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The effect of training grade four students to be sensitive to expository text structure and to use… Coulombe, Karen 1986

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THE E F F E C T OF T R A I N I N G GRADE FOUR S T U D E N T S TO BE S E N S I T I V E TO E X P O S I T O R Y T E X T S T R U C T U R E AND TO U S E T E X T H E A D I N G S TO I N C R E A S E T H E Q U A N T I T Y AND O R G A N I Z A T I O N OF W R I T T E N R E C A L L  by  KAREN B.Ed.,  A  COULOMBE  The U n i v e r s i t y  THESIS THE  Of B r i t i s h  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL REQUIREMENTS  Columbia,  F U L F I L M E N T OF  FOR T H E D E G R E E  MASTER  OF  OF  ARTS  in THE  F A C U L T Y OF  Department  We  accept  THE  of Language  this  to-the  GRADUATE  thesis  required  UNIVERSITY  OF  AUGUST  ©  Karen  STUDIES  Education  as  conforming  standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1986  Coulombe,  1979  1986  In  presenting  requirements  this  British  it  freely available  for  that  i npartial  fulfilment of the  f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree  thesis  Columbia,  I agree that f o rreference  permission  scholarly  the Library  shall  and study.  I  f o rextensive  for  copying  gain  or publication  shall  I t i s  of this  Iji^/yj/Jjj*?,  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  D E - 6 (2/81)  thesis  n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  thesis  p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my  that  financial  further  copying of this  department o r by h i so r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood  make  c^n/jy Columbia  raJi&fts  written  i i  ABSTRACT  The  effects  sensitive prose  to  and  the to  organizational written  the  and  were  of  from  headings  after  are  students'  and  an  and  instruction,  and  mark as  procedures  number of  suggestions  on  in  the the  information/ level.  from answers  used  with  that  the to the the  significantly  written recall  findings,  in  and  instruction  indicated  i n the  for these  and  group  readability  same p a s s a g e s  training  increase  low  of  experimental  prose for  orally  Results  an  investigator  a  and  classes  experimental  aids  received  the  be  socio-economic  either  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  explanations  discussed.  non-streamed  The  w r i t t e n at  reading  group  classroom  to  group.  t o answer  hundred  s i x c l a s s e s were p a i r e d  recall  group  experimental  Possible  One  ability  from  passages  teachers  facilitate  The  assigned  as  group.  not  organization  information/classification  experimental  enhanced  intact  reading  to  information retrieval  q u a n t i t y and  study.  instruction  conventional  questions  as  six  students  information/classification  investigated.  randomly  of  classification  classroom  the  instruction  organization  The  on  estimated  conventional  received  use  aids  i n v o l v e d i n the  status or  headings  was  f o u r t h grade  of  use  students  b a s i s of  training  structure  recall  fourty-one were  of  ideas  but  recalled.  implications  for further  did  for  research  iii  CONTENTS  L I S T OF TABLES L I S T OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii ix X  CHAPTER ONE: THE PROBLEM Statement  of  Rationale  for  Purpose Null  of  the  Problem  1  Study  2  the  the  1  Study  7  Hypotheses  Definition  of  7  Terms  9  Assumptions  12  Significance  of  the  Study  12  Organization  of  the  Thesis  13  CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The  Importance  of  Sensitivity  14  t o Text  Structure  Summary  15 35  The E f f e c t s of H e a d i n g s on R e c a l l C o m p r e h e n s i o n of E x p o s i t o r y P r o s e The I m p o r t a n c e Headings  ....  of  Teaching  and  Students  37 to  Use 37  Summary T h e o r e t i c a l Perspectives Regarding E f f e c t i v e n e s s of H e a d i n g s  40 the 40  Summary  44  N o n - I n s t r u c t i o n a l E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d i e s Which Examined the E f f e c t s of H e a d i n g s on C o m p r e h e n s i o n and R e c a l l of E x p o s i t o r y Prose  45  i v  Summary  57  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Studies Designed to S e n s i t i z e Students t o Headings, Text S t r u c t u r e and Macrosturcture Formation.  60  Summary  83  CHAPTER  and Conclusions  T H R E E : METHODOLOGY  .  Design  87  Selection  of Subjects  Classification Ability Testing  of Students  into  Reading 89  Instruments  The  90  Test  Gates  Material  MacGinitie  Comprehension  90  Reading  Test  90  Content  90  Standardization  91  Validity  91  Reliability  92  Non-Standardized Initial  Test  Test  Material  92  Passage  92  Use  92  Construction  93  Final  Test  Passage  93  Use  93  Construction  93  Administration  Scoring Tests  89  Levels  Standardized  Test  87  Procedures  Conditions forInitial  and Procedures and F i n a l  94  Recall 95  V  Development  of S c o r i n g Procedures  95  Description  of S c o r i n g Procedures  96  Reliability  of S c o r i n g Procedures  98  Materials  100  Instructional  Passages  100  Materials  f o r the C o n v e n t i o n a l Group  . ... 101  Materials  f o r the E x p e r i m e n t a l Group  102  Procedures Pilot Main  102 Study  102  Study  105  Teacher  Orientation  105  Student  Orientation  106  Instructional  Procedures  107  Conventional  Treatment  107  Experimental  Treatment  107  Lesson  Duration  108  Summary  108  C H A P T E R FOUR: R E S U L T S Analysis The  109  of the I n i t i a l  Testing  111  Gates-McGinitie Test  '  T-Scores Classification Ability  Years  111 of Students  Reading 112  Rates  of Teaching  Initial  into  Levels  Attendance  111  115 Experience  Test R e c a l l  115 116  vi  Analysis  of t h e F i n a l  Testing  Findings  f o r Quantity  Findings  f o r Organization  118  of R e c a l l Hypotheses of R e c a l l  Hypotheses Analyses  124  o f t h e Use of H e a d i n g s  By G r o u p  131  Summary  CHAPTER  131  FIVE:  Summary  SUMMARY, D I S C U S S I O N , C O N C L U S I O N S , I M P L I C A T I O N S AND L I M I T A T I O N S OF THE STUDY  134  of t h e Study  Discussion  Final  134  of Findings  Initial  136  Testing  136  Testing  137  D i s c u s s i o n of the Findings f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l  138  Discussion of R e c a l l  140  Conclusions, Future  .... 121  of the Findings  f o r Quantity  I m p l i c a t i o n s , and Suggestions  for  Research  144  Scope a n d L i m i t a t i o n s of t h e Study  146  Implications  148  f o r Future  Research  BIBLIOGRAPHY Appendix  A:  Appendix  B:  Appendix  C:  149 I n i t i a l and F i n a l Test Passages Standardized Instructions for A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests  Scoring  Procedures  156  162  I n s t r u c t i o n a l P r o c e d u r e s and Materials  (Conventional  Group)  180  vii  Appendix  D:  Instructional Materials  Appendix  E:  Procedures and  (Experimental  Group)  Sources Used i n C o n s t r u c t i n g I n s t r u c t i o n a l andTest Passages  202  257  viii  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  2. 3.  4. 5.  6.  7. 8.  9. 10.  Page Summary of S c o r i n g T e c h n i q u e s Used D e v e l o p i n g Goble/Coulombe S c o r i n g Procedures T i t l e , F r y R e a d a b i l i t y and I n s t r u c t i o n a l Passages R e a d a b i l i t y Estimates F i n a l Test Passage D i f f i c u l t Words i n the Passages  of  in 97  A t t r i b u t e s of  the  101 Initial  and 104  I n i t i a l and  Final 105  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e T - S c o r e s by G r o u p f o r the Coulombe S t u d y , N a t i o n a l Norms, and West Vancouver School D i s t r i c t Scores  112  A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e f o r Q u a n t i t y and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l on F i n a l Test  117  A n a l y s i s of Q u a n t i t y of  122  C o v a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t  Means, A d j u s t e d Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Q u a n t i t y of R e c a l l on T e s t by A b i l i t y Groups A n a l y s i s of C o v a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t Means, A d j u s t e d Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s for O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Scores F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by A b i l i t y L e v e l s  for  Final 123 for 126 on 127  ix  L I S T OF FIGURES  Figure 1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Page Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on I n i t i a l Group and A b i l i t y L e v e l s  Recall  on F i n a l  Recall  Recall  Test 120  Test  by 125  O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s on F i n a l Group and A b i l i t y L e v e l s  Recall  Organization Group  Recall  Scores  by 119  O r g a n i z a t i o n S c o r e s on I n i t i a l by G r o u p a n d A b i l i t y L e v e l s  Quantity Scores A b i l i t y Levels  Test  on F i n a l  Test  by 129  Test  by 130  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  wish  heartfelt  i n my p r o f e s s i o n a l  advice,  Harold  providing  opportunity  my  senior  in  me,  advisor,  and  support  to  express  Dr. Florence  providing  and  my  me  with  the opportunity  to  development.  to Dr. C l a i r e  Staab  f o rh e r e x c e l l e n t  time and encouragement. Ratzlaff  direction  must  i n analyzing  also  be a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r  and r e p o r t i n g the  results  the study. Special  of  thanks  guidance,  Dr.  to  to  encouragement,  Sincere  and  this  for believing  continual  of  take  gratitude  Pieronek,  grow  to  advice  thanks  to Dr. Catterson  f o rdevelopment  D r . Lee Gunderson  f o r her  suggestions  of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  l e s s o n s and  f o rh i shelp  i n t h e computer  analysis  the'data. Sincere  whose  appreciation  commitment  inspiration. studies about  extended  excellence  Our p a r t n e r s h i p  provided  myself  to  i s  me  and about  while  to  was  a  Jo-Anne  great  conducting  with  invaluable  what  i sdesirable  source  of  our p a r a l l e l  learning and  Goble  experiences possible  in  educat i o n . A note teachers was  of thanks  and  conducted.  i salso  students  extended  of the schools  to  the  i n which  principals, this  study  xi  Finally, constant commitment  most  unconditional t o my  development. possible.  I am  grateful love,  well-being  Her  support  to  my  mother  encouragement,  and and  personal  and  caring  has  for  friendship  her and  professional made  i t a l l  1  CHAPTER  THE  PROBLEM  Statement This  study  sensitizing training  students  t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of  students to  to text  use  information/classification population  of the Problem  was d e s i g n e d  elementary  ONE  headings  expository  was f o u r t h g r a d e  structure for  recall  passages.  students  within  and  The  self  of of  target  contained  classrooms. The many lack  basic  students,  premise recall  material. more a b l e  of e x p o s i t o r y  c a n be u s e d It  prose text  to facilitate  was p r o p o s e d  that  the structure they  information  expository  ideas  passages  i s  hampered  of  will in  i f they  trained  from  the text.  to  utilize  expository possibly  be  information/  are sensitized  of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  are  by  i s s t r u c t u r e d and  recall  students  t o comprehend and r e c a l l  classification  if  investigation i s that, for  o f a w a r e n e s s o f how e x p o s i t o r y  how h e a d i n g s  to  of t h i s  headings  passages and to  gather  2  Beginning  at  f o r the  about  f o u r t h grade  the  required  to  material  (Durkin,  1978-79; E k w a l l  are  required  to  also  read.  As  "recall  of  —  both  recall  read  Rationale  increasingly greater  recall  affirmed  by  verbatim as  when t h e  essential  meaning out  a  that  demanded  (p.  remembering  to  16).  expository  1985).  They  what  they  Day  (1981),  in  schools  t e s t s and  gist  reconstruct  the  Several  researchers  experience  difficulty  expository  1981;  are  Taylor,  prose 1982;  information Taylor  and  1984).  There  seem t o  childrens'  discourse.  be  One  aspect  considerable and  narrative  material  organized  according  (Taylor,  Research  of  number  of  prose  the  is of  content  to (main  a  contribute  of  recall  which  difficulty  expository  presents  related  to  the  the  material.  of  expository  hierarchical  ideas)  and  children actual Unlike prose  pattern  is of  micropropositions  1982).  focused  comprehension  f a c t o r s which  with  organization  macropropositions (details)  a  difficulty  structure  that  text"  and  in vocabulary  many c h i l d r e n  Baumann,  with  is often  is required  of  students  of  Campione  student  (Danner,  to  amounts  as  and  1976;  Shanker,  recall  comprehending  Beach,  Brown,  level  amounts of  and  greater  [text] information  have p o i n t e d  Study  and  on  text memory  structure for  the  seems  to  indicate  information  in  3  expository  prose  expository  prose  Hiebert,  1984;  Taylor,  1980;  indicates of  the  Taylor,  1980).  the  for  need  sensitize  Hiebert,  students  One  recall  and  may  be  Gibbs, Niles,  a  1983;  Brown,  Stordahl, 1956; 1941).  and  Bluth,  1980;  research  also  awareness material  have  (Englert  1980;  expressed  explore  ways  and  to  Hiebert,  agree  Campione  be  and  explicitly  (p.  133).  and  (Brooks,  1970;  Hall,  Day 1965,  by  employed s i g n a l the  Meyer to  use  1941;  encoding  and  on  1965;  of  1985).  headings  recall  "...  of  Holley, and  1965;  Niles,  and  Hall,  Robinson  the  King,  Christensen  Jewitt,  (1984),  focus  Stordahl  S p u r l i n and  1981;  text  headings  Stables, use  1970;  of  and  efficient  1970;  to  organization  Jewitt,  Dansereau,  Robinson, out  and  Christensen  that  and  Herber,  pointed  students  quantity  identification,  1984;  h e a d i n g s ] can  the  1965,  Robinson  1955;  As  that  sensitize  1981;  Herber,  text  Meyer,  Englert  Bluth,  educators  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the  Day,  seem t o  the  in  Brandt,  structure  increase  and  1965;  ideas  how  in expository  studies  to  through  1985;  Many e d u c a t o r s facilitates  However, t h i s  reason  text  way  to  (Brown, Campione  1985;  and  of  1982).  possible  organization  1980;  Brandt  Meyer,  this  to  aware  demonstrate minimal  1984;  For  are  (Elliott,  structures  instructional  Taylor,  1955;  1982).  organizational  students  Meyer,  many s t u d e n t s  and  of  1982;  Taylor,  that  when  is structured  McGee,  (Englert  1984;  i s enhanced  subtitles  [or  macropropositions  top-level structure  of  the  text"  4  Past focused  research on  on t h e e f f e c t s o f h e a d i n g s  several  issues  which  absence  of headings  (Robinson  1985);  the  of headings  recall  (Brooks,  effect  Christensen 1980;  Dansereau,  and  Trueman,  1983;  Robinson  and  students  of  Trueman, Stables,  differing  1985);  students  the  the  effects  on  recall  (Brooks,  Vesta,  1980);  and 1985;  Evans,  identification i n expository  and  material  headings  the quantity 1941;  Christensen  on  text  on i n t e r m e d i a t e general  structural  i svital  on and  1980;  instructing Spurlin  Collins,  and  1985).  and  Brooks and and  lack  cues  of  of  Di  1982).  presence  of r e c a l l  However, those  the  awareness  Stordahl,  structure,  students'  that  i ftheir  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  1985; S t a b l e s ,  focused  a  of  (Taylor,  of  indicate  Trueman,  recall  utility  focused  (Hartley  (Dee-Lucas  the investigations reveal  studies  these  Dansereau,  Overall,  King,  and  and the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o use  for  Hall,  Vesta,  headings  Dansereau,  1981) a n d t o g e n e r a t e h e a d i n g s  influence  1983;  Hartley  of  and  Larson,  the  1978;  Owen  1983; H o l l e y ,  macrostructure  term  Holley,  abilities  Holley,  headings  and long  Dee-Lucas and D i  effects  reading Kenely,  t o use headings  and  Stables,  K e n e l y , Owen, a n d T r u e m a n , 1 9 8 0 ;  1941);  1983; H a r t l e y ,  1941;  on i m m e d i a t e  Marks,  has  the presence or  Hall,  1955; and  Hartley,  Hall,  and  Spurlin  Stordahl,  Doctorow, W i t t r o c k ,  include:  on r e c a l l  i sto  (Robinson  1955; G i b b s , as  with  use of headings  1985).  the  investigations seem  awareness of the u t i l i t y  (Stables,  of  A  number  to of of  5  explanations structure exposure 1982);  for children's  and  to  headings  to expository  McGee, Stables,  instruction Elliott, Taylor,  and  the  (Brooks,  1980; T a y l o r ,  training  use  headings  effects  for  Dansereau, 1977;  and t e x t direct  1941-45).  As  processing  affects  material.  When  representations s e e m s t o be Vesta, 1980;  1980; Taylor  have  and Beach,  examined produced  Doctorow,  the  Doctorow,  the  have  1983;  Stables,  examined  found  1985;  the  effect  students  significant  (Bartlett,  to main  1978; B r o o k s ,  and  and  1984; R o b i n s o n ,  are  Beach,  evidence  that  and r e c a l l  stimulated  macrostructure (Alvermann, Whittrock  Di  Vesta,  generative  of  expository  to  generate  of a t e x t ,  recall  1982; D e e - L u c a s and and Marks,  1978;  Di  Taylor,  1984). number  the e f f e c t of t r a i n i n g  Wittrock  direct  1983; G l y n n  i s  limited  mixed  for  and elementary  s t r u c t u r e have  facilitated  However, have  that  Taylor  1980;  S p u r l i n , and H o l l e y ,  comprehension  of  1984;  need  school  readers  Hiebert,  possible  1984).  there  Taylor,  1980; T a y l o r ,  instruction  well  1985;  and  1982; T a y l o r ,  1982;  text  limited  and B l u t h ,  S p u r l i n and H o l l e y ,  Taylor,  (Stables,  1984;  college, high  to  suggested:  and H i e b e r t ,  Many o f t h e f e w s t u d i e s of  been  Englert  Dansereau,  1980; E n g l e r t  sensitivity  r e l a t e d t o age and c o g n i t i v e  1976;  Meyer, Brandt  1985);  have  trends  (Danner,  1982;  of  material  developmental  development  lack  results  and Marks,  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s intermediate  (Boothby 1978;  students  and Alvermann,  Taylor,  1982;  that  1984; Taylor  6  1984).  and B e a c h Some  studies  have  reported  success  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s t o use h e a d i n g s and  Marks,  structure of  1978;  Taylor,  (Taylor,  1982  comprehension  1982,  intial  and  initial  headings  (Taylor,  1982  structure  (Boothby  replication  study).  approximated Taylor  by  s t u d y ) and  Others and  in  1984;  F u r t h e r m o r e , o n l y one  the  focus  (1982) c o n d u c t e d  of  the  to  the  h e a d i n g s and  subheadings.  significant  results,  the  same d e g r e e Finally,  investigation.  run  investigations  headings  to  recall.  be  generative training  first  material  study  by  yielded  s t u d y d i d not  a  the  to  processing  training  text  quantity  t h e r e seemed to  direct  four  to the present  the e f f e c t s of  sensitive  Therefore,  grade  grade  the t e x t as h i g h l i g h t e d  her r e p l i c a t i o n  increase  which combined  textbook  A l t h o u g h her  no s t u d i e s p r i o r  to  fifth  attain  of s u c c e s s .  seem t o h a v e e x a m i n e d students  of  structure  text  has  to  according  of  researcher  students  area  use  1982  t o examine the e f f e c t s of i n s t r u c t i n g content  not  and  designed  summarize  that  Taylor,  present  two c o n c u r r e n t l y  tasks  was  the  study)  Alvermann,  text  found  recall  instruction  replication  and  Whittrock  s t u d y ) as m e a s u r e d by  recall.  affected  training  (Doctorow,  i n t e r m e d i a t e s t u d e n t s ' comprehension significantly  in  students  and  four t o use  organization  of  be a need f o r a s t u d y paradigm  to determine to  grade  s t r u c t u r e and  instructional  approach  investigation  be  with  a  the e f f e c t  of  sensitive • to  the  7  structure  of  facilitate  descriptive  the  quantity  prose  effects  purpose of  of  identify  2.  be  and s u r v e y  sensitive  to  study four  use  paragraph  the  use  headings  rememberances  and  of  as  to  recall.  investigate  the  to:  cues  to  when  the  organization  text  of  passages;  information  retrieval  recalling  expository  sought  of  passages;  expository  aids  study  organization  expository  as  information/classification this  to  students  headings  organizational  Specifically,  was  hierarchical  information/classification 4.  of  headings  headings;  information/classification 3.  use  of the Study  the  t r a i n i n g grade  1.  to  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  Purpose  The  and  ideas  in  material.  answers  to  the  following  question: Will  direct  four  students  of  instruction to  be  designed  sensitive  to  information/classification  headings  as  organization  recall of  aids  written  Null  The statistical  following  null  evaluation:  to  the prose  affect  the  train  grade  organization and  to  use  quantity  and  recall?  Hypotheses  hypotheses  were e s t a b l i s h e d  for  8  For  Quantity  There  will  be  difference adjusted quantity  For  mean  by  no  between  Treatment  statistically the  final-test  will  of R e c a l l  performance  ability  level  test  performance  in their on  the  recall.  by R e a d i n g  be n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y  for  significant  treatment groups  of delayed w r i t t e n  Quantity  There  of R e c a l l  Ability  significant  on s t u d e n t s a d j u s t e d  on t h e q u a n t i t y  effect  mean  of delayed  finalwritten  recall.  For the  Interaction Quantity  There  will  membership  delayed  For  be  written  Organization  There  will  difference adjusted  no  interaction  independent  and r e a d i n g  final-test  on  variable  on  the  student  populations adjusted  quantity  of  recall.  of R e c a l l no  between  organization  between  a b i l i t y ) and t h e i r  performance  be  mean  by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y  Recall  i n both  (treatment mean  of  of T r e a t m e n t  by  Treatment  statistically the  final-test  significant  treatment groups performance  of delayed w r i t t e n  recall.  in their on  the  9  Ho :  For O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l by A b i l i t y  5  There for  will  ability  test  l e v e l on s t u d e n t s  performance  written  Ho :  be n o s t a t i s t i c a l l y  will  be  no  interaction  i n both  (treatment  and r e a d i n g  final-test  delayed  written  independent  following  understanding  Delayed  Recall: i s  exposure  to target  to  populations  and t h e i r  adjusted  on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  of  are  important  for  the  study.  recall  refers  student  of Terms  For the purpose written  For  on  recall.  terms  of t h i s  Generation:  delayed  between  variable  ability)  performance  Definition The  of  Recall  membership  mean  organization  final-  of Treatment by Reading A b i l i t y  the O r g a n i z a t i o n of There  the  a d j u s t e d mean  recall.  For I n t e r a c t i o n  6  on  significant effect  free-recall  macropropositions macropropositions  one  delayed  day  after  material.  the purpose  the  of t h i s study,  act  of  for of a  of t h i s  study,  producing headings  paragraph.  or which  generation generating lack  the  10  Heading:  For the purpose  word  or  which  phrase,  an  macroproposition  of  (Also  Classification expository  explanations  or  implicit  (adapted  paragraph;  a  which  from  Information/ A  style  of  o r g a n i z e s and p r e s e n t s  of  a  specifics,  particular  topic  1984).  statement  statement  micropropositions  as  attributes,  settings  A  to  Structure).  the  from Meyer,  Macroproposition:  of  which  the main  subsumes  (adapted  from  idea  of a  details  Kintsch  or  and v a n  1978).  Macrostructure: implicit  In  main  organization derived  text idea  van D i j k ,  analysis, or  gist  of a passage. from  macropropositions and  a  paragraph,  or  paragraph  referred  material on  be  the  Text  information  Dijk,  explicit  a  i s  1985).  Descriptive:  (adapted  study, a heading  s e t a p a r t and above  reflects  Stables,.  of t h i s  the  of  The  explicit  the  topic  macrostructure  title,  of t h e t e x t  1978 ) .  the  headings  (adapted  from  or and may and  Kintsch  Micropropositions:  Details  Micropropositions explicit  or  are  of  a  related  implicit  main  K i n t s c h and van D i j k ,  to  passage.  and subsumed  ideas  (adapted  propositions  (micro  p r o d u c e d on a t e s t this  study,  used  to  a  Chapter  Quantity and  of  delayed section  Sensitization:  For  sensitization  2.  recalled  of  of  as  macro  be and  section  (micro  evidenced  recall  Chapter  the  (see  by  a  Scoring  3).  purpose  of  this  study,  to:  procedures  awareness  used  response  to to  increase text  the  structure  headings.  a w a r e n e s s on the to  In  procedure w i l l  Scoring Procedures  written  refers  teaching  learner's and  scoring  recall.  R e c a l l : The number of p r o p o s i t i o n s  of  the  written  3).  Procedures  1.  arrangement  macropropositions)  arrangement  (see  macropropositions)  test  and  delayed  the  micropropositions of  of  weighted  measure  from  1978).  O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l : The q u a l i t y of t h e of  by  lack  of  part  awareness.  of  the  learner  as  opposed  1 2  Structural  Those  Cues:  referential ideas.  connections  The  study are  topical  sequential  cues  signal  details  the  and  emphasized  main  in  this  headings.  instructional  lessons  investigators Harris  which  between  structural  Guided  Training:  elements  procedures  and m a t e r i a l s  to  induce  and H o d g e s ,  prepared  learning  using by  (adapted  the from  1981).  Assumptions  It 1.  was assumed  The t a s k s study of  2.  w h i c h were  r e q u i r e d of  had some r e l a t i o n  students  and f i n a l  provided  quantity  to  in a school  The i n i t i a l study  that:  and  an  the  the  students  t y p e s of  in  this  tasks  required  used  in  setting.  test  instruments  adequate  organization  method f o r of  recall  assessing of  this the  expository  prose. 3.  A weighted and  recall  reliable  organization  test  method of  scoring  for  written  assesssing  investigation  significance  for  study  to  adds  educators, the  is the  an a p p r o p r i a t e quantity  and  recall.  Significance  This  system  is  of t h e Study  seen  as  s t u d e n t s and  knowledge  b a s e of  having  practical  publishers.  content  area  The  research  13  by  providing  processing  further  abilities  may  be  s h e d on  text  structure  to  recall  students  be  whether  grade  four  the  ability  of  use  resources  of  findings  aid  students  One  thesis  presents  Chapter  Two  describes Four Five  presents includes  conclusions, research.  i s organized the  problem  reviews  the  and  wish  light  sensitivity use  headings  or  can  be The  significantly  recall  one  to  way  writing  of  of  be  guiding  expository  m a t e r i a l s of to design  can  the  study  content  i n p r o c e s s i n g and  area  recalling  material.  Organization The  Some  which  as  and  text  instruction.  students'  teachers  t o p u b l i s h e r s who  which  informational  the  students'  treatment  in processing, recalling Finally,  students.  direct  organization  expository  developmental  by  classroom  the  to e f f e c t i v e l y  is  instructional  to  material. may  four  affected  the  suggested  grade  information  experimental  into  of  and  significantly  affected  insight  the  design the a  of  five  and  rationale  f o r the  study.  literature.  Chapter  Three  methodology  results summary  limitations  of  Thesis  into  related  and  the  the of  and  of  data the  chapters.  the  Chapter  study.  analysis.  study  implications  and  Chapter Chapter  states for  the  future  14  CHAPTER  R E V I E W OF This  review  will  The  first  literature. to  Text  have  Structure, greater  expository review  of  THE  area,  provides  than  LITERATURE  focus  on The  that  sensitivity  to text  structure  of  determinant  in children's  areas  Importance  of  i n t o why  material. have  structure  expository  A  prose  that may  ability  to  the  Sensitivity  and  may  recalling  chronological  focused  reveals  of  children  comprehending  narrative  studies  three  insight  difficulty  prose  TWO  on  students'  awareness of the be  an  important  process  expository  mater i a l . The s e c o n d m a j o r The  Effects  Expository a) The  of  Prose  Headings, of The  of the l i t e r a t u r e  Headings  on  of  Perspectives  and c) N o n - I n s t r u c t i o n a l  subsection  educators  who  headings  may  seem aid  structures  of prose  may  to  need  be  in  in  taught.  t o use  Headings,  cues  second  that  of  Examinations and  on t h e o p i n i o n s  agreement  The  subsections:  Exploratory  these  of  the E f f e c t i v e n e s s  conceptualizing  but that  concerns  Comprehension  Comprehension  focuses  t o be  which  three  Students  Regarding  on  and  into  Teaching  the E f f e c t s of Headings first  Recall  has been d i v i d e d  Importance  b) T h e o r e t i c a l  area  Recall.  of  the  several use  of  the organizational to  text  subsection  structure outlines  15  theoretical how  perspectives  h e a d i n g s may a f f e c t p r o c e s s i n g  prose.  The  studies  third  i n which  thereby  The  final  provides procedures  that  expository  The  expository  prose.  differential motivation,  the  language  of  readers  natural  encompasses Students  to  Formation.  A  tasks  focus  studies  and t r a i n i n g on  facilitate  ideas  comprehension  factors  t o Text  have  Structure  been  suggested  comprehension  include:  lack  experiences,  and high  Englert  factors  and  of p r i o r lack  of  readability levels  and Hiebert,  of concern apparent  of expository  in  material.  1984; C o l l i n s a n d H a v i l a n d  structure  students'  1979; Ekwall  1984; T a y l o r ,  to this  for  r e c a l l of knowledge,  interest or  the i n c l u s i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d vocabulary,  load,  children's  headings  organization.  types  with  These  of  t o use  instructional  of S e n s i t i v i t y  difficulty  expository  findings  Sensitize  these  i n turn,  of p o s s i b l e  the  Macrostructure  the  which,  Importance  children's  1985?  and  of information  number  to  of  of  of the l i t e r a t u r e  Designed  into  on  to text  seem t o h e l p  prose  recall  cues area  review  insight  reviews  were n o t t r a i n e d  Structure  chronological  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  and r e c a l l  perspective  major  Text  concept  a  Studies  Headings,  Ross,  students  t o use these  Instructional  A  subsection  providing  tendencies  and  which provide  heavy  (Burns,  Roe a n d  and  Shanker,  1982).  However,  investigation are related to  insensitivity  to  prose and lack  the organizational  of s t r a t e g i c  skills  16  w h i c h may (Englert  be u s e d  t o comprehend and  and H i e b e r t ,  Unlike  comprised  according  of a  the gist  Dijk, on  manner, read  Pieronek,  hand,  1985; T a y l o r , seems t o  practioners,  factor  expository  material  1982;  Herber, Meyer,  1965;  be  in  general  and  that  prose  different  text.  that  a  which  prose,  sequential  1981;  Tierney  and  Brandt  students  need  mental  As p u t f o r t h  to  prose  an  i s  and  1984;  Bluth,  reading  sensitivity  van D i j k ,  and  1982).  among  t o comprehend  and H i e b e r t ,  Kintsch  (1985) b e l i e v e s  expository  ideas  grammar a n d c a n be  expository  the a b i l i t y  1980; T a y l o r ,  a  Narrative  agreement  of  (Englert  1970;  main  1982).  1984; M e y e r ,  Taylor,  with  (Bridge  be  ( K i n t s h and Van  in  of story  end  patterns  important  1985;  1980).  t h e o r i s t s , and researchers  hierarchical  of  (micropropositions)  organized  the conventions  may  Each p a t t e r n i s  of the text  i s usually  to  text  organization  details  material  1982).  patterns.  1984; T a y l o r ,  beginning  There  the  Meyer,  follows  from  to several  and  such  expository  or macrostructure  1978;  the other  prose,  hierarchical  (macropropositions) form  1984; T a y l o r ,  narrative  constructed  recall  Catterson, 1978; McGee,  1980;  For example, to  approach  framework  by C a t t e r s o n  recall  Niles,  Catterson expository  than (1966,  used f o r 1985):  R e a d i n g n a r r a t i v e i n v o l v e s some o f t h e same t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s as r e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n does but t h e r e a r e a l s o many d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o p r o c e s s e s a n d s t r e s s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i s p r o b a b l y more helpful than stressing similarities. One r e a d s w i t h i n a m i n d - s e t t r i p p e d by o r g a n i z a t i o n of the material (p. 4 ) .  17  Pieronek (1985) and  (1985) c o n c u r s  suggests  between n a r r a t i v e Niles depends or  and  part  information  upon  in the  maintained  that  to  informal  analysis  that  four  textbooks order  weigh  main  (also  taught  of  recalled"  awareness  of  expository  of  content  following  known  recall  importance  as  of  area  simple  information/classification),  (p.  of  order  57).  She  patterns  e f f i c i e n c y , and text.  (1965)  were  order,  the Her  revealed  used  frequency:  listing,  time  recall  prose  texts  of  of  details in a  patterns  order  difference  some k i n d  be  the  Catterson  the  "efficiency  perceiving  accuracy,  of  material.  that  organizational  i n the  opinion  to  enhances comprehension ability  out  the  ideas  the  c h i l d r e n be  (1965) p o i n t e d  in  system  that  with  in  school  enumerative  descriptive cause-effect  or and  compare-contrast. Herber the  (1970) a l s o  organization  of  expository  material.  structures  of  Internal the  cause/effect, structure. can  use  unimportant format  identified text:  refers  to  whether  N i l e s , Herber  knowledge of  prose  about to  information. and  physical  awareness  enhances  the i t  two  structure be  of  reading  of  organization and  internal.  or  main  or  use  pattern  disorganized  internal  d i s t i n g u i s h between External of  text  in  students  organizational important  organization the  of  idea/detail,  r a t i o n a l i z e d that  the  features  and  the  external  comparison/contrast, Like  structure  the  He  content  that  prose  expository  organization  text  agreed  focuses  such  as  and on  tables  18  of  contents,  chapter  maps, p i c t u r e s , e t c . can  be  used  authors  place  nature  of  The its  and  on  the  and  ideas  content  van  capacity  impossible therefore ideas m u s t be  and  Rules  of  then  be  recalled Kintsch  form a be  high  gist  recalled  in  be  to  version  To  van  able  the  easier  those that to The  text  in a  this  the  in  A  of  the  selection. rules  recall  because  theorists  reader  must  important the  reader  ideas) At  the  the  mental  back  the  be  hierarchy.  they  could  further  must  into  a  located  more They  connected  main  material.  propositions would  same  gist.  particularization  of  and  deletion,  internalizing  that  referentially  i t  of  or  model  make  (main  macrostructure  the  cited  mind  text.  concepts  in  comprehension  efficiently  apply when  schema suggested  human  important  low  for  the  to  theorized  a  frequently  macrostructure  transform  the  been  macropropositions  be  identify  this  s p e c i f i c a t i o n and  Dijk  has  hierarchical organization  than  chunks.  do  construction  of  with  macrostructure  the  must  and  applied  prose  ( d e t a i l s ) i n the  addition,  hypothesized would  or  details into a  i n the  of  priorities  text".  content  to  to  italics, organizers  what  and  (1978) model of  recalled.  reader  and  and  remember e v e r y t h i n g  generalization ideas  approaching  According  s e n s i t i v e to  the  decipher  i n the  or  external  information  present  Dijk's  micropropositions time,  that  "to  limitations  to  to  and  of  underlinings  reasoned  organization  reproduction.  the  He  students  importance  inherent  Kintsch  by  headings,  likely also  propositions be  processed  postulated  that  19  increasing  the  complexity  decrease  the  factors  which play  are  s i z e of  considered  reader's  to  schema  roles  the  for  t e x t w o u l d most chunks.  processing  information  text pattern  the  formation goals,  presented,  used  likely  However,  in macrostructure  reader's  the  f o r the  the  processing  major  be  schema  reader's  the  of  to  the  and  the  present  the  informat ion. Research for  the  put,  students  than  on  study of  1980;  involved  grade  ninth and  one  with  and a  i n two  the  underlined  words of  the  without-signalling version  did  focused  not.  based  i n the  version.  title of  groups on Two one  study.  a with-signalling  stated a  The  s t r u c t u r e and  versions:  main c o n c e p t s  Brandt  performance.  were u s e d  included  they  Meyer,  into  abilities  level  in  structure  1982).  without-signalling  text,  what  Meyer,  divided  test  explicitly  simply  organization.  reading  top  schema  ideas  investigation  text  pattern  version  of  1984;  students  comparison  a  structure  of  of  text  Taylor, an  more  more of  of  Hiebert,  reading  written  and  with-signalling  the  poor  problem/solution  version  aware  1980;  102  passages,  was  and  or  organization  not  are  have a  prose,  who  use  average  Each passage  the  who  significantly  students'  estimates  a  of  (1980) c o n d u c t e d  teacher  with  students  remember  Taylor,  Bluth  grade  good,  aware of  Englert  1980;  and  ninth  are  students  Bluth,  Brandt  who  prose  (Elliott, and  indicated that  organizational structures  expository read  has  the  the and  The  top-level contained  passage  while  20  In of  the study  the four  After  passages  reading  participants  a  week  later  that  could  be  each  student  reported  on  participants when used  the  use  of  text  students  a test  findings text  the author's from  were  more  organize  their  protocols  than  students  who  Third,  those  recalled  more  students  who  recognize  who  appeared learning, students,  with  signalling  and this  immediate finding  task,  grade  50% o f t h e  at least  the passage  text  once  and only  good  ninth  (1980)  ninth  only  structure  use  ratings  previously.  the  First,  ninth  22%  grade  structure  to  grade  readers.  d i d use the author's  structure  those  who  d i d not.  structure  information the  recall  and B l u t h  to  poor  than  passages  d i d not use t e x t that  to  the top-level  whether  inconsistent those  inclined  information used  Brandt  the  everything  recognition  c o n s i s t e n t l y . . Second,  readers  sight,  down  one. week  related  order.  remember.  the free  structure.  t o two  could  wrote  requiring  information  structure  again  Meyer,  i t from  they  read  assigned  presentation  removing  Following  data  utilized  recalling  and  the passages  major  randomly  everything  remembered.  five  students'  down the  from  was  and t o a passage  completed  sentences Based  student  passage,  wrote  One  of  each  structure.  facilitated recall  were more  was that  of  approached  Fourth, able  consistent had been Fifth,  poor but  or  read  than  although  use of t e x t  i t  structure,  ninth did  to  not  grade reach  significance.  7  21  Results showed  that  recall,  that  than  poor  signal  from  good  the  light  operations  on  the  of  organization  whether  prose  significant  on  and  joint  the  title,  main  text  structure  aid  cues  in  which  recall  twenty  idea  eight  the  recall  the  study  of  One  of  was was  the  students  only, of  by  Aulls  designed  to  find  would  scores of  or  at  assigned  varied  above  a  sixth  paragraphs in  paragraphs and  topic  only,  content  paragraphs  in content  have  of  title  design. or  out  compact  statement topic  in  structural  paragraph  arrangement reading  two  expository  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  statement  earliest  conducted  recall  idea  However  of  characteristics  main  some  processing  external  free  use  sheds  the  meaningfulness  external  l e v e l ) which  prose  (discontinuous  of  reader's  effect  and  content  factorial  read  expository  limited.  meaningfulness  in a  level  readability  and  mature  discourse  been  order  of  children's  Internal  presence  and  manipulated  grade  influence  amounts of  may  Bluth  may  operations.  e f f e c t on  sentence  s u c h as  of  internal  students.  neither,  of  and  processing  children's  organization),  and  have  certain  as  greater  investigated  characteristics  such  recall  text  Specifically,  grade  that  effectiveness  and  which  1975.  structure  seem more a w a r e  investigating  studies  text  Brandt  material.  students'  studies  Meyer,  macrostructure  structure  on  and  by to  readers  text  Research text  study  sensitivity  readers  expository  of  the  One  or  were  hundred  the  sixth  (grade  5  meaningfulness.  22  The  s t u d e n t s were g i v e n  paragraph write  once.  Then  summarization  was j o i n t l y paragraph  and  increased recall  recall  content  Aulls  paragraphs  (compact  would  statements data  However,  as  was  that  that  of  influencing  recall.  