UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The effect of training grade four students to be sensitive to expository text structure and to use… Coulombe, Karen 1986

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1986_A8 C69.pdf [ 9.68MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0302129.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0302129-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0302129-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0302129-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0302129-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0302129-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0302129-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0302129-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0302129.ris

Full Text

THE EFFECT OF TRAINING GRADE FOUR STUDENTS TO BE SENSITIVE TO EXPOSITORY TEXT STRUCTURE AND TO USE TEXT HEADINGS TO INCREASE THE QUANTITY AND ORGANIZATION OF WRITTEN RECALL by KAREN COULOMBE B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f Language E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o - t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1986 © K a r e n Coulombe, 1986 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Iji^/yj/Jjj*?, c^n/jy raJi&fts The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main M a l l V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (2/81) i i ABSTRACT The e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e s t r u c t u r e of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o s e and t o u s e h e a d i n g s a s i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s on t h e q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of w r i t t e n r e c a l l was i n v e s t i g a t e d . One h u n d r e d a n d f o u r t y - o n e s t u d e n t s f r o m s i x i n t a c t n o n - s t r e a m e d c l a s s e s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . The s i x c l a s s e s were p a i r e d on t h e b a s i s o f e s t i m a t e d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r an e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o s e a n d i n t h e use o f h e a d i n g s as r e c a l l a i d s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a s s a g e s w r i t t e n a t a low r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o a nswer and o r a l l y mark a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e same p a s s a g e s a s u s e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y e n h a n c e d s t u d e n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l b u t d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d . P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s e f i n d i n g s , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n , a nd s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . i i i CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS X CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM 1 Statement of the Problem 1 R a t i o n a l e for the Study 2 Purpose of the Study 7 N u l l Hypotheses 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 9 Assumptions 12 S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study 12 O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s 13 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 14 The Importance of S e n s i t i v i t y t o Text S t r u c t u r e . . . . 15 Summary 3 5 The E f f e c t s of Headings on R e c a l l and Comprehension of E x p o s i t o r y Prose 37 The Importance of T e a c h i n g Students to Use Headings 37 Summary 40 T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s Regard ing the E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Headings 40 Summary 44 N o n - I n s t r u c t i o n a l E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d i e s Which Examined the E f f e c t s of Headings on Comprehension and R e c a l l of E x p o s i t o r y Prose 45 i v Summary 57 I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s D e s i g n e d t o S e n s i t i z e S t u d e n t s t o H e a d i n g s , T e x t S t r u c t u r e and M a c r o s t u r c t u r e F o r m a t i o n . 60 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 83 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY . 87 D e s i g n 87 S e l e c t i o n of S u b j e c t s 89 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S t u d e n t s i n t o R e a d i n g A b i l i t y L e v e l s 89 T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s 90 S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t M a t e r i a l 90 The G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m prehension T e s t 90 C o n t e n t 90 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 91 V a l i d i t y 91 R e l i a b i l i t y 92 N o n - S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t M a t e r i a l 92 I n i t i a l T e s t P a s s a g e 92 Use 92 C o n s t r u c t i o n 93 F i n a l T e s t P a s s a g e 93 Use 93 C o n s t r u c t i o n 93 T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o n d i t i o n s and P r o c e d u r e s 94 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s 95 V D e v e l o p m e n t o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 95 D e s c r i p t i o n o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 96 R e l i a b i l i t y o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 98 M a t e r i a l s 100 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P a s s a g e s 100 M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p . ... 101 M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p 102 P r o c e d u r e s 102 P i l o t S t u d y 102 M a i n S t u d y 105 T e a c h e r O r i e n t a t i o n 105 S t u d e n t O r i e n t a t i o n 106 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s 107 C o n v e n t i o n a l T r e a t m e n t 107 E x p e r i m e n t a l T r e a t m e n t 107 L e s s o n D u r a t i o n 108 Summary 108 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 109 A n a l y s i s o f t h e I n i t i a l T e s t i n g 111 The G a t e s - M c G i n i t i e T e s t ' 111 T - S c o r e s 111 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S t u d e n t s i n t o R e a d i n g A b i l i t y L e v e l s 112 A t t e n d a n c e R a t e s 115 Y e a r s o f T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e 115 I n i t i a l T e s t R e c a l l 116 v i A n a l y s i s o f t h e F i n a l T e s t i n g 118 F i n d i n g s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l H y p o t h e s e s .... 121 F i n d i n g s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l H y p o t h e s e s 124 A n a l y s e s o f t h e Use of H e a d i n g s By G r o u p 131 Summary 131 CHAPTER F I V E : SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 134 Summary o f t h e S t u d y 134 D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s 136 I n i t i a l T e s t i n g 136 F i n a l T e s t i n g 137 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l 138 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l 140 C o n c l u s i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s , a n d S u g g e s t i o n s for F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 144 Scope a n d L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 146 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 148 BIBLIOGRAPHY 149 A p p e n d i x A: I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l T e s t P a s s a g e s -S t a n d a r d i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s 156 A p p e n d i x B: S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 162 A p p e n d i x C: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s and M a t e r i a l s (Conventional Group) 180 v i i A p p e n d i x D: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s a n d M a t e r i a l s (Experimental Group) 202 A p p e n d i x E: S o u r c e s U s e d i n C o n s t r u c t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l a n d T e s t P a s s a g e s 257 v i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Summary of S c o r i n g Techniques Used in Developing Goble/Coulombe S c o r i n g Procedures 97 2. T i t l e , Fry R e a d a b i l i t y and A t t r i b u t e s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Passages 101 3. R e a d a b i l i t y Estimates of the I n i t i a l and F i n a l Test Passage 104 4. D i f f i c u l t Words in the I n i t i a l and F i n a l Passages 105 5. Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Gates M a c G i n i t i e T-Scores by Group f o r the Coulombe Study, N a t i o n a l Norms, and West Vancouver School D i s t r i c t Scores 112 6. A n a l y s i s of Covariance Summary Table f o r Quantity and O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l on F i n a l Test 117 7. A n a l y s i s of Covariance Summary Table f o r Quantity of R e c a l l on F i n a l Test 122 8. Means, Adjusted Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r Quantity of R e c a l l on F i n a l Test by A b i l i t y Groups 123 9. A n a l y s i s of Covariance Summary Table f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l on F i n a l Test 126 10. Means, Adjusted Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Scores on F i n a l R e c a l l Test by A b i l i t y L e v e l s 127 i x LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e P a ge 1. Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on I n i t i a l R e c a l l T e s t by G r o u p and A b i l i t y L e v e l s 119 2. O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s on I n i t i a l R e c a l l T e s t by G r o u p a nd A b i l i t y L e v e l s 120 3. Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by A b i l i t y L e v e l s 125 4. O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by G r o u p a nd A b i l i t y L e v e l s 129 5. O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by G r o u p 130 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s my h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e t o my s e n i o r a d v i s o r , D r . F l o r e n c e P i e r o n e k , f o r b e l i e v i n g i n me, and p r o v i d i n g me w i t h c o n t i n u a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t , s u p p o r t a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o grow i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . S i n c e r e t h a n k s t o D r . C l a i r e S t a a b f o r h e r e x c e l l e n t a d v i c e , g u i d a n c e , t i m e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t . D r . H a r o l d R a t z l a f f must a l s o be a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i o n i n a n a l y z i n g a n d r e p o r t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y . S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o D r . C a t t e r s o n f o r h e r s u g g e s t i o n s and a d v i c e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e s s o n s and t o D r . Lee G u n d e r s o n f o r h i s h e l p i n t h e c o m p u t e r a n a l y s i s of t h e ' d a t a . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o J o - A n n e G o b l e whose commitment t o e x c e l l e n c e was a g r e a t s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n . Our p a r t n e r s h i p w h i l e c o n d u c t i n g o u r p a r a l l e l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e d me w i t h i n v a l u a b l e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a b o u t m y s e l f a n d a b o u t what i s d e s i r a b l e a n d p o s s i b l e i n e d u c a t i o n . A n o t e o f t h a n k s i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o t h e p r i n c i p a l s , t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l s i n w h i c h t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . x i F i n a l l y , I am most g r a t e f u l t o my m o t h e r f o r h e r c o n s t a n t u n c o n d i t i o n a l l o v e , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , f r i e n d s h i p a nd commitment t o my w e l l - b e i n g a nd p e r s o n a l a nd p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . Her s u p p o r t and c a r i n g h a s made i t a l l p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f s e n s i t i z i n g e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s f o r r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n s e l f c o n t a i n e d c l a s s r o o m s . The b a s i c p r e m i s e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h a t , f o r many s t u d e n t s , r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s hampered by l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s o f how e x p o s i t o r y t ex t i s s t r u c t u r e d a n d how h e a d i n g s c a n be u s e d t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . I t was p r o p o s e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l p o s s i b l y be more a b l e t o c o m p r e h e n d a nd r e c a l l i d e a s i n i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s i f t h e y a r e s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a s s a g e s a n d i f t h e y a r e t r a i n e d t o u t i l i z e h e a d i n g s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e t e x t . 2 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y B e g i n n i n g a t a b o u t t h e f o u r t h g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e a d i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r amounts o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ( D u r k i n , 1978-79; E k w a l l a n d S h a n k e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . They a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d t o r e c a l l g r e a t e r amounts of what t h e y r e a d . As a f f i r m e d by Brown, Campione a n d Day ( 1 9 8 1 ) , " r e c a l l o f [ t e x t ] i n f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n demanded i n s c h o o l s — b o t h v e r b a t i m r e c a l l as i n v o c a b u l a r y t e s t s and g i s t r e c a l l a s when t h e s t u d e n t i s r e q u i r e d t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e e s s e n t i a l m e a n i n g of a t e x t " ( p . 1 6 ) . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t many c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y c o m p r e h e n d i n g and r e m e m b e r i n g e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i n f o r m a t i o n ( D a n n e r , 1976; Baumann, 1981; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h , 1 9 8 4 ) . T h e r e seem t o be a number of f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o c h i l d r e n s ' d i f f i c u l t y w i t h r e c a l l of e x p o s i t o r y d i s c o u r s e . One a s p e c t of p r o s e w h i c h p r e s e n t s c h i l d r e n w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i s r e l a t e d t o t h e a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e m a t e r i a l . U n l i k e n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l t h e c o n t e n t o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n of m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( m a i n i d e a s ) a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( d e t a i l s ) ( T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . R e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t e x t s t r u c t u r e seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d memory f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n 3 e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s e n h a n c e d when s t u d e n t s a r e aware of how e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s s t r u c t u r e d ( E l l i o t t , 1980; E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t , 1984; McGee, 1982; M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . However, t h i s r e s e a r c h a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t many s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e m i n i m a l a w a r e n e s s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ( E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; M e y e r , B r a n d t , B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . F o r t h i s r e a s o n e d u c a t o r s h a v e e x p r e s s e d t h e need f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t e x p l o r e ways t o s e n s i t i z e s t u d e n t s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t , 1984; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . One p o s s i b l e way t o s e n s i t i z e s t u d e n t s t o t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l may be t h r o u g h i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s ( B r o w n , Campione and Day, 1981; C h r i s t e n s e n and S t o r d a h l 1955; G i b b s , 1985; H e r b e r , 1965, 1970; J e w i t t , 1965; K i n g , 1985; N i l e s , 1965; R o b i n s o n and H a l l , 1941; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . Many e d u c a t o r s seem t o a g r e e t h a t e f f i c i e n t use of h e a d i n g s f a c i l i t a t e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e n c o d i n g a n d r e c a l l o f i d e a s i n a t e x t ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n and H o l l e y , 1983; Brown, Campione and Day 1981; C h r i s t e n s e n and S t o r d a h l , 1955; H e r b e r , 1965, 1970; J e w i t t , 1965; N i l e s , 1956; M e y e r , 1984; R o b i n s o n , 1970; R o b i n s o n and H a l l , 1 9 4 1 ) . As p o i n t e d o u t by M eyer ( 1 9 8 4 ) , "... s u b t i t l e s [ o r h e a d i n g s ] c a n be e m p l o y e d t o f o c u s on t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d e x p l i c i t l y s i g n a l t h e t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t " ( p . 1 3 3 ) . 4 P a s t r e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s on r e c a l l h a s f o c u s e d on s e v e r a l i s s u e s w h i c h i n c l u d e : t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f h e a d i n g s ( R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , 1941; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) ; t h e e f f e c t o f h e a d i n g s on i m m e d i a t e a n d l o n g t e r m r e c a l l ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n and H o l l e y , 1983; C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l , 1955; D e e - L u c a s a nd D i V e s t a , 1980; D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k , and M a r k s , 1978; H a r t l e y a n d Trueman, 1983; H a r t l e y , K e n e l y , Owen, and Trueman, 1980; R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , 1 9 4 1 ) ; t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s on s t u d e n t s o f d i f f e r i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s ( H a r t l e y a n d Trueman, 1983; H a r t l e y , K e n e l y , Owen and Trueman, 1980; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) ; t h e e f f e c t s on r e c a l l o f i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n a n d H o l l e y , 1983; H o l l e y , D a n s e r e a u , E v a n s , C o l l i n s , B r o o k s a n d L a r s o n , 1981) a n d t o g e n e r a t e h e a d i n g s ( D e e - L u c a s a n d D i V e s t a , 1 9 8 0 ) ; a n d t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d r e c a l l o f t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ( T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . O v e r a l l , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s r e v e a l t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f h e a d i n g s i s v i t a l i f t h e i r p r e s e n c e i s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l ( R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , 1941; C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l , 1955; G i b b s , 1985; K i n g , 1985; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . However, a s w i t h t h e s t u d i e s f o c u s e d on t e x t s t r u c t u r e , t h o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s f o c u s e d on i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s ' u s e of h e a d i n g s seem t o i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l l a c k o f a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l c u e s ( S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . A number o f 5 e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s l a c k o f s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d t o h e a d i n g s h a v e been s u g g e s t e d : l i m i t e d e x p o s u r e t o e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ( S t a b l e s , 1985; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) ; d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s r e l a t e d t o age a n d c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t ( D a n n e r , 1976; E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t , 1984; McGee, 1982; M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1980; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) ; a nd t h e p o s s i b l e n e e d f o r d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n , a n d H o l l e y , 1983; E l l i o t t , 1980; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; S t a b l e s , 1985; T a y l o r , 1980; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 4 ) . Many o f t h e few s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e , h i g h s c h o o l a n d e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s a nd t e x t s t r u c t u r e h a v e f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s f o r d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n ( B a r t l e t t , 1978; B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n a n d H o l l e y , 1983; G l y n n a n d D i V e s t a , 1977; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h , 1984; R o b i n s o n , 1 9 4 1 - 4 5 ) . As w e l l t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a f f e c t s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . When r e a d e r s a r e s t i m u l a t e d t o g e n e r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f a t e x t , r e c a l l seems t o be f a c i l i t a t e d ( A l v e r m a n n , 1982; D e e - L u c a s and D i V e s t a , 1980; D o c t o r o w , W h i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r , 1980; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h , 1 9 8 4 ) . H owever, t h e l i m i t e d number o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t h ave e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s h a v e p r o d u c e d m i x e d r e s u l t s ( B o o t h b y and A l v e r m a n n , 1984; D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r 6 and Beach 1984). Some s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s i n t r a i n i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s t o use headings (Doctorow, W h i t t r o c k and Marks, 1978; T a y l o r , 1982, i n i t i a l s tudy) and t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( T a y l o r , 1982 i n t i a l s t u dy) as measured by t a s k s of comprehension and r e c a l l . O t h e r s found t h a t i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s ' comprehension and r e c a l l was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n i n the use of headings ( T a y l o r , 1982 r e p l i c a t i o n s t udy) and t e x t s t r u c t u r e (Boothby and Alvermann, 1984; T a y l o r , 1982 r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d y ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , o n l y one r e s e a r c h e r has a p p r o x i m a t e d the f o c u s of the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T a y l o r (1982) conducted two c o n c u r r e n t l y run i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o examine the e f f e c t s of i n s t r u c t i n g f i f t h grade s t u d e n t s t o summarize c o n t e n t a r e a t e x t b o o k m a t e r i a l a c c o r d i n g to the s t r u c t u r e of the t e x t as h i g h l i g h t e d by headings and subheadings. A l t h o u g h her f i r s t study y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , her r e p l i c a t i o n s tudy d i d not a t t a i n the same degree of s u c c e s s . F i n a l l y , no s t u d i e s p r i o r t o the p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n seem t o have examined the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g grade f o u r s t u d e n t s t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e and to use headings t o i n c r e a s e the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e seemed to be a need f o r a study which combined a d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l paradigm w i t h a g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g approach t o determine the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g grade f o u r s t u d e n t s t o be s e n s i t i v e • t o the 7 s t r u c t u r e of d e s c r i p t i v e prose and to use headings to f a c i l i t a t e the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l . P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y The purpose of the s tudy was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g grade four s tudent s t o : 1 . i d e n t i f y and survey h e a d i n g s ; 2. be s e n s i t i v e to the h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y passages ; 3. use p a r a g r a p h headings as cues to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y t e x t passages ; 4. use rememberances of headings as i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s when r e c a l l i n g ideas i n i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s study sought answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : W i l l d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n des igned to t r a i n grade four s tudent s to be s e n s i t i v e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n prose and to use headings as r e c a l l a i d s a f f e c t the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of w r i t t e n r e c a l l ? N u l l The f o l l o w i n g n u l l s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n : H y p o t h e s e s hypotheses were e s t a b l i s h e d for 8 For Q u a n t i t y of R e c a l l by Treatment T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . For Q u a n t i t y of R e c a l l by Reading A b i l i t y T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r a b i l i t y l e v e l on s t u d e n t s a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l -t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . For I n t e r a c t i o n of Treatment by Reading A b i l i t y on t h e Quantity of R e c a l l T h e r e w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n b e t ween s t u d e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s ( t r e a t m e n t and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) and t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . For O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l by Treatment T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . 9 H o 5 : For O rgan i za t i on of R e c a l l by A b i l i t y T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r a b i l i t y l e v e l on s t u d e n t s a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l -t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . H o 6 : For I n t e r a c t i o n of Treatment by Reading A b i l i t y on the Organ i za t i on of R e c a l l T h e r e w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s ( t r e a t m e n t a n d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) a n d t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The f o l l o w i n g t e r m s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s s t u d y . D e l a y e d R e c a l l : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , d e l a y e d r e c a l l i s w r i t t e n f r e e - r e c a l l one day a f t e r e x p o s u r e t o t a r g e t m a t e r i a l . G e n e r a t i o n : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , g e n e r a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e a c t o f p r o d u c i n g o r g e n e r a t i n g m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s f o r h e a d i n g s w h i c h l a c k t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s o f a p a r a g r a p h . 10 H e a d i n g : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , a h e a d i n g i s a w o r d o r p h r a s e , s e t a p a r t and a b o v e a p a r a g r a p h , w h i c h r e f l e c t s an e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r a g r a p h ( a d a p t e d f r o m S t a b l e s , . 1 9 8 5 ) . D e s c r i p t i v e : ( A l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s I n f o r m a t i o n / C l a s s i f i c a t i o n T e x t S t r u c t u r e ) . A s t y l e o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l w h i c h o r g a n i z e s a n d p r e s e n t s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a t t r i b u t e s , s p e c i f i c s , e x p l a n a t i o n s o r s e t t i n g s o f a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c ( a d a p t e d f r o m M e y e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . M a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n : A s t a t e m e n t o f t h e m a i n i d e a o f a p a r a g r a p h ; a s t a t e m e n t w h i c h subsumes d e t a i l s o r m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( a d a p t e d f r o m K i n t s c h and v a n D i j k , 1 9 7 8 ) . M a c r o s t r u c t u r e : I n t e x t a n a l y s i s , t h e e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t m a i n i d e a o r g i s t o f t h e t o p i c and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a p a s s a g e . The m a c r o s t r u c t u r e may be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e t i t l e , h e a d i n g s and m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t h e t e x t ( a d a p t e d f r o m K i n t s c h and van D i j k , 1978 ) . M i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s : D e t a i l s of a passage . M i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s are r e l a t e d to and subsumed by e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t main ideas (adapted from K i n t s c h and van D i j k , 1978). Organ i za t i on of R e c a l l : The q u a l i t y of the arrangement of p r o p o s i t i o n s (micro and m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ) produced on a t e s t of d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . In t h i s s t u d y , a weighted s c o r i n g procedure w i l l be used to measure the arrangement of macro and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s (see S c o r i n g Procedures s e c t i o n of Chapter 3 ) . Quant i t y of R e c a l l : The number of p r o p o s i t i o n s (micro and m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ) r e c a l l e d as e v i d e n c e d by a t e s t of d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l (see S c o r i n g Procedures s e c t i o n of Chapter 3 ) . S e n s i t i z a t i o n : For the purpose of t h i s s t u d y , s e n s i t i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o : 1. the t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s used to i n c r e a s e the l e a r n e r ' s awareness response to t ex t s t r u c t u r e and h e a d i n g s . 2. awareness on the p a r t of the l e a r n e r as opposed to l a c k of awareness . 1 2 S t r u c t u r a l C u e s : Those e lements which s i g n a l the r e f e r e n t i a l c o n n e c t i o n s between d e t a i l s and main i d e a s . The s t r u c t u r a l cues emphasized in t h i s study are t o p i c a l h e a d i n g s . T r a i n i n g : Guided i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s u s i n g s e q u e n t i a l l e s s o n s and m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r s to induce l e a r n i n g (adapted from H a r r i s and Hodges, 1981). A s s u m p t i o n s I t was assumed t h a t : 1. The tasks which were r e q u i r e d of the s t u d e n t s in t h i s study had some r e l a t i o n to the types of t a s k s r e q u i r e d of s tudents i n a s c h o o l s e t t i n g . 2. The i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t ins truments used in t h i s study p r o v i d e d an adequate method f o r a s s e s s i n g the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l of e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . 3. A weighted r e c a l l t e s t s c o r i n g system i s an a p p r o p r i a t e and r e l i a b l e method for a s s e s s s i n g the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of w r i t t e n r e c a l l . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e St u d y T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s seen as h a v i n g p r a c t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r e d u c a t o r s , s tudent s and p u b l i s h e r s . The study adds to the knowledge base of content a r e a r e s e a r c h 13 by p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e e x p o s i t o r y t e x t p r o c e s s i n g a b i l i t i e s o f g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s . Some l i g h t may be s h e d on w h e t h e r g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s ' s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e and t h e a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y use h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e v e l o p m e n t a l o r c a n be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d by d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . The e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l c a n be s u g g e s t e d t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a s one way o f g u i d i n g s t u d e n t s i n p r o c e s s i n g , r e c a l l i n g a n d w r i t i n g o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . F i n a l l y , t h e f i n d i n g s and m a t e r i a l s of t h e s t u d y may be o f u s e t o p u b l i s h e r s who w i s h t o d e s i g n c o n t e n t a r e a r e s o u r c e s w h i c h a i d s t u d e n t s i n p r o c e s s i n g and r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i v e c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r One p r e s e n t s t h e p r o b l e m and r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r Two r e v i e w s t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e . C h a p t e r T h r e e d e s c r i b e s t h e d e s i g n and m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y . C h a p t e r F o u r p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s . C h a p t e r F i v e i n c l u d e s a summary o f t h e s t u d y and s t a t e s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s , l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 1 4 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE T h i s r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s on t h r e e a r e a s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t a r e a , The Importance of S e n s i t i v i t y to Text S t r u c t u r e , p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o why c h i l d r e n may h a v e g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y c o m p r e h e n d i n g and r e c a l l i n g e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e t h a n n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l . A c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e f o c u s e d on s t u d e n t s ' s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l s t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e may be an i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t i n c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . The s e c o n d m a j o r a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h c o n c e r n s The Effects of Headings on Recall and Comprehension of E x p o s i t o r y Prose h a s been d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s u b s e c t i o n s : a) The I m p o r t a n c e o f T e a c h i n g S t u d e n t s t o u s e H e a d i n g s , b) T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s R e g a r d i n g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f H e a d i n g s , a n d c ) N o n - I n s t r u c t i o n a l E x p l o r a t o r y E x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e E f f e c t s o f H e a d i n g s on C o m p r e h e n s i o n and R e c a l l . The f i r s t s u b s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e o p i n i o n s o f s e v e r a l e d u c a t o r s who seem t o be i n a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s may a i d i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f p r o s e b u t t h a t t h e s e c u e s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e may n e e d t o be t a u g h t . The s e c o n d s u b s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s 1 5 t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h p r o v i d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how h e a d i n g s may a f f e c t p r o c e s s i n g a n d r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . The t h i r d s u b s e c t i o n r e v i e w s t h e f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s were n o t t r a i n e d t o u s e h e a d i n g s t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e on s t u d e n t s ' n a t u r a l t e n d e n c i e s t o use t h e s e c u e s t o t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i n a l m a j o r a r e a o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e e n c o m p a s s e s Instructional Studies Designed to Sensitize Students to Headings, Text Structure and Macrostructure Formation. A c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e v i e w o f t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t y p e s o f t a s k s a n d t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s t h a t seem t o h e l p r e a d e r s f o c u s on i d e a s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e w h i c h , i n t u r n , f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n an d r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l . The I m p o r t a n c e o f S e n s i t i v i t y t o T e x t S t r u c t u r e A number of p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s h a v e been s u g g e s t e d f o r c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . T h e s e i n c l u d e : l a c k o f p r i o r k n o w l e d g e , d i f f e r e n t i a l l a n g u a g e e x p e r i e n c e s , l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o r m o t i v a t i o n , t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y , h e a v y c o n c e p t l o a d , a n d h i g h r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s ( B u r n s , Roe and R o s s , 1984; C o l l i n s a n d H a v i l a n d 1979; E k w a l l a n d S h a n k e r , 1985? E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . However, t h e f a c t o r s o f c o n c e r n t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s a p p a r e n t i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e a n d l a c k o f s t r a t e g i c s k i l l s 16 w h i c h may be u s e d t o c o m p r e h e n d a n d r e c a l l s u c h m a t e r i a l ( E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . U n l i k e n a r r a t i v e p r o s e , e x p o s i t o r y t e x t may be c o n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s . E a c h p a t t e r n i s c o m p r i s e d o f a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a i n i d e a s ( m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ) a n d d e t a i l s ( m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ) w h i c h f o r m t h e g i s t o r m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t ( K i n t s h a n d Van D i j k , 1978; M e y e r , 1984; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . N a r r a t i v e p r o s e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s u s u a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n a s e q u e n t i a l manner, f o l l o w s t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f s t o r y grammar a n d c a n be r e a d f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d ( B r i d g e and T i e r n e y 1 9 8 1 ; P i e r o n e k , 1985; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r e seems t o be g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t among r e a d i n g p r a c t i o n e r s , t h e o r i s t s , a n d r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n s o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e a b i l i t y t o c o m p r e h e n d and r e c a l l e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ( E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; C a t t e r s o n , 1985; H e r b e r , 1970; K i n t s c h a n d van D i j k , 1978; McGee, 1982; M e y e r , 1984; M e y e r , B r a n d t a nd B l u t h , 1980; N i l e s , 1965; T a y l o r , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , C a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) b e l i e v e s t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o a p p r o a c h e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e w i t h a d i f f e r e n t m e n t a l f r a m e w o r k t h a n u s e d f o r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . As p u t f o r t h by C a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 8 5 ) : R e a d i n g n a r r a t i v e i n v o l v e s some o f t h e same t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s a s r e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n d o e s b u t t h e r e a r e a l s o many d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two p r o c e s s e s a nd s t r e s s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i s p r o b a b l y more h e l p f u l t h a n s t r e s s i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . One r e a d s w i t h i n a m i n d - s e t t r i p p e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l ( p . 4 ) . 1 7 P i e r o n e k ( 1 9 85) c o n c u r s w i t h t h e o p i n i o n o f C a t t e r s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) and s u g g e s t s t h a t c h i l d r e n be t a u g h t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l . N i l e s ( 1 9 6 5 ) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " e f f i c i e n c y o f r e c a l l d e p e n d s i n p a r t upon t h e p e r c e i v i n g of some k i n d o f o r d e r o r s y s t e m i n t h e i d e a s t o be r e c a l l e d " ( p . 5 7 ) . She m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a t t e r n s e n h a n c e s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a c c u r a c y , r e c a l l e f f i c i e n c y , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o w e i g h t h e i m p o r t a n c e of d e t a i l s i n a t e x t . Her i n f o r m a l a n a l y s i s of c o n t e n t a r e a t e x t s ( 1 9 6 5 ) r e v e a l e d t h a t f o u r m a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s were u s e d i n s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r of f r e q u e n c y : e n u m e r a t i v e o r d e r ( a l s o known a s s i m p l e l i s t i n g , d e s c r i p t i v e o r i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) , t i m e o r d e r , c a u s e - e f f e c t and c o m p a r e - c o n t r a s t . H e r b e r ( 1 970) a l s o a g r e e d t h a t a w a r e n e s s and use of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r o s e e n h a n c e s t h e r e a d i n g of e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . He i d e n t i f i e d two o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t : e x t e r n a l a n d i n t e r n a l . I n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o r p a t t e r n of t h e t e x t c o n t e n t w h e t h e r i t be main i d e a / d e t a i l , c a u s e / e f f e c t , c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t , o r d i s o r g a n i z e d i n s t r u c t u r e . L i k e N i l e s , H e r b e r r a t i o n a l i z e d t h a t s t u d e n t s c a n use k n o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f p r o s e t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i m p o r t a n t and u n i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . E x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o c u s e s on t h e f o r m a t a n d p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e t e x t s u c h a s t a b l e s 18 o f c o n t e n t s , c h a p t e r h e a d i n g s , u n d e r l i n i n g s o r i t a l i c s , maps, p i c t u r e s , e t c . He r e a s o n e d t h a t e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z e r s c a n be u s e d by s t u d e n t s " t o d e c i p h e r what p r i o r i t i e s a u t h o r s p l a c e on i d e a s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n and t o i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e n t p r e s e n t i n t h e t e x t " . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a p p r o a c h i n g p r o s e w i t h a schema f o r i t s i n h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o n t e n t h a s b een s u g g e s t e d i n K i n t s c h a n d v a n D i j k ' s ( 1 9 7 8 ) m o d e l o f t e x t c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d m o d e l t h e c a p a c i t y l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e human m i n d make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o remember e v e r y t h i n g i n a t e x t . A r e a d e r must t h e r e f o r e f o r m a g i s t o r m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n t i d e a s t o be r e c a l l e d . To do t h i s e f f i c i e n t l y t h e r e a d e r must be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( m a i n i d e a s ) a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( d e t a i l s ) i n t h e s e l e c t i o n . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e a d e r must be a b l e t o a p p l y r u l e s of d e l e t i o n , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a n d c o n s t r u c t i o n when i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h e m a i n i d e a s a n d d e t a i l s i n t o a m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o r m e n t a l g i s t . R u l e s of a d d i t i o n , s p e c i f i c a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r i z a t i o n must t h e n be a p p l i e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e b a c k i n t o a r e c a l l e d v e r s i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n t c o n c e p t s o f t h e m a t e r i a l . K i n t s c h a n d v a n D i j k t h e o r i z e d t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n s l o c a t e d h i g h i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d be more l i k e l y r e c a l l e d t h a n t h o s e l o w i n t h e h i e r a r c h y . They a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r e f e r e n t i a l l y c o n n e c t e d p r o p o s i t i o n s w o u l d be e a s i e r t o r e c a l l b e c a u s e t h e y c o u l d be p r o c e s s e d i n c h u n k s . The t h e o r i s t s f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t 19 i n c r e a s i n g t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t e x t w o u l d most l i k e l y d e c r e a s e t h e s i z e o f t h e p r o c e s s i n g c h u n k s . H o w e v e r , t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h p l a y m a j o r r o l e s i n m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e r e a d e r ' s p r o c e s s i n g g o a l s , t h e r e a d e r ' s schema f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d , and t h e r e a d e r ' s schema f o r t h e t e x t p a t t e r n u s e d t o p r e s e n t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who h a v e a schema f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f p r o s e , o r more s i m p l y p u t , s t u d e n t s who a r e a ware o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e remember s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f what t h e y r e a d t h a n s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t a ware of t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( E l l i o t t , 1980; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 2 ) . M e y e r , B r a n d t and B l u t h (1980) c o n d u c t e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o c u s e d on n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' use o f t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d 102 n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s d i v i d e d i n t o g r o u p s of g o o d , a v e r a g e and p o o r r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s b a s e d on t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e s a n d r e a d i n g t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . Two p a s s a g e s , one w i t h a c o m p a r i s o n t o p l e v e l s t r u c t u r e and one w i t h a p r o b l e m / s o l u t i o n p a t t e r n were u s e d i n t h e s t u d y . E a c h p a s s a g e was w r i t t e n i n two v e r s i o n s : a w i t h - s i g n a l l i n g v e r s i o n and a w i t h o u t - s i g n a l l i n g v e r s i o n . The w i t h - s i g n a l l i n g v e r s i o n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h e t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t , i n c l u d e d a t i t l e a n d c o n t a i n e d u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s o f t h e m a i n c o n c e p t s of t h e p a s s a g e w h i l e t h e w i t h o u t - s i g n a l l i n g v e r s i o n d i d n o t . 20 In t h e s t u d y e a c h s t u d e n t was r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o two of t h e f o u r p a s s a g e s and t o a p a s s a g e p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r . A f t e r r e a d i n g a p a s s a g e , and r e m o v i n g i t from s i g h t , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w r o t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h e y c o u l d remember. One week l a t e r t h e s t u d e n t s a g a i n w r o t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered. F o l l o w i n g t h e f r e e r e c a l l t a s k , e a c h s t u d e n t c o m p l e t e d a t e s t r e q u i r i n g r e c o g n i t i o n r a t i n g s of s e n t e n c e s f r om t h e p a s s a g e s r e a d one. week p r e v i o u s l y . B a s e d on t h e d a t a Meyer, B r a n d t and B l u t h (1980) r e p o r t e d f i v e major f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' use o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e . F i r s t , o n l y 50% o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s u t i l i z e d t h e a u t h o r ' s s t r u c t u r e a t l e a s t once when r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e p a s s a g e and o n l y 22% us e d t e x t s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t e n t l y . . S e c o n d , good n i n t h g r a d e r e a d e r s were more i n c l i n e d t o use t e x t s t r u c t u r e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r p r o t o c o l s t h a n p o o r n i n t h g r a d e r e a d e r s . T h i r d , t h o s e s t u d e n t s who d i d use t h e a u t h o r ' s s t r u c t u r e r e c a l l e d more i n f o r m a t i o n t h a n t h o s e who d i d n o t . F o u r t h , s t u d e n t s who u s e d t h e t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e were more a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e w hether i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i s t e n t o r i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p a s s a g e s t h a t had been r e a d t h a n t h o s e who d i d not use t e x t s t r u c t u r e . F i f t h , a l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r e d t h a t s i g n a l l i n g f a c i l i t a t e d use of t e x t s t r u c t u r e , l e a r n i n g , and immediate r e c a l l of p o o r n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s , t h i s f i n d i n g a p p r o a c h e d b u t d i d not r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e . 7 21 R e s u l t s f r o m t h e s t u d y by M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h showed t h a t s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e may i n f l u e n c e r e c a l l , t h a t g o o d r e a d e r s seem more aware o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e t h a n p o o r r e a d e r s a n d t h a t g r e a t e r a mounts o f c u e s w h i c h s i g n a l t h e t e x t m a c r o s t r u c t u r e may a i d i n r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . R e s e a r c h on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f m a t u r e r e a d e r ' s use o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e s h e d s some l i g h t on s t u d e n t s ' t e x t p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s . However s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s of p r o s e have been l i m i t e d . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t o f e x p o s i t o r y o r g a n i z a t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l was c o n d u c t e d by A u l l s i n 1975. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o f i n d o u t w h e t h e r c e r t a i n i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s w o u l d have a s i g n i f i c a n t j o i n t e f f e c t on t h e f r e e r e c a l l s c o r e s of s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . I n t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r a g r a p h s s u c h a s s e n t e n c e o r d e r ( d i s c o n t i n u o u s o r c o m p a c t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , a n d e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r a g r a p h s s u c h a s t h e p r e s e n c e o f m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t and t o p i c t i t l e , m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t o n l y , t o p i c t i t l e o n l y , o r n e i t h e r , and m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f p a r a g r a p h c o n t e n t were m a n i p u l a t e d i n a f a c t o r i a l a r r a n g e m e n t d e s i g n . One h u n d r e d and t w e n t y e i g h t s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g a t o r a b o v e t h e s i x t h g r a d e l e v e l r e a d two a s s i g n e d p a r a g r a p h s ( g r a d e 5 r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l ) w h i c h v a r i e d i n c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s . 22 The s t u d e n t s w e re g i v e n j u s t e nough t i m e t o r e a d e a c h p a r a g r a p h o n c e . Then t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h e p a r a g r a p h h a d s a i d w ord f o r w o r d . A s u m m a r i z a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c a l l was j o i n t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s o f a p a r a g r a p h a n d s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p a r a g r a p h . F o r l ow m e a n i n g f u l p a r a g r a p h c o n t e n t ( d i s c o n t i n u o u s a nd d i s o r g a n i z e d ) t h e t i t l e - m a i n i d e a c o m b i n a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d r e c a l l and had a g r e a t e r f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t on r e c a l l t h a n p a r a g r a p h s where n e i t h e r t i t l e n o r m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t were p r e s e n t . However, f o r m e a n i n g f u l p a r a g r a p h c o n t e n t ( c o m p a c t a nd o r g a n i z e d ) , t h e t o p i c t i t l e was n o t a s i n f l u e n t i a l on r e c a l l a s was t h e m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t . A u l l s s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l o n g e r t i m e a l l o t m e n t m i g h t h a v e a l l o w e d r e a d e r s t o f i n d t h e s t r u c t u r a l c u e s w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s u b t o p i c s , i d e a s t a t e m e n t s o r t i t l e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e ma i n e f f e c t s o f t h e d a t a do i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s ( i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a r a g r a p h s h a s j o i n t i n f l u e n c e w i t h e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n i n f l u e n c i n g r e c a l l . The f i n d i n g s a l s o s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t p a r a g r a p h s t r u c t u r e may a c t a s a g u i d e t h a t i n f l u e n c e s r e c a l l ( A u l l s , 1 9 7 5 ) . S i n c e p a r a g r a p h s t r u c t u r e may a c t as a g u i d e w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s memory, f u r t h e r s t u d i e s were n e e d e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h p r o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c h i l d r e n ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r r e c a l l . 