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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Native Youth Project Perkins, Elena Ann 1991

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THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT by ELENA ANN PERKINS B.A. The U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1991 © E l e n a Ann P e r k i n s , 1991  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his  or  her  representatives.  It is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Anthropology  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  DE-6 (2/88)  10 October 1991  ABSTRACT Throughout t h e h i s t o r y of t h e d i s c i p l i n e ,  anthropologists  have assumed t h e r o l e of c u l t u r a l brokers, o f t e n t a k i n g  explicit  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as advocates and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r dependent populations.  Over the y e a r s , t h e r o l e of c u l t u r a l broker has  changed, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l and p o l i t i c a l m i l i e u o f t h e times.  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e has been evident i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c u l t u r e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum o f Anthropology  (MOA) which has demonstrated a s t r o n g p u b l i c  s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n s i n c e t h e l a t e 1940s. T h i s i s a formative e v a l u a t i o n case study of t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t , an education programme f o r F i r s t teenagers which was a c t i v e throughout t h e 1980s.  Nations The purpose o f  a f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s t o provide i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o p e r a t i o n of a programme so those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t can make improvements. 1979,  The N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t (NYP) was i n i t i a t e d i n  co-sponsored by MOA and the N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  Society  (NIYAS).  Conceived as a s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n programme  t o improve academic achievement and i n t r o d u c e young people o f a b o r i g i n a l a n c e s t r y i n t o p r o d u c t i v e c a r e e r s i n t h e mainstream Canadian s o c i e t y , t h i s programme had a s t r o n g component, promoting p r i d e i n F i r s t Nations  cultural  heritage.  teenagers were t r a i n e d t o make p r e s e n t a t i o n s on v a r i o u s of t h e indigenous  The aspects  c u l t u r e of t h e Northwest Coast t o museum  v i s i t o r s and community groups.  T r a c k i n g t h e development o f t h e  Page i i  programme r e v e a l s changing s e n s i b i l i t i e s among MOA the r o l e of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  s t a f f toward  T h i s case study a l s o  describes  an example of the i n t e r s e c t i o n between a b o r i g i n a l and p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n and programming. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of the v a r i o u s context  of the p r o j e c t ' s o p e r a t i o n  stakeholders  are d e s c r i b e d u s i n g t h e  ethnographic methods of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n interviewing.  and the  and  I t i s a l s o an e x e r c i s e i n r e f l e x i v e anthropology,  s i n c e t h e author was an a c t i v e member of the management and i n s t r u c t i o n a l team t h a t i s the focus of a n a l y s i s .  Page  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table o f Contents Acknowledgement  i i iv vi  I.  INTRODUCTION  II.  APPROACH: PROGRAMME EVALUATION A. P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Programme E v a l u a t i o n B. Anthropology and Programme E v a l u a t i o n 1. N a t u r a l i s t i c versus Experimental Study Design 2. E m p i r i c a l l y Based Research 3. Comparison and Judgment 4. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n C. The Process of E v a l u a t i n g the Native Youth Project  III.  1 6 8 12 12 16 18 23 27  FRAMEWORK: CULTURAL BROKERAGE A. Foundation f o r the P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n of Anthropology B. A Questioning o f A u t h o r i t y  31  IV.  THE A. B. C.  49 49 53 57 58 59 60 61  V.  BRENDA TAYLOR AND THE NATIVE INDIAN YOUTH ADVISORY SOCIETY A. Changing Approach t o Education Among the F i r s t Nations B. E s t a b l i s h i n g the Native Indian Youth Advisory Society C. NIYAS Co-Sponsorship o f the Native Youth Project D. Coping with the Urbanization o f F i r s t Nations Youth  LEGACY OF HARRY AND AUDREY HAWTHORN "Useful Anthropology" The Place o f a People's Heritage Background Assumptions of C u l t u r a l Brokerage 1. C r e d i b i l i t y and P r e s t i g e 2. E m p i r i c a l and P r a c t i c a l 3. A s s i m i l a t i o n / C o n s e r v a t i o n 4. C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y  Page i v  34 39  67 68 73 77 80  VI .  MADELINE BRONSDON ROWAN AND MUSEUM EDUCATION PROGRAMMING A. MOA C u r a t o r i a l B a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t B. E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t C. Development o f t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t D. D i g n i t y and Knowledge  87 92 99 118  VII.  PROJECT MANAGERS A. P r a c t i c a l R o u t i n e s and S c h e d u l e s B. R e a l i t i e s o f D i s c i p l i n e and M o t i v a t i o n C. Testing Potential  12 6 128 143 147  VIII.  PROJECT MEMBERS A. A p p l i c a t i o n and S e l e c t i o n B. R e s e a r c h and T r a i n i n g C. P r e s e n t a t i o n s D. Fund R a i s i n g E v e n t s and A c t i v i t i e s E. Study T r i p s and C o n f e r e n c e s F. S e n i o r Members G. A f t e r t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t  152 155 157 163 170 172 177 180  IX.  MOA A. B. C.  185 188 192 198  X.  REVIEWING THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT A. C u l t u r a l B r o k e r a g e and t h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t B. N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t S t r u c t u r e and Stakeholders 1. Cultural Collaboration 2. P r o j e c t Resources 3. Project Objectives C. Assessment o f E f f e c t i v e n e s s 1. Mission 2. Consistency 3. Involvement 4. A d a p t a b i l i t y D. Statement o f C o n c l u s i o n and C o n t r i b u t i o n  STAFF AND PROJECT RESOURCES Project Administration The Museum S u p p o r t System C h a n g i n g A t t i t u d e s Toward C u l t u r a l B r o k e r a g e  Bibliography Appendix  87  20 6 207 213 213 217 223 227 228 229 230 231 232 238 2 45  Page v  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I t i s necessary t o acknowledge t h a t many people have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n this thesis. I s i n c e r e l y hope they understand my g r a t i t u d e . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s e q u a l l y necessary t o note t h a t t h e f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s my own, f i l t e r e d through my own p a r t i c u l a r worldview and e x p e c t a t i o n s . Nonetheless, i t i s i n t e n d e d t o be comprehensive and u s e f u l . F i r s t t o be acknowledged and thanked a r e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t who a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e appendix. They a r e t h e i n s p i r a t i o n behind t h i s t h e s i s . The s t a f f a t MOA are acknowledged f o r c o n t i n u i n g and enhancing t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l commitment t o education and p u b l i c s e r v i c e . F o r me, t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f anthropology was s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d and made meaningful i n t h e museum context through the t e a c h i n g and guidance of M i c h a e l Ames, t o whom I am indebted. The t h e s i s committee was c h a i r e d by Michael Ames, w i t h M i c h a e l Kew and Robin R i d i n g t o n s e r v i n g as members. Three f r i e n d s deserve s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e : Jean Mcintosh, Anne-Marie Fenger and Marg M e i k l e . And throughout t h e r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g p r o c e s s , my f a m i l y has been v e r y p a t i e n t and extremely s u p p o r t i v e . Thank you.  Page v i  I.  INTRODUCTION  In t h e summer of 1979, an i n n o v a t i v e programme f o r urban teenagers o f F i r s t Nations a n c e s t r y was launched, by t h e N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia The N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t  co-sponsored  (NIYAS) and t h e  Museum of Anthropology  (MOA).  (NYP) operated through t h e 1980s as a  work/study programme, t r a i n i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o make p r e s e n t a t i o n s on the indigenous c u l t u r e s of t h e Northwest t o museum v i s i t o r s and community groups.  This project  Coast  developed  as government l e g i s l a t i o n promoted a m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , and it  r e f l e c t e d t h e e f f o r t s of the F i r s t Nations t o address  e d u c a t i o n a l problems as the p o p u l a t i o n base s h i f t e d r e s e r v e s t o urban c e n t r e s .  from  The NYP was n u r t u r e d by t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a t MOA, and can be understood w i t h i n a framework of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  T h i s case study of t h e NYP  f o c u s s e s on t h e programme's o r i g i n s , development and o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e , u s i n g the methods of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and o r g a n i z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a p u r p o s e f u l manner t o f a c i l i t a t e programme e v a l u a t i o n .  The body o f the case study attempts t o  understand t h e NYP from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s of t h e v a r i o u s s t a k e h o l d e r s , r e p o r t i n g what they d i d , how they responded and how they t a l k e d about t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s .  T h i s i s a l s o an  e x e r c i s e i n r e f l e x i v e anthropology, examining t h e o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of a contemporary  museum e d u c a t i o n programme i n which  I p a r t i c i p a t e d as p a r t of t h e management and i n s t r u c t i o n a l team. The NYP i l l u s t r a t e d both t h e s t y l e and commitment o f MOA. Page 1  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s were r e c e i v e d as g i f t s by t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia beginning  i n t h e l a t e 1920s and  were housed i n t h e main l i b r a r y b u i l d i n g .  In t h e l a t e 1940s,  the f u n c t i o n and work of MOA were given purpose by t h e " U s e f u l Anthropology" of Harry Hawthorn and t h e c u r a t o r i a l approach o f Audrey Hawthorn.  Along with g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d a c q u i s i t i o n s o f  a r t i f a c t s from t h e a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e s of t h e Northwest Coast, an emphasis was p l a c e d on ethnographic r e s e a r c h i n c l u d i n g s t u d i e s of both t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e and contemporary problems.  social  Under t h e guidance of the Hawthorns, an i m p r e s s i v e  new f a c i l i t y was s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r the museum which opened i n 1976. A combination of t h e c o l l e c t i o n s , a r c h i t e c t u r e and  academic output have given t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l museum an  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n among museologists, the g e n e r a l p u b l i c .  other s c h o l a r s and  Chapter Four d e s c r i b e s t h e work o f t h e  Hawthorns and t h e ethos which they, along w i t h t h e i r and c o l l e a g u e s , e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e museum.  students  T h i s was t h e b a s i s  f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a t MOA which c o n t i n u e s  t o inform  the programmes and commitments a t the museum. The  s t o r y o f the NYP i s t o l d through the key s t a k e h o l d e r s .  Chapters F i v e and S i x c o n s i d e r t h e founders of t h e NYP.  The  community r o o t s f o r the NYP came from the work o f Brenda T a y l o r and  the Native  instrumental 1980s.  Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  S o c i e t y which she was  i n o r g a n i z i n g and which she d i r e c t e d through t h e  In t h e e a r l y 1970s, t h e s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s  of of F i r s t Nations youth i n the urban environment became t h e Page 2  focus of a t t e n t i o n f o r T a y l o r , who  has served as a home-school  worker w i t h the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and w i t h Vancouver School Board.  About t h i s same time, Madeline Bronsdon  Rowan became a c u r a t o r at MOA programming.  the  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l  Rowan extended c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h i s  work, b e l i e v i n g i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r anthropology  and museum  based programming t o augment e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r "disadvantaged"  youth of the F i r s t Nations.  Chapters Seven  E i g h t d e a l w i t h the p r o j e c t managers and the p r o j e c t members were c u l t u r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with the F i r s t N a t i o n s .  goals.  t h e i r own  who  Many of the  p a r t i c i p a n t s responded t o the o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the and used the programme t o address  and  NYP  p a r t i c u l a r needs and  T h e i r i n t e r e s t , and i n many cases l o y a l t y , were  s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development and c h a r a c t e r of the p r o j e c t . Over the y e a r s , MOA  p r o v i d e d the f a c i l i t i e s and b a s i c  f o r o r g a n i z i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the NYP.  resources  Chapter Nine d e s c r i b e s  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r the programme, the p r o j e c t r e s o u r c e s and the e v o l v i n g s e n s i b i l i t i e s and commitment of the s t a f f a t MOA.  The  outcomes of t h i s programme have been complex,  as d i v e r s e as the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups which came t o g e t h e r c r e a t e the The  NYP.  o r i e n t a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of the NYP  by a sense of m i s s i o n . t o twelve summer.  to  was  characterized  Depending on the a v a i l a b l e f u n d i n g ,  high s c h o o l students p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the NYP  each  A f t e r a t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , these young people made  r e g u l a r l y scheduled  p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o v i s i t o r s at MOA Page 3  and  five  outreach p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o community groups.  The p r e s e n t a t i o n s  e x p l a i n e d v a r i o u s aspects of the indigeous c u l t u r e o f t h e Northwest Coast.  The f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n a t MOA f e a t u r e d t h e  t r a d i t i o n a l uses of the cedar t r e e .  P r e s e n t a t i o n s on f i s h i n g ,  p o t l a t c h i n g and a t o u r o f c a r v i n g s i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n s were added.  a t MOA  Not only d i d p r o j e c t members have t o master t h e  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , they had t o be prepared q u e s t i o n s about t h e F i r s t Nations.  t o answer a wide range o f  Indeed, f o r museum v i s i t o r s ,  the NYP r e p r e s e n t e d t h e F i r s t Nations, a r o l e t h e p r o j e c t members accepted  and c o n s i d e r e d important.  The b a s i c summer  p r o j e c t was funded through employment grants from t h e Canadian government.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e NYP used v a r i o u s methods o f fund  r a i s i n g i n order t o make f i e l d t r i p s t o F i r s t Nations and community c e n t r e s throughout the p r o v i n c e .  cultural  The NYP a l s o had  a w i n t e r programme of Sunday p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t t h e museum. Themes and dilemmas emerge from t h i s s t o r y of t h e NYP, many of which can be understood brokerage.  w i t h i n a framework o f c u l t u r a l  The h i s t o r y and i m p l i c a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l  i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e of anthropology Three.  brokerage  a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter  MOA s t a f f served as c u l t u r a l brokers, attempting t o  make a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l knowledge more widely a c c e s s i b l e and u s e f u l in bridging cultural differences.  The u n d e r l y i n g assumption was  t h a t t h i s knowledge would c o n t r i b u t e t o mutual r e s p e c t and c o n s t r u c t i v e understanding.  Museum s t a f f assumed an advocacy  p o s i t i o n as c u l t u r a l brokers by u s i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h and programming t o a i d the F i r s t Nations Page 4  of Canada,  particularly  the a b o r i g i n a l peoples of t h e Northwest  Coast.  The NYP  i l l u s t r a t e d the o r i e n t a t i o n and commitment t o c u l t u r a l  brokerage  a t MOA.  Conceived as a s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n programme t o improve  academic  achievement,  p r o v i d e employment and develop c u l t u r a l  awareness f o r urban teenagers from the F i r s t N a t i o n s , t h e NYP changed over time i n response t o m o d i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s , s e n s i b i l i t i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s t r u c t u r i n g .  altered  Analyzing the  needs and a s p i r a t i o n s of the v a r i o u s s t a k e h o l d e r s i n the NYP p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r understanding the impact and p o t e n t i a l of the programme.  The approach used i n t h i s case study i s  n a t u r a l i s t i c and c o n t e x t u a l programme e v a l u a t i o n which i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two. exercise.  In a d d i t i o n , t h i s i s a r e f l e x i v e  As an e a r l y member of the NYP management and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l team, I am examining my own involvement and commitment i n a programme informed by the background of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  assumptions  The i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s case study i s  o f f e r e d t o provoke debate and reassessment by the s t a k e h o l d e r s and, through e x t r a p o l o a t i o n , by those concerned w i t h s i m i l a r problems  and programmes.  Page 5  II.  APPROACH: PROGRAMME EVALUATION  The purpose of t h i s case study of t h e NYP i s t o examine i n a thorough and p u r p o s e f u l manner t h e development and p r a c t i c e s of a contemorary museum based e d u c a t i o n a l programme.  I t i s an  e x e r c i s e i n "formative" e v a l u a t i o n , s t u d y i n g an e v o l v i n g programme, r a t h e r than  "summative" e v a l u a t i o n , p r o v i d i n g  c o n c l u s i v e judgments on programme e f f e c t i v e n e s s and impact (Weiss 1972:17).  The i n t e n t i s t h r e e f o l d :  p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s as t h e programme sponsors  1. t o h e l p review  inform  their  c o n t i n u i n g support o f t h e NYP and t o serve as a b a s i s f o r t h e ongoing development and refinement  of t h e programme,  2. t o  p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n and assessments u s e f u l i n p l a n n i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g s i m i l a r programmes i n other s e t t i n g s , and explore  ( w i t h i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e of anthropology)  t h e o r e t i c a l and methodological and ethnographic  authority.  3. t o  the r e l a t e d  problems of c u l t u r a l brokerage  This i s a r e f l e x i v e  study,  a n a l y z i n g a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l programme w i t h i n which I , t h e author, p a r t i c i p a t e d as a s t a f f member. Between 1977 and 1983, I was a student a t MOA and had v a r i o u s s t a f f and p r o j e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  In 1982, and a g a i n  b r i e f l y i n 1987, I worked d i r e c t l y on the NYP as p a r t o f t h e management and i n s t r u c t i o n a l team.  Following t h i s  involvement,  I assumed t h e p o s i t i o n of r e s e a r c h e r , u s i n g t h e methods o f p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n t o assemble the i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s case study.  The circumstances  and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e NYP a r e  d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s case study from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e key Page 6  stakeholders.  The  d e s c r i p t i o n s are based on my  personal  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t , complemented by e x t e n s i v e observations, records.  field  i n t e r v i e w s and a thorough review of p r o j e c t  Conclusions  are drawn a s s e s s i n g the programme  s t r u c t u r e and treatments.  This i s a p r a c t i c a l exercise,  p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o s t i m u l a t e deeper q u e s t i o n i n g  and  debate  about an ongoing programme i n an a c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Programme e v a l u a t i o n as a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d of i n q u i r y a r e l a t i v e l y short h i s t o r y . has  has  Only w i t h i n the past t h r e e decades  i t emerged, p r i m a r i l y as a response t o i n t e n s i f i e d  i n t e r v e n t i o n p o l i c i e s and programmes.  Michael  Patton  social provides  an i n c l u s i v e d e f i n i t i o n : Program e v a l u a t i o n i s undertaken t o inform d e c i s i o n s , c l a r i f y o p t i o n s , reduce u n c e r t a i n t i e s , and p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about programs and p o l i c i e s w i t h i n c o n t e x t u a l boundaries of time, p l a c e , v a l u e s , and p o l i t i c s . [Patton 1986:14] The  r o o t s of programme e v a l u a t i o n are d i v e r s e .  As C a r o l Weiss  e x p l a i n s , "What d i s t i n g u i s h e s e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s not method or s u b j e c t matter, but i n t e n t " (1972:6). and  techniques  Over time, the purpose  of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h have broadened, assuming a  more i n t e g r a l r o l e i n contemporary s o c i a l p l a n n i n g ,  accompained  by a s h i f t i n r e s e a r c h design  abstracted  experimental  r e a c t i v e r e s e a r c h i n c o n t i n u i n g programme  Since the l a t e 1970s, programme e v a l u a t i o n has  through a process utility,  and  models f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of programme treatments  t o c o n t e x t u a l and situations.  from s t a n d a r d i z e d  gone  of " p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n " w i t h an emphasis on  f e a s i b i l i t y , p r o p r i e t y and Page 7  accuracy.  The  n a t u r a l i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n and r e f l e x i v e p e r s p e c t i v e  anthropology make ethnographic methods adaptable and f o r programme e v a l u a t i o n , and,  of  serviceable  i n f a c t , these methods have  g r a d u a l l y been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h , i n t o the non-experimental formats.  Methodological  at  least  gualities  s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p are summarized under f o u r issues.  F i r s t , anthropology i s grounded i n n a t u r a l i s t i c  of ongoing s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s r a t h e r than experimental research.  models of  Second, anthropology i s founded on e m p i r i c a l  featuring p a r t i c i p a n t observation. nature of comparison and  research  t h i r d i s s u e concerns  orientation.  of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n .  And  the f o u r t h i s s u e  As the f i e l d  of  programme e v a l u a t i o n matured, the methods and p e r s p e c t i v e s anthropology have gained  the  judgment i n anthropology which promotes  a s i t u a t i o n a l l y responsive c o n s i d e r s the process  The  study  r e c o g n i t i o n and r e s p e c t .  of  Evaluation  r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s both an a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p u r s u i t f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and a r e s p o n s i b l e o p e r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i o n programmes.  A.  PROFESSIONALIZATION OF PROGRAMME EVALUATION The  1960s and  1970s were t u r b u l a n t times f o r the  social  s c i e n c e s i n North America.  T h i s e r a of l i b e r a l s o c i a l reforms  brought high e x p e c t a t i o n s .  In Canada and the U n i t e d  t h i s e f f o r t combined massive f e d e r a l expenditures  States,  with  a  conspicuous use of e x p e r t i s e i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o develop and m a i n t a i n  a c t i o n programmes i n education, Page 8  h e a l t h and  welfare.  Patton  c h a r a c t e r i z e s program e v a l u a t i o n p r i o r t o the  e i t h e r a " c h a r i t y o r i e n t a t i o n " based on a s s e s s i n g  1960s as  staff  s i n c e r i t y or "pure pork b a r r e l p o l i t i c s " based on a head count of opponents and proponents (1986:18).  political In the  1960s,  l a r g e - s c a l e government sponsored s o c i a l a c t i o n programmes r e q u i r e d p r o j e c t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s turned  to  s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t m e t h o d o l o g i e s — r i g o r o u s experimental  designs,  q u a n t i t a t i v e data and d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s .  Criteria  f o r judging e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h were v i r t u a l l y the same as j u d g i n g b a s i c academic r e s e a r c h i n the c o n v e n t i o n a l behavioural  social  and  s c i e n c e s — v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , measurability  and  generalizability. Then i n the 1970s, d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s of  social  i n t e r v e n t i o n programmes c o l l i d e d with economic problems. become obvious t h a t the i n f u s i o n of funds alone was s o l v e complex human and i n f o r m a t i o n was  s o c i a l problems.  recognized  Useful  It  had  unable t o  evaluation  as a s i g n i f i c a n t element i n the  implementation and ongoing e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c t i o n programmes. T h i s marked a time of e v a l u a t i n g e v a l u a t i o n .  In other words,  e v a l u a t o r s , along with programme planners  s t a f f , were b e i n g  made accountable.  P r e v i o u s l y e v a l u a t o r s had c l e a r l y  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l i m i t e d t o r e s e a r c h and of the f i n d i n g s .  and  The  lament was  defined  sometimes p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t e n heard among s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t s t h a t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s were not used. Both on the n a t i o n a l and the l o c a l s c a l e , the a p p l i c a t i o n of s o c i a l s c i e n c e knowledge and methodology i s expected t o have b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s : improve d e c i s i o n Page 9  making, l e a d t o the p l a n n i n g of b e t t e r programs, and so serve program p a r t i c i p a n t s i n more r e l e v a n t , more b e n e f i c i a l , and more e f f i c i e n t ways. The p r o d u c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e evidence i s seen as a way t o reduce the p o l i t i c k i n g , the s e l f - s e r v i n g maneuvers, and the l o g r o l l i n g t h a t commonly attend d e c i s i o n making at every l e v e l from the Congress t o the l o c a l s c h o o l . Data w i l l r e p l a c e f a v o r s and other p o l i t i c a l n e g o t i a t i o n s , so t h a t the most r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s w i l l be reached. In these terms, the h i s t o r y of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h t o date has been d i s p p o i n t i n g . Few examples can be c i t e d of important c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p o l i c y and program. P a r t of the reason l i e s i n the remarkable r e s i s t a n c e of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o unwanted i n f o r m a t i o n — a n d unwanted change. [Weiss 1972:3] The  u n d e r l y i n g tone of t h i s quote suggests t h a t e v a l u a t o r s work  under an a u t h o r i t y g r e a t e r than the pragmatic r e a l i t i e s s p e c i f i c programmes.  The  of  problem, however, went beyond  "unwanted" i n f o r m a t i o n and change.  E v a l u a t i o n users  required  understandable i n f o r m a t i o n , r e l e v a n t t o the d e c i s i o n making process  w i t h i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e d .  Patton d e s c r i b e s  net e f f e c t of t h i s s i t u a t i o n as a u t i l i z a t i o n c r i s i s , " J u s t as by the l a t e 1960s we not go away as e a s i l y as we  observing,  had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t poverty  s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h were beginning  t o fade"  (1986:23).  and S c r i v e n  " p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . " As p a r t of t h i s , a  committee was  by  1970s, the f i e l d of programme e v a l u a t i o n  reached a stage which Madaus, Stufflebeam d e s c r i b e as  would  had hoped, so the v i s i o n s of  government based on r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making undergirded  By the mid  the  had  (1983) joint  formed with r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from twelve  p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o s e t out standards of e x c e l l e n c e i n evaluation research.  A f t e r years of d e l i b e r a t i o n and  p r e p a r a t i o n , these were p u b l i s h e d i n 1981.  Page 10  The  standards were  based on f o u r q u a l i t i e s : u t i l i t y , accuracy,  f e a s i b i l i t y , propriety  i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r order.  T h i s means t h a t  and  evaluation  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , accountable t o t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , make c r i t i c a l judgments about the commissions they accept  and c a r r y out.  The  f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r use of the f i n d i n g s , how  and  by whom.  Second i s the p r a c t i c a l i t y of c o n d u c t i n g  the  study i n c l u d i n g c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s and p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e .  Third  i s an assessment of whether or not the study can be conducted i n a f a i r and e t h i c a l manner. adequacy are addressed.  And  The  f i n a l l y , questions  u t i l i t y c r i t e r i o n frames t h e i r  assessment of r e a l i z i n g the remaining standards, accuracy  of t e c h n i c a l  and  c r i t e r i o n does not have an independent s t a t u s  r a t h e r must be judged i n terms of p r o v i d i n g u s e f u l e f f e c t i v e l y and Patton  the  fairly.  information  R e f e r r i n g t o the work of Thomas Kuhn,  s t a t e s , " I t i s not an exaggeration,  i n my  opinion,  to  by the  new  c h a r a c t e r i z e the s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e represented standards as  but  'a s c i e n t i f i c r e v o l u t i o n ' " (1986:25).  i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the launching  of a new  journal i n  This  shift  1979,  Knowledge: C r e a t i o n , D i f f u s i o n . U t i l i z a t i o n w i t h C a r o l Weiss, Donald T. Campbell and others eminent i n the f i e l d of programme e v a l u a t i o n on the e d i t o r i a l board.  The  e d i t o r s looked t o  i l l u s t r i o u s i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e and accepted s o c i a l mission  (Rich 1979).  a  an  formidable  As the pendulum of r e s p e c t swung  from pure ( a b s t r a c t ) toward a p p l i e d ( s i t u a t i o n a l ) s c i e n c e , a d i s t i n c t p r o f e s s i o n a l i d e n t i t y emerged f o r programme e v a l u a t o r s . I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y but with a shared i n t e n t , they endeavoured t o Page 11  make the knowledge and methods of s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e l e v a n t t o needs of s o c i e t y .  Anthropologists  the  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s  e f f o r t from t h e i r grounded study of c o n t i n u i n g s o c i a l  realities  and,  the  more r e c e n t l y , from t h e i r r e f l e x i v e i n q u i r y i n t o  process  B.  of s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  ANTHROPOLOGY AND  research.  PROGRAMME EVALUATION  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l theory and methods p r o v i d e  resources  for  the development of a h o l i s t i c approach t o programme e v a l u a t i o n which i s n a t u r a l i s t i c and r e s p o n s i v e . manageable and c o n v i n c i n g .  T h i s work must be  There are s e v e r a l major i s s u e s t o  be  reviewed about the nature of an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l y based i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r purposes of programme e v a l u a t i o n . the q u e s t i o n addressing  of n a t u r a l i s t i c versus  experimental  Second i s the e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r  understandings, c o n s i d e r i n g what i n f o r m a t i o n serves as substance f o r an e v a l u a t i o n . comparison and evaluated.  And  judgment t o examine how  The  design,  effectively  generating  appropriately t h i r d issue looks  a programme can  at  be  the f o u r t h i s s u e i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g  the broader process 1.  study  where and when programme e v a l u a t i o n can  be conducted.  First is  of generating  a u t h o r i t a t i v e understandings.  N a t u r a l i s t i c versus Experimental Study Design A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e i s o f t e n a p o l o g e t i c about the  s c i e n t i f i c m e r i t of the t r a d i t i o n a l ethnographic methodologies, a l l o w i n g experimental  models of s o c i a l r e s e a r c h t o e s t a b l i s h  standards f o r v a l i d i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , m e a s u r a b i l i t y Page 12  and  the  generalizability.  T h i s p o s i t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d  a dichotomy between " s c i e n c e " and  " a r t " (see P e l t o and  1978:177-229 and Koppelman 1983:349) suggesting o b j e c t i v i t y on the one other.  hand and  i n terms of Pelto  quantifiable  s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on  the  However, s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y i s not d e f i n e d by c o n t r o l l e d  experiments.  There are notable  s c i e n c e s where r e s e a r c h  examples of t h i s i n the  o b j e c t i v e s and  study q u e s t i o n s  natural of  d i s c i p l i n e s such as astronomy, geology and meteorology are w e l l served  not  by experimental methods.  A s i m i l a r d i v i s i o n between experimental and  non-  e x p e r i m e n t a l study o r i e n t a t i o n s occurs i n e v a l u a t i o n  research.  Experimental s t u d i e s a b s t r a c t programme elements t o examine them under c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s .  In c o n t r a s t , n a t u r a l i s t i c  are conducted w i t h i n the working context programmes.  of the  actual  G e r a l d B r i t a n e x p l a i n s t h a t i n the r e a l  s i t u a t i o n of s o c i a l a c t i o n programmes, goals and  studies  life  intended  r e s u l t s are r a r e l y e x p l i c i t and unanimously h e l d by a l l p a r t i e s . Programme treatments are u s u a l l y m u l t i f a c e t t e d , e l i m i n a t i n g  the  p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s or u s i n g an experimental model with q u a n t i f i a b l e measurements. Britan  explains:  Contextual e v a l u a t i o n t r e a t s a c t i o n programs as ongoing s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s by d i r e c t l y s t u d y i n g t h e i r everyday a c t i v i t i e s . Goals, treatments, and r e s u l t s t h e r e f o r e evolve from c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s among program participants. By understanding these processes, a c o n t e x t u a l e v a l u a t i o n attempts t o e x p l a i n how a program has developed, what i t does, and how i t can be a l t e r e d . [ B r i t a n 1978b:230]  Page 13  A c r i t i c a l questioning  of the appropriateness  and u s e f u l n e s s  experimental models f o r programme e v a l u a t i o n has  developed.  During the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h 1960s and  of  i n the  late  1970s, the experimental model of academic r e s e a r c h  expectations  r e q u i r i n g t e s t a b l e hypotheses based on  programme goals  (see Gordon and Morse 1975,  p o l i c y formation  measurements f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . expected t o provide  and  social  standardized  E v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s were  "hard" evidence of programme outcomes  p r e d i c t treatment r e p l i c a b i l i t y . abstracted  required  explicit  and Weiss 1972).  L i m i t i n g background assumptions about the nature of i n t e r v e n t i o n and  set  The  and  r e s u l t s were n e c e s s a r i l y  disappointing:  Q u a n t i t a t i v e impact s t u d i e s cannot cope w i t h t h i s messy r e a l i t y , so t h e i r apparently s c i e n t i f i c f i n d i n g s are achieved e i t h e r by i g n o r i n g complexity or by c a n c e l i n g i t out w i t h s t a t i s t i c a l " c o r r e c t i v e s . " As a consequence, the a b s t r a c t e d , s t a t i s t i c a l p i c t u r e s p a i n t e d by such s t u d i e s might bear only a f a i n t resemblance t o l i v e d r e a l i t y . Given t h i s , i t i s no wonder t h a t d i r e c t s e r v i c e workers o f t e n see l i t t l e good coming from e v a l u a t i o n s , nor i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the r e s u l t s of such r e s e a r c h r a r e l y are used t o inform program o p e r a t i o n s . [Loseke 1989:220] A l a n Peshkin c h a r a c t e r i z e s q u a n t i t a t i v e study as  reduction,  suggesting  suited for  grasping  t h a t " q u a l i t a t i v e methods are notably  the complexity of the phenomena we  (1988:416).  Contextual,  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l theory  investigate"  n a t u r a l i s t i c s t u d i e s based i n  and methods "are e s p e c i a l l y important i n  p r o v i d i n g a b a s i s f o r p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g improvements and  changes i n c o n t i n u i n g program s e t t i n g s " ( B r i t a n 1978a:126).  E v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h modelled a f t e r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l methods  Page 14  supports  p e n e t r a t i n g questions with f l e x i b l e study  Ethnographic  r e s e a r c h allows hypotheses and  developed i n the process  of  designs.  study designs  to  be  research.  One of the methodological strengths of anthropology i s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s are g e n e r a l l y f l e x i b l e enough t o discover new areas of i n f o r m a t i o n not f o r s e e n i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h p l a n s . T h i s i s p a r t of the c o n s t r u c t i v e h o l i s m of the discipline. [ P e l t o and P e l t o 1978:240; i t a l i c s i n original] Ethnographic  methods p r o v i d e d a welcomed c o u n t e r p o i n t  conventional  experimental  evaluation.  The  term  to  "ethnographic  e v a l u a t o r " emerged i n the 1970s, p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d educational  of  research.  David Fetterman e x p l a i n s the committed and  grounded  o r i e n t a t i o n most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with an ethnographic  approach:  [As ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s , we] have the c a p a c i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o shape the d e s t i n y of our work. They have made conscious d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l arena. Ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s are i n t e g r a l l y i n v o l v e d i n d e s c r i b i n g , d e s i g n i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the process of change.... Ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s conduct t h e i r r e s e a r c h h o l i s t i c a l l y , nonjudgmentally, and contextually. [Fetterman 1986:13] Fetterman uses the concept of " c u l t u r a l broker" work of ethnographic  to describe  the  e v a l u a t o r s , emphasizing the need t o  communicate across d i s c i p l i n a r y  boundaries.  A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have p l a n t e d deep r o o t s i n the s o i l of e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . . . . They have o f f e r e d e v a l u a t o r s a new paradigm, a new way of l o o k i n g at e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s , and new methods of data c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s . Moreover, they have d i f f u s e d a c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of behaviors and events i n e d u c a t i o n a l research. [Fetterman 1986:21] Ethnography brought t o the f i e l d of programme e v a l u a t i o n a h o l i s t i c , grounded p e r s p e c t i v e d e d i c a t e d t o the study of ongoing Page 15  s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the dynamics of c u l t u r e change and the impact of i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Robert L. Wolf  (1980:41) concludes t h a t n a t u r a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n i s aimed a t understanding the meaning of experience w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t which r e c o g n i z e s the " m u l t i p l i c i t y " of p e r s p e c t i v e s and the " r a t i o n a l i t y " of systematic i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g and usage W i t h i n t h i s broad o r i e n t a t i o n , pragmatic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h manageable e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s . A t y p i c a l study c o n s i s t s of f o u r major o p e r a t i o n a l phases: negotiation, issue identification, in-depth investigation, and analysis and presentation. [Wolf 1980:42; i t a l i c s i n original] N a t u r a l i s t i c and c o n t e x t u a l r e s e a r c h can and should be  flexible  not o n l y i n responding t o d i v e r s e needs and study o p p o r t u n i t i e s but a l s o i n i n c o r p o r a t i n g a range of r e s e a r c h techniques i n c l u d i n g , where a p p r o p r i a t e and u s e f u l , experimental  and  q u a n t i t a t i v e methods as p a r t of the r e p e r t o i r e f o r s y s t e m a t i c and h o l i s t i c probing f o r deeper understanding. n o n e t h e l e s s , remains  The  the n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g events,  study f o c u s activities  behaviours and systems r a t h e r than s t a n d a r d i z e d a b s t r a c t i o n s . 2.  E m p i r i c a l l y Based  Research  E x p l o r i n g f u r t h e r the connections between anthropology  and  programme e v a l u a t i o n , i t i s important t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the primary mode of ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n emphasizing ethnography  d e s c r i p t i v e data.  As a r e s e a r c h method  takes the o r d i n a r y a c t i v i t y of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n  s o c i a l l i f e and s e t s out v a r i o u s techniques f o r making i t a  Page 16  d i r e c t e d and systematic a c t i v i t y .  Information  i s based on  e x p e r i e n t i a l l e a r n i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g impressions, t r a c k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e g u l a r l y checking and m o n i t o r i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y and p a t t e r n i n g of f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s . conducting  Research t o o l s f o r  p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n are chosen t o meet the  c o n s t r a i n t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . i n c l u d e e x t e n s i v e f i e l d notes, i n t e r v i e w s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h key informants,  They  surveys,  l i f e histories,  archival  r e s e a r c h , myth a n a l y s i s , even p s y c h o l o g i c a l measurements, photography, and sound and image r e c o r d i n g . U n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n i n the l a b o r a t o r y s c i e n c e s , r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n anthropology i n v o l v e r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n the way of hardware and gadgetry but r e q u i r e great s e n s i t i v i t y and self-awareness on the p a r t of the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The f i e l d w o r k e r i s the p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h instrument... [Pelto and P e l t o 1978:67] Data g a t h e r i n g i s a s e l e c t i v e process which r e f l e c t s the t r a i n i n g and o r i e n t a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r s . speaking,  Generally  Patton admonishes a g a i n s t u n r e a l i s t i c  expectations:  Too o f t e n e v a l u a t o r s and d e c i s i o n makers behave i s some body of data out t h e r e t h a t has o n l y t o c o l l e c t e d i n order t o r e v e a l what i t a l l means, not i t works, and whether or not the program i s [Patton 1986:246] Ethnographic  as i f t h e r e be whether o r effective.  e v a l u a t o r s s o r t through the c o m p l e x i t i e s of ongoing  s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s t o develop  o r d e r l y d e s c r i p t i o n s based on f i r s t  hand o b s e r v a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The content of the ethnographic be b e t t e r understood  data c o l l e c t i o n process can  by c o n s t r a s t i n g emic and e t i c approaches  ( P e l t o and P e l t o 1978:54-66).  Page 17  An e t i c approach s t u d i e s  observable  a c t i v i t i e s and p a t t e r n s of behaviour,  can be enumerated and adequately v a l i d terminology.  d e s c r i b e d with  assuming they universally  T h i s approach p r o v i d e s c o n c r e t e d e s c r i p t i o n s  of p h y s i c a l occurances.  In c o n t r a s t , the emic approach  emphasizes meaning and p a t t e r n s of l o g i c which r e q u i r e an i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view,.  The c o g n i t i v e process making sense of  occurances and d i r e c t i n g behaviour importance.  assumes  explanatory  P e l t o and P e l t o p o i n t out t h a t most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  "operate w i t h a b a s i c a l l y emic p e r s p e c t i v e " (1978:245). these are not e x c l u s i v e approaches.  But  An i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  melding of e t i c and emic approaches i s p r o v i d e d by Wolf i n h i s review of n a t u r a l i s t i c museum e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h , " I t i s i m p e r a t i v e , however, t o supplement b e h a v i o r a l o b s e r v a t i o n v i s i t o r i n t e r v i e w s so as t o f u l l y understand and  with  what m o t i v a t i o n s  l e v e l s of i n t e r e s t c o n t r i b u t e t o a person's a c t i o n s "  (1980:44).  The o b j e c t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n guides the s e l e c t i o n of  s p e c i f i c u n i t s of o b s e r v a t i o n b a l a n c i n g e t i c and emic approaches t o develop 3.  a data base f o r h o l i s t i c a n a l y s i s .  Comparison and Judgment In programme e v a l u a t i o n , data must be c o o r d i n a t e d  analyzed  and  i n a c o n v i n c i n g manner t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r  assessments and recommendations.  Analysis i n conventional  e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h becomes c o n v i n c i n g through the use comparison.  In experimental  of  evaluation t e s t i n g goal  achievement, formal comparison i s i n t e r n a l w i t h p r e - and t e s t s and e x t e r n a l with s t a n d a r d i z e d measurement t o o l s . Page 18  post-  V a r i a b l e s a r e r e g u l a t e d t o be h e l d constant,  and treatment  e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s demonstrated by t h e use of c o n t r o l groups f o r e x p l i c i t comparison.  The b a s i c assumption i s t h a t , when  c o n d i t i o n s a r e repeated,  t h e e f f e c t w i l l be p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n  degrees o f p r o b a b i l i t y .  T h i s experimental  researcher  methodology minimizes  judgment, p r o v i d i n g "hard" evidence.  s u b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s on content  But many  and appropriateness  s e l e c t i n g and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e measurement t o o l s .  a r e made i n There a r e  t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s on what can and cannot be q u a n t i t a t i v e l y compared, and i n r e a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n s i t may not be p o s s i b l e t o use c o n t r o l groups.  Rethinking  t h e purpose and c o n s t r a i n t s of  programme e v a l u a t i o n has l e d t o a c a l l f o r s i t u a t i o n a l responsiveness. Judgments about t h e r e l a t i v e p r a c t i c a l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r e v a l u a t i o n process o r e v a l u a t i o n f i n d i n g can o n l y be made with r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g s p e c i f i c people, a s p e c i f i c program, and s p e c i f i c constraints. The standards of e v a l u a t i o n a r e not a b s o l u t e b e h a v i o r a l g u i d e l i n e s . They r e q u i r e a d a p t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n the context of s p e c i f i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s and constraints. ...This c o n s t i t u t e s a major s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e from e v a l u a t i o n judged by a s i n g l e , standard, and u n i v e r s a l s e t of c r i t e r i a (methodological r i g o r as d e f i n e d by t h e h y p o t h e t i c o - d e d u c t i v e paradigm) t o s i t u a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n i n which judgment c r i t e r i a a r e m u l t i p l e , f l e x i b l e , and diverse. [Patton 1982:300; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ] Patton  uses the phrase " a c t i v e - r e a c t i v e - a d a p t i v e e v a l u a t o r s " t o  d e s c r i b e those p r o f e s s i o n a l s who a r e meeting t h e new c h a l l e n g e s . As a r e s e a r c h t r a d i t i o n which r e s p e c t s l o c a l i n t e g r i t y , and by e x t e n s i o n  s i t u a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s , ethnography o f f e r s an  a l t e r n a t i v e t o formal comparison through an emphasis on h o l i s t i c  Page 19  analysis.  Elements and p a r t s are s t u d i e d and e x p l a i n e d  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n , b u i l d i n g an picture.  in  integrated  A p p r o p r i a t e l y , the focus of i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r  ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s i s the s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of programmes, s t u d y i n g the i n t e r p l a y of d e f i n e d s o c i a l problems, programme g o a l s , treatments and  outcomes.  An ethnographic e v a l u a t o r who grounds h i s or her r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s and v a r i a b l e s i n f i e l d experience, and aims a t the deep r a t h e r than the s u r f a c e s t r u c t u r e of communication and behavior, w i l l be able t o provide a r i c h e r p i c t u r e and more accurate a p p r a i s a l of the s o c i o c u l t u r a l system under study. [Fetterman 1986:217] An  i l l u s t r a t i o n of f o c u s s i n g on s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s  provided studied.  i n the way  programme p a r t i c i p a n t s are c o n c e i v e d  and  Ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s attempt t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o  t h e i r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s the m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n s i d e r s ' perspectives.  However, as Patton  e v a l u a t i o n cannot be allowed evaluation.  (1986:71) warns, programme  t o degenerate i n t o  personnel  S t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n and procedures f o r  personnel  e v a l u a t i o n are o f t e n b a s i c i s s u e s i n programme e v a l u a t i o n l o n g term p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s . nonetheless,  The  with  o b j e c t of study remains,  s t r u c t u r a l , not r o u t i n e management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  of a p t i t u d e and performance i n i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . A p p r o p r i a t e l y , ethnographic e v a l u a t o r s  search  for  patterns  and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o develop an i n t e g r a t e d understanding of programme development and p o t e n t i a l . An example of h o l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n can be found i n the of c o r p o r a t e  (more broadly  r e f e r r e d t o as  Page 20  organizational)  study  c u l t u r e by D a n i e l Denison (1990). perspectives  He s e t s out f o u r b a s i c  which frame the judgment of e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  models i l l u s t r a t e  the "inherent paradox" i n a s s e s s i n g the  success of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are composed stakeholders  The  and c o n s t i t u e n t s .  of a mix of  The models emphasize  internal  dynamics o r response t o the e x t e r n a l environment i n e i t h e r a p r o a c t i v e o r r e a c t i v e manner. model" which "must be evaluated  First  i s the " n a t u r a l systems  w i t h r e s p e c t t o the e q u i l i b r i u m  and e l a b o r a t i o n of the system i t s e l f "  (1990:36).  Second i s the  "goal attainment model" which i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as the r a t i o n a l systems model where " o r g a n i z a t i o n s contrived, instrumental,  and p u r p o s e f u l "  w i d e l y used i n c o n v e n t i o n a l summative  studies.  are p e r c e i v e d  (Ibid.).  