extent  to  external  structure  and  significantly  title  the between  effect  nor main  on idea  paragraph  title  was n o t a s  idea  statement.  structural  cues  subtopics,  t h e main e f f e c t s  prose  paragraphs  structural  may  a  longer time a l l o t m e n t  find  The f i n d i n g s  of  paragraph.  the content meaningfulness  expository  with  recall  (discontinuous  main  a  Nonetheless,  influence  influences  the  or t i t l e s .  (Aulls,  that  of a  to  f o r word.  f o r meaningful  relationships  paragraph  word  combination  indicate  organization)  Since  idea  however,  do i n d i c a t e  recall  content  and o r g a n i z e d ) , t h e t o p i c  on r e c a l l  each  instructed  indicated  where n e i t h e r  have a l l o w e d r e a d e r s  which  had s a i d  read  and had a g r e a t e r f a c i l i t a t i v e  suggested,  might  were  characteristics  paragraph  were p r e s e n t .  influential  to  by t h e c o n t e n t m e a n i n g f u l n e s s  the title-main  than  statement  the  the participants  structural  low m e a n i n g f u l  time  of the r e s u l t s  influenced  disorganized)  that  enough  down e v e r y t h i n g t h e p a r a g r a p h A  For  just  also  idea  of the  (internal has  joint  characteristics support  a c t as a guide  the  that  in  notion  influences  1975).  paragraph memory, to  awareness of t h i s  structure  further  which  may  studies  prose  organization  a c t as a guide  were needed  organization influenced  which  t o determine  and  children's  their  recall.  23  One  such  study  (1976). two,  The  four  of  this  of  the  12  girls  and  six in  short  e f f e c t s of and  two  12  to  Both  organized passages  their  and  from two  three  other  two  required  participate in a  taped  difficulty,  a  description  topic  had  each  passages. Each  sentences  one  and  the  among  a  The  order  of  participants. each c h i l d  test,  a  and  a  was  discussion  detection  task  to  topically  disorganized.  recall  recall  utilized  bear.  four  presentation  free  awareness  study  versions,  counterbalanced the  influence  sentence  with  grades topical  the  polar  consecutively  following  task,  12  or  topics  of  Danner  topically  Immediately  grouping  The  Danner  assess  their  grade.  fox  had  was  subjective  to  and  recorded  main  presentation  of  recall,  a  passages the  was  by  understanding  each  tape  were p r e s e n t e d  to  study  later  organization.  described  contained  topic.  on  boys  passages  this  year  d e s c r i p t i v e passages,  topical  listen  passage  of  one  children's  organization  student  each  conducted  purpose  organization  The  was  task,  review  a  notes  task. An  analysis  organization perceived three was age  the  difficulty  greater  test data  significantly  grades.  Recall  for  related  children  of  affected  of  recall  and  topical  topically  who  proportionately  were  aware  greater  were  older  in  the  passage  order  of  passages.  passage of  amount,  clustering  found  of  number  the  that  in a l l students  organized  differences  revealed  and  from a l l sentences  In  addition, number  of  organization.  A  children  noticed  24  differences  in  the  structure  sentences  topically  of  organization.  passage  four  and  one of  greater  difficulty  the  organization  exist  instruction  of  performance  text  study  of  passage  organization.  to  with  of  the  age.  required  a  utility  in ability lack  of  of  facilitate  of expository  utility these  for short,  listening  of  task  passage of  materials. children's  increased  passage  rather  to  students'  seemed  relatively  be  in detection  that  findings  also  awareness  may  also  text  exposure  Because  passages  trends  of  may  training  findings  However,  c h i l d r e n ' s memory  to differences i n  to demonstrate  The  of the  attributing  that  expository  grade  developmental  regardless  concluded  descriptive  awareness  which  recall  seemed  in  awareness  outlining.  and r e c a l l  recall  increased  although  organization  i n study  one  passages.  children's  topical  Danner  Danner's  that  ideas  awareness of the  influenced  organization, use  recalling  sorted  on t h e b a s i s  spontaneously  that  younger in  organization  and  by  on memory, d i f f e r e n c e s to  notes  two s t u d e n t s ,  of the disorganized  commented  organization  review  passages,  s i x , demonstrated  when  in children's  attributed  Only  organization  Danner may  and s e l e c t e d  i n grade  utility  between  with  to indicate organization  were simple  than  a  limited passages reading  activity. In content  another  study  organization  propositions  placed  involving on  high  listening  recall,  Waters  and the e f f e c t of (1978)  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l  found  that  structure  of a  25  passage  were  recalled  hierarchical  better  than  organization.  In  those the  first  investigations,  64  third  grade,  64  college  students  either  generated  level  listened  to  a  tape  recorded  different  participant.  were g i v e n  a  set  to  be  material listened the  to  prompt  subjects  sheet  subordinate  to  been  be  and  the  that  van  subjects  their  study  a  Dijk's  to  who Two  that  passage  or  by  a  a  passage  compose were  the then  were  supplied  weeks  later a l l  a l l subjects  superordinate  (high  propositions.  subordinate  These  two  passage.  found  level)  r e c a l l e d when  recalled.  Kintsch  recall  (low  likely  As  proposition  i t s superordinate  findings  of  text  level) well  was  the more  proposition  provide  (1978) model  from  support  for  comprehension  production. In  not  to  of  96  same p a s s a g e s  listening.  r e c a l l e d more  indicated  and  while  r e s u l t s of  results  had  g r o u p of  a  the  and  generated  in order  These  grade  in  generated  who  words  remembered.  another  treatments  than  "prompt"  were a s k e d  The both  by  of  sixth  passage  Subjects  low  contrast  find  developmental  structure recall  since  these  the  of  kinds  listened  to  or  findings  differences students  seem b e s t  appeared as  an  generated  investigation passages  to  be  as  to  during  did text  likely  older  interpreted  which were p e r f o r m e d  from  (1976), Waters  in sensitivity  propositions  findings  tasks  results  Danner's  younger  superordinate  However,  First,  to  to  students. in light the  in which  of  study. students  r e c a l l e d cannot  be  26  easily read  generalized material  prompt only  word 11  to  for  conditions recall.  each  of  which  that  the  which  pattern  similar  to  narrative  rather  than  expository  not  known w h e t h e r  narrative can  be  form  and and  i t is difficult to  studies  Waters  (1978)  by  Aulls  there  need  need  to  recall  was  compared good  met the  material. tests,  18  readers  participants passage and  good  to  on  were  of  on  Tierney,  Bridge  and  of  type  poor  the  results  judgement third were  grade  dinosaurs,  to  to  affect also  regarding  the  However children's This who  information  recalled  by  a f t e r reading  reading and  for  orally a  expository  standardized  readers  read  a  reading  accuracy,  18 the  poor study. 5  probed  for  that  36  third A l l  paragraph  d i s t r a c t o r reading  everything  S t u d e n t s were then  may  examined  and  oral  complete  prose  (1978-79)  selected  required  of  after reading.  of  and  (1976)  Cera  readers  orally • free-recall  remembered.  material  in  results  warranted.  which  a  i t is  investigations  was  studies  in  Danner  organization  research  a  prose.  (1975),  These  in  passages  i f the  organization  prose  for  versus  teacher  subjects, grade  by  Based  this  expository  extent  readers  the  further  aspects  ability  that  recall.  organizational a  determine  the  contained  Since  their  conducted  at  found  passage.  expository  that  was  to  must  connected  be  of  to  and  suggested  might  recall  suggest  sensitivity  comprehension  be  individuals constructed  generalized  The  what  look  outline  could  sequential  an  students  Second, a c l o s e r  outlines revealed  words,  in  could  further  task be  recall.  27  The  findings  significantly  more c o m p l e t e  propositional than  poor  revealed  structure  readers.  revealed  A  that,  approximated or  setting,  theme, p l o t  Cera had  tended  (1978-79) a  and  resolution. that  renditions.  The  experimenters  processing  the  of  ( t e x t based) and  reader's  prior  texts  suggested  of  Bridge  and  might  have  students  w h i c h may  have into  guided  narrative  that  children's  prose  seemed  abstractive  (based  knowledge  recalls  grammar p a t t e r n  these  expository  data  non-narrative  Tierney,  non-narrative  the  the  free  the  story  framework  the  to  a  of  structure  of  the  of  follow  of  constructive  cases,  version  abstraction  discourse  more  analysis  to  schema or  and  recalled  interpropositional  several  speculated  narrative  readers  propositions,  and  shortened  passage  good  subjective  in  a  that  to  be  both  according  and  schemata  need  for  of  text  structure). Taylor  (1980) a l s o  investigated material  children's  after  investigation between  included readers  17 and  graduate provide  to  good  students an  to  a b i l i t y , age, text  recall  grade  fourth were  also  adult  past  of  the  readers. included  recall  sample 17  Taylor's  relationship  expository  The  poor  text  sixth  the  performance.  and  population  Seventeen in  which  expository  research,  readers,  grade  studies  recall  examine  structure.  sixth  example of  to  Unlike  designed  good 17  ability  reading.  was  reading  sensitivity  r e a l i z e d the  grade adult  study Two  to 225  28  word  passages  containing  protection  were  readability  level.  for  the  fourth and in  good  passage  fourth  required  to  assigned  The  The in  Sixth  grade  was  day  read  the  the  sixth Taylor  of  The  use  recalls.  have  had  and  A l l  was  again  the  sixth-grade written  subjects  then o r a l l y  were  recall  orally  the  findings memory  recall  grade good poor  a  their  recalled  developmental  ability  readers. readers  readers  suggested that better  recall  passage  after  recall  for  i t  were p a r t i c u l a r l y adept  top level  reading.  or  fourth  pattern  appeared  a  recall  grade  good  the s i x t h grade  good  also  may  study  of  to  and  they  used  text  suggested  have even  been  a  that result  though  the  structure.  expository  at  were a b l e  because  She  scores  As  organization  of T a y l o r ' s  the t o p - l e v e l However  revealed  their recalls.  d i d not c o n t a i n  children's they  (1980)  i n delayed  following  recalls  grade  to order  differences  poor  while  well, after  s i x t h grade  structure  adults  fourth  delay,  may  constructed  immediate  two  readers  was  grade  p r o d u c e d more m e m o r i e s on  than  readers.  style.  study  children's  readers  than  for  sixth  delay.  recall  more  and  animal  Both passages were  passage  delayed day  on  and  passage  constructed  readers.  silently The  fourth  readers  (descriptive)  r e s u l t s of  trend  a  good  grade  passage.  a two  at  information  sixth-grade  grade  attributive  after  written  sixth  grade  identical  also prose  the text that  following  indicated  that  is facilitated i f to  order  none of t h e  the text  their  children  structure  in  29  their  delayed  recalls.  sixth-grade fourth  good  grade  sensitivity  59%,  18%  sixth  readers,  text  younger readers delayed  readers,  good to  Only  and  grade  structure.  Taylor  because of d i f f i c u l t i e s  in  the passage, l e s s study  themselves  and  in  and  comprehension  knowledge about  s k i l l strategies,  type m a t e r i a l s  orally  demonstrated  with  the  expressing  poor r e a d e r s  on i m m e d i a t e  t e x t m a t e r i a l s , l a c k of p r i o r  l e s s exposure t o e x p o s i t o r y  the  suggests that the  of e x p o s i t o r y subject  of  respectively,  may have p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y  recall  12%  the  and d i f f i c u l t i e s recall  situation  (p. 4 0 8 ) . B a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s o f h e r s t u d y  Taylor  recommendations which  included:  instructing  attend  structure  of  to  top-level  conducting  research  in  trained  to  top-level  s t r u c t u r e of the  with  organize  which  elementary  different  top-level research enable  under  find  children  study  material;  of  instructional to  become text  students  the  research  passages  i f there  are  of any  more r e a d i l y p r o d u c e  prose;  and  techniques  skilled  are  to  conducting  expository  students  to  material;  according  to discover  patterns  expository  reading-to-learn At  which  elementary  using  students  expository  memories  and c o n t e n t  structure to  utilizing  children  lengths  circumstances  their  made s e v e r a l  at  organization  conducting which  would  recognizing t o enhance  and their  abilities.  a b o u t t h e same t i m e t h a t T a y l o r  on c h i l d r e n ' s s e n s i t i v i t y  was c o n d u c t i n g  to text structure,  her  Elliott  30  ( 1 9 8 0 ) was  also  structure. what  use  facilitate 102  a  One  of  grade  grade  passage about was  written  top-level  to  and  written  after  between  of  than  to  identification  notion  48  that  hour  who  and  use  an  passage  randomly were  required  to  produce  passage.  However,  written  to  in  assigned  in  of  was  not  that  the  found  used  Taylor from  the  author's  remembered (1980),  structure to  structure  as  more  Elliott  training  appears  text  amount  versions  recalls  benefit text  the  i t was  Like  study  sensitivity  written  the  passage  of  developed.  were  the  would  versions  Students  not.  Thus E l l i o t t ' s  that  was  spontaneously  students  year  pattern.  two  did  one  (comparison/contrast)  differences  their  would  Two  were  and  involved  reading  study.  other  delay  of  the  who  organize  that  strategy.  a  of  significant.  students  concluded  one  the  students  structure  the  determine  study  human b o d y w a t e r  and  to  text  structures  students  i n the  to  organization  The  adversative  protocol  found  statistically 44%  of  the  read  recall  Elliott recall  No  (descriptive)  instructed  a  in  prose.  included  loss  structure  attributive  versions  expository  were  text  top-level  students.  level  attempted  knew a b o u t  particular of  sensitivity  Elliott  students  recall  sixth  below  children's  Specifically,  intermediate  whether  of  exploring  in a  study  support  enhances  the  the  recall  ef f i c i e n c y . Further Bridge  and  research Cera  related  (1978-79)  to and  the  work  children's  of  Tierney, possible  31  differential was  processing  conducted  purpose  of  amount  and  free  and  by  the  reading  Bridge  study  kind  probed an  was  of  poor  grade  third  the  was  a  that  prose  -  both  kind  able  narrative  Tierney's  more e x p l i c i t more poor  revealed  inferred readers.  two  narrative  or  readers.  and  After be  expository and  amount of  order  passage. good  of  of  good  explicitly and  ideas  were in  the  The  findings  readers  generally  their  information However,  type  Both  connectors,  in  test  information.  poor  information  (Stanford  what c o u l d  quantity  that  teacher  Squirrel"  the  original  18  (1981) investigation  - narrative  expository  of  The  the  The  and  The  further  more  i n the  basis  recalling  for  in  after  "Dinosaurs".  generated  ability  than  and  good and  the  passage.  scores  and  entitled  material  the  readers  reader.  greater  recalled  condition  "Johnny  and  on  readers  the  test  recalled a  to  generated  on  called  to preserve  than  poor  reading.accuracy.  influenced  related  and  selected  passages  specific  effects  third-grade  basal  of  The  prose  inferred information  from a  r e c a l l e d by  information,  better  good  1981.  narrative  reading  Bridge  readers  a  narrative  the  and  were probed  generally  poor  and  and in  and  good  oral  story  of the  information  stated  and  students  Results showed  examine  s e l e c t i o n was  reading  remembered,  and  18  selected  expository  orally  to  readers  Text)  were  selection  Tierney  of  standardized  Achievement passages  and  expository included  expository  explicit  recalls  participants  judgement,  of  free in these  the  recalls probed general  32  findings text  regarding  type  were  the influence not  readers.  Many  kind  information  This  of  finding  unwise text  to  predict  both  McGee  the t h i r d  fifth  grade randomly  test  materials  similar units.  at  a  passage, recall  grade  poor  fifth third  chosen  A total grade  structure,  t h e two  grade  four  three  texts.  o f 20 g o o d  were  readers  r e a d e r s from the A l l participants  be  level  containing  required  of  idea  t o read  problem  and  remembered f o r each  The  passages  quantities  addition  from  a  orally  about  the  passage  and  tape recorded.  of McGee's  (1982)  investigation  readers recalled  grade  readers,  graders.  The  readers fifth  one y e a r  style  s t u d y were  could  and poor  descriptive  and  one  ability.  schools.  readability  a distractor  i t i s  elementary  hierarchies  that  reading  f o r the study.  from  and  b e h a v i o r from  a n d 20 p o o r  w e r e t w o 125 w o r d  good  five  amount  was c o n d u c t e d  T h e same p r o c e d u r e w a s u s e d  fifth  grade  reading  and  individual  f o c u s e d on g o o d  structure  selected  everything  recalls  the  recall  that  students i n this  Results  than  and f i f t h  complete  passage. oral  of t e x t  three-level The  after  ability  for  in  on an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  (1982).  were  were  written  found  greatly  individual's  investigation  awareness  by  recalled  reading  l e d the experimenters to conclude that  Another  later  consistently  students varied  t o another based  readers'  of  had  grade  who  i n turn  results a poor  more  also  greater readers  revealed  total  that  ideas  than  recalled  more  ideas  showed  that  good  awareness  of  text  demonstrated  some  33  sensitivity  to  text  demonstrated However,  passage  exposure need  reading  to  for  of  text  Additional awareness by  of  data  and  prose  and  and  ability  readers  the  Chall)  topic  text The  The  at  first  structure last  two  found  Sixty-nine differing  the of  of  in  the  a  grade  four  is  provided 1984.  patterns  in  graders  socio-economic were  study 2.5  rank  medium and  available Basic  of  enumeration,  third  high,  low  reading  Skills).  Each  contained  six  readability  (Dale  sentences  introduced  sentences  student's  Subjects  of  Test  and  and  investigated  description,  basis  were w r i t t e n  age  in  (1984)  study.  used  suggest  recall  Hiebert  i n t o groups of  the  structure  commonly  the  the  suggested  elementary  and  graders  in  to  e f f e c t s on  text  included  in  also  text  structured  related  She  Hiebert  (California  passages  level.  idea.  on  scores  and  particular  sixth  clustered  four  sentences  which  involved  ordered  of  of  four  the  structure.  compare/contrast.  were  achievement  of  be  on  and  structure.  information  the  text  Englert  Englert  sixty-nine  status  by  knowledge  expository  use  d i f f e r e n t types  Specifically,  sequence  to  readers  r e s u l t s seem t o  may  addressed  text  tightly  the  material.  information  obtained  children's  of  structure  which  students  short,  40%  good  followed  McGee t h e  expository  research  instructing  by  grade to  who  the  than  reported  awareness  third  students  recalled less As  and  sensitivity  those  while  material. that  minimal  even  structure  structure  and  retained  followed  a  extended  the  some  of  the  34  topical the  information  passage  After  an  pattern  explanation  requirements third an  grade  Yes?  a l l  of  by of  children  belonged four  the  first  and  introduced  introducing test  students  investigator)  sentences One  previously  the  rated  how  the  first  with  responses could  ( s o r t of  belongs);  No!;  new  sample  silently had  a  text  the  passage  and  to  the  topical  marked  and  of  with  No?  on  structure. task  passages  read  each  two  intruded  problem  read  well  be  but  (the  them last  by four  sentences.  an  (sort  "X": of  YES!; doesn't  belong). The text  r e s u l t s of  structure  ability than  and  This  the  that  text  by  Meyer, study  more  sentences were  viewed  Taylor,  at  and  Elliott  Bluth  detecting  as  evidence  reported  1980;  indicated  to  McGee, that  in  those  (1980).  the for  the  tended  paragraph. the  other  1982).  children's  The  existence studies  of  to  not.  (1982)  finding  of  generally the  third to  more  research  rate  These  text grade a l l  findings  developmental  (Danner,  r e s u l t s of  saliency  were  McGee  between  than  salient  past  seemed  of  reading  were  Another  students  students  who  who  of  mismatches  grade  belonging  students  (1980),  d i s t r a c t o r sentences  and  were more  results  sixth-grade  Third  differences  also  that  those  knowledge  level  structures  the  (1980),  that  grade  outperformed  supports  Brandt,  and  as  to  certain text  Taylor  was  students.  revealed  related  structure  adept  structure  study  Specifically,  finding  conducted and  was  others.  aware of  this  1976;  the  experiment  text  structure  35  seemed t o  proceed  sequence,  following  enumeration,  contrast.  Englert  interesting texts  i n the  and  generally  descriptive elementary suggested  a  is  school  (1984)  considering  follow  text  description  Hiebert  finding  sequence  the  type  texts.  comparison/  viewed fact  order  most  The  awareness:  and  the  sequential  of  this that  of  as  an  narrative  events  commonly  and  found  investigators  in  further  that  t h e s e q u e n c e [ p a t t e r n ] .... may have c o n s t i t u t e d a p o w e r f u l t e x t s t r u c t u r e b e c a u s e of young c h i l d r e n ' s p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e and familiarity with time-based structures in stories. I n d e e d , F r e e d l e and Hale's (1979) suggestion that competence with story structure precedes competence with expository s t r u c t u r e needs c o n s i d e r a t i o n (p. 12). Englert with  and  Hiebert's  descriptive  suggestions  structures  description segments w i t h abruptly to  were  for  children's  difficulty  that  passages typically occur as short o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s .... and o f t e n shift accomodate other text structures (p.  72) .  The  experimenters  research  which  learning  of  concluded  defines text  how  that best  structure  there to  at  was  a  need  facilitate  particular  for  student  stages  of  development.  Summary  The  findings  contributed structure points  is  to  affects  of the  the  studies  reviewed  understanding  text  warranted.  of  how  processing.  A  First,  because  thus  far  awareness  review the  of  of  the  have text main  structure  of  36  expository it  may  prose  require  (Burns,  Roe  Catterson,  and  1985;  Pieronek,  1984;  Bridge  1980,  disorganized  Danner,  1976).  As  well,  facilitate  sensitivity  to text  influence  recall  expository  1980).  hierarchical low  ability  gist  and  to  the  to  and  text  1984; McGee,  Taylor,  1980).  more  likely  organizing ability  to  their  (Bridge  as  to  recall  opposed  positively  (Aulls,  text  may  i n turn  may  Brandt  and  in  the  high  to recall  (Waters,  1975;  signals  (Meyer,  than  1978).  hierarchical t o form  seems  those Third,  to text use  of  the macrostructure  or  (Elliott,  i t appears  the than  and  Tierney,  Englert  readers  and  1980; vary  in  Better  readers  seem  text  structure  for  students 1981;  information  and B l u t h ,  that  author's  recall  how  1980;  Brandt  structure.  and  organization  to influence  1982, M e y e r ,  However,  sensitivity  guide  s t r u c t u r e which  recalled  Hiebert,  their  the  micropropositions  processed  o r t e x t may  tend  prose  1984; the  passages,  be e a s i e r  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of prose  follow  of e x p o s i t o r y  Ekwall  Second,  propositions  may  1981;  1984; M e y e r ,  certain  i n the h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e  macro  is  Likewise, structure  sensitivity the  of  strategies  1979;  passages, of  prose  and T i e r n e y ,  paragraph  order  and  1982).  Topically organized  t h e amount a n d  Bluth,  skills  Hiebert,  an e x p o s i t o r y  influence  of n a r r a t i v e  Haviland,  and  Taylor,  responses.  topically  and  Englert  of  that  reading  Ross,  1985;  construction  to  different  1985; C o l l i n s  Shanker,  recall  i s d i f f e r e n t from  of  lower  Bridge,  reading  Tierney  and  37  Cera,  1978-79; McGee,  Taylor,  1980).  Meyer,  Brandt  well,  elementary  demonstrate minimal  natural  sensitivity  of  (Taylor,  expository  question text  to  whether  organization with  Hiebert,  because  more  of  may  for  they  from  (Elliott,  1980).  children  what  type  of  student  learning  (Englert  and  The  Hiebert,  E f f e c t s of  Englert  researchers  Importance Several  sensitive selections  of  help  use  of  to  1984,  Headings  p.  on  Teaching  the  seem  suggested use  of  "how  that text 1984;  indicated a  most  R e c a l l and  need  best  ...  to  [and]  facilitative of  of  development"  Comprehension  of  Prose:  agree  able  recall  73-74).  organization better  However,  Hiebert,.  stages  Students t  in  Englert  to  structure  is  use  demonstrate  discover  text  particular  researchers  to  1976;  able  have  to  a  trends  do  and  is  ability  have  to  organization there  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the  Expository  The  who  1980;  seem  1980).  seem b e t t e r  instruction at  the  the  Taylor,  researchers  which  i n the  to  (Danner,  children  1980;  Finally,  investigations  instruct  1982;  read,  students  and  schooling  of  Bluth,  developmental  structure  benefit  structure Taylor,  text  what  students  McGee,  and  Fourth,  sensitivity  and  minority  to  1980).  follows  age  1984;  the  sensitivity  ...  prose  as  accordance and  As  1982;  to that  of to  Use  Headings  students ideas  recall  in  what  who  are  expository i s read  than  38  students 1982;  who  Meyer,  are not s e n s i t i v e t o text Brandt  and B l u t h ,  alerting  students  awareness  of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  has  been  t o cues  1980).  stressed  Campione and Day, Herber, many  1965,  textbook  study  (such  paragraph  abstracts,  advance  sentence  outlines,  pretests,  introductions,  summaries,  conceptualizing read,  one  for  u s e when  the  common t e x t b o o k Many  to  use  found and  gathering  educators headings.  that  suggested  students  that  indicated  that  organizational Jewitt to  help  of  how  not  have  to  information  Stordahl,  etc.)  sentences,  boldface  aid  of the  found  type,  outlines,  readers  material  i n texts about  1955;  Although  hierarchical  advocated  students  lacked  students  would  use  devices  that  example,  (1955)  and  in  to  be  recommended  text  content  was  could  (1965) p o i n t e d learn  benefit also  i s  the  aids  can  be e f f e c t i v e l y  taught  of  (1941)  headings  from i n s t r u c t i o n .  found  that  mature  as an a i d f o r r e c a l l necessary  out that  use  be  and H a l l  awareness  be u s e d  but that  students  Robinson  headings  training  students  and  1965).  (Brown,  heading.  and Stordahl did  material  experts  topic  of  increase  the  organizers,  information  For  college  Christensen  usually  to  skills  titles,  the macrostructure  feature  of  1965; N i l e s , as  (Taylor,  importance  texts  structure  Christensen  1970; J e w i t t ,  features  The  i n expository  by s e v e r a l  1981;  structure  these  effectively. textbooks  students  provided  before  and  in  obtained.  are  need a  planned  t o be  text She s t a t e d  aware before that  39  headings  and  students Jewitt the  w i t h an  values  and  headings  (1965)  students  preview  the  content  in  provide  the  structure  what  and  present  Jewitt  taught  or  how  pointed  of  to  characteristics He  obvious" to  concluded  attend  to  taught  she  stated  use  textbook  that  headings  can  used  to  aspect  of  materials.  He  be  p.  by  place  on  82)  ideas  and  the  content  and  that  headings  about  they  students  of  the  Herber  external  "even at  84),  one  used  Furthermore,  that  the  be  nature  ignore  p.  as  content  information  unless  (1970,  out  authors  (1970,  with  apt  learned.  t o be  when  to  which  the  organization. are  be  read.  identify  reader  students  students  with  included headings  text"  provide  headings.  priorities  to  the  addressed. the  need  organization  decipher  text  students  t h a t e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z e r s can  information  that  that  outline  t o be  which  to  Niles  (1965,1970)  guideposts  material  be  w i t h an  external  reasoned "to  to  as  the  concurred  need  present  the  of  effectively.  Herber  of  specified purposes  students  act  overview  further  Niles that  subheadings  specifically  cost  teachers  maintained  organizational  are the  text's  of  should  external characteristics  laboring instruct of  text  asserted  that  structure. Brown, children of  Campione and  need  expository  to  be text  taught for  subsections,  topic  reader  important  to the  Day  (1981)  to examine devices  sentences ideas  and t o be  also the  logical  such  as  summaries which recalled.  structure headings, cue  the  40  Summary A  number  headings  aid  structure  of  students  of  authorities in  have  conceptualizing  expository text.  need  suggested  t o be  taught  They  this  that  the  the  use  of  organizational  have a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t  skill  i f i t i s to  be  used  effectively.  Theoretical Headings  Perspectives  While students have  need  prose  theory,  Kintsch  a  main  (1960)  has  Van  been  in order  or  subsumption into  placekeepers  or  on  to  how  a  headings  and the  subsumption  (1978)  text  has,  inherent  fully  researchers  expository  processing  material. recall  of  context  of  theory  and  processing  and  in i t s design,  comprehend  representation  that  what  of  the  is  read, whole,  macrostructure.  basic assumption  information  expound  (1960)  theory  internalize  headings,  of  of  advocated  explained within  Dijk's  that  must  t o use  the  Effectiveness  have  recall  on  Each  idea, gist The  have  model.  premise  reader  and  Ausubel's  and  production  how  theoretically  headings  expository  the  to  the  experts  taught  comprehension  effect  schema  skills  t o be  attempted  affect The  study  Regarding  of  theory  schema  theory  is  that  hierarchically slots  (Brooks,  and people  organized  Dansereau,  Ausubel's process memory  Spurlin  and  41  Holley, filled  1983). and  modified  knowledge  of  activated  and  1977). slots  For for  s l o t s or  when t h e  an  object,  added  to  schema  facilities, a  new  schema,  (Brooks  example, a  when  s c h e m a t a and the  concept,  snow c o n d i t i o n s ,  restaurant filled  These  al. , a  terrain,  and  night  resort  is  person's  idea  et for  subschemata  or  existing  process,  1983;  ski  resort  ski  lift  life.  visited,  are  is  Anderson, may  contain  facilities,  These read  slots  are  about,  or  recalled. Each  subschemata  placekeepers person's wished  which  interest to  go  conditions  he  number  of  powder  snow,  most  to  most  1978,  p.  Schema his  However,  when  students  often  a  skiier  best  snow  about  hard  pack  instance  snow c o n d i t i o n s  schema  important  chances  this  about  the a  was and  search  concepts  topic  of  skiier  controlled his theory  the  versus  not,  for  the  for  which  "serve  as  a  of  the  topic"  (Kintsch  and  Van  that  the  person  already  has  in  373).  theory  cognitive  the  on  versus  which  gist  if  information  concern  factor  schema, c o n t r o l l i n g the Dijk,  of  with  snow,  with  depending  example,  in  fresh  this  facet  According finds  For  resort  out In  became t h e  person  of  subschemata  activated  interested  skiied etc.  be  ski  centimetres  information. a  be  own  topic.  the  would  its  also  i n the  important  therefore  can  to  preciptation, the  has  implies  structure faced do  a  with not  coherent  schemata  unfamiliar  have  a  for  expository  coherent  schemata  a  topic. text, for  the  42  topic  to  be  explained  by  learning  important  new  (Brooks  Brooks  new  acquisition  suggest  read  et  new  the  may  use  subschemata  of  the  fact,  as  task  of  as  the  of  once a c q u i r e d  processing"  h e a d i n g s may  by  of  In  conceived  which  subsequent  1983).  "part  be  schemata...,  in guiding  al. ,  (1983),  material  of  that  al.  et  (p.  may  be  293).  They  aid in acquisition  providing  a  base  for  of  incoming  information. Closely subsumption that  a  of  aligned theory.  person's  Ausubel  unfamiliar with  an  reading  of  notion  inclusive  subsequent  main  results  1970;  Proger  on  the  notion  facilitated framework  (a  of  the  p.  267).  retention  of  providing  the  forthcoming  presented  summary  organizers  r e t e n t i o n of  (Proger,  by  terms  subsume  1960,  for  he  in  which  (Ausubel,  hypothesis  (1960)  students  statement  which  text) prior  to  u n f a m i l i a r e x p o s i t o r y passages.  results  Ausubel  et  based  l e a r n i n g and  concepts  advance  research  mixed  this  be  organizer  relatively  1960;  that  could  test  and  i s Ausubel's  concepts  ideas  To  significant  (Ausubel,  and  conceptual  that  the  is  a  the  incorporation by  theory  hypothesized  advance  highlights  This  material  information. with  theory  concepts  (i960)  reader  schema  cognitive structure i s organized  superordinate  subordinate  to  and  on  the of  material Ausubel's  Fitzgerald,  advance  Taylor,  a l . , 1973)  would  but  The  enhance was  1961).  seemed  to  studies However,  o r g a n i z e r s have Coulson  the  supported  earlier  Mann,  the  produced  and  Bayuk,  show t h a t  advance  43  organizers text As  are  most  processing well,  recall  (Ausubel,  advance  when t h e y  (Ausubel Graves  effective  organizers encompass  and F i t z g e r a l d , and  Piche,  Brooks  effective  utilization  information  enhance  the  and  main  1961;  Proger  (1981)  They e x p l a i n e d  that  of  1980).  to  facilitate  topics  of  the  et  1970;  al . ,  have  same way t h a t  Evans,  suggested the  advance  of  text  Slater,  Dansereau,  may a f f e c t  i n c o r p o r a t i o n and r e c a l l  stages  Bromage,  likely  Holley,  headings  i n much t h e  encoding  Mayer and  the  Larson of  the  seem most  1984).  Collins,  of  1968;  at  new  that  encoding organizers  information.  headings  provide information about the structure of knowledge in a particular domain and/or the author's communication structure. During input processing, headings p o t e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e cues for t r i g g e r i n g a s t u d e n t ' s p r i o r knowledge and a s y s t e m for organizing the information for higher order comprehension and storage. During output processing, headings may s e r v e as r e t r i e v a l c u e s and as formats for responding (Holley et al. , 1981,p. 227). The p o t e n c y explained (1978)  within  model  schema  text  theory  and  in  hierarchical  retaining  of  encompasses  also  Kintsch  The  This  memory  macropropositions  is  is  comprised of  increased  been  includes  perceptions  that  probability  also  and van D i j k ' s model  Kintsch  postulated structure  has  similar  theory.  cognitive  semantic  macropropositions.  recall  comprehension.  that  They  on  context  subsumption  assumed  organized.  headings  the  of  presented (1978)  of  and  Van  as Dijk  hierarchically prose of  has  m i c r o and  recalling if  a  they  and are  44  located Dijk,  high  1978;  in  the  Meyer,  1984).  macropropositions which  mark  (van  those  Dijk,  is  a  text"  gather  use  for  As  by  of  cues  p.  about  into  employed  signal  i n the  the  reproduction  the  text  author and  "titles  t o f o c u s on  the  structure  of  T h e r e f o r e , i t seems  organization  text  of  of  that  headings  to  between m i c r o  and  can  which  the  van  recalling  headings  the  information of  and  by M e y e r ,  relationship  This  the g i s t  subsequent  be  133).  the  include  explained  can  the e x t e r n a l  macropropositions.  cues  explicitly  1984,  information  transformed  These  1984).  and  (Meyer,  reader can  probability  increased  [headings]  macropropositions the  (Kintsch  i d e a s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t by  (Meyer,  subtitles  structure  The  also  1979).  subheadings and  content  then  can  be  concepts  be  utilized in  the  select ion.  Summary In  light  of  the  b e e n p r e s e n t e d , i t may comprehension  and  1.  acting  cues  2.  providing  as  a  theoretical be  recall  assumed of  that  expository  for prior schematic  perspectives  which  headings text  have  facilitate  by:  knowledge; base  f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n  of  new  knowledge; 3.  acting  as  concepts 4.  cognitive of  the  facilitating and, the  organizers  and  highlight  the  main  text;  the  mental  micropropositions text;  which  to  o p e r a t i o n s of e n c o d i n g form  the macro  macro  structure  of  45  5.  acting  as  retrieval  macrostructure  Non-Instructional o  Effects Expository  f  used  and  to  be  and  useful  have  which  experimental  procedures  expository  as  students' Hall  in  an  aid  o  f  making  the use  1941.  aid  and  earliest  in  headings  in their portion  studies  classes  of  of  have  did  two  in  their  not.  To  tendencies to  and  recall  d i d not  of  include  experimental procedures the l i t e r a t u r e  which  was  several  into  training  which  texts  which  which  studies  are  macrostructure  divided  comprehension  of  Herber,  expository  students' natural  headings Two  be  their  recall  1941;  Studies  those  those  component  of  do  headings  text  Whether  included  in  presented in this of  a  Hall,  1981).  can  on  prose, only  instructional  One  and  in  and  perspective  headings  in  comprehension  addressed.  those  a  since  ideas are questions that  of  categories:  be  the  Recall  retrieval  issues  will  and  and  these  an  the  Examined  that  developed  Day,  investigated  use  of  comprehend,  researchers  provide  agree  (Robinson  Campione and  to  formation  Which  Comprehension  should f a c i l i t a t e  students, are  easier  on  Studies  theorists  discourse  Brown, by  recall  text.  Exploratory  ideas are  use  expository 1970;  for  Prose  what  effective  the  Headings  Educators signal  of  cues  review.  investigated  conducted college  by  mature  Robinson  students  and read  46  " h e a d e d " and "unheaded"  selections  on t h e t o p i c s  history  and  history.  Robinson  expected  the presence of  Canadian  efficiency. use  Instead  of the t e x t  significant standard  h e a d i n g s when  deviations  selections.  to  they d i s c o v e r e d  differences  comprehension  lack  headings  for  accuracy  that  found  both of  study  skill  had  reading made  material.  No  between t h e means and  rate  of  "headed"  strategies  Hall  few s u b j e c t s  the  reading  versus  R o b i n s o n and H a l l c o n c l u d e d  of  and  facilitate  studying  were  of Russian  that  indicate  and  "unheaded"  the students' a  need  for  instruction. Christensen effect  and  of h e a d i n g s on o l d e r  comprehension. superimposing material and  Stordahl  communism  at  the  beginning  the  passage,  statement  The  the  organizational  between aids  international  the  3) a summary  in  1) an  at  the  end  of  5) h e a d i n g s i n  form,  and  7) a  aids.  study  students' for  question  were  2) a summary a t  o f main p o i n t s ,  6) h e a d i n g s  of  immediate  combinations:  b e g i n n i n g of the passage,  of no o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  differences  one on  with  printed  e f f e c t s of e a c h on  one o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  4) u n d e r l i n i n g  results  concerned  on p r i n c i p l e s of a e r o d y n a m i c s  of the passage,  form,  was  trainees)  o r s t r u c t u r a l c u e s on  Two p a s s a g e s ,  and t h e o t h e r  to include  outline  category  organizational  examined t h e  (airforce  investigation  retention.  also  students'  and t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l  delayed  written  The  (1955)  either  found use  no of  immediate  significant any  of  the  or  delayed  47  comprehension  as  pretest-posttest Christensen necessary  and  scores. Stordahl  effects  of  first  on  (i.e.,  200  12 a n d high,  school  Depending  13 y e a r medium  on  of  aids,  b)  title  but  passage  a)  with  in  the  containing  a title,  but  Immediately  the t e x t .  re-reading retention  Two the  of  the  weeks passage text  the  the basis  the  had  been  of  four  passage  of  eight recall  students  were Both  on  versions  organizational without  the  a  d)  a  form  of  of  the  reading  without warning  information.  one  four  in  of  results.  each  no  pupils  s t a t e m e n t s , and  headings  a set  1980)  clustered  passage  of  to measure  later  on  The  a  following  answered  questions designed  c)  form  with  were  prose  passage  title  the p u p i l s  descriptive  i n the  Trueman,  read  career.  