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Deaf in the world of work : A study of a group of deaf graduates and leavers from the Jericho Hill School,… Jones, Clifford Stewart 1966

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THE DEAF IN THE WORLD OF WORK A Study of a Group of Deaf Graduates and Leavers the Jericho Hill School, Vancouver, British Columbia Their Employment Problems and Experiences  by ALFRED ERNEST BINGHAM CLIFFORD STEWART JOKES  Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OP SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social" Work  School' of Social Work  1966 The University of British Columbia  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia,  I agree that the Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study.  I further  agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It is understood  that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Social Work The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  May 5 , ^196.6  ABSTRACT Little is known about the deaf as a group. Most of the studies tbat have been done concerning their problem have been about the medical, educational and psychological aspects of their disability with very little emphasis on their vocational and social problems aoad needs. The study began from two basic hypotheses: first, that there is a correlation between deafness and unemployment status, with a disproportionate number of the deaf being found in low status, low paying jobs, and secondly, that the deaf in British Columbia at the present time, are receiving a limited amount of services. The particular focus of the study was the problems and experience of a sample of young deaf adolescents and adults in training for, finding and holding jobs. The sample group chosen was the total group of graduates and school leavers from the Jericho Hill School for the Deaf, Vancouver, British Columbia, a residential School which takes pupils from all socioeconomic levels, in&luding day pupils, for the period July 1956-July 1965. A schedule of research questions was devised which included investigation of the following areas: (l) what vocational assessment, counselling and placement services were available to and utilized by the sample group (2) what jobs they obtained and how they obtained them (3) what their attitudes were to their jobs and fellow workers (4) what job aspirations they had and whether they attained them (5) what opinions they had about the kinds of help they needed (6) what their intelligence quotients were, as a crude index of their capabilities to cope with further training and education. A research design of a diagnostic descriptive type was next devised, which comprised a number of steps, including (l) the interviewing of experts in the field (2) the devising of a questionnaire to be sent to the school graduates (3) the interviewing of a sample of respondents willing to be interviewed (*)•) the relation of the insights and information obtained, to the determining of what services -should be recommended in order to provide more adequate services for the deaf. Of the total group of 7b school leavers, 38 responded to the questionnaire of whom lh were interviewed. Twenty-two of the 38 respondents were employed. The major findings of the study were that; the employed deaf in the sample group who have received no further education or training are working in low paid, low status jobs, regardless of the level of their intelligence or desires for further training. This is one-half of the total sample group. Of those who obtained vocational training including on-the-job training, it would be true to say that this did improve their economic  status. However there is a tendency for this group to be frozen in bottom level positions with few prospects of advancements. Of the small group proceeding to advanced education at Gallaudet College, it is as yet too soon to say what their vocational prospects will be. An additional finding was that most job placement was done by families, friends and Jericho Hill School, with very little by community agencies. A lack of spacific services indispensable to the deaf, was found, particularly in relation to use of interpreters. A further finding was the "orality" of deaf people in the sample interviewed as defined by ability to use speech in everyday living at a level intelligible to strangers, was far below this standard, with one exception. An additional finding was that the inability to achieve a satisfactory level of orality appears to be related to feelings of failure and inferiority in the deaf and to interfere t£> some extent with the deaf person's concentration on the acquisition of written skills. There was considerable evidence that social and recreational activities play a specially important role in the lives of deaf people, and may even determine the location of the jobs they seek. As many are unable to enjoy an outlet for their frustrations and tensions by communicating orally with their fellow workers, it is important to them to be with other deaf people for some of their recreation, because with such a group they are released from the constant strain of lip reading or writing everything down. Ia contrast to the findings of two American studies, there was little, if any correlation found between such factors as type of job obtained and lip reading ability and preferred methods of communication used at work. Nor was there any correlation between these factors and income obtained, job stability and attitudes to the job and to fellow workers. Total or partial deafness, day or residential status did not appear to affect any of the factors mentioned either positively or negatively. This may have been due to the size of the sample group and two other factors, first, that almost all the group became deaf before the age when speech patterns are normally acquired, or were born deaf. Secondly, the sample contained no respondents in the managerial, technical or professional classes, and few in the craftsman class. A number of specific recommendations were made. Some of these pertained to the establishment of the necessary services, especially those of assessment, counselling, placement and follow-up services. Some pertained to an expansion of the roles of government and private agencies, and some pertained to educational practices in the field of education for the deaf. Special emphasis was placed on the improving of ways of determining much earlier in the education of the deaf child than is currently the practice the level of orality he is likely to reach, so that vocational and educational plans for him can be adapted to his needs. A further recommendation was that it is important to include in the educational programmes for parents of deaf children, opportunities to meet with the ^ adult deaf. In the area of prevention, routine use of hearing tests for the newborn was emphasized.  V  HWIRODUCTIQW  PART V The following study is the fifth part in a series of studies on rehabilitation in Canada. The aim of the series is to identify the obstacles — legislative, political, economic, social and administrative — which operate as barriers to the implementation of a comprehensive range of rehabilitation services for Canadians. This is seen as the necessary prelude to devising satisfactory ways of dealing with them. Following a review of the legislative base for rehabilitation in Canada both federally and provincially, the next step was to select for review some aspects of rehabilitation problems to be studied in more depth. It seemed appropriate to choose first, the handicapped group which offers the greatest challenge of all, to those who work in the field of rehabilitation — the deaf. While it may be said, that, in a certain sense, the problems of all handicapped groups are special to the disability, as well as having aspects that are common to all handicapped groups, the problems of the deaf have been described as "unique  in the  annals of human development." In spite of over a hundred years of special education and institutions for the deaf, relatively little is known about this group, especially their social needs and problems.  It should prove valuable to  workers in the field of rehabilitation to review what problems the deaf  vi are experiencing as they attempt to integrate themselves in the world of the hearing. One of the tests of the integration of a handicapped group into a community, is how the people in it fare, when they enter the world of work. It is this area that was chosen for examination. An important test of the success of rehabilitation programmes in a community is how far they reach the groups where the challenge of integration is the most complex and the most difficult. A community cannot call itself successful in the rehabilitation field till the most recent advances and developments, medical, vocational and social, have become available to all its handicapped groups, not just those with the most popular appeal, or those whose integration proves less challenging than that of some other groups. Where the challenge is greatest so are the rewards, both to the people concerned, and to the community. We need to ascertain how far the developments in rehabilitation of the past twenty-five years have penetrated the fastnesses of the world of the deaf. In the measure that they have, a community can claim success in the most difficult area of all in the field of rehabilitation."''  -1-This introduction has been written by Mrs. Mary Tadych, director of the thesis project, to give the rationale and background of the present study, as part of a planned series.  vii  ACKNOWIEDGMEMS We wish to express our thanks and appreciation for the interest and help we received from others in the completion of this study. In this respect we would like to acknowledge our indebtedness to the following persons and organizations. Dr. C. E. MacDonald and Staff, Jericho Hill School Mr. R. M. Schou, Past President, Western Institute for the Deaf Mr. R. Boese, Pacific Deaf Fellowship Dr. David C. Kendall, Professor of Special Education University of British Columbia Pastor W. C. Bottlinger Our sincere thanks for the assistance given to us by Mrs. Iynn Milton, our interpreter. In particular, we wish to express appreciation to Mrs. M. Tadych of the Faculty of the School of Social Work for her sincere interest and help in the preparation and writing of this thesis. In addition, credit must be given to all the young deaf adults who supported us by completing questionnaires and granted us personal interviews in their homes.  viii TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER QUE  TWO  THREE  PAGE THE CHALLENGE: INTEGRATION OF THE DEAF INTO THE WORLD OF WORK.  .  1  The Problem of Being Deaf. The Importance of Language as a Learning Tool. . . Problems of the Deaf in Learning Language. . . . . Special Importance of Education to the Deaf Child. Effects of Deafness on Intelligence. . Personality Testing of the Deaf Effects of Deafness on the Growing Personality . . The Task of Rehabilitation The Importance of the Role of Work The World of Work Today The Dilemma of the Deaf Adolescent  3 5 6 7 7 9 12 12 13 14 15  THE NATURE OF THE STUDY .  19  Relationship to Previous Studies . . . New York State Survey. The Vancouver Survey . . Hypothesis of this Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . Incidence of Deafness Definitions Used in this Study Effects of Age of Onset of Deafness on Orality . . What is the Language of Signs . . . . Basic Assumptions of the Study Research Questions . . . ...... Research Design. Introductory Letter  19 20 20 24 24 27 29 32 33 34 35 40  THE FINDINGS: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION . . . .  43  Areas Omitted. ......... Relationship Between Residential Status and Responses to Questionnaires Characteristics of the Sample Group Intelligence Quotients of the Sample Group . . . . Marital Status . . . Social Class of Families of the Sample Group . . . Deafness Patterns in Families of Respondents . . . Living Arrangements of Sample Group Geographical Distribution Age Distribution of Sample Present Employment Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . Job Stability. Income Levels. . Work Histories Sources of Help in Locating the First Job. . . . . Record of Repeated Rejection When Seeking Jobs . . Level of Job Satisfaction.  k6 48 49 49 50 51 51 52 53 53 55 56 57 59 60» 63 63  ix PA  CHAPTER THREE  POUR  FIVE  GE  (Continued) Changes in Hearing Ability Since Leaving School. . Use of Hearing Aids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Changes in the Use of Speech Since Leaving School Lip Reading Ability. . . . . . Preferred Methods of Communication at Work . . . . Further Training or Education Commenced. Group Attending Gallaudet College. . . . Unemployment Experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opinions of the Deaf About the Kinds of Help They Weed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Opinions on where Vocational Training Should "be Given Aspirations of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . Amount of Hearing Loss  67 68  Age of Onset of Deafness  84  THE DEAF RELATE THEIR EXPERIENCES: INSIGHTS OBTAINED FROM INTERVIEWS . . . . . .  86  Interviewees Views on Education of the Deaf. . . . Views on Vocational Needs Views of the Parents The Price of Orality: Viewpoints of Parents . . . Interviewers Perceptions of Parents. . . . . . . . Group Interviews  86 87 91 92 94 99  CONCLUSIONS. . . . . . . . . . . .  . .  1. Low Average Level of Academic Achievement of Sample Group. . . . . . . . . 2. Evidence of Low Written Language Level Among the Deaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Low Level of Orality . k. The Effects of an Emphasis on Orality on the Deaf Person 5. Difficulties of the Deaf in Presenting Themselves to Employers Without Help . . . . 6. Limitations on the Right of the Deaf to have an Interpreter at Interviews with Prospective Employers . 7. Serious Gaps in Responsibility for Employment Planning for Deaf School Leavers . . . . . . 8. Limitations of Jericho Hill School as the Actual Primary Job Placement Resource. . . . 9. Choice of Employment Often Based on "Availability" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Limitations of National Employment Service as a Resource for the Deaf  68 69 70 72 7^ 76 77 7^ 81 84  104 104 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 110 110  X  PACT1  CHAPTER FIVE  (Continued) 11. lack of Mobility and Bargaining Power Among the Employed Deaf . . . . . . . . . . 12. "Victimization" of the Deaf by Rigid, Outdated Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. Importance of Follow-up Service in Job Placement of the Deaf . . . . . . . . . . . 14. Difficulties Encountered by the Deaf in Utilizing Community Services. . 15. Lack of Specific Services Indispensable to the Deaf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. Heed for Continuing Services to Parents of Deaf Children. . . 17. Barriers Obstructing the Deaf People's Interpretation of Their Vocational Need Through their Organizations . . . . . . . . 18. Status in the Deaf Community is Given to the Deaf Person Who is Oral . . . . . . . . 19. Social and Recreational Activities Fill a Special Role in the Lives of the Deaf . . . 20. Feelings of Isolation Appear to be Common in the Deaf.  SIX  RECOMMENDATIONS  . .  I. Establishment of a Vocational Assessment Service for the Deaf II. The Establishment of a Vocational Counselling and Guidance Service. . . . . III. The Establishment of a Specific Job Placement Service IV. Extension of the Roles of the Western Institute for the Deaf. . . . . . . . . . V. Expansion of Government Aid and Community Chest and Council Aid . . . . . . . . . . VI. A Federation of all the Agencies Engaged in the Field of the Deaf VII. Increased Efforts be made for Earlier Identification of the Deaf Child VIII. Reappraisal of the Place of Oral Methods in the Total Education of the Deaf Child. IX. Reappraisal of the Role of Signing Language in the Education of the Deaf. . . . . . . X. Research into Improving Methods of Teaching Written Language to the Deaf XI. Government Subsidization of the Education of Teachers of the Deaf XII. Extension of Training Facilities for the Deaf Pre-School Child . . . . . . . . . .  Ill Ill 112 113 114 114 Il6 117 117 118 120 120 120 121 121 123 123 123 12k 12*J125 125 125  xi CHATTER  SIX  OContlnuea) XIII. Extension of School Board Supported Classes . . . . . . . .  XIV. Government Financing of Pre-School and Post Graduate Schooling for the Deaf. . . XV. Night Classes for the Deaf XVI. An Educational Programme for the Parents of Deaf Children. XVII.  Adoption of Improved Services for Early-  125  126 126 127  Detection of Deafness . . . . . . . . . .  127  Further Questions Raised by Thesis . . . . . . . .  129  APPENDIX A  Questionnaire and Accompanying letters. .  132  APPENDIX B  Follow-up Letter Requesting Interview . .  1^0  APPENDIX C  Follow-up Letter to those Who did Not  APEENDIX D  Statement of Alms and Philosophy of Jericho Hill School (Deaf Section). . .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Reply to Questionnaire.  1^3  1^5 1^9  xii  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1  Classification According to Degree of Hearing Loss Established by Audiometric Testing . . . . .  2  Communicative Difficulty as Related to Severity  26  of Hearing Loss Expressed in Decibels . . . . . .  28  3  Educational Heeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28  k-  Age of Onset of Deafness. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49  5  Living Arrangements by Sex.  6  Age at Leaving School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54  7  Present Employment Status  56  8  Employment of Respondents Reporting Full  .  52  Time Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  57a  Sources of Help to Finding First Job. . . . . . . .  57a  10  Present Educational Status of Sample Group  72a  11  lypes of Further Education or Training Taken. . . .  72a  9  CHAPTER THREE  THE CHAHEHGE : INTEGRATION OF THE DEAF INTO THE WOOD OF WORK It is generally accepted in our society that handicapped people can find their place in the world of employment, given the necessary aids and services. Yet of all the handicapped groups in the modern world, there has been probably less success in aiding the deaf to find jobs suited to their capacities than is the case with any other handicapped group. This study is part of a series on rehabilitation problems in Canada. This section of the series is devoted to an examination of one specific aspect of the needs and problems of the deaf, namely, the vocational. It will attempt to find out what has happened to a group of young deaf school leavers in terms of finding, holding and training for jobs. How well prepared is the deaf adolescent to enter employment, to enter vocational training or take higher academic education? What specific services are needed to help him enter the world of work in a job suited to his capacities and to remain there as a productive and satisfied worker? Does he obtain a job commensurate with his abilities? How does he fare in the world of work? What problems does he encounter? How does he deal with them? The replies to these questions, highlight the most important considerations facing educators and parents of deaf children and each and every deaf school leaver. The answers are also important to all the  professions serving the deaf, to social agencies, to employers and to the community at large. When the deaf adolescent enters employment, he is not only entering the world of work for the first time, he is also taking a far more difficult step. He is usually entering the world of the hearing for the first time in any real sense. Even if the deaf child has lived at home, rather than in a residential school, he has usually had limited experience with the hearing world, mixing mostly with his family and friends who usually understand him. The deaf adolescent's adjustment to the world of work depends on a great many factors. Among a group of graduates from any school, there are students of both high mental endowment as well as same with more limited capacity  seme are mature, some immature -- some emotionally healthy, others  less so. There are countless combinations of ability and degrees of adjustment, all linked with factors such as home environment, inherent predispositions, special aptitudes, and abilities, health status as well as varying socio-economic and educational opportunities. A number of additional variables will be present among hearing handicapped adolescents when they leave school. These involve the degree of auditory impairment, the cause, the age of onset, the level of language skill1, the kinds and level of communication skills and the use of hearing aid devices. While it Is recognized that motivation and morale are critical factors both in education and in the working world, nevertheless it should be recognized that the main factor distinguishing the deaf school leaver  lit is recognized that differences in level of language skill exist in hearing children also, but this variable has considerable importance as a determinant of the vocational future of the deaf child.  from his hearing counterpart is that in addition to the usual adjustments the adolescents have to make on entering employment, the deaf adolescent has to deal with the problem of being deaf in a new environment — the world of work. This brings out new aspects to this continuous adjustment a deaf person must make to the problem of being deaf. This last is of such tremendous significance that its implications must be delineated.  The Problem of Being Deaf Undoubtedly deafness is as old as men himself. Yet hearing loss, which is an invisible personal disability, has had scant social investigation. It is an invisible disability because the auditory impairment does not ". . . shew the way a distorted limb or missing finger or blinded eyes show.**1 The implications of deafness are hard to grasp, but in a study of this nature it is most important to be aware of the unseen factors which differentiate the deaf school leaver frcm his hearing counterpart.  It is  very difficult for the hearing person to understand the psychosocial problems of defective audition. Yet some attempt must be made to appreciate what effects deafness may have on human functioning, with special reference to functioning in the world of work. Edna Levine in her book Youth in a Soundless World paints a graphic picture of the world of the deaf.2 She says that the world of the deaf is  •'•Hardy, William G. Children with Impaired Hearing: An Audiologic Perspective, Childrens Bureau Publication #326, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1952 cited in E. Levine, The Psychology of Deafness. Columbia University Press, Hew York, i960, p. 17. T T n W ^ - t W ^ 1 ^ ' --dna--sa?0ni a Soundless World, Hew York university Press, New York, 19567 g. 6; ~  a world of incredible silence and that the problems of growing up in such a world are unique in the annals of human development. The babe barn deaf awakens to consciousness in a coldly, still world. The warmth of mother-sounds are not for him; not for him the sounds of reassurance that tell him he is loved and not alone. There are no lullabies in his baby world. Neither are there sounds of fun and jqy; the laughter that rings with affection, the toys that squeak, the puppies that bark, the birds that sing. He is deaf to them all.l Another authority comments? When auditory impairment is incurred by pathologic conditions attending the birth process or present during the early weeks of infancy, life begins in an atmosphere of anxiety. Normal parent-child relationships are impeded from the very onset. Even when the etiology of the hearing impairment is unknown, a parent may early notice the child to be lunresponsive. A period of uncertainty will follow when completely healthy parent-child interaction is virtually impossible.2 This same authority points out that early life may be complicated by the confusion of professional advice given to parents. It is known that family physicians are frequently not as well informed about hearing impairment as would be desirable. However, it should be recognized that the precise diagnosis of hearing impairments in infancy is extremely difficult. A study of the early family life of young deaf children3 showed that those not profoundly deaf tended to be diagnosed later than those born  -*-Levine, Soundless World, p. 6. ^Flower, Richard M., Orientation of Social Workers to the Problems of Deaf Persons, University of California School of Social Work, U. S. Dept. of Health, Education & Welfare, Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, 1963, P. 8. 3varwig, Renata, "Family Treatment of Hearing Handicap," (Master of Social Work Thesis), University of British Columbia, i960.  profoundly deaf and only after a period when parents had thought their child's inability to respond or obey was due to stubbornness or naughtiness. The resulting frustrations to the child can only be imagined. To many parents, implications of deafness are hard to grasp. Often parents' first reaction, like that of people generally, is that all they need to do is get a hearing aid for the child. To other parents, deafness remains a speech problem, but the problem of deafness is much more. It means that the child " . . . is born without the major sensory path to mental, social and emotional growth . . .  This has extremely  important effects on the learning a deaf child can accomplish by the time he reaches the usual school leaving age, no matter how intelligent he may be. The Importance of Language as a Learning Tool Levine2 summarizes the all-important place of language as a learning tool: Hot to hear voice is not to hear spoken language. Hot to hear spoken language means that a preverbal child will remain in complete Ignorance of this basic verbal tool for human communication and communion unless extraordinary measures are taken to teach him that there are such things as words, what words are for, how sounds are combined to form spoken words, how words are combined to form connected language, and how verbal language is applied not only to objects, people, activities, and the like but to all aspects of living, feeling, thinking, and reasoning. Without such highly technical instruction the small, profoundly deaf ehild would be doomed to go through life a completely non, verbal being, unable to enter into any verbal communication with others, any verbal deliberation with himself, nor make any significant contact with the knowledge, customs, culture and climate of the civilization into which he was bom.3  ^ v i n e , Soundless World, p. 8. 2  Levine, Edna Simon, The Psychology of Deafness, Columbia University Press, New York, 1960I 3Ibid., pp. 28-29.  6 Language serves children in a number of basic ways. These functions of language are important enough to be separately classified. 1. Language structures reality for the child. 2. Language provides him with tools for labelling and handling experience. 3. Language makes high order abstraction possible by providing a logical structure to his thinking. Through language, the child is able to organize his present experiences, to store past ones. 5. Language enables him to predict. 6. Language makes possible sentences and forms of correct usage. From the foregoing it is evident that language is important^- for p  social adjustment and in all activities, not Just communication.  This  fact is often overlooked in assessing the problems of the deaf. Problems of the Deaf in Learning Language Language depends on a feedback system with audition providing the main way. The deaf child must learn language by special means which requires conscious attention. Thus learning language is subject to slow, frustrating experiences. To sound out words, the deaf child must see, feel, use the remnants of hearing to hear, then remember the correct placement and relationship of his tongue, teeth and lips as well as correct voice, breath, nasal qualities of every word he learns to say. He must learn to lip read. Lip reading is the skill that enables a person to understand  ^Studies support the contention that deaf children can conceptualize without language but is not known If their concepts have the same understanding and manoeuvrability as that of a hearing child. %ard, J. C. and M. J. Meacham, "The Assessment of Verbal Language Development in Deaf Children," Volta Review, IXIXI, 1961, pp. 228-230.  speech by watching a speaker's face, in particular, his mouth. Nash and Zabell1 report that only cue third of the speech sounds are visible on the lips. Many deaf children cannot succeed and so they must try to master written and manual language. Special Importance of Education to the Deaf Child For the deaf child according to Edna Levine, there is but "one salvation."  It is educationJ  . . . education that begins for the deaf child with language learning, with the construction of an effective system of two way communication between himself and his environment. Language alone is not the full answer, but it is a deaf child's greatest emancipator from mental bandage. She educator knows this, but he knows too, that the most effective methods of language instruction are limited in ability to bring about a normal pace of mental maturation in such a child.2 It is for this reason that it is contended that the deaf adolescent is linguistically immature and therefore likely to encounter increasing difficulty in entering vocational training or higher education and in being able to profit by them. He is said to be behind his hearing counterpart academically, and according to some authorities, in social maturity also. Effects of Deafness on Intelligence Common fallacies exist about the mental functioning of deaf people. One popular one is that the level of intelligence of a deaf person can be roughly equated to the level of his language ability. Whether right or  l-Nash, Tanya, Emil M. Zabell, Encyclopedia of Social Work, H.A.S.W., Two Park Ave., New York, 1965. 2  Levine, Soundless World, pp. 9-10.  8 wrong, these fallacies often decide whether or not the deaf get jobs and whether or not they are considered capable of further training. Effects of deafness on intelligence are still difficult to determine. A review of the literature reveals that research cn intelligence, visual-motor perception, and motor and mechanical abilities of the deaf is extensive, hut not conclusive. Pintner and Paterson constructed the first non-language intelligence test for deaf children. Pintner carried out this work for more than a quarter of a century, till his death in 1942. Although many other studies of intelligence have followed his pioneering work, many questions posed by this research still remain unresolved. Di Carlo states that: The evidence is now conclusive that deaf children's intelligence does not differ from that of hearing individuals when tasks that do not require language are performed.1 When testing with a non-language measure, Pintner and Lev2 found no difference in I.Q. between the hard of hearing and normally hearing groups. An article by Nash and Zabell points out that; It is usually conceded that the general intelligence of the deaf as a group is normal when the use of language is excluded, irrespective of the degree of deafness or of the age of onset.3  ^Di Carlo, Louis M., The Deaf, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964, p. 2. ' 2  Pintner, E. and J. Lev, "The Intelligence of the Hard of Hearing School Child," Journal of Genetic Psychology, OV (1939), pp. 31-48. 3Nash, Tanya and Emil H. Zabell, "The Deaf and the Hard of Hearing," Encyclopedia of Social Work, N.A.S.W., Two Park Ave., New York, 1965, pp. 247-252.  Furth1 reported that general statements about deaf people's deficiency in "abstract" ability need clarification. This writer found that deaf subjects in his studies were not inferior to hearing controls in conceptual ability when the specific language handicap was controlled. The ability to conceptualize is becoming increasingly important in education especially at the professional level. Personality Testing of the Deaf Personality testing of the deaf is another area of controversy. Rorschach and other projective techniques indicate that the deaf tend to be "socially immature with personality constriction and deficient emotional adaptability."2 Other authorities dispute this last statement, especially as many of the studies have been conducted on residents of deaf residential schools, where it is not easy to separate out the effects of residential living. Investigations of the effects of deafness on personality and adjustment have not been too conclusive in their results. Di Carlo3 makes one of the best summaries of present findings. He comments on the view that "different paper-and-pencil personality tests  Ipurth, Hans G. "The Influence of Language on the Development of Concept Formation in Deaf Children," Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology  Vol. 63, No. 2 (September, 1961), pp.' 3 ^ash and Zabell, loc. cit. 3  Di Carlo, The Deaf, pp. 5-6.  