as  T h i s model i s  programme e v a l u a t i o n promoting  T h i r d i s the " d e c i s i o n process model" where  i n d i c a t o r s of e f f e c t i v e n e s s use the i n f o r m a t i o n  processing  d e c i s i o n making c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  and  And the  f o u r t h model judges o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n terms of reactive ability, patterns  studying  resource  dependence and broader  i n the e x t e r n a l environment.  Denison generates an  i n t e g r a t i n g framework f o r h i s own work (1990:15): change & f l e x i b i l i t y  stability  external  ADAPTABILITY Internal f l e x i b i l i t y E x t e r n a l focus  MISSION Meaning Direction  internal  INVOLVEMENT Informal processes Formal s t r u c t u r e  CONSISTENCY Normative i n t e g r a t i o n Predictability  Denison s t r e s s e s the need f o r b a l a n c i n g Page 21  & direction  competing demands,  concluding, must p r o v i d e  " t h i s framework assumes t h a t an e f f e c t i v e c u l t u r e a l l of these elements" ( I b i d . ) .  Extending  debates and dilemmas developed i n t h i s chapter,  the  Denison w r i t e s :  The c u l t u r e p e r s p e c t i v e has focused on the b a s i c v a l u e s , b e l i e f s , and assumptions t h a t are present i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the p a t t e r n s of behavior t h a t r e s u l t from these shared meanings, and the symbols t h a t express the l i n k s between assumptions, v a l u e s , and behavior t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s members. The focus on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e has, i n c o n t r a s t t o c l i m a t e r e s e a r c h [a s o c i o p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e f o c u s s i n g on the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l ] , been more q u a l i t a t i v e and i d i o g r a p h i c i n approach, and has employed methods t h a t have been predominantly c l i n i c a l , ethnographic, and a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l . [Denison 1990:27; e x p l a n a t i o n added] Denison's framework f o r a s s e s s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s used i n Chapter Ten  as p a r t of the e v a l u a t i o n of the NYP.  a d d i t i o n , the concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e p r o v i d e s  a  of understanding the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i t h i n which the  In way NYP  developed. In ethnography, judgment i n h o l i s t i c a n a l y s i s t u r n s c r i t e r i a and  standards s e t w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l or  situational  e n t i t y , f a v o r i n g Denison's " n a t u r a l systems model." e x p l a i n s the process  and the p o s i t i o n of the  to  Fetterman  researcher:  The ethnographic e v a l u a t o r d e s c r i b e s what i s going on and then makes a g u a l i t a t i v e leap beyond d e s c r i p t i o n t o the e x p l i c i t a p p r a i s a l and assessment of the c u l t u r a l system i n terms of i t s own c u l t u r a l norms. As an ethnographer and an ethnographic e v a l u a t o r , I have found e x p l i c i t assessment t o be a more honest and u s e f u l approach t o the study of human beings. ...Holding back one's assessments upsets a d e l i c a t e balance of r e c i p r o c i t y and mutual e x p e c t a t i o n s . [Fetterman 1986:24]  The  onus f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g and a n a l y z i n g data i n a u s e f u l manner  f a l l s t o the ethnographic e v a l u a t o r who Page 22  i s responsible for  facilitating  and g u i d i n g judgments on impact  a sense of f a i r n e s s and  and p o t e n t i a l w i t h  balance.  I t i s important t o note t h a t n a t u r a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s o u t l i n e areas of c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a s p i r i t of s u g g e s t i o n . . . . The process seeks t o p r o v i d e a r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n of what works and why. The i n s i g h t s and d e c i s i o n s provoked through c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these suggestions can help t o i l l u m i n a t e p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s . 1980:43]  [Wolf  Wolf d e s c r i b e s a d e b r i e f i n g process where s t a k e h o l d e r s are i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g f e a s i b l e recommendations.  "When s t u d i e s  produce i n s i g h t t h a t can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n , t h a t a c t i o n w i l l occur n a t u r a l l y " "Ethnographic  (1980:45).  Fetterman c o u n s e l s ,  e v a l u a t o r s l i k e a l l e v a l u a t o r s must r e c o g n i z e t h a t  they are o n l y cogs i n the l a r g e r system of p o l i c y d e c i s i o n making" (1986:220).  He goes on t o suggest t h a t the m i s s i o n i s  r e a l l y t o serve as "a more e f f e c t i v e change agent"  (Idid.).  Formats f o r o r d e r i n g and o r g a n i z i n g e v a l u a t i o n data are developed  to f a c i l i t a t e  assessment of problems and i s s u e s w i t h  an e x p e c t a t i o n of implementation. d e f i n i t i o n i s concerned  While e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h by  w i t h s p e c i f i c , bounded programmes and  s o c i a l a c t i o n problems, t h e r e remains the i s s u e of a c h i e v i n g broader 4.  s i g n i f i c a n c e and  relevance.  Generalization The t h r e e i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s have  o u t l i n e d the m e r i t s of n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h based on e m p i r i c a l study which i s s i t u a t i o n a l l y r e s p o n s i v e both i n terms of r e s e a r c h d e s i g n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . of  Then t h e r e i s the problem  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , r e l a t i n g dedicated studies to Page 23  broader  understandings.  Based on an assumption of "the u n i v e r s a l i t y and  importance of e x p e r i e n t i a l understanding," Robert Stake promotes "naturalistic generalization"  (1983:284).  He e x p l a i n s  the  concept i n the foreword t o a l a t e r p u b l i c a t i o n : I have t r i e d t o emphasize the uniqueness of t h i s case more than i t s g e n e r a l i t y . . . . B e l i e v i n g t h a t each r e a d e r w i l l g e n e r a l i z e t o s i t e s and circumstances about which I know l i t t l e , I have t r i e d t o p r o v i d e great d e t a i l about p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e those reader-made generalizations. [Stake 1986:x] Stake s t a t e s t h a t w h i l e n a t u r a l i s t i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  "lead  r e g u l a r l y to expectation"  g u i d i n g a c t i o n , "they have not  passed the e m p i r i c a l and  l o g i c a l tests that characterize  (scholarly, s c i e n t i f i c ) generalizations" in original).  (1983:282;  yet formal  parenthesis  In a s i m i l a r v e i n , Patton suggests  "extrapolation,"  r e f e r r i n g "to the l o g i c a l , c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s of  t h i n k i n g about what s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s mean f o r o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r than the s t a t i s t i c a l process of g e n e r a l i z i n g from a sample t o a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n " conventional  (1986:235).  R e f l e c t i n g a more  approach t o theory b u i l d i n g , B r i t a n d e s c r i b e s  r o l e of c o n t e x t u a l  evaluation  research:  More important f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , such e v a l u a t i o n r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s a p r a c t i c a l t e s t i n g ground f o r a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . A c t i o n programs, a f t e r a l l , r e a l world experiments i n s o c i a l change. [Britan 1978a:126] Generalizations  the  are  range i n a u t h o r i t y from common sense t o  t h e o r e t i c a l , i n c o r p o r a t i n g v a r i o u s means t o generate support establish  expectations.  Generalizations  r e s u l t from a d e l i c a t e i n t e r p l a y between  Page 24  and  inductive observation  and d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g .  A g e n e r a l l y accepted modern view of s c i e n t i f i c procedure holds t h a t e f f e c t i v e theory c o n s t r u c t i o n depends on both i n d u c t i v e and d e d u c t i v e procedures. That i s , s o l i d foundations f o r s c i e n t i f i c p r o p o s i t i o n s o f t e n depend on a p a i n s t a k i n g accumulation o f , and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n from, b a s i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e r e a l world; but, j u s t as o f t e n , t h e o r e t i c a l systems p r o v i d e t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e and b a s i c assumptions i n terms of which r e l e v a n t hypothesist e s t i n g observations can be pursued. In any case, a random g a t h e r i n g of f a c t s cannot by i t s e l f r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e of s c i e n t i f i c understanding. [ P e l t o and P e l t o 1978:15; i t a l i c s i noriginal] There a r e no magic r e c i p e s f o r a c h i e v i n g  a respected  however, two q u a l i t i e s stand out i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Neither  F i r s t , t h e work must be  a random g a t h e r i n g  position; formulation  systematic.  of f a c t s nor a p o i n t l e s s t e s t i n g o f  hypotheses w i l l f a c i l i t a t e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o r even u s e f u l extrapolation.  And second, t h e process of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s not  an i s o l a t e d o p e r a t i o n  but r e q u i r e s e f f e c t i v e communication based  on p u b l i c a t i o n , c r i t i c a l review and other mechanisms f o r studies.  As Thomas Kuhn observes, " S c i e n t i f i c  language, i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y the common property e l s e n o t h i n g a t a l l " (1970:210).  knowledge,  sharing like  o f a group o r  Accepting generalizations  into  a a u t h o r i t a t i v e body of knowledge i s u l t i m a t e l y a group activity,  more e f f e c t i v e l y handled w i t h t h e " c o r r e c t i v e  mechanism" o f a r e f l e x i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . direct  M i c h a e l Ames makes a  appeal.  T h i s b r i n g s me t o my f i n a l p o i n t : a c a l l f o r a more r e f l e x i v e s t y l e of anthropology — t h e anthropology o f o u r s e l v e s — as a u s e f u l complement t o t h e e s t a b l i s h e d e x t e r n a l i z e d and o t h e r - d i r e c t e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . By a l l means we should continue t o apply our methods t o o t h e r s ; but i n a d d i t i o n , we should g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o our backyard. Page 25  T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l serve as a u s e f u l c o r r e c t i v e mechanism, making us more e f f i c i e n t i n what we do as w e l l as more s e n s i t i v e about how we do i t . [Ames 1979:23] Contemporary s e n s i b i l i t i e s among s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s c a l l r e f l e x i v e as w e l l as a p r o g r e s s i v e cognizant  fora  a t t i t u d e i n t h e i r work,  of t h e i r purpose and how i t i s accomplished.  In summary, a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  a r e w e l l s u i t e d t o meet t h e  c r i t e r i a f o r contemporary p r o f e s s i o n a l programme e v a l u a t i o n as s e t f o r t h by the J o i n t Committee on Standards f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Evaluation  (1981).  " U t i l i t y , " confirmed i n a c c e p t i n g  specific  commissions, flows d i r e c t l y from the commitment o f grounded p a r t i c i p a n t observation responsibility.  and the emerging a t t i t u d e o f s o c i a l  " F e a s i b i l i t y " comes from f l e x i b l e and a d a p t a b l e  methodologies and s e n s i t i v i t y t o group o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  resources.  " P r o p r i e t y " i s addressed i n the b a s i c  code o f the d i s c i p l i n e .  manner w i t h h o l i s t i c a n a l y s i s ,  open t o review by peers, stakeholders Anthropologists  ethical  And "accuracy" i s based on e m p i r i c a l  study conducted i n a systematic  parties.  standards  and other  interested  tend t o be s k e p t i c a l of d e f i n i t i v e  answers and p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s .  Anthropologists  contribute a  way o f understanding group behaviour and the human c o n d i t i o n which r e s p e c t s the dynamics of s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s and t h e unique equations u n d e r l y i n g implementation.  programme p o l i c i e s and  Lofty expectations  have t o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  a c t u a l s t u d i e s meeting a v a r i e t y of c o n s t r a i n t s and possibilities.  Page 26  C.  THE PROCESS OF EVALUATING THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT T h i s case study of the NYP i s an e x e r c i s e i n n a t u r a l i s t i c  programme e v a l u a t i o n based on r e f l e x i v e p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n . The  o p e r a t i o n a l phases roughly correspond  t o those put forward  by Wolf ( 1 9 8 0 : 4 1 ) : n e g o t i a t i o n , i s s u e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n . neat, l i n e a r process, methodological  in-depth  I t was not a  however, but a study which u t i l i z e d t h e  s t r e n g t h of anthropology,  i d e n t i f i e d by P e l t o and  P e l t o (1978:240), where d i s c o v e r y can occur d u r i n g t h e course of the study, The  a l t e r i n g and r e f i n i n g the o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h  plan.  i n i t i a l n e g o t i a t i o n was not f o r a c o n s u l t a n t ' s c o n t r a c t but  f o r a t h e s i s t o p i c with the d i r e c t o r of MOA s e r v i n g as a d v i s o r . At t h a t time, MOA had administered had  the NYP f o r t e n y e a r s and I  s u p e r v i s e d the p r o j e c t f o r the 1982 summer programme and  a s s i s t e d d u r i n g the 1987 summer programme.  The n e g o t i a t i o n s  f o c u s s e d on questions o f programme s i g n i f i c a n c e and classification. designed  The NYP was an i n n o v a t i v e museum programme  t o enhance e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r and about t h e  F i r s t Nations.  The l o n g e v i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e programme  argued t h a t the fundamental concept and procedures developed i n the p r o j e c t h e l d i n t e r e s t i n g l e s s o n s and i n s i g h t s . p r o v i d e d a r i c h s e t t i n g f o r ethnographic contemporary s o c i a l a c t i o n programme.  The p r o j e c t  f i e l d work i n t o a  The work was t o be a case  study w i t h d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n based on p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n which would organize i n f o r m a t i o n needed by MOA and the NIYAS as they reviewed t h e i r sponsorship Page 27  of the p r o j e c t .  As the r e s e a r c h  proceeded,  requirements  f o r programme e v a l u a t i o n and the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of r e f l e x i v e study gained importance  and i n f l u e n c e d  the scope and p e r s p e c t i v e of the work. The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s case study was c o l l e c t e d i n the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g of the p r o j e c t by o b s e r v i n g and r e c o r d i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order t o assess the s t r a t e g i e s and s t r u c t u r e of the programme. approaches,  watching  T h i s has balanced e t i c and emic  and q u e s t i o n i n g the proceedings, d i s c u s s i n g  the p r o j e c t w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s , examining  p r o j e c t r e c o r d s and  a r c h i v a l sources, and by a c t i v e l y t a k i n g a p a r t i n the management of the p r o j e c t .  My own s e r v i c e t o the NYP i n c l u d e d  the p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s o r i n the summer of 1982 when Madeline  Rowan, the founding c u r a t o r , was on a l e a v e of absence,  and s u b s t i t u t i n g as p r o j e c t manager f o r p a r t of the summer of 1987.  In 1988, I began systematic r e s e a r c h on the NYP as a  basis f o r this thesis.  My commitment  t o the NYP has been both  as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t and as a r e s e a r c h e r , making t h i s a truly reflexive exercise.  Over the y e a r s , I have worked w i t h  the o r i g i n a t i n g c u r a t o r , t h r e e of the nine p r o j e c t managers, 20 of the 59 p r o j e c t members, and the MOA  supervising s t a f f .  I  have a l s o been acquainted w i t h t h r e e other p r o j e c t managers and s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o j e c t members.  In 1982, I c o o r d i n a t e d p a y r o l l  and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h NIYAS. d i r e c t involvement,  From t h i s  p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t which both  i n f o r m my understanding  and r e s t r i c t my e x p l a n a t i o n s .  The  r e s e a r c h v a l u e i n my p o s i t i o n i s in-depth f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e Page 28  programme and the s t a k e h o l d e r s . subjectivity. NYP  The drawback i s  I i d e n t i f y with the successes  and  heightened f a i l u r e s of the  and have an i n c l i n a t i o n t o serve as a p o l o g i s t .  To f u r t h e r  e x p l a i n my  o r i e n t a t i o n , I am a teacher by t r a i n i n g w i t h v a r i e d  experience  i n c o n v e n t i o n a l classrooms  e d u c a t i o n a l programmes.  and  supplementary  While I have always  questioned  c o n s e r v a t i v e mainstream e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s , I accept the process of education and i n t e l l e c t u a l development as the promise f o r i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l f u l f i l l m e n t improvement. NYP  My  and  o b j e c t i v e i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s case study of the  f i t s the d e s c r i p t i o n of n a t u r a l i s t i c e v a l u a t i o n p r o v i d e d  Wolf (1980:43) —  t o o u t l i n e with r i c h d e s c r i p t i o n "areas  by  of  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a s p i r i t of suggestion" f o r purposes of s t i m u l a t i n g i n s i g h t s and debates.  To accomplish  this,  the  o b s e r v a t i o n s have been thorough, c o v e r i n g a l l a s p e c t s of the programme, q u e s t i o n i n g and r e c o n s i d e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o r e f i n e e x p l a n a t i o n s and  presentations.  T h i s case study of the NYP  d e s c r i b e s the o r i g i n s  development of the programme, f o c u s s i n g on the key and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s ,  and  stakeholders  e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  f o l l o w s the circumstances  and  s e n s i b i l i t i e s surrounding  p r o j e c t as the p a r t i c i p a n t s and c o n d i t i o n s f o r o p e r a t i n g programme changed over time.  H o l i s t i c and  It the the  naturalistic  e v a l u a t i o n , as an o p e r a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e i n s o c i a l a c t i o n programmes, e n t a i l s not only the c o l l e c t i o n and m a n i p u l a t i o n d a t a , but a l s o a p e n e t r a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the background Page 29  of  assumptions which inform the programme.  The  various  s t a k e h o l d e r s brought d i v e r s e p e r s p e c t i v e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s t o the NYP.  As a r e f l e x i v e study, t h i s case study emphasizes the  m o t i v a t i o n s of the o r i g i n a t i n g c u r a t o r and the s u p p o r t i n g at MOA,  of which I was  a part.  Chapter Three c o n s i d e r s c u l t u r a l  brokerage as a background asssumption e s p e c i a l l y i n a p p l i e d work.  staff  in  anthropology,  Anthropologists, h i s t o r i c a l l y  s p e c i a l i z i n g i n the study of dependent peoples, have o f t e n been moved t o serve as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and advocates c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding  to  and s o c i a l p l a n n i n g .  facilitate This  o r i e n t a t i o n t o serve as " c u l t u r a l brokers" has remained as a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s moved i n t o the study of contemporary f o r example, i n f o r m i n g the r o l e of ethnographic  society,  evaluators.  Fetterman i d e n t i f i e d so s t r o n g l y with t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a t he d e d i c a t e d h i s 1986 w i t h Mary Ann  p u b l i c a t i o n on e d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n , e d i t e d  Pitman, "To our f a m i l i e s and t o p i o n e e r s  c u l t u r a l brokers i n every f i e l d "  (1986:7).  The  and  general  o r i e n t a t i o n t o c u l t u r a l brokerage i n anthropology  was  g i v e n an  o p e r a t i o n a l base w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e of through  MOA  the work of Harry and Audrey Hawthorn, along w i t h  students and a s s o c i a t e s .  T h i s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter  Four,  s e t t i n g the stage f o r the development of the N a t i v e Youth Project.  Page  30  their  III.  FRAMEWORK:  CULTURAL BROKERAGE  At one l e v e l , anthropology i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l endeavour, an act  of s c h o l a r s h i p r e c o r d i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g a category o f  phenomena.  Perhaps because the f i e l d draws so c l o s e l y on t h e  l i v e s of r e a l people, t h i s a c t of s c h o l a r s h i p o f t e n assumes, w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of commitment, an a p p l i e d o r i e n t a t i o n . l i t e r a t u r e on a p p l i e d anthropology i s e x t e n s i v e ,  The  covering  d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e o r e t i c a l debates, e t h i c a l i s s u e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l prospects.  For a good b i b l i o g r a p h y , see Erve  Chambers' 1985 p u b l i c a t i o n A p p l i e d Anthropology: Guide.  A Practical  A dominant theme, i m p l i c i t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n s i f not  e x p l i c i t l y elaborated,  i s a n t h r o p o l o g i s t as c u l t u r a l  broker.  A p p l i e d a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have o f t e n d e s c r i b e d themselves as c u l t u r a l brokers, m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e some k i n d of t r a n s f e r o f knowledge, s k i l l , o r s e r v i c e between d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s . The i d e a of c u l t u r a l brokerage i s o f t e n t i n g e d with a sense o f advocacy f o r t h e economically marginal and l e a s t powerful members o f society. [Chambers 1985:26] In t h e i r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l methodology, P e l t o and  P e l t o suggest t h a t a t some p o i n t , most f i e l d  assume t h e r o l e of c u l t u r a l  researchers  broker.  The n e a r - u b i q u i t y of the c u l t u r e broker r o l e among a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , whether i n a p p l i e d p r o j e c t s o r i n supposedly nonapplied r e s e a r c h , a r i s e s from a core methodological f e a t u r e of anthropology. Almost a l l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s operate with a b a s i c a l l y emic p e r s p e c t i v e i n c e r t a i n aspects of f i e l d work. However e t i c t h e f i n a l product i s intended t o be, most f i e l d w o r k e r s look a t p e o p l e s ' l i f e w a y s from an i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view and come t o i d e n t i f y with t h e l o c a l people i n a v a r i e t y o f ways. T h i s hallmark of t h e ethnographic e n t e r p r i s e . . . i s so taken f o r granted by many nonanthropologists t h a t i t i s sometimes thought t o be t h e major r a i s o n d ' e t r e of anthropology. [ P e l t o and P e l t o 1978:245-46] Page 31  T h i s framework of brokerage, e n t a i l i n g  an agent or agency  n e g o t i a t i n g f o r and between c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d p a r t i e s , i s u s e f u l i n understanding the formation and development of the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t . T h i s chapter b r i e f l y t r a c e s the h i s t o r i c a l development of the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of anthropology, the background assumptions  and the responses engendered.  The r o l e of the  c u l t u r a l broker assumed i t s m i s s i o n w i t h i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l m i l i e u of h i s t o r i c p e r i o d s .  The e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e c t a t i o n s of  the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century were checked a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y by the grounded f u n c t i o n a l i s m of Malinowski. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s as c u l t u r a l brokers served as informants  and  then r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n an e f f o r t t o make c o l o n i a l i s m more palatable.  A deeper  sense of advocacy  developed w i t h an  a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the problems of massive World War  s o c i a l change f o l l o w i n g  I, l e a d i n g t o a g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e f o l l o w i n g World  War  I I when c u l t u r a l brokers served as f a c i l i t a t o r s i n development programmes.  The  1960s and 1970s were marked w i t h a s p i r i t  of  " r e i n v e n t i n g anthropology" spurred on by s k e p t i c i s m w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e and a c t i v i s m w i t h i n indigenous communities. was  an o v e r t c a l l  for social responsibility  There  and w i t h i t , an  e n l a r g e d m i s s i o n f o r c u l t u r a l brokers t o serve as a n a l y s t s and mediators. critical  By the 1980s, a movement developed f o c u s s i n g on  review of ethnographic a u t h o r i t y i n Western  anthropology e x e m p l i f i e d i n the work of James C l i f f o r d Page  32  (1988).  Throughout the h i s t o r y of the d i s c i p l i n e , t h e r e has been a d i a l e c t i c p l a y e d out between nomothetic and i d i o g r a p h i c o r i e n t a t i o n s w i t h the c u l t u r a l brokers s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n humanity and community.  engrossed  The d i f f i c u l t y i n t h i s p o s i t i o n  be read i n t o Hymes d i s c u s s i o n of the use of  can  anthropology.  The o p p o r t u n i t y , then, i s t h i s : t o employ our ethnographic t r a d i t i o n of work, and such e t h n o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t as informs i t , i n the study of the emergence of c u l t u r a l form i n c o n c r e t e s e t t i n g s and i n r e l a t i o n t o a world s o c i e t y . [Hymes 1974:35] Ethnography s t r e s s e s an i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e and p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o speak w i t h c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t y .  encourages Advocacy,  i n e v i t a b l y t i n g e d w i t h p a t e r n a l i s m , has been a dominant f e a t u r e . T h i s background framework of c u l t u r a l brokerage, between c u l t u r a l e n t i t i e s , p r o v i d e s a way  mediating  of understanding  m o t i v a t i o n f o r many a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l e f f o r t s .  the  Assumptions of  c u l t u r a l brokerage p e r s i s t , a d d r e s s i n g new o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Suggesting  a " p o s t c u l t u r a l " age  l a t e t w e n t i e t h century  from the vantage p o i n t of the  ( C l i f f o r d 1988:95), changing  client  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and d i f f e r e n t forms of a u t h o r i t y become e v i d e n t . B u i l d i n g on the s t r e n g t h s of the ethnographic  tradition,  the  p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l brokerage r e f l e c t s the s e n s i b i l i t i e s of the time, responding  t o contemporary c h a l l e n g e s and c r i t i c i s m s  c o n s e r v a t i v e and r e f o r m a t i v e i n t e n t i o n s .  The work c o n t i n u e s .  In the a p p l i c a t i o n of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l understandings,  cultural  brokers i n f o r m r e a l programmes which become p a r t of a c t u a l lives.  Page 33  with  A.  F O U N D A T I O N FOR Anthropology  century.  as  Over t h r e e  colonisation) description of  THE  had  and  P R A C T I C A L A P P L I C A T I O N OF  a discipline  emerged i n the  centuries  of  "discovery"  (exploration  new  territories  to  The  new  opened v a s t  explanation.  e x o t i c , seemingly p r i s t i n e  traders  and  century, idea  of  progress  determinism dominate  interpreted, w o u l d be  in  a i d i n g progress  1871).  had  been d e l i n e a t e d  injected with  as  E.B.  the  research  had  turn  groups d i d s u r v i v e , progress  toward a  summarized,  the  informant  r o l e of  only  in  an  came  to  racial  and  established  "primitive" practices  s t a t e of  civilization  "Thus, a c t i v e a t  science"  rather  could  couched  Crudely  i n removing hindrance, a reformer's  world  nineteenth  perspective  colonies.  a  explorers,  a heavy dose of  evolutionary  i n the  reality,  the  science  once of  (1970:538-9;  cultural  broker  than reformer.  was  For  the  offer administrators  about indigenous  and  customs based  on  references. of  the  changed.  hand a c c o u n t s ,  h a l f of  framed explanations  some i n f o r m a t i o n  accumulated By  which  anthropologists  missionaries  An  Tylor  and  In  p r i m a r i l y as  most p a r t ,  refine  typologies  is essentially  original  their  the  i f tribal  accelerated.  played  latter  expectations  was  culture  the  theory  eliminated  enjoyed  By  ( H a r r i s 1968).  administrative  discipline  and  scholarly  by  and  social  nineteenth  c u l t u r e s , recorded  missionaries.  elaborate  ANTHROPOLOGY  century,  method of  From a m a n i p u l a t i o n  anthropologists  ethnographic  the  research,  Page  34  of  endeavoured t o moving i n t o the  anthropological second  and  third  systematize field  to  and  collect  t h e i r own  data through surveys and  texts,  extended r e s e a r c h based on p a r t i c i p a n t relationship  between s c h o l a r and  l a t e r , t o conduct  observation.  s u b j e c t developed.  C l i f f o r d e x p l a i n s , t h i s t r a n s i t i o n was c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of c u l t u r e  and  A  new  As  James  underscored by  an  altered  itself.  In the mid-nineteenth century t o say t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l was bound up i n c u l t u r e meant something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what i t does now. "Culture" referred to a s i n g l e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . The European bourgeois i d e a l of autonomous i n d i v i d u a l i t y was w i d e l y b e l i e v e d t o be the n a t u r a l outcome of a long development, a process t h a t , although theatened by v a r i o u s d i s r u p t i o n s , was assumed t o be the b a s i c , p r o g r e s s i v e movement of humanity. By the t u r n of the century, however, e v o l u t i o n i s t c o n f i d e n c e began t o f a l t e r , and a new ethnographic c o n c e p t i o n of c u l t u r e became p o s s i b l e . The word began t o be used i n the p l u r a l , s u g g e s t i n g a world of separate, d i s t i n c t i v e , and e q u a l l y meaningful ways of l i f e . The i d e a l of an autonomous, c u l t i v a t e d s u b j e c t c o u l d appear as a l o c a l p r o j e c t , not a telos f o r a l l humankind. [ C l i f f o r d 1988:92-93] In B r i t a i n , a f u n c t i o n a l i s t  approach t o understanding  social  phenomena emerged, promoting a s c i e n t i f i c method through grounded e m p i r i c i s m which shunned the theorizing.  Societies  institutions  and  affecting  the  amateurism of  were s t u d i e d as  a t t i t u d e s c o u l d not  t o t a l culture.  be  armchair  i n t e g r a t e d wholes where altered  without  Bronislaw Malinowski used a  b i o l o g i c a l metaphor where t r a d i t i o n served the  community as  form of c o l l e c t i v e a d a p t a t i o n t o i t s environment.  a  Byproducts  of  t h i s approach t o s o c i a l s c i e n c e have been a working assumption of gradualism, a v o i d i n g any the  i n t e g r i t y of the  inevitably  r a d i c a l change t h a t might compromise  community, and  drawn t o a p o s i t i o n  e f f e c t w i t h i n the  35  stand which i s  of c u l t u r a l r e l a t i v i s m .  d i s c i p l i n e has Page  an e t h i c a l  The  been t o assume a p o s i t i o n  net of  c o n s e r v a t o r of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . r e s e a r c h tended  The  product of  present."  Ethnographic  based on i n t e n s e , emic d i r e c t e d , o b s e r v a t i o n of  the community l i f e focussed on p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l (For  field  t o be a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p r i s t i n e s o c i e t y  sketched i n terms of an "ethnographic a u t h o r i t y was  final  institutions.  an a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n as an  i n n o v a t i o n , see C l i f f o r d  1988:29-32.)  ethnographic  Respecting and  promoting  the i n t e g r i t y of the community, the c u l t u r a l broker served r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and spokesperson  f o r dependent groups  as  (Chambers  1985:28).  T h i s academic p o s i t i o n of an "ethnographic artificial.  The p r i s t i n e i n t e g r i t y of the  communities had a l r e a d y been d i s r u p t e d .  was  indigenous  Kenelm B u r r i d g e  of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s such as Malinowski  for  t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a model of the " t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . "  In  (1973:207)  is critical  present"  Argonauts of the Western P a c i f i c , o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 2 2 , Malinowski  wrote from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the T r o b r i a n d e r s w i t h a  p r o f e s s i o n a l , academic a u t h o r i t y , but omitted r e f e r e n c e t o the m i s s i o n a r i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who i s l a n d s f o r many y e a r s . grand  had been a c t i v e on  Nineteenth c e n t u r y assumptions about a  s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n were c h a l l e n g e d by c o n c r e t e  sympathetic  the  and  f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the f i r s t t h r e e decades of the  t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y without  a means f o r r e c o n c i l i n g these  two  extreme p o s i t i o n s . To r e j e c t a s i n g l e p r o g r e s s i v e or e n t r o p i c m e t a n a r r a t i v e i s not t o deny the e x i s t e n c e of p e r v a s i v e g l o b a l processes unevenly a t work.... Indeed, modern Page 36  ethnographic h i s t o r i e s a r e perhaps condemned t o o s c i l l a t e between two m e t a n a r r a t i v e s : one o f homogenization, t h e o t h e r of emergence; one of l o s s , the o t h e r of i n v e n t i o n . [ C l i f f o r d 1988:17] F o l l o w i n g World War I, the processes o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n were f e l t throughout the world.  Field  o b s e r v a t i o n s c o u l d no longer d i s c o u n t the impact.  By t h e l a t e  1920s, Malinowski came t o promote an a t t i t u d e toward r e s e a r c h which he c a l l e d  " p r a c t i c a l anthropology."  social He e x p l a i n e d  the purpose of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A f r i c a n Languages and C u l t u r e s as b r i d g i n g the gap between t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and p r a c t i c a l  application.  A new branch of anthropology must sooner o r l a t e r be s t a r t e d : the anthropology of the changing N a t i v e . Nowadays, when we a r e i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d , through some new a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s , i n problems o f c o n t a c t and d i f f u s i o n , i t seems i n c r e d i b l e t h a t h a r d l y any e x h a u s t i v e s t u d i e s have been undertaken on the q u e s t i o n o f how European i n f l u e n c e i s being d i f f u s e d i n t o n a t i v e communities. The anthropology of the changing savage would indeed throw an extremely important l i g h t upon the t h e o r e t i c a l problem of the c o n t a c t of c u l t u r e s , t r a n s m i s s i o n of ideas and customs, i n s h o r t , on t h e whole problem of d i f f u s i o n . T h i s anthropology would o b v i o u s l y be o f t h e h i g h e s t importance t o the p r a c t i c a l man i n the c o l o n i e s . [Malinowski, 1929:36] Malinowski's  " p r a c t i c a l anthropology" f o c u s s e d on "the f a c t s and  p r o c e s s e s . . . l e a v i n g t o statesmen  (and j o u r n a l i s t s ) the f i n a l  d e c i s i o n of how t o apply the r e s u l t s " original).  (1929:23; parentheses i n  The r e a l i t i e s of c o l o n i a l c o n t a c t c o u l d not be  d e n i e d and had t o be acknowledged w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e ' s production.  Page 37  By the  1930s, r e s e a r c h  a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d i n anthropology from  salvage ethnography t o i n c l u d e the processes of s o c i a l change and  acculturation.  In 1935,  a committee was  S o c i a l Science Research C o u n c i l  i n the United  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the term " a c c u l t u r a t i o n . " the  study of a c c u l t u r a t i o n was  published  s t r u c k by States  the  t o study  A memorandum f o r  the next year w i t h  the  following d e f i n i t i o n . " A c c u l t u r a t i o n comprehends those phenomena which r e s u l t when groups of i n d i v i d u a l s having d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s come i n t o continuous f i r s t - h a n d c o n t a c t , w i t h subsequent changes i n the o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s of e i t h e r or both groups." (NOTE: Under t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from culture-change, of which i t i s but one a s p e c t , and assimilation, which i s at times a phase of acculturation. I t i s a l s o t o be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from diffusion, which, w h i l e o c c u r r i n g i n a l l i n s t a n c e s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , i s not only a phenomenon which f r e q u e n t l y takes p l a c e without the occurence of the type of c o n t a c t between peoples s p e c i f i e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n above, but a l s o c o n s t i t u t e s only one aspect of the process of acculturation.) rAmerican A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , New S e r i e s Volume 38, 1936, pages 149-50; p a r e n t h e s i s i n o r i g i n a l ] Three decades l a t e r , Edward S p i c e r made t h i s  observation.  ...the term " a c c u l t u r a t i o n " and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s remain somewhat ambiguous. A p e r s i s t e n t usage g i v e s i t the meaning of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n , or replacement of one s e t of c u l t u r a l t r a i t s by another, as i n r e f e r e n c e s t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n contact s i t u a t i o n s as more or l e s s "acculturated"... [ S p i c e r 1968:21] From the  study of n o n l i t e r a t e peoples, the f i e l d of anthropology  grew t o i n c l u d e peasant s o c i e t i e s by the  1940s.  Interest  developed i n the worldwide process of u r b a n i z a t i o n . s h i f t of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t and of c u l t u r a l broker had  t o be  Page 38  With t h i s  s u b j e c t o r i e n t a t i o n , the  redefined.  also  role  B.  A QUESTIONING OF AUTHORITY As  n a t i o n s recovered from World War  expectation  of modern progress s u r f a c e d  I I , a renewed among Western  i n t e l l e c t u a l s w i t h a u n i v e r s a l concept of i n d i v i d u a l worth human r i g h t s .  The  European c o l o n i a l order was  the power t o govern was  redistributed.  The  d i s s i p a t i n g as  r a t e of  global  modernization accelerated  w i t h "development" an accepted  v a l u e d s t a t e of a f f a i r s .  Anthropologists  Much of  ethnographic i n t e r e s t grew out of a r e c o g n i t i o n and w e l l - i n t e n d e d i n t e r v e n t i o n .  i l l u s t r a t e d by L a u r i s t o n  Sharp's 1952  and  were b e i n g drawn i n t o  programmes of d i r e c t e d s o c i o - c u l t u r a l change.  of u n i n t e n t i o n a l  and  of the  the effects  This i s  a r t i c l e describing  impact of s t e e l axes on a group of A u s t r a l i a n  the  aboriginals.  E d i t o r i a l comment accompaning the r e p r i n t i n g of t h i s a r t i c l e i n the  197 3 p u b l i c a t i o n To See  Ourselves;  Anthropology and  Modern  S o c i a l Issues s e t s out the p r o f e s s i o n a l and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ,  as w e l l as a n a l y t i c a l background  assumptions. Those who have the t e m e r i t y t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o the l i v e s of o t h e r s have much t o l e a r n from L a u r i s t o n Sharp's article. Here i s a c l a s s i c example of a w e l l - i n t e n d e d , seemingly minor i n t e r v e n t i o n which produced shock waves so i n t e n s e t h a t an e n t i r e s o c i a l system verged on d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . . . . The account supports our p o i n t t h a t i n t e r v e n t i o n imposes the o b l i g a t i o n t o a n t i c i p a t e the consequences of one's a c t i o n s . [Weaver e t a l . 1973:457] The  l e g a c y of a f u n c t i o n a l i s t understanding i s apparent.  anthropologists  i n c l i n e d t o a p p l i e d work assumed a more  pronounced sense of advocacy, a c t i v e l y r e p r e s e n t i n g  Page 39  the  Many  i n t e r e s t s of those own  seen as unable t o e f f e c t i v e l y advance t h e i r  cause d u r i n g an e r a of sweeping s o c i a l adjustment.  The  of f a c i l i t a t o r had come t o c h a r a c t e r i z e the s e n s i b i l i t i e s assumptions i n f o r m i n g the c u l t u r a l broker. explains,  "The  role  and  As Chambers  f a c i l i t a t o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s are based on  an  assumption t h a t c e r t a i n peoples are not f u l l y a b l e t o  negotiate  w i t h a dominant s o c i e t y " (1985:29).  L a t e r , the 1960s h e r a l d e d  time of new  communities seeking  energy w i t h i n indigenous  r e c o g n i t i o n and  self-determination.  Residual  a  rights,  colonial  assumptions based i n a p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward  indigenous  groups were being s c r u t i n i z e d by s u b j e c t s and by s c h o l a r s . In h i s book A p p l i e d Anthropology, p u b l i s h e d i n the  late  1960s, George F o s t e r i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e p r i n c i p a l f o c i i n a p p l i e d research.  His d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e s a model of c u l t u r a l  brokerage d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . group.  F i r s t was  the t a r g e t or c l i e n t  Second, the i n n o v a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n whose o b j e c t of  concern was  the t a r g e t group.  The  innovating organization  u s u a l l y determined the general area of r e s e a r c h , sponsored the r e s e a r c h , had p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t s t o the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s used the r e s u l t s i n p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i o n s . s e t t i n g i n which these two  And  systems came t o g e t h e r .  as these r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s may  and  t h i r d was  Well-intended  have been, F o s t e r noted  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and personnel  the  the  of the i n n o v a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the programme  p l a n n e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s .  Foster  suggested t h a t " d i f f e r i n g goals and  gratification  Page 40  forms of ego  c h a r a c t e r i z e the two  groups" (1969:x), and proceeded t o s e t  out  p o i n t s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y working r e l a t i o n s h i p , most of which q u e s t i o n scientific  the c o n v e n t i o n a l  wisdom of o b j e c t i v e ,  observer.  Before an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t accepts an a p p l i e d assignment he should make sure he knows what i s expected of him and what the c o n d i t i o n s of the proposed work w i l l be. Only i f he i s i n b a s i c sympathy with the goals of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and can work f o r i t e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y and without r e s e r v a t i o n , can he accept an assignment h o n e s t l y . [ F o s t e r 1969:160] Anthropologists  found themselves i n the uncomfortable p o s i t i o n  of sympathizing w i t h the t a r g e t group, working f o r the innovating  o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l l w h i l e espousing the i d e a l s  and  standards of Western academic knowledge. A c t i v e l y assuming the r o l e of c u l t u r a l broker w i t h a tendency toward advocacy b r i n g s t o the f o r e f r o n t problems of n e u t r a l i t y and  accountability.  t o look t o higher  Anthropological  a l l e g i a n c e tends  order c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t o knowledge, t o  s c i e n c e , t o the i n t e g r i t y of l o c a l c u l t u r e .  Commenting  p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s i n a p p l i e d work, Chambers l i s t s the r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , concluding, a l s o working f o r society original).  The  both pure and  "...applied anthropologists  are  i m p l i c a t i o n s of l o f t y a l l e g i a n c e are apparent i n Vine D e l o r i a , J r . , a Sioux  and  Died f o r Your S i n s , r a t h e r b i t t e r l y r e c a l l s  impact of a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  on t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s .  w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e d i c t a t e d the r e s e a r c h field.  various  as a whole" (1985:217; emphasis i n  applied studies.  author of Custer  on  Deloria graphically describes Page 41  the  The  the  dynamics  conducted i n the  "anthropological  wars"  which t e s t "whether t h i s s c h o o l o r t h a t s c h o o l can long endure. The  b a t t l e f i e l d s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , a r e the l i v e s o f Indian  (1973:132; o r i g i n a l  people"  1969).  The fundamental t h e s i s of the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t i s t h a t people a r e o b j e c t s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n . . . . The mass p r o d u c t i o n of u s e l e s s knowledge by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s attempting t o capture r e a l Indians i n a network of t h e o r i e s has c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the i n v i s i b i l i t y o f Indian people today. [ D e l o r i a 1973:132; o r i g i n a l 1969] The  problem compounds i t s e l f . Many Indians, i n f a c t , have come t o p a r r o t t h e i d e a s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , because i t appears t h a t they know e v e r y t h i n g about Indian communities. Thus, many i d e a s t h a t pass f o r Indian t h i n k i n g a r e i n r e a l i t y t h e o r i e s o r i g i n a l l y advanced by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and echoed by Indian people i n an attempt t o communicate the r e a l s i t u a t i o n . [Ibid.] A b s t r a c t t h e o r i e s c r e a t e a b s t r a c t a c t i o n . . . . By c o n c e n t r a t i n g on great a b s t r a c t i o n s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y removed many young Indians from t h e w o r l d of r e a l problems t o the lands o f make-believe. [Ibid.:134] Indians must be r e d e f i n e d i n terms t h a t white men w i l l accept, even i f t h a t means r e - I n d i a n i z i n g them a c c o r d i n g t o the white man's i d e a of what they were l i k e i n t h e p a s t and should l o g i c a l l y become i n the f u t u r e . [Ibid.:135]  I t becomes a q u e s t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s , r e s e a r c h programming p r i o r i t i e s ,  funding p r i o r i t i e s .  priorities, D e l o r i a asks,  "Why  should t r i b e s have t o compete with s c h o l a r s f o r funds, when t h e i r s c h o l a r l y productions life?"  a r e so u s e l e s s and i r r e l e v a n t t o  (Ibid.:136).  M a i n t a i n i n g ethnographic indigenous  a u t h o r i t y i n the wake o f  a c t i v i t i s m and s k e p t i c i s m w i t h i n the d i s c i p l i n e  r e q u i r e d an adjustment of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l s t y l e .  Clifford  e x p l a i n s t h a t "before the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h century t h e ethnographer and the a n t h r o p o l o g i s t , the d e s c r i b e r - t r a n s l a t o r o f Page 42  custom and the b u i l d e r o f g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s about humanity, were distinct"  (1988:28).  By the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , t h e a u t h o r i t y o f  the Western anthropology came t o be c o n s o l i d a t e d i n the  "field  t h e o r i s t , " e s t a b l i s h i n g an image f o r the d i s c i p l i n e which l a s t e d for  over a h a l f c e n t u r y . The c u r r e n t c r i s i s — o r b e t t e r , d i s p e r s i o n — o f ethnographic a u t h o r i t y makes i t p o s s i b l e t o mark o f f a rough p e r i o d , bounded by the years 1900 and 1960, d u r i n g which a new c o n c e p t i o n o f f i e l d r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f as t h e norm f o r European and American anthropology. [ C l i f f o r d 1988:24]  By the 1960s and 1970s, anthropology was being s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y s c r u t i n i z e d , as seen i n the p u b l i c a t i o n o f R e i n v e n t i n g Anthropology. T h i s book i s f o r people f o r whom "the way t h i n g s a r e " i s not reason enough f o r the way t h i n g s are, who f i n d fundamental q u e s t i o n s p e r t i n e n t and i n need o f p e r s o n a l answer, those f o r whom s e c u r i t y , p r o s p e r i t y , and s e l f i n t e r e s t a r e not s u f f i c i e n t reasons f o r c h o i c e s they make; who t h i n k t h a t i f an o f f i c i a l "study o f man" does n o t answer t o the needs o f men, i t ought t o be changed; who ask of anthropology what they ask o f themselves — r e s p o n s i v e n e s s , c r i t i c a l awareness, e t h i c a l concern, human r e l e v a n c e , a c l e a r c o n n e c t i o n between what i s t o be done and the i n t e r e s t s o f mankind. P r o s p e r i t y , a f t e r a l l , i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a s i g n o f a p r o f e s s i o n ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l h e a l t h . The p r e s e n t appearances of anthropology may be d e c e p t i v e . . . . There i s a c e r t a i n t r a d i t i o n , a c e r t a i n ethos, y e s , and i t informs our concern, o r we would not speak o f r e i n v e n t i n g anthropology r a t h e r than o f abandoning i t . [Hymes 1974:7; i t a l i c s i n o r i g i n a l ] The q u e s t i o n i n g s o c i a l conscience i s r e i t e r a t e d when Hymes c o n c l u d e s , "By v i r t u e o f i t s s u b j e c t matter, anthropology i s unavoidably a p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l d i s c i p l i n e , not merely an empirical specialty"  (Ibid.:48).  Chambers (1985:26-33)  d e s c r i b e s t h e r o l e o f c u l t u r a l broker as changing  Page 43  from mere  f a c i l i t a t o r t o a more completely and mediator.  i n v o l v e d p o s i t i o n as a n a l y s t  However, Michael Ames observes t h a t a p p l i e d  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s were s t i l l  studying groups e x t e r n a l t o  themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s . My p e r c e p t i o n of a p p l i e d anthropology i s t h a t i t has changed i t s a t t i t u d e s over t h e y e a r s , from a p o s i t i o n of n e u t r a l i t y and empiricism t o one g i v i n g more emphasis t o a c t i v e involvement, p o l i t i c a l conciousness, and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but t h a t i t has not undergone any fundamental change i n what i s t o be s t u d i e d . With modest e x c e p t i o n s , a p p l i e d anthropology continues t o be a p p l i e d mostly t o others e x t e r n a l t o one's own academic r e f e r e n c e group. [Ames 1979:23] The  next step was t o develop a r e f l e x i v e anthropology, and Ames  suggests "we [ a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ] should g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o our backyard" ( I b i d . ) .  T h i s case study of t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t  i s a d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of a museum based programme analyzed  education  w i t h i n a framework of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  goes beyond p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n ,  It  assuming a more r e f l e x i v e  approach s i n c e t h e focus i s an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l programme i n which I , t h e author, was p e r s o n a l l y engaged. The  nature of ethnography had changed.  "With expanded  communication and i n t e r c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e , people i n t e r p r e t o t h e r s , and themselves, i n a b e w i l d e r i n g d i v e r s i t y o f idioms" ( C l i f f o r d 1988:22).  C l i f f o r d considers a " p o s t c u l t u r a l "  situation to illustrate  "the c o n d i t i o n of u n c e r t a i n t y "  within  which he wrote i n t h e l a t e 1980s: I t h i n k we a r e seeing s i g n s t h a t t h e p r i v i l e g e g i v e n t o n a t u r a l languages and, as i t were, n a t u r a l c u l t u r e s , i s d i s s o l v i n g . These o b j e c t s and e p i s t e m o l i g i c a l grounds a r e now appearing as c o n s t r u c t s , achieved f i c t i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g and d o m e s t i c a t i n g h e t e r o g l o s s i a . In a world w i t h t o o many Page 44  v o i c e s speaking a l l at once, a world where s y n c r e t i s m and p a r o d i c i n v e n t i o n are becoming the r u l e , not the e x c e p t i o n , an urban, m u l t i n a t i o n a l world of i n s t i t u t i o n a l t r a n s i e n c e - where American c l o t h e s made i n Korea are worn by young people i n R u s s i a , where everyone's " r o o t s " are i n some degree c u t — i n such a world i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o a t t a c h human i d e n t i t y and meaning t o a coherent " c u l t u r e " or "language." [ C l i f f o r d 1988:95] The  f e r o c i t y of the i n t e r p l a y i n the m e t a n a r r a t i v e s of  homogenization and groups and reforming.  