headings  The  which  students  the  information.  examination  nursing  with  1981,  and  groups  to  be  forms  students  year  word  a control  without a  passage, factual  treatment  (1980,  comprehensive  ability  the  a passage  questions.  low  first  Nightingale's  included:  The  and  400  of  may  to determine  K e n e l y , Owen a n d  olds).  Hall,  effectively.  various  retention  British  and  al.  of experiments  and  and  et  in  choice  training  study aids  headings  assigned a  that  Hartley  second-year  systematically  Florence  and  (Hartley,  records  versions  series  recall  experiment  involved  into  a  titles  combinations  use  multiple Robinson  concluded  years later  conducted  by  Like  before individuals  Twenty-five 1983)  measured  short-answer of main and  points without  retested parts  of  for the  48  experiment followed  standardized  The test  were c o n d u c t e d  combined  scores  sessions giving  averages  from  the  passage  However, the  the  of  175  the  pupils  The  a  title  presence  of  recall  addition  i t  seemed  to  make  headings  were  students  recalled  headings recall  i n the  delayed  were p r e s e n t  for both  reported  effect  had  a  text  with  that recall.  statistically  difference  or q u e s t i o n form  from  on  for a l lability no  of  groups.  In  whether  but  headings  ages  months.  The  16  boys  ranged  low  the  ability  i n the  of  passages  intelligence versions  preparation contained  and age  from  form  and  and  o f an  ability  Trueman  containing  to passages  5 girls,  with  whose  group  3 months into  of  r e a d i n g age. adapted  IQ  (1981)  to  headings  in  headings  in  ranged  passage  11  to  two  10  groups  students)  the  topic  i n the Middle Ages.  i n the margin  This  from  and  written  in  the  78  whose  years (1  8  group  equated  They were a s s i g n e d on  of  students'  12 y e a r s , 8 m o n t h s ,  7 years  consumption  headings  effect  remedial students' r e c a l l .  was  another  positive  low  and  s t u d e n t s were d i v i d e d  s t u d e n t s and  two  significant  Morris  s t a t e m e n t s on  whose a v e r a g e  reading  10  the  Hartley,  the e f f e c t s  involved  96,  with  of q u e s t i o n s compared  form  study  of  and  no  f o r m o f q u e s t i o n s on  prompted  form  the  for  i n statement  intrigue  investigate  of  who  questions. Their  to  who  headings  on  more  immediate  had  effect  the  teachers  investigators  significant  of  classroom  instructions.  were a n a l y z e d . the  by  of  one food  Version form  A of  49  questions written 15  while Version  i n t h e form  minutes  study  t o read  the  questions  recall  pupils  questions passage  the was  with  addition week.  15  this  The  materials  writing  but  this  study's  control  group,  making  and  might  i t  ambitious  on  nine  series  that  of nine  experiments  form  of  from t h e In  in  i n the form of their  reading.  generalized  readers to did  considering  not  include  to evaluate  interest  on  the  full  regarding the  These  research.  a  recall.  and r e t r i e v a l ,  experiments.  with  11 s u b j e c t s p e r  or statements  on:  was  classroom  difficult  search  title  producing  (10  (1983)  one  should not  able  a n d on p a s t  focused  that  teachers  to systematically investigate,  one a n o t h e r  a  headings  the design  on r e c a l l ,  recall  statements.  be b e s t  size  Trueman's  of headings  were d e s i g n e d  the  As w e l l ,  the  passage  children  of less  sample  first  recall  of  when  of headings as questions  effects  build  small  the  w r i t e these able  the  retained for at least  concluded  suggestion  group).  Hartley  an  less  to the universe  treatment  giving  given  indicated  in  than  form  was  were  to factual  results  greater the  margin  later.  headings  headings  should  However,  effect  of  The a u t h o r s  to help  the  in  superiority  questions  caution  with  As i n  answers  significant  percent  effect  consider  passage.  short  passage  i n the  The s t u d e n t s  r e t e s t e d o n e week  headings  negligible. only  wrote  statistically  from  headings  of statements. the assigned  and were  The  B contained  ledto  experiments  replicate,  and  Specifically,  50  1.  recall  (memory t a s k s ) a n d  familiar 2.  and  unfamiliar  the p o s i t i o n  3.  the  kind  of  statement Experiments focused 9  on  focused  on  retrieval)  (headings  used  versus headings  of  t h e n a t u r e of  form  recall;  unfamiliar  the purpose  and  i n the margin  (headings  i n the  2 f o c u s e d on  searching  tasks)  from  versus  and  headings  1 and  (search  text;  of headings  embedded h e a d i n g s ) ;  retrieval  text; the  i n the of a  form  Experiments (recall,  the headings  a  question).  Experiments  task  of  3 and  7,  8,  and  search  (questions  4  and  versus  statements). The  participants  fourth-year year  olds)  remedial  British with  involved 185  students per  into of  ability  boys and  conditions. of  a  test  1,000  indicated  by  adapted  from  viewing  habits  the  procedures  the  4 to  and  in  school  to suit  the  Flesch  i n the  15  Students  from  studies.  Each  different  school  and  115 t o  The  clustered  students  one  investigation 15 t o  for  on  an  assigned  received  article  were  experiment  readability the  i n the U n i t e d Kingdom. i n the  (14 and  or  suitable  a magazine  a  randomly  participants  utilized  pupils  were  6 separate classes,  i n each  were  passage,  investigations  involved  experiment.  girls  passage  word  from  groups  The  not  conducted  anywhere  nine  reading a b i l i t i e s .  were  was  a l l  comprehensive  varying  classes  investigation  in  recall,  to  of  number  treatment  four  versions  underway. 17 y e a r  score topic An  equal  of of  olds 55,  as was  television  examination  s e a r c h and  The  of  retrieval  51  experiments  follows.  During 2  and  through  the untimed  recall  7)  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  a  passage  i n the margin,  completed  12  not  disclose  various  varied  the  In  used  the  another  group  guided  practice  main  of  exercise.  The  f o l l o w e d by  passage  the  expected and  the  gave  the d i r e c t i o n s  received same first  practice  a version  reading 12  as  of  the  h i s or the  placed  of  i n f o r m a t i o n about  a  in  3,  4,  the  and  whole  8)  class  contained  the  stressed not  task  after  passages  practice each the  no the  the b i t  questions.  The  requirements each  clearly  directions  or  reading  to c i r c l e  five  the  either  i n the margins,  question  specified  who  were s t a n d a r d i z e d . each  e x p e r i m e n t a l passage  passage  questions  in  in  article.  Without  the  task  her  did  any  required  i t was  i f the  study  subjects  (experiments  e x p l a n a t i o n of  or  the  by  task passage  were  The  of  independently completing  first  However,  the  manner  answered  an  read  headings,  order  i n the  questions.  each  for accuracy  answered.  Following  five  answered  was  to  headings  s t u d e n t s were  procedure, need  included  practice  headings  that  was  task p r i o r  headings,  text  nor  1,  s u b j e c t s then  The  subjects participated  embedded  of  used  experiments  The  cheating.  time  for scoring  to c a r e f u l l y  headings.  to minimize  (experiments  embedded  questions.  groups  search  required either  no  amount of  treatment  procedures  or  s h o r t answer  was  were  containing  headings  questions  experiments  task.  student  subject typed  Again,  in  then the  without  independently  same m a n n e r a s  previously  52  outlined.  Again,  cheating.  The  assignment an  number  in  of  questions  l e n g t h of  was  seconds  the  gauged  in  experimenter the  students took the  would  display  completion each  box  student  random  number c u r r e n t l y  by  experimenter  an  time  to  the  was  a  display.  way.  At  to write  this  20  random the  time  down  the  then  had  the  Every  different  T h i s was  that  minimize  finish  chalkboard.  required  see  to  to  following write  on  on  were v a r i e d  checked  been  done  correctly. The  retrieval  required practice This  experiments  another  group  task outlined  time  answering  each  of  questions.  in  Finally  the  subjects  the  t a s k as  outlined  per  passage  each  subject after Contrary  and  and task  to the  C h r i s t e n s e n and  summary of aided  the  recall,  expository  nine  significant  results  well,  i n the  66  pupils  percent  above.  of  the  the  before the  completed  question  order  recorded  by  completion. of  experiments and  Robinson  and  indicated  retrieval  presence  in eight headings  pupils  9)  experimenters  number  S t o r d a h l (1955), H a r t l e y  The  in  read and  The  v a r y i n g the  checking  findings  search  text.  of  and  first  to s i x minutes)  same p r e c a u t i o n s o f version  6  experiments.  passage  ( f o r up  the  search  the  passage  employed  the  read  experimental retrieval  5,  subjects to p a r t i c i p a t e  above  student  (experiments  i n the  of  of the  groups  of  Hall  (1941)  and  Trueman's  that  headings  i n f o r m a t i o n from  headings  produced  nine experiments.  performed  no-headings  better  groups.  As than  However,  53  contrary  to  the  results  that  the  not  significantly  This  lack  that  p o s i t i o n of  of  a l l  group  al.'s  earlier  that  headings  with  were used  the  data for  the  As  Trueman since  and  this  school  students  lack  of  to  which  one  aspect  was  the  students'  recall.  The  recall  information  choice  into  short which  revealed  may which of  answer  the  of  statements search  be of  nine  treated  levels.  analysis  might  have  may  might  Hartley  and  the  influenced to  have not  of  experiments  influenced  quiz  about  scoring  have  used  was  ability  regarding  the  and  used.  information  and  et  finding  heading  ability  test  otherwise by  to Hartley  measures  critique  flaws  the  finding  information  fully  position in  interaction  of  a  the  recall,  type  fact  assigned  h e a d i n g s as  significant  that  the  have cued  was  administration procedures,  However,  As  1981)  i n the  the  suggested  and  methodological  remembered.  no  different  i t is difficult  of  well,  may  contrary  versus  did  retrieval.  the  their  condensed p r e s e n t a t i o n  task  results  task of  finding  participated in  completing  Also  effect  and  a t t r i b u t e d to  (regardless  questions  the  embedded)  search  practice  ability  experiments  results.  to  competence.  as  the  procedures,  be  was  or  experiments  prior  for classifying to  recall,  The  studies.  caution  study,  (marginal  six  differential  and  1981  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s (1980,  between  Due  task  similar  no  retrieval  Hartley  in  use.headings  with  found  effect  task.  text)  produced  headings  subjects  experimental to  the  s i g n i f i c a n c e might  practice  pupils  of  measure triggered  have  been  Trueman,  "some  54  particular  questions  had  reduced  headings  groups...  but  each  the  experiments"  of  test  three  may t h e r e f o r e  effects this  of  study  The f i n a l literature  group  of  range was  of  total  most  investigations  (1985), of  to  to  with of  (1985)  at  the  results  of  under  the  readers  section  is  the  three  studied  first  also  on t h e  use  of  the  of  the  the  of  studies  involved  a  parallel  and  6;  s t u d i e d G r a d e s 9 and of  wide  headings  concurrent 5  only  c o n d u c t e d by  (1985),  Grades  effect  session  comprehension to  subtest  determine  second  each grade  session  level  were  or an unheaded v e r s i o n three  It  These  In  headings  the  participants During  the  expository  King 10),  passages  q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n  recall.  During McGinitie  in  answer of  examination  and S t a b l e s  examined the  and w i t h o u t  written  the  same  measure  in this  whether  nature.  (Stables  researchers  the  The s h o r t  older  recent  s t u d i e d G r a d e s 7 and 8 a n d ; G i b b s the  in  which c o n c u r r e n t l y examined a  students.  investigations  not  Consequently the  on r e c a l l .  discover in  King  300  211).  be a n a l y z e d  headings  developmental  Gibbs  to  the  readers  were  stringent  generalized  study  of  a  rates  conditions.  is  effectiveness  be  (p.  on r e c a l l .  seem b e s t  same e x p e r i m e n t a l  these questions  not  headings  error  readability  of  level  the of  of was  the  study  reading  half  randomly s e l e c t e d a  passage  the  administered  students'  the  study  of to  written  (Parrot Passage).  to  Gates all  abilities.  the  students  r e a d a headed at  a  The o t h e r  grade half  55  of  the  students  expository  type  A l l  assigned  passage  to  students had  students and  written recall.  similar  not  third  a headed  t h a t of  were  25  read.  sessions  procedure  the  second  organization  were  of  the  their  10 m i n u t e s  f o r the  or  protocols  scored  for  read  the test  session  except  an  grade  immediate  was  that  the  unheaded passage  they  for  the  quantity,  superordinate  to  third  session  headed  v e r s i o n of  approximate  t o w r i t e an  The  Recall  unheaded  given  minutes  received whichever yet  or  passage w r i t t e n at  level.  of  read  and  second  and  format,  and  subordinate  ideas  recalled. The the  investigators  presence  of  significantly of  facilitate  the  or  seemed t o  well,  presence  format  of  identical written before  the or  of  the  seem t o  verging  on  aids.  This  structure greater  headings  Other  indicate  awareness notion  students  included  passages  that  did  of is  ideas  utility  contain  ideas.  of  writing these  the  in  their  headings  first  passages. may  headings by  As  embedded  headings  the  who  influence  listed of  not  passages,  Some s t u d e n t s  strengthened  h e a d i n g s . when not  the  t h a t many s t u d e n t s  the  did  Students  to  passage  levels,  organization  q u a n t i t y of  students  subordinate  or  of  seemed  v e r s i o n s of  text  ideas.  written protocols.  modified  writing  recall  superordinate  a  a l l grade  expository  students'  recall  protocols.  findings  in  organizational  however, the  that, across  headings  subordinate  followed  found  the  The  have as  fact  recall that  protocols  retrieval  been  cues.  no for In  56  addition,  Stables  headings  seemed  (1985)  to  subordinate  ideas  readability  by p o o r  the  fifth  (Parrot  text and  grade  also  the  surprising.  to  to  recall  exposure  reading  and r e c a l l  students. effects  5  an  to  to  the  of  a  task  with  passage  content  (Grade  other  passages  10)  concluded  of  to  superordinate level 7  that  would b e n e f i t  few  subordinate 9,  ideas  and  structure  findings  are  secondary  not  school  abilities  and  seems l o g i c a l 3  for  any  that  readability  than  younger  developmental  versus  subordinate  passages.  Familarity  and  (especially  older  level  i n G r a d e s 8,  passage)  confounded  the  recalled  the  Grade  be  in  by  readability  that  older  appear  grade  have  indicated  reading  for  trend  subordinate  it  low  Subtest).  use  These  passage  from the  and  the  of  percentile  subordinate  prose,  recalled  investigators  to  higher  ideas  may  low  fact  of  passage)  (<50th  Students  use  expository  T h e r e d i d not  of  passage  i d e a s as  number of  have  easier  readability  a  and 6 s t u d e n t s  quantity  9,  of  readers  of  i n the  8,  number  ideas.  Considering  generally  be  the  recall details.  greater  would  affect  found a developmental  Grades  seemed more a b l e  passage  students  of  p a s s a g e of  10 r e c a l l e d a g r e a t e r  the  presence  i d e a s and a p p e a r e d not  structure  therefore of  for  Passage).  subordinate  the  from  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  protocols  that  Reading Comprehension  investigators  quantity  recall  positively recalled  on G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e The  found  the  the  Grade  the  results.  students  (Grades  from i n s t r u c t i o n  in  high  the  6 The  6,  7,  use  of  57  headings. should  They  receive  students  suggested  that  instruction  would  be  able  in  Grades study  to utilize  6 and 7 skills  students  "as  the abstract  these  reasoning  skills  necessary  to i n t e r n a l i z e the study  skill  that  involve  the  organization  awareness they  of the author's  concluded  expand  the  [include] better and  The  that  range  some  form  would  be  and King  required  most  students  in  much  such  from  the  should (p.  of headings  material. (1985)  that  "utilize  103)  the  Grade  study  merit.  The  headings  to facilitate  recall  readers  may  more  made by  attention.  implies  that  they skills  younger  not benefit  suggestion  t o u s e an a u t h o r ' s  should  because  reasoning  would  and  ( p . 104) t o  and 7 s t u d e n t s  grades  or  comprehension  headings  s k i l l  Their  ..."  special  to use the a b s t r a c t  instruction.  benefit  6  of  intermediate  ability  on  and  Finally  The c o n c l u s i o n s  warrant  i n the use  able  to learn  103-104).  studies levels"  the e f f e c t  instruction  (p.  of i n s t r u c t i o n a l component"  recommendations  receive  text  schema"  grade  of e x p o s i t o r y  Stables  of  future  of  understand  recall  Gibbs,  overview  strategies  may  text  have  structure  as  some and  may  be d e v e l o p m e n t a l .  Mature  from  i n s t r u c t i o n than  younger  students.  Summary This studies  section  which  comprehension  of  examined  the  literature  the e f f e c t s  and r e c a l l  review  of headings  of e x p o s i t o r y  prose  discussed on  students'  when  students  58  had  not  been  indicated enhanced Owen  trained  that recall,  findings  tasks  performed  studies  which  headings  search  and  found  to  recall  facts,  i t s  may  of  N o r may  recall. of  the  results answer  potential  text  Kenely, 1981;  significance  reading.  of  of the kinds of Common  to  these  f o r the presence of test.  Although  of students' to  not provide a clear  trigger  indication  i t provide a robust  headings  such  abilities recall  of  of the depth  examination  on m a c r o s t r u c t u r e f o r m a t i o n ,  of  the  retrieval  production. Findings  from  providing  students with  facilitate indicate the  significant  headed  (Hartley,  in light  p r o v i d e an i n d i c a t i o n  information  that  viewed  and a f t e r  findings  M o r r i s and Trueman,  However,  was t h e u s e o f a s h o r t may  and  be  during  measure  effect  1983).  Some  readers with  retrieval  1980; H a r t l e y ,  must  a  headings.  providing  and Trueman,  these  use  merely  and Trueman,  Hartley  to  remainder  comprehension  that  Christensen  use  of  headed and  s t u d e n t s would  effective  Stables,  the  text  enough  to  This  seems  to  instruction  in  from  (Robinson  1955; G i b b s ,  indicate  i s not  recall.  benefit  headings  and S t o r d a h l ,  of t h e s t u d i e s  and H a l l ,  1985;  1941;  King,  1985;  1985).  The  findings  suggest  that  effects  on  students. headings,  of  the  the presence recall One  whether  of study  studies  in  of headings low,  may  average,  reported  i n q u e s t i o n or  this  that  section  have and  statement  differential high  the  also  ability  presence  form  of  enhanced  59  recall  of a l l students  to  students  and  Trueman,  older  and  after  1980).  ideas  reading  reading  (Gibbs,  indicated number  results  by  headings  developmental  training studies college four of  level)  ideas fifth  from  s u p e r o r d i n a t e and organization (but not after  younger  and l e s s  1985).  readers.  the presence  which of  with  without  instruction  i n these  experimental  were c o n d u c t e d  with  No s t u d i e s w e r e ability  expository material.  from  found  t o use headings  may  not  be  include  As w e l l , grades  which  use  1985; S t a b l e s ,  did  procedures.  students  would  the effective  1985; K i n g , far  mixed  headings.  that  thus  of low  students  suggested  (Gibbs,  the  These  i t h a s been  i n nature  able  Stables  from a passage  t o conclude  or  that  to significantly affect  grade  reviewed  level.  than  recalled  The s t u d i e s  students'  more  Owen  indicated  1985; S t a b l e s ,  appear  i td i f f i c u l t  t o b e n e f i t most  1985).  recall  1985; K i n g ,  poor  Finally, of  have  and have b e t t e r s u b o r d i n a t e  a t grade  beneficial  (Hartley, Kenely,  studies  readers  of subordinate  make  ability  Other  that headings  readability  particularly  a passage of low r e a d a b i l i t y  passages  students  tend  of low reading  better  subordinate  b u t seemed  five  examined  a s an a i d t o  these to  grade recall  60  I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t u d i e s Designed to S e n s i t i z e S t u d e n t s to H e a d i n g s , Text S t r u c t u r e and M a c r o s t u r c t u r e F o r m a t i o n The  findings  Robinson (1955)  and  Hall  studies  (1941)  made e d u c a t o r s  students  to  organizer Likewise and  of  use  and  aware  headings  could  enhance  like  those  Christensen  that  there  before  this  learning  (1980),  Elliott,  and  of  to  teach  external  text  expository  (1980),  prose.  by M e y e r ,  Taylor  by  Stordahl  was a n e e d  the f i n d i n g s of studies conducted  Bluth  conducted  Brandt  (1980),  and  i  Englert that  and H i e b e r t  students  structure. focused Di  Vesta,  ;  would  At  on  (1984) prompted also benefit  present  headings  researchers from  suggest  instruction  instructional (Brooks  to  studies  i n text  that  have  et a l . , 1 9 8 3 ; D e e - L u c a s a n d  1980; Doctorow, W i t t r o c k  and Marks,  1978;  Holley  structure  and/or  i ev  al. ,  1981;  macrostructure Alvermann, Beach,  Robinson,  formation  1984;  1970)  (Alvermann,  Bartlett,  some  success  strategies  through  (Bartlett,  1978;  in  training  and g e n e r a t i v e  1984);  1982;  Dee-Lucas and D i V e s t a ,  Marks,  1978; T a y l o r ,  processing  seems  that  1982; T a y l o r  and  and and have  students  t o use such  direct  instruction  1982; T a y l o r  tasks  Beach,  forms of i n s t r u c t i o n  and  (Alvermann,  1980; Doctorow, W i t t r o c k  1982; T a y l o r  intense  of  Boothby  researchers  1970; T a y l o r ,  Bejach,  less  However,  the u t i l i z a t i o n Robinson,  1982;  1978; T a y l o r ,  1984) a r e few i n number.  reported  text  1984). have  and It  n o t been  61  as  successful  those  ( H o l l e y et  a l . , 1981;  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  "direct  instruction"  required  before  focused  on  and  reviewing  headings,  An  Brooks  explanation  "generative  a l . , 1983) of  the  processing  instructional  text  et  as  terms  tasks"  s t u d i e s which  structure  and  is  have  macrostructure  formation. According instruction inform  to  includes  students  explicitly evaluate  Brown, those  about  why  show s t u d e n t s the  direct  which  telling,  include direct  1981  activity  to  by  In  a  His on  Berliner)  teacher and  Day's  review  of  effective  teaching  methods  f o r the  and  materials.  a  relevant  skill,  3)  provide  enough  instruction, 6)  require  5)  proposed  2)  by  in  Wittrock  vein  and  Baumann behaviors  demonstrating  (1983)  and  of  the  of  Campione  strategies)  reading  from  teacher-directed  a  and  enabled into  six  comprehension  i n c l u d e : 1)  simple 4)  on  instructional  Brown,  These p r i n c i p l e s proceed  and  check  applied research  instruction,  provide  independent  Instruction  and  development  explicitly  teacher  comprehension 1982  sythesize theoretical  direct  e f f e c t i v e n e s s (based  Pearson's  principles  similar  examination  on  to  which  showing, modelling,  (based  him  (1981)  monitor  as  strategies 1980  Day  is appropriate  use,  instruction  research  review  an  how  teaching.  accumulating  and  strategies  learning strategy.  (1986) d e f i n e s  and  Campione  to  administer  teach  complex, direct  application,  and  practice. generative (1974),  processing s e e m s t o be  tasks, another  way  as of  62  facilitating prose.  text  Generative  interaction  and  comprehension meaning p.  comprehension  i s  occurs  based  with  semantic  instruction  utilize  headings  text's  World train  War  devised  learners  that  "reading  constructs  who  1978,  construct  while encoding  cues which  t h e SQ3R  study  have  the reader  paragraphs, pictures,  provide  enhance  for learning  orients  At  time  answered  positions study  the  which  t o survey  1970).  During  soldiers  Question,  Although  how t o  who  needed  a  so  result Recite,  the processing variations form  of  o f SQ3R  introductory  italicized  words,  external  text  t o t h e m a t e r i a l t o be  read.  mentally  these  time  doing  Read,  titles,  Surveying  of  in his  the  As  the basic  headings,  of  retention  had d i f f i c u l t l y  chapter  the reader  ensures  and  to facilitate  material.  the reader  form  students  strategies.  (Survey,  aids.  a  was r e p o r t e d b y R o b i n s o n  summary p a r a g r a p h s ,  components  which  teach  been d e v e l o p e d ,  and g r a p h i c  t h e same  to  procedure  of complex  technique  requires  in  (4thedition,  inefficient  Review) recall  used  as a t o o l  for specialized  Robinson  be  reader-text  actively  I I i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  of  this  that  successes  was  Study  because  and  premise  reader  retrieval  macrostructure  b o o k Effective  and  active  of i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o these e l a b o r a t i o n s .  direct  to  of e x p o s i t o r y  (Doctorow, W i t t r o c k and Marks,  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t  of  the  e l a b o r a t i o n s of the text  themselves  the  on  Wittrock maintains  meaningful  requires  when t h e  f o r the text"  109).  recall  processing  and r e c a l l  develops  purposeful  reading  questions  to  of the t e x t .  63  Finally  the reader  recites  information  Robinson  reported  instruction efficiency  in  that  Several  questions  information  years  tasks  structure.  This to help  w e l l as  contrast,  author's study  structure students In  t o teach  with  high  investigation  and  Use of t h e reading  greater  and use headings material  reported  paradigm  students  enables  efficiency.  (1978)  school  also  and  generative  students an  success  about  text  instructional  recognize  main  problem/solution,  ideas  compare/  i n 250 w o r d  The s t u d e n t s  trained  written  to high  received  produced  greater  current  developed  top-level structure.  who h a d  with  descriptive text patterns  produce  limited  received  t h e SQ3R t e c h n i q u e  Bartlett  n i n t h grade  by  points.  who  read.  t o survey  instructional  passages.  are  students  later  and general  they  forthcoming  antecedent/result,  expository organize  about  important  studied  of  students  to the questions,  personnel  recommended  success  directing  processing  as  military  still  a direct  strategy  the  technique  The  formulate  using  answers  reviews  that  i s  them t o p r o c e s s  in  and  this  methodologists.  to  to find  a n d r e t a i n e d more o f what  SQ3R t e c h n i q u e  suggests  reads  better  were  also  recalls Although  school  according  to  to the  the results  of  this  p u p i l s i t was f o u n d  that  instruction memories  focusing  on  text  f o r the passages  than  who h a d n o t b e e n i n s t r u c t e d . the  same y e a r  reported  success  students  in  in  Doctorow, Wittrock directly  generative  and Marks  instructing  processing  tasks  that  (1978)  intermediate involved the  64  utilization that if  of  retrieval students  generate 488  The  of were  grade  ability  results  headings  of  which  paragraphs,  (sentences)  the  of  restated  the  combination  of  doubled group as  compared  findings  of  the  processing  and  retrieval  and  Further approach  and  topic  the  133  recall  of  effects  sentences  of  course  marks  university  are  utilizing  The recall  sex  paragraph of  the  both  high  indicated headings  that and  approximately  the  experimental Although  limited  to  notion that aid in  and  groups.  of  t o use  a  the  narrative generative  comprehension,  was  generative processing conducted  experiment of  factual  to having  contexts.  students  who  by  was  providing  related  compared  same f o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l female  of  total  information.  headings, as  also  group.  headings  instruction  on  recall  s c o r e s of  the  A  ideas  paragraphs  control  support  use  (1980).  sentences,  unrelated the  the  direct  story  to  with  main  students  investigation  results  stories  results  headings  5 treatment  the  recall  the  research  Di Vesta  examine  about  to  this  paragraphs,  and  The  the comprehension  or  that  facilitated  a s s i g n e d by  facilitated  instructing  sentences  be  text  randomly  cued  significantly  hypothesized  for paragraphs.  found  or  readers.  use  3 control  study  low-ability  generate  to  s t u d e n t s were t o one  investigators  i n f o r m a t i o n would  instructed  and  to  The  relevant  memories  sixth  reading  headings.  designed students sentences  students The  study  received  for voluntary participation  Dee-Lucas  in the  to with and  generate involved  additional experiment.  65  The  p a r t i c i p a n t s were  treatment 522  situations.  word  15  separate  assigned  A l l subjects  descriptive  contained  the  randomly  passage  paragraphs  performance a  of subjects  free  3' s e n t e n c e s  under  recall  (students  wrote  down e v e r y t h i n g  matching  task  to  matched paragraph knowledge  of  hierarchical The  structure  tree diagram  results effects  generated.  Dee-Lucas  generation  of  recall  text  of  headings  on  topic  topic-attribute  and  the  emphasized topic  attributes.  of  topic  and  provided  only  As  by  which  They a l s o  headings  may  have  of  in  topic  were  that  the  influenced  task),  (as revealed  by  suggested may  have  triggered recall that  invoked  readers  of  subordinate  headings  concepts.  a  had  they  recall  suggested  to recall  for  the generation  free  i n turn  (students  contexts  reported  the  a  facts).  when  well,  facts  test  Dee-Lucas and D i Vesta  generation  topics  sentences  a  significantly  p a i r i n g s and passage  the  of  filled  the  Di Vesta  revealed  students'  and  i n f l u e n c e d r e t e n t i o n of  text structure task).  that  recall  These  remember);  (students  that  structure.  (as  recall  superordinate  sentences  significantly  information  with  revealed  differential  t o examine  r e c o g n i t i o n of facts  topics to attributes);  passage  Three  treatment.  could  a  passage  each.  t o measure they  t o read  The  were used  each  task  measure  required  minerals.  immediate measures of r e c a l l  included:  the  were  on  of  t o one o f t h e e i g h t  the  of  generation  t o use t o p i c s  66  However, provided  of  matching  of  task)  interpreted to  but  might  focus  at  the  was  Although study  are  seem t o  indicate aid  concluded  by  in  not  recalled.  be  One Brooks  year  and  Larson  students  format)  and  text) In  assigned a) tie  an  this to  input  headings  study,  one  of  the  training to  95  the  other  information  that  skilled  readers  whose  activity.  and  Vesta,  of  generation  are  only  that  examine  headings  the  immediate  effect  (topical  and  delayed  group  were  experimental that  information  was  of  outline in  recall. randomly groups:  instructed  while  may  Collins,  (appropriately positioned  f o l l o w i n g four  passage  aids  otherwise  Evans,  u n i v e r s i t y students  treatment  as  e f f e c t i v e i f they  Dansereau, to  of  However,  organizational  information  intact  conditions  the  information.  tasks  embedded h e a d i n g s  under  of  presence  Holley,  use  portions  Dee-Lucas  (1981) a t t e m p t e d to  enable  results  process  later  training  the  to  may  As  the  Di  reader  contexts.  u n i v e r s i t y students  Dee-Lucas and  the  the  Vesta's  of  induce  by  Di  the  processing  facilitate  and  recall  generative  the  enhance  measured  generative  of  female  that  a  to  tasks  particular  by  findings  (as  generated  by  although  seem t o  generation  remembered  to  did  recalling  diverted  the  not  the  researchers,  be  limited  headings  than  a t t e n t i o n on  not  seemed  information  expense, of  otherwise  attention  and  subordinate  the  that  s t r u c t u r e they  better  by  suggested  treatments  passage  recognition  text  findings also  contexts  knowledge  readers  the  to  reading,  67  b) an  output t r a i n i n g  provided  outline  g r o u p t h a t was  to  study  no-training-with-headings use  their  their  "normal"  methods  participated  i n four  participants outlined. minutes  (one  session  h e / s h e had  not  completed  a  requested  may and  first  two  other  as  the  previously  free  s t u d i e d the  in session  recall  test.  a f t e r a f i v e day  studied.  The  two)  In the  2400 t o on  2500  Plate  In  D u r i n g the each  reasons  training  existing  study  students  provided  The  for short may  final  whose t e x t d i d not  session  remembered f r o m t h e  last  non-significant findings  experimenters  significantly  training improve  However,  it  was  headings.  of  improve  suggested  two period  recall; subjects'  found  w i t h h e a d i n g s r e c a l l e d more t h a n contain  and  was  have i n t e r f e r e d w i t h the  strategies.  (that  subject  these f i n d i n g s : the to  the  minutes  seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t r a i n i n g d i d n o t  performance.  word  Techtonics)  exam.  f o r 50  20  second  second passage  delay,  a to  session,  test.  completed a free r e c a l l  studied  have been t o o the  of  t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g  study  possible  d)  A l l subjects  instructions  s t u d i e d one  each s u b j e c t  p a s s a g e t h a t was  recall  their  and  a to  also told  studying.  In the  on E c o s y s t e m s , t h e  which took p l a c e  the  studying,  to complete a free r e c a l l  50 m i n u t e s and  third  sessions.  received  session a l l subjects  for  of  told  They were t h e n r e q u i r e d t o r e a d a p a s s a g e f o r and  passages  of  was  c o n t r o l g r o u p t h a t was methods  the  r e t r i e v e i n f o r m a t i o n , c)  c o n t r o l group that  "normal"  no-training-no-headings use  and  i n s t r u c t e d t o use  Approximately  that  students eleven  68  percent and at  more  information  approximately delayed  testing.  students  to  when r e c a l l  use  comprehension Brooks, studies  compared  headings  headings  the  Outline  c)  Headings  and  Control,  (C).  employed  in  recall  and of  aids  Only, The  that  than  as  the  a  of  one  of  and  d)  passages  Holley  et  essay  information,  and  knowledge  and in  expository the  would  provide  superordinate about  the  subordinate  ideas  u n i v e r s i t y students  were  b) No  following four  groups:  Outlines  Only,  headings,  No  were  the  an  same a s  outline  text  those Three  of  the  to  test  structure  and  t e s t were u t i l i z e d of  (0),  Outlines  (1981) e x p e r i m e n t .  summary,  multiple choice  two  complimentary  information  used  al.  and  that  in a  outlines  the  (0 & H ) ,  (H),  an  act  supply  132  The  complex  hypothesized  would  study  conducted  separately  superordinate  to  two  (1983)  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  Headings,  dependent measures, passage  especially  embedded h e a d i n g s  used  processing  first  assigned  a)  training  experiment.  e f f e c t s of  would  (p.  In  Holley  comprehension;  between  randomly  recalled  suggested  retrieval  latter  combination  relationship 297).  the  regarding  while  as  investigators  increase  information  utility  was  recall  investigators  the  the  The  to  facilitate  (outlines)  on  heading-outline manner  may  testing  indicated that  S p u r l i n and  extend  combination  ideas  greater  information  findings  The  Dansereau, to  material.  more  immediate  facilitators.  investigators intact  These  headings  have  r e c a l l e d at  percent  i s delayed.  h e a d i n g s may  two  44  was  69  recognition  of  Instructions received or  a  which  were  study  plate  text not  folder  had  been  materials  outline,  multiple  and  allotted  for  subjects  the  orally.  containing and  completed  of the  next  session  the  first  session.  After  the  dependent  An  analysis  significant interpreted results  little  Brooks  They  have  the  as  group.  to  on  on  the  an  and  at  the  posited  subjects outlines,  folder  the  essay, were  minutes  later  not  a l l  In  read  in  subjects  had  that of  the  groups  thereby  as  that their  As  of  amount  of  and  headings  measures  divide  same  time  the  no  non-significant  complex testing  and  the the  text may  testing  not  perform  Headings  Only  combination  attention  confounding  had  outlines.  delayed did  of  immediate  headings  immediate  of  suggested  revealed  treatments.  these  recall  Outline  to  four  outlines  effects  dependent  test  passage  the  analysis  Headings  to  measures.  delay  the  (1983),  immediate  investigators  forced  of  draw  that  C)  minutes  testing  a l l subjects  potential  the  headings  al .  further  that  The  treatment the  that  which  addition,  well  et  0,  measures.  any  material.  revealed  day  for  influence  In  five  effects  indicating  masked  a  H,  for  Five  the  immediate  from  testing,  studied  the  by  a  Fifty  subjects  (ecosystems  H,  dependent  of  suggested  information  subjects  three  &  and  passage.  three  the  completed  (0  test.  the  a l l  passage  instructions  choice  study  the  assigned,  and  respectively.  Instead,  treatment  randomly  containing  the  given  techtonics)  they  information,  between  rather  than  70  aiding  delayed  Headings  Only  treatments Outline on  on  a l l  Only  results use  text  of  three  group  as  In the  the  second  to  No  Instructions  consisted  previous  of  b)  The  1500  word passage  The  Instructions-Plus-Headings  oral  instructions  consisted to  of  was each  to  a)  techniques Only  use  heading  according d)  was on  groups  instructions  use then  group  of  to  the  for  the nervous  system  and  groups  t o use  Control their  usual  No  to  be the  well  a  system.  written  activities  what  of  and  which  in  which  they  were  the  material  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of  section,  headings  given  c)  in  headings  As  a  were  consisted  received  to predict  each  used  the nervous  material.  understand  and  material  embedded  of c o g n i t i v e  text  b)  The  of  involved  Only  material  topic  the headings  about,  and  Opportunity  the use  studying  g o i n g t o be  headings,  the  a checklist  engage w h i l e  asked  covering  complex  treatments:  passage  practice  students  students  three  Control.  group.  for  which  Headings  the ecosystems  experiment.  on  of  the  high scores Only  aids  university  one  a l l other  training  experiment  106  Instructions-Plus-Headings,  learned  Headings  the  while  consistently  processing  instruction,  assigned  Headings,  measures  seem t o s u p p o r t t h e v a l u e o f  of  randomly  than  However,  outperformed  dependent  achieved less  measures  material. form  information.  consistently  embedded h e a d i n g s  direct  a)  group  the dependent  The to  recall  c)  as  practice passage. received  memorize  the  recall  aids.  of  these  using  The oral  and  study techniques.  Headings written Two  days  71  later  a l l groups  as  t h e y had  all  groups  (essay,  were  during  The  Plus-Headings Control  three  multiple  showed  group  group  the  and  findings  to study the  that  on  the  outline  test  than  measures  tests  subjects  i n the  mean  order). Instructions-  outperformed  group  either  later,  i n that  measure.  scores  the  those  As  had  i n the  well,  better  the  (but  not  essay  and  or Headings  Only  on  the  Control  passage  days  choice -  essay  different)  Five  dependent  significantly  Instructions-Plus-Headings significantly  ecosystem  the previous session.  completed  outline,  told  groups. Contrary  to  Headings  Only  Control  group.  Only  group  exposure  group  the  outlines. not not  processing experiment  utilized.  experiment of u s i n g  delayed  that may  use  Headings  have  become  because  passages of h e a d i n g s  either  of  therefore  of  the  The  t o pay two  the  However,  use  of  that  before  results  of  and  to the by  embedded  headings  results students they  the  are  studies  of  and were may  headings.  conducted  significant  headings the  attention  studies  seem t o s u g g e s t  use  factors  of and  subjects  these  the  the  headings  headed  typical  the  outperform  experiment, however,  support  also  posited  experiment  second  aids.  to  and  initial  significantly  importance  inclined  results  a l . , seem t o  trained  to  been as  The  the  concerning their  In the  exposed have  first  immediate  questionnaires  of  investigators  the  to  to  d i d not  The  in  sensitized  findings  Brooks  the  need  et as  second to  be  effectively by  Brooks  et  72  al . ,  (1983) and  instruction to  be  long  to  enable  skill. in  Holley  i n the  use  al .  