The subsequent section draws heavily on Di Carlo's summation.  ~}  10 suggest that those children who attend residential schools are more poorly adjusted, more emotionally unstable and more neurotic than children with normal hearing." In his view, since most of these tests include "several items of different interpretive significance and since such conccanmitant variable as residential environment, intelligence, and socio-economic status have not been controlled, little confidence can be placed in the results." Secondly, according to responses to Rorschach tests, deaf children - \  who attended residential schools were found to be similar to the rigid and neurotic individuals with normal hearing. This empirical finding has been interpreted in two ways: (a) as an indication of the emotional maladjustment of deaf children, and  (b) as an inadequate reaction to a particular  sensory situation."1 Di Carlo's opinioi is that these studies are inadequate in their samples and use of controls and so conclusions cannot be fully accepted. Thirdly, studies employing rating scales require that raters apply a common criteria in making judgments. Although the results have some inadequacies, it has been noted "that teachers as a whole do next rate deaf children on the basis of common stereotyped profiles."2 A fourth finding is that the social behaviour of deaf, school age children who are students in residential schools, is less mature than that  1  Ibid., p. 6.  2  Ibid., p. 6.  11 of children with normal hearing.  "This finding may not be true of deaf  children of pre-school age who have received some group instruction and it is not true of children who attend certain schools for the deaf."1  It is  not established if this difference in social competency is due to selection of the effect of the environment. Di Carlo concludes that "many of the findings are inconsistent and those that are well established give little insight into how deafness (affects behavior."2  The important sources of  difficulty lie in the inadequate designs and techniques of seme of the research. Finally, a great deal of the research has involved comparison of deaf persons with hearing individuals "without concern for the influence of such variables as the age of the hearing loss, the age of the individual at the onset of deafness, the number of deaf relatives and the nature of their deafness, and the means of  communication."3  a more complete picture of the  total status of the deaf person is needed. When it comes time for young people to seek employment, the deaf person is at a serious disadvantage. Edna Levine says1*" that a lag takes place between what a deaf person knows and what he should know for his age. Ibis lag forms the handicap of deafness and language impairment, or impoverishment is at the heart of the matter.  3-Ibid., p. 6. s  Ibid., p. 6.  3Ibid., p. 6. ^levine, Soundless World, p. 11.  12 Effects of Deafness on the Growing Personality Another important consequence of deafness is its effects on the  growing personality.  Like all children, the deaf child is filled with  curiosity about the world around him. Because he has no words in which to think or understand explanations, he feels the strain and tension of wanting to know. But the gestures he uses cannot keep pace with his growing mind. The deaf child may then react in one of several ways  . . . He may become  desperate and rebellious and beat against the walls of silence in heartbreak and rage. Or he may withdraw in resignation and apathy."1 With his sub-normal language level, the deaf child cannot move easily in his environment. He is constantly subject to insecurity and anxiety. The hearing child can verbalize his fears and his hostilities and thus obtain relief. The deaf child can use gestures to bring some relief to his emotion^ but their meanings may not be known to other about him. He tends to use actions rather than words. This pattern may stay with him into adolescense and adulthood. It is contended by some that the deaf adolescents and adults are moody, suspicious, bad tempered, given to unexpected outbursts. Some even go so far as to say that the deaf are paranoidal. This stereotype of the deaf prevails in many quarters and may still be an important factor when they present themselves for employment. The Task of Rehabilitation Although the term "rehabilitation" is vised in much of the literature about the deaf or hard of hearing, there is somewhat of a difference inasmuch  iLevine, Soundless World, p. J.  13 as we are not restoring the Individual to a condition which he has formerly held. For the person who has been profoundly deaf from birth, he is being helped to attain a condition that for him has never prevailed. It would seem that the term we should use is "habilitation" rather than rehabilitation. The Importance of the Role of Work One of the most important and often the most difficult phases of habilitation is the placement of the handicapped person in employment. It is so important because, if not successful, much that has been gained in prior phases will be lost or at least lessened by failure in this area. For the individual to become what is considered to be a contributing and worthwhile person in our culture, it is usually expected that he will have steady and remunerative employment. In order to be happy, a person must have a sense of conviction about his own worth and dignity. In our culture the individual's sense of worth receives major nourishment from work and the rewards that it brings. The parent's own sense of worth and of being rewarded for his labour is reflected in his ability as a parent to develop in his children a sense of trust in the future and convictions about the worthwhileness of work.1 According to Mr. Hall H. Popham> President of the International Society for Rehabilitation of the Disabled, The ultimate goal of all rehabilitation is to enable the handicapped individual to work . . . . A job is essential, not only to enable the individual to be economically self-' supporting, but also to assure him his rightful plaee in heme and community.2  ^Feldman, Frances Lamas, The Family in a Money World, Family Services Association of America, New York, 1957, p. 40. %inth World Congress of the International Society for Rehabilitee tion of the Disabled, "Employment of the Disabled," Rehabilitation in Canada, Dept. of Labour, Issue #11, Roger Duhamel, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1965, "" p. 11.  Ik The World of Work Today There is mounting evidence that it is becoming increasingly difficult for the deaf to enter the world of work today. An article in Volta1 by Donald Brown stresses the fact that the problems of the deaf In the world of work are complicated by the current trend toward automation and the rapid obsolescence of many skills. The policies of large companies regarding health rules, evaluation tests, safety rules, adult education for re-training and on-the-job training and the opportunity for advancement are all geared to hearing employees. Mr. Brown summarizes seme main points of Mr. McCoy Vernon, on the twentieth century trends in the world of work and their relation to the deaf . The writer points out that all businesses are becoming bigger and more centralized. This affects the deaf in three ways. First, "it is easier and superficially more economical for big industries to make blanket rules requiring perfect health and limited age ranges for prospective employees because by doing so they get cheaper insurance."2 He gives as an example a large steel manufacturing corporation which makes a blanket exclusion of all deaf workers in all departments on the basis that deafness is a safety hazard. Secondly, evaluation of applicants in a large firm is increasingly done through group testing and mass interviewing. Some firms use a battery  ^Brown, Donald W., "Vocational Preparation for the World of Tomorrow," Volta Review, Vol. 66, Ho. 7 (September, 1964), pp. 368-372. Volta Review is published by the Alexander-Graham Bell Speech Association for the Deaf Inc. 2  Ibid.> p. 369.  15 of tests  . . requiring language skills beyond that of the average graduate  of a school for the deaf is a prerequisite even for common laboring jobs-"1 Thirdly, company safety rules, like insurance policies, preclude the hiring of the deaf even in departments where insensitivity to noise would be an advantage."2 So the deaf adolescent enters the world of work with a handicap of a lack of hearing, which Levine has characterized as ". . .an irritating block to easy, quick communication. If there is to be discourse with the mind behind the block, a barrier needs to be broken down, a wall hurdled. "3 This takes patience and understanding and todays business world is not geared to this patience. People under pressure begrudge the extra time it takes to communicate with those who are not quick to hear and respond and irritation is a common reaction. Yet the deaf adolescent must try to understand and make himself understood. The Dilemma of the Deaf Adolescent One of the best descriptions of what a young deaf school leaver faces as he tries to find his place in the hearing world, Is given by R. R. Drewry himself a deaf person* Ralph Drewry, born in England in 1933, is deaf, as are his parents and a brother. He washable to proceed to higher education and while a third  iBrown, Volta Review, p. 369. 2  Ibid., p. 369.  3Levine, Soundless World, p. 4.  16 year student at Bristol University wrote the following, which records some of the problems that befall the)school leaver. It is the most graphic description encountered by the researchers in the literature, and is worth quoting at some length. . . . . The mind;: of deaf people tends to work more slowly and to revolve around fewer things, though it is probably time to say that they gain sometimes in the depth of their thoughts. . . . . As a result, the deaf school leaver will find himself outdistanced in conversation with ordinary people, and his company may be avoided even by well meaning people. Although his speech may not necessarily be poor, he loses confidence in it. But all the time he is experimenting during the first year after he has left school. He experiments to find the best way of getting on \fcLth hearing people and making friends. The disillusion is not immediate, but grows with time. If the other members of his family have normal hearing, he knows well enough that it is difficult to follow conversations, especially if friends are being entertained. But he does not feel this too keenly. He does not feel like an outcast as much, because he feels that he is understood and tolerated. He is usually free to leave the room or to pick up a book and read while the others talk. What happens when he makes his own way in the world? He is invited to a party or is sitting with his fellow workers. Very often these people have little idea what deafness means. They keep shouting at him even though he is very deaf, and show slight traces of annoyance when he takes a long time to understand. When he asks what the chat is about, the reply is never detailed, maybe just one word to denote the subject. Perhaps he feels bold enough and makes a remark to the others. As it is most likelyout of place (just when interest in some topic begins to get hot) all he may get will be sympathetic glances. These do not help at all to soothe the feeling of frustration which inevitably piles up during what is for him an evening of utter boredom and strain. It is almost certain he will leave before the party has finished, and the chances are that he will not get a second invitation. But he is not likely to care about this; he realizes it is better, where possible, to avoid hearing people meeting in large groups.  IT It is not too difficult to realize how this could easily be the experience of the deaf person at work especially in the lunch hour and the coffee breaks, or even listening to instructions or to lectures. Mr. Drewry continues: He decides to try an experiment. He will concentrate his attention on one hearing person at a time in the hope of striking a friendship. He boldly takes the initiative and starts a conversation. Soon he finds himself running out of subjects] he has little to say about anything, and what he has to say at length may be an old topic — something that is fresh in his mind, but is already stale for the hearing person who normally is a born talker. So the conversation peters out. If you don't succeed once, try again . . . . He does not realize many hearing people are naturally shy of deaf people they meet, and takes it as a personal affront. Worse still, he encounters in daily life people who have absolutely the wrong attitude towards the deaf. Seme honestly regard deaf people as guilty of a willful stupidity or as frightfully inconvenient and give them the cold shoulder or behave rudely Those of the adult deaf with more experience are able to look at the matter in the right perspective, but the impact on the naive deaf school leaver may be disastrous. But there are many people who are considerate. Our school leaver comes across one of these, and seme friendship is struck up. It tends to become a one-sided friendship, with the hearing person given^and the deaf person taking. This is because the former is in touch with the world of sound — and the latter grows to depend on him, in time even taking him for granted. There is lack of mutual confidence because of difference in mental outlook and because the deaf person is often unable to express his feelings in words. There is a common tendency for deaf people to pester their hearing friends with questions like "What did Mr. X say?" There is the added strain of trying to make out what the deaf friend is saying, because of his imperfect speech. So the hearing friends become exhausted after chatting a while. On the other hand, the deaf person feels the strain of lipreading quickly. Hearing people*s minds are usually more receptive, as previously indicated, because they are tuned in to the fast moving world of sound. They pass on news in the expectation of news in return. Since the relationship of the deaf with  18 the hearing Is on a one-sided hasIs, it usually follows that the hearing person does not feel inclined to pass on information and news of interest that have come to his ears. This fact is qualified "by my own observation and that of my deaf friends. From his varied experiences, the deaf school leaver gradually accepts his role in the backwaters of society. And society in turn accepts his insignificant role. So the role becomes set. But for the deaf school leaver, it is a most unsatisfying role. His plight can be summed up by borrowing M. T. Munro's expression "Kindness is common, but effective kindness is rare." Ee does not hope any longer for understanding beyond a small circle of acquaintances, often "nodding™ acquaintances at that. While he yearns for something to fill his emotional vacuum, he may unfortunately remain as an isolated castle in the hearing world, and if so may became mentally queer. But usually he will turn to the company of other deaf people. Here he welcomes the chance of relaxing from the continuous strain of lipreading, and signs. After that he belongs to the deaf world, and even avoids hearing people. One of the titles offered for discussion at a recent debate of the Spars Club an eminent deaf club, was "Do the deaf want to mix more with the hearing?" And it was surprising how many made their argument in the negative — and some did not wish to mix with hearing people at all socially. Is the problem capable of mitigation and even ultimately of being removed? I believe mitigation to be possible, but only if the school leaver is given wise guidance, both in school years and in after school years.1 All these facts indicate that any young person whose hearing is severely impaired must encounter a complexity of problems on the road to vocational placement or in completion of full secondary education. One way to ascertain what the problems are, is to ask the deaf themselves. This, this study proposed to do.  ^Drewry, R. E., "Guidance for School leavers," The Teacher of the Deaf, Vol. LIII, Ho. 313, (February, 1955), PP. 2—9.  CHAPTER THREE TBE NATURE OF THE STUDY Relationship to Previous Studies  Of the few surveys todate on the vocational and social needs of the deaf, three have particular reference to the subject of this study. In the United States, a National Survey of the Deaf was conducted by Gallaudet College and the National Association of the Deaf. Begun in 1956 and published in 1959, under the authorship of Lunde and Bigman,1 .'some 10,000 people were interviewed across the nation and the results were analyzed for relationships between occupational skills, communication skills, economic status, stability of employment, degree of hearing loss and educational and vocational training of the deaf. The authors were careful to note that their sample in all probability does not represent the total adult deaf population but appears highly biased toward white male respondents between the ages of 20 and 60 in the higher economic groups. Also, critics of this study have pointed out, the sample was located primarily through deaf associations and "It has been established that members of the National Association of the Deaf tend to be atypical."2 Seme interesting findings of this survey are compared with the findings of this study in Chapter 3.  1  Lunde, Anders S. and Stanley K. Bigman, Occupational Conditions Among the Deaf, Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C. 1959. ^ t t e r from E. Ross Stuckless, September 18, 196k to Mr. Robert Boese, who conducted the Vancouver Survey of the Deaf & Hard of Hearing, sponsored by the Western Institute of the Deaf.  20 Hew York State Survey Ih 1955, the Department of Medical Genetics of the New York State Psychiatric Institute "began a Mental Health Project for the Deaf. Published in 1963 as "Family and Mental Health Problems in a Deaf Population"1 it attempted to survey the total New York State population of literate deaf persons over 12 years of age. Names were obtained frem a variety of sources, including schools, hospitals, organizations and more than 1,200 names were collected. From these, 10,355 individuals and 110 twin pairs were surveyed. The study aimed at gathering data "on the personal and intra-  p familial patterns of adjustment specific to the deaf," and contained a section on their educational background, and vocational adjustment. Interviews were held with 266 men and 263 women, by interviewers who could use sign language. This survey is also referred to in Chapter 3 of this study as It provided a number of insights not obtained by previous studies. The Vancouver Survey By far the most relevant of these surveys to the present study, is the third one, the only large scale study of the deaf ever made in Canada. It was conducted by the British Columbia Society for the Advancement of the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing (now the Western Institute for the Deaf). Throughout 1963, names were collected by the Society from a variety of sources including news releases to the press and radio, the Provincial  family and Mental Health Problems in a Deaf Population, Dept. of Medical Genetics, New York State Psychiatric Institute, edited by John D. Rainer, M.D., Kenneth Z. Altshuler, M.D., and Franz J. Kallman with the assistance of W. Edwards Deming, New York, Columbia University, 1963. 2  Ibid., p. xiii.  21 School for the Deaf, the Community Chest and Councils and ear specialists. The aim of the survey was: to give the basic descriptive information on health, social inter-relationships, family status, education and e m p l o y m e n t * * it should be understood that the Survey shows average and typical situations, not individual ones.1 This is the only survey todate which has included both deaf and hard of hearing. The deaf were defined in three categories: a) those totally deaf, b) those who hear only noises, c) those who hear sounds with a hearing aid. The rest were considered hard of hearing, although those who could hear conversation without a hearing aid were eliminated. The survey was intended to cover age groups 15-65 years. It was found that of 600 respondents to this questionnaire sent out by this Society, 287 were deaf and 313 hard of hearing, toe hundred of these were interviewed by the surveyor, Mr. Robert Boese, who is able to use sign language. This study, in a sense, is an outgrowth of this first Canadian Survey. While the Vancouver Study provided a wealth of information previously lacking about the deaf as a group, it did cover a wide age range. It might be argued that one reason for the findings that the deaf were under employed or employed mostly in low paying menial jobs, could be partly accounted for by the fact that this age group contains many whose age in itself was a  ^Boese, Robert J., A Survey of the Hearing Handicapped sponsored by the Society for the Advancement of the Deaf & Hard of Hearing of British Columbia, January 1965, p. 21.  22 factor in their employment status. Also, this group would contain many who left school "before the opportunities now available under our present rehabilitation programmes and facilities came into operation. It was thought there would be value in taking a closer look at one segment of the total group of deaf, namely a segment under thirty years of age. The choice of such a sample should enable researchers to concentrate on the group in the best position to benefit from the developments in rehabilitation services over the past decade in Canada and British Columbia. It was thought that a fairly representative sample of the young adult and adolescent deaf could best be obtained by choosing a population of school leavers from a provincial "residential" school for the deaf. The reasons for this choice were many. Today, the trend is for "residential" schools for the deaf to admit a considerable proportion of their pupils as day pupils. This should allow for a variable not always present in surveys of young deaf groups, most of which have samples from resident students at deaf schools. Alsojin such a population such variables as level of hearing loss and age of onset, level and type of communication skills could be established from school records. The fact that such schools do not usually take children unless they have at least 35 decibels hearing loss should provide groups whose degree of hearing loss is known/ which would include profoundly deaf as well as the severely hard of hearing.  23 Such a sample should also provide a wide socio-economic range among the families of the deaf children included in the survey, "because a provincial school for the deaf takes children from all socio-economic levels. The sample, therefore, should provide a group which is not skewed to one or other level in the community, and should include a proportion of families with the economic resources to provide best possible higher education and training for their children. An additional consideration was that the Intelligence Quotients of the sample population would be known. In the absence of other suitable measurements, it was thought that this could serve as a crude index of the capacities of the school leavers, to benefit from further education or training. The I.Q. classifications could be utilized as some rough estimate of whether the young deaf individual had obtained a job in line with his capabilities and his aspirations, or both. It is, of course, recognized that factors other than intelligence are involved. A final reason for the choice of sample was that, apart from being a follow up to the first British Columbia survey, there is a general need for research in relation to this group among the deaf community, as attested to by an article "Research Needs in the Vocational Rehabilitation of the Deaf.1,1 What are the skills, attitudes and aspirations of deaf students who enter the occupational world directly from schools for the deaf which offer only academic programmes terminating between the sixth and ninth grades? Such students probably lack the academic skills of comparable hearing students who are entering  l"Research Needs in the Vocational Rehabilitation of the Deaf," A special report based on a Research Conference conducted at Gallaudet College, Washington, D.C., American Annals of the Deaf, September, i960, : Vol. 105. —  3817  the occupational world, and they have not received any vocational training which might help to offset their academic disadvantages. Studies are needed to determine the potential occupational status of such students and to determine the problems confronting them in achieving occupational success and satisfaction . . . .1 Accordingly, the decision was taken to undertake a diagnostic, descriptive study of a sample of young deaf school leavers — all the graduates and school leavers from Jericho Hill School for the Deaf (the Provincial School for Deaf in British Columbia) for the period July, 1955 to July, 1965. Hypothesis of this Study The hypothesis of this study Is that there is a relationship between deafness and employment, that; "a disproportionate number of the deaf, hold low status, low paying, and generally less desirable manual jobs."2 Nevertheless, Geist, using his Picture Interest Inventory, "surveyed the occupational interests of 931 employed deaf males and. finds their profiles not unlike those of a comparison group of hearing  males."3  Incidence of Deafness The matter of estimating what is the proportion of deaf to total community is not an easy one as no comprehensive Canada^-wide census of deafness exists. Figures in the United States suggest that, "The deaf are so few,  ilbid. 2  Rosenstein, Joseph, "Social and Vocational Assessment," Volta Review, Vol. 65, No. 9, November 1963, pp. 542-5^7. ~ 3  Ibid.  they are less than one-quarter of a million persons, scarcely more than onetenth of one per cent of all our people. In a representative crowd of 700 Americans, we would find not more than one who is deaf. 3h a sense^these are misleading figures. So much depends on the definition of deafness used. If the definition includes only the profoundly deaf, this does not give an accurate picture of the true extent of severe hearing handicaps in a population. Many classified in the "hard of hearing" group cannot achieve normal speech and do have a significant hearing loss in terms of everyday functioning. Viewed from this perspective, the problem is far from small. These people are generally classified as in the "hard of hearing" group but their problem may be a much greater one than that of a slight hearing loss although the same classification of "hard of hearing" is also used to include those whose hearing loss is slight, in relation to everyday functioning.2 The population of the deaf, in spite of advances in medicine and the refinement of diagnostic procedures, does not appear to be decreasing. A review of the literature suggests that the number of children who are deaf only is not increasing, but a greater proportion have deafness as a  ^Williams, Bqyce R., Consultant Deaf and the Hard of Hearing, Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Foreward to Edna Simon levine's book, !Ebe Psychology of Deafness. 2  This is not to say their problems are unimportant. The Vancouver Survey points this out and suggests a separate study of the problems of this group, p. 25.  26 part of a multiple problem. "This group may be divided into six categories: the aphasic and deaf; the mentally retarded and deaf; the brain injured and deaf; the deaf-blind; and the cerebral palsied and deaf."1 The National Survey in the United States used the criteria that "those who were known to other deaf persons as deaf and those who considered 2 themselves deaf should be regarded as deaf for purposes of the Survey." The New York Survey used the definition that those said to be deaf by agencies such as hospitals, schools, social agencies, would be surveyed. There are different classifications of deafness in use in the literature. Hearing loss is expressed in decibels. Deafness is generally considered to start xaaMfcerically at 80 db plus, and Table 1 illustrates a common classification, used by Ecbaa Levine.3 TABLE 1 Classification According to Degree of Hearing Loss Established by Audiometrie Testing Extent of Disability Submarginal Marginal Moderate Severe Profound  Amount of Loss,decibels 15-25 25 - 35 35 - 50 50 - 70 over 70  ^Sinclair, Robert, "The Deaf and Hard of Hearing Child in B. C.," School of Education Thesis, U.B.G., 19^3, p. 2mnde and Bigman, Occupational Conditions Among the Deaf. 3Adapted from Levine, Edna S., Youth in a Soundless World, New York University Press, 1956, p. 34, cited by Brown, Joanne Victoria, Master of Social Work Thesis, i960, University of British Columbia, Family Treatment of Hearing Handicapped Child. School-Age.  27 Other classifications simply use "total" or "partial" or "deaf" and "hard of hearing." The Committee on Nomenclature of the Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf in 1937 proposed the following definitions: 1. The Deaf: Those in whom the sense of hearing is non-functional for the ordinary purposes of life. This general group is made up of two distinct classes based entirely on the time of the loss  of hearing.  a) The Congenitally Deaf: Those who were born _ deaf. —" b ) The Adventitiously Deaf: Those who were born . with normal hearing but in whom the sense of hearing becomes non-functional later through illness or accident. 2. The Hard of Hearing: Those in whan the sense of hearing, although defective, is functional with or without a hearing aid.1 However, seme persons in the deaf group may function socially as "hard of hearing" while others perform socially as deaf. The classification of an individual is based more on judgment than on precise numerical designation* Tables 2 and 3 illustrate the communication difficulties and educational needs as related to severity of hearing lossj as these are more functional for deafness of everyday living and learning. Definitions Used In this Study For purposes of this study^the classification used will be that  ^Conference of Executives of American Schools for the Deaf, Report of the Conference Committee on Nomenclature, American Annals of the Deaf, 83:1-3 (1938). Cited in Hallowell, Davis and S. Richard Silverman, Hearing and Deafness, Halt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., New York, i960, p. 5151  28 TABES 2  COMMUNICATIVE DIFFICULTY AS EEIATED TO SEVERITY OF HEARING LOSS EXEBESSED IN EECIBEIS** Amount of Hearing Loss 0-30 db  Effect Difficulty in faint or distant speech.  30-4-5* db  Understand conversational speech at 3 to 5 feet without too much difficulty. May have difficulty if talker's voice is faint or face not visible.  45-60 db  Conversational speech must be loud to be understood. Considerable difficulty in group and classroom discussion and telephone, perhaps.  60-80 db  May hear voice about a foot away. May identify environmental noises. May distinguish vowels, but consonants are difficult to perceive.  80 plus db  May hear only loud sounds.  *0ver 35 decibels loss a child needs a hearing aid if he can benefit from it. TABLE 3 EDUCATIONAL NEEDS** Amount of Hearing Loss 30-45  db  Educational needs Lip reading and favorable seating.  45-60 db  Lip reading, hearing aid, auditory training, special language work. Favorable seating or special classes.  60-80 db  Probable special educational procedures for deaf children with emphasis upon speech, auditory training and language with possibility that child may enter regular school.  80 plus db  Special class or school for the deaf. Some of these children eventually enter regular high school  **Adapted from "The Education of Children with Hearing Impairments," by S. R._Silverman, Ph.D., Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 62, 1963, p. 254. .  29 used in the Vancouver Survey:  the deaf includes, (l) those who are totally  deaf, ( 2 ) those who hear only noises, and ( 3 ) those who hear only sounds with a hearing aid. All other degrees of deafness will be classified in the "hard of hearing" category. This definition approximates that used at Jericho Hill School which uses the classification "totally deaf" and "partially deaf." Effects of Age of Onset of Deafness on Orality From the point of view of speech and language, the deaf fall into the following categories: 1.  