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Changing patterns of pottery production during the Longshan Period of northern China, ca. 2500-2000 B.C. Underhill, Anne P. 1990

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CHANGING PATTERNS  OF POTTERY  PRODUCTION DURING THE  LONGSHAN PERIOD OF NORTHERN CHINA,  CA'. 2500-2000 B.C.  by Anne P. B.A.,  Duke U n i v e r s i t y , M.A.,  University  Underbill  Durham,  North C a r o l i n a ,  of B r i t i s h  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED  Columbia,  1977  1983  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y  We  accept  this the  and S o c i o l o g y )  d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming t o  required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July  (c)  1990  Anne P.  Underhill  THE  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this or  thesis for by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  of  fW^^'kyj ^ ^ ^ " . ^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  TW^£  l"7|  (ITO  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  Department  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  ABSTRACT  This  study i n v e s t i g a t e s how systems of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n  i n r e l a t i o n t o increasing c u l t u r a l complexity. important model o u t l i n e d by Rice  A r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the  (1981) i s p r e s e n t e d and t e s t e d with  ceramic data from the Longshan P e r i o d of n o r t h e r n the p e r i o d , a t l e a s t one s t a t e evolved valley  change  China-.  At the end of  i n the Huanghe (Yellow  River)  region. The  model d e s c r i b e s  i n chiefdoms.  s o c i a l f a c t o r s t h a t may cause ceramic change  I t describes  diversification,  three  simplification,  a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of p r o d u c e r s : and c o n s e r v a t i s m .  Consumer demand f o r  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s used i n d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s may a l s o cause changes i n p r o d u c t i o n .  A f t e r Rice  v a r i e t y of ceramic c a t e g o r i e s  should  become i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a n d a r d i z e d . mode of p r o d u c t i o n The  (1981), the model p r e d i c t s t h a t i n c r e a s e and t h a t v e s s e l s  Further,  as s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  there  complexity  should  be a change i n  increases.  model i s t e s t e d with ceramic data from three  sites  (Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan) and one i n Shandong ( L u j i a k o u ) . p e r i o d of s i x months i n 1987, I examined r e c o n s t r u c t e d these s i t e s and  should  i n Henan During a  vessels  from  i n museums and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n Henan  Shandong p r o v i n c e s .  of shape c l a s s e s d e f i n e d  The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s i n s i t e reports  c l a s s e s , dimensional standardization,  are d e s c r i b e d :  (Chapter 4 ) ,  within-class  d i v e r s i t y of shape  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  assessment of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s p e r phase (Chapter 5 ) .  ii  analysis  In  a d d i t i o n , evidence  f o r pottery production  a t s i t e s and techniques of  pottery production  are discussed  6).  p u b l i s h e d data  (Chapter  Two c h a p t e r s  examine  on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n with r e s p e c t t o nonceramic goods a t  s i t e s as w e l l . Since  sample s i z e i s s m a l l f o r each a n a l y s i s , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s made  here should be regarded  as hypotheses t h a t can guide f u t u r e  In b r i e f , t h e model i s p a r t i a l l y supported.  research.  A p a t t e r n of  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s i n some phases and r e g i o n s .  However, t h e r e i s  no i n d i c a t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n or change i n mode of production. the  Ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  i n west-central  Henan as e x e m p l i f i e d by  s i t e of Meishan may have been impacted by a d e v e l o p i n g  industry.  iii  bronze  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I am support.  g r a t e f u l t o s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r encouragement First,  I thank my  to  c l a r i f y my  am  i n d e b t e d t o my  committee f o r g u i d i n g me  and  so w e l l as I sought  ideas on p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the Longshan P e r i o d .  I  a d v i s o r P r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d Pearson f o r h i s v a l u a b l e  a d v i c e , enthusiasm, and approach i n conducting  e x p e r t i s e i n employing an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h on Chinese N e o l i t h i c d a t a .  I was  very  f o r t u n a t e t h a t P r o f e s s o r Prudence R i c e , U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a , k i n d l y consented  t o be a long d i s t a n c e committee member.  schedule,  she  British  sent thorough comments on my  Columbia.  Her  important  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h i s study.  d r a f t s , t o China  work on ceramic  P r o f e s s o r Michael  d e a l of a d v i c e about c o n d u c t i n g s o c i e t i e s as w e l l as constant  D e s p i t e her busy  production  Yan  s c h o l a r s i n China.  r e s e a r c h on s e v e r a l a s p e c t s  Longshan p o t t e r y and  to  institutions  I am  at  the X i a o t u n  Shandong.  I am  a valuable introduction  of i n t r o d u c t i o n on my  behalf  grateful to archaeologists  (Anyang) work s t a t i o n , Yang Xizhang  t h e i r permission  the g e n e r o s i t y of  e s p e c i a l l y indebted to Professor  for writing letters  i n Henan and  of complex  encouragement.  Wenming of B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y f o r g i v i n g me  to  provided  Blake p r o v i d e d a g r e a t  T h i s study c o u l d not have been completed without several  as w e l l as  in particular, for  t o examine a number of v e s s e l s from Hougang.  members of the Puyang C i t y C u l t u r a l Research Bureau g e n e r o u s l y  The provided  accommodations while I examined v e s s e l s from B a i y i n g i n the Puyang C i t y  iv  Museum.  I thank Sun  Zhao Yan.  Dexuan, Zhao Liansheng, Zhang Xiangmei,  i n Luoyang, Xu J i a n y u a n  of v e s s e l s from Meishan and k i n d l y gave me (Henan P r o v i n c e  information  gave me  other s i t e s .  permission  Du  Shumin.  on the Longshan P e r i o d i n c l u d e An  C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e , Zhengzhou) and  Zhong Huanan.  much p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e and and  I am  encouragement.  other  I thank The  Social  Humanities Research C o u n c i l of Canada f o r a D o c t o r a l 1986-1987.  i n Vancouver conducting  research before  I left  Greg Schwann, P r o f e s s o r David advice.  Pokotylo,  and  Barbara M i l l s  f o r China.  great d e a l of a d v i c e about s t u d y i n g ceramic form and  at UBC  Lepofsky p r o v i d e d  humor and  support.  Susan Matson, and K i t t y B e r n i c k  I am  indebted  Matson f o r and  elsewhere Dana  f o r drawing the f i g u r e s .  John B e r r i n g e r .  v  Finally,  support I am  a  I thank  t o Joyce Johnson,  s p e c i a l f r i e n d s t o thank f o r t h e i r constant  p r a c t i c a l h e l p are Pat and  was  gave me  function.  P r o f e s s o r R.G.  Other f e l l o w graduate students  She  - S h e i l a Greaves, Heather P r a t t , V i c k i Feddema, L i z F u r n i s s , and  Two  the  Lucas and C h r i s Feng,  g r a t e f u l t o s e v e r a l others f o r t h e i r h e l p .  statistical  and  help:  Wang Yongbo at  In a d d i t i o n , two  at B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y at the time, Janet  Fellowship,  the  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research I n s t i t u t e , J i n a n ; C a i Fengshu  of Shandong U n i v e r s i t y , and  Sciences  at  (Dengfeng), Wang Zhiguo  (Weifang C i t y Museum), Zheng Xiaomei and  Shandong P r o v i n c e  gave me  Jinhuai  I thank the f o l l o w i n g people i n Shandong f o r t h e i r  Zaizhong  students  t o see the e x h i b i t  Other s c h o l a r s i n Henan t h a t  A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research S t a t i o n i n Gaocheng Liu  and  and  fortunate  to  have a f a m i l y t h a t supports me thanks t o my  parents  i n a l l my  endeavors.  I owe  f o r a l l of t h e i r h e l p i n the l a s t  vi  two  special years.  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1.  CHAPTER 2.  iv  INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH PROBLEM AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH  1  Introduction  1  A n a l y t i c a l Approach  4  Procedures of Analysis  13  THE LONGSHAN PERIOD IN CHINESE PREHISTORY  28  Introduction  28  Regional D i v e r s i t y During the Longshan Period  28  Approaches t o C u l t u r a l  Complexity  During the Longshan Period  CHAPTER 3.  Archaeological Evidence f o r Processes of Change Conclusions MODEL OF CHANGE IN SYSTEMS OF CERAMIC PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO INCREASING CULTURAL COMPLEXITY  34 36 51 55  Operating Premises  55  Changes i n Strategies of Production  57  Changes i n Strategies of Consumers f o r Prestige Vessels  64  Change i n Mode of Production  78  Summary  85 vii  CHAPTER 4.  ANALYSIS OF SHAPE CLASSES AND HYPOTHESES ABOUT FUNCTIONAL TYPES  87  Introduction  87  T r a d i t i o n a l Terms f o r Designating Shape Classes  88  Ki-nds of Ceramic Data i n Site Reports  95  Analysis of Shape Classes i n S i t e  CHAPTER 5.  Reports  101  Hypotheses About Vessel Function  126  Conclusions  135  TEST OF THE MODEL  137  Introduction  137  Analysis of Change i n Production: Strategies of Producers  CHAPTER 6.  CHAPTER 7. REFERENCES  Analysis of Change i n Labor-intensive (Prestige) Vessels CHANGE IN MODE OF PRODUCTION AND  139 168  ACCESS TO GOODS  185  Introduction  185  Evidence f o r Mode of Production  187  Patterns of Access t o Goods  209  Conclusions CONCLUSIONS  220 223 239  viii  APPENDIX A. ANALYSIS OF SHAPE CLASSES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL REPORTS  265  APPENDIX B. DETAILS ON ANALYSES FOR TESTING THE MODEL OF CHANGE IN SYSTEMS OF CERAMIC PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO INCREASING CULTURAL COMPLEXITY  303  APPENDIX C. DATA ON NONCERAMIC POTENTIAL PRESTIGE GOODS, UTILITARIAN ARTIFACTS, AND HOUSING  344  IX  LIST OF FIGURES figure  page  1.  Types of Longshan Culture i n Northern China.  30  2.  Location of Important S i t e s from the Longshan Period.  31  Model of Change i n Systems of Pottery Production i n Relation t o Increasing C u l t u r a l Complexity.  58  4.  Major Forms of Vessels i n Longshan S i t e s .  118  5.  Guan Jar Size Classes, Hougang.  288  6.  Size of Guan J a r s , Class Eight, Baiying.  289  7.  Pingdipen Basin Class, Hougang.  290  8.  Pingdipen Basin Size Classes, Hougang.  291  9.  Pingdipen Basin Class One, Baiying.  292  3.  10. Sizes of Pingdipen Basins, Class One, Baiying.  293  11. Wan Bowl Class One, Hougang.  294  12. Sizes of Wan Bowls Class One, Hougang.  295  13. Wan Bowl Class One, Meishan.  296  14. Sizes of Wan Bowls, Class One, Meishan.  297  15. Wan Bowl Classes One and Two,  298  16. Sizes of Wan  Lujiakou.  Bowls, Class One,  Lujiakou.  299  17. Ding Tripod Class Seven, Lujiakou.  300  18. Bei Cup Classes One and Two,  301  Baiying.  19. Sizes of Gai L i d s , Classes One t o Eleven, Baiying. •  X  302  20. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimensions by Period, Large Guan J a r s , Hougang.  335  21. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimensions by Period, Medium Size Guan J a r s , Hougang.  337  22. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimension by Period, Medium Size Pingdipen Basins, Hougang.  339  23. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimension by Period, Medium Size Wan Bowls, Class One, Hougang.  340  24. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimensions by Period, Guan J a r s , Meishan.  341  25. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimensions by Period, Ding Tripods, Meishan.  342  26. V a r i a t i o n i n Dimensions by Period, Ding Tripods, Lujiakou.  343  xi  LIST OF TABLES table 1. 2.  page  Dating of Phases at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  14  Samples of Whole and Reconstructed Vessels at Sites.  16  3.  C u l t u r a l Features at S i t e s .  19  4.  D e s c r i p t i o n of Archaeological S i t e s .  20  5.  Context of Deposition f o r Vessels i n Sample f o r Analysis.  21  6.  Large, Walled S i t e s from the Longshan Period.  38  7.  Evidence f o r Bronze Metallurgy During Longshan Period. Display Behavior with Containers i n Chiefdoms and Other Ranked S o c i e t i e s . Display Behavior with Containers: The Chinese H i s t o r i c a l Context.  8. 9.  47 69 76  10. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Mode of Production: Ethnographic Data on Ceramic V a r i a b i l i t y .  83  11. Published D e f i n i t i o n s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Terms Describing Shapes of Vessels Found i n Longshan Sites.  89  12. Formats of Describing Vessels i n S i t e Reports.  96  13. Schematic Representation of Levels i n I n t e r p r e t i n g Samples of Pottery Described i n Chinese N e o l i t h i c Site Reports.  100  14. Ratios and I n d i v i d u a l Measurements with FormalFunctional S i g n i f i c a n c e Used i n Analysis of Shape Classes.  104  XII  15. Summary of Results from Analysis of Shape Classes at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  110  16. Proposed D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Major Shape Classes of Vessels (Xingzhuang) i n Longshan S i t e s .  113  17. Comparison of Total Number of Shape Classes Made During Each Phase at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  140  18. Change Over Time i n Quantity of Shape Classes by Hypothesized Functional Category at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  143  19. Quantities of Forms by Hypothesized Functional Category at Hougang, Baiying, and Lujiakou.  147  20. Analysis of Dimensional Standardization.  152  21. Suggested Evidence f o r Relative Lack of Labor Input i n Vessel Forming f o r Wan Bowls, Class One, Hougang.  158  22. Suggested Evidence f o r R e l a t i v e Lack of Labor Input i n Decoration and F i r i n g f o r Ding Tripods, Class Seven, Lujiakou.  158  23. Summary of Change i n Strategy of Pottery Production at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  165  24. Labor-intensive Vessels That May Have Been Used f o r Display at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and Lujiakou.  170  25. Very Large Vessels at Other S i t e s From the Longshan Period.  176  26. Labor-intensive Vessels That May Have Been Used For Display at Other S i t e s From the Longshan Period, By C u l t u r a l Region.  178  27. Hypothesized Archaeological Indicators f o r Change i n Mode of Production.  188  28. D i r e c t Evidence f o r Pottery Production at Hougang, Baiying, and Meishan by Excavation (T) Area.  195  xiii  29. Evidence f o r Ceramic Production at Other Sites From the Longshan Period.  201  30. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of K i l n s From Other Longshan Period S i t e s .  206  31. D i v e r s i t y and Quantity of Nonceramic P o t e n t i a l Prestige Goods at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  211  32. D i v e r s i t y and Quantity of U t i l i t a r i a n Tools at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  213  33. V a r i a t i o n i n Average Size (Floor Area) of Houses By D i f f e r e n t Types of Construction M a t e r i a l at Hougang and Baiying.  215  34. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B u r i a l s with T a l l Stemmed "Eggshell" Cups or Gao Bing Bei at Chengzi.  217  35. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B u r i a l s with T a l l Stemmed "Eggshell" Cups or Gao Bing Bei at Sanlihe.  218  36. Changes Made i n Shape Classes of Vessels I d e n t i f i e d i n the Hougang Report.  266  37. O r i g i n a l Shape Classes Accepted From the Hougang Report.  26 9  38. Summary of Results from Nonparametric S i g n i f i c a n c e Tests f o r Hougang Vessels.  271  39. Changes Made i n Shape Classes of Vessels I d e n t i f i e d i n the Baiying Report.  272  40. O r i g i n a l Shape Classes Accepted from the Baiying Report.  275  41. Changes Made i n Shape Classes of Vessels I d e n t i f i e d i n the Meishan Report.  276  42. O r i g i n a l Shape Classes Accepted From the Meishan Report.  277  43. Changes Made i n Shape Classes of Vessels I d e n t i f i e d i n the Lujiakou Report.  279  xiv  44. O r i g i n a l Shape Classes Accepted From the Lujiakou Report.  281  45. Lids at Hougang f o r Covering Other Vessels or For Serving Food.  282  46. Lids at Baiying f o r Covering Other Vessels or For Serving Food.  284  47. Lids at Meishan f o r Serving Food. 48. Lids at Lujiakou f o r Covering Other Vessels or For Serving Food. 49. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Vessels i n Shape Classes Per Phase at Hougang.  286 287 304  50. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Vessels i n Shape Classes Per Phase at B a i y i n g .  307  51. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Vessels i n Shape Classes Per Phase at Meishan.  310  52. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Vessels i n Shape Classes Per Phase at Lujiakou.  312  53. D i v e r s i t y of Shape Classes and Hypothesized Functional Types Per Period at Hougang.  314  54. D i v e r s i t y of Shape Classes and Hypothesized Functional Types Per Period at Baiying.  316  55. D i v e r s i t y of Shape Classes and Hypothesized Functional Types Per Period at Meishan.  318  56. D i v e r s i t y of Shape Classes and Hypothesized Functional Types Per Period at Lujiakou.  320  57. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Xian/Yan Tripods, Hougang.  322  58. V a r i a t i o n i n Handles f o r Xian/Yan Tripods, Hougang.  322  59. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding Tripods, Hougang.  323  XV  60. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Large Guan J a r s , Hougang.  324  61. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r MediumSized Guan J a r s , Hougang.  325  62. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Xian/Yan Tripods, Hougang.  326  63. V a r i a t i o n i n Type of Rim f o r Wan Bowls, Class One, Hougang.  327  64. V a r i a t i o n i n Handles f o r Ding Tripods, Class One, Baiying.  328  65. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Ding Tripods, Class One, Baiying.  329  66. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding Tripods, Meishan.  330  67. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Guan J a r s , Meishan.  331  68. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Dou Stemmed Dishes, Meishan.  331  69. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Ding Tripods, Meishan.  332  70. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding Tripods, Class Seven, Lujiakou.  333  71. V a r i a t i o n i n Handles f o r Ding Tripods, Class Seven, Lujiakou.  333  72. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Ding Tripods, Class Seven, Lujiakou.  334  73. V a r i a t i o n i n Decorative Techniques f o r Wan Bowls, Class One, Lujiakou.  334  74. D i s t r i b u t i o n of P o t e n t i a l High Status A r t i f a c t s Among D i f f e r e n t Types of S i t e s , with Location of Deposition by Excavation (T) Area.  345  75. D i v e r s i t y of U t i l i t a r i a n Tools f o r D i f f e r e n t Types of S i t e s .  348  XVI  76. V a r i a t i o n i n Construction M a t e r i a l f o r Houses (Fangzi) at Hougang, Including I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Houses with Costly M a t e r i a l s .  349  77. V a r i a t i o n i n Construction M a t e r i a l f o r Houses (Fangzi ) at Baiying, Including I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Houses with Costly M a t e r i a l s .  350  xvii  CHAPTER 1.  INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH PROBLEM AND ANALYTICAL APPROACH  INTRODUCTION  An important issue i n anthropological archaeology i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between change i n production of c r a f t goods and increasing c u l t u r a l complexity.  This d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p  between change i n production and i n f e r r e d use of one type of c r a f t item, pottery, and i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l complexity i n chiefdoms.  I t tests a  model o u t l i n i n g p o t e n t i a l changes i n systems of ceramic production with data from Longshan Period s i t e s from the lower and middle reaches of the Huanghe or Yellow River region i n northern China.  At the end of the  Longshan Period, at least one state evolved i n t h i s region.  Several  w r i t e r s have proposed that s p e c i a l i z e d pottery production developed during the l a t e N e o l i t h i c period (Song, L i and Du 1983:273; Keightl e y 1987; Feng et a l . 1982:22; L i and Cheng 1984:14; An J i n h u a i 1989:23). In the anthropological l i t e r a t u r e of the l a s t twenty years, researchers have assumed that systems of c r a f t production become i n c r e a s i n g l y more complex i n conjunction with other c u l t u r a l subsystems. The reasoning i s that part-time c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s prevalent i n  1  chiefdoms, and f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n states (Flannery 1972, Wright 1977,  1978). There are several models that describe how c r a f t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n  general plays a r o l e i n the process of increasing c u l t u r a l complexity, s p e c i f i c a l l y with respect t o the development of p o l i t i c a l c e n t r a l ization.  Most of these models p e r t a i n t o p r e s t i g e goods rather than  u t i l i t a r i a n or basic goods.  They o u t l i n e how increasing c o n t r o l over  production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of prestige items enables e l i t e s t o increase t h e i r p o l i t i c a l power (Brumfiel and Earle 1987).  Models of t h i s kind  concerned with rank s o c i e t i e s have been proposed by Frankenstein and Rowlands (1978) and Friedman and Rowlands (1977). Rice (1981) presents a model that o u t l i n e s how pottery production changes i n a context of increasing c u l t u r a l complexity.  Her model shows  how changes i n pottery production may be regarded as part of the process of increasing segregation, as defined by Flannery (1972).  As she points  out i n a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n , increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of pottery production i s part of the process by which s o c i a l systems become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d (Rice 1984:256-7).  Her model presents the  hypothesis that as c u l t u r a l systems become more complex, there i s an increase i n v a r i e t i e s of wares, p a r t i c u l a r l y e l i t e wares.  Also,  u t i l i t a r i a n wares become i n c r e a s i n g l y standardized (Rice 1981:2223,224).  The model i s supported with data from a Maya s i t e i n B e l i z e .  The research question addressed i n t h i s study i s : "How do systems of pottery production change during the Longshan Period i n r e l a t i o n to  2  increasing c u l t u r a l complexity?"  The goal i s t o present a revised  version of the important model outlined by Rice (1981) and t o t e s t i t with data from another area of the world.  The model offered here  pertains t o a subset of the model by Rice (1981).  Ceramic change i n  complex chiefdoms corresponds t o the change from Step 3 i n her model, ranked s o c i e t i e s , t o Step 4, s t r a t i f i e d s o c i e t i e s (Rice 1981:223).  My  model i s tested with data representing approximately 500 years of ceramic production, rather than 1000 years as i n the analysis by Rice (1981). An attempt i s made t o describe i n more d e t a i l how d i f f e r e n t components of ceramic production systems may change.  On the basis of  l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s by Rice (1984, 1987), ethnographic data from several areas, and other archaeological studies, the model describes how production of prestige (labor-intensive) and non-prestige ( u t i l i t a r i a n ) vessels may change as chiefdoms evolve i n t o s t a t e s .  An e f f o r t i s made  to explain how human behavior, i . e . , s t r a t e g i e s of producers and consumers i n chiefdoms, may cause d i f f e r e n t types of ceramic change.  I  attempt t o i n v e s t i g a t e production and consumption as processes, by considering the goals and actions of people as causal factors a f f e c t i n g change i n material goods (Gosden 1989).  3  ANALYTICAL APPROACH  In my model the hypothesis i s made that systems of ceramic production become more complex i n conjunction with other c u l t u r a l subsystems, as i n the model by Rice (1981).  Potters, especially  s p e c i a l i s t s i n competition with one another, should adopt a strategy of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r production of one or more shape classes i n response to i n c r e a s i n g l y varied consumer demands f o r vessels.  There should be an  increase over time i n v a r i e t i e s of ceramic categories such as decorative and shape c l a s s e s . My model, l i k e that by Rice (1981), states that an increase i n status competition among consumers should create increased demand f o r vessels that symbolize p r e s t i g e . change i n e l i t e wares.  Rice (1981) focuses on i d e n t i f y i n g  For reasons discussed below, I use the term  "prestige v e s s e l s " , or l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels f o r use i n s o c i a l displays.  My model proposes that two types of displays with labor-  i n t e n s i v e pottery should be common i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms; i n my terms, largesse and conspicuous consumption.  Vessels f o r preparing,  serving, and consuming food and alcohol could be displayed.  Responding  to consumer demand, potters should produce vessels e x h i b i t i n g an increase i n degree of labor input, or produce a greater number of shape classes with l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques, and/or produce vessels with new l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques.  4  The model proposes two types of f a c t o r s that may cause d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n production of non-prestige intensive). (Rice 1984).  wares (not labor-  They are change i n d i e t and change i n household r i t u a l s In response t o consumer demand f o r new types of v e s s e l s ,  potters should produce new shapes and/or decorative techniques.  Thus my  model describes causal f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g u t i l i t a r i a n vessels that do not r e f e r e x c l u s i v e l y t o s p e c i a l i s t s c o n t r o l l e d by e l i t e s as i n the model by Rice (1981).  Rice (1981:223) o u t l i n e s how e l i t e s may force r u r a l  potters t o produce surplus wares f o r t r i b u t e and trade purposes. My model also hypothesizes  that p o t t e r s , e s p e c i a l l y s p e c i a l i s t s i n  competition with one another, should adopt a strategy of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , or increased e f f i c i e n c y i n production, f o r one or more shape classes of prestige or non-prestige Rice (1981).  wares.  Again, t h i s hypothesis  i s made by  One p o t e n t i a l causal f a c t o r f o r t h i s change i s increasing  population s i z e and density.  A f t e r Rice (1981:223), I expect that there  should be evidence f o r increasing standardization of wares. be an increase i n dimensional  There may  standardization and/or w i t h i n - c l a s s  standardization i n terms of secondary shape features or decorative techniques. The model a l s o p r e d i c t s that there should be a change i n organization of labor t o produce pottery as s o c i o p o l i t i c a l increases.  complexity  There should be a change t o a more complex mode of  production, such as a household t o a workshop mode. This i s another type of change that should take place as s o c i a l systems become  5  increasingly differentiated. that this  type  The m o d e l o u t l i n e d b y R i c e  of change s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e , s i n c e i t e x p e c t s t h e  d e v e l o p m e n t o f mass p r o d u c t i o n i n s t r a t i f i e d My m o d e l h y p o t h e s i z e s  societies  (Rice  1981:223).  t h a t c h a n g e i n mode o f p r o d u c t i o n may be  i d e n t i f i a b l e by change i n c e r a m i c and  (1981) i m p l i e s  increasing diversity,  after  attributes  (increasing standardization  R i c e 1981, 1987, 1 9 8 9 ) , d i r e c t  evidence  for production  (such as change from p r o d u c t i o n i n houses t o w o r k s h o p s ) ,  and  of production  techniques  (increasing efficiency  i n shaping and  firing). The total:  model d e s c r i b e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t  diversification,  t o change.  simplification,  strategies  of producers i n  and conservatism  or resistance  Thus i t p r o v i d e s e x p e c t a t i o n s t o t e s t t h e a l t e r n a t i v e  hypothesis  t h a t some o r a l l c o m p o n e n t s o f c e r a m i c  p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m s do  n o t become more c o m p l e x i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r a l Like Rice  (1984),  I expect  t h a t ceramic  phenomena a n d t h a t d i f f e r e n t Given  change. Rice  p r o d u c t i o n systems a r e complex  c o m p o n e n t s may c h a n g e i n d i f f e r e n t  the a v a i l a b l e data  P e r i o d , t h e model f o c u s e s  on c e r a m i c  on s o c i a l  variability  ways.  from t h e Longshan  f a c t o r s t h a t can cause  ceramic  I t cannot d e a l w i t h o t h e r c a u s a l f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d by  ( 1 9 8 4 ) t h a t may h a v e b e e n i m p o r t a n t  such  ( f o r any s t e p of p r o d u c t i o n such as f o r m i n g , changes i n sources raw  subsystems.  as changes i n t e c h n o l o g y decorating,  firing),  o f raw m a t e r i a l s , o r changes i n exchange systems f o r  materials or vessels.  6  The unit of comparison f o r t e s t i n g my model i s the shape c l a s s .  I  assess v a r i a b i l i t y i n whole and reconstructed vessels from Longshan Period s i t e s .  In contrast, the unit of a n a l y s i s Rice (1981) uses i s the  ware, defined from sherds by the type-variety system.  Technological  v a r i a t i o n such as type of paste, temper, texture, etc. i s an component of her model.  important  However, very l i t t l e information on these  a t t r i b u t e s i s a v a i l a b l e f o r Longshan Period  ceramics.  My model makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between prestige and  non-prestige  vessels rather than e l i t e and u t i l i t a r i a n vessels f o r two reasons; 1) ethnographic  data on d i s p l a y vessels used i n ranked s o c i e t i e s , and  2) p r a c t i c a l i t y f o r the data set at hand. l i t e r a t u r e on pottery-producing  My survey of the  ethnographic  s o c i e t i e s suggests that e l i t e s , or  persons occupying the uppermost p o s i t i o n s of status such as c h i e f s , are not the only type of people who may displays of status and p r e s t i g e .  use l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels f o r  For example, displays of conspicuous  consumption at l i f e - c r i s i s ceremonies could be undertaken by a range of families. I expect that t h i s s i t u a t i o n characterizes p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms as w e l l .  Since pottery vessels were widely used, a number of households  could acquire l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s , the quantity and degree of elaboration varying with resources of the households.  Highly elaborated  vessels should have been used by r e l a t i v e l y high status people, and less elaborated vessels by households lower on the s o c i a l scale. pottery vessels may  Also,  not have been the most important part of the  7  c h i e f l y , versus domestic, economy (Goldman 1970:480-1) i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms.  Other more r e s t r i c t e d goods i n terms of raw materials and  s k i l l s required f o r manufacture probably played a more important  role.  Rice (1981:223) and others define e l i t e wares on the basis of several a t t r i b u t e s such as r e l a t i v e l y high labor input and high d i v e r s i t y i n terms of decoration, rare raw m a t e r i a l s , and  restricted  s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n on an i n t r a - s i t e as w e l l as i n t e r - s i t e l e v e l . Feinman et a l . (1981) i d e n t i f y vessels with r e l a t i v e l y great labor expenditure, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n decoration, by the production step index. A r e c e n t l y developed a l t e r n a t i v e ,  the production task index  (Hagstrum 1988) evaluates a l l steps i n vessel formation.  Analysis of  paste composition allows researchers to define non-local wares that were presumably imported by e l i t e s (Rice 1977, Costin 1986, Berman 1986). Costin and Earle (1989) compare differences i n labor input with context of recovery, examining wares found i n e l i t e and n o n - e l i t e housing. Unfortunately, there i s l i t t l e relevant published information of t h i s nature f o r Longshan Period vessels with the exception of laborintensive techniques f o r shaping and decorating.  Focusing  on  i d e n t i f y i n g l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels i s worthwhile given t h e i r importance i n the ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e on d i s p l a y a c t i v i t i e s .  There are no  s u f f i c i e n t independent sources of data a v a i l a b l e t o c o n f i d e n t l y i d e n t i f y any vessels as used by e l i t e s .  Very few vessels were found i n houses at  the four s i t e s examined i n t h i s study, as I show below.  Also, there i s  no information on s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r wares w i t h i n a  8  single settlement system.  Therefore, t h i s study emphasizes how prestige  vessels could have been used rather than i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c types of consumers. Also, i t i s not always possible t o i d e n t i f y vessels used by e l i t e s on the basis of v a r i a t i o n i n labor input alone.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e l i t e  vessels i s more r e l i a b l e i f differences i n labor input among vessels are extreme.  In h i s survey of c r a f t production i n ethnographic  societies,  Clark (1986:4-5) concludes that objects made f o r e l i t e s by attached s p e c i a l i s t s e x h i b i t great investment i n labor, p a r t i c u l a r l y objects that are elaborated t o the point where normal use i s not p o s s i b l e due t o large size or f r a g i l i t y , e t c .  However, d i f f e r e n c e s i n labor input among  vessels may not always be d i s t i n c t .  When there i s a low degree of  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e l i t e wares on the basis of ceramic attributes  alone cannot be made with  confidence.  There i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e published information a v a i l a b l e on ceramic f u n c t i o n during the Longshan Period, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r i n d i v i d u a l assemblages.  In t h i s study, I i n f e r rather than demonstrate that  various shapes of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels were used f o r d i s p l a y purposes, on the basis of ethnographic  analogy.  I hypothesize  that  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels were a type of prestige good during the Longshan Period.  Information on l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques  i s l i m i t e d as w e l l .  Unfortunately i t was not p o s s i b l e t o quantify d i f f e r e n c e s among vessels by means of the production step index (Feinman et a l . 1981) or the production task index (Hagstrum 1988).  9  Archaeological i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of prestige goods i n general  during  the N e o l i t h i c and e a r l y h i s t o r i c periods has not been the subject of extensive research.  Two studies that s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examine v a r i a t i o n  in goods (pottery, t o o l s , ornaments) t o make inferences about status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n during the e a r l i e r N e o l i t h i c period are Pearson (1981) and U n d e r h i l l (1983).  In my d e s c r i p t i o n of the model, I summarize the  l i t t l e information that i s published on use of containers  (bronze,  ceramic) f o r d i s p l a y purposes during the e a r l y h i s t o r i c period. undisputed  No  bronze vessels have been found from the Longshan Period.  This i s the f i r s t published study of which I am aware that attempts t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y examine pottery vessels and other a r t i f a c t s from Longshan Period s i t e s as p o t e n t i a l prestige items.  However, i t has been commonly  assumed that one type of ceramic ware, the " e g g s h e l l " - t h i n t a l l stemmed cups from s i t e s i n Shandong, were prestige vessels. Before d e s c r i b i n g the a n a l y t i c a l procedures undertaken i n t h i s study, i t i s necessary t o discuss d e f i n i t i o n s of terms that are used. Rice (1988, 1989) points out that the term " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " has several d i f f e r e n t connotations.  This study i s concerned with s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of  producers rather than s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of production area or resources (see Rice 1989:110).  My d e f i n i t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of producers i s  derived from Costin (1986:328) and Kaiser (1984:184).  I define  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as a type of organization of human labor i n which work units ( i n d i v i d u a l s or groups) r e g u l a r l y produce a l i m i t e d number of classes of goods rather than the f u l l range of goods a v a i l a b l e . These  10  work units r e g u l a r l y exchange t h e i r products f o r others that they do not produce themselves.  Thus pottery vessels are commodities, or objects  produced f o r exchange (Rice 1987:184).  Among n o n - s p e c i a l i s t s ,  production takes place i n each household, and consumption takes place at the locus of production (Rice 1987:184). I t i s p o s s i b l e t o derive t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n v o l v i n g ceramic a t t r i b u t e s from t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , such as standardi z a t i o n and d i v e r s i t y , as Rice (1981, 1987,  1989) has shown.  My  d e f i n i t i o n does not incorporate other aspects of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n that are e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e such as time spent i n production ( i . e . , part- or f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , see Benco 1988:68) and r e l a t i v e s k i l l of i n d i v i d u a l potters (see Welch 1986:136-41). A mode of ceramic production represents a d i s t i n c t set of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s between producers, and between producers and consumers.  Modes  d i f f e r i n terms of scale of production, or q u a n t i t i e s of labor and resources used, as well as q u a n t i t i e s of vessels produced (Rice 1987:180-6). production.  Therefore they d i f f e r i n degree of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of I use the d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n offered by Rice  (1987:190, 1988:6): increased e f f i c i e n c y i n production f o r the purpose of increased y i e l d s .  In r e a l i t y , organization of ceramic production i s  represented by a continuous range of v a r i a b i l i t y (Rice 1987:180-6). Also, more than one mode of ceramic production may be represented i n any given s o c i e t y .  11  The t h e o r e t i c a l approach of t h i s study i s p r o c e s s u a l i s t . Ethnographic examples from several areas i l l u s t r a t i n g pottery production and consumption the model.  s t r a t e g i e s of  i n chiefdoms are used t o construct  I t i s l i k e l y that there was s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i a t i o n i n  economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l organization among ranked s o c i e t i e s i n p r e h i s t o r y , given the v a r i a t i o n noted i n the ethnographic record (Feinman and N e i t z e l 1984, Earle 1987a, Carneiro 1979).  However, l i k e  Earle and Preucel (1987), I do not accept the s y m b o l i c - s t r u c t u r a l i s t or s t r u c t u r a l - M a r x i s t p o s i t i o n s s t i p u l a t i n g that no g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about processes of c u l t u r a l change can be made.  I t i s important t o determine  how changes i n c r a f t production during the t r a n s i t i o n from chiefdom t o state i n China are s i m i l a r t o , as well as d i f f e r e n t from, other areas (see Keightley 1987:93 f o r a d i f f e r e n t opinion). This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s the f i r s t attempt at systematic analysis of Chinese N e o l i t h i c pottery f o r evidence of changes i n production and i n f e r r e d use.  Numerous researchers have made important contributions t o  other aspects of Chinese N e o l i t h i c pottery. Throughout t h i s study I r e f e r t o several a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by Chinese archaeologists on technology.  Valuable d e s c r i p t i o n s of technology have a l s o been  published i n English by Chinese and western researchers: Wu (1938), L i Chi (1956), Chang et a l . (1969), Medley (1976), L i and Cheng (1984), Chang (1986), and Vandiver (1988).  Other topics of i n q u i r y i n the  English l i t e r a t u r e include i d e n t i f y i n g r i t u a l sets of pottery i n cemeteries (Pearson 1988), making i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about mentality  12  (Keightley 1987), i d e n t i f y i n g post-marital residence patterns through s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s ( L i Kuang-chou 1981), and t r a c i n g the development of regional systems of technology (Huber 1983).  PROCEDURES OF ANALYSIS  The model of change i n systems of pottery production of increasing c u l t u r a l complexity sources: 1) v i s u a l observations  i n a context  i s tested on data derived from two  of whole and reconstructed vessels i n  archaeological work stations and museums i n Henan and Shandong provinces i n 1987 during a period of fieldwork s i x months i n duration, and 2) d e s c r i p t i o n s of vessels i n Chinese archaeological reports.  In  a d d i t i o n , Professor Yan Wenming of B e i j i n g U n i v e r s i t y provided invaluable information and advice about studying Longshan ceramic production. Eight s i t e s were o r i g i n a l l y selected f o r a n a l y s i s on the basis of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d s i t e report, presence of more than one phase with adequate dating, and at l e a s t some vessels accessible f o r examination.  I t i s possible t o use data from four of  these s i t e s i n the t e s t of the model; three located i n Henan and one i n Shandong (Table 1).  They are: Hougang (northern Henan), Baiying  (northern Henan), Meishan ( c e n t r a l Henan), and Lujiakou (north-central Shandong).  13  Table 1.  Dating of. Phases at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  Hougang I I Type: Hougang (near Anyang c i t y , Henan) 3 periods defined on the basis of several radiocarbon dates, stratigraphy, and ceramic s e r i a t i o n : E a r l y ( t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the Longshan Period), ca. 2700-2500 B.C.; Middle, ca. 2500-2300 B.C.; Late, ca. 23002100 B.C. (Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985:82, Zhang and Zhang 1986:52) Baiying (Tangyin County, Henan) 3 periods defined on the basis of several radiocarbon dates, stratigraphy, and ceramic s e r i a t i o n : E a r l y , ca. 2500-2300 B.C. (my estimate); Middle, ca. 2300-2200 B.C. (my estimate); Late, ca. 22002000 B.C. (my estimate); (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983:40, Zhang and Zhang 1986:52,54); the E a r l y Period i s roughly contemporary with the Middle Period at Hougang, and the Middle Period with the Late at Hougang (personal communication, Zhao Liansheng, 1987) Wangwan I I I Type: Meishan (Linru County, Henan) 2 periods defined on the basis of s t r a t i g r a p h y , ceramic s e r i a t i o n , and two radiocarbon dates: ZK 386, 2290+/160 B.C., ZK 349, 2005+/120 B.C., Early, ca. 2300-2100 B.C. (my estimate); Late, ca. 2100-1900 B.C. (my estimate) (Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982:472, Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) (the E a r l y Period corresponds t o the l a t e Henan Longshan Period, and the Late Period i s apparently t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the E r l i t o u I Period, according t o the Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982:472) Liangcheng Type: Lujiakou (Weixian County, Shandong) 2 periods defined on the basis of s t r a t i g r a p h y , ceramic s e r i a t i o n , and two radiocarbon dates: ZK 317, 2340+/145 B.C., ZK 321, 2035+/115 B.C., E a r l y , ca. 2350-2150 B.C. (my estimate); Late, ca. 2150-1950 B.C. (my estimate) (Shandong Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Art Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province 1985:348)  14  At p r e s e n t , data are not a v a i l a b l e t o i n v e s t i g a t e changes i n ceramic  p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n an i n d i v i d u a l  t h a t r e s u l t from the a n a l y s e s r e g i o n s , r a t h e r than  settlement  should be regarded  single sites,  s i t e s may  Patterns  as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g  s i n c e the extent  were exchanged between communities i s not known. c l a s s e s at these  system.  t o which v e s s e l s  Some of the  shape  have been produced a t other l o c a t i o n s and  imported.  Table  The  samples of v e s s e l s examined at these  2.  The  analysis.  t a b l e i n d i c a t e s some problems t h a t were encountered i n  F i r s t , r e p o r t s o n l y d e s c r i b e a subset  from e x c a v a t i o n .  The  q u a n t i t y of v e s s e l s i n my  sample of the excavated whole and  s i t e s are d e s c r i b e d i n  vessels.  recovered  sample i s not a random  Second, a r e l a t i v e l y  r e c o n s t r u c t e d v e s s e l s was  g l a s s d i s p l a y cases)  of v e s s e l s  low number of  d i r e c t l y examined ( i . e . ,  from each s i t e .  I was  o u t s i d e of  not a b l e t o examine  any  v e s s e l s from Meishan i n t h i s manner. T h i r d , sample s i z e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a n a l y s e s are very s m a l l . s i t e of Hougang p r o v i d e s the b e s t t e s t of the model. permission  t o d i r e c t l y examine a r e l a t i v e l y  I was  given  l a r g e number of v e s s e l s , and  the r e p o r t d e s c r i b e s a r e l a t i v e l y high percentage of excavated For more than  one  The  problem of m i s s i n g  support  from  f o r my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  information i n reports i s a l l e v i a t e d  somewhat by the f a c t t h a t r e p o r t s tend t o d e s c r i b e the f u l l ceramic  vessels.  a n a l y s i s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c i t e p u b l i s h e d data  o t h e r Longshan P e r i o d s i t e s t o p r o v i d e  The  v a r i a b i l i t y r e g a r d i n g shape, d e c o r a t i v e technique,  15  range of and  type  of  Table 2. Samples of Whole and Reconstructed Vessels at Sites. (note: t o t a l number of pots i n my sample means pots described i n reports and/or d i r e c t l y examined)  site  total # pots i n site  # pots in my sample  # pots directly examined  location of pots examined  Hougang  454  221  125  storeroom, Archaeologi c a l Work Station, Xiaotun  188  114  73  display room, Archaeogi c a l Work Station, Puyang  no data, probably similar to Lu-. jiakou  103  0, 12 on display  display room, pots i n glass cases, Archaeologi c a l Work Station, Luoyang  134  103  60  storeroom, Archaeologi c a l Work Station, Hanting  (Henan)  Baiying (Henan)  Meishan (Henan)  Lujiakou (Shandong)  16  paste.  Authors make an e f f o r t to describe d i v e r s i t y of  techniques  present at s i t e s , rather than to describe a large number of vessels of the same type.  Emphasis i s placed on d e s c r i b i n g pots with unusual  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as well as pots that are r e l a t i v e l y w e l l made. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that museum personnel choose vessels f o r d i s p l a y with these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The vessels that I examined  d i r e c t l y from Baiying and the vessels I saw from Meishan f i t t h i s description. Hougang.  I examined a d i f f e r e n t set of vessels from Lujiakou and  Apparently, the " n i c e r looking" vessels recovered  Lujiakou were moved to another c i t y f o r storage.  from  Since I examined a  r e l a t i v e l y large number of vessels from Hougang kept i n a storage room, the sample that I saw should be an adequate representation of the kinds of vessels recovered i n excavation. The vessels that I examined d i r e c t l y from Hougang, Baiying, and Lujiakou do not c o n s t i t u t e random samples of major shape classes (xingzhuang) i d e n t i f i e d i n the reports.  In each case, permission to  examine vessels was given under the condition that I complete my work w i t h i n a short time period.  Since the samples of vessels from Baiying  and Lujiakou a v a i l a b l e f o r examination were not l a r g e , I examined every vessel present.  At the Xiaotun Research S t a t i o n , I concentrated  on  examining shape classes with r e l a t i v e l y large q u a n t i t i e s of vessels. However, I was able to b r i e f l y examine every reconstructed vessel from Hougang i n the storeroom.  17  Another problem that a f f e c t s the analyses i s a lack of information i n reports on s t r a t e g i e s of excavation.  I t i s not p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n  how w e l l samples of vessels represent the t o t a l archaeological context. The q u a l i t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s one makes about ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the q u a l i t y of sampling methods used i n excavation (Rice 1987:289-90).  I t appears that a judgmental sampling method was  used to s e l e c t areas f o r excavation at each s i t e .  A number of c u l t u r a l  features, e s p e c i a l l y houses and storage p i t s , were found at these s i t e s (Table 3). I t appears that the r e l a t i v e l y small number of vessels  recovered  at Lujiakou and Meishan i s l a r g e l y a f a c t o r of the small areas excavated (Table 4).  The small number of vessels recovered at Baiying i n  comparison to Hougang i s s u r p r i s i n g , given the r e l a t i v e l y large area excavated and the quantity of c u l t u r a l features discovered.  One  reason  f o r t h i s f i g u r e may be that Baiying contained a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y large number of vessels broken i n t o small sherds.  Therefore, r e l a t i v e l y  vessels were a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Or, reconstruction was  few given  a lower p r i o r i t y at the Puyang research s t a t i o n than at the Xiaotun research  station.  The majority of vessels from these s i t e s were found i n open t e s t areas and storage p i t s (Table 5).  Unfortunately, only a few vessels  were recovered from houses, a context of deposition that can provide d i r e c t information about consumers.  18  Most l i k e l y , emphasis was placed on  Table 3.  Cultural  site  Features a t  houses  Sites.  pits  burials  Hougang Early Middle Late (total)  other  ** 2 14 23 (39)***  12 35 11 (58)  1 17 11 (29)  9 8 46 (63)  16 21 50 (87)  0 3 9 (12)  K : l , W:l (K:2 no date stated)  17 16 (33)  2 42 (44)  12 3 •(15)  K:5, W:2 0 (2,4)  6 5 (11)  19 10 (29)  Baiying Early Middle Late (total)  Meishan Early Late (total)  Lujiakou Early Late (total)  ** b u r i a l s at s i t e s are j a r s c o n t a i n i n g the remains of c h i l d r e n ; Meishan has a few b u r i a l s of t h i s type f o r a d u l t s and 3 p i t graves f o r a d u l t s with no grave goods ***  one house a t Hougang i s o c c u p i e d d u r i n g two  K = k i l n , W=well  19  phases  Table 4.  D e s c r i p t i o n of Archaeological S i t e s .  site  site size  portion dug  Longshan phases  historic phases  date of excavation  Hougang  100,000 m2  1809 m2 (1.81%)  Early (layers 7,6) Middle (layer 5) Late (layers 4,3)  Shang (thin layer)  1931-4, 1979  Baiying  33,600 m2  1830 m2 (5.45%)  Early (layer 6) Middle (layers 5,4,3) Late (layer 2)  Western Zhou (thin layer)  19761978  Meishan  not stated  547 m2  Early, Late (layers not clearly stated)  Erlitou Periods I-III, 1 Qing Dynasty and 7 modern burials  1975  Lujiakou  40,000 m2  364 m2 (0.91%)  Early (layers 5,4) Late (layers 3,2)  Western Zhou (a few p i t s , burials), Shang, Yueshi (a few pits)  1973, 1974  20  Table 5. Context of Deposition at Sites f o r Vessels i n Sample f o r A n a l y s i s .  context  Hougang  Baiying  Meishan  Lujiakou  house  11 pots (5.0%)  18 pots (15.8%)  3 pots (2.9%)  2 pots (1.9%)  pit  82 (37.1%)  41 (36.0%)  31 (30.1%)  35 (34.0%)  t e s t area  111 (50.2%)  47 (41.2%)  64 (62.1%)  66 (64.1%)  kiln  0  4 (3.5%)  0  0  well  0  1 0 (0.9%)  burial  17 (7.7%)  0  2 (1.9%)  0  unknown  0  3 (2.6%)  3 (2.9%)  0  TOTAL NUMBER OF VESSELS  221  114  103  103  21  0  recovering and reporting reconstructable vessels from houses rather than sherds. The f i r s t step i n t e s t i n g the model with these data i s d e s c r i p t i o n of archaeological evidence f o r chiefdoms and increasing c u l t u r a l complexity during the Longshan Period (Chapter 2 ) . At present there i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d e t a i l e d published information on s i t e s .  Also,  i n t e r p r e t i n g data on a regional basis has not been a focus of research. The chapter discusses evidence f o r regional d i v e r s i t y i n the Huanghe (Yellow River) v a l l e y area and the a v a i l a b l e information on c u l t u r a l change i n d i f f e r e n t regions.  Hougang and Baiying are located i n the  Hougang I I region, Meishan i n the Wangwan I I I region, and Lujiakou i n the Liangcheng region.  Hougang was probably a center of settlement,  given i t s large s i z e (Table 4) and evidence of a surrounding w a l l .  At  present i t i s necessary t o assume that the Longshan Period i s characterized by increasing c u l t u r a l complexity.  