of  h e a d i n g s as  enough  in duration  students  to develop  That  which  i s , training  students  p r o c e d u r e s as particular  strategy  and  to may  also  that  aids  sufficient  needs  intensity  proficiency in u t i l i z i n g of  intensity  to perform  particular  how  simply  telling  needed  this  greater  shown  be  indicate  processing  of  procedures  are  compared  (1981)  et  students  to y i e l d  to  more  use  a  favorable  results. One  generative  tool  for teaching  the  use  1982;  of  and  demonstrated graphic than  students  graphic  McGee  activity  students  who  groups.  In  assistant  one in  regarding  the  variety  listing generate  either  a  how  and  graphic  in  instruction text.  assigned  to  how  the on  Instead  they  one were  procedure read  to  of  ideas  experiment  tenth two  grade  treatment  trained  by  an  outlined  by  the  material  of  expository words  from  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of  ideas  organized  or  use  using  main  The  average  cause/effect  treatment  to produce a read  the  group  graphic  is  (1982)  t e x t by  more  a  Alvermann,  key  second how  1981;  text.  to  students  a comparison/contrast  Students  above  step-by-step  investigator  the  as  structure  reorganize  read  15  suggested  Alvermann  significantly  and  randomly  group, a  (Alvermann,  who  simply  average  were  text  to  1985).  students  who  thirty  attend  Richgels,  organizers, recall  students  been  organizers  that  involved  to  to  w h i c h has  the  in  relationship. received  organizer  same p r a c t i c e a n d  text  of  no the  experimental  73  passages as the other material  as  studies  class.  students produce  they  usually  Prior  were  informed  Analyses  effects  of  generation  enhanced  recall  Alvermann  recognized  and  most  listing  format.  limited  t o secondary  Although as  a  recent  signalling  embedded school  and  college  investigate  the  instruction  on  retention  Alvermann's experimental (reduced class  training of  text  grade  studies  listing  recall  short be  originally  comprised  main  variety  of  details. such  time  as  duration  text  specific  i s written in a  simple  study  graphic for  has  one  were  very  of  organizers  the information  focused recent  graphic  students'  text  month  t o 11 m e m b e r s d u e  originally  significant  of the study  aid  students,  (1984) t h r e e class  than  utilizing  effectiveness  of s o c i a l  one-week  students.  research  fourth  a  the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  i n the structure  required to  graphic  when t h e t e x t  and  passage,  comparison/contrast  of s t u d e n t s ,  school  social  i t seemed  o r g a n i z e r s may  As w e l l ,  the  However  the l i m i t a t i o n s  useful only  be  after  showed  i d e a s more  that graphic  test  would  t e x t of the simple  of main  regular  of the  treatment.  a  processed  their  they  results  u s e o f a s m a l l number the fact  in  but  of i t s contents  of  to reorganize  and  that  the  organizer  the  did  f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n a l the  group,  to the reading  a written recall  delay.  that  treatment  comprised  study d i d organizer  Boothby  study of  and and  i n v o l v e d one 18  t o a b s e n t e e i s m ) and one o f 20 s t u d e n t s  high  comprehension  material.  training  on  (reduced  members control to  15  74  subjects  due  material, (40  to absenteeism).  received  minutes and  recall  tests.  trained  an  completed  instructional  training  was  results organizer  number  of ideas  immediate based  completed  the  However,  no  between  the  experimental  same hours  times and  a  free  group,  seem  passage;  their  tobacco  were  group than  two  that  and  organizer  facilitate students  and the  recall  a  test to  that  a  reading. i n the total  group a t each  of t h e  Descriptive  also  benefited  after  of  experimental  students  free  differences in  groups  after  more  times.  period  week  informed  significantly  choice  teacher  introduced  were  found  test  group  the graphic  although  merely  the conventional  the t r a i n i n g  The  be r e q u i r e d a f t e r  recalled  delayed  One  organizer  groups  study  directed  tested for recall  trade.  a graphic  a  classroom  organizers.  Both  of t h i s  significant  to  from  received  groups were  would  organizer  importantly, not  with  multiple  during  graphic  on  task  a n d 48 h o u r  on  both  passage.  written recall  graphic  the  three  multiple choice  t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p was  experimental  The  approach  passage  presented  passage while  free  the  to graphic  period  experimental  the  in  same  the  instructional  instruction  i n the c o n t r o l group  were n o t e x p o s e d  group  the  Students  Students  reading  the  studies  of  read  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o u s e o r g a n i z e r s a s an a i d f o r  recall.  but  groups  t h e same n u m b e r  of s o c i a l  week),  Both  recall  recall  one month training of t h e main  i n the graphic  tasks  indicated from  data  that  instruction. were  found  delay.  More  strategy  did  ideas  i n the  organizer  group  75  recalled  more main  difference  was  investigators may  have  subjects and  the  able  ideas not  been whose  identify  graphic  and  research graphic  the  focused  processing  and  elementary  students  According can  be  to  used  to  strategies)  of  has  312).  notes  has  been  Hansen  Hansen, enhance  material. marginal keyed aspects  of  text the  the  need  which  to  pages text  of  results  group  the  were  a i d of  a  prompted  for  further to  use  text  structure.  utilizes  generative  enabled  to  expository information i s  process  (Richgels and  on  Hansen  both the  secondary  and  Hansen,  (1984)  the  system  use  (1981) m o d i f i e d and  having written by  t o be  on  numbered learned.  As  marginal Richgels  White,  Richgel,  gloss technique of  of  to  expository  write in their  sheets  of  times  retention  students  and  concepts)  making  Otto,  1984).  (skills  (facts, of  and  "gloss notations  process  content  this  learning  notations are  to  control  devices  that educators  than  loss  reportedly  Morrison's  Rather  the  significant  i n existence since medieval  students'  findings  intermediate students  device  Although  suggest  and  The  ideas without  signalling  r e a d i n g and  (p.  significant.  inconclusive findings  training  Richgels focus  this  factors:  i n the  suggest  notation  texts"  and  to  signalling  Gloss  main  group,  nonsignificant  two  students  These  o r g a n i z e r s as  of  to  text's  on  control  have y i e l d e d  that  Alvermann  Another  that  may  organizer.  Boothby  that the  attributed scores  the  statistically  p o i n t e d out  possibility  to  than  paper,  and  text, are  brackets  to  highlight  cited  by  Richgels  76  and  Hansen  (1984),  inconclusive, reported read for  positive  when  gloss  and study exams  texts  (Telfer,  text  is  step  IRA  may  headings  and  to signal  these  opinions  supported  be u s e d  by e m p i r i c a l  A recent organizers  nor  generative  investigate seventh  The  did  first  students'  text.  qualitative  effects text  students'  weeks, t h r e e  as  students  an  attend  structure  King  (personal British  suggested  that  the gloss  which  attend  to  and  use  i n the text.  to  be  conclusively  did  not  use  to help  was  of  expository of  the  comprehension  writing. students  attend  by T a y l o r study  and  were  114  would  involved  and  on  production  a week  and  to  was t o d e t e r m i n e  hour  to  was  instruction  instruction One  graphic  instruction  conducted  structure  structure  students  direct  The s e c o n d p u r p o s e  classes  Richgels  of  yet  purpose  of t e x t  expository  on  and  area  c a n be u s e d  information  utilize  tasks  the effect  grade  study  content  use of t e x t  students  notations  processing  (1984).  1982),  research.  gloss but  students  University  also  have  were  McGee  and  important  e m p i r i c a l study  structure  Beach  to help  reactions help  intermediate  Gibbs  have  was  (Dana,  1981).  Conference,  1986)  to  research  comprehend  independent  Stables,  May,  manuals  notations  for helping  technique  However  as a method  gloss  s t r u c t u r e before  Columbia,  and teacher  Tonjes,  out that  communication,  empirical  1982) a n d t o  1982;  required.  text  student  was u s e d  (Conners,  intermediary  early  driver education  (1985) p o i n t e d  to  although  of what have  f o r seven in  the  77  study,  each  receiving  The e x p e r i m e n t a l producing studies  a separate  group  hierarchical  Producing  generating  a  statements  and d e t a i l s  generating students fifth  skeletal  a key i d e a  they  week,'  time  was  orally  recalling  seventh  week,  producing  social  summaries i n v o l v e d  section  main  idea  of t h e o u t l i n e  passage.  summaries  in class  formation  r a t h e r than  oral  conventional  instruction included  text  of  and  Initially,  a s s i s t a n c e b u t by t h e end o f t h e  generated spend  and p r a c t i c e i n  generating  f o r the e n t i r e  other.  independently.  discussion,  s t u d y i n g , and  with a partner. recalls,  Each  During  students  the  practiced  written protocols.  The  social  f o r each  the  summaries  written  outline,  received teacher  week,  from  received instruction  and s t u d y i n g material.  treatment  i n t h e form  answering  instruction of a d i r e c t e d  and  three,  own.  Each  students week  were  students  completing discussed  and  recall  text  information with a partner.  week,  rather  The instruction  than  these  control other  answers  completing  t o w r i t e down  than  oral  a l l that  group  lesson,  f o r t h e same  that which  A l l classes  completed  involving  the  of  an  the  By  their  answers  to  a l l  study  During  could no  group. on  recalls,  they  which  questions  to  received  offered.  writing  received  by t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  questions,  instructed  used  reading  discussing questions  s t u d i e s m a t e r i a l read  week  group  and the  orally seventh  students  were  remember.  special  regular  reading  curriculum  p r e t e s t s and p o s t - t e s t s opinion/example  essay.  78  Administration provided  by  and  lesson  the  eight  assigned  of the  plans  students  read  day  a l l students  completed  the  opinion/example  effectively  the  text  enhanced  of  studies to  that  other  peer  interaction, oral and  idea  also  composition. the  She  training  learning.  in comprehending  of and  text  that  direct  instruction  processing  tasks  seem  to  a  The examined use  studies the  internal  headings. combined  expository reviewed  e f f e c t s on text  up  only  to  or one  instruction  that  quality  such  concepts may  the  have  findings  structure  is  an  expository  and  promising  as  generative  way  to  teach  structure.  recall  structure  However, direct  text  of  writing  and  about  not  pointed  processing  material  be  the  period  Overall  awareness  but  also  (discussion)  generative  that  structure  indicated  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on  processing  improved  element  Taylor  week  instruction  unfamiliar material  factors during  writing,  the  have a  expository  out  to  text.  to  One  a  post-test.  according  students'  important  answer q u i z .  in summarizing recall  randomly  completed  the  seemed  contributed  data  short  During  two  indicated that  social  instruction  students  of  a  of  later  one  and  practice  support  investigators.  recall  Analyses  before  the  was  detailed instruction  written  students  the  by  to  instruction  One  later  of  lesson  according  developed a l l  and  passages.  of  familiar  tests  teacher  weeks  test  and  the  of  this of  point  instructing  training researcher  with  have  either  students  to  students  to  use  seems  to  have  generative  processing  79  tasks  in  a  training  intermediate  students  formation  while  structure.  studies  she  instructional of  less The  headings  and  as  sensitizing macrostructure  cues  conducted  fifth-grade similiar  to  two  a  sample  technique  but d i d not a t t a i n  text  parallel  students.  utilized  Taylor's  than  students either  hour  (1982)  were  the  readers  then  and  For  both  the  same  t h e same  degree  fifth  graders  teachers  conventional treatment  alternated  each  week  between  students  a hierarchical  of t h e h e a l t h t e x t  main  paragraphs)  idea  subsection  and s e c t i o n  discussed  the  statements of the text.  structure  w a s t o be p r e p a r e d .  of  They  the  Two  about  same  classroom  teaching  group  summary book.  the  focused for a To  the  for  each  Initially  the  do  on  three this  structure  material  of the h i e r a r c h i c a l talked  ability  instruction  followed the external organizational  subheadings,  level).  group.  for the experimental  t o prepare segment  instruction  or  group received 1  material.  f o u r page  grade  o n c e a week, f o r 7 w e e k s on  or conventional  level)  by r e a d i n g  book  l e a r n i n g ' how  generated  i n each  assigned  text  instruction  (headings,  or  grade  below  health  experimental The  48  ( r e a d i n g above  randomly  A l l students  grade  experiment  (reading  experimental  of i n s t r u c t i o n ,  fifth  first  as competent  competent  condition.  the  at  structure  Taylor  involving  were c l a s s i f i e d  to  1982,  aimed  success. In  to  to text  utilizing  In  investigations  strategy  and  paragraph, the  group  summary  that  importance  of  80  following  the  passage,  and  teacher.  finally  By  pre-reading  the  investigator. students  The  teachers  initially  engaged  presented of  the  book  the  text.  passages,  questions  answers  with  the  longer  the  sixth  questions  investigator. writing  a  studied in  the  a  the test  completed  for and  devised their  personal  the  a  in  in  written  by  by  the  7,  week  the  group  to  motivate  reading  and  read  the  health  studied  short  discussed  their  experimental  instruction  were the  drawing concepts  and  the  in  discussions.  7,  week  engage  and  silently  7  to  their  collected  students  way  with  pre-reading 5  not  experiences  conventional  weeks  with  instruction  completed  As  their  protocol.  material  teacher. the  were  assist  then  on  did  the  in pre-reading discussions.  to  students  studied  summaries  conventional  The  group,  students  no  Answers  to  collected students  by  the  practiced  protocol. eighth  week,  passage  experimental  summaries  recall  students  During  recall  During  a  as  in  from  7  to  m a t e r i a l and  week,  engaged  students  instruction  independently  answer  by  the  between  in  after  the  d i s c u s s i o n s were  connections  5  read  summaries  Hierarchical  writing of  silently and  the  week,  weeks day  practiced  The  discussed  sixth  from  text,  completed  discussions.  students  The  the  independently  summaries  the  s t r u c t u r e of  the  group test  on  each  treatment  health  prepared material.  s t u d i e d answers  to  group  and  pollution.  and  studied  The  read  Students  hierarchical  conventional  questions  and  on  the  group test  81  passage. write  The f o l l o w i n g  down  everything  passage  read  to  short  20  as  answer both  Indian  f o r Test  tribes  day.  They  read  also  and  analyses  for  who w e r e t r a i n e d  students  the c o n v e n t i o n a l group.  treatment  did  not  Taylor  She i n d i c a t e d have d i f f e r e d  contributed  reason,  results  on  procedures  1.  more  passages.  and  than  better  competent  readers.  summarization  short-answer  scores  than  group. this  (1982), that,  first was  experiment,  the  although  in attitude  The p u r p o s e  had  readers i n  had  in hierarchical  of  experiment  formulate  scores  use  of  randomly  or  effort  which  of Experiment  study  by u s i n g  passages but d i f f e r e n t  intact  may  between t h e  groups.  was c o n d u c t e d  as  formed, t h e  to the differences i n r e c a l l  i n the f i r s t  same p r a c t i c e  and  Competent  less  higher  2 revealed  macrostructure  and c o n v e n t i o n a l treatment  a second  Experiment  test  produce  by  experimental  the  instructed  limitation  g r o u p s may  Two  passage  organization  than  i n the conventional  acknowledged  have  and  text  recalled  scores  However, s t u d e n t s  the  recall  groups  organizational  classes.  a  1 and Test  to verbalize  higher  in  of  Test  significantly  The  responses  a n d f o l l o w e d t h e same t e s t  summaries  students  wrote  studied  to  from t h e  o n t h e same m a t e r i a l .  hierarchical  tasks  required  1.  students  both  were  c o u l d be r e m e m b e r e d  questions  groups  Statistical that  that  the previous  weeks l a t e r , ancient  day, a l l students  For  this  concurrently with 2 was  to  t h e same  students,  replicate school and  teachers and  82  In  the second experiment  grouped,  randomly  according  to  experiment. support  48 f i f t h  assigned,  the  same  graders were pooled,  instructed,  procedures  used  results  organization  scores  conventional  groups  of  Experiment  between  1.  the  short-answer  first  scores  The  to  recall  and and  were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t .  than  subjects  significantly in  the  As  lower  conventional  group. conducted  several  a s c e r t a i n the reasons f o r the Experiment  the  experimental  w e l l , the experimental group produced  Taylor  in  tested  The r e s u l t s of t h i s study, however, f a i l e d  the  instruction  and  1  and Experiment  supplemental discrepant  2.  The  analyses  results  to  between  supplemental analyses  r e v e a l e d q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the summarization tasks between the  students  second  Experiment  in  the f i r s t  experiment. 1  generated  It  hierarchical  a c c u r a t e , on the average.  was  found  that  Subjects  summaries  in  which  inattentiveness  instruction.  in  As suggested  or  inadequate  Experiment  were  by  f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to these d i f f e r e n c e s may student  pupils  h i e r a r c h i c a l summaries which were  60% a c c u r a t e , on the average. generated  experiment and students i n  only  Taylor have  or  weeks  43%  (1982) included  insufficient  The d i f f e r e n c e s seemed to suggest that  p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s , once a week f o r 7  2  may  not  seven have  provided students i n the second experiment w i t h enough time to  sufficiently  technique.  learn  the  hierarchical  summarization  83  Although promising,  the  they  f i n d i n g s of T a y l o r ' s are  (1982) c o n c l u d e d  nonetheless  investigations are  inconclusive.  Taylor  that:  The h i e r a r c h i c a l s u m m a r i z a t i o n t a s k , o r a similar technique that d i r e c t s students' a t t e n t i o n to text structure and aids them in verbalizing a macrostructure for text, warrants further i n v e s t i g a t i o n as a promising study strategy that elementary school students can use t o h e l p them c o m p r e h e n d and remember what they have read in their content textbooks. ( p . 339)  Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s Several teachers  educators  to instruct  expository  type  comprehension  and  (Herber,  Baumann,  1981;  of  how  and  (Catterson, may  require  organizers and  Shanker,  structured  1984;  Taylor,  recall  1985; K i n g ,  1985).  and  as  process facilitate  Taylor,  1985).  (Catterson, 1982)  and  headings  taught  the prose  to  to  (Robinson  and  1955; H o l l e y 1985).  of use  facilitate  prose  1985; S t a b l e s ,  of  processing  of e x p o s i t o r y Stordahl,  aware 1985;  expository  be  1980;  Efficient be made  Efficient  learners  for  independent  learners  is  such  to  1978-79;  that  need  efficiently  order  Durkin,  that  the  ultimately,  narrative  1941; C h r i s t e n s e n Gibbs,  and  1985; P i e r o n e k ,  also  to  in  require  text  between  comprehension  1981;  may  emphasized  how  and  Hiebert,  structural  Hall,  1970;  of prose  differences  prose  recall  Ekwall  expository  Englert  students material  learning  processing  have  et  and al. ,  84  A l t h o u g h some work h a s been done evident  that  of  area  headings  and  students i n  text  structure,  macrostructure formation.  t h i s r e s e a r c h seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t g e n e r a t i v e direct  instruction  information and  the  However,  tasks  and  h e l p r e a d e r s t o f o c u s on t h e i m p o r t a n t  i n a t e x t w h i c h seems t o i m p r o v e  comprehension  recall. The l i m i t a t i o n s o f d e s i g n , i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s  methods,  and  c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have  to inconclusive r e s u l t s mentioning.  groups  i n some i n s t r u c t i o n a l  i m m e d i a t e l y draw)  testing  which  (which  seems  varied  tended may  situation  periods  to  enable  to  only  mask  have  ( B r o o k s et  (Holley  also  et  al.  confounded  from which t o effects  al . , 1 9 8 3 ) .  As w e l l ,  intensity  i n t e g r a t e new methods ,  1981;  by  differentiation  organization  Taylor,  certain  could  be  t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l g r o u p s Brooks  et  al.  , 1983).  and found  of  been o b v i o u s i n a d e l a y e d training  to  into  1982).  not  allow  existing Studies  experimental procedures  t h r o u g h w h i c h c o n t r o l g r o u p s became a c c i d e n t a l l y structural  immediate  i n l e n g t h and some t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s may  students to e f f e c t i v e l y  were  bear  a l l treatment  potential  have been l o n g enough o r of s u f f i c i e n t  practices  contributed  studies  t o h a v e t h e same amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n  training  in training  I n one s t u d y t h e e x c l u s i v e use o f an  t e s t i n g paradigm,  to  i t is  few r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s  on r e c a l l o f i n s t r u c t i n g use  in this  thus in  (Dee-Lucas  little  sensitized significant  performance  between  and D i V e s t a , 1980;  F u r t h e r m o r e one s t u d y u s e d o n l y  cued  85  tests  such  as  multiple  measure,  thereby  not  effect  training  on  and  of  recall  the  training and  1982;  Bartlett,  Di  Vesta,  Whether  Holley  not  instruction  macrostructure  1978; which  and  Alvermann, and  mixed  training  in  Taylor  and  and  others  1982  study no  investigation  with  remains  is  taught  1978;  Taylor,  d i d not  (Boothby  one  seems  grade  four  whether be  amenable  be  the to  have  students. grade  sensitive  to  have  structure  and  students' (Doctorow, study;  Alvermann,  1984;  The  Taylor's  the  conducted  text  studies  initial  of  four  Marks,  that  Although  focus  and  reported  prose  1982,  study).  and  affected  and  to  considered  students  text  expository  and  1970).  training  have  significantly  approximates  to  some  headings,  of  to  few  high  structure  intermediate  While  on  Dee-Lucas  are  text  The  majority  Alvermann,  Doctorow, Wittrock  with  replication  investigation  effectively  recall  1981;  beginning  1984).  of  the  Robinson,  students  i s only  the  comprehend  primarily  1983;  headings,  1984;  use  Marks,  1984)  inconclusive  still  1981;  formation  comprehension  Taylor,  ,  al.  results.  the  macrostructure  Wittrock  et  Beach  that  (Alvermann, al.,  to  of  1983).  fact  et  been c o n d u c t e d  produced  ,  Brooks  of  formation  Taylor have  use  al.  dependent  perception  concentrated  intermediate  i n the  the  abilities  i s the  have  1978;  1980;  et  (Brooks  noticeable  as  accurate  students'  college populations  or  (Boothby  the  studies  school  tests  g i v i n g an  selection  P e r h a p s most of  choice  present such  question  students  can  s t r u c t u r e and  an  that be to  86  use  headings  organization written  to  facilitate  of  expository  experience  when  expository  prose,  strategies  which  level  is  as  increase measured  the by  a  quantity delayed  and  test  of  recall.  Considering from  recall  and  the  importance  material required continued enable  warranted.  and  of the  to  recalling difficulty  comprehend  exploration  student  information  learning  of at  children and  recall  instructional the  grade  four  87  CHAPTER  THREE  METHODOLOGY  This training  study  was  fourth  hierarchical  This  the  to  examine  students  to  of  ideas  and  to  quantity  and  organization  will  of  subjects,  administration,  and  the  use  describe  the  study,  the  for  the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and  main  studies.  of  s e n s i t i v e to  the  information/  to  of  facilitate  written  research  procedures  procedures  the  construction, of  the  instructional materials the  and  recall.  design,  selection,  scoring  in  effects  in  headings  the  utilized  the  be  prose  chapter  selection  grade  arrangement  classification increase  designed  of  the  tests  designed pilot  amd  Design In  order  students  to  headings  when  to  text  structure  studying  quasi-experimental Group  Design  examine  was  and  and  the of  effects  recalling  (Borg  and  sensitizing  t r a i n i n g students  Pretest-Posttest used  of  expository  passages,  Non-Equivalent Gall,  1983,  to  pp.  use a  Control 682-684;  88  Campbell  and  involved delayed  1965,  administration written  treatment test  Stanley,  recall  groups.  were  o f an i n i t i a l  However, o n l y  statistically  because  i t  in was  develop  awareness,  group but  involving  above  written  grade  (Borg  differences of  delayed  and  Gall,  in quantity  the  groups  investigation  of reading the  have  the  the  experimental of  answers).  were t h e q u a n t i t y  task  a  -  delayed  to internal that  group  on t h e F i n a l  been  and  (below, a t , of  threat  683)  of C o v a r i a n c e  Test  attributable  rather  than  was u s e d  comprehension.  included  approach  by  have  statistical  been  to  differences  effect, Analysis  of  (exposure  f o r t h e main  may  group  treatment  description  text  with  p.  to  and  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  recall  assign  of headings  levels  1983,  was  instruction  ability  tested  the  design  conventional  by t h r e e  Recall to  t o randomly  and c o r r e c t  To c o n t r o l  pre-experimental  two  more  l e v e l ) as  written  used  of  conventional  The  group  v a r i a b l e s measured  of r e c a l l  recall.  validity  the  test  the F i n a l  (direct  recall  as  questions  dependent  organization and  passages  t o answer  The  and  design  according  possible  or to the conventional  expository  reading  use  and  One.  group  This final  from  analyzed  not  to the experimental  same  and  data  Chapter  students  structure)  46-50).  t o the experimental  hypotheses delineated chosen  pp.  A more  procedures i n Chapter  used 4.  to  to  a  t o equate detailed in  the  89  Selection The  sample  students The  from  for  six intact,  s i x c l a s s e s were  from  the  Catholic  Archdiocese. Vancouver  Area  because  dependent The random  was  treatment  groups  ability  each  Test,  1980),  was  in  Canadian  Greater Burnaby,  was  from  school  also  did to  of  after  subtest  to  Level both  D,  average  treatment  the Form  the  initially  by to  group.  classes,  socio-economic  of  to  assigned  Reading A b i l i t y  for  groups.  (as estimated  randomly  or c o n v e n t i o n a l  into  allow  overall  status was  not  assigned  manner:  basis  personnel.  treatment  randomly  class  Edition,  administered  the  f o r the  groups c o n s i s t e d of three  comprehension  Vancouver  study  of low, mid and mid/upper  Reading  the  of s u b j e c t s  socio-economic  of Students  availability  the  the  each  classes.  Vancouver,  individuals  experimental  Classification The  of  located  i n the following  treatment  four  select  c l a s s e s were  principals)  the  Thus both class  of  and  fourth-grade  p o s s i b l e t o randomly  classes  t h e s i x c l a s s e s on  school  either  not  use of i n t a c t  reading  were  on a c q u i r i n g p e r m i s s i o n  individual  141  grade  Schools  Vancouver,  acquisition  However,  the  non-streamed  schools  assignment  pairing  involved  s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f  (East  It  Subjects  study  Public  The  Coquitlam). schools  the  of  one  status.  Levels  Gates-MacGinite 2  (MacGinite,  g r o u p s by t h e  classroom  90  teachers above  to  grade  classify level  conventional  grade and  at  equivalent or  subjects esitmates average,  scores  also of  The  Gates The  Reading  between  3.0  to  be  level and  reading  i f they 4.0  as  attained and  4.9,  classification  classroom  reading  and  classified  3.9,  This  the  in  or  of  teachers'  abilities  (high,  Reading  Canadian use  Instruments  Material  MacGinitie  for  to  students'  comprehension  selected  were  at,  experimental  differed  grade  compared  below,  average).  Test  Test,  i f the  above  Testing  Standardized  reading  respectively.  the  below  determine  Subjects  and  higher,  was  as  initially  ability.  below,  5.0  to  groups  comprehension reading  and  students  in  Comprehension  subtest Edition  this  study  of  the  Test. Gates-MacGinitie  (1979),  Form  for  following  the  D,  Level  2,  was  reasons:  Cont ent . Test test  items  passages  were had  developed  and  "international  selected character".  so The  that  the  passages  91  were w r i t t e n Canadians. the  b y a number o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l The c o n t e n t  experience  of  items  are  Sixty of  percent  content  area  Sciences, material are  two  percentage  the  test  of content  Sciences,  40%.  The  literal  questions are  reasoned  area  within cultural  is  comprised  27.5; Natural  5%). Narrative-Descriptive  types:  I t was  be  diverse  subject matter  remaining  o f the  to  including  settings.  Arts,  basic  percent  inferential.  with  material (Social  comprises  Fifty-five  purpose  of the  2 7 . 5 ; The  of  considered  students  backgrounds andenvironmental  authors  items  that was  test  and literal the  questions inferential. and 45% are  relatively  appropriate  high  for  the  of the study.  Standardization. Canadian students. level The  norms were  Between  were  norming  group  separate  schools.  separate  schools  Val  was  the  ten  i n urban  sample at  o f 46,000  each  grade  p r o v i n c e s and the  Yukon.  proportionately  students  for the  on a t o t a l  3,000 a n d 4,500 s t u d e n t s  s e l e c t e d from  English-speaking  appropriate  based  representative of  and non-urban p u b l i c and  I t was r e a s o n e d  that  i n the  p o p u l a t i o n made t h e  sample  norming used  i nthis  the inclusion  of test  study.  i di t y. Test  Canadian  validity educators  f o r most  school  who e x a m i n e d ,  p r o g r a m s was a s s u r e d  discarded or modified  by test  92  items. of  This  test  was  comprehension  allotment students  for  the subtest  Kuder-Richardson  range  Canadian  from  acceptable  .87  study the  levels  the  a good  measure  standard  a l l but  the very  time slowest  item.  Formula  groups  20  .89.  of  Test  the  reliability  Level These  D,  coefficients  comprehension  were  considered  items to  be  reliability.  Material  passages of p a r a l l e l  t o examine  two  allows  Edition,  to  Non-Standardized  Two  because  t o be  Iy.  Ii  the  considered  ability  t o attempt each  Re Iiabi  for  also  initial  (see Appendix  average  Fry Readability  Initial  Test  of  construction and A).  final The  were  recall  two  used  i n the  abilities  passages  had  of an  3.1.  Passage.  Us e . The designed groups written  Initial  Test  passage,  entitled  t o determine i f the experimental  i n i t i a l l y differed recall  o f an  in their  ability  Termites, and to  information/classification  was  conventional produce passage.  a  93  Construction. This of  passage  t h ef i n a l  number  of  was d e s i g n e d t o p a r a l l e l  t e s t passage paragraphs,  micropropositions, and  readability  o n : f o r m a t , number number  similarity level.  of  five  macropropositions  Final  Test  of  subtopics,  concept  were w r i t t e n  a r e one page  with  headings,  macropropositions and  passages  style,  paragraphs a n d 26  of  of  Both  information/classification consist  the construction  headings  i n  load i n the length,  a n d have  five  micropropositions.  Passage.  Use . The F i n a l T e s t  passage  Parrots,  the effects  structure  and o f t r a i n i n g s t u d e n t s t o useheadings andorganization  sensitizing  was  examine  quantity  of  entitled  of written  students  used to  to text  on t h e  recall.  Construction. The recall Stables  final passage (1985).  s e l e c t i o n was b a s e d (authored The  by  Stables  on t h e o r i g i n a l  Crowhurst, study  Parrots  1984) used  (1985)  by  raised the  94  question to  o f whether a w a r e n e s s and use o f h e a d i n g s a s an a i d  increase  the q u a n t i t y  developmental this  or  question  study  that  material  training.  would be b e s t  addressed  tested  text  for  of  the  Appendix and  recall  natural  to  expository  of  I t was in  an  recall  was  reasoned  that  instructional  using  t h e same b a s i c  study. was n o t m o d i f i e d ,  more  closely  texts.  A) show t h e 1985 S t a b l e s  the adapted  by  (1985)  passage  h e a d i n g s were r e w r i t t e n in  organization  required  as i n the S t a b l e s  The  found  and  v e r s i o n o f t h e Parrots  resemble  those  1 and 2 ( s e e  Figures  version  but t h e  of  the  passage  passage used  in this  study.  Test All  Administration  tests  conventional same  time  requested students  the  were most  nit ie  classroom  administered  likely  teachers.  Manual  and  and  at  The t e a c h e r s morning  t o be a t t e n t i v e and procedures  Teacher's  according  Procedures  to the e x p e r i m e n t a l  c h i l d r e n e a r l y i n the  Comprehension Initial  and  g r o u p s on t h e same day  standardized  Reading The  the  to test  es-MacGi  administered  treatment by  The Gal  were  Conditions  the were the  alert.  outlined were u s e d  when  and  to  in  the  administer  subtest. Final  Recall  to standardized  Tests  were  also  instructions written  95  by  the  investigator  (directions, to  control  materials,  for possible  directions  for  day  written  delayed  Appendix task be  A.  and  believed  to  perspective et.  be  the  The study  utilized  from  i n previous  (1982) and S t a b l e s system which macro  degree  to  would  recall  and  that  cued  could delay.  response  because yield  i t  was  a  clear  performance  (Brooks  Final  Recall  procedures  examination  Tests  used  of scoring  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by T a y l o r (1985).  both  the  (1982),  the h i e r a r c h i c a l  students  in  the  recalled  in  the  techniques  The a i m was t o c r e a t e  micropropositions  which  free-recall  1981).  scoring  an  represented  and  over  in  Procedures  Goble/Coulombe  evolved  which  shown  a f t e r a one day  paradigms  for Initial  Scoring  are  down e v e r y t h i n g  children's et a l .  standardized  minute delayed  test  and  and f o r t h e one  passages  selected  test  conditions  The  period  passage  was  one  Procedures  of  study  of the  the  immediate  of  Development  effects.  to write  about  standard  of t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  twenty-five  a l . 1983; H o l l e y  Scoring  of  tester  dependent measure  systems  timing)  recall  students  remembered  ensure  t h e 15 m i n u t e  The  required  This  to  a  Clark  scoring  organization  passage and the and  organized  96  information  from  techniques  used  procedures  into  recalls The  macro  recall Each  The  mark  marks  template  regardless  of  (1)  of  (quantity)  same  macroproposition  by  using  complete  microproposition  associated otherwise  with  the  received  micropropositions  received  description  scoring  of t h e  organization,  scoring  topic  received  score.  a  of  5_  sentence  or  represented  sentence sentence  ( i . e .i f for  assigned.  score  of  the Each  1  i f  macroproposition  and  Partial  and  partial procedures  templates,  scale.  score  was  o f 1_ was  appropriate no  a  as a t o p i c  or f i n a l  score  Organization  a weighted  received  and a  the  micropropositions  propositions.  initial  gave a heading  the  and  a  student  for  proposition  both the  and  f o r a complete  i t appeared  and  segmented  by  W h e r e t h e same m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n heading  scored  calculated  heading. by  the  of passage) f o r the  recall  computed  whether  were  ( w h i c h had been  macroproposition  of  by  was  partial  were  complete  protocols  r e c a l l e d macro and amount  for  scores  scoring  recall  recalled  the  (organization).  partial  Goble/Coulombe  and m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s  of  a  scoring  were c o l l e c t e d and marked  subjects'  of p r o p o s i t i o n s  organization  the  1.  Procedures  the appropriate  assigning  the  of S c o r i n g  written  the  number  create  i n Table  investigator. against  to  A summary o f  are outlined  Description All  the s e l e c t i o n .  marks. for  a partial  macro A  complete  quantity  marks  and  guideline  97  Table  Taylor  1: S u m m a r y o f S c o r i n g T e c h n i q u e s U s e d Goble/Coulombe S c o r i n g Procedures (1982)  Clark  (1982)  Stables  (1985)  i n Developing  Goble/Coulombe (1986)  Recall of Expository  Recall of Narrative  Recall of Expository  Recall of Expository  QUANTITY  QUANTITY  QUANTITY  QUANTITY  scored against scored against scored against template of template of template of pausal units pausal units propositions representing macropropositions (superordinate ideas) and micropropositions (subordinate ideas)  scored against template of pausal units represent ing macropropos i t i o n s and micropropositions  one s c o r e p e r proposition  partial or single score per u n i t  separate scores f o r macro and micropropositions per uni t  partial or single score per u n i t  expressed total  expressed percent  expressed subtotals  as  e x p r e s s e d as t o t a l o u t of 31  as  as  ORGANIZATION  SEQUENCE EVALUATION  ORGANIZATION  ORGANIZATION  r a t i n g o f 1-5 b a s e d o n number of subsections recalled i n o r d e r (1 = one s u b s e c t i o n with information recalled in order;  subjectively est imated b a s e d on observed match between author and s t u d e n t o r computed u s i n g Kendall's tau  relation between author's sequence and student's sequence; one point f o r each subsection i n order  weighted scores f o r headings and/or propositions in c l u s t e r s from subsections  98  Table  Taylor  (1982)  Clark  1 continued  (1982)  Stables  (1985)  Goble/Coulombe (1986)  5 = f i v e subsections with information recalled in order) expressed as r a t i n g (1-5)  sheet, marked  and  expressed as rating (excellent, good, f a i r o r poor) or correlat ion (tau)  expressed as t o t a l out of 5  IMPORTANCE LEVEL  FORMAT  weighted score for importance of e a c h u n i t ( 1 , 2, o r 3 )  identification of s i x format features: title, section headings, grouping, point form, number i n g , paragraphs.  expressed mean  expressed as t o t a l number of students u s i n g each feature  three  templates  Reliability  sample  of Scoring  a n d number  student  are provided  Each p r o t o c o l name  as  expressed as t o t a l out of 61  protocols together  i n Appendix  with  B.  Procedures  booklet  identified  on t h e f r o n t  cover.  the subjects' school, T h i s was  necessary  to  99  aid  the  of  classroom  the  protocol  (Initial, every  practice  effort  complete  all  and F i n a l  Recall Tests).  of  score  scoring  the  it  scoring  (34)  of  numbers  for  the  the  quantity  protocols  table  and  of  All  reliability  measures  the  for  program  University  the  were  coefficients  for  and t o  same  not  examine  the  ascertain  of  by the  reliability recall,  using  coefficients  .99.  The  for  using  both q u a n t i t y  the  Columbia.  2.1 The  both q u a n t i t y  intrarater  and  procedures.  SPSS-X R e l e a s e  British  25%  a random  investigator  calculated  of  if  consistency.  organization  R e l i a b i l i t y on the  reliability  organization  to  bias,  was  and i n t r a r a t e r  were  although  without  Goble/Coulombe s c o r i n g  Covariance Matrix  interrater  the  and were b l i n d s c o r e d  co-developer  at  Thus,  were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d  the  situations  investigator  procedures  interrater  collection  recall  necessary  with  and  protocol  the  was  scoring  three  each  by  s t u d e n t s had been s c o r e d To d e t e r m i n e  of  for  Therefore  reliability  in d i s t r i b u t i o n  booklets  was made t o  'blind'  possible.  teachers  and  reliability  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  were  also  .99. To  determine  between t h e developed  two  the  scorers  scoring  trained  and  randomly  selected  yielded and  whether  an  due  h i g h d e g r e e of to  procedures,  additional  the  coefficients  fact  correlation  that  an i n d e p e n d e n t  10%  for marking.  reliability  organization.  