Those who were born either totally or seriously enough deaf to prevent the establishment of speech and natural language,  2.  Those who become deaf in childhood before speech and language patterns were established.  3. Those who became deaf in childhood so soon after the natural establishment of speech and language that the ability to speak and understand speech and language has practically been lost to them.1 These three categories among the deaf are important because age of onset plays a large part in determining whether or not the child can learn speech.  A severely hard of hearing child from birth on may be more handi-  capped in learning to speak than a child of six who becomes totally deaf, because the latter*s speech patterns will have been established and he can draw on them. The term "oral" in the literature of the deaf means that the deaf  iNash, Tanya and Emil M. Zabell, Encyclopedia of Social Work, N.A.S.W., Two Park Ave., New York, 1965, pp. 247-252.  person has learned the normal channels of speech —  he can speak himself and  he can lip read the speech of others. His speech, if he becomes deaf early will not be like the speech of the normal hearing child, because many a severely hard of hearing child cannot hear himself speak and correct his voice accordingly. For the purposes of this study the term "oral" will be used to describe a deaf or hard of hearing person who uses speech, who lip reads the speech of others, and whose speech is reasonably intelligible to a stranger.  p~tv  It is^this last proviso that the researchers would differ from the definitions of numerous parents and teachers} who often describe a deaf person as "oral1 j but whose speech is not intelligible to some one not familiar with him. In the education of the deaf child much emphasis is placed on helping him develop as much orality of which he is capable, on the theory that the closer his speech approximates that of the hearing and the better his lip reading skills, the more easily will he be able to make his way in the world of the hearing.  This has led to what is known as the "oral versus  manual controversy" in the field of education for the deaf.  Because this is  pertinent to this study, in terms of the kinds and levels of communication skills which the deaf adolescent has acquired by the time he enters the world of work, same extended reference is made to it here. The "oral" method in the teaching of the deaf relies on teaching the deaf to use speech and lip reading.  Schools which emphasize this method  tend to discourage the use of "signing" or sign language, especially in the earlier years of the child's school life.  Parents are also discouraged by  such schools from teaching or using sign language with the child, because it is thought that "signing" being easier, will be preferred by the child, to  the detriment of the development of his speech and speech reading skills. Such schools may allow the use of "signing" in classroom work after the child has reached the age of ten or eleven, some later.  Even then, in some schools,  signing is not allowed^except outside the classroom, in the social activities of the children. The manual method of teaching the deaf on the other hand, employs a system of signs.  The language of signs means what it says.  Conventional  signs for objects and actions have "been determined by and to a large degree are suggestive of shape, form or thought, whichever they represent.  These  gestures are made with the use of hands and arms. The manual alphabet is a method of forming the letters from A to Z, by certain fixed positions of the fingers of one hand. be spelled out on the hand, and of course sentences too. means of communication.  Words can then This is a rapid  In effect, this is merely a form of "writing in  the air" as it were, and for those who use this method of communication it is just as much a verbal language as our spoken words.  This means thoughts  may be conveyed from one person to another with exactly the same accuracy as if they were written out or printed on paper. Some schools use the "combined method."  The usual meaning of  "combined" in connection with educational procedure, is that in many schools, usually residential schools for the deaf, administrators feel that some students can advance more rapidly if the manual approach is used, so classes for them are established with the manual alphabet as the means of communication.  Of course, writing also forms a large part of the procedure.  Also in  these schools the language of signs is permitted in public assemblies so that the children may have personal contacts with visiting speakers.  Interpretors  change the spoken word of the lecturer Snathe language of signs and the manual alphabet. It is this way that the deaf child can have the same benefits of public assembly as his hearing brothers and sisters have. Also on the playgrounds or dormitories no special effort is made to eliminate the use of gestures or signs in these schools. It should be remembered that the oral classroom work done in these combined schools is just as intensive as that done in the oral schools. The differences mostly occur outside the classroom. What is the Language of Signs  There is also what is called the "simultaneous" method. It is possible for a person to speak orally and use the language of signs and the normal alphabet at the same time. The student may have some hearing and so may hear a word now and then, especially if he has a hearing aid and has been taught how to hear. He may read the lips or he may get the idea from the signs. This gives a student a 3-way approach to understanding. This method is used in the classrooms at Gallaudet College, the only college in the world for the deaf, in Washington, D. C. It should be borne in mind that most deaf children in most schools for the deaf, in classes for the deaf, are taught orally. While it is beyond the scope of this study to engage in a discussion of the relative merits of these systems of education obviously these varying philosophies and methods have a considerable effect on the language skills of the adolescent deaf child, regardless of his native capacity, and sagy? affect vitally his adjustment in the world of work.  Basic Assumptions of the Study The study begins with certain basic premises which should be stated First, that children with hearing handicaps possess a range of abilities, capacities, and vocational aspirations as do non-handicapped children. Presuming that the community is interested in sound rehabilitation principles it should be prepared to provide the facilities to enable these children to find suitable employment.  The measure of the economic security of the deaf  will lie in the extent to which they will be able to compete vocationally with non-disabled persons.  Secondly, that the basic human needs of the  deaf are the same as those of the hearing. Thirdly, that if placed in the proper employment, no worker can be justly considered handicapped from the occupational point of view. Fourthly, that given work that hearing is not essential on, the deaf have the same right as hearing people to choose jobs, they wish provided they are competent to perform them. The fifth assumption is that all children today need to be prepared for todays' world. Accordingly, deaf children have a right to the specific kinds of help they need to prepare them for employment according to their abilities. It should therefore follow that upon completion of education or training suited to his abilities, the hearing handicapped child should be able to enter the labour market equipped to surmount the barriers imposed by his handicap and able to attain the full vocational and economic usefulness in line with the capabilities he possesses.  Deaf people, therefore should  be found in a wide range of occupations and professions.  34  A final assumption is that in spite of information and warnings based upon the stereotype of the deaf as moddy, suspicious, unwilling to be asked questions, the researchers would treat them as any other group that is being surveyed.  They would be approached on the assumption that a sub-  stantial proportion of them would tell the researchers their problems, their ideas and experiences in the world of work and^holding of jobs. Research Questions The researchers prepared a schedule of research questions as a guide to the specific focus of the study. 1.  These were:  What assessment is made of the deaf adolescent at graduation by Jericho Hill School?  2.  What counsel is given to a parent when it is decided that a', child:: can no ; longer benefit from further education and should withdraw from the School?  3. What aids in vocational guidance are available to school leavers? 4. What are the present jobs, held by young deaf adults in the sample? 5.  Are the jobs they hold, or have held, in line with their abilities?  6. What kinds of jobs would they like to have had? 7. What has been their work history? 8.  What are the sources for them in finding jobs?  9.  What is their income level compared with the general population?  10.  What were their experiences while job hunting?  11. What are their experiences at work? 12.  What are some of their opinions, attitudes, feelings, wishes and expectations with respect to their jobs and towards training or further education?  14. What are their problems in these areas?  35 lU. Did they enter any farther training or education after they left Jericho Hill School?  If so, what type?  15. If so, did -Qaeycomplete it? What difficulties did they encounter in this course of it? 16. If they did not complete further training or education, what were the reasons? Research Design To answer these questions, a research design was developed in five 5/  parts. The first step was a series of interview/with experts and people experienced in working in the field of the deaf. The information provided by these key informants was extremely valuable and the co-operation extended was excellent. Two visiting outside experts were also consulted.1 The first step in the study was a necessary one to help the researchers understand something of this complex field of deafness and its problems. It also provided seme useful keys to the specific focus of the study. The second step was to prepare a questionnaire to be sent to all deaf school leavers over the past decade, accompanied by an introductory letter. The third step was to interview a sample of the deaf respondents to the questionnaire who were willing to be interviewed. As the researchers cannot use sign language, the plan was to use an interpreter where necessary and where the interviewee was willing. -  _  .  ,  _  _  _  _  _  Miss H. Harrell, Tucker-Maxon^School for the Deaf, Portland, Oregon and Mr. Clyde Mott, Executive Director of the Seattle Speech £nd Hearing Centre.  36 The fourth step was to relate the findings from the survey to related information from the school field. The information included I.Q. rating, degree of deafness, age of onset, whether the child had been a day or residential pupil and the grade on leaving. It was originally planned to include the School's assessment of the leaver in terms of personality, characteristics, qualities, special aptitudes and interests and particular capabilities that could have a bearing on his vocational plans and performance. It did not prove possible to get information on the latter for reasons which will be referred to later. The fifth step was to relate the findings and the insights obtained to the important area of needed services for the deaf. When the questionnaire was being constructed, it was realized that a simple vocabulary would need to be used in order to be easily understood by all deaf persons included in the survey, not just those who had been able to attain a higher language level. The survey group included both graduates and leavers of the School. Graduates are regarded as achieving "grade nine plus" on the average, while school leavers will be "grade eight plus" or in some instances, lower than this. A number of people with experience with the deaf suggested the questionnaire be constructed at the "grade four level" frcm the language point of view. Those experienced in working with the deaf stressed that the deaf could mis-interpret words with abstract meanings. In the initial stages, several revisions were made in the original introductory letter and questionnaire before consulting the advisory  37 committee appointed frem the teaching staff of Jericho Hill School. The teachers were able to give  many valuable suggestions as to substitutions  for words which they felt might be confusing to the deaf recipients. Following this revision, seme further changes were made at the suggestion of the President of the Western Institute for the Deaf, who had also been President at the time of the Vancouver Hearing Survey being made,1 after which the final draft was completed. The wording structure of sane questions were even further A simplified and in particular, the verb forms had to be brought in line with the perception of people who have never heard language. Some illustrations of the changes made in the original draft of the introductory letter should Illustrate the process: "former pupils," "ex-pupils" to "old pupils" "in the field of employment" was changed to "in different jobs" "The only reliable way to get the information from you" was changed to "We cian only find this out from you" "Confidential" was changed to "private" "This questionnaire" was changed to "this list of questions" "Facts are needed about employment experience of an actual group of young people with hearing handicaps who live in this province and whose educational background is known up to the time they leave school" was changed to "We need to know what jobs people with hearing handicaps have got in this province."  iMr. Rowl-Snd Schou had been President of the Vancouver Society for the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing as it then was, for the preceeding eight years. His insights and comments were most valuable.  38 Changes were also made in the wording of the questionnaire itself. "Are you employed?" was changed to "Are you working?" was changed to "Is your job sometime?"  "Is your job seasonal"  "Do you think your fellow workers  understand your difficulties on the job?" was changed to "Do you think they understand your troubles at work?"1  It was thought that the deaf distinguish  between "troubles at work" and "troubles at home" or "trouble at school," and would interpret this as a phrase —  troubles-at-work.  Originally, these questions were planned:  "What you find difficult  about your job," and "What, if anything, do you find upsetting about your job?"  These were changed to, "What do you find hard about your job and what  bothers you about your job?"  The responses showed that most deaf people  who answered these questions understood the difference between physical hardships connected with the job and psychologically upsetting factors. A question originally worded "Have you ever gone to any other agency for help in finding a job" was changed to "Have you ever gone to any other place for help in finding a job."  The term "VOC" was used cai the  questionnaire to mean vocational, because there was assurance from the teachers that all the school leavers were familiar with this term and would know exactly to what it referred.  Same of the questions about unemployment were also reworded. you unemployed?' was changed to "Are you not working?"  "Are  "Please list your  periods of unemployment" was changed to "How many times have you been without work?"  The question "How do you meet your expenses when you are unemployed?"  1  This change, as the returns showed, proved less satisfactory than expected. Although their language level was not considered too high on average, some of them inserted an invisible comma in the phrase and answered it as if written to refer to personal troubles outside work, that is, as if it were written "Do they understand your troubles, at work."  39 •became "How do you pay for food, clothing, and shelter when you are not working?" Finally, the request "Please use the blank sheet at the end to tell us your ideas about the kind of help people with hearing handicaps need" raised the question whether to substitute "empty sheets of paper" because it was thought there would be a number of the deaf who would not have come across the word "blank." Despite all the precautions taken^it was learned following the circulation of the questionnaire and letter that seme of the deaf recipients had difficulty understanding the term "hearing handicapped."  Contrary to  what had been believed, the word "deaf" was one that was more readily understood by these people and did not have the undesirable connotations for them that hearing persons were concerned about.  Apparently the hearing community  has been concerned about the association of the words "mute" and "dummy" with the term deaf. Also it was felt that "hearing handicapped" as a term included both the profoundly deaf and the hard of hearing group as well.  Some of the sample, it was thought would perhaps classify themselves as hard of hearing rather than deaf. Accordingly, in questions in which the "deaf" was needed^ the term "hearing handicapped" was thought to be all inclusive.  However, this reaction of a number of deaf Is worth noting.  A  number who could have been classified as "severely hard of hearing" thought of themselves as deaf and did not know that the term "hearing handicapped" included the deaf as well as the hard of hearing. The final revision of the questionnaire contained eight areas listed in the research questions, and sixty items or questions.  (See Appendix A.)  ho Introductory Letter An introductory letter was chosen as the best way to introduce the questionnaire and, at the same time, obtain the co-operation of the sample group.  Several factors were involved which made a letter the most convenient  and expedient form of communication for our purposes.  First, although all  those receiving the questionnaire had attended Jericho within the past ten years, it was known that a number were no longer residing in this Province. They had either moved away or had gone away to study. Secondly, although scane of the survey group were known to be members of the various organizations serving the deaf, there could be problems involved in becoming identified in the minds of the deaf with any one group or agency working in the field.  Non-participating group members or non-members might  be more inclined to answer the questionnaire if research was being independently conducted, Also, because it was possible that the sample survey would include families and individuals who had already been "surveyed" three times, first as pre-schoolers for an earlier thesis1, again as school-age children for a later thesis^, and recently as participants in the Vancouver Survey, it was thought important to use the letter of introduction to indicate where this survey fitted in the sequence, and to stress that it was in no way duplicating these earlier efforts. A pre-test of the questionnaire was planned with a group of former students of Jericho Hill School now attending Gallaudet College in Washington,  ^Varwig, Renate, "Family Treatment of Hearing-Handicap," Master of Social Work Thesis, U.B.C., i960. Child.  ^Brown, Joanne Victoria, "Family Treatment of Hearing-Handicapped School-Age," Master of Social Work Thesis, U.B.C., i960.  41 D.C., who were expected home during the Christmas vacation 1965. Due to a combination of circumstances, including the weather> only one student came heme. She was interviewed and filled in the questionnaire and as a result, seme helpful points about the questionnaire and interviews were discovered. Following the returns of the questionnaire from the larger sample, it was possible to see ways in which it might have "been improved. These will be referred to in Chapter 3« The design of the study called for a questionnaire to be mailed to each former student of Jericho Hill School, Deaf Section, who had left that school in the last ten years. The names and addresses were obtained from a list provided by Dr. C. E. Macdonald, Superintendent of Je±icho Hill School. Each respondent from the Vancouver area was notified by mail that a researcher would make a home visit on invitation.1 Home interviews were completed on the invitation of fourteen respondents from the Vancouver area. An interpreter was available for these interviews and she was used if the respondent so desired. In addition, follow-up letters were sent to those in Vancouver who did not return the questionnaire. These letters indicated that if the former student wished to talk with the researcher rather than complete a questionnaire, a home visit would be made. One invitation was p  extended by a parent for a home visit following the second letterc when researcher was able to complete a questionnaire on behalf of a person who was unable to complete it himself. In the home interviews, there was opportunity for spontaneous  ISee Appendix B for copy of letter sent. ^See Appendix C.  report about the vocational difficulties faced by deaf people in all aspects of their lives. Often parents or other relatives entered into the interview at seme point, and it was possible to gain further insight from their perceptions of the problems faced by young deaf persons. The home interviews of those respondents who had completed questionnaires provided the opportunity to refer to the questionnaire and gave feed back on possible inaccuracies in answers or understanding of respondents. The follow-up interviews also assisted in the assessment of the material gained through open-ended questions. The interviews generally gave us greater knowledge about the background and circumstances of the respondents and helped in determining the underlying attitudes of respondents. Some of the interviews were in "superior" homes, economically speaking, judged by such criteria as neighbourhood and type of home, others were in "average" hemes; judged by the same criteria. Without fail, the interviewers were warmly welcomed, and such thoughtful touches as porch lights turned on were indicative of the level of consideration the interviewers received. While it is recognized that fourteen is a small sample, and that it would be impossible to generalize on the basis of such a small group, nevertheless, the insights gained from these interviews about the vocational and other problems of the deaf are considered important enough to justify a separate chapter. They provided an understanding of the deaf people's own perception of their problems and needs, and in particular, they provided seme extended case histories which show the mounting and pervasive influence of deafness over the life span, especially when the deaf are trying to integrate themselves into the world of work.  CHAPTER THREE THE FINDINGS: ANALYSIS AND MTERPRETATIOEJ In interpreting the findings of this study; it must be kept in mind that the sample is not representative of all adult deaf persons in British Columbia. All of the sample received education at Jericho Hill School within the past ten years. The sample represented the total of graduates and school leavers of the deaf section of the school for the period July 195& to July 1965, with a few minor exceptions. The list from the school included all the children who had spent a substantial length of time in the school. Those who had received most of their education elsewhere and those who entered the school only to leave it a few months time were excluded. One questionnaire was filled in by a person who had attended the school during the past ten years, but whose name was not on the list provided by the School. He was referred to the researchers by one of the respondents. This latter action might be interpreted as further evidence of the helpfulness of the deaf respondents, encountered in all contacts of the researchers and also perhaps as evidence of the "close knittedness" of the deaf community. Out of the 78 questionnaires mailed (three undelivered) 39 were returned. This is approximately one out of two replies. As a number of surveys of hearing people have not had a higher response, and as one out of five is considered an acceptable sample statistically, the response was gratifying, especially in view of the special difficulties encountered by deaf  people in matters of language. A letter was received frcsn the parent of a deaf boy who received a questionnaire, but who refused to return it. This boy had been working as a casual labourer and had recently obtained another job in an isolated place which involved staying in a bunkhouse and returning home weekends. Although he was earning almost $20.00 per day, one day he suddenly left the job. His father commented, that the parents tried "to talk him into going back but he is very cranky and bad tempered so it was useless." What differences, if any, might exist between those who answered the questionnaire and those who did not, would be impossible to ascertain. This would also be true of those who were willing to be interviewed as compared with those who were not. The sample was calculated on 38 replies, as one of the respondents proved to suffer from cerebral palsy as well as deafness, which would place herein the category of those with multiple disabilities, rather than deafness alone. The level of English in the returned questionnaires varied from excellent to very poor. Most replies, however, indicated that for the years spent in school, the deaf have a much lower level of education than their hearing ounterparts. While there were undoubtedly faults in the construction of the questionnaire, the questions had been purposely designed for their supposed level of language attainment. Although the researchers had been told to anticipate a level of education in most cases of around grade eight, it was obvious that in many cases even this level is too high, if the ability to demonstrate basic sentence construction is used as a criterion. The sentence construction was often very primitive showing especial difficulty  •with connectives. There were a number of examples of literal interpretation of questions. The question "How do you meet new friends?" was answered "I am going down the hall to coffee and I say Hi." The question "How long since you left your last job?" was answered several times "I didn't yet." The question "Did you complete an apprenticeship?" was answered "No" with the succeeding question "Why?" answered "Because I'm still doing it." Certain questions were not uniformly perceived by those answering the questionnaire. In one instance, the answer to the question asking for work history information "Please say how you found each job." was answered ^Interesting." Sometimes it was difficult to tabulate the answers, because the level of language made it difficult to know what the answer really was. In some instances, it was impossible, and the answer had to be discarded. It would appear that the respondents themselves anticipated this might happen, for a number of them mentioned it was difficult to write, and suggested that if their answers were not understandable, the researchers should write back again. A number said they could not write about their thoughts and feelings, but they would be glad to talk about them. Typical responses were "I can't write about it, but I will tell you person to person" and "I'm sorry I can't answer some of your questions, but it was hard to explain" and "If you don't understand this, you can write to me if you wish." It was apparent that most of the deaf respondents filled in the questionnaire themselves. It is known that a few sought the help of a friend in filling it out. The level of English appeared to have no connection with the type of communication method found easiest by the respondents. Same of those who indicated they found speech difficult and expressed a preference  k6 for signing showed a higher level of English construction than those who preferred speech. Areas Cinltted Based on the experience obtained with the questionnaire, it is possible to see many ways in which it could have been improved. It is also possible to see where the questionnaire might have been made the instrument of gathering even further pertinent information about the deaf. There was no question included as to the size of the companies for which the deaf were working. It is important to know whether the preponderence of deaf people are employed in small organizations or large ones. With this data, it is possible to calculate if the large organizations and government organizations are carrying a proportionate load. A survey in the United States1 indicated that the evidence tends to support the view that it is the small employer there who has a higher than expected incidence of hearing impaired employees, while the larger employers have a lower incidence. It would have been interesting to make a Canadian comparison. Certainly, out of the 38 respondents, only three were working for governments — one federal, one provincial and one a local government. Another area emitted was a consideration of the deaf person's attitude to his deafness, as it was realized that this would inevitably influence his answers to many questions. This was considered to be such a complex area, that it was difficult to devise meaningful questions which  IQUO Vadis, a pilot study conducted for Alexander Graham Bell Association by Charles W. Garrett in 1965.  47 might be expected to produce answers that could be utilized with any degree of validity. As the level of responses showed, this was probably a correct hypothesis. It was thought by the researchers that information in this important area could probably best be obtained by interviewers who could sign, and who were known and trusted by the deaf people themselves. An attempt made to devise a crude index in this area would probably not be very productive. It was noted that in the New York Survey,1 deaf people were asked "How do you fes.1 about your deafness?" Their answers were categorized according to whether they were construed as indicating denial of the handicap, stoical acceptance, or being disturbed by deafness, but no criteria for these categorizations were mentioned. The finding was that people who are frankly unhappy about their deafness are more prone to interpersonal difficulties on the job and more likely to believe that their deafness deprived them of jobs they were qualified to perform. It was decided that for purposes of this survey, it would be sufficient to ask the questions "Are your fellow workers friendly" and "Do you think they understand your troubles at work?" The answers to these questions would indicate what the perception of the deaf person was of the hearing people at work towards him. It was recognized that the meaningful investigation of his attitude to his deafness was really outside the scope of this study, and the questions would be restricted to those which could be expected to uncover how his deafness affected him and others at work.  -Plainer, et al, eds. Family and Mental Health' Problems, p. 126  48 Relationship Between Residential Status and Responses to Questionnaires  One criticism of studies of the deaf community has been that many of them have taken their sample from residential schools for the deaf, and it has been difficult to separate out the effects of residential living when assessing the personality and performance of the deaf graduates. While Jericho Hill is a residential school, it has had a policy for some years of admitting children as day pupils. In the sample group, 21 of the respondents were residential pupils and sixteen were day pupils and one had been both. This was expected to give an opportunity for comparison as to how far residential living might prove an important variable in the subsequent adjustment and satisfaction of the respondents in the world of work. In the sample group, there did not seem to be any correlation between residential living and the types of jobs obtained, the respondents' feelings about it, whether he perceived his fellow workers as friendly or unfriendly, whether he made friends at work less easily than those who had been day pupils. Nor did residential status have any correlation with his responses as to whether he was interested in further training, whether he thoughtthis training should be given in regular vocational schools or in separate schools for the deaf, whether he used speech at work less than former day pupils, or the types of jobs he aspired to. These findings are probably related to the size of the sample and the fact that the study is of the descriptive kind. They do not mean that the effects of residential living are negligible in relation to the subsequent adjustment of the deaf child. This should be a subject for further study.  