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The agricultural extension methods and their applicability to the underdeveloped countries : with special… Jeerapandh, Somsala 1963

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THE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO THE UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTHEAST ASIA by SOMSALA JEERAPANDH B.Sc. Kasetsart University, Thailand, 1956  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE in the Department of Agricultural Economics  We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree o_£_I^STSR OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February  I963  ABSTRACT  The thesis investigates the extent to which agricultural extension methods as used in the developed countries can be applied to the countries in Southeast Asia with particular reference to Thailand.  The working hypothesis  is that the peculiar conditions of agriculture in the underdeveloped countries restricts the total transfer of extension methods from the developed regions to the underdeveloped regions of the world. The historical development of agricultural extension work in the developed countries of Europe and North America is traced, and the general theory and methods of agricultural extension are explored.  Then the agricultural problems of  Southeast Asia are studied, with a view to identifying the factors which will affect the agricultural extension work in that region. It is concluded that the method of personal contact which is effectively used in the developed countries can be the main method for persuading farmers in Southeast Asia to accept improved techniques and training them to apply these methods efficiently.  However, the personal contact method  involves costly personnel, transportation and equipment.  The  meeting and demonstration methods tend to be effective also. Mass methods of agricultural extension including radios, newsprint, magazines and circular letters would not be  -ii-  effective, since few farmers can read and a still smaller number have radios.  However, posters and farm exhibits are  two types of mass media which would stimulate a great deal of interest on the part of the rural population. Ideally, methods should be diversified.  Meetings,  demonstrations, discussions, films and slides can be used to complement each other.  Their combination for best results  varies with local conditions. In Thailand, as in any other underdeveloped country, a complete agricultural extension program is.required.  This  would necessitate a greater number of agricultural extension workers than the country now has and therefore a training program for extension personnel is in urgent demand. The study also deals in some detail with the case of Thailand and conclusions are drawn for that country.  To  the extent that Thailand is representative of Southeast Asia, then conclusions can be generalized for the region.  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements, for an advanced degree at the University :of British Columbia, I agree that.the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  : Department; of  J * ) ^ 'g/J/jMmi  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. Date  r"1  vi-  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I wish to thank Dr. W.J. Anderson, Dr. J.J. Eichter of the Department of Agricultural Economics for their kind suggestions.  I  also wish to thank Dean B.A. Eagles and Dr. C. Verner, the members of the Committee. The financial support from The Colombo Plan is grately appreciated.  -iiiTABLE OF CONTENTS Page  INTRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION  1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2  The Meaning of Agricultural Extension . . . . . .  2  The Objectives of Agricultural Extension  3  Agricultural Extension Methods  . ...  5  7  ' The Theory of Communicating Information Various Methods Used in Agricultural Extension. .  13  AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN EUROPE AND THE U.S.A.. -. ...  ,17  In Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17  In the U.S.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19  AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION: IN. SOUTHEAST ASIA . . .  . .  23  Problems of Asia Agriculture. . . . . . . . . . .  23  Present Status of Agricultural Extension in Asia.  30  Principles and Methods of Agricultural Extension Which Could be Applied to Southeast Asia . .  3g  THE APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURAL METHODS TO THAILAND AGRICULTURE . . .'. . . CONCLUSIONS. BIBLIOGRAPHY .  ......  .  .  ^ 57  -ivLIST OF TABLES  Table I  Page  Influence of the Various Methods of Presentation on the Attitude of the: Farmers in the U.S.A. , 1953. . . .  II  Comparison of Crop Yields Among Asia, Europe and the World Average for 1955  III  3  Rice Yield per Hectare 1953.  25 25  IV The Yields per Acre of Six Crops in the U.S.A. . . 26 V  Ratio of Illiteracy of South and Southeast Asian Countries (Percentage)  2g  VI Rural Youth Club Organizations and Membership in Selected Nine Countries, 1959 . . . . . . . .  VII  Number of Students in Technical Schools per Thousand of Population, 1953-56 . . . . . . .  VIII  33  34  Agricultural College Graduates in Ten Countries 1950-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35  IX Employment of Agricultural College Graduates in Selected Countries 1955-59. . . .  36  -V-  lilST GF FIGURES Figure  I  Page  Ratio of Famers. to Field Extension Agriculturists in Selected Countries. . . . . . . . .  II  Headquarters, Provincial and Field Extension Staff in Selected Countries, 195.9 . . . . .  III  31  Student Enrolment in Selected Countries, 1950-59  32 37  THE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO THE UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRIES: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SOUTHEAST ASIA  INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which agricultural extension methods, as practiced in the developed countries, can be applied to the under-developed countries and especially to the countries of Southeast Asia. In doing this the methods and applications of agricultural extension services in Europe and North America are explored. Then the agricultural problems in under-developed countries and the development of agricultural extension services are investigated.  As a final step, this approach to the assess-  ment of the transfer of agricultural extension techniques from the developed countries to the under-developed regions is based on the hypothesis that: A.  There are important differences between the  patterns of agriculture in these regions. B.  These differences require the modification of  agricultural extension of the developed countries before they can be applied in the under-developed countries.  -2-  AGRIGULTURAL EXTENSION The Meaning of Agricultural Extension The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (U.N.) defines agricultural extension as An informal out-of-school educational service for training and influencing farmers (and their families) to adopt improved practices in crop and livestock production, management, conservation and marketing. Concern is not only with the teaching and securing adoption of a particular improved practice, but with changing the outlook of the farmer to the point where he will be receptive to, and on his own initiative continuously seek, means of improving his farm business and home.1 In Southeast Asia, output could be increased with little or no additional capital expenditure by the use of new techniques which may be quite simple and would be adopted by many farmers if they knew about them. Some simple farm techniques like the use of diseaseresisting high-yielding strains, the control of breeding of domestic animals, the performance of simple veterinary tasks, bud-grafting and inexpensive conservation practices are some examples of methods which may result in increasing productivity.  But in many cases, although these methods may give a  good return to the farmers, it may not pay private organizations to develop the techniques to a practicable stage and sell the  "c"^* j F o ° d , a n ? Agriculture Organization of U.N. of Food and Agriculture 1961T Rome, 1961, p. 1 1 4 .  The State -  -3- . knowledge to the farmers.  The costs of collecting fees are  high where farming operations are on a small scale.  Hence the  major part of the work has to be provided by the state, largely without specific charges, and financed out of government revenues.  Due to these facts, the agricultural extension in  Southeast Asia could be defined as A government effort to bridge the gap between agricultural research stations on one hand and the farming population on the other by establishing suitable teaching organizations at the various levels of administrations so that the results of research can be systematically extended to the farmers for wide application and so that their farm problems can be quickly brought back to the research station for study and solution.2 This definition, however, could not be valid in some countries like Denmark and Norway where the agricultural extension is sponsored through Farming Cooperative Organizations. The Objectives of Agricultural Extension In the United States of America (U.S.A.) the extension service is developed on a broad basis.  It not only  provides technical and economic advice to farmers but also attempts to broaden the farmer's interest in rural life and to raise his cultural level.  It has been said that  ....Whatever contributes to increased income, increased improvement and satisfaction of the 7 1 whatever contributes to the growth and uhe development of the individual, his or  nation,?'H;,Chpng'•"Agricultural Extension in Asia". Inter1956° P^" 12, C ° m i S a x o u > Newsletter, Vol. VII, No. ' 2 , JuSe,  -4- • her personality, education or spiritual growth; whatever makes for good citizenship and love of country — these things are proper matters for extension agents to carry to rural people....3 The variety and the all-embracing nature of these objectives seem to be different from the objectives of agricultural extension in Asia where the primary objective of extension is to secure increasing levels of production. Because of the low levels of production generally existing in Asia, the agricultural extension workers emphasize the adoption of improved farm techniques to the farmers. In order for an agricultural extension service to make a real impact on the agricultural sector of the economy, so that the service becomes accepted at the "grass-roots" levels, certain conditions must be met.  