was  the  of  the  A g a i n the of  .99  The h i g h d e g r e e of  they  had  scorer  was  protocols covariance  for  both  correlation  were Matrix  quantity between  100  all  three  allowed the  scorers  suggests  for consistent,  students'  written  that  objective,  recall  the marking and r e l i a b l e  procedures scoring  of  protocols.  Materials  Instructional The  Passages  seven  treatment  instructional  groups  were  passages  written  in  (information/classification)  style.  classification  pattern  (descriptive)  passage  construction  1.  i s  i t  the  content 2.  i t was  area texts  students  at  the  which  of p r o s e Parrots fifth  h e a d i n g s as an a i d t o The They  passages  were  possible The length,  set  of  concept  paragraphs.  The  and  both  a  descriptive  The  information/  was  selected  for  below  frequently  1981; N i l e s ,  utilized  in  found i n  1965), the  and  Stables  passage  to  determine  sixth  grade  level  i f used  recall.  had an a v e r a g e  written  decoding  i s most  (Alvermann,  the pattern posttest  for  because:  pattern  (1985)  used  readability level  the grade  four  level  of  3.4.  to minimize  difficulties. materials  load,  number  title,  was of  designed headings  to increase and  number  in of  r e a d a b i l i t y , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  101  the in  passages which  these  a r e l i s t e d in  each  was u s e d .  materials Table  have  All  sources used  been p r o v i d e d  Title  1  Grasshoppers  2 3  Ri che s Fr om Sea Fir ewal ker s  4  Vi ki  5  Animal  6  Horses  7  Animal  t he  Protection  s'  Eyes  f o rt h eConventional questions  macropropositions was r e a d .  of  questions  has  been  used  of  was  each  t h e order  i n A p p e n d i x E. Characteristics of  Fry Readability  3  3  3.8  3  3  3.9  4  4  3.7  4  4  3.9  5  5  3.5  5  5  2.2  5  5  3. 1  Group designed  passage  A size-reduced  focus  on t h e  and t o ensure  that the  C.  to  reproduction of the s e t  f o rtheconventional  i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  to  constructing  i n  Number o f Number o f Headings Paragraphs  ngs  A set of  material  2 according  2: T i t l e , F r y R e a d a b i l i t y a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l Passages  Lesson Order  Materials  Table  instruction  group  1 02  Materials In  f o r the  Experimental  addition  described  a  to  the  instructional  variety  of  manipulative  materials  were  processing  tasks.  facilitate  direct  structure of  a l l  and  constructed  to  These  been  to  h e a d i n g s as used  for  reproduced  in  cues  passages and  previously  paper-pencil  incorporate  materials  instruction  materials  g r o u p has  Group  designed  sensitization  to  the  were  generative  text  in Appendix  to  structure.  experimental  to text A  set  instruction  D.  Procedures  Pilot  Study A  1.  two  part  pilot  qualitatively Initial  2.  determine the  Initial In  the  nonstreamed  and  conducted  and  Final  and  students  Test  reading  level  would  Final  Recall  Tests.  fourth  part grade  of  the  class  refine  be  above, able  pilot in  an  the  passages,  scoring procedures;  four  first  to:  subsequently  Recall  procedures  whether  grade  was  evaluate  and  administration  study  at  and  test and below  to complete  study East  one  the  intact,  Vancouver  1 03  Catholic  public  standardized  school testing  used.  (Canadian  indicated  that  average  in  reading  conducted  over  a four day p e r i o d .  Initial  the  was  Test  minutes.  students  ranged  ability.  passage  a written  same p r o c e d u r e s  was  recall  p o s t t e s t passage.  and  scored  by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r  adjusting theoriginal  20  15  procedures. when  modified In  from  an East  read  each  six  two  classroom reading level. each  the  teacher  a t grade This  as  level,  time  passage.  to The  days f o r  two  testing levels  of  were  from  scoring  re-checked  passage  was n o t a s  As a r e s u l t  Termites  readability  estimate.  study  public and  was  revisions  allotment  refinement  Termites  reading and  f o r 20  25 m i n u t e s  Test  estimates  school  orally  and below as  was  s i x fourth  grade  were  required  answer  literal  of the s e l e c t i o n s .  selected  reading  Termites  subsequent  study  f o r each  informal  of the three  The  of t h e p i l o t  were  given  was  data  further  passage  questions  investigation  but the resulting  Vancouver  comprehension students,  were  passage.  part  above  On D a y One t h e  t o give a higher  t h e second  orally  that  to  collected  readability  a s t h e Parrots slightly  students  and  As w e l l  i t appeared  difficult  to  minutes  low  Skills)  A l l p r o t o c o l s were  analyzed.  included to  from  The  recent  Basic  f o r t h e T h i r d and Fourth  Parrot  statistically  of  of the I n i t i a l  were used  school's  s t u d i e d by t h e s t u d e n t s  the  not  Test  On D a y Two t h e s t u d e n t s  produce  The  Of t h e  identified  by t h e  grade  level,  two a s  reading  above  grade  indicated  that  were c a p a b l e  students at of  decoding  1 04  and  comprehending  the  oral  with  t h e words  the passages.  reading  errors  existed  An  indicated  commonly  r e a d a b i l i t y formulae  both  passages.  initial  and f i n a l  According passage the in  Table  then  applied  to  are listed  selections  Readability  in  Formula  of words t h a t  Table  (1948)  3. each  do n o t a p p e a r  These words have been  3: R e a d a b i l i t y E s t i m a t e s o f t h e I n i t i a l Test Passage Initial (Termites)  (1968) (1974)  Spache  were  Four  on  listed  4.  Formula  Smog  passage.  test  o f 3,000 w o r d s .  Readability Fry  were  r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s of the  to the Dale-Chall  List  the  words  The a p p r o x i m a t e  h a s a n e q u a l number  Dale  Table  from  of  difficulties  These  Termites  removed  analysis  decoding  unusual.  and  subsequently used  informal  (1974)  Dale-Chall  (1948)  Test  and F i n a l  Final  Test  (Parrots)  3.0  3.3  6.0  6.0  2.3  2.3  5.5  5.4  105  Table  Main  4: D i f f i c u l t Words i n t h e I n i t i a l and F i n a l B a s e d on D a l e L i s t o f 3,000 Words  Final (Par  appearance damage e n v i ronment extremely insects soldiers termi tes tropics underground  admi r e d beak beauti f u l easily greatest interesting 1iquid parrots vitamins  Test rots)  Study  Teacher  Orientation.  Prior with  t o the study  each  discuss  test  of  six  experimental  materials  booklets,  classroom  and  met  teachers  individually to outline  group  teachers  directions,  were p r o v i d e d  blank  student  outlining  the proposed  The c a l e n d e r  indicated  when  highlighted  administration, investigator  and  would  the indicated  be  and  procedures.  and a c a l e n d a r  study.  ended,  the  the investigator  the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  The  the  Initial Test {Termi t es )  Passages  days  and  the days  instructing.  and times  protocol  schedule  the study times  with  began of that  of and  test the  106  The a  coil  the  conventional treatment  bound b o o k l e t  specific  procedures, dated  instructional  procedures  of a l l i n s t r u c t i o n a l  materials,  shown  explicit The  teachers  t o maximize  week  half  chronologically  the study.  Each  test  t o ensure  The  protocol class  teachers booklets,  sets  of a l l  teacher  administration frequent  instructional  was  m a t e r i a l s and r e c e i v e d procedures.  contact  with a l l  smooth o p e r a t i o n of t h e  prior  study  consistency.  become  investigator  weeks.  of the  familiarized  to  children  was g o i n g  t o the study  a i d e . " The p u r p o s e  classroom,  two  and  dated  maintained  a day i n each  "teacher's  the  in  outlining  test administration  student  packaged during  calendar  with  Orientation.  One  was t o  blank  were p r o v i d e d  materials.  t o use the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  investigator  Student  for  and  instructions  classroom and  with  t o be u s e d  how  a  of procedures,  copies  materials  contained  schedule  were a l s o p r o v i d e d test  which  teachers  learn  f o r the was  about  experimental  school of  i n t r o d u c e d as a  to practice  worked  classes  as  of the p r e - e x p e r i m e n t a l with  arrival  the investigator  the  children  the  from  for  each  prepare  investigator.  "student  teaching the class  visit  in  r o u t i n e s , and t o  a  U.B.C."  The who  approximately  1 07  Instructional  Procedures.  Conventional  The  Treatment.  conventional  answering  questions  questions  after were  classroom  teachers.  Appendix  the  An  instructional by  these  passages.  The  the  h a s been p r o v i d e d  group  conventional  i n Table  C.1 o f  Treatment.  experimental  centered  on  generative  identify  2.  use  group  students  Instruction providing  processing  1.  tasks  paragraph  were  instructed  by t h e  f o r the experimental  direct  and survey  instruction  to train  group  combined  with  students t o :  headings;  headings  to identify  the macrostructure  the passage;  be s e n s i t i v e macro  to thehierarchical  and  classification  organization  micropropositions expository  in  selections;  u s e rememberances o f headings and  of  on  to  the conventional  outline  procedures  investigator.  4.  t h e answers  marking  centered  C.  The  3.  and  instructed  Experimental  of  procedures  reading  students  instructional  instructional  of t h e  information/  and  t o increase  the  quantity  o r g a n i z a t i o n of r e c a l l .  An procedures  outline h a s been  of  the  provided  experimental i n Table  instructional  D.1 o f A p p e n d i x  D.  108  Lesson  Duration.  Most duration each  with  the  one-half  lessons time  experimental  exception  hour  a l s o had  allotments  group  a  in  time  lessons  of  Lessons  length. allotment  for Lessons  were 1 and  The of  1 and  one  one 9,  hour  in  which  were  conventional  group  hour  with  shorter  9.  Summary This It  chapter  presented  provided  an  overview  description  of  the  non-standardized procedures; and  Final  materials groups; study;  and  testing  research  the  the  outlined  and  procedures  of  and  f i n d i n g s of of  the  study.  included  a and  administration  the  conventional  procedures the  and  described  the  standardized  scoring procedures  f o r the  of  design; the  instruments  protocols;  developed  reported  the  methodology  subjects; described  outlined Test  of  the  main  the  Initial  instructional experimental the study.  pilot  1 09  CHAPTER FOUR  RESULTS This data.  chapter The  using  Analysis  of 2.1  been  Variance program.  conventional recall  three  groups  reading  section  to  delineated  i n Chapter  The differences groups  on  students'  1.  and  t h e SPSS-X r e s u l t s has  testing  for  section possible  experimental and  and  ability  to  the f i n a l  Also  testing  organization  included  were  results  hypotheses  are  the  conducted  to  post  hoc  determine  groups.  section  between the  (ANCOVA)  The f i r s t  the  and  which  in ability third  were  ability  examines  quantity  analyses  differences  study  from  of  passage.  according  Scheffe  this  of these  sections.  between  the  analyses  Covariance  of the p r e l i m i n a r y  in  the  procedures  differences  second  for  The p r e s e n t a t i o n  an e x p o s i t o r y  The  of  (ANOVA)  into  findings  initial  analyses  the Analysis  organized  reports  the r e s u l t s of  statistical  conducted  Release  reports  the  initial  presents  an  experimental and  final  analysis and  tests  i n c l u s i o n of headings  in  their  ANCOVA  as  the  of  the  conventional regarding written  the recall  protocols. The procedure  was  selected  f o r the i n i t i a l  and f i n a l  main  recall  test  statistical because i t  110  can  be  one  used  o r more  dependent covariate tests  to statistically  independent variables  i n both  (Borg  and  were  quantity  and  influenced  Reading  used  as  their  subjects' reading  allowed  a  for  the  the i n i t i a l  Comprehension  covariate  reading  could  scores  final on t h e These  the subjects'  be  conceivably  comprehension a b i l i t y .  comprehension  control  and  Subtest.  because  scores  the  1984, p. 3 7 9 ) . The  Comprehension  organization  by  Gall,  f o r both  was t h e s u b j e c t ' s R e a d i n g  scores  f o rthe influence of  v a r i a b l e s ( i . e . c o v a r i a t e s ) on  analyses  Gates-MacGinitie  the  control  of  scores  this  as  a  possible  Using  covariate source  of  var iance. Since Null the  t h e main  Hypotheses major  homogeneity obtained  of  variance the  significantly  to  w a s t h e ANCOVA assumptions  by  regression  statistical  procedure  i t was n e c e s s a r y  underlying (that  experimental  differ  from  each  (theregression lines  be p a r a l l e l ) ,  distributed).  and normality  violations  of  known  these  to  and  control  other),  satisfy  of  scores  g r o u p s do n o t  homogeneity  are  normally  was n o t t e s t e d  robust  of  group a r e assumed  ( t h e scores  assumptions  to  technique:  variances  f o r each  be  to test the  this  the  The n o r m a l i t y a s s u m p t i o n  b e c a u s e ANCOVA w e r e  used  with  regard  ( G l a s s and Hopkins,  here to  1984,  p. 3 5 1 ) . For unit  of  a l l the  computations  analysis  was  probability  level  of  the  in this individual  .05 w a s t h e l e v e l  investigation the student. at which  The  the Null  111  Hypotheses  in  significance commonly  this  was  used  study  were  rejected.  s e l e c t e d because in  educational  This  i t i s the l e v e l research  (Borg  level which  of i s  and  Gall,  of  the  1983).  Analysis  The G a t e s - M c G i n i t i e  of the I n i t i a l  Testing  Test  T-Scores. Data  collected  from  administration  Gates-MacGinitie  Reading  Comprehension  Edition,  D,  2  study  Level  indicated  conventional  a high  and  variance  (ANOVA)  T-scores  found  groups  deviation  groups.  students'  (n=79)  The was  The T - s c o r e  norms  compared  to the  scores,  the and  of  found  An  reading  treatment for  a  the  standard  f o r the conventional  group  9.13. the  1980  the Gates M a c G i n i t i e population.  When  1982-83  treatment variance.  t o be s l i g h t l y  of  comprehension  with  d e v i a t i o n of  the  analysis  T-score  52.10  to the  between  d i f f e r e n c e between  53.40 w i t h a s t a n d a r d  g r o u p s were  similarity  p_>.05].  group  national  ability  of  no s i g n i f i c a n t  o f 8.13.  ( n = 6 2 ) was  degree  on t h e  Canadian  ( M a c G i n i t i e , 1980) p r i o r  experimental  [F(1,39)=.80,  experimental  The  Form  Subtest,  West groups  above  Vancouver  school  were  t o be  Therefore  found  although  not  district similar  in  randomly  1 12  selected school  the  sample  populations  seemed i n the  similar Vancouver  standard  d e v i a t i o n s of  groups,  national Gates-MacGinitie  school  Table  district  5:  scores  the  are  in  ability  area.  The  conventional  listed  on  Table  other  T-scores  and  norms and  to  and  experimental West  Vancouver  5.  Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r G a t e s M a c G i n i t i e T - S c o r e s by G r o u p f o r t h e C o u l o m b e S t u d y , N a t i o n a l Norms, and West V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t Scores  Group  X T-Score  sd  Experimental  52.10  8.13  79  Conventional  53.40  9.13  62  Entire  52.67  8.58  141  Norms  50.00  10.00  46000  1982 W e s t Vancouver District Scores  52.26  8.16  206  1980  Sample  National  It the  n  was  study  noted sample  that  a l l but  completed  two  the  of  the  141  Reading  students  in  Comprehension  Subtest.  Classification Initially below,  at  and  of  Students  subjects above  grade  equivalent  scores  or  respectively.  higher,  between  into were  Reading A b i l i t y to  level 3.0  and  be  classified  i f  they  3.9,  However,  Levels  4.0  as  attained and  4.9,  discrepancies  reading grade and  5.0  between  113  teacher  estimates  equivalent  of  scores  Comprehension  reading  ability  attained  Subtest  made  on  i t  ranges.  Although  the  and  a b i l i t y students,  high  readers  appeared  range  2.5  for  of the  to  three  the Gates  inflated  12.8.  the  The  ability  Test the  resulting revised  levels  the  to  revise  clearly  scores  the  identified  of  i n a grade  grade  grade  Gates-MacGinitie  necessary  ability low  and  the  equivalent  equivalent  reclassified  better  ranges  students  as  performing: 1.  2.  below  grade  score  below  at  grade  score 3.  level,  level,  between  This  of  abilities  and  considered students, above their and  grade "out  i f they  in  Test  and  of  three  attained  high of  a grade  by  degree the  of  equivalent  equivalent  in  to recent Basic  as  Skills).  to  5 students,  the  of  these  teachers  group, teacher five  well  or  below  the  teachers  standardized  testing  The  by  two  as average  performed  estimated  reading  according  that  Each  system-wide  agreement  experimental  scores  a b i l i t y , had level  students  the  the classroom  of  students'  ranges; only  character".  grade  of  a grade  and  a  equivalent  i n reading  as compared  equivalent  higher.  equivalent  estimated  estimated  (Canadian  7.2;  the r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n grade  average  a grade  attained  estimates  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  attained  they  and  resulted  teacher  in  4.2  and  between  revised  i f  level,  7.5  adjustment  the  attained  3.9;  above grade score  i f they  classroom  teachers  11 4  mentioned could by  that  uncharacteristic  student  have been a t t r i b u t e d t o e m o t i o n a l  family  were  the  or personal problems.  not included  students  who  were  Gates-MacGinitie experimental  absent test  group  on  9  from these  Also  days  and  difficulties  Data  i n the study.  not  caused students  included  the  Final  (4  students  students  performance  Recall  were  Test and  from  the  from t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l  Group). After test  accounting  scores  day  and  a n d a b s e n t e e i s m on Final  instructional level  forattrition  Recall  group  readers  due t o u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  the  Test  day,  was c o m p r i s e d o f :  (with  a mean g r a d e  o f 2.7 t o 3 . 8 ) ; 2 ) 46 a t g r a d e  mean  grade  and  score  3) 15 a b o v e g r a d e  level  score  conventional below  grade  of  readers  3.2 a n d a r a n g e o f 2.7 readers of  4.1  mean The  (with  to  a mean g r a d e  high  level  degree  conventional  score  level  schools appeared  to  indicates  2)  30  score  grade  control  between that for  o f 3.3 a n d a (with  mean  of:  level  at  grade  level range  (with  o f 7.5 t o  a  11.0).  the experimental  differences  13  score of  readers  the i n i t i a l  The  1)  o f 5.49 a n d a  level  a  grade  o f 7.5 t o 1 0 . 6 ) .  o f 8.63 a n d r a n g e  of s i m i l a r i t y  groups  a  a mean g r a d e  3.6);  grade  o f 4.2 t o 7 . 1 ) ;  g r o u p was c o m p r i s e d (with  experimental  readers  (with  range  t o 7 . 1 ) ; a n d 3) 19 a b o v e grade  range.  a  test  below  score  level  readers  and  instructional level  18  o f 5.47 a n d a r a n g e  level  8.9  the  1)  level  range  level  Gates-MacGinitie  and  matching of in  ability  11 5  Attendance  Rates  Similarities course  of  treatment  the  school  attendance  investigation  groups.  experimental rate  in  The  group  average  was  of attendance  was  rate  during  found  between t h e  also  attendance  96% p e r student  f o r the conventional  rate  while  the  f o r the  the overall  g r o u p was  97%  per  student.  Years  of Teaching Also  s i m i l a r w a s t h e mean n u m b e r o f y e a r s  experience group  between  teachers.  experience 9 years years  ranging of  1  The  from  teaching  to  classroom  investigator  mean  number  who t a u g h t experience,  experience  5 years  ranging  experience  of  years  The  was  of  teaching  approximately  mean  f o r the three  of experience.  The t h r e e  h a d a mean o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y from  was  teaching  number  9 t o 30 y e a r s .  The  group had 4 years  the  same  ranging  experimental 16 y e a r s  group  of  investigator of  teaching  mean n u m b e r o f y e a r s  as the c o n v e n t i o n a l  of  conventional  was a p p r o x i m a t e l y - 4 y e a r s  the experimental which  of  and t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  teachers  1 t o 30 y e a r s .  teachers  teachers  experience  teaching  the  f o r the s i xclassroom  group classroom from  Experience  teachers.  of  1 1 6  Initial  Test  Recall  To  determine  i f the groups  ability  to recall  a headed  students  read  completed  a written  protocols separate  were 2  X  performed,  To  recall  on  i f  tests  show  organization)  that these  =  1 . 5 0 ,  Results  from  t h e ANCOVA  of r e c a l l  As  be  can  statistically experimental  the  significant  significant  main  Covariate.  organization, Interaction  there  (quantity  and  =  i n Table 6,  difference  for  of Group-by-Ability  met  (p>.05)  2 . 1 5 ,  p > . 0 5 ] .  on t h e q u a n t i t y  mean  was a s i g n i f i c a n t  F( 1 , 1 2 7 ) = 3 . 1 3 , p _ < . 0 5 ,  from  F ( 5 , 1 3 9 3 9 )  there  main  was  between there  forAbility both  quantity effect  The  no the were  or f o r and  f o r the  [F (1 , 1 2 7 ) = 4 . 1 9 , p _ < . 0 5  respectively].  and  6.  As w e l l ,  effect differences  were  The r e s u l t s  Table  However,  ANCOVA  were  groups.  on t h e  the  from  and conventional  were  and of  analyses  performed  Two  measures.  of variance  a r e summarized  seen  other  of  performed.  and  The  ANCOVA  the  assumptions  both  and  later.  of  recall  assumptions  p > . 0 5  organization  no  in  (Termites)  and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  and  written  were  passage, a l l  day  analyses  of the homogeneity  coefficient  prose  one  quantity  the  differed in their  Passage  protocol  of the delayed  tests  [ F ( 5 , 1 3 9 3 9 )  Test  f o rquantity  the  ascertain  regression  Initial  scored  one  satisfied,  expository  3 ( G r o u p by A b i l i t y )  organization  these  the  initially  adjusted  and mean  1 17  Table  6: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e S u m m a r y T a b l e f o r Q u a n t i t y a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l on I n i t i a l T e s t  Source  SS  MS  df  F  QUANTITY Covar i a t e  41 .38  1  41 .38  2.30  Group  21.86  1  21 .86  1.21  Ability  95.83  2  47.92  2.66  150.80  2  74.50  4.19*  2285.09  127  18.00  156.30  1  156.30  Group X  Ability  Residuals  ORGANIZATION Covar i a t e  1 .44  1  91 .93  2  45.96  .99  291.27  2  145.64  3.13*  5913.74  1 27  46.56  Group Ability Group X  Ability  Residuals * p_<.05 scores  .03  1 .44  level of q u a n t i t y for  experimental below,  at,  group and  respectively. the  3.56  conventional  adjusted  mean  the  were  above The  scores  f o r the three  14.09  f o r the below,  8.48,  abi1i ty 1 1 .84  average  three  group  group  three  were  adjusted 6.37,  levels  and  grade  in  12.06 f o r  the the  level  groups,  q u a n t i t y mean  scores i n  8.99,  of- o r g a n i z a t i o n  ability  groups  were  a t , and above grade  and i n the  14.36.  The  experimental  11.31,  15.22,  and  level  groups.  The  118  adjusted group  mean  scores  f o r the three  18.16  for  the  of o r g a n i z a t i o n  ability  below,  levels  at,  i n the conventional  were  and above  9.71, grade  12.07  level  and  groups,  respectively. Figures by-Ability  1 for  adjusted  mean  quantity  of  appears  and 2 i l l u s t r a t e  the interaction  both  measures  scores. recall,  to  have  grade three  the  group.  ability  differently  because  However, in  the  scored  the  scoring  lowest,  higher  and t h e  above  the  1  grade  the  f o rthe  interaction  higher  subjects  the  below  grade  level  level  group  than t h e below  conventional  at  on  experimental  i t seems t h a t  f r o m one a n o t h e r w i t h  group  Figure  Group-  the ' a t - g r a d e - l e v e l ' and  in  and both  levels  to  based  Group-by-Ability  subjects  similarly  level  Referring  occurred  'above-grade-level' performed  dependent  of  the  group  scored  grade  level  group  subjects  in  scoring  scoring  the  highest. Referrring  to Figure  the  Group-by-Ability  for  the  same  2 f o r the organization  interaction  reasons  as  for  appears the  of  t o have  quantity  recall, occurred  of  recall  interact ion.  Analysis To  test  C h a p t e r One, covariance the  other  the  of  the F i n a l  s i x hypotheses  two s e p a r a t e  2X3  Testing delineated  (Group X A b i l i t y )  earlier in analyses  of  (ANCOVA) w e r e p e r f o r m e d , o n e on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d on.the  organization  of delayed  written  recall.  119  Figure  OJ OJ  o o  O (_> OI ir> i — C -r-  ac o OOJ •4->  E  3  E  -r•<—> X  1.  Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on I n i t i a l A b i l i t y Levels  15.00  --  14.00  •-  13.00  --  1 2 . 00  •-  1 1 . 00  •-  10.00  •-  9.00  •-  8.00  •-  7.00  --  6.00  •-  Recall  Test  by Group and  3  0.00  4-  Below Grade Level  At Grade Level  Ability Experimental  Group  Conventional  Group  Level  Above Grade Level  120  Figure 2 .  Organization Scores and A b i l i t y L e v e l s  on  Initial  Recall  Test  by  Group  cn i-  19.00  --  18.00  •-  17.00  --  16.00  •-  15.00  --  14 .00  •-  to CI  13.00  •-  a: o  12.00  --  11.00  --  10.00  •-  9.00  •-  8.00  •-  7.00  --  E VXD  JGJ  o U  D CJ  QJ I/O •— -O  c  •>-  O' </>  E => c> E  OJ -4->  =3 ••-  *~~> r  "C3  X ro  x  o.oo<e_ Below Grade Level  At Grade Level  A b i l i t y Level Experimental  Group  Conventional  Group  Above Grade Level  1 2 1  To d e t e r m i n e satisfied,  tests  regression these  tests  regression  show  the  for  presentation  Ho,:  For Quantity  of  be  difference  between  adjusted  mean  not  results  from  homogeneity  from  of  the assumption  met  (p_<.05).  the  two  The  ANCOVA,  Hypotheses  Hypothesis  recall  will  By  regarding  the  be f o l l o w e d  by a  no  Treatment  statistically  the treatment final-test  of delayed written  There  be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  ability  final-test written  level  on  performance  recall.  groups  in  their  on  the  recall.  of Recall  will  By  significant  performance  For Quantity  for  and of t h e  consideration.  Null  of Recall  will  quantity  2  were  of the r e s u l t s .  There  Ho :  was  of R e c a l l  quantity  The  (p_>.05) w h i l e  into  A restatement of each findings  ANCOVA  variance  the  results  should take t h i s  for Quantity  of  was m e t  variance  of  of  the  i n both a n a l y s e s ( f o r q u a n t i t y and  assumption  of  of  were p e r f o r m e d .  coefficient  interpretation  Findings  homogeneity  that  the  homogeneity  therefore  of  coefficient  organization)  of  i f the assumptions  Reading  Ability  significant  students'  adjusted  on t h e q u a n t i t y  effect mean  of delayed  1 22  Ho :  For  3  the  Interaction Quantity  There  Results recall  Table  be  written  from  Reading A b i l i t y  interaction  independent  between  performance  student  on  adjusted  the  quantity  of  on t h e  quantity  of  recall.  t h e ANCOVA  performed  i n Table  7.  A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e Summary T a b l e o f R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t  Source  on  variable populations  and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ) and t h e i r  a r e summarized  7:  no  final-test  delayed  by  Recall  i n both  (treatment mean  of  will  membership  of Treatment  SS  df  for  Quantity  F  MS  Covariate  12. 00  1  1 2 . 00  .49  Group  2 4 . 33  1  2 4 . 33  .95  1 6 8 . 83  2  8 4 . 42  3.30*  9 6 . 25  2  48. 1 2  1 .88  3 4 3 2 . 33  1 34  Ability Group X A b i l i t y Residuals * p_<.05  As  level  c a n be s e e n  effects  for  interaction these  2 5 . 61  from Table the  Covariate,  (p>.05).  analyses  [F(2,134)=3.30,  7, t h e r e w e r e n o s i g n i f i c a n t  The  i s 2<-  0 5  ]•  Group,  only  the  or  Group-by-Ability  significant  main  effect  main  finding from  from  Ability  123  Table standard test  8  presents  deviations  f o r the three  Table  the for  ability  means,  adjusted  quantity  of r e c a l l  means on t h e  and final  groups.  8: M e a n s , A d j u s t e d M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r Q u a n t i t y o f R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t by A b i l i t y Levels  Ability Level  Exper imental G r o u p Means  Conventional G r o u p Means  Marginal Means  Below Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  5.82 6.72 4.62 (18)  5.00 5.96 2.79 (13)  5.41 6.34 3.93 (31 )  At Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  1 0.82 10.83 4.28 (46)  7.84 7.85 4.26 (30)  9.33 9.34 4.49 (76)  Above Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  13.83 12.97 7.42 (15)  14.83 1 3.97 6.93 (19)  1 4.33 1 3.47 7.06 (34)  Group Means  Ob Ad sd n  10.16 10.17 5.69 (79)  9.22 9.26 6.23 (62)  Ob: Ad: sd: n :  O b s e r v e d means Adjusted means Standard deviations Cell sizes  N o t e : Maximum  possible  Referring mean 6.34,  scores 9.34  t o Table  of q u a n t i t y and  score  13.47  = 31  marks  8 i t c a n be s e e n f o r the three f o r the below,  that  ability  the  adjusted  groups  a t , and above  are grade  1 24  level  groups,  shows  that  respectively. the  significantly grade-level' p_<.05  in  similarly  groups  cases].  The  3 illustrates  recall  in  the investigation.  by t h e b e l o w ,  Based  latter  t h e main  on t h e s e f i n d i n g s 1, f o r Q u a n t i t y  Hypothesis  3,  For  Null  by R e a d i n g A b i l i t y  was  f o rOrganization  for  presentation  effect  of R e c a l l  and  'below-  respectively, performed  grade  level  of  students  recall,  Treatment  by  Null  and N u l l Reading  H y p o t h e s i s 2, f o r Q u a n t i t y o f rejected.  of R e c a l l  organization  f o r the quantity  By T r e a t m e n t ,  of  A restatement of each N u l l  Ho,:  test  performed  two g r o u p s  forquantity  Interaction  were a c c e p t e d .  findings  32.18,  a t , and above  Hypothesis  Findings  group  than the ' a t - g r a d e - l e v e l '  [F(2,138)=15.65;  of  Recall  hoc S c h e f f e  [ F ( 2 , 1 3 8 ) =7 . 69 , p_<.05].  Figure  Ability  post  'above-grade-level'  better  both  The  Hypotheses  Hypothesis  of r e c a l l  will  regarding  the  be f o l l o w e d  by a  of the r e s u l t s .  For Organization There  will  of R e c a l l  be  difference  between  adjusted  mean  organization  no  By  Treatment  statistically  the treatment final-test  of delayed w r i t t e n  significant  groups  performance recall.  in on  their the  125  Figure  3.  Q u a n t i t y S c o r e s on F i n a l A b i l i t y Levels  Recall  Test  by  14 . 0 0 CO  II OJ so OJ o t~ oo o U QJ CO r _D c to in Qj m SI  O CL.  13 . 0 0 I 2 . 00 II . 00 10.00 9. 00  E 3 «/> E  8.00  X) fO  7 . 00  OJ +J  3 •>•>-> X  6.00  0.00  f-  •4Below Grade Level  At Grade Level  Ability  Level  Above Grade Level  1 26  Ho :  F o r O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l By A b i l i t y  5  There for  will ability  final-test delayed  Ho :  be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y level  students'  performance  written  on  effect  adjusted  mean  the organization  of  recall.  For I n t e r a c t i o n  6  on  significant  of Treatment by Reading A b i l i t y  on  the O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l There  will  no  (treatment  and reading a b i l i t y ) and t h e i r  Results  independent  between  i nboth  f i n a l - t e s t performance  delayed  written  from  variable  t h e ANCOVA  performed  i n Table  SS  Covariate  9.  df  for  MS  1  16. 68  1 6 7 3 . 83  1  1 6 7 3 .83  Ability  631 . 31  2  3 1 5 . 66  Group X A b i l i t y  1 9 3 .85  2  9 6 . 93  Residuals  ** 2<.001 * p_<.05  1 1 9 5 8 .28 level level  adjusted  on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  1 6 . 68  Group  populations  on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  9: A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e S u m m a r y T a b l e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f R e c a l l on F i n a l T e s t  Source  student  recall.  r e c a l l a r e summarized  Table  interaction  membership  mean  of  be  1 34  8 9 . 24  Ir  .19 18,. 7 5 * * 3,.54* 1 .09 ,  1 27  As  c a n be s e e n  this  analysis  from  for  of  Group,  effects  of  Ability,  for  9, t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  organization  effects  presents  Table  of  recall  are  [F(1,134)=18.75, p<.00l], [F(2,134)=3.54,  t h e means, a d j u s t e d means  organization  findings  scores  p_<.05].  recall  main  and t h e main  and standard  on t h e f i n a l  the  from  test  Table  10  deviations by  ability  groups.  Table  10: M e a n s , A d j u s t e d M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S c o r e s on F i n a l R e c a l l T e s t by Ability Levels  Ability Level  Experimental G r o u p Means  Convent i o n a l G r o u p Means  Marginal Means  Below Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  1 1 .69 12.76 8.72 (18)  7.35 8.48 4.91 (13)  At Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  23.05 23.06 9.52 (46)  12.76 12.77 8.19 (30)  17.90 17.91 10.29 (76)  Above Grade Level  Ob Ad sd n  3 0 . 17 29. 1 4 12.59 (15)  22.05 21 .04 1 0.93 (19)  26.11 25.09 12.21 (34)  Group Means  Ob Ad sd n  21 .64 20.65 11.63 (79)  1 4.05 14.10 10.10 (62)  Ob: Ad: sd: n :  O b s e r v e d means A d j u s t e d means Standard deviations Cell sizes  N o t e : Maximum  possible  score  = 61  marks  9.52 10.62 7.58 (31 )  1 28  Referring mean s c o r e s is  three  hoc  The  higher  adjusted  ability  and  Scheffe  group  significantly  better  [F(2,138)=13.12, Figure  4  organization  significant As  recall  i n the  main be  seen  to  group  i n turn  level  organize  group  for  25.09 f o r t h e  the  which  the  below,  The  post group  'at-grade-level'  in  turn  performed  'below-grade-level'  the  by  main  the below, while  group  as  for  the  a t , and  above  grade  5 illustrates  Figure  4  their  recalls  better  5  the  than  compared  students  than  the  median  below  grade  the  written  to that  good  the  illustrates of  the  Group.  from  Figure  group  effect  Figure  f o r Treatment  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n  experimental  (20.65)  'above-grade-level'  performed better  students.  difference  organization  than  the  study  effect  appeared who  on  the  adjusted  group  respectively.  p<.05]  than  the  p<.05]  of  can  that  the conventional  17.91,  better  illustrates  students  of  groups,  shows t h a t  significantly  seen  f o r the treatment  10.62,  level  test  be  mean s c o r e s  [F(2,138)=13.60,  level  i t can  than that  groups are  above grade  performed  10  of o r g a n i z a t i o n  significantly  (14.10).  at  to Table  significant  recall  of t h e  by  the  conventional  group. Based  on  Hypothesis  6,  Ability of  the analyses for  was  Recall  Organization  Interaction  accepted. by  for organization  and  Null  by A b i l i t y  recall,  Treatment  Null Hypothesis  Treatment  of R e c a l l  of  of  were  4 for  by  Null  Reading  Organization  Hypothesis rejected.  5  for  129  F  i  9  ~  u  r  e  5  -  Organization  Scores  on F i n a l  Test  by  Group  22.00  (/>  21 .00 -VO  2 0 . 0 0 --  II  CD S-  1 9 . 0 0 --  a> <_) L- OO  1 8 . 0 0 --  o  o  <j a; «/> i— d -i— •a  3: •o  vi  o Ou  a»  E  «/«  E  ••-» _5 _3 ••— -~> X "O ra  1 7 . 0 0 -1 6 . 0 0 -1 5 . 0 0 -1 4 . 0 0 -1 3 . 0 0 -0. 00 Conventional  Experimental  G r o u p  130  Figure 4.  O r g a n i z a t i o n Scores on F i n a l Levels  Test by Group and  26.00 25.00 24.00 23.00 QJ O  u  22.00 21.00 20. 00 19.00  LT)  O  CX. E 3  E  X  OJ V-  o  CO  18.00 17.00 16.00 15.00 • 14 .00 • 13.00 • 12.00 --  OJ  11.00  "O CJ  10.00 • 9.00 -8.00 •7.00 •0.00 Below Grade Level  At Grade Level Ability  Level  Above Grade Level  131  Analyses of the Use of Headings By Group Although  headings  organization have been for  scored  quantity  organization to  only,  recall  test  f o rq u a n t i t y .  final  revealed  that  (X=.32,  subjects' revealed  that  However,  than  differencef o r on  both  on  (X=.29)  than  with  recall  d i d  regard  the final group  the  not  the conventional to  test  the  t h e ANOVA  (i£=3.05)  the conventional  [ F ( 1 , 1 32 ) = 1 6 6 . 2 5  also  investigation  groups  group  headings  headings  better  an  A n ANOVA o n t h e i n i t i a l  the experimental  significantly (X=.55),  of  could  findings f o r  a significant  t h e two  more  p>.05).  use  significant  t h ee x p e r i m e n t a l  significantly  group  was  test.  they  for  The n o n s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s  but  between  scored  that  by Group prompted  i f there  and  recall  recall  of recall  of headings  initial  initially  i t was c o n c e i v a b l e  of  determine  were  performed  treatment  group  p_<.00l].  Summary The testing  results found  conventional  were  no  and  initial  written recall.  conducted  instructing  to  fourth  i n this  significant  and treatment  comprehension delayed  presented  on  quantity  The a n a l y s e s  grade  f o r  differences  groups  determine  chapter  of  to  the  reading  organization of  of t h ef i n a l  the effect  students  between  measures and  initial  on  attend  testing  recall to  of text  1 32  structure  and t o use headings  a s an a i d i n  retrieving  organizing  written recall  of e x p o s i t o r y prose  Based  on t h e r e s u l t s  i t  Hypotheses rejected Recall  were  ( 2 , 4, a n d 5 ) . by  Treatment,  differences recalled  were  by  Hypotheses Ability also  accepted  the  accepted.  No  G r o u p by R e a d i n g Hypothesis Ability  was  recalled. better  readers  average  or  Organization because  performing Hypothesis  Scheffe  test  organized readers,  ability  test  revealed  recall  more t h a n  of  was  also  difference  was  found  experimental  effect  organization  4,  due  to  the for  rejected in  rejected  the outwas  Reading  of r e c a l l .  p r o t o c o l s b e t t e r than b e t t e r than  that the  group  the 'above-grade-level'  i n turn performed  ideas  either  Treatment,  the that  due t o  hoc  Also  measure.  effect  number  group.  for  Reading  the  the  were  by  on  significant  indicated  reading  found  Hypothesis  with  on  ideas groups.  by  students.  conventional  found  their who  by  of r e c a l l ,  5 since a  was  post  significant  the  Ability  found  significantly  of R e c a l l  a '  organization  recalled  of  dependent Recall  of  significant  were  because a s i g n i f i c a n t  Scheffe  low  no  of Treatment  of  were  Quantity  experimental  on e i t h e r  Quantity  was  three  quantity  interactions  level  for  ability  The  and  Null  and O r g a n i z a t i o n of R e c a l l ,  significant  2,  three  for  because  the  for Interaction  rejected  comprehension  between  Ability  that  1,  was a c c e p t e d  Quantity  passages.  3, a n d 6 ) w h i l e  conventional  3 a n d 6,  on  (1,  found  Hypothesis  found  the  was  and  The  readers  the average  t h e low  ability  1 3 3  readers. final  The test  significant group  analysis of  delayed  effects  including  conventional Chapter analysis  of  the  i n c l u s i o n of  written  for treatment,  more h e a d i n g s  headings  recall with  the  also  in  the  revealed  experimental  i n t h e i r p r o t o c o l s than  the  group. 5  will  presented  discuss  in this  the  chapter.  results  of  the  data  134  CHAPTER  SUMMARY,  DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS  This the  chapter  findings,  of  paradigm  Will grade  four  students  six  affect  the quantity  intact  Vancouver study.  The  to  Conclusions and  the  a r e drawn  implications for  research  a r e suggested.  question:  to  train  t o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e  use headings as r e c a l l  and forty-one  of B r i t i s h classes  of  and  aids  organization  of  recall?  non-streamed  area  terms  of i n f o r m a t i o n / c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and  hundred  in  to the following  prose  written  the  4 arediscussed i n  i n s t r u c t i o n designed  organization  One  and  of  of the Study  answers  direct  together  implications  of t h e r e s u l t s  sought  and brings  i n Chapter  i n s t r u c t i o n and further  study  STUDY  of the study.  Summary  This  THE  I M P L I C A T I O N S AND  t h e study  research  thediscussion  classroom  OF  and  The f i n d i n g s  previous  instructional after  summarizes  conclusions  investigation. light  FIVE  fourth  classes Columbia  were p a i r e d  grade  located were  students  from  i n t h e Greater  involved  on t h e b a s i s  of  i n the estimated  1 35  reading  ability  assigned  t o one o f two t r e a t m e n t  The low,  experimental  average,  direct  instruction  headings  The 62  group,  of  from  from  their  passages and  orally  with  mark  answers  testing  of  the  use  of  forrecall  of  expository level  passages.  o f 3.4.  received  The  instructions descriptive  and t o answer  questions  a l l students  experiment  involved  both  Gates-MacGinitie  the  (Canadian  edition, recall  classify  classroom  1980)  test  Gates-MacGinitie 1.  to  in  the  aids  readability group  in  the e x p e r i m e n t a l group,  the  received  designed to  t h e m a c r o s t r u c t u r e of t h e t e x t .  Initial  written  and  c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o r e a d t h e same  as used  highlight  ability,  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  had an a v e r a g e  randomly  investigator  prose  students i n the conventional  from  reading  information/classification  passages  and were  groups.  