49 Characteristics of the Sample Group Of the 38 respondents, there were twenty females and eighteen males. deaf.  Twenty-five of them were totally deaf and thirteen were partially Most of them had either "been "born deaf or become deaf within the  first three years of life, before they had a chance to acquire normal  *  1  language patters, as Table 4 illustrates. TABLE 4 A ® OP ONSET OF DEAFNESS Age of Onset  Male  Female  Total  Birth During 1st year During 2nd year During 3rd year During 10th year Not known  5 5 3 2 1 _2  12 5 3 -  17 10 6 2 1 2  Total  18  20  38  Intelligence Quotients of the Sample Group The adolescents in the sample group are tested regularly by the Vancouver School Board for Intelligence Quotient ratings, using the Progressive Matrices Form B, 193b Test, devised by John Baven.  This test uses  a category rather than a point rating, with classifications of superior, above average, average, below average, intellectually inferior, aHongowilth further classification below this level which would not be applicable in a study of this kind,since children who suffer from a considerable degree of mental retardation in addition to being deaf are not sent to Jericho Hill School. As some of the group graduated at andate when a test with a point system rating was in use, comparisons among the total group and comparison with the general school leaving hearing population did not prove feasible.  However, it can be said, that a number of the adolescents in the sample were in the intellectually superior class, which according to the test used, would place them in the ninety-fifth percentile, that is they are brighter than ninety percent of people talcing the test.  A number were  also in the "above average category," which places them in the seventy-fifth percentile, that is in the top twenty-five per cent of all who take the test. A number were in the average group, while a few fell below this rating. Although exact comparisons proved impossible, it was decided to use the I.Q. ratings to see if there was any correlation between I.Q. rating and the types of responses given to the questions.  It was also proposed to  use intelligence level, as ascertained by the I.Q. tests, as a crude index of the native ability of the respondents, to see if there was any correlation between intelligence and the kinds of jobs the respondent expressed a preference for and would have the capacity for, as compared to the one he was actually doing.  It was also planned to refer to the I.Q. rating to see if  those with better than average ability were indeed going into better jobs or going on for further training or education.  Marital Status Thirty-five of the thirty-eight were single and of this group fifty-eight per cent lived with their parents. were all female.  The three married respondents  Of the three married persons, two are married to hearing  persons, one to a deaf person.  Only one couple had children, both of pre-  school age, with normal hearing.  In such a small group, It is hardly  surprising that there were no divorces recorded, neither were there any widowed or separated.  51 Social Class of Families of the Sample Group A question was included asking the occupation of the father of the respondent, for use as a crude index of the social class of the family. A few professions are represented in the occupations of the parents. The largest percentage of the parents, thirty-three percent would be classified as blue collar workers, while the remainder include self-employed, retired, and scane semi-skilled trades. Approximately twenty-seven percent of the families would be considered to be of working class status. A small proportion of the families were broken by death or divorce and one or two respondents indicated they had been raised away from their own families, probably in foster homes. Deafness Patterns in Families of Respondents In all but four cases, the respondents said their parents had normal hearing.  Three male respondents indicated that both their parents  were deaf and one female respondent stated both her parents were deaf.  It  was seen, therefore, in most cases it was the parents' first experience with a deaf person. Questions were not specifically asked about deaf siblings, but it is known that in one case., only,the respondent has a deaf brother and a hard of hearing sister. The small number of married women in the group does not permit any truly representative sampling as to what percentage of the children of deaf mothers might tend to have deaf children.  Little has been done in this  field of study todate, but the New York Survey1 indicated that while ninety  Gainer, et al, eds. Family and Mental Health Problems, p. lJW.  52 percent of their survey group was the offspring of two hearing parents, "almost thirty percent of the marriages where both partners were bora deaf and from fourteen to twenty-one percent of those where only one partner was born deaf resulted in deaf children, usually more than one."1 Living Arrangements of Sample Group The largest percentage of the respondents, fifty-eight percent, lived with their parents. Twenty-one percent were living with friends. Five percent lived with other relatives and eight percent lived alon®. The remaining eight percent lived with their spouse. TABLE 5  LIVING AKRMGEMEMB BY SEX  •  Living Arrangements  Percentage Distribution Male Female Total  Single living alone Single living with friends Single living with parents Single living with relatives Married living with spouse  2.6 5.3 36.8 2.6 -  5.3 13.2 26.3 2.6 5.3  Total  47.3  52.7  7.9 18.5 63.1 5.2 5.3  100.  It was expected in this age group that the largest percentage would be living at home. Also, this might be more expected from any disabled group who require more assistance from the parent than does the non-handicapped child. One influence that tends to counteract this tendency is the fact that the deaf child quite often spends his early years in residence at the School. As many of these people in the sample proved to have low paying jobs this could be an additional factor in influencing the deaf adolescent  •kcbid., p. 17.  and young adult to stay in the parental hone. As many of the group are young adults, it might be hypothesized that those living with friends or alone are following a pattern that is currently popular among maay young adults our culture, when they set up an independent residence, even though they often have a parental home nearby. Whether this is so in the case of the deaf, or whether there are additional factors in their case would bear further investi gation. Certainly, there are special problems when a deaf person lives alone The researchers became aware of two of these problems when they wished to contact a deaf person living alone to confirm an appointment for a visit. It was impossible to use the telephone, and it was soon realized that to knock on the door to announce one's arrival was equally useless. Geographical Distribution By far the largest number of respondents live in the Lower Mainland regardless of where their parental home may be. Fifteen live in Vancouver itself and another twenty-four in municipalities close to Vancouver. Only eight live in the Interior, and one on Vancouver Island. The study substantiated a trend generally suspected in relation to the deaf — that this is one group that does congregate in Vancouver to be near other deaf people. The work histories submitted often included a statement that the reason for leaving a job was to come to Vancouver, even though in the Interior the pay was higher in some of the jobs. The need for the companionship outside working hours of other deaf people was a paramount one with many of the respondents. Age Distribution of Sample The ages of the respondents ranged from seventeen to twenty-nine years of age. The largest percentages were in the ages of nineteen and  54 twenty, a total of* thirty-one percent. The average age of the respondents is 21.7 years. A question was included asking how old the respondents^ were: when they left Jericho Hill School. This question was included to see what differences, if any,Awere in the pattern of the school leavers compared with their hearing counterparts. It was indicated that the largest group, thirty-one per cent,left the School at eighteen years of age. The next largest group, twenty-nine percent,left Jericho when they were nineteen. Those leaving at seventeen registered twenty-four percent. Eight percent left at age sixteen and at age twenty. Deaf adolescents are therefore older on average than their hearing counterparts when they leave school, as Table 6 shows. TABLE 6 A ® AT LEAVING SCHOOL Age  Number  16 years 17 years 18 years 19 years 20 years  3 9 12 11 3.  Total  38  Percentage 7.8 24.0 31.4 29.0 7.8 100.  Questions on number of years of schooling and grade completed on leaving were not included because it was learned that students often leave Jericho Hill when a job becomes available and not necessarily when they have reached a certain point in their academic career. Therefore, the grade obtained on leaving is not necessarily an index of the students capacity. An incompleted grade does not mean a student would not have completed it if he had remained in school for the remainder of the year. Jericho Hill does  not go "beyond Grade 10 plus, and the important thing is that Grade 12 is increasingly becoming necessary in the world of work as the prerequisite for entrance into many fields. Present Employment Status Of the respondents, sixty percent indicated that they were in full time employment. When considering the disability and the limitations it places on the individual, this would seem to be a favourable percentage, in view of the lack of special aids to help the deaf find jobs. Unemployment among the respondents runs at about twice the present national rate of slightly less than five percent. Employment and unemployment rates were the same in both sexes^ although more females were represented in the group replying to the questionnaire. In line with the present trend of the general population toward higher levels of education, both academic and vocational, the replies indicated that twenty-one percent of the group were students. This has been only a more recent development since, prior to 1961, the Provincial Government did not contribute funds to enable eligible deaf students to attend a college such as Gallaudet College, Washington, D.C. With respect to vocational training, it has been only in recent years that profoundly deaf students have been enrolled at Vancouver Vocational Institute. The new Vocational Institute at Buraaby has only opened comparatively recently, but it also enrolls deaf students. There were no deaf persons employed in the professions, or in executive or managerial positions. This would be expected for two reasons; the first being the degree of communication required for most of these positions, the second that eligibility for these positions depends upon  56 higher levels of education or technical training. It was also noted that more were in the self-employed class. Sane variance existed between the sexes in that the women had a higher percentage of their number employed in clerical positions, while there were no men at all in clerical jobs. Several of the men have employment in jobs from which it might be expected they would be excluded for safety reasons. The fact that they have been able to perform in these jobs without mishap indicates the degree of adjustment deaf people can make to overcome their handicap. TABLES 7 E^ESEHT EMPLOYMENT STATUS Present Employment Status  Male  Female  Total  Full time Part time Sometime (that is seasonal) Unemployed but had previously worked Students Housewives Had never worked  29.1 2.6 2.6  31.6 -  60.7 2.6 2.6  10.5 2.6  2.6 10.5 5.3 2.6  2.6 21.0 5.3 5.2  Total  47.4  52.6  100.  Job Stability For purposes of this study "stability" is taken to indicate remaining in the job. It has no connotation of emotional or any other kind of stability. Length of time on the job ranged from a period of a few months to over nine years. The largest group had been employed from one to two years. Sixteen percent had been employed from eight to ten years and had only had the one job. These percentages indicate that the degree of job stability of the people in the sample is comparable to figures quoted in a  57 number of studies of the hearing population, if the one-to-two year period is accepted as a base. In the case of the sample group, job stability might well prove to be higher, because most of them are at the beginning of their work histories rather than the middle or end. It would tend to support the statement often made by those who advocate employment of the handicapped, that these people once they are given a chance, often prove steady and reliable employees. This has been a common finding in vocational studies of the deaf completed todate. Income Levels A question was asked about income obtained from work. Because the researchers had been told that the deaf are somewhat reticent ah out naming a definite figure, a category system was used. With hindsight, to judge from the number of respondents who did name a specific figure unasked, more respondents would probably have done so, if asked. In a day of spiraling cost of living expenses, the wages and salaries received by the deaf in this survey would place most of these people below the average income of the country. Certainly in an age of the computer and automated systems, the future is anything but bright for the unskilled and poorly trained. Of the twenty-two respondents to the question enquiring into present earnings, only twelve indicated that their salary was over $250 per month. Tworespondents said that they were receiving $250 per month, three gave their monthly income as $200, while four were earning $150 or $1800 per year. One respondent said that he was earning $100 per month. With the exception of two respondents who indicated that their income was above the $4000 level, the remaining respondents had incomes  57a TABLE 8 EMPLOYMENT OF RESPONDENTS REPORTING FULL TIME WORK Male  Female  Total  Professional & technical  -  -  —  Managers, officials, etc.  -  -  -  Clerical, Sales  -  6  6  2  6  Craftsman, foreman Operators  3  1  k  Service workers  3  1  k  Labourers  2  -  Total  12  10  _2 22  TABIE 9 SOURCES OF HELP IN FINDING FIRST JOB Male  Female  Total  Parents  7  5  12  Friends  2  6  8  Teachers  k  -  k  VOC  -  -  -  —  1  1  National Employment Service Want Ads  -  -  Others  _2  _3  _5  Total  15  15  30  which were less than the national average. Based on the findings of recent national studies conducted in the interest of Ottawa's "war on poverty" a number of these people would be classed as having incomes below the poverty line of our country. According to the replies, the initial salaries of the male were higher on an average than those of the female although more of them started at a lower salary. Some of those employed in industries with unions received higher starting salaries despite the fact that the jobs required less skill. Salaries of the male deaf were also higher on an average in their present jobs. The highest recorded salary was under six thousand dollars per year, earned by a craftsman. A question was included asking if the respondent had had any promotions at work, and if they had not, did they know why. Replies were equally divided with an equal number reporting no promotion and those indicating one or more. Several reported that they knew they were considered too slow at their work. Others said there was no opening or opportunity, while lack of experience and seniority were other explanations offered for not receiving a promotion. Many did not know what the reasons were or did not wish to comment. A common reply was "fhere are no promotions in my job" but only a small proportion said it was because they were deaf. The interviews proved more productive of answers in this area. Some of the reasons given in interviews were lack of education, inability to communicate, civil service restrictions, and safety regulations. Although there may be legitimate reasons, such as lack of the required level of education, it would appear that what is needed in many cases is a proper assessment of regulations to see if they are correctly applied, in the sense that a way  could "be found to provide the deaf person with the assistance he needs to qualify according to the regulations. It is obvious from the findings that the deaf person is in a very poor bargaining position when he seeks a promotion. This is true for the same reason that he finds it more difficult to get employment in the first place. It is true that in certain jobs where noise factors are involved the deaf may have an advantage over the hearing, but these are in the minority. Work Histories A question was included asking the respondents, in simple language to give what amounted to a work history. A number complied with the request, and some of the histories were well thought out and well written. Thirteen respondents indicated that they had held more than one job since leaving Jericho Hill School. Six of these people were employed in part time and full time jobs of short duration after leaving Jericho Hill School but are now in full time employment where they have been employed for some time. Four persons had a number of part time and full time jobs of short duration and are now unemployed or in packing houses, canneries, cleaning firms and hard manual labour. The remaining three had had several full time jobs in work they did not particularly like, took training, and are now in full time jobs which are more to their liking. The job experiences of these people point up the lack of proper help that exists for the deaf in job placement. However, those who take further training have been successful in obtaining more stable employment of a type they enjoy. Ih caie case it meant the person changing occupations, from one of a clerical type to one of an operative type. In most cases these  6o people were helped in finding employment by their parents, friends, and in one case by the School. Sources of Help in Locating the First Job It was considered important to determine whether or not the deaf adolescent had a job to go to on leaving the School, and how he located it. Thirty-six percent of the respondents indicated that they had a job to go to upon leaving Jericho Hill School. This is partly due to the policy the School has employed through the years of assisting/where possible,the placement of their students in employment. In some cases the employer approaches the School, while in others, the teachers or staff follow up leads for employment. As indicated by many of the respondents, Dr. C. E. MacDonald has personally helped them in locating their first job. This is not an organized procedure since the School does not take any official responsibility for placement of its pupils in employment. In fact, at the present time, there is no organization or individual who carries this responsibility. Parents and teachers are the chief sources of help to the deaf child in securing his first job. Next in importance were the responses in the category "others" which includes community leaders and organization heads. Next in line of importance are friends, and lastly "VOC" (which is the name by which the Division of Rehabilitation of the Provincial Department of Health Services and Hospital Insurance is known to the sample group) and the National Employment Service. When the deaf person goes looking for employment he must have someone along who can interpret for him and preferably this person should be someone who knows and understands him well. Particularly true is this of first interviews, because at this point, the deaf child often doubts his own abilities as much as the employer questions his employability.  6l The respondents who did not have a job to go to were not asked how long a time elapsed between leaving school and finding work, although it is recognized that this could have important repercussions psychologically. A question on general plans on leaving school was not asked. Perhaps this would have been productive had it been included. The New York Survey1 showed that, of those interviewed in that survey, thirty percent either had no plan at all or no specific plan on leaving school. Those with no work plans in that survey included 11.1$ of those classified as bright. There is some suggestion that the percentages would appear to be even higher in the present study, but this cannot be definitively stated, as this specific question was not asked. A question was included asking how the respondents located later jobs, as it was recognized this School played a special role in helping them find their first one. It is significant that teachers played less important roles in finding other jobs once the initial job was found. This is of course understandable when one considers that the deaf person's world has widened since leaving Jericho Hill School. He still has close contact with his home and parents and they still are one of the major sources of help in finding new employment. The other principal resources include previous employers, community leaders and persons whom the deaf person has had contact with in his work. Since he is now covered by Unemployment Insurance, he has become familiar with their services and they now play an equal role with friends in helping him find new employment.  •^Family and Mental Health Problems, P- 120.  62 A further question asked was if the respondents had ever utilized the services of any employment or community agencies ia locating employment. Some of these were specifically mentioned in the question, and there was a category of "other." The answers indicated that thirty-one percent had sought help at either the office of N.E.S. or at the Division of Rehabilitation.  It was  apparent that these offices were approached more for help in vocational training than employment although that may have been the reason for the first approach. In one case the person was trained and placed directly into a job that was waiting. A number of respondents indicated that they did not consider they obtained any help from these two sources. Seme of the answers suggested that the deaf do not always receive the direct guidance they are seeking when they approach the National Employment Service.  In one instance a researcher was told that one office  referred a deaf person back to the School of the Deaf when approached for help in finding employment. Eight respondents referred to other resources, two of which were actually National Employment Service offices in other cities outside of Vancouver where they received help in securing jobs. One had secured a steady job through an Employment Service for the Deaf in the city of Toronto. Other resources mentioned were the following; Pacific Deaf Fellowship Dean of Students, Gallaudet College A private citizen, Prince Rupert Business firms.  63 Record of Repeated Rejection When Seeking Jobs A question was included to ask whether the respondent had ever experienced a refusal when seeking jobs, and if he was told the reason. Only ten respondents stated that they had asked for a job and not received it. Eighteen or forty-eight percent of the total respondents said that they had not. Some explanation for this answer might be found in the fact that in most cases jobs are found and asked for by parents or other interested persons. This would perhaps account for the rather low number of responses in this category given by the larger number of respondents. Those persons who answered in the affirmative indicated that they had on an average asked and been refused jobs many times. In the majority of cases they were not told why. Some believed that it was because they were deaf, .while in a few cases they were told that there was no job available. In one instance the employer indicated that he was afraid that they would make a mistake in the work. What would appear to be significant is the fact':,that a number did not really understand why they could not get a job. It points up the need for a placement officer who would be able to speak for these people and act as a communication bridge between their employer and themselves even after employment is obtained. Level of Job Satisfaction A series of questions were introduced to ascertain whether the deaf were satisfied in their jobs, what they liked and disliked about them, and what they found difficult and troublesome. Each of these questions was followed by "Why?" It was hoped this way to get fuller answers to the questions than those of a number of surveys where a preponderance of the replies to the questions as to whether the job was satisfactory had resulted  6b in nothing more than a statement of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with wages or salary. Questions were also asked about relationships with fellow workers, whether the deaf person considered his fellow workers friendly, and understanding of any difficulties the deaf person might have at work. Again the question "Why do you think so?" was used. Eighty-eight percent of the deaf respondents indicated they liked their jobs but further investigation and answers to subsequent questions indicated that this affirmative statement would bear considerable qualification in a number of cases. Sometimes the answers indicated a very realistic approach "I need the money" and "I have to work" "for future" and "money for life." The very fact that they were working seemed enough to make the job a good one for some. "I had a hard time getting a steady job and I am glad to be earning money." These findings would be comparable to those in the New York Survey where 86$ said they liked their jobs, but whearethe categorization "liked" was extended to Include "all replies that were not negative . . . it was applied to neutral and non-committal affirmatives such as 'okay' or 'good' accompanied by a shrug of the shoulders."1 A number of respondents indicated that they had no special difficulties or problems at work. Of those who stated they had, complaints ranged from communication problems and monotony of work to the type of work and the unsatisfactory working conditions. Only one complained about an actual personnel problem at work. From the replies, it was obvious that many are employed at work that is tedious and monotonous. For some the work  % e w York Survey, p. 125.  65 lacked the stimulation they wanted: No, because it is not the type of job my ambitions favor. Yes, because I like sewing rather than office work I find filing boring. The light is hard on my eyes in using the adding machine. The pressure frcan sewing all day. I don't like the smoke. I am too scared. I don't like sewing - ray needle is always breaking. It's dirty and heavy. I don't like the work. We have to sit down all the time. The machine went too fast and burned my fingers. Metal pieces were flying about. One cut my hand. There was an unpleasant smell of smoke. The light was poor and hurt my eyes. Too much work for too little pay. All the others got more money than I did. The noise from the machines bothers me. This last observation is one which might not readily occur to a hearing person and indicates that the idea that deaf people are not bothered by noise is not always true. Only two complaints about other personnel were made. "The regular operator didn't give me a chance to practice on the machine" and "My boss is aggressive," Loneliness was often cited as "a bother."  "I !  alone, but I work hard." For some, it was the loneliness of being in a town away from other deaf people with whom they could communicate, not their work, or fellow employees. One reply is recorded as it was received: I will save my money for a few years and I will search for a job in Vancouver. I need to meet more deaf in the city. Now I find no one in X_ and I still sorrowful. No deaf in X . I was alone myself go to town, movies and stay home all day. I will hope I will need more frien this summer because I will buy new car and good time driven around town and myself so to movies, swimming lake and fishing and hunting.  66 Many indicated that relations with their boss and with other workers were good. "The other workers talk and joke with me" "The boss is kind to me." Almost two-thirds of the survey group who were employed reported that their fellow employees understand their troubles. The following are replies to illustrate their interpretation of this question. They try to help me. The boss shows me how to do things. Because my troubles are identical to their troubles. No one can hear in a noisy mill. Because I do explain clearly what I don't understand and they know very well what I mean. Some of the negative replies gave the following explanations: Sometimes, they do not believe me. language problem. Sometimes I can't understand what they are saying. With the exception of five who did not answer, all respondents felt that their fellow workers were friendly. This finding would appear to contradict the stereotype of "the deaf personality" as basically suspicious or even paranoidal. In the two American surveys, there were similar findings — namely that most deaf people surveyed, considered their fellow workers friendly. Day or residential pupil status;:!" .ts did not appear to affect feelings about their jobs and fellow workers, either positively or negatively. A question was included, asking how the respondents met new friends. One of the possible response categories was "at work." Sixteen respondents or forty-four percent indicated that they made new friends outside their work. Thirty-one percent said they met their friends through their work. Three percent said they met their friends in both ways. Other mentioned ways were: Church, as a student, through other friends, sports and social  67 activities. Of these possible ways, most respondents stated they met more friends through other friends and through their student activities. Again, this would be more expected of this age group. Work, however, does appear an important source of making friends. Little is known, however, of how deaf people define their friends. The larger group of the respondents, indicated that most of their friends were deaf. This group was fifty-eight percent of those answering the question, while forty-two percent said that most of their friends were hearing persons. Because it was expected that some of their answers to the preceding questions would be affected by changes in their hearing and by the methods of communication, they used and preferred both at work and outside, a series of questions were asked in this area. Changes in Hearing Ability Since Leaving School It was considered important to ascertain whether, in the opinion of the respondents themselves, there had been any change in their hearing ability since leaving school. It was not "to be expected in the case of the profoundly deaf, but it was thought it could be important for those in the partially deaf category. Only twenty-one percent of the respondents reported that they thought their hearing ability had changed since leaving the School. The remainder reported no change. Five persons indicated less hearing ability since leaving Jericho Hill School and three indicated more hearing ability. Three persons indicated that they could hear nothing at all. Eleven persons indicated that they heard only noises. Five were able to hear noises and  68 sounds with a hearing aid. Five could hear sounds and conversations with a hearing aid. Use of Hearing Aids It was realized that it is difficult to draw conclusions as to the accuracy of these subjective reports, however, twenty percent of the total indicated that they received some benefit frctn the use of their hearing aid. It might by hypothesized that the younger group of the sample who began to wear hearing aids as soon as they entered Jericho Hill School would be more likely to continue using them after they left school. Over one-half or fifty-seven percent said that they did not use hearing aids at all. Twenty-four percent always used them. Of those using them only at work or away from work it was evenly divided at three percent each. (Thirteen percent used them only sometimes. The survey by the National Association of the Deaf in the United States found that less than ten percent of their sample population used hearing aids constantly, either at home or at work.1 Changes in the Use of Speech Since Leaving School The deaf adolescent has usually spent much time and effort in learning to speak. Speech is a "tool" he will need in the world of work if he is at all proficient at it. A question was included to ascertain the deaf person's opinion about the increase or decrease in his use of speech since leaving school. Sixty-five percent of those replying to this question stated that  ^National Association of the Deaf, Survey, U.S.A., op.cit. p. 19.  