I t i s not possible t o  demonstrate, f o r example, an increase i n complexity of settlement hierarchies over time on the basis of published data. The model of change i n ceramic production i n r e l a t i o n t o increasing c u l t u r a l complexity i s presented  i n Chapter 3.  Chapter 4  describes i n more d e t a i l the kinds of information on ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y included i n N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports.  I t a l s o evaluates the shape classes  i d e n t i f i e d i n the reports f o r Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou, a step e s s e n t i a l t o t e s t i n g the model.  I t assesses the procedures by  which authors established shape c l a s s e s .  22  V a r i a t i o n among vessels i n  q u a l i t a t i v e features and i n values of r a t i o s f o r major dimensions are examined.  The chapter also includes a b r i e f evaluation of hypotheses  about vessel function during the Longshan Period.  Although  information  on function i s extremely l i m i t e d , i t i s h e l p f u l i n making inferences about changes i n production  of d i f f e r e n t shape classes.  Chapter 5 presents the t e s t of the model and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of results.  Four analyses are undertaken: 1) v a r i e t y of shape classes i n  each period, 2) dimensional standardization, 3) w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization, and 4) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of labor-intensive wares.  In the  f i r s t a n a l y s i s , I simply count the quantity of shape and s i z e classes at each s i t e , using classes established i n Chapter 4. The a n a l y s i s of dimensional standardization assesses change over time i n the range of v a r i a t i o n i n major dimensions f o r d i f f e r e n t shape classes.  In the t h i r d  a n a l y s i s , I tabulate v a r i e t i e s of vessels i n terms of secondary shape features and decorative techniques f o r i n d i v i d u a l shape classes.  The  fourth a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e s l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels, i n c l u d i n g those that are large i n s i z e , elaborate i n shape, t h i n - w a l l e d , and with a number of decorative  techniques.  Two analyses are conducted i n Chapter 6.  The f i r s t assesses  whether there i s evidence f o r change i n mode of ceramic during the Longshan Period. evidence f o r production  production  I t examines ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y , d i r e c t  at s i t e s such as k i l n s and t o o l s , and the  a v a i l a b l e information on shaping and f i r i n g techniques.  In the second  a n a l y s i s , comparisons are made on an i n t e r - and i n t r a - s i t e basis about  23  quantity and d i v e r s i t y of p o t e n t i a l prestige goods and u t i l i t a r i a n items, both ceramic and nonceramic.  Hougang i s compared t o the other  three s i t e s since i t probably was a center of a settlement hierarchy. Inferences are made about changes over time i n access t o goods.  There  i s s u f f i c i e n t information t o make inferences about changes i n s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the basis of v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e and construction material f o r housing at Hougang and Baiying. In b r i e f , the model of change i n systems of ceramic production i n a context of i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l complexity i s p a r t i a l l y  supported.  There i s a pattern of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r the two s i t e s of Baiying (Early t o Middle Period) and Lujiakou (Early t o Late Period) with respect t o v a r i e t y of shape classes produced.  The pattern of change i n  w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization f o r Lujiakou i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n as w e l l . I t appears that production of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares d i v e r s i f i e d over time at Hougang (Middle t o Late P e r i o d ) , Baiying (Early t o Middle Period), and at Lujiakou (Early t o Late P e r i o d ) .  There i s no evidence  for any d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of production at the westernmost s i t e , Meishan. The r e s u l t s indicate that systems of ceramic production d i d not change i n a homogeneous manner throughout the Huanghe (Yellow River) v a l l e y region.  Also, as expected from Rice (1984), there i s v a r i a t i o n  within i n d i v i d u a l production systems as represented by s i n g l e s i t e s . For example, although there appears t o be a pattern of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares at Hougang from the Middle t o Late Period, the pattern f o r dimensional s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s conservatism, and f o r w i t h i n -  24  c l a s s standardization, s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , two analyses f o r the  Early t o Middle Period at Baiying i n d i c a t e d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ( v a r i e t y of shape classes and l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares), and the a n a l y s i s of w i t h i n c l a s s standardization i n d i c a t e s conservatism.  There are two patterns  f o r the Middle t o Late Period at Baiying, conservatism  f o r v a r i e t y of  shape classes and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n f o r w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization. For Hougang, Meishan, and Lujiakou, the pattern that r e s u l t s from the a n a l y s i s of dimensional  standardization i s conservatism.  possible t o conduct t h i s a n a l y s i s f o r Baiying.  I t was not  A v a r i e t y of patterns  r e s u l t e d from the analysis of w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization f o r each site.  There i s no evidence f o r change i n mode of ceramic production  over time at any s i t e . The r e s u l t s p a r t i a l l y support the hypothesis  of Rice (1981) that  there should be an increase i n v a r i e t i e s of wares produced over time as s o c i o p o l i t i c a l systems become more complex.  I hypothesize that  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of production at Hougang, Baiying, and Lujiakou i s p r i m a r i l y i n the realm of prestige wares, a pattern predicted by Rice (1981).  However, there i s no c l e a r evidence f o r increasing  standardization of non-prestige  or u t i l i t a r i a n wares as her model  p r e d i c t s , from the a n a l y s i s of dimensional c l a s s standardization.  standardization or w i t h i n -  Also, the p r e d i c t i o n about change i n mode of  production i s not supported. The t e s t should not be regarded as conclusive, since sample sizes are small f o r each a n a l y s i s .  In the future l a r g e r classes of vessels,  25  particularly whether t h e r e Results  from Meishan and L u j i a k o u ,  should  i s support f o r t h e c o n c l u s i o n s  be examined t o determine  made here.  f o r the assessment of change i n v a r i e t y of shape c l a s s e s  are t h e most secure.  Patterns  of change r e g a r d i n g  within-class  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n a r e not e n t i r e l y c l e a r due t o small a n a l y s i s of d i m e n s i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  sample s i z e .  The  i n c l u d e s a few shape c l a s s e s  t h a t p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e d v e s s e l s used f o r b a s i c needs such as cooking and  water s t o r a g e .  Sample s i z e d i d not permit a n a l y s i s of other  f u n c t i o n a l types of v e s s e l s  such as l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares which  have y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . with r e s p e c t  could  I n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i a t i o n i n assemblages  t o l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques i s e s p e c i a l l y l i m i t e d .  It i s  only p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y some i n d i v i d u a l v e s s e l s t h a t may have been used f o r s o c i a l d i s p l a y s . labor input w i t h i n research.  A more thorough assessment of v a r i a t i o n i n  i n d i v i d u a l assemblages should  F i n a l l y , a t present  be a p r i o r i t y i n f u t u r e  few r e l i a b l e t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e  a v a i l a b l e f o r i d e n t i f y i n g change i n mode of ceramic Despite  production.  these problems, t h e a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s p r o v i d e  hypotheses t h a t can be used t o guide f u t u r e r e s e a r c h  and new a n a l y t i c a l  approaches t h a t can be u s e f u l i n understanding c u l t u r a l the  Longshan P e r i o d .  by Rice  during  (1981) with ceramic assemblages from  Chapter 7 d i s c u s s e s  d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s u l t s achieved described  change  A l s o , t h e y demonstrate t h e importance of t e s t i n g  the hypotheses made by Rice d i f f e r e n t areas.  new  p o t e n t i a l explanations  f o r the  i n t h i s study compared t o the r e s u l t s  (1981) f o r B e l i z e .  26  One possible explanation i s scale of a n a l y s i s , both temporal and spatial.  The a n a l y s i s by Rice (1981) i n d i c a t e s a f a i r l y homogeneous  pattern of long-term changes i n systems of ceramic production f o r a single s i t e .  This study examines changes that represent a shorter time  span i n four assemblages representing a l a r g e r region. patterns r e s u l t e d .  A v a r i e t y of  However, considering the Longshan Period as a whole,  one could conclude that the model formulated by Rice (1981) and the revised version offered here i s supported.  Differences i n c u l t u r a l  h i s t o r i c a l processes between the Mayan and Longshan areas may be important as w e l l .  I suggest that the development of bronze production  during the l a t e Longshan Period had an important  impact on ceramic  production i n c e n t r a l Henan as represented at the Meishan s i t e .  27  CHAPTER 2.  THE LONGSHAN PERIOD IN CHINESE PREHISTORY  INTRODUCTION  This chapter describes archaeological evidence f o r c u l t u r a l complexity during the Longshan Period.  I t i s l i k e l y that complex  chiefdoms were present i n a number of areas.  Although published data on  processes of c u l t u r a l change are l i m i t e d , they suggest that chiefdoms began t o evolve i n t o states i n at l e a s t one area.  The f i r s t section of  the chapter describes regional d i v e r s i t y during the Longshan Period. The second section outlines Chinese and western views on c u l t u r a l evolution during the Longshan Period.  The t h i r d section describes  archaeological evidence f o r processes of change.  REGIONAL  DIVERSITY  DURING  THE LONGSHAN  PERIOD  There i s substantial regional d i v e r s i t y represented by archaeol o g i c a l remains from the terminal N e o l i t h i c period i n northern China. I t i s more appropriate t o r e f e r t o a Longshan Period rather than a single Longshan Culture (Yan 1981).  Hundreds of s i t e s have been  discovered i n regions along the lower reaches of the Huanghe or Yellow River i n c l u d i n g the modern provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Henan,  28  and Shandong.  The range of dates f o r these s i t e s i s approximately 2500-  2000 B.C. (Yan 1981). On the basis of s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences i n remains from t h i s wide area, archaeologists have i d e n t i f i e d seven "types" ( l e i x i n g ) of Longshan c u l t u r e (Yan 1981, 1986, 1987a).  From west to east, these  types are: 1) Kexingzhuang I I (southern Shaanxi), 2) Taosi (southern Shanxi), 3) Wangwan I I I (west-central Henan), 4) Hougang I I (northern Henan, southern Hebei), 5) Wangyoufang (eastern Henan), 6) Chengziya (west-central Shandong), and 7) Liangcheng (eastern and south-central Shandong)  (Figure 1). 1 The locations of important s i t e s discussed i n  t h i s study are depicted i n Figure 2. There i s debate as t o whether a d d i t i o n a l types should be i d e n t i f i e d i n southern and western Henan ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:78) as w e l l as southern Shandong (Cai Feng, personal communication 1987).  Also, there i s debate over c u l t u r a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the  Miaodigou I I Culture i n western Henan, dated t o ca. 2780 B.C. Some p u b l i c a t i o n s state that Miaodigou I I corresponds t o the e a r l y Longshan Period ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1983:72, 1984:69).  Following Yan  (1981; personal communication, 1987b), I regard t h i s c u l t u r e as t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the Longshan Period. More than one physiographic zone i s represented by the seven branches of Longshan c u l t u r e .  Sites from the Kexingzhuang I I , Taosi,  and Wangwan I I I types are located at the western part of the North China Central P l a i n .  This area i s characterized by loess s o i l (see Tregear  29  —7  T  1 2 3 4  Y  P  E  S  O F  Kexingzhuang Taosi W a n g w a n III H o u g a n g II  Figure I.  Types  of  L O N G S H A N  C U L T U R E  5 Wangyoufarvg 6 Chengziya 7 Liangcheng  II  KB/89  Longshan  30  Culture  in Northern China.  Figure 2 .  Locations of important s i t e s from Longshan  31  Period.  the  1970:32, Map 7).  S i t e s from the Hougang I I , Chengziya, Wangyoufang, and  Liangcheng types are located i n areas with a l l u v i a l s o i l ( i b i d ) .  Sites  from the Hougang I I , Chengziya, and Wangyoufang types are situated i n the eastern part of the Central P l a i n .  The Liangcheng type incorporates  more than one physiographic region: f l o o d p l a i n , the c e n t r a l Shandong mountains, and mesa-like landforms i n southern Shandong (see Ren et a l . 1985:214).  In the central Shandong mountains, elevations exceed 1000m  above sea l e v e l ( i b i d ) .  The North China P l a i n i s characterized by a  temperate semi-humid climate and deciduous broadleaf f o r e s t s (Ren et a l . 1985:208). The four westernmost c u l t u r a l types are p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n Chinese p r e h i s t o r y .  Communities i n these regions were succeeded by  state-level societies.  The Wangwan I I I and Taosi types of Longshan  culture were succeeded by the f i r s t dynasty i n China, the X i a .  The  Hougang I I type i s ancestral to the Shang dynasty, and the Kexingzhuang I I type i s ancestral to the Western Zhou dynasty (Yan 1986, 1987a). The Shang dynasty began ca. 1700 B.C., dynasty, ca. 1100 B.C.  (Chang 1986:296-7).  and the Western Zhou No w r i t t e n records from the  Xia dynasty have been discovered, but t e x t u a l data from l a t e r periods suggest that the X i a dynasty e x i s t e d i n western Henan and southern Shanxi beginning i n ca. 2000 B.C.  (Chang 1986:307).  The X i a dynasty i s probably represented at l e a s t i n part by remains from the E r l i t o u Culture (Chang 1986:316, 1983a).  32  Calibrated  radiocarbon ca. 1900 B.C.  dates i n d i c a t e that Period I of the E r l i t o u Culture began ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1983:73), a date that  roughly matches the period suggested by h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s . 2 The archaeological remains from E r l i t o u Culture s i t e s the f i r s t s t a t e - l e v e l 1987b, Zou 1987). zational  represent  society i n China (personal communication, Yan  Another view i s that the state l e v e l of organi-  complexity evolved e a r l i e r , during the l a t e r Longshan Period i n  western Henan and southern Shanxi, ca. 2300 B.C. 1986:55, An J i n h u a i 1983a, 1987,  1989).  (Zhang and Zhang  The argument i s that the  archaeological remains i n question could only have been produced by a state-level  society.  S i m i l a r l y , Tian (1986) compares archaeological  data to legends described i n h i s t o r i c texts and maintains that states developed i n the Wangwan, Taosi, and Wangyoufang regions during the Longshan Period. Archaeological data from the Longshan Period are compatible with those from complex chiefdoms (Wright 1984:42-3, Johnson and Earle 1987:211) i n other areas of the world.  I t i s l i k e l y that complex  p o l i t i e s developed i n more than one region, not just western Henan and southern Shanxi.  A f t e r approximately 2000 B.C.,  states may  have  eventually developed i n the Kexingzhuang II (proto-Zhou) and Hougang I I (proto-Shang) regions that began to compete f o r power with the Xia state (see Chang 1983a, 1986:361).  33  APPROACHES TO CULTURAL CHANGE DURING THE LONGSHAN PERIOD  In China as i n western countries, there i s debate over s u i t a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l approaches f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g development complexity.  of c u l t u r a l  Some scholars such as An Jinhuai (1989) employ Marxist  theory t o e x p l a i n how and why c u l t u r e changed over time during the Longshan Period.  They describe how p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s organized as  p a t r i l i n e a l clans evolved i n t o states and c i v i l i z a t i o n s with the i n s t i t u t i o n of slavery.  Other scholars such as Tong (1989) consider how  theories developed i n the West compare t o ideas advanced by Chinese w r i t e r s and how they may i l l u m i n a t e processes of change i n N e o l i t h i c societies.  Yan (1986, 1987a) describes archaeological evidence f o r  p o t e n t i a l causal factors i n state formation such as warfare and s o c i a l stratification. Archaeologists i n the West have been concerned with comparing c u l t u r a l evolution i n northern China t o other areas.  Chang (1986:243-  4,286-7; 1983a) considers evidence f o r processes of change that have been considered important i n the western archaeological l i t e r a t u r e such as development  of i n c r e a s i n g l y wide spheres of i n t e r a c t i o n .  In another  work, Chang (1983b) uses t e x t u a l data t o describe s p e c i f i c features that characterize the e a r l y dynastic periods i n China and argues that these features developed from l a t e N e o l i t h i c c u l t u r e s .  He maintains that  c e r t a i n k i n groups amassed p o l i t i c a l power p r i m a r i l y by c o n t r o l l i n g access t o production and use of wealth items with r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e :  34  bronze vessels and other c r a f t items with animal designs, e t c . , that were necessary f o r communicating with the gods and ancestors. Some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about state formation i n northern China have been made on the basis of a l i m i t e d review of the English-language archaeological l i t e r a t u r e .  Haas (1982, 1986) examines data from the  Shang period and i n contrast t o Chang (1983b), argues that accumulation of economic and p h y s i c a l power was more important i n state formation than i d e o l o g i c a l power. Mesoamerica.  He compares processes of change i n China with  Employing a s t r u c t u r a l - M a r x i s t approach t o e x p l a i n i n g  c u l t u r a l e v o l u t i o n i n northern China, Friedman and Rowlands (1977), and more r e c e n t l y , Maisels (1987) describe how the " A s i a t i c state" (said t o be represented by the Shang and Zhou dynasties) developed from t r i b a l systems.  They a l s o argue that lineage organization and development of  i n c r e a s i n g l y wide spheres of i n t e r a c t i o n played a key r o l e i n c u l t u r a l change.  Maisels (1987) compares state formation i n northern China t o  that i n Mesopotamia. I t i s not p o s s i b l e at the present time t o make broad conclusions about processes of state formation i n northern China. research on state formation has been conducted Chang 1983b:129).  Relatively l i t t l e  (An Zhimin 1988a:759,  Also, i t i s presently impossible t o describe c u l t u r a l  change over time i n a d e t a i l e d manner on the basis of published archaeological data.  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t t o reach conclusions  on c u l t u r a l change f o r separate regions.  35  Archaeological research i n  China has focused on the s i t e rather than the region as the c u l t u r a l unit of a n a l y s i s . At t h i s stage, archaeological data from the Longshan Period be examined on a r e l a t i v e l y f i n e scale.  should  I t i s necessary t o document  accurately c u l t u r e change at a s i t e and regional l e v e l . requires c a r e f u l examination of chronological data.  This procedure  Generalizations  about processes of change should be demonstrable by archaeological remains. In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , I o u t l i n e the l i m i t e d evidence at hand for processes that have been regarded as important i n the evolution of c u l t u r a l complexity  i n other areas of the world: changes i n settlement  pattern, warfare, and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n terms of d i f f e r e n t i a l access t o goods.  I attempt t o draw conclusions about c u l t u r a l change i n  northern China on a s i t e and regional basis (see a l s o Pearson and Underhill 1987; U n d e r h i l l i n press a,b).  ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR PROCESSES OF CHANGE  Settlement H i e r a r c h i e s  Detailed data on settlement patterns f o r i n d i v i d u a l regions have not been published; however, i t i s possible t o describe evidence f o r the presence of settlement h i e r a r c h i e s on the basis of s i t e s i z e and presence of s i g n i f i c a n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l features.  36  R e l a t i v e l y large s i t e s  with surrounding walls made of rammed earth (hangtu) have been found i n four of the seven Longshan c u l t u r a l regions: Wangwan I I I (the H a o j i a t a i and Wangchenggang s i t e s ) , Hougang I I (Hougang), Wangyoufang (Pingliangt a i ) , and Liangcheng (Bianxianwang) (Table 6). 3 As survey, excavation, and p u b l i c a t i o n proceed, the p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , economic, and r i t u a l functions of these s i t e s w i l l become clearer.  At present, four of the f i v e s i t e s do not have complete  excavation reports (Hougang i s the exception).  Two of the s i t e s were  only r e c e n t l y discovered, H a o j i a t a i and Bianxianwang. Three s i t e s are s i m i l a r i n s i z e with respect to t o t a l surface area: P i n g l i a n g t a i , H a o j i a t a i , and Bianxianwang.  Hougang and  Wangchenggang represent opposite ends of the spectrum, at 10 and 1 hectares, r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, i t may be necessary to r e v i s e these figures a f t e r more excavation and p u b l i c a t i o n are completed.  For  example, i n a recent a r t i c l e Sui (1988:47) maintains that Bianxianwang i s 100,000 m2 or 10 hectares i n s i z e . These l a r g e , walled s i t e s were probably e i t h e r primary or secondary centers.  Large s i t e s with a r c h i t e c t u r a l features that require  r e l a t i v e l y great amounts of labor input tend to be centers i n settlement h i e r a r c h i e s (Earle 1987a; Carneiro 1979, Peebles and Kus 1977, a i t i s 1981).  Stepon-  One well-known example of a walled settlement from a  chiefdom i s the Moundville s i t e (Peebles and Kus 1977:444).  Also, s i t e s  from the Deh Luran P l a i n i n Iran of a s i m i l a r size range to those i n northern China are i d e n t i f i e d as centers.  37  Wright (1984:63) maintains  Table 6.  Large, Walled S i t e s from the Longshan Period.  Wangwan I I I Type: Wangchenggang (Dengfeng County, Henan) surface area ca. 10,000 m2 (1 hectare) w a l l b u i l t during period I I , 2455+/145 B.C., ZK 581 (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the Archaeological Section of the Museum of Chinese H i s t o r y 1983:8,1113,16; Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) (5 periods defined at s i t e on the basis of three radiocarbon dates, s t r a t i g r a p h y , and ceramic s e r i a t i o n ; ca. 2500-1900 B.C.) Haojiatai (Yancheng County, Henan) surface area ca. 60,000 m2 (6 hectares), wall b u i l t ca. 2500 B.C. (Renmin Ribao 1986) Hougang I I Type: Hougang (near Anyang c i t y , Henan) surface area ca. 100,000 m2 (10 hectares), wall b u i l t at end of Middle period according t o Sui (1988:47), date f o r p i t H2 i s ZK 133, 2340+/140 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:52, Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985:33,82) (3 periods defined at s i t e on basis of several radiocarbon dates, s t r a t i g r a p h y , ceramic s e r i a t i o n ; occupation ca. 27002100 B.C.) Wangyoufang Type: Pingliangtai (Huaiyang County, Henan) surface area ca. 50,000 m2 (5 hectares) wall b u i l t before period I I I , probably during period I I , date f o r period I I I i s WB 81-2, 2405+/175 B.C. (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:21,36; Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) (5 periods defined at s i t e from two radiocarbon dates, stratigraphy, ceramic s e r i a t i o n ; occupation ca. 2500-2000 B.C.) Liangcheng Type: Bianxianwang (Shouguang County, Shandong) surface area ca. 44,000 m2 (4.4 hectares) wall b u i l t ca. 2050 B.C. (Renmin Ribao 1985)  38  that settlements ca. 10 hectares i n s i z e are major centers and that s i t e s approximately 3 hectares i n size are subsidiary centers. At least some high status i n d i v i d u a l s probably occupied the large walled communities, whether status i s defined on the basis of power, wealth, occupation, or other a t t r i b u t e s .  This expectation i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant to northern China, because t e x t u a l data  suggest  that high ranking k i n groups l i v e d i n walled communities during the e a r l y dynastic period (Chang 1986, 1983a).  Also, there i s other  archaeological evidence f o r the presence of high status i n d i v i d u a l s i n these settlements such as d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n housing and consumption of prestige goods, as described s h o r t l y . The three walled s i t e s from the Wangwan I I I (west-central Henan) and Wangyoufang (eastern Henan) types of Longshan c u l t u r e were b u i l t at approximately the same time, i . e . , during the e a r l y Longshan Period, ca. 2500 B.C.  4  The wall at Wangchenggang was b u i l t during period I I  (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the Archaeological Section of the Museum of Chinese H i s t o r y 1983:8,11,12), ca. 2455 B.C. (ZK 581, Zhang and Zhang 1986:53).  The H a o j i a t a i s i t e dates to  ca. 2500 B.C.  The w a l l at P i n g l i a n g t a i was  (Renmin Ribao 1986).  sometime before period I I I , or before ca. 2405 B.C.  built  (Zhang and Zhang  1986:53, Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:21,36). The wall at Hougang was b u i l t s l i g h t l y l a t e r i n time, approximately 2300 B.C.,  according to Sui (1988:47).  39  The easternmost  walled  s i t e was e s t a b l i s h e d considerably l a t e r i n time than the s i t e s i n Henan, ca. 2050 B.C. (Renmin Ribao 1985).  Competition between s o c i a l groups  must have i n t e n s i f i e d at ah e a r l i e r period i n Henan than i n Shandong. Furthermore, competition i n t e n s i f i e d f i r s t i n the Wangwan I I I and Wangyoufang regions, n e c e s s i t a t i n g establishment of nucleated, defendable communities.  Warfare  Defense was probably one reason that the walled settlements were built.  There are several l i n e s of archaeological evidence f o r warfare  during the Longshan Period: s t r u c t u r a l features at settlements i n a d d i t i o n t o w a l l s , s k e l e t a l remains i n d i c a t i v e of v i o l e n t death, and weapons.  At present there i s no information on causal f a c t o r s or the  type of f i g h t i n g taking place.  Warfare must have been an important  process i n state formation i n northern China (Yan 1986).  Increasing  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n wealth may have caused an increase i n the frequency of warfare t o acquire booty ( i b i d ) .  Warfare may have erupted over  competition f o r land a f t e r the death of a c h i e f , a s i t u a t i o n that occurred during the p r e h i s t o r i c period i n Hawaii (Johnson and Earle 1987:232).  Of course, i n t e r n a l rather than inter-group c o n f l i c t may  have been a f a c t o r as w e l l . The s i t e of P i n g l i a n g t a i has a number of a d d i t i o n a l structures that were probably b u i l t f o r defensive purposes: two small b u i l d i n g s  40  that appear to be guardhouses, two gates, and a wide d i t c h (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983, Chang 1986:265).  According t o  Tian (1986), the d i t c h i s 30 meters wide and was used as a moat.  The  newspaper report f o r H a o j i a t a i mentions the presence of a d i t c h , too (Renmin Ribao 1986 ).  Another function of the surrounding walls may have-  been to protect h a b i t a t i o n areas from floodwater (Du, personal communication 1987). The s i t e with the most convincing evidence f o r s k e l e t a l remains i n d i c a t i n g v i o l e n t death i s Jiangou (Handan County, southern Hebei) i n the Hougang I I region.  The remains at Jiangou i n d i c a t e a degree of  violence not present during the pre-Longshan period ( U n d e r h i l l 1989). F i r s t , several skeletons representing both sexes and a range of ages were found i n a w e l l .  Some i n d i v i d u a l s were decapitated, and a few  people may have been buried a l i v e (Chang  1986:270).  Second, there are s i x skeletons from'Jiangou that have marks from hacking or scalping with a stone t o o l (Yan 1982a:38-9).  Two are female  youths, two are male adults, and two are u n i d e n t i f i a b l e . s k u l l s i d e n t i f i e d as female show traces of scalping.  Yan  Only the two (1982a:39)  suggests that the s k u l l s of the dead were cut open and used by the v i c t o r s as d r i n k i n g cups.  He states that the s k e l e t a l remains from  Jiangou date to ca. 2300 B.C.  (Yan 1982a:39).  I t may not be  c o i n c i d e n t a l that t h i s i s the estimated time period f o r the b u i l d i n g of the w a l l at Hougang, as discussed i n the previous section.  41  Several s i t e s , from more than one region and time period, contain incomplete skeletons i n p i t s . unclear.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these skeletons i s  Hao (1983:42) believes that these skeletons represent war  captives who may have been put t o death, or, persons who died from fighting.  Skeletons of t h i s kind were found at the Wangwan s i t e  (near  Luoyang c i t y , western Henan) i n the Wangwan I I I - region and at the Kexingzhuang s i t e (near Xian c i t y , eastern Shaanxi) i n the Kexingzhuang I I region (Hao 1983:6, 39-40).  Fang (1986:274) a l s o argues that  skeletons of t h i s kind from the Wangchenggang s i t e represent war captives who were s a c r i f i c i a l v i c t i m s .  Both authors do not state that  the s k e l e t a l remains are associated with a s p e c i f i c time period. Archaeological reports i d e n t i f y a number of stone and bone t o o l forms as weapons such as mao spearhead.  Unfortunately, i t i s not  possible t o determine whether these forms were used as weapons or f o r subsistence tasks such as hunting.  Axes (fu) and knives (dao) could  have been used f o r many tasks. Yan  (1986, 1987a) maintains that p r o j e c t i l e points (zu) increase  d r a m a t i c a l l y i n number over time and that spearheads appear at the beginning of the Longshan Period.  Also, improvements i n design make  p r o j e c t i l e points more l e t h a l . In another paper, I attempted t o tabulate the number of stone and bone p o t e n t i a l weapons at f i v e Longshan s i t e s (Underhill 1989:234-5). I t was p o s s i b l e t o examine trends over time at Baiying i n the Hougang I I region and Meishan i n the Wangwan I I I region.  42  At both s i t e s , there i s  an increase over time i n quantity of p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s , a possible i n d i c a t i o n of an increase i n the frequency and/or i n t e n s i t y of warfare during the Longshan Period.  Also, Chang (1986:250) points out that  spearheads and p r o j e c t i l e points c o n s t i t u t e a r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of stone t o o l s at two s i t e s from the Liangcheng region i n Shandong, Chengzi (Zhucheng County) and Yaoguanzhuang (near Weifang C i t y ) .  D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Consumption of Goods  A common feature of ranked s o c i e t i e s i s d i s p l a y of s o c i a l status with a range of material goods.  Wealthy f a m i l i e s may l i v e i n large  houses b u i l t with r e l a t i v e l y c o s t l y construction materials (Blake 1988, Kamp 1987,  Feinman and N e i t z e l 1984).  Wealthy households tend t o be  large i n s i z e because they have adequate resources  f o r supporting a  large number of people (McC. Netting 1982, Hayden and Cannon 1984). Also, they often d i s p l a y t h e i r p o s i t i o n s of status by using goods that are c o s t l y t o acquire (Kamp 1987,  Smith 1987).  There i s evidence f o r  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n consumption of goods throughout the Longshan Period. Walled s i t e s contain large houses b u i l t with r e l a t i v e l y c o s t l y materials. cemeteries.  There i s marked v a r i a t i o n i n mortuary treatment at some Bronze, jade, and turquoise items were probably prestige  goods.  43  V a r i a t i o n i n size and construction material f o r housing at two walled s i t e s , P i n g l i a n g t a i and Wangchenggang, i s marked. large adobe houses have been found at P i n g l i a n g t a i .  At least 12  Adobe i s known as a  r e l a t i v e l y c o s t l y construction material i n other areas (Blake 1988:51). One of these houses, F l from Period IV, i s reported as 12.54 by  4.34  meters (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the 2houkou D i s t r i c t 1983:30).  There are houses i n  t h i s size range from periods I I and I I I as well (Sui 1988:51).  At  Wangchenggang, v a r i a t i o n i n housing i s apparently most d i s t i n c t during Period I I (ca. 2500 B.C.), the period i n which the w a l l was b u i l t . Large hangtu or rammed-earth house foundations were found ( L i Xiandeng 1983:11).  Rammed-earth i s a c o s t l y construction material f o r buildings  used by e l i t e s during the Shang Dynasty (Chang  1986:323).  Another unique feature of the walled settlement at P i n g l i a n g t a i i s the presence of pottery pipes f o r drainage of water (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983).  Wells are another a r c h i t e c t u r a l feature which  require s u b s t a n t i a l labor to construct.  However, they are common on  s i t e s with and without walls (see I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS, 1984:83-4). There i s marked d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n mortuary treatment at s i t e s i n Shanxi and Shandong i n type of grave, and q u a l i t y and quantity of i n t e r r e d goods.  The Taosi s i t e (Xiangfen County, Shanxi) i s unique i n  terms of the large quantity of graves and wealth of objects recovered.  44  More than 1000 graves have been discovered t o date.  Three d i s t i n c t  s i z e s of graves have been i d e n t i f i e d : large, medium, and small (for d e s c r i p t i o n s i n English see Chang 1986:276 and U n d e r h i l l , i n press, a ) . A l l of the nine large graves contain adult males with large q u a n t i t i e s of f i n e l y made items, i n c l u d i n g a pottery pan dish with a painted dragon design, an a l l i g a t o r skin drum, qing chime stones, and jades.  One of  the large b u r i a l s , M3015, contains as many as 178 items (Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983). As research and p u b l i c a t i o n proceed, i t w i l l be possible t o c l a r i f y how mortuary treatment changes during the 600 years that the cemetery at Taosi was used.  Three periods have been defined on the  basis of stratigraphy, ceramic s e r i a t i o n , and several radiocarbon dates: E a r l y , ca. 2500-2300 B.C.; Middle, ca. 2300-2100 B.C.; and Late, ca. 2100-1900 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:51, Gao et a l . 1984:28). At l e a s t some of the large b u r i a l s are dated t o the E a r l y and Middle Periods  (Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t  C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983:32-4). dates t o the E a r l y Period  The large grave with the painted pan dish  (ibid).  One cemetery i n Shandong also e x h i b i t s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n mortuary treatment, but t o a l e s s e r degree than Taosi.  At Yinjiacheng  (Sishui  County), a large grave also contains the remains of an a l l i g a t o r drum ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:20).  There are two radiocarbon  dates f o r Yinjiacheng, ca. 2550-2400 B.C. (Han 1989:144).  45  Information on production and use of non-ceramic prestige goods such as bronze items during the Longshan Period i s l i m i t e d .  Fragments  of bronze have been found at only a few s i t e s , at both walled s i t e s and s i t e s without walls (Table 7).  Four c u l t u r a l regions are represented:  Wangwan I I I , Wangyoufang, Taosi, and Liangcheng.  Chang (1983a:101)  expects that p o l i t i c a l power during the e a r l y dynastic period was achieved by c o n t r o l l i n g production and use of bronze items, e s p e c i a l l y vessels.  However, there i s no undisputed evidence f o r production of  bronze vessels during the Longshan Period.  Also, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n  that e l i t e s s u c c e s s f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d production of bronze vessels or t o o l s at t h i s time.  E l i t e c o n t r o l may not have been achieved u n t i l  a f t e r the state form of s o c i o p o l i t i c a l organization had been established.  Most of the evidence dates t o the l a t e Longshan Period.  The e a r l i e s t remains are from P i n g l i a n g t a i , traces of bronze dated to ca. 2400 B.C. (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:31,36; Zhang and Zhang 1986:53).  According t o An Jinhuai (1983b:5), the remains show  signs of smelting and c a s t i n g . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the metal fragment from Period IV at Wangchenggang i s unclear.  Some claim that the fragment i s from a cast  vessel ( L i Xiandeng 1983:10, An Jinhuai 1989:23).  Others argue i t i s  merely a piece of copper (Zou, personal communication 1987).  Two s i t e s  without walls from the Wangwan I I I region contain fragments of metal dating t o the l a t e Longshan Period, Meishan (Second Henan Archaeological  46  Table 7.  Evidence f o r Bronze Metallurgy During the Longshan Period.  Wangwan I I I Type: Wangchenggang bronze fragment i n p i t H617 (6.5 cm wide and 5.7 cm long), p o s s i b l y from a v e s s e l ; composed of lead, t i n , copper (concentrations not stated) p i t H617 dated t o period IV, ZK 955, 1900+/165 B.C. (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the Archaeological Section of the Museum of Chinese H i s t o r y 1983:13, Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) Meishan traces of bronze on two ceramic c r u c i b l e fragments from the Late period, i n p i t s H40 and H28; composition of metal i n H40 i s 95% copper; Late period date ZK 349, 2005+/120 B.C. (Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982:453-4, 472; Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) Niuzhai fragments of bronze, no date a v a i l a b l e (Yan 1984:38) Wangyoufang Type: Pingliangtai fragment of bronze 1.31 cm long i n p i t H15, dated to period I I I , WB81-2, 2405+/175 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:53, Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:31,36) Taosi Type: Taosi small cast bronze b e l l (97% copper, traces of lead and zinc) i n b u r i a l M3296, ZK 1314 i s 1885+/130 B.C., but the excavators believe a more accurate date i s ca. 2085 B.C.; a l s o a small bronze b e l l found on the surface (Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1984:1070); 2085 B.C. belongs to the e i t h e r the Middle or Late period (Gao et a l . 1984:28, Zhang and Zhang 1986:53) Liangcheng Type: Sanlihe two pieces of an awl made of brass i n a b u r i a l , according t o Sun and Han 1985:275)  47  Team, IA, CASS 1982:453-4) and Niuzhai near Zhengzhou c i t y (Yan 1984:38). Fragments of metal have been found from more than one s i t e from the Liangcheng region i n Shandong (Yan 1984:38, Sun and Han 1985).  The  two pieces of an awl from Sanlihe (Jiaoxian County) have been described i n the most d e t a i l .  According t o Sun and Han (1988:275), i t i s made of  brass rather than bronze. One small bronze bell-shaped object was found i n grave M3296 at Taosi, dating t o ca. 2085 B.C. (Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1984:1069-1070).  I t i s important t o  note that t h i s b u r i a l i s r e l a t i v e l y small and contains few grave goods. Bronze objects may not have been considered as h i g h l y important  prestige  items u n t i l the e a r l y dynastic period. Jade and turquoise were considered p r e s t i g i o u s raw materials during the e a r l y dynastic period (Chang 1986:312, 331).  Jade and  turquoise objects from the Longshan Period have been found at walled and non-walled h a b i t a t i o n s i t e s .  Jade items have been reported at the  walled s i t e of H a o j i a t a i (Renmin Ribao 1986), and turquoise ornaments at Wangchenggang, Period I I (Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the Archaeological Section of the Museum of Chinese H i s t o r y 1983:11). Unfortunately, dates are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the long, t h i n jade axes with engraved designs recovered over f i f t y years ago at the s i t e of Liangchengzhen, Rizhao County, Shandong, type s i t e of the Liangcheng c u l t u r a l branch (see I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:103, L i and Gao 1979).  48  A much greater quantity and v a r i e t y of jade items have been recovered from mortuary contexts i n Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Shandong. There are several forms of jades i n the graves at Taosi from more than one period i n c l u d i n g ornaments such as bracelets (bihuan) and yue axes (Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983).  A recent a r t i c l e reports a remarkable quantity and  v a r i e t y of jade objects from the Shimao cemetery s i t e i n northern Shanxi (Shenmu County), a s i t e that belongs t o a c u l t u r a l branch r e l a t e d t o Kexingzhuang I I (Dai 1988).  Jade and turquoise items were found i n a  few graves from more than one period at the Sanlihe cemetery s i t e i n the Liangcheng region of Shandong ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1988). Although the dimensions of s o c i a l status expressed i n mortuary r i t u a l are unclear, burying prestige items with the dead would have been an e f f e c t i v e method of d i s p l a y i n g rank and wealth. Chang (1983b, 1986) proposes that a number of a r t i f a c t s from the Longshan Period have r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , including jade and ceramic objects with c e r t a i n designs, ceramic p h a l l i , and d i v i n a t i o n bones.  He  (1983b:101) argues that e l i t e s obtained p o l i t i c a l power during the early dynastic period by c o n t r o l l i n g access t o a v a r i e t y of a r t i f a c t s used f o r r i t u a l s i n communicating with the gods and ancestors, i n a d d i t i o n t o bronze vessels.  He implies that t h i s process began during the Longshan  Period (Chang 1986:287, 366). Claim t o d i r e c t communication with the gods i s a common method of l e g i t i m i z i n g power and a u t h o r i t y i n chiefdoms (Peebles and Kus 1977,  49  Wright 1984).  However, the evidence f o r t h i s process during the  Longshan Period i s l i m i t e d .  Also, some types of r i t u a l items such as  ceramic p h a l l i and d i v i n a t i o n bones (bu) probably were used by a l l segments of s o c i e t y , not just high status i n d i v i d u a l s competing f o r power.  Common at late N e o l i t h i c s i t e s , they were probably used f o r  ancestor worship (Chang 1983b, 1986). Two types of designs on jade and ceramic objects from l a t e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s may have had r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e : animal motifs and the thundercloud (leiwen) pattern.  A r t i f a c t s with animal designs have been  found i n the Taosi and Liangcheng c u l t u r a l regions.  The Taosi s i t e  provides some support f o r Chang's hypothesis: the ceramic vessel with painted dragon design was found i n a large grave with abundant grave goods.  One of the large jade axes from the Liangchengzhen s i t e i n  Shandong has an engraved design of the mythical t a o t i e animal.  Axes  with t h i s design may have been used i n r i t u a l s by e l i t e s , because the design i s present on bronze vessels from the e a r l y dynastic period ( L i and Gao 1979:61-2) . Sherds of black ware with the thundercloud (leiwen) pattern have been found at two s i t e s i n Shandong, Liangchengzhen and Shangzhuang i n the Chengziya c u l t u r a l region (ChipiTig County).  This design i s present  on Shang and Zhou bronze v e s s e l s , too ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:103).  Unfortunately, there i s no information on context of  recovery a t e i t h e r s i t e .  The sherd at Shangzhuang was found on the  surface ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province 1985:494).  50  Other a r t i f a c t s may have been used by high status i n d i v i d u a l s f o r r i t u a l purposes.  Tian (1986 ) maintains that a wooden "storehouse -  shaped" vessel from a large grave at Taosi i s a symbol of the sky and was used by r u l e r s to make s a c r i f i c e s t o heaven (see Shanxi Archaeol o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983:38). Chang (1986:276-7) suggests that the musical instruments from large graves at Taosi (qing chime stone, a l l i g a t o r skin drum, etc.) symbolize s p e c i a l status of the deceased, since h i s t o r i c texts mention that items of t h i s sort were used by r o y a l t y .  CONCLUSIONS  S i t e s from the Longshan Period are located i n a wide area along the lower reaches of the Huanghe or Yellow River.  Seven d i s t i n c t  c u l t u r a l types have been i d e n t i f i e d , each of which probably contained complex chiefdoms.  There i s evidence f o r s i m i l a r processes of change i n  each region: establishment  of settlement  h i e r a r c h i e s , warfare, and  d i s p l a y of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n with prestige goods.  Cultural  complexity probably increased over time i n more than one region.  At the  end of the Longshan Period, the state evolved i n at l e a s t one region, Wangwan I I I i n west-central Henan and southern Shanxi. As research and p u b l i c a t i o n continue, i t w i l l be possible to t e s t hypotheses about c u l t u r a l change i n a more d e t a i l e d manner.  One pattern  that emerges from t h i s assessment i s that settlement h i e r a r c h i e s with  51  walled s i t e s as centers were established i n the e a r l y Longshan Period, ca. 2500 B.C.  i n the Wangwan I I I (west-central) and Wangyoufang  (eastern) c u l t u r a l areas of Henan.  Settlement h i e r a r c h i e s were probably  e s t a b l i s h e d at a l a t e r time i n the other areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Shandong. There i s evidence f o r warfare and d i s p l a y of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n at walled s i t e s and at s i t e s without walls throughout the Longshan Period.  V a r i a t i o n i n housing and prestige goods i s  r e l a t i v e l y marked at two walled s i t e s , Wangchenggang and P i n g l i a n g t a i . This pattern was established during the e a r l y periods at the s i t e s . S i m i l a r l y , status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s expressed i n mortuary r i t u a l during the e a r l y period at Taosi. Several forms of a r t i f a c t s may have had r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . More data are required to t e s t the hypothesis  r a i s e d by Chang (1983b,  1986)  that high status i n d i v i d u a l s began to seize power by c o n t r o l l i n g production and use of r i t u a l a r t i f a c t s .  S i m i l a r l y , more data are  necessary to examine the r e l a t i v e importance of competition f o r economic, s o c i a l , and i d e o l o g i c a l power by e l i t e s , the issue r a i s e d by Haas (1982, 1986). There i s l i t t l e evidence to suggest that material f a c t o r s such as t e c h n o l o g i c a l change were as important i n c u l t u r a l change as s o c i a l f a c t o r s (Chang 1983b:124), although some changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production may  have taken place.  The r e l a t i v e l y large surface area and  thickness of c u l t u r a l layers at l a t e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s suggest that  52  improvements i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production had been made (Yan 1989), allowing population density t o increase.  For example, there may have  been improvements i n t o o l forms (An Jinhuai 1989:22). At present there i s l i t t l e information on foods produced during the Longshan Period. r i c e (dao)  F o x t a i l m i l l e t (su), broomcorn m i l l e t (shu), and  (Oryza sativa) were common crops i n the l a t e N e o l i t h i c  (An Zhimin 1988b, Yan 1989,  period  1982b). 5 There may have been an increase  i n species of domesticated animals by the Longshan Period: goat, sheep, c a t t l e , chicken, p i g , dog, and p o s s i b l y the horse (An Zhimin 1988b:377).  notes: 1) For d e s c r i p t i o n s of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g features (mainly ceramic) f o r c u l t u r a l types i n the western provinces, see Zhang and Zhang  (1986);  f o r the c u l t u r a l types i n Shandong, see Han (1989) and Wu and Du (1984). 2) According t o Pankenier (1985), astronomical records support the conclusion that the Xia Dynasty began ca. 1900 B.C. 1953 B.C., there was a rare c l u s t e r i n g  In approximately  of f i v e planets, an event that  may have influenced development of the Mandate of Heaven concept. 3) The well-known walled s i t e of Chengziyai  i n Shandong has been  included by Chang (1986) and Sui (1988) with the group of s i t e s l i s t e d above.  Others have argued that Chengziyai probably dates t o the post-  Longshan Period Yueshi Culture (personal communication, Yan 1987b, Zou 1987).  For t h i s reason, I do not discuss the s i t e f u r t h e r .  53  Also,  Chang (1986:250) states that remains of a wall were found around the s i t e of Yaoguanzhuang i n eastern Shandong.  However, there i s no mention  of a wall i n the s i t e report (see I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province e t . a l 1981). 4) Radiocarbon dates c i t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s are based on a h a l f - l i f e of 5570 and c a l i b r a t e d by means of dendro-chronology, as described by I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS (1983:1-6).  Some sources c i t e the  s p e c i f i c c a l i b r a t i o n curve used ( i . e . , I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1983), but most do not (such as Zhang and Zhang 1986). 5) F o x t a i l m i l l e t and broomcorn m i l l e t have been found i n e a r l i e r Neolithic  s i t e s from the Huanghe (Yellow River) v a l l e y area (An Zhimin  1988b:372-5).  I t i s l i k e l y that farmers continued t o grow these crops  i n most regions during the Longshan Period.  Yan (1989) states that  f o x t a i l m i l l e t was the most common v a r i e t y of m i l l e t during the l a t e N e o l i t h i c period i n the lower Huanghe region.  I t has been recovered at  two Longshan s i t e s i n eastern Shandong and at one s i t e i n Shaanxi. The s i t e i n Shaanxi has a l s o y i e l d e d broomcorn m i l l e t .  Rice has been found  at one Longshan s i t e i n eastern Shandong (An Zhimin 1988b:375) as well as one s i t e i n Shaanxi (Yan 1989).  According t o Yan (1982b:29,  Figure 12), r i c e probably became a common crop i n the lower Huanghe v a l l e y during the t h i r d millennium B.C.  54  CHAPTER 3.  MODEL OF CHANGE IN SYSTEMS OF CERAMIC PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO INCREASING CULTURAL COMPLEXITY  This chapter has four p a r t s .  The f i r s t three sections consist of:  1) discussion of operating premises, 2) d e s c r i p t i o n of changes i n s t r a t e g i e s of production and t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g from standardization and d i v e r s i t y , and 3) d e s c r i p t i o n of changes i n s t r a t e g i e s of consumers f o r prestige (labor-intensive) wares with t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n labor input.  The fourth  section i s a discussion of t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g change i n mode of production and consideration of expectations by researchers f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of production during the Longshan Period.  OPERATING PREMISES  As stated i n Chapter 1, the research question i s : How do systems of pottery production change during the Longshan Period of northern China i n r e l a t i o n t o increasing c u l t u r a l complexity?  The goal i s t o  t e s t a r e v i s e d version of the model by Rice (1981) which  hypothesizes  that there should be an increase i n v a r i e t i e s of wares, p a r t i c u l a r l y prestige vessels used f o r displays of status.  Also, there should be  evidence f o r increasing standardization of wares, e s p e c i a l l y u t i l i t a r i a n  55  (non-prestige) vessels.  The model also hypothesizes that there should  be a change to a more complex mode of production. In t h i s study I assume that changes i n decisions about s t r a t e g i e s of production by potters and s t r a t e g i e s of vessel use by consumers may cause changes i n ceramic a t t r i b u t e s . Production and consumption are r e l a t e d i n a c i r c u l a r manner (Douglas and Isherwood 1979:145, Gregory 1982:13).  In a chiefdom, potters may i n i t i a t e changes i n production of  vessels t h a t , i n turn, cause changes i n s t r a t e g i e s of consumers.  At the  same time, changes i n consumer demand f o r c e r t a i n classes of vessels may cause changes i n strategies of production.  Causal f a c t o r s f o r change or  s t a b i l i t y i n systems of production may be external or i n t e r n a l (Rice 1984).  In my model one causal f a c t o r i n t e r n a l t o s o c i a l systems  i s considered  as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l : competition, both among  producers and among consumers.  Another study dealing with  competition  between p o t t e r s , but i n s t a t e - l e v e l s o c i e t i e s , i s described by Feinman et a l . (1984).  