The International  Rice commission discussed these requirements for the Asian case in the Newsletter referred to above as follows: 1. All agricultural research stations should be substantially strengthened and their research projects directed towards the pressing needs of the farmers, in the hope that they can generate a continuous flow of useful knowledge and skills to the extension workers for use in their work. 2. A department of extension service should be established in the government so that its views and needs can be heard and considered at the policy making level of the government, and so that extension education can be carried out adequately at the village level and on a nationwide basis. 3. There must be the kind of extension program that the local people can consider their own and in  America.^Lonrirtn^ S  g  g  f  f  *  ^  ^  in  W  "rth  which they are willing to participate actively. At present, many countries in Asia have long range programs. The government will make the necessary provisions for extension supplies, but it is absolutely important that such programs be thoroughly discussed by the villagers themselves to the extent that they can understand it and are willing to support it. 4. Extension workers must be able to use as many different methods of extension teachings as possible to get their message to the people. The greater the number of contacts with a subject, the greater are the chances that workers will be able to put a recommended practice into general use. 5. Extension workers must be well trained and reasonably treated so they can stay on the job to ensure steady progress in extension rprojects. 6. Extension workers must be assisted by a team of 'subject matter specialists' who can keep them informed of recent research developments and assist them in their technical teaching; of the farm people. In so doing they will discuss new problems and pass them on to the research people for investigation and solution, in this way they tie the research and extension functions together and make both of them more effective. Agricultural Extension Methods Agricultural extension work requires many methods and teaching tools.  People are influenced to make changes in  behaviour in proportion to their contact with several different methods.  An extension worker is a salesman of knowledge.  He seeks to change the reactions of people to problems. reactions may be classified as follows:  4.  C.W. Chang, Op. cit. p. 1 3 .  These  1.  Changes in things known —  2.  Changes in things felt —  knowledge skills^  Methods which reach a large number of people are called mass media* activities.  Smaller numbers are reached by group  The personal contact methods are very important  and effective but are naturally most expensive in time and energy. Agricultural extension workers spread information by four principal means:  demonstrations, exhibitions and  other visual aids, the spoken word and the written word. To be effective, information must: ~  be accurate,  —  reach farmers concerned,  —  be understood by them correctly,  —  relate in such manner to farmers' problems or ambitions that they • are encouraged to act on it.°  The information service is playing an important part in farm advisory programs.  The agricultural extension workers  must know the techniques and principles of dissemination of information to the farmers.  Their knowledge will make their  efforts more effective.  _ 5. International Agricultural Study Center, Handbook on Metnods of Agricultural Extension. Wageningen University. Holland, 1953, P. 70. ~ *y 6. Organization for European Economic Corporation, "The Written Words in Agricultural Advisory Work". 1959, p. 8.  The Theory of Communicating Information As it was said earlier, the agricultural extension worker, acting very like a salesman, seeks the adoption of his product not only by those directly exposed to his information through personal contact but essentially by a large number of people through demonstration and other effects.  The extension  worker wishes to induce changes in the way the people in his area react to problems. To obtain this change of the audience, some facts which have to be kept in mind are as follows: 1. Oral presentation combined with a visual one is more impressive than either one by itself. More people will be reached in this way with better result. 2. Diagrams, pictures and other visual aids must be clear and simple. 3* If diagrams are simple but the subject matter is unfamiliar, such material should precede oral explanations or discussions. This is more effective than oral presentation followed by the visual aids. 4. The audience is moved more by what it hears, but more permanently by what it sees, so things shown are more remembered. 5. The more concrete and simple the material presented to the audience, the more uniformly it will be impressive. 6. There are more visual minded people than there are audio minded ones. The advantage of visual methods over oral presentation is larger as the audience is of humble intelligence, immature or inexperienced.  7* Ia oral presentation, emphasis can be given to certain keypoints by repeating them two or three times. The best way to repeat statements  is by telling the story first with a graph or a diagram, secondly oral and a third time with pictures. 3. The opening statement is the most impressive point in giving talks. 9* Even well educated audiences will forget about two-thirds of what they were told within a week. This can be improved by reviewing the argument before closing. 10. The amount of learning by the audience depends on the amount of thinking done by the audience. The amount of thinking again depends on the extent to which the audience takes an active part in the discussion. Stimulating discussions improve the effect of presentation."/ The influence of the various methods of presentation on the attitude of the farmers exposed to them have been studied in the U.S.A.  The result of such study is presented  in the following table. TABLE I INFLUENCE OF THE VARIOUS METHODS OF PRESENTATION ON THE ATTITUDE OF THE FARMERS IN THE U.S.A., 1953 Methods of Presentation  Lecture only Lecture & discussion Lecture and local Reader's meeting Lecture and chart Lecture & Filmstrip  Percent of Farmers Exposed that were Influenced  Practice change per Farm Attributed to Meeting  Index  Percent  Index  Percent  100 123  33.3 47.10  100 121  O.54 0.63  117 117 143  44-71 44.71 56.6  123 142 155  O.75 0.37 0^33  Source: Handbook on Methods of Agricultural Extension International Agricultural Study Center, Wageningen University. y Wageningen, Holland, 1953, p. 31. ' 7.  Ibid.. p. 71.  • -9- ' Some basic principles of the theory of communication which are involved here could be discussed under three main headings:  1. d  Audience, 2.  Channel and 3»  Treatment of the  Information. Audience.  The term audience in communication theory in-  cludes all listeners, readers and viewers, wherever they may be, at whom information is aimed.  The agricultural extension  worker can never safely assume that the audience will make the necessary effort to understand him. even be uninterested.  The audience may  It is the extension's responsibility  to present the information in such forms, such places and at such times that the audience will find it interesting, easy to understand and timely for action.  For this purpose it is  necessary to understand the audience concerned. much from one area to another.  People vary  Some facts about the particu-  lar local situation are: 1*  Education Level.  Use the language of the  farmer, not of the research worker, the administrator or the specialist.  Avoid scientific terminology, symbols and codes.  2.  Innate obstacles.  pation for most farmers.  Farming is a lifetime occu-  As the average life span grows longer  farmers stay longer on the land.  Hence a very large percentage  of the farming population are long past formal schooling.  Their  schooling received much less technological emphasis than present day schooling.  These older people have different values,  notions and knowledge from young people. 8.  Ibid., p. 72.  This is important  because extension workers have usually completed their education recently and are products of the new school of thought. Older farmers may dismiss these workers as "Youngsters" unless the latter make a conscious effort to overcome sueh misunderstanding. 3.  Physical Obstacles.  After the mid-teen years  there is a gradual loss in visual and oral acuity.  The average  person has only forty percent of the visual acuity at seventy years of age that he had at the age of fourteen years.  Physi-  cal strength begins to decline after twenty-five years.  The  man of fifty will be more weary at the end of the day, the reading time for men.  Therefore, the farmer'cannot then be  expected to read long, difficult bulletins. 4»  Psychological factors.  The average age of an  audience also involves certain psychological factors.  The  farmer who went to school twenty or thirty years ago is still much concerned with the world of that day. 5.  Pressure of Other Work.  Farmers are busy people.  So keep advisory information brief, to the point and easy to follow. 6.  Basic Appeals.  The adult farmer deals and thinks  in terms of his personal affairs. in the abstract.  He is not very interested  He prefers to read about his family, and the  doings of his neighbours and acquaintances than about events in distant places with which he has little or no ties.  Agri-  cultural developments on the farms of neighbours gain his immediate interest.  • -11-  The use of such appeals is common, in commercial advertisements.  Life insurance advertisements often show or  picture happy family groups.  This brings in several basic  a p p e a l s — those of children, home and security. When the agricultural extension worker sets out to inform farm families, he can use basic appeals with sincerity. Some of the commonly used are:  more profit, improved skill,  increased prestige in the community, pride of ownership, recognition and praise, concern for children or for family, self-preservation and safety, improved health, and religion. 7.  Sociological factors.  The behaviour, attitudes  and values of a person often reflect those of the group to which he belongs.  If he is an active member of the group, the  greater his influence upon the group.  Extension workers often  find it more successful to work through groups. Similarly the greater the prestige a group member has in the eyes of other members, the greater the influence he can exert.  This is an important point to remember in select-  ing a member of a group to conduct a demonstration, to be quoted in a written article, or to be interviewed on the radio. Every social group or organization has an expressed or implied purpose and code of ethics.  If agricultural exten-  sion methods conflict with these, the group tends to resist the change.  If a group accept a new idea, it will directly  and indirectly stimulate its adoption among the members.  Thus  information can often be fruitfully directed to people through the groups or organizations to which they belong.  