the  descriptive  as r e t r i e v a l  status  c o m p r i s e d o f 79 s t u d e n t s o f  and above average  organization  ideas  and socio-economic  teacher  Reading  and  an  test  prior  to the  administration  Comprehension  initial  of a headed  comprehension  just  of  Subtest  one-day-delayed  expository  passage.  The  s c o r e s were used t o :  students as r e a d i n g below,  a t , or above  grade  level; 2.  to  determine  comprehension 3.  as a c o v a r i a t e and  Final  scores.  i f  the  ability;  groups  i n mean r e a d i n g  and  f o r t h e ANCOVAs  written  differed  recall  conducted  quantity  on t h e I n i t i a l  and  organization  136  The  Initial  classroom differed  Test  teachers prior  organization expository The  to  to of  was a d m i n i s t e r e d  determine  instruction recall  by  i f the treatment in  after  their  the  groups  quantity  reading  a  and  descriptive  passage. Final  administered study  of w r i t t e n r e c a l l  Test  of one d a y - d e l a y e d  by t h e c l a s s r o o m  t o determine  i ftraining  hierarchical  p a t t e r n of t e x t  recall  an  had  the  students'  the  Initial  effect  at the  students  ideas  end  of  was the  t o be a w a r e o f t h e  and t o use headings  for  on t h e q u a n t i t y a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  written recall. and  construction  teachers  written recall  Final  The p a s s a g e s  Recall  a n d had an a v e r a g e  Tests  used  were  readability  in  both  parallel  level  in  of  grade  found  no  3.1.  Discussion  Initial  Testing  Results  from  statistically experimental  was  in  signficant  initial mean  testing  differences  g r o u p mean s c o r e s  between  for  students  Group  However, by  a significant  Ability;  i n the experimental  the group  the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of ideas  groups out-performed  the low a b i l i t y  high  their  interaction and average  scored  similarly  recalled  students,  the  f o r reading  or f o r the q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n of  written recall.  found  ability  the  and conventional  comprehension delayed  of Findings  and  while  both the  1 37  students  of  performed  high better  organization) performed average, group  and  recalled  students  in  able  to  the  passage  Final  seem t o encode, of  low  38,  text.  of  low  ability  who,  the  40%,  respectively,  The  low,  average  indicate  that  and  readability  the  the  The  and  of high  recalled  good  readers more  poorer  low,  the  ideas  ability  21,  29,  propositions.  reproduce than  turn,  experimental  and  passage  and  in  students.  in  group  group  (quantity  students  students  the  retain,  conventional  measures  conventional  respectively,  findings  the  ability  27,  the  average  than  high  in  both  the  better  i n the  and  These  were  ideas  better from  a  readers.  Testing Six  Null  dependent  Treatment  Hypotheses,  measures  delineated  to  by  performance  quantity  Ability  Ability  on  the  analyses  f o r the  discussed  first  findings  of  Recall.  of  three  statistically  (Group),  Treatment  of  on  than  presented  46%,  ability  the  on  Final  and  and  analyze the  fourth  Test.  each  Final  Test  organization,  were  the  main  effects  possible Interaction grade  students'  R e s u l t s of  dependent  measure  of  since these  seem t o  shed  three  f o r the  the  of  recall  statistical  organization will some l i g h t  hypotheses analyzed  of  f o r the  on  be the  Quantity  13 8  Discussion Ho  of the Findings stated  4  significant between  that  there  groups.  organization  of  mean  As  scores  a group,  out-performed  This  seems t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  students  descriptive,  expository  organizational effect  stated  5  effect since  recall  aids  for  that  Ability  a significant  ability  was  indicated  found  grade  recall  protocols  level  who,  in turn,  below  grade  readers  for  by t h e S c h e f f e  above  findings  effect  are  than  of  between  found  no  to  structure  grade of  facilitative  significant  reading  comprehension  organized  As the their  ability  readers  recall  than the  written finding  use  rejected  comparisons  average  which  was  main  of r e c a l l .  the study  This  subjects.  recall.  of multiple  the  subjects  t o use headings as  organization  in  the  organization  hypothesis  to  research  likely text  be  organized  students.  previous more  the test  had b e t t e r  level  of  organization  better  were  and  This due  readers  in  significant  would  rejected  training fourth  of w r i t t e n  level.  was  recall  differences  hierarchical  had a  there  of  conventional  passages  on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  Ho  the  t o be a w a r e o f t h e  statistically  the experimental  significantly finding  no  hypothesis  significant  recall  groups.  be  of R e c a l l .  i n the organization  This  statistically  treatment  would  mean d i f f e r e n c e s  treatment  because  f o rOrganization  supports  the  indicates that  good  the  to organize  hierarchical their  written  139  recalls  than  students  Tierney,  1981;  Bridge, Tierney  1982;  Meyer, Ho  Brandt  stated  6  significant Ability  hypothesis  was  level  conventional higher ability low  ability  show  students  i n the  scores  structure, in  the  to  seemed  use to  the  low,  seem  to  facilitate  in  and  average  and  48%  14,  ability  21,  and  that  group of  of  more  difference  scores  organized  i t was  noted  between  the  passage students achieved  respectively.  training  appeared  attend  recall  ability  the  levels  a descriptive  structuring  by  organization  34%,  to  than  group  high  achieved  38,  indicate  However,  each groups  than  f o r each  to  ability  treatment  better  scores  high  of  passage content. in  i n both  found  contrast  students  by  This  was  while c o n v e n t i o n a l group  organization when  In  average,  21,  experimental  headings  recall.  experimental  the  group  and  percentages  Groups  better organization scores  Percentage  average  the  hierarchical and  had  experimental  results  each  and  the  interaction  performed  reflected  low,  sensitize  who  respectively,  organization These  level  students  that  which  in  McGee,  statistically  between of  and  1980).  no  Level.  out-performed  readers.  be  no  Ability  students  students  ability  since  G r o u p by  ability  ability  would  (Bridge  1978-79;  Taylor,  organization  accepted  consistently  Cera,  Interaction  the  Testing,  reading a b i l i t y and  there  for  on  low  B l u t h , 1980;  that  between Treatment Initial  and  effect  level  of  to  prose  which  the  passage in  turn  rememberances that the  to  of  percentage  experimental  group  1 40  students  in  compared  to  average  and  the the  low,  average  conventional  high  group  ability  These  indicate  training for  be  more e f f e c t i v e f o r  than  for  those  Discussion  of  of  low  the  recall  from  by  the  in  7,  the  17,  organization  of  average  of  and  as  low,  and  differences  for Quantity  significant  treatment  statistical  levels  14%,  seem  to  recall  may  high  ability  ability.  Findings  Considering of  students  ability  was  percentage the  high  students  levels  respectively. that  and  group,  analysis  Recall.  findings  the  of  of  for  organization  non-significant  the  Quantity  findings  hypotheses  were  unexpected. Ho,  stated  differences groups.  i n the  This  differences recalled the  that  to  Kintsch  these and  van  information  determine (p.  the which  364).  experimental  It  nature ideas seems  group,  are  a  possible  intent  on  no  significant  those  of  ideas  recalled  factors  have  may  by  have  indicated  when  that  organizing  the  the  productions"  strategy  retained  that  i t comes t o  response  selection  encoded,  treatment  findings.  (1978)  i n memory and  significant  quantity  of  become c r u c i a l  of  since  g r o u p and  number  Dijk  storage  that  A  no  between  the  non-significant  limitations  and  accepted  between  group.  be  recall  conventional  "capacity of  would  of  was  found  the  experimental  contributed  quantity  hypothesis  were  by  there  and  task  may  recalled  students  information  in  the  under  141  headings,  concentrated  organization details. level  at  Or  may  the  i t may only  number  recall  protocols  group in  be t h a t  of  able  their  five  written  that  recalls  The a v e r a g e present  experimental  in  number  group.  only,  scored  quantity,  for  out-performed recall.  Future  headings  f o r both  Another significant recall  training skills  researchers  associated  headings,  recalled  headings  experimental  their  have  amount  which  for instruction ideas  may  f o r the f a i l u r e aimed a t u s i n g  be t h a t  of  scoring  required a multiplicity  identification to  headings, and the  o u t l i n e s of the macrostructure  Although  daily  headings  whole  of  generation  underlining  the independent  to  find  headings  the s t r a t e g y and the  hierarchical  students.  been  may  do w e l l t o c o n s i d e r  explanation  as s u r v e y i n g  beyond  f o r the  had they  group  related  be  three  the  were s c o r e d f o r  that  in  out of  of a heading f o r  information  may  headings  q u a n t i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n .  effects  (such  the  i n the conventional  to one-half  may  of  p a s s a g e was  group  of  a  experimental  number  those  four  and r e t a i n  i n the  i t seems c o n c e i v a b l e  possible  tasks  greater  Test  the conventional  grade  inspection  Although  the  the  Closer students  of  the associated  recall  of headings  group as compared  conventional  at  units  encode,  than  the F i n a l  organization  to  to  concepts. found  these  of r e c a l l i n g  students  included a significantly  group.  the  remembering  expense  be  certain  on  and  capabilities class  processing of a l t e r n a t e  of  important  completion of  the  text)  of grade  guidance  of  in  four the  1 4 2  utilization ideas to  of headings  appeared  recall  studied  an  to enable  recall  day e a r l i e r ,  The  study  tasks  temptation  direction  i s to infer  effect  recalled  may  have  students  had t o i n t e g r a t e the study  training  students lead  p e r i o d may  out  that  may  be  since  more  reasoning  skill  findings Ho  2  ideas  analysis recalled  of  revealed  at  that a  grade  which  would  (1986) has are late i n  study  a t the grade  necessary  there  for  skills  6/7  level,  utilizing  the  to internalize  such  would  be  Ability  level  hypothesis  was  based  ideas that  recalled. the  more  students.  better  ideas  than  A  no  on  the  statistically  on t h e q u a n t i t y o f rejected  due t o c o m p r e h e n s i o n  significantly  low a b i l i t y  strategies  better  ideas  fourth  that  a  Although  strategies  taught be  find  time  strategies.  seems t o be w a r r a n t e d  This  effect  t h e number  limited  suggestion  skills  that  effect  recalled.  significant  to  study.  stated  significant  failure  the  reading  may  strategies,  of t h i s  to  (1985)  students  situations.  o f i n f o r m a t i o n , Baumann  effectively  these  abstract study  Stable's  when  on t h e q u a n t i t y o f  use study  these  passages  discussion  conceivably enable  to independently  developing.  or  due  to increased recall  pointed  for  for training  groups  seemed t o r e q u i r e a  and  that  facilitative  longer  classroom  i n semi-independent  been  related  of i n f o r m a t i o n from  the students  amount o f g u i d a n c e ,  performing  hierarchically  the experimental  i m p r e s s i v e amount  one  greater  to  ability Scheffe  since was post  a  found hoc  readers  i n the study  either  the  average  143  Ho  stated  3  significant Ability was  that  effect  level  accepted  treatment  there  would  for interaction  be  between  since  and  no  interaction  ability  level. level  students  recalled  significantly  more  ideas  similarly. that  groups  while  Percentage  the low, average  experimental  number  of  ideas group  average  recalled  group  high  significantly low,  achieved  ideas  of  with  performed  students  Test  scores  which  of  total  the  The  to  the  that the  significantly more  a b i l i t y students  less,  but  experimental  number  the  passage.  recalled  the  show  in  similarly  which approximated total  groups  the exception  not  group  and h i g h  the  Final  but  than  both  not  students.  in this  group  1 9 , 25 a n d 4 5 % ,  of ideas  i n the  Final  passage. results  seem  t o suggest  o f h e a d i n g s a n d a w a r e n e s s o f how  structured the  more  quantity scores  These use  ability  average  respectively, Test  less,  Initial  two  quantity  performed  students  to  t h e a t or below  latter  ability  the  students  group  The  high  in  between  o f e a c h Group by A b i l i t y  achieved  experimental  the  and  than  21%, 35% and 42%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  conventional  and  scores  group  approximated  the  from  by  hypothesis  found  contrast  t h e above grade  level  Groups  This  was  In  statistically the  on t h e q u a n t i t y o f r e c a l l .  Testing,  grade  no  ideas  did  that  training  expository  n o t seem t o f a c i l i t a t e i n c r e a s e d  presented  i n the passage.  f o r the  prose  is  recall  of  1 44  Conclusions,  I m p l i c a t i o n s , and S u g g e s t i o n s f o r  Future  Research The  r e s u l t s of t h i s  four  students  prose  is hierarchically  used  can  to recall  headings  be  study  t r a i n e d t o be organized,  information,  for recall  seem t o  and  indicate that  aware that  that  the  recall.  However, c o n t r a r y  to previous  Wittrock,  and  Taylor,  this  training  ideas  recalled. These  that  sensitization  facilitate  recall  and  Christensen 1965;  and  and  Niles,  1956;  1941),  who  may  benefit  reading  subjective that  even  1983;  Stordahl,  Hall,  be  that  from grade  evaluation  of and  Hiebert,  1965,  Robinson,  the  high  1970;  be  However,  performance,  ability  grade  Day  1970;  i n s t r u c t i o n would  student  in 1983; to  Dansereau,  f o u r t h grade  level.  have  headings  (Brooks,  Herber,  1984;  at or above  the average  and  of  for  instructed  Brown, Campione and  Meyer,  most  prose  1955;  i t appears  the q u a n t i t y  t r a i n e d t o use  of e x p o s i t o r y  Holley,  and  are  should  study)  researchers  be  (Englert  of  implications  Although several  of  (Doctorow,  initial  to increase  structure  be  organization  1982,  should  can  i n the use  research  significant  students  to text  1982)  seem  have  instruction.  suggested  Spurlin  not  findings  classroom  Taylor,  did  1978;  descriptive  headings  training  seems t o e n h a n c e  Marks,  that  grade  1981;  Jewitt, Robinson students  those  who  based  on  i t appeared  four  students  1 45  in  the  investigation  independently  to  have d i f f i c u l t y and  to  and/or  a need  are for  seem  who  structure  efficient i t  appears  are just  recalled) does  from  seem  helps  develop  narrative  on  unimportant  passage  which strips  of  subjective with  include: sorting  to  strategies prose.  learn"  o f how  text  instruction  texts  of  hierarchical  area  of  important  paragraphs.  The  findings  outlines, ideas Of t h i s  techniques  classification/categorization  in study such  ideas i t which  between  are organized, As  the  between  d i s o r g a n i z e d word  not  strategies,  organization.  on c o n t e n t  four  do  differences  observation  underlining  instructional  process  a t the grade  information, teachers  based  This  students  skill  skill  the  differentiating  activities  into  students  b e n e f i t from  indicate  difficulties  develop  would  awareness  headings  before  of e x p o s i t o r y  i n study  and  outlines.  be a m a t u r a t i o n  t o "read  and e x p o s i t o r y p r o s e ,  o f how  based  they  sentences  ability  to  identifying  ( i n terms of the q u a n t i t y of  instruction  that  that  beginning  to benefit greatly  in  and study  recall  headings  headings,  hierarchical  t h a t t h e r e may  t o use t e x t  using  They a l s o a p p e a r e d  facts  f o r increased mental  Although  and  completing  independent,  level,  important  indicate  able  recall.  generating alternate  and  seems  difficulty  increase  underlining  paragraphs,  had  well,  students'  important would  and  do w e l l  classroom  to  texts  lists  and  sentence  and  the  guided  sentences also as  tasks, cut-up  and  suggest  single that  word-sorting outline  sorting  1 46  and  use  of  headings  have p o t e n t i a l as  four  external  a prelude  Scope The  as  concern  and of  students would  this be  study  text  and  the  in  quantity  and  not  attempt  specific  instructional learning) in  but  of  of  type  viewed  the  Study  investigate  headings of  i f  examine  and  as  written  passages.  t r a i n i n g (such as  procedures  reports.  grade of  This  the the  aids  to  recall  of  study  effectiveness various types  circumstances  to  did of of  induce  training-for-sensitization-process  i t s entirety. The  l i m i t a t i o n s of  this  1.  The  students  2.  The  s i x s c h o o l s used  selected  3.  to  organization  to s t a t i s t i c a l l y  aspects  the  may  information/classification  use  information/classification  research  aids  to t r a i n i n g i n awareness  of  the  of  was  amenable  organization  increase  for writing  Limitations  hierarchical structure  organizational  i n the  but student  status  and  or  The  for  sample  Vancouver sample  is  Lower  were  not  study  paired  on  randomly were  the  abilities  then  randomly  basis and  the  of  study  Public a l l  was  School  grade  Mainland.  representative  of  not  randomly  of  estimated  to either  the  groups;  recruited System  four The  chosen;  socio-economic  assigned  conventional treatment  Catholic  representative  are:  in this  reading  were  experimental  Vancouver  sample  were  overall  study  and  from may  students  degree Canadian  not in  to which  the be the the  elementary  147  students the  determined  Canadian  those The  was  of  norms of  by  comparing  the  i n the  School  study  information/classification and  were  low  results  in  may  classification to  best  passages  classroom  were  low  prose  written  at  readability  noted,  however,  students  that recall  classification  passages  readability content  area  materials, initially that  levels.  educators  do  not  difficulties clear  by  have using  present  but  formats  taught  c o n v e n t i o n a l group the  investigator  possibility  and  to  instructed  experimental ensure  that  information/ than  higher to  such  apply text  skills  decoding  w i t h models  the  Pieronek, by  the  g r o u p was  of  the  test  and of  1985).  classroom trained of  lessons.  significant  be  materials  with  maximum  standardization  exists  1986;  be  train  for successful completion  (Baumann, was  often  to  l e s s o n s " and  students  The  treatment  "model  that  rather supply  tasks being  the  suggested  of  classroom  learner  the  while  to  than  I t should  students  the  procedural  teachers  expecting  the  are  was  rather  skills  prose  comprised  from  low  the  rather  which  intention  of  in  information/  levels.  ideas  Before  reading  taught  patterns  the  to  to  materials  expository  to  Therefore,  readability  several  and  expository  level.  instructional  higher  written  generalized of  to  District.  p a t t e r n of  readability be  scores  Gates-MacGinitie Test  t h e West V a n c o u v e r  m a t e r i a l s used  their  by the The  results  148  obtained  by  the  experimental  group  may  have  been  taught  the  because: a.  one  person  experimental classroom  (the  investigator)  group  while  teachers)  three  instructed  people  the  (the  conventional  group; b.  the students  i n the  experimental  found  t h e l e s s o n s more  have  been  more  conventional required  motivated  read,  a n s w e r s on a d a i l y  Implications Based  on  intriguing  group  to  the  group  to  have  and t h e r e f o r e learn  students answer  may  than  who  were  questions  and  may the  simply correct  basis.  f o r Future  findings  of  the  Research study  the  following  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a n be m a d e : 1.  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Educational  64(\),  R v G . , Mann, L . , C o u l s o n , J.M., & M o r r i s , V.R., a n d R e c k l e s s , D.E. and c o n c u r r e n t organizers for passages used with elementary The Journal of Educational  Richgels, D., & Hansen, R. students apply both reading content texts. 312-317.  Roller,  Herber  Association.  J.W., & A n d e r s o n , R.C. (1977). p e r s p e c t i v e s on a s t o r y . Journal Psychol ogy, 6 9 ( 4 ) , 3 0 8 - 3 1 5 .  Journal  Proger,  I n H.  developing Newark,  P i e r o n e k , F. (1985). C l a s s n o t e s , READ U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Proger,  Psychology,  209-225.  ( E d ) , Perspectives skills in secondary  Pichert,  72-103.  R.E. & Bromage, B.D. protocols for technical organizers.  Niles,  16,  Use of reading Reading  Psychology,  32(A),  (4th ed.).  New  Studies of higher The Journal of 241-252.  CM. (1985). The e f f e c t s o f r e a d e r and t e x t based f a c t o r s on w r i t e r s ' a n d r e a d e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e importance of information i n expository prose. Reading  Research  Quarterly,  20(4),  437-457.  1 55  Scheffe  H. (1970). comparisons. In Statistical  Scheffe method of G.V. Glass & D.H.  methods  in  education  (2nd ed.). Englewood Prentice-Hall, Inc. Smith, Slater,  N.B. (1964). subject areas.  Patterns Journal  of  and  Cliffs,  of  multiple Hopkins, psychoi  New  writing  Reading,  ogy  Jersey:  in different  13,  31-37.  W.H., G r a v e s , M.F., & P i c h e , G . L . (1985). Effects of s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z e r s on ninth-grade students' comprehension and recall of four patterns of expository text. Reading Research Quarterly, 22(2), 189-201.  S p a c h e , G.D. Good  (1974).  The  reading  for  Illinois: Stables,  R.  Garrard  The  as aids in grades  on grades 5 and University of Canada.  readability  poor  readers.  P u b l i s h i n g , pp.  (1985).  organization by students  Spache  use to 5  of  formula. Champaign,  195-207.  headings  recall through  and  of expository 10 with an  text prose emphasis  6. Unpublished master's thesis, British C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C.,  Taylor,  B.M. (1980). Children's text after reading. Reading 24(3), 399-411.  Taylor,  B.M. (1982). Text s t r u c t u r e and children's comprehension a n d memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y m a t e r i a l . Journal  Taylor,  Research  Research  D i j k , T.A. (1979). comprehension.  Waters,  Psychology,  Quarterly,  R.J., Bridge, C, discourse processing Reading  Van  Educational  74,  323-340.  B.M., & B e a c h , R.W. (1984). The e f f e c t s o f t e x t structure instruction on middle-grade students' comprehension and p r o d u c t i o n of e x p o s i t o r y t e x t . Reading  Tierney,  of  memory f o r e x p o s i t o r y Research Quarterly,  19(2),  134-146.  Cera, M.J. operations  Quarterly,  24,  (1978-79). The of children.  540-565.  Relevance assignment i n discourse D i s c o u r s e P r o c e s s e s , 2, 1 1 3 - 1 2 6 .  H.S. (1978). Superordinate subordinate structure in semantic memory. The roles of comprehension and r e t r i e v a l processess. J o u r n a l of Verbal  Wittrock,  M.C.  Educational  Learning  and  (1974).  Verbal  Learning  Psychologist,  Behavior,  17,  as a g e n e r a t i v e 11,  87-95.  587-597.  process.  1 5 6  A p p e n d i x A:  Initial  and F i n a l  Instructions  Test  Passages —  for Administration  of  Standardized  Tests  157  Standardized  Directions  Ensure testing.  Instructions  f o rA d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests  for Written Recall:  that  each  child  1.  Hand o u t t h e l i n e d  2.  Have students school.  label  3.  Each d i f f e r e n t the date.  written  4.  Use t h e f o l l o w i n g  (name  of  has a book  passage)  to  read  prior  to  paper. the  paper  w i t h name, g r a d e a n d  protocol should  be l a b e l l e d  with  directions:  "Do y o u r b e s t t o w r i t e down everything you can remember from t h e p a s s a g e on (passage) , which you studied yesterday. Don't worry about spelling. You will have up t o 25 minutes t o write. Please don't talk." 5.  Have i n d i v i d u a l students paraphrase the directions. You may repeat the standardized directions u n t i l you f e e l c e r t a i n each c h i l d understands.  6.  Direct  students:  "You may b e g i n . When y o u h a v e w r i t t e n you remember, turn your paper over and l i b r a r y book. Do y o u v e r y b e s t . "  everything read your  P L E A S E REMEMBER TO C O L L E C T A L L t h e w r i t t e n p r o t o c o l s . Protocols and study sheets investigators for analysis.  will  be  collected  by  the  158  Standardized  PRIOR read. papers  Instructions  f o rA d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Tests  TO BEGINNING ensure t h a t e a c h c h i l d h a s a book t o When t h e y f i n i s h s t u d y i n g they should turn their over and read q u i e t l y .  Directions  f o rStudying  1.  Hand o u t t h e t e s t  2.  EMPHASIZE  3.  Use t h e f o l l o w i n g  Passage:  passage  face  (name  of  passage)  down.  THE I M P O R T A N C E OF T H E S E  TESTS.  directions:  "When you turn t h e p a p e r o v e r y o u w i l l h a v e 15 minutes t o read and study t h i s passage. Use whatever will help y o u t o r e m e m b e r i t . Y o u may w r i t e o n t h e paper i f y o u need t o . Tomorrow y o u a r e g o i n g t o be a s k e d t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g y o u r e m e m b e r , e x a c t l y a s you remember i t . " 4.  Have i n d i v i d u a l students paraphrase the directions. You may r e p e a t t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s u n t i l y o u f e e l c e r t a i n each c h i l d understands.  5.  Direct  students t o :  "Turn the passage over. P u t y o u r name, d a t e a n d g r a d e on t h e s h e e t . PAUSE. Y o u may begin to study. If y o u need h e l p r e a d i n g a word p u t up your hand and I w i l l help you."  PLEASE REMEMBER t o c o l l e c t a l l t h e s t u d y them t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l envelope.  sheets  and r e t u r n  159  TERMITES Ancient  Insects  F e v i n s e c t s have b e e n o n e a r t h a s l o n g a s t h e termite family. T e r m i t e s have been around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . T h e s e i n s e c t s have h a r d l y changed i n a l l t h a t t i m e . T e r m i t e s have a l v a y s b e e n a b o u t t h e same s i z e a s a n t s . Natural  Environment  T e r m i t e s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e v a r m e r a r e a s o f t h e v o r l d . They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a a n d many p a r t s o f t h e t r o p i c s . Some t e r m i t e s l i v e underground. Some K i n d s l i v e i n v o o d . Others l i v e i n great p i l e s of e a r t h . Termites  i n "Cities"  Termites live' i n n e s t s t h a i are s i m i l a r t o small c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t jobs. E a c h c i t y o r n e s t h a s a K i n g and q u e e n . T h e y a r e t h e p a r e n t s of a l l t h e o t h e r t e r m i t e s . Some t e r m i t e s a r e s o l d i e r s . Other t e r m i t e s a r e vorKers. Changes  i n Appearance  T e r m i t e s change i nappearance as.they g r o v . A t e r m i t e sheds i t s s k i n s e v e r a l times. Each time a t e r m i t e sheds i t grows a l i t t l e b i t b i g g e r . Young K i n g s and queens have v i n g s f o r a s h o r t t i m e . They u s e them o n l y once. They f l y t o a n e v home, then they lose t h e i r v i n g s . Harmful  Habits  No m a t t e r v h e r e t h e y make t h e i r homes, t e r m i t e s a l v a y s d o much damage. They e a t paper and v o o d . They c a ne a t t h r o u g h a book f r o m c o v e r t o c o v e r . Termites c a neat tables and chairs. They c a n chew through the v a i l s of a house. They c a ne a t r i g h t through a tree. Once t h e y move i n i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o get r i d of termites.  Name: Date: Grade  160  PARROTS The  Parrot  Family  F e v b i r d s a r e as i n t e r e s t i n g and b e a u t i f u l as parrots. T h e r e a r e m o r e t h a n 700 k i n d s o f b i r d s i n the p a r r o t f a m i l y . People l i k e parrots b e c a u s e t h e y c a n t e a c h them hov t o t a l k . They are a l s o admired f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s .  Different  Features  P a r r o t s are v e r y d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r b i r d s . The p a r r o t a l v a y s has a l a r g e beak l i k e a h o o k . T h i s beak i s very s t r o n g . The b i r d u s e s i t t o h e l p him c l i m b about. P a r r o t s a l s o use their f e e t t o h o l d f o o d and t o h e l p them c l i m b . .  Natural  Environment  P a r r o t s c a n be f o u n d i n a l l t h e v a r m e r p a r t s of the v o r l d . S o u t h A m e r i c a and A u s t r a l i a h a v e t h e g r e a t e s t number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s . Many o f them n e s t i n t r e e s . Some n e s t i n c l i f f s . Still o t h e r s n e s t on the ground.'  A  Parrot's  Cage  Of a l l t h e b i r d s k e p t a s p e t s , p a r r o t s s e e m t o l i k e cages the most. The p a r r o t ' s c a g e s h o u l d b e l a r g e e n o u g h f o r h i m t o move e a s i l y a b o u t w i t h out breaking h i s f e a t h e r s . Now-a-days m o s t c a g e s a r e made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l . T h i s m e t a l i s verys t r o n g and i s e a s y t o c l e a n . Sand or g r a v e l •should c o v e r the bottom of the cage. The cage s h o u l d be c l e a n e d o n c e a v e e k .  Feeding  a  Parrot  Parrots v i l l eat nearly anything that i s g i v e n t o them. Many t h i n g s a r e n o t g o o d f o r t h e m , though. T h e y may e a t some f r u i t , b u t n o t a l o t . The b e s t ' f o o d f o r the p a r r o t i s a mix o f s e e d s and n u t s . L i q u i d v i t a m i n s s h o u l d be. a d d e d t o t h e parrot's food. Following these simple r u l e s w i l l k e e p y o u r p a r r o t h e a l t h y and h a p p y f o r many y e a r s . Name: Date: Grade:  (adapted  from  Stables,  1985)  The  Stables  (1985)  and Coulombe/Goble V e r s i o n s  of  the Parrots  Passage  Fiqure 2 Adapted by J . Goble and K. Coulombe for use tn t h e i r p a r a l l e l study (1986) conducted a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  PAWiOTS Figure 1 From R. Stables (1985) unpublished Master's thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  N.-rou Itawllful toi U l s r a i l l n | Bird* r»j blra* a n a* IntaraiUrii and baiuilful n p a v o u . ' t h i n ara tor* man ICO k i r i i of b 1 r J i in tha par.-al r*aily. Mopla l u t parroti baciuia may can taach thao la l»U. Thay ara tit? t l a i r t l for lhair bri^ni colouri. sow rtrroli era Dlffaranl Pirroli ara vary d l f f i n n l froa othtr blrdi. Tna parrol aUtyi hai t larja baak. l U a a hook. Thli baak U vary i i r o n , . Tna 61 rd utai U lo halp hlo clUD about, Pi.-rau alto u n in«lr fiat lo bold (sod and ta halp tnaa cllob. r i r r e l i U«« Whtri l l l i vara farroli can ba found in a l l tha waroar parti of tha world. Seuln tearlca and luilralla hava Itia a/talail nuabar of dlfftranl k U J i . hany of inaa nail In Iraei. iooa oaal In t l U f t . i U U •Ihars nail oa lha ground. farroli Like Ca|ai Hora lhao Olhar Blrda Of all lha blrdi kapt aa pall, ptrroit lata lo Ilka ct|<> Lha m l , Tha parrot't ci|« should ba lar|a anoujh for hie lo ao»a aailly tooul aiihoul braakln| hit faathari, k?u-a-daya anil tagai ara sale of l U l . i l m n a i l . Thli eatal l i vary uronj and l i aaay lo clian. Sand or (raval ihoula covar Ma bolloe of lha taga. Tna tag* atwuld ba claanad on;a a xaak. f i r r o i i Lai Matrly inylhlng Farrou will aal nearly anythlai lhal t l given u Ihea. Hany lltlngi ara nol good for this, ihou,ft. Inay hay aal luaa f r u l i , bul nol a lot. Tha beat food far ma parrot u a a l l or leaai an] null. Liquid vliaalni inoulJ ba idled la tna parroi'a looo. Feltoulni tiitia tlaple rulai will halp keep jour pyrrol feaalihy and nappy far ainy yaari.  Tha Parrot Feaily Faw birds art ts interesting and baaunful at parrots. There ar« moi* than 700 kind* of birds in ihc parrot family. People like parrot* because they can teach tl*m how to talk. They »r« also adaired (or their bright colours. Different Features Parrots art very diffarant froa othar birds. Tha parrot always his a large beak like a hook. Trui beak i l vary strong. Tha bird uses i t to help hia cliac about. Parrots alio una thair faat to hold food and to help than clime. Natural Environment Parrots can ba found in a l l tha wanner parts of tha world. South America and Australia hava tha graatast numwr ef diffarant kinds, tuny of than nast in trees. Soma nast in c l i f f s . S t i l l othars nast on tha ground. A Parrot's Caga or a l l tna birds kept aa pats, parrots *eea to Ilka cages tha aost. Tha parrot's caga should ba larga enough for his to aova aasily about without breaking his feathars. Now-a-daya sum cagas ara auda of stainless steal. This a* t i l is vary strong and is easy to clean. Sand or srevel snould covar lha Union of tha caga. Tha caga should ba claanad one a a waak. reading a Parrot Parrots will eat nearly anything that is given to thea. Many things are not good for thea. though. Thay auy eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t . Tha bast food for the parrot is a aix of seeds and nuts. Liquid vitamins should be added to tha parrot's food. Following these siaple rules w i l l keep your parrot healthy and happy for a*ny years.  Appendix  B: S c o r i n g  Procedures  1 63  Scoring  Procedures  (Quantity)  Each passage had 31 ideas including (5) macropropositions and (26) m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n s . Scoring f o r quantity of ideas was u n w e i g h t e d ; thus, macro and micropropositions were of equal value. The f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s were used t o a s s i g n f u l l o r p a r t v a l u e t o each idea r e c a l l e d : A.  MACROPROPOSITIONS  1.  Regardless of i t sp o s i t i o n Each complete macroproposition p a r a p h r a s e d ) was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e o f No  matter  where  termites  termites  always  (original, termites  much  nests  Termites  much  their  damage  nests  or  (1/2)  (1/2)  =  (1)  complete)  do  their  do  make  (original (1).  damage  wherever  = (1) (complete, always  do  much  they  make  paraphrased) damage  =  (1/2)  have  =  (1/4)  nests =  they (3/4)  ( p a r t i a 1) Termites  are  very  bad  to  (distortion) No matter are  where very  termites bad  make to  their have  (partial/distortion) 2.  B.  Distorted  or  partially  reproduced  received  appropriate  INFERRED  MACROPROPOSITIONS  The  original  partial  Parrots  one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n ,  inferred  from  necessary  that  Termites  passage  could  related  as  thegist  be  similar  also contained from  ( 1 / 4 , 1/2,  used  related  by  of which  micropropositions.  both t e s t s  be i n f e r r e d  scores  passage  contained  macropropositions  in  3/4).  Stables  could  Since  i t was  structure,  one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n micropropositions.  be  the which  1 64  For  example,  i fa student  Parrots like once a week.  it  could  parrots  be  are  Likewise,  cages. They are  inferred  kept  in  it  could  t ermi t es  be  When received  in  be  cleaned steel.  the student recalled  t h a t pet  cages.  wrote:  are l i k e ...  inferred  live  The cages need to made of s t a i n l e s s  that  i fa student  Termite nests ki ng and queen  wrote:  cities.  Each  that  the  of  these  nest  student  has  a  recalled  that  ne s t s.  inferred,  each  two  macropropositions  a score of (1/2).  C.  MICROPROPOSITIONS  1.  Each  complete  (1).  microproposition  was a s s i g n e d a s c o r e  of  F o r example: Young for  kings ( 1 / 4 ) and a short time  queens (1/2)  ( 1 / 4 ) have wings = (1) (original,  complete) For  wings  2.  Distorted received They  a  short  time  young  = (1) (complete,  or  partially  kings  and  queens  reproduced  macropropositions  appropriate partial  scores.  have  (1/4) ( p a r t i a l )  Termites  have  paraphrased).  young  queens  =  have  wings  for  a short  ( 1 / 4 , 1/2, 3/4)  time  = (1/2)  (pa r t i a1) Young  queens  ( 1 / 4 ) have  wings  for  a short  lime  (1/2)  = (3/4) ( p a r t i a l )  Young short  kings ( 1 / 4 ) and queens ( 1 / 4 ) f l y for a time (1/4) = (3/4) ( p a r t i a l / d i s t o r t i o n ) .  1 6 5  D.  HEADINGS Headings  paraphrased  were a  complete  microproposition. Harmful  not  scored  or  partial  F o r example,  Habits  was a s s i g n e d  ideas  unless  they  macroproposition  because  partially  macroproposition No matter their nests ( 1 / 2 ) they always  it  as  or  the heading  paraphrases  the  where termites do much damage  make ( 1 / 2 )  (1/2).  B e c a u s e t h e h e a d i n g Wood E a t i n g Insects paraphrases the microproposition They ( 1 / 2 ) and wood ( 1 / 2 ) i t was a s s i g n e d ( 1 /  partially eat paper 2 ) .  Note: Each macro o r m i c r o p r o p o s i t i o n c o u l d  receive a total  no  or p a r t i a l  greater  than  (1).  w h i c h was r e p e a t e d  Thus, any f u l l  was t o be s c o r e d  only  score  proposition  once.  Example: Young Young  (1/2)  kings  ( 1 / 4 ) have  queens  ( 1 / 4 ) also  = (1)  (complete)  wings have  for wings  a short for  time  (1/2)  a short  time  1 66  Scoring  Each  passage  organization. using  Procedures  had  a  Scores  the following  (Organization)  potential  for organization  weightings  A.  MACROPROPOSITIONS  1.  Regardless  and  of i t s position  Distorted received 3/4).  or  partially  appropriate partial  quantity.)  (61) f o r  were  calculated  procedures:  (original  received a score  reproduced  ( T h i s was p a r a l l e l  of  each complete  paraphrased) macroproposition 2.  score  scores  of  or (5).  macropropositions (1 1/4,  t o the procedures  2  1/2,  3  f o rscoring  F o r example:  No matter 1/2) they  where always  termites do much  make their damage ( 2 1/2)  nest =  (2 (5)  (complete). Termites  always  do  much  damage  =  (2  1/2)  ( p a r t i a 1)  B.  INFERRED MACROPROPOSITIONS The  original  Parrots  passage  contained  one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n ,  inferred  from  necessary  that  Termites  passage a l s o contained  could  related both  be i n f e r r e d For  example,  the gist  used  be  related  i fa student  similar  by  in  Since  micropropositions.  be  i t was  structure,  one m a c r o p r o p o s i t i o n  wrote:  Stables  of which could  micropropositions.  tests  from  as  the which  1 6 7  Parrots once  it  like a week.  could  parrots  be  are  cages. They are  inferred  kept  Likewise,  in  could  termites  be live  When received  C.  1.  are l i k e ...  inferred in  cleaned steel.  r e c a l l e d t h a t pet  wrote: cities.  Each  that  the  of  these  nest  student  has  a  recalled  that  nests.  i n f e r r e d , each a score  t h e student  be  cages.  o f (2  two  macropropositions  1/2).  MICROPROPOSITIONS  Values  assigned  to  micropropositions for 2.  that  i f a student  Termite nests king and queen  it  The cages need to made of s t a i n l e s s  determining  followed quantity  Micropropositions clusters  the  score.  macroproposition  For cluster:  (1/4,  distorted as used  o r 1/2, o r 3 / 4 , o r  have  occurred  two  which  treated  or  a  consist  1).  related i n the  more  were  as  could  a n d one o r more  in  t o be i n c l u d e d  i s , any  clusters  and  t h e same p r o c e d u r e s  paragraph  were  Microproposition  o r more  That  same  consecutively  two  must  partial  of a t l e a s t two i n order  organization from  complete,  ideas written  cluster. of  one  microproposition;  or  micropropositions).  example,  the following protocol  contains  one  168  Termites a r ef o u n d i n warmer places like Africa and Australia. They a r e a b o u t as l i t t l e as ants. They have been a r o u n d f o r millions of years. T h e y l i k e to l i v e i n wood. This  would  be  indicated  on  the  protocol  as  the  following:  (  )  (  (  )  /</>  ) 1.  (  )  earth as Few i n s e c t s h a v e b e e n on long existed for 6(1) ( I ) a) have m i l l i o n s of years in ( ) ( ) b) have h a r d l y c h a n g e d that time f ( /) ( i ) c ) a b o u t a s s m a l la s a n t s  (5) Termites a r e f o u n d i n warmer p a r t s of t h e w o r l d *(/) ( » a) Africa 3(0 ( /) b ) Australia ( ) ( ) of the c) many p a r t s tropics ( ) ( ) d) some l i v e underground (/) (//) e ) some l i v e i n wood ( ) ( ) live i n great f) others p i l e s of e a r t h  2  t  3.  Only  one c l u s t e r  clusters of are  ( )  of  per section  ideas  the protocol,  from  only  i s scored.  one s e c t i o n  the clusters  That  occur of  i s ,i f  i n two  greatest  parts value  scored.  F o r example:  Termites such as as a n t s . wood.  a r e f o u n d i n warm parts of the world t h e tropics. T h e y a r e a b o u t as s m a l l Some live underground. Some live i n  ( ) ( ) 1.  