They describe how competition  i s a f f e c t e d by degree of  administrative control over economy and degree of regional p o l i t i c a l consolidation. Any model i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of r e a l i t y .  Ceramic change i s often  caused by a complex set of i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s , and a f t e r a time l a g (Rice 1987:274,276).  Another l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i s archaeological  recognition of important causal v a r i a b l e s .  I t can only be hoped t h a t ,  as research on the Longshan Period proceeds, more d e t a i l e d models of causes of ceramic change w i l l be constructed and tested.  56  CHANGES  IN STRATEGIES  OF  PRODUCTION  As Chapter 1 mentions, two g e n e r a l diversification, simplification, efficiency.  or e f f o r t s or e f f o r t s  s t r a t e g i e s of p r o d u c t i o n a r e  t o produce more v a r i e t i e s  t o reduce v a r i e t y f o r purposes of i n c r e a s i n g  P o t t e r s may choose t o vary p r o d u c t i o n  and/or d e c o r a t i v e  classes.  of v e s s e l s , and  A third  of p a s t e ,  form,  s t r a t e g y i s c o n s e r v a t i s m , or  r e s i s t a n c e t o change i n p r o d u c t i o n .  A g i v e n assemblage of v e s s e l s  from  a community may e x h i b i t evidence f o r one or more of these s t r a t e g i e s . As d e p i c t e d potters one  should  i n Figure  3,  the model employed here h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t  adopt a s t r a t e g y of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  or more shape c l a s s e s as s o c i o p o l i t i c a l  f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  complexity increases.  top h a l f of the f i g u r e o u t l i n e s the model i n g e n e r a l . describes  specific  utilitarian  of  The  The lower h a l f  changes t h a t may take p l a c e with r e s p e c t t o  (non-prestige)  and p r e s t i g e  ( l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e ) wares.  P o t t e r s may respond t o i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s i f i e d demands by consumers f o r n o n - p r e s t i g e s e r v i n g food  v e s s e l s used i n p r e p a r i n g ,  cooking, and  or d r i n k , and f o r household r i t u a l s t h a t take p l a c e i n  private contexts.  At the same time, p o t t e r s may respond t o i n c r e a s i n g l y  d i v e r s i f i e d demands by consumers f o r p r e s t i g e or l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e used i n d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s .  Increases i n status competition  vessels  would be  l i k e l y t o have an impact on consumer demand f o r l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s . Potters  should  efficiency  a l s o adopt a s t r a t e g y of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  i n production  or i n c r e a s i n g  of some shape c l a s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y non-  57  Figure 3. Model of Change i n Systems of Pottery Production In Relation t o Increasing C u l t u r a l Complexity  increase i n sociopolitical different i a t i o n , and i n population size and density  more d i v e r s i f i e d demands by consumers f o r vessels  potters i n competition respond by adopting a strategy of diversification f o r one or more shape classes  potters i n competition adopt a strategy of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n or increased e f f i c i e n c y for one or more c l a s s e s change i n mode of production  increase over time i n v a r i e t i e s of shape c l a s s e s , s i z e s , pastes, and/or decorative techniques; decrease i n dimensional and within-class standardization  increase i n dimensional and within-class standardization; change i n l o c a t i o n of evidence f o r production ( t o o l s , k i l n s ) ; use of more efficient firing shaping techniques  non-prestige wares: change i n diet  increased i n t e r settlement contacts through exchange relationships  change in household ritual (private contexts)  changes i n agricultural practices  Drestiae  (labor-intensive^ wares:  increase i n status competition  1  increased demand by consumers f o r new types of pots f o r preparing, cooking, serving food and/or drink  increase i n demand 7 by consumers f o r vessels to use i n displays of largesse or conspicuous consumption \  58  increase i n number of shape c l a s s e s , decorative techniques  increase i n degree of labor input f o r techniques used previously, increase i n 7 number of shape c l a s s e s with l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques, and/or introduction of new labor-intensive techniques  prestige wares. time as w e l l .  There should be a change i n organization of labor over Below, I discuss a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of producers and  consumers i n more d e t a i l .  Diversification  Potters are l i k e l y t o adopt a strategy of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n when there i s an increase i n s o c i o p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n with an increase i n s i z e and density of the consuming population.  Two important  aspects  of c u l t u r a l evolution are increasing population s i z e and density, and increasing s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (Flannery 1972, Wright 1978). Increases i n population size and density coupled with increases i n s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n are l i k e l y t o cause more d i v e r s i f i e d demands f o r vessels by consumers (Rice 1984:256-7).  Consumers may demand greater  v a r i e t i e s of non-prestige and/or prestige wares.  An increase i n  v a r i e t i e s of vessels desired by consumers of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l statuses i s l i k e l y (Rice 1987:301). Other f a c t o r s may cause d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n production as w e l l . Decreases i n a v a i l a b l e arable land, e s p e c i a l l y i n conjunction with increases i n population size and density, may force some households t o make a l i v i n g by other means such as pottery making (Arnold 1985:168, 196).  This may cause a change from a household mode of production t o  one i n v o l v i n g s p e c i a l i s t s .  Or, there may be a change from one  s p e c i a l i s t mode t o another.  59  Potters are l i k e l y to make changes i n strategy of production i f an element of competition r e s i s t change.  i s involved.  As I discuss below, potters  may  S p e c i a l i s t potters i n competition with one another f o r a  growing and i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s i f i e d consuming population  should  d i v e r s i f y production of prestige and non-prestige  Demand f o r a  wares.  v a r i e t y of goods gives potters incentive to compete (Foster 1965:55). Birmingham (1975) observes that competing potters i n the Kathmandu V a l l e y make a wide v a r i e t y of vessels i n order to please consumers. Competition between potters to d i v e r s i f y production may harboring of secret technologies  ( N i c k l i n 1971:33).  involve the  Competition among  producers i s i n t e n s i f i e d i f there i s an increase i n number of work units s p e c i a l i z i n g i n pottery  production.  There are three categories of archaeological evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n production.  The f i r s t i s an increase over time i n  v a r i e t y of paste, shape, and/or decorative classes. decrease i n dimensional  standardization.  The second i s a  The t h i r d i s a decrease i n  w i t h i n - c l a s s ( i . e . , shape c l a s s ) standardization with regard to secondary shape features and techniques of decoration.  There may  be  evidence f o r one or more of these ceramic categories. Two external factors may non-prestige  cause d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of production  ( u t i l i t a r i a n ) wares.  One  of  i s changes i n d i e t n e c e s s i t a t i n g  adoption of new methods f o r preparing, cooking, and/or serving food or drink (Rice 1984:246).  For example, d e c l i n i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y of arable  land could stimulate farmers to grow new crops that are better adapted  60  to poorer s o i l .  Potters could respond by producing new forms and/or  pastes f o r vessels used to prepare these new foods.  A second causal  f a c t o r i s changes i n r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s (Rice 1984:246-7).  Change i n  household r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s could r e s u l t from contact with another c u l t u r a l group.  Potters would respond by producing new form and/or  decorative classes of vessels.  However, high status f a m i l i e s may  adopt  changes i n d i e t and i n r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s and a l s o create a demand f o r changes i n vessels ( i n form, paste, and/or decoration). public contexts would e x h i b i t l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e  Vessels used i n  techniques.  Simplification  The strategy of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of production involves a d e c i s i o n to produce fewer v a r i e t i e s of ceramic classes defined i n terms of paste, shape, and/or decorative techniques.  The strategy of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  may  be caused by at l e a s t three types of external f a c t o r s . The f i r s t and more common s i t u a t i o n involves two of the same causal f a c t o r s that may  stimulate d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n : increasing population  s i z e and density, and decline i n a v a i l a b i l i t y of arable land.  In t h i s  case potters are l i k e l y to compete f o r the increasing s i z e of the consuming population by producing non-prestige  wares as e f f i c i e n t l y as  possible. There are p o t e n t i a l l y two types of archaeological evidence f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s instance, i n a d d i t i o n to decrease i n v a r i e t y of  61  ceramic c a t e g o r i e s . zation.  The f i r s t  i s i n c r e a s e i n dimensional  standardi-  The second i s i n c r e a s e i n w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , or  v a r i e t i e s of s i z e c l a s s e s , d e c o r a t i v e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n each shape c l a s s . input i n p r o d u c t i o n  techniques  techniques,  and secondary shape  Evidence f o r r e l a t i v e  such as d e c o r a t i o n ,  may i n d i c a t e e f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c t i o n  as w e l l .  l a c k of l a b o r  forming, and f i r i n g  There i s no i n c e n t i v e  f o r p o t t e r s t o i n v e s t time and l a b o r on c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s relatively  low value  t o consumers.  In t h e Kathmandu V a l l e y , v e s s e l s  regarded as "cheap" and " d i s p o s a b l e " relative  by consumers a r e made w i t h a  l a c k of l a b o r i n p u t by s p e c i a l i s t p o t t e r s  1975:386).  with  (Birmingham  A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n has been observed i n V e r a c r u z ,  Mexico  ( K r o t s e r 1974:133-4). The tiation.  t h i r d external causal f a c t o r i s increasing s o c i a l P o t t e r s may a l s o decide  efficiently,  ization  t o produce some p r e s t i g e wares more  t o meet consumer demand.  i n c r e a s e i n dimensional  of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s .  produced by l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e If i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n  There should be evidence of an  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and/or w i t h i n - c l a s s  evidence of l a c k of l a b o r i n p u t .  differen-  standard-  P r e s t i g e v e s s e l s w i l l not e x h i b i t  As d e f i n e d  in this  study, they are  techniques.  of p r o d u c t i o n ,  q u a n t i t i e s of v e s s e l s more e f f i c i e n t l y ,  or e f f o r t s t o produce  greater  i s s u c c e s s f u l t h e r e can be a  feedback s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s advantageous f o r p o t t e r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f o r t s at i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n . d i s t r i b u t i o n area  F o r example, i f the s i z e of a  i n c r e a s e s , p o t t e r s may respond by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r  62  e f f o r t s at e f f i c i e n t production.  Davis and Lewis (1985) conclude that  when s i z e of d i s t r i b u t i o n area increased during the l a t e Bronze Age  on  Crete, there was an increase i n e f f i c i e n t l y applied decorative techniques and an increase i n standardization of shape. C u l t u r a l stress from f a c t o r s such as increase i n warfare, famine, disease, or environmental  degradation can force potters to s i m p l i f y  production to a great degree.  These f a c t o r s may cause the s i z e of the  population using and making pottery to decline d r a m a t i c a l l y .  Also,  potters would have l e s s time, energy, and/or resources to spend on production.  There should be a r e l a t i v e l y large decrease i n v a r i e t i e s of  vessel classes (paste, form, and/or decoration) produced. prestige wares should decline d r a m a t i c a l l y or cease. labor input i n production should increase. change (Rice 1987:464).  Relative lack of  Decoration i s most l i k e l y to  There are two cases from the period of European  contact i n the New World that i l l u s t r a t e t h i s process 71).  Production of  During the sixteenth and seventeenth  (Rice 1987:268-  centuries i n c e n t r a l Mexico,  decoration on Aztec pottery became s i m p l i f i e d a f t e r population l e v e l s declined.  S i m i l a r l y , contact with Europeans caused disease among the  Arikara of the North American P l a i n s and population decreased. Subsequently, q u a l i t y of surface f i n i s h on A r i k a r a pottery declined.  63  Conservatism  Conservatism i n production i s l i k e l y , e s p e c i a l l y with respect t o vessels that serve basic needs such as vessels used f o r household r i t u a l s ( i n p r i v a t e contexts), water j a r s , and cooking pots (Rice 1984:245-6).  Potters are r e l u c t a n t t o change production methods when  consumers r e s i s t change.  Also, potters do not want t o r i s k changing  methods that have proven successful i n producing vessels that serve basic needs.  Aspects of production that have f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  i . e . , paste and form, are l e a s t l i k e l y t o change (Rice 1984:241).  CHANGES  IN STRATEGIES  OF CONSUMERS FOR PRESTIGE  VESSELS  Researchers often ignore the main purpose of using pottery vessels i n p r e h i s t o r i c s o c i e t i e s : preparation, storage, and serving of food and drink.  Because these a c t i v i t i e s have u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , a t t r i b u t e s  of pottery vessels can symbolize  social relations.  Two other ceramic  studies that address t h i s t o p i c are S i n o p o l i (1986) and D i e t l e r  (1988).  S i n o p o l i (1986) uses h i s t o r i c data t o i n v e s t i g a t e how s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are symbolized during a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g food vessels i n a medieval Hindu s o c i e t y .  D i e t l e r (1988) describes the s o c i a l importance of  d r i n k i n g alchohol and the e f f e c t of importing f o r e i g n wine and d r i n k i n g vessels on p o l i t i c a l economy during the French Iron Age.  64  Strategies f o r s o c i a l manipulation have an impact on consumer demand f o r goods (Appadurai  1986:29).  In a chiefdom, competition f o r  maintaining and enhancing p o s i t i o n s of status i s common behavior. Status may be defined i n terms of wealth, sex, age, p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n , r i t u a l p o s i t i o n , genealogical r e l a t i o n s h i p , or other v a r i a b l e s .  Status  competition creates demand f o r c r a f t items that have p r e s t i g e value. This part of the model describes how people use pottery vessels that e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e l y great amounts of labor input during displays of status.  Pottery vessels are on d i s p l a y as w e l l as the food and alchohol  that they contain. S o c i a l value of goods v a r i e s with context of use (Douglas and Isherwood 1979).  Pottery vessels f o r food and alchohol may be used i n  two kinds of s o c i a l contexts: household consumption and consumption at inter-household s o c i a l events.  I f d i s p l a y behavior with pottery i s  present i n chiefdoms, i t should take place most often i n p u b l i c contexts, such as inter-household s o c i a l events.  S o c i a l messages tend  to be sent when they w i l l be v i s i b l e to r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e , diverse groups of people (Wobst 1977:330).  Ethnographic  data on use of pottery vessels  support t h i s p r e d i c t i o n . In the Yucatan, vessels with the greatest amount of labor input are those used i n the most p u b l i c areas (Lischka 1978:231). In a chiefdom there are two types of behavior i n which people use inter-household s o c i a l events i n v o l v i n g food and/or alchohol to maintain or enhance p o s i t i o n s of status.  65  They are: 1) d i s p l a y of  may  largesse, or generosity i n g i v i n g food and/or alchohol t o other people, and 2) conspicuous consumption, or d i s p l a y of personal consumption of food and/or alchohol.  For these a c t i v i t i e s consumers demand containers  e x h i b i t i n g r e l a t i v e l y great amounts of labor input i n order t o symbolize status.  Displays of largesse and conspicuous consumption with labor-  i n t e n s i v e vessels must have been common i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms, given the extent they are mentioned i n the ethnographic  l i t e r a t u r e (discussed  below). During the t r a n s i t i o n from chiefdom t o state there should be f l u c t u a t i o n s i n competition f o r p o s i t i o n s of s o c i a l status. may increase, decrease, or remain s t a b l e .  Competition  When competition increases,  competing i n d i v i d u a l s or groups create an increase i n demand f o r c r a f t goods that symbolize status. may be a causal f a c t o r .  Increasing s i z e and density of population  As s o c i e t i e s increase i n s i z e and complexity,  the need f o r people t o communicate p o s i t i o n s of status with material items increases (Rice 1984:257). An increase i n status competition should cause an increase i n demand f o r pottery vessels t o use i n d i s p l a y s of largesse and/or conspicuous consumption, r e s u l t i n g i n increased production of vessels d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n terms of labor input.  Increased production from one  phase t o another may involve: making greater q u a n t i t i e s of elaborated vessels with no change i n method, using a greater v a r i e t y of techniques f o r e l a b o r a t i o n , and/or increasing the l e v e l of labor expenditure i n making vessels.  66  A decrease i n status competition causes a decrease i n demand f o r pottery vessels used i n d i s p l a y s of largesse and/or conspicuous consumption. vessels.  This r e s u l t s i n a decrease i n production of elaborated  One causal f a c t o r may be r e j e c t i o n of peaceful means of status  competition by people i n favor of increased warfare.  However, a  decrease i n production of elaborated vessels could i n d i c a t e that competitors decided to replace pottery vessels with a new type of c r a f t good to symbolize competition.  status, rather than an actual decline i n status  Changes i n types of c r a f t goods that serve as prestige  items are l i k e l y as chiefdoms become more complex. Increases i n production of status items tend to cause f u r t h e r increases.  Competitors  demand i n c r e a s i n g l y elaborated and d i f f e r e n t items f o r demonstrating superior status.  This process cannot continue i n d e f i n i t e l y ; i n e v i t a b l y  the system of production must s t a b i l i z e or c o l l a p s e . On the basis of ethnographic  data about use of containers (pottery  and wooden v e s s e l s , baskets) during d i s p l a y s of largesse and conspicuous consumption, I expect to f i n d a pattern showing a continuum of elabora t i o n i n . labor input.  At one end are vessels e x h i b i t i n g r e l a t i v e l y  marked e l a b o r a t i o n , and at the other, vessels that are r e l a t i v e l y elaborated.  The greater the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the consumers, the  greater the elaboration. may  non-  Vessels e x h i b i t i n g a low degree of elaboration  represent attempts by n o n - e l i t e consumers to acquire vessels that  emulate those used by e l i t e s .  67  Labor-intensive techniques observation and experience  have been i d e n t i f i e d from  of western p o t t e r s .  ethnographic  For example, i t has been  observed that large vessels require more labor input than smaller vessels (Reina and H i l l 1978:246; DeBoer and Lathrap 1979:120).  Also,  t h i n - w a l l e d vessels produced by scraping require r e l a t i v e l y great labor input (DeBoer and Lathrap 1979:120, Hagstrum 1986:16).  D i s p l a y s of  largesse  On the basis of ethnographic  data summarized i n Table 8, I expect  that there may be evidence f o r up to four types of displays of largesse i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms.  Three types p e r t a i n to e l i t e s : 1) c h i e f s  g i v i n g food and alchohol to p o l i t i c a l supporters, 2) other e l i t e s holding occasional f e a s t s , and 3) r i v a l r i e s of f e a s t - g i v i n g by e l i t e s . The fourth type applies to e l i t e s and n o n - e l i t e s : providing food f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s at l i f e - c r i s i s ceremonies such as weddings and f u n e r a l s . The goal of e l i t e s i n any d i s p l a y of largesse i s to maintain or increase p o s i t i o n s of status.  Displays of largesse are d i s p l a y s of  generosity i n g i v i n g food and/or drink to r e l a t i v e l y large numbers of " people.  This generosity i s a manipulative t a c t i c .  A generous  reputation i s an important asset f o r s o c i a l , e s p e c i a l l y p o l i t i c a l , status.  Food and alchohol are g i f t s of great value.  g i f t s , people become indebted to the donor(s).  68  By r e c e i v i n g these  In the f i r s t two types  Table 8. D i s p l a y Behavior w i t h C o n t a i n e r s i n Chiefdoms and Other Ranked S o c i e t i e s .  type of display  containers  area r e f e r e n c e  largesse, chiefs give food t o political supporters  huge wooden troughs f o r serving taro  Polynesia ( F i r t h 1965: 222)  large quantities of s e r v i n g baskets, over 100 i n one f e a s t  Polynesia ( F i r t h 1965: 227)  huge p o t t e r y serving vessels f o r porridge  Africa (Goody 1982: 91)  huge cooking pots f o r porridge, very large serving baskets  Africa (Richards 1939:148)  large quantities of pots f o r corn beer  Mexico (Pastron 1974:108)  large cooking pots  Guatemala (Nelson 1981:122)  large quantities of b i g cooking pots  Mexico and Guatemala (Hayden and Cannon 1984:175)  high status people h o l d feasts  69  r i v a l r i e s of generosity by high status people  largesse at life-crisis ceremonies  large, elaborately decorated wooden baking frame for puddings  Melanesia (Oliver 1955:367)  large cooking pots for taro pudding  Melanesia (Malinowksi 1922:171)  huge wooden serving vessels  Melanesia (Davenport 1986:96, 98,99)  large quantities of cooking pots  Melanesia (Oliver 1955:297)  large quantities of beer apparently served i n many pots  Africa (Washburne 1961)  large cooking pots  Guatemala (Nelson 1981:113)  large cooking pots  Philippines (Longacre 1985:344 )  large, decorated pots f o r serving food such as basins  Peru (Tschopik 1950:206)  large quantities of cooking pots  Guatemala (Nelson 1981:111)  70  conspicuous consumption  porcelain food dishes, some with elaborate shapes, porcelain r i c e wine jars  Philippines (Solheim 1965:256, 258,281)  large quantities of pots  Peru (Tschopik 1950:215-6)  large quantities of pots  India (Miller 1985:74)  d i v e r s i t y of pot forms  Peru (Tschopik 1950:215-6)  d i v e r s i t y of pot forms  India (Miller 1985:73-4)  c h i e f s use elaborately decorated wooden s p i t bowls  Hawaii (Earle 1987b:69)  elaborately decorated pots f o r drinking corn beer  Peru (DeBoer 1984:551-4)  size of calabash f o r drinking beer correlates with status  Africa (Washburne  71  1961)  of displays by e l i t e s , r e c i p i e n t s are obliged t o acknowledge the superior status of the donor(s).  In the t h i r d type of e l i t e d i s p l a y ,  r e c i p i e n t s attempt t o surpass previous displays of generosity.  The  purpose of d i s p l a y s of largesse at l i f e - c r i s i s ceremonies i s t o symbolize  status of the hosting f a m i l i e s .  The ethnographic  data summarized i n Table 8 i n d i c a t e that there i s  a tendency t o use p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n a l types of vessels f o r d i f f e r e n t types of d i s p l a y s .  Displays of largesse tend t o involve vessels f o r  cooking and serving food, and f o r preparing and serving alchohol.  In  displays of largesse by c h i e f s f o r p o l i t i c a l supporters, two types of elaborated containers are common: extremely large containers f o r cooking and serving food, and great q u a n t i t i e s of containers f o r serving food. Among the Gonja of Ghana, women i n the house of the chief cook and serve porridge i n huge pots t o people during the most important community festival.  This act of generosity on the part of the chief ensures  l o y a l t y of supporters  (Goody 1982:91).  Among the Bemba of Rhodesia,  c h i e f s give people who provide labor at t h e i r households large amounts of food.  Porridge i s cooked i n huge pots and served i n baskets that are  about eight times l a r g e r than those used i n d a i l y l i f e (Richards 1939: 148).  The extremely large size of containers and great q u a n t i t i e s used  symbolize the unsurpassable largesse of the c h i e f s . Feasts held by e l i t e s other than c h i e f s tend t o involve vessels that are large i n s i z e , too.  Among the Maya of Guatemala, lineage heads  tend t o own r e l a t i v e l y large q u a n t i t i e s of b i g f i e s t a pots (Hayden and  72  Cannon 1984:175).  Also, the wealthier the landowner, the larger the  size of f i e s t a pots owned (Nelson 1981:122). E l i t e s other than c h i e f s attempt t o surpass previous displays of generosity i n order to improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n s of status.  In Melanesia,  men host feasts i n order t o humiliate p a r t i c u l a r r i v a l s (Oliver 1955: 365-90; Davenport 1986:97-8).  Again, very large containers as well as  large numbers of them are used to prepare and serve food.  The l a r g e r  the s i z e of v e s s e l , the more expense was undertaken by the host (Davenport 1986:96,98).  Among the Thonga of southern A f r i c a , e l i t e  males compete with each other f o r supporters by g i v i n g away beer (Washburne 1961). brewing and  Apparently, donors have large q u a n t i t i e s of pots f o r  serving.  When f a m i l i e s provide food f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s of l i f e - c r i s i s ceremonies, they use vessels that are r e l a t i v e l y less elaborated and show more varied methods of elaboration.  I f f a m i l i e s do not have  adequate resources, they borrow large pots (Nelson 1981:113) or food and labor (Longacre 1985:344).  Or, they may use l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s of  normal-sized pots (Nelson 1981:111).  Vessels f o r cooking and serving  may be large i n s i z e , e l a b o r a t e l y decorated, have elaborate forms, and have f i n e paste.  73  Displays  of conspicuous consumption  Displays of conspicuous consumption by e l i t e s and non-elites may take place at i n d i v i d u a l households and at inter-household events. People may use vessels designed f o r use by more than one person and/or individual-use vessels such as d r i n k i n g cups.  Ownership of a large  quantity of pots and a great d i v e r s i t y of pots are two kinds of symbols of wealth and status. alchohol.  Another i s use of elaborated cups f o r d r i n k i n g  In A f r i c a , f o r example, s i z e of calabash ( f o r drinking)  c o r r e l a t e s with status of consumer (Washburne 1961).  Methods of  elaboration are v a r i e d . Display of personal consumption with elaborated d r i n k i n g cups should be common given archaeological as well as ethnographic evidence. In Denmark, e l a b o r a t e l y shaped d r i n k i n g cups of metal and containers f o r alchohol  (metal, ceramic) are associated with adult male graves from  p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms ( K r i s t i a n s e n 1984:86-93).  Display of personal  consumption i s evident, whether the vessels were made f o r consumption by the deceased i n the a f t e r - l i f e or by mourners at the funeral r i t e s . Germany, thin-walled d r i n k i n g cups of pottery are also associated adult male graves (Wells  1985:11-3).  74  In  with  The Chinese h i s t o r i c a l  context  H i s t o r i c a l records mention that bronze and some types of pottery vessels were used i n displays of status during the Shang and Zhou dynasties.  Apparently, displays took place i n several s o c i a l  contexts.  Bronze vessels were e x h i b i t e d i n b u r i a l s , a n c e s t r a l h a l l s , and during feasts ( L i Xueqin 1980:9).  Table 9 describes types of d i s p l a y s  mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e . decoration were important use at one time.  I t appears that s i z e , weight, shape, and  c r i t e r i a , as w e l l as quantity of vessels i n  These examples provide a d d i t i o n a l support f o r my  expectation that there should be evidence f o r d i s p l a y behavior,  largesse  and conspicuous consumption, with pottery during the Longshan Period. H i s t o r i c a l records suggest that one type of bronze vessel i n particular,  the ding cauldron, was often used i n d i s p l a y s of status. I t  i s possible that at least some large ding were used i n displays of largesse.  For example, two bronze ding that have been found are large  enough i n volume t o cook an ox ( L i Xueqin 1980:10). have symbolized power and a u t h o r i t y (Chang 1983b:95).  Very large ding may Unfortunately,  d e t a i l s about the s o c i a l contexts i n which large ding were used are lacking.  Ding cauldrons may have been used during the types of events  i n which d i s p l a y s of largesse are common i n chiefdoms: leaders feeding p o l i t i c a l supporters, other e l i t e s holding f e a s t s , r i v a l r i e s of generosity by e l i t e s , and f a m i l i e s feeding p a r t i c i p a n t s at l i f e - c r i s i s ceremonies.  75  Table 9. Display Behavior With Containers: the Chinese H i s t o r i c a l Context •  type of d i s p l a y  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of vessels  symbols of rank  p o s s i b l y a hierarchy of bronzes according to s i z e , weight, shape, decoration, i n s c r i p t i o n s , Shang Dynasty (Chang 1980:207)  largesse'  huge bronze ding cauldrons: one at 875 kg, 133 cm i n height, 110 cm i n length; two vessels 1/2 t h i s s i z e ; each has the capacity t o cook an ox, Shang Dynasty ( L i Xueqin 1980:10)  symbols of rank  d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and q u a n t i t i e s of bronze ding cauldrons c o r r e l a t e with rank, Zhou Dynasty ( L i Xueqin 1980:10)  demonstration of power  large bronze ding used to b o i l a l i v e a f o r e i g n leader, Zhou Dynasty (Li Xueqin 1980:10)  ceremony t o maintain p o s i t i o n s of rank by e l i t e males, Shang and Zhou Dynasties  apparently bronze and pottery eating and d r i n k i n g vessels, quantity of food vessels c o r r e l a t e s with age (Cooper 1982:107-14)  76  ceremony of thanksg i v i n g by e l i t e males, and other d r i n k i n g ceremonies, Shang and Zhou Dynasties  apparently bronze and pottery d r i n k i n g vessels (Cooper 1982:107-14)  general, Shang and Zhou Dynasties  apparently quantity of bronze and pottery food serving dishes c o r r e l a t e s with rank (Chang 1978:131)  77  I t appears that there were displays of conspicuous consumption with containers during the Shang and Zhou dynasties, too.  One text  mentions that quantity of vessels f o r serving food c o r r e l a t e s with age of consumer.  Also, d r i n k i n g vessels are associated with e l i t e males  (Cooper 1982:108-14).  Quantity of vessels f o r serving food may  c o r r e l a t e with rank as w e l l (Chang 1978:131).  CHANGE IN MODE OF PRODUCTION  The f i r s t t o p i c discussed i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s typologies f o r modes of production.  Second, hypotheses i n the Chinese and western archaeo-  l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e f o r mode of production during the l a t e N e o l i t h i c period are discussed.  Third, expectations f o r change i n mode of  production on the basis of ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y are described.  There are  few t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s that have been derived from ethnographic  data.  There are several typologies f o r mode of ceramic production i n the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e .  Four modes of production have been defined  on the basis of ethnographic data by van der Leeuw (1977, 1984) and Peacock (1981, 1982:8-10): 1) household production ( n o n - s p e c i a l i s t ) , 2) household industry, 3) i n d i v i d u a l workshop industry, and 4) nucleated workshop industry.  Other researchers make a f u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n between  attached and independent s p e c i a l i z a t i o n (Earle 1981:230, Brumfiel and Earle 1987:5).  Independent s p e c i a l i s t s produce goods f o r a general  78  population of consumers.  Attached s p e c i a l i s t s , sponsored by e l i t e s ,  produce prestige items e x c l u s i v e l y f o r e l i t e consumption.  Santley et  a l . (1989:108) use the term "tethered s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " t o r e f e r t o one type of attached s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . typologies.  Two recent studies employ more complex  Costin (1986) focuses on d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between modes  i n v o l v i n g independent and attached s p e c i a l i s t s .  S i n o p o l i (1988) defines  modes that p e r t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y t o s t a t e - l e v e l s o c i e t i e s . This study employs the simpler typology of modes defined by van der Leeuw (1977, 1984) and Peacock (1981, 1982).  Given a chiefdom  l e v e l of c u l t u r a l complexity, the f i r s t three modes are p o t e n t i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e : household, household industry, and i n d i v i d u a l workshop industry.  Nucleated workshop industry i s associated with urbanism and  f u l l y developed market economies (Rice 1987:184).  The study emphasizes  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of prestige ( l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e ) versus non-prestige wares rather than i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of attached versus independent  speciali-  zation . Rice (1987:187) suggests that the household industry mode encompasses a great deal of v a r i a b i l i t y .  I t i s l i k e l y that modern  ethnographic s o c i e t i e s with household industry do not represent the range of v a r i a t i o n that probably e x i s t e d among p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms. In t h i s study I propose t o define two types of household industry, "simple" and "complex". "Simple household industry" r e f e r s t o the standard d e f i n i t i o n of household industry i n v o l v i n g female producers using a simple technology.  79  Due t o f a c t o r s such as poor a g r i c u l t u r a l land, f a m i l i e s attempt t o supplement t h e i r incomes by making pots (Rice 1987:184).  The Fulani of  Cameroon are often regarded as exemplifying the household mode of production.  I t i s not l i k e l y that t h i s group represents the only kind  of household industry i n p r e h i s t o r y . status, undesirable a c t i v i t y .  The Fulani regard p o t t i n g as a low  Containers made of modern materials such  as p l a s t i c or metal are preferred (David and Hennig 1972:4,17). "Complex household industry" i s s i m i l a r t o the i n d i v i d u a l workshop industry mode as defined by van der Leeuw (1977, 1984) and Peacock (1981, 1982).  In both modes, s p e c i a l i s t producers are men.  the major source of income.  Potting i s  The former mode involves production i n  houses, and the l a t t e r , i n workshops.  The i n d i v i d u a l workshop mode i s  characterized by greater i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of production.  The ethno-  graphic case described by M i l l e r (1985) f o r a v i l l a g e i n c e n t r a l India i s a useful i l l u s t r a t i o n of "complex household industry". organized by men, produce vessels f o r others (1985:36,209).  Six houses, Vessels are  e i t h e r sold i n houses or i n regional markets, and payment i s made with grain or cash (1985:86).  Potters on the i s l a n d of Thassos i n Greece  exemplify i n d i v i d u a l workshop industry (Peacock 1981:189-190).  Two male  p o t t e r s , i n v e s t i n g a considerable amount of resources i n technology, produce vessels f o r a l l other r e s i d e n t s . Some Chinese and western researchers expect that there i s increasing e f f i c i e n c y i n ceramic production during the l a t e N e o l i t h i c period.  They imply that a workshop industry mode e x i s t e d .  80  Song, L i , and Du (1983:273) state that there were gradual improvements i n techniques of production and that scale of production increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y .  They envision a system i n which f a m i l i e s  s p e c i a l i z e d i n pottery making. conclusion.  L i and Cheng (1984:14) agree with t h i s  Their i l l u s t r a t i o n ( L i and Cheng 1984:7) of two men working  on a wheel (one turning, one forming) seems equivalent t o i n d i v i d u a l workshop industry because large output i s implied. The term that Keightley (1987) applies t o l a t e N e o l i t h i c pottery i n China, " p r e s c r i p t i v e production", of production.  seems t o r e f e r t o a workshop mode  The term o r i g i n a t e s with F r a n k l i n (1983), designed t o  describe organization of bronze production during the Shang dynasty. I t i n d i c a t e s a highly organized d i v i s i o n of labor that r e g u l a r l y produces a large volume of output.  According t o F r a n k l i n (1983:96), with pre-  s c r i p t i v e production there i s "an e s s e n t i a l p r e d i c t a b i l i t y " , and "no room f o r s u r p r i s e " .  Also, there i s standardization of form and material  (Franklin 1983:97).  By expecting the presence of overseers who plan a l l  steps of production, Keightley implies that pottery vessels  should  e x h i b i t a high degree of standardization (1987:107). There are serious problems i n i d e n t i f y i n g modes of production on the basis of ceramic data.  Few t e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r modes have been  developed, p a r t l y due t o the l i m i t e d ethnographic sources providing relevant information (Rice 1987:204-5).  Studies i n v o l v i n g s t a t e - l e v e l  s o c i e t i e s have had the most success i n i d e n t i f y i n g mode of production. There i s often more than one source of nonceramic data a v a i l a b l e such as  81  d i r e c t evidence of workshops and t e x t u a l data describing organization of production (see S i n o p o l i 1986, 1988; Davis and Lewis 1985; Benco 1987, 1988; and Beaudry 1984). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine whether changes i n degree of standardization or d i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t e change from one mode t o another, or simply change w i t h i n a mode.  The d i f f e r e n t conclusions reached i n  two recent studies i l l u s t r a t e t h i s dilemma.  M i l a n i c h et a l . (1984:132-  6) conclude that a c e r t a i n l e v e l of standardization and d i v e r s i t y represent s p e c i a l i z e d production i n the Weeden Island Culture of northern F l o r i d a .  However, Kaiser (1984:292-5) concludes that increases  i n d i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t e i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of production w i t h i n a nons p e c i a l i s t or household mode. There are a l i m i t e d number of observations of pottery production i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s that provide support f o r the hypothesis that increases i n standardization and d i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t e development of or increase i n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n (Rice 1981, 1987:202).  There i s some  i n d i c a t i o n that a progression from one mode t o another i s characterized by an i n c r e a s i n g degree of standardization and d i v e r s i t y (Table 10). Unfortunately, most observations of t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s p e r t a i n t o the extreme ends of the continuum, the household and nucleated workshop industry modes. Only one ethnoarchaeological study with the e x p l i c i t purpose of examining v a r i a b i l i t y i n vessels i n r e l a t i o n t o modes of production has been published t o date (Longacre et a l . 1988).  82  I t supports the  Table 10. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Mode of Production: Ethnographic Data on Ceramic V a r i a b i l i t y .  ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y  ethnographic  observation  dimensional standardization  Longacre et a l . (1988) show that pots made i n a nucleated workshop industry mode are much more standardized i n shape and size than pots made i n a household mode B a l f e t (1965) notes that pots made i n a nucleated workshop industry mode are h i g h l y standardized i n shape and s i z e compared to pots made by semispecialists  within-class standardization  none  diversity  Longacre et a l . (1988) show that there i s a greater v a r i e t y of size classes of pots made i n a nucleated workshop industry mode than i n a household mode van der Leeuw (1984) suggests that d i v e r s i t y of forms increases with complexity of mode  83  hypothesis that a high degree of standardization represents a complex s p e c i a l i s t mode of production.  The authors conclude that vessels made  among f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l i s t s (representing a nucleated workshop industry) i n the P h i l i p p i n e s , the Paradijon, are much more standardized i n shape and size than vessels made i n a household mode of production by the Kalinga (1988:111). One other study demonstrates with q u a n t i t a t i v e data that potters i n a nucleated workshop industry mode, i n Egypt, produce vessels that are h i g h l y standardized i n form (Lacovara 1985:56). makes a comment about dimensional  B a l f e t (1965:166)  standardization and mode of production  that i s l a t e r supported by the r e s u l t s of Longacre et a l . (1988).  She  notes that vessels made by f u l l - t i m e s p e c i a l i s t s i n north A f r i c a n workshops are h i g h l y standardized i n shape and s i z e .  A l s o , vessels made  by s e m i - s p e c i a l i s t s (mode not s p e c i f i e d ) are l e s s standardized (1965:170). Longacre et a l . (1988:111) a l s o observe that a greater d i v e r s i t y of size classes of cooking pots i s produced i n the nucleated workshop mode than i n the household mode. This f i n d i n g supports the suggestion by Rice (1981, 1987:202) that d i v e r s i t y of ceramic categories increases with complexity of productive mode.  In t h i s v e i n , van der Leeuw  (1984:757-60) suggests that d i v e r s i t y of vessel forms increases i n the progression from household production t o each type of s p e c i a l i s t mode. I f there i s archaeological evidence f o r e f f i c i e n c y i n production, i t i s l i k e l y that s p e c i a l i s t s are represented  84  (Brumfiel and Earle  1987:5).  F a c t o r s such as i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y can cause  independent s p e c i a l i s t s t o i n t e n s i f y p r o d u c t i o n However, i n c r e a s i n g e f f i c i e n c y  or s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  ( E a r l e 1981:230). i n production  over time  may not n e c e s s a r i l y e n t a i l a change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n .  SUMMARY  The  model t e s t e d i n t h i s  s t r a t e g i e s of ceramic complexity  evidence  i n relation to increasing cultural  There a r e t h r e e s t r a t e g i e s of p r o d u c t i o n :  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , and c o n s e r v a t i s m .  f o r more than  A f t e r Rice  production  i n chiefdoms.  diversification,  study o u t l i n e s p o t e n t i a l changes i n  (1981),  one of these  There may be  s t r a t e g i e s w i t h i n an assemblage.  i t i s hypothesized  t h a t p o t t e r s should adopt a  s t r a t e g y of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r one o r more shape c l a s s e s as sociopolitical  complexity  increases.  s t r a t e g y of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  o r i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y f o r some shape.  c l a s s e s , and t h e r e should be ceramic production.  evidence  f o r a change i n mode of  The model d e s c r i b e s some e x t e r n a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s t h a t can  have an impact on p r o d u c t i o n and d e n s i t y . production  P o t t e r s should a l s o adopt a  One important  s t r a t e g y such as i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n  size  c a u s a l f a c t o r i n t e r n a l t o t h e system of  i s c o m p e t i t i o n among p o t t e r s i n response t o consumer demand  f o r an i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y of p r e s t i g e ( l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e ) and n o n - p r e s t i g e vessels.  85  The order  model a l s o d e s c r i b e s  to display status.  how  people may  E l i t e s and  n o n - e l i t e s may  of l a r g e s s e and/or conspicuous consumption. i n ethnographically-known chiefdoms. increase  i n status competition  prestige vessels.  Also,  Shang and  consumption.  These d i s p l a y s are common  model p r e d i c t s t h a t  demand f o r a g r e a t e r  Finally,  historical  v a r i e t y of  t e x t s from  i n China suggest t h a t bronze and  have been used f o r d i s p l a y s of l a r g e s s e and Therefore,  an  For example, d i s p l a y s of l a r g e s s e  large containers.  Zhou d y n a s t i e s  v e s s e l s may  creates  The  undertake d i s p l a y s  some types of d i s p l a y tend t o i n v o l v e c e r t a i n  f u n c t i o n a l c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s . t o i n v o l v e very  use p o t t e r y v e s s e l s i n  there  the  86  Longshan  Period.  the  pottery  conspicuous  i s even more reason t o expect t h a t  d i s p l a y s were t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g  tend  these  CHAPTER 4.  ANALYSIS OF SHAPE CLASSES AND HYPOTHESES ABOUT FUNCTIONAL TYPES  INTRODUCTION  This study r e l i e s on d e s c r i p t i o n s of shape classes i n archaeol o g i c a l reports f o r t e s t i n g the model of ceramic change.  The test  requires e x p l i c i t l y defined and d i s t i n c t shape classes f o r each s i t e . Therefore,  i t i s necessary t o evaluate the i n d i v i d u a l shape classes  defined i n reports.  When examining vessels i n the f i e l d , i t became  apparent that some shape classes might require r e d e f i n i t i o n , e i t h e r by s p l i t t i n g i n t o more groups or lumping with other groups.  Another  necessary step before t e s t i n g the model i s discussing the types of information on pottery presented i n reports as well as information on ceramic f u n c t i o n .  These t o p i c s are addressed i n a separate  chapter,  since they have not been treated extensively i n the western l i t e r a t u r e on Chinese archaeology. The chapter consists of four sections.  The f i r s t section i s a  d e s c r i p t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l terms used t o designate vessels i n Chinese archaeological reports.  shape classes of  The second section describes  kinds of ceramic data included i n Chinese N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports. The t h i r d section consists of the evaluation of shape classes defined i n archaeological reports f o r Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou. the fourth s e c t i o n , hypotheses about vessel function are discussed.  87  In  TRADITIONAL TERMS FOR DESIGNATING  Archaeologists designate  shape  SHAPE  CLASSES  i n C h i n a use a t r a d i t i o n a l  c l a s s e s of c o n t a i n e r s .  T h e s e t e r m s may r e f e r t o  p o t t e r y , b r o n z e , p o r c e l a i n , wooden, o r l a c q u e r from two s o u r c e s : 1953:73).  According  Song D y n a s t y classic  1) a n c i e n t t o Chang  They o r i g i n a t e (An Z h i m i n  ( 1 9 8 1 : 1 5 8 ) , many a n c i e n t  (A.D. 9 6 0 - 1 2 7 9 ) .  cauldron,  vessels.  t e x t s a n d 2) m o d e r n u s a g e  terms date t o t h e  Song s c h o l a r s a d o p t e d t e r m s  t e x t s t h a t denoted d i f f e r e n t shapes  term i s ding  s e t of terms t o  mentioned  from  older,  of bronze v e s s e l s .  i n C h a p t e r 3.  Modern terms  One  such  include b e i  c u p a n d wan b o w l . T a b l e 11 l i s t s  published  designating  shape  represented  i n Longshan  definitions  c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s . sites.  f o rtraditional  A l l of t h e forms  t e x t s and a r e s t i l l  substantial  shape  g i s t s have seen advantages  problems  from h i s t o r i c p e r i o d  have been e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g  researchers  classify  Archaeological  Given  archaeolo-  terms t o d e s c r i b e  sites.  these terms.  v e s s e l s by s u b j e c t i v e assessment  However,  As i n many  areas,  of s i m i l a r i t y .  r e p o r t s do n o t g i v e a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e  methods a r e u s e d i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . regarding  such  used today.  over time i n China,  i n using the t r a d i t i o n a l  N e o l i t h i c as w e l l as v e s s e l s  listed are  As t h e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s , some t e r m s  as hu p o t o r i g i n a t e from a n c i e n t continuity i n vessel  terms  definition  Chang 1 9 8 1 : 1 6 1 ) .  As a r e s u l t t h e r e  of terms and a s s i g n m e n t  of v e s s e l s  Authors of d i f f e r e n t r e p o r t s  88  i s some  confusion  t o classes (see  use d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s  Table 11. P u b l i s h e d D e f i n i t i o n s f o r T r a d i t i o n a l Terms D e s c r i b i n g Shapes of V e s s e l s Found i n Longshan S i t e s .  a n c i e n t v e s s e l shapes, terms no longer used:  dou  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient stemmed cup or bowl Zhang (1983): h e m i s p h e r i c a l bowl with h i g h stem and s p r e a d i n g f o o t , a c o n t a i n e r t o serve food L i Xueqin (1980:11): meat c o n t a i n e r , may have a deep b e l l y and l i d , or shallow bowl Chang (1978:128): d u r i n g the Shang Dynasty, v e s s e l of p o t t e r y , only, t o serve meat d i s h e s  ding  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient cooking v e s s e l with two loop handles and t h r e e or f o u r l e g s Zhang (1983): t h r e e or f o u r legged c a u l d r o n f o r cooking meats and c e r e a l s L i Xueqin (1980:8): v e s s e l t o cook meat with a deep b e l l y and t h r e e or f o u r l e g s Chang (1981:160): a s p e c i f i c term t h a t r e f e r s t o a v e s s e l with t h r e e s o l i d l e g s  gu  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient wine v e s s e l , beaker, g o b l e t Zhang (1983): g o b l e t with broad l i p , long narrow stem, and f l a r e d base, f o r wine Chang (1981:162): a g e n e r i c term f o r a v e s s e l t o warm wine  gui  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient p i t c h e r with t h r e e l e g s ( p o t t e r y only)  jia  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient t r i p o d wine v e s s e l with a round mouth Zhang (1983): round t r i p o d v e s s e l f o r wine with handle and capped columns L i Xueqin (1980:14): wine g o b l e t , moderately l a r g e b e l l y , sometimes with l i d Chang (1981:162): a g e n e r i c term f o r a v e s s e l t o serve wine  89  Ii  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): ancient t r i p o d cooking vessel with hollow legs Zhang (1983): cauldron f o r cooking meats and cereals L i Xueqin (1980:10): a cooking vessel with pouch-like hollow legs Chang (1981:162): a generic term f o r a food vessel  lei  L i Xueqin (1980:16): an u r n - l i k e vessel that i s f a i r l y t a l l and narrow  xian/yan  Zhang (1983): steamer f o r vegetables and cereals L i Xueqin (1980:10): a t r i p o d steamer with pouch-like l e g s , upper part i s l i k e a ding and has a rack at the base Chang (1981:161): a s p e c i f i c term f o r a t r i p o d food vessel  zeng  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): an ancient earthen u t e n s i l f o r steaming r i c e  zun  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): a kind of ancient wine vessel Zhang (1983): cup f o r d r i n k i n g or warming wine L i Xueqin (1980:15): a wine container ( i l l u s t r a t i o n shows a vessel with wide o r i f i c e , carinated body, splayed foot) Chang (1981:161): a generic term f o r wine vessels  zuo  Guo (1981:136): a stand f o r other vessels known from the l a t e r Zhou Dynasty  terms denoting ancient and modern vessel shapes:  bei  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): Zhang (1983): wine v e s s e l , cup  cup  bi  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): or g r i d f o r steaming  grate  90  bo  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): bowl  bu  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): vase L i Xueqin (1980:15-6): short and squat u r n - l i k e vessel f o r holding wine ( i l l u s t r a t i o n page 17 shows a large r i n g foot)  gang  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): v a t , j a r , crock, f o r holding water, p i c k l e d vegetables, e t c .  