In the same  -12way that program planning is most successful when local people participate, so agricultural extension methods are most effective when they are participated by the farmers. Chanel.  In choosing the channel to be used, the follow-  ing are some of the points to be considered: 1.  Degree of Literacy.  If a large number of people  in the community do not read, or do not read well, it will be difficult to reach them directly by the written word.  Some  other teaching methods will be better. 2.  By determining what newspapers, periodicals and  other journals people read, the extension worker must know which of the various printed mass media to use. 3.  Availability of radio and television.  The  emphasis on radio and television depends on the number of people who have these and on their development in the future. 4.  Ability to Travel.  If farmers have adequate  facilities for transportation they are most apt to participate in meetings, tours, demonstrations and the like.  When they  can not travel so easily, other methods of communicating information become more important in extension work. 5.  Membership of Organizations.  When people belong  to certain social, business or other organizations, it is possible to reach them through those organizations and the information media they operate. Treatment of the Information. are important:  The following conditions  -131.  The communicator must have something of interest  to say to his audience.  The more his material relates to  their problems the more interested they will be. 2.  He should be clear in his own mind not only as  to what aspect of the subject he wishes his audience to understand, but also as to how he wishes them to react. 3.  Action required on the part of the farmer should  be appropriate to his expected circumstances at the time the action is supposed to occur. 4.  The information must be so designed and delivered  as to gain the attention of the intended receiver. 5*  The treatment must involve language or symbols  which have a common meaning for both sender and receiver. Various Methods Used in Agricultural Extension There is no best 'simple' method for the agricultural extention worker to use in spreading information to  farmers.9  The agricultural extension worker must use his observation, experience and simple evaluations to determine which methods produce the greatest response under the particular conditions. The following are some of the methods presently used in agricultural extension in Europe and North America.10 1.  The Press.  from the newspaper.  Most people get their information  Thus it is possible for the extension  • 9* L.D. Kelsey and C.H. Hearn, Cooperative Extension Work. Comstock- Publishing Co., Ithaca, New York, T 9 4 9 , p. 231. 10. Much of this section was summarized from Ibid., p.231-300.  -14-  worker to communicate his ideas to the farmers by newspaper provided that the farmers can read and usually read the newspaper. 2. Radio.  Radio is a mass medium of communication.  It can reach large numbers of people at any given time, but calls for certain techniques. The four principal uses of radio are: 1.  To reach large numbers of people inexpensively  2.  To reach people not reached by other means  3.  To stimulate participation through all other media  4»  To build enthusiasm and maintain interest.  Radio is an excellent medium for doing extension work in the developed countries. value radio highly.  In North America most rural people  Radio is valued by rural listeners for its  two great functions; as a source of news and other information, and as a source of entertainment.  In underdeveloped countries  however, few farmers own a radio.  Therefore this method would  not be a fruitful one.  It is likely that a great deal will be  achieved in the underdeveloped countries when radio goes into the presently isolated villages and homes. 3«  Circular Letters.  In the U.S.A., early agricul-  tural extension workers used a "circular" or "newsletter" as one of their first means of mass communication.  They wrote  letters when they did not have time to make farm visits.  As  their work developed beyond individual and group methods, they wrote circular letters to tell of group meetings, to repeat and remind farmers about seasonal practices, and carry some of  -15-  the more simple ideas to the farmers.  The circular letter still  conveys some information better than the radio and newspaper. 4»  Publications.  The agricultural periodical is a  valuable instrument in supporting and extending extension work. It brings into the farm announcements and details of agricultural research, news of extension activities, market and other topical matters, stories of farmers' experiences, and articles of agricultural information, discussion and controversy. 5*  Demonstrations.  Demonstration is a way of  teaching new practices by showing evidence of success.  This  evidence is delivered by application of the new method in practice. Extension activities of a demonstrative nature may be sub-divided in the following groups: a. Result demonstrations in which the learners are shown the results of applying one or more related practices. b.  Method demonstrations, where the farmers are  taught how a certain practice is carried out, for example, how to apply fertilizer, how to eliminate diseases, etc. c.  Field days.  Field days are often organized to  exhibit farm machinery, and often include agricultural competitions. d.  Tours.  Farm tours which will help farmers to  see some things developed in their neighbours* farms. 6.  Meetings.  by its purpose.  The nature of a meeting is determined  The different types of meetings are:  -16-  a.  General meeting with lecture  b.  General steering committee meeting  c. Dissemination meeting d.  Social interest meeting  e.  Work meeting  f.  Training meeting  Summary. work.  Group methods are very useful in extension  They are relatively cheap.  However, the results of group  methods, expressed in changes in attitudes, depend upon the audience.  The success of various methods is determined by a  large numb er of factors such as time and money involved.  To  date there has been no analytical investigation of what method is the best in agricultural extension.  -17-  AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN EUROPE AND THE U.S.A. In Europe At the beginning of the 19th century, agricultural extension services were established in most European countries.11 These services are now existing everywhere but show differences with regard to organizations, field of activities, staff and efficiency®  In these European countries, agricultural exten-  sion services have been very much affected by historical, economic and social conditions prevailing amongst the various no nations.A • The most common methods used in agricultural extension services in the European countries are individual methods such as farm visits, office calls and discussions, telephone callsj group methods such as lectures, classes and demonstrations; mass methods such as information circulars, popular bulletin and articles and radio talks.  In some countries, in  particular the United Kingdom and Germany, so-called information services, being a sub-division of the agricultural advisory services, have achieved much success in regard to the approach of a large number of farmers by using mass methods, with the aid of popular pamphlets (distributed by the advisory staff).  11. Provisional Report of the Organization of European Economic Corp., (OEEC), Agricultural Advisory Services in European Countrie's, Nuffield Foundation, London, 1956, p. 22. 12.  Ibid., p. 23.  -2660This information service also publishes notices in the press or articles in the daily and agricultural press, arranges and prepares lectures, information or brief advice for broadcast by wireless, preferably following the weather forecast, makes visual expedients intended for information such as lantern slides, film strips, articles, pamphlets, wireless talks and the use of visual expedients.  Central information services of  this kind have succeeded in arousing the interest of the public at large in agriculture. Another method to advance efficient farm management is the formation of associations for cooperative advisory work with the intention to compare farming data under the direction of the offices of the extension service. In most countries of Europe virtually no attempts are made to ascertain whether the extension service operates efficiently and whether it yields satisfactory results, although in this way a better idea would be obtained of the effectiveness of the various methods used. The extension service in most European countries is in eharge of the control of statutory provisions, much time being needed to discharge these duties. In some countries in Europe the agricultural extension service occupies a rather minor position in the ministry of agriculture. The European countries are showing a wide diversity as regards the participation of farmers and farmers' organizations in framing a working programme for the extension services.  -19It is rather striking that the extension services of most European countries cannot command sufficient financial resources and due to this need of funds, agricultural extension service has made little progress there. In most European countries the general public does not realize sufficiently the significance of agriculture in the national economy. In the U.S.A. In appraising the American system of agricultural extension, it should be remembered that the agricultural industry in the U.S.A. shows very great differences with agriculture in Europe and other countries as it has developed itself under quite different social, political and economic conditions. The extension service in the U.S.A. is a cooperative arrangement between the land-grant institutions and the U.S. Department of  Agriculture."*^  They are bound together through  agreements in line with the basic federal extension legislation, the Smith-Lever Act.  Each state extension service is,  by law, a part of the land-grant institution for the state. Agricultural extension in the U.S.A. concerns itself with the farmers' f a m i l y . T h e  service advises on domestic  questions in the countryside and renders advice to the rural  •13• L.D. Kelsey and C.C« Hearne, Cooperative Extension Work, Comstock Publishing Associations, Ithaca, New York, 1949, p. 41. 14*  O.E.E.G. op. cit.'.-p. 23.  -20-  youth.  In the External Service, Department of Agriculture,  three branches of the service are closely cooperating and coordinated to a one-head management.  In this extensive field of  operation of agricultural extension in the U.S.A., very good results have been achieved.  Due to the activities of the  service, the standard of living of rural families, and of the rural community as a whole, has been improved and due to this effect the service has built up a good reputation for itself. Another consequence is that the financial support afforded to this service is gradually increasing.15 The agricultural extension service in the U.S.A., both diverse and individual states, enjoys a high rate of independence.  