emergence had  become d i s c o n c e r t i n g .  boundaries were simultaneously  Cultural  d i s i n t e g r a t i n g and  While elements of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e were apparent,  the p a r t i e s i n the n e g o t i a t i o n were o f t e n s p l i n t e r e d and amorphous i n the upheavals of r e s t r u c t u r i n g s o c i a l  life.  Throughout, v a r i o u s techniques have been i n c o r p o r a t e d m a i n t a i n ethnographic a u t h o r i t y , but  to  fundamental problems  remain. ...the a b i l i t y of the f i e l d w o r k e r t o i n h a b i t indigenous minds i s always i n doubt. Indeed t h i s i s a permanent, unresolved problem of ethnographic method. Ethnographers have g e n e r a l l y r e f r a i n e d from a s c r i b i n g b e l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , and thoughts t o i n d i v i d u a l s . They have not, however, hesitated to ascribe subjective states to c u l t u r e s . . . . Ethnographies abound i n u n a t t r i b u t e d sentences such as "The s p i r i t s r e t u r n t o the v i l l a g e at n i g h t , " d e s c r i p t i o n s of b e l i e f s i n which the w r i t e r assumes i n e f f e c t the v o i c e of culture. [ C l i f f o r d 1988:47-48] Once again,  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s were c a l l e d upon t o j u s t i f y  emic o r i e n t a t i o n t o the study, d e s c r i p t i o n and s o c i a l groups.  T h i s problem i s i n h e r e n t  the c u l t u r a l b r o k e r .  their  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  i n the commitments of  C l i f f o r d concludes h i s d i s c u s s i o n of  ethnographic a u t h o r i t y w i t h t h i s  observation.  The modes of a u t h o r i t y reviewed h e r e — e x p e r i e n t i a l , interpretive, dialogical, polyphonic—are available to a l l w r i t e r s of ethnographic t e x t s , Western and non-Western. None i s o b s o l e t e , none pure: t h e r e i s room f o r i n v e n t i o n Page 45  w i t h i n each paradigm. We have seen how new approaches t e n d to rediscover discarded practices. [ C l i f f o r d 1988:53-54] The  1980s had been marked by a d i s p e r s i o n of ethnographic  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n beyond the d i s c i p l i n e of anthropology w i t h i n the dynamics of c u l t u r a l "homogenization  and emergence."  As  c u l t u r a l b r o k e r s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s had t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r  role  as the " v o i c e of c u l t u r e " and, w i t h a r e f l e x i v e a t t i t u d e , they began t o examine the methods used t o m a i n t a i n a p o s i t i o n of ethnographic a u t h o r i t y . "empowerment."  A new  term found a p p l i c a t i o n ,  The methods and understandings of anthropology  were t o be c a l l e d upon t o address the requirements of c l i e n t groups t r u l y from t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e , a t t h e i r d i r e c t i o n , and i n a s p i r i t of c o n s u l t a t i o n .  D i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s were a t  work, and the power s t r u c t u r e was  l e s s obvious.  Connecting threads run through the h i s t o r y of c u l t u r a l brokerage i n anthropology t y i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n t o an a n a l y s i s of the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t .  The ongoing d i a l e c t i c between the  u n i v e r s a l and the p a r t i c u l a r , humanity and community,  was  apparent i n the t e n s i o n between the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a s s i m i l a t i o n and the c o n s e r v a t i o n of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . t h r e a d was  the e n t e r p r i s e of ethnography  emic approach w i t h an assumption  A connecting  i t s e l f , based on an  of c u l t u r a l a u t h o r i t y .  dominant f e a t u r e of c u l t u r a l brokerage, the sense of was  evident.  was  advocacy,  T h i s has i n e v i t a b l y been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a  p a t e r n a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e i n the p a s t , which, NYP,  A  i n l a t e r y e a r s of the  c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , perhaps t o be r e p l a c e d w i t h a  Page 46  sense of c o n s u l t a n c y f o r purposes of empowerment.  Cultural  brokerage has been a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a t MOA.  The s t r u c t u r e and m i s s i o n of MOA  the work of Harry and Audrey Hawthorn.  was  rooted i n  They a r r i v e d i n the l a t e  1940s w i t h s o l i d a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c r e d e n t i a l s .  Indigenous  c u l t u r e s were conceived i n terms of an "ethnographic p r e s e n t , " p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c o l l e c t i o n and documentation There was  a counterpoint to t h i s p o s i t i o n .  of a r t i f a c t s .  Harry Hawthorn had  been drawn i n t o anthropology by f i r s t hand o b s e r v a t i o n of t h e impact of s o c i a l change on indigenous communities i n Zealand, completing h i s Ph.D.  New  t h e s i s on the s u b j e c t of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n under the s u p e r v i s i o n of Malinowski. i  During h i s  c a r e e r , he developed an approach which he termed " U s e f u l Anthropology."  The Hawthorns were t e a c h e r s and mentors of  Madeline Rowan, founding c u r a t o r of the NYP. was  Her p e r s p e c t i v e  t h a t of f a c i l i t a t o r w i t h e x p l i c i t i n t e n t i o n s of d i r e c t e d  s o c i a l change i n the area of academic achievement people of the Northwest advocacy  Coast.  among the  Rowan had a pronounced  sense of  and worked from a c o n f i d e n t p o s i t i o n of ethnographic  authority.  She a c t i v e l y promoted an "Indian" i d e n t i t y as p a r t  of the programme treatment.  Indeed, t h i s met  some of the  e x p e c t a t i o n s of the c l i e n t group, the N a t i v e I n d i a n Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y , but was participants  l a t e r t o be c h a l l e n g e d by programme  (Brass, 1990).  Rowan l e f t the p r o j e c t i n  which marked a t r a n s i t i o n stage as new brokerage emerged a t MOA.  1986,  forms of c u l t u r a l  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g and  Page 47  c o o r d i n a t i n g the NYP was p r o g r e s s i v e l y passed on t o t h e p r o j e c t managers who were members of the F i r s t N a t i o n s .  The s t r u c t u r e  and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the programme had been s e t and were c a r e f u l l y monitored by the museum o r g a n i z a t i o n , but t h e r e was scope f o r the p r o j e c t managers t o a d j u s t the content and p r a c t i c e s t o address  t h e i r own understandings.  The f o l l o w i n g  c h a p t e r s , devoted t o the d e s c r i p t i o n of the v a r i o u s i n the NYP, e l a b o r a t e on t h e i r experiences w i t h i n a framework of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  Page  48  stakeholders  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  IV.  THE LEGACY OF HARRY AND AUDREY HAWTHORN In 1947,  Harry and Audrey Hawthorn a r r i v e d a t the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia decades t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was  (UBC).  Over the next t h r e e  s u b s t a n t i a l as anthropology a t  developed under t h e i r guidance i n t o an academic department  UBC and  the ethnographic c o l l e c t i o n s i n t o a s e r i o u s museum f o r the study and p r e s e n t a t i o n of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e . anthropology was  T h e i r approach  to  p r a c t i c a l , immediately i n v o l v i n g themselves i n  d a i l y l i v e s and concerns of the people of the Northwest Harry Hawthorn c a l l e d h i s approach  " U s e f u l Anthropology."  e x p l a i n e d , "I came i n t o anthropology because (1976:176).  Coast. As  he  I needed t o use i t "  E a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r , Harry Hawthorn became grounded  i n the contemporary  r e a l i t i e s of subordinated c u l t u r e s .  Audrey  Hawthorn focussed her work on s a l v a g i n g and p r e s e n t i n g the ethnographic r e c o r d of the indigeneous groups as through t h e i r m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e .  illustrated  The Hawthorns, and the s t u d e n t s  and c o l l e a g u e s they a t t r a c t e d around them, e s t a b l i s h e d the purpose and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c u l t u r e of MOA.  Harry and Audrey  Hawthorn served, w i t h i n the ethnographic t r a d i t i o n , as c u l t u r a l b r o k e r s promoting the resurgence and a p p r e c i a t i o n of  Northwest  Coast a r t and more r a t i o n a l s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the F i r s t Nations.  T h e i r i n f l u e n c e was  r e f l e c t e d , amongst o t h e r t h i n g s ,  i n the development of the N a t i v e Youth  A.  Project.  "USEFUL ANTHROPOLOGY" In 1934,  Harry Hawthorn graduated from the U n i v e r s i t y of Page 49  New  Zealand w i t h a masters  of s c i e n c e .  He spent s e v e r a l y e a r s  t e a c h i n g mathematics i n country s c h o o l s i n c l u d i n g Maori communities.  Harry Hawthorn w r i t e s i n humble, f e r v e n t tones  about t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . I found a book on Maori c u l t u r e and d i s c u s s e d i t f a i r l y s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h one of the e l d e r s . . . . I began w i t h a s o l i d ethnography and have remained somewhat e m p i r i c a l l y o r i e n t e d ever s i n c e . But even my r e a d i n g of the s o l i d ethnography f a i l e d t o p r o v i d e the answers t o q u e s t i o n s which p u z z l e d me about l e a r n i n g or some o t h e r m a t t e r s , on bonds t o the l a n d , on how people chose t o spend t h e i r money and on what has s i n c e been c a l l e d development. [Hawthorn 1976:177] Harry Hawthorn e l e c t e d t o continue h i s e d u c a t i o n i n anthropology, completing h i s Ph.D.  thesis  (1944) on  Moari  a c c u l t u r a t i o n a t Yale U n i v e r s i t y under the s u p e r v i s i o n of B r o n i s l a w Malinowski.  In 1947,  he accepted the  first  appointment i n anthropology a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. From the beginning of h i s tenure a t UBC,  Harry Hawthorn  s u c c e s s f u l l y combined h i s academic c a r e e r w i t h a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h , i n v o l v i n g students and teams of s c h o l a r s i n t h i s work.  In  1948,  he d i r e c t e d g e n e a l o g i c a l work i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r government e x t e n s i o n of o l d age pensions t o i n c l u d e the F i r s t N a t i o n s . That year, he a l s o worked w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia  Indian A r t s  and Welfare S o c i e t y t o organize a conference on a b o r i g i n a l welfare issues. The r e c o r d s of t h a t conference p r e s e n t a f u l l and moving statement of the s i t u a t i o n of the Indian people i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and p r o v i d e d the foundation f o r much l a t e r work by the U n i v e r s i t y and other b o d i e s . [ I n g l i s 1976:3]  Page 50  Harry Hawthorn made a p o i n t of v i s i t i n g r e s e r v e s and becoming acquainted  w i t h F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s , forming a network  of c o n t a c t s .  In 1949, Harry Hawthorn r e c e i v e d a commission from  the a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l  t o study the Doukhobour problem t o  a l l e v i a t e c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from a c t s of c i v i l  disobedience.  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by two major s t u d i e s o f contemporary c o n d i t i o n s o f the F i r s t Nations which he c o - d i r e c t e d . The  Indians  of B r i t i s h Columbia; A Survey o f S o c i a l  In 1955,  and Economic  C o n d i t i o n s ; A Report t o t h e M i n i s t e r of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration was p u b l i s h e d a t UBC i n t h r e e volumes. team brought v a r i e d experience  The r e s e a r c h  t o the e f f o r t and aimed t h e  p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e p o r t t o a d i v e r s e audience. In t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of f a c t t h e r e s e a r c h group worked c l o s e l y as a team although our t r a i n i n g l a y i n d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s , each with i t s customary v o c a b u l a r y and i d e a s . . . . From t h e i n c e p t i o n of t h e P r o j e c t we have aimed a t p r o v i d i n g f i n d i n g s of use t o Indians, t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and l e g i s l a t o r s and others o u t s i d e of our specialist fields. [Hawthorn e t a l 1955:30] A Survey of t h e Contemporary Indians  of Canada: A Report on  Economic. P o l i t i c a l , E d u c a t i o n a l Needs and P o l i c i e s was p u b l i s h e d by Indian A f f a i r s Branch i n Ottawa w i t h Volume I r e l e a s e d i n 1966 and Volume I I i n 1967. survey was mixed.  Impact of t h e 1966-67  Looking back a t t h e experience,  Harry  Hawthorn e x p l a i n s t h e o b j e c t i v e s . One of t h e i n t e n t i o n s of our study was t o analyse t h e s i t u a t i o n of the Indians and show how they might approach t h e i r g o a l s , another was t o make an ethnography o f government i n r e l a t i o n t o the Indians. I t i s an overs i m p l i f i c a t i o n and b a s i c a l l y f a l s e t o say t h a t anthropology i s a c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t , but i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e masters have been l e s s s t u d i e d than the s l a v e s , t h e people w i t h power Page 51  l e s s than those without. We s e t out t o show how government operated, and t r u s t e d t h a t the Indians as w e l l as o t h e r s r e a d i n g the r e p o r t would be strengthened w i t h knowledge o f procedures and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . [Hawthorn 1976:178-79] The 1966-67 survey p l a y e d v i r t u a l l y no p a r t i n the f o r m a t i o n of the 1969 Indian P o l i c y put forward by the Trudeau government. Hawthorn  (1976:179) i d e n t i f i e d some reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of  the r e p o r t t o i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y :  r e a d a b i l i t y of the  r e p o r t , i n a b i l i t y t o f o r e s e e changes i n the government r e g a r d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r framing a new p o l i c y , and l a c k of c l o u t t o generate i n t e r e s t i n the r e p o r t by the p o l i c y makers.  However,  S a l l y Weaver concludes her a n a l y s i s of the survey w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p o l i c y - r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h i s needed, n o t i n g t h e importance  of the p o l i t i c a l medium i n d e l i v e r i n g the "message  of s o c i a l s c i e n c e . "  As a r e s e a r c h e f f o r t p r o v i d i n g r e l e v a n t  i n f o r m a t i o n , she s t a t e s : indeed  "The Hawthorn-Tremblay Report  was  ' u s e f u l ' t o n a t i v e people, the Indian Department and t h e  d i s c i p l i n e of anthropology" (1976:86). U s e f u l Anthropology  b a s i c a l l y r e f e r s t o a s s i s t i n g the  people a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s want t o h e l p .  "However,  what was once u s e f u l may not be so today. or p r i n c i p l e s of U s e f u l Anthropology  times change and  ...there a r e no laws  other than those of common  sense, though the f a c t s which must be known and employed a r e legion"  (Hawthorn 1976:179).  Hawthorn p r o v i d e s t h i s a d v i c e  r e g a r d i n g a c c e p t i n g government or agency s p o n s o r s h i p . I t i s always necessary t o i n s i s t t h a t one's work be p u b l i s h e d , something I have always done. In t h a t way i t can be judged, by one's peers and by o t h e r s , f o r accuracy i n f a c t and i n c o n c l u s i o n . I t a l s o becomes a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l t o read, and i s not l i m i t e d t o the s e r v i c e o f any Page 52  group. An agreement t o p u b l i s h f r e e l y r e q u i r e s a s e l f assured sponsor. But p u b l i c a t i o n i s not enough t o ensure t h a t a l l can use a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s e q u a l l y . ...as Dr. Weaver has suggested i n her paper, the weight of f a c t s alone may not be enough t o b r i n g about p o l i c y changes. F a c t s do not c a r r y i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r own. [Hawthorn 1976:183] Along w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n of s t u d i e s , Hawthorn ( 1 9 7 6 : 1 8 4 )  suggests  t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l work can be more e f f e c t i v e by working d i r e c t l y f o r the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n  and by o r g a n i z i n g  community  c o n s u l t a t i v e committees. The major d i f f i c u l t y i s t o make our work e f f e c t i v e and ensure t h a t i t cannot be overlooked. How can we work as s c h o l a r s and y e t be i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i t i c a l l y ? Clear communication w i l l help but we must look at the ways we have f o l l o w e d and seek t o improve them. [Hawthorn 1976:185] Hawthorn's commitment went beyond t h a t of the detached academic o b s e r v e r t o c o n s i d e r the r a m i f i c a t i o n s of r e s e a r c h p o t e n t i a l v a l u e and use from whom i t was  B.  THE  of the i n f o r m a t i o n  and  the  generated t o those  gathered.  PLACE OF A PEOPLE'S HERITAGE  Harry Hawthorn recognized h i s t o r y and  ethnographic work on a people's  a r t s as important "Useful Anthropology".  I repeat t h a t I do not see U s e f u l Anthropology as being c o n f i n e d t o t h a t which shows how t o i n c r e a s e wages, c r o p s , h e a l t h , l i t e r a c y and p o l i t i c a l power.... . . . U s e f u l Anthropology has many f a c e t s and forms: among them, b a s i c ethnography f o r people who do not know what t h e i r c u l t u r e was i n the recent past; ethno-history f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n or the r e c o r d i n g of the l o n g e r development; grammars, v o c a b u l a r i e s , t e x t s and w r i t i n g systems f o r languages which are s t i l l used; the r e c o r d i n g and understanding of the a r t s . I would not decry the u s e f u l n e s s of any of our e n q u i r i e s which r e c o r d and aim a t understanding c u l t u r e s . [Hawthorn 1976:184-5]  Page 53  Harry Hawthorn o f f i c i a l l y served as c u r a t o r , then d i r e c t o r of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r about 25 y e a r s . masters  Museum o f Anthropology  (MOA)  H i s w i f e , Audrey Hawthorn had r e c e i v e d h e r  i n anthropology a t Columbia  U n i v e r s i t y , "where she had  gained from Ralph L i n t o n a s t r o n g a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e importance of m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n the study o f human s o c i e t y " 1975:2).  (Inglis  Harry Hawthorn and Audrey Engel met and m a r r i e d a t  Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y where they worked t o g e t h e r a t t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Human R e l a t i o n s on George Murdock's C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Survey.  From  the b e g i n n i n g of t h e i r tenure a t UBC, t h e Hawthorns secured funding f o r a c q u i s i t i o n and r e s t o r a t i o n work which i n c o r p o r a t e d members o f t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s .  Ames (1986) p o i n t s out another  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s e f f o r t i n h i s chapter on "How A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s Help t o F a b r i c a t e t h e C u l t u r e s They  Study,"  u s i n g t h e " r e n a i s s a n c e " of Northwest Coast a r t as r e f e r e n c e . These museums [ B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, MOA and Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum] p r o v i d e d o r arranged a number of major commissions which helped t o e s t a b l i s h t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f contemporary c a r v e r s . Probably t h e s i n g l e most important event was i n 1949 when Audrey and Harry Hawthorn of t h e UBC Museum of Anthropology commissioned Kwagiutl c a r v e r s E l l e n Neel and Mungo M a r t i n t o r e s t o r e some of t h e p o l e s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s commission e s t a b l i s h e d M a r t i n as a f u l l t i m e c a r v e r and informant i n r e s i d e n c e , f i r s t f o r two years a t UBC and subsequently f o r t e n y e a r s a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l Museum w i t h Wilson D u f f . I t demonstrated p u b l i c l y t h a t an honourable l i v i n g c o u l d be made by producing high q u a l i t y c a r v i n g s f o r White people and t h e i r museums. ( I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note a t t h i s p o i n t . . . t h a t Duff's successor a t the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, Peter Macnair, has s i n c e endeavoured t o demonstrate t h a t c a r v e r s can now a l s o make an honourable l i v i n g by c a r v i n g once again f o r Indians.) [Ames 1986:53; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ]  Page 54  Audrey Hawthorn p l a c e s t h e i r museum work i n t o t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i a l change which was t a k i n g p l a c e on t h e Northwest Coast f o l l o w i n g World War I I . With the encouragement of Dr. N.A.M. MacKenzie, P r e s i d e n t of t h e U n i v e r s i t y , we s e t out t o save l o c a l materials. Harry Hawthorn became C u r a t o r , then D i r e c t o r as I began t o work f u l l time. We a r r i v e d a t a c r u c i a l moment i n Northwest Coast l i f e . A h a l f c e n t u r y had e l a p s e d s i n c e the f u l l f l o w e r i n g of t h e c u l t u r e s , and changing s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s l e f t many Indian f a m i l i e s u n c e r t a i n as to what t o do w i t h f a m i l y heirlooms no l o n g e r i n use. With funds g i v e n by Dr. H.R. MacMillan, i t became p o s s i b l e t o accept f a m i l y c o l l e c t i o n s t h e owners wanted t o o f f e r t o t h e Museum. A t the same time we a c q u i r e d a s e r i e s o f massive c a r v i n g s from Kwakiutl owners who were no l o n g e r l i v i n g i n the l a r g e frame houses with t h e i r f a m i l y c r e s t c a r v i n g s and f u r n i t u r e . We commissioned Mungo M a r t i n , a master c a r v e r of a p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n , t o s u p e r v i s e t h e r e p a i r and r e s t o r a t i o n of the 19 l a r g e c a r v i n g s . He proved t o be a powerful i n f l u e n c e i n the Museum's h i s t o r y . A man o f h i g h rank of F o r t Rupert, a t 70 he was a l e r t , wise, and v e r y concerned w i t h t h e f u t u r e of h i s people. He had a profound knowledge of t r a d i t i o n a l ceremony and of t h e r e l a t e d o b j e c t s , t h e i r use, and proper ownership. He saw t h e Museum as t h e s a f e and proper p l a c e t o put t h e o b j e c t s , w i t h r e c o r d s taken by our students on t h e i r meaning and history. From t h i s beginning, over t h e next 15 y e a r s , we r e c e i v e d v i s i t s from Indian f a m i l i e s who a r r i v e d w i t h t r u n k s of masks, t e x t i l e s and d a i l y u t e n s i l s . From t h e f i r s t , our students i n the Department of Anthropology were i n v o l v e d , through t h e i r own i n t e r e s t , i n the unpacking and documentation of these m a t e r i a l s , and i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h our v i s i t o r s . Indian c a r v e r s from then on became a p a r t o f our departmental and museum l i f e , and many photographic and other essays were produced by museum students, a v i d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and f o r a c c u r a t e r e c o r d i n g . As t h e department expanded, Harry Hawthorn helped t o r a i s e funds f o r s e v e r a l e x p e d i t i o n s , i n v o l v i n g both U n i v e r s i t y members and P r o v i n c i a l Museum s t a f f . [Hawthorn 1975:95] Audrey Hawthorn worked d i l i g e n t l y on t h e museum c o l l e c t i o n s , becoming t h e s a l a r i e d c u r a t o r i n 1956. That year she, a l o n g with  J.A. M o r r i s , o r g a n i z e d People of t h e P o t l a t c h . a major  e x h i b i t i o n o f Northwest Coast a r t a t t h e Vancouver A r t G a l l e r y . Page 55  Other accomplishments t o her c r e d i t i n c o n s e r v i n g and promoting the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e of t h e Northwest Coast p u b l i c a t i o n on Kwakiutl  i n c l u d e a major  a r t (Hawthorn 1967, r e p u b l i s h e d 1979)  and t h e 1969-70 e x h i b i t i o n a t Man and H i s World i n M o n t r e a l . She  i n i t i a t e d museum s t u d i e s a t UBC and p l a y e d a c e n t r a l r o l e i n  the p l a n n i n g and r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e new museum f a c i l i t i e s . Regarding t h e new museum, Harry Hawthorn comments, "...we i n t e n d t o communicate t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c as f u l l y as t o t h e scholarly"  (1976:182).  There were some i n n o v a t i v e f e a t u r e s i n  the new f a c i l i t i e s a t MOA which supported institutional culture.  V i s i b l e Storage  and advanced t h e  (see Ames 1977 and 1986  Chapter 6, and H a l p i n 1976) gave p u b l i c access t o t h e e n t i r e c o l l e c t i o n w i t h a supporting documentation system t h a t p r o v i d e d a l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e o b j e c t s .  Museum v i s i t o r s were  c o n s i d e r e d students, a c t i v e l e a r n e r s not mere s p e c t a t o r s . main g a l l e r i e s presented  f i n e examples of Northwest  The  Coast  m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e as o b j e c t s of a r t , t o be s t u d i e d as accomplishments i n terms of d e s i g n and c r a f t s m a n s h i p .  The  a r c h i t e c t u r e i s stunning, b a l a n c i n g monumental forms w i t h g e s t u r e s of i n t i m a c y .  I t stands as a landmark w i t h an  international reputation.  Soon a f t e r t h e new museum opened i n  the mid 1970s, t h e Hawthorns r e t i r e d .  Their interest  and t h e i r p e r i o d i c v i s i t s p r o v i d e d a reminder t o MOA  continued, staff,  students and v o l u n t e e r s of t h e o r i g i n s and commitment o f t h e institution.  Page 56  C.  BACKGROUND ASSUMPTIONS OF CULTURAL BROKERAGE The  c a r e e r s of Harry and Audrey Hawthorn f i t the  definition  of c u l t u r a l broker as presented by Erve Chambers (1985). negotiated  and  They  f a c i l i t a t e d the t r a n s f e r of knowledge, s k i l l  s e r v i c e between d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e s .  and  T h e i r approach t o  anthropology both r e f l e c t e d the i n t e l l e c t u a l and  social milieu  of t h e i r time and a n t i c i p a t e d s e n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t were t o emerge i n l a t e r periods. understand and s o c i a l change. populations decline  T h e i r m i s s i o n was  d e r i v e d from the need t o  a s s i s t indigenous people i n an arduous p r o c e s s of Between the two  world wars, indigenous  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s i n g a f t e r many decades of  (see Hawthorn 1944).  Harry Hawthorn's a p p l i e d  g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d George F o s t e r ' s model (1969).  research  The  research  p r o j e c t s Hawthorn c o - d i r e c t e d were commissioned by government agencies f o r purposes of a n a l y z i n g t a r g e t groups and,  with  diplomacy, he p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o the s e t t i n g i n which the systems came t o g e t h e r .  His grounded, p r a c t i c a l approach t o  ethnography seemed t o r e s i s t the q u e s t i o n i n g " r e i n v e n t i n g anthropology" (Hymes 1974) His sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n of  i n the  open t o s c r u t i n y through p u b l i c a t i o n and p u b l i c w i t h an i n t e n t t o be i n f l u e n t i a l .  1960s and  1970s.  a c t i v e , forming a  fundamental element i n "Useful Anthropology."  e x t e r n a l t o t h e i r own  two  Work was  to  presentation  While the s u b j e c t matter  l i v e s and d i s c i p l i n e  was  (Ames 1979), an  emerging r e f l e x i v e a t t i t u d e i s apparent as Hawthorn w r i t e s , Page 57  be  "we  must l o o k a t t h e ways we have f o l l o w e d  and seek t o improve them"  (1976:185). The  Hawthorns, through t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , i n i t i a t e d t h e  development o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a t MOA w i t h i n which i s embedded a d i s p o s i t i o n of c u l t u r a l brokerage.  The term  " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e " i s used i n t h i s case study t o r e f e r t o "the  s o c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e , the s e t of customs, a t t i t u d e s and  b e l i e f s acquired definition  as a member of a s o c i a l group," t o borrow a  (Hawthorn e t a l 1955:39), t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s MOA and  e s t a b l i s h e d a working environment w i t h i n which t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t operated.  As D a n i e l Denison (1990:175)  "Thus, an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  explained,  c u l t u r e may be as a code, a l o g i c , and  a system o f s t r u c t u r e d behaviors and meaning t h a t have stood t h e t e s t of time and serve as a c o l l e c t i v e guide t o f u t u r e adaptation  and s u r v i v a l . "  Q u a l i t i e s t h e Hawthorn's brought t o  t h i s p r o c e s s a r e o u t l i n e d below. 1.  C r e d i b i l i t y and P r e s t i g e The  Hawthorns worked out of a f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d academic  base w i t h respected,  nonpartisan c r e d e n t i a l s allowing  them t o  b u i l d support from government, p r i v a t e sponsors, people o f t h e F i r s t Nations and t h e general  public.  While an assumption o f  academic n e u t r a l i t y has r e c e i v e d c r i t i c a l examination i n t h e past  two decades, t h e s e t t i n g of t h e u n i v e r s i t y museum  still  p r o v i d e s c r e d i b i l i t y and p r e s t i g e w i t h t h e p u b l i c and government a g e n c i e s , and MOA continues t o serve as an a u t h o r i t y base f o r those who endeavour t o f u n c t i o n as c u l t u r a l b r o k e r s . Page 58  2.  E m p i r i c a l and P r a c t i c a l Harry Hawthorn avoided what D e l o r i a  (1973:132) r e f e r r e d t o  as " t h e o r e t i c a l wars", c o n c e n t r a t i n g i n s t e a d on examining s i t u a t i o n s e m p i r i c a l l y w i t h i n an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y framework. He b u i l t on t h e work and s e n s i b i l i t i e s of h i s f o r m i d a b l e t e a c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g Malinowski and Murdock, w i t h a f u n c t i o n a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n grounded i n n a t u r a l i s t i c ethnographic o b s e r v a t i o n . Hawthorn's problem experience.  o r i e n t a t i o n was r o o t e d i n h i s e a r l y  H i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n was s o c i a l change, and he had no  i l l u s i o n s about the d i f f i c u l t  process of adjustment.  Even  today, t h e work emanating from MOA i s not c h a r a c t e r i z e d by allegiance t o p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r e t i c a l schools.  Research  i n t e r e s t s tend t o be grounded i n experience and p r a c t i c a l needs. The  study o f m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e , which anchors t h e museum,  t r a d i t i o n a l l y has been low l e v e l t h e o r e t i c a l a c t i v i t y , and, under t h e guidance of Audrey Hawthorn, assumed an o r i e n t a t i o n o f c o n s e r v i n g indigeneous c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n s .  However, t h e  c l i m a t e of e x p l o r a t i o n and d e d i c a t i o n encouraged  by t h e work of  the Hawthorns has p e r m i t t e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s and v a r i a t i o n s . r e f l e x i v e approach  A  developed a t MOA, t h a t i s , t h e  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study of t h e museum e n t e r p r i s e i t s e l f and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p r o f e s s i o n of anthropology The ethnographic t r a d i t i o n has remained  (see Ames 1986).  s t r o n g a t MOA w i t h an  expressed concern f o r the i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view, l e a d i n g , f o r example, t o t h e study of and support f o r F i r s t N a t i o n s movements (see Ames and Haagen 1987). Page 59  cultural  3.  Assimilation/Conservation For the Hawthorns, the grand d i a l e c t i c was  the p r e s s u r e s between F i r s t Nations a s s i m i l a t i o n  p l a y e d out i n into  contemporary s o c i e t y and c o n s e r v a t i o n of community T h i s was  traditions.  e v i d e n t i n Harry Hawthorn's e a r l y study of Moari  acculturation. In the realm of i n d i v i d u a l adjustment t o the changing i n s t i t u t i o n s of f a m i l y and community, the p r i n c i p l e s of t h e new s c h o o l p o l i c y seem t o have more promise. The p a r e n t s have demanded t h a t the c h i l d be f i t t e d f o r European - New Zealand w h i l e r e t a i n i n g h i s s o l i d a r i t y w i t h the f a m i l y and the community; a t the same time the educators have i n t e n d e d the s c h o o l t o s o l v e the complex problems of Maori a c c u l t u r a t i o n by speedy and complete a s s i m i l a t i o n . [Hawthorn 1944:127] While  s e n s i b i l i t i e s about i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the process of  a c c u l t u r a t i o n changed over time, the b a s i c problem  and  desired  r e s o l u t i o n remained. I t i s r e a l l y the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n which w i l l e i t h e r take or shun the steps necessary f o r the emancipation of the I n d i a n . They w i l l make t h i s d e c i s i o n . . . t o the e x t e n t we have taught them t o understand the nature and o p e r a t i o n of the broader s o c i e t y and handed them the t o o l s f o r t h e i r emancipation. T h i s philosophy must be the b a s i s of any new Indian s c h o o l p o l i c y . T h i s f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n i s a l l the more important t o the Indians i n t h a t i t prepares them f o r and d i r e c t s them towards autonomy. [Hawthorn 1967:173] Recommendations i n the commissioned s t u d i e s were d i r e c t e d a t t a r g e t groups, the F i r s t Nations, c o u l d become b e t t e r i n t o the wider Canadian  society  integrated  (Hawthorn e t a l 1955:32-33) i n  compliance w i t h the laws of the n a t i o n and p r o v i n c i a l (Ibid.,1019-20).  The process of a c c u l t u r a t i o n was  structures  understood  i r r e v e r s i b l e , but the e f f e c t s were t o be tempered so as t o proceed g r a d u a l l y , a d d r e s s i n g the needs of the F i r s t Page 60  how  Nations  as  (Ibid.,37). t h a t was and  By the  considered  underlying  formation  1970s, a s s i m i l a t i o n ceased t o be a t o p i c directly.  Nonetheless, the s o c i a l  assumptions of the d i a l e c t i c informed  of the NYP  ( see Chapters F i v e and  Hawthorn, the emphasis had  s h i f t e d i n the  of " U s e f u l Anthropology" and  Six).  realities  the For  Harry  1970s t o a d i s c u s s i o n  a g r e a t e r concern f o r the i n s i d e r ' s  perspective. Times have changed i n other ways a l s o . Many of the people i n the s o c i e t i e s we have o r d i n a r i l y s t u d i e d are openly h o s t i l e t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . Perhaps one reason i s t h a t we have r a i s e d e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t we have not met. Another i s t h a t ever-present e t h n i c c o n f l i c t has taken new t u r n s and an a n t h r o p o l o g i s t o f f e r s an easy t a r g e t . Ethnic c o n f l i c t i s not new and has p o s s i b l y not even i n c r e a s e d i f i t s i n n e r as w e l l as outer forms are taken i n t o account. (The t o p i c of the paper I wrote f o r t h i s meeting was e t h n i c c o n f l i c t i n Canada. In i t I h e l d t h a t e t h n i c c o n f l i c t was coterminous w i t h d i f f e r e n c e , where e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e was accompanied by some d i s p a r i t y i n power and p o s s e s s i o n s , as i t always i s . ) To a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , whose s u b j e c t began w i t h the study of dominated peoples of the Americans, A f r i c a and A s i a by western s c h o l a r s , the new element i s the freedom w i t h which resentment i s expressed and d i r e c t e d a t him. T h i s merely sharpens i s s u e s a l r e a d y present, the u s e f u l n e s s of our work, and the communication of what we do. We can p r o p e r l y regard the c u r r e n t freedom t o show h o s t i l i t y as one measure of success of a cause we have b e l i e v e d i n . People who once f e l t i m p e l l e d t o wear a mask of d o c i l i t y have achieved g r e a t e r independence and s e l f d e t e r m i n a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g the determination of when and how they s h a l l be s t u d i e d . [Hawthorn 1976:180; parentheses i n original] The  n e c e s s i t y t o f u n c t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n contemporary s o c i e t y  remained.  A t t i t u d e s toward and mechanisms f o r  t h i s o b j e c t i v e had 4.  accomplishing  changed.  Cultural Identity C u l t u r e as s o c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o c u l t u r a l  Page 61  i d e n t i t y by i n d i v i d u a l s . such f a c t o r s as how  The process i s not simple,  including  o t h e r s , members and non-members of the  a f f i l i a t e d group, p e r c e i v e and respond t o the i n d i v i d u a l .  This  becomes a s i g n i f i c a n t problem f o r c u l t u r a l brokers working w i t h v i s i b l e m i n o r i t i e s d e s i g n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e programme t r e a t m e n t s . In the 1960s, the survey d i r e c t e d by Harry Hawthorn a n a l y z e d the emerging self-awareness i n the F i r s t  Nations.  On the one hand, t h e r e are marked d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s Canadian t r i b e s i n t h i s matter of e t h n i c identification.... In some cases even, the young openly r e j e c t t r a d i t i o n a l customs and express a d m i r a t i o n f o r e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s not I n d i a n . ...Although the d e s i r e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h an a b o r i g i n a l s o c i e t y and remain Indian i s s t i l l s t r o n g , the elements of t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n are o f t e n vague and even c o n t r a d i c t o r y . A second aspect of the I n d i a n s ' s e l f - i m a g e i s a r e s u l t of t h e i r p o s i t i o n of i n f e r i o r i t y and dependence i n r e l a t i o n t o the Whites.... For a l l t h a t , the Indian looks up t o the Whites.... In s h o r t t h i s i s the source of the d u a l nature of the Indian's i d e n t i t y . In the formation of h i s own image, he combines i n d i s c r i m a t e l y elements taken from two w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s c o n f l i c t i n g s i t u a t i o n , i t i s hardly s u r p r i s i n g that h i s self-image i s ambiguous. [Hawthorn 1967:162-63] While d e s c r i p t i o n of the contemporary s i t u a t i o n assumed a t r a n s i t i o n a l and d i s o r i e n t e d q u a l i t y , each group was as d i s t i n c t i v e w i t h i t s own  "values and p a t t e r n s of c h a r a c t e r "  (Hawthorn e t a l 1955:7 and 39).  For each, t h e r e was  ethnographic past t o be r e c o n s t r u c t e d a c c u r a t e l y and g i v i n g back t o people t h e i r h i s t o r y Northwest Coast, MOA concerned  was  an honoured,  (Hawthorn 1976:184).  On  conceived as a haven f o r those  with preserving c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s .  commissioning  recognized  F o l l o w i n g the  of Mungo M a r t i n , Audrey Hawthorn e x p l a i n s t h a t  Page 62  the  "Indian c a r v e r s from then on became a p a r t o f our department and museum l i f e . . . "  (1975:95).  During the Hawthorns tenure a t MOA,  the i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view was r e s p e c t e d u s i n g informants  such  as Mungo M a r t i n and h i s w i f e Abayah. A l r e a d y i n h i s s e v e n t i e s , Mungo M a r t i n was keenly aware o f t h e great changes brought by t h e y e a r s , and was anxious t o r e c o r d what he knew of the c u l t u r e i n which he had grown up, and i n which he had seen t h e changes come. While he was a t t h e museum he helped t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e the m a t e r i a l s as they came i n . . . . ...Being a f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e ceremonial system, he r e c o g n i z e d many i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s and i d e n t i f i e d almost a l l o f them with assurance. He gave both t h e Kwakiutl name and a t r a n s l a t i o n , based on h i s c l e a r comprehension o f t h e use and background of t h e p i e c e . He was concerned t h a t h i s words should not be wasted. "Write t h a t down, now," he o f t e n s a i d , and then, "Say i t back," u n t i l he was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e t r a n s c r i p t i o n was reasonably c o r r e c t . [Hawthorn 1979:viii] Audrey Hawthorn's p u b l i c a t i o n Kwakiutl A r t (1979, o r i g i n a l 1967) i s b a s i c a l l y presented i n terms of an "ethnographic  present"  w i t h an a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t y l e of w r i t i n g and f o r m a t i n g , r i c h i n description.  I t should be noted t h a t t h e Hawthorns d i d t h e i r  work w i t h s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n and c o n v i c t i o n .  Nevertheless,  dilemmas i n c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e e v i d e n t . concept  Their culture  assumes a s t a t i c and comprehensive q u a l i t y ,  thereby  e x p l a i n i n g s e l f - i m a g e among t h e F i r s t Nations as a s i t u a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s from "two w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t (Hawthorn 1967:162). of  cultures"  T h i s f u e l e d c o n c l u s i o n s about t h e p r o c e s s  s o c i a l i z a t i o n and the f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . We might emphasize, i n p a s s i n g , t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g i n the Indian and i n t e g r a t e d schools should be designed t o prepare students f o r the e x e r c i s e of a t r a d e o r p r o f e s s i o n and t o adapt them t o the White s o c i e t y . An Indian's a b i l i t y t o f i n d a job i s a r e s u l t not o n l y o f h i s e d u c a t i o n Page 63  by a l s o of h i s l e v e l of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The  [Hawthorn 1967:168]  NYP was founded on t h i s s t a t i c understanding o f Northwest  Coast c u l t u r e , an i d e a t h a t subsequently was c h a l l e n g e d  by some  of t h e NYP p r o j e c t managers and members (see Brass 1990). r e v i s e d approach emerged a t MOA d u r i n g the 1980s, though  A still  r e s p e c t i n g t h e importance of t h e i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t o f view. There a r e many v o i c e s , many s t o r i e s . They do not add up t o one c o n s i s t e n t view, nor should they, because they r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t people with d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t s and experiences. We n e v e r t h e l e s s need t o l i s t e n . The a r t i c u l a t i o n of n a t i v e p o i n t s of view may serve t o remind us t h a t o u t s i d e r s do not have t h e f i n a l word. I t i s t h e c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r a c t i o n between these v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t i s important. I do not b e l i e v e t h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, f o r example, should attempt t o present t h e " n a t i v e p o i n t of view", which i t c o u l d never do p r o p e r l y anyway, whether by r e c o n s t r u c t e d c o n t e x t u a l i s t e x h i b i t s o r by other means. I t i s more important f o r a museum t o concentrate on what i t can do b e s t , which i s t o present i t s own p o i n t of view as a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , recognizing the l i m i t a t i o n s that i m p l i e s , and t o work i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e museums and c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h e " n a t i v e " o r indigenous p e o p l e s . A museum i s only one volume i n an e n c y c l o p e d i a o f c u l t u r e t h a t i s always i n the process of being w r i t t e n . No one museum can say i t a l l , nor should i t pretend t h a t i t can. [Ames 1986:47] The  a r t i c u l a t i o n of s o c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e thus becomes t h e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e c u l t u r a l groups, and museum anthropologists  a v o i d t h e r o l e of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  providing  ethnographic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a u t h o r i z a t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , perhaps t h e most important legacy  from Harry  Hawthorn i s t h e b a s i c assumption t h a t anthropology should be u s e f u l , and t h a t i t can and should  serve t a r g e t  populations.  Chambers (1985:14) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e w i t h i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e took knowledge t o be i n h e r e n t l y u s e f u l , Page 64  but o t h e r s h e l d t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t knowledge "must d e l i b e r a t e l y be made u s e f u l "  (emphasis  i n original).  Harry Hawthorn c r o s s e d  that l i n e , envisioning the p r o f e s s i o n a l appropriateness of p l a y i n g a more complete  r o l e , a r o l e which unavoidably assumes  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c u l t u r a l broker. a more c o n v e n t i o n a l r o l e .  Audrey Hawthorn p l a y e d  P r e p a r i n g the documentation and  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e of t h e Northwest Coast, she served as c o n s e r v a t o r of c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s .  They both enjoy  esteemed p o s i t i o n s as educators, having e s t a b l i s h e d  anthropology  and museology as s u b s t a n t i a l academic programmes a t UBC. In Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y departments throughout Canada and beyond, Harry Hawthorn's students a r e s t r i v i n g t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e not o n l y the knowledge they have a c q u i r e d under h i s guidance, but a l s o t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f t e a c h i n g they l e a r n e d i n h i s c l a s s e s . . . . Most of us would b l u s h t o admit how many o f h i s aphorisms, i n s i g h t s and techniques we now c l a i m as our own. I cannot speak a t f i r s t hand of Audrey's t e a c h i n g , but her own students can, and do, a t t e s t t o i t s v i r t u e s from p o s i t i o n i n museums through [ s i c ] the Commonwealth and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I know t h a t I speak f o r a l l of t h e i r students and c o l l e a g u e s , p a s t and present, i n e x p r e s s i n g t o Harry and Audrey Hawthorn our r e s p e c t , admiration, g r a t i t u d e and affection. [ I n g l i s 1975:8] The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e t h e Hawthorns i n i t i a t e d a t MOA has e v o l v e d and accomodated changing i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s over t h e y e a r s .  This organizational culture i s also  expressed i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g c r e a t e d f o r t h e d i s p l a y o f t h e ethnographic  collections:  The p r o x i m i t y of these new works t o t h e o l d a r t i f a c t s gathered behind t h e w a l l o f g l a s s makes v e r y c l e a r t h e museum's most important message: t r i b a l works a r e p a r t o f an ongoing, dynamic t r a d i t i o n . The museum d i s p l a y s i t s works o f " a r t " as p a r t of an i n v e n t i v e p r o c e s s , not as Page 65  t r e a s u r e s salvaged from a vanished p a s t . 1990:10] By the 1960s and  [Clifford  1970s, the F i r s t Nations of Canada were g a i n i n g  a g r e a t e r p u b l i c v o i c e , demanding the r i g h t t o guide t h e i r d e s t i n y as d i s t i n c t groups.  Powers were being r e c l a i m e d  b u r e a u c r a t s and other mainstream r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . i s an example of the k i n d of a c t i v i s t who  own  from  Brenda T a y l o r  emerged d u r i n g t h i s  p e r i o d t o r e p r e s e n t and work f o r F i r s t Nations causes.  She  f o c u s s e d her e n e r g i e s on making the p u b l i c s c h o o l system ( i n Vancouver) more r e l e v a n t f o r a b o r i g i n a l youth.  Taylor also  was  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Madeline and c u r a t o r a t MOA.  Rowan, a student of the Hawthorns  The o r i e n t a t i o n of " U s e f u l  combined w i t h F i r s t Nations i n i t i a t i v e and new government support t o develop the programme.  Anthropology" forms of  The next  two  c h a p t e r s recount the emergence of the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t through the a c t i v i t i e s  of T a y l o r and Rowan.  Page 66  V.  BRENDA TAYLOR AND  THE  NATIVE INDIAN YOUTH ADVISORY SOCIETY  The next two chapters p i e c e t o g e t h e r the founding of the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t . c o n j u n c t i o n of two and determined  The programme r e s u l t e d from the  systems, each represented by an  educator.  On the one hand was  articulate  the urban based  community of F i r s t Nations people s t r u g g l i n g t o break a dependency r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f e d e r a l government which been entrenched  f o r over a c e n t u r y .  Brenda T a y l o r was  had  prominent  i n t h i s movement, and d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g  and  d i r e c t i n g the N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y (NIYAS).  On  the o t h e r hand was b r o k e r s , attempting  the museum community s e r v i n g as  cultural  t o b r i d g e the gap between the mainstream  s o c i e t y and the a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n . p r e v i o u s chapter, MOA  As reviewed  i n the  under the l e a d e r s h i p of the Hawthorns had  become a c e n t r e f o r c u l t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e s e a r c h i n t o problems of s o c i a l change and development among the Nations. 197 0s.  Madeline She was  Rowan became a c u r a t o r a t MOA  First  i n the  mid  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l programming  had a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n improving  academic achievement among  the a b o r i g i n a l people of the Northwest Coast.  By examining the  work of these two educators, one r e p r e s e n t i n g NIYAS and o t h e r r e p r e s e n t i n g MOA,  and  both the formation of the NYP  the  and  the  c o n t e x t f o r the development of the programme can be b e t t e r understood.  The terms "Native" and  "Native Indian" are o f t e n  used i n these two chapters because they were the terms used i n the d i s c u s s i o n s and w r i t i n g of these two Page 67  key s t a k e h o l d e r s i n the  NYP.  B a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s chapter was  i n two  A.  p r o v i d e d by T a y l o r  l o n g i n t e r v i e w s e s s i o n s which were recorded i n June  CHANGING APPROACH TO EDUCATION AMONG THE  FIRST NATIONS  The process of u r b a n i z a t i o n among the F i r s t Nations  of  B r i t i s h Columbia i n the past t h r e e decades goes beyond a m i g r a t i o n t o the c i t i e s 1966,  1967).  maintained  (see Hawthorn e t a l . 1955;  P r e h i s t o r i c a l l y , the people  simple  Hawthorn  of the Northwest  s t r o n g economic and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s up  down the c o a s t which became even more e l a b o r a t e w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n of European f u r t r a d e , a g r i c u l t u r e and industry.  1989.  Coast and  the fishing  P o p u l a t i o n growth, economic p r e s s u r e s , government  p o l i c i e s and  l i f e s t y l e choices l e d to increasing r e l o c a t i o n  members of the F i r s t Nations c e n t r e s f o l l o w i n g World War  as  e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n c e i n urban II.  c o n d i t i o n s , the Hawthorn-directed  I l l u s t r a t i n g the economic Survey of the Contemporary  Indians of Canada i n the 1960s analyzed the causes of p r o s p e r i t y and p o v e r t y on r e s e r v e s . Thus we have found t h a t such primary resource-based modes of l i v e l i h o o d as t r a p p i n g , f i s h i n g and farming e x e r t a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on Indian p r o s p e r i t y . T h i s i n f l u e n c e i s c o n t r a s t e d t o the great c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o s p e r i t y made by steady wage and s a l a r i e d employment o f f the r e s e r v e . . . . While an i n c r e a s i n g number people a l r e a d y work and l i v e away from the r e s e r v e s , the r e s e r v e s are not vanishing. [Hawthorn 1966:7] A c t i v e networks of r e l a t i o n s h i p s throughout the p r o v i n c e remain, enhanced by modern communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . r e l o c a t i o n of primary  The  r e s i d e n c e s t o urban c e n t r e s meant changes  Page 68  i n s o c i a l p a t t e r n s with new i n f l u e n c e s on t h e f a m i l y and t h e r a i s i n g of c h i l d r e n .  A l l of t h i s was accompanied by a l t e r e d  forms o f funding f o r F i r s t Nations programmes. background d e s c r i p t i o n completely of s t a t u s / n o n - s t a t u s Nations.  