guan  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): j a r , pot, f o r jam, t e a , water, etc. Hansford (1954): a s u b s t a n t i a l vessel moderately contracted towards the neck, a jar Chang (1978:127): a storage vessel made of pottery during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties  gai  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): l i d , cover Hansford (1954): cover  he  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): box, case Hansford (1954): a small box with f i t t e d cover, often c i r c u l a r i n shape  hu  Chinese-English D i c t i o n a r y (1979): k e t t l e for water, pot ( f o r tea, etc.) Zhang (1983): j a r f o r wine of various shapes - round, rectangular, compressed L i Xueqin (1980:16): a wine container of various shapes - round, rectangular, compressed Chang (1981:161): a s p e c i f i c term f o r a wine vessel Hansford (1954): describes several d i f f e r ent shapes and functions such as warming wine, tea  lei-bo  term from An Jiayuan (1986), c a l l e d deng l u by most w r i t e r s t o mean s t r a i n e r , f i l t e r ; from the common meaning of the two words, for example i n The Chinese-English Dictionary (1979)  91  earthen  pan  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): p l a t e , dish, tray Zhang (1983): wide shallow bowl f o r h o l d i n g water t o use i n washing or ceremonial a b l u t i o n s , u s u a l l y with high r i n g f o o t and handles L i Xueqin (1980:19): a water v e s s e l f o r ceremonial a b l u t i o n s , used with he p i t c h e r b e f o r e the middle Zhou p e r i o d Chang (1981:162): a g e n e r i c term f o r a water c o n t a i n e r  pen  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): b a s i n , tub, pot f o r water, f l o w e r s , e t c . Hansford (1954): pot, tub Chang (1981:162): a g e n e r i c term f o r a water c o n t a i n e r  ping  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): bottle, vase, j a r Hansford (1954): vase or b o t t l e ; v e s s e l s with narrow necks and s w e l l i n g bodies  wan  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): bowl Hansford (1954): s m a l l bowl used f o r e a t i n g or d r i n k i n g t e a  weng  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): earthen j a r f o r water, p i c k l e d v e g e t a b l e s , e t c . Hansford (1954): l i k e guan, a j a r moderately c o n t r a c t e d towards the neck  yu  C h i n e s e - E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y (1979): a broadmouthed v e s s e l f o r h o l d i n g l i q u i d such as a spittoon  92  f o r terms.  This problem i s compounded by the f a c t that there i s often a  great v a r i e t y of vessel shapes i n ceramic assemblages, as Medley (1976:24) points out.  A c l a s s of vessels described by one term  may  include more than one ceramic form. Table 11 shows that one reason f o r t h i s confusion i s a lack of s p e c i f i c i t y i n the d e f i n i t i o n s f o r terms.  Chang (1981) points out that  only some of the ancient terms were meant to r e f e r to s p e c i f i c forms of bronze v e s s e l s ; most terms are generic. considered generic, too.  The other terms should be  The problem of nonspecific terms f o r  describing vessel shape i s not l i m i t e d to Chinese archaeology.  As  Fournier (1981) shows, several terms used i n modern English such as "cup" and " j a r " are not p r e c i s e . Problems of t h i s kind i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are i n e v i t a b l e when researchers attempt to apply formal types on a widespread b a s i s .  The  t r a d i t i o n a l terms should be considered as s t a r t i n g points f o r establishment  of classes that s u i t p a r t i c u l a r research problems, rather  than formal types with standardized d e f i n i t i o n s to f i t a l l cases. Table 11 i l l u s t r a t e s another problem, that the t r a d i t i o n a l terms r e f e r to vessel function as w e l l as morphology.  Terms with f u n c t i o n a l  i m p l i c a t i o n s are not useful on a widespread b a s i s , because vessel function can change over time and space.  I t should not be assumed, f o r  example, that vessels of a given form were used f o r the same purpose during the N e o l i t h i c and h i s t o r i c periods, e s p e c i a l l y when d i f f e r e n t raw materials ( i . e . , pottery and bronze) are involved.  93  Functional  aspects  of the t r a d i t i o n a l terms should be considered as hypotheses on the basis of h i s t o r i c a l analogy, not f a c t .  As the l a s t section of t h i s chapter  shows, i n some cases archaeological data do not provide support f o r the traditional definitions  of function.  Scholars i n the West should r e a l i z e that Chinese researchers have employed a v a r i e t y of methods f o r c l a s s i f y i n g vessels using the t r a d i t i o n a l terms; i . e . , subdividing the basic categories of shape. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures used by L i Chi (1956) f o r pottery at the Shang s i t e of Xiaotun provided a standard f o r l a t e r archaeological reports, as L i Chi himself points out (1977:138). developed a paradigmatic  For the Xiaotun pottery, L i Chi  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedure, d i v i d i n g the  assemblage i n t o successively f i n e r classes with lower body shape as the f i r s t d i v i s i o n , and o r i f i c e size as the second.  For the l a t e  s i t e of Chengziyai, L i Chi et a l . (1956) describe a  similar  Neolithic classi-  f i c a t i o n system that i s based on differences i n vessel openings and legs. In 1953, An Zhimin stated that each worker devises h i s own method of using the t r a d i t i o n a l terms (1953:73).  This statement i s s t i l l  applicable t o recent archaeological reports. Authors of N e o l i t h i c describe vessel shape. ding and b e i .  s i t e reports often use three terms t o  Xingzhuang are broad categories of shape such as  Xing are subtypes of xingzhuang, usually denoted by  c a p i t a l l e t t e r s such as "A" and "B". Shi are subdivisions of xing and r e f e r r e d t o as " s t y l e s " .  They are always designated  94  by Roman numerals  such as " I " and " I I " .  Styles are u s u a l l y defined by a t t r i b u t e s of  shape; o c c a s i o n a l l y a t t r i b u t e s of decoration are used as w e l l (Yan 1985:34).  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s undertaken p r i m a r i l y f o r one purpose:  to arrange vessels i n a d e t a i l e d chronological s e r i e s , using the shi styles.  I t i s a t o o l used p r i m a r i l y f o r one type of research problem:  d e s c r i p t i o n of culture h i s t o r y .  Because t r a d i t i o n a l terms are used on a  widespread basis f o r t h i s s i n g l e purpose, archaeologists i n China a c t u a l l y work with typologies, or l e i x i n g x u e , rather than e s t a b l i s h i n g classes to use f o r s p e c i f i c analyses, or l e i b i e (Yan,  personal  communication, 1987b). My evaluation of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures concentrates d e f i n i t i o n s of xingzhuang and xing given i n reports.  on  The shi s t y l i s t i c  groups, u s u a l l y defined on the basis of r e l a t i v e l y minor shape a t t r i b u t e s , tend to be inappropriate f o r the research problem at hand.  KINDS OF CERAMIC DATA IN SITE REPORTS  There are three f a c t o r s that must be considered when i n t e r p r e t i n g ceramic data i n N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports.  F i r s t , formats of describing  vessels can vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y . Table 12 l i s t s formats of describing vessels i n the Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou s i t e reports. The authors of the Hougang and Lujiakou reports use s i m i l a r formats. For example, they group vessels according to xingzhuang, xing, and shi  95  Table 12. Formats of Describing Vessels i n S i t e Reports.  s i t e report  method  Hougang (Anyang Archaeo l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS, 1985)  pots from a l l phases grouped together i n t o major shape classes (xingzhuang), subtypes (xing), and s t y l e s ( s h i ) . t o t a l s f o r each major shape class not stated f o r i n d i v i d u a l phases, but t o t a l s given f o r s i t e as a whole  Baiying (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983)  pots f i r s t separated by phase, then by type of paste and surface c o l o r , then by form according t o major shape c l a s s (xingzhuang) and s t y l e (shi ), only. s t y l e s can represent major or f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n s i n form, vessels of one shape c l a s s may be described i n separate sections, t o t a l s of each major shape class given f o r each phase  Meishan (Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982 )  pots described f o r each phase according t o major shape c l a s s (xingzhuang) and s t y l e (shi ), only, t o t a l s f o r q u a n t i t i e s of vessels per phase or i n the s i t e as a whole not stated  96  Lujiakou (Shandong Archaeo l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS and the A r t Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province 1985)  pots from a l l phases grouped together by major form (xingzhuang ), subtype (xing), and s t y l e ( s h i ) , but major forms are sometimes grouped by type of paste and surface c o l o r , and s t y l e s may represent major differences i n shape, t o t a l s provided f o r s i t e as a whole but not f o r each phase  97  styles.  The  authors of the B a i y i n g and  Meishan r e p o r t s do not  define  x i n g subgroups of shape. Reports tend t o l a c k i n f o r m a t i o n goals  other  than e s t a b l i s h m e n t  that i s relevant to  or refinement of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y .  s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e s problems f o r the p r e s e n t may  research  study.  For i n s t a n c e ,  This reports  s t a t e the t o t a l number of v e s s e l s f o r a g i v e n major form  (xingzhuang) i d e n t i f i e d at s i t e s , but not the number of v e s s e l s from each phase.  T h i s i s the case f o r Hougang and  Chapter 5, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o estimate  these  Lujiakou.  As d i s c u s s e d  figures.  Another important f a c t o r i n i n t e r p r e t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of  vessels  i n Chinese s i t e r e p o r t s i s t h a t o n l y whole v e s s e l s or sherds with recognizable  form  ( i . e . , xingzhuang) are d e s c r i b e d  some of these v e s s e l s were o r i g i n a l l y r e c o v e r e d broken; t e c h n i c i a n s s k i l l f u l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d Sometimes r e p o r t s  not p r o v i d e The reports  separate  only p r o v i d e  cases when no total each  i n one  them w i t h  summaries f o r d i f f e r e n t  style  respect to t h i s  (shi),  s t y l e s are d e f i n e d .  of t e n d i n g cauldrons  and  detail.  or major form  plaster. decoration However, they  study i s t h a t considered (xingzhuang) i n  For example, a r e p o r t may  describe  style.  98  While  phases.  d e s c r i p t i o n s of v e s s e l s t h a t are  of a given  a  p i e c e , most were  used i n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  most s e r i o u s problem with  representative  i n any  summarize d i f f e r e n t types of p a s t e and  found on sherds t h a t cannot be  in  only t h r e e ,  one  give a  v e s s e l from  do  Thus, samples of vessels described i n N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports represent an even greater t h e o r e t i c a l distance from an o r i g i n a l  systemic  context (as defined by S c h i f f e r 1976) than samples described i n most western reports.  This s i t u a t i o n can be described by four l e v e l s ,  beginning with the systemic context (Table 13).  The l a s t two l e v e l s  p e r t a i n to N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports i n p a r t i c u l a r . In recent years western archaeologists have made e f f o r t s to describe how vessels excavated from s i t e s represent a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e of the o r i g i n a l systemic context (e.g. Deal 1983, 1985; Hayden and Cannon 1983).  They have pointed out how d i s c a r d behavior a f f e c t s the  kinds and q u a n t i t i e s of vessels recovered i n archaeological contexts. This t o p i c i s discussed f u r t h e r i n Chapter 6. Vessels described i n N e o l i t h i c s i t e reports represent an a r t i f i c i a l sample of the archaeological context.  Because t h i s study  r e l i e s on ceramic data from s i t e r e p o r t s , conclusions about changes i n production and i n f e r r e d use of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels must be as preliminary.  regarded  I t i s not e n t i r e l y c l e a r how w e l l samples of vessels  described i n the Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou s i t e reports represent the population of vessels from the archaeological context. An a d d i t i o n a l concern i s that most shape classes are by very small samples of vessels.  represented  This problem i s a l l e v i a t e d t o some  extent by the fact that I was able to examine several vessels i n a d d i t i o n to those that are l i s t e d i n the reports as representative of styles.  In the a n a l y s i s of shape c l a s s e s , I describe these vessels as  99  Table 13. Schematic Representation of Levels i n I n t e r p r e t i n g Samples of Pottery Described i n Chinese N e o l i t h i c S i t e Reports  level 1 systemic context  level 2 archaeological context  level 3 Neolithic s i t e reports  level 4 Neolithic s i t e reports  vessels i n use by households: curated, recycled, discarded. several d i s c a r d areas; p r o v i s i o n a l or temporary, and f i n a l (Deal 1983, 1985)  abandonment of households, eventually the whole community; type of abandonment a f f e c t s kinds and q u a n t i t i e s of vessels found i n excavation (Deal 1983). recovery of whole and p a r t i a l l y broken v e s s e l s , and sherds  only vessels that are whole or reconstructed, or large sherds with recognizable form (xingzhuang) are counted i n totals  only vessels considered as representative of major forms (xingzhuang), subtypes (xing), or s t y l e s (shi) are described  100  "unknowns", since they are not mentioned i n reports.  I incorporate  these vessels i n my analyses i f the major shape c l a s s (xingzhuang) such as wan bowl or b e i cup i s obvious.  Also, I ensure that the quantity of  vessels i n my samples f o r major shape classes (with the "unknowns" added) matches the f i g u r e s given i n reports.  ANALYSIS OF SHAPE CLASSES IN SITE REPORTS  Some reports make d i r e c t statements about c r i t e r i a archaeologists used t o define i n d i v i d u a l classes of vessels.  These statements are  important because they r e f e r t o the t o t a l range of excavated vessels. They are expressed i n q u a l i t a t i v e terms; r e f e r r i n g , f o r example, t o a large b e l l y and wide mouth.  When appropriate I evaluate these  statements by q u a n t i t a t i v e methods, r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c dimensions of vessels such as maximum diameter and rim diameter.  In some cases  examination of drawings and photographs i n reports i s s u f f i c i e n t t o determine whether classes are d i s t i n c t .  When there i s no explanation  of c r i t e r i a used i n d e f i n i n g shape c l a s s e s , I am l i m i t e d t o making evaluations on the basis of v a r i a b i l i t y that i s apparent i n the samples of vessels described i n reports. In many cases the classes defined i n reports are d i s t i n c t .  The  only change necessary, i f any at a l l , i s re-assignment of a few vessels to more appropriate c l a s s e s .  However, i n some cases I conclude there i s  no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e between established classes.  101  Thus i t i s  necessary t o lump classes together.  At times i t i s necessary t o r e -  c l a s s i f y v e s s e l s , d e f i n i n g three forms, f o r example, when there were two originally.  Methods of analysis  There are a v a r i e t y of approaches t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of vessels by means of morphological literature.  a t t r i b u t e s i n the western archaeological  This study i s concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g e t i c rather than  emic c l a s s e s , or devised (versus f o l k ) classes i n the terminology of Rice (1987).  Descriptions of emic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems include  Kempton (1981) and Kaplan and Levine (1981).  Also, t h i s discussion  concerns c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of whole vessels rather than sherds.  Other  archaeological studies with t h i s goal that are p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant here are S i n o p o l i (1988), Barnes (1986), Froese (1985), HardySmith (1974), and Whallon (1982).  The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that there  are two c r i t i c a l steps i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : 1) s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s t o define classes and 2) s e l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques f o r establishing classes. Several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using r a t i o s d e s c r i b i n g major vessel proportions i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Barnes 1986, H a l l y 1986, S i n o p o l i 1986, Froese 1985, Whallon 1982, and Hardy-Smith 1974).  Ratios are more useful i n i d e n t i f y i n g major  differences i n shape rather than s i n g l e dimensions, p a r t i c u l a r l y when  102  whole vessels are analyzed Smith 1974:5).  (Barnes 1986:474; Whallon 1982:151-4, Hardy-  Also, i t i s important t o i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t s i z e classes  for each morphological  c l a s s of vessels using dimensions such as height  (Barnes 1986:474, Hardy-Smith 1974:5).  This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method i s  adopted here, f o r reasons of p r a c t i c a l i t y with respect t o small samples as w e l l as e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Some studies employ large numbers of r a t i o s f o r i n d i v i d u a l vessels (e.g., Froese 1985,  Shennan and Wilcock 1975).  This a n a l y s i s uses  measurements taken i n the f i e l d and measurements c a l c u l a t e d from scale drawings of vessels i n reports.  Time constraints and d i f f i c u l t  conditions i n the f i e l d made i t i m p r a c t i c a l t o take large numbers of measurements on each v e s s e l .  Likewise, i t i s not f e a s i b l e t o accurately  c a l c u l a t e large numbers of dimensions from scale drawings i n reports. R e l i a b l e r e s u l t s may be obtained only f o r major dimensions. R e s t r i c t i o n to major dimensions should not undermine the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s , however.  At l e a s t one study concludes that only a few key r a t i o s are  needed t o d i s t i n g u i s h between vessel shapes (Shennan and Wilcox 1975:27).  Another complex method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  considered  i n f e a s i b l e f o r t h i s study involves p r i n c i p l e s of s o l i d geometry (e.g., Ericson and S t i c k e l 1973;  Shepard 1976;  see Rice 1987:219-20).  Ratios and i n d i v i d u a l dimensions with formal-functional s i g n i f i c a n c e are used here t o evaluate shape classes and define new ones when necessary (Table 14).  There i s a need f o r more  ethnoarchaeological  research examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between form and f u n c t i o n .  103  The few  Table 14. Ratios and I n d i v i d u a l Measurements with Formal Functional S i g n i f i c a n c e Used i n Analysis of Shape Classes.  r a t i o or measurement  significance  height and maximum diameter (HT, MXD)  s i z e ; ethnographic data i n d i c a t e that many shape classes of vessels have more than one size c l a s s (David and Hennig 1972, DeBoer and Lathrap 1979:105, Pastron 1974:103, Longacre 1981:53) t r a n s p o r t a b i l i t y (Rice 1987:226)  maximum diameter/ height (MXD/HT) or maximum diameter/ height of o r i f i c e diameter, or body height (MXD/ODHT)  o v e r a l l shape and s t a b i l i t y (Hally 1986:278); ethnographic data i n d i c a t e that t a l l and t h i n vessels ( i . e . those with smaller values of MXD/HT) tend t o have a primary function of long term storage f o r dry goods or long term storage f o r l i q u i d staples (Henrickson and McDonald 1983:632,633); r e l a t i v e l y short and squat vessels (with l a r g e r values of MXD/HT) tend t o be used f o r temporary storage of dry goods or f o r cooking (Henrickson and McDonald 1983:632, 631)  o r i f i c e diameter/ base diameter (OD/BD) or rim diameter/ base diameter (RD/BD)  s t a b i l i t y ; Ericson et a l . (1972:89, 90,94) propose that vessels with r e l a t i v e l y large values are more stable  maximum diameter/ base diameter (MXD/BD)  s t a b i l i t y ; proposed by H a l l y (1986:278)  104  o r i f i c e diameter/ height (OD/HT), or rim diameter/height (RD/HT), or o r i f i c e diameter/height of o r i f i c e (OD/ODHT)  a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; proposed by H a l l y (1986:280), ethnographic data indicate functional significance of o r i f i c e s i z e and vessel volume (Smith 1988:914), a l s o that vessels for dry storage tend t o have a small o r i f i c e and large volume, and that eating dishes tend t o have a large o r i f i c e and small volume (Smith 1985:300,301)  o r i f i c e diameter/ maximum diameter (OD/MXD), or rim diameter/maximum diameter (RD/MXD), or neck diameter/maximum diameter (ND/MXD)  a c c e s s i b i l i t y ; ethnographic data i n d i c a t e that u n r e s t r i c t e d vessels have l a r g e r values and r e s t r i c t e d vessels have smaller values (Rice 1987:212), vessels f o r eating tend t o be u n r e s t r i c t e d and have larger values (Rice 1987:236)  105  studies that have been published include Henrickson and McDonald (1983) and Smith (1988, 1985).  The f u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of many r a t i o s and  s i n g l e dimensions i s not c l e a r . Form and function are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d ; a given vessel form may be used f o r more than one purpose (Rice 1987:224).  I t i s more  p r o f i t a b l e t o define f u n c t i o n a l types on the basis of a t t r i b u t e s other than morphology such as type of paste and presence of residues from use, as discussed i n the f i n a l section of t h i s  chapter.  A number of s t a t i s t i c a l techniques, of varying complexity, have been used i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of vessel shape. techniques  R e l a t i v e l y complex  such as p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s and c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s  are f e a s i b l e when large data sets are a v a i l a b l e , i n terms of quantity of cases and v a r i a b l e s (see S i n o p o l i 1986, Froese 1985, Whallon 1982, Shennan and Wilcox 1975, Rice and Saffer 1982). use complex s t a t i s t i c a l techniques  I t i s not p r a c t i c a l to  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , since only small  samples of vessels and measurements are a v a i l a b l e . Furthermore, the purpose of a n a l y s i s i s evaluation of previously established shape classes on the basis of key c r i t e r i a e i t h e r mentioned i n reports or apparent from observation of vessels.  I t i s not possible  to t o t a l l y r e - c l a s s i f y a s i g n i f i c a n t quantity of vessels that are c l e a r l y representative of the population of vessels recovered  during  excavation, i . e . , t o define a l l major shape classes or xingzhuang such as ding and L i . I t i s more f e a s i b l e to evaluate e x i s t i n g classes using r e l a t i v e l y simple s t a t i s t i c a l techniques.  106  Also, m u l t i v a r i a t e techniques  such as c l u s t e r analysis would not be able t o indicate c l e a r l y whether previously established classes should be combined i n t o one c l a s s . For example, a c l u s t e r analysis of two sub-classes ( i . e . , xing such as A, B) of guan j a r s would r e s u l t i n a number of options f o r grouping vessels. When sample sizes are adequate, I use techniques of exploratory data a n a l y s i s , or EDA (Hartwig and Dearing 1979, Shennan 1988), p r i m a r i l y s c a t t e r p l o t s as well as stem and leaf displays i n d i c a t i n g ranges of measurements and median values.  T r a d i t i o n a l simple  s t a t i s t i c a l techniques such as histograms do not describe d i s t r i b u t i o n s of measurements as completely (Hartwig and Dearing 1979). More than one study has s u c c e s s f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d shape classes by means of s c a t t e r p l o t s (see Barnes 1986, Hardy-Smith 1974).  I try a  number of combinations of v a r i a b l e s and select the p l o t s that most c l e a r l y depict d i s t i n c t groups, ensuring that the r e s u l t a n t classes are l o g i c a l given v a r i a t i o n among vessels observed i n the f i e l d and apparent from information  i n reports  ( d e s c r i p t i o n s , drawings, photographs).  Analyses were conducted with the computer programs SYSTAT and SYGRAPH (Wilkinson  1988a, 1988b).  When sample sizes of vessels permit, I employ nonparametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s t o evaluate e x i s t i n g classes and t o define new ones when necessary.  Nonparametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s are appropriate when  normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s cannot be assumed and when sample s i z e i s small (Siegal and C a s t e l l a n 1988). nonparametric t e s t s .  I adopt a r e j e c t i o n l e v e l of 0.01 f o r the  I prefer t o use a r e l a t i v e l y conservative  107  c r i t e r i o n f o r r e j e c t i n g the n u l l hypothesis that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between shape c l a s s e s , f o r concluding classes are present.  that d i f f e r e n t shape  S t r i c t r u l e s f o r d e f i n i n g groups are necessary,  given that small samples are used i n the analyses.  Otherwise, perceived  differences between vessels could merely represent the range of v a r i a t i o n f o r one shape c l a s s . Measurements on i n d i v i d u a l vessels, whether taken d i r e c t l y or c a l c u l a t e d from scale drawings i n reports, are rounded t o one decimal place ( i . e . , 5.6 cm, 5.7 cm, e t c ) .  I f vessel shape was uneven, I took  the maximum measurement f o r a given dimension.  Some measurements r e f e r  to the i n t e r i o r portion of vessels: o r i f i c e diameter, neck diameter, and maximum diameter. When c a l c u l a t i n g dimensions from scale drawings of vessels i n reports, i t was not necessary t o determine height and rim diameter. This information i s usually given i n reports, designated as gao (height) and koujing (rim diameter).  These data made i t possible t o check the  accuracy of c a l c u l a t e d measurements from d i f f e r e n t scales.  I compared  my c a l c u l a t e d measurements with the known ones, a procedure which detected errors i n report measurements i n a few cases.  Occasionally I  d i d random checks t o compare my c a l c u l a t e d measurements with those I had taken i n the f i e l d .  The majority of measurements used i n the f o l l o w i n g  analyses, however, were taken d i r e c t l y from vessels.  108  Results  This section b r i e f l y describes r e s u l t s from the analyses of shape classes defined i n the Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou s i t e reports.  For d e t a i l s describing o r i g i n a l shape classes accepted and  new  classes e s t a b l i s h e d , see Appendix A (Tables 36-37, 39-44; Table 38 gives r e s u l t s of nonparametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s f o r vessels from Hougang). This discussion focuses on comparing the shape classes defined i n reports to the t r a d i t i o n a l terms as described i n Table 11. The evaluation of shape classes was more successful f o r Hougang than the other s i t e s .  There are l a r g e r samples of v e s s e l s , i n c l u d i n g  vessels I examined d i r e c t l y and those i l l u s t r a t e d i n the report.  Also,  the report provides more statements about c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g classes.  I t was  often d i f f i c u l t to evaluate the shape classes at  Baiying and Lujiakou, because the primary method of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s c o l o r and r e l a t i v e texture of paste rather than shape.  Vessels i n a  given shape c l a s s are often described i n d i f f e r e n t sections of these reports.  A problem with the a n a l y s i s of pots from Meishan i s that only  a small number of vessels were seen. A shape c l a s s (xingzhuang) such as guan j a r may or a number of forms (Table 15). site.  r e f e r to one form,  These forms often d i f f e r from s i t e to  I t i s c l e a r that the t r a d i t i o n a l terms should be regarded as  generic.  My proposed d e f i n i t i o n s f o r major shape classes of vessels i n  109  Table 15. Summary of Results from Analysis of Shape Classes at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou. ("old" = o r i g i n a l class(es) accepted, "new" = new classes e s t a b l i s h e d ; " ( x ) " r e f e r s to the number of shape and s i z e classes indicated by each term; * denotes size c l a s s e s , only)  xingzhuang (shape c l a s s )  Hougang  Baiying  Meishan  Lujiakou  bei  new (3)  new (5)  new (6)  new (4)  bi  new (2)  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  bo  new (1)  old (1)  bu  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  new (2)  old (1)  new (7)  dou  old (2)  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  g_ai  old (5)  new  old (2)  old (4)  gang  new (2)  (11)  old (1)  2H guan  new (3*)  new  gui  old (1)  old (1)  (10)  old (1)  new (9)  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  he hu  old (1)  jia  old (2)  old (1) new (3)  old (1) old (1)  lei old (1)  lei-bo li  old (1)  old (1)  110  new (2)  pan  old (1)  panxingqi  old (1)  pen  new (2)  Ping  old (1)  pingdipen  new (2*)  new (3)  quanzupan  new (2)  old (1)  new (10)  old (2)  sanzupan shenfupen  old (4) old (1)  shuangfupen  old (1)  sizumin  old (1)  wan  new (5)  new (4)  new (6)  weng  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  xian/yan  new (1)  old (1)  old (1)  zeng  old (1)  old (1)  old (1)  zhe (gu) fupen  old (1)  new (3)  new (1)  old (1)  zun old (1)  old (1)  other j a r s , no necks  old (3)  other necked jars  old (3)  other p i t c h e r s  old (1) new (2)  y_u  zuo  new (2)  new (4)  111  Longshan s i t e s are given i n Table 16. The table describes common v a r i e t i e s or subclasses of xingzhuang ( i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4 ) . Some terms usually r e f e r t o a wider range of forms than others, such as bei cup, gai l i d , guan j a r , pingdipen basin, pen container, and wan bowl.  In other words, these terms often r e f e r t o a v a r i e t y of  proportions, r e q u i r i n g s u b d i v i s i o n i n t o d i f f e r e n t shape c l a s s e s .  One  f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s conclusion i s that r e l a t i v e l y large samples of vessels were a v a i l a b l e t o evaluate these classes.  I f other classes  were represented by l a r g e r samples, a s i m i l a r l y wide range of v a r i a t i o n might be apparent.  C u l t u r a l f a c t o r s are probably important as w e l l .  These forms are more common on s i t e s than other forms, r e f l e c t i n g r e l a t i v e l y high rates of production, use, and discard.  The morpho-  l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n may a l s o represent a r e l a t i v e l y large number of separate producing  units.  This p o s s i b i l i t y i s discussed i n Chapter 6.  Many terms incorporate more than one s i z e of v e s s e l , too.  Different  s i z e classes of vessels are common i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and often i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t functions. This pattern of subsuming more than one shape under a given t r a d i t i o n a l term characterizes reports of other l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s . L i Chi et a l . (1956) state that the Chengziya s i t e i n Shandong contains several v a r i e t i e s of dou stemmed d i s h , ding t r i p o d , bei cup, guan j a r , gai l i d , pen container, and wan bowl.  Keightley (1985a) describes how  the terms dou stemmed d i s h , xian t r i p o d , and ding t r i p o d r e f e r t o more than one shape of vessel from the e a r l i e r phases at the Dahe s i t e .  112  T a b l e 16. Proposed D e f i n i t i o n s f o r Major Shape C l a s s e s of V e s s e l s (Xingzhuang) i n Longshan S i t e s .  bei  a c l a s s of v e s s e l s with g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n shape; forms are s i m i l a r t o modern cups, most form are tube-shaped, w i t h rim diameter/base diameter r a t i o c l o s e t o 1.0; handles o p t i o n a l  bi  a c l a s s of v e s s e l s with s t r a i g h t w a l l s , r e l a t i v e l y wide r i m diameter and base diameter, and small c i r c u l a r h o l e s p i e r c e d through the base; a g a i n t h e r e are v a r i a n t s i n terms of v e s s e l s i z e , and s i z e and shape of h o l e s . Two o t h e r forms a r e i n s i t e s : 1) a v e s s e l w i t h s t r a i g h t w a l l s , r e l a t i v e l y wide r i m diameter and base diameter, and sawt o o t h shaped r i d g e s c o m p l e t e l y around the base, and 2) a small bowl w i t h h o l e s p i e r c e d through the lower body and base  bo  a small bowl w i t h a bulge ( u s u a l l y a p o i n t of maximum body diameter) a t the middle or lower p o r t i o n of the body t h a t may be rounded or sharp i n p r o f i l e (a c a r i n a t i o n p o i n t ) , the r i m tends t o be wide i n comparison t o the base  bu  a s h o r t , r e l a t i v e l y wide v e s s e l i n terms of maximum diameter, bulbous i n shape, with a f l a r i n g r i m  ding  a g l o b u l a r v e s s e l with a moderately wide o r i f i c e , f l a r i n g rim, round base, and 3 s o l i d f e e t of v a r i o u s shapes and s i z e s ; t h e r e i s v a r i a t i o n i n degree of g l o b u l a r i t y (maximum d i a m e t e r / h e i g h t )  dou  a stemmed d i s h ; t h e r e i s v a r i a t i o n i n depth and s i z e of d i s h , and i n h e i g h t and width of stem  113  gai  a l i d , a v a r i e t y of shapes and s i z e s ; i n c l u d i n g f l a t l i d s , shallow-bodied l i d s , and l i d s with deep b o d i e s t h a t are bowll i k e i n shape; a v a r i e t y of shapes of handles (one or two per v e s s e l )  gang  a l a r g e j a r , o v e r a l l the major c l a s s of v e s s e l s with the l a r g e s t v e s s e l s i n terms of h e i g h t and maximum diameter, a r e l a t i v e s m a l l base and wide o r i f i c e , handles o p t i o n a l ; two v a r i e t i e s : 1) s h o r t , wide neck and 2) no neck  gu  a v e s s e l shaped l i k e a modern beaker with a t a l l body, s p l a y e d f o o t and d i s t i n c t l y wide, f l a r i n g r i m  guan  a j a r with a f l a t base, i l l - d e f i n e d shoulder, f l a r i n g rim, p a r t i a l l y c o n s t r i c t e d o r i f i c e , the p o i n t of maximum diameter i s a t the mid-body, no handles; more than one s i z e c l a s s ; r e p o r t s a p p l y t h i s term t o o t h e r shapes of j a r s as w e l l , some with necks  gui  a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e legged v e s s e l with a l a r g e , wide spout, a l a r g e handle (more than one v a r i e t y ) ; t h r e e l e g s t h a t are e i t h e r r e l a t i v e l y t h i n and s o l i d , or wide and hollow (mammiform)  he  a s h o r t , wide v e s s e l with a r e l a t i v e l y small base and wide o r i f i c e , i n c u r v i n g rim, p o i n t of maximum diameter i s a t the s h o u l d e r  hu  a j a r with a l o n g , wide neck and small f l a r i n g r i m , the o r i f i c e diameter i s s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r than t h e neck diameter, the p o i n t of maximum body diameter i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y mid-height and the change i n p r o f i l e i s abrupt, handles o p t i o n a l  114  jia  a t r i p o d with r e l a t i v e l y wide hollow l e g s , v e s s e l body i s r e l a t i v e l y g l o b u l a r , wide o r i f i c e and f l a r i n g r i m ; there a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n height of r i m , shape of body ( i n terms of maximum d i a m e t e r / h e i g h t ) , and shape of base ( r e l a t i v e l y f l a t or round)  lei  a j a r with a r e l a t i v e l y t a l l , narrow neck; r e l a t i v e l y small p e d e s t a l - l i k e base, t h e p o i n t of maximum diameter i s at the s h o u l d e r and i s c a r i n a t e d i n p r o f i l e ; f o u r wide, f l a t handles  lei-bo  a bowl w i t h small base, wide o r i f i c e and i n c u r v i n g r i m , the p o i n t of maximum diameter i s a t t h e o r i f i c e , t h e r e a r e l a r g e , wide engraved l i n e s t h a t r a d i a t e out from the i n t e r i o r base up the s i d e s , c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e i n s i d e p o r t i o n of the v e s s e l ; a n o t h e r , l e s s common v a r i e t y i s a t a l l and narrow v e s s e l , cup-shaped  li  a l a r g e , g l o b u l a r t r i p o d v e s s e l with short neck and wide f l a r i n g r i m , the hollow l e g s a r e wide and t a l l , bag-shaped or mammiform, and t h e legs are t a l l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e body  pen  a j a r t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t and squat i n shape, with a wide o r i f i c e , wide f l a r i n g r i m , and small base; there are two v a r i e t i e s , those w i t h a d i s t i n c t shoulder, and those without l i k e shenfupen  ping  a small j a r with a s h o r t , wide neck, g l o b u l a r body and r e l a t i v e l y wide base, small r i m  pingdipen  l i k e other pen, t h i s v e s s e l has a r e l a t i v e l y wide r i m diameter and o r i f i c e diameter; however there i s a wide base and t h e v e s s e l i s r e l a t i v e l y shallow (low i n h e i g h t ) ; there i s more than one v a r i e t y i n terms of o r i f i c e diameter, base diameter, and height  115  quanzupan  a l a r g e , r e l a t i v e l y s h a l l o w d i s h on a wide stem or r i n g f o o t ; shape of d i s h v a r i e s -- some a r e very shallow, or plate-like  sanzupan  a r e l a t i v e l y wide and s h a l l o w v e s s e l with o u t f l a r i n g w a l l s on t h r e e short l e g s , l e g s may be hoop-shaped or s o l i d  shenfupen  a r e l a t i v e l y t a l l j a r w i t h a small base, l a r g e o r i f i c e and wide f l a r i n g rim; no d i s t i n c t shoulder, the p o i n t of maximum diameter i s t h e r i m r a t h e r than an area of the body, handles optional  sizumm  the body of t h i s v e s s e l i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b a s i n or p i n g d i p e n , t h e r e a r e 4 short and wide f e e t  wan  a v e s s e l with s h o r t , o u t f l a r i n g w a l l s and a r e l a t i v e l y small base, the r i m i s the p o i n t of maximum diameter; there i s more than one v a r i e t y i n terms of r i m diameter, base diameter, and h e i g h t ; and more than one s i z e c l a s s  weng  a l a r g e j a r with a r e l a t i v e l y narrow and d i s t i n c t neck, d i s t i n c t s h o u l d e r t h a t i s the p o i n t of maximum diameter, small base, small f l a r i n g r i m , more than one s i z e c l a s s ; handles o p t i o n a l  xian/yan)  a t a l l t r i p o d v e s s e l with hollow or bag-shaped l e g s ; two d i s t i n c t p o r t i o n s : bottom p o r t i o n or the l e g s , and t h e upper p o r t i o n t h a t i s shaped l i k e a guan j a r ; these v e s s e l p a r t s are connected; the space between these two p a r t s may have had a small b i g r a t e  yu  a small v e s s e l the s i z e of a cup t h a t i s r e l a t i v e l y short and squat, t h e r e i s a bulge a t the lower p o r t i o n of the body a p p r o x i m a t e l y equal i n s i z e t o the r i m diameter, r e l a t i v e l y wide base and small f l a r i n g rim  116  zeng  a j a r with a wide o r i f i c e and wide, f l a r i n g rim; i l l - d e f i n e d shoulder, o v e r a l l shape i s r e l a t i v e l y short and squat; t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l holes p i e r c e d through the base; some v e s s e l s have holes p i e r c e d through the lower body as w e l l  zhefupen  l i k e other pen, t h i s v e s s e l has a r e l a t i v e l y wide r i m and o r i f i c e diameter, and small base diameter; there i s a sharp c a r i n a t i o n p o i n t a t the lower p o r t i o n of t h e v e s s e l , o v e r a l l shape i s short and wide  zun  a small v e s s e l the s i z e of a cup with a d i s t i n c t l y wide, f l a r i n g r i m , wide o r i f i c e , and bulge a t mid-height, and a wide base  zuo  a l a r g e v e s s e l with d i s t i n c t l y wide bottom and f l a r i n g w a l l s , there i s v a r i a t i o n i n o v e r a l l shape (maximum d i a m e t e r / h e i g h t ) -- some v e s s e l s are s h o r t and squat, others a r e more t a l l and narrow; no base  117  Figure  4.  Major (not  to  forms  of  scale)  118  v e s s e l s in Longshan  sites,  Figure  4  continued.  tripod  jar  tri pod  119  ure  4  continued.  shenfupen  deep  belly jar  sizumin  four-footed  •  vessel  sanzupan  three-footed  dish  wan  bowl  weng  necked jar  120  xlan  (yan)  tripod composite  steamer  Figure 4  continued.  zeng steamer  zun  zuo  container  121  stand  In terms of methodology, the a n a l y s e s comparing v i s u a l Statistical observed  o b s e r v a t i o n s with r e s u l t s from s t a t i s t i c a l  techniques  by eye.  p o s s i b l e , and  i n d i c a t e the u t i l i t y  are u s e f u l f o r s u p p o r t i n g o v e r a l l  Analyses  may  i n d i c a t e t h a t more than  r e s u l t s should match v i s u a l  hand, s t a t i s t i c a l  analyses.  patterns  one  observations.  of  grouping i s  On the  other  a n a l y s e s can demonstrate t h a t what appear t o be  separate groups i n s t e a d r e p r e s e n t the range of v a r i a t i o n f o r one For sake of convenience,  group.  I describe s p e c i f i c results for sites in  the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : j a r s , open forms, legged v e s s e l s , cups, and At every s i t e t h e r e i s a wide v a r i e t y of j a r forms without  lids.  necks.  At  Hougang, t h e r e are t h r e e c l e a r s i z e c l a s s e s of guan j a r s : small ( x i a o guan, N=5),  medium (guan, N=18), and  l a r g e (shenfu guan, N=15).  These  c l a s s e s , d e f i n e d i n the r e p o r t , are i d e n t i f i a b l e by a s c a t t e r p l o t h e i g h t with maximum diameter with the o r i g i n a l  My  r e s u l t s agree  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n with the e x c e p t i o n of one  Kruskal-Wallis test  pot.  A  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t h r e e s i z e c l a s s e s are  significantly different inadequate  (Appendix A, F i g u r e 5 ) .  of  i n terms of h e i g h t  (p=0.000).  Sample s i z e i s  t o i d e n t i f y s i z e c l a s s e s of guan or other j a r s from the  other  sites. The jars.  Hougang r e p o r t i d e n t i f i e s  I use  subtypes  of medium and  seven r a t i o s t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e l y express  c i t e s as important  i n forming groups.  none of the subtypes  the c r i t e r i a i t  Nonparametric t e s t s i n d i c a t e t h a t  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  122  l a r g e guan  from one  another.  The B a i y i n g , Meishan, and Lujiakou reports use the term "guan" to r e f e r to a v a r i e t y of shapes of j a r s , with or without necks.  The  Baiying and Meishan reports do not use several terms f o r jars that are i n the Hougang report such as pen, ping, or hu.  Sample size i s  s u f f i c i e n t to examine v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e of guan j a r s , c l a s s eight (N=ll), at Baiying by a s c a t t e r p l o t (Appendix A, Figure 6).  One pot i s  d i s t i n c t l y l a r g e r than the others, but other size classes are not c l e a r . In the Lujiakou report, the term "pen" i s used to r e f e r to a wide range of shapes, i n c l u d i n g open forms and j a r s . Sample s i z e i s s u f f i c i e n t to examine three types of open forms at s i t e s : pingdipen basin, wan bowl, and quanzupan pedestalled d i s h .  Four  r a t i o s are thought to express the c r i t e r i a used i n the Hougang report to i d e n t i f y two subtypes of pingdipen basin (N=24).  A Mann-Whitney t e s t  using "known" vessels i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups.  Several "unknown" basins may be added to the sample i n  order to make a s c a t t e r p l o t with two r a t i o s , o r i f i c e diameter/height o r i f i c e diameter/base diameter (Appendix A, Figure 7).  For  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on the basis of vessel proportions f o r t h i s type of shape, r a t i o s with o r i f i c e diameter are preferable to those with rim diameter, since rim form tends to have s t y l i s t i c rather than formalf u n c t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e (Henrickson and McDonald 1983:635).  The  s c a t t e r p l o t i n d i c a t e s no d i s t i n c t c l u s t e r i n g of vessels to j u s t i f y d i v i s i o n i n t o subclasses.  Another s c a t t e r p l o t , of rim diameter with  123  and  height, shows that there are c l e a r l y two sizes of basins at Hougang: one pot i s d i s t i n c t l y larger than the rest (Appendix A, Figure 8). A s i m i l a r s c a t t e r p l o t f o r the pingdipen basins at Baiying  (N=7)  seems t o i d e n t i f y two c l u s t e r s of vessels (Appendix A, Figure 9). However, a Mann-Whitney t e s t indicates no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between groups.  I t a l s o shows that one vessel i s d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t i n terms  of o r i f i c e diamter/height.  This i s a function of size of o r i f i c e , as a  separate s c a t t e r p l o t f o r differences indicates  among vessels i n terms of size  (Appendix A, Figure 10).  I t i s a l s o possible to examine morphological v a r i a t i o n i n wan bowls from Hougang, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  Two r a t i o s are thought t o  express c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f y i n g subtypes of bowls (A, B, C) at Hougang: rim diameter/base diameter and rim diameter/height.  A  Kruskal-Wallis  t e s t indicates that the three subtypes f o r 23 "known" pots are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another i n terms of rim diameter/base diameter (p=0.003).  When 21 "unknown" bowls are added to the sample  (giving a t o t a l of N=44), and another s c a t t e r p l o t generated, i t can be seen that v a r i a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y i n terms of t h i s same r a t i o .  However,  the s c a t t e r p l o t shows no d i s t i n c t subgroups of bowls (Appendix A, Figure 11). Also, I found that s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s with nonparametric t e s t s could be achieved by assigning classes from the s c a t t e r p l o t .  pots t o more than one set of shape  Therefore I see no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  d i v i d i n g the bowls i n t o subclasses.  A separate s c a t t e r p l o t of rim  124  diameter with height shows that there i s a wide range of sizes of bowls at Hougang (Appendix A, Figure 12). Bowls at Meishan and at Lujiakou may be evaluated by the same ratios.  The s c a t t e r p l o t f o r Meishan (N=ll) shows no c l e a r c l u s t e r i n g of  vessels (Appendix A, Figure 13).  Again, there i s a wide range of  v a r i a t i o n i n terms of s i z e , but no d i s t i n c t breaks i n the p l o t (Appendix A, Figure 14).  A s c a t t e r p l o t combining f i v e "known" and 13  "unknown" bowls from Lujiakou shows one pot as c l e a r l y separated from the others.  I t i s assigned t o a d i f f e r e n t c l a s s , since i t i s  qualitatively different.  There i s a wide range of sizes of bowls at  t h i s s i t e as w e l l (Appendix A, Figures 15, 16). Two subtypes of quanzupan pedestalled dish (N=7) defined i n the Hougang report may be evaluated by examining v a r i a t i o n i n one r a t i o , rim diameter/height  of d i s h (RD/BHT).  A Mann-Whitney t e s t i n d i c a t e s no  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the two subtypes.  However, my observations of  these vessels and i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the report i n d i c a t e that two d i f f e r e n t subclasses should be defined i n terms of t h i s r a t i o .  There i s  a c l e a r break i n the range of values f o r the r a t i o t o j u s t i f y establishment of two c l a s s e s : 1) shallow or p l a t e - l i k e dish (N=2), and 2) r e l a t i v e l y deep dish (N=5). The Lujiakou report i d e n t i f i e s three subtypes (A, B, C) of ding tripods.  These are evaluated using two r a t i o s thought t o express the  c r i t e r i a stated i n the report: o r i f i c e diameter/maximum diameter and maximum diameter/height of o r i f i c e diameter.  125  The s c a t t e r p l o t (N=7)  shows that the groups i d e n t i f i e d i n the report are not d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from one another (Appendix A, Figure 17). There i s no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g other subgroups. A s c a t t e r p l o t of s i x b e i cups at Baiying with rim diameter/height and rim diameter/base diameter shows that one pot i s separated from the others (Appendix A, Figure 18). Again, i t i s not i d e a l t o define a separate shape c l a s s on the basis of only one v e s s e l .  However,  i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the report i n d i c a t e that the cup i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t from the others i n terms of shape.  Finally, a scatterplot  (Appendix A, Figure 19) shows that one g a i l i d at Baiying i s c l e a r l y l a r g e r i n s i z e than the others (N=16, two with inadequate data f o r the plot).  HYPOTHESES ABOUT VESSEL FUNCTION  This section describes archaeological evidence f o r vessel function at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou, and at other Longshan Period sites.  There i s l i m i t e d information on type of paste, residues from  use, context of deposition, ethnographic  analogy, and shape from  Longshan s i t e s -- c r i t e r i a that are commonly used i n the West t o i d e n t i f y vessel function (Rice 1987).  I t appears that f i v e general  f u n c t i o n a l types of vessels are present i n s i t e s : 1) cooking, 2) serving and eating food, 3) preparing, holding, and d r i n k i n g a l c h o h o l i c beverages, 4) storage, and 5) r i t u a l .  126  The conclusions reached i n t h i s  d i s c u s s i o n are hypotheses v e s s e l s from  individual  t h a t r e q u i r e t e s t i n g with adequate samples of  assemblages.  On the b a s i s of h i s t o r i c a l analogy,  the f o l l o w i n g major shape  c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s should have cooking as a primary f u n c t i o n (see Table 11): d i n g t r i p o d , bi grate.  L i tripod, xian tripod,  zeng p e r f o r a t e d j a r , and  On the b a s i s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a , t h r e e other forms were  p r o b a b l y used  f o r cooking as w e l l d u r i n g the Longshan P e r i o d : guan j a r ,  g u i t r i p o d , and  j i a tripod.  T h e r e f o r e the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s f o r these t h r e e forms may  functional  not be t o t a l l y a c c u r a t e : guan  as a storage j a r , gui as a s e r v i n g p i t c h e r , and  j i a as a v e s s e l f o r  h o l d i n g wine. Type of paste i s regarded by a r c h a e o l o g i s t s i n China as the most important  c r i t e r i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g cooking v e s s e l s (Yan,  personal  communication, 1987b).  V e s s e l s used f o r cooking  r e l a t i v e l y c o a r s e paste  ( j i a sha), r a t h e r than a f i n e paste  meaning no or s m a l l i n c l u s i o n s v i s i b l e ) . a reliable processes  indicator, (ibid).  s i n c e soot may  Presence  (ni z h i ,  of soot i s not always  not s u r v i v e p o s t d e p o s i t i o n a l  A r c h a e o l o g i s t s have a s s o c i a t e d cooking v e s s e l s with  coarse paste f o r over 30 y e a r s ; An Zhimin t e x t u r e of p a s t e helps prevent (i.e.,  should have a  i t h e l p s prevent thermal  that laboratory analysis  (1953:69) remarks t h a t coarse  cooking v e s s e l s from c r a c k i n g when heated shock).  Zhou et a l . (1982:269) mention  ( a p p a r e n t l y from t h i n s e c t i o n s ) of sherds i n  N e o l i t h i c s i t e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t cooking v e s s e l s have p a s t e w i t h inclusions.  Few  grit  other c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s have t h i s type of p a s t e .  127  Ethnographic data support t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; among the Wa minoritygroup, coarser paste i s used f o r cooking vessels ( L i Yangsong 1959:250). In the Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou s i t e reports, the shape classes l i s t e d above tend t o have coarse paste.  In the guan j a r  and ding t r i p o d c l a s s e s , vessels may have coarse or f i n e paste. jars tend to have f i n e paste. Lujiakou have f i n e paste.  Small  Pots i n s i x classes of guan j a r s at  Pots i n one c l a s s of ding at 3aiying and s i x  classes at Lujiakou have f i n e paste. the primary function of these vessels. have been found at the Liangchengzhen  I t i s l i k e l y that cooking was not Ding tripods of very f i n e paste s i t e as well (Wu 1938:68).  My b r i e f observations of vessels suggest that the terms " j i a sha" and "n_i z h i " incorporate a great deal of v a r i a b i l i t y .  Examination of  e x i s t i n g f r a c t u r e s on vessels from Hougang with a hand lens (16x) revealed a range of types of m a t e r i a l s , grain s i z e s , and density of grains.  S i m i l a r l y , Wu (1938:63-4) reports that there i s a wide range of  paste texture at Chengziyai, from very g r i t t y to extremely f i n e .  A  systematic examination of paste composition f o r d i f f e r e n t shape classes could provide valuable information on ceramic function as w e l l as d i v e r s i t y of raw materials e x p l o i t e d .  Some microscopic a n a l y s i s of  paste texture f o r N e o l i t h i c ceramics has been reported.  Zhou et a l .  (1982:269) f i n d a range of materials represented, i n c l u d i n g feldspar and quartz.  I saw two guan jars from Hougang with large mica fragments.  There i s v a r i a t i o n f o r wan bowls at Hougang as w e l l .  128  I saw one bowl  with large i n c l u s i o n s , and another with large voids on the surface thay may represent organic temper. Soot has been found on the legs of gui tripods and on guan jars from Longshan s i t e s (Yan, personal communication, 1987b).  In  p a r t i c u l a r , there i s soot on large guan jars at Hougang and on mediumsized guan jars at the Kexingzhuang s i t e i n Shaanxi (Zhang and Zhang 1986:47,49).  I noted soot on 4 medium-sized guan jars and on 1 large  j a r at Hougang, as well as one medium-sized guan j a r at Baiying.  