 135-6. 12 Swetnam's work was p u b l i s h e d twice i n 1615, and again i n 1616, 1617, 1619, 1622, 1628, 1629, 1634, and 1637. 13 Katharine M. Rogers notes t h a t those authors who pretend t o condemn on l y e v i l females " f r e q u e n t l y draw so b l u r r y a l i n e between bad women and a l l women t h a t the reader can h a r d l y be expected t o see i t . " Rogers, The Troublesome Helpmate: A  H i s t o r y of Misogyny i n L i t e r a t u r e ( S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y bT Washington Press, 1966) , 64. 14 Woodbridge charges, "Swetnam has plundered the formal c o n t r o v e r s y , c a r r y i n g o f f an unsorted booty of the co n t r o v e r s y ' s conventions, arguments, a u t h o r i t i e s , j e s t s , and exempla, along w i t h m i s c e l l a n e o u s shards of misogyny snapped up from non-formal l i t e r a t u r e ; but he n e i t h e r r e s p e c t s nor understands the genre." Woodbridge, Women and the E n g l i s h Renaissance, 87. 15 16 I b i d . , 139-183. Joseph Swetnam, The arraignment of lewd, i d l e , froward and unconstant women (1622) , 2. 97 1 7 I b i d . f 9. 18 Although the author's i n v e c t i v e s a g a i n s t lewd women, e x h o r t a t i o n s t o eschew l u s t , and use of B i b l i c a l examples of wicked women are rem i n i s c e n t of the more extreme type of r e l i g i o u s z e a l o t , The arraignment i s almost e n t i r e l y devoid of r e l i g i o u s content. 19 20 21 22 23 Swetnam, Arraignment, 15. I b i d . , 16. I b i d . , 36. I b i d . , 53. Woodbridge a c c u r a t e l y observes, "Whatever e l s e one can say apropos the r e l a t i v e m e r i t s of a n t i - f e m i n i s t a t t a c k s and p r o - f e m i n i s t defences, the a t t a c k s were c e r t a i n l y more f u n . " Women and the E n g l i s h Renaissance, 109. 24 D a n i e l T u v i l , Asylum v e n e r i s , or a sanctuary f o r l a d i e s (1616), 149. 2 5 I b i d . , 153. 2 6 The l a s t response to Swetnam was a p l a y e n t i t l e d Swetnam, the woman-hater, a r r a i g n e d by women (1620) i n which the author was punished f o r h i s mis o g y n i s t views. C o r y l C r a n d a l l , the most recent e d i t o r of t h i s work, contends t h a t the p l a y , which p o r t r a y s women and men as being n e i t h e r wholly good nor bad, may have r e f l e c t e d popular a t t i t u d e s more c l o s e l y t h a t d i d The arraignment. C o r y l C r a n d a l l (ed.), Swetnam the  Woman-Hater; The Controversy and the Play (Purdue U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s , 1969), I n t r o d u c t i o n . 27 Thomas F u l l e r , The holy [and profane] s t a t e , 4th ed. (1663), 207-209. T h i s work was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1642. 9 8 N i c h o l a s Breton. P a s q u i l s m i s t r e s s e : Or the worthie and  unworthie woman (1600), s i g g . E-E4. 29 N i c h o l a s Breton, "The Goode and the Badd," The Works i n Verse and Prose of N i c h o l a s Breton (New York: AMS Press, Inc., 1966), v o l . 2, 12. T h i s work was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1616. 3 0 R i c h a r d Graham, Vi s c o u n t Preston, A n g l i a e speculum  morale (1670), 92. 31 94. 32 John T a y l o r , A j u n i p e r L e c t u r e , 2nd impression (1639), I b i d . , 19. 98 3 3 A c c o r d i n g t o Ben Jonson, Overbury composed the poem i n 1611 i n order to impress and seduce S i r P h i l i p Sidney's daughter, the Countess of Rutland. (As f a r as we know, he f a i l e d . ) L a t e r , he used the work i n attempting t o dissuade S i r Robert C a r r , over whom he had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e , from making h i s married m i s t r e s s , Frances, Countess of Essex, h i s wi f e . In t h i s too he f a i l e d : the Essex d i v o r c e case was the se n s a t i o n of 1613. Overbury was c o n f i n e d t o the Tower, presumably so t h a t he would not o b s t r u c t the proceedings and s h o r t l y afterward, d i e d of p o i s o n i n g . Robert Carr and h i s new wi f e Frances were c o n v i c t e d of the murder and sentenced t o death, a sentence which was commuted by the King. For a more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of the Overbury case and a h i s t o r y of the p u b l i c a t i o n of "A Wife", see the i n t r o d u c t i o n of The "Conceited Newes" of S i r Thomas O v e r b u r y a n d h i s f r i e n d s ( G a i n e s v i l l e , ?we  Overbury and  f r i F l o r i d a : S c h o l a r s * F a c s i m i l e and R e p r i n t s , 1968), x i i i - x x i i i . 