This b r i e f  s i d e steps the complex i s s u e s  and p o l i t i c a l power w i t h i n the F i r s t  Regarding the r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  Hawthorn had noted i n h i s study of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n New  Zealand,  "With t h e r i s e of the s m a l l e r s o c i a l u n i t s and the decay o f t h e l a r g e r ones, has come a much g r e a t e r pan-Maori u n i t y " (1944:19). As d e s c r i b e d i n the Hawthorn-directed  survey, the Canadian  s i t u a t i o n i n t h e 1960s was marked by t h e emergence of a "new self-awareness  p r e v a l e n t i n Indian communities" which  e x p r e s s i o n " i n an ambiguous e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " 1967:161).  found  (Hawthorn  The s h i f t i n g p o p u l a t i o n base f o r the F i r s t  Nations  i n B r i t i s h Columbia c r e a t e d both problems and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a r e v i t a l i z e d l e a d e r s h i p with new parameters f o r p o l i t i c a l action. In t h e 1960s, hard q u e s t i o n s were asked by an i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e a d e r s h i p among the F i r s t N a t i o n s .  Concerns and  o b j e c t i v e s were being t r a n s l a t e d i n t o slogans and programmes. The  c a r e e r of Brenda T a y l o r serves t o i l l u s t r a t e the c h a l l e n g e s  and responses i n the area of e d u c a t i o n .  In 1971, when both o f  her daughters had entered s c h o o l , T a y l o r went l o o k i n g f o r employment t h a t would i n t e r e s t her.  On the a d v i c e o f her  b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , A l v i n McKay, an a d m i n i s t r a t o r w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Indian Education Page 69  Resources  Centre, T a y l o r entered the summer t r a i n i n g course f o r homes c h o o l c o o r d i n a t o r s g i v e n by A r t More and the l a t e Sterling.  At the end of the summer, the Indian  Resource Centre was  Robert  Education  h i r i n g c o o r d i n a t o r s f o r the Boarding Home  Programme which operated out of the f e d e r a l Indian A f f a i r s office.  T h i s programme worked w i t h F i r s t Nations  students  coming from r e s e r v e s t o a t t e n d h i g h s c h o o l i n urban a r e a s . c o o r d i n a t o r , T a y l o r was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r 70 t o 80 students i n  Vancouver and North Vancouver, g u i d i n g t h e i r placement adjustment from the moment she met virtually  As  and  them a t the a i r p o r t .  a 24 hour r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Looking back on  It  was  this  e x p e r i e n c e , she i s amazed t h a t the c o o r d i n a t o r s c o u l d cope w i t h the work l o a d .  In September of 1973,  t h i s programme was  turned  over t o the i n d i v i d u a l bands as p a r t of a p o l i c y t o p l a c e c o n t r o l of education d i r e c t l y i n the hands of the F i r s t  Nations.  T a y l o r became the c o u n s e l l o r f o r students from her home r e s e r v e , Bella Bella.  Work w i t h the Boarding Home Programme served  as  T a y l o r ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the a c t i v e and o f t e n d i s t u r b i n g l i f e of F i r s t Nations youth i n the urban environment. In 1974,  T a y l o r became a N a t i v e Indian Home-School Worker  w i t h the Vancouver School Board. a response  The home-school programme  t o requests from the Vancouver Indian Centre,  Musequeam Band and other F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o e d u c a t i o n problems i n the c i t y . who  were h i r e d i n the f i r s t  T a y l o r was  was  the address  one of t h r e e workers  year of the programme, and f o r over  a decade and a h a l f she used t h i s p o s i t i o n as the base f o r her Page 70  many endeavours on b e h a l f of F i r s t Nations youth. emphasizes her commitment t o work i n t h i s  Taylor  area.  I r e a l l y wanted t o work with N a t i v e youth. I c o u l d see t h a t t h e r e were so many concerns and i s s u e s t h a t people had when i t came t o urban Indian e d u c a t i o n . And I guess one o f the t h i n g s I wanted was t o see what I c o u l d do t o h e l p , t o a s s i s t , t o e s t a b l i s h programmes, t o improve Indian e d u c a t i o n f o r urban Indian students. [Taylor interview, June 1989] One o f t h e major problems was the s c h o o l drop out r a t e , a r a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r members of the F i r s t N a t i o n s . laments, "So few of our Indian students school"  (Ibid.).  Taylor  graduate from high  In the mid 1970s, an ad hoc a d v i s o r y committee  was formed t o study t h i s problem and t o c o n s i d e r the s p e c i a l needs o f F i r s t Nations  students.  The committee c o n s i s t e d o f  s c h o o l p e r s o n n e l , Native Indian Home-School Workers, u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s and F i r s t Nations  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from t h e community.  Through the i n i t i a t i v e of t h i s committee, Dr. Joe Handley wrote the p r o p o s a l f o r Kum Tuks, the f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e programme i n Vancouver f o r F i r s t Nations  school  students.  T h i s was an  i n n o v a t i v e programme and implementation r e q u i r e d shrewd e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o meet i d e n t i f i a b l e needs, diplomacy t o maintain  support w i t h i n the F i r s t Nations  p o l i t i c a l savvy t o convince sponsor the programme.  community, and  the Vancouver School Board t o  T a y l o r speaks with p r i d e about t h i s  e f f o r t and other p r o j e c t s she promoted i n the e a r l y years o f her c a r e e r t o s t i m u l a t e p o s i t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l experiences Nations  for First  students.  Another r e a l l y e x c i t i n g t h i n g t h a t happened i n 1975, t h e Page 71  Vancouver Indian Centre c o n t a c t e d the Toronto I n d i a n Centre t o have a student exchange programme, and we r e c e i v e d f u n d i n g f e d e r a l l y . Three chaperons took, I b e l i e v e , 16 students t o Toronto f o r a week or nine days. So we f l e w t o Toronto, stayed a t the Indian Centre which was an experience and a h a l f . . . . And then we flew t o Edmonton and took the t r a i n back t o Vancouver. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] Another p r o j e c t was  the B r i t a n n i a N a t i v e Teen Club which  a c t i v e between 1976  and  1979.  was  During those y e a r s , as a member  of U n i t e d N a t i v e Nations L o c a l 108,  Taylor successfully applied  f o r f u n d i n g f o r a summer Native youth l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n programme a t B r i t a n n i a Community C e n t r e .  and  High s c h o o l  students r e c e i v e d two weeks t r a i n i n g , and then l e d a summer r e c r e a t i o n a l programme f o r elementary Vancouver.  In 1977,  T a y l o r was  students from a l l over  i n v o l v e d w i t h an ad  committee t o save the Native Education Centre.  hoc  With the h e l p of  Member of Parliament A r t Lee, committee members n e g o t i a t e d w i t h Indian A f f a i r s .  "He was  r e a l l y one of the f i r s t  politicians  t h a t I had been i n v o l v e d w i t h t o seek funding f o r N a t i v e programmes.  I t was  through h i s a s s i s t a n c e l o b b y i n g f o r funds  f o r the N a t i v e Education Centre t h a t i t d i d s t a y open" ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  A r t Lee was  not r e e l e c t e d .  Taylor  e x p l a i n s the p o l i t i c a l dynamics, "...we went t o John F r a s e r t o a s s i s t us i n the area of l o b b y i n g f o r money, and he has been v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of the needs of urban Indians and I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n and N a t i v e youth... ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  We  really urban  go where we have t o go"  The committee e v o l v e d i n t o the  Urban N a t i v e Indian Education S o c i e t y which now  Page 72  governs the  N a t i v e E d u c a t i o n Centre. to  achieve pragmatic  A core of d e d i c a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s worked  o b j e c t i v e s through the f l u i d s t r u c t u r e and  l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s o f ad hoc committees. ability  t o understand  They developed t h e  and u t i l i z e p o l i t i c a l  forces, bureaucratic  systems, even t h e media as resources f o r t h e i r  B.  cause.  ESTABLISHING THE NATIVE INDIAN YOUTH ADVISORY SOCIETY By t h e f a l l of 1977, T a y l o r and her co-workers f e l t t h e r e  was a need f o r a Native Indian Youth A d v i s o r y Committee which would meet on a r e g u l a r b a s i s , s i m i l a r i n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o t h e one  i n v o l v e d w i t h the Kum Tuks programme.  challenge:  Taylor explains t h e i r  "How we c o u l d work t o g e t h e r , how we c o u l d network,  when i t came t o t h e needs and concerns we had, and the i s s u e s , of N a t i v e youth"  ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  One of t h e  f i r s t a c t i v i t i e s the group undertook was the C u l t u r a l Enrichment Workers programme.  The Native Indian Youth A d v i s o r y Committee  secured funding from the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e and t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n f o r the 1978 p i l o t  p r o j e c t , and the Vancouver School  Board c o n t i n u e d the programme a f t e r the f i r s t y e a r . couple o f summers, the committee arranged  For a  funding t o h i r e  Native  I n d i a n C u l t u r a l Enrichment Workers f o r a N a t i v e s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m p r o j e c t a t B r i t a n n i a w i t h high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . proved to  This  "very e x c i t i n g because i t gave d i f f e r e n t kinds o f s k i l l s  students who were i n v o l v e d i n i t " ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June  1989).  In 1983, the committee a c q u i r e d o f f i c i a l s t a t u s as a nonPage 73  p r o f i t s o c i e t y , and became t h e N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y Society  (NIYAS).  F o r many y e a r s , T a y l o r served as p r e s i d e n t o f  NIYAS.  The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e s o c i e t y a r e o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s :  a)  t o promote l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e and meaningful d i r e c t i o n f o r N a t i v e youth and N a t i v e People. b) t o improve t h e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o N a t i v e youth and N a t i v e People. c) t o develop s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n programs f o r N a t i v e c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s . d) t o improve t h e q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r N a t i v e peoples i n Vancouver. e) t o promote the t o t a l community's understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of N a t i v e people and t h e i r c u l t u r a l [sic]. f) t o encourage f u l l e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n of people o f N a t i v e a n c e s t r y i n e d u c a t i o n a l and community a f f a i r s . g) t o promote t h e c r e a t i o n of b e t t e r understanding w i t h i n Indian groups and between Indian and non-Indian groups and c i t i z e n s f o r t h e g e n e r a l b e n e f i t s o f N a t i v e people. [NIYAS 1989] The  f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n was p r o v i d e d as background f o r t h e  work o f t h e s o c i e t y . B r i t i s h Columbia has the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e people l i v i n g o f f r e s e r v e s . . • . By 1980, t h e r e were approximately 25,000 people of n a t i v e descent l i v i n g i n Vancouver; Over 50% of these were 19 o r younger. These f i g u r e s have i n c r e a s e d s i n c e t h a t time.... Poverty, a l c o h o l i s m , s u i c i d e and c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n are both cause and e f f e c t of t h e c u r r e n t h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g n a t i v e youth. D i f f i c u l t i e s with the school system a r e expressed i n a h i g h l y d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e drop-out nTct't'S • • • •  That n a t i v e youth f i n d so l i t t l e v a l u e o r m o t i v a t i o n i n mainstream s c h o o l i n g r e s u l t s i n a l i e n a t i o n from t h e system o f support which a r e channeled through t h e s c h o o l s , such as p r o v i s i o n of medical t e s t i n g and r e f e r r a l , m o n i t o r i n g of abuse, and c o u n s e l l i n g . Even f o r those students who remain i n s c h o o l , such s e r v i c e s a r e seldom p e r c e i v e d t o meet t h e i r needs. Thus, t h e needs o f both drop-outs and students tend t o be p o o r l y served. Youth unemployment i n the lower mainland i s v e r y h i g h . I t i s estimated t o be t h r e e t o f o u r times h i g h e r among N a t i v e Youth. P e t t y crime and s u i c i d e a r e common Page 74  responses t o the p e r c e p t i o n of a c l o s e d s o c i a l and economic system. [NIYAS 1989; u n d e r l i n i n g i n o r i g i n a l ] The s o c i e t y operated on a p r o j e c t by p r o j e c t b a s i s , s e l e c t i n g o r d e v e l o p i n g i d e a s or movements which f i t t h e i r Funding was  objectives.  secured p r i m a r i l y from government sources through  a c t i v e grantsmanship  e f f o r t on T a y l o r ' s p a r t .  an  Matching  p o t e n t i a l funding sources w i t h s e l e c t e d NIYAS a c t i v i t i e s accomplished w i t h e x t e n s i v e networking and c o n t a c t s .  was  Programmes  sponsored by the s o c i e t y have i n c l u d e d summer r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes, h e r i t a g e awareness programmes, c o u n s e l l i n g ,  and  F i r s t Nations youth c o n f e r e n c e s . A h i g h p r o f i l e programme f o r NIYAS has been S p i r i t Song N a t i v e I n d i a n Theatre Company which s t a r t e d i n 1981.  Two  years  b e f o r e , T a y l o r supported young F i r s t Nations a c t o r s a u d i t i o n i n g for  a t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n by Campbell  Smith.  s e l e c t e d , but the p l a y about teenagers was it  t o u r e d i n Europe the second summer.  They were not  so w e l l r e c e i v e d t h a t  T a y l o r asked Smith t o  e s t a b l i s h a F i r s t Nations youth t h e a t r e which he d i d the f o l l o w i n g summer.  With obvious p r i d e , T a y l o r e x p l a i n s t h a t the  s t u d e n t s , a l l i n high s c h o o l , came up w i t h the name " S p i r i t Song" d u r i n g the f i r s t of  summer.  "That's k i n d of neat.  a neat name too" ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  I t ' s kind  The t h e a t r e  programme i s i n s p i r e d by a b o r i g i n a l images. The n a t u r a l elements of drama was interwoven i n t o the f a b r i c of the f i r s t peoples s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . From these powerful t h e a t r i c a l r o o t s S p i r i t Song through i t s Theatre A r t s Program i s r e c a l l i n g those a b o r i g i n a l dramatic t a l e n t s and b l e n d i n g them w i t h standard t h e a t r e p r a c t i c e . [NIYAS - S p i r i t Song brochure] Page 75  During the s c h o o l year 1987-88, S p i r i t Song, i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , o f f e r e d a c e r t i f i c a t e programme i n F i r s t Nations t h e a t r e a r t s s t u d i e s . 1989,  In  T a y l o r e x p l a i n e d NIYAS p r i o r i t i e s as funding t o c o n t i n u e  t h i s programme, t o h i r e an a d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r the t h e a t r e company and t o produce  new p l a y s .  T a y l o r expresses p a r t i c u l a r p r i d e i n the c o n f e r e n c e s t h a t NIYAS has o r g a n i z e d . W e l l , we f e l t i t was r e a l l y important t h a t we s e n s i t i z e t e a c h e r s t o the needs of urban Indians and urban I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . So we had the f i r s t conference i n , I b e l i e v e , 1977, December or maybe i t was November.... One hundred attended workshops a t B r i t a n n i a Centre w i t h r e s o u r c e people d e a l i n g with the i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the e d u c a t i o n of urban and m i g r a t i n g Indians, t h a t i s what we c a l l e d i t . And i n 1979, the f o l l o w up of t h a t conference, where we r e c e i v e d funding, and i t was c a l l e d Urban Con I I . And a t t h a t conference t h e r e were over 200 people i n attendance. ...and from t h a t we decided t o have a j o i n t N a t i v e I n d i a n / M u l t i c u l t u r a l conference.... From t h a t conference, i t was d e c i d e d t h a t we should take a look a t an Indigeneous E d u c a t i o n Conference. And I was not the c o o r d i n a t o r of t h a t c o n f e r e n c e . I t was Verna K i r k n e s s and Howard Gray. That was the conference they h e l d a t UBC i n 1987, June of 1987. F i f t e e n hundred from throughout the world attended. I was on the p l a n n i n g committee f o r t h a t . And s i n c e , we have had our l a s t one which i s the N a t i v e Youth Conference [May 1989].... I t was r e a l l y g r e a t t o have such a conference. They came from a l l over Canada, the t e r r i t o r i e s , as w e l l as northwest U n i t e d S t a t e s . And what was r e a l l y neat about i t was t h a t probably two t h i r d s of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . And so i t was important f o r us t o have N a t i v e youth students i n v o l v e d on the p l a n n i n g committee. They p i c k e d the type of workshops t h a t they wanted. And then they were very i n v o l v e d a t the conference as volunteers.... I t was very demanding, but w e ' l l p r o b a b l y have another one. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989]  The N a t i v e Youth Conference  i n May  1989 was  Page 76  sponsored by NIYAS,  the P r o f e s s i o n a l N a t i v e Women's A s s o c i a t i o n and the UBC of Anthropology (MOA).  The  r o l e of MOA  Museum  a s s i s t i n g i n the  o r g a n i z a t i o n and h o s t i n g of F i r s t Nations  conferences  and  other  programmes i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Nine. The  d r a f t NIYAS funding s o l i c i t a t i o n statement  w i t h these  concludes  thoughts.  NIYAS IS A LEGITIMATE ESTABLISHED COMMUNITY SERVICE w i t h a r e c o r d of accomplishment and demonstrated a d m i n i s t r a t i v e competence which has been a source of p r i d e t o the o f f r e s e r v e n a t i v e community i n Vancouver s i n c e 1977.... NOW IS THE TIME TO FINALLY RECOGNIZE AND SUPPORT THIS ESSENTIAL SERVICE PROVIDED TO THE OFF-RESERVE NATIVE COMMUNITY. [NIYAS 1989; Two  underlining i n original]  p o i n t s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s appeal.  F i r s t , as NIYAS  matured, i t had t o r e a s s u r e p o t e n t i a l funders c r e d e n t i a l s and a u t h o r i t y .  And  second, i t had t o expand i t s  funding base i n order t o maintain determination,  Taylor states,  about i t s  its activities.  " U n t i l we  With q u i e t  get the funding we  need  i n p l a c e , you know, I won't be happy" ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989) .  C.  NIYAS CO-SPONSORSHIP OF THE During  NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT  the 1977-78 l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n  programmes a t B r i t a n n i a , c o n t a c t was Madeline Rowan, education c u r a t o r at  made between T a y l o r  and  MOA.  I t was d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d t h a t Madeline had approached us t o see i f she c o u l d do, I guess, N a t i v e c u l t u r a l workshops w i t h students i n v o l v e d with the summer programme a t B r i t a n n i a . And so I s a i d t o her, r a t h e r than have you come up and do t h i s , why don't we c o n s i d e r t r a i n i n g N a t i v e Indian high school students t o do t h i s work. And so from Page 77  t h a t came about the j o i n t sponsorship of the programme. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] From the f i r s t , T a y l o r was Conveying ho"  impressed w i t h Rowan's  enthusiasm.  obvious r e s p e c t , T a y l o r s t a t e s , "Madeline was  ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  A working  so gung  relationship  developed which l e f t programme p l a n n i n g and s u p e r v i s i o n i n the hands of museum s t a f f guided by Rowan. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was For the f i r s t summer.  a l s o assumed by MOA  staff.  f o u r y e a r s , T a y l o r took p a r t i n the h i r i n g  T a y l o r i s q u i c k t o p o i n t out o t h e r s who  b e h a l f of the NYP  each  have worked on  through NIYAS, such as Evans Stewart, Rose  P o i n t and R i t a Barnes. ongoing  More and more  The Musqueam Band has a l s o had  an  i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t , e s p e c i a l l y the second year when  Glen G u e r i n and a group of students from Musqueam worked w i t h the p r o j e c t . By the l a t e 1980s, NIYAS involvement  i n the NYP  p r i m a r i l y as sponsor of funding a p p l i c a t i o n s . for  summer 1989  The  was  application  i l l u s t r a t e s both T a y l o r ' s commitment and  T r a c k i n g the progress of Employment and Immigration  style.  Canada g r a n t  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the summer t r a i n i n g programme, T a y l o r was h o r r i f i e d t o d i s c o v e r t h a t the NYP  was  "Native" a p p l i c a t i o n because i t was  not being c o n s i d e r e d as a  j o i n t l y sponsored w i t h  MOA,  a non-Native o r g a n i z a t i o n . Nobody t o l d me t h a t they weren't going t o honour a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t any more, but then I'm not on the D i s t r i c t A d v i s o r y Board, because when I was on t h e r e , I knew about the changes as they came up. Quite s u r p r i s e d me when we found out t h a t they would not fund i t under the N a t i v e programmes. And a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n s , they s a i d they would fund i t i f i t were done by a N a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . And so Page 78  we had t o , f o r the f i r s t time, take o f f the cosponsorship, although i t s t i l l i s , r i g h t , i t ' s not on paper. And I t h i n k t h a t has a l o t t o do w i t h s a y i n g t h a t they want s e l f government.... I know some of the members of the D i s t r i c t A d v i s o r y Board when I was s i t t i n g on t h e r e f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t they d i d not want non-Native sponsors f o r anything as f a r as funding was concerned. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] The NYP  d i d r e c e i v e funding t h a t year and the f o l l o w i n g y e a r  through NIYAS.  T h i s arrangement t i e d MOA  more c l o s e l y t o the  bookkeeping and management p r a c t i c e s of NIYAS. Rowan, and then the d i r e c t o r of MOA, of D i r e c t o r s .  served on the NIYAS Board  With the change i n funding arrangements, a  s t a f f member was  asked t o a s s i s t i n o r g a n i z i n g and  the bookkeeping. proved  For some time,  The work was  t o be a d i f f i c u l t  d e c i s i o n i n l a t e 1990  monitoring  done on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s .  This  s i t u a t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  not t o seek funding f o r the NYP  u s u a l manner from Employment and Immigration  i n the  Canada, but t o  a l t e r the programme so t h a t i t c o u l d be handled through c o n t r o l l e d funding  MOA  MOA  sources.  A couple of terms stand out i n the NYP f u n d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s — " h e r i t a g e " and  d e s c r i p t i o n s and  "leadership."  Taylor  e x p l a i n e d the meaning of the terms. When you apply f o r funding, you have t o use the r i g h t jargon t o prove the uniqueness of whatever i t i s you are going a f t e r , r i g h t ? And so t h a t i s probably why t h a t was thrown i n . But you know, i t was r e a l l y important f o r us t o have t h a t c u l t u r a l component, N a t i v e c u l t u r a l component. I don't want t o say taught t o the k i d s . They were taught about i t by Madeline, and a f t e r g i v e n the knowledge, they turned around and used i t i n presentations. Leadership, I t h i n k t h a t i s r e a l l y important. The young people are the f u t u r e l e a d e r s of the N a t i v e p e o p l e . And I t h i n k i t i s r e a l l y important t o t r y t o g i v e them the Page 79  o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a r t l o o k i n g a t employment, a t what w i l l be p r e p a r i n g them f o r the f u t u r e , p r e p a r i n g them t o be a b l e t o know how t o compete f o r work, t o f u r t h e r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , whatever. Because without any o f , without those, you know, people j u s t don't, won't, r e a l l y get anywhere. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] T a y l o r ' s r e s p e c t f o r the s t u d e n t s ' response t o the NYP had grown d u r i n g the course  of the programme.  much they l e a r n e d . . . .  I t was very impressive  gone so f a r " and t h a t the students confidence"  "I was r e a l l y amazed  had gained  ( T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989).  how  f o r me t h a t i t had "so much more  Considering the  f u t u r e of the NYP, T a y l o r would encourage more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n conferences,  e s p e c i a l l y anthropology  p r o j e c t members would g i v e workshops. indigenous  countries" (Ibid.).  Conference i n New The  conferences,  where the  "And a l s o t o t r a v e l t o  The 1990 World Indigenous  Zealand was o f f e r e d as a p o s s i b l e example.  p a r t n e r s h i p with MOA  s t i l l held a t t r a c t i v e  possibilities.  T a y l o r c o u l d e n v i s i o n a d d i t i o n a l funding p r o p o s a l s t o p r o v i d e NYP members w i t h advanced t r a i n i n g and work experience i n v a r i o u s departments a t the museum.  D.  COPING WITH THE URBANIZATION OF FIRST NATIONS YOUTH E d u c a t i o n a l programming  f o r the F i r s t Nations  was  e x p e r i e n c i n g major r e o r i e n t a t i o n when T a y l o r entered the f i e l d i n the e a r l y 1970s.  As people of the F i r s t Nations  moved o f f  the r e s e r v e s , the Department of Indian A f f a i r s no l o n g e r had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r routine social services. funding  New  s t r a t e g i e s and  sources were r e q u i r e d t o address e s c a l a t i n g s o c i a l  Page 80  problems w i t h i n the urban based F i r s t Nations community. the 1960s, the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  t o address these problems  had been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a search f o r new  approaches w i t h  a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of F i r s t Nations l e a d e r s . e d u c a t i o n a l programming developed  From  the  T r a i n i n g and  which were more r e s p o n s i v e t o  immediate needs, such as employment and group p r i d e , r a t h e r than to  formal needs such as a c c r e d i t a t i o n .  With p o l i t i c a l savvy  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a l t e r n a t i v e systems evolved, adapted and  and  gained  support.  Some of the a l t e r n a t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l systems, such  satellite  h i g h schools and the N a t i v e Indian Teacher E d u c a t i o n  Program a t UBC,  as  were r e c o g n i z e d and f u n c t i o n e d w i t h i n the  mainstream s t r u c t u r e .  Other F i r s t Nations e d u c a t i o n a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n s remained independent, nonetheless c o n s t i t u t e d t o meet requirements  f o r government funding, such as the N a t i v e  E d u c a t i o n Centre and NIYAS.  Summarizing developments i n the  f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n i n the 1970s and  1980s, a shadow s t r u c t u r e of  a l t e r n a t i v e systems evolved t o muster resources f o r F i r s t Nations youth.  The  s t r u c t u r e of ad hoc committees summoned the  commitment and t a l e n t s necessary t o accomplish  d i f f i c u l t tasks.  Networking and grantsmanship c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s movement. A c c o u n t a b i l i t y w i t h i n t h i s shadow s t r u c t u r e was  not f o r m a l i z e d  but f u n c t i o n e d more on a b a s i s of e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p l e a v i n g q u e s t i o n s about the d i s t r i b u t i o n of b e n e f i t s and the effectiveness.  A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of t h i s s i t u a t i o n was  e f f o r t t o r e c l a i m a u t h o r i t y and i n i t i a t i v e by F i r s t leaders.  overall  T h i s t r e n d was  apparent  the  Nations  i n p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l , such  Page 81  as  the D i s t r i c t A d v i s o r y Board f o r government funding  allocations,  i n conferences designed t o a r t i c u l a t e and b u i l d support F i r s t Nations p o i n t of view, and i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e (Ames 1987). t h i s e d u c a t i o n a l movement. F i r s t Nations  T a y l o r was  f o r the of  deeply i n v o l v e d i n  She had d e d i c a t e d her c a r e e r t o  youth.  The o b j e c t i v e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s which motivated p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r understanding  Taylor  the dynamics of the  situation.  While many of the problems were obvious, c l a r i f y i n g the c o n t e x t c o u l d be q u i t e complex.  C u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y per se c o u l d be  problematic. From my p e r s p e c t i v e anyway, i f you are p a r t N a t i v e , t h e r e ' s no way anybody can say t h a t you're not I n d i a n . . . . But so much depends on the person t o o . ...over the years i n my work, t h e r e have been Native people who have moved t o the c i t y t h a t d i d n ' t want t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h N a t i v e programmes. They d i d n ' t want t o have s p e c i f i c programmes f o r t h e i r k i d s . Mainly because, they s a i d , we moved o f f the r e s e r v e , we moved i n t o the urban area and we want t o be t r e a t e d l i k e everybody e l s e . So go away and don't bother us. And I r e s p e c t t h a t , i f t h a t i s t h e i r f e e l i n g , I don't see, you know, why people should push themselves onto f a m i l i e s . Because i f I f e l t something s t r o n g l y myself and people t r i e d t o come t o me, r i g h t , and I d i d n ' t agree w i t h whatever, I would l e t them know. So I t h i n k i t i s important t o l e t Native people make t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on what i t i s they want out of l i f e . [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] T a y l o r balanced a r e s p e c t f o r i n d i v i d u a l c h o i c e w i t h a c o n v i c t i o n about s p e c i a l s t a t u s f o r the F i r s t  Nations,  r e m i n i s c e n t of the " c i t i z e n p l u s " approach (Hawthorn  1966,  1967). I b e l i e v e N a t i v e has t o be kept separate and not c o n s i d e r e d as a m u l t i c u l t u r a l group, because I t h i n k we are unique as indigenous people of North America. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989]  Page 82  T a y l o r expressed and  optimism about m a i n t a i n i n g  indigenous  language, and even spoke of self-government.  Nations  h e r i t a g e s t u d i e s a r e an important  culture  F o r her,  First  element i n r e t a i n i n g  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y , and serve as an i n d i c a t i o n of community vitality. I r e a l l y t h i n k t h a t people i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e r e a l l y f o r t u n a t e , N a t i v e people, t h a t they a r e a b l e t o t r y t o keep t h e i r c u l t u r e and t h e i r h i s t o r y . I t i s r e a l l y , f o r me, g r e a t t o see Native people having Indian d i c t i o n a r i e s and having Indian s t o r i e s i n t h e i r language being taught i n schools. I t was almost l o s t , and i t i s r e a l l y g r e a t s e e i n g a l l o f t h a t coming back. And I t h i n k t h e N a t i v e Youth Conference and other conferences t h a t we have had [ a r e great]. [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] Membership i n the urban Native community has l e v e l s o f complication —  p e r s o n a l c h o i c e , a n c e s t r y and u p b r i n g i n g .  t h e r e i s a great d e a l of d i v e r s i t y among the F i r s t  While  Nations,  t h e r e i s a l s o a r e c o g n i t i o n of shared v a l u e s and a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour.  A fundamental commitment t o and support  c h a r a c t e r i z e s T a y l o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of F i r s t Nations  from f a m i l y values.  ...at l e a s t where I have come from, f a m i l y i s r e a l l y important. And t h a t i s a l s o a p a r t o f what was i n s t i l l e d i n us when we were young i s you look out f o r your b r o t h e r and your s i s t e r and your c o u s i n s . You r e s p e c t your aunts and u n c l e s and e l d e r s and t h a t . And t h a t i s r e a l l y important, a t l e a s t f o r me. I r e a l l y have a hugh f a m i l y , sometimes I can't keep t r a c k . . . And now I have a grandson, and t h a t i s so important t o my l i f e . [Taylor interview] T a y l o r ' s experience Nations  coping with the u r b a n i z a t i o n of F i r s t  youth had l e d her t o i d e n t i f y t h r e e major problems t o  be addressed —  school drop out, employment and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  To me, though, I t h i n k being N a t i v e t h e r e i s no two ways about i t , there i s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n out t h e r e . And people are not going t o l i k e you and not t h i n k much of you because of your r a c e . And I t h i n k i t i s r e a l l y important t o l e t Page 83  N a t i v e c h i l d r e n a t an e a r l y age when they can understand what i s going on, t o l e t them know they a r e going t o come a c r o s s people t h a t a r e r a c i s t s . And t o prepare themselves. And I t h i n k one r e a l l y needs t h a t i f they a r e going t o s u r v i v e . And I t h i n k t h a t was one t h i n g I r e a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d with my mother, my f a t h e r , they taught us, e s p e c i a l l y my mum, even b e f o r e we c o u l d speak E n g l i s h , you know. L i k e when we went t o r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l , we c o u l d n ' t speak E n g l i s h because a l l we spoke was Indian a t home. But, I thought i t was r e a l l y so important i n ones l i f e , and I remembered i t . I have done t h a t w i t h my c h i l d r e n , you know when they were s m a l l , I d i d t h e same t o them. And when I work w i t h Indian students w i t h my work, when they get upset about people t h a t a r e c r u e l t o them because they are N a t i v e , I t r y so hard t o help them t o say t h a t you have to expect t h i s and t a l k t o them about i t . And I always l i k e t o say, w e l l you a r e not t h e o n l y ones because you a r e N a t i v e . Because t h e r e a r e a l o t of other people out t h e r e who get d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t t o o because of who they a r e , l i k e t h e Chinese, the Japanese, t h e E a s t I n d i a n , t h e Jew, whatever, r i g h t . I t i s not o n l y N a t i v e . I t r y t o always p o i n t t h a t out.... But I t h i n k i t i s r e a l l y important f o r one t o f e e l proud of themselves. You have t o t o d e a l w i t h the r e a l l i f e out t h e r e . [ T a y l o r i n t e r v i e w , June 1989] For T a y l o r , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n had t o be r e c o g n i z e d f o r what i t was. I n d i v i d u a l s must f e e l proud of themselves s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h e f f e c t s of r a c i s m .  i n o r d e r t o cope  The acknowledgement o f  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n was juxtaposed t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n of s p e c i a l status.  With t h i s background understanding, t h e problems o f  academic achievement and economic s e c u r i t y were a r t i c u l a t e d . T a y l o r ' s c a r e e r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e way i n which t h e F i r s t Nations community has addressed t h e c h a l l e n g e s of an u r b a n i z e d life,  b u i l d i n g on some i n h e r e n t v a l u e s and adopting v a r i o u s  survivial strategies.  The m i s s i o n , however, i s f o r m i d a b l e .  The  o b j e c t i v e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s put forward by T a y l o r and NIYAS a r e summarized i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . 1.  Improve t h e q u a l i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l experience f o r F i r s t  Page 84  N a t i o n s students. activities  T h i s i n c l u d e s e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programmes  as w e l l as more e f f e c t i v e academic t r a i n i n g .  a d d i t i o n , t h i s r e q u i r e s h e a l t h and w e l f a r e the N a t i v e education  Youth Conference i n 1989, as  "our new  t h i s phrase was  buffalo."  turned  and  c o n t r o l over t h e i r  2.  Provide  support s e r v i c e s .  At  a speaker r e f e r r e d t o  L a t e r , at the c l o s i n g banquet,  hope f o r r e c l a i m i n g  law  authority  future.  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  T h i s means a measure of  f i n a n c i a l independence f o r F i r s t Nations students, preparation,  In  i n t o a slogan by a F i r s t N a t i o n s  student summarizing a p r e v a l e n t  and  and  serves  as  along w i t h improved academic t r a i n i n g , f o r  s u c c e s s f u l l y competing i n the f u t u r e job market. employment/training programmes such as the NYP  T h i s makes  particularly  attractive. 3.  Develop l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and  experiences.  As  e x p l a i n s , they are the f u t u r e l e a d e r s of the F i r s t E f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i s necessary f o r the administration  Taylor  Nations.  continuing  of F i r s t Nations programmes and preserves  o p t i o n of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and Taylor incorporates  self-government.  students i n t o the o r g a n i z i n g  where they can p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p l a n n i n g  the  To do  this,  committees  and d e c i s i o n making.  E a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , T a y l o r i n s i s t e d t h a t p r o j e c t managers f o r the NYP 4.  be from the F i r s t N a t i o n s .  Confront d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  T a y l o r worked t o g i v e the  general  p u b l i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o see F i r s t Nations youth i n p o s i t i v e ways.  A s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e of NIYAS was Page 85  "to promote the  total  community's understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n of N a t i v e people" (NIYAS 1989).  Complementing the p u b l i c awareness e f f o r t s  development of a c o n f i d e n t c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y .  T h i s was  was  built  on  the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t F i r s t Nations youth can d e a l more e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h consequences of r a c i s m i f they have a secure p r i d e i n t h e i r own  heritage.  A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h MOA  was  advantageous f o r r e a l i z i n g aspects of these o b j e c t i v e s , and i n the course of the p r o j e c t , many e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by Brenda T a y l o r and NIYAS were f u l f i l l e d . the founding of the NYP  The other h a l f of the s t o r y of  i s d e s c r i b e d i n the next c h a p t e r  the work and a s p i r a t i o n s of Madeline Rowan, MOA  curator  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the museum's e d u c a t i o n a l programming.  Page 86  through  VI.  MADELINE BRONSDON ROWAN AND MUSEUM EDUCATION  PROGRAMMING  Brenda T a y l o r devoted her c a r e e r t o t h e s u r v i v a l o f F i r s t N a t i o n s people i n t h e urban environment.  Madeline Rowan, as a  museum educator, p r o v i d e d mechanisms t o support t h i s endeavour w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e , i n t h e case of t h e NYP, of h e l p i n g young people become more p r o f i c i e n t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l and employment p r a c t i c e s o f t h e dominant c u l t u r e .  Rowan, t h e p r o j e c t  o r i g i n a t o r s e r v i n g as c u l t u r a l broker, not o n l y i n s t r u c t e d  youth  of t h e F i r s t Nations i n the academic s k i l l s o f r e s e a r c h , w r i t i n g and p u b l i c speaking, and i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l work e t h i c s o f contemporary Canadian  s o c i e t y , she a l s o designed p r e s e n t a t i o n s  of t h e indigenous c u l t u r e s of t h e Northwest Coast f o r t h e general p u b l i c .  B u i l d i n g a p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with  their  F i r s t Nations h e r i t a g e was c o n s i d e r e d t o be an important p a r t o f the programme treatment  for project participants.  This chapter  d e s c r i b e s t h e formation of t h e p r o j e c t and t h e development o f i t s s t r u c t u r e and s t r a t e g i e s .  A.  MOA CURATORIAL BACKGROUND FOR THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT C u r a t o r s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia  Anthropology  Museum o f  (MOA) v a l u e d a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e F i r s t  N a t i o n s o f t h e Northwest Coast.  Over t h e y e a r s , s t a f f has been  a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n a p p l i e d r e s e a r c h and programming w i t h and f o r the F i r s t Nations. was  In t h e 1960s and 1970s, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  m o d i f i e d as indigeous communities a s s e r t e d g r e a t e r  independence. Page 87  With t h e growing i n t e r e s t on many Reserves t o b u i l d museums, t h e r e have been i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n , photographic m a t e r i a l , as i n d i v i d u a l bands begin t o i n i t i a t e c u l t u r a l programs on t h e i r r e s e r v e s . [MOA S p e c i a l Grant A p p l i c a t i o n J u l y 1974, page 21] MOA s t a f f a l s o sought t o make "a c o n t r i b u t i o n toward t h e reawakening i n t e r e s t among urban Indian people t h e i r own t r a d i t i o n s "  (Ibid.:22).  i n l e a r n i n g about  Rowan was i n i t i a t e d  MOA o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e as a student.  into the  Her work was h e a v i l y  i n f l u e n c e d by Audrey Hawthorn who acknowledges her a s s i s t a n c e i n the r e c o r d keeping  and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Kwakiutl A r t ( 1 9 7 9 : x i ) .  Rowan e x p l a i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f MOA. S i n c e i t s beginning i n t h e l a t e 1940s t h i s museum has encouraged and been committed t o t h e involvement of n a t i v e Indian people i n i t s r e s e a r c h and i t s programming. [Rowan 1987a:6] Rowan r e c e i v e d her M.A. i n Anthropology from UBC i n 1966. Her s t u d i e s were v a r i e d , i n c l u d i n g p o l i t i c a l and economic anthropology  along w i t h museology.  F o l l o w i n g g r a d u a t i o n , her  o r i e n t a t i o n s t e a d i l y moved t o c o n s i d e r anthropology  as p a r t o f a  g e n e r a l l i b e r a l a r t s education, and she worked i n non-academic programmes and p u b l i c schools as w e l l as t e a c h i n g u n i v e r s i t y courses.  A p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t was t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e  F i r s t Nations curriculum.  i n the elementary s c h o o l s o c i a l s t u d i e s Rowan was f a s c i n a t e d with t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r  d e v e l o p i n g new e d u c a t i o n a l techniques  f o r museums based on  v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n and hands on a c t i v i t i e s .  Her i n t e r e s t s  i n c l u d e d e d u c a t i o n a l programming f o r the F i r s t  Nations.  Anything which can de-mystify l e a r n i n g , spark c u r i o u s i t y , and b r i n g t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n and t h r i l l o f success i n t h e e d u c a t i o n of t h e young i s d e s i r a b l e . So many Indian youth Page 88  face almost unimaginable o b s t a c l e s t o a c h i e v i n g these things. Museums hold p a r t of the key i n remedying t h i s s i t u a t i o n . We are the forum i n which new ideas about education can f l o u r i s h . L e t us hope we d e c i d e t o use the a u t h o r i t y , r e s o u r c e s , and powers we possess. [Rowan 1987b:35] In 1975,  as MOA  was  preparing  f o r i t s move t o the new  building,  Rowan r e c e i v e d her f u l l - t i m e appointment as museum c u r a t o r responsible  f o r educational  Rowan r e s i g n e d  from UBC  programming and department l e c t u r e r .  and the NYP  i n 1986,  southern C a l i f o r n i a upon the retirement The  success of the NYP  was  relocating in  of her husband.  c l o s e l y t i e d t o Rowan  p e r s o n a l l y , demonstrating the importance of d e d i c a t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g programmes.  With an e n t h u s i a t i c f l a i r , d e f i n i t e  c o n v i c t i o n s and b o l d determination, p r o j e c t s w i t h which she was  she c o n f i d e n t l y promoted  associated.  the  Rowan always had more  demands on her time than she c o u l d s a t i s f y . of a l l c u r a t o r s , but i t was  leadership  T h i s might be  true  p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent w i t h Rowan.  T h i s i n f l u e n c e d her o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t y l e and management techniques, Her  and  had  an impact on the development of the  p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r 1977-78 i n c l u d e d ,  a d d i t i o n t o her h a l f time t e a c h i n g  school programmes and  teacher  Identity,"  workshops,  s u p e r v i s i n g s p e c i a l workshops, l i a i s o n w i t h the F a c u l t y E d u c a t i o n and Native  in  l o a d i n the Department of  Anthropology, c u r a t i n g an e x h i b i t c a l l e d "Dress and c o o r d i n a t i n g MOA  NYP.  of  Indian Teacher E d u c a t i o n Programme,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Museums A s s o c i a t i o n E d u c a t i o n Committee, and,  i n various  Page 89  stages of development,  an  e d u c a t i o n a l v i d e o programme, t h e Touchables  C o l l e c t i o n with a  s p e c i a l programme f o r the b l i n d , and a N a t i v e Indian  youth  l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g workshop w i t h B r i t a n n i a Centre, an e a s t Vancouver community c e n t r e .  The l a t t e r evolved i n t o t h e NYP.  In a memorandum dated 27 November 1978, Rowan e x p l a i n e d t h e two l e v e l s of t h e B r i t a n n i a p r o j e c t . ...one i s t h e p r o v i s i o n of programmes r e l a t i n g t o I n d i a n c u l t u r e f o r young c h i l d r e n , t h e other i s t h e development o f experience among t h e a d o l e s c e n t Youth Leaders so t h a t they can #1 a s s i s t us w i t h programmes #2 g a i n s k i l l s which w i l l be u s e f u l t o them l a t e r #3 l e a r n enough t h a t they can b e g i n t o i n i t i a t e programmes with t h i s and other museu'ms. [NYP f i l e s ] The p l a n f o r the ensuing year  (1979) was t o h o l d t r a i n i n g  s e s s i o n s i n t h e s p r i n g f o r F i r s t Nations teenagers,  and then,  w i t h t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , organize programmes f o r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the summer.  T h i s was t o be a j o i n t p r o j e c t between MOA and t h e  community c e n t r e , i n i t i a l l y u s i n g f a c i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s a t the museum, but e v e n t u a l l y o p e r a t i n g the programme through  t h e community c e n t r e .  A t t h a t p o i n t , MOA s t a f f c o u l d  t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o developing programmes w i t h community c e n t r e s .  independently  other  In a l l cases, programmes would be developed  a p p r o p r i a t e l y f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r needs o f each community c e n t r e . These i d e a s were fundamentally implemented.  m o d i f i e d b e f o r e t h e NYP was  Rowan was pushing t h e scope of e d u c a t i o n a l  programming a t MOA beyond t r a d i t i o n a l academic and museum services.  T h i s had i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r MOA p o l i c i e s and commitment  of r e s o u r c e s . Page 90  By t h i s time, MOA had been o p e r a t i n g i n t h e new b u i l d i n g f o r two y e a r s , and i t i s important t o understand  t h e sense o f  purpose and c o n v i c t i o n which permeated t h e work o f t h e s t a f f a t t h a t time.  An a t t i t u d e of experimentation accompanied a l l  a s p e c t s o f o p e r a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and programming.  The V i s i b l e  Storage G a l l e r i e s made t h e back rooms of t h e museum a c c e s s i b l e t o everyone. innovative 1976  T h i s , however, was as c o n t r o v e r s i a l as i t was  (see Ames 1977, 1981, and 1986, Chapter  and 1978).  A new understanding about t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  c o l l e c t i o n s was s t e a d i l y d e v e l o p i n g . embarrassing,  The u n e d i t e d , o f t e n  a r t i f a c t data sheets were made a v a i l a b l e t o  r e s e a r c h e r s and p u b l i c a l i k e . developed  6; H a l p i n  Video programmes were b e i n g  f o r more g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  problem o f i n f o r m a t i o n was conceived i n a new way. l i t e r a c y " was promoted which s t r e s s e d thorough, o b s e r v a t i o n o f o b j e c t s themselves, labelling. contemplated  The  "Visual  critical  m i n i m i z i n g r e l i a n c e on  S c r i p t e d guided t o u r s were d i s c o u r a g e d as t h e s t a f f ways of changing v i s i t o r s from p a s s i v e s p e c t a t o r s  i n t o a c t i v e students  ( H a l p i n 1976).  Further, the e t h i c a l i s s u e s  of museology weighed h e a v i l y on t h e c u r a t o r s .  Rowan summarized  the i s s u e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e d r a f t o f a p r o j e c t manual. The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t a t U.B.C.'s Museum of Anthropology i s t h a t museums which a r e c u s t o d i a n s of n a t i v e Indian a r t i f a c t s have a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o i n v o l v e N a t i v e youth i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l and p u b l i c programming. To take t h i s c h a l l e n g e i s t o c a t a p u l t museums i n t o a new area - contemporary Indian c u l t u r e . P r o j e c t s l i k e t h e Page 91  N.Y.P. b r i n g n a t i v e Indians and t h e i r c u l t u r e , both p a s t and p r e s e n t , out of the realm of museum r e s e a r c h , c o n s e r v a t i o n , and stewardship, and p l a c e them s q u a r e l y i n the f o r e f r o n t of museum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . [Rowan 1987b:1] T h i s statement  was made a t the apex of a long process o f p r o j e c t  development and r e f l e c t s e v o l v i n g s e n s i b i l i t i e s a t MOA.  Over  the y e a r s , s e v e r a l elements had come t o g e t h e r t o generate t h e NYP:  1. a c u r a t o r d e d i c a t e d t o broadening  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f museum based anthropology,  the educational 2. an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c u l t u r e t h a t encouraged work w i t h the F i r s t Nations o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 3. a q u e s t i o n i n g of c o n v e n t i o n a l museum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n , and 4. t h e support and c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t s p r e s i d e n t Brenda T a y l o r .  B.  ESTABLISHING THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT Along w i t h her other a c t i v i t i e s i n 1978, Rowan o r g a n i z e d a  c r a f t workshop f o r t h e Musqueam Indian Band summer day camp. Rowan p o i n t s t o t h i s experience as t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e NYP. The workshop was conducted  w i t h H i l a r y Stewart,  a well respected  author and l e c t u r e r who s p e c i a l i z e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e of t h e Northwest Coast.  The summer workshop focussed on t h e  c o a s t a l f l o r a , e s p e c i a l l y the indigenous uses o f t h e cedar  tree.  I t was a hands-on workshop where p a r t i c i p a n t s l e a r n e d b a s i c techniques  f o r working w i t h t h e wood and bark o f t h e cedar  tree.  Rowan e x p l a i n s the c h i l d r e n ' s r e a c t i o n . The c h i l d r e n were s u p e r v i s e d by Musqueam teenagers, and i t r a p i d l y became c l e a r t o us t h a t these young people Page 92  knew as l i t t l e about how t h e i r a n c e s t o r s had u t i l i z e d t h e l o c a l environment as d i d t h e i r young charges. We d e c i d e d t o d e s i g n a programme f o r these o l d e r students, one i n which they would not o n l y l e a r n about t r a d i t i o n a l c o a s t a l Indian c u l t u r e but would a l s o be t r a i n e d t o share t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h museum v i s i t o r s . [Rowan 1987a:2] The P r o j e c t changed and matured through the 1980s, but t h e indigenous uses of cedar w i t h hands on experimentation  remained  a t t h e c o r e of t h e content w i t h the o b j e c t i v e of t r a i n i n g teenagers t o t e a c h o t h e r s about t r a d i t i o n a l , l a t e r expanded t o a l s o i n c l u d e contemporary, c u l t u r e o f the Northwest Coast. The  i n i t i a l content theme of cedar proved v e r y s u c c e s s f u l  f o r s e v e r a l reasons.  F i r s t , i t r e l a t e s t o t h e l o c a l environment  so m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e , and the t o p i c b u i l d s on common knowledge and a shared i n t e r e s t w i t h t h e community a t large.  Second, e x p e r t i s e was a v a i l a b l e from both t h e F i r s t  Nations and t h e academic world.  A t t h a t time, Wally Henry had  an a c t i v e programme on t r a d i t i o n a l cedar bark c r a f t s m a n s h i p a t the Coqualeetza Education T r a i n i n g Centre.  In 1983, H i l a r y  Stewart guest c u r a t e d a major e x h i b i t a t MOA, f o l l o w e d t h e next y e a r by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of her book, Cedar: Tree of L i f e t o t h e Northwest Coast Indians. the NYP.  