69 they were speaking more since leaving Jericho. Twenty-six percent said that they spoke less while nine percent said there was no change. Such an increase in speaking would be expected since they are now in the working world where they associate more with hearing people in their day to day activity on the job. If this subjective view is correct, it would appear that the deaf adolescent does find it an asset to be able to speak whenever he can and that he tries to do so when he enters the hearing world. Lip Reading Ability Since the teaching of lip reading is important in the curriculum of the School, the former students' present use of these skills is worth determining. Although again this is a subjective judgment, it is probable that both over-estimates and under-estimates were reported. It is evident, however, that lip reading is extensively used by this deaf group. Thirty-eight percent indicated that they could lip read well, while forty-nine percent said they could lip read well enough to understand conversation. Eight percent stated that they could not lip read at all and five percent said they could lip read a little but not enough to qualify for the first two categories. Fourteen individuals who were totally deaf reported themselves able to lip read well or well enough to understand conversation. Eleven partially deaf people reported themselves similarly. The Vancouver Survey finding,1 indicating that those born deaf were better lip readers than those going deaf in later life is not contradicted by the indications of this study in the area of lip reading ability. They merely  1Vancouver Survey, p. 39•  70 indicate that even among those going deaf early, there is considerable variation in lip reading ability. In the National Association of the Deaf Survey in the United States,1 almost 60$ did not claim any ability in this area, and about half this number claimed they could lip read well enough to understand conversation. Only 9$ rated themselves excellent. In that survey, those going deaf early tended to claim less lip reading ability than those going deaf  trilater*. From all of the foregoing, it is clear that there is a need for much greater research into the exact status of the deaf in relation to lip reading ability. From contacts with the deaf through interviews and the information gained from other sources, it is questionable if so many respondents would belong in the first category. The stress placed on the ability to lip read particularly by the parents causes more persons to claim greater proficiency in this area than would seem to be the case. Preferred Methods of Communication at Work Apparently there are many variations in the preferences of deaf people as to methods of communication used at work. Some indicated a preference for one type androthers; for a combination of types. Of those who indicated a preference for just one type; three preferred speech only, four lip reading, six were for writing alone. Three preferred signs and finger spelling.  -'-National Association of the Deaf Survey, p. 19.  71 Of those who indicated a preference for a combination of methods; four - speech and lip reading, two - lip reading and writing, three - speech, lip reading, and writing, six - lip reading, writing, and signs and finger spelling, and two - speech and writing. To the question of which method was found easiest, there vase a combination of answers.  Some felt that certain single methods were easier,  while others indicated several.  Of those preferring single methods as easiest, two preferred speech only, two - lip reading only, five - writing only while five preferred signs and finger spelling. Of those indicating that more than one method was easy, three found speech and lip reading easy, one preferred writing, signs and finger spelling, while one person said that they were all easy, except speech. Only one person said that he found all methods easy, "hut not much speech." There appeared to be no relationship between the type of communication preferred and intelligence, nor with whether the deafness was partial or total; nor did differences in preferences according to sex seem to have any significance.  Residential or day pupil status did not seem to be a  factor affecting the answer to this question. persons is probably a factor here.  The size of the sample^deaf  The answers, however, suggest that the  deaf person prefers the means of communication he finds easiest, but this is not always acceptable to the hearing world.  An example of this would be a  low level of written language which many deaf people acknowledged to be true in their case.  Some apologized for it.  It is not a matter of which  method the deafA prefers but rather that he knows that the preferable or  INTRODUCTION PART V The following study is the fifth part in a series of studies on rehabilitation in Canada,  Following a review of the legislative base for rehabilitation in Canada both federally and provincially, in relation to the Province of British Columbia, the next step was to select for review some aspects of rehabilitation problems to be studied in more depth. It seemed appropriate to choose first a handicapped group which offers the greatest challenge of all to those who work in the field of rehabilitation —  the deaf.  While it may be said that, in a  certain sense, the problems of all handicapped groups are special to the disability as well as having aspects that are common to all handicapped groups, the problems of the deaf have been described as "unique in the annals of human development." Because the challenge is so great and because in spite of over a hundred years of special education and institutions for the deaf, little is known about this group.  It should prove valuable to workers  in the field of rehabilitation to review what problems the deaf are experiencing as they attempt to integrate themselves in the world of the hearing.  One of the tests of the integration of a handicapped group into a community is how the people in it fare in the world of work.  It is  vi this area that was chosen for examination. Another important test of the success of rehabilitation programmes in a community is how far they reach the groups where the challenge of integration is the most complex and difficult.  A community  cannot call itself successful in the rehabilitation field till the most recent advances and developments, medical, vocational and social, have became available to all its handicapped groups, not just those with the most popular appeal, or those whose integration proves less challenging than that of some other groups.  We need to ascertain how far the developments in rehabilitation of the past twenty-five years have penetrated the fastnesses of the world of the deaf.  In the measure that they have, a community can claim success  in the most difficult area in the field of rehabilitation.1  Mary P. Tadych  -kchis introduction has been written by Mrs. Mary Tadych, director of the thesis project, to give the rationale and background of the present study, as part of a planned series.  72 easiest method for the hearing is lip reading.  He has only two alternatives  which are writ lag and signing. Further Training or Education Commenced It was considered important to determine how much further education or vocational training the school leavers had obtained, and whether this had led to better work opportunities.  The New York Survey found that those who continued their education after graduation from a School for the Deaf were more likely to secure higher i n c o m e s — $75 per week or more. 1  Accordingly, a series of questions were designed in this area.  The  intent was to uncover all possible sources of training, from on-the-job training, and informal courses to full courses in vocational schools and elsewhere.  Almost one-helf of the persons replying, which was  percent of  the total sample, said that they were taking or had taken further training or education.  Of these,twenty-two percent had taken academic training,  sixty-six percent had taken vocational training, six percent had taken business training, while six percent had taken other training.  Of those who have taken further education or training, fifty percent are now employed, forty-four percent are still studying, and six percent are unemployed. Of the ones who did not take further training or education, eightythree percent are now employed, eleven percent are housewives, and six percent  -••Family and Mental Health Problems, p. 123.  72a TABLE 10 PRESENT EDUCATIONAL STATUS OP SAMPLE ffiOUP - •-•••—.-  .  Number  Took no further education or training after Jericho Hill School  19  Took further education or training  lb  No answer  JL  Total  38  Percentage  5.036  100$  TABLE 11 TYPES OF FURTHER EDUCATION OR TRAINING TAKEN* Type of Training Academic Vocational (including onthe-job training) Business  Number  Percentage  4  22$,  12  66$  1  •636  Other  JL  Total  18  e>io 100$  *This Table refers to the 47$ of the sample group -who reported taking further education or training.  73 are unemployed. The incomes of those taking extra training were not always higher than the incomes of those who did not.  One factor here was that a number  of men in the sample were in heavy duty labouring work in isolated places which were comparatively well paid.  Twenty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that they had received on-the-job training.  Of those taking this type of training, forty-  three percent were in the operative category, while forty-three percent were craftsmen.  Fourteen percent were clerical.  Average length of training was eleven months. Five of the respondents started apprenticeship training and three have completed their training.  One person is still receiving training and  the other did not complete his training because of health reasons.  Two  persons indicated that they would have taken such training, but it was not available. Only seventeen percent indicated that they did not finish the course they were taking.  The following reasons were given:  Unable to attain 40 words per minute typing speed. Disliked course. Health. There were no correspondence courses taken by the respondents, but a few indicated an interest in them if they were available. Of those who replied to the question "Are you taking a course now?" the following courses were recorded:  74 Commercial  Floor Sanding  Gardening  Hair Dressing  Academic! ;  Chef Training  The enrollees indicated that in two instances friends had informed them about the courses, while for two others, the information had come from their teachers at Jericho Hill School. Two did not indicate where they had learned about the courses. Ten respondents said that they intended to take more training, while eighteen replied in the negative. The following types of training were enumerated: Typing  Floor Sanding  Art  Auto Body  Baking  Graduate Study  Academic  lab. Work  One person was as yet undecided as to the type of training he would take. Four of the respondents stated that they had attended a University or College. All four are attending Gallaudet College, Washington, D.C. One will receive his Bachelor degree in the spring of 1966. Group Attending Gallaudet College Nine students have gone on to Gallaudet College for higher academic education after leaving Jericho Hill School. This College, founded in 1864, is located in Washington, D.C. and is the only college for the deaf in the world. The cost per pupil per year is approximately $4500. The student pays approximately one-third of the cost, through personal resources, or through the provisions of Schedule 6, (the Federal-Provincial vocational training programme for the handicapped.).  75 The purpose of the College is to provide a liberal higher education for deaf persons who need special facilities to compensate for their loss of hearing.  Gallaudet College is accredited by the Middle States Association  for the programme at the Masters Degree level, for preparing teachers for deaf children at both the elementary and secondary levels by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.  It is too soon, yet, to evaluate the results in relation to the small group who have only recently begun their studies there. It should be noted that a considerable percentage of Gallaudet graduates go into "shop" work, that is, vocational courses rather than academic or other courses.  It is also noteworthy, (for the benefit of oralists) that If a student cannot use sign language on entering Gallaudet he Is taught to use this means of communication. Only four respondents indicated that there were night classes in their community and two said they were attending.  One said the classes  had only started in January of this year (1966), and they had not attended as yet.  One other person said they did not go because of financial reasons. Forty-five percent of all respondents said that they would attend  night classes for the hearing handicapped.  Negative replies were received  from fifteen or thirty-nine percent, three percent were not sure, and thirteen percent did not reply. During an interview, one of the reasons why one person said that they would not attend such classes was the fact that they worked among  76 hearing people all day and wanted to relax during the evening.  They  concentrated on lip reading continually during working hours and could not face an evening of study, where they would again have to use their eyes, as well as their powers of concentration.  Eye strain and eye fatigue by  the end of the day were often mentioned by the respondents.  It should be  realized that the deaf lip readers have not had a break from lip reading during the lunch hour or the journey home as hearing people have. Sometimes the deaf person thought it was the other way round, and one recorded that he had attended night school, but he thought "the teacher was too tired to teach."  Unemployment Experiences A number of questions were included to ascertain periods of unemployment experienced by the working deaf and their sources of support during these times.  Eight respondents reported that it was six months or less since they left their last job.  The ages of this group ranged from eighteen years  to twenty-four years with an average age of twenty years.  Two respondents reported that they had left their last job between one to two years ago. Average age of this group was twenty-three and onehalf years.  There were seven respondents who reported that they had had periods of unemployment ranging in duration from one month to six months for an average length of 2.4 months.  Frequency of unemployment averaged two periods per person.  Of those  77 reporting periods of unemployment, three lived with their parents, two lived with friends, and one lived in quarters supplied by his employer. Of those replying to the question about sources of support, fiftynine percent stated that their parents supported them when they were unemployed. support.  Three percent relied upon the Unemployment Insurance for their  Six percent relied upon friends for help with food, clothing, and  shelter during these periods.  Six percent said that they had been able to  receive assistance from one of the vocational training plans, and six percent relied upon their savings during this period.  Only six percent received the  disabled pension.  Two of the respondents, who stated that they had never worked, stated that they depended upon their parents for food, clothing and shelter. The other two indicated that they were housewives. It is interesting to note that only one of the respondents indicated that they relied upon social assistance for support during periods of unemployment.  We can only conjecture whether this indicates strong  independent feelings on the part of the deaf and their families or not.  We  do know that the deaf are hindered in using the services of our social agencies because of the communication problem. Opinions of the Deaf About the Kinds of Help They Meed A series of questions were asked about the opinions of the deaf as to what kind of help they needed vocationally and in particular, where they thought vocational training should be given.  They were also asked, "Please  tell us anything you wish about what kind of help you think hearing handicapped people should have" and a blank sheet was provided for the answer.  78 Their suggestions were concentrated in the three areas, academic education, vocational training, and job placement.  The need for improve-  ment of the deaf person's basic education both at school age and at the adult level was stressed. school was seen as a need.  More vocational training in a special vocational Particular mention was made of the pressing need  for job guidance by way of special counsellors for the deaf.  Financial help  from the Provincial Government for vocational rehabilitation was also seen as a need to help the deaf find jobs.  Much stress was placed on better academic preparation followed by more access to vocational training.  Many references were made to the need  of better placement facilities to help the deaf choose the right job suited to his capabilities.  More publicity to help the deaf was seen as another  requirement . Better lip reading ability and speech was advocated by one person.  This was presumably to be gained through extra classes on a night  school level.  Opinions on where Vocational Training Should be Given In giving their opinions, forty-eight percent of the respondents professed a preference for the regular vocational schools.  The reasons  for this preference were as follows: Deaf and hearing should be together for better understanding. Learn more being with hearing people. Deaf must live in a hearing world so should learn to live in one. Better chance for more pay. I liked mixing with other people. Wider training for deaf. Forty-three percent professed a preference for a vocational school for the hearing handicapped only. Learn faster with deaf. Easier to learn.  These are the stated reasons:  79 Could have sign language Instructors. Easier to understand. Better communication with teacher. All will get the same attention. The remaining nine percent expressed a preference for the other category.  Vocational training at Jericho Hill School and at two to four  year colleges were cited as examples.  It was felt that this would give more  centralized education.  During the interviews that were held, most of the interviewees expressed the opinion that they would prefer vocational training to he given at Jericho Hill School in preference to a regular vocational school.  Some  stated that communication was the main problem at the regular vocational school although they also missed being able to communicate with the other deaf students.  Those who held contrary opinions stated that the deaf should  not be kept to themselves but should mix with hearing people as much as possible.  Eighty-five percent felt that seme job training should be given at Jericho Hill School.  Some of the suggested courses:  Office Courses  Bookkeeping  Typing  Key Punch Operating  Filing  Hair dressing  Barbering  Shoe Repair  Auto Body Repair  Home Economics  Cookery  Floral Designing  Printing  Dress Designing  There was one suggestion that higher education be provided. A sample of some of the more extended replies is included here, in the words of the deaf respondents themselves. Three were chosen.  8o  t<  I think that job training at Jericho Hill School is very important and no pupil should have to leave the School without a trade of his choice for I have found that in a large per centage of cases when a pupil leaves the School without a trade and is out of school for a year or so that they never do get a trade. If job training cannot be provided at the School - every effort should be made to put the pupil through advanced schooling or be put through vocational school so they will have a trade....» ••fa  The last year in school I don't think I learned very much. I would like to see more time spent on Language, reading, written language. This is where I have so much trouble. Students going on to Vocational training need good understanding of language. I would like extra training now but there is no place to go. M Most of the students who leave Jericho Hill School are not prepared to take their place in society. They are not properly equiped to do any but the lowest work. They are set out into the world before they have attained their abilities. Usually when they leave they leave feeling inferior to their hearing counterparts and only if they are lucky do they manage to remove this inferiority complex. More usually this inferior complex becomes stronger as they come into contact with hearing people who have lower abilities, but have been better trained and, therefore, seem superior. Adequate job training while they are at Jericho Hill School will somewhat offset the disadvantages they through no fault of their own have to face when they step out into the world. Providing adequate job training will of course be expensive but so what! Hang the cost - it is about time that these innocent victims of heredity, bungling doctors, sickness, etc. had a chance to make something of themselves. Jericho Hill School is the only sensible place where the vast majority of the deaf can receive any semblance of sufficient training. Among the vast majority I do not include those few who happen to be lucky enough to be smart and have parents who knew how properly to raise a deaf child - these deaf persons may conceivably be successful in hearing classes in which special allowances are made for their handicap. The deaf will not benefit fully from even the most skillful instruction unless this is given in the simultaneous method (signs, spelling & speech used by the teacher all at the same time). I have been exposed to all kinds of teaching situations - speech alone, signs & spelling alone, simultaneous, and what have you - so I can say the above from personal experience. The more  81 than 100 years experience of Gallaudet College with the deaf "backs my opinion for if more than 1$ of the instructors and professors here do not support the simultaneous method, I'll eat my hat! It is very unlikely that vocational schools or other such institutes will provide instruction in the simultaneous method. The only reasonable place for such instruction is therefore at Jericho Hill School. A, not so good, alternative would be to provide interpreters for those taking classes along with hearing students. For those who are capable of it Academic training should of course come first! Everyone who is capablev of it should be encouraged to go to Gallaudet College.*1 Aspirations of Respondents Of the twenty-one persons answering the question concerning the type of job they held a preference for when they left Jericho Hill, it was found that none are now employed in that type of employment.  Three are  pursuing studies toward the training they would have liked to have had. One is presently employed at the work, having acquired the training. Only four persons are working at the work they want to do, while three are pursuing studies toward attaining that goal. Some of the respondents mentioned jobs that they would have liked to do although their handicap will not permit it.  This indicates that  these people as children had the same aspirations as do hearing children. It was interesting to note that some have at least been able to find work in association with the profession they aspired to but from which they were barred for one reason or another.  On the other hand, it has been regretful  that some have not been able to reach goals that they were capable of for  ilt is worth noting that the above reply came from a respondent whose prefered methods of communication are signing and writing and who rates himself low in lip . r e a d i n g l a b i l i t y o V U V -  82 reasons other than their handicap. a lack of job guidance.  Undoubtedly for some it has simply been  Scane indicated their preference had changed since  leaving Jericho Hill School, that they had tried out a job they had not particularly liked or taken training in and now had come to like it. However, there were a number of respondents whose I.Q. rating and aspirations should have enabled them to train for the job they wanted instead of the job they had.  Needless to say most of their aspirations  —  which were valid in view of their intelligence and disability, (for example, librarian and pharmacist), would have upgraded their vocational status considerably.  Attempts to seek further correlation between the various items provided by the data were made.  These however did not yield any significant  results, probably due to the nature of the sample.  The two American Surveys  cited found correlations between the preference for a particular method of communication and a number of factors.  In the New York Survey1 speech was  more often preferred among those whose families were hearing rather than those families with a deaf member.  The small number of families with a  deaf parent in the sample group of this study precluded any valid correlation here.  The New York Survey also found a relationship between preferred means of communication, and scholastic attainment.  It was the "oralists,"  defined in that study as those with equal facility in speech and signs, who formed the largest proportion of those going on for further education beyond graduation from a school for the deaf.  The oralists formed  the sample population but 73$ of those taking further education.  ^Family and Mental Health Problems, op.cit. p. 119.  of  83 That survey also noted that despite the emphasis on orslism in schools for the deaf, excluding those who seek further education,1 the proportion of speakers and signers graduating from the schools was about the same, 5bj> and 51$.  In the sample group in this study there were no^correlations between the type of communication preferred and the type of job attained, job stability, income, or attitude to the job or fellow workers. There appeared to be no significant correlation between the occupational group the respondents belonged to and the method of communication used at work.  Nor was there any correlation between income, job stability,  job satisfaction, and methods of communication used at work. contrast to some of the findings in the two American studies.  This is in The reasons  here,may be not only the size of the sample but the fact that the sample group in this study contained no respondents in the professional, technical, &  managerial, executive classes and comparatively few formen and craftsmen.  A  The National Association of the Deaf Survey in the United States noted that speech was used predominantly by professional and similar people more than any other method.  Lip reading was also given strong preference  by this group, being next in favour.  Writing was used by a smaller percentage  of teachers, but manual methods were most often represented by the Faculty of Schools for the Deaf more than any other profession.  Clerical and sales  workers used writing predominantly along with craftsmen and operatives, while unskilled workers generally used writing with some signing, more than other groups.2  Ibid., p. 120.  PNational  Association of the Deaf Survey, p. 33.  3k There is obviously need for much further research in this area, as to what factors or combin ation of factors are operative here, apart from the nature of the job.  In the present study, lip reading ability appeared to bear no relationship to the type of job obtained, job stability, or income, feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the job or attitudes to fellow workers.  Again the findings here might have been different if the sample  had included respondents from the professional and technical occupational groups.  In the present study, some of the strongest advocates of the view that deaf people should go to regular vocational schools were those who rated their lip reading ability as poor or non-existent and who gave speech low priority on the list of preferences.  It should be noted that perhaps  their preference is predicated upon their being sufficient interpreters in these schools. Amount of Hearing Loss There was no correlation in the study between the amount of hearing loss suffered by a respondent and the type of job obtained, job stability, or income.  There was some slight correlation between partial deafness and a  preference for speech as a means of communication but this was not true in all instances. Age of Onset of Deafness In the present study the age of onset of deafness did not appear to have any correlation with the type of job obtained, income or job stability or feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the job.  Perhaps the  most important factors here is that most respondents in the sample were from  85 those who were deaf from birth or went deaf in the first three years of life.  If the sample had included more respondents who became deaf after  the age of four, a similar finding might have been made to that of the New York Survey, where it was found that those going deaf after the age of four had a greater chance of graduating from the school for the deaf or from grade school.  Of this group, girls more often than boys graduated from  grade school and went on for further education.  While it may be due to the smallness of the sample, the extreme variability of responses to the different questions would indicate a much greater complexity of factors involved than are at first apparent.  This  should be subjected to further investigation.  The findings of this study would generally indicate then, that the employed deaf in the sample group who have received no further education or training are working in low paid, low status jobs, regardless of the level of their intelligence and desires for further training.  This is  one-half of the total sample group. Of those who obtained vocational training including on-the-job training (see Table 11), it would be true to say that this did improve their economic status.  However, there is a tendency for this group to be  frozen in bottom level positions with few prospects of advancement.  Of  the small group proceeding to advanced education at Gallaudet College, it is as yet too soon to say what their vocational prospects will be.  THE DEAF RELATE THEIR EXPERIENCES:  INSIGHTS OBTAINED FROM INTERVIEWS  The interviews included two respondents who were employed, one who was unemployed, two who were furthering their education, and one who was a housewife and mother. ah out ten years ago.  Some were recent graduates, some had graduated  Some had superior intelligence, sane had average  intelligence according to the I.Q. rating used. some partially.  Some were totally deaf and  Both males and females were represented.  In these respects,  considering the smallness of the sample, they can be said to represent a cross section of the respondents. In the opinion of the interviewers, only one could be termed truly "oral," in the sense that her speech was intelligible to the interviewers as people not familiar with their speech.  None of the parents  interviewed used sign language, so an interpreter was used, if the deaf person so wished. Interviewees Views on Education of the Deaf There was general agreement that one of the greatest obstacles, other than communication, that the deaf face, is the handicap of a lower level of education.  Fran the interviews, there was a clear indication that  although all had attended Jericho Hill for at least eleven years, there was a wide variation in the level of attainment.  One parent expressed the  opinion that the level attained would range from grade four to grade ten. It was thought by same that even those attaining a satisfactory level in  87 language, soon lost that level if they were employed at work that did not require them to use it, "but some parents tended to the view that the use of signing led to "sloppjr« language.  They all expressed the view that  much could be done to improve the education of the deaf.  One former student  said that she had not received the founding in Mathematics that she would have liked.  