A  layer of red burnt earth has been found on some large guan jars from s i t e s belonging to the Wangyoufang c u l t u r a l branch i n eastern Henan (Zhang and Zhang 1986:47). This type of residue seems t o be another i n d i c a t i o n that guan jars were used f o r cooking during the Longshan Period. At the Kexingzhuang s i t e i n Shaanxi, 3 guan jars and one l i _ t r i p o d were found i n s i d e a house near a hearth.  A guan j a r at the Donghaiyu  s i t e i n Shandong was found i n a s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:83,103). I t i s not known whether the vessels were deposited through the process of discard a f t e r use or at the time of s i t e abandonment.  The l o c a t i o n of discard i s often a poor i n d i c a t o r  of vessel function (Rice 1987:232-3). In e i t h e r case, there are a d d i t i o n a l grounds f o r i n f e r r i n g function of guan j a r s , i . e . , coarse paste and presence of soot. There i s some evidence that guan jars had other functions during the Longshan Period as w e l l .  One i s transporting and/or holding water.  129  At the Jiangou s i t e i n Hebei, several guan j a r s were found at the bottom of a well ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1984:84). dropped a c c i d e n t a l l y during use.  They may have been  Ethnographic analogy provides support  f o r t h i s hypothesis: the Dai people of southern China use guan jars f o r water (Zhang J i 1959:490). Guan j a r s and other probable cooking vessels a l s o served as b u r i a l urns f o r c h i l d r e n .  These vessels are common i n N e o l i t h i c s i t e s from the  middle reaches of the Huanghe or Yellow River v a l l e y (Xu 1989).  Ding  tripods and xian tripods were used i n a d d i t i o n to guan during the Longshan Period.  These vessels were used f o r domestic purposes before  serving as b u r i a l urns; some vessels have soot on them (Xu 1989:334). My observations on b u r i a l urns from Hougang agree with these conclusions. There i s d i r e c t evidence f o r cooking with a vessel at one Longshan site.  A guan j a r at Baiying contains animal bones (Sui 1988:51).  Another type of residue that may be i n d i c a t i v e of cooking i s water deposits i n s i d e vessels.  One gui p i t c h e r at Baiying has t h i s type of  deposit (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983:17) and more than one at Lujiakou (Shandong Archaeological Team, IA, CASS, and the Art Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province 1985). are solid-legged and r e l a t i v e l y t a l l .  The gui at Lujiakou  Other s i t e s i n Shandong contain a  second shape of g u i , r e l a t i v e l y wide and with mammiform hollow legs (see Medley 1976:27).  Pots of t h i s shape may not have been used f o r cooking.  130  S e v e r a l forms of cooking v e s s e l s f o r p r e p a r i n g d i f f e r e n t types of foods  should be expected  (Rice 1987:237).  For example, see  data d e s c r i b e d by Smith (1985:304) and M i l l e r  (1985:58).  ethnographic  Therefore  s e v e r a l forms from Longshan s i t e s were p r o b a b l y used f o r cooking a v a r i e t y of f o o d s .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s a l a c k of data on s u b s i s t e n c e  from the Longshan P e r i o d , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Cooking  2.  j a r s l i k e guan with a f l a r e d rim are common i n other areas  of the w o r l d .  The  f l a r e d rims were p r o b a b l y designed with a f u n c t i o n a l  purpose i n mind: f o r l i f t i n g pots from the f i r e  (Woods 1985:168).  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some b i g r a t e s d i d not f u n c t i o n as r a c k s , as commonly assumed. i n Longshan s i t e s .  More than one  Both forms of M  shape and  steaming  s i z e has been  a t Hougang would not have been v e r y  s u i t a b l e f o r placement i n s i d e another v e s s e l such as a t r i p o d For example, c l a s s two  found  steamer.  i s l a r g e with saw-tooth a p p l i q u e around the edge.  In c o n t r a s t , the bi_ g r a t e from B a i y i n g i s a small bowl-shaped pot with a p e r f o r a t e d bottom. The  l e i - b o grooved  c o n t a i n e r may  type of food p r e p a r a t i o n .  have been used  A c c o r d i n g t o An J i n y u a n  for a  specific  (1986:345), these  v e s s e l s were p r o b a b l y used f o r g r i n d i n g tuberous p l a n t s f o r food or m e d i c i n a l purposes. these v e s s e l s .  A l s o , people  i n Hunan p r o v i n c e c o n t i n u e t o use  There i s more than one  form  Longshan P e r i o d ; some are s i m i l a r t o pen, Ye  1989).  131  of l e i - b o d u r i n g the  bo, and guan (An J i n y u a n  1986,  According  to the t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , dou stemmed dishes were  used f o r serving food.  This hypothesis  i s p l a u s i b l e , as open vessel  forms tend to be used f o r serving and eating food, since vessel contents would be e a s i l y accessible (Rice 1987:240; Henrickson and McDonald 1983:632; Howard 1981:9).  S i m i l a r l y , i t i s commonly assumed that  bowls were used f o r eating and d r i n k i n g at meals. i s f e a s i b l e given the open form.  wan  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  The previous analyses  show that more  than one s i z e of bowl i s present i n Longshan s i t e s , probably i n d i c a t i v e of more than one function.  D i f f e r e n t s i z e classes of serving and eating  vessels may a l s o r e l a t e to s i z e of the consuming group (Rice 1987:240). Small j a r s could have been used f o r d r i n k i n g , too.  For example, the Dai  of southern China drink water from small hu j a r s (Zhang J i 1959:490). Other forms of vessels at Longshan s i t e s could have been used f o r serving food.  Food could have been served d i r e c t l y from cooking  vessels, e s p e c i a l l y the t r i p o d s . placed e a s i l y on most surfaces.  These legged vessels could have been Other r e l a t i v e l y open forms that are  s u i t a b l e f o r serving include bo bowl, bu container, quanzupan pedestalled d i s h , and pingdipen f l a t bottomed basin. forms and others probably had more than one function.  Of course, these They could have  held a v a r i e t y of substances, i n c l u d i n g water. I suggest that several forms of gai l i d s at s i t e s were probably used f o r serving food.  Many of these vessels are too large ( i n terms of  rim diameter and height) and too heavy to cover the openings of other vessels such as cooking pots (see Appendix A, Tables 45-48).  132  Only two  forms would have been s u i t a b l e f o r covering other pots: 1) small, f l a t l i d and 2) small, wan bowl-shaped l i d .  Also, some forms are small  enough to f e a s i b l y cover the o r i f i c e of other vessels, but are elaborate in shape, i n d i c a t i n g that they could have been used f o r serving as w e l l . A number of forms could have been used f o r holding and/or transporting water, as i n r u r a l India (see M i l l e r 1985:61) or Guatemala (Lischka 1978).  For example, necked jars such as ping would have been  s u i t a b l e f o r l i q u i d s i n general. Three forms from l a t e N e o l i t h i c s i t e s are commonly assumed to represent vessels f o r holding or serving alchohol: j i a t r i p o d (previously discussed), zun container, and hu j a r . There has been l i t t l e e f f o r t among western archaeologists to i d e n t i f y vessels used f o r preparing or serving alchohol, or other archaeological evidence f o r these a c t i v i t i e s .  A recent exception i s Moore (1989).  This t o p i c has  received a t t e n t i o n i n the Chinese archaeological and ethnographic literature. Two w r i t e r s debate the o r i g i n s of making alchohol i n the N e o l i t h i c period.  Fang (1964) argues that several forms recorded as used f o r  alchohol during the h i s t o r i c period f i r s t appear i n Longshan s i t e s , i n c l u d i n g zun, l e i , and t a l l stemmed cups, and therefore, represent the onset of alchohol consumption.  L i Yangsong (1962) points out that  alchohol production probably began at an e a r l i e r date during the N e o l i t h i c Period.  People could have made a l c h o h o l i c drinks from more  than one g r a i n .  133  More than one form of vessel may holding, and d r i n k i n g alchohol.  have been used f o r preparing,  Any r e l a t i v e l y large cooking vessel  could have been used f o r brewing and fermenting.  In the New World, beer  i s brewed i n cooking jars i n t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s (Bankes 1985:272; DeBoer 1974:336). 1985:150).  Storage jars can be used f o r brewing (Arnold  However, vessels f o r s t o r i n g alchohol (on a long or short  term basis) tend to have narrow openings (Arnold 1985:150, Chavez 1985:163).  Small o r i f i c e diameters or neck diameters should be  expected, to prevent the fermented l i q u i d s from going f l a t .  Therefore  the necked j a r s from Longshan s i t e s would have been s u i t a b l e f o r s t o r i n g alchohol: weng, ping, hu, and l e i .  Weng jars have the narrowest necks.  S t r a i n i n g the cooked grain before fermentation could have been accomplished by means of a c l o t h (Chavez 1985:165) or a s t r a i n e r made of wood or pottery with small holes. are too large f o r t h i s purpose. be found i n Longshan s i t e s .  I t seems that the holes i n M  grates  Strainers f o r making alchohol may  yet  According to Wang (1986:268-9), a huge zun  container from the e a r l i e r N e o l i t h i c (Dawenkou Culture) s i t e of Lingyanghe i n Shandong has a p i c t u r e of a large s t r a i n e r f o r making alchohol.  Wang expects that weng jars were used f o r holding alchohol  during the Dawenkou c u l t u r a l period. Alchohol may be drunk from vessels used f o r d a i l y meals or vessels used s o l e l y f o r alchohol.  For example, among the Shipibo-Conibo,  mugs of a d i s t i n c t shape are used (DeBoer 1974:336).  beer  In the  P h i l i p p i n e s , both types of d r i n k i n g vessels are used (Solheim 1965:258).  134  Therefore i t i s not possible t o conclude with c e r t a i n t y whether a given form of cup was used f o r d r i n k i n g alchohol.  One i n d i c a t i o n may be  unusually small capacity, rendering i t more f e a s i b l e to drink alchohol than other l i q u i d s .  L i Jianmin (1984:66) proposes that cups that could  only hold a small amount of l i q u i d were used f o r d r i n k i n g alchohol during the Dawenkou Period i n Shandong.  Any cup (or bowl) from Longshan  s i t e s could have been used f o r d r i n k i n g alchohol: bei or gu, as well as small vessels of other forms such as j a r s . Vessels used f o r r i t u a l purposes are perhaps the most d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y , e s p e c i a l l y when p r i m a r i l y morphological data are a v a i l a b l e . Simple forms used on a d a i l y basis such as a p l a t e , bowl, or water container can be used i n a r i t u a l context as w e l l , as i n present day Kathmandu and Mexico (Birmingham 1975:372; Lischka 1978:230). an unusual form may s i g n i f y a r i t u a l f u n c t i o n .  However,  David and Hennig  (1972:8) describe a bowl with a unique shape used by the F u l a n i f o r ceremonial a b l u t i o n s .  Arnold (1985:159) describes more than one unusual  form used i n r i t u a l s .  Two unusual forms of vessels i n Longshan s i t e s ,  quanzupan pedestalled dish and zuo stand, may have been used f o r r i t u a l purposes.  CONCLUSIONS  The analyses described i n t h i s chapter suggest that the t r a d i t i o n a l terms used f o r designating shape classes should be regarded  135  as g e n e r i c  and as s t a r t i n g  classification.  too.  one s p e c i f i c  such as "A" and "B" t o designate  specific  data t h a t a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y  of c u l t u r e h i s t o r y .  Archaeological  form.  forms.  a r e a v a r i e t y of formats f o r d e s c r i b i n g ceramic  Most r e p o r t s d e s c r i b e  establishment  f o r morphological  Some authors use a term t o d e s c r i b e  Others use s u b c l a s s e s In r e p o r t s , t h e r e  pointing points  data,  important f o r  data on f u n c t i o n  support some assumptions from the t r a d i t i o n a l terms and do not support others.  A p r i o r i t y i n future research  should  i n v e s t i g a t e ceramic f u n c t i o n a t i n d i v i d u a l one  l i n e of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  evidence.  136  be t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  s i t e s , u t i l i z i n g more than  CHAPTER 5.  TEST OF THE MODEL  INTRODUCTION  T h i s chapter production  describes  the t e s t  of the model of change i n  of p o t t e r y i n r e l a t i o n t o i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l  based on the model by Rice  (1981).  complexity,  In the ceramic a n a l y s e s  I use shape  c l a s s e s from Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and L u j i a k o u t h a t were d e f i n e d i n Chapter 4. test  The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s chapter  i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the  of change i n s t r a t e g y of p r o d u c e r s , i . e . , s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ,  diversification,  o r conservatism.  There a r e t h r e e a n a l y s e s :  s i t y of shape c l a s s e s by phase, 2) dimensional  1) d i v e r -  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  3) w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n terms of secondary shape f e a t u r e s and techniques  of d e c o r a t i o n .  l a c k of l a b o r i n p u t The  In a d d i t i o n , proposed evidence f o r r e l a t i v e  i n production  second p a r t d e s c r i b e s  the t e s t  (shaping  and d e c o r a t i n g )  i s discussed.  of change i n l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e p r e s t i g e  v e s s e l s t h a t c o u l d have been used i n d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s a t i n t e r household s o c i a l events.  The model proposes t h a t changes i n consumer  demand f o r these v e s s e l s has an impact on p r o d u c t i o n .  Vessels are  i d e n t i f i e d t h a t e x h i b i t a r e l a t i v e l y high degree of l a b o r i n p u t : large size, elaborate  form, t h i n w a l l s and/or p o l i s h i n g .  In b r i e f , the a n a l y s e s ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  having  suggest t h a t the p a t t e r n s  a t B a i y i n g and L u j i a k o u  137  of change i n  d i f f e r from the p a t t e r n s f o r  Hougang and production  Meishan.  There i s more evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  a t the former two  sites.  s i m i l a r i t i e s between Hougang and of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares. pattern  However, t h e r e  to  diversification  other t h r e e  of c o n s e r v a t i s m r e s u l t e d from most analyses  s i t e of Meishan.  are some  B a i y i n g with r e s p e c t  In c o n t r a s t t o the  For each s i t e , more than one  in  sites,  f o r the  a  westernmost  s t r a t e g y of p r o d u c t i o n  is  evident. The  model of change i n p r o d u c t i o n  c u l t u r a l complexity i s p a r t i a l l y a n a l y s i s are  s m a l l , and  i n r e l a t i o n to  supported.  r e s u l t s should  respect  i n production  There i s some evidence f o r  over time at t h r e e  t o v a r i e t y of shape c l a s s e s produced  i n t e n s i v e p r e s t i g e wares.  Sample s i z e s f o r each  be r e g a r d e d as hypotheses t h a t  r e q u i r e more adequate t e s t i n g i n the f u t u r e . diversification  increasing  (two  Although i n f o r m a t i o n  i s e s p e c i a l l y l i m i t e d , the a v a i l a b l e data  of the  four s i t e s ,  s i t e s ) and  labor-  on l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares  ( f o r Hougang, B a i y i n g ,  L u j i a k o u ) appear t o support the h y p o t h e s i s by Rice  (1981) t h a t  should  However, data  be  i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t i e s of p r e s t i g e wares.  d i m e n s i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and support her  w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n do  hypothesis that there  should  be  of wares as c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y "increases.  138  with  increasing  and  there on not  standardization  ANALYSIS OF CHANGE IN PRODUCTION:  STRATEGIES  OF PRODUCERS  D i v e r s i t y o f Shape C l a s s e s  An i n c r e a s e i n d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s over time a t s i t e s r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o c e s s of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , whereby p o t t e r s respond t o consumer demand f o r an i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y of wares.  A decrease i n  d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s over time r e p r e s e n t s s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . Reducing t h e v a r i e t y of wares i s one method t o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y i n production.  A sharp d e c l i n e i n v a r i e t y of shape c l a s s e s made over time  c o u l d s i g n i f y a f a c t o r c a u s i n g s t r e s s on a c u l t u r a l  system  i n c r e a s e d w a r f a r e , famine, or environmental d e g r a d a t i o n . i n q u a n t i t y of shape c l a s s e s produced  such as Lack of change  over time i n d i c a t e s c o n s e r v a t i s m ,  or r e s i s t a n c e t o change. The comparison  of change i n q u a n t i t y of shape c l a s s e s i n each  p e r i o d r e s u l t s i n a c l e a r p a t t e r n of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  over time f o r  Lujiakou.  F o r Hougang, t h e r e  The p a t t e r n f o r Meishan  i s conservatism.  i s evidence f o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n from one phase t o another. there i s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  For Baiying,  from t h e E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d and  c o n s e r v a t i s m from the Middle t o Late P e r i o d . forms p e r phase a t each s i t e  see Appendix  F o r a complete  B (Tables 49-52).  l i s t of F o r each  s i t e , t h e t o t a l number of shape c l a s s e s p e r phase i s d i v i d e d by t h e number of excavated houses p e r phase (Table 17).  139  T h i s i s a rough method  Table 17. Comparison of Total Number of Shape Classes Made During Each Phase at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and Lujiakou.  Hougang:  Baiying  Meishan  Lujiakou  Early 31/2 houses =15.50 forms per house  Early 15/9 houses = 1.67 forms per house  Early 27/17 houses = 1.59 forms per house  Early 20/6 houses = 3.33 forms per house  Middle 32/14 houses = 2.29 forms per house  Middle 22/8 houses = 2.75 forms per house  Late 30/23 houses = 1.30 forms per house  Late 40/46 houses = 0.87 forms per house  Late 26/16 houses = 1.63 forms per house  Late 47/5 houses = 9.40 forms per house  note: d i v i d i n g the t o t a l number of shape classes by number of excavated houses provides a rough method of standardizing values according t o the t o t a l area excavated per period  140  of s t a n d a r d i z i n g values  f o r q u a n t i t y of shape c l a s s e s by volume of  excavated f o r each phase, s i n c e the r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s i t e  i s not  earth  provided  reports.  From the data  i n Table  17,  i t appears t h a t t h e r e  i s marked  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n from the E a r l y ( t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the Longshan P e r i o d ) the Middle P e r i o d at Hougang.  to  However, a s c a t t e r p l o t d e p i c t i n g q u a n t i t y  of houses per phase by q u a n t i t y of forms per phase would i n d i c a t e a modest degree of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n communication, 1990). diversity  over time  (R.G.  Matson,  T h i s method i l l u s t r a t e s how  personal  sample s i z e a f f e c t s  (ibid).  There i s f u r t h e r support  f o r the p a t t e r n of modest  simplification  from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d a t Hougang i n t h a t the a n a l y s e s dimensional  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  input do not  result  i n a p a t t e r n of marked s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  of labor  The  pattern  of modest s i m p l i f i c a t i o n f o r the Middle t o Late P e r i o d t r a n s i t i o n at Hougang i n d i c a t e d i n Table  17 would be e v i d e n t  B a i y i n g , both Table  a s c a t t e r p l o t would i n d i c a t e a p a t t e r n  17 and  on a s c a t t e r p l o t .  modest d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d . Table  P e r i o d at B a i y i n g , a s c a t t e r p l o t would i n d i c a t e a p a t t e r n  difficult  Comparing q u a n t i t y  Late  of  of forms at B a i y i n g i s  g i v e n the great d i f f e r e n c e i n sample s i z e from the Middle t o  Late P e r i o d . Table  (ibid).  of  Although  17 suggests a p a t t e r n of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n from the Middle t o  conservatism  For  S c a t t e r p l o t s would i n d i c a t e the p a t t e r n s  17 f o r L u j i a k o u and  Meishan.  141  evident  in  Comparison of d i v e r s i t y i n number of forms per f u n c t i o n a l class over time i s not as straightforward (Table 18; f o r d e t a i l s on s p e c i f i c shape classes at each s i t e see Appendix B, Tables 53-56).  For example,  i t i s not c l e a r whether there i s a decline over time i n quantity of shape classes made i n every hypothesized  f u n c t i o n a l category at Hougang,  or whether only a few f u n c t i o n a l categories are involved.  Similarly, i t  i s not known whether there i s indeed an increase i n forms of cups produced over time at Hougang and at Baiying, or open forms at Baiying. On the basis of data regarding quantity of houses excavated from each phase, r e l a t i v e l y small areas were dug f o r the e a r l y periods at Hougang and Baiying. excavated per period.  Reports do not s p e c i f y the volume of earth D i v i d i n g the f i g u r e s i n Table 18 by quantity of  houses per phase as an estimate f o r volume of excavated earth r e s u l t s i n figures with values less than 1.0.  Although t h i s method of comparison  i s c e r t a i n l y not i d e a l , the f i g u r e s suggest that f o r every i n f e r r e d f u n c t i o n a l category at Hougang and Baiying, quantity of shape classes does not decline over time.  From ca. 2500-2200 B.C.  (Middle to Late  Period at Hougang, Early to Middle at B a i y i n g ) , there may be an rather than decrease i n d i v e r s i t y of a few forms.  increase  For example, there  may be an increase i n types of bowls at Hougang and bowls, cups, l i d s f o r serving food, and small p i t c h e r s at Baiying. Since the quantity of houses excavated at Meishan and at Lujiakou per phase i s approximately the same, the f i g u r e s i n Table 18 c o n s t i t u t e an accurate basis f o r comparison.  One change at Meishan i s r e l a t i v e l y  142  Table 18. Change Over Time i n Quantity of Shape Classes By Hypothesized Functional Category at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou. note: values i n parentheses are derived from d i v i s i o n by number of houses per phase, as a rough method of standardi z i n g by amount of earth excavated per phase. An approximately equal number of houses per phase was excavated at Meishan and Lujiakou. "E"= E a r l y , "M"= Middle, "L"= Late  hypothesized functional category  Hougang  Baiying  Meishan  Lujiakou  cooking t r i p o d s  E 6 (3.0)  E 4 (0.44)  E 3  E 2  M 5 (0.36)  M 3 (0.38)  L 6 (0.26)  L 6 (0.13)  L 3  L 3  E 0 (0)  E 3  other cooking pots  other jars with wide o r i f i c e f o r storage, long or short term  E 4 (2.0) M 4 (0.29)  M 1 (0.13)  L 2 (0.09)  L 3 (0.07)  E 4 (2.0)  L 3  E  l  L 2  E 0 (0)  M 6 (0.43)  M 4 (0.50)  (0.17)  (0.09)  L 2  143  j a r s , narrow orifice, for liquids  bowls, f o r eating, drinking, serving  o t h e r open forms, no p e d e s t a l or stem; f o r preparing, s e r v i n g food  open forms w i t h p e d e s t a l or stem for serving, e a t i n g food  E 2 (1.0)  E l (0.11)  M 3 (0.21)  M l (0.13)  L 3 (0.13)  L 3 (0.07)  E 4 (2.00)  E l (0.11)  M l (0.07)  M 2 (0.25)  L 5 (0.22)  L 2 (0.04)  E 2 (1.0)  E 3 (0.33)  M 3 (0.21)  M 3 (0.38)  L 2 (0.09)  L 6 (0.13)  E 5 (2.50)  E 0 (0)  M 5 (0.36)  M0 (0)  L 4 (0.17)  L 2 (0.04)  144  L 3  L 6  E 4  E 4  L I  L 1 2  L 2  L  l  l  cups f o r drinking  l i d s f o r covering other vessels  lids f o r serving food  small pitchers  E O (0)  E l (0.11)  E 4  M l (0.07)  M 2 (0.25)  L 2 (0.09)  L 2 (0.11)  L 5  E O (0)  E l (0.11)  E 0  E  l  L 3  E  l  M l (0.07)  M l (0.13)  L 0 (0)  L I (0.02)  L 0  L 2  E 3 (1.50)  E 2 (0.22)  E 2  E 0  M 3 (0.21)  M 3 (0.38)  L 2 (0.09)  L 6 (0.13)  L 2  L 2  E 0 (0)  E l (0.11)  E 0  E 0  M 0 (0)  M 2 (0.25)  L 0 (0)  L I (0.02)  L 0  L 0  145  d i s t i n c t , a d e c l i n e i n q u a n t i t y of open forms with no p e d e s t a l  or stem.  At L u j i a k o u , t h e r e i s a marked i n c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y of open forms produced over time, as w e l l as an i n c r e a s e i n n e a r l y every functional  category.  Comparisons of d i v e r s i t y  of forms produced over time at s i t e s must  take t h r e e f a c t o r s i n t o account: percentage of s i t e area ceramic u s e - l i f e ,  and  d e p o s i t i o n a l behavior.  d e s c r i b i n g ceramic data is  important  i n r e p o r t s must be  reason  at  In a d d i t i o n , formats f o r  considered.  For example, i t  sites.  f o r the r e l a t i v e l y  recovered  at B a i y i n g may  excavated  (Table 19,  a cultural  excavated,  t o d i s c u s s whether some f u n c t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of v e s s e l s  c o u l d be under-represented One  inferred  be the r e l a t i v e l y high percentage of s i t e  see a l s o Table  factor, i.e., social  p a t t e r n as w e l l .  l a r g e number of shape c l a s s e s  4, Chapter 1).  demand, may  area  I suggest l a t e r t h a t  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 1, the low q u a n t i t y of v e s s e l s  r e p o r t e d at B a i y i n g i n comparison t o Hougang i s p r o b a b l y t h a t fewer v e s s e l s were r e c o n s t r u c t e d .  due  There i s too l i t t l e  t o the  fact  information  about Meishan t o determine whether the r e l a t i v e l y  low number of shape  classes i s a result  small q u a n t i t y of  vessels recovered of s i t e area One cooking priority  of small excavated a r e a .  from L u j i a k o u may  The  be e x p l a i n a b l e by the low  percentage  excavated.  reason  f o r the r e l a t i v e l y  pots at B a i y i n g may in reconstruction.  small percentage of  non-tripod  be t h a t " n i c e r l o o k i n g " v e s s e l s were a The  low number of bowls r e p o r t e d a t B a i y i n g  146  Table 19. Q u a n t i t i e s of Forms by Hypothesized F u n c t i o n a l Category a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , and L u j i a k o u . (note: t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Meishan)  functional category  Hougang  Baiying  Lujiakou  cooking  59 pots (13.0%)  38 pots (20.3%)  6 pots (5.0%)  other cooking pots  115 pots (25.3%)  18 pots (9.6%)  11 pots (9.2%)  other j a r s with wide o r i f i c e , f o r storage  45 pots (9.9%)  16 pots (8.6%)  5 pots (4.2%)  j a r s w i t h narrow orifice, for liquid storage  35 pots (7.7%)  10 pots (5.4%)  11 pots (9.2%)  bowls, f o r e a t i n g , drinking, serving  84 pots (18.5%)  8 pots (4.3%)  28 pots (23.3%)  o t h e r open forms, no p e d e s t a l or stem, f o r p r e p a r i n g , s e r v i n g food  34 pots (7.5%)  34 pots (18.2%)  37 pots (30.8%)  open forms with stem or p e d e s t a l , f o r eating, serving food  38 pots (8.4%)  9 pots (4.8%)  11 pots (9.2%)  cups f o r d r i n k i n g  8 pots (1.2%)  14 pots (7.5%)  6 pots (5.0%)  tripods  147  small p i t c h e r s f o r serving l i q u i d s  0  5 pots (2.7%)  0  l i d s for covering other v e s s e l s  1 pots (0.2%)  17 p o t s (9.1%)  4 pots (3.3%)  lids for serving food  35 p o t s (7.7%)  17 p o t s (9.1%)  1 pot (0.8%)  o t h e r forms (zuo stand)  1 pot (0.2%)  1 pot (0.5%)  TOTAL NUMBER OF FORMS  44  61  49  TOTAL NUMBER OF POTS  454  188  134  percentage of s i t e area excavated  1.81%  5.45^  0. 91%  148  i s misleading, because one form of gai l i d (for covering other vessels) i s equivalent t o wan bowls at Hougang.  The r e l a t i v e l y low number of  cooking vessels at Lujiakou i s explainable by the small area excavated. Quantities of cooking pots at Hougang are probably a more accurate representation of the systematic context than q u a n t i t i e s at the other sites.  Ethnoarchaeological  studies i n d i c a t e that t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s  tend t o produce a r e l a t i v e l y large number of cooking vessel forms, and i n large q u a n t i t i e s (Rice 1987:295).  These vessels often break during  use (Rice 1987:297-9), and they are replaced r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y (Rice 1987:303). Necked vessels that may have been used f o r s t o r i n g and serving alchohol such as hu, weng, and l e i are not common at s i t e s .  The low  number of forms and vessels may not represent the frequency with which d r i n k i n g events took place.  In the P h i l i p p i n e s , f o r example, pots f o r  alchohol tend t o have a long l i f e - s p a n and are replaced less often. Consumers desire o l d vessels that enhance the f l a v o r of the alchohol (Solheim 1965:256).  According t o one member of the Kalinga, wine jars  " w i l l l a s t forever i f you are c a r e f u l " (Longacre 1981:63). The kinds and q u a n t i t i e s of cups and p i t c h e r s produced at s i t e s may have been higher than Table 19 i n d i c a t e s .  These forms tend t o have  r e l a t i v e l y t h i n walls and break e a s i l y .  Also, t h i n - w a l l e d pots tend t o  break i n t o many pieces (Rice 1987:291).  These f a c t o r s , combined with  r e l a t i v e l y small s i z e , may have i n h i b i t e d discovery at s i t e s and reconstruction of c e r t a i n types of vessels by archaeologists.  149  Prestige vessels used f o r s o c i a l d i s p l a y must be at s i t e s .  under-represented  Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou do not  "Pompei" type archaeological s i t e s .  represent  Instead, they appear to represent  gradual abandonment with no i n t e n t i o n of r e t u r n i n g , a process  described  by Deal (1983:210) i n his ethnoarchaeological study of d i s c a r d behavior. Few vessels were found i n houses at these s i t e s , as mentioned i n Chapter 1 (see Table 5).  The majority were found i n t e s t or open  excavation areas with no c u l t u r a l features.  These vessels may  represent  dispersed or broadcast dumping, and the vessels i n p i t s , dumping i n d i s c r e t e areas (see Deal 1983:198).  Vessels with r e l a t i v e l y high value  would have been taken by the occupants at the time of abandonment (Deal 1983:210). Some patterns evident i n Tables 18 and 19 may be explained by cultural factors.  At Baiying and Lujiakou, the two easternmost s i t e s ,  there are several forms of vessels that could have been used i n displays of status at inter-household events.  At Baiying and at Lujiakou, there  i s a higher percentage of cups i n r e l a t i o n to other forms than at Hougang (Table 19).  The p o s s i b l e increase i n d i v e r s i t y of shape classes  at Baiying from the Early to Middle Period (Table 18) involves forms that could have been used i n s o c i a l d i s p l a y s such as cups, l i d s f o r serving food, and small p i t c h e r s .  S i m i l a r l y , the marked increase i n  quantity of open forms over time at Lujiakou may have been caused by increased s o c i a l demand f o r d i s p l a y v e s s e l s .  Consumers attempting to  enhance t h e i r p o s i t i o n s of status may demand greater v a r i e t i e s of  150  vessels that can be used f o r the same f u n c t i o n , a process that M i l l e r (1982) observes i n India. There may  be inaccuracies due to my methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g the  formats of describing vessels i n reports.  In the Hougang report, the  number of vessels excavated per phase i s sometimes not c l e a r .  On the  basis of patterning i n s t y l e numbers f o r i n d i v i d u a l xingzhuang or major shape c l a s s e s , at times I had no choice but to estimate the number of vessels from each shape c l a s s per phase.  In the report, low s t y l e  numbers tend to be associated with the E a r l y Period, and high s t y l e numbers, with the Late. t h i s regard.  The Lujiakou report i s e s p e c i a l l y unclear i n  However, my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an increase i n v a r i e t y of  shape classes produced over time agrees with the conclusion reached by the Shandong Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Art Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province  Dimensional  (1985:348).  Standardization  Sample s i z e i s s u f f i c i e n t to assess change i n dimensional standardization with s t a t i s t i c a l techniques "for a few classes at Hougang, Meishan, and Lujiakou (Table 20).  At Hougang, there are three  or more vessels per phase i n four shape c l a s s e s : large guan j a r s , medium-sized guan j a r s , medium-sized pingdipen basins, and wan bowls (class one).  At Meishan, there i s an adequate sample of guan j a r s and  151  Table 20. A n a l y s i s of Dimensional S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . site  form  sample  Hougang  l a r g e guan jar  Middle, N=8 Late, N=5  medium s i z e guan j a r  Early, N=3 Middle, N=7 Late, N=8  pingdipen basin, medium-sized  Early, N=5 Middle, N=5 Late, N=13  wan bowl, c l a s s one medium-sized  Early, N=8 Middle, N=10 Late, N=12  guan j a r  Early, N=3 Late, N=5  Meishan  ding t r i p o d  Lujiakou  ding t r i p o d c l a s s seven  Early, N=5 Late, N=6 Early, N=3 Late, N=4  152  dimension  OD BD MXD ODHT  OD BD MXD ODHT  OD BD HT  RD BD HT  OD  OD MXD  OD MXD BHT  ding t r i p o d s .  There are enough ding t r i p o d s (class seven) f o r a n a l y s i s  at Lujiakou.  For Hougang and Lujiakou, I use p r i m a r i l y measurements of  vessels taken i n the f i e l d .  For Meishan, a l l measurements are from  scale drawings i n the report. Since these data sets c o n s i s t mainly of whole (reconstructed) vessels, i t i s p o s s i b l e to assess more than one dimension per v e s s e l . For Meishan, however, most of the jars and t r i p o d s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the report are fragmentary.  Therefore fewer dimensions could be analyzed.  The small number of vessels a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s precludes s t a t i s t i c a l techniques used i n other studies of ceramic production such as c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n (Longacre et a l . 1988, T o l l 1981)  and  histograms with parametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s (Davis and Lewis 1985, Hagstrum 1986).  I use a method more s u i t a b l e f o r small samples:  inspection of boxplots d e p i c t i n g the range of v a r i a t i o n ( i n t e r q u a r t i l e range) f o r i n d i v i d u a l measurements over time.  The i n t e r q u a r t i l e range  i s more appropriate than the t o t a l range f o r comparative purposes since i t i s more r e s i s t a n t to sample s i z e .  The boxplots were constructed by  SYSTAT and SYGRAPH (Wilkinson 1988a, 1988b). A s i g n i f i c a n t reduction over time i n the range of values f o r a given measurement would i n d i c a t e an increase i n dimensional standardization.  This pattern would represent the process of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n i n  production, or e f f o r t s to increase e f f i c i e n c y .  Conversely, a  s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n range of values would i n d i c a t e a decrease i n  153  dimensional standardization over time, or an increase i n morphological d i v e r s i t y f o r a shape c l a s s . The a n a l y s i s of each shape class assesses change i n major dimensions.  For j a r s , basins, and t r i p o d s , I use o r i f i c e diameter  rather than rim diameter.  On the basis of ethnoarchaeological data,  size of rim can vary s u b s t a n t i a l l y on v e s s e l s , even those made by s p e c i a l i s t s (Rice 1988:6). Analyses of dimensional standardization should not be conducted unless v a r i a t i o n i n size can be assessed.  I f d i f f e r e n t s i z e classes are  not recognized, a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s may be inaccurate (Rice 1988:3).  A  recent ethnoarchaeological study i n d i c a t e s that i n t h i s type of s i t u a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n i n dimensions i s a c t u a l l y l e s s than an a n a l y s i s would show (Longacre et a l . 1988:108). For t h i s reason, i t i s not appropriate t o conduct a n a l y s i s of dimensional standardization on wan bowls ( c l a s s one, N=12) at Meishan or those at Lujiakou (class one, N=17).  S c a t t e r p l o t s of height by rim  diameter (Appendix A, Figures 14, 16) show that there i s considerable v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e of bowls at each s i t e .  Sample size i s too small i n  each case t o i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t size classes with confidence.  The  s c a t t e r p l o t s show that there are probably three t o four s i z e classes of bowls at each s i t e .  Creation of size classes from these samples would  make a n a l y s i s of dimensional  standardization impossible, since sample  s i z e would be too small.  154  However, i t i s p o s s i b l e to subdivide the sample of bowls from Hougang (N=44) and r e s u l t i n an adequate sample f o r a n a l y s i s .  Although  the s c a t t e r p l o t i n Appendix A (Figure 12) f o r these bowls does not i n d i c a t e c l e a r breaks i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n , the wide range of values f o r rim diameter i n d i c a t e s that s i z e classes should be defined.  On the  basis of the s c a t t e r p l o t , a stem and leaf d i s p l a y of values f o r rim diameter, and my observations i n the f i e l d , I define three s i z e classes of bowls at Hougang: small (N=ll, rim diameter less than or equal to 9.0 cm), large (N=3, rim diameter more than or equal to 18.9 cm), medium (N=30, with intermediary values f o r rim diameter).  and  Sample size  i s s u f f i c i e n t t o use the medium-sized vessels i n a n a l y s i s of dimensional standardization. For each shape class t e s t e d , the boxplots do not i n d i c a t e a c l e a r pattern of i n c r e a s i n g standardization or reduction i n i n t e r q u a r t i l e range, f o r any dimension (Appendix B, Figures 20-26).  Indeed, some  boxplots suggest the converse, or increasing d i v e r s i t y i n range of values.  Larger samples of vessels are necessary to determine whether  there i s support f o r a pattern of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  A change i n degree  of standardization should be evident from boxplots of more than dimension f o r a given shape c l a s s .  one  The small sample of vessels analyzed  here suggests that potters adopted a strategy of conservatism during the Longshan Period, since there i s no evidence f o r a c l e a r change i n standardization over time.  155  A pattern of conservatism  i s explainable i n l i g h t of the i n f e r r e d  f u n c t i o n a l categories of vessels examined.  Sample s i z e was s u f f i c i e n t  to examine cooking vessels (large and medium-sized guan j a r s , ding t r i p o d s ) , basins (pingdipen) that could have been used f o r a wide v a r i e t y of purposes such as serving or preparing food or l i q u i d s , and wan bowls f o r eating and d r i n k i n g . at s i t e s . by people.  On the whole, these are common shape classes  They would have been among the set of vessels used most often The r e s u l t s here support the p r e d i c t i o n made by Rice  (1984:245-6) that there w i l l be lack of change i n production of wares used f o r basic needs. that are important adequately.  Consumers do not demand changes i n vessel forms  i n d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s and that already function  Also, there may have been l e s s consumer demand f o r changes  i n production of vessels used i n p r i v a t e (household) contexts. Thus, there i s no i n d i c a t i o n that competition between p o t t e r s , i n response t o increasing population s i z e and density, i n t e n s i f i e d over time, r e s u l t i n g i n e f f o r t s t o produce wares more e f f i c i e n t l y . Increasing dimensional  standardization i s one i n d i c a t o r of change i n  mode of production, as discussed i n Chapter 3. Other categories of data described i n Chapter 6 do not i n d i c a t e change i n mode of production over time, e i t h e r . However, below I suggest that there was concern with e f f i c i e n c y i n production of these shape c l a s s e s .  Some vessels appear t o have evidence  f o r r e l a t i v e lack of labor input i n shaping and decorating.  156  Thus,  v e s s e l s i n these  shape c l a s s e s , were, on t h e whole, n o n - p r e s t i g e  (as d e f i n e d i n t h i s  wares  study).  Relative Lack of Labor Input i n Production  At Hougang and L u j i a k o u , t h e r e a r e t h r e e types may i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e d e c o r a t i n g , and f i r i n g at  of evidence  l a c k of l a b o r input i n p r o d u c t i o n : (Tables 21-22).  Hougang have evidence  that  shaping,  Some wan bowls from each p e r i o d  f o r l a c k of l a b o r i n p u t i n shaping.  There i s a  lump i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e i n t e r i o r base; p o t t e r s d i d not take time t o smooth i t over. o f t e n covers  Since r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of v e s s e l s with p l a s t e r p r o b a b l y  t h e evidence,  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y whether t h e r e  i s an i n c r e a s e or decrease i n t h e number of bowls of t h i s type time.  Some ding t r i p o d s a t L u j i a k o u have incomplete  should have c o n t i n u e d to  around t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e  over  incised lines  of v e s s e l s  that  ( i n comparison  i n c i s e d l i n e s on other v e s s e l s ) , and an uneven s u r f a c e c o l o r  i n d i c a t i v e of r e l a t i v e l a c k of e f f o r t There i s a d d i t i o n a l evidence production basins.  in firing.  for relative  l a c k of l a b o r input i n  a t Hougang f o r l a r g e guan j a r s and medium-sized  pingdipen  I saw one l a r g e j a r from the Late P e r i o d and two b a s i n s (one  from the Middle P e r i o d , one from the L a t e ) with  incompletely  incised  lines. In t h e Hougang and Meishan r e p o r t s , t h e r e i s i n f o r m a t i o n on change over time i n q u a l i t y of d e c o r a t i v e techniques  157  for a l l vessels  with  Table 21. Suggested Evidence f o r R e l a t i v e Lack of Labor Input i n V e s s e l Forming f o r Wan Bowls, C l a s s One, Hougang.  lump of c l a y i n c e n t e r of i n t e r i o r base  Early  Middle  Late  present  6  absent  13  total  number of v e s s e l s  10  15  Table 22. Suggested Evidence f o r R e l a t i v e Lack of Labor Input i n D e c o r a t i o n and F i r i n g f o r Ding T r i p o d s , C l a s s Seven, L u j i a k o u .  type of evidence  Early  uneven f i r i n g p r e s e n t absent uncompleted i n c i s e d l i n e s present absent total  number of v e s s e l s  158  Late  19  impressed d e c o r a t i o n .  Impressed d e c o r a t i o n  the E a r l y P e r i o d at Hougang, and deep.  Pots from the Middle and  shallow  impressed d e c o r a t i o n  1985:79, 81). decided  i s p l a c e d with more care i n  i t i s n e a t l y a p p l i e d and  relatively  Late P e r i o d s have r e l a t i v e l y crude,  more  (Anyang A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS  Thus i t appears t h a t by the Middle P e r i o d , p o t t e r s  t o spend l e s s time i n d e c o r a t i n g guan j a r s presumably f o r  reasons of e f f i c i e n c y , even though they d i d not  form them more  efficiently. A s i m i l a r t r e n d i n q u a l i t y of impressed d e c o r a t i o n over time i s present  among the Meishan v e s s e l s .  decoration  i s r e l a t i v e l y neat and  of d e c o r a t i o n  In the E a r l y P e r i o d , deep.  impressed  By the Late P e r i o d , t h i s  type  i s not as c a r e f u l l y a p p l i e d (Second Henan A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  Team, IA, CASS 1982:472-3).  In a d d i t i o n , v e s s e l shapes are s a i d t o have  become " l e s s o r d e r l y " over time at Meishan, perhaps i n d i c a t i n g t h a t  they  were produced more q u i c k l y than p r e v i o u s l y .  low  f i r e d v e s s e l s i n the Late P e r i o d as w e l l Team, IA, CASS 1982:447, The  There are unevenly and  (Second Henan A r c h a e o l o g i c a l  473).  change i n r e l a t i v e care i n e x e c u t i o n  of impressed  decoration  from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d at Hougang c o r r e l a t e s with the marked d e c l i n e i n d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s . s t r e s s on the c u l t u r a l v e s s e l s with were v a l u e d  system.  There i s no evidence  A more p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n  impressed d e c o r a t i o n , and  159  i s that  perhaps other c l a s s e s as w e l l ,  l e s s by consumers over time.  used f o r d i s p l a y d u r i n g the Middle and  f o r extreme  Some v e s s e l s may  have been  Late p e r i o d s at Hougang, as  discussed l a t e r i n t h i s chapter.  These vessels do not have impressed  decoration. The decline i n v a r i e t y of shape classes from the Early to Middle Period at Hougang may represent the opposite process that M i l l e r (1982) describes.  A decrease i n v a r i e t y of shape classes over time may s i g n a l  a decline i n demand f o r a v a r i e t y of vessels f o r use i n s o c i a l d i s p l a y s . The more widespread decline i n care i n production by the Late Period at Meishan may i n d i c a t e that pottery vessels, as a c l a s s of materials, were considered  less valuable than previously, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s o c i a l  d i s p l a y at inter-household  Within-class  events.  Standardization  This section describes v a r i a t i o n i n secondary shape features and techniques of decoration w i t h i n shape c l a s s e s .  An increase i n v a r i e t i e s  of decorative techniques over time, f o r example, i n d i c a t e s d i v e r s i f i cation.  Conversely, a decrease i n v a r i e t i e s of decorative techniques  signifies simplification.  Although there i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e relevant  information f o r each s i t e , the patterns that emerge tend to support the conclusions reached i n the a n a l y s i s of change i n d i v e r s i t y of shape classes.  D e t a i l s on t h i s a n a l y s i s are provided i n Appendix B,  Tables 57-73.  160  For Hougang, there i s adequate information to assess d i v e r s i t y i n shape of l e g f o r xian tripods and ding t r i p o d s , as w e l l as handles f o r xian t r i p o d s .  Again, i t i s necessary to standardize the f i g u r e s by  t o t a l number of houses excavated per phase, as a rough measure of volume of excavated earth per phase.  Unfortunately, sample size i s so small  (even when categories are lumped) that d i v i s i o n by quantity of houses r e s u l t s i n very small figures that are d i f f i c u l t to compare. Some patterns can be seen from the raw data f o r Hougang i n the tables (Appendix B, Tables 57-59).  In more than one case, increasing  d i v e r s i t y i n secondary shape features i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to sample size (handles f o r xian t r i p o d s , f o r example).  However, f o r shape of l e g ,  xian t r i p o d s , there seems t o be s i m p l i f i c a t i o n over time.  Even though  the number of excavated houses increases markedly from the Early to Middle and Late Periods, the t o t a l number of v a r i e t i e s i n l e g shape does not.  The same pattern may apply to shape of l e g f o r ding t r i p o d s . Four comparisons of d i v e r s i t y i n decorative techniques over time  at Hougang are p o s s i b l e : large guan j a r s , medium-sized guan j a r s , xian t r i p o d s , and wan bowls, c l a s s one (Appendix B, Tables 60-63).  There  appears to be a pattern of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n from the Middle to Late Period: large j a r s , xian t r i p o d s , and bowls.  Similarly, simplification  may characterize medium-sized jars from the Early to Middle Period. Two comparisons f o r Baiying suggest a pattern of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n from the Middle to Late Periods: handles and decorative techniques f o r ding t r i p o d s (Appendix B, Tables 64, 65).  161  Although the number of  excavated houses i n c r e a s e s markedly from the Middle t o t h e Late phase (a jump from 8 t o 4 6 ) , do n o t .  t h e v a r i e t i e s of handles and d e c o r a t i v e  combinations  The a n a l y s i s of d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s i n d i c a t e d a p a t t e r n  of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  from the Middle t o Late P e r i o d a t B a i y i n g as w e l l .  Comparison between phases a t Meishan and a t L u j i a k o u straightforward,  s i n c e an approximately  excavated from each phase.  equal  i s more  number of houses was  F o r Meishan, each of f o u r comparisons  suggests the same p a t t e r n , c o n s e r v a t i s m  over time: d e c o r a t i v e  techniques  on guan j a r s , dou stemmed d i s h e s , and d i n g t r i p o d s ; and shape of l e g f o r d i n g t r i p o d s (Appendix B, Tables then,  f o r the a n a l y s e s  standardization.  66-69).  The same p a t t e r n was o b t a i n e d ,  of d i v e r s i t y i n shape c l a s s e s and w i t h i n - c l a s s  For Lujiakou, three  of f o u r comparisons suggest a  p a t t e r n of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , again an agreement of t h e f i r s t a n a l y s i s conducted: 1) d e c o r a t i v e techniques techniques Tables  decorative  f o r wan bowls, and 3) handles f o r d i n g t r i p o d s (Appendix B,  70-73). Clearly,  these  f o r ding t r i p o d s , 2)  l a r g e r sample s i z e s should be used t o support  conclusions.  by a technique  I t would be h e l p f u l t o c a l c u l a t e d i v e r s i t y  formally  such as the Shannon-Weaver D i v e r s i t y Index used i n other  s t u d i e s of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n necessary  or r e j e c t  t o evaluate  (Rice 1981, T o l l  1981).  Also, i t i s  observed d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i v e r s i t y by means of  s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t s (Rice  1989:112).  I t would be worthwhile t o a s s e s s  d i v e r s i t y of o t h e r types of  secondary shape f e a t u r e s and d e c o r a t i v e techniques  162  on v e s s e l s from  Longshan s i t e s .  When examining vessels i n China, I noted several other  types of v a r i a t i o n that could not be i n v e s t i g a t e d f u r t h e r due to inadequate sample s i z e .  For example, guan jars (medium and large) at  Hougang vary i n placement of impressed decoration.  Impressions may  cover the complete lower part of the body, or stop before the base. There i s a l s o v a r i a t i o n i n quantity of i n c i s e d l i n e s that go around the circumference  of vessels.  be a l i d s h e l f .  Some jars from Hougang have what appears to  The report states that the inner edge of the rim on  these vessels becomes a ridge (Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985:68).  L i d shelves are known f o r large jars from the Wangyoufang  region i n Henan as w e l l (Zhang and Zhang 1986:46-7). F i n a l l y , some v a r i a t i o n i n type of paste may  stem from s o c i a l  causes and be relevant to the model of ceramic change. rare and appear at approximately ca. 2300-2100 B.C.:  White wares are  the same time period i n northern Henan,  during the Late Period at Hougang (Anyang  Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985:56, 81) and the Middle Period at Baiying (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983:27).  There i s  very l i t t l e information on white wares i n the reports.  shape c l a s s  One  made of t h i s ware (a k a o l i n i c clay) i s a small gui p i t c h e r . Vessels made from t h i s q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t and r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d c l a y source may have been p r e s t i g e wares. within the Hougang and Baiying assemblages.  They are rare  White wares had been used  i n Shandong since the Dawenkou Period ( U n d e r h i l l 1983).  During the  Longshan Period, people i n the Hougang I I region may have sought to  163  enhance t h e i r p o s i t i o n s of s t a t u s by another  Late  appropriate production  Formative P e r i o d i n the V a l l e y of Guatemala may  analogue. and  of Hougang and  Rice  (1977) shows t h a t e l i t e s p r o b a b l y  exchange of r a r e , f i n e l y made white wares. B a i y i n g , however, t h e r e  i s no p u b l i s h e d  be  an  controlled  In the  case  information  on  of d e p o s i t i o n or exchange.  Summary of Changes i n S t r a t e g i e s of  Production  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d  i n three  d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s , d i m e n s i o n a l class standardization  (Table  23).  The  i s more than one  conservatism  The  i n dimensional  pattern for Baiying.  i n Shandong, there  within-  over time, or r e s i s t a n c e t o  i n d i v e r s i t y of shape c l a s s e s and  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  analyses:  westernmost s i t e , Meishan, i s  change, on the b a s i s of a l l t h r e e a n a l y s e s . simplification  separate  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , and  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a t t e r n of c o n s e r v a t i s m  Lujiakou  ware used i n  region.  The  context  i n t r o d u c i n g a new  p a t t e r n f o r Hougang i s within-class standardization.  U n l i k e Hougang but  similar  There to  i s a p a t t e r n of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r v a r i e t y  of shape c l a s s e s from the E a r l y t o the Middle P e r i o d .  There i s no  information  There i s a more  on change i n d i m e n s i o n a l  c l e a r p a t t e r n of i n c r e a s e  standardization.  