3 4 I b i d . , 47. 3 5 I b i d . , 55. 3 6 Only one copy of t h i s work e x i s t s . I t i s not l i s t e d i n The Short T i t l e Catalogue. Ben Jonson wrote a verse commending i t . See "To the Worthy Author of The Husband" i n Ben Jonson:  The Complete Poems, George P a r f e t t (ed.) Penguin e d i t i o n , 260. 37 John Davies, A s e l e c t second husband f o r S i r T.  Overburies w i f , now a matchless widow (1616), 9. 3 8 I b i d . , 10 39 R i c h a r d Brathwaite, The d e s c r i p t i o n of a good w i f e : o r , A r a r e one amongst Women (1619) s i g . B4. 4 0 I b i d . , s i g . B5. 41 H e i n r i c h C o r n e l i u s A g r i p p a , The commendation of  matrimony (1534), no p a g i n a t i o n . A O D e s i d e r i u s Erasmus, A ryght f r u t e f u l l e p y s t l e i n laude  and prayse of matrymony (1530?), no p a g i n a t i o n . 4 3 D e s i d e r i u s Erasmus, Modest means t o marriage p l e a s a n t l y  set f o u r t h (1568), no p a g i n a t i o n . 44 Edward Waterhouse, The gentlemans monitor (1665), 79-88. 45 W i l l i a m de B r i t a i n e , Humane prudence, or the a r t by which a man may r a i s e h i m s e l f and f o r t u n e to grandeur 5th ed. (1689) , 229-240. 46 Samuel B u f f o r d , A d i s c o u r s e a g a i n s t unequal marriages (1696), 7. 99 4 7 F r a n c i s Dudley, Baron North, Observations and a d v i c e s  oeconomical (1669) , 21. T h i s i s re m i n i s c e n t of the C a t h o l i c p o s i t i o n Tn p r e f e r r i n g the r e l i g i o u s l i f e over the s e c u l a r . A l s o , i t sounds l i k e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by women which are d i s c u s s e d below. 4 8 F r a n c i s Bacon, "Of Marriage and S i n g l e L i f e , " The  P h i l o s o p h i c a l Works of F r a n c i s Bacon, ed. by John M. Robertson (London: George Routledge and Sons L i m i t e d , 1905) , 743. Rich a r d Baxter, noted P r e s b y t e r i a n d i v i n e , a l s o advocated a s i n g l e l i f e f o r the c l e r g y f o r reasons s i m i l a r t o Bacon's, although he, h i m s e l f , f a i l e d t o l i v e up t o h i s b e l i e f s . 4 9 Marriage promoted. In a d i s c o u r s e of i t s a n c i e n t and  modern p r a c t i c e (1690), 31-50. 5 0 The l e v e l l e r s as p r i n t e d i n The H a r l e i a n M i s c e l l a n y , v o l . 5 (1810), 444-460. 5 1 [Stephen Penton], The guardian's i n s t r u c t i o n (1688), 26-30. 5 2 A d i s c o u r s e of the married and s i n g l e l i f e (1621), Table of Contents. 53 B u f f o r d , A d i s c o u r s e , 31. 5 4 [John Duntonl, The c h a l l e n g e sent by a young lady t o S i r Thomas e t c . Or, the female war (1697), 27. I b i d . , 26. Ke l s o , D o c t r i n e , 3. Joannes V i v e s , I n s t r u c t i o n s of a C h r i s t i a n Woman (1557), I b i d . , 61. I b i d . , 65. 55 56 57 59-61. 58 59 6 0 Gervase Markham, The E n g l i s h house-wife, c o n t a i n i n g the inward and outward v e r t u e s which ought to be I n ii compleat woman (1683) , 2. 61 I b i d . , t i t l e page. 6 2 I b i d . , 49. 63 F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1631, t h i s work was r e p r i n t e d i n 1641 as a companion p i e c e to The E n g l i s h gentleman. 64 R i c h a r d Brathwaite, The E n g l i s h gentlewoman (1631), 132. 6 5 I b i d . , 141. 100 6 6 I b i d . , 150. 