The executive of the national directorate in  Washington doe not interfere very much.  The central management  issues recommendations, supervises the budget and working programme.  The extension service is paid from funds supplied by  the federal government as well as by the individual states and the district councils.  In many cases the extension service is  also subsidized by the individual farmers who are organized in what they call "Associations for Cooperative Advisory Work". Such associations can appoint extra staff, but they work under the auspices of the country agent. The extension service is charged with the supervision of the observance and enforcement of the statutory provisions. The agricultural college in each state is the place where college  15. International Agricultural Center, Handbook on Methods of Agricultural Extension. Wageningen University, 1$53, p. 5!.  ' -21- • education, agricultural research and extension are concentrated, have the consequence and strong influence on farmers, and program of these extension services. In all districts there is an advisory committee on extension which, together with the staff of the extension service, - design the working programme and administrates the available funds contributed from within the district. The high rate of cooperation between the agricultural extension service, agricultural cooperatives, private manufacturers and merchants is striking. In the U.S.A. about fifteen percent of all farm requisites are supplied by cooperatives and about twenty percent of all farm produce is sold by cooperative marketing societies.1^ Much attention is being paid in the U.S.A. to the training of staff for the extension service and to every five people engaged in advisory work, there is about one specialist.17 Another interesting feature of agricultural extension work in the U.S.A. is the highly developed mass methods of extension.  There is an information service which is carried  on by both the Federal government and the State government. The University or Colleges of agriculture have an important part in the extension service.  There are good researchers in  hang . ; » IfflP^ession of Agricultural Extension Work in U.S.A.. International Rice Commission, Vol. VII, No. V.J 1958, p. 16. . '  17.  Loc. cit.  -22-  the field of agricultural extension and other related fields. To get some idea of the development of the mass method in supplying information to the farmers in the U.S.A., it may be stated that each agent distributes some two thousand booklets annually.  Each agent visits about four hundred farms each  year while in the same period, on an average, one thousand farmers call at his office and one thousand telephone calls are made.  u  Next to the development of research and education, the development of rural domestic advisory work is very interesting.  The extensive advisory service to rural youth is  organically a branch of agricultural extension as a whole.  The  4H Glub is playing an important role in the development of agriculture for the young people. To sum up, the agricultural extension service in the U.S.A. is successful in helping the farmers with agricultural improvement.  The methods and practices are highly developed.  Some of them could be applied to the under-developed countries by adapting to local conditions.  This application will be  discussed in the following section.  -23-  AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Problems of Asia Agriculture In Southeast Asia the common feature among these countries is the dominance of the agricultural section of the population.  The available figures show the percentage pro-  portions of population dependent on agriculture in the area as follows:  Burma 63:  Thailand  Indonesia 66:  Philippines 69:  The same source indicates the proportions for  various regions of the world as follows: Oceania 30: Europe 33:  North America 20:  South America 60:  Asia 70:  and  Africa 74. Low Productivity With the prevailing techniques of production and the consequent low productivity per man, dominance of agriculture means low per capita national income.  When countries are  grouped by level of economic development on the basis of per capita national income as of 1950, all the six countries of Southeast Asia ... Burma, Indochina, Indonesia, Malaya, Philippines and Thailand, fall in the underdeveloped group.20 Moreover, there is in Southeast Asia1a surplus of population on the land which results in low productivity.  19« Food and Agriculture Organization, 1953 Yearbook. Vol. VII, p. 7« 20. E. Staley, The Future of Underdeveloped Countries. New York, Harper and Brothers Co., 1954, pp. 16 & 17.  -24-  The size of farms in Southeast Asia are generally small ranging from two to three acres in Japan and Indonesia to seven or eight acres in the Philippines and to about twelve 21 acres in the central plain of Thailand. The farms are very much fragmented due to the old custom inheritance of land property.  Such fragmentation of land not only creates hardship  for the cultivator because he has to travel far to work in his farm but also such improvement as the installation of irrigation facilities or the adoption of some kind of farm mechanization is difficult. Mostly the land is used mainly for the production of crops for direct human consumption instead of for feeding livestock.  The farmer in Asia usually keeps only the draft animals.  In Thailand, for example, every farm keeps buffaloes, in the Philippines, Carabaos and in India, bullocks.  These animals  are fed with by-products such as straw, oil cakes, weeds and grass taken from fields in normal cultivation. The crop yields in Asia, as shown in Table II, (page 25), are low as compared with Europe. Even in Asia the difference in crop yields between the various countries is very great.  Table III (page 25),  shows the rice yield per hectare in some countries in Asia. This variation shows that there exists considerable room for improvement in these low .yielding countries.  This  problem of low productivity is a crucial one for the agricultural 21. C.W. Chang, Agricultural Extension in Asia, Internationa^ Rice Commission, Vol. . V, 1958, p. 2. " • ~  -25-  TABLE II COMPARISON OF CROP YIELDS AMONG ASIA, EUROPE AND THE WORLD AVERAGE FOR 1955  Yields per hectare (lOOKg.) Asia  Europe  World  Wheat 3.5 Rye 9.9 Barley 10.9 Oats 10.3 Maize 11. 3 Millet & Sorghum 6.5 Rice (Paddy) 13.2 Potatoes 72.3 Sweet Potatoes & Yam 103.3 Cotton 1.5  16.7 15.1 13.9 17.3 16.3 10.4 42.3 131.4 122.9 2.3  11.7 13.9 12.6 14.1 16.7 6.7 13.2 119.7 90.6 2.4  Source:  Percentage of European World Average Average 50.90 65.5 6 57.67 59.54 72.40 62.50 43.02 55.43 34.05 65.22  72.50 71.29 36.50 73.05 70.65 96.42 100.00 60.03 114.02 62.50  International Rice Commission, Newsletter Vol. Vil, No. 2., June, 1953, P« 2.  TABLE III RICE YIELD PER HECTARE —  1953  Japan  4,310 Kilogram  South Korea  2,790 Kilogram  Indonesia  1,650 Kilogram  Burma  1,430 Kilogram  Thailand  1,430 Kilogram  Ceylon  1,420 Kilogram  India  1,260 Kilogram  Pakistan  1,240 Kilogram  Vietnam  1,230 Kilogram  Philippines  1,190 Kilogram  Source:  Ibid., p. 3*  -26development in Asia.  This is due to the important factor that  there is not much improvement in farm technology.  Comparing  with North America and Europe, for example, the most significant economic development in agriculture is the great increase in skill with which the farmers apply mechnical and technological improvements to increase output per man in farming. The data available in Table IV show the yields per acre of the six crops designated as "basic" in the price support program of the U.S.A. TABLE IV THE YIELDS PER ACRE OF SIX CROPS IN U.S.A. Corn Wheat Rice Cotton Tobacco Peanuts (bu.) (bu.) (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) ' Average 1939-43  31.2  16.4  2,101  249.7  Average 1952-56  41.1  13.7  2,693  404.9  Source:  9 7 0 3 . 8 1,333  952.3  "Toward a Realistic Farm Program", A statement of the Committee for.Economic Development, U.S.A.,.1957, p. 11.  Population Pressure Southeast Asia has been characterized by its rapid growth of population.  Broadly speaking,, the region.has been  until recently one of very thin population.  It seems probable  that the whole of Southeast Asia in the year 1$00 contained only about ten million people.  Malaya then contained about a  quarter million people, Java about four million, and Burma  -27probably less than two million. 2 2  It was, even at the end of  the 13th century, a zone of labour shortage.  But the last one  hundred and fifty years brought great increases in population, causing people to move upon the more fertile areas, upon deltas and into areas where people had not lived before.  By 1916-20,  the total population of Southeast Asia had become eighty-four million, by 1936-40, one hundred and twenty million, and by 1946-50 it was nearly one hundred and forty-five million.2^ This rapid population growth has been a great concern to students in economic development who fear that these countries might not be able to expand their production as fast as the expanding population.  This is a factor which is an obstacle to the economic  development of countries in Southeast Asia. Poverty Problem Poverty is not new in Southeast Asia.  What is new is  the awareness of poverty and the belief that something should be done about it.  All of the countries in Southeast Asia have  within the past decade set up official agencies charged with planning and promoting economic development, and for international assistance to hasten it.  Much of these works have been done  by the United Nations, but it is too early to speculate on the outcome.  22. Janlekha, Kamol, A Study of the Economy of a Rice Growing Village in Central Thailand. Bangkok, Ministry o f " Agriculture, 1955, p. 10.  23.  LOG, cit.  -28Together with the problem of poverty, the problem of education is also an important one for the agricultural or economic development of Southeast Asia.  Following is a table  showing the ratio of illiteracy of the people. TABLE V RATIO OF ILLITERACY OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES  Country  Tear  (PERCENTAGE)  Age  Male Female Total  India  1951 Over 10 yrs. 70.'4  90.6  82. 1  Federation of Malaya  1947 Over 15 yrs. 43.,0  83.4  61. 7  Thailand  1947 Over 10 yrs. 32.,6  59.0  46. 3  Burma  1954 Over 10 yrs. 19.• 4 64.9  42. 7  Ceylon  1946 Over  5 yrs. 29. 9  56.2  42. 0  Philippines  1948 Over 10 yrs. 34. 8  40.7  37. 8  Source:  U.S. Stastical Yearbook, 1957, p. 17.  This low literacy rate in most of the Asian countries is an obstacle for economic development.  Progress comes when  the people are informed and able to be informed.  Knowledge is  worthless unless it is taken to those who can use it.  