i n v a r i e t y of shape c l a s s e s produced over time  164  Table 23. Summary of Change i n S t r a t e g y of P o t t e r y P r o d u c t i o n a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and L u j i a k o u . (note: "E"= E a r l y ,  s i t e and region  "M"=  Middle,  "L"= Late  Period)  diversity of shape classes  dimensional standardization  within-class standardization  E -M  modest simplification  conservatism for jars, bowls, b a s i n s  simplification? (1 comparison)  M -L  modest simplification  same as above  simplification? (5 comparisons)  E -M  modest diversifi cation  no data  conservatism? (2 comparisons)  M -L  conserva • tism  no data  simplification? (2 comparisons)  conservatism  conservatism jars, tripods  conservatism? (4 comparisons)  diversification, especially open forms  conservatism tripods  diversification? (3 of 4 comparisons)  Hougang II Hougang  Baiying  Wangwan III Meishan E -L  Liangcheng Lujiakou E -L  165  at Lujiakou  compared t o the  i s a pattern  of conservatism  There are  t h a t t h e r e was  i n dimensional  f o r the d i f f e r e n t  sites,  r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the  v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n one  underscoring  the h y p o t h e s i s  components of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  there  of Rice  One  i s the  the  point  Longshan P e r i o d .  r e g i o n , Hougang I I , as w e l l .  supporting  But  standardization.  i n t e r e s t i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of these r e s u l t s .  v a r i a t i o n i n patterns  variation,  o t h e r t h r e e , more western s i t e s .  There i s  Each s i t e e x h i b i t s  (1984) t h a t  different  systems do not always change i n the  same manner. Similarities  i n r e s u l t s f o r d i f f e r e n t analyses  s i t e are encouraging, s u g g e s t i n g examined here p r o v i d e d  t h a t the  small  r e l a t i v e l y accurate  p e r t a i n i n g to  samples of v e s s e l s  patterns.  The  a n a l y s i s of  w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n gave p a r t i c u l a r l y t e n t a t i v e r e s u l t s , r e s u l t s which tend classes.  t o support  S i m i l a r l y , there  one  but  the a n a l y s i s of d i v e r s i t y i n shape  is relatively l i t t l e  f o r the E a r l y P e r i o d at Hougang, but  two  information available  analyses  gave s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .  Meishan belongs t o the Wangwan I I I type i n western Henan, the r e g i o n i n which s t a t e f o r m a t i o n  probably  first  took p l a c e .  It i s  commonly assumed t h a t c u l t u r e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y complex i n a l l subsystems d u r i n g the process  of s t a t e f o r m a t i o n .  conducted here suggest t h a t the  system of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n  have changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y over time. intensification efficiently.  However, the may  analyses not  There i s no c l e a r evidence f o r  or i n c r e a s i n g e f f o r t s t o produce v e s s e l s more  The  only p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t i o n of i n c r e a s i n g e f f i c i e n c y i n  166  production  i s the p o t e n t i a l evidence f o r increasing incidence of lack of  labor input.  S i m i l a r l y , there i s no evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  another important aspect of increasing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n ceramic production  (Rice 1981:220).  A serious problem i s that there i s  r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e information on ceramic vessels at Meishan i n comparison t o other s i t e s .  I t i s necessary t o examine more vessels from  the Wangwan I I I region t o v e r i f y these f i n d i n g s . There i s a more complete p i c t u r e of change i n ceramic production i n the Hougang I I region.  A pattern of modest s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  characterizes the change from the Early ( t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the Longshan Period) t o the Middle Period at Hougang.  There may have been a decline  i n demand f o r a v a r i e t y of vessels by consumers f o r s o c i a l d i s p l a y . From the E a r l y t o Middle Period as w e l l , i t appears that there was a decline i n labor input f o r applying impressed decoration. ) Analyses e i t h e r i n d i c a t e a pattern of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n or conservatism  f o r the Middle t o Late Period at Hougang.  For each s i t e , I  suggest that the shape classes with the l a r g e s t samples of vessels represent  f u n c t i o n a l types that were common and regarded as non-prestige  wares: xian and ding t r i p o d s , guan j a r s , and wan bowls.  Some vessels at  Hougang, f o r example, e x h i b i t evidence of lack of labor input i n production. For each s i t e there were i n s u f f i c i e n t data t o assess w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization and dimensional  standardization f o r other wares. The  patterns summarized i n Table 23 may not characterize change i n  167  production patterns  of p r e s t i g e wares.  The case of B a i y i n g  of change i n p r e s t i g e wares may d i f f e r from n o n - p r e s t i g e  P o t t e r s may have d i v e r s i f i e d p r o d u c t i o n social and  i n d i c a t e s that wares.  of v e s s e l s t h a t c o u l d be used i n  d i s p l a y s from the E a r l y t o t h e Middle P e r i o d :  cups, s e r v i n g  lids,  pitchers. Some a s p e c t s of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  have been caused by c u l t u r a l diversification  i n t h e Hougang  I I r e g i o n may  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Shandong,  such as  of shape c l a s s e s t h a t c o u l d be used f o r d i s p l a y a t  B a i y i n g and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of white wares a t Hougang and B a i y i n g . These suggested p a t t e r n s ,  and those d e s c r i b e d  i n the f o l l o w i n g  appear t o support t h e h y p o t h e s i s proposed by Rice diversification  of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  c u l t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y should  section,  (1981) t h a t  i n a context  of i n c r e a s i n g  occur p r i m a r i l y i n the area  of s t a t u s - r e l a t e d  vessels.  ANALYSIS  OF CHANGE IN LABOR-INTENSIVE  (PRESTIGE)  VESSELS  The model suggests t h a t two types of d i s p l a y s w i t h c o n t a i n e r s  were  common i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms, l a r g e s s e and conspicuous consumption. Displays  of l a r g e s s e tend t o be undertaken by h i g h e r  have r e s o u r c e s  t o g i v e food and d r i n k away t o o t h e r s .  important method vessels  of m a i n t a i n i n g  symbolize t h e g e n e r o s i t y  s t a t u s people who Generosity  and i n c r e a s i n g s u p p o r t e r s . of t h e donors.  168  Displays  i s an  Large of l a r g e s s e ,  on a s m a l l e r social  s c a l e , may  be  undertaken by f a m i l i e s at  events such as marriage ceremonies and  funerals.  conspicuous consumption, people d i s p l a y p e r s o n a l d r i n k with v e s s e l s t h a t are e l a b o r a t e a number of d e c o r a t i v e When t h e r e  inter-household In d i s p l a y s of  consumption of food  i n shape, have t h i n w a l l s , or have  techniques.  i s an i n c r e a s e  i n status competition  v e s s e l s are p r e s t i g e o b j e c t s , t h e r e  should  v a r i a t i o n i n l a b o r i n p u t among v e s s e l s .  and  be an i n c r e a s e  People may  the d i s p l a y s of others by a c q u i r i n g : 1) the  pottery i n degree of  attempt t o surpass  same types of v e s s e l s ,  e x h i b i t i n g a h i g h e r degree of l a b o r i n p u t , 2) v e s s e l s e x h i b i t i n g types of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e t e c h n i q u e s ,  and/or 3) a c q u i r i n g an  v a r i e t y of shape c l a s s e s e x h i b i t i n g l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e Conversely, will  and  when the c o m p e t i t i v e  but  new  increasing  techniques.  system d e c l i n e s , the  opposite  pattern  occur. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the presence of f o u r types of l a b o r -  i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and l a r g e , 2) e l a b o r a t e Unfortunately,  i n form, 3) t h i n - w a l l e d , and  Lujiakou:  4) p o l i s h e d  very  (Table  24).  i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y the t o t a l number of l a b o r -  i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s at these s i t e s on the b a s i s of i n f o r m a t i o n in site reports.  each ceramic c a t e g o r y  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s t h a t are p r e s e n t Table  presented  However, as r e p o r t s tend t o d e s c r i b e at l e a s t  vessel representing  estimation,  1)  24  (Chapter 4 ) , the v a r i e t i e s can  l i s t s the t o t a l q u a n t i t y  were excavated at s i t e s .  I t should  list  169  one  be  inferred.  of very  In  of  my  large vessels that  most of the t h i n - w a l l e d  and  Table 24. L a b o r - i n t e n s i v e V e s s e l s That May Have Been Used For D i s p l a y a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and L u j i a k o u . (note: "E"= E a r l y , "M"= Middle, "L"= Late P e r i o d ; *= s e v e r a l d e c o r a t i v e techniques p r e s e n t on one v e s s e l )  s i t e and region  elaborate form  polished surface  lids for serving: 3 forms, 4 pots  pots i n several shape classes  1 jar guan (mediumsized)  lids for serving: 3 forms, 5 pots  pots i n several shape classes  1 jar guan (mediumsized)  lids for serving: 2 forms, 6 pots  pots i n several shape classes  E: 1 zuo stand *, polished; 1lid, 1 basin polished  1 cup  lids for serving: 2 forms, 2 pots  pots i n several shape classes  M:  2 pitchers 1 cup  lids for serving: 3 forms, 4 pots  pots i n several shape classes  very l a r g e in size  thinwalled  Hougang II Hougang  E: 2 zuo stands *  M: 1 b a s i n polished  pingdipen  Baiying  bei  bei  170  Wangwan Meishan  lids for serving: 6 forms, 7 pots  same as above, and 1 * quanzupan with painted human figures  lids for serving: 2 forms, 3 pots  pots i n several shape classes  lids for serving: 2 forms, 3 pots  pots i n several shape classes  E: h u j a r s (quantity not c l e a r )  gui pitchers with long spouts: 1 f orm, 3 pots  pots i n several shape classes  L;  gui pitchers w i t h long spouts: 1 f orm, 1 pot; lids for serving: 1 form 1 pot ; 1 lei j a r  pots i n several shape classes  III E: 1 cup bei 1 tripod ding  Liangcheng Lujiakou  171  elaborately shaped vessels.  There are probably several polished vessels  i n several shape classes at each s i t e , most of which are not  described  i n reports. Two  s i t e s , Hougang and Baiying, have r e l a t i v e l y large vessels.  At  both of these s i t e s there are large zuo stands and one extremely large pingdipen basin. diameter of 77.4  The basin at Baiying i s p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e , with a rim cm.  The basin at Hougang i s 60.7  cm i n rim diameter.  At Baiying there i s also an extremely large l i d shaped l i k e a sombrero at 56.0  cm i n rim diameter.  The s c a t t e r p l o t s f o r s i z e of basins at  Hougang and Baiying (Appendix A, Figures 8, 10) i l l u s t r a t e the extent to which these vessels d i f f e r from others. completely reconstructed, i s 45.5 height.  The zuo stand at Baiying,  cm i n rim diameter and 29.4  cm i n  Many of these vessels a l s o e x h i b i t l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e decorative  techniques.  The basins are h i g h l y polished, and the zuo stands have  several techniques:  p a i n t i n g , carved out holes, p o l i s h i n g , and  incising.  A l l of these vessels belong to the e a r l i e r Longshan Period: the Early and Middle Period at Hougang, and the Early Period at Baiying. These large vessels may represent d i s p l a y of largesse i n g i v i n g food or drink to other people.  Large ceramic basins used f o r t h i s purpose are  known i n Peru (Tschopik 1950:215-6).  I suggest that largesse was a  s o c i a l t a c t i c used at more than one community i n the Hougang I I region during the e a r l i e r Longshan Period. There i s a l s o one d i s t i n c t l y large guan j a r from the Late Period at Baiying, with a height of 55.8  cm (Appendix A, Figure 6).  172  It i s  possible that t h i s vessel was also used i n d i s p l a y s .  However, jars of  t h i s size are not an unusual occurrence i n northern Henan.  At Hougang,  gang jars are present i n every period and are approximately the same height.  They may  rather than p u b l i c  have been used f o r storage i n p r i v a t e (household) contexts.  As mentioned i n the f i r s t section of t h i s chapter (Table 18), I suggest that there are several forms of l i d s too elaborate i n form and/or too large and heavy to function as covers of other vessels. These are present i n each period at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  From the Late Period at Baiying, there are also two large l i d  handles of elaborate shapes, one of which i s at l e a s t 22.6  cm  tall.  From the Late Period at Meishan, there are two elaborate l i d handles, one of which i s shaped l i k e the head of a wolf. of e l a b o r a t e l y shaped vessels at Lujiakou.  There are other forms  The l e i necked j a r i s only  present i n the Late Period, but gui p i t c h e r s with exaggerated  (long)  spouts are i n each period. Vessels with t h i n walls are present i n more than one period region, but to a greater extent at Baiying and Lujiakou.  The  and  small  p i t c h e r s from Baiying are on d i s p l a y at the Puyang work s t a t i o n . are extremely f i n e l y made and very t h i n - w a l l e d , at ca. 1.0 mm.  They The  E a r l y Period sherd from a cup of uncertain shape i s said to be "eggshell" t h i n (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province Lujiakou, some hu necked jars are t h i n - w a l l e d .  173  1983).  At  There are vessels i n a number of shape classes that are polished. Some classes e x h i b i t v a r i a t i o n i n degree of l u s t e r on vessels as w e l l . A few bei cups, zun cups, and dou dishes from the Middle and Late periods at Baiying have a high degree of l u s t e r (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983:17, 19, 28).  Unfortunately, i t i s not  possible to describe v a r i a t i o n i n p o l i s h i n g among vessels i n any d e t a i l . When vessels were examined i n the f i e l d , extensive smearing of p l a s t e r from the reconstruction process prevented accurate comparison of vessels. I suggest that t h i n - w a l l e d , polished, and e l a b o r a t e l y shaped vessels were used i n displays of conspicuous consumption throughout the Longshan Period.  I n d i v i d u a l - s i z e d vessels such as cups could have been  used, as w e l l as serving vessels such as necked j a r s that could have contained alchohol.  The large and elaborate l i d s could have been used  i n e i t h e r d i s p l a y s of largesse or conspicuous consumption. hypothesis  can be offered f o r polished open forms.  The same  The unusual painted  quanzupan dish from the Late Period at Baiying may represent d i s p l a y of r i t u a l status instead. In most cases, i t i s not c l e a r whether displays of largesse or conspicuous consumption became more i n t e n s i f i e d over time as a r e s u l t of increasing status competition.  However, there i s some i n d i c a t i o n that  displays of conspicuous consumption may have i n t e n s i f i e d over time i n the Hougang I I region.  Vessels became i n c r e a s i n g l y thin-walled from the  Early to the Middle Period at Baiying (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan  174  Province 1983:37), and from the Middle t o Late Period at Hougang (Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985:81). phases are roughly contemporaneous.  As previously discussed, these  Also, white wares were introduced  at t h i s time. I t appears that there i s a change i n character of d i s p l a y vessels i n the Hougang I I region over time. the l a t e r Longshan Period.  Large vessels seem t o drop out by  I suggest that people i n status competition  decided t o adopt a d i f f e r e n t t a c t i c , d i s p l a y i n g a v a r i e t y of shape classes e x h i b i t i n g l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e production as w e l l as personal consumption of food and drink. Again there i s evidence f o r a decline i n pottery production over time at Meishan. not present. time.  In the Late phase, extremely thin-walled vessels are  Also, the number of vessels with p o l i s h i n g declines over  Vessels from only the E a r l y Period have a high degree of  p o l i s h i n g (Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982:273-4). In contrast, there i s an increase i n p o l i s h i n g f o r vessels from Lujiakou (Shandong Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Art Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province 1985:348).  One sherd of eggshell  thickness (ca. 1 mm) was found, of unspecified date.  Displays of status  with pottery may have continued with greater i n t e n s i t y i n Shandong and northern Henan than i n western Henan during the l a t e Longshan Period. The patterns describe here appear t o be present at other, l e s s well documented s i t e s from the Longshan Period.  Very large containers  occur at three s i t e s dating t o the e a r l i e r Longshan Period (Table 25).  175  Table 25. Very Large V e s s e l s a t Other S i t e s from the Longshan P e r i o d .  cultural region / site  characteristics of vessels  Taosi Taosi (Xiangfen County, Shanxi) E a r l y P e r i o d dates ca. 2500-2300 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:51, Gao e t a l . 1984:28)  1 wooden, r e d p a i n t e d quanzupan stemmed d i s h i n E a r l y P e r i o d grave M3015, a l a r g e and the r i c h e s t grave a t the s i t e (178 grave goods), r i m diameter of dish= 63.6 cm, height= 22.0 cm (Shanxi A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS and the L i n f e n D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983:31,35,39)  Wangwan III Wangwan (near Luoyang c i t y , Henan) layer I I I , one C14 date f o r s i t e , ZK 126, 2390+/145 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:53)  1 p e d e s t a l l e d pen d i s h , p o l i s h e d , on d i s p l a y a t the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Work S t a t i o n , Luoyang, Henan, r i m diameter= ca. 54.7 cm, height= c a . 30.6 cm, and 1 guan j a r , r i m diameter= ca. 41.5 cm, h e i g h t c a . 65.0 cm; 1 l a r g e zuo stand ( p o l i s h e d , i n c i s e d , with c a r v e d out h o l e s ) on d i s p l a y a t the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y Museum, B e i j i n g , r i m diameter= ca. 45.0 cm, height= c a . 28.0 cm  Hougang II Xiapanwang ( C i x i a n County, Hebei) (one C14 date f o r s i t e , ZK 200-1, 2515+/145 B.C. applies to F l (Zhang and (Zhang 1986:52)  1 pingdipen b a s i n of same shape c l a s s as the l a r g e b a s i n a t Hougang) from house F l , r i m diameter= 61.2 cm, height= 14.0 cm (Department of C u l t u r a l R e l i c s , Hebei P r o v i n c e 1975:92)  176  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the grave at Taosi shows an a s s o c i a t i o n between large vessels (wooden, i n t h i s case) and high status users or owners (see Shanxi Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Linfen D i s t r i c t C u l t u r a l Bureau 1983:31, 35, 39). Thus, displays of largesse may have occurred in more than one area, not just northern Henan.  A large pingdipen  basin  has been reported f o r a t h i r d s i t e i n the Hougang I I region, Xiapanwang (Department of C u l t u r a l R e l i c s , Hebei Province 1975:92). Other types of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels have been found that must have been used i n d i s p l a y s of status.  Thin-walled, polished, and t a l l  (exaggerated height) vessels are reported at other s i t e s from the Wangwan I I I , Hougang I I , and Liangcheng regions (Table 26).  Information  on p o l i s h i n g i s l i m i t e d , but i t appears that most of the vessels i n question were polished. Sites from Henan have y i e l d e d t h i n - w a l l e d vessels of more than one shape c l a s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y cups.  In the Liangcheng region of Shandong,  the only form of thin-walled vessel i s the well-known "eggshell" (dan ke tao) t a l l stemmed cup (gao bing b e i ) .  These v e s s e l s , of remarkable  thinness (as low as 0.3 mm) are associated p r i m a r i l y with mortuary sites.  They are rare i n h a b i t a t i o n contexts; the s i t e of Yaoguanzhuang  i s one example (see I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province  et al. N  1981:22).  "Eggshell" t a l l stemmed cups represent the climax of ceramic  technology  during the N e o l i t h i c period (Yan 1986, Du 1982).  Thin-walled vessels were probably made f i r s t i n Shandong, ca. 2400 B.C., and next i n the adjacent Hougang I I region.  177  They are  Table 26. L a b o r - i n t e n s i v e V e s s e l s t h a t May Have Been Used f o r D i s p l a y of Conspicuous Consumption a t Other S i t e s from the Longshan P e r i o d , by C u l t u r a l Region.  type of vessel  Wangwan III  Hougang II  Liangcheng  thin-walled cups - v a r i e t i e s of bei short  1, Wangchenggang, P e r i o d IV, polished, ca. 1900 B.C.  t a l l stemgao bing bei  1, Wadian, Period II, C14 date f o r s i t e WBS2-24 2080+/135 B.C., (associated p e r i o d not stated), r e p o r t e d as ca. 0.1mm thick, also polished, i n c i s e d , with small carved out holes  thin-walled beakers varieties of gu  1 polished bei shaped l i k e a gu, N i u z h a i , no c l e a r date  178  1, Dahancun no date g i v e n l e s s than 2.0mm t h i c k  several i n b u r i a l s at sites ca. 24001800 B.C. most pots 0.3-0.5mm thick, polished, some with small carved out holes; at Chengzi, Sanlihe  thin-walled lids- varieties of gai J  1, Wadian, p e r i o d not stated 1, trumpet shaped, c a . 24.5 cm t a l l , p o l i s h e d , at Yanzhuang, ca 1.0 mm t h i c k , ca. 2175 B.C. 1, same shape as above, c a . 28.0 cm t a l l , brightly p o l i s h e d , 1.21.8 mm t h i c k , at Gelawang, l a t e Longshan Period  t a l l beakersv a r i e t i e s of gu  2, Wadian, Period I I , polished, broken heights 21.5 cm, 14.5 cm; 2 from Period I I I , brightly polished, elaborate i n shape, 25.2 cm, 29.0 cm in height  179  p o l i s h e d , 1, Wangchenggang Periods I I , IV, both c a . 20 cm t a l l , (ca. 2455, 1900 B.C.)  tall pitchersv a r i e t i e s of g u i , exaggerated necks and/or spouts  several i n b u r i a l and other s i t e s ca. 24001800 B.C., v e s s e l s up t o 42.0 cm t a l l (Yaoguanzhuang, middle-late Longshan Period  References: 1) Wadian (Yuxian County, Henan), some v e s s e l s on d i s p l a y at the Dengfeng (Gaocheng) A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research S t a t i o n , and d e s c r i b e d by the Henan P r o v i n c e C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the Department of H i s t o r y a t Zhengzhou U n i v e r s i t y , Archaeology S p e c i a l t y 1983:41,43; f o r d a t i n g see Zhang and Zhang 1986:53 2) Wangchenggang (Dengfeng County, Henan), s e v e r a l v e s s e l s on d i s p l a y a t the Dengfeng (Gaocheng) A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Research S t a t i o n , and d e s c r i b e d by the Henan P r o v i n c e C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S e c t i o n of the Museum of Chinese H i s t o r y 1983:13,16; f o r d a t i n g see Zhang and Zhang 1986:53 3) N i u z h a i (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Work Team, Bureau of C u l t u r e , Henan P r o v i n c e 1958:22-3,26  180  4) Yanzhuang (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), Museum of Zhengzhou C i t y 1983:5), f o r dating see Zhang and Zhang 1986:53 5) Gelawang (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), F i r s t C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Work Team, Bureau of Culture, Henan Province 1958:46,47 6) Dahancun (near Anyang c i t y , Henan), Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1990:55,56 7) Chengzi (Zhucheng County, Shandong), Archaeological Group of the Changwei Area and the Museum of Zhucheng County 1980 8) Sanlihe (Jiaoxian County, Shandong), I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province 1988 9) Yaoguanzhuang (near Weifang c i t y , Shandong), I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province et a l . 1981:14-7  181  present i n the Early Period at Baiying but appear t o be more common by the Middle Period.  From there they spread f u r t h e r west.  I t i s possible  that consumers attempted t o emulate high status people i n adjacent regions.  Using copies of d i s p l a y vessels made i n other areas i s a  common strategy i n s o c i a l competition  ( M i l l e r 1982:193).  Again, s i m i l a r forms of vessels that may have been used f o r s o c i a l displays are found i n more than one s i t e w i t h i n c u l t u r a l regions. For example, i n the Wangwan I I I region, a trumpet-shaped, polished, t h i n walled l i d i s present at Yanzhuang (Museum of Zhengzhou C i t y 1983:5) and at Gelawang ( F i r s t C u l t u r a l R e l i c s Work Team, Bureau of Culture, Henan Province 1958:46, 47). "Eggshell" t a l l stemmed cups are found i n several s i t e s i n Shandong.  C o n c l u s i o n s on Changes i n L a b o r - i n t e n s i v e  (Prestige)  Vessels  Large, t h i n - w a l l e d , polished, and elaborate vessels are found i n a number of s i t e s i n more than one phase during the Longshan Period. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , s i m i l a r patterns are found i n more than one s i t e w i t h i n the same c u l t u r a l subregion.  I suggest that persons i n status  competition emulated the displays of others -- people i n the same settlement  system as well as i n other communities or even other regions.  People i n northern Henan, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the s i t e of Baiying, may have attempted t o emulate the d i s p l a y t a c t i c s of people i n Shandong.  182  This  process may have i n t e n s i f i e d from ca. 2300-2200 B.C. (by the Middle Period at Baiying and the Late at Hougang). I t appears that d i s p l a y vessels continued t o be used at Meishan, even though there i s p o t e n t i a l evidence f o r decline i n production of prestige wares by the Late Period.  Other s i t e s from the Wangwan I I I  region have y i e l d e d l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels that may have been used f o r d i s p l a y as w e l l . found from Wadian.  An e x q u i s i t e , very t a l l , well-polished g_u beaker was Thus i t appears that prestige wares continued t o be  important during the l a t e r Longshan Period i n t h i s region.  One reason  f o r differences i n patterns between s i t e s i n the Wangwan I I I region may be that metal vessels were beginning t o replace ceramic vessels as prestige goods. In the future a l a r g e r sample of vessels from Longshan s i t e s should be examined f o r v a r i a t i o n i n labor input, enabling a more precise comparison of vessels by the production 1981).  step index (Feinman et a l .  I t i s necessary t o document change i n production of (labor-  i n t e n s i v e ) prestige wares more c l e a r l y .  This a n a l y s i s suggests that a l l  three types of change driven by increasing status competition  cited  previously may have taken place: increasing degree of labor input f o r the same type of shape classes (Baiying), using vessels with new types of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques (Hougang, B a i y i n g ) , and acquiring a greater v a r i e t y of vessels with l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques (Baiying, Lujiakou).  These changes represent an increase i n v a r i e t i e s of ceramic  183  categories Rice  over time as p r e d i c t e d by my  (1981).  184  r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the model  CHAPTER 6.  CHANGE IN MODE OF PRODUCTION AND ACCESS TO GOODS  INTRODUCTION  T h i s c h a p t e r addresses  two t o p i c s .  evidence f o r mode of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n .  The f i r s t  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  f o l l o w i n g modes may be r e p r e s e n t e d i n chiefdoms: simple household  i n d u s t r y , complex household  workshop i n d u s t r y .  i s archaeological 3, t h e  household p r o d u c t i o n ,  i n d u s t r y , and i n d i v i d u a l  The c h a p t e r addresses whether t h e r e i s evidence t o  support t h e h y p o t h e s i s r a i s e d i n the Chinese and western  literature  that  workshop p r o d u c t i o n was p r e s e n t d u r i n g t h e l a t e N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d of n o r t h e r n China.  A l s o , i t attempts  t o determine  whether t h e r e i s  evidence f o r a change i n mode over time a t s i t e s , as p r e d i c t e d by t h e model. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  3, p a t t e r n s of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and  d i v e r s i t y of ceramic v e s s e l s can be u s e f u l i n r e c o g n i z i n g change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n .  Two o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data t h a t can be  i n f o r m a t i v e as w e l l a r e d i r e c t  evidence f o r p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n  t o o l s , e t c . ) and t e c h n i q u e s used i n p r o d u c t i o n ( f o r shaping,  (kilns,  firing).  The l i m i t e d data on ceramic v e s s e l s , d i r e c t evidence f o r p r o d u c t i o n , and s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s suggest t h a t t h e r e i s no evidence f o r change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n a t any s i t e .  A l s o , the mode t h a t i s most l i k e l y i s  185  complex household  industry.  Other Longshan s i t e s have s i m i l a r  evidence  for pottery production. The second t o p i c addressed here i s p a t t e r n s of access t o c r a f t goods a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan,  and L u j i a k o u .  One  important  issue  i s whether t h e r e i s evidence f o r d i f f e r e n t i a l access t o goods f o r l a r g e s i t e s w i t h w a l l s versus s m a l l e r s i t e s without w a l l s .  In chiefdoms,  r e l a t i v e l y large settlements with s u b s t a n t i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l  f e a t u r e s are  u s u a l l y c e n t e r s i n which r e s i d e n t s have r e s t r i c t e d a c c e s s t o a range of As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 2,  c r a f t goods.  Hougang i s r e p o r t e d as much  l a r g e r i n s i z e than the other t h r e e s i t e s and has remains surrounding w a l l . nonceramic utilitarian  I compare  of a  the types and q u a n t i t i e s of ceramic and  goods found a t the f o u r s i t e s  -- p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e items and  items.  Another  important i s s u e i s whether t h e r e i s evidence f o r change i n  p a t t e r n s of a c c e s s t o goods a t an i n t r a - s i t e l e v e l .  The a n a l y s e s i n  Chapter 5 suggest t h a t d i s p l a y a c t i v i t y with p o t t e r y v e s s e l s i s p r e s e n t throughout  the Longshan P e r i o d i n more than one r e g i o n .  A l s o , t h e r e may  have been an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e n s i t y of d i s p l a y a c t i v i t y over time i n the Hougang I I and Liangcheng r e g i o n s .  For example, i t appears  that  vessels  become i n c r e a s i n g l y t h i n - w a l l e d over time i n the Hougang I I r e g i o n . chiefdoms,  In  s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n o f t e n i n v o l v e s more than one c a t e g o r y of  m a t e r i a l goods.  I t i s important t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether o t h e r goods  i n d i c a t e s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n as w e l l , and whether t h e r e i s evidence f o r change i n degree  of c o m p e t i t i o n over time.  186  First,  I d e s c r i b e v a r i a t i o n i n d i v e r s i t y and q u a n t i t y of a r t i f a c t s  at each s i t e , p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e items  and u t i l i t a r i a n  objects.  Then I  d i s c u s s v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e and c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l of houses a t the four s i t e s .  There i s much more i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Hougang and B a i y i n g  Meishan and L u j i a k o u .  On the whole, t h e r e i s l i t t l e  occupants of Hougang had access goods than t h e o t h e r s i t e s .  ceramic  However, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n housing a t  and nonceramic goods were r e c o v e r e d  independent data Conclusions  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the  t o a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y of  Hougang and B a i y i n g becomes more marked over time. few  than  Unfortunately,  from houses, t h e r e i s no  on s t a t u s of consumers of h y p o t h e s i z e d  about p o s s i b l e changes i n access  since  p r e s t i g e items.  t o goods a t s i t e s i s  d i s c u s s e d r a t h e r than d e t a i l s about consumption of goods.  EVIDENCE  FOR MODE OF  PRODUCTION  Since Chapter 3 d e s c r i b e s how ceramic  attributes reflecting  of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and d i v e r s i t y can i n d i c a t e mode of p r o d u c t i o n , s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s proposed e x p e c t a t i o n s c a t e g o r i e s of d a t a , d i r e c t evidence technology. Table  concerning  f o r ceramic  degree this  t h e other two r e l e v a n t  p r o d u c t i o n and ceramic  Then i t d e s c r i b e s t h e a v a i l a b l e data f o r s i t e s . 27 summarizes the expected  change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n  in chiefly  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence f o r societies.  Change i n p r o d u c t i v e  mode i s more r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e by change i n d i r e c t evidence f o r production.  I f o n l y ceramic  v e s s e l s and techniques  187  used i n p r o d u c t i o n  Table 27. Hypothesized A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n d i c a t o r s f o r Change i n Mode of P r o d u c t i o n .  type of evidence  household to simple household industry  simple household industry t o complex household industry  complex household industry to individual workshop industry  change i n d i r e c t evidence for pottery production: tools, kilns, pots i n houses  change from evidence f o r production i n most houses or s e v e r a l areas to a few  no change; evidence f o r production i n only a few houses o r areas  change from production i n few houses t o no houses; remains of workshops  change i n techniques to i n c r e a s e efficiency i n shaping, firing  same as above  same as above  same ; result i s high degree of standardization and diversity  change i n technology  change i n characteri sties of ceramic products  increases i n degree of standardiz a t i o n and/or diversity i n terms of s i z e , shape, decoration  188  are examined, i t may not be p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n whether there i s a change i n mode.  Instead, the data may i n d i c a t e evidence f o r increasing  e f f i c i e n c y i n production with no change i n mode.  I d e a l l y , a l l three  categories of data should be examined i n assessing mode of production. Unfortunately, i t i s often d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y d i r e c t for ceramic production from archaeological remains.  evidence  Researchers  need t o  be aware of p o t e n t i a l l y useful data during excavation (Stark 1985, Deal 1988).  Analysts can p r e d i c t expected categories of data on the  basis of production techniques used by modern t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s i n general (van der Leeuw 1984) and i n s p e c i f i c areas.  For example,  researchers have used ethnoarchaeological data from the American southwest ( S u l l i v a n 1988) and Mesoamerica (Stark 1985, Deal 1983, 1988) to p r e d i c t u s e f u l categories of data.  I review evidence f o r pottery  production i n Chinese N e o l i t h i c and e a r l y h i s t o r i c s i t e s i n order t o i d e n t i f y relevant classes of data that may be present at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou. I t i s often p r o f i t a b l e t o examine ceramic vessels f o r s p e c i f i c techniques used i n production (Santley et a l . 1989:111).  Here I discuss  general information from the archaeological l i t e r a t u r e on techniques of production. I d e a l l y , household production should be recognizable by material evidence f o r production i n or near each house i n a settlement.  Craft  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a settlement should be recognizable by remains of production i n a l i m i t e d number of areas, f o r both simple and complex  189  household industry (see Tosi 1984:23-4).  A change to workshop  production should be recognizable by the appearance of workshops.  There  should be a concentration of permanent f a c i l i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t steps i n production such as preparing paste, shaping, decorating, and f i r i n g (Santley et a l . 1989:109). A number of factors may complicate archaeological r e c o g n i t i o n of pottery production, e s p e c i a l l y when c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e workshops are absent.  The presence of portable items such as t o o l s i n an area does  not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e that production took place i n that area (Stark 1985:167).  Immovable features such as k i l n s provide more r e l i a b l e  evidence f o r production.  Some steps i n production i n v o l v i n g c l a y  soaking p i t s and wheels, etc. may take place i n courtyards adjacent to houses, as i n Indian v i l l a g e s with complex household industry ( M i l l e r 1985:209).  Conclusions about l o c a t i o n of production are more r e l i a b l e  when a range of archaeological data i s examined (Stark 1985:177). In most studies, production areas are located by i d e n t i f y i n g t o o l s , k i l n s , and wasters.  In recent years other c r i t e r i a have been  used such as r e l a t i v e concentration of residues from production over a s i t e (Tosi 1984:23, Santley et a l . 1989), presence of raw material storage (Deal 1988, 1983), and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t o o l s from use-wear analysis (Deal 1988).  However, the present study i s l i m i t e d to  i d e n t i f y i n g t o o l s and k i l n s as described i n archaeological reports. This study also considers another p o t e n t i a l i n d i c a t o r of ceramic production proposed by Deal (1983:111): presence of a great d i v e r s i t y  190  and  q u a n t i t y of v e s s e l s i n houses where p o t t e r s r e s i d e .  should  This  apply t o the household and household i n d u s t r y modes.  problem i n u s i n g the c r i t e r i o n i s the d i f f i c u l t y a great  v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y  An obvious  i n determining  whether  of v e s s e l s i n a house i n d i c a t e s a high  s t a t u s f a m i l y r a t h e r than t h e household of a p o t t e r . f a m i l y should  criterion  A high  status  symbolize i t s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n by more than one category of  m a t e r i a l remains.  A house with a great v a r i e t y and q u a n t i t y  should be r e l a t i v e l y  l a r g e i n s i z e , b u i l t with  of v e s s e l s  c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s of  r e l a t i v e l y good q u a l i t y , and/or c o n t a i n other p r e s t i g e goods. I suggest t h a t a change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n  may a l s o be  i n d i c a t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t o i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y ,  i.e.,to  produce a g r e a t e r number of v e s s e l s i n a s h o r t e r time p e r i o d . speed can be a c h i e v e d ( A r n o l d 1985:209).  by i n c r e a s e d use of moulds as w e l l as wheels  F o r example, using moulds t o make a g r e a t e r number  of shape c l a s s e s can i n c r e a s e e f f i c i e n c y i n p r o d u c t i o n . s o l u t i o n i s t o make changes i n k i l n d e s i g n . firing time  chamber  Greater  Another  F o r example, t h e s i z e of a  l i m i t s t h e number of v e s s e l s t h a t can be f i r e d a t one  (Kramer 1985:81).  A c l e a r increase  indicate e f f o r t s at greater e f f i c i e n c y , q u a n t i t y of v e s s e l s a t one time.  i n s i z e of f i r i n g chamber i . e . , by f i r i n g a g r e a t e r  However, s i z e of b a k i n g chamber  r e l a t e s t o s i z e of t h e v e s s e l s being  191  could  fired.  also  Evidence f o r P o t t e r y  P r o d u c t i o n i n Chinese N e o l i t h i c  Sites  There are several types of evidence f o r pottery production from N e o l i t h i c and e a r l y h i s t o r i c period s i t e s .  Large features include p i t  (updraft) k i l n s at several s i t e s (Feng et a l . 1982, Zhou et a l . 1982), a stone turntable from the Yangshao s i t e Banpo (Zhao 1989), and p i t s f o r preparing paste from a Shang s i t e (described by Shangraw 1978:139). Wheels or p i t s have not been reported from Longshan s i t e s . pottery, stone, and bone t o o l s f o r shaping (trimming,  In a d d i t i o n ,  smoothing,  adjusting shape) and decorating (stamping, i n c i s i n g ) vessels have been i d e n t i f i e d (Zeng 1985, An Zhimin 1982). Unfortunately most of the t o o l s p i c t u r e d by Zeng (1985) and An Zhimin (1982) are rather i n d i s t i n c t i n shape. are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Longshan s i t e reports.  Some of the t o o l forms  However, i t i s not p o s s i b l e  to a s c e r t a i n whether most of these t o o l s were used f o r pottery production or e x c l u s i v e l y f o r other tasks.  Therefore I only record the  presence of d i s t i n c t i v e t o o l forms from Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou. The t o o l form that i s most c l e a r l y associated with pottery production i s the p a i z i or "beater".  This t o o l i s shaped l i k e a  mushroom, i . e . , wide and f l a t at one end, and i s small, often about  192  6 cm t a l l .  P a i z i made from both pottery and stone are present i n  Longshan s i t e s . Zeng (1985:72) i l l u s t r a t e s two types of pottery "beaters", one that has a p l a i n end and one that i s covered with decorative l i n e s . Scholars have argued that the l a t t e r type was used t o make impressed decoration on pots, as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o carved wooden paddles (Feng et a l . 1982:39-40). end.  Most p a i z i from Longshan Period s i t e s are p l a i n at the  Baiying contains two covered with decorative l i n e s that are  s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n shape than other p a i z i . technique  A possible a l t e r n a t i v e  f o r making impressed decoration on Longshan vessels i s  discussed below.  Like Cheng (1959:93), I think that the majority of  p a i z i were used as a n v i l s i n shaping.  Some scholars i n China, however,  use the term dian t o denote a n v i l s (Feng et. a l 1982:40). Small, mushroom-shaped t o o l s of pottery and stone have been i d e n t i f i e d as a n v i l s i n several areas of the world.  Rye and  Evans (1976) report that s p e c i a l i s t potters i n Pakistan use more than one s i z e c l a s s of these t o o l s f o r a l t e r i n g the shape of wheel-thrown vessels.  Twenty years e a r l i e r , Foster (1956) observed s p e c i a l i s t  P a k i s t a n i potters using a n v i l s of t h i s kind f o r thinning the walls and enlarging the s i z e of wheel thrown Vessels.  M i l l e r (1985:207-9, 222)  a l s o notes that Indian potters use mushroom-shaped a n v i l s with wooden paddles f o r t h i s purpose. Facets on the i n t e r i o r walls of vessels are evidence f o r use of a n v i l s (Rice 1987:136).  In my estimation, wheel-thrown bowls and basins  193  at  Hougang have f a c e t s of t h i s  shape by b e a t i n g Table  s o r t , r e f l e c t i n g r a p i d a l t e r a t i o n of  a f t e r throwing.  28 d e s c r i b e s t h e evidence f o r p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n  B a i y i n g , and Meishan.  The l a c k of evidence a t L u j i a k o u  r e l a t e d t o t h e small percentage of the s i t e area  a t Hougang,  i s probably  excavated.  Paizi are  the most common t o o l s a t s i t e s but other types of t o o l s have been found as w e l l : p o t t e r y  (zao)  c h i s e l and p o l i s h i n g sherds.  t o o l s made of p o t t e r y d e s c r i b e d as knives  t h a t p o t t e r y t o o l s such as k n i v e s during  the Longshan P e r i o d .  The edges would not have  Ye and Yu (1984:81), however, argue were used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l  tasks  The authors of t h e Hougang r e p o r t  t h a t 21 sherds show evidence of being Archaeological  that  or c h i s e l s , e t c . were used f o r  trimming v e s s e l s d u r i n g t h e shaping p r o c e s s . been sharp enough f o r other t a s k s .  It is likely  used as p o l i s h i n g t o o l s  maintain (Anyang  Team, IA, CASS 1985:71), but o n l y two a r e d e s c r i b e d .  When I examined v e s s e l s f i r s t h a n d from Hougang and B a i y i n g , I d i d not  see any of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t r i a t i o n s from b u r n i s h i n g  (see Rice  1987:138), even with  a hand lens  (16x).  on v e s s e l s  Because l u s t r o u s  b l a c k and g r e y v e s s e l s have an extremely smooth appearance, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t p o l i s h i n g was u s u a l l y a c h i e v e d  by other means.  At t h e I n s t i t u t e of  Archaeology i n J i n a n , Shandong, I was f o r t u n a t e t o meet Zhong Huanan, an experienced  p o t t e r who has been r e p l i c a t i n g N e o l i t h i c v e s s e l s from  several periods. before  He b e l i e v e s t h a t Longshan p o t t e r s p o l i s h e d  and a f t e r f i r i n g with a s o f t m a t e r i a l  (Zhong Huanan, p e r s o n a l  such as c l o t h or f u r  communication, J u l y 1987).  194  vessels  Leather  c o u l d have  Table 28. D i r e c t Evidence f o r P o t t e r y P r o d u c t i o n a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , and Meishan by E x c a v a t i o n (T) Area.  site  pottery chisel  tool for polishing  paizi  ceramic mould  kiln  Hougang 1 in pit T1-T2  pottery 1 i n T2  Early  Middle  2 sherds in pits, T12, T12A  Late  part of kiln wall T16  stone, 1 i n T16  Baiying Early  Middle Late  1, T32 1 i n 14 pottery, 3: T15, T18, and unclear  Meishan 5 in corner, T2  Early  Late  stone, 1 in Tl  195  been used as w e l l (personal communication, Rice 1990).  These m a t e r i a l s ,  of course, would not normally be preserved i n s i t e s . Another type of t o o l that has been discovered, at Hougang, i s a pottery mould f o r forming the legs of l_i t r i p o d s .  The mould was f i r s t  reported i n 1961 (Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, Academica S i n i c a 1961:64-5).  In a l a t e r r e p o r t , the Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS  (1982:578) states that the mould i s 11 cm t a l l and was found i n p i t H12. According t o t h e i r f i n a l report f o r Hougang published i n 1935, t h i s p i t belongs t o the E a r l y Period.  The mould i s on d i s p l a y at the Xiaotun  Research S t a t i o n . Moulds were commonly used f o r shaping vessel legs during the N e o l i t h i c period (Feng et a l . 1982:38), but i t i s not c l e a r i f moulds were used f o r making the bodies of vessels.  I suggest that the bodies  of j a r s with impressed decoration such as guan might have been made by using moulds.  The impressed decoration such as cordmarks are deep,  v e r t i c a l , and extremely regular f o r the e n t i r e length of the vessels. Also, the marks do not overlap with one another.  This type of surface  could not have been achieved by beating with cord-wrapped paddles or engraved p a i z i .  A ceramic or wooden mould l i n e d with cord, basketry, or  f a b r i c could have been used.  This technique would a l s o f a c i l i t a t e  removal of leatherhard vessels from moulds without s t i c k i n g (Rice, personal communication 1990). Some scholars suggest that moulds may have been used t o make vessels with impressed decoration (Zhou et a l . 1982:272, Wu 1938).  196  Wu  (1938:133-4) maintains that a "belt-mould"  rather than a true mould was  used t o create the deep, regular impressions a f t e r experimentation  on j a r s .  He concludes  that a curved s t r i p of wood, bamboo, or pottery  about 2 inches wide and 10 inches long was used when forming large jars by c o i l i n g on a turntable (Wu 1938:31-2). Further experimentation help determine techniques  and d e t a i l e d examination of vessels w i l l  used f o r making various shape c l a s s e s . The  Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS (1985:56) states that the bodies of large vessels such as guan, pen and xian steamers were made by moulds (mu z h i ) . The rims of these j a r s were wheel turned d u n x i u ) , and the bases, wheel thrown.  The l a r g e s t vessels such as large guan and gang  were c o i l made (ni t i a o pan zhu), with wheel-turned rims.  Most smaller  vessels were made by fast wheel d u n z h i ) . S i m i l a r l y , the CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province (1983:27) states that large forms at Baiying such as xian and j i a t r i p o d s were made by moulds and the wheel. In both reports the i m p l i c a t i o n i s that pottery making are consistent over time f o r a l l classes of vessels.  techniques  Also, there i s  agreement among scholars that potters made several shape classes by assembling separately f a b r i c a t e d parts throughout the Longshan Period, whether the parts were made by a mould, the wheel, or the c o i l method. My b r i e f observations on shaping methods at s i t e s support these conclusions. K i l n s were found at Baiying and Meishan (Table 28), but unfortunately, none of the k i l n s from Baiying are described i n the  197  report.  Only one  k i l n from the E a r l y P e r i o d i s mentioned, Y3.  the d e s i g n a t i o n , probably well.  two  other k i l n s were found at the  A l l t h r e e extremely l a r g e v e s s e l s from the  Chapter 5 (the b a s i n , zuo  stand,  a d d i t i o n t o a small p i t c h e r .  and  The  Given  site  as  site described in  l i d ) were found i n the k i l n ,  in  r e p o r t does not g i v e the l o c a t i o n of  the k i l n i n r e l a t i o n t o the E a r l y P e r i o d houses. The  Second Henan A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS (1982:431)  d e s c r i b e s f o u r of f i v e k i l n s from P e r i o d I at Meishan. were found i n the northwest c o r n e r  of e x c a v a t i o n  area  i n f o r m a t i o n on the l o c a t i o n of t h i s area w i t h i n the t o other f e a t u r e s such as houses i s g i v e n . which the k i l n s were used i s Y3, Y3 and The  Y4,  are  incomplete.  Y2,  n e a r l y the  and  Y4  s l i g h t l y b i g g e r , at 1.4 The  Y4,  Two  of the  i n d i c a t e no  kilns, Y3.  structural  s i z e of the f i r i n g  chamber i s  with a maximum diameter of 1 m.  Y2 i s  m.  Anyang A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS (1985:71) mentions t h a t a  small p i e c e of a k i l n w a l l was stratum  The  No  c h r o n o l o g i c a l order i n  There i s no r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  over time.  same f o r Y2 and  ( g r i d ) T2.  kilns  s i t e or i n r e l a t i o n  and YI with Y4.  i l l u s t r a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s p r o v i d e d  change i n YI, Y2,  The  A l l of the  i n a general  mixed with mud  15 cm  excavation  found at Hougang from a Middle P e r i o d area.  I t i s a burnt  long t h a t o r i g i n a t e d i n the f u e l  198  clump of chamber.  grass  E v a l u a t i o n of Change i n Mode of P r o d u c t i o n  The  t o o l s , k i l n s , and  v e s s e l s from the f o u r Longshan P e r i o d  examined i n t h i s study show no evidence over time.  Most l i k e l y ,  entire period. types  of s i t e s .  the household  However, t h e r e may The  sites  of change i n mode of p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r y mode c h a r a c t e r i z e s the  be d i f f e r e n c e s between d i f f e r e n t  i n d i v i d u a l workshop i n d u s t r y mode c o u l d be  r e p r e s e n t e d a t c e n t e r s of s e t t l e m e n t . c r a f t production, Clark  In h i s c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  study  of  (1986:31) found t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h l y  s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between community s i z e or s o c i a l d e n s i t y and d i v e r s i t y of modes of p r o d u c t i o n .  Larger samples of data on  evidence  f o r p r o d u c t i o n , technology,  products  are n e c e s s a r y  Every  and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  Lujiakou contains d i r e c t  evidence  p r o d u c t i o n ; however, only a small p o r t i o n of L u j i a k o u was 1).  for pottery excavated  (see  F u r t h e r e x c a v a t i o n should uncover r e l e v a n t d a t a .  At the other t h r e e s i t e s , t h e r e i s evidence  suggesting that production  took p l a c e i n a l i m i t e d number of areas a t each s i t e However, no t o o l  ceramic  i n o r d e r to s u b s t a n t i a t e these c o n c l u s i o n s .  s i t e except  Table 4, Chapter  direct  or k i l n was  found  i n each p e r i o d .  c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d with an  individual  house. Table 28 l i s t s production.  the e x c a v a t i o n  (T) areas  As d i s c u s s e d , the presence  199  c o n t a i n i n g evidence  of p o r t a b l e t o o l s i n an  for  area  does not case  i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o d u c t i o n took p l a c e i n t h a t a r e a .  can be made when t h e r e i s an a s s o c i a t i o n of more than  of evidence,  such as the T1-T2  indicate a significant  g e n e r a l with evidence  Lujiakou.  Middle  The  of pots  Period.  f o r p r o d u c t i o n at any  found  F55  category  data at hand  do  site.  i n houses at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan,  Given  i n i t , F55  house from  the  the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e q u a n t i t y  may  and  have been o c c u p i e d by a p o t t e r ,  a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i o n proposed by Deal l o c a t e d i n T4,  The  e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p a t t e r n i s one  P e r i o d at B a i y i n g , F55.  diversity  one  change over time i n number of areas i n  Very few pots were found and  stronger  area from the E a r l y P e r i o d at Hougang, as  w e l l as the T16-T12 area from the Middle not  A  (1983).  the area where the p o t t e r y c h i s e l was  T h i s house i s found.  Although  i s the l a r g e s t house at the s i t e , i t i s made of common c o n s t r u c t i o n  m a t e r i a l and Therefore,  does not c o n t a i n any  the house may  an e l i t e f a m i l y .  non-ceramic p r e s t i g e goods.  