23 One s u c h s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d one y e a r l a t e r by D a n n e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a s s e s s g r a d e s two , f o u r a n d s i x c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t o p i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e i r r e c a l l , a n d t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f t o p i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The s t u d y u t i l i z e d 12 g i r l s a nd 12 b o y s f r o m e a c h g r a d e . D a n n e r had e a c h s t u d e n t l i s t e n t o two t a p e r e c o r d e d 12 s e n t e n c e p a s s a g e s . The two p a s s a g e s d e s c r i b e d a f o x o r p o l a r b e a r . E a c h p a s s a g e c o n t a i n e d t h r e e m a i n t o p i c s w i t h f o u r s e n t e n c e s t o e a c h t o p i c . B o t h p a s s a g e s had two v e r s i o n s , one t o p i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d a n d t h e o t h e r t o p i c a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d . The p a s s a g e s were p r e s e n t e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y and t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e t a p e d p r e s e n t a t i o n e a c h c h i l d was r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a f r e e r e c a l l t e s t , a d i s c u s s i o n o f s u b j e c t i v e r e c a l l d i f f i c u l t y , a d e t e c t i o n t a s k , a g r o u p i n g t a s k , a t o p i c d e s c r i p t i o n t a s k and a r e v i e w n o t e s t a s k . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t e s t d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e amount, o r d e r and p e r c e i v e d d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c a l l i n a l l s t u d e n t s f r o m a l l t h r e e g r a d e s . R e c a l l and t o p i c a l c l u s t e r i n g o f s e n t e n c e s was g r e a t e r f o r t o p i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e s . I n a d d i t i o n , age r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n t h e number of c h i l d r e n who were aware o f p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r number o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n n o t i c e d 24 d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e b e t w e e n p a s s a g e s , s o r t e d s e n t e n c e s t o p i c a l l y a n d s e l e c t e d r e v i e w n o t e s on t h e b a s i s o f p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . O n l y two s t u d e n t s , one i n g r a d e f o u r a n d one i n g r a d e s i x , d e m o n s t r a t e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n by s p o n t a n e o u s l y a t t r i b u t i n g g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y when r e c a l l i n g i d e a s t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e s . D a n n e r commented t h a t a l t h o u g h d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s may e x i s t i n c h i l d r e n ' s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n on memory, d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n ' s l a c k o f e x p o s u r e t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n t o p i c a l o u t l i n i n g . B e c a u s e p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e d r e c a l l r e g a r d l e s s o f a w a r e n e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , D a n n e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n d e t e c t i o n a n d u s e of t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n may f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t s ' p e r f o r m a n c e i n s t u d y a n d r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s . D a n n e r ' s s t u d y seemed t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l o f d e s c r i p t i v e e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s a l s o seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c r e a s e d w i t h a g e . Ho w e v e r , t h e s e f i n d i n g s were l i m i t e d t o c h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r s h o r t , r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p a s s a g e s w h i c h r e q u i r e d a l i s t e n i n g t a s k r a t h e r t h a n a r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y i n v o l v i n g l i s t e n i n g a n d t h e e f f e c t o f c o n t e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n on r e c a l l , W a t e r s (1978) f o u n d t h a t p r o p o s i t i o n s p l a c e d h i g h i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f a 25 p a s s a g e were r e c a l l e d b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e l o w i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t o f two i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , 64 t h i r d g r a d e , 64 s i x t h g r a d e a n d 96 c o l l e g e l e v e l s t u d e n t s e i t h e r g e n e r a t e d a p a s s a g e o r l i s t e n e d t o a t a p e r e c o r d e d p a s s a g e g e n e r a t e d by a d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t . S u b j e c t s who g e n e r a t e d a p a s s a g e were g i v e n a s e t o f " p r o m p t " w o r d s i n o r d e r t o compose t h e m a t e r i a l t o be remembered. T h e s e same p a s s a g e s were t h e n l i s t e n e d t o by a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s who were s u p p l i e d t h e p r o m p t s h e e t w h i l e l i s t e n i n g . Two weeks l a t e r a l l s u b j e c t s were a s k e d t o r e c a l l t h e i r p a s s a g e . The r e s u l t s of t h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s f r o m b o t h t r e a t m e n t s r e c a l l e d more s u p e r o r d i n a t e ( h i g h l e v e l ) t h a n s u b o r d i n a t e ( l o w l e v e l ) p r o p o s i t i o n s . As w e l l t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s u b o r d i n a t e p r o p o s i t i o n was more l i k e l y t o be r e c a l l e d when i t s s u p e r o r d i n a t e p r o p o s i t i o n had been r e c a l l e d . T hese f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r K i n t s c h and v a n D i j k ' s ( 1 9 7 8) m o d e l of t e x t c o m p r e h e n s i o n and p r o d u c t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o D a n n e r ' s f i n d i n g s ( 1 9 7 6 ) , W a t e r s d i d n o t f i n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e s i n c e y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s a p p e a r e d a s l i k e l y t o r e c a l l s u p e r o r d i n a t e p r o p o s i t i o n s a s o l d e r s t u d e n t s . However, t h e s e f i n d i n g s seem b e s t i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t o f t h e k i n d s o f t a s k s w h i c h were p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . F i r s t , r e s u l t s f r o m an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s l i s t e n e d t o o r g e n e r a t e d p a s s a g e s t o be r e c a l l e d c a n n o t be 26 e a s i l y g e n e r a l i z e d t o c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s must r e a d m a t e r i a l f o r r e c a l l . S e c o n d , a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e p r o m pt word o u t l i n e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e o u t l i n e c o n t a i n e d o n l y 11 w o r d s , e a c h o f w h i c h c o u l d be c o n n e c t e d i n a s e q u e n t i a l p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o what m i g h t be f o u n d i n a n a r r a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n an e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e . S i n c e i t i s n o t known w h e t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s c o n s t r u c t e d t h e i r p a s s a g e s i n n a r r a t i v e f o r m i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e s u l t s c a n be g e n e r a l i z e d t o r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . The s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by A u l l s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , D a n n e r (1976) an d W a t e r s (1978) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o s e a n d s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n may a f f e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l . T h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f p r o s e was w a r r a n t e d . However t h e r e was a n e e d f o r s t u d i e s w h i c h e x a m i n e d c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l a f t e r r e a d i n g . T h i s n e e d was met by T i e r n e y , B r i d g e a n d C e r a ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) who c o m p a r e d t h e e x t e n t and t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d by g o od r e a d e r s v e r s u s p o o r r e a d e r s a f t e r r e a d i n g e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s o f s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s , t e a c h e r j u d g e m e n t and o r a l r e a d i n g a c c u r a c y , 36 s u b j e c t s , 18 g ood t h i r d g r a d e r e a d e r s and 18 p o o r t h i r d g r a d e r e a d e r s were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o o r a l l y r e a d a 5 p a r a g r a p h p a s s a g e on d i n o s a u r s , t o c o m p l e t e a d i s t r a c t o r r e a d i n g t a s k a n d t o o r a l l y • f r e e - r e c a l l e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered. S t u d e n t s were t h e n p r o b e d f o r f u r t h e r r e c a l l . 27 The f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t good r e a d e r s r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o m p l e t e p r o p o s i t i o n s , a n d more of t h e p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a n d i n t e r p r o p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h a n p o o r r e a d e r s . A s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t , i n s e v e r a l c a s e s , t h e f r e e r e c a l l s a p p r o x i m a t e d a s h o r t e n e d v e r s i o n o f t h e n o n - n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e o r t e n d e d t o f o l l o w a s t o r y grammar p a t t e r n o f s e t t i n g , theme, p l o t and r e s o l u t i o n . T i e r n e y , B r i d g e a n d C e r a ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e s e s t u d e n t s m i g h t h a v e had a n a r r a t i v e schema o r f r a m e w o r k w h i c h may h ave g u i d e d a b s t r a c t i o n o f t h e n o n - n a r r a t i v e t e x t s i n t o n a r r a t i v e r e n d i t i o n s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e seemed t o be b o t h c o n s t r u c t i v e ( t e x t b a s e d ) a n d a b s t r a c t i v e ( b a s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e a d e r ' s p r i o r k n o w l e d g e and s c h e m a t a of t e x t s t r u c t u r e ) . T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 0) a l s o r e a l i z e d t h e n e e d f o r s t u d i e s w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l a f t e r r e a d i n g . U n l i k e p a s t r e s e a r c h , T a y l o r ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , a g e , r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t a n d s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . The s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e d 17 g ood s i x t h g r a d e r e a d e r s , 17 p o o r s i x t h g r a d e r e a d e r s a n d 17 good f o u r t h g r a d e r e a d e r s . S e v e n t e e n a d u l t g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y t o p r o v i d e an e x a m p l e o f a d u l t r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e . Two 225 28 word p a s s a g e s c o n t a i n i n g i d e n t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on a n i m a l p r o t e c t i o n were w r i t t e n a t a f o u r t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . The s i x t h - g r a d e p a s s a g e was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e s i x t h g r a d e good r e a d e r s a n d a d u l t s w h i l e t h e f o u r t h g r a d e p a s s a g e was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r p o o r s i x t h - g r a d e a n d good f o u r t h g r a d e r e a d e r s . B o t h p a s s a g e s were w r i t t e n i n a t t r i b u t i v e ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) s t y l e . A l l s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o s i l e n t l y r e a d a n d t h e n o r a l l y r e c a l l t h e i r a s s i g n e d p a s s a g e . The p a s s a g e was a g a i n o r a l l y r e c a l l e d a f t e r a two day d e l a y . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y r e v e a l e d a d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l a b i l i t y a f t e r r e a d i n g . S i x t h g r a d e r e a d e r s p r o d u c e d more m e m o r i e s on i m m e d i a t e a n d d e l a y e d r e c a l l t h a n f o u r t h g r a d e r e a d e r s . As w e l l , a f t e r a two day d e l a y , s i x t h g r a d e good r e a d e r s were a b l e t o r e c a l l more t h a n s i x t h g r a d e p o o r r e a d e r s o r f o u r t h g r a d e good r e a d e r s . T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 0) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s i x t h g r a d e good r e a d e r s may have had b e t t e r r e c a l l b e c a u s e t h e y u s e d t e x t s t r u c t u r e t o o r d e r t h e i r r e c a l l s . She a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e l a y e d r e c a l l s c o r e s may have been a r e s u l t of f o l l o w i n g t h e p a s s a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e c a l l s d i d n o t c o n t a i n t o p l e v e l s t r u c t u r e . The f i n d i n g s o f T a y l o r ' s s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s f a c i l i t a t e d i f t h e y use t h e t o p - l e v e l p a t t e r n o f t h e t e x t t o o r d e r t h e i r r e c a l l s . However i t a p p e a r e d t h a t none o f t h e c h i l d r e n were p a r t i c u l a r l y a d e p t a t f o l l o w i n g t h e t e x t s t r u c t u r e i n 29 t h e i r d e l a y e d r e c a l l s . Only 59%, 18% and 12% of the s i x t h - g r a d e good r e a d e r s , s i x t h grade poor r e a d e r s and f o u r t h grade good r e a d e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , demonstrated s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . T a y l o r s u g g e s t s t h a t the younger r e a d e r s may have performed p o o r l y on immediate and d e l a y e d r e c a l l because of d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h comprehension of e x p o s i t o r y t e x t m a t e r i a l s , l a c k of p r i o r knowledge about the s u b j e c t i n the passage, l e s s s t u d y s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s , l e s s exposure t o e x p o s i t o r y type m a t e r i a l s and d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p r e s s i n g t hemselves o r a l l y i n the r e c a l l s i t u a t i o n (p. 408). Based on the f i n d i n g s of her study T a y l o r made s e v e r a l recommendations which i n c l u d e d : i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e of e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l ; c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h i n which e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s a r e t r a i n e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r memories a c c o r d i n g t o the t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e of the m a t e r i a l ; c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h w i t h e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d r e n u s i n g e x p o s i t o r y passages of d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s and c o n t e n t t o d i s c o v e r i f t h e r e a re any c i r c u m s t a n c e s under which s t u d e n t s more r e a d i l y produce t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e p a t t e r n s of p r o s e ; and c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h t o f i n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s which would enable c h i l d r e n t o become s k i l l e d a t r e c o g n i z i n g and u t i l i z i n g e x p o s i t o r y t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n t o enhance t h e i r r e a d i n g - t o - l e a r n a b i l i t i e s . At about the same time t h a t T a y l o r was c o n d u c t i n g her study on c h i l d r e n ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e , E l l i o t t 30 ( 1 9 8 0 ) was a l s o e x p l o r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , E l l i o t t a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e what i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s knew a b o u t t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n and w h e t h e r u s e o f p a r t i c u l a r t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e s w o u l d f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d 102 s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s . No s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g one y e a r b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l were i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . Two v e r s i o n s o f a p a s s a g e a b o u t l o s s o f human body w a t e r were d e v e l o p e d . One was w r i t t e n i n t h e a d v e r s a t i v e ( c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t ) t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e and t h e o t h e r was w r i t t e n i n an a t t r i b u t i v e ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) p a t t e r n . S t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e a d one o f t h e r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d p a s s a g e v e r s i o n s and a f t e r a 48 h o u r d e l a y were r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a w r i t t e n r e c a l l p r o t o c o l o f t h e p a s s a g e . E l l i o t t f o u n d t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amount o f r e c a l l b e t w e e n t h e two p a s s a g e v e r s i o n s was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . H o wever, i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e 44% of s t u d e n t s who s p o n t a n e o u s l y u s e d t h e a u t h o r ' s s t r u c t u r e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r w r i t t e n r e c a l l s remembered more t h a n s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t . L i k e T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 0 ) , E l l i o t t c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m t r a i n i n g i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d use o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e a s a s t u d y s t r a t e g y . Thus E l l i o t t ' s s t u d y a p p e a r s t o s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e e n h a n c e s r e c a l l e f f i c i e n c y . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o t h e work o f T i e r n e y , B r i d g e a n d C e r a ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) and c h i l d r e n ' s p o s s i b l e 31 d i f f e r e n t i a l p r o c e s s i n g o f e x p o s i t o r y and n a r r a t i v e p r o s e was c o n d u c t e d by B r i d g e a n d T i e r n e y i n 1981. The s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on t h e amount a n d k i n d of e x p l i c i t a n d i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n f r e e a n d p r o b e d r e c a l l s o f good a n d p o o r r e a d e r s a f t e r r e a d i n g an e x p o s i t o r y a n d a n a r r a t i v e p a s s a g e . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e d 18 good t h i r d - g r a d e r e a d e r s a n d 18 p o o r t h i r d g r a d e r e a d e r s s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t e a c h e r j u d g e m e n t , s t a n d a r d i z e d r e a d i n g t e s t s c o r e s ( S t a n f o r d A c h i e v e m e n t T e x t ) and o r a l r e a d i n g . a c c u r a c y . The two t e s t p a s s a g e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m a b a s a l r e a d e r . The n a r r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n was a s t o r y c a l l e d " J o h n n y and t h e S q u i r r e l " a n d t h e e x p o s i t o r y s e l e c t i o n was e n t i t l e d " D i n o s a u r s " . A f t e r o r a l l y r e a d i n g b o t h p a s s a g e s and r e c a l l i n g what c o u l d be remembered, s t u d e n t s were p r o b e d f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . R e s u l t s of B r i d g e and T i e r n e y ' s ( 1 9 8 1 ) i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t t h e k i n d o f m a t e r i a l - n a r r a t i v e o r e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e - g e n e r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e q u a n t i t y and t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d by g o o d and p o o r r e a d e r s . B o t h good and p o o r r e a d e r s r e c a l l e d a g r e a t e r amount o f e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n , g e n e r a t e d more c o n n e c t o r s , a n d were b e t t e r a b l e t o p r e s e r v e t h e o r i g i n a l o r d e r o f i d e a s i n t h e n a r r a t i v e t h a n i n t h e e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e . The f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o a b i l i t y r e v e a l e d t h a t good r e a d e r s g e n e r a l l y r e c a l l e d more e x p l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r f r e e r e c a l l s a n d g e n e r a t e d more i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p r o b e d c o n d i t i o n t h a n p o o r r e a d e r s . However, t h e s e g e n e r a l 32 f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g t h e i n f l u e n c e o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d t e x t t y p e were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d f o r i n d i v i d u a l r e a d e r s . Many s t u d e n t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e amount a n d k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e two t e x t s . T h i s f i n d i n g l e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i t i s u n w i s e t o p r e d i c t i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c a l l b e h a v i o r f r o m one t e x t t o a n o t h e r b a s e d on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . A n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t f o c u s e d on g o o d a n d p o o r r e a d e r s ' a w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e was c o n d u c t e d one y e a r l a t e r by McGee ( 1 9 8 2 ) . A t o t a l o f 20 good r e a d e r s f r o m b o t h t h e t h i r d a n d f i f t h g r a d e a n d 20 p o o r r e a d e r s f r o m t h e f i f t h g r a d e were s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y . A l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were r a n d o m l y c h o s e n f r o m f o u r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . The t e s t m a t e r i a l s were two 125 wo r d d e s c r i p t i v e s t y l e p a s s a g e s w r i t t e n a t a g r a d e t h r e e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l c o n t a i n i n g s i m i l a r t h r e e - l e v e l h i e r a r c h i e s and q u a n t i t i e s o f i d e a u n i t s . The s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were r e q u i r e d t o r e a d a p a s s a g e , c o m p l e t e a d i s t r a c t o r a d d i t i o n p r o b l e m a nd o r a l l y r e c a l l e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered a b o u t t h e p a s s a g e . The same p r o c e d u r e was u s e d f o r e a c h p a s s a g e a nd o r a l r e c a l l s were t a p e r e c o r d e d . R e s u l t s o f McGee's ( 1 9 8 2 ) i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e v e a l e d t h a t f i f t h g r a d e good r e a d e r s r e c a l l e d more t o t a l i d e a s t h a n p o o r f i f t h g r a d e r e a d e r s , who i n t u r n r e c a l l e d more i d e a s t h a n t h i r d g r a d e r s . The r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t g o o d g r a d e f i v e r e a d e r s h a d a g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e , f i f t h g r a d e p o o r r e a d e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d some 33 s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d t h i r d g r a d e g o o d r e a d e r s d e m o n s t r a t e d m i n i m a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . H o w ever, e v e n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who f o l l o w e d t h e t e x t s t r u c t u r e w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e s h o r t , t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d p a s s a g e r e c a l l e d l e s s t h a n 40% o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e m a t e r i a l . As r e p o r t e d by McGee t h e r e s u l t s seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t a w a r e n e s s of t e x t s t r u c t u r e may be r e l a t e d t o age and e x p o s u r e t o e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . She a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h e n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h w h i c h a d d r e s s e d t h e e f f e c t s on r e c a l l o f i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o u s e t e x t s t r u c t u r e . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t ' s a w a r e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e i s p r o v i d e d by d a t a o b t a i n e d by E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t i n 1984. S p e c i f i c a l l y , E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t (1984) i n v e s t i g a t e d c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e of f o u r commonly f o u n d p a t t e r n s o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e w h i c h i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i o n , e n u m e r a t i o n , s e q u e n c e and c o m p a r e / c o n t r a s t . S i x t y - n i n e t h i r d g r a d e r s and s i x t y - n i n e s i x t h g r a d e r s d i f f e r i n g i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . S u b j e c t s were r a n k o r d e r e d a n d c l u s t e r e d i n t o g r o u p s o f h i g h , medium an d low a b i l i t y r e a d e r s on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s ( C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ) . E a c h of t h e f o u r p a s s a g e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y c o n t a i n e d s i x s e n t e n c e s and were w r i t t e n a t a g r a d e 2.5 r e a d a b i l i t y ( D a l e C h a l l ) l e v e l . The f i r s t f o u r s e n t e n c e s f o l l o w e d a p a r t i c u l a r t e x t s t r u c t u r e and i n t r o d u c e d a n d e x t e n d e d t h e t o p i c i d e a . The l a s t two s e n t e n c e s r e t a i n e d some o f t h e 34 t o p i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y i n t r o d u c e d b u t i n t r u d e d on t h e p a s s a g e p a t t e r n by i n t r o d u c i n g a new t e x t s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s a m p l e p r o b l e m and t a s k r e q u i r e m e n t s a l l s t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y r e a d t h e p a s s a g e s ( t h e t h i r d g r a d e c h i l d r e n f i r s t h a d t h e p a s s a g e r e a d t o them by an i n v e s t i g a t o r ) a n d r a t e d how w e l l e a c h o f t h e l a s t f o u r s e n t e n c e s b e l o n g e d w i t h t h e f i r s t two t o p i c a l s e n t e n c e s . One o f f o u r r e s p o n s e s c o u l d be m a r k e d w i t h an "X": YES!; Y e s ? ( s o r t o f b e l o n g s ) ; No!; a n d No? ( s o r t o f d o e s n ' t b e l o n g ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e was r e l a t e d t o g r a d e l e v e l and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a nd t h a t c e r t a i n t e x t s t r u c t u r e s were more s a l i e n t t h a n o t h e r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h o s e s t u d e n t s who were more aware o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e o u t p e r f o r m e d t h o s e who were n o t . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s of p a s t r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d by T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 0 ) , E l l i o t t ( 1 9 8 0 ) , McGee ( 1 9 8 2 ) an d M e y e r , B r a n d t , and B l u t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) . A n o t h e r f i n d i n g o f t h e s t u d y was t h a t s i x t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s seemed g e n e r a l l y more a d e p t a t d e t e c t i n g m i s m a t c h e s b e t w e e n t h e t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d d i s t r a c t o r s e n t e n c e s t h a n t h e t h i r d g r a d e s t u d e n t s . T h i r d g r a d e s t u d e n t s t e n d e d t o r a t e a l l s e n t e n c e s a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e p a r a g r a p h . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were v i e w e d a s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s r e p o r t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s ( D a n n e r , 1976; T a y l o r , 1980; McGee, 1 9 8 2 ) . The r e s u l t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s s a l i e n c y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e 35 seemed t o p r o c e e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e q u e n c e o f a w a r e n e s s : s e q u e n c e , e n u m e r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n a n d c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t . E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t ( 1 9 8 4 ) v i e w e d t h i s a s an i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t n a r r a t i v e t e x t s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w a s e q u e n t i a l o r d e r of e v e n t s a n d d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t i s t h e t y p e most commonly f o u n d i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e x t s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e q u e n c e [ p a t t e r n ] .... may h a v e c o n s t i t u t e d a p o w e r f u l t e x t s t r u c t u r e b e c a u s e o f y o u n g c h i l d r e n ' s p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t i m e - b a s e d s t r u c t u r e s i n s t o r i e s . I n d e e d , F r e e d l e and H a l e ' s ( 1 9 7 9) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c o m p e t e n c e w i t h s t o r y s t r u c t u r e p r e c e d e s c o m p e t e n c e w i t h e x p o s i t o r y s t r u c t u r e n e e d s c o n s i d e r a t i o n ( p . 1 2 ) . E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t ' s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e s t r u c t u r e s were t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n p a s s a g e s t y p i c a l l y o c c u r a s s h o r t s e g m e n t s w i t h o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s .... and o f t e n s h i f t a b r u p t l y t o a c c o m o d a t e o t h e r t e x t s t r u c t u r e s ( p . 7 2 ) . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h w h i c h d e f i n e s how b e s t t o f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . Summary The f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d t h u s f a r h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how a w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e a f f e c t s t e x t p r o c e s s i n g . A r e v i e w o f t h e m a i n p o i n t s i s w a r r a n t e d . F i r s t , b e c a u s e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f 36 e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f n a r r a t i v e p r o s e i t may r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n g s k i l l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s ( B u r n s , Roe and R o s s , 1984; B r i d g e a n d T i e r n e y , 1981; C a t t e r s o n , 1985; C o l l i n s a n d H a v i l a n d , 1979; E k w a l l and S h a n k e r , 1985; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; M e y e r , 1984; P i e r o n e k , 1985; T a y l o r , 1980, 1 9 8 2 ) . S e c o n d , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e x p o s i t o r y p a r a g r a p h o r t e x t may g u i d e r e c a l l r e s p o n s e s . T o p i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e s , a s o p p o s e d t o t o p i c a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e s , t e n d t o p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e amount a n d o r d e r o f r e c a l l ( A u l l s , 1975; D a n n e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . As w e l l , c e r t a i n t e x t s i g n a l s may f a c i l i t a t e s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i n t u r n may i n f l u e n c e r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( M e y e r , B r a n d t a nd B l u t h , 1 9 8 0 ) . L i k e w i s e , p r o p o s i t i o n s h i g h i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e may be e a s i e r t o r e c a l l t h a n t h o s e low i n t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e ( W a t e r s , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h i r d , s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f p r o s e and t h e a b i l i t y t o f o l l o w t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f macro and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s t o f o r m t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o r g i s t o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t seems t o i n f l u e n c e how i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d a n d r e c a l l e d ( E l l i o t t , 1980; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; McGee, 1982, M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . H owever, i t a p p e a r s t h a t r e a d e r s v a r y i n t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . B e t t e r r e a d e r s seem more l i k e l y t o use t h e a u t h o r ' s t e x t s t r u c t u r e f o r o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r r e c a l l t h a n s t u d e n t s o f l o w e r r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ( B r i d g e a n d T i e r n e y , 1981; B r i d g e , T i e r n e y a n d 37 C e r a , 1978-79; McGee, 1982; M e y e r , B r a n d t and B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . As w e l l , e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s seem t o d e m o n s t r a t e m i n i m a l n a t u r a l s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . F o u r t h , t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r s e n s i t i v i t y a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o use t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o l l o w s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h age and s c h o o l i n g ( D a n n e r , 1976; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; McGee, 1982; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . However, b e c a u s e t h e m i n o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n who do d e m o n s t r a t e s e n s i t i v i t y t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e seem b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c a l l more o f what t h e y r e a d , r e s e a r c h e r s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s may b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( E l l i o t t , 1980; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , . 1984; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . F i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e i n d i c a t e d a n e e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w h i c h h e l p t o d i s c o v e r "how b e s t t o i n s t r u c t c h i l d r e n i n t h e use of t e x t s t r u c t u r e ... [ a n d ] ... what t y p e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s most f a c i l i t a t i v e o f s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g a t p a r t i c u l a r s t a g e s of d e v e l o p m e n t " ( E n g l e r t and H i e b e r t , 1984, p. 7 3 - 7 4 ) . The E f f e c t s o f H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l and C o m p r e h e n s i o n of E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e : The I m p o r t a n c e o f T e a c h i n g S t u d e n t s t o Use H e a d i n g s S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s t a g r e e t h a t s t u d e n t s who a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s i n e x p o s i t o r y s e l e c t i o n s seem b e t t e r a b l e t o r e c a l l what i s r e a d t h a n 38 s t u d e n t s who a r e n o t s e n s i t i v e t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( T a y l o r , 1982; M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1 9 8 0 ) . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a l e r t i n g s t u d e n t s t o c u e s i n e x p o s i t o r y t e x t s t o i n c r e a s e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l h a s been s t r e s s e d by s e v e r a l s t u d y s k i l l s e x p e r t s ( B r o w n , C ampione a n d Day, 1981; C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l , 1955; H e r b e r , 1965, 1970; J e w i t t , 1965; N i l e s , 1 9 6 5 ) . A l t h o u g h many t e x t b o o k f e a t u r e s ( s u c h a s t i t l e s , t o p i c s e n t e n c e s , p a r a g r a p h a b s t r a c t s , a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s , b o l d f a c e t y p e , s e n t e n c e o u t l i n e s , p r e t e s t s , h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e s , i n t r o d u c t i o n s , s u m m a r i e s , e t c . ) a i d r e a d e r s i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a t e r i a l t o be r e a d , one f e a t u r e u s u a l l y f o u n d i n t e x t s and recommended f o r u s e when g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t e x t c o n t e n t i s t h e common t e x t b o o k h e a d i n g . Many e d u c a t o r s h a v e a d v o c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s be t a u g h t t o u se h e a d i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , R o b i n s o n and H a l l ( 1 9 4 1) f o u n d t h a t c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s l a c k e d a w a r e n e s s o f h e a d i n g s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n . C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l ( 1 9 5 5) a l s o f o u n d t h a t m a t u r e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t u s e h e a d i n g s a s an a i d f o r r e c a l l a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g was n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v i c e s c o u l d be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y . J e w i t t ( 1 9 6 5 ) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t e x t b o o k s a r e p l a n n e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s l e a r n b u t t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be aware o f how t o use t h e a i d s p r o v i d e d i n a t e x t b e f o r e i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y o b t a i n e d . She s t a t e d t h a t 39 h e a d i n g s a n d s u b h e a d i n g s a c t a s g u i d e p o s t s w h i c h p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h an o v e r v i e w of t h e m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d . J e w i t t f u r t h e r s p e c i f i e d t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be t a u g h t t h e v a l u e s a n d p u r p o s e s o f h e a d i n g s . N i l e s ( 1 9 6 5 ) c o n c u r r e d w i t h J e w i t t when she s t a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be t a u g h t how t o u s e t e x t b o o k h e a d i n g s e f f e c t i v e l y . N i l e s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h e a d i n g s p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s w i t h an o u t l i n e w h i c h c a n be u s e d t o p r e v i e w t h e c o n t e n t t o be r e a d . H e r b e r ( 1 9 6 5 , 1 9 7 0 ) i n c l u d e d h e a d i n g s a s one a s p e c t o f t h e e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s . He r e a s o n e d t h a t e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z e r s c a n be u s e d by s t u d e n t s " t o d e c i p h e r what p r i o r i t i e s a u t h o r s p l a c e on i d e a s a n d i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t e n t p r e s e n t i n t h e t e x t " ( 1 9 7 0 , p. 82) and t h a t h e a d i n g s p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e t e x t ' s s t r u c t u r e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , H e r b e r m a i n t a i n e d t h a t s t u d e n t s a r e a p t t o i g n o r e e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t e x t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u n l e s s t h e y a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d . He c o n c l u d e d t h a t " e v e n a t t h e c o s t o f l a b o r i n g t h e o b v i o u s " ( 1 9 7 0 , p. 8 4 ) , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t h e e x t e r n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e . B r own, Campione and Day ( 1 9 8 1 ) a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n n e e d t o be t a u g h t t o e x a m i n e t h e l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t f o r d e v i c e s s u c h a s h e a d i n g s , s u b s e c t i o n s , t o p i c s e n t e n c e s a n d s u m m a r i e s w h i c h c u e t h e r e a d e r t o t h e i m p o r t a n t i d e a s t o be r e c a l l e d . 40 Summary A number o f a u t h o r i t i e s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s a i d i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . They h a v e a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be t a u g h t t h i s s k i l l i f i t i s t o be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e o r e t i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s R e g a r d i n g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f H e a d i n g s W h i l e s t u d y s k i l l s e x p e r t s h a v e a d v o c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be t a u g h t how t o u s e h e a d i n g s , r e s e a r c h e r s h ave a t t e m p t e d t o t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p o u n d on how h e a d i n g s a f f e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . The e f f e c t h e a d i n g s h a v e on t h e p r o c e s s i n g and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e h a s been e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f schema t h e o r y , A u s u b e l ' s (1960) s u b s u m p t i o n t h e o r y and K i n t s c h and Van D i j k ' s ( 1 9 7 8) t e x t p r o c e s s i n g a n d p r o d u c t i o n m o d e l . E a c h t h e o r y h a s , i n h e r e n t i n i t s d e s i g n , t h e p r e m i s e t h a t i n o r d e r t o f u l l y c o m p r e h e n d what i s r e a d , a r e a d e r must i n t e r n a l i z e a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e , m a i n i d e a , g i s t o r m a c r o s t r u c t u r e . The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f schema t h e o r y and A u s u b e l ' s (1960) s u b s u m p t i o n t h e o r y i s t h a t p e o p l e p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d memory p l a c e k e e p e r s o r s l o t s ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n a n d 41 H o l l e y , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e s e s l o t s o r s c h e m a t a and s u b s c h e m a t a a r e f i l l e d and m o d i f i e d when t h e schema, t h e p e r s o n ' s e x i s t i n g k n o w l e d g e o f an o b j e c t , c o n c e p t , i d e a o r p r o c e s s , i s a c t i v a t e d a n d a d d e d t o ( B r o o k s et a l . , 1983; A n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 7 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , a schema f o r a s k i r e s o r t may c o n t a i n s l o t s f o r snow c o n d i t i o n s , t e r r a i n , s k i l i f t f a c i l i t i e s , r e s t a u r a n t f a c i l i t i e s , a n d n i g h t l i f e . T h e s e s l o t s a r e f i l l e d when a new r e s o r t i s v i s i t e d , r e a d a b o u t , o r r e c a l l e d . E a c h s u b s c h e m a t a h a s i t s own s u b s c h e m a t a w i t h p l a c e k e e p e r s w h i c h c a n a l s o be a c t i v a t e d d e p e n d i n g on t h e p e r s o n ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e t o p i c . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a s k i i e r w i s h e d t o go t o t h e s k i r e s o r t w i t h t h e b e s t snow c o n d i t i o n s he w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e number of c e n t i m e t r e s o f f r e s h snow, h a r d p a c k v e r s u s powder snow, s k i i e d o u t v e r s u s n o t , c h a n c e s o f p r e c i p t a t i o n , e t c . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e snow c o n d i t i o n s was t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c e t o f c o n c e r n f o r t h i s s k i i e r a nd t h e r e f o r e became t h e f a c t o r w h i c h c o n t r o l l e d h i s s e a r c h f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o schema t h e o r y t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h a p e r s o n f i n d s most i m p o r t a n t a b o u t a t o p i c " s e r v e a s a schema, c o n t r o l l i n g t h e g i s t o f t h e t o p i c " ( K i n t s c h and Van D i j k , 1978, p. 3 7 3 ) . Schema t h e o r y i m p l i e s t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l r e a d y h a s i n h i s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e a c o h e r e n t s c h e m a t a f o r a t o p i c . H o w e v e r , when f a c e d w i t h u n f a m i l i a r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t , s t u d e n t s o f t e n do n o t h a v e a c o h e r e n t s c h e m a t a f o r t h e 42 t o p i c t o be r e a d ( B r o o k s et al. , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n f a c t , a s e x p l a i n e d by B r o o k s et a l . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , " p a r t o f t h e t a s k o f l e a r n i n g new m a t e r i a l may be c o n c e i v e d o f a s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new s c h e m a t a . . . , w h i c h once a c q u i r e d may be i m p o r t a n t i n g u i d i n g s u b s e q u e n t p r o c e s s i n g " ( p . 2 9 3 ) . They s u g g e s t t h a t t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s may a i d i n a c q u i s i t i o n o f new s u b s c h e m a t a by p r o v i d i n g a b a s e f o r i n c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . C l o s e l y a l i g n e d t o schema t h e o r y i s A u s u b e l ' s ( 1 9 6 0) s u b s u m p t i o n t h e o r y . T h i s t h e o r y i s b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t a p e r s o n ' s c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s o r g a n i z e d i n t e r m s of s u p e r o r d i n a t e i n c l u s i v e c o n c e p t s w h i c h subsume s u b o r d i n a t e c o n c e p t s a n d i d e a s ( A u s u b e l , 1960, p. 2 6 7 ) . A u s u b e l ( i 9 6 0 ) h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n o f u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l c o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d by p r o v i d i n g t h e r e a d e r w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k f o r f o r t h c o m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s he p r e s e n t e d s t u d e n t s w i t h an a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r (a summary s t a t e m e n t w h i c h h i g h l i g h t s t h e m a i n c o n c e p t s o f t h e t e x t ) p r i o r t o t h e r e a d i n g of r e l a t i v e l y u n f a m i l i a r e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . The n o t i o n t h a t a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s w o u l d e n h a n c e t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n a n d r e t e n t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l was s u p p o r t e d by t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s o f A u s u b e l ' s e a r l i e r s t u d i e s ( A u s u b e l , 1960; A u s u b e l and F i t z g e r a l d , 1 9 6 1 ) . However, s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h on a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s have p r o d u c e d m i x e d r e s u l t s ( P r o g e r , T a y l o r , Mann, C o u l s o n a n d B a y u k , 1970; P r o g e r et a l . , 1973) b u t seemed t o show t h a t a d v a n c e 43 o r g a n i z e r s are most e f f e c t i v e at the encod ing s tages of t e x t p r o c e s s i n g ( A u s u b e l , 1968; Mayer and Bromage, 1980). As w e l l , advance o r g a n i z e r s seem most l i k e l y to f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l when they encompass the main t o p i c s of the t ex t (Ausubel and F i t z g e r a l d , 1961; Proger et al . , 1970; S l a t e r , Graves and P i c h e , 1984). H o l l e y , Dansereau , Evans , C o l l i n s , Brooks and L a r s o n (1981) have suggested tha t e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of headings may a f f e c t the encoding of i n f o r m a t i o n i n much the same way that advance o r g a n i z e r s enhance the i n c o r p o r a t i o n and r e c a l l of new i n f o r m a t i o n . They e x p l a i n e d tha t headings p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t r u c t u r e of knowledge in a p a r t i c u l a r domain a n d / o r the a u t h o r ' s communicat ion s t r u c t u r e . D u r i n g input p r o c e s s i n g , headings p o t e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e cues for t r i g g e r i n g a s t u d e n t ' s p r i o r knowledge and a system for o r g a n i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r h i g h e r order comprehension and s t o r a g e . D u r i n g output p r o c e s s i n g , headings may serve as r e t r i e v a l cues and as formats for re spond ing ( H o l l e y et al. , 1981,p. 227) . The potency of headings on r e c a l l has a l s o been e x p l a i n e d w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of K i n t s c h and van D i j k ' s (1978) model of t e x t comprehens ion . T h i s model i n c l u d e s schema theory and encompasses s i m i l a r p e r c e p t i o n s as p r e s e n t e d in subsumption t h e o r y . K i n t s c h and Van D i j k (1978) assumed that c o g n i t i v e memory i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d . They a l s o p o s t u l a t e d that prose has a h i e r a r c h i c a l semantic s t r u c t u r e compr i sed of micro and m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . The p r o b a b i l i t y of r e c a l l i n g and r e t a i n i n g m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s i s i n c r e a s e d i f they are 44 l o c a t e d h i g h i n t h e c o n t e n t s t r u c t u r e ( K i n t s c h a n d v a n D i j k , 1978; M e y e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . The p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c a l l i n g m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s i s a l s o i n c r e a s e d by c u e s i n t h e t e x t w h i c h mark t h o s e i d e a s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by t h e a u t h o r ( v a n D i j k , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e s e c u e s i n c l u d e h e a d i n g s a n d s u b h e a d i n g s ( M e y e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . As e x p l a i n e d by M e y e r , " t i t l e s a n d s u b t i t l e s [ h e a d i n g s ] c a n be e m p l o y e d t o f o c u s on t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d e x p l i c i t l y s i g n a l t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t " ( M e y e r , 1984, p. 1 3 3 ) . T h e r e f o r e , i t seems t h a t a r e a d e r c a n use t h e e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween m i c r o and m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n c a n t h e n be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e g i s t o f t h e t e x t w h i c h c a n be u t i l i z e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s i n t h e s e l e c t i o n . Summary I n l i g h t o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h have been p r e s e n t e d , i t may be assumed t h a t h e a d i n g s f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t b y : 1. a c t i n g a s c u e s f o r p r i o r k n o w l e d g e ; 2. p r o v i d i n g a s c h e m a t i c b a s e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new k n o w l e d g e ; 3. a c t i n g a s c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z e r s w h i c h h i g h l i g h t t h e main c o n c e p t s o f t h e t e x t ; 4. f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e m e n t a l o p e r a t i o n s o f e n c o d i n g macro a n d , m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s t o f o r m t h e macro s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t ; a nd 45 5. a c t i n g a s r e t r i e v a l c u e s f o r r e c a l l o f t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e of t h e t e x t . N o n - I n s t r u c t i o n a l E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d i e s W h i c h E x a m i n e d t h e E f f e c t s o f H e a d i n g s on C o m p r e h e n s i o n and R e c a l l o f E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e E d u c a t o r s a n d t h e o r i s t s a g r e e t h a t s i n c e h e a d i n g s s i g n a l what i d e a s a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d i n a t e x t t h e i r e f f e c t i v e u s e s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y d i s c o u r s e ( R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , 1941; H e r b e r , 1970; Brown, Campione a n d Day, 1 9 8 1 ) . W h e t h e r h e a d i n g s a r e u s e d by s t u d e n t s , a r e u s e f u l i n m a k i n g e x p o s i t o r y t e x t s e a s i e r t o c o m p r e h e n d , and do a i d i n m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n a n d r e t r i e v a l o f i d e a s a r e q u e s t i o n s t h a t s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e a d d r e s s e d . S t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e i s s u e s c a n be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e w h i c h i n c l u d e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s and t h o s e w h i c h d i d n o t . To p r o v i d e a p e r s p e c t i v e on s t u d e n t s ' n a t u r a l t e n d e n c i e s t o u s e h e a d i n g s a s an a i d i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , o n l y t h o s e s t u d i e s w h i c h d i d n o t i n c l u d e an i n s t r u c t i o n a l component i n t h e i r e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e d m a t u r e s t u d e n t s ' u s e o f h e a d i n g s was c o n d u c t e d by R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l i n 1941. Two c l a s s e s o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s r e a d 46 "headed" and "unheaded" s e l e c t i o n s on the t o p i c s of Russian h i s t o r y and Canadian h i s t o r y . Robinson and H a l l had expected the presence of headings to f a c i l i t a t e reading e f f i c i e n c y . Instead they d i s c o v e r e d that few s u b j e c t s made use of the t e x t headings when stu d y i n g the m a t e r i a l . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between the means and standard d e v i a t i o n s f o r both r a t e of re a d i n g and comprehension accuracy of "headed" versus "unheaded" s e l e c t i o n s . Robinson and H a l l concluded that the students' l a c k of study s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s i n d i c a t e a need f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . C h r i s t e n s e n and S t o r d a h l (1955) a l s o examined the e f f e c t of headings on o l d e r students' ( a i r f o r c e t r a i n e e s ) comprehension. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was concerned with superimposing o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or s t r u c t u r a l cues on p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of each on immediate and delayed r e t e n t i o n . Two passages, one on i n t e r n a t i o n a l communism and the other on p r i n c i p l e s of aerodynamics were w r i t t e n to i n c l u d e one of the f o l l o w i n g combinations: 1) an o u t l i n e at the beginning of the passage, 2) a summary at the beginning of the passage, 3) a summary at the end of the passage, 4) u n d e r l i n i n g of main p o i n t s , 5) headings i n statement form, 6) headings i n qu e s t i o n form, and 7) a category of no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s . The r e s u l t s of the study found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between students' use of any of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s f o r e i t h e r immediate or delayed 47 c o m p r e h e n s i o n a s m e a s u r e d by m u l t i p l e c h o i c e p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . L i k e R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l c o n c l u d e d t h a t t r a i n i n g may be n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e i n d i v i d u a l s u s e s t u d y a i d s e f f e c t i v e l y . T w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s l a t e r H a r t l e y et a l . ( 1 9 8 0 , 1981, 1983) c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f t i t l e s a n d h e a d i n g s i n v a r i o u s f o r m s a n d c o m b i n a t i o n s on r e c a l l a n d r e t e n t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t ( H a r t l e y , K e n e l y , Owen and Trueman, 1980) i n v o l v e d 200 s e c o n d - y e a r B r i t i s h c o m p r e h e n s i v e p u p i l s ( i . e . , 12 a n d 13 y e a r o l d s ) . The s t u d e n t s were c l u s t e r e d i n t o h i g h , medium a n d low a b i l i t y g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f s c h o o l r e c o r d s and f i r s t y e a r e x a m i n a t i o n r e s u l t s . D e p e n d i n g on t h e t r e a t m e n t t o w h i c h e a c h had been s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a s s i g n e d t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d one of f o u r v e r s i o n s o f a 400 word d e s c r i p t i v e p r o s e p a s s a g e on F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e ' s n u r s i n g c a r e e r . The f o u r v e r s i o n s i n c l u d e d : a) a c o n t r o l p a s s a g e c o n t a i n i n g no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s , b) a p a s s a g e w i t h a t i t l e , c ) a p a s s a g e w i t h o u t a t i t l e b u t w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f s t a t e m e n t s , and d) a p a s s a g e w i t h o u t a t i t l e b u t w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s . I m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e , t h e p u p i l s a n s w e r e d a s e t o f e i g h t s h o r t - a n s w e r f a c t u a l q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e r e c a l l o f m a i n p o i n t s i n t h e t e x t . Two weeks l a t e r w i t h o u t w a r n i n g and w i t h o u t r e - r e a d i n g t h e p a s s a g e t h e s t u d e n t s were r e t e s t e d f o r r e t e n t i o n o f t h e t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n . B o t h p a r t s o f t h e 48 e x p e r i m e n t were c o n d u c t e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s who f o l l o w e d s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . The c o m b i n e d a v e r a g e s o f t h e i m m e d i a t e a n d d e l a y e d t e s t s c o r e s f r o m t h e 175 p u p i l s who were p r e s e n t f o r b o t h s e s s i o n s were a n a l y z e d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t g i v i n g t h e p a s s a g e a t i t l e h a d no e f f e c t on r e c a l l . H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f h e a d i n g s had a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on r e c a l l f o r a l l a b i l i t y g r o u p s . I n a d d i t i o n i t seemed t o make no d i f f e r e n c e w h e t h e r t h e h e a d i n g s were i n s t a t e m e n t o r q u e s t i o n f o r m b u t l o w a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s r e c a l l e d more f r o m t e x t w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m of q u e s t i o n s . T h e i r i n t r i g u e w i t h t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e e f f e c t o f h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s on low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l p r o m p t e d H a r t l e y , M o r r i s and Trueman (1981) t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f p a s s a g e s c o n t a i n i n g h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s c o m p a r e d t o p a s s a g e s w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m of s t a t e m e n t s on r e m e d i a l s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l . T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d 16 b o y s and 5 g i r l s , whose IQ r a n g e d f r o m 78 t o 96, whose a v e r a g e age was 12 y e a r s , 8 m o n t h s , and whose r e a d i n g a g e s r a n g e d f r o m 7 y e a r s 3 months t o 10 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s . The s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d i n t o two g r o u p s (1 g r o u p of 10 s t u d e n t s and a n o t h e r g r o u p o f 11 s t u d e n t s ) e q u a t e d f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e and r e a d i n g a g e . They were a s s i g n e d one of two v e r s i o n s o f an a d a p t e d p a s s a g e on t h e t o p i c o f f o o d p r e p a r a t i o n a n d c o n s u m p t i o n i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s . V e r s i o n A c o n t a i n e d h e a d i n g s i n t h e m a r g i n w r i t t e n i n t h e f o r m o f 49 q u e s t i o n s w h i l e V e r s i o n B c o n t a i n e d h e a d i n g s i n t h e m a r g i n w r i t t e n i n t h e f o r m o f s t a t e m e n t s . The s t u d e n t s were g i v e n 15 m i n u t e s t o r e a d t h e a s s i g n e d p a s s a g e . As i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y t h e p u p i l s w r o t e s h o r t a n s w e r s t o f a c t u a l r e c a l l q u e s t i o n s a n d were r e t e s t e d one week l a t e r . The s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e c a l l f r o m t h e p a s s a g e w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s was 15 p e r c e n t g r e a t e r t h a n r e c a l l f r o m t h e p a s s a g e w i t h h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f s t a t e m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y was r e t a i n e d f o r a t l e a s t one week. The e f f e c t o f g i v i n g t h e p a s s a g e a t i t l e was n e g l i g i b l e . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d n o t o n l y c o n s i d e r w r i t i n g h e a d i n g s when p r o d u c i n g c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s b u t s h o u l d w r i t e t h e s e h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s t o h e l p l e s s a b l e c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r r e a d i n g . H owever, t h i s s u g g e s t i o n m i g h t be b e s t g e n e r a l i z e d w i t h c a u t i o n t o t h e u n i v e r s e o f l e s s a b l e r e a d e r s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t u d y ' s s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e (10 t o 11 s u b j e c t s p e r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ) . As w e l l , t h e d e s i g n d i d n o t i n c l u d e a c o n t r o l g r o u p , m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o e v a l u a t e t h e f u l l e f f e c t o f h e a d i n g s a s q u e s t i o n s o r s t a t e m e n t s on r e c a l l . H a r t l e y a n d Trueman's (1983) i n t e r e s t r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s on r e c a l l , s e a r c h a n d r e t r i e v a l , l e d t o an a m b i t i o u s s e r i e s o f n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s . T h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s were d e s i g n e d t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e , r e p l i c a t e , and b u i l d on one a n o t h e r a n d on p a s t r e s e a r c h . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s f o c u s e d o n : 50 1 . r e c a l l (memory t a s k s ) and r e t r i e v a l ( s e a r c h t a s k s ) f r o m f a m i l i a r a n d u n f a m i l i a r t e x t ; 2. t h e p o s i t i o n o f h e a d i n g s ( h e a d i n g s i n t h e m a r g i n v e r s u s embedded h e a d i n g s ) ; and 3. t h e k i n d o f h e a d i n g s u s e d ( h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f a s t a t e m e n t v e r s u s h e a d i n g s i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n ) . E x p e r i m e n t s 1 a n d 2 f o c u s e d on r e c a l l ; E x p e r i m e n t s 3 a n d 4 f o c u s e d on s e a r c h i n g u n f a m i l i a r t e x t ; E x p e r i m e n t s 7, 8, and 9 f o c u s e d on t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e t a s k ( r e c a l l , s e a r c h and r e t r i e v a l ) a n d t h e n a t u r e of t h e h e a d i n g s ( q u e s t i o n s v e r s u s s t a t e m e n t s ) . The p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l n i n e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were f o u r t h - y e a r B r i t i s h c o m p r e h e n s i v e s c h o o l p u p i l s (14 a n d 15 y e a r o l d s ) w i t h v a r y i n g r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . S t u d e n t s f r o m r e m e d i a l c l a s s e s were n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d i e s . E a c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l and i n v o l v e d a n y w h e r e f r o m 4 t o 6 s e p a r a t e c l a s s e s , o r 1 1 5 t o 1 8 5 s t u d e n t s p e r e x p e r i m e n t . The s t u d e n t s were c l u s t e r e d i n t o a b i l i t y g r o u p s and i n e a c h e x p e r i m e n t an e q u a l number o f b o y s and g i r l s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t r e a t m e n t c o n d i t i o n s . The p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d one o f f o u r v e r s i o n s o f a t e s t p a s s a g e t o s u i t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n u n d e r w a y . The 1 , 0 0 0 word p a s s a g e , s u i t a b l e f o r 15 t o 17 y e a r o l d s a s i n d i c a t e d by t h e F l e s c h r e a d a b i l i t y s c o r e o f 5 5 , was a d a p t e d f r o m a m a g a z i n e a r t i c l e on t h e t o p i c o f t e l e v i s i o n v i e w i n g h a b i t s i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s u t i l i z e d i n t h e r e c a l l , s e a r c h a n d r e t r i e v a l 51 e x p e r i m e n t s f o l l o w s . D u r i n g t h e u n t i m e d r e c a l l e x p e r i m e n t s ( e x p e r i m e n t s 1, 2 a n d 7) t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o c a r e f u l l y r e a d t h r o u g h a p a s s a g e c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r embedded h e a d i n g s , h e a d i n g s i n t h e m a r g i n , o r no h e a d i n g s . The s u b j e c t s t h e n c o m p l e t e d 12 s h o r t a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s . The o r d e r o f t h e q u e s t i o n s was v a r i e d t o m i n i m i z e c h e a t i n g . The s t u d y d i d n o t d i s c l o s e t h e amount o f t i m e u s e d by s u b j e c t s i n t h e v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s n o r was any i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r s c o r i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e a r t i c l e . I n t h e s e a r c h e x p e r i m e n t s ( e x p e r i m e n t s 3, 4, and 8) a n o t h e r g r o u p of s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a w h o l e c l a s s g u i d e d p r a c t i c e t a s k p r i o r t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o m p l e t i n g t h e m a i n e x e r c i s e . The p r a c t i c e t a s k p a s s a g e c o n t a i n e d e i t h e r embedded h e a d i n g s , h e a d i n g s p l a c e d i n t h e m a r g i n s , o r no h e a d i n g s f o l l o w e d by f i v e q u e s t i o n s . W i t h o u t r e a d i n g t h e p a s s a g e t h e s t u d e n t s were f i r s t r e q u i r e d t o c i r c l e t h e b i t of t e x t t h a t a n s w e r e d e a c h of t h e f i v e q u e s t i o n s . The e x p e c t e d p r o c e d u r e , an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t a s k r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h e n e e d f o r a c c u r a c y were s t r e s s e d a f t e r e a c h q u e s t i o n was a n s w e r e d . However, i t was n o t c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d who gave t h e d i r e c t i o n s o r i f t h e d i r e c t i o n s were s t a n d a r d i z e d . F o l l o w i n g t h e p r a c t i c e t a s k p a s s a g e s e a c h s u b j e c t t h e n r e c e i v e d a v e r s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a s s a g e t y p e d i n t h e same manner a s h i s o r h e r p r a c t i c e t a s k . A g a i n , w i t h o u t f i r s t r e a d i n g t h e p a s s a g e e a c h s t u d e n t i n d e p e n d e n t l y a n s w e r e d 12 q u e s t i o n s i n t h e same manner a s p r e v i o u s l y 52 o u t l i n e d . A g a i n , t h e q u e s t i o n s were v a r i e d t o m i n i m i z e c h e a t i n g . The l e n g t h o f t i m e s t u d e n t s t o o k t o f i n i s h t h e a s s i g n m e n t was g a u g e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way. E v e r y 20 s e c o n d s an e x p e r i m e n t e r w o u l d w r i t e a d i f f e r e n t random number i n t h e d i s p l a y box on t h e c h a l k b o a r d . A t t h e t i m e o f c o m p l e t i o n e a c h s t u d e n t was r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e down t h e random number c u r r e n t l y on d i s p l a y . T h i s was t h e n c h e c k e d by an e x p e r i m e n t e r t o see t h a t t h i s h a d been done c o r r e c t l y . The r e t r i e v a l e x p e r i m e n t s ( e x p e r i m e n t s 5, 6 and 9) r e q u i r e d a n o t h e r g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p r a c t i c e t a s k o u t l i n e d a b o v e i n t h e s e a r c h e x p e r i m e n t s . T h i s t i m e e a c h s t u d e n t r e a d t h e p a s s a g e f i r s t b e f o r e a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y t h e s u b j e c t s r e a d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a s s a g e ( f o r up t o s i x m i n u t e s ) a n d c o m p l e t e d t h e r e t r i e v a l t a s k a s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . The e x p e r i m e n t e r s e m p l o y e d t h e same p r e c a u t i o n s of v a r y i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o r d e r p e r p a s s a g e v e r s i o n and o f c h e c k i n g t h e number r e c o r d e d by e a c h s u b j e c t a f t e r t a s k c o m p l e t i o n . C o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l (1941) a n d C h r i s t e n s e n and S t o r d a h l ( 1 9 5 5 ) , H a r t l e y and Trueman's summary of t h e n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e a d i n g s a i d e d r e c a l l , s e a r c h and r e t r i e v a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . The p r e s e n c e of h e a d i n g s p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s i n e i g h t o f t h e n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s . As w e l l , p u p i l s i n t h e h e a d i n g s g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n 66 p e r c e n t o f p u p i l s i n t h e n o - h e a d i n g s g r o u p s . However, 53 c o n t r a r y t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e 1981 s t u d y , was t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f h e a d i n g s ( m a r g i n a l o r embedded) d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y e f f e c t r e c a l l , s e a r c h a n d r e t r i e v a l . T h i s l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n c e m i g h t be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s i n s i x e x p e r i m e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a g r o u p p r a c t i c e t a s k p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i n g t h e a s s i g n e d e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k . The p r a c t i c e t a s k may h a v e c u e d t h e p u p i l s t o u s e . h e a d i n g s ( r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e t e x t ) w i t h s i m i l a r c o m p e t e n c e . A l s o c o n t r a r y t o H a r t l e y et a l . ' s e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( 1 9 8 0 , 1981) was t h e f i n d i n g t h a t h e a d i n g s as q u e s t i o n s v e r s u s h e a d i n g s a s s t a t e m e n t s p r o d u c e d no d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i n t h e r e c a l l , s e a r c h and r e t r i e v a l s t u d i e s . As w e l l , no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n a b i l i t y a n d t h e t y p e o f h e a d i n g u s e d . H a r t l e y a n d Trueman s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n s i n c e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l m e a s u r e s o f a b i l i t y w e r e u s e d f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s t u d e n t s i n t o a b i l i t y l e v e l s . Due t o t h e c o n d e n s e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e x p e r i m e n t s and l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , t a s k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , a n d a n a l y s i s o f d a t a i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f u l l y c r i t i q u e t h e n i n e e x p e r i m e n t s f o r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f l a w s w h i c h may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s . H o wever, one a s p e c t w h i c h m i g h t h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e s u l t s was t h e c h o i c e o f t e s t u s e d t o m e a s u r e s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l . The s h o r t a n s w e r q u i z may h a v e t r i g g e r e d r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h o t h e r w i s e m i g h t n o t h a v e been remembered. As r e v e a l e d by H a r t l e y and T rueman, "some 54 p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s had reduced e r r o r r a t e s i n the headings g r o u p s . . . but these q u e s t i o n s were not the same i n each of the t h r e e experiments" (p . 211) . The s h o r t answer t e s t may t h e r e f o r e not be a s t r i n g e n t measure of the e f f e c t s of headings on r e c a l l . Consequent ly the r e s u l t s of t h i s study seem best g e n e r a l i z e d to o l d e r r e a d e r s under the same e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . The f i n a l study to be a n a l y z e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e i s the most r ecen t examinat ion of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of headings on r e c a l l . I t i s a l s o the o n l y group of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which c o n c u r r e n t l y examined a wide range of r e a d e r s to d i s c o v e r whether the use of headings was deve lopmenta l in n a t u r e . These s t u d i e s conducted by Gibbs (1985), K i n g (1985) and S t a b l e s (1985) , i n v o l v e d a t o t a l of 300 s t u d e n t s . In three c o n c u r r e n t p a r a l l e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( S t a b l e s s t u d i e d Grades 5 and 6; K i n g s t u d i e d Grades 7 and 8 and; Gibbs s t u d i e d Grades 9 and 10), the r e s e a r c h e r s examined the e f f e c t of e x p o s i t o r y passages wi th and wi thout headings on the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of w r i t t e n r e c a l l . D u r i n g the f i r s t s e s s i o n of the s tudy the Gates M c G i n i t i e comprehension subtes t was a d m i n i s t e r e d to a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s to determine the s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . D u r i n g the second s e s s i o n of the s tudy h a l f of the s tudents at each grade l e v e l were randomly s e l e c t e d to read a headed or an unheaded v e r s i o n of a passage w r i t t e n at a grade three r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l ( P a r r o t P a s s a g e ) . The other h a l f 55 o f t h e s t u d e n t s r e a d a h e a d e d o r u n h e a d e d v e r s i o n o f an e x p o s i t o r y t y p e p a s s a g e w r i t t e n a t t h e i r a p p r o x i m a t e g r a d e l e v e l . A l l s t u d e n t s were g i v e n 10 m i n u t e s t o r e a d t h e a s s i g n e d p a s s a g e a n d 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e an i m m e d i a t e t e s t o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l . The p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e s e c o n d s e s s i o n e x c e p t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d w h i c h e v e r h e a d e d o r u n h e a d e d p a s s a g e t h e y had n o t y e t r e a d . R e c a l l p r o t o c o l s f o r t h e s e c o n d and t h i r d s e s s i o n s were s c o r e d f o r q u a n t i t y , f o r m a t , a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s r e c a l l e d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o u n d t h a t , a c r o s s a l l g r a d e l e v e l s , t h e p r e s e n c e of h e a d i n g s i n e x p o s i t o r y t e x t d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n of s u b o r d i n a t e o r s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s . S t u d e n t s who f o l l o w e d t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a s s a g e s , h o w e v e r , seemed t o r e c a l l a g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s . As w e l l , t h e p r e s e n c e o f h e a d i n g s seemed t o i n f l u e n c e t h e f o r m a t o f t h e w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s . Some s t u d e n t s embedded i d e n t i c a l o r m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n s o f p a s s a g e h e a d i n g s i n t h e i r w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s . O t h e r s t u d e n t s l i s t e d h e a d i n g s f i r s t b e f o r e w r i t i n g t h e s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s o f t h e p a s s a g e s . The f i n d i n g s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t many s t u d e n t s may have been v e r g i n g on a w a r e n e s s o f t h e u t i l i t y o f h e a d i n g s a s r e c a l l a i d s . T h i s n o t i o n i s s t r e n g t h e n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t no s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d h e a d i n g s . when w r i t i n g p r o t o c o l s f o r p a s s a g e s t h a t d i d n o t c o n t a i n t h e s e r e t r i e v a l c u e s . I n 56 a d d i t i o n , S t a b l e s (1985) found tha t the presence of headings seemed to p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t the number of s u b o r d i n a t e ideas r e c a l l e d from a passage of low r e a d a b i l i t y by poor f i f t h grade r e a d e r s (<50th p e r c e n t i l e on Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension S u b t e s t ) . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s a l s o found a deve lopmenta l t r e n d i n the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of ideas as i n d i c a t e d by the r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s for the passage of low r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l ( P a r r o t P a s s a g e ) . Grades 5 and 6 s tudent s r e c a l l e d few s u b o r d i n a t e ideas and appeared not to use the s u b o r d i n a t e t e x t s t r u c t u r e to r e c a l l i d e a s . S tudents in Grades 8, 9, and 10 r e c a l l e d a g r e a t e r number of s u b o r d i n a t e ideas and t h e r e f o r e seemed more a b l e to use the s u b o r d i n a t e s t r u c t u r e of the passage to r e c a l l d e t a i l s . These f i n d i n g s are not s u r p r i s i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t tha t secondary s c h o o l s tudents g e n e r a l l y have h i g h e r r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s and g r e a t e r exposure to e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , i t seems l o g i c a l tha t r e a d i n g and r e c a l l of a passage of Grade 3 r e a d a b i l i t y would be an e a s i e r task for o l d e r than for younger s t u d e n t s . There d i d not appear to be any deve lopmenta l e f f e c t s in the q u a n t i t y of s u p e r o r d i n a t e v e r s u s s u b o r d i n a t e ideas r e c a l l e d from the grade l e v e l pas sages . F a m i l a r i t y wi th passage content (Grade 7 passage) and the h i g h r e a d a b i l i t y of o ther passages ( e s p e c i a l l y the Grade 6 passage) may have confounded the r e s u l t s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o n c l u d e d that o l d e r s t u d e n t s (Grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) would b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n in the use of 57 h e a d i n g s . They s u g g e s t e d t h a t G r a d e s 6 and 7 s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t u d y s k i l l s "as t h e s e s t u d e n t s would be a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h e a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r n a l i z e t h e s t u d y s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s t h a t i n v o l v e t h e o v e r v i e w of t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n and a w a r e n e s s of t h e a u t h o r ' s schema" ( p . 103-104). F i n a l l y t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d " u t i l i z e o r expand t h e r a n g e of g r a d e l e v e l s " ( p . 103) ..." and [ i n c l u d e ] some form of i n s t r u c t i o n a l component" ( p . 104) t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e e f f e c t of h e a d i n g s on c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l of e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . The c o n c l u s i o n s made by G i b b s , S t a b l e s and K i n g (1985) w a r r a n t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . The r ecommendations t h a t Grade 6 and 7 s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use of h e a d i n g s b e c a u s e t h e y would be most a b l e t o use t h e a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n t h e s t u d y s k i l l i m p l i e s t h a t y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s w o u l d n o t b e n e f i t as much from s u c h i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e i r s u g g e s t i o n may have some m e r i t . The a b i l i t y t o use an a u t h o r ' s t e x t s t r u c t u r e and h e a d i n g s t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l may be d e v e l o p m e n t a l . M a t u r e r e a d e r s may b e n e f i t more from i n s t r u c t i o n t h a n y o u n g e r s t u d e n t s . Summary T h i s s e c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d i s c u s s e d s t u d i e s w h i c h examined the e f f e c t s of h e a d i n g s on s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l of e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e when s t u d e n t s 58 had n ot been t r a i n e d t o use h e a d i n g s . Some f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m e r e l y p r o v i d i n g r e a d e r s w i t h h e a d e d t e x t e n h a n c e d r e c a l l , s e a r c h and r e t r i e v a l ( H a r t l e y , K e n e l y , Owen and Trueman, 1980; H a r t l e y , M o r r i s and Trueman, 1981; H a r t l e y and Trueman, 1983). However, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e s e f i n d i n g s must be v i e w e d i n l i g h t o f t h e k i n d s of t a s k s p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g and a f t e r r e a d i n g . Common t o t h e s e s t u d i e s w h i c h f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f h e a d i n g s was t h e use o f a s h o r t answer t e s t . A l t h o u g h s u c h a measure may p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n of s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o r e c a l l f a c t s , i t s p o t e n t i a l t o t r i g g e r r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n may n o t p r o v i d e a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e p t h o f r e c a l l . Nor may i t p r o v i d e a r o b u s t e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f h e a d i n g s on m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n , r e t r i e v a l and p r o d u c t i o n . F i n d i n g s from t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h headed t e x t i s n o t enough t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s t u d e n t s would b e n e f i t from i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e e f f e c t i v e use of h e a d i n g s ( R o b i n s o n and H a l l , 1941; C h r i s t e n s e n and S t o r d a h l , 1955; G i b b s , 1985; K i n g , 1985; S t a b l e s , 1985). The f i n d i n g s of t h e s t u d i e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e of h e a d i n g s may have d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on r e c a l l of low, a v e r a g e , and h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . One s t u d y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e of h e a d i n g s , whether i n q u e s t i o n or s t a t e m e n t f o r m e n h a n c e d 59 r e c a l l o f a l l s t u d e n t s b u t seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y b e n e f i c i a l t o s t u d e n t s o f low r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ( H a r t l e y , K e n e l y , Owen and Trueman, 1 9 8 0 ) . O t h e r s t u d i e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t o l d e r a n d b e t t e r r e a d e r s r e c a l l more s u p e r o r d i n a t e a n d s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s a n d have b e t t e r s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a f t e r r e a d i n g a p a s s a g e o f low r e a d a b i l i t y ( b u t n o t a f t e r r e a d i n g p a s s a g e s a t g r a d e l e v e l ) t h a n y o u n g e r a n d l e s s a b l e s t u d e n t s ( G i b b s , 1985; K i n g , 1985; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . S t a b l e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e a d i n g s a p p e a r t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e number o f s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s r e c a l l e d f r o m a p a s s a g e o f l o w r e a d a b i l i t y by p o o r f i f t h g r a d e r e a d e r s . T h e s e m i x e d r e s u l t s make i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o n c l u d e w h i c h s t u d e n t s w o u l d t e n d t o b e n e f i t most f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e o f h e a d i n g s . F i n a l l y , i t h a s been s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e u s e o f h e a d i n g s w i t h o r w i t h o u t i n s t r u c t i o n may be d e v e l o p m e n t a l i n n a t u r e ( G i b b s , 1985; K i n g , 1985; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d t h u s f a r d i d n o t i n c l u d e t r a i n i n g i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s . As w e l l , t h e s e s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d w i t h s t u d e n t s f r o m g r a d e s f i v e t o c o l l e g e l e v e l . No s t u d i e s were f o u n d w h i c h e x a m i n e d g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o use h e a d i n g s a s an a i d t o r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . 60 I n s t r u c t i o n a l S tud ies Designed to S e n s i t i z e Students to Headings, Text S t ruc tu re and Macros tu rc tu re Format ion The f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s l i k e t h o s e c o n d u c t e d by R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l ( 1 9 4 1 ) a nd C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l ( 1 9 5 5 ) made e d u c a t o r s a ware t h a t t h e r e was a n e e d t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s t o u s e h e a d i n g s b e f o r e t h i s e x t e r n a l t e x t o r g a n i z e r c o u l d e n h a n c e l e a r n i n g o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . L i k e w i s e t h e f i n d i n g s o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , E l l i o t t , ( 1 9 8 0 ) , T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d i E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t ( 1 9 8 4) p r o m p t e d r e s e a r c h e r s t o s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s w o u l d a l s o b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n t e x t s t r u c t u r e . A t p r e s e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t h a v e f o c u s e d on h e a d i n g s ( B r o o k s et a l . , 1983; D e e - L u c a s a nd D i ; V e s t a , 1980; D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978; H o l l e y i ev a l . , 1981; R o b i n s o n , 1970) t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d / o r m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n ( A l v e r m a n n , 1982; B o o t h b y and A l v e r m a n n , 1984; B a r t l e t t , 1978; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h , 1984) a r e few i n number. Ho w e v e r , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e r e p o r t e d some s u c c e s s i n t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use s u c h s t r a t e g i e s t h r o u g h t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n ( B a r t l e t t , 1978; R o b i n s o n , 1970; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r a n d Bejach, 1 9 8 4 ) ; a nd g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s ( A l v e r m a n n , 1982; D e e - L u c a s a nd D i V e s t a , 1980; D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r , 1982; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h , 1 9 8 4 ) . I t seems t h a t l e s s i n t e n s e f o r m s o f i n s t r u c t i o n h a v e n o t been 61 a s s u c c e s s f u l ( H o l l e y et a l . , 1981; B r o o k s et a l . , 1983) a s t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s " d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n " a nd " g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s " i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e r e v i e w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e f o c u s e d on h e a d i n g s , t e x t s t r u c t u r e and m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Brown, Campione and Day ( 1 9 8 1) d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l u d e s t h o s e s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h e x p l i c i t l y i n f o r m s t u d e n t s a b o u t why an a c t i v i t y i s a p p r o p r i a t e a n d e x p l i c i t l y show s t u d e n t s how t o u s e , m o n i t o r c h e c k a n d e v a l u a t e t h e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g y . I n a s i m i l a r v e i n Baumann (1 9 8 6 ) d e f i n e s d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a s t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s w h i c h i n c l u d e t e l l i n g , s h o w i n g , m o d e l l i n g , d e m o n s t r a t i n g and d i r e c t t e a c h i n g . H i s e x a m i n a t i o n ( 1 9 8 3 ) o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i n g r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( b a s e d on a 1981 r e v i e w by B e r l i n e r ) and c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s ( b a s e d on P e a r s o n ' s 1982 and Brown, Campione a n d Day's 1980 r e v i e w of e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s ) e n a b l e d h i m t o s y t h e s i z e t h e o r e t i c a l a n d a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h i n t o s i x p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n m e t h o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s . T h e s e p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d e : 1) t e a c h a r e l e v a n t s k i l l , 2) p r o c e e d f r o m s i m p l e t o c o m p l e x , 3) p r o v i d e enough i n s t r u c t i o n , 4) a d m i n i s t e r d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n , 5) p r o v i d e t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a p p l i c a t i o n , a n d 6) r e q u i r e i n d e p e n d e n t p r a c t i c e . I n s t r u c t i o n i n g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s , a s p r o p o s e d by W i t t r o c k ( 1 9 7 4 ) , seems t o be a n o t h e r way o f 62 f a c i l i t a t i n g t e x t c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . G e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g r e q u i r e s a c t i v e r e a d e r - t e x t i n t e r a c t i o n a n d i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t " r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o c c u r s when t h e r e a d e r a c t i v e l y c o n s t r u c t s m e a n i n g f o r t h e t e x t " ( D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978, p. 1 0 9 ) . W i t t r o c k m a i n t a i n s t h a t l e a r n e r s who c o n s t r u c t m e a n i n g f u l e l a b o r a t i o n s o f t h e t e x t w h i l e e n c o d i n g p r o v i d e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h s e m a n t i c r e t r i e v a l c u e s w h i c h e n h a n c e t h e r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e s e e l a b o r a t i o n s . One of t h e e a r l i e s t s u c c e s s e s i n w h i c h a f o r m o f d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n was u s e d t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s how t o u t i l i z e h e a d i n g s a s a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n o f t h e t e x t ' s m a c r o s t r u c t u r e was r e p o r t e d by R o b i n s o n i n h i s book Effective Study ( 4 t h e d i t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) . D u r i n g t h e t i m e of W o r l d War I I i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s o l d i e r s who n e e d e d t o t r a i n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d p o s i t i o n s h a d d i f f i c u l t l y d o i n g so b e c a u s e o f i n e f f i c i e n t s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s . As a r e s u l t R o b i n s o n d e v i s e d t h e SQ3R ( S u r v e y , Q u e s t i o n , R e a d , R e c i t e , and R e v i e w ) s t u d y p r o c e d u r e t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s i n g and r e c a l l o f c o m p l e x m a t e r i a l . A l t h o u g h v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e h a v e been d e v e l o p e d , t h e b a s i c f o r m o f SQ3R r e q u i r e s t h e r e a d e r t o s u r v e y c h a p t e r t i t l e s , i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h s , summary p a r a g r a p h s , h e a d i n g s , i t a l i c i z e d w o r d s , p i c t u r e s , a n d g r a p h i c a i d s . S u r v e y i n g t h e s e e x t e r n a l t e x t c o m p o n e n t s o r i e n t s t h e r e a d e r t o t h e m a t e r i a l t o be r e a d . A t t h e same t i m e t h e r e a d e r m e n t a l l y d e v e l o p s q u e s t i o n s t o be a n s w e r e d w h i c h e n s u r e s p u r p o s e f u l r e a d i n g o f t h e t e x t . 63 F i n a l l y t h e r e a d e r r e a d s t o f i n d a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s , r e c i t e s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d r e v i e w s t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s . R o b i n s o n r e p o r t e d t h a t m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l who r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s t e c h n i q u e s t u d i e d w i t h g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y a n d r e t a i n e d more o f what t h e y r e a d . Use of t h e SQ3R t e c h n i q u e i s s t i l l recommended by c u r r e n t r e a d i n g m e t h o d o l o g i s t s . The s u c c e s s o f t h e SQ3R t e c h n i q u e a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t d i r e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o s u r v e y and u s e h e a d i n g s t o f o r m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t f o r t h c o m i n g m a t e r i a l e n a b l e s them t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h g r e a t e r e f f i c i e n c y . S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r B a r t l e t t ( 1 9 7 8 ) r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s i n u s i n g a d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a r a d i g m a n d g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s t o t e a c h h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a b o u t t e x t s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n d e v e l o p e d an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y t o h e l p n i n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s r e c o g n i z e m a i n i d e a s a s w e l l a s a n t e c e d e n t / r e s u l t , p r o b l e m / s o l u t i o n , c o m p a r e / c o n t r a s t , a n d g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t p a t t e r n s i n 250 word e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . The s t u d e n t s were a l s o t r a i n e d t o o r g a n i z e a n d p r o d u c e w r i t t e n r e c a l l s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r ' s t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d t o h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s i t was f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who had r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n f o c u s i n g on t e x t s t r u c t u r e p r o d u c e d b e t t e r m e m o r i e s f o r t h e p a s s a g e s t h a n s t u d e n t s who had n o t been i n s t r u c t e d . I n t h e same y e a r D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s ( 1 9 7 8 ) r e p o r t e d s u c c e s s i n d i r e c t l y i n s t r u c t i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e d t h e 64 u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t r e t r i e v a l o f r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d i f s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o use t e x t h e a d i n g s t o g e n e r a t e m e m o r i e s ( s e n t e n c e s ) f o r p a r a g r a p h s . A t o t a l o f 488 s i x t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d by s e x a n d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t o one o f 3 c o n t r o l o r 5 t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y f o u n d t h a t s t o r i e s w i t h p a r a g r a p h h e a d i n g s w h i c h r e s t a t e d o r c u e d t h e m a i n i d e a s o f t h e p a r a g r a p h s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a c i l i t a t e d r e c a l l o f b o t h h i g h and l o w - a b i l i t y r e a d e r s . The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o u s e h e a d i n g s and t o g e n e r a t e s e n t e n c e s a b o u t s t o r y p a r a g r a p h s a p p r o x i m a t e l y d o u b l e d t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n r e c a l l s c o r e s of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e l i m i t e d t o n a r r a t i v e p a r a g r a p h s , t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t t h e n o t i o n t h a t g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a n d t h e use o f h e a d i n g s a i d i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n , r e t r i e v a l a n d r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g a g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a p p r o a c h and d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n was c o n d u c t e d by D e e - L u c a s and D i V e s t a ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The e x p e r i m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on r e c a l l o f p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h t o p i c s e n t e n c e s , h e a d i n g s , r e l a t e d f a c t u a l s e n t e n c e s and u n r e l a t e d s e n t e n c e s a s c o m p a r e d t o h a v i n g s t u d e n t s g e n e r a t e t h e same f o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . The s t u d y i n v o l v e d 133 f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d a d d i t i o n a l c o u r s e m a r k s f o r v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t . 65 The p a r t i c i p a n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e e i g h t t r e a t m e n t s i t u a t i o n s . A l l s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o r e a d a 522 word d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e on m i n e r a l s . The p a s s a g e c o n t a i n e d 15 p a r a g r a p h s o f 3' s e n t e n c e s e a c h . T h r e e s e p a r a t e i m m e d i a t e m e a s u r e s o f r e c a l l were u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u b j e c t s u n d e r e a c h t r e a t m e n t . T h e s e i n c l u d e d : a f r e e r e c a l l t a s k t o m e a s u r e r e c a l l o f f a c t s ( s t u d e n t s w r o t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h e y c o u l d r e m e m b e r ) ; a m a t c h i n g t a s k t o m e a s u r e r e c o g n i t i o n o f f a c t s ( s t u d e n t s m a t c h e d p a r a g r a p h t o p i c s t o a t t r i b u t e s ) ; a n d a t e s t f o r k n o w l e d g e o f p a s s a g e s t r u c t u r e ( s t u d e n t s f i l l e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l t r e e d i a g r a m w i t h s u p e r o r d i n a t e f a c t s ) . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c o n t e x t s had d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on r e c a l l o n l y when t h e y were g e n e r a t e d . D e e - L u c a s a n d D i V e s t a r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f t o p i c s e n t e n c e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d r e c a l l o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e . As w e l l , t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d r e t e n t i o n o f s u b o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n ( a s r e v e a l e d by t h e f r e e r e c a l l t a s k ) , t o p i c - a t t r i b u t e p a i r i n g s a n d p a s s a g e t o p i c ( a s r e v e a l e d by t h e t e x t s t r u c t u r e t a s k ) . D e e - L u c a s a n d D i V e s t a s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s ' g e n e r a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s may h a v e e m p h a s i z e d t h e t o p i c s w h i c h i n t u r n t r i g g e r e d r e c a l l o f t o p i c a t t r i b u t e s . They a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f t o p i c s e n t e n c e s may h a v e i n v o k e d r e a d e r s t o use t o p i c s and p r o v i d e d h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l c o n c e p t s . 66 H o w e v e r , t h e f i n d i n g s a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i d e d c o n t e x t s t r e a t m e n t s seemed n o t t o e n h a n c e k n o w l e d g e o f p a s s a g e s t r u c t u r e t h e y d i d seem t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f s u b o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n ( a s m e a s u r e d by t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k ) b e t t e r t h a n t h e g e n e r a t e d c o n t e x t s . As i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s , g e n e r a t i o n t a s k s may e n a b l e r e a d e r s t o f o c u s a t t e n t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n s o f t h e t e x t b u t a t t h e expense, o f r e c a l l i n g o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be remembered by s k i l l e d r e a d e r s whose a t t e n t i o n was n o t d i v e r t e d by a g e n e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s of D e e - L u c a s and D i V e s t a ' s s t u d y a r e l i m i t e d t o f e m a l e u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s t h e r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e and g e n e r a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s a i d i n r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . H o w e v e r , as c o n c l u d e d by D e e - L u c a s a n d D i V e s t a , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s a n d g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s a r e o n l y e f f e c t i v e i f t h e y i n d u c e t h e r e a d e r t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t o t h e r w i s e may n o t be r e c a l l e d . One y e a r l a t e r H o l l e y , D a n s e r e a u , E v a n s , C o l l i n s , B r o o k s and L a r s o n ( 1 9 81) a t t e m p t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use i n t a c t h e a d i n g s ( t o p i c a l o u t l i n e f o r m a t ) and embedded h e a d i n g s ( a p p r o p r i a t e l y p o s i t i o n e d i n t h e t e x t ) u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s of i m m e d i a t e and d e l a y e d r e c a l l . I n t h i s s t u d y , 95 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s : a) an i n p u t t r a i n i n g t r e a t m e n t g r o u p t h a t was i n s t r u c t e d t o t i e h e a d i n g s t o t h e p a s s a g e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e r e a d i n g , 67 b) an o utput t r a i n i n g group t h a t was i n s t r u c t e d t o use t h e p r o v i d e d o u t l i n e to s t u d y and r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n , c) a n o - t r a i n i n g - w i t h - h e a d i n g s c o n t r o l group t h a t was t o l d t o use t h e i r "normal" methods of s t u d y i n g , and d) a n o - t r a i n i n g - n o - h e a d i n g s c o n t r o l group t h a t was a l s o t o l d t o use t h e i r "normal" methods of s t u d y i n g . A l l s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n f o u r s e s s i o n s . In the f i r s t s e s s i o n , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s as p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d . They were then r e q u i r e d t o r e a d a passage f o r 20 m i n u t es and t o complete a f r e e r e c a l l t e s t . In the second s e s s i o n a l l s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d one of two 2400 t o 2500 word passages (one on Ecosystems, the o t h e r on P l a t e T e c h t o n i c s ) f o r 50 minutes and completed a f r e e r e c a l l exam. In the t h i r d s e s s i o n each s u b j e c t s t u d i e d t h e second passage ( t h a t he/she had not s t u d i e d i n s e s s i o n two) f o r 50 minutes and c ompleted a f r e e r e c a l l t e s t . D u r i n g the f i n a l s e s s i o n which took p l a c e a f t e r a f i v e day d e l a y , each s u b j e c t was r e q u e s t e d t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g remembered from the l a s t passage t h a t was s t u d i e d . The n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s of the s t u d y seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a i n i n g d i d not improve r e c a l l p e rformance. The e x p e r i m e n t e r s suggested two p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r these f i n d i n g s : the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d may have been too s h o r t to s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve r e c a l l ; and the t r a i n i n g may have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the s u b j e c t s ' e x i s t i n g s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s . However, i t was found t h a t s t u d e n t s p r o v i d e d w i t h h e adings r e c a l l e d more than s t u d e n t s whose t e x t d i d not c o n t a i n h e a d i n g s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y e l e v e n 68 p e r c e n t more i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c a l l e d a t i m m e d i a t e t e s t i n g and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 44 p e r c e n t more i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c a l l e d a t d e l a y e d t e s t i n g . T h e s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s may f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l e s p e c i a l l y when r e c a l l i s d e l a y e d . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e a d i n g s may h a v e g r e a t e r u t i l i t y a s r e t r i e v a l a i d s t h a n a s c o m p r e h e n s i o n f a c i l i t a t o r s . B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n a n d H o l l e y ( 1 9 8 3 ) c o n d u c t e d two s t u d i e s t o e x t e n d t h e l a t t e r e x p e r i m e n t . The two i n v e s t i g a t o r s c o m p a r e d t h e e f f e c t s o f embedded h e a d i n g s a n d i n t a c t h e a d i n g s ( o u t l i n e s ) u s e d s e p a r a t e l y a n d i n c o m b i n a t i o n on t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f c o m p l e x e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e h e a d i n g - o u t l i n e c o m b i n a t i o n w o u l d a c t i n a c o m p l i m e n t a r y manner t o i n c r e a s e c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; o u t l i n e s w o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t ween s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s w h i l e h e a d i n g s w o u l d s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s u p e r o r d i n a t e and s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s ( p . 2 9 7 ) . I n t h e f i r s t s t u d y 132 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r g r o u p s : a) O u t l i n e a n d H e a d i n g s , (0 & H ) , b) O u t l i n e s O n l y , ( 0 ) , c ) H e a d i n g s O n l y , ( H ) , and d) No h e a d i n g s , No O u t l i n e s C o n t r o l , ( C ) . The two p a s s a g e s u s e d were t h e same a s t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n t h e H o l l e y et al. (1981) e x p e r i m e n t . T h r e e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s , an e s s a y summary, an o u t l i n e o f t h e p a s s a g e a n d a m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t were u t i l i z e d t o t e s t r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n , k n o w l e d g e o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d 69 r e c o g n i t i o n of t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . I n s t r u c t i o n s were no t g i v e n o r a l l y . I n s t e a d , a l l s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d a s t u d y f o l d e r c o n t a i n i n g t h e p a s s a g e ( e c o s y s t e m s or p l a t e t e c h t o n i c s ) and t r e a t m e n t (0 & H, H, 0, C) t o w h i c h t h e y had been r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d , and a t e s t f o l d e r c o n t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e e s s a y , o u t l i n e , and m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t . F i f t y m i n u t e s were a l l o t t e d f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e p a s s a g e . F i v e m i n u t e s l a t e r t h e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . In t h e n e x t s e s s i o n s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d t h e p a s s a g e not r e a d i n t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n . A f t e r a f i v e day d e l a y a l l s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t h e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . An a n a l y s i s of t h e immediate t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r any o f t h e f o u r t r e a t m e n t s . As i n t e r p r e t e d by B r o o k s et al . ( 1 9 8 3 ) , t h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s had t h e same amount of i n f o r m a t i o n from w h i c h t o draw a t t h e t i m e of immediate t e s t i n g , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e o u t l i n e s and h e a d i n g s had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on immediate r e c a l l o f complex t e x t m a t e r i a l . They f u r t h e r p o s i t e d t h a t immediate t e s t i n g may have masked the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s and o u t l i n e s . In a d d i t i o n , an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e l a y e d t e s t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e H e a d i n g s O u t l i n e g r o u p s d i d not p e r f o r m as w e l l on t h e d e p e n d e n t measures as t h e H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n t r e a t m e n t f o r c e d s u b j e c t s t o d i v i d e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n between t h e h e a d i n g s and o u t l i n e s , t h e r e b y c o n f o u n d i n g r a t h e r t h a n 70 a i d i n g d e l a y e d r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n . H owever, t h e H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p c o n s i s t e n t l y o u t p e r f o r m e d a l l o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s on a l l t h r e e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s w h i l e t h e O u t l i n e O n l y g r o u p a c h i e v e d l e s s c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h s c o r e s on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s t h a n t h e H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p . The r e s u l t s seem t o s u p p o r t t h e v a l u e o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o u se embedded h e a d i n g s a s p r o c e s s i n g a i d s f o r c o m p l e x t e x t m a t e r i a l . I n t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t w h i c h i n v o l v e d a d i r e c t f o r m o f i n s t r u c t i o n , 106 u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f t h r e e t r e a t m e n t s : a) I n s t r u c t i o n s - P l u s - H e a d i n g s , b) H e a d i n g s O n l y a n d c ) No H e a d i n g s , No I n s t r u c t i o n s C o n t r o l . The m a t e r i a l t o be l e a r n e d c o n s i s t e d o f t h e e c o s y s t e m s p a s s a g e u s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i m e n t . The p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l c o n s i s t e d o f a 1500 w o r d p a s s a g e c o v e r i n g t h e t o p i c o f t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m . The I n s t r u c t i o n s - P l u s - H e a d i n g s g r o u p r e c e i v e d w r i t t e n a n d o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e use o f embedded h e a d i n g s w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f a c h e c k l i s t o f c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t o engage w h i l e s t u d y i n g t e x t m a t e r i a l . As w e l l t h e y were a s k e d t o a) u s e t h e h e a d i n g s t o p r e d i c t what t h e m a t e r i a l was g o i n g t o be a b o u t , b) u n d e r s t a n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e a c h h e a d i n g a c c o r d i n g t o e a c h s e c t i o n , c ) m e m o r i z e t h e h e a d i n g s , a n d d) use t h e h e a d i n g s a s r e c a l l a i d s . O p p o r t u n i t y was t h e n g i v e n f o r p r a c t i c e o f u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s on t h e n e r v o u s s y s t e m p a s s a g e . The H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p s a n d C o n t r o l g r o u p s r e c e i v e d o r a l and w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s t o use t h e i r u s u a l s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s . Two d a y s 71 l a t e r a l l g r o u p s were t o l d t o s t u d y t h e e c o s y s t e m p a s s a g e a s t h e y had d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n . F i v e d a y s l a t e r , a l l g r o u p s c o m p l e t e d t h e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s t e s t s ( e s s a y , o u t l i n e , a n d m u l t i p l e c h o i c e - i n t h a t o r d e r ) . The f i n d i n g s showed t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h e I n s t r u c t i o n s -P l u s - H e a d i n g s g r o u p s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t p e r f o r m e d t h o s e i n t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p on t h e e s s a y m e a s u r e . As w e l l , t h e I n s t r u c t i o n s - P l u s - H e a d i n g s g r o u p h a d b e t t e r ( b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t ) mean s c o r e s on t h e e s s a y a n d o u t l i n e t e s t t h a n e i t h e r t h e C o n t r o l o r H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p s . C o n t r a r y t o f i n d i n g s o f t h e i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t t h e H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t p e r f o r m t h e C o n t r o l g r o u p . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s p o s i t e d t h a t t h e H e a d i n g s O n l y g r o u p i n t h e f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t may have become s e n s i t i z e d t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e of u s i n g h e a d i n g s b e c a u s e of e x p o s u r e t o i m m e d i a t e a n d d e l a y e d h e a d e d p a s s a g e s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r t y p i c a l use o f h e a d i n g s and o u t l i n e s . I n t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t , h o w e v e r , s u b j e c t s were n o t e x p o s e d t o e i t h e r o f t h e s e f a c t o r s a n d t h e r e f o r e may n o t h a v e been as i n c l i n e d t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e h e a d i n g s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e two s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by B r o o k s et a l . , seem t o s u p p o r t t h e use o f embedded h e a d i n g s as p r o c e s s i n g a i d s . The s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t a l s o seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t s n e e d t o be t r a i n e d t o use h e a d i n g s b e f o r e t h e y a r e e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e d . H o wever, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d i e s by B r o o k s et 72 al . , (1983) a n d H o l l e y et al . ( 1 9 8 1 ) a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use of h e a d i n g s a s p r o c e s s i n g a i d s n e e d s t o be l o n g e n o u g h i n d u r a t i o n and o f s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i t y t o e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p p r o f i c i e n c y i n u t i l i z i n g t h i s s k i l l . T h a t i s , t r a i n i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e shown how t o p e r f o r m p a r t i c u l a r p r o c e d u r e s a s c o m p a r e d t o s i m p l y t e l l i n g s t u d e n t s t o u s e a p a r t i c u l a r s t r a t e g y may be n e e d e d t o y i e l d more f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s . One g e n e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y w h i c h h a s been s u g g e s t e d a s a t o o l f o r t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e i s t h e use o f g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s ( A l v e r m a n n , 1981; A l v e r m a n n , 1982; McGee and R i c h g e l s , 1 9 8 5 ) . A l v e r m a n n (1982) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who r e o r g a n i z e t e x t by u s i n g g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s , r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more m a i n i d e a s t h a n s t u d e n t s who s i m p l y r e a d t h e t e x t . The e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v e d t h i r t y a v e r a g e a n d a b o v e a v e r a g e t e n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s who were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one of two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . I n one g r o u p , 15 s t u d e n t s were t r a i n e d by an a s s i s t a n t i n a s t e p - b y - s t e p p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r r e g a r d i n g how t o r e a d e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l o f t h e l i s t i n g v a r i e t y and how t o u s e key w o r d s f r o m t h e t e x t t o g e n e r a t e a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i d e a s o r g a n i z e d i n e i t h e r a c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t o r c a u s e / e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . S t u d e n t s i n t h e s e c o n d t r e a t m e n t g r o u p r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n on how t o p r o d u c e a g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r o f t h e t e x t . I n s t e a d t h e y r e a d t h e same p r a c t i c e and e x p e r i m e n t a l 73 p a s s a g e s a s t h e o t h e r t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , b u t p r o c e s s e d t h e m a t e r i a l a s t h e y u s u a l l y d i d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s . P r i o r t o t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e t e s t p a s s a g e , s t u d e n t s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e a w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f i t s c o n t e n t s a f t e r a one-week d e l a y . A n a l y s e s o f t h e r e s u l t s showed s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s f o r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . However i t seemed t h a t t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f a c o m p a r i s o n / c o n t r a s t g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r t o r e o r g a n i z e t e x t o f t h e s i m p l e l i s t i n g v a r i e t y e n h a n c e d r e c a l l o f m a i n i d e a s more t h a n r e c a l l o f d e t a i l s . A l v e r m a n n r e c o g n i z e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y s u c h a s t h e use o f a s m a l l number o f s t u d e n t s , s h o r t t i m e d u r a t i o n and t h e f a c t t h a t g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s may be t e x t s p e c i f i c a n d most u s e f u l o n l y when t h e t e x t i s w r i t t e n i n a s i m p l e l i s t i n g f o r m a t . As w e l l , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y were l i m i t e d t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h r e c e n t r e s e a r c h u t i l i z i n g g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s a s a s i g n a l l i n g and t r a i n i n g a i d f o r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n embedded i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t e x t h a s f o c u s e d on h i g h s c h o o l a nd c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , one v e r y r e c e n t s t u d y d i d i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r i n s t r u c t i o n on f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t m a t e r i a l . B o o t h b y and A l v e r m a n n ' s (1984) t h r e e month t r a i n i n g s t u d y i n v o l v e d one e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s o r i g i n a l l y c o m p r i s e d o f 18 members ( r e d u c e d t o 11 members due t o a b s e n t e e i s m ) a nd one c o n t r o l c l a s s o r i g i n a l l y c o m p r i s e d o f 20 s t u d e n t s ( r e d u c e d t o 15 74 s u b j e c t s due t o a b s e n t e e i s m ) . B o t h g r o u p s r e a d t h e same m a t e r i a l , r e c e i v e d t h e same number o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l h o u r s (40 m i n u t e s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n s t r u c t i o n t h r e e t i m e s a w e e k ) , and c o m p l e t e d t h e same m u l t i p l e c h o i c e a n d f r e e r e c a l l t e s t s . S t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , were t r a i n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o use o r g a n i z e r s a s an a i d f o r r e c a l l . S t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d a d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l a p p r o a c h f r o m t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r b u t were n o t e x p o s e d t o g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s . One week a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d b o t h g r o u p s were t e s t e d f o r r e c a l l o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l p a s s a g e on t o b a c c o t r a d e . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was p r e s e n t e d w i t h a g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r a n d t h e t e s t p a s s a g e w h i l e t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was m e r e l y i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l p a s s a g e . B o t h g r o u p s were i n f o r m e d t h a t a f r e e w r i t t e n r e c a l l t a s k w o u l d be r e q u i r e d a f t e r r e a d i n g . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r g r o u p r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t o t a l number o f i d e a s t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p a t e a c h o f t h e i m m e d i a t e and 48 h o u r d e l a y e d t e s t t i m e s . D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a b a s e d on t h e m u l t i p l e c h o i c e a n d f r e e r e c a l l t a s k s c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r g r o u p b e n e f i t e d f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n . H owever, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l were f o u n d b e t ween t h e two g r o u p s a f t e r a one month d e l a y . More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g y d i d n o t seem t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l o f t h e m a i n i d e a s i n t h e p a s s a g e ; a l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s i n t h e g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r g r o u p 75 r e c a l l e d more m a i n i d e a s t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s may h a v e been a t t r i b u t e d t o two f a c t o r s : t h e l o s s o f s u b j e c t s whose s c o r e s may h a v e y i e l d e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y t h e t e x t ' s m a i n i d e a s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f a g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r . T h e s e i n c o n c l u s i v e f i n d i n g s p r o m p t e d B o o t h b y and A l v e r m a n n t o s u g g e s t t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d on t r a i n i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s t o u s e g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s a s s i g n a l l i n g d e v i c e s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . A n o t h e r s i g n a l l i n g d e v i c e w h i c h u t i l i z e s g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g a n d h a s r e p o r t e d l y e n a b l e d s e c o n d a r y and e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s t o p r o c e s s e x p o s i t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h a t o f G l o s s n o t a t i o n ( R i c h g e l s and H a n s e n , 1 9 8 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o R i c h g e l s and H ansen (1984) " g l o s s n o t a t i o n s c a n be u s e d t o f o c u s on b o t h t h e p r o c e s s ( s k i l l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s ) o f r e a d i n g and t h e c o n t e n t ( f a c t s , c o n c e p t s ) o f t e x t s " ( p . 3 1 2 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s s y s t e m of m a k i n g m a r g i n a l n o t e s h a s been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e m e d i e v a l t i m e s R i c h g e l s a n d H ansen s u g g e s t t h a t e d u c a t o r s u s e O t t o , W h i t e , R i c h g e l , H a n s e n , a n d M o r r i s o n ' s (1981) m o d i f i e d g l o s s t e c h n i q u e t o e n h a n c e s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g and r e t e n t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . R a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g s t u d e n t s w r i t e i n t h e i r t e x t , m a r g i n a l n o t a t i o n s a r e w r i t t e n on s h e e t s of p a p e r , a n d a r e k e y e d t o t e x t p a g e s by numbered b r a c k e t s t o h i g h l i g h t a s p e c t s o f t h e t e x t t o be l e a r n e d . As c i t e d by R i c h g e l s 76 a n d Hansen ( 1 9 8 4 ) , a l t h o u g h e a r l y e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h was i n c o n c l u s i v e , p o s i t i v e s t u d e n t a n d t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n s w e re r e p o r t e d when g l o s s was u s e d a s a m e t h o d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s r e a d a n d s t u d y d r i v e r e d u c a t i o n m a n u a l s (Dana, 1 9 8 2 ) , s t u d y f o r exams ( C o n n e r s , 1982) a n d t o c o m p r e h e n d c o n t e n t a r e a t e x t s ( T e l f e r , 1982; T o n j e s , 1 9 8 1 ) . McGee and R i c h g e l s ( 1985) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t g l o s s n o t a t i o n s c a n be u s e d a s an i n t e r m e d i a r y s t e p f o r h e l p i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e b e f o r e i n d e p e n d e n t u s e of t e x t s t r u c t u r e i s r e q u i r e d . S t a b l e s , G i b b s a n d K i n g ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , IRA C o n f e r e n c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , May, 1986) h a v e a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g l o s s t e c h n i q u e may be u s e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a t t e n d t o a n d u s e h e a d i n g s a n d t o s i g n a l i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e t e x t . However t h e s e o p i n i o n s h a v e y e t t o be c o n c l u s i v e l y s u p p o r t e d by e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . A r e c e n t e m p i r i c a l s t u d y w h i c h d i d n o t use g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s n o r g l o s s n o t a t i o n s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s a t t e n d t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e b u t d i d u t i l i z e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a n d g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s was c o n d u c t e d by T a y l o r a n d B e a c h ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The f i r s t p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e i n s t r u c t i o n on 114 s e v e n t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n a nd p r o d u c t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . The s e c o n d p u r p o s e was t o d e t e r m i n e what q u a l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s t e x t s t r u c t u r e i n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d h a v e on s t u d e n t s ' e x p o s i t o r y w r i t i n g . One h o u r a week f o r s e v e n weeks, t h r e e c l a s s e s o f s t u d e n t s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e 77 s t u d y , e a c h r e c e i v i n g a s e p a r a t e t r e a t m e n t f r o m t h e o t h e r . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e i n p r o d u c i n g a nd s t u d y i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l s u m m a r i e s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l . P r o d u c i n g w r i t t e n s u m m a r i e s i n v o l v e d g e n e r a t i n g a s k e l e t a l o u t l i n e , g e n e r a t i n g m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t s a n d d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e o u t l i n e a n d g e n e r a t i n g a key i d e a f o r t h e e n t i r e p a s s a g e . I n i t i a l l y , s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d t e a c h e r a s s i s t a n c e b u t by t h e end o f t h e f i f t h week, t h e y g e n e r a t e d s u m m a r i e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . E a c h week,' t i m e was s p e n d i n c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n , s t u d y i n g , a n d o r a l l y r e c a l l i n g t e x t f o r m a t i o n w i t h a p a r t n e r . D u r i n g t h e s e v e n t h week, r a t h e r t h a n o r a l r e c a l l s , s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e d p r o d u c i n g w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s . The c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a d i r e c t e d r e a d i n g l e s s o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e d a n s w e r i n g a nd d i s c u s s i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e same s o c i a l s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l r e a d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . By week t h r e e , s t u d e n t s were c o m p l e t i n g q u e s t i o n s on t h e i r own. E a c h week s t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d a n s w e r s t o a l l q u e s t i o n s , a n d u s e d t h e s e a n s w e r s t o s t u d y a nd o r a l l y r e c a l l t e x t i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h a p a r t n e r . D u r i n g t h e s e v e n t h week, r a t h e r t h a n c o m p l e t i n g o r a l r e c a l l s , s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e down a l l t h a t t h e y c o u l d remember. The c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h t h e r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r e d . A l l c l a s s e s c o m p l e t e d p r e t e s t s a n d p o s t - t e s t s i n v o l v i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f an o p i n i o n / e x a m p l e e s s a y . 78 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e s t s and l e s s o n i n s t r u c t i o n was p r o v i d e d by t h e t e a c h e r a c c o r d i n g t o d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n a n d l e s s o n p l a n s d e v e l o p e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s . D u r i n g t h e e i g h t weeks a l l s t u d e n t s r e a d one o f two r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d p a s s a g e s . One day l a t e r a l l s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e d a t e s t o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l a n d a s h o r t a n s w e r q u i z . One week l a t e r s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e o p i n i o n / e x a m p l e p o s t - t e s t . A n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a n d p r a c t i c e i n s u m m a r i z i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e e f f e c t i v e l y e n h a n c e d r e c a l l o f u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l b u t n o t f a m i l i a r s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t . T a y l o r a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n seemed t o h a v e a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' e x p o s i t o r y c o m p o s i t i o n . She a l s o p o i n t e d o u t t h a t o t h e r f a c t o r s d u r i n g t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s u c h as p e e r i n t e r a c t i o n , o r a l p r o c e s s i n g ( d i s c u s s i o n ) o f c o n c e p t s b e f o r e w r i t i n g , and g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i m p r o v e d l e a r n i n g . O v e r a l l t h e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t a w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e i s an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n c o m p r e h e n d i n g a n d w r i t i n g e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l a n d t h a t d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a n d g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s seem t o be a p r o m i s i n g way t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s a b o u t e x p o s i t o r y t e x t s t r u c t u r e . The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d up t o t h i s p o i n t h a v e e i t h e r e x a m i n e d t h e e f f e c t s on r e c a l l o f i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o use i n t e r n a l t e x t s t r u c t u r e o r of t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s . H owever, o n l y one r e s e a r c h e r seems t o have c o m b i n e d d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g 79 t a s k s i n a t r a i n i n g s t r a t e g y a i m e d a t s e n s i t i z i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n w h i l e u t i l i z i n g h e a d i n g s a s c u e s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . I n 1982, T a y l o r c o n d u c t e d two p a r a l l e l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g f i f t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s . F o r b o t h s t u d i e s s he u t i l i z e d a s i m i l i a r s a m p l e a n d t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e b u t d i d n o t a t t a i n t h e same d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s . I n T a y l o r ' s ( 1 9 82) f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t 48 f i f t h g r a d e r s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s c o m p e t e n t ( r e a d i n g a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l ) o r l e s s t h a n c o m p e t e n t r e a d e r s ( r e a d i n g b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l ) . The s t u d e n t s w e re t h e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d by r e a d i n g a b i l i t y t o e i t h e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n c o n d i t i o n . A l l s t u d e n t s i n e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p r e c e i v e d 1 h o u r o f i n s t r u c t i o n , o nce a week, f o r 7 weeks on t h e same f i f t h g r a d e h e a l t h t e x t book m a t e r i a l . Two c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a l t e r n a t e d e a c h week b e t w e e n t e a c h i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p . The i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f o c u s e d on l e a r n i n g ' how t o p r e p a r e a h i e r a r c h i c a l summary f o r a t h r e e t o f o u r page segment o f t h e h e a l t h t e x t b o o k . To do t h i s t h e s t u d e n t s f o l l o w e d t h e e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ( h e a d i n g s , s u b h e a d i n g s , p a r a g r a p h s ) o f t h e m a t e r i a l a n d g e n e r a t e d m a i n i d e a s t a t e m e n t s f o r e a c h p a r a g r a p h , s u b s e c t i o n a n d s e c t i o n o f t h e t e x t . I n i t i a l l y t h e g r o u p d i s c u s s e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l summary t h a t was t o be p r e p a r e d . They t a l k e d a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 80 f o l l o w i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t , s i l e n t l y r e a d t h e p a s s a g e , i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o m p l e t e d and s t u d i e d t h e i r summaries and f i n a l l y d i s c u s s e d t h e summaries w i t h t h e i r t e a c h e r . By t h e s i x t h week, s t u d e n t s d i d not engage i n p r e - r e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . H i e r a r c h i c a l summaries w r i t t e n by t h e s t u d e n t s from weeks 5 t o 7 were c o l l e c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The day a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n week 7, t h e s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e d w r i t i n g a r e c a l l p r o t o c o l . The t e a c h e r s of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p i n i t i a l l y engaged t h e s t u d e n t s i n p r e - r e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . The d i s c u s s i o n s were d e v i s e d t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n d r a w i n g c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e i r p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l and as a way t o m o t i v a t e r e a d i n g of t h e t e x t . The s t u d e n t s t h e n s i l e n t l y r e a d t h e h e a l t h book p a s s a g e s , i n d e p e n d e n t l y c o m p l e t e d and s t u d i e d s h o r t answer q u e s t i o n s on t h e m a t e r i a l and d i s c u s s e d t h e i r a n s w e r s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . As w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r oup, by t h e s i x t h week, t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t u d e n t s no l o n g e r engaged i n p r e - r e a d i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . Answers t o q u e s t i o n s from weeks 5 t o 7 were c o l l e c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . D u r i n g week 7, t h e s t u d e n t s p r a c t i c e d w r i t i n g a r e c a l l p r o t o c o l . D u r i n g t h e e i g h t h week, e a c h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p r e a d and s t u d i e d a t e s t p a s s a g e on h e a l t h and p o l l u t i o n . S t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p p r e p a r e d and s t u d i e d h i e r a r c h i c a l summaries f o r t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p c o m p l e t e d and s t u d i e d a n s wers t o q u e s t i o n s on t h e t e s t 81 p a s s a g e . The f o l l o w i n g d a y , a l l s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m t h e p a s s a g e r e a d t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . They a l s o w r o t e r e s p o n s e s t o 20 s h o r t a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s on t h e same m a t e r i a l . Two weeks l a t e r , b o t h g r o u p s r e a d a n d s t u d i e d a p a s s a g e on a n c i e n t I n d i a n t r i b e s a n d f o l l o w e d t h e same t e s t p r o c e d u r e s a s f o r T e s t 1. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s f o r T e s t 1 and T e s t 2 r e v e a l e d t h a t s t u d e n t s who were t r a i n e d t o v e r b a l i z e a n d f o r m u l a t e h i e r a r c h i c a l s u m m a r i e s o f t h e t e x t m a c r o s t r u c t u r e h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e c a l l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s t h a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . C o m p e t e n t r e a d e r s i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s r e c a l l e d more and h a d b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s c o r e s t h a n l e s s c o m p e t e n t r e a d e r s . H o wever, s t u d e n t s i n s t r u c t e d i n h i e r a r c h i c a l s u m m a r i z a t i o n t a s k s d i d n o t p r o d u c e h i g h e r s h o r t - a n s w e r s c o r e s t h a n s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . The l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t , a s a c k n o w l e d g e d by T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , was t h e u s e o f i n t a c t c l a s s e s . She i n d i c a t e d t h a t , a l t h o u g h r a n d o m l y f o r m e d , t h e g r o u p s may h a v e d i f f e r e d i n a t t i t u d e o r e f f o r t w h i c h may ha v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e c a l l b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , a s e c o n d e x p e r i m e n t was c o n d u c t e d c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h E x p e r i m e n t 1. The p u r p o s e o f E x p e r i m e n t 2 was t o r e p l i c a t e t h e r e s u l t s i n t h e f i r s t s t u d y by u s i n g t h e same s c h o o l a n d same p r a c t i c e p a s s a g e s b u t d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r s a n d t e s t p a s s a g e s . 82 In the second experiment 48 f i f t h graders were pooled, grouped, randomly assigned, instructed, and tested according to the same procedures used in the f i r s t experiment. The results of t h i s study, however, f a i l e d to support the results of Experiment 1. The r e c a l l and organization scores between the experimental and conventional groups were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . As well, the experimental group produced s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower short-answer scores than subjects in the conventional instruction group. Taylor conducted several supplemental analyses to ascertain the reasons for the discrepant results between Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. The supplemental analyses revealed q u a l i t a t i v e differences in the summarization tasks between students in the f i r s t experiment and students in the second experiment. It was found that pupils in Experiment 1 generated h i e r a r c h i c a l summaries which were 60% accurate, on the average. Subjects in Experiment 2 generated h i e r a r c h i c a l summaries which were only 43% accurate, on the average. As suggested by Taylor (1982) factors contributing to these differences may have included student inattentiveness or inadequate or i n s u f f i c i e n t i n s t r u c t i o n . The differences seemed to suggest that seven practice sessions, once a week for 7 weeks may not have provided students in the second experiment with enough time to s u f f i c i e n t l y learn the h i e r a r c h i c a l summarization technique. 83 A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s o f T a y l o r ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e p r o m i s i n g , t h e y a r e n o n e t h e l e s s i n c o n c l u s i v e . T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 2 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t : The h i e r a r c h i c a l s u m m a r i z a t i o n t a s k , o r a s i m i l a r t e c h n i q u e t h a t d i r e c t s s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e and a i d s them i n v e r b a l i z i n g a m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r t e x t , w a r r a n t s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s a p r o m i s i n g s t u d y s t r a t e g y t h a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s t u d e n t s c a n use t o h e l p them c o m p r e h e n d and remember what t h e y h a v e r e a d i n t h e i r c o n t e n t t e x t b o o k s . ( p . 339) Summary and Conc lus ions S e v e r a l e d u c a t o r s have e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h e r s t o i n s t r u c t s t u d e n t s how t o e f f i c i e n t l y p r o c e s s e x p o s i t o r y t y p e m a t e r i a l i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l and u l t i m a t e l y , i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g ( H e r b e r , 1970; D u r k i n , 1978-79; T a y l o r , 1980; Baumann, 1981; E k w a l l a nd S h a n k e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . E f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s i n g o f p r o s e may r e q u i r e t h a t l e a r n e r s be made aware o f how e x p o s i t o r y t e x t i s s t r u c t u r e d ( C a t t e r s o n , 1985; E n g l e r t a n d H i e b e r t , 1984; T a y l o r , 1982) and of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e a n d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( C a t t e r s o n , 1985; P i e r o n e k , 1 9 8 5 ) . E f f i c i e n t p r o c e s s i n g o f p r o s e may a l s o r e q u i r e t h a t l e a r n e r s be t a u g h t t o u s e s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z e r s s u c h a s h e a d i n g s t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( R o b i n s o n and H a l l , 1941; C h r i s t e n s e n a n d S t o r d a h l , 1955; H o l l e y et a l . , 1981; G i b b s , 1985; K i n g , 1985; S t a b l e s , 1 9 8 5 ) . 84 A l t h o u g h some work has been done i n t h i s a r e a i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t few r e s e a r c h e r s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s on r e c a l l of i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s i n t e x t s t r u c t u r e , the use of headings and m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n . However, t h i s r e s e a r c h seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t g e n e r a t i v e t a s k s and d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n h e l p r e a d e r s t o f o c u s on the i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n a t e x t which seems t o improve comprehension and r e c a l l . The l i m i t a t i o n s of d e s i g n , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n t r a i n i n g methods, and c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s which have c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s i n some i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s bear m e n t i o n i n g . In one study the e x c l u s i v e use of an immediate t e s t i n g paradigm, (which seems t o enable a l l t r e a t m e n t groups t o have the same amount of i n f o r m a t i o n from which t o im m e d i a t e l y draw) tended t o mask p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g which may o n l y have been obv i o u s i n a d e l a y e d t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n (Brooks et al . , 1983). As w e l l , t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s v a r i e d i n l e n g t h and some t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s may not have been l o n g enough or of s u f f i c i e n t i n t e n s i t y t o a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e new methods i n t o e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e s ( H o l l e y et al. , 1981; T a y l o r , 1982). S t u d i e s were a l s o confounded by c e r t a i n e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e s through which c o n t r o l groups became a c c i d e n t a l l y s e n s i t i z e d t o s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and thus l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n c o u l d be found i n performance between t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l groups (Dee-Lucas and D i V e s t a , 1980; Brooks et al. , 1983). Furthermore one study used o n l y cued 85 t e s t s s u c h a s m u l t i p l e c h o i c e t e s t s a s t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e , t h e r e b y n o t g i v i n g an a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t o f t r a i n i n g on t h e s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s t o c o m p r e h e n d and r e c a l l t h e s e l e c t i o n ( B r o o k s et al. , 1 9 8 3 ) . P e r h a p s most n o t i c e a b l e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d p r i m a r i l y on h i g h s c h o o l a n d c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n s ( A l v e r m a n n , 1981; A l v e r m a n n , 1982; B a r t l e t t , 1978; B r o o k s et al., 1983; D e e - L u c a s a n d D i V e s t a , 1980; H o l l e y et al. , 1981; R o b i n s o n , 1 9 7 0 ) . W h e t h e r o r n o t i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s a r e a m e n a b l e t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e use o f h e a d i n g s , t e x t s t r u c t u r e and m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o be c o n s i d e r e d ( B o o t h b y a n d A l v e r m a n n , 1984; D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k and M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r a n d B e a c h 1 9 8 4 ) . The few t r a i n i n g s t u d i e s w h i c h have been c o n d u c t e d w i t h i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s h a v e p r o d u c e d m i x e d r e s u l t s . W h i l e some have r e p o r t e d t h a t t r a i n i n g i n t h e use o f h e a d i n g s , t e x t s t r u c t u r e and m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n and r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k a n d M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r , 1982, i n i t i a l s t u d y ; T a y l o r , 1984) o t h e r s d i d n o t ( B o o t h b y a n d A l v e r m a n n , 1984; T a y l o r 1982 r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d y ) . A l t h o u g h T a y l o r ' s i n c o n c l u s i v e s t u d y a p p r o x i m a t e s t h e f o c u s o f t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n no one seems t o have c o n d u c t e d s u c h an i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n t h a t s t i l l r e m a i n s i s w h e t h e r g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s c a n be e f f e c t i v e l y t a u g h t t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d t o 86 u s e h e a d i n g s t o f a c i l i t a t e a n d i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l a s m e a s u r e d by a d e l a y e d t e s t o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e c a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l and t h e d i f f i c u l t y c h i l d r e n e x p e r i e n c e when r e q u i r e d t o c o m p r e h e n d and r e c a l l e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , c o n t i n u e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h e n a b l e s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g a t t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l i s w a r r a n t e d . 87 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o examine t h e e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l a r r a n g e m e n t of i d e a s i n i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o s e and t o use h e a d i n g s t o f a c i l i t a t e and i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of w r i t t e n r e c a l l . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s , t h e s e l e c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s of t h e t e s t s u t i l i z e d i n t h e s t u d y , t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s d e s i g n e d f o r t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e p i l o t amd main s t u d i e s . D e s i g n In o r d e r t o examine t h e e f f e c t s of s e n s i t i z i n g s t u d e n t s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e and o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s when s t u d y i n g and r e c a l l i n g e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s , a q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l P r e t e s t - P o s t t e s t N o n - E q u i v a l e n t C o n t r o l G r oup D e s i g n was used ( B o r g and G a l l , 1983, pp. 682-684; 88 C a m p b e l l a n d S t a n l e y , 1965, pp. 4 6 - 5 0 ) . T h i s d e s i g n i n v o l v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f an i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . However, o n l y d a t a f r o m t h e F i n a l R e c a l l t e s t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e l i n e a t e d i n C h a p t e r One. The d e s i g n was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r a n d o m l y a s s i g n s t u d e n t s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n t o d e v e l o p a w a r e n e s s , use and r e c a l l o f h e a d i n g s and t e x t s t r u c t u r e ) o r t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p ( e x p o s u r e t o t h e same e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s a s u s e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p b u t i n v o l v i n g t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p r o a c h o f r e a d i n g t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s a n d c o r r e c t a n s w e r s ) . The d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d were t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l by t h r e e a b i l i t y l e v e l s ( b e l o w , a t , and above g r a d e l e v e l ) a s t e s t e d by a t a s k o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . To c o n t r o l f o r t h e main t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y ( B o r g a n d G a l l , 1983, p. 683) - t h a t g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e F i n a l T e s t o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l may have been a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n t o a t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t , A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e was u s e d t o e q u a t e t h e two g r o u p s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . A more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a v e been i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r 4. 89 S e l e c t i o n o f S u b j e c t s The s a m p l e f o r t h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d 141 f o u r t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s f r o m s i x i n t a c t , n o n - s t r e a m e d g r a d e f o u r c l a s s e s . The s i x c l a s s e s w e re s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y f r o m t h e C a t h o l i c P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r A r c h d i o c e s e . The s c h o o l s were l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a ( E a s t V a n c o u v e r , V a n c o u v e r , B u r n a b y , C o q u i t l a m ) . I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o r a n d o m l y s e l e c t t h e s c h o o l s b e c a u s e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y was d e p e n d e n t on a c q u i r i n g p e r m i s s i o n f r o m s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l . The u s e of i n t a c t c l a s s e s a l s o d i d n o t a l l o w f o r random a s s i g n m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: a f t e r i n i t i a l l y p a i r i n g t h e s i x c l a s s e s on t h e b a s i s o f o v e r a l l a v e r a g e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( a s e s t i m a t e d by t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s ) e a c h c l a s s was r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p . Thus b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e c l a s s e s , one c l a s s e a c h o f l o w , m i d a n d m i d / u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S t u d e n t s i n t o R e a d i n g A b i l i t y L e v e l s The c o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t e R e a d i n g T e s t , C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n , L e v e l D, Form 2 ( M a c G i n i t e , 1 9 8 0 ) , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o b o t h g r o u p s by t h e c l a s s r o o m 90 t e a c h e r s t o c l a s s i f y s t u d e n t s as r e a d i n g below, a t , o r above g r a d e l e v e l and t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s i n i t i a l l y d i f f e r e d i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y . S u b j e c t s were t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s r e a d i n g below, a t and above g r a d e l e v e l i f t h e y a t t a i n e d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s between 3.0 and 3.9, 4.0 and 4.9, and 5.0 o r h i g h e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s was a l s o compared t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ' e s i t m a t e s of t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s ( h i g h , a v e r a g e , below a v e r a g e ) . T e s t i n g I n s t r u m e n t s S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t M a t e r i a l The G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t . The c o m p r e h e n s i o n s u b t e s t o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g T e s t , C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Form D, L e v e l 2, was s e l e c t e d f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : Cont ent . T e s t i t e m s were d e v e l o p e d and s e l e c t e d so t h a t t h e t e s t p a s s a g e s had " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r " . The p a s s a g e s 91 were w r i t t e n by a number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r s i n c l u d i n g C a n a d i a n s . The c o n t e n t i t e m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s t u d e n t s w i t h d i v e r s e c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e t t i n g s . S i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t e s t s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s c o m p r i s e d o f c o n t e n t a r e a m a t e r i a l ( S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , 2 7 . 5 ; N a t u r a l S c i e n c e s , 2 7.5; The A r t s , 5 % ) . N a r r a t i v e - D e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l c o m p r i s e s t h e r e m a i n i n g 40%. The t e s t q u e s t i o n s a r e o f two b a s i c t y p e s : l i t e r a l a n d i n f e r e n t i a l . F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a r e l i t e r a l a n d 45% a r e i n f e r e n t i a l . I t was r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f c o n t e n t a r e a i t e m s was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y . Standardization. C a n a d i a n norms were b a s e d on a t o t a l s a m p l e o f 46,000 s t u d e n t s . B e t ween 3,000 a n d 4,500 s t u d e n t s a t e a c h g r a d e l e v e l were s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e t e n p r o v i n c e s a n d t h e Y u k o n . The n o r m i n g g r o u p was p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n u r b a n and n o n - u r b a n p u b l i c a n d s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s . I t was r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f s e p a r a t e s c h o o l s i n t h e n o r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n made t h e t e s t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s a m p l e u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . Val i di t y. T e s t v a l i d i t y f o r most s c h o o l p r o g r a m s was a s s u r e d by C a n a d i a n e d u c a t o r s who e x a m i n e d , d i s c a r d e d o r m o d i f i e d t e s t 92 i t e m s . T h i s t e s t was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be a good m e a s u r e of c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y b e c a u s e t h e s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o t m e n t f o r t h e s u b t e s t a l l o w s a l l b u t t h e v e r y s l o w e s t s t u d e n t s t o a t t e m p t e a c h i t e m . Re Iiabi I i Iy. K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n F o r m u l a 20 r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n , L e v e l D, c o m p r e h e n s i o n i t e m s r a n g e f r o m .87 t o .89. T h e s e were c o n s i d e r e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s o f r e l i a b i l i t y . N o n - S t a n d a r d i z e d T e s t M a t e r i a l Two p a s s a g e s o f p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n were u s e d i n t h e s t u d y t o e x a m i n e t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l r e c a l l a b i l i t i e s o f t h e two g r o u p s ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . The two p a s s a g e s had an a v e r a g e F r y R e a d a b i l i t y o f 3.1. I n i t i a l T e s t P a s s a g e . Us e . The I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e , e n t i t l e d Termites, was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s i n i t i a l l y d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e a w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f an i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a s s a g e . 93 Construction. T h i s p a s s a g e was d e s i g n e d t o p a r a l l e l t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e f i n a l t e s t p a s s a g e o n : f o r m a t , number o f h e a d i n g s , number o f p a r a g r a p h s , number o f m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s , s i m i l a r i t y o f s u b t o p i c s , c o n c e p t l o a d a n d r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . B o t h p a s s a g e s were w r i t t e n i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t y l e , a r e one page i n l e n g t h , c o n s i s t o f f i v e p a r a g r a p h s w i t h h e a d i n g s a n d hav e f i v e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d 26 m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . F i n a l T e s t P a s s a g e . Use . The F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e e n t i t l e d Parrots, was u s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f s e n s i t i z i n g s t u d e n t s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l . Construction. The f i n a l s e l e c t i o n was b a s e d on t h e o r i g i n a l Parrots r e c a l l p a s s a g e ( a u t h o r e d by C r o w h u r s t , 1984) u s e d by S t a b l e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The S t a b l e s s t u d y (1985) r a i s e d t h e 94 q u e s t i o n of whether awareness and use of headings as an a i d to i n c r e a s e the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l was developmental or r e q u i r e d t r a i n i n g . I t was reasoned t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n would be best addressed i n an i n s t r u c t i o n a l study that t e s t e d f o r r e c a l l by using the same b a s i c m a t e r i a l as i n the S t a b l e s (1985) study. The t e x t of the passage was not m o d i f i e d , but the headings were r e w r i t t e n to more c l o s e l y resemble those found in n a t u r a l e x p o s i t o r y t e x t s . F i g u r e s 1 and 2 (see Appendix A) show the 1985 S t a b l e s v e r s i o n of the passage and the adapted v e r s i o n of the Parrots passage used i n t h i s study. Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o n d i t i o n s and Procedures A l l t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to the experimental and c o n v e n t i o n a l treatment groups on the same day and at the same time by the classroom t e a c h e r s . The teachers were requested to t e s t c h i l d r e n e a r l y i n the morning when the students were most l i k e l y to be a t t e n t i v e and a l e r t . The s t a n d a r d i z e d procedures o u t l i n e d i n the Gal es-MacGi n i t i e Teacher's Manual were used to administer the Reading Comprehension s u b t e s t . The I n i t i a l and F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s were a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s w r i t t e n 95 by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o e n s u r e s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s ( d i r e c t i o n s , m a t e r i a l s , t i m i n g ) o f t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t o c o n t r o l f o r p o s s i b l e t e s t e r e f f e c t s . The s t a n d a r d i z e d d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e 15 m i n u t e s t u d y p e r i o d a n d f o r t h e one day d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f t h e p a s s a g e s a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x A. The t w e n t y - f i v e m i n u t e d e l a y e d f r e e - r e c a l l t a s k r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered a b o u t t h e p a s s a g e a f t e r a one day d e l a y . T h i s d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e was s e l e c t e d o v e r c u e d r e s p o n s e s y s t e m s a nd i m m e d i a t e t e s t p a r a d i g m s b e c a u s e i t was b e l i e v e d t o be one t e s t w h i c h w o u l d y i e l d a c l e a r p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e ( B r o o k s e t . a l . 1983; H o l l e y e t a l . 