This  calls for development of an educational system to do the job. The system may take the form of an extension service operated through the schools, or it may require separate community or rural development programs.  -29Marketing Problem A most important factor that has kept Southeast Asia economically underdeveloped is the small market in each of the countries in the area, which is due to the low level of their income.  This small market has important effects on the  volume of international trade and other economic activities. Because of their low level of productivity and hence of low real purchasing power, the underdeveloped agricultural countries play a minor part in world trade.  Nurske said:  ... that business investment abroad has tended in the past to shy away from industries working for the domestic market in the underdeveloped area and to concentrate instead on primary production for export to the advanced industrial centres.24 With special reference to Southeast Asia most writers on the subject of economic development assign the pattern to the commercial design of the colonial powers, which are not applicable in these regions. This small market in Southeast Asia affects domestic as well as foreign capital.  The first difficulty is that the  volume of domestic saving is small or even negative, because of the low level of income.  Although there is saving, it  tends to go into unproductive forms such as gold, jewelry, commodity hoards and hoards of foreign or domestic currency.  24. R. Nurske, Problems of Capital Formation in the Underdeveloped Countries, Oxford. A.T. Broom and Sons ; 19^",' p.  -30This unfortunate tendency is usually explained by inadequate financial organization or lack of education. Present Status of Agricultural Extension in Asia Agricultural extension as a regular government service is still in the early stage of development in most countries in Southeast Asia.  The needs of farmers, in most of the countries,  are not as yet adequately met by the extension services. of funds is almost a general complaint.  Lack  Both the limitation  of the number of trained agricultural extension workers relative to the number to be served and inadequate transportation facilities are to be blamed for the limited assistance available to farmers.  The shortage of extension personnel was much more  acute immediately after the second World War.  Since then, the  number of agricultural extension staff has been increasing. Very few countries, however, appear to have reached a satisfactory level in quality and quantity in this respect. Figure I, (page 31) shows the ratio of farmers to field extension agriculturists in selected countries of Asia compared with some countries in South America. These data indicate the variation in the ratio of farmers to extension staff. ratio.  Japan has the most favourable  Thailand, at the other extreme, has not had time to  build up an adequate extension staff for the new service developed in 1950. Some countries realize the difficulties involved when a field agriculturist has to serve too large an area with many  -31FIGURE I RATIO OF FARMERS TO FIELD EXTENSION AGRICULTURISTS IN SELECTED COUNTRIES  5 >000  10.000  15,000 1300  Thailand Ecuador  • • ,  Bolivia  7000 6000  Chile  _  _  _  Argentina  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4000  South Korea  _  _  5000  2500  Taiwan  .  Japan  1500 650  Source:  FAO, The Present Status of Agricultural Extension Development, 1961 Annual Report, p. 118.  farmers in it.  Following are data available from FAO reports  comparing agricultural extension services in underdeveloped countries with regard to the distribution of their staff among field, provincial and headquarter posts. From Figure II (page 32), we could see that Burma, the Federation of Malaya and Japan are examples of the sound distribution of personnel. The types of agricultural extension organization in Southeast Asia could be classified as follows: a.  Centralized types.  This can be represented by  Thailand, Burma and Ceylon, where all extension workers are  • • -32-  •  FIGURE II HEADQUARTERS, PROVINCIAL AND FIELD EXTENSION STAFF IN SELECTED COUNTRIES 1959 Percentage  Source:  Q~  10  20  30  40  50  60~  70  §0  90  The State of Food and Agriculture, 1961, FAO UN Rome, Italy, 1961, p. 119.  -33employed by the Central government and assigned to work in the provinces or other governmental sub-divisions as the case may be. b.  Decentralized types.  This is represented by Japan  and Indonesia where extension is the responsibility of the provin cial governments, with some financial and technical assistance from the central government. c.  Cooperative type.  This is found in India and Pakis  tan where the central government and the states assume full responsibility for extension by mutual agreement. In Southeast Asia, the training of rural youth is playing an important part in the agricultural extension.  The  table below shows the number and membership of rural youth clubs in nine Asian Countries.  The average membership per club and  particularly the ratio of total club membership to total population figures may indicate the strength of the movement in each country. TABLE VI RURAL YOUTH CLUB ORGANIZATIONS AND MEMBERSHIP IN SELECTED NINE.COUNTRIES, 1959 Country  Number of rural youth clubs  Ceylon 1,000 Japan 17,319 South Korea 3,729 Fed. of Malaya 7 Nepal 310 Philippines 4,703 Taiwan 3,571 Thailand 134 Vietnam 401 Source:  Membership Average' • Number of club in rural membership members per youth clubs per club 10,000 people boys-girls 20,000 244,9.23 142,594 300 1,350 115,323 43,471 4,343 13,747  20 14 39 43 4 25 12 36 47  Adapted from FAO Report, 1961, p. 122.  20 27 63 0.5 2 43 44 2 7  -34The inadequate number of agricultural extension workers is due to many reasons besides those previously mentioned.  One is that education, including agricultural education,  has been and still is very academic.  It is usually said that  "I am not equal to experienced farmers" or "Nothing you can do about it, anyway."  Many agricultural graduates belong to this  category and would not be of much help to the farmers in their daily farm activities.  The other reason is that the importance  of the ministry of agriculture or. Department of Agriculture does not receive the proper recognition from the government. Either the government does not have enough appropriations for research, education and extension, or it is operating on a low pay scale and thus cannot keep men on its staff to insure continuity of the work. The tables below show the number of students graduating from technical schools and agricultural colleges for 195356 and 1950-59 respectively: TABLE VII NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN TECHNICAL SCHOOLS PER THOUSAND OF POPULATION, 1953-56Philippines Thailand Indonesia Federation of Malaya South Vietnam India Burma Ceylon Source:  2.6 2.0 1.1 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2  U.N. Economic Survey of Asia and the Fareast 1953, p. 4 5 .  -35TABLE VIII AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE GRADUATES, IN TEN COUNTRIES 1950-59  Number of Agricultural Colleges  Country  Burma Ceylon India Indonesia Japan South Korea Pakistan Philippines Taiwan Thailand Source:  1 1 20 1 27 13 3 ' 5 2 1  Total Number of Graduates 1950-59  Number of Farm Population per Graduate  77  68 7,068 133  21,858  5,195 20,324  10,160 112,782  5,655  708  5,792 3,14$ 437  394 427 22,831 95^ 396 10,069  FAO Report "State of Food and Agriculture, 1961", p. 122.  Japan had the largest number of graduates in the 1950-59 period with the proportion of 1 to 394 farm people. In general, graduates prefer to be government administrators or employees of large private concerns. return to private farming.  Seldom do they  From the table below it can be seen  that in 1955-59, graduates from the agricultural colleges in Burma, Ceylon and Thailand are mainly in government  services  or teaching, while less than five percent went to farm work on privately owned units.  -36TABLE IX  EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE GRADUATES IN SELECTED COUNTRIES 1955-59 Country .. Burma Ceylon Japan Thailand  In.Govt. Teaching CommerServices cial & Industrial 76.7 50.0 30.1 53.6  Source:  2.3 19.2 14.0 27.3  3.9 33.2 1.2  In Advanced Farming Studies 7.0 5.9  4.7 15.4 9-1 4.1  In other Occupations 16.3 11.3 6.6 2.9  Adapting from FAO Report 1961: The present status of agricultural extension development in Asia and the Fareast, p. 126.  The enrolment in agricultural colleges has grown steadily during the past ten years.  The rapid increase has  been due in part to the growing emphasis laid by governments on agricultural development since 1945, which is reflected in increased appropriations for higher agricultural education. The graph below shows the number of student enrolments in selected countries 1950-59 (1950 = 100).  (See page 37).  However, the development of a sound system of extension must necessarily be a slow process, as it involves the training of personnel, the setting-up of a workable organization, the appropriation of funds and the changing of attitude of the farming population. Experience in countries with small farms in most of the Asian countries indicate that each field extension agriculturalist can serve effectively a number of farmers ranging from  -37FIGURE 3 STUDENT ENROLMENT IN SELECTED COUNTRIES 1950-59 Number of Students  1. 2.  College of Agriculture, Thailand. Average for Ten Countries.  3.  Department of Agriculture, University of Ceylon.  Source:  The FAO Report 1961, p. 125.  six hundred to one thousand subject to the availability of transportation facilities, closeness of areas, the educational and technical level of the farmers and the methods used to contact and persuade the farmers. To obtain maximum results, extension work should be concentrated on education and aimed sharply on the satisfaction of the farmers' needs.  The major obstacles to progress appear  -2680to be lack of funds, of trained staff, and of a clearly organizational structure which makes it possible for the decisions taken by the policy-makers to be carried out efficiently.  When  staff is being trained, greater emphasis might, with advantage, be placed on extension methods, technical subjects and practical experience. Higher priority should be given to field work.  Some  extension services have attempted to improve their operations by adjusting the area assigned to a field worker to the size that can be effectively served, provided adequate equipment, supplies, transportation and other facilities which help the staff to give greater assistance to farmers, and by adjusting office and field work in order to make the maximum number of field workers free for demonstration and other activities with the rural population.25 Fuller cooperation between extension and research education, credit, marketing and other services would be fruitful. Principles and Methods of Agricultural Extension Which Could be Applied to Southeast Asia The principles and methods of agricultural extension which could be applied to Southeast Asian countries are: 1.  