T h i s served as a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e f o r  T h i r d , cedar p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r hands-on  a c t i v i t i e s ranging from c o l l e c t i n g bark i n t h e f o r e s t t o p r o c e s s i n g t h e raw m a t e r i a l i n t o mats, cordage and o t h e r  items.  These a c t i v i t i e s served as a foundation f o r study and r e s e a r c h which made i t d i f f e r e n t from s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n and allowed members t o then speak from p e r s o n a l experience d u r i n g t h e i r museum p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Page 93  L e a r n i n g t o handle m a t e r i a l s and a r t i f a c t s r e l a t e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g i e s e a r l y i n t h e i r t r a i n i n g a l s o makes a s t r o n g impression. I t deepens student r e s p e c t f o r t h e i n g e n u i t y and s k i l l of t h e i r a n c e s t o r s , and c o n s o l i d a t e s t h e i r sense of themselves as conveyors o f t h i s knowledge. [Rowan 1987b:7] F o u r t h , technology  i s a non-threatening  aspect o f c u l t u r e which  can be d i s c u s s e d i n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d manner. e x p l a i n e d , "the remarkably  And f i f t h ,  Rowan  r i c h r e p e r t o i r e of a r t i f a c t s which  used cedar i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n leads i n t o every aspect o f Northwest Coast Indian c u l t u r e . of  Thus t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l  t h e s u b j e c t i s enormous" ( I b i d . : 7 - 8 ) .  contemplating  Rowan a d v i s e d o t h e r s  s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s t o "begin w i t h one good theme and  do i t v e r y w e l l , but always s t r e t c h both t h e s t a f f and t h e students t o develop and r e f i n e t h i s and new themes when t h e opportunities arise"  (1987b:7).  I n s p i r e d by m i s s i o n and theme, Rowan sought support the N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y Committee. 1979,  through  By mid February  p l a n s were i n p l a c e f o r t h e "Native Youth H e r i t a g e and  Leadership T r a i n i n g Project." developed  The f i r s t year of t h e p r o j e c t was  and operated i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h B e v e r l y MacPherson,  e d u c a t i o n c o o r d i n a t o r a t the C e n t e n n i a l Museum ( l a t e r t h e Vancouver Museum).  The two museums o r g a n i z e d t h e t r a i n i n g and  public presentations.  The N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  Committee under the d i r e c t i o n of Brenda T a y l o r i n a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e B r i t a n n i a N a t i v e Teen Club administered t h e p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g funding and h i r i n g t h e student workers.  Through  T a y l o r , a grant was secured from t h e Canadian Department o f t h e  Page 94  S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e along with a d d i t i o n a l funding from the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of Labour. Rowan was  By  character,  a determined promoter with a s i n g u l a r a t t i t u d e toward  funding: ...budget r e s t r i c t i o n s should not be allowed t o l i m i t our i m a g i n a t i o n and our v i s i o n . We always chafed under the l i m i t s s e t by our g r a n t s , but we never l e t t h i s d e t e r us i n p l a n n i n g and a c h i e v i n g more ambitious g o a l s . [Rowan 1987b:9] Rowan's enthusiasm and museum based resources combined w i t h T a y l o r ' s p o l i t i c a l understanding t o i n i t i a t e the  and community based  resources  NYP.  F o l l o w i n g a meeting of the t h r e e p r i n c i p l e o r g a n i z e r s , b a s i c programme f o r the summer of 1979  was  sketched  l e t t e r from Rowan t o T a y l o r on 21 February 1979  the  out i n a  (NYP  files  and  r e c o r d s ) which served as the b a s i s f o r the funding a p p l i c a t i o n s . The  programme was  planned i n s e v e r a l stages t o accommodate 18  20 teenagers of F i r s t Nations  ancestry.  The  first  step would  the c o l l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n of cedar m a t e r i a l s at two workshops i n May  t o be l e d by Stewart and Rowan.  be  weekend  C o l l e c t i o n of  cedar bark, r o o t s and withes would take p l a c e at the  UBC  Research F o r e s t i n Haney and p r e p a r a t i o n would be done a t The  to  MOA.  nine weeks of f u l l - t i m e summer work f o r the teenagers would  s t a r t on June 25th with an i n t e n s i v e week long workshop making o b j e c t s from the v a r i o u s p a r t s of the cedar t r e e which would be used l a t e r i n p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . and  organized  T h i s would be h e l d a t  MOA  by Rowan and Stewart, drawing on the e x p e r t i s e of  Page 95  v a r i o u s F i r s t Nations r e s o u r c e people.  The second week would be  spent a t the C e n t e n n i a l Museum s u p e r v i s e d by MacPherson. were two o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s week.  There  F i r s t , the teenagers would  r e c e i v e b a s i c o r i e n t a t i o n and t r a i n i n g r a n g i n g from museum e d u c a t i o n t o the h a n d l i n g of a r t i f a c t s .  Second, they would be  i n t r o d u c e d t o the B e l l a Coola e d u c a t i o n a l programme. With t h i s background,  the teenagers would begin the t h i r d  week working on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s . available.  Four c h o i c e s were  Not more than s i x teenagers would s t a y on a t the  C e n t e n n i a l Museum as "student docents" working on the B e l l a C o o l a programme t o be i n v o l v e d w i t h a l l a s p e c t s of r e s e a r c h i n g , p r e p a r i n g , promoting, p r e s e n t i n g and r e p o r t i n g .  At MOA,  the  teenagers would prepare a s h o r t p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n on the t r a d i t i o n a l uses of the cedar t r e e t o be g i v e n i n the /  p a r t of J u l y and August on a scheduled b a s i s .  latter  These  p r e s e n t a t i o n s would use the m a t e r i a l prepared i n the e a r l i e r workshops and s e l e c t e d a r t i f a c t s from the MOA Collection.  P r o j e c t T - s h i r t s proclaimed t h e i r p o s i t i o n ,  Museum of Anthropology T r a i n e e . " activities.  Touchable "UBC  There were two o t h e r  The p r o j e c t members were t o develop a r e s o u r c e  on contemporary  Northwest  list  Coast a r t s and c r a f t s i n c l u d i n g a  b i b l i o g r a p h y of ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e .  T h i s work was  t o be  j o i n t l y s u p e r v i s e d through the p a r t i c i p a t i n g museums.  This  a c t i v i t y was  including  expanded i n t o a handbook f o r young people  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h prominent members of the F i r s t Nations and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of community o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Page 96  The f o u r t h  activity  was an i l l u s t r a t e d r e p o r t on t h e cedar workshops h e l d i n May and June.  T h i s was t o p r o v i d e documentation u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e  programme development.  In t h e l e t t e r of 21 February  1979, Rowan  made i t c l e a r t h a t she would be t a k i n g a year's l e a v e of absence from t h e u n i v e r s i t y beginning i n l a t e J u l y .  A t t h a t time, t h e  e x t e n s i o n c u r a t o r would take over s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e p r o j e c t a t MOA. In t h e f i r s t summer of t h e NYP, t h e group was s m a l l e r than proposed  w i t h twelve p a r t i c i p a n t s , s i x a t t h e C e n t e n n i a l Museum  f o c u s s i n g on t h e B e l l a Coola and s i x a t MOA working on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l uses of the cedar t r e e . a t MOA prepared a r e p o r t t i t l e d  In a d d i t i o n , t h e t r a i n e e s  "Learning a L i t t l e More about  C o a s t a l Indians Past and Present" which i n c l u d e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h e i g h t F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e student docents a t the C e n t e n n i a l Museum prepared i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t s on v a r i o u s topics.  The e x p e c t a t i o n s were high which r e s u l t e d i n some  f r u s t r a t i o n and even e x a s p e r a t i o n .  As w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e teenage p r o j e c t members l a c k e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y and the experience t o i n i t i a t e and c a r r y out t a s k s on t h e i r own. required. involvement  C o n t i n u a l guidance  and s u p e r v i s i o n were  The C e n t e n n i a l Museum d i d not c o n t i n u e i t s w i t h t h e NYP a f t e r t h e summer of 1979.  The approach  a t MOA proved more s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h e group concluded t h e summer w i t h a memorandum t o t h e d i r e c t o r of MOA p r o p o s i n g t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n s continue through the w i n t e r .  L e t t e r s of i n t e r e s t  from f i v e of t h e s i x p a r t i c i p a n t s were a t t a c h e d . Page 97  Although on  l e a v e by t h i s time, Rowan promoted the p r o j e c t w i t h the d i r e c t o r of MOA.  Funding from the Canadian Department of the  of S t a t e was initiated.  secured, and  the NYP  w i n t e r programme  Much of the p r a c t i c a l work the f i r s t  study e f f o r t s and p r e p a r i n g  r e p o r t s , was  was  summer, g u i d i n g  done under the  s u p e r v i s i o n of the museum s e c r e t a r y drawing on her background of classroom t e a c h i n g .  Secretary  own  T h i s support by MOA  staff  proved t o be a c r u c i a l element i n the s t o r y of the NYP, considered  and  as an a c t i v e spokesperson f o r MOA  programmes, b u i l d i n g a p o s i t i v e p u b l i c image and The  reputation.  w i t h the b o l d  "CHILDREN LEARN ABOUT THEIR HERITAGE." covered the NYP,  education  Indian Voice d i d a major p i c t u r e s t o r y on  B r i t a n n i a c h i l d r e n ' s workshops at MOA  and  UBC  read,  In  the  headline  newspapers r e g u l a r l y  i t made i n t e r e s t i n g copy f o r l o c a l  newspapers o f t e n w i t h accompanying p i c t u r e s of members and artifacts.  is  i n Chapter Nine.  Rowan served  June 1978,  has  A s t o r y headline  i n The Vancouver Sun  "Students r e v i v e a n a t i v e c r a f t . "  h i g h l i g h t e d the Sunday NYP  presentations  in April  The  article  at  MOA.  the 1980  Maybe someone i s t h i n k i n g , "So what?" F a i r q u e s t i o n . I t i s improbable t h a t cedar bark s k i r t s w i l l come back i n t o f a s h i o n , and even cedar bent boxes may have o n l y a l i m i t e d market. But f o r the c u l t u r e t o s u r v i v e i t i s important t h a t someone a t l e a s t knows how t o do those t h i n g s , someone within that culture. And i t i s important t o the r e s t of us, t o o . The f a c t i s t h a t the red cedar t r e e and the people who made such r e s o u r c e f u l use of i t , are p a r t of our c u l t u r e ; p a r t of what makes l i v i n g i n c o a s t a l B.C. a d i f f e r e n t s e n s a t i o n from l i v i n g anywhere e l s e . [Hal Ober, The Vancouver Sun, 21 A p r i l 1980]  Page 98  Over t h e years, interviews  t h e p r o j e c t was  on r a d i o  featured  and t e l e v i s i o n .  i n s t o r i e s and  Rowan h a s r e p o r t e d  project  a t c o n f e r e n c e s a n d i n museum p u b l i c a t i o n s .  members  themselves  From t h e beginning Rowan m a i n t a i n e d  h a v e made s e v e r a l  t h e p r o j e c t members  thus promoted t h e p r o j e c t members  have recognized  on t h e i r  s t o r i e s o f how  fight  turned  t o her f o r i n d i v i d u a l guidance.  project, MOA  staff  required alive  may  the project  f o r them.  f o rthe project,  life  They and  T o many p r o j e c t  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  t h e museum a n d a c a d e m i c  adjustments,  In turn,  support  relate  Rowan p e r s o n i f i e d t h e s t a n d a r d s  project  are the " s t a r s , " and  behalf.  her dedicated she would  The  appearances a t conferences.  and through a l l t h e changes and that  on t h e  some  members,  f o rthe  generally.  Managers and  have a t t i m e s d i s p a i r e d o f t h e amount o f w o r k  and t h e i n e v i t a b l e commotion, b u t t h e m i s s i o n  and t h e l a s t i n g  impression  was  kept  i s one o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t a n d  satisfaction.  C.  D E V E L O P M E N T OF THE N A T I V E YOUTH Undertaking  and  concerns.  couple  such a p r o j e c t  e n t a i l s o v e r c o m i n g many  L o o k i n g b a c k a t t h e p r o j e c t , Rowan  of significant  changes:  became more a c a d e m i c , s h i f t i n g  1. g r a d u a l l y  (Ibid.).  emphasis"  p r o c e s s became more r i g o r o u s  application  problems  identified  and i n t e r v i e w procedures  These changes r e f l e c t Page  (1987a:5),  with  to a  a n d 2. t h e  demanding  f o r prospective  the progressive 99  a  the orientation  "from c r a f t s and technology  more d e s c r i p t i v e and h i s t o r i c a l selection  PROJECT  members  recognition  of  the NYP  as a museum education  programme, t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r i n g  compliance w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d academic standards and appropriate  kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n  formats.  using  Correct  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and adequate p r e s e n t a t i o n are prime considerations for curators. for  E a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , the  a c h i e v i n g such a programme was  p r o f e s s i o n a l conference,  outlook  guarded. In a paper f o r a  Rowan and an e a r l y p r o j e c t manager  expressed deep d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the l a c k of academic particularly  skills,  reading.  Most of the students are not readers and i n f a c t view r e a d i n g as r a t h e r odious. T h i s not only hampers the development of the p r o j e c t , but more i m p o r t a n t l y , a l s o hampers t h e i r development. One can only l e a r n so much about a c u l t u r e from r e p l i c a t i n g i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements. Students tend t o stay w i t h i n the c o m f o r t a b l e c o n f i n e s of what they know about how o b j e c t s were made and used: they cannot venture f a r i n t o t h e i r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and ceremonial f u n c t i o n s because they simply do not have t h i s knowledge or understanding. Even t h e i r own i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c u l t u r e and the a s s i s t a n c e of devoted museum personnel have not been s u f f i c i e n t t o m o t i v a t e them t o l e a r n t o read i n order t o l e a r n more.... The p r o j e c t i s d e f i n e d by our n a t i v e co-sponsor as one which w i l l help students develop s k i l l s necessary t o compete i n the job market. Good work h a b i t s , such as p u n c t u a l i t y , r e c o r d keeping, and t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y are expected of them. We assume t h a t i n time we would a l s o see s i g n s of them understanding the b e n e f i t s of being a b l e t o read and w r i t e b e t t e r E n g l i s h - p e r c e i v e d as job s k i l l s i f not as academic or i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , and of expanding t h e i r ideas of e d u c a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l g o a l s . We have so f a r seen l i t t l e evidence of t h i s . [Rowan and Mcintosh 1982:5-6] By changing the purpose of the job t o focus on the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the s e l e c t i o n and p r e p a r a t i o n of members changed accordingly.  Rowan observed,  "We  are t h e r e f o r e e s p e c i a l l y  concerned t h a t these Indian students Page  100  are t r a i n e d . t o do w e l l ,  and  w i l l r e p r e s e n t w e l l themselves, (1987a:6).  Indian people and the museum"  T h i s i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y time consuming e f f o r t which  became more demanding w i t h  experience:  Because of t h e i r youth they need p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n and c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n . . . . So we t r a i n the students as w e l l as we can i n the time a v a i l a b l e , r e g u l a r l y a s k i n g them t o w r i t e t e s t s i n order t o make sure they know t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g them i n p u b l i c speaking techniques. [Rowan 1987a:6] The  s h i f t t o an academic emphasis was  apparent  in a  suggested  name change. Students have shown t h a t they understand the e d u c a t i o n a l m e r i t s of the p r o j e c t . In 1986 the students thought the p r o j e c t should be re-named the N a t i v e I n d i a n Youth Summer Education P r o j e c t , and over the y e a r s they have always p r o t e s t e d being c a l l e d " k i d s " . "We are s t u d e n t s ! " they m a i n t a i n . [ Rowan 1987b:34] The p r e s e n t a t i o n s became more e l a b o r a t e and p o l i s h e d . t r a i n i n g process was  The  more systematic and p r e s c r i b e d .  Throughout the development of the cedar p r e s e n t a t i o n and o t h e r content themes, Rowan and Stewart  conceptualized  t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast c u l t u r e i n terms of a v e r i f i e d s t a t i c past.  but  For example, i n d i v i d u a l e l d e r s were r e c o g n i z e d  expert informants and c i t e d as c o n f i r m a t i o n , e i t h e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t or by r e f e r e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h e d such as Franz Boas.  through  ethnographers  T h i s approach stands i n c o n t r a s t t o  v e r i f i c a t i o n and approval by contemporary community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a method used l a t e r by F i r s t Nations p r o j e c t managers.  Furthermore, t h e r e was  an assumption of a s i n g l e ,  a u t h e n t i c p r a c t i c e about which c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n was  t o be  assembled and disseminated.  the  The academic a u t h o r i t y as Page  101  as  b a s e l i n e f o r t h e knowledge used i n t h e p r o j e c t became a p o i n t o f tension i n l a t e r years.  The NYP was "squarely  i n the f o r e f r o n t  of museum i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , " Rowan wrote (1987b:1), and i t was d u r i n g t h e e a r l y years of t h e programme, but t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was s t i l l based on c o n v e n t i o n a l  museum ethnography.  This  t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has subsequently been c h a l l e n g e d  both  from w i t h i n and o u t s i d e of anthropology: The r e l a t i o n s between museums and Indians a r e changing, however. Indian people, i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned about t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and recovery of t h e i r n a t u r a l resources as they dwindle, a r e r e c o g n i z i n g as w e l l t h e importance of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l lands and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s as resources f o r t h e i r f u t u r e as I n d i a n s . They are t h e r e f o r e , while c a l l i n g f o r t h e r e t u r n of t h e i r l a n d s , a l s o c l a i m i n g back from a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s , t h e i r own h i s t o r i e s so t h a t they may exert more c o n t r o l over how t h e i r c u l t u r e s a r e presented t o themselves and t o o t h e r s . [Ames 1987a:14] T h i s process  o f r e c l a i m i n g h i s t o r y was a l s o e v i d e n t  as i s d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s .  i n t h e NYP,  Rowan's work, w h i l e  a n t i c i p a t i n g t h i s change, predated the t r a n s i t i o n . Four p r e s e n t a t i o n s  i n a d d i t i o n t o " T r a d i t i o n a l Uses o f t h e  Cedar Tree" were developed which i n c l u d e d " P o t l a t c h : Past and Present,"  " T r a d i t i o n a l and Contemporary Indian F i s h i n g " and  " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Totem Poles i n the Museum's C o l l e c t i o n s . " Another p r e s e n t a t i o n was a b o t a n i c a l walk on t h e museum grounds. Over t h e y e a r s , the b a s i c method f o r c r e a t i n g programmes was modified.  In 1979, members working on cedar were expected t o  conduct t h e i r own r e s e a r c h and develop t h e p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n , u s i n g t h e workshops by Stewart as a model.  The p r e s e n t a t i o n s  were t o be a demonstration of t h e i r own e f f o r t s w i t h s p i n o f f Page 102  v a l u e f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l s c h o o l work. t h i s was  E s p e c i a l l y f o r Rowan,  an i n t e n t i o n a l pedagogical d e c i s i o n v e r y much i n  keeping w i t h the u n d e r l y i n g MOA museum p r e s e n t a t i o n .  As was  a t t i t u d e toward students  and  e v i d e n t i n MacPherson's  recommendation, t h i s approach posed s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . wrote, "The  problems of i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and  scholarly writing  were beyond the c a p a b i l i t i e s of many of the students and time f o r e d i t i n g was  enormous" (NYP  e x p e c t a t i o n f o r members t o develop on p e r s o n a l r e s e a r c h continued  Records 1979). t h e i r own  staff  At MOA,  the  p r e s e n t a t i o n s based  f o r many y e a r s .  however, s c r i p t s began t o develop,  She  E a r l y on,  f i r s t i n o u t l i n e form.  E v e n t u a l l y t h e r e were d e t a i l e d s c r i p t s f o r a l l of the presentations.  These are c o n t i n u a l l y r e v i s e d making both  a u t h o r s h i p and r e f e r e n c e s d i f f i c u l t t o t r a c e . i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the cedar  Much of the  s c r i p t came from the work of Stewart.  Her book Indian F i s h i n g : E a r l y Methods on the Northwest was  a primary  Coast  resource f o r the f i s h i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n , along  with  the work of an e a r l y p r o j e c t r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t whose t h e s i s i n anthropology  was  on Northwest Coast  e x h i b i t i o n c a l l e d "The  fishing.  In 1983,  Copper t h a t Came from Heaven,"  c u r a t e d by U'mista C u l t u r a l Centre of A l e r t Bay,  an jointly  the Nuyumbalees  S o c i e t y of Cape Mudge, the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum and MOA,  served as the i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the p o t l a t c h s c r i p t .  For  a w h i l e , the p r o j e c t used a two p r o j e c t o r s l i d e show assembled by two Anthropology 431  (Museum Studies) students on Mungo  M a r t i n ' s p o t l a t c h h e l d at the p r o v i n c i a l museum i n V i c t o r i a . Page  103  The  guided walk through t h e Great H a l l was based p r i m a r i l y on  the MOA p u b l i c a t i o n Totem P o l e s : An I l l u s t r a t e d Guide by Marjorie Halpin.  Rowan has o f f e r e d t h i s  information:  In many i n s t a n c e s you w i l l develop your p r e s e n t a t i o n s c r i p t s b e f o r e the students j o i n t h e p r o j e c t . But t h i s w i l l not always be p o s s i b l e . During the f i r s t year o f t h e N.Y.P. we developed t h e s c r i p t as we gathered cedar m a t e r i a l s from t h e f o r e s t and l e a r n e d how t o use them i n workshops with H i l a r y Stewart and Wally Henry, a craftsman who had made cedar bark c l o t h i n g i n a s p e c i a l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t o f t h e Indian M i s s i o n F r i e n d s h i p Centre. Cedar was a n a t u r a l s u b j e c t f o r e l i c i t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s ' a s s i s t a n c e i n w r i t i n g our f i r s t s c r i p t . We d i d t h i s i n a very s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d way, u s i n g t h e l a r g e newsprint pad mentioned e a r l i e r . Each morning we reviewed what we had done t h e day b e f o r e and s e l e c t e d a r t i f a c t s and m a t e r i a l s t o i l l u s t r a t e our a c t i v i t i e s . The students made many of these. Together we sought t h e c l e a r e s t and most c o n c i s e e x p l a n a t i o n s we c o u l d , and I committed these t o our l a r g e pad. Thus t h e s c r i p t was written. I t was slow work a t times but t h e students were at t h e c e n t r e o f t h i s c r e a t i v e e x e r c i s e , c o r r e c t i n g each o t h e r , shouting approval, and most important, u s i n g t h e i r new knowledge. The mood was e n t h u s i a s t i c and e x c i t e d . . . . There have been other occasions when we have e f f e c t i v e l y used our s e n i o r students t o develop t r a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r new students o r t o w r i t e an o u t l i n e f o r a new script. Students were asked t o read about a s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t and then look a t t h e c o l l e c t i o n s , a p p l y i n g t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n t o w r i t e an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e t o p i c . Our s c r i p t on totem p o l e s was developed i n a s i m i l a r way. A s e n i o r student i d e n t i f i e d d i f f e r e n t types o f totem p o l e s based on a book w r i t t e n by one of our c u r a t o r s , Dr. M a r j o r i e H a l p i n , and then wrote a r e p o r t , complete w i t h i l l u s t r a t i o n s photocopied from t h e book, f o r t h e o t h e r students. Twice I walked through t h e g a l l e r i e s w i t h h e r , d i s c u s s i n g examples, c o r r e c t i n g e r r o r s , and c l a r i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . What she wrote was c l e a r and i n language which t h e other students understood. In a d d i t i o n h e r r e s e a r c h s k i l l s improved, she gained a d d i t i o n a l c o n f i d e n c e about a new and complex t o p i c , and she achieved a somewhat more p r i v i l e g e d , and l e g i t i m a t e , r o l e w i t h i n t h e p r o j e c t . [Rowan 1987b:22-23] More commonly, i n s t e a d of conducting  research t o create a  p r e s e n t a t i o n , members of the NYP s t u d i e d background m a t e r i a l as  Page 104  w e l l as t h e s c r i p t s i n order t o be thoroughly prepared t o handle the p r e s e n t a t i o n s and a wide v a r i e t y of q u e s t i o n s from audiences.  The s c r i p t s were not t o be memorized v e r b a t i m , but  r a t h e r were t o be used them as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r making s u c c e s s f u l and a c c u r a t e p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  The s c r i p t s were  i n e v i t a b l y memorized and p r e s e n t a t i o n s were o f t e n made w i t h c r i b notes. The t a s k f o r t h e members, w h i l e more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d w i t h the use of s c r i p t s , was s t i l l enormous.  T h e i r e f f o r t s won t h e  r e s p e c t o f MOA s t a f f each summer as the members s u c c e s s f u l l y addressed v i s i t o r s from a l l over the world, peers, f a m i l y , and, perhaps most d i f f i c u l t , F i r s t Nations commmunities. e x p l a i n e d , "Bestowing  As Rowan  t h e s t a t u s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f museum  i n t e r p r e t e r s on these students shows t h a t you b e l i e v e they can meet your e x p e c t a t i o n s and standards" (1987b:21).  Quality  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were achieved by having high standards and f i r m l y offering constructive c r i t i c i s m .  The f o l l o w i n g  instructions  from t h e d r a f t f o r a p r o j e c t manual g i v e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e p r o c e s s as implemented by Rowan. Rehearsals should always s t r e s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a r t i f a c t , the i n f o r m a t i o n about i t , and t h e audience. C l a r i t y and accuracy a r e t h e two c a r d i n a l dimensions of t h i s t r i a d . C o n s t a n t l y s t r e s s i n g themes throughout i n s t r u c t i o n , study, r e h e a r s a l s , and c r i t i c i s m o f student p r e s e n t a t i o n s heightens t h e i r understanding o f what we expect, a s s i s t s them i n c o r r e c t i n g f l a w s , and encourages them t o s e t and m a i n t a i n high standards. Some o f these themes a r e : Accuracy of i n f o r m a t i o n  Do not "fake" i t , and do not be a f r a i d t o say you do not know. Many e x p e r t s d i s a g r e e  Page 105  on some p o i n t s , and you a r e not expected t o become i n s t a n t experts on t h e c u l t u r e you a r e studying. Handle a l l a r t i f a c t s with care  T h i s a p p l i e s even i f t h e a r t i f a c t i s a r e p l i c a t h a t you or some other student made. How you handle them a f f e c t s how the audience p e r c e i v e s and handles theml They should be treated respectfully since they r e p r e s e n t Indian c u l t u r e .  Be p r o f e s s i o n a l i n a l l you do  Dress and a c t as i f you were a permanent member of t h e museum staff.  Be p o l i t e and a t t e n t i v e always t o v i s i t o r s  I f t h e r e were no v i s i t o r s , t h e r e would be no p r o j e c t . They have p a i d t o e n t e r and want t o see and hear you. Give them t h e i n f o r m a t i o n you knowl  Speak c l e a r l y and l o u d l y during presentations  Don't make your audience s t r a i n t o hear you.  Remember you r e p r e s e n t Indian people and the museum [Rowan 1987b:30]  You have a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o do a good j o b .  Handouts on methods of p r e s e n t a t i o n were prepared s t r e s s i n g v a r i o u s p u b l i c speaking  and c i r c u l a t e d  a t t r i b u t e s such as l o o k i n g a t  the audience and showing enthusiasm and c o n f i d e n c e , and p r o v i d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s f o r key terms. r o u t i n e part of the t r a i n i n g process.  " C r i t s " have become a Rowan has r e l a t e d some  s t o r i e s which i l l u s t r a t e t h e c u r a t o r i a l i n t e r e s t i n q u a l i t y o f presentations. The p r o j e c t w i l l a l s o i n e v i t a b l y p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n of i d i o s y n c r a t i c q u a l i t i e s . Page 106  These can be amusing and alarming. For example, we once overheard Stephen d u r i n g h i s guided walk of the museum's totem p o l e s asked the q u e s t i o n "Why are some p o l e s t a l l and some s h o r t ? " (a q u e s t i o n answered by the t a l k he had j u s t given, i n f a c t l ) He d i d not b l i n k behind h i s g l a s s e s but c h e e r f u l l y responded "Do you remember I s a i d t h a t s t o r i e s went w i t h the poles? W e l l , the s h o r t e r s t o r i e s went w i t h the s h o r t e r p o l e s , and the longer s t o r i e s went w i t h the t a l l e r o n e s l " Although the audience seemed s a t i s f i e d , we passed on our d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , amid g a l e s of l a u g h t e r from other students, t o Stephen. On another o c c a s i o n we r e a l i z e d t h a t J a n i c e ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n - a r t i c u l a t e and p r o f e s s i o n a l reminded us of something we c o u l d not i d e n t i f y . One day her boss from the p r e v i o u s summer v i s i t e d the p r o j e c t . He s o l d k n i f e s e t s a t e x h i b i t i o n s and f a i r s throughout North America, and i t was the f a i r g r o u n d " h u s t l e " s t y l e we had d e t e c t e d i n J a n i c e 1 [1987b:32; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ; names f i c t i o u s ] The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c o l l e c t i o n s and q u a l i t y of  presentations  were c a r e f u l l y monitored. As the content  became more academic and the  presentations  more p o l i s h e d , the second s i g n i f i c a n t change noted by Rowan developed a c c o r d i n g l y .  The  thorough and r i g o r o u s .  For the f i r s t  administrated  h i r i n g procedure became more  through the Native  f o u r y e a r s , the NYP  Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  which a d v e r t i z e d the jobs and arranged the Applicants  was  Committee  interviews.  submitted resumes and were i n t e r v i e w e d  at B r i t a n n i a  Community Centre by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the Committee and u s u a l l y T a y l o r and Rowan.  In 1983,  MOA  took over p r o j e c t  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the i n t e r v i e w i n g procedures.  By  1984,  i n t e r v i e w schedule had been developed with 21 q u e s t i o n s , having  s e v e r a l p a r t s , which i n c r e a s e d t o 27 by  l a s t year as programme c u r a t o r . a p p l i c a n t s i n 1984  1986,  an most  Rowan's  In a d d i t i o n t o a resume,  were t o submit a statement on why  Page  MOA,  107  they were  seeking the p o s i t i o n and a couple l e t t e r s of recommendation. 1986,  two  assignments had been added: a review of an  p r e s e n t a t i o n , and a r e p o r t on one or two the museum. and  submitted  NYP  artifacts displayed i n  These were t o be completed w i t h i n a s i n g l e at the admission's  c o n t a i n e d the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s .  desk upon l e a v i n g . In 1984,  By  the f i r s t  visit  Interviews three  q u e s t i o n s were about s c h o o l performance and the t e n t h q u e s t i o n e x p l o r e d academic s k i l l s q u e s t i o n was  with regard t o job e x p e c t a t i o n s .  e d i t e d s l i g h t l y and has become the f i r s t  This  question  asked. 1. The work i n v o l v e s study, r e s e a r c h , o b s e r v a t i o n , w r i t t e n work and weekly t e s t i n g . W i l l you w i l l i n g l y do t h i s ? A d a i l y j o u r n a l i s t o be kept as w e l l as a f i n a l r e p o r t a t the end of summer. W i l l you w i l l i n g l y complete these tasks? [NYP Records, Interview Schedule, 1988] Other q u e s t i o n s i n the i n t e r v i e w covered  skills,  interests,  c a r e e r p l a n s , p r e v i o u s job experience, with the bulk of the q u e s t i o n s concerning  job e x p e c t a t i o n s and  1984,  a q u e s t i o n about F i r s t Nations  t h e r e a l s o was  summer p l a n s .  In  identity.  7.  What do you know about n a t i v e Indian c u l t u r e ? Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n " " " ? How do you show t h i s i n t e r e s t ? [NYP Records, Interview Schedule, 1984]  T h i s had been somewhat e l a b o r a t e d by 1986  with  any o r g a n i z a t i o n r e l a t e d t o Indian c u l t u r e ? "  "Do  you belong  A q u e s t i o n about  s t a t u s had a l s o been added along with a "tough q u e s t i o n " which both t e s t e d performance p o t e n t i a l and a t t i t u d e s about F i r s t Nations  identity.  Tough q u e s t i o n : A f t e r the students g i v e t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s , the audience tend t o move t o the stage Page  108  to  to  ask q u e s t i o n s . Some q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r e asked don't even r e l a t e t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . What would you say i f a person asks you t h i s : "I heard t h a t many n a t i v e people i n B.C. have a problem w i t h a l c o h o l . " What would you say t o this? [NYP Records, I n t e r v i e w Schedule, 1986] In  1989, t h e F i r s t Nations p r o j e c t manager reviewed t h e  i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s w i t h s t a f f a t t h e UBC F i r s t Nations House o f Learning.  A few changes were made, but t h e "tough q u e s t i o n "  remained.  On t h e o t h e r hand, a former NYP member (Brass 1990:6)  c a l l e d t h i s tough q u e s t i o n "demeaning and i g n o r a n t . " E x p e r i e n c e had c l e a r l y demonstrated the n e c e s s i t y o f s e l e c t i n g members who were q u a l i f i e d t o handle t h e work successfully. There w i l l always be e x t e n u a t i n g circumstances which w i l l make you h i r e students who you t h i n k w i l l b e n e f i t from t h e project. J u s t make sure t h e i r presence b e n e f i t s t h e p r o j e c t as w e l l l These a r e d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n s but remember t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r and manager w i l l have t o l i v e w i t h t h e i r conseguences, not t o mention t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s . The q u a l i t y of your p r o j e c t may s u f f e r i f you take t o o many r i s k s o r p l a y s o c i a l worker w i t h your j o b a p p l i c a n t s . T r y t o ensure t h e students make a workable group, p i c k t h e b e s t you can, t e l l them what you expect from them, and then u n a p o l o g e t i c a l l y get on w i t h your p r o j e c t . [Rowan 1987b:18] Rowan's i n d o m i t a b l e optimism shines through as she r e f l e c t e d on the  " u n s u i t a b l e " students who had been h i r e d .  From t h e vantage  p o i n t of 1987, she wrote, "we have always l e a r n e d something from our the  mistakes" (Ibid.:16; emphasis  i n original).  In r e a l i t y ,  h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s developed a f t e r much anguish and s o u l  searching.  In a paper p r e s e n t e d t o the Canadian Ethnology  S o c i e t y Annual Meeting i n 1982, Rowan and t h e p r o j e c t manager from t h e p r e v i o u s summer d e s c r i b e d , w i t h u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Page 109  disappointment,  problems i n t h e p r o j e c t .  D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the students a r e e n t h u s i a t i c about the p r o j e c t , proud t o be h i r e d , and eloquent on how much they have l e a r n e d and how important i t i s t o l e a r n about t h e i r c u l t u r e , t h i s i s not, f o r t h e most p a r t , expressed i n day-to-day work h a b i t s . . . . Some of t h i s i s teenage behaviour, and some of i t i s , as our n a t i v e c o l l e a g u e s have p o i n t e d out, perhaps a f u n c t i o n o f n a t i v e students working f o r non-native "bosses". The a d v i c e we r e c e i v e from these c o l l e a g u e s i s c l e a r : those who do not abide by t h e r u l e s should be f i r e d . Our experience i s t h a t t h i s i s e a s i e r s a i d than done, but we know they a r e r i g h t and we a r e wrong. The students and o t h e r s who have observed them a r e c l e a r about t h e b e n e f i t s gained from t h e p r o j e c t . T h e r e f o r e i t o f t e n becomes more important t o help them s t i c k w i t h t h e p r o j e c t f o r whatever advantages they might g a i n i n t h e l o n g term. A l s o one does not l i k e t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the p a t t e r n of f a i l u r e many have experienced a t s c h o o l . [Rowan and Mcintosh 1982:6-7] Nonetheless, a p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g t h e d i s m i s s a l of members was put i n t o p l a c e by t h e summer of 1982 based on a system o f t h r e e warnings.  Lateness was t h e most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d o f f e n s e , but  o t h e r nonsupportive and d i s r u p t i v e types of behaviour r e c e i v e d warnings.  also  T h i s was c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d t o a p p l i c a n t s  during t h e i r interviews.  There were r e l a t i v e l y few d i s m i s s a l s .  From t h e beginning of t h e NYP, Rowan had had o t h e r s a s s i s t i n g her w i t h t h e d a i l y work.  Along w i t h guest  speakers,  t h e r e were anthropology graduate students and MOA s t a f f .  When  Rowan went on l e a v e f o r t h e s c h o o l year 1979-80, t h e e x t e n s i o n c u r a t o r and museum s e c r e t a r y took over s u p e r v i s i n g t h e p r o j e c t . Ever s i n c e t h e w i n t e r of 1979, funding has a l s o been secured f o r p r o j e c t managers.  By 1982, t h e p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t manager was  d e f i n e d as a t r a i n i n g p o s i t i o n t o be f i l l e d by a UBC student o f F i r s t Nations a n c e s t r y .  Rowan o f f e r e d t h i s a d v i c e about Page 110  hiring.  Managers should be f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e years i f p o s s i b l e , s i n c e they b r i n g v a l u a b l e experience and i n s i g h t s t o t h e i r second y e a r . A t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e are two d i s c r e t i o n a r y programmes i n E d u c a t i o n and Law f o r n a t i v e Indian students and we have drawn managers from both of them.... Make sure you h i r e t h e best person you can f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n , and, i d e a l l y , someone who does not have t o be t r a i n e d t o do e v e r y t h i n g t h a t your p r o j e c t r e q u i r e s . We have asked a p p l i c a n t s t o have experience i n e i t h e r museums, e d u c a t i o n , o r i n d e a l i n g w i t h teenagers. R e c e n t l y we have asked them t o a t t e n d the B r i t i s h Columbia Museum's A s s o c i a t i o n summer i n t e r n seminar as p a r t o f t h e i r training. T h i s worked w e l l , and gave t h e manager an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o museum p r i n c i p l e s , h a n d l i n g and s t o r i n g a r t i f a c t s , c a t a l o g u i n g , and other aspects of museum work. But t h e manager must a l s o be a b l e t o assume a u t h o r i t y over s i x students, handle many t a s k s alone when necessary, and s e t and m a i n t a i n standards i n face of o c c a s i o n a l student complaints and r e s i s t a n c e . [Rowan 1987b:15] Other  suggested  requirements  f o r t h e p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e d an  i n t e r e s t i n and w i l l i n g n e s s t o l e a r n more about Northwest Coast c u l t u r e , a sense of humour and a d a p t a b i l i t y .  " I t helps t o  remember t h a t t h i s p o s i t i o n i s a t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y a l s o , and l i k e everyone e l s e managers grow and improve on t h e j o b " (1987b:16).  Rowan c o n s i d e r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  s u p e r v i s i n g c u r a t o r and p r o j e c t manager a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h a f a i r l y c l e a r d i v i s i o n of d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Together,  s u p e r v i s o r and manager s e t t h e " e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s and methods o f a c h i e v i n g them" (1987b:12) w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and museum experience and t h e manager p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and r o u t i n e c o n t r o l .  Rowan noted,  "The c h a r a c t e r o f  the p r o j e c t should r e f l e c t t h e a b i l i t i e s and t a l e n t s of t h e manager" (1987b:12).  Other shared t a s k s i n c l u d e d working out  the schedule, s e t t i n g standards, and keeping r e c o r d s .  The  s u p e r v i s i n g c u r a t o r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x t e r n a l support and Page 111  MOA r e s o u r c e s .  The p r o j e c t manager maintained t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e  i n t e r a c t i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the p r o j e c t members.  Rowan concluded,  " S u p e r v i s o r and manager should present a u n i t e d f r o n t t o t h e students on a l l important  issues"  (1987b:13).  The t r a i n i n g process changed w i t h experience, t h e s h i f t i n g academic emphasis, and a l t e r e d p r o j e c t s t a f f i n g . p e d a g o g i c a l approach,  Rowan's  however, l e f t an i n d e l i b l e mark.  M a i n t a i n i n g a balance between f o r m a l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y i s d e l i c a t e , but e r r i n g t o t h e s i d e of t h e former i s , i n our experience, a good i d e a . The p r o j e c t i s a s e r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour, g i v i n g these young Indians a sense of purpose and o f themselves which i s e n t i r e l y new.... [Rowan 1987b:19] Rowan's t r a i n i n g methods s t r e s s e d t i g h t l y scheduled r o u t i n e s , t r i a l and t e s t i n g , and prompt c r i t i c i s m o f work.  There was a l s o  an e x p e c t a t i o n o f group p r o c e s s . Everyone should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s u c c e s s f u l completion o f t a s k s , and prepared t o assume an a p p r o p r i a t e p a r t of t h e burden. Such an understanding a l s o d i m i n i s h e s the "nagging" i n t o which s u p e r v i s o r and manager can predictably slide. Formalizing the delegation of tasks i n a f a i r and s e n s i b l e way leaves students no excuse f o r not doing them. The students w i l l see and a p p r e c i a t e t h e l o g i c of such a system, and w i l l soon adapt i t t o work f o r them. [Rowan 1987b:20] Rowan's s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e was t o make assignments and d e l e g a t e tasks.  During t h e f i r s t  summer programme, Rowan would s e t out  t a s k s i n a memorandum t o the group w i t h a s s i g n e d d e a d l i n e s . F o r example, on 5 August 1979 Rowan c i r c u l a t e d a memorandum e x p l a i n i n g t h e work t o be done b e f o r e the end of t h e p r o j e c t on August 24th w i t h a reward f o r accomplishing t h e t a s k s , " I f we can complete a l l of t h i s , we w i l l p l a n our Cape Mudge t r i p f o r  Page 112  August 17" 1.  (emphasis  in original).  S c r i p t of Cedar Tree P r e s e n t a t i o n ; A l l the newsprint panels of i n f o r m a t i o n on the w a l l must be typed, double-spaced, f o r our f i n a l r e p o r t . The work should be d i v i d e d so t h a t each t y p i s t has one f u l l p a n e l . Deadline:  August 9th  I w i l l take these home and e d i t them f o r r e - t y p i n g i f necessary. 2.  Mounted m i n i a t u r e panels of cedar t r e e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s w i l l be done on sheets of heavy paper which can be put, w i t h the s c r i p t , i n a l o o s e l e a f b i n d e r which I w i l l get t h i s week. A l l the panels you have used should be d u p l i c a t e d , although the most important ones are the withes, r o o t s , bark (2 kinds) and wood ones. Small samples and drawings should i l l u s t r a t e these p a n e l s , which should look l i k e the l a r g e ones you have been u s i n g i n your p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  D e a d l i n e : August 13 w i t h a l l l a b e l s i n p e n c i l u n t i l I e d i t pages, please1 [1979 NYP Records; u n d e r l i n i n g i n o r i g i n a l ] The memorandum continued, c o v e r i n g s e v e r a l other m a t t e r s . had j u s t begun a l e a v e of absence from UBC  a t t h a t time,  d a i l y s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the NYP  was  Rowan and  b e i n g shared by  the e x t e n s i o n c u r a t o r and the s e c r e t a r y a t MOA.  The  project  members were expected t o work independently, which, as noted e a r l i e r , proved u n r e a l i s t i c .  Nonetheless, t h i s memorandum from  Rowan i l l u s t r a t e s her s u p e r v i s o r y s t y l e which c o n t i n u e d w i t h the p r o j e c t managers i n subsequent assumptions  about b a s i c working  years.  I t also  illustrates  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  standards  which developed an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the NYP.  Group  e f f o r t i n p r e p a r i n g and conducting the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s f o c u s s e d the purpose  of the p r o j e c t and developed  Rowan emphasized the importance  Page  113  of the f i r s t  commitment. two weeks of  the p r o j e c t i n terms of e s t a b l i s h i n g d i s c i p l i n e and p r e p a r i n g members f o r t h e i r job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s p e r i o d i s a b s o l u t e l y c r u c i a l f o r the success of your p r o j e c t . I t s e t s the tone f o r the e n t i r e summer and should be planned w i t h g r e a t c a r e and i n every d e t a i l . If you have doubts about a student's a b i l i t y or commitment these should be erased or confirmed d u r i n g t h i s time. The students w i l l do t h e i r f i r s t s h o r t p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n f r o n t of a " r e a l audience" and f e e l the r e s u l t i n g power and exhileration. They w i l l a l s o f e e l the p s y c h o l o g i c a l " l e t down" t h a t o f t e n occurs the day a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t r e a l l y s u c c e s s f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n , when they r e a l i z e they have o n l y passed one h u r d l e , and they s t i l l have a g r e a t d e a l more t o learn! In f a c e of a l l these up's and down's [ s i c ] , keep your eye f i r m l y on the p r o j e c t g o a l s , your i n f o r m a t i o n c l e a r , s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , and w e l l - o r g a n i z e d , and your s u p e r v i s i o n and t e a c h i n g focussed on i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r e s s . A l s o , remind y o u r s e l f and your students t h a t the s u b j e c t s they are s t u d y i n g are complex and d i f f i c u l t , and a l t h o u g h they can't know e v e r y t h i n g i n one summer, they must l e a r n as much as they can. [Rowan 1987b:21; u n d e r l i n i n g i n original] As i n d i c a t e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of s c r i p t development, the p r o j e c t d i d not begin w i t h e x p l i c i t assignments. expected t o conduct t h e i r own  research to better  Members were understand  t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r working with cedar and t o prepare t h e i r presentations.  P a r t s of the e a r l y approach  l e s s o n s had become q u i t e s p e c i f i c by 1986. time had a l s o changed.  public  remained, but the The s t r u c t u r i n g of  F o l l o w i n g i s the t r a i n i n g schedule f o r  the f i r s t two weeks l a i d out by Rowan i n 1987  f o r the d r a f t  p r o j e c t manual. Day  1  F i e l d t r i p t o UBC Research F o r e s t t o c o l l e c t cedar m a t e r i a l s . Return t o MOA t o s t r i p o f f o u t e r bark from i n n e r bark, r o o t s and withes. [Note: Bark i s now s t r i p p e d i n the f o r e s t b e f o r e the sap begins t o dry which a l s o e l i m i n a t e s b u l k i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t r a s h a t MOA.]  Day  2  Formal i n t r o d u c t i o n t o MOA Page 114  and p r o j e c t  procedures,  f a c i l i t i e s and p a y r o l l . 1 hour Workshop w i t h H i l a r y Stewart on cedar wood. 3 hours L e a r n i n g t o Look workshop. 1.5 hours [ T h i s was developed by Rowan f o r t e a c h e r s and i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s of " v i s u a l l e a r n i n g . " ] D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r t e s t on cedar wood and r e f e r e n c e book Sea and Cedar by L o i s McConkey. rSea and Cedar i s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the c u l t u r e of the Northwest Coast Indians w r i t t e n f o r the Grade Four s o c i a l studies curriculum.] F i l m "Mungo M a r t i n Making a Box" 30 minutes Discussion 15 minutes Journal entries 15 minutes Day 3  Workshop w i t h Stewart on cedar bark. 3 hours Tour of MOA g a l l e r i e s 1-1.5 hours Show books, a r t i c l e s and pamphlets used as r e f e r e n c e s , "touchable" a r t i f a c t s , and other study m a t e r i a l s . D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r t e s t on cedar bark. Study time on cedar wood and bark. 2 hours Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 4  Workshop w i t h Stewart on withes and r o o t s . 3 hours D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r t e s t on cedar w i t h e s and r o o t s and S e a f a r i n g W a r r i o r s of the North P a c i f i c . [ T h i s i s a b a s i c r e f e r e n c e book, more advanced than Sea and Cedar.] Study time. 2 hours Write t e s t on wood and Sea and Cedar. 30 minutes Demonstration of Cedar p r e s e n t a t i o n by two s e n i o r students. 30 minutes S e l e c t 5 minutes of Cedar p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r each student t o rehearse f o r f i r s t p u b l i c appearance. Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 5  Study time f o r remaining p a r t s of c e d a r . 1.5 hours Write t e s t on cedar bark. 30 minutes Rehearse 5 minute segments w i t h a r t i f a c t s and a l l other p r e s e n t a t i o n m a t e r i a l s . 2 hours F i l m " P o t l a t c h - A S t r i c t Law Bids Us Dance" and discussion. 1.5 hours Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 6  T e s t on r o o t s and withes and S e a f a r i n g W a r r i o r s of the North P a c i f i c . 30 minutes Rehearse 5 minute segments f o r s e n i o r s t u d e n t s . 1 hour Backstage t o u r of MOA work areas and l a b s w i t h s t a f f t e c h n i c i a n and/or c o n s e r v a t o r . 1-1.5 hours More r e h e a r s i n g of 5 minute segments. A f t e r n o o n - p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s of programmes by s e n i o r students w i t h 5 minute segments by j u n i o r students. Page 115  Journal entries  15 minutes  Day 7  Add another 5 minute segment t o p r e s e n t a t i o n and rehearse f o r a f t e r n o o n p r e s e n t a t i o n . A l l members prepared t o read i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s l i d e s . 2 hours Use "Discovery Sheets" i n MOA V i s i b l e Storage G a l l e r i e s f o r cedar a r t i f a c t s . 1 hour Present 10 minute segments of Cedar programme i n t h e public presentations. 1 hour Watch " P o t l a t c h " f i l m again and the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the P o t l a t c h programme by the s e n i o r members. Begin t o rehearse 5 minute segments of P o t l a t c h . 2 hours D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r P o t l a t c h t e s t . Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 8  Student i n t e r v i e w s (10-15 minutes each) t o d i s c u s s i n d i v i d u a l progress and any problems. Rehearsal schedule now complicated and must be s u p e r v i s e d c a r e f u l l y so t h a t students l e a r n and perform q u i c k l y and w e l l . Two new students should be a b l e t o do complete Cedar p r e s e n t a t i o n alone. Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 9  H a l f day v i s i t t o c i t y museum viewing c o l l e c t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o Cedar and P o t l a t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s , d i s c u s s i n g d i s p l a y techniques, perhaps meeting a c u r a t o r t o answer any q u e s t i o n s from members. D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s i n advance. A f t e r n o o n p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , r e h e a r s a l s and study. T e s t on p o t l a t c h . 