1 9 8 1 ) . S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n i t i a l and F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s Development of S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s The G o b l e / C o u l o m b e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y e v o l v e d f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s u t i l i z e d i n p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 2 ) , C l a r k ( 1982) a nd S t a b l e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The a i m was t o c r e a t e a s c o r i n g s y s t e m w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f macro a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s i n t h e p a s s a g e a nd t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s r e c a l l e d a n d o r g a n i z e d 96 i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e s e l e c t i o n . A summary o f t h e s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o c r e a t e t h e G o b l e / C o u l o m b e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s A l l w r i t t e n r e c a l l s were c o l l e c t e d a n d m a r k e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The s u b j e c t s ' r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s were s c o r e d a g a i n s t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t e m p l a t e ( w h i c h h ad been s e g m e n t e d i n t o t h e m a c r o and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s o f p a s s a g e ) f o r t h e number o f p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c a l l e d ( q u a n t i t y ) and f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e c a l l e d m a c r o and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ( o r g a n i z a t i o n ) . The amount o f r e c a l l was c a l c u l a t e d by a s s i g n i n g a mark o f ( 1 ) f o r a c o m p l e t e p r o p o s i t i o n a n d p a r t i a l m a r k s f o r p a r t i a l p r o p o s i t i o n s . O r g a n i z a t i o n r e c a l l s c o r e s were c o m p u t e d by u s i n g a w e i g h t e d s c a l e . E a c h c o m p l e t e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f 5_ r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r i t a p p e a r e d a s a t o p i c s e n t e n c e o r h e a d i n g . Where t h e same m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n was r e p r e s e n t e d b o t h by a h e a d i n g a n d i n i t i a l o r f i n a l s e n t e n c e ( i . e . i f t h e s t u d e n t g a v e a h e a d i n g a nd a t o p i c s e n t e n c e f o r t h e same m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n t h e s c o r e o f 1_ was a s s i g n e d . E a c h c o m p l e t e m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f 1 i f a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n a n d o t h e r w i s e r e c e i v e d no s c o r e . P a r t i a l m acro and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d p a r t i a l m a r k s . A c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n , s c o r i n g t e m p l a t e s , a p a r t i a l m a r k s g u i d e l i n e 97 T a b l e 1: Summary o f S c o r i n g T e c h n i q u e s U s e d i n D e v e l o p i n g G o b l e / C o u l o m b e S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 2) C l a r k ( 1 9 82) S t a b l e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) G o b l e / C o u l o m b e (1986) R e c a l l o f E x p o s i t o r y QUANTITY s c o r e d a g a i n s t t e m p l a t e o f p r o p o s i t i o n s one s c o r e p e r p r o p o s i t i o n R e c a l l o f N a r r a t i v e QUANTITY s c o r e d a g a i n s t t e m p l a t e o f p a u s a l u n i t s p a r t i a l o r s i n g l e s c o r e p e r u n i t R e c a l l o f E x p o s i t o r y QUANTITY s c o r e d a g a i n s t t e m p l a t e o f p a u s a l u n i t s r e p r e s e n t i n g m a c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s ( s u p e r o r d i n a t e i d e a s ) a n d m i c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s ( s u b o r d i n a t e i d e a s ) s e p a r a t e s c o r e s f o r macro a nd m i c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s p e r u n i t R e c a l l o f E x p o s i t o r y QUANTITY s c o r e d a g a i n s t t e m p l a t e o f p a u s a l u n i t s r e p r e s e n t i n g m a c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s a n d m i c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s p a r t i a l o r s i n g l e s c o r e p e r u n i t e x p r e s s e d t o t a l a s e x p r e s s e d p e r c e n t a s e x p r e s s e d s u b t o t a l s a s e x p r e s s e d t o t a l o u t 31 a s o f ORGANIZATION SEQUENCE EVALUATION ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION r a t i n g o f 1-5 b a s e d on num-b e r of s u b s e c -t i o n s r e c a l l e d i n o r d e r (1 = one s u b s e c t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a -t i o n r e c a l l e d i n o r d e r ; s u b j e c t i v e l y e s t i m a t e d b a s e d on o b s e r v e d m a t c h b e t w e e n a u t h o r and s t u d e n t o r co m p u t e d u s i n g K e n d a l l ' s t a u r e l a t i o n b e t w een a u t h o r ' s s e q u e n c e a n d s t u d e n t ' s s e q u e n c e ; one p o i n t f o r e a c h s u b s e c t i o n i n o r d e r w e i g h t e d s c o r e s f o r h e a d i n g s a n d / o r p r o p o -s i t i o n s i n c l u s t e r s f r o m s u b s e c t i o n s 98 T a b l e 1 c o n t i n u e d T a y l o r ( 1 9 8 2 ) C l a r k (1982) S t a b l e s (1985) G o b l e / C o u l o m b e ( 1 9 8 6 ) 5 = f i v e s u b -s e c t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l e d i n o r d e r ) e x p r e s s e d a s e x p r e s s e d a s e x p r e s s e d a s e x p r e s s e d a s r a t i n g ( 1 - 5 ) r a t i n g t o t a l o u t o f t o t a l o u t o f ( e x c e l l e n t , 5 61 goo d , f a i r o r p o o r ) o r c o r r e l a t i o n ( t a u ) IMPORTANCE FORMAT LEVEL w e i g h t e d s c o r e f o r i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h u n i t ( 1 , 2, o r 3) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s i x f o r m a t f e a t u r e s : t i t l e , s e c t i o n h e a d i n g s , g r o u p i n g , p o i n t f o r m , number i n g , p a r a g r a p h s . e x p r e s s e d mean as e x p r e s s e d a s t o t a l number of s t u d e n t s u s i n g e a c h f e a t u r e s h e e t , a nd t h r e e s a m p l e s t u d e n t p r o t o c o l s t o g e t h e r w i t h m a r k e d t e m p l a t e s a r e p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. R e l i a b i l i t y o f S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s E a c h p r o t o c o l b o o k l e t i d e n t i f i e d t h e s u b j e c t s ' s c h o o l , name and number on t h e f r o n t c o v e r . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y t o 99 a i d the c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s in d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of the p r o t o c o l b o o k l e t s for t h r e e r e c a l l s i t u a t i o n s ( I n i t i a l , p r a c t i c e and F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s ) . Thus , a l t h o u g h every e f f o r t was made to s core each p r o t o c o l without b i a s , complete ' b l i n d ' s c o r i n g by the i n v e s t i g a t o r was not p o s s i b l e . T h e r e f o r e i t was neces sary to examine the r e l i a b i l i t y of the s c o r i n g procedures and to a s c e r t a i n i f a l l s t u d e n t s had been s c o r e d wi th the same c o n s i s t e n c y . To determine the i n t e r r a t e r and i n t r a r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y of s c o r i n g for q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l , 25% (34) of the p r o t o c o l s were randomly s e l e c t e d u s i n g a random numbers t a b l e and were b l i n d scored by the i n v e s t i g a t o r and the c o - d e v e l o p e r of the Goble /Coulombe s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . A l l r e l i a b i l i t y measures were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g the C o v a r i a n c e M a t r i x for R e l i a b i l i t y on the SPSS-X Release 2.1 program at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for both q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n were . 9 9 . The i n t r a r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s for both q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n were a l s o . 9 9 . To determine whether the h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s c o r e r s was due to the f a c t that they had deve loped the s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , an independent s c o r e r was t r a i n e d and an a d d i t i o n a l 10% of the p r o t o c o l s were randomly s e l e c t e d f o r m a r k i n g . Aga in the c o v a r i a n c e M a t r i x y i e l d e d r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s of .99 for both q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The h i g h degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between 100 a l l t h r e e s c o r e r s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e m a r k i n g p r o c e d u r e s a l l o w e d f o r c o n s i s t e n t , o b j e c t i v e , and r e l i a b l e s c o r i n g o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s . M a t e r i a l s I n s t r u c t i o n a l P a s s a g e s The s e v e n i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a s s a g e s u s e d f o r b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s were w r i t t e n i n a d e s c r i p t i v e ( i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) s t y l e . The i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( d e s c r i p t i v e ) p a t t e r n was s e l e c t e d f o r p a s s a g e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e c a u s e : 1. i t i s t h e p a t t e r n w h i c h i s most f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n c o n t e n t a r e a t e x t s ( A l v e r m a n n , 1981; N i l e s , 1 9 6 5 ) , and 2. i t was t h e p a t t e r n o f p r o s e u t i l i z e d i n t h e S t a b l e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) p o s t t e s t Parrots p a s s a g e t o d e t e r m i n e i f s t u d e n t s a t t h e f i f t h a n d s i x t h g r a d e l e v e l u s e d h e a d i n g s a s an a i d t o r e c a l l . The p a s s a g e s had an a v e r a g e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 3.4. They were w r i t t e n b e l o w t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l t o m i n i m i z e p o s s i b l e d e c o d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The s e t of m a t e r i a l s was d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e i n l e n g t h , c o n c e p t l o a d , number o f h e a d i n g s a n d number o f p a r a g r a p h s . The t i t l e , r e a d a b i l i t y , a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f 101 t h e p a s s a g e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2 a c c o r d i n g t o t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h e a c h was u s e d . A l l s o u r c e s u s e d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s h a v e been p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x E. T a b l e 2: T i t l e , F r y R e a d a b i l i t y a n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l P a s s a g e s L e s s o n T i t l e Number o f Number o f F r y O r d e r H e a d i n g s P a r a g r a p h s R e a d a b i l i t y 1 Grasshoppers 3 3 3.8 2 Ri che s Fr om t he 3 3 3.9 Sea 3 Fir ewal ker s 4 4 3.7 4 Vi ki ngs 4 4 3.9 5 Animal Protection 5 5 3.5 6 Horses 5 5 2.2 7 Animal s ' Eyes 5 5 3. 1 M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p A s e t o f q u e s t i o n s was d e s i g n e d t o f o c u s on t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s o f e a c h p a s s a g e a n d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l was r e a d . A s i z e - r e d u c e d r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e t of q u e s t i o n s u s e d f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p h a s been i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x C. 1 02 M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a s s a g e s p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d a v a r i e t y o f m a n i p u l a t i v e and p a p e r - p e n c i l m a t e r i a l s were c o n s t r u c t e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s were d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n s e n s i t i z a t i o n t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d t o h e a d i n g s a s c u e s t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e . A s e t o f a l l m a t e r i a l s u s e d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n g r o u p has been r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x D. P r o c e d u r e s P i l o t S t u d y A two p a r t p i l o t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o : 1. q u a l i t a t i v e l y e v a l u a t e a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f i n e t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t p a s s a g e s , t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a n d s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s ; and 2. d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s r e a d i n g a b o v e , a t and b e l o w t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l w o u l d be a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s . I n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y one i n t a c t , n o n s t r e a m e d f o u r t h g r a d e c l a s s i n an E a s t V a n c o u v e r 1 03 C a t h o l i c p u b l i c s c h o o l was u s e d . The s c h o o l ' s r e c e n t s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g ( C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s r a n g e d f r o m l o w t o abo v e a v e r a g e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d o v e r a f o u r day p e r i o d . On Day One t h e Termites I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e was s t u d i e d by t h e s t u d e n t s f o r 20 m i n u t e s . On Day Two t h e s t u d e n t s were g i v e n 25 m i n u t e s t o p r o d u c e a w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f t h e I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e . The same p r o c e d u r e s were u s e d f o r t h e T h i r d a n d F o u r t h d a y s f o r t h e Parrot p o s t t e s t p a s s a g e . A l l p r o t o c o l s were c o l l e c t e d a n d s c o r e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r b u t t h e r e s u l t i n g d a t a was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d . The s u b s e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d a d j u s t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y t i m e a l l o t m e n t f r o m 20 t o 15 m i n u t e s a n d f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t o f s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s . As w e l l r e a d a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were r e - c h e c k e d when i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e Termites p a s s a g e was n o t as d i f f i c u l t a s t h e Parrots p a s s a g e . As a r e s u l t Termites was m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y t o g i v e a h i g h e r r e a d a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y s i x f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s f r o m an E a s t V a n c o u v e r p u b l i c s c h o o l were r e q u i r e d t o o r a l l y r e a d e a c h p a s s a g e a n d o r a l l y a n s w e r l i t e r a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n q u e s t i o n s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e l e c t i o n s . Of t h e s i x s t u d e n t s , two were s e l e c t e d a n d i d e n t i f i e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a s r e a d i n g b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l , two a s r e a d i n g a t g r a d e l e v e l , and two a s r e a d i n g a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l . T h i s i n f o r m a l t e s t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s a t e a c h o f t h e t h r e e r e a d i n g l e v e l s were c a p a b l e o f d e c o d i n g 1 04 an d c o m p r e h e n d i n g t h e p a s s a g e s . An i n f o r m a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e o r a l r e a d i n g e r r o r s i n d i c a t e d d e c o d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e w o r d s existed a n d unusual. T h e s e w o r d s were s u b s e q u e n t l y removed f r o m t h e Termites p a s s a g e . F o u r commonly u s e d r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a e were t h e n a p p l i e d t o b o t h p a s s a g e s . The a p p r o x i m a t e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l t e s t s e l e c t i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 3. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e D a l e - C h a l l R e a d a b i l i t y F o r m u l a ( 1 9 4 8 ) e a c h p a s s a g e h a s an e q u a l number o f w o r d s t h a t do n o t a p p e a r on t h e D a l e L i s t o f 3,000 w o r d s . T h e s e w o r d s h a v e been l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4. T a b l e 3: R e a d a b i l i t y E s t i m a t e s o f t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l T e s t P a s s a g e R e a d a b i l i t y I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t F o r m u l a (Termites) (Parrots) F r y ( 1 9 6 8) 3.0 3.3 Smog (1974) 6.0 6.0 Sp a c h e ( 1 9 7 4 ) 2.3 2.3 D a l e - C h a l l ( 1 9 4 8 ) 5.5 5.4 105 T a b l e 4: D i f f i c u l t Words i n t h e I n i t i a l and F i n a l P a s s a g e s B ased on D a l e L i s t of 3,000 Words I n i t i a l T e s t F i n a l T e s t {Termi t es ) (Par rots) a p p e a r a n c e admi r e d damage beak e n v i ronment b e a u t i f u l e x t r e m e l y e a s i l y i n s e c t s g r e a t e s t s o l d i e r s i n t e r e s t i n g t e r m i t e s 1 i q u i d t r o p i c s p a r r o t s u n d e r g r o u n d v i t a m i n s M a i n S t u d y T e a c h e r O r i e n t a t i o n . P r i o r t o t h e s t u d y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r met i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h each of t h e s i x c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o o u t l i n e and d i s c u s s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t e a c h e r s were p r o v i d e d w i t h t e s t m a t e r i a l s and d i r e c t i o n s , b l a n k s t u d e n t p r o t o c o l b o o k l e t s , and a c a l e n d a r o u t l i n i n g t h e p r o p o s e d s c h e d u l e of t h e s t u d y . The c a l e n d e r i n d i c a t e d when t h e s t u d y began and ended, h i g h l i g h t e d t h e d a y s and t i m e s of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and i n d i c a t e d t h e d a y s and t i m e s t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would be i n s t r u c t i n g . 106 The c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t t e a c h e r s were p r o v i d e d w i t h a c o i l b o u n d b o o k l e t w h i c h c o n t a i n e d a c a l e n d a r o u t l i n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c s c h e d u l e o f p r o c e d u r e s , t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s a n d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y d a t e d c o p i e s o f a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . The t e a c h e r s were a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h b l a n k s t u d e n t p r o t o c o l b o o k l e t s , t e s t m a t e r i a l s , a n d p a c k a g e d d a t e d c l a s s s e t s o f a l l m a t e r i a l s t o be u s e d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . E a c h t e a c h e r was shown how t o u s e t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a n d r e c e i v e d e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r m a i n t a i n e d f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t w i t h a l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o e n s u r e s m o o t h o p e r a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y and t o m a x i m i z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . S t u d e n t O r i e n t a t i o n . One week p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r w o r k e d f o r h a l f a day i n e a c h o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s e s a s a " t e a c h e r ' s a i d e . " The p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l v i s i t was t o become f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n i n e a c h c l a s s r o o m , t o l e a r n a b o u t s c h o o l r o u t i n e s , a n d t o p r e p a r e t h e c h i l d r e n f o r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The i n v e s t i g a t o r was i n t r o d u c e d a s a " s t u d e n t f r o m U.B.C." who was g o i n g t o p r a c t i c e t e a c h i n g t h e c l a s s f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y two w e eks. 1 07 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s . Conventional Treatment. The c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s c e n t e r e d on a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a n d m a r k i n g t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a s s a g e s . The s t u d e n t s w e re i n s t r u c t e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s . An o u t l i n e o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s h a s be e n p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e C.1 o f A p p e n d i x C. Experimental Treatment. The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p c e n t e r e d on p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n c o m b i n e d w i t h g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g t a s k s t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s t o : 1. i d e n t i f y a n d s u r v e y h e a d i n g s ; 2. u s e p a r a g r a p h h e a d i n g s t o i d e n t i f y t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a s s a g e ; 3. be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e macro a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s i n i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y s e l e c t i o n s ; and 4. u s e r e m e m b e r a n c e s o f h e a d i n g s t o i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l . An o u t l i n e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s h a s been p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e D.1 of A p p e n d i x D. 108 L e s s o n D u r a t i o n . M o s t e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p l e s s o n s were one h o u r i n d u r a t i o n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of L e s s o n s 1 and 9, w h i c h were e a c h o n e - h a l f h o u r i n l e n g t h . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p l e s s o n s a l s o had a t i m e a l l o t m e n t o f one h o u r w i t h s h o r t e r t i m e a l l o t m e n t s f o r L e s s o n s 1 and 9. Summary T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t e d t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y . I t p r o v i d e d an o v e r v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n ; i n c l u d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s ; d e s c r i b e d t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d n o n - s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ; o u t l i n e d t h e s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l T e s t p r o t o c o l s ; d e s c r i b e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s ; r e p o r t e d t h e p r o c e d u r e s and f i n d i n g s o f t h e p i l o t s t u d y ; and o u t l i n e d t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e main s t u d y . 1 09 CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s e s o f d a t a . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s f o r t h i s s t u d y were c o n d u c t e d u s i n g t h e A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) and A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e (ANOVA) p r o c e d u r e s f r o m t h e SPSS-X R e l e a s e 2 .1 p r o g r a m . The p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e r e s u l t s h a s been o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t i n g f o r p o s s i b l e i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l an e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e . The s e c o n d s e c t i o n e x a m i n e s t h e f i n a l t e s t i n g r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n h y p o t h e s e s d e l i n e a t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 . A l s o i n c l u d e d a r e t h e p o s t hoc S c h e f f e a n a l y s e s w h i c h were c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y g r o u p s . The t h i r d s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s on t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l t e s t s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' i n c l u s i o n o f h e a d i n g s i n t h e i r w r i t t e n r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s . The ANCOVA was s e l e c t e d a s t h e m a i n s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l r e c a l l t e s t b e c a u s e i t 110 c a n be u s e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y c o n t r o l f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f one o r more i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . c o v a r i a t e s ) on t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( B o r g a n d G a l l , 1984, p. 3 7 9 ) . The c o v a r i a t e i n b o t h a n a l y s e s f o r b o t h t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l t e s t s was t h e s u b j e c t ' s R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t . T h e s e s c o r e s were u s e d a s a c o v a r i a t e b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t s ' q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s c o u l d be c o n c e i v a b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y . U s i n g t h e s u b j e c t s ' r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n s c o r e s as a c o v a r i a t e a l l o w e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h i s p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f v a r i a n c e . S i n c e t h e m a i n s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o t e s t t h e N u l l H y p o t h e s e s was t h e ANCOVA i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y t h e m a j o r a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e : h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e ( t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e s o f s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s do n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r ) , h o m o g e n e i t y o f r e g r e s s i o n ( t h e r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s f o r e a c h g r o u p a r e assumed t o be p a r a l l e l ) , a n d n o r m a l i t y ( t h e s c o r e s a r e n o r m a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d ) . The n o r m a l i t y a s s u m p t i o n was n o t t e s t e d h e r e b e c a u s e ANCOVA were known t o be r o b u s t w i t h r e g a r d t o v i o l a t i o n s o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s ( G l a s s and H o p k i n s , 1984, p. 3 5 1 ) . F o r a l l t h e c o m p u t a t i o n s i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h e u n i t o f a n a l y s i s was t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t . The p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f .05 was t h e l e v e l a t w h i c h t h e N u l l 111 H y p o t h e s e s i n t h i s s t u d y were r e j e c t e d . T h i s l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e i t i s t h e l e v e l w h i c h i s commonly u s e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h ( B o r g a nd G a l l , 1 9 8 3 ) . A n a l y s i s o f t h e I n i t i a l T e s t i n g The G a t e s - M c G i n i t i e T e s t T - S c o r e s . D a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t , C a n a d i a n E d i t i o n , L e v e l D, Form 2 ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1980) p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a nd e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA) on t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n T - s c o r e s f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s [ F ( 1 , 3 9 ) = . 8 0 , p_>.05]. The T - s c o r e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p (n=79) was 52.10 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 8.13. The T - s c o r e f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p (n=62) was 53.40 w i t h a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 9.13. The g r o u p s were f o u n d t o be s l i g h t l y a b o v e t h e 1980 n a t i o n a l norms o f t h e G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e p o p u l a t i o n . When c o m p a r e d t o t h e 1982-83 West V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c o r e s , t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s were f o u n d t o be s i m i l a r i n a b i l i t y a n d v a r i a n c e . T h e r e f o r e a l t h o u g h n o t r a n d o m l y 1 12 s e l e c t e d t h e s a m p l e seemed s i m i l a r i n a b i l i t y t o o t h e r s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . The T - s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , n a t i o n a l G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e norms and West V a n c o u v e r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s c o r e s a r e l i s t e d on T a b l e 5. T a b l e 5: Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e T - S c o r e s by G r o u p f o r t h e Coulombe S t u d y , N a t i o n a l Norms, and West V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S c o r e s G r o u p X T - S c o r e s d n E x p e r i m e n t a l 52.10 8.13 79 C o n v e n t i o n a l 53.40 9.13 62 E n t i r e S a mple 52.67 8.58 141 1980 N a t i o n a l Norms 50.00 10.00 46000 1982 West V a n c o u v e r 52.26 8.16 206 D i s t r i c t S c o r e s I t was n o t e d t h a t a l l b u t two o f t h e 141 s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y s a m p l e c o m p l e t e d t h e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f S t u d e n t s i n t o R e a d i n g A b i l i t y L e v e l s I n i t i a l l y s u b j e c t s were t o be c l a s s i f i e d a s r e a d i n g b e l o w , a t a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l i f t h e y a t t a i n e d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s b e t w e e n 3.0 and 3.9, 4.0 and 4.9, and 5.0 o r h i g h e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . H o wever, d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t ween 1 1 3 t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e s o f r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d t h e g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s a t t a i n e d on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t made i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i s e t h e a b i l i t y r a n g e s . A l t h o u g h t h e G a t e s T e s t c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e low a n d h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , t h e s c o r e s o f t h e b e t t e r r e a d e r s a p p e a r e d i n f l a t e d r e s u l t i n g i n a g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t r a n g e o f 2.5 t o 12.8. The r e v i s e d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t r a n g e s f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y l e v e l s r e c l a s s i f i e d s t u d e n t s a s p e r f o r m i n g : 1. b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l , i f t h e y a t t a i n e d a g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e b e l o w 3.9; 2. a t g r a d e l e v e l , i f t h e y a t t a i n e d a g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e b e t w e e n 4.2 a n d 7.2; a n d 3. a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l , i f t h e y a t t a i n e d a g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e o f 7.5 and h i g h e r . T h i s a d j u s t m e n t r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e s o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d t h e r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e v i s e d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t r a n g e s ; o n l y 5 s t u d e n t s , two i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l and t h r e e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , a t t a i n e d g r a d e e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r c o n s i d e r e d " o u t o f c h a r a c t e r " . E a c h o f t h e s e f i v e s t u d e n t s , e s t i m a t e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a s a v e r a g e o r a b o v e a v e r a g e i n r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , had p e r f o r m e d w e l l b e l o w t h e i r e s t i m a t e d g r a d e l e v e l a s e s t i m a t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s a nd a s c o m p a r e d t o r e c e n t s y s t e m - w i d e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g ( C a n a d i a n T e s t o f B a s i c S k i l l s ) . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s 1 1 4 m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d have been a t t r i b u t e d t o e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s c a u s e d by f a m i l y o r p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . D a t a f r o m t h e s e s t u d e n t s were n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . A l s o n o t i n c l u d e d were s t u d e n t s who were a b s e n t on t h e F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t a n d G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t d a y s (4 s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d 9 s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p ) . A f t e r a c c o u n t i n g f o r a t t r i t i o n due t o u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t e s t s c o r e s a n d a b s e n t e e i s m on t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e t e s t day a nd F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t d a y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p was c o m p r i s e d o f : 1) 18 b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e o f 3.3 and a r a n g e of 2.7 t o 3 . 8 ) ; 2) 46 a t g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e o f 5.47 and a r a n g e o f 4.2 t o 7 . 1 ) ; and 3) 15 a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e of 8.9 and a r a n g e o f 7.5 t o 1 0 . 6 ) . The c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l g r o u p was c o m p r i s e d o f : 1) 13 b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e o f 3.2 and a r a n g e o f 2.7 t o 3 . 6 ) ; 2) 30 a t g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e o f 5.49 a n d a r a n g e o f 4.1 t o 7 . 1 ) ; a n d 3) 19 ab o v e g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s ( w i t h a mean g r a d e l e v e l s c o r e o f 8.63 a n d r a n g e o f 7.5 t o 1 1 . 0 ) . The h i g h d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i n i t i a l m a t c h i n g o f s c h o o l s a p p e a r e d t o c o n t r o l f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y r a n g e . 1 1 5 A t t e n d a n c e R a t e s S i m i l a r i t i e s i n s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e r a t e d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was a l s o f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e r a t e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was 96% p e r s t u d e n t w h i l e t h e o v e r a l l r a t e o f a t t e n d a n c e f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p was 97% p e r s t u d e n t . Y e a r s o f T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e A l s o s i m i l a r was t h e mean number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e b e t ween t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p t e a c h e r s . The mean number of y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e s i x c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 y e a r s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 t o 30 y e a r s . The mean number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e t h r e e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y - 4 y e a r s r a n g i n g f r o m 1 t o 5 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . The t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a d a mean o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 16 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e r a n g i n g f r o m 9 t o 30 y e a r s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r who t a u g h t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p h ad 4 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h was t h e same mean number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p t e a c h e r s . 1 1 6 I n i t i a l T e s t R e c a l l To d e t e r m i n e i f t h e g r o u p s i n i t i a l l y d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l a h e a d e d e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a s s a g e , a l l s t u d e n t s r e a d t h e I n i t i a l T e s t P a s s a g e (Termites) a n d c o m p l e t e d a w r i t t e n r e c a l l p r o t o c o l one day l a t e r . The p r o t o c o l s were s c o r e d f o r q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . Two s e p a r a t e 2 X 3 ( G r o u p by A b i l i t y ) a n a l y s e s o f ANCOVA were p e r f o r m e d , one on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d t h e o t h e r on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l m e a s u r e s . To a s c e r t a i n i f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f ANCOVA were s a t i s f i e d , t e s t s o f t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a n d o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t were p e r f o r m e d . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e t e s t s show t h a t i n b o t h a n a l y s e s ( q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n ) t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s were met ( p > . 0 5 ) [ F ( 5 , 1 3 9 3 9 ) = 1 . 5 0 , p > . 0 5 a n d F ( 5 , 1 3 9 3 9 ) = 2 . 1 5 , p > . 0 5 ] . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e ANCOVA p e r f o r m e d on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 6 . As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 6 , t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s . As w e l l , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r A b i l i t y o r f o r t h e C o v a r i a t e . However, f o r b o t h q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t f o r t h e I n t e r a c t i o n o f G r o u p - b y - A b i l i t y [ F ( 1 , 1 2 7 ) = 4 . 1 9 , p _ < . 0 5 a n d F( 1 , 1 2 7 ) = 3 . 1 3 , p _ < . 0 5 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ] . The a d j u s t e d mean 1 1 7 T a b l e 6: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e f o r Q u a n t i t y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l on I n i t i a l T e s t S o u r c e SS d f MS F QUANTITY C o v a r i a t e 41 .38 1 41 .38 2.30 G r o u p 21.86 1 21 .86 1.21 A b i l i t y 95.83 2 47.92 2.66 G r o u p X A b i l i t y 150.80 2 74.50 4.19* R e s i d u a l s 2285.09 127 18.00 ORGANIZATION C o v a r i a t e 156.30 1 156.30 3.56 G r o u p 1 .44 1 1 .44 .03 A b i l i t y 91 .93 2 45.96 .99 G r o u p X A b i l i t y 291.27 2 145.64 3.13* R e s i d u a l s 5913.74 1 27 46.56 * p_<.05 l e v e l s c o r e s o f q u a n t i t y f o r t h e t h r e e a b i 1 i t y g r o u p s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w e re 8.48, 1 1 .84 and 12.06 f o r t h e b e l o w , a t , and a b o v e a v e r a g e g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The t h r e e a d j u s t e d q u a n t i t y mean s c o r e s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p were 6.37, 8.99, and 14.36. The a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s of- o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y l e v e l s were 11.31, 15.22, a n d 14.09 f o r t h e b e l o w , a t , a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s . The 118 a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y l e v e l s were 9.71, 12.07 a n d 18.16 f o r t h e b e l o w , a t , a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i g u r e s 1 a n d 2 i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f G r o u p -b y - A b i l i t y f o r b o t h d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s b a s e d on t h e a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s . R e f e r r i n g t o F i g u r e 1 f o r t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l , t h e G r o u p - b y - A b i l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o ha v e o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e t h e ' a t - g r a d e - l e v e l ' a n d ' a b o v e - g r a d e - l e v e l ' s u b j e c t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r l y and b o t h s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n t h e b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p . However, i t seems t h a t s u b j e c t s i n t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y l e v e l s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s c o r e d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m one a n o t h e r w i t h t h e b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s c o r i n g l o w e s t , t h e a t g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s c o r i n g h i g h e r and t h e abo v e g r a d e l e v e l s u b j e c t s s c o r i n g t h e h i g h e s t . R e f e r r r i n g t o F i g u r e 2 f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l , t h e G r o u p - b y - A b i l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n a p p e a r s t o ha v e o c c u r r e d f o r t h e same r e a s o n s a s f o r t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l i n t e r a c t i o n . A n a l y s i s of t h e F i n a l T e s t i n g To t e s t t h e s i x h y p o t h e s e s d e l i n e a t e d e a r l i e r i n C h a p t e r One, two s e p a r a t e 2X3 ( G r o u p X A b i l i t y ) a n a l y s e s o f c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) were p e r f o r m e d , one on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d t h e o t h e r o n . t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . 119 F i g u r e 1. Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on I n i t i a l R e c a l l T e s t b y G r o u p and A b i l i t y L e v e l s OJ o OJ o O (_> OI ir> i — C -r-ac o O-OJ E •4-> 3 E 3 -r-•<—> X 15.00 --14.00 •-13.00 --1 2 . 00 •-1 1 . 00 •-10.00 •-9.00 •-8.00 •-7.00 --6.00 •-0.00 4-Below Grade Level At Grade Level Above Grade Level A b i l i t y Level Experimental Group Conventional Group 120 F i g u r e 2 . O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s o n I n i t i a l R e c a l l T e s t b y G r o u p and A b i l i t y L e v e l s cn i -E VXD J-D GJ CJ o U QJ I/O •— -O c •>-to CI O' </> a: o OJ E -4-> => c> E =3 ••-*r~~> X "C3 ro 19.00 - -18.00 • -17.00 - -16.00 • -15.00 - -14 .00 •-13.00 •-12.00 - -11.00 - -10.00 • -9.00 •-8.00 • -7.00 - -o.oo<e_ B e l o w G r a d e L e v e l A t G r a d e L e v e l x A b o v e G r a d e L e v e l A b i l i t y Level E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p C o n v e n t i o n a l G r o u p 1 2 1 To d e t e r m i n e i f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e ANCOVA were s a t i s f i e d , t e s t s o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e a n d o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t were p e r f o r m e d . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s e t e s t s show t h a t i n b o t h a n a l y s e s ( f o r q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ) t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was met (p_>.05) w h i l e t h e a s s u m p t i o n of h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e was n o t met (p_<.05). The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e two ANCOVA, t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d t a k e t h i s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i n d i n g s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l H y p o t h e s e s A r e s t a t e m e n t o f e a c h N u l l H y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e f i n d i n g s f o r q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . Ho,: F o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l By T r e a t m e n t T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . H o 2 : F o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l By R e a d i n g A b i l i t y T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r a b i l i t y l e v e l on s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . 1 22 H o 3 : F o r I n t e r a c t i o n o f T r e a t m e n t by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y on t h e Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l T h e r e w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s ( t r e a t m e n t a n d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) a n d t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e q u a n t i t y o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e ANCOVA p e r f o r m e d on t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 7. T a b l e 7: A n a l y s i s o f R e c a l l o f C o v a r i a n c e on F i n a l T e s t Summary T a b l e f o r Q u a n t i t y S o u r c e SS d f MS F C o v a r i a t e 12. 00 1 12. 00 .49 G r o u p 24. 33 1 24. 33 .95 A b i l i t y 168. 83 2 84. 42 3.30* G r o u p X A b i l i t y 96. 25 2 48. 1 2 1 .88 R e s i d u a l s 3 4 32. 33 1 34 25. 61 * p_<.05 l e v e l As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 7, t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t s f o r t h e C o v a r i a t e , G r o u p , o r G r o u p - b y - A b i l i t y i n t e r a c t i o n ( p > . 0 5 ) . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g f r o m t h e s e a n a l y s e s i s t h e mai n e f f e c t f r o m A b i l i t y [ F ( 2 , 1 3 4 ) = 3 . 3 0 , 2 < - 0 5 ] • 123 T a b l e 8 p r e s e n t s t h e means, a d j u s t e d means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l on t h e f i n a l t e s t f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T a b l e 8: Means, A d j u s t e d Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t by A b i l i t y L e v e l s A b i l i t y E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n v e n t i o n a l M a r g i n a l L e v e l G r o u p Means G r o u p Means Means B e l o w Ob 5.82 5.00 5.41 G r a d e Ad 6.72 5.96 6.34 L e v e l s d 4.62 2.79 3.93 n (18) (13) (31 ) A t G r a d e Ob 1 0.82 7.84 9.33 L e v e l Ad 10.83 7.85 9.34 s d 4.28 4.26 4.49 n (46) (30) (76) A bove Ob 13.83 14.83 1 4.33 G r a d e Ad 12.97 1 3.97 1 3.47 L e v e l s d 7.42 6.93 7.06 n (15) (19) (34) G r o u p Ob 10.16 9.22 Means Ad 10.17 9.26 s d 5.69 6.23 n (79) (62) Ob: O b s e r v e d means Ad: A d j u s t e d means s d : S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s n : C e l l s i z e s N o t e : Maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e = 31 marks R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 8 i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s o f q u a n t i t y f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s a r e 6.34, 9.34 and 13.47 f o r t h e b e l o w , a t , a n d a b o v e g r a d e 1 24 l e v e l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p o s t hoc S c h e f f e t e s t shows t h a t t h e ' a b o v e - g r a d e - l e v e l ' g r o u p p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e ' a t - g r a d e - l e v e l ' a n d ' b e l o w -g r a d e - l e v e l ' g r o u p s [ F ( 2 , 1 3 8 ) = 1 5 . 6 5 ; 3 2.18, r e s p e c t i v e l y , p_<.05 i n b o t h c a s e s ] . The l a t t e r two g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r l y [F ( 2 , 1 38) =7 . 69 , p_<.05]. F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m a i n e f f e c t f o r t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l by t h e b e l o w , a t , a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . B a s e d on t h e s e f i n d i n g s f o r q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l , N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 1, f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l By T r e a t m e n t , a n d N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 3, F o r I n t e r a c t i o n o f T r e a t m e n t by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y were a c c e p t e d . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 2, f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y was r e j e c t e d . F i n d i n g s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l H y p o t h e s e s A r e s t a t e m e n t o f e a c h N u l l H y p o t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g t h e f i n d i n g s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . Ho,: F o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l By T r e a t m e n t T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s i n t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . 125 F i g u r e 3 . Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by A b i l i t y L e v e l s CO II OJ s-o OJ o t~ oo o U QJ CO r -_D c to in Qj m SI O CL . OJ E +J 3 «/> E 3 •>-•>-> X X) fO 14 . 0 0 13 . 0 0 I 2 . 0 0 I I . 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 9 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 7 . 0 0 6 . 0 0 f-0.00 •4-B e l o w G r a d e L e v e l A t G r a d e L e v e l Above G r a d e L e v e l A b i l i t y Level 1 26 H o 5 : For Organ i za t i on of R e c a l l By A b i l i t y T h e r e w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r a b i l i t y l e v e l on s t u d e n t s ' a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . H o 6 : For I n t e r a c t i o n of Treatment by Reading A b i l i t y on the Organ i za t i on of R e c a l l T h e r e w i l l be no i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n s t u d e n t m e m b e r s h i p i n b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s ( t r e a t m e n t a n d r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) a n d t h e i r a d j u s t e d mean f i n a l - t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e ANCOVA p e r f o r m e d on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 9. T a b l e 9: A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l Summary on F i n a l T a b l e T e s t f o r S o u r c e SS d f MS I r C o v a r i a t e 16. 68 1 16. 68 .19 G r o u p 1673. 83 1 1 673. 83 18, .75** A b i l i t y 631 . 31 2 315. 66 3, .54* G r o u p X A b i l i t y 1 93. 85 2 96. 93 1 , .09 R e s i d u a l s 1 1958. 28 1 34 89. 24 ** 2<.001 l e v e l * p_<.05 l e v e l 1 27 As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 9, t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l a r e t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f G r o u p , [ F ( 1 , 1 3 4 ) = 1 8 . 7 5 , p < . 0 0 l ] , a n d t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f A b i l i t y , [ F ( 2 , 1 3 4 ) = 3 . 5 4 , p_<.05]. T a b l e 10 p r e s e n t s t h e means, a d j u s t e d means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s on t h e f i n a l r e c a l l t e s t by a b i l i t y g r o u p s . T a b l e 10: Means, A d j u s t e d Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by A b i l i t y L e v e l s A b i l i t y E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n v e n t i o n a l M a r g i n a l L e v e l G r o u p Means G r o u p Means Means B e l o w Ob 1 1 .69 7.35 9.52 G r a d e Ad 12.76 8.48 10.62 L e v e l s d 8.72 4.91 7.58 n (18) (13) (31 ) A t G r a d e Ob 23.05 12.76 17.90 L e v e l Ad 23.06 12.77 17.91 s d 9.52 8.19 10.29 n (46) (30) (76) A bove Ob 30. 17 22.05 26.11 G r a d e Ad 29. 1 4 21 .04 25.09 L e v e l s d 12.59 1 0.93 12.21 n (15) (19) (34) G r o u p Ob 21 .64 1 4.05 Means Ad 20.65 14.10 s d 11.63 10.10 n (79) (62) Ob: O b s e r v e d means Ad: A d j u s t e d means s d : S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s n : C e l l s i z e s N o t e : Maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e = 61 m a r k s 1 28 R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 10 i t c a n be s e e n t h a t t h e a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ( 2 0 . 6 5 ) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p ( 1 4 . 1 0 ) . The a d j u s t e d mean s c o r e s on o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e t h r e e a b i l i t y g r o u p s a r e 10.62, 1 7 . 9 1 , 25.09 f o r t h e b e l o w , a t a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p o s t hoc S c h e f f e t e s t shows t h a t t h e ' a b o v e - g r a d e - l e v e l ' g r o u p p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e ' a t - g r a d e - l e v e l ' g r o u p [ F ( 2 , 1 3 8 ) = 1 3 . 6 0 , p<.05] w h i c h i n t u r n p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e ' b e l o w - g r a d e - l e v e l ' g r o u p [ F ( 2 , 1 3 8 ) = 1 3 . 1 2 , p<.05] F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e m a i n e f f e c t f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l by t h e b e l o w , a t , a n d a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y w h i l e F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t f o r T r e a t m e n t G r o u p . As c a n be s e e n f r o m F i g u r e 4 t h e g o o d s t u d e n t s a p p e a r e d t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r r e c a l l s b e t t e r t h a n t h e m e d i a n g r o u p who i n t u r n p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s . F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a s c o m p a r e d t o t h a t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . B a s e d on t h e a n a l y s e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l , N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 6, f o r I n t e r a c t i o n o f T r e a t m e n t by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y was a c c e p t e d . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 4 f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l by T r e a t m e n t and N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 5 f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l by A b i l i t y w e r e r e j e c t e d . 129 F i 9 u r e 5 - O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s o n F i n a l T e s t b y G r o u p ~ 22.00 (/> 21 .00 --20.00 --19.00 --18.00 --17.00 --16.00 --15.00 --14.00 --13.00 --0. 00 VO II CD S-o a> <_) L- OO o <j a; «/> i— d -i— •a v i 3: o Ou •o a» E ••-» _5 «/« E _3 ••— -~> X "O ra C o n v e n t i o n a l E x p e r i m e n t a l G r o u p 130 Figure 4. Organizat ion Scores on F i n a l Test by Group and Levels QJ O u LT) O CX. E 3 E X OJ V-o CO OJ "O CJ 26.00 25.00 24.00 23.00 22.00 21.00 20. 00 19.00 18.00 17.00 16.00 15.00 •-14 .00 •-13.00 •-12.00 - -11.00 10.00 •-9.00 - -8.00 • -7.00 •-0 .00 Below Grade Level At Grade Level Above Grade Level A b i l i t y Level 131 Analyses of the Use of Headings By Group A l t h o u g h h e a d i n g s were i n i t i a l l y s c o r e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y , i t was c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e y c o u l d a l s o h a v e been s c o r e d f o r q u a n t i t y . The n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l b u t s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l by G r o u p p r o m p t e d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e f o r r e c a l l o f h e a d i n g s b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s on b o t h t h e i n i t i a l a n d f i n a l t e s t . An ANOVA on t h e i n i t i a l r e c a l l t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p (X=.29) d i d n o t r e c a l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y more h e a d i n g s t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p (X=.32, p > . 0 5 ) . H o w e v e r , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' use o f h e a d i n g s on t h e f i n a l t e s t t h e ANOVA r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p (i£=3.05) p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p ( X = . 5 5 ) , [ F ( 1 , 1 32 ) = 1 66 . 25 p _ < . 