She said that this was apparently because Jericho had had  difficulty in securing teachers for this subject. One mother expressed the opinion that she felt that some students were able to advance more rapidly but were held back in an attempt to keep their progress in all subjects as equal as possible.  This is, of course,  a common complaint of many parents of hearing children.  They are inclined  to want more time spent on subjects such as Mathematics, History, and English.  It is a fact, however, that the deaf child's progress will be  faster in the subjects that require less abstract thinking.  Here again, it  is the problem of communication inadequacy.  Views on Vocational Heeds There was an expression by all Interviewees of the need for help in making vocational choices, and the belief that the deaf were not getting the help to which they are entitled in this area.  The view was often  expressed that deaf students who were bright often suffered most in this respect.  One example of the problem faced by the deaf was indicated by one  interviewee who stated that a friend of hers, who had been a fellow student, had been forced to take a job as a domestic despite the fact that she had been an above average student.  It was stated that she had deaf parents who  had been unable to intercede for her as hearing parents might.  There was some expression of the view that a young deaf person, about to leave Jericho Hill School often feels caught in a dilemma. He often knows what kind of job training he wants, but when a job opening comes along, which he can take, (whether involving on the job training or simply unskilled labour) he often feels obligated to take it.  His perception.; is  that parents and teachers seem to be expressing the view that maybe he had better take it because nothing better will be available later on.  Sometimes,  part of his decision to accept the job is that he feels he will be letting down the deaf community if he does not, as he may thereby lose an opening for a deaf person.  Even if the deaf person gets to a vocational school, he  needs help in choosing courses.  There was some mention that some of the  students were taking courses for which they had little interest. Most interviewees stated that, ideally, for them, courses in vocational training should be given at Jericho Hill School.  The reasons  given were that the instructors would be able to teach in sign language and they would have the company of other deaf students.  Two boys mentioned the  difficulty they had receiving instruction at the British Columbia Vocational Institute because there are not sufficient interpreters>and the instructor could not communicate in sign language.  All indicated a preference for  instruction by teachers who could sign.  It was generally agreed that more  could be done to help the students in job placement.  The School, through  its teachers and Dr. MacDonald, does all it can, but in most cases it is the parents who have secured the placement.  Another area which the deaf interviewees found especially frustrating was that they could not go to seek employment for themselves without an interpreter.  When the deaf go to an employment office they must  89 take an interpreter with them, otherwise they cannot communicate with the employment officer. welfare office.  The same applies when they go to even a large social  It was related how one deaf girl was thought retarded until  she took an interpreter with her, who explained to the worker that she was deaf.  There were some recountings of the experience of "being caught" in company regulations which in effect "froze" the deaf person on the lowest rung of the occupational ladder.  One situation which came to the attention of the interviewers was that of a deaf person employed for a number of years in a large institution. This man was acknowledged to be exceptionally good at his work, and was able to plan and execute highly complex procedures.  However, he had to remain in  the lowest employment classification, because of his inability to take instructions by telephone.  Throughout the years, he has seen many young  people come to his department, where he has participated in their training. They have rarely, if ever, reached the level of skill which he himself has obtained, yet they have invariably been promoted over him, despite his seniority and ability.  Department regulations require that he take instruc-  tions by telephone, despite the fact that he always has hearing helpers, who could take them for him and write them down.  There were expressions of regret at being cut off from many of the mass media of communication so popular today.  We are only too aware of the  impact that modern media of communication such as the radio, television, and the telephone have on people as individuals.  It is easy for hearing  people to forget how often these are the sources of many everyday conversations. Yet, for the deaf person whose communication is only by sign language,  90 these Influences are shut off from them and they find they cannot participate in many conversations that go on around them at work.  Comparatively, the  deaf adolescent and adult may suffer from an isolation far worse than tfhat prdanitive people living in remote parts of the world may experience, because at least they are able to keep pace with those around them.  When they come  in contact with more developed cultures, everyone in a primitive culture is in a similar position.  The deaf adolescent suffers socially because he  cannot keep pace with his peers in the hearing world.  It is a great tempta-  tion to him to retreat to the world of his deaf peers, no matter how kind his fellow workers and his employers may be.  There were evidences some of  the deaf in the survey had taken this solution. Sometimes the frustrations encountered when they do try to mix with the hearing worldtoutside working hours{are a repetition of the ones they have been enduring at work.  An instance was mentioned where a group of men had a ball team organized for the deaf and then found that they could not be affiliated with Little League for safety reasons.  This was despite the fact that their  team had shown that they could play without injuries.  Some of the comments of the interviewees about the role of the various organizations for the deaf in the city are worth recording, as they throw light on the perceptions of some deaf people about the roles these organizations fulfill in relation to the employment field.  There was recognition that organizations for other handicapped groups fulfill a large broad range of functions, including sometimes vocational planning and guidance.  Although this was not fully explored in the  91 interviews, the interviewers got the impression that there was recognition of the necessity and,at the same time.perhaps some resentment of the role played by the hearing in these groups.  They pointed out that even "success-  ful deaf" should they aspire to leadership, and be willing to help their fellow deaf, which is not the case always, are in the same position as the ordinary deaf person when it comes to interpreting the needs of the deaf in employment, —  he often is not "oral," and he too, needs an interpreter.  The view was expressed that the Vancouver Adult De^attracted mainly the older people, and the Pacific Deaf Fellowship appealed mostly to the "younger college students."  They honestly could not see how the deaf  could do more than they are doing at present, either through these organizations, or others, or individually, to obtain jobs for other deaf people.  The  comments of the group underlined the fact that the deaf, unlike many of the other disabilities, were unable to speak for themselves.  There was also an  awareness that the deaf need stronger voices to speak for them, since they cannot do so for themselves.  It was noted that the blind are very vocal  and in the main are the back-bone of their organizations. are readily identifiable by their cane and dark glasses.  But, the blind With the deaf,  "you can pass them on the street and not know."  Views of the Parents All parents admitted that lack of communication had been a barrier to normal parent-child relationships.  Two parents were convinced that  insistence on oral ability held the only hope of the child attaining a more normal life in a hearing community and a better chance of employment.  Two  other parents were critical of the Jericho Hill School because, in their view, the School had discouraged them from using sign language with the child.  One mother said she began to feel the full impact of not being able  to communicate with her deaf child by signing when her daughter, as an adolescent, brought other deaf friends to the home, and the mother realized she could not communicate with them at all. Frcm the interviews, there was the impression that parents set great store by the oral ability of their child.  Most claimed that their  son or daughter could lip read from an early age.  This was contradicted by  the interview as well as by the statement of the deaf person himself.  With  the parents who have persevered with the oral method, it can only be wondered whether the price paid in lack of communication between parent and child is really worth the meagre degree of orality the child has managed to attain. The interviewers got the impression that seme of the parents are reappraising the earlier recommendations to them not to teach or use signing with their child in the light of their later experience. The Rrice of Orality:  Viewpoints of Parents  If it is true to say that there is disagreement among the educators as to the advantages of oral communication over manual communication for the deaf, it is certainly true to say that among parents of the deaf and the deaf themselves, who were interviewed in the survey, there exists a wide variation of views about the effects of the oral versus manual controversy on the deaf person as an adult.  It would seem natural that among the  adherents of the oral method should be numbered those deaf who have been able to achieve a fair degree of orality. area of doubt exists.  But the interviews showed a considerable  A number were critical of what they considered Jericho  Hill School's emphasis on the oral method.  Some have realized, too late as  they see it, the effects on their relationships with their deaf child of the fact that they cannot use sign language with him.  Some indicated that this  has really become apparent to them when their deaf child's friends come  the home to visit.  They have been unable to communicate with them.  It was  obvious that these parents now realize that they have been robbed of much of the closeness of the normal parent-child relationship. Too, they have seen that despite all the assurance they have received that their child would become oral, and consequently less different than other children, that this has not occurred.  It is true for many of  these children that, because of their parents commitment to the oral method, they may have had more contacts with the hearing community.  Still, they are  now aware that, for their child, speech, in the normal sense of the word, is not practicable.  It cannot be wondered at that parents question the price  that has been paid in terms of their relationship with their child.  Where  the child has had to be absent from the home while attending school, the loss must seem much greater, especially as the results in terms of their adolescents level of orality are so disappointingly low.  Mr. Clyde Mott in his address to the Annual Meeting of the Western Institute for the Deaf, March, 1966, put the other side of the picture.  He  said "People do not expect a blind man to see, but they do expect a deaf person to talk.  We are often too busy teaching deaf children to speak, but  not teaching them anything to speak about . . . .  Are we teaching deaf  children to speak at the expense of reading and writing?" Certainly the interviews indicated that for most of the interviewees, extremely few have achieved success in becoming oral.  For some it  is truly a myth entertained by their parents who would seem to feel that oralism denies deafness.  Although some parents offered reasons why they  did not learn sign language or finger spelling, it appears that to some, this would be admitting to a lesser status for their child.  Some parents  9b set such store by their children being oral that their child did not use sign in the home.  When the child was with friends away from the home he  would use sign language continuously until he again approached his home. To use "sign" was made to seem as if it indicated •failure. Interviewers Perceptions of Parents While no attempt was made to obtain, in any depth, the views of the parents about the all important matter of the vocational training of their children, it was obvious that this concerned them deeply, and that they only too willingly admitted the need for assistance to them and the children in this field.  Sane parents were able to admit that they did not  always handle their deaf child in a manner most conducive to helping him find his place in the world of work. The interviewers encountered some instances when it appeared that the parents treated their deaf child rather in the way one treats an invalid. It was as if they had acquired a habit that persisted even though the child had grown up.  One parent was able to recognize this when speaking of the  daughter going away to college and how the daughter resented the "overprotectiveness" of the parent.  In other instances, it was obvious that the  daughter had more or less given up the struggle.  In two of the interviews,  it was difficult to prevent the parents dominating the interview, despite the fact that an interpreter was present. It Is the conclusion of the researchers that Interviews with the deaf are highly productive even through an interpreter.  If the interviewer  could use sign language, evidence would indicate much more productive interviews than the ones obtained here.  95 Some case histories are cited "because they give, as nothing else can, a longitudinal perspective on the problems of being deaf.  All the  names used are completely fictional and locale and basic identifying information have been disguised.  Jean Lvnward was interviewed at her home, with her mother, who acted as interpreter. Miss Iynward is now 22. Her family moved to the Lower Mainland when she was ten years of age. She is the only member of her family who is deaf. Miss Iynward was a residential student at Jericho Hill until she was ten years of age. With her family then living in Vancouver she resided at home and attended Jericho each day. She was a good student and attained a good level of grades in all her subjects. Just before leaving Jericho she had become interested in going to Gallaudet College and would have gone except that the job she now holds became available and it was decided that she would take it. Miss Iynward lip reads well and, although she is profoundly deaf, can carry on a satisfactory conversation once she has become used to a person's lip movements. She can hear sounds with her hearing aid but it serves no practical purpose. Miss Iynward's parents do not use sign language, feeling that to do so would limitothe daughter's oral ability. She lip reads at work, since there are no other deaf persons employed there. Other than the typing and clerical training she received at Jericho Hill School, Miss Iynward learned to do her present work on the job. She is employed at an industrial firm. Much of her work is of a filing nature. She was previously employed as a kardex clerk for two years. She enjoys her present work and has received a substantial salary increase since beginning the job. Much of Miss Iynward's social activities are on week ends. Otherwise, they revolve around her family and their associates. Since she lip reads, and can converse, her friends are both hearing and deaf. At the same time because she must concentrate so much during the day, she is tired at night when she gets home from work. Unlike a hearing person, she is unable to relax and listen to the radio. Even watching TV she must lip read to get the story. Miss Iynward stated that she is generally too tired after work to want to attend night classes. This would be especially true if the instructor was a hearing person unable to communicate by sign.  96 Miss Iynward is engaged and her fiance is also deaf. They will live outside Vancouver. Her fiance is fully employed. Mrs. Joan Dove was interviewed in her home with her husband. She is a young deaf mother with two small children. Mrs. Dove was born outside the Province and moved to B.C. with her parents just prior to enrolling at Jericho Hill School at five years. The next year the family moved to the east where she attended the School for the Deaf. She returned to Jericho Hill the next year when her parents moved back to B.C. She was a resident student except for the last few years. She left school at 16. Later she married, and the couple make their home with relatives. Mrs. Dove is unable to lip read and communicates entirely by sign language and writing. Her husband learned to sign frcan her so they are able to communicate in this way. She is already beginning to teach her older child sign language. However, he Is still too young to have accomplished much as yet. With a hearing aid, she can hear sounds and can tell when the children are crying. However, it is always getting out of working order and it costs money for repairs and batteries. Mrs. Dove has had no employment experience. She expressed interest in night school classes and she seemed to be keenly interested in improving her level of education. These classes are available in her community but they have been unable to afford them. Mr. Dove was unemployed for a while, until he secured his present job. Mrs. Dove and her husband are involved mostly with hearing people in their social activities. Since Mrs. Dove does not lip read, it means that communication with most persons is by writing which is slow and not too satisfactory from a conversational standpoint. She stated even she and her husband do not communicate as much as she would like. In her opinion, deaf people should learn lip reading as much as possible. She mentioned the difficulties a deaf mother has tending an active toddler who gets into things when she cannot hear him. It means that she must watch him continuously. Discipline can be a problem as well. Mrs. Dove has had no training vocationally. She expressed an interest in typing and would like to learn baking and cooking. She has received no further education since leaving school. Miss Beth Davis, aged 20 was interviewed in her home in the presence of her mother and a relative, with the help of an ^interpreter.  3894  Beth was born on the prairies and came to B.C. with her mother when she was an infant. Her father died when she was small and her mother had a hard time financially for a number of years. later she remarried. The family now lives in a modest home in a low income neighbourhood. There are other children. Beth started to Jericho Hill School at five years of age. Her mother had taken her to a summer institute at Jericho when she was three, which lasted several weeks. When Beth started school, her mother was told not to visit the child for several weeks to let her get settled in. Beth was very upset and cried when left. She later settled down and came home every week end. In the early years she liked school, especially when she was assigned a deaf teacher. She appeared to dislike school the last years she was there and her mother stated that she felt that she missed the deaf teacher and just stopped learning. Mathematics and Home Economics were her favourite subjects. Beth does not lip read, despite the mother's statement that she could from an early age. When she converses in sign language, she appears to have difficulty interpreting and making herself understood. She makes unintelligible noises when she converses.  When Beth left the School at 18, one of her teachers helped her to secure a job as a housekeeper. This lasted only a week or so. Apparently the people wanted someone who could run the home and look after the children while they went on a long trip. They felt Beth would be unable to do this. Beth and another deaf girl completed an application form to take a course at vocational school but they say they never heard anymore from it. Her parents state they took her to the Rehabilitation Division where they were told to take her to the HES. Here, they told them they should take her to the School for the Deaf. At this the parents drdipped the matter. Accompanied by another deaf lady, who is more oral than Beth, they then took her to a number of industries with no success. The parents have attempted to get Beth a job in the sewing department of a hospital. The problem here was that, at first, she would have had to work whenever there was need of an extra hand^and this meant being called at all hours. She would have been unable to manage transportation. Aside from her brief period of employment as a housekeeper, Beth has had no employment experience, other than the baby sitting jobs she gets now and then. Beth does not belong to any organized social groups. Most of her friends are deaf, although she does visit many of the people in the area where she lives who are hearing people. She spends a lot of her time with a couple who are deaf. It is  98 this woman who has tried to help her to get a job. Beth has never attended night classes, there being none in the area. She would be interested in such classes, if they were taught by a teacher who could use sign language. John Barnes, aged 19, lives at home with his parents who were present at the interview, along with an interpreter. His family came to Vancouver from the interior of British Columbia. He is the only person in his family who has a hearing problem. He became deaf when ten months old as a result of illness. Neither parent can use sign language. John entered Jericho Hill School at six years of age. According to his parents, they brought him to Vancouver when he was five, but the School advised them to wait until he was six. He was a residential student and was only home during the holidays. His parents commented that he had never had a birthday at home all the years he was at the School. John can hear voices with a hearing aid which he uses. He can speak and lip read, but not enough to really carry on a conversation completely. When he communicates with his father, they use a system of signs along with verbal communications. John left Jericho Hill School at eighteen and is presently taking a vocational course. He is in his first year. Diiring the summer he will be employed at the work for which he is training and will resume his training next September. He has always been interested in this training since he was 11 or 12. For a summer or so, John worked in a sawmill. He enjoyed the work and got along well although he had had to be extremely careful because of the hazards. In fact, when he was enrolled for his vocational course, concern was expressed that he might get hurt during his training. When they learned that he had worked at a sawmill, they were convinced that he could manage. John is encouraged by his parents to associate as much as possible with hearing people. Many of his friends are deaf but he does meet a lot of people at Vocational School. In fact, he is teaching some of the students to sign. John would be interested in night classes if they were available, as long as they were taught by teachers who could use sign language. He stated that lip reading requires too much concentration for someone who has worked or attended classes all day. Ctae of the problems in Vocational training centres is the lack of interpreters, since the instructors are hearing persons. He believes that vocational training could best be taught at Jericho Hill School.  99 David Beed, aged 18 years, was interviewed in the heme where he boards with the help of an interpreter.  David's home is outside the city. He has a brother who is profoundly deaf and a sister who is hard of hearing. His father and mother both work. David attended Jericho Hill School until he was 17. Profoundly deaf, he does not lip read to any practical degree but is dependent cn signing. He does not have a hearing aid. On leaving school at 17, David enrolled in a vocational training course. He remained on the course about five months. Normally it is a six month course. He left because he could not understand what the instructor was saying. He says he was told that if he secured a job at the trade he could learn the rest just as quickly on the job. With the help of the friend with whom he boards, he was hired, by a contractor in the interior of British Columbia. He says that on this job he was given only the dirty work and felt that he would never be given a chance to learn the finer skills of his trade. He left this job and came to Vancouver, when his friend again interceded and secured him a job with another contractor. This man has taken an interest in David and is showing him all facets of the trade. He has also increased his pay even in the few weeks he has been there. David did not indicate any interest in night classes, saying that he was through with school. Through his contacts with the friend with whom he boards, David has a lot of hearing friends. However, because he does not lip read he is most comfortable when he is with deaf friends or hearing friends who can sign. Group Interviews These interviews, conducted with the help of an interpreter, were somewhat different from those held with individual deaf people. In analyzing some of the factors which probably contributed to the different response, It would seem that the following were the most important: The interviewees were all more mature persons being in their late or at least middle twenties. All had had fairly lengthy employment experiences. All appeared to have a good level of intelligence, (subsequently verified by I.Q. tests).  100 Two of the girls had attended other schools for the deaf as well as Jericho and thus offered seme comparison from their own experiences. One girl was not profoundly deaf and had comparatively good speaking ability. One girl came from-a different cultural background. All girls could lip read, admittedly, some at a higher level of competence than others. All interviewees were active socially and seemed well adjusted to their disability. Consequently their replies were given without hesitation and they appeared anxious to speak of their disability and the problems encountered with it. One feature of this type of interview was the opportunity presented for observing the expression of differing views of individual deaf people regarding "oral versus manual method" controversy. One girl felt that more emphasis should be placed on the use of finger spelling and sign particularly for educational purposes. Two others were just as strong in favouring the oral method and said that the only hope for the deaf was for them to learn lip reading and to speak as much as possible. One said the parent should learn sign and thus be able to communicate as much as possible with her child. Two other interviewees disagreed, saying the parent should emphasize oral communication. One girl cited her own experience where her own parents did not sign and in fact she did not learn to do so until she came to Canada. Another felt that children should not live in residence at school but should live at home if possible, and if not, then they should live in boarding or foster homes. All interviewees felt that there was not enough publicity given to the problems of the deaf, that more jobs could be found if there was someone available to them who understood their problems and could intercede with  101 employers. They did not see that there was anything the deaf themselves could do to help other deaf to get jobs. The reason for this was given a£ the problem of communication. A summary of their individual histories is also given, because .although on first reading, they may seem to have been more "successful" or "fortunate" in their work experience than some of the others interviewed, nevertheless, in two out of the three cases, there was a strong expression of a wish for further education, and different kind of job from the one now held. Miss Mabel Harris was interviewed at her home with the assistance of an interpreter. She is 29 and there are no other members of the family who have a hearing problem. Her family reside outside the city. Miss Harris spent three years in a Deaf School outside the province and completed the remainder of her schooling at Jericho except for two years that she attended regular school outside Vancouver. She returned to Jericho when she found grade ten in the regular school too difficult. She said that the teacher would walk up and down the aisles, lecturing and she was unable to see her lips. Miss Harris was not born profoundly deaf. She wears hearing aid glasses arid can speak quite well. She manages by a combination of lip reading and by the sound she can hear with her hearing aid. Miss Harris, after leaving Jericho Hill, took typing and comptometer courses. She also received training in key punch operating at her job, for one year. She is not planning more training. She thinks that deaf people would refer to get vocational training at Jericho but realizes that because of the small number, this may not be practical. She said that there should be interpreters at regular Vocational School. After working for nine years, Miss Harris took a long vacation. Upon her return she was re-engaged at her former position. She has had promotions and increases in pay since beginning her job. She was helped by Dr. MacDonald to secure her job. She enjoys her work and likes the people with whom she works.  102 Miss Harris enjoys social activities with both the hearing and the deaf. She expressed interest in hight classes. She said that she wished they had been sending students to Gallaudet when she was finishing Jericho. Miss Jean Young now 27 years of age, was born outside Canada and lived abroad until she was fourteen years of age. She is the only one of the many members of her family to have a hearing handicap. She was born profoundly deaf and does not use a hearing aid at all. Miss Young began school at 6 years and spent 8 years in a deaf residential school where she learned to lip read in her native tongue. At fourteen, when she and her family came to Canada, she was in grade ten. During the five following years she was taught English, so that she now reads lips in two languages. When Miss Young arrived In Canada, she was enrolled at Jericho Hill School but was placed in grade nine. She considered that the school she attended abroad was far superior to Jericho. Miss Young reads lips very well. The interpreter mentioned the fact that she was reading her lips rather than watching her hands. According to Miss Young, the deaf in her native country are taught lip reading at a very early age. Her speech is not fluent but is perhaps due to accent. Miss Young stated that she did not learn to sign until she came to Canada. She did not take further training after leaving Jericho Hill but learned her present occupation of clerical machine operator on the job. She has expressed an interest in training in laboratory work. She also stated that, if she were leaving Jericho Hill now, she would go to Gallaudet and become a pharmacist as she has always been interested in this work. Since leaving school she has always worked for the same firm and she went directly to her job from the school. She has had a promotion and raises in pay and finds the work pleasant. Miss Young has friends both in the hearing community and the deaf. She states she has friends among her fellow workers as well as among people she meets through them. Miss Young expressed an interest in night classes and impressed the interviewer as a person who is keen to leara. Miss Mildred Carter, now aged 26 years, left Jericho Hill School at; 17 years of a g e S h e was interviewed at her home with the help of'an interpreter. Her family live outside Vancouver. There are no other members of the family who have a hearing problem. Miss Carter is profoundly deaf and has been since birth. She receives no benefit from a hearing aid and does not use one. She hears only noises.  