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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Penticton and its region Wahl, Edward 1955

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mmsmm m  m  RBGIOM  by Emm  WAHL  A THESIS SUBMITTED IK PARTIAL Fm^ILiiSm1 OF i m REQtmiE'i-iGI.'TS FOE THii KfflRSE OF MSf HI OF ARTS in the Separtaeht of Geology and Geography i We accept tills thesis as conforming to the sttmdard.rsqtiired froa emviidaios for the degree of imSfEK Of AS3PB.  Members of the Depsrfeaent of SeoXo^ and Oeograptiy. fUE tmiWERSm OF BElflSH OMfttA April, 1S5?  ABSTRACT The Penticton region is part of the Okanagan Valley which is situated in the southern interior of British Columbia. During and after Pleistocene times, soil materials were deposited in the valley in the form of terraces and alluvial fans. The climate being warm and dry stimulated the growth of grasses which not only enriched the soils but provided good grazing for wild animals and, jwith the coming of the white man, for numerous cattle. But the soil and the climate held more promise, with irrigation they provided ideal conditions for the growing of fruit and it was not long before the cattle industry was replaced by a new economybased on fruit. | As transportation facilities increased, the region became more easily accessible from the outside and also permitted a freer flow of its produce to market. New settlers flocked in to take up the lands and put them into orchard. To supply the needs of the expanding region. Penticton grew from a small nucleus on the Okanagan lake to a thriving to>m. Secondary industries largely based on fruit sustained the growing population. Because it is noif almost exclusively based on fruit, the economy of the region is extremely sensitive to the vagaries of outside market conditions and the need for diversification of industry has become increasingly apparent. The lumber industry shows little promise of future expansion because of the too distant sources of logs; manufacturing which is not based on fruit lacks a ready source of raw materials, cheap power, and is open to competition from more favored areas 5 the tourist industry shows  promise of considerable expansion, but has the disadvantage of coinciding in time with the growing season. There are no extensive mineral deposits close enough at hand to exert a significant effect on the regional economy, j As a result, the region will have to depend on expansion of the fruit industry, the finding of new markets, and on a considerable increase in fruit processing. Too, some growth vri.ll doubtless result from Penticton's importance as a distributing and commercial centre; trade Hill be augmented as the populations of the South Okanagan and the various settlements to the east on the Kettle Valley Railroad continue to increase. / The problems facing the.Penticton region's continued growth are various. ! There are, ho«#ver, certain geographic advantages -yhxch,. x£ properly used and developed^ will go far in providing not only the things considered essential to modern living, but also a legacy, both bountiful and lasting, for the future.  H1SFA0E J tdsh to tliank the staff of the Oaography Department of the University of British Columbia for thoir generous help with thia thecis. I  particularly indebted to .Dr. J. Lewie P-obinson. By «lvjLeorp for his  advice and criticira-, and to I'ir. E. I . Etagrlos for Mb unfailing interest in the progress? of my sort, Ky thanks ero due also the Penticton City Council end the Penticton Tora Planning Cornrrdncion who generously supplied ne with «ap«findinfarction. Mr. ballcer, of Walker aad Graham, Term Planners, made available the torn plan for Penticton arid discussed some of the problems tdih. iMdi Penticton m s faced. Ur. K. P. i). Truispour, Government Ilorticultarist at fonticfcoR, gave unsttntlngly of hie time end answered aany questions on the agricultural aspects of the Penticton region. Unpublished data on the agricultural lands were released to rse through tho kindness of  C. C. Kelloy, itepci-tment of  Agriculture, Eelwaia, B.C. Finally, 1 a» deeply grateful to lfd.es Loretta Farisien t$io gave most generously of her tiae to h&lp with the rap uork, the  P r o o f readiag, a M who did the final typing of this vorlc.  CBiwsity of British Columbia March, 1955  TABLE Of GQBfERTS OIMH'ilt  . pfflf  THE FHSSICM) o m m m  1, BIT10I3WX0N  . . . .  . . . . . * . . . . . >. v  » ... . . .  ...,  . •  •.  II. LOCATION A M BOOKDARIBS' OF TBS REGION  in.  >  i 1  6  Location arid Space Relations  6  Boundaries  6  fie mrnrnmrnmr  . • . . . * • • » • » ' • • • • . « « • * . .  .. .  v v  ° • • v  General mmi  mM  wrnsAis  12  12 laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  LA»K5MS XK fffiSBBIFT DEPOSITS  16  . . . . . * . . . . . . .  18  file Terrace For.-natlons  18  Tha Alluvial fane . . . . . . , . . . . . . • < • . . • The MvBlopcmxit cf the Landforms  ..*•«*  .  22  . . . . .  22  flie tfork of lee . . . . » The Post-01aeisl Scene  23  . . .  25  The itongh and Saootli Terrace Surfaces  30  if. t u m m m m m  3U  General  3k  • The fy&utey Streams . , < • • ' . • , . . . * . * * . . • The falley  fetes  36 3®  Tho ifeia Stream  38  The Problem of Spring Run-off and Flood Control . . . «  38  Groundwater « . » . . «  Ij2  • »«•«•«•«*«.«*.  «  Water Secourcea . .  43v  fetor Poorer « « . « . . . . • . . « » . • . » < • « • • •  U3  The Recreational Possibilities  U3  .......  V  CHAPTER  PAGE  V. THE CLIMATE  .  45  The Major Climatic Controls .  47  The serai-permanent high- and low-pressure centres . .  48  Latitude  49  . . .  Altitude  . .  The Elements of the Larger Climate Temperature  49 .  50  .  50.  Precipitation  ••  Relative humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54  Cloud cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54  Winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...  The Controls of the Okanagan Climate  . .  The Valley as a Control of Valley Climate  55 56 56  Effect of valley on temperature  . 56  Effect of the valley on precipitation  57  Effect humidity Effect of of the the valley valley on on relative cloud cover . .  58 58  Effect of the valley on winds  59  The Smaller Landforms as Controls of Valley Climate . .  60  The Valley Lakes as Controls of Valley Climate  62  ....  The Natures of the Surfaces as Controls of Valley Climate  .. . . • . . . . • . • « « • » • • • • • •  THE CLIMATIC ELEMENTS OF THE PENTICTON REGION . . . . . . Temperature Annual and monthly temperature The seasonal temperatures .  °3 66 66  .....  66 ......  68  vi CHAPTER  PAGE The problem of .frost . ......  .  68  The frequency of. frost .occurrence . . . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. 75 The probability of a day with frost .  ... 75  The -frosts-free ..season . .............. . . ... . . . . . . The growing season  .  77  .. .. . .. .. .. ,. .. . .. .  . .  Precipitation  79  Amount and annual distribution of precipitation Sncrtjfall Relative Humidity  ,. ...  ....  79  -.  80  . . . . . -. •. . . . . . . . . . . .  . .. . . . ..  VI. THE H6ETATI0N AMD SOILS  80  « . . . . . .  85  .. . . . -. .. ... .. ... . . .. . ,.. , , . .  Gliraatie Summary , . . . . . . . . . . . .  Soil Classification  . . .  . . . . . ..  Cloudiness and Sunshine , . . . . .. . . Minds  . . .  89  . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .  93  . . » . . ..... . * . . ... . .  Vegetation and Soils Classified  . ,.  . .... . . . . . . .  Bog soils  (a) Skaha gravelly sandy loam  96  .  Brown soils . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . » ... . .  93 96  ......  Groundwater soils . . . * . *  97  .  97  ...........  98  (b) Osoyoos sandy loam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  99  (c) Osoyoos loamy sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  199  (d) Penticton silt loam . . . . . . . . .  * . . . ..  99  Undifferentiated Mountain. Soils. . . . . . . « . * • * * 100 Bark t>rot<m soils  77  «*.*•«<»«..«.  The black soils . .. * ......... * The grey*wooded or podsolic soils. - . « * . . . . . - » • »  100 101 101  87  vii CHAPTER  PAGE Miscellaneous Areas Rubble  102  * » * « « !»»« • • » » » . . «  Rough mountainous land  • »..»•••  . .  »  / VII. SUMARI OF THE PHX'SIGAL REGION  102 102 106  PART II. THE HUHAN GEOGRAPHY  108  A. THE SEQUENT OCCUPANCE  108  VIII. THE SEQUENT OCCUPANCE  108  THE EARLY PERIOD OF SETTLEMENT AND GROWTH  108  The Beginnings of Permanent Settlement and Industry . .  109  Early Transportation  .................  Ill  The Effect of Improved Transportation . . . . . . . . .  112  Early Industries in the Penticton Region  113  .  The Toxm  Ill*  Extension of Transportation After 1900  ...  The Effect of Transportation on the Tovnsite  llit .....  The Growth of Population and Diverse Industry  116  THE SECOND PERIOD OF GROWTH . Population Growth During the Second Period  116  119 ......  119  The Groxrbh of Transportation During the Second Period .  120  The Growth of Industry During the Second Period . . . .  122  The Development of the Land Use Pattern  12U ^  .  • The development of land use in the region . . . . . .  124  The Settlements . . . . . . . * . . * . . . . . . » * »  126 ....  Okanagan Falls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  126  Naramata  127  ... . . . . . .... . . . . . . • « » «  Penticton . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  128  viii CHAPTER  PAGE  B. THE HffiSENT OGOOPAUt® ... II. THE PRESENT KJPUMTIOH  ,  . . . . . .. . * . . . - . .. *  ,.  > * * .. ..  Rural1 and Urban Coraposition ... ,. . ,, . . ... Regional Population Pattern,  . ... ..  ... ... ,. ,. .. .. ,.  134  13k . . 13k - . . 136  The Growth of Population in the Corporation of Penticton 138 The sex and age structure . . .  138  Natural population replacement  liil  Migration and movement  lii-1  Migrant labor  142  Population growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Ili4  The Social Geography of Penticton . . . . . . . . . . . lij.6 The ethnic structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  146  Occupational structure  11*6  ,j I. RURAL LAND USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  AGRICULTURE . . . .  148  ..  148  Classification of the Rural Lands . .  148  The Agricultural Lands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  149  The physical aspects of the land . . . . . . . . . . .  149  Irrigation . . . . . . . . .  154  The Distribution of the Orchards . . . . . . . . . . . .  156  Apples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15?  Pears  ......... ...............  157  Peaches » * . . * . « . . . . . , . . . . . • . » • «  158  Cherries  158  Prunes and plums  ,^ .  »  ... . -  Comparison With Other Okanagan Regions . . . . . . . . .  158 158  ix OMFTEE  PAGE G A m S M.KCHING ...... .. ... *  .. .  XI. y'URBAM U H D USE, ....... V „ . .  163  The1 Urban- Land Pattern and Land Use  . . . ...  General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The industrial land pattern  164 165  , . . .• »• .  The residential land pattern  . .  Non-orchard farm lands pattern  167 168  . .• . . . „ . .• .  The recreational land pattern- . . *• . . . »• . . . . . . .  Orchard land pattern. , . . •»• . . .  .- .  .- . »• .  . . . . . . . .  169 169 170  . . . . . . . ... . . . . .  170  . .  172  XII. THE IHO0STR1ES THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Enterprises in Fruit  l$k  «•. . * « .  The commercial land pattern • * . , . « * . . ' » . . • •  The wastelands pattern  l60  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  .... . . . .  The fruit, packing industry The fruit canning industry  . . . . *• » .«•  .... . . . .  . ...  . . . . . . . »• ».-...•  173 173 173 176  Food and Beverage Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . .  177  The Woodworking Enterprises  178  SairSiiilling  . . . . . , . . . . ...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  The other wood-working enterprises Metal Products  . . . . . . . ..  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Chemical Works Miscellaneous Industries  ............. . .. * . . . . .. . . . ..  Assessment of the Manufacturing - Industries . . . . . Manui'acturing Prospects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  178 179 179 180 180 180 184  X  GHAEEBR  PAOE THS ®N~jmNUFACTI®Iia IWaffilgS . . , . ...  ,  188  .. .. , .  188  . <. . » ... » . » . . »,.....• . . . . . . .  191  Construction,. . .. . . » , . .. Commerce  The retail trade . .  .. . .. . . . .  .  Assessment . .  191 192  The wholesale trade  ,.,»».....;.....  193  Assessment .  19h  The Tourist Industry  195  Tlie geographic advantages  ..............  195  ................  197  Tourist transportation and place of origin . . . . .  198  Assessment of the tourist industry . . . . . . . . .  199  Tourist accommodation  m i . 4 TRAHSBQRTATJON A ® C50MUHIGATI0N  .  TMHSPORTATXOK  202 '  The Road System Commercial and Non-commercial Traffic  202  .....  202  ........  20h  Trucking  20i»  Interurban passenger bus service . . . . . . . . . .  206  Urban bus service  . 20?  Passenger and commercial vehicles . . . . . . . . .  207  Train. service , . * . * * * • « • « . < * * « • . »  208  Air transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CXSit'SJIIOATIOSS . •.  .................. .  XI?. PUBLIC UTILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • The •City Services  .......  ..  Bomestie. water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire protection  209 210 213 .. 213 213 2lij.  xl  <mmm  .  Sewerage and sewage  d  i  .  s  page  p  o  s  a  l  2  « » •» • • • •1• »'«'».»'«* » » « »  Sleotricity  CvS.S «.« » • » « » « • e » • t> » e t « • e « • « » ,XV. ROML-URBAI EEMTIGHS XVI. COMJBiOH APPJiMDIX » « « « » « • • «  1  4 215  215 21?  * »»••»»««»».  . «*»««»»..  221 235  LIST OF TABLES PAGE  TABLE . I. II. III. IV. V.  * ..  20  Mean Monthly and Mean Annual Temperatures (°F) . . . . . .  52  Average Monthly and Annual Snowfall (Inches)  5U  Monthly and Annual Averages of Daily Mean Temperature (°F)  66  Range of Elevation on the Terrace Surfaces  Monthly and Annual Averages of Daily Maximum and Daily  67 VI.  The Per Cent Probability of a Day with Frost for the Months Specified at Penticton and Summerland . . . . . .  VII.  75  Winter Duration of Sunshine in Hours at Summerland and  85 ¥111.  Number of 10-Hour Days of Bright Sunshine per Month at  86 IX.  The Distribution of Population in the Penticton Region, •  90  *  9  9:9 « • e * e 0 0 0 0 •* 6 0 » 0 « O 0 0 0 136  JC • The Influx of Migrant Labor into the Penticton and Summerland Regions during the Fruit Season . . . . . . . XI.  Agricultural Lands of the Penticton Region (Including the Indian Reserve)  XII. XIII. XIV.  .......  150  ..  151  . ..  152  Agricultural Lands within the Indian Reserve Agricultural Lands not Including the Indian Reserve  The Number and Varieties of Fruit Trees in the Districts of the Penticton Region, 1952  XV.  Ibh  ...  157  The Number and Varieties of Fruit Trees of Five Okanagan  p,  0  000 » « 0 0  a a e 0 0 0 0 e • « e 0 159  xiii TABLE  ,  XVI.  Urban Land Uses Areas and Percentages of the Total Land l&b  Ar©st  XVII. XVIII.  Tree Fruit Production for the Penticton Region  Ilk  Manufacturing Statistics for the Three Principal Okanagan Cities » . « » . . • » . . » «  XIX.  PAGE  »«••••«•»*...  l8l  Gross Value of Production of Manufacturing Industries in the Principal Okanagan Centres, 19I4.8  183  XX.  Industrial Employment ae a Percentage of Population . . .  181*  XXI.  Fruit Production and Processings 19)48 . . . . . . . . . .  185  XXII,  Commercial and Residential Construction in Penticton and Kelowna as Percentages of their Total Building Values from 19I46 to 1952J. (Inclusive)  XXIII.  190  Value of Retail and Wholesale Trade and the Number of  Retail Stores in the Principal Okanagan Centres, 1951$ . XXIV.  Trucking Schedule, Penticton, B.C.  ...........  193 205  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  ' FRONTPIECE • ,  1.  PAGE  , .. .  Space Helationshipo. The Penticton Region in the Pacific $ferttae©t< « ..  * . « ••.*«• • «.»»«« »  1|  2.  Place Hsaee of the Penticton Region  * . . .  5  3*  Drainage of the Penticton Region  10  l|A-B«  Structure Sections in tho Penticton Area . . . . . . . . . .  33  ltC-»  Structure Sections in the Penticton Area . . . . . . . . . .  lli  5* _ Distribution of Land Forms 6A-B.  Viows of the Terrace Faces near Penticton  7A.  Section of lararsata Creek  7B.  Section of the Okanagan Trench  to*B.  91GA-B. HA,  . , ,  22  Airphoto Looking Northwest from Penticton "CaTOB" in the Terrace Formations  17 19  Diagrams Showing Probable Method of Terrace Development  .  22  . .  2h  29  . .  31  ...... „  Mean ISonthly Discharge of toe Okanogan River et Penticton end Okanagan Falls  HB4  * . . .  , , ,  35  Profiles of the Five Kejor Creeks of the Penticton Region  .  35  Airphoto Looking Southeast from Penticton  3?  134«  The net-? Control Da® on the Okanagan River at Penticton , . .  35?  13®.  The Okanagan Rivor Gaeal under Construction  39  ll*A-3.  ........  Flood Control on Penticton Creek  Id  ISA*  Pressure Syeteae Affecting British Columbia in Jasuary . . .  1|.6  15B.  Pressors Systcsis Affecting British Columbia in July  |»6  16.  Cli&atograph for Penticton  . . . .  51  cdlxxxvi m  s w m  m  17A-B. A w c g e Precipitation for Valley and Flatmn Stations , . . .  53  IfiA-B. Ko»ttily and Annuel Avsrsgos of Temperature at Penticton «, . .  6$  Frequency of Frost (32°F and less) Occurring over a Period of 2k Years during Critical Periods for Crops - Penticton . 20.  Praqueney of Frost (32°F and lose) Occurring over & Period of 28 leers during Critical Periods for Crops - Smr,<norland  21.  70  71  Frequency of Killing Froot (29°F and less) Occurring over a Period of 2h loere during Critical Periods for Crops Penticton .  22.  .... i .......... .  72  Frequency of Killing Frost (29°F and less) Occurring over a Period of 28 Years during Critical Periods for Crops ~ Somorland  23.  • • • « . * * . • « • • • » . • » •  ».*••*  73  Comparison of Percentage Proquency of Killing Froet (2p°F and less) Occurring over 2U leers at Susaerlend aad 28 Years at Penticton during Critical Periods for Crops . . . . . . . .  2ijA-B. Oliaaagraph for Penticton  .«»•••  7ii 78  2$A„  £.-mrag@ Monthly Snowfall et Penticton . . . . . . . . . . . .  80  25B.  Average Monthly Snowfall at Sosaaerlam  . .  80  ..  Si  26.  Average Relative Humidity ovar a Five-Year Period at Penticton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27.  B/H and Tenroerature Relafcionshipc; during a 2ii*Hour Period in Jonusry end July at Penticton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  281.  Monthly Duration of Bright Smshln® for Smierland  28B.  Per Cent Bright Sunshine for Suraiaerland  29A.  Percentage Frequency of Wind (by Directions) and Wind. %80d for- Sumaerland Station  . . . . .  83 81» 8I4  Ammga 88  •  xrx  FIGURE  PAGE  25>B.  Percentage Frequency of Wind (by Directions) for Staaaerland • 88  30.  Climatic Smaaiy  31.  » . . « .  • « . » . . . « » • . »•.•»  90  .Distribution of Soils .» * *  •*  •  9k  32.  Distribution 62*'Vegetation '  »  . • 95  33»  Evidence of sltmiping from the Terrace Faces • * « • « • • * »  3k•  Transportation Routes to Penticton Before 1900 . . . . . * * 110  35*  The :Gro®th of Population in Penticton frdm 1900 to 1951 and  103  the Estimated Growth from 1951 to ip^i • • * «' • • « « • 117 36.  jPopisjL crbiL on $ »  37.  Population Distribution of the Penticton Region, 1953 . . . 135  38.  Population by 5-year Age Groups and'Sexs Penticton, 1951 * . 139.  39.  Per Cent Population by Specified Age Groups, Penticton, 1951 340  i>0.  Population Variability Index for Penticton . . . . . . . . .  ill.  Labor Force, lU Xears and Over, by Occupation,- Penticton,  k2.  » « » * » * « * » • # » $ « » « • • • • •  US  Ili3  1951 « » • • < . » • « . . « » * » • » » • • • « . » . . .  11^5  Irrigation Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  153  1|3A*. Value .of Building Construction in Penticton and Selowna, 19k&-19bk . . « . . « . » . . » .  43B.  *<i«®.  . . . . . . . .  189  Value of Commercial and Residential Construction in Penticton, \9k^-19Sk . .  *  18,9  U S ! OF 'HATES  *  FMTB 1. Geologies! lap.n.- the'Physical Kegion in Cross-Seotioa.' m»  fhe first Plea of the Subdivision of the Ellis Bstat©*  IV. Urban Peculation Mstribation.' V.  Sail groups &nd toad Elevations of the Penticton Region  VI. Percentage of Irrigated and Irrigable Lands, •  Rural &sn& Use.  :  VXII. Urbaa^ Zoning, 19§3» IX. Urban .Land 'Use, I9$3* X. &geies of Buildings. XI. Transportation Routes of the Penticton Region. X2I. Streets tl/u Widths and Through Streets. XIII. truck Bout© Plan. XIV. transit 'flan. XV. Public -Utilities* Xfl„ town.Plan for Pentiefcon, 1953*  •ft  All plates bound in separate atlas.  xviii  FRONTPIECE. Urban Penticton looking north. The large flat peninsula jutting into Okanagan Lake on the left (west) is the fan of Trout Creek. Opposite, on the east shore of the lake, is the fan of Naramata Creek on which the settlement of Naramata is situated. Urban Penticton is shown in the foreground. The main valley highway running into Main Street is prominent in the centre of the picture. Penticton Creek comes in from the east in the centre foreground. Part of Ellis Creek is shown in the immediate foreground.  PART I THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY  CHAPTER I IKTaODUCTXOH Shis theels hao a threefold purposej  it will present and analyze  tho geographic aspects of the Penticton regionj it uill show•ho» these  aspects ©re interrelated to make this area a geogrspMe unit| and, finally, it will attest to evaluete all relevant data from the geographic point of view and, by means of this evaluation, suggest the moot profitable course for the region1s future deveioansnt. There has been a definite need for ® study of this kind, for the development of most regions in British Golttabia—and the Penticton region is no exception—has been haphazard at beet. The lack of adequate planning fee regional development .has in s m m instances stemmed frcsa the '  of view sfeosn by those iv'hose chief training is in a  -specialised- field each m  agriculture, forestry, ecimomicsj mining,  engineering, etc. These "specialists", tending to see the region from ths view-point of their own specialty,often forget that the region is  aade up of many interrelated facets which must be balanced one against the other for internal harmony and best overall development. To see the region ae a whole, to understand thettorldngeend interrelationships between its various parts, is the particular concern of the geographer.  As -all iniell%©at planning for tho long-term development of the' region's resources raust bo based m the geographer's "wholeness" of vie??, -the' ceed £ov  »gi©ml study is obviouej aoreow, it is hoped that,  imttftr. as Penticton ie concerned, the study ic timely as well.  A regional study ouch a© this is iiiaited is scope (ft) because of the tin© factor involved which necessarily curtails the detailed research "that is actually possible, and (b) because certain problems xmist of necessity k® investigated by the sfw^liet.  Bewover, an attest has  been nade to explore* all pertinent problsmo with enough thoroughness to  ^ provide .fit®. foundations far the conclusions ten®*. Aramfe©*of the problems that Bight boar further investigation  listed in tba  concluding chapter. ,  this thesis consists of two ssain parte. Part Ons, devoted to the physical geography of the region* discusses the geomorphology, hydro*  grapby, climate, (vegetation and soil, and points out the intimate later* _ ralatloasiiips existing between thea. Part Two, devoted to the Jiu»a» geography, shows how the physical region has been used in the past and present occupenca, and, by analysing the various geographic aspects, attempts to indicate theroostprofitable course for the region1 o future development. Little of a purely geographic nature has been t?ritten on the Penticton region. The geology has been studied by Q.E, Cairnes and S.S* Bostock who published their findings in various gowftsswit reports  (see Bibliography). The geomorphology was studied by R.F. Flint whose work inoluded the entire Okanagan Valley and provided m  important and  authoritative source of Information on the regional landforate. Soil gargW of the Qkrnmma .ted 'BjxUM&mm Valleys by G.C. &ll©y and E«l» Sptlebory, proved invaluable, not only as a source of information m  soils, bat 4100 os tbe flora of the region* i^ach of the material in the ohepter on the Sequent Occupance was  obtaiuei £ r m the B.C. Biroctories published since 1882, and the B.C.  Department of Agriculture reports* The fcm Plan -Cor. Penticton by fcalker and Graham contains a valuable historical sketch of Penticton, and iM^tmtion. on public utilities and transportation which would have been difficult to obtain elsewhere. Much of the laaterial (unpublished) contained in the chapter on Rural tend 0e» was made available through the courtesy of fe. '<3.0*. fellejrof tfto  Department -of Agrioeltare at Kelowna.  A grofet deal-of currant infonaation en topics cacti se market conditions for fruit, tourism, labor, etc., was obtained through personal correspondence with wrious government and private agencies, and through personal  •  Finally, a total of about six weeks was spent in asking land uso studies of. Penticton and ite entire region* Part of this time was spent inrcakinga survey of each industry in the city and information on the size of idle industry, labor, raw materials, markets, and future projects were obtained. B.C. Go\*emment mape a M high- and low-altitude fcir-photo coverage of the entire region, as tieJX as base end other maps of Penticton City proTOd invaluable aids to this study. fit© snaps,, graphs,and diagrams w e drawn and tho various table© set Up before the writing of any chapter taas bsgan. !Thio Hsthod of attack had several advantages?  it obviated to some extant the tendency to draw  & map or illustration to fit a preconceived theory it assembled information of a diverse character and made it readily understandable, and, where desired, mere easily cospareblcj end it often brought out geographic relationships not othersd.se ©aedly discernible.  Fig.  1  FIG. 2  DARAWANA  WEST  POPLAR GROVE  : ~ MUNSON •I'f MOUNTAiN KETTLE VALLEY RAILWAY  PENTICTON yp LMAIN |l\~"  OKANAGPiN  HI6HWAY  SKAMA  PLACE  NAMES  PENTICTON REGION iKALtDEW >C ALE. O  I  m i l e s  2.  MARRON VALLEY  'OKANAGAN FALLS  CHAPTER; II LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES OF THE REGION I. LOCATION AND SPACE RELATIONS1 The Penticton region is part of the Okanagan Valley which is situated in the southern part of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia. The region has a north-south extent of 22 miles and averages more than eight miles in •width.; Three hundred miles to the west of Penticton lies tho open Pacific 225' miles to the east, and marking the Great Divide in the Canadian Rockies, the British Columbia-Alberta border; and 1}0 miles to the south, the International Boundary separating Washington State from British Columbia. Vancourer, 160 miles due west, is a comfortable driving distance awayj Seattle, Washington, ISO miles to the south-west, is but a few hours farther. Kelonna and Vernon, two Okanagan cities comparable in size to Penticton, lie to the north 39 and 73 miles by road respectively. II. BOUNDARIES Three types of boundaries separate the Penticton region from the regions adjoining it. These boundaries are physiographic, climatic, and  •'"See Fig. 1. 2  The region is located botueen latitudes k9°19' N. and U9°38' N., and between longitudes 120o27l "W. and 120°k2* W.  cultural in nature. The physiographic and climatic boundariec separate the entire Okanagan Valley from the surrounding platoauj the cultural boundaries separate the Penticton region from the remainder of the valley, Thus the valley rim which forms thetoaediat©drainage divides on ; both eidee of the valley, is taken as the natural boundary between the ' valley and the plateau and is the laact definitely fixed.*5 The climatic - boundary is lose definite and asset be regarded m a mm  where the valley  and plateau climates ©erge. fhie aone of mergence corresponds to sews . enfcsnt with the valley rim^' and ^justifies tether the chaise of the ; physiographic boundary in delisting the Penticton region. fhe cultural boundaries are the least definite for in a tenuous , but very real sense they circumvent the globe. ffe^y are placed, however, ' a  --  , around Miat area which considerable recoerch has stem to be a hard core ; of tiSfttost and isaedi&t©  luences which the city -exerts on  • the surrounding area, end reciprocal influences which the area exerts on i  the ,«&fgr* These  m y bo broadly- classified under (a), services  ;wMe& the eitf readers the region and which justify tira dty«e gdsteace ; in the s^gionj end (b) resources shicfe the region extends to the city for exploitation. Thus Pmticton offers services in tha fom  of goods  eupplicd, processing, selling, recreation, £diainietration, etc., and the Pontieton, ELlis, HoLeon, Shutileworth, and Shingle Greeks drain tactonrivB plateau areas and sftiot be excluded fTcra the qualification "IranediateV The boundary has been teken acrocs these streasis whero contour lines indicate that the valley rim has been breached (soe Plate I) Climate. & » also John B. "The aUaote of British Columbia," Paper presented to the Fifth Brit, Col. B M w g Q M Coafemm*, Feb. 2?, 1952', m p insert facing p. gi  region directly dependent oa those services can be deltmitodj the region offers opportunities in the exploitation of its resources—ita soils, water, mlneralc, forest®, econic values* produo©, ©to., end again the exploited ares canfeedelimited* A boundary line can be dram *?lfch fair accuracy to mark the limits of a. single service or exploited resource within & region. But, .as a cultural region is saada up of many services and exploited resources trhot© boundcrles do not  coincide, eiay boundary that is ®mm.  to deliwlt tfee region xauet of nocsssity represent a zone vhero boundaries for specific influences coincide, overlap, or approach one another. Such a coalescing of boundaries Is found,for exa^le, at Naramata the most northerly area la the region uador study. Bsro the limits of agriculture and of irrigation coincide; the road netsrorfc fades at the  t§M%p» but not altogether for a road of sorts oontinues wsb isileo north and several trails wander up the valley sidesj the telephone network and electric power service stop with the ocoupance and the 'IMta of the hard core of influences are reasonably definite, the itogl&eattifcoaMaryof the Peatioten region is therefore a osteal bcwidary sad is located  tepaHl  the 3iMt of ©eeupance on the .east side of  Okanagan lake, this boundary, beginning at the valley riia, rune eight mile© <2us  then teas south passing down the lafe© centre to esolud©  the Sumaerlend-Wrout Creek area. About 2§ railes north of Penticton it swings due nest again till it reaches the western valley rim. She argument that- the mmsrlmd a(including ^UtStfreek) should be included in the Ponticton region is valid only to a limited •oxtobt* Iteny Sam^ltei stores, for  ero dependent on BmMotoa  lAoXesJSlmi* JSufe. tides istelleonly for groceries, to a lesser extent for  • tat&n and mahlnorar* m & practically :not at oil for clothing/ 'loo, Sunraerland residents go to Penticton for recreation end for greater choice to shopping. Reciprocal Influences represented  the SumerlBsiA  EsperMetJi&l St&tioa and l^r tho recreational attractions of the Saisnerland for Penticton resident© would further siretigthea- the argument. However , tii© Stosn&rland area is independent to such an extent • 'that it may justifiably be called a region in itseK. Ottan West Cununerla&d haa, for example, a troll-developed commercial core containing a bank* insaranca and real estate offices, garages, recreational facilities, restaurants, bakeries, and a variety of stores including a supermarket.  LomX packingtensesand £ruit processing plants, a easwill and box factory also serve the area. Six religious institutions, a hospital, a weakly naw^aper, five service organisations, and independent school, adiiiniGteration, and Irrigation districts add to the differentiation so that the Saramerland area's relative independence is well enough established. the eoothom boundary runs east-west through the north end of Va&aux Lake and includes in the Penticton region the nucleated settlement St Okamgan Palls and the areas of occupenee iss-ediately tc the south and east., The Okanagan Falls area lies half-x?ay between Penticton and Oliver bat has been ine&tsaed. is the Vm%t&bm region becausei  (a) Otemagan  Falls residents depend Isrgely on Penticton as the larger center for recreation and supplies? (b) most Okanagan Falls- produce is either packed.  Dept. of Trade and Industry, Economic Survey, Region Three,  FIG. 3  u , sold, or. Shipped via Fonfcieioni end, {c) Penticton ie as easily  •  „ accessible as Oliver, end it is natural for. OJaaugen Fells to j^rltate tabards %he,-.ledger ccntsr.  .  ffe tt©e of the pl^eiograpMo artd cl-lsaatlo boundaries in delimiting tho  ^ogionteasresulted in ills «fcolUeioft jfcem the arcs of  impegfteafc' adjust: toarcee -of water for iiTigaUm and teeiic use, , • She singular ^orte«ce of irrigation to the region decumds tbe addition of s secondary' boundary which, lies outside ths hard cor© of influences. f M s boundary is shown to Figure 3 and io dram around the watersheds 0r the fivt? creeko' whose waters supply isoet. of the region. Other boundaries of iiaportanoe cro of necessity not included because they lie too far £ r w the html cor© of influences which. de£i» the  A £ m such for-flung boundaries asy be mentioned. the  Xisdts of logging, of gracing land, of radio Mvertieiag* of tourism, of aottgpaper circulation, of telephone service, of fuel m d of poser supplies, These end ©there will, femar, be considered is the body of thl£  thssis ineofsr as it is practicable to do eo.  t&rotirh  Otaimmxi M b md Penticton goes l T{> ie first class highway and is be een S K 5 i S l ? S ^ ^lls m i O l i W vkLch is la pXac B Rarrow * winding, especially alongside V & m m z LaIt©. MB  comr  Penticton,fiXlie,arattXewcrfch, i-ioLe*m, and Shingle Groeks.  GrlAJFTEl H I $HE 0SQEOHPHOLQGY Ummml  flie Interior Plateau is thought to be an old erosion surface *?hlch n m lies at an elevation of from It ,000 to 6,000 feet. The general plateau surface is iaade up of strongly rolling hills but is locally steeply and deeply dissected by KriXt-flowing streams* Within the plateau lies the Okanagan Valley, a singular trenchlike depression tdiieh sig-zagc northward fron th© International Boundary. At Kelesm the tronch splits in two, only to worge again beyond Vernon and continue, a broad valley, till it blends into the Volley of the Shuswap. Although the origin of the Okanagan Valley has not been definitely established, two suggestions regarding its formation have been put forward. Cairnes in hie geological report suggested that the valley corks a sone of 1 faulting and, although he does not specifically take exception to this 2 concept, Schofield in & later report attributed the valley's formation  ^"Plate I, Map 5381, Kettle Sixier (West Half) Simlltasea and Osoyoos Districts,, B..C.» Canada Dept. of iiines and Resources, 19397" Soe last paragraph undor Structural Geology* fhis concept is at least partially substantiated by U.S. Boetock, i-jho shoned the existence of major faults on both sides of the valley in the vicinity of Okanagan Palls. See Map 6?.?A, Qkomgm galle,. Siailtoisoea and Qgoyooi? Districts, Brit. Col., Canada Dept. of 14inea and Resources, 192b, •g • • • • S.J, Schofield, «tlie origin of Okanagan Lake," Royal JSoc. of Canada, Trans. 3rd ser., Vol. 3?, Sec. ii, I9h9a pp. 69-927 ~ -  FIG. 4  MHMMM STRUCTURE  S E C T I O N S IN THE  PENTICTON  AREA  LEGEND M  ODERN  JURASSIC  RECENT  16  <?X G L A C I A L  IERTIARY  15 14  13  ALLUVIUM  EOCENE  DEPOSITS ^OLIGOCENE  SWALE,SANDSTONE  8  BASALT, AN DCS IT E RHYOLITE , T U F F , E T C TALUS DEBRIS , SHALE SANDSTONE, CONGLOMERATE G R A N I T E , SYENITE  APTER C.E. C A I R N E S , 1336, M A P 5 3 6 A , KETTLE R I V E R  21  20  LATER.  OKANAGAN  INTRUSIVES  MAINLY GRANODIORITE MAINLY DIORITE QUARTZ  C O N G L O M E R A T E , COAL SEAMS C „ ' OHUSWAP  TUFFAGEOUS BEDS  n  II  YOR  AND  DIORITE  C COMPLEX  B I O T I T E GRANITE  AND  GRANODIORITE HORNBLENDE ^ HORNBLENOEBIOTITE, GRANODIORIT AND QUARTZ DIORITE MAINLY GRANITE — GNEISS  £ GRANO05ORITE-GNEIS6  FIG, 4C  S T R U C T U R E  STRUCTURE  SECTIONS  SECTION SEE  ALONG  E-F  PI  a 0  After M.S. BOSTOGK MAP 617A  IN  STRUCTURE SEE  FIG-.  SECTION FOR  ALONGLEGEND  G  THOUSANDS  OFTE'EF  .•  '  to the work of erosion.  • 15  It is probably true that Cairnes and Schofield  are both right in that the zone of faulting created the initial direction and slope along which drainage was established and that subsequent erosion played a major part in giving the valley its present form. At the Okanagan Divide near Armstrong, the altitude of the valley bottom is l,lljO feet; at the International Boundary it is 913 feet.  The  valley bottom therefore has a gradient of a little mors than two feet per mile and lies from 3,000 to 5,000 feet below the general plateau surface. Measured from rim to rim (i.e. the immediate drainage divides) the Okanagan Valley between Narsmata and Okanagan Falls averages about eight miles in width.  This measurement differs considerably from the 3- to 6-  mile width given in the British Columbia Department of Agriculture 3 reports  which state the widths as measured from the upper limits of  recent alluvial and glacial deposits. A cursory examination of the profiles in -Plate II will show that the latter measurement is georaorphologically unsound and that the valley rim should be taken as the lateral valley limits. Elevation of land surfaces and general slope conditions are shown by contour lines in *late I, by profiles in Plate II, and by geological cross-sections in Figs. Uk, B, and C.  The lowest elevations are occupied  by the valley lakes, the adjacent lower slopes by drift materials which 3 Prov. of Brit. Col., Dept. of Agriculture, The Okanagan Valley, Circular Ko. 1|0, 19hS, p. 5. Also, C.C. Kelley and E.H. Spilsbury, Soil Survey of the Okanagan and SimiJicameen Valleys, Brit. Col. Report Ho. 3 of Brit. Col, Survey, p. 7. ~ *"*  16 '  (  make up the fan and terrace complex and the higher slopes by rough mountainous land. Fig. 5 shows the distribution of -the various landforms in the Penticton region. These landforms fall roughly into two main classes?, (l) those that are composed chiefly of bedrock and owe their form to the structure and innate characteristics of the bedrock, and (2) those which are made up of unconsolidated or lightly consolidated drift materials, I. ROUGH I-DUHTAISOUS LANDS The rough mountainous lands fall into the first class. They are ma.de up chiefly of two important rock complexes: (a) the Shuswap Complex which lies on the east side of the trench, and (b) the Okanagan Intrusives which lie on the west (see Plate I). The Shuswap complex is marked by numerous north-trending faults which are responsible for directing drainage in a N-S direction and, therefore, the formation of N-S trending valleys and ridges. Only where slope conditions direct the drainage into the Okanagan Valley do the streams flow in a westerly direction. The major west-flowing streams such as Penticton and Ellis Creeks have carved deep, steep-sided valleys to which many of the north-south trending valleys on the plateau are tributary. The Okanagan Intrusives on the west side of the trench have numerous faults and sheer zones which strike in all directions and, as a result, a structurally disorganized drainage has developed on these formations and no definite trend in direction is taken by the valleys and ridges. As in the Shuswap Complex, the valleys of the larger streams  FIG. 5  GEOMORPHOLOGY  DISTRIBUTION  LAND  OF  F0RM5 ROUGH  MOUNTAINOUS  LAND  STREAM COT VALLEYS THROUGH ROUGH MOUNTAINOUS LAND TERRACES-EVEN SLOPING  GENTLY  SURFACE  TERRACES-ROUGRUNDULATIKC  - K E T T L E S ^ SLUMPING A L L U V I A L FANS  AND  C O A L E S C E D ALLUVIAL FAN? PRECIPITOUS TERRACE  FACES  UNDIFFERENTIATED ALLUVIAL  DEPOSIT  v.  /  D  ••  •  •  •  18  (e.g., Shingle Creek) are doep and, canyonlikej the valleys of the smaller streams m e shallower and less angular in cross-section and tho ridgco end hills ere troll rounded. Tho streams having their sources on the  SJ&IN  valley WGIIB usually  flot-f normal to tho -valley axis except where local structure or faulting causes th<an to ,floH in other directions. Because the strecme are short and their flow is small, their valleys are neither as dot?), nor as steepsided as those of the larger streams. Their trend, howaver, being east cmd west, 1ms an iKgjortanV influence on air drainage which td.ll bo discussed in tho chapter on climate. II. urn?QBRS II SHE mwt  DEPOSITS  fhe landforas in tho drift deposits ore chiefly of tno kinds: (1) the terrace for/nations mad (2) the alluvial fans of the larger streams (we ?ig,  .  The Terrace Formations Sie terrace® are composed of silt t-iith interbedded sand sad gravel. They sre found on both sides of tho tronch fresi faeeauz Lake to Sersmata (find north). They ere widest near tbe mouths of streams tributary to the 'main, valley sad are continuous except *7here interrupted by some rooky promontory or breached by rejuvenated, streams, She terrece apices Ci.e* their highest parts) are located where the stream emerge froa thoir  canyon. siouthe, end fro-a there the terraces slope gently towards the v&Xley exls only to end in abrupt, ollfflilss drop© to lake or valley floor* The  r&nge of elevation on the terrace surfaces is given is the following tables  Fig. 6A  Fig. 6B  Jigs. 6A and B show terrace faces near Penticton. The precipitous silt "cliffs" have been carved into forms which are strikingly like badlands in appearance. The formation shown in Fig. 6A closely resembles a butte.  20 T/J3LE I**  Terrace m a &  •  I-iileo north of faeeaux Lake  Llevstion (feet)  1 Between fasmmz Lakes and Okanagan 1 Falls  0  Z  1200 - l2t50  e Wear Kaleden  2- 8  1250 - 1550  3 Pcnticton (both sides of trench)  10 - 16  1250 - 1600  h Bear llarimte  18 ~ 22  1250 - 1600  The elevations 1,1(50, I,550, and 1,600 mark the terrace heights at the fan apices extant at the canyon aiouths* Fro® thee© extreme heights the terraces slope to elevations of 1,200 and 1,250 feet which mark the crests of the terrace faces. The drop from tho crests to the valley floor or lake surfaces averages 120 feet. The slope of the terrace surfaces is usually gentle (but say steepen locally to as much as 10 degrees) and is apt to fan out radially •from the  canyon  mouths of the tributary'- streams, In many places,  particularly along the faces of the silt cliffs and wherever running water has had a chance to carve tho loosely consolidated sediments, striking formations like badlands stand out boldly from the terrace masses to form picturesque scenes along the highway (see Fig. 6). Especially is this true along the highway "ootessn Penticton and Summerlend. '  Flint, " "White Silt* Deposits in the Olcanagan Valley, British Columbia," gttate., Royal Sog. of Canada, Sec. IY, 1935, p. U0.  