0 0 l ] . Summary The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r f o r i n i t i a l t e s t i n g f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s on m e a s u r e s o f r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d i n i t i a l q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . The a n a l y s e s o f t h e f i n a l t e s t i n g were c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t on r e c a l l o f i n s t r u c t i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d t o t e x t 1 32 s t r u c t u r e a n d t o u s e h e a d i n g s a s an a i d i n r e t r i e v i n g a n d o r g a n i z i n g w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a s s a g e s . B a s e d on t h e r e s u l t s i t was f o u n d t h a t t h r e e N u l l H y p o t h e s e s w ere a c c e p t e d ( 1 , 3, a n d 6) w h i l e t h r e e were r e j e c t e d ( 2 , 4, and 5 ) . H y p o t h e s i s 1, f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l by T r e a t m e n t , was a c c e p t e d b e c a u s e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . H y p o t h e s e s 3 a n d 6, f o r I n t e r a c t i o n o f T r e a t m e n t by r e a d i n g A b i l i t y on t h e Q u a n t i t y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l , were a l s o a c c e p t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n s w e r e f o u n d f o r G r o u p by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y l e v e l on e i t h e r d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e . H y p o t h e s i s 2, f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y was f o u n d on t h e number o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d . The S c h e f f e p o s t hoc t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e b e t t e r r e a d e r s r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n e i t h e r t h e a v e r a g e o r l o w a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . H y p o t h e s i s 4, f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l by T r e a t m e n t , was a l s o r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e a ' s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l , w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p o u t -p e r f o r m i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . A l s o r e j e c t e d was H y p o t h e s i s 5 s i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due t o R e a d i n g A b i l i t y was f o u n d on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l . The S c h e f f e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e ' a b o v e - g r a d e - l e v e l ' r e a d e r s o r g a n i z e d t h e i r r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s b e t t e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e r e a d e r s , who i n t u r n p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e low a b i l i t y 1 3 3 r e a d e r s . The a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n c l u s i o n o f h e a d i n g s i n t h e f i n a l t e s t o f d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l a l s o r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r t r e a t m e n t , w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n c l u d i n g more h e a d i n g s i n t h e i r p r o t o c o l s t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . C h a p t e r 5 w i l l d i s c u s s t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 134 CHAPTER F I V E SUMMARY, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r s u m m a r i z e s t h e s t u d y a n d b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s i n C h a p t e r 4 a r e d i s c u s s e d i n l i g h t o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h a n d i n t e r m s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p a r a d i g m o f t h e s t u d y . C o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn a f t e r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n a n d f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e s u g g e s t e d . Summary o f t h e St u d y T h i s s t u d y s o u g h t a n s w e r s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n : W i l l d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n d e s i g n e d t o t r a i n g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o s e and t o u s e h e a d i n g s a s r e c a l l a i d s a f f e c t t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l ? One h u n d r e d a n d f o r t y - o n e f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s f r o m s i x i n t a c t n o n - s t r e a m e d c l a s s e s l o c a t e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were i n v o l v e d i n t h e s t u d y . The c l a s s e s were p a i r e d on t h e b a s i s o f e s t i m a t e d 1 3 5 r e a d i n g a b i l i t y a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s a n d were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o one o f two t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . The e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , c o m p r i s e d o f 79 s t u d e n t s o f l o w , a v e r a g e , a n d a b o v e a v e r a g e r e a d i n g a b i l i t y , r e c e i v e d d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n f r o m t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e p r o s e a n d i n t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s a s r e t r i e v a l a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s f o r r e c a l l o f i d e a s f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . The p a s s a g e s h a d an a v e r a g e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 3.4. The 62 s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e i r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o r e a d t h e same d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s a s u s e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , a n d t o a n s w e r and o r a l l y mark t h e a n s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o h i g h l i g h t t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t . I n i t i a l t e s t i n g o f a l l s t u d e n t s j u s t p r i o r t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v e d c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f b o t h t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n S u b t e s t ( C a n a d i a n e d i t i o n , 1980) a n d an i n i t i a l o n e - d a y - d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l t e s t o f a h e a d e d e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e . The G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t e s t s c o r e s were u s e d t o : 1. c l a s s i f y s t u d e n t s a s r e a d i n g b e l o w , a t , o r ab o v e g r a d e l e v e l ; 2. t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e g r o u p s d i f f e r e d i n mean r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y ; a n d 3. a s a c o v a r i a t e f o r t h e ANCOVAs c o n d u c t e d on t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l w r i t t e n r e c a l l q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s . 136 The I n i t i a l T e s t o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s d i f f e r e d p r i o r t o i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e i r q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l a f t e r r e a d i n g a d e s c r i p t i v e e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e . The F i n a l T e s t o f one d a y - d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e i f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o be a w a r e o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l p a t t e r n o f t e x t i d e a s a n d t o u s e h e a d i n g s f o r r e c a l l h a d an e f f e c t on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' w r i t t e n r e c a l l . The p a s s a g e s u s e d i n b o t h t h e I n i t i a l a n d F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t s were p a r a l l e l i n c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d had an a v e r a g e r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l o f g r a d e 3.1. D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s I n i t i a l T e s t i n g R e s u l t s f r o m t h e i n i t i a l t e s t i n g f o u n d no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p mean s c o r e s f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r f o r t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e i r d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l . H owever, a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d f o r G r o u p by A b i l i t y ; t h e h i g h a n d a v e r a g e a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o r e d s i m i l a r l y i n t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d a n d b o t h g r o u p s o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h e l o w a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s , w h i l e t h e 1 37 s t u d e n t s o f h i g h a b i l i t y i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r on b o t h m e a s u r e s ( q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n ) t h a n t h e a v e r a g e s t u d e n t s who, i n t u r n , p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e l o w a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . The l o w , a v e r a g e , a n d h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p r e c a l l e d 27, 38, a n d 4 0 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t e x t . The l o w , a v e r a g e and h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p r e c a l l e d 2 1 , 29, and 46%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e p a s s a g e p r o p o s i t i o n s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e g ood r e a d e r s were b e t t e r a b l e t o e n c o d e , r e t a i n , a nd r e p r o d u c e more i d e a s f r o m a p a s s a g e of low r e a d a b i l i t y t h a n t h e p o o r e r r e a d e r s . F i n a l T e s t i n g S i x N u l l H y p o t h e s e s , t h r e e e a c h f o r t h e F i n a l T e s t d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s of q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n , were d e l i n e a t e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e t h e m a i n e f f e c t s of T r e a t m e n t ( G r o u p ) , A b i l i t y a n d t h e p o s s i b l e I n t e r a c t i o n of T r e a t m e n t by A b i l i t y on f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' r e c a l l p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e F i n a l T e s t . R e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t s i n c e t h e s e seem t o s h e d some l i g h t on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s a n a l y z e d f o r t h e Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l . 1 3 8 D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l . H o 4 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d b e c a u s e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l mean s c o r e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . As a g r o u p , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b j e c t s . T h i s f i n d i n g seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a i n i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o be aware o f t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e , e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s a nd t o u s e h e a d i n g s a s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e c a l l a i d s h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l . H o 5 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t f o r A b i l i t y l e v e l . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d s i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due t o r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y was f o u n d f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l . As i n d i c a t e d by t h e S c h e f f e t e s t o f m u l t i p l e c o m p a r i s o n s t h e abo v e g r a d e l e v e l r e a d e r s i n t h e s t u d y o r g a n i z e d t h e i r r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s b e t t e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e a b i l i t y r e a d e r s who, i n t u r n , h a d b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l t h a n t h e b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t good r e a d e r s a r e more l i k e l y t o use t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e t o o r g a n i z e t h e i r w r i t t e n 139 r e c a l l s t h a n s t u d e n t s o f low r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ( B r i d g e and T i e r n e y , 1981; B r i d g e , T i e r n e y and C e r a , 1978-79; McGee, 1982; M e y e r , B r a n d t a n d B l u t h , 1980; T a y l o r , 1 9 8 0 ) . H o 6 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r I n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e G r o u p s by A b i l i t y l e v e l on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d s i n c e no i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n T r e a t m e n t G r o u p by A b i l i t y L e v e l . I n c o n t r a s t t o I n i t i a l T e s t i n g , s t u d e n t s i n e a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l a b i l i t y l e v e l c o n s i s t e n t l y o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h e s t u d e n t s i n e a c h c o n v e n t i o n a l a b i l i t y l e v e l and i n b o t h t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s h i g h e r a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n a v e r a g e a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s who h a d b e t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s t h a n l o w a b i l i t y r e a d e r s . P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s f o r e a c h g r o u p by a b i l i t y show t h a t t h e l o w , a v e r a g e , and h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a c h i e v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d 2 1 , 38, a n d 48% o f t h e p a s s a g e s t r u c t u r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s i n t h e l o w , a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y l e v e l s a c h i e v e d o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e s o f 14, 2 1 , a n d 34%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a i n i n g a p p e a r e d t o s e n s i t i z e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t o a t t e n d t o t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a d e s c r i p t i v e p r o s e p a s s a g e a n d t o use h e a d i n g s when s t r u c t u r i n g r e c a l l w h i c h i n t u r n seemed t o f a c i l i t a t e more o r g a n i z e d r ememberances of p a s s a g e c o n t e n t . H o w e v e r , i t was n o t e d t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s b e tween t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p 1 40 s t u d e n t s i n t h e l o w , a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y l e v e l s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s i n t h e l o w , a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y l e v e l s was 7, 17, a n d 14%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a i n i n g f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l may be more e f f e c t i v e f o r s t u d e n t s o f a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y t h a n f o r t h o s e o f low a b i l i t y . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e F i n d i n g s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l by t r e a t m e n t g r o u p , t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s f r o m s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e Q u a n t i t y h y p o t h e s e s were u n e x p e c t e d . Ho, s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e q u a n t i t y of r e c a l l b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d s i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p and t h o s e r e c a l l e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . A number o f f a c t o r s may h ave c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . K i n t s c h a n d v a n D i j k ( 1 9 7 8) have i n d i c a t e d t h a t " c a p a c i t y l i m i t a t i o n s become c r u c i a l when i t comes t o t h e s t o r a g e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n memory and r e s p o n s e p r o d u c t i o n s " a n d t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f a s e l e c t i o n s t r a t e g y t a s k may d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i d e a s a r e e n c o d e d , r e t a i n e d and r e c a l l e d ( p . 3 6 4 ) . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , i n t e n t on o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n u n d e r 141 h e a d i n g s , c o n c e n t r a t e d on r e m e m b e r i n g t h e s e u n i t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f r e c a l l i n g t h e a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s . Or i t may be t h a t s t u d e n t s a t t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l may o n l y be a b l e t o e n c o d e , r e c a l l a n d r e t a i n a c e r t a i n number of c o n c e p t s . C l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n c l u d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number o f h e a d i n g s i n t h e i r w r i t t e n r e c a l l s t h a n t h o s e i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . The a v e r a g e number of h e a d i n g s r e c a l l e d o u t o f t h e f i v e p r e s e n t i n t h e F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e was t h r e e f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a s c o m p a r e d t o o n e - h a l f o f a h e a d i n g f o r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p . A l t h o u g h h e a d i n g s were s c o r e d f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o n l y , i t seems c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t h a d t h e y been s c o r e d f o r q u a n t i t y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p may have o u t - p e r f o r m e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p i n t h e i r amount o f r e c a l l . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may do w e l l t o c o n s i d e r s c o r i n g h e a d i n g s f o r b o t h q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e t o f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a i m e d a t u s i n g h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l a s s o c i a t e d i d e a s may be t h a t t h e s t r a t e g y a n d t h e t r a i n i n g t a s k s w h i c h r e q u i r e d a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f p r o c e s s i n g s k i l l s ( s u c h a s s u r v e y i n g h e a d i n g s , g e n e r a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and u n d e r l i n i n g o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e h e a d i n g s and c o m p l e t i o n o f h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e s o f t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e x t ) may be b e y o n d t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s o f g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h d a i l y w h o l e c l a s s g u i d a n c e i n t h e 1 4 2 u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l h i e r a r c h i c a l l y r e l a t e d i d e a s a p p e a r e d t o e n a b l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l c l a s s r o o m g r o u p s t o r e c a l l an i m p r e s s i v e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p a s s a g e s s t u d i e d one day e a r l i e r , t h e s t u d e n t s seemed t o r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r amount o f g u i d a n c e , d i r e c t i o n a n d d i s c u s s i o n when p e r f o r m i n g s t u d y t a s k s i n s e m i - i n d e p e n d e n t s i t u a t i o n s . The t e m p t a t i o n i s t o i n f e r t h a t f a i l u r e t o f i n d a f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t f o r t r a i n i n g on t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d may have been due t o t h e l i m i t e d t i m e t h a t s t u d e n t s h a d t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s . A l t h o u g h a l o n g e r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d may c o n c e i v a b l y e n a b l e f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y u s e s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h w o u l d l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n , Baumann (1986) h a s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e r e a d i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e l a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g . S t a b l e ' s (1985) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s t u d y s k i l l s may be more e f f e c t i v e l y t a u g h t a t t h e g r a d e 6/7 l e v e l , s i n c e t h e s e s t u d e n t s may be b e t t e r a t u t i l i z i n g t h e a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y t o i n t e r n a l i z e s u c h s t u d y s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s , seems t o be w a r r a n t e d b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . H o 2 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r A b i l i t y l e v e l on t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d s i n c e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t due t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y was f o u n d f o r t h e number o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d . A S c h e f f e p o s t hoc a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e b e t t e r r e a d e r s i n t h e s t u d y r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i d e a s t h a n e i t h e r t h e a v e r a g e o r low a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s . 143 H o 3 s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w een t h e G r o u p s by A b i l i t y l e v e l on t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d s i n c e no i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n t r e a t m e n t and a b i l i t y l e v e l . I n c o n t r a s t t o I n i t i a l T e s t i n g , t h e a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l s t u d e n t s f r o m b o t h g r o u p s r e c a l l e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i d e a s t h a n t h e a t o r b e l o w g r a d e l e v e l g r o u p s w h i l e t h e l a t t e r two p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r l y . P e r c e n t a g e s c o r e s o f e a c h G r o u p by A b i l i t y show t h a t t h e l o w , a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a c h i e v e d q u a n t i t y s c o r e s w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e d 2 1 % , 3 5 % a n d 4 2 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e t o t a l number o f i d e a s i n t h e F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s p e r f o r m e d s i m i l a r l y t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e a v e r a g e g r o u p r e c a l l e d l e s s , b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s , a n d t h e h i g h a b i l i t y g r o u p r e c a l l e d more b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i d e a s t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d e n t s . The l o w , a v e r a g e a nd h i g h a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p a c h i e v e d q u a n t i t y s c o r e s w h i c h a p p r o x i m a t e d 19, 25 and 45%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f t h e t o t a l number of i d e a s i n t h e F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t t r a i n i n g f o r t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s and a w a r e n e s s o f how e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e i s s t r u c t u r e d d i d n o t seem t o f a c i l i t a t e i n c r e a s e d r e c a l l o f t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p a s s a g e . 1 44 C o n c l u s i o n s , I m p l i c a t i o n s , and Suggest ions fo r Future Research The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s c a n be t r a i n e d t o be a w a r e t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e p r o s e i s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d , t h a t h e a d i n g s c a n be u s e d t o r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n , a nd t h a t t r a i n i n g i n t h e u s e o f h e a d i n g s f o r r e c a l l seems t o e n h a n c e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f r e c a l l . However, c o n t r a r y t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h ( D o c t o r o w , W i t t r o c k , a nd M a r k s , 1978; T a y l o r , 1982, i n i t i a l s t u d y ) t h i s t r a i n i n g d i d n o t seem t o i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d . T h e s e f i n d i n g s have s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be i n s t r u c t e d i n s e n s i t i z a t i o n t o t e x t s t r u c t u r e ( E n g l e r t a nd H i e b e r t , 1983; T a y l o r , 1982) and s h o u l d be t r a i n e d t o use h e a d i n g s t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ( B r o o k s , D a n s e r e a u , S p u r l i n a n d H o l l e y , 1983; B r o w n , Campione a n d Day 1981; C h r i s t e n s e n a nd S t o r d a h l , 1955; H e r b e r , 1965, 1970; J e w i t t , 1965; N i l e s , 1956; M e y e r , 1984; R o b i n s o n , 1970; R o b i n s o n a n d H a l l , 1 9 4 1 ) , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s who may b e n e f i t most f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n w o u l d be t h o s e who a r e r e a d i n g a t o r a b o v e g r a d e l e v e l . H o wever, b a s e d on s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t e v e n t h e a v e r a g e a n d h i g h a b i l i t y g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s 1 45 i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n h a d d i f f i c u l t y u s i n g h e a d i n g s i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o i n c r e a s e r e c a l l . They a l s o a p p e a r e d t o h a v e d i f f i c u l t y g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s , i d e n t i f y i n g a n d u n d e r l i n i n g i m p o r t a n t f a c t s i n s e n t e n c e s a nd p a r a g r a p h s , a nd c o m p l e t i n g h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e s . T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e may be a m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s a n d / o r a n e e d f o r i n c r e a s e d m e n t a l a b i l i t y b e f o r e s t u d e n t s a r e a b l e t o u s e t e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d s t u d y s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n d e p e n d e n t , e f f i c i e n t r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . A l t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t h a t s t u d e n t s a t t h e g r a d e f o u r l e v e l , who a r e j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o " r e a d t o l e a r n " do n o t seem t o b e n e f i t g r e a t l y ( i n t e r m s o f t h e q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s r e c a l l e d ) f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n i n s t u d y s k i l l s t r a t e g i e s , i t d o e s seem t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h h e l p s d e v e l o p a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tween n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e , o f how t e x t s a r e o r g a n i z e d , and o f how h e a d i n g s i n d i c a t e t e x t o r g a n i z a t i o n . As w e l l , b a s e d on s u b j e c t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b etween i m p o r t a n t and u n i m p o r t a n t p a s s a g e i n f o r m a t i o n , t e a c h e r s w o u l d do w e l l t o d e v e l o p a c t i v i t i e s b a s e d on c o n t e n t a r e a c l a s s r o o m t e x t s w h i c h i n c l u d e : s o r t i n g d i s o r g a n i z e d word l i s t s a n d s e n t e n c e s t r i p s i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e s , a n d t h e g u i d e d u n d e r l i n i n g o f i m p o r t a n t i d e a s i n s e n t e n c e s and s i n g l e p a r a g r a p h s . The f i n d i n g s Of t h i s s t u d y a l s o s u g g e s t t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s s u c h a s w o r d - s o r t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n / c a t e g o r i z a t i o n t a s k s , c u t - u p o u t l i n e s o r t i n g 1 46 a n d u s e o f h e a d i n g s a s e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s may h a v e p o t e n t i a l a s a p r e l u d e f o r w r i t i n g r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s . S cope and L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y The c o n c e r n o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e i f g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s w o u l d be a m e n a b l e t o t r a i n i n g i n a w a r e n e s s o f h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e x t s t r u c t u r e and i n t h e use of h e a d i n g s a s a i d s t o i n c r e a s e t h e q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t y p e p a s s a g e s . T h i s s t u d y d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o s t a t i s t i c a l l y e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t r a i n i n g ( s u c h a s t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o i n d u c e l e a r n i n g ) b u t v i e w e d t h e t r a i n i n g - f o r - s e n s i t i z a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n i t s e n t i r e t y . The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : 1. The s t u d e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e were n o t r a n d o m l y c h o s e n ; 2. The s i x s c h o o l s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y were n o t r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d b u t were p a i r e d on t h e b a s i s o f e s t i m a t e d o v e r a l l s t u d e n t r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s a n d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and were t h e n r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d t o e i t h e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n v e n t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s ; 3. The s a m p l e f o r t h e s t u d y was r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r C a t h o l i c P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m a n d may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l g r a d e f o u r s t u d e n t s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r Lower M a i n l a n d . The d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s a m p l e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f C a n a d i a n e l e m e n t a r y 147 s t u d e n t s was d e t e r m i n e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e i r s c o r e s t o t h e C a n a d i a n norms o f t h e G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e T e s t and t o t h o s e o f t h e West V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t . The m a t e r i a l s u s e d i n t h e s t u d y were w r i t t e n i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n o f e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e and were l o w i n r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t s may be b e s t g e n e r a l i z e d t o i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a s s a g e s of low r e a d a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n t o c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s c o m p r i s e d o f s e v e r a l e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e o f t e n w r i t t e n a t h i g h e r r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n was t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l i d e a s f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p a s s a g e s o f l o w r a t h e r t h a n h i g h e r r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s . B e f o r e e x p e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o a p p l y c o n t e n t a r e a r e a d i n g s k i l l s t o c l a s s r o o m t e x t m a t e r i a l s , e d u c a t o r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t s u c h s k i l l s be i n i t i a l l y t a u g h t by u s i n g "model l e s s o n s " and m a t e r i a l s t h a t do n o t p r e s e n t t h e l e a r n e r w i t h d e c o d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s b u t r a t h e r s u p p l y s t u d e n t s w i t h m o d e l s a n d c l e a r p r o c e d u r a l f o r m a t s f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t a s k s b e i n g t a u g h t (Baumann, 1986; P i e r o n e k , 1 9 8 5 ) . The c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p was i n s t r u c t e d by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p was t r a i n e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o e n s u r e maximum t e s t o f t h e t r e a t m e n t and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n s . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s 148 o b t a i n e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p may h a v e been b e c a u s e : a. one p e r s o n ( t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ) t a u g h t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w h i l e t h r e e p e o p l e ( t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ) i n s t r u c t e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p ; b. t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p may have f o u n d t h e l e s s o n s more i n t r i g u i n g and t h e r e f o r e may have been more m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n t h a n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g r o u p s t u d e n t s who were s i m p l y r e q u i r e d t o r e a d , a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s a n d c o r r e c t a n s w e r s on a d a i l y b a s i s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h B a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a n be made: 1. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may w i s h t o c o n s i d e r s c o r i n g h e a d i n g s f o r b o t h q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. F u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t o r s may w i s h t o c o n d u c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f t r a i n i n g f o u r t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s t o u s e w o r d - s o r t i n g c a t e g o r i z a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k s , c u t - u p o u t l i n e s , a n d h e a d i n g s on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e w e l l o r g a n i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e p r o s e p a s s a g e s . 1 49 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l v e r m a n n , D.E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . The c o m p e n s a t o r y e f f e c t o f g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r s on d e s c r i p t i v e t e x t . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Res earch, 7 5 ( 1 ) , 44-49. A l v e r m a n n , D.E. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . R e s t r u c t u r i n g t e x t f a c i l i t a t e s w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f ma i n i d e a s . J o u r n a l of Reading, 2 5 ( 8 ) , 7 54-758. A n d e r s o n , R.C. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The n o t i o n o f s c h e m a t a a nd t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . I n R.C. A n d e r s o n , R . J . S p i r o , & W.E. Montague ( E d s . ) , S c h o o l i n g and the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge. H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s . A u l l s , M.W. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . E x p o s i t o r y p a r a g r a p h p r o p e r t i e s t h a t i n f l u e n c e l i t e r a l r e c a l l . J o u r n a l of Reading Behavior, 7 ( 4 ) , 3 9 1-400. A u s u b e l , D.P. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . The use o f a d v a n c e d o r g a n i z e r s i n t h e l e a r n i n g a n d r e t e n t i o n o f m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l m a t e r i a l . Journal of Educational Research, 5 7 ( 5 ) , 2 6 7 - 2 7 2 . A u s u b e l , D.P. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . Educational psychology: a cognitive view. New Y o r k : H o l t , R e i n h a r t a n d W i n s t o n . A u s u b e l , D.P. & F i t z g e r a l d , D. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . The r o l e o f d i s c r i m i n a b i 1 i t y i n m e a n i n g f u l v e r b a l l e a r n i n g a n d r e t e n t i o n . Journal of Educational Psychology, 5 2 ( 5 ) , 266-274. B a r t l e t t , B . J . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r r e c a l l o f c l a s s r o o m t e x t . ( U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ) . C i t e d i n B.M. T a y l o r , ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t a f t e r r e a d i n g . Reading Research Quarterly, 24{3), 3 9 9 - 4 1 1 . Baumann, J . F . ( 1 9 8 1 , D e c e m b e r ) . C h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y to comprehend main ideas after reading social studies t e x t b o o k s . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e s e c o n d a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n R e a d i n g Forum, S a r a s o t a , F l o r i d a . (U.S., ERIC Document E D 2 0 9 6 4 7 ) . Baumann, J . F . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S i x p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n a l m ethods a n d m a t e r i a l s . Reading Improvement, 26, 187-192. 150 Baumann, J . F . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n o f m a i n i d e a c o m p r e h e n s i o n a b i l i t y . I n J . F . Baumann ( E d . ) , Teaching Main Idea Comprehension ( p p . 1 3 3 - 1 7 8 ) . Newark, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . B e r g , P.C., & R e n t e l , V.M. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . I m p r o v i n g s t u d y S k i l l s . J o u r n a l of Reading, 9, 343-348. B o o t h b y , P.R., & A l v e r m a n n , D.E. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . A c l a s s r o o m t r a i n i n g s t u d y : t h e e f f e c t s o f g r a p h i c o r g a n i z e r i n s t r u c t i o n on f o u r t h g r a d e r ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Reading World, 23, 3 2 5 - 3 3 9 . B o r g , N.R., & G a l l , M.D. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h : an i n t r o d u c t i o n ( 4 t h e d ) . New Y o r k : Longman I n c . B r i d g e , C H . , & T i e r n e y , R . J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I n f e r e n t i a l o p e r a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n a c r o s s t e x t w i t h n a r r a t i v e a n d e x p o s i t o r y t e n d e n c i e s . J o u r n a l of Reading Behavior, 13(3), 2 0 2 - 2 1 3 . B r o o k s , L.W., D a n s e r e a u , D.F., S p u r l i n , J . E . , & H o l l e y , C D . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . E f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s on t e x t p r o c e s s i n g . Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 292-302. A.L., C a m p i o n e , J . C , & B a r c l a y , C R . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T r a i n i n g s e l f - c h e c k i n g r o u t i n e s f o r e s t i m a t i n g t e s t r e a d i n e s s : G e n e r a l i z a t i o n f r o m l i s t l e a r n i n g t o p r o s e r e c a l l . C h i l d Development, 50, 5 0 1 - 5 1 2 . A.L., C a m p i o n e , J . C , & Day, L.D. ( 1 9 8 1 , F e b r u a r y ) L e a r n i n g t o l e a r n : on t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n f r o m t e x t s . E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 14-21. P.C., Roe, B.C., & R o s s , E.P. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . Teaching reading in today' s elementary schools. B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n Company. C a m p b e l l , D . J . , a n d S t a n l e y , J.C. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research, pp. 46-50. C a t t e r s o n , J . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . U n p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Quebec: Quebec P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m . C a t t e r s o n , J . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Reading in the content areas. A d e m o n s t r a t i o n p a c k a g e o f u n p u b l i s h e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . 151 C h r i s t e n s e n , C M . , & S t o r d a h l , K.E. ( 1 9 5 5 ) . The e f f e c t o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s on c o m p r e h e n s i o n a nd r e t e n t i o n . The Journal of Educational Psychology, 46(2), 6 5 - 7 4 . C o l l i n s , A. & H a v i l a n d , S. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g p r o b l e m s ( R e a d i n g Ed. Rep. No. 8 ) . C h a m p a i g n : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , C e n t e r f o r t h e S t u d y o f R e a d i n g . C r o w h u r s t , M. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S e v e n u n p u b l i s h e d e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., C a n a d a . D a l e , E., & C h a l l , J . S . ( 1 9 4 8 ) . A f o r m u l a f o r p r e d i c t i n g r e a d a b i l i t y . Educational Research B u l l e t i n , 27, 11-20. D a n n e r , F.W. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n i n t e r s e n t e n c e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h e r e c a l l o f s h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e p a s s a g e s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 68(2), 174-183. D e e - L u c a s , D., & D i V e s t a , F . J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . L e a r n e r - g e n e r a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a i d s ; e f f e c t s on l e a r n i n g f r o m t e x t . Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(3), 3 0 4 - 3 1 1 . D o c t o r o w , M. , W i t t r o c k , M.C., & M a r k s , C. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . G e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 109-118. D u r k i n , D. ( 1 9 7 8 - 1 9 7 9 ) . What c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l a b o u t r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n s t r u c t i o n . Reading Research Quarterly, 14(4), 4 8 1 - 5 3 3 . E k w a l l , J . , & S h a n k e r , E. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Teaching Reading i n the Elementary School. O h i o : B e l l a n d H o w e l l Company. E l a s h o f f , J . ( 1 9 6 6 ) . A n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e : a d e l i c a t e i n s t r u m e n t . American Educational Research Journal, 6, 383-399. E l l i o t t , S.N. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e a nd use of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f p r o s e i n r e c a l l i n g what t h e y r e a d . Journal of Reading Behavior, 12(3), 2 0 3 - 2 1 2 . E n g l e r t , C.S., & H i e b e r t , E.H. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e s i n e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 7 6 ( 1 ) , 65-74. 1 52 F r y , E. ( 1 9 6 8 ) . a r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a t h a t s a v e s t i m e . Journal of Reading, 11, 5 1 3 - 5 1 6 . F r y , E.G. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The r e a d a b i l i t y g r a p h v a l i d a t e d a t p r i m a r y l e v e l s . The Reading Teacher, 2 2 ( 6 ) , 534-538. G i b b s , R.S. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The use of headings and t e x t organization as aids to r e c a l l of expository prose by students in Grades 5 through 10 with an emphasis on Grades 9 and 10. U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. G l a s s , G.V., & H o p k i n s , K.H. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S t a t i s t i c a l methods in education and psychology (2nd e d . ) . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . G l y n n , S.M., & D i V e s t a , F . J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . O u t l i n e a n d h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a i d s f o r s t u d y a n d r e t r i e v a l . Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 89-95. H a r r i s , T.L., & H odges, R.E. ( E d s . ) . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A dictionary of reading and related terms. Newark, D e l e w a r e : I.R.A. H a r t l e y , J . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . E i g h t y ways o f i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e x t . IEEE T r a n s a c t i o n s on Professional Communi cat i ons, PC~24(]), M a r c h , 17-27. H a r t l e y , J . , K e n e l y , J . , Owen, G., & Trueman, M. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . The e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s on c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l f r o m p r o s e t e x t , B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology, 50, 304-307. H a r t l e y , J . , M o r r i s , P., & Trueman, M. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . H e a d i n g s i n t e x t . Remedial Education, 16 ( 1 ) , p. H a r t l e y , J . , & Trueman, M. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s i n t e x t on r e c a l l , s e a r c h a n d r e t r i e v a l . B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 202-214. H e r b e r , H. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . D e v e l o p i n g s t u d y s k i l l s i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s : An o v e r v i e w . I n H e r b e r ( E d . ) , Perspectives in reading: developing study s k i l l s in secondary s c h o o l s . Newark, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . H e r b e r , H. f ( 1 9 7 0 ) . Teaching reading in the content areas (2nd e d . ) . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . 153 H o l l e y , C D . , D a n s e r e a u , D.F., E v a n s , S.H., C o l l i n s , K.W., B r o o k s , L., & L a r s o n , D. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . U t i l i z i n g i n t a c t and embedded h e a d i n g s a s p r o c e s s i n g a i d s w i t h n o n n a r r a t i v e t e x t . Contemporary E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 6, 2 2 7 - 2 3 6 . J e w i t t , A. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . U s i n g Book P a r t s . I n H e r b e r ( e d . ) , Perspectives in reading: developing study s k i l l s in secondary s c h o o l s . Newark, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g K i n g , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . The use of headings and t e x t organization as aids to r e c a l l of expository prose by students in Grades 5 through 10 with an emphasis on Grades 7 and 8. U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r . K i n t s c h , W., & Van D i j k , T.A. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . T o w a r d a m o d e l o f t e x t c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review, 8 5 ( 5 ) , 3 6 3 - 3 9 4 . M a c G i n i t i e , W.H. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Gates-MacGinitie reading tests: Canadian E d i t i o n , Teacher's Manuals and Student Booklet Forms for Levels D, E, F. Don M i l l s : N e l s o n P u b l i s h e r s . McGee, L.M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . A w a r e n e s s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e : e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s r e c a l l o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 7 7 ( 4 ) , 5 8 1 - 5 9 0 . McGee, L.M., & R i c h g e l s , D.J. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T e a c h i n g e x p o s i t o r y t e x t s t r u c t u r e t o e l e m e n t a r y s t u d e n t s . The Reading Teacher, 37, ( 8 ) , 7 3 9 - 7 4 8 . M c L a u g h l i n , G.H. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . SMOG g r a d i n g - a new r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a , J o u r n a l of Reading 12, 6 3 9 - 6 4 6 . M a y e r , R.E., & Bromage, B.K. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . D i f f e r e n t r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s f o r t e c h n i c a l t e x t s due t o a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s . Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 2 0 9 - 2 2 5 . M e y e r , B. ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of prose and i t s e f f e c t s on memory. A m s t e r d a m : N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g Company, pp. 113-138. M e y e r , B . J . F . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of t e x t : e f f e c t s on r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m . I n J . F l o o d ( E d . ) , Promoting r e a d i n g comprehension. Newark, D e l a w a r e : IRA ( p . 113-138) . 154 M e y e r , B . J . , B r a n d t , D.M., & B l u t h , G . J . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . Use o f t o p - l e v e l s t r u c t u r e i n t e x t : k ey f o r r e a d i n g c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f n i n t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s . Reading Research Quarterly, 16, 7 2 - 1 0 3 . M e y e r , R.E. & Bromage, B.D. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . D i f f e r e n t r e c a l l p r o t o c o l s f o r t e c h n i c a l t e x t s due t o a d v a n c e o r g a n i z e r s . Journal of Educational Psychology, 7 2 ( 2 ) , 2 09-225. N i l e s , 0. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n P e r c e i v e d . I n H. H e r b e r ( E d ) , Perspectives in reading: developing study s k i l l s in secondary schools. Newark, D e l a w a r e : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . P i c h e r t , J.W., & A n d e r s o n , R.C. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . T a k i n g d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on a s t o r y . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychol ogy, 6 9 ( 4 ) , 3 08-315. P i e r o n e k , F. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C l a s s n o t e s , READ 477. V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r o g e r , B.B., T a y l o r , J r . R.G., Mann, L . , C o u l s o n , J.M., & Bayuk J r . R . J . ( 1 9 7 0 ) . C o n c e p t u a l p r e - s t r u c t u r i n g f o r d e t a i l e d v e r b a l p a s s a g e s . The Journal of Educational Research, 64(\), 2 8 ~ 3 4 . P r o g e r , B.B., T a y l o r , J r . R v G . , Mann, L . , C o u l s o n , J.M., & Bayuk J r . R . J . , M o r r i s , V.R., and R e c k l e s s , D.E. ( 1 9 7 3 ) . A d v a n c e and c o n c u r r e n t o r g a n i z e r s f o r d e t a i l e d v e r b a l p a s s a g e s u s e d w i t h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p u p i l s . The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 66(\0), 4 5 1 - 4 5 6 . R i c h g e l s , D., & H a n s e n , R. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . G l o s s : h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s a p p l y b o t h s k i l l s a n d s t r a t e g i e s i n r e a d i n g c o n t e n t t e x t s . J o u r n a l of Reading, pp. 312 - 3 1 7 . R o b i n s o n , F.P. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . E f f e c t i v e study ( 4 t h e d . ) . New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row. R o b i n s o n , F.P., & H a l l , P. ( 1 9 4 1 ) . S t u d i e s o f h i g h e r l e v e l r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . The J o u r n a l of Educational Psychology, 32(A), 2 4 1 - 2 5 2 . R o l l e r , C M . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The e f f e c t s o f r e a d e r and t e x t b a s e d f a c t o r s on w r i t e r s ' a n d r e a d e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e . Reading Research Quarterly, 2 0 ( 4 ) , 4 3 7 - 4 5 7 . 1 55 S c h e f f e H. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . S c h e f f e method c o m p a r i s o n s . I n G.V. G l a s s & S t a t i s t i c a l methods in education (2nd ed.). E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . o f m u l t i p l e D.H. H o p k i n s , and psychoi ogy New J e r s e y : S m i t h , N.B. ( 1 9 6 4 ) . s u b j e c t a r e a s . P a t t e r n s o f w r i t i n g i n d i f f e r e n t Journal of Reading, 13, 31-37. S l a t e r , W.H., G r a v e s , M.F., & P i c h e , o f s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z e r s on c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e c a l l e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . Reading 22(2), 189-201. G.L. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . E f f e c t s n i n t h - g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' o f f o u r p a t t e r n s o f Research Quarterly, S p a c h e , G.D. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . The S p a c h e r e a d a b i l i t y f o r m u l a . Good reading for poor readers. C h a m p a i g n , I l l i n o i s : G a r r a r d P u b l i s h i n g , pp. 195-207. S t a b l e s , R. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . The use of headings and t e x t organization as aids to r e c a l l of expository prose by students in grades 5 through 10 with an emphasis on grades 5 and 6. U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., C a n a d a . T a y l o r , B.M. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C h i l d r e n ' s memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y t e x t a f t e r r e a d i n g . Reading Research Q u a r t e r l y , 24(3), 3 9 9 - 4 1 1 . T a y l o r , B.M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . T e x t s t r u c t u r e a n d c h i l d r e n ' s c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 3 2 3 - 3 4 0 . T a y l o r , B.M., & B e a c h , R.W. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t e x t s t r u c t u r e i n s t r u c t i o n on m i d d l e - g r a d e s t u d e n t s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . Reading Research Quarterly, 19(2), 134-146. T i e r n e y , R . J . , B r i d g e , C , C e r a , M.J. ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) . The d i s c o u r s e p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n . Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 5 4 0 - 5 6 5 . Van D i j k , T.A. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e l e v a n c e a s s i g n m e n t i n d i s c o u r s e c o m p r e h e n s i o n . D i s c o u r s e P r o c e s s e s , 2, 113-126. W a t e r s , H.S. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S u p e r o r d i n a t e - s u b o r d i n a t e s t r u c t u r e i n s e m a n t i c memory. The r o l e s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n a n d r e t r i e v a l p r o c e s s e s s . J o u r n a l of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 587-597. W i t t r o c k , M.C. ( 1 9 7 4 ) . L e a r n i n g a s a g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s . Educational Psychologist, 11, 8 7 - 9 5 . 1 5 6 Appendix A: I n i t i a l and F i n a l Test Passages — Standardized I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of T e s t s 157 S t a n d a r d i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s D i r e c t i o n s f o r W r i t t e n R e c a l l : (name of passage) E n s u r e t h a t e a c h c h i l d h as a book t o r e a d p r i o r t o t e s t i n g . 1. Hand o u t t h e l i n e d p a p e r . 2. Have s t u d e n t s l a b e l t h e p a p e r w i t h name, g r a d e a n d s c h o o l . 3. E a c h d i f f e r e n t w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s h o u l d be l a b e l l e d w i t h t h e d a t e . 4. Use t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s : "Do y o u r b e s t t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g y o u c a n remember f r o m t h e p a s s a g e on (passage) , w h i c h y o u s t u d i e d y e s t e r d a y . Don't w o r r y a b o u t s p e l l i n g . You w i l l h a v e up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e . P l e a s e d o n ' t t a l k . " 5. Have i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s p a r a p h r a s e t h e d i r e c t i o n s . You may r e p e a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d d i r e c t i o n s u n t i l y o u f e e l c e r t a i n e a c h c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d s . 6. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s : "You may b e g i n . When y o u have w r i t t e n e v e r y t h i n g y o u remember, t u r n y o u r p a p e r o v e r a n d r e a d y o u r l i b r a r y b o o k . Do y o u v e r y b e s t . " PLEASE REMEMBER TO COLLECT A L L t h e w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s . P r o t o c o l s a n d s t u d y s h e e t s w i l l be c o l l e c t e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s f o r a n a l y s i s . 158 S t a n d a r d i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f T e s t s PRIOR TO BEGINNING e n s u r e t h a t e a c h c h i l d h a s a book t o r e a d . When t h e y f i n i s h s t u d y i n g t h e y s h o u l d t u r n t h e i r p a p e r s o v e r a n d r e a d q u i e t l y . D i r e c t i o n s f o r S t u d y i n g P a s s a g e : (name of passage) 1. Hand o u t t h e t e s t p a s s a g e f a c e down. 2. EMPHASIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF THESE TESTS. 3. Use t h e f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s : "When y o u t u r n t h e p a p e r o v e r y o u w i l l h a ve 15 m i n u t e s t o r e a d a n d s t u d y t h i s p a s s a g e . Use w h a t e v e r w i l l h e l p y o u t o remember i t . You may w r i t e on t h e p a p e r i f y o u nee d t o . Tomorrow y o u a r e g o i n g t o be a s k e d t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g y o u remember, e x a c t l y a s yo u remember i t . " 4. Have i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s p a r a p h r a s e t h e d i r e c t i o n s . You may r e p e a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s u n t i l y o u f e e l c e r t a i n e a c h c h i l d u n d e r s t a n d s . 5. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o : " T u r n t h e p a s s a g e o v e r . P u t y o u r name, d a t e a n d g r a d e on t h e s h e e t . PAUSE. You may b e g i n t o s t u d y . I f y o u n e e d h e l p r e a d i n g a w o r d p u t up y o u r hand a nd I w i l l h e l p y o u . " PLEASE REMEMBER t o c o l l e c t a l l t h e s t u d y s h e e t s a n d r e t u r n them t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l e n v e l o p e . 