Study the cultural and economic background of  the people to be served.  In all regions in Southeast Asia, it  • 25. Summarized from the recommendations of FAO report on Agricultural Extension in Asia, Report FAO 19619 p. 137.  -39is important for an extension worker to recognize the local unit of society and use the best type of local leadership. Constant leadership training is required. 2.  Use self-help technique whenever feasible with  locally available materials and tools.  Great improvements can  be made by relatively simple and inexpensive means.  Try to  encourage the people to do things within their ability to help themselves. 3.  Adapt the subject matter and the teaching pro-  cedure to the educational level of the people whose behaviour it is desired to change. 4.  Emphasize teaching through demonstrations estab-  lished by rural people themselves on their own farms or in their own homes, which will thus serve as teaching centers. 5.  Carry on education work with adults at the same  time that boys and girls are receiving instruction in schools. This is essential to ensure an effective educational program.  6.  Personnel for the program of agricultural exten-  sion should be carefully chosen.  They should posses a desire  to serve, be able to get along well with people, especially rural people, be sympathetic in their attitudes and familiar with the customs and cultural background of the people they meet. Due to the low educational level of the farmers, the inefficiency of farm techniques, the social organization systems and cultural habits, communication and transportation facilities, shortage of trained extension personnel, only few of the agricultural extension methods could possibly be used in Southeastern Asia.  -40Mass methods for extension teaching, including radio, news stories, magazines, bulletin and circular letters which are used so effectively in countries in Europe and North America, would not work in Asian countries because few farmers have radios or can read and therefore can not benefit from these methods. The demonstration method like government demonstration farms could be used as an extension teaching device, but the effectiveness is in doubt.  While the extension agricultur-  alist can stage an excellent demonstration oh the government farm, the farmer usually does not come to  But if  he comes he finds conditions of operations unrealistic because on government demonstration farms work is done by hired labour, using facilities beyond the capacity of the farmers. The personal contact which has been the main method used to persuade and train farm people is a practical method in Asia.  In a country where the educational level is low, the  personal visit of an extension worker to a farm and practical assistance given to a farmer in improving farm technique is effective.  When the" farmer becomes convinced that modern  scientific methods are of practical value for the solution of his problem, when he finds from actual experience that the new methods bring him benefit, he gains confidence in the extension worker and believes in his assistance. This method of personal contact, however, cannot be used to reach a large number of people because of physical difficulties.  For this reason, demonstrations are considered  -41to be more efficient when a larger number of people are involved and are used to complement personal contacts and farm visits. Both farm visits and demonstrations require the agricultural extension workers to spend a large part of their time in the field, consulting farmers, cooperating with them in actual practice and showing them new modern farming methods which can be used. In Asia, the problem which is the bottle neck in the future development of agricultural extension is the shortage of well-trained personnel for extension.  This includes not  only field workers, but administrators and specialists as well. In solving this problem, international cooperation is required. Some of the measures have been designed and some initiative works have been done by the FAO and the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) of U.N.  The works of FAO and  ECAFE could be summarized as follows: Personnel Training This could be discussed as follows: 1. sion Workers.  A Regional Center or Centers for Training ExtenIt is desirable to have one or two regional  training centres to which countries in the Region can send some of their senior extension people for training.  They may  then return to start national training centers and to train field workers in their home countries.  The University of  Philippines, College of Agriculture at Los Banos is now ready to make its training facilities available for this purpose. Many students from several of the Southeast Asian countries went to this training center.  -42-  The agricultural extension meeting was held in Bhopal, India in 1955.  FAO conducted the agricultural exten-  sion training center for Asia and the Far East at Los Banos, Phillipines in 1952, with financial assistance from the Council on Economic and Social Affairs and U.N. Technical Assistance Board.  It was attended by eighteen representatives of twelve  countries in Asia.  The purpose of the training center was to  train extension teachers with the hope that, upon returning to their home countries, they could initiate national training programs for extension work under their local conditions. 2.  National Extension Training Centers.  National  training centres should be attached to a regular training institute in a country, such as a college of agriculture or a secondary school of agriculture.  This training institution  having been strengthened by the operation of the short term course would be enabled to take up the training project later as part of its regular training program.  It is common that  short term courses are conducted separately from the training institutions.  This indicates a lack of cooperation and co-  ordination. 3»  Agricultural Extension Study Tour.  In 1957,  FAO organized an agricultural extension study tour to cover Japan, the Phillipines and India for a total of six weeks, with twenty-one participants representing twelve countries in Asia. This study tour was considered successful.  The participants  could see all that they wished to see and there was discussion in each place and organization visited.  This is useful in  -5.4exchanging ideas among the participants and observing the local conditions and organization of the places visited. 4. Regional Meetings.  Following are the extension  meetings held by FAO: a.  The First East Asian Extension Workshop was held  in Manila and Baguio, Philippines in 1955, under the auspices of the International Cooperation Administration of the Government of U.S.A.  It was attended by representatives of China  (Taiwan), Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand and South Vietnam. b.  The FAO sponsored Agricultural Extension Develop-  ment centre for Asia and the Far East was held in Bhopal, India,  .1955.  It was represented by Ceylon, India, Indonesia, Japan,  Federation of Malaya, Nepal, Thailand and South Vietnam. meeting produced a series of recommendations.  The  These recommenda-  tions serve as the guide lines for FAO to assist member governments of the Region in further development of their extension work. c.  The ICA sponsored Far East Rural Youth Conference  was held in Bangkok, Thailand in 1957.  It was attended by  representatives of Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand and South Vietnam. Regional meetings, such as these listed above, could be very useful if they were planned and well conducted.  For  each meeting held, there must be a well thought out agenda, on which each item listed must be supported by a well prepared working paper to serve as a guide.  If necessary, the attendance  ~44~ could be broken up into groups for intensive discussion. the meeting long speeches should be avoided.  During  A few experienced  people should always be present to serve as resource persons. At the meeting the participants should not only be able to exchange their experiences among themselves, but often new ideas or new methods would be involved as a result of the group thinking. 5. Extension Publications.  Since extension is a  comparatively new undertaking in the Region, there is a dearth of reading material on extension based on local conditions. Beginning from 1957, FAO has been issuing a semi-annual publication, "Extension in Asia", on the request of its member governments.  This is the only regional publication of its kind.  Previously "Asian Extension Newsletter" was published for two or three years by the Office of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the government of the Philippines, in cooperation with IGA of U.S.A. , but it has been suspended.  The usefulness of the FAO  publication could be increased if FAO could circulate it as widely as possible among all the people concerned in all countries in the Region.  It should reach not only extension  workers, agricultural administrators, and agricultural teachers, but even legislators and politicians who are concerned with agricultural extension for financing and policy making.  It  would thus become a medium of education for all concerned. FAO has been requested to prepare a textbook on extension for use in the Region. to the development of extension.  This will be a contribution  -456.  Extension Supporting Measures.  There are a few 26 resources that will help to make extension work much easier. One is the setting up of the farmers' organization which usually plays a very important role in agricultural improvement.  This  is particularly so in the Region where farms are small and numerous and extension workers are few. As mentioned earlier, in Japan one extension worker will have to serve on the average six hundred farm households, while in India one multi-purpose village level worker will have to cover from eight to ten villages of about one hundred families each.  In some other countries, even more farm families will  have to be served by one extension worker.  In view of trans-  portation difficulties in most rural areas, this is a formidable task.  It is impossible for the extension worker to make contact  with all the farmers individually, and therefore he must work with them in groups. Two kinds of farmer organizations can be used as examples.  One is the agricultural cooperative association in  Japan, and the other is the farmers' association in Taiwan. Both are bonafide farmers' associations systematically organized throughout the country.  They are all for multi-purpose, handling  credit, deposits, marketing farm supplies, storage and processing.  