103 She started to school at Jericho at six years of age, and attended there until seventeen as a residential student. She communicates mainly by signs and finger spelling although she lip reads well enough to landerstand a conversation, if the person does not speak too quickly. Miss Carter has never taken vocational training or further education of any kind since she left Jericho. She learned her occupation on the job. She expressed the opinion that vocational training ideally should be taugit at Jericho but also realizes that because of the limited number of students it might be impractical. Miss Carter has been employed for nine years. Her job is full time and she enjoys her work and finds her fellow employees friendly. She is a clerical worker. She says that at one time there were more deaf people employed with the company she works for than there are now. She feels that this may be partly due to the foreman. In her opinion, there are other jobs in the company that the deaf could do. Since beginning her work, she has had promotions and a raise in pay. Further promotions would require more communication ability and a higher level of education. Before leaving Jericho, Miss Carter worked on Saturdays and on holidays as a parcel wrapper in a department store. All her jobs were secured with the help of Dr. MacDonald and the School. Miss Carter meets new friends through her work where her fellow workers are friendly, and these lead to more friends. She likes sports and likes to go skating with her friends who are both hearing and deaf. She expressed little interest in night classes or in further education.  CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS Some general as well as some specific conclusions are summarized in this chapter, because they are part of the whole complex of helping the deaf to find their place in society, vocationally.  Although same areas men-  tioned would perhaps not seem specifically related to the vocational aspects of the needs of the deaf, they are emphasized because all too frequently, the difficulties of the deaf have been compounded by having some specific aspects of their problems dealt with in isolation form the matrix of which they are a part.  It is stressed that "the deaf" referred to in the chapter  headings of this chapter, relates to the deaf included in the sample group surveyed only, and not, of course, to all the deaf.  I.  Low Average Level of Academic Achievement of Sample Group The level of attainment in academic study of most deaf students  leaving Jericho Hill School is lower than that of hearing students leaving regular high schools. this is so.  It would appear that there are several reasons why  The deaf child enters school with a "deficit in learning,"! the  lack of the usual means of verbal communication between him and his parents, as well as with the rest of his environment.  While pre-school classes (which  many of the children in the sample group did not enjoy) would do something to close this gap, it is not contended that the institution of such classes and nursery schools for all deaf children in the province, could close it  iThis phrase was used by Mr. Clyde Mott in his address to the Western Institute for the Deaf, March, 1966.  105 entirely. When a deaf child enters Jericho Hill School he is often removed from his parents if he is living in residence. Without the security of his home and the loving influence of his parents, it takes some time before he adjusts to the new situation, and this can affect his ability to learn. Although the classes at Jericho Hill School are not as large as classes in the regular schools, the teacher-pupil ratio is still higher than that in a number of private schools for the deaf.1 It is recognized that one of the factors here is a shortage of fully trained teachers of the deaf. The child's own intelligence level and many other factors are also involved. But when it is considered that most deaf in the survey were between ages l6 to 20 on leaving school and that most of them (apart from the group going to Gallaudet) had no better than grade nine or ten, it can be realized what a barrier this is to them in the increasingly complex vocational world they enter on leaving school. 2. Evidence of Low Written Language Level Among the Deaf Education: From the interviews and from the questionnaires returned, it has been obvious that for years spent in school, the people in the sample have a much lower level of education than their hearing counterparts. This has been evidenced in their inability to interpret questions which had. been purposely designed for their supposed level of language attainment. In many cases their answers indicate a lack of even a basic education. Although we had been told to anticipate a level of education in most cases of abound grade eight, it has become obvious that in many areas even this level is too high.  ^At the Tucker-Maxon Oral School, in Portland, Oregon, for instance, there are 6 teachers and only 35 children in the school. Miss Hattie Harrell, Director of the School, in a speech to the Society for Children with a Hearing Handicap, Vancouver, December 6th, 1965.  106 The low level of written language composition in the answers to the questionnaire give some indication of the difficulties a deaf adolescent could encounter in competing with hisl;hearing peers in vocational school where the written papers are accorded any substantial weighting in the overall programme of the school. . 3. Low Level of Orality It seemed evident from the interview sample, which it is stressed was only a small proportion of the total sample, that, if this group is at all representative, the level of orality achieved by the deaf adolescents on leaving school is often far from satisfactory for the purposes of everyday living. It is not sufficient, even in some of those who had partial hearing^to enable their speech to be understood by someone not already familiar with them. This is a very important factor when they present themselves to an employer and when they try to converse with their fellow workers. It would appear that much greater attention needs to be paid to assessment early in the education of the deaf child as to his chance of becoming oral according to criteria of daily functioning among strangers not familiar with his speech. This needs to be assessed long before his school leaving time, and an educational plan devised for him that will take cognizance of this fact. The Effects of an Emphasis on Orality on the Deaf Person The apparent unwillingness on the part of many of the parents to admit that their child could not lip read or speak well enough to be understood by others when it was obvious that this was true, was noted in several instances. This might indicate the need of parents to deny any abnormality in their child. It might also mean that the parents were determined not to  107 give up in the battle for orality and this could be regarded as a laudable aim. However, the effects of this emphasis on orality by parents and teachers in the field of education of the deaf have not been well appraised in studies of the deaf. The findings so far, of this study, suggest that the -emphasis on orality may tend to instill in the child the idea that to be oral makes for a higher degree of acceptance not only by one's parents but by the community generally, and that one's value depends on this. When a deaf person marries, marriage to a hearing or speaking person tends to have a higher degree of preference. Coupled with this thinking, there is evidence that people of the deaf community tend to divide themselves not into the profoundly deaf and the hard of hearing groups, but rather into the categories of the deaf who can truly "speak" to the satisfaction of the hearing community, and those who cannot. It would appear that this is the reason that to have been profoundly deaf from childhood puts one in a different category than the person who has became profoundly deaf later in life, and there seemed to be a suggestion that the latter was not really "deaf" at all in the true meaning of the term. There was a further suggestion of at least one situation where a person who has some hearing denies it in order to be included or accepted by the profoundly deaf group. The conclusion would seem to be that much greater attention needs to be paid to the effects of this emphasis on orality on the personality of deaf people, particularly their self-image and their feelings of self-worth.  108 5. Difficulties, of the Deaf in Presenting Themselves to Employers Without Heljb The deaf, alone, are unable to secure employment. The same obstacle that prevents them from obtaining an adequate education functions to prevent them from obtaining work. This obstacle is the limitation; of their ability to communicate orally vith the hearing. One of the deciding factors an employer considers when he interviews a prospective employee is how the applicant presents himself and whether he can convince the employer that he should hire him. The deaf person must have someone speak for him. Even when he goes to the employment office he has to have an interpreter to talk to the placement officer. He knows that no matter how skilled he may be in his work, much depends upon the attitude of the employer towards hiring the handicapped and in particular, the hearing handicapped. Yet it is known that the important thing so often is for the employer to give the handicapped person a chance. 6. Limitations on the Right of the Deaf to have an Interpreter at Interviews with Prospective Employers There are no formal ways set out so that a deaf person may have an interpreter with him in the interview with the prospective employer. The Western Institute for the Deaf supplies an interpreter without charge on request, but their funds are meagre and the supply of interpreters is small. The Institute pays a nominal fee to the interpreter, and the Institute is the first to acknowledge it is insufficient compensation for the time and skill involved. They have never turned down a deaf client who seeks the service, but it is not known how many do not seek it because they know of the  109 limitations involved. It is interesting to note that the Paraplegic Association considers this point in rehabilitation so important that one of their members always accompanies an applicant to his first job interview. Paraplegia^of course^ does not affect verbal communication. 7. Serious Gaps in Responsibility for Employment Planning for Deaf School Leavers The findings of the survey clearly indicate that there is a serious gap in responsibility for the planning around the future employment of deaf school children as they near school leaving age. The Jericho Hill School staff have not been charged or staffed for this responsibility, but do this work on an informal basis. They do as much as possible through personal contacts of the staff. By the time the child is 14 or 15 there should be information available at Jericho Hill School as to the child's aptitudes and interests, and the last years of education should be turned towards a goal for future planning, or the plan for after school leaving. 8. Limitations of Jericho Hill School as the Actual Primary Job Placement Resource Jericho Hill School is not adequate to meet the needs of the deaf in terms of being the primary resource for young deaf school leavers in locating and training for jobs. The School does an excellent job in these circumstances, but it is not equipped to undertake the highly involved technical aspects of job placement. There is a need for experts in vocational guidance and vocational training to be involved in these decisions. There is much to be done and a  110 great deal to be learned about placing handicapped workers, in general, in employment. There is even more to be learned about placement of the deaf. 9. Choice of Employment Often Based cm "Availability" There were evidences that about the time a deaf adolescent was ready to leave school, he often ifelt urged to base his vocational choice entirely on the happenstance of whatever job happens to be available at the time, regardless of his personal wishes and needs. Similarly, some expressed the feSling that job training was selected for them, rather than by them, on the same basis, namely that of availability. Sound vocational planning allocates an important role to the wishes and preferences of the person to be placed. 10. Limitations of National Employment Service as a Resource for the Deaf The study shows National Employment Service is a rarely used resource. One of the reasons could be lack of interpreters but there is probably also the factor of the lack of familiarity of National Employment Service officials with specific problems of deafness. This latter should not be construed as a criticism of National Employment Service officials, but rather a recognition that one man cannot master all there is to know about the vocational aspects of all disabilities, and the problems of the deaf are unique. An official needs to build up a reservoir of knowledge, experience, If he is to help the deaf effectively.  3908  11. Lack of Mobility and Bargaining Power Among the Employed Deaf Should the deaf person obtain a job, his troubles are by no means over. In the competitive world of industry, wages are often based on whether there is a plentiful supply of labour or not. A man who is secure in the knowledge that there are a number of jobs available to him is in a better bargaining position when he is seeking a job or an increase in salary. The deaf person is usually not in this position, since the job he has may have been the only one he oould get at the time he was looking for work. He does not ordinarily possess a strong bargaining position from which to secure increased wages. In addition to this, if he loses this job he must appeal to his friends, former teachers, parents, or others, to intercede on his behalf. The difficulties faced by the numbers of unemployed in Canada today are multiplied and magnified in the plight of the unemployed deaf person. It would appear therefore, that the view of the deaf employee as loyal, dependable and "stable" as a worker, while true, for the most part should also be qualified by the consideration that his "stability" to him usually means being in a dead end job with no prospects of promotion, which nevertheless, he dare not leave. 12. "Victimization" of the Deaf by Rigid, Outdated Rules There was some evidence in the survey that some company rules are adversely affecting the deaf. The failure to meet certain rigid, outdated rules are as road blocks to the deaf handicapped worker, and can either mean failure to be employed, or  112 freezing in the lower categories of a job that offers advancement to the non-handicapped. In many instances, the job could be adapted to the needs of the deaf person with little or no expenditure of time and trouble by the employer. 13. Importance of Follow-up Service in Job Placement of the Deaf The deaf need special help in adapting to jobs, because of the communication barriers. Sometimes, their frustrations rise to boiling point, and they know no other course than to leave. Examples were cited of deaf employees sometimes leaving their jobs for some unaccountable reason after being employed for a period at a job at which they seemed to do well. In some cases it was thought that the deaf person felt fellow employees were laughing at him or perhaps disliked him. The explanation given by the deaf person to the employer was usually an implausable one which had no relation to the true cause. Only where the employer enquired further or received advice from someone who could ascertain the real reason, was the matter straightened out and the job retained. It is obvious that the need here is for someone trained in employment counselling who has especial knowledge of the deaf and their problems. He would certainly be required to be able to communicate with the deaf. The foregoing conclusions have related to the specific areas connected with vocational planning, training and placement. Certain general conclusions relate to areas which have an important bearing upon the success of any services which might be provided for the deaf in the specific area of their vocational needs.  113 14. Difficulties Encountered by the Deaf in Utilizing Community Services There is a danger of thinking of deafness only in terms of the communication problem. It would appear that many educators of the deaf have fallen into this trap, with the result that they have failed to see the deaf as individuals j, each having their own individual needs and problems in addition to being deaf. Deaf people suffer from the same social and economic ills as do their hearing fellow citizens. In most cases their problems are even more complicated because of their hearing handicap. Although they may live in a highly organized community that prides itself in the many resources it provides for its citizens, the deaf cannot avail themselves of many of these resources because of the communication barrier. Marital problems, woriy over children, economic difficulties, can occur in any family and such worries often affect performance at work, as well as contributing to employee absenteeism.  / Family counselling, other than that provided by Rev. Bollinger of the Lutheran Church, is non-existent for the deaf in Vancouver. For couples where one or both spouses are deaf, their only resource is the well meaning but usually non-professional help of their friends. Needless to say, when families must live on substandard incomes and raise children who must adjust to a world of the deaf as well as the hearing, many domestic problems are yf bound to arise. Rev. Bollinger has stated that he finds that a good deal of his time spent with the deaf is in dealing with their social rather than their religious problems. While this is perhaps true of every clergyman in his parish, there are other resources open to hearing people, as well as  114 the help of their pastors, which axe not usually available to the deaf again because of the communication problem. But where else can the deaf person take his domestic troubles? A psychiatrist, if the deaf person could afford one, would not find it easy  XVTV  to conduct^ interview with a deaf person unless he could use sign language. The same would be true of social workers in regular family agencies. Where is the young deaf mother described in the case studies from the sample group to get the specific help she needs to adapt to the needs of two young, active, hearing children? These findings indicate the vital importance of the establishment of a range of services to enable the deaf person to utilize the regular community services available to hearing people. 15. Lack of Specific Services Indispensable to the Deaf Certain specific services to enable the deaf to use existing community resources are sadly lacking. Interpretative services are indispensable to the deaf whenever there is no one in an institution such as a hospital, social agency, school, who can communicate with him except by the slow and laborious process of writing. Many deaf are uri&ble to use the government vocational institutes because there is no one there qualified and available to communicate with them either during the instruction period, or afterwards. 16. Meed for Continuing Services to Parents of Deaf Children The kind of adolescent this deaf child becomes depends very largely on the degree of acceptance, understanding,and help he has received from his parents.  115 A number of these parents interviewed indicated they would welcome the assurance that a counselling service that really met their needs would always be available to them if they needed it.  This is borne out by other  studies, and experience of professionals in the field of the deaf.  Dr. Seymour Kolko has commented: Parents of deaf children need a "home base" to which they can turn for help at any time, but particularly in time of crisis1. Some do not know where or how to turn. We must reach out to them and not wait for them to come to us. We believe that home visits are an essential part of this reaching out.1 Richard Flower speaks strongly on this same theme: . . . . Too often we expect parents automatically to become experts in fields related to their child's disabilities, when prior to the diagnosis they have approximately the same amount of information and misinformation as any other man on the street. . . . . From B^r experience as a clinician has come the conviction that the environment in which a disabled child lives and matures is the major determinant of the degree to which he is handicapped by his disabilities. I am fully convinced that our greatest area of neglect is in the inadequate support, assistance and guidance available to parents of children with disabilities.2 An authority in family casework has stressed this same need. Henrietta Gordon says: . . . the home cannot be viewed through the parents' behavior alone. The kind of adults which children will become depends not only on family relationships and resources, but, in a measure, upon community facilities  l-KOlko, Seymour, M.D., Orientation of Social Workers to the Problems of Deaf Persons, University of California School of Social Work, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, 1963, p. 19. Slower, Richard M..Orientation of Social Workers to the Problems of Deaf Persons. University of California School of Social Work, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, 1963, P. 8.  116 for advancing the health, education, recreational, cultural, and physical needs of the people. The failure of the community to provide such essentials creates a problem for parents as well as for children. Those parents who lack a basic inner security have even greater difficulty in coping with their problems realistically — they and their children being more ready victims of community inadequacies.1 17. Barriers Obstructing the Deaf People's Interpretation of Their Vocational Need Through their Organizations It would appear that todate, the deaf community has not been able to develop the kind of "united front" some other handicapped groups such as the paraplegics have managed to do, though it is recognized that there are many differing viewpoints within such groups. Although the deaf are a close-knit community in some respects, the field of organization has been a difficult one for them. A number of groups for the deaf exist in the community, each appearing to attract a different group of adherents with different interests. This may be one of the reasons why the deaf have not managed to achieve the voice they so badly need in the community. While other groups have moved from the local level to the gaining of a national voice by the establishment of a national organization, the deaf groups are still operating primarily at the local level. While the Western Institute for the Deaf is a province-wide organization, hearing people have played a prominent role in its development. It should be emphasized that even if the deaf community did manage to organize at the national level, it would probably still need hearing  ^Gordon, Henrietta L., Casework Services for Children, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, p. 17•  117 leaders to speak, quite literally, for it. Unfortunately, many deaf leaders in the deaf community are not "oral" in the sense used in this study - that is, their speech is not intelligible to those not familiar with it. This important fact is often overlooked in literature about the deaf. The deaf cannot interpret their needs verbally to the community as people with other disabilities can. They cannot go directly to government or its employers to interpret the needs of their group, as the paraplegics and others can.l 18. Status in the Deaf Community is Given to the Deaf Person Who is Oral While few studies have been done on stratification in the deaf community, the interviewers got a strong impression that perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic of a deaf person in the eyes of the deaf is whether the deaf person is "oral" or not. There seemed to the interviewers to be strong evidence that both parents and their deaf children had been caught up in the "cult" or oralism, and that this is perhaps the most sensitive of all areas in the complicated field of the needs of the deaf. 19. Social and Recreational Activities Fill a Special Role in the Lives of the Deaf Social and recreational activities have a special place in the lives of deaf people, seemingly different from the place they occupy in the lives of hearing people. In the first place, recreation is often not truly recreation to them unless they are released from the effort of communicating with the hearing world. They seem able to achieve a degree of communion and companionship with their deaf peers which is not possible for achieve to the same degree with the hearing, on the whole. This is often overlooked in planning with them. Charges of their "preferring" isolation are often  ^Phere have been some interesting examples in Vancouver of the Paraplegic Association approaching both these groups with success in the past years.  118 all too hastily made.  The company of other deaf people seem to give the young deaf adult the true companionship he may lack in the hearing world, and it affords him the opportunity to relax. This^in itself is not a bad thing, but it is unfortunate that this sometimes reaches the point of the deaf adult wishing to avoid hearing people. It is not contended that this is entirely the fault of the deaf themselves. 20. Feelings of Isolation Appear to be Common in the Deaf Many of the comments made by the deaf to this researcher would appear to express a feeing of isolation from the world of the hearing. For those who are unable to read lips well, their world of communication is narrowed to include only those who can communicate by sign language or finger spelling. This is chiefly made up of their deaf friends. Writing has limitations even for those who have attained enough education to be proficient in it. This was certainly borne out by the questionnaire. Even those who had reached the higher grades had difficulty with many terms that are in common usage. It was expressed over and over again how much being near other deaf people with whom they can communicate means to them. The deaf person who takes a Job where there are no other deaf persons, often leaves it to come to Vancouver or some other large centre where they can associate with other deaf. It was poignantly expressed by the young deaf woman who said that most of her friends are hearing people and that although her husband can sign, she wishes they could "talk" more. It was evident in the reply of the respondent who said that one of her main difficulties at work was being unable to start a conversation.  119 All the workers in this field of the deaf, who were contacted by the interviewers and the parents, stressed the fact that there is nothing the deaf love better than to talk, and they spend hours at it, but usually after work. During working hours, there is no one who understands them unless they write everything down, or whom they can understand without intense concentration or sometimes strain, as is often involved in lip reading.  CHAPTER SIX RECCayMEHDATIOUS In this chapter, general and specific recommendations are made, based on the findings and conclusions of the study. •The first six recommendations relate to agencies and services needed by the deaf. I.  Establishment of a Vocational Assessment Service for the Deaf This is a difficult area of service.  Little is known about it,  and there is need for research into methods of assessing the capacities of a deaf person to determine what kinds of jobs he is capable of handling, and research into methods of matching a deaf person with a job, which can be easily utilized by employers.  This service could be operated as part  of a general vocational counselling and guidance service, but it is mentioned separately because it is such a comparatively undeveloped field, in relation to the deaf.  II.  The Establishment of a Vocational Counselling and Guidance Service Available to all Deaf School Children and Their Parents, which can be Utilized During the later School Years, not just at the Point of Leaving.  The service should be staffed by workers who can use  sign language. The Vancouver Hearing Survey, recommended such a service be at Burnaby Vocational School.  The present study recommends that the service  121 be established at the Western Institute for the Deaf, or at Jericho Hill School, or in the regular Education Office or some other central location so that it will be available to persons with hearing handicaps and their families.  It would appear to the present researchers that its location  in Burnaby Vocational School would cause it to be associated in thenminds of the deaf and their families with the Vocational School itself, and perhaps not utilized as much as it might be^because it is thought to be for those planning to enter vocational programmes only.  Rehabilitation counsellors in the United States have reported that the chief problem in serving the hearing handicapped is that their vocational training is inadequate.  They stated that of the two most pressing problems  they experienced in placing the deaf, the first was that deaf workers seeking jobs do not know what they want or are capable of doing.  They also said  that many of the hearing handicapped clients coming to the Vocational Rehabilitation Service did not qualify for anything except unskilled labour and this is where jobs are so scarce.  The findings of this study would reinforce  this viewpoint.  III.  The Establishment of a Specific Job Placement Service in connection  with the above-mentioned service, with high priority given to time for appropriate follow-up. IV.  Extension of the Roles of the Western Institute for the Deaf, through  the provision of facilities, staff, and finances to undertake or expand work in the following areas for the deaf: 1. . Interpretation Programme to Employers. There is a need for a strong programme of this nature, to help prevent the continuation and recurrence of some of the experiences  122 of deaf people In the survey in relation to such things as unrealistic medical and safety requirements, and removal of some of the doubts of employers regarding the employment of the deaf. Such a programme could also help open up new jobs for the deaf. 2. interpretation Programme to Trade Unions. 3.  Interpretation to Community Agencies. A Special Interpretative Programme by the Western Institute for  Deaf to Community Recreation Agencies. This should help prepare the way for the gradual integration of the deaf into some of the recreational activities, along with the hearing.  It should also help to remove their doubts about the safety  of deaf children participating in scouting or team games, where thise is vouched for by a responsible person, such as an executive of one of the organizations for the deaf. 5. Interpretation to Government. 6.  Interpretation to the School Board.  7. General Counselling Services Regarding Problems of Deafness. 8. A General Family Counselling Programme - to include premarital and marital counselling. 9. Special Programme for Deaf Mothers with Hearing Children. 10. Extended Recreational Programme, to include special groups for adolescent deaf. 11. Sign Language Classes for parents and all those interested in acquiring this skill. 12. Special Programme aimed at the Professions. For doctors, teachers, social workers, vocational counsellors and others who have deaf clients, 'to devise means for the extension of their services to deaf clients.  123 13. Extension of the Present Service for the Provision and Training of Interpreters. 14. A Hearing Diagnostic Service, available to all who seek such a service. The Western Institute itself has been fully cognizant of the need for these services for the past twenty-five years. It has been unable to provide them because of paucity of funds and facilities, not lack of vision. If it had. the funds, it could get the personnel. It would need a complement of workers not just an Executive Director. V. Expansion of Government Aid and Community Chest and Council Aid to the Western Institute for the Deaf, to enable it to carry out this programme. VI. A Federation of all the Agencies engaged In the Field of the Deaf which would preserve their autonomy, but enable them to speak in the community with;:.a united voice. The next series of recommendations are concerned with changes in the field of education for the deaf, which should have important repercussions on their readiness to enter the world of work better prepared to compete with their hearing peers. In this second series, the findings of this study highlighted the fact that priority should probably be allocated to this next recommendation. VII. Increased Efforts be made for Earlier Identification of the Deaf Child who is not going to be able to Reach a Satisfactory Degree of Orality so that his Educational and Vocational Planning can Take Cognizance of this Fact, and the child's future can be planned accordingly.  