30 minutes Journal entries 15 minutes  Day 10  T e s t on c i t y museum. 30 minutes View MOA v i d e o I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Totem P o l e s . Discuss and d i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r t e s t . 1 hour Watch Totem Pole p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n by s e n i o r members. S e l e c t 5 minute segments of t h i s programme t o r e h e a r s e . D i s t r i b u t e study q u e s t i o n s f o r totem p o l e t e s t . 1 hour Journal entries 15 minutes  [Based on Rowan 1987b, Appendix F] The programme treatment was o v e r l y ambitious, and l e d t o frustration.  On the other hand, the accomplishments were  substantial.  T r a i n i n g and study a c t i v i t i e s c o n t i n u e d  the summer, and by the second week scheduled  Page 116  public  throughout  p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l s o became a dominant p a r t of the d a i l y  routine.  Over the y e a r s , b a s i c funding f o r the p r o j e c t covered wages f o r members and p r o j e c t managers, and h o n o r a r i a f o r workshop l e a d e r s and some guest speakers.  Facilities,  and p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s i o n were p r o v i d e d by MOA. p r o j e c t , MOA  services  L a t e r i n the  a l s o supplemented the wages of the p r o j e c t manager.  E a r l y on, s p e c i a l study t r i p s were added. themselves  support  for this travel.  the B r i t i s h Columbia  Members r a i s e d  T h i s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d a day t r i p t o  P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a  Royal B r i t i s h Columbia  funds  Museum), and a t r i p t o F i r s t  (now  the  Nations  c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s and community museums l a s t i n g s e v e r a l days. c o u p l e of y e a r s , Rowan o r g a n i z e d two t r i p s .  A  The t r i p s combined  study a l o n g w i t h p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o d i v e r s e groups.  Rowan  c o n s i d e r e d these t r i p s rewarding adventures but not h o l i d a y s . The  sense of e d u c a t i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e was  evident.  Students can d r i f t i n t o r a t h e r c a s u a l behaviour on study t r i p s . T r a v e l l i n g i n a van, w i t h the "bosses" a t the f r o n t d i s c u s s i n g schedules and study q u e s t i o n s , encourages them t o snooze or p l u g i n t h e i r walkmans, d i s a p p e a r i n g i n t o the l a n d of high d e c i b e l music. We have found a s s i g n i n g some work f o r p o r t i o n s of t r a v e l time has been u s e f u l . Students study s m a l l segments of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e h e a r s e w i t h each o t h e r , and b e n e f i t from the time spent t h i s way, although they w i l l complain a t f i r s t , n a t u r a l l y enough. [1987b:30] B e g i n n i n g i n 1981,  t r a v e l was  made p o s s i b l e by fund  salmon barbeques on the grounds of MOA.  raising  I n i t i a t e d by Rowan and  f u e l l e d by her optimism and d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h i s a c t i v i t y i s d i s c u s s e d from the p e r s p e c t i v e of managers, members and s t a f f i n subsequent  chapters.  MOA  The o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n of the Page  117  NYP  as e n v i s i o n e d and o r c h e s t r a t e d by Rowan was one o f m u l t i p l e a c t i v i t i e s , r i c h v a r i a t i o n and enormous  D.  energy.  DIGNITY AND KNOWLEDGE In her paper t o t h e World Conference  f o r Indigenous  P e o p l e s ' E d u c a t i o n i n the summer of 1987, Rowan l i s t e d t h r e e b a s i c reasons f o r t h e success of the NYP: 1. 2. 3.  t h e students a r e p a i d and t r e a t e d as young a d u l t museum s t a f f members capable of s t u d y i n g and g i v i n g p u b l i c presentations "empowered" w i t h knowledge, they q u i c k l y g a i n t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n (and t h r i l l ) of being t h e performers f o r an a t t e n t i v e and a p p r e c i a t i v e audience what they a r e l e a r n i n g i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r I n d i a n identity. [Rowan 1987a:13-14; p a r e n t h e s i s i n o r i g i n a l ]  P o i n t number one, t h e NYP p r o v i d e d jobs f o r high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s which meant both r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e c o g n i t i o n .  As an  e s t a b l i s h e d u n i v e r s i t y based i n s t i t u t i o n , MOA h e l d h i g h standards f o r t h e work.  On the other hand, MOA has a s m a l l  s t a f f w i t h c a s u a l and s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l  relationships.  For Rowan, t h e p r o j e c t members were museum t r a i n e e s h i r e d t o do a j o b which they were expected t o do w e l l and thus t o be s u c c e s s f u l w i t h i n t h e work c u l t u r e of museum. However, p r o v i d i n g jobs was a secondary o b j e c t i v e f o r Rowan. ...although o f f e r i n g students employment i s t h e way i n which t h e museum has secured them, as i t were, f o r t h e term of t h e p r o j e c t , the s t a f f ' s g o a l s a r e p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r s p e c t i v e i s one o f t h e fundamental dilemmas of t h e p r o j e c t . I f i t i s not understood and handled c l e a r l y from t h e b e g i n n i n g i t can cause unnecessary f r u s t r a t i o n , misunderstanding, and disappointment. The students have, a f t e r a l l , " c o n t r a c t e d " Page 118  t o be t r a i n e d as museum guides and l e c t u r e r s . 1987b:5] The  second  [Rowan  reason f o r p r o j e c t success i d e n t i f i e d by Rowan,  empowering w i t h knowledge, h e l d p o t e n t i a l when i t worked i n tandem w i t h t h e d i g n i t y i n h e r e n t w i t h h o l d i n g a j o b and s e r v i n g as a s t a f f member. training.  Knowledge as used by Rowan meant academic  L e a r n i n g under t h e p r o j e c t c o n d i t i o n s took on a  d i f f e r e n t meaning from the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e .  It  was a j o b w i t h a s p e c i f i c purpose of making p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s where t h e i n d i v i d u a l s were so o b v i o u s l y accountable f o r q u a l i t y and p e r s o n a l l y rewarded f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s .  Rowan r e c o g n i z e d a  k i n d o f dilemma i n t h e academic e x p e c t a t i o n s . High-minded e d u c a t i o n a l goals of museum s t a f f can sometimes l e a d t o problems as w e l l . This i s usually because one has u n r e a l i s t i c i d e a s about what can be accomplished by a summer p r o j e c t and what t h e p r o j e c t ' s impact w i l l be on t h e students. I t i s l i k e l y t h a t you w i l l deepen your s t u d e n t s ' understanding and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f I n d i a n c u l t u r e , r a i s e t h e i r awareness of p r o f e s s i o n a l standards i n p u b l i c speaking and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , and i n t r o d u c e them t o some b a s i c museum p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s . But you w i l l not r e f o r m u l a t e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s , r e v o l u t i o n i z e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the world, o r r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r plans f o r t h e f u t u r e . Some of t h i s w i l l occur, o f course, but t o expect i t t o occur i s both f o o l i s h and condescending. Once one r e c o g n i z e s t h i s , e v e r y t h i n g becomes e a s i e r , and one can take t h e s m a l l and l a r g e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s as they come with p l e a s u r e and d e l i g h t . [Rowan 1987b:6; u n d e r l i n i n g i n o r i g i n a l ] R e g a r d l e s s , Rowan's own e x p e c t a t i o n s remained h i g h , as she r e p o r t e d t o t h e World Conference Education>  f o r Indigenous  People's  " I f other n a t i v e students c o u l d experience some o f  the achievements d i s c u s s e d here, i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y they would more o f t e n perform b e t t e r a t s c h o o l , complete t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , Page 1  1  9  and perhaps go on f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g "  (1987a:ll).  Rowan  proposed t h a t the p r o j e c t should serve as a model f o r s c h o o l programming. C r e d i t academic programmes c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d which p r o v i d e museum-based study and p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s which r e l a t e t o and r e i n f o r c e s u b j e c t s s t u d i e d i n the normal c u r r i c u l u m . There c o u l d be a n a t u r a l development of N.Y.P. t o p i c s i n t o s t u d i e s of b i o l o g y , h i s t o r y , geography, p o l i t i c s , economics, and a r t . The formula should remain the same - study and performance - but the audiences c o u l d vary widely. [Rowan 1987a:ll] Indeed, the hallmark of the NYP  was  the mutually  reinforcing  a c t i v i t i e s of "study and performance." Moving on t o the t h i r d reason f o r p r o j e c t success, Rowan l i s t e d learning related to participants' c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . 1982,  she e x p l a i n e d her reasoning on t h i s  In  matter:  The p r o j e c t has been a success f o r the s t u d e n t s , the museum, and the p u b l i c . C e n t r a l t o t h i s success i s i t s unique c h a r a c t e r - young Indians are the s t a r s of the show. T h e i r presence b r i n g s a s p e c i a l and undeniable v i t a l i t y t o these p r e s e n t a t i o n s where museum v i s i t o r s , u s u a l l y f o r the f i r s t time, encounter Indians. Questions and a s s o c i a t i o n s normally not c r o s s i n g v i s i t o r s ' minds a r i s e j u s t because the modern r e a l i t y of Indain people i s brought home t o them. They begin t o understand the c o u n t l e s s changes i n t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e Indians have had t o endure, how f a r removed from t h e i r a n c e s t r a l customs many students a r e , and how d i f f i c u l t i t can be t o s t r a d d l e both contemporary Indian c u l t u r e and t h a t of the dominant s o c i e t y . P l a c i n g these teenagers b e f o r e an audience i s t h e r e f o r e r i s k y . W i l l they be a b l e t o answer d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s ? How w i l l they respond t o remarks and q u e s t i o n s which are i n s e n s i t i v e , u n t h i n k i n g , and ignorant? Is i t f a i r t o expose them t o these kinds of pressures? I n e v i t a b l y t h e r e w i l l be some unpleasant v i s i t o r s d u r i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s , but u s u a l l y the s e s s i o n s are l i v e l y and i n t e r e s t i n g . By t h e i r own admission, students b e n e f i t from having t o d e a l w i t h such v i s i t o r s - they develop more r e s o u r c e s and r e s i l i e n c e . They a l s o begin t o see i s s u e s i n the wider h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l context we s t r e s s i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . And t h i s can be an a d d i t i o n a l advantage Page  120  when a p p l i e d i n t h e i r high school or c o l l e g e t r a i n i n g . The N.Y.P. o f f e r s v i s i t o r s the r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet the descendants of those who made and used the o b j e c t s they f i n d so f a s c i n a t i n g . I t g i v e s n a t i v e youth the o p p o r t u n i t y t o explore and understand t h e i r own h e r i t a g e , t o r e c l a i m t h e i r a n c e s t r a l a r t i f a c t s from the p a s t , and t o breathe l i f e i n t o them f o r themselves and the p u b l i c . [Rowan 1987b:3-4; u n d e r l i n i n g i n o r i g i n a l ] E a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g was if  somewhat e l u s i v e , o b j e c t i v e .  aim was  h e l d as a prime,  As Rowan s t a t e d , "Our  ultimate  t o t r a i n them so t h a t they c o u l d work i n the Museum and  then develop t h e i r own community c e n t r e s "  programmes on r e s e r v e s , i n day camps  (1982:1).  of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  The  At t h a t time, Rowan was  v e r y aware  s e p a r a t i o n of youngsters  and  teenagers a f t e r the o r i g i n a l summer workshop a t Musqueam e x p l a i n e d as an e f f o r t  and  was  "to make our programme more e f f i c i e n t  s e n s i t i v e t o the l e a r d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s which e x i s t e d " P r o j e c t problems were e x p l a i n e d  and  (Ibid.).  i n c u l t u r a l terms.  For anyone who has worked with n a t i v e people i n nonn a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s , or even i n n a t i v e ones such as band c o u n c i l s and community development committees, much of what we have s a i d here i s not new. In such s i t u a t i o n s the r e a l c u l t u r a l gap between n a t i v e and non-native people becomes obvious. We have l e a r n e d a great d e a l from t h i s p r o j e c t . A next step i s t o p l a c e our experience and growing understanding i n the wider context of s t u d i e s of programmes such as Headstart and o t h e r s , which were designed f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. There are two problems which are c e n t r a l t o t h i s p r o j e c t and others of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e : f i r s t , t o understand b e t t e r the c u l t u r a l gap j u s t mentioned and, second, t o adopt t e a c h i n g methods which r e l e a s e the p o t e n t i a l t h a t students possess. I t i s c l e a r t o us t h a t such p r o j e c t s are worth the e f f o r t d e s p i t e the i n e v i t a b l e frustration. [Rowan and Mcintosh 1982:7] As has been d i s c u s s e d , these i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t r a i n i n g i n mainstream education  Page  remedial  and employment p r a c t i c e s were  121  set  a s i d e w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s had t o have  basic s k i l l s  i n order t o s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r y out the job t a s k s .  The p r o j e c t was  slowly r e d e f i n e d as museum p u b l i c programming  w i t h a c o n v e n t i o n a l academic o r i e n t a t i o n .  Selective  hiring  l e s s e n e d f r u s t r a t i o n s c o n s i d e r a b l y and brought w i t h i t a understanding  new  of the p r o j e c t ' s r o l e with r e g a r d t o the members'  cultural identity.  The  f u n c t i o n of the p r o j e c t s h i f t e d from  i n t r a c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and remedial e d u c a t i o n t o i n t e r c u l t u r a l communications programming.  The p r o j e c t members  served as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y c u l t u r e , a l b e i t i n a g e n e r a l i z e d form of F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e r a t h e r than i n p e r s o n a l i z e d forms.  The e x p e c t a t i o n s were d i f f e r e n t , and  the  programming was  more conducive  t o the p r o j e c t ' s s e t t i n g i n a  p u b l i c museum.  The members' o b l i g a t i o n t o be a r t i c u l a t e i n an  i n t e r c u l t u r a l forum gave a d d i t i o n a l purpose t o the study of contemporary F i r s t Nations i s s u e s . for  Rowan t i e d the t h r e e  p r o j e c t success t o g e t h e r i n t h i s statement  reasons  of g o a l s .  The main goals are t o g i v e the students more knowledge and deeper understanding of t r a d i t i o n a l Indian c u l t u r e and of the a r t i f a c t s o r i g i n a t i n g i n t h i s c u l t u r e , and t o t e a c h them how t o present t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o v i s i t o r s . We a l s o want t o improve the s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s , and t o help them develop more p r i d e and c o n f i d e n c e about b e i n g I n d i a n . As the p r o j e c t developed we found t h a t the f i r s t and f o u r t h of these goals i n e v i t a b l y l e d us t o i n c l u d e more i n f o r m a t i o n about contemporary I n d i a n l i f e i n both t r a i n i n g and i n p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Students needed t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o answer more adequately v i s i t o r s ' q u e s t i o n s , and we a l s o c o n s i d e r e d the contemporary scene a l e g i t i m a t e p a r t of the museum's concern. [Rowan 1987b:21] Rowan was educator who  an e n e r g e t i c and i n v e n t i v e c u r a t o r and museum  worked w i t h i n an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n d e d i c a t e d Page  122  to  u p h o l d i n g and advancing the i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e s of the  dominant c u l t u r e .  As a c e n t r e f o r the study of o t h e r c u l t u r e s ,  t h e r e e x i s t e d a t MOA  a s p e c i a l concern f o r the problems  encountered by members of m i n o r i t y groups. was  The path t o success  c o n c e i v e d i n terms of d i g n i t y and knowledge, both  b e i n g d i r e c t l y f a c i l i t a t e d i n the NYP.  qualities  Rowan's experiment  was  i n t e n d e d t o g i v e F i r s t Nations youth a prominent, r e s p e c t e d p l a c e i n the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of indigenous c u l t u r e , but the i n f o r m a t i o n base was  c o n v e n t i o n a l museum ethnography.  Under  Rowan's guidance, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n mechanisms developed i n the NYP  d i d not " f r e e Indians from t h e i r e t h n o l o g i c a l f a t e "  1987a).  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the NYP  were encouraged  (Ames  t o speak i n the  f i r s t person when r e f e r r i n g t o the F i r s t N a t i o n s , but t h i s c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y was  based p r i m a r i l y on an academic  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e .  As the NYP  evolved, i t  became more o r i e n t e d t o museum p u b l i c programming and l e s s t o r e m e d i a l s k i l l development t o improve potential.  I t became an enrichment programme f o r p r o m i s i n g  F i r s t Nations youth. element  academic and employment  Throughout,  d i g n i t y was  i n the programme treatment.  an important  The t r a i n i n g prepared  p a r t i c i p a n t s t o become " s t a r s " of the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h e i r accomplishments the MOA  were r e s p e c t e d .  They were accepted i n t o  i n s t i t u t i o n a l c u l t u r e as "museum t r a i n e e s . "  Rowan's  l e a d e r s h i p s e t the s t y l e , the standards and the e x p e c t a t i o n s . Rowan (1987a:14) i d e n t i f i e s the NYP  as the e d u c a t i o n a l  u n d e r t a k i n g which brought her the most p r i d e and p l e a s u r e . Page  123  F i n a l l y , the s a t i s f a c t i o n s a c c r u i n g t o museum s t a f f s u p e r v i s i n g such a p r o j e c t a r e s u b s t a n t i a l . A l l days w i l l not be good days, students w i l l under p r e s s u r e sometimes l e t you down, o c c a s i o n a l l y b a d l y . But as a whole t h e N.Y.P. i s enormously rewarding. The students r e p r e s e n t t h e n a t i v e community, and t h e museum w e l l . P o i s e d , c o n f i d e n t , a d d r e s s i n g a l a r g e audience, and h a n d l i n g q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g ease, m a t u r i t y , and knowledge, these I n d i a n teenagers become an a s s e t t o any c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n . [Rowan 1987b:4] Rowan expresses a rewarding  sense of accomplishment f o r t h e  achievements o f t h e NYP and f o r the p o t e n t i a l t h i s approach o f f e r s museum programming and education g e n e r a l l y . enthusiasm  masks d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered  Rowan's  as o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c  expectations l e d t o f r u s t r a t i o n s i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of o v e r l y ambitious p l a n s . Rowan understood  anthropology  as a u s e f u l d i s c i p l i n e and  served as a c o n v e n t i o n a l c u l t u r a l broker, d e s i g n i n g a programme t o promote c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding and t o advance t h e e d u c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r members of t h e F i r s t Nations.  She assumed ethnographic a u t h o r i t y i n encouraging an  " I n d i a n " i d e n t i t y and i n d e v e l o p i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s on t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast c u l t u r e s .  On the other hand, Rowan espoused t h e  fundamental assumptions of a c c u l t u r a t i o n as she d i l i g e n t l y worked t o f a c i l i t a t e s o c i a l adjustment programming f o r the F i r s t N a t i o n s . of  through e d u c a t i o n a l  Returning t o MOA i n t h e f a l l  1989, Rowan gave a l e c t u r e on t h e NYP.  She concluded by  s u g g e s t i n g what she would have done i f she had c o n t i n u e d w i t h the p r o j e c t .  Rowan e n v i s i o n e d a f o u r year programme, t h e  a d d i t i o n a l two years d u r i n g c o l l e g e would have f o c u s s e d on  Page 124  western c i v i l i z a t i o n .  "They [ F i r s t Nations s t u d e n t s ] of a l l  people deserve t h e very best education we have t o o f f e r " l e c t u r e , 6 November 1989).  (MOA  I l l u s t r a t i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e by  r e f e r r i n g t o an accomplished F i r s t Nations a r t i s t , Rowan commented, "He f e e l s a t home i n both worlds"  (Ibid.).  After  Rowan l e f t MOA i n l a t e 1986, t h e NYP c o n t i n u e d t o e v o l v e i n keeping w i t h t h e changing s e n s i b i l i t i e s  a t the museum.  There  were attempts t o move beyond c o n v e n t i o n a l ethnographic a u t h o r i t y to  a deeper, c o l l a b o r a t i v e q u e s t i o n i n g and e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e  r o o t s o f contemporary  F i r s t Nations people and i s s u e s .  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o p e r a t i n g the NYP, under t h e guidance o f MOA s t a f f s u p e r v i s o r s , was p r o g r e s s i v e l y passed t o F i r s t p r o j e c t managers.  Nations  T h e i r r o l e and i n f l u e n c e on t h e NYP i s  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g chapter which o u t l i n e s t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e s o f t h e NYP and a r t i c u l a t e s changing understandings o f c u l t u r a l brokerage a t MOA.  Page 125  V I I . PROJECT MANAGERS The community  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l base f o r the N a t i v e Youth  P r o j e c t has been d e s c r i b e d i n the preceding c h a p t e r s .  To  fill  out the p i c t u r e with i n f o r m a t i o n about the o p e r a t i o n of the programme, t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of s t a k e h o l d e r s , p r o j e c t managers, p r o j e c t members and museum s t a f f , are c o n s i d e r e d i n the following chapters.  T h i s chapter examines the p r o j e c t managers  who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the r o u t i n e a c t i v i t i e s of the p r o j e c t . The development of and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n were reviewed i n the p r e v i o u s chapter o u t l i n i n g the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of  the p r o j e c t .  Experience  d u r i n g the f i r s t  summer of the NYP  demonstrated the need f o r r e g u l a r management a s s i s t a n c e . p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t manager was c r e a t e d t o f i l l Conceived  The  t h i s need.  as an e x t e n s i o n of the t r a i n i n g manadate a t MOA, i t  p r o v i d e d s k i l l development o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u n i v e r s i t y students.  F o l l o w i n g Rowan's departure  t h i s p o s i t i o n assumed broader  from the NYP i n 1986,  management r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  change r e f l e c t e d and c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l t e r e d understandings  This about  the p l a c e of the NYP i n museum programming and the nature of c u l t u r a l brokerage a t  MOA.  Beyond b a s i c course work, u n i v e r s i t y l i f e o f f e r s students v a r i e t y of p a r t - t i m e and summer job o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  These  p o s i t i o n s are o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t r a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s , but a t they a l s o keep many of the programmes f u n c t i o n i n g .  MOA,  Inherently,  t h i s means programme s t a f f i n g i s i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e of f l u x . T h i s , however, can c o n t r i b u t e v i t a l i t y , and, f o r the most p a r t , Page 126  a  it  has done so a t MOA where t h e system i s thoroughly i n t e g r a t e d  i n t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the museum. at  MOA a r e f i l l e d  Most of the student  by museology and anthropology  positions  students.  For  the p o s i t i o n o f p r o j e c t manager o f the NYP, students o f F i r s t N a t i o n s a n c e s t r y were r e c r u i t e d , w i t h one e x c e p t i o n i n t h e e a r l y 1980s.  By t h e end of t h e 1980s, t h e r e had been e i g h t p r o j e c t  managers w i t h d i v e r s e backgrounds and i n t e r e s t s . first  Four of t h e  f i v e p r o j e c t managers were i n t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n  E d u c a t i o n Programme (NITEP).  Teacher  D i f f i c u l t y f i l l i n g the p o s i t i o n  w i t h NITEP members developed when t h e NYP p r o j e c t managers s t a r t e d work i n May due t o schedule c o n f l i c t s .  The e d u c a t i o n  students had t o complete t h e i r practicums i n May. for  Candidates  t h e p o s i t i o n were then drawn from t h e N a t i v e Indian  Student  Union (NISU), and have i n c l u d e d a law student and a f i n e student.  arts  When h i r i n g f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n was  c i r c u l a t e d p r i m a r i l y by word of mouth among t h e s t u d e n t s .  The  outgoing p r o j e c t managers took an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n r e c r u i t i n g an a c c e p t a b l e candidate f o r the p o s i t i o n .  When a student  d e c i d e d t o apply, other F i r s t Nations students tended t o r e s p e c t t h i s , l e a v i n g a s i n g l e candidate f o r t h e p o s i t i o n .  Most o f t h e  students who have served as p r o j e c t managers would be c l a s s i f i e d as mature students having had a v a r i e t y of work e x p e r i e n c e s p r i o r t o a t t e n d i n g UBC.  The p r o j e c t managers have had a c t i v e  t i e s w i t h F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r home communities r e p r e s e n t i n g bands a l l along t h e c o a s t and i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia (see the appendix). Page 127  A.  PRACTICAL ROUTINES AND SCHEDULES The p o s i t i o n o f p r o j e c t manager was c r e a t e d t h e second  summer and became e s s e n t i a l t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t . While i n many ways t h e e a r l y years were an e x h i l a r a t i n g time o f d e s i g n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and e n j o y i n g the excitement o f w e l l r e c e i v e d p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t h e r e was f r e q u e n t l y e x a s p e r a t i o n backstage m a i n t a i n i n g t h e schedules and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e v a r i o u s personalities.  The p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t manager developed t o  handle t h e d a i l y r o u t i n e s .  They consequently have born t h e  brunt o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n s and t e n s i o n s , and have i n v a r i a b l y done so w i t h p e r s o n a l d e d i c a t i o n .  A comment i n t h e f i r s t  manager's f i n a l r e p o r t i s t y p i c a l :  project  "For myself, I l e a r n e d a t  l e a s t as much as they [the members] and b e n e f i t e d i n many ways, not t h e l e a s t of which was my j o y i n watching them perform" (NYP Report  f o r summer 1980:7).  In the 1988 f i n a l r e p o r t , t h e  p r o j e c t manager d e s c r i b e d her p o s i t i o n . Funding g u i d e l i n e s r e q u i r e t h a t t h e P r o j e c t Manager be a student a t t e n d i n g UBC. I t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t t h e c a n d i d a t e f o r t h i s p o s i t i o n be i n t h e f a c u l t y o f e d u c a t i o n , i d e a l l y w i t h some t e a c h i n g experience as t h e p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s much p l a n n i n g , p r e p a r a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h N a t i v e c u l t u r e o r museum work i s an a s s e t . The 1988 summer P r o j e c t Manager had t h r e e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g experience i n c l u d i n g both t h e elementary and h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l s . Northwest Coast Indian c u l t u r e had been s t u d i e d i n u n i v e r s i t y courses such as "Ethnography o f t h e Northwest Coast", "Contemporary Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia" and "Native P r o p l e s of Canada". Courses such as these helped t o p r o v i d e much of t h e background knowledge t h a t was necessary f o r t h e p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t r a i n i n g program f o r t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t . It i s important t h a t t h e P r o j e c t Manager enjoy working w i t h teenagers and t h e p u b l i c . The P r o j e c t Manager e n r o l l e d i n a t h r e e day i n t e r n Page 128  seminar which i n t r o d u c e d t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of museums. The course p r o v i d e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o museum p r i n c i p l e s , c o n s e r v a t i o n o f a r t i f a c t s , e x h i b i t s , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and a r c h i v e s . The course proved t o [be] extremely b e n e f i c i a l as i t helped t o p r o v i d e a new p e r s p e c t i v e t o one who i s not f a m i l i a r w i t h museums. [NYP Records, 1988 F i n a l Report] Most p r o j e c t managers a l s o served as w i n t e r programme coordinators.  In a d d i t i o n , anthropology  and museum  students  a l s o served as w i n t e r programme c o o r d i n a t o r s and r e s e a r c h assistants.  These jobs were p a r t - t i m e , and most were f i l l e d by  non-Native s t u d e n t s .  T h e i r r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e NYP i s  c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter Nine on t h e support  s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e d by  the museum. Each summer s t a r t e d with high e x p e c t a t i o n s , seasoned w i t h some t r e p i d a t i o n . A primary concern was p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g activities.  The f i r s t  p r o j e c t manager d e s c r i b e d t h e process as  follows: ...I began t o w r i t e down t r i p s and guest speakers t o h e l p f u l f i l l my o b j e c t i v e s . A f t e r a l l t h i s was done, [we] s a t down and began t o w r i t e our schedule. We completed t h e f i r s t week t o t h e best of our a b i l i t y . The month o f August, we played by ear. Whatever needed t o be done we did. [NYP Summer Report 1980:1] In t h e beginning, very l i t t l e p r e p a r a t i o n time was p r o v i d e d f o r the p r o j e c t managers p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t of t h e summer t r a i n i n g programme f o r t h e NYP members.  P r o j e c t managers d i d not  p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and h i r i n g which was done b e f o r e t h e s t a r t i n g dates o f t h e i r employment. one  of t h e many p r o j e c t p r a c t i c e s t h a t was a d j u s t e d  experience.  T h i s was with  The f o l l o w i n g recommendations by an e a r l y p r o j e c t  Page 129  manager i l l u s t r a t e some of the  difficulties.  I t h i n k the p r o j e c t manager should be h i r e d f o r a minimum of three days before (not n e c e s s a r i l y immediately b e f o r e ) , and t h r e e days a f t e r , the p r o j e c t time. The p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s o r should be a v a i l a b l e before the p r o j e c t and the two should d i s c u s s g u i d e l i n e s and p h i l o s o p h i e s f o r the p r o j e c t , l o o s e s c h e d u l i n g , and prepare the room and material. There should a l s o be a long meeting w i t h the student s u p e r v i s o r s , asking t h e i r suggestions, d i s c u s s i n g and c l a r i f y i n g t h e i r r o l e s , f i l l i n g them i n on p l a n s . Meetings w i t h the student s u p e r v i s o r s should c o n t i n u e throughout the program, as should meetings between the p r o j e c t manager and c u r a t o r . . . . A f t e r the program, time i s needed t o c l e a n and s t o r e o b j e c t s , and w r i t e r e p o r t s . T h i s job i n v o l v e s e x t r a time commitment and expense, and although o b v i o u s l y , I do e x t r a work because I want t o , and because I am i n t e r e s t e d , acknowledgment of the exta work by paying f o r the a d d i t i o n a l days would be a p p r e c i a t e d . [NYP Records Thoughts on the Native Youth P r o j e c t , Summer 1981:4; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ] At t h a t time, p r o j e c t personnel, were slowly e v o l v i n g .  and  responsibilities  A f t e r the departure of Rowan as  s u p e r v i s i n g c u r a t o r i n 1986, planning  t i t l e s and  the p r o j e c t manager had  h i r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  time employment n e a r l y two  explicit  therefore started  months before  full-  the t r a i n i n g programme  began. E a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , the procedures and  schedule were  c o n t r o l l e d by the o b j e c t i v e s of the o r i g i n a t i n g c u r a t o r c o n t i n u a l l y assessed the p o s s i b i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e and directions accordingly.  The  net e f f e c t was  schedule of a c t i v i t i e s .  A p r o j e c t manager e x p l a i n e d  r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s approach and  who  provided  a loosely structured the  the problems i t addressed.  I agree t h a t f o r t h i s type of p r o j e c t i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o keep p l a n n i n g very l o o s e i n order t o take advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s which come up, and t o f o l l o w the i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and t a l e n t s of the students. Due t o the Page  130  s t u d e n t s ' low l e v e l of enthusiasm and i n i t i a t i v e , I t h i n k i t important t o f a c i l i t a t e and encourage anything which seems t o appeal t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , even i f i t does not f i t i n w i t h our i n i t i a l plans f o r the p r o j e c t or w i t h the schedule. [NYP Records - Thoughts on the N a t i v e Youth Program 1981:4] However, i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the p r o j e c t managers, Rowan's response t o the u n a n t i c i p a t e d problem of l a c k l u s t e r member p a r t i c i p a t i o n was  t o make the s c h e d u l i n g f u l l e r and more  s t r u c t u r e d , as d i s c u s s e d i n the preceeding c h a p t e r .  In  1985,  the p r o j e c t manager's f i r s t recommendation simply s t a t e d ,  "The  p r o j e c t t r a i n i n g should be more s t r u c t u r e d , so t h a t students p r o g r e s s i s c l e a r l y shown" (NYP Report, Appendix I ) .  Records,  Summer 1985  Final  Based on s e v e r a l years of e x p e r i e n c e ,  Rowan p l a c e d primary emphasis on the f i r s t two weeks f o r i n t e n s e training  (see Chapter S i x ) , and the p r o j e c t managers d i l e g e n t l y  planned and implemented t h i s p e r i o d .  A p r o j e c t manager  d e s c r i b e d the p r o c e s s . The p r e p a r i n g of the t r a i n i n g schedule was much the same as p r e p a r i n g a t e a c h e r ' s planned daybook of activities. T h i s d e t a i l e d p l a n n i n g i s important t o ensure t h a t the content i s being covered and t h a t the students are a l l o t t e d the necessary time t o l e a r n the m a t e r i a l . A l a r g e c a l e n d a r of events was made and posted i n the study room o u t l i n i n g s p e c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the p r o j e c t . S i x new students had e i g h t weeks t o l e a r n f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i s was a very ambitious schedule t o be follwed... High e x p e c t a t i o n s s e t e a r l y and maintained helped t o set a tone t h a t encouraged the students t o work hard a t t h e i r s t u d i e s . A s e t schedule of p r e s e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g dates d i d much t o promote good study h a b i t s as the t a s k s set were demanding.... The t r a i n i n g programme c o n s i s t e d of r e a d i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , viewing f i l m s and v i d e o s , l i s t e n i n g t o guest l e c t u r e s and p r a c t i s i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s d a i l y . . . . In the p r e v i o u s 1987 Summer Programme, each student was g i v e n a b i n d e r f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the p r o j e c t and the Page  131  p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i s same format was adopted f o r the 1988 summer program except t h a t they would become permanent t r a i n i n g manuals. These t r a i n i n g manuals o r g a n i z e m a t e r i a l and p r o v i d e important r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l r e a d i l y f o r each student. Guest l e c t u r e r s are very important t o a s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n i n g program.... Some of the guest l e c t u r e r s ' m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the content of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s and o t h e r s r e l a t e d [ t o ] i s s u e s concerning N a t i v e Indians today. [NYP Records, 1988 F i n a l Report] T h i s p r o j e c t manager was  t r a i n e d i n conventional classroom  t e c h n i q u e s , and a p p l i e d her experience, and a l o t of p e r s o n a l energy  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a b i l i t y , t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  the p o s i t i o n .  Another d i f f i c u l t y became apparent  as the the  t r a i n i n g schedule became more and more ambitious.  I t simply  not p o s s i b l e t o complete a l l the d e s i r e d l e s s o n s and i n the a l l o t t e d time.  Indeed, the focus of the NYP  t r a i n i n g for public presentations.  One  was  activities became  p r o j e c t manager f l a t l y  recommended, " t r y i n g t o produce the m a t e r i a l f o r new  programmes  d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g should be avoided"  Summer  F i n a l Report, Appendix I ) . set  (NYP  The p r o j e c t managers attempted  a reasonable pace as they determined  addressed,  Records,  1985 to  the t a s k s t o be  but they had t o c o n s t a n t l y r e o r g a n i z e the schedule t o  compensate f o r i n t e r r u p t i o n s , u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s and unforeseen The the UBC  study o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  summer t r a i n i n g programme s t a r t e d w i t h a day t r i p t o Research  r o o t s and w i t h e s .  F o r e s t i n Haney f o r c o l l e c t i n g cedar Often the f i r s t cedar bark  bark,  collecting  experience f o r the p r o j e c t manager has been a t r i p t o the  forest  the p r e v i o u s month when s u p p l i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g workshops and  Page  132  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were secured. manager would arrange  For t h i s reason, the p r o j e c t  f o r others w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e r t i s e  t o accompany the group.  MOA  s t a f f was  of these c o l l e c t i n g t r i p s , and two  given p r i o r  notification  or more u s u a l l y j o i n e d the  work p a r t y p r o v i d i n g q u i e t support and a s s i s t a n c e .  Most y e a r s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from other F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s or museums took t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o get m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e i r particular projects.  T h i s t r i p t e s t e d the l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t y  of  the p r o j e c t manager and p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t s i n t o the summer t o come by r e v e a l i n g the e s p r i t de corps and idiosyncrasies.  individual  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t o o l s , proper  mosquito r e p e l l e n t , lunches —  clothing,  g a t h e r i n g and c l e a n i n g cedar  bark  i s demanding work and i f the group wasn't p r o p e r l y prepared, i t would become arduous. A f t e r a hour and a h a l f d r i v e from the museum, s t a f f a t the r e s e a r c h f o r e s t a s s i g n e d a stand of cedar s l a t e d f o r l o g g i n g , and the dusty t r i p up the mountain was  made.  A bear cub,  deer  or r a b b i t might scoot a c r o s s the road c o n t r i b u t i n g a sense of w i l d e r n e s s f o r t h i s b a s i c a l l y urban group.  In l a t e r y e a r s ,  f o r e s t r y s t a f f d i d not p r o v i d e d an e s c o r t , l e a v i n g i t up t o the group t o f i n d the stand and i d e n t i f y a p p r o p r i a t e cedar t r e e s which c o u l d be a d i s c o n c e r t i n g p r o c e s s .  Sometimes p r o j e c t  managers would draw on memories of f a m i l y o u t i n g s or  stories  from t h e i r home communities t o inform t h e i r h a n d l i n g of t h i s activity. important  Respect  f o r the bounty p r o v i d e d by nature was  an  element i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n on Page  133  the  traditional  uses of cedar with a prayer recorded by Franz  from h i s f i e l d w o r k with t h e Kwagiutl.  Boas  On one o c c a s i o n , t h e  p r o j e c t manager, whose o r i g i n s were not c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, used her own f a m i l y prayer, although they o t h e r m a t e r i a l s from the f o r e s t , not cedar bark.  gathered  The removal o f  a s t r i p o f bark was demonstrated, o f t e n by a s e n i o r member, and then groups o f two o r t h r e e d i s p e r s e d t o continue t h e work.  The  t r i p was an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e n i o r p r o j e c t members t o d i s p l a y t h e i r knowledge, and i n the s t i l l of the f o r e s t w h i l e c l e a n i n g bark, they would p r o v i d e i n s t r u c t i o n s and share s t o r i e s o f t h e previous years.  The l o r e of t h e p r o j e c t was passed from  generation t o generation.  Returning t o t h e museum i n t h e l a t e  a f t e r n o o n , t h e bark would be unwrapped and l a i d out t o d r y t o a v o i d an awful moldy mess. room, and t h e  The group gathered  i n the p r o j e c t  p r o j e c t manager used what l i t t l e time remained i n  the o f f i c i a l work day t o d i s c u s s t h e f o r e s t experience and i n i t i a t e t h e p r a c t i c e of keeping  individual journals.  were j o b r e l a t e d d e t a i l s t o a t t e n d t o : Employment Canada, p a y r o l l procedures  There  referral slips  from  and income t a x forms.  T y p i c a l l y , day number two of t h e t r a i n i n g would s t a r t  with  a welcome by t h e d i r e c t o r of museum and a thorough review o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e procedures  and p o l i c i e s f o r t h e p r o j e c t .  t h e r e were t o u r s of MOA g a l l e r i e s and backrooms, meeting along t h e way.  Then staff  P r e p a r a t i o n f o r making p r e s e n t a t i o n s would b e g i n  i n e a r n e s t w i t h t h e assignment of r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l s , study q u e s t i o n s and f i l m s .  Each new p r o j e c t member was a s s i g n e d a Page 134  p a r t i c u l a r segment of a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o l e a r n . a p r o j e c t manager r e v i s e d the procedures  In l a t e r y e a r s ,  by g i v i n g  assignments c o v e r i n g a l l the s c r i p t s , scheduled  individual  so t h a t i d e a l l y  each member would know a l l of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s by the end the summer.  of  T h i s r e p l a c e d a group process of s e q u e n t i a l l y  s t u d y i n g the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s c r i p t s . t h r e e , p r e s e n t a t i o n r e h e a r s a l s s t a r t e d along w i t h a schedule of guest l e c t u r e s , cedar workshops, and  On  day  full  other  activities. Day to  t h r e e i n 1988  a l s o brought the f i r s t major i n t e r r u p t i o n  the t r a i n i n g schedule.  The Peace T r a i n P r o j e c t , f o r t y  five  students from R u s s i a and Quebec making a g o o d w i l l journey Canada, scheduled a v i s i t t o the museum. had planned  across  The p r o j e c t manager  the o c c a s i o n upon request from the Centre f o r  P e a c e f u l Endeavors i n Montreal. host the group. presentations.  The members of the NYP  were t o  S e n i o r members would do the cedar and p o t l a t c h New  members were asked t o v o l u n t e e r t o  address  the group as they a r r i v e d and b i d them f a r e w e l l w i t h s m a l l souvenirs.  The NYP  refreshments.  members would a l s o prepare and  The t r a i n was  l a t e a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver.  Messages were r e c e i v e d , not noon but two maybe t h r e e t h i r t y . accordingly.  serve  o ' c l o c k , now  three,  The programme f o r the a f t e r n o o n was  revised  The t e l e v i s i o n news cameraman grew i m p a t i e n t ,  remained p l e a s a n t . weary t r a v e l l e r s .  but  F i n a l l y the group a r r i v e d , v e r y much the S u r p r i s e s , the Russian students  weren't t h a t f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . Page  The 135  really  l e a d e r s of the Peace T r a i n  group asked i f t h e i r i n t e r p r e t e r c o u l d p l e a s e t r a n s l a t e the presentation. s e n i o r NYP  T h i s was  members.  d e f i n i t e l y a new  They g r a c i o u s l y helped the i n t e r p r e t e r f i n d  a Russian phrase f o r " p o t l a t c h " and Bakbakwainooksiwae. presentation,  experience even f o r the  pronounce  T r a n s l a t i o n broke the pace of  the  but the s e n i o r members c a r r i e d i t o f f c o n f i d e n t l y  and w i t h a n i c e sense of humour.  The  snap of the beak on  Hamatsa mask spoke an i n t e r n a t i o n a l language.  the  A member of  the  Peace T r a i n group had planned t o g i v e a t a i k o (Japanese drum) performance i n the Great H a l l n e c e s s i t a t i n g y e t another programme change.  Nearly  a f u l l day  of p r e p a r a t i o n  r e s u l t e d i n a w h i r l w i n d v i s i t of perhaps an hour. worldwide r e p u t a t i o n , and by the s t a f f .  MOA  this  has  f i n a l l y over, the  manager expressed an o v e r a l l f e e l i n g of r e l i e f and  the week had  waiting  satisfaction.  t o be adjusted  The  project  a lingering  schedule f o r the r e s t of  t o compensate f o r the work not done  day. Day  f o u r u s u a l l y concentrated  study and more r e h e a r s a l . before  on r e h e a r s a l , background  Only e i g h t working days remained  the f i r s t p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  But t h e r e are many other  t h i n g s t o a t t e n d t o as w e l l i n c l u d i n g r e s e a r c h  and  discussion  contemporary F i r s t Nations i s s u e s and concerns.  The  members had  actual  t o be w e l l prepared not only f o r the  presentations, video  a  s p e c i a l v i s i t o r s are r e g u l a r l y hosted  When the excitement was  sense of p r i d e and  and  but  f o r the q u e s t i o n  "Journey t o Strength"  on  project  p e r i o d which f o l l o w e d .  The  on c u r r e n t F i r s t Nations programmes Page  136  provided The  background i n f o r m a t i o n and generated l i v e l y d i s c u s s i o n .  members e x p l o r e d  t h e i r a b i l i t y to deal with  to explain current issues.  T h e i r i n t e r e s t was  stereotypes  and  sparked by  programmes such as indigenous language taught w i t h the a i d of computers i n the Okanagan. group, "What can we  The  p r o j e c t manager prompted  do t o help other Native  the  people?"  By F r i d a y , the pressure mounted as the p r o j e c t manager considered week.  the work set a s i d e d u r i n g the course of the  first  During the coming week time would have t o be devoted t o  promotion and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the fund r a i s i n g barbeque  and  r a f f l e w i t h only two weeks remaining.  And  speakers had been scheduled.  t h e r e were t h i r t e e n guest  speakers i n a l l .  In 1988,  t h r e e or f o u r guest  Seven were F i r s t Nations speakers on  subjects  i n c l u d i n g l a n d c l a i m s and a b o r i g i n a l f i s h i n g r i g h t s , band a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l o r a t o r y , h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n the F i r s t Nations,  and Northwest Coast ceremonialism.  speakers were on s t a f f at MOA.  for  Three  P r o j e c t managers must d i s c r e e t l y  d i r e c t p o l i t e f o r m a l i t i e s according  t o the p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s of  each guest, and they must serve as s e n s i t i v e moderators t o draw out r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n .  Throughout the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ,  s e n i o r p r o j e c t members e x e r t s u b t l e p r e s s u r e . r o u t i n e s and  have developed t h e i r own  c u r r e n t p r o j e c t manager may  They know the  s t y l e of work and  p r e s e n t a t i o n under the guidance of the p r e v i o u s The  the  project  not r e a l i z e t h a t the  staff.  senior  members judge r a t h e r h a r s h l y the c u r r e n t approach and methods a g a i n s t standards e s t a b l i s h e d f o r them d u r i n g t h e i r Page  137  own  training. Each summer, t h e NYP took over a classroom r e c e p t i o n i s t ' s desk a t MOA.  next t o t h e  The p r o j e c t manager s e t up t h e  space as o f f i c e , l i b r a r y , seminar room, storeroom and workshop. An e a s e l w i t h a l a r g e pad o f newsprint was always p r e s e n t f o r p o s t i n g d a i l y schedules guest  and r e c o r d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s from  l e c t u r e s , f i l m s and other l e s s o n s .  Pounding cedar bark t o  make cordage, mats and other sample p i e c e s had been  designated  an outdoor a c t i v i t y e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of t h e p r o j e c t .  Quiet  steps i n p r o c e s s i n g bark, however, were done i n t h e room and generated q u a n t i t i e s of d e b r i s .  A frequent occurrence  was t h e  p r o j e c t manager e n t e r i n g t h e room, throwing hands i n t h e a i r , and  f i r m l y commanding a thorough c l e a n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a  guest  speaker was due momentarily.  There seemed t o be a s t r o n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p h y s i c a l order and p r o d u c t i v e a t t e n t i o n . Most o f t h e o b j e c t s i n t h e museum's "Touchable C o l l e c t i o n " would be housed i n two l o c k e d t r o l l e y s which remained i n t h e p r o j e c t room d u r i n g t h e summer.  The o b j e c t s , r e f e r r e d t o as  a r t i f a c t s , were used i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and served a c e n t r a l r o l e i n study and r e h e a r s a l s .  How t o handle, s t o r e and m a i n t a i n  these o b j e c t s were b a s i c l e s s o n s the group had t o l e a r n . Managing a c o l l e c t i o n was new f o r most of t h e p r o j e c t managers. For outreach  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , proper procedures had t o be f o l l o w e d  f o r t a k i n g t h e o b j e c t s out of t h e museum i n c l u d i n g paperwork and packing. and  The p r o j e c t manager i n s t r u c t e d the members i n t h e c a r e  h a n d l i n g of t h e a r t i f a c t s .  The most obvious t e s t came when  Page 138  members a s s i s t e d and monitored audiences h a n d l i n g the o b j e c t s f o l l o w i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s . T h i s r e q u i r e d a balance between v i g i l a n c e and encouragement. Beyond the p r o j e c t room, t h e r e were many r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the NYP  a t MOA.  There was  and a wide v a r i e t y of c o n t a c t s .  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support  And t h e r e was  expertise -  ethnography, archaeology, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , c o n s e r v a t i o n . was  Help  t h e r e and the museum s t a f f w i l l i n g l y gave time, but the  p r o j e c t managers had t o survey the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and r e q u e s t assistance.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the weekly s t a f f meetings  facilitated this.  Nonetheless, the onus was  managers t o a c t i v e l y pursue h e l p .  on the p r o j e c t  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p r o j e c t manager and s t a f f changed a f t e r Rowan's r e s i g n a t i o n . g e n e r a l , the p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t manager r e q u i r e d  In  individual  i n i t i a t i v e and d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o p l a n , manage and promote the summer programme. In every aspect of the p r o j e c t , the p r o j e c t managers had t o d i r e c t the members as they developed and e x e r c i s e d the proper s o c i a l grace and group s e n s i t i v i t y , a l l made more obvious when teenagers were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the s o p h i s t i c a t e d s e t t i n g of a u n i v e r s i t y museum.  T h i s r e q u i r e d d i l i g e n c e and  discretion.  The students are c o n s t a n t l y improving t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s as they must l e a r n how t o d e a l w i t h the p u b l i c e f f e c t i v e l y both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the Museum. They l e a r n how t o be p a t i e n t and understanding a t times when i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o do so. They a l s o l e a r n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior f o r g r e e t i n g and thanking guest lecturers. [NYP Records, 1988 F i n a l Report] Group d i s c i p l i n e p l a c e d a constant demand on the p r o j e c t Page 139  managers who  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the members behaviour a t a l l  times and i n d i v e r s e s i t u a t i o n s .  