67 P a t r i c k Hannay, A happy husband. Or, d i r e c t i o n s f o r a  maide t o choose her mate (1619) , no p a g i n a t i o n . The w i f e , of course, assumed the same s o c i a l s t a t u s as her husband. Thus, a woman who married a man of l e s s e r degree went 'down' the s o c i a l s c a l e ; one who married a man of g r e a t e r s t a t u s went *up*. Men were o f t e n warned not t o marry a wif e who was 'above' them as she would be proud and not r e s p e c t her husband as she ought; probably such a woman would a l s o resent her l o s s of s t a t u s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f she had been coerced i n t o marriage f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n or reasons of expediency. 6 9 Throughout A happy: husband Hannay i l l u s t r a t e d h i s precept s with examples taken from B i b l i c a l and c l a s s i c a l s t o r i e s ; however, i n t h i s case he borrowed from S i r Thomas More and c i t e d the case of R i c h a r d I I I t o suggest t h a t a marked body was a s i g n of a warped nature. 70 Wye S a l t o n s t a l l , P i c t u r a e loquentes; or p i c t u r e s drawne  f o r t h i n c h a r a c t e r s (1631), 13. 71 F i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1673, The l a d i e s c a l l i n g had been r e p r i n t e d e i g h t times by 1700. 72 For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s t o p i c , see K e i t h Thomas "The Double Standard," j o u r n a l of the H i s t o r y of Ideas 20 (1959), 195-216. 73 74 75 R i c h a r d A l l e s t r e e , The l a d i e s c a l l i n g (1673), 26, I b i d . , 32. Robert Codrington, Decency i n c o n v e r s a t i o n amongst women (1664) as c i t e d i n Mason, G e n t l e f o l k , ISW. 76 S e v e r a l d i s c o u r s e s and c h a r a c t e r address'd t o the l a d i e s of the age. Wherein the v a n i t i e s ol the modish women are di s c o v e r e d (1689?) as c i t e d by Mason, G e n t l e f o l k 172-3. 77 The l a d i e s d i c t i o n a r y (1694), 345. 7 8 For a complete b i b l i o g r a p h y of books by women authors p u b l i s h e d d u r i n g the seventeenth century see "Women's p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s , 1600-1700" by P a t r i c i a Crawford i n Women i n E n g l i s h S o c i e t y , 1500-1800, ed. Mary P r i o r (London: Methuen, 1984), 211-285. 79 Crawford, "women's p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s , " 226. 8 0 Leigh's work went through twenty e d i t i o n s w i t h i n a century of p u b l i c a t i o n . 101 8 1 Dorothy L e i g h , The mothers b l e s s i n g , 10th ed. (1627), 54. 82 For d i s c u s s i o n s of Wolley and her work, see the f o l l o w i n g : Ada Wallas, Before the B l u e s t o c k i n g (London: George A l l e n and Dnwin L t d . , 1929), 17-51; A n t o n i a F r a s e r , The Weaker  V e s s e l (London: Methuen, 1984), 360-3; D o r i s Mary Stenton, The  E n g l i s h Woman i n H i s t o r y (London: George A l l e n and Unwin L t d . , 1957) , 188-91; H i l d a L. Smith, Reason's D i s c i p l e s :  Seventeenth-Century E n g l i s h F e m i n i s t s (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1982), 105-109. oo ° The gentlewoman's companion was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1673 and was r e p r i n t e d twice a f t e r t h a t . Other works by Wolley went through as many as seven r e p r i n t s . OA °* Hannah Wolley, The gentlewoman's companion (1673) , 188. 85 Wolley*s work was w r i t t e n f o r the middle c l a s s e s ; young g i r l s of t h i s s t a t i o n probably had more o p p o r t u n i t y to make hasty matches than d i d those of the upper c l a s s e s . 8 6 Wolley, Companion, 89. 8 7 I b i d . , 104. 8 8 I b i d . , 105-107. 89 I b i d . , 106. T h i s d i r e c t i o n p r o v i d e s the student of s o c i a l h i s t o r y with i n s i g h t concerning why men d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d frequented t a v e r n s . 90 E s t e r Sowernam, E s t e r hath hang'd Haitian: or an answere  to a lewde pamphlet e n t i t u l e d the Arraignment of Women (1617), 44. 91 Rachel Speght, A mouzell f o r Malastomus, the c y n i c a l l  bayter of and f o u l e mouthed barker a g a i n s t Evahs sex (1617), 15. 