r e p r e s e n t the r e s i d e n c e of a p o t t e r r a t h e r  Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t house F55  represents  than an  abandoned s t r u c t u r e used by households i n the community f o r dumping vessels after Japan  use.  (Kobayashi  T h i s p a t t e r n of d e p o s i t i o n i s seen at Jomon s i t e s i n  1974:166).  I examined other a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e p o r t s f o r evidence p r o d u c t i o n at s i t e s . t o o l s and  Table  29 l i s t s  k i l n s at s i t e s by c u l t u r a l  p r o d u c t i o n f o r at l e a s t  of  evidence  f o r production  region.  These data  ceramic such as  suggest  that  some wares took p l a c e i n most communities.  There i s r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Shandong.  200  Table 29. Evidence f o r Ceramic Production at Other S i t e s from the Longshan Period.  cultural region / site  kilns  anvils  other  Kexingzhuang II Kexingzhuang (Changan County, Shaanxi), period(s) not stated (Xu et a l 1982:21-2)  3, one in a house  T.aosi Taosi (Xiangfen County, Shanxi) period(s) not stated (Xu et a l . 1982:21-2) Wangwan III Dahecun; Period V (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), e a r l y Longshan Period, (Museum of Zhengzhou C i t y (1979:362)  1, stone, plain end  Niuzhai (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), no date a v a i l a b l e , e a r l i e r than Gelawang site (Cultural Relics Work Team, Bureau of Culture, Henan Province 1958:23,26)  1 rectangular pottery paizi "beater" ca. 11.0 cm long, function not c l e a r  201  Gelawang (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), l a t e Longshan Period, (First Cultural R e l i c s Work Team, B u r e a u o f C u l t u r e , Henan P r o v i n c e 1958:50-1)  1 rectangular clay  muzhi  "mould" same a s  paizi  above Yanzhuang (near Zhengzhou c i t y , Henan), l a t e Longshan P e r i o d , (Museum o f Zhengzhou C i t y 1983: 4 , 5 , 7 ) , one C14 d a t e , WB79-46, 2175+/-105 B.C., (Zhang a n d Zhang 1986:53)  Haojiatai (Yancheng County, H e n a n ) , number a n d periods not reported (Renmin R i b a o 1 9 8 6 )  1 rectangular pottery  paizi  c a . 13.2 cm l o n g , like tools above  XX  Hougang II Taikoucun (Yongnian County, H e b e i ) , no d a t e available, (Cultural R e l i c s Work Team, Bureau of C u l t u r e , Hebei P r o v i n c e 1962: 638,640)  1, pottery, plain end  Xiapanwang ( C i x i a n County, Hebei"), (Department of C u l t u r a l R e l i c s , Hebei P r o v i n c e 1975:94), one C14 d a t e , ZK 2 0 0 - 1 , 2515+/-145 B.C. ( Z h a n g and Zhang 1986:52)  1, pottery, engraved lines on e n d  202  Jiangou (Handan County, Hebei), period(s) not stated, Xu et a l . 1982:  7  21-2)  Balizhuang (near Anyang c i t y , Henan), period not c l e a r , (Xu et a l 1982: 21-2), C14 date f o r early period ZK 756, 2585+/-145 B.C. (Zhang and Zhang 1986:52, Anyang Archaeological Team 1985:82)  1  Wangyoufang Pingliangtai (Huaiyang County, Henan), period(s) not stated, Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:31)  3, i n two separate areas, one i n a house  Chengziya Shangzhuang (Chiping County, Shandong), l a t e Longshan Period ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province 1985:484,503)  2, pottery, plain end  203  Liangcheng Yaoguanzhuang (near Weifang c i t y , Shandong), m i d d l e - l a t e Longshan P e r i o d ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong P r o v i n c e e t a l . 1981: 11-2,41)  --  204  1, pottery, plain end  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , at two s i t e s , evidence f o r production i s associated with a house.  A k i l n was found attached to a house at Kexingzhuang i n  Shaanxi, and at the walled s i t e of P i n g l i a n g t a i i n eastern Henan (see Xu et a l . 1982, Henan Province C u l t u r a l Research I n s t i t u t e and the C u l t u r a l Objects D i v i s i o n of the Zhoukou D i s t r i c t 1983:31).  This pattern  i n d i c a t e s more c l e a r l y that a form of household production characterize most communities during the Longshan Period.  may Feng et a l .  (1982:13) a l s o hypothesize that the remains at Kexingzhuang i n d i c a t e a type of s p e c i a l i z e d household production. Scholars have remarked that k i l n design improves over time from the pre-Longshan period to the Longshan Period (Song et a l . 1983:269-70, Medley 1976:28, Feng et. a l 1982:40-2).  There i s no evidence f o r  t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n d i c a t i v e of e f f o r t s toward greater e f f i c i e n c y i n production at any of the four s i t e s during the Longshan Period.  My  observation that the k i l n s at Meishan do not show s t r u c t u r a l change agrees with a statement made by L i J i a z h i (1984:145) that k i l n s do not vary i n structure during the Longshan Period. K i l n s have been found i n other s i t e s from the Longshan Period (Xu et a l . 1982), as i n d i c a t e d i n Table 30.  These k i l n s , l i k e those at  Meishan, do not e x h i b i t s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l change over time.  There  i s no evidence that potters t r i e d to f i r e vessels more e f f i c i e n t l y by increasing the s i z e of the k i l n room (yao wu), or by increasing the quantity or s i z e of i n d i v i d u a l f i r e f l u e s (huo dao). k i l n s among s i t e s appear to be minor.  205  Differences i n  Table 30. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of K i l n s from Other Longshan Period S i t e s . (derived from Table 1, Xu et a l . 1982:21-2).  site  diameter of k i l n room  Kexingzhuang (N=3)  26m, 9633,  Taosi (N=3)  .0242, x  width of main flues  quantity of main flues  branches of flues  X , X , X  2, x, x  4,x,x  0.110.16m, x,x  3,x,x  2,x,x  N=7:x  4 kilns have 2, N=3:x  2 kilns have 3, 1 has 4, N=4 :x  Gelawang (N=l) Jiangou (N=7)  N=7:x  Balizhuang (N=l)  0.060.1  Sanliqiao (N=l)  1.3  0.11  Miaodigou (N=l)  0.780.93  0.07  note: 1) "x" denotes no information f o r a k i l n . 2) S a n l i q i a o and Miaodigou are located i n f a r western Henan, Shaanxian County. There i s no date for the Longshan Period remains from S a n l i q i a o , and the associated c u l t u r a l type i s debated (see Zhang and Zhang 1986 ) . 3) Miaodigou I I remains are t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the Longshan Period (Yan, personal communication 1987b), ZK 111 2780+/145 B.C. ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, CASS 1983:72).  206  F i n a l l y , data on ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y from the four s i t e s as described i n Chapter 5 do not i n d i c a t e s i g n i f i c a n t change i n degree of standardization over time f o r any of the shape classes examined. i s no evidence f o r increasing dimensional  standardization.  The  There pattern  f o r w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization i n terms of secondary shape features or decorative techniques i s not c l e a r ; i t i s possible that there i s increasing standardization f o r a few shape classes at Hougang and Baiying.  Another possible i n d i c a t o r of change i n mode i s increase i n  d i v e r s i t y i n ceramic categories over time.  As Chapter 5 suggests, there  i s a notable increase over time i n number of shape classes at Lujiakou. There i s a pattern of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r the Early to Middle Period at Baiying with regard to v a r i e t y of shape classes produced.  However,  there are no other possible i n d i c a t o r s f o r change i n mode of  production  at e i t h e r s i t e . Complex rather than simple household industry i s the mode that most l i k e l y characterizes the majority of settlements during the Longshan Period.  There i s s u b s t a n t i a l ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y at s i t e s with  respect to shape, s i z e , and decoration, and some concern with e f f i c i e n c y i s evident, from the probable extensive use of wheels and moulds.  Kilns  represent a s u b s t a n t i a l investment i n equipment and f a c i l i t a t e a r e l a t i v e l y large output.  Also, a number of vessels e x h i b i t r e l a t i v e l y  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques of production. There i s evidence f o r technological s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n more than one production step such as l e v i g a t i o n to make very f i n e pastes and  207  complex f i r i n g methods.  Black and grey vessels were produced by the  imbibing ( y i n yao) method (Wu 1938:32, Zhou et a l . 1982, Medley 1976:280).  Medley explains that t h i s method involves p l a c i n g damp straw  or other s i m i l a r materials i n the k i l n when a c r i t i c a l f i r i n g temperature i s reached.  Then water i s s p r i n k l e d on, causing a r a p i d  decline i n temperature and reduction of oxygen i n s i d e the k i l n .  Some  black vessels from Longshan s i t e s are uniform i n c o l o r throughout the e n t i r e thickness of the w a l l s .  According t o Zhou et a l . (1982), t h i s  e f f e c t i s caused by the penetration of carbonaceous p a r t i c l e s i n t o the pores of v e s s e l s . Potters during the Longshan Period made several shape classes of vessels by assembling separately made parts.  Keightley (1987) argues  that t h i s "componential construction" i s t e c h n i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d , however, i t does not require a highly organized workshop mode of production. techniques  Measurement of d i f f e r e n t parts can be achieved by simple such as wooden hoops, as Chavez (1985:46) observes i n Peru.  In India, potters with a complex household industry mode make cooking vessels from more than one part ( M i l l e r 1985:223-4).  The ceramic data  do not support the hypothesis of a workshop mode, e i t h e r . suggest that there i s a low degree of dimensional  My analyses  and w i t h i n - c l a s s  standardization with respect t o decorative techniques  over time.  Song et a l . (1983:262), among others, maintain that potters used a f a s t wheel operated by two persons during the l a t e N e o l i t h i c period. They discuss production methods among t r a d i t i o n a l ethnic groups i n China  208  who  use a wheel i n which one  imply t h a t o n l y men, Longshan P e r i o d .  person  t u r n s , and the other shapes.  working i n workshops, were p o t t e r s d u r i n g  A l l lines  of evidence  i n d i c a t e t h a t complex household  examined i n t h i s  predominant mode of p r o d u c t i o n than i n d i v i d u a l  the  study,  i n d u s t r y i s more l i k e l y as  They  however,  the  workshop i n d u s t r y .  PATTERNS OF ACCESS TO GOODS  Since the Hougang s i t e i s much l a r g e r than the other t h r e e and has a s u r r o u n d i n g  w a l l , i t p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s a c e n t e r of a  s e t t l e m e n t h i e r a r c h y (Chapter  2).  have had a r e s i d e n t e l i t e stratum consumption of goods. diversity  of ceramic  (Feinman e t . a l 1981,  I f Hougang was who  In chiefdoms, and  T o l l 1981,  a c e n t e r , i t should  displayed their  s t a t u s by g r e a t e r  c e n t e r s should have a g r e a t e r  other goods than  s u b s i d i a r y settlements  C o s t i n and  e x h i b i t i n g e x t e n s i v e l a b o r i n p u t and present.  E a r l e 1989).  Wares  other p r e s t i g e goods should  Only a broad comparison between s i t e s can be made here  each s i t e was  p a r t of a separate  settlement  system.  A l s o , only  s i t e s , Hougang and B a i y i n g , belong t o the same c u l t u r a l (Hougang I I i n n o r t h e r n Henan and  southern  5, Table 24).  209  since two  Hebei).  g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s than the other t h r e e , (Chapter  be  region  However, i t does not appear t h a t the occupants of Hougang  walled s i t e s  sites  Similarly,  had non-  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of  the E a r l y ( t r a n s i t i o n a l ) P e r i o d , Hougang does not have a g r e a t e r diversity  of shape c l a s s e s than the other  sites  (Chapter 5, Table 17).  There a r e few nonceraraic p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods a t these Little  i s known a t present  goods d u r i n g  about s t a t u s c o m p e t i t i o n  the N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d .  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data  sites.  and use of p r e s t i g e  On the b a s i s of h i s t o r i c a l and  from t h e e a r l y d y n a s t i c p e r i o d , i t appears t h a t some  goods with p r e s t i g e value began t o have importance d u r i n g the l a t e Neolithic period.  As d i s c u s s e d  of jade, bronze, and t u r q u o i s e .  i n Chapter 2, these goods i n c l u d e items There i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i n s i z e and  type of c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l f o r housing as w e l l . P o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods found a t Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and L u j i a k o u a r e jade  items,  bone, horn, c e r a m i c ) .  bronze fragments, and ornaments (stone,  Hougang does not have a g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y or  v a r i e t y of these items than the other Table  74).  values  shell,  sites  (Table  31, and Appendix C,  L u j i a k o u has the g r e a t e s t number of items  (standardizing  p e r house, and lumping items of a l l m a t e r i a l s ) . There i s some i n f o r m a t i o n  on change over time i n access t o  p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods a t two s i t e s , B a i y i n g and Meishan. t h e r e may be an i n c r e a s e Period.  i n access  At B a i y i n g ,  t o goods from the E a r l y t o Middle  T h i s p a t t e r n corresponds with t h e suggested i n c r e a s e i n  production  of d i s p l a y v e s s e l s a t the s i t e .  a d e c l i n e from t h e Middle t o Late P e r i o d .  However, i t appears t h e r e i s There i s a much g r e a t e r  number of houses from the Late P e r i o d a t B a i y i n g , but r e l a t i v e l y  210  small  Table 31. D i v e r s i t y and Quantity of Nonceramic P o t e n t i a l Prestige Goods at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, and Lujiakou.  site  jade  Hougang (39 houses)  2 forms 4 items  bronze  ornaments  7 forms 56 items  t o t a l quantity of pieces, a l l materials: 60/39 houses = 1.54 items per house Baiying Early (9 houses)  --  --  2 forms 14 pieces  Middle (8 houses)  --  --  2 forms 30 pieces  Late (46 houses)  2 forms 6 pieces  --  8 forms 26 pieces  t o t a l quantity of pieces, a l l m a t e r i a l s : 76/63 houses = 1.21 items per house Meishan Early (17 houses) Late (16 houses)  --  --  5 forms 8 pieces  --  traces on 2 crucibles  4 forms 8 pieces  t o t a l quantity of pieces, a l l m a t e r i a l s : 18/33 houses = 0.55 items per house Lujiakou (11 houses)  --  --  t o t a l quantity of pieces, a l l m a t e r i a l s : 25/11 houses = 2.27 items per house  211  2 forms 25 pieces  q u a n t i t i e s and kinds of items. to  There i s no evidence  p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods a t Meishan over Since few goods of any k i n d were found  p a t t e r n of g r a d u a l s i t e abandonment  of change i n access  time. i n houses a t these s i t e s ,  (Deal 1983,  Chapter  4) may  d e p o s i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of nonceramic as w e l l as ceramic Nonceramic p r e s t i g e goods were found  a number of households  explain  items.  i n a v a r i e t y of areas  a r e a s , s t o r a g e p i t s ) w i t h i n each s i t e ,  (open  test  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t they were used  r a t h e r than by o n l y a few,  elite  access t o l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s at any time p e r i o d . i n a v a r i e t y of areas w i t h i n each s i t e .  by  families.  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t o n l y a few houses a t any  were found  a  site  had  These v e s s e l s  However, one  unusual  pot a t B a i y i n g (Late P e r i o d ) , the quanzupan p e d e s t a l l e d d i s h with p a i n t e d human f i g u r e s , was  found  house c o u l d have had h i g h r i t u a l l a r g e and was  not b u i l t  i n a house. status.  The  occupants  However, the house i s not  with c o s t l y m a t e r i a l s .  A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n i s observable w i t h r e s p e c t t o artifacts  at s i t e s  goods than people a t the  Again, L u j i a k o u has h i g h e r v a l u e s The  There i s no  of Hougang had access t o a g r e a t e r  d i v e r s i t y and q u a n t i t y of u t i l i t a r i a n  the other s i t e s .  utilitarian  (Table 32; and Appendix C, Table 75).  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the occupants  sites.  of t h i s  data a l s o suggest  q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y of u t i l i t a r i a n Middle P e r i o d s , but a decrease the p a t t e r n f o r p r e s t i g e goods.  other  ( s t a n d a r d i z e d per house) than  t h a t t h e r e was  an i n c r e a s e i n  goods a t B a i y i n g from the E a r l y t o  from the Middle t o Late, a g r e e i n g with At Meishan as w e l l , t h e r e appears  212  t o be  Table 32. D i v e r s i t y and Quantity of U t i l i t a r i a n Tools at Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  Hougang 23 forms/39 houses= 0.59 forms per house 259 items/39 houses= 6.64 items per house Baiying Early Period: 14 forms/9 houses= 1.56 forms per house 49 items/9 houses= 5.44 items per house Middle Period: 21 forms/8 houses= 2.63 forms per house 112 items/8 houses= 14.0 items per house Late Period: 36 forms/46 houses= 0.78 forms per house 235 items/46 houses= 5.11 items per house s i t e as a whole: 71 forms/63 houses= 1.13 forms per house 396 pieces/63 houses= 6.29 items per house Meishan E a r l y Period: 12 forms/17 houses= 0.71 forms per house 29 items/16 houses= 1.71 items per house Late Period: 21 forms/16 houses= 1.31 forms per house 60 items/16 houses= 3.75 items per house s i t e as a whole: 33 forms/33 houses= 1.0 forms per house 89 items/33 houses= 2.70 items per house Lujiakou 24 forms/11 houses= 2.18 forms per house 178 items/11 houses= 16.18 items per house  213  an  i n c r e a s e i n g e n e r a l access t o u t i l i t a r i a n goods from the E a r l y t o  Late  Period.  Housing  P u b l i s h e d data are s u f f i c i e n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n house s i z e and  c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l at Hougang and B a i y i n g .  Hougang, t h e r e are 39 separate is  o c c u p i e d d u r i n g two  c i r c u l a r houses.  phases, 3 and  t h e r e are 62 c i r c u l a r houses, and Period.  D e t a i l s on housing  One  As mentioned i n Chapter 2,  of w a l l m a t e r i a l  or earthen  3) adobe ( t u p i ).  as a c o s t l y c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l among the H i g h l a n d 1988:51).  (tu),  Adobe i s known  Maya  (Blake  l a r g e adobe houses were  o c c u p i e d by e l i t e s at the l a r g e w a l l e d s i t e of P i n g l i a n g t a i Wangyoufang c u l t u r a l r e g i o n .  Poorer  probably  i n the  households are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  wattle-and-daub i n Mexico (Blake 1988:51) and Changes i n housing  Late  i n Appendix C (Tables 76-77).  t h a t v a r y i n c o s t l i n e s s of c o n s t r u c t i o n : 1) mud n i ), and  F12,  At B a i y i n g ,  1 r e c t a n g u l a r house from the  are p r o v i d e d  g_u duo  of the houses,  4 of the Late P e r i o d .  At Hougang and B a i y i n g , t h e r e are t h r e e types  2) wattle-and-daub (mu  At  other  areas.  at each s i t e are e v i d e n t when f l o o r area i s  compared with type of c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l (Table 33).  At Hougang,  t h e r e i s g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n the Late P e r i o d : adobe houses, a r e , on average, l a r g e r than earthen  or wattle-and-daub houses.  of v a r i a t i o n i n f l o o r area i s g r e a t e r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  214  the  A l s o , the range Thus, t h e r e  Table 33. V a r i a t i o n i n Average S i z e ( F l o o r Area) of Houses by D i f f e r e n t Types of C o n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l at Hougang and B a i y i n g .  WATTLE-AND-DAUB  ADOBE  17.02  15.89  15.70  14.36  16.60  23.07  Early  21.08  11.64  Middle  12.12  9.72  Late  12.17  11.25  SITE  EARTHEN  Hougang Early Middle Late  10.17 m2  Baiying  15.89  215  i s increasing d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n housing over time. evident at Baiying.  The same pattern i s  Adobe houses do not appear u n t i l the Late Period,  and they are the largest i n s i z e , on the average.  In contrast to the  pattern f o r ceramic and nonceramic items, the adobe houses at Hougang provide some i n d i c a t i o n of a center of settlement. There i s a greater quantity of these houses than at Baiying, and average f l o o r area i s larger.  Thus i t appears that status differences were symbolized more  o v e r t l y i n housing than i n prestige or u t i l i t a r i a n a r t i f a c t s at these sites. There are other i n d i c a t i o n s f o r increasing d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n housing at Hougang and Baiying over time.  At each s i t e , a q u a l i t a t i v e l y  d i f f e r e n t type of house appears i n the Late Period: one house with planked f l o o r i n g at Hougang, and one rectangular house at Baiying. B u r i a l s i t e s from Shandong a l s o provide information on d i f f e r e n t i a l access to goods during the Longshan Period.  A brief  examination of two s i t e s , Sanlihe and Chengzi, a l s o i n d i c a t e s a pattern of a range of people having access to prestige items rather than just a few e l i t e s (Tables 34, 35).  Labor-intensive "eggshell" t a l l stemmed  cups are buried with i n d i v i d u a l s of both sexes and representing a range i n ages.  Mortuary treatment varies from s i t e to s i t e as w e l l .  At  Chengzi, only males have the cups (Archaeological Group of the Changwei Area and the Museum of Zhucheng County 1980).  At Sanlihe, both females  and males have the cups ( I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province 1988).  216  Table 34. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B u r i a l s with T a l l Stemmed "Eggshell" Cups or gao bing bei at Chengzi (derived from Table 2, Archaeological Group of the Changwei Area and the Museum of Zhucheng County 1980:381-4). note: () i n d i c a t e s t o t a l number of graves by sex i n sample  age group by period  number of eggshell cups  t o t a l number of other vessel forms  wooden c o f f i n and/or second level platform i n grave  25-30 Early (1 male)  platform and coffin  Middle (--) Late (--) 30-35 Early (--) Middle (1 male) Late  platform and coffin  (--)  35-40 Early (1 male) Middle (1 male.) Late (--)  1  platform  1  both absent  about 45 Early (--) Middle (--) Late (1 male)  12  platform and coffin  t o t a l number of graves with eggshell cups: Early 4/15, Middle 3/10, Late 3/6 (age and sex unknown f o r 5 graves, 56 graves with no pottery and unknown date, t o t a l number of graves = 87)  217  Table 35. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B u r i a l s with T a l l Stemmed "Eggshell" Cups or gap bing bei at Sanlihe (derived from Table 2, I n s t i t u t e of Archaeology, Shandong Province 1988:173-84). note: F= female, M= male, () i n d i c a t e s t o t a l number of graves by sex i n sample, x= absent, *= present  age group by period  number of eggshell cups  t o t a l number of other vessel forms  second level platform i n grave  20-30 Early (IF) Middle (IM, IF)  x M:l, F : l  M:l, F:2  M:unclear, F:x  (2M)  1,1  1,8  x, x  (2M)  2,1  5,0  X, X  2  5  M:3,l F:l,l  M:10,l F:8,8  Late (IF) 30-35 Early Middle Late (IM) 40-50 Early (IF) Middle (2M, 2F) Late (IM)  13  218  M:x,X F :  *  *  55-60 Early (IM) Middle (4F) Late (0)  1  1  x  1,1/4,1  1,8,16,6  x,*,x,*  t o t a l number of graves with eggshell cups: E a r l y 6/14, Middle 15/32, Late 5/10 (age and sex unknown f o r 6 graves, 42 graves with no pottery and unknown date, t o t a l number of graves= 98)  219  As Pearson  (1988:13-4) p o i n t s out, s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  the o n l y s o c i a l dimension  expressed  i n mortuary  the graves with e g g s h e l l cups a t Chengzi  ritual.  i s not  Only some of  and S a n l i h e have other  potential  i n d i c a t o r s of h i g h s t a t u s or wealth  such as second  level  platforms  ( e r c e n g t a i ) , jade items, or a h i g h d i v e r s i t y of v e s s e l  At both s i t e s , however, o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l s tend t o have t h e cups.  forms. The  a s s o c i a t i o n of age and rank known from the e a r l y d y n a s t i c p e r i o d and symbolized by use of v e s s e l s (Cooper  1982) may have begun i n the l a t e  Neolithic period. I n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s may have d e c i d e d how much they wanted t o invest  i n the f u n e r a l s of deceased  s o c i a l ambition  r e l a t i v e s , depending  (see Orme 1981:234-5, Trinkhaus 1984).  upon t h e i r Burial  of l a b o r -  i n t e n s i v e pots c r e a t e s a c o n d i t i o n of s c a r c i t y and ensures t h a t h i g h value i s m a i n t a i n e d  ( A r n o l d 1985:162-3).  As K e i g h t l e y (1985b) suggests,  these cups and others may have been used by mourners a t f u n e r a l s b e f o r e burial.  CONCLUSIONS  T h i s c h a p t e r has examined two s e p a r a t e t o p i c s , mode of p r o d u c t i o n and a c c e s s t o goods.  The f i r s t  s e c t i o n examined t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of  data i n order t o i n f e r whether t h e r e i s evidence f o r change i n mode of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the Longshan P e r i o d .  I t described test  i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t evidence f o r p r o d u c t i o n , t e c h n o l o g y , and  220  ceramic p r o d u c t s .  The  over time a t any  site.  i n the model t h a t sociopolitical  data suggest t h a t t h e r e was This pattern  organization  no change i n mode  i s incongruent with the p r e d i c t i o n  of l a b o r becomes more complex as  complexity increases.  I suggest t h a t the  complex  household i n d u s t r y mode i s more p r o b a b l e than a workshop mode, c o n t r a r y t o the p r o p o s i t i o n made by The  other  researchers.  second s e c t i o n of the chapter examined i n t e r - s i t e and  s i t e v a r i a t i o n with r e s p e c t  t o a r t i f a c t s and  housing.  s i t e of Hougang i s not markedly d i f f e r e n t from the  The  other  intra-  large  sites  walled  i n terms  of q u a n t i t y and  d i v e r s i t y of a r t i f a c t s , an unexpected r e s u l t f o r a  probable c e n t e r  of s e t t l e m e n t .  contemporary s i t e s i n the occupants had  However, a comparison of Hougang with  same settlement  system may  access t o a g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y  and  indicate that  v a r i e t y of goods.  the At a l l  f o u r s i t e s , p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods were found i n a number of a r e a s , each p e r i o d . had  in  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t a number of households i n each p e r i o d  access t o these goods. There i s i n f o r m a t i o n  B a i y i n g and increase  Meishan.  on change over time i n access t o a r t i f a c t s  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e was  over time i n a c c e s s t o p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e goods and  goods from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d at B a i y i n g . only an  increase  over time i n q u a n t i t y and  at  an utilitarian  For Meishan, t h e r e  v a r i e t y of u t i l i t a r i a n  is  goods.  There i s evidence f o r i n c r e a s i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n over time at Hougang and  Baiying  i n terms of house f l o o r area  221  and  c o s t l i n e s s of  construction  material.  T h i s p a t t e r n suggests t h a t t h e r e  differentiation  as  Finally,  i s increasing  symbolized i n housing at these two  the a n a l y s e s  importance of c o n s i d e r i n g  different  s i t e formation  processes  consider that s i t e formation  categories  sites.  on i n t r a - s i t e v a r i a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e the and  s t r a t e g i e s when making i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s about access Researchers should  social  of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e .  excavation  to c r a f t  processes  Smith  goods.  may  archaeological  i n d i c a t o r of household wealth without a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r i n g  of any  of d e p o s i t i o n and  k i n d were r e c o v e r e d  Lujiakou. Neolithic patterns  More i n f o r m a t i o n sites  s i t e abandonment.  Few  v e s s e l s or  how artifacts  from houses at Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan, on p a t t e r n s  i s necessary.  of consumption such as  and  of d e p o s i t i o n of goods at  Some d i s p o s a l p a t t e r n s may status competition,  but  A f a c t o r r e l e v a n t t o Longshan s i t e s  represent  others  such as dumping v e s s e l s i n abandoned houses at Jomon s i t e s (Kobayashi 1974).  for  (1987:313) m a i n t a i n s  t h a t s e r v i n g v e s s e l s c o n s t i t u t e the most r e l i a b l e  processes  vary  may  not  i n Japan  i s t h a t because  sherds are not always used f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of v e s s e l s , o f t e n they are not  described  in reports.  222  CHAPTER 7.  CONCLUSIONS  INTRODUCTION  The g e n e r a l goal of t h i s  study was t o address  how c r a f t  changes i n r e l a t i o n t o i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l complexity.  production  The study  examines how systems of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n may change i n r e l a t i o n t o e v o l v i n g chiefdoms. by Rice  A r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the important  (1981) i s presented  and t e s t e d with ceramic  s i t e s l o c a t e d i n the Huanghe or Yellow  model o u t l i n e d  data from Longshan  R i v e r v a l l e y of n o r t h e r n  The s p e c i f i c g o a l of the d i s s e r t a t i o n was t o address  the q u e s t i o n :  do systems of p o t t e r y p r o d u c t i o n change d u r i n g the Longshan My model, a f t e r Rice  (1981), makes the h y p o t h e s i s  should be an i n c r e a s e i n d i v e r s i t y of ceramic sociopolitical  complexity  increases.  China. "How  Period?"  that there  c a t e g o r i e s as  A l s o , t h e r e should be evidence f o r  i n c r e a s i n g s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of shape c l a s s e s and change i n mode of ceramic  production.  However, the model focuses  on d e s c r i b i n g changes i n  p r o d u c t i o n t h a t may take p l a c e i n complex chiefdoms as w e l l as s o c i a l f a c t o r s t h a t may cause d i f f e r e n t types  of ceramic  On t h e b a s i s of l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n s by Rice ethnographic ceramic  change. (1984, 1987) and  d a t a , the model d e s c r i b e s t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e  producers  and consumers: d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  223  s t r a t e g i e s of  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n , and  conservatism.  I t o u t l i n e s how  production  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e or h y p o t h e s i z e d v e s s e l s , may  change.  d e n s i t y may  of two  categories  p r e s t i g e v e s s e l s and  of v e s s e l s ,  non-prestige  For example, i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n  size  and  cause p o t t e r s t o adopt a s t r a t e g y of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ,  produce c e r t a i n c l a s s e s of n o n - p r e s t i g e t h i s type of s o c i a l c o n t e x t ,  p o t t e r s may  to  v e s s e l s more e f f i c i e n t l y . a l s o decide  In  t o produce a  g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of wares i n response t o i n c r e a s i n g l y v a r i e d consumer demand (Rice 1984).  The  model a l s o e x p l a i n s how  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s f o r use ceramic change.  consumer demand f o r  i n p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s can  T h i s p a r t of the model i s my  own  compilation  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e t h n o g r a p h i c sources d e s c r i b i n g use ranked s o c i e t i e s .  On  the b a s i s of these d a t a ,  d i s p l a y s with p o t t e r y should l a r g e s s e and synthesizes ceramic  and  and  of c o n t a i n e r s  types of  in  social  have been common i n p r e h i s t o r i c chiefdoms,  conspicuous consumption observations  two  cause  (Chapter 3).  hypotheses made by  The  others  r e s t of the model about change i n  production.  Ceramic data phases and  from f o u r s i t e s with  r e l a t i v e l y clear dating  complete s i t e r e p o r t s were used t o t e s t the model.  s i t e s are Hougang (northern Henan), B a i y i n g (west-central  Henan), and  v a r i a b i l i t y from whole and  Lujiakou  a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work s t a t i o n s and  U n i v e r s i t y provided  P r o f e s s o r Yan  invaluable information  224  Data on  ceramic  v e s s e l s were c o l l e c t e d from  museums i n Henan and  d u r i n g a p e r i o d of s i x months i n 1987.  These  (northern Henan), Meishan  ( e a s t e r n Shandong).  reconstructed  of  and  advice.  Shandong  provinces  Wenming of B e i j i n g  The f o l l o w i n g analyses were conducted i n order t o t e s t the model: d i v e r s i t y of shape classes over time, dimensional  standardization,  w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels (Chapter 5).  In a d d i t i o n , data on ceramic v a r i a b i l i t y , t o o l s  for production, and ceramic technology were assessed f o r the a n a l y s i s of change i n mode of production  (Chapter 6).  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s made i n  t h i s study should be regarded as hypotheses that can guide future research rather than f i r m conclusions, since small samples of vessels were used i n the analyses.  The assessment of v a r i e t y of shape classes  produced over time provides the most r e l i a b l e r e s u l t s , since most of the excavated vessels are included i n the t a b u l a t i o n s .  Other analyses must  r e l y upon a sample of the excavated vessels (Chapter 4). Sample s i z e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a problem f o r the a n a l y s i s of w i t h i n - c l a s s standardization. Two t o p i c s are discussed i n more d e t a i l below: 1) evaluation of the model i n l i g h t of r e s u l t s obtained from the preliminary t e s t and 2) assessment of c u l t u r a l change during the Longshan Period.  RESULTS  AND  EVALUATION  OF THE  MODEL  The model of ceramic change i s p a r t i a l l y supported.  There i s a  pattern of d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n f o r some components of the ceramic production systems represented  by Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou.  There  i s evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n with respect t o t o t a l number of shape  225  c l a s s e s produced from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d a t B a i y i n g and from the E a r l y t o Late P e r i o d a t L u j i a k o u . primarily involves I n d i a may p r o v i d e  open forms.  At both of these s i t e s , t h e i n c r e a s e  A p r o c e s s observed by M i l l e r  an e x p l a n a t i o n  for this  (1982)  in  i n c r e a s e : consumers d e s i r e a  v a r i e t y of v e s s e l shapes f o r d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s .  For Lujiakou,  there i s  a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n of a decrease over time i n w i t h i n - c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n with regard  t o non-prestige  wares.  There i s other p o t e n t i a l evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n production Baiying. the  of n o n - p r e s t i g e  I t appears t h a t the l e i - b o engraved bowl was i n t r o d u c e d  Late P e r i o d .  tubers,  wares from the Middle t o Late P e r i o d a t  T h i s type of bowl may have been used f o r p r o c e s s i n g  as d i s c u s s e d  i n the occupation  i n Chapter 4.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s form  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e with r e s p e c t  vessels one  information  of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e  However, r e p o r t s tend t o d e s c r i b e  example of each ceramic c a t e g o r y found a t s i t e s .  suggest t h a t t h e r e  food.  t o i t s important p o s i t i o n i n the  on change i n p r o d u c t i o n  i s quite limited.  p r e s t i g e wares.  late  of the s i t e may i n d i c a t e t h a t p o t t e r s responded t o  consumer demand f o r a wider v a r i e t y of v e s s e l s used f o r p r e p a r i n g  model t h a t  during  The data a t hand  i s some evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  Very l a r g e , t h i n - w a l l e d ,  at least  i n p r o d u c t i o n of  e l a b o r a t e l y shaped, and  e l a b o r a t e l y d e c o r a t e d v e s s e l s have been found. Type of d i s p l a y a c t i v i t y may have changed over time i n t h e Hougang I I and T a o s i r e g i o n s ,  as i n d i c a t e d by the d e c l i n e i n very  v e s s e l s by the l a t e Longshan P e r i o d .  226  Displays  large  of l a r g e s s e may have been  replaced been an  by d i s p l a y s of conspicuous consumption. increase  in varieties  t o Late P e r i o d at Hougang and Baiying  during  a roughly  i t appears t h a t t h e r e was  l a b o r i n p u t f o r some v e s s e l s as w e l l . for increasingly thin-walled vessels support f o r the  cultural  have  White wares were an  increase  over time. Rice  Middle  contemporary phase at introduced  i n degree of  For example, t h e r e  h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d by  increasing varieties  may  of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s from the  (from the E a r l y t o Middle P e r i o d ) .  at t h i s time, and  Also, there  i s evidence  These changes  (1981) t h a t t h e r e  of s t a t u s - r e l a t e d wares i n a context  of  provide should  be  increasing  complexity.  For most s i t e s more than one p r e d i c t i o n of Rice  (1984) t h a t t h e r e  changes f o r d i f f e r e n t diversity  should  be d i f f e r e n t  components of p r o d u c t i v e  systems.  of shape c l a s s e s over time a t Hougang was  f o r Meishan, c o n s e r v a t i s m . at B a i y i n g .  A pattern  Results  the  types of The  pattern  simplification,  D i v e r s i f i c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d o n l y one  for and  phase  of c o n s e r v a t i s m r e s u l t e d from the a n a l y s i s of  dimensional standardization Lujiakou).  p a t t e r n emerged, s u p p o r t i n g  f o r each s i t e examined (Hougang, Meishan,  were v a r i a b l e f o r the a n a l y s i s of  within-class  standardization. There i s l i t t l e hypothesis derived standardization purposes.  evidence from the f o u r s i t e s t o support  from Rice  (1981) t h a t t h e r e  should  of v e s s e l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those t h a t  Although there  i s a pattern  to  increasing  served  of s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  t o Late P e r i o d t r a n s i t i o n at Hougang with r e s p e c t  227  be  the  utilitarian  f o r the  within-class  Middle  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and v a r i e t y of ceramic c a t e g o r i e s pattern  produced, t h e r e  isa  of c o n s e r v a t i s m f o r d i m e n s i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n .  There i s  evidence f o r c o n s e r v a t i s m i n d i m e n s i o n a l s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  f o r non-  prestige vessels explained  from Meishan and L u j i a k o u  T h i s p a t t e r n may be  by the f a c t t h a t p o t t e r s and consumers o f t e n r e s i s t  production  of wares t h a t a r e needed on a d a i l y b a s i s  However, t h e r e production  of v e s s e l s used f o r b a s i c needs.  Larger  (Rice  1984).  F o r example, some v e s s e l s  l i n e s t h a t were r a p i d l y and i n c o m p l e t e l y  applied.  samples of v e s s e l s from Longshan s i t e s c o u l d  d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s f o r analyses standardization.  Given the emphasis on r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  useful f o r future research.  yield  of change i n w i t h i n - c l a s s and d i m e n s i o n a l  Longshan s i t e s , a n a l y s i s of w i t h i n - c l a s s  of d e c o r a t i v e  change i n  i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t e f f i c i e n c y was a concern i n  have d e c o r a t i v e  analyses  as w e l l .  of v e s s e l s  standardization  i s potentially  With whole v e s s e l s , d i f f e r e n t  combinations  t e c h n i q u e s and areas of placement can be examined.  should  incorporate  from  Other  a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of i n f e r r e d f u n c t i o n a l  c a t e g o r i e s , t o o . Most c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s with adequate sample s i z e used i n t h i s study p r o b a b l y c o n s t i t u t e v e s s e l s t h a t as cooking and water s t o r a g e .  standardized  b a s i c needs such  I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine, f o r  example, whether h y p o t h e s i z e d p r e s t i g e increasingly  served  ( l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e ) v e s s e l s become  over time as Rice  (1981) p r e d i c t s .  A l s o , the r e s u l t s from examination of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and d i v e r s i t y , d i r e c t evidence f o r p r o d u c t i o n technology  (shaping,  (tools, k i l n s ) ,  and ceramic  f i r i n g ) do not support the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t  228  there  should be evidence f o r change i n mode of production over time.  Again,  l a r g e r samples of relevant data from Longshan s i t e s may y i e l d d i f f e r e n t results.  More information on areas of s i t e s sampled f o r evidence of  ceramic production i s necessary.  A problem encountered i n any region i s  that there are few test i m p l i c a t i o n s derived from ethnographic data f o r i d e n t i f y i n g change i n mode of production. This study suggests that a "complex household industry" mode (my term) c h a r a c t e r i z e s most communities from the Longshan Period rather than a workshop mode, the assumption of some researchers.  In the future  when relevant reports are published, i t should be determined whether there are remains of workshops i n centers of settlement.  Thus more  a n a l y s i s i s necessary t o determine whether mode of ceramic production changes i n a context of i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l complexity.  I t i s possible  that changes i n organization of labor f o r ceramic production do not occur u n t i l a f t e r state formation takes place i n a region. Although the r e s u l t s from t h i s study should be regarded as preliminary due t o small sample size and i n s u f f i c i e n t information on the extent t o which samples of vessels represent the t o t a l population of excavated v e s s e l s , they suggest that the model developed by Rice (1981) and the r e v i s e d version offered here may not be supported i n a l l geographic areas.  One f a c t o r that should be considered i s scale of  a n a l y s i s , both temporal and s p a t i a l . This d i s s e r t a t i o n r e f e r s t o a large area i n northern China and a r e l a t i v e l y short time span, roughly 500 years (ca. 2500-2000 B.C.).  229  Rice  (1981) t e s t s her model on ceramic data  a single site  in Belize.  She  one  year period  culminating  with  stratified  compares the Longshan P e r i o d as a whole with the  N e o l i t h i c p e r i o d i n northern  China, i t c o u l d be  evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  i n ceramic p r o d u c t i o n  analyses  on a f i n e r temporal s c a l e d e s c r i b e d  d i f f e r e n t patterns  f o r d i f f e r e n t phases.  societies.  earlier  s a i d that there i s over time.  For example, the E a r l y t o  the Middle t o Late,  B e l i z e , may  change. site  have an  T h i s f a c t o r may  first  there  help explain patterns  t h a t r e s u l t e d f o r the  i s evidence f o r a d e c l i n e i n the p r o d u c t i o n P o l i s h e d and  This pattern i s evident  w e l l , according  t o L i Xiandeng  l a t e s t phases a t the  this conclusion.  formation  Henan.  A pattern  r e s u l t e d from n e a r l y every a n a l y s i s f o r Meishan.  l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e wares. time.  China  impact on r e s u l t s from a n a l y s i s of ceramic  took p l a c e , Wangwan I I I i n w e s t - c e n t r a l  of c o n s e r v a t i s m  the  such as n o r t h e r n  of Meishan, l o c a t e d i n the r e g i o n i n which i t s t a t e  probably  in variety  conservatism.  C u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between r e g i o n s , versus  The  in this thesis resulted in  M i d d l e P e r i o d at B a i y i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of shape c l a s s e s , and  The  at the w a l l e d (1983).  system w i t h r e s p e c t  to  My  s i t e of Wangchenggang as  observations  of v e s s e l s from  s i t e on d i s p l a y at Gaocheng, Henan agree  with  P e r i o d V at  a phase t h a t i s t r a n s i t i o n a l t o the  230  Also,  t h i n - w a l l e d v e s s e l s decrease over  Late P e r i o d at Meishan and  Wangchenggang r e p r e s e n t  and  i s concerned with t r a c i n g ceramic change  over f o u r developmental stages, If  from a 1000  Erlitou  Period.  Thus they may represent an e a r l y phase of state  formation  (Chapter 2 ) . According t o the model, there should be evidence f o r d i v e r s i f i cation over time f o r l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e vessels i n the Wangwan I I I region i n conjunction with increasing c u l t u r a l complexity.  The model p r e d i c t s  that a decline i n l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e techniques f o r ceramic vessels i s caused by a decline i n status competition.  In t h i s case, however,  status competition with containers may not have decreased i n i n t e n s i t y . People may have decided t o begin using another type of labor-intensive container during the terminal Longshan Period, bronze vessels.  The  Wangwan I I I region has the most p h y s i c a l evidence f o r a developing bronze industry during the Longshan Period (Chapter 2), whether sheet metal vessels were produced (La Plante 1988) or not.  Therefore,  i n a d d i t i o n t o cast vessels  i t i s possible that d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s from t e s t i n g  the model may be achieved, depending on whether a more p r e s t i g i o u s and l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e material f o r containers was introduced at any point. This was not the case i n B e l i z e . A p r i o r i t y f o r future research should be t o t e s t other s i t e s i n the Wangwan I I I region.  I f there was indeed a decline i n use of labor-  intensive pottery vessels f o r d i s p l a y purposes, then i t was probably a gradual one. Labor-intensive vessels are found at other Longshan s i t e s i n the Wangwan I I I region such as Wadian (Chapter 5).  However, I  suggest that e l i t e s would have competed more i n t e n s e l y f o r c o n t r o l over production and use of bronze vessels than pottery vessels, once the  231  appropriate  t e c h n o l o g y had been developed.  Bronze v e s s e l s  symbolize  more l a b o r input with r e s p e c t t o workers and equipment r e q u i r e d f o r procurement of r e s o u r c e s ,  preparation  of m a t e r i a l s  f o r c a s t i n g , and  a c q u i s i t i o n of a s u b s t a n t i a l number of s k i l l e d craftsmen i n g e n e r a l . Another p r i o r i t y i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h information  on v a r i a b i l i t y  should  be t o o b t a i n more  i n labor-intensive vessels.  If larger  samples of v e s s e l s were a v a i l a b l e , i t would be p o s s i b l e t o use the production data and  step index developed by Feinman et a l . (1981).  A l s o , more  on uses of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s f o r d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s by e l i t e s others  are necessary.  S i t e s should be examined f o r evidence of  a c t i v i t i e s with these v e s s e l s such as d i s p l a y s of l a r g e s s e or conspicuous consumption. control production sponsoring  The extent  t o which e l i t e s attempted t o  and/or d i s t r i b u t i o n of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e v e s s e l s by  s p e c i a l i s t s , e t c . should be e x p l o r e d  as t h e r e l e v a n t  data  from Longshan s i t e s become a v a i l a b l e . It i s c l e a r that there and  depositional patterns  i s a need f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n  f o r ceramic v e s s e l s from Longshan  on f u n c t i o n sites.  F u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s c o u l d h e l p i d e n t i f y c a t e g o r i e s of v e s s e l s t h a t the model p r e d i c t s should be important i n p u b l i c d i s p l a y s of s t a t u s such as v e s s e l s f o r cooking,  s e r v i n g , and d r i n k i n g a l c h o h o l .  i d e n t i f y c l a s s e s of n o n - p r e s t i g e households. information  Increased  recovery  v e s s e l s used on a d a i l y b a s i s by of v e s s e l s i n houses can p r o v i d e  on s t r a t e g i e s of consumers.  v e s s e l s found i n houses with  I t could also  Comparisons should be made of  independent i n f o r m a t i o n  232  more  on s t a t u s of the  occupants.  F o r example, C o s t i n and E a r l e  (1989) compare types of  ceramics found i n houses and p a t i o areas of e l i t e s w i t h those of commoners  ( i d e n t i f i e d from a r c h i t e c t u r a l data) from s i t e s d a t i n g t o the  l a t e p r e h i s p a n i c p e r i o d i n Peru. An important component of the model proposed by Rice (1981) t h a t c o u l d not be a s s e s s e d i n t h i s  study i s change i n l o c a t i o n of ceramic  p r o d u c t i o n areas and i n exchange systems on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e .  Change i n  p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of v e s s e l s w i t h i n and between s e t t l e m e n t systems s h o u l d be a p r i o r i t y  i n future research.  In Europe, f o r  example, c o m p o s i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of sherds has i d e n t i f i e d p r o d u c t i o n s i t e s and d i s t r i b u t i o n areas f o r d i f f e r e n t  shape c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s  (Attas et a l . 1987). Exchange systems may  have become more complex over time i n  n o r t h e r n China by i n v o l v i n g more s i t e s , g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s , or g r e a t e r volumes of v e s s e l s .  Exchange of a t l e a s t  some c l a s s e s of v e s s e l s must  have taken p l a c e d u r i n g the Longshan P e r i o d , g i v e n t h a t a mode of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n was be conducted  probably present.  specialist  More r e s e a r c h needs t o  i n o r d e r t o determine whether e l i t e s attempted  to increase  c o n t r o l of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n a c o n t e x t of i n c r e a s i n g s o c i o p o l i t i c a l complexity.  Berman (1986), f o r example,  concludes from neutron a c t i v a t i o n a n a l y s i s of more than one ceramic ware t h a t t h e r e i s no evidence f o r development of c e n t r a l i z e d p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the l a t e p r e h i s t o r i c p e r i o d on the Susiana P l a i n of I r a n .  233  Another t o p i c t h a t should be addressed  i n f u t u r e a n a l y s e s of  v e s s e l s from the Longshan P e r i o d i s t h e impact of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change on ceramic  change.  T h i s study d i s c u s s e s d i f f e r e n t techniques of  p r o d u c t i o n t h a t may have been used such as moulds f o r shaping (Chapter  6).  Innovations  i n shaping,  d e c o r a t i n g , or f i r i n g  as w e l l as d i s c o v e r i e s of new raw m a t e r i a l s p o t t e r s t o change s t r a t e g i e s of p r o d u c t i o n . types one on  of c l a y s can f a c i l i t a t e p r o d u c t i o n  time.  Innovations  i n techniques  techniques  ( c l a y s , p a s t e s ) may cause F o r example, use of c e r t a i n  of l a r g e r volumes of v e s s e l s a t  f o r moulds may have t h e same e f f e c t  production.  CULTURAL  CHANGE DURING  THE LONGSHAN  PERIOD  T h i s study has emphasized a r e g i o n a l approach i n a s s e s s i n g c u l t u r a l change d u r i n g the Longshan P e r i o d .  Although  t h e r e i s evidence  f o r r e g i o n a l d i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the p e r i o d , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h has not f o c u s e d  on t h e r e g i o n as a p o i n t of comparison  p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , the ceramic  (Chapter  2 ) . As  analyses provided d i f f e r e n t  results  f o r t h e t h r e e r e g i o n s examined i n most d e t a i l : Wangwan I I I ( r e p r e s e n t e d by Meishan), Hougang I I (Hougang and B a i y i n g ) , and Liangcheng (Lujiakou).  F o r example, c o n s e r v a t i s m  was more e v i d e n t a t the  westernmost s i t e  of Meishan, and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n was more e v i d e n t a t the  easternmost s i t e  of L u j i a k o u .  234  Hougang, Baiying, Meishan, and Lujiakou belong t o the "eastern" region that Keightley (1987) characterizes as homogeneous i n pottery production.  Although I agree that there are s i m i l a r i t i e s among s i t e s , I  suggest that the differences between s i t e s are important and should be addressed more thoroughly  i n future research.  This study notes s i m i l a r i t i e s i n types of l a b o r - i n t e n s i v e hypothesized  prestige vessels across a wide region of the Huanghe  (Yellow R i v e r ) .  One example i s the use of very large v e s s e l s , from  Taosi i n Shanxi to Hougang and Baiying i n northern Henan.  On a smaller  scale, there are nearly i d e n t i c a l thin-walled horn-shaped " l i d s " at two s i t e s , Gelawang and Yanzhuang, i n the Wangwan I I I region.  Another  example i s the increase i n thin-walled vessels and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of white wares during roughly the same time period i n the Hougang I I region at Hougang (Middle to Late Period) and Baiying (Early t o Middle Period). These s i m i l a r i t i e s suggest that there was considerable i n t e r a c t i o n between regions during the Longshan Period.  