In Japan and Taiwan, for example, these organizations  handle seed distribution and sales of farm supplies such as fertilizers, pesticide and farm tools, thus relieving extension 237 C.W. Ghong, "Agricultural Extension in Asia". International Rice Commission, Vol. VII, Wo. 2, 1958, p. 21.  —46— workers of these responsibilities and enabling them to devote their full attention to educational activities. In some other countries, the extension worker finds it necessary to organize some ad hoc farm groups, such as a farm study group or a farmer club.  They are helpful but the  ultimate goal should be for each country to have a suitable kind of permanent farmers' organization that would serve the needs of all the farm families. Much of the extension workers' assistance to a village will be productive only in cooperation with such organization as mentioned above, to provide credit, supplies and other farm needs.  Extension workers should be familiar with  them and learn how to work with them. also very important.  The local leadership is  The following guide lines were given by  the FAO Rural Institutions and Services Division at the International meeting on Methods and Program Planning in Agricultural and Home Economics Extension in July I960 about the importance of local leadership: .... The improved practices which the extension worker has to teach cannot take root in the lives of people nor become widely accepted unless representatives of local communities will come forward to set the example themselves. These are the lay leaders who act as the indispensable carriers of an extension program in different fields of activity in the farm and in the home. One of the most important responsibilities in extension work is to be able to identify the potential for BONA FIDE leadership. It must create opportunities for true leadership to emerge to the fore and prove its worth in the eyes of the people.  -47The training provided to extension workers must make sure that they acquire competence in recognizing, encouraging and building up lay leadership. The recognizable characteristics of a lay leader are these: He is a local resident, commanding the respect and confidence of his neighbours. Endowed with more than average intelligence, he would be more open than others • to suggestions for new improvements and willing to try them out in his own farm and home. He has sufficient public spirit to wish others to share the benefits of his action by persuading them to follow his example. While a little ahead of other members of his community, he is yet not too far removed from them in social and economic status and not out of touch with their hopes and fears, problems and values....27  27. International Rice Commission Recommendation, Newsletter. Vol. V., i960, p..17.  -2690-  THE APPLICATION OF AGRICULTURAL METHODS TO THAILAND AGRICULTURE In Thailand agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. It provides livelihood for about eighty percent of the population, produces almost half of the national income and is the source of eighty-five percent to ninety percent of Thailand's export. Agriculture techniques are still quite primitive. The farmers do not lack initiative, but his ambitions are modest and his knowledge is limited to the tradition and some religious rigidity.  His patterns and methods of cultivation  can hardly be expected to change without sound and adequate advice and guidance.  In order to help him the sound and effic-  ient agricultural extension methods have to be used. In the Western World, the agricultural extension methods are fully developed and suitable to its circumstance. Mass methods like radio, television and newspapers cannot be applied in Thailand because most of the Thai farmers cannot read and very f§w have radios.  Following are the methods which  can be applied: Personal Contacts.  This method, which is mostly used  in Europe and North America with an effective result, can be used in Thailand to persuade and train farmers.  In Thailand  where the education level is low, the personal visit of an extension worker to a farm to give the farmers practical  -m-  ::  assistance in applying an improved farming technique would be effective.  As a matter of fact, the most effective extension  influence is the neighbour who is one step a head. Most farmers are unresponsive to organized talks or meetings, but are quick to learn from what goes on in the neighbouring fields. Therefore an extension worker must be a man of patience, prepared to spend considerable time with the farmers, to listen to their troubles and to win their friendship and confidence. With him the extension worker carries seed samples, some phosphate, mineral licks for the cattle, medicine for the pigs and chickens.  In return for his help and company one farmer agrees  to a trial of new seed, another to the use of phosphate on part of his land.  These are some examples which agricultural exten-  sion workers should do and which should have an effective result. culties.  The personal contacts, as I said above, have some diffiThis method cannot reach the large number of people  because of its physical difficulty.  It is rather expensive in  its nature and it would involve a large number of agricultural extension workers.  At the present time, there are less than  three hundred extension officers in the whole of Thailand, including those who do some extension work incidental to the main assignment on the experimental farms. staff should be about one thousand.  The agricultural extension  There are four hundred and  forty-eight districts in the whole of Thailand.  Each district  should be provided with two extension officers.  To increase the  number of extension workers, the first thing to do is to expand the training institutions and facilities.  It will be necessary  -5.4to rely for the present on the existing senior vocational schools, and to provide a period of actual farming experience at the government's experimental farms which number about fifty and could provide practical field experience for the agricultural extension workers.  These experimental farms could  be training centers and the divisional headquarters to the local extension service.  In rice areas, for example, major  attention should be given to the improvement of rice production. Similarly in rubber areas the focus should be primarily on rubber.  But more attention should be given to the training in  cropping patterns and rotations that combine rice with other crops. Demonstration Method.  This method of extension is  also a practicable one in teaching the Thai farmers.  If we  can get a large number of farmers to come and watch the new technique of farming, we can then show them the advantage and the profit of using the new technique.  The disadvantage of  using this method of demonstration is that the farmer often does not come.  If he does come he finds that the conditions  of the operation are unrealistic, because at a government demonstration farm work is done by hired labour, using facilities, equipment and practices beyond the financial and technical capacity of the farmer.  To solve this problem, the demonstra-  tion has to be done properly, realistic to the local conditions which will convince the farmers to adopt the new technique. Meetings.  The meeting is another mass method which  could also be practicable.  It will be more effective if we  -51can show some films, slides concerning the subjects or the techniques which the agricultural extension workers try to introduce to the farmers.  People are more impressed by what  they have seen than what they have heard. Ideally, methods should be diversified.  Meetings,  demonstrations, discussions, films and slides can be used complementarily.  Their combinations have to be varied accord-  ing to the local conditions. Thailand Agricultural Extension Projects Some projects in the field of agricultural extension for Thailand are as follows:23 Field Crop Research and Experiment Project Under the National Plan, the Farming Department is to undertake research and experiment in five agricultural stations that have already been established in the Northeast. Emphasis of these research stations will be placed on those crops which could be profitably marketed abroad, such as maize, kenaf, castor beans, kapok, cotton, tobacco, and various beans. Research and experiment will be taken along side with extension work.  The number of extension workers will have to be  increased for the purpose.  Extension work represents, by and  large, an attempt at educating farmers in the proper use of seeds and fertilizers in mechanization, and in crop rotation. This project is divided into the following projects:  28. The Government of Thailand, The Northeast Development Plan 1962-1766, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 40-44.  a.  Plant Disease and Pest Control Project.  Three  mobile units for suppression of plant diseases and pests will be established with a view to speedy eradication of plant diseases and pests, such as castor bean worms. b.  Stable Crops Extension and Improvement Project.  The purpose of this project is to encourage people in the Northeast to practice diversified farming.  Since the fact that  regional, provincial, and district extension officers are extremely busy with routine work represents the main obstacle in this connection, mobile extension units will be put into operation, with emphasis on major field crops which are highly demanded.  In all cases, marketing problems will be taken into  consideration to the farthest extent possible.  Moreover,  organization of farmers' groups will be encouraged. c.  Soil Fertility Survey and Research Project.  Research will be undertaken with a view to encouraging proper use of soil and fertilizer by the farmer, consistent with conservation principles and practices.  This project will  operate in coordination with the land capability classification survey project.  Attention will be given especially to the use  of cover crops and fertilizer in cassava growing. Northeast Agricultural Development Project The Project aims at enabling the farmers to grow field crops properly in place of and in rotation with rice.  It  will operate through agricultural improvement centers where permanent staff carry out field demonstrations for the benefit of the farmer.  The staff of the centers also performs the duty  of extension workers in encouraging the farmers to put what has been demonstrated to them into practice.  The success of the  project, therefore, depends largely on the quality of the extension staff. Silk Research and Extension Project Under the project, research, experiment, and extension will be carried out in the five silkworm culture stations.  A  successful operation of the project will prove extremely beneficial in view of the fact that silk is an export which has good and stable demand.  In actual fact, the Ministry of Agriculture  has been giving encouragement to silkworm rearing for many decades, but the effort put to the task was sporadic and the result has consequently been incomplete.  