T h i s was  a heavy  burden.  In the b e g i n n i n g , c r a f t s were s t r e s s e d i n the NYP, member was  and  each  expected t o produce not only samples t o t e s t methods  and m a t e r i a l s , but a l s o f i n i s h e d o b j e c t s .  Some of the p i e c e s i n  the "Touchable C o l l e c t i o n , " which are r e g u l a r l y used i n p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , were made by p r o j e c t members.  Assisting,  encouraging, c a j o l i n g and f i n a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g , the c r a f t work proved t o be some of the most f r u s t r a t i n g time f o r the p r o j e c t managers.  There were s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s .  The members  u s u a l l y had grand ideas and minimal s k i l l s , a r e c i p e f o r dismay which was  r a r e l y compensated by perseverance.  T h i s problem  r e v e a l e d the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o j e c t managers who l i m i t e d c r a f t a b i l i t y , and guest e x p e r t i s e was sporadically. c r a f t s was  Furthermore,  usually  also had  available only  the equipment and work space f o r  makeshift and inadequate.  A l l around,  the  d e d i c a t i o n , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p a t i e n c e t o develop a proper a t t i t u d e of c r a f t s m a n s h i p was  not p r e s e n t .  C r a f t work i s v e r y  time and energy consuming, so w h i l e i t remained  important t o  study the m a t e r i a l s and become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e i r  special  p r o p e r t i e s , members were not expected t o produce p r e s e n t a t i o n objects.  Each member made study samples,  and i f g i f t e d members  expressed an i n t e r e s t , they would be encouraged develop t h e i r a b i l i t i e s .  to further  P e r i o d i c a l l y p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made  which i n c l u d e d a hands on twine making e x e r c i s e , but o v e r a l l the p r o j e c t s h i f t e d away from a c r a f t s o r i e n t a t i o n . Page  140  T h i s s h i f t of  emphasis helped  l e s s e n pressure on the p r o j e c t managers.  By the t h i r d week, a d a i l y r o u t i n e had more or l e s s been established.  The  r o u t i n e was  c e n t r e d on o r g a n i z i n g ,  preparing  and d e l i v e r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n s with the u n d e r l y i n g concern of making a good impression  on d i v e r s e audiences.  This  however, gave purpose and d i r e c t i o n t o the work and genuine rewards.  In 1988,  activity, provided  there were f o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o  be  l e a r n e d r a n g i n g from f i f t e e n minutes t o a h a l f hour i n l e n g t h which kept the new  members very busy.  Tuesday through F r i d a y a t the museum.  P r e s e n t a t i o n s were made Tuesday was  the f r e e  drawing the l a r g e s t attendance, e s p e c i a l l y when i t r a i n e d . Theatre days.  G a l l e r y , h o l d i n g about 100,  c o u l d be f i l l e d  on  day, The  these  S p e c i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s at the museum i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n  from s c h o o l s and day camps, when s t o r y t e l l i n g or a hands on a c t i v i t y such as making cedar bark twine might be  featured,  conventions  of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , and even groups of  blind.  standard  The  o c c a s i o n s , and  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were a d j u s t e d f o r these  f o r outreach  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , t o meet the  c o n s t r a i n t s of each s i t u a t i o n — facilities,  group i n t e r e s t s , ages,  a v a i l a b i l i t y of a r t i f a c t s and number of  participants.  The  p r o j e c t manager r e p o r t e d t h a t  95  p r e s e n t a t i o n s were given d u r i n g the summer of 1988 estimated  the  with  an  attendance of 3225.  Even when the p r e s e n t a t i o n r o u t i n e had been s e t f o r the summer, other r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s kept the schedule The  s e n i o r members as w e l l as the new Page  141  f u l l and  members had t o be  fluid.  kept  a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d and p r o d u c t i v e .  Overseeing  special  assignments c o u l d be t a x i n g f o r the p r o j e c t manager when t h e r e was so much t o be done t o meet the b a s i c schedule. s e n i o r members work independently and t a s k s had t o be very c l e a r .  was d e s i r e d , but t h e purpose The work had t o be monitored  even when t h e r e was s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t and the very i n t e n t i o n s on the p a r t of the members.  Of course,  best  Mondays and mornings,  MOA was c l o s e d a l l o w i n g time f o r day t r i p s , guest c a t c h i n g up.  Having t h e  speakers and  there were many maintenance chores such  as c a r i n g f o r the o b j e c t s used i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n s . l a r g e r undertakings outreach executed.  There were  such as study t r i p s and s p e c i a l events, and  p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o be scheduled,  planned, confirmed  and  And t h e r e was a nagging pressure t o upgrade t h e  p r e s e n t a t i o n s and develop new ones.  In 1989, t h e p r o j e c t  manager guided the r e v i s i o n o f the f i s h i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n , working w i t h t h e e l d e r s of the Coqualeetza  c e n t r e who approved t h e  i n f o r m a t i o n and the use of photographs taken on a group t r i p t o t h e i r f i s h camp on the F r a s e r R i v e r . was a p p r e c i a t e d by the MOA s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f . example o f s h a r i n g ethnographic w i t h those represented  This  study  initiative  I t was a c o n c r e t e  a u t h o r i t y and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The commitment o f  the p r o j e c t managers extended beyond o f f i c i a l hours o f work. They took a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t members, s o c i a l time t o g e t h e r .  The d e l i c a t e  balance  between f r i e n d and  s u p e r v i s o r v a r i e d , but the mix was always p r e s e n t . o b j e c t i v e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the NYP were ambitious, Page 142  spending  The and t h e  p r o j e c t managers forged ahead on the assumption t h a t expectations  B.  were  the  achievable.  REALITIES OF DISCIPLINE AND  MOTIVATION  From the s t a r t , the group e f f o r t t o produce e f f e c t i v e public presentations regarding  was  respected.  However,  expectations  work h a b i t s , i n i t i a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  of the p r o j e c t members were not r e a l i z e d .  I t was  abilities  assumed t h a t  the members would be q u i t e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n c a r r y i n g assigned  tasks, research  and p r e p a r a t i o n work.  assumption proved unfounded, a p l a n t o use members as student s u p e r v i s o r s was disappointing  out  When t h i s  experienced  senior  put i n t o p l a c e w i t h  results.  These student s u p e r v i s o r s d i d not show the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or i n i t i a t i v e t o take on more c h a l l e n g i n g p r o j e c t s . Instead, although they d i d help the others i n l e a r n i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n , they tended t o use t h e i r s e n i o r i t y t o show o f f , as power i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u g g l e s , and as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t they knew e v e r y t h i n g and thus d i d not have t o work. Instead of t a k i n g charge f o r the p r o j e c t manager, they needed as much or more s u p e r v i s i o n as the o t h e r s . [NYP Records - Thoughts on the Native Youth Program Summer 1981:3] When the use  of s e n i o r members i n s u p e r v i s o r y  counterproductive, c l e a r l y defined.  r o l e s proved  the p o s i t i o n of p r o j e c t manager became more The  p r o j e c t manager d e s c r i b e s the  situation.  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a f u l l time p r o j e c t manager spend a l l her time with the students ( i n a d d i t i o n t o p a r t time of the p r o j e c t s u p e r v i s o r ) . These students r e q u i r e more s u p e r v i s i o n than would be expected. At times we l e f t too much up t o the students: they c o u l d not accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , nor c o u l d they organize a whole p r o j e c t . They needed someone t o break down the steps of a t a s k f o r them, and t e l l them c o n c r e t e l y what t o do and the order i n Page  143  which t o do i t . In the f u t u r e I t h i n k the p r o j e c t manager should spend more time i n the room w i t h the s t u d e n t s , and working on the same p r o j e c t s as them. The students expressed a f e e l i n g t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s were not aware of how hard they worked, and t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s i n s t r u c t e d them t o do t a s k s they had not done, and t h e r e f o r e d i d not r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y o f . Being i n the room would make i t e a s i e r t o monitor e x a c t l y what i s t a k i n g p l a c e . I t would a l s o i n d i c a t e an i n t e r e s t i n the students and t h e i r work, which I t h i n k the students would a p p r e c i a t e . However, these students l i k e d t o be i s o l a t e d (to work behind c l o s e d doors) and would o f t e n leave the room i f the p r o j e c t manager was working i n t h e r e . [NYP Records - Thoughts on the N a t i v e Youth Program Summer 1981:2; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ] A l a t e r p r o j e c t manager p r o v i d e s t h i s recommendation:  "The  p r o j e c t manager should not t r y t o become ' f r i e n d s ' w i t h the students but he/she should become an i n s t r u c t o r , l e a d e r , boss ( t h i s i s always a d i f f i c u l t dilemma)"  (NYP Records - Summer  F i n a l Report, Appendix I; parentheses i n o r i g i n a l ) . members remained  1985  Senior  an important element i n the t r a i n i n g p r o c e s s ,  but they d i d not have an e x p l i c i t s u p e r v i s o r y f u n c t i o n .  Project  managers spent most of t h e i r time w i t h the members, o f t e n doing t h e i r own  work i n the p r o j e c t room t o m a i n t a i n a p r o d u c t i v e  atmosphere, and c a r e f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d the r o u t i n e s and  monitored  progress. Rules and r e g u l a t i o n s evolved r a t h e r s l o w l y , avoided a t first  assuming the group would r e g u l a t e i t s own  affairs.  In  response t o unacceptable behaviour, r u l e s tended t o be made ad hoc, as observed by an e a r l y p r o j e c t manager. We should c a r e f u l l y t h i n k through any " r u l e s " we s e t down, and be f u l l y prepared t o implement them. I t i s not good f o r the students t o see us not keeping our word, not e n f o r c i n g r u l e s we make, and a l l o w i n g some t o get away w i t h something other students are a b i d i n g t o . I t h i n k i t makes them l e s s w i l l i n g t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o us. [NYP Records Page  144  Thoughts on the N a t i v e Youth Program Summer 1981:1] Some r u l e s e v o l v e d from the way the p r o j e c t was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . Job t r a i n i n g was a d e f i n i t e element i n the p r o j e c t , thus working s e t hours and b e i n g on time r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r  attention.  V a r i o u s methods were used t o monitor t h i s behaviour such as time sheets.  Problems i n attendance and t a r d i n e s s e v e n t u a l l y l e d t o  the t h r e e warning system f o r d i s m i s s a l of p r o j e c t members which was i n i t i a t e d by e a r l y p r o j e c t managers. long l i s t  A f t e r eleven years, a  of dos and don'ts had developed which were c a r e f u l l y  reviewed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of each summer programme.  They ranged  from p o l i c y on u s i n g telephones, t y p e w r i t e r s and p h o t o c o p i e r t o the p e r s o n a l use of p o r t a b l e r e c o r d e r s w i t h headsets and p o s t e r s on the w a l l s of the p r o j e c t room.  MOA  s t a f f contributed t o the  r u l e s a l o n g w i t h the p r o j e c t managers, but i t was p r i m a r i l y t h e p r o j e c t manager who used them t o e s t a b l i s h an a c c e p t a b l e working environment and who enforced them i n a manner t h a t not o n l y was f a i r , but was p e r c e i v e d t o be f a i r by the members.  Formal  standards and e x p l i c i t r u l e s of conduct were i n e v i t a b l e , but they remained f l e x i b l e enough t o a l l o w p r o j e c t managers t o develop t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l managerial s t y l e s . Problems of d i s c i p l i n e and m o t i v a t i o n a l s o l e s s e n e d w i t h the a d o p t i o n of more r i g o r o u s h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s . c o u p l e of reasons f o r t h i s .  There were a  F i r s t , the s e l e c t i o n was based on  more complete i n f o r m a t i o n which d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o q u a l i t i e s necessary t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n the p r o j e c t .  And second, p r o j e c t  standards were e s t a b l i s h e d by the thoroughness of t h e  Page 145  a p p l i c a t i o n and  i n t e r v i e w p r o c e s s , so new  members s t a r t e d  summer t r a i n i n g w i t h more r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s .  the  A f t e r Rowan's  r e s i g n a t i o n , the p r o j e c t managers took the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r e c r u i t i n g members very s e r i o u s l y , and, s t a f f , d i s t r i b u t e d f l y e r s and  w i t h the help of  a p p l i c a t i o n information  d i s t r i c t s throughout the Lower Mainland, and schools,  F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s  on the assignments and was  the  and  activities.  to  school  to a l t e r n a t i v e  band o f f i c e s .  Building  i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s developed when Rowan  supervising curator,  c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h MOA  and  MOA  recent p r o j e c t managers, i n  supervising  In 1988,  s t a f f , have added q u e s t i o n s  the p r o j e c t manager added a w r i t t e n  assignment t o be completed by the a p p l i c a n t f o l l o w i n g  the  interview,  answering the q u e s t i o n ,  use  museums?"  T h i s assignment was  "Why  made f o r the e x p l i c i t purpose of  d e t e r m i n i n g w r i t i n g p r o f i c i e n c y and a b i l i t y t o understand and  should people  gauging the  complete a new  task.  applicant's In 1989,  p r o j e c t manager reviewed the a p p l i c a t i o n procedures i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s w i t h s t a f f at the UBC Learning.  provided  MOA  The  their  p r o j e c t manager c o n t a c t e d a l l r e f e r e n c e s  by the a p p l i c a n t s , a p r a c t i c e c o n s i d e r e d  invaluable. and  The  and  F i r s t Nations House of  Some minor changes were made based on  suggestions.  the  s e l e c t i o n team was  s t a f f supervisors.  to  be  made up of p r o j e c t manager  Respecting the e f f o r t put  forward  by  a l l the a p p l i c a n t s , the p r o j e c t manager c o n t a c t e d each by telephone, f o l l o w e d  by a l e t t e r , e x p l a i n i n g the outcome of t h e i r  interview. Page  146  To make sure the summer was o f f t o a f l y i n g s t a r t i n 1988, the p r o j e c t project  manager arranged a meeting of the new group o f  members a couple of weeks p r i o r t o the s t a r t o f t h e  training  programme.  T h i s would p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet b e f o r e the program s t a r t e d as w e l l as s t a r t the f u n d - r a i s i n g e f f o r t s . Each student r e c e i v e d a number of r a f f l e t i c k e t s t o s e l l t o r a i s e funds f o r the Summer Study T r i p . In a d d i t i o n , each new student r e c e i v e d a s c r i p t package t o read over b e f o r e the summer p r o j e c t commenced. The handing out o f t h e s c r i p t s p r i o r t o the a c t u a l t r a i n i n g proved v e r y b e n e f i c i a l as i t allowed the students t o f a m i l i a r i z e themselves w i t h the program c o n t e n t . Students were a l s o i n s t r u c t e d t o apply f o r t h e i r s o c i a l insurance numbers immediately. Students under the age of s i x t e e n a r e r e q u i r e d t o b r i n g l e t t e r s o f p e r m i s s i o n from t h e i r parents o r guardians s t a t i n g the student had p e r m i s s i o n t o work f o r t h e Museum. [NYP Records, 1988 F i n a l Report] The members had p o s i t i v e memories of t h i s meeting, the good snacks and f r e s h p r o d u c t i v e summer. practices  fruit.  especially  The stage was s e t f o r a  Over the y e a r s , many procedures and  have developed  and been handed down p r o v i d i n g  e f f e c t i v e ways of coping w i t h problems of d i s c i p l i n e and motivation.  Nonetheless,  diverse personalities,  C.  each year i s d i f f e r e n t , a b l e n d o f  experiences and i n t e r e s t s .  TESTING POTENTIAL The NYP became a forum which allowed u n i v e r s i t y  from the F i r s t Nations t o t e s t the p o t e n t i a l  students  of museum based  a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r own a b i l i t y t o p l a n and manage a c u l t u r a l programme.  As Rowan observed,  each year the p r o j e c t  r e f l e c t the s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s  of the p r o j e c t  Page 147  should  manager.  The  r o l e o f t h e p r o j e c t manager went beyond p l a n n i n g and m o n i t o r i n g r o u t i n e work.  They brought t h e i r own v i s i o n s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s  which were f e d by t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r experiences and t h e g o a l s they had s e t f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s .  With t h e i n f l u e n c e o f  the p r o j e c t managers, t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e indigenous Northwest Coast c u l t u r e was a l t e r e d t o be t r e a t e d as an ongoing t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t a t r a d i t i o n which had weathered sweeping d i s r u p t i o n of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l p a t t e r n s i n t h e p a s t 200 y e a r s .  The NYP had p r o g r e s s i v e l y developed  a deeper  i n t e r e s t i n t h e contemporary F i r s t Nations community.  As a  p r o j e c t manager e x p l a i n s , "The expanding and updating o f e x i s t i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n s i s necessary  i n order t o h e l p p r o v i d e a  balanced p e r s p e c t i v e of both t r a d i t i o n a l and contemporary n a t i v e life"  (NYP Records, F i n a l Report  Summer 1988).  From t h e beginning of t h e p r o j e c t , i t had been a j o i n t e f f o r t w i t h t h e F i r s t Nations through Brenda T a y l o r and t h e N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y .  Although  primarily  i n v o l v e d i n sponsoring the a p p l i c a t i o n f o r funding t h e NYP, t h e r e were c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by NIYAS: improved academic achievement, youth employment, l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , and c o n f r o n t i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (see Chapter I t was l e f t t o Rowan t o develop mechanisms t o address expectations.  Five).  these  The p r o j e c t managers p r o v i d e d more c o n c r e t e  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e F i r s t Nations i n t h e NYP.  Most o f t h e  p r o j e c t managers had made p e r s o n a l commitments t o s e r v i c e i n t h e F i r s t N a t i o n s , and thus, they p r o v i d e d i n v a l u a b l e c o n t a c t s which Page 148  became an important resource  i n p l a n n i n g and  shaping  the  summer's a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s summer, the Native Youth P r o j e c t was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h new c o n t a c t s i n the n a t i v e communities on the c o a s t of northern B r i t i s h Columbia and the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s . T h i s c o n t a c t f u l f i l l s an important goal of the Museum as i t c r e a t e s d i r e c t l i n k s between the Museum and n a t i v e communities. [NYP Records, F i n a l Report Summer 1988] T h i s p r o j e c t manager a l s o served i n an o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t y as  MOA  l i a i s o n w i t h the F i r s t Nations community, a p r a c t i c e which became a p a r t of the job d e s c r i p t i o n .  I t was  particularly  important because there were no members of the F i r s t N a t i o n s the permanent s t a f f at MOA.  The most common r e a c t i o n t h i s  p r o j e c t manager r e c e i v e d from the F i r s t Nations was Great H a l l was  on  that  " o l d and dead" (personal communication).  the She  wanted t o f i n d ways of making the museum a v i t a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the people of the F i r s t Nations.  Continuing  the NYP  e x p l a i n s t h a t the primary goal of the p r o j e c t was s u c c e s s f u l l y met"  (NYP  she  "very  as members "gain a competence and p r i d e i n  p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e and themselves t o n a t i v e and audiences"  report,  non-native  Records, F i n a l Report Summer 1988).  The t r a i n i n g t a s k s s e t before each student are demanding and r i g o r o u s but they accept the t a s k s r e a d i l y as each, student knows they represent n a t i v e people t o the p u b l i c . T h i s i s a t a s k not taken l i g h t l y as they s t r i v e t o improve themselves and the image of t h e i r c u l t u r e . [NYP Records, F i n a l Report 1988] The  c h a l l e n g e of i n t e r c u l t u r a l communication weighed on  the  p r o j e c t managers, and they imparted a p o s i t i v e sense of purpose and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o the members. Under Rowan's guidance, an "Indian" Page  149  i d e n t i t y had  been  adopted which g e n e r a l i z e d the indigenous c u l t u r e of t h e Northwest  Coast and accentuated a common o r i g i n f o r a l l F i r s t  N a t i o n s . In 1989, t h i s type c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y came t o be d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n e d by the p r o j e c t manager who r e s p e c t e d t h e i n t e g r i t y of s p e c i f i c groups and r e j e c t e d p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h e r i t a g e not r e a l l y ones own.  An example of r e c o g n i z i n g  s p e c i f i c t r a d i t i o n s was p r o v i d e d by t h i s p r o j e c t manager when she r e v i s e d the f i s h i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the e l d e r s a t Coqualeetza g i v i n g them e x p l i c i t c r e d i t .  Ongoing,  a c t i v e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s had been r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e NYP i n o t h e r ways.  In 1987, the p r o j e c t manager o r g a n i z e d a  Naming Ceremony and a p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the annual g e n e r a l assembly of the U n i t e d N a t i v e N a t i o n s . brought  a Nuu-cha-nulth  observance  The Naming Ceremony  t o the museum, hosted by t h e  f a m i l y w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of members of the NYP.  While  these  a c t i v i t i e s were i n i t i a t e d by the p r o j e c t manager and planned and implemented w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n of MOA  s t a f f , they a r e  d e s c r i b e d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e p r o j e c t members i n t h e following chapter.  The t r a i n i n g and experience p r o v i d e d t o t h e  p r o j e c t managers through the NYP has extended  beyond MOA.  A  c o u p l e o f the p r o j e c t managers have gone on t o p l a n s i m i l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n programmes f o r young people, one w i t h the N a t i o n a l Museum of C i v i l i z a t i o n i n H u l l and the o t h e r w i t h a reserve i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  In summary, i t was through the p r o j e c t managers t h a t t h e i n t e g r i t y of the museum was a b l e t o c o e x i s t w i t h t h e i n t e g r i t y Page 150  of F i r s t Nations knowledge and c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as s e n s i b i l i t i e s about ethnographic  a u t h o r i t y and c u l t u r a l  brokerage began t o change i n the l a t e 1980s.  The  grand  d i a l e c t i c of a s s i m i l a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n , homogenization and emergence  (see Chapters  Three and Four) had not been r e s o l v e d ,  but more s e a r c h i n g q u e s t i o n s were being asked.  Within a  programme s t r u c t u r e conceived and d i r e c t e d by Rowan as the o r i g i n a t i n g c u r a t o r , the p r o j e c t managers maintained r o u t i n e s , r e f i n i n g the procedures evolved.  the d a i l y  and p r a c t i c e s as the programme  A f t e r the departure of Rowan from the NYP, the p r o j e c t  managers assumed more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r managing the programme, b r i n g i n g t o t h e i r work an i n s i d e r ' s p e r s p e c t i v e .  The purpose o f  t h i s e x t e n s i v e e f f o r t was t o p r o v i d e a programme f o r F i r s t Nations teenagers.  T h e i r experience i s d e s c r i b e d i n the next  chapter.  Page 151  V I I I . PROJECT MEMBERS C o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n with people of the F i r s t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and bands has been p a r t of the commitment MOA.  as an a t t r a c t i v e  c u l t u r e of the Northwest Coast.  There was  indigeous  another s i d e t o  An e a r l y p r o j e c t manager, a non-Native anthropology r e c a l l e d the c r i t i c i s m  Indians"  c a t e g o r i z e d the NYP  MOA  graduate  as "teaching Indians t o Rowan i n i t i a t e d  be  an  involvement i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of  c o l l e c t i o n s with e d u c a t i o n a l and  participants.  this.  she r e c e i v e d from f e l l o w  (personal communication).  experiment i n F i r s t Nations  accepted  training  o p p o r t u n i t y with c r e d i t a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n s on the  students who  continuing  In t u r n , the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t was  by many i n the F i r s t Nations  student,  Nations,  job t r a i n i n g f o r the  As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter S i x , the background  assumptions were rooted i n an i d e o l o g y of a c c u l t u r a t i o n .  The  q u e s t i o n of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and p r i d e i n h e r i t a g e were important sponsoring  throughout the p r o j e c t as major concerns of the  co-  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  S o c i e t y , t o d e a l with the e f f e c t s of r a c i s m and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and  as a p a r t of the programme treatment and p u b l i c  p r e s e n t a t i o n s developed under Rowan's guidance.  In the  process  of a c c u l t u r a t i o n , the e f f e c t s of "homogenization" were juxtaposed  by  "emergence" ( C l i f f o r d  g e n e r a l i z e d F i r s t Nations  1988:17), and,  i d e n t i t y was  cultivated.  i n the NYP, Content  and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n were based on the academic a u t h o r i t y of conventional  ethnographies and ethnographic Page  152  techniques.  Later  a  p r o j e c t managers began t o a d j u s t the experiment, b u i l d i n g a contemporary i n s i d e r ' s p o i n t of view.  The grand d i a l e c t i c o f  c u l t u r a l homogenization and emergence was p l a y e d out more s u b t l y for  t h e p r o j e c t members.  1990:2) suggests, to  call  Perhaps, as one former member  because o f apathy and ignorance.  f o r a programme focussed on empowerment,  s e l f - c e n t r e d a t t i t u d e i n t o searching s o c i a l  (Brass  He goes on  transforming a  responsibility,  b u i l d i n g a c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y with deep, i n d i v i d u a l meaning f o r F i r s t Nations  students.  The r o l e and approach f o r c u l t u r a l  brokers was being c r i t i c a l l y  reviewed by F i r s t Nations managers  and p r o j e c t members. T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the c e n t r a l s t a k e h o l d e r s i n t h e NYP, the F i r s t Nations teenagers, organized. students  f o r whom the programme was  Between 1979 and 1989, f i f t y nine high  served i n the NYP as members.  the p a t t e r n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Nineteen  Table VTII-1 s e t s out  The number of p a r t i c i p a n t s each  summer ranged from f i v e t o twelve. f u l l term.  school  Four members d i d not serve a  went on t o become " s e n i o r " members  c o n t i n u i n g f o r a second, t h i r d and, i n one case, f o u r t h y e a r . Twenty f o u r members were male and t h i r t y f i v e female.  Project  r e c o r d keeping was i n c o n s i s t e n t , and what i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e can be found i n the appendix.  While the f a m i l y  o r i g i n s o f most o f the students were c o a s t a l B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e were s e v e r a l from the i n t e r i o r , f o u r o f Cree a n c e s t r y and one  of Iroquois ancestry.  S e v e r a l students  from other  programmes attended workshops and t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e Page 153  p r o j e c t members f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s . i n the l i s t  They have not been i n c l u d e d  of members.  TABLE V I I I - 1 Numbers o f P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t by Year and Terms Served Year/Gender/Terms served i n NYP <1 1 2 1979  M F  1980  M F  1981  M F  1982  M F  1983  3  4  5 7  T o t a l number each y e a r 12 12  3 3  4 1  2  1  2 1  2  1  1  M F  3 2  1  1984  M F  2 3  1985  M F  3 2  1  1986  M F  2 4  1 1  8  1987  M F  1 1  1 2  5  1988  M F  1989  M F  Total  1  4  1  6*  7 1  6 7  2  6  1 1  5 2 2  3  55  19  9  8 7  6  1  87  * Two of these members served f u l l terms o t h e r y e a r s . T o t a l number of i n d i v i d u a l members through 1989 was 59. See the appendix f o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e members of the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t .  Page 154  Not o n l y was each year d i f f e r e n t , but members responded v a r i e t y of ways t o the experience o f f e r e d .  in a  With t h i s i n mind, a  d e s c r i p t i o n of the b a s i c c y c l e of membership i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h individual  A.  accounts.  APPLICATION AND SELECTION There were a range of reasons why students a p p l i e d f o r t h e  NYP.  Sometimes t h e high s c h o o l student was seeking employment.  O f t e n i t was an e l d e r , s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r o r s o c i a l worker who d i r e c t e d the student i n t o a p o t e n t i a l l y p r o d u c t i v e summer activity.  As the r e p u t a t i o n of the NYP grew, more people were  aware of the annual r e c r u i t m e n t of members. s t a f f experienced deep disappointment  However, p r o j e c t  when many of those making  i n q u i r i e s f a i l e d t o a t t e n d the o r i e n t a t i o n s e s s i o n and submit applications.  Undoubtedly, the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g and  commitment r e q u i r e d by the programme d e t e r r e d many from following  through w i t h t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s .  One member  r e c a l l e d going t o her s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o miss an exam i n order t o a t t e n d a p o t l a t c h . not N a t i v e , are you?" suggested  H i s comment was,  "You're  Having d i s c o v e r e d her o r i g i n s , he  t h a t she apply f o r the p r o j e c t .  Most a p p l i c a n t s were  new t o t h e job market, and t h e r e f o r e had t o prepare a resume, arrange  f o r l e t t e r s of r e f e r e n c e and compose a l e t t e r of  i n t e r e s t f o r the f i r s t i n t e r e s t on f i l e  time.  In r e v i e w i n g the l e t t e r s of  from s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a n t s , a l l mentioned some  a s p e c t of F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e , most e x p r e s s i n g a d e s i r e t o Page 155  l e a r n more and a few o f f e r i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e .  Two t h i r d s spoke  about F i r s t Nations c u l t u r e i n the f i r s t person, "our c u l t u r e " or "my h e r i t a g e , " "they."  and the remainder use the t h i r d person,  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i n r e c e n t  project presentations t o f i r s t person.  have c o n s c i o u s l y  years, the  s h i f t e d from t h i r d person  About h a l f of the a p p l i c a t i o n l e t t e r s  mentioned a d e s i r e t o teach others about the F i r s t N a t i o n s , o r t o develop s k i l l s o f working w i t h people i n c l u d i n g  public  speaking, o r t o work i n the museum as a s p e c i a l p l a c e .  A third  of t h e l e t t e r s r e f e r r e d t o the need f o r a j o b o r work experience.  Only a f i f t h of the a p p l i c a t i o n l e t t e r s mention any  i n t e r e s t i n f u t u r e work w i t h F i r s t Nations programmes. For the f i r s t Community Centre.  four y e a r s , i n t e r v i e w s  were h e l d a t B r i t a n n i a  In some ways, 1982 was a t u r n i n g p o i n t .  Five  of t h e nine members h i r e d t h a t year had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p r o j e c t , and some o f them were g e t t i n g s t a l e and bored. A p o l i c y was formed l i m i t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o two y e a r s .  The  o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p o l i c y was made i n 1988 when j u n i o r members from the p r e v i o u s year were not able t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the p r o j e c t  (see Table V T I I - 1 ) .  r e t u r n i n g NYP  By the mid 1980s, even  members had t o go through the f u l l  procedure which i n c l u d e d  r e v i e w i n g an NYP p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n a t  the museum p r i o r t o the i n t e r v i e w . gave a p p l i c a n t s interview  application  These procedures  generally  a p r a c t i c a l understanding o f the programme.  and h i r i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e d e s c r i b e d  s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n e d i n Chapter S i x . Page 156  i n the p r o j e c t  P r o j e c t members a l l had  The  p e r s o n a l t a l e s about t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s and how they l e a r n e d about b e i n g accepted.  The h i r i n g procedures  had a l a s t i n g  The NYP served F i r s t Nations teenagers of  impression.  i n the urban c e n t r e  Vancouver, but t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o f i l e shows t h e v a r i e d  backgrounds of members.  The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f a p p l i c a n t s  s e l e c t e d had been d i r e c t e d t o the NYP through the p u b l i c schools.  About a f i f t h have been r e f e r r e d through  band o f f i c e s .  Perhaps a h a l f dozen came through the e f f o r t s of t h e i r workers, and another  social  h a l f dozen had parents a t t e n d i n g t h e  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC).  Over a t h i r d o f t h e  members were s t a t u s members of the F i r s t N a t i o n s , and n e a r l y a t h i r d had l i v e d on r e s e r v e s a t some p o i n t . applications to o f f i c i a l l y  A few members made  establish their status.  One member  a p p l i e d not o n l y f o r h i s own c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as s t a t u s but a l s o for  h i s s i b l i n g s as a r e s u l t of commitment n u r t u r e d through t h e  project.  P o s s i b l y a f i f t h of the members c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as  having c u l t u r a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a m i l i e s i n t h e First  B.  Nations.  RESEARCH AND TRAINING The terms "research" and " t r a i n i n g " were b a s i c i n t h e NYP  vocabulary.  A t a conference workshop, a p r o j e c t member  d e s c r i b e d the p r o c e s s . We s t u d i e d many books, and we took notes on a l o t o f f i l m s and v i d e o s which we saw. We v i s i t e d f i v e o t h e r museums, and we had guest speakers come i n and t a l k t o us about v a r i o u s t o p i c s . And our f i r s t day o f the job, a l l t h e N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t went t o the r e s e a r c h f o r e s t and we Page 157  c o l l e c t e d our own cedar bark. We cleaned the bark, and we made our own cedar products. Every member of the p r o j e c t a l s o kept a j o u r n a l on our f e e l i n g s about s p e c i f i c events and s p e c i a l t h i n g s t h a t may have happened.... And not o n l y d i d the group r e s e a r c h the content, but we a l s o had d i s c u s s i o n s and q u i z z e s t o make sure t h a t we knew a l l our m a t e r i a l and t h a t we understood what was being s a i d i n the presentations. E v e n t u a l l y , a f t e r s t u d y i n g and r e s e a r c h i n g , we a l l began t o be t r a i n e d on p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f . We were helped on speaking l o u d l y , c l e a r l y , with c o n f i d e n c e . And we were shown how t o present o u r s e l v e s i n a d i g n i f i e d , mature manner. We a l l helped one another on our p r e s e n t i n g , and, as a p a r t of t h i s t r a i n i n g , we had c r i t i q u e s and s h o r t t a l k s and d i s c u s s i o n s on the p o s i t i v e and negative s i d e s of our manner i n f r o n t of an audience. We l e a r n e d the s k i l l s of p r e s e n t i n g as w e l l as the c o n t e n t of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s . When we f i r s t gave our p r e s e n t a t i o n , the f i r s t time, we were a l l r e a l l y very nervous.... But afterwards, i t f e l t r e a l l y good because you had so many p o s i t i v e comments from a l o t of people, and people ask you q u e s t i o n s , and they j u s t t a l k t o you. I t was r e a l l y n i c e . [1989 p r e s e n t a t i o n at conference workshop] Research focussed on p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o l e c t u r e s , readings experimenting artifacts.  and d i s c u s s i o n s , i t i n c l u d e d  with the m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y cedar,  T h i s was  intended t o g i v e the members an  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l technology,  sand  handling  intimate  an e x p e c t a t i o n which  appeared t o be r e a l i z e d f o r most members. split,  and  When the cedar  most smelled the wood, f e l t i t c a r e f u l l y and t r i e d i t with the d r i e d d o g f i s h s k i n .  m a t e r i a l was  There was  any  When asked what r e s e a r c h  most u s e f u l , the response i n unison was  Stewart's book, Cedar.  to  When a r t i f a c t s were  handed around the group, they were examined c a r e f u l l y and moveable or removeable p a r t s t r i e d .  was  Hilary  some h e s i t a t i o n a c c e p t i n g a  non-Native as a u t h o r i t y , but Stewart's very thorough workshops served as the b a s i s f o r much of the knowledge the member used.  Page  158  Group d i s c u s s i o n s provided situations.  valuable  l e a r n i n g and t e s t i n g  In the l a t e r years of the p r o j e c t , contemporary  i s s u e s were as important as t o p i c s about t r a d i t i o n a l Films, videos,  guest speakers and f i e l d t r i p s were used t o  stimulate discussion. unpredictable.  life.  Discussions,  however, were very  Some became animated, others were l i f e l e s s .  On  a f i e l d t r i p t o a museum, the p r o j e c t manager expressed her dismay a t t h e l a c k of apparent i n t e r e s t , s t a t i n g she was "embarrassed" t h a t they were not asking q u e s t i o n s .  On another  occasion,  t h e speaker was so t e d i o u s t h a t , t h e p r o j e c t manager  confessed  l a t e r , she u n o b t r u s i v e l y  t o ask q u e s t i o n s . discussions.  prompted a couple o f members  A t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s  o f t e n emerged d u r i n g  A member, who d i d not complete t h e f u l l  programme, i n i t i a l l y made r a t h e r romantic r e f e r e n c e s  summer to bringing  back t h e " o l d c u l t u r e , " and a t another time, i n a d i s c u s s i o n about l a n d c l a i m s million.  i s s u e s , suggested she c o u l d s e t t l e f o r $100  L a t e r , the tone of her questions  more s e r i o u s .  and comments  became  On a f i e l d t r i p t o the Musqueam Reserve, she  asked the c h i e f how people of the F i r s t Nations c o u l d  become  i n v o l v e d i n band a f f a i r s and the l e g a l problems which had been discussed. claims and  Another member suggested t o a guest d i s c u s s i n g  i s s u e s t h a t t h i s would be the l a s t g e n e r a t i o n  t a l k t o o f f i c i a l s ; the next generation  guest calmly  land  t o s i t down  would f i g h t .  The  responded t h a t i t was a good p o s s i b i l i t y ,  q u a l i f y i n g t h i s w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n  t h a t the F i r s t Nations a r e  desparate t o e s t a b l i s h an economic base. Page 159  The s e n i o r members  o f t e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r guests and workshops w i t h t a l e s from t h e p r e v i o u s summer and the s t o r i e s passed on t o them.  T h i s c o u l d be warm, i f sometimes seemingly  irreverent,  f o r example a guest who was a f f e c t i o n a t e l y r e f e r r e d t o as "Elmer Fudd," o r i t c o u l d be r e s e r v e d , almost s u s p i c i o u s . of p r o j e c t e t i q u e t t e developed over t h e y e a r s .  A tradition  The p r o j e c t  manager i n t r o d u c e d each member s t a t i n g t h e i r band a f f l i a t i o n s , and guests were o f f e r e d t e a o r c o f f e e .  A t t h e end of t h e  s e s s i o n , guests were r a t h e r f o r m a l l y thanked and, when p o s s i b l e , i n v i t e d t o t h e salmon barbeque o r other p r o j e c t event by a member a s s i g n e d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Guests and o t h e r s who  a s s i s t e d t h e p r o j e c t were sent thank you notes.  The members  were q u i t e s e r i o u s about these t a s k s , although they u s u a l l y consumed f a r more time than a n t i c i p a t e d .  Many of t h e guests  were from t h e F i r s t Nations, and a s p e c i a l ambience where they assumed t h e r o l e of e l d e r s .  developed  A u s u a l p a t t e r n between  guests from t h e F i r s t Nations and p r o j e c t members was t o i d e n t i f y common o r i g i n s i n a v i l l a g e o r f a m i l y c o n n e c t i o n s . P r o j e c t members made themselves first  a t home i n t h e museum.  s t e p was adding t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y teenage  The  touches  t o t h e p r o j e c t room p r i m a r i l y i n t h e form of p o s t e r s and notes on t h e boards.  The i n t i m a t e s c a l e of t h e museum allowed t h e  members o f t h e NYP wide access and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h a range of a c t i v i t i e s and s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s .  T h i s was a t y p i c a l comment  by a p r o j e c t member. I know p r a c t i c a l l y everybody  i n here....  Page 160  It i s a l l  interesting. During the summer, i t ' s l i k e a b i g f a m i l y here. Everybody knew each o t h e r . [ p e r s o n a l communication] T h i s comment was made when d e s c r i b i n g how t h i s member would  slip  down t o t h e l a b s and t a l k t o t h e s t a f f , even though he knew p r o j e c t members weren't supposed t o be t h e r e without It,  permission.  of course, was a matter of judgment, and he used f a i r l y good  judgment.  With a few members, f r a t e r n i z i n g w i t h t h e s t a f f  became a problem.  The s t a f f remained p a t i e n t l y f r i e n d l y w i t h  p r o j e c t members, even under sometimes t r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s . job  The  t r a i n i n g aspect o f the p r o j e c t i n t r o d u c e d h i g h s c h o o l  students t o r e g u l a r work hours, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t i n g an e s t a b l i s h e d museum, the paperwork o f employment, and money management.  Pay day was d e f i n i t e l y important, and  t h e r e was i n v a r i a b l y c o n f u s i o n on t h e f i r s t pay cheque due t o "red  tape."  A t t i t u d e s toward money v a r i e d , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n  the g r a n t i n g of advances which was done o c c a s i o n a l l y f o r reasons of  hardship.  A few members proved t o be unworthy of t h i s  trust  c r e a t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and g e n e r a l l y bad feelings. to  Some members experienced p r e s s u r e from t h e i r  families  share t h e i r e a r n i n g s , a new problem f o r them i f t h i s  position  was t h e i r f i r s t  job.  Often t h e members used t h e i r e a r n i n g s f o r  p r i z e d items, such as a l e a t h e r j a c k e t o r a p a i r of b o o t s .  The  p r o j e c t f i l l e d one of t h e N a t i v e Indian Youth A d v i s o r y S o c i e t y (NIYAS) o b j e c t i v e s i n p r o v i d i n g g a i n f u l employment f o r t h e members. The members accepted t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of b e i n g museum  Page 161  employees.  One  s i g n of t h i s was  Maintaining  the museum r e p u t a t i o n prompted members t o i n s i s t  s t a r t i n g presentations t e n s i o n f o r outreach  t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o time.  at the scheduled  time.  This led to  p r e s e n t a t i o n s when host o r g a n i z a t i o n s were  more c a s u a l about s t a r t i n g on time.  Another way  members  demonstrated t h e i r sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o MOA c o n s c i e n t i o u s way  on  of d e a l i n g with the media and  e v a l u a t i o n of news r e p o r t s . enjoyed the r e c o g n i t i o n .  was  their  their  critical  On the other hand, they  thoroughly  In P r i n c e Rupert, the group r e c e i v e d  f r o n t page coverage with a photo of a member proudly wearing  the  c e r e m o n i a l head p i e c e from the MOA  a  Touchable C o l l e c t i o n w i t h  prominent image of James Dean on the T - s h i r t she was The  exposure p l e a s e d them immensely and the  symbolic  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l Northwest Coast and mainstream was  an accepted  members found the content  wearing.  contemporary  p a r t of t h e i r r e a l i t y .  However, the  and tone of a subsequent  article  d i s a p p o i n t i n g because the r e p o r t e r i n s i s t e d on q u e s t i o n i n g c u l t u r a l group on the c o a s t was considered  s t u p i d and  presentations  "best," which the members  i r r e v e l a n t , and c h a r a c t e r i z e d  as i n c l u d i n g "commentary where the  f r e q u e n t l y begin e x p l a n a t i o n s  traditions.  The NYP  worked: w i t h i n two (Brass  1990:7).  August 17,  the  teenagers  with the words, 'We  (The D a i l y News. P r i n c e Rupert, B.C., The members disapproved  which  used t o . . . . ' " 1988,  page 6 ) .  of the emphasis on the p a s t , on bygone  r e s e a r c h and t r a i n i n g "was  i n t e n s e and i t  months we were speaking l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l s "  T h i s p r o j e c t member, l o o k i n g back on h i s Page  162  experience  i n the p r o j e c t , suggests t h a t more e f f o r t be put  into  s t i m u l a t i n g contemporary s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l awareness t o a c t i v e l y confront d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  C.  PRESENTATIONS Most p r o j e c t members f i r m l y h e l d the p o s i t i o n t h a t  public presentations  changed impressions  and  their  built  understanding. People have t h i s stereotype Indian t h a t i s drunk and a l l t h a t . And i f you s t a r t i n t r o d u c i n g them t o the p o t l a t c h and [other t r a d i t i o n s ] , i t j u s t changes t h e i r view of an Indian. [personal communication] They were a l s o aware t h a t i t was  t h e i r presence as F i r s t  Nations  youth which played a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  A member came i n t o the p r o j e c t room a l l  e x c i t e d a f t e r conducting one  a guided totem p o l e walk t o r e p o r t t h a t  of the v i s i t o r s s a i d i t was  much more impressive  about the p i e c e s from a "Native anthropologist.  The  hearing  Indian" r a t h e r than from an  v i s i t o r had  suggested t h a t p r o j e c t members  g i v e t h e i r t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n as p a r t of t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n . The  member thought t h i s was  a great suggestion,  e x p l a i n the meaning of her own  and went on  to  name t o the C a r r i e r p e o p l e .  This  p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t member d i d not make i t through the e n t i r e summer t r a i n i n g programme, but her enthusiasm and p r i d e a t moments l i k e t h i s were genuine.  One  determined comment by  a  p r o j e c t member while t r a v e l l i n g t o make a p r e s e n t a t i o n a t a band community c e n t r e was,  "I'm  so g l a d we're doing t h i s . Page  163  It w i l l  show the e l d e r s what young people can do" communication). m a t e r i a l s and  On  (personal  s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , members borrowed  s l i d e s t o make s p e c i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s on t h e i r  t o a c l a s s or t o a youth group.  The  o t h e r s about the F i r s t Nations was  o b j e c t i v e of  accepted  own  teaching  c o n f i d e n t l y by most  members. To s c r i p t or not t o s c r i p t , t h a t was  the b i g q u e s t i o n .  With a broad range of a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and  inclinations,  s c r i p t s were developed t o f a c i l i t a t e good p r e s e n t a t i o n s by a l l p r o j e c t members. t h e i r own  S c r i p t or no s c r i p t , members u s u a l l y modelled  p r e s e n t a t i o n on the s t y l e and content  members, and  i t q u i c k l y became entrenched.  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n determining  of s e n i o r  T h i s f a c t o r was  more  the p r e s e n t a t i o n s g i v e n by members  than p e r s o n a l experimentation  and r e s e a r c h .  Some members were  v e r y r i g i d about p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s , both i n terms of how  they  p e r c e i v e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r e s e n t a t i o n and accuracy information.  Sometime i n the mid  1980s, t h e r e was  a significant  s h i f t i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n s changing from t h i r d person and tense t o f i r s t person. was  of  past  In the e a r l y days of the p r o j e c t , t h e r e  a pronounced s e p a r a t i o n of past and p r e s e n t , u s i n g phrases  such as,  "In those days, they would have...." and  these...."  The changing approach had  scripted presentations.  "How  i n f l u e n c e beyond the  A p r o j e c t member i n the l a t e 1980s  c r i t i c i z e d s t u d i e s of the F i r s t Nations  i n the  school  c u r r i c u l u m , p o i n t i n g out t h a t they were taught  i n the  tense.  they made  past  By the l a t e 1980s, most of the members i d e n t i f i e d on a Page  164  p e r s o n a l l e v e l w i t h t h e indigenous t r a d i t i o n s and made a p o i n t of  u s i n g t h e f i r s t person.  On many o c c a s i o n s when r e w r i t i n g  s c r i p t s , they would be asked i f they wanted t o use t h e f i r s t person and t h e i r p o s i t i v e response was f i r m , m y s t i f i e d another form o f e x p r e s s i o n would be c o n s i d e r e d .  that  A further  refinement on t h i s approach gained approval i n 1989 which r e s p e c t e d t h e i n t e g r i t y of s p e c i f i c groups and t h e a c t u a l p e r s o n a l h e r i t a g e of i n d i v i d u a l NYP members, r e j e c t i n g t h e g e n e r a l i z e d f i r s t person usage f o r Northwest  Coast c u l t u r e .  P r e s e n t a t i o n s were a d j u s t e d f o r s p e c i a l groups and a v a r i e t y of outreach s i t u a t i o n s .  F o r example, a hands on  a c t i v i t y w i t h cedar bark might be i n c l u d e d f o r day camps. R e t u r n i n g from a p r e s e n t a t i o n a t a summer l i b r a r y programme f o r young c h i l d r e n , where t h e members had f e a t u r e d Northwest  Coast  myths and s t o r i e s , t h e s e n i o r member r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e new member had made a wonderful Tsonoqua (Wild Woman of t h e Woods), mimicking t h e sounds and motions  of t h e c r e a t u r e .  The s t a f f  s u p e r v i s o r who accompanied them confessed t h a t i t had brought t e a r s t o her eyes.  The members developed s k i l l i n t h e  p r e s e n t a t i o n s , but t h e r e remained  an u n r e s o l v e d t e n s i o n between  the use of s c r i p t s t o s t a n d a r d i z e the p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and t h e use of  s c r i p t s as a study t o o l and p r e s e n t a t i o n guide t o be  p e r s o n a l i z e d by each p r o j e c t member.  MOA s t a f f expected t h e  l a t t e r , but i n p r a c t i c e , t h e former p r e v a i l e d .  Speaking  developed beyond the scheduled p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  skills  Project  members were c a l l e d upon t o g r e e t and thank guests, and t o make Page 165  formal and c a s u a l statements at events such as the fund  raising  barbeques and conferences.  shown on  occasions  The confidence  and m a t u r i t y  such as these i n v a r i a b l y impressed MOA  f a m i l i e s and  s t a f f and  the  f r i e n d s of the p r o j e c t members.  " C r i t " was  another conspicuous word i n the NYP  vocabulary.  Over the y e a r s , a p r a c t i c e evolved where everyone p a r t i c i p a t e d i n reviewing c r i t i c i s m was  the i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s . stressed.  The  Constructive  o b j e c t i v e had two  sides, provide  feedback t o members on t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s and develop g r e a t e r awareness i n members r e g a r d i n g p u b l i c speaking techniques.  