124 While this appears vitally necessary, it could not "be carried out alone, "but should be undertaken in conjunction with the following: VIII.  Reappraisal of the Place of Oral Methods in the Total Education of the Deaf Child. The researchers consider Mr Clyde Mott's statement at the Annual  Meeting of the Western Institute for the Deaf, March, 1966, adequately sums up the recommendation that should be made in this area. simple fact.  "Deafness is a  There is room to use all the tools, and one of the tools is  oral speech, but it should be placed in its proper perspective."  IX.  Reappraisal of the Role of Signing Language in the Education of the Deaf and in the communication taught to pre-school deaf children by parents and schools.  The researchers prefer to let an authority have the last word, in this study, on the vital question for the future of the deaf. says: . . . the crucial question that educators of the deaf must resolve is not whether the manual or the oral or the combined method should or should not be taught, but whether such instruction will culminate in the greatest benefits to the child. We must not jeopardize the deaf child's opportunity to learn how to find his place in the human race. This issue is also pertinent for the deaf themselves. It seems presumptuous for educators of the deaf to prescribe any single method of communication for the deaf. There are many different persons who are deaf, and many different problems and answers. This vexing question entertains no easy or immediate solution; it does provide a challenging possibility for further research.1  !Di Carlo, op.cit. pp. 86-87.  Di Carlo  125 X.  Research into Improving Methods of Teaching Written Language to the Deaf. A great challenge to the education of the deaf is the development  and Implementation of teaching programmes that will result in "better language for the deaf.  In this connection the development of efficient reading  may be one of the keys to academic success.  Hie utilization of much school  time now spent on "orality" for the development of the deaf child's ability in written language, and in reading rather than to the production of an unsatisfactory degree of orality should prove an asset to a deaf child in the vocational field.  The next series of recommendations relates to the extension of the role of government in the field of education of the deaf. XI.  Government Subsidization of the Education of Teachers of the Deaf,  including and beyond the obtaining of the first certificate, diploma or degree. XII.  Extension of Training Facilities for the Deaf Pre-School Child. Early auditory training, and nursery school are not "frills" for  deaf children, but rather vital necessities. XIII.  Extension of School Board Supported classes for school age deaf  children in centres throughout the province, so the deaf child can remain in his home while he attends school. While the effects on the child of residential living could not be assessed in this study, it is certainly preferable that the deaf child live at home while he takes his schooling whenever possible.  126 XIV.  Government Financing of Pre-School and Post Graduate (Beyond School Leaving Age) Schooling for the Deaf. Since it would appear that the deaf child because of his handicap  needs a longer academic life to achieve the same level attained by the hearing child, in much less time, his education should not stop at eighteen or thereabouts.  In a country where it is being advocated that college  tuition be state provided, the state should provide the deaf child with a few additional years of education for those who wish it and could benefit by it.  If it will mean the difference between the deaf child getting a job  where he will be able to earn a reasonable living or not doing so, the money would seem well spent. The state has recognized the educational problems of the deaf to the extent that special educational facilities have been provided.  Would  it not seem reasonable that it should also recognize that an expanded period of study both at the pre-school level and after the normal school leaving age is reached.  Provision of assistance to students of Gallaudet serves  only a small part of the total need.  For many, the door to vocational  training is closed because they lack the necessary basic education.  XV.  Night Classes for the Deaf —  with Teachers Who can Sign or  With Interpreters. A number of the deaf indicated they would go to night classes if the teachers could sign. Among the sample group a number of the deaf expressed an interest in bettering themselves academically.  Unfortunately many are living on small  salaries where even the small outlay of cash for night classes strains the budget.  Some means whereby such classes for the deaf could be subsidized  127 would be indicated.  The importance of adult education is only too apparent  among the unhandicapped population today to ignore it for the deaf. The next recommendation is related to the meeting of one of the major gaps in special services to the deaf, which is really in a category by itself. XVI.  An Educational Programme for the Parents of Deaf Children, Which will Include Opportunities Meeting with Adult Deaf. The Society for the Children with a Hearing Handicap already  does educational work, so does Jericho Hill Parent-Teachers Association, but it would appear contact with th&.; organization for the adult deaf is limited. The precise location and sponsorship of this service is not important.  What is important is that it be accessible and inclusive of  opportunities to meet with the adult deaf.  Mr. Mott, Executive Director  of the Seattle Speech & Hearing Centre stated that many of the parents attending the Seattle Clinic had never met an adult deaf person until they did so through the clinic.  Such a service is a most important link in the chain of services necessary to meet the needs of the deaf. : XVII.  The final recommendation is in the area of preventive service. Adoption of Improved Services for Early Detection of Deafness. From the comments of some of the parents as they describe their  child's early response to speech, it would appear that a number of the children in the sample group had some residual hearing in infancy.  It Is  128 a known fact that this residual hearing is often lost because of the delay in getting the child to a hearing specialist.  Parents do not become aware  of their child's hearing difficulty until it is too late. valuable time is lost to the detriment of the child.  Therefore, much  Dr. David Kendall,  newly elected president of the Western Institute of the Deaf, is presently engaged in the development of a deafness test for new-born babies.  He  indicates that with early detection, treatment of such children can start a few days after birth. . It is believed that most partially deaf children can lead normal lives if treatmentc-igj;started early enough.1  The importance of early detection of a child's hearing problem is readily accepted, so it is all the more baffling to understand why more has not been done in this area before now.  In listening to parents recount  their experiences in seeking help and guidance when their child was an infant, it is difficult to find reasons why it has taken so long for such services to be provided. seek someone to blame.  With some parents guilt feelings do function to  Yet, it would seem that there has not been  enough  concern on the part of the community to provide the necessary services. There can be no reason why a child born in a hospital should not receive an adequate examination as to its hearing ability.  Yet this service is still  not routine in many hospitals. There would appear to be a need for much closer follow-up of the hearing abilities of infants after the intial testing at birth.  This is  admittedly a difficult area of diagnosis, but the consequences of unnecessary delay on the long range development of the personality of the child and his chances of developing the greatest degree of orality of which he is capable  ^Farrow, Moira, "Deaf-Test Being Pioneered here for New-Born Babies," The Sun, Vancouver, B. C., March 25, 1966.  129 depend almost exclusively on early auditory training which maximizes the benefits of whatever residual hearing he may have.  Deafness is not a new  disability, nor is the importance of early detection and education of the deaf a new concept.  One can wonder at the seeming complacency that has  existed and continues to exist after over one hundred years of education of the deaf.  XVIII.  In addition, the researchers concur in all the recommendations of  the Vancouver Hearing Survey which will not be repeated her, with the one modification mentioned in Recommendation I. of this study. It should be noted that these recommendations are not given in order of importance, though it is thought that the first six of these recommendations could be adopted relatively qiAi'ekly with the prospect of early returns in improved services to the deaf themselves and to the community. Further Questions Raised by Thesis A number of questions, general and specific, have been raised as a result of the survey.  Some of these indicate areas for further research  and as such are deserving of a specific listing. 1.  What evidence is there in the commonly held belief that, because of their loss of communication, the deaf are more subject to being suspicious?  2.  Is there any evidence that there is a higher degree of emotional disturbance among the deaf than among the general population?  3. What attitudes, if any, distinguish those employers who are willing to hire the deaf from those who are not?  130 How do those employer who hire the deaf evaluate them as workers? 5.  What are the problems that have arisen in firms that  employ  deaf people?  In 1950 the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, The United Nations International Labor Office, and the World Elk Organization adopted an international programme for the prevention of disability and the rehabilitation of handicapped persons, based on the following theses: Firstly, that the handicapped person is an individual with full human rights, which he shares in common with the able bodied, and that he is entitled to receive from his country every possible measure of protection, assistance, and opportunity for rehabilitation. Secondly, that by the very nature of his physical handicap he is exposed to the danger of emotional and psychological disturbances, resulting from a deep sense of deprivation and frustration, and that he therefore has a special claim on society for sympathy and constructive help. Thirdly, that he is capable of developing his residual resources to an unexpected degree if given the right opportunities of so doing, and in becoming in most instances an economic asset to the country instead of being a burden on himself, on his family and on the state. Fourthly, that handicapped persons have a responsibility to the community to contribute their service to the economic welfare of the nation in any way that becomes possible after rehabilitation and training. Fifthly, that the chief longing of the physically handicapped person is to achieve independence within a normal community instead of spending the rest of his life in a segregated institution, or within an environment of disability. Sixthly, that the rehabilitation of a physically handicapped person can only be successfully accomplished by  131 a combination of medical, educational, social and vocational service, working together as a team.l It is only recently that educationists and research workers have started to look beyond the 8 to 12 years the deaf child spends at school, and study the after effects. The real test of all our services for the deaf is how far they help him become in a vital sense a member of society.  There is need for  reappraisal of the efforts of the community on behalf of its deaf citizens in relation to these six basic tenets of rehabilitation.  iThe United Nations, Rehabilitation of the Handicapped, Social Welfare Information Series, Special Issue, New York, September, 1953, pp. 5-6.  APPENDIX  A  Questionnaire and Accompanying letters  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. School of Social Work Vancouver 8, B.C. Dear Nobody knows how the old pupils of Jericho Hill School manage in different jobs since they left the School, We can only find this out from you. We are sending & list of questions to old pupils of Jericho Hill School who have left the School within the past ten years. We are two students from the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia who are interested in the problems of deaf people. We are doing this with the knowledge and co-operation of Dr. C. E. MacDonald and the staff of Jericho Hill School. We are following the work done by Mr. Boese for the B. C. Society for the Advancement of the Deaf and the Hard of Hearing (now called the Western Institute for the Deaf). To follow Mr. Boese's work, we need to know what jobs young people with hearing handicaps, have got, in this Province. If you will answer the questions, you can help us to get the information from you which we hope will help, in telling of the problems of your handicap to government and other people who can provide the services you need. We know that it is important to help those with a hearing handicap to train for and to find jobs. When you answer the questions, please tell us what happened to you in finding, holding and training for jobs. Your answers will be kept private. We know that only the person who is handicapped can really understand the problems. Please fill in the form and please return it in the envelope enclosed by January 31st, 1966.  Please put a cros X beside your answer. When you are asked to given an answer in your own words, please use the back of the paper any time you have not enough space. PRIVATE If you have never held a job, please begin at question 21. 1.  Are you now (l) working for money (3) Housewife_  (2) a student not working  134 If you are now working for money, what is your work?  How long have you had this job? Is it (1) full time  (2) part time  Do you like your job? (l) Yes  (3) some time (2) No  Why? What things do you find hard about your job? What bathers you at your job? Are your fellow workers friendly? (l:)sYes  (2) No  Do they understand your troubles at work? (l) Yes  (2) No  Why do you think so? How much money per month did you get when you started your job? $50  $100  $150_  $200  $250  How much money per month are you getting now? $150  $200_  $250  Have you had any promotions at your work?  over $250  $50  $100  over $250 Yes  No  If not, do you know why? Please tell us each job you have had since you left Jericho Hill School. (Tell us what kind of job each job was, for example, labourer in construction, unskilled factory worker, typist, etc.). Please say about each job:a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)  Was it part time or full time? How long did you hold each job? Did you work for yourself, friends, relatives or other employers? How you found each job? What did you like about each job? What you did not like about each job? Did your fellow workers help you on each job? Why did you leave? Did you get a promotion? Were you ever fired? Yes No Why?  135 (PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANKERS ON THE BLANK OR EMPTY PAGE AT THE END . OF THIS FORM) 15  Did you have a job to go to when you left Jericho Hill School? Yes  No  16  Who helped you get your first job? (l) your parents £2) your friends (3) your teachers (4) VOC (5) National Employment Service (bj Want ads " (7) Others ~  17  After your first job, who helped you find your other jobs? (1) your parents (2) your friends_ _(3)Your teachers (4) VOC [5) National Employment Service (6) Want ads (j) Others  18  How long since you left your last job?  19  How many times have you been without work and for hew long?  20  When you are not working, how do you pay for food, clothing and shelter?  21  If you have never worked, how do you pay for food, clothing and shelter?  22  Have you. ever gone to the Unemployment Office or to Mr. Bradbury's Office, (828 West 10th Avenue) to get help in finding a job? Yes _ _ _ No What help was given?  23  Have you gone to any other place to get help in finding a job? Yes No If yes, what places What help were you given?  2k. Did you ever ask for a job and not get it? Yes If yes, how many times?  ~  No  25. Did you go to a School after you left Jericho Hill School? Yes No_ If yes, what kind of school and what course did you take? Academic Technical Vocational Business Other ~ 26,  If you did not finish the course, please say why.  27. Did you take any correspondence course? Yes What kind? .  No  28, If you worked, did you get any "training on the job" in any of your jobs? Yes No Kind of training How long 29. Did you ever start an apprenticeship? Yes  No  136 30. Did you complete apprenticeship? Yes 31. Are you apprenticed now? Yes 32. Are you now taking a course? Yes Who told you about the course?  No  If not, why not?  No No  33- Are you planning to take more training? Yes If yes, what type?  What kind No  34. Dodyou have night classes for hearing handicapped where you live? Yes No_ If yes, did you go? If not, why not? 35. Would you like to go to night classes for hearing handicapped? Yes No 36. Did you attend a University? Yes No degree If yes, please state what degree If you left "before completing your degree, why?  Did you get a  WS.are interested in YOUR ideas about what kind of help people with hearing handicaps need. 37. What kind of job did you want when you left school? 38. What kind of job training would you like to have had? 39• What kind of job would you like to have now, if you could get it? 40. Do you think that training for jobs for people with your handicap should be given: a) In regular Vocational Schools b) In Vocational Schools for hearing handicapped people only c) Ofcher d) Please say why? 41. Do you think some job training should be given to pupils at Jericho Hill School? Yes_ No If yes, what job training would' you like to have had while at Jericho? What other kinds of job training do you think should be given at Jericho Hill? 42. How should we help people with hearing handicaps find jobs? 43. What kind of help should a hearing handicapped person have to get more education? Please tell us anything you wish about what kind of help you think hearing handicapped people should have. Please use the back of this page to write your anser.  137 WE WOULD LIKE THE FOLLOWING PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT YOU. (PLEASE REMEMBER IT WILL ALL BE KEPT PRIVATE). 45. How old were you when you left Jericho Hill School? H6. How old are you now? 47. Are you (l) Single (4)Widowed_  (2) Married (5) Separated  HQ. Do you live (l) Alone (3) With parents (5) With husband or wife (7) What are their ages  (3) Divorced  (2) With friends (4-) With other relatives (6) Do you have children  49. Are you married to a (l) Deaf person person (3) A hearing person  (2) A hard of hearing  50. Does your mother have a hearing handicap? Yes  No  51. Does your father have a hearing handicap? Yes  No  52. What work does your father do? 53* Are most of your friends deaf? Yes  No  54. How do you meet new friends? (l) Through your work (2) m other ways • How? 55. Has there been any change in your hearing since leaving Jericho? Yes No Have you less hearing ability? • More hearing ability " ~ 56. Do you hear (l) only noises (2) Sounds with hearing aid (3) Conversation with hearing aid (4) Conversation without hearing aid 57. Since leaving Jericho Hill, are you speaking more? speaking less I  or are you  58. Do you lip read (l) Very well (2) Enough to understand conversation (3) Not at all 59. Do you use a hearing aid (l) Always (2) Only at Work (3) Only away from work (4) Not at all 60. At work do you use (l) Speech (4) Signs and finger spelling  (2) Lip reading (3) Writing Which is the easiest for you  PLEASE SIGN YOUR NAMES HERE: If you have married, please write also your name when you were at Jericho Hill School.  138 BIMK PAGE TO WRITE YODB ANSWERS TO QUESTION 14  139  December 30th, 1965.  The enclosed questionnaire is sent to you with the school's full awareness of it, and it would be to the advantage of all if you will please answer the questions and return the form as soon as you can. Maurice M. White, Vice - Principal, Deaf Department.  APPENDIX  B  Follow-up Lett er Requesting Interview  llfl  THE  U N I V E R S I T Y  S C H O O L  0 F  OF  B R I T I S H  S O C I A  L  C O L U M B I A  W O R K  Dear Thank you for answering our questionnaire.  In order to get all the needed  information about deaf people and their experiences in finding, holding and training for jobs, our next step will be to talk with deaf people themselves. One of us (Mr. Bingham or Mr. Jones) would like to coma to your home t© talk more with you.  As you know, we are two men studying at the  University of British Columbia who are interested in the problems of deaf people. the deaf  We do not belong to any group or organization serving  in the province.  We hope to write about what has happened to young deaf people after leaving Jericho I-Iill School. kept private.  You can be sure that what you say will be  No one will know which individual deaf person gave us  information. We hope that what you tell us will be useful to all working for the deaf in fehis province.  We will gladly share our findings with them,  to help you get the services you need. If you would like us to come to your home, please fill in the attached sheet, and return it in the envelope provided.  Thank you.  Yours sincerely,  Mr. Bingjiam  Mr. Jones  142  I would like you to visit me in my home. A good time for you to come would be:  DATE:  TI1®  ,  Your Telephone Number:_  Our Telephone Number:  Mr. BINGHAM - AM6-2469  Mr. JONES - 434-4992  APPENDIX  B  Follow-up Letter To Those Who Did Not Reply to Questionnaire  ihb THE  U N I V E R S I T Y S C H O O L  OF  OF  B R I T I S H  S O C I A L  C O L U M B I A  W O R K  Dear As a deaf person, you are interested in the problems of the deaf. We are trying to find out what happens to young deaf people after they leave Jericho Hill School, so that the services you need can be provided. Some people prefer to talk, rather than write about their experiences in finding, holding and training for jobs.  Perhaps this is why you have  not sent us the questionnaire we sent you in January.  We need it,  so please complete it and send it to us if you wish. Also, we need to talk with deaf people.  We are two men, studying at  the University of British Columbia, who are interested in the problems of deaf people.  We do not belong to any group or organization serving  the deaf in this province. We hope to write about what happens to young deaf people after they leave Jericho Hill School. private.  You can be sure that what you say will be kept  No one will know which individual deaf person gave us  information. We hope that what you tell us will be useful to all those working for the deaf in this province.  We will gladly share our findings with  them to help you get the services you need. If you would like us to come to your home, please fill in the attached sheet and return it in the envelope provided.  Thank you.  Yours sincerely,  Mr. Bingham  Mr. Jones  APPENDIX  A  Statement of Aims and Philosophy of Jericho Hill School (Deaf Section)  lk6  The following statement of aims and philosphy is taken from the brochure of Jericho Hill School. The statement of Aims and Philosophy of Education in British Columbia, as set forth in the Programme of Studies, applies in the broad sense to general and special education alike. By the application of special methodology and techniques, our school seeks to achieve the same ultimate aims for certain groups of exceptional children as does any other school following the regular programme.  These aims include the attainment of self-realization, good human  relationships, economic efficiency and civic responsibility. It is understandable, of course, that there should be some variations in the objectives of school subjects as between regular and special school programmes.  Furthermore, it is understandable that there  should be differences in teaching, techniques and procedures.  Such varia-  tions are essential in order to minimize the physical handicap of these exceptional children and to achieve maximum individual development. TERMS OF ADMISSION In no sense is our school a charitable or custodial institution. It is dedicated to the task of educating the mind, the heart and the hands of children with little or no vision or with little or no hearing. The school is maintained by the Province in order that special instruction may be provided for these children unable to make reasonable progress in the regular public school situations.  It is essential, of  13+7 course, that the children enrolled as day or resident pupils "be capable of advancement by the special instruction provided at this school. In order to acquire a thorough understanding of each individual child's needs, applicants are required to be examined by a paediatrician, ophthalmologist, otologist, audiometrist, psychiatrist and psychologist, if possible, before admission.  If indicated re-examinations are made from  time to time by one or more of the specialists following enrollment. Board and tuition are free to pupils eligible for enrollment between five and eighteen years of age.  Children under five may be  enrolled in special pre-school classes without fees.  Where it is deemed  desirable to do so by the Superintendent, the period of training may be extended from eighteen to twenty-one years of age. ACADEMIC PROGRAMME - (Deaf Department) The programme of studies for the Deaf Department extends from the pre-school level to that of regular high school grade ten.  Special arrange-  ments may be provided for eligible pupils wishing to prepare for entrance to Gallaudet College, the only college for the deaf in the world, located in Washington, D.C.  Through all the grades special emphases are given to  the teaching of speech, speech reading and language.  Those pupils unable  to make satisfactory progress by oral instruction, due to certain physiological or psychological factors, are placed in classes where other methods may be employed, according to the individual needs. At the intermediate level, a number of oral classes, comprising both day and resident pupils, are conducted in regular public schools of Vancouver by teachers of our staff.  In addition to the high degree of  13+7 motivation for oral communication which this association affords, the integration with hearing children offers many desirable social experiences. VOCATIONAL INSTRUCTION Pupils at the intermediate and senior levels of the Deaf Department receive instruction in Industrial Arts and Home Economics.  A number of  suitable vocational courses are available to them at both the Technical School and Vancouver Vocational Institute. THE EXTRA-CUKRICULAR PROGRAMME A staff of competent activity directors or supervisors, under a chief instructor, is in charge of the resident pupils during the out-ofschool hours for a wide variety of physical and social activities.  These  include gymnasium classes, competitive sports, scouts, guides, swimming, hobbycrafts, parties and excursions.  Whilst these activities provide a  great deal of pleasure, they also afford opportunities to develop many of the social habits and recreational interests essential to modern living.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Allan, W. Seott. Rehabilitation: A Community Challenge. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 195b. Bard, J. C. and M. J. Meacham. "The Assessment of Verbal Language Development in Deaf Children." Volta Review, IXIII, 1961. Boese, Robert J. Survey of the Hearing Handicapped, Greater Vancouver Area. Sponsored by Society for the Advancement of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing of British Columbia, January, 1965. Brown, Donald W. "Vocational Preparation for the World of Tomorrow." Volta Review, Vol. 66 #7 (September 1964). Brown, Joanne Victoria. Family Contributions In Treatment of the Hearing-Handicapped Child of School Age. Master of Social Work Thesis, The University of B. C., I960. Choy, Ivy Fung-Tsing, et al. Rehabilitation in Canada: Policies and Provisions. Master of Social Work Thesis, The University of B. C., 1965. Di Carlo, Louis Michael. The Deaf. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1964. Drewry, R. R. "Guidance for School Leavers." The Teacher of the Deaf, Hie Journal of the National College of Teachers of the Deaf (Incorporated), Vol. LIII, No. 313, February, 1955. Ewing, Irene R. and A. W. G. Ewing. Speech and the Deaf Child. Manchester University Press, Manchester, Ewing, A. W. G. "Educational Guidance and the Deaf Child." The Volta Bureau, Washington, D. C. Farrow, Moira. "Deaf Test being Pioneered for New-Born Babies." The Sun, Vancouver, B. C., March 25th, 1966. Feldman, Frances Lamas. "The Family in a Money World." The Family Service Association of America, New York, 1957* Flower, Richard M. "Fundamental Definitions of Hearing Impairment." Orientation of Social Workers to the Problems of Deaf Persons. U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, University of California School of Social Work, Berkeley, California, 1963.  150 Furthj Hans G. "The Influence of Language on the Development of Concept Formation in Deaf Children." Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, Vol. 63, Wo. 2 (September, 1961). ~ Fraser, Sir Ian. Conquest of a Disability. St. Martinis Press, New York. Garrett, Charles W. "Quo Vadis." The Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, D. C., 1965. Gordon, Henrietta. Casework Services for Children. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. Hallowell, Davis and S. Richard Silverman. Hearing and Deafness. Holt Rinehart and Winston, Incorporated, New York, 1950. Hamilton, Kenneth W. Counselling the Handicapped in the Rehabilitation Process. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1950. Kolko, Seymour, M.D1. "Impact of Deafness on the Growth and Development of the Individual." Orientation of Social Workers to the Problems of Deaf Persons. U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, University of California School of Social Work, Berkeley, California, 1963. Levine, Edna Simon. The Psychology of Deafness. Columbia University Press, New York, I960. Levine, Edna Simon. Youth in a Soundless World. New York University Press, New York, 19557 Lunde, A. S. and S. K. Bigman. Occupational Conditions Among the Deaf. A Report on a National Survey (U.S.A.), Gallaudet College Press, Washington, D. C., 1959Nash, Tanya and Zabell, Emil M. Encyclopedia of Social Work. N.A.S.W., Two Park Ave., New York, 1965. Ninth World Congress of the International Society for Rehabilitation of The Disabled. "Employment of the Disabled." Rehabilitation in Canada. Dept. of Labour, Issue #11, Roger Duhamel, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1965. Pintner, R. and J. Lev. "The Intelligence of the Hard of Hearing School Child." Journal of Genetic Psychology, OV, 1939. Rainer, John D., Kenneth Z. Altshuler, Franz J. Kallmann, and W. Edwards Deming, eds. Family and Mental Health Problems in a Deaf Population. Dept. of Medical Genetics, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University Press, New York, 1963. "Research Needs in the Vocational Rehabilitation of the Deaf." A special report based on a Research Conference conducted at Gallaudet College, Washington, D. C., American Annals of the Deaf, September, i960. Vol.105.  151 Rosenstein, Joseph. "Social and Vocational Assessment." Volta Review, Vol. 63, Ho. 9 November, 1963. Rusk, Howard A. Living with a Disability at Home - at Work - at Play. The Blakiston Co. Ltd., Garden City, Hew York, 1953. Silverman, S. R. "Education of Children with Hearing Handicaps." Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 62, 1963. Sinclair, Robert. The Deaf and Hard of Hearing Child in B.C. School of Education Thesis, University of B.C., 1953. Thomson, James Bannerman. The Role of Work in Rehabilitation. Master of Social Work Thesis, University of B. C., 1962. Varwig, Renate. Family Treatment of Hearing Handicap. Master of Social •Work Thesis, University of B.C., 1950.  


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