92 Mary T a t t l e w e l l and Joan Hit-him-home, The women's  sharpe revenge; or an answer to S i r Seldome Sober (1640) , 133-34. For a comparison of t h i s work wi t h the w r i t i n g s of Mary A s t e l l , see "From 'Goodwife' to ' M i s t r e s s ' : The Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n of the Female i n Bourgeois C u l t u r e , " by Margaret George i n Science and S o c i e t y 37 (1973): 152-177. 93 T a t t l e w e l l and Hit-him-home, The women's...revenge, 60. QA See Crawford, "Women's P u b l i s h e d W r i t i n g s , " 226. 9 5 S.F., The female advocate (1686), 10-11. There i s some c o n f u s i o n about the a u t h o r s h i p of t h i s work. Mary Chudleigh's The female preacher was o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d under t h i s t i t l e and some s c h o l a r s a t t r i b u t e to t o her; however, the works are 102 e n t i r e l y d i s s i m i l a r i n form, content and tone and were o b v i o u s l y w r i t t e n by d i f f e r e n t women. 96 See Crawford, "women's P u b l i s h e d W r i t i n g s , " 226. 97 As quoted i n Wallas, B l u e s t o c k i n g , 104. Masham was a well-known i n t e l l e c t u a l of her day. For d i s c u s s i o n s of her l i f e and works, see Wallas, 75-107, and Stenton, The E n g l i s h  Woman, 219-220. q p As quoted i n Smith, Reason's D i s c i p l e s , 162. For d i s c u s s i o n s of Countess W i n c h i l s e a ' s l i f e and works, see Smith, 158-162, and F r a s e r , Weaker V e s s e l , 388-90. q q " Mary Chudlexgh (Lady), The female preacher. Being an  answer t o a l a t e rude and scandalous wedding-sermon preach'd by  Mr. John S p r i n t (1699?), 13. 1 0 0 I b i d . , 12. 1 0 1 I b i d . , 15. 1 0 2 I b i d . 103 For d i s c u s s i o n s of Mary A s t e l l ' s l i f e and works see the f o l l o w i n g : Stenton, The E n g l i s h Woman, 220-225; W a l l a s , B l u e s t o c k i n g , 111-130; F r a s e r , V e s s e l , 373-5; Smith, Reason's  D i s c i p l e , 117-39; George, "From Goodwife t o M i s t r e s s , " 152-177. 104 A s t e l l ' s A s e r i o u s p r o p o s a l f o r the l a d i e s advocated the establishment of a c o l l e g e of higher education f o r women. Six f a m i l i a r essays was p u b l i s h e d only once, but Some  r e f l e c t i o n s upon marriage went i n t o i t s t h i r d e d i t i o n . 106 Mary A s t e l l , S ix f a m i l i a r essays upon marriage, c r o s s e s  i n l o v e , s i c k n e s s , death, l o y a l t y , and f r i e n d s h i p (1696), 2. 1 0 7 I b i d . , 17. 108 Mary A s t e l l , Some r e f l e c t i o n s upon marriage 3rd ed. (1706), 9. 109 ., I b i d . , 22. 1 1 0 An essay i n defence of the female sex (1696), 131. The au t h o r s h i p of t h i s i s i n doubt; some s c h o l a r s a t t r i b u t e i t to A s t e l l , but the s t y l e i s completely d i f f e r e n t . 1 1 1 A s t e l l , Some r e f l e c t i o n s , 35. 1 1 2 I b i d . , 27. 1 1 3 I b i d . , 1700 ed., p r e f a c e . 103 -L-Lfl As quoted i n Stenton, The E n g l i s h Woman, 207. I K David J . L a t t , " P r a i s i n g V i r t u o u s L a d i e s : The L i t e r a r y Image and H i s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y of Women i n Seventeenth Century England," What Manner of Woman: Essays on E n g l i s h and American  L i f e and L i t e r a t u r e , ed. Marlene S p r i n g e r (N.Y.: New York U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1977) , 56. CONCLUSION 104 M a r i t a l advice i n the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s was remarkably s i m i l a r i n content, but d i f f e r e d i n form, purpose, and s i g n i f i c a n c e . The a d v i s o r y l e t t e r s , which were w r i t t e n f o r the most p a r t , by and f o r e l i t e s , focused almost e x c l u s i v e l y on how a young man c o u l d make a wise and j u d i c i a l s e l e c t i o n of a b r i d e . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t the d e c i s i o n of whom to marry was w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e of the youth h i m s e l f . E x t e r n a l evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t such was not the case; documents a t t e s t to the f a c t t h a t , f o r those of high s t a t u s , matrimony was a s e r i o u s a f f a i r i n v o l v i n g e x t e n s i v e n e g o t i a t i o n s u s u a l l y conducted by the parents of the p r o s p e c t i v e b r i d e and groom. Few young a r i s t o c r a t s would have r i s k e d t h e i r f u t u r e f i n a n c i a l and s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g by making a match which had not been e x p r e s s l y countenanced by those who had power over them. Th e r e f o r e , the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t the youth was f r e e to choose h i s own spouse i s f i c t i v e . I n t e r n a l evidence supports t h i s : the l e t t e r s c o n t a i n no r e f e r e n c e to the n e c e s s i t y of the consent of both s e t s of parents to the match, which was s t r o n g l y i n s i s t e d upon by the c l e r i c a l c o u n s e l l o r s . The i n f e r e n c e must s u r e l y be t h a t the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s had been i n v o l v e d i n the match-making process from the f i r s t . That none of the works mention c o u r t s h i p or i n d i c a t e t h a t once a maid was chosen, she had y e t to be won, confirms t h a t m a r i t a l arrangements were not n e c e s s a r i l y conducted by the p r i n c i p a l s . 105 T h i s i s not to argue t h a t the groom had l i t t l e or no in p u t i n t o the d e c i s i o n of whom he would marry. Lawrence Stone suggests t h a t , d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , a t r a n s i t i o n was o c c u r r i n g i n the arrangement of e l i t e marriages and d e s c r i b e s four s u c c e s s i v e phases: In the f i r s t , marriage was arranged by parents with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to the wishes of the c h i l d r e n ; i n the second, parents continued t o arrange the marriage but granted the c h i l d r e n the r i g h t of veto; i n the t h i r d , the c h i l d r e n made the ch o i c e but the parents r e t a i n e d the power of veto; i n the f o u r t h , which was onl y reached i n t h i s c entury, the c h i l d r e n arrange t h e i r own marriages with l i t t l e open r e f e r e n c e t o . . . t h e i r p a r e n t s . In the l a t e s i x t e e n t h and e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s , England passed from the f i r s t t o the second of these phases, while by the end of the l a t t e r century some w r i t e r s had moved from the second t o the t h i r d p o s i t i o n . . Stone's theory may w e l l be c o r r e c t . Evidence suggests t h a t i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s v a r i e d i n the degree of l a t i t u d e t h a t they allowed t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c h o i c e of spouses. However, I would d i s p u t e Stone's c o n t e n t i o n on two p o i n t s : f i r s t l y , h i s use of the word " w r i t e r s " suggests t h a t he i s basing h i s assumption on l i t e r a r y sources, presumably the l e t t e r s of advice on which he r e l i e s so h e a v i l y . These l e t t e r s are not i n d i c a t i v e of what the l e t t e r - w r i t e r s were a c t u a l l y doing. One may use them as evidence of what people were s a y i n g o r , perhaps, of what they b e l i e v e d , but not of t h e i r a c t i o n s . Speech and a c t i o n are not, a f t e r a l l , n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i s t e n t . Secondly, i t i s not l e g i t i m a t e to i n c l u d e sons and daughters under the heading of " c h i l d r e n " and make gen e r a l statements concerning t h e i r r o l e , or l a c k of i t , i n a r r a n g i n g t h e i r 106 marriages. The sources i n d i c a t e t h a t sons and daughters were t r e a t e d very d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h i s matter. I t would appear, then, t h a t the w r i t e r s of