T y p i c a l comments i n c l u d e d , "You  Some of your words are coming out too f a s t . " l i t t l e bored.  "Showing improvement.  artifacts."  "You  sounded a "Try not  Refer t o i t only when you have t o . "  a more p e r s o n a l t h i n g . "  "You  were standing n i c e and  Good eye c o n t a c t . "  "The  "Don't hide your face when you T h i s was  positive results.  to  "Make i t tall."  plank i s bent,  show the  c a r r i e d out i n a s u p p o r t i v e c l i m a t e  with  As one member r e p o r t s , "As w e l l , I l e a r n e d t o  accept c r i t i c i s m i n a mature manner and l e a r n from my (Brass 1990:6).  and  have t o slow down.  Make an e f f o r t t o sound i n t e r e s t e d . "  read the s c r i p t .  not bended."  qualities  T h i s technique  mistakes"  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s p i r i t  of  teamwork. Presentations  focussed the purpose of the p r o j e c t  e s t a b l i s h e d the r o u t i n e .  The p r e s e n t a t i o n schedule  and  attempted t o  d i s t r i b u t e the work l o a d f a i r l y .  A team e f f o r t was e s s e n t i a l  and  evident.  a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was Page  166  The  two  members  a s s i g n e d t o make a p a r t i c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n snapped t o a t t e n t i o n about 15 minutes p r i o r t o t h e scheduled a s s i s t a n c e from other members. and s c r i p t were checked.  s t a r t , often with  The a r t i f a c t t r o l l e y s ,  slides  One member u s u a l l y v o l u n t e e r e d t o make  the announcement over t h e museum p u b l i c address  system.  Good morning, l a d i e s and gentlemen. In 10 minutes t h e students of t h e Native Youth P r o j e c t w i l l g i v e an i l l u s t r a t e d l e c t u r e on Northwest Coast Indian C u l t u r e : T r a d i t i o n a l Uses of t h e Cedar Tree. T h i s w i l l be h e l d i n the Theatre G a l l e r y of t h e museum a t 12 o ' c l o c k . Thank you. Sometimes t h e r e were i m p r o v i s a t i o n s , intended o r o t h e r w i s e .  The  announcement was repeated a t t h e 5 minute p o i n t and, i f t h e audience was t o o s m a l l , a t t h e beginning of t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n . In t h e Theatre G a l l e r y , the sound system was turned on and t e s t e d , t h e screen was lowered,  and t h e a r t i f a c t s were l a i d o u t .  There was an a i r of a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l about u s i n g t h e equipment and spaces  i n t h e museum.  Little  adjustments  f r e q u e n t l y had t o be made, an a r t i f a c t had been m i s p l a c e d o r a s l i d e would get stuck o r the u s u a l l i g h t s would not t u r n on. The members would q u i c k l y come t o each others a i d . episode i l l u s t r a t e d t h i s .  A little  On t h e guided totem p o l e walk, w i t h  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e government funding agency p r e s e n t , a new member asked t h e audience  i f anyone c o u l d i d e n t i f y an animal  f i g u r e on a totem p o l e ; no response.  Another new member  the p r e s e n t e r ' s c o n s t e r n a t i o n and c h e e r f u l l y suggested, The p r e s e n t a t i o n continued smoothly.  sensed "Bear."  For the p r o j e c t  o r g a n i z e r s , t h i s p r o v i d e d one of those heartwarming moments  Page 167  i n d i c a t i n g concern  and a b i l i t y i n the members.  As i n any work  s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e were swings of mood and enthusiasm, but l a s t i n g impression  f o r s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f was  one  the  of p r i d e  and  r e s p e c t f o r the e f f o r t made by the p r o j e c t members. While the p r e s e n t a t i o n s c o u l d become very rehearsed  and  f o r m a l , the members d i s p l a y e d extemporaneous s k i l l d u r i n g q u e s t i o n p e r i o d drawing on p e r s o n a l experience discussion.  and  the  group  A member e x p l a i n e d the purpose of the NYP  "to  educate the p u b l i c , t o p r o v i d e them with an o u t l e t f o r a s k i n g questions"  (personal communication).  They used the audience  q u e s t i o n s and comments t o gauge the success of t h e i r presentations.  D e s c r i b i n g the accomplishments of the summer, a  member s t a t e d , "When somebody asks me  a q u e s t i o n or q u e s t i o n s  N a t i v e c u l t u r e , I am a b l e t o answer them with no h e s i t a t i o n not f e e l i n g embarrassed" ( f i n a l r e p o r t ) .  Audience  suggestions  and  questions  seemed t o spur members on t o l e a r n more about F i r s t i s s u e s and c u l t u r e .  on  Nations  "Sometimes people want t o know..." p r e f a c e d  f o r study s u b j e c t s .  They a l s o  experienced  o p i n i o n a t e d museum v i s i t o r s , but most l e a r n e d t o handle t h i s very g r a c i o u s l y .  These i n c i d e n t s p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r much of  the p r o j e c t humour.  An example was  the comment overheard  s e l l i n g r a f f l e t i c k e t s i n the museum, mother t o son, j e w e l l e r y they used t o wear." the canoe b a i l e r ,  "See  when the  Or the v i s i t o r ' s comment about  "Wouldn't i t make a wonderful c e n t r e p i e c e . "  Or the t o u r i s t from B r i t a i n who  refused to believe that  contemporary Northwest Coast people d i d n ' t l i v e i n longhouses. Page  168  "She  was  a c t u a l l y t e l l i n g us t h a t we  l i v e there....  don't run i n t o very many rude people. on TV"  (personal communication).  You  I actually  see more rude people  Once, at an  outreach  p r e s e n t a t i o n , a woman from the l o c a l band e m p h a t i c a l l y warned the group t h a t they were d e a l i n g with dangerous t h i n g s and s p i r i t s by d e s c r i b i n g Northwest Coast t r a d i t i o n s and the a r t i f a c t s .  There was  evil  handling  l i t t l e the members c o u l d say and  they  j u s t l i s t e n e d q u i e t l y , l a t e r a s k i n g the p r o j e c t manager f o r explanations.  Not  only d i d the members g e n e r a l l y serve  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f o r the F i r s t Nations, spoke from p e r s o n a l experience.  as  but i n c r e a s i n g l y they  A v i s i t o r imagining  what i t  would be l i k e t o a t t e n d a p o t l a t c h r e c e i v e d an animated d e s c r i p t i o n , concluding,  " R e a l l y neat t o watchl"  Asked about  S a l i s h p o t l a t c h i n g , the v i s i t o r was  passed on t o a S a l i s h member  of the group f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n .  Summarizing the most  f r e q u e n t l y asked q u e s t i o n s , the group r e p o r t e d , p o t l a t c h banned?" "Where are the washrooms?" the Haida House?" and  "Was  "Why  "How  was  the  do you get  cedar bark c l o t h i n g i t c h y ? "  to  Along  w i t h answering q u e s t i o n s , a f t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n s audiences were i n v i t e d t o the f r o n t t o handle the a r t i f a c t s .  "Cedar"  and  " P o t l a t c h " have the l a r g e s t c o l l e c t i o n s and r e g u l a r l y 40% of the audience moved forward objects.  T h i s was  a popular  t o ask questions  and  to  60%  i n s p e c t the  f e a t u r e of the p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n the  museum s e t t i n g where o b j e c t s are under g l a s s or p r o t e c t e d "Please Do Not Touch" s i g n s .  Page  169  with  D.  FUND RAISING EVENTS AND The  ACTIVITIES  summer programmes f o r the NYP  ambitious.  tended t o be o v e r l y  The annual fund r a i s i n g salmon barbeque became a  popular t r a d i t i o n , but i t d i s r u p t e d the schedule presentations.  The  of t r a i n i n g  f o l l o w i n g comment shows not o n l y  and  the  f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h a f u l l schedule, but a l s o the  responsibility  f e l t by s e n i o r members f o r the progress of new  members.  T h i s time l a s t year, we knew e v e r y t h i n g . And t h a t ' s because t h i s summer we d i d n ' t have any time. We had t o go up t o P r i n c e George, and we had the Naming Ceremony, and you know, we j u s t d i d n ' t have enough time. There were t o o many t h i n g s scheduled, we c o u l d n ' t push them as much as we were pushed. [personal communication] In the l a t e r y e a r s , r a f f l e s were h e l d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h barbeque, a combination  the  which i n 1988 helped make the t r i p  to  P r i n c e Rupert and the Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s p o s s i b l e .  Carvers  and printmakers  over  the  from the F i r s t Nations  years by i n s t r u c t i n g  the NYP  and a s s i s t i n g the members and  d o n a t i n g work f o r these r a f f l e s . position  supported  T h i s was  F i r s t Nations c a r v e r s had a t MOA  by  an e x t e n s i o n of the (see Chapter F o u r ) ,  and a l s o r e f l e c t e d the p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s of the p r o j e c t managers.  For the p r o j e c t members, the b i g g e s t problems they  c o u l d i d e n t i f y on the morning f o l l o w i n g the barbeque i n  1988  were an u n s u c c e s s f u l s a l a d , s t a r t i n g the salmon e a r l i e r  (42  salmon had been barbequed), and keeping order.  the r e s e r v e d t i c k e t s i n  The memories were more about the i n t e r e s t i n g  from Spain who  tourists  staged t h e i r p i c t u r e s with p r o j e c t members.  Handsome young men  always r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . Page 170  The  S p i r i t Song (the Native group) performance had  Indian Youth A d v i s o r y  Society  theatrical  gone w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e they had  o n l y t h r e e weeks of r e h e a r s a l .  had  But the p r o j e c t manager s t r e s s e d  t o the group t h a t i t a l l went w e l l because everyone p i t c h e d i n , i n c l u d i n g the museum s t a f f . volunteered  At l e a s t 25 experienced people  t o make i t a s u c c e s s f u l o c c a s i o n .  The  had  previous  summer, the salmon barbeque had been combined w i t h a Naming Ceremony.  For the p r o j e c t members, t h i s meant many t r i p s  F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n s  t o extend formal  as the u s u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o s t e r s and preparation  and  successful.  I t was  "baby name."  flyers.  The  A v i s i t o r from Quebec, who  moved t h a t he o f f e r e d a song.  He was  was  open  general  an accomplished  so  singer,  Co-hosting  f o r the p r o j e c t members.  o r g a n i z i n g these events l e f t l i t t l e  this  For a l l the e x t r a work and  programme awareness and  Unfortunately,  time f o r r e s e a r c h  and  inconvenience, the  salmon barbegue d i d b u i l d group commitment and  museum and  inspiring  a p r a c t i c a l l e s s o n i n the f o r m a l i t i e s of Northwest  Coast ceremonial l i f e  training.  for  attended by chance, was  p r o v i d i n g a memorable a d d i t i o n t o the o c c a s i o n . event was  a gift  event was  w e l l attended by the  well  I t a l s o meant  h e l d on the evening when MOA  w i t h f r e e admission, and was public.  i n v i t a t i o n s as  of dozens of cedar bark head bands and  the person r e c e i v i n g her  to  annual  developed  l o y a l t y from the l a r g e r community of  project associates.  I t served  as a time f o r f a m i l i e s  of p r o j e c t members t o share t h e i r museum e x p e r i e n c e . f a m i l i e s of p r o j e c t members were very s u p p o r t i v e . Page  171  the  Most  These events  p r o v i d e d many p r o j e c t  E.  stories.  STUDY TRIPS AND CONFERENCES The purpose  f o r h o l d i n g fund r a i s i n g events was t o support  study t r i p s t o F i r s t Nations c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , community museums and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Columbia  Museum).  P r o v i n c i a l Museum (Royal B r i t i s h  F o r many p r o j e c t members, these t r i p s  p r o v i d e d l a s t i n g memories. Went t o p l a c e s t h a t I never thought of...Neah Bay, t h a t museum t h e r e was, oh, j u s t o u t s t a n d i n g . Looking a t 5000 year o l d n e t s , g i l l n e t s . I t s o r t o f l i k e sparked my i m a g i n a t i o n , you know, my roots...who am I ? " [ p e r s o n a l communication]. The importance  was f u r t h e r expressed i n t h i s comment, " I t i s a l l  words u n t i l you go out and meet t h e e l d e r s and c a r v e r s " (from an NYP group d i s c u s s i o n ) .  These were p r o j e c t a c t i v i t i e s which  Brenda T a y l o r encouraged, special interest i n i t .  and l a t e r p r o j e c t managers took a However, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f i e l d  t r i p s weighed h e a v i l y on MOA s u p e r v i s i n g s t a f f . t h e r e were a v a r i e t y of o v e r n i g h t study t r i p s .  Over t h e y e a r s , A couple were  made t o Neah Bay i n Washington and s e v e r a l t o Vancouver I s l a n d , one i n c l u d e d A l e r t Bay.  There was a study t r i p t o P r i n c e Rupert  and t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e I s l a n d s , w i t h funding a s s i s t a n c e from a F i r s t Nations o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c o u n t s from t h e a i r l i n e .  Over  the y e a r s , t h e r e were s e v e r a l workshops a t c o n f e r e n c e s h e l d i n Vancouver, and t h e group t r a v e l l e d t o P o r t Townsend, Washington in  1988 and i n 1989 t o S t . Johns, Newfoundland w i t h a stopover  at t h e Royal O n t a r i o Museum i n Toronto t o a t t e n d c o n f e r e n c e s and Page 172  make p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  Each study t r i p was  schedule of p r e s e n t a t i o n s was  different.  The  expanded as o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r o s e .  The balance between f r e e time and planned d e l i c a t e and a c o n t i n u i n g t o p i c of concern  activities  was  f o r the members.  Most of the p r o j e c t members were very g r e g a r i o u s , q u i c k l y g a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n small towns.  For example,  a f t e r s t r i k i n g up a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h two young skateboarders  at  the i c e cream p a r l o r one evening, they showed up f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n s a t the l o c a l museum the next a f t e r n o o n .  L a t e r the  e n t i r e group ended up t o u r i n g the s e i n e r b e l o n g i n g t o the f a t h e r of one of the boys.  On f i e l d t r i p s , when the group would  and work i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y f o r s e v e r a l days, p a t i e n c e c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  r e g u i r e d on everyone's p a r t —  and  c h o i c e of  c h o i c e and volume of music, c h o i c e of a c t i v i t i e s . complained  live  food,  Some members  about curfews and other r e s t r i c t i o n s , and t h e r e were  d e f i n i t e mood swings i n the group.  G e n e r a l l y , however, the  members r e a l i z e d they represented MOA accordingly.  Doing a good job was  and conducted  important  Recommendations from members f o l l o w i n g one  themselves  t o the members.  study t r i p i n c l u d e d :  1. proper packing m a t e r i a l s f o r the Touchable C o l l e c t i o n ,  2.  more hot dogs and marshmallows, 3. s c h e d u l i n g i n p r a c t i c e  time,  4. m a i n t a i n i n g a good balance between r e c r e a t i o n and work a v o i d i n g study q u e s t i o n s i n the van, and 5. more p u b l i c i t y i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d t o host o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g p o s t e r s brochures  (from NYP  group d i s c u s s i o n ) .  R e c i p r o c a l l y , the  has hosted groups a t the museum from F i r s t Nations Page  173  NYP  cultural  and  c e n t r e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . these  The members spoke p o s i t i v e l y about  exchanges. In 1987,  the p r o j e c t manager made arrangements f o r the  group t o a t t e n d the U n i t e d N a t i v e Nations Assembly i n P r i n c e George. make the t r i p ,  The  Annual  p r o j e c t manager was  General  unable t o  so I accompanied the f i v e p r o j e c t members.  t r a v e l l e d on the UNN  c h a r t e r e d bus  from Vancouver, and  a r t i f a c t s were t r a n s p o r t a t e d i n a UNN assembly was  (UNN)  supply t r u c k .  h e l d on the grounds of a boarding  the  The  school.  days, the thousand p l u s delegates were housed at the p r i m a r i l y i n t e n t s , and  We  For  four  school,  f e d i n the school c a f e t e r i a .  Months  l a t e r , when asked about t h e i r most o u t s t a n d i n g memory of a p r e s e n t a t i o n , the group answered q u i c k l y and i n unison, George."  The  cedar and p o t l a t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s were combined  m o d i f i e d , c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t i n g and packing trip.  For two  of the members, i t was  t o make p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s . occasions outreach  the f i r s t time they were  Teamwork and group support  l i k e t h i s were very important.  had  on  S e t t i n g up f o r  p r e s e n t a t i o n s always r e q u i r e d some i n g e n u i t y .  room had a l a r g e s k y l i g h t .  and  a r t i f a c t s f o r the  o c c a s i o n , s l i d e s were used f o r the i n t r o d u c t i o n , but assigned  "Prince  Soon a couple  On  this  the  of members  rounded up help, c l i m b i n g onto the r o o f t o put a t a r p a u l i n  over the s k y l i g h t .  As the p r o j e c t members gave more thought t o  the p r e s e n t a t i o n , i t became l e s s r o u t i n e . d e s c r i b i n g F i r s t Nations F i r s t Nations.  During  They would be  t r a d i t i o n s t o d e d i c a t e d members of  r e h e a r s a l s i n the a f t e r n o o n , Page  174  one  of  the the  new members had a severe a t t a c k of stage f r i g h t .  The s e n i o r  members went t o work r e l a x i n g her and b u i l d i n g up her confidence. The  She d i d a f i n e j o b of her p a r t of t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  s e n i o r member f o l l o w i n g her mentioned t h a t i t had been her  f i r s t public presentation,  and the new member r e c e i v e d a  g r a c i o u s , warm round of applause.  She a b s o l u t e l y glowed.  The  audience response made t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n very memorable f o r t h e p r o j e c t members. A f t e r we d i d the programmes, people were coming up and s a y i n g , "Oh, I remember my grandfather doing t h a t , my grandmother doing t h i s . " "Oh, I remember t h i s , but I never knew what i t was used f o r . " [personal communication] The  members basked i n compliments, a l l the more s i g n i f i c a n t  because they came from people of the F i r s t N a t i o n s . day,  t h e members p l a c e d  i n v i t a t i o n s t o the Naming Ceremony and  barbeque on the t a b l e s i n the assembly h a l l . very d i s c o n c e r t i n g controversy took e x c e p t i o n  The next  erupted.  At t h i s point, a  A couple o f UNN members  t o a p r i v a t e ceremony being h e l d i n a p u b l i c ,  non-Native museum, and f u r t h e r , being used as a fund r a i s i n g event.  One of those p u t t i n g forward a complaint from t h e f l o o r  of t h e assembly was a lawyer from the same band as the f a m i l y t h a t was h o s t i n g the Naming Ceremony. stunned.  The p r o j e c t members were  The i n v i t a t i o n f o r the NYP p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e UNN  meetings had been extended through the p r e s i d e n t  and v i c e -  p r e s i d e n t who came t o the a s s i s t a n c e o f the p r o j e c t members. The  v i c e - p r e s i d e n t immediately met w i t h the p r o j e c t members t o  d i s c u s s t h e s i t u a t i o n and p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s .  Page 175  A c t i n g as mediator,  the v i c e - p r e s i d e n t arranged a meeting between the o f f e n d e d members and the NYP  members.  between urban teenagers  UNN  A f t e r a very f r a n k d i s c u s s i o n  and prominent F i r s t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , a t r u c e was  Nations  reached, more or l e s s a g r e e i n g t o  d i s a g r e e about the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of h o l d i n g a Naming Ceremony i n a p u b l i c museum.  I t had been c l a r i f i e d t h a t the barbeque  the fund r a i s e r and not the Naming Ceremony.  F o l l o w i n g the  meeting, the p r o j e c t members gathered as much t o c o n s o l e another  as t o t r y t o make sense of what was  emotional  was  happening.  one The  swing from the e l a t i o n of the s u c c e s s f u l p r e s e n t a t i o n  the p r e v i o u s day t o the d e v a s t a t i o n of the c o n t r o v e r s y consuming.  One  of the s e n i o r p r o j e c t members d e c i d e d t h a t he  would have t o g i v e a p u b l i c response assembly.  was  from the f l o o r of the  Solemnly the group moved back t o the h a l l , and  message was  a  sent up t o the p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r r e q u e s t i n g  p e r m i s s i o n t o speak t o the assembly.  Less than a h a l f an hour  l a t e r , b e f o r e the assembly r e c e s s e d f o r lunch, the p r o j e c t member was  recognized.  His statement  was  b r i e f and t o the  p o i n t , a p o l o g i z i n g f o r having offended anyone, but d e f e n d i n g i n t e g r i t y of the event and r e i s s u i n g an i n v i t a t i o n t o a l l . c o l l e c t i o n was which was  the A  taken as had been arranged by the p r o j e c t manager  d u l y presented a t the Naming Ceremony a couple of  weeks l a t e r by UNN  officials.  Immediately upon h e a r i n g about  the c o n t r o v e r s y , the host of the Naming Ceremony sent a p o l i t e but f i r m l e t t e r of e x p l a n a t i o n t o the offended band member, s t a t i n g t h a t a f a m i l y had the r i g h t t o h o l d a naming ceremony a t Page  176  a p l a c e of t h e i r own in  F.  choosing, f u l l y e x p e c t i n g a proper  r e t u r n f o r the embarrassing  episode h i s a c t i o n had  apology  caused.  SENIOR MEMBERS Nineteen  of the f i f t y nine high s c h o o l students who  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o j e c t have r e t u r n e d f o r two There were a v a r i e t y of reasons why continue.  A few d i d n ' t make i t through  summer t r a i n i n g . initial  n e a r l y two  or more y e a r s .  t h i r d s d i d not  the r i g o r s of a  full  Only t h r e e members dropped out d u r i n g t h e i r  t r a i n i n g year, and one r e t u r n e d t o s u c c e s s f u l l y complete  the t r a i n i n g a couple of years l a t e r . through. I t was  have  Others b a r e l y made i t  I n t e r e s t , a p t i t u d e and commitment a l l took t h e i r  o f t e n s u r p r i s i n g which new  toll.  members accepted the c h a l l e n g e  and t h r i v e d on the teamwork, and which ones d i d n ' t .  Perhaps  one  out of every e i g h t members c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d f a i l u r e s i n terms of  the programme o b j e c t i v e s as t h e i r p e r s o n a l problems  overwhelmed the p o s s i b i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the p r o j e c t . sad t o watch, f o r other members and management. i n v a r i a b l y o f f e r e d support. can  The  This  was  group  An i l l u s t r a t i o n of mixed r e s u l t s  be seen i n the area of substance  abuse.  While one  member r e t u r n e d t o dependency, another r e f r a i n e d and w i t h the p r o j e c t s u c c e s s f u l l y .  new  persevered  Other p e r s o n a l problems i n c l u d e d  f a m i l y traumas, c h r o n i c l i s t l e s s n e s s or h y p e r a c t i v i t y , or egocentric tendencies. s u c c e s s f u l f o r one A f t e r 1982,  The m a j o r i t y of members served  season and moved on t o new  endeavours.  the maximum term of membership was Page  177  set at  two  y e a r s based on o b s e r v a t i o n s by the p r o j e c t manager t h a t  third  y e a r members were e a s i l y bored when r e v i e w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and made t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n a r o t e and o f t e n l e t h a r g i c manner. A two year term remained  the p o l i c y which was s e t a s i d e o n l y  when none of the new members were w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o c o n t i n u e f o r a second year i n the p r o j e c t .  By the mid 1980s, even t h e  r e t u r n i n g p r o j e c t members had t o go through a l l t h e a p p l i c a t i o n procedures, f a c i n g q u e s t i o n s such as, "What do you expect t o accomplish t h i s year?"  They a l s o were encouraged  based on t h e i r experience the p r e v i o u s y e a r .  t o give advice  Returning p r o j e c t  members p l a y e d an important r o l e i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  They  assumed an honoured p o s i t i o n of " s e n i o r " members w i t h a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , although t h i s was b a s i c a l l y an i n f o r m a l arrangement.  S e n i o r members a s s i s t e d i n s e t t i n g up and  p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r guests o r workshops.  Often they  new members i n d i v i d u a l l y and conducted demonstrations group. example.  coached  f o r the  A p o t l a t c h p r e s e n t a t i o n t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n serves as an Taking over an hour, the s e n i o r members went through  the p r e s e n t a t i o n step by step f o r the new members, e m b e l l i s h i n g as they went along based on p e r s o n a l experiences and f a v o u r i t e s t o r i e s about the a r t i f a c t s .  An important p a r t of t h e p o t l a t c h  p r e s e n t a t i o n was demonstrating the masks, r e f e r r e d t o by t h e members as "modelling."  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n ,  the s e n i o r members f e l t a new member was not paying a t t e n t i o n and t o l d her t o "wake up."  A t another p o i n t , a s e n i o r member  showed anger when he thought a new member was making f u n o f h i s Page 178  style.  F a r more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  s e n i o r members and new members was awe and mimicry. Communication between members had a teenage f l a v o u r , such as when t h e movement o f t h e Bukwas mask was l i k e n e d t o S t e v i e Wonder. O r g a n i z e r s of t h e p r o j e c t f e l t under p r e s s u r e t o p r o v i d e new l e a r n i n g experiences f o r s e n i o r members.  About t h e t h i r d  week i n t o t h e summer programme, a meeting would u s u a l l y be h e l d w i t h s e n i o r members t o prepare a schedule f o r them, attempting to  draw on t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s and t h e needs o f t h e  project.  One summer, a s e n i o r member a c t i v e i n t h e Kwakiutl  community planned t o c o n t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n about contemporary p o t l a t c h i n g , and another s e n i o r member was i n t e r e s t e d i n upgrading t h e f i s h i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n . of  Work s t a r t e d w i t h t h e b e s t  i n t e n t i o n s , but i n t h e end, n e i t h e r o f t h e s c r i p t s was  a c t u a l l y r e v i s e d i n any way.  Independent work tended t o be l e f t  i n an e x a s p e r a t i n g l y incomplete  state.  V a r i o u s fund  raising  i d e a s were suggested by members over t h e y e a r s , such as p r o d u c i n g cedar bark p i e c e s f o r s a l e i n t h e museum g i f t T h i s was never t r i e d .  shop.  During t h e e a r l y years of t h e p r o j e c t , a  c o n t r a c t from t h e F i e l d Museum i n Chicago was accepted t o make touchable cedar bark p i e c e s f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n programmes. Prodding t h e s e n i o r students t o complete t h i s work went on f o r months, which was f i n a l l y t r a i n i n g programme.  done t h e f o l l o w i n g summer d u r i n g t h e  That summer, a p e c t i n s h e l l r a t t l e was  commissioned f o r t h e education programme a t t h e Vancouver Page 179  Museum.  However, use of these r a t t l e s i n p r e s e n t a t i o n s was  d i s c o n t i n u e d a t the request of S a l i s h e l d e r s , out o f r e s p e c t f o r the s a c r e d nature of t h e i r use.  Much of what s e n i o r members  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p r o j e c t and the k i n d o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s assumed were r e l a t e d t o l e v e l of m a t u r i t y .  they  E x p e c t a t i o n s were  high.  A f a v o u r a b l e assessment of a p r o j e c t manager by a member  read,  "He always kept us on t r a c k and a l s o pushed" (NYP student  application).  Throughout, t h e r e were reminders t h a t t h e members  were indeed teenagers.  The most welcomed c o u n t e r p o i n t t o any  problem was watching the development o f g r a c i o u s and c o n f i d e n t young people, competently and r e l i a b l y h a n d l i n g p r o j e c t r o u t i n e s and p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n the museum and i n d i v e r s e situations.  The s e n i o r members p r o v i d e d the model and t h e  i n t i m a t e guidance f o r the new  G.  outreach  members.  AFTER THE NATIVE YOUTH PROJECT T h i s case study of the NYP has c o n c e n t r a t e d  on t h e  programme's o r i g i n s , development and o p e r a t i n g s t r u c t u r e . i s o n l y l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the members a f t e r they the p r o j e c t t o address outcomes.  There left  c o n v e n t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s about programme  Methodological  problems i n f o r m u l a t i n g c o n c l u s i v e  o b s e r v a t i o n s about programme e f f e c t s have been d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Two.  There a r e , nonetheless,  some i n d i c a t o r s about t h e  impact o f t h e NYP on the l i v e s of the p r o j e c t members. p r o j e c t members seem t o have proceeded without a l t e r e d course.  Most  a dramatically  Perhaps i t should simply be s a i d t h a t t h e Page 180  p r o j e c t helped  keep most of the members on course d u r i n g  teenage y e a r s , p r o v i d i n g a support  group, encouraging a broader  p e r s p e c t i v e , r e i n f o r c i n g p o s i t i v e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l and  i n t r o d u c i n g new  options.  There was  c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n most members. programme, a new t r i p she had  values,  evidence of an awakened  F o l l o w i n g the summer  member arranged t o v i s i t her grandmother, a  never i n i t i a t e d b e f o r e .  f a m i l y s t o r i e s and now  She  had vague memories of  she wanted t o know more.  matter of f a c t l y d e s c r i b e d how her l i f e ,  their  but knew l i t t l e  Another member  she l i v e d on a r e s e r v e much of  about t r a d i t i o n a l ways.  Now  she  t a l k w i t h her f a t h e r , a prominent member of the band, and more from him. a n c e s t r y who  A v i s i t i n g UBC  law student  of F i r s t  could learn  Nations  heard t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n remarked a couple of times  d u r i n g the afternoon  how  moved she was  t o see the p r o j e c t  members proud and c o n f i d e n t about t h e i r h e r i t a g e . c o u l d not overcome  deep seeded s o c i a l problems.  s i g n s of f r u s t r a t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n present  But the  There were  i n some members, the  u l t i m a t e case being the s u i c i d e of a s e n i o r member s e v e r a l a f t e r l e a v i n g the p r o j e c t .  She  NYP  had worked hard i n the  years  NYP,  t a k i n g on a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and would have been considered  a model member.  Past members, p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n i o r members, can be  emphatic  about the e f f e c t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . The more I stayed here and worked, the more I l e a r n e d , the more I changed. I was c o n s i d e r e d mature when I came here, and I matured even more. Now I have an i d e a about what t o do. I want t o go t o u n i v e r s i t y now. Take anthropology... [ p e r s o n a l communication] Page  181  T h i s member s e l e c t e d high s c h o o l courses so he c o u l d meet c o l l e g e entrance requirements.  " P l u s , I f i n d t h a t I have b e t t e r  grades now.  l a s t term.  algebra"  I got t h r e e A's my  (Ibid.).  My o n l y weak spot i s  On s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s , t h i s member r e f e r r e d t o  the p r o j e c t as having "saved" him, an e x p r e s s i o n used i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s by a couple of other members as w e l l . Undoubtedly, the p r o j e c t opened a d i f f e r e n t world t o him which he t h o r o u g h l y enjoyed, although he had noted on h i s o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t he expected t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e .  The NYP  in this  case p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e a l i z i n g some of h i s potential.  At l e a s t f o u r members have gone on t o c o l l e g e ,  majoring i n anthropology.  one  He r e c e i v e d a f e l l o w s h i p t o study a t  the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t e i n Washington, D.C.  Four or  five  p r o j e c t members have worked on other NIYAS programmes, such S p i r i t Song and the youth c o n f e r e n c e s .  For a couple of w i n t e r s ,  a s p e c i a l outreach programme f o r elementary conducted  through MOA  Civilization  (CMC)  was  schools  u s i n g members of the NYP.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n programme a t the new  as  was  An  Canadian Museum of  developed by an NYP  p r o j e c t manager and  s t a f f were r e c r u i t e d from s e n i o r members f o r a couple of summers. NYP.  These are t a n g i b l e r e s u l t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  An i n d i c a t i o n of the impact of the p r o j e c t , a t l e a s t f o r  one person, was 1990).  a u n i v e r s i t y essay c r i t i q u i n g the p r o j e c t  T h i s was  anthropology, who  (Brass  w r i t t e n by the former member majoring a l s o s u p e r v i s e d the CMC  Page  182  p r o j e c t one summer and  r e c e i v e d the Smithsonian expressed  fellowship.  His primary  concern,  i n t h i s c r i t i q u e , i s t o r e d i r e c t the p r o j e c t from a  p u b l i c s e r v i c e programme a t MOA Nations students.  t o "empowerment" f o r the  C a l l i n g on museums t o e f f e c t i v e l y  First  perform  t h e i r duty as " s o c i e t a l educators," he wants t o c h a l l e n g e the apathy  he experienced i n u n i v e r s i t y classrooms  generally.  society  He c r i t i c i z e s Rowan f o r the " c o n s i s t e n t , f r e e ,  u n c r i t i c a l use of the ambiguous t i t l e which was  and  'Indians'"  and  (Ibid.:14)  used i n d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a l i z e d c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n  the programme treatment.  L i k e T a y l o r (see Chapter F i v e ) ,  he  wants t o c o n f r o n t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and racism, but he wants t o go beyond an a b s t r a c t p r i d e t o b u i l d an a c t i v e commitment t o the F i r s t Nations based on p e r s o n a l h e r i t a g e , r e l e v a n t h i s t o r y p e n e t r a t i n g s o c i a l commentary.  More i n t e n s e demands were b e i n g  made on the r o l e of c u l t u r a l brokerage One  and  at  MOA.  w i n t e r a lengthy exchange of notes took p l a c e between  p r o j e c t members, p o s t i n g messages on the w a l l of the p r o j e c t office.  The messages from a c t i v e and past members tended t o be  somewhat s e n t i m e n t a l , "don't unsigned,  f o r g e t me,"  "please c a l l . "  This  open l e t t e r seems t o be an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c l u s i o n t o  the c h a p t e r on NYP  members.  Memories of a not so d i s t a n t past f i l l s t h i s shallow s o u l . Remembering the long beaches, the c r a s h i n g sea. People coming t o g e t h e r , t o work as one. More than j u s t co-workers, we were a l l changed by each other. Grown w i s e r and mature we l e a v e each o t h e r as o t h e r g o a l s beckon us. T h i s i s of course us...the N a t i v e Youth P r o j e c t . Remember the good times, c h e r i s h the f r i e n d s h i p s . Page  183  I s h a l l always remember everyone, e v e r y t h i n g and the f e e l i n g s t h a t dwelled w i t h i n me. Thank you f o r a l l your understanding and f r i e n d s h i p . . . I ' 1 1 remember a l l of you. The NYP  had demonstrated some e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n g e t t i n g teenagers  t o r e s p o n s i b l y handle c r e d i t a b l e p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n a s o p h i s t i c a t e d museum.  In the p r o c e s s , the NYP  exposed members  t o a wide range of a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , events individuals. impact  and  T h i s experience appears t o have had a p e r s o n a l  on the l i v e s of many of the p r o j e c t members.  Thus f a r i n t h i s case study, r o o t s of the NYP i d e n t i f i e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e a t MOA  have been  and i n the  e f f o r t s of the F i r s t Nations t o address contemporary problems.  The  formation and s t r u c t u r e of the programme have  been d e s c r i b e d i n work of the o r i g i n a t i n g c u r a t o r Rowan.  education  Madeline  The o p e r a t i n g r o u t i n e s and d i s c i p l i n e i n the programme  were o u t l i n e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the p r o j e c t managers who, members of the F i r s t Nations, served as community c o n t a c t s r e d i r e c t e d the NYP p r o j e c t i n 1986. cycle.  understanding  and  f o l l o w i n g the r e s i g n a t i o n of Rowan from the And t h i s chapter presented the membership  Each of these s t a k e h o l d e r s had been motivated  extent by concerns  as  t o some  and e x p e c t a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c r o s s c u l t u r a l  and p l a n n i n g , and each r e c e i v e d some s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n the r e a l i z a t i o n of the NYP.  The next chapter c o n s i d e r s the  s e t t i n g w i t h i n which the programme was  conducted  (the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l base f o r c u l t u r a l brokerage) a n a l y z i n g the r e s o u r c e s and support system t h a t made the p r o j e c t p o s s i b l e .  Page  184  IX.  MOA STAFF AND PROJECT RESOURCES The  was  investment r e q u i r e d t o s u s t a i n t h e N a t i v e  hidden f o r t h e most p a r t .  Society  The Native  Youth P r o j e c t  Indian Youth  Advisory  (NIYAS) c o n t r i b u t e d i n f l u e n c e t o secure t h e government  summer work/study grant,  but t h i s funding  covered o n l y t h e wages  of t h e students w i t h a small t r a i n i n g budget, and not t h e c o s t of d e v e l o p i n g considers  and m a i n t a i n i n g  the p r o j e c t .  This chapter  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l base t h a t supported t h e p r o j e c t ,  a n a l y z i n g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n made by t h e museum.  Much has a l r e a d y  been p r e s e n t e d about MOA i n t h e preceeding c h a p t e r s .  In t h e  l a t e 1940s, Harry and Audrey Hawthorn e s t a b l i s h e d t h e museum as a centre  f o r t h e study of Northwest Coast m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e w i t h  the a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of F i r s t Nations e l d e r s and c a r v e r s . Harry Hawthorn i n s t i l l e d an a t t i t u d e of " U s e f u l Anthropology" which had a broad d e f i n i t i o n encouraging r e s e a r c h minority  to assist  groups i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e f o r a meaningful p l a c e i n  Canadian s o c i e t y .  In 1976, the museum was r e l o c a t e d t o a  b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o d i s p l a y t h e massive Northwest Coast s c u l p t u r e s as works of a r t and t o house t h e c o l l e c t i o n s i n " v i s i b l e storage"  g a l l e r i e s making the m a t e r i a l s and r e l a t e d  d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o l a r s and general p u b l i c a l i k e . a t MOA e x p l o r e d  The s t a f f  new ideas about t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  c o l l e c t i o n s attempting t o t r e a t v i s i t o r s as students r a t h e r than spectators.  MOA gained a respected  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n and  became a r e g i o n a l landmark. The  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mission  o f MOA has f o u r component p a r t s .  Page 185  1. MOA i s an academic u n i t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia engaged i n t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h and experimentation. anthropology  i n s t i t u t i o n "with a commitment t o l e a r n t h e p o i n t  of view o f o t h e r s and, i n doing so, promoting d i f f e r e n c e s between c u l t u r e s " 1986).  2. MOA i s an  respect f o r the  (MOA Report on A c t i v i t i e s ,  August  3. MOA i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l museum m a i n t a i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e  standards i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n and d i s p l a y o f c u l t u r a l objects.  4. MOA i s a p u b l i c s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n  an o b l i g a t i o n t o share s c h o l a r l y knowledge" ( I b i d . ) .  "with  The  o f f i c i a l m i s s i o n i s summarized i n t h e preamble t o t h e MOA "Professional Guidelines." Purpose of t h e Museum of Anthropology The UBC Museum of Anthropology from i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1947 s e t as i t s goals t h e development of u s e f u l c o l l e c t i o n s so as t o promote r e s e a r c h , t h e t r a i n i n g o f s t u d e n t s , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , and i n t e r e s t . As an anthropology museum i t has always been concerned w i t h the study and p o r t r a y a l o f human achievements from around t h e world as a means of f u r t h e r i n g understanding of other c u l t u r e s . As a museum based i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t has always a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l B.C. Indian h e r i t a g e , i n t h e promotion of contemporary Indian a r t s and c r a f t s , and i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the B.C. p o p u l a t i o n . As a u n i v e r s i t y museum i t has always been committed t o combining r e s e a r c h , t e a c h i n g , and experimentation w i t h p u b l i c s e r v i c e . [MOA P r o f e s s i o n a l G u i d e l i n e s , August 1982] A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of MOA and review of a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e y e a r ending March 31, 1987 i s o f f e r e d t o put t h e NYP i n t o perspective.  MOA i s a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l museum w i t h a f u l l - t i m e  s t a f f o f l e s s than twenty i n c l u d i n g s i x j o i n t appointments w i t h the UBC Department of Anthropology  and S o c i o l o g y .  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e r e a r e p a r t - t i m e student employees, r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e s , Page 186  interns  (28 i n 1986 p l u s 17 v o l u n t e e r student i n t e r n s ) , v a r i o u s  grant programmes i n c l u d i n g the NYP, V o l u n t e e r A s s o c i a t e s (72 i n 1986 c o n t r i b u t i n g 7,439 hours) and Shop V o l u n t e e r s  (20 i n 1986  c o n t r i b u t i n g 3,985 h o u r s ) , and, of course, o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y students.  T h i r t e e n courses were taught by the MOA d i r e c t o r and  s t a f f d u r i n g the year ending i n March 1987, w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l 22 anthropology u s i n g MOA  courses and 17 other UBC department courses  facilities.  There were 17 students u s i n g t h e  c o l l e c t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e s e a r c h , and other students working on independent Six  academic s t u d i e s w i t h the MOA d i r e c t o r and s t a f f .  o t h e r c o l l e g e s used MOA  facilities  that year.  MOA  s t a f f , as  u s u a l , were c a l l e d on e x t e n s i v e l y t o p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o other i n s t i t u t i o n s . programmes.  MOA  In 1986, nine d i f f e r e n t programmes were a v a i l a b l e  which served 411 groups f o r a t o t a l attendance E d u c a t i o n k i t s were c i r c u l a t e d i n s c h o o l s . at  MOA  o f f e r s school  of 11,890.  P u b l i c programming  i n c l u d e d l e c t u r e s e r i e s , Sunday programmes and s p e c i a l  events, p l u s r e c e p t i o n s , e x h i b i t openings  and barbegues.  During  the y e a r , t h e r e had been t e n temporary e x h i b i t s and t h r e e student e x h i b i t s , along w i t h completion of some c o n t r a c t work for  EXPO 86.  In the year ending March 1987, attendance  a t MOA  was 161,558, up 52% from the p r e v i o u s year due t o EXPO 86. S e c u r i t y , c u s t o d i a l s e r v i c e s and maintenance a t MOA and a d m i n i s t r a t e d through the u n i v e r s i t y system.  are provided  In 1986, t h e r e  were grant programmes a t MOA t o t a l i n g j u s t under $250,000. NYP r e c e i v e d $15,516 f o r the summer t r a i n i n g programme Page 187  from  The  C h a l l e n g e 86, Employment and Immigration  Canada, and $1,160 f o r  the w i n t e r programme from the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e . words, NYP  In o t h e r  r e p r e s e n t e d l e s s than 7% of the programme f u n d i n g  r e c e i v e d i n 1986.  Other programmes t h a t year a l s o served the  F i r s t N a t i o n s , such as the C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Outreach the Vancouver Indian H i s t o r y P r o j e c t .  T h i s was  a fairly  y e a r , the one anomaly being i n c r e a s e d g a l l e r y attendance EXPO 86.  MOA  i s a public i n s t i t u t i o n dedicated to  and typical due  advancing  knowledge w i t h more d i v e r s e audiences than would normally expected  A.  be  f o r a u n i v e r s i t y museum.  PROJECT ADMINISTRATION Rowan enjoyed a g r e a t d e a l of autonomy i n d e v e l o p i n g  managing the NYP. d i r e c t o r of MOA, at  to  UBC,  In the mid  1970s, Michael Ames was  succeeding Harry Hawthorn.  As an  and  appointed  undergraduate  Ames had p a r t i c i p a t e d on the r e s e a r c h teams o r g a n i z e d by  Harry Hawthorn, and he had worked i n the museum l a b o r a t o r i e s under Audrey Hawthorn. impact  Ames' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t y l e had a d i r e c t  on the development of the NYP.  C u r a t o r s , s t a f f and  even  students a t the museum were g i v e n the freedom t o pursue t h e i r own  i n t e r e s t s i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the d i r e c t o r .  MOA  staff  a c t i v e l y sought  funding f o r a wide v a r i e t y of p r o j e c t s which  operated f a i r l y  independently.  Because the s t a f f i s s m a l l ,  everyone c o u l d a t t e n d weekly s t a f f meetings where i n f o r m a t i o n was  shared and schedules c o o r d i n a t e d .  was  s t r u c k between group approval and support f o r the v a r i o u s Page  188  In most c a s e s , a balance  u n d e r t a k i n g s , and  autonomous p r o j e c t development.  n o n e t h e l e s s , were maintained, enforced and  Standards,  by p r o f e s s i o n a l consensus  a mutual r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l areas of e x p e r t i s e ,  the o v e r r i d i n g a u t h o r i t y of the d i r e c t o r .  with  Those i n i t i a t i n g  and  running s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s were answerable t o the d i r e c t o r regarding  the  a u t h o r i t y was  f e a s i b i l i t y and recognized  the impact of t h e i r work.  This  even by the members of the NYP  who  would make i n q u i r e s about whether or not the d i r e c t o r would r e a d t h e i r f i n a l reports.  Rowan was  working w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n  the a d m i n i s t r a t o r  and  f o r the  NYP,  staff.  Her  a s s i s t a n c e of MOA  approach t o t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d more by  m i s s i o n a r y z e a l than by p r a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s k i l l . e f f e c t of t h i s was s t r u c t u r e and  apparent i n the development of the  treatments (see Chapter S i x ) , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the v a r i o u s resigned  from UBC  another c u r a t o r . administrative  i n l a t e 1986,  the NYP  was  staff.  w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i n the  not taken over  by  MOA  As a u n i v e r s i t y museum, MOA The  programme  When Rowan  P r o j e c t s u p e r v i s i o n passed t o  highly q u a l i f i e d staff.  the NYP.  stakeholders.  The  attracts  programme a s s i s t a n t , i n  cooperation  a s s i s t a n t , assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  Both have degrees i n anthropology w i t h museum  t r a i n i n g , and i n education.  the programme a s s i s t a n t has The  NYP  a p r o f e s s i o n a l degree  had become a r e g u l a r f e a t u r e of  MOA  public services. E a r l y i n the p r o j e c t , Rowan fought v i g o r o u s l y t o support f o r the NYP  w i t h i n MOA. Page  rally  Each year q u e s t i o n s of 189  funding  and l o g i s t i c s made i t seem u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e p r o j e c t would c o n t i n u e , and each year t h e problems would be r e s o l v e d o r otherwise s e t a s i d e .  A memorandum exchange between Ames and  Rowan i n t h e f a l l of 1984 i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Rowan asked the museum supplement t h e wages of t h e p r o j e c t manager.  that If this  was not p o s s i b l e , t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t manager would have t o seek more l u c r a t i v e employment.  Rowan c o n t i n e d , "...and I , a f t e r  t r a i n i n g her thus f a r , would f e e l t e r r i b l y burdened t o t r a i n another new person next summer" (NYP Records, memorandum dated 17 October  1984; emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ) . Ames r e p l i e d : Why does not t h e government agency, which funds NYP, fund i t adequately? I f i t does not, why should we c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e p r o j e c t ? N i c k e l i n g and diming our p r o j e c t s i s v e r y exhausting f o r everyone.... A l s o , I sympathise w i t h the t a s k of having t o t r a i n someone every y e a r . But we a r e a t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n , and should t h e r e f o r e assume t h a t much of our time w i l l be spent t r a i n i n g people. [NYP Records, memorandum dated 19 October 1984; emphasis i n o r i g i n a l ]  An a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a t e g y t o p r o v i d e reasonable employment f o r u n i v e r s i t y students was arranged by combining  positions.  For  example, one w i n t e r funding and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r o u t r e a c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n elementary  s c h o o l s was combined w i t h  s u p e r v i s i o n of Sunday NYP p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o c r e a t e adequate p a r t time employment f o r t h e p r o j e c t manager.  In 1988, p r o j e c t  manager and F i r s t Nations l i a i s o n were combined, an arrangement which b e n e f i t e d both p o s i t i o n s . remained  Over t h e y e a r s , f u n d i n g  t h e b i g g e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e concern.  Programme c o n t e n t  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e were t r e a t e d as a subset, areas o f development f o r Rowan t o r e s o l v e as p a r t of her c u r a t o r i a l Page 190  experiment.  Only a f t e r Rowan's departure  from t h e p r o j e c t were  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and treatment i s s u e s openly s c r u t i n i z e d i n terms of MOA p r i o r i t i e s and e v o l v i n g B a s i c funding  sensibilities.  f o r the NYP came from employment i n i t i a t i v e  grants which covered wages f o r members, p a r t o f t h e wages o f t h e p r o j e c t manager, and a l i m i t e d budget f o r t r a i n i n g expenses. Funding f o r the w i n t e r programme from the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e o r foundations manager.  a l s o covered only b a s i c wages of p r o j e c t members and  A d d i t i o n a l funds were r e q u i r e d f o r study t r i p s and  many o t h e r expenses. and  Corporate sponsorships  were c o n s i d e r e d ,  one summer e a r l y i n the p r o j e c t h i s t o r y , when programme  s u r v i v a l was threatened, accepted.  from Labatt Breweries was  Upon f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , MOA and NIYAS  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s decided source,  funding  t h i s was an i n a p p r o p r i a t e  funding  and only small donations f o r the summer study t r i p s were  sought from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a f t e r t h i s experience. the p r o j e c t overhead f o r f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s was absorbed i n t o the g e n e r a l MOA o p e r a t i n g budget. 1980s, MOA a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f organized  Much o f simply  In t h e l a t e  a substantial  endowment fund f o r work with F i r s t Nations youth and e d u c a t i o n a l programmes.  Funding f o r the NYP c o u l d be requested  endowment fund.  from t h i s  In 1989, funds were a l l o c a t e d from t h i s  source  t o r e v i s e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c r i p t and purchase a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t s f o r the Touchable C o l l e c t i o n t o upgrade the f i s h i n g presentation.  T h i s was prompted by an i n v i t a t i o n t o t h e NYP  from I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Canada t o make a s p e c i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n a t Page 191  t h e i r n a t i o n a l conference i n S t . John's Newfoundland. endowment fund serves  as evidence of the museum's c o n t i n u i n g  commitment t o programming f o r young people. was  accepted by MOA  programming.  The  The  NYP  The  gradually  s t a f f as a r e g u l a r p a r t of the museum's  p r o j e c t advanced t o some degree the p o l i c y t o  i n v o l v e the F i r s t Nations i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of collections.  The  s t y l e of p r e s e n t