1 5 9 TERMITES A n c i e n t I n s e c t s Fev i n s e c t s have been on e a r t h as l o n g as t h e t e r m i t e f a m i l y . Termites have been around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . These i n s e c t s have h a r d l y changed i n a l l t h a t time. T e r m i t e s have a l v a y s been about the same s i z e as a n t s . N a t u r a l Environment T e r m i t e s can be found i n the varmer a r e a s o f the v o r l d . They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and many p a r t s of the t r o p i c s . Some t e r m i t e s l i v e underground. Some Kinds l i v e i n vood. Others l i v e i n g r e a t p i l e s of e a r t h . T e r m i t e s i n " C i t i e s " T e r m i t e s live' i n n e s t s t h a i are s i m i l a r t o sma l l c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t j o b s . Each c i t y or nest has a King and queen. They are the parents of a l l the other t e r m i t e s . Some t e r m i t e s are s o l d i e r s . Other t e r m i t e s a re v o r K e r s . C h a n g e s i n A p p e a r a n c e T e r m i t e s c h a n g e i n a p p e a r a n c e a s . t h e y g r o v . A t e r m i t e s h e d s i t s s k i n s e v e r a l t i m e s . E a c h t i m e a t e r m i t e s h e d s i t g r o w s a l i t t l e b i t b i g g e r . Y o u n g K i n g s and q u e e n s h a v e v i n g s f o r a s h o r t t i m e . T h e y u s e th e m o n l y o n c e . T h e y f l y t o a n e v home, t h e n t h e y l o s e t h e i r v i n g s . H a r m f u l H a b i t s No m a t t e r v h e r e t h e y make t h e i r homes, t e r m i t e s a l v a y s d o much damage. T h e y e a t p a p e r a n d v o o d . They c a n e a t t h r o u g h a b o o k f r o m c o v e r t o c o v e r . T e r m i t e s c a n e a t t a b l e s a n d c h a i r s . T hey c a n c h e w t h r o u g h t h e v a i l s o f a h o u s e . T h e y c a n e a t r i g h t t h r o u g h a t r e e . Once t h e y move i n i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t r i d o f t e r m i t e s . Name: D a t e : G r a d e 160 PARROTS The P a r r o t F a m i l y F e v b i r d s a r e as i n t e r e s t i n g and b e a u t i f u l as p a r r o t s . T h e r e are more t h a n 700 k i n d s o f b i r d s i n t h e p a r r o t f a m i l y . P e o p l e l i k e p a r r o t s b e c a u s e t h e y c a n t e a c h them hov t o t a l k . They ar e a l s o a d m i r e d f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s . D i f f e r e n t F e a t u r e s P a r r o t s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r b i r d s . The p a r r o t a l v a y s has a l a r g e beak l i k e a hook. T h i s beak i s v e r y s t r o n g . The b i r d u s e s i t t o h e l p him c l i m b a b o u t . P a r r o t s a l s o use t h e i r f e e t t o h o l d f o o d and t o h e l p them c l i m b . . N a t u r a l E n v i r o n m e n t P a r r o t s can be f o u n d i n a l l t h e v a r m e r p a r t s o f t h e v o r l d . S o u t h A m e r i c a and A u s t r a l i a have t h e g r e a t e s t number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s . Many o f them n e s t i n t r e e s . Some n e s t i n c l i f f s . S t i l l o t h e r s n e s t on the ground.' A P a r r o t ' s Cage Of a l l t h e b i r d s k e p t as p e t s , p a r r o t s seem t o l i k e c a g e s th e most. The p a r r o t ' s c a g e s h o u l d be l a r g e enough f o r him t o move e a s i l y a b o u t w i t h -o u t b r e a k i n g h i s f e a t h e r s . Now-a-days most c a g e s a r e made of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . T h i s m e t a l i s very-s t r o n g and i s e a s y t o c l e a n . Sand o r g r a v e l • s h o u l d c o v e r the bottom o f t h e c a g e . The cage s h o u l d be c l e a n e d once a v e e k . F e e d i n g a P a r r o t P a r r o t s v i l l e a t n e a r l y a n y t h i n g t h a t i s g i v e n t o them. Many t h i n g s a r e n o t good f o r them, t h o u g h . They may e a t some f r u i t , b u t n o t a l o t . The b e s t ' f o o d f o r the p a r r o t i s a mix o f s e e d s and n u t s . L i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be. added t o t h e p a r r o t ' s f o o d . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e s i m p l e r u l e s w i l l k e e p y o u r p a r r o t h e a l t h y and happy f o r many y e a r s . Name: D a t e : G r a d e : (adapted from S t a b l e s , 1985) The S t a b l e s ( 1 9 8 5 ) a n d C o u l o m b e / G o b l e V e r s i o n s o f t h e P a r r o t s P a s s a g e Fiqure 2 Adapted by J . Goble and K. Coulombe for use tn t h e i r p a r a l l e l study (1986) conducted at the Un i ve r s i t y of B r i -t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. PAWiOTS Figure 1 From R. Stables (1985) unpublished Master 's thes i s , Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. N.-rou Itawllful toi U lsrai l ln| Bird* r»j blra* an a* IntaraiUrii and baiuilful n pavou. ' th in ara tor* man ICO k i r i i of b 1 rJi in tha par.-al r*aily. Mopla l u t parroti baciuia may can taach thao la l»U. Thay ara tit? t la irt l for lhair bri^ni colouri. sow rtrroli era Dlffaranl Pirroli ara vary d l f f inn l froa othtr blrdi. Tna parrol aUtyi hai t larja baak. lUa a hook. Thli baak U vary iiron,. Tna 61 rd utai U lo halp hlo clUD about, Pi.-rau alto un in«lr fiat lo bold (sod and ta halp tnaa cllob. r irrel i U«« Whtri l l l i vara farroli can ba found in all tha waroar parti of tha world. Seuln tearlca and luilralla hava Itia a/talail nuabar of dlfftranl kUJi . hany of inaa nail In Iraei. iooa oaal In t l U f t . i U U •Ihars nail oa lha ground. farroli Like Ca|ai Hora lhao Olhar Blrda Of all lha blrdi kapt aa pall, ptrroit lata lo Ilka ct|<> Lha m l , Tha parrot't ci|« should ba lar|a anoujh for hie lo ao»a aailly tooul aiihoul braakln| hit faathari, k?u-a-daya anil tagai ara sale of l U l . i l m n a i l . Thli eatal l i vary uronj and l i aaay lo clian. Sand or (raval ihoula covar Ma bolloe of lha taga. Tna tag* atwuld ba claanad on;a a xaak. f i rroi i Lai Matrly inylhlng Farrou will aal nearly anythlai lhal t l given u Ihea. Hany lltlngi ara nol good for this, ihou,ft. Inay hay aal luaa fruli , bul nol a lot. Tha beat food far ma parrot u a all or leaai an] null. Liquid vliaalni inoulJ ba idled la tna parroi'a looo. Feltoulni tiitia tlaple rulai will halp keep jour pyrrol feaalihy and nappy far ainy yaari. Tha Parrot Feaily Faw birds art ts interesting and baaunful at parrots. There ar« moi* than 700 kind* of birds in ihc parrot family. People like parrot* because they can teach tl*m how to talk. They »r« also adaired (or their bright colours. Different Features Parrots art very diffarant froa othar birds. Tha parrot always his a large beak like a hook. Trui beak i l vary strong. Tha bird uses it to help hia cliac about. Parrots alio una thair faat to hold food and to help than clime. Natural Environment Parrots can ba found in a l l tha wanner parts of tha world. South America and Australia hava tha graatast numwr ef diffarant kinds, tuny of than nast in trees. Soma nast in c l i f f s . S t i l l othars nast on tha ground. A Parrot's Caga or all tna birds kept aa pats, parrots *eea to Ilka cages tha aost. Tha parrot's caga should ba larga enough for his to aova aasily about with-out breaking his feathars. Now-a-daya sum cagas ara auda of stainless steal. This a* t i l is vary strong and is easy to clean. Sand or srevel snould covar lha Union of tha caga. Tha caga should ba claanad one a a waak. reading a Parrot Parrots will eat nearly anything that is given to thea. Many things are not good for thea. though. Thay auy eat some fruit, but not a lot. Tha bast food for the parrot is a aix of seeds and nuts. Liquid vitamins should be added to tha parrot's food. Following these siaple rules will keep your parrot healthy and happy for a*ny years. A p p e n d i x B: S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 1 63 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s ( Q u a n t i t y ) E a c h p a s s a g e h a d 31 i d e a s i n c l u d i n g (5) m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s and (26) m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . S c o r i n g f o r q u a n t i t y o f i d e a s was u n w e i g h t e d ; t h u s , m a c r o a n d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s were o f e q u a l v a l u e . The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e re u s e d t o a s s i g n f u l l o r p a r t v a l u e t o e a c h i d e a r e c a l l e d : A. MACROPROPOSITIONS R e g a r d l e s s o f i t s p o s i t i o n 1. E a c h c o m p l e t e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n ( o r i g i n a l o r p a r a p h r a s e d ) was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f ( 1 ) . No matter where termites make t h e i r nests ( 1 / 2 ) termites always do much damage ( 1 / 2 ) = (1) ( o r i g i n a l , c o m p l e t e ) termites do much damage wherever they make t h e i r nests = (1) ( c o m p l e t e , p a r a p h r a s e d ) Termites always do much damage = ( 1 / 2 ) (pa r t i a 1) Termites are very bad to have = ( 1 / 4 ) ( d i s t o r t i o n ) No matter where termites make t h e i r nests they are very bad to have = ( 3 / 4 ) ( p a r t i a l / d i s t o r t i o n ) 2. D i s t o r t e d o r p a r t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i a l s c o r e s ( 1 / 4 , 1/2, 3 / 4 ) . B. INFERRED MACROPROPOSITIONS The o r i g i n a l P a r r o t s p a s s a g e a s u s e d by S t a b l e s c o n t a i n e d one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e g i s t o f w h i c h c o u l d be i n f e r r e d f r o m r e l a t e d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . S i n c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t b o t h t e s t s be s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e , t h e Termites p a s s a g e a l s o c o n t a i n e d one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be i n f e r r e d f r o m r e l a t e d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . 1 64 F o r e x a m p l e , i f a s t u d e n t w r o t e : Parrots l i k e cages. The cages need to be cleaned once a week. They are made of s t a i n l e s s steel. i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e c a l l e d t h a t pet parrots are kept in cages. L i k e w i s e , i f a s t u d e n t w r o t e : Termite nests are l i k e c i t i e s . Each nest has a ki ng and queen ... i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e c a l l e d t h a t t ermi t es l i v e in ne s t s. When i n f e r r e d , e a c h o f t h e s e two m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f ( 1 / 2 ) . C. MICROPROPOSITIONS 1. E a c h c o m p l e t e m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f ( 1 ) . F o r e x a m p l e : Young kings ( 1 / 4 ) and queens ( 1 / 4 ) have wings for a short time ( 1 / 2 ) = (1) ( o r i g i n a l , c o m p l e t e ) For a short time young kings and queens have wings = (1) ( c o m p l e t e , p a r a p h r a s e d ) . 2. D i s t o r t e d o r p a r t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i a l s c o r e s . ( 1 / 4 , 1/2, 3/4) They have young queens = ( 1 / 4 ) ( p a r t i a l ) Termites have wings for a short time = ( 1 / 2 ) (pa r t i a1) Young queens ( 1 / 4 ) have wings for a short lime ( 1 / 2 ) = ( 3 / 4 ) ( p a r t i a l ) Young kings ( 1 / 4 ) and queens ( 1 / 4 ) f l y for a short time ( 1 / 4 ) = ( 3 / 4 ) ( p a r t i a l / d i s t o r t i o n ) . 1 6 5 D. HEADINGS H e a d i n g s were n o t s c o r e d a s i d e a s u n l e s s t h e y p a r a p h r a s e d a c o m p l e t e o r p a r t i a l m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n o r m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , b e c a u s e t h e h e a d i n g H a r m f u l H a b i t s p a r t i a l l y p a r a p h r a s e s t h e m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n No matter where termites make t h e i r nests ( 1 / 2 ) they always do much damage ( 1 / 2 ) i t was a s s i g n e d ( 1 / 2 ) . B e c a u s e t h e h e a d i n g Wood E a t i n g I n s e c t s p a r t i a l l y p a r a p h r a s e s t h e m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n They eat paper ( 1 / 2 ) and wood ( 1 / 2 ) i t was a s s i g n e d ( 1 / 2 ) . N o t e : E a c h macro o r m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n c o u l d r e c e i v e a t o t a l s c o r e no g r e a t e r t h a n ( 1 ) . T h u s , any f u l l o r p a r t i a l p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h was r e p e a t e d was t o be s c o r e d o n l y o n c e . E x a m p l e : Young kings ( 1 / 4 ) have wings for a short time ( 1 / 2 ) Young queens ( 1 / 4 ) also have wings for a short time ( 1 / 2 ) = (1) ( c o m p l e t e ) 1 66 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s ( O r g a n i z a t i o n ) E a c h p a s s a g e had a p o t e n t i a l s c o r e o f ( 6 1 ) f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . S c o r e s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n were c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e i g h t i n g s a n d p r o c e d u r e s : A. MACROPROPOSITIONS 1. R e g a r d l e s s o f i t s p o s i t i o n e a c h c o m p l e t e ( o r i g i n a l o r p a r a p h r a s e d ) m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f ( 5 ) . 2. D i s t o r t e d o r p a r t i a l l y r e p r o d u c e d m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t i a l s c o r e s (1 1/4, 2 1/2, 3 3 / 4 ) . ( T h i s was p a r a l l e l t o t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s c o r i n g q u a n t i t y . ) F o r e x a m p l e : No matter where termites make t h e i r nest (2 1/2) they always do much damage (2 1/2) = (5) ( c o m p l e t e ) . Termites always do much damage = (2 1/2) (pa r t i a 1) B. INFERRED MACROPROPOSITIONS The o r i g i n a l P a r r o t s p a s s a g e a s u s e d by S t a b l e s c o n t a i n e d one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e g i s t o f w h i c h c o u l d be i n f e r r e d f r o m r e l a t e d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . S i n c e i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t b o t h t e s t s be s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e , t h e Termites p a s s a g e a l s o c o n t a i n e d one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be i n f e r r e d f r o m r e l a t e d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , i f a s t u d e n t w r o t e : 1 6 7 Parrots l i k e cages. The cages need to be cleaned once a week. They are made of s t a i n l e s s steel. i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e c a l l e d t h a t pet parrots are kept in cages. L i k e w i s e , i f a s t u d e n t w r o t e : Termite nests are l i k e c i t i e s . Each nest has a king and queen ... i t c o u l d be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t r e c a l l e d t h a t termites l i v e in nests. When i n f e r r e d , e a c h o f t h e s e two m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s r e c e i v e d a s c o r e o f (2 1 / 2 ) . C. MICROPROPOSITIONS 1. V a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o c o m p l e t e , p a r t i a l a n d d i s t o r t e d m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s f o l l o w e d t h e same p r o c e d u r e s a s u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g q u a n t i t y ( 1 / 4 , o r 1/2, o r 3/4, o r 1 ) . 2. M i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s must h a v e o c c u r r e d i n r e l a t e d c l u s t e r s o f a t l e a s t two i n o r d e r t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o r e . T h a t i s , any two o r more i d e a s f r o m t h e same p a r a g r a p h w h i c h were w r i t t e n c o n s e c u t i v e l y were t r e a t e d a s a c l u s t e r . M i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n c l u s t e r s c o u l d c o n s i s t o f one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n a n d one o r more m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n ; o r two o r more m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s ) . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o t o c o l c o n t a i n s one c l u s t e r : 168 T e r m i t e s a r e f o u n d i n w a r m e r p l a c e s l i k e A f r i c a a n d A u s t r a l i a . T h e y a r e a b o u t as l i t t l e as a n t s . T h e y h a v e b e e n a r o u n d f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . T h e y l i k e to l i v e i n wood. T h i s w o u l d be i n d i c a t e d on t h e p r o t o c o l a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( ) ( ) 1 . ( ) h a v e b e e n on e a r t h a s e x i s t e d f o r Few i n s e c t s l o n g 6(1) ( I ) a ) h a v e m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s ( ) ( ) b) h a v e h a r d l y t h a t t i m e f ( /) ( i ) c ) a b o u t a s s m a l l c h a n g e d i n a s a n t s ( ) /</> 2 (5) T e r m i t e s a r e f o u n d i n warmer p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d * ( / ) ( » 3 ( 0 ( /) ( ) ( t r o p i c s ( ) ( ) t ( / ) (//) ( ) ( ) p i l e s o f a ) A f r i c a b) A u s t r a l i a ) c ) many d) some l i v e e ) some l i v e f ) o t h e r s e a r t h p a r t s o f t h e u n d e r g r o u n d i n wood l i v e i n g r e a t 3. O n l y one c l u s t e r p e r s e c t i o n i s s c o r e d . T h a t i s , i f c l u s t e r s o f i d e a s f r o m one s e c t i o n o c c u r i n two p a r t s o f t h e p r o t o c o l , o n l y t h e c l u s t e r s o f g r e a t e s t v a l u e a r e s c o r e d . F o r e x a m p l e : T e r m i t e s a r e f o u n d i n warm p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d s u c h as t h e t r o p i c s . T h e y a r e a b o u t as s m a l l as a n t s . Some l i v e u n d e r g r o u n d . Some l i v e i n wood. ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 . Few i n s e c t s h a v e b e e n on e a r t h a s 169 l o n g ( ) ( ) a ) h a v e e x i s t e d f o r m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s ( ) ( ) b) h a v e h a r d l y c h a n g e d i n t h a t t i m e j ( / ) (^) c ) a b o u t a s s m a l l a s a n t s T e r m i t e s a r e f o u n d i n warmer p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d ( ) ( ) a) A f r i c a ( ) ( ) b) A u s t r a l i a z-( / ) ( ) c ) many p a r t s o f t h e " ^ t r o p i c s ( ) ( ) d) some l i v e u n d e r g r o u n d •</( I) i^) e) some l i v e i n wood ( ) ( ) f ) o t h e r s l i v e i n g r e a t p i l e s o f e a r t h S i n g l e m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s w e re n o t i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f l e c t i n g a n y d e g r e e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d w e r e s c o r e d (0) . HEADINGS E a c h c o m p l e t e o r i g i n a l o r p a r a p h r a s e d h e a d i n g was s c o r e d (2) D a m a g i n g I n s e c t s = (2) ( c o m p l e t e p a r a p h r a s e d ) H a r m f u l H a b i t s = (2) ( c o m p l e t e ) P a r t i a l o r d i s t o r t e d h e a d i n g s may be s c o r e d (1) H a r m f u l = (1) ( p a r t i a l ) H e a d i n g s w h i c h p a r a p h r a s e a m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n when no m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n i s s t a t e d r e c e i v e a s c o r e o f up t o 170 ( 5 ) . P a r t i a l m a r k s may be a s s i g n e d i f t h e f u l l i d e a i s n o t p r e s e n t (1 1/4, 2 1/2, 3 3 / 4 ) . Warm. L i v i n g Places = ( 5 ) ( c o m p l e t e ) Harmful Habits = (2 1/2) ( p a r t i a l ) H e a d i n g s w h i c h h a v e no m a c r o o r m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s b e n e a t h them a r e s c o r e d ( 0 ) . H e a d i n g s w h i c h a r e a c c o m p a n i e d o n l y by i n a p p r o p r i a t e m i c r o o r m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e s c o r e d ( 0 ) . H e a d i n g s w h i c h a r e a c c o m p a n i e d by i n a p p r o p r i a t e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a b o v e p r o c e d u r e s , b u t o n l y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e s c o r e d . F o r e x a m p l e : Termites Live in Nests = ( 5 ) ( c o m p l e t e ) Termites have l i v e d for mi I Iions of years = (0) They are as small as ants = ( 0 ) Their nests are l i k e c i t i e s = (1) ( c o m p l e t e ) Each nest has a king and queen = ( 1 ) ( c o m p l e t e ) = 7 ( c l u s t e r ) (_) ,(/) (b) \ 3. T e r m i t e s l i v e i n n e s t s V_^^ -f( /) ( /) a) n e s t s a r e l i k e c i t i e s ( ) ( ) b) d i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s h a v e ^ \ d i f f e r e n t j o b s \ 5"(/) (/) c ) e a c h n e s t h a s a k i n g a n d a q u e e n ( ) ( ) d) t h e y a r e t h e p a r e n t s o f a l l t h e o t h e r s ( ) ( ) e) some t e r m i t e s a r e s o l d i e r s ( ) ( ) f ) o t h e r s a r e w o r k e r s 171 TERMITES TEMPLATE ( ) ( ) 1- F e * " i n s e c t s have been on e a r t h as lone ( ) ( ) e) have existed for m i l l i o n ^ of years ( ) ( ) b) have hardly chanced in that tine ( ) ( ) c) about es s-,all as ants ( ) ( ) 2. Termites are found in warmer parts of the world ( ) ( ) a) Africa ( ) ( ) b) Australia ( ) ( ) c) mar.;/ parts of the tropics ( ) C ) d) sc~e live under-ground ( ) ( ) e) some 1ive in wood ( ) ( ) fj others live in great piles of earth ( ) ( ) 3 . Termites live in nests ( ) ( ) a) nests are like c i t ies ( ) ( ) b) different termites have different jobs ( ) ( ) c) each nest has a king and a queen ( ) ( ) d) they are the parents' of a l l the others ( ) ( ) e) some termites are soldiers ( ) ( ) f) others are workers ( ) ( ) 4. Change in appearance as they grow ( ) ( ) a) sheds its skin several times ( ) ( ) b) each time i t grows bigger ( ) ( ) <0 young kings and queens have wings for a short time ( ) ( ) d) "use them only once ( ) ( ) e) f ly to a new home and lose their wings ( ) ( j 5. No matter where they make their nests, termites always do much damace ) a) they eat paper and wood ) b) can eat through a book from cover to cover j c) can eat tables and chairs ) d) can chew through the walls of a house ) e) they can eat right through a tree ) f) d i f f i cu l t to get r id of termites 172 PARROTS TEMPLATE ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s . ( ) ( ) a) More than 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds i n parrot famil) ( ) ( ) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to t a l k ( ) ( ) c) They are also admired f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o r s ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots are d i f f e r e n t from other birds ( ) ( ) a) A large beak l i k e a heck ( ) ( ) b) Very strong beak ( ) ( ) c) Uses h i s beak to help him climb about ( ) ( ) d) Use f e e t to hold food ( ) ( ) e) Use f e e t to help climb ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots l i v e where i t i s warm ( ) ( ) a) South America ( ) ( ) b) A u s t r a l i a ( ) ( ) c) South America and A u s t r a l i a have the g r e a t e s t number of d i f f e r e n t kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest in trees ( ) ( ) e) Some nest in c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f j S t i l l others nest on the ground ( ) ( ) 4. Pet parrots 'are k ep t in cages ( ) ( ) a) parrots l i k e cages more than other pet b i r d s ( ) ( ) b) cage should be Targe enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c) Cages are made of s t a i n l e s s s t e e l now-a-days ( ) ( ) d) This metal i s strong and easy to clea.T ( ) ( ) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom of the cage (.) ( ) f ) Cage should be cleaned once a week ( ) ( ) S. Parrots eat nearly anything given to them ( ) ( ) a) Many things are not good f o r them ( ) ( ) b) May eat some f r u i t , but not a l e t ( ) ( ) c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food f o r them ( ) ( ) d) L i q u i d vitamins should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) Following simple rules keep parrots healthy ( ) ( ) f ) Keep happy f o r many years TERMITES TEMPLATE P a r t i a l Marks ( } ( ) ! . Fey Insects .0 ( ) ( ) z. ( ) ( ) 3. ilil i have (been on earthTlas long a) haveCexi s tea l for million^ of years (TJ b) have hardlTxhanqed In that time ' a 1y1 about as^.nall asffiits Termites are found In wanner parts of the world | a l A f r i c a ffl ) b) Austra l ia (D ) c) many parts o f the t rop i c s (f) ) d) some l i v e underground 0 ) e) some l i v e in 4msi © ( ) { ) f) others l i v e i n g r ea t ' p i l e s - o f earth (?) Termites l i v e In n e s t s l l C a " b t , ^ , r e £ t f t v - ™ r t s a) nests are l i k e c l t i e s fD b) d i f f e r en t termites have d i f f e r en t Jobsfl) c) each nest has a kingDand a gueen(V) d) they are the parents ' of a l l the others (T) e) some termites are s o l d i e r s f Q f ) others are workers 0 iff ( ) ( ( ) ( ) 4. ChanqeQn appearance as tn>/grow (J) "~)sheds i t s skin several times,  each time It grows biggerfg) young kingfipand queenshaye wlngy f o r a short time *v use them only onccH (§) f l y . t o a new home andjosa their wings ~ ® ~ ® Ho matter where thev make t h e i r nestl . termites always do much damaae/V)^ /p> ) ( ) a) they eat paoetVand wqodW Q can eat through a booKVfrom cover t o V o v e r ( ) ( ) 5. ) ( Ii ) ( can ea f a b l e s and chairs om i can cha* through the wal lsf lof a house they can eat r i gh t t h r o u c n a treeCD f) d i f f icul t to oet rid oftPtermites 1 7 3 PARROTS TEMPLATE ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as beautiful and interesting as parrots. ( j ( ) a] Wore than 700 different kinds^in PArrot family ( ) ( ) b p e o p l e like them/becausa thev can'reach them to t a l l ® /T) ( ) ( ) c) They are also admired for their brigh^colors. { ) ( ) 2. Parrots are different from other birds II ( ( .11 ( ) ( A largeCoeiji VeryCVtrong i IfiflkCD c) Uses his beak to help him climb about d) Use e) Use /feetUo ^feet/to hold foodQ help cliriibfi) ( ) ( ) 3. 1 ive where it is warmw a) South America 0 b) Austral 1a/p> (D c) South Amerrca and Australia have the greatest  number of different kinds ) ( ) d) Many(nest) in. trees 0 ( ) e) Some (nest) in cl i ffsfO ( ) f) S t i l l others(nestjon the ground rfl Parrots Hi ) ( ( ) ( ) 4. Pet parrots are kept in cages[1 ( ) ( ) a) parrots like cacesQmore than other pet birds b) cage should be laroepenouch to move easily  without breaking feathersfc) v r , - * 1 "© c) Canes are made of stainless staeWiow-a^days d) This metal is stroncfjja.nd easy to clean© ( ) ( ( ) ( M ( ) d) This etal is strongfend easy to clea.iQ; \ ) e) Sanc/oT'grayeffohould cover the bottonQf the cage ' — © / (?) ( ) ( ) f) Cage should be cleaned/oncV^ week ifred/oncC^a 0 ( ) ( ) 5. Parrots eat nearly anything given to them ii a) Many things are not goodflfor then b) Hay eat sotr.e frui tfy but not a lot(V) ^ c) Mix of seedtynd nutflars hpst food for iheshD d) Liguld vitaminsflshould be added to the fo°d.~ e) Following simple rulcftAesp parrots if i iUJivli) f) Keep happy for many years 75T 174 U n e d i t e d P r o t o c o l Sample 1 Parrots Parrots are very n i ce there are 700 kinds o f Par ro ts . Pople love parro ts because of the beaut i fu l c o l o r s . Parrots l i v e A u s t r i l l a and S. A f r i c a Par ro ts seem to Love cages more than any other b i r d A Parrots cage sould be very big For the parrot to move i t feather around A par ro t sould have i t cage clean Once a week a l eas t they sould have a mix of nuts and Parrot seed the bottom of the cage shold be cover with sand or gravel (SEPCIEL Par ro t Gravel sould cover the bottom of the cage) and you can f i n d par ro ts i n pet s tore t o o ! ! You can f i n d them a t Lowhide mall in Burnaby!! 1 7 5 PARROTS TEMPLATE I X ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as beautiful and in teres t ing as par ro t s . x.(/) ( 0 a) More than 700 d i f ferent kinds in parrot family ( ) ( ) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to ta lk 3 ( / ) (/) c) They are also admired for the i r br ight c o l o r s . ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots are d i f ferent from other birds ( ) ( ) a) A large beak l i k e a hook ( ) ( ) b) Very strong beak ( ) ( ) c) Uses his beak to help him climb about ( ) ( ) d) Use feet to hold food ( ) ( ) e) Use feet to help climb ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots l i v e where i t is warm si*) i/) a ) South America ( I) b) Austral ia ( ) ( ) c) South America and Aus t r a l i a have the greatest number of d i f ferent kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest in trees ( ) ( ) e) Some nest in c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f) S t i l l others nest on the ground (irt-fer) (it) ttil °>. Pet parrots are kept in cages b( I) ( 0 a) parrots l i k e cages more than other pet b i rds • -7(f) (/) b) cage should be large enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c) Cages are made of s ta in less steel now-a-days ( ) ( ) d) This metal is strong and easy to clean /£>(/) i/) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom of the cage t(() (/) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week ( ) ( ) 5. Parrots eat nearly anything given to them ( ) ( ) a) Many things are not good for them ( ) ( ) b) May eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t If) c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food for them ( ) ( ) d) L iqu id vitamins should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) Following simple rules keep parrots healthy ( ) ( ) f) Keep happy for many years lo x Q- ft/ o - ? t 176 U n e d i t e d P r o t o c o l Sample 2 Parrot's P a r r o t s Family T h e i r are not many b i r d s as b e a u t i f u l as P a r r o t s . T h e i r are 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds o f p a r r o t s . People l i k e p a r r o t s because they can be t r a i n e d to t a l k . They a l s o are admird f o r t h e i r c o l o r P a r r o t ' s Enviorment Feeding a Parrot P a r r o t s eat anything you give them. Some things are not good f o r them Pa r r o t s Cage A P a r r o t ' s cage should be large enophe so that the Parr o t can move around without breaking i t ' s f e a t e r s . P a r r o t s cage are made out o f s t a i n l e s s s t e a l . T h i s meatle i s easy to c l e a n . A Parr o t cage have sand or gravel on the bottem. A Parro t ' s cage sould be c l e a n once a week . - r 1 t s 177 Protocol S»mpie 4k 2. ^ §-> <3 a PARROTS TEMPLATE ,(2.) Va*rcA*> Family *.(£) Cat 1. Few birds are as beautiful and intorosting as parrots. ' (/) a) More than 700 different kinds in parrot family (/) b) People l ike them because they can teach them to talk A / ) (/) c) They are also admired for their bright colors. ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots are different from other birds ( ) ( ) a) A large beak l ike a hook ( ) ( ) b) Very strong beak ( ) ( ) c) Uses his beak to help him climb about (; ) ( ) d) Use feet to hold food ( ) ( ) e) Use feet to help climb £nYi'orment ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots l ive where i t is warm ( ) ( ) a) South America ( ) ( ) b) Australia ( ) ( ) c) South America and Australia have the greatest number of different kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest in trees ( ) ( ) e) Some nest in c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f) S t i l l others nest on the ground 7 (-2-) Parrot* Caaez C2£ 4. Pet parrots are kept in cages ^ ( ) ( ) a) parpots l ike cages more than other pet birds • (/) b) cage should be large enough to move easi ly without breaking feathers ?(/) (/) c) Cages are made of stainless steel now-a-days /•(*) l i ) d) This metal is strong and easy to clean „ ( / ) (/) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom of the cage iiiJ) (I) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week Feediv\q <a Parrot #(/) (5) 5. Parrots eat nearly anything given to them ^ fy'i l) (/) a) Many things are not good for them ( ) ( ) b) May eat some f r u i t , but not a lot ( ) ( ) c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food for them ( ) ( ) d) Liquid vitamins should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) Following simple rules keep parrots healthy ( ) ( ) f) Keep happy for many years Q- /Ot o - Z*fi. 178 U n e d i t e d P r o t o c o l Sample 3 Par r o t s The P a r r o t Family around 700 kinds of p a r r o t s admired because they could be taught to t a l k a l s o a d i r e because of i t s b r i g h t c o l o r Natural Environment l i v e warmer places l i v e i n places l i k e South America and A u s t a r i l l a b u i l d nest on t r e e s , ground or caves Cages p a r r o t s l i k e i t more i n cages cages nowadays are made out o f s t a i n l e s s metal which i s very strong wash cages once a week Features long beak strong beak beak helps i t climb f e e t help hold the food What P a r r o t ' s Eat eats almost anything seeds, nuts added with l i q u i d i f g i v e you parrot f r u i t i t w i l l eat i t but i t w i l l not be good the p a r r o t P A R R O T S TEMPLATE / (2.) TKe. P^rrof F^tnik/ ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as beau t i fu l and i n t e r e s t i n g as par ro ts . 7 .*_(/) (/) a) More than 700 d i f f e r en t kinds i n parrot family rj(f) (/) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to t a l k (/) c) They are a l so admired for t h e i r b r igh t c o l o r s . ti (2-) F e A - t u-re* ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots are d i f f e r e n t from other b i rds ! „ ( x ) (*) a) A+itr%e beak 1 ilea a hoak /»( 0 ( 0 bj Very strong beak u [ l ) {/) c) Uses h i s beak to help him c l imb about / / ( / ) (/) d) Use feet to hold food ( ) ( ) e) Use feet to help cl imb fte^rtaw*! f n \ i \ r a n v n e , n * »(/) (5) 3. Parrots l i v e where i t i s warm 7(/) (/) a) South America f{/) (/) b) A u s t r a l i a ( ) ( ) c) South America and A u s t r a l i a have the greatest number c f d i f f e r e n t kinds q{/) (/) d) Many nest i n trees //(*) (*) e) Some nest in c l i f f s caves zo(/) ( ') 0 S t i l l o thers nest on the ground ( i n - f e r ) iiit) Caaes (*•) C i^) 4. Pet parrots are kept i n cages J / 3 ( 3 $ (fy) a) parrots l i k e cages more than other pet b i rds ( ) ( ) b) cage should be large enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers /</(/) (/) c) Cages are made of s t a i n l e s s s t ee l now-a-days •*'(at) ii) d) This metal i s strong and easy to clea/i ( ) ( ) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom of the cage (/) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week Z * ( 2 . ) 1 A / W - P±rrrff'$ £ a t 2JS. f) (s) 5. Parrots eat near ly anything given to them ( ) ( ) a) Many things are not good for them j.y(£) ii) b) M a ^ e 3 t s o w e f r u i t , but not a l o t z<+(/) if) c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food for them iidy) (*) d) L i q u i d v i tamins should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) Fol lowing simple ru les keep par ro t s healthy ( ) ( ) f) Keep happy for many years 1 8 0 A p p e n d i x C: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s and M a t e r i a l s (Conventional Group) 181 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s a n d M a t e r i a l s ( C o n v e n t i o n a l Group) E a c h l e s s o n i n v o l v e s b a s i c a l l y t h e same p r o c e d u r e s . S t u d e n t s a r e t o r e a d a c o n t e n t p a s s a g e a nd i n d e p e n d e n t l y a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h a t p a s s a g e . P l e a s e do not d e v e l o p b a c k g r o u n d o r e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s a n d do not c a l l a t t e n t i o n i n a n y way t o t h e p a r a g r a p h h e a d i n g s . Most l e s s o n s w i l l f o l l o w t h e same s e q u e n c e : 7. D i s t r i b u t e t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n s h e e t s f r o m t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . Have s t u d e n t s s h a r e t h e i r a n s w e r s o r a l l y , m a r k i n g a n d c o r r e c t i n g t h e i r own w r i t t e n a n s w e r s . ( A c c e p t any and a l l a n s w e r s w h i c h a r e c o r r e c t . I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e p o i n t s r e l a t e d t o a q u e s t i o n u n l e s s t h e y do t h i s n a t u r a l l y . ) S t u d e n t s may n o t r e f e r t o o r i g i n a l p a s s a g e — t h i s i s t o s e r v e a s a r e c a l l / r e v i e w e x e r c i s e . 8. C o l l e c t c o r r e c t e d q u e s t i o n s h e e t s b e f o r e d i s t r i b u t i n g n e x t p a s s a g e a nd q u e s t i o n s . 9. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d t h e new p a s s a g e a nd w r i t e a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . 10. C o l l e c t t h e p a s s a g e s a nd c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n s h e e t s a t t h e e nd o f e a c h l e s s o n . 182 L e s s o n s w h i c h do n o t e x a c t l y f o l l o w t h i s s e q u e n c e a r e a s f o l l o w s : LESSON ONE: May 6 1. S t u d e n t s w r i t e d e l a y e d r e c a l l o f " T e r m i t e s . " 2. AFTER r e c a l l i s c o m p l e t e and c o l l e c t e d , s t u d e n t s i n d e p e n d e n t l y a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s on t e r m i t e s . 3. C o l l e c t c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n s h e e t s t o be m a r k e d o r a l l y on f o l l o w i n g d a y . LESSON EIGHT: May 15 T h i s i s a s p e c i a l s t u d y d a y . PLEASE USE S P E C I A L INSTRUCTIONS! LESSON NINE: May 20 1. R e d i s t r i b u t e q u e s t i o n s c o m p l e t e d ) on ANIMALS' EYES. 2. S h a r e a n s w e r s o r a l l y a n d h a v e s t u d e n t s mark. PLEASE REFER TO THIS SHEET AND YOUR INDIVIDUAL CALENDAR TO ENSURE THAT PROCEDURES ARE CORRECT. 183 T a b l e C.1: O u t l i n e o f P r o c e d u r e s f o r C o n v e n t i o n a l I n s t r u c t i o n G r o u p S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s I N I T I A L TESTING S e s s i o n 1 A. G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t B. S t u d y o f I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Termites A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g Compre-h e n s i o n s u b t e s t (50 m i n u t e s ) . A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g a v e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f Termites p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d Termites p a s s a g e f o r up t o 1 5 m i n u t e s . S e s s i o n 2 A. One day d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Termites A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g ave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Termites p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m Termites p a s s a g e . INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES S e s s i o n 2 B. L e s s o n 1 S t u d e n t s w r o t e a n s w e r s t o Termites p a s s a g e q u e s t i o n s . 1 8 4 T a b l e C . 1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s S e s s i o n 3 L e s s o n 2 Grasshopper s S e s s i o n 4 L e s s o n 3 Riches From the Sea S e s s i o n 5 L e s s o n 4 Vikings of Denmark S e s s i o n 6 L e s s o n 5 F i r e V/al ke r s S e s s i o n 7 L e s s o n 6 Animal Protection S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Termites q u e s t i o n s , r e a d Gr as s hopper s p a s s a g e , and w r o t e a n s w e r s t o Grasshoppers q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Grasshoppers q u e s t i o n s , s i l e n t l y r e a d Riches From the Sea p a s s a g e , a n d w r o t e a n s w e r s t o Riches From the Sea q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Riches From the Sea q u e s t i o n s , s i l e n t l y r e a d Vikings of Denmark, a n d w r o t e a n s w e r s t o V i k i n g s of Denmark q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Vikings of Denmark q u e s t i o n s , s i l e n t l y r e a d F i r e Walkers, a n d w r o t e a n s w e r s t o F i r e Walkers q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d F i r e Walkers q u e s t i o n s , s i l e n t l y r e a d Animal Protection p a s s a g e , and w r o t e a n s w e r s t o Animal Protection q u e s t i o n s 185 T a b l e C.1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s Session 8 L e s s o n 7 Horses Session 9 L e s s o n 8 A. Animal s ' Eyes B. P r a c t i c e s t u d y o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e Session 10 One day d e l a y e d p r a c t i c e w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Animals Eyes p a s s a g e . Session 11 R e v i e w L e s s o n 9 S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Animal Protection q u e s t i o n s , s i l e n t l y r e a d Horses p a s s a g e , a n d w r o t e a n s w e r s t o Horses q u e s t i o n s . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Horses q u e s t i o n s . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d Animals' Eyes q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e 15 m i n u t e t i m e a l l o t m e n t . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s o r a l l y m a r k e d Animals' Eyes q u e s t i o n s . 1 8 6 T a b l e C.1 c o n t i n u e d P r o c e d u r e s S e s s i o n F I N A L TESTING S e s s i o n 12 S t u d y o f F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Par rots. S e s s i o n 13 One day d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Parrots. A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f P a r r o t s p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d P a r r o t s p a s s a g e f o r up t o 15 m i n u t e s . A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g ave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f P a r r o t s p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m P a r r o t s p a s s a g e . L E S S O N 1 TERMITES An c i e n t I n s e c t s Fev i n s e c t s have been on e a r t h as long as the t e r m i t e f a m i l y . Termites have been around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . These i n s e c t s have h a r d l y changed i n a l l t h a t time. Termites have always been about the same s i z e as a n t s . N a t u r a l Environment Termites can be found i n the warmer areas of the v o r l d . They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and many p a r t s of the t r o p i c s . Some te r m i t e s l i v e underground. Some kinds l i v e i n wood. Others l i v e i n great p i l e s of e a r t h . Termites i n " C i t i e s " Termites l i v e i n nests that are s i m i l a r t o s m a l l c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t j o b s . Each c i t y or nest has a k i n g and queen. They are the parents of a l l the other t e r m i t e s . Some t e r m i t e s are s o l d i e r s . Other t e r m i t e s are workers. Changes i n Appearance Termites change i n appearance as.they grow. A t e r m i t e sheds i t s s k i n s e v e r a l times. Each time a t e r m i t e sheds i t grows a l i t t l e b i t b i g g e r . Young k i n g s and queens have wings f o r a s h o r t time. They use them only once. They f l y to a new home, then they l o s e t h e i r wings. Harmful H a b i t s No matter where they make t h e i r homes, t e r m i t e s always do much damage. They eat paper and wood. They can e a t through a book from cover to c o v e r . Termites can eat t a b l e s and c h a i r s . They can chew through the w a l l s of a house. They can e a t r i g h t • through a t r e e . Once they move i n i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o get r i d of t e r m i t e s . N ame: 188 L E S S O N 1 Q U E S T I O N S TERMITES QUESTIONS 1. Why are termites c a l l e d ancient i n s e c t s ? 2. In which parts of the world do termites l i v e ? 3. How do termites l i v e ? 4. During i t s l i f e , how does a termite's appearance change? 5. Why are termites harmful? Name: Date: Grade: 189 L E S S O N 2 GRASSHOPPERS A p p e a r a n c e G r a s s h o p p e r s a r e g r e e n i n c o l o u r . They h a v e t h r e e p a i r s o f l o n g , s t r o n g l e g s . A g r a s s h o p p e r h a s two p a i r s o f v i n g s and one p a i r o f a n t e n n a . Movement' G r a s s h o p p e r s c a n move i n d i f f e r e n t v a y s . The g r a s s h o p p e r u s e s i t s l o n g l e g s t o jump h i g h . i n t h e a i r . A g r a s s h o p p e r c a n a l s o f l y v i t h i t s two p a i r s o f v i n g s . When i t v a n t s t o g e t away f a s t , i t h o p s . S o u n d s A g r a s s h o p p e r has no v o i c e , b u t i t c a n make s o u n d s . A g r a s s h o p p e r c a n make s o u n d s by r u b b i n g i t s t o p v i n g s t o g e t h e r . I t c a n a l s o make a s o u n d b y r u b b i n g a. v i n g and a l e g t o g e t h e r . QUESTIONS 1. What a r e some o f t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s o f a g r a s s h o p p e r ? 2 . What a r e some v a y s t h a t a g r a s s h o p p e r c a n move? 3. Hov does a g r a s s h o p p e r make s o u n d s ? ' Name: D a t e : G r a d e : LESSON 3 RICHES OF THE EEA F a r m i n g t h e S e a F a r m i n g f o r f o o d u n d e r t h e o c e a n r.ay s o o n be p o s s i b l e . T h e r e i s a l r e a d y much f c o d c r o v i r . g u n d e r t h e v a t e r . S c i e n t i s t s h e r e t o make r e v f i s h i n g g r o u n d s v h e r e t h e v a t e r i s n o t t o o d e e p . T h i s k i n d c f " f a — i n g " v i l l h e l p f e e d many p e o p l e I m p o r t a n t R i c h e s Some c f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r i c h e s f o u n d unde t h e s e a a r e c i l and c a s . • L o t s o f r o c k s u n d e r t h e v a t e r h a v e m i n e r a l s i n t h e m . R o c k s v i z h c o p p e r a n d n i c k e l a r e v a i t i r . g f o r someone t o s c o o p t h e m u p . S e a W ater S e a v a t e r c o n t a i n s c o l d . I n f a c t t h e s e a h o l d s a b o u t 7 t r i l l i o n c e l l a r s v o r t h o f c o l d a l o n e ! A l l t h e m i n e r a l s f o u n d o n l a n d a r e f o u n d i n t h e s e a . K o o n e kr.ovs h o v t o r e m o v e t h e m q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y . Name: L E S S O N 3 Q U E S T I O N S RICHES OF THE SEA QUESTIONS 1. W h a t n e v w a y o f g e t t i n g f o o d m a y s o o n b e p o s s i b l e ? 2. W h a t a r e s o m e o f t h e r i c h e s f o u n d i n t h e s e a ? 3. W h a t i s i m p o r t a n t a b o u t t h e g o l d c o n t a i n e d i n s e a w a t e r ? N a m e : D a t e : G r a d e : L E S S O N 4 T H E V I K I N G S OF D E N M A R K L e a v i n g The Homeland Many p r o b l e m s c a u s e d t h e V i k i n g s o f Denmark t o l e a v e home. The f a r m l a n d v a s s o p o o r t h a t h a r d l y -any f o o d c o u l d be grown. The p e o p l e f o u g h t among 'th e m s e l v e s t o g e t more l a n d o r a p l a c e t o f i s h . Many p e o p l e t u r n e d t o t h e s e a t o - f i n d l a n d and r i c h e s . D r a g o n S h i p s V i k i n g v a r s h i p s were o f t e n c a l l e d " d r a g o n s h i p s " . They had t e r r i f y i n g c a r v e d d r a g o n h eads on t h e f r o n t o f them. Many s h i p s were o n l y as l o n g as a l a r g e bus. They u s u a l l y had one mast and one s a i l . These wooden s h i p s were moved by o a r s . R a i d i n g The V i k i n g s p l a n n e d t h e i r r a i d s c a r e f u l l y . F i r s t t h e y h i d t h e i r b o a t s . T h e y a t t a c k e d s u d d e n l y and l e f t s w i f t l y . The V i k i n g s k i l l e d men, women and c h i l d r e n . Some p e o p l e were t a k e n t o be s o l d as s l a v e s . E v e r y t h i n g o f v a l u e v a s c a r r i e d o f f . Changed by C h r i s t i a n i t y The V i k i n g s changed t h e i r v a y s v h e n t h e y l e a r n e d a b o u t C h r i s t i a n i t y . B r a v e m i s s i o n a r i e s t a u g h t t h e V i k i n g s about r e l i g i o n . B e f o r e l o n g t h e V i k i n g s gave up a t t a c k i n g o t h e r p e o p l e . Many V i k i n g s became good C h r i s t i a n s . Name: Da t e : Grade: 193 L E S S O N 4 Q U E S T I O N S T H E V I K I N G S OF D E N M A R K Q U E S T I O N S 1. W h y d i d t h e V i k i n g s l e a v e t h e i r h o m e l a n d ? 2 . W h a t v e r e t h e V i k i n g w a r s h i p s l i k e ? 3. H o w d i d t h e V i k i n g s c a r r y o u t a r a i d ? 4. W h a t h a p p e n e d t o c h a n g e t h e V i k i n g s ? N a m e : _ D a t e : G r a d e : L E S S O N 5 i F I R E WALKERS A S t r a n g e P r a c t i c e I n some l a n d s p e o p l e have a s t r a n g e p r a c t i c e o f w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . T h i s p r a c t i c e ' i s many c e n t u r i e s o l d . I t i s s t i l l done t o d a y . Forms o f F i r e W a l k i n g There a r e many ways t o walk o v e r f i r e . A b a r e f o o t p e r s o n may w a l k q u i c k l y o v e r c o a l s . Sometimes a p e r s o n must walk t h r o u g h a l o g f i r e o r t h r o u g h h o t a s h e s . O t h e r t i m e s , t h e f i r e w a l k e r may c r o s s o v e r r e d h o t s t o n e s . Or, a s h e s may be p o u r e d o v e r h i s head i n a f i r e b a t h . R e a s ons F o r F i r e W a l k i n g T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s why p e o p l e f i r e w a l k . I f a c h i e f w a l k s t h r o u g h f i r e and i s n o t h u r t i t means t h a t h i s p e o p l e w i l l have enough t o e a t . O t h e r p e o p l e w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o show t h e i r s t r e n g t h . Sometimes a p e r s o n must w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o show t h a t he d i d n o t commit a c r i m e . I f t h e p e r s o n does n o t g e t burned he i s s e t f r e e . A M y s t e r y I t i s a m y s t e r y t h a t few f i r e w a l k e r s g e t b u r n e d . Maybe t h e f i r e w a l k e r s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s he w i l l n o t g e t h u r t . Or the f i r e w a l k e r may b r e a t h e i n s u c h a way t h a t he do e s n o t f e e l p a i n . P e o p l e have c h e c k e d t o s e e i f f i r e w a l k e r s p u t s o m e t h i n g on t h e i r f e e t b e f o r e w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . None e v e r do. N ame : D a t e : G r a d e : 1 9 5 L E S S O N 5 Q U E S T I O N S F I R E K A i - X E K S Q U E S T I O N ' S 1. W h a t s t r a r . c e o l d e u s t e n i s s t i l l p r a c t i c e d ? | 2 . K o v is f i r e w a l k i n g p r a c t i c e d ? 3 . W h y d o p e o p l e w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e ? 4. W h a t i s s t i l l u n e x p l a i n e d a b o u t p e o p l e w h o w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e ? L E S S O N 6 ANIMAL PROTECTION E p e e d Many a n i m a l s c a n g e t away f r o m e n e m i e s i n a h u r r y . Some, l i k e t h e d e e r c a n r u n v e r y f a s t . B i r d s c a n f l y away v e r y q u i c k l y . O t h e r s , l i k e s q u i r r e l s and c h i p m u n k s a r e q u i c k a t c l i m b i n g t r e e s . T e e t h Some a n i m a l s use t h e i r t e e t h f o r p r o t e c t i o n . D ogs and w o l v e s have l o n g s h a r p t e e t h . Some ' s m a l l a n i m a l s l i k e r a t s and mink a l s o have s h a r p t e e t h . The t e e t h o f some a n i m a l s s u c h as e l e p h a n t s have become t u s k s . A l l t h e s e a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r t e e t h a g a i n s t ..their e n e m i e s . C l a w s C l a w s p r o t e c t some a n i m a l s . Sometimes t h e y u s e t h e i r c l a w s i n f i g h t i n g o t h e r a n i m a l s . L a r g e b i r d s s u c h as e a g l e s have s t r o n g c l a w s . W i l d c a t s l i k e t h e t i g e r a l s o u s e t h e i r c l a w s . C o l o u r Many a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r c o l o u r f o r p r o t e c t i o n , Some b i r d s a r e h a r d t o s e e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e same c o l o u r as t h e t r e e s . T o a d s a r e t h e c o l o u r o f d i r t . Some a n i m a l s change c o l o u r . T he r a b b i t i s w h i t e i n t h e w i n t e r . Some l i z a r d s t u r n t h e same c o l o u r as t h e g r o u n d o r l e a v e s t h e y s t a n d o n . P o i s o n Some a n i m a l s u s e a p o i s o n t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s T h e s t i n g o f a bee o r wasp h a s p o i s o n i n i t . Some s p i d e r s c a n p o i s o n l a r g e r a n i m a l s s o t h a t t h e y c a n n o t move. The s t i n g r a y i s a f i s h t h a t u s e s p o i s o n . A s t i n g r a y makes a v e r y p a i n f u l s o r e . Some s n a k e s a l s o u s e p o i s o n . Name : D a t e : 197 LESSON 6 QUESTIONS ANIMAL PROTECTION QUESTIONS 1. W h a t h e l p s s o m e a n i m a l s e s c a p e f r o m t h e i r e n e m i e s ? 2. H o w c a n t e e t h b e u s e f u l t o a n i m a l s ? 3. H o w d o s o m e a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r c l a w s ? 4 . W h y i s c o l o u r s o m e t i m e s a f o r m o f p r o t e c t i o n ? 5 . W h a t u s e d o a n i m a l s m a k e o f p o i s o n ? N a m e : D a t e : G r a d e : L E S S O N 7 HORSES Horses of Long Ago The f i r s t horses l i v e d on the e a r t h i n the time of the d i n o s a u r s . Then the horses were about the s i z e of a fox. The meat-eating dinosaurs hunted them f o r food. When they were e a t i n g the horses had to watch out f o r danger. Horses Changed Over m i l l i o n s of years the horses changed. At f i r s t they had f o u r toes on each f r o n t f o o t . They had three toes on each back f o o t . Now they have o n l y one hoof on each l e g . T h e i r l e g s became l o n g e r . T h i s helped them run away from danger. P l a n t Eaters Horses have always eaten p l a n t s . The f i r s t horses ate more leaves and f r u i t . Now a horse e a t s grass, hay and g r a i n . Sometimes they have a c a r r o t f o r a s p e c i a l t r e a t . A horse has t e e t h made f o r g r i n d i n g grasses. When a horse eats i n a f i e l d i t covers a l o t of ground. I t e a t s almost a l l day l o n g . The Way Horses L i v e Some horses l i v e i n the w i l d and some horses are tame. Zebras and mustangs are w i l d horses. W i l d horses s t a y together i n b i g herds. Each herd has a l e a d e r . Tame horses have owners to f e e d and take care of them. Many owners have o n l y one horse. U s e f u l Horses Man has found many uses f o r h o r s e s . Cave men k i l l e d horses f o r meat. Horse s k i n s have been used f o r c l o t h e s and t e n t s . L a t e r , men used horses f o r c a r r y i n g heavy lo a d s . Before there were cars, horses p u l l e d wagons. Now they are used mostly f o r r i d i n g and r a c i n g . N ame : Date: Grade 199 L E S S O N 7 Q U E S T I O N S H O R S E S Q U E S T I O N S 1. W h a t w e r e t h e f i r s t h o r s e s l i k e ? 2 . H o w h a v e h o r s e s c h a n g e d ? 3. W h a t d o h o r s e s e a t ? 4 . W h a t a r e s o m e - t y p e s o f h o r s e s ? 5. H o w h a v e h o r s e s b e e n u s e f u l t o m a n ? N a m e : D a t e : G r a d e : LESSON 8 ANIMALS' EYES Amazing S i g h t Each animal's eyes are s p e c i a l . The eyes help the animal get i n f o r m a t i o n . Animal's eyes are d i f f e r e n t because they need d i f f e r e n t inform-a t i o n to l i v e . The Rabbit The r a b b i t has eyes that see i n a complete c i r c l e . A r a b b i t can look a l l around i t s e l f v i t h o u t moving i t s head. T h i s h elps the r a b b i t vhen i t i s being chased. The r a b b i t can watch where he i s going and see h i s enemy behind him at the same time. The L i z a r d Some l i z a r d s have eyes t h a t s t i c k out. One eye can look back while the o t h e r looks ahead. The l i z a r d ' s eyes help p r o t e c t i t from enemies. I t can look f o r food with one eye and watch f o r t r o u b l e w i t h the ot h e r . The Owl The owl's eyes can see a t n i g h t . T h i s h e l p s i t hunt f o r animals. From the branch of a t r e e the owl can see anything moving on the ground. Even small r a t s and mice can be seen i n the dark by an owl. The Toad A toad's eyes help i n e a t i n g . F i r s t the toad's eyes h e l p i t f i n d i t s f a v o u r i t e food -worms. Then the eyes help the toad move food through i t s mouth. When the toad c l o s e s i t s eyes i t can lower them through a door i n the roof of i t s mouth. The eyes h o l d the s l i p p e r y food s t i l l u n t i l the toad can swallow i t . Name: Date: Grade: 2 0 1 LESSON 8 QUESTIONS ANIMALS' EYES QUESTIONS 1. Why d o d i f f e r e n t a n i m a l s h a v e d i f f e r e n t e y e s ' 2. W h a t i s s p e c i a l a b o u t t h e r a b b i t ' s e y e s ? 3. W h a t i s s p e c i a l a b o u t s o m e l i z a r d ' s e y e s " 4 . H o w a r e t h e o w l ' s e y e s u s e f u l ? 5 . W h a t c a n a t o a d u s e h i s e y e s f o r ? N a m e : D a t e : G r a d e : 202 A p p e n d i x D: I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s and M a t e r i a l s (Experimental Group) 203 T a b l e D.1: O u t l i n e o f P r o c e d u r e s f o r E x p e r i m e n t a l I n s t r u c t i o n G r o u p S e s s i o n INITIAL TESTING Session 1 A. G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g C o m p r e h e n s i o n T e s t B. S t u d y o f I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Termites Session 2 A. One day d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f I n i t i a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Termites INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES Session 2 L e s s o n 1 B. The D i f f e r e n c e s Between N a r r a t i v e a n d I n f o r -m a t i o n M a t e r i a l P r o c e d u r e s A.M. : C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g Compre-h e n s i o n s u b t e s t (50 m i n u t e s ) . A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f Termites p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d Termites p a s s a g e f o r up t o 15 m i n u t e s . A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g ave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Termites p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m Termites p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s o r t e d n a r r a t i v e s t r i p s f o r Goldilocks and the Three Bears. S t u d e n t s s o r t e d i n f o r m a t i o n S t r i p s f o r Grasshoppers. 