these l e t t e r s were o f f e r i n g specious a d v i c e a t best; they were c o u n s e l l i n g t h e i r sons on how to s e l e c t a w i f e when, i n many cases, the youths had l i t t l e or nothing t o say about whom they wed. Perhaps one can g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o the motives of the l e t t e r - w r i t e r s by examining the e p i s t l e s i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . The vogue f o r a d v i s o r y l e t t e r s can be t r a c e d back t o the p o p u l a r i t y of Burghley*s and King James' l e t t e r s ; o f f e r i n g wise counsel t o your son became the customary t h i n g t o do. E l i t e s of our day p u b l i s h t h e i r memoirs; those of the seventeenth century wrote l e t t e r s of a d v i c e . While some of the recommendations r e f l e c t e d the c o u n s e l l o r ' s experience and v a l u e s , o t h e r s were c o n v e n t i o n a l wisdom o f t e n p l a g i a r i z e d from another source. The l e t t e r s were not, i n any sense, p e r s o n a l ; the advice they contained was s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r i n t e d i n cou r t e s y and conduct books. T h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y l i t e r a r y nature can be evi n c e d by the f a c t t h a t they were o f t e n w r i t t e n on • s i g n i f i c a n t ' o c c a s i o n s , such as the f a t h e r ' s imprisonment, the son's l e a v i n g f o r a t r i p abroad, e t c . Before g i v i n g too much credence t o the advice c o n t a i n e d i n these l e t t e r s , the s c h o l a r should remember t h a t L a e r t e s no doubt ignored the admonitions of h i s f a t h e r and t h a t P o l o n i u s ' "To t h i n e own s e l f be t r u e " was e s s e n t i a l l y h y p o c r i t i c a l . The c l e r i c a l c o u n s e l l o r s p r o v i d e d the f u l l e s t e x p l i c a t i o n of matrimony and were the o n l y a d v i s o r s t h a t d e a l t , t o any s i g n i f i c a n t e x t e n t , with i t s p o s t - n u p t i a l aspect. T h e i r purpose was propagandist: they were attempting t o e s t a b l i s h the m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l y as a b a s t i o n of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h . T h e i r w r i t i n g s p r o v i d e d a model of the i d e a l domestic s i t u a t i o n : wise and pious f a t h e r j u d i c i o u s l y governing h i s obedient, submissive w i f e , h i s d u t i f u l , b i d d a b l e c h i l d r e n , h i s o r d e r l y , prosperous household. Common sense t e l l s us t h a t t h i s s t a t e was r a r e l y a t t a i n e d ; we can probably more a c c u r a t e l y deduce what was o c c u r r i n g i n m i d d l e - c l a s s homes by r e v e r s i n g the a d v i c e . Preachers s t e r n l y admonished c h i l d r e n not t o marry without p a r e n t a l consent; a s i g n i f i c a n t number may have been doing so. I t i s l o g i c a l to assume t h a t those who were l e s s f i n a n c i a l l y and s o c i a l l y dependent on t h e i r parents would be l e s s l i k e l y to obey them i n matrimonial matters. The c l e r i c s c i t e d S c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y t o prove how wrong i t was f o r husbands to beat t h e i r wives; t h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t not o n l y were husbands b e a t i n g , but t h a t wives were complaining. And, the c o n t i n u a l i n s i s t e n c e on w i f e l y subservience and meekness leads one to suspect t h a t many wives were anything but. I t i s tempting t o b e l i e v e t h a t people of the past behaved much l i k e people of today when they r e c e i v e a d v i c e : i f they t h i n k i t i r r e l e v a n t , they ignore i t ; i f they t h i n k i t v a l i d , a few t r y to emulate the worthy models, more f e e l g u i l t y t h a t they cannot l i v e up t o such high i d e a l s , most smugly c o n g r a t u l a t e themselves f o r being the paragon t h a t i s d e s c r i b e d . 