Few  insects  have  been  on  earth  as  169  long ( ) ( ) a) have existed for m i l l i o n s of years ( ) ( ) b) have h a r d l y changed i n that time j ( / ) (^) c ) a b o u t a s s m a l l a s a n t s  T e r m i t e s a r e found i n warmer parts of t h e w o r l d ( ) ( ) a) A f r i c a ( ) ( ) b) A u s t r a l i a z-( / ) ( ) c ) many parts of the "^tropics ( ) ( ) d ) some l i v e u n d e r g r o u n d •</( I) i^) e ) some l i v e i n w o o d ( ) ( ) f) others live in great p i l e s of e a r t h  Single  micropropositions  reflecting  any degree  were  not  interpreted  of o r g a n i z a t i o n and  were  as  scored  (0) .  HEADINGS  Each  complete  scored  original  or  paraphrased  heading  was  (2)  D a m a g i n g I n s e c t s = (2) (complete H a r m f u l H a b i t s = (2) ( c o m p l e t e ) Partial  or d i s t o r t e d  Harmful Headings  =  (1)  h e a d i n g s may  be s c o r e d  (1)  (partial)  which paraphrase  macroproposition  paraphrased)  i s  a  stated  macroproposition receive  a score  when  no  o f up t o  170  (5). not  Partial present  (1  Warm. Harmful  Living Habits  Headings beneath  micro  or  2  be 1/2,  Places = (2  have  them a r e which  no  scored are  which  appropriate  are  scored.  For  Termites  Live  3  full  idea  is  3/4).  (5) (complete) (partial)  macro  or  accompanied are  micropropositions  only  by  are the  only  scored  accompanied  but  i f the  (0).  propositions  procedures,  assigned  = 1/2)  macropropositions  Headings  above  1/4,  which  Headings  are  m a r k s may  by  inappropriate  (0). inappropriate  scored  according  to  and the  appropriate propositions  example: in  Nests  =  (5)  (complete)  Termites have l i v e d for mi I Iions of years = (0) They are as small as ants = (0) Their nests are like cities = (1) (complete) Each nest has a king and queen = (1) (complete)  =  (_)  7  (cluster)  ,(/) (b) \ 3. V_^^ ^\ \  Termites l i v e in nests -f( /) ( /) a ) n e s t s a r e l i k e cities ( ) ( ) b) d i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t jobs 5"(/) (/) c ) e a c h n e s t h a s a k i n g a n d a queen ( ) ( ) d) t h e y a r e t h e p a r e n t s of a l l the others ( ) ( ) e) some termites are soldiers ( ) ( ) f) others are workers  171  TERMITES  TEMPLATE  ( ) ( ) 1-  * " i n s e c t s have been on e a r t h a s l o n e ( ) ( ) e) have existed for m i l l i o n ^ o f y e a r s ( ) ( ) b) have hardly chanced in that tine ( ) ( ) c) about es s-,all as ants  ( ) ( ) 2.  Termites are found in warmer parts of the world ( ) ( ) a) Africa ( ) ( ) b) Australia ( ) ( ) c) mar.;/ parts of the tropics ( ) C ) d) sc~e l i v e under-ground ( ) ( ) e) some 1ive in wood ( ) ( ) fj others live in great piles of earth  ( ) ( ) 3.  Termites live in nests ( ) ( ) a) nests are l i k e c i t i e s ( ) ( ) b) different termites have different jobs ( ) ( ) c) each nest has a king and a queen ( ) ( ) d) they are the parents' of a l l the others ( ) ( ) e) some termites are soldiers ( ) ( ) f) others are workers  ( ) ( ) 4.  Change in appearance as they grow ( ) ( ) a) sheds i t s skin several times ( ) ( ) b) each time i t grows bigger ( ) ( ) <0 young kings and queens have wings for a short time ( ) ( ) d) "use them only once ( ) ( ) e) f l y to a new home and lose their wings  ( ) ( j 5.  No matter where they make t h e i r nests, termites always do much damace ) a) they eat paper and wood ) b) can eat through a book from cover to cover j c) can eat tables and chairs ) d) can chew through the walls of a house ) e) they can eat right through a tree ) f) d i f f i c u l t to get r i d of termites  F e  172 PARROTS TEMPLATE ( ) ( ) 1. Few b i r d s are as b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s . ( ) ( ) a) More than 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds i n p a r r o t famil) ( ) ( ) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to t a l k ( ) ( ) c) They are a l s o admired f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o r s  ( ) ( ) 2. P a r r o t s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  are d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r b i r d s a) A l a r g e beak l i k e a heck b) Very s t r o n g beak c) Uses h i s beak to help him c l i m b about d) Use f e e t to hold food e) Use f e e t to help c l i m b  ( ) ( ) 3. P a r r o t s ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  l i v e where i t i s warm a) South America b) A u s t r a l i a c) South America and A u s t r a l i a have the g r e a t e s t number o f d i f f e r e n t kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest i n t r e e s ( ) ( ) e) Some n e s t i n c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f j S t i l l o t h e r s nest on the ground  ( ) ( ) 4. Pet p a r r o t s 'are k e p t i n cages ( ) ( ) a) p a r r o t s l i k e cages more than o t h e r pet b i r d s ( ) ( ) b) cage should be Targe enough to move e a s i l y w i t h o u t breaking f e a t h e r s ( ) ( ) c) Cages are made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l now-a-days ( ) ( ) d) This metal i s s t r o n g and easy to clea.T ( ) ( ) e) Sand o r g r a v e l should cover the bottom o f the cage (.) ( ) f ) Cage should be c l e a n e d once a week  ( ) ( ) S. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  eat n e a r l y anything g i v e n to them a) Many t h i n g s are not good f o r them b) May e a t some f r u i t , but not a l e t c) Mix o f seeds and nuts are best food f o r them d) L i q u i d v i t a m i n s should be added to the food e) F o l l o w i n g simple r u l e s keep p a r r o t s h e a l t h y f ) Keep happy f o r many years  1 7 3  Partial TERMITES  (}()!.  TEMPLATE  .0  Fey Insects isects have (been on earthTlas long  ilil  ( ) ( ) z.Termites | ) ) ) ) ( ) { )  a) b)  haveCexi s t e a l for million^ of years (TJ have ha rd1y hardlTxhanqed In that time ' about as^.nall asffiits  Marks  PARROTS TEMPLATE ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as beautiful and interesting as parrots. ( j ( ) a] Wore than 700 different kinds^in PArrot family ( ) ( ) b p e o p l e like them/becausa thev can'reach them to t a l l ® /T) ( ) ( ) c) They are also admired for their b r i g h ^ c o l o r s .  1  are found In wanner parts o f the world a l A f r i c a ffl b) A u s t r a l i a (D c) many p a r t s o f the t r o p i c s (f) d) some l i v e underground 0 e) some l i v e i n 4msi © f ) others l i v e i n g r e a t ' p i l e s - o f e a r t h (?)  { ) ( ) 2. Parrots are different from other birds A largeCoeiji IfiflkCD ( VeryCVtrong i ( c) Uses his beak to help him climb about d) Use /feetUo hold foodQ e) Use ^feet/to help cliriibfi)  II .11 ( )(  ( ) ( ) 3. ( ) ( ) 3.  Termites l i v e In e s t s l l " ^ ™ a) nests are l i k e c l t i e s fD b) d i f f e r e n t termites have d i f f e r e n t Jobsfl) c) each nest has a kingDand a gueen(V) d) they are the p a r e n t s ' o f a l l the others (T) e) some t e r m i t e s are s o l d i e r s f Q f ) o t h e r s are workers 0 C a  b t ,  , r e £ t f t v  r  t  s  n  iff  Parrots 1 ive where it is warm a) South America 0 b) Austral 1a/p> (D c) South Amerrca and Australia have the greatest )( number of different kinds ) ( ) d) Many(nest) in. trees 0 ( ) e) Some (nest) in cl i ffsfO ( ) f) S t i l l others(nestjon the ground rfl w  Hi  ( )(  ( ) ( ) 4.  ( ) ( ) 5.  ChanqeQn appearance as tn>/grow (J) "~)sheds i t s skin several times, each time It grows biggerfg) young kingfipand queenshaye wlngy f o r a short time *v use them only onccH (§) f l y . t o a new home andjosa their wings  ~®~  )(  1  M  friedo /ncC^a  ®  Ho matter where thev make t h e i r n e s t l . termites always do much damaae/V)^ /p> ) ( ) a) they eat paoetVand wqodW Q can eat through a booKVfrom cover t o V o v e r i can ea f a b l e s and chairs )( can cha* through the wallsflof a house they can eat r i g h t t h r o u c n a treeCD f) d i f f i c u l t to oet rid oftPtermites  Ii  ( ) ( ) 4. Pet parrots are kept in cages[1 ( ) ( ) a) parrots like cacesQmore than other pet birds ( ) ( b) cage should be laroepenouch to move easily without breaking feathersfc) vr,-* "© ( ) ( c) Canes are made of stainless staeWiow-a^days ( ) d) d) This This metal metal is is stroncfjja.nd strongfend easy easy to to clea.iQ; clean© \ ) e) Sanc/oT'grayeffohould cover the bottonQf the cage ' — © / (?) ( ) ( ) f) Cage should be cleaned/oncV^ week  o m  0  ii  ( ) ( ) 5. Parrots eat nearly anything given to them a) Many things are not goodflfor then b) Hay eat sotr.e frui tfy but not a lot(V) ^ c) Mix of seedtynd nutflars hpst food for iheshD d) Liguld vitaminsflshould be added to the fo°d.~ e) Following simple rulcftAesp parrots ifiiUJivli) f) Keep happy for many years  75T  174  Unedited  Protocol  Sample 1  Parrots P a r r o t s are very n i c e there are 700 k i n d s o f P a r r o t s .  Pople l o v e  p a r r o t s because o f the b e a u t i f u l c o l o r s .  P a r r o t s l i v e A u s t r i l l a and S. A f r i c a P a r r o t s seem to Love cages more than any o t h e r b i r d A P a r r o t s cage s o u l d be very big For the p a r r o t to move f e a t h e r around  it  A p a r r o t sould have i t cage c l e a n Once a week  a l e a s t they s o u l d have a mix of nuts and P a r r o t seed of the cage shold be cover with sand or g r a v e l s o u l d cover the bottom o f  the cage)  and you can f i n d p a r r o t s i n pet s t o r e  too!!  You can f i n d them a t Lowhide mall i n Burnaby!!  the bottom  (SEPCIEL P a r r o t Gravel  175  PARROTS TEMPLATE  X ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as beautiful and i n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s . x.(/) ( 0 a) More than 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds i n p a r r o t f a m i l y ( ) ( ) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to t a l k 3 ( / ) (/) c) They are also admired for t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o r s . I  ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots si*) i/) ( I) ( ) ( )  are d i f f e r e n t from other birds a) A large beak l i k e a hook b) Very strong beak c) Uses his beak to help him climb about d) Use feet to hold food e) Use feet to help climb  l i v e where i t i s warm ) South America b) Austral ia c) South America and A u s t r a l i a have the g r e a t e s t number of d i f f e r e n t kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest i n trees ( ) ( ) e) Some nest in c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f) S t i l l others nest on the ground a  (irt-fer)  (it) ttil °>. Pet parrots are kept i n cages b( I) ( 0 a) parrots l i k e cages more than other pet b i r d s • -7(f) (/) b) cage should be large enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers ( ) ( ) c) Cages are made of s t a i n l e s s steel now-a-days ( ) ( ) d) This metal i s strong and easy to clean /£>(/) i/) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom o f the cage t(() (/) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week  ( ) ( ) 5. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) If) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lo  Q-  eat nearly anything given to them a) Many things are not good for them b) May eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food f o r them d) L i q u i d vitamins should be added to the food e) Following simple rules keep parrots healthy f) Keep happy for many years  x  ft/  o  -  ? t  176  Unedited  Protocol  Sample  2  Parrot's Parrots  Family  T h e i r a r e n o t many b i r d s as b e a u t i f u l as P a r r o t s . different be  kinds  of parrots.  t r a i n e d to t a l k .  Parrot's  People l i k e  They a l s o a r e a d m i r d  T h e i r a r e 700  p a r r o t s because t h e y c a n f o rtheir  color  Enviorment  Feeding  a Parrot  Parrots  eat anything  y o u g i v e them.  Some t h i n g s a r e n o t good f o r  them  Parrots  Cage  A P a r r o t ' s cage s h o u l d around without stainless  steal.  sand o r g r a v e l a week  breaking  be l a r g e enophe so t h a t t h e P a r r o t c a n move i t ' s featers.  Parrots  T h i s meatle i s easy t o c l e a n .  on t h e bottem.  A Parrot's  cage a r e made o u t o f A Parrot  cage  cage s o u l d be c l e a n  have once  . - r  Protocol  S»mpie  t ^  4k 2.  1  s §->  177  <3 a PARROTS TEMPLATE ,(2.)  Va*rcA*>  Family '  *.(£)  Cat 1. Few birds are as beautiful and intorosting as parrots. (/) a) More than 700 different kinds in parrot family (/) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to talk A / ) (/) c) They are also admired for their bright c o l o r s .  ( ) ( ) 2. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (; ) ( ) ( ) ( )  £nYi'orment  7 (-2-) Parrot*  are different from other birds a) A large beak l i k e a hook b) Very strong beak c) Uses his beak to help him climb about d) Use feet to hold food e) Use feet to help climb  ( ) ( ) 3. Parrots ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  Caaez ^  l i v e where i t is warm a) South America b) Australia c) South America and Australia have the greatest number of different kinds ( ) ( ) d) Many nest in trees ( ) ( ) e) Some nest in c l i f f s ( ) ( ) f) S t i l l others nest on the ground  C2£ 4. Pet parrots are kept in cages •  Feediv\q <a Parrot #(/) ^ fy'i  ( ) ( ) a) parpots l i k e cages more than other pet birds (/) b) cage should be large enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers ? ( / ) (/) c) Cages are made of stainless steel now-a-days /•(*) l i ) d) This metal is strong and easy to clean „ ( / ) (/) e) Sand or gravel should cover the bottom of the cage iiiJ) (I) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week  (5) 5 . Parrots eat nearly anything given to them l) (/) a) Many things are not good for them ( ) ( ) b) May eat some f r u i t , but not a l o t ( ) ( ) c) Mix of seeds and nuts are best food for them ( ) ( ) d) Liquid vitamins should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) Following simple rules keep parrots healthy ( ) ( ) f) Keep happy for many years  Q-  /Ot  o -  Z*fi.  178  Unedited  Protocol  Sample  3  Parrots The  Parrot  Family a r o u n d 700 admired  kinds  of parrots  because they  could  be t a u g h t  to talk  a l s o a d i r e because o f i t s b r i g h t c o l o r Natural  Environment live live  warmer  places  i n places  build  nest  like  South America  and A u s t a r i l l a  on t r e e s , g r o u n d o r c a v e s  Cages parrots  like  i t more i n c a g e s  c a g e s nowadays a r e made o u t o f s t a i n l e s s m e t a l  which  i s very  strong  wash c a g e s once a week Features long  beak  strong  beak  beak h e l p s feet  help  i t climb hold  the food  What P a r r o t ' s E a t eats  almost  anything  s e e d s , n u t s added w i t h if  g i v e you p a r r o t f r u i t  i t will  liquid  eat i t but i t w i l l  n o t be good t h e p a r r o t  PARROTS  / (2.) TKe. P^rrof F ^ t n i k / 7  ti (2-)  ( ) ( ) 1. Few birds are as b e a u t i f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g as p a r r o t s . .*_(/) (/) a) More than 700 d i f f e r e n t kinds i n parrot family rj(f) (/) b) People l i k e them because they can teach them to t a l k (/) c) They are a l s o admired f o r t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o r s .  ( ) ( )  FeA-tu-re* !  fte^rtaw*!  f n \ i \ r a n v n e , n *  TEMPLATE  2. Parrots are d i f f e r e n t from other b i r d s „ ( x ) (*) a) A+itr%e beak 1 ilea a hoak /»( 0 ( 0 bj Very s t r o n g beak u [ l ) {/) c) Uses h i s beak to help him c l i m b about / / ( / ) (/) d) Use feet to hold food ( ) ( ) e) Use f e e t to help climb  »(/) (5) 3.  Parrots 7(/) (/) f{/) (/) ( ) ( )  l i v e where i t i s warm a) South America b) A u s t r a l i a c) South America and A u s t r a l i a have the g r e a t e s t number c f d i f f e r e n t kinds q{/) (/) d) Many nest i n t r e e s //(*) (*) e) Some nest i n c l i f f s c a v e s zo(/) ( ') 0 S t i l l o t h e r s nest on the ground  (in-fer) iiit)  (*•) C^i) 4. Pet parrots are kept i n cages ( 3 $ (fy) a) p a r r o t s l i k e cages more than o t h e r pet b i r d s ( ) ( ) b) cage should be l a r g e enough to move e a s i l y without breaking feathers /</(/) (/) c) Cages are made o f s t a i n l e s s s t e e l now-a-days •*'(at) ii) d) This metal i s strong and easy to clea/i ( ) ( ) e) Sand o r g r a v e l should cover the bottom o f the cage (/) f) Cage should be cleaned once a week  Caaes J  Z*(2.)1A/W-  P±rrrff'$  / 3  £at  2JS. f) ( s ) 5.  Parrots eat n e a r l y a n y t h i n g given to them ( ) ( ) a) Many t h i n g s are not good f o r them j.y(£) ii) ) ^ f r u i t , but not a l o t z<+(/) i ) c) Mix o f seeds and nuts are best food f o r them iid ) (*) d) L i q u i d v i t a m i n s should be added to the food ( ) ( ) e) F o l l o w i n g s i m p l e r u l e s keep p a r r o t s healthy ( ) ( ) f) Keep happy f o r many years b  f  y  M a  e  3  t  s  o  w  e  1 8 0  Appendix  C:  Instructional (Conventional  Procedures Group)  and  Materials  181  Instructional  Each  Procedures  lesson  Students  are  involves basically  to  answer q u e s t i o n s develop  the  orally,  marking (Accept  correct.  I t  same and  and  t h e same  naturally.)  i s to serve  a n d do not  call  sheets  share  from  their  their  may  written  which  are  to include  unless  not refer  the  answers  own  f o r students  question  Students  not  a l l answers  i s not necessary to a  do  sequence:  question  and  independently  headings.  correcting  any  Group)  procedures.  Please  activities  students  the points related  Collect next  9.  Have  answers.  passage—this  8.  follow  completed  day.  this  passage  to the paragraph  previous  all  the  t o that passage.  or extension  lessons w i l l  Distribute  a content  related  i n a n y way  Most  7.  read  background  attention  and M a t e r i a l s ( C o n v e n t i o n a l  they  do  to original  as a r e c a l l / r e v i e w e x e r c i s e .  corrected question  sheets  before  distributing  passage and q u e s t i o n s .  Direct  students  to  read  the  new  passage  and w r i t e  answers t o the q u e s t i o n s .  10.  Collect the  the passages  end of each  and completed  lesson.  question  sheets  at  182 Lessons as  which  do n o t e x a c t l y  follow  this  sequence a r e  follows:  LESSON  ONE:  May  6  1. S t u d e n t s recall 2. A F T E R and  write  of  delayed  "Termites."  recall  i s  collected,  independently questions 3. C o l l e c t  E I G H T : May  15  This day.  answer termites.  sheets  orally  following  LESSON  students  completed  question marked  on  complete  t o be  on  day.  i s a special  study  P L E A S E USE S P E C I A L  INSTRUCTIONS!  LESSON  N I N E : May  20  1. R e d i s t r i b u t e completed)  on  questions ANIMALS'  EYES. 2. S h a r e a n s w e r s have  PLEASE  REFER  TO T H I S S H E E T  E N S U R E THAT PROCEDURES ARE  AND  students  orally  and  mark.  YOUR I N D I V I D U A L C A L E N D A R  CORRECT.  TO  183  Table  C.1: O u t l i n e o f P r o c e d u r e s I n s t r u c t i o n Group  Session  for Conventional  Procedures  INITIAL  TESTING  Session  1  A.  Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension Test  A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a d m i n i s t e r e d Gates M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g Compreh e n s i o n s u b t e s t (50 minutes).  B.  Study of I n i t i a l Test p a s s a g e on Termites  A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o rstudy of Termites passage. Students s i l e n t l y studied Termites p a s s a g e f o r up t o 15 minutes.  Session  A.  2  One d a y d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l of I n i t i a l Test p a s s a g e on Termites  A.M.: C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave s t a n d a r d i z e d instructions f o r written r e c a l l o f Termites passage. S t u d e n t s h a d u p t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from Termites passage.  INSTRUCTIONAL Session  B.  PROCEDURES  2  Lesson 1  Students Termites  wrote answers t o passage q u e s t i o n s .  184  Table Session  C.1  continued Procedures  3  Session  Lesson  2  Grasshopper  Students o r a l l y marked Termites questions, read Gr as s hopper s p a s s a g e , a n d wrote answers t o Grasshoppers questions.  s  Session  4  Lesson  3  Riches  From  the  Sea  Students o r a l l y marked Grasshoppers questions, s i l e n t l y r e a d Riches From the Sea p a s s a g e , a n d w r o t e answers  Sea Session  Lesson  t o Riches  From  the  questions.  5  4  Vikings  Students of  Denmark  Riches  orally  From  marked  the  Sea  questions,  silently  read  Vikings  Denmark,  and  of  wrote answers t o V i k i n g s Denmark questions. Session  Lesson Fire  of  6  5  Students  V/al ke r s  Vikings  orally of  questions,  marked  Denmark  silently  F i r e Walkers, and answers t o F i r e  read  wrote Walkers  questions. Session  Lesson Animal  7  6 Protection  Students o r a l l y marked F i r e Walkers questions, silently read  Animal  passage, to  Animal  questions  Protection  and wrote answers Protection  185  Table Session  C.1 c o n t i n u e d  Procedures  Session 8 Lesson  7  Students  Horses  Animal  orally  marked  Protection  silently passage, t o Horses  questions,  read Horses and wrote answers questions.  Session 9 Lesson  8  A. Animal  B.  s'  Students o r a l l y marked Horses questions.  Eyes  Practice  study of  Animals'  Eyes  passage  C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for  study  o f Animals'  Eyes  passage. Students  silently  Animals'  Eyes  during the allotment.  studied  questions  15 m i n u t e  time  Session 10 One d a y d e l a y e d p r a c t i c e written r e c a l l of Animals Eyes passage.  C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for written r e c a l l of Animals'  Eyes  passage.  S t u d e n t s h a d up t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from Animals' Eyes passage.  Session 11 Review  Lesson  9  Students  orally  Animals'  Eyes  marked questions.  1 8 6  Table  C.1  Session FINAL  on  Procedures  TESTING  Session Study  continued  of  Par  12 Final  Test  passage  rots.  A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for study of P a r r o t s passage. Students s i l e n t l y studied P a r r o t s p a s s a g e f o r up t o minutes.  Session  13  One d a y d e l a y e d r e c a l l of F i n a l on  15  Parrots.  written Test passage  A.M. C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions f o r w r i t t e n r e c a l l of P a r r o t s passage. S t u d e n t s h a d u p t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from P a r r o t s passage.  LESSON  1  TERMITES Ancient  Insects  F e v i n s e c t s have b e e n on e a r t h as l o n g as t h e termite family. T e r m i t e s have b e e n around f o r m i l l i o n s of y e a r s . T h e s e i n s e c t s have h a r d l y changed i n a l l t h a t t i m e . T e r m i t e s have a l w a y s b e e n a b o u t t h e same s i z e as a n t s . Natural  Environment  T e r m i t e s c a n be f o u n d i n t h e warmer a r e a s t h e v o r l d . They l i v e i n A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and many p a r t s of t h e t r o p i c s . Some t e r m i t e s l i v e underground. Some k i n d s l i v e i n wood. O t h e r s i n g r e a t p i l e s of e a r t h . Termites  in  of live  "Cities"  T e r m i t e s l i v e i n n e s t s t h a t are s i m i l a r t o small c i t i e s . D i f f e r e n t t e r m i t e s have d i f f e r e n t jobs. E a c h c i t y o r n e s t has a k i n g and q u e e n . They a r e t h e p a r e n t s of a l l the o t h e r t e r m i t e s . Some t e r m i t e s a r e s o l d i e r s . Other t e r m i t e s are workers. Changes i n Appearance T e r m i t e s change i n a p p e a r a n c e a s . t h e y grow. A t e r m i t e sheds i t s s k i n s e v e r a l times. Each t i m e a t e r m i t e s h e d s i t grows a l i t t l e b i t b i g g e r . Young k i n g s and queens have w i n g s f o r a s h o r t t i m e . They use them o n l y o n c e . They f l y t o a new home, t h e n they l o s e t h e i r wings. Harmful  Habits  No m a t t e r where t h e y make t h e i r homes, t e r m i t e s a l w a y s do much damage. They e a t p a p e r and wood. They c a n e a t t h r o u g h a book f r o m c o v e r t o c o v e r . T e r m i t e s c a n e a t t a b l e s and c h a i r s . They c a n chew t h r o u g h the w a l l s of a house. They c a n e a t r i g h t • through a t r e e . Once t h e y move i n i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t r i d of t e r m i t e s .  N ame:  188  LESSON  1  QUESTIONS  TERMITES QUESTIONS 1.  Why  2.  I n w h i c h p a r t s of the w o r l d  3.  How  4.  During i t s l i f e , change?  5.  Why  Name: Date: Grade:  are t e r m i t e s c a l l e d  do t e r m i t e s  ancient  insects?  do t e r m i t e s  live?  live?  how  does a t e r m i t e ' s  are termites harmful?  appearance  189 LESSON  2 GRASSHOPPERS  Appearance Grasshoppers a r egreen i nc o l o u r . They have t h r e e p a i r s o f long, s t r o n g l e g s . A g r a s s h o p p e r h a s two p a i r s o f v i n g s and one p a i r of antenna. Movement' G r a s s h o p p e r s c a n move i n d i f f e r e n t v a y s . The g r a s s h o p p e r u s e s i t s l o n g l e g s t o jump h i g h .in t h e a i r . A grasshopper c a n a l s o f l y v i t h i t s two p a i r s o f v i n g s . When i t v a n t s t o g e t away f a s t , i t h o p s . Sounds A g r a s s h o p p e r h a s no v o i c e , b u t i t c a n make sounds. A g r a s s h o p p e r c a n make s o u n d s b y r u b b i n g i t s t o p v i n g s t o g e t h e r . I t c a n a l s o make a s o u n d b y r u b b i n g a. v i n g a n d a l e g t o g e t h e r .  QUESTIONS  1.  W h a t a r e some o f t h e p h y s i c a l  2.  W h a t a r e some v a y s  3.  H o v d o e s a g r a s s h o p p e r make  Name: Date: Grade:  features  of a grasshopper?  t h a t a g r a s s h o p p e r c a n move?  sounds?'  LESSON  3  RICHES  Farming  the  OF  THE  EEA  Sea  F a r m i n g f o r f o o d u n d e r t h e o c e a n r.ay s o o n be p o s s i b l e . T h e r e i s a l r e a d y much f c o d c r o v i r . g under the vater. S c i e n t i s t s h e r e t o make r e v f i s h i n g grounds vhere the v a t e r i s not too deep. T h i s k i n d c f " f a — i n g " v i l l h e l p f e e d many p e o p l e Important  Riches  Some c f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r i c h e s f o u n d unde t h e s e a a r e c i l and c a s . • L o t s of r o c k s u n d e r t h e v a t e r have m i n e r a l s i n them. Rocks v i z h copper and n i c k e l are v a i t i r . g f o r someone t o s c o o p them up . Sea  Water  Sea v a t e r c o n t a i n s c o l d . In fact the sea h o l d s about 7 t r i l l i o n c e l l a r s v o r t h of c o l d alone! A l l t h e m i n e r a l s f o u n d on l a n d a r e found i n the sea. Ko one kr.ovs hov t o r e m o v e t h e m q u i c k l y and cheaply.  Name:  LESSON  3  QUESTIONS  RICHES OF THE SEA QUESTIONS  1.  What  nev  way  2.  What  are  some  3.  What  is  Name: Date: Grade:  of  getting  of  important  the  food  riches  about  the  may  soon  found  i n  gold  be  the  contained  possible?  sea?  i n  sea  water?  LESSON  4  THE  Leaving  The  VIKINGS  OF  DENMARK  Homeland  Many p r o b l e m s c a u s e d t h e V i k i n g s o f D e n m a r k t o l e a v e home. The f a r m l a n d vas so poor t h a t h a r d l y a n y f o o d c o u l d be g r o w n . T h e p e o p l e f o u g h t among ' t h e m s e l v e s t o g e t more l a n d o r a p l a c e t o f i s h . Many p e o p l e t u r n e d t o t h e s e a t o - f i n d l a n d and riches.  Dragon  Ships  V i k i n g v a r s h i p s were o f t e n c a l l e d " d r a g o n ships". They had t e r r i f y i n g c a r v e d d r a g o n h e a d s on t h e f r o n t o f them. Many s h i p s w e r e o n l y a s l o n g as a l a r g e b u s . T h e y u s u a l l y had one m a s t a n d one s a i l . T h e s e wooden s h i p s were moved by oars .  Raiding The V i k i n g s p l a n n e d t h e i r r a i d s c a r e f u l l y . F i r s t they h i d t h e i r boats. They attacked s u d d e n l y and l e f t s w i f t l y . The V i k i n g s killed men, women a n d c h i l d r e n . Some p e o p l e w e r e t a k e n t o be s o l d a s s l a v e s . E v e r y t h i n g of v a l u e vas carried off.  Changed  by  Christianity  The V i k i n g s c h a n g e d t h e i r v a y s learned about C h r i s t i a n i t y . Brave taught the V i k i n g s about r e l i g i o n . t h e V i k i n g s g a v e up a t t a c k i n g o t h e r Many V i k i n g s became good C h r i s t i a n s  Name: Date: Grade:  vhen they missionaries Before long people. .  193  LESSON  4  QUESTIONS  THE  V I K I N G S OF  DENMARK  QUESTIONS  1.  Why d i d  2.  What  3.  How d i d  4.  What  Name:_ Date: Grade:  the  vere  Vikings  the  the  V i k i n g war  Vikings  happened  leave  to  ships  carry  change  their  out  the  homeland?  like?  a  raid?  Vikings?  LESSON  5  i FIRE  A  Strange  WALKERS  Practice  I n some l a n d s p e o p l e h a v e a s t r a n g e p r a c t i c e of walking through f i r e . T h i s p r a c t i c e ' i s many centuries old. I t i s s t i l l done t o d a y .  Forms  of F i r e  Walking  T h e r e a r e many w a y s t o w a l k o v e r f i r e . A b a r e f o o t p e r s o n may w a l k q u i c k l y o v e r c o a l s . Sometimes a p e r s o n must walk t h r o u g h a l o g f i r e o r through hot ashes. Other times, the f i r e walker may c r o s s o v e r r e d h o t s t o n e s . O r , a s h e s may be poured over h i s head i n a f i r e b a t h .  Reasons F o r F i r e  Walking  T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s why p e o p l e f i r e w a l k . I f a c h i e f walks t h r o u g h f i r e and i s n o t h u r t i t means t h a t h i s p e o p l e w i l l have enough t o e a t . O t h e r p e o p l e w a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o show t h e i r strength. Sometimes a p e r s o n must walk t h r o u g h f i r e t o show t h a t h e d i d n o t c o m m i t a c r i m e . If t h e p e r s o n d o e s n o t g e t b u r n e d he i s s e t f r e e .  A  Mystery  I t i s a m y s t e r y t h a t few f i r e w a l k e r s g e t burned. Maybe t h e f i r e w a l k e r s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s he w i l l n o t g e t h u r t . O r t h e f i r e w a l k e r may b r e a t h e i n s u c h a w a y t h a t he d o e s n o t f e e l pain. People have checked t o s e e i f f i r e w a l k e r s p u t something on t h e i r f e e t b e f o r e w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . None e v e r d o .  N ame : Date: Grade:  195  LESSON  5  QUESTIONS  FIRE  KAi-XEKS  QUESTION'S  1.  What  strar.ce  old  2.  K o v is f i r e  3.  Why d o  people  4.  What i s through  s t i l l fire?  eus t e n  walking  walk  i s  s t i l l  practiced?  |  practiced?  through  unexplained  f i r e ?  about  people  who  walk  LESSON  6  ANIMAL PROTECTION Epeed Many a n i m a l s c a n g e t away f r o m e n e m i e s i n a hurry. Some, l i k e t h e d e e r c a n r u n v e r y f a s t . B i r d s c a n f l y away v e r y q u i c k l y . Others, like s q u i r r e l s and chipmunks a r e q u i c k a t c l i m b i n g trees .  Teeth Some a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r t e e t h f o r p r o t e c t i o n . D o g s and w o l v e s have l o n g s h a r p t e e t h . Some ' s m a l l a n i m a l s l i k e r a t s and mink a l s o have s h a r p teeth. T h e t e e t h o f some a n i m a l s s u c h a s e l e p h a n t s have become t u s k s . A l lthese animals u s e t h e i r t e e t h a g a i n s t ..their e n e m i e s .  C laws C l a w s p r o t e c t some a n i m a l s . Sometimes they use t h e i r claws i n f i g h t i n g other animals. Large b i r d s such as e a g l e s have s t r o n g c l a w s . Wild cats l i k e the t i g e r a l s o use t h e i r claws.  Colour Many a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r c o l o u r f o r p r o t e c t i o n , Some b i r d s a r e h a r d t o s e e b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e same c o l o u r a s t h e t r e e s . T o a d s a r e t h e c o l o u r o f dirt. Some a n i m a l s c h a n g e c o l o u r . The r a b b i t i s white i n the winter. Some l i z a r d s t u r n t h e s a m e c o l o u r as t h e ground o r l e a v e s t h e y s t a n d on. Poison Some a n i m a l s u s e a p o i s o n t o p r o t e c t themselves The s t i n g o f a bee o r wasp h a s p o i s o n i n i t . Some spiders can poison larger animals so that they can n o t move. The s t i n g r a y i s a f i s h t h a t uses p o i s o n . A s t i n g r a y makes a v e r y p a i n f u l s o r e . Some snakes also use poison.  Name : Date:  197  LESSON  6 QUESTIONS  ANIMAL PROTECTION QUESTIONS 1.  What  2.  How c a n  3.  How d o  some  4.  Why i s  colour  5.  What  Name : Date: Grade:  helps  some  teeth  use  do  be  animals  useful  animals  use  sometimes  animals  make  escape  to  their  enemies?  animals?  their  a  from  claws?  form  of  of  protection?  poison?  LESSON  7  HORSES Horses  of L o n g  Ago  The f i r s t h o r s e s l i v e d on t h e e a r t h i n t h e t i m e of t h e d i n o s a u r s . Then t h e h o r s e s were a b o u t the s i z e o f a f o x . The m e a t - e a t i n g d i n o s a u r s h u n t e d them f o r f o o d . When t h e y were e a t i n g t h e h o r s e s had t o w a t c h o u t f o r d a n g e r . Horses  Changed  Over m i l l i o n s o f y e a r s t h e h o r s e s c h a n g e d . A t f i r s t t h e y had f o u r t o e s on e a c h f r o n t f o o t . T h e y had t h r e e t o e s on e a c h b a c k f o o t . Now t h e y have o n l y one hoof on e a c h l e g . Their l e g s became l o n g e r . T h i s h e l p e d them r u n away from danger. Plant  Eaters  H o r s e s have a l w a y s e a t e n p l a n t s . The f i r s t h o r s e s a t e more l e a v e s and f r u i t . Now a h o r s e e a t s g r a s s , hay and g r a i n . Sometimes t h e y have a carrot for a special treat. A h o r s e has t e e t h made f o r g r i n d i n g g r a s s e s . When a h o r s e e a t s i n a f i e l d i t c o v e r s a l o t of g r o u n d . I t e a t s almost a l l day l o n g . The  Way  are Wild herd feed only  Some h o r s e s l i v e i n the w i l d and some h o r s e s tame. Z e b r a s and mustangs a r e w i l d h o r s e s . horses s t a y together i n b i g herds. Each has a l e a d e r . Tame h o r s e s have owners t o and t a k e c a r e o f them. Many owners have one h o r s e .  Useful  Horses  Live  Horses  Man has f o u n d many uses f o r h o r s e s . Cave men k i l l e d h o r s e s f o r meat. H o r s e s k i n s have b e e n u s e d f o r c l o t h e s and t e n t s . L a t e r , men used h o r s e s f o r c a r r y i n g heavy l o a d s . B e f o r e t h e r e were c a r s , h o r s e s p u l l e d wagons. Now t h e y a r e u s e d m o s t l y f o r r i d i n g and r a c i n g .  N ame : Date: Grade  199  LESSON  7  QUESTIONS  HORSES QUESTIONS  1.  What  2.  How h a v e  3.  What  do  4.  What  are  5.  How have  Name : Date: Grade:  were  the  f i r s t  horses  horses  like?  changed?  eat?  some-types  horses  horses  been  of  horses?  useful  to  man?  LESSON 8  ANIMALS' Amazing  EYES  Sight  Each a n i m a l ' s eyes are s p e c i a l . The e y e s help the animal get i n f o r m a t i o n . Animal's eyes a r e d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e t h e y need d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m ation to l i v e . The R a b b i t The r a b b i t h a s e y e s t h a t s e e i n a c o m p l e t e circle. A r a b b i t c a n look a l l around i t s e l f v i t h o u t moving i t s head. T h i s helps the r a b b i t v h e n i t i s b e i n g c h a s e d . The r a b b i t c a n watch where he i s g o i n g and s e e h i s enemy b e h i n d him a t t h e same t i m e . The  Lizard  Some l i z a r d s have e y e s t h a t s t i c k o u t . One e y e c a n l o o k b a c k w h i l e t h e o t h e r l o o k s ahead. The l i z a r d ' s e y e s h e l p p r o t e c t i t f r o m e n e m i e s . I t c a n l o o k f o r f o o d w i t h one e y e and watch f o r trouble with the other. The Owl The o w l ' s e y e s c a n s e e a t n i g h t . This helps i t hunt f o r a n i m a l s . From t h e b r a n c h o f a t r e e t h e owl c a n s e e a n y t h i n g moving o n t h e g r o u n d . E v e n s m a l l r a t s and mice c a n be s e e n i n t h e d a r k by an o w l . The  Toad  A toad's eyes help i n e a t i n g . F i r s t the toad's eyes h e l p i t f i n d i t s f a v o u r i t e food worms. Then t h e e y e s h e l p t h e t o a d move f o o d t h r o u g h i t s mouth. When t h e t o a d c l o s e s i t s e y e s i t c a n l o w e r them t h r o u g h a d o o r i n t h e r o o f o f i t s mouth. The e y e s h o l d t h e s l i p p e r y f o o d s t i l l u n t i l the toad c a n swallow i t . Name: Date: Grade:  201  LESSON  8  QUESTIONS  ANIMALS' EYES QUESTIONS 1.  Why d o  2.  What  is  special  about  the  3.  What  is  special  about  some  4.  How a r e  5.  What  Name: Date: Grade:  different  can  the  a  animals  owl's  toad  eyes  use  his  have  different  rabbit's  l i z a r d ' s  useful?  eyes  for?  eyes'  eyes?  eyes"  202  A p p e n d i x D: I n s t r u c t i o n a l Materials  (Experimental  Procedures and Group)  203  Table  D.1: O u t l i n e o f P r o c e d u r e s I n s t r u c t i o n Group  Session  for Experimental  Procedures  INITIAL TESTING Session 1 A.  Gates M a c G i n i t i e Reading Comprehension Test  A.M. : C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s administered Gates M a c G i n i t i e R e a d i n g Compreh e n s i o n s u b t e s t (50 minutes).  B.  Study of I n i t i a l Test passage on Termites  A.M.: Classroom teachers gave s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r study of Termites passage. Students s i l e n t l y studied Termites passage f o r up t o 15 m i n u t e s .  Session 2 A.  One d a y d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l of I n i t i a l Test passage on Termites  A.M.: Classroom teachers gave s t a n d a r d i z e d instructions for written r e c a l l o f Termites passage. S t u d e n t s h a d u p t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from Termites passage.  INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES Session 2 Lesson 1 B.  The D i f f e r e n c e s Between Narrative and Information M a t e r i a l  Students sorted narrative s t r i p s f o r Goldilocks and the  Three  Bears.  Students sorted information Strips for Grasshoppers.  204  Table D.1 continued Session  Procedures The d i f f e r e n c e s between n a r r a t i v e and i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were d i s c u s s e d . The u s e f u l n e s s o f was d i s c u s s e d .  headings  S t u d e n t s were shown how t o use h e a d i n g s t o remember associated details. Students studied headings and a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s f o r next d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k .  Session 3 Lesson 2 Idea  Sorting  S t u d e n t s used r e c a l l of headings to a i d in o r a l r e c a l l o f Gr as s hopper s i n f o r m a t i o n s t u d i e d the previous day. The r e f e r e n t i a l and hierarchial relationship between h e a d i n g s a n d d e t a i l s was s t r e s s e d . Students selected single h e a d i n g s from g r o u p s o f r e l a t e d d e t a i l s and justified their selection. Students outlines headings justified organ i z a t  sorted cut-up a c c o r d i n g to and d e t a i l s and their ion.  S t u d e n t s were shown how t o use h e a d i n g s t o remember associated details.  205  Table  Session  D.1  continued  Procedures Students studied headings and a s s o c i a t e d d e t a i l s o f a cut-up o u t l i n e f o r next day's r e c a l l task.  Session 4 Lesson  3  Riches  From  the  Sea  Students  used  recall  of  headings to a i d i n oral r e c a l l of cut-up outline studied last day. S t u d e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h and d i s c u s s e d a c l a s s r o o m chart of study strategies for r e c a l l of information mater i a l . S t u d e n t s r e a d Riches From the Sea p a s s a g e , m a t c h e d a cut-up outline t o the text, and were g u i d e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of study strategy procedures. This included the guided completion of a gloss-type h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e of h e a d i n g s , main i d e a s and d e t a i l s of the passage. S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e Riches From the Sea hierarchical outline f o r the next day's r e c a l l task.  206  Table D . 1 continued Session  Procedures  Session 5 Lesson 4 Vikings  of Denmark  S t u d e n t s used r e c a l l o f headings t o a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l o f d e t a i l s from  Riches  From the  Sea.  The  referential relationship between h e a d i n g s and i d e a s was d i s c u s s e d . Study s t r a t e g y procedures for r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s r e a d Vi ki ngs of Denmark p a s s a g e , m a t c h e d a cut-up outline t o the text, and were g u i d e d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e study strategy procedures. This included the guided completion of a gloss-type h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e of h e a d i n g s , main i d e a s , a n d d e t a i l s of the passage. S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e  Vikings  of  Denmark  hierarchical outline for n e x t d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . The use o f h e a d i n g s a s an a i d t o r e c a l l was s t r e s s e d .  207  Table Session  Fire  continued Procedures  Session  Lesson  D.1  6  5  Walkers  S t u d e n t s used r e c a l l of headings to a i d i n o r a l r e c a l l of i d e a s from Vikings of Denmark passage. The referential relationship between h e a d i n g s a n d i d e a s was s t r e s s e d . The hierarchical relationship between main i d e a s and d e t a i l s was d i s c u s s e d . Topic sentences (macropropos i t i o n s ) were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h an a s t e r i s k . Study s t r a t e g y procedures f o r r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s r e a d Fire Walkers p a s s a g e , s e a r c h e d a l i s t of d e t a i l s and a l t e r n a t e h e a d i n g s , and were g u i d e d i n w r i t i n g t h e s e p i e c e s of information in a gloss-type h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e f o r the passage. S t u d e n t s were g u i d e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g and m a r k i n g t o p i c s e n t e n c e s w i t h an asterisk. Students Fire  were t o s t u d y  Walkers  passage  the  and  hierarchical outline for next d a y ' s r e c a l l t a s k . Use of h e a d i n g s and of s e l f c h e c k i n g of r e c a l l f o r p a s s a g e i n f o r m a t i o n was d e m o n s t r a t e d and s t r e s s e d .  