204 T a b l e D .1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n Procedures The d i f f e r e n c e s between n a r r a t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were d i s c u s s e d . The u s e f u l n e s s of headings was d i s c u s s e d . S tudents were shown how to use headings to remember a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s . S tudents s t u d i e d headings and a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s f o r next d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Session 3 Lesson 2 Idea S o r t i n g S tudents used r e c a l l of headings to a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l of Gr as s hopper s i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d i e d the p r e v i o u s day . The r e f e r e n t i a l and h i e r a r c h i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between headings and d e t a i l s was s t r e s s e d . S tudents s e l e c t e d s i n g l e headings from groups of r e l a t e d d e t a i l s and j u s t i f i e d t h e i r s e l e c t i o n . S tudents s o r t e d c u t - u p o u t l i n e s a c c o r d i n g to headings and d e t a i l s and j u s t i f i e d t h e i r organ i z a t i o n . S tudents were shown how to use headings to remember a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s . 205 T a b l e D .1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s S t u d e n t s s t u d i e d h e a d i n g s and a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s o f a c u t - u p o u t l i n e f o r n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Session 4 L e s s o n 3 Riches From the Sea S t u d e n t s u s e d r e c a l l of h e a d i n g s t o a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l of c u t - u p o u t l i n e s t u d i e d l a s t d ay. S t u d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h and d i s c u s s e d a c l a s s r o o m c h a r t o f s t u d y s t r a t e g i e s f o r r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n m ater i a l . S t u d e n t s r e a d Riches From the Sea p a s s a g e , matched a c u t - u p o u t l i n e t o t h e t e x t , and were g u i d e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of s t u d y s t r a t e g y p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s i n c l u d e d t h e g u i d e d c o m p l e t i o n o f a g l o s s - t y p e h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e of h e a d i n g s , main i d e a s and d e t a i l s of t h e p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e Riches From the Sea h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r t h e n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . 206 T a b l e D . 1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s Session 5 Lesson 4 Vikings of Denmark S t u d e n t s used r e c a l l of headings t o a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l of d e t a i l s from Riches From the Sea. The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between headings and id e a s was d i s c u s s e d . Study s t r a t e g y p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s read Vi ki ngs of Denmark passage, matched a cu t - u p o u t l i n e t o the t e x t , and were guided i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the study s t r a t e g y p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s i n c l u d e d the g u i d e d c o m p l e t i o n of a g l o s s - t y p e h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e of he a d i n g s , main i d e a s , and d e t a i l s of the passage. S t u d e n t s were t o study the Vikings of Denmark h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r next day's r e c a l l t a s k . The use of headings as an a i d t o r e c a l l was s t r e s s e d . 207 Table D . 1 continued Session Procedures S e s s i o n 6 Lesson 5 Fire Walkers Students used r e c a l l of headings to a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l of ideas from Vikings of Denmark passage. The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between headings and ideas was s t r e s s e d . The h i e r a r c h i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between main ideas and d e t a i l s was d i s c u s s e d . Topic sentences (macropropo-s i t i o n s ) were i d e n t i f i e d with an a s t e r i s k . Study s t r a t e g y procedures f o r r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were reviewed. Students read Fire Walkers passage, searched a l i s t of d e t a i l s and a l t e r n a t e headings, and were guided i n w r i t i n g these p i e c e s of inf o r m a t i o n i n a g l o s s - t y p e h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r the passage. Students were guided i n i d e n t i f y i n g and marking t o p i c sentences with an a s t e r i s k . Students were to study the Fire Walkers passage and h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r next day's r e c a l l task. Use of headings and of s e l f -checking of r e c a l l f o r passage i n f o r m a t i o n was demonstrated and s t r e s s e d . 208 T a b l e D .1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s Session 7 L e s s o n 6 Animal Protection S t u d e n t s u s e d r e c a l l of h e a d i n g s t o a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l o f i d e a s f r o m Fire Walkers p a s s a g e . M a i n i d e a s were s t a r r e d w i t h an a s t e r i s k . The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s and be t w e e n main i d e a s a n d d e t a i l s were e x a m i n e d . S t u d y s t r a t e g y p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s r e a d t h e Animal Protection p a s s a g e , a n d were g u i d e d i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a g l o s s - t y p e h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r t h e p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s t a r r e d t h e main i d e a s o f e a c h p a s s a g e s e c t i o n . S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e Animal Protection h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Use of h e a d i n g s a n d s e l f -c h e c k i n g o f r e c a l l f o r p a s s a g e i n f o r m a t i o n were d e m o n s t r a t e d a n d s t r e s s e d . 209 T a b l e D.1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n Session 8 L e s s o n 7 Horses P r o c e d u r e s S t u d e n t s u s e d r e c a l l of h e a d i n g s and m a c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s t o a i d i n r e c a l l o f i d e a s f r om Animal Protection p a s s a g e . M a i n i d e a s were s t a r r e d w i t h an a s t e r i s k . The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between main i d e a s and d e t a i l s were r e v i e w e d . S t u d y s t r a t e g y p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s r e a d Horses p a s s a g e . H e a d i n g s were s u r v e y e d and s t u d e n t s were g u i d e d i n g e n e r a t i v e p r o c e s s i n g o f a l t e r n a t i v e h e a d i n g s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n of th e Horses p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h would be most b e n e f i c i a l f o r r e c a l l of t h e Horses p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s were g i v e n 15 m i n u t e s t o p r a c t i c e s t u d y i n g Horses p a s s a g e . At t h e end of 15 m i n u t e s , s t u d e n t s f i l l e d i n a b l a n k h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e of what had been r e a d . P a s s a g e c o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o f o r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e o u t l i n e . S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e Horses h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l . The use of s e l f - c h e c k i n g was s t r e s s e d . 210 T a b l e D.1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s S e s s i o n 9 L e s s o n 8 A. P r a c t i c e a n d r e v i e w o f e f f i c i e n t r e c a l l t e c h n i q u e s . B. P r a c t i c e s t u d y o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e S e s s i o n 10 One day d e l a y e d p r a c t i c e w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Animals Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s u s e d r e c a l l o f h e a d i n g s a n d M a c r o p r o p o -s i t i o n s t o a i d i n r e c a l l o f i d e a s f r o m Horses p a s s a g e . The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s was e m p h a s i z e d . S t u d y p r o c e d u r e s f o r r e c a l l o f i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s d i s c u s s e d most e f f i c i e n t way t o use 15 m i n u t e s t o s t u d y a p a s s a g e . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s were g i v e n 15 m i n u t e s t o s i l e n t l y s t u d y Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e . 21 1 T a b l e D.1 c o n t i n u e d S e s s i o n P r o c e d u r e s Session 11 L e s s o n 9 R e v i e w L e s s o n S t u d e n t s e x a m i n e d s a m p l e s o f two p r o t o c o l s (one o r g a n i z e d , one d i s o r g a n i z e d ) w r i t t e n l a s t day on Animals' Eyes . S t u d e n t s were g u i d e d i n r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e . S t u d y p r o c e d u r e s were r e v i e w e d a n d most e f f i c i e n t a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s were d i s c u s s e d . FINAL TESTING Session 12 S t u d y o f F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Par r ot s . A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g a v e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d y o f Parrots p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y s t u d i e d Parrots p a s s a g e f o r up t o 15 m i n u t e s . Session 13 One day d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f F i n a l T e s t p a s s a g e on Par r o t s . A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s g a v e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Parrots p a s s a g e . S t u d e n t s had up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered f r o m Parrots p a s s a g e . 2 1 2 I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s a nd M a t e r i a l s ( E x p e r i m e n t a l Group) LESSON ONE (60 min.) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INFORMATION MATERIAL  AND NARRATIVE MATERIAL I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The students w i l l be able to: sort narrative sequence s t r i p s sort information s t r i p s describe the difference between narrative and information material use headi ngs to study for r e c a l l of d e t a i l s i d e n t i f y heading from a group of ideas II MATERIALS: Class set of sequence s t r i p s for Goldilocks and the Three Bears D i s p l a y s e q u e n c e s t r i p s f o r Goldilocks and the Three Bears C l a s s s e t o f c o n t e n t s t r i p s f o r Grasshoppers D i s p l a y s t r i p s f o r Grasshoppers 2 p o c k e t c h a r t s m a s k i n g t a p e C h a r t : DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STORY AND INFORMATION MATERIAL ( s e e e x a m p l e ) f e l t p e n s I I I PROCEDURES: A. NARRATIVE MATERIAL 213 1. P l a c e Goldilocks s t o r y s t r i p s i n d i s o r d e r e d a r r a n g e m e n t i n t h e p o c k e t c h a r t . 2. D i s c u s s : a. "What a r e t h e s e s t r i p s a l l a b o u t ? " (The s t o r y o f Goldilocks and the Three Bears) b. "Which s t r i p w o u l d be t h e t i t l e ? " (Goldilocks and t he Thr e e Bears). c. "Does t h i s make s e n s e ? What w o u l d y o u h a v e t o do t o make i t s e n s i b l e ? " ( P u t them i n o r d e r ) . d. D i s t r i b u t e Goldilocks s e q u e n c e s t r i p e n v e l o p e s a n d d i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o a r r a n g e t h e i d e a s so t h e y make s e n s e . e. C i r c u l a t e and o b s e r v e s o r t i n g . S t u d e n t s may work i n p a i r s . f . When s t u d e n t s h a v e f i n i s h e d s o r t i n g , c a l l on i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o t e l l how s t r i p s a r e s e q u e n c e d . D i s p l a y t h e s t r i p s s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t h e p o c k e t c h a r t . Ask i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o j u s t i f y t h e p l a c e m e n t o f e a c h i d e a . A f t e r a l l s e q u e n c i n g h a s been c o m p l e t e d , a s k : " D i d anyone h a v e t o c h a n g e t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e i r s t r i p s ? What d i d y o u have t o c h a n g e ? Why?" B. INFORMATION MATERIAL 1. P l a c e d i s o r d e r e d Grasshoppers s t r i p s i n t h e s e c o n d p o c k e t c h a r t . 2. D i s c u s s : 2 1 4 a. "What i s t h i s a l l a b o u t ? (Grasshoppers). b. " I s t h e r e one s t r i p t h a t c o u l d be a t i t l e ? " (Gr as shoppers). c. "Does t h i s make s e n s e ? Why n o t ? What n e e d s t o be d o n e ? " d. "Can y o u s e e any i d e a s t h a t a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o t h e r s ? " (how a g r a s s h o p p e r moves, how a g r a s s h o p p e r makes s o u n d s , a g r a s s h o p p e r ' s p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s ) . G i v e t h e d i r e c t i o n s : "Open y o u r e n v e l o p e . T a k e t h e s t r i p s o u t and see i f y o u c a n f i n d a l l t h e i d e a s t h a t go w i t h t h e s e m a i n i d e a s . " C i r c u l a t e a n d o b s e r v e s o r t i n g . S t u d e n t s may work i n pa i r s. C a l l on i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o t e l l how i d e a s a r e o r g a n i z e d . D i s p l a y t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p o c k e t c h a r t . A s k : "What d e t a i l s d i d y o u p u t w i t h t h e s e m a i n i d e a s ? " R e q u i r e t h a t s t u d e n t s j u s t i f y t h e i r p l a c e m e n t of i d e a s . A s k : a. "What do we c a l l t h e s e m a i n i d e a s ? " ( h e a d i n g s ) . b. "How d i d y o u a r r a n g e t h e s e i d e a s on y o u r d e s k ? " c. "How c o u l d t h e s t r i p s be a r r a n g e d so t h a t t h e h e a d i n g s a r e e a s i e r t o f i n d ? " ( s e t h e a d i n g t o t h e l e f t o f t h e d e t a i l s ) . d. " I f I s e t t h e s e o f f t o t h e s i d e i t i s e a s i e r t o s e e how t h e i d e a s f i t t o g e t h e r . " e .g. H e a d i n g i d e a i d e a i d e a H e a d i n g i d e a i d e a i d e a 216 C. DISCUSS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NARRATIVE AND INFORMATION MATERIAL 1 . A s k : a. "Which s e t of c a r d s i s a s t o r y ? How do y o u know i t i s a s t o r y ? " b. "Which one i s g i v i n g us i n f o r m a t i o n . How do y o u know t h i s i s n o t a s t o r y ? " c . "What makes i t d i f f e r e n t f r o m s t o r y m a t e r i a l ? " 2. D i s p l a y c h a r t f o r r e c o r d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l . a. S a y : " L e t ' s l o o k a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s t o r y a n d i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l . b. T e a c h e r w r i t e s on b o a r d o r on c h a r t p a p e r a s s t u d e n t s g i v e a n s w e r s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 2 1 7 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN STORY AND INFORMATION MATERIAL QUESTIONS GOLDILOCKS GRASSHOPPERS a) Why was t h e ma t e r i a 1 w r i t t e n ? b) D e s c r i b e how t h e m a t e r i a l i s w r i t t e n . How i s t h e m a t e r i a l o r g a n i z e d ? c ) How do y o u r e a d i t ? d) I n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l what h e l p s y o u f i n d t h e d e t a i l s ? ( e n j o y m e n t ) ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) ( c h r o n o l o g i c a l , ( t i t l e , h e a d i n g s , t i m e s e q u e n c e , m a i n i d e a s , d e t a i l s ) s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s , e t c . ) ( f r o m b e g i n n i n g ( o n l y need t o r e a d t o end) t h e p a r t t h a t g i v e s y o u t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ( h e a d i n g s ) D. THE USEFULNESS OF HEADINGS 1 . S a y : " P a y i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e h e a d i n g s c a n a l s o h e l p y o u t o remember i n f o r m a t i o n b e t t e r . I f I t u r n t h e s e d e t a i l s o v e r a n d y o u t u r n y o u r s o v e r , c o u l d y o u remember t h e d e t a i l s t h a t go w i t h t h i s h e a d i n g ? " (Do t h i s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n ) . 2 1 8 "Now s t u d y t h e h e a d i n g s s i l e n t l y . When y o u t h i n k y o u c a n remember them t u r n them o v e r . See i f y o u c a n remember e a c h h e a d i n g a n d t h e d e t a i l s t h a t go w i t h e a c h . " Have s t u d e n t s o r a l l y r e c a l l t h e d e t a i l s t h a t go w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y t h e h e a d i n g s . T u r n t h e d i s p l a y h e a d i n g s o v e r a n d have s t u d e n t s do t h e same. Have s t u d e n t s o r a l l y r e c a l l t h e h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . S a y : "Tomorrow y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o t e l l me t h e h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s f o r Grasshoppers. Y o u ' l l u s e t h e h e a d i n g s t o remember t h e d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . " (fin-pud .tltt) . % £ r has no voice 219 S S h e e a t s baby bear's p o r r i d g e . S h e g o e s +0 s l e e p . M o t h e r b e a r m a k e s s o m e porridge T h e b e a r s d e c i d e +0 - f o r a wa lk . T h e y f i n d G o l d i l o c k s . T h e p o r r i d g e i s t o o h o t . T h e b e a r s c o m e h o m e . S h e b r e a k s b a b y b e a r ' s c h a i r . S h e g o e s t o t h e b e a r s * h o u s e . A l o n e . c o m e s G o l d i l o c k s . i$ S h e r u n s a w a y . Goldilocks and the Three Bears 220 (Picronek, \ms) _ 'yt hops 5R£ green in colour by, rubbinq i ts wings -toqefher three p a i r s of long s t rong legs J U r n p S one pa i r of a n t e n n a e how g rasshoppe rs make sounds grasshoppers %gz ways a grasshopper moves two pa i r s of w ings Hs£r by rubbing awinj ancf leg together a grasshoppers physical -features 221 LESSON TWO (60 m i n s . ) : IDEA SORTING I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s tudent s w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l headings and d e t a i l s from Gr as s hopper s i n f o r m a t i o n s t r i p s s t u d i e d p r e v i o u s day s e l e c t a s i n g l e heading from a group of r e l a t e d ideas s o r t up to e i g h t 2 l e v e l c u t - u p o u t l i n e s a c c o r d i n g r t o headings and d e t a i l s use headings to s tudy for r e c a l l II MATERIALS: pocket c h a r t c l a s s set of e i g h t c u t - u p o u t l i n e s , each o u t l i n e in an enve lope , a l l e i g h t bundled toge ther ( C a t t e r s o n , 1966) Grasshopper d i s p l a y s t r i p s used l a s t day D i s p l a y s t r i p s used l a s t day D i s p l a y s t r i p s for e i g h t c u t - u p o u t l i n e s C l a s s set of SORTING IDEAS worksheets III PROCEDURES: A . RECALL OF GRASSHOPPER INFORMATION 1. D i r e c t s tudents to t h i n k about what they s t u d i e d on p r e v i o u s day . 2. D i r e c t s tudents to r e c a l l headings from the Grasshoppers s e l e c t i o n . 3. D i r e c t s tudents to r e c a l l a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s for each heading of the s e l e c t i o n . (Teacher d i s p l a y s heading s t r i p s and d e t a i l s s t r i p s i n pocket c h a r t as ideas are r e c a l l e d ) . 222 4. T u r n d e t a i l s t r i p s o v e r a g a i n a n d r e m i n d s t u d e n t s o f how t o u s e h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l d e t a i l s . 5. Have s t u d e n t s r e t e l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n n a r r a t i v e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l ( e . g . "What k i n d o f m a t e r i a l d i d we s a y t h i s i s ? How i s i t d i f f e r e n t f r o m s t o r y m a t e r i a l ? " ) . B. FINDING THE MAIN IDEA 1. D i s t r i b u t e w o r k s h e e t SORTING IDEAS. 2. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d s i l e n t l y t h e f i r s t row o f i d e a s t o f i n d t h e main i d e a . 3. Have one s t u d e n t r e a d t h e i d e a s . 4. D i r e c t s t u d e n t t o u n d e r l i n e t h e m a i n i d e a . C o n t i n u e i n t h e same f a s h i o n f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e w o r k s h e e t . C. IDEA SORTING 1. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o open e n v e l o p e #1 and t o f i n d t h e t i t l e f o r t h e i d e a s . Then d i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s o r t t h e d e t a i l s u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e a d i n g s . 2. S h a r e a n d d i s c u s s a r r a n g e m e n t o f i d e a s . V i s u a l l y d i s p l a y i n p o c k e t c h a r t . E m p h a s i z e t h e way t h a t i d e a s a r e r e l a t e d . 3. T u r n d e t a i l s o v e r a n d h a v e s t u d e n t s o r a l l y r e c a l l c o n t e n t u s i n g h e a d i n g s a s c u e s f o r r e c a l l . F o l l o w s t e p s 2 t o 4 f o r a s many o f t h e 8 c u t - u p o u t l i n e s a s t i m e p e r m i t s . ( S t a n d a r d i z e t h e number of o u t l i n e s p e r c l a s s ) . B e f o r e t h e s o r t i n g o f s u b s e q u e n t 223 o u t l i n e s , h a v e s t u d e n t s t e l l w h i c h s t e p s t h e y w i l l u s e f o r o r g a n i z i n g s t r i p s . 4. F o r f i n a l c u t - u p o u t l i n e , f o l l o w t h e same p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r p r e v i o u s o u t l i n e s . Then d i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y t h e o u t l i n e t o be r e c a l l e d t h e n e x t d a y . S a y : "Tomorrow y o u w i l l be a s k e d t o u s e t h e h e a d i n g s t o remember t h e i d e a s a b o u t (title of final cut-up out I i ne) . " SORTING IDEAS Name b c r V e . CHOOSg T H E MAIN 1C>EA FROKt T M E S E IDE/^S : /. maple elm t rees oak b i r c h bee_ch 2. shoes socks clothes sweater stockings blouse 3 . horses animals sheep cows deer dogs A . football hockey gam&s tenn is b a s e b a l l 5. farrners -Firemen workers mUkmen t e a c h e r s (o. beef pork lamb mutton meat 7. rose tul ip violet i r i s blowers d a f f o d i l D W R I T E T H E M A I N I D E A F O R E A C H GROUP: 1. boxes trunks d r a w e r s J a r s bottles 2. sailboat canoe rowboat liner 3. milk gas oil vinegar Coke wa te r 4. collie \err\tr pood\t sheepdog 5. apple g r a p e f r u i t mango s t r a w b e r r y to. overshoes slippers Socks sandals boots 7. pansy forget-me-not tulip peony daisy /. S w e e t Th ings I. d e s s e r t I i t i . c o k e , !. fee crcorr. j j ' " " " j I. puadinq I J : _ , j i. Coca _ _ O ! G J . drinks I. chocolate, l. Seven- L/p J. c-cmtfij i. l o l l i p o p s i • O p p l e p i e , z. oafs 2 2 5 7.. foods fc. _grafns £. wheat £ . p e a c h e s 51. p e a r s a p p l e s o r o n g e s ;t. Vegetables £. carrots pacts 226 3. Clothes 3. for the feet 3. shoes 3. rubber boots 3. sl ipp&rs 3. for the head 3. hats 3. caps 3. for the hands 3. gloves 3. miffens ; 4. living things j 4. flying creatures ! A. birds I 4. insects i 1 , 4. bats 4. plants 4. flowers 4. trees 4. bushes 4. f/'sh 4. Swimming WMture? 4. ee ls 227 5- : lo. t o w e a r 5- S / f o n t ! (o • c l o t h i n g 5. t o l o i ) o n ; s h o e s 5. c h o i r s S t o c k i n g s 5. b e n c h e s (p. b l o u s e s 5 . S t o o l s ! • i lo- s h i r t s 5. beds lo- j e w e l l e r y £• couches lo. r i n g s S- f / o o r coverings ID. watches 5- mots lo . bracelets 5. rugs lo beads 5 carpets lo. earr ings 5 . t i le w o r k e r s indoors grocer butchers iailors o u t d o o r s m i l K m a n p o s t m a n . l u m b e r j a c K c l e r K s i. t y p i s t s i. f a r m e r s 6. l i v i n g t h i n : 6 . i n t h e s e a 8. s h a r K s j 8. s h a l e s : 8. s e a w e e d 8 / h a l i b u t 6. o _ y s t e r s 8 . l o b s t e r s 8. o n l a n d 6 t r e e s 8 . l i o n s 6. t i g e r s 6 . f l o w e r s 229 LESSON THREE (60 m i n s . ) : RICHES OF THE SEA I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s f r o m t h e c u t - u p o u t l i n e s t u d i e d p r e v i o u s day r e a d Riches of the Sea p a s s a g e m a t c h c u t - u p o u t l i n e t o t h e t e x t i d e n t i f y h e a d i n g s u n d e r l i n e d e t a i l s i n e a c h p a r a g r a p h o f t h e p a s s a g e r e c o r d h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s i n s i d e b a r o u t l i n e I I MATERIALS: Living Things d i s p l a y s t r i p s o r f i n a l c u t - u p o u t l i n e u s e d on p r e v i o u s day p o c k e t c h a r t c l a s s s e t of Riches of the Sea p a s s a g e D i s p l a y c u t - u p o u t l i n e f o r Riches of the Sea c l a s s s e t of c u t - u p o u t l i n e f o r Riches of the Sea c h a r t : STUDY PROCEDURES FOR INFORMATION MATERIAL I I I PROCEDURES: A. RECALL OF 'LIVING THINGS' INFORMATION 1. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k a b o u t what t h e y s t u d i e d on p r e v i o u s d a y . 2. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l h e a d i n g s f r o m t h e Living Thi ngs o u t l i n e . 3. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s f o r e a c h h e a d i n g . ( T e a c h e r d i s p l a y s h e a d i n g s t r i p s a n d d e t a i l s t r i p s i n p o c k e t c h a r t . ) 230 4. T u r n d e t a i l s t r i p s o v e r a n d r e m i n d s t u d e n t s o f how t o use h e a d i n g s t o r e c a l l d e t a i l s . B. RICHES OF THE SEA 1. D i s t r i b u t e Riches of the Sea c u t - u p o u t l i n e p a c k e t s . 2. D i s t r i b u t e Riches of the Sea p a s s a g e ( f a c e d o w n ) . 3. S a y : "Today y o u a r e g o i n g t o l e a r n how t o r e a d i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l so t h a t y o u c a n remember i t . " 4. Go o v e r S t u d y P r o c e d u r e s f o r I n f o r m a t i o n M a t e r i a l c h a r t . HOW TO STUDY INFORMATION MATERIAL S u r v e y : Read t h e t i t l e a n d h e a d i n g s . Read: t h e s e c t i o n t h a t g o e s w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . W r i t e t h e h e a d i n g . Do t h i s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . Go b a c k a n d f i n d t h e d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . S t u d y . ( P r a c t i s e r e m e m b e r i n g what g o e s w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . ) 5. Have s t u d e n t s t u r n p a s s a g e o v e r . Draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c h a r t , g u i d i n g s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h e a c h s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s t e p : a. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s u r v e y t h e t i t l e a n d h e a d i n g o f th e p a s s a g e . A s k : "What t h r e e t h i n g s w i l l y o u f i n d o u t a b o u t Riches of the Sea?" b. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d e a c h h e a d i n g a n d s e c t i o n s i l e n t l y t o f i n d t h e c u p - u p o u t l i n e h e a d i n g f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . 231 c . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o go ba c k t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e . Have s t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y r e a d e a c h s e c t i o n a nd f i n d c u t - u p d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . d. C i r c u l a t e , d i s c u s s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i d e a s , a n d u s e p o c k e t c h a r t t o d i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u t - u p o u t l i n e . 6. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o p u t c u t - u p o u t l i n e s away. 7. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d t h e p a s s a g e , s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n , a n d t o w r i t e t h e h e a d i n g s i n t h e b l a n k o u t l i n e . 8. G u i d e s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r l i n e d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e . 9. G u i d e s t u d e n t s i n o u t l i n i n g t h e d e t a i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g , f o l l o w i n g t h e t e x t s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n . I f n e c e s s a r y , u se t h e c h a l k b o a r d t o d i s p l a y how t h i s i s t o be d o n e . 10. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y t h e o u t l i n e , s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n , f o r t h e n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Have t h e s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e r e m e m b e r i n g t h e d e t a i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . 232 Riches of the Sea copper and nickel scientists hope to make, shallow -fishing grounds il and gas are the most important Farming the Sea this * farming* will feed many people Important Riches 7 trillion doll ars worth of gold rodcs with minerals much food under water all minerals found on land are found in the sea sea Water has gold ocean farming ma^ soon be. possible Sea Water carvf get minerols (Vom sea u/oter cyji'cKly and cheaply 2 3 3 RICHES OF THE SEA F a r m i n g t h e S e a F a m i n g f o r f o o d u n d e r t h e o c e a n n a y s o o n be p o s s i b l e . T h e r e i s a l r e a d y much f o o d c r o w i n g u n d e r t h e w a t e r . S c i e n t i s t s hope t o make new f i s h i n c o r o u n d s w h e r e t h e w a t e r i s n o t t o o d e e p . T h i s k i n d o f " f a r m i n g " w i l l h e l p f e e d many p e o p l e . I m p o r t a n t R i c h e s — Some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r i c h e s f o u n d u n d e r t h e s e a a r e o i l and g a s . L o t s o f r o c k s u n d e r t h e w a t e r h a v e m i n e r a l s i n them. R o c k s w i t h c o p p e r a n d n i c k e l a r e w a i t i n g f o r someone t o s c o o p them u p . S e a W a t e r S e a w a t e r c o n t a i n s g o l d . I n f a c t t h e s e a h o l d s a b o u t 7 t r i l l i o n c o l l a r s w o r t h o f c o l d a l o n e ! A l l t h e m i n e r a l s f o u n d on l a n d a r e f o u n d i n t h e s e a . No one knows how t o remove t h e m q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y . Name: D a t e : G r a d e : Name 5cliDO! . RICHES OF T H E S E A 235 LESSON FOUR (60 m i n . ) : THE V I K I N G S OF DENMARK I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: S t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l h e a d i n g s and d e t a i l s f r o m t h e c u t - u p o u t l i n e s t u d i e d p r e v i o u s day (Riches of the Sea) r e a d Viki ngs p a s s a g e m a t c h c u p - u p o u t l i n e t o Vikings p a s s a g e i d e n t i f y h e a d i n g s u n d e r l i n e d e t a i l s i n e a c h p a r a g r a p h o f t h e p a s s a g e r e c o r d h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s i n a s i d e b a r o u t l i n e I I MATERIALS: Riches of the Sea d i s p l a y s t r i p s u s e d l a s t d ay 2 p o c k e t c h a r t s c l a s s s e t o f The Vikings of Denmark p a s s a g e D i s p l a y c u t - u p o u t l i n e f o r Vikings. . . c l a s s s e t o f c u t - u p o u t l i n e f o r Vikings. . . c h a r t : STUDY PROCEDURES FOR INFORMATION MATERIAL I I I PROCEDURES: A. RECALL TASK 1 . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l h e a d i n g s f r o m Riches of the Sea . 2. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l d e t a i l s . 3. E m p h a s i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s a n d how h e a d i n g s c a n a i d i n t h e r e c a l l o f d e t a i l s . 236 B. V I K I N G S OF DENMARK 1. D i s t r i b u t e Vikings of Denmark c u t - u p o u t l i n e p a c k e t s . 2. D i s t r i b u t e Vikings of Denmark p a s s a g e . 3. Use c h a r t t o r e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l . 4. G u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h e a c h s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s t e p : a. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s u r v e y t i t l e a n d h e a d i n g s . Then a s k : "What 4 t h i n g s w i l l y o u f i n d o u t a b o u t t h e V i k i n g s o f Denmark?" b. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d e a c h h e a d i n g a n d s e c t i o n s i l e n t l y t o f i n d t h e c u t - u p o u t l i n e h e a d i n g f o r e a c h s e c t i o n o f t h e t e x t . c . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o go b a c k t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e . Have s t u d e n t s s i l e n t l y r e a d e a c h s e c t i o n t o f i n d c u t - u p o u t l i n e d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . C i r c u l a t e , d i s c u s s o r g a n i z a t i o n of i d e a s a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e h e a d i n g s t o t h e d e t a i l s . Use p o c k e t c h a r t t o d i s p l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n o f c u t - u p o u t l i n e . 5. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o p u t c u t - u p o u t l i n e s away. 6. G u i d e s t u d e n t s i n u n d e r l i n i n g d e t a i l s i n t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h o f t h e p a s s a g e . A f t e r s t u d e n t s u n d e r l i n e t h e d e t a i l s s a y : "Now t h a t we've l o o k e d a t t h e d e t a i l s what i s a n o t h e r way t h a t t h e h e a d i n g c a n be s t a t e d ? " C o n t i n u e t h i s p r o c e s s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p a r a g r a p h s . 237 7. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e t h e h e a d i n g s i n t h e b l a n k o u t l i n e . 8. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e t h e d e t a i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g i n t h e o u t l i n e . I f n e c e s s a r y , u s e t h e c h a l k b o a r d t o d i s p l a y how t h i s i s d o n e . S a y : " T r y t o t h i n k o f e a c h d e t a i l w i t h o u t l o o k i n g a t t h e p a s s a g e . C h e c k b e f o r e y o u w r i t e them down." 9. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y t h e c o m p l e t e d o u t l i n e s e c t i o n by s e c t i o n f o r t h e n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Have t h e s t u d e n t s p r a c t i s e r e m e m b e r i n g t h e d e t a i l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . 2 3 8 \lik.in^s ( G o b ' e / Cbuiombe 8=) Charged by Christianity •ffgh-firtg -for land and fishing p laces some about Q5 long as a bus hid +h_ir boats one mast and one sai l chanqed when they learned abou+ Chrls+iani't on Ships many btcamt good C h r i s t i a n s killtd m e n , women and c h i l d r e n turned h 4he s e a +D -find n e w land and riches moved by e a r s made of wood 239 poor land t no 4ood Warships of-fcn called "dragon ships planned carefully Vikings attacked sudden] gave uj> attacking people all V a l u a b l e , t h i n g s carried 6-ff L e a v i n g 4he Homeland terrifying carved dragon heads on +he h-ont many problems Raiding missionaries taught them religion •took some slaves 2 4 1 Mome ScMod 242 LESSON F I V E (60 m i n s . ) : F I R E WALKERS I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l h e a d i n g s , m a i n i d e a s a n d d e t a i l s f r o m p r e v i o u s p a s s a g e s u r v e y t i t l e , h e a d i n g s r e a d p a s s a g e Fire Walkers r e c o g n i z e a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s i d e n t i f y m a i n i d e a s a nd d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n t o h e a d i n g s s t u d y h e a d i n g s a nd a s s o c i a t e d i d e a s f o r r e c a l l i n n e x t s e s s i o n I I MATERIALS: D i s p l a y s t r i p s : Vikings of Denmark P o c k e t c h a r t C l a s s s e t : Fire Walkers p a s s a g e ; Fire Walkers o u t l i n e I I I PROCEDURES: 1. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l h e a d i n g s f r o m Vikings of Denmark; t h e n r e c a l l d e t a i l s f o r e a c h s e c t i o n . E m p h a s i z e t h e ma i n i d e a o r t o p i c s e n t e n c e i n e a c h a nd d e n o t e w i t h an a s t e r i s k . (Have s t u d e n t s s t a t e d e t a i l s i n s e n t e n c e s . ) 2. D i s t r i b u t e Fire Walkers p a s s a g e a nd o u t l i n e . 3. R e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s . 4. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s u r v e y t i t l e a n d h e a d i n g s . D i s c u s s . 5. Draw a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l s a n d a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s a t b o t t o m o f o u t l i n e . ( T h e s e a r e t o be c r o s s e d o f f a s t h e y a r e u s e d . ) 243 6. G u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h s i l e n t r e a d i n g o f e a c h s e c t i o n a n d l o c a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g t o be r e c o r d e d i n o u t l i n e . 7. When a l l a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s a r e r e c o r d e d h a v e s t u d e n t s t u r n p a p e r s o v e r . 8. R e v i e w r e m a i n i n g s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s a d d i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a i n i d e a s w i t h an a s t e r i s k ( * ) . 9. R e t u r n t o f i r s t s e c t i o n a n d g u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h l o c a t i n g m a i n i d e a ( t o be s t a r r e d i n t h e o u t l i n e ) a n d a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s . 1 0 . C o n t i n u e g u i d a n c e f o r e a c h s e c t i o n u n t i l i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t s t u d e n t s c a n c o m p l e t e t h e t a s k i n d e p e n d e n t l y . C i r c u l a t e a nd mark. 1 1 . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y t h e p a s s a g e a n d o u t l i n e f o r r e c a l l i n n e x t s e s s i o n . 244 FIRE WALKERS A S t r a n g e P r a c t i c e I n some l a n d s p e o p l e h a v e a s t r a n g e p r a c t i c e o f w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . T h i s p r a c t i c e ' i s many c e n t u r i e s o l d . I t i s s t i l l done t o d a y . F o r m s o f F i r e W a l k i n g T h e r e a r e many v a y s t o v a l k o v e r f i r e . A b a r e f o o t p e r s o n may v a l k q u i c k l y o v e r c o a l s . S o m e t i m e s a p e r s o n m u s t v a l k t h r o u g h a l o g f i r e o r t h r o u g h h o t a s h e s . O t h e r t i m e s , t h e f i r e v a l k e r may c r e s s o v e r r e d h o t s t o n e s . Or, a s h e s may be p o u r e d o v e r h i s h e a d i n a f i r e b a t h . R e a s o n s F o r F i r e W a l k i n g T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s v h y p e o p l e f i r e v a l k . I f a c h i e f v a l k s t h r o u g h f i r e and i s n o t h u r t i t means t h a t h i s p e o p l e v i l l h a ve e n o u g h t o e a t . O t h e r p e o p l e v a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o s h o v t h e i r s t r e n g t h . S o m e t i m e s a p e r s o n must v a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o s h o v t h a t he d i d n o t commit a c r i m e . I f t h e p e r s o n d o e s n o t g e t b u r n e d he i s s e t f r e e . A M y s t e r y I t i s a m y s t e r y t h a t f e v f i r e w a l k e r s g e t b u r n e d . Maybe t h e f i r e w a l k e r s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s he w i l l n o t g e t h u r t . Or t h e f i r e w a l k e r mav b r e a t h e i n s u c h a way t h a t he'eoes' n o t f e e l p a i n . P e o p l e . h a v e c h e c k e d t o s e e i f f i r e w a l k e r s p u t s o m e t h i n g on t h e i r f e e t b e f o r e w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . None e v e r d o . Name D a t e : G r a d e U n u s u a l P r a c t i c e - many r e a s o n s - f i r e b a t h - f e e t h a v e b e e n c h e c k e d - b a r e f o o t o v e r c o a l s - t o p r o v e i n n o c e n c e - o v e r r e d h o t s t o n e s - t h e y w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e - t o show s t r e n g t h - c e n t u r i e s o l d - s t i l l done -many t y p e s o f f i r e w a l k i n g - m y s t e r y t h a t p e o p l e d o n ' t g e t b u r n e d - p e o p l e d o n ' t p u t a n y t h i n g o n f e e t T y p es o f F i r e W a l k i n g - c h i e f f i n d s o u t i f p e o p l e w i l l have f o o d - p e r s o n s e t f r e e i f n o t b u r n e d - t h r o u g h a l o g f i r e o r h o t a s h e s -maybe s p e c i a l b r e a t h i n g s t o p s p a i n A Q u e s t i o n W i t h No A n s w e r - some p e o p l e s h a v e a s t r a n g e p r a c t i c e Why "People Walk T h r o u g h - F i r e -may be s t r o n g b e l i e f s 246 LESSON S I X (60 m i n s . ) : ANIMAL PROTECTION I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l h e a d i n g s , m a i n i d e a s a n d d e t a i l s f r o m Fire Wal ker s r e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s r e a d Animal Protection p a s s a g e c o m p l e t e a w r i t t e n o u t l i n e t o m a t c h t e x t s t u d y f o r r e c a l l I I MATERIALS: C h a l k b o a r d C l a s s s e t : Animal Protection p a s s a g e I I I PROCEDURES: 1. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e c a l l t i t l e and h e a d i n g s f o r Fire Walkers. R e c o r d on b o a r d , l e a v i n g s p a c e f o r a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s . 2. D i r e c t a n d r e c o r d s t a r r e d m a i n i d e a a n d r e l a t e d d e t a i l s f o r e a c h h e a d i n g , one a t a t i m e . R e v i e w r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n h e a d i n g s a n d i d e a s . 3. R e v i e w s t u d y s t e p s t o d a t e : a. S u r v e y t i t l e , h e a d i n g s b. Read e a c h s e c t i o n a n d r e c o r d i t s h e a d i n g ( o r s i m i l a r h e a d i n g s ) i n o u t l i n e c. When a l l h e a d i n g s a r e r e c o r d e d r e t u r n t o f i r s t s e c t i o n a n d n o t e m a i n i d e a (*) and d e t a i l s f o r one s e c t i o n a t a t i m e 247 d. When o u t l i n e i s c o m p l e t e , s t u d y f o r r e c a l l D i s t r i b u t e Animal Protection p a s s a g e . G u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h e a c h s t e p u s i n g t h e p a s s a g e . A l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r u n d e r l i n i n g a n d r e c o r d i n g i n o u t l i n e a r e r e q u i r e d . P e r m i t s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l e t e f i n a l s e c t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y i f t h e y f e e l a b l e . D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y p a s s a g e a n d / o r o u t l i n e f o r r e c a l l on f o l l o w i n g d a y . ANIMAL PROTECTION S p e e d Many a n i m a l s car. g e t a v a y f r c m e n e m i e s i n a h u r r v . ' Some, l i k e t h e d e e r c a n r u n v e r y f a s t . B i r d s c a n f l y a v a y v e r y q u i c k l y . O t h e r s , l i k e s q u i r r e l s . a n d c h i p m u n k s a r e q u i c k a t c l i m b i n g t r e e s . T e e t h Some a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r t e e t h f c r p r o t e c t i o n . D o c s and v o l v e s have l o n g s h a r p t e e t h . Seme s m a l l a n i m a l s l i k e r a t s and m i n k a l s o have s h a r p t e e t h . The t e e t h c f some a n i m a l s s u c h as e l e p h a n t s h a v e become t u s k s . A l l t h e s e a n i m a l s u s e " t h e i r t e e t h a g a i n s t t h e i r e n e m i e s . C l a v s C1EVE p r o t e c t some a n i m a l s . Sometimes t h e y u s e t h e i r c l a v s i n f i g h t i n g o t h e r a n i m a l s . L a r g e b i r d s s u c h a s e a g l e s have s t r o n g c l a v s . W i l d c a t s l i k e t h e t i g e r a l s o u s e t h e i r c l a v s . C o l o u r Many a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r c o l o u r f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Seme b i r d s a r e h a r d t o s e e b e c a u s e . t h e y a r e t h e same c o l o u r a s t h e t r e e s . T o a d s a r e t h e c o l o u r c f d i r t . Some a n i m a l s c h a n g e c o l o u r . The r a b b i t i s v h i t e i n t h e v i n t e r . 'Some l i z a r d s t u r n t h e same c o l o u r as t h e g r o u n d o r l e a v e s t h e y s t a n d o n . P c i s o n Some a n i m a l s u s e a p o i s o n t o p r o t e c t t h e i r . s e I v e The s t i n g o f a bee o r v a s p h a s p o i s o n i n i t . Some s p i d e r s c a n p c i s o n l a r g e r a n i m a l s s o t h a t 'they c a n n o t move. The s t i n g r a y i s a f i s h t h a t u s e s p o i s o n A s t i n g r a y makes a v e r y p a i n f u l s o r e . Some s n a k e s a l s o u s e p o i s o n . " N ame: D a t e : G r a c e : 249 LESSON SEVEN (60 m i n s . ) : HORSES I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o : R e c a l l h e a d i n g s , m a i n i d e a s (*) and d e t a i l s f r o m Animal Protection ( o r a l ) r e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s i d e n t i f y m a i n i d e a (*) r e a d Horses p a s s a g e r e c o r d o r i g i n a l o_r a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s i n o u t l i n e p r a c t i s e c o m p l e t i n g o u t l i n e f r o m r e c a l l s t u d y f o r r e c a l l I I MATERIALS: C h a l k b o a r d C l a s s s e t : Horses p a s s a g e , w i t h o u t l i n e f o l d e d u n d e r I I I PROCEDURES: 1. G u i d e r e c a l l o f Animal Protection r e c o r d i n g on b o a r d ( a s i n p r e v i o u s s e s s i o n s ) . 2. R e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s . ( N o t e t h a t u n d e r l i n i n g i s o p t i o n a l ; e a c h i n d i v i d u a l must d e c i d e what he c a n do i n t i m e a l l o t t e d . ) 3. D i s t r i b u t e H o r s e s p a s s a g e . 4. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o s u r v e y a n d t u r n p a p e r s o v e r . R e c a l l . 5. G u i d e t h r o u g h f i r s t t h r e e ( o r more) s e c t i o n s w r i t i n g o r i g i n a l o r a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s i n o u t l i n e . 6. T u r n , p a p e r o v e r . F i f t e e n m i n u t e s w i l l be a l l o t t e d t o 250 s t u d y p a s s a g e . D i s c u s s b e s t s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s ( s u r v e y , r e c o r d h e a d i n g s , r e t u r n a n d u n d e r l i n e d e t a i l s , p r a c t i s e r e m e m b e r i n g ) . 7. A t end o f f i f t e e n m i n u t e s d i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o t u r n p a p e r s o v e r t o o u t l i n e a n d b e g i n c o m p l e t i n g e a c h s e c t i o n f r o m r e c a l l . 8. When s t u d e n t s c a n r e c a l l no more d e t a i l s t h e y may c o m p l e t e o u t l i n e by r e f e r r i n g t o p a s s a g e . 9. S t u d y t o r e c a l l f o r n e x t s e s s i o n . HORSES H o r s e s o f L o n g Ago The f i r s t h o r s e s l i v e d on t h e e a r t h i n t h e t i n e o f t h e d i n o s a u r s . Then t h e h o r s e s v e r e a b o u t t h e s i z e o f a f o x . The m e a t - e a t i n g d i n o s a u r s h u n t e d t h e n f o r f o o d . When t h e y v e r e e a t i n g t h e h o r s e s h a d t o ' v a t c h -out f o r d a n g e r . H o r s e s Changed O v e r m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s t h e h o r s e s c h a n g e d . A t f i r s t t h e y h a d f o u r t o e s on e a c h f r o n t f o o t . T h e y h a d t h r e e t o e s on e a c h b a c k f o o t . N o v t h e y h a v e o n l y one h o o f , on e a c h l e g . T h e i r l e g s became l o n g e r . T h i s h e l p e d them r u n a v a y f rom- c a n c e r . P l a n t E a t e r s H o r s e s have a l v a y s e a t e n p l a n t s . The f i r s t h o r s e s a t e more l e a v e s and f r u i t . Nov a h o r s e e a t s g r a s s , h a y and g r a i n . Sometimes t h e y h a v e a c a r r o t f o r a s p e c i a l t r e a t . A h o r s e h a s t e e t h mace f o r g r i n d i n g g r a s s e s . When a h o r s e e a t s i n a f i e l d i t c o v e r s a l o t o f g r o u n d . I t e a t s a l m o s t a l l c a y l o n g . The' Wav H o r s e s L i v e Some h o r s e s l i v e i n t h e - v i l d and some h o r s e s a r e tame . Z e b r a s and mustangs a r e v i l d h o r s .es. W i l d h o r s e s s t a y t o g e t h e r i n b i g h e r d s . E a c h h e r d h a s a . l e a d e r . Tame h o r s e s have o w n e r s t o f e e d and t a k e c a r e o f them. Many o v n e r s h a v e o n l y one h o r s e . U s e f u l H o r s e s Man h a s f o u n d many u s e s f o r h o r s e s . C a v e men k i l l e d h o r s e s ' f o r meat. H o r s e s k i n s h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r c l o t h e s and t e n t s . L a t e r , men u s e d h o r s e s f o r c a r r y i n g h e a v y l o a d s . B e f o r e t h e r e v e r e c a r s h o r s e s p u l l e d v a g o n s . Nov t h e y a r e u s e d m o s t l y f o r r i d i n g and r a c i n g . Name :_ D a t e : G r a c e : 252 LESSON EIGHT (2 s e s s i o n s : 60 m i n s ; 30 m i n s . ) : ANIMALS' EYES I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o : r e c a l l h e a d i n g s , m a i n i d e a s (*) and d e t a i l s f r o m Horses r e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s r e a d a n d s t u d y Animals' Eyes i n t i m e d s e s s i o n (15 m i n u t e s ) I I MATERIALS: C h a l k b o a r d C l a s s s e t : Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e I I I PROCEDURES: PART ONE 1. G u i d e a n d r e c o r d o r a l r e c a l l of Horses on c h a l k b o a r d . 2. E m p h a s i z e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween d e t a i l s a n d h e a d i n g s . 3. R e v i e w s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s a n d d i s c u s s most e f f i c i e n t u s e of l i m i t e d t i m e . ( M o s t l i k e l y : S u r v e y , r e c o r d h e a d i n g s , r e t u r n a n d u n d e r l i n e , p r a c t i s e r e m e m b e r i n g . Some s t u d e n t s w i l l f i n d u n d e r l i n i n g t o o s l o w i n t h i s t i m e d s e s s i o n - - t h e y may be p e r m i t t e d t o r e a d w i t h o u t u n d e r l i n i n g . ) 4. When e a c h s t u d e n t h a s d e c i d e d on t h e most e f f i c i e n t s t r a t e g y d i s t r i b u t e Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e a n d a l l o w f i f t e e n m i n u t e s s t u d y t i m e . (Use S t a n d a r d i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n s . ) 253 PART TWO 1 . On s u b s e q u e n t day a l l o t t w e n t y - f i v e m i n u t e s f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f p a s s a g e . ( T h i s s e s s i o n t o be d i r e c t e d by a l l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s u s i n g S t a n d a r d i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n s . ) 254 A N I M A L S • E Y E S A m a z i n g S i g h t E a c h a n i m a l ' s e y e s a r e s p e c i a l . The e y e s h e l p t h e a n i m a l ce t ' i r _ f o m a t i c n . A n i m a l ' s e y e s a r e d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e t h e y need d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m -a t i o n t o l i v e . The R a b b i t The r a b b i t h a s e y e s t h a t s e e i n a c o m p l e t e c i r c l e . A r a b b i t c a n l o o k a l l a r o u n d i t s e l f v i t h o u t m o v i n g i t s h e a d . T h i s h e l p s t h e r a b b i t v h e n i t i s b e i n g c h a s e d . The r a b b i t c a n v a t c h v h e r e h e . i s g o i n g and s e e h i s enemy b e h i n d h i m a t t h e same t i m e . The L i z a r d Some l i z a r d s have e y e s t h a t s t i c k o u t . One e y e c a n l o o k b a c k v h i l e t h e o t h e r l o o k s a h e a d . The l i z a r d ' s e y e s h e l p p r o t e c t i t f r o m e n e m i e s . I t c a n l o o k f o r f o o d v i t h one e y e and v a t c h f o r t r o u b l e v i t h t h e o t h e r . The O v l The o v l ' s e y e s c a n s e e a t n i g h t . T h i s h e l p s i t h u n t f o r a n i m a l s . F r o m t h e b r a n c h o f a t r e e t h e o v l c a n see a n y t h i n g m o v i n g o n t h e g r o u n d . E v e n s m a l l r a t s and m i c e c a n be s e e n i n t h e d a r k •by a n o v l . The T o ad A t o a d ' s e y e s h e l p i n e a t i n g . F i r s t t h e t o a d ' s e y e s h e l p i t f i n d i t s f a v o u r i t e f o o d -v o r x s . Then t h e e y e s h e l p t h e t o a d move f o o d t h r o u g h i t s mouth. When t h e t o a d c l o s e s i t s e y e s i t c a n l o v e r them t h r o u g h a d o o r i n t h e r o o f o f i t s mouth. The e y e s h o l d t h e s l i p p e r y f o o d s t i l l u n t i l t h e t o a d c a n s v a l l o v i t . Name : . D a t e : G r a d e : 255 LESSON NINE (30 m i n . ) : REVIEW I INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES: The s t u d e n t s w i l l be a b l e t o : d e s c r i b e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l d i s c r i m i n a t e between a p p r o p r i a t e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s II MATERIALS: c h a l k b o a r d E xample: p r o t o c o l o f Animals' Eyes (one o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e and one d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e ) I I I PROCEDURES: 1. D i r e c t s t u d e n t s t o r e a d t h e two p r o t o c o l s t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h i s b e t t e r o r g a n i z e d and e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d . D i s c u s s . 2. G u i d e s t u d e n t s t h r o u g h r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e . T e a c h e r w r i t e s r e o r g a n i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n on c h a l k b o a r d . 3. Review s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s . E m p h a s i z e : a . Use o f h e a d i n g s b. S p e n d i n g e q u a l t i m e on t h e s t u d y of e a c h p a r a g r a p h c . P r a c t i s i n g t o remember what i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a c h h e a d i n g . 256 f G r o d r 4} ew-C'^ JUf^-7sCJLSL- ^e*, sU&*Z> CZ -tCa^cL Is soe-t Slc^^ ACm Jjuf. CfUX* toad /VLU+SM^O^ . Tht, fbo-cC sc&si- f-ff A*a jt^*ec- tt> ZteCcC E X ^ n P t E B ( 6 n a d : H) ClsncL^ LSUJ Sight hUf> -th+ ASi+rrtM^Co fact; cn.-fi)%mxt~-Some UyjArdtf Acuxe- 4*4*4, &La^-4&'cjt> out. Cc LiytJuC Cavt- -d±L. fpuovLAfCa wit*. &toe*&us^ C*mi> UfvuC t*uZct <4di 0ru*£*se>-•fo Uvk. fin, rvoct asiat -itix, <rtAj^t- J^scr to Look An, oLa*ijtA~euL& -^ru^nct^u. ^  Casts Udc tUC uAtwtcL UH&LOUC /n*iM/lo Cesi- AU- 4A>AUA&- Cd ^c*swC Can. ^ u i » -Csu+ruj -/ox), Ou~L An. nvt utn, Cn. -th± CCOAM . 7*1% CtLrL, -fin. jtrncL Cn UaASC. UJz. -t/u, ^vt asuC rV*H444,. 7OXLCL it A>I4J Ua ^a^rU^ tvccL ^ Ufiin*sru3. tf>*n, Ur 0ic& r<?aaC t/i it» fnawt/L. Ma fit+~ep PCautris The -&*+CJ hctct tA^ dltfa&cvy joae*'. 257 Appendix E: Sources Used i n C o n s t r u c t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l and Test Passages 258 S o u r c e s Used i n C o n s t r u c t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l and T e s t P a s s a g e s P a s s a g e S o u r c e (1977) . Animal Protection S m i t h , N. B. b e t t e r r e a d e r . P r e n t i c e - H a l l , p. 32. Be a Ani mal s ' Eyes Dawkins, J . P . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e a d A b i l i t y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . P . L i p p i n c o t t . Grasshoppers G r o v e r , C , & A n d e r s o n , G. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . New p r a c t i c e  r e a d e r s . Book A. T o r o n t o : M a c G r a w - H i l l Book Company. Fire Walkers K n i g h t , D.C. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . Bees  c a n ' t f l y : T h i n g s t h a t a r e  s t i l l a m y s t e r y t o s c i e n c e . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , pp. 14-19. Hor ses P l u c k r o s e , H. ( E d . ) . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . H o r s e s . New Y o r k : G l o u c e s t e r P r e s s . Parrots C r o w h u r s t , M. (1984) . Seven u n p u b l i s h e d e x p o s i t o r y p a s s a g e s . V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Ri ches of I he Sea Dawkins, J.P. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e a d A b i l i t y . P h i l a d e l p h i a : J . P . L i p p i n c o t t . 259 Termites C h i l d r e n ' s B r i t a n n i c a , ( 1 9 8 1 ) . L o n d o n : E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a I n t e r n a t i o n a l , p. 173. G r o v e r , C , & A n d e r s o n , G. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . New p r a c t i c e  r e a d e r s . Book A. T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l , p. 4. The Vikings of Denmark P r o c t o r , G.L. ( i 9 6 0 ) . The V i k i n g s : Then a n d t h e r e  s e r i e s . L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n & Co. L t d . Van R o e k e l , B.H., & K l u w e , M.J. ( 1 9 6 6 ) . From b i c y c l e s  t o b o o m e r a n g s : The H a r p e r  a n d Row b a s i c r e a d i n g  p r o g r a m . How t o r e a d i n t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a r e a s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, pp. 128-129. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0302129/manifest

Comment

Related Items