The operation of the  project under this plan involves introduction of Japanese silkworms and popularization of Italian mulberry trees.  At the  initial stages foreign experts will be requested and the silkworm culture station is to be the center of extension and research. Rural Education In Thailand, the sons of the farmers have been taken from school at an early age to help on the farms.  These boys  should have stayed longer and received more training particularly for the farm practice.  The idea of 4H clubs, which are playing  an important role in the education of the rural youth in the West, will be considered.  The existing cooperative organization  activities should be expanded.  These cooperative associations  -5.4would be a great help in the expansion of the rural youth education.  The idea of having training extension schools for  the farmers to give them some practical training is also worthwhile.  '  ' Rice Extension  A steady expansion of rice production has. been one of the main targets for improvement of Thailand agriculture. More emphasis should be put-on the extension "work connected with rice production.  Various methods such as suggestion,  persuasion, demonstration, and supporting assistance to the farmers must be employed.  The main problem lies in the fact  that agricultural officers have to do regular office work in the province and district, having little time for technical field operations.  In solving this problem, a large number of  extension workers should be engaged to perform technical duties as distinct from administrative ones.  The mobile units  are needed to send these extension workers to the fields.  The  principle of extension work will be altered with greater emphasis on demonstration, since distribution of publications would not be effective.  The mobile units should have vehicles  and equipment necessary for extension operation and also seed for distribution to the farmers.  In facilitating the task, the  farmers should be encouraged to organize voluntary farmers' groups for the purpose of extensive work and seed distribution.  Fishery Extension Fish is the main diet of Thai people. should be done to expand the fish industry.  Something  The fishery exten-  sion, which aims to encourage'people to raise fish, build fish dams and improve fish habitats, has to be carried on extensively. In-achieving this goal, the Fishery Department should expand fish breeding in irrigation tanks and canals, and build fish dams in public waters.  There should be coordination with the  work of community development in encouraging the people to build fish ponds.  It is anticipated that fish in natural waters will  be depleted in the near future.' Steps should be taken to promote fish culture to such a wide extent that the fish raised would be enough for future consumption. Problem of Agricultural Extension in Thailand The crucial problem of agricultural extension development in Thailand is the lack of qualified and sufficient extension workers.  In the western world, for example in the U.S.A., the  Land-Grant-College system is playing an important role in developing the American, agriculture.  In Thailand, we have one agriculture  college, Kasetsart University, with the number of annual graduates' about two hundred.  The concentration should be put more on  improving the quality of instruction by adding more staff; on providing more adequate classrooms, laboratories and student quarters; and especially on adding facilities for instruction and experience in applied crop and animal husbandry at field stations in both the Bangkok area and at selected up-country locations.  The agricultural extension course should be added to the curriculum of the University.  There should be an agricul-  tural extension staff to provide the technical instruction needed for effective extension service and further practical training under actual farming conditions to prospective extension officers. The number of agricultural vocational schools is still not sufficient.  The agricultural curriculum in these  agricultural vocational schools should be strengthened.  These  vocational schools would be the place for training agricultural extension workers. The problem of transportation of extension workers is also an important one*  There must be adequate provision for  the local transport of extension workers, so that they can be on regular duty tour.. Probably in many districts bicycles or motor-scooters would serve the transportation needs, but in most districts it would be desirable to assign a jeep to the extension office. The Thai government should spend more money in the field, of agricultural extension services.  In the past, only a  small part of the budget has been allocated to the development of agricultural extension services.  The lack of funds has  also been a big obstacle to the expansion of these services to the farmers.  CONCLUSIONS  The previous section has suggested some areas where agricultural extension could be most effective by outlining some agricultural extension projects for the development of Thailand agriculture.  The solutions to the problems of  agricultural extension services are also given. In actual fact, agricultural extension work in Southeast Asia is still in the primary stage. extension workers is an important problem.  The lack of  For the further  development of agricultural extension work in Southeast Asia, international cooperation is required in order to provide technical advice and financial assistance as well as inspiration.  Training of agricultural extension workers is also an  important factor contributing to the success of the extension work.  -5a-  BIB1I0GRAPHY  Abell, H.D., "The Farm Family in Canada". Economic Annalist. . .June, 1959. ... ~~ Anuman, Radhaton, The Life of the Farmer. In Thai Language, Translated by "William J. Gedney, Bangkok, 1951. Baker, H.R., "Research in Extension, Present and Future", Agricultural institute Review, October, I960.. Baker, W.B., and Solomon, D.D., "The Role of Agricultural Extension in Comprehensive Resource Development", Resource for Tomorrow Conference Paper, Vol. 1., Ottawa, Queen's Printers, 1961. Bauer and Yamey, The Economics of the Underdeveloped Countries, Cambridgep^'ames Nisbet and Co., 1959. Beers, H.W., "Program Evaluation in India", Rural Sociology Review, December I960. Belshaw, H., Agricultural Credit in Economically Underdeveloped Countries , FAO, Rome, 1956. ~ Brown, E.J., and Beekens, "Roles of the Extension Specialist", Rural Sociology Review, October, I960. Carpenter, G.A., "Developing Educational Work in Agricultural Policy", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 35, 1953. Chang, C.W., "Agricultural Extension in Asia", Internatlonal Rice Commission, Newsletter, Vol. VII, No. 1, 1958. Chang, C.W., "Impressions of Agricultural Work in the U.S.A.", International Rice Commission, Newsletter, Vol. VII, No. 2., 1958. • Chang, H.T., "Land Reform and Other Factors Contributing to Rice Production Increase in Taiwan", International Rice Commission..Newsletter,. Vol. VI,-No. 3, 1957. Chanleka, K., A Study of the Economy of a Rice Growing Village in Central Thailand, Bangkok, Ministry of Agriculture, Dobby, E.H.G., Southeast Asia, London, University of London  Emery, F.E., and Oeser, O.A., Information, Dicision and Action. Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1958* Food and Agriculture Organization, The 1953 Yearbook, Vol. 7« Food and Agriculture Organization, F.A.O. Annual Report I960, FAO/UNKRA Mission, "Rehabilitation and Development of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery in South Korea'J 1954. Gould, J.S., "Estimates of Gross National Product and Net National Income of Thailand, 1933-39, 1946, 1947 and 1943". Mimeo, Bangkok, January 1950. Hadley, N.S., "Evaluation of Extension Methods Used in Farm and Home Development in the Midwest", Journal ,of Farm Economics, Vol. 37, 1955* Hardin, D.M. Freedom in Agricultural Education, Chicago, The : University of Chicago Press, 1955. •• Harrison, B., Southeast Asia, London:  Macmillan and Co., 1954«  Heady, E.O., "Adaptation of Extension and Auxilliary Aids to the,Basic Economic Program of Agriculture", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 39, 1957. How, R.B., "Extension Opportunities in Marketing', Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Vol.. IX, 1961. International Agricultural Study Center, Handbook on Method of Agricultural Extension, Wageningen University, Holland, 1953. Kelsey, L.D., and D.D. Hearne, Cooperative Extension Work, .. Ithaca, Comstock Publishing Co.7^-949. :  Khan, T.M., "Consumption Patterns in Underdeveloped Countries", Dissertation Abstract, Ann Arbour, Michigan, Vol. XXI, 1MoT~12, 1961. Leake  A.H.  The Means and Methods of Agricultural Education,  Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1915.  Martin, A.B., "What Kinds of Economic Information Do Farmers Want", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. IX, 1961. Mosher, A.T., Inter-relationships Among Agricultural Development. Social Organization and Personnel Attitudes and~VaIues^ lew York, Council ox Social Work, 1959.  -60Nielson, J., "Evaluation of Extension Methods in Farm and Home Development, Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 37, 1955. - • • ' Nuffield Foundation, Farming Advisory Service in North America, .iiondon, 195^7 ' •• • • • • • ....."...•..•... ~~ Nuffield Foundation, Agricultural Advisory Services in Europe and North America, Paris. 1961. • • • Organization for European Economic Corporation, The Written Words in Agricultural Advisory Work, 1959. Phipps, L.J., Handbook on Teaching Vocational Agriculture, Illinois, Interstate Printing Co.,1952. " Pringle, Richard, "Report on Co-op in Thailand", (U.S. Special Technical and Economic Mission to Thailand), Mimeo, Bangkok, 1951. Putnam, P.L., "Evaluation of Extension Methods Employed in Farm.and Home Development in Northeast", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 37, 1955. Ratchford, C.B., "Improving Agricultural Economic Extension", Journal.of Farm Economics, Vol. 36, 1954* Sanitwonyse, Yai Si, An Outline of Rice Cultivation in Siarn, (Thailand, Ministry of Agriculture], Bangkok, 19H. Smith, C.B., "Development of Agricultural Extension Work", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 23, 1931. Thailand, Ministry of Agriculture, Annual Report for the Tear 1950 to the FAO of U.N., Bangkok, 1950. Wertz, V.R., "Economic Information in Farm Management", Journal of Farm Economic s, Vol. 21, 1939. Williams, M.S., "Evaluation of Extension Methods Employed in Farm and Home Development in the South", Journal of Farm Economics, Vol. 37, 1955. Wittich, W.A., Audio-Visual Materials: Their Nature and Use; New York, Harper & Brothers.Printers, New York, 1962. Zimmerman, D.D., Siam, Rural Economic Survey, 1930-31, Bangkok, Bangkok Times Press Ltd., 1931.  ~~  


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