social  As Chang (1986)  has pointed out, i t i s necessary t o i n v e s t i g a t e the kinds of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s that must have taken place between communities.  One type  of i n t e r a c t i o n may have been emulation of " f o r e i g n " high status i n d i v i d u a l s , i n c l u d i n g their" use of containers f o r d i s p l a y (Chapter 5). Another could have been exchange of vessels and/or t h e i r  contents.  This study has a l s o emphasized a processual approach i n examining archaeological data from the Longshan Period.  Future research  should  attempt t o obtain more data on processes of change that must have been  235  important such as  increasing population  increasing social differentiation  on how  symbolized by m a t e r i a l goods at s i t e s Lujiakou  (Chapter 6).  jade  and  s t a t u s d i f f e r e n c e s were  such as Hougang, B a i y i n g , Meishan,  There are few  items at these s i t e s such as  d e n s i t y , warfare,  (Chapter 2).  There i s l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n  and  s i z e and  nonceramic p o t e n t i a l p r e s t i g e  ornaments.  One  reason may  be  that  mortuary c o n t e x t s  were regarded as more a p p r o p r i a t e  f o r d i s p l a y s of  s t a t u s with  items i n g e n e r a l ,  t o s p e c i f i c kinds  craft  items such as  jade  or with  respect  (the cemetery at T a o s i , f o r example).  of  However, i t  should be p r o f i t a b l e t o examine v a r i a t i o n over time i n housing at habitation sites. from Hougang and  s i t e and  research  economic, p o l i t i c a l ,  i n terms  i n v e s t i g a t e status d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  and  ritual  D i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of  s t a t u s should be a s s e s s e d .  t o q u a l i t y and  on a  same settlement  Also,  system should  not  site  y i e l d e d ceramic v e s s e l s of h i g h e r q u a l i t y than  contemporary s i t e s i n the Wangwan I I I r e g i o n  p a t t e r n may  be  q u a n t i t y of goods i n g e n e r a l .  have suggested, f o r example, t h a t p e r i o d I I at the w a l l e d  of Wangchenggang has other  should  o u t l y i n g communities of the  compared w i t h r e s p e c t Scholars  housing  wall construction material.  r e g i o n a l b a s i s more t h o r o u g h l y .  c e n t e r s and  on  Baiying indicates increasing d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  of f l o o r a r e a and Future  A n a l y s i s of the r e l a t i v e l y abundant data  c h a r a c t e r i z e a l l areas,  have h i g h e r q u a l i t y v e s s e l s than other  236  (Sui 1988:48).  This  s i n c e Hougang does not appear t o s i t e s i n the Hougang I I r e g i o n  (Chapter 6).  There may be d i f f e r e n c e s over time as i n d i v i d u a l centers  of settlement expand and c o l l a p s e , too. Temporal scale of a n a l y s i s may a l s o a f f e c t conclusions reached about evidence f o r increasing c u l t u r a l complexity i n a region.  If a  r e l a t i v e l y f i n e time scale i s considered such as 100 years, there may no i n d i c a t i o n of increasing c u l t u r a l complexity. for some phases but not others.  be  There may be evidence  For example, there i s evidence f o r  development of walled settlements during the onset of the Longshan Period i n west-central Henan, ca. 2500 B.C.  There i s no i n d i c a t i o n at  present of other changes i n type of settlement during the l a t e r Longshan Period (Chapter 2).  More work on recognizing increases i n c u l t u r a l  complexity with archaeological data during the Longshan Period i s needed, such as increases i n c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and segregation (Flannery 1972). It would be p r o f i t a b l e to examine changes i n production of other types of c r a f t s during the Longshan Period i n a d d i t i o n to pottery. There may be d i f f e r e n t patterns of change i n a context of i n c r e a s i n g c u l t u r a l complexity f o r bronze or jade production.  Bronze production,  for example, may have involved s p e c i a l i s t s from the onset, due to s k i l l s and f a c i l i t i e s needed f o r e x t r a c t i o n and processing of ores.  I t may  have been more d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by increases i n c u l t u r a l complexity than pottery production.  There may have been intense competition by  e l i t e s t o c o n t r o l production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of bronze items.  237  Finally,  i t i s hoped t h a t the a n a l y s i s of shape c l a s s e s  i n Chapter 4 w i l l  be  informative  Chinese N e o l i t h i c p o t t e r y . should  The  be r e g a r d e d as g e n e r i c  Also, there  t o others  conducting research  terms used t o d e s i g n a t e  and  as  starting points  attempted t o show how  for analysis.  u n d e r s t a n d i n g change i n systems of p r o d u c t i o n  238  in reports.  methods of ceramic a n a l y s i s  developed i n the West f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  examining Chinese N e o l i t h i c v e s s e l s .  on  shape c l a s s e s  are a v a r i e t y of methods f o r d e s c r i b i n g v e s s e l s  T h i s study has  discussed  f o r other purposes such as can be h e l p f u l i n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Appadurai, Arjun 1986 Introduction: Commodities and the P o l i t i c s of Value. 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IN C o l l e c t e d Works Discussing Chinese Ancient Pottery and P o r c e l a i n (Zhongguo Gu Taoci Lunwenji), edited by the Chinese S i l i c a t e Industry I n s t i t u t e , pp. 263-286. B e i j i n g : Wenwu Publishing House. Zou Heng 1987  personal communication, B e i j i n g , A p r i l 1987.  264  APPENDIX A. REPORTS.  ANALYSIS OF SHAPE CLASSES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL  site reports: Hougang (Anyang A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS 1985) Baiying  (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t ,  Henan P r o v i n c e  1983)  Meishan  (Second Henan A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS 1982)  L u j i a k o u (Shandong A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Team, IA, CASS and the A r t Museum of Weifang County, Shandong P r o v i n c e 1985)  265  Table 36. Changes Made i n Shape C l a s s e s of V e s s e l s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e Hougang Report.  change i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  method of e v a l u a t i o n  1. pot moved from the l a r g e s i z e of guan t o medium s i z e c l a s s  range of v a l u e s f o r HT and MXD, s c a t t e r p l o t of HT, MXD; N=38, t o identify 3 size classes; K r u s k a l - W a l l i s nonparametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t on the c l a s s e s  1 pot moved from the small guan t o t h e pen c l a s s  d i f f e r e n c e s i n appearance and range of v a l u e s f o r MXD/HT and OD/MXD; N=5 f o r the new s m a l l guan c l a s s and N=3 f o r pen w i t h s h o u l d e r c l a s s  subtypes (xing) A,B, of l a r g e (deep) guan j a r lumped, then "unknowns"pots not i d e n t i f i e d as t o subtype- added t o sample f o r l a t e r analyses  Mann-Whitney nonparametric t e s t u s i n g p o t s i d e n t i f i e d as A o r B; f o r OD/MXD, OD/HT, OD/ODHT, RD/HT, RD/MXD, MXD/ODHT, MXD/HT f o r guan A: N=5, guan B: N=6; no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between subtypes A and B  subtypes A,B,C f o r mediums i z e d guan j a r lumped; "unknowns" added t o sample for l a t e r analyses  K r u s k a l - W a l l i s nonparametric s i g n i f i c a n c e t e s t using pots i d e n t i f i e d as A, B, or C; f o r OD/MXD, OD/HT, OD/ODHT, RD/HT, RD/MXD, MXD/ODHT, MXD/HT; f o r guan A: N=5, guan B: N=5, guan C: N=3; no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between subtypes  subtypes A and B f o r small guan j a r lumped  range i n v a l u e s f o r OD/BD, MXD/HT and s i m i l a r i t y of pots i n appearance; f o r guan A: N=3, B: N=2  2 c l a s s e s formed f o r pen c o n t a i n e r c l a s s , o r i g i n a l l y no subtypes  qualitative differences i n appearance: one c l a s s of p o t s has a d i s t i n c t s h o u l d e r , one does not; these d i f f e r e n c e s supported by v a l u e s of OD/MXD,  266  original two N=3 1 p o t from bo_ bowl moved t o pen c l a s s  class  c l a s s N=5, one N=2,  qualitative differences i n appearance; supported by v a l u e s f o r MXD/HT, OD/MXD; pen c l a s s two with shoulder N=4  subtypes A,B,C f o r gang j a r s c o n s i d e r e d homogeneous i n terms of r e p o r t c r i t e r i a but two o t h e r c l a s s e s formed  q u a l i t a t i v e f e a t u r e s of p o t s , and range of v a l u e s f o r OD/BD; gang A: N=3, B: N=l, C: N=2; c l a s s one= with neck; c l a s s two= no neck  e n t i r e c l a s s , N=2, of small weng j a r s moved t o gang with neck class  range of ND/MXD v a l u e s ; o r i g i n a l gang with neck c l a s s N=4  subtypes A and B of pingdipen basins lumped as no d i f f e r ence found between v e s s e l s ; "unknowns" added t o sample and no separate c l a s s e s identified  Mann-Whitney nonparametric t e s t f o r RD/HT, OD/HT, RD/BD, OD/BD; A: N=4, B: N=6; s c a t t e r p l o t with OD/HT and OD/BD, N=24; s c a t t e r p l o t of RD and HT, l a r g e s i z e , N=l, medium-sized, N=23  4 o r i g i n a l subtypes of wan bowls i n r e p o r t : A,B,C,D; o n l y subtype D c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t (N=2); 4 o t h e r pots d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t and put i n 3 s e p a r a t e classes (three, four, five); criteria for subtypes A,B,C e v a l uated;  on t h e b a s i s of q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n appearance;  "unknowns" added t o sample and 2 c l a s s e s identified  supported by v a l u e s f o r RD/HT; K r u s k a l - W a l l i s nonparametric t e s t f o r RD/BD, RD/HT; c l a s s A: N = l l , B: N=8, C: N=4; no d i f f e r e n c e f o r RD/HT; but significant difference f o r RD/BD; no s u b c l a s s e s i d e n t i f i e d by s c a t t e r p l o t of RD/BD and RD/HT; range of s i z e s apparent s c a t t e r p l o t of HT, RD  267  from  subtypes A and B of x i a n (yan) steamer lumped as w e l l as "other" c l a s s  can o n l y a s s e s s r e p o r t c r i t e r i a by appearance of p o t s ; no apparent d i f f e r e n c e ; A: N=4, B: N=4; "other" N=4  subtypes A and B of quanzupan p e d e s t a l l e d d i s h r e j e c t e d and two new c l a s s e s formed  Mann-Whitney nonparametric t e s t f o r RD/HT i n d i c a t e s no s i g n i f i cant d i f f e r e n c e between A and B, A: N=4, B: N=3; two new c l a s s e s formed u s i n g range of v a l u e s f o r RD/HT and appearance of p o t s ; c l a s s one N=2, two N=5  o r i g i n a l l y no subtypes f o r bi_ g r a t e ; 2 c l a s s e s formed  qualitative differences i n shape; c l a s s one N=l, two N=l  o r i g i n a l l y no subtypes f o r b e i cup c l a s s ; 3 formed  qualitative differences i n shape; c l a s s one N=2, two N=l, t h r e e N=l  268  Table 37. Original Hougang Report.  Shape C l a s s e s Accepted from the  shenfupen j a r , N=4, appearance  no subtypes, on b a s i s of  weng necked j a r , N=5, s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n only f o r subtype A, N=5, on b a s i s of appearance p i n g small necked j a r , no subtypes, N=3, appearance hu necked j a r , no subtypes, N=2, b u _ c o n t a i n e r , N=l, from  li  appearance  appearance  sizumin 4 f o o t e d b a s i n , N=3, wan bowl subtype D, N=2, bulge a t lower body  from  from  from  appearance  from appearance -  t r i p o d , no subtypes, N=5,  from appearance  j i a t r i p o d , two subtypes a c c e p t e d , 1) g l o b u l a r body and round base, N=5, 2) more s h a l l o w body and wider r i m w i t h f l a t base, N=3; from appearance ding t r i p o d , N=l, from  appearance  g u i t r i p o d , N=4 l a r g e sherds; a l t h o u g h none p i c t u r e d i n r e p o r t and none p e r s o n a l l y examined, c l a s s a c c e p t e d because d i s t i n c t form i n most s i t e s dou stemmed d i s h , two subtypes A and B a c c e p t e d on b a s i s of appearance and range of v a l u e s f o r RD/DHT (rim d i a m e t e r / d i s h h e i g h t ) ; subtype A N=3, subtype B N=3 zhefupen c a r i n a t e d b a s i n , no subtypes, N=3, appearance zeng p e r f o r a t e d appearance  j a r , no subtypes, N=2,  269  from  from  zuo s t a n d , no subtypes, N=l, from  appearance  g a i l i d , subtypes A,B,C,D d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t appearance; A: N=6, B: N=7, C: N=l, D: N=l  270  T a b l e 3 8 . Summary o f R e s u l t s f r o m N o n p a r a m e t r i c S i g n i f i c a n c e T e s t s f o r Hougang V e s s e l s .  classes  variable  test  probabil i t y value  s m a l l , medium, l a r g e guan j a r s i z e c l a s s e s , s m a l l : N=5, medium: N=18, l a r g e : N=15  HT  Kruskal-Wallis  0.000  l a r g e guan j a r s u b t y p e s A a n d B; A: N=5, B: N=6  OD/MXD OD/HT OD/ODHT RD/HT RD/MXD MXD/ODHT MXD/HT  Mann-Whitney  0.018 0.584 0.715 0.855 0 .018 0.045 0.273  m e d i u m - s i z e d guan j a r s u b t y p e s A,B,C; A: N= 5, B: N=6, C: N=3  OD/MXD OD/HT OD/ODHT RD/HT RD/MXD MXD/ODHT MXD/HT  Kruskal-Wallis  0.262 0.186 0.106 .084 .327 .028 .025  pingdipen basin s u b t y p e s A a n d B, A: N=4, B: N=6  RD/HT RD/BD OD/HT OD/BD  Mann-Whitney  0.033 0.136 0.033 0.201  wan b o w l s u b t y p e s A,B,C; A: N = l l , B: N=8, C: N=4  RD/BD RD/HT  Kruskal-Wallis  0.003 0.142  quanzupan p e d e s t a l l e d d i s h , A: N=4, B: N=3  RD/HT Mann-Whitney (dish height)  271  0.077  Table 3 9 . Changes Made i n Shape C l a s s e s of V e s s e l s i n the B a i y i n g Report.  Identified  change i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  method of e v a l u a t i o n  d a i l i u guan, 1 j a r with spout moved t o p i t c h e r c l a s s  qualitative features: spout, neck.  2 guan j a r s , s t y l e s I , I I combined as guan c l a s s two  qualitative features: o r i f i c e i s square i n shape, bulge at lower body  1 guan j a r grouped with guan s e p a r a t e d as guan class three  qualitative features: j a r with long neck  other  2 pots o r i g i n a l l y i n separate c l a s s e s : " t a l l neck small guan" and "guan" lumped i n t o a s i n g l e c l a s s , guan f o u r  qualitative features: necked j a r on a p e d e s t a l  1 guan j a r grouped with other guan s e p a r a t e d as guan c l a s s five  qualitative no neck  features,  2 guan j a r s from d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s and s t y l e s lumped as guan c l a s s s i x  qualitative no neck  features,  1 guan j a r grouped with other guan s e p a r a t e d as guan c l a s s seven  qualitative no neck  features,  10 guan j a r s from a number of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and paste c l a s s e s lumped i n t o guan class eight  qualitative features, guan as at Hougang s c a t t e r p l o t of HT, MXD indicates 2 size classes; medium (N=9), l a r g e (N=l)  1 guan j a r grouped with other guan s e p a r a t e d as guan c l a s s nine  qualitative neck  272  f e a t u r e s , no  1 p o t i d e n t i f i e d as weng necked j a r moved t o guan c l a s s e i g h t  qualitative features, s i m i l a r i t y i n shape, no neck  1 p o t i d e n t i f i e d as guan moved t o weng necked j a r c l a s s  qualitative features, s i m i l a r i t y t o weng a t Hougang, neck p r e s e n t  9 p i n g d i p e n b a s i n s grouped d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and paste classes;  s i m i l a r i t y t o basins at Hougang, and s c a t t e r p l o t with OD/HT, OD/BD, Mann-Whitney nonparametric t e s t used t o t e s t groups; no s u b c l a s s e s i d e n t i f i e d ; q u a l i t a t i v e features  into  2 pots s e p a r a t e d i n t o b a s i n c l a s s e s two and t h r e e 4 wan bowls s e p a r a t e d i n t o c l a s s e s one, two, t h r e e , f o u r  qualitative features; class one l i k e wan a t Hougang  8 j i a t r i p o d s from d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and p a s t e c l a s s e s regrouped i n t o c l a s s e s one, N=3, two, N=3, t h r e e ,  qualitative  features  N=2 10 d i n g t r i p o d s of d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s and p a s t e c l a s s e s combined i n t o one c l a s s  qualitative features, s i m i l a r i t y i n terms of body shape; s t y l e of s o l i d legs varies  1 p o t c a l l e d a i z u g u i , short legged g u i , moved t o other pitcher class  qualitative  1 p o t c a l l e d qufupen, curved b e l l y pen, moved t o zun c l a s s  qualitative  3 pots c a l l e d b e i moved t o pitcher class, 6 pots from 4 c l a s s e s i n r e p o r t (bei cup, danerbei s i n g l e handle cup, x i a o b e i small cup, z h i t o n g b e i s t r a i g h t bodied cup) regrouped i n t o two d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , one, N=l, and two, N=5;  qualitative features, spout p r e s e n t , s c a t t e r p l o t with RD/HT and RD/BD  273  differences  features  1 pot from danerbei separated to class three, 1 pot from bei separated to c l a s s four; the c l a s s gaozubei kept d i s t i n c t but changed name to c l a s s f i v e  q u a l i t a t i v e differences  18 gai l i d s from various s t y l e s and paste classes, regrouped i n t o ten c l a s s e s , one to ten  qualitative scatterplot indicates 2 N=l; medium (1 no data)  274  differences; of RD and HT s i z e s , large N=16  Table 40. Report.  Original  Shape C l a s s e s Accepted from the B a i y i n g  d a i e r g u a n , guan j a r w i t h one handle, N=l, distinct  qualitatively  bo bowl, N=l, from appearance, as a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s xian li  (yan) t r i p o d ,  tripod,  N=5  N=2  gui p i t c h e r ,  N=3  zeng p e r f o r a t e d j a r , N=2 bi grate,  N=l  zuo stand, N=l dou stemmed d i s h ,  N=l  quanzupan p e d e s t a l l e d d i s h ,  N=l  panxingqi plate-shaped v e s s e l , pan p l a t e ,  N=l  N=l  l e i - b o engraved bowl, zun c o n t a i n e r ,  N=l  N=l  shuangfupen double b e l l y pen, N=2; c a r i n a t e d b a s i n a t Hougang  same as zhefupen,  275  below  Table 41. Changes Made i n Shape C l a s s e s of V e s s e l s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e Meishan Report.  change  in classification  method of  evaluation  2 pots c a l l e d xiekouguan or s l a n t e d mouth guan changed t o guan c l a s s  appearance  12 pots from d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s (xiefuwan, s l a n t e d b e l l y wan N=6; bo bowl N=4; pen c o n t a i n e r N=2) changed t o wan c l a s s then e v a l u a t e d f o r homogeneity, r e s u l t i s c l a s s one, N=12  appearance i n d i c a t e s class;  wan  s c a t t e r p l o t f o r 11 bowls RD/BD and RD/HT; 2 groups t e s t e d by Mann-Whitney s t a t i s t i c (N=5, N=6), no significant difference i n terms of these r a t i o s  two p o t s from s l a n t e d b e l l y wan c l a s s changed t o wan c l a s s two ( c u p - l i k e ) , 2 p o t s from qufuwan or c u r v e d b e l l y wan c l a s s changed t o wan c l a s s t h r e e ; a t h i r d pot from qufuwan c l a s s changed t o wan c l a s s f o u r (bulge i n p r o f i l e ) ; a f o u r t h pot from qufuwan c l a s s changed t o wan c l a s s f i v e (angular)  appearance  5 s t y l e s of kecaopen, engraved pen c o n t a i n e r , changed t o two c l a s s e s , one ( b o w l - l i k e ) N=5, and two ( c u p - l i k e ) N=l; change c l a s s name t o l e i - b o  appearance  d a n e r b e i cup w i t h handle c l a s s s p l i t i n t o two c l a s s e s , one N=l, and two N=2  appearance  5 s t y l e s of g a i l i d s changed t o c l a s s e s one (curved w a l l ) N=3, and two (square i n p r o f i l e ) N=3  appearance  276  Table 42. Report.  Original  Shape C l a s s e s Accepted from the Meishan  guan j a r s , N=6, t h i s c l a s s and a l l others e v a l u a t e d on b a s i s of appearance, 2 s t y l e s lumped yuan f u guan, round b e l l y guan, N=2, a c c e p t e d but c a l l e d round necked j a r , 2 s t y l e s lumped da  kou guan, l a r g e  x i a o guan, small guan)  mouthed  j a r , N=2  j a r , N=l ( d i f f e r e n t i n shape than other  gao j i n g x i a o guan, t a l l  neck small j a r , N=2  small pen, N=2; here, a wide rimmed bowl, u n l i k e Hougang weng, necked j a r , N=5, 5 s t y l e s  pen a t  lumped  shen f u weng, deep b e l l y necked j a r , N=l; d i f f e r e n t i n shape than weng c l a s s above xian  (yan) t r i p o d , N=l  j i a t r i p o d , N=l d i n g t r i p o d , N=12, 4 s t y l e s gui p i t c h e r ,  lumped  N=3  he c o n t a i n e r , N=l zeng p e r f o r a t e d bi grate,  j a r , N=3  N=2  guan zu pan, p e d e s t a l l e d d i s h ; two d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s from one p e r i o d d i s t i n g u i s h two d i f f e r e n t shapes, these c l a s s e s c a l l e d one and two, one v e s s e l from another p e r i o d with no s t y l e d e s i g n a t i o n added t o c l a s s two; c l a s s one N=2, c l a s s two N=3 dou stemmed d i s h ,  N=7, 2 s t y l e s  lumped; a l l have narrow stem  277  qu f u pen, curved b e l l y c o n t a i n e r , c a r i n a t e d b a s i n at Hougang gu beaker, N=4,  4 styles  same as zhe  fu  lumped  zhe  f u b e i , bent b e l l y cup,  N=l  chu  xing b e i , pestle-shaped  cup,  yuan f u b e i , round b e l l y cup,  N=2  zun  N=l  x i n g b e i , zun  N=l,  shaped cup,  N=3,  2 styles  278  lumped  pen,  Table 43. Changes Made i n Shape C l a s s e s of V e s s e l s I d e n t i f i e d i n t h e L u j i a k o u Report.  change i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  method of e v a l u a t i o n  under one p a s t e type r e p o r t l i s t s 3 s t y l e s of guan j a r s ; 7 c l a s s e s formed: one (N=3), two (N=l), t h r e e (N=2), f o u r (N=l), f i v e (N=2), s i x (N=l), seven (N=l)  appearance  r e p o r t d e f i n e s subtypes ( x i n g A,B,C) of pen; A i s s i m i l a r t o pingdipen basin at Hougang, 3 c l a s s e s formed one (shallow, N=l), two ( f l a r i n g w a l l s , N=4), t h r e e (deep, N=l); from x i n g B, 2 c l a s s e s formed, c l a s s f o u r (N=l), f i v e (N=3);  appearance  (2 "unknown" pots added to c l a s s one, 1 t o c l a s s t h r e e ) ; appearance; (1 "unknown" pot added t o class four); appearance  from x i n g C, 2 c l a s s e s formed, s i x (N=l), seven (N=2) r e p o r t l i s t s 5 wan bowls i n 2 s t y l e s ; 13 "unknowns" added t o sample; 18 pots evaluated 2 c l a s s e s formed; one (N=17), two (N=l)  d i f f e r e n c e s among v e s s e l s n o t i c a b l e from examination s c a t t e r p l o t of RD/BD, RD/HT shows 2 groups, s c a t t e r p l o t of HT,RD shows a wide range of s i z e s  r e p o r t l i s t s 5 subtypes f o r d i n g t r i p o d of one paste type (A,B,C,D,E); p o t s regrouped i n t o c l a s s one (N=3), two (N=l), t h r e e (N=l), f o u r (N=l), f i v e (N=l), s i x (N=l, an "unknown" p o t )  appearance  279  r e p o r t l i s t s 3 subtypes f o r d i n g t r i p o d of another p a s t e type (A,B,C; N=3,3,l)  sample s i z e permits e v a l u a t i o n by a s c a t t e r p l o t of OD/MXD and MXD/ODHT; groups not d i s t i n c t  yu c o n t a i n e r 2 s t y l e s , changed t o c l a s s e s one (N=l), two (N=l)  appearance  b e i cup c l a s s s p l i t i n t o 4 c l a s s e s , one (N=2), two (N=2), t h r e e (N=l), f o u r (N=l)  appearance  280  Table 44. Report.  O r i g i n a l Shape C l a s s e s  Accepted from the  Lujiakou  x i n g (subtype) A,B,C guan j a r f o r one type of paste accepted but c a l l e d guan j a r c l a s s e s e i g h t ( N = 2 ) , nine ( N = 2 ) , ten ( N = 2 ) ; these c l a s s e s and a l l others e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of v e s s e l appearance pen c o n t a i n e r x i n g (subtype) D, but c a l l e d pen c l a s s e i g h t , N=l; same as zhe f u pen, c a r i n a t e d b a s i n at Hougang pen  c o n t a i n e r x i n g E, but  c a l l e d pen  c l a s s nine,  N=l  hu necked jar,' N=3 xian  (yan)  tripod,  g u i p i t c h e r , N=3; d a i l i u bo, bi grate,  N=l 1 "unknown" pot  bo bowl with  spout,  added t o c l a s s ,  too  N=2  N=l  san zu pan, t h r e e f o o t e d pan d i s h , 4 subtypes or x i n g a c c e p t e d , c a l l e d c l a s s one ( N = 2 ) , two ( N = 2 ) , t h r e e ( N = 2 ) , four (N=l) dou  stemmed d i s h ,  N=4  lei  p e d e s t a l l e d j a r , N=l  g a i l i d , 4 s t y l e s accepted as d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s , re-named as c l a s s one (N=l), two ( N = 2 ) , t h r e e (N=l), f o u r (N=l)  281  Table 45. L i d s a t Hougang f o r Covering Other V e s s e l s or f o r S e r v i n g Food.  shape c l a s s  rim  diameter  height  hypothesized f u n c t i o n : c o v e r i n g other pots gai  f o u r , N=l  12.3 cm  no data but flat  g a i one, N=5 (one case no data)  range= 25.0-37.0 median= 28.8  range= 8.9-1 median= 10.0  gai  two, N=7  range= 10.5-31.4 median= 16.0  range= 2.4-9 median= 6.5  gai  t h r e e , N=l  16.7  broken  gai  f i v e , N=l  broken,  hypothesized f u n c t i o n : s e r v i n g food; t o o b i g i n r i m diameter and h e i g h t t o cover o t h e r pots a t o r i f i c e  hypothesized vessels guan j a r s ,  g r e a t l y curved i n p r o f i l e  cooking  large,  guan j a r s , medium,  N=15  N=18  range= 18.8-25.3 median= 20.0 range= 10.0-17.6 median= 14.8 13.0,  13.0, 19.0  no data  282  Ii tripod, N = l (4 cases no data)  16.0  xian/yan t r i p o d , N=7 (5 cases no data)  range= 23.6-29.0 median= 25.4  d i n g t r i p o d , N=l (7 cases no data)  11.5  283  Table 46. L i d s a t B a i y i n g f o r C o v e r i n g Other V e s s e l s or f o r S e r v i n g Food.  shape c l a s s  rim  diameter  height  hypothesized function: c o v e r i n g other pots gai one, N=5 (bowl-like)  range= 12.0-15.5 cm median= 12.8  range= 4.0-7.5 median= 5.7  range= 20.9-31.5 median= 23.0  9.0-12.9 median= 9.4  hypothesized function: s e r v i n g food; t o o b i g i n r i m diameter and h e i g h t t o cover other pots a t o r i f i c e gai  two,  N=3  gai  t h r e e , N=l  56.0  11.5  gai  f o u r , N=l  10.4  broken (5.0)  gai  f i v e , N=l  21.4  broken (8.0)  gai  s i x , N=2  13.4, 14.4  6.0,  gai  seven, N=l  14.0  4.6  gai  e i g h t , N=l  29.1  broken  gai  nine, N=l  14.0  6.0  gai  t e n , N=l  18.6  7.1  gai  e l e v e n , N=l  9.3  1.4  284  5.8  (11.0)  hypothesized cooking vessels guan j a r s , eight, medium, N=5  range= 16.1-23.0 median= 17.9  xian/yan t r i p o d , N=4 (1 case no data)  range= 24.5-33.0 median= 26.6  l i t r i p o d , N=2  14.7, 23.0  j i a t r i p o d , one, N=3  range= 13.7-18.3 median= 16.3 range= 19.5-25.3 median= 20.0 15.5, 15.3  two, N=3 three, N=2 ding t r i p o d , one, N=9 two, N=l  range= 11.8-19.3 median= 13.6 21.0  gui t r i p o d , N=l (3 cases no data)  8.3  zeng j a r , N=2  20.0, 15.1  285  T a b l e 47.  L i d s a t Meishan f o r S e r v i n g Food.  shape c l a s s  rim diameter  height  g a i one, N=3  range= 26.0-32.0 median= 27.0 cm  no data  g a i two,  range= 29.5-37.0 median= 30.0  no data  hypothesized function: s e r v i n g food l i d s too b i g i n rim diameter and h e i g h t t o cover other pots at o r i f i c e  N=3  hypothesized vessels  cooking  guan j a r , N=8  range= 17.4-27.0 median= 22.0  d i n g t r i p o d , N=ll (1 pot no data)  range= 10.10-23.0 median= 18.5 20.0  286  Table 48. L i d s a t L u j i a k o u f o r Covering o t h e r V e s s e l s or f o r S e r v i n g Food.  shape c l a s s  rim  diameter  height  hypothesized f u n c t i o n : l i d s f o r covering o t h e r pots gai gai gai  one, N=l two, N=l t h r e e , N=2  9.8 12.8 8.4,  12.0  3.4 3.0 2.7,  hypothesized f u n c t i o n : l i d s f o r s e r v i n g food: too b i g i n rim diameter and h e i g h t t o cover other pots a t o r i f i c e gai  f o u r , N=l  hypothesized vessels  23.5  cooking  xian/yan t r i p o d , N=l ding t r i p o d ,  12.0  seven,  guan j a r , seven,  N=2  18.5 N=7  range= 13.0-21.5 median= 18.0 15.7,  14.0  287  3.5  Figure 5.  Guan Jar Size Classes, Hougang (n=38) 35  Height (cm) •= Large (n=l5) •= Medium (n=18) •= Small (n=5)  288  Figure 6.  Size of Guan Jars, Class Eight, Baiying (n=ll)  20  30  40  Height (cm)  289  50  60  Figure 7  Pingdipen Basin Class, Hougang (n=24)  0.751 1.50  2.50  3.50  Orifice Diameter/Height (cm)  290  4.50  Figure 8.  Pingdipen Basin Size Classes, Hougang (n=24)  30  40  50  Rim Diameter (cm) ®Two Basins with the Same Value  291  60  Figure 9. Pingdipen  Basin  C l a s s One, B a i y i n g  (n = 7 )  1.50 E  u*  iam  v. OJ Q3  1.25  o  a> tn  o  m to  E  o Q  1.00  a> o  o 0.75  2.00  3.00  4.00  5.00  Orifice Diameter/Height (cm)  292  6.00  Figure 10.  S i z e s o f P i n g d i p e n B a s i n s , G l a s s One,  Baiying  (n=7)  20  30  40  50  60  Rim Diameter (cm)  293  70  80  Figure II.  Wan  B o w l C l a s s One, H o u g a n g (n=44)  i.ooi 1.00  i  i  I  2.00  300  4.00  Rim Diameter/Base Diameter (cm)  294  Figure 12.  S i z e s o f Wan  B o w l s C l a s s One, H o u g a n g (n=44)  8  ®  7 —  6|-  •  •  •  o  £ 51 QJ X  4|"  • • • ( § ) • •  10  15  Rim Diameter (cm) ® Two Bowls with the Same Value  295  20  Figure 13. Wan Bowl Class One, Meishan (n = ll)  i  _ j  2  3  i _  4  Rim Diameter/Base Diameter (cm)  Figure 14.  Sizes of Wan Bowls, Class One, Meishan (n=ll)  Rim Diameter (cm)  297  Figure 15. Wan  B o w l C l a s s e s O n e a n d Two,  Lujiakou  (n=!8) 4.00  0.00  1,00  2.00  3.00  Rim Diameter/Base Diameter (cm)  298  4.00  Figure 16.  Sizes of Wan Bowls Class One, Lujiakou (n=!8)  Rim Diameter (cm)  299  Figure 17  Ding Tripod Class Seven, Lujiakou  (n=7) 1.20  i  I  -  c  1.10  B  B B  0.90  -  A A  A  -  i  0.70  0.80  Orfice Diameter/Maximum  300  —  1  0.90 Diameter  •  I.C (cm)  Figure 18.  Bei Cups Classes One and Two, Baiying ~~ (n=6)  0.50  Rim Diameter/Base Diameter (cm)  301  Figure 19.  Sizes of Gai Lids, Classes One to Eleven, Baiying (n=l6)  E u  a> X  10  20  30  40  Rim Diameter (cm)  302  50  60  APPENDIX B. DETAILS ON ANALYSES FOR TESTING THE MODEL OF CHANGE IN SYSTEMS OF CERAMIC PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO INCREASING CULTURAL COMPLEXITY.  s i t e reports: Hougang (Anyang Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1985) Baiying (CPAM of Anyang D i s t r i c t , Henan Province 1983) Meishan (Second Henan Archaeological Team, IA, CASS 1982) Lujiakou (Shandong Archaeological Team, IA, CASS and the Art Museum of Weifang County, Shandong Province 1985)  303  T a b l e 49. D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e s s e l s i n Shape C l a s s e s Per Phase at Hougang.  *** note: F o r each phase, the f i r s t f i g u r e s r e f e r t o q u a n t i t i e s of v e s s e l s i n each shape c l a s s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s ; the f i g u r e s i n parentheses r e f e r t o my e s t i m a t e s of the t o t a l number of v e s s e l s excavated. The t o t a l number of v e s s e l s i n each o r i g i n a l shape c l a s s , g i v e n i n the l a s t column, i s c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n the r e p o r t . In some cases when new c l a s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d , the t o t a l number of v e s s e l s excavated p e r c l a s s i s not c l e a r . ("sh"= sherds)  shape c l a s s  Early  Middle  Late  total  guan j a r , l a r g e guan j a r , medium guan j a r , small  2 (8) 3 (17) 2 (5)  8 (26) 7 (22) 1 (8)  5 (19) 8 (14) 2 (3)  (53) (53) (16)  shenfupen j a r  0 (1)  1 (1 )  3 (4)  (6)  pen  2 (2)  0 (1? )  0 (0)  two  1 (1)  1 (6)  2 (2)  (12 total )  gang j a r , one gang j a r , two  0 (?) 0 (?)  2 (5? ) 1 (2? )  0 (0? ) 3 (4?)  (11 total )  weng necked j a r  1 (5)  2 (12)  2 (7)  (24)  p i n g necked j a r  1 (4)  1 (1)  1 (1)  (6)  hu  necked j a r  0 (0)  1 (1)  1 (4)  (5)  pingdipen basin, medium-sized large size  5 (6?) 0 (0)  5 (5? ) 1 (1)  13 (13? ) 0 (0)  (25 total)  sizumin  1 (2)  2 (2)  0 (1)  (5)  j a r , one  basin  304  wan wan wan wan wan  bowl, bowl, bowl, bowl, bowl,  one two three four five  10 (?) 0 (?) 1 (?) 0 (?) 1 (?)  15 0 0 0 0  bo bowl  1 (1)  0 (0)  1 (1)  (2)  xian/yan t r i p o d  4 (5)  5 (11)  3 (5)  (21)  li  1 (l)  2 (4)  2 (3)  (8)  j i a t r i p o d , one j i a t r i p o d , two  1 (1) 1 (2)  2 (5) 1(3)  2 (3) 1(1)  (9) (6)  ding t r i p o d  1 (?)  2 (?)  5 (?)  (8? 14 legs)  gui  1 (?)  0 (?)  3 (?)  (7 sh)  zeng p e r f o r a t e d j a r  1 (?)  1 ( ?)  bi_ g r a t e , one bi_ g r a t e , two  0 (0) 1 (l)  1(1) 0 (0)  0(0) 0 (0)  (2 to-) tal)  quanzupan, one quanzupan, two  2 (4) 1 (2)  0 (0) 2 (4)  0 (0) 2 (6)  (16 total )  dou d i s h , dou d i s h ,  1(2) 1 (1)  1 (3) 1 (3)  1 (5) 1 (2)  (10) (6)  zhefupen b a s i n  1 (2)  1 (5)  1 (2)  (9)  b_u_ c o n t a i n e r  0 (0)  1 (1)  0 (0)  (1)  zuo stand  1 (2)  0 (0)  0 (0)  (1)  b e i cup, one b e i cup, two b e i cup, t h r e e  0 (0) 0 (0 ) 0 (0)  0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1)  2 (5?) 1 (2?) 0 (0)  tripod  tripod  one two  305  (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)  19 2 1 1 0  (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)  0 (?)  (82 total)  (7)  (8 total)  gai gai gai gai gai  lid, lid, lid, lid, lid,  one two three four five  1 (1) 2 (2) 0 (? ) 0 (0 ) 1 (? )  3 1 1 1 0  306  (7) (2) (?) (1) (?)  2 4 0 0 0  (3) (14) (?) (0) (?)  (11) (18) (2) (1) (4)  Table 50. D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e s s e l s at B a i y i n g .  i n Shape C l a s s e s  Per Phase  *** note: F o r each phase, the f i r s t f i g u r e s r e f e r t o q u a n t i t i e s of v e s s e l s i n each shape c l a s s a v a i l a b l e f o r analysis. The f i g u r e s i n parentheses a r e the t o t a l number of v e s s e l s excavated as s t a t e d i n the r e p o r t . In some cases f o r new c l a s s e s d e f i n e d i n Chapter 4, the t o t a l number of v e s s e l s excavated p e r c l a s s i s not c l e a r .  shape c l a s s  Early  Middle  Late  Total  guan guan guan guan guan guan guan guan guan guan  1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 0 1  0 2 0 2 1 1 0 7 1 0  (1 ) (2) (2) (3) (1 ) (3) (1) (19) (1) (1)  j a r , one j a r , two j a r , three j a r , four jar, five jar, six j a r , seven j a r , e i g h t , medium j a r , eight, large j a r , nine  (1) (0 ) (0) (0) (0 ) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)  (0) (0) (2) (0) (0) (2) (1) (4) (0) (1 )  (0) (2) (0) (3) (1) (1) (0) (15) (1) (0)  weng necked j a r  0 (0)  0 (0)  2 (2)  (2)  p i n g d i p e n b a s i n , one medium-sized one, l a r g e p i n g d i p e n b a s i n , two pingdipen basin, three  1 1 0 0  (2) (1) (0) (0)  4 0 0 0  (4) (0) (0) (0)  1 0 1 1  (16) (0). (2) (1)  (22) (1) (2) (1 )  wan wan wan wan  0 0 0 0  (0) (0) (0) (0)  1 1 0 0  (1) (1 ) (0) (0)  0 0 1 1  (0) (0) (2) (3)  (1) (1) (2) (3)  bowl, one bowl, two bowl, t h r e e bowl, f o u r  bo bowl  1 (1)  0 (0)  0 (0)  (1)  xian  0 (0)  0 (0)  5 (5)  (5)  1 (1)  0 (0)  1 (1)  (2)  li  (yan) t r i p o d  tripod  307  j i a t r i p o d , one j i a t r i p o d , two j i a t r i p o d , three  0 (0) 1 (1) 2 (2)  0 (0) 2 (2) 0 (0)  3 (7? ) 0 (0) 0 (0)  (7? (3) (2)  d i n g t r i p o d , one d i n g t r i p o d , two  1 (1) 0 (0)  2 (2) 0 (0)  6 (7) 1 (1)  (10 (1)  gui t r i p o d  0 (0)  1 (1)  3 (7)  (8)  zeng p e r f o r a t e d j a r  0 (0)  0 (0)  2 (7)  (7)  bi  0 (0)  0 (0)  1 (1 )  (1)  quanzupan d i s h  0 (0)  0 (0)  1 (6)  (6)  dou stemmed d i s h  0 (0)  0 (0)  3 (3)  (3)  shuangfupen b a s i n  1 (1)  1 (1)  0 (0)  (2)  qufupen b a s i n , qufupen b a s i n , qufupen b a s i n ,  1 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0)  0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1)  (1) (1) (1)  0 (0)  0 (0)  1 (1)  (1)  pan p l a t e  0 (0)  1 (1)  0 (0)  (1)  zuo  1 (1)  0 (0)  0 (0)  (1)  l e i - b o engraved bowl  0 (0)  0 (0)  1 (1)  (1)  zun  container  0 (0)  0 (0)  1 (1)  (1)  bei bei bei bei bei  cup, cup, cup, cup, cup,  one two three four five  0 1 0 0 0  (0) (1) (0) (0) (0)  1 1 0 0 0  (1) (1) (0) (0) (0)  0 5 1 4 1  (0) (5) (1 ) (4) (1)  (1) (7) (1) (4) (1)  pitcher, pitcher, pitcher, pitcher,  one two three four  1 0 0 0  (1) (0) (0) (0)  0 0 2 1  (0) (0) (2) (1)  0 1 0 0  (0) (1) (0) (0)  (1) (1) (2) (1)  grate  panxingqi  one two three  dish  stand  308  gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d , gai l i d ,  one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven  1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0  (1) (1) (1) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)  309  (7? ) (2) (0) (3?) (2) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0) (0)  1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1  (7) (0) (0) (0) (0) (2) (1 ) (1) (1) (1) (1)  (17?) (3) (1) (4?) (2) (2) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)  Table 51. D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e s s e l s i n Shape C l a s s e s Per Phase at Meishan.  *** note: Only q u a n t i t i e s of v e s s e l s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s are g i v e n here; the r e p o r t does not p r o v i d e f i g u r e s f o r the t o t a l number of excavated v e s s e l s from each shape c l a s s .  shape c l a s s  Early  Late  guan j a r  3  5  dakouguan, l a r g e mouthed j a r  1  1  round necked j a r  2  0  xiaoguan, small guan  0  1  necked small j a r  0  2  weng necked j a r  2  3  l a r g e necked j a r  0  1  wide rimmed bowl  1  1  wan wan wan wan wan  one two three four five  8 1 1 1 0  4 1 1 0 1  l e i - b o engraved bowl, one l e i - b o , two  3 1  2 0  xian/yan t r i p o d  0  1  jia tripod  1  0  ding t r i p o d  9  7  bowl, bowl, bowl, bowl, bowl,  310  gui t r i p o d  1  2  zeng p e r f o r a t e d j a r  2  1  b i grate  1  !  d i s h , one quanzupan, two  2 2  0 1  dou stemmed d i s h  4  3  qufupen c a r i n a t e d b a s i n  1  0  he c o n t a i n e r  1  0  d a n e r b e i cup w i t h handle, one d a n e r b e i , two  1 0  0 2  gu beaker  2  2  z h e f u b e i , c a r i n a t e d cup  1  0  chuxingbei, shaped cup  1  2  y u a n f u b e i , round cup  0  2  zunxingbei, cup  0  1  1 2  2 1  quanzupan p e d e s t a l l e d  gai l i d , gai l i d ,  one two  pestle-  zun-shaped  311  Table 52. D i s t r i b u t i o n of V e s s e l s Phase a t L u j i a k o u .  i n Shape C l a s s e s Per  *** note: The f i r s t f i g u r e s r e f e r t o q u a n t i t i e s of v e s s e l s i n each shape c l a s s a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . The f i g u r e s i n parentheses r e f e r t o the number of v e s s e l s excavated. In some cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y when new shape c l a s s e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e i s only i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e t o t a l number of v e s s e l s excavated. There i s no i n f o r m a t i o n f o r each phase.  shape c l a s s  Early  Late  Total  guan j a r , one guan j a r , two guan j a r , t h r e e guan j a r , f o u r guan j a r , f i v e guan j a r , s i x guan j a r , seven guan j a r , e i g h t guan j a r , n i n e  2 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0  1 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 2  (6 f o r classes one-three) (1) (2) (1) (10) (3) (2)  hu necked j a r  2 (2)  1 (1)  (3)  l e i necked[ j a r  0 (0)  1 (1)  (1)  pen pen pen pen pen pen pen  basin, basin, basin, basin, basin, basin, basin,  0 2 1 0 0 0 0  (?) (?) (?) (0) (0) (?) (?)  3 (?) 1 (?) 1 (?) (2) 3 (3) 1 (?) 2 (?)  pen pen pen  basin, eight basin, nine b a s i n , ten  0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  1 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1)  3 (?) 0 (?)  14 (?) 1 (?)  one two three four five six seven  wan bowl, one wan bowl, two  (2? ) (1) (0? ) (0) (2? ) (0) (?) (?) (0)  312  (1? ) (0) (2? ) (1) (0? ) (1) (?) (?) (0)  (19 f o r classes one-three) (2) (3) (8 f o r classes s i x , seven) (1) (1) (1) (26 f o r classes one-two)  d a i l i u b o , bo bowl with spout  0 (0)  2 (2)  (2)  xian/yan  0 (0)  1 (1)  (1)  3 (3)  1 (1)  (4)  1 0 0 0 0 0 3  (?)  2 (?)  (12 f o r  (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)  1 1 1 1 1 4  classes one-six)  gui  tripod  ding ding ding ding ding ding ding bi  tripod  tripod, tripod, tripod, tripod, tripod, tripod, tripod,  one two three four five six seven  grate  (?) (?) (?) (?) (?) (?)  0 (0)  1 (1)  sanzupan, 3 f o o t e d pan, one sanzupan, two sanzupan, t h r e e sanzupan, f o u r  1 1 1 0  1 1 1 1  dou stemmed  (l)  (1) (1) (1) (1)  (2) (2) (2) (1)  1 (1)  3 (3)  (4)  yu c o n t a i n e r , one yu c o n t a i n e r , two  1 (0) 1 (0)  0 (0) 0 (0)  (1) (1)  b e i cup, one b e i cup, two b e i cup, t h r e e b e i cup, f o u r  0 0 0 1  (0) (0) (0) (1)  2 2 1 0  (2) (2) (1) (0)  (2) (2) (1) (1)  gai gai gai gai  0 0 1 0  (0) (0) (1) (0)  1 1 1 1  (1) (1) (1) (1)  (1) (1) (2) (1)  l l l l  id, id, id, id,  dish  one two three four  (1) (1) (1) (0)  (12)  313  Table 53. D i v e r s i t y of Shape C l a s s e s and F u n c t i o n a l Types Per P e r i o d a t Hougang.  f u n c t i o n a l type  Early  cooking t r i p o d s (xian/yan, l i , j i a one and two, ding, gui)  6 forms  other cooking pots (medium and l a r g e guan j a r , zeng j a r , b i g r a t e one and two)  4  o t h e r j a r s with wide o r i f i c e (small guan, shenfupen, pen one and two, gang one, two) storage f u n c t i o n  4  j a r s , narrow o r i f i c e (weng, p i n g , hu) f o r l i q u i d storage  2  bowls (wan one, two, three, four, f i v e , bo) f o r e a t i n g , serving, drinking  4  o t h e r open forms, no p e d e s t a l or stem (pingdipen basin, medium and l a r g e s i z e ; zhefupen b a s i n ) preparing, serving food  2  Hypothesized  Middle  314  Late  open forms with p e d e s t a l or stem (dou d i s h one, two; quanzupan d i s h one, two; b_u c o n t a i n e r sizumin f o o t e d p o t ) s e r v i n g , e a t i n g food)  5  cups ( b e i one-three) for drinking  0  1  2  l i d s f o r covering other v e s s e l s (gai c l a s s f o u r )  0  1  0  l i d s f o r serving food ( g a i one, two, three, f i v e )  3  other  1  (zuo stand)  TOTAL NUMBER FORMS (46 a t whole s i t e )  5  3  0  31  .  2  0 32  315  4  30  Table 54. D i v e r s i t y of Shape C l a s s e s and Hypothesized F u n c t i o n a l Types Per P e r i o d a t B a i y i n g .  functional  type  cooking t r i p o d s (xian/yan, l i , j i a one, two, t h r e e ; d i n g one, two; g u i )  Early  4 f orms  other c o o k i n g pots (guan j a r e i g h t , medium; zeng j a r , bi_ g r a t e ) other j a r s with wide o r i f i c e (guan j a r f i v e , s i x , seven, e i g h t medium ( f i n e p a s t e ) , l a r g e ; nine f o r storage j a r s with narrow o r i f i c e (guan j a r s with necks one, two, t h r e e , f o u r ; weng j a r ) ; l i q u i d storage bowls (wan one, two, t h r e e , f o u r ; bo) f o r e a t i n g , drinking, serving o t h e r open forms w i t h no p e d e s t a l or stem (pingdipen b a s i n one, medium and l a r g e s i z e ; two, t h r e e ; shuangfupen b a s i n , qufupen b a s i n one, two, t h r e e ; pan p l a t e , panxingqi d i s h , l e i - b o bowl) f o r p r e p a r i n g , s e r v i n g food open forms with p e d e s t a l or stem (dou d i s h , quanzupan d i s h ) ; s e r v i n g , e a t i n g food  316  Middle  Late  pitchers four)  (one, two, t h r e e ,  1  2  1  cups ( b e i one, two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e ; zun c o n t a i n e r ) for drinking  1  2  5  l i d s ( g a i one) f o r c o v e r i n g other v e s s e l s  1  l i d s ( g a i c l a s s e s two eleven) f o r s e r v i n g food  2  3  6  other  1  0  0  15  22  40  (zuo stand)  TOTAL NUMBER OF FORMS (62 a t whole s i t e )  317  1  1  Table 55. D i v e r s i t y of Shape C l a s s e s and F u n c t i o n a l Types Per P e r i o d at Meishan.  Hypothesized  f u n c t i o n a l type  Early  cooking t r i p o d s (xian/yan, d i n g , j i a , g u i )  3 forms  other cooking pots (guan j a r , zeng j a r , b i grate)  3  other j a r s with wide o r i f i c e , f o r storage (dakouguan, xiaoguan)  2  j a r s with narrow o r i f i c e , f o r l i q u i d storage (weng, round necked j a r , l a r g e necked j a r , small j a r with neck)  2  bowls f o r e a t i n g , s e r v i n g , d r i n k i n g (wan one, two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e ; widerimmed bowl)  5  o t h e r open forms, no p e d e s t a l or stem, f o r p r e p a r i n g or s e r v i n g food (qufupen, he, l e i - b o one and two)  4  open forms with p e d e s t a l or stem f o r s e r v i n g , e a t i n g f o o d (dou, quanzupan one, two)  3  cups f o r d r i n k i n g (gu, d a n e r b e i one, two; zhefubei, chuxingbei, y u a n f u b e i , zunxingbei)  4  318  Late  l i d s for serving (gai one, two)  food  TOTAL NUMBER OF FORMS (35 a t whole s i t e )  Table 56. D i v e r s i t y of Shape C l a s s e s and F u n c t i o n a l Types Per P e r i o d at L u j i a k o u .  Hypothesized  f u n c t i o n a l type  Early  cooking t r i p o d s (xian/yan, g u i , d i n g seven)  2 forms  other cooking pots (bi g r a t e , guan j a r seven)  1  o t h e r j a r s w i t h wide o r i f i c e , f o r storage (guan j a r t h r e e , f i v e ,  1 six)  j a r s with narrow o r i f i c e , f o r l i q u i d storage (guan j a r one, two, f o u r , e i g h t , n i n e ; hu, l e i )  4  bowls f o r e a t i n g , s e r v i n g , d r i n k i n g (wan one, two, three; d a i l i u b o )  1  o t h e r open forms, no stem or p e d e s t a l , f o r p r e p a r i n g or s e r v i n g food (pen b a s i n one-ten; y_u_ c o n t a i n e r , one, two)  4  open forms with p e d e s t a l , stem, or l e g s f o r s e r v i n g , e a t i n g food (dou d i s h , sanzupan d i s h one-four, d i n g t r i p o d one-six)  5  cups f o r d r i n k i n g (bei one-four)  1  320  l i d s f o r c o v e r i n g other v e s s e l s ( g a i one - t h r e e ) l i d s f o r serving (gai two)  food  TOTAL NUMBER OF FORMS (50 a t whole s i t e )  Table 57. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Xian/Yan Tripods, Hougang.  shape of legs  Early  Middle  Late  awl shaped  2  2  1  pouch shaped  0  no data- legs broken  2  2  0  t o t a l number of vessels t o t a l number of shapes t o t a l number of excavated houses  4 2  5 3  3 2  2  14  23  1  2  Table 58. V a r i a t i o n i n Handles f o r Xian/Yan Tripods, Hougang. feature  Early  Middle  Late  none  4  3  3  2 small handles with loop  0  1  0  2 s o l i d lugs  0  1  0  t o t a l number of vessels t o t a l number of handle types t o t a l number of excavated houses  4 1 2  322  3  5  3 1  14  23  Table 59. Hougang.  V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding  Tripods,  shape of l e g s  Early  Middle  Late  round p i l l a r  0  0  2  long and t r i a n g u l a r  1  short and t r i a n g u l a r  0  sawtooth  0  1  1  g u i l i a n ("grimace", or "funny f a c e " )  0  1  1  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of shapes t o t a l number of excavated houses  1 1 2  323  0  0 0  2 2  1  5 4 14  23  Table 60. V a r i a t i o n Guan Jars, Hougang.  i n Decorative Techniques f o r Large  techniques  Early  Middle  Late  basket marks (impressions), and a few i n c i s e d l i n e s  0  0  1  cordmarks  1  1  cordmarks, long and t h i n applique, i n c i s e d l i n e s , and i n c i s i o n around rim  O  i  basketmarks  0  1  0  p l a i n - no decoration  0  1  0  checkmarks  0  1  1  basketmarks and cordmarks  0  1  0  cordmarks and i n c i s i o n around rim  1  cordmarks, c i r c u l a r applique, t h i n and long applique, p o l i s h e d rim  0  0  1  t o t a l number of vessels t o t a l number of decorative combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses per phase  2  8  5  2  7  5  2  14  23  (impressions)  (impressions)  324  1 l  2  0  Table 61. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques f o r MediumS i z e d Guan J a r s , Hougang.  techniques  Early  Middle  cordmarks  1  4  3  cordmarks and i n c i s i o n around r i m  1  0  0  cordmarks, l o n g and t h i n applique, i n c i s e d l i n e s  1  0  0  p l a i n - no d e c o r a t i o n  0  basketmarks  0  checkmarks  0  checkmarks and cordmarks  2  1 1  0  0  2  0  0  1  checkmarks and i n c i s i o n around r i m  0  0  1  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  1  7  8  3  3  5  2  14  23  325  .  Late  Table 62. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques f o r Xian/Yan T r i p o d s , Hougang. techniques  Early  basketmarks  1  cordmarks  3  cordmarks and around r i m cordmarks  incision  0  and 3 small knobs  0  Middle  Late  0  0 2  1 1  0  0  1  cordmarks, 3 s m a l l knobs, and i n c i s i o n around r i m  0  1  0  cordmarks, 2 around r i m  incisions  0  1  0  and 3 small  0  0  1  _  _  _  2  4  3  2  14  23  basketmarks knobs  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  326  Table 63. V a r i a t i o n i n Type of Rim f o r Wan Bowls, Class One, Hougang.  type of rim  Early  Middle  Late  plain  10  10  13  one i n c i s i o n around rim  0  two i n c i s i o n s around rim  0  t o t a l number of vessels t o t a l number of rim types t o t a l number of excavated houses  10 1 2  327  3  3  -  6  2  0  15  19 2  14  23  Table 64. Baiying.  V a r i a t i o n i n Handles  f o r Ding T r i p o d s , C l a s s One,  feature  Early  Middle  Late  panshou l o o p handle  0  0  1  none  1  2  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of types t o t a l number of excavated houses  1  2  5  1 9  1 8  328  6 2 46  Table 65. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques T r i p o d s , C l a s s One, B a i y i n g .  f o r Ding  techniques  Early  cordmarks  0  checkmarks  1  1  0  0  0  1  cordmarks  and checkmarks  Middle 1  Late 5  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s  1  t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations  1  2  2  9  8  46  t o t a l number of excavated houses  329  2  6  Table 66. Meishan.  Variation  i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding T r i p o d s ,  shape of l e g  Early  Late  round p i l l a r  1  1  triangular  3  2  nipple  2  1  triangular,  one h o l e  1  0  triangular,  two h o l e s  1  0  b i r d beak  0  1  no d a t a - broken l e g s  1  2  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of shapes t o t a l number of excavated houses  9 6  7 5  17  16  330'  Table 67. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques f o r Guan J a r s , Meishan.  techniques  Early  Late  basketmarks  1  2  checkmarks  1  2  basketmarks and s e v e r a l incised lines  1  0  basketmarks, p o l i s h e d upper shoulder  0  1  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  3  5  3  3  17  16  Table 68. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques Stemmed Dishes, Meishan.  f o r Dou  t e c h n i q u e s on stem  Early  Late  none  3  2  2 incised lines  1  0  one r i d g e  0  1  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  4  3  2  2  17  16  331  Table 69. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques f o r Ding T r i p o d s , Meishan.  techniques  Early  Late  checkmarks, and i n c i s e d l i n e s on s h o u l d e r  1  0  checkmarks  2  4  basketmarks  1  2  checkmarks and i n c i s i o n around r i m  1  0  cordmarks  0  1  total  5  7  4  3  17  16  number of v e s s e l s  t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  332  Table 70. V a r i a t i o n i n Shape of Leg f o r Ding T r i p o d s , C l a s s Seven, L u j i a k o u .  shape of l e g  Early  Late  round p i l l a r  1  2  vertical  1  1  1  0  0  1  3 3  4 3  6  5  s t r i p s , applique  chisel no d a t a - broken  legs  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of shapes t o t a l number of excavated houses  Table 71. V a r i a t i o n i n Handles C l a s s Seven, L u j i a k o u .  f o r Ding T r i p o d s ,  feature  Early  Late  4 cockscomb handles  1  1  3 cockscomb handles  0  1  2 cockscomb handles  0  1  2 bi_ l u g s  0  1  none  2  0  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of handle types t o t a l number of excavated houses  3 2  4 4  6  5  333  Table 72. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Techniques f o r Ding T r i p o d s , C l a s s Seven, L u j i a k o u . techniques  Early  Late  polishing  1  0  plain-  0  1  i n c i s e d l i n e on body and i n c i s i o n around r i m  1  0  basketmarks  1  0  incision  0  1  0  1  3 i n c i s e d l i n e s on shoulder, i n c i s i o n around r i m  0  1  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  3  4  3  4  6  5  no d e c o r a t i o n  around r i m  2 incised  lines  on body  Table 73. V a r i a t i o n i n D e c o r a t i v e Wan Bowls, C l a s s One, L u j i a k o u .  Techniques f o r  techniques  Early  Late  plain-  3  4  0  3  3  7  1  2  6  5  no d e c o r a t i o n  two i n c i s e d  lines  t o t a l number of v e s s e l s t o t a l number of d e c o r a t i v e combinations t o t a l number of excavated houses  334  Figure 20. (Page I)  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Large Guan Jars, Hougang  PERIOD Middle  *  (n»5) Late  1 1  \  (n=8) I  L_  14  15  .  J  16  I  I  17  18  I  19  Orifice Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Middle (n=5) Late  (n=8) 8  10  9  Base Diameter (cm)  335  J  20  |  21  Figure 20.(Page 2)  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Large Guan Jars, Hougang  PERIOD Middle (n=5) Late  (n=8)  20  22  24  26  28  30  32  34  Maximum Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Middle (n=5) Late  (n=8)  24  26  28  30  Height at Orifice Diameter (cm)  336  Figure 2l.(Page I)  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Medium Size Guan Jars, Hougang PERIOD Early  (n=3) Middle (n=8) Late (n=7) 10  8  7  Base Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early  (n=3) Middle (n=8) Late (n=7)  8  10  II  12  13  Orifice Diameter (cm) 337  14  15  Figure 21. (Page 2)  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Medium Size Guan Jars, Hougang PERIOD Early  (n-3) Middle (n=8) Late (n=7) 10  12  14  16  18  20  Maximum Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early  (n=3) Middle (n=8) Late (n=7) 10  15  20  Height at Orifice Diameter (cm) 338  25  Figure  22.  Variation in Dimension by Period, Medium Size Pingdipen Basins,Hougang PERIOD Early  (n=5) Middle  (n=5) Late  (n=l3)  a  8  9  j  10  12  Height (cm)  PERIOD Early  (n=5) Middle  (n=5) Late  (n=l3) 12  14  16  18  20  22  24  26  28  30  32  34  Orifice Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early  (n=5) Middle  (n=5)  #  Late  (n=l3) 12  14  16  18  20  Base Diameter  3.39  22 (cm)  24  26  28  30  Figure 2 3 .  Variation in Dimension by Period, Medium Size Wan Bowls, Class One, Hougang PERIOD Early (n=8) Middle (n=IO) Late (n=l2)*"  Height (cm)  PERIOD Early (n=8)  •  Middle^ (n=IO) Late (n=l2)*10  II  12  13  14  15  16  17  R i m D i a m e t e r (cm)  PERIOD Early (n=8) Middle (n=IO) Late (n=l2) i  10 B a s e Diameter (cm)  340  18  Figure 24.  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Guan Jars, Meishan PERIOD Early  Late  I  10  1  15  | _  20  Orifice Diameter (cm)  341  Figure 25.  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Ding Tripods, Meishan PERIOD Early (n=5) Late (n=6) _L 10  15  Orifice Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early (n=5)  *  Late (n=6)  j  #  I  I  10  15  :  1  I  I  I  20  25  30  Maximum Diameter  342  P  _^  (cm)  Figure 26.  Variation in Dimensions by Period, Ding Tripods, Lujiakou  PERIOD Early  1  '  (n-3)  |  Late  |  *  ^_  I  L__J  (n=4) i  i  i  8  10  12  9  i  i  i  14  16  18  Orifice Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early (n=3)  Late (n=4) 10  20  15  Maximum  Diameter (cm)  PERIOD Early (n=3)  Late (n=4) 10  14  16  Body Height (cm)  343  18  20  APPENDIX C. DAT