108 Because the sources d i s c u s s e d i n the t h i r d chapter are a p o t p o u r r i of d i f f e r e n t l i t e r a r y genres, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about them. Whereas the l e t t e r s were w r i t t e n f o r purposes of s t a t u s , the marriage manuals f o r propaganda, and works of such s e r i o u s s c h o l a r s as V i v e s , Erasmus, and Agrippa f o r e d i f i c a t i o n , much of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e was w r i t t e n f o r entertainment and, u l t i m a t e l y , p r o f i t . The m a r i t a l counsel contained i n them i s c o n v e n t i o n a l or c l e v e r , t r a d i t i o n a l or c y n i c a l and l a r g e l y d e r i v a t i v e . One i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of these works i s the way i n which many authors l i f t e d the 'good w i f e ' from her r e l i g i o u s context and i n s e r t e d her i n t o what were e s s e n t i a l l y popular d i v e r s i o n s . Whereas she appears very much at home i n the p i o u s , bourgeois world of the P r o t e s t a n t p r e a c h e r s , she seems ra t h e r o u t - o f - p l a c e i n the Overbury c i r c l e . L i t e r a t u r e which d e a l t with marriage was becoming more c o n v e n t i o n a l i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of women. The reverse s i d e of t h i s phenomenon was the v i l i f i c a t i o n of woman. The miso g y n i s t pose appears to have become i n c r e a s i n g l y common du r i n g the seventeenth century. The f e m i n i s t r e a c t i o n , however, cannot be d i r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s . The changing i n t e l l e c t u a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e seems to have encouraged a few e x c e p t i o n a l women to a t t a c k , not o n l y those who c a s t i g a t e d women, but the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage i t s e l f . Advice i s , a f t e r a l l , an amorphous k i n d of evidence; i t informs us not of what people were doing, but what some people 109 were t e l l i n g o t h e r s they should be doing. Perhaps the best way to c a t a g o r i z e advice i s as a m i l d form of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e : one can t h e o r i z e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s modify t h e i r behaviour only when str o n g s o c i a l , economic, or l e g a l p r e s s u r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s expedient t o do so. T h i s may have o c c u r r e d with marriage d u r i n g the s i x t e e n t h and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . However, to sp e c u l a t e on other forms of pre s s u r e brought to bear on husbands, wives, and the m a r i t a l u n i t i s beyond the scope of t h i s paper. To make g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about the nature of marriage based s o l e l y or even p r i m a r i l y on evidence such as m a r i t a l advice i s presumptious. A l l t h a t can be s a i d about these works i s t h a t , t o g e t h e r , they form a very s m a l l p i e c e i n a p u z z l e , a p i e c e which may, when examined w i t h i n i t s own context and then taken with many other kinds of evidence, h e l p t o i l l u m i n a t e the t o t a l p i c t u r e . NOTES 110 Lawrence Stone, The C r i s i s of the A r i s t o c r a c y (Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1965), 670. I l l SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES The p l a c e of p u b l i c a t i o n i s London, un l e s s otherwise s t a t e d . A g r i p p a , H e i n r i c h C o r n e l i u s . The commendation of matrimony. 1534. . A t r e a t i s e of the n o b i l i t i e of woman kynde. 1542. A l b e r t i , Leon B a p t i s t a . The a r t e of l o v e . 1598. A l l e s t r e e , R i c h a r d . The l a d i e s c a l l i n g . 1673. . The whole duty of man. 1700. Ames, Ri c h a r d . The p l e a s u r e s of l o v e and marriage. 1691. The anathomie of sinne. 1603. 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