208  Table Session  D.1 c o n t i n u e d Procedures  Session 7 Lesson  6  Animal  Protection  Students used r e c a l l of headings t o a i d i n oral r e c a l l o f i d e a s from Fire Walkers passage. Main ideas were s t a r r e d w i t h an asterisk. The r e f e r e n t i a l relationships between headings and d e t a i l s and between main i d e a s a n d d e t a i l s were e x a m i n e d . Study s t r a t e g y procedures for r e c a l l of information m a t e r i a l were r e v i e w e d . S t u d e n t s r e a d t h e Animal Protection p a s s a g e , a n d were guided i n the completion of a gloss-type hierarchical o u t l i n e f o r t h e passage. S t u d e n t s s t a r r e d t h e main ideas of each passage section. Students Animal  were t o s t u d y t h e Protection  hierarchical outline f o r next day's r e c a l l t a s k . Use of h e a d i n g s a n d s e l f checking of r e c a l l f o r passage i n f o r m a t i o n were demonstrated and stressed.  209  Table  Session  D.1  continued  Procedures  Session 8 Lesson Horses  7 Students used r e c a l l of headings and macropropos i t i o n s to a i d i n r e c a l l of i d e a s f r o m Animal Protection passage. Main i d e a s were s t a r r e d w i t h an a s t e r i s k . The r e f e r e n t i a l relationship between main i d e a s and d e t a i l s were reviewed. Study s t r a t e g y procedures for r e c a l l of information m a t e r i a l were reviewed. Students read Horses passage. H e a d i n g s were s u r v e y e d a n d s t u d e n t s were guided i n generative processing of alternative headings f o reach s e c t i o n of t h e Horses passage. Students d i s c u s s e d study t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h would be most b e n e f i c i a l f o r r e c a l l o f t h e Horses passage. S t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n 15 minutes t o p r a c t i c e studying Horses passage. At the end of 15 m i n u t e s , students f i l l e d i n a blank h i e r a r c h i c a l o u t l i n e o f what had been r e a d . Passage c o u l d be r e f e r r e d t o f o r completion of the o u t l i n e . S t u d e n t s were t o s t u d y t h e Horses hierarchical outline for next day's r e c a l l . The u s e o f s e l f - c h e c k i n g was stressed.  210  Table Session  D.1 c o n t i n u e d Procedures  Session 9 Lesson A.  8  Practice and review of efficient recall techniques.  Students used r e c a l l o f headings and Macropropos i t i o n s t o a i d i nr e c a l l of i d e a s f r o m Horses passage. The r e f e r e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between headings a n d d e t a i l s was emphasized. Study procedures f o r r e c a l l of i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l were reviewed. Students d i s c u s s e d most e f f i c i e n t way t o u s e 15 m i n u t e s t o s t u d y a passage.  B.  Practice  study of  Animals'  Eyes  passage  C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for  study  o f Animals'  Eyes  passage. S t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n 15 minutes t o s i l e n t l y study Animals'  Session  Eyes  passage.  10  One d a y d e l a y e d p r a c t i c e w r i t t e n r e c a l l o f Animals Eyes passage.  C l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for written r e c a l l of Animals'  Eyes  passage.  S t u d e n t s h a d u p t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from Animals' Eyes passage.  21 1  Table  D.1  Session  continued Procedures  Session  11  Lesson  9  Review  Lesson  Students examined samples of two p r o t o c o l s ( o n e o r g a n i z e d , one d i s o r g a n i z e d ) w r i t t e n l a s t d a y on Animals' Eyes  .  S t u d e n t s were g u i d e d i n reorganization of disorganized passage. Study p r o c e d u r e s were r e v i e w e d a n d most e f f i c i e n t and a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d y p r o c e d u r e s were d i s c u s s e d . FINAL TESTING Session  12  Study of F i n a l on Par r ot s .  Test  passage  A.M. Classroom t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for study of Parrots passage. Students s i l e n t l y studied Parrots p a s s a g e f o r u p t o 15 minutes.  Session  13  One d a y d e l a y e d w r i t t e n r e c a l l of F i n a l Test passage on  Par  rots.  A.M. Classroom t e a c h e r s gave standardized instructions for written r e c a l l of Parrots passage. S t u d e n t s h a d u p t o 25 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e down e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c o u l d be remembered from Parrots passage.  2 1 2  Instructional  LESSON  ONE  (60  I INTENDED The  Procedures  DIFFERENCE  BETWEEN  AND  NARRATIVE  MATERIAL  sort  narrative  sort  information  use  MATERIAL  to:  sequence  headi ngs  INFORMATION  OUTCOMES: be able  strips  strips  the  identify II  THE  will  describe information  Group)  min.)  LEARNING  students  and M a t e r i a l s ( E x p e r i m e n t a l  difference material  to study  heading  between  for  from  recall  a group  of  of  narrative  and  details  ideas  MATERIALS: Class Three  set Bears  Display Bears Class  of  sequence  sequence  strips  set of content  Display  strips  2 pocket masking  for  strips  f o r Goldilocks  strips  for  Goldilocks and  and the  the Three  Grasshoppers  Grasshoppers  charts tape  Chart: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MATERIAL ( s e e example) felt  for  pens  III  PROCEDURES:  A.  NARRATIVE MATERIAL  STORY  AND  INFORMATION  213  1.  P l a c e Goldilocks in  2.  the pocket  story  strips  i nd i s o r d e r e d  arrangement  chart.  Discuss: a.  "What a r e t h e s e Goldilocks  b.  "Which t he  c.  strip  Thr e e  "Does t h i s to  d.  and  make  the  a l l about?"  Three  would  (The s t o r y  of  (Goldilocks  and  Bears)  be t h e t i t l e ? "  Bears).  make  sense?  i t sensible?"  Distribute direct  strips  Goldilocks  What w o u l d  y o uhave  ( P u t them  i n order).  sequence  students t o arrange  strip  t o do  envelopes and  t h e ideas so  they  make  sense. e.  Circulate in  f.  and observe  students  individual sequenced. pocket  have  Display  chart.  has  been c o m p l e t e d ,  the  arrangement  1.  Place disordered  Discuss:  idea.  how  call  on  strips  are  sequentially  students t o j u s t i f y  After  a l l sequencing  a s k : " D i d anyone have  of their  i nt h e  strips?  t o change  What d i d y o u h a v e  Why?"  INFORMATION MATERIAL  2.  tell  the strips  o f each  B.  chart.  to  sorting,  Ask i n d i v i d u a l  placement  change?  finished  students  the  pocket  S t u d e n t s may w o r k  pairs.  When  to  sorting.  Grasshoppers  strips  i n the  second  2 1 4  a.  "What  i sthis  b.  " I s there (Gr as  c.  (Grasshoppers).  a l l about?  one  strip  that  could  be  a  title?"  shoppers).  "Does  this  make  sense?  Why n o t ?  What n e e d s  t o be  done?" d.  "Can y o u s e e a n y i d e a s t h a t others?"  (how  a  grasshopper  makes s o u n d s ,  a r e more i m p o r t a n t  grasshopper  moves,  a grasshopper's  than  how  a  physical  features). Give  the  strips go  directions:  "Open  your  out and see i f you can f i n d  w i t h these main  Circulate  and  envelope.  Take t h e  a l l the  ideas  that  Students  may w o r k i n  ideas."  observe  sorting.  pa i r s. Call  on i n d i v i d u a l  organized. chart.  Display  the  A s k : "What d e t a i l s  ideas?" of  students  Require  that  to  tell  organization  how in  ideas  t h e pocket  d i d you put with these  students  justify  their  are  main  placement  ideas.  Ask: a.  "What d o we c a l l  b.  "How d i d y o u a r r a n g e  c.  "How c o u l d t h e headings left  d.  main  these  strips  are easier  be  ideas?"  (headings).  i d e a s on y o u r arranged  to find?"  so  desk?" that  the  ( s e theading  to the  i t i seasier  t o see  of the d e t a i l s ) .  " I f I s e tthese how  these  o f f t o the side  t h e ideas f i t together." e.g.  Heading idea idea idea  Heading idea idea idea  216  C.  DISCUSS  INFORMATION  1.  THE  BETWEEN  NARRATIVE  AND  MATERIAL  Ask: a.  "Which is  b.  a  s e t of c a r d s  c.  i s a story?  "Which one  i s not a  "What m a k e s  i tdifferent  narrative  and i n f o r m a t i o n  Say: " L e t ' s  b.  for  look  information  Teacher  writes  students  give  How  do  you  story?"  chart  and  d o y o u know i t  i s g i v i n g us i n f o r m a t i o n .  Display  a.  How  story?"  know t h i s  2.  DIFFERENCE  from  story  recording  material?"  differences  between  material.  at the differences  between  story  material. on  board  or  on  chart  answers t o the f o l l o w i n g  paper  questions:  as  2 1 7  DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN STORY  AND  INFORMATION  MATERIAL  QUESTIONS  GOLDILOCKS  GRASSHOPPERS  a ) Why  (enjoyment)  (information)  (chronological,  (title,  time  main  was t h e  ma t e r i a 1 wri tten? b) D e s c r i b e the  material i s  written. is  how  How  sequence,  headings,  ideas,  details)  sequence of  the material  events, e t c . )  organized? c)  How  do y o u  (from  read i t ?  to  beginning  ( o n l y need  end)  the part you  d) I n t h e  the  to  that  read gives  information  (headings)  informat ion material helps the  what  you  find  details?  D.  THE U S E F U L N E S S OF  1.  Say: "Paying you  to  details remember this  HEADINGS  a t t e n t i o n t o the headings  remember over the  and  information you  details  f o r each s e c t i o n ) .  turn that  can  better. yours  go w i t h  also  help  I f I turn  these  over, this  could  you  heading?"  (Do  2 1 8  "Now can  study remember  remember each." with  the headings them t u r n  each Have  each  display  headings  over  students  associated  with  "Tomorrow  headings  and  the  See  i f you can  details  that  recall thedetails  go  with  that  go  heading. to  headings  When y o u t h i n k y o u  over.  students orally  students  Say:  them  heading  Direct  Have  silently.  study  the  a n d have  orally  heading.  you  will  t o remember  students  do  r e c a l l the headings  each  and d e t a i l s  headings.  be  asked  to  f o r Grasshoppers. the details  f o r each  Turn the  the same.  and d e t a i l s  tell You'll  me  the  use t h e  section."  219 (fin-pud .tltt)  .  h a s no voice  %£r  baby  S She e a t s She  goes  Mother The  makes  porridge  -for a  walk.  Goldilocks.  The  porridge  The  bears  She  breaks  S h e  g o e s  S h e  some  d e c i d e +0  find  Alone.  porridge.  sleep.  bear  bears  They  i$  +0  bear's  is t o o hot.  come  home.  baby t o  t h e  c o m e s  r u n s  Goldilocks  bear's  chair.  b e a r s *  h o u s e .  G o l d i l o c k s .  a w a y .  and the Three  Bears  220 (Picronek, \ms)  'yt  _  hops  5R£ green in colour by, rubbinq three J  U r n  p  i t s wings -toqefher  pairs  of long s t r o n g l e g s  S  one p a i r of  antennae  how g r a s s h o p p e r s  make sounds  grasshoppers %gz ways two  a grasshopper pairs  moves  of w i n g s  Hs£r by rubbing awinj ancf leg together a  grasshoppers physical  -features  221  LESSON TWO (60 m i n s . ) : I  IDEA  SORTING  INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES:  The  students  will  be a b l e  recall headings information s t r i p s select  a single  to:  and details from s t u d i e d p r e v i o u s day  h e a d i n g from a g r o u p of  sort up t o e i g h t 2 l e v e l h e a d i n g s and d e t a i l s use  headings  to  study  Gr as s hopper s related  cut-up outlines  for  ideas  according  rto  recall  II MATERIALS: pocket  chart  class set of e i g h t envelope, a l l eight Grasshopper  cut-up outlines, bundled together  d i s p l a y s t r i p s used l a s t  Display  s t r i p s used l a s t  day  Display  strips  cut-up  Class  set  of  for eight  SORTING IDEAS  III  PROCEDURES:  A.  RECALL OF GRASSHOPPER  1.  Direct  2.  students  to  previous  day.  Direct  students  Grasshoppers 3.  Direct heading strips  e a c h o u t l i n e i n an ( C a t t e r s o n , 1966)  to  the  and d e t a i l s  recalled).  outlines  worksheets  INFORMATION  think  to  about  what  recall  they  studied  headings  on  from  the  for  each  selection.  students of  day  recall  associated  selection. strips  details  (Teacher d i s p l a y s heading  in pocket  chart  as  ideas  are  222  4.  Turn how  5.  detail  strips  over  t o use headings  Have and  students  again  and  to recall  retell  remind  we  say  this  the difference  i s ? How  of  details.  i n f o r m a t i o n m a t e r i a l ( e . g . "What  did  students  between kind  of  i s i tdifferent  narrative material from  story  material?").  B. F I N D I N G THE M A I N 1.  Distribute  2.  Direct to  IDEA  worksheet  students  find  t o read  t h e main  3.  Have one s t u d e n t  4.  Direct  Continue  student in  the  SORTING  IDEAS.  silently  the f i r s t  row o f  ideas  idea. read  the ideas.  t o u n d e r l i n e t h e main same  fashion  for  idea.  the remainder  of the  worksheet. C.  IDEA  SORTING  1.  Direct title  students  Share  under and  display are 3.  open  f o r the ideas.  details 2.  to  envelope  Then d i r e c t  the appropriate  discuss  i n pocket  students  to sort  the  headings.  arrangement  chart.  #1 a n d t o f i n d t h e  of  Emphasize  ideas. t h e way  Visually that  ideas  orally  recall  related.  Turn  details  over  and  content  using headings  Follow  steps  outlines outlines  2  as time  to  as cues 4  for  permits.  per class).  have  students for recall. as  many  of the 8  (Standardize the  Before  the sorting  of  cut-up  number  of  subsequent  223  outlines, for 4.  have s t u d e n t s t e l l  organizing  For f i n a l  cut-up  outline,  for  study  the outline  remember out  I i ne)  previous  you the  . "  steps they  will  use  strips.  used  "Tomorrow  which  outlines.  t o be  will ideas  follow  be  the  same  procedures  Then d i r e c t  students to  recalled asked  about  (title  the  next  day.  Say:  t o use the headings of  final  to  cut-up  Name  SORTING IDEAS CHOOSg  THE  bcrVe.  MAIN  1C>EA FROKt T M E S E  /.  maple  elm  2.  shoes  socks  3.  horses  animals  A.  football  hockey  gam&s  5.  farrners  -Firemen  workers  (o.  beef  7.  rose  D  trees  pork tulip  WRITE  1.  boxes  2.  sailboat  3.  milk  4.  collie  5.  apple  to.  overshoes  7.  pansy  clothes sheep  lamb  oil  \err\tr  IDEA  vinegar pood\t  slippers  forget-me-not  tulip  dogs  teachers  meat blowers  E A C H  Jars  daffodil  GROUP:  bottles  liner  Coke  blouse  baseball  mUkmen  FOR  water  sheepdog  mango Socks  deer  tennis  rowboat  grapefruit  stockings  cows  drawers  canoe  bee_ch  sweater  iris  MAIN  trunks  birch  mutton  violet  T H E  gas  oak  IDE/^S :  straw berry  sandals  boots  peony  daisy  225  /. S w e e t  7.. foods  Things  I. d e s s e r t  I i  fc. _grafns  t  i.  coke,  !.  fee crcorr.  j j  '  "  I.  "  "  £.  wheat  j  puadinq  I  J :  _  ,  j  i. Coca _ _ O ! G J. drinks  £.  I. chocolate,  51.  l.  S e v e n - L/p  J.  c-cmtfij  i.  z.  oafs  p e a r s  apples oronges  lollipops  i • Opple  p e a c h e s  pie,  ;t. Vegetables  £. carrots pacts  226  3. Clothes 3. for the feet  ; 4. living things j 4. flying c r e a t u r e s  3. shoes 3. rubber boots 3. slipp&rs 3. for the head  ! A. birds  I  4. insects  i 1  , 4. bats  3. hats  4. plants  3. caps  4. flowers  3. for the hands  4. trees  3. gloves  4. b u s h e s  3. miffens  4. f/'sh 4. Swimming WMture? 4. e e l s  227  : lo.  5-  t o  w e a r  t  5-  S/f  5.  to  5.  c h o i r s  5.  o n loi)  !  o n  (o •  c l o t h i n g s h o e s  ;  S t o c k i n g s  b e n c h e s !• i  (p.  b l o u s e s  lo-  shirts  5.  S t o o l s  5.  beds  lo- j e w e l l e r y  £•  couches  lo. r i n g s  S-  f/oor  coverings  ID.  watches  5-  mots  5.  rugs  lo  beads  5  carpets  lo.  earrings  5 .  tile  lo .  bracelets  workers  6.  indoors  :  grocer butchers iailors  .  i.  :  in the  8.  sharKs  shales  8.  seaweed  milKman  6.  p o s t m a n  8.  t y p i s t s f a r m e r s  s e a  8.  8/hali  l u m b e r j a c K  t h i n  6.  outdoors  c l e r K s  i.  j  living  8.  b u t  o_ysters  l o b s t e r s  on  land  6  trees  8.  lions  6.  t i g e r s  6.  f l o w e r s  229  LESSON THREE I  INTENDED  The  ( 6 0 m i n s . ) : R I C H E S OF T H E S E A  L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  students w i l l  be a b l e t o :  r e c a l l headings and d e t a i l s studied p r e v i o u s day read  Riches  of  the  Sea  match cut-up o u t l i n e identify  headings  underline  details  record II  headings  the  cut-up  outline  passage  t o the text  i n each  paragraph  and d e t a i l s  of t h e passage  i n side  bar outline  MATERIALS: Living Things display u s e d on p r e v i o u s d a y pocket class  class chart:  strips or  final  cut-up  outline  chart s e t o f Riches  Display  III  from  of  cut-up outline  the  Sea  passage  f o r Riches  s e t of cut-up o u t l i n e  of  the  f o r Riches  Sea of  STUDY PROCEDURES FOR I N F O R M A T I O N  the  Sea  MATERIAL  PROCEDURES:  A.  R E C A L L OF ' L I V I N G T H I N G S '  1.  Direct  students  to  think  INFORMATION about  what t h e y  studied  on  previous day. 2.  3.  Direct  students t o  Thi ngs  outline.  Direct  students  heading. strips  (Teacher  recall  to recall displays  i n pocket c h a r t . )  headings  from  associated heading  the  details  strips  Living  f o r each  and  detail  230  4.  Turn use  detail  strips  headings  over  t orecall  and remind  students of  details.  B.  R I C H E S OF T H E S E A  1.  Distribute  Riches  of  the  Sea  cut-up  outline  2.  Distribute  Riches  of  the  Sea  passage  (face  3.  S a y : "Today information  4.  Go  over  you a r e going material  Study  how t o  so that  Procedures  to  learn  packets. down).  how  y o u c a n remember f o r Information  to  read  i t . " Material  chart.  HOW TO STUDY I N F O R M A T I O N M A T E R I A L Survey:  the t i t l e  Read:  the section  Write  the heading.  Go  back  Study. each 5.  Read  Have  andfind (Practise  that  goes w i t h  Do t h i s  each  f o r each  thedetails  f o r each  remembering  what  heading. section. section. goes  with  heading.)  students turn  chart,  and headings.  guiding  passage  over.  students through  Draw a t t e n t i o n each  study  to the  procedure  step: a.  b.  Direct  students t o survey  the  passage.  out  about  Direct silently each  A s k : "What t h r e e t h i n g s  Riches  of  the  students  to  t o find  the  section.  the t i t l e  andheading of will  you find  Sea?"  read each cup-up  heading  outline  and section heading f o r  231  c.  Direct  students  passage. and d.  t o go b a c k  Have  find  cut-up  students  to the beginning  silently  d e t a i l s f o r each  Circulate, discuss  organization  pocket  display  chart  to  read  of  each  the  section  section. of ideas,  organization  and of  use  cut-up  outline. 6.  Direct  7.  Direct  students  t o put cut-up  students  section,  and  to  to  read  write  outlines  the the  away.  passage,  section  headings  in  the  by blank  outline. 8.  Guide the  9.  10.  students  to underline  d e t a i l s f o r each  section  of  passage.  Guide  students  i n o u t l i n i n g the d e t a i l s associated  each heading,  following  If  necessary,  use t h e c h a l k b o a r d  to  be  section to display  by  section.  how  this i s  done.  Direct  students  section, students with  the text  with  each  for  the  practise heading.  to  study next  the  day's  remembering  outline, recall  the  section  task.  details  by  Have t h e associated  232  Riches  of  the Sea  copper and  nickel  scientists hope to make, shallow -fishing grounds il and gas are the most important Farming the Sea this * farming* will feed many people Important Riches 7  trillion doll ars worth of gold  rodcs with minerals much food  under  all minerals  water  found on land are found in the sea  sea Water has gold ocean farming  ma^ soon be. possible  Sea Water carvf get minerols (Vom s e a u/oter cyji'cKly and c h e a p l y  233  R I C H E S O F THE S E A Farming  the Sea  F a m i n g f o rfood under t h e ocean nay soon be p o s s i b l e . T h e r e i s a l r e a d y much f o o d crowing under the water. S c i e n t i s t s h o p e t o make new f i s h i n c orounds where t h e w a t e r i s n o t t o o deep. T h i s k i n d o f " f a r m i n g " w i l l h e l p f e e d many p e o p l e . Important Riches  —  Some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r i c h e s f o u n d u n d e r t h e s e a a r e o i l and g a s . L o t s o f r o c k s under t h e w a t e r have m i n e r a l s i n them. Rocks w i t h copper a n d n i c k e l a r e w a i t i n g f o r someone t o s c o o p them up . Sea  Water  Sea water c o n t a i n s g o l d . I n fact the sea h o l d s about 7 t r i l l i o n c o l l a r s worth of c o l d alone! A l l t h e m i n e r a l s found on l a n d a r e f o u n d i n t h e s e a . N o o n e k n o w s how t o r e m o v e them q u i c k l y and c h e a p l y .  Name: Date : Grade:  Name 5cliDO! .  RICHES OF T H E  SEA  235  L E S S O N FOUR I  ( 6 0 m i n . ) : THE V I K I N G S OF DENMARK  I N T E N D E D L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  Students  will  be a b l e t o :  r e c a l l headings and d e t a i l s s t u d i e d p r e v i o u s d a y (Riches r e a d Viki  ngs  II  t o Vikings  passage  headings  underline record  outline  passage  match cup-up o u t l i n e identify  from the cut-up of the Sea)  details  headings  i n each  paragraph  and d e t a i l s  of t h e passage  i n a side  bar outline  MATERIALS: Riches  of  2 pocket class  chart:  Sea  display  s t r i p s used  l a s t day  charts  s e t o f The  Display class  the  cut-up  Vikings  outline  s e t of cut-up  of  Denmark  passage  f o r Vikings.  outline  .  f o r Vikings.  STUDY P R O C E D U R E S FOR I N F O R M A T I O N  . .  .  MATERIAL  I I I PROCEDURES: A.  RECALL  TASK  1.  Direct  students  to recall  headings  students  to recall  details.  Sea  of  the  .  2.  Direct  3.  Emphasize and  f r o m Riches  the relationship  how h e a d i n g s  between  headings  can a i di n the r e c a l l  and d e t a i l s  of d e t a i l s .  236  B.  V I K I N G S OF DENMARK  1.  Distribute  Vikings  of  Denmark  2.  Distribute  Vikings  of  Denmark  3.  Use c h a r t  t o review  study  cut-up  outline  packets.  passage.  procedures  for  information  mater i a l . 4.  Guide a.  students through  Direct ask:  b.  "What 4 t h i n g s  will  Vikings  of Denmark?"  Direct  students  to  to find  the  each  study procedure  students t o survey  silently  c.  each  section  Direct  title you  and headings.  find  read each cut-up  step:  out  heading  outline  about  Then the  and s e c t i o n heading  for  of the text.  s t u d e n t s t o go back  t o the beginning ofthe  passage. Have  students  cut-up  outline  Circulate,  details  discuss  relationship pocket  silently  read each  f o r each  chart  to  display  to find  section.  organization  of the headings  section  of ideas and t h e  to the  details.  organization  Use  of cut-up  outline. 5.  Direct  6.  Guide  students t o put cut-up students i n  paragraph details is  Continue  underlining  of the passage.  s a y : "Now t h a t  another  way  this  paragraphs.  outlines  that process  After  we've the  away.  details  in  the  first  students underline the  looked at the details heading  for the  can  be  remainder  what  stated?" of  the  237  7.  Direct  students  to write  the  headings  in  the  blank  outline. 8.  Direct  students  each heading chalkboard  9.  of  Check  before  Direct by  you  students  students each  write  display  f o r the practise heading.  how  them  study next  details If  this  without  write to  the  outline.  each d e t a i l  section  with  i n the to  think  to  associated with  necessary, i s done.  looking  at  use  Say:  "Try  the to  the  passage.  outline  section  down."  the  day's  completed recall  remembering  the  task. details  Have  the  associated  238  \lik.in^s  (Gob'e / Cbuiombe  Charged by •ffgh-firtg  8=)  Christianity  -for  land  some about Q5 hid  +h_ir  one  killtd turned  moved made  bus  a n d one s a i l when  they  learned  abou+  Chrls+iani't  Ships  on many  long as a  places  boats  mast  chanqed  and fishing  btcamt  good C h r i s t i a n s  m e n , women and  h  4he  by of  s e a +D -find  ears  wood  children n e w land  and  riches  239  poor  land  no 4ood  t  Warships  of-fcn called  "dragon ships  carefully  planned  Vikings attacked sudden] gave all  uj> attacking Valuable,  Leaving  people  carried  things  6-ff  4he Homeland  terrifying  carved  dragon heads  many problems Raiding missionaries •took  some  taught slaves  them  religion  on +he h-ont  2 4 1  Mome ScMod  242  LESSON F I V E I  (60 m i n s . ) : FIRE  WALKERS  I N T E N D E D L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  The  students w i l l  be a b l e t o :  r e c a l l h e a d i n g s , main passage survey read  title,  identify  from  previous  headings Fire  passage  recognize  ideas and d e t a i l s  Walkers  alternate main  headings  ideas and d e s c r i b e  study headings session  and a s s o c i a t e d  relation  t o headings  ideas f o r r e c a l l  i n next  II MATERIALS: Display Pocket  strips:  of  Walkers  passage;  III  PROCEDURES:  1.  Direct  students to  Denmark;  then  Emphasize denote in  Denmark  chart s e t : Fire  Class  Vikings  recall  t h e main  with  recall  idea  Fire  headings details  or t o p i c  an a s t e r i s k .  (Have  Walkers  outline  Vikings  from for  sentence  each in  of  section. each  students state  and  details  sentences.) Fire  Walkers  2.  Distribute  3.  Review  study procedures.  4.  Direct  students to survey t i t l e  5.  Draw a t t e n t i o n bottom they  of  to details  outline.  a r e used.)  passage  and  (These  and  outline.  and headings. alternate  Discuss.  headings  at  a r e t o be c r o s s e d o f f a s  243  6.  Guide and  students  through  l o c a t i o n of  silent  alternate  reading of  heading  to  each  be  section  recorded  in  outline. 7.  When turn  8.  papers  Review of  9.  a l l alternate  Return  section  and  ( t o be  starred  first  main  Continue  recall  have  students  idea  asterisk  adding  identification  (*). guide  students  i n the  through  outline)  and  details.  guidance  students  Direct  procedures  to  Circulate 1 1 .  study an  associated  that  recorded  ideas with  locating  1 0 .  are  over.  remaining  main  headings  and  can  section  complete  the  until task  i t is  apparent  independently.  mark.  students i n next  f o r each  to  study  session.  the  passage and  outline  for  244 FIRE  A Strange  WALKERS  Practice  I n some l a n d s p e o p l e h a v e a s t r a n g e p r a c t i c e of w a l k i n g through f i r e . T h i s p r a c t i c e ' i s many c e n t u r i e s o l d . I t i s s t i l l done t o d a y .  Forms of F i r e  Walking  T h e r e a r e many v a y s t o v a l k o v e r f i r e . A b a r e f o o t p e r s o n may v a l k q u i c k l y o v e r c o a l s . Sometimes a person must v a l k through a l o g f i r e o r through h o t ashes. Other times, the f i r e v a l k e r may c r e s s o v e r r e d h o t s t o n e s . O r , a s h e s may b e poured over h i s head i n a f i r e b a t h . Reasons F o r F i r e  Walking  T h e r e a r e many r e a s o n s v h y p e o p l e f i r e v a l k . I f a c h i e f v a l k s t h r o u g h f i r e and i s n o t h u r t i t means t h a t h i s p e o p l e v i l l have enough t o e a t . Other people v a l k through f i r e t o shov t h e i r strength. Sometimes a p e r s o n must v a l k t h r o u g h f i r e t o s h o v t h a t he d i d n o t commit a c r i m e . I f t h e p e r s o n d o e s n o t g e t b u r n e d he i s s e t f r e e . A  Mystery  I t i s a mystery that f e v f i r e walkers get burned. Maybe t h e f i r e w a l k e r s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s he w i l l n o t g e t h u r t . O r t h e f i r e w a l k e r mav b r e a t h e i n s u c h a way t h a t he'eoes' n o t f e e l pain. People.have checked t o see i ff i r e walkers p u t something on t h e i r f e e t b e f o r e w a l k i n g t h r o u g h f i r e . None e v e r d o .  Name Date: Grade  Unusual - many  Practice reasons  -fire  bath  -feet  have been  -barefoot -to  prove  -over  over  -mystery checked coals  innocence through  show s t r e n g t h  -centuries o l d - s t i l l  done  fire  walking  that people  don't  g e t burned  -people don't  p u t a n y t h i n g on f e e t  Types o f F i r e  Walking  -chief  finds  out i fpeople w i l l  -person s e t f r e e  r e d hot stones  -they walk -to  -many t y p e s o f f i r e  -through  food  i f n o t burned  a logfire  o r h o t ashes  -maybe s p e c i a l b r e a t h i n g s t o p s A Q u e s t i o n W i t h No  pain  Answer  - some p e o p l e s h a v e a s t r a n g e Why " P e o p l e W a l k T h r o u g h - F i r e -may be s t r o n g  have  beliefs  practice  246  LESSON S I X (60 m i n s . ) :  I  ANIMAL PROTECTION  I N T E N D E D L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  The  student recall Wal ker  will  be a b l e t o :  headings,  review  study  Animal  read  main  ideas  and  details  Fire  from  s  complete study  procedures Protection  a written  passage outline  t o match  text  for recall  II MATERIALS: Chalkboard Class  s e t : Animal  III  PROCEDURES:  1.  Direct  students  Walkers.  Record  Protection  passage  to recall on b o a r d ,  title  and headings  leaving  space  for  Fire  forassociated  details. 2.  Direct for  and r e c o r d s t a r r e d  each heading,  between 3.  Review  headings study  a.  Survey  b.  Read  c.  steps  each  section  time.  Review  relation  headings  section  headings)  and note at a  a  details  t o date:  When a l l h e a d i n g s section  at  idea and r e l a t e d  and ideas.  title,  similar  one  main  time  and  record  i t s heading  (or  in outline are main  recorded idea  return  to  (*) a n d d e t a i l s  first  f o r one  247  d.  When o u t l i n e  Distribute  Animal  Guide  students  Allow  individual  and to  i s complete, Protection  final  for recall  passage.  through  each  students  t o decide  recording in outline complete  study  step using  the  passage.  whether u n d e r l i n i n g  are required.  sections independently  Permit i f  students  they  feel  able. Direct recall  students  to  study  on f o l l o w i n g d a y .  passage  and/or  outline for  ANIMAL PROTECTION  Speed Many a n i m a l s car. g e t a v a y f r c m e n e m i e s i n a h u r r v . ' Some, l i k e t h e d e e r c a n r u n v e r y f a s t . B i r d s c a nf l y avay v e r y q u i c k l y . Others, l i k e s q u i r r e l s . a n d chipmunks a r e q u i c k a t c l i m b i n g trees. Teeth Some a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r t e e t h f c r p r o t e c t i o n . Docs and v o l v e s have l o n g s h a r p t e e t h . Seme s m a l l a n i m a l s l i k e r a t s and mink a l s o have s h a r p teeth. T h e t e e t h c f some a n i m a l s s u c h a s e l e p h a n t s h a v e become t u s k s . A l l these animals u s e " t h e i r t e e t h against t h e i r enemies. Clavs C1EVE p r o t e c t some a n i m a l s . Sometimes t h e y use t h e i r c l a v s i nf i g h t i n g o t h e r animals. Large b i r d s such a s e a g l e s have s t r o n g c l a v s . Wild cats l i k e thet i g e r also use t h e i r clavs. Colour Many a n i m a l s u s e t h e i r c o l o u r f o r p r o t e c t i o n . Seme b i r d s a r e h a r d t o s e e b e c a u s e . t h e y a r e t h e same c o l o u r a s t h e t r e e s . T o a d s a r e t h e c o l o u r c f dirt. Some a n i m a l s c h a n g e c o l o u r . The r a b b i t i s v h i t e i n t h e v i n t e r . 'Some l i z a r d s t u r n t h e s a m e c o l o u r as t h e ground o r l e a v e s t h e y stand o n . Pcison Some a n i m a l s u s e a p o i s o n t o p r o t e c t t h e i r . s e I v e T h e s t i n g o f a b e e o r v a s p h a s p o i s o n i n i t . Some s p i d e r s c a n p c i s o n l a r g e r a n i m a l s s o t h a t 'they c a n n o t move. The s t i n g r a y i s a f i s h t h a t u s e s p o i s o n A s t i n g r a y makes a v e r y p a i n f u l s o r e . Some snakes also use poison."  N ame: Date: Grace:  249  LESSON I  SEVEN  INTENDED  The  (60 mins.):  HORSES  L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  student  will  be a b l e t o :  R e c a l l headings, main Protection (oral) review  study  identify  record  study II  idea  from  Animal  (*)  passage  original  practise  (*) a n d d e t a i l s  procedures  main  r e a d Horses  ideas  o_r a l t e r n a t e  completing  outline  headings from  i n outline  recall  for recall  MATERIALS: Chalkboard s e t : Horses  Class III 1.  with outline  folded  under  PROCEDURES: Guide (as  2.  passage,  recall  o f Animal  Protection  recording  on  board  i n previous sessions).  Review  study  optional; time  each  procedures.  (Note  that underlining i s  individual  must d e c i d e  what he c a n do i n  allotted.)  3.  Distribute  4.  Direct  Horses  students  passage. to  survey  and  turn  papers  over.  Recall. 5.  Guide  through  original 6.  Turn,  first  three  ( o r more)  or appropriate alternate  paper  over.  Fifteen  sections  headings  minutes  will  writing  i n outline.  be a l l o t t e d t o  250  study  passage.  Discuss  record  headings,  return  best and  study  techniques  underline  details,  (survey, practise  remembering). 7.  8.  9.  At  end  of  papers  over  section  from  When  fifteen to  outline  direct  and  begin  students  to  completing  turn each  recall.  students  complete  outline  Study  recall  to  minutes  can by  recall referring  f o r next  no to  session.  more  details  passage.  they  may  HORSES Horses  of Long  Ago  The f i r s t h o r s e s l i v e d on t h e e a r t h i n t h e t i n e of the d i n o s a u r s . Then the h o r s e s v e r e about the s i z e of a f o x . The meat-eating d i n o s a u r s hunted then f o r food. When t h e y v e r e e a t i n g t h e h o r s e s h a d t o ' v a t c h -out f o r d a n g e r . Horses At f i They they legs f rom-  Changed  Over m i l l i o n s of years the horses changed. r s t t h e y had f o u r t o e s on e a c h f r o n t f o o t . had t h r e e t o e s on e a c h back f o o t . Nov h a v e o n l y one hoof, on e a c h l e g . T h e i r became l o n g e r . T h i s h e l p e d them r u n a v a y cancer.  Plant  Eaters  Horses have a l v a y s e a t e n p l a n t s . The f i r s t h o r s e s a t e more l e a v e s and f r u i t . Nov a h o r s e e a t s g r a s s , hay and g r a i n . Sometimes t h e y have a carrot for a special treat. A horse has t e e t h mace f o r g r i n d i n g g r a s s e s . When a h o r s e e a t s i n a f i e l d i t c o v e r s a l o t of ground. I t eats almost a l l cay long. The' Wav  Horses  Live  Some h o r s e s l i v e i n t h e - v i l d a n d some h o r s e s a r e tame . Z e b r a s and mustangs a r e v i l d hors.es. Wild horses stay together i n b i g herds. Each h e r d has a . l e a d e r . Tame h o r s e s have owners t o f e e d a n d t a k e c a r e o f t h e m . Many o v n e r s h a v e o n l y one h o r s e . Useful  Horses  Man h a s f o u n d m a n y u s e s f o r h o r s e s . Cave men k i l l e d h o r s e s ' f o r m e a t . Horse s k i n s have been u s e d f o r c l o t h e s and t e n t s . L a t e r , men used horses f o r c a r r y i n g heavy l o a d s . Before t h e r e vere c a r s horses p u l l e d vagons. Nov t h e y a r e u s e d m o s t l y f o r r i d i n g and r a c i n g .  Name :_ Date : Grace:  252  LESSON EIGHT I  INTENDED The  ( 2 s e s s i o n s : 60 m i n s ;  ANIMALS'  EYES  L E A R N I N G OUTCOMES:  student  will  recall  headings,  review  study  read and minutes) II  30 m i n s . ) :  be a b l e t o : main  ideas  Horses  (*) a n d d e t a i l s  from  Eyes  s e s s i o n (15  procedures Animals'  study  in  timed  MATERIALS: Chalkboard s e t : Animals'  Class  III  Eyes  passage  PROCEDURES:  PART  ONE  1.  Guide  and record o r a l  2.  Emphasize  the  o f Horses  recall  relationship  on c h a l k b o a r d .  between  details  and  a n d d i s c u s s most e f f i c i e n t  use  headings. 3.  Review of  study  procedures  limited  headings,  time.  (Most  likely:  r e t u r n and u n d e r l i n e , will  find  Survey,  practise  Some  students  timed  s e s s i o n - - t h e y may b e p e r m i t t e d  record  remembering.  u n d e r l i n i n g t o o slow to  in this  read  without  underlining.) 4.  When  each  strategy fifteen  student  distribute minutes  Instructions.)  has Animals' study  decided Eyes time.  on t h e m o s t passage (Use  efficient and  allow  Standardized  253  PART 1.  TWO On  subsequent  recall  day  of passage.  classroom  teachers  allot  twenty-five  (This using  session  minutes  t o be  Standardized  for written  d i r e c t e d by a l l  Instructions.)  254 ANIMALS •  Amazing  EYES  Sight  Each animal's eyes are s p e c i a l . The e y e s h e l p t h e a n i m a l ce t ' ir_f o m a t i c n . A n i m a l ' s eyes a r e d i f f e r e n t because t h e y need d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m ation to live. The  Rabbit  The r a b b i t h a s e y e s t h a t s e e i n a c o m p l e t e circle. A r a b b i t can look a l l around i t s e l f v i t h o u t moving i t s head. This helps the rabbit vhen i t i s being chased. The r a b b i t c a n v a t c h v h e r e h e . i s g o i n g and s e e h i s enemy b e h i n d h i m a t t h e same t i m e . The  Lizard  Some l i z a r d s h a v e e y e s t h a t s t i c k o u t . One eye c a n look back v h i l e t h e o t h e r looks ahead. The l i z a r d ' s e y e s h e l p p r o t e c t i t f r o m e n e m i e s . I t c a n l o o k f o r f o o d v i t h one e y e a n d v a t c h f o r trouble v i t h the other. The  Ovl  The o v l ' s e y e s c a n s e e a t n i g h t . T h i s h e l p s i t hunt f o r animals. From the branch o f a t r e e the o v l c a n see a n y t h i n g moving on t h e ground. E v e n s m a l l r a t s a n d m i c e c a n be s e e n i n t h e d a r k •by a n o v l . The  Toad  A toad's eyes help i n e a t i n g . F i r s t the toad's eyes help i t f i n d i t s f a v o u r i t e food vorxs. T h e n t h e e y e s h e l p t h e t o a d move f o o d t h r o u g h i t s mouth. When t h e t o a d c l o s e s i t s e y e s i t c a n l o v e r them t h r o u g h a door i n t h e r o o f o f i t s mouth. The e y e s h o l d t h e s l i p p e r y food s t i l l u n t i l the toad can s v a l l o v i t . Name : Date: Grade:  .  255  LESSON  I  NINE  INTENDED  The  (30 m i n . ) :  LEARNING  students  will  describe  study  REVIEW  OUTCOMES:  be a b l e t o : procedures  discriminate between study procedures  II  f o r information  appropriate  and  material inappropriate  MATERIALS: chalkboard Example: protocol of Animals' Eyes p a s s a g e a n d one d i s o r g a n i z e d p a s s a g e )  III  PROCEDURES:  1.  Direct which  students i s better  t o read  (one  t h e two p r o t o c o l s  organized  and  easier  organized  to  determine  to  understand.  of  disorganized  Discuss. 2.  Guide  students  passage.  through  Teacher  reorganization  writes  reorganized  information  on  chalkboard. 3.  Review  study of  procedures.  a.  Use  b.  Spending  c.  Practising heading.  Emphasize:  headings equal  time  on  t o remember  the study what  of each  i s associated  paragraph with  each  256  f Grodr  ew-C'^ CZ  JUf^- sCJLSL-  -tCa^cL Is CfUX*  4}  7  ^e*,  sU&*Z>  soe-t Slc^^ ACm toad  /VLU+SM^O^  Jjuf.  .  Tht, fbo-cC sc&si- f-ff A*a jt^*ec- tt> ZteCcC  B  EX^nPtE  ClsncL^  (6nad:  H)  Sight  LSUJ  hUf>  -th+ ASi+rrtM^Cofact;cn.-fi)%mxt~-  Some UyjArdtf Acuxe- 4*4*4, &La^-4&'cjt> Cc LiytJuC Cavt- -d±L. fpuovLAfCa wit*.  out.  &toe*&us^ C*mi> UfvuC t*uZct <4di 0ru*£*se>•fo Uvk. fin, rvoct asiat -itix, <rtAj^tJ^scr to Look An, oLa*ijtA~euL& -^ru^nct^u. ^  Casts  Udc  tUC uAtwtcL  Cesi- AU- 4A>AUA&- Cd u i » -Csu+ruj -/ox),  UH&LOUC  /n*iM/lo  ^c*swC Can.  ^  Ou~L An. nvt CtLrL, UJz.  utn,  -t/u, ^vt  Cn. -th± CCOAM . 7*1% -fin. jtrncL Cn UaASC. asuC  rV*H444,.  7OXLCL  tvccL ^ Ufiin*sru3. t/i it» fnawt/L.  it  A>I4J Ua tf>*n, Ur 0ic& Ma fit+~ep  The -&*+CJ hctct  ^a^rU^ r<?aaC PCautris  tA^ dltfa&cvy j *'. oae  257  Appendix  E : S o u r c e s Used  in Constructing  Test  Passages  Instructional  and  258  Sources  Used  in  Constructing  Instructional  and  Test  Passages  Passage Animal  Protection  Ani mal s '  Eyes  Source (1977) . S m i t h , N. B. better reader. P r e n t i c e - H a l l , p . 32.  Be  a  Dawkins, J.P. (1979). ReadAbility. Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott.  Grasshoppers  Grover, C , & Anderson, G. (1960). New practice readers. Book A. Toronto: MacGraw-Hill Book Company.  Fire  K n i g h t , D.C. (1976). Bees can't f l y : Things that are s t i l l a mystery t o science. New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g Co. I n c . , pp. 14-19.  Hor  Walkers  ses  P l u c k r o s e , H. (Ed.). (1979). Horses. New Gloucester Press.  C r o w h u r s t , M. (1984) . Seven u n p u b l i s h e d e x p o s i t o r y passages. Vancouver, B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Parrots  Ri ches  York:  of  I he  Sea  Dawkins, J.P. (1979). ReadAbility. Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott.  259  Termites  Children's Britannica, (1981). London: Encyclopedia Britannica I n t e r n a t i o n a l , p. 173. G r o v e r , C , & A n d e r s o n , G. (1960). New p r a c t i c e readers. B o o k A. Toronto: M c G r a w - H i l l , p . 4.  The  Vikings  of  Denmark  P r o c t o r , G.L. (i960). The V i k i n g s : Then a n d t h e r e series. London: Longmans, Green & Co. L t d . V a n R o e k e l , B.H., & K l u w e , M.J. (1966). From b i c y c l e s t o b o o m e r a n g s : The H a r p e r a n d Row b a s i c r e a d i n g program. How t o r e a d i n t h e subject-matter areas. New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, p p . 128-129.  

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