21 la Fig. 5 the tcrrace cacao© hava been divided into two typos according to the kind of surface each presents. The first type hm  m  even, gently eloping aurfacoj the cccond has a rough, undulating surface du© to kettle holes end stealing of the terraceroateriale.I&aispl©© of the former ere particularproiainent on the east side of the valley bott-jecn Penticton find Narsmia, sad between Ellis Creek and ImH-way down the ©act shore of Stella ksteg exaaples of the rough-surface type are prominent north of faseemc Lake, iraaeaietoly north of Kaleden, end again north of Shingle Creek on tho Indian Reserve. Flint describes the rough terraces &B? . . . irregulars exhibiting a cocrolox of sags and eteop-sidod closed depressions tip to sovsral hundred feet in diameter, and separated by irregular snails and ridges. Such complexes are isost evident on tho outer parte of a terrace, . . Some of the deprassione aro typical ice-blocic kettles; othere are broad and shallow with barely perceptible side slopes, lilce the gs-ielee characteristic of ground laoraine.^ ffliere the stresns have trenched the 'terraces, terrace materials and their issnner of deposition can easily bo studied. Silt catposed of croauwMte to palo buff pock flour Is tho chief component of the terrace  * . .fthesilt is] delicately stratified iii parallel laminations ranging froa & fraction of on inch to several indies, Ices corsaonly several feet, in thickness. Tho fine sediments grade both laterally and vertically into sand and gravals, the gradations bearing a definite relatioesMp to tributary streens. . . . As a stream is approached, sand and thon gravol replaces silt, first at tho surface, then gradually extending doun in" sections BO that near the rcouthe of tributaries the entire upper part of tbo terrac© section consists of eand and gravel* grading out laterally down vertically into ailt.» --'  ^Flint, pj). cit., p. 109,  %bid.i, pp. 110-m.  22 She illlatlal fans  The second xa&jor londfarrc in the drift deposits ie tho alluvial fan. This is found singly es at the mouths of Keramata and ilcLean Crooks, and in tii© "coalesced" forms. cc TRhera the fans of Penticton and Ellis  Creeks merge one into the other* All the fans have & typical arcuate shape, resembling somewhat a segment of a circular plain which is higher at the centre than et the periphery,ftoststreams crossing the terraces have entrenched themselves deeply into lightly consolidated drift but the snjor croeks--Penticton, Ellis, and Shingle--have gutted the tarracos Completely and have built fans whose apices lie veil within tho terrace trails. file fans of these creeks coalesce end, filling the trench to violl above lake level, form tho toemsifc© for urban Penticton. The roaterial composing the alluvial fans grades typically from coarse to fine. Ivhere the creeks emerge from their canyon months, the smaller grade  suddenly  slackens the speed of ths currents. The less  energetic currents immediately begin to drop thoir loads of debris, the rubble and coarse gravels first, then ao the grade continues to decrease end the waters lose more energy, the finer gravels, thai sends, then silts drop out. Thus, at Penticton, the soils nearer the fan apices are corsposed of rubble irhich grades into gravel, sand, silt, and finally into the bog soils near the Okanagan Riv«r. The Development of the Landforms As was mentioned in the Introduction to this chapter, the Interior Plateau is thought to be an old erosion surface. During the Pleistocene period this surface was oovored by a vast ice sheet to an altitude of  FIG. 7  4-000-  ft  35oo  S E C T I O N OF T H E  OKANAGAN  TRENCH  S E C T I O N OF N A R A M A T A  SHOWING T E R R A C E MASSES (INXELLOW)  CREEK.  WITH  SHOW  C O N T O U R LINES U-SHAPED  GLACIATED  VALLEY  (COMPLETED  BY  LINES) INTO THE OF  WHICH  A  STREAM-CUT BEEN  3000 —  DOTTED  INTER B E D D E D  SAND  GRAVEL (INCLUDING  SOME  FANS). ARROW S H O W S CREEK  OLD  AND MODERN VASE A 'X  CHANNEL.  (AFTER R.F. FLINT;  FLOOR  V-SHAPED, VALLEV  HAS  SCALE  to.oo o  INCISED.  t o ro  23 7,000 feot, Glaoi&l striae and erratics ©to? thai tho great iocs rnes moved generally southward, but in places was directed by topography into the Okanagm trench* Hero & meter tongue of ice collected, deepening and rounding out the original depression into a U-ehopo typical of tho glaciated valley. the.frwrfeof ice. Although tho valley profile is now obscured by lakes and drift, eigne of ico erosion aro etill plainly evident in the tributary valleys of tho less active streams. A close ecaznination of the contour linoc describing the valley of Haraiaata Greek, for oxarjple, (s©o Fig. 7A), will A m s two diotir.ct curves on cach contour ac it approaches the (stream. The first curve is well rounded and, if continued across the stream, would describe the typical U-shape of an ice-scoured valleyj the oocond curve leaves the first ono .abruptly, running tap-valley to intersect the crookfita ©sailer angle. Those two cartes are closely repeated across the stream in what might be termed a aiiiror iraogo. It is evident, therefore, that the contours actually describe a composite valley shaped by two different agents of erosions  a streaiii~cut, V-ahaped valley has  been indeed into tho floor of an ice-oarved  shaped valley. This  opposite form seems to be typical of most valleys in tho region, especially in' the higher parts of the plateau where major stress action has not yet erased the work of ± m J  •  '  accuracy of the only existing contour rasp of this region hee been questioned and the deductions sade thefrefTaa saust therefore be accepted with smm reservations. The laap is the Province of British Columbia Topographic Sap of pari of the QteagJS end Sfciltasen falleys, 1919, and was largely jasd© fram oblique aerial photographs. ••••'•"  FIG. 8  NOTE--  DIAGRAMS  HAVE  BEEN  GREATLY  EXAGGERATED  VERTICALLY  25 fh® Poeti-gl&elal Steae So picturing of conditions in tha valley ae they wore at -fee end  of the Pleistocene period is likely to bo correct in all its details, Nevertheless, an attempt to show what the broad picture probably was will ^ have Its valuo in clarifying the geoiaorphology of the region. To begin with, after the disappearance of the great ice sheet, a stagnant tongue of ice m e left lying in tho main valley and very probably small alpine glaciers remained in the higher parte of the plateau. To tho  south of Vasoaux Lake the valley was choked v&tfr ice and drift forcing the w&ter of tho glacial lake in the valley to epill through a channel hanging about 650 feet above present lake level.2 Gravel, sand, and rock flour wore disgorged fro® the tributary stream mouth® into the valley lake and, grading coarse to fine according to the distance from the shore, settled  thickly between tha tongue of ice in the valley and valley walls, and, not inconceivably, burying the ice wholly or in part (see Pig, 8). It is difficult to estimate the length of tiae during which these conditions prevailed, but Flint suggests that the ice in the valley, buried and insulated by the sediments poured onto it, lasted for several hundred years at least and perhaps much longer.9 It is possible that the  %lint, op. cit,t p. 113. (For location of channel eee Fig, ?£.) %hts is made all through which the waters altitude of slightly mors 500 xeet wide, and is cut ^  the more believable on examination of the channel spilled at this tiiae. The channel hangs at an than 1,630 feet.* It is three sales lmgg about through a double spur of bedrock.  . „ , ? b v i o u s discrepancy between the altitude of the channel and that of tfe® terrace apices exists here (see Tabic I). If the terraces ware i X l IT* f; J?® 1 ! k ! - K M c h d r * t a s d the channel, then the terrace apices should lie at tne s»e altitude as tho channel. The explanation  26 ice and drift to at. tho south end of the post-glacicl valley lake may hare been breached perhaps during an exceptional floodj or the giving way of rotting ice may have lowered the dam sufficiently %o enable the water to find a new channel. Whatever the cause, the waters now cutting through tho unconsolidated material of the dam could easily deepen the new channel and i-Tith the deepening drain the shallow lake on top of the buried ice in valley*. Tho changes occurring x*ith tho draining of the lake must have been direct and immediate. A sizable stream probably took the place of the lake in the valley to take care of the Okanagen (and perhaps Shuswap) drainage. Because the lacustrine sediments, as coalesced delta fans, tended to slope towards the valley axis, it is reasonable to suppose that tho stream flowed d m m the valley center. There are two reasons why this stream would at first expend its energies in down-cuttingc  first, the c»* outlet through the Yaseaux Lake  gap lowered the local base-level end rejuvenated the streamj10 arsd second.  may bs that the contour map of this area is inaccurato and that the channel acttmlly hangs 150 feet lower than the map shams, (See footnote ? explaining possible inaccuracy of this map.) Should the altitude of the chsnnel have been fixed correctly, however, it must be assumed that some other channel of the same altitude a© the terrace apices controlled the lake level end therefore the base level of the streams which brought the terrace materials into the trench. If the latter ass^tion is true, the discussion which follows is • still pertinent, only a lower channel must be press®©!* 10  A projection of the curve of the terrace surfaces to the valley center indicates that the surface of the sediments was 80 feet, more or less, above present lake level, and that the stream bod was therefore that much higher than at present..  27 the stream flowing through unconsolidated sediments tjould have carried itc daxtet® load leaving no surplus energy to expend in lateral corracion. A rapid dorm-cutting was therefore to be expected and it muet have telcen only a short tine before the sediments in the stream channel were carried away and the underlying ice opposed. However, ao the stream worked its way into the ice, its load became less allowing it to expend more of its energies in lateral corrasion. And from here on the collapse of the sediments must have been very rapid indeed, ac the stres% its meanders looping back and forth like a great chain esw, cut a^ay tho ice and «ndens&»ed theia* The original stream channel was probably bordered by ainiature cliff faces such as border tho present-day terraces. It taker. no great imagination to eee these cliffs retreating ehorcwsrd under the attack of the streams becosing higher and higher as greater thicknesses of sediment ware undercut and broke stray* At the same time tho raelt of the valley iee continued apace until a new baee-level near that of the present outlet had been reached and the sires® lost itself in the meltwater which gradually replaced the ice to foxva a new lake. Flint makes the assumption that all terrace masses in tho Okanagan Valley t;ere built under the control of a single base level and probably during the same period of tine on the evidence that »o compound terraces are found anthers and that the terrace apices are generally accordant.11 to exaainatien of Table I showe that the base-level  splint, op. cit., p. 320  • 28 represented by the terraco apices differs by 150 feet in the Penticton region alone and by 300 feet t$ith the north Okanagan, As this difference ccn hardly bo termed accordance under a single base~lovel, the only assumption which satisfactorily explains the apparent discrepancy* and yet is in agreement trlth tho facts, would  seem to be that a gentle tilting  from north to south has taken place in the erea since postglacial times« Tliis assumption is the moro believable on evidence that & large thickness of ice was still in existence in the Shuswap (and my have extended to the north end of Oksnegan Lake) when the terrace jn&ssos' in the Okanagan ifere being laid down. tehen this ice molted, tho release of its weight enabled the lend to rise and cause the 3~feet-per~iaile tilt now indicated by the terrace tops* ' fhe draining of the old glacial lake and the rapid dcr»n-cutting of the stream which took its place had an important secondary effects  it  rejuvenated tributary streams by lowering their base-levels. Tho larger crcGks—Shingle, Penticton, Ellis, and Simttlevrorth—brought doi?n vest anounts of material £rm the plateau end, breaching theterraces,dumped the products of their vigor into the trench. Their fane grew, coalesced, and filled the tronch at Penticton and Okanagan Palls, and divided the then continuous lake into the prsssot-day Vassaux, Skaha, and Okanagan Lakes, Without an accurate aeasureeent of depth, it is decidedly risky to estimate tho voluraa of material brought d « from the plateau and deposited in the trench. Should the depth approximate the ?6o~foot figure for Okanagan Lake, however, the volume at Penticton would equal sore than three fourths of a cubic mile!  29  Fig. 9 is an oblique airphoto looking northwest. In the background are the rough mountainous lands and terrace sections on the Indian Reserve. The new Penticton West Bench development is on the terrace section shown on the photograph. In the foreground is urban Penticton on the shore of Okanagan Lake. Penticton Creek appears on the right. The new Central Mortgage and Housing development is shown just above the reservoir. In the immediate foreground is the terrace section which separates the fan of Penticton Creek from that of Ellis Creek to the left (south) of the area shown on the picture.  30  file Rough and Smooth Terrace Surfaces At least three theories have been put forward to explain the  rough surfaces of some of the terraces and all three are probably right ae far as they go. An understanding of the loss obvious theories may be helpful in the study and practice of soil conservation and it is for this reason, as well as to supply a better understanding of tho land forms, that they are outlined here. One theory holds that the roughness was caused by slumping when the ice supporting a terrace scction melted. An example of such slumping may be seen in Fig. 9. Tho upper section of the terrace can be seen as a generally level surface from which the treeless lower section has slumped away. Kettle formations are also caused by ioe buried either wholly or in part by sediments—the subsequent melting of the ice leaving steep-sided, closed depressions typical of kettle topography. let, the above theory is not- a complete explanation. Cockfield  12 andfinokham"offer the following explanation for sinkhole and gully formations in the white silts of the Thompson Valley, and their theory may well apply to the white silt terraces of the Okanagan. They suggest that water, finding access into the silts by way of animal burrows or possibly through a fissure, eventually reaches a temporary water table and, seeping along it, breaks out on the terrace cliff. The opening once made is quickly enlarged13 into an underground channel by sudden and heavy  Cockfiold and A.F. Buckham, "Sinkhole erosion in the white silts et Kaaloopa," Trans, of the Royal Soc. of Canada,sec. If, Ser. Ill, 1 1 Vol. XL,fey,19/46. — — "^ee Fig. 10 for similar phenomena near Penticton.  31  Fig. 1QA  Fig. 10B  Figs. 10A and B are two caves in the terrace immediately west of the Okanagan Lake outlet at Penticton. The caves were at one time joined to form a continuous subterranean passage which was exposed when part of the "roof" collapsed to fora a sinkhole such as is described by Ccckfield and Buekham (see chapter on Geoasorphology). Fig. 1QA is taken from the edge of the sinkhole looking up the terrace slope, and Fig. 10B looking down the terrace slope.  iofjET'  wpe^isiae and'the'enlargement  continues until the roof falls in to form the kettle-like, funnel-shaped depressions. A later stage sees the coalescence of a string of these funnel-shaped depressions along the underground channel to form the wellknown, steep-sided gully of the terrace masses. R.M. Hardy denies that underground erosion plays a part in the  Ik sinkhole development.  He found that a small per cent of calcium carbon15'  ate gives tho silts an "artificial cohesion"  and that this cohesion is  destroyed when water added to the soil dissolves the calcium carbonate. Once the cementing agent is removed, the silt consolidates under its own weight and forms the kettles Cockfield and Buckham attribute to erosion. It appears that neither of the two theories just presented alone explains all the facts.  Cockfield and Buckham present convincing evidence  that underground erosion does take place.  On the other hand Hardy's  contention that the silts consolidate upon removal of the cementing agent has been proved by experiment and by observation. It is highly probable that the two theories combined come nearest to explaining what really happens. Briefly, it could be that water obtains access to the subsoil by some means1? and through solution of the calcium carbonate causes the  Hardy, "Construction Problems in Silty Soils," The Engineering Journal, Vol. 33, Ho. 9S Sept. 19$0. '  iK  . It is doubtless this calcium carbonate cementing agent which enables the silts to stand up in bold, clifflike formations,  -j /  •"• Cockfield and Buckham, op. cit., Plate III, Fig. 2, shows soil outwash from cave mouth. See also Fig. 10 for similar evidence in the Penticton area.  1?  The question might be asked: How is it possible for the lightly cemented silts to exist for long at shallow depth without coming in contact with water? In answer to this Hardy says (op. cit., p. 778): "First, the soil occurs in areas of comparatively low annual precipitation. . . . A second factor is that the natural  33 consolidation of silt along whatever channel the water may find. If silt consolidation makes the silt less impervious to water, or if a temporary water-table prevents the downward flow, hydrostatic pressure will force the in-coming water to seep horizontally along the paths of least  resistance. Solution of the calcium carbonate along the paths of seepage xd.ll cause consolidation of silts horizontally and thus open up free channels in tfhich water can flow. Once these channels reach the terrace face and the water is permitted free passage, underground erosion will begin, thus instituting the developments suggested by Cockfield and Buckham. The importance of the abovs-describod process of erosion has yet to be realised. Its bearing on effective, long-tenn. soil conservation should be apparent—as apparent as the picturesque but useless, landforms it makes from the soils which nurture men's crops.  The description given in the preceding pages of landfoirr; development in the Penticton region is admittedly a simplification of what must have been a complex evolvement. Further studies of geological and gooraorphological phenomena in the valley will undoubtedly add much detail to this picture of the physical region. The remainder of Pari One of this thesis will be devoted to other geographic factors which influence and are influenced by this setting.  topography develops with steep slopes, . * . so that the run-off is fast. Third, weathering breaks dam the natural structure of the surface soil. It than becomes more dense and forsas a comparatively impervious skin on the surface."  CMI^IR If THE HHJROCKIAPHT Water is soraucha part of the landscape that most geographical regions ore characterised by tho presence or absence of it.  the last  chapter, for example, crater was shown as a builder and carver of landfonss. On & less spectacular scale but of et least equal iiaportance is water' e indisponsability to living tilings. Furthermore, it provides man with transportation routes and pm®v.« Kan uses it to a host of manufacturing processes, for his comfort and welfare,-~as in bathing, heatings eooicing, sanitation? etc.,---and for M s protection as against fire. Water is indispensable even to man's pleasures—as in water sports—and it© scenic beauties in the landscape hold never-ceasing fascination for him. It aey b@ safely said that there is no region m tho earth's surface t-ifaor© the presence or absence of water is not a critical factor, not only to the region's appearance and physical development, but also to the life forms--particularly man—'that aake tho region their home. It is tho purpose of this chapter to show briefly where and what the water resources of the Penticton region are. It will bo left to following chapters to explain in more dotail than is given here the importance of factor to climate, vegetation, soils, industry, transportation, and recreation in the Penticton region. Gmmm1  ^  ^  '  The hydrography of the Penticton region (see Fig. 3) consists of  HUNDREDS  OF  >  SECOND-FEET  ui  ev  H o THOUSANDS  OF  o - to u ^ o — n tn > o - m <*i  FEET  CP  o — rsj oj ^ o - t^ w ^ cn  C> N o M73  D  z m 0 %r m o Cft -n o I -n m -J T) I m m Z A  "T1 O < H m 0 2 2 > c_ O mi 33 VERTICNL  EXAGGERATION  52S  perennial and intermittent stream© Tvhich originate on the plateau and valley walls and flow into two large valley lakes. Those lakes, Okanagan and Slate, are drained by a fair-sise stream, the Okanagan River, which, having its source in Okanagan Lake, flows south threuch a four-mile, man-made canal and empties into Sfeaha Lake. Tho river leaves the lato at Otenagan Falls and, continuing southward for three miles, floras into Vaseaux Lake where it leaves the Penticton region.  feibatary Streams •1 the larger streams  entering the valley from the plateau have  several characteristics in common*  Their profiles in Pigi 11D ahot? that  (1) they are short, varying in length from 10 to 17 Miles, (2) they have their. sources at altitudes of froa 5,000 to 7,000 feet, and (3) they are youthful streams having had little time to bring their beds to  grade.  These streams are cble to maintain a continuous flow because their sourcesfireat altitudes where precipitation is comparatively high, and their drainage basins arc large as coiapared with those of the intermittent streams, smaller streams are mostly of Intermittent flow. Because t M y have their sources largely on the valley wall, they are handicapped by having sraaller drainage basins and lighter precipitation from which to draw their waters. These streams have their peak flow in tho spring vhaa the melt-caters case dawn and after heavy rains. But by mid-suiraaer their Penticton, Ellis, KcLoan, Shuttleworth, and Shingle Creeks.  37  Fig. 12 is an oblique airphoto looking southeast. The highly eroded terrace extends along the east shore of Skaha Lake and continues to the left (north). Above the orchards on the terrace are rough mountainous lands. Part of the new Okanagan River Canal is shown in the centre foreground; some of the old meanders are still clearly visible. The Penticton airport is in the foreground.  JS source waters have usually been depleted and tho streams dry u.p leaving nothing but rubble and lighter drift in their beds. the l&lley tekes Okanagan Lake is 69 m3J.es long, averages two zsiles in width, and  2  has an extreme depth of ?60 feet.  It is navigable and in the "early days"  provided an easy means of transportation between Penticton and northern Otoagaa centres, Emm now it provides roil linkage by iscann of railwaybarges between Penticton and Koloima. Skeha Lake is 7.3 miles long and averages one mile in width. It, too, :la navigable but is no longer used for ccsjacrcial transportation. flie llaisj Stoeam The Okanagan River flows through four miles of fan mteriale which block the Okanogan trench at Penticton. Its grade is shallow and until recently the river aliaosfc lost itself in its meandering course (eeo Fig. 12). Although it is deep enough for small craft, the rivsr is not aaod as a water link between the lakes because of the den at the outlet of Okanagan Lake. South of Okanagan Falls the river flows through the fan of Shuttleworth Creek until it loses itself in the marshes at the north end of Vaseaux Lake. The Problem of Spring Run-off aad Flood Control So extensive- and unpredictable is the totingran-offthat a Eajor  %.A.- Cloniene, etc., A Biological Sygay of Qkaimg&n.l.&keJ|. B.C»5 Bui. LUI, (Fisheries Resesrahl^& Ottara), 2939.  39  Fig. 13A. The new control dam on the Okanagan River near the outlet of Okanagan Lake at Penticton. Fig. 13B. The Okanagan River Canal under construction. The small building on the left (west) bank is the pump house which supplies domestic and irrigation water to the new Penticton West Bench development.  ho flood control project hoe had to be  inaugurated  to regulate the stream  and valley lake levels, ft© deep snows of the upper plateau begin to Kelt  in April end usually roach their peal: "melt" coincident with the  May-June maximum of rainfall (see Cliaate). As a result, May and June are months of serious flood hasard. Even the smaller streams on the valley walls become a threat at this time. She light grass and forest cover of the valley slopes permit rapid melting and practically unimpeded run-off. The steep grades and large.volumes of water augment enormously the destructive powers of the streams which tear at their valleys and gouge the terraces with relentless strength? they race from their canyons often flooding their bonks and dump their debris and excess water into the main volley. The lake levels rise, the meandering Okanagan River is hard put to accommodate the surplus flow, and the threat of flood beeoaes •a imminent.  It is to relieve this situation that the Okanagan Flood Control-• was .began. Tho 2|-aillion dollar project when completed prqpoeos to do its task is 'two wayss  (1) by regulating the lake-levels by dams at the  outlets of Okanagan and Skaha Ibices and (2) by straightening the river bed, at Penticton end south to Osoyoos, to speed the flood waters on their way. The canal at Penticton and the dams have been recently completed (see Figs. 12 ana 13). In the spring before the heai?y run-off, the lake levels are permitted to go down to a minimum of 1,119.2 feet in Okanagan Lake end 1,107.0 feet in Skaha Lake. Then, as the melt-waters cam© down they are 11A will give some idea of the large seasonal fluctuation in the volume of water in tho Okanagan Elver.  41  Fig. lk&  Fig. 1MB  Figs. I M and B show some of the completed flood control projects on Penticton Creek. Indicative of the stream1 s power when in flood is the coarse rubble which lines the banks.  controlled partly by letting than accumulate to the lekoo and partly by passing them off through increased flow in the Okanegan Hivor. The lake levels are permitted to riso to a maximum of 1,123.2 feet and 1,109.0 feet in Okanagan and Skaha Lakes respectively. .Thus Okanagan Lake can safely store 393,800 acre-feet of water and Skaha Lake 10,2^0 acre feet. Flood control lias also been extended to Penticton Greek which, flowing through tho built-up section of Penticton, has often caused serious flood damage. Fig. lU ehoiis the oxtoasiveises© of the work required in deepening, straightening, and grading tho stream channel. Some idea of the flood rater's power may be obtained by examining the size of the rubble rolled and carried dean ©treses only to be dropped when •the waters receded. Similar rubble is found at the mouths of Ellis, Shuttleworth, end Shingle Creeks.  Little is known about the water table within the region except as it fluctuates in the soils of the valley bottom, because water for irrigation is brought to the farms and domestic mie? is also piped in, the necessity for welle does not arise, except where neither irrigation nor domestic water are supplied (ses Fig. 42) and no research on the water table has been done. On the valley bottom the water table is high, frequently within a few feet of the soil surface, especially at the foot of the alluvial fans. During exceptionally high water, the water table may rise high enough to flood basements in lotf-lying areas, and to well above the soil surface in marshy areas.  534 Water Resources  Water resources of the Penticton region are adequate for present agricultural and domestic purposes, .Most of the irrigation water comes from the plateau whore It is stored in natural lakes and in reservoirs,  but a small fraction is pumped from the Okanagan River. Although supplies of water from the plateau are limited, more could be made available*4 with increased storage facilities. Construction of storage darns requires a high initial  outlay  and bccauss they are unable to finance construction,  a number of i^igetion districts are augmenting their water supply by pumping froii! the river instead. Mater.Power -  As the average drop of the creeks is well over 300 feet per mile, development of water power seems at first glance to be a possibility. At least four important factors prohibit this, however. These ere the large seasonal fluctuation in tho volume of water, the small average flow, the necessary interference with irrigation, and the comparative cheapness of electrical power from the Kootonsys. The Recreational Possibilities The recreational possibilities of th« lakes and streams have yet to bo fully realized. Both Okanagan and Skaha Lakes are notable for their  data giving the actual possible increase are available. llotafely Penticton which pumps IS per cent from the Okanagan River, and Okanaganfellswhich pumps 2$ per cent of its water from the river.  — • — . ^  , J-.-=>''/ •• !  '  scenic beauty, their inviting beaches, and their ©-Jiflsaing, boating, and fishing attractions. Because the lakes are easily accessible try resident  end tourist alike, they are much used for recreation as a result of which the Penticton region has become justly famous as a playground. The plateau lakes and streams with special attractions for the caJtper and fisherman can be reached only by trail or pontoon-equipped plane. Easy access by road will eventually bring the less hardy to these out-of-theway places. But this must of necessity be left to tho future.  The analogy between the bloodstream of a living organism and the hydrography of a region is well enough taken in the sense that water is the "life's blood" of a region. Indeed, the "life" of & region parallels that of a living organism in many respeetss the region is young, it matures, and it grows into old agej furthermore, its "circulatory system" grows old with it. The hydrography of the Psnticton region1 is still in the youthful stage and will remain so for many thousands of years to case.  CHAPTER? TIE 0 L » f S  Porhaps nowhere in the British Columbia Interior have the climatic controls combined to create such happy results as are reflected in tho clin&ia of the Okanagan Valley. Precipitation in tho valley is light, but adequate supplies of water are available from tho plateau for agricultural and domestic purposes; summer temperatures are kept within the range of comfort by the low humidity and by the influence of the valley lakes? and winter temperatures rarely sink to the killing point for the delicate fruit buda* The air is dry and bracing. The sun is a perpetual attendant during the summer, but in winter clouds cover the valley to seal its warmth against excossiva loss by radiation. The climatc has in its indirect way made tho soils that nurture the valley. It influences the use to which the soils are putj and it brings on everincreasing number of people to the Okanagan both to visit and to stay. All in all, there can be little doubt but that climate is the Okanagan9s greatest resource and, as such, it merits the somewhat detailed attention which this chapter gives it. To understand the Okanagan climate, it will be necessary first, to examine briefly the factors which control the overall climate—i.e., the regional climate of the southern British Columbia Plateau—and in so doing, to glance at the elements whioh make up this ©liifiatej second, to examine the "local" controls which literally transform the regional climate into the subregion&l Okanagan climate, and then to study in some  FIG. 15  PRESSURE BRITISH  SYSTEMS COLUMBIA 1-  IN  ALEUTIAN  2-  HAWAIIAN  3-  GREAT  AFFECTING  PRESSURE  JANUARY  BRITISH  LOW  4-- M A C K E N Z I E  AFFECTING IN  1 - HAWAIIAN  /HIGH  BASIN  SYSTEMS COLUMBIA 2-  GREAT  JULY  HIGH  BASIN  LOW  HIGH (AFTER  HIGH FROM  TREWAHTHft,  A N  MINT Z  AND  INTRODUCTION  TO  DEAN )  W E A T H E R  A N D  XLlM/VTE.  o\  k? detail the elements which make up the Okanagan climate. If in this chapter the "oneness"--the intimate relationship—between local controls  and climate is demonstrated, it will not be due wholly to design: it is a oneness that is inherent in the concept of the true geographic region and that is recognized and exploited hy modern geographic thought. fhe jfejor Climatic Controls  Most climatologistB recognize eight major controls of climate and of these eight the most important is air mass. It is the "condition" of the air mass overlying a region which makes that region's weather of • the moment. If the air mass is warm, the weather will bs warm; if temperature and humidity conditions within the air mass are such as to cause condensation, clouds will form and precipitation may result? if the. air mass is in motion, the weather will be windy, and so forth. All climatic controls other than air mass are indirect controls and they are important only insofar as they influence the movements of the air jsass and the conditions within it. Air mass may be defined as "an extensive portion of the atmos-  phere whoso temperature and humidity properties are relatively homogeneous in the horizontal direction."  A study of the source regions of air  masses Trill show that they are closely associated with tho sosii-permanent high- and low-pressure systems (see Fig. If?)* Thus Polar Continental (P/C) air, which pays fairly frequent visits to southern British Columbia,  ^Glenn T. Tretrortha, An Introduction to Weather and Climate (Hew York and London: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., Second Edition, 19k3), p. X9Q»  • 1*6 is developed in the region of the Kaokenzie High and, although somewhat modified in its passage southward, its temperature and humidity conditions are such as to leave little doubt that it brings winter with it. Tropical continental (T/C) air, having its source region in south-western United States, occasionally moves northward in summer, bringing with it the extremes of heat coramonly called "heat waves." Tropical ilaritimo (T/&) air fTom the Hawaiian High brings warm, clear weather in summer. Polar Maritime (P/ii) air has its origin in the Horth Pacific and is the most important source of weather to southern British Columbia, especially in winter. But the winter and pumraer characteristics of this air differ.considerably. In explaining this difference J.D. Chapman says: The winter surface temperatures of the north-east Pacific are high in relation to the temperature of the sir freeh from its source . . . The result is a large transfer of heat and moisture from the water to the air . . . producing air temperatures averaging some 12°C (21.6°F) higher than might be expected for the latitude. In the summer the difference in temperature is less and, immediately off the coast of Vancouver Island, the air becomes cooled by the cold up-welling water. The net result is that the air becomes warmer and moister in winter and cooler and loss disposed to precipitation in summer.2 The controls which affect the movements and internal characteristics of the air masses after they leave their source will be presented briefly in the following paragraphs. ^e..semi-permaneat high- and, low-pressure centres control the air  masses* direction and speed of movement. Southern British Columbia lying in the "belt" of the "Westerlies" is most often influenced by air masses  John D. Chapman, "The Climate of British Columbia," Paper grggegted to the Fifth Brit. Col. Natural resources Conference,, Feb. 27,  hp moving from west to east—from tho ocean to the lend—thus making the pressure centres and land-water relationships important climatic controls. Furthermore, P/f2 air is modified as it passes over waters warmed by ocean ffffyffQ'frg ^rom the south or, as explained by Chapman above, cooled by upwelling waters. Once the P/ti air reaches the mainland, it is forced to rise over the coast mountain barrier. Because the air mass is adiabatically cooled on ascent it is forced to drop most of its moisture on the western mountain slopes? then, warned by the latent hoat of condensation, the air mass descends the eastern slopes and is further warmed l^r compression. By the time it reaches the plateau, it is comparatively mm  and dry and semi-arid to arid conditions follow in its wake. The  British .Columbia Interior is said, therefore, to lis within the "rein shadow" of the Coast Mountains. T/K air fr« the Hawaiian High is modified in the sane way as P/M air, but the T/tl air will of course be warmer. Because latitude influences the intensity and seasonal duration of insolation, it is considered an important control of cl&aato. P/0 air from the MeKemie-Xukos area is considerably warned by the greater amount of heat received by the lower-latitude land surfaces and returned to the air as it moves southr-rard. As a result, the severest "sting" has usually been removed from P/C air by the time it reaches southern British ColusMa.. Altitude affects climate in two ways, the most obvious of which is tiie decrease in temperature with increase in altitude. For example, the difference in temperature between Vancouver and Penticton due to altitude alone is 3.6% end between Vancouver and Garnii (a plateau station  east of Penticton) it is 13*S°f% The other effect of gain in altitude is the decrease of water vapor and atmospheric Impurities, This decrease permits both more intense insolation and greater loco of heat by radiation and hence, wider climatic extrame3. The remaining controls of British Columbia weather are the lowpressure or cyclonic storme and their high-pressure cotmterparts, the mtloy;cloia66» These pressure eystemo move over the land from west to east in haphazard procession. Hie cyclonic storms have their origins along tho fronts of two different air masses—e.g., p/il and S/K air. It is to those low- and high-proosure systems that British Columbia weather owes its vsriability.  Briefly, then, the climatic controls act to direct and modify air masses in various ways before they reach southern British Columbia. Pacific air is warmed and dried| Polcr Continental air is weraedj and infrequent Tropical Continental air la cooled during its northward journey. Indeed, much work has been done on the air masses before they roach the Penticton region* they have been readied, as it wore, for further codification by the local controls to make the Okanagan climate. But what specifically is tho "state'7 of the air masses when they reach southern British Columbia? What are their average and extreme characteristics with which the local controls must cope? To answer these questions, a brief examination must be made of «  The.glaaents.of the Larger Climate  fe^eratures Temperature is one of the most important climatic  ^Dato presented are for Cams! and/or for Ghuto Lake which are representative plateau stations near Penticton. (See Plate I for location of these stations.)  51  J  J C LlM A T O S R A P H FOR PENTI C T O N (AFTER E, N. MUHNS) COOL .  32° F T O 50° F  |||r||||||| |[ W A R M llJjllllllllll 50°F TO 68°F  m elements, A glanca at Tabic 11 will disclose the following: The average annual temperatures at Chute Lake and Garni ate 3?°F and 39°F respectively. The January-July range for both stations is h$°F, Five months of the year have mean temperatures well below freezing. All the rest of the year • tmm KBAH m m m  J  F  n  AW MEAN ANffiJAL ®IP®AfliaEB (°F)  K  A  11  J  J  /t  ,3  Chute Lake 13 21 25 37 hi 52 56 56 (Alt. 3,916 ft.)  toi  {Alt. Ji,03J; ft.)  Q  N  D  IR,  liQ 26 19 3?  15 23 28 3? hS 53 6o 5? 52 liO 28 20 39  at Chute Lake, and five months at Carmi are classified as eoolj and only tern months—July and August—at Carai are classified as wamJ* Ifeither of the two plateau stations have therefor® & hot season.  The January and July mean maximum temperatures at Csrai are 23 °F and  respectively; the mean minimum tranperatures are  and hl°£»  the absolute maximums, that is$ the lowest and the highest temperatures ever recorded are ~31°F and 9h°F^ At Carmi the average last day of frost in the spring falls on Kay 31; the average first day of frost In the fall, on September Sh* The frost-free season is, therefore, only 116 days* If the months of the  :  %of classification data see Fig. 16.  ^Temperature date, for Garni are available for only ten years? for Chute Lake seven. '  FIG. 17 AVERAGE  PRECIPITATION  FOR  A  0-  c  A Ni D  PENTICTON IV2I FT.  M A M  N  TOTAL - ii-35  0-5V) ui I U z  SUMMERLAND 1 6 0 0 FT.  ti  0-  N  D 2-5TOTAL  2-0-  2-0-  1-5-  1-5—  l'O-  ]-0-  z:  H r A u - i 0' t? »  TOT.1.'.- 24-5-  v> LU X U  STATIONS  1-0-  2-5-  0-5-  PLATEAU  B  10-  0-5tn ui I u z  53  VALLEY  GHUTE 3916  M  M  0-5<r> LlJ 1 u  LAKE FT.  A  M  2  CARMI  4 0 8 4 FT. M  M  N  growing season havo mean temperatures of mora than 1*3 °F, then tho growing season is four months long. Rreoipitatiptt8 As may be mm  from. Fig* 17 both plateau stations  have an annual precipitation of mar® than 20" per year. It is well distributed throughout the year, but the printer months have a decided maximum. A tondency towards a secondary m x i m m is noticeable in Kay and Jme, The average monthly and annual snowfall is dtanm in Table 111. fASfiii Xt% A m m i m m m m s j m m m i . snowfall (XBOHES)  J  F  21  A  B  J J A S  0  !f  B  TMR  Chute Lake  21.1a 23.2 12.7 11.2 0.6 — — — —  Carmi  17.3 18.3 9.8 7.9 1.8 — — — 0.2 5.1 18.1* 22.0 100.8  Relatiire Humidity (F./S).  .0.3 16.0 25.5 113.1  In tho winter months at Gsrmi tho l/fl le  consistently high all day, averaging well over 90 per cent in January. In the summer months it io not Only considerably low®*, but it fluctuates from over 80 per cent in tho early morning hours to just over k® per coat in the hottest part of a July afternoon. Cloud Chror* Throughout the year at Carmi the -early mornings havs the least cloud cover. The winter months average about 60 per coat cloud cover in tho morning which increases to 80 par cent or more during the day. The summer months have about 25 per seat cover la the morning, which gradually increases to h® per cent, more or less, during the hot-teat part of the day*.  ..,.••  55 Winds. It Is extremely difficult to tell at Canai froia which directions the regional winds actually come. High ridges are located one quarterrail©to the east and south-cast of the station and there are higher  ranges and peaks in all directions from 'four to ten miles distant. The local topography, therefore, plays an important part in re-directing the regional Kinds. It will he sufficient therefore for the purposes of this study to cay that in winter the winds are mostly fros tho south; in the spring they develop a westerly component which by mid-summer has swung almost completely to the north.^ In summarizing the data for the climatic elements, Ojapaan divided the climate of the southern plateau into tea closely related types s the Bfb or Humid Continental-Cool eunsner, and the Dfc or Humid Continental-Cool 7 ' short suE.fisr.  for the elements is taken from Climatic Summaries and Pally Records, Meteorological Division, Departs! sat of Transport, (Toronto. •7 'Chapman, op. cit., Hap accompanying "Climates of British Columbia." The meanings of the symbols are as follows: D - Cold snowy forest climates. Average temperature of coldest month less than 26.6op« &mr&g& temperature of warmest month mare then 50°?. £ - Bo distinct dry season—driest jaonth of summer more than 1.2 inches. b - Cool summer—average temperature of warmest month less than 71.6OF. c - Cool short summer—less than, four months with ® r e than 50°F. (After ¥. Koppen)  gfeQu6QntroXa_.of the Otomgaa Oljtoate Tli© controls of tho Okanagaa climate ere those features in the local setting which, acting on the large ^ overall clir.ie.te, produce a distinct climate of their own. They are, in other words, those features of til© landscape responsible for differentiating the Okanagan region from  the plateau, not only physically, but climatically as well. Hie Okanagan controls are of three kinds: the _ landfoms, jibe,  valley l^esp, and the various kinds of land surfaces. Lanaforsas have several characteristics which influence their effectiveness as controls. These characteristics are (a) sice, (b) slops of the surface (or shape), and (c) trend with respect to the sun. The lakes are effective controls depending on their (a) location (b) siaa <c) depth, and (d) ta-nperature. The kind of surface affects the heat-absorbing ana heat-retaining ability of the land. Differential heating, as will be seen later, has marked effects on the teiroerature of tho air above the land surface in question and is therefore a cause of wind and an indirect control of relative humidity. The landforms of the Penticton region have been discussed in the chapter on geomorphology. and their distribution is shown in Fig.  It  remains to be shown how they affect climate by modifying the elements. This will be done in the following paragraphs* The. Valley as a Control of Valley CIteate jSffqffi  valley on te^eraiure. The valley is the largest of the  landforms. Its eii£» to eight-ail© width, its 3,000- to j?,000-foot depth,  57 and its northward trend are major factors influencing the climatic elements. For example, difference in {altitude alone is the cause of a 10-degree  difference in ta&per&turo between Garni and Penticton.6 Too, because cold air is dense and flows downslqpe, serenely low temperatures might be expected on the valley bottom at night except that a certain ameliorating condition exists»  the addition of heat to the air by compression. The  farther the cold air moves down, the mors it will be congressed and the more heat will be added to it so that air, which, may be below freezing before it begins to move down from the plateau, may be warned to above freezing by the time it reaches the valley bottom. Because the valley trends north-south, the western valley wall will get more direct sunlight in the morning and the eastern wall in the afternoon. The western Wall id.ll therefore reach its m a & m m temperature sooner than the eastern wall and the latter will rmsza warra longest after the sun has set. This difference in the time of maximum temperatures on the valley walls may be a cause of cross-valley winds, it may make the eastern wall less susceptible to frost, and it may be an important factor . • Q in deciding the best time of day for irrigation.' Bffeot of the ..valley on areclpltetlon,, Precipitation, like  temperature, is greatly affected by the valley. Chute Lake receives more Try , than twice as much precipitation as Penticton.  The reason for this is  two-fold; first, the cooler air of the plateau is more disposed to ^Compare Tables II and I?. ^Because temperature is a control of B/fi. ^Compare graphs in Fig. 17.  preoipitotioia -Htm th»j m s m ? air ;t» the valley; me<ml, mck rain that falls in the valley evaporates during the long drcp to the valley floor.11 tho  parte of tho Galley therefore g»fc tha laast ja&i, a M tins  eaoaat iiM»«atf<Ss gra^yOiy vrJLth «ltit«aSo 'aloag the valley slopes. Ths valley stations I vivo a raidi moire pronounoad iuaxiistisi of precipitation during Kay and June than have the plateau stations. This is most likely duo to the greatsr degree of convoctional activity in the valley during tbs: siamer*1® Effect of the valley, on Relative Btaddlty (R/H). Because of the lower temperatures and greater amount of precipitation oh the plateau, the fl/H is higher there the.n it is In toe valley. It probably decreases13 gradually from the plateau to a point near the valley bottom froa whore the B/B would begin to rise again because of evaporation frcsa the lake surfaces* Effect, of the valley on cloud cover.* Cloud c o w data are not sufficiently detailed to raake significant coi^rieons between the mlley  •^It is a ccaEnon experience to seo dark: m,in falling £rm a cloud hovering over the valley; the darkness lightens and fades with the rainss • descent only to vanish as the last drops ore absorbed back into tho etmosphere before having fallen half way to tho ground. " The isaritiao influence in winter follows naturally frees the domiffi&ce ovar southern British Columbia If-e&ther of the Aleutian Low. The precipitation falling during this season is therefor© mostly of frontal origin. In siEsacr, the Hawaiian High holds essay over the southern half of the provinc© with only occasional interruptions frees, the Great Basin Low. Most of the precipitation falling during -May and Juno la therefore jaoet likely ccnvcctional in origin, Tho driest months are Kerch-April and August-September, the in-between periods when neither maritime nor continental influences predt»&nate. No data are available for the valley vails.  59 sad tii® plateau. However, it is probable that in the summer, more cumlus^ clouds arc forced over  valley than over the plateau because  of the greater comre&tional activity ovor the valley during the r<mm ;  emsrn*  fte valley and its cloud-cover do combine to create a significant contribution to the Okanagan climte in trinter, however. The clouds provide a blankot--in the true sense of the Trord—to consorvs heat by preventing escape of loag-mve radiation from the earth, m i s phenomenon of heat conservation is known as the "greenhouse effect." But the vallgy trails also prevent lose; of heat by convection in a horizontal direction •end' therefore help to create »hat night be toracd a closed greenhouse effect. The issnortance of this closed greenhouse effect to the fruit Industry of the valley can hardly bo ovorastisjatsd, especially when temperatures drop and danger to the delicate fruit buda becomes critical. TOlley on winds. Again tho data for wind directions on the plateau are not detailed enough3^ to draw significant conclusions on the valley's effect on the regional winds.fth&terorthe true directions of the regional winds may be, however, the valley would tend to channel the®. between its walls and give than a greater north or south component (I.e.in the direction of the valley axis).  perhaps curaulo-ninibuG cloud as well which would help to asplain the valley's mmmm?tim isaziraum of precipitation. IS Ae has been ©jplaiijed above, the data from Cam! which are Idle only ones available for Hie plateau do not give the true directions of the regional winds because of interference from local landforms.  •  m  Ulads cauaod by the differaitlal heating of the valley slopes are, of course, & mlloy phenomenon. As ti?e e m begins to wrarai the elopes of the 'main csnd tribtitey •vaaiegre, tho naigliboitriag air sill be fm*sed and  bogin to nam upward along the slopes. The movnssent offchitrair constitutes the up-valley or eemto-waad. Later in the day the air in the upper slopes till! cool first and, bacoaiag denser, id.ll flow to® to lower levels, thus instigating the dossi-vallcy or north wind. the valley Kinds are therefore yet another phenomenon which the valley landforra creates and vfaieh serves to differentiate tho valley climate froa the elie&te of the  plstesm*^ file Snialler Laadforme as Controls of Valley Climate $fae 'smaller inrj&foxrcc act on the vslley dimat© as controls in exactly the earns iftamer as the valley acts on the regional climate, liiach landfors, be it terrace, alluvial fan, ridge, or depression—be it oven the srnallest change in height, slope, or aspect of eurfacc—lias the poser to aodify the elirjato in itsfcsediatevicinity. The ®odification nay be coneider&fele or infinitesimal, depending »aore or less on the siss sbs! simps of the lsndfowr. acting as a control. nevertheless, sa intimately associated is each landfora with tho %ticro»climt0B' of its tsm Baking, that the distribution of lesfifoKas is essentially the distribution of the fsicro-ciisates as well. The ssse say bo said of tfes vsllegf and the valley cliEsate. Hence, the indiv5.sibil5.ty, the "oneness" of tho Ofeoaagan cliaate and the Okanagan landforos.  slionii be laanticnod that the differentiation here is again, one of degree. The zaany small valleyc of the rough plateau surface also develop their local, winds, but on such & limited scale that comparison with those * of thefesiixOkanagan Volley would asbow significant difforencse in nagnitude.  61 YJhat are SOJSG of the more important irayc in which the srs&ller landforms gffeet climate? Of great benefit to the orchardist ere the gently sloping terraces because they have good air drainage. A© a rale tho cold atr £vosi tho plateau discharges through the tributary valleys and tends to flew dean the gullies cut through the terraces until it readies the valley floor, fhe terrace surfaces are then like islands between efsreaas of cold air. If, an occasion, the cold air cpille on to tho terraces, it trill usually drain dffaa their slopes before it gets deep enough to b a m the fruit buds. ' Thus the terraces arci inipartaiit fToct controls. The alluvial fana act jsuch like the terraces ia controlling frost but e.re not so effective ' beoases the ooM air discharges through the gullies on to the fans. Once tho air reaches the foot of the fan, it has descended a® far as it can go. ;  It Bill therefore deepen as its mlieie increases and covsr the fans long  before the higher terraces are affected. Depressions such as tarisrt on the rough terrace sections often fossa catchment basins for cold air and are known as "frost pockets". A farmer would be foolhardy to plant peaches in such depressions;; ho would, if he were t-rf.se, reserve sacls an area for hardier crops. There are nurserons oilier landfcms—Mils, SiVnlec, lot? lying levels beaches, e-tc.-~-s?hoso laiero-elimates are better suited to one uee than to . another. One landforra issy have a little more shade tfeaa another, or be cci^ifhat hotter protected in the  fee  wind, or have its raasdias teapei^atures  or, because of its position, receive slightly more rain.  A H fact care liiich contribute to the climatic differentiation are important ae they Kay ba critical to the lmidf©m4c potential use. A  62 beautiful sandy beach, fov  if it fells into shade otar-ly  losas mxSn of Its recreational ualtu?  tii© ©£fcorao«oj as airstrip set at right  singles to a teibofcoty valley embodies BOBS rialc to airpljaaoe ii" a strong wind blows dean the vnlley <svery late afternoon: and a ehady portion of a hillside say be better stilted to grcwtqg a cortain variety of applae, whereas tho sffirragr aide nay ha bettor suited to crowing another. The olim&iic ifsriatiorss ar© •a3aas®fc infinitesfeufcthe fear sasssple© cited" should gite saass ides of thofespwrtwsooof tfec IsMiossi and its associated v&xato*climte, an ir^ortanco that can hardlyfc©overocftteated when studying the detailed txorkings of tte largar region® The failey lakes m .Cgnferole .of Falley gliaate  The valley lakes are i&pcrt-anfc climatic controls because of their effect onteroeraturetjhumidity, and winds. Because water gains and losesteatasoro sle^ij than tho land, it 'sill be w&zroer than tho land at Right and cooler during the dsy» therefore,, at night the sir sbofe the water will be warmer fMm. the air efeyve tfee  land, a © ^Tariser, lighter air trill rieo and tho colder air saving in to take its p t e M I X cause sa off-shore breeea. These oa- and off-shore broeces arc never vsrg atresia its tho valley and occur only t;hen 1ins mrs d^rvmic regional and up» and do;?ri-valley sslsife do not interfere. ffee valley lakes are also moderators of airtepsrature,keeping the dayt&ne temperatures cooler ovd. the night-tine tcaparatures warmer, thus they are an isnportant frost coatrol e^eoiall^ for thetefierparts  ' of the UElley hstmm Olcanagan and Shaha, andfeeteomSteha and Vaeoaux 'Lakes for the alluvial fans, aftd to a lesser degree for the tcrrasss. la  addition the lakes are aodorators of seasonal tenperatureo -as trail. Tim lakes add water vapor to tho atmosphere thus increasing the relative humidity. The increased hwaidity smkes tho atmosphere aoro "reccptlva" to long«*rave radiation^ furthermore, the higher the hunidity, the more hcatratentiv© the atmosphere will he, especially if clouds are formed by :c®iideasation* The Matures of the Surfaces as Controls of Valley Oligate The effect of different surfaces on climat© taao touched upon under the preceding control—toe volley lakes. There it ties shown how unequal heating of land and x-rater surfaces influenced air tsffip€3»atur© and iromidity, and was a direct cause of winds. The truth is that these phenossna are not restricted to land and t-rator surfaces only, fhey occur s&ensrssiy fero different land surfaces tshich for varying reasons ar© able to absorb and retain different quantities of heat are found close together. Thus, & dry surface has different haat-absorption and heat-retaining properties than a racist surfaces and like differences exist bets-ioon dark and light end b&tt-mm grassy asjd bars surfaces, etc. The point to be re-iterated here is that unequal heating of lend surfaces causes differences in tesserature of the air in contact Tritii those surfaces^ the differences in tssperatare result in differences in E/H and also institute convection. In short each typo of surface, like all the other controls, lias the pwsr to create a raiero-cliaato.  ffeosQs then, are the controls of tho Okanagan cliiaates landfoms, valley lakes, and mturo of land surfaces t*lthin the region, ffea effects  6k ;  ©£, the vmlley iendfom .in tfa© creation .©£ the mlley climate fjave Been  : esaiained, The ftarth&r nodifioatian of: the mXhsy eUjoats—the creation of siicro-eiircates—by the smaller landforsas, valley lakes, and lend surfaces has also been looked into. It remains no;-: to show what tho climate crested by the Qlsortagan controls actually 13, and 5a so doing, determine the extent ' the plateseu.  Misi'ch. it aay  MfmmtSMted  from the larger =cl&x*£& of  • '  MONTHLY  A  85  B  <5  •  AND  •  ANNUM-  AT  •  AVERAGES  PENTl C T O N  OF  TEMPERATURE  .  go  °"  60/  v  ' FIG.. 18 '  :  /  /  /  \  MONTHLY  '  .  AVERAGE  EXTREME  7oH  \  - Bo \  HIGHEST  -YEAR  t:  \  -70  X  TEMPERATURE 9 8° F  -60  ^ k>0z 1  50  50'  < . u. 40u> ui  /  /  \ \  •  \  / /'  w /  ° 2010  /  -30  \ MONTHLY A V E R A G E 'n EXTREME LOWEST TEMPERATURE -  YEAR  - 2 ° F  -20. \ \  \  -10  h 0  66  v m cLiK/iiic u m m m OF r m PEMTICTQB Essioif17  • lamaal and monthly tanperatures. The most significant temperature data for the valley stations will be found in fables I? and ?. for caaparative purposes and to-show temperature distribution throughout the year, tho sase data are shorn in graph fona for Penticton in Fig. 18. According to the data in fable If, the average annual taTiperafcura at Penticton m a whereas the annual range is i?l0f and  SuwzEerland is  respectively.  Tho smaller range at Penticton is probably due to the stronger moderating influence of the valley lakes* Threeraonthsof the year have temperature TABLE I? MURETR /II® RNMIA, avmxm  . statics Penticton  J  F  M  A  B  J  OF mum  J  A  S  mm  Q  nsBmsms  1  I  D  (°F)  27 31 39 ItS $6 63 68 66 $B 1*8 36 31 1*8  Summerland 25 30 39  &lt  Ir.  *  l<3 2121®  5? 6b 70 68 60 h9 37 29 faS 3li  1300'  ' average© below freezing, but the degree of frost is small being only one to tftree degrees in Becasfoer sad fehrw.rys asid £tv® to smrm dagrass ia  *sf • ""In same it is unfortunate that tha weather station at Pern™. ticten is located on the valley floor where weather conditions often differ considerably fTos. those on the terraces where most of the frait is crown. Weather data from the Smuerlsnd station are doubtless more representative  6? Si© annual averages of daily jnaxiasua temperatures (sac Table ?) at Penticton and SuKEierland are 5S°F and 57°P respectively; of the daily irdaiTiUia 3?°F and 38°F. Only at Sumner land in Jenuory do the monthly majdssa average less tlian 32°F? on the other hand, the monthly rainirca average loss than 32°P for fivercontho-ofthe year. The extremes are  man a m i  a®  Avmms  F  ii  A  •  -of m u s t mmm  J  J  A  £  mmc  0  mmm  E D  m&mmm  3TATI0K  J  Penticton  32 38 $Q 6l 70 17 6U 81 ?1 5? kk 35 58 31 23 30 35 ii£ k-9 53 52 15 38 31 26 3?  Stusnerland 31 36 ii5  ii  m  IRS. ffff""  66 75 83 80 70 $B k2 33 57  20 22 30 36 iiS 52 5? 56 U5 Ii0 31 53 38  105 fe* -16 Kin.  10l|. Bssu  -22 lain.  xmomisrt&Mg high, averaging more than 80°? to Ally and -August. Tiiat the average extrsaaes do act tell the- *?hole story is bora© out by the absolute extrer.es t-tiidi are 105% ©Ed ~16°F for Penticton, said 10h°F and ~22°P for SuTSsrlssd. Temperatures during the suissier often rise to tho high eighties and rarely- higher than 95°F. Baring the vixxtea? they frequently drop below 20°F, less frequently bolctr 10°F and only rarely belotf 0 % , Winter temperatures below 20°f are considered resj cold by the inhabitants of the ;  Fenticton region; bdoir sera degress they are considered ruinous especially  if sustained over a considerable period of time isam they -do tridespread 'damage to the JSnalt trees.  feu* tho terraces and tall therefore be given where necessary t*ith data front the Penticton station to "round out1' the eltaatl© picturo.  68 llie.seasonal tmpembmBB*  Anyone living at Penticton and Jiaving  experienced the high summer temperature a indicated in Fig, l&A and B would. smile when confronted with the stetoment that Penticton lias no hot season. A glance at the temperature cliaaatograpfc (Fig. 16), hmmvorP shows that no month of the year lias a mean temperature exceeding 6B°P which is the v^per limit of the season defined as "ware.." But the warm season is long—over S| months—arid adds greatly to the attractiveness of the climate. The cold •season averaging less than 32°F lasts 3 monthcj and the cool seasons (spring and fall), having te^eratures between 32°P and $Q°F last 3| months. •All in all the year saea&s to bs happily divided to make a stimulating TOriety of seasons whose duration is not too long to be tiresome, yet long ' enough to be of large benefit to the oocupance of the region. If the mean monthly temperatures for Sum&srland are a true indication for conditions on the terraces, then the terraces have a monthlong hot season averaging' 70°F. The, problm of  "' Tlie delicacy of the fruit blossoms makes  frost a major hasard to the fruit industry of the Penticton region. Although sosie damage may occur during light frosts, the real danger comes with frosts of 2 9 % end less which are called "killing frosts.58 She data for the killing frosts are xatch more meaningful to the farmers of tfee Penticton region and trill therefore be strsccod in this study. There are two conditions which bring frost to the valley. The most serious frostst occur when the air aaaes overlying the valley and •plateau is so cold that tto ijsilegr control® cannot adequately cope with it. Icitlier the addition of heat by compression; as the cold upper air descends into the valley, nor the moderating inflames of the valley lakes is  69 sufficient to bring the air temperature above freezing.  the natural  system of air drainage cannot alleviate the situation, the frigid air will overehelm the valley bottom and terraces ali3.ee, and it is then that the most trfLdsepread frost daiaago occurs. file second condition for frost entails air t;hich is to begin with, near froesing, and is subsequently cooled to below freezing  contact  idth tiie ground Tjhich loses heat through radiation. The phenanenon is GKj>lained by A.J. Connor in the fo3.1cv;ing manners By nightfall the inctE&sg energy fTccs the sun having hem cut off but the terrestrial radiation continuing at a rate proportional to the temperature of the soil, there sill be a net i O E S of heat by tho soil surfaos. A. slight amount of heat trill be recovered by conduction fros the soil immediately bale® the surfece, but after a ti-?.o during tho darkness the soil mrfam wlU fcsvo fallen to a. tsspepature s?liere it is utftr cooling the air in contact with it. Ivith the lower layern of air cooling first, conditions tiU.1 be reversed, in that the coolest air is ncx at the bottom with the warmest air abovo. . . . If there is too little invisible m t e r vapor and no cloud to absorb outgoing terrestrial radiation and to radiate back to the earth, the loss of heat sill mll&ffr the gain by day and if the evsrago" t^Taaersture of the air at isoderate heights above the ground was sufficiently low when the airrausssprivsd is tii® r&gioa, flroet Kay 00211? at or csar th© ground but not a fte" feet above the ground*3^ It would sees then that radiation fi-octs are potentially not as harmful to tree bruits ae ere fronts caused isy cold sir descending the plateau, ftiegr are,  harmful to ground crops or to fruit that  •mayfe©temporarily stored near tho ground®3^  Connor, fh®. logical division, B ^ t  .  *  seasoa in British Columbia, iietooro^ " ^  19 <A frost x*ill so&etinos desaage the buds on tho lowr branches of a tree and Isatre intact those on the tmper brandies, fhis oeeeincly selective frecaing is probably- iaost often caused % radiation frosts. However, as inflow of frosty air into a depression mist be considered a possible cause of selective froesing in sore localised ereas.  FIG. 19 FREQUENCY A  OF  P E R I O D OF  FROST  ( 3 2 ° F AND LESS) O C C U R R I N G  24- YEARS DURING C R I T I C A L -  APR.  DAY  MAY  SEPT.  PENTICTON  OCT..  DAY  APR.  PtRlODS  FOR  OVER CROPS  MAY  SEPT. OCT.  '7  18 19  20  21 22 7  23  8  24 25  IO  26  n  27  12  28  13  29  14-  30  15  31  16 ONE A  DOT  REPRESENTS  POSSIBLE  24-  ONE  FROST  OCCURRENCES  OCCURRENCE  O U T OF  FREQUENCY A  OF  FIG.22562  FROST  ( 3 2 ' F AND LESS) OCCURRING  P E R I O D OF 2 8 YEARS DURING APR.  DAY '  1 '  4  • •  •  •  19  •  «  •  22  •••  23  • •«  •  •  9  ••••• •  lO  ••••• •«•  IT  •• t• •• •• •  •  •  ••• *  ONE  DOT  •  OCT.  • •  25  •  •  26  •  27  • »•  • •  28  • •  29  •••  30  •  •  •  « • • •  •  •  • '  ••I•  •  *  »  •  • '  •  24  •  •  •  ••  •••  •  • • •*  •  31  15  16  SEPT.  ••••  .. . . .  • • • •« V .•  14  MAY  ••••  21  8  13  CROPS  •••  •  •  12  FOR  -  •  20  •  • •» •• »• •  APR.  •  *  «  DAY  18  • ••  •• •• •• •• • •• •  PERIODS  17 1/  •  •  7  OCT.  »  5  6  SEPT  •» •• • •• ••  2 3  MAY  CRiJiCAL  SUMMERLAND  OVER  • »• • REPRESENTS  A POSSIBLE  24-  ONE  FROST  OCCURRENCES  OCCURRENCE  OUT OF  FIG.22563 F R E Q U E N C Y OF A  PERIOD  OF  KILLING 24  FROST  YEARS  -  APR.  DAY '1  •  2  «  •  »  •  •  •  3  •  •  •  •  4-  •  •  •  •  5  •  •  6  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  7 8  9  MAY  •  19  •  20  •-  21  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  13  •  •  •  •  •  « •  •  •  •  •  ' •  22  *.  23  •  24-  •  24-  *  •  «  •  •  •  27  «  •  28  •  «  •  *  •  ONE  •  29  (  *  •  •  «  *  •  >  •  •• •t•  •  •  SEPT. OCT.  •  26  • • •  REPRESENTS  A POSSIBLE  •  •  »  MAY  •  «  •9••  •  16 DOT  •  •  14-  ONE  •  CROPS  •  25  •  FOR  -  APR. •  over  OCCURRING  PERIODS  18  •  •  12  15  DAY 17  •  LESS)  CRITICAL  PENTICTON  OCT.  SEPT.  10  II  (29°F AND  DURING  •  •  *  «  •  •  •  •  •  •  • •  •  •  •  •  •  • •  •  •  •  •  •  •  30  •  •  •  31  •  •  •  • • •  FROST  OCCURRENCES  OCCURRENCE  O U T OF  F R E Q U E N C Y OF K I L U N S A  P E R I O D OF 2 8  APR.  AMD LF! S s) OCCURRING  YEARS D U R I N G CRITICAL -  DAY  73  FIG. 22  FROST (2 9aF  MAY  SEPT.  PERIODS  SUTHERLAND  OCT.  DAY  I  17  2.  18  3  APR.  20  5  21  23  8  24  •  •  •  •  •  •  •  . • '  •  •  ,  •  26  •  •  •  •  •'  •  •  •  •  •  29  •  *  30  31  5  •  •  •  26  OCT.  •  25  27  SEPT.  •  22  7  MAY  •  •  CROPS  -  •  •  4  FOR  OVER  * • • «  • •  •  •  •  IG ONE  DOT  REPRESENTS  A POSSIBLE  24-  ONE  FROST  OCCURRENCES  OCCURRENCE  OUT OF  '  FIG. 23 COMPARISON FROST AT  OF  (29°F  74  FREQUENCY  OF  KTLUN6  A N D L E S S ) - O C C U R R I N G OVER 2 4 YEARS  SUMMERLAND DURING  PERCENTAGE ANO  CRITICAL  2 8 YEARS AT PERIODS  FALL  PENTICTON-  FOR  CROPS  FROSTS  30  >  2  cc  i V l  PENTICTON  u 20 UJ  TJ  W  ll  IL  ui o 1i 15 13  5o  cc Ui  SEI'TtMUR  XL  e  10  —  15  OCTOBER  10  zo  Jl.  TJ i i  .30 XI  SUMMERLAND 10  ' ?•>'  Th& TLTEATTGQQF of  FROST QCCUCTOBq®.  She frequency of occurrence  of both light and killing frosts is ohown in Figs. 19, 20, 21, end 22; and a comparison of percentage froquoncy of killing frost at Penticton and Sunaerland is aade graphically in Fig. 23. The caBparlsan points out the considerably sualler frequaney of frost occurrence at Sunsaorland than at Penticton t:hich does not have tii© advantage of natural air clminage. ffae igobability of a day x&th frost,  fhe ratio of the nureber>:r':  days Kith frost to the total soasber "a" of deys in the'period in question TABLE- VI THE KSl C E S KIOBliBXEJSI OF A Ml WITH FROST FOE THE KQSBI8 SPECIFIED AT P3SIC20I! AND SUTHERLAND20  &hh MOST APR..  mi  SILLTiiCr MOSS (LEGS  SEES.- 0 ® .  Pentictoii  ISO  48.5  ij6.6  96.9  Suansrland  100  22.6  10.0  87.0  Ml,.  86.7  KAX  SEPT. 00?.  16.1  6.?  8?.o  3.2  3.3  58.1  a expressed as a percentage, is called probability "Ps of a day tilth frost. Tbns, P--« | ® 3.00 2£ | JS.  laad,, •  SB , 'Ovsr a period of 2it ysare at Penticton and 2a years at Sotsaer-  f• Conrad sad L.W. -Pollack^ Bgrtfesda _ 3a. Oiamt^oiag;». (Haroard laiwrsity Press, 15>?Q)5 p. 201.  LENGTH  OF  GROWING  F O R  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  SEASON  TEMPERATURES  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  AND  FROST-FREE  <32.°F  /  AND  SUMMERLAND < 3 2°F  \ EARLIEST \ LATEST  FINAL SPRING  \  EARLIEST  \  LATEST  FALL  FALL  /  LONGEST  / /  SHORTEST  \ LAST  FROST  •••••••  FROST  DAY  OF OF  OF  # GROWING  PENTICTON <32°F  APR.  6 MAR. 12 APR.  MAY  8  MAY  8  <29aF  8 MAR. 12  MAY 2 6 M A Y  8  MOV. 2 8 OCT 2 2 NOV. 13  NOV. 5 PERIOD-  ••  2 1 3 DA. 2 6 1 DA. 1 9 7 DA. 2 4 6 DA.  PERIOD-  14 0 DA. 1 4 0 DA. 1 0 9 DA 127 DA.  P E R I O D ••  174 DA. 201 DA. 153 DA. 187 DA.  GROWING GROWING  GROWING  <29*F  PERIOD  29°F  SEPT 25 SEPT. a s SEPT. 12 SEPT. 12  FROST  FROST-FREE  DAY  \ LENGTH  FROST  FROST-FREE  AVERAGE  \ FIRST  SPRING  FROST-FREE  <  SEASON SEASON  SEASON  SEASON  DAILY  APRIL OCT. 2(4  MEAN  1 31  DAYS  TEMP  M ARCH OCT. 218  > + 3 ° F.  27 31  DAYS  According to Table fl tho probability of a day Kith frost in April is 100 par cent. That is,during the period' of the temperature recordings frost lias occurred at one time or another on ovary day in April at both Penticton and Sura-norland. In m y , 1$ out of 31 days in Penticton and ? out of 31 days in Sissserland him had frost during the periods of recording. It will be noted that the probability of a day ' •with killing frost in Bay and September is considerably lees? than that of Sight  . The frost-free season.  She data for the frost-frse .period ere  glTen in Table ¥XJ* The lengths of the average £rost~free season at Penticton and Sissnsrland are 153 and 173 days, respectively^ and the average killing frost-free season is 10? dsys and 201 days* The frostfree season is therefore three weeks longer at Susaraerland than at Penticton whereas -the IdHing-frost-fres season is only tiro t?eeks longer. This large -variation again points out the importance of natural air dreinace to the -terraces.  1  tKxe gro3igg> ss&soa. If the gpmisig mama- is defined as the emtjgams scries of days, beginaing in the spring and ending in the fall, filth jsenn temperatures of  at higher* then the average length of the  growing season at Pcntieton is 210 days and at StBaaerland 2lk days. If the grossing season starts xnsry early, frosts iacy become critical during the first part of April. Conversely, if the grossing season starts -very late, sraen fairly sharp frosts daring the latter half of April nay do little dosage to the undeTrelopsxi fruit buds.  FIG. 24 CLIMA6RAPH  0-5  PENTICTON  0-9 l-O II 1-2 PRECIPITATION  0-6  INCHES  J F M A afc, A N N U A L EACH  FOR  M J J A S O N D PRECIPITATION FALLING  MONTH  AT  PENTICTON  —  79 facilitation Because It lies in the rainshcdaw of the Coast fountains, the British Colunbia interior hao a comparatively light rainfall and, for Z'casons already cited tho Glamagaa Valley recoivec less than half the precipitation of til© plateau. As & result, the valley agricultural lands raiat Is© irrigated ond5 a© the s&io sources of irrigation m t s r are located, on tile  precipitation on the plateau becones of iraior iicportance  to the vaUsgr,  Precipitation ee au element of the plateau climate lias  already been briefly dieeuGoed end trill be referred to only incidentally in the remainder of this chapter. distribution of precipitation. Penticton receives an average of i a n d  22  10  »9  inches of precipitation par year m a  inches. ' Fig. I? ah&w  *  graphically for easy eoapsriocn the  annual distritetioa of precipitation for both valley ertd plateau stations* It M i l  noted that the valley stations (lilt© those on t&a plateau)  two decidod iaos5&& of precipitation, one in sinfcer asd the other in summer. "Hie stasaer lassist® is eliglitJy higher than that of irinter— Panticton receiving 82 per cent of its mm. rainfall in May a m Jane and 18 per coat in Bsesssber sad January (as© Fig* 2!tB)»  22  fentictost receives slightly more rainfall than Etsaserland uMcti eliwaM* theoretically , receive zaora being higher lip tho mllSQr m i l (Penticton 1*121 ft.j SteaaAasd 2*600 ft.). 2io reason for the eossaiBg discrepancy say be das to the ^rain-shadow" effect of the western w32ay t m H o» Khich Stxssarlancl is located, The east*iaou3so storao % m d to drop aore noietttr© on the easrfcern valley slopes than on t&e western and, although r.o statistical data are evaUahle*, tfaa slightly header vegetation m the eaetsra slopes points to the truth of the atJCTEptdon.  FIG. 25  AVERAGE  M O N T H LV  80  SNOWFALL  A 15-  -30 "OTAL  -  .J „J  <r uT  24 • O'  r  o z -15 • V)  (0 10bi I u  <  3  z  Z  z <  3—  -10 H Z UJ u  10 O o  v  0 J  F  M  A  M  i  1  J  J  1——i A  r"  S  O  N  D  -0  UJ 0.  PENTICTON  Avi I N C H E S  B  | I  P E R  C E N T  15  -30  10-  l >l. o z -20 <  <  'OTAL - 34--i-  D  </) u I L>  Z  z < 10 5 UJ U cc UJ CL 0-  J  F  M  A  M  t—-r J  J  S U M M E R L  A  S  AND  O  N  O  -0  GO  Snowfall. tii© p l a t e a u .  S n o w f a l l i n t h o v a l l e y i s l i g h t cozxparod t o t h a t  m  P e n t i c t o n r e c o i v s s 2h i n c h e s o r a b o u t 2 1 p e r c e n t o f i t s  p r e c i p i t a t i o n a e e n o n j S r a E © r l a a d , r e c e i v e s 3 U . l t i n c h e s o r a b o u t 3k p e r c e n t a s enoir ( s e e F i g . 2 5 ) .  2 - 3  Snoi-rfall, b e c a u s e o f i t s l i g h t n e s s . , i o r a r e l y a problems t o t h e •salleyy  Tho r o a d s a r e open and b a r e isost of t h e xrinter, e s p e c i a l l y i n  the southern p a r t of the street  the  tarns  ralley  and l i t t l e need b e s p e n t on cleaning t h e  a n d - v i l l a g e s e x c e p t on r a r e o c c a s i o n s when a s i n g l e  m s m f a l l d o a p s m o r e mm  i n t o tho s t r e e t s than the regular t r a f f i c can  massage..  H a i l and s l e e t  a s f o r a s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s t h e Okanagan a r e so  5  r a r e t h a t a. d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n h e r e i s c o n s i d e r e d u n n e c e s s a r y . •to i n t e r e s t i n g c l i i s s t o ^ a p h c o s b i n i n s t s x p e r a t u r a a n d p r e c i p i t a t l o n i s shosn i n Fig.  and i s u s e f u l f o r comparative purposes.  It  gisBs a characteristic figizre f o r a l l stations i n the valley near • fteatieton* Tfc&gfci-yg l l a a i d i t j ( R / f l ) III© i m p o r t a n c e o f o r o p o r a t i o n r a t e c a n h a r d l y b e o v e i w c s t i i a a t e d i a the study of clisate. 1  :  I t i e u i t a l t o t h e f d m e r vfco d e p e n d s o n i s a i e r f o r  h i s c r o p s , t o f o r e s t g r o w t h a n d p r o t e c t i o n f r o a f i r e h a s a r d , ts> a h o s t of nrinnfacturine p r o c e s s e s , and t o  iSHBSSS  e n d a n i m a l s -aho tlspemd u p o n i t  • f o r a c o m f o r t a b l e "sensible" t e m p e r a t u r e .  Io cosplste% adequate ^rstea  ^ C a l c u l a t i o n s made o n b a s i s o f 10 i n c h e s o f snosj t o 1 i n c h o f  rainfall.  %ler@ again a r e deaonstratcd tho iwAmA e f f e c t of a l t i t u d e and t h e m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e i®lleg? l a k e s * 2  average  FIG. 26  relative  humidity  period  VALUES AND FOUR  at  DETERMINED  AVERAGE  AIR  SPECIFIED  over  five - y e a r  penticton  FROM  AVERAGE  TEMPERATURE TIMES  a  EACH  DEW-POINT  TAKEN  DAY.  AT  PRESSURE- 2 9 V  81  •62 for measuring ovaporation rate hac yet hem dcui3cd and at beet E/H can £i"vt5 only an ^rojtteatios on the ability of tho atmosphere to take cp moisture. Such factors ee Xiind Kpeod end direction4 assomt of exposures and kind of craporating snrfccoreactalso bo taken into account. If, for example, a fersssr decides to coneerva t*afcer by irrigating at night -when the E/H Is M g b , M s saving "will bs slight, if ho falls to take noto of e strong wind. ikr.jever, inadequate as K/Hraayhe by itself, it Is still a. significant alausnt when used in conjunction tilth the other fetors insntioned above, a M it 1B tilth tills resermtion that E/fl is discussed as a clfcatic element in the following paragraphs. Fig. 26 she®s the average?. H/H taljen at four specified t&ass each day and the daily mean E/H. It Kill be noted that the early Earning (0i$30 FST) H/H staye hlgha averaging m i l over SO per cent,, and. it m y be assnmed that evaporation ie at a EirdiiarB at- this tin®. By late aorsitag (1030 PS?) tho S/fi M s decreaBsd—orOy slightly during tho c o M ceseoa, but sore than 35 per ©safe during -fee Harder -months. The l&te afternoon (1630 PS?) readings sre almost as high during the cold season ae those tstea in. late smmlsg but sgala th^r decrease rapidly to a jalnisssm of 1|2 per cent as th© mean temperatures rise®  %  late eroniag  (2230 PS21) m e B/K iiae eiesa agate generally to &roaM 70 par seat la the msmm* mnths. Two important facts energ© frcaa M s graphs  org, the R/H ie  astresc3y high ttemshowfc the dcy during th© cold aonthsj too, during tho mamar saonfiis it fluctuates through e, range -of about IiO per cent 25 during Si® -day.  is probably th® 1mi dsyfelmsftonldltyla s a w s cosMssd Kith a strong taind, Khich ofte-i prevents rain fi-oci reaching the mlley floor.  FIG. 27 FC/H A N D T E M P E R A T U R E RELATIONSHIPS during a 24-hour p s r i n p (m j a n u a r y 90  and  n  july  at  penticton  ^x-jam.  _  9 0  r/h  80 -  -80  70 -  - 70 T.  x  U!  V/^JULY '  7.  TEMP  UJ cc  \  -GO <x  u.  h f.50  ''^UJULY R/H  -50'w Ui lii  - 4A0« £&  S'40 0. ^ / u a n .  30  20  0430  1030  temp.  1630 t!  UJ a  me  -30 2230  20  0430  2hc effect of temperature on E/fi is we.de even more obvious in Fig. 2? which -ekmm the change in R/H «ith change in tmparatare through one-day cables in January and July. The very snail average temperatsre fluctuation (only 3CF) during a January day is reflected by the saall (15 per cent) inwrse R/H change. The much larger 26°F fluctuation in July brings about an imTerce change of 37 per cent in R/H. But tdjy, if teepcrature is a controlling factor, is tho R/H higher in June than it is in 2-l&ys a cooler month? The answer probablelies in the June laasdiaus of precipitation (see Fig. 17) and the greater amount of eater available to evaporation froa the groisnd surface. It is highly probable that U/H decreases with both Trertieal and horisontal distance froa the mlley lakes. The decrease probably continues up the valley sides to as altitude Tshere loser tesrrperatures and increased precipitation result in higher hunidity thus nullifying the distance froa the lakes. The different tiiae of Bssism andralairacate^oraiuree on the eastera and TJeGtern elopes of the valley presses a difference in E/fi consequent Mtfa the tinges. For efficient use of ^ter ? therefore5 a farmer on the eastern slopes tom be Trail advised to vait a fee hours -after the farsser oa the uestern slopes has begun- to irrigate his acres. Although the  IGK  eisaisrMjae R/H is a disadvantage to the  FANNER  of the Penticton region uho lausfc irrigate M s crops* it is a decided ad-santage to the people generally. In permitting rapid evaporation tea the S3dn, a loa B/H makes the sensible temperature cooler and thus brings the high da^-Mse taaperafcures in sasraer much nearer to the range of  PER  I II I  cn  CENT  I I I I? I II  >  a?  ui  HOURS  c_ -  TJ m  n  J  c_ (-  0 1  r I. I l  N3 O O  I I1  ot o o I cn 0 c z z (/)I X r -<  n A m o Z 2 H —i x r < 03 J a 2 I > H  2 >  c_  O o  CJI z I o £TV cn I m  z  z m • c -n 33 Q o > ro 73 H CD t/> o  co  c z c z >  I o z c m  on  I I II PER  I I II CENT  H j- O G ^ 0) c 3: 2 m 73 r > z o ui  0 m » n r > 5 Z  a1 I II O  o o  I l I I r\o O O h o u r s  i  -I.  OJ  o o  m Cloudiness and Sunshine In all of British Columbia only the southern part of Vancouver Island and Kamloops get more hours of bright sunshine than does the "Sunny" Okanagan* sussaer*  And yet* "sunny" is a true appellation only for the  In winter the days ere cloudy end dull and as may be seen from  Table TO, tho sun is seen only a very few hours longer each Month at Summerland than at Vancouver. The dense, cold air (often of P/C origin) Tshich occupies the valley in -winter is overridden by the moist, warm P/ii sir from the Pacific.  Tnc mixing end resulting condensation of the  • mmM  mi  M l M S t DURAT10H OF SUKSHIKE IS H0QR3 AT SIMiEKMffi) AHD ¥AW30S¥3i  J Sasmerland  51  tasecuver  k8  P  82  t  II  s  57  111 hours  i*G  39  hours  tipper levels of the P/C air gives rise to cloud that covers the valley fig. 284 uhich shoas tho monthly duration of bright eunshine for Suajserland, also shows the hours of bright suasliine for the entire Penticton region. vsry "unequal®  The yearly distribution is seen at a glance to be  July receives 6.»2 tixees as roieh sunshine as January., and  the months of the "high" grousing season (i.e.fiay,JunG, July, and August) receive k»$ times as xauch sunshine as the winter months (i.e. Hbv-  Tfeta frffia GXivsr" to the south and £r®s Vernon to the north parallel those of SiEasierland very closely.  66 ember, December, January* and February). This is, of course, all to the  • «7  good, ae the sunshine comes whan it is most nesded.  Table fill shews the monthly distribution of sunshine in 10-ho«r days. She vJide seasonal variation is brought homo much sore significantly ftBDS W C t OP IO-HOUR  msmm  J •  5.1  F  n  d&xs  A  9.h ill .2 19.6  OF  mimm  1-1  J  SUBSMIHE  J  pm mma  A  mmmMw  at  S  0  2iul 2&.6 32.2 27.? 20.2 ll».6  N  D  5.7  i«.l  Yearly Total -» 201.7 10~hour days  fMea it is realized "teat January ha© the equivalent of only 5.1 tea-hour days of bright sunshine, tJhereas July has the equivalent of 32.2 ten-hoar days. In conclusion it might, be pointed oat that, not only do the sasffier months have the longest hours of sunshine, hut -fee insolation received 'is of considerably greater intensity because the susser sun is nearer Mi© zenith. Indeed, the ratio of insolation intensity between the June m d Bocssbor solstices is approximately lis 3. ho bonder then •teat the emuser son stares from -a blinding sky and tho "host waves" daneo on every feature of the landscape.  is perhaps pertinent to say that the preponderance of bright sunshine in the srnner is not all attributable to dear skies, liuch of the "extra." aust be attributed to the longer period of daylight.  e? Made  '' There arefe?oIclnds of vinds which affect the Penticton regions  Local tonds tjiiidi origiuste in the environs of tho region, tod extraregional t-jinds which result from, cyclonic disturbances. It may bear repeating here that local winds are usually due to convection caused by unequal heating of the land surfaces. Bis unequal heating iaey be da© to difference in type of surface as between land and « t s y s or between pasture end plowed field, ct-cj or It laay be due to slope conditions as where one slope ©emits the sun,s rays to strike mors vertically than another. Whatever the cause, tho surface which becomes mnsast "Bill transfer more heat to the air above it than -Kill the cooler surface. Tho Banner air being lighter per unit volume than -Hie cooler sir, id.ll begin to rise and the coaler .air nill move in to replace it® tlii® movement of air by differential heating is one of the prirae causes of local viinds. file local up- and down-valley vjinds also- have their origins in convection. The slopeo receiving acre direct Insolation during the day cause the air in contact with thea to  kovo upward along the m i n valley  and its tributaries. At Bight the more rapid cooling of the upper lewis due to heat loss by radiation, causes the air to cool and, becoming mora dense, to flow dc*jn the tributary valleys into the sain valley to ssakc tiie dorm-valley Bind. Coimer cites a special instance vhen cool air flovdng dawn from the heights- m y develop into a particularly strong wind. Ksar the foot of Lake Glcanagan, Okanagan fountain Bill ^ frequently shed Its air %;ith a sadden nssh near sunset. She dewurueh Melts up wtiitec&ps OH the lake and for fifteen Minutes to half SB hour there may be E W I Y appearance of a sstrar® stom.  81  FIG. 88  JULY  percentage average  frequency  wind  speed  of  for  wind  (by  directions)  summerland  hi ,i i iO I°/a , I FREQUENCY; (2) ^ CALMS;  and  station.  4-/MPH ^  8-I2MPH  B n  NE  • • • •  se  • • • • •  *  sw  •  •  «  • • • • • • • •  •  • • • • • •  • • » • « •  • • •  •o ••  w nw calm j  f  m  a  percentage  m  frequency for.  -one  dot  j  represents  j of  a wind  s (sy  o  N  directions)  s u m m e r l a n d one  per  cent  for  any  one  month  B9 It the same time that this strong northeast bloK Is occurring there may be no wiscl or only a gentle southerly breea e on the airport at the north end of nearby Skaha Lake.-28 Fig. 293 shotrs that the northerly x-rindo are laost common in surfer and southerly Hinds to winter*  M b is probably due to the ©c-tea-regional  influences diagr&rjned in fig. ISA and B. The Great Basin High GKtends well sorfesrd in January  the air moving north from the Columbia  Plateau. is probably the cause, of fee southerly Binds. Even so. northerly tJinds bringing P/C air are not uncozs&on during this season and they often bring nith thess a step cold spell. In summer the Great Basin Low is well developed and the 'air tends to floe in & southerly direction*  The west-  eastffiovementof cyclonic stores are responsible for grinds cosing f*ost all directions, but prevailingly from the t?est. The north-south trend of the valley will, however, channel sassy of the winds and give then a more pronounced north-south component than they *rould othen-aise have. Cosmos tfind speeds vary from calias, tiiieh are rare, to 12 sph (sso Fig. 2?A), bat Hinds of 30 apfc and higher are not infrequent. If they occur t;hen the trees are laden with fruit they can cause much dsasage. Strong winter winds often esreep down the valley bringing with the® the raw disccsufort of biting coldj yet, these are forgotten in surasier v?hen a welcome drying wind brings cool comfort to the heat of - the day. Gliaatic Sussaary Although the climatic eleiaents have been discussed separately, it should be apparent that they are mutually interdependent and that they tisrk as a closely lenit combination to BB!:G a climatic suit.  28 '  Connor, op. clt^ p. €  It has been  90  FIG. 30  climatic j  ' f  ' m ' a  summary  ' m ' j  '  j  ' a  '  s  ' 0  '  k  '  £  d  80 z  Soh Ul X  X  ui cc 60i <  ± i ffvom  u V T,  IWORTHERLY MEAN  AND jsoUTHERLY  directions  -40 oLrU on  TEMP. -80  u.  -70 s  ^ / p e r c e n t  average  r/h  k  c! n  30  F R05T-FREE SEASON -0." GROWING SEASONgrowing -s e a s o n - m e a n f r05t- f r e e  season:  temperature  a-  killing  b-light-  > 4 3  frost  FROST  s  f  <29°f  < 3 2°F  91 shcv-n, for example6 how variation in surface heating creates differences in tsmparaturo which cause winds' and changes In H/li t;hich in turn control the heat retaining -properties of the atmosphere.  It has been skos®,  too, hot-; the Okanagan climate is inextricably Joined to the local control, namely the valley, which literally transforms the overall clisate of the Southern Interior to create the cub-regional climate of the Oltsnagasu  In  turn the Okanagan elirssts is transformed into easy aicro-cltetes by the l&ndforas, lakes, and varying surface conditions t/itliin the valley. Fig, 30 Is a graphic mmsary of the clinate of the Penticton region. In it are shram the averages of the cliaatic elements, their distribution throughout the year, and their relationships to each other. An analysis of these factors chccs that the cliaato of the Penticton region fells into theftoppen'classification BSk, meaning' saddle-latitude, serai-arid, or steppe climate.^0'31 lew complete, then, is the differentiation of the Okanagan clinate? Kany differences have been pointed out between the valley and the plateau cliraates. For example, the valley is significantly xramer, its frost-free  ^h&t is, TJ&ter vapor prevents loss of heat by long-wave radiation. ^^diapraan, op. cit., Map accompanying "Climates of British The aeasSags of the symbols are as folloj-rsj BS - semi-arid or steppe clissate k - average annual temperature strier &kM°F finer break-dosn of eliaatio types is possible by using the ThornthKaite aethed of classification. 1'his incorporates precipitation efficiency, temperature efficiency, and seasonal distribution of precipitation. However, it is felt that a finer break-dovm is neither desirable ws>? necessary to the purposes of this thesis.  and growing season's are longer* its precipitation la half that of the plateau, its relativetoraidityle lowers and its lainde are local7 or regional winds re-directed by the valley trough*  The transformation of  the overall climate is aior© than "considerable" for the Okanogan controls have changed tojo closely related oUsatic types into another:  the cold,  eno;vjr forest cliicateo of the plateau have been transformed Into the seraiarid or steppe climate of the Okanagan. The differentiation insofar as climate le concerned is therefore complete,  • v fhis does not mean to imply that a definite line ed.sts where one climate begins and the other leaves off. Rather, as the plateau is approached from the valley bottom, the valley climate becomes increasingly like that of the plateau so that me cilsato gradually merges into the other, Hevertholeso, the deep valley climate is as distinct from that of the plateau a© the concluding paragraph indicates*  m m m  n  W & VKQETATIOK AW BOILS In the preceding chapters sates attempts were rnde to show the intimate relationships between tho landforms, cl&natQ, and l^rdrography of •Une Peatioton regions  the landfora influences the elis&ts which influences  the landfozwi, and so forth. Shore is a constant striving for balance® a system in equilibrium, & continual effort for the hotter adjustment of one geographic eleaent to the others to make a ©table and indivioible whole. Shis striving of the olesicnta of the physical regies ioi-jardo stability is a dynamic process which affects all things within the region and which is sensittro to the subtlest change. It foliar as a matter of course, therefore, that the ©oils and vegetation are aa integral a part of the region as aro the other elements. In other worde, they are a "reflection" of the other ©lenents m well ae a -earns© af thesu Soil Classification Because soil es a geographic clement reflects the influences of ell the other elements, it is not surprising that a method for soil classification should be dexdeed which, indirectly at least, reflects the influences of these elements. The method of ooil classification is based on soil color *«hich depende on the soil9s organic content which in turn depends on the kind and lusariaac© of the •rogetation tii© soil experts*  FIG.58781  5KAHA GRAVELLY SANDY LOAM  KELOWNA GRAVELLY 5AN0Y LOAM  (AFTER  M I L E S  KELLEY  AWD S P I L S B U R Y )  FIG.58881 .N S S  N  \  MA^A-  SJ  \  N  s  fs  PI  s -s. s  m  s  >»•<>  \  • V N  /-  y ft •  •  v J f \ 1• A ^ A v - - J• v. A  v. ^  *x  •  •  •  ®.  1 Xt lir e 9  V V  %  *  ••  9  a  • • •"  9  ft •  • •  • •  •  j  ,ft  »  ft  ft  •  • '  • •  •  • •  •  a  • ft '  •  •  ft]  •  ft  •  ft  •  • •  SWAMP  a  • •  •  •  •  «  GRASSLAND  Spiv •  *  *Y 0 V,  DOUGLAS-FIR  ft  GRASSLAND  •  ft  •  SPRUCE-F!R ( S U B - A L P ! ME)  ifc'SS®  s®  Co  N \  • • .«  • •  -  • •  ' ' » •  • #, r, • 1 i. • * '  *  •  ^ ^ N v. y. 1 S si  •  •  •  •  '  \ ;  •  L*  •  •  ' « •  • V •  • •  « • •  \i  1  • •  •  «  *  «  • •  r  • »  •  •  • •  « •  •  • •  •  • •  •  •  • •  • •  k* •  1' •  •  i>* »»  X  o  M | LE S  ^  GRASSLAND AND yellow pine  IMS  IIm iiss  s  «  WILLOW-  r.  M  '  A  COT TON WOOD - &IRCH  •  . ft •  OF  VEGETATION  ft|  •  ft 1. 9  •  « •  •  ft ft ft  • •  e  «  *  •  •  •  «  •  • •  •  •  •  •'  • .  DISTRIBUTION  •  •  •  7 •  • •  •  •  \*  •  N. "V.V N N 1 ft  mi yi-j'-v/  &  The soU color in tho Penticton region varies trm brawn to black. The sone with tlx© lightest vegetatioa cover, that 1g, the ereas of the drousht-reeistent plants end sparse grasses h&v©teraimsoil©. A© tho grass co^or becomes heavier up~8lope end tho eoil^s organic content • greater, the soil color changes from brma to ctak brown and finally to black in the acme of the jnoet l>ocuriant grasses. Above the graesland end wherever coniferous growth exists & change in eoil color occurs. As conifcrone forest litter Kill not easily deccrapose the amunt of organic Eaierial in the soils of the heavily wooded areae is ©rail compared vith that of the grasslands. Ae a result, grey-wooded or podoolic ssile develop in areas of coniferous growth. All the differentiated soils in the Penticton region fell into 1 tho Brown Soils end Groundwater Soils classifications (see Fig. 31). However, soae idee, of the overall growing of the undifferentiated mountain soils may bo obtained from Fig. 32 which shows tho distribution of vegetation. Thus the ores, of grasslands and yellow pins has soils grading from dark brown to black nixed with patches of podsolej the Douglas-fir end Grasslands 2one has patches of black end podsolic eoilsj and finally the Spruce-Fir Zone has only podsols. fegetetiog end Soils Classified ' Bog soils. Those soils are found is ureas uhere the tfster table is at or near the surface, notably at tho north end of ¥aseaux Lake and In the Kerron Valley west of Kaloden. The vegetation consists aainly of  %ith the exception of two snail patches near tferamta which ere classified as Dark Brown,  97 sedges, cattail, and rushes. Bog .soils are not important to the Penticton region. Their main uoe when drained is for the production of hay. Gromdwater soils. The natural vegetation on tfeeso soils io laoro or less independent of the regional precipitation. The rain growth i© dociduous forest, the dcauinaat species being willow, cottonwocd, and white birch. Among these are found alder and on the fringes, aspexu Coramoa shrubs are the Rocky fountain laaple, hawthorn, elderberry, and chokecherry. The, color of tho soil is derk brown due to the docaMposed leaf litter. The groundwater soils are particularly prominent at the botttsa of the main vallqy between the valley lakes. Other areas are located along McLean Greek and the fans of laramata and Eoblnson Creeks. Comparison of Figs. 5 aud 31 will show that these soils are made up iergo3y of fan mterials, l-ihere the water table is not too high groundwater soils ore suitable for orchards. Otherwise shallow-rooting crops such as tomatoes, onions, com, potatoes, etc., and fodder crops do well on these soils. Brmga,goils»  Thefcroansoils are found £rtm the International  boundary to as far north as SasraerlaM* The highest elevation at which they occur ie about 2,000 feet and the lowest 903 feet at Ocoyoos.^ All the terrace masses and low-lying soils not in the groundwater soils grouping fall into the brown soils classification.  %k description of the coils is given in Appendix A. » ...... ••:•••••. Kelley and R.H. Spilsbury, Soil Survey of the 'Qmrnsm and ^jfapeen.Valleys, British Columbia, Beport Ko. 3» (Kind's iVlnte ! Ottat-ra, p. 2t>.  08  Mi© grasslands occupy the brown soils area. Because of the law m t e r table the grasslands saast depend entirely on precipitation for moisture. As precipitation ie extremely light, drought resistant grasses and xerophytics aro best suited to this area. The dominant prasseo are bluebunck wheatgr&oo, cosrnon Gpeargraee and send dropseed graso.. Xerophytice, found most frequently on south-facing slope© i&ere precipitation efficiency ie particularly lew, arc cactus and deeert shrub varieties such as sagebrush, rabbit bush, and antelope bush. • The brown soils have boc-n further differentiated according to texture and roughness of surface. The texture clay or combinations of these*  be gravelly, candy, silt,  The surface is classed m  terrace phase  for even or gently undulating surface, and ljettle phase for rough surface. The brawn soils are as followst •  (a) Slgaha ^amirelly sand?/ loam. This soil type occurs in gravelly  terraces froa 1,100 to 1,800 feet in the Fenticton region. The latest parcels of it ere found east of Penticton and around Okanogan Falls, and ' ssaller parcels lie to the east of Slcaha Lake. The parcels oay vary in size frca a fen acres to 1,000 acres or mere. The soil substratum conoieto of unsorted sand and gravel and a saixture of stones up to eight inches in dimeter, the aaount of each constituent varying from terrace to terrace. Ceaented till in ti® sub~ stratum often forms an impervious layer tihich impounds water to foim small lakes or ponds in the kettle holes. As sight bo expected froa its composition, this soil :1s extremely poroue as a result of tshich nost of it has been left in range. ¥ith the advent of sprinkler irrigation, however, ©ore is being brought under cultivation.  Even so, the kettle phaeo ie too rough and most of it must  be left in range because of the great tendency to erosicn* (b) ..Qeogfoos  loam. This soil occurs in terraces (kettle  phase) west of Penticton or. both sides of Shingle Creek, to tho north of Oteaagaa Falls eft the east shore of Skate Lake, and W &  Naramata. The  kettle phase is often too rough for agriculture and erosion has added to the surface irregularity lh laany places so that nany of the narrower terraces, for example, have beccsie coapletely unsuited to cultivation* Most of this soil is in range due to unavailability of water, to roughness of topography, or to location within the Indian Reserve. The sandy loan is suitable for irrigation especially under the sprinkler system and where slopes are not too steep to instigate erosion. Excessive irrigation will, however, leach away the soluble salts of the solum because of the porosity of the 0 horizon. (c) Osoyoos loamy sand is found in small sections east of Hunson liountain and west of Skaha. Larger sections are found in the Kaleden area and southeast of 0ktm&gm Falls. Although tho kettle phase contains & great deal of wasteland, much of it has been cultivated particularly near Kaleden because of the availability of water. The rough topography and porosity of this soil presents the smie problems of erosion end leaching as are found in the sandy loams* Sprinkler Irrigation would do much to conserve this soli. {d) PeiAlotog silt loam is found on tiie lowest tcrrecos on both sides of Okanagan Lake fro®. Karcuneta and Trout Creek to Penticton. Ssnaller sections appear again south of Shingle Creek mi  an the east shore of  Skaha Lake. It occurs in the remarkably oven terrace formations laid d m m against the tongue of Ice in the post-glacial valley lake. The  100 evenness of the terraces is freouently interrupted where the surface lies been destroyed by erosion. This is on© of the East fertile coils in the valley. However* it will have to be carefully conserved as irrigation will accelerate the existing tendency to,erosion. Biidifferestla.ted Mounted Soils Barfc brown soils occur in the fellow Pine-Grasslands zone in the undifferentiated rough xountaia ares, above the brown soils, The indigenous vegetation is the e m s as in the grasslands with sense additions. Blw» Imaeh wheatgra.es is tho most important and rough fescue e>rxi .Junqgraes become of secondary importance. Xarrow, everlasting, and balsam root are the most caramon forbo. Although the grasses are eaoeKhat yaore luxuriant, the xorophytics ere nuch less prcsinent. The wild rose, snowberry, and Saskatoon berry are eorsaon elthough tho latter is frequently dteerfed, The occurrence of yellow pins is a reflection of the greater eaiomfc of precipitation in this sonc. This tree occurs singly and in thin etsnds which grow denser cn shady slopes and towards the upper limits of the sone. Gluiaps of aspen ere also found in the upper limits and in the shallow depressions or sheltered slopes. Only two small parcels of the Dark Brown soils have been differentiated and they are both found near Ilaramata. They are classified as Kelowna Gravelly Sandy lorn end Rutland Gravelly Sandy X*>ea. fhe fomer is developed by surface weathering of glacial till deposited above the stratified aaterials in the lower part of the valley. Sjctonsive unclassified areas of this soil occur between Olsanagm Landing and the International boundary and most of it is used as range. Only very small parte  101 as near Karamata hat© been cultinratM because of the availability of water. The Rutland Gravelly Sandy Loam trill not be discuossd te cause the parcel occurring in tho Penticton re/jion le too Gaell to be' significant. The black sollis,, These soils are not differentiated but it is highly probable that they are found in the upper parta of the Yellow PinoGrasalanda Zone and extend into the DouglaD~fir»Grar>alonde Bono where they exist in isolated patches. The tree cover in the Douglas-»fir~C-rassIsnds Zone ie relatively open except on sites where moisture ie conserved c M where young stands occur. The Douglas-fir is dominant but lodgepole pine, aspen and xrfilow are important in burned over areas. Dominant ercong the gramas is pinecraso idiich ntskes up iiQ to SO per ccnt of the ground cover. Brakes, needle grasses, and dwarf sedge also occur in quantity. The most abundant forbs are heartleaf arnica, strawberry, asterc, lupines, and poavlne. The chrub cover conflicts of dssrf to nediwa-size forms of besrborry, tainflower, wild rose, end spiraea, Jmmg the tall shrubs are Canada buffalobercy, and mrvlceb«rry. The black soils of the Penticton region are undifferentiated. The .gr^-wpsded or podeolic sella* These are found partly in the vegetation cones where conifers grot;. They occur in small patches in the Telle** Pine-Graeslands, and in larger patches in the Douglas-fir-Grasslands, and occupy t&olly the area of the Spruce-Fir caqaLex. It is the cool, moist oliaiate of altitudes in tho order of 6,000 feet which creates the Spruce-Fir coKslex. Engelaaan opruce is dominant and is mixed x-dth alpine fir in rather dence stands. The tMclaiess of the forest and the short growing season inhibits growth of forego plants.  - 102 Ground vegetation consists principally of shrubs {tho chief species of tfiiieh, is -racciniusi) and of mosses and lichens* Grasses and forage -pleats do occur, but chiefly is natural r-eades-s, in the more open areas near the timber line,findin bumsd-over areas. i&scellaneous Areas Rubble. This is not a soil in the true sense ae it consist© of rock5 both angular and rounded, brought fen £rem the plateau a m deposited just beyond the canyon mouths of the larger creeks. The rabble is coarsest near tho carbon Mouths. It grades denm in sias and becomes increasingly rdxad with soil towards the peripheries of the Une. The rabble boundary has bean placed at the upper limits at »;hich Isnd msj be fum-ied* &qqgfa aount^Bous lend. This includes the valley slopes, hills in-fee main valley too rough for cultivation, and the plateau surface above the valley rin» The uKClaasified vertical soil sonec have already been touched upon in the introduction to this chapter and the succession ©f the broan, black, and podsolic soil sones has bciea established. The rough jsountainous land is eraiasatly salted to grazing and tills will probably continue to be its chief use. The forest, consisting of yeHot? pine, Douglas-fir, a M seaie Engelroann spruce, also provides a "crop" for the local senilis.  The sloping character of the terraces, although having certain advantages such as air drainage, has cade thea vulnerable to erosion particularly where streams from the upper slopes disgorge upon them.  103  33 shows a section of the eastern terrace north of Penticton. In the centre is a large serai-circular block of silt which has slumped away from the main terrace.  .  loii  There -oho tsrraosc h a m la many instances beem completely gutted, leaving the steep-sided silt cliffs which era subject to collapse and to attack from tho side by tte mre localised run-off. Although those processes of erosion bad beesi in process long before the ahite man c m e into the region laoct of the terrace surfaces were still iataet because they were protected lay the watiiared santle of soils tMeh  thaa n&turally  impervious to seepage.^ Biisraischanced with the advent of the white man. He plau*ed the terrace surfaces, destroyed the seager eod-foming grasses, introduced crater to the soils? and iKsnediate^ erosion ® s csiorraoucly accelerated. Careless and heavy applications of irrigation water have caused excessive seepage (especially in soils xiith porous sabstratwixs) and gullying. Indeed, so eKsessivo in scaae instances is the load of soil carried by irrigation M M £ £ b that the suspension has hem called "irrigation tailings" as if it uare fmstag© from a lainel fMsnainiae and collepce of the cliff faces through seepage -is a caramon occurrence (sco Jig. 33). But this and gsxllying are not the t&ole e&feent of the demagsi  since the soil surface has been broken the physical  and cheaical processes noted nMer Ges.iorpholooy con cone into full play® Sea^' applications of irrigation v.*ater with resultant seepage sad. solution of the calcic®. carbonate caxaatiag agent, M i l sags l>s£in sub-surfaceconsolidation aad erosion. And, although little change *»y be see® in one lifetime, the destruction is cuiailative and say be nero far-reaching than even the thoughtful farrcer aay realise. Soils taJce thousands of years to  footnote 16, Chapter III.  105 m&s&si bat oaly a chart pesdod of a&®Bs»8psa6ttfe to clesfcray* A saas <s®»8 it to posterity to congca-tra ©too cossicier Iii© «4a»  h® tfariiig- M s abort lifet3s,e m y  CHAPTER ¥IX SUBMRf OF THE PHYSICAL EEGIOfI Although each geographic element has been discussed, separately, an attempt has been made throughout the discussions to show that nose of the elements is independent. On the contrary, each element is to scae extent the result of all the others, and their interaction is so close 1&s,t together they forra en indivisible whole sMch say be called the natural geographic region. Hot one of the geographic elements can be subtracted or changed without drastically changing the region as a whole. Change the clireate by adding, say, ten inches of rainfall per year, and all the other features xrlll change x-Tith it. The vegetation trill change from gr&sslaad to forest; the soils will probably become podsols; the Bater table -sill rise, the interaiittont stress© Hill becoae perennial, the perennial streaas will increase their flowj the land surface laill be cut da?m, rounded, and erosion will be greatly accelerated. & Khole neif cycle of readjustment uill begin apace sad the region will be changed into an "orgsnisa0 of a very different species. Any  CHANGE,  no Eatter  HEN SSGBII,  t?ill cause a dmage in the balance of things as they exist in the region. Does imbalance in a region occur? Yes, -Kith so snany variable features it is bound to occur especially over long periods of tirae. Hie laost comraon cause of cfaage, howOTer, is due to the activities of man. Mas cosies to a region and cuts the forest, plows the land, drains the streams, etc., so that with his -catdag a T^Jiole nm circle of re-adjustecnt  10 ie Instigated M i M a the regies. Mm himself, tfeera&are, my b® called a geographic ©lai-sat for ho- beamvm se. integral a part -of Vm region as laadfomajj climate9 testation, and soile-^perlmps ewea more m because fee can introduce cteagee .at will.. It ie up to MR whether he trill n m the natural region Bteely mid to his admaiage «e uroisely to .Ms longtern disadvantage, .In th© mooed part of this thesis ®aa and M s works in the Fesitiotaa region -grill be assessed* From the mmemmat possible to  dofcesssin©  tsbere M s use  of  it shoaM be  -Use region. Ime b @ m good and timr®  it has been bad* ..Forthermor®, ecsae Mess for the region8© long-iem sex'slopaeat sho&M ©iserge 'fro® the- study*  PART II tbi H W » m><m j?ffr  . THE m i B m O O O I M G E  CMIRO  VIII  TIB £SQQEt;T QCCUPAIvGE1 The sequent occupance of the Penticton region may be divided into tea main periods of growth based on population change. Tho first period entails a slew initial growth to 1?00 followed by ©a oxtreraely rapid growth to 1921. The second period parallel® the first in that, during the first 20 years to 19hl, population increase was comparatively slight, but tliis was again followed by a rapid surge up to the present time, i It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss the changes la the human geography of the Penticton region within each period of growth. I.  THE  wjux  pmnos of Bsstmrnm Aim m o m  Long before the white iSaa case to fee regies, Pen-Tek-Tan2 existed as as Indian village on the east hank of the Okanagan Siver. It raas the largest village in the Gfcanag&a m d attended frora Ellis Greek a half ariie northward along the east side of the river. She reasons for the size of the village were geographical. First, itrcssIn a central position isith regard to the valley trade routes; second, it w  located  Locations of early buildings^ zones, roads, and otter merits of cian discussed, la this chapter are givan only apprcndnsately, and little napping lias been attempted as the research required is & major undertaking la itself. Ab Penticton has no map archives, It is suggested teat mapping of early developments be undertaken before sources of first hand information in the persons of the pioneers are completely lost. %«jeaaS»g t!A perrnanent abode where craters pass by.*  109 n m r theraoutheof Shingle and Ellis Creeks whose gravelly deposits' xaade •a® river shoal and afforded oaqy crossing: third, the cajapsite was Trail sheltered from the east sad wast by the iralley walls and froa all directions by the tosh vegetation that grew on the bottom-lendsj fourth, materials for mining clothing, baskets, rope, and weapons were ©lose at haadf and fifth, game was plentiful nearby and fish were caught in the river and in the streams and lakes of the iiaaediate vicinity. A31 in all the Indians made good use of the natural region. They adjusted their lives closely to uhat it had to give them and attempted but little to change the natural em&roiiaaat to their aim adifiantage. She first vhite men to pass through the region ware s fur trader, Alexander Hoss, and a Rcemu Catholic isls'eionary in 1810-11. They trere followed fifty years later by Father Pendosi who stayed to do sessionary 'work* and in 1C66 by Mr. Thoroas Ellis, -the first permanent white settler• the Beginnir^s^ of l^Ksanmt Sgtt&esaeafc and Industry. Mr. Ellis built his honestesd a half mile northeast of the Indian tillage near what is nam Scott Avenue. There, tailing advantage of the natural meadcras through «hich flowed a  SBSII  distributer^- of Penticton  Creek, he cultivated the soil to raise usget&bles for M s aim. use and, hay for the.fearcattle he had bought. A great deal of sdning activity tms going on at this time la southern British Columbia at Fair-den, Rock Creole, Oamp iteKlnney, Greenwood, and east to the Eootenays, and Jar. Slis undertook to eicpand M s holdings as much a© possible to capture a part of the mining caiap market for beef. In 1872, by way of ejsperitientp he laid out an apple orchard trhich later proired so successful that other points  FIG.60581  Ill in tho wlloy 3 soon followed his load thus laying the foundation for the ralley's fruit gmiing industry. • la 18?? the Federal Go-vern&cnt established the Indian Besarro on the west side of the Otemsgan Stray and Mr* Sllis gradually expanded his holdings until they extended fros iHne-liiLe Point (noix &m%ata) to the International Boundary. He diverted water fraa mils and Penticton Croats to irrigate the land for pasture and hay, and at the ease time started & general store for the travellers passing through Penticton on their way to the aining casuos of the south® Early- grsnsportation^ ] Lecfe of good transportation m.@ the greatest drawback to the development of the valley at this tine, lope could be reached only- under the most difficult conditions over Allison Pass by way of the Dmdney Trail, this routs mis often closed daring the winter so that longer routes idafealoopSj,Kicela YaHey, and lytton and lale had to be used. Freight t*isb brought into Fenfcicion by boat, and sail and express via the east side of Okanagan Lake by paclt horse fro® Ofcanagsa Mission, the terminus of the stage route from Kamloops. la the early eighties the mail cans neekly f j » the north during nine months of the year and soni-. Konthly during the ?rinter jsonibs. All freight £rm the Iforth Gfcamgan © s ©hipped' by boat £rm Okanagan Landing. The greatest irmroTOisat la sertrf.ee came with the  Saiaaly at Okanagan Mssian where Father Peadosi m a nan cas?sying on his votlc, and at Priest1s Valley (Vernon). % s e Fig, 3if. for -mp of transportation routes prior to 1900.  112 _ _ »  completion in 189? of the Canadian Pacific8© Simm&p^Olmmgm branch line £rm Siearaouss to Olcanagan Landing. Penticton got a Eovsraaent dock and a post office at tho  tiae. She S* S. Aberdeen not; arrived evezy  second dayraithnail, express, and freight, and Penticton became the distributing Cisntro for goods sent to the inining caaps of the south and east. Every socond day tv;o stages carrying mil  and passengers left  Penticton—ona for Book Creek, Greenwood, end Grand Forks, the otter for Washington State. The Effect of lasroved gransgartetioa. s\s mightfeeexpected, the irorownsnts ia transportation brought att increasing nnrfber of settlers to fee valley. Besides fir. Ellis, only two other fanners and s miner are listed as residents at Penticton in 1882-83»  By 1892 there were 31 sam, listed ia the following occupations? (a) (b) (c) d) e) •{£)' (g)  Famers Sfcoctasn Blackszaith Excelsior Kill Saraill .Csrpeaster Others  13 2 2 3 1 .1 9  TOTAL  31  The ''others" consisted of isiners, merchants, packers, and loggers. By 1697-98 the population increased to 50, but changed aoacRitat in character, for is 1099 it isae said to consist of ranchers, freighters,  %illisss3 B.C. Directory, 1882-63, p. 308. Bo mention is nade of fasiilies. 18S>2, p. 269.  113 laborers j, a piipil teacher, hotelfcoqxjrs,miners, iaerchant8? and one "pentleaien."? The surge in population with completion of the spur line to Okanagan Landing did not develop to the extant expected. The reason, was largely attributable to what wight be termed "land holding" on the part of the farmers sad. ranchers in the valley, so that new settlers were •  •  compelled to trice up tiie very poorest lands or go elsewhere.  §  ferly iMastglee 'in the Peatictos le^ioa The small enterprises mentioned in the occupations for 1892 and later, Here overshadowed by the two larger industries—cattle ranching and farming, let, in 189k there were only six eettler© engaged in. these  7  Ibid., 1699, p. 235.  •ft •  ' The following quotation Kith regard to land holding in. the ' Okanagan ie takes, frcsa iBpl Province of British ColwsMa Department of Igriculturo^ First Report, pp. 731-32, from the forsjsrd by JJU Andersont There is too great a disposition on the part of the farmers end others to acquire lerge tracts of land, arid keep them locked This -policy works very detri33eRtsl2y to the best interests of the Froviaeejs isasmcli as isany sensing hcnssteads are compelled either to take up the poor or worthless parts of the country, or go elsewhere. By retcrno received 1 find that not ten per cent of the land x-eported as cased is cultivated. . . . Brae . . . a great portion of the land omed is pastoral land, rock, etc., still enough remains to show that but a tithe of the land fit for cultivation is actually cultivated, and there can be no doubt that it would help if people would dispose of such lands as they cannot or sill not utilise. It is s t & U recojaitiad fact that a mall cusntity of Iron. irell cultivated will yield more profit than & large cuantity badly ciati^ated.  nit Industries in all of the Panticton acd Trout Creek areas. fliese settlers craned Hi,000 scr?OG~-practiccliy all the good land»~of which only three per cent ixas oultdirated* In other -cords,feralngv&& audi lees important ttian cattle ranchinga and tho test tiict can bo caid for the fruit Isduetry is thai it sas domlapod far enough so that it® future potentialitieo eouldl be realised*.  The seller enterprises were confined to tine first tdsosite which tfas surireyed in 1692 after the btdMing of the gowrar&eat dock. This site was bounded by ElUo Street., Fairrie*r Av&rate (no;.- fade Avenue), the present railway grade, and Okanagan Lake. A hotel h©using a a®r general store aid post office m s built overlooking the doclu  Penticton' e first  court house tsae erected just north of the intersection of Vancouver and. Van Homo Streets, and a livory stable ass built sear lir. Ellis' fesaesfcsaeLj^snsion of SraBsix^rtation After IFOg HmsssMIe a msifosr of ^OTomscats bad besa nade £» transportation, slacs IPSO. ' A wssan road had been cty^leted to Femon on the  aide  of tho lake by 1902. ffcoro tsars good wages road connections also to Isresatfe^ Okanagan Falls, Fairvie&fs Ksmasagt, Kedloy, and MsKjefcoa. fruit isas being slipped fro® Penticton by boat to OLano/jan Landing, by spur line to Sisaactt© and from there to all jxarts of Britioh Columbia and the Prairie Prorlnoee % the Canadian Pacific Mainline.  115 Because of the intense Kininr-; actl^itioo  carried on to the  south and east, the cidLsting transportation routes xrero vary heavily burdened, and tha need for a railway sss urgently felt. A snail lootosay rcdlwsy, the Columbia and. Western (C & D) (see Fig, 3U) was proposed to Hnlc Greentvoofi -and Caaip IvcKinneyfire®t-jhere a spur line ta&s to have been built into Hie O&exiagan and north to Penticton via the east side of Skaha Lake. L part of Main Street and Smith Street (not? Front Street) were C & ¥ grade a M it was proposed that the Main Street sectionfeeHalted to the goiffvarnmsfflfc t;harf by way of Front Street. She C & ft finally found it impractical to continue vXth the railway construction and abandoned the project after having done sceae work m the roadbed in Penticton. Keanshile rapid esspansion xms taking place due to capital iinrostE m t from abroad®  As option «sas obtained from &»»  Jail®  by the Seutuora  Gfccnagan Land Cccroany in 190$ and land Kith irrigation water fescssae available. The population g r m apace end orchards iiere 3aid out rapidly so that by 1910 the fruit industry ted superseded cattle ranching ia imgwrtence. But tjiih increased fruit production tlie need for better railway transportation became irperatiw and tha Canadian Pacific Saitesy Company undertook to build the Kettle Valley Railway (KVS) to connect the I/rerer .Mainland with the Okanagan, the Eootenays, and tlse Groi-rs Best Base. Penticton isas made a divisional point os the OTEV Tho first passenger train srritrsd on lisy 30s 1915. Penticton m s nav only iwelsre hours frora  Okasagaa reeeifed a good deal of publicity abroad at this time. Lord. Aberdeen8 s orchards at his Guisachan and Coldstream ranches (at Xoloona and ¥emon, re^eetiresly) ted esse into production.; and Hr. James Ctertrell of front Creek had m m top honors for his tree fruits at th© Royal Horticultural Society^ exposition is London, En^lana.  116 fsawsottfar, less then half tho tine required by tho old route via •SieafflouSw' ghe^lgfect of Tranj^ortsttcm oa the f o:-;nslte  \1  Kfcstfair it m ® through lack -of foresight or sreroly for tarsiporarj convenience or both, the early ten planners adopted the C &ftFront Street grade linking Bain Street with the government wharf as a base line on x*hich to lay out another plea for a totrasite. The ss-feard angles in to-day* s street system in that part of til© torn ere therefore the result of early and inept planning. , But the legsqy left to the toan by tho C & ¥ tms as nothing coropared to that left by the JC3R„ • Warn the K ® was being put through Penticton in 1912, the Sailasy Company handed the isunicipality what saounte-d to an ultimatum regarding the placement of the roadbed. The municipality could do naught but accept and the railway tss laid doim t&ere it is to-day (sac Plats XI), Insofar as the city is concerned the railtsay could hardly have chosen a worse location to- reach the dock or to get out of the town to the east. It now cuts through the city»s ccssiercial, residential and industrial areas alike, not only j=arrisg the ! A attractiveness of a s city, .fait constituting a bamrd 'to pedestrians, a ' «bottlenea»¥J to traffic, end a practically insimnountsJble obstacle to subsequent planning. The Qrogth of Popatetim and Mvsraa Xndastry The su2?ipopulatioB Khi.ch had tegmi tit- t-lio b^ltiBi^g of century m o given additional impetus by the coming of the EM mA the post-war dOTelopnoote beteoon 19lE and the early twenties? the population  FIG.61281 THE  GROWTH  OF THE  POPOLATTON ESTIMATED  IN  PENTICTON  GROWTH*  FROM  FROM  1900 TO TO  »9S»  AND  \3J\  • WALKER AND GRAHAM, PLANNING C HGlNlftRS , VANCOUVER, B.C.  \.oco 9 00 8 00 7. 0 Too H < (>00 n 500 CL 0 0. .  >. •  1900  »910;  I9Z0  1930  1940 YEARS  1950  i960  19 70  "D O T} CZ a o  ov  which. Imd been a uicro $0 in 1900, reachcd nearly iiffOOO by 1921 (se© • Fie- 3SK 13te grot?tfa of fliwrs© indiHstries did. not fcep pace irith the growth of the fruit Industry. Adequate facilities for canning and packing fruit •sere established; a snail eewsilll, a tseekly newspaper, a eity-osaed electric Sight plant, a machine shop, and many em,n cojrKierclal enterprises tools hold In, tho rapid growth^ but on the whole, dependence on fruit and allied industries tms one-sided and aade the region3® ecarwoy too eenoitivc to outsit?.© influences* %  the end of the first period Penticton had reached the "asrtoard  Btege." It had groat big and sprawling and a little utEcanageable; and, like a fast-growing youth, needed time to consolidate its assets and fill in its deficiencies before taking the next step towards maturity.II. SHE SE001S FSHDJ5 OF WMfSH Paring. the Secaasc^.Peglod It is difficult to tell i-my Penticton1s rate of grcsdft »Mch had been nothing short of phenersenal before 1?21 dropped so charply tetesaa 1921 and 1931. An examiniition of -fig,  shcs?s that tho population for  Canada, British Coluribia, and faseoaw kept  at such the cease  rate as is the previous decade and Trail and Kelosnse actually increased their rates, taking the best posrdble advantage of the post-ssar ham. to further their development until the beginning of the "depression." It is possible that Fenticton stopped for a uhilo to "catch its tasaSi« after its furious gr^Jth in the previous decade. Certainly saae Period of consolidation end edjusfesent was neeessaa^r ror, until noa it ted,  180 ;|li}ce.5opsjJ)«jitct grcwcd" beyond its plans "which  never adequate and  certainly beyond its ability to provide services for residents a m new industries., The bocm had inexorably rushed Penticton towards & one-point «2onory-~frult-~sTid the increasing difficulty of Barfcotirjg ® s beginning to tell in the municipality^- and the region's inability to provide a livelihood for a. rats of population increase cos®c®sm*ats with the previous years. ,  -  ~  A further reason for the ''Glow-dotsx" ray have been due to Penticton* s proxfcsity to the south ® d of the vslloy ^hich had just beei opened up for new settlement. There the best Mads of orchard lauds bed been aade available and trere probably taken in preference to the poorer grade lairds still available at Penticton.  ''  Specifically,, the growth of population during the second period m ? be described as follows: fchoroas fee decade 1911-21 eesr a papulation increase of 2,629, tiie falloifiBg decade, 1981-31, sawteaincrease of only 661. The rate of growth increased between I931~kl (bat only storing the latter part of the docade isiiich marked the end of tiie "depression") to 1,137ffidbring the total population to S,?77» iVaa here on the spur of usr and. poefc-trar developments brougfafc 1»,771 people to the city by 1S£1 — s n increase of 83 per cent lis ten years.' Certainly few Canadian cities of equal sice can catch such a record. The Groarth of IBranqacrfc^^  geaaodt Period  Issproveaentc Sa trtaisportation more or less paralleled the growth of population, fh© CPU epsr lias frosc Pcaitiotan to Osoyoos was began la early twenties. T m line extended to Skates. shore cars -tssre loaded sa to barges and taken by tug to Ofcasagan Falls and feaa there by rail  121 to Osoyooe- By 1931 the line oa the Kest side of Skaha Lake was completed and the barge service teas discontinued. The extension of the Canadian national Bsiltsay (CIR) fro® Karaloops to Kelowna in 1925 also brought changes in traffic on Qteaasgaa Lake. The stoaiaer service to Okanagan Landing became less profitable as more and jsore freight xias handled by railway barges (both Of® and CH?) between Penticton and Kelosna. Furthermore, tiie inauguration of bus service between the valley points made the passenger service on the lake unprofitable. First tho S.S. Okanagan, then the S.S. Sicaaous were taken out of service  and the GfB'et M.S. Pentoima was converted into a tug in 1237 j »/  (fbsB passed one of the most romantic phases in the history of transportation in the Olssmgan Valley} During the early part of the second period, little was done to improve the valley roads. They were for the most part gravel, often rough, narrow, and winding, and certainly no enticement to tourists t?ho found the valley a playground .and the roads an intolerable -instruction., With the end of the second period the situation changed. She policies of t&e post-war governments fostered province-wide expansion of the highways. 2he long-sought link between Hope and Princeton was pushed through at a cost of #12,000,000. The valley roads wore tsldoaed, straightened and paved, end mm torn, one of the best road networks in the Province. The affect on tiie valley and especially on Penticton of the Hope'fritisetoa Highway was direct and iamediate. Penticton was nm only seven  S.S.  Sicaaous was officially takm out of ssrvice in 1935 (although it raade an occasional trip carrying fruit in 1936} and say now be seen at Penticton near the outlet of Okanagan Lake. It is a "isuseum piece" and a valuable tourist attraction.  122 hours driving time from Yancouver, m& pmpla on the Coast ulio had always wanted to -sis&fc tho Qksnagan wer6 now able to do so m a -week-end.  r  ~f; -  Tourists flocked in from. the Lovjer Xiainland and tho coast cities of Washington and Oregon. The ijapro-vements of the valley road® to the north and to the south, brought a stream of traffic up Sigtasay 91 £tm as far south as California to visit the Okanagan., the Cariboo, and, tfith the completion of 'die Hart Highway, the Peace Riirer and Alaska, whereas the -tourist industry had been a mere trickle before the t-rar, it had developed into  gcod-sisod stream and Fcnticton reacted' xiith eathmsiasa to wake  the tourist welcome and comfortable. Restaurants, auto courts and a largo hotel sprang up as if orrar night, but the influx was so groat that even private hoses had to be called into service in the deaand for rooms. Penticton became In important trucking centre as more and sore j fruit was trucked to the- Coast utitet the Hope-Princeton Highway. Bus traffic also increased so that- Fenticton is now one of the sain passenger transfer points in the Interior. In an endeavor to ccerspete Kith bus and truck service j, the Kettle Valley Railway was recently completely dieselizea saking the railway sereiea speedier and aore efficient. fo add to these transportation iEproTOsents, Penticton got a first class airfield during the m r (l»Ii3). There is regular passenger service by scheduled air lines to "the Coast and to Eastern Canada, as m i l as nanscheduled air service to the other Ofcanagsn centres and Kaaloops. gfao Sggstb. of Industry During the Seeosd Period Bis slow groath at fee beginning of the socond period had not brought a great deal of industry to Penticton. The small industries thai did w  in alloyed but & £ms sxn at most and the serious problem of  618 seasonal imajployaeat became increasingly troublesoae. True, una-aployraent insurance alleviates tho situation to some extent, but it does not provide a sound economic basis for cither the Mveliliood of the workers or for the city. The need for more diversified industry is becoming increasingly apparent jand this aspect tiill be given more, attention in the chapters devoted to industry.\ Oas serious problem within the fnzit industry was grappled with during fee second period and that was the problem of Basketing. T m first xf period was a tine of growth and change tvem cattle ranching tofetiitgrowing. It was a time of painful learning sail aspegdttent when the problem of growing -the fruit was successfully solved. In the second period the problem of marketing the JBrcLt which now cans froa the orchards ia vastly increased quantity had to be facod. Competition among the individual graters and the dumping of excess fruit on the rasrkete brought prices doan a m caused serious hardships among the growers generally. Co-operative organizations were foxaed but, although of some help, they were not as effective as they could hare been so long as they easpetod sitfc one another arid individuals not belonging to then could undersell them en the opea market, liter  difacuities the growers were finally able to  get together and Organise © mitral ssSJJton agency.11 this agency—B.G. free bruits, Ltd.—has worked admirably up to not; in obtaining a .fair retara to -the orchardist for his investment and labor, there is one  •^ffae need for controlled ssarketing sag clearly recognized by ^srgaret A. Orasby ia her thesis, nA Study of the Okanagan Valley," in the Oapt. of History at the University of British Columbia, April, 1911. BSB? i ?5e£ Jf^f? is contained ia a p a ^ U e t entitled, "the  619 difficulty', iioBoifm  although the BCT? lias done such through advertising  to create a mvh&t for Oicanagan fruit ia Canada and the United States, very little can be done to sell fruit to former ciai'kets—e.g., the United Kingdom—uhese currencies have been greatly devaluated since the rear. (' let, the ne\J soldier settlementc throughout the valley trill soon add to the surplus of produce end the problem of finding saarkets promises to become sore serious than ever.) It seems then that up to mra ia lie second period of development, 'the fruit fasnar b m been able i?ith scientific methods, good man&sesient, and tiie help of a central selling- agency to obtain a just return for his produce. But the question of a steady and assuredrcarketstill loasis •uncertain^ ou ilia horison and its solution jsust be left to sosie tlse in •the--ftttaam* • .  • . ; '  file Be-relopneat of thej^agd Use ^ Pattern  J  > Is the foregoing sections the development of tke lead use pattern sras only indirectly shorn. In order ts obtain a general • \ deralopraant, & brief discussion of it sill be given here. J •  /  of the  •  fhede^lppaeat of laiM lasa in the region. Before the cooing of ths white 2ian, the regies was not inte-nsivBly used for settlement aad the oalgr land directly connected tilth the aotix&ties of ism vac the site of the Indian Tillage on the Okanagan iter apposite the south of Shingle •©nsefc. • .  ,  »hsn Vx. Ellis same to Penticton, the ©it© of M s honoetoad a half mile northeast of the Indian tallage became the first fes® and the grasslands nearby a range tar Ms cattle. Is 1877 the west side of -the  125 Olaanagen River became the Indian Reserve, fixe Indians Tor soiae time lived much a® they had done in tho past hut later-acceded to the cays of the Bhite mix to the extent that they transferred their fomer hunting grounds into range for cattle, I'o this day the Indian Reserve is still in grass ing land trith thct exception of a small part on the bottom lands iMcli is irrigated for hay and fodder crops, the area put into use -as an sir1'ield in l?ls3, and the PentictonttestBench development. After  TIIS  Indian Reserve  KBS  established, Kr. Ellis pre-empted  idie land on the east side of the river and gradually expanded his holdings until tSi-ej extended 'fro® iferemsta to the International Boundary®  He  obtained irrigation t-i&ter frosn Penticton and Ellis Greeks and irrigated touch of the land north of Ellis Creek for pasture and hay. Sea© of his original homestead isas also given over to fruits otherwise practically all of Kr. Sills1 holdings *;are used for grasisg cattle. I Tiro other fesasrs had co>.*is into 'the region snd had established themselves north of Skaha Lake by 1882. But tea years later there were 13 ferasers altogether end- the beginning of a nucleated settlement near fee Okanagan Lake front nas in evidence m ®ell. m  h m & holding" cai the part of the  kept aoet of the land  in range matil the fosmt&on of the South Okmiagen Land Company in 1?05. ffee company divided 'the "drift lands" (i.e., in the ares not: «ithin the Penticton City boundary) into lots for orchards end provided irrigation isater as well, the orchard lande nearest -fee sottlearaofc -sere probably teken tsp first, the tendency for them being to grow upward mid outsrerd along the terrace© snd sassy £ m a the eettlcaont on the bottomlands.  FIG.'  After tho Southern Qfcnag&sx land Company decided it was ispx^ctic&l to irrigate 'the leads beyond Four^Hile (Turrihuil) Creek *iith miter frcsa Paaticton and ELlis Creeks, the lariats, Irrigation District raas Ceased separately and the. band! lands of the Itoasaat©. sraa tmrti subdivided and pat into orchard. Ia spite of the generally poorer laud at Kaleden such of that area "was put into orcMrd. early because of the arailability of irrigation water. Sot so -at Okanagan Falls, hovreirar, vhcre the land is eron poorer and dcvalop&iint has boon hasparod further by the difficulties in obtaining irrigatioa water. For this reason asosi of the area around Qkamgcm Falls ie still in grasiug. lends and the bottom lands along the river arc used for hay and pasture. J-iost of the 'land in the Penticton region had been taken up before the first World T-fer, hut the intensity of use has gradually increased up to the present tfee. The jsost recent addition to the cultivated lands to issde in 1952 when more than 200 acres were taken oat of the Indian. P.eeerrc for soldier settled ont (see Fig. h2 for location). The area—call-id tiie Penticton West Bench develop-naiit--is divided into core than 90 lots averaging slightly s w te acres each. The area Kill be used for residences, ' small orchards end gardens. Tim Ssttleaaats ( Qfeaagag Falls» 11 Mies couth of Penticton, ealeted. ss a  SHSU  • settlement ia 1B991? and doubtless sex-rod functions similar to those of  12  ivilliaK5» B.G. Directory, 1&99, p.  FIG.'  Penticton on the Okanagan Valley trade routes. In tho early day® It was & x?ay point on the. stego ssd Kigon routes end imuih of the traffic to the sines of the south passed through there. The community gross• very slowly along that part of the  which runs east and vest about 100 yards  from the Skelia lake front, end for severe! blocks along the highly after it terns abruptly south (see Plato XI). Qthonsiss there are three streets running south from the highway and. ending rather indefinitely in orchard and fsm land. Three other street© ran east-uest—one along the Iske front and the other two south ©f thotegteBy~«*tocomplete the sottlejasarSs street system. In the early days a lo$g school house {no longer in mm) served the area's educational seeds and a casanninity hall pro-dried a meeting centre and a place for recreation® To-day the cosancrcial activities of the Tillage are centred in five retail outlets, two auto courts, two garagee, oa© hotel, -and one restaurant, all located elong the Mgtey*  Manufacturing ie confined. to  a ©aall eessaill end a rnio.lL cannery. The concnmity still serves so en educational andrecreationalcentre, batdng a two-roar. elcs^nhary school, v teo halls, end facilities for a msH fair and "afcsKpede" grounds. fhere are about 60 residences in the corasunitiy, the greatest density of houses occurring in tile blocks  south of tha highly.  Otfaersffis© the residences ere rather thinly scattered saosg vacant lots, fields, end assail orchards. ffararaata grei? on the fan of Sarassata Creek share easy access to Okanagan Leka is passible. ' Beccu.se the distance to Penticton is nine siles mid the early &tmm of trcmsporfcatioa  slow and difficult, I%ra®sta  FIG.' became a nucleated, settlement to serve the farmers of the immediate vicinity* The street pattern of the torn is shewn in Plato II. The cooaercial area is centred on the siain street (which is the beginning of the main Mgta*ey to Penticton) and consists of three retail outlets, one restaurant, too garages, a lodge, and two auto courts. Industry is confined to a fairly large packing house which packs and ships most of the fruit grown in the Raramata Irrigation District. The packing house has access to a dock on the lake ana to the Kettle X'alley Railway by means of a -siding.  ,••  Educational facilities consist of an elementary school, and a youth leadership training centre (affiliated with a religious institution) which trains students from valley end interior points. f » churches serve the religious needs of the area. Recreational facilities consist of a park and playground, a ccaEffiunity hall, and a library. In all there are scats 80 residences in Kararaata most of which are old—that is, pre-1930. Although somewhat more densely built up than Okanagan Falls, Iferaraata lias many vacant lots, areas of bush, pasture, and orchard rewants within the townsite. Its out-of-the-way location, the auiasrous shrubs and trees, and the lack of bustle give Haraatata the quiet relaxed atraosphere of a country village which, in fact, it is.'j Penticton. Because the earliest falley transportation routes were . water routes which ended at Penticton on the shore of Okanagan Lake, it was but natural that the first settlement should grow where landing and transfer of goods and passengers was easiest. The first nucleus of  , /  FIG.' settlement, therefore began on the Okanagan lake front near the present CHI doclc north of ¥an Homo Street. Because industry found it convenient to build near transportation facilities, those lands nearest the dock were taken over by industry. Farther back from the water front g m ? the commercial aone~»at first consisting of a hotel, general store, post office, and livery stablc~-and beyond this was tho residential area. VJhen the branch line of the Cffi railway to Olcenagan landing and the government dock at Penticton were completed in 16?2, the settlement expected a large influx of people and accordingly a term plan Tias drawn sp. No detailed map of this plan is ncra availables but it is kmt-rn that the tmmsite was bounded by the present Ellis Street, Made Avenue, the present railway grade on the west, and Okanagan lake. However, as the potential orchard lands vrere not immediately released for settlement, the population of Penticton grew very little. Another tocjn plan was prepared in 1905 by the Southern Okanagan Land Company (see Plate III) and Kith the simultaneous release of the lands for orchard the boom got into full stride. fh@ net* town plan called for development west of Penticton Creek and conaiercial and industrial enterprises soon began to grow along the  ^  present Main Street awsy froni the tisater front. Behind the ccasaercial growth on both sides of Main Street grew the new residential part of the town. On January 1, 1909, Penticton was incorporated as a District 1-Sonicipality Bhidi took in all the holdings of the Southern Okanagan Land Company*  amaieipal area included tho irrigated terraces from Four-  'Bile (Tumliull) Greek south to the end of the terrace sections along Skaha Lake, as Hell as the bottom lends east of the Okanagan River, Iv'hea  FIG.'  tho cold winter of the same year (1908-9) severely damaged mmj orchards® those orchards north of Ellis Creek wore abandoned and the urn sronicipality subdivided the land for residential purposes* 1-Jhen in 1912 the MR track was laid from the present railway yards to tho government dock, space along the railway was at a prealua and was given over to ccsaraereial and industrial interests. In the Eeantiiae the residential area between the coaxaercial sector along i-iain Street and toe industrial sector along the railway was filling up and began to spread out along the lake front, while east of Sain Street the residences were beginning to "push" towards the foot of the terraces. A residential "ribbon development" along fein Street and Fairview Hoad began early , and residential outliers were soon appearing near the present railway station ' T'3 and east of Main Street along Manitoba Avenue." As the commercial centre filled up it began to spread oat laterally along Westminster and f&naisio Avenues, and along the north ends of Mnnipsg, and i^artin Streets. It the same time it grow thinly along Sain Street until it reached Fairvietr Road. A comparatively na-i f o m of cossnercial development—the auto court—began to sake inroads on the land use in the thirties and, x-ritk the improvement of transportation after World Has*.II and the consequent increase in the number of tourists, these new enterprises began to take over favorable locations along tiie main thoroughfares and along the shores of Okanagan and Skaha lakes, thus adding to the ordinary residential ribbon g m d & u ^^These residential outliers were probably built up on the abandoned orchard lands which ware subdivided in 1909.  FIG.'  North of Skaho. Lake residential growth had begun more or less desultorily ia the late twenties and grew little till after World liar II. Siren now it is groving less rapidly tlian tho residential areas within the city proper* Recent growth td-thin the urban sector of the city has beon filling in areas which had not been completely filled up, m mil.as spreading out over new cubdl-vicione. The Central Mortgage and. Housing project between Killarney and Kensington Streets and the restricted building area adjacent to Windsor Avenue are notable post-tear additions to the city. fhs outer fringe of the urban development is now rapidly encroaching on the orchard lands still regaining north. of Sills Creelr and on other lands Khich had lain vacant. The pasture, bay, and vegetable lands between the river and the city proper are being considered for industxy, recreation, and residences.1"1 The site ana environs of the original Indian village is soned for industry and occupied by the railway yards, sav-srills, a cannery, and storage facilities for construction flxms. Elsewhere the fringe growth is residential. \ Is the chapter on Urban Land Use some of the problems of growth and of future development will be considered.^  j It taili have beeone apparent in this chapter; that a fast change has taken place in the Penticton region since tho days shea the Icdiaa had it all to himself. Then the valley was independent and outside •Y'j A m a tovm plan is mm in the heads of the City Fathers.  FIG.'  influences irero at a ulnlisum. When the tdiite man came he introduced changes so'that he could gain & livelihood. H© introduced cattle for •Khich a raarket had to be found outside, and the v a l i n e self-sufficiency was Izianediatsly destroyed. As comparatively few people were concerned •rith cattle ranching. the overall effect of this nat element—the nhite man—'tsitliin the region «ao not great.. But with the advent of irrigation and the growth of the fruit industry, the population gre&? rapidly; & major change took place and conoiderable adjustment M  necessary to re-  establish that inner liaxraony and balance which is the test of the true geographic-- region. •  •  '  .  Man changed the regional environment by building dames introducingirrigation, planting orchards, and cutting the forests. These things were not in themselves harmful. vihat sa© haraful uas the factor of ^balance iatrofiseed as h© became increasingly dependent on a one-point cconcay. -J !© longer BBS the region abla to supply M s livelihood? he had to depend on outside markets for his income—on sjsrkefco that t-rere uncertain at beet and over uiiich he had no control. In order to achieve a balanced economy tjithin the region, he could do one of two things: either establish an artificial balance by obtaining assured and steady narkets outside the -•-if .  region,v or change hie economy to one of less specialisation so that it would become sore independent and less sensitive to outside influences, the two courses of action are opposites in nature and both have their jnerite in to-day  econoay. The question to be revived 1st Has the  action would nationally incorporate the Penticton region idthin a larger region ximm boimaaries are defined by the locations of the mrkefee*  FIG.'  pentietos regtoafceeoa&etoo depsn&eiit on outside influences* aad» If liiat mayfeedone to aeMeire a better istserpal balance? An attest will be made to .assess -and a i m r ilals question in the following chapter®.  B. m s  wmw.m  m.psm ix THE PRESS® POPULATION Because e m is an integral part of the geographic region, it is pertinent in a study of this Idnd to assess his presence in.thin the region both f r ® the standpoint of human resource and of population behavior. It is tiie plan, therefore, in this chapter to show tho population distribution, to exeain© certain population structures, tiie origin, and tho growth of the population. Iliio examination should result in a better understanding of the Inner structure and novaaents of the population as well as provide one of tiie important bases for predicting future growth. Rural and Urban Composition  irfflriuwfw.ijiiri.iii'jwnn g." muriumB'Tiirn-iir^^ i.nmiiiti.rimiiaJtiMiiiW'n'iH «•!' imum'Mi-Bp  The Penticton region has both a rural and urban population totalling about 13,000 persons. One urban centre, Penticton, has a population estimated at 9*183. The rersainder of 1im region isay be classed as rural including dispersed farms and the nucleated settlements at Harassata and Okanagan Falls, the suburban area on the north shore of Skaha Lake and along the m i n highway between Skaha Lake and Ellis Creek. The total rural population is 3,7iiO. Thus, the regional population is 71 per cent urban and 29 per cent rural—-a ratio of 7:3. The Corporation of Ponticton includes the aain urban area piss a rural forcing area having a total population of 11,200. Bosnaver, 9,183 is a truer figure for the e&se of the city than 11,200 i?hich contains  FIG.'  POPULATION DISTRIBUTION OF THE PENTICTON REGION, 1953 ONE *  POPUL ATION  DOT  REPRESENTS  5  PERSONS  BASED ON NUMBER OF HOUSES  URBAN  AS  FOLLOWS i  3-4 PERSONS PER D W E L L I N G *  NON-FARM RURAL 3 5 FARM  3-8  *  * CANADA CENSUS, \ 9 BI  VJ v n)  136 1  2,01? rural population.  'MJUMLT fas 3ISTR1BUTI0H OF POPULATION XtJ THE flSmCKHf REGION, 1953  Urban Population 1. Orban Penticton  Sural Population 93183  il. .  Rural Penticton  2,017  21*200  Karmata (non-fam) lawtaata (fartu)  290 156  7116  Olcanagan Falls (ncn-farm) Olssnagan Falls (fans.)  236 135  313  Kaleden  30?  30?  77  77  220  220  Indian Village Penticton Kest Bench Total  Total  a&sbass 12?923_  Eogioaal Population Pattern MiBosfc the entiles population of the region ie confined to m e lands composed of drift materials—timt is, the terraces and fane—the rough  population was estdxaated f m a data obtained in a house surrey 'taade in September, 1953 and allotting 3«k .persons par urban telling* 3 p@r rural non-fann duelling, and 3.6 par f a m telling as per Canada lit the tiae of the survey there cere 63 daaUiags under construction or contracted for on the Penticton tvest Bench developusnt (see Fir. Z l w l ^ 2 5 ? ^ 1 1 ? ® ? mstoseias 220, to boen allotted to tho development m d inclmed in the total estiioats. * She bottom lands between urban Penticton and SIccha Lake  FIG.'  nountainous lends baiag virtually uninhabited. Title can be acted by cosapariJnc Figures 5 and 3?. file rural papulation is widely and thinly scattered on tho terraces, but is coacor/crated into nucleated cettleKente on the larger fane. 'Th& rural £asa population ie for the raoet part restricted to the terraces, the smaller fana and the upper cectiono of the larger fans, whereas the rural non-fara population, found in heavier concentrations, is restricted to the lower sections of the fone near the lakes or along the T*eH-travelle& routes. A rotable exception to the use of the terraces is found iatiieIndian Reserve where* but for fee Penticton West Bench development, no f i l i n g of any kind exists and the terraces are given over entirely to grasinc* Si© new Penticton lest Beach development is therefore an isolated patch of growing population asd industry in on otherwise e®pty .area of grass aacl ssgew The population distribution of urban end suburban Penticton 1c chcim in jacre detail in Plato. If. The greatest population density runs In a belt diagonally across the city from the northwest to the southeast. 2h£» belt is broken only by the raili-iay and Mala Street, and % school groundo and parks.  Small pockets of greater densl^ exist t-jithin the  belt, notably north of Westminster Avenue t-»st of the railways ia the block bordered by Main Street, KseaSiUO and Eefchardt Avenues and Ellis Creeki and the extreme southeast sector of the city. These densely  classified as rural. All auto court unite xaere included but each unit was altefed. ciflyfealfthe .amber. ..of persons of the regular sdsgle-fenily ^leHlag.. • * tepETO' •sdtfe laud Is© -Maps Sate IX, and Zoning, Plata 1HX.  FIG.'  populated areas are either the older parts of the city ishere comparatively small lots crowded the teases together, or they aay be nm®e perts^ that tero been more extensively built up as, for example, the Central i^orteege end Housing area on the extreme southeast. Of laedium density 1© the eector bounded by Fairvietf Road, end Eckhardt Avenue, xiooeejau Street, and Hastings Avenue. Within this area the lots aro generally larger and tho housing conditions not so cramped. Areas of lesser density ere found east of Penticton Creek and beteeen Fairsi«r Road and Ifein Street. In the former nuch of the land is xsaste duo to Kettle formations which have been soned for park developments in the latter, much space has been taken up by school grounds, and building lias been handicapped because of the proximity of tho railway which dissects the area. Isolated concentrations of populations along the main hight&y south of Ellis Creek (i.e., &ain Street and Skahe Lake Eoad) represent people living in auto courte. fhe population inar,ediately north aid towards the east of Skaha Lake is suburban in character. There are erne ' siraaer hemes bat nearly all dwellings are occupied the year-round. Hieflroatfaof Population in the Coloration of Pentlotog.^ Ym sssc and age stmsfcare of the population points "to the vigor of the populations to its potential labor supply? to its poser of  % b r ages of buildings see Plate X. ^Statistics are for l?£u Bb Census statistics are available for .other parts of the region but, as 83 per cent of the regional population Irees -.Athln tho city lis&ts and as the city is both rural and urban in character, the deficiency ie not eo serious aa it sight be.  FIG. 38 POPULATION  BY  5-YEAR  AGE  GROUPS  AND  SEX,  PENTICTON,  1951  AGES  95 -v 90—94-'' 85 - 8 9  MALE 5  51 31  FEMALES:  5417  TOTAL 10548;  8 0 - S4 75-79 / O • 74  io • 6 9 GO 55 - 59 SO - 5 4 45-49 •10 - 4 4 35 • 59 30-34 2 5 - 29 20-24  15 10 -15 0  -.4  I— 7°° _ too  500  '4 00  3 OO  200  loo  o:  100.  zoo  — M A L E I FEMALEN U M B E R OF  PERSONS  —t— 300.  4oo  500  too  700  140  FIG. 39 PER  CENT  POPULATION  BY  SPECIFIED  AGE  GROUPS  PENTICTON,1951  70 + 65-69 55-64 45-54 35-44 25 - 34 20-2415-19 10- 140- 4 10  5 per  cent  of  population  —r15  no. yepl&cesamt, . . . ; and, in fact, affect[s] alaosfc every toman activity 5 associated rdth the region;f! The population of Penticton is young (see Figs. 38 and 39); Seventy-eight per cent is under 50, and over 50 per cent is between 15 and !i9 years of age; This shows a hlgii potential for population replacement .as tjeOl as vigorous labor supply; The particularly large 0- to 9-year age group is a reflection of the comparative youth of the population -and its ability to replace Itself, the large 0- to Vyear age group indicates the need for increased school facilities t*ithin the asset-fesr years,. • Ifaty^l  The crude birth-rate for 7  Penticton, 1952, isao 23.% the crude death rate, 7.3.  The natural  increase being the esccess of births over deaths per thousand of population is, therefore, 16.1. As the population of Penticton was estimated at 10,C7U> the total natural increase ses 175. Hoaever, as the gain in population between 1951 and 1952 totalled 326, the number of iBDrfgranfcs for the saae. year nust have been 326 less 175 (natural increase) which equals l5l. In other ^ards, the number of migrants into the Penticton region Bas less than the natural increase. i-agmtion -and BovsaasgU  Of the total 1951 population in  Pentictons 3>fi09 were born in Canada outside British Columbia, 1,951 were  vital statistics used HOTS for Penticton, 1952. The population for that year ® s taken as 10,87**—half the gain between 1951 and 1953. % h e crude birth-rate is defined as the ntsnber of children b o m psr thousand of population; the crude death rate as the nimber of deaths p©r thousand of population.  bora in British Ccnaormcalth countries 'and the United States, 523 irere born in Europe, and 60 in Asiatic and other countries* Miat fraction of  the ii,20O bom in British Columbia were actually bora, in Penticton ie difficult to say. SssfBHajr, if a fourth of th© 4,200 x-rare bossi in other parts of the province8 then the total innigrente to Penticton number 7*398, or ?0 per cent of the population. M s seeras at first glance to be high, "but the corqjarative youth of the city is a probable ®q>lenation of  matter*.  •  "  lij-grant labor adds greatly to the population of the region during the gresdag season. Si© influx of labor into Penticton and. Susiserlaad districts COTmence® early in June whe& labor is needed for thinning the f*u±t crop. There is a gradual increase until the xaaxtaim is reached during th© latter part of September; this force holds until the end of the first week of Soveaber x*hen the picking of tiie ajrole crop is completed. The final exodus is around the mddle of December taien the £ruit processing and packing ia ceaffete^,,.' .... -. • • Curing the peal; period of Septmter to Ifemuber there would te a g r o ^ t e l y 2,000 men end «00 vorsen employed in the fruit industry that are classified as transient xjorlcers. A great W ^ taess r a t e each year, coming i*om Grand Forks and Kootenay  B 6 m to be £ >f reasonable estiaato a© 1,231* er.d 971 caste frcsa Saskatchewan and Alberta., respectively. "  p Pemonal eorreGpcndence—A.S. fhwms* Hanaro^ cen«Amea an Table I Kas also supplied, by f&v  BWBSUS*  ifot^oi  population for  FIG. '40  var\ab\l\t v penticton  INDEX  II 104-8^  9  (0 Q Z  < 8 to 3 O f 7  constant THEORETICAL  30-0?  INCREASE  /  / 29-5  7  Z  o < —J  ACTUAL  c  INCREASE  5  D 0. O o.  4  32-  I9H  I9»6*  V ARL A B I L I T Y =  i  1921  1—  1926  1  —l—  1931  1936  1  1941  1—  I94fe  «  1951  4 8 + 3QO+29 5-I-216 + 9-7+IOI+12-Q (3.5 ^ 8  (APT6R A. SEDDES, AEOfiRAPVtlCAU RtVUW, 1942, VOL. 32, P. 669) * ESTIMATED POfUlMION  ilA, 2&BLB X THE IEFLE OF milMffl ItilEOE 5HE FEKTICTQ8 AHD S01MSIAI© REGIOHS OTRIHGF Ellis FRUIT SMSOM  Month  wale  Fmmle  June  I4OO mm for thinning  July  500 men for cherry picking  300 woraen for cherry- processing end packing  August  1|0O sen for apricot and peach harvest  500 women for apricot and peach picking, processing and packing  September  ?00 asa for apple picking  200 Baa® for apple padsiag  Fopulatiga .ggggfch. le was- intimated in the forsgolug sections, the grcwta of the population equals the sua of the natural replacement plus the net Emigration—i. e., the- difference beteees the issaigratioa and the emigration—over the period under consideration. Ia tiie previous chapter on. #10 Sequent Oecupsnee, the growth ©f -{die population waB sham graphically (see Fig. 35) and reasons for the different rates of increase were suggested,. It *jas noted how the growth fluctuated £r<m time to time and & aieasure of this fluctuation ie sshsen ia Pig. ijO. The average fluctuation or variability over the eight five-year periods between 1911 and 1951 ®as found to be 13.5 per cent, a very considerable mount. But the m M r n m fluctuation is 30 per cant end, .as is eMaaie, It is the er-cfcremes that are the aost difficult to deal *3ith. Thus an erratic grosth laakes city planning a cteaaMisig task for the planner, a trorriscise chore for the edBdaistrator, a M .a costly faro for the tajgsayer.  FIG. 41  OCCUPATION  TRANSPORTATION P R O P R I E T A R Y <S MANAGERIAL AGRICULTURAL SERVICE CLERICAL  ....  COMMERCIAL  '  CONSTRUCTION  MANUPACTURIH6 £ PROFESSIONAL LABORERS  1  .  COMMUN1C ATION NOT  STATED  . .  FINANCIAL S T A T I O N A R Y ENG1NEMEN LOGGING MINING i  NOT  a  ELttCTRit  a  (JUARRYlNG  AGRICULTURAL, LIGVTT  AMD  F \SH PflWlR  OR  4 per  MvmklQ  PRODUCTION  LABOR  FORCE,  14  5 cent  YEARS  6 of"  7 labor  AND  PENT 1CTON,  8 9 force  OVER,  BY  OCCUPATION  1951 CANU\D.\  CEHSU S  1 O 3 !  . M U1  ...  FIG.'  The Social Geography of;Penticton file ethnic structure of the population is often significant in a region because national traditions and characteristics have certain cultural -and political influences; in other words, it m y determine the manner in Bhich a region is used end the very "character" of the region. Penticton Gity is desminpritly white racially and British nationally.  Some 97.6 per cent of the population belongs to the white race, 72 per cent of which is of Briti eh national background. There are a fes; Asiatics (2.J* per cent) of Chinese and Japanese origin and a small percentage are Indians of the Salish tribe. About one quarter of the city*© population {25.6 per cent) is comprised of some 13 other shite nationalities, the most important of tohich according to number are 0erE:an, Scandinavian, Preach, Batch, Bussian, Italian, Ukrainian, and Polish. Gestational structure. Tho percentage of the total labor force • in the various occupations ie abator in Fig. lit. The high percentage in transportation is not aritraordinary tjhen Penticton*s is^ortsnee as a transportation centre is taken into consideration (see section on transportation). .. The importance of Proprietary and Kanajterial together vrfLth Service, Clerical, and Gosaiereialj shot? Penticton"e statue as & commercial centre. The high percentage in Agriculture is unusual and makes Penticton . quite unique as a city in this respect. Indeed, it emphasises the dual characteristics (urban and rural) of the corporation. The importance of agriculture. in the Penticton region must not be judged only by the percentage in the city*s; labor force. Hot included in this percentage is . the large transient labor force (see section on Migrant Labor and Table X above) which invades tha region during the fruit season end makes  Ikl  agricultulture the greatest single etnployer of labor .In the region."'"  The  fact that only about eight per cent of th© labor force is engaged in manufacturing is significant and will be diccuesed in more detail in the •11  chapter devoted to the industries. In the .entire region there is little noticeable ethnic separation in the occupations except, perhaps, among the Indians irno raise cattle . on the Reservation, and among the Chinese who tend to be restaurateurs and vegetable farasre. Generally speaking, the population of European origin is quickly assimilated especially after the first generation and— as far as is known—no particular phase of industry or activity is znore the prerogative of one nationality than another.  To predict the future population of a region teo conditions are necessary if the predictions are to be reasonably successful? '..••-.•• '  one, the  history of the past population grosrth unst be knoun; and, two, aan*s response to the environmental possibilities present in the regionraustbe closely examined. The first condition has been met; the second t?ill be the subject of the follotjing chapters. Should be noted again that the figures in the table also include tho Suraoerland region. •^•For a braakdom of the labor force Ik years of age and over by industry ana sex for Penticton, 1551, see Appendix C.  v  CHAPTER X  RURAL U H D USE The use to which man has put this region is on the one hand dependent on tho physical environment and on tho other, or the state of ®sn*s culture, the Penticton region ie eminently suited to both cattle ranching and fruit growing. At the beginning saan depended on cattle ranching because it suited the region, the character of his culture asd need© of regional economy. Later he adopted fruit growing, again because it suited the region and because new-felt needs brought 02 by certain aaterial advancements (e.g., population increase and bettor transportation) demanded © change in occupation. Man% activating force is his needs and desires, and he puts the physical region to use to satisfy those needs and desires. The present use and potentialities of tiie rural region M i l be examined geographically ia this chapter. It is pertinent first to assess  1. AGRIC0LTURE Classification of tha Sural Leais The rural lands isay be divided into three csain classes:  (1) the  cultivable, (2) non-cultivable lands, and (3) uncultivated areas occupied _ by non-far® settleoients. The lands which are occupied by rural settlements has*© been discussed under the Sequent Occupance and « H 1 receive no farther attention here. Of the cultivable lands those shieb are at present under cultivation are of special interest to this study because they provide the  Ih9  min  source of incoae for the region. Those lands which my bo brought  luxder cultivation in the future are, however, also important as they are one of the chief factors in the region's full-scale development. The roughraountainouslands and those tshich must for one reason or another be left in range M l 1 always be of minor importance and will be discussed briefly at the end of this chapter. The Agricultural Lands Th& physical aspects of the land. A comparison of Fig. 5 and Plate If shows that all the cultivable lands lie in the drift areas whore soil jaaterials have been deposited in relatively even-surfaced landforms. The surface configurations and parent materials of these lends have been discussed under Gearaorphology. She hydro.^aphy dealt with the surface sad ground waters of th© land; sad the tdiapter m. vegetation and soils dealt i-Jith the soil types, two things regarding the physical aspects of the agricultural lands must still be shouns (1) Ihe degree of usefulness of the lands for agricultural purposes. To show this the soils are divided into five groups as follows:1 •droop I Group II  ~  •» » ~ very good soils ~ - ~ « good soils  Group 111  fair soils  Group I?  fair to poor soils  Group f  2 doubtful soils  In the ssesaar of 1953 a comprehensive survey was 220 de of the soils of the Okanagan Valley and their suitability for irrigation. The data, although unpublished, were made available through the courtesy of lir, C.C. Eelle^, B.C. Dept. of Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C. 2 For further description of each soil group see Appendix D.  FIG.'  (2) The irrigated, potentially irrigable, and non-irrigable lands. The distribution of these is shoan in Plate VI, end they are presented according to acreage and soil group in Table i m s - xi ACKIICULTURAL LANDS OF THE PESTICTON KGIOIf (INCLUDING THE IEDIAH BESEKTC)  Soil Group  Irrigated ' Acreage  •Botentially Irrigable Acreage  • Non-irrigable Acreage  Total Acreage  I  k?7  23  ?  507  II  S3?  267  73  1,277  HI  1,537  870  68  2shl5  I?  1,62?  2,507  1*10  it 5626  ?  812  3,1^85  S?6l  5,258  5,392  7,232  1,019  lU,li»3  ,  Bote: Non-arable acres total about 630 acres. A study of Plate VI and Table II shows that all tho best or first class agricultural land (Group I) lies on the east terrace between Penticton Creel: and Baraaata* and of this all but a snail fraction is irrigated. The second class lands are ©qsaestrnt ssora sMely dispersed but again the largest acreage is found relatively close to Penticton. Of th© lands la Crotros I and II over 1,UOO acres are irrigated and slightly reore than 260 acres are potentialiy irrigable. Hoaever, practically all of these potentially irrigable acres either lie within the Indian Eeserro, are aonsd for urban development, or lie at an altitude of over 2,000 feet  FIG.' ijherc fruit growing Is riricy du© to lower tenpwatures and irrigation water Is difficult to supply. The third class lands are widely dispersed TABLE XII .  Soil Group  . AGRJOTSIIEM* MKEJS I-J23SIK SHE JHFJIAI  Irrigated Acreage  Potentially Irrigable Acreage  Kon-irrigabl© Acreage  Total Acreage  ©  0  0  •0  n  0  83  0  83  in  20  6lh  3  6£?  k  523  G  1,1*5%  122  1,616  lb,  2,m  125  2,853  I  i? ?  :••  52?  ^Boes not include 250 acres tdthin the Penticton West Bench dsvelepastt, throughout the region., but nearly two thirds of them are irrigated and about a third, less than $00 acres, are still irrigable, iiosever, of "Siese over 600 lie within tho Indian. Reserve and for idle present at least mast be considered unavailable  The only potentially irrigable lands  *?hich still exist in quantity are those belonging to the fourth end fifth classes trMeh grade fros fair to poor to doubtful. A third of these lands lies tsithin the Indian Reserve, sorae lie east of Poplar Grove at elevations which snake £ruit grossing risky and Irrigation impractical. She largest areas are farthest from. Penticton and are found couth of the developed lands at Saledea and southeast of Oksaagaa Falls.  FIG.'  fills then ie the situation in brief regarding the potential agricultural lands?  The good lands (Groups 1 to 111 inclusive) still  unused .for agriculture, total about 1,160 acres of which 700 acres lie tiithin the Indian Keserro and tha remainder at altitudes of over 2,000 feet. Therefore, for fr«it grossing there are at present no good agricultural lands available in the Penticton region. Of the poorer lands (Groups If  sxi& ¥) over 6,000 acres are potentially irrigable and of these a third TABLE XIII AGRICULTURAL LANDS H)T INGLBfiINQ ?SE XHDXfel  Soil Group  Irrigated Acreage  livable " Acreage  RESWM  Eon-irrigable Acreage  Total ' Acreags  mnH' nnim imwiv iirw*niin^Hi8r«<i«>u4MiMwaii-.iiiii nwi.wwi m •wyyinymtftfljiu uiii.iffiMjiiwtivwriMWjteMi. HIM h»ii»niiiiiii.'r?u.iiiin.<i«».'iiwmiiiiiia. HLHH^  I  hll  23  7  507  II'  936  iSIi  73  1,1?3  1,526  256  66  2,065  lao  ^10S  in  '-  l  9  m  I?  1,625  ¥  811  1,991  CliO  3.61*2  5,375  li,5l9  1,396  11,290  lies iTithin the Indian Reserve; however, nearly 3,500 acres of trie 6,000 belong to the doubtful g^oup and, although developable, must be given  *  3  every advantage and care to isake cultiration profitable.  • ' 3'-" That is, cheap and p3.entiful irrigation -water, fertilizer, and extensive markets for fruit so that competition £ r m the good lands would not be too great.  FIG.39649  FIG.' Kon~arable acres including undrained sKamps and the rubble sections of Ellis and Shingle Greeks total about 630 acres. The distribution of these lands is shown in Plate V.^ Irrigation Because of its importance to the economy and use of the lead a t; brief discussion on the problem of irrigation is pertinent here. The irrigated lands are incorporated into four main systems; the Kararaata, Penticton, Kaleden, and Okanagan Falls Irrigation Districts, and a, net-? but minor district—the Penticton West Bench (see Fig. i}2). The Haramta Irrigation District serves over 1,000 acres in fruit from a gravity system having its source of water in Nararsata and Aranana Creeks and principal storage in Eleanor and. Chute Lakes. Nearly 100 per cent of this district is now under sprinkler irrigation. Sufficient water—-nor© than  acre feet per acre are delivered at a cost of £18.00  per acre per season. Hater loss is estimated at 25 per cent between storage and intake. The Penticton Irrigation System serves about 2,500 acres in fruit fro®, an 85 per cent gravity system having its source of water in Penticton and Ellis Creeks iriLth storage in the headt-raters. . About 15 per cent is supplied by pump with a 20-foot lift from, the Okanagan River. Rapid conversion to sprinkler irrigation is taking place. Water delivered per acre is about 2| acre feet at a cost of flli.OG per acre per season. The ^Terrace faces and gullies are not included among the non-arable lands as no estimate of their extent is available. See Fig. 3 for location of dams, reservoirs, lakes and streams supplying water to the irrigation districts.  FIG.' amount of water delivered is considered hardly adequate but may be sufficient when the entire district is under sprinkler irrigation. The system is in good repair and less than 5 per cent mter is lost. The Kaleden Irrigation District has a gravity system which has' its source of supply in Brent and Marron Lakes with a diversion ditch from Shingle to Karron Creeks. This district, too. is converting rapidly to sprinkler irrigation. About 3 | acre feet of water per acre are delivered Bhieh is adequate. The cost, however, is comparatively high at frora $27.20 to $31.20 per acre per season. The weter loss is estimated at 20 per cent. The Okanagan Falls Irrigation District has no -water storage facilities as three dans in succession have been cashed out and the financial baclcing for new construction lias not been forthcoming. Katsr is supplied 75 per cent by gravity by a diversion fluse from Shuttleicorth Creek, and 25 per cent by pussp from the Okanagan Eiver. Three acre feet of water par acre are delivered, which is not considered adequate for the type of land serviced. The cost per acre is $9.00 per season. Sore than 25 per sent of traitor is lost between storage and intake. Although no data are available to bear out the assumption, it is doubtless true that trith increased storage facilities more water could be supplied from the plateau. The cost of constructing dams is greater than some of the irrigation districts can bear—at least at present. The southern part of the region—Okanagan falls—is especially poorly served t?ith storage. Due to the generally poorer lands in the area m& the somewhat drier climate, more taster is needed than in the better lands to  The climate becomes progressively drier to the south. The precipitation at Oliver averages only 9.S inches per annum.  FIG.' the north. It is highly probable that even vith aurdaam storage facilities this area Kould still have to pump -eater to supply all the potentially irrigable lands. The problem of supplying the Indian Reserve tfith water is one that has not been seriously investigated. Doubtless it is an important consideration for the future. The fact that some Shingle Creek water is already being diverted to Kaleden, lessens Shingle Greek"s potential use for the Reservation. If future water  storage  facilities should prove  inadequate5 sufficient water is available to all districts from tho valleyf lakes and the Okanagan River. The expense of raising water to great heights for irrigation stakes pumping on a large scale prohibitive. In  ^  future, however, when the pressure of population becomes greater and adequate markets are available, mora of the lands Kay be pressed into service. Too, by than cheaper power m y be available to make irrigation by pumping entirely practical. The Distribution oftiieOrchards Because of the dryness of the Okanagan climate, tree fruits  Trill  grow only tdisre irrigation is practised. Lands T*hich are othenrise suitable for tree fruits are therefore only a potential resource until trater is brought to them. With the combination of climate, good land, and water, tree fruits gron exceptionally well—as sell or better than in most other parts of the Okanagan. Plate VII shows the distribution of the six major fruits gross in the area. It is immediately evident that all tiie fruits are *iidely diapers©! throughout the cultivated lands and that none ere restricted to  /  a particular area.  la other words all fruits Trill gm-r tihere the lard  is good enough and water le available. • Apples consist of 31 per cent of the fruit trees in the region (see Table XIV) and they are tho most evenly dispersed. • There eeeas to be a heavier concentration, however, on the eastern terraces between Iferam&ta. and Ssaha Lake than in other parts of the region. • Generally TABLE XI? THE IftMBEK II® VARIETIES OF FSOIS TRESS IS THE DISTRICTS OP Tlffi PEHTICTOH REGION 1952  District  Apples Pears Pe&dhea  Apricots  Cherries  Pluns  iarsaata  2hskS9 Ik,217 12,1*17 lit ,05?  if.,372  Penticton  57,629 h3sns  5,687 10,760 175,781*  Kaleden and Ofesnsgar. Falls  17,716 13,556 Hi,220 20,it79  1*0,515 17,000  3,006  72,3x76  3,92k 73,303  100,016 71,956 67,152 51,539 13,265 17,633 321,563  speaking the apple orchards are older than the stone fruit orchards and  [  n m plantings tend to concentrate on atone fruits, especially peaches and I' apricots. fears ii&vs about the same regional dispersion as apples but tend to be jaore concentrated locally. Pears comprise 22 per cent of all fruit  ^This does not xaean that sosje fruits or •sarleiies of a particular fruit >rill not do better is one sicrodisjate than in another. It means that generally speaking the o m m l l climate of the Penticton region is suitable for grovrlng all the fruits whose distribution is shown on the rcap.  trees is tii© rosier** teac&os ©ak© xtp SI per cent of all fruite add,, although tlioy are gpcm to all parte of th® region, 'e, definite concentration io to be noted ill tiie mdmm  of fcntictor* especially os tie valley floor beteos Ellis  Creek sad Skoha Mcs#  l&srty of these pesch orchards are yoUag and it is  likely that they ore ropLaccaente—at least ia part--of orchards that taQve killed or senrersly danaged in the exceptionally cold -sister of  19h9~$0. gtotfteg are definitely a Elinor crop canprledng only h per cent of ell fruit trees. They are found sore or less evenly dispersed throughout ilio region. gmiee ...ai^..fflffgsalso are jainor cropo ^hich together sake up only 6 per cent of all tree fruits, She terraces eaet of £2<aha Lake to £Uis Greek end OfeMiagatt Falls shotf a definite lack in these fruits. Othorcrf.se,.although irf-dely enough dispersed regionally, they tend, like pears? to he m m  eonccntrated locally.  C o s f r i i t f e . Q^er Olaataigea Regions A comparison of the Penticton region with other Okanagan regions as to the numbers of the variousfir-uittreoe in each say -elisd light oa certain problems confronting tl® fruit industry in fentictcn. Reference to Sable X? shtms the concentration on stone fruits in the Southern Qksnagaa* At Penticton  per cent are stone fruits, at  •SiEESsrland IA per cent, and at Oliver-Oeoyoos,  per cent. At Kelo*im\,  hewever, less than 30 per cent are in stone fruit and at Vernon only  m  l!jt pear cent. * therayor crop ie apples and this crop tee the greatest mms $8E m $ m AMD W i s  Region  m  OF fSSH M S 3 01? TO Qiftt&iGAB EaBIOHS  apples Peora Pe&cfeoe.  gg-  Total PXtsas  Porstloton  71,258 67,152 51,539 13,265 17,633 321,563  Qllver-tfcoyooo •-103 ,i4t7 66,872 115,?66 59,002 /I Kelceim' 37U,on iiQ$km 26,1-26 Vcrnorr  206,79$ EG,OS!;  Sursaerland  71,221 706,1X3  3,656  7,262 U3f90k 265,86?  CO,617 52,829 14,160  9,01$? 17,219 232,202  %roa tiie 1952 Horticultural Survey, B.C.feparteaatof '  '  '  'flte Selc^aa regies includee Olxncgen Centre, VJinfiold, Kelotma, Xiestbanl: ana Po^S'SiSST^ takes in Enderby, Armstrong, Vemon, and Qyoroa* Itis doubtful whether Snderby end Arnatrong should bo included to fee Vernon region. However, their total nerabcr of fruit tees is only 5,230 of tfiieli are apples. stogie "raltus in all regions. 01s -all the ragicne it WtiM  COGS  that Oliver-Osoyoos has the best  balance iia .the oucrsfcitlcG of eachfttxtigrsea and Kelcana is nacfc. Vernon faH© short 1st all «tone fruits except prunes, a M SuEaorland Penticton ere .lacking la cherries, prases, and plusae. It is but natural that fmlt-pfaaMaiag industries be attracted firsit. to regions uiiieli net only grow Sic is&sfr fralt but also to those which g m i varieties suitable for processing and, moreover, can supplement  •16-0  .traits li&th different  MEKIP  of veg^t&blos* fh& Frntiotoa m g i m has  therefore tiro important drawbacks smjor regioues  t&im  cssnpared t&tfe the three other  it has neither the qramtlty nor tho variety of fruits  g m m at Oliver-Oeoyooo and Kelcsma, nor tee it my vegetables to supplement the. fruit pvamm&a®  as Jiava Vernon and Kolctiaa, and to a  'lessor ostont Gliver-Oeoyooo. FurtvhomorG, except for dehydration, psychos do not lend thaitaelves easily to processing other than conning, f©rnftedehydration profitable, Irirge quantities sruot be procossod and these quantities  *23?a  not available after the fresh and canned £ruit  industries hsm tea served. Further discussion of tbla profelea will be loft to a later chapter on the nsanufGOturir^ industries. It sight be potetetl out here that Pentict-M dooo have an tragnrtent jEoqcrophic advanteg© eta? nil the tttsonegen regions except OliverO soyooc . This advantage lies £a the earlier ripening of fruit than in tho regions to the north and* hence5 favored oppartunity on tho jmrtet* • .  •• -  xi* mstm  mmum  Although cattle yane&jUjg ®BS at one tin® the most Important iadastay £a fte Peatiftton region, itterngwjaa&JOsr itemised so tact, to-wsy it is of only rzinor importance • file rich grasslands on the terraces have bosa displaced by orchards. Host of the tTilley bottesi <?a the east aids of tho GJconagan Giver is aleo in farjae, and cattle have been relegated to the laod.e that are at present ttnouited or unavailable to fruit grcr?Jing.  FIG.'  Saage In restricted to two kinds of landj  (1) tho rough xcoun-  tcinous ImAs ana (2) oultivablo lends et present unused either because ihegr are poor, ledc irrigation lister, or are located rrlthin tho Indian Eosm®.  The best erasing loads fall into the occcadffroqpt<hoe© distrib*.  ution ie chasm is Plate  flie Okm&gaa iteXLEHEaledon area end the Indian  Reserve tore the largest anounts of good graains land, A eoneidatfable area is found on either e&He of Penticton and Ellis Cracks after they • leavn their canyons, and isolated patehco are found all alonj the cultivated terraccs and at higher elections cn tho eastern valley wall. Pasture, hay> and other fodder crops ar-a p w n m  the -«illey  bottom on the Indian Recerro, east of the Qkanagan Eivor north. of Skaha Lake, and at Ofcenegcn Falls. A oissble pasture-hay area Is located along EcLoan Crook cast of Gkenagan Falls and cssallor patches are found at Ksrron Valley, ne&r Ibrarsata, mvi in the highsr-altitxid© leads east of Poplar Grove,  ,  ' l-tach of the hay consists of trlld grasses and sedges iiMeh grow abundantly in the tsmpy areas along the river and other ©seller streams. Samo oats and tiraotby era gtam at Okanagan Falls and on the Indian Steserro x;hor© they ore cs&tit'cited with more or less indifforcnco. As the cold is never very great and the snowfall is light, the cattle are kept on the rsage &11 winter. Ccae feeding is necessary, teller j, If tltey are to be Irept in geiwJ condition. Otforgfasiitg in thofcroensoils areas has led to severe depletion 0f forage and  consequent decline in tho number of cattle the region, can  support, The overall effect of overcraein" is explained as follow*  FIG.'  t m to leeE favorable conditions for plait crarrth, tho effects of overgrassing have been nora drcatie [in th© Bro-«n SoAlaJ tte® • in the Dark Brown and Blacx Soils. With noder&te ovarsrsssins, hluebuncl) wheetgracs has SKSGS replaced % qpaargraes, dropaoed grans, and other seooMaty grassr^, Sevare abuse has resulted in fee elimination of even these greases of aodorato grazing value raid shrubs and annual t-roeita havo erne to bo dco&nant, At present the area occupied by the ortgitml type of Imcljgraes cover is relative2;/ r.mHj J • • Esmclliag in th© Penticton region is devotee! entirely to beef cattle, fhalt» mtbm>a in the region are not tee©a ac tho 'only statistics assailable cover a much larger area trhieti includes tho entire South and Osatacel Okasa&m*  flm cattle are mn,vicetsd locally  in t&e  JkdnXand*  As t3ie orchard lands continue to ejipand on to lands which are at present ia range, cattle ranchingttillcontinue to decline in importance. Eventually rancbins tall bo confined to the Tai^ poorest lands and the rough mountainous areas.  C»C» Kel?„ey ead R.H. ajil^my, .of the OiamaEen and B k m i m m & i V o U m s ^ British..feimbii^l e f w T K ' X ' l S ^ T ^ S i e r ^ ' Ottawa, p. 2% ' '  mM'M  SI  iteMI 1MB USE tho City of Penticton is tsrdque ia that 36 per cent of its land area is in orchard (see fable 1VX), Of the reseinifig 6b per cent, 25 per cent ie barren end 39 per ©rat ie used in the functions of the city, ia other Korde, the orchard lands alisost equal £& area the lands need in the urban functions.  Such a rural~urban character lias certain Cidvattbar.es as,  • \  for exestple, control of growth outside the urban linsitsj but it also l m dicadvantagos which arise through natural conflict between rural and ttsrbaa elesnerste, each as differences 1& tasteis, city oorvicos, read buildine cad up-keep, etc*, and continualfedjustaentnraust h&racde.'fcihothsrit t?as t-iise to Include such a large ©to© tdthir. the city lisslts is questionable* mp&rMmfza  in controlling suburban groBth have teen tried in the environs  of certain British GoltcMa centers (notably at  tuUi good results.  She tmBena? to sprawl because of toe m o h rocw—and In Penticton^ ease because of lack of adequate plmsdag^lB difficult to keep ia checl: and it® Kant of caspactt»88 results in the inefficiency of ie-vrl use, of services, s M in the eperidins of available fundo for m&viae iGprovcsiente. Certainly Peaiictcs. has had—and is havings-its problems, and it Is po&slt&o that issues8 sttrger^ to Unit its ©real astent andrcafcoIt ccatfdsa to a -'sore urban character xdll solve eosse of these problem. As the orchard lands on the terraces havt3 already boon exa-slned, the dlecusstes is this chapter will be limited to that part of Penticton t-Meh is bounded by the OL-anagan River, the lake shores, and the foot of  •  il® oaet©m temtce®,  im  .  Tim Penbicton City h®m®mS&& Bte shorn on Plata  JE3DSF* ffie grbmi Xa&d .fi^tlW end| Geaorcl* (Plate It)  •  'y  '  A comparison of tho zoning (Pleto t i n ) and the lend use  la Penticton diGciosee that tho dividing line between tamo® Is  often mn«&±Btmt  mid that one %om mrgm  into  intsisiiiiglos tilth  another in such a warmer as to hinder seriously their o m and. the city's functions, A© it isB tile land u.so shown In Plate Hi often represents a generalisation of tho actual use especially near the zonal boundaries and the tmp must therefore be read tJith M e  reservation and preferably v;ith the  rcap shot-ring the eubdivisicmo. fhasraichof the land soned for industry is still in orchard, field crops, or assigned to recreation (golf), fleoidences encroach on industrial and cccsnercial mn®Bj, notably  of Railroad  Street end alongside jaaeli of tho railiTsyfecttsoanKckhardt Avenue and the lakeshore. Generally tho lead, patters follows the soningj h m m m  s  e store  strict e o T m a i t (wiwe the r^alstiosis are g&od) of tfee Ednisg rc^La.-*- , fcions ie indicated. The •urban land pattern Ghctrs til© reealto of too ouch roan and inadequate planning. It grewfecsas s&all nucleus near the © M i&srf on. Sfemagaa Lake emd* accepting the lines of th© old Ooluabla and Western Eailuay grade for & main thoroughfare (no» Main Street) spread southward along this route and to cither side, The first residential area t-a?.5 scattered and indotersinate, but tha early ctKiraerclal a M industrial cores spread out along the  trancportetion routes and dune Je-slouD2y: to  the water front.  c  ims m m  um  vm  m m  m  m m m m  e? m  wm*  um  mm.  liegor Divisions  Acreo  Per Osat  Total lend aroo. of city Total area of land Total area of mtor  tit390 i»km PS8  100  OrdiGBi"""^" Fern sinsle^fesily dKsllteg ifeltiple^fa-aily dcxOlinc Soasiot courts end eato c&stpo tkssBsserei&l Mglit S!&ttsta$r e M raatihooses Hecrey industry Eaifeay aisd Pes*©** Publicfcalld2&g0,schoole, churches "feefes* golf coureo, recreation ?©«®ts Barren Heads {fength, loUee) lea©© (length, 22*6 rdleo)  2,700 liiO 710 20 te  30 50  iiO 150 2 m 3m ltG60 h£>9 $$  Totsl  68 12  10.06 o.H-  0.61  OJ4I  0*6? 2.03  5.75 3.56 25.13  6.20  0.7L-  7,361?  ^ifferaicc tea land total equals 36 acres ' ^ T o ^ ^ l ^ ™ '  fessslsysiate Unset doralojxnent, tho *** «**«.  cf a  ^ toawatotol  its roots in tiie early m i e  g w ? cut along tktia steeoft and,  to  it gKi, loacep ja it,a  it ia a i m * t r l a n , ^ to eh^e oparaliono" on the vtoeepv&d^  instead of  ^ tegfe^  ehootc and fUlirc vp ©till  l i a b l e down-torn spaces presont tsoM»s (i9&)  iG  sa» and Grahan, Tom Mara for Penticton.  onoourasir^ it- to coal  FIG.'  out c&ooto alons the uain interrupted "ribbon" development  f  fho re cult of thlE trill bo m  •  Urn Gt-sn<2point of the cuotevsr  t?fto lilieo to do M s ehapplns in a esapacfc, cantrfidised area, is undesirably tteittgli trifle T5ilX find it an increasingtepcdiTiaatjm& prospective facae IroiMers "will tern! to avoid it. Much batter and entirely desirable arc tlw esolXer c ^ w e t e l H3p<saa emcfe as t&e eae «m f k m m m ® & Street wldcfe UfO restricted to stipplyffio oaly iceaodiatc faudly acedo* poo, /iboitfe 7£ scree are belsfj ns&d for ccssiarcial purpoDCG, the land being allotted for tho following eitarprioest  retail, *vholes&lc„  rDBtauranto, cercices, theatrec, financial, pzint&ag and advertdDinc, officeE, garage and fillisg station, used car lots, hotels, eras atito courts. Included irl'di these are light inriuotries such m bnlccrleo, bottling t?orkc, dairies, and ice creari smsl confection sa&affe^te-^ig. fhes imtTt&l l&sd pattern* fh& land soned for Industry is wore than adequate for present and foreeocable purposes, fhc bulfc of it lies ia c. crescent frost J M a Street ?;est to the O&asagan Bivsr and,, bending: northward t?i.th Sa© ralltfny* goes to Ecfchardt Uranus lis a broad,fealf^sailes-yatii. Bcfoal Eddiordt and ctill following the railway, it enters residential and caa-ereial. gesiag to tSio detriiieat of industry, conn:erce, ami residents elilte, k largo block of laid OB the rubble £ m of Elitefeeblelias also beea aor-ed for indtistry. JBse* Altogether SCO ccreo liave been reserved for industr,?, Sl6  %heseteiustrisaare for the nosrt part intcminclod with tho ccKrcercial eatGrprloecs and in genes®,Using the land use in i;h£eh they are located they cannot elwayc b© disss separately or & • ssall ocale map.  m •  %  acros for heavy and light industry' and. 14 acres for light industry only. Itoty acres «wo at prepo&fc in ue® fo? iQ&etilno m.wpBs a fmrndry.* wod* t-OTldag establishmentss saraoillG, cannerioo, packinghouses, and eh©tdccl i?or?»Sj end,, of necessity storages spaee for m f niatorials, finished products, and containers. ffjto re^Mential  pattegn* Ifeplnas&M groath ic indicated la the  3^yout of the residential ercso tjhe?© the street, pattern is often eccentric for no oppareat reason as if the eubdiidsioss m r & added lilts bo nany afterthoughts to the original nucleus oil the Xakoshcro* Odd angles 5 off-set streets, blind alloys,  block divisions where houses on adjacent lots  fee© is opposite directions^ m v tho beauty and efficiency of tile street pattern and vdth it the residential pattern as a rfiole. Generally Gperadr.g the residential cribdivls£o& is elear3y m  effort at jaafeing the beet of a  situation after it ic too lato to do Eiuch about "It* tea* Sic residential land area consists of 7$$ acres Tjfcieh ere m\bdividec* into three categories*  Singleferallydrolling, multiple  dulling, and restricted building. Ths single^fansily duelling tends cppropriatsly onottgh to bo located asvsyfi-eathe multiple tolling »Meh  Regional Industrial Index, of British Colurabla, Bureau of Eoon^rdos and Statistics, B.C.fiapartaontof Trade and Industry, edition. Notably in the block eaet of Lakovieu Strest triior© msm housed feee m hBk@rlm Street and others on at^acsnt lots fee© on SronGaick Stro©% csd. in the block north of Churchill Avrnue cast of Poks* Straofe ybere mac houses faco Churchill Avenue ond others e naaeleos alley or fedotiffifiinste street acroso tsftiah ere tho bock yards of houses fecin^ Latoot&ffS'e Brli^-awt this in a eisjpoesay restricted buiMing croc* *  FIG.'  fes  into" tho olderresidentialsections Rear the commercial ftM. c*  ittdufTtriul cores/  Tho three restricted buildiswr areas are attractively  located and the one on .oitlmr ©ide of Wincloor AKtfrraa it? pa^ietslarSy well laid ftut—a product of reoejit planning. AIdo well M i d out but Monotonous, ia nepcct because of too great similarity ia the cnspcarance of tho houoor, ia tlx© !?crfctoe Houeiag Project ia tiie extreme couth-east cector of th© city. It will be noted eleo thai socac land nsor Skaha Lake has been eubdivided for residential ptafpococ* Ste  pattern. Fes? citioo have bees as provident  as Peatioton in settiag aside lands for parte) and playgrounds iftricti Imm a total area of 265 acres, largo tracts of theso loads are well dispersed throughout th© istet eector and e. iwober of ©ataaelTO parecle are located eaafch of Ellis Crook—one adjoining Ellis Creel: ©id others near Skaha Lake, fe*  Soso of tfio parks notably en fee Otsemgen teke front and  that adjoining this City Hall have been, dewloped aed the beach, lamio, and trees sra beautiful end & grcsat mmt  to tho city. Maga and Queens Parke  i w m m ice hecazcy ca?cK, amee -track orals, a c^andcrtend, aid ball fieldej and a playground couth of taws o«ts%l school g h a s  h m n det^Icped  iete a ball park. Moat of the other p&plt lands are mimprcved and are far the r.ost pert otill is their original state. noR~orchsrd Itea lands pattern. Kcn»orchar& £ & m lands are four^ is isolated but sizable patches aleag the ri'mr and itee drainage ie too restricted for m x i m M Xande.  ^Ctsjpere Plata X oa building apse and Etet© VIXX on soning,  m  Ugo. , About ll?G acres le In iarni use and smell of the 3SK) acres described as vacant In Tabic X,?l, is eeteally In pasture. Bosidfig hay and pasture tho ferns aye devotocl to gswrlfig vqjetr.bloe—root crops ouoh ao potatoes, ew'otsj beete, turnips, end green vegetables such as cabbage* lettueo, and celery, tto total acreage infca^crcdalwgetsabl© production iB teU.j houavor, it is au^aonted to scsa© extent bgr IdtoticsifiaKlenscoswa to KQfisy residences ia the urban sector of the city, A to horses and mipported on tho pasture end hay lands, but tfero is no caracrctcl •dMa^dteg*. pafthard land .jrettqgai, About !|00 a m ® of the? better drained lend bettmea Pkahe. Lako Slid Bills Creek are in orchard. Occasional interruptions of poorly drained, c$en or partly \-:ocxJ.ee lands occur eraong it® orchards. Another 15>0 seres of orchard lands in isolated patches cr© Setmd north of Fllio Creole bat are being rapidly taken o w by residential developments. With bottsr drainage m c h of the land soor tli® river and between the residential section on the north shore of Simto Lake gal the present orchard lands could be put into orchard, albeit the land is of only fair quality. £s£«  orchards consist of ell varieties of fraito Kith isany  younger plantings in stone fruits especially peaches and apricots, fb& matt?.lands pattern, Sis T3astclrnd3 includc uncu3.tivated grass* lends, the rubble section cf Ellis Creek. fan, the aaaspy areas aloagsM© I^Iceshosre Eoed anti near EcBfcsrdt A m m o Bsftdge* tlx© -vacafit areas sonod fa? industry, and nncloarsd pcplea>t?i3te growth, Host of the mmp  lands trill be drained and put into parftj tho  t»£ts lands arc gradually being cleared for agricultural and tbe uncultivated  FIG.'  crp.GOlande aad nibble trill e.t eosk® time support recidontiel vnd IMusta&aX d&mlap^cmlo,  •  •  TM,o then is the pattern of land use. forth of r a n © Creek end bounded by the river, Okaaagc® Lake, and the fact of the tewsees lieo tho dcneoJy populated w b e ® © M a ixi which the lands have be«s coned for tho Tfsrious urban fractions*  F m s the centor of the ocss&eroial sore the city  breads but ia a rough eesi-circle w a m m & w o  ihaa a silo M  mMiw»  Th& railtmj Incline tliroush this densely pelleted erec dltldeo it into throo pstAQ* the Icsgasft of T&ich lies trithin the loop end containe the caninoroiel cere, most of the wmmi&Gt^t^jQ InduetriLos emI half tiie resident!*?. area. On tt» fringe of tfeo'Wbaa area lie ffera m-1 orchard l&ndo and Isnfie Eonsd. Car industry but i-McIi are for tho Kogfc p&v% -amused. Isolated dwellings. Blfcfc here and there "groep" encroactacnt on orchard lands give the fringea rwal to suburban charaoter. fouth Of Ellis OreaJc aw! bonded by the river, Sfeaha Lata, end fee  foot of the terr&cec lies a rural area tilth eabuz-ban eaereaoiaoxts along the MgtiKgy end on the chore of Slate Lake. Thie area isftostayfa erofc&rd and in pecrfore end hey lands, end to e leccer  fittest  to  Oertein  vmefceleade ere eulteble for reoideaeoo and industry, or sag? ba clc^loped ae fsasflee. Although this area les now rural,rcachof it say fca tatsea w o r by urban dovelcpraenfc ia tlio Etot-too^diotGnt future. Of recent yeara a proeroseivE spirit as! a crouing dseire to correct insofar cs ie poosible the £oor pl^nnittjj of the past has resulted ia tho crsf.ticr. of  2 m m KLcnning Cx^niasicr. and tho engt^csrjont of profoDsicne,!  -• •  •  •  •  272  6 iOBB planners to assess the situation and ask© recommendations for future pinna. Theee plans are notj completed and have been turned over to the City Council for consideration. As regional and city planning are in some respects the field of geography5 it is perhaps pertinent to this study to examine the new plane to discover hot; well they consider not only the urban area5 but also tiie region on which the urban area depends. Before doing tills, howeverj it Trill be necessary, to study the industries and potential industries of the region so that judgments and recomendotione ra?.y be based on solid foundations. and Graham* ?ancouvBrs B.-'G,  , mmm  m  S E SMSSXliS VJhatever thoraaltcMtoof a region, the Industries tjhich it can support are is tho final analysis Mi© detsnaioing factors tMch raake for a mj off life in & particular oulfcure. On looking back w chapters a stucfr of the  clioatc,  the preceding  potation and  grails fee etewaa that the Paitiote resign is $srsiettl23r troll saitca to t?Td kinds of pristary industriee~-oattle ranching end frait growing. In tho chapter on the sequent occuponce it v;as  hair ebangoo in social  and Material dovoloprneot brought about a change in induetryj how tlie pressure of population, di,ippovaaoats in transportation and markets brought about tli® "a,•itch" £ r m cattle ranching to frait growing* Cattle ranching, ^though eMll caxTlsd on* io rwst relatively cinor to agriculture. Pith tfeo largo influx of population other industries came into beans, but again tiles© were tsore or less based on agriculture*  Ev&n maiilling io largely  givan over to cgricalture In the provision of box ahooks; and tho tourist industry trades on "blossco, tSee," ,fPoa©ti Festivals," and the fruit horroet.  Xt boccraos inareaolngly obvious that tho Penticton region's livelihood Is baeed to a vory great osctsnt m & one-point MWKxiy ;M.ch is txtfcrcrnaly sensitive to extra-regional ctfxanges in econos&e conditions, and t?hich has the further disadvantage of being subject to lessees seasons! fluctuations. This problem has long boon recognized, and the need fcr diversification of industry is apparent. Eio purposa of this chapter then Is to study the distribution of the existing industries and their relation-  m ships to tho local and oaitU-a-peglosal envlrori»asnt—ths relationships of necessity including sources of rawraaterialeand narfcotsj and, having done this, and taking into aocount the relevant gaograpMe factors j suggest sasao paths alongtthicfediversification say follow.  i. m  masF&mKim  xmroswrnr  SnteriarlsQs in, Frpit The aosi> important enterprises la the Penticton region are those engaged in prooenriHB and packaging fruit. This is to be expected as the agricultural lands arc given over almost entire^ to fnsit erortfinfj. Fruit is handled, (e.) is padding-houses Tjhere it is paokod and chipped fresh to nsrltot and (b) in canneries vhern it is preserved by canning before being chipped to market*  $ho fruit Melting iajatwrtffi,  There are fiva pacldng-houses in the  region; one in lm>amta, three in Penticton, wifchia the industrial ares located on the Okanagan Lake front, and one at Baledon. Shoas pacJdUsg* hoaxes serve the districts in »hich tho;/ are located although, the Penticton houses pack mm  frait frca Kararsata and, tsith the one at M a l a , holp i-t?  take care of fruit frcaj Ofcamgen Falls as well, The rat*rcateriDlsused in the packing industry are the various fruits, tha paper tissue fruit wrappers, colorful labels, and wooden box containers. The fruit is g m r n tsitfcin the region;' thera*apsand labels ero printed in faftijswj and the containers are manufactured by local s a t t H s and assembled in tho paoldng-houaee.  feeetst tftcra otherwise stated, the information an the various nanufacturins indtastries t?as obtained through personal interview? with representatives of the industries.  x?li Table XVH ehotre the tea® fruit production -of the Pontlcton region for s. nuntoer of esmple years. Itttillbe noted, that th© protection £hic~ tuates iters year to year, the chief controlling factor being eliraate-exceptional^ cold tJinters and/or occurrcncs of froot dart,critical  S I S FRUIT HttDUCHOH FOE »  m W C f O l KlilOIf  Year and Av. Price  Apples  Bess's  1930 Av. fVie©  795,59? 1.30  h6s530 101,763 1.00 1.50  31,639 2.25  11,602 Z.25  17,695 0.65  22,090 0.£0  IBS Av. Price  707,795 0.90  77,866 1.20  75,933 1.00  30,139 1.50  1.00  2?,660 0.65  17,6148 0.75  im Av. Price  873,363 0.80  m$mk 1.25  167,510 0.70  36,83k 1.90  10,391 0.95  2lh?$6 0.55  16,132 0.65  Av. Price  620,829 1 5 M S 6 - 2.00  1*26,53 3 1.15  06,600 3.00  70,106 102,613 1.50 1.00  26,370 0.90  1950 1,^03,969 lh?,19S llU,093 Av. Price 1.60 1.6S 2,99 '  63,503  13,877 2.23  93,0(35  21,330 1.35  lli2,739 1.615 fc.UO  53,230 0.906  12,3G2 0.909  1953 Av» Price weight per bos  Peaches (Sierrice Apricots Prunoo  956,137 208,1^0 1*07,61}! 1.1S5 2.63 l|2~»Xb*  »lb. 20—lb. 20—lb. 20—lb. 15—lb.  ELtsas  15—lb.  "^Prices are amsrage for the entire Okanagan sad are for fresh fruit© only, fha above production figures include both £rash aafi mm£ao~ tured products. periods. Percentage tdse, except for a "busier" crop ia 1950, epple production has increased tho least,"3 whereas apricots lairs increased the  %ata obtained frcni B.C.fispartmentof Agriculture, Kelowna, B.C. "•file year 1950 shows & large decline in Eton© fruits particularly  l?5 the raost. Peach, pear, and prune production increased at uiueh the eaiao rat© and cherries and plums declined. After the severe winter of 1S%SH?0» aost of the badly damaged treefi were replaced by peaches and aprioote which are BOH ooraiag into production, fhe value of the 1953 apple crop was about one and one half times the value of all the other fruits combined. Pears tier© tfe© React most valuable crop, followed by peaches, aprlcote, end cherries, respectively.4  Prunes and pisas are act imports-jit.  Since Kcrld l-or II tho overseas -market for fruit has declined due to currency restrictions, the United Kingdom t&Vdng but a mall part of its pro-war purchases*  Brazil, uhich. at oa© time provided a valuable outlet  for apples, dropped frasi the X9$kfflerfcetaltogether due to the lack of /rfacricEm and Canadian dollars. West Germany has nadc one or too "token" purchases in' the post-Bar yeara but prospects for developing this market ia the near future are not too bright. Production of tec?pe©s apples has increased considerably since the war m i it is unlikely that the foreign desaasd for Oltaaagaa fruit iriXl ever rise to the pre-war level. In spite of heavy production of their own, tfee United States are a valuable market for British Columbia apples. The superior quality of •fee Okau&gan product and the attractive packaging create a good descend, especially in the nid-tiestera mA  "Corn Belt" States. Ilot-jever, American  subsidizing of the native fruit industry has in the pact contributed to the difficulty of selling unsuholdised foreign fruit oa the American  in peaches and apricots because of the severe cold spell in January and February of that year. The apple crop, instead of being adversely affected showed an unusually large yield. value is useful for a rough comparison only. The cost of production varleo with each fruit.'  FIG.' The boat end noet reliable market for Okanagan fruit lias within Canada itself9 particularly fianltobe, Alberta,feskatofee»ansend British Columbia where fruit from Eastern Canada cannot cowpot© miceeflsfu]!^ on the *aarJ;efc bocauo© of generally poorer quality and cost of freight shipr&ent. Uxs&mPj} superior quality Olsanaganfensdts,do coapete to the hm,e mrket of Eastern Caimda^eTOft in $ova Scotia—but onlj to a limited extent. All ooft fruits are at present sold in Canada. Xv'lth a general increase in population the Canadian market will expand end the day ie not too distant vjhen all the fruit the Qkm&gan can produce sill be eold in Canada. Large fluctuations in the price of fruit (see Table 111) hairs occurred in the past9 but in postwar years have been kept within reasonable range because of (1) a laore stable econosay in the riarket areas, . (2) the regulated flo>; of fw.lt to aarket, assd (3) the cessation of fruit dumping1 on the market by individual farmers. The, fruit csnnjng Igduatyar*' Tiro canneries are located in the Penticton region, one—a fftirJy large one—in tho industrial gone on Waterloo A w w s south of the railway station is Peatlotonj tha other—a  6  caE^aratiralj- Baall one—in Okanagan Falls. • The eaiee kinds of fruits that are packed fresh for shipment are also coined. Scaaa dratmackc to the development of really large canning and frait processing enterprises in tho Penticton region were mentioned in the chapter on land Use and will not be reiterated here*  %hat is, by the central selling agency—B.C. Tree Fruits, Ltd. &  One old &SMI&W on the Okanagan lake front is no longer in use.  •  '  177  Besides fruit, the r m a&toriala for th© canning induotiy are sugar, cans, box containers, and labels for tin© cane and practical^ all these rawroaterielserne frcei Vancouver. Unlike fresh £ruitc which need the rigidity of wooden containers for protection, conned fruits may be shipped ia cardboard containers whloh  both lighter and cheaper. Thus  til© local ssKsaille hava lost a considerable isarket for box ohoolio. The csarkete for canned fruits are essentially the same as thooe for freeh fruits. Food end 3&v®rm® $»tmpg"l&es Food audi beverage manufacturing enterprises are responsible for acre than half the gross value of aanufactures in Penticton (DOG fable XIX). foods and bavevages are manufactosd in the canncries, t m bottling worke. t m dairies, and four bakeries. file canneries, being concerned irith feaitg tsere discussed is the preceding section. Tho other enterprises are distributed throughout tho commercial end light industrial acmes, for the most part ia or aesr thO'dora~t<m retail area. Practically all th© raw materials (except £resh fruit) for these industries come frcea outside tho region. although they may bs supplied to the industry by local t-jholosale or distributing agencies. Tliue, the bottling tiorke order •their sugar, j^yrups, and bottles £ras Vancouver, the dairies got i!i©ir tnilk and cream frotn the Horth 01sa$mgaa? and tiie bakeries import flour frcsa Calgary- and other ingredients £ r m Vancowrar. ffes bottling tKjrlcsffia'kssoft drinks oulyf th© dairies pasteurise sad sell freshraLlfcend cream, make ice croaia, ice cream raix, cottage cheese® cliocolste milk, and yogurt? and tho bafeeriee isako bread and the waal bakery confectioac. IfeorOy all these products are sold locally and  FIG.'  ia the South Otemgafi, tho -exception being tho products of draa lar^e bakery which caters to the uholecalo trad® and ships its products ae far north ao femes® and yrash and east to Princeton and Srand Forks. gjte Kood^worki^ .Entergrieea These consist of tsjo saraitls located in tho iadaetrkd cone opposite the mouth of Shingle Creek, three each and door factories two of which also rocks furniture and household fixtures, and a swell bost-bttildiag vrorJes t-Mcli also mk.ee furatture and wooden toys* All the aon-eawlllteg enterprises are located in or near tho dsR®-toi® c«®isrclal gone. Timber growth, in the South Otaa&gaa is jsuoh lighter than in the north because of tho meager rainfall, and all i'km mature timber imediats2y accessible has been out. Mush of the tiiaber on tho nearly plateau areao is inaccessible due to lack of roads and the roughness of the terrain. This means that the local es-sills have had to go ever-farther afield for their logs®  Tho Settle Galley asid tho JPsflacetosi sraa at  distances of frcsu 50 to 70 zaileo are to»day the chief sources of supply and  90 per cent of all logs xauot be brought in by train. She resaining 10 per cent are brought in by truck from scattered areas closes? hy. The earnill© cut rough luobar aost of Khich is shipped to the telted States and a email portion to the Prairie Provinces, Soae ic cut into box shocks for the local fruit industry and the rest Is finished for the local building trade. feci; to foods and beverages, and in epito of distance of log supply, eamllling sand ether wood-worldng enterprises are the $noet Important mnufaoturing industries in Penticton,  .179  The other> t f e u t e i y i s c a aake saeh and door fijcturoc and furniture. They obtain their hardwoods frccn Vancouver OTpply houses and eoft woods £rora the local samallle. Their trad© is almost entirely confined to Penticton and 'too South Ofenagan ioorket. fetal Products Metal products are made by one foundry,teroloaehine shops, two pipe and flurae works,*' and a savall sprayingroachinofactory* The raw materials for the foundry consist of scrap jaetal Gathered fraa vslley points, sand fTcsi Vancouvar, and £ml frm the Crowe ffest Pass, The products or© relatively email Iron and steel castings of pulleys, pipes icaahole frames and coders, and grates, etc. Sam aluminum castings are aSmmte*  ••  1  JSoui of the castings find a' local and w<lley market, but sorae are shipped to tjidely scattered Interior pointe. The other metal vorks receive practically all their rat' materials-sheet :aetal> structural etesl, angle iron—frcsi Vancouver. They produce fsrcitapleaentesuch as disks, cultivators? ©preying ziachines, heavy equipment for trucks and OEK©dlle} irrigation pipes and flvesee, heating equipment, sa^ec troughs, and so foi-th* l&ereae the valley is the chief market for metal products, otlier Interior points from the Thompson to tho Kootenaye are important outlete. A superior typo of spraying jrsachins manufactured in Penticton sells well in liaehington. end Oregon States, and 2$ per cant of all chipeients go to 'Australia and ! » Zealand.  .  f . '•One of the pipe and flume wori-® ie combined m t h e chemical spray issi^stry® ' •  FIG.' Citcaical VJgrfec  On© chenical tjorks located in tho trtaftgl® inado by the railway, Btgsby Street smd Ms.dc illman®? is alraoot cosplately ccnccmcd with the semfactwa af iteaoi  the osly such £Sm is  Otaagaa  falley. Tho m & paierial's {mostay etesaicals) cocks froa Itenecuror, Oalgery:  th© Ckwe Kestj and i'avcas (culpluir). The Qkamgafi Valley and other British Columbia, fruit crwsisis areas are the iicrketc for thic Industry. Ilisctsllaaeoug iRduetrios ffeese include mm&tig and Venetian blind irorke, a saall dental laboratory, tailoring, drsss-oakiisg, and shoe repairing. Q£ those the most important ia the firet-s^sitioaed i-Mefe gets its rm jaaterials from Vancouver, Toronto, mid lionfcreal, and &&H& ohioXly to local and valley points. The oilier seller industrial s e m local needs. £ssssgsgi.t:. of J&g I'feaafectgriras Xadxptrieo to best acsoso the stats o£ i&aimf&eturisg ia Peatieiass a cospari• f• sea t&th the other principal Olcanagea cestree le requisite,  Table XVIII  h&E bean. draws tip to tasks this CGsparisgotu & e Ctij of Kelowm ha© consistently led is the ntssber of persona cbnpl^Bd ia tilts najroTaCturins i^ustric© aid lias noro than the combined gross -cuius of production of Penticton and ?©rnon. The column eboKis® the %  aibsidiary &£ the fiisu also micas astal pipe© and £±mcs,  ^Caspars aire with other B.C. cities ia Appendix B.  FIG.' fmm  arm10  m m A v s m s m statistics k m a s t m m , m i i m m h o w w m CITIES  Municipality tear  Pcnticton  ate? of m&mnxiQ Enfcorprisoo  limber of Saiployeos  1937 (Not eroilable) 191*1 " » 11 1?U7 17 1$%G 1? 1950 1951  Selmms.  1937 19kl i m  19hd  1900  1931  21 22 28  100  10D lli8  231 288 1*33 152  26  603 7l$3 697  33 35  TkmlmmB aa a jrarcmfego of Kmioipal Papulation  '^lon Yolue in Dollare (Hot amilsblo) n a 1,063,631 1,301,698 1,721,020 8,272,716 1,302,750 2,112,602 5*121^25 S,7l»7,217  1.7  ,,  2,0,(2.3)" 2.1/, 2,r e.e  6.C  6.8 {9.0)J  69(&h26h B.J  Tfernon  193? 19ifl ipiis 1950 1951  2h6  16  so  213 383 376  32 39  3?ti Ii3li.  38  s.2  XsX0S,§ii3 935,562* 2,781,556 2,765,79k 2,771^90 3,136*521  iul 3.5 (5.7)*, 3.^(5.3/  Eetiaated, 'Sections using adjusted population figure®, m three Qfesnagea cities _Groca\T oirarastaaateU their poefemr populations. For eaxemSLs, in 1SU9, Ulmum ettbud 10,000, 11,000, and Penticton 11,0©; S a , in P ^ f J ™ ?Sff? JS^  %  ** 6,517, TTemon 7 822 InF AoomBaeJy ilia populations to the yei® ljjtf,  gaiGOS and alloying a prq>orfcio^to increase for each year of the d S d e ! 4dditiono to the toble froa subsequent releases of sfcetiettos.  tlt^L^  ^  S  m  *****  ^  fecta  FIG.' industrial asploymont ae a percentage of the totalramicipalpopulation11 Is sicaificant. She trend for Penticton t:as Aammrd  to 19«7~-*rhich  indicates that l^e popnletiosi ©a© Increasing faster than ®iplo^BCsat in Industry—and very slowly upward till 1951 Tniieh itoiioatos the reverse. For Kelcsfua tho trend sae upward till 1S>50, after -«hich it took a sharp efe-opf far Vernon it fluctuated tat changed little on tho average. S^jlcgaaeafe to EenufacfcurSng hao incrcaoed ia all three centree during the 15-year period, but only in Penticton*8 case hac- it kept pace with the Increao© in poerfc-var population • flie table shoes £ w r U m m » m that tfee peroeatag© of i-raniolpal population asployed tm mmfeotasing in Penticton is less than half of "veraon'a and lece than a third of Kolomna's* ?able XXX tijieh gives an iten&aed account of csamtfacturoR in the three Ofcaaagab centres costs eoae light on the reasons for these differencoc. ffea £oM and bevrrage production in l&mon and Eeloisaa is nuch greater than at Penticton for reasons already enggeeted (see Rural Land fee). Satsailling and troodwarfctoG ©siajprises are vastly moreto>ortantia the northern centres because of the greater timber reoourceo there, l-loroovar, prlnfcins and publishing, end allied industries at felmss and Vernon are acportant enough to. be specially categorised, vhereas at Penticton Bhich serves a scalier regional population, they are less iffieportenb  included  with "All other industries." Purtte eoapasdeon of feble XIX trith fable XX shone that Penticton® s industrial e^loyncnt is lower than that of the Census euhdivision Til thin ukicli it lie© and *uch tor then that of tho province.  ^ trealaioso In the figures of m e colncn should be pointed T, wfc. It is obvious that the urban population oomeraod aakXcSriRg  103  SABLE XIX12 GROSS. ?ALUK OF H m W m t ' , Of IlAJUFAOTiJElHS IHDUSTRIBS in m Hixisi?AL -mmmm CESEES, m e  Cities end Industries  ElECbBP of Enterprisec  Qroes Value of Production 5  Penticton FoodD and  s  736,73?  SotssillG and other t?ood~prodnctt!  6  210,073  All other industries  6  266,058  Erait c m vegetable Reparations  3  2,032,160  Oth®4 foods and beverages Printing, polishing, mad allied industries SSJJHDIS  mid other wooG-preditcts  All other industries  691,782 U  177,727  11  2,70Jt,ii07  2  IhlAU  6  1,206,303  2?  l,29h?301  Vernon Foods and beverages Printing, publishing, sal allied industries Setaaills end other wood-products All other industries  103,023  at ?emon and ifoloana ore not a n included trithin cities* b0unda2d.ess -rfhere&s at Penticton a large £em$Mg population is included. S i e wakes fee actual Vernon end Kelcsroa percentage© teier end the Fenticton onec higher ttea those shown in the table, la other words, although the Penticton percentages would by » moon© coned the other centres*, the disparity ie not as great as the table indicates.  12.Xirittstoy end .^rkerbo, etc.» epu cit., p. 76.  FIG.'  TABLE XI 33 xmmam*  mmmmM^msrnm^m  ow  m m s m  Rccion Per Cast  v  British Columbia Fer Confc  1533  1,6  il.l  ISt-l  3.0  7.6  19hn  k.2  e.o  % e g i m 3 is a Gensao eubditrleion in x-Mch the Okanagan Valley ie situated.  An analysis of the Okanagan manufacturing industries hae shown that, although coaaiderable ejspansicn has tahsa place since 1933 in the nwnber of eDtcblistaiente arid, esployaesnt, the Jdnds of isidustriee havs m rer^inod substantially tiie aasie»  Efcai they Tdll tend to reaeln tiie  ease in the foreseeable future ic likely although increasins ^reciaXisatioa and refinement of product xrill gradually increase ©aploymeat vithin the Ix^ustrioG. As Pentlctcn'e agricultural and ticker resources aro much inferior to these of Vernon and lCalosmf it io extremely unlikely thai Penticton isdll ever eqtial the northern cities In naaufacturQa allied situ those resources. Hoarser , there le St,ill a great deal of roaa for expansion in. Penticton* s fruit processing: industries ated it is likely that the greatest,  13  Indttctry and l&rkets, ofce.j op. cit., p. 33  % b i d . , p. 51.  FIG.' G^Qswlon trill toteo place ihero. Obviously m m labor is necessary in processing £ruit~~that le canning, (tehytetJjag, iiig&iao: firuit .juico, f&si&gs&p wino, glacc X;niitGj cto.—than in paddne i'm&h fruit, m d if PaoUfctea^e <dm ie to mgmS. ifcc pqnactfc&oo, it jausfc direct its efforts tojjardB the sBoufbcfaxr© of more "refined"  thereroro more va.2ua.ble  fruit products. As is shown ia fable XXX, too small fruit geota ia the Okanagan is procoosei outtrjde to vnOlctf * and Pcnticton should make effort to obtain a g&g&b of til© processing fMcti could be dons mit® economically there. There should be good prospoets for the product-ion 'of foiffiteia fruits ms. tiggiim i m s sa 15 '  . . .  BRUIT P30DUCTIGH A W KKJOESSIBfl, lgfcg  Crop  Pcrccntsge of D.C. Stuit Grorn in Region  ApplGs (including crab-applos)  87,23  Apricots  99.70  Clisw-tos  62,57+  POBGhQB  Percentage of B.C. Frocsssisg Boas , .in Sc^ion 3 25.53  50.38 61,-28  Psars  89.71  1(9.58  Plums asd prases  84.69  53.38  ^ssntiaXly the Clsusagan felloy 3*fcflea& indications ex* tliat the luabar industry w i n not expand  *%Kiastry end Ziarkets, etc.t cp. cit., p.  FIG.'  gre&tSy because of the limited tinker reeourooo, and It may mm in value tshen toe building "boon" begins to  decrease  aul competition fraa  more favored ere&a becomes more intense. Bmvm&e*> Him future of the laaiber kaStuciry ©as bo favorably sffectcd by tho dem&opaerit of by-products. * * * Sxperiscntation with little-'UGOd cpeoies nay offer possibilities for fotwo expansion. The cwrroafc tana of lodgepole pine for bost-shock sad lissaber jriacufccture indicates that opportunities are not necessarily limited to the timber species previously er^loitod."1^ There is rocsa for expansion in the wood-working industries such as in furniture and household fixtureo., for ispecialttes in vood mch as toys, novelties, aud—>for the specially elcLlled craft&i&n—caz^irge, souvenir pieces, and oddities miclt m clock fey the  CROSS  similar to those ;aade  during their "off-season*" I'he other industries, particularly those Miich hava only a looal  or valley isartet "trill increase their productivity ae tho peculation they eater to gross; bat competition frees, the  Finland mi the other  Ofccaa@&n centres trill almost certainly heop tho iwrketc confined to the renticton region and #10 southern part of the valley. It has been suggested that Penticton tKrald be an ideal site for an aircraft factory,17 em& if this ware 30, it would bo a grsat boon to tte city and the region. However, only under certain continsenoies cuch afi war which would negate the economic and geographic factors involved, W O M ouch an industry be feasible. Certainly Penticton has aa excellent  . ^jwiustzy and llarkete, etc*, pp. oit,.» p. I|l In conversations with civic officials.  FIG.' airport and the climate is doubtless rcoro suitable th&fi in aeny regions whore aircraft industries flourish»  But lack of tho necessary raw  materials, cheap porcsr, and Bldlled labor, end, moreover, distance to eourcee' of supply t w u M ^ & t loast under currant conditions—I?JSJCS the successful establishment of nn aircraft Industry highly questionable. Xet, the possibility axtets (if carried on under government subsidy) and no condition is hopeless until prorod so.  Hcweirar, in v i m of the meager  possibility, it vrould bs foolhardy for Penticton to concentrate its <s£forts oa tho establisMent of an aircraft industry to tho extent that efforts to attract mors likc3y industries «?ould bs neglected.  Indica-  tion© point ctrongily to the feet that Penticton xri.ll hava to depend on tho ©nailer Sianufaoturing enterprises, particularly on those allied to the fruit end lumber industries.  By doing so she Kill be building her  ocanojny solidly on the rav ciaterlals that the region can supply, or to which it has relatix'ely easy access* Potential industries that jniglit bear investigating are also related to the fruit industry. One such is lithography for the production of the raillions of colorful labels for the box containers and cans; another is bae-koeping for tbe production of honey frara ths fruit blossasag? still another is the msidxig of confections frcxt fruit end, possibly, honey, and so forth.  I'hs csq>ansion of industries i&ich manufacture  agricultural implements should also bo sought. First-hand knowledge of rsquireaents in the Okanxxgon fruit industry coupled with ths kind of inventivensos that lies alres4y bsan demonstrated,  Bight » l i result in  ~ For exsnple, a hydraulic lift bsing BianufactUi'sd in Oliver for thinning:, pruning, picking, and sprsying of fruit trees 1ms Amm promise® end the "turbo-sprayer" aanoifeotured in Penticton is definitely of a superior kind. '  m  tho aanufaoturo of implements which ore both cheaper end better suited to their purpose, , lacfei&d, numerous regional specialties requiring & m m originality could be developed, and the cer-dcoa of bailee each ae the B.C. Research Council might troll bo sought in the development of net-;  enterprise®*  "  It Should be obvious that, if the Ponticton region intende to manufacture articles that are not based on fruit, it mwpfc concentrate- on ccrapact, light height, high-value articled that can better the price and rateh or supersede in quality slailer products laanufactured elsewhere, the problems involved offer a challenge to initiative, originality, and even daring—a challenge feat hae been successfully met countless tiaes in our econoay of free enterprise. N .  THE © W I W I O I U M  SoagferttoMon  INDUSTRIES  •  Tne rapid gronth of Penticton since World Ivar II has gi-srsR the construction industry considerable importance. As way be seen in Fig. hls 8.3 per cent of the total labor force, or approximately 300 person© arc employed in construction. Because of the availability and ccsnparatiTre cheapness of tho building materials, practically all nm  residential buildings are of  wood or of trood and stucco. Ganmcrclal buildings also are often of wood and stucco, but there is a strong tendency towards araorepermanent type of structure scaxettoes of ceraent blocks and, nore rarely, of concrete or bride. Construction Joaterials such as cement, brick, nails, roofing, glass, and structural steel are obtained from the Lower Mainland, mostly  .  m  £e>m Vancouver? lun&or, cand, end gravel are obtained lacclly. Figure hM  shows the "trait© of building construction in Penticton  and Kelovma.for the post-war- yoars. Tho two citieo are not strictly comparable because much urban- construction at Kelowna adjoins the city but ie not included in the building mlueej, whereas at Penticton even If rural construction is included. Ueverthelees,, corae rough comparisons '  -  raey be jsade. The total building nalues of Penticton and Kolowna for tiie nine po3t-war years ere remarkably close. Both cities ehow a good deal Of fluctuation in the values of construction, bat Penticton*s valuec w e considerably steadier.  Soae fluctuations way be explained by' the construc-  tion of large, single buildings of considerable vslue  for eswraple, the  new Penticton hospital and arenaj others, by construction of large projects such es fee Central Mortgage' m& Housing development in the © utheaetsrn sector of Penticton. Figure 1$3B shows; that in eix years out of nine, th© m l u e of residential construction in Penticton exceeded that ©f commercial construction.  This could be indicatiira of the number of people who have  come to Penticton to retire rather than to go into business. According TABLE . X X I I  commcm aso S E S I D E B T I A L wnsimanDu mxsmms of T H E ® TOTAL B H I L B I ® T M M City Penticton ICeloma  N  m m m n im to im  FROM 1 9 ^ 6  Cansasroisl Per €ent  •  tsswm. m (zwlusive) Residential Per Cent  . iff S3  '  ^  JUT  - ... - Construction data for Vernon mare not available tor all paetarar yesrs so that no satisfactory comparieono could be jsado between construc%xm ia that city and ia Penticton.  189  FIG. 43 VALUE- OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN PENTICTON AMD KELOWNA '" 1946 - I Q54- ••••,•'• '.  A 3i  ITJ:  -yf) cc < 2  I  -  jfa  •  o Q  %  m ISi' fti; St 3Kt 'tLT fey: vshi a - n t] rm Ui-1i '"Zt'J 'T'  ETC5*  LL o  1  if) z 1 o  1%  -I o  I  I  l  1 1946  '47  '48. '49 '50 YEAR  '5!  PENTICTON  B  '52  'S3  1954  KELOWNA  V A L U E OF COMMERCIAL A N D RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION IN PENTICTON, 1946-195-V  - 1946  '4-7 '4S  '49  '50  YEAR  commercial  '51  '53 1954residential  191 toff&fele,1X11 „ the opposite tend, appears at Kolowna t=horo srranufacturinc ie of greater importance and tshere the population increase is less rapid. Certain signs such ac the decline in building values in 19$2 and 1933 indicate that the poet-mar buildingfeocaais approaching an end.  If  tills is so, it ©ill be much to Penticton'a advantage &z it ijill provide a "breathing ©pell" duringtfiichtho bach-log ia sorviceD (eeo Bablie Utilities) may be caught «p.  Itevcrtheleoe, a "'healthyaore  mm&1  growth should bo maintained and construction—as an indest^—will continueto  In the chapter m  the sequent occupance it w  stem km  Peatictoa  -erei as en Indian village-~achie^2d toportenc© as a trading centra because it was a nodal point 4a tho valley trade routes. The ease is true to-day but evm to a greater degree because the trade route© are no&r of many kinds and  from nore varied, directions and from greater  distances. Koreovcr, the comxMditiee finding their way to and froe* Penticton have lacreaood vastly in sraraber and hind. The early, ps>Mitim ctEEieree )iae- literally given way to a flood of goods which, moving into the city, are either used there or trans-chipped to other points. Cccsaerco m y therefore be divided into tsro IdafiB, that which Is carried m lAthln tho city and is both retail @ M *5holosalo ia nature, and that . is carried on ©steide Idle city aast the regtea and is restricted fisainly—frm Peatictoa8© point of viet*-~to wholesaling. flm .gatali eroa of  fte retail trade ie centred la the cas^erclal Pentieton, but saall, isolated commercial areas  192  catering to Irwiedlatn fatally needs aro strategically located is the residential parts of the city, Karfimta, JCaloden, mid Qtemagan Fall© alco h a wfievsralretailoutlets, & 1951 the store© in Penticton numbered 1J>5 and varied frna email to mediun in oiae, Bpw@vers there are several largo Storea of the department, hardware, furniture, and aapsmarkeb varieties. Most of tho smaller stores are found together in groups under © m roof as © part of a hotel or btiiXdifig block* otherc are "sandwichcd" together but era actually separate bv?ilding3. Penticton is a detail shopping centre not on3y for the region but also fox* Imms euch as Suamerlaad, Oliver, 0 soyoos, Bridooville, Poclr Greek, Kereaeoe, and oven liodlay  Princeton. Although iheee tome  ere wall supplied with stores of their oar., Kaoy of their residents depend on Penticton sfcorco for greater dioi.ee in goods. These wider choices are moot often found is clothing,texselioMfumiohinse and equipment, sporting goods, and machinery, but rarely in foode. Aoeording to Table Mill, tbe retail trade at Penticton caspares vazy favorably'- with that of Kclawna &sad fermn, mon though Penticton8 storaodlateregion is not so populous as thee© of the other centres* Because no other large centre lies closer to the potential etis&oeiep than does Penticton, Penticton^ "drawing pcrasr" for retail trad© goes farthest aiMold®  pomp  It will probably continue to extend this driving  as the populations of and the trancporbation facilities to and from  the various settlements increase. Sussserlsnd, being 1Mb largest and closest of the extra-regional area© doubtless carries on the greatest per capita trade with Penticton*  Yhe Oilver-0 soyoos and Karetaeos regions  probably ccoe nest, and Princeton and tte Boundary jragioa east of Oeoyoos  193 ccffi.o last being farthest asiay, filBliB K i l l 2 0 m i U E OF RETAIL Ai© IISOLESALE TRADE AM) THE mSBER OF RETAIL STORES If? Tiff. HtfKOlPAL OiamSTilJ CEKTRES, 1951 •HUTTWAMSDAWWW* I.  Centre  Wholeeale  PesMeioR  $ 8,W6,100  Retail  Rurnbcr of Retail Storee  $12,71(6,000  155  Eslwaia  612,200  12^838^000  1hp  Vernon  163S37,200  12,936,000  135  gho i s h o l e s a l e ? a s e e t w e r wholesale houses make a practise of establishing branch houses is the larger Interior centres for conveni m o e and speed in the handling of osraaedi4±co. Peatictons boeaoso of its location* is the natural dietribtsting csntre for all the South OksEagaa f m a Sussnorlsnd to fee Intsnntional  Bcnmdaxy  and, because of  its excellent railway cona&Qtlona, for all the Getileaeuts along the railway frcra Penticton to teand Forks. fhe Keroseos area is also supplied fros Penticton, but not Hedloy and. Princeton Tmich purchase jsore or less directly from the Ooact. Sorce articles cruch as flour, feedo, and cereals are obtainedfipaath© Prairie ProTincee, particnlariy Alberta. Freeh vegetables liien in season ease frost the Bbrfch and Central QkesiBgan, othertsise from California,  Canned TOgatables are brought in f*cs other parts  Of British Columbia and Sactern Canada. Citrus fraito and Juices, and  ^BJ-L Heailton, Editor* Bueijiese Year Book, KacLean-Kunter Publishing Co., Ltd., Ifcntarool, 30bh ed., 1951;.  690 gr&pea are imported ffew the United States. 1st, 19$0 appffo^simtely 6() per oont by value of all ^roceriee ttes imported. by wholesalers and too r^roning l|0 per cent as direct purcbacos by retrdlers £r&\ wholesale and distributing agencies at 'die Coast, other parts of British Columbia, the root of Canada, and the United States (in " '* PT; the order of importance). Practically no o®naoditi©e cold outside of crocory stores are ,  • 'it  wholesaled frcM. Penticton. *" Retailers purchase  outoida the i-eglon  euch itar>s m moat and fish, clothing and tertileo, furniture, leather goods, rcacMnary, care and trucko, and nonfood buikSicg supplies. litfa the grotith of population of the ai'ea which depends on Penticton an a distributing centra, it i© likely that laaro of the itsne ism purchased ©IBSS-Sioto Kill be trholesaled from Penticton. Thlc ia particularly true of cuch liesBS  staves, refrigerator;?, textiles, drugs, toilet articles,  and agricultural supplies, Ac336ga;ont. Only Vernon i-ihidi supplies the llorthem, and part of tiie Central Olaaagea irith t*holeoal© goods can boast of a larger slsolesale ttisa retail trade (see Table HIXX}* .?eatiotos% mtiolesale trade is valued at about fee thirds of its retell trade, and "gslmm&^s at eHghtiy aore than a half. Of the latter feo cities, Penticton is narked for tiie irintinrtmi<i >gfwru'j^'^r". >i f. i<i fit1 iv.t•> w' iimum niV,j jut , a- n. i '  21  Industry and JSoa&ste In the Glsnagcn, and Settle Valleys, Dept. of Srado and Industry-, Victoria, 1951, p. 60. A notable c a p t i o n io tobacco products tihlch are widoly eold outside Grocery stores and are almost entirely uholeealed fraa Penticton.  195  greatest expansion in tho wholesale business because of the vastly larger area it eerroc.  Both the retail and the vzhalosalo tradec in Penticton extend beyond the present regional limits and particularly is this true of wholesaling, With increased population in the area now nerved by the Banticton wholesalers:., and with bettor transportation facilities, Penticton1 B importance as a retail and wholesale trading centre Kill grot?. The grcrith in trade t&XX doubtless be accompanied by a t-jider iailaeaefe of Penticton'c csr7ieee--finaneiel* recreational, processing, Esnufactrarinn » soiling, eto.~tho final result of tfnich will ba the extension of the present regional boundaries, first to include Bttsaorland, and smmfmsh later, perhaps the entire South Clcanagan.  . fowlst ^dgslgg The tourist who wanto & clangs Xrcsi strenuous city life tiill find the atmosphere of Penticton friendly and relaxing for it still has the eaqy and unsophisticated charm of a "Saturday night town." He can case in blossom tine or in the tfcue of high eusssor, or tshea the fruit is ripening on the tress aad find  there much  to refresh Mia both mentally  and physically. ffee  adwyt^MOQ*  Penticton*G geographic ivdvantagos for  a flourishing tourist industry are veyy real Indeed. Its location on the ^liey highway and necmeac to the southern trano-prot&nciai Mgfcwsy mate it a tourist Mecca of the  Saey acesfic frets Washington State  196 and tho Lower I mainland enables thousands of autoaobilee to aalr© Penticton their destination during the non-winter months, and many sake the Journey on a weekend "flying visit,"  Penticton's location between the valley  lakes, the picturesque terraces, and green and brown hills gives it & at»erb setting. If the tourist ©offers fraa holding his breath at the grandeur of thefcoclciesaad Coast Mountains, he may toU case to the Okanagan and Penticton to recover ia the subdued beauty of the Okanagan landscape. With the ooapletion of the Trans-Canada Uigtesy tourists will doubtless visit the Okanagan ia great nuabers and Penticton will literally have a tourist influx froa all the cardinal points of the compass. The sumaor elias&te ie ideal for the tourist who envoys the sun, and the wide, sandy beaches of Okanagan and Sccha Lakes will further acccEsnodate Mas if he likes sunbathing. Boating, adaningj filling, and water skiing are the mora obvious attractions of the valley lakes whoso location aaJtes ill® easily access* ible to those who are recreation bent. The Plateau lakes, too, are bocctDins better known to the sports fishexsaan and catspgr. Perhaps m m  tinse in the not too distant future a road tjill bo  built to Carai to open up tho Settle Valley to hunters arid tourists Sran PentietoG. When this teppais, easier access to the plateau will doubtless encourage the tending of stsffiser cottages and hunting lodges near the m a y lakes and streams. This is the store likely because room for cottages on the shores of the valley lakes is definitely limited. Okanagen Lake has practically no beach along; its east and west sides, and Stella Lake has a narrow beach on its east side only wide enough for the road in places but with here and there enough roan for a cottage.  197 f m nian-rcMe attractions of the Pentloton region aro also geographic in the sense ttet they have location .and provide one of the essential services—recreati.CTj—?;hlch the city renders the region*  In sal  near the ccssaersial centre aro facilities for ten bawling, a theatre, halls for Eeeting place® and dancoa, and boverage rooms (restricted to the hotels), Kany well-appointed stores cater to the American tourist who feisgrs woolens, chins, and silverware in quantity. The various parks and playgrounds distributed throughout the city (sea Plate IX) have ball fields, an athletic oval, tennis court©, and an arena for ice hockcy and special events. Outside the urban section, but easily accessible, are a drlve~ln theatre on Hoy Avenue and feto Street, and an open air "live" theatre ia the park area near Skaha M\m» The Pcnticton Peadi festival is a high-light of the tourist season and its color and gaiety arc attracting ei®r«-»inei*GE0isg numbers. Tourist Acea-axodation. Fm snail cities are as sell equipped with tourist accomodation as is Penticton. Six hotels with 2?6 rooms and 25  S3 ' auto courta xaith 335 units were listed in 1953*  The hotels are all  located in and near the consuercial sonep tho auto courts are distributed along tlio ekacagan Lake front on Lokoefcore Drive, and along thercsinhighway between Skaha lake and Ellis Creek. J'or the most part the auto courts ere attractively situated. Those on the Qlcanagan lake frost take advantage of the boacfecD and parlts close by; those on the highway are often ateost msapletely currotmded by orchard and most of these, are loss than a riile from Sfcehs. Lake. Regional Industrial Index, Dept. of Trade and Indue try, Victoria, B*§» ^ %9$h*  198 A trailer crnp located m m ? the Okens^an lake front oa Power Street is too saall for the jwraber of tourieta who vise it. It is TOsightly and overcrowding daring the peak tourdct season mkm  it even  less attractive, She canp should be aarvod or expanded to include a sauch larger area, aid oteps should be taken to beautify it. ' Iferaaata has an attractive lodge and two auto courte3 and Okanagan Falls a ©sail hotel and two auto courts. fosrist tgaa&ijorfcatj^ aad^ place of origin. It is estimated that 00 per cent of the tourists come to Penticton by private autcsaobile and 2k the remainder by buo arid train*  Tho greatest nrasber come via th®  flope-Princeton Highway £rm th© Lower Finland, particularly frosx faacouver, and a lesser number frm the Paget Sound area. Sigteay 97 rhich originates in th© United States io a trail publicised interior route, teerieans trm aa far south as California trawl nortte-ard on it In increasing numbers to visit tho British Columbia Okanagan, the Cariboo, t&o Peaea River, and ultimately Aleaka—and Penticton is a favorite ©topping place along the say. Between i?5l and 19$k the northbound traffic through tiie border port, of 0 soyoos-Orcville increased by $3 per cast—that is, from 116,QSl to 177,636 persons.  Kany—perhaps the  jaajority~~©f these are sortlibouad and either stop over at Penticton, stay to refresh theraeeivee, or paee through. traffic fr«a the Prairie Provinces, particularly Alberta, has been tasting adv&itago of recseai Penticton Board of Trade cstis&tss, by personal correspondence ' ffeus its?., KeXetma Courier, <Jan«e.^r Jig 1955.  m lnprorasanto to tho southern trans-provincial highway and it is oxpectod that thio traffic sill Increase rapidly in tho tusft tim yeara. AB yet the tourist traffic frcea tine north le awparaiiveOy light but, xrith til© ocraplotlon of the Trans-Canada Highway, thore is good reason to believe that the attractions of the Okanagan will entice »any tourists to talce the Qkm&g&n rather tlian tho ^ m m r Canyon route to Vancouver. 'B® reasons for thic opMsalsa are obvious and sano are geographical in naturor  the O&ansgss route is no leaser? it ie less  dangerous to drivej it passes through more denee3y settled country as beautiful to esse eyoo as the fteear Canyon?  should these attractions  fail, a final appeal to the tourist sfcossach by Ote&x&Q&n £mit should decisively tum his Khoele mutlm&rd. Indeed, oven the least prejudiced Ofcanaganito caraot mderatsnd t&sj the Stessr Canyon routs should, be used, at all by the tourist froai the Bast* It is ©imply areatterof educating him on tiling® Gkanagenj the geographic advantages ape iters and he should be nede asjero of them. Of possible sigaificar.Qe and wall worth exploring tsitli a view to future development is the "circle tour" which would bring the 'tourist fros* the Lossr Ksinlend tip tho Hope-Princeton Iligheisr, through to Ofeaacgsn to Kaxilocps, aad back to the Lower iialnland via the fVaser Canyon, $ml% & tons? offer© a groat tmrioty of scenery and h&e the farther advantage of appealing to the tourist *sho h m only a short time at hie disposal. M s m m ® a t . of the goerist IMaatgy*  The length of the tourist,  season is spprosdjrsatojy e k and one half Monthe—frosi the beginning of bloesca time iaraid-Aprilto the end of harvest tirae In October, She psalc tourist season lasts only two ciorrfchs, however,—fran -July 1 to labor Bay ia September,,  '  200  In 19$h an estimated 1$$0QQ touriste stayed over is Penticton for an s w a g e of throe deys.  If each tourist epe&t tea dollars during  each day of M s ctey, the total incase fro® the  trade  This' is a good deal :?sore than the incase fron all raanufacturing industries eseept those in feed preparations and wod-warJiing, and tho prospects for eicpanr?ion of the tourist trade arc considerably brighter than for the less Important canufacturiag industriee. fho single dioadxrante^ of the t<niriat industry to the economy of the Penticton region is its season t-Moh corresponds oscnctly to tliat of the froit-graNing industry. Thus both the fruit and touriet industries 'are competing for and releasing labor at the sase times, The ciirth of labor in the suramer so! the glut ia winter io therefore aggravated by this correspondence in eeatsone and the econosy of the region ie adversely  affected.  '  Much could be done to ettoulate the tourist industry particularly through m oraecli®iof advertising. However, ac the expanse Involved is prohibitive especially for any one centre, a co-operative effort aiwug all Ofemgaa centres might not be remiss. fhe Okanagan faliegr is a geographic unit of which tho OHvsr-Osojeoe, Penticton, Swaaerland, aw! fansoa regions are e & A © part. Wiat advertising aocacplishe© for ok© Is to socio oKtent shorts by all the otters. Penticton, hatfiag the  - Penticton Board of Trede estimatep fey personal correspondence.  br.ot fcocrcphio position us wall zib superior facilities for tourist aaswaftodatiorij would, goto its,© wont frora ouch a eo~operatiTO effort. Lcador-Mip ia tills respect  rcry i-;<ill then  CCQO  frw; Pcnticton. It  e^nttot' a f f o r d to me^MMM. m J ^ H * ' etiit«wJ© i a m t i e r s |3©rtai»iag to tte  tfalltep,  tMispoE'MfioB A'HD m w M i m m m i If hydrography is ths "bloodstro£«c" of the physical region, then transportation way well b© called -fee bloodstream of the cultxiral region.. Indeed, hydrography and transportation in tho Penticton region ore so closely allied that tho peculiar "oneness" or interrelationship cordon to all the geographic elements is ones again demonstrated. For esiexuple, nearly all transportation routes take advantage of strcam-carved valleys or of level surfaces of alluvial deposits; and this is so jauch so that •sere all s^nbols of hyorographic and alluvial deposits erased frco a sap Bhich also etas® transportation routes, a realistic pattern of the streams, terraces, and fans would still be shewn by trie route syiabols* Few of cion's works are as closely adapted to the physical region as ore his transportation routes. In spite of the poror of hie aigfctiest machines, ho must still take cognisance of the terrain and ley out his routes where nature lets him pass*  He is <td.se* in ether fiorjJSj to take  of  «tisi the physical region has to offer, for even technology has its economic limits and Kan must conform or be prepared to pay the price. I.  2BAB5fom?lM?  ftieBoad. System The Penticton region has taken good advantage of its terrain in tho placement of its transportation routes. Highway 97 is a jaain valley route which rants froa tho International Boundary n o H b m M to connect all  2m i  major* valley points.  Jotos tho -salley  The f m o m r s r highway, ti® Prlnccten end Hope,  reside on tfcich it is a pleasure  class  flows in ever Increasing the  west of K&leteu All the  highway  main highway and to fasmta froa  roads (oxcept for ccrtein rough ncur.tainotts  lands &ro  difficult to  traverse.  jK&cept urban,  reads lead  Ponticton.  all other  little better than trails which a n*Jeep" would  streets and roads in Penticton-,  thoroughfares,tiieurban end Karasnaia, md ©karjage&  much belotr standard,  iiany streets particularly  too narrar  traffic movement  sab-  Falls are  in the older sections are  end paridng.  too much pavement,  It exists, is of antopercaanentkind end it is often ia such a state  wher©  &£ disrepair  that even  not a preference  gravsl  for gravel  roads tfouMfcspreferable.  that aakes  Penticton at leasts p~ R®sfcar of  a ''back-log" of necessary  enough bocause  B  uiaias  it le  In  contributed to lack of adequate is trying to catch up on  A second rs&Gon is that, te to  and sewerage facilities cannot  of insufficient money and tirae,  street before -(lie  However,  roads so numerous.  thai Penticton  public works.  Penticton1 s rapid growth, vate? fast  such  causes have  streets and roads. One reason is  pava  Otherwise  In a for places roads leading into tho  for csrfcai» of tiie main  for Hiodera  into Kaleden from  urban and suburban ones) ere gravel and vary in  condition from good to poor.  find  era first  to travel and ovor which aomeree  Goad paved  volume.  jutda Mgteays  be installed  and it ie wasteful  to  hav© been laid.  fhat the main Mghsay is forced to go through the city is & serious MISTAKE,  not only because traffic  1  '  £G  slowed, but becaus3 of tiie continual  For & map of all treneportatlon routes cos Plate XI.  700  hasard ia the crowded conditions. Although too highxray now leaves the city via Sclctardt Street, the plan is to re-route it vie UosteainsLor Avenue (see Plate XII). This idll take tho traffic through tho busiest part of tho caunercial section, Main Street is .not wido enough to accmaodate the traffic flow unless all parking facilities are removed.  The first plan to put tho iiighw&y through the Indian Reserve. was a wise one and should have been Oxiplesiented la spite of short-sighted pressure groups.' ••:  ••  'Kim sidevr&llr. problem in Penticton ie probably even store serious than that of tho streets. The gidemlkc en Kain Street are naraw assi inadequate for the busy commercial centre, aad an adjoining streets thoy are sad© of Inferior raaterials, are often broken and in places even nonexistent. Sam of the am and not-eo-nes- residential areas bare no ddewalks at all and pedestrians ars often foreed to walk on the road." Oemegcial .and IlQa^egsaeroial. frafflc Trucking. IvovefTiber,  Since the opening of tha Hope-Princeton ligtemy in  the Kovcsaent of cosausdities by truck has increased  considerably.  "2' ' In Eastern Canada and in the United States a firra principle of ell ae» higtaBay construction is that all settlements should be by-passed but e&ould be sad® easily accessible froa the jsala highway. 3 A notable exception is tho Central Kortgage and Housing area in the southeastern part of the city. Thero both streets and sMe®aike are adequate. fho City Fathers &A the En^neeriag Department are not unaware of the problem. To correct it, time, nonegr* planning, and sustained effort a m needed.  zm Long distance trucking contteiise to mfc® inroade m substantial portions of the fruit .traffic* . . Four years,ago only two per' sent of the Okaaagaa*e fruit vas handled by trucks. Last yenr^ the agar© Juaped to fifteen por cent.£> In ccaaaeating on. the incroo.ee of fruit ahifxricnto by truck5 a Keciber of B.C. £ree Fruits, Ltd,, saidi By far tiie greater pert of all truck shipaonte are those to the B.C. Coast area, and thie includes not only fruit for ©ale in Vancouver and the other Coast swtote, but aleo a considerable portion of those apples loaded for export to the United Kingdom and off-chore aarkeio per vessels in ite Westminster and Vancouver. The possibility of overnight delivery, Bade practical since the T/BLE XXXW fmenm  Ccs^any  smmuis,  CTIOIOE.  B.C.  Round Trips, Daily  Q k m & g m fsllcf Country Freight  3 3  6  feieawer Oliver fel ox-sag.  2 1  Vancouver Kelov;n&  BxpresasKaye) Cascade )  Vancouver*  Shannon  1  SSmpmn  1  Bailey  3 per veek  WSJllms  (Furniture only x'Am called)  Only one round trip in ulntor.  i t « 9 Voncouvar Sun, January 151, 1955. 6  Beetiaatioa  sialic«er and Graham, f ® a Plan far Penticton.  Selesana feraaata  P06 opening of the Hope-Princeton Highway, has, of coursa, be on responsible for Oils, increase' In trucking. Where highways ere suitable and whore facilities, both for loading Bad unloading of trucks, are available, this method of transporting fruit has, in jnany eases, reduced delivery costs. Ths r&iltretyo hays, . . • often reduced their rates to became competitive, but arc not always successful in regaining all of the lost business.7 Flats XIII shotrs the routes taken by the seven trackinc f i m s operating in and out of Penticton, the thickness of the line shoeing graphically ths number of time© each route is used*  Shio eap also shows  the location of each firsts Penticton headquarters. Table XXXf eho»s the destinations of the trucks belonging to the various firms and the number of daily round trips. laterarban j^ssanger has service. Interurban passenger bus service was inaugurated in the Okanagan in 1929 vhen four different operators using sevon-pasccnger cars served the area b e t m m Keraloops and Osoyoos,  In 1931  B.C. Greyhound colsolidated these operators into on© company, and in 19k? Western Greyhound (nith operational headquarters in Calgary) took over the Qrayhmmd*  •  '  •  There is daily service froa Penticton to Vancouver, Washington State, the Kootenays, Kajaloops and the Cariboo, and in earner to the Prairie Provinces via tho Big Bend Highway and Banff to Calgary. There is a definite seasonality In the demand for bus service because of the slackening p of the tourist trade during the cooler months.  ^PoTBonal correspondence—H. J. Van Ackeren, Assistant Executive, B.C. Tree Fruits, Ltd., Helot-ma,. B.C., Feb. 7, 1955. a In winter the bus schedule is limited to nine arrivals and nine departures! in swames* these are expanded to teelve arrivals and U m i m departures. Id records of the numbers of passengers is kept but . « Coaches are thirty-three and thirty-coven passenger and when  703 Because of Its location ulth rospect to the t m m ? Keinland, the Kootonays, and Central Washington State, Penticton is a di-sioioncl point for driver's s«l buses are serviced there. grfcprtes e&rvtop consists of three buses serving three urban routes which  total 1U lailea  in length.  On© bus  is allotted to each route  on a nonnal da^, ttie service being speeded up during the rush hour. Plato 21? shoijs the area within one quarter of a ailc (i.e., waiting  f distance) of each routs, and the population within tho area. servi.ee covers all th© city  eiccspt sparsely  City bus  populated rural areas and the  northeast urban sector.  Passenger and chicles in the  ea^oroial  wholes. fhe totalratherof motor  Pentiotoa region in  1953 was estimated at h,900 of vAich  3,500 were passenger cars and l,i$00 were ccsamcrcial vehicles.10  There was  therefore one motor trehicle to 2.? persons in the region. By ccaparieon, •the Kelotvna  region has  one motor -vtshiclo to every 3*2 persons. Therefore  the tourist trade is heavy in sussner, all . . • trips pretty t-jsll cany overloads and, in esse cases® as many as five."* fe Personal oorrespondonce«-L.C. Chazabare, Ssgiccal Superintendent, Kestcm Greyhound Lines, Ltd. p Penticton, B.C.  9  V'alkor and Graham, MTean Plan for Penticton," 1953.  estimates are rcado fira tho total riusaber of motor vehicle licenses sold et Penticton, Ac the total population for the Pcnticton Area estimated at 16,600 and the population of Suaaerland which vno included w 3,600, a .proportionate number of licenses trcre subtracted '£tm the total nusto, 6,2^8, to obtain tho figure for the Penticton region as defined in this fchosie. She ts©rJji» of passengers and cccmerciel vehicles w s m oUsdsod in the some manner. ' The data *;ere obtained S m u Ite Rejprlan&l Industrial Index of B.C., Ilegional Development Division, Bepartraent of feade and Industry, ?ictoria, B.C.,  704  tho density ofraatorvehicles at Penticton is greater, sot only because there are Gore vehicles par capita, but also because the Penticton region is considerably saaller in area*  The density Is further augmented by sittra^  regional traffic (from the south &r»d froa t!io Lower Finland) ifaich doubtless comes to Ponticton in grmtor numbers than to ifelowna which is more raaoto. There is every Indication that the esctrn-reglonal traffic t7ill incroasc and Penticton's traffic problem will increeco with it. The TJIS&CSI  of locating the N&ln highway outside the city becomes ovor mors  grain eorvice. Sae Kettle Valley Railway has served Penticton since 1915. It connects Penticton tilth Vancouver via the Coquohalla Pass, and 'rfith Eedicine Ifet via Kelson and tho Cronos Sfest Pass. A spar .line runs from Penticton to Osoyoos, and. easy-barge sonde® on Okanagan Lak®  .  '  11  connects Penticton tJith tho OL-E line tominatins at Eelosna, Penticton is a divisional point on the KVR and. until recently had a roundhouse to service the steam, locomotives used on the line. Recent convorsion to diescl locoiaotivoG, however, has obviated the socessity for the roundhouse and ell ra&Jor repairs are m a m d o et Islson which is the half-tray point between Vancouver and iSodidne Rat. As a result of this diaago^oTOr, oia3y fourteen aea are  employed in equipment repairs at  Penticton sfcereae previously there were forty-fivo. fhe railixay station and yards are located in the industrial zona south of Boatings Avenue ^uet beyond the densely populated part of the eity (see Plate J?). 21  its  TITE OPS noes TFE® CIS line from Eelowna to sake connections icith facilities to the north.  m Poscenger service its ocheduled frm  Vancouver cml item ifcdicinc  I&ij and freight service ie fast & M frsquent. There is no passenger eortS.ce to Gsoyoot?, but regular freight hauls are nade £ m q the eonth and are particularly heavy during tiie fruit season. Both era end ©II have ear-barge Dorvice on Okanagan Lake, tii© OPE having five barges sad throe tugs, and tho CIS having throe bargee and throe tugs. The bargee have a capacity of firm eight to ten freight cara, and each unit (i.e., owe barge and one tig) employs frees. 10 to 12 jaon.^ T m barges are loaded at the tjharrae every evening except Sundaya and sake regular train connections at Kelotsna. For tho aoet part the northbounrl cars are loaded trith fesita sfcsroao the southbound are usually eapty. The barge esrsloe rune nGar capacity during August, September, arid October, but schedules are restricted considerably daring the reminder of the year. iljg teaospor^atioa. Panticton is jartimlarlyfiortuaatoin having an excellent airport lose than three oilee fron the city centre, Tho city cases by this aix-port m t e a l l y because it lies oa the direct route between ?ancoi2ver and Calgary, The airport hac a laodiag area 5,C00 feet by 500 feet and a pavad norbb-treRd^Jig landing otrip 5*320 feet %  200 feet. It  ie equipped to handle aircraft of 1*0,030 pounds but has served aircraft of ?5j000 poundc ia an mergen-cy.3^ Sse airport is operated by the Depariaant of Transport and ie ueed  „, 81fc the asception of only ©ne or two, all ata oqployod in the lake cervice reside i» Keisma. ^ F o r omnple, dm^xig 'the 1 & 8 floodc when rail andfernsservice® •as?© disrupted and pac3cngors were SIosb fs>«a the interior to coastal  points®  • ' • • • • .  810 by scheduled clr lines tshieh provide ell-year, daily service to & M £ r m Vaiicouw' and Calvary. Besides the regtsl&r scheduled service there is taisohedtilM service frees Poirtioton to tSio other Otenag&G centres e m Kamloops, and a natter of privutoly oisuxl planes use tiie field. Ste Ponticton airport Is strategically located not only with relation to the citytautalso to talro adiranfeig© of Important factors provided by the physical gecgraphy of tho region.  First of all it is  located oa f&n inaterials which are rmooth~curfaced and extensive; secondly, the landing strip running north and. south takes advantage of the prevailingly north-south ^indsj forthenaore* aircraft In landing can approach the sferip along the valley trough where tJiGre arc no topographic obstructions; lastly, It la located in an area of sparse settlement, namely the Indian  Pontoon-equipped aircraft can and do uso Glsaaagaa Laic© for landinrr. fhs lake has the disadvantage. of oftenfeed»grough especially towarda late afternoon whm. the platan begins to shed cold air. Even so, as the numbers of these aircraft inoreass~-sspocially eraosg hunters and sportsaen —Okanagan lake will grot? ia importance as a landing base. ii,  t m m m m m  Penticton* s importance as a regional centre is reflected la the oarasranioatlaae services which are centred there. 2hs services include i m telegraph offices, a telephone network, a radio station, too aeropapers and daily mail deliveries* Both the telegraph and telephone systsss have indirect connections by line, cable, and radio to most parte of the civilised world. The  211  Penticton telephone exchange serves the entire region and provides yat another means hereby the region is tied together. The Penticton radio station serves the entire South Okanagan from. Sxmaserland to the International Booodary*  Its overall effect is to direct  ©srvieos and ©tiimteto the raovsnent of goods within the area depending on it by broadcasting news, educational .and entertainment prsgrsns, and advertising for local and South Oteasg&B business firms. not-Tapapore oro published weekly and aro of two kinds. One is xniraoo^p^aphed, circulated f s m s M devoted almost exclusively to advertising. Tho other carries nctjs of local impart and oiSwrtlMng. hgZOO is  Its circulation of  local and regional, but scrae few papers are esnt to the  rest of Canada, the 'United States, England, Australia, end Eg* Zealand. Tho paper has a strong editorial policy which. etos shrswd awareness of local geographic factors (o.£., tJiose influencinc the tonrdst trade, transportations Penticton^ relationships to the rest of the Olsasmgaa)—• a decided asset in a paper *foich helps to fora opinion and gfeepe policy affecting the fteturo of both the city and ths regicn.  distribution of phenomena in area and their relationships to each ©thes* are mml& meaningful by the ®otransnt or interaction that is possible bsfeeen them. In tho natural or physical region the geographic & l m m i n themselves influent each other through aovsaent—ae of air, rcater, coil, rock—the assess of transportation following natural processes, Sie easier and faster the movementfcstvaenthe geographic elcsncnts, the greater the influence -Sassy have on each other and therofora the greater the  m  unity or "oneness" asong thera. Bie ease is true of things t-ithin tho cnltitiTil region, only r.oro so because there transportation can 0 m ? and {^raucal.'ly esctend its influence. At its inception transportation feeds a duelling j it etckjs to feed & hamletp a village, a city, m m * ©KteMing itself totele©la and uoiiy larger mid larger areas, The Ity-acciate effect off tfeie esAcnoion is to w A £ j the  regloasi the eltimte ©ffect Hill  be to uni£? the ©arid. She cultural region Is dyimie and it grows and extends itself" along it© transportation routes. Thus, Penticton is sending outraorsand longer "shoots" to net-? end better sources of sapply, The interaction and the interdependence between Penticton and Sasmsrlanii is grotcing mid the iaelaslos of Sasaorlcnd iTithin tJia Pentiotoa region ie but a jrntter of time. S&nilsrly, the southern part of tho valley is becoming increasingly dependent on Perrb5.cton (and "vies TCrsa) as interaction betrrc-en the valley points over improved transportation facilities beccass easier and quicker, "Whoa the interdependence between Penticton a M the southern part of the valley becoaes more cczaplote, tha Penticton,tesnerliml,s M O l i w ^ s o j w s refers »ill hat© bescsso ova, iuiitt-ing tlisra together in their oneness tofill be the system of transportation tiiiich f«Hl have gross trith them»  c a t e m xi? HffiUG USXLXTIES Public utilities arc geographic in the sence that they have location, sesrve an area, end are related to and influenced by geographic factors irithin the ares, they carve. All the facilities except sewage disposal and fire protection serve the entire Penticton region although3 as itt th© case of domestic water and electricity, distribution may be ftatf&lod by different agencies, "Kith tiie exception of irrigation., it is to be- expected that the greatest m ® of public trbilities will occur in areas of highest population ;density  (na»@3y the urban sector of Penticton) and this will be taken for  granted in thie chapter, fhe purpose of this chapter ie to shew the location and areal extent of the utilities and to point out the geographic (end inadvertently, econostsic) factors which influence thaa.  S^astio water for the entire region has essentially the ease source© of supply aa ha® irrigation water (gee Hydrography). Bamxer, -only the area indicated on Plate XV has domestic m t e r piped to the users in a pressurised systea. With fei? exceptions all other parts of the region Btor© irrigation water in cisterns and use it for drinking and other  ^Irrigation having been discussed in a previous chapter will not be included here.  gill. household purposes. The exceptions are those areas or the valley floor Tfhich are not eavsd by irrigation (cee fig. 1*2) but are able to got water from veils? because the rater table is high. Notable a&ong thece ie the residential area, north of S!xha .take and the auto courts along the saia hlgteay. Distance and the relatively spars© population south of KLlis Creek and, moreover, the etonineas of fee land (that is, rubble frosts Ellis Creelc) are geograpSiie factor© which contribute to the difficulties of installation,  Doubtless facilities will be extended as soon as the  density of population end tho economic considerations warrant it. Fire protection*  Slesely allied to the domestic water supply is  fir© protection which depends largely on rater ae a fire-fightins raedius!. Only urbsn Penticton has fire hydrants, however. eo that reaconable protection is provided only for the nost densely populated area, tease set served by hydrante m a t depend on elmieaX fire-fighting equipaoirt brought by the fire trucks. M  m y be seen ia Plate X?, much of the eastern and  (southerrf part of the city lieo outside s half~mile radius free the fire hall, and the southeastern part lies outside a one-iaile radius. To this long distance M e t be added the eccentric street pattern which further slows the arrival of the fIre-fighting equipnsnt. Bieee are probably contributing factors t^ich give Penticton a fifth class undeimlter'e rating instead of a fourth. S e w a g e gafl.eelage disposal. fii© area eerved by the pipe ssssrage fastest is shewn in Plate XV and, ae no heavily populated area can depend oa septic tank© indefinitely, the need for extension of eeaersge facilities ia obvious.  It is an iacontestable fact that the logger s m m m g B installa-  tion ie postponed, the saor© expensive will evential installation become  215  bocaase of tho necessary dse&raoMon of street ef4 sidewalk tasrt&om laiiieh have hoer. built up in the &esntlHi®» Tho sewatfo disposal plant is incongruously located next to a ?ocrcation and, residential axes and, although relatively inconspicuous to the eye, its objectionable odor is anything but inconspicuous tofchsnose« It is likely that with a large increase in population., the disposal plant t-dil either have to bo EUtcte less noisoiuc or »ovsd>—probably both—and the mates punned into Skafea laics. Penticton has no storm sewrags of any kind and the necessity for it, especially along the main thoroughfares, is becoming increasingly apparent,  Even short periods of rainfall will often cause flooding serious  enough to impede both pedestriazis and traffic. Electricity is supplied, by the Vest Kootensy Light and Prnrer Company frox their hydro-electric plant on the Kootenay River near Heleon, and is distributed through municipally aimed facilities*  11ie location of  tho poasr llaee is stem in Plat© XI. As the power must be imported over a distance of nearly 200 jailes, the cost is relatively  yet it is not  prohibitive, and sorao concessions have been au&de to industry to encourage expansion ia Penticton. gas*  At present there are no definite plans for a gas pip© line  through the Ofc&nagan but, as the valley's population is large (in the order of 60,003) end is increasing, a branch pipe line froa Kaaaloops into the valley seems likely. The chief use of gas in the Penticton region t»uld probably be for heating, Its large-scale use for industrial purpoees beias doubtful.  216  #  It le ©violent that Am to  #  s large and spmAlsag area and  rapid, growth, tfe® services offered Jgr tfed public utilities are not -Hh&t they sight b®. there is a eoatinttal fressw©  close .gaps over distances too  great and too sparsely populated, for ©^oncasical constinictiQn m& operaties of facilities* Uh© acct&aalatian of asCfcssargrtattrntoaclaed public sorlse has since pre-war times created & considerable "bse&log^ of projects toshids rapid expansion is carrantly adding atoost .faster than they esn be emitted » IfaMtiere are  fentieton'e  as obvious as in its  problems related to paMie iitilitieB^c®apli©atioastibieharise aatwally grofeiag too big too fast &M too ntiiia*» As a reemlt, taxes are high and m&t reaaia so until the *faa0gg«g« of construction is isade tip.  G M I W t •*?'. RURAL-UfiMH RELATIONS  la discussing tho cultural boundaries of "th© Penticton region at the beginning of this work, the influencee which the city exerts on the surrounding area end the reciprocal influences which the area exerts on the city were named ae limiting factors vhich defined the region, The influences were broadly defined as (a) servicestthichthe city renders the region, and (b) resources x-jhich the regies extends to the city for exploitation, Thus the city pack© and processes the region1s fruit, acts as a  market and  soiling agency, provides financial, administrative, and trans-  portation services, and acts ao a retail and wholesale centre. Furthermore, it ie a cultural and social centre trhere the various schools, churches, clubs, and recreational activities function. 'Xhe region directly dependent on the city's services provides the resources—orchard produce, luaber, and water, etc.—t-rhich sustain the city's industries. In addition, the region provides scenic resources—garce, fish, "breathing room0 for tiie city's inhabitants, and, -waiy often* social activities—such as teeing-™*  in the rural ccsnmunities. A constant interchange of material goods and uott-xaaterlal services takes place bett-iem th® rural sua urban parts of the  . • region.* • • . . • • The non-material services having ureal extent and varying degrees of influence, can be mapped and classified under the heading of Social Geography. Thus rural-urban relationships can be discovered in services and interests such as education, recreation, administration, religion,  714  conservation, health, etc., and, if possible, the city usually supplies th<sn tJhen the need becomes apparent. , Penticton City has, for example, taken over many of the educational responsibilities which formerly belonged to the rural areas, tehen it was found that large, centralised Junior and Senior High Schools located in the urban areas could serve the region's educational needs mora efficiently than smaller schools dispersed throughout the region, the city took over the extra educational responsibilities and all but elementary school pupils not* cosaiut© by school bus from the various parts of the region to Penticton.1 Brt other facets of rural^urbaa relationships are also important, for example, the dependence of the rural area on the city for recreation is even greater than for education. The various recreational facilities were discussed in the chapter on the tourist industry, but it sight be jaontioned in passing that in Penticton's case one fora of recreation— hock<?y—cemsntG the region* s bonds almost as closely as. do the native industries. Even "when the rural resident stays at hose, scae tie such as the local radio station, the local newspaper, or the telephone still attaches M s to the city. But interests and needs arc not all centred on the city. Many urban residents mm orchards, or, as a means of cialdng tfaeir livelihood, are concerned with the country's scenic attractions, or depend on the country for recreation, etc., so that there is an outward flow of interests from the city as wall. Moreover, the rural population is Jaost often too sparse to support religious institutions and the members  Falls pupils go to Oliver,  219 ©£ the various faiths join those of their own faith in the city to build their own churches and meeting places., Administration is yet another field in i-diich rural-urban relations are wary close. Tliis may take the form of government services, justice, irrigation services, control of disease,•etc.• The distribution of sorvices and interests Is indeed region-wide, and the web of interaction in non~«aterial things is ao real as that among material things. •Although the essential "oneness" of the city and its region have been exemplified here, the oneness must not be regarded in the sense of "sameness.R  The city and its region are analagous to an organ!sa which  possesses "oneness" in body but ie able to exist only because of the differences in its organs which serve various functions.  Each organ mist  be allowed a certain amount of autonomy in order to carry out lie functions. rural and urban areas, like the organs within .the organiaa, are different, and to fulfil  their functions theyroust,m e  each organ, be  allwed a certain amount of autonomy. City ad/olr&strations are notoriously short-sighted with regard to the needs of their rural areas and, whore the urban-rural population is in the ratio of 7t3 as in the Penticton region, the administration can hardly be biased if it looks after urban interests first. The need for a measure of autonomy for both rural and urban parts of a region Uaaafrof their differences is 'therefore amply demonstrated. However, for the rural area and the city to go their oi?n nays completely tfouM be losing sight of their essential oneness and serious disruptions in the region's well-being would result. The alai should therefore be the well-being of the various parts for the benefit of the regional whole. To attain this aim an overall plan must be evolved. This plan should  220  consider ovary facet, of the region, rtmslrandwben, physical mpM ooltorclj and the evolvcraent of mch a plan Is largely the prerogative of geography*  CHAfTEH XVI CONCLUSION • As vm  •-  / -v . .  stated isi the beginning, the purpose ia writing this  thesis was threefold?  1* To present, and analyse the geographic aspects of the Penticton regionf  •2* To show hoi? the geographic aspects are related to sake the region a geographic units  3» To evaluate the major geographic factors and, by .means of this evaluation, indicate the most profitable course for the region®s future development. Points one and two have been the subjects of tho preceding chapters whose raajor points will be used to ensaer the third point isM-Ch is the subject of this chapter.  Penticton grew because of its region, end its continued growth is dependent, not only on its present region, but on certain extensions thereof. What, then, are the prospects for future population growth in . the light of facts uncovered in tho foregoing chapters? Ramssbering that a healthy growth must be firrcly rooted in the industries that the region can supporb, the answer m e t be based on a forecast of industrial developsent® In predicting a population of 27*770 for Penticton by 1971  \J  222  (Fig. 35), Walker and Grabs®. base their calculations on the history of , the population growth and on th© condition that Penticton acquire sufficient new industries.1  As the condition they asks ie critical to  the question in hand,,it aight bo surmised that an analysis of the industrial possibilities within tho region end the city would not be remiss. M s was done in this work and the following facts are pertinent: 1* By far the largest part of the Penticton region's eoonosay is based either directly or indirectly on agriculture.  ^  2. The possibility of greatly expanding agricultural production within the near future is remote because (a) no good lands are at present available  (However, greater intensification of use in lands already under  cultivation is possible), (b) further expansion of irrigation triLLl be eocpensive, and (c) raarkots for increased production are not easily available.  %alker and Grahara, tomx Plan for Penticton. The forecast is made in the following isanner:  Year  Per Cent  illim 19U-1951 ^1956 ^56-1961 1961-1966  ^ 83 & ' 35 30 25  Increase  1?66-19?1  Population Increase  Total Population  1,13?; h ,771* 3:692 14,270 0  '  20  io i h % 18 510 . 23 liiO  U,630  27,770  Qensus: «f &aaela» !%!  /j*-  /jyfrf;  223 3.tfonufaoturingbased on fruit will of necessity be limited because most of the fruit is sold fresh, and insufficient quantities remain for large-scale processing* Therefore, insofar as agriculture and allied industries are concerned, the prospects of population expansion within the near future ara not great. Eventually, however, the growth of population in the Canadian market areas for fruit will encourage the presently uneconomical lands—and, perhaps, the lands within the Indian Reserve—into production. Whea this Kill be is difficult to say, but a recent news item disclosed the foU-QKta&E' Over-production of fruit 1© causing concern in the Okanaean's  #25,000,000 industry,  b  Recent survey conducted by provincial department of agriculture disclosed that as a result of new plantings, particularly in the soft fruits line, production mill just about reach the saturation point by 19&>»2 B m m if market conditions by I960 are GO promising that largescale new plantings sera justified, the neu trees Kill not come into full bearing for another seven to ten years. This important fact emerges therefore:  Large-scale expansion of industries based on agriculture  cannot be looked for with any great confidence by 1971, and the population of nearly 28,000 predicted for that time by Walker and Graham will have to be based on a largo increase in other industries. As practically all other industries (except sawrailling and the tourist trade) are d ©pendent on a regional and a South Okanagan expansion of population to provide for future markets and expanding trade, this  %fe©s it®a, Kelowna Courier, January 20, 195$0  720 farther fact mast bo faced*, the entire South Okanagan economy ic primarily based on fruit, and its problems and prospects for expansion aro similar to those of tho Penticton regionfso that rnch of what has been said in the preceding paragraph concerning the Penticton region applies to tho South Okanagan and, raoreover, to tho fruit growing areas of Keremeos and Grand Forks as Hell, I If, then, no untoward increase in population is to be expected in ' those areas in the foreseeable future, there is little likelihood of .exceptional increase in demand for Penticton manufactures and commerce, The point to ba isaae here is that, although tho industries will expand, there is every likelihood that the expansion will accompany normal • population increase and will not be a direct cause of population increase. This is true of industries in metal, wood-working, foods and beverages, retailing, wholesaling» transportation, cocanunication, and construction. The possibility of great expansion in the lumber industry la not pra-cising due to the too distant sources of logs and competition from ftore favored areas. Indeed, a decrease in importance of this industry ee<3®3 ratherraorelikely at this date than expansion, so that its contribution to future grox'fth will be at best a ainor ono. a  ,  The tourist industry, however, shovrs more promise of grot?th and a  100 per cent expansion by 1971 is probably a conservative estimate. Indeed, tourisa could well become third in importune© after agriculture awl eaaraerce* From the foregoing, it would seen that the prospects of Penticton's grmth in the foreseeable future are rather dias bat this is not necessarily so because only the arguments against ovgrly; optiirdstic ^pectatlous have boon presented. ^ Continued industrial expansion and  225  diversification will almost certainly tsiso place in most of the industries (see Chapter 111). my  If, for ezavplo, markets as*® not found for fruit YJhich  he surplus in I960, increased processing my  solve the problem in a  very satisfactory way. The point to be made here Is that there is no foundation in the foreseeable expansion in industry on which to base the surge in population that is indicated between 1953 end 1??1 in the- Walker and Grates ©sMjaaios. Khat, then, is the 1971 population figure for sMch Penticton should plan? If the population increased aerauehfor each of the two decades between 19$1 and. 1971 as it did between 19bl and l<?5l, the decade of highest numerical increase, the total, population in 1971 would be 20,100. But the years 1951 to 1953 have already shorn a decline which, if alloi/ed to go no farther, would bring the total 1971 population to slightly aore than 17,000. Judging fras Figure 35, the trend on the population curve is already apparent frei 1951 on, sad an extension of this curve (a "smoothinc out" would sees to be justified by an analysis of the industries on tshieh population groirth is based) would indicate & population of less than 20,000 by 1971. This differs by GOES 8,000 from the estimates snads by Walker end Graham, but, in vim of the feet that their esttete v&s not based on an analysis of the possible industrial development, the figure, 20,000—barring unforeseen developments—is probably closest to the truth. One factor, an increase in the number of people «ho cone to Penticton to retire, is not based on industry and should be considered. He.sever, unless this increase is significantly greater than it was in the pant, the  226 estimated 1971 population of 20,000 stands. flow should Penticton plan for increased growth? The a ® terra plan which lias been submitted to the City of Penticton by Walker and Graham is shown in Plate XVI. fhe difficulty ia dealing iJith serious platming faults of the past has been recognized and Walker and Graham, asking tiie best of a bad situation, have made many excellent recommendations in their plan. But, because they failed to adequately analyse the industrial situation, certain of their reccaoiandations may be called into question. The first and perhaps most serious reeoisjiendation which is questionable is the proposed subdivision of nearly 800 acres of orchard .-j-  lands for residential purposes.- Jlmong theee lands are 150 acres north,  ;  and bQO acres south of Ellis Creek, all on the valley bottom, and 260 acres j (some of shich comprise tiie very best lands in the entire region) on the terrace east of the urban sector. Certainly, the removal of some of these orchard lands is justified, especially along the urban fringe, but, in vie® of the shortage of good agricultural lands, most of the land, and in particular that on the terrace, should be left in fruit. Questionable, too, is the size of the lote in snost of the proposed residential areas. Granted that 60- and 80-foot lots are desirable wherever and whenever possible, and so are spacious parks and school grounds? but, is it justifiable to take the extra space at the espense of orchard lands on -which the very livelihood of tho region depends, and tthich, once in residences, are for all practical purposes lost to  should be noted that this estiaiate (ae w l l as that of Walker and Grahan) is as&de for the area at present included within the Penticton City boundary and therefore includes a sizable rural population.  1  723 protection for all tirae? Obviously co-promisee must be wade, but prefe.ra.bl3r—and this cannot be emphasised too strongly—at the expense of the larger lot and of other than orchard lands. The natural question then iss  Iters will the growing city expand  if not over the orchard lands? In Penticton there are at least three othor alternatives that 3eea preferablei  First, by far too much land lias been set aside for industry,  'fy coirsparison, in 1953 Vernon had set aside 125 acres for industry, Relouna 253 > and Penticton  and of tho three centres, Penticton has  not only the least industry, but also the least promising prospects for industrial expansion. Yet, a comparison of Plates fill and XVI shows that walker and Graham would increase rather than Reduce the industrial acreage.] The argument xnay be that Vernon and Kel®te have grossly underestimated their needsj however, as only 90 acre© are at present in use in Penticton for heavy and light industry (see Table Xfl) and no phenomenal industrial expansion is indicated in tiie foreseeable future, the obvious conclusion is that Penticton has grossly overestimated its needs. Even if Penticton had a 300 per cent expansion in industry by 1971, its needs would probably be isore then adequately served by 300 acres. This, if taken a«ay frcxa the Walker and Graham allowance would leave at least 300 additional acres for residences. A second alternative to residential encroachment on the orchard lands Kould amount to a triple exchange of land. This v?ould entail (1) the removal of the golf course frees the location proposed by talker  %.C. Csparfenent of Trade and Industry', Segional Industrial Index, Victoria, B.C., 19$hP pp. 109, 11C, 126.  724 and Graham, t o t h s proposed park aroa adjoining the r i v e r near the Skaha X&ke front, (S) the zoning of the vacatod g o l f couree f o r industry which belongs in that a r e a , and' (3) putting an equal amount of land n m zoned f o r industry i n t o residences. She t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e was vers' clearly ojcprassed by Dr» J« Lewis Robinson when ho spoke t o the Corraunity Planning Association i n the Okanagan f a l l o y a s follows? I f f u t u r e horisontel expansion m y prejudice the agricultural b a s i s of the urban population, greater urban d e n s i t i e s asay s t i l l be accomodated on each acre by building apartment houses and other types of multiple d « e l l i s g s . 5 S h i s l i t e r a l l y raaaas building up i n t o the a i r end i s advice p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to Penticton where $6 p e r cent of a l l dwellings have bat froei am t o throe residents. Eventually i t M i l have to earn to this f o r B r . Robinson warns further that There i s a' limit t o the population which the resources of these Yalleys [the .Okanagan and Thompson] can support—these l i m i t s a r e environmental and deal r l t i i a r e a . I t may be necessary, t h e r e f o r e , to talc® t h e . s t o p of soning a g s l c u l t e a l land- -to.-protect i t fro© r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment." Indeed* the warning f o r Penticton i s timely, f o r & number of f a c t o r s involved i n the city's and region* B grox-rUi have reached o r irill soon reach a c r i t i c a l stage. Industry must be balanced a g a i n s t population growth, end non-productive uses of land must b© weighed carefully before they a r e allowed to replace productive ones. Penticton should se© t o i t that a l l  5 ' J.L. Robinson, Agriculture and Industry i n a Gtmlm' Ooranunity. an address prepared f o r the B.C. d i v i s i o n a l Conference of tho Cowminito Hantiiog Association i n tho Okanagan Valley, B.C. (Kimeographed), October, AypJLp J&*. Q:» 6  Ibid., pp. 5-6.  229 residential end non-revenue producing developments fill first the lands -which are unsuitable for either industry or agriculture, then, end. only then, should other lands be considered for removal from production, lo oyer~riding of these considerations should be allowed by any so-called building boon which could well put an end to itself by "biting off the hand that feeds it.sl Finally, although certain criticiEds havo been m d e of it, the Walker end Qswhm town plan provides an excellent base nn whieh to lay  j  the foundations for another plan more in keeping with a smaller population increase in the next 15 to 20 years. Dr.fiobissonway very well have ted Penticton in wind vhen he eaidj There may be some &mom you who confuse sise with greatness» a S S S i oit,y ® comfortable city—one In which it is a pleasure to work and play—Is not always a big city,tforiron your plan for growth, but limit your objectives, It present your resource base is narrow. Bo. not try to achieve size; do not try to cover too lauch area -frith your buildings. . Plan for a ccnfortablo and livable city even if you h&,m to place reetrietivs llcdte on your growth.? &  Bo nuch, then, for the city. Sow, what of the region? It has been Etaued repeatedly that the Penticton region's ecoros^y is based either directly or indirectly on agriculture .and to a email extent on the tourist trade and lusher. Agriculture ie the staple, the primary industry and, as far as cen be diseernad at present, M i l continue to be mioh for Kany generations to cccae. the regional outlook td.ll therefore be colored by this singular sseans of achieving a livelihood and the region's development must of necessity be jjuided by it* Since before World War I, easparatiisly little areal elision has taken place in the occupied fruit lands, but considerable intensifies-  Tjbid*.# pi  .  230 tlon of use has resulted In ever~increas:ing yields and, as has boen shown in the foregoing dlscusoions, continued increases in yield for the next tuo  docades will depend mostly on conservation and further intensification  of land use,  •  la 15 to 20 years—probably not before—two eventualities raay occur uhich tJlll bring a larger population into the Penticton region. The first of these eventualities is the expansion into the poorer grade lands siade possible by the increased market demands for fruit as the Canadian population continues to swell. The second trill bo the opening ap of the Indian Reserve to white settlement on the west side of the river. Certain signs are already pointing to the possibility of the second eventuality occurring. In a ncra item entitled, "Ottawa Hopes Indians Will Quit Reserves," Citizenship Minister Pickersgill is reported to have, expressed the hope that • * » Indians soma day -sill decide they no longer Kant to remain on reserves as -Brawls of the govermeat. Xcu  "You can't push it," ho told the Commons estiseates caacdttee. can only act vhen everybody is ready to act,"  . to. Plckerseill said the government®© hope for the future is ohat Indians will immt to take their place "as common, ordinary Canadian citisens." ^ T  ' ! J 1 6 present geal  is to speed up the process of raekinr  ' * : tirWffill said toe main policy for adapting Indians to nornal dtisenship is through education." T  'Sews item, Vancoiwer Sun, March 17, 1955*  •  • < 231  Reference to Table XII 1,111 show that there are only about 80 acrea of good land within the Indian Reserve, and somewhat more than 1,100 acres of fair to poor land, xjhereae 1,500 acres are of doubtful quality. Nevertheless, tho projdinity to urban Penticton ulll doubtless stimulate development even of the poorer lands.  If the Reserve lands are developed  to the esse extent to vjhioh other lands within the region are developed to-day, at least 2,500 more people could be supported in the region.^ But the release of the Reserve lands will have a very important effect on the city other than increasing the agricultural produce and population.  The bottoa land© weet of the river can then be opened up to  urban development and the city will be free to expend on lands that are » t agriculturally valuable. This is one of the most important factors -Ktiicfa the toian planners should consider in long-range planning. Furthermore,, 'the mere possibility of acquiring the Reserve lands should be a strong incentive to keeping the residential development out of the present agricultural lands? the hope of directing residential developments across the river before tiie question of encroachment on agricultural lands . becoaes critical, should have a strengthening effect on the posers that be vhea the demand for the subdivision of the productive lands begins to «nmt.  Sesete ae the release of the Reserve lands taay seem at present,  it is well to keep in mind that their release at some time is inevitable and Fenticton would be mil advised to plan for that day. Apart frcro the Indian Reserve there are about 1&0 acres of good land at elevations too high for fruit growing and at present too expensive  %his is a crude estimate made by using simple proportions: if 5<A0Q irrigated acres at present support a population of 13,000, then 1,100 additional acres should be able to support at least 2,500 isore.  /  m  to irrigate. In addition, there are 2,500 acre© of fair to poor land, and ?»00G acres of doubtful land (seo Table XIII). Doubtless there Is much that can be done Kith these lands xtmn future demands for agricultural' products tflll iaake their development economically feasible. As these  leads are taken up and intensification of land' use continues elsewhere, both the rural and non-farm populations trill erpand. The rural farm population vdll probably not incrsase greatly in the presentily occupied lands because smaller orchards tend to become uneconomicalj but on the Indian Eeeervs, south of Kaleden, and southeast of Okanagan Falls a considerable increase in farn population say be oxpected, The rural, nucleated settlements at Kararaata and Okanagan Falls trill also grow, but  of the two, Okanagan falls will probably grow the most because of its loc* atioa on the Main valley highway and the as yet undeveloped state of its hinterland. The appearance of a n m nucleated settlement at Kaleden also  seeas llMly* The larger growth of Penticton and its region will, of course,  take place when, as was intimated in the sections devofceu to transportation and commerce, the regional boiuadaries are extended to include Suaraerland and the entire South Okanagan. That growth will not reach its ultimate state •within the next  2$  to 50 years, is almost a certainty and beyond  that time apy prediction would be a haphazard guess* Should the world of the future bo a world of peace and prosperity, however, there is no doubt bnt that Penticton and its region, taking firm hold of every geographic advantage given them, touM "bloc©" and prosper also.  Briefly, then, ^tiat is the Best profitable course for the Penticton region's future development?  233  In tho light of whatteesbeen revealed in tho preceding chapters, the foXXot-rlng five point® are vital: le Tho region  mast sealc to *:cpand its agricultural production <> by  intensifying; present ktrf m © and by spreading out over new lands* These Measures must be accompanied by a progran for soli improvement and. conservation, and prevention of urban encroachment on a^l cultural lands, jMcourageaent of neuraamtfactuxdngindustries,, especially those based on apiculture—such e.v, fruit processing—or allied to agriculture— such as the printing of box and can labels,, and the Raking of agricultural machinery*  .  3. Sxpan&ioa of the tourist trade.  3|„ Continued improvement of transportation facilities on which extension of influence and growth of the region depends. 5. Reorganisation of the tovn plan so that Penticton  will better  be able to serve its function, within the region. A number of problems allied to these five points but only touched Upon in the body of this thesis might  bear mention here. They are all  important and several of them could well be subjects of separate theses ia various fields of endeavor. These problems could be studied under the folloising headings? 1. The intensification of rural and urban land use in the Penticton region. 2. Soil conservation* 3. Potential tiater resourcee for irrigation. Ii. The administrative differentiation between rural and urban fesfeietim*  m. S* .ffce reorganirotion. of the %afc®r ssd Orsha® tot© plm  for  Bmtictoft.,  •  •.  4 . Relocation ©f the smia higtoay £mm the o i t y to th« Indian Sesorw*. 7* P o t e n t i a l industries of the Penticton region* •  Possible iwes for p?aesstly ttnuted Seasonal unsaplo^snt. 19« StSmalaUsn of the fcwiafe trade. .Even though these problem® isast still be esplored, the testes  essential to a regional study have been presented, Penticton and Its region have been studied, frar. the viesrpoint embodying tho "v:holcnoss" of things, which ie the particular viajpoint of geography, The study set oat to present and analyse the geographic aspects of Penticton and its region^ to show how the geographic aspects are related to raake the region a geographic unit* and to evaluate the major geographic factors means of this evaluation, suggest the irost profitable course for the region's development.  Therefore, these tilings being n m done, the  original purpose of this study is accomplished.  by  m m m  AJWSEX  a  SOIL PROFILE DESCRIPTION Skaha ptxyelly sandy loam Horison  Depth  Besoripitoa  %  0-  Brown -sandy loan with fine granular stnicture. plf 7,5,  B-D  6-18"  Light brorm structureless sandy loss iiith matrix of atones and gravel in the lower part, pll 7,8*  D  Greyish brown to grey coarse sand, gravel and stones, uith and without observable stratification* M m © plated stones and gravel in the upper part. Layers of ceraented till present or absent at various depths in the gravelly Material. pH 8.iu  Oeoyooa saggy loam Horison  Depth 0-10"  Bescrlptioa Brotsn sandy loara with large proportion of very fiae and medium sands® Finely granular to single-grained structure, pll 7.8.  B-,  10-22"  Greyish brovm sandy loan to loaty sand of vety fine to aedltm teture* Single-grained, slightly compact. Scattered fine gravel, small stones and finely divided mica. pH 7.8,  Br  22-20"  Clean grey loam sand, single-grained, compact, with finely divided laioa and recognizable lime accumulation, pil 8.6. Clean umreathered greyish brown to frey stratified sand containing finely divided raioa * Porous and loose, with occasional thin layers of gravel or srcall stones. Stratification seldom noticed except where the finer grades of sand occur. pH 8.U.  836 Osoyoos loam , sand Horison  Depth  ^ascription  %  0- 8W  Brown coarse to wodium loam sand, loose sand single-grained. pH 7,2. •  B1  E-2UTT  Pale brown coarse to nediua loamy sand, compact, single-grained, TJith occasional stones or gravel. pH 7.5.  B2  2lK30n  G  Greyish brown coarse to radium loamy sand. Single-grained, Kith occasional ©mall stones or gravel. Lime is indicated by a slight compaction or cementation of the sand. pH 8.6. Deep clean, grey, unareathered, coarse to medium send. Sand loose porous and stratified. Occasional layers of fine or coarse gravel. pH G.ho  fefttletoa silt loam Horison %  Depth 0-10"  Description Brown to pale brown silt loaraj soft and friable, td.th fine granular structure. pH 7.6.  fix  10-20"  Pal© brosm silt loam, massive and compact. pH 6.0.  B2  20-ii?"  Greyish brown silt loaaj compact with specks of lime. Break© into anj-ular fragments suggesting broken lamination. pH 0.6.  •0  Stratified silt, silty clay, clay and very fine sands bedded and laminated in thin layers. Occasional lenses of gravel only a few Inches thick. The upper part of this horison is rich in lime. pH 8.6.  237  gelesm -ggaTOllr ma^ieait -  Hotisoft A-,  Depth 0 « ST!  % Br  Peeerlption Uatfe laswm saady Ice® tilth fin© granular structure* Scattered gravel aod etones. pa 7*0. Brown to yellowish brown sandy iceun, slightly compact, etructurelsss,, Scattered stones and gravel, pK 8.2.  20*28n  Transition to glacial till. Greyieh brown sandy loam with specks and veins of lime. Dense, structureless, with fragments of cemented till, p11 8.6. Indurated grey till of sandy losa torture9 containing stones and grairel* Occasionally this mixture is not cemented, or the cemented Material lies at greater depth. pK S.a.  A H of Appendix A is taken frost C.C, Kelley and. U.K. Spilsbury, Soil Survey of the Okanagan and BimiXkaaesn Valleys, British Columbia, Report Ho. 3, B.C. Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.,  AOTMMK B JffiATISIXGS OF M80FACTURES FOE UfifiAi* GBBIHES 3.952-53 tfefeer of IstabliefeiBeBts  City  J%»loyeee  g r o s s Y&lm of Erodmotiort  Xasioopss  2?  ,K«loima  33  ffeaaiao  2ij  W  3»7J?M2 6  mmsffl  17  m  1,721,620  Prinoo Saperfc  SE  622  5,eao,3Bh  38  3%  0aaada Te&r Book,  i  •  .  ?iil  •  ;;  S,12lak96  2,771,U?0  APPEMDEC 0  turn mmm  ik wms m  or Mm m  a s Fm...mmmm®*  -om,  BX  I I T O W  i$$%  Industry  fmalo  ^ElSSiBE®  M  Fruit faming  297  Grain and hay farming  farming  1-otTGing  g  a  JJJ k2  10  g  Clothing  1  Wood products Paper products  Printing and publishing and  allied industries  Iron and steel products transportation equipment Ron-ferrous metal producto  149  .  5  foods and beveragos leather products  Oliesical products  5 11 if  ie •  3« ggrofacturlag  miscellaneous  „,  fo  Forestry services  Non-metallic mineral  It. 2 .2  FprQBfoy end logginn  Blectric apparatus  33,  5  Mixed farming " nurseries and groeiihottsss  Poultry •Stock raising Vegetable (except potato) Agricultural services  IS  products'  .*  ~  gg g  ; **  gg?  |§ 99 '  ^  X  « © I  2  2  6  I  ^ . 7 •  x  m  Male  Industry Construction  l|3J •  Transportation, storage9 and comum.cSIon*™to"  5gg,  7. . f m i e ttiol@sale trad® E e t a i l trad© 8. Finance s insurance, and r e a l estate •  10. lot stated  Canada Census ^ X8&L+  J'eiaal©  H  M  M  212 3¥J  m  8g M go  & • M jyfj  A w m m u a1 CMSSIFIQATIOK Of SOILS FQH THE XWJSi; OF IRRIGATION Brrnp % Soilst Beep uniform alluvial, glacio-lacuotrine and, glacial till soils of laediw to nediun heavy texture .> including sandy loems, losme, silt lonae, end silty clay loams, topography ie good and there are very few stones. Group I soils have desirable structure and other profile features and none to very slight deductions for alkali, topography, etc. This group represents the most desirable irrigation soils, capable of producing all irrigation crops in any given climatic regime. Ormp, II Soils? lose unifora soils of the same types ae in Group l s including veil drained glacio-lacustrine clays* All Group I soils with moderate deductions for topography, stones, gravel, etc. Boei of the Group II soils Hill have similar crop adaptations to those of Group I, but are rated dam on account of being lees uniforra, requiring stone clearing or having soir.e other limitation. Croup III Soilsi Heavy cleyg with fair to good drainage.- Group 2 and II soils with Moderate to high deductions for stones, topography, drainage, etc. Gravelly river channels and terraces with a comparatively stone froe iSolum, Group III soils have araorelimited range of crop adaptation than the first two groups, or are more difficult to irrigate-. group 1? SoUsis; Heavy elays with alkali subsoil and flat topography with slew iiapeded drainage. All soils tvith depression&l topography that are subj act to flooding. These soils require drainage and are classed in Group IV until feasibility of drainage is determined* bhon drained such soils may go to a higher groups Thin, gravelly glacial river terraces and chsrtnel bottoas. With detailed survey the poorer acreage of such soils icav be assigned to Group V.  1b  * C ' Separtiaent of Agriculture, Proceedings of the Reclamation  2k2  Qsowj  Soils is .  2• to Si soils, shallot? soils, rough topography and all other soils of -very limited use that may ho irrigated for rough pasture. Such soils iucy not bo -worthy of any development uviaor proEont conditions, yot may in tiss© hnvo liaitod use when laud is at a pramiimu  CoiDaittee, Brief So, 22, (itoocraphed), ICelot-aa, B.C., May, 1953. 2  Sy-Her,?s clearing of stones, handicap t» cultivation without stone removal. Includes gravoljy tcrraces with 12" or less of fine incterial qv&? gravel. 3| »«ffiseossivaly stony--non-creblc.  BIBLIO G?IKPHS  BIBLIGGTL6PHX A. BOOKS Conrad, V., and L.w. Pollak. (, liethods in. OjjLtojatolosy« Harvard University Henry, J.K. Flora. of Southern British Qaltsblfiu f  K.J. Cage and Campariy,  Homy, F.W, British Columbia from Sarliest Times to the Present. 2 vols. S.J. Clarke, Vancouver, lSO-Lu " Storehouse, F.J., and H.E. Wilson, Kapa and Diagrarso. liethuen, London, 1952. ' — _ _ Tr^rartha, Glenn T. An Introduction to "Weather and Climate. JKcGrau-Hill Book Ccsrpany, Ifet-r York and London, Second edition, l?ij3. B. BOOKS:  PARTS Of SERIES  Hamilton, B.K. (ed.). Better Business Tear Book. Thirtieth edition, Haclean-Kunter, Kontreal, 1951*. "Henderson's 1901 B.C. Directory," Vancouver. "Henderson's 1910 B.C. Directory," Vancouver, Williams' B.C. Directory, 1882-83," Vancouver. "liilliams' B.C« Directory, 168I*~85," Vancouver. ,r  Willla.TiS' B.C. Directory, 1891," Vancouvsr,  "^illiaas* B.C. Directory, 1892," Vancouver. "Williams' B.C. Directory, I 8 9 S , " Vancouver. %'llliass® B.C. Directory, 1897-9V Vancouver. "iviliians' B.C. Directory, 1899," Vancouver. "Wrigley*s 1918 B.C. Directory," Vancouver. "tfri£ley«s 1919 B.C. Director," Vancouver.  "Wrigley's 1920 B.C. Directory/ Vancouver. %¥lgley*s 192k B.C. Birectoiy," Vancouver. "Vancouver Sim 1935 B.C. Directory," Vancouver. C.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE fiOMHB®, LBARKED SOCIETIES, . . m b o m m ^oicjAsmfions  Apple Orchard Swvey.ln the. Gh&mgati. Vailey, British .Colmtola. Department of ilgriculture irelittiinary Report, 1938-U9, Kconomics Division, Harkoting Service, Ottawa* B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. Apple fooling* 1919-1%% Xolowna, B.C., n.d.  Kelowna Courier,  B.G, Tree Fruits Ltd. The British .OofoBfoia Eruit Industry. ! Courier, Kelotena, B.C., n.d.  fetama  Bell, it. "Geology of a Bait Along the International Boundary,» QeoTogieg^Survey of Canada, Annual Report, Vol. Xf, 1902-1903, O t t a S a T ^ j M t i g ^ l t t ^ Trade Index. Department of Trade and Industry, Victoria, Cairnjs, C.E.  "Mineral Deposits of the West Half of tho Kettle Kivcr  ^ ' L + S V m^sSflSa!  ^  f I 3 r i t i e h C o l u a b i a / t * * * presented to the S o u r c e s Conference, Februa^ 2 7 , 1952,  ^  F  C 1  ® S l ^ t f f JJS**; "S B l o l o ^ c a l of Okanagan Lake, B.C." B a H e U a j46, Pineries Research Board, Ottawa, ISP*  Gl«a««fc, F ^ . and J.C. Wilcox. "Tree-Fruit Facing ia British OolatMn « Department of Agriculture, Bulletin ife, 105, V i c t o S r ^ r ' °f " ^ f l ^ t T  Vol. XL,  T  C t M Hete0r0l  °8lCal  DiVlsio  Report for 1?51, Stations in the D c ^ i o n »> of Transport,  Sec. If, ser. Ill,  22*6 Connor, A.J, "Tho Frost-Free Season in British Columbia, Canada," Department of Transport, Meteorological Division, Toronto, 19it9. "Facts about Irrigation and Irrigable Lands In the Tree-Fruits Area of the Okanagan and Siwilkameen Valleys," Department of Trade and Industry, Victoria, 1950. First Report, Province of British Columbia, Department of Agriculture, Victoria^ 1691. Flint, R.F. "'white Silt* Deposits in the Qk&asgan Valley, British Columbia," Trans. Eoyal Society of Canada, See. IV, 193$* Halliday, W.E, "A Forest Classification for Canada," Dominion Forest Service Bulletin 89, ottax®, 1937. Harry, R.F. and J.B. Wright, "An Investigation into the Development of . . Northwest M o d at. Vancouver," Local Forecast No. 1$, Vancouver jkgfartek, Meteorological Division, Department of Tra^ort,' Toronto, 5 ih Dec*, 1 9 5 1 , PP. 1-8. " H o u s ^ a n d Families," .Moth Census of Canada: 1 0 1 , Vol. Ill, Queen's 8?  2nd«stry and Bartots in the Okanagan, SladJicameen, and Kettle fallevs « fiSS^lneEi0n  3  ' B'C'  of Trade  fr*?; Survey of the Okanagan and bim^ameen Valleys in British Columbia/ B.C. D e p S o n t o? t S l t : ^ o S a 7 S 3 /  DepSteent of AgriculColwbia Survey, King's Printer, IV and V, Quel's ^  " ^ S e l f S c f ^ Victoria, 1952.  « Agriculture, Circ. Ho. .0,  d Editlo  "Population," lllafch. Census of CanadaFWnter, Ottawa, igfc. "  ^cultural Settle^ » ^ B W a w r t of Agriculture, , , w Vols, A and II, Queen's  "Proceeding© of the Reclamation Co^aoittae » i w w w Agriculture, Xelc«na, B . O . , % 5 3 f  no '  ?2  of  Sh7 "Regional Industrial Index of British Columbia," Department of Trade aad Industry, Viet-oria, 1952. "Regional Industrial Index of British Columbia," Department of Trade and Industry, Victoria, 195U* "Report of the Forest Service for the Year Ended December 31, 19^8," British OolteaMa Department of Lands and Forests * Victoria, l&b?, Rotrles, C.A. "Soil Outline/ grocQediaga Second Resources.Conference, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, 19i;9, pp. "" Schofield, S.J. "She Origin of Okanogan Lake," Trans. Royal Society of Oenada, 3rd ser., Vol. m V I I , Sec. ii, 19U9, pp. «9-927 "Sone Facte about British Columbia," Agricultural Settlement Series,  Gire. J?©» 1, Victoria5-X^S.  "Surface Water Supply of the United States, 1951," Includes international river systems , Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1216,  Washington* Turner, J.A. "Intense Drying Periods over the Southern Coast of British Columbia," Meteorological Division, Department of Transport, Toronto, 25 June, 1953, pp. 1-8. TyR©y9 R.V, "Paths Taken by the Cold Air in Polar Outbreaks in British Columbia," topi forecast-Study' ffau, li*, Vancouver District, Meteorological Division, Department of transport,' Toronto, 1U Dec., 1951,  . pp. :l«*i.!S  -  • _  D.  pmiomoiLs  Brinks V.C, and L. Faretad. "The Physiography of the Agricultural Areas of British Columbia," Scientific Agriculture, ?o. JOH(6), June, I9k9. Daly, R.A. "The Nomenclature of the North American Cordillera between the '47th and the 53rd Parallels of Latitude," Geographical Journal. XXfllj Januaz^-June# 1906. Feldtmann, G.H. "Picturesque Penticton," Hest^ard Ho!, Weeteard Hoi, Publishing Gasapany, Vancouver, April, 1910. fferdys B.H. "Construction Problems in Silty Soils," The Engineering Journal, Vol. XXX, Ho, 9 (Septeiaber, 1950), pp. 7 ? 7 ~ t ? 9 . — ^ Horrls  > "Okanagan," Okanagan Historical Society, First Report, S.J. Clarke, Vancouver, 1926. — —  2kB  nii\m&ms MJL "A Unique1 Feunal Area la Southern British Columbia," tikBoas&n. Historical Society, Hrsfc Report, Vernon, 1926. • Spilsbury, IU1., and E.V. Ticdalc. "Soil-Plant Relationships and Vertical donation in the Southern Interior of British Columbia," Scientific Agriculture, Vol, XHV, pp. 3SMi36. Tisdale, E.W. "Grazing; of Forest Lands is Interior British Columbia." Journal, of forestrys Dsoember, 1950, pp. 856-60. Tisdale, E.tf. "The Grasslands of the Southern Interior of British Columbia." Ecology, Vol. XiVIII, Ijjtf. Trevor, H.W. "Apple Orchard Survey in the Ghanagaa Valley, British Columbia, 191*6-19^9," Economic Annalist, Vol XX, 1950, pp. 30-34. B. ' THESES AKD BSSAlg Omafcy, B.A. «A Study of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia," A Thceis eufc.vdtted in partial fulflliaont for the degree of Ifester of Arts, Department of History, University of British Columbia, 1931, West, C.J. and II. Slugs, "An Economical Surrey of the Ofamagan Districts An Essay eubwitted to the Department of Caanoree, Uni verity of British Columbia, 19lj6. F. UNPUBLISHED JS&TERXALS Robinson, J. Lewis. "Agriculture and Industry in a Growing Comraunitv." address prepared for B.C. Divisional Conference of Conoonltr Planning Valley, B.C., Distributed by B.C. S o n  Tiedale, E.l-i. "Suranaiy Report, IBS-hO/' Dominion Range Experimental Stafa.cn, Kaxaloqps, B.C., pp. W U k (^eo^aphS). W w S H S . ^  a W t a N  A.  Kelcvma Courier, October 21, 1952U Xelowna Courier, January 20, 1955.  ^  Pl6n  MSJSMBSHS  Psnticton